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Full text of "Quarterly statement - Palestine Exploration Fund"

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THE J. PAUL GETTY MUSEUM LIBRARY 



PALESTINE 
EXPLORATION FUND. 



Patron— THE QUEEN. 



^arterly Statement 

FOR 1873. . 




LONDON : 
PUBLISHED AT THE SOCIETY'S OFFICE, 9, PALL MALL EAST, 

AND }!Y 

RICHARD BENTLEY & SON, 8, NEW BURLINGTON STREET. 



lOXDON : 

E. K. BUET AND CO., PEINTEES, 

T."INE OFFICE COUET, CITY. 



THE J. PAUL GETTY CENTER 

I IRPARY 



JISrDEX. 



PAGE 

Abiicl 143 

Abu Amir 12, 31 

Ain el Siah 65 

Aleppo, Inscriptions at 72 

American Association, The ...111, 162 

Aqueduct at SaliuriyeU 55 

Aqueduct at Cccsarea 109 

Arab Clans 105 

Athlit 87, 101 

Baalbek, State ot the Faiins of ... 158 

Beni Keelayb, The 58 

Bethulia 4 

Biblical Query, by H. B 80 

Burj Fara'a 49 

Cffisarea 87, 105 

Carmel — C'ru.sadii)g "Work on 85 

,, Flora of 53 

,, Scenerj' of 54 

Cave of Magharet el Mat-humeli... 67 

Cave of Yafa 57 

Chaplin, Letters from Dr 155 

Climate.., GO, 65 

Costumes, Modern 27 

Comparative Chronology of Pales- 
tine, Assyria, and Egypt, Viy 

Mr. F. 1!. Couder 31 

Dayr Kalaah 145 

Dayr Samaan 147 

Dayi- Arrabeh 147 

DayrAsruhr 139 

Dayr Allah 140 

Difficiilties with Natives 61 

Dome of the Iiock 155 

ElMidyeh 87 

Ecbatana 87 

ElFuleh 49 

ElJireh, Kuiii of 23, 49 

Ebal and Geriziui, Major AVilson on 67 

Esdraelon, Plain of 3 

,, ,, Battles on the 5 

,, Geology of 7 

„ Survey of 8 

Flora of Carmel 53 



PAGE 

General Meeting 119 

Geology 7, 20, 50, 85, 97 

Geological Notes, by Mr. C. H. 

Greeu 161 

German Colony at Haifa 62 

Gerizim (>7 

Gezer, Discovery of Koyal 
Canaanite City, by M. C'ler- 

mont-Ganneau 73 

Haifa 43, 51 

,, German Colony at 62 

,, El Atikah 64 

Hamath, The Inscriptions of 35 

,, Mr. Dunbar Heath on ... 62 

Mr. Drake on 62 

,, Mr. Wright on 74 

Hand-print on the "SYall 16 

Inscription at Belali 87 

,, Umra el Zaynat ... 87 

Iksal 23 

Identifications Proposed : — 

/e^/i/fl/i = Shilta 101 

Hclkath Ha^zarim = '\Vad-y el 

Askar 101 

^.s7i(;j'=Asirah 101 

Ancr = 'Amm 101 

Bileam = Ibleara = Bel'ameh 1 01 
Rahbith = Arrabeh, Amad-= 

Umm el Amid 101 

Joshua's Tomb 144 

Jebel el Siah 55 

Jacob's AYell 71 

Joseph's Tomb 71 

Jeba S3 

Jenin 3 

Jerusalem 15 

,, KalaatJalud 17 

,, Haram Area 17 

,, Dome of the Pt0ck...l7, 155 
,, Ruins Ea.st of the Holy 

Sepulchre 18 

,, Muristan 19 

Scopus 20 

,, Helena's Monument ... 21 

,, Psephinus 21 



?i=^^^G 



IV 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Jci'uyulem Newly-discovered Eo- 

iiiitii Tomb 22 

,, Mr. Schick's Latest 

AVorkin 36, 72 

,, Dr. Chaplin on the 

Climate of 39 

,, Eock Levels 1.51 

Khashm, The 110 

Kubbet es Sakhrah 90 

Kiibbetel Khidr 91 

Khirbet Fakhakhir 141 

liefr Lam 84 

Khirbet Jafa 48 

„ Shih 84 

,, Umm el Slmkuf 84 

ElShellaleh 84 

Melhah 84 

Semmakah 87, 96 

,, Baydus 97 

Khazueh 23 

KefrMinda 2.5 

Kasr el Zir, Traditions of 58 

Kalensawyeh 87 

Lejjmi 12 

Ma£(haret el Mat-humeh, Cave of . . . 57 

M'alul 49, 58 

Matamir 57 

Meteorology 150 

Merj el Ghurruk 4 

Miamas 87, 110 

Mosf[iie el Aksa 90 

Mukhalid 87 

Nazareth 22 

Natural History 9, 27, 29, 86 

Neby Yahyah 148 

Nomenclature 148 

Notes : — 

1. The Lord's Tomb 113 

2. The Haniath Inscriptions 115 

3. The Middle City 116 

4. The Samaritan Stone 118 

Passage from the Pools under the 
Convent of the Sisters of Zion... 91 

Rock Levels at Jerusalem 151 

Beading of the Law, Scene of the 09 



VAGE 

Puins, General Character of 45 

Samai'itan Stone at Gaza 157 

Sand Dunes 65 

Sanur 4 

Saracenic Khan 88 

Sarafend 84 

Seffuriyeh 24 

Seilun (Shiloh), Plan and Descrip- 
tion of 37 

Shaykh Abrayk 47 

Shaykh Iskander 11 

Shaykh Taim (Oak at Tibneh) ... 144 

Shapira Collection, The 13, 79, 88 

Survey, The Interrupted French... 113 
Survey, General Progress of — See 
Reports of Lieutenant Conder 

3, 43, 83, 135 

Tank No. 29 91 

Tantura 84, 99 

Tell Kaymun, Crusaders' Fort in 

49, 60 

,, ElSemak 64 

,, Khaiber 4 

„ El Subat 46 

,, Mutasellim . . . 46 

Tells 60 

Tells on Esdraelon 46 

Tibneh 143 

Tradition on Tombs of the Kings 48 

Tombs, Classes of 23, 46, 58, 84 

Thul el Serjilini, Tradition of ... 65 

Tukil el Jah'ash 46 

Turkomans, The 105 

Tyrwhitt Drake, Letters and lie- 
ports of Mr. C. F 28, 55, 99 

Umm cl Zaynat 87 

Umm cl Fahm, Camp at 10, 28 

Lrnnn el Faruj 65 

Vineyard Towers 55 

Wady Arah H, 29 

Wely Iskander 30 

AVater-courses and Channels 46 

Water Supply 149 

Yafa (Japhia), Cave at 57 



Palestine ExploratLon. FuncL 



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Quarterly Statement, January, 1873.] 



THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 



PREFACE. 

In beginning a new volume of our Quarterly Statement, we are 
anxious to ask our Subscribers to bear in mind, tliat we are still 
far from being assured as to the stability of our position. We 
have purposely asked for a very small sum annually, only £5,000 
for the next five years or so. That amount will enable us 
to carry out all our objects. We require £800 a year for home 
expenses, of which about £400 is wanted for management, the other 
half being spent in publishing, illustrating, and distributing our 
Eeports. In other words, we can do all our work on eight per cent. 
of the income we ask. But it must be remembered that we have 
never received anything like this income. 

We have two main lines of work, the survey of Palestine and the 
examination of Jerusalem. The former has been conducted during 
the last year with as much vigour as was possible. More than a 
thousand square miles have been plotted, and when we can send out 
two more men to help, it will go on with double the expedition. It 
has been decided to open a special fund for Jerusalem purposes, 
to which subscriptions are invited. A donation of £50 for this 
purpose has been recently given by Mr. Tyssen Amhurst, and 
another of the same amount for the Survey. 

If any additional motive were wanted to urge on the work, it 
would be found in the despatch of the American Expedition. The 
two great branches of the English-speaking race are now working 
side by side. The leader of the American Expedition is an officer 

B 



2 TREFACE. 

of the United States Engineer Corps, Lieutenant Steever. He is 
accompanied by Professor Paine, as archaeologist, and by Mr. 
Vandyke, jun., of Beyrout. At Beyrout itself are the head-quarters 
of the Executive Committee of the American Association, composed of 
the United States Consul- General, theEev. Dr. Thompson, and the 
Eev. Dr. Stewart Dodge. As has been stated before, their work 
will be east of the Jordan over a district comparatively unex- 
plored, and where, doubtless, there will be made discoveries of 
the deepest interest. There may even be more Moabite stones. 
"We do not expect, but we Jiope. 

The letters and reports of Mr. Conder and Mr. Drake require no 
explanation. They are, and will henceforth be, accompanied by a 
map to show the progress made and the position of the Surveyors. 
With regard to the tracings ah-eady sent home, they are in the 
office of the Fund, and can be seen by any visitor. They cannot 
be published until a complete " sheet " has been received. This 
may not be for more than a year, as the work is spread over a 
great many sheets, but does not yet cover one single one. "We 
have been kindly promised another meteorological report from Mr. 
Glaisher for our April Quarterly. This will also contain, besides 
the usual reports, a paper on Mount Gerizim by Captain "Wilson. 
Other papers of interest will appear in the course of the year. 

AVe commend our recently published little book, " Our "Work in 
Palestine," to our Subscribers. It is written with a view to ex- 
plaining not only what the work has been, but the reasons for it 
and its aims. We are happy to say that so far its success has been 
undoubted. Within three weeks after its first appearance we were 
enabled to order the fourth thousand to be printed, an edition 
having been simidtaneously published by Messrs. Scribner, Wel- 
ford, and Co., of New York. A very low price has been put upon 
the book, in order to bring it within reach of all. Considerable 
corrections have been made in the fourth thousand. 



t a. I, 



THE SURVEY OF PALESTINE. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE E. CONDEE'S REPORTS. 

VIL 

The Plain of Esdraelon. 

Jenin Camp, "list Sept., 1872. 

A critical epocla in tlie Survey of Palestine has just terminated in a 
most satisfactory manner, in the connection of the triangulation ex- 
tended from the first base line at Jaffa with the second base line just 
measured on the Plain of Esdraelon. 

According to our calculation, which is not of course so minute as 
that to be made in England, there is only a difference of about '03 
per cent, of its length of four and a half miles between the base as 
^■Mlculated from the triangulation, and the base as measitred on the Plain. 
This may be considered as extraordinarily accurate when the difficul- 
ties encountered are considered, for the triangulation has now been 
carried through a strip of country averaging some ten to twelve miles 
in width and for a distance of sixty-five English miles, in addition to 
which it must be remembered that cairns have occasionally been 
destroyed by the natives, the observations being thus rendered less 
reliable, and that the flickering of the mirage during the day in summer 
has made it difficult to see an object distinctly at a distance of eight or 
nine miles in the hills and even of three or four on the plains. The 
extremely difficult nature of part of the country has of course delayed 
the progress, but not interfered with the accuracy, of the work. 

The total extent of country at present completed is 750 square miles, 
and iipwards of 130 square miles will be added in another week, as the 
triangulation from the present camp is finished and only the detail 
remains to be filled in. This is a more rapid progress than was 
expected, and our arrival at Jenin was a fortnight earlier than had 
been calculated. 

The new base line lies within four degrees of north and south, and is 
approximately four and a half miles in length over the flattest part of 
the great plain. Its ends are marked, in a most durable fashion, by 
cairns of stone set in a sort of mortar of fresh-slaked lime. The 
southern end has a roughly circular platform of large blocks and of 
some 3ft. in height and 9ft. diameter, filled in with smaller stones, and 
the top levelled and covered with lime to form a firm basis for the 
theodolite, between the legs of which a small conical cairn was placed. 






4c V : 5 >'' 'ii:EWr.'.,t!ilX'Ti©t l^.. conder's reports. 

At the riorlljern cnd.'i^ 'tEe middle of a ploughed field of loose heavy 
volcanic soil; tt.'wais Bfi6i:6 iiii^cult to find materials close at hand. A 
large mound, some Sft. high, was therefore made of earth ronnd a fixed 
centre, and faced with stone well covered with lime. Before observinsr 
from this point, which was the last to be used, the monnd was par- 
tially levelled, and a platform so made ronnd the centre. The theodolite 
was then placed over the centre, and the mound will be rebuilt as 
before. 

The base was measured from north to south and from south to 
north, and was further checked by observations from its ends and from 
a point near its centre. The triangulation will be extended from it 
northwards, and a good line, some fifteen miles in length, is obtained 
at once nearly at right angles to the centre of the base. 

Such is the present satisfactory state of the Survey, which is now 
only in want of the additional men asked for from England to reach 
the required rate of progress. 

The amount of archaeological discovery between this camp and 
Nablus has been very small, the few ruins, such as the church and 
columns at Samaria, being already known, and excavation would not 
bring to light anything of value. 

Near Sanur, however (the ancient Bethulia of the book of Judith, as 
some suppose), a ruin of some interest was found, and a sketch is for- 
warded. An isolated hill or tell called Tell Khaiber rises on the 
south-east of the Merj el Ghurruk, or " drowned meadow," a large 
marsh formed by the water from the suiTOunding ravines, and without 
any outlet. In winter it has some 4ft. of water on the average, but is 
dry in summer. Sanur is situate on the edge. 

On this " tell " are the ruins of a small fort and of a considerable 
to^vn, but the latter are quite indistinguishable, and only in parts indi- 
cated by the colour of the soil. 

The fort is roughly some 50ft. square, and two or three courses of 
masonry, about four feet thick, consisting of ashlar of tolerable size, 
and set in good mortar, remain. On some few stones there is the 
appearance of a marginal draft, and over the enti-ance, which was on 
the south side, was a fiat lintel. The proportions of the stones are not, 
however, so unequal, in comparison of their length and height, as in 
the megalithic work of the Haram. 

There are further traces around the fort of an external wall with a 
postern, and of several buildings of moderate size but almost undis- 
tinguishable form. Two cisterns, lined with very hard cement, one of 
■which is of considerable size, also appear farther down the hill, and the 
grey soil, which indicates the foi-mer existence of buildings, appears on 
every side of the " tell." 

Local tradition makes this the palace of a Jewish king whose 
daughter had hei- summer residence in the marsh. Perhaps a clever 
theorist may connect tliis account with the history of Judith, Bethulia 
being so close to Tell Khaiber. 



LIEUT, CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. O 

The great plain, on tlie edge of wliicli we are now encamped, is of 
great interest from a historical and from a geological point of 
view. 

Historically it has been called the " battlefield of Palestine," and 
here, be it remembered, the "battleof Megiddo" (it is supposed) will 
close the list of contests in the Holy Land. 

Whatever may be said of the future, the history of the past does not, 
however, bear out this assertion. The great battles of Joshua were 
fouffht far to the south. The victories of David were on or near to the 
plains of Philistia. The invasions of the Syrians were directed against 
the country round Samaria, and the battle of Ilattin, which decided 
the fate of Christian supremity in Palestine, was fought out farther 
north. 

Only five contests are chronicled as occurring on the Plain of Esdrae- 
lon : the defeat of Sisera, the victory of Gideon over the Midianites, 
and the overthrow of Saul on Gilboa, and of Josiah at Megiddo in 
Bible history ; lastly, in more modern times. Napoleon's so-called battle 
of Mount Tabor. 

A brief glance at these battles confirms, however, the opinion that 
the plain is not, as its appearance on the map would lead one to suppose, 
specially fitted for the deployment of large numbers of troops or for the 
successful use of cavalry. The scene of each battle was near the same 
site, and for this there must, of course, have been a reason. The 
method and tactics employed by the .Jews resembled those of the old 
medieeval wars of position, as is abundantly manifested in the accounts 
in the Bible. Each army encamped over against the enemy on a hill 
or on rising ground with a valley between, and thus the attacking force, 
unless its leader had advanced views on the use of stratagem and the 
secret of turning a flank, was inevitably at a disadvantage, and for the 
same reason a broad plain not offering such advantages was never 
chosen as the site of a battle. 

In the first instance the camp of Barak was on Tabor, and Sisera 
advanced against him from the Kishon and the Maritime Plain. The 
counter attack against the heavy chariots labouring through the vol- 
canic mudj which, at a time when the Kishon was full of water from 
the storm, must have covered the plain, secured for the discomfited 
Canaanites a defeat more disastrous than would have been expected in 
an open country, such as that on the north-west of the Plain. In the 
subsequent contest between Gideon and the Midianites, this open 
country seems to have been avoided ; the camp of the former was on 
the high ground near Jesreel, whilst the invading bands, like the 
modern Bedou.ins, had crossed the Jordan, and advancing up the broad 
valley (W. Jalud) to the foot of the hill Moreh (the modern Jebel ed 
Dahy, or, as it is often called. Little Jlermon) had camped securely 
in the low ground and spread for plunder of the harvest and of all the 
possessions of the Isi-aelites "' as grasshoppers for multitude." The 
attack from the high ground on this occasion, accompanied by a strata- 



b ■ LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDER S REPORTS. 

gem, was again successful, and the pursuit was towards the east and 
across the Jordan. 

The third battle was, however, by far the most important of the 
three. The Philistines, under Achish, king of Gath, in Philistia, are 
here found in the northern plains, and it is possible that the name 
Wady Jalud, or the valley of Goliath, may stiU be a mark of their wide 
dispersion in Palestine. Their camp was at Shunem (the modeni 
Sulem), once more on the slope of the Hill of Moreh, and Saul, as did 
Gideon, chose the neighbourhood of Jesreel for his head-qiiarters, and 
his line of retreat along the high gi-ound of the chain of Mount 
Gilboa, and to the hills south of the plain. Considering the relative 
position of the enemy, we see that Saul's expedition to the cavern 
at Endor, situate north of the Philistine camp, must have entailed 
a circuitous and lengthy expedition in order to turn their flank on 
the west and gain the opposite side of the hill, whilst the peril of 
thus placing their whole army between himself and his camp was also 
very great. The following day brought his entire defeat; and when 
we observe that the Hight lay along the hills of Gilboa, it seems evident 
that the main attack must have been not from the north, where the 
valley is deepest, but on the west, the left flank of Saul's army, where 
the plain rises into the eminence on which Jesreel (the modern Zerin) 
stands. 

The last battle is of more modeni times, for of the defeat of Josiah 
in the valley of Megiddo there is no reason to speak here. Kleber, 
with a corps of only 1,500 men, was brought to bay at Fuleh, a little 
village on the west slope of Jebel ed Dahy, by the whole Syrian army 
of 25,000. From sunrise to mid-day they held their position against 
these overwhelming odds, but a single shot from Napoleon's relieving 
force of 600 men caused a panic and a flight, in which many Syrians 
were drowned in the Kishon, then inundating part of the plain. 

In each of these accounts we recognise the same peculiarity. In the 
three later the site chosen was almost the same, and the so-called 
battle-field of Palestine seems even in those battles fought in its im- 
mediate vicinity to have been avoided, the camps being posted on the 
hill-sides to the east or north-east. The reason is evident; for laying 
aside the fact that the Jews were never a cavalry nation, the plain 
itself, covered with a crumbling soil, over which native horses advance 
with difficulty in summer, and which in winter presents a series of im- 
passable marshes, could never have been considered a good field for the 
use of this arm. 

The geological view of the subject is intimately connected with the 
historical, and, indeed, in the study of a new country there is no 
science so generally useful as geology. Not only does the character 
of the district, its vegetation, its fauna, its scenery, its cultivation, and 
even the style of towns and villages, differ with slight geological 
changes, but its history, its civilisation, and more especially its military 
history, depend to a very great extent on its geology. Thus when we 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 7 

observe the camps at Shunem or at Jesreel, we find them to have been 
placed on the firm ground and gentle slopes given where the limestone 
is on the surftice, whilst the flight of the defeated Sisera is across 
the volcanic mud which covers the plain. 

The formation of this great plain, as well as of the smaller ones in 
its vicinity, is due partly to volcanic action and partly to that of 
denudation. 

A thick bedded white limestone, containing large discs of flint, and 
gradually merging into the marl of Nablus above, and into a compacter 
and more thinly bedded soft limestone beneath, originally covered the 
country from Samaria to Nazareth. Though hard externally, when 
exposed to the air, this stone is internally as soft as the softest 
"kakouli." But beneath lay the truly hard dolomitic limestone, such 
as previously described at Neby Belan. 

The present character was given to the country first by a number of 
eruptions of basalt which occurred in at least three distinct outbursts. 
One formed the cone of Jebel ed Dahy, the so-called Little Hermon ; a 
second appears as a distinct upheaval of the strata, from beneath 
which the basalt has flowed down the side of Jebel Abu Madawar 
(part of the Gilboa range on the south-east of the plain). The third, 
and by far the most extensive, is on the west, where on Jebel Sheikh 
Iskander, one of the highest hills of the neighbourhood, eruptive basalt 
and stratified volcanic mud are found near the summit on the east, and 
two isolated cones of basalt on the west, in continuation of the ridge. 
The Neocomiau and other strata are here found to be greatly contorted, 
but the general dip is upwards from the south-west of the outburst, 
showing the contortion to be due to this eruption. 

The character of the basalt differs considerably. At Jebel ed Dahy 
it is black, hard, and compact, with a large amount of iron. At Zerin 
it is of similar character, but covered so thickly with white lichen as to 
be hardly distinguishable at first from limestone. On Mount Gilboa, 
where a regular dyke can be traced below the main outburst, it is of 
looser consistency, in some specimens more resembling volcanic scorige, 
with less iron and large crystals or distinct agglomerations of augite. 
On Jebel Sheikh Iskander, again, it is soft and crumbling, in many parts 
reduced to debris, and here volcanic niud is also found. 

On observing the lowest strata naturally nearest to the basalt, they 
are found similar to the hard dolomitic beds of Neby 13elan, which also 
are visible at the bottom of the deepest wadys west of Jeba and north 
of Mount Ebal. They are the most contorted, and have the greatest 
dip of all the beds, from which it may be concluded that even before 
this upheaval they were not conformable with the upper beds. They 
are hard, compact, worn into caverns by water or gaseous action, and 
extremely crystalline. From these characteristics, and from their 
proximity to the basalt, it seems undoubted that they are metamorphic 
in character (a fact not, as far as I am aware, before noticed), and hence 
we may conclude that throughout Palestine, wherever they crop out, 



8 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 

the basalt, oi* some species of Trapioean rock, is not far from the surface. 
The extent of volcanic action must therefore be greater than is gene- 
rally supposed in Palestine, a theory maintained by Mr. Drake, whose 
discovery of an outburst as far south as Jerusalem is most valuable in 
its support. 

The action of denudation was also concerned in the formation of the 
great plain. The strata being thus broken and tilted in every direc- 
tion, the harder formations were raised on each side, and the softer 
being worn gradually away between them, were overlaid with a soil 
consisting of the debris of the basalt. Hence we have at last the pre- 
sent surface, a broad plain with rich soil, and surrounded with lime- 
stone and basaltic hills, presenting sudden and precipitous cliffs, as 
above Zerin and below Nazareth, while on the tops of the hills only 
the original soft chalky limestone remains on the east and on the 
west alike. 

With such variety of geological formation some variety in scenery 
might also be expected, and is found to exist. The soft white limestone 
gives low hills, on which the olives flourish, and caper and other shrubs 
abound. Near to the springs, which are not, however, numerous, gardens 
with figs and pomegranates also are found. The villages are larger and 
more wealthy than in the hill-country of Judaea, and perched on the hill- 
side, or on isolated hillocks in the plains. Numerous gay butterflies of 
European and African species, including the copper (four or five species, 
some similar to the English), and one or two of the genus vanessa, but 
more of smaller size, belong to this scenery ; the cicala and mole cricket 
evidently alternate in the olives by day and by night ; the species of 
lizards are large and powerful, and dark grey, as a rule, in colour, and the 
chameleon is not seldom found. "Wild animals are few in these cultivated 
districts, and the birds principally of the smaller genera, though 
vultures, eagles, harriers, and hawks are commonly seen. 

The scenery of the great plain itself is, however, of a difi"erent type. 
The long flat expanse is divided into patches, which, viewed from 
the summit of Jebel Dahy, seem with the roads to radiate from the 
villages on the low knolls of limestone rising out of it. These consist 
of fields of Indian corn, of simsim or sesame, of corn, and occasionally 
of cotton. Fallow land in dark brown strips intervenes. Near Jenin 
and Sileh (villages on the border) a few palms give a truly oriental 
■character to the scenery, springing round the minaret of the mosque, 
and hedges of prickly pear surround many of the villages. The animal 
life also differs slightly in character. Huge locusts, and species of 
truscalis (the bald locust of Scripture), are occasionally seen ; and of the 
smaller species, with red, white, yellow, blue, and green wings, swarms 
may be disturbed at every step, reminding one of the appropriateness 
of the simile, " like grasshoppers for multitude." Several species of the 
praying mantis, with the abdomen curled curiously upwards, are also 
common. The lizards are of small species, and agree in colour with the 
brown soil. The birds most common ai-e the swifts and swallows, with the 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. ^ 

ever-present birds of prey. The bowling of jackals, tbe groups of 
gazelles, and tbe wild boar coming to tbe water at sunset, are all more 
ordinary sigbts and sounds tban in tbe bills. 

Tbe bard crystalline rock of tbe lowest formation gives yet anotber 
type of scenery, Ijarren and desolate as can be imagined ; tbe bills are 
tame in outline, witb deep narrow ravines intersecting them. Nothing 
but a few thorny shrubs and dry grass seems to grow on them, and tbe 
attempts at cultivation, unlike tbe laboriously intricate terraces of tbe 
softer soil, are few and meagre. Here on the tops of the bills tbe mag- 
nificent genus Pairilio is found alone ; other insects are more rare ; and 
wild animals, including tbe jackal and the gazelle, abound. Coveys of 
partridges [Caccahis saxutiUs) are numerous, but very wild. 

This scenery is again modified, where tbe basaltic di'bris forms a 
soil, as at Sheikh Iskander. Here the hill- sides are densely covered 
with shrubs and trees, which would be large were it not for the de- 
structive habits of the natives, who for tbe sake of the fii-ewood burn 
or cut out half of the trunk and three-quarters of the branches. 
The p)rincipal species are tbe Quercus cocifera and another oak, the 
arbutus in shrubs, and tbe carouba. In many parts tbe bushes are 
almost impassable and of considerable height, presenting a refresh- 
ing contrast to the dull xjarcbed grey of tbe olives, and of the lime- 
stone in the more open country. It is in country like this that tbe 
leopard, tbe cheetah, tbe wild boar, and other game are found on the 
range of Carmel; and the ever-present birds of prey here find a 
more numerous quarry. 

A good deal that is new might yet be said witb regard to modern 
Palestine, considered from a pictorial point of view. Were it possible 
to bring a man of good artistic taste into tbe country, ignorant of 
its past associations, and of all that has been written on the 
subject, there can be little doubt that his descriptions would be new, 
and very astonishing to many; probably quite as much so to tbe 
class of writers who can see nothing to admire in Palestine, as to tbe 
autbor who describes the " ice-clad peaks of Hermon." 

Grandeur of form we may look for in vain, and except in such 
scenes as that of tbe great plain as seen from above Nazareth, the 
extensive views are rarely striking. Barren hills, dry gullies, tame 
and commonplace outlines abound ; but the charm of a vivid oriental 
colouring still remains to please an artist's eye. The rich hues at 
sunset, tbe i^ecviliar tints of some of the limestone bills — such as 
Mount Ebal — which reflect tbe blue of tbe sky, tbe occasional after- 
noon effects with long-drawn shadows, and of brilliant contrasts of 
light and dark on a cloudy day, would, if cavigbt and treasured, lead 
any one inspecting a series of such sketches (from which tbe common- 
jplace, as in other countries, bad been banished) to believe in Palestine 
as a very picturesque country. 

Nor must the appearance of tbe inhabitants — their dark skins, 



10 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

bright eyes, white teeth, and wonderful taste in the combination of 
the briglatest colours, be forgotten. Nothing more picturesque than a 
road, the women in their red veils and long-pointed sleeves carry- 
ing water ; the dark camel-drivers, in black head-dresses, and striped 
brown- and- white abbas, riding on diminutive donkeys before the 
train of clumsy, swinging, dull-coloured camels ; the rich sheikh, in 
a purple jacket, scarlet boots, a thin white cloak, and a yellow head- 
dress, his grey mare with a scarlet saddle, and long brown tassels at 
its shoulders, alternating with the herds of black goats and diminu- 
tive red oxen, could be desired. 

In Jerusalem itself this colouring is not less marked. The costumes 
are far more varied, and the colours gayer, whilst the effects in the 
surrounding country are equally brilliant at times. The pink light on 
the sides of the Kedron valley, the rich ochre colour of the Haram 
walls, the dark grey of the city fortifications, are all points on which 
an artist would look with pleasure. But above all, the interior of 
parts of the Haram, its dusty soil covered in spring with flowers, and 
its dark cypresses round its richly-coloured mosque, are especially 
impressive. Nor is the gloom of the interior, through which the elabo- 
rate mosaic arabesques, the gilded inscriptions, and capitals, and painted 
woodwork, and glorious glass windows gradually come out as the eye 
grows accustomed to the sudden change from the glare without, less 
fine ; while the gaily-dressed processions, the sombre colouring of the 
negro inhabitants of the shrine, the flights of pigeons, here finding a 
sanctuary, lend the finishing touches to a picture which really recalls the 
idealistic scenes of the "Arabian Nights Tales." 



VIII. 

Progress of the Survey. 

R. E. Camp, Umm el Fahm, Od. 10th, 1872. 

From the camp of Umm el Fahm, which will to-morrow be broken 
up, the first thousand miles of survey have been completed in close 
upon a year of uuintermittent work, including the satisfactory measure- 
ment of two base lines, the completion of a long narrow strip of trian- 
gulation, which, in spite of the awkwardness of its shape, necessitated 
by other than strictly survey cousiderations. has been kept correctly in 
place as regards its longitud(3, and finally the completion of the detail 
and of a great part of the hill shading. 

My first report on this subject was dated the iSth of July, when 560 
square miles were completed. Thus in the last three months 440 square 
miles, or '44 of the whole amount, were executed. Thus, though the 
rate bad till July been gradually increased, it has been still more so 
since that time, a fact due in great part to the increased facility 
of travelling in the country last traversed, which has allowed of the use 
of larger triangles, and of the moi'e rapid execution of the detail. Of 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. C'ONDER'.S REPORTS. 11 

the correctness of the work my seventh report gave satisfactory proofs ; 
and of its execution the Subscribers to the Fund will be able to judge by 
the tracing sent home in July, which will, no doubt, be soon published 
and circulated. 

The country surrounding our present camp is unvisually pictu- 
resque, and but little known to travellers, as it is out of the ordinary 
direct route. 

Immediately in front of us, on the south, is the volcanic summit of 
Sheikh Iskander, a point conspicuous on all sides from a great 
distance, forming the boundary of the view northward from the Jeba 
range of hills, and rising above all the surrounding country, as viewed 
from any part of the plain. 

As before noticed, the hard dolomitic limestone is here tilted up in 
evei-y direction towards the summit of the hill, and the upper strata 
are worn away from over it by denudation. The slopes are covered 
with the thick shrubs and underwood which extend southward to the 
small plain east of that of Esdraelon, known as the Merj Arrabeh, and 
the same kind of counti-y extends westward, where, however, oaks of 
considerable size, with a species of hawthorn and an occasional tere- 
binth, make the scenery still more varied in character. 

The great Wady Arab, which runs westward, just north of Umm el 
Fahm, makes a sudden division between this district and a second ex- 
tending along the Avest side of the plain to Carmel, appa.reutly a dry 
desert, though in reality it is all arable land, watered, as is the Sheikh 
Iskander district, by numerous springs and deep wells. The geological 
formation is the hard chalk containing flint bands, which has been 
before noticed, and beneath, as visible on the sides of the deepest 
wadies, is the soft white marl or chalk first noticed near Nablus. Thus 
the succession of the strata, as observed here, is identical with that 
noted at Jifna by Captain Wilson, and except in places where the last 
named formation seems to thin out, these three successive kinds of 
limestone are continually recurring. 

The appearance of the couuti-y to the north of the camp is gradually 
modified westward, where a white dusty soil is dotted over with clumps 
of oak (ballut) spreading over the gently undulating slopes, and pre- 
senting what would be park-like scenery, were it not for the absence of 
grass, which in summer is replaced by corn, the whole ground being 
arable. Two or three beds of winter streams are crowded with shrubs, 
and beneath one of the volcanic "tells" or mounds of Sheikh Iskander 
flows even at this, the driest season of the year, a stream, though but 
of inconsiderable amount. Roiind its bed brambles and young willow 
plants flourish, aud the course of a second and larger stream near 
Lejjun is marked by the bushes of epilobium and large plants of a kind 
of mint, as well as fennel brambles and smaller plants. 

The volcanic "tells" require particular notice, as their discovery 
shows tl e centre of irruption at Sheikh Iskander to have been even 
lai-ger than at first supposed. Farther north, at Lejjun and in its. 



12 LIEUT. CLAUDE K. CONDER's REPORTS. 

vicinity, these outbreaks again occur, as well as near Endoi', on the 
north side of Little Hermon, thus carrying out more completely the 
theory of the formation of the great plain, as noted in Report No. 7. 
Ou Sheikh Iskander there are two of importance, one near the main 
outburst of basalt on the liill, in which a sort of volcanic mud has lifted 
the top strata of the limestone and poured out at the side of the mound 
so formed, and a second where a sharp cone of the same substance, in 
layers of various colour, is capped with limestone. The chai-acter of 
the mud in the first, when minutely examined, resembles a disintegrated 
basalt ; in the second, which is to the west, near the Ain Sheryyeh, 
blocks of hard, dark, compact, ferruginous basalt are embedded in some 
parts, and fragments of limestone in others ; whilst beneath, separated 
by a thin band, of limestone, the basalt appears as a rock in the sides 
of a small precipitous gully, to a depth of twenty to thirty feet. Here, 
as a native states, a Frenchman from Damascus pitched his tent, and 
extracted copper from the mud. There is, however, no appearance of 
either a lode or of nodules, as far as careful observation could show. 

The •' tell " near Lejjun (the site of the famous Megiddo) is still more 
curious. It consists of hard basalt, and though of considerable height, 
it does not appear in any way to have affected the limestone strata, 
which are nearly horizontal, the formation being the hard chalk, which 
is not changed or metamorphosed in any degree. 

Several of the views in this country are more picturesque than any 
we have yet come across in Palestine. Thus, in early morning, from 
the top of the hill the eye wanders over the broken outline of the hills 
south of the great plain, backed by the long veil of transjordanic moun- 
tains, and over the long extent of the plain itself : a scene which, with 
the dim shadowy effect of sloijing light, must be allowed to be beauti- 
ful by even the least prejudiced in favour of Palestine scenery. 

Looking again northward, a similar scene, taking in the volcanic 
peaks of the Hauran and the huge blunt-pointed Hermon in dim dis- 
tance, with the Nazareth range, the shapeless outline of Tabor, and the 
Little Hermon's conical summit, the great plain again stretching below, 
all towards the foi'eground, presents a striking distant effect as viewed 
in evening light and shadow. 

The archaeological notes collected since I last wrote are not nume- 
rous. 

The supposed temple at Abu Amr has been noticed by Mr. Drake in 
his last report. I send drawings of the details, a small plan, and a 
sketch, showing the present strata of the ruin. The floor is a couple of 
feet below the general level of the rubbish, so that possibly excavation 
might bring some inscription connected with the edifice to light ; but 
some time would be required to investigate the place properly. 

The details are pretty well preserved, and are of a debased style of 
art, resembling some of the first century work at Jerusalem. 

Besides this, and the discovery of a ruined khan, and of a building 
apparently of large extent, and probably, from a capital and other indi- 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 13 

cations, origiually Roman, the plan being now entirely lost, nothing of 
any importance has been noted. 

In fact, nothing is more surprising, and especially in the part of the 
country at present being surveyed, than what may be briefly described 
as the " ruins of ruins " continually met Avith in every direction. 



IX, 

Explorations in Jerusalem. 

E. E. Camp, Umm el Fahm, Oct lUh, 1872. 

Another visit to Jerusalem became necessary for the arrangement of 
survey stores, &c., and the following notes are the results of a sort of 
reconnaissance carried on in my leisure time during a week spent 
thei-e. 

By far the most interesting objects of study is the gradually in- 
creasing collection of Moabitic earthenware of Mr. Shapira. The pre- 
judice at first felt in England— though not in Jerusalem — with regard 
to these unique specimens of ancient symbolical art, has prevented my 
sending any remarks on this subject to the Committee, though such 
sketches as Mr. Drake and I had time to make, which fairly represent the 
character of the collection, have been forwarded from time to time. 
Now, however, the late visit of Pastor Weser and of M. Dinsberg (a 
German resident at Jerusalem) has placed the authenticity of the pottery 
beyond dispiite, and a short abstract of the results of this journey may 
prove interesting. It is compiled from the notes taken from the various 
accounts of Pastor Weser, Mr. Dinsberg, and Mr. Shapira himself. 
. It appears that of this pottery smaller fragments had been previously 
known, and camel-loads sent by the Arabs to Damascus, where it was 
used for the manufacture of cement for cisterns. More perfect speci- 
mens were found at Dhiban by Bedoiiins in purchase of saltpetre for 
their gunpowder. The pottery is often so strongly impregnated with 
this salt, that though washed again and again, a constant efflorescence 
reappears in a few hours. It was then that Mr. Shapira commenced 
collecting through an Arab emissary; but after some four months he 
determined, with the other two gentlemen above mentioned, to endea- 
vour personally to find specimens in situ. 

The party proceeded first on a visit to Sheikh 'Ali Diab, the famous 
Chief of the 'Adwan, who had before been Mr. Shapira's guest in Jeru- 
salem, and through whom many specimens had been obtained. Great 
difficulties were experienced in the supply of water ; horses often had 
to be sent back four hours' distance to drink ; and later the excited 
bearing of the Hamydeh brought the expedition to a rapid termi- 
nation. 

Leaving Diab's camp, the party proceeded to El 'Aab, the Elealeh of 
Scripture (Numb, xxxii. 7, 37 ; Isaiah xv. 4), and here they found a 
rock-cut repository some two feet deep, and long enough for two jars, 



14 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 

sucli as were sent from tliis spot by Sheikli 'Ali. Thence tliey pro- 
ceeded to Hesban, wbicli is distant about balf an hour's ride, and 
famous for its beautiful water; but here they found nothing except 
some old coins, one Roman, another ancient Arabic, and one possibly 
Hebrew, together with bi'oken pottery and four stones inscribed, but 
utterly illegible. The next point was the Camp of Fendi el Faiz, 
Sheikh of the Beni Sakhkhr, to whom the Hameydeh are subject, 
situate near Bir el Sein (?), and from thence they proceeded to Madeba. 

It was here that Pastor Weser and Mr. Dinsberg themselves found 
the curious pieces, of which I send separate sketches. Under a heap of 
more modern broken pottery two pieces were first found, on one of 
which a Phoenician "mem," on the other two lines of crowded Phoe- 
nician characters, were legible. Digging to some twenty-three feet, the 
other specimens were discovered at various depths by the two above- 
named explorers, Mr. Shapira himself entertaining the natives at the tent 
with coffee. Here, also, and at other places, men, women, and children, 
both boys and girls, brought numerous broken pieces ; for prudential 
reasons they were not bought, but often thrown away in presence of 
the natives to prevent their getting an exaggerated notion of the value 
of the pottery. The ignorance of the inhabitants of the coxmtry was so 
great, that they mistook rocks with natural marks for inscribed stones. 
Pottery also was unknown, as water is kept in goat-skins only. 

Diban was next visited, and the two travellers were shown by the 
sheikh of a small tribe the niche in which the large figure of an 
Astarte (?) had previously been found, and which appeared just fitted 
to hold it. They were of opinion that the statue was interred here, 
though possibly beneath a temple. Lying on the hiU above the cave 
was a stone some two feet long, with a few Phoenician characters. 
Broken stones were also found here, and pieces, said by the natives to 
belong to the famous Moabite stone, were seen, as well as pieces of later 
date ; one with a Cufic inscription, another two with engraved crosses 
separated by a geometrical pattern. A stone had also been fovmd at 
Madeba, a hard granite block, having in its centre a representation of 
the sun, and on either side a moon, and beyond a star surrounded with 
five moons. This was possibly in situ in a wall of large stones. 

The last ruin was Umm el Rasas, visited simply to investigate the 
so-called serpent stone, of which Mr. Shapira had a copy — a block of 
about thirty inches side, with a bilingual inscription and the figures appa- 
rently of a scorpion and a serpent. Unfortunately their intention was 
known to the Hameydeh, and on arriving at the place pointed out no 
stone was found ; but surrounding stones had been disturbed, and there 
was evidence of a large body having been moved. Crossing accident- 
ally the very line along which the stone had been taken, similar traces 
were visible at intervals of fifty to a hundred yards, and, finally, a cistern 
Avith indications, as though a heavy body had been thrown into it. 
Descending, it was found filled with stones, but time and the temper 
■of the people would not allow of a minute investigation of the spot. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 15 

From thirty to forty pieces, some of which I have sketched, were 
brought by Sheikh Diab, as well as a fine pot, with an extremely bold 
inscription in plain Phoenician characters, found at Khirbet Jemil (?), 
near Umm el Rasas. Its translation will be interesting, as there seems 
a possibility of its being a votive sentence regarding the ashes of the 
dead. It was closed at the top, and has seven apertures, through 
which the ashes may have been inserted. 

The expedition now returned to Zamdt and Hesban, after a visit of 
eleven days to the country. It is to be regretted that it became neces- 
sary to undertake it, as the chance of obtaining any further specimens 
on reasonable terms is materially damaged. The country of the 
Hameydeh is now' impassable, and it is with great difficulty that a 
further collection is being amassed. A figure even larger than the 
Astarte, with characters on its back and chest, in an extremely fragile 
condition, will, it is hoped, be got safely to Jerusalem ; and if the sug- 
gestion of the use of water-glass, which we recommended to Mr. 
Shapira, be adopted, some of the most perishable pieces may still be 
preserved. 

The character of the pieces found by Pastor Weser will be found to 
agree with former specimens drawn and sent to England, especially the 
Astarte with the horned head-dress, the points placed downwards, 
like the present coiffure of the Arab women, which is often ornamented 
with coins. In the later specimens one figure with horns, and curious 
cup-shaped protuberances instead of breasts, is no doubt a representa- 
tion of the same deity mentioned previously in my first report (Letter 
II.) on this subject. 

One great characteristic of this pottery is its fragile condition. 
When taken from the soil (like other antiquities found in Italy) it is 
fresh-looking and apparently new, but as soon as exposed to the air it 
will in some instances fall to pieces at once, in others it gradually 
becomes crusted with saltpetre as before described. Even the pieces 
which appear most perfectly preserved are liable to break suddenly 
without warning. The pottery, which at first seemed of two kinds, now 
proves to differ in various specimens from a soft disintegrated grey 
earthenware to a bright red, apparently of later date, several inter- 
mediate kinds being observable. 

With regard to the character of the objects themselves, setting aside 
the question of inscriptions, which should not be discussed except by 
competent authorities, the symbolism presents many interesting 
features. Part is undoubtedly connected with the ancient idolatry, 
so often referred to in Scripture, in " the abominations " of the 
Moabites, in the mistranslated " grove " of the temple of Samaria, 
and in many different superstitious rites, including the worship of 
Baal Peor ; whose name is preserved at the modern Tel Pa'ur, where 
many specimens were found belonging to this form of symbolism. The 
mystic number seven is continually represented on the figures, and in 
some cases fourteen or twenty-one round holes are arranged on one 



16 ^ LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COKDER S REPORTS. 

piece. A bead wliicli I have jvist sent has sis teeth and one opening 
into the nose ; another has five dots, and one on each breast ; a third 
has four vertically and three horizontally arranged; a fourth has 
fourteen marks representing perhaps a beard, five teeth, and two 

nostrils. 

The triangle is also, but more rarely, found in one piece (a disc); it 
occurs as a reverse to the seven circular dots. The representation of the 
sun is also not unfrequent, one figure having sun and moon attached 
to its sides instead of hands (perhaps a rude symbolism of the work 
of Providence employing the influence of the heavenly bodies). 

One most curious point is the apparent element of caricature in the 
heads — grinning mouths (in one case the tongue protruded), enormous 
noses, horrid heads, and deep-set eyes. Some resemble apes, others 
are seemingly bird-headed. Horns and huge ears, distinct from the 
crescent of the Astarte, with its horns depressed, are not uncommon. 
One head I now send resembles a mediaeval gargoyle, other specimens 
are seemingly Egyptian in character. 

The whole collection now numbers more then seven hundred pieces, 
of which we have drawn some two hundred of the most perfect and 
characteristic, including the calf, the so-called Astarte, the bull's head, 
and other fine specimens. The camel, the lizard, the serpent, the 
tortoise, and, it is thought by some, the leopard (Mr. Drake suggests 
the otter), are all roughly represented, and birds and bird-like figures of 
various kinds. I may remark that on inspection of the sketches two 
ways of representing the eye will be observed, with other characteristic 
points of more or less critical interest. 

Some notes from the Talmud, communicated to me by an educated 
rabbi, may be of interest in connection with this pottery. A broken 
piece of an idol, a stump, or head, was not to be regarded, says the 
Mishna, as an idol in itself; thus it might be put to a useful purpose, 
if of metal melted down, if of pottery broken up and used again. This 
was not the case with a hand or a foot, which were in themselves 
objects of worship, and if found were not to be touched, but to be 
regarded as unclean. A curious relic of this hand-worship* is, I am 
informed, still preserved in Jerusalem, a rough representation of a hand 
being always marked on the wall of every house whilst in building by 

* The liaiidprint on the wall is commonly used by the Jews to avert the evil 
eye ; care is taken to put it in a conspii-uous place outside the house before a 
marriage, birth, or other festival. At .Jerusalem a sign resembling a double 
arrow-head is frequently used instead, which has been explained to me by a Jew 
as .symbolising the five names of God, as do the five fingers, thus averting evil 
from the place where it is imprinted. In the ruins of El ]3arid, near I'etra, 
Professor Talmer and I found a cistern whose cornice was decorated with hand- 
prints alternately black and red. At the present day both Moslems, Christians, 
and Jews hang hands, rudely cut out of a thin plate, of silver or gold, round 
the necks of their (■hildren to preserve them from the evil eye. The use of the 
first and last finger of the hand, for the san^e purpose in Italy, is well known, 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 17 

the native masons : several unbroken specimens of hands are found in 
Mr. Shapira's collection. Again, with regard to the calf, which we 
naturally connect in our minds with Aaron's golden calf, great doubt 
has been felt Avhether the latter was an imitation of the Egyptian Apis, 
or a representation of the Cherubim. Now in the Mishna the Sar Apis 
is mentioned as an idol ; the Babylon Talmud in criticising this goes 
into an elaborate explanation, connecting the word with the Patriarch 
Joseph by some extraordinary perversion, in apjjarent ignorance of the 
simpler explanation, "the Ox Apis," which is furnished by modern 
Hebrew scholars. 

The examination of Mr. Shapira's collection having been perfected 
up to date, my attention was next turned to the existing archaeological 
remains above the surface in Jerusalem. In a former letter (No. 6) I 
described the investigation of Siloam, and of the southern side of the 
city, with remarks on a rock-cut corner in tank No. 24, and a description 
of the curious Kalaat Jalud already explored by Captain Wilson. 
Accompanied by Dr. Chaplin I now endeavoured to examine thoi'oughly 
the north of the city, and to carry out some investigations of im- 
portance in the Haram. The results were interesting, and in one 
instance new ; and the whole city being in these two visits pretty 
thoroughly examined above ground, it becomes now possible to give a 
definite plan of action as regards the continuation of Captain Wan-en's 
explorations in Jerusalem. 

First in interest comes the Haram, especially the Platform and the 
Mosque itself. Much still remains to be done here, and new details 
may continually be observed. Thus in the diagram I send you show- 
ing the level of the rock at various places on or near the platform, some 
points occur not shown on Captain Warren's jslan. 

Within the mosque, my attention was first turned to the sacred rock 
itself, and I have executed a compass sketch of it, on a large scale, 
which contains several details which may or may not be of importance, 
but which are not in the plans either of Captain Wilson or of 
Count de Vogiie, such as the tioo drains leading to the shaft on the 
north side. Had it been morning instead of afternoon we might have 
ventured to get on to the rock, but as many fanatical pilgrims were 
being shown round the sacred places by the sheikh's son, I judged 
it safer to take measurements by offsets from the outside. 

Next to the rock, the pillars of the mosque require special notice, 
their character being almost unknown in England. I will send sketches 
of all ; twelve in the inner circle, supporting the drum, and twelve in 
the outer, surmounted by architrave blocks, between which runs the 
well-known wooden architrave or beam. These should be of interest, 
as the only coi-rect repiresentation of any of them is one by Count 
de Vogiie ; but this is not, as has generally been supposed, the type of 

but this verges on the use of the horn or horn-shaped avtiele, such as a horse- 
shoe or a charm. Horns are still in common use .amongst ]\loliammedans, who 
hang them np in fruit-trees to ensure a good crop. — C. F. T. D. 

c 



18 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDEr's REPORTS. 

the wliole number, wliich, it will be observed, differ greatly in outline, 
size, proportion, and details. Of the inner circle only two are alike ; 
the rest seem to have been brought from various older buildings, aud 
possibly may not be of the same date, though this is a question for 
architects to decide, if, as I hope, my sketches are siifficiently charac- 
teristic to enable them to do so. 

Of the outer row, one peculiarity is that none of the pillars have bases,, 
but are smrounded by a sort of pedestal made of blocks of marble built 
up against the shafts, Avhich are not all of equal height, so that to make- 
up the level above the architrave blocks of two of the pillars are only 
half the height of those of the remainder. Eight of these pillars 
resemble that drawn by M. de Vogiie, the remainder differ, as shown 
in the sketches. The bosses in the centre of the capital are of 
various devices, some pillars have four different kinds on four sides. 
All of these, except such as are entirely defaced, I have drawn, in- 
cluding that on which a cross is considered to be represented, which 
is by no means so clearly visible as one would be led to expect by the 
former representation. 

With regard to these capitals, which are generally described as 
Romauesqvie in chai'acter, it may further be remarked that similar ones 
are built up into the piers on the east entrance to the platform, and that 
two, seemingly of the same date, appear in the arcade of the steps oppo- 
site the •■■ Gate of the Chain" in company with a Byzantine basket- 
woi-k capital of perhaps the tenth century work. 

It would be most desirable to obtain a perfect collection of capitals 
from the Kubbet es Sakrah, the platform, the Mosque el Aksa, and the 
present church of the Holy Sepulchre, as a good deal of valuable archi- 
tectural criticism might be based on such a comparison. Our informa- 
tion at present is by no means so perfect as it may easily become 
on this subject. 

Of visits to the royal caverns, the tombs of the kings, the grotto of 
Jeremiah, and other well known localities, there is no reason to speak 
here, as only places not sufficiently noticed or newly discovered will 
be of any great interest ; these include the wall and ruins east of the 
Holy Sepulchre, the new explorations in the Muristan, the remains 
north of the city, and a newly discovered tomb. 

The ruins east of the Holy Sepulchre were first examined by 
Count de Vogiu', who describes them in his book on the " Temple of 
Jerusalem." They are two in number, and differ entirely in character. 

The first is a Avail which is undoubtedly composed of masonry of a period 
identical Avith that of the Jews' wailing place. The height of some of 
these magnificent stones, in the i^art of the Avail running north and 
south, is forty-two inches, and their other two measurements in some 
cases the same , the ruin seems to haA'e formed originally the south- 
west corner of some building, and afterwards to have been used in the 
construction of the chui-ch Avhich stood at one time on this spot ; the 
Avail Avas then faced on the Avest side AA'ith smaller stones, without any 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDER S REPORTS. 1 *> 

marginal draft. Captain Wilson here sunk three shafts, and found 
beneath the pavement, east of the wall, large ashlar work, not drafted, 
the lower course at a depth of 7' 4" being underpinned with smaller 
stones. This is not by any means a proof that the stones were not 
in situ, as there seems reason to conclude from various ancient relics in 
Jerusalem, that this may have been an old method of forming a founda- 
tion. The second ruin, that of an arch of Christian period, supported 
on two capitals, one called Corinthian, the other Byzantine, is also 
noticed by both M. de Vogiie and Captain Wilson. There can be no 
doubt that this capital, as well as a second, apparently in sitn, in a wall 
adjoining the arch which has been roughly built on to it, belong to an 
older building. It has, however, been supposed that the two Corinthian 
capitals are a pair, and I have, therefore, thought it worth while to 
send sketches and dimensions, showing that though possibly belono-ino- 
to the same building they differ in size and in detail. 

I should also be glad to have an architect's opinion on their date, as 
the introduction of the winged birds with heads (aj^parently) worked 
into the central device, seems hardly an ordinary element of Roman 
detail. Symbolical figures, the centaur, the gryphon, representing, 
according to Dante, the church of Christ, and many other allegorical 
devices, were commonly used by Christian architects, as in the capitals 
discovered by the Rev. T. Neil, in El Aksa, and in the slab over the 
south doorway of the Holy Sepulchre. 

If 1 might be permitted to hazard a conjecture on such a subject, I 
would suggest that possibly the capitals might belong to the palace 
of Helena, Queen of Adiabene, which, we are told, stood in the centre 
of the lower city in the time of Josephus. 

Close to this spot, in the Muristan, the excavations are being rapidly 
pushed, and will probably be complete in a year; several very lar"-e 
cisterns, lined with hard cement, have just been found. They are 
beneath the arcades shown on the plan just published in the last 
Quarterly, and near the Street of David ; the rock here has been sought 
in vain at a depth of forty feet. I hope, nevertheless, soon to be able 
to send home a series of rock soundings from the Holy Sepulchre east- 
ward, showing the slope of the valley. The method of raising water 
seems to have been by means of a large wheel, a space about a foot 
wide being left between two ribs of the vaulting to allow of its re- 
volving. 

There is no point as to Avliich we have so many important indications, 
both in the archaeological literature of Jerusalem and in existino- 
remains, as the extent and direction of the northern wall built by 
Herod Agrippa, commonly called the third wall by Josephus. It is 
fortunate that this is the case, because there is also no part of the city 
in which there seems less probability of our recovering many more 
remains. The ground has for eighteen centuries been ploughed and 
reploughed, and in other parts the rock itself appears on the surface, 
more especially on the north-west ; thus of foundations or even displaced 



20 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDEr's REPORTS. 

blocks of the ancient masonry there is very little chance of onv now 
finding any remains. 

Still, it is to be observed that the most has not been made of the 
information we possess. 

The Vandalism of the fellahin is rapidly destroying the few remains 
which yet exist. Close to the north road the great stones in the side 
of a cistern where Captain Wilson's second excavation was carried out, 
are still intact, but those marked " old foundations " to the west of these 
on the ordnance survey, have entirely disappeared, having been cut up 
for building stone by the natives. The production of the line from 
these eastward, cuts those first mentioned, and thus gives approximately 
the line of a quarter of the whole extent of the wall. The foundations 
of two towers, and parts of a wall, first noticed by Robinson, are now 
covered up under the Eussian buildings, but his bearings and measure- 
ments enable us yet to lay down the course of the third wall on the 
west. Thus it is only on the east where the description of Josephus 
{Wars 5. 4) and the conformation of the ground alike point out clearly 
its course, that any room exists for doubt with regard to the line taken 
by this the latest of the gigantic fortifications of ancient Jerusalem. 

One confirmation of the supposed line exists, which has not hitherto 
been made of siifficient importance, namely, the true position of Scopus, 
which, we learn from two passages in Josephus, was seven furlongs 
from the city. In comparing the three principal passages where, the 
word occurs {Ant. 11, 8, TTors 2, 19, Wars 5, 2), no reasonable doubt 
can be left iu the mind as to the true position of the site. The place 
called Sapha, or prospect, the elevation called Scopus, or watchtower, 
and the plain from which the city, and especially the temple, were first 
seen on advancing from the north, all alike point to one site. From 
the ridge Alexander could see from far off the white robed priests, who, 
with a great multitude in the plain behind, came out along the north 
road to meet him as he advanced from that side. Here Cestius camped, 
advancing by the same route from Galilee, and Scopus was then (the 
wall of Agrippa being already built) seven furlongs from the city. 
Finally, it was here that the lOth and loth legions, numbering at 
least 30,000 fighting men, made their camps, which, when camp 
followers, horses, mules, camels, and baggage are taken into considera- 
tion, must have covered at least 30 to 40 acres. Behind them, three 
fui-longs further north, the fifth legion made its camp also on some 
suitable bit of ground situate near the course of the north road — an 
indication which, like the rest, agrees only with one site north of the 
city. 

Now with these data in his head the traveller who, like myself, spurs 
up the last ridge which separates him from Jerusalem, sees sloping 
beneath him, east of the great north road, a plateau, which is separated 
by a broad valley from the town. From this ridge the dark grey wall 
first becomes visible, and of the Haram and of the great dome within it 
"a plain view might be taken." Hence this place may, to use the 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 21 

words of Josepliiis once more, be "very properly called scopiis (or 
prosjject), and is no more than seven furlongs from the city," that is, 
from the remains in the cistern already noticed, as measured on the 
ground by Dr. Chaplin. Still further, here, and here alone, on the 
noi'th, we have the natural site for a camp, pi-otected in front by the 
valley, and only approachable from the east, where its front was again 
covered, if, as in the case of Titus, the attacking force held the northern 
part of the Mount of Olives. Thus it may be said that Scopus and the 
third wall mutually fix one another's positions; and the indications, 
coupled with the existence of remains on the spot, form the most 
satisfactory identification perhaps possible of any site near the city. 

In close connection with this question comes that of the whereabouts 
of Helena's monument. It has been identified with the so-called tombs 
of the kings by Robinson, but although the position is a possible one, 
and the passage in Jerome (ad Eustach. epitaj'Ii. Paulce) showing it to be 
east of the great north road, with the mention of its rolling door in 
Pausanias {Grecice Descript. lib. viii. c. 16) — a peculiarity not known in 
any tomb other than the tombs of the kings at Jerusalem — alike con- 
firm the opinion ; still the author dismisses the notice given by 
Josephus of its distance from the city wall rather too hastily, by the 
remark that, though it is four furlongs from the Damascus gate, still 
the old wall extended about a furlong further north, thus giving the 
three furlongs of his authority {Ant. xx. 4). The truth is that the 
distance from the monument to the old foundations in the cistern is 
about two furlongs, but Josephus' words are, that it was " no further 
than three furlongs," a loose expression, which is not of itself sufficient 
to upset the identification.' When to these indications we add that 
given in Wars 5. 2, where we learn that the Jews, sallying from the 
gate between the women's towers, by which the north road entered the 
city, pursued Titus, whom they had nearly intercepted on his leaving 
this road to reconnoitre westwards towards Psephinus, and continued to 
harass him with darts as far as Helena's monument, it becomes clear 
that the great sepulchre close to the north road, but east of it, with a 
rolling stone to close its entrance, commonly called the Tombs of the 
Kings, is in reality the mausoleum of the royal family of Adiabene. Its 
stelae, or pyramids, have indeed disappeared, though objects of enthu- 
siastic admiration to ancient writers, but the debased though rich 
ornamentation of its facade, generally allowed to be first century work, 
agrees well with the history of its erection by the sons of Queen 
Helena. 

Such are the main points observable in the question of the main wall. 
Psephinus must have long ago disappeared, as a glance will show 
beneath the road bounding the Russian property; the "tower of the 
comer," the " monument of the fuller," alike give no indications above 
ground ; and the sepulchral caverns of the kings, unless, as I think not 
quite impossible, they were really one and the same with the tomb of 
the I'oyal family of Adiabene (a solution which would at once answer 



22 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDER's REPORTS. 

the ever-recurring question, What kings were they?), must, it seems, 
remain a puzzle for ever. 

The investigation of this quarter of the city brought to light a new 
discovery, that of a tomb which is at least as old as the Roman period, 
and probably older, situate close to the ancient remains in the cistern, 
excavation No. 2 of Captain Wilson. The owner of the olive-yard on 
this spot has commenced the excavation, and possibly found relics other 
than tliose which were left as worthless at the time of our inspection, 
although he has announced that he is willing to allow of our digging to 
uncover the remainder. Referring to the plan, it will be seen that a 
vock-cut scarp faces westward, along which a trench has been dug, 
discovering two finished and one unfinished tomb cut in the soft rock. 
These contain loculi parallel to the length of the excavation, and two 
north and south ; at the eastern end above, a groove is cut in each side 
of the tomb, into which the slabs of stone in the sketch were' fitted, 
thus making a second tier for a loculus, sarcophagus, or funeral vase. 
There appear to be other chambers on the nortli and south sides not 
yet examined. Part of the structure on the north was originally, or 
by later conversion, a cistern, and plaster is also found on the south, 
but in neither case is it very hard. The section shows where a tesse- 
lated pavement, with traces of a pattern, exists under the rubbish above 
the tomb. Into the second of the tombs at present opened a shaft leads 
from the ground above. Remains of the present pavement were visible 
furthei' east, as shown on the plan. 

The loculi woi-e full of bones and of powdered bone-dust. These 
appear, according to Dr. Chaplin's opinion, to be very ancient, ha^^Jlg 
lost all traces of animal matter ; and to hav* belonged to a race of small 
men. Some fragments of thin, ancient glass, a green glass bead, of 
form unknown at the present day, chips of pottery, not of modern manu- 
facture, and a small coin, almost entirely effaced, but having a device, 
seemingly of two figures, or possibly ears of wheat, were obtained in the 
tomb and in the heap of bones excavated from it. 

Tbat this was originally a place of sepulture is clear; but what the 
tesselattd pavement above, and remains of what seems to have been a 
wall, can be, it is difficult to decide. Curiously enough, we have no 
reason to expect the existence of any important edifice in this quarter 
of the city; it is without the ancient third wall, and yet there seems a 
probability of its being a place of some interest and extent. 



X. 

Rock-cut Tombs. 

Nazareth, Nov. 2ith. 
Sin-iri/. — The Survey has during the last five weeks been carried on in 
the neighbourhood of Nazareth, aiid on the north side of the great plain ; 
this part we have been anxious to finish before the arrival of the rainy 
season, which will effectually prevent out-of-door work during part of 
December, January, and February. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDERS REPORTS. 23 

The style of country is mucli more favourable to rapid and correct 
survey, and the length of the Hues in the triangulation is on the average 
double that obtained in the hills. The total extent of country finished 
is now over 1,100 square miles, the first rains and various other causes 
having delayed the work during the course of last month. The extreme 
clearness of the air has been very favourable to the observation of long 
lines, and those taken from the point at Nebi Dahy were particularly 
successful, including one to Mount Ebal, a distance of twenty-five 

miles. 

The most important feature of the work is the exact determination of 
the watershed of the plain, which has never before been quite perfectly 
laid down, and which forms a very tortuous line along the high ground 
from Zerain to Nebi Dahy, and to the Nazareth hills. 

A day has been devoted to the tracing of the great aqueduct north 
of Nazareth, and a plan and section of the reservoirs connected with it 
have been made to the scale of 1 chain (6(3 ft.) to the inch. 

These details are, I think, the only ones likely to be of interest to 
subscribers generally, the purely technical points being reserved as not 
necessary in a report of this kind. 

Archceology. —The country just entered is far richer in objects of 
archfeological interest than that south of the plain, and amongst these 
the rock-cut tombs form a principal group. 

The interest of such remains is very great, for two reasons : first, 
because we can be tolerably certain that they belong to ancient times ; 
secondly, because the existence of every such cemetery points to the pro- 
bable existence of a town or village of the same date somewhere in the 
immediate vicinity. Thus the antiquity of a site may be verified by the 
discovery of tombs in the neighbourhood. That no such excavations 
ave made at present is well known, and it is a curious feature of the 
country that whilst at some former time the inhabitants must have been 
almost a nation of troglodytes, whole hillsides being burrowed with caves 
often still inhabited, cisterns, granaries, and tombs, yet none of the 
present natives have any notion of mining or hewing in the rock. 

Three principal classes of tombs are observed in the j)lain and in the 
hill country about Nazareth, each class including several varieties. The 
first consists of roughly excavated caves, the second of tombs sunk in 
the surface of the rock and covered with a stone, the third of cham- 
bers entered at one end with loculi in the sides. 

The first class is exemplified at Jeba, at Ivhirbet Khazneh (in the 
plain), at Iksal (near Nazareth), and at El Jireh, on the hill 
above Iksal. It seems to have been used where the limestone is very 
soft, and the more carefully worked sepulchres of the other classes are 
generally cut in much harder rock. The Jeba tomb has a square ante- 
chamber carefully plastered, with a structural arch over the door leading 
to the cave within. This is far rougher, cut in a sort of cheese-like 
marl, with a loculus scooped in each side. A second cave to the west of 
Jeba is even rougher, and may probably be also a tomb, as it is regarded 



24 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. C'ONDER'S REPORTS. 

as a saci-ed place by the ^lohammedans. Khirbet Khazneli is a ruin ou 
the east of the plain not far from Lejjun, where traces of a large build- 
ing, a broken sarcophagus, a capital, a shaft, and a small Roman altar, 
were found on the surface, whilst beneath, a cave with four loculi 
roughly semicircular is excavated in soft limestone. There appear to 
be at least two more connected with it, but their passages were filled 
with rubbish, as were also the front entrances. 

The cave at Iksal is the most interesting of this class, and differs 
from any as jei found. A large chamber, the roof of which had fallen 
in, was first found, with four loculi parallel to its sides, and raised above 
the floor about 2ft. 6in. Two niches for lamps or tablets were cut in the 
sides, and on the south side was a small opening through which I suc- 
ceeded in scrambling into a cave with rough-cut loculi on two sides. 
The rock here also was soft, and much chalky d'hris had fallen on the floor. 
There were many bones strewed over the floor, which from their brittle- 
ness and general appearance may probably be very old ; and in one 
loculus I was fortunate enough to discover a skull almost perfect to the 
orbits (the face having disappeared), and near it a jaw-bone, probably 
belonging to the same skeleton. A very narrow passage led out of 
this cave, but was too small to allow of my creeping far into it. It 
appeared to come to an end, and maj' only have been a loculus, but 
of this I cannot be certain. 

Amongst the tombs at El Jireh are two which may rank in the 
first class, being also caves cut in soft stone and entered by rough 
and narrow passages. 

The second class is extensively represented at Iksal, where close to 
the cave is a cemetery of perhaps over two hundred tombs. Near 
Seffuriyeh, and at El Jireh, other examples have also been measured. 

The Iksal tombs include several varieties, single loculi sunk in the 
stone, rock-cut sarcophagi, tombs with a single side loculus, and tombs 
with two. Most of them had water-channels to conduct the rain, and 
some raised edges. All appear to have been closed by heavy roughly 
squared blocks of stone from Tft. to 8ft. in length. There was no ap- 
pearance of any special direction chosen for the body to lie in, and here, 
as in the other groups, the tombs faced in all directions. Seemingly 
more attention had been paid to the direction the water would take in 
running over the surface of the rock in which they were sunk, than to 
any other consideration. Eor this reason they are never used at present, 
as the native Mohammedans bury east and west, with the face turned 
south towards Mecca. 

In one of these tombs two skulls were found, one very large and 
perfect, the other small and possibly female. The arrangement of 
double loculi is supposed, I am told, to be Christian, and to be intended 
for the reception of the bodies of a man and his wife. I do not, how- 
ever, think these skeletons can have been those of the original occupants, 
for they appear to be more modern, and rags of clothing were mingled 
with the bones, the greater number in each skeleton still remaining in 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 25 

something like relative position. The natives call these the "Frank 
tombs ;" possibly they may be of crusading times. 

Seffuriych, the Sephoris of Josephus, gives signs of having been a 
flourishing town in Eoman times, and Avould. merit a more complete ex- 
ploration than we can manage to give to it this year. A great number 
of sarcophagi lie round the village, or are built into the old crusading 
castle, and in all that I have observed the end where the head was 
laid is rounded. 

Near Seffuriyeh are three small sunken tombs or loculi, also with the 
head rounded, and closed not with a square block, but with one cut into 
the ordinary triangular cross section of a sarcophagus lid. Thus these 
tombs, though belonging to the second great class, are probably earlier 
than those at the Iksal cemetery. 

Two tombs of the second class, sunk in the surface of the rock and 
closed above by large stones, are found amongst those at El Jireh. 
The first has four loculi on the four sides of the quadrangular sunken 
chamber, but they are far rougher than those at Iksal, which have semi- 
circular arches, and a partition separating the body from the chamber. 
The second has three loculi, and at one of its ends a small passage into a 
quadrangular chamber cut in soft rock without loculi, a curious combi- 
nation of the arrangements of a sunken tomb witb one entered on th.e 
level of the floor. 

The last class of tombs is exemplified at El Jireh, at Nazareth, and 
near Kefr Minda. It appears, however, to be far less common than the 
other two, and these are the first examples we have found. The 
chamber is entered at one end, and the loculi placed with their length 
in each case perpendicular to the side of the chamber. The El Jireh tomb 
is partly fallen m, but seems to have been roughly circular in plan, with 
seven of these loculi radiating, and an entrance of some size. The tomb 
at Nazareth is cut in rather soft rock, its roof, unlike most of the tombs 
as yet found, is a kind of tunnel vault, and the loculi, of which there are 
twelve (five on each side, and two at the end opposite the door), have a 
similar tunnelled roof. A second close by, said to contain ten loculi, 
with two more outside the door cut in the sides of the passage before the 
chamber, was filled up and unapproachable. 

Another tomb not as yet measured, but resembling those at Nazareth, 
was found on the summit of the high hill above the village of Kefr 
Minda, the most northern of our trigonometric stations, and situate 
within that portion of the country which was reconnoitred by Captain 
Anderson during the preliminary expedition under Captain Wilson. 
This hill is visible from points near Tiberias, from Safed, Acca, Haifta, 
Carmel, and Nazareth, and would be a most valuable point but for the 
thick ring of oak-trees springing from the ruins of some ancient build- 
ing beneath which the tomb was cut in the rock. 

Large numbers of cisterns occur amongst the tombs found in the 
cemeteries at Iksal, and in the hill close to Tell el Jireh. 

Geology. — The observations systematically continued of the strata 



.26 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 

north of the plain fully coufirni the deductions which I made in Eeport 
jNTo. VII. No less than twenty-nine distinct outbursts of Trappean rock, 
on the east, west, and north of the plain, are now marked on my rough 
map. Some of these have broken through the upper strata without dis- 
turbing their dip, possibly emerging through some natural fissure ; others 
have, as at Sheikh Iskander, uptilted the lowest beds and flowed from 
beneath; and wherever the formation of the crystalline dolomitic lime- 
stone appears on the surface, there seems reason to suspect the existence 
of basalt immediately below. The reason for the dip of the Nazareth 
range, which is upwards towards the south-south-east, is given by a 
basaltic outbreak near the village of Tinjar, and another in the plain 
itself, showing the origin of this great break in the mountain system to 
be j)riocipally volcanic. 

Of the Trappean rock there are now three varieties noticed: the 
black basalt of greater or less hardness, and containing generally a large 
amount of ii'on ; the soft mud, apparently of basaltic <h''bris, and often 
containing pieces of limestone, such as that noticed at Sheikh Iskander ; 
and finally, a grey stone, containing large crystals (of vitreous lustre, 
presumably of augite), and resembling syenite. This is probably the 
coarser kind of basalt known as dolerite, and was first observed on 
Little Hermon (Nebi Dahy).. 

"The succession of four systems of strata first observed by Captain Wil- 
son at Jifna, I have found to hold good throughout that part now 
mapped, but it is often very difficult to distinguish between the hard 
chalk with flint bands and the soft white chalk beneath, as first seen 
■ at Nablous. The upper beds are very thickly stratified, and seem to 
become softer where farther from the surface or less exposed. Some- 
times they seem to overlie immediately the hard dolomitic stone, but 
in other places the interposition of the soft chalk is well marked, 
though apparently corresponding in dip and strike. Hence it seems 
probable, either that the two formations are of the same date, or that 
the soft chalk "thins out," to use a technical terra, in some parts of 
the country. 

The valley of the Kishon and the great upheaval (to use the old 
nomenclature) of Carmel, promise to be of some geological interest. I 
hope here to be able to make a good geological section from the Medi- 
terranean to the Jordan, which may perhaps be useful in determining the 
question of the formation of the " ghor" valley. Above the dolomitic 
limestone on Carmel, a formation resembling the Santa Croce marble 
occurs, in which the first fossils (excepting nummulites at Nablous) 
we have yet found appeared. They were shells of LameUi-bra7ichiata, 
probably, as far as I can judge, of the genus Gryplicea. Shells were 
here found, I believe, by Dr. Tristram, but of what genus I do not yet 
know. Interstratified with these beds, a kind of rag or shelly limestone 
of loose consistency and brown coloui- was found by the German 
colonists at the foot of the mountain, and has been found useful and 
ornamental in the construction of their neat and comfortable houses. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 



27 



Natural History.— The time of year is not now very favourable for 
entomology, the butterflies are disappearing, and the locusts and man- 
tisses seem half numbed by rain and reduction of the temperature. 
Large numbers of blackbeetles were, however, together with all species 
of ants, very active after the first rains, and colonies of winged ants 
were, till quite lately, setting out on their travels. 

The collection of Lejndojitera now includes some hundred specimens 
of six out of the seven great families of butterflies, nearly twenty-four 
species in all. The Ar gin uhkt or FritiUaries are, however, conspicuous 
by their absence. The English Red Admiral has only just appeared, 
whether from the butterfly emerging later in the season from its chry- 
salis, or because it does not exist farther south, it is impossible as yet to 
say. Several other species of this family are common, but this particu- 
lar one seems to be rare. 

Of further notes we have made few. A large adder some three feet 
long was found at the entrance of a tomb which we were about to enter 
in the dark. 

Amon^-st birds the pied wagtail, the yellow wagtail, and the robin, 
closely resembling our English species, appeared after the first rains. 

The atmospheric effects of this time of year add a wonderful colour 
and shadow to the scenery. The great clearness of the air seems to 
reduce distance by nearly one-half, and the sharp outlines and deep 
blue shadows of the hills ; the orange sunsets, with really purple 
colouring in the distant ranges; the fine banks of clouds of every 
colour and form; the passing storms with bright sunlight beyond; 
the Safed mountains with summits veiled in thick piles of cumulus; 
the Sea of Galilee, reflecting the surrounding hills ; the Mediterranean, 
bright blue, with the gloomy ridge of Carmel to the south of the bay ; 
finally, the great brown plain with white smoke wreaths from the 
burning weeds,— all these scenes, and many more, furnish subjects in 
•which any artist would rejoice. 

Not less charming are the various costumes, which seem peculiar to 
Nazareth itself. The short abba and gorgeous " kafeyeh" of the men, 
the white " Izar," the silk dresses, the broad scarves, and many- 
coloured trousers (red, green, blue, and yellow) of the women, give a 
crowd a peculiarly picturesque appearance, and differ materially from 
the sordid dresses of the poorer southern villages. 

Several meteorological phenomena of interest have been noted, including 
broad bands of blue at sunset extending from the zenith to the horizon 
east and west, a meteor seen by Dr. Varten illuminating the tops of the 
hills and travelling slowly, a very bright halo round the moon, and 
several very fine rainbows. 

In conclusion, our thanks are due to Mr. Zeller for his kind interest 
in our work, and his care to ensure our seeing and exploring all that 
existed in the neighbourhood. 



'26 



MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE'S REPORTS. 



Camp, Umm el Fahm, Oct., 1872. 

On the 2Sth iilt. we moved camp from Jenin to tliis place. The 
heat in the plain of Esdraelon had been very great. On the 27th the 
thei-mometer stood at 107 degs. in the tent, and lOoo degs. in the 
Observatory. Notwithstanding this, the result of the month's work 
since leaving Jeb'a is most satisfactory. A base line of four and a half 
miles in length was laid down, measured and checked ; several cairns 
were, as usual, put up and observed from, and a total of 1-45 square 
miles were sketched in. Though part of this lay on the plain, the 
greatly increased rate of progress will be seen by a comparison with 
the amount of country sketched in per month when we first began : 
this seldom averaged more than sixty square miles. The non-com- 
missioned officers were then, however, unused to the hard riding, and 
new to the country and its ways. Now, notwithstanding the great 
heat, the rate of work is more than twice as rapid as it was seven 
months ago, and I feel sure, at the same time, that its accuracy is in 
no wise interfered with. I am glad to be able to report also that no 
member of the party, either European or native, has hitherto been 
laid up with sickness. With the exception of a few trifling ailments 
of two or three days' duration, our state of health has been all that 
could be desired. 

The village beside which we are now camped is a large one, and 
divided into four quarters. El Jebarin, El Mahamin, El Majahineh, 
and El Akbariyeh, each of which has its own sheikh. There are some 
fifteen houses of Christians, which represent a total of about eighty 
souls. These are mostly birds of passage, who " squat" wherever, and 
as long as, they find it convenient, and then flit "to fresh fields and 
pastures new." The natives are an unruly lot, who never paid taxes 
till within the last few years, and who have not yet learnt the lesson 
of subjection. Some days ago a man tried to seize my horse's bridle as 
I was passing near a threshing-floor, and insolently told me to be off, at the 
same time making as though he would strike me ; but, seeing then that 
he had gone rather too far, took to his heels and fled. After a suspense 
of three or four days, I consented, at the intercession of two of the 
sheikhs, the kadi, and other village worthies, not to have the man im- 
prisoned at Jenin, so he was brought and solemnly beaten before my 
tent door by the sheikh of his quarter. As civility in this country is 
induced by fear and a sense of inferiority, we shall probably be treated 
with decent respect for some little time to come. One cause of the 
villagers' unruliness is their wealth : they possess large herds of cattle 
and flocks of goats, a very considerable number of horses, and more 



MR. TYRWHITT DRAKe's REPORTS. 29 

tlian tbe normal quantity of camels and donkeys. Their land comprises 
a wide tract of thicket (called Umm el Khattaf, "Mother of the 
Eavisher," from the dense growth which, as it were, seizes and holds 
those who try to pass through it) to the south and east, arable hills to 
the west, and virtually as much of the rich plain of Esdraelon (Merj ibn 
'Amii') as they choose to cultivate. Besides all this, the village owns 
some twenty or more springs, under whose immediate influence orange 
and lemon trees flourish. Shaddocks grow to an enormous size ; I 
have one now in the tent whose circumference lengthwise is 2ft. 6Hn., 
and its girth 2ft. S^in. ; weight, about eight or nine pounds ; and toma- 
toes, cucumbers, and other thirsty vegetables flourish. The taxes paid 
by the village amount to 23,000 piasters, or £185 sterling, in addition 
to the poll-tax on sheep, goats, and cattle, which probably comes to 
£20 more. 

Under and immediately to the east of Umm el Fahm is the great 
volcanic upheaval which I mentioned in my last report as existing 
beneath the tomb of Sheikh Iskander. In addition to the basalt, 
which is mostly friable, stratified volcanic clay and mud are found in 
large quantities, of a yellow, red, or greenish colour, though the pre- 
vailing tint is a dusky brown. This is usually overlaid by a stratum of 
limestone more or less hard ; that at the sides of the upheaval is dis- 
tinctly metamorphic, and lower down is hard and crystalline. 

On crossing Wady 'Ar'a — which, rising above Lejjun, flows in a south- 
westerly direction to the sea — a curious change is observable. All wild 
vegetation ceases, except a few thistles and plants of fennel, while the 
rock changes to chalky limestone at top, mixed with a few flints, and 
hard clay beneath, which is here used for keeping the roofs watertight. 
On the western side of this formation, which is closely furrowed with 
wadies, where it begins to sink into the Maritime Plain, lies an open 
woodland consisting entirely of balhit (Quercus ui'Egilops, locally called 
Mallul), which here grows into trees some thirty to thirty-five feet 
hiffh and six to ten feet in circumference. The thickets westward con- 
sist chiefly of sindian {Q.fseudo coccifera), afs {Q. infectoria, locally a fas), 
sarris {Pistachia lentiscus), hutm (P. terebinthus), burzeh (a shrub with 
leaves very like the s'uuUaii, and bearing a purple berry the size of a 
cuiTant) ; intermingled with these are a few plants of cistiis, arbidus 
andrachne, and the usual growth of bil/an {Poterium spinosum), sweet- 
leaved vines, &c., in the more open places. 

The fauna is scanty : the mammals most common are wild boars, 
jackals, and wolves. A few leopards are said to exist, but are more 
frequently found on Carmel; ichneumons are very common, badgers 
less so. A species of wild cat — captured near Nazareth — has been de- 
scribed to me by Mr. Zeller as very like the booted cat (Fells cliaus), but 
without the black feet. The lynx {F. caracal) also exists, but owing to 
its very shy habits is rarely seen. 

The scarcity of birds in these thickets has most surprised me ; the 
dense growth of brushwood is just the shelter which many of the 



30 MR. TYRWHITT DKAKE's REPORTS. 

warblers most affect, but I lia%'e been able to detect very few taking- 
advantage of it. I have noticed a few Montagues harriers, and a 
peregrine falcon. Black-headed jays, the Athene owl, and kestrels are 
as common as usual. 

The season of gathering the olives has just commenced, and the 
women, boys, and girls are all busy thrashing the trees with long poles 
and gathering up the fruit, which is just beginning to turn black. The 
other day a boy was killed by falling from a high branch. A litter was 
hastily improvised with a cloak and a couple of poles, the coi'pse was 
carried off, and, after the fashion of the country, buried instanter. The 
yield of olives this year is exceedingly good, as is that of all the crops 
except the cotton and millet. The simsi/a (sesame), which is exported 
to Marseilles for the purpose of being converted into " superfine olive 
oil." has been most abundant, and the tax collectors, local governors, 
and even the fellahin, will benefit from this year of plenty. 

The woodlands which I have mentioned are a most pleasing relief to 
the eye after the bare grey rocks, varied only by patches of grey- 
foliaged olives, and vaulted with a glaring grey sky, like molten lead, 
to which we have been so long accustomed. Our first shower of rain 
fell on the evening of the 3rd, and though it only amounted to "005 in., 
the air was somewhat cooled, and the oth was one of those wonderfully 
clear days, so rare in northern latitudes, which lend a charm even to 
the most monotonous stretch of round-topped hills. From ovir stations 
near here, Jaffa, Carmel, Jebel Sunnin (in the Libanus), Mount 
Hermon, the range of Jebel el Duruz, Hauran (with its prominent 
volcanic cones), and block of Jebel Ajlun (Gilead), were all distinctly 
seen. 

The tomb of Weli Iskander, which stands near here, has proved a 
most valuable trigonometrical station. This personage is, on the 
authority of the Kadi, one of the kings of the Children of Israel, but I 
cannot find any foundation for this legend in history, unless it be some 
memory of Alexander, son of Herod, who was strangled at Sebaste, but 
buried at Alexandrium (Jos. B. J. 1 xxvii. 6). Others say that it is a 
mn.L-am in honour of Alexander the Great, of whom Moslem legends, 
with their usual disregard for chronology, tell marvellous tales. He 
was a negro, the son of El Dhab'aak, king of Himyar, and a Greek 
princess, and is called Ishander z'ul Kaniayu, " Alexander with the two 
horas," which grew like a ram's from his temples. To conceal them he 
invented the turban ; he also invented the fashion of shaking hands. 
He had an interview with Abraham inWady Seb'a (Beersheba) B.C. 300 ; 
his conquests extended over the world, and amongst other notables he 
blew Yajuj and Majuj (Gog and Magog), Avho were each 240 feet high ; 
and to avoid the plague which would ensue from the putrefaction of 
such a mass of llosh, he caused an army of birds of prey to tear ofi" their 
fiesh and carry it to the sea. These giants wei-e omnivorous ; they ate 
trees, crops, men, horses, and cattle, and were able to drink the Lake 
of Tiberias d)-y in a single day. Some of their race, who were also 



CHRONOLOGY OP PALESTINE, EGYPT, AXD ASSYPvIA. 31 

cannibals, rode ants as large as camels instead of horses. Alexander 
was a fit liero to cojDe with such monsters, as his nose was three spans 
long and, of course, the rest of his body in proportion. Og, the king 
ofBashan, to reach whose knee Moses, who was twenty cubits high, 
took an axe twenty cubits long and leapt up twenty cubits from the 
earth, must doubtless have been a connection of these giants. 

In several places among the brushwood we have observed square 
towers measuring twelve to fifteen feet on each side, and built of 
rouo-hly-hewn stones two to four feet long. These, together with huge 
built-up cairns, and the rock-hewn wine and oil presses, are doubtless 
of remote antiquity. 

In one ruin — Khirbet Abu 'Amir — near Kefr Kud. we found the ruins 
of a building. It is probably a small temple, and there are appear- 
ances as though it were in antis. The stones are too much scattered 
and decayed for satisfactory examination. Lieutenant Conder and my- 
self have made sketches of the ornamentation, which is much over- 
crowded on the cornices. All around are ruins of houses and traces 
of a road up to them, on which are strewn the voussoirs of a circular 
areh with plain mouldings. The usual rock-hewn cisterns exist, but 
lined with a very hard pinkish cement. This colour arises from the 
finely coloured pottery mixed with the lime. 

Near by is a pit hewn in the soft rock, in which I was told water 
still collects and remains, even in the summer, after abundant rains. 
Beside it are some fine balliit trees, and a solid platform 35ft. by 30ft. of 
large roughly-hewn stones. The object of this erection is not evident ; 
whether sacrificial or merely an oil-press is impossible to say. The 
tomb of Sheikh Selameh now stands upon it. 



THE COMPARATIVE CHRONOLOGY OF PALESTINE, 
EGYPT, AND ASSYPvIA. 

By Francis Roubiliac Condee, C.E. 

Not a little disquiet has been awakened in the minds of many 
estimable persons by the statement that the results of recent decipher- 
ments of the hieroglyphical inscriptions of Egypt, of the cuneiform 
records of Assyria and of Persia, and of the Phoenician tablets of 
Palestine, are irreconcilable Avith a belief in the uncorrupted accuracy, 
or even the original authenticity, of the historic books of the Hebrew 
Scriptures. 

It is of no little importance to ai'rive at the truth in this matter. On 
the one hand, writers may be named who eagerly seize the occasion to 
impugn much to which a high degree of unquestioned veneration has 
long been accorded. On the other hand, the patient, unrewarded, 
unappreciated labours of the students of long-forgotten tongues are 



32 CHRONOLOGY OF PALESTINE, EGYPT, AND ASSYRIA. 

discouraged and disparaged, from the fear of their questionable 
tendency. 

The first step which intelligent criticism should take in the matter, 
is to draw a sharp line between the pi'ovince of science and ^at of 
opinion. How much do we take from definite historic data ? How 
much from authority ? Whose is that authority ? and on what is it 
based ? The witnesses must be brought impartially into court before 
any jury can decide whether their testimony is contradictory or the 
reverse. 

Accounts of the same events, emanating from opposite sources, may 
be compared in two distinct respects. We have to regard their historic 
form, and their chronological indications. In the former we must 
expect contradiction ; opposing nations or parties invariably give 
contradictory accounts of the same events. Even in the late Franco- 
Prussian war it has often been almost impossible to believe that the 
French and the Prussian dispatches described one and the same action. 
Thus if we have an Egyptian, an Assyrian, or a Moabite account of 
any event described by a Hebrew historian, it is certain, a priori, that 
the colouring of the two records will be entirely reversed. 

Witb regard to chronological indications, the case is altogether 
difi'erent. Within certain limits accordance must here exist, or error, 
in one account at least, is proved. These limits are not wide, but they 
must not be neglected. One chief source of variance is the differing 
date of the commencement of the year among different nations ; or 
even in the same nation for different purposes, or at different periods 
of their history. Thus the Jews had their sacred, and their civil, year ; 
respectively commencing with the new moon of the vernal, and of the 
autumnal, equinox. The Greeks commenced their years with the 
summer solstice. The first of Thoth, the commencement of the Egyptian 
year, receded by a day every four years, in consequence of the use of a 
solar year without intercalation. Again in reckoning by regnal years 
parts may be taken for units. A history of England, of which the 
chronology was taken from the dates of Acts of Parliament, would 
differ considerably from astronomical truth. 

On the other hand, every great people of antiquity had certain cycles, 
or secular reckonings, by the revolution of which the error of vai-ious 
additions were checked. No attempt at defining a complete system 
of chronology can be of permanent vahie that will not endure this 
test. Thus the very vagueness of the Egyptian year, its periodic 
shifting of place, gives a value to Egyptian dates peculiar to themselves. 
Thus the Chinese have a cycle of sixty years, extending back to an 
early historic dawn. The Assyrians had a corresponding cycle — the 
Sossus. The Jews had one of forty-nine years, which, by its slow 
gaining on the decennial notation, is of the utmost value to scientific 
chronology. 

All scholars hold that a chronological system is, at least implicitly, 
included in the Hebrew Scriptures. But the difficulty of clearly 



CHRONOLOGY OF PALESTINE, EGYPT, AND ASSYRIA. 33 

defining tbat system has pi'oved very great. It has been increased by 
the fact that the I'endering given by the natural custodians of the 
sacred books, the doctors of the Jewish law, is palpably wrong, within 
historic times ; the accession of Cyrus being post dated by 184 years. 
The Rabbinical chronology is therefore regarded with well-founded 
distrust. 

Taking, as our APXH, in a purely chronological sense, that eom- 
mencement of the sacred reckoning to which the unfortunate term Annus 
Mundi has been generally applied, we find a difference of no less than 
2,549 years to exist between the dates assigned by learned men for the 
Christian era. The modern Jewish reckoning gives 3,761 years ; 
Baronius, 3,951 ; the Greek Church, 5,606 ; Panvinius, 6,310. Amid all 
these conflicting theories, that of Usher, which is by no means one of 
the best supported, has been adopted in the dates printed (when any 
are printed) in the English Bible. No accord exists between these 
dates and any ancient cycle whatever. 

The point at which the 488 years of the Jewish monarchy have hitherto 
been connected with profane history is the accession of Nebuchad- 
nezzar, This date is taken by almost all writers from an ancient list 
of kings called the Regal Canon. It is ascribed to Ptolemy, but there 
is no proof that it has the high authority of that great astronomer. 
Many of the dates of the Canon are known to be accurate ; some being 
determined by eclipses mentioned in the Almagest. But the length 
of the reign of Nabopolassar, the father of Nebuchadnezzar, is made 
eight years shorter than the time cited by Josephus in his reply to 
Apion ; and that of Nebuchadnezzar himself is made two years shorter 
than in other accounts. 

The dates given by Josephus would, no doubt, be conclusive, but for 
the palpable corruption of most of the passages to which reference is 
usually made. As we now find them, his statements are self-contra- 
dictory ; so that there can be no doubt that they have been altered by 
copyists. "We know, from a sort of preface to an early copy of 
Eusebius, that at one time it was thought to be the diity of a faithful 
transcriber to correct any error in the original. Thus, in the most 
conscientious manner, the present blunders may have originated. 

But in passages where an obscure or little understood mark of date 
is inserted, there is less temptation for the copyist to make any altera- 
tion. Thus the period of 414 years from the close of the Regal Govern- 
ment to Antiochus Eupator (Ant. xx. x. 7) is one that conveys no 
information to any one who is not aware of the dates of the Seleucidse. 
It remains, therefore, uncorrupt, and agrees with several other obscure 
passages in Josephus in fixing 1 Nebuchadnezzar in B.C. 595. 

In the second year of Darius, it is said in the first chapter of Zechariah, 
the indignation against the cities of Judah had lasted for three score 
and ten years. In the 25th chapter of Jeremiah, v. 11, it is predicted 
that the nations shall serve the King of Babylon for seventy years. 
That cliapter is dated in the fourth year of Jehoiakim, being the first 

D 



34 CHRONOLOGY OF PALESTINE, EGYPT, AND ASSYRIA. 

year of Nebuchadnezzar, and accords witli tbe date, taken fi-om Egyptian 
monuments, of the battle of Carchemish and the death of Neco. (The 
death of Josiah, according to the ordinary chronology, preceded by 
two years the date of Neco's accession.) Four years after that defeat, 
according to Josephus {Ant. x. vi. 1) King Jehoiakim became tributary 
to Nebuchadnezzar. The second year of Darius is exactly seventy 
years from that date. 

The rectification of the dates of the Jewish reigns, which is 
thus demanded, both by the prophetical Hebrew books and by the 
Egyptian stelae, brings them into accurate accordance with the Assyrian 
dates, which are verified by a solar eclipse. We thus find the four- 
teenth year of Hezekiah to synchronise with the third year of 
Sennacherib, which it ought to do according to the cuneiform records. 
Further, the fifteenth year of Hezekiah was, according to the cyclical 
reckoning, a Sabbatic year. This is in accordance with verse 30 of the 
37th chapter of Isaiah. In the fourteenth year of Hezekiah the land 
was left untilled in consequence of the Assyrian invasion. In the 
following year the prescribed Sabbatic rest, as to the observance of 
which full details are given in the treatise Shebith (the fifth of the first 
order of the Talmud), fell due. In the sixteenth year agriculture 
was to resume its course. We have thus an exact concurrence of the 
three distinct reckonings of the Egyptian hieroglyphics, the Assyrian 
clay tablets, and the predictions and statements of the prophets, with 
the course of the great undeviating cycle of the Sabbatic year. 

Another great element of accuracy in determining Hebrew dates is to 
be found in the twenty- six years' cycle in which the commencement of the 
courses of the priests returned to the same jjoint. The Talmud informs 
US (Taanith, iv. 2) that the entire nation was divided into " mishmaroth," 
or divisions of orders, corresponding to those of the priests. When it 
came to the turn of each mishmara to go up to Jerusalem, the priests 
and Levites belongiug to it did so, and the other Israelites of the 
division assembled in the synagogues to read the first chapter of the 
Pentateuch. Thus the whole nation had an intimate acquaintance 
with this revolution of the calendar. We have hence an absolute 
check of the date of the destruction of the temple by Nebuchadnezzar. 
Scaliger has pi-eserved an ancient Hebrew verse, embodying the fact 
that the course of Jehoarib was in function at the time when the 
Chaldeans burst into the temple. 

Die nona mensis, bora vespcrtini 
Quuni eram in vigilia mea, vigilia, Joarih 
Introivit liostis, et sacrilicia .sua 
Obtulit : iiigre.ssus est in sanctuarium 
Injustus Domini. 

.Jehoarib was in course from 3 to 10 Ab. B.C. 577, in which year 
those days fell on the Sabbath; thus affording a furthei*, and an astrono- 
n)ical, synchronisui. 



THE HAMATH INSCRIPTIONS. 35 

If the Assyrian statements are read by the liglit of this determina- 
tion of date, it will be seen that their accordance with the Hebrew 
Scriptures is fair and credible. There may arise a question, at times, 
as to the dynastic or personal name of a king ; but careful investiga- 
tion has removed so many apparent difficulties, that no apprehension 
need be entertained as to the final establishment of entire accuracy, 
both of decipherment and of date. 



THE HAMATH IN-SCRIPTIONS. 

To the Secretary of the Palestine Exploration Fund. 

Dear Sir, — During the three months that have elapsed since I had 
the pleasure of presenting you with my proposed arrangement of a 
portion of the Hamath Inscriptions, I have no event to report bearing 
upon the discovery of fresh matter in this department, unless indeed I 
be allowed to mention the large door-post, or lintel, from Moab. The 
authenticity, however, of the latter has been denied in England, so I will 
merely remark that it is impossible that the Hamath Inscriptions in 
their proper form can have been known to the supposed forger of the 
Moab door-post, but that nevertheless about five out of the nineteen 
characters on that post are identical with the Hamath ones. A small 
inscription from Aleppo, in your hands, has also been shown me. It 
reproduces some of our Hamath forms, and throws light upon the proper 
grouping of one or two compound forms, which I had supposed to be 
single. No progress at all has been made towards decipherment. 

In this second batch which I now forward you, the three first lines 
are all on the same stone — the first on the north side, the next two on 
the west side of the No. 4 stone, named by Captain Burton and Mr. 
Drake. The fourth line I have reproduced from your last journal in 
smaller size, for purposes of comparison with the new matter. It will be 
observed that I have made the arrows now point upwards, having, in 
fact, turned the whole inscription round bottom upwards, without, 
however, altering the arrangement of the symbols among themselves. 
My principal reason is, that I take one of the signs to be a palm-tree, 
■syhose fruit and foliage I naturally prefer to place upwards. The sign of 
the human foot is also thus seen to have the sole downwards. 

Between the lines where I believe the kings' names to appear,- I have 
written the word king. In the second line where 1 have written this the 
symbols are purely Egyptian. In the third line they are only partly 
Egyptian. 

The writing, I presume, should be read from right to left. All the 
inscriptions together produce about forty-five distinct characters, and, 
prima facie, such a number would indicate a syllabic alphabet, as in the 
Cypriote. The stage of syllabism is, of course, less advanced than that 



36 JERUSALEM. 

of the consonantal alphabet with independent vowels. If Cyprus took 
the one and Greece the other from Phoeaicia, it is well for the world that 
Greece should have been unready in the Thothmes age for the less 
perfect gift. 

The state of the stone Ko. 4 is such that many parts of what I now 
send are far from trustworthy. I have bestowed a great amount of 
labour on the comparison of different parts of your squeezes, but am fd,r 
from satisfied in some parts of the result. I conclude with saying that 
I see a railway survey is said to be in hand from the coast to the 
Euphrates, and your journals will, I hope, be forwarded to the oificers 

and men engaged on the work. 

Youi-s very truly, 

Dunbar Isidore Heath. 

EsHEE, Surrey, Nov. 20, 1872. 



JERUSA.LEM. 

Mr. Conrad Schick, the Imperial German architect at Jerusalem, who 
has recently been engaged in making measurements for the construction 
of models of the Kubbet es Sakhra and Haram es Sherif. for the Turkish 
Government, has kindly forwarded to the Palestine Exploration Fund 
plans and sections of certain cisterns and buildings which have not been 
previously described. 

Anything which adds to our knowledge of the " sacred area" cannot 
fail to be of value, and the following notice of Mr. Schick's discoveries 
will be of interest to many of the subscribers to the Fund. 

1st. At the north-east corner of the platform three rock-hewn cisterns,* 
not previously visited, have been examined, and plans made of them. 
Like the well-known " great sea" in the southern portion of the Haram, 
they are hewn out of the soft " malaki " rock, and the overlying stratum 
of " missae " has been left to form a roof. The only passages noticed as 
entering the cisterns were the ducts for leading in the surface drainage. 
The cisterns are from 28ft. to 45ft. deep, and the natural rock lies close 
below the surface. 

2nd. Mr. Schick has made a minute examination of the eastern side of 
the platform, and found two closed openings into it, one near the north 
end, which appears to have been a small door leading to a chamber 
under the platform, the other south of the steps in front of the Dome of 
Chain. This, which is almost covered by rubbish, also led to a chamber, 
and on each side of it is a closed window, Gft. high and 2ft. 6in. wide. 
From the stejs to the south-east corner, there were at one time but- 
tresses, 1ft. 11 in. thick, at intervals of Oft. Tin. Traces of five still 
remain, and the position of the others can be seen on a careful examina- 
tion, though the broken faces of the stones which bunded them to the 

* Two of these cisterns are numbered 2 and 34 on the Plan of the Haram, iu 
" Recovery of Jerusalem ;" the other Mr. Schick has numbered 35. 



JERUSALEM. 37 

• 

wall have been cliiselleJ over. There is also a small cistern, apparently 
built with masonry, immediately below the south-east corner. The 
northern opening alluded to by Mr. Schick is probably that of the Cell 
of Bostam mentioned by Mejr ed Din, who says that the door was closed 
in his day ; and the southern opening is doubtless that of the Cull of 
Samed, mentioned by the same writer as adjoining the Staii'S of Burak. 
The door of this was also closed. 

3rd. At the north-west corner of the platform, Mr. Schick has suc- 
ceeded in exj)loring a place which is thus described by Mejr ed Din : — 
" Below the platform on the west there is a place called Bakh-Bakh 
(wonderful and beautiful), which is the place of El Khydr : it is now 
abandoned." This is a small mosque under the platform, 42ft. 6in. long 
and 23ft. wide, with a mihrab at the southern end. The roof is a pointed 
arch of rough stones, and on the west side are two openings, which 
appear to have been windows. In front of the mosque are two pillars of 
red granite, carrying an arch which supports the modern Kubbet el 
Khydr. The floor of the little chapel, Kubbet el Arwah, is said to be 
natural rock. 

4th. In a small building near the Bab en Nazir, an earthenware pipe 
was found, bringing water Irom the north into the building, whence it 
was distributed to other parts of the Haram by three additional pipes. 

5th. Mr. Schick forwards a detailed plan of the ancient remains at the 
Damascus Gate, and draws attention to the great thickness of the 
masonry on the left (east) side, in which he thinks there may be a stair- 
case. 

6th. Near the site for the new Protestant Church, without the city, 
four loculi have been discovered sunk into the rock, and covered with 
flat stone slabs. A steep flight of steps led down to them, and they are 
covered by a vaulted chamber of masonry. 

7 th. Some additional excavations were made at the tombs described 
by Lieut. Conder,* but no results were obtained from them. 

8th. Mr. Schick forwards a sketch of the ruins of Seilun (Shiloh), and 
the plan of a small building known as Jamia ed Daim (Mosque of the 
Eternal). The interest attaching to Shiloh, as the place in which the 
ark rested from the latter days of Joshua to the time of Samuel, is so 
great that a short description of the existing ruins may be acceptable. 
" Go ye now unto my place which was in Shiloh, where I set my 
name at the first, and see what I did to it for the wickedness of my 
people Israel," are the words in which the prophet Jeremiah (Jer. vii. 12) 
refers to it as a striking example of the Divine indignation. 

The ruins of Seilun cover the surface of a " Tell " or mound on a spur 
which lies between two valleys, that unite about a quarter of a mile above 
Khan Lubban, and thence run to the sea. The existing remains are 
those of a fellahin village, with a few earlier foundations, possibly of the 
date of the Ciusades. The walls are built with old material, but none 

* rage 22. 



38 JERUSALEM. 

of the fragments of columns mentioned by some travellers can now he 
seen. On tlie summit are a few heavy foundations, perhaps those of a 
keep, and on the southern side is a building with a heavy sloping but- 
tress. The rock is exposed over ne;^rly the whole surface, so that little 
can be expected from excavation. Northwards the " Tell'' slopes down to 
a broad shoulder, across which a sort of level court, 77ft. wide and 412ft. 
long, has been cut. The rock is in places scarped to a height of oft., and 
along the sides are several excavations, and a few small cisterns. The 
level jiortion of the rock is covered by a few inches of soil. It is not im- 
probable that the place was thus prepared to receive the tabernacle, 
which, according to Eabbinical traditions, was " a structure of low 
stone walls, with the teat drawn over the top." At any rate, there is no 
other level space on the ' ' Tell " suflB.ciently large to receive a tent of the 
dimensions of the tabernacle. 

At the southern foot of the " Tell " is a fine spreading tree, and near it 
the Jamia ed Daim, a building of well-dressed stone, with two aisles. The 
longest dimension is from east to west, and there is a mihrah in the 
southern side. The building probably dates from a later period than the 
Crusades. To the south-east is a small reservoir with steps, and beyond 
this the Jamia el Arbain (Mosque of the Forty), a curious building, 
which has been noticed by all travellers. It appears originally to have 
been a mosque, and to have been afterwards converted into a small fort- 
ress, heavy buttresses having been built against the walls, closing all the 
doors except one.* 

Between Seilun and Turmus Aya there are distinct traces of an old 
ro^d, 10ft. wide, running towards Sinjil. 

The spring of Seilun is in a small valley which joins the main one a 

short distance north-east of the ruins. The supply, which is small, after 

running a few yards through a subterranean channel, was formerly led 

into a rock-hewn reservoir, but now runs to waste down the valley. 

There are numerous rock-hewn tombs near Seilun, generally of the same 

character, a small vestibule, from which a low square door leads into 

the tomb-chamber. Near the fountain, however, there is a peculiar tomb 

hewn in a huge fragment of rock. It consists of three loculi, two in the 

face of the rock and one on the top.f 

C. W. W. 

* Photo. 99 gives a view of this mosque, and Photo. 100 a general view of the 
ruins. 

t See Photo. 101. 



PLA^ or SHILOH (SEILtJN) 

AND ITS NEIGHBOUPHOOO . 







Jr*onv ouSkjeteh. b\ MTC. Schick/ 



Stan/brd^ 6fetM.SstaJ}^6Jk70uiru^Ovss. 



39 



THE CLIMATE OF JERUSALEM. 

To the Editor of the " Quarterly Statement" of the Palestine Exploration 
• Fund. 

'' Sir, — Will you permit mc to correct, in your next issue, two mistakes 
in the remarks upon the climate of Jei'usalem, which were reprinted in 
your January number from the Journal of the Scottish Meteorological 
Society ? 

1. The rainfall for the season 1863-4 is given as 8'84 inches: it 
should be 19'175 inches. The en-or arose from the earliest returns to 
the Scottish Society having been from observations made with a plu- 
viometer sent out by them, and which proved so ill-adapted for this 
country that its use was soon discontinued. 

2. It is stated that " the sirocco occurred twice," implying that it 
occurred only twice. Some of us, whose lot it is to live in this country, 
would be only too happy if the sirocco were experienced not more 
than twice in three years and a half. The fact is, that at certain 
periods of the year it is one of our most frequent winds, being especially 
prevalent in the beginning of summer (May), and again in Sep- 
tember, October, and November, just before the setting in of the rains. 
The trying weather, described in Mr. Buchan's paper as having pre- 
vailed during the epidemic of cholera in 1865, was due to sirocco. 

A remarkable fact in connection with this wind, and one which goes 
far to account for its peculiarly depressing elfect, is that it is utterly 
destitute of ozone. For many years I have been in the habit of experi- 
menting upon it, and have always failed to obtain the slightest 
discoloration of the ozone paper when the sirocco was at all severe. 
At one time it occurred to me that the excessive dryness of the atmo- 
sphere might possibly prevent chemical action, but the result was the 
same when the paper was kept moist by allowing one end to remain in 
a cup of water. Your obedient servant, 

Thos. Chaplin, M.D. 



QUAETERLY STATEMENT, APRlL, 1873.] 



THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND, 



PREFACE. 

Ik the letters and reports of Lieutenant C. E. Conder and Mr. 
Tyrrwhitt Drake will be found the usual record of work done 
during the last three months. In February portions of four more 
sheets of the new map arrived in England, making a total up to the 
present of 1,250 square miles, which represents tlie whole of last 
year's work. The Committee have now made application for 
another noncommissioned officer of Royal Engineers to strengthen 
the party and accelerate the survey. If their application to the War 
Office be granted, as on all previous occasions, the new man will be 
sent out at once ; and if we could see our way to sending out 
another in addition, the progress of the new map would be very 
rapid. As to the work already done, it lies in the office of the 
Fund, read}' to be inspected by any who may wish to see it. It 
is in the highest and best kind of map-making, on a scale of one 
inch to the mile, and will give, when completed, a perfect map of 
Palestine as it is, with every village, every ruin, every tell, and 
every existing name. As regards the publication, we shall pro- 
bably have a plan agreed upon by the Committee before the issue 
of the next Quarterly. At present we can only say that as the sheets 
are completed they will be published, without any unnecessary delay, 
in the best style possible, and by the best map-makers in the 
country. The part of Palestine already surveyed appears in the 
illustrative sketch-map of the frontispiece. The surve^'ors are now 
on the coast, the last letters from Lieutenant Conder speaking of 
the ruins at Athlit, of which he promises sketches and plans. We 
have not yet received the sketches and plans of those ruins over 
which they have already pas-sed. Lieutenant Conder has made careful 
drawings and examinations of every one for the Committee, and 
will probably send them home by the first safe means. 

The Special Fund for Jerusalem is open, as will be seen 
from our business sheet. Those subscribers who wisli to devote their 

£ 



42 PEEFACK. 

gifts to tlie furtlier exploration of the Holy City, have only to notify 
their intention to the Secretary. 

The American party have started on a preliminary expedition 
east of Jordan. We hope to have accounts of their progress in the 
course of the year. 

It is gratifying to state that the sale of the new book issued hy 
the Fund is going on more favourabty than was anticipated. 
Nearly five thousand have now been sold, and the new edition, 
which is in the press, is already largely ordered. The Committee, 
it must be borne in mind, had in view, in the issue of this book, 
two objects : first, to show what had been done ; and, secondly, to 
show what yet remained to be done ; that the perfect exploration of 
the Holy Land is no visionary scheme of a few theorists, but an 
urgent and crj^dng necessity, by means of which controverted points 
may be decided, the bounds of controversy narrowed, and the 
history of the Bible brought out in fuller light. 

A new arrangement has been made with regard to the photo- 
graphs of the Fund. Many of these, taken for an archaeological 
or architectural point of interest, have not proved interesting to the 
general public. A few new ones have been added. A selection of 
one hundred has now been made, and the following arrangement 
has been decided on : thej' can be purchased by Subscribers, instead 
of at the old rate of one shilling each, at one guinea for twenty-five, 
two guineas for fifty, or four pounds for the whole set of one 
hundred. Mr. Stanford, 6, Charing Cross, will still be the agent. 
The new list, with two recommended lists of twenty-five each, will 
be ready in a few days. 

We propose to hold an exhibition in the summer, and have taken 
the Dudley Gallery- for the purpose. We are very glad to announce 
that, owing to the kindness of Mr. Harper, we shall be able to show 
the whole of his beautiful sketches of scenery in the Holy Land ; 
we shall also be able to exhibit some of Mr. Simpson's pictures of 
Underground Jerusalem. M. Clermont-Ganneau has promised a 
facsimile cast of the Moabite stone. This will be the first time this 
invaluable stele has been exhibited. There will also be a cast of the 
recently found stone from Herod's Temple ; casts of the Hamath 
Inscriptions ; and, besides other things, the whole of the photo- 
graphs, collections, models, &c., illustrating the survey of Sinai. It 
is hoped to open the exhibition very early in June. 

It will be seen that the spelling of the Arabic names in Mr. 
Drake's reports differs from that previously adopted in printing his 
reports. The spelling is now his own. In the next Quarterly he 
will give his reasons for differing from Dr. Eobinson and others. 



to illustrate Aci'& 

LIEUT CCNDERS f.ETTErtS 

The ccujUjy e/ii2iis^-wilian „ 

ihe firm hkick line hajs been '■*P''^*^,j 
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THE SURVEY OF PALESTINE. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE E. CONDEE'S PtEPORTS. 

XL 

WiNTEE Work. 

R. E. Station, Haifa, Jan. 20, 1873. ' 

Survey. — In sending home another instalment of our survey, I 
find a good opportunity for a review of the work which we have done 
since last July, when first I became personally concerned in the Expe- 
dition. 

The Ordnance Survey of Palestine now extends over rather more 
than 1,250 square miles, the work of little more than a year, and repre- 
senting about one-seventh of the total amount which it is proposed to 
include. Yiewed in the light of work accomplished by a most insuflS- 
cient party (as far as numbers are concerned), this will, I imagine, be 
considered a result more satisfactory than could have been expected ; 
but, on the other hand, the fact that at the present rate six more years 
would be required to complete the undertaking, points to the extreme 
desirability of increasing the number of men to be employed in the 
work. 

It is calculated that during the first period up to Nablus the monthly 
rate of progress was about 110 square miles. From Nablus to Haifa 
it has been slightly over 140 square miles. Thus, up to July, 1872, 
when the first tracings were sent home, 560 square miles were com- 
pleted with the exception of the hill-shading. The present tracings 
contain, roiighly speaking, 700 square miles, and are complete, the 
hill-shading being included. 

The main reason for this increase of thirty-six per cent, in the 
rate of work I take to be the increased size of the sides of triangles 
in the triangulation, which is rendered possible by the less mountain- 
ous character of the country. The detail has been almost as close in 
the plains as in the hills ; the number of ruins visited and examined 
has been greater, but as it is possible to ride faster, and therefore 
farther, in the plains, the possible distance apart of trigonometrical 
stations has been greatly increased. Thus in the Judtean hills the 
average length of the side of a triangle was five miles ; in the Plain of 



44 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

Esdraelon it may be taken as about ten ; and in the country between 
Nazareth, Caesarea, and Akka, at fifteen. Nor has the accuracy of the 
work in any way suffered, as is pi'oved by the calculations for latitude, 
which agree within two or three seconds with those of the Admiralty 
Chart for Akka and Ccesarea, and agree also as nearly as can be plotted 
with the triangulation. Finally, as commanding points have always 
been chosen, the detail also has, during the clear autumn weather, been 
observed from the stations with as much exactness as was obtained 
with smaller triangles. 

I have already reported on the satisfactoiy manner in which the 
second base was measured and checked. Haifa is for another purpose 
as important a station as the Plain of Esdraelon was for checking the 
plan or azimuth measurements of the triangulation. The heights of 
the trigonometrical stations are fixed by a chain of vertical angles 
starting from Jafi'a and running up the country to Nazareth, arid down 
to the sea-coast at Haifa. The most direct line observed is carried from 
one to another over eleven points, whilst other lines, which serve as 
checks, include even a greater number of successive operations. The 
eiTor, if there is any, will therefore have increased gradually ; and to 
test this the actual height of the last point (the Convent on Carmel) 
has been ascertained by another method to be 556.25 feet above sea 
level. We are not able, as in the case of the base line, to report on 
the result of this check, which must await calculations to be made in 
England, but there is no reason to suppose that the result of these 
observations will turn out to be at all less satisfactory than that of the 
measurement of the second base. 

There is only one other point in the technical part of the work which 
is likely to be interesting to subscribers generally: this is the represen- 
tation of the hills, which has not been previously added to the map. 
One of our late visitors complained that in no map which he had ever 
seen of Palestine was there any idea given of the character of the sui'- 
face of the country, which is certainly a very peculiar one, as the almost 
equal heights of most of the hills, and the frequent deep and stony 
valleys which are often concealed until close at hand, and in many 
cases extremely tortuous, are features very different from any in at 
least English scenery. 

The large scale of our map allows of these features being well 
shown. The method employed is that commonly used in the Ordnance 
Surveys of showing the slopes of the hills, not as though a light 
fell upon them from a corner of the paper, but simply with regard to 
the comparative steepness of the gradients. Thus the darker shades 
represent the steeper slopes according to a definite scale, and although 
on a larger map the accidents of the ground would be even more 
minutely distinguished, still for its scale the one-inch survey of Pales- 
tine would form a perfect military map, as the practicability of the 
gradients for the passage of infantry, artillery, or cavalry, could be 
at once obtained by use of the scale of shade. A commander would 



LIEUT.- CLAUDE U. CONDER's REPORTS. 45 

indeed be unprepared for tlie extreme stoniness of tlie country, whicli 
would render military movements very tedious, and for the condition 
of the roads, but these are not details -which it is possible to show on a 
map. 

Archceologij. — The return which accompanies the maps will, I hope, 
give a distinct idea of the character and conditions of ruined sites in 
Palestine, an idea which it is difficult to convey vividly in a short 
report. A few words may therefore be added in explanation of the 
return. The number of ruins is approximately 200, of which, however, 
twenty-one per cent, are evidently modern and of no interest, being 
merely inserted because they are marked as ruins on the map ; these 
include the small towers of drystone walls with a roof of mud, which 
are placed in conspicuous positions above the fig, olive, and vine plan- 
tations, and from the top of which the watchman looks out to guard 
the fruit from thieves. By reason of their hasty construction they 
fall readily into ruins, but are easily distinguished from more ancient 
and interesting remains. 

No less a proportion than thirty-five per cent, of the ruins are, it will 
be observed, marked " Indistinguishable" or " No indication of date." 
The state of preservatiou of the ruins seems to preclude the possi- 
bility of assigning a date. The "indistinguishable" ruins consist 
of heaps of broken stones, worn by the heavy winter rains, until 
all idea of their original form, finish, or purpose is lost; often the 
only indication is the grey colour of the mound, to which the name of 
Khirbeh is attached, or a few scattered stoues ; rarely indeed is a shaft, 
base, or capital discovered lying without indication of its position in 
the original building, and none yet found can date before the Hex'odian 
period. In fact, the site of a true Jewish town may be expected gene- 
rally to give no farther indication than the dusty mounds described, 
except, indeed, such as is derived from the vicinity of rock-cut tombs 
and reservoirs or channels which, as at Anin (identified by Mr. Drake 
with a Jewish town), exist close to the accumulation of powdered 
masoni-y of some two thousand years ago. 

In some cases the old materials have been used in newer construc- 
■ tions, and these again have fallen into ruins almost untraceable; still 
more frequently pillars and stones have been rolled down hill or carried 
away for use at a distance. 

Thus, for instance, at Nablus the granite shafts, belonging pos- 
sibly to the Samaritan temple on Gerizim, are to be found amidst 
the ruins of a Roman villa in the i)lain, and again in another site of 
same date at a little distance, whilst even to the present day the habit 
is continued by the natives, and of the fine blocks once strewed round 
Tell el Semak, near Haifa, no trace but the holes dug in excavating 
them is left. 

In an archaeological point of view, such ruins, though not more 
effaced than would be expected, considering their great age and the 
violent action of the weather upon them, are of course wholly without 



46 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COKDER's REPORTS. 

interest ; but when their presence confirms the arguments to be 
deduced from comparison of names, from incidental references in 
ancient writers, or from similar sources of information, their true 
value becomes apparent. Hence even the most unpromising are- 
carefully noted, and already in many instances their discovery has- 
proved of greater importance than could at first be expected. 

Turning from these, which form the majority of the remains, 
tabulated, to others in a mere perfect condition, the first in 
interest are perhaps the tells, of which eighteen principal 
examples are scattered over the great Plain of Esdraelon and that of 
Akka. Their artificial nature is plainly shown by their position, though 
the name is also given to natural hillocks, such as the Tulul el Jah'ash, 
which are volcanic outbreaks. In the great plain they appear towards 
the foot of the hills, on the west and north, generally at the mouth of 
wadys. No doubt they were originally intended as military posts, 
perhaps thus guarding the principal inlets by which incursions from 
wild mountain tribes were to be feared. Their shape is roughly oval, or 
circular, with sides sloping at between thirty and forty degrees ; in size 
they vary from that of Tell Mutasellim, large enough to be the site of 
a considerable town, to that of such small mounds as Tell el Subat, 
which is merely a low mound ; in height they must in some instances- 
be over thirty feet. They are covered with coarse grass, and with 
thistles, which often attain a height of seven or eight feet, and during- 
a part of the year present a formidable bai-rier. The ruins on these 
tells are in many instances far more modern, as at Tell Kaymun, 
mentioned later, but the original builders may have belonged to the 
Canaanitish period. Unlike those mentioned by Captain Warren in. 
the Jordan Valley, it would seem probable that they are formed of, or 
cased with, stone such as that of the surrounding hills; but none of 
them gave any indication of a favourable spot for excavation, as much 
time and money might probably be expended with but small result. 

Next in interest to the tells come the rock-cut tombs and water- 
channels, of which we have found twenty-six groups. The water- 
channels were found at Anin, Lejjun, Kireh, and near Safcuriyeh. la 
the first three cases they are passages resembling the famous one at 
Jerusalem, between the Virgin's Fountain and Siloam, just broad and 
high enough for a man to walk in, and terminating suddenly. At 
Lejjun and Kireh there was a stream of water ankle deep flowing: 
through the passage, and a sound of trickling water at the end, which, 
in the three cases, was at a distance of some twenty feet from the 
entrance. The reservoirs near Safl'uriyeh are, however, on a far larger 
scale. They were kindly shown tons by Mr. Zeller, who also, I believe,, 
took Captain Wilson to the place, and a couple of days were spent in 
planning them, and in tracing the aqueduct which brought water to- 
them. Mr. Drake has already referred to them, so I Avill merely add 
that the passage at the western end is choked, and is one of the places- 
where excavation would be desirable, as the ultimate destination of the 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 47 

large quantity of water thus collected is not at present clear. In each 
of these four cases a rock-cut cemetery exists in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the water-channels, and no doubt an ancient town, of 
which both tombs and aqueducts are the only remains, was also situate 
near to them. 

The groups of tombs may be divided into three classes in the table : 
those with the well-known loculus running perpendicularly in from 
the walls of the chamber ; those with loculi in arched recesses, or some 
other ai-rangement, counting with them such as are blocked up or 
broken away, so that it is impossible to say that they have had per- 
pendicular loculi ; finally, tombs like those at Iksal, already described 
in a former report, which appear to be of Christian origin. Of the last 
class there are but two other examples ; of the fu'st, or indisputably 
Jewish tombs, there are ten groups, and the remaining fourteen are 
included in the second class. The most important of these groups is 
that at Shaykh Abrayk, where I examined and measured fourteen 
separate tombs besides the great system of chambers, of which I have 
already sent home a plan, as well as two others called Magharet el 
Jehannum and Magharet el Siah, the latter being on a gigantic scale, 
the side recesses fifteen feet long, and the height of the farther portion 
of the cavern about twenty feet. 

A few remarks on the principal deductions to be made from, a com- 
parison of these tombs, will not be out of place here. 

It is generally supposed that the perpendicular loculus is distinctive 
of Jewish tombs, and M. De Vogiiu lays much stress on the fact of its 
non-appearance in other countries. At Shaykh Abrayk, however, as 
well as at Haifa, the perpendicular loculus is found associated with two 
other aiTangements of what may be called attached sarcophufji standing 
in arched recesses at the sides of the chamber. In these cases the per- 
pendicular loculus appears nevertheless to be the oldest ; it is always 
found in the oviter, never in the inner or subsequently excavated 
chambers. In one case three such loculi have been destroyed in subse- 
quently enlarging the chamber ; in others they exist on the level of the 
floor, and below loculi raised some three feet, and of diff"erent character. 
It appears just possible that this peculiar arrangement may have been 
for some special purpose or class of corpses, as distinguished from those 
of the parallel loculi. In one tomb at Shaykh Abrayk, in which these 
loculi occur, a single word is written in Greek letters with red paint 
in the inner or newer portion of the tomb. At Haifa a rough repre- 
sentation of the seven- branched candlestick appears outside a sepulchre 
containing both kinds of loculi. Neither of these indications of date 
are, however, conclusive. The Greek-writing nation may have enlarged 
an ancient Jewish tomb, as indeed the destruction of three of the per- 
pendicular loculi would seem to point ovit; whilst, on the other hand, 
at Haifa the tomb is in the present Jewish cemetery, and may have 
been re-used by the Jews, and the sculpture be thus later than the tomb. 

On the whole, however, there seems to be nothing in these discoveries 



48 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. C'ONDER's REPORTS. 

to contradict the opinion that where we find tombs with the perpen- 
dicular loculus we have a trustworthy indication of true Jewish handi- 
work. 

M. De Saulcy mentions a tradition in connection with his discovery 
. at the so-called Tombs of the Kings at Jerusalem, that the roofs of 
sepvilchral chambers intended for women were formed of two planes 
meeting in the centre, which was the highest part, whilst those of the 
chambers for men were either flat or arched. Of the former construc- 
tion I have found one example at Shaykh Abrayk, in a tomb consisting 
of one chamber, with places for eighteen bodies, and an unique 
arrangement. In one of these loculi I found a perfect but very ancient 
skuU. 

In conclusion, it appears that not unfrequently two tiers of chambers 
existed above one another, and often a hole broken in the recess behind 
one of the loculi leads to another system of chambers^ which in some 
cases seem to have no other entrance. Many loculi are so small that 
they must have been intended for children. 

So curious and interesting are these tombs that I might fill many 
pages with descriptions and notes upon them, which, however, I must 
reserve for a future report. It is to be hoped that a perfect, or almost 
perfect, collection of plans from ever}' part of Palestine will in time 
materially increase our information as to their date and history. 

We can only point to three ruins besides the tombs and water- 
channels with any certainty as being Jewish. These are, the terraces 
and ruins of Kh. Jafa, the ancient wells and indications of ruins at TeU 
Dothan, and the curious cairn at El Mintar. Of the indistinguishable 
remains, however, a large proportion may most probably be previous 
to the Herodian period. 

Nest in order come the Roman ruins, of which we have found twenty- 
three indisputable examples ; they are not, however, of any great im- 
portance, with one or two exceptions. The reservoirs near Saflfuriyeh 
just mentioned are, from the cement, Iloman in all probability, as well 
as the aqueduct leading to them, which we traced for a consieerable 
distance, and fjund that it was possible for it to come, as it is said to 
have done, from the Aiu el Jinan. It is partly built in rustic masonry 
and mortal-, but during the greater part of its length seems to have 
been merely a small rock-cut channel, as described by Mr. Drake. The 
temple (as we suppose it to be) at Kh. Abu 'Amir is also no doubt 
Eomau. I have already mentioned it in a report, and sent home a 
plan and drawings of the details, such as still remain. It is quite pos- 
sible that a little excavation here might bring to light something of in- 
terest, possibly an inscription. The floor is covered with some four feet 
of rubbish, so that mining would be out of the question. We did not, 
however, at the time think it advisible to stay for such a task, as the 
discovery was made in September, when we were at Jenin, and most 
anxious to move from a temperature of 108" Fah. in the plain to the 
cooler atmosphere of the hills. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE H. COXDER's REPORTS. 49 

There can be little doubt that Shaykh Abrayk was a place of some 
importance in Eoman times. Capitals, foundations of walls, and the 
extensive cemeteries which seem to me to show two periods of sepul- 
ture — the Jewish on the eastern, the Roman on the more western hills, 
all point to this fact. The place has beeu curiously overlooked before, 
and its identification wiU be one of interest. A small building, pos- 
sibly a temple, exists near the town at a spring, and is known as El 
Is-hakiyeh. 

One other point remains where excavation would be desirable, as 
well as at Abu Amir, and in the reservoirs at Saffuriyeh : this is the 
ruin of El Jireh, near Nazareth. Eeport X. gives an account of the 
tombs, which I thoroughly explored and measured ; but the ruin on the 
tell we were unable to examine. I understand from Mr. Zeller that 
vaults of megalithic masonry (drafted, I believe) support the mound in 
pai't, and we employed a native for one day to excavate a passage from, 
above, where the sinking of the surface indicated that the vaulting 
had given way. His attempts were unsuccessful, and I found that 
some half-dozen men would be required, and several days would no 
doubt elapse before we could get thi-ough the surface rubbish. Should 
the Committee consider it worth while, we could easily devote a little 
time to this exploration when camped in the neighbourhood again, as 
El Jii-eh is near the edge of our work. Cement-lined cisterns, scattered 
stones, a piilar shaft, a bit of plain cornice, and a couple of caves, with 
traces of the old road to the place, are the only remains to be found 
on the exterior of the tell ; the spot is, however, very well known to 
the natives, and may prove a site of some interest. 

The fine structural tomb of M'alul, first visited by Captain Wilson, 
the remains of a probable Roman villa at Nablus, which we excavated 
partially, the Herodian colonnade at Samaria, the altar and sarcophagus 
at Kh. Khasneh, the ruined building at Lejjun, have all been men- 
tioned in previous reports, and I have taken such j)lans and sketches 
as werie rendex'ed possible by the condition of the ruins. 

To pass on to later times, the Byzantine and early Christian ruins 
are next in chronological order. These include the two churches of 
Justinian at Nablus already visited and explored by Captain Wilson, 
the interesting but almost untraceable little church newly discovered 
by Corporal Armstrong on Tell Kaymun, of which I have a plan, and 
the two small convents at the 'Ain Umm el Faruj, mentioned by Mv. 
Drake in his last I'eport. 

Of Crusading, or early Saracenic ruins (for it is not always easy to 
distinguish between the two), the list enumerates twelve, including the 
tower of Satfuriyeh, the Burg-Fara'a in the wady of the same name, 
the tower near Jenin, and the small forts or Khans (in both cases with 
tower attached) at Rashmia, near Haifa, and on Tell Kaymun, the 
tower at Iksal, the church of St. John at Samaria (already well known), 
and the remains of the fosse rouad the once important town of El 
Fuleh. 



50 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 

Although the earlier Crusading buildings, when the rounded arch of 
the Italian Gothic was still retained, are easy to distinguish, those 
structures which were built after the first half of the twelfth century 
are nearly connected with the early pointed Saracenic style. The use of 
a draft also was common to both styles, the centre being left with a 
rustic bow projecting on the average six inches; the draft being three 
inches broad, and sunk about the same amount ; the stones, well pro- 
portioned, but of no great size, being on the average five to six feet 
in length. To this style the tower near Umm el Fahm, which has 
been called a vineyard toiver by Mr. Drake, as well as two which I dis- 
covered and sketched on the hills east of Jenin, belong. In one of 
these I found the remains of a door and the shafts of two small pillars, 
much worn. The object of these small towers, the largest of which is 
only some thirty feet in length' and breadth, is not to me at all clear; 
they occupy positions at some elevation. Near one (the Kasr at 
E-'aba) no less than five rock-cut cisterns or wells, near the other no 
water at all, is found ; they are not placed in specially commanding 
situations, as in the case of the Eushmia fort or the building at 
Tell Kaymun, and altogether they are puzzling both in style and in 
locality. 

Such is a brief account of the archajological explorations which have 
been carried out during the last six months. More detailed notes, 
plans, and sketches, await a time when our work shall leave leisure to 
put them into a connected form, and are carefully stored in order in 
my note-book. 

To sum up, we find 35 per cent, of the ruins " indistinguishable.'" 
Of Jewish remains, the rock-cut tombs and reservoirs, the tells, and a 
few ancient wells and cisterns, are the principal; tombs, I'eservoirs, 
temples, and traces of a town, are amongst the Roman remains. 
Churches and towers repi-esent the works of Christian architects. 
Adding together Jewish and Roman remains, we find some 35 per 
cent, to be of interest in illustration of the Bible and Josephus. Wei-e 
all the "indistinguishable" ruins Jewish, we should have 70 per 
cent., the value of which future examination of the literature of the 
subject would show, but this proportion cannot be reasonably expected. 
It seems probable, however, that we have now collected in the country 
between Nablus and Haifa alone, at least one hundred ruins, which 
may some day serve to throw light on the Biblical topography oi 
Palestine. 

Geology. — The later portion of the geological map has proved more 
intei'csting than that mentioned in former reports, and I now send 
home a tracing of the part already complete. It extends from Nablus, 
where I first commenced it, to Haifa, covering the same ground shown 
in the traces (7t'0 square miles) and is on a scale of four miles to one 
inch, sufficient to show all details of importance. The various surface 
formations are shown by different colours, and a short explanation 
only will be required. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE E. CONDERS KEPORTS. 51 

The blue represents the hard limestone, which includes the following 
varieties, following apparently in the order given : 

1. Hard darh-fjreii doJomitic limestone, the lowest formation of all, 

generally thinly bedded and splitting into cubes, which give& 
the appearance of an ancient pavement ; it is, however, often 
in the lowest valleys found to be bedded in thick steps like the 
" scala " limestone. It is ci-ystalline, and coloured with salts 
of iron. It is full of natural caverns, the formation of which 
is a matter for discussion. It contains no fossils, and gene- 
rally exists where the basalt appears, whence it may be 
thought to be metamorphic. It belongs to the Neocomian 
period, that of our own greensand. 

2. Hard, compact, fine-grained limestone, very crystalline, and break- 

ing with an almost conchoidal fracture, a sort of yellowish grey 
colour, and bedded more thickly than the former. 

3. Similar to the last, but thinly bedded, very white in colour, and 

containing numerous layers of large flints. 

4. Greij, hard, crystaUine limestone, containing (jrypha:a Cajndoides, 

Corhula Syriaca, and other species belonging to the period of 
the English lower chalk formation. 

Tbe next series of formations found at Nablus, immediately over- 
lying the uptilted dolomite, is coloured with yellow ochre, and contains, 
only two varieties — the soft, cheese-like marl, which can be cut with a 
knife, and whicli does not seem to harden on exposure ; and a very 
thinly bedded (laminated, one might almost say) but harder chalk, 
Avhich contains a few flints, and which I observed on the summit of 
Carmel, where it appears suited to the growth of the Pinas Aleppensis, 
here found in abundance. 

The distinction between this group and the upper beds is not well 
marked, as I have already had occasion to notice, but the principal 
distinction is the external appearance, for the more recent chalky lime- 
stone does harden, externally at least, on exposure to the air, and is found 
to be softer and softer the farther from the surface one goes, though 
veiy often hard veins, almost crystalline, run through the soft. 

The principal varieties of this series, which is coloured green, are as 
follows : 

1. White calcareous limestone, containing a few fossils, and soft 

when quarried, but hard and dark-coloured on the exterior. 
It contains no flints. 

2. Hard, semi-crystalline limestone, ringing like a bell when 

struck, very white. Interstratified with former. 

3. Beds of flint conglomerate (as near Nablus), ten to fifteen feet 

thick, very hard and compact. 

4. Limestone in beds ten feet thick, soft internally and full of 

very large flints. 
The Nummulitic limestone, common in the south of Palestine, does 



52 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 

not appear in tlie part of tlie map now completed, in the Jebel Nablus 
and Galilee. 

The German colony at Haifa have carried extensive quarries into the 
sides of Carmel, and here I had a better opportunity of studying 
the last-mentioned formation, and obtained, partly through the kind- 
ness of Mr, Shi'imaker, the American consul here, partly by our own 
observations, the first fossils which we have been able to collect. 

These beds are, I believe, generally supposed to be contemporary 
-with the earliest Eocene period; but an inspection of the fossils seems, 
as far as my limited experience goes, to point to their being earlier, or 
of the chalk period. They include some specimens of Ammonites 
resembling the A. liotomagensis found by Captain "Wilson at Jerusalem, 
two kinds of Echinus, a fossil somewhat resembling the Perylla (one of 
the Dibranchiata— a sub-division of Cephalopods), and some very small 
shells, apparently of Acephalous moUusks, which must await examina- 
tion and description by some one more competent to pronounce an 
opinion. 

The beds in which they occur are uptilted at various angles, often 
almost perpendicular. They show the interstratification of the harder 
layers, and the side of the hill which they form has a slope of thirty-five 
to thirty-seven degrees, the dip being nearly coincident with the north- 
east declivity of the mountain. 

Turnino- to more recent geological features, the outbreaks of basalt 
which, with one exception, are new discoveries, are first in importance. 
They are in all thirty in number, occurring in the Plain of Esdraelon, 
the largest being on the side of Mount Gilboa. My last report gives 
the principal points of interest with regard to them. 

The Plain of Esdraelon is coloured with a purplish tint to distinguish 
it from the other small plains, because of the difference of its soil, con- 
sisting of basaltic d^'hris of a rich dark colour, v/bich occurs to a certain 
extent in the Merj Arrabeh, but differs from the more argillaceous 
topsoil of the other smaller plains. 

The only remaining formations to consider are those found at Haifa, 
near the sea-shore, and which are quite local, and formed originally a 
sea beach farther inland than the present line. There are six varieties, 
found as follows, all being represented by a wash of light red on the 

map. 

JVo. 1. A fine shelly conglomerate, formed (as it is still forming m 
places along the beach) by the consolidation of small 
shells and water-worn fragments of shell and flint, cemented 
with lime, and forming a building stone of brownish colom- 
far harder than the white limestone. Quarried near 
Carmel. 

No. 2. Coarser conglomerate of broken shells found on the beach. 

No. 3. Third quality, still coarser, on the beach. 

N'o. 4. A plum-pudding stone of flints and rolled pebbles, so hard 
as to be used for mill-stonea by the Germans ; there are 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 53 

two qualities, tlie softer being of reddisli colour from infil- 
tration of iron in the cement. This is not found to stand 
the wear and tear of the upper millstone quai-ries near 
Carmel. 
No. 5. A coarse breccia of limestone and flints of large size, forming- 
a bed extending along the coast south of Tell el Semak, 
evidently the old shore-line. 
No. 6. A sandstone consolidated by pressure, but not very crystal- 
line. In this the tombs west of Haifa are cut. 
These littoral deposits are probably not of one date, the first-men- 
tioned being the oldest. In some of the finer, shells which ai'e but 
half fossilised, retaining their white colour from the lime in their com- 
position, appear. In other cases the shells are completely changed, and 
of the same colour with the stone. 

The same process which now carries the light pebbles and debris into- 
the bay, leaving the coarse and hard near the promontory, cau be 
traced in this earlier formation. 

The coarse conglomerate on the south-west side of Carmel denotes a 
period when the waves came up nearly to the foot of the mountain, and 
covered the sunken limestone rocks now far inland with debris of their 
own kind, forming a conglomerate now found above the lower limestone 
to a depth of some thirty feet ; but where the force of the wind was 
broken by the hill, the gentle current brought in the small shelly <^(?6m 
and sand, which gradually consolidated, makes now a hard building- 
stone and a harder mill-stone, and which, in Jewish times, was pre- 
ferred for the excavation of tombs to the broken and crystalline lime- 
stone on the sea-shore. The sandstone is in places found immediately 
upon a bed of limestone, Avhich has at some time been water-worn, 
showing that a sandy beach was founded on hai-d rocks covered some 
five to ten feet deep. 

I cannot conclude this report better than by a few words on the 
scenery round Haifa, the most picturesque part of the country which 
we have yet traversed, and an account of which may interest those who 
care little for the details of geology or triangulation. 

We have for the last two months been living literally under the 
shadow of Carmel, for the long shades creep down the sides of the great 
flat ridg-e which extends for fourteen miles from the cliff on which the 
convent stands to the land end, where it dips down with equal abrupt- 
ness, and stretch themselves over the plain of Akka at its base, so that 
Haifa is enveloped in shadow long before the sunset light appears on 
the brown walls of Akka, and the deep red flush, suddenly followed by 
a cold blue colour, spreads over the chain, which rises gradually into a 
high ridge above Safed. 

The rugged sides of the ridge of hard dark stone, always steep, often 
precipitous, are covered thickly with a wilderness of shrubs of dark and 
rich green. They stream like the torrents which in a heavy winter 
follow the same course down the narrow wady beds ; in parts the bare 



54 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS, 

rock appears, only covered witli a thorny herbage ; in other places all 
is one soft surface of thick vegetation, but hardly ever does any tree 
even inconsiderable size break the even outline, with the exception of 
the pines of small size which straggle along the watershed. 

The shrubs are principally a kind of pistachio, with red berries, the 
sponge laurel, the hawthorn, and the arbutus, whose berries are now 
ripe. The barer i^arts are covered with the Poterium Spinosum (one of 
the Rosacioe), with tha cisti, or rock roses, and with flowers, of which 
the white-striped asphodel, the jonquil, cyclamen, red and purple ane- 
mone, hawkweed, and daisy are now in bloom. Often, too, the horses' 
feet press out a sweet smell of the thyme and mint which cover the 
chalky soil. Eound Asfia and Dalyeh there are a few plantations of 
olives, but with this exception the only signs of life are the herds of 
goats climbing the sides, or a group of gazelles seen up a steep wady, 
bounding through the shrubs. Such is " the forest of Carmel," the 
*' fruitful field," and such perhaps it may have been in Bible times, for 
there is no evidence of any great change in the conditions of climate, 
which should account for the growth of a forest of trees which will 
not now live on the slopes, though the rich soil still claims superiority 
to that of the stony plain at the foot of the mountain. 

Deep in shadow as the side of -the hill always is after midday, there 
is no lack of picturesque points of view, including the neat white Ger- 
man houses, and the ruinous walls and dirty tiimbledown buildings of 
Haifa itself. A lover of colour and effect could not indeed wish for 
anything brighter than the red flush on the hills, and the blue and 
purple shadows towards sunset, whilst the ever- beautiful sea, the dim 
hills and line of palms on the sand-dunes, give sunrise eff'ects most 
Turneresque in their appearance. 

I^ot less striking is the view of the Kishon, backed by Carmel, 
which has never, I believe, appeared in any book of travels. I saw it 
first on a day when huge piles of silvery cumulous cloud shaded plain 
and mountain. The ridge of Carmel formed a dark background, the 
grey and silver river flowed through a flat, marshy middle distance of 
reeds and brown earth, and red and coppery shrubs. A single palm- 
tree with an old boat formed an appropriate foreground, and on the 
opposite side, scarce sixty yards distant, a row of solemn herons stood 
in contemplation, a couple of white egrets were stepping daintily 
about, and an osprey flew overhead with a fish in his talons. 

There are several pools or streams banked up at the mouth by the 
sand-dunes between Haifa and the Kishon, and on the opposite side. 
Hither come the duck in stormy weather, and a few snipe and red- 
shanks can be obtained. Eound one, the palms grow in profusion, and 
make a truly Oriental sketch. On the shore the dotterel and gulls, in 
the bay the cormorants, and on a stormy day even an occasional 
Mother Cary's chicken, may be seen ; but animal life is lestricted to 
these and to the ichneumons, which seem to exist in numbers in the 
eand-hills and amongst the broken tombs. 



MK. TYKWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 55 

Tlius I may close tlie report of our winter's work in Haifa. Little 
remains for us to finisli there, and in another week or fortnight we 
shall be able to leave tlie comfortable little house in the German 
colony, where we have been stationed during the rough weather (what 
little there has been of it this year), and have met with every kindness 
and hospitality from the worthy and energetic little society who have 
here gained a footing in Palestine- We shall return to tent-life and out- 
door work, and endeavour, if all goes well, during the spring to fill 
in the country between our former districts and the sea-shore, and 
attentively to examine the ruins of Caesarea, Antipatris, Tantura, 
Castellum Peregrinorum, and other sites in this hitherto little visited 
and almost unexplored part of the Holy Land- 

Claitde R. Condee, Lt. RE., 

Commanding Survey Party, Palestine. 



MR. C. F. TYEWHITT DRAKES REPORTS. 

XI. 

Shatkh Abrayk, Dec, 9, 1872. 

Vincyard-toicers {ancient). — In reply to a question about the watch- 
towers mentioned in my last report as existing in the thickets near 
Umm el Fahm, I may say that they have all the appearance of vine- 
yard-towers or garden-houses, but of more solid construction than 
those now used in Palestine. The old buildings are usually about 20ft. — 
25ft. square, and constructed of roughly- squared stones, measuring 
from 3ft. to 4ft. in length, by 18in. — 20in. in depth and breadth. These are 
occasionally drafted with rustic boss. The door is usually vci-y small ; 
the roof of lower chamber, which in one instance remains, is made of 
blocks laid over a riide arch, which forms their central support. In no 
case was any trace of mortar or rubble visible. The walls were pro- 
bably dry, and the crevices would allow a free circulation of air, a 
great desideratum in buildings such as these, intended only for habi- 
tation during the hottest part of summer. Not only amongst the 
brushwood here, but also in the thickets of Mount Carmel, terraces are 
frequently met with, showing that once cultivation extended over even 
the highest parts of the hills, which are now the haunt of the panther 
and wild boar, the fox, jackal, and wolf, which with the partridge and 
woodcock are seldom disturbed even by a passing goatherd. 

Aqueduct. — Lieut. C'onder made mention in his last report of an 
aqueduct near SafFuriyeh, of which we made a survey. A few remarks 
on this work may not prove uninteresting. In Jebel el Siah (collection 
of water) are three shallow pits which give an unfailing supply, and are 



OG MR. TYRWHITT DKAKE"s REPORTS. 

called 'Ayyun el Jinnan (tlie springs of ilie genii). Close to these,, 
owing to the alluvial nature of the soil, the aqueduct cannot be traced, 
but on the hillside below El Mesh-hed it may be seen, a narrow and 
shallow channel cut in the rock. This winds along the hillsides for a 
distance of 2|- miles, and then crosses a small valley. Beyond this are 
a series of caves now broken in, through which the channel doubtless 
passed. A little farther on we come to traces of a constructed 
aqueduct. This gradually becomes more distinct, and at last assumes 
the form of a rubble wall 5ft. high. This wall is constructed of large 
rough blocks packed with smaller stones, the interstices being filled 
up with a hard mortar, into the composition of which potsherds and 
ashes largely enter. 

At the end of the wall all trace of the aqueduct is lost, till we find it 
again a channel, 2ft. broad and Gin. — Sin. deep, "with an inner channel 
1ft. broad and4in. deep, cut in the rock. A little farther and we come to 
the entrance of a cave, which extends to a length of 580ft., with a height 
of from 8ft. to 20ft., while its bi'cadth varies from 8ft. — 15ft. At the west 
end of this tunnel the exit passage is blocked up with earth, but leads 
in the direction of SaflPuriyeh, distant | mile, for the supply of which 
the aqueduct was presumably constructed. Two large barrages occur 
in the cavern, cut in the solid rock, and where necessary supplemented 
with masonry. In the second or western there appears to have been 
a lower and an upper sluice ; the former through a rock-hewn passage, 
now stopped up with earth, and the latter through a channel of 
masonry on the top of the harrar/e. Square holes are cut in the roof at 
intervals, partly no doubt to facilitate quarrying, and partly for the 
purpose of drawing water. In many places, especially towards the 
west end, the roof has fallen in, and the original level of the floor 
cannot be ascertained. "We found, however, a well-defined water-line, 
and on drawing out the sectional plan this was found to correspond 
with the level of the entrance and exit. The sides of the caves are 
lined with several coats of cement ; the inner is frequently half-covered 
with potsherds, stuck over it while wet. Above this comes a layer of 
cement mixed with' ashes, and on the siirface a firm hard cement of a 
pinkish hue, from the quantity of pounded red pottery used in its 
composition. The roof is not plastered, and in many places natural 
horizontal cracks in the rock have been somewhat enlarged, the better 
to act as land-drains for the collection of surface water. 

The whole length of the aqueduct from Jebel el Siah to the end of 
the cave is 3f miles. The style of the work leads to the conclusion 
that it is Roman. There is nothing, however, to show that it is not 
late Jewish, constructed under the influence of contact with western 
civilisation. 

Caves and Tomhs. — In the rocky glen which loads down from the 
ruins of El Tir6h to Iksal we found a cave sufficiently curious to deserve 
mention. A cross cut on a large fallen lintel at the entrance shows it 
to have been used by Christians, and the interior arrangement seems 



MR. TYRWniTT DRAKE's REP0R,TS. 57 

to point to a hermit as its occupant. The cave is mostly natural, and 
is sitiiated in a spur of tbe hillside, in such a manner that by building 
a wall of masonry on one side, and a gateway (now ruined) at the 
end, a chamber was enclosed at the cave's mouth. The stones of the 
masonry are about 2ft. or 3ft. long, and l|ft. to 2ft. deep and broad : 
they are filled in with rubble, and the mortar is mixed with earth and 
broken pottery. 

A cupboard-like recess is left in the masonry, possibly to serve as a 
seat. The cave itself is divided into two parts : the outer is some 15ft. 
high at the mouth, but gradually slopes inwards like a funnel, till it 
ends in a doorway, 5ft. x 3ft. This was formerly closed by a stone 
door 14in. thick. Inside, the cave is an irregular oval in shape, and 
about 12ft. — 14ft. high. At the far end is a small recess Oft. from the 
ground, which can be reached by three rude steps. This would seem the 
reverend hermit's larder. On the right hand are two more natural 
recesses, and between them and the door a i^lace has been hewn out 
which doubtless served as a bed. The floor is many inches thick with 
the droppings of bats. Struck by this unusual circumstance — most 
caves being used to shelter the flocks in the rainy season — I asked the 
reason of it, and was told that the cave was inhabited by a Ghvleli 
(ghoul), and that none of the shepherds dared enter. The native 
name is Magharet el j\Iat-liumeh. 

I may observe that the tombs which occur in such number at Iksal 
(see Lieut. Conder's report), sunk in the rock with an arched loculus 
on either side, are exactly similar to those I described as existing in the 
neighbourhood of El Tireh and 'Amwas, on the edge of the Jaffa j^lain, 
and in Jebel el Zawi, near Aleppo. The lids, however, differ from these 
last, which are larger, and worked with a ridge roof and other orna- 
ments, as is common in the case of sarcophagus lids. 

From Nazareth we visited some caves at Yafa (ancient, Japlda), 
which are very interesting. As far as I am aware, they are unique in 
arrangement, for I have never seen anything at all like them in 
Palestine or Syria. The entrance to this curious place is through a 
small passage leading out of an ordinary cave of moderate dimensions.. 
This passage is only about 12ft. long, and leads into a small roughly 
circular chamber, nearly 5ft. high, and some 12ft. diameter. In the- 
iloor of this are two circular man-holes, "joggled" round the edge to- 
admit of a slab being inserted ; these lead into two lower caves, which 
again communicate with a still lower story. Besides these circular 
man-holes there ai-e small doorways in the walls, so that every chamber 
communicates with each of its neighbours above, below, or at the sides 
by one or more openings. These ramifications are very intricate and 
puzzling. My sketch-plan and section will show better than any 
description the style of cave. 

From this peculiar arrangement I cannot look upon them as tombs, 
for which purpose the number of openings would be clearly objection- 
able. I am inclined to think they were matamir, or chambers for 

F 



58 MK. TYRWHITT DRAKES REPORTS. 

storage of grain, &c. In that case the upper opening would be used 
to throw the corn in at, while one of the lower ones would be well 
suited to draw it out at. The stone in which they are cut is very 
soft, and can easily be ciit with a knife. The tool used in excnvation 
was a pick 2§in. broad. These caves were first discovered by the 
fellahin a few years ago, and no bones were found in them. There 
are, however, rude niches in the walls for lamps : these may have been 
used by tlie men who quarried them. 

In the neighboiu'ing village of M'alul is a remarkable tomb CQn- 
structed with fine masonry. The architectm-al details of this were 
sent home by last mail. The natives call it Kasv el Zfr, and they 
say that Zir was brother to Kulayb (the little dog), and Jerro (the 
whelp), and that this latter was founder of the great tribe of the 
Beni Helal (sons of the crescent moon). Of these Beni Helal many 
tales are told : their original country was in Yemen and Himyar, and 
the history of their wars is mixed up with accounts of Abu Zayd, 
of mythical renown. Defeated by a Himyarite king, they took refuge 
in the plain of Esdraelon ; and near Sammuneh some trees of Acacia 
oiilotica (the only specimens I have met with in Palestine) are said 
to have sprung from their tent-pegs. For some reason this countiy 
did not suit them, and they emigrated to Egypt, many being slain 
en route by the Emir of Ghazzeh. From Egypt they went to Tro- 
bolus el Gharb (African Tripoli). This is the popular story, but 
Shaykh 'Amiu, the chief Moslem at Nazareth, says that Jerro was 
father, not of the Beni Helal, but of the Beni Wail. 

The Beni Kulayb was formerly a most powerful tribe of Arabs. 
I am not aware whether they still exist in Arabia, but have reason 
to believe that they do not. A relic of the tribe, numbering some 
eio-hty tents, may usually be found towards the south-east of the Sea 
of Tiberias. 

At this place we have examined and made plans of a large number 
of cave-tombs. Some of them are of considerable extent. The only 
trace of inscription consists of the single word n-ApSeNle scratched 
over a loculus. and rudely marked with red paint. The most notice- 
able peculiarity of the tombs here is that they have both pseudo- 
sarcophagi and pigeon-hole loculi. By the former I would designate 
those loculi which are sunk beneath an arch parallel to the walls of 
the tomb, and have a thin partition of native rock on their outer 
side ; they have much the appearance of a sarcophagus placed in a 
niche in the wall, but having no space at either end. The pigeon- 
hole loculus is of the type so well known near Jerusalem {e.g., in the 
so-called tombs of the judges), which is driven at right angles to the 
surface of the wall, and is usually about 7ft. long by 2ft. wide, and 
3ft. high, the roof being slightly arched in most cases. 

Several of these tombs have produced skulls, which add largely to 
my collection. No other objects except two small wide-mouthed glass 
bottles, with handles, and of very pretty shape, have been found in 



MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 59 

the tombs. A coin bearin^^ a helmeted head and the legend urb-s 
iiOMA: reverse, a wolf suckling two children; above, two stars, and 
below, SMHS, another coin of Constantine, together with the many 
fragments of Roman tiles (red earthenware) and large hewn stones, 
point to this place having been an important town during the Roman 
occupation. Just in front of our tent is a limestone sarcophagus. At 
one end is a bull's head in relief, surmounting a pendent garland ; on 
one side is a tablet (without inscription) of the ordinary Roman type 
with two triangular ears ; on either side of this are bulls' heads, and 
below a garland ; on the opposite side are a bull's and two cows' heads, 
with comical semi-human faces, also with garlands beneath. A coin 
(of the Seleucidffi ?) was picked up in the valley below us : obverse, 
three ears of wheat; reverse, an umbi-el!a, and legend baciaevc (?). 
A small female head, of clas^cal type, was picked up a year or two 
ago near the village, and is now in the possession of Mikhart Kawwai*, 
native Protestant priest at Nazareth. 

In one of the tombs, which was found a few years ago by women 
digging for clay to mend their roofs with, but having been stopped up 
by the washing down of the soil, had again to be opened, we found a 
quantity of rude oniamentation in red paint, evidently smeared on 
with the finger. The interior of the arch, over three of the pseudo- 
sarcophagi, was daubed in a way similar to that in vogue amongst the 
Kurds and Arabs of the present day. Lines and intermediate dots 
form for them the acme of artistic decoration. In other places a palm 
branch, a rude wreath, a daub representing pendent garlands, a circle 
filled with cross lines and having two long curved lines terminatino- in 
something like the conventional ivy-leaf so frequent in Roman art, pro- 
ceeding from its lower part, the representation of a palm-tree (?) 
partly cut in the rock, and a branch-like ornament with six lines on 
each side recurved at top, form the total of these rude attempts at 
decoration. 

In this chamber we found the two above-mentioned glass bottles 
buried in the soil which covered the steps of the original entrance, now 
blocked up, and were just beside a closed loculus. This had escaped 
notice, as the colour of the plaster which covered the two stones form- 
ing its door was very similar to that of the walls. On openino- this 
loculus we found it full of stones ; these were cleared away, and beyond, 
a chamber was discovered also full of stones, which seem to have been 
thrown in from a hole in the roof. Nothing but a few bones in loculi 
sunk in the floor was found in this chamber. The corresponding 
loculus on the other side of the entrance door had been opened, and 
does not lead to any further excavation ; hence when we first found 
this carefully-concealed passage we were in hopes of finding something 
to repay our trouble. The pseudo-sarcophagi had been covered in with 
slabs, over which mortar had been laid in the shape of a rido-e. 

The real entrance to the tomb still has its door in situ. It is of stone, 
and hung on two projecting knobs, which fit into sockets in the lintel 



60 MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 

and sill. The walls of this cave, which is cut in very soft white stone 
similai- to that at Tafa, are very smoothly dressed. From this cave a. 
way has been Ijroken into a series of ruder ones which contained 
nothing of special interest. These farther caves, which evidently 
belonged to a different tomb or tombs, were roughly dressed with a 
pick one-third of an inch broad. In these, as well as in all the other 
tombs we have found here, the pseudo-sarcophagi are more nximerous 
than the pigeon-hole loculi ; the probable reason being that the former 
were originally made, and subsequently, when more of the family wished 
to be buried in the cave, it was found more convenient to excavate a 
long loculus beneath the older ones than to cut a new chamber. In 
the immediate neighbourhood of these tombs, Avhich occupy the hill to 
the west of the present village, are the foundations of three buildings. 
The stones are of considerable size (about 3ft. x Ig x If) which perhaps 
were tombs of masonry either independeut of or constructed over the 
caves. 

Tells (mounds). Mounds (Ar. Tidul) form a marked feature, not only 
of the Merj ibu 'Amr, but also of the Plain of Akka and the glior or 
Jordan valley. In this report I shall, however, confine myself to a few 
remarks about those in the former locality. They are artificial either 
wholly or in part, and are, or have been, occupied by buildings. The 
principal in the Plain of Esdraelon are — 1. Tell Ta'annik {Taanacli) ; 
2. T. Mntasellim (near Lejjun ; Mpgiddo, the Roman Legio); 3. T, 
Shaddud, near Ahhrayfis) ; 4. T. Sammuneh (partly volcanic, Siinonius). ; 
5. Tell el Kasis, and 6. Tell Kaymun {Johncam). Besides these are 
the smaller ones of Tell el Shemman, T. el Dhahab, and Tell Thora 
(mentioned by the same name in old itineraries). In cases (as at 
2, 4, G) where a projecting spur at the edge of the plain has been made 
use of, the earth dug out of the deep trench which was cut to separate 
the mound from the mainland, so to speak, was used to heighten that 
side of the mound ; the steep sides, surmounted by a wall, being 
doubtless sufficient protection on the plain side. 

On Tell Kaymun, whicli is a very good example, we found the ruins 
of a square crusading fort, measuring forty yards each way, and con- 
taining five chambers on each side opening into a courtyard. A vault 
still exists at the north-east corner with a pointed roof of rag-work. A 
little below this is the foundation of the east end of a church with triple 
apse. That in the centre is circular, while the side ones are rectan- 
gular. Judging from a corbel found here, the building was used by the 
Crusaders, but a Byzantine capital found among the Arab graves on 
the plain below points to the probable date of the original building. 

Autumn iveatJier. — The winter rains still hold off, though the quan- 
tity that fell in October and November — the "former rain" — has 
proved quite sufficient to enable the follahm to begin their ploughing. 
These rains produced an immediate change in the appearance of the 
country : grass began to sprout all over the hills, the wasted grain on 
the threshing-floors soon produced a close crop some six inches high. 



MK. TYRWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 61 

Tiie cyclamen, white crocus, saffron crocus, and jonquil are- in full 
flower on the mountains, the hallut [Qucrcus a-yilojijs) is fast putting out 
its new leaves, and in sheltered nooks some of the hawthorn trees are 
doing the same. The Zemzarut (species of Judas tree ?) is gorgeous at 
the foot of Carmel with its clusters of lilac blossoms. These, to our 
notions, are hardly signs of coming winter, but the advent of number- 
less stai-lings and common plovers on the plains and woodcock in the 
■woodlands point to rain not far distant. We hope, however, to gain 
our winter quarters at Haifa befure really bad weather sets in. For 
the next two months we shall be principally engaged in completing 
the work done in the field since July. There are, amongst other things, 
some 600 square miles of country to be put on the fair plan, making in 
all just 1,200 square miles surveyed. These, we hope, will be ready 
for sending to England not later than the middle of February. 

1873. Difficulties with Natives. — "We have lately had some difficulties 
with the natives, which have proved rather serious. This is entu'ely 
the fault of the local Turkish Government, who are unwilling to finish 
any case off-hand, and thus teach the insubordinate fellahin a lesson 
which they would not forget, and which would secure us from further" 
annoyance. On the contrary, each official tries to make the affair as 
long as possible in order to gain the more bribes. Promises of assist- 
ance have been sent us from Constantinople and Beyrout, and I hope 
the affairs will be satisfactorily settled before we leave Haifa. 

The last ebullition of feeling on the part of the fellahin took the form 
of firing on one of our surveying parties, happily without effect. 

Temperature, — There has lately been a great and welcome change in 
the temperature, the average of the maximum thermometer being about 
75 deg., and the minimum 4-5 deg. in the twenty-four hours. 

Star-sJwwer. — On the evening of the 2Sth ult. I noticed a star-shower 
which continued for some hours. The shooting stars seemed all to fall 
from, the zenith. There were remarkably few to the south-east and 
south-west, while to the north and north-west they were particularly 
bright and numerous. 

Of late, east winds have been very prevalent, which, though dry and 
<;ool, are exceedingly trying to those who have been any length of time 
in the country. To new-comers they appear fresh and agreeable. So 
long as they continue, rain cannot fall, but as soon as the wind changes 
to the south-west we may expect a downpour. During the east winds 
the ozone papers are hardly affected, wiiile a south-west or west wind 
turns them the deepest possible colour. These latter winds are a most 
grateful tonic, and one whose effect is immediately felt after the heats 
of summer. 

Hamah Stones. 

Haifa, Dec. 16. 

Having lately seen my friend, the Rev. W. Wright, of Damascus, I 
■urged on him the advisability of taking plaster casts of the Hamah 



62 MR. TYRWniTT DRAKE's REPORTS, 

inscriptions. I have just received a letter from bim saying that he 
has made casts of the stones (? all) under the most favourable circum- 
stances, as he was able to waah and turn them as it suited him, the 
stones themselves Laving been bought by H.I.M. the Sultan. They 
are probably on their way to Constantinople by this time. Mr. Wright 
has most kindly offered to place these casts at the disposal of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund, and I am writing to him on the subject, 
and hope that they will reach England next month. 

"We are now in winter quarters, and have begun our indoor work. 
The house we have taken for the rainy season is one belonging to>' 
the Prussian colony, of which I h(^pe shortly to send some account. 



XII. 



German Colony, Haifa, Jan. 27, 1873. 

In a former report {Quarterly ior July, 1872) I gave a short account of 
the Prussian colony at Jaffa. In face of the changes likely to come 
about in Palestine, these first attempts of Teutonic colonisation cannot 
fail to be of interest. I may preface the account of the colony with a 
few additional woi-ds regarding the origin of the society, and the first 
steps taken to obtain a footing in the Holy Land. 

The elder Herr Huffman — father of the President of the Jaffa colony 
— "was a well-known lawyer, and a friend and admirer of Dr. Bengel. 
He had also great influence with Frederick, first king of Wiirtemburg, 
who made him a grant of a large tract of somewhat barren land at 
Kornthal. Hei*e a colony was formed of Pietists — a sect which numbers- 
many adherents among the simple folk of the Black Forest. After a 
time, however, the character of the settlement became more com- 
munistic than religious. 

Herr Hoffman the younger, who had never been a member of the 
Kornthal community, then founded the Society of the Temple at Kirs- 
chenharthofF. Any persons who joined this society had lands alloted to- 
them, which were bought back at a valuation if the settlers chose to go 
away. 

After the establishment of Kirschenharthoff it was judged advisable 
to begin the real colonisation of Palestine. In 1862 four men came out, 
and after a short stay at Urtas — near the Pools of Solomon — they came 
to Nazareth. After many difficulties and much privation endured, they 
were obliged to leave the country. In 1866 twelve persons established 
themselves at Akhnayfis, near Nazareth, on the edge of the plain of 
Esdi'aelon. Here they lived in huts and hastily-improvised shelters, 
the result being that several succumbed to the climate. The rest moved 
on to the neighbouring village of Sammuneh, where they all fell victims 
to fever. In the end of 1868 the colony at Haifa was founded, and 
hitherto has proved much more healthy than that of Jaffa. In the 



MR. TYRWHITT DEAKE's REPORTS. 63 

former place but few deaths have occurred, while in the latter nearly 
every member of the community has been attacked with fever, and no 
less than eighteen deaths from this cause have occurred during the 
summer. 

The inhabitants of the colony are : men— single, 40, married, 47 : 87 ; 
women— single, 32, married, 51 : 83 ; children, 84. Total, 254.^ These 
persons occupy thirty- one dwelling-houses, to twenty of which out- 
houses, such as cart-sheds, stables, granaries, &c., are attached. The 
houses are built of a soft white, chalky stone, which is easily dressed, 
but hardens on exposure. This is quarried from the side of Carmel, 
half a mile distant. A few of the houses are built of a reddish rag- 
stone, quarried on the spot, and much harder than the former. All the 
constructions are neat and well fitted with European doors, windows, 
&c., forming a striking contrast to the squalid, untidy dwellings of the 
natives in the town and on its outskirts. 

The trades and occupations are distributed as follows (the figures 
denote the number of men employed in each) : 1 architect, 3 black- 
smiths, 2 butchers, 18 carpenters (of these 4 are natives), 1 cooper, 1 
dyer, 20 farmers, 1 master-mason and stone-cutter (employing 6 
Germans and from 40—45 natives), 2 merchants, 3 millers, 2 mill- 
wrights, 1 painter, 1 saddler, 3 shoemakers, 2 tailors, 1 turner, 10 vine- 
dressers, 2 waggon- builders, 2 whitesmiths. 

Of these the architect, carpenter, tailors, and general dealer or 
merchant are frequently employed by the natives, their work being 
much superior to any other procurable in the country. 

The wages paid to Germans are — 

Man 12 to 20 piasters per diem. 

Woman ... 7 to 10 ,, ,, ,, 

Child ... ... ... .3d ,, ,, ,5 

To natives — 

Man 5 to 15 pia.sters per diem. 

Woman ... ... ... 5 ,, ,, ,, 

Child ^ ,, „ „ 

The total extent of land hitherto purchased is 450 acres, of arable 
land, which also contains 140 olive trees, and 17 acres of vineyards on 
the lower slopes of Carmel, near the houses. Deceived in their hopes 
of obtaining the grant of land promised to them by the Turkish autho- 
rities, the colonists have determined to buy such land as they require 
when opportunity offers. The vineyards are likely to prove successful ; 
vines grown from a layer have produced grapes the fii-st year. In 
colder climates they seldom produce before the third or fourth year. 
Wine has been made with considerable success. 

There are two schools established here, conducted by 3 German and 
1 Arabic teachers. In the upper school there are 25 boys and 16 girls ; 
in the lower, 25 boys and 2 girls. Total, 68. In the upper school the 
subjects taught are, reading and writing in Arabic, English French, 



64 MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 

and German, arithmetic, drawing, geograpty, liistory, matliematics, 
singing, and the study of music. In the lower school, reading and 
writing in Ai-abic and German, arithmetic, and singing. Eeligious 
instruction is given in both. The girls are taught kuitting, sewing, 
and embroidery in the industrial school. 

On the whole, the colonists have not experienced much difficulty in 
dealing with the natives and Turkish authorities. One of the most 
constant annoyances is the want of anything like a legal determination 
of landmarks and boundaries. Frequently when a piece of land has 
been bought, and the colonists commence to cultivate it, a part is 
claimed by the neighbouring proprietor. Annoyances such as these are 
somewhat difficult to surmount, especially when the "custom of the 
country " (bribery) is utterly eschewed. 

It is proposed to increase the colony as occasion serves. The main 
difficulty consists in the choice of proper persons, who will propose to 
themselves to further the spiritual rather than the worldly aims of the 

society. 

The site of the ancient Sycaminon has always, I believe, been placed 
at Haifa el 'Atikah or old Haifa, which lies on the eastern side of the 
spit of land projecting north from Carmel. Indications as to its site are 
sufficiently vague, its position in the Antonine and Jerusalem itine- 
raries being laid down at tv/enty and twenty-four, sixteen and fifteen 
miles from Caesarea and Ptolemais ('Akka) respectively. Haifa el 
'Atikah is about twenty and ten g.m. from the two places. There is a 
neighbouring ruin, however, to which no history attaches, but the 
claims of which may perhaps be stronger. This is now called Tell el 
Semak (Fish-mound), and in this word the three initial consonants of 
Sycaminon are found ; it is very possible that the Greek name having no 
meaning to Arab ears, has, as is so often the case, been cornipted into 
a common Semitic word. The traces of ruins at this place are very con- 
siderable; a tell on a little promontory forms the nucleus, around 
which are found innumerable fragments of marble slabs, glass, pottery, 
and hewn stones. This place entirely commanded the coast road, as the 
sides of Carmel here rise abruptly, and only leave a plain of some 200 
yai'ds in width along the shore. 

Haifa el 'Atikah is said by the inhabitants of the modern town— and 
not perhaps without reason— to have been merely the old site of Hepha. 
The ruins are now covered with gardens belonging, according to tradi- 
tion, to the owners of the houses which formerly stood there. One of 
the principal Christians told me that he was many years ago digging 
there— according to the usual custom— for ready-dressed building stone, 
when beneath the sill of a doorway the workmen found a small brass 
jar, containing 1,000 gold pieces, as he added, of the date of Helena. 
Helena's name, however, is used to imply remote antiquity, as Caesar's 
and the Devil's (of Cajsar's camp, the Devil's highway, &c.) are in 
England. The coins were probably early Byzantine, as I have lately 
procured a fine gold coin of that period, found near the same spot. 



MR. TYRWIEITT DRAKE'S REPORTS. 65 

Among the gardens are found some rude tesselated pavement in situ, 
and on the shore are traces of a small harbour and a mass of rubble 
work, seemingly of Roman construction. 

About a mile and a half south-east of Tell el Semak is a wady, the 
mouth of which is laid out in gardens, producing vegetables, figs, olives, 
locust trees, j)omegranates, vines, and apricots. These are watered by 
a spring called 'Ain el Siah, which bursts out of the hard white lime- 
stone rock, here plentifully sprinkled through with black flints in 
finger-shaped nodules. Below the spring is a rock-hewn tank with 
filtering appai-atus, from which the water is led by an aqueduct into 
the gardens. A little higher up the wady are ruins of two massive 
buildings, the ashlar of which has nearly disappeared, leaving only the 
stout rubble, which has the appearance of Roman work, as has a 
broken semicircular arch. These are called the diura, or monasteries, 
and tradition says that the last abbot was one Thul el Serjihiui, which 
seems a reminiscence of Paulus Sergilius. On the opposite side of the 
narrow ravine is a double cave, inhabited by a fellah w^ho owns a small 
garden here. This cave is called the monk's stable and Liwan. The 
lower cave has square recesses cut out of the rock along two sides, 
which are to all appearance mangers. The upper cave, which is open in 
front, is reached by a staircase from the first. Facing this place is a 
spring flowing from a small recess hewn in the face of the rock ; beside 
it are two niches with angular tops much resembling in size and shape 
two scdiJia, The name ('xiin Umm el Faruj) and appearance of this 
spring denote its former connection with some phallic rites, now long 
since forgotten. 

Weather. — This winter there has been an unusually small amount of 
rain in Palestine, and unless there is a pretty heavy fall before the end 
of the month there will be a total want of crops in many places where 
they have hitherto been unable even to plough. This is especially the 
case in the district of Jeniu aud Nazareth. Further north, in Syria 
and the Hawran, I hear that there has been a sufiicient rainfall. Up to 
date the raingauge shows 2.25 inches less than had fallen at the same 
time last year. The weather has generally been bright and clear, 
colder than usual, with almost continual east winds. The Nahr el 
Mukatta (Kishon) and Nahr Naaman (Zelus) have ordy lately been able 
(by the help of easterly gales) to force open a channel to the sea through 
the sandbank which closes their mouths during the dry season. 

On the sand-dunes near the mouth of the former stream, I observed 
a curious deposit of pumice-stone, the j)ieces varying in size from a 
good-sized apple to a pea, and being mostly water- worn. This is in the 
inner part of the bay, whither the current brings the finest and lightest 
things, small sand, seaweed, and tender shells ; the heavier pebbles and 
shingle are left farther west. The only place whence this pumice- 
stone can have come, as far as I am aware, is from one of the Italian 
volcanoes, wafted over, in all likelihood, by the west winds which 
prevail in summer. Chas. F. Tyewhitt Drake. 



Q6 



EBAL AND GERIZIM, 1866. 

On the 6th March Lieut. Anderson and I arrived at Nablus, -with the 
view of carrying out some excavations on Mount Gerizira, and exam- 
ining the points of interest in the neighbourhood. Before, however, 
attempting to describe the result of our labours, it will be well to give 
a general sketch of the locality. At Nablus the range of hills which 
traverses Palestine from north to south, is pierced by a remarkable pass, 
running nearly east and west ; on the north the pass is flanked by the 
range of Mount Ebal, rising at its highest point to 3,029 feet above the sea, 
or 1,200 feet above the level of the valley ; on the south by the range of 
Mount Gerizim, rising to 2,898 feet. Between these two mountains the 
valley rises gently towards the east, to the waterparting between the 
waters of the Mediterranean and the Jordan, at which point there is a 
remarkable topographical feature which is not often met with — a recess on 
either side of the valley, forming a grand natural amphitheatre, the scene, 
in all probability, of the ratification of the law. Prom this point the 
ground falls gradually to the rich plain of El Mukhna, which runs 
north and south, and is bounded westwards by the steep eastern declivities 
of Ebal and Gerizim. Where the valley merges into the plain there are 
two sites of great interest — Joseph's Tomb and Jacob's Well. The beauty 
of the Vale of Nablus has been frequently described by travellers, and 
by no one more happily than by Lieut. Yandevelde, who giows eloquent 
on the charming character of the vegetation, the joyous notes of the 
numerous birds of song, the soft colouring of the landscape, and the 
bright sparkling streams. The latter, perhaps, more than anything else, 
give the vale its peculiar charm. The grateful sound of running water 
strikes the ear at every turn, and produces a quiet sensation of enjoy- 
ment, which is fully appreciated by the traveller weary with the dry and 
thirsty hills of Judsea. 

Ami(!st this wealth of verdure, clinging as it were to the slopes of 
Gerizim, the mount of blessings, lies Nablus,* the ancient Shechem ; 
its situation, with easy access to the Mediterranean on the one hand, 
and to the Joi dan Yalley and transjordanic district on the other, marking 
it as a place of importance from the earliest period. 

Mount Ebal. — The summit of Ebal is a comparatively level plateau of 
some extent. There is no actual peak, but the ground rises towards 
the wf st, and attains its greatest elevation near a small pile of stones. 
The view from this point is a perfect panorama, and one of the finest 
and most extensive in the country, embracing Safed, Jebel Jermuk, and 
Hermon on the north ; Jaffa, Eamleh, and the maritime plain on the 
west ; the heights above Beitin (Bethel) on the south ; and the Hauran 
plateau on the east. The upper strata of the nummulitic limestone, of 
which the mountain is composed, are so cracked and broken, apparently 
by the action of weather, that the surface of the plateau, at first sights 

* Photos. 9r>, 06. 



EBAL AND GERIZIM. 



67 



looks as if it were covered by a rude pavement ; and it was some time 
before wo realised tbat it was quite natural. Towards the east end of 
tlie plateau is the remarkable ruin called by the Arabs "Khirbet 
Kneeseh." * It consists of an enclosure 92ft. square, with walls 20ft. 
thick, built of selected unhewn stones, withoxit mortar. In the thick- 
ness of the wall are the remains of several chambers, each about 10ft. 
square, and at two opposite ends there is a projection of 4ft., as if for 
defensive purposes. There is a cistern within the building, and round 
it are several heaps of stones and ruins. Excavations were made, but 
without result. It is not easy to form an opinion on the object of this 
building ; it is too small for a fortified camp, and though the chambers 
are somewhat similar to those in the fortified churches, the interior 
space, 50ft. square, is too restricted to have held a church. There was- 
no trace of any plaster, and nothing that would enable us to connect it 
with the altar said to have been erected by Joshua on Mount Ebal. 

The contrast between the rich vegetation on Gerizim and the barren- 
ness of Ebal has frequently been commented upon by travellers. This 
arises from the structure of the rock, the strata dipping towards the 
north across the valley, and thus preventing the existence of springs on 
the southern slope of Ebal. The mountain, however, is by no means 
so sterile as has been supposed ; for a considerable height it is clothed 
with luxuriant cacti gardens, carefully cultivated in terraces, and above 
these, to the very summit, rise a succession of terraces well supplied 
with cisterns, that speak of a careful system of cultivation and irrigation 
at a former period. Many of these terraces are well preserved, and 
planted in springtime with corn, which is as fine and healthy -looking as 
any on Gerizim. The northern slope of Ebal is rich in springs, and 
almost as well supplied with water as the northern slope of Gerizim. 

At the foot of Ebal there is a modern Moslem cemetery, and scattered 
amongst the cacti gardens, and over the southern slope, are numerous- 
rock-hewn tombs, which have been alluded to in a previous paper.f 

Mount Gerizim. — Immediately above Nablus there are several stone 
quarries, and in places the limestone strata stand out in bold cliffs, which 
seem to overhang the town and form a peculiar feature in the view from 
the opposite ridge, at the point where the road to Samaria crosses it. 
From the top of one of these, whence escape to the mountain behind 
would be easy, it is natural to picture Jotham delivering his striking 
parable (Judges ix. 7 — 21). 

On reaching the summit of the mountain, by the road from the fountain 
of Eas el 'Ain, a long narrow shoulder is seen stretching eastward to the 
Samaritan place of sacrifice.J On the north the ground descends abruptly 
to the Yale of Nablus, and on the south there is a more gradual slope, 
with no water and sparse cultivation. East of the place of sacrifice rises 
the true peak of Gerizim, crowned with the well-known ruins, and form- 

* See Photograph 92. 

t See notes on "Toi^ibs," Quarterly Statement, No. 111., 1869. 

X Photos. 125, 128. 



68 EBAL AND GERIZIM. 

ing the eastern extremity of the ridge. From this point a spur stretches 
out northwards, and partly encloses the natural amphitheatre mentioned 
above. The mountain is almost entirely composed of nummulitic lime- 
stone. The summit of Gerizim is a small level plateau, having its 
largest dimension nearly north and south. The northern end is occupied 
by the ruins of a castle and church, the southern by smaller remains, prin- 
cipally low and irregularly built walls. In the midst of the latter is a 
sloping rock, which is regarded by the Samaritans with much veneration ; 
it is said to be the site of the altar of their temple, and they remove 
their shoes when approaching it. At the eastern edge of the plateau, a 
small cavity in the rock is shown as the place on which Abraham offered 
up Isaac. West of the castle, and a short distance down the hill, some 
massive foundations are pointed out as the "twelve stones" which were 
set up by Joshua after the reading of the law. 

Considerable excavations were made under the superintendence of 
Lieut. Anderson, and the accompanying plan made of the ruins. The 
castle * is rectangular, with flanking towers at each of its angles; on the 
■eastern side are the remains of several chambers, and over the door of 
one of them is a Greek cross. The walls are built of well-dressed stones, 
which have marginal drafts, and are set without mortar ; many of them 
appear to have been taken from earlier buildings. 

The church is octagonal. On the eastern side is an apse, on the 
northern the main entrance ; on five sides there are small chapels, and on 
the eighth side there was probably a sixth chapel, but this could not be 
ascertained, as the foundations had been almost entirely removed. There 
is an inner octagon which gives the plan some resemblance to that of the 
" Dome of the Eock " at Jerusalem. The flooring is partly of marble, 
partly of tUes, and below this a platform of rough masonry was found ; 
in the intervening rubbish a very early Cufic coin was turned up, which 
had apparently slipped down through the joints of the tiles. The only 
capital uncovered was of a debased Corinthian order. The chiu'ch is 
believed to have been built by Justinian, circa A.D. o33. 

South of the castle there are no massive foundations, but numerous 

small walls, and amongst these are several cisterns half-filled with 

rubbish ; a pathway of late date runs along the crest of the hill from 

south to north, passing in front of the " twelve stones," where for some 

distance it rests on a mass of loose stones and rubbish, in which some 

Cufic copper coins were found. The " holy place" of the Samaritans f 

is a portion of the natural rock dipping to the north-west, and draining 

into a cistern half full of stones ; an excavation in an adjoining enclosure 

uncovered a mass of human bones lying on a thin layer of some dark 

substance, which had stained the rock beneath to a dark burnt-umber 

colour. The Amran said they were the bodies of priests, anointed with 

consecrated oil, but they seemed rather to be hasty interments, such as 

would be made in time of war. 

There are several platforms of unhewn stone, somewhat similar to the 
* I'hoty. DO. t riioto. 89. 



EBAL AND GERIZIM. 69 

praying-places in the Harain at Jerusalem ; and one of these near the 
place at which Abraham is said to have offered up Isaac, is approached 
by a curious flight of circular steps.* 

The " twelve stones " form part of a solid platform of unhewn masonry ; 
there are four courses of stones, and the upper, shown as the " twelve 
stones," is set back eight inches ; two of the stones were turned over, 
but no trace of an inscription was found on them. The stone when 
exposed to the air is of a dark bluish-grey colour, but when newly 
broken it has a cream-coloured appearance. 

East of the castle are the remains of three platforms, and below them 
on the slope of the hill are broken terraces ; the platforms have evidently 
been built to support some building on the top of the hill, and add to 
its appearance ; and they, as well as the " twelve stones," may not 
improbably have formed part of the substructure of the Samaritan 
Temple. Of the temple itself there is nothing left, but to judge from 
the appearance and construction of the platforms, it probably stood on 
the site now occupied by the ruins of the church and castle ; if it were 
south of the castle every stone must have been removed, as the ground 
was carefully examined and no trace of the foundations of any large 
building was found. 

North of the castle is a large pool, and below this and surrounding 
the hill on all sides are the ruins of a considerable town, to which 
no distinctive name could be obtained. These ruins are most marked on 
the southern slope, f where a portion of the enclosing town wall, and 
the walls and divisions of several of the houses, can be seen ; the walls 
are of unhewn stone, set without mortar. 

Near the Samaritan place of sacrifice, at the western foot of the peak, 
are some inconsiderable ruins, to which every one we asked gave the 
name which Mens. De Saulcy heard, Ivhirbet Louz;ah. This Dean 
Stanley identifies with the second Luz, founded by the inhabitants of 
Luz when expelled by the Ephraimites from Bethel. 

At the extremity of the arm mentioned above as running northwards 
from the castle J is a mound, partly artificial, and isolated from the ridge 
by a deep ditch. There are traces of steps on the four sides leading to 
the summit of the mound, which was occupied by a building fifty-three 
feet square, having walls of great thickness. Some excavations were made, 
but with the exception of a few Eoman coins nothing of interest was 
found. Below the mound on the north are some excavations in the 
rock, apparently for holding watnr. 

Scene of the reading of the Law. — The natural amphitheatre § pre- 
viously mentioned as existing at the waterparting near the eastern end 
of the Yale of Nablus was, probably, the scene of the events described 
in Joshua viii. 30 — 35. It may be remembered that, in accoi'dance with 
the commands of Moses, the Israelites were, after their entrance in the 
promised land, to "put" the curse on Mount Ebal and the blessing on 
Mount Gerizim. " This was to be accomplished by a ceremonial in 
* rhotos. 91, 127. t Photo. 88. t Kioto. 126. § Photo. 93. 



70 EBAL AND GERIZIM. 

wliicli half the tribes stood oq the one mount and half ou the other ; 
those on Gerizim responding to and affirming blessings, those on Ebal 
curses, as pronounced by the Levites, who remained with the ark in the 
centre of the interval."* It is hardly too much to say of this natural 
amphitheatre that there is no other place in Palestine so suitable for the 
assembly of an immense body of men within the limits to which a 
human voice could reach, and where at the same time each individual 
would be able to see what was being done. The recesses in the two 
mountain- . which foim the amphitheatre, are exactly opposite to each 
other, and the limestone strata running up to the very summits in a 
succession of ledges present the appearance of a series of regular benches. 
A grander sight can scarcely be imagined than that which the reading 
of the Law must have presented : the ark, borne by the Levites, on the 
gentle elevation which separates the waters of the Mediterranean from 
those of the Dead Sea, and " all Israel and their elders, and officers, and 
their judges" on this side and on that, "half of them over against 
Mount GerLzim, and half of them over against Mount Ebal," 
covering the bare hill-sides from head to foot. Two questions 
have been raised in coanection with the -reading of the Law: 
the possibility of hearing it read, and the possibility of assembling the 
twelve tribes on the ground at the same time. Of the first there can be 
no doubt ; the valley has no peculiar acoustic properties, but the air in 
Palestine is so clear that the voice can be easily heard at distances which 
would seem impossible in England ; and as a case in point it may be 
mentioned that during the excavations on Mount Gerizim the Arab 
workmen were on more than one occasion heard conversing with men 
passing along the valley below. It is not, however, necessary to suppose 
that every word of the Law was heard by the spectators ; the blessings 
and cursings were in all probability as familiar to the Israelites as the 
Litany or Ten Commandments are to us, and the responses would be 
taken up as soon as the voice of the reader of the Law ceased. With 
regard to the second point, Lieut. Anderson's plan f of Ebal and Gerizim 
gives a good representation of the ground and the principal distances ; 
hut without making a minute contoured plan of the mountain sides (a 
work of great labour), it is not possible to form a correct estimate of the 
number of persons who could be assembled within the amphitheatre. 
There are, howevei', few localities which afford so large an amount of 
standing ground on the same area, or give such facilities for the assem- 
hly of a great multitude. 

At the foot of the northern slope of Gerizim is one of the prettiest 
cemeteries in the country, consisting of a courtyard, with a well, and 
several masonry tombs, one of which was said to bo that of Sheikh 
Jusuf (Joseph). We were not allowed to examine the tombs, but were 
much struck with the care bestowed on the trees and garden within the 
enclosure. The place is called El Amud (the column), and the Eev. 

* Didionary of Bible, art. Gerizim. 

t Published in "Kecovery of Jerusalem. " 



EBAL AND GERIZIM. 71 

Oeorge Williams has witli much probability identified it with '' the pillar 
that was in Shechem," where Abimelech was made king (Judges ix. G) ; 
and with the oak of Moreh, near which Abraham built his first altar to 
the Lord after entering the promised land, and Joshua set up a great 
stone (Joshua xxiv. 26). 

Jacob's well, at the eastern entrance to the Vale of Nablus,* is covered 
by a vaulted chamber, round which are the ruins of a church, dating 
probably from the fourth century. On a second visit to Nablus in May, 
Lieut. Anderson made a careful examination of the well, and has given 
an interesting account of his descent, in the " Eecovery of Jerusalem." 
He found the well to be 7ft. 6in. in diameter, and 7of t. deep ; there 
•was no water at the bottom, and the well was lined throughout with 
rough stones, being sunk in alluvial soil. According to Dr. Robinson, 
the depth in 1838 was lOoft. Christians, Jews, Moslems, and Samari- 
tans, agree in considering this to be the well made by Jacob, and as the 
tradition goes back to the early part of the fourth century, there seems 
little reason to doubt that it is the same well at which our Lord met the 
Samaritan woman. Lieut. Anderson aptly remarks on this point that 
" the existence of a well in a place where watersprings are abundant 
is sufficiently remarkable to give this well a peculiar history." f 

The small square building known as Joseph's Tomb lies a short distance 
north of Jacob's Well ; within it we found two modern inscriptions, one 
Hebrew, the other Samaritan, and two vases for burning offerings, 
similar to those seen at Meirou. Within them were the ashes of some 
articles of apparel, which had recently been burnt. The tradition with 
regard to the Tomb is not so continuous as that of Jacob's Well. The 
little cemetery described above was shown to Maundrell as Joseph's 
Tomb, and the accounts of earlier travellers are not quite clear. Joseph, 
as we know, was embalmed in Egypt, and placed in a coffin or sarco- 
phagus, with a view of his being carried by the Israelites to Palestine, 
and his body was probably conveyed in one of the waggons which accom- 
panied the twelve tribes during their wanderings. The depth of alluvium 
at this spot, as indicated by Jacob's Well, precludes the idea that his 
body was placed in a rock-hewn chamber ; and if this be really the site of 
his burial, the sarcophagus may still remain in the soil beneath the little 
•chamber. 

The town of Nablus contains many ancient remains, of which the 
most interesting is the principal mosque, with its fine Gothic portal.J 
A description of the town, however, with its many ruins and its numerous 
springs, hardly comes within the scope of the present paper, nor is there 
space to enter upon the history of the place, or the solution of the many 
questions relating to the disputed sites on Gerizim and elsewhere, such 
as that of the altar on which Abraham offered up Isaac, &c. These have 
been fully examined by Eobinson, Williams, Stanley, De Saulcy, and 
other travellers, and in the "Dictionary of the Bible," arts. Ebal, Gerizim, 
and Shechem. C. W. W. 

* Photos. 131, 132. t "Recovery of Jerasalem," page 465. i Photo. 94. 



72 



JERUSA.LEM. 

In a letter dated 2Stli February, Mr. Schick informs us tliat he has 
found portions of three aqueducts at different levels, outside the 
Damascus Gate, and that he hopes to be able to trace out the source 
from which they derived their supply of water. 

The excavations in the Muristan are being continued, and a series of 
large tanks connected with each other, and 40ft. deep, has recently been 
discovered. 

In the Haram Area Mr. Schick has confirmed the existence of the 
ditch north of the north-west angle of the platform, which was fi 
noticed by Captain Warren. He finds several walls of small stone 
beneath the surface, and believes the old ditch to have been arched 
over. 

Mr. Schick has also found indications of the existence of a vaulted 
passage near the Golden Gate, running apparently from the old postern 
in the east wall towards the platform ; and after a close examination of 
the ground near Solomon's Throne, he has come to the conclusion 
that there was once a tower there similar to* that at the north-east 
angle. 



IDEOGPvAPHIC INSCRIPTION FOUND AT ALEPPO, 
AKIN TO THOSE OF HAMATH. 

The attention of savans has been for some time directed to the ideo- 
graphic inscriptions found at Hamath, near Damascus, and made 
known to the scientific world chiefly through the exertions of Captain 
Burton and Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake. When these two gentlemen were at 
Jerusalem in 1871, I told them of a similar kind of inscription existing 
at Aleppo, of which, thanks to the kindness of my friend M. Colonna 
Ceccaldi, I possessed a drawing made by M. Paucker, and which I gave 
to them to copy. It consists of two lines, containing figures whose 
analogy with those of the Hamath inscriptions is evident. The original 
stone, of basalt like those of Hamath, is embedded partly in the wall 
of a mosk, and partly in the hareem of an adjacent house. Only the 
former portion is visible, and consequently either the beginning or the 
end of the inscription is wanting in the above copy. Mr. Drake, on 
visiting Aleppo a short time after, found the stone still in its place in the 
mosque El Kakiin ; but the engraving given in " Unexplored Syria " 
differs considerably from the one under consideration. 

The authenticated existence at Aleppo of an inscription belonging to 
the same system of writing as those of Hamath is a fact of considerable 
importance, as tending to show that these latter, whatever their origin, 
age, or meaning, are neither confined to one particular locality, nor to 



INSCRIPTIOX FROM ALEPPO. 



73 



be considered as isolated and accidental specimens. They must be no 
longer treated as a chance phenomenon, but as part of a regular system 
of writing belonging to that part of the country {sijstnne regional); and it 
is very probable that further researches in North Syria will bring to 
light other inscriptions in the same character. 

Eefraining from making any premature efforts to decipher these in- 
scriptions, I will merely remark that the signs are very few, and repeat 
themselves frequently in groups, which seems to show that they belong 
to very simple phonetic elements, syllabic if not alphabetical. Apart 
from any historical interest which they may possess, these inscriptions 
have a special value in that they prove almost conclusively the existence 
of an apparently figurative system ol writing specially belonging to 
Syria, and dating from a very early epoch, and may consequently be the 
means of bringing about some unexpected solutions of the problem as to 






\ 



^^0 00 HO 



p f> 



I ' jjL.y H 



1/ h "^^ ^. 







4!J(.x> 




the sources of the alphabet. Without wishing so far to dispute the 
results at whicb science has already arrived as to assert that the Phoe- 
nician alphabet was entirely derived from this ideographic writing, 
which, so to say, died in giving the alphabet birth, one may still think 
that the one exercised a certain influence over the formation of the 
other. It is of course still a question whether this Syrian system of 
ideography is original, or merely an offshoot from the systems of the 
two great civilised centres, Egypt and Assyria, of which countries Syria 
was always alternately the satellite. It is possible that the Syrian 
ideographic system and the alphabet may have nothing to do with 
one another, but may both have been borrowed successively and inde- 
pendently from the same source at an interval of several centuries. 

Cii. Clekmont-Gan>^eau. 



G 



74 



THE HAMAH INSCRIPTIONS. 

BY THE REV. W. WRIGHT, OF DAMASCUS. 

The existence of the Hamali stones was made known by Burckliardt 
in 1812, but not with sufficient emphasis to arouse to action English 
archseologists. 

For the last six or seven years I have occasionally heard of these 
inscriptions, but seldom from any one qualified to give a correct 
account of them. And after one has been taken a score of times to see 
a wonderful inscription, which turns oiit to be only natural stone 
cracks, or at best a piece of Nabathsean, he does not feel sufficiently 
enthusiastic for a gallop of two or three days to verify the tale of some 
io-norant Arab. From all accounts I inferred that the inscriptions 
were only a conglomeration of wasm, or marks on stone, similar to 
those burnt on the camels by the Arabs, I, however, resolved to make 
a careful insj)ection of the inscriptions the first time my duty led me 
to the neighbourhood of Hamah. Meantime, Mr. Johnson, in the first 
Statement of the Palestine Exploration Society, and Captain Burton, 
in "Unexplored Syria," have done much to bring these important 
remains before the British and American public. 

The copies of the iascriptions, as presented to the public, were 
necessarily unsatisfactory, from the manner in which they were taken. 
Mr. Johnson says, " We did not succeed in getting squeeze impressions, 
for fanatical Moslems crowded upon us when we began to work upon 
the stones, and we were obliged to be content with such copies of this 
and other inscriptions found on stones over and 7iear the city gate, and 
'ill the ancient bridge which spans the Orontes, as could be obtained by 
the aid of a native painter."* 

Mr. Johnson seems to have seen only one of the stones, that in the 
corner of the shop, for he incorrectly speaks of the others as " over and 
near the city gate, and in the ancient bridge," no doubt led into topo- 
graphical errors by the vague reports of the people. 

Captain Burton describes the location of the stones where I found 
them, and where they must have been for a long time ; but the in- 
scriptions which he brought away were also the work of " the native 
painter." In " Unexplored Syria," f he says, "the ten sheets accom- 
panying this article had been applied to the blackened or reddened 
face of the four stones — one of which, it will be seen, has a double 
inscription — and the outlines were afterwards drawn with a reed pen." 

Captain Burton, not having full confidence in the native painter and 
the subsequent corrections, pressed me to get squeezes for the Palestine 
Exploration Fund, and Mr. Drake, the able representative of that society 

* First Statement of American Palestine Exploration Society, page 31. 
t Vol. I., 335. " Unexplored Syria " reached me without the Hamali inscrip- 
tions, so I have not been able to compare them with the casts. 



THE HAMAH INSCRIPTIONS. 75 

in this land, knowing that my duty led me towards Hamah, urged me to 
get, if possible, plaster casts of all the inscriptions. Mr. Green, H.B.M.'s 
vice-consul at Damascus, had been also looking forward for an oppor- 
tunity of becoming thoroughly acquainted with northern Syria, and to 
secure if possible the Hamah stones, or at least facsimiles of them. 

An invitation from the Governor-General of Syria, who was on a tour 
of inspection throughout his province, gave the opportunity, and on the 
10th November, 1872, we started from Damascus, I on a missionary tour, 
and Mr. Green to join the Waly. 

On the second day, when in Tabroud, in our school, I secured three 
large ancient manuscripts of ecclesiastical legends, -written on thick 
cotton paper. They are bulky volumes, bound in strong boards, and 
written in Karshouni.* 

On the 25th November we were the Waly's guests at Hamah, and the 
next morning early we sallied out to find the inscriptions. We had 
not been able to get " Unexplored Syria " before starting, and so we 
had to commence operations without any advantage from the labours 
of our predecessors. 

We had first to find the stones, and that simple operation was not so 

easy as might seem, for everybody denied any knowledge of them at 

first. At last we resolved we would ask every one we met, and curiously 

enough, after this resolve, the first inan we spoke to was Su.liman el 

Kallas, in the wall of whose house was inscription No. I.f 

The finding of the other three stones, for there are only four in- 
scribed stones in all, not five, as in some accounts, occupied a consider- 
able portion of the day. Meantime, while we were hunting up the 
stones in an independent fashion, the governor was taken to see them, 
and had telegraphed to the Sultan, asking him to accept them for the 
Constantinople Museum. As Mr. Green and I anticipated, Subhi Pasha 
was far too learned an ai-chseologist not to recognise at a glance the 
value of the Hamah inscriptions, and far too patriotic to let them pass 
into the hands of foreigners. He is probably the most learned man 
among the Turks, and has one of the finest private numismatic and 
general archaeological collections in the world. The Constantinople 
Museum is his own creation, and he was glad to secure tor it 
these treasures. He, however, consented at once to let us have 
plaster casts of all the inscriptions, and promised also to bring the 
stones to the serai, where we could work at them at our leisure. Under 
other circumstances we should have experienced great difficulty in taking 
casts of the stones, for a series of fruitless attempts by foreigners to 
secure the stones had brought the Hamathites to consider the inscrip- 
tions of extraordinary value, and we heard many expressions of 
defiance, and threats of violence towards anybody that tried to 
interfere with their sacred and valuable treasures. Later on, when 

• 
* See Eenaii's "Langues Sumitiques," page 266. 
t I shall speak of the stones in the same order as Burton. 



'^Q THE HAMAH INSCRIPTIOKS. 

it became known that the governor would take the stones, we heard 
men vowing that they would destroy the inscriptions. 

Mr. Green and I became nervous as we saw a repetition of the 
Moabite stone tragedy almost imminent. We assured the men, in 
whose ground the stones were, that the Waly would not take them 
without paying more than their value, and that now that the Sultan 
had accepted the stones, anybody who injured them vvoald be severely 
punished. We thus enlisted the cupidity and fear of the Hamathites in 
favour of the stones. When we informed the Waly of the danger, he 
put the inscriptions under the protection of Ibrahim Pasha for the 
night, and we warned also the city guards that dire punishment 
would be inflicted on them if any mishap befell the stones. They 
were carefully guarded that night, and on the following day the 
governor paid for the stones, prices varying from three to fifteen 
napoleons each, and they were all lodged safely in the serai. 

The stones once within our reach we worked incessantly at them 
until we had duplicate plaster-of-paris casts of all the inscriptions. 
We were much delayed by the difficulty in procuring gypsum, and getting 
it burned and pounded, and we also had to remove from the inscrip- 
tions the dirt and fog of ages, and some of them were almost filled with 
lime mortar dashed into them. Several attempts also were made to 
decoy us from our labours, but at length, after patient hard work for 
nearly two days, we had the stones i^erfectly clean, and got perfect 
facsimiles of the inscriptions. 

Captain Burton says " the fancy of the copyist had been allowed to 
run wild " in the copies which he procured ; and though he says " these 
vagaries have been corrected," it is to be feai-ed that some of the 
artistic fancies of " the native painter " may still be found in the 
I)ublished inscription. 

I am happy to say that our casts have none of the vagaries of the 
native painter. They settle the first question for English archaeologists, ■ 
which is not, as Mr. Hyde Clarke supposes, " whether these drawings, 
reproduced by Captain Burton, are to be considered insci'iptions or 
not,"* hut -whether they are perfectly correct or not. As facsimiles they 
answer in the affirmative hy the actual lengths of lines, and bars, and 
letters, and blanks, perfect even to the faults of the stone. 

The removal of the stones produced a greater commotion in Hamali 
than will be readily supposed, and the fact of a British consul and 
Protestant missionary being the guests of the Waly of Syria, seemed 
strange and portentous in the eyes of the fanatical Moslems, but was 
somewhat reassuring to the cringing native Christians. Celestial por- 
tents, also, were not wanting, for on the night following the removal of 
the stones to the serai a meteoric shower in all its eastern splendour 
was seen by the Hamathites, who saw in every brilliant sparkling train 
the wrath of Heaven predicted against Hamah in the event of the 
stones ever being removed. Next morning an " influential deputation " 

* " Unexplored Syria," Vol. I., 353. 



THE HAMAH INSCRIPTIONS. 77 

waited on the Waly to tell liim of tlie evil omens of tlie night, and to 
urge a restoration of the stones; but the ATaly assured theui that inas- 
much as no one was hurt the omens were good, and might be regarded 
as the approbation of Heaven to their loyalty in sending these precious 
stones to their beloved sovereign the Commander of the Faithful. 

Of the stones I have little to add to Burton's description. There are 
four stones and five inscriptions. The stones are close-grained basalt 
(fully ripe, as the Arabs say) from the east of the city. Many such 
stones are lying about, some of them with Greek inscriptions, and some 
carved into the figures of animals, &c. 

No. 1 is only a fragment. The lines seem to be broken across the 
middle, and therefore the sense is not likely to be complete. Wlien 
taken out of the wall it proved to be only a thin piece broken off a large 
stone. The remainder of the inscription is yet to be found. 

No. 2 proves, by the last line ending in the middle of the stone 
leaving a blank at the left side, that the inscription reads from 
right to left, beginning at the top. 

No. 3 is the stone which was so efficacious in lumbago, that a man 
had only to put his back against it to be made perfectly well. This 
stone was very large. 

No. 4 is on the end, and 5 on the side, of the same square stone, 
that in the corner of the shop, proving that the lines are read hori- 
zontally, and not from bottom to top and vice versa, as Mr. Hyde 
Clarke asserts. The two faces were carefully dressed for the inscrip- 
tions, but the part of the stone most remote from the inscriptions 
was undressed. The stone was doubtless placed in the corner of a 
square building. 

No. o has parts of the upper and lower lines defaced and illegible. 
This is the inscription the facsimile of which is printed in the first 
Statement of the American Palestine Exploration Society, and 
incorrectly described as "one of the inscriptions found upon the 
bridge."* 

All the inscriptions except the first are complete, barring the 
defaced letters. The boundaries of the inscriptions and lines are 
clearly defined by raised bars. The stones on which they were 
inscribed were very large. It took four oxen and fifty men a day 
to bring one of the stones a distance of half a mile. The others 
were cut in two, and the fragments inscribed were carried to the serai 
on the backs of camels. The stones were dressed narrow towards the 
parts on which the inscriptions were found, and the bases were 
undressed for several feet. Apparently they had been inserted in 
masonry with the dressed and inscribed parts standing out of the wall. 
They seem to have been intended to be publicly read, and were there- 
fore doubtless in the vernacular of the people of Hamah. 

NoTE.^ — The casts have not yet arrived, March 31, 1873. — Ed. 
Quarterly Statement. 

* First Statement of American Palestine Exploration Society, page 32. Burton 
speaks of the American facsimile as No. 4, Vol. I., page 333, though he correctly 
describes No. 4 as havhig only four lines. 



78 

DISCOVERY OF THE ROYAL CANAANITE CITY OF 
GEZER BY M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

From the Journal of the Paris Geographical Society. 

Gezer is one of the most ancient towns in Palestine, and was in exist- 
ence prior to the arrival and settlement of the Israelites in that country. 
In the book of Joshua it is classed amongst the royal cities of Canaan ; 
its king, Horam, was defeated by Joshua whilst attempting to relieve 
Lachish, which was besieged by the Israelites. Later, after the conquest, 
Gezer was included in the territory of the tribe of Ephraim, and, in 
fact, marked its extreme western limit. The Ephraimites allowed 
the Canaanites they found there to remain. The city was assigned to 
the Levitical family of Kohath. 

It is mentioned several times during the wars between David and the 
Philistines, on the confines of whose territory it was situated. 

During Solomon's reign one of the Pharaohs, for motives of which we 
are ignorant, made an expedition against Gezer, which resulted in the 
capture and burning of the town. So great, however, was the strategical 
importance of the point, that, even in ruins, Gezer was of suf&cient value 
to form part of the dowry of Pharaoh's daughter when she became 
Solomon's wife. Solomon immediately rebuilt Gezer and Lower 
Beth-horon, which was near it. 

The town of Gezer reappears, under the name of Gazara, in the history 
of the wars of the Maccabees. Taken by assault in the first instance by 
the Jews, it passed successively into the hands of the two contending 
parties, who attached equal importance to its possession. John Hyrcanus, 
the Jewish commander, made it his military residence. 

In spite of the distinct indications contained in sacred and profane 
works, in spite even of the positive statement in the " Onomasticon " of 
Eusebius, that Gezer was four Eoman miles from Emmaus-Nicopolis, 
a site well known at the present day, the town of Gezer, though sought 
for, had not previously been found. 

Whilst running through an old Arab chronicle, by a certain Mudjir- 
ed-din, M. Clermont-Ganneau quite accidentally came upon the passage 
which led to this important discovery. The Arab historian relates that 
about the year 900 of the Hegira an engagement took place between 
Jamboulat, Emir of Jerusalem, and a party of Bedawi raiders, between 
the village of Khulda and that of Tell el Gezer. The latter name means 
literally the hill of Gezer, and the Arab name is exactly the same as the 
Hebrew one. As the village of lOiulJa is still in existence, and, accord- 
ing to the details contained in the account of the Arab author. Tell el 
Gezer was^so near it that the shouts of the combatants were heard at 
both places, the latter locality should have been easy to fix. No village, 
however, of this name was shown on the best maps of Palestine. After 
havingjdetermined theoretically the exact position which the Arab and 
Jewishjj^Gezer ought to occupy, M. Clermont-Ganneau decided upon 
making an excursion to test the accuracy of his views on the ground. 
This expedition, made under adverse circumstances, without escort or 



NOTE ON THE DRAWINGS OF THE " SHAPIRA COLLECTION." 79 

tent, and in a desert country wasted by famine, was crowned witli 
success. At the point which, he had previously fixed upon, M. Clermont- 
Ganneau found the Tell el Gezer of Mudjir-ed-din, and the ruins of a 
large and ancient city, occupying an extensive plateau on the summit of 
the Tell. On one side were considerable quarries, from which stone had 
been taken at various periods for the buildings in the town, as well as 
wells and the remains of an aqueduct; a little beyond this were a 
number of tombs hewn out of the rock, the necroi^olis in which repose 
the people who have successively inhabited the old Canaanite city. It is 
scarcely necessary to add that this place is exactly four Roman miles from 
Emmaus-Nicopolis, and that it comi^letely meets all the topographical 
requirements of the Bible with regard to Gezer. 

M. Clermont-Ganneau points out the importance of the discovery 
with reference to the general topography of Palestine. Gezer being one 
of the most definite points on the boundary of the territory of Ephraim, 
the current views on the form and extent of that territory, as well as of 
the neighbouring territories of Judah and Dan, must be very materially 
modified. This result alone is of importance, and makes the discovery 
of Gezer an event in Biblical researches. 

The means by which M. Clermont-Ganneau was enabled to find the 
town are also worthy of remark ; it was by availing himself of a source 
which is too much neglected, the Muhammedan writings on the history 
and geography of Syria. This work is certainly difiicult and thankless, 
but the example we have before us shows that it is not unproductive, and 
that it may lead to the most interesting and unexpected discoveries. 



NOTE ON THE DEAWINGS AND COPIES OF INSCRIP- 
TIONS FROM THE " SHAPIRA COLLECTION " SENT 
HOME BY LIEUT. CONDER AND MR. DRAKE. 

Though hastily coloured, the outline of each object has been very 
carefully followed, and those who saw the drawings and the originals 
in Jerusalem were of opinion that they were remarkably faithful 
representations. 

Lieut. Conder states that he was unwilling to copy the inscriptions, as 
owing to the imperfect observation of many specimens errors might have 
been made which would invalidate their value if executed by one 
ignorant of the characters employed ; but Dr. Chaplin and Mr. Drake, 
■who were more familiar with the characters, copied carefully from the 
originals, or from good squeezes, those sent home. 

The total number of drawings is upwards of 200. These represent all 
the important specimens in the collection up to the time of Lieut 
Conder's last visit to Jerusalem, in October, 1872, the number of pieces 
then in Mr. Shapira's collection being about 700. Since then, however, 
the number has been increased to 1,000, and several very important 
specimens added, of which it is hoped to obtain drawings soon. A great 
number of the specimens so closely resemble one another that one or 
two examples are typical of each group. A large number are broken. 



80 BIBLICAL QUERY. ERRATA. 

The drawings sent home contain specimens of each group, 'perfect ones 
being always taken in preference to f ragmentai-y ones. 

Among these drawings are copies of all the inscriptions yet produced 
by Mr. Shapira, except a fevv which have been sent to the office of the 
Fund by Dr. Chaplin. The genuineness of the inscription is warmly 
supported by Professor Schlottmann in the " Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft," but the opinions of English scholars 
have as yet been unfavourable. 



To the Editor of the Quarterlij Statement of the Palestine Exploration 

Fund. 

Sir, — Will you allow a few topographical queries ? In 2 Kings xx. 4, 
we read, " afore Isaiah was gone out into the middle court." In the 
Hebrew it is not court but dfy, "''.J^'^. "What is "the middle city" ? 
The Sept. make it the middle court {avl-rj), bu.t the Hebrew is quite 
explicit. Some critics (Keil, &c.) make it "the central portion of the 
city, or Zion city," but this does not seem satisfactory. Can you give 
any light ? 

In the same book (ch. xxii. 11) we read, " she dwelt in Jerusalem in 
the college." This is literally "the second" (part of the city). The 
Sept. gives it eV rrj Maafva, and in Nehem. (xi. 9) we read "over the 
second city,"' as it should be rendered ; also in Zeph. i. 10 we have " an 
howling from the second city." See Keil and Delitzsch, who render it 
" the lower city." "What is the exact meaning of these "seconds" ? 

H. B. 



EREATA, JANUAEY NUMBER. 

r. 7, line 9, read Nablus hcloic. 

line 10, ,, soft limestone a&ow. 

P. 8, line 7, ,, from bottom, species oi trnxalis. 

P. 9, line 18, ,, Quereus coeci/fra. 

P. 12, line 14, ,, from bottom, stretching beloio all, to the foreground. 

P. 13, line 17, ,, "Mv. Buisberg. 

line 21, ,, Mr. Duisbcrg. 

line 25, ,, in scan/t of saltpetre. 

line 3, ,, from bottom, Y^'AaJ {1 not b). 

P. 14, line P, ,, M^\: Duisbcrg. 

P. 16, line 6, ,, found ; in one piece (a disc) it occurs. 

line 13, ,, low foreheads. 

P. 19, line 22, ,, Il(r. .J. Neil (for T. Neil). 

P. 21, line 7, ,, from bottom, of tlie third wall. 

P. 23, line 8, ,, from bottom, El Tireh. 

P. 24, line 23, ,, El Tirch. 

P. 25, line 15, ,, El Tireh. 

line 23, ,, El Tireh. 

line 27, ,, El Tireh. 

line 7, ,, from bottom, //'({/"«. , 

line 2, ,, from bottom, El Tirch. 

P. 26, line 11, ,, Jiiijnr. 



Quarterly Statement, July, 1873.] 



THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 



PREFACE. 



"Wk have, before all tilings, to call tlie attention of oiu- subscribers 
and readers to the speeches made at the Annual Meeting, and 
especially the statement made by the treasurer of our position and 
prospects. The funds are in an unsatisfactory condition. We have 
the summer, an unproductive season, before us ; we are pledged to 
carry on the Survey, which is the most important and the greatest 
work ever yet undertaken in Palestine ; and we want to send out 
M. Clermont-Ganneau, for one year only, to clear up, if possible, some 
of the points of dispute and mystery with which the topography of 
Jerusalem is beset. We therefore most earnestly beg our readers to 
assist us, first, in forwarding theii' own subscriptions, and secondly, 
in bringing the Society before the notice of others. 

As regards the expense of the Survey. It ought, with printing, 
publishing, lithographing, &c., and including all expenses in 
Palestine, except those of excavation, to be covered by about £3,000 
a year. The first six months of the present year have not brought in 
quite half that sum. We must add to this the expenses of 
"management," i.e., advertising, rent, postage, salaries, &c., which 
are kept as low as possible, but which, with every economy, camiot 
be brought imder £-500. 

Nothing could be more satisfactory than the progress of the woi'k, 
and nothing more beautiful than the portions of the map already 
sent home. In the reports of Lieutenant Conder and Mr. C. F. 
Tyrwhitt Drake will be observed especially the accounts of Carmel ; 
Athlit, remarkable especially as the site of the CasteUum Peregri- 
norum, the landing-place for pilgrims ; Ctesarea ; the tombs of El 
Midyeh, supposed by some to be the tombs of the Maccabees; and 



82 PKEFACE. 

Mr. Conder's account of recent -work done in Jerusalem. Among 
other things, Lieutenant Conder has obtained from Mr. Schick a 
hundred and fifty new rock levels. These, with the information 
already acquired by Major Wilson and Captain Warren, will 
enable us to produce a ground-plan of the city, which will form the 
most important set of data possible for all topographical questions. 
Mr. Shapira continues to accumulate fresh collections of inscribed 
pottery, of which Lieutenant Conder sends us copies. The first 
collection was bought by the German Govennnent, but the opinions 
of the English srtUfMife are still unfavourable to the genuineness of the 
inscriptions. 

The tracings of Lieutenant Conder will be exhibited at the 
Dudley Gallery during the months of July and August. We have 
here to call the attention of our readei's to this exhibition, which 
contains, besides Mr. H. A. Harper's most beavitiful collection of 
water-colour sketches, illustrations of the whole work of the 
Society, 

All the particulars of the newly-found Samaritan stone will be 
found in this number. 

Mr. Drake, who is returning to England for a short time on sick 
leave, was prevented from being present at the Annual Meeting 
through the accident of a telegram being Avrongly delivered. The 
Siu'vey party has been strengthened by the addition of Corporal 
Brophy, Pv.E. 

The American party are now on the east of Jordan engaged in 
their preliminary expedition. Their party, too, has been strengthened 
by the addition of two assistant engineers. 



;MAP 10 ITi JS7RATE UETJT CO^DERS LETTERS. 



^oicJhe ixitrUry endoficd yvtihot the 

^liTV^etl, cintl t^acr^^-: of a 
7a9Kfc jjcrticn, c/' tJu wcf^ ixre 
to he see. I a* ^C^'IUU- MxS Ca/tU 
27t£ numbers marh ihe differ&ti 
aanpinff cm lauls^ ; i^xifiied iy 
ihe surVQrotp jiocr'y. -* tltorte^ /S7o- ' 



^ • ° C'<*»-<^;^ ■ - 



~wr 



'^^^0/ Metic'^^ j 



Aci-e' 




^ 















S^\.^\^.n^\ J.^lfyhdu 




S *| \ — - ' 






£>Stan/crd /Uh e£7auirmp Cros.i 



• THE SURVEY OF PALESTINE. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE E. CONDEE'S EEPORTS. 

EEPORT XIL 

TnE South Side of Caemel, 

P.E.F. Camp, Jeba, I2th March, 1873. 

Survey. — The last day but one of February found us once more in the 
field, and the work has, dvtring the present month, been continued with- 
out interruption, in spite of two or three thunderstorms, which for- 
tunately passed over us by night. The difficulty of choosing a good 
site for a camp, a place at once central for the work, at convenient 
distance from the old boundaries on the east, and from the sea on the 
west, and at the same time possessing good water and provender for 
our animals, is now far greater than in the country in which we worked 
last year. The villages are few, most of them are very poor, and the 
water brackish and unwholesome. Thus we were forced to content 
oui'selves with our present camp, which is at the foot of the hills, rather 
to the south of Athlit, and at some distance from the main ridge of 
Carmel, which an inspection of our last tracings will show to have 
been the former southern boundary of the work. 

The task of triangulation also requires more judgment than formerly. 
The ruined towers of Athlit and Tantura would, I had hoped, have 
afforded standing places for the theodolite ; but the first proves merely 
a wall and the second (also solid) has had the facing of ashlar removed 
as high as it could be reached from the ground, and it thus stands on 
a base about two-thirds the size of the upper overhanging part, where 
the facing could not be reached. We coiild therefore only observe 
to, and not from these points. On Carmel we obtained a very extensive 
view, and succeeded in biinging our observations over its highest 
ridge, and connecting with the points in the maritime plain. Towards 
the south, however, the hills are low, with flat broad tops, and differing 
in height very slightly. To obtain a commanding and conspicuous 
point was therefore impossible, and whilst choosing the best, we had 
some difficulty in recognising it again from a distance. Our calcula- 
tions, however, show that we obtained it correctly, and the operations 
are altogether satisfactory. 



84 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 

The average size of the triangles is teu miles side, but many of the 
lines are twelve to fifteen miles. The triangulation extended from the 
new base now stretches across Palestine, from Tabor ou the east to 
Acca, Haifa, and Cesarea on the west, and forms a good basis for ex- 
tension to the hills of Safed, and to the Sea of Galilee. It will be 
checked by its correspondence with the old work on the east, and with. 
the Admiralty latitudes on the sea-coast, and will finally be brought 
back (by June, it is hoped) to the old base at Ramleh. 

The execution of the detail on Carmel is a work of more wearisome 
and difficult nature than any we have had since leaving the Judsean 
hills. Huge valleys, upwards of 1,000 feet deep, wind tortuously from 
the main ridge to the sea. They have to be traced carefully, as one can 
never predict where their next bend may carry them. Ruins appear 
on bills opposite to you, seemingly wuthin easy reach, and hours have 
to be spent in dragging your horses down over hard, sharp, slippery 
rocks, througb a jungle of thorny shrubs, and up another ascent of 
perhaps thirty-five degrees' slope before one can ai-rive at the site, and 
commence its examination and survey. Often the remains ai-e quite 
modern, and ill repay one's trouble, but the thoroughness required in 
our work makes even these negative results valuable. 

Two special surveys will also be required in accordance witb oui* in- 
structions, and I hojDe soon to be able to send home copies ; they will 
include the neighbourhood of Athlit (Castelluui Peregrinorum), and of 
Cesarea, At Tantura, the ruins are not sufiiciently numerous to re- 
quire separate survey. 

Archceology . — Besides the three j)rincipal ruined sites at the above- 
mentioned towns, concerning which you will hoar from Mr. Drake, 
there are a great number of scattered remains throughout our present 
neicrhbourhood. A curious low line of hills, of which I shall have occa- 
sion to speak later, running along the sea-shore about half a mile 
inland, but gradually approaching as it goes north to the narrow 
beach, is quarried on both sides throughout its whole extent. At a 
distance the appearance of the rocky scarps and steps resemble the 
walls and flat roofs of a village, and only by the greyer colour is it 
iwssible to distinguish between the two. The hills farther inland pre- 
isent similar quarries, at Kh. Shih, and in two or three places on 
Carmel. 

All these quai-ries are full of rock-cut tombs; at Kh. Shih, at Kb. 
Umm el Shukuf, and Kh. el Shellaleh, on Carmel, and on the sea-coast, 
at Kh. Melliah, and near Sarafend, Kefr Lam, and Tantura, I have col- 
lected plans of from fifty to sixty of these sepulchres, the greater part 
being full either of tihn, or of bones and skulls, probably of poor pas- 
sengers murdered by the natives of the villages. In these ghastly i"e- 
ceptacles the turbau or dress of a victim may often be found more or 
less complete. 

The majority of the tombs have three loculi parallel to the three sides 
of the chamber, with a door on the fourth. In each group, however. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDEr's REPORTS. 85 

at least one -witli lociili running in perpendicular to the line of the sides 
occurs. On one we found a cross very distinctly cut. Most of the 
doors were originally closed by a cylindrical stone of about three feet 
diameter, and some eighteen inches thick, rolling back into a recess on 
one side. This method is well known, and its relation to the words of 
Scripture, "Who shall roll away the stone for us.^" has often been 
shown. Here, however, for the first time I saw some of the stones, 
fallen flat in front of the doors. 

In the midst of the wilderness of Carmel we came on the scanty in- 
dications of Crusading work. It is a good instance of the very little 
that remains of even comparatively modern bviildings. From a dis- 
tance we could see the walls of a ruined village known as Khirbet el 
Shellaleh, standing as a promontory surrovmded with valleys 600 to 
700 feet deej), and with steep sides, unapproachable except by one 
winding road. It commands the coimtry round, though higher hills 
exist within the range of modern guns, and immediately suggested a 
Crusading site, resembling such places as Rurhmieh, and Burj Bav- 
dawil. Having at last reached it, we could at first find nothing but 
quite modern i-uined hovels, and a quarry with two tombs. Closer in- 
spection, however, showed some small stones with a broad shallow 
marginal draft, and one well dressed seven feet long, also drafted. The 
I'emains of a column built of several pieces one above the other, and of 
a rocky scarp, the foundation apparently of a small tower to which a 
flight of rock-cut steps led up, next confirmed my opinion, and, finally, 
a Maltese cross cut on a broken stone, and well finished, was visible, 
built into a modern mill aqueduct in the valley below. Putting toge- 
ther these slight indications, there can, I imagine, bo no reason to doubt 
that a small Crusading castle or fortress was here hidden amongst the 
hills on an almost impregnable site. The head-quarters no doubt 
would be in the large station of Athlit, which was visible through the 
mouth of the wady below. 

Geology. — The geology continues to possess some jDoints of interest, 
and it is satisfactory to find the neAV facts agree with former deductions 
on the subject. The sea-wall, or low ridge dividing the i^lain from the 
shore, is a curious and interesting feature. To trace the dip of the 
strata is almost impossible, as the quan-ying has so changed the 
features of the hills as to render their original form almost un- 
traceable. The rock is a compact sandy limestone, in which, however, 
the sand generally predominates so much, that it might, j^erhaps, bo 
called a cretaceous sandstone. The strata, or lamina?, are very thin, and 
evidently formed at the bottom of the sea, near shore, where the sand 
would be constantly changing its slope, so that, as at present observed, 
no two laminae appear to be parallel. 

The upheaval of Carmel is now traced on every side, and the dip 
measured in two or three places. The underlying dolomite is tilted 
upwards towai-ds the main ridge, and disappears on the south beneath 
the softer thickly -bedded strata ; these are of varying consistency, some 



8G LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 

being Iiard and crystalline, but less compact than tlie dolomite. At 
one point I observed a curious vein of bard brown crystalline stone, 
running tlirougb tbe soft. 

We have been fortunate in finding quite a nest of fossils on one hill 
top (principally gasteropods). On the road to Carmel I picked np an 
Ammonite ; and farther south, in some dark stone are a number of 
bivalves. A fossil limpet, and some large kind of (?) peeten, with a 
broken portion resembling Gomphoceras (one of the Ammonitidse), are 
also added to our collection, and generally the rock appears near the 
coast to be much fuller of animal remains than inland. 

By far the most interesting geological feature is, however, the unex- 
pected discovery of a basaltic outbreak, an irregulai- crater some five 
hundred yards broad, in the neighbourhood of Ikzim. It is the largest 
I have yet seen in the country, and close to the reported mines, which 
we have not yet visited, but which may prove to be a lode of copper. 
~The lai-gest cave I have yet seen, apparently natural, though, perhaps, 
formed not by water, but by the action of pent-up gases, as suggested 
in other instances by Dr. Tristram, exists just north of us. I followed 
it to the end with a candle, and found it some twenty feet broad and 
high, three hundred feet long, and full of huge bats, whose rushing 
wings could be heard in the darkness. It contains a few stalagmites 
of moderate size. 

Natural History. — The present season shows Palestine to the greatest 
advantage of any in the year. The plains are covered with bright 
green, and the dark wilderness on the hills is lit up with flowers. Of 
these the commonest are the red anemone, like an English poppy, and 
the delicate pink phlox. The rock roses, white and yellow, with a few 
pink ones, the cytiens in one or two places covering the hiU-side with 
golden flowers, the pink convolvulus, marigold, wild geranium, and red 
tulip, are also plentiful, and several species of orchis, the asphodel, 
the wild garlic, mignionette, salvia, pimpernel, and white or pink 
cyclamen, with may in full glory, may be added to the list. 

Animal life is becoming active again; at Athlit we obtained gigantic 
ants. The beautiful mahogany-coloured rhinoceros beetle, the vener- 
able scaraba)i, and great numbers of flower beetles, of various species, 
are very common. The butterflies are new, including the orange tip 
{Anthocaris Carduminsis),i]ie Apollo, and two species of large sulphurs, 
one of which I have not yet been able to obtain. The great swallow- 
tails, newly born, are confined to the hill tops, and the red admiral 
{Vanessa Urtiae) is less rare. 

Amongst the birds the greater spotted cuckoo and a few quails are 
the only new arrivals. The last storm at Haifa in February brought 
great shoals of fish into the bay, and the gulls and a number of petrel 
followed them. As soon as the sea was quiet once more the sands were 
found covered with perfect specimens of sea shells, of which I obtained 
a small collection, including a beautiful little crimson peeten, and some 
specimens of Trochus ; none but broken specimens had been observable 
before the storm. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE n. CONDEr's REPORTS. 87 

XIII. 

Jeeitsalem and El Midyeh. 

P.E.F. Camp, Mukiialid, 2nd Mai/, 1873. 
Following the suggestion lately received from a member of the Com- 
mittee, I shall in future divide the report of work done from the subjects 
of general interest included in my letters, and place it first, to allow 
those who have no time to spare to follow our proceedings without 
behig obliged to read more than the first paragraph. 

When last I wrote we had again started field work, and were advanc- 
ing south ; we have, since leaving Jeba, camped at Kannir and Zayta, 
■and shall in a few days break up our camp at Mukhalid, and retire into 
the hills, having added upwards of oGO square miles, with a monthly 
average of rather over 170. The triangulation is still large and well 
shaped, and we have been very fortunate in finding a fine point in the 
plain, on the top of a high tower in the town of Kakun, and a second 
almost as good at Kalensawyeh, farther south. In addition to a 
great number of notes, sketches, and sketch plans now added to my 
book, the following large-scale plans and surveys have been executed. 
Athlit : — 

Survey of the enceinte of Athlit, scale 24in. to 1 mile. 
Plans of three large vaults below the town. 
Plan and proposed restoration of the church, sketches of detail. 
Plan of a large tomb (possibly Phoenician) near Athlit. 
Cesarea : — 

Survey of the medieval town of Cesarea, scale oOin. to 1 mile. 
Survey of the Eoman enceinte at Cesarea, scale 6in. to 1 mile. 
Plan and section of the remains of the cathedral. 
Sketch plan of the theatre south of the town. 
Sections of the two aqueducts, as laid down on the map. 
MlAMAS : — 

Plan of the Roman theatre at Miamas. 
Plan of a vaulted building on hill above Miamas. 
• Kalensawyeh : — 

Plan, sections, and sketches of Crusading Hall at Kalensawyeh. 
Numerous sketches and notes were also taken at Tantura. The site of 
-a rv,oman town, remains seemingly of a small temple, and a lintel with 
rough bas-reliefs of lions, were found at Khirbet Semmakah, on the sido 
cf Carmel, and it is supposed by Dr. Chaplin to be the site of Ecbatana, 
atteiwards called Carmel by Pliny {Xat. Hist. v. 19), where, according to 
Lightfoot, Vespasian erected the oracle of the God Carmel; it occupies 
a very strong site, and a great number of oil presses are found near it. 

Two inscriptions have also turned up. The first is old Hebrew, found 
by Corporal Armstrong and myself at Umm el Zaynat on Carmel, over a 
tomb now'choked with rubbish. The rock is too rough to admit of a 
squeeze being taken, and the letters could hardly be traced, being cut 



88 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 

roughly and painted red, surrouuded -witli a red border. The second was 
on a stone which had foimed part of a tomb near the village of Etlah, 
and was in Greek, us Oeos f.'.ovos (to the one God) being distinctly visible 
and a date which Mr. Drake puts at 332 a.d. 

In the neighbourhood of Mukhalid we find a Saracenic khan, and a 
group of fourteen rock-cut tombs, with loculi of various kinds; one is 
well cemented, and remains of ornament in red paint, circles, leaves, and 
lines are visible ; another has a circle intersected with a cross cut in front 
of its entrance. There is also a very curious well, 40ft. to 50ft. deep, 
and perhaps l5ft. diameter, sunk in the sandstone north of the camp. 

In geology I may add that we have obtained fossils which will serve ta 
fix the period at which the upheaval of the shore line, as now observable, 
took place, and tliat we have traced the volcanic centre at Ikzim, which 
proves much, larger than at first suspected. 

In accordance with the wishes of the Committee I have visited El 
Midyeh, and obtained a survey of the place and a plan of the principal 

tomb. 

Ilaviug arranged the triangulation from the Zayta Camp, I was able- 
to spare a few days to go up to Jerusalem for the Greek Easter, and in 
order to look after the interests of the Fund in the city itself, returning 
by El Z\Iidyeh, and in time to direct the trigonometrical observations 
from the present camp at Mukhalid. 

The talk of Jerusalem, and of the travellers then crowding in and 
around it, was the great Shapira collection. Since last I wrote on this 
subject many important events have occurred. The collection has 
stiu"-gled through the first stage of disrepute and incredulity, and the 
German saruus have distinguished this valuable and unique series from 
the clumsy forgeries so common in Palestine, ranking it with theMoabite 
Stone and with the Ilamath Inscriptions. The expedition of Pastor 
Weser lesulted in a great meetiog of the Oriental Society, who elected 
him a member. The famous names of Hitzig and Rudiger are now 
arrayed with that of Schlottman in defence of the genuineness of the 
pottery. Mr. Shapira has received the official position of an agent for 
the Prussian Government, and his first series of 911 pieces has just been 
bought by the Emperor himself, at a price, I believe, of over £1,000. 

These events had all taken place previous to my last visit, and I could 
not fairly ask Mr. Shapira to allow me to copy such pieces as were 
already German property without permission from tho owners. Fortu- 
nately, however, he has since been able to lay tho foundation of a second 
collection, containing already over 2oO_'pieces, of a character, if possible, 
more curious than those formerly found, and daily almost growing in 
numbers. Some of these he brought back from Moab himself during his. 
recent visit in company with Dr. Chaplin, and as they are as yet unsold,, 
and as he is free to sell them to any one he thinks best, he courteously 
allowed mo to take the first sketches of the new objects, of which I 
copied as many as time would allow, and iiow hasten to send them homo^ 
to the Fund. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDER's REPORTS. 89 

Tlie most remarkable of these is a great " teraph " of black pottery, 
42iu. long, with horns and a beard of a semi-Egyptian type, -with a fino 
Phoenician inscription on the " stump" in front, and a second incised 
behind. The former contains seven lines, the latter ten. The pottery, 
which at first sight looks like painted wood, is of one colour throughout, 
the figure being hollow ; it has a yery curious ochrc-coloured decay, 
which I have tried to represent roughly. The figure was broken in many 
places, and has been not over-correctlj^ mended with glue. 

Most of the new pieces come from new fields of research, with the Arabic 
names of which I will not trust myself. Those coming from one place 
bear a sort of family resemblance, though of the 1,100 pieces now col- 
lected scarcely one is a facsimile of another. The large goddess wiih a 
double inscription (also a terminal figure), and with seven horns, is not 
dissimilar to a smaller one with seven lines of inscription, and also with 
horns nine in number. The following, out of the fifteen objects I send 
home, are of most interest, next to these large figures : First, a teraph, 
with the two letters Yod, Wou, which if they turn out to be a form of 
the sacred name Jt-Jiovdh, will be of highest interest; in this, with tha 
exception perhaps of the calf and calf-headed deities, we find the first 
indication of the worship oiJeJwvah by surrounding nations, to whom, as 
we see clearly from the Moabite Stone, he was but the " tribe god" of 
the Jews, the husband of Asherah, and third in the triad with Baal and 
Ashtoreth, a view already learnedly supported by Lcnormant in his 
" Lettres Assyriologiques." 

The second is a sort of " Phamix," or bird-bodied figure with human 
horned head ; on the neck are seven successive marks, on the breast aie 
five letters incised. The reading of this inscription will perhaps give a 
clue to the symbolism of the numerous bird-forms in the collection, and 
I may venture to suggest a connection with the attribute of efei-ntf// 
which we find in such deities as Ilobal and Bel the ancient, the Phoenix 
being itself an emblem of the same. 

A third is a head similar to one already sent home, with a protruding 
tongue, which, in accordance with the descriptions of Herodotus and of 
St. Jerome, we may venture to consider as a representation of Baal 
Peor, the Priapus of Midian. 

Tho inscription round the base of a fourth, also a horned deity 
marked with the seven stars, will, it is thought, throw light on the two 
initials Aiii, Ahph, continually occurring at the beginning and at tho 
end of the inscriptions. 

A fifth seems to be tho first representation of a god of the character of 
the classical Pan, with a tail and short goats' horns, the legs being, how- 
ever, unfortunately broken and lost. 

Finally, not least interesting is No. 200, a globular vessel pierced 
with eight large holes, and with seven arranged in an angular form, of 
which five are smaller. An inscription runs round this nondescript 
production, and above are symbols including sword, spear, bow and 
arrows, a shield and two stars, with another emblem very similar to a 
pair of spectacles. 



90 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDER's REPORTS. 

One fine jar I -was obliged to leave, and did so all tlie more ■willingly 
since Mr. Drake will very probably find time to sketcb. it, and to make 
an accurate copy of tlie inscription. 

Of the old collection tbere are but few important specimens not 
already sent to the Fund. The large figure of a goddess, with an 
inscription translated by Schlottman, has not, however, been copied, and 
is now German property, as well as one very curious figure conjectured 
to be a representation of Charon. The head has an unusually long nose, 
in each hand the demon holds a human mask, behind the trunk is what 
one might take for a boat, and in front are two thin legs of dispropor- 
tionate length resembling oars. The figure is small, and, in common 
with the majority of the minor pieces, it has no inscription. 

Such was the condition of the Shapira collection at the time of my 
leaving Jerusalem. It is to be hoped that the American expedition, 
now already in the neighbourhood of Heshban, will succeed in bringing 
fresh treasures to light. 

The time of year and the late fall of the winter rains prevented my 
visiting, as I had hoped, the passages of the Haram, but other explora- 
tions within its precincts were facilitated by the repairs now going on 
within the Kubbet es Sakhrah itself. I was enabled in consequence of 
scaffolding placed over the holy rock, to assist Mr. Schick in accurate 
measurements of its surface, which will correct and supplement my 
former sketch. I was also able to ascend into the interior of the drum, 
and examine the pillars for correction of my former sketches. The 
cornice, with an Arabic inscription, which runs immediately below the 
great mosaics, I was most anxious to examine, since both Mr. Fergusson 
and the Count de Vogue agree that the latter are of Christian origin. I 
was, however, able to determine that the cornice was structural, and 
bonded into the building, and not merely a subsequent addition. 

In the south-east corner of the Haram my attention was further called 
to the existence of a regular apse on the east side of the Mosque el 
Aksah ; the centre has been broken away, but the commencement of the 
wall on either side is distinctly visible, and is niaikcd on the Ordnance 
Survey. The curve of the cornice above is even better marked, and on 
reference to De Vogue's plan I see that the apse is dotted in. This 
removes one of the great objections to the notion that El Aksah was 
former]}^ a Christian church. 

"We examined carefully what looked at first sight like foundations, on 
the i)latform supported by the stables of Solomon ; they, however, proved 
in every case to be merely flagstones some eight inches thick, and there 
can be little doubt that these vaults arc far too weak ever to have sup- 
ported a structure of any weight above. The piers are, as is well known, 
composed of large stones drafted on one side, and evidently originally 
belonging to the external wall; as regards the date of the arches they 
support. Dr. Chaplin has lately made the valuable discoverj- that masons' 
marks identical with some \ised in the Muristan are also to be found on 
the haunch stones in the south-east corner of the Haram. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 91 

A foi'ther detail not marked on tlie Ordnance Survey is observable 
opposite the supposed springing of an arcb outside tlie eastern wall. It 
is a little chamber now almost built up in tbe thickness of the wall.* The 
north side of this opening is made of largo and very well-dressed ashlar, 
and rests immediately on the foundation of huge and undressed stones, 
of which two courses are visible all along the eastern wall of the stable. 
This recess or opeuiog is shown as a double window by De Vogiie, 
but must subsequently have been walled uj), as it is now only visible 
through a narrow opening. A very large stone with a semi-column 
attached, measuring Gft. in length and 4iu. in breadth, the diameter of 
the column being 3ft. 4in., now lies on the floor. This very probably 
formed a central pier to the opening. 

In Captain Wilson's account of Mr. Schick's late discoveries in the 
Haram the examination of the Kubbet el Khidr is enumerated. Here, 
however, I can claim priority, as in October last I was able to enter and 
examine this mosque. The fact of the floor being of rock is extremely 
doubtful, but immediately outside the door the rock unquestionably 
does appear at a level 2438'<5 according to my last and most accurate 
measurement. At or about this level it will be found to be marked 
together with several other new rock levels in the plate which I sent 
home to accompany my October report. This level being two or three 
feet above that of the floor of the Kubbet el Khidr is more important 
for antiquarian purposes than that of the floor itself, if it should indeed 
prove on trial with a chisel to be the live rock also. 

One of the most important points as yet not fully explored is the J^o. 
29 Tank measured by Captain Warren, and supposed by Mr. Fergusson 
to contain remains of the Basilica of Constantine. On this subject I 
may be allowed one important remark after careful study of the appear- 
ance of the ground. It is simply impossihk that the arch of this vault 
can run at the same level more than a few feet beyond the point to 
which Captain Warren traced it on the east, for the plain reason that 
the crown is but 2ft. belov,' the level of the surface, and that on the 
cast the ground falls upwards of 10ft. before reaching the north-east 
corner of tho platform. Thus 8ft., or nearly the whole of the arch of the 
vault, would be visible at this point, were the vault continued in the 
eame line. 

Another important point indicated to me by Mr. Schick was the pro- 
bable connection between the cisterns Nos. 34, and 2 on the platform, 
and that group on a lower level known as Nos. 12, 13, and 14. The 
line between Xo. 34 and the north side of No. 14 shows indications of 
two shafts now filled in, and of the top of an arch of small masonry no 
doubt covering a vault. 

Mr. Schick's kind exertions further enabled me to investigate the whole 
length of the very extraordinary passage leading obliquely from the 
south-west corner of the twin pools of the Convent of the Sisters of Zion. 
It was first explored by Captain Warren, but after floating on liquid 

• This chamber is described in Notes to (Jrdnance Suivey, pnge 33. 



92 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEll S REPORTS. 

manure for some considerable time be found tbe roof too low to allow of 
bis proceeding to tbe end. It bas since been cleared by order of Joseph 
EfEendi, Lord Mayor of Jerusalem. At the time of our visit it bad but 
a few feet of water in it, and we were able to traverse its entire extent 
on planks. 

Tbe twin pools, now full of water to tbe crown of tbe arcb, are below 
that level rock-cut on tbe east and west ; tbey are reacbed by a staircase 
and by rock-cut steps from tbe street near tbe Ecco Homo arch. On the 
south side a rocky scarp rises above the crown of the arcb, and over the 
street to a height about 2,4oGft. above sea level ; tbe rock from this 
point slopes gradually southward, and its height on the south side within 
tbe naram is about the same on the north, but only 2,434ft. where it 
last appears (at a window on tbe west wall) above the level of the surface 
of the interior 

Tbe abrupt eastern termination of this great block, standing upwards 
of 30ft." over the Haram courts at the north-west corner, is distinctly 
visible on the interior, but its extent on tbe west is not as yet known. 
It is tbrough this tbat the narrow passage, of which a plan is given in 
the QiKtrUrly for April, 1872, is cut. It runs nearly straight till opposite 
the window already mentioned, which is at a distance of 100ft. from 
the north-west corner, and on the west Haram wall. At the commence- 
ment the passage, which averages some 4ft. in width, is 20ft. high, and 
entirely cut in rock, through which the rain water from the surface 
pel col lied. Tbe rcof is formed by huge flat slabs placed from rock to 
rock, in tbe sides are passages or weepers to facilitate the collection of 
the water, and in tbe bottom a small water channel, not occupying tho 
whole width of the passage, is visible. At about a quarter of the whole 
length from the entrance a dam Oft. high is placed, resembling exactly 
the two dams in the reservoirs planned by mo at Seffuryeh ; it bas a 
hole below, tbrough which the water could be let out as required. From 
tbe farther end, where tbe total height of the passage is only some 7ft. or 
8ft., it runs on at an angle and reaches tho west Haram wall at a level 
22ft. below the interior surface ; this part is built in small masonry, and 
only tbe lower part is of rock ; tbe flat slabs are still visible above, and 
from tbe wall springs a nicely finished arcb of small stones ; tbe channel 
is evidently (as at present built) later than tbe wall, and ends suddenly. 
The true original direction of tbat part which is rock-cut it is impossible 
to determine, as it stops abruptly before reaching the wall. 

Tbe examination of the Haram wall at this point is of considerable 
inteie-t, forjudging from the height of the rock in tho passage there can 
be but few courses below those visible, and these have every appearance 
of remaining in situ. Tbe stones are 4ft. Gin. high, well finished, and 
tolerably well preserved, with a draft 3in. wide at the side, and Gin. 
above and below : the reason of this difference being that each course, 
as far as one can judge from only seeing two joints, was set back 3in. or 
4in. from tbe one immediately below it. Tbe same feature was observed 
by Captain Warren in his excavations near the north-east corner of tho 
Haram at about a corresponding level. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEIl's KEPORTS. 93 

Just before reaching the turn in the passage, and opposite the window 
in the Haram wail, a way has been broken through at right angles to the 
passage, and the chamber in which the window is can be reached through 
the floor. 

This point is also one of great interest, as the wall is again visible. The 
south side of the great scarp is here traceable from the Haram wall to the 
passage, and forms the north side of the chamber. The Haram wall 
here about the level of the interior is of masonry similar to that already 
mentioned, and the courses are stepped back in the same way. 

But at the level of the ground on the interior the wall is made thinner 
by a bevelled set-back, leaving two buttresses 4ft. Gin. thick at intervals 
of 8ft. 9in. This arrangement has been observed at Hebron, and in the 
remains east of the Church of Holy Sepulchre, but has never before 
been found in the Haram. The courses of the buttress are all flush. The 
lintel of the window is one large block, resting on the south side 
on the courses of the wall, and on the north side on the rock of the 
ecarp. 

I was also able before leaving Jerusalem to obtain from Herr Schick 
the long-promised plate of rock levels throughout Jerusalem. It shows 
the exact position and depth below the surface of the rock in upwards of 
one hundred and fifty new places. Combining this with Captain Warren's 
careful observations, I shall be able to produce a ground-plan of the 
natural site of the citj% which will form jDcrhaps one of the most 
important set of data for the study of the ancient topography whicli 
we can hope to obtain. It must not be forgotten that to Mr. Schick 
belongs the credit of this most useful and necessarj' basis for future 
exploration. 

Leaving Jerusalem once more, in the company of Dr. Chaplin, we 
proceeded by Upper Bethhoron to El Midych, of which, in compliance 
with the Committee's directions, I send a short accouat with a Gin. survey 
of the site and a plan of the tomb. 

In the January Quarterly for 1870 will bo found (p. 245) an account 
of the place by Dr. Sandreczki, who first identified it with Modin, and 
the curious building with the seven sepulchres erected by Simon Macca- 
beus for himself, his parents, and his four brothers (1 Mace. xiii. 27 ; 
Antiq. xiii, 6). The requisites of the two accounts are, a view to the 
sea, seven tombs "one against another " with surmounting pyramids 
and a cloister surrounding them. These, as he points out, are all 
fulfilled at El Midyeh. My sketch will show how the sea, and the long 
line of sandhills, with the olive groves of Ramleh, and the white minaret 
of Lydd, are visible above the line of lower hills immediately west of 
the spot. 

A further account of explorations carried on in that year by M. Victor 
Guerin will be found in the Juno number of the QuartcrJij for 1870. 
After clearing the dchn's the tomb was opened, and, as we were informed 
by the inhabitants, bones and other treasures, including peihaps the 
tesselated pavement which formed the flooring of the chamber, were 
carried away to Jerusalem. 



94 LIEUT. CLAUDE K. CONDEr's REPORTS. 

The condition in whicli tlie monument was left in consequence of these 
excavations was not over favourable for subsequent examination. 

El Midteh. 

This is a large Ai-ab village, standing on a hill, and defended on 
the north, south, and west by a deep valley. Immediately south of the 
present town is a round eminence with steep and regularly sloping sides, 
suggesting immediately an ancient site, but showing nothing in the 
way of ruins except a few stone heaps amongst the olives which cover 
its summit. The ground on the west side of the deep "wady, which has 
the modern name Wady Mulaki, is, however, much higher, and closes 
in the view of the sea. It is here, about half a mile west of the 
village, that the Kabur el Yahud, or " Tombs of the Jews," were found, 
close to a modern white tomb house, with a spreading tree beside it, 
the resting-place of Shaykh Gharbawi Abu Subhha; My survey 
and plans give the necessary details, and I will only add a few observa- 
tions to explain them. The sepulchres, which are fast disappearing, 
seem to have been seven in number, probably all of one size, lying 
approximately east and west, and enclosed by one wall about five feet 
thick. This is well preserved on the east and west, but has disappeared 
— or was removed by M. Guerin— on the north and south. Of the walls 
of partition, however, only one can be well traced, consisting of stones 
well dressed, laid with continuous horizontal and irregularly broken 
vertical joints, without any trace of drafting, and varying from 2ft. to 
5ft. in length, their other dimensions being about 2ft. 

The most northern is the only one of the chambers which is sufficiently 
preserved for examination, and differs entirely from any sepulchral 
or other monument 1 have as yet seen in the country. It consists of a 
chamber open on the north, nearly 8ft. high, 6ft. from east to west, and 
5ft. from north to south. Its only remarkable feature is a cornice the 
profile of which is a quarter circle, which is evidently intended to sup- 
port a greater overlying weight than that of the flat slabs some 6ft. 
long which roof the chamber in. The floor was also of flags supported 
by a narrow ledge on all sides ; these having been removed, the tomb 
itself could be seen below, a square vault of equal size with the 
chamber, and apparently 3ft. 6in. deep, though the debris which had 
filled it on one side may have prevented my sinking down to the floor 
itself. 

The pyramid which once surmounted each of these chambers has 
entirely disappeared ; its only traces were the supporting cornice on the 
interior, and the sunk centre of the upper side of the roofing-slabs, which 
were raised about Gin. round their edge for a breadth of 1ft. to 1ft. Gin. 
The base of the pyramid must have been a square of 8ft. or f)ft. wide (it is 
not possible to determine it exactly), and the height would therefore 
probably have been 15ft., or at most 20ft. Of the mosaic pavement to 
the tomb, and of the ornaments of its walls, I was not able to find a 
single trace. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS, 95 

The surrounding cloister has also been destroyed, but on the north 
and west a few courses of a well-built wall were visible in parts, parallel 
to the sides of the tomb, about 20 paces from its outer wall. "Within 
this enclosure was a choked-up cistern, and without, farther down the 
hill, a rough cave 22 paces by 14, used as a cattle stable, and full of soft 
mud. 

Immediately north of the tomb are remains of later buildings of small • 
rough masonry with pointed arches. They are ruined houses according 
to the account of natives of the spot. 

The name Xhirbet Midyeh will be found on the map as ajjplying to a 
set of rock-cut tombs about a quarter of a mile south of the Sliaykh, 
and these are described by Dr. Sandreczki at some length. They are 
separated by a slight depression from the "Kabur el Yahud," and 
between the two, as shown in my Gin. survey, there is a well and a 
couple of ruined and broken cisterns. The Doctor enumerates about 
twenty-four tombs; of these I observed twenty-one, and a large one with 
two entrances, twenty-three in all. It is possible I may have missed or 
forgotten to show one. The tombs resemble exactly those formerly 
described in the large cemetery at Ikzal, but are smaller. They consist 
of square chambers sunk about six feet in the flat surface of the rock, 
with a loculus parallel to the length of the shaft on each side, cut back 
imder a flat arch, as shown in the sketch. A large block of stone closes 
the tomb above ; all had, however, been pushed slightly to one side, leaving 
the interior, which in one case was occupied by the body of a poor native 
woman but lately placed there, distinctly visible. At first I imagined 
that they all pointed east and west, but one it will be noticed is at right 
angles to this direction. Nine of them are placed in one roughly-straight 
line, and four others parallel. They were all very small. The loculi 
cannot be more than 5ft. Gin. long, and the stones above are not much 
over 6ft. 6in. 

As continually happens, a tomb of another class exists in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood. South of the nine tombs the rock is scarped 
perpendicularly to a height of oit. for over 30 paces, and on the west a 
square chamber with rock scarps on three sides six paces in length is thus 
formed. It was probably once roofed over, but no traces of masonry 
remain ; it is filled with rubbish, and on the north and west the tops of 
two small entrances to chambers are visible ; I could not, however, find 
any corresponding door on the south. A chamber of this kind exists in 
two or three places near Haifa, where the side entrances lead to tombs 
with loculi perpendicular in direction to the walls. Similar loculi occur 
at El Tireh, in connection with tombs svnJc like the majority of those at 
El Midj'-eh. In fact the mixture of three or more classes of tombs in one 
cemetery is common throughout the country, and the chambers in ques- 
tion, if once the debris were removed (which would hardly repay the 
trouble), would very probably prove to have the Jewish loculus. 

The wine-press mentioned in the former Report I visited and 
measured ; it is not equal to other specimens I have copied. East of the 



96 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 

cemetery the rook is mucli quarried, p.nd there are a few sunken sqiiare 
places resembling unfinished cisterns, or the commencement of a sys- 
tem of new tombs. 

There is not, as far as I am aware, any other feature of interest to 
mention at El Mid y eh. 

Some account of the ruins at Khirbet Semmakah, the only place on 
Carmel where remains of any importance exist, will no doubt prove inte- 
resting, especially if, as already- discussed, it seem likely to be the site of 
Ecbatana or Carmel. 

The statement of Lightfoot is not, however, received by Dr. Thomson, 
who quotes Tacitus (" History of Yespasian," p. 410) to show that the 
God Carmel was worshipped without a temple, in the open air, on the 
top of the mountain, and probably at El Mahrakah, the place of Elijah's 
sacrifice. 

That Khirbet Semmakah is the site of a town, and to all appearance 
of a Eoman town, there can bo but little doubt. After wading through 
the almost impassable brushwood which lies on the lower slopes of Car- 
mel, we came ui^on a small plain or broad valley with a gently sloping 
hill at its northern boundary, whilst on the east and west the sides were 
steeper, and impenetrable for horse and man. 

The ruins lie scattered over an extent of rather less than a quarter of a 
mile, principally on the sides of the hill, and but few were found on the 
top. On the northern side a veij' deep and precipitous ravine, in which 
the vultures, crows, and hawks were wheeling slowly, closes in the site, 
and renders it impregnable in that direction. The name is Wady 
Nahel. 

The principal remains are those of what would seem to be a small 
temple, having a bearing of 87°. Only the lower courses of tlie eastern 
wall, and two pillar bases 2ft. Sin. diameter, are left. The doorway, 
which is slightly north of the northern pillar, was oft. 3in. wide, and 
surmounted with a lintel with simple mouldings. This had fallen 
within the building, and the upper part of the jambs with corresponding 
mouldings had also disanpeaicd. The stones of the wall were orna- 
luonted with drafts, one being jft. in length, and so cut as to appear 
like two stones with the centres raised, and drafts Sin. broad and about 
lin. deep. Other drafts were 7in. broad and Uin. deep. The faces 
of the stones were in all cases dressed, but the deeper drafted ones were 
rough. 

Immediately east of the temple the town wall, or some similar struc- 
ture, was traceable for about oO yards, and consisted of small well-cut 
stones, about 1ft. long and 6iu. high; several other walls joined on to 
this at right angles, and on one of these, close to the temple, was a stono 
seeming to have been originally a lintel, but now placed in the wall. It 
was 7ft. long, 3ft. high, and ornamented with a tablet on which in bas- 
relief were two lions roughly executed facing one another, and with a 
cup placed between their paws. A second smaller cup was cut above the 
left-hand lion's back. Tae whole of the masonry, though small, was 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 9( 

well dressed, and far superior to modern Arabic workmanship. Unless, 
indeed, which is uidikely on account of the bas-relief, they should be 
Jewish, there is no date but that of the Eoman occupation to which to 
ascribe these ruins. 

Continuing our search we found a well within the town wall, and a 
cave without. At the south-west corner of the hill is a strong corner 
foundation, which seems to belong also to the outer wall, and farther 
north the ground is strewn with broken stones and fragments. A very 
low valley here separates the ground and runs soiith, on the east of its 
course, and directly north of the temple two caves appear, one possibly 
a rough tomb. To the west also there are several remains. These in- 
clude a fine beehive cistern, about 30ft. diameter, foundations of good- 
sized and well-proportioned stones, and a large sarcophagus lying on the 
flat rock, Sft. in length, and with a flat lid beside it. 

Still farther west is a smooth platform of rock, in which a square 
birket, lOft. side, and a well now partly choked, Sft. diameter, are found. 

The most characteristic feature, however, remains to mention. In 
every direction one finds foundations of little buildings about 20fr. 
square, near which lie one or more (generally a pair) ot rollers, cut out 
of soft limestone; they are 7ft. long and Sft. diameter, and have grooves 
sometimes running the entire length, but generally arranged in four 
lines parallel to the length of the pillar, with four or five grooves in a 
line. Of these I counted upwards of a dozen. They are supposed by 
Mr. Drake to be rollers, moved by handspikes, and placed end to end in 
the buildings, which he takes to be oil mills. 

It is needless to add that I made a rough special survey of the place, 
and plans and measurements where required. 

A doorway, similar in some respects to that of the temple, we found 
afterwards at Khirbet Baydus, south of Kannir ; but in this case lintel, 
jambs, and seemingly the groundsill, were all cut out of one piece of very 
hard creamy limestone with fossils. No other ruins of the same date, 
except a pillar stump, a rough cave, and some blocks of a wall, existed 
near it. There were, however, ruins of more modern character. 

In concluding this report I wish to say a few words as to the geology 
of central Palestine, the thorough tracing of the centre of basaltic erup- 
tion at Ikzim having explained a great deal which must formerlj' have 
been puzzling. 

In Eepoit VII. I spoke of the formation of the great Plain as duo to 
volcanic action and subsequent denudation, and of the low synclinical 
dipping upwards to the basaltic centres at Shaykh Iskander and on the 
Gilboa range. The subsequent discoveries confirmed this statement, but 
it was not till after leaving Jeba that I was able to grasp the whole geo- 
logical formation of the country. The sudden upheaval of Carmel, with 
its abrupt sea and land ends, must strike all observers as requirin"- ex- 
planation, as well as the low, flit character of the range formin"- ihe 
western boundary of the great Plain, between the peak of Elijah's sacri- 
fice and the cone at Woly Iskander's tcmb. 



98 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

The Ikzitn centre explains all this. The low ridge just mentioned, of 
soft limestone with flints, with a yet softer marl below, dipping gently 
down towards the Maritime Plain, and known by the modern name of 
" Belad el Euhah," presents the natural surface of the country. On the 
south this is broken by the outburst of basalt and other trappean erup- 
tive rocks at Shaykh Iskander, which, in their attempt to escape, have 
tilted the strata at an angle of upwards of 30 degrees, and have brought 
to light the underlying dolomite, from, above which the softer formations 
are now washed off by subaerial denudations. On the north-west the 
Ikzim outbreak has entirely broken up and altered the surface of the 
country, and finally the appearance of a trappean outbreak near Umm 
el Zaynat, and of a large cavern, perhaps formed by pent-up gases, on 
the slope of Carmel, together with its steep sides and the direction of the 
dips, leads one inevitably to the conclusion that the great elevation of 
the range is due to the violent internal action of igneous matter, unable 
to find more than a very partial outlet for escape. The dolomitic rocks 
and the fossiliferous limestones of Carmel are at a higher level, but of 
an older formation than the soft marls of the " Belad el Euhah," and 
thus it appears as though the effect produced on the part where no 
escape was possible was far greater than where, as at Ikzim, the basalt 
found an easy outlet. 

On leaving this centre to the north the plain of Sharon suddenly 
widens to a more than double breadth, and the gradual slope of the hills 
contrasts markedly with the inland cliffs north of the Zerka. We now 
approach again the Judtean range, which is said generally to present a 
low anticlinal, an assertion which it requires nirmerous and careful ob- 
servations to prove. 

Another point of great geological interest is the date of the upheaval 
of the shore line, and on this also we shall now be able to throw light, in 
consequence of a valuable find of fossils at Khirbet Dustray, near Athllt, 
on the curious sea-iuall or line of low inland cliffs of sandy limestone, in 
which, as explained in my last report, the tombs and quarries are so 
constantly found. 

Advancing south of the Zerka we find this line to run gradually 
farther inland with the widening plain, and after passing Cesarea a 
second line of cliffs begins to rise close to the beach, attaining a height 
of 200ft. near Mukhalid, and running on continuously to Jaffa. Thus it 
seems as though two succeeding periods of upheaval might be expected, 
giving shore lines some four or five miles apart. It appears also that 
this upheaval has a very gi-adual dip upwards towards the south, but 
further observations near Acca will be necessary before advancing any 
theory on the subject. 

From such a study of geology in a country so interesting as is Pales- 
tine, one is h'd to the conclusion that volcinic action thro'ghout its whole 
extent from Dan to Beershoba, must have been Vi-ry violent and con- 
tinuiil, and I look forward with great eagerness to the thorough exiimi- 
nation of the Ghor, which may perhaps prove to owe its formation 



MR. TYRWIIITT DRAKE'S REPORTS. 99 

neither to a fault nor to glacial or flavial action, but to a sudden vol- 
canic convulsion not impossibly at a late geological date, which one 
cannot but connect in one's own mind with the overthrow of Sodom and 

Gomorrah. 

Claude R. Conder, Lieut. R.E., 

Commanding Survey Party. 



MR. C. F. TYRWHITT DRAKE'S REPORTS. 

XIII. 

Camp Jeba, March 12, 1873. 

Our present camp is pitched at the foot of the western slopes of 
Carmel, some three miles south-east of Athlit. The ruins of this place 
seem wholly Crusading, and I shall forward an account of them as soon 
as we have examined them. A remarkable natural feature is observable 
near the coast ; commencing in sand dunes about three miles south- 
west of Carmel convent a ridge runs parallel to the mountain of that 
name, gradually increasing in regularity and in hardness of rock, till, 
between Athlit and Tanturah, it assumes the form of a rocky ridge 
40 to 50 feet high, and some 300 yards broad. The stone is a soft 
crystalline limestone, almost resembling a sandstone. Between these 
two last-named vUlages is a plain stretching westwards from this sea- 
wall to the sea, and protected from inroads by the peculiar manner in 
which the former has been quarried. For many miles the whole sur- 
face of this ridge has been cut and quarried to a depth of from six to 
ten feet. In many places a narrow ridge or crest has been left on the 
summit, thus forming a wall of living stone. Passages have in several 
places been cut through the ridge, and show traces of having been closed 
by gates. Rock-cut tombs, as described by Lieut. Conder, ai-e nume- 
rous in these quarries, and must, I imagine, be ascribed to the early 
centuries of the Christian era. Our present state of knowledge, how- 
ever, with regard to the rock-hewn tombs of Palestine, owing to the 
almost total absence of inscriptions or any other guides, renders all 
attempts at fixing the date of these excavations uncertain. 

Besides the road passages above mentioned, one water-drain has been 
also found cut through the rock. In several places, too, we have come 
across old chariot roads with deep ruts in the rocky surface. 

The present village of Tanturah is situated about half a mile to the 
south of the ruins of old Dor or Dora. The remains of these ruins — 
for as usual all the dressed stones have been dug up and carried off — 
cover an oval mound comprising several acres and adjacent to the sea. 
Tbe most prominent object is the I'emains of a tower of Crusading or 
early Saracenic construction. The part still standing is the north-east 



100 MR. TYRWHITT DRAKe's REPORTS. 

buttress of a square fort on a spit of land running into the sea. A 
pointed arcli gives the clue to its date ; part of a well staircase may 
still be traced. The ashlar stones are about three feet by two feet and 
one and a half feet thick ; mortar, full of cockle shells, layers of rubble, 
and old Eoman bricks, form the interior of the walls. North of this, 
and supporting the cliffs, are walls of Soman work, formed of stones 
some four feet by two feet and two feet thick. Foundations as of a 
kind of wharf still remain at the water's edge. This massive masonry 
has been lined throughout with a coat of rubble and cement to a thick- 
ness of about two feet, for what purpose I am unable to say. Above 
these substructures, and immediately facing the sea, are the debris of a 
large number of columns two feet ten inches in diameter. The capitals 
are a kind of Ionic not unfreqvient in the Hawran, and of which I have 
given an example found in the 'Alah in "Unexplored Syria." The 
volutes are formed on each side by the junction of two cones attached 
to the capital, an example of which measured four feet four inches by 
three feet four inches at top. The building to which these columns 
belonged must have been a conspicuous object from the sea. To the 
east of the mound is a Roman tank for irrigation, differing from those I 
formerly described near Jaffa as being built of rather large blocks of 
stone. Near this are a few gray granite columns. The sea-coast hei'e 
is fringed with low rocks and indented with little bays which, protected 
by a few small moles, would still serve, as they doubtless did under the 
Romans, as harbours for coasting craft. 

Throughout all this neighbourhood the rock-tombs above mentioned 
are much used by the fellahin to stow away the bodies of murdered 
men who, not having died en regie, cannot be bui-ied in a Mohammedan 
cemetery. In two caves near Sarafend I counted sixteen skulls, near 
Athlit as many, and frequent solitary cases or groups of two or three 
are found scattered about. A native of Athlit to whom I first applied 
for information, said, " Those are the bones of men killed about here," 
and seemed to think it the most natural thing in the world that if men 
went along the high road they should come to such an end. 

Turning to the pleasanter subject of Mount Carmel we find its steep 
sides and rugged wadies still covered with a growth of brushwood 
which shelters the usual wild anima's. Many ruins arc scattered over 
the hills, some ancient but many of recent date. Till the advent of 
Ibrahim Pasha the Druzes were very powerful in Carmel, and owned 
many villages. All of these, with the exception of 'Asfieh and Daliyeh 
— the former half Christian — are now deserted. At a river called 
Semmakah a large number of columns have been found and will be 
described on a future occasion. 

The weather is peculiarly unsettled and disagreeable, as well as far 
from henlthy. The wind is continually changing, thougli blowing more 
from the east than from any other quarter. iJuring the last few days 
haze and mist have frequently occurred, and there is seemingly every 
probability of an early and unusually hot summer. The cereals are 



MR. TYBWHITT DRAKe's KEPOHTS. 101 

well up and barley has been in ear, on the maritime plain, for more 
than a week. 

The following are a few of the identifications of ancient sites which I 
had begun to work out in our winter quarters at Haifa when sickness 
prevented their completion. As far as I can ascertain these proposed 
identifications are new. 

n'?nv Jethlah is mentioned (Josh. xix. 42) as a town of Dan, and 
seemingly in the neighbourhood of Ajalon (the modern Yalo). There 
is no Arabic name that I am aware of which exactly corresponds to the 
Hebrew, but here the reading of the LXX. 'ZiXaOd may perhaps help us. 
If that be correct the modern village of Shilta, which lies a little north- 
west of the lower Beth Horon, may perhaps represent Jetlilah. 

DITjTn np*?!!. Hellcath Hazzarim is mentioned 2 Sam. ii. 16, and is 
translated in the marginal reading " the field of strong men," and we 
are told that it was a place in Gibeon, the modern El Jib. Close to this 
village is a broad smooth valley called Wady el Askar, meaning the 
'• vale of the soldiery," which may not improbably be a reminiscence 
or translation of the Hebrew name. 

The town of ^467;er (Josh, xvii. 7) has been identified with Tasir, 
but the modern Asirah seems a somewhat more probable indentifi- 
cation. 

In Josh. xxi. 25, and the other parallel passage, 1 Chron. vi. 70, 
we find mention of Aner and Bileam in the one, opposed to Tanach 
and Gath-rimmon in the other. 

By some "^^V Aner (cf. Diet. Bible, s. v. Aner) is supposed to be a 
misreading for Tanach, but may, I think, be recognised in the modern 
village of 'Anim, in which rock-cuttings and other traces of an ancient 
site are observable. 

DI7'73. Bileam (1 Chr. vi. 70) is doubtless the same as Ibleam (2 
Kings ix. 27), which being near the going up to Gur seems to have 
been beside a well-known road, and in the direction of the " garden 
house," which is usually taken to be Jenin. The principal road 
through Palestine now runs up the wady behind Jenin, and hei'e 
are the ruins of Bel'ameh, which is the same word as Bileam, and 
the position of which seems also to answer the requirements of the 
case. 

The Rahhith of Issachar and Amad of Asher, may perhaps be identified 
with the modern Arruheh and Um^n el, 'Amid respectively, but the 
notices in the Bible seem too vague for any certain decision to be 
arrived at. 



XIV. 

P.E.F. Camp, Kannir, March 23, 1873. 

Examination of the rains of 'Athlit showed us the remains of a 
Crusading fortress, which in its palmy days must have been equal, if 
not superior, to anything else of the same period in Palestine proper. 



102 MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 

It is now a broken relic, shattered by earthquakes, systematically 
spoiled and robbed of its stones by the Turkish Government to rebuild 
Akka ; and disfigured by the mud hovels of the fellahin, built over it 
like the mud nests of the wall bees over Egyptian temples. Abandoned 
by the Crusaders in 1291, A.D., nearly six centuries of neglect and 
dilapidation have been unable to destroy the massive walls ; whilst 
the extensive vaults, protected by their situation, are perfectly pre- 
served. To select this as the casteUum peregrinorum, or landing-place 
for the pilgrims, was a stroke of policy on the part of the old knights. 
They well knew the influence of first impressions, and knew the 
advantage of bringing men — many of whom they hoped would remain 
under their banners to fight on the sacred soil itself — to a prosperous 
well-built fortress, situate in a pleasant fertile district, rather than to a 
point whence the barren nakedness of the central and eastern hills 
would too soon be brought in view, lighted up by the pitiless glare of 
an eastern sun. The woodclad steeps of Carmel and her fertile 
maritime plain would have a homelike look to one coming from mid 
or southei-n Europe, and would do much to recommend the spot to 
pilgrims after long and weary travel by land and sea. 

The town of 'Athlit occupies a low rocky promontory, having a small 
bay both to north and south, which would serve as harbours 
according to the direction of the wind ; that on the north being 
protected from the south and south-west, and that on the south from 
the north and north-west. On the land side a wall is carried across 
the neck of the promontory enclosing some twenty-four acres of land 
between it and the town. This wall had three gates to the east and 
one to the south : it was strengthened by a tower at each end at the 
edge of the sea, and another on a small mound of rock at the south- 
east angle. A fosse filled from the sea afi"orded further protection. 

The town itself was only entered by one gate to the east, flanked on 
either side by a large bastion. Before this lay the outer wall and 
ditcb, and behind it the inner fosse, across which lay the main body 
or keep of the fortress. On the three other sides the town was 
protected by the sea and a double wall, including that of the keep. 
The accompanying plan will show at a glance the importance of the 
place. 

The masonry throughovit is massive and well constructed ; so much 
so, that parts of it have been mistaken by some travellers for Eoman 
work. There is, however, not the slightest trace of any building 
anterior to the Crusading period. The walls are generally of great 
thickness, ranging from 8 to 21 feet : the centre is composed of exceed- 
ingly hard rubble, which in many cases now stands alone, having 
been despoiled of its ashlar. In the outer walls this ashlar or casing 
is formed of stones 2 feet in depth, and varying from 2 to 5 feet in 
length, and always drafted: the draft is 3 inches in breadth, the boss 
rustic, and projecting usually about 4 inches, though in some cases it 
extends as far as 12 to 14 inches. In one place of the outer wall the 



MR. TYRWHITT DRAKe's REPORTS. 103 

• natives have cut into the stones to obtain the leaden clamps, which 
they told me were used to fasten the stones together. The inner 
ashlar is smooth dressed. 

We found a series of vaults just within the wall of the keep on the 
east, south, and west sides. That on the south is 240 feet long, and 
about 30 feet high ; that on the east is divided into several partitions, 
and has a total length of 264 feet. On the west is a fine groined vault, 
the bosses at the junction of the ribs being made of four trefoils, 
growing from the centre. Besides this is a vault 60 by 28 feet : it is 
cemented inside, and has no proper entrance other than by a man-hole 
in the roof, thoug-h now an entrance has been broken at the west end. 
Some of the fellahin told me that this was intended as an oil well, but 
it was more probably intended for water, as its capacity, some 261,000 
gallons, would seem to preclude the idea of the former. Beneath the 
church there is, I was told, another vault, but the entrance to this has 
for some time been closed. 

The most conspicuous fragment now standing is part of the east wall 
of a large tower, at the north-east of the town, known as El Karnifeh. 
It is about 70 feet above ground, 16 feet thick, and presents a fine 
example of the drafted masonry above referred to, on the outside. 
The rubble is very hard, and bound together by irregular courses of 
large smooth-dressed stones. The lower part of the inside shows the 
spring of a. barrel-vault, and above this are three corbels, supporting 
the ribs for a groined roof, made of human heads, one bearded, and of 
a military aspect, the other with^ shaven face, and long locks curling 
at the end. A tower of similar importance and size is said to have 
stood at the south-west corner of the town, and was known as the 
Kasr bint el MeJek, " the castle of the king's daughter." This, however, 
with the church and other buildings, was first overthrown by the earth- 
quake in 1837, which proved so destructive to Safadh, and thence 
carried away by sea to Akka, for tbe repairs of that town, after the 
departure of Ibrahim Pasha. Before the earthquake the roof was still 
whole on the church ; now its very foundations can only be partially 
traced. From the measurement and angles of some of the walls, taken 
by Lieut. Conder, I have tried to restore the building, but it is 
impossible to feel certain of its accuracy, as one cannot tell how much 
has been displaced by the earthquake ; the force of which is attested 
by huge masses of masonry rolled down to the sea, and by two windows 
turned topsy-turvy, with parts of the surrounding walls. The houses 
of the fellahin and their accompanying dunghiUs, clustered over the 
spot, add to the difficulties in tracing the outline of the building. A 
fragment of one capital survives in lair preservation, and of this I send 
you a sketch. We found one pillar of gray granite 20 feet 2 inches 
long, and 3 feet I inch in diameter ; a similar one is said to be buried 
in the rubbish near by.' These may very likely have stood at the 
west door. 
The cornice mentioned by Dr. Porter (" Murray's Guide") has quite 



104 MR. TYK.WHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 

disappeared, but was talked of by some of the village elders. A 
tradition is extaut among these people that El Melek el Dhaber — -who, 
as I have before mentioned, always does duty for any historic king — 
though able to take CaBsarea by assault, was compelled to besiege 
'Athlit for seven years before obtaining possession of it. 

There are many traces of European work in the neighbourhood. To 
the north-east is the detached work of Drestray, containing a tower 
and stables, the former (now ruined) based on a square rock the sides 
of which have been quarried away to the depth of several feet ; the 
stables, too, are cut out of the rock, the roof having been formed of 
masonry. Water was obtained during a siege from a cistern hewn in 
the rocky base of the main tower and from a well at its edge. The 
springs of Di-estray lie about 200 yards to the north-east. This fort 
commanded a road cut through the " sea-wall" mentioned in my last 
report. Either this cutting or the fort it.elf seem to have been called 
" petra incisa" by the Crusading chroniclers (cf. Murray), and doubt- 
less much information might be gathered from those sources about 
'Athlit, though I have not been able to find any notice of it in the few 
books we have here. 

Euins in Wady Shellateh and at Rushmia on Mount Carmel seem to 
have been held in connexion with 'Athlit, and a qviadrangular fort with 
towers at the corners, still existing in the neighbouring village of Kefr 
Lilm, may belong to the same date, but is much more probably Saracenic, 
to judge from the irregular masonry and the small size of the stones. 

Other symptoms of European occupation are visible in the ditches to 
drain the marsh east of the town of 'Athlit, in a rock-cut passage for 
the same purpose leading into the sea, and in a series of drain-pipes 
laid in a stone casing, apparently leading from the sea to a marsh 
called now El McUahuJi, "the salt marsh." The only object I can 
imagine for these pipes is to bring sea water for evaporation^ as the 
rocky bed of the present marsh being very near the surface, would, 
with very little trouble, form an excellent salt farm. 

I will conclude my remarks on 'Athlit by stating that a former 
traveller, notwithstanding the pointed arches. Crusading sculptures, 
and other unmistakable mediaeval remains, has described the ruins as 
of '■'purest Phoenician style!" A more forcible instance of the necessity 
of our woik could hardly be found than this utterlj' groundless asser- 
tion, for at 'Athlit there is not the slightest trace of any masonry an- 
terior to the Crusades. 

Our present camp is situated on the edge of our former work, and 
not far from Umm el Fahm. The paucity, or rather deticiency, of 
villages on the maritime plain between Cajsarea and Jatfa, left us no 
other choice. The plain, however, is good travelling at this time of 
year, and a large tract can be worked with ease. All around us are 
extensive woodlands of Qaercus acjilops, locally called inaUi'tl, which 
extend from the edge of the Belad el Riihah to some distance in the 
pl.iin. A similar forest must have existed within quite recent times a 



ME. TYRWHITT DRAKe's REPORTS. 105 

few miles north-east of Jaffa, as the roots and stumps of the trees are 
found there still alive. These trees do not often exceed thirty feet in 
height, as their boughs are frequently cut by the Arabs and fellahin 
for fuel, and also for the j^urpose of feeding their goats on the leaves. 
Beneath the oaks no brushwood is found, but thex'e are a few scattered 
shrubs, such as the sweet flowered 'uhlidr {Stijrux officinalis), with its 
white blossoms not unlike the orange in colour and smell. The ground 
is now covered with herbage flecked with brilliant flowers, red, pink, 
and yellow, the latter colour, however, preponderating. 

The plain and lower slopes of the hills are overrun with the flocks 
and herds of the Turcomans, who, living in the Merj Ibn 'Amir during 
the summer and autumn, come hither for pasturage during the winter 
and spring. Though living in tents, they cultivate the soil just like 
the fellahin, and pay the usual 'ashr, or tithe, to the government. 

They have entirely given up the Turkoman language, and now speak 
nothing but Arabic ; several of the local names, however, on Carmel 
have a decided Perso-Turkish sound, and may perhaps be traced to 
these men's forefathers. Their mode of life differs in nothing from 
that of the ordinary Bedawin, but their cast of countenance is fre- 
quently Kurdish. They are divided into seven clans (called in Arabic 
Ashireh, or Tyfeh) which are as follows : — 1. El Tawat-hah. 2. El 
Binihah, or Beni Gorra. 3. El 'Awadfn. 4. El Shagayzat. 5 and 6. 
Beni S'aidau and 'Alakineh, these tv.'o being under one Shaykh. 7. 
El Naghnaghiyeh. Near Coosarea are the camj^ing grounds of the 
Damalkhah and Mus'ali Bedawin, and south of them are the Nafa'at. 
In the Wady Hawarith are a few tents belonging to the Emir el 
Haritneh, whose ancestors once ruled from Tiberias to Cassarea, and 
from Akka to Baysan, with a rule of iron. It is probably to a chief of 
this family that Maundrell ("Early Tr. in Pal.," ed. Bohn. pp. 431, 476) 
refers by the name of Chibley, who lived at Jenin, and who "eased 
him in a very courteous manner of some of his coats, which now (the 
heat both of the climate and season increasing upon them) began to 
grow not only superfluous, but burdensome." 

The tomb of a Moslem iveli, or saint, named Shibleh, which stands 
west of Jenin, near Kefr Kvid, is very likely, as suggested to me by 
Dr. Chaplin, the tomb of this emir, though the fellahin near the spot 
could tell me nothing of his history. 

I may here complete the list of Arab clans in this district by enu- 
merating those in the Merj ibn 'Amir. They are — 1. El Kabiyeh. 2. 
El S'aideh. 3. El Gharayfat. 4. El Zubaydat, and the Mohommay- 
dat, who live on Mount Carmel. The Ghawarineh, " Men of the Ghor," 
or depression, live on the plain of Akka, and in the marshes of the 
Zerka, north-east of Cajsarea. The occupation of these last is chiefly 
pastoral ; and partly by admixture of negro blood, partly on account of 
the great heat to which they are exposed, their skins are of a very dark 
coffee colour, blacker and less transparent tlian those of Al)yssinians. 
C'a;sarea. — The ancient ruins of this city occupy a large extent of 



106 MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE'S REPORTS. 

ground, but there is little of interest to be found ; I shall therefore first 
notice the mediseval and Saracenic remains, and afterwai'ds revert to 
those of earlier date. The Crusadintj city occupied a space 600 yai'ds 
longf by 2o0 yards broad, on the coast almost midway between the 
walls of the ancient city. The wall which forms the boundary of the 
more modern town is fortified at intervals with towers, and fronted by 
a ditch. The masonry differs essentially from that of the outer walls 
of 'Athlit, though resembling the inner construction of that place, 
being small and undrafted. Against this outer wall a Saracenic scarp 
— sloping at an angle of 60 degrees — and a counter scarp on the other 
side of the ditch, have been built. Immediately on seeing the place, I 
felt sure that this was the case from the analogy of similar additions in 
various parts of Syria and Palestine ; for example, at the so-called 
David's Tower, Jerusalem ; at Kawkab el Hawa, the Crusader's Belvoir ; 
and at the Castle of Horns. Proofs were soon found to show my sur- 
mise correct. In one place the scarp half covered a window with 
pointed arch and vertical joint in the crown similar to those at 'Athlit, 
and in the Morostan, Jerusalem. There in several places we saw how 
the scarp had been added on to the oi-i»inal perpendicular wall, after 
the latter had been finished and carefully pointed with hard white 
cement (that in the middle of the wall being softer, earthy, and of a 
blackish hue). Then, to prove the inner part of undoubted Crusading 
handiwork, we found ribs of groined arches, in one case supported by a 
corbel formed of a human head; and if this were not suflBcient, the 
remains of a triple apsed church left no room for doubt. Just within 
the wall may be traced a covered way, 13 feet in width. Little remains 
of the upper part of the walls, except one tower to the north, on which 
we found just sufficient room to set the theodolite and observe, and 
part of the wall, near the southern gate, which stands close to a well of 
fine clear water, some 20 feet in depth. This well, which is within the 
walls, seems to have been supplemented by several aqueducts, which 
will be described further on. The only examples of drafted stones are 
to be found in the lower walls of the Kala'ah or south-western tower, 
which, built on a little promontory, extends for some distance into the 
sea. Here, in the second and fifth courses from the bottom, large 
columns of red and grey granite, and of black and grey marble, are biiilt 
as bands alternately with the drafted stones. Beyond this is a reef with 
ruined buildings on it, being part of the old mole. A little to the 
north of this some sixty or seventy perfect and fragmentary columns, 
varying in length from 20 to 5 feet, have been rolled together to form 
a kind of rude pier in the shallow water on the reefs. Of the mediseval 
city itself, nothing remains but the ruins of two small buildings, of 
which the special use can in no way be designated, and of the church. 
The whole area is covered with shallow pits, from which the well-pre- 
served stones have been taken to Akka, Jaffa, and other places on tlie 
coast. The church has suffered less, both on account of the smallness 
of its stone and the hard crystalline cement used in its construction. 



MR. TYRWHITT DRAKe's REPORTS. 107 

Earthquakes have, however, done wliat the pilfering masons of Akka 
could not do. Masses of the -wall lie within its area, and by the utter 
confusion in which they are thrown attest the force of the shock which 
laid them low. The apse is triple and semi-circular. An arched 
recess on the north side of the central apse may have been the arch- 
bishop's throne, while the rest of the officiating clergy sat in the 
opposite sedilia. Traces of white plaster are still to be seen on the 
inner walls of the body of the church. The pavement is visible in one 
corner, and is of a white marble, set in cement, over a layer of black 
earthy mortar. At the west end of the church are four buttresses, 18 
feet deep by 6 feet in breadth, and some 50 feet high, with sloping tops. 
The connection of these with the church is somewhat difficult to make 
out. Beneath the church, and opening out on to these buttresses, are 
two vaults, one filled up with debris and broken in by fallen masses of 
wall, the other perfect and 70 feet long. 

The Roman remains within the mediseval walls are to be seen on the 
beach near the north-west corner, where there is a layer of coarse 
tesselated pavement of white stones, buried beneath some 12 feet of 
debris, chiefly composed of broken pottery mixed with fragments of 
glass and of bones, most of which have been sawn in two. Farther 
south a wall may be traced, whose lower courses are built of stone, 
2| feet square. Farther on is a drain strongly cemented, and about 
a yard wide ; the top is broken in. Near the church and north of it 
are some courses of large stones. These may, 1 think, with great 
probability be taken as the remains of the temple built by Herod to 
CsBsar and Rome, of which Josephus gives us the following accounts 
(Antiq. XV., ix. 6, and Wars 1., xxi. 7) : "Now there were edifices all 
along the circular haven made of the most polished stone, with a 
certain elevation whereon was erected a temple that was seen a great 
way off by those that were sailing for that haven, and had in it two 
statues, the one of Rome, the other of Csesar." And again — ^"Over 
against the mouth of the haven, upon an elevation, there was a temple 
for Csesar, which was excellent both for beauty and largeness." In 
the previous sentence he mentions the " white stone " of which the 
edifices were built. 

These remains to which I have refeiTed are so placed as to front 
the harbour, and are the only stones, with the exception of a portion 
of wall near the water's edge and now covered with 15 feet of debris, 
which Ave saw of white limestone. All the masoniy of the Crusaders 
and Saracens, as well as the scattered stones in the outer area, ai*e of 
cretaceous sandstone. I enclose a sketch to show the character of the 
masonry : the niches, whose tops are visible, wex'e probably for the 
reception of statues. A draft and boss appear on some of the stones, 
which are, however, too much weathered to allow of measurement. 1 
found traces of a similar wall running eastwards from this which is 
therefore presumably part of the fa9ade. A series of narrow vaults 
(now broken in) of uncertain date extend between this building and the 
church, which lies to the south. 



108 MR. TYRWHITT DRAKe's REPORTS. 

The account given by Josephus of the construction of the harbour 
has been called in question by many. He states that a mole was run 
out to protect the ships from the sou.th.-westerly gales, and that its 
foundations were sunk in twenty fathoms' water, and composed of 
stones fifty feet long, by eighteen broad and nine deep. Here we must 
recollect that Josephus could never have seen these huge blocks, and 
his information must have been derived from hearsay. Still, the size is 
not utterly improbable when we still find a quadrangular column of 
red granite 34 feet long by 5 feet wide, and more than 4 feet 6 inches 
deep, situated half a mile from the sea. The very numerous columns 
of grauite and marble show that no expense can have been spared in 
th<; construction and ornamentation of the city. 

The mole is described as 200 feet wide, and composed half of the 
procymaiia or breakwater, and half by the quay and vaults in which 
the sailors lodged. The reef of rocks running westward from the 
Kala'ah, though robbed of nearly all its hewn stones, still retains 
traces of walls and answers well enough in size to this description. 
Here, too, may be seen traces of tesselated pavement formed of rough 
two-inch cubes, such as one would expect to be used out of doors, 
and with these the quay was very likely paved. In one plince there 
are two laj'ers of these cubes, as though one pavement had been broken 
and another laid over it. 

Of the theatre and amphitheatre, which Josephus tells us were 
among the buildings of Herod, only the latter is to be seen; and this, 
too, is in such a ruiued state, most of the stones being carried oiF, and 
the remainder nearly concealed beneath drift sand, that, were it not 
for the description, it would rather be taken for a theatre. In Antiq. 
XV., ix. 6, we find it thus described : — " Herod built therein a theatre 
of stone ; and on the south quarter behind the port an amphitheatre 
also, capable of holding a vast number of men, and conveniently 
situated for a prospect to the sea." 

West of this place, on the sea-shore, Lieut. Conder found traces of a 
jetty and walls of stones, similar to those mentioned in the north-west 
corner of the town, also two drains partly cut in the rock, partly of 
masonry, and measuring 9 feet 2 inches in width. Owing to accumu- 
lated rubbish, and the tops of the stairs being broken in, their height 
could not be ascertained. These seem likely to have been some of the 
drains mentioned by Josephus as " flushed " by the rise of the tide. 
As on this part of the Mediterranean coast this never exceeds two feet, 
the drains must have been nearly level, Geological evidence proves 
that the coast is gradually rising, and during the nineteen centuries 
which have elapsed since these drains were cut, it is not improbable 
that they have been raised to the height of some two or three feet above 
the present sea level. 

An oblong space, 350 by 90 yards, towards the east of the old city, 
seems to have been a hippodrome. Here is to be seen the huge granite 
column before mentioned, as well as three cones, measuring 5 feet 8 



MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 109 

inclies diameter at the base, 4 feet at top, and 7 feet 6 inches in height. 
Near these,' and also of similar pink granite, is a square pedestal 
measuring 7 feet a side, and projecting 1 foot 6 inches above the sur- 
face of the ground. The southern end of this course is banked up, and 
traces of the city wall appear outside it. The circuit of the ancient 
town can pretty accurately be traced to the corn-fields, as the ground 
outside them is much more sandy and unfit for cultivation. In most 
places, too, there are actual traces of the wall, but it has generally been 
destroyed for the sake of the stones it was composed of, and bits of the 
worthless rubble are all that we now see. 

Aqiipclucfs.— The aqueducts for the supply of the town next deserve 
our attention. They are two in number, and come into the north of 
the old city near the sea. The high-level, which has a double channel, 
comes from Subbarin, having been made, according to native tradition, 
by two daughters of a king, for a wager, to see who would first carry 
water into Csesarea. The well at Sindiani, two miles south-west of 
Subbarin, is said to owe its supply to this aqueduct having been acci- 
dentally broken into by women digging for clay to roof their huts. The 
same legend attaches to some springs south-east of Csesarea, called 
'Ayyun el Benat, the "Maidens' Spi'ings." Here, however, no traces 
have been discovered. 

The low-level aqueduct comes from the Jisr el Zerka, and has a total 
length of three miles. It is supplied by the Nahr el Zerka. which, at 
the mills about a mile and a half from the sea, is stopped by a broad 
dam, which raises the water some twenty feet. Its channel is at first 
rock-cut, and open at top, but afterwards is a vault of masonry, 7 feet 
high, and 6 feet 4 inches wide, built on the low hills bordering the sea. 
The high-level can be traced for six miles, as far as a spring called 'Ain 
Ism'ai'n, a little below Sindiani. At this latter village it is again found 
in the well from which the natives still draw their supply, but higher 
up it is quite lost. This branch, though originally supplied from Sub- 
barin, received large contributions from Miamas— of which place more 
anon — and was then carried nearly due west, to avoid the hills of drift 
sand. Below the mill of Abu Nur its construction can be well examined. 
It consists primarily of three red earthenware pipes, 6h inches diameter, 
embedded in hard cement and carried either on a wall or over arches. 
In one place, air holes to relieve the pressure, and consisting of two 
similar pipes opening upwards from the conduits, are still visible. To 
the south of this has been attached, presumably at a later date, a 
similar aqueduct, also with three pipes. About 500 yards west of the 
mill this southern section takes an eccentric circuit with four angles, 
and rejoins the other shortly before passing throuf>h the " sea-well." 
The object of this d'toirr is difficult to explain, unless it be on account 
of the marshy nature of the ground over which it passes. This southern 
branch is more perfect than the northern, and its arches in better pre- 
servation. On reaching the " sea-well " the aqueduct is carried thi-ough 
the rock, and is reached at intervals by man-holes 27 feet deep by 11 



110 MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 

feet wide at top, and decreasing to 3 feet 3 inches at bottom. Steps 
lead down to the water, passing twice along each of the four sides of 
the shaft. The water channel is too much choked up for any exact 
measurement to be taken. After passing through the " sea-well," the 
water was cari-ied on arches to the town of Csesarea. In some places 
the aqueduct, judging from the masonry and method of "pointing" 
the joints, seems to have been repaired by the Saracens or Crusaders. 

At Miamas there are several large springs, and many traces of dams 
and cisterns. At the base of the Khashm, as the bold headland form- 
ing the south-west extremity of Carmel is called, is the Kala'at Mi'amas, 
a Saracenic or Crusading tower tacked on to a Roman theatre. The 
latter building is much ruined, all the seats being destroyed, and 
the greater part of the outer as well as the inner line of vaults. The 
measurement across the front of the theatre, which faces S.S.E., and 
overlooks the plain and oak woods, is about 180 feet. The masonry is 
curious : the stones are built together without much regaid for order, 
some being put in lengthwise, others on end, others on their side, the 
interstices being filled up with excellent mortar. The arches of the 
vomitoria are irregularly built, usually without a keystone. The main 
wall of the building between the outer and inner vaults is not built in 
a curve, but in short straight pieces. Several fine granite columns may 
be seen near the theatre and at the stream below ; these, no doubt, be- 
longed originally to the proscenium. Around the building are traces of 
rude dwellings, but as they seem to have been constructed with the 
stones pillaged from it, they may be referred to the period of Saracenic 
or Crusading occupation. As yet we have found no mention by any old 
writer of this theatre in connection with Csesarea, from which it is dis- 
tant about five miles. This is curious, as it must doubtless have been 
frequently resorted to by the inhabitants of that place. 

On the summit of the Khashm above is a curious ruin of E-oman 
construction. It consists of a square, enclosing a double and a triple 
vault with an irregular semicircular arch. The interiors of these vaults 
are connected by a series of square holes on a level with the ground, 
and measuring 2 feet by 2 feet. The object of these is difficult to 
imagine. Near this ruin is a fine rock-hewn cistern of bee-hive shape 
and well plastered. Directly to the west are the precipitous cliffs of the 
Khashm, tenanted by numerous griffon and Egyptian vultures, as well 
as by hawks and eagles of various kinds. 

The view from this point is very extensive, reaching from Carmel 
Convent to far below Csesarea. Immediately at one's feet dense 
thickets of reeds and tamarisks cover the marsh of the Zerka, and 
afford shelter to wild boars and crocodiles. (I have offered a reward 
for one of these reptiles, and have great hopes of obtaining a specimen.) 
Eastwards the heights of Shaykh Iskander, above Umm el Fahm, the 
block of Shaykh Bayazid above Jeb'a, Mounts Ehal and Gerizim, and 
the main points of the central range southwards, are still visible. 
Jience the extent of the oak woodland, the ingens sylva of the Romans, 



THE AMERICAN PALESTINE EXPLORATION SOCIETY. Ill 

of the encroacLing tongue of sand stretching eastwards from 
Csesarea, and other natural features of the district, may be studied with 
advantage. Charles F. Tyuwhitt Drake, F.R.G.S. 



THE AMERICAN PALESTINE EXPLORATION SOCIETY. 

(From the Observer, New York.) 
Our American Exploring party have made a brilliant beginning for 
us. "We were expecting valuable discoveries, but not so soon. Our 
allotted field is beyond the Jordan, and only preparatory labour was 
looked for on this side the river. But while Lieutenant Steever has 
been hard at work day and night in Beirut, organising the expedition, 
testing his instruments, and getting everything ready for the final 
march, our archaeologist. Professor Paine, has not been idle. 

The Hamath Inscriptions. 
The readers of the Observer have all heard of the famous Hamath 
inscriptions. Our covmtrymen, J. Augustus Johnson, Esq., then 
American Consul- General in Syria, and the Rev. Samuel Jessup, were 
the first to discover and describe them, some three years ago. Copies 
of them, first published by our own Society, are now exciting the 
liveliest interest among scholars. We shall soon be able to put the 
public in possession of more exact and authentic copies. The stones 
were taken through Beirut a few weeks ago, on their way from Damas- 
cus to Constantinople. Our Consul-General iu Syria, J. Baldwin Hay, 
Esq., persuaded the Turkish Government to permit our party to take 
impressions of them. The time was short, but Lieut. Steever and Pro- 
fessor Paine gave themselves eagerly to the work, and the result is a 
complete set both of squeezes and of plaster casts, which are now 
on their way to America. Our pamphlet, which is soon to be put 
to press, will tell the whole story ; but meanwhile it may not be amiss 
to state that what have been called the fourth and fifth inscriptions turn 
out to be but parts of a single inscription camied round the stone. 

The Greek Inscriptions at Dog River. 
But of still greater importance is Professor Paine's discovery of three 
new Greek inscriptions, the existence of which appears not to have 
been even suspected. We accept the discoveiy with gratitude as an 
auspicious inauguration of our work in the Holy Land. Nahr el Kelb, 
or the Dog river of modern Arabic geography, is the Lycus Flumen, or 
Wolf river, of the Roman period. It rises in the heart of Lebanon, 
plunges down a wild and romantic gorge, and empties into the Mediter- 
ranean about two and a half hours, or seven miles, north-east of Beirut, 
The southern mountain wall which overlooks this rapid stream termi- 
nates at the sea in a bold promontory, around which, at the height of 
loo feet above the water, winds an ancient road cut in the solid rock. 
The present road was cut in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, about 173 or 
176 A.D. It is some six feet in breadth, paved with large uneven 



112 THE AMERICAN PALESTINE EXPLORATION SOCIETY. 

stones. But above it, for a part of tbe distnnce, tbere are traces of a 
still more ancient road. On the wall of rock that lines the roads (three 
of them on the present Roman, six of them on the older road) there are 
nine historic tablets, first discovered by Maimdrell in 1697, and often 
described and copied since. Three of them are Egyptian, and six 
Assyrian. According to Lepsins, the three Egyptian tablets bear the 
cartouche of Rameses II., abont 1300 years B.C. Of the Assyrian 
tablets, one at least is the work of Sennachei-ib, about 700 B.C. 

It was on the upper and more ancient road that Professor Paine 
made his fortunate discovery. He found there three Greek inscriptions, 
one of eight lines, one of twelve, and another of ten. He took squeezes 
of them all. The longest, of twelve lines, he has deciphered and ren- 
dered into English. Some errors may have crept into the transcription, 
but the legend is substantially as follows : — 

TipoKXi -KeiTov Tana vov Apiaioio A 

KOio yeveOAris idayevoio 
Apxi-Ki^ iraTpwiojv f^a!pia^(jiv (pavXcfi 
■Kpw6rj^r\s cpoivi^ H\iOfj.iro\ews 0eo 
(pii/ apxoiv Aiipa MaXfK reKewv i^pa 

offaa vow (ppovee (poiViKri aurrj 
ocTov Kai TOAs epya^oTeSv voi^fxa 

0) fiiya Qavfia Ta ainv(TaTa. twv 
OKo-K^Xuiv tcTov edriKiixeaov 
o(ppa AiriveKeccs ufxaKr,t> oAov ei 
V voi'Tes (pf'iyccfiev x^AeTrets 
w>J/os o5oiT\avi^t. 
Proclus, friend of Tatian, son of Arisius, of A 
CO as to his birthplace, of honourable descent, 
leaving behind the royalties of his fathers for a 

common rank, 
A Phcenician in the bloom of youth, of Baal'bek by 

the will 
of the gods, the ruler. Fortlnvith to Malek perform- 
ing sacred rites, 
As many as he thought prudent for Phoenicia itself, 
in proportion also to this very to be executed purpose. 
Ah, great marvel ! the steepest parts of the 
promontories he made level in the middle : 
In order that, from beginning to end, the road being 
even, iu 
the rainingswe may escape difficidt approaches; 
the height being circuitous as to tlie route. 

These names are new to history. Proclus appears to have been a 
Phcenician, of Aco (Acre), of royal blood, governor of Baalbeck. Of 
his date, as related to tbe Egyptian, Assyrian, and Roman dates, this 
is not the place to speak. Piofessor Paine's report will soon be pub- 
lished, and our scholars will then have the problem fairly before them. 

RoswELL D. Hitchcock, 
President of the Palestine Exploration Societr^. 



113 



SUEVEYS IN PALESTINE BY CAPTAINS MIEULET AND 
DEEEIEN, OF THE EEENCH ETAT MAJOE. 

From the JuKrnal of (he Paris Geographical Bociety. 

The field operations undertaken with a view of constructing a map 
of Palestine were commenced in May, 1870. The first operation was 
the measurement of a base on the Plain of Acre. The western end 
was marked by a station 6ft. Sin. high, on a slight elevation, the eastei'n 
by an isolated tree (Dom) on the plain. 

Prom this base, 8,725ft. long, the distance between the station at 
Tantourah and the Castle of Acre was found to be 22,760ft. By means 
of the side Tantourah — Acre Castle, the distance between Carmel and 
Acre Castle was calculated to be about 47,232ft. The side Carmel — 
Acre Castle was determined by the English Admiralty Survey, and 
its azimuth was known. This side served as a base for the tri- 
angulation. 

Twenty-one stations were fixed with a theodolite, and all remark- 
able features of the ground were observed. The triangulation plotted 
on a scale of 1-100,000 was used as a basis for the Sixrvey, and the detail 
was filled in on the same scale with a compass. 

The map shows towns, villages, isolated houses, tombs, ruins, springs, 
wells, rivers, ravines, roads and paths, woods and cultivation ; and the 
features of the ground by contours. All remarkable features of the 
ground were levelled, and the altitudes of more than 500 points deter- 
mined with reference to the level of the sea. 

The names of all the inhabited places in the mountains, of the rivers, 
springs, wells, ruins, itc, are carefully written on the map in French 
and in the Arabic character. 

More than 1,019 square miles were sui'veyed, comprising the greater 
portion of the pachalik of Acre. 

The work was interrupted in the first fortnight of August, 1870, and 
Captain Derrien is now engaged in putting his notes together. 



FURTHEE NOTES ON OUE LOED'S TOISIB. 

In a former Quarterly (.June to September, 1870, pp. 370-81) I sub- 
mitted some notes on our Lord's tomb, the object of which was to show 
that it must have been multilocular, and situated to the east of the city, 
probably on the Bethany road; and, therefore, that the pz'csent site 
could not have witnessed our Lord's entombment, 

I am now prepared with further reasons for believing that our Lord 
was crucified (and, necessarily, buried) to the east of the city. 

1. He was certainly ci'ucified on a high road side (Matt, xxvii. 39 ; 
Mark XV. 29 ; Luke xxiii. 26), leadiug past gardens (John xix. 41). 

K 



114 OUR lord's tomb. 

2. There appear to have been but two main approaches to the city, — - 
«. That from Jericho, through Bethany, and round the Mount of 

Olives, and entering the east of the city by the Fish Gate. 
h. That from the Maritime Plain and Joj^pa, entering the north- 
west of the city by the Gate of Ephraim. 
A minor approach from Bethlehem entered the west of the city 
through the Gate of Gennath. 

We must exclude the Joppa i*oad as not complying with, requisitions 
jn-esently to be advanced; and also the Bethlehem road as not leading 
through gardens. 

3. The gardens of David and Solomon were at the junction of the 
Kedron and Hinnom valleys south-east of the city. The base of the 
Mount of Olives was laid out in gardens, which also existed to the north 
of Agrippa's wall. There is no record of gardens existing to the west 
of the city. The Garden of Gethsemane was imdoubtedly to the east of 
the city, as it was reached by crossing the Kedron (John xviii. 1). 

4. In fixing the site of the crucifixion we must beai* in mind that it 
was caj)able — 

o. Of being witnessed from " afar off" (!Matt. xxvii. 5o ; Mark xv. 

40 ; Luke xxiii. 49). 
h. It must also be within clear view and hail of the priests (Matt, 
xxvii. 41; Mark xv. 31), who can behold and revile {in our 
Lord's licaring, be it remembered) without fear of the defile- 
ment (John xviii. 28) attendant on an execution at the place of 
- a skull. 
The city side of the Kedron gorge (400 feet, not 150 yards, from the 
Bethany road) would easily have allowed the women and centurion to 
have viewed from "afar off," or "over against" (e| ivavrias, Mark xv. 
39) the site; and the equally near roof of the eastern cloister of the 
temple would easily have accommodated the priests and rulers. 

Nowhere on the Joppa or Bethlehem roads could these conditions, 
especially the second, have been complied with. We are therefore 
driven to the Jericho and Bethany road, which alone of all the city 
approaches would meet the necessary requisitions. 

5. I think the strict conformity between type and antitype necessitates 
tliat the eastern side of the city should have witnessed the crucifixion. 
As the temple faced the east, we can understand the fitness of its veil 
being rent in the presence of the fleshly Yeil rudely torn on the opposite 
cross ; we can understand the consummation of the great Antitypical 
Sacrifice in full view of the opposite typical altar. 

But this analogy disappears if we remove the scene of the crucifixion 
to the west of the city, i.e., to the back of the temple, whence only its 
outline could be seen. 

6. St. Paul, I think, fixes indisputably the site of the crucifixion. 
Thus, in Heb. xiii, 11, 12, he writes : "Por the bodies of those beasts 
(the sin offering) are burned without the camp. Wherefore Jesus also 
. . . suffered loithout the fjate." . 



THE IIAMATII INSCRirTIOXS. 11.5 

What gate ? This is clearly not an abstract statement, implying 
simply " beyond the city walls," but a distinct reference to the gate? 
tt]s ■Ki)\y]s, by which the sin offering was carried forth to be burned 
without the city. 

Now we can hardly suppose that the sin offering would be carried 
away all through the crowded and bustling streets, far away to the 
west, when the eastern gates of the temple, leading directly into the 
country, were close at hand. Through one of these gates, probably tho 
great East Gate, the offering was taken out; and outside tliis gate, e'^w 
Tfjy TtvK-ns, our blessed Lord was crucified. 

7. Then if he was crucified to the east of the city, there he was 
buried ; for " in the place where he was crucified there was a garden : 
there laid they Jesus " (John xis. 41, 4-2). 

N. F. Hutchinson, M.D. 

IIOEAE, A^n-a 28tJi, 1873. 

Note. — I think the following extract interesting, as indirectly indi- 
cating the eastern site of our Lord's tomb : — " When the apostles sepa- 
rated to evangelise the world, Mary continued to live with St. John's 
parents in their house near the Mount of Olives, and every day she 
went out to pray at the tomb of Christ, and at Golgotha." — Bishop 
Ifelito's {of Sardis) Ilistorrj. See Smith's Dictionary, art. " Mary the 
Tirgin," p. 264. 

It is here clearly implied that St. John's hoiise, the tomb of Christ, 
and Golgotha were alike "near the Mount of Olives." Mary had only 
to go out to reach the hallowed spots. We cannot understand her as 
passing through the city to the westward for that purpose. 



HAMATH INSCEIPTIONS. 

The observations of the Rev. W. Wright, of Damascus, demand no 
comment from me. Time will show whether I was correct in the first 
tentative investigations of these inscriptions. 

It will be observed that M. Clermont- Ganneau in his remarks on the 
kindred inscriptions of Alej^po, expresses the same opinions as myself 
in favour of an independent syllabic character anterior to the Phoenician 
alphabet. He likewise refers to the possibility of its connection with the 
systems of Egypt and Assyria. 

M. Clermont-Ganneau's proposition of the term of Syrian for these 
characters is useful, because it serves to localise and define them. 

Hyde Clakke. 



116 



"MIDDLE CITY"— "SECOND CITY." 

To the Editor of the Quarterly Statement. 

SiE, — The difficulty felt by your correspondent " H. B.," wlien he asks 
what is the exact meaning of the expression, " the Middle City," ia 
2 Kings XX. 4, and of "the Second City" in 2 Kings xxii. 14, 
Neh. xi. 9, and Zepli. i. 10, seems to have been shared by our 
translators when they rendered the former middle court and the 
latter the roUeijc, The critics have been in similar perplexity when they 
have explained the middle city to be Zion city, and the second city to 
be the lower city. The confusion serves to show the need of thorough 
topographical investigation, such as that carried on by the Committee 
of the Palestine Exploration Fund, without which such references to 
local features will never be understood. 

Some topographical featui'es of the site of Jerusalem are indicated 
in Psalm xlviii. 2, which should be rendered : — 

"I3eautiful for height, the joy of the Avhoie earth, is Mount Zion — on 
the thighs of the north is the city of the great king." 

Jerusalem, says Josephus, was built upon two hills, which are 
opposite to one another, and have a valley to divide them asunder 
(Tr«rs V. iv. 1). On the north of Jerusalem is a mountain plateau, 
and these two hills stretch down from it like two legs or thighs, with 
the Tyropcean Yalley between them. The western thigh is the higher, 
and would be the site of the Upper City ; on the eastern thigh would 
be the Lower City and the Temple ; and when eventually the valley 
between them became occupied with houses, this would constitute the 
Middle City. The Hebrew word means " middle " in the sense of the 
divided part. In the parallelism of Hebrew poetry the second line 
does not simply repeat the idea of the first, but repeats it with 
some expansion, addition, or variation. In the j^rescnt instance we 
have the eastern hill in the first line, and the whole of Jerusalem in 
the second. A parallel passage is Isaiah xiv. 13 : "I will sit also upon 
the mount of the congregation, in the thighs of the north." The 
mount of the congregation is the temple hill, the thighs of the north 
include the whole city. 

Assuming this to be so, let us look at the texts referred to by "II. B.," 
and see if any light is thrown upon them. In 2 Kings xx. 4, Isaiah 
goes out from the presence of Ilezekiah, and " aforo he is gone into 
the Middle City " the word of the Lord comes to him. The royal 
l)alace, there is every reason to believe, was on the eastern hill — in 
the Lower City — and assuming that Isaiah was making his way to 
the Upper City he would have to pass through the Middle City to 
reach it. 

In 2 Kings xxii. 14, " Huldah dwelt in Jerusalem— in the second 
(Jerusalem)." The Hebrew word (Mishneh) means second in order 
second in dignity, and might well be applied to that division of the city 



MIDDLE CITY — SECOND CITY. 117 

■which was second in order, whether you began reckoning from the east 
or the west. The Second City therefore would appear to be the same as 
the Middle City. 

In Neb. xi. 9, Judah the son of Senuah is ruler over this Second City. 
Probably the two "thighs " were separately fortified at an early date, 
■and the valley between them would be suburban to both. It would thus 
probably be the same as Josephus's " suburbs " (Autiquities xv. xi. 5), 
and perhaps the same as Parbar or the Subui'b mentioned in 1 Chron. 
jcxvi. 18 and 2 Kings xxiii. II. The Second City itself would thus be 
wii'tually separate, so as to justify separate rule, and would only need 
.'short east- and- west walls at its northern and southern ends to shut it 
in entirely. 

In Zeph. i. 10 the prophet is desci-ibing an invasion. Jerusalem, as 
was usual, is attacked on the north. There is first a noise from the 
Fish Gate, which for several independent reasons I should identify 
with the present Damascus Gate, at the head of the Tyropceau Yalley. 
Of consequence there is next a howling from the Second Jerusalem, 
for the forcing of the Fish Gate has brought the invaders into the 
Middle City. Next, the alarm having spread, there is a crashing of 
spectators from the hills which constitute the " thighs." Lastly, the 
inhabitants of Macktesh are to howl. Macktesh means a mortar or 
socket, and may be a name descriptive of the hollow at the junction 
of the three valleys — Hinnom, Tyropoean, and Kidron — where, perhaps, 
the wealthy people would live. Some place the King's Gardens near 
here. The inhabitants are to howl because " all the merchant people 
are cut down." Now, the sweep of the invaders has been down the 
'Tyropoean Yalley, and " Tyropcean " is thought by some to mean 
■" Valley of the Tyrian merchants.'' Another possibility is that 
Macktesh may have been one of the transverse valleys, since filled up, 
but rediscovered by Captain Warren. 

For different views, see Lewin's " Sketch of Jerusalem," pp. j3, .54, 
where " the second" is taken to mean Second Gate (from Fish Gate) ; 
and Thrupp's "Ancient Jerusalem," i^p. 11(3, 117, where the words of 
Zephaniah are supposed to indicate not the order of events, but the 
■order in which they would be discovered by a person in the Upper 
-City. 

George St. Clair. 



To the Editor of the " Qnarterly Statement" of the Palestine Exploration 

Fund. 

April 23rd, 1873. 
Sir, — Allow me to attempt a reply to the two queries of " H. 13." pub- 
lished in your last Qiiarter///. No doubt in the original of 2 Kings 
XX. 4, the Hebrew is "^''i'i^, which means the city, and not court. But 
•" H. B." seems to have overlooked that this is the Kcri (the reading in the 



118 SAMARITAN STONE. 

text), but that the Khetih (the marginal reading) is '^'J'^, which, means, 
court. This reading was evidently before the Greek translators, their 
rendering being, as observed by " H. B." av\r} (court), and not ttoMs (city).. 
Why the two readings should so greatly differ, and why the one is to be 
preferi-ed to the other, is a question the discussion of which I presume 
does not come within the province of your columns. In reference to 
the second query I beg to observe that the Hebrew word rendered in 
the authorised version " college" is Hjii; :n, which the Sejotuagint evi- 
dently considered as the name of a certain part of Jerusalem, and 
therefore did not translate it. The word in question being derived 
from the root ^JU/, to repeat, to do (a thing) over again, the rendering 
" second city" is correct, and seems to mean as much as our iSfeio 
Ton-n in contradistinction to the OhJ Toivn. Should it be the same 
which Josephus (Bell. Jud. v. iv. 2) calls KaivonoMs ? 

A. B. 



NOTE ON THE NEWLY DISCOYEEED SAMAEITAN 

STONE. 

Mr. Peitchett writes as follows : — 

" In Gaza there have been three Englishmen resident for eight years 
in charge of the telegraph station. One of them, my friend Mr. N immo,, 
received me as usual into his house, and very hospitably entertained 
Mr. Hamilton also. Another, Mr. Pickard, produced the stone which 
you mention, and Mr, Hamilton forwarded a squeeze of it to England. 
The stone had been accidentally found by men who were digging old 
foundations out of the sand for building materials, and Mr. Pickard 
broiight it from thence. There can be little doubt of obtaining more 
if proper measures are taken, — through Mr. Hamilton, for instance, 
Avho now knows the place and the people. The stone is carefully pre- 
served by Mr. Pickard." 

This is at present the only information we have, except the squeeze 
itself, of the stone. The squeeze has been very kindly given to the 
Society by Mr. Dunbar Heath, to whom Mr. Hamilton sent it. The 
inscription is a i^assage from Deuteronomy iv. 29 — 31. It has been 
suggested that the stone belonged to a Samaritan synagogue at Gaza. 
We shall probably be able to write more fully on this interesting stone 
in the next number of the Qvartcrhj. 



119 



ANNUAL GENEEAL MEETING, 
His Grace the Archbishop of York in the Chair. 

The Chairman : I will now call upon Mr. Holland, one of the Hon. 
Sees., to read the Eeport of the General Committee. 

The Eev. F. "W. Holland read the Eeport : — 

The work of the past year has been marked by continual and very- 
satisfactory progress. 

At the last Annual Meeting the Committee announced the resigna- 
tion of Captain Stewart in consequence of ill health, and the appoint- 
ment of Lieutenant Claude Conder, E.E., to take his place in charge of 
the Survey Expedition. Mr. Conder started for Palestine last July, and 
has since remained in command, having the valuable assistance of Mr. 
Tyrwhitt Drake. 

The Committee desire publicly to record their sense of the ability, 
activity, and zeal which both Mr. Conder and Mr. Drake have dis- 
played in the prosecution of the work. 

After three years of hard work in Palestine and Syria, Mr. Drake is 
now on his way to England for a well-earned holiday ; but will, it is 
hoped , shortly return to resume his labour. 

The two non-commissioned officers. Sergeant Black and Corporal 
Armstrong, have continued to give the greatest satisfaction to the 
Committee, as will appear from Mr. Conder's report, and the strength 
of the party has recently been augmented by the addition of Corporal 
Brophy, also of the Ptoyal Engineers. 

During the year 1872 the Triangulatiou and Survey covered 1,200 
square miles ; during the present year, up to the date of the last report 
received, 400 more square miles have been surveyed. 

The reports of the Survey and work in other directions have been 
published from time to time in the Quarterly Statements, which, in addi- 
tion to Messrs. Conder's and Drake's reports, have contained many 
interesting and important papers, such as that on the Meteorology of 
Palestine, by Mr. Glaisher and Mr. Buchan ; Captain Warren's list of 
Arabic names ; Mr. George Smith's account of the history of Palestine as 
given in the cuneiform inscriptions ; papers on the Hamath inscriptions, 
on the Shapira pottery from Moab, on the chronology of Palestine, and 
on varioiis discoveries at Jerusalem. 

To the writers of these papers, which have all been in-esented to the 
Society, the Committee have to express their warmest thanks. 

A very important list of probable sites awaiting identification, and 
suggestions for making further discoveries, has been laid before the 
Committee by M. Clermont-Ganneau, whose name is so well known in 
connection with the discovery of the famous Moabite Stone. 

M. Ganneau is most anxious to follow up his researches in Palestine, 



120 ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

v?hicTi liave liitterto been attended by sucb marked success ; and tlie 
^reat importance of liis suggestions lias led the Committee to arrange 
with him to go out again in October in their service, j)rovided that the 
necessary funds are forthcoming, and that the consent of his government 
is obtained, which they trust may be the case. 

The income of the Society during the year 1872 amounted, from all 
sources, to £3,317 Is. 2d. The expenditure included £2,837 9s. 8d. for 
exploration expenses ; £481 6s. for rent, salai-ies, advertising, and 
office expenses ; £92 Is. lOd. for postage (including the sending of the 
Quarterly Statements to all subscribers), and £281 7s. Id. 'for printing and 
lithographing, I.e., for publishing the'results of the work. 

In the autumn of 1872 the Committee published a new book, entitled 
" Our Work iu Palestine," which gives a clear and popular account of 
the work of the Palestine Exploration Fund since its foundation. 
Five thousand copies of this book have already been sold, and the sale of 
it still continues to be brisk. 

With regard to the present financial position of the Fund, the amount 
received since the last annual meeting has been £2,985 16s. 4d. 

The exi)enses of the Survey will amount to upwards of £2,400 during 
"the year, and the Committee have now to appeal for funds not only to 
comi^lete the Survey, but also to enable them to employ M. Ganneau 
for a year, that he may carry out the explorations which he has sug- 
gested, and which cannot fail to afford most valuable results. 

A very intei'esting exhibition in connection with the Fund has just 
been opened by the Committee at the Dudley Gallery, Egy^jtian Ilall, 
with the object of increasing the interest of the public in their work 
•■and promoting a better knowledge of the Holy Land and Jerusalem. 
Their special thanks are due to Mr. H. A. Harper for the loan of his 
■extremely beautiful and truthful water-colour sketches, which form an 
important feature in the exhibition ; also to Sir Henry James for the 
loan of models and photographs from the Ordnance Survey office ; and 
to M. Clermont-Ganneau, for the loan of a valuable collection of inscrip- 
tions, seals, &c. Amongst other things there are exhibited the newly- 
obtained casts of the Hamath Stones, a cast of the Deluge Stone from 
the British Museum, original Sinaitic inscriptions, models of ancient 
and modern Jerusalem, Mr. Condor's sketches of the Shapira pottery, 
and tracings of several sheets of the new map of Palestine, the making 
of which forms at the present moment the principal work of the Fund. 
These tracings, some of which are lying on the table before you, show 
clearly how accui-ately and well the Survey is being carried out ; and 
how far the new map, when completed, will not only surpass all 
previous maps of the Holy Land, but also bo in itself a complete work, 
leaving nothing further to be desired. 

The Committee have to deplore the loss of the following distinguished 
members of their body : Lord Ossington, who addressed the last annual 
meeting, and at all times took the warmest interest in the work, Mr. 
W. Tite, and the eminent Semitic scholar, I\Ir. Emanuel Deutsch. 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 121 

The following is a report, received from Lieutenant Conder, of the 
progress of the Expedition under his command during the past year. 

Lieut. Conder's REroRT. 

When last the subscribers gathered to hear the history of the work 
done daring tlie course of the year, the new expedition for the com- 
pletion of the Survey of Palestine had just received a very serious 
check — the Committee had been obh'ged to announce the resignation of 
Captain Stewart, and but for the energy of my present colleague Mr. 
Drake, who for six months worked on alone through some of the most 
difficult country in Syria whilst expecting my arrival, the undertaking 
must have come to an untimely termination. 

So small a party was probably never before entrusted with so impor- 
tant a work. It is but just to add that it is rarely that an officer 
can hope to command two men so thoroughly able and competent as 
Sergeant Black and Corporal Armstrong. The entire trustworthiness 
and soundness of Sergeant Black's work is a subject of the greatest 
satisfaction, and the zeal and pride in their work, and the quickness 
which both men have displayed in acquainting themselves with subjects 
entirely new to them, and in picking up the language, are points in the 
highest degree connected with the satisfactory nature of the report 
which I am able to lay before the Society. Palestine contains 6,600 
English square miles between Dan and Beersheba, the Jordan and 
the great sea. Of this we have, at the time I despatch this report, 
completed 1,615 square miles, or neaiiy a quarter of the whole. When 
I reached Palestine in the begijining of July, 1872, the part marked 
on the map between Jaffa, Jerusalem, and Nablus was complete, with 
the exception of the hill representation, giving an area of 560 square 
miles, and a monthly rate of 110 square miles. Commencing again 
about the middle of the month w^e worked without a break to the 
middle of December, and included Samaria, the great plain, Nazareth, 
and Carmel within our limits. The total was thus brought up to 1,250 
square miles, or more than one-fifth of the whole of Palestine — the 
work of four men in one year's time. The monthly rate during this 
second period was increased to over 140 square miles, and during the 
four weeks of September 150 square miles were finished, including the 
measurement of the " Base of Verification," near Jenin. 

The lateness of the rainy season made it impossible to begin in the 
field before the last day of February, yet notwithstanding the fact that 
the country near Athlit, Tantura, and Cesarea is far fuller of interesting 
relics than any part we had previously visited, we had added before 
moving to our twentieth camp at Mukhalid another 300 square miles, 
giving a monthly rate of 170 square miles, far beyond any former rate, 
and indeed not one to be expected in other parts of the country not 
including, as does the plain of Cesarea, long tracts of blown sand 
without habitations or ruins. But such a statement of the quantity 



122 ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

completed ■would not be a satisfactory one, if I were unable to 
report favourably as to the quality. That this should be superior 
to that of any former map of Palestine is but a poor recommenda- 
tion; our aim has been to make the production of a better, to the 
same scale, impossible. In September I was able to send news of 
the satisfactory nature of the great check on the work obtained by 
comparing the calculated length of the base line near Jenin with its 
actual measurement. In December I was farther able to explain how, 
starting fi'om a fixed latitude and longitude at Jaffii, we had carried 
oiu- triangulation over a length, of nearly 120 miles back to another 
fixed point at Acca, and had done so without error. Further details, 
and I feel sure not less satisfactory^ will be furnished when the calcu- 
lations in England are worked out. 

Of the actual execution of the work the tracings sent to England will 
give an idea. The credit is mainly due to the workmanship of my two 
men, as the representation of the hills is the only part which I can 
claim as my own handiwork. The method employed in this has been 
considered by competent authorities satisfactory for the purpose, but 
is, of course, different from that which will be used when the map is 
engraved. The original copies remain in our keeping, and the work 
upon tbem is perhaps better finished than was possible on a thinner 
paper. 

Some account of the method piu'sued in the outdoor survey may 
prove intei'esting to those who see merely the results in England. The 
average duration of a camp is three weeks, and theu* general distance 
apart twelve miles; but the amount of country which it is possible 
to survey from one centre differs according to its character and the 
situation of the camp, as regards the old work, from GO to 150 square 
miles. 

The first day is genei'ally devoted to preliminary arrangements, and 
to the calculation from astronomical observations of the latitude of 
the place, other observations being added for the correction of the 
chronometei's. 

Our first operations after this consist in the choice of good points, 
from which the country for a radius of ten or fifteen miles may be seen ; 
and in cases where such points are the highest to^DS of hills on which 
no building is found, they have to be visited, and a solid diystone cairn 
eight or nine feet high, whitewashed on such sides as point to other 
stations, has to be erected. In sandy ground this is superseded by a 
mound of sand and bushes piled to a sufficient height. In some cases 
an artificial tree is found most suitable for long-distance observations. 
In many places, however, the little square white tomb-house, with its 
round dome and overshadowing sycamore or carouba shining in the 
distance, indicates a good standing-ground for the theodolite. These 
are about as numerous and as useful to the surveyor as are the towers 
of our English parish churches. 

The points chosen, the theodolite is conveyed on the back of a mule 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 123 

to tlie spot, and every prominent object is observed, and its position 
Avith regard to the i)oiut of observation accurately determined. It is 
on these occasions that my colleague, Mr. Drake, collects the majority of 
the names, which are afterwards verified. This part of the work occupies 
about a week, and has lately given an average of ten hours per diem, 
of which six were consumed in riding to and from the point. 

These operations finished, and the skeleton of the map thus con- 
structed, the filling in of the detail next occupies our attention, and it 
is then that the greatest difficulty arises. A road (though generally a 
very bad one, yet better than none at all) leads to almost every im- 
portant point ; but where every inch of ground has to be gone over, it 
is, of course, impossible to follow one path. Cross-country work nov^ 
begiias, and tired horses have to be di-agged up and down places where 
at first sight it would seem impossible for them to move. Rocks and 
boulders, thistles 10ft. high, deep mud, treacherous marshes, thick 
coppice, and burning plains, all add to the difficulties of the work, and 
places which may afterwards prove important are so hidden away 
that their position could not be imagined till one came quite close. 
However, by degrees all is worked in roads, villages, ruins, rivers, and 
all the details you see on the map are fixed, hill slopes measured, t!:e 
geology examined, and collections increased. One day is then allowed 
.to ink in and finish the whole, and the tents are then immediately 
struck, and the round of labour begins again. 

My professional department is of course the only one for which 
I am responsible to the Society. Of the two important subjects of 
nomenclature and identification, it is not my duty to speak ; all con- 
cerning which I wish to assure- the Society is the thoroughness of that 
part of the aichajological department of our undertaking which it is mj' 
calling to superintend. Of the date or value of any particular ruin 
my opinion would of course not be considered of great importance, 
except in as far as any one must learn from a constant comparison of 
various examples of a few styles. Mine is the more modest task of 
preserving all necessary notes of the fast crumbling monuments of an- 
tiquity. We are instructed to discover, measure, and sketch all that 
remains of ruins, some over 2,000 years of age, which have been sub- 
jected in turn to the fury of contending nations, the violent action of 
sun, Avind, and rain, each more powerful than in more northern 
climates, and finally to the vandalism of the fellahin. I will briefly 
report on what we have done as regards these instructions. 

With the TOO square miles sent home from Haifa, I sent a return, 
briefly epitomised in the accompanying report. This return contained 
a notice of every ruin marked on the map between Nablus and Haifa, 
and it will perhaps be remembered that no less than 35 per cent, were 
mere heaps of water-worn ashlar, or grey mounds, where once a ruin 
had stood. In such cases it is of course impossible to do more than 
mark the place on the map and plans, as sketches would convey no 
valuable infoi-mation. Of the remaining relics, however, it is possible 



124 ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

to collect more than can be placed on the sheets and accordingly a plan 
of each, with sketches, sections, and drawings of details where neces- 
sary, has been made, and the whole are kept in one book, into which 
they are transcribed as soon as possible from the field note-books. 
This volume forms, as it were, the memoir to the map. Among 
its more important contents I may mention notes on the ruins of 
Cesarea (where we found the wall of Herod's temple to Csesar and 
Rome, and the famous drains at sea level mentioned by Josephus), 
those of Tautura and of Athlifc. Thi-ee great Roman aqueducts, 
a little temple near Jenin, Crusading forts at Tell Kaymun, 
Seffuryeh, Rushmia, Kakun Dustray, Shellaleh, and Kalensawyeh, and 
no less than 150 rock-cut tombs of every description. A similar return 
has been constructed of the country passed over before my arrival, but 
is not as yet complete, and several plans and sketches await the time 
when I revisit that part of the country to execute the hill shading. 
This portion of the work is further supplemented by special surveys on 
a large scale of such places of importance as Cesarea and Athlit, and 
finished scale plans of their remaining buildings. 

The meteorological observations, on the correct keeping of which. 
Mr. Glaisher, who first interested himself on the subject, will be able to 
report, have been kept with all iiossible regularity in our camp, and 
thanks to the exertions of Dr. Chaplin and of Dr. Varten, they have 
also been forwarded from Nazareth, from Jerusalem, and from Jaffa. 
At ]^eyrout they have been under Mr. Eldridge's care, and have 
no doubt been equally satisfactory. 

Oeoloijij. — The instructions with which I am furnished containing the 
combined experience of preceding expeditions, further direct my atten- 
tion to the geology and natural history of the country as collateral 
branches of investigation. The Society has, indeed, refused to content 
itself with other than professional work; but I hope that when the 
time comes for sending out a distinguished geologist, the geological 
map which I am constructing may prove of service in directing 
him to points of interest, and that observations made honestly will be 
verified by his researches. 

Natural Histdnj. — In natural history our attention has been chiefly 
confined to entomological collections and to the drying of plants. 
I may mention that a valuable collection of Orthoj^tera and Coleoptera 
is now being carried on at Jerusalem by Dr. Kersten, as the nucleus 
of a Jerusalem Museum, and that he has very kindly given me every 
possible assistance and much iiseful advice. 

I cannot close this report without touching on a subject which to me, 
as to all members of the Fund, is of the very highest interest. I mean 
the "Exploration of Jerusalem." The attention of the Fund has 
indeed been lately diverted from this centre, but I sincerely hope that 
the labours of Captain Warren are yet to be followed out, and that I 
may be allowed part in an investigation, the interest of which is to 
me personally far beyond that of anything in the country, and to 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 125 

the understanding of which I have ah-eady devoted more than five 
years of study. 

No one can visit Jerusalem without being impressed with the courage, 
endurance, and ability which must have been necessary to enable 
Captain Warren to vanquish the difficulties he had to encounter and to 
collect from such a depth of debris the valuable data we now possess. 
In the Haram enclosure there is but very little of importance which he 
has left to be done. To a few points specially indicated by him I have 
turned my attention, and have been able to make a more minute 
survey of the surface of the Sakhrah than seems to have been possible 
before. One point of the greatest interest yet remains unsolved : the 
Well of Spii-its below the rock is still a mystery, but great advances 
have been made in facilitating such investigations, and we need not 
yet despair of final success. Time will work wonders, and it must not 
be forgotten that money will do even more. 

There are yet two subjects of the most pai'amount importance to be 
examined in Jerusalem, and the interest they excite is not, I believe, at all 
diminished. The first is the claim which the venerable Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre asserts to be considered the true site of the Saviour's 
tomb; the second is the discovery of the royal sepulchres, in which 
David, Solomon, and their successors lay embalmed. It must be pretty 
generally understood by members of the Fund that the first question 
hangs on the discovery of the site of the starting-point of that " second 
wall " which at the time of the Crucifixion was the boundary of 
Jerusalem. I have already submitted to the Committee a plan for its 
determination, based on the apparently obvious method of finding the 
first wall first, and have been given to understand that its acceptation 
was only delayed by want of funds. 

As regards the tombs of the kings, I know of but one indication on 
which to work. Benjamin of Tudela, a traveller less credulous and 
ignorant than most of his immediate successors, graphically describes 
their accidental rediscovery in his own time by masons emploj'ed in 
the time-honoured custom of destroying ancient monuments by the 
demolition of the old Zion wall. Allowing for the natural exaggeration 
for which terror, darkness, and the rush of innvTmerable bats may 
account, there is but little reason to discredit the account. My proposal 
for the refinding of the tombs was to follow the example of these 
mediaeval workmen, starting from a fixed point at the modern Bishop's 
School, and tracing the Zion wall noi'thwards and eastwards — towards 
the city, and towards the ancient Ophel wall already discovered by 
Captain Warren. 

As regards the question of funds I have but little to say. The 
expenses of the survey are reduced to a minimum, and it has again 
and again been shown to subscribers that an increased yearly expen- 
diture for a shorter time is far more economical than the continuation 
of the present rate of work and of outlay for a period of five to six 
years. The Committee have been able to add one more member to my 



12G ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

party, but this is liardly sxxfficient to enable me to carry out tlie double 
party whicli I bad boped soon to organise. It must be remembered 
tliat this is simply a question of health. The climate becomes more 
trying to a European every year he remains in the country, and should 
the Society lose the services of either Sergeant Black or of Corporal 
Armstrong, now trained to the work and thoroughly competent, and 
lose them by failing to lighten and shorten their work, they will find 
it very difficult to supply the place of either without damage to the 
character of the wox'k. 

Could funds be collected for work in Jerusalem I should advise a 
partial break in the survey, for the reason that, situate as we are in 
remote corners of the country at a time when travellers are thronging 
into the city, the work of the Fund is but little known, and the large 
amount of interest which might be excited by a few tangible dis- 
coveries, which might be seen by every visitor, is entirely lost. 

In conclusion I may be allowed to direct the attention of the meeting 
to the valuable services rendered to the Fund by many residents in 
Palestine. 

The interest taken by Dr. Chaplin in our work, the care he has 
shovv'n to keep it before the eyes of the world in this country, Avhen 
we were imable to speak for ourselves, his long experience and great 
knowledge of every antiquarian subject connected with Palestine, 
without mentioning his unvarying courtesy and kindness, have been 
of the greatest service to ourselves and the Fund generally. 

In Herr Konrad Schick the Fund has also a most valuable repre- 
sentative. His patient labour, and the advantages he enjoys from 
his position in Jerusalem, have enabled him to do work which it 
would be impossible for any others to do. The diagram of rock levels 
throughout the city, which he has kindly prepared at my request, 
is probably the most important basis on which to begin a study of 
the ancient topography that has been obtained since Captain Wai'ren 
left the country. 

I have already spoken of Dr. Kersten, and must recognise the 
kindness of Mr. Zeller in supplying us with a list of names in the 
centre of Palestine, and in guiding u.s to the discovery of several 
important antiquities, which we could not have found for ourselves. 
From Mr. Elkavy, the Protestant missionary at Nablus, we also 
obtained a similar list, and received kindness and hospitality which 
v/ere most acceptable in our long journeys through the country. 

The general courtesy and ready help which we have met with 
fi'om Europeans in all quarters, and especially from Mr. Moore, in 
the arrangement of our little local difficulties, is also worthy of the 
gratitude of the Fund; and in conclusion my own personal thanks 
are due to Captain Wilson and Captain Warren for their kindness in 
supplementing my inexperience by their own professional knowledge 
and advice. 

The CiiAiEMAN : I can unfeignedly say that I occupy tho chair hero 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 127 

to-day witli something of shame and regret, because I wish that some one 
of those who have taken an active part in this work which we have 
carried on now for several years could, have replaced me on this occasion. 
I fear the sound of my voice must bo a weariness to you; but my right 
to stand here consists in this, — that I feel that I represent the general 
public who meet once a year to encourage the active workers in the scheme, 
and to hear from them what they have done. The Fund has now ex- 
pended a sum approaching £20,000 ; and for the first time we are obliged 
to say we feel a prospect of that alarming thing called a deficit. 
£20,000 is a large sum ; but when I think how easily this nation gets 
rid of £20,000 for objects which have no great meaning after all, I cannot 
help ui'ging the claims of this Fund, because we think the country can 
well afford it, and we think the object we have in view— that of making 
the words of the Sacred Book better understood — is a noble object, and 
one that is especially worthy of the peoj^le who have done more for the 
circulation of the Bible than any other people in the world ever did — 
the people of Great Britain. And when I say that we have expended 
£20,000, large as that sum is, I do not think the work will stand still 
because we have spent a great deal upon it. The object we are now 
engaged in is more interesting to men of science and cultivation than to 
the general public. History has something vague and unreal about it 
until you know the geography of the country in which the events of 
history have taken place, and not until you have a perfectly good map 
upon which the actors may stand does history become a reality. Well, 
it is the making of a perfect map of Palestine which has occupied us 
in the last year — not a map in which conventional mountains are laid 
down, nor yet a map constructed in that older fashion where monsters 
were exhibited as occui^ying large districts which were left blank — but 
a map which shall be a true picture of the country as it is now. One- 
fifth of this work is accomplished, as you will see on reference^to the 
map before you, and you have therefore to do the rest. We have to regret 
that this Fund has lost during the past year two of its most excellent 
friends and supporters. Last year, on a similar occasion to the present, 
my much-esteemed and valued friend. Viscount Ossington, addressed 
the meeting. No man in this country took a greater interest in the 
cultivation of the people, and as you are aware, he gave us the benefit 
of his support because he thought this Fund would do much to cul- 
tivate a knowledge of the Scriptures. Again, one of the best scholars 
we had among us at our former meetings was Mr. Emanuel Deutsch. 
He also has been taken away. His Oriental learning was extremely 
great : not a son of this nation, he was ours by adoption, and at all times 
took a great interest in the affairs of this Fund. Well, we have completed 
duriug^tho year one-fifth of the Survey of Palestine, and we have put 
forth [a new book — "Our Work in Palestine" — which the public 
evidently takes a great interest in — since it has purchased to the extent 
of 5,000 copies in a few months. This is a matter of congratulation to 
us, because the cii'culation of this book will do more to show what this 



128 ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

Fund has undertaken than the speeches here or anything else, "because 
it contains the travels and actual discoveries of the Fund's officers, and 
because it also gives conclusive evidence that the field of research is 
immense. Eegret has been expressed in the Report, and very naturally, 
that we have left our work in Jerusalem for the present ; but we hope to 
go on with it again. M. Clermont-Ganneau wishes to devote his time 
and attention to the researches promoted by this Association. There are 
difficulties in the way, but we trust that those who wish that Jerusalem 
should have a large part of their attention will be able to have their wish 
gratified. I will not trespass on you, or prevent other speakers 
addressing you, but I will remind you that this Society is established 
for the promotion of the study of God's holy Word; and it has done a 
good deal in that direction— first through the volume which I hold in 
my hand, and in the second place, as you will see by a glance at that 
map, in the Survey of the country, and, as you have heard in the lleport, 
by the prospect of its completion. There is a third point which should 
not be forgotten. Every society of this kind, besides the direct work 
which it does, promotes other work of the kind : it is like a beam of 
light ; though the ray of light itself is straight, it diffuses. 

Something should be said here of the researches of our excellent friend 
Canon Tristram in the land of Moab. His work on that land will show 
you what it is, and the kind of hopes that will rise up in the minds of 
travellers in connection with this Society. He discovered some ruins, 
for instance, where he found a temple of great magnificence and beauty, 
though for the most part ruined. But it was more than a beautiful 
temple : it belonged to no existing style of architecture, and was full of 
rich decoration which could not be classified. Imagine how our friend 
Mr. Fergusson would gloat over such a discovery. To connect this with 
any form of architecture a link was wanting. This Canon Tristram 
found. In a little church in Italy he discovered a triangular ornament, 
and there, behold, he recognised this fragment which he found in the 
Persian temple of Mashita. Now the question which it is my duty to 
put to you is, Will you help us a little more on the ground of what 
has been done ? Will you help us to prosecute these researches a little 
further, to illustrate the Book which is foremost in our interest and 
chiefest of our studies? There are plenty of results to be obtained, 
and if you will give your time and your money to the cause a great 
amount of success is certain to follow. (Cheers.) I ought to have called 
upon Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake himself to read his report, but he is not here 
to-day, and we are afraid he is unwell. I am, however, now going to 
mention a name which deserves the highest honour in connection with 
this subject. I will call upon my friend the Dean of Westminster to move 
the first resolution. (Loud cheers.) 

The Veky Reverend THE Dean of Westminster : My Lord Arch- 
bishop, Ladies and Gentlemen, — The first resolution which I have the 
honour to move is this, ' ' That this meeting, having heard with satisfac- 
tion the Report presented by the Committee of the progress of the Survey 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 129 

of Palestine, and of the operations of the Pund in other directions, 
pledges itself to use its iitmost endeavours to raise the necessary funds 
to carry on the work to a successful conclusion." Like tlie Archbishop, 
I have so often addressed you on these occasions, and so often used the 
same arguments, that I have the same diffidence in referring to them 
again ; but, nevertheless, one peculiarity of this Society is that it is per- 
I)etually discovering something fresh, and so supplies both your Grace 
and myself, and other speakers, witli fresh arguments on the objects it 
has accomplished. No doubt it is true, as has been said in the Report, 
and as your Grace has said, we have a little wandered from the original 
field of our object, the exploration of the city of Jerusalem ; and I have 
never wavered in my opinion that this is the part of Palestine wliich most 
demands exploration and investigation, and which is most likely to yield 
permanent and unexpected fruits ; but th.e very fact that we have this 
chief object always in advance of us is like the Holy Grail pursued by 
the Knights of the Eound Table, and may have the advantage of remind- 
ing us that, whatever other investigation wo take up, and however long 
we put off the exploration of Jerusalem, this ultimate goal is before us aa 
a perpetual incentive. I now turn to what has been done in the last year 
towards the completion of the map of Palestine ; and there are one or 
two things which occur to me to say on looking at that map. "When 
I look at that black line which indicates what we have accomplished, 
it is interesting to think that our Society has done so much, for in one 
sense that is the most interesting part of Palestine. But to me personally 
it is the least interesting part, because I know it best. What I want to 
see explored is not the western part of Palestine ; I am burning to see that 
which I do not know, and what I do desire to see is the completion of 
the Survey on the east of the Jordan ; the extension of that black line to 
the end of that blue streak, which represents the chasm of the Jordan 
Valley. We are in the habit at these meetings of using a little exagge- 
ration in saying that very little or nothing has been done by previous 
travellers, but I think that is an error. In a general sense we do know 
a great deal about Western Palestine. No doubt even there we want 
precise knowledge. Nevertheless our enemies, if there be such wicked 
people in the world — our enemies might say that of the western side 
of the Jordan we have a very fair knowledge. But when you pass that 
black line, and cross the valley of the Jordan, we know— I am not sure 
whether I ought to be sorry to say it — but wo know very little indeed. 
I may just mention one single instance, if you will allov/ me, to sho-W 
you the incompleteness of our knoAvledge of Eastern Palestine. One oi 
the most interesting scenes in sacred history is the meeting of Jacob with 
his brother Esau, as described in the book of Genesis ; and never having 
been on the cast of Jordan, I wished to make out exactly what the 
place of that event, and the nature of the scene, and in the first 
instance the precise nature of the valley of the Jabbok. But on turn- 
ing to the word "Jabbok" in Dr. Smith's Dictionary of the Bible I 
found that all reference to the peculiarities of the stream, or indeed to 



130 ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

the scene itself, was entirely passed over. I then went to the Speaker's 
Commentary (and in mentioning that honoured name I would add the 
echo of my humble testimony to what your Grace has said of the great 
loss we all sustained), but here there was not one word of explanation 
of any kind. I then looked to books of travel which have touched 
upon it, but not even with the help of these could I form to myself any 
fixed, certain notion of what the place was like. I mention this because 
this was an incident that would certainly be brought out in a map, and 
we should have the whole thing placed before us very difEerently to the 
inadequate way in which it is put before us at present. So much for a 
negative proof of what we want. Now let us give two positive proofs of 
what may be gained by exploration on the east of the Jordan. I refer with 
great pleasure, in his presence, to Canon Tristram's " Land of Moab." 
I will not here repeat what your Grace has said of the Palace of Chosroes. 
I will only say that the discovery of the palace of that great king of 
Persia is most oi^portune at the moment that his successor is landing on 
our shores. But there are two localities described in that book which 
are connected with the Old and New Testament history. One is 
Callirhoe, the hot or cold bath to which Herod the Great was brought 
at the end of his life, which has only been described, and that but slightly, 
by one previous traveller, and any spot more romantic, more beautiful, 
than this wild glen, as represented by Canon Tristram, I cannot imagine. 
The other is Machserus, the castle in which John the Baptist was beheaded; 
most interesting on that account alone, but which never has been 
described before by any one. I am therefore thoroughly satisfied that 
the completion of this Survey is one of the most important things we 
have to do. I will only, in conclusion, say that I am glad we have been 
able to enlist another nation than ourselves in this great object, in 
the person of M. Clermont-Ganneau, and although we shall always [have 
the credit of having commenced this Fund and kept the fire burning, 
yet we do not grudge other nations the credit of any assistance they 
may give in carrying out what -we have begun. (Cheers.) 

Mr. "Walter Morrison : My Lord Archbishop, Ladies and Gentle- 
uien, — I have been called upon at a very short notice to second this reso- 
lution, and to supply the place of Mr. George Grove, whose name is so 
well known to Biblical scholars. Mr. Grove has been unavoidably kept 
from coming here to-day, as we have received a message from him to 
State, by that cause which is upsetting all the arrangements of English 
society— namely, the Shah of Persia, who, as you are aware, is going 
down to the Crystal Palace next week. We have also much to regret 
the absence of Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake. We arranged this meeting at a time 
when we fully expected him, but, as you know, the climate of the East is 
one that tries and tells upon European constitutions. It has been neces- 
sary for him to come over for his health's sake, and he arrived at Trieste 
on Tuesday last. We have sent a telegram to him, but no answer has 
come, and we are afraid that ho is laid up by some serious illness. Com- 
ing now to the resolution which it is my duty to second, let mo refer to 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 131 

the remarks which have been made by the Dean of Westminster as to 
the change which has taken place in our operations. This change has 
been pressed upon us by many of our subscribers. When we estab- 
lished this Society seven years ago we set before ourselves three objects 
— one of which was the preparation of a map of the country, and we 
thought those who would have joined us required something in return 
for their money in the way in which thoy would liko to see it expended. 
And another reason which influenced the Committee when it was pro- 
posed to change our plan of operations was, that we have been in the 
habit of receiving subscriptions from our cousins across the Atlantic. 
They, however, suggested that they had better got up a society of their 
own; we therefore offered to divide the Exploration of Palestine with 
them, and offered them the East of Jordan. After we had done that came 
the discovery of the Moabite Stone. Our American friends were 
anxious to explore their part of the country, and we felt that we 
had no right to trespass on their portion of the Survey. However, 
we have gone on with our work, and out of 6,600 square miles 
of country Lieutenant Conder has finished the survey of 1,650 square 
miles, and I think that is not an unsatisfactory amount of work to have 
finished during the comparatively short time we have been at work. 
Roughly speaking, Palestine is about the size of the principality of Wales, 
and if you will come and look at the work on this table you will find 
that there is no shortcoming to be complained of at all. You must 
recollect that our surveying work is not merely confined to the part 
within that black ribbon, because it includes the part completed by 
Major Wilson and Captain Anderson, and portions of the Jordan Valley 
surveyed by Captain Warren, the Admiralty Survey, with Lynch's 
Survey of the Dead Sea, so that even if we were to come to a termi- 
nation of our Survey now we should have a much better map of 
Palestine than could have been thought of ten years ago. I have the 
honour to occupy the position of Treasurer to the Fund, and I would 
ask the meeting to think especially of the concluding part of the reso- 
lution which I have seconded — namely, that it "pledges itself to use 
its utmost endeavours to raise the necessary funds to carry on the 
work to a successful conclusion." In changing our observations from 
Jerusalem to the Survey of the country we have gone aside from a 
sensational work to one of a different nature, because it requires a 
certain amount of thought and abstraction to realise the difficulty of 
completing a survey of this kind. Palestine has been frequently visited 
in recent years, particularly by tourists, who pass through the country 
every year, but until we commenced our excavations travellers only 
passed along the main streams and the beaten tracks. One of the inci- 
dental advantages of our Survey is that we can prove a series of nega- 
tives. Thus we have shown, which is in itself a most valuable piece of 
knowledge for future explorers, that there are certain districts in which 
nothing can be discovered. When we cover Palestine with triangles of 
fifteen miles from point to point it is extremely improbable that anything 



132 a:^nual general meeting. 

of importance can escape tlie attention of the explorer, and wlien a given 
district is thus thoroughly explored, it is a guide to future explorers not 
to wait there, but to seek elsewhere. On the other hand, if ruins are 
found which have never been visited before, it is likely that they will 
give a clue to identify other sites as well. With regard to the proposed 
arrangement with M. Ganncau, he is one of the most competent men to 
make discoveries in the Holy Land ; he is a man of recognised ability, 
and has long had an official residence in Palestine, and has since been 
made dragoman to the Prench Embassy at Constantinople. He has first 
of all the advantage of knowing intimately the current dialect of Pales- 
tine, he has been accustomed to deal with the people, ho knows who to 
put questions to, and how to get information without putting leading 
questions ; and it would be of the utmost value that Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake 
and Lieutenant Conder should have a gentleman like M. Ganneau to 
support or criticise the conclusions to which they have arrived. This 
matter, however, is still in nuhihus, and it depends on the French autho- 
rities whether we shall have his services or not. I can say no more at 
present, except that I hope those present will endeavour to persuade 
their friends to come forward to help us with the work we have in hand. 
It is true that our funds are not in a satisfactory state, but we are com- 
mitted to the work, and must go on with it, and I hope the public will 
come forward and prevent us from being disgraced. (Cheers.) The 
resolution was unanimously carried. 

The Eev. Cakon Tristram : The resolution which I have the honour 
to move is this, — " That this meeting hails with pleasure the announce- 
ment that a preliminary American Expedition has commenced its work 
of exploration on the east of Jordan, and trusts that the two sister 
Societies will always continue to work heartily together." I might 
almost say that my friend the Secretary had had a little satirical humour 
in his mind, in selecting me, who have just been pioneering east of 
Jordan, to propose this resolution ; but I do it with a good feeling, and 
with a cordial conviction that our American friends are likely to do a 
good work in Palestine, and that they are the men to do it. Four-and- 
twenty years ago, when I was in America, and when the rush was made 
to Minnesota and Iowa, no attention was devoted to the east, but every 
eflPort was made to get farther west ; but now we find the Americans 
have reached their western limits, and, turned back by the waves of the 
Pacific, have determined to be foremost in tho eastward march. I do 
not know that they will get ahead of us in that way, for we have been 
the real and true pioneers in Palestine exploration. Yet there are no 
three men of modern times who have dono so much in their several 
departments, and who have dono that work so well, as Dr. Eobinson, 
liieut. Lynch, and Dr. Thompson, and they were Americans. Right glad, 
therefore, are we to find that their mantle has descended on worthy suc- 
cessors. Let not our Transatlantic cousins fancy that we have forestalled 
them in Moab. Though I have just returned from an expedition 
thither, I feel our party have only been as Uhlans prospecting the 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 133 

ground, and making a reconnaissance for the regular army of explorers 
that is to follow. We have at least, I hope, drawn attention to the work 
that remains to be done east of Jordan, and which I fancy rather exceeds 
the expectations even of my friend Mr. Besant himself. Of the eleven cities 
up to this time unknown, we have only succeeded in placing four, leaving 
still seven for the investigation of the American expedition. Again, 
south of the Arnon and eastward of the Moabite mountain range, the 
ground is quite untouched, and the followers have a virgin field. I 
have great pleasure in moving — " That this meeting hails with pleasure 
the announcement that a preliminary American Expedition has com- 
menced its exploration on the east of Jordan, and trusts that the two 
sister Societies will always continue to work heartily together." 

Dr. BiKcn : My Lord Archbishop, Ladies and Gentlemen, — It affords 
me great pleasure to rise to second the resolution. At a former meeting 
of this Fund I seconded a similar resolution ; and I am gratified to find 
that the American branch, or sister Society, has undertaken the investi- 
gation of the country east of Jordan, and that they are willing to deal 
in a most liberal spirit with ourselves. With Palestine proper, as has 
been well detailed by the Dean of Westminster, the world is well 
acquainted. There were, however, some peculiarities about the ancient 
Hebrew people. I believe they did not use inscriptions so extensively 
as other nations of the world ; and few have been found in Palestine 
itself ; but it is not so in Moab and east of Jordan. Only there is one 
caution necessary to be observed. If there are any spurious monuments, 
or monuments of doubtful antiquity, it will require not only considerable 
leai-ning, but considerable archaeological experience, to avoid being 
defrauded. Some of the things, sketches of which are now exhibited 
in the Dudley Gallery, profess to come from Moab, and the question is 
how far that is true. The country east of Jordan is, of course, a country 
of extreme interest, and it is to be hoped that the Surveys of the two 
Societies will be carried on in the same manner. That, I have no doubt, 
the Society has arranged. It is also to be hoped that they will note 
all the monuments they find, and collect such fragments as may be 
discovered in order to fix dates. The difficulties of exploring Jerusalem 
are very great, because you must go under the rock, and great obstruc- 
tion must arise in carrying on operations under such conditions. 
Jerusalem is a city which has been subject to an infinite number of 
adversities. It seems to have been swept of ancient remains, and with 
the exception of those of the Eoman period very few remain, particularly 
of the times of the Kings. Some, however, have been found, and there 
is no reason why other monuments may not be found in future explora- 
tions. At the same time the portions hitherto explored have not been 
very prolific. For these reasons I think we ought to haQ with the 
greatest satisfaction the work carried on by the American Society, and 
wish them God-speed upon their way. (Cheers.) 

The proceedings ended by a vote of thanks to the Chairman, pro- 
posed by Lord Alfred Churchill, and seconded by Mr. Mac- 

GREGOR. 



Quarterly Statement, October, 1873.] 



THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND, 



PREFACE. 

The report of Lieut. Conder, dated June 21st, 1873, contains an 
account of the filling up of the Survey -svest of the watershed to the 
old boundary, leaving only a few weeks' work on the Plain of 
Sharon. From the work Mr. Conder has selected twelve places 
(plans and sketches of some of them have since been received at the 
office) for special report : of these only two sites were previously 
known, and the identification of the remaining ten remains to be 
ascertained. The remains at Dayr Asruhr are exceedingly interest- 
ing, especially if, as Lieut. Conder thinks, they prove to be of 
Herodian date. It is illustrative of the need of such a Survey as 
ours that this splendid ruin, standing on a hill only ten or twelve 
miles from Nablus, should have wholly escaped observation. It con- 
sists of a street with houses, cisterns, and towers, a public building 
of some kind, and the remains of a wall. These ruins will probably 
be visited again. At Dayr Allah our party found the ruins of 
another Eoman town, but not in so good a state of preservation. 
Tombs of three kinds (see Quarterly Statement, Jan., 1873, p. 23) 
were found at Kh. Fakhakhir ; buildings of apparently Eoman date 
were found at Karawa ibn Hassan. Sergeant Black discovered 
also here a very remarkable tomb called the Dayr el Derb, while 
Corporal Armstrong discovered another equally curious, though not 
so largo, at Kh. Kurknsh, in the wildest part of the hills. The 
tombs at Abud described in this report were visited by Major Wilson 
in 1866, as was also Tibneh, where is the traditional tomb of 
Joshua. Lieut. Conder's account of this wiU ,be read with the 
greatest interest. "We must call attention especially to his tracing 
of the old Eoman road. Those who have read the volume issued 

m: 



136 PREFACE. 

last year by tlie Committee, " Our Work iu Palestine," will 
remember tbe Eoman road in tlie old maj), there reproduced from 
the Tabulae Peutingeriana?. It branches off at Goj)hna (there spelt 
Cophna), and while one road continues straight through Neapolis 
to Cffisarea, the other strikes west to Lydd (Luddis), and then 
turns north to Ctesarea. It was by this latter road that Saint Paul 
Avas taken by night to Antipatris (Kefr Saba). Captain Anderson 
surveyed it as far as Abud, where Lieut. Conder has taken it np 
and traced it in its two new branches, both of which are rudely 
represented in the " Tabula?," till he lost them in the plains. 

Our illustration this quarter gives the result of Mr. Schick's long- 
continued examination of the rock levels of Jerusalem. It contains 
the rock levels found by Major "Wilson, Captain Warren, Mr. Schick 
himself, and the latest work in the city. From these observations, 
about two hundred in number, Mr. Schick has constructed a model, 
now in the office of the Fund, and Lieut. Conder has made the 
contour map of the city which accompanies his memoirs on the 
subject. 

The notes on Lieut. Conder' s Baalbec report do not properly 
belong to the work of the Fund, as Baalbec lies out of our district. 
It may be remembered that more than a year and a half ago letters 
appeared in the Times calling attention to the danger threatening 
the columns, and it was then resolved, before the American Expedi- 
tion went out, that the officer in charge of the Survey shoidd be 
asked to report, whenever practicable, on the actual condition of the 
ruins. 

Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake, whose health required a visit to England, 
has now returned to Palestine completely restored. M. Clermont- 
Ganneau goes out immediately. lie will begin his work at Jeru- 
salem itself. 



THE SURVEY OF PALESTINE. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE E. CONDER'S EEPORTS. 

XIY. 
J3ELAD EL Jemain Tani beni Sab — Unexploeed CoU]S"TEY. 

Beykout, June 21st, 1873. 

Beport of Progress. — Since reporting ontlie work done njp to our camp 
at Mukhalid ovir time lias been so fully employed, the amount of work 
so large, and the rate so rapid, that I have been altogether unable to 
attend to anything beyond the management of the field work and of the 
expedition generally. 

The rate of work has been very satisfactory, and far beyond anything 
I expected with my original party. The country gone over is almost 
entirely unknown, and thus 1 hope the present report will be of greater 
interest than any I have yet sent in. 

Leaving on the 7th of May our camp at Mukhalid, we established 
ourselves at Kefr Zebad Bidyeh and Rantis, breaking off work finally 
on the 7th of June, and retiring to Lebanon to pass the hottest portion 
of an exceptionally hot summer. In that time we succeeded in bringing 
the work back to its old boundaiy, filling in all the hill country W. of the 
watershed, and only leaving some three weeks' work in the plain of 
Sharon, which Dr. Chaplin forbade us to undertake so late in the year. 
The Ordnance Survey thus extends over 1,800 square miles, 3-llths 
of the whole area of Palestine, whilst the monthly rate since leaving 
Haifa has been close upon 180-89 miles, being treble that originally 
obtained, and an increase of nearly 30 per cent, on the maximum which 
I was able to reach last year. This result cannot fail to be encouraging 
to all concerned. Were my party doubled by the addition of one more 
N.C.O. before the recommencement of our work, I think I could almost 
promise an average rate of 240 square miles per month, which would 
represent the comi^letion of the map in two years, working ten months 
in the year. 

The following plans and sketches are obtained, and at Damascus I 

hope we shall have time to work them out. 

1. Dayr Asrulir. — Remains of a large town, probably of Herodiau 

period. Plans of the two principal buildings. Sketches of 

detail. Special survey of the whole site. Plans of rock-cut 

tombs. 



138 LIEUT. CLAI'DE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

2. Kh. Kurhush. — A cemetery of well-finislied tombs. Plans, sketclies, 

measurements of details, &c. 

3. Karawa ihn Hassan. — Plan and sketches and details of a very fine 

tomb, well preserved. Plan of a cliurcli (?). Two crusading 
buildings in the town. 

4. Mol-at'a Abud. — A cemetery of well-finished tombs. Plans. Mea- 

sured sketches of detail. Painted interior, -well executed in 
cement. Greek church in village. 

5. Tilneh. — Special sui'vey of the site of town. Plan of so-called 

Joshua's tomb. Sketch of the exterior. 

6. Dayr Kalu'ah. — A finely-preserved oth century monastery. Plan, 

elevation, sketches of detail, ornamentation of chapel, &c. 

7. Bayr Sam'an. — A similar building, less well preserved. Plan and 

details. 

8. Dayr Arraleh. — A similar building. Plan alone traceable. 

9. El Duayr. — Similar building, but smaller plan traceable. 

10. Kh. Fahhakhtr. — Tombs, and a building, possibly a synagogue. 

11. Dayr Allah. — Remains of a town, with a small temple, close to the 

Roman road to Jaffa. 

12. Nebi Yahyah. — Plan, section, and measurements of all the details. 
Of this list of places visited, surveyed, and measured during the 

course of one month, only two sites were previously known, the rest 
are, I think I may state with some certainty, quite new discoveries. I 
am sorry I cannot add an inscription to the list. 

In geology we have found two more basaltic outbi'eaks, and collected 
some valuable fossils. 

The reasons for the increased rate of work are various. The triangu- 
lation has occupied much less time than it did at first, because the 
triangles have been larger, the points therefore fewer ; because on the 
east we had a mimber of old points which it was not necessary to visit 
in order to be certain of their suitability, and because of a very strict 
economy of time in the arrangements, the number of days consumed 
by this part of the work being reduced to a minimum. Then, also, 
the detail has been more rapidly pushed on, partly because of greater 
practice, partly by reason of the large tracts of sandhills along the sea- 
coast, which can be very rapidly surveyed. The addition of Corporal 
Brophy to the party cannot be counted, as he has not as yet been able 
to assist ; nor does the execution of a share in the sketching by myself 
from the last two camps make any very large difference; the work as 
it stands is that of the original party of last year. Against the facilities 
of work must be balanced certain disadvantages : the unusual number 
of plans and special surveys which it was necessary to make ; the greater 
lieat on the low hills and in the plains, with mirage consequent to it ; 
finally, the extremely wild and difficult nature of the country through 
which we passed last. 

A Bhort description of the principal sites mentioned in the above 
list may prove of interest; they include towns, cemeteries, roads, and 
convents. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 139 

Dayr Asriihr. — Tliis interesting site, for wliicli I obtained foiir various 
names, of which that chosen seems to me the most probably ancient, is 
situate on a hill aboiit ten or twelve miles W. of Nabliis, in a fine and 
•commanding position. It seems to have altogether escaped notice, and 
perhaps from this reason is in a better state of preservation than any- 
similar ruin in the country. Of the character of the details an archaeo- 
logist alone can judge, but 1 think I may venture to assert that it dates 
■as far back as Herodian times, an opinion strengthened by the discoveiy 
of a much-defaced bronze coin of the time of the Roman emperors — the 
reverse a Avreath with S C, the obverse a head. 

The ruins occupy about a square mile, and seem to have been surrounded 
with a wall. A large building facing north and south exists at the 
north-west corner of the town, and a second, facing at 107 " on the 
compass, is found ou the east. The north wall of the former is stand- 
ing in parts to a height of 23ft., and a fine solid semicircular arch, 
I4ft. span with 13 voussoirs, marks the position of an entrance. The 
rubbish in this part, which is level with the springing of the arch, 
must be of some considerable depth. The site, if identified, might be 
worth special study and excavation. The wall consists of stones of 
fair size, well cut and laid. The height of the courses is very irregular, 
and many stones are of great length as compared with their height. 
Of those measured at the corner the length varied from oft. 3in. to 
1ft. 6in., and the height from 1ft. llin. to 3ft. 5in. They all appear to 
have been drafted, a well-finished shallow draft, 2in. to 3iin. broad, the 
central boss being well worked to a perfectly plane face. In many 
cases the draft is hardly traceable from age, and this, in connection 
with the finer finish, the imusual proportions, the semicircular arch, 
and the flat lintels and classic mouldings of the doors to the rest of the 
building, make me suppose the masonry far older than the coarser and 
rustic work of the Crusaders who built Athlit and Cajsarea. The build- 
ing seems to have been unsymmetricalin plan, with a large hall leading 
through to the southern door, the jambs of which still remain, whilst 
on the west three entrances led to smaller apartments. The east wall 
is not traceable above ground. 

Passing along what seems to have been a street, with well-built 
houses, cisterns, and small towers, the foundations alone remaining, we 
find on the cast the remains of what I siippose must have been a public 
building, though it can hardly have been a temple, facing, as it does, 
roughly Avestward, but not exactly to any cardinal point. It appears 
to have stood in a court, surrounded by a terrace wall of fine masonry ; 
the walls are still standing for two or three courses, and are nearly 
7ft. thick. The building is 65ft. long and 44ft. broad, the most 
ourioiis detail which one at first notices being two great blocks nearly 
10ft. high, but only 2ft. square, which stand up in situ at the north-west 
and south-west corners. Their bases are below the general level, and are 
ornamented with a classic moulding. 

I should imagine that the floor within this building was at a higher 



140 LIEUT. CLAUDE H. CONDEr's RErORTS. 

level, and that steps ox-if?inally led up in front, but the accumulation of 
rubbish does not allow of this being well seen. A cross wall forms a 
sort of porch or Pronaos, thus giving the impression that this was a 
temple. A large block fallen within measures lift, in length. Various 
shafts, about 2ft. diameter, lie without, hence one is led to suppose 
that there were three walks about 10ft. wide, as thus only could the 
width be spanned ; excavation might bring to light the bases of these 
pillars. I noticed a curious indented joint or joggle in the exterior 
Avail, of which I retained a sketch ; it disturbs tlie horizontal joint as 
well as the vertical. We further found a stone, 5ft. long and about 2ft, 
square, Avith a flat pilaster cut on either side, with a base and capital 
of debased, or Jewish classic appearance, cut in low relief. From its 
size this must have either belonged to a window or to a set of pillars in 
a second order, or clerestory. Eemaius of a tesselated pavement also- 
exist. This building stands above a deep broad valley, on the opposite 
side of which are well-cut rock tombs, with loculi placed parallel ta 
their walls — the cemetery of the town. Following the wall we find 
cisterns, birkets, a, small tower of stones over 10ft. long, and a little 
vault or tomb into which two columns have fallen. Vaults are said ta 
exist below the town, but this is unlikely. On the south-Avest and Avest 
the rock is scarped below the apparent remains of a wall, and a projec- 
tion in one part seems to have supported a small turret. 

These notes, I imagine, will lead to the conclusion that Ave have here 
recovered an interesting and perhaps important site. 

Dayr Allali. — This also seems to have been a Roman town, but 
smaller, and with no signs of such fine buildings having existed in it. 
The ruins extend over about 300yds. length and breadth, the principal 
being walls of fair-sized stones undrafted, and a door with a plain lintel 
7ft. long. Tnvo bases of pillars belonging to some building facing east 
remain, they are 6ft. apart, and lO^in. diameter. Several shafts and 
capitals of a very curious character lie near. This appears to have 
been the temple. 

This site is situate close to the Roman road, which we have now 
traced to the plain, the famous road to Antipatris which Captain 
Anderson surveyed as far as Tibneh. From this point it continues along 
the ridge until it arrives near the village of 'Abud. Here it separates 
into tAvo, the first passing along the ridge and leaving, just to the south, 
the tombs of Avhich I shall shortly speak, descending a broad valley 
and continuing its course till it reaches the plain near Mejdel, south of 
Ras el 'Ain ; the second descending at once from 'Abud, and passing 
Rantis and Dayr Allah, is lost in the plain. This branch evidently led 
from Jaffa, and formed one of the lines to Jerusalem, a second more 
direct existing i'arther south. 

Nothing is more striking than the contrast between such a road and 
the modern Arabic highways. Tlie llonians, as well for military as for 
engineering reasons, followed the ridges, avoiding the highest points,. 
and gradually descending the valleys where necessary. The masterly 



LIEUT. CLAUDE K. CONDEr's REPORTS. 141 

mannei" in wliicli they arc engineei'cd In a country so difficult as is the 
mountain district of Judasa might give valuable indications for the con- 
struction of future roads, which might be simjjly reconstructions on the 
same line. An Arabic road meanders in a meaningless manner over 
hill and valley, now plunged between heights too distant for the advanc- 
ing party to occupy easily, then climbing straight over a summit 
without any very apparent reason. The Roman roads were very care- 
fully made, the rock being covered with a regular pavement of partly- 
dressed stones still remaining in places. This, with the existence of 
side walls in some cases, and of broken and effaced milestones, enables 
us easily to distinguish them. Of all roads they are i^robably, how- 
ever, the worst in the country to follow in their present state, as, the 
pavement being gone, nothing but flat slabs of slippery rock is left, on 
which the horses stumble fearfully. Another of these roads, leading 
from Samaria to Kur, has also been recognised by its pavement and 
engineering. It is doubtful whether they were intended in all cases for 
chariots, though those in the plain show marks of wheel ruts in many 
places. 

Kh. FahTiahlur. — Tombs of three kinds exist here. The ordinary 
Jewish tomb, with loculi running in fiom the sides of the chamber ; the 
sunken tomb, with loculi on each side and a heavy block covering it 
above; finally, a species of tomb uncommon in the country we have 
gone through : they are cut in detached rocks, and consist of an arch 
8ft. diameter and 6ft. deep, thus forming an alcove of a semicircular 
section open in front. The tomb itself is sunk in the floor of the 
alcove, and was covered with a slab ; a niche for a lamp is generally 
found at the back. Fragments of sarcophagi, Avith lids and ornamented 
sides, exist near, and amongst the ruins is a building about 50ft. square, 
facing apj)roximately to the cardinal points, and divided into three 
walks by pillars, the northern row consisting of four, the southern of 
two, with a partition wall occupying the position of the others. The 
pillars are 7ft. Gin. high, and 18in. diameter, with base and capital of 
very simi^le mouldings in low relief. The plan is rendered irregular by 
the addition of a small chamber at the south-east corner. In the walls, 
the foundation of which only remains, a stone "was observed 2ft. Gin. 
long, with a draft of the ordinary dimensions, and a w^ell-finished 
face. The entrance to the building must have been on the west, but 
there seems reason to conjecture that this may have been a small 
synagogue. 

Kardwa ihii Hassan. — This village was originally named according to 
the Shaykh Sham el Tawil, and contains two large buildings, probably 
of Roman origin, the one being a reconstruction, the other an original 
edifice. The former is a fine tunnel vault, the door spanned by a lintel 
covered with defaced ornament, whilst drafted and undrafted stones, 
portions of a cornice, and on one stone an inscription which appears to 
be Cufic, are built into the outer wall indiscriminately. The second 
building, forming a modern residence, is a fine tower about 40ft. square, 



l-i2 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CGNDEr's REPORTS. 

the walls standing to tlie height of from 20 to 30ft, and the interior 
divided into six vaulted apai-tments, which are used as storehouses; 
these are all roofed in tunnel vaults, with semicircular arches of mode- 
rate masonry. The stones of the outer wall vary in length from 18in. 
to 5ft., and in height the same ; all are surrounded by a boldly-cut 
draft an inch deep and 4 inches broad ; the joints are well laid with a 
thin bed of good mortar, and the faces are finished plane. There is, 
however, no further indication of the date of the building, but no rubble 
such as the Crusaders generally mixed with their ashlar is visible in 
any part. 

A third rain exists under and beside the mosque, which is a large one, 
and there seems to me great probability of its having been a chm-ch, 
though subsequently used as a birket. It is now sunk below the sur- 
face, which no doubt has risen ; it faces east and west, and is built of 
fine undrafted masonry with slightly projecting pilasters of classic profile ; 
the height of the courses of masonry is very irregular, but the joints 
are finely cut. A cross wall of later date shuts ofi" the east end at a 
distauce of about -lOft., but a great vault, probably the apse, is reported 
to exist under the mosque. Fragments of cement adhere to the walls 
but form no part of the original design. 

Within half a mile of this village, where Christian and Eoman re- 
mains seem thus mingled together, Sergeant Black discovered a tomb, 
perhaps the most perfect, as a type, in the country, which is known 
locally as the Dayr el Derb (a meaningless name, probably not ancient). 
A well-executed frieze of Doric style, the tryglyphs separating rosettes 
all of different character, runs along the scarped face of the rock for 
about 50ft. ; the porch is supported by two Ionic columns and two 
Doric pilasters of that peculiar type which Mr. Ferguson refers to 
Herodian times. The interior chamber contains thi'ee Jewish loculi 
at its further end, whilst two side chambers, one unfinished, were made 
in the second fashion, with sarcoj^hagi pai-allel to the sides. The work- 
manship throughout is excellent, the chambers large and higher than 
usual ; the walls of the porch are cut to represent drafted masonry, as 
in the Tombs of the Judges. The frieze is not quite finished, and is 
broken in the middle, whilst one of the side chambers is still impei'fect, 
but with these exceptions a finer and more comi>lete monument I have 
not yet seen in the country. 

It is curious that where so much labour has been bestowed on the 
work not a letter of inscription was cut to commemorate the dis- 
tinguished family for whom it must have been prepared ; but this is 
always the case it would seem in Palestine, as in the instances of nearly 
all the tombs at Jerusalem already known. 

Kit. Kurl-Hsli. — Hidden away in the wildest part of the hills, sur- 
rounded with deep ravines, and at some distance from any spring or 
niin, Corporal Armstrong came upon another group of tombs, one 
being almost as perfect as, though smaller and less well executed, than 
the Dayr el Derb. The principal t jmb has the same arrangement, but 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDEr's REPORTS. 143 

is peculiar in having two recesses cut in the sides of the porch ; the 
shafts of the central column are gone, the Ionic capitals remain, the 
side pilasters are seemingly unfinished, the door is ornamented with a 
semi-classic entablature in low relief. One peculiarity which is very 
puzzling is the appearance of a number of rough scrawls cut on pillars 
and walls in every direction ; they represent camels, goats, cows, men 
riding donkeys, Sec, all executed with the charming simplicity of out- 
line generally observed in infantile productions ; one would indeed pass 
them over as the work of wandering Arabs were it not for the fact that 
on each pilaster the seven-branched candlestick is cut in precisely a 
similar style. Nor do they bear any resemblance to the simple tribe 
marks of the Bedouin which occasionally occur over the rock-cut 
tombs. 

'Ahud. — To the north of Tibneh, on the top of the lower Judsean 
range, this little village stands beside the Roman road. It contains 
400 Greek Catholics in a population of 500, and the cross is roughly 
painted with other ornaments over almost every door. A church of 
considerable size, which, though restored, was, as the Khuvi assured 
me, very ancient, stands in the centre, and at a little distance on a 
stony knoll above a fine tank full of rain water are the remains of a 
little chapel. The spot is called Barbara, probably in honour 
of St. Barbara, and is a shrine to which pilgrims come from all 
quarters. I was not, however, able to obtain any tradition as to the 
place. 

Following the road north-west for about a mile, we pass the Mokata' 
'Abud on the left, another system of very fine and perfect tombs. The 
porches of the two principal resemble in style that of the Tomb of the 
Kings at Jerusalem, but they are better preserved, and more profusely 
ornamented. In one chamber, especially, a hard cement or enamel 
lines the walls and roof, and is well painted in colours, which, though, 
dimmed by age, are distinguishable still. The spaces between the 
loculi are painted in panels of red and white ; black lozenges and red 
squares on a white ground are placed above, and a tv/ist of white and 
yellow on a black grou.nd runs above all.* On the side where there are 
no loculi the wall is divided into alternate panels of white and red, 
but one of these remains unfinished, with three brush marks, showing 
that the painter had marked it for its proper colour, namely, a dark 
reddish maroon. The details will be best understood by my drawings, 
which will be finished, copied, and forwarded at the earliest opportunity. 
Arab tribe marks were remarked on the walls of the porch, but no 
designs like those previously noticed were to be found. 

Tihuh. — A day was devoted to a visit to this interesting and 
important site. It is unnecessary to remind your readers that it was 
identified (though not correctly described) by Dr. Eli Smith with the 
Timnath Serah chosen by Joshua as his inheritance upon division of 

* A sketch of this painting was made by Major WUson in 18(J6, and is now 
in the Office of the Fund. 



144: LIEUT. CLAUDE lU COXDER'S EEP0RT3. 

tlie land. " Yery marvelloiTS," saya St. Jerome, "is it tliat the dis- 
tributor of tlie possessions should have chosen for himself so rugged 
and moimtainous a spot " (Epit. Paulse, § 13), and his words apply to 
Tibneh very aptly indeed. Of all sites I have yet seen, none is so 
striking as that of Joshua's home, surrounded as it is with deep valleys 
and wild rugged hills. 

An oval tell with steep and regular sides forms the site of the town. 
On the south a gentle broad valley separates it from another hill, in 
whose northern face the necropolis]^is excavated ; a little plateau below 
the town stands at the head of this valley, and separates it as a shed 
from a second descending westwards. The Roman road passes between 
the plateau and the tell, and not fur south of it stands, perhaps, the 
oldest and finest tree in Palestine.* 

This noble oak, which must be upwards of thirty feet in height, and 
beautifully symmetrical, is all the more striking to the sight after a 
residence in a country but sparsely scattered with olives and ballut of 
no great size. It is covered with foliage, the leaves being very small, 
and has received the name of Shaykh Taim from the natives. A 
modern and an ancient "well exist close to it, but the supj)ly of water 
for the town must have been drawn from the 'Ain Tibneh, a fine spring, 
breaking out of a rocky channel, on the northern slope of the tell. If, 
indeed, political or other reasons rendered it desirable for the iiiler of 
Israel to choose this portion of the country for his residence, no better 
spot than Tibneh could be found, for the country round is destitute of 
spring water for a considerable distance. 

Of the ancient town of Tibneh nothing but a wall of drafted stones, 
three or four only visible above the surface, remains ; the Arab village, 
which subsequently occupied the same position, being in its turn much 
damaged by age. The necropolis is, however, still visible, though 
almost every tomb has its porch so filled with rubbish that only the 
top of the little door into the tomb is visible. It might perhaps be 
interesting to excavate these tombs, but it is doubtful whether they 
are not all choked within as without, though we cannot positively 
affirm that some have not their doors still intact. Much time and 
labour would, however, be required. 

I am aware that the tomljs have been already examined, and that 
photographs of the ornamentation exist. f I, however, thought best to 
measure carefully the principal one, and to obtain dimensioned sketches 
of the details of oniamentation. 

JoslnuCs to/ith. — This is certainly the most striking monument in the 
country, and strongly recommends itself to the mind as an authentic 
site. That it is the sepulchre of a man of distinction is manifest from 
the great number of lamp niches which cover the walls of the porch ; 
they are over 200, arranged in vertical rows, giving the appearance of 
an ornamental pattern, and all smoke-blacked. One can well imagine 

* See Photograph, Old Series, No. 107. 
t rhotogi-aphs, Old Series, Nos. 108, 109. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEu's REPORTS. 145 

the wild and picturesque appearance presented at any time when llio 
votive lamps were all in place and the blaze of light shone out of the 
wild hill-side, casting long shadows from the central columns. The 
present appearance of the porch is also very picturesque, with the dark 
shadows and bright light, and the trailing Ijoughs which droop from 

above. 

Entering the low door we find the interior chamber to be a square, 
with five loculi, not very perfectly cut, on three sides. The whole is 
quite uuornamented, except by four very rough brackets, supporting- 
the flat roof. A broad step or divan (for want of a better word) runs 
round the chamber, and the loculi are level with this ; the depth of the 
centre we were not able to ascertain, in spite of excavation. 

On becoming accustomed to the darkness one perceives that the 
central loculus at the back forms a little passage about 7ft. Icng, 2ft. 
Gm. high, and 3ft. 4in. broad, through which one creeps into a second 
but smaller chamber, Oft. 3in. by 8ft. lin. and 5ft. Sin. high.* In this, 
opposite to the entrance, a single loculus runs at right angles to the 
wall, and a single niche is cut on the left for a lamp. Here then, if we 
accept the site, is the resting-place of the great leader, the stout 
soldier, the fierce invader, who first brought Israel into the promised 
land. It is curious that when so large a number of travellers 
come annually to Palestine so few visit a spot of such transcendent 
interest. 

The simple character of the capitals in the porch , more fitted for the 
carpenter's work on the tabernacle than for work in a soft stone capable 
of being ornamented profusely with little labour; the rough execution 
of the interior, and the non-appearance of the later form of " attached 
sarcophagi;" finally, the lamps, which adorned the fa(;ade, and the 
absence of any ornamentation similar to that already mentioned ni 
the other tombs, all seem to point to the probability that the monument 
here described may be as certainly looked upon as Joshua's tomb as 
may the Modin sepulchre, which I wrote on in a previous report, be 
considered the resting-place of the Maccabean heroes. 

Dmjr Kula'ah.— This important ruin is shown correctly on Vandc- 
velde's map, although he does not appear to have visited it. I am not 
aware that it has ever been noticed by other travellers. Standing on 
the summit of a precipitous hill, it is protected on three sides by deep 
and intensely rugged ravines, whilst on the east large quarries form a 
species of moat behind the building. A narrow path leads up to it on 
the west from a little plain, where no doirbt the lands of the monastery 
lay, and passes under a projecting turret on brackets forming a species 
of machicouli. The building being erected on the slope, the western 
foundations are at a much lower level than those on the east, and a 
square building, with its floor at a level some 12ft. above the main part 
of the edifice, forms a projecting outwork on the less protected side. 
The monastery faces, roughly speaking, east and west, but the wall 
* A plan was made by JInjor Wilson. 



146 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDElVS REPORTS. 

of the chapel has a beariug of 21*4 deg., vdiich is not less in error from 
the east line than is the Cathedral of Cesarea. The plan of the building 
shows a large central hall, about SOft. in length, having the chapel 
(which was entered from it by a side door) on the north and a row of 
buildings on the south. These latter appear to have been chambers 
or dormitories of various sizes, the walls and even the roofs remaining 
in some of them. The most eastern, which is divided into two cloisters 
by a row of piers supporting round arches, I conjecture to have been 
the refectory, the remainder the cells of the monks. 

The tower, some SOft. square, is immediately east of the great hall, 
and is divided into four chambers, the roof of one still remaining built 
in rubble work, with a tunnel vaulting. Above these there was j)ro- 
bably a second story. 

North of the tower are three large reservoirs, ciit in rock dui-ing the 
operation of quarrying for the convent itself, and subsequently com- 
pleted by the building of massive walls of rubble, faced on both sides 
with ashlar work, and by an arched roof, the sloping bed for the 
haunch stones being still visible.- The longest of the three is 112ft. by 
34ft. breadth. Thus the roof was a work of no little magnitude. 

Adjoining the reservoirs on the west side, just north of the chapel, 
there appears to have been another row of cells, and possibly vaults 
beneath. These are, however, so much ruined as scarcely to be traceable 
■without excavation. 

The details of workmanship and ornamentation leave little doubt that 
this fine monastery is to be ascribed to the same date as the Golden 
Gateway at Jerusalem, or the Church of Kalb Louseh, desci-ibed by 
M. De Vogiie as belonging to the 6th century. Thus it may perhaps 
become of great importance to the archteologist, and more especially 
so if any mention can be found of it either in Eusebius or in Procoj^ius. 
Mr. Fergusson has traced the gradual history of this early Byzantine 
style, and M. De Yogiic has shown how slow and gradual the de- 
velopment was in the East as compared with the rapid growth of the 
Romanesque in the West. The very remarkable architectural feature 
of a cornice deflected to follow the semicircular arch of a wdudow or 
door is insisted upon by Mr. Fergusson as evidence of the early date of 
the Golden Gateway. Here, within a day's journey of Jerusalem, the 
same feature occurs in the Chapel of Dayr Kala'ah, together with other 
details of structure not less characteristic. The cornice remains almost 
intact, though much worn by weather, on the inside of the east chapel 
wall. Its details resemble those of the Gulden Gate, with one excep- 
tion — the cross appears in every possible j)lace. A broken base lies 
amongst the rubbish, and its profile I measured carefully for compari- 
son with others of known date. The semicircular arches have already 
been noticed, and form another important evidence of date. They are 
all built with keystones. Tlie doors are, however, invariably sur- 
mounted by flat lintels, on which the cross is cut in low relief; gene- 
rally it is placed on a tablet after the classical manner, but in one case 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 147 

the three liemisplieres, wbicli are the conventional method of repre- 
senting Mount Calvary, form a foundation on which it stands. Above 
each of these lintels is a very flat relieving arch, formed in some cases 
of two stones hollowed slightly beneath, thus throwing the superincum- 
bent weight on the jambs of the door. The same arrangement is found 
on a larger scale at the Double Gateway of the Haram at Jerusalem, 
where a cornice similar to that of the Golden Gate exists. 

The ashlar work of the whole building is finely proportioned and the 
joints are beautifully laid. The exterior walls have drafts on all the 
stones, but none are found on the interior. The drafts are different in 
character from any previously noticed, being about lOin. broad and 2 
or 3 deep. The central raised face is often only roughly finished, and 
the draft itself is not always regular in width or depth. The largest 
comer stones are 6ft. long and 3ft. high, but the average will be about 
half these dimensions. On the stones of the interior a number of large 
rudely-cut marks wei'c visible, but different from the ordinary mason's 
marks, being placed irregularly on the stone, often two or three 
together. 

Such ai'e the main points of interest concerning Dayr Kala'ah. A 
thorough search in Procopius (" De Edificiis Justiniani") and in Euse- 
bius (" Onomasticon ") is most desirable, as this building must have 
been of sufficient importance to be mentioned among the works of 
cither Constantino or Justinian, and its date once identified, the evi- 
dence of its architectural details would be of the greatest value in the 
settlement of certain disputes on this style in Palestine. 

Dayr Sam'an. — North-east of the ruin just mentioned is a second, 
evidently of similar character, but in a far less perfect condition. The 
foundations alone are traceable, and show the edifice to have been less 
extensive and less magnificent. It has, however, one peculiar feature 
in a large rock-cut circular bath, 14ft. diameter and 2ft. 7in. deep, 
three steps leading into it from the surrounding platform. 

Dayr Arraheli. — Farther south, and not far distant from Rantis, a 
third convent exists, the walls standing to the height of three or four 
courses in many parts. A central chapel with a single apse, surround- 
ing chambers, and underlying vaults with semicircular arches, are 
here found again, but one difference is remarkable, none of the stones 
are drafted. The doors are surmounted by flat lintels, having various 
geometric patterns cut upon them, the cross being invariably found in- 
the centre. A large birket exists on the west side, and two cisterns in 
other parts. It is remarkable that in every one of these sites no other 
supply than that obtained from rain water can have existed, although 
tiiore are often springs a few miles off. The fathers seem to have 
chosen the most deserted and unfrequented spots for their retirement, 
pcRsibly from other than purely religious motives, as the villages of the 
wild heathen must always, as now, have been placed in sites where 
water was most easily attainable. 

El Dumjr. — This ruin, situate near to Dnyr Kala'ah, is the smallest 



148 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

and least important of tlie four, but is constructed on tlie same plan. 

The entrance door to the chapel is very small, and surmounted by a 

flat lintel. In the other three cases the east door is entirely destroyed 

as in the two fii'st, or fallen in as at Dayr Arrabeh. 

Nehi Yahyali. — This curious ruin, more j)erfect than perhaps any in 

Palestine, has already been often visited and described. A photograph 

was taken by Captain Warren, and it is mentioned in one of Mr. 

Drake's reports. In visiting it for the purpose of making a plan, I 

found the details to be better preserved than I at first supposed, and 

took accurate measurements of them all. The whole is in a debased 

classic style, and the work is no doubt Eoman. 

The peculiar position makes the original use of the building doubtful, 

as it neither faces south like a synag'^gue, nor east like a temple. 

The bearing of the length of the j)orch is 253 ', so that it faces, roughly 

speaking, north. 

Nomenchtture. — Although the nomenclature of the Ordnance Survey 
is not, properly speaking, my own department, yet, as it has dming 
Mr. Di-ake's absence been entirely in my hands, I may perhaps be 
allowed here to trench on his ground in a few remarks on the 
subject. 

The method which I hare employed is only possible with men to a 
certain extent acquainted with the language, but appears under existing 
circumstances to be satisfactory. A native guide or trustworthy 
attendant is attached to each surveyor. Every name is collected and 
written in English on the spot, the native in each case being instructed 
to listen to it. On the close of every day, the names are iwonounced 
in his hearing, in mine, and in that of our head servant, who is able 
to read, write, and spell correctly. Anything wrong in accent or 
pronunciation is thus immediately corrected, and all the names written 
in Arabic, from which I afterwards transliterate them. The final 
transliteration will, however, depend only on the Arabic letters. 

I am convinced that this is, perhaps, the only possible method of 
proceeding. It was suggested in England that the natives or shaykhs 
should write the names, but this I found was simply impossible, 
because not one in a hundred could write at all, and those who could 
were not to be relied ui5on for correct spelling. We must remember 
that even in England the names of the Ordnance Survey are collected 
with difficulty, as often nearly a dozen different spellings of obscure 
names will be obtained. When avc consider the far greater ignorance 
of Arab as compared with English peasantry, and the various induce- 
ments whictt fear and hatred of strangers present to lead them to a 
false answer, it will be seen that to obtain a correct nomenclature is 
by no means an easy task. 

The main difficulties are four. First, that cither from a wish to 
mislead strangers, or from a desire to conceal their own ignorance, or 
from fear of consequences, or some similar motive, an entirely fictitious 
name will often been given. Experience alone, and the testimony ot 



LIEUT. CLAUDE B. CONDEr's REPORTS. 149 

several witnesses, enables us to escape this danger. Secondly, a 
number of names may be missed by not asking for tliem, names of 
trees, plots of ground, small valleys, &c. The only precaution is to 
instruct the guides to give every name they know in a vicinity, not 
waiting to be asked. Thirdly, certain names, though undoubtedly 
genuine, are known to but a few, generally old men. These may very 
often be obtained accidentally, and are then at once hunted down ; but 
it is diificult to feel certain that all are obtained. A very long residence 
in one district alone would show. Some of them may be imj^ortant, 
biTt the majority are very likely only to be classed with such English 
names as " Giles's Meadow," " Oak-hili Bridge," &c., &c., which are of 
no historic value. 

The fourth difficulty is in local mispronunciation, which varies con- 
siderably, as in England. Thus the Bedouin convert k into g, e.g., 
Gagun for Kakun ; in other places the letter kaf is pronounced chaf, 
and Kefr becomes Ch uffcr, this word being in other districts Kafr or 
Kufr. These are but instances of innumerable difficulties which have 
to be overcome, and which require a considerable knowledge of Arabic 
to understand. 

That an immense number of names quite unknown before have been 
obtained ; that in the last month's work Yandevelde's map shows 12 
to our 120 ; that nearly all of these are undoubtedly genuine and 
correctly placed, is a good deal to say, without committing ourselves to 
the statement that every name has been recovered, although probably 
the percentage not collected is extremely small. From experience we 
are led to conclude that every very prominent object has a name — all 
villages, rivers, springs, and principal wells ; very large trees here 
and there, mountain tops, pieces of ground of peculiar character, and 
plains. The princij)al wadies have, at least, one distinctive name, and 
opposite to every village the name of the A'illage is applicable ; 
smaller wadies rarely have names. Every ruined site has a well-known 
name. 

As an instance of the manner in which a well-known name may be 
overlooked, I may instance Bayt Bezzin. This name entirely escaped 
Mr. Drake, and I only heard it casually in conversation. On a special 
expedition I obtained the name in various ways from nearly a dozen 
people. Tet the spot to which it refers, no doubt an ancient site, 
shows no other marks of ancient work than a large cistern and a few 
rock-cut caves. 

Water Supphj. — In the study of Palestine there is no question so im- 
portant as that of the water suj)ply. Everything noAV depends and 
always has depended on the amount of water to be found at any place. 
The question of the ancient fertility of the country, which has often 
been so easily settled without reference to existing facts, depends also 
iipon this. The Ordnance Survey is a complete answer on the subject. 
Many fine springs have been discovered in parts supposed to be desert, 
and an immense number of ancient reservoirs has been marked upon 



150 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

it. Had the water supply been naturally more abundant in those times 
than it now is, such reservoirs for collection of rain water would not 
have been made, and the investigation of the geological condition of 
the country forbids us to suppose that springs can ever have existed in 
certain districts. In the greater part of the country lately surveyed 
the strata are entirely impermeable, and all the water is carried oflF on 
the surface. At Mukhalid, however, two springs are found close to the 
sea, the water being mixed witb the salt wave water when the sea is 
rough. This is accounted for by supposing that tbe same impermeable 
bed here underlies the soft tertiary sand deposits of the shore cliffs. 
Thus the position of springs here, as in all cases, is of the greatest geo- 
logical importance. 

We come, therefore, gradually to the conclusion that the natural 
resources of the country, though little known, are also little changed. 
On the other hand there is constant evidence that the amount of 
ancient cultivation was originally far greater than it now is. The ter- 
raced bill sides, often only half ploughed, show laborious energy which 
is no"W unknown. Amongst the wildest brushwood of Carmcl and the 
stony hills of the Beni S'ab, we come again and again upon vineyard 
towers of huge undressed stones, upon old vine terraces ruined and 
broken down, upon wine-presses and oil-presses of unusual size. It 
may therefore be concluded that it is rather to the negligence of man 
than to any deterioration of soil or climate that the desolation of 
Palestine is due, a fact strengthened by the ricb fertility of the country 
near Beyrout in a soil poor by comparison with that of Oarmel or of the 
southern plains. 

MdeoroJogij. — The 23rd, 2-ith, and 25tli days of May in this yo-av 
were the hottest experienced in Palestine for many years. At our 
camp at Bidyeb the maximum in the shade of the observatory read 
I06"8 degrees Fahrenheit, against 103 degrees, the greatest heat of last 
year. A steady east wind blew gently all day, and dropping towards 
the end of the 25th a dead calm ensued. In tbe afternoon I was waked 
by a rushing sound, and perceived a whirlwind, the largest I ever wit- 
nessed, quickly rolling towards us down the olive groves, licking up 
dust and leaves and breaking the small boughs. It passed within a 
short distance of the tents. A horse and a dog belonging to the expe- 
dition d'ed simply from the effects of heat and of drinking too much 
water. All the natives suffered dreadfully, especially as we moved 
camp on the first day and had a long march. We Europeans did not 
feel it excessively, principally from our caution as to not drinking 
during the day. In the plains two or three men were killed by sun- 
stroke or by thii-st. The same heat was felt from Egypt to Constanti- 
noj>le. At Gaza the maximum in the observatory read 110 degrees 
Fahrenheit. At Beyrout the silkworms were destroyed. All over the 
country men and beasts suffered severely. 

Several phenomena were noticeable this summer in the plains. When 
the west wind blew, a bcavy mist rose in the morning from the plains, 



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--> 



1_ _ 

10,000 






2b50 

JEREMlAri's GROTTOS ^,^ 



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OLDEN gate: 



CD 




X 




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H 


to 


r 


CO 

CO 


c 


o 


r 




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z 


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LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 151 

leaving evei'ytliing clear at about ten a.m. At about noon, or rather 
earlier, a sea mist began to come up, and often rendered tlie obser- 
vation of objects on the shore line almost impossible. 

The mirage was occasionally very trying, but seems to be less notice- 
able on days when the wind is in the east. I am led to suppose that 
absolute temperature alone does not affect it, but that a certain 
amount of damp is required in the air as well. Thus on one day tlie 
east wind in the morning gave less mirage than the cooler west wind 
after noon. 



XV. 

Jerusalem Topography. 

P.E.F. Camp, Bludan, Ist August, 1873. 

I am at length able to send home the long-deferred plan of rock 
evels of Jerusalem, which has been from time to time one of the 
principal points to which my leisure moments have been devoted. 

It was Capt. Warren who first pointed out the absolute necessity of 
discovering in every case the depths below the surface of the rock, and 
of referring them all to one fixed datum, the level of the sea. In the 
study of the ancient topography the original appearance of the ground 
is the first consideration, and although a certain amount of soil must 
always have existed, and is mentioned as so existing by Josephus, still 
the ancient surface must have conformed far more closely to that of the 
rock than it does at present. 

For these reasons, almost the first thing to be done in following out 
Capt. Warren's discoveries Avas to ascertain the lie of the rock wherever 
possible. This we are now able to show in about 200 places, thanks to 
Mr. Schick, who, in his professional capacity of architect, had measured 
the position when sinking foundations for houses in every quarter of 
Jerusalem. Being so numerous and evenly distributed, I was able, with 
the aid of the contours of the surface given in the Ordnance Survey, 
and with those levels already fixed by Capt. Warren, to extend the 
system of contours, which he has made for Ophel and the Haram 
enclosure, over the whole extent of the present city. 

By the help of this map we shall be able to calculate within a 
few feet the maximum depth to which it will be necessary to go in order- 
to reach the rock, and to see how labour may bo most easily economised.. 
The comparison of the rock and surface contours shows that the depth-' 
will never approach that of the first mines, and may on an average be; 
taken at 20 to 30ft. The Haram stands on a steeply sloping ridge, the 
Ophel wall ha:pgs over a deep valley, and the great bridge spans 
another. Thus Captain Warren's work lay in the parts of Jerusalem 
•where work was most difficult and costly. Future excavations woul(.\ 



152 LIEUT. CLAUDE K. CONDER's REPORTS. 

only have to be made ia siicli parts of the town as preserve at the 
l^reseut day more approximately their former condition. 

Thus, although excavation at Jerusalem has been for awhile 
suspended, the year was not without valuable work. We have a basis 
now on which to form a judgment of the best way to attack in future 
the remaining points of interest which no doubt await discovery. 

Several new and interesting points at once suggest themselves on an 
inspection of the map, and to show these better I send a reduced shaded 
sketch of the original rock site of the town. Reading the famous 
passages of Josephus by the light of this new map one cannot but be 
struck with the accuracy of his descriptions. 

Jerusalem, he tells us, stood on two hills, the one opposite to the 
other, divided by the Tyropoeon. That crest {\o(pos) which supported 
the upper city was much higher and longer. The other, on which the 
lower was built, was smaller, and rising to a peak {ufxcpi Kvpros), a 
description mistranslated "horned like the moon." Besides the Temple 
hill there was a fourth directly north of it, and divided by an artificial 
ditch from it, and from Acra by a broad valley, "which was filled up by 
the Asamoueans when they lowered the height of some part of the 
latter hill which overlooked the Temple. 

Referring to the plan we find this description fully carried out. The 
modern Zion, a large flat-topped hill surrounded with deep valleys, 
and having a level of about 2,550 to 2,500ft. above the sea. North of 
this and separated by a broad and very dee]D valley running down to 
Siloam, as Josephus describes the TyropoDOu , is a much smaller hill, 
whose summit is not over 2,480, and which, w^hilst absolutely lower, 
would appear much more so, because the whole site is, as it were, on 
an inclined plane, and because the height from the summit of the 
former to the bottom of its surrounding valleys is far greater than that 
of the latter. 

The Temple hill, already known, will be seen to be separated from a 
fourth on the north, separated in its tarn from the Acra knoll by a 
broad valley which runs out at the Damascus Gate. We can have 
but little hesitation in identifying this with the hill Bezetha of 
Josephus. 

Not only is the general description caiTied out, but several of the 
details also. The Temple hill was defended, we learn, by a valley and 
a ditch on the north, cutting off Antonia from the hill Bezetha. This 
valley Captain Warren traced runniug north-east and south-east, 
and coming out just north of the Golden Gate. The rock contour, 
2,420 near the north-west corner of the bai-racks, attests the existence 
of a narrow trench separating the northern hill from the rocky scarp 
on which the barracks stand. It is more than probable that the Birket 
Israel in the middle of the valley, to which the expression of ditch has 
hitherto been supposed to allude, formed no part of the original design, 
and that the real ditch thu3 discovered was cut in that part where no 
natural valley existed. The rocky scarp south of this, now fixed on the 



LIEUT. CLAUDE 11. CONDERS REPOUTS. 153 

north, soiith, and cast, v.'Ill be immediately accepted by many as that 
scarped rock upon ^Ybicll Josepbus tells us tbe fortress of Antouia 
stood. 

One otber very important and curious point remains to be noticed. 
It will be seen tbat a narrow ridge runs north and south, immediately 
east of the Tower of David, and separates as a shed the broad head of 
the Tyropojon from the western valley of the Birket el Sultan. The 
former valley deepens very suddenly, and in the line of the church of 
the Holy Sepulchre its lowest part is more than ICOft. below the crest 
of the modern Zion. 

This is a very important indication, Eobinson, Williams, and De 
Vogiie, with, in fact, almost eveiy writer on Jerusalem topography, have 
drawn the north line of Josephus's first wall from the Tower of David 
to the vest Haram wall. The great question to be settled is at what 
point between these limits the Gennath Gate and second wall were to 
be found. Now no point could be so likely us that marked by the ridge 
along which the wall would run on ground commanding all Avithout 
it, and the sudden fall and unsus2:)ected breadth of the Tyropceon valley 
make it more than doubtful that the line should be carried farther east 
to cross the valley, when a ridge without the enceinte would of 
necessity command the whole length of the fortification. 

Small discoveries continue to be made at Jerusaleai. On the cliff 
in the immediate neighbourhood of Jeremiah's Grotto are a number 
of rock-cut channels running towards the aqueduct of the royal cavern. 
These are of importance i'or two reasons : first, as showing that a part, 
if not all the water in the great aqueduct, was sujiplied by the surface 
drainage ; secondly, because this abrupt termination seems to show 
that the present gap between the scarped rock at Jeremiah's Grotto 
and the so-called north-east angle of the city wall above the royal 
caverns is a subsequent alteration. Probably the quarries extended the 
whole distance, and were cut through to allow a command for Iho 
fortifications, which would otherwise have been impossible. 

Immediately north of this point otiier remains of some interest have 
been discovered by Mr. Schick. There is a rock scarp running east and 
west, marked on the Ordnance Survey between the contours 2,419 and 
2,409, close to a road north-west of Jeremiah's Grotto and near an old 
cistern. In this scarp a chamber was found square cut in the rock, 
without loculi, and with two crosses in red paint on its walls. It has 
been subsequently used as a tomb, and the ground is full of bones and 
skulls in its neighbourhood. Tracing the scarp, Mr. Schick found indi- 
cations of piers supporting arches running transversely and parallel to 
the rock. Near the cistern vaults are said to exist, and in an excava- 
tion in the neiglibourhood some large stones about 2' G" x 2', and the 
foundations of a pier of masonry, are laid bare. There can be no doubt, 
it would seem, that a large Christian building here awaits examination 
by the Fund. The only question is what it can be. 

The site of the martyrdom of St. Stephen, though now without the 



154 LIEUT. CLAUDE K. COXDER's REPORTS. 

gate (Bab Sitti Miriam) whicli bears its name, was placed by a very 
ancient tradition about a furlong without the Damascus Gate. In the 
middle of the fifth century the Empress Eudoxia erected a chnrch here 
in his honour, in which St. Saba was buried (Quaresmius ii. 295). 
Antoninus, of Piacenza, in sixth century, St. Willibald in eighth, St. 
Bernhard in the ninth, all agree in giving the same position to the site. 
In the twelfth, the church destroyed by the Arabs was rebuilt by the 
Crusaders on the same spot. The gate was then known as Porta S. 
Stephani Septentrionalis. The church was on the west of the great 
north road, all pilgrims passing immediately by its door ; it had a- 
monastery attached, and opposite to it on the east of the road was the 
Asnerie. "La solait jesir li asne et li sommier de la maison de 
I'Hopital pour ce avait a nom I'asnerie" (La Citez de Jherusalem). 
The church the Crusaders themselves destroyed in 1187, but the 
Asnerie remained, and was used as a khan by the Saracens, when all 
traces of the other buildings had disappeared under a dunghill. 

From its position and distance from the walls this newly-discovered 
building may possibly be the remains of the Crusading Asnerie. Ruins 
of the church may still perhaps exist on the west side of the road 
beneath the great depth of modern rubbish. 

The repairs now going on in the Kubbet es Sakhrah have given two 
interesting additions to our knowledge of the place : first, the Cufic 
inscription on the beams, mentioned by Dr. Chaplin in a late number 
of the " Athenseum," and sent by him to the Fund; secondly, the 
uncovering of the base of two of the pillars of the octagon. I have 
already pointed ont in a former report that the " stools " on Avhich the 
pillars were supposed to stand, and upon the character of which an 
architectural argument has been partly founded, were nothing more 
or less than slabs of marble built round the shaft and hiding its base. 
This is now finally proved by their removal, and a base is discovered 
within, apparently not belonging to the shaft, as a couple of bands 
of lead, giving a thickness of lAin., are introduced no doubt with a 
view of equalising the height of columns of various sizes. From this 
it would appear that all the pillars of tbis building are torn from some 
older edifice, perhaps from more than one, dating probably about the 
fourth century, and have been placed in their present position by those 
who built the dome. 

The only other work of interest now going on in Jerusalem is the 
clearing out of the magnificent vaults of the Muristan. Huge piers 
of stones with a rustic boss are traced down to their rock foundations 
in the Tyropccon. There are a series of rock-cut steps in part, which 
seem probably anterior in date to the buildings. Straight joints and 
otlier indications point to two if not three distinct dates of building. 
Mason's marks are found only on the finest and best finished stones. 
The work, which is a costly and important one, will not be completed 
for another year. 

Claude B. Conder, Lieut. R.E., 

Commandinj Suri'C)/ I'ariij, rahstine. 



LETTEKS FEOM DR. CHAPLIN. 

Jerusalem, Auc/. Isf, 1873. ' 
Six or eight more rafters of tlie roof of the outer corridor of the Dome 
of the Eock have been found to have Cufic writing upon them. Tho 
•^vords appear to be the same on all, but some are partially obliterated. 
I send you a copy. The writing appears to bo a direction to El Saidy, 
by order of El Muktader Billah. Probably this timber was sent down 
from the north, like that used in the first temple. El Sa'idy seems to 
iiave been a Mohammedan Helena in a small way. There can hardly bo 
a doubt that this roof was either made or repaired by order of Jafr, and 
a discovery that I recently made renders it certain that either there was 
110 roof there before, or that it was not on the same level as at present — 
namely, that there is a very old carved Avooden cornice still running 
lound the building in the space between the ceiling and roof of the outer 
•corridor on the inner wall of the latter, just above the ceiling. Tho 
accompanying diagram will explain its position. It cannot, of course, 
ha supposed that an elaborate cornice would be constructed to be out of 
sight. 

Another point which I do not remember to have seen noted is that the 
present cornice below tho ceiling rests against the mosaic and cuts the 
.-toj^s of the htters, and must therefore be of later date than these. 

The reasons which lead me to think it possible that the outer corridor 
may have formed no part of the original building are these : — ■ 

1 . The stumpy appearance of the whole building, the base being (at 
least to my unprofessional eye) too broad for the height. 

2. The statement that the Kubbet el Silsileh was the model for the 
greater Kubbet, which would be only partially true if the latter were 
originally built of its present form. 

3. Such glimpses as we have occasionally got of the masonry of tho 
■outer wall seem to show that it is probably of later date, and 

4. The certainty that now exists that the roof to which these inscribed 
■rafters belong is of later date than the wall over the arches which form 
the outer boundary of tho inner corridor, and the absence of evidence 
(so far as I have been able to discover) of a roof having preceded it. 

The Cufic inscription, of which I enclose a copy (No. 2), may throw 
some light upon this question. It is from a stone on tho inner surface 
of the outer wall, and forms part of the ornamental band which runs 
round the whole building on a level with the tops of the doors. If the 
■date of this inscription is later than 72 of the Mohammedan era, it would 
afford a strong presumption tJiat tho wall is also later, there being no 
indication of its having been subsequently put in. 

I send you also a bit of Greek inscription from a slab from the coping 
of the paraj et of the outer wall of the Dome of the liock. 

More than twenty mortuaiy chests have been discovered in rock tombs 
lately opened on the Mount of Oifence. I forward jduns of the tombs, 
a,nd copies of the writing on the chtsts. The latter are neatly executed. 



156 LETTERS FROM DR. CHAPLIN. •• 

some being plain, otlieis ornamented, but none so elaborately cai'ved as 
that figured on page 494 of '* The Eecovcry of Jerusalem." Some have 
flat, others raised lids. 

The absence of Christian emblems, and the presence of Hebrew 
characters, is interesting. I have sometimes questioned whether some 
of these chests, about whose history so little is knovrn, may not contain 
the bones of Jews, transported from other lands by pious friends, but I 
do not remember to have seen Hebrew characters on them until now. 
On the other hand, the inscription No. 1 might "well enough pass for 
1610 A c. 

They all contain bones, which fall to pieces on being touched. Entire 
skeletons in situ were also found in several of the loculi, but not a vestige 
of clothing or (according to statements made to me) an ornament of any 
kind. 

Thomas Chai'lin. 



Jerusalem, Aurj. 6th, 1873. 

By the Austrian mail of last week I forwarded to you copies of 
several inscriptions of some interest, and in the hurried note which 
accompanied them omitted two things. 

1. I forgot to mention that perhaps Mr. Palmer and Mr. Drake have 
already taken a copy of the Cufic inscription from the outer wall of the 
mosk, and that I sent a copj' to Mr. Drake two mails ago asking him 
about it. 

2. It quite escaped my memory (it is only with great effort that I can. 
give any time to these things at this sickly period of the year) that the 
bronze of the doors of the mosk (Dome of Rock) bear inscriptions with the 
date 210. This of course precludes the possibility of Jafr having been 
the first to make a roof over the outer corridor. 

The top of the outer wall ought to bo examined, but it is not easy to 
get at it. Possibly next week I may be able to see what can be made 
of it. 

I cannot find that anything is written in the Arabic histories about 
Jafr having repaired the Dome of the Rock, but others, better acquainted 
with the subject, and with more time at their disposal than myself, may- 
be more successful in their search. 

My Arab friends read the inscription from the beam differently from 
•what I did. According to them the line would run, " To God El Saidy, 
mother of El Muktader Billah." 

Thomas Chaplix. 

note on the above letter, 

We are indebted to Prof. E. H. Palmer for an accurate translation 
of the Cufic inscriptions lately found on one of the beams in the roof 
of the outer corridor of the Dome of the Rock. The inscription was 
copied by Dr. Chaplin, and also by !Mr. Schick, and runs as follows: — 

" In the name of God. Grace from God to the servant of God. Jafcr 



THE SAMAIilTAN feTOXE AT GAZA. 157 

el Muktader Billah, Commancler of the Faithful — may God spare him 
to us. According to the order of Essaijideh (may God aid her), and 
it was performed by the hands of Lebid, a Freedman of Essaiyideh, 
and that was in one and . . • ." 

Unfortunately the inscription becomes illegible at the date ; but 
Prof. Palmer states that he has found in an Arabic historian an 
account of the restoration and repairing of all the Mosques and Masjids 
in the Empire, by AH Ibn Isa, vizier to El Muktader, in the year of 
the Hejira oOl (a.d. 913), to which this inscription probably refers. 

"We hear from Dr. Chaplin also that the aqueduct from Solomon's 
Pools is now restoi-ed, that the fountains in the court-house, Makhama, 
the Kas in the Ilaram, the Birket el Naranj, and the Bab el Nazir, are 
all running over with fresh water. 

The repairs in the Haram are proceeding steadily, the Sultan having 
sent £30,000 for expenses, under the direction of an Armenian builder 
from Constantinople. In the outer wall of the Dome of the Pi,ock has 
been found a portion of a Latin inscription, on marble, but in a frag- 
mentary state. 

Lieut. Steever, of the American Expedition, has informed Dr. Chaplin 
that he could get no pottery in Moab like that in the Shapira collection. 



THE SAMARITAN STONE AT GAZA.* 

]\1y curiosity was first stimulated in seai'ching after inscriptions by 
observing the extraordinary amount of energy exhibited by M. 
Ganneau, who visited Gaza about three years ago. I accompanied 
this gentleman to several interesting parts of the town, and assisted 
him in procuiing a few Greek inscriptions. We also visited the same 
spot where the stone was discovered, which is distant from the town 
about a mile, and half a mile from the sea- shore. It has now been in 
my jjossession about a year, and was found in one of the numerous 
sandpits where excavating is carried on by the natives to obtain stone 
for building purposes. 

About a year ago, passing by the same spot, I questioned some of the 
labourers then at work about stones bearing inscriptions, &c., and was 
informed that a few days before three of this description had been 
found. After making further inquiries I succeeded in finding out to 
whom they had been sold, but having to act very cautiously, in order 
not to excite suspicion, I regret that I was obliged to delay the matter 
too long ; and upon opening the question about the stones the owner 
coolly told nie that he had scraped the two largest ! and the other, I 
suppose, not being large enough for the purpose required, was thrown 
aside, to share the same fate at some future time. Ilov/ever, after some 
difficulty I succeeded in getting it ; this is the whole history of the 
stone. 

* See Quarterly S/afcmcnt, July, 1S73, p. IIS. 



158 STATE OF THE RUINS OF BAALBEK. 

About two months ago three marble pillars were discovered in one 
of the sandpits before mentioned ; they are all of the same size and 
architecture. A drawing of these might likewise be interesting. Aboiit 
a month ago I also found in the town a lamp similar to the one found 
in the Pool of Bethesda, with this exception : at the broadest end in 
bas relief is something not unlike a serpent's head. 

Many curious seals are at times found here and about the district of 
Gaza. I might send you sealing-wax impressions of some of these if 
yoii think they would be of any interest. I shall always be very glad 
tx) keep you duly informed of everything that may be found at Gaza, 
and supply you with copies, &c. 

J. G. PiCKAUD, Gaza. 



STATE OF THE EUINS OF BAALBEK.* 

Extract from a detailed report hy Lieutenant Conder, U.E. 

It being necessary, during the extreme heat of summer, to suspend the 
outdoor work of the Survey for some weeks, and to move the camp to 
the cooler mountain region of the Lebanon, the Committee requested 
Lieutenant Conder to devote some portion of the time spent in that 
district to a careful examination of the ruins of the magnificent temples 
of Baalbek, which are reported by travellers to be in a most precarious 
condition, especially the group known as the " Six Great Columns." 
Letters on the subject have appeared during the last two years in the 
Times and other papers from Mrs. Burton, Mr. Julian Goldsmid, Mr. 
Grace, and others. This " vacation task " Lieutenant Conder has under- 
taken with energetic enthusiasm, and he has now sent home a report, 
dated August 22, giving most careful technical details of the defects, 
and consequent risks of each column of the "great" and "lesser" 
temples, with such dimensions and other information as will make it a 
valuable document to any who may desire to ascertain whether it bo pos- 
sible to delay the impending destruction of these splendid monunjeuts. 
The subject not being directly connected with the work of this Fund, 
the Committee do not propose to print the whole report, which, however, 
will be made available to those specially interested. They tliiuk, how- 
ever, that the following extracts will jirove interesting to many sub- 
scribers. Lieutenant Conder says : — 

" My attention was directed to three principal objects — 1. The con- 
dition of the key-stone of the great lintel of the Temple of Jupiter. 2. 
The condition of the peristyle of tho same. 3. The condition of the 
eix remaining columns of the Great Temple. 

" 1. The eastern doorway of the (so-called) Temple of Jupiter is 21ft. 
wide, and 42rt. high in tho clear. Tho jambs are huge inUisters, in threo 
courses, containing interior staircases. Tho lintel consists of threo 

* Tho report will be found at Icngtli, and fully illustratcJ, iu the Builder 
of October 4. 



STATE OF THE RUINS OF BAALBEK. 159 

stones, the central key-stone being slightly tapered, as in an arch, and 
apparently once held in place by metal clamps. The stone is a hard, 
compact, non-fossiliferous, white limestone. I have taken its specific 
gravity roughly at 2"5 in order to approximate the various weights, but 
send home a specimen to allow of their being more exactly determined. 
The key-stone measures 10ft. lOin. in height, 12ft. in thickness (front to 
back), and has an average breadth of Gft. oin. It must, therefore, con- 
tain approximately 858 cubic feet, which will give a weight of about GO 
tons. ... It has slipped down rather more than half its depth from its 
original position, and on the south side only about one quarter of its side 
bears against the other block, which is broken away below. A wall of 
roughly squared stones (of about a foot cube), in mortar, has been built 
under the key-stone bj'' the Turks, and appears to bo a suitable and 
sufficient support. The only objection to be made to it is that the soffit 
of the stone is thus covered, and the eagle invisible. Should it be pro- 
posed to raise the lintel to its former position, the superincumbent stones, 
each weighing about 20 or 30 tons, must first be removed. I did not 
observe any indication of present danger, except from the jar which the 
fall of the smaller stones of the cornice might give. The other blocks of 
the lintel appear to be safe. The fall of the key- stone is probably 
attributable to the removal of the metal clamps, and to subsequent 
shocks of earthquake. 

" 2. The peristyle. On the north side nine columns remain, with roof- 
ing ; on the west, three, with only the entablature ; on the south, four, 
and two of the fluted inner row which ran from the autre and in front 

ts are 



of the temple on the east. 


Judging from a fallen cc 


)lumn the 


heigh 


as follows : — 

First stone 


Ft. In. 
... 22 5 


Ft. 


111. 


Second' 


... 14 11 






Third 


... 11 3 

Shaft 


... 48 


7 




Capital 
Base 


... 5 
... 3 


11 
4 



57ft. 10 in. 
The diameter at the base is oft. Tin., and at the capital oft. The iater- 
columniation is 8ft. lOiu., and the width of the peristyle, in the clear, 
the same." 

Lieutenant Conder then gives the dimensions of the entablature, and 
calculates the weight of that and the roofing as equivalent to " a crush- 
ing weight, on each pillar, of 105^ tons, or 4 tons per square foot." 
" The centre of gravity of this weight is easily calculated, and will bo 
found to pass through the centre of the pillars." He then goes on to 
describe, in detail, the condition of each pillar of the peristyle, by aid of 
a figured plan. Almost every one of them has been much injured both 
by man and earthquake, as well as by natural decay, and most of them 
have been excavated at the base, by the Arabs, for the sake of the metal 
pin, which has been abstracted from the centre. 



IGO STATE OF THE ELTIKS OF BAaLCEK. 

The general conclusion is arrived at that the two external columns on 
the north side are in a dangerous condition, — "the next to them are 
cracked and overloaded, and the remainder, though at present safe, 
would suffer in the same manner, from unequal loading, on the fall of 
the outer. The condition of the entablature is also unsafe." Lieut. 
Conder also calls attention to the risk to the columns at the south-east 
angle of the temple, caused by the Saracenic tower built over that 
portion, and which causes a serious overweighting of the lower structure. 
He suggests the removal of tbis later superstructure, but allows that it 
would be a work of difficulty. 

Perhaps that part of the report which treats of the condition of " the 
six great columns " will be deemed most interesting, as their danger is 
also more imminent. Lieut. Conder describes the causes of danger with 
great care, and in detail he says : — 

" The diameter of these columns is 7ft. Gin. at the base ; the height 
(according to Murray, who gives the diameter and entablature correctly) 
is Toft, including base and capital." The entablature is (in design) 
exactly similar to that of the former temple, and its centre of gravity is 
at a distance of 3ft. oiu. from its north side, thus bringing its greatest 
weight on the south side of the columns. *' The columns are exposed 
to the full force of the northern and westerly gales, and have suffered 
far more on these sides. They are shattered from top to bottom, and 
are flaking off rapidly. They appear to have been subjected to the 
effects of frost as well as of rain and wind." 

Lieut. Conder then enumerates the columns, commencing from the 
west end of the group : — - 

No. 1. — Has two pieces excavated just above the base; one to a depth 
of 2ft. Sin. A piece flaked off lOft. high and 1ft. deep, and a 
large piece containing about 70 cubic feet cracked off the base. 

No. 2. — Has an excavation 2ft. Gin. high, 2ft. deep, and about 3ft. 
wide ; all three stones of the shaft are shattered, and flaking on 
the north side. 

No. 3. — About oG cubic feet cracked off the base block. A piece about 
2ft. thick cut out across the base of the shafts, and large frag- 
ments peeled and flaked off. 

No. 4. — This pillar is very infirm. Large flakes have fallen off, and 
the cracks show that more will follow. At the bottom only 
about half the diameter is left. 

No. 5. — Has a large piece chipped off the base, and very serious 
fractures in the highest and lowest blocks of the shaft. 

No. G. — Is the most " shaky " of the group. Large pieces have been 
cut out above and below; and " underneath the base a stone 
has been abstracted measuring about 40 cubic feet." This 
column is likely to full in the first groat storm, and to bring 
down No. o with it. 

Lieut. Conder gives many additional details and measurements, accom- 
panied by explanatory diagrams. But bis report will be published with 



NOTES FROM MR. f'L. II. GREEX. IGl 

his illustrations in Tlie Builder, to whicli porioclical we may refer such 
of our subscribers as may be more speciall}' inteiiested in the question of 
the possibility of preserving these grand remains to another generation. 
The subject is, strictly speaking, outside the objects of the Fund, but, 
opportunity offering, the Committee directed the attention of their 
surveying officer to the subject, and recj^uested his report, feeling that 
the matter was urgent, and that, having so competent an officer on the 
spot, they might, at small sacrifice, render an important service to 
archaeology and art. 



NOTES FROM MR. CL. H. GREEN ON THE GEOLOGICAL 
SPECIMENS SENT HOME BY LIEUT. CONDER. 

I HAVE at last found time to loo'^ over the geological specimens which 
Lieut. Conder has sent home from Palestine. The parcels are numbered 
up to 42, but there are none of the numbers 3, 9, 11, and 13. 

Fourteen of the specimens contain fossils. Without help and books of 
reference, which I cannot get here, I cannot determine these ; some 
are certainly of Cretaceous, and some probably of Jurassic or Oolitic age. 
When I am in Loudon, towards the end of the year, I dare say I shall be 
able to give you a more detailed description, and the names of some of 
these fossils ; others which are imperfect, or only in the state of casts, 
will scarcely be determinable specifically. 

Ten of the parcels, Nos. 1, 6, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 35, and 42, are 
specimens of volcanic lavas and ashes. With one exception. No. 42, 
which is a trachyte, and not taken from a rock or place, all the lavas are 
doloritic in mineral composition ; their structure also seems to indicate 
that the outpourings were subajrial, or, if they flowed under water, that 
it was of no great depth. 

There are two specimens of sedimentary bels, from volcanic localities. 
No 2, a red calcareous sandstone from Shayk Iskauder, and No. 32, con- 
sisting of thin laminas of similar sandstone and green marl, with layers 
of fibrous carbonate of lime, from Ikzim. These have the look of deposits 
formed in a lake ; there is nothing to show whether they are interstra- 
tified or not with the volcanic rocks. Possibly they indicate a similar 
state of condition to those under which the rocks of Auvergne were 
formed where there are alternations of lacustrine strata with volcanic ash 
and lava. In the same parcels are many fragments of white calcareous 
tufa, which look like portions of vein? that have been deposited by per- 
colating water in the cracks of the lava. All the volcanic rocks are 
saturated with carbonate of lime produced in this way. The date, or 
dates, for the volcanic eruptions of Palestine took place at different times, 
and must be determined by the geological structure of the country ; it is 
probable that all are younger than the Lower Tertiary, or Nummulitic 
beds, and I should not be surprised if many turn out to be of Middle 
Tertiary, or Miocene age. 



162 EXTRACT FROM A LETTER FROM THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATIOX. 

There are also a number of specimens of rocks, on the beach formed of 
shino-le and other fragmentary materials cemented by carbonate of limo. 
These are associated with broken bits of pottery and glass, and are there- 
fore of modern date, and perhaps still in the course of formation. 

I have had another letter from Lieut. Conder, and have replied to it 
at length, pointing out to him what I think are the meanings of the 
observations he has so far made, and directing his attention to the points 
•which it is of most importance to notice. 

Sexd. 18, 1873. Cl. H. Green. 



EXTRACT FROM A LETTER FROM THE AMERICAN 

ASSOCIATION. 

Late advices from Syria (in advance of official dispatches), by letter 
of Lieutenant Steever, commanding expedition, dated July 1-lth, furnish 
information of the highest interest. The expedition reached Moab on 
the first of April, and fixed their camp at Ilesban. Fifteen miles from 
here, a favourable location having been found, a base-line was satisfac- 
torily measured and established. This done, nearly four hundred square 
miles have since been triangvilated, and the detail of the same almost 
completed, including the hill shading. The heights of all points within 
the triano-ulation have been ascertained, and elevation above the levels 
of the Dead and Mediterranean Seas well obtained. 

Meteorological observations have been regularly taken. It is found 
that the maps— Van de Yelde's, even— of this country are utterly worth- 
less and unreliable. This is not strange, since this region of country 
and portion of the Holy Land have been nearly inaccessible to travellers. 
Nor would it be safe now, probably, except by a well-organised expe- 

dition. 

The archfcological and scientific departments of the expedition have 

also been very successful. 

Professor Paine has diligently and zealously pursued his researches 
and studies. He has already prepared a voluminous report, which has 
been forwarded through the official'channel of the Society at Beirut, ou 
the identification of Nebo and Pisgah. To say nothing of his other dis- 
coveries, this alone is a great achievement. Every day's work in the 
field has revealed to them ruins heretofore unknown and unmentioned 
by any traveller. The Bedawin tell of the ruins of cities a few days' 
journey to the south and east, which it is impossible now to visit. 
The whole country from Kerak to Ilauran is in a very disturbed state, in 
consequence of hostilities between the different tribes. The expedition 
would soon go into summer quarters. Lieutenant Steever advises 
resumption of work in autumn rather than wait till the spring. 

July 20, 18T3. Palestine Exploraiion Society, 
26, Exchaiif/e Place, Keiv York. 



PALESTINE 
EXPLORATION FUND 



Patron— THE QUEEN. 



garter ly Statement 

FOR 1874. 



LONDON : 

PUBLISHED AT THE SOCIETY'S OFFICE, 9, PALL MALL EAST, 

AND BY 

RICHARD BENTLEY & SON, 8, NEW BURLINGTON STREET. 



LONDON : 
R. K. BURT AND CO., PRINTERS, 
• WINE OFFICE COURT. 



INDEX. 



Abu Gosh, 6 

Abu Shusheh, 78 

Adullam, Cave of, 19, 110 

Adummim, 70 

.Enon, 191 

Ai, 62 

Ain el Sultan, 38 

Ain Fiji, 55 

Ain ed Duk, 86 

Ali and the Sun, 172 

American Society, 196 

Amwas, 149, 160, 162 

Annual Meeting, Report of, 221 

Antipatris, 184, 192 

Aqueducts, 27, 42, 101 

Architectural Notes, 136, 151 

Ashkelon, bv Prof. Pusey, 30 

Athlit, 13 

Azal, 101 

Barclay, The Rev. Joseph, on the 
Edinburgh Review article — " The 
Talmud,'" 30 

Bas-relief, 140 

Beisan, 181 

Bezetha, Vase of, 264 

Bishop, Tomb of a, 269 

Bohan, Stone of, SO 

Burkush, 53 

Burj el Maleh, 179 

Caesarea, 13 

Carmel, II 

Cities of the Plain, 29 

City of Brass, The, 87 

Clermont-Ganueau, Letters and Reports 

from, 3, 80, 135, 261 
Conder, Reports from Lieut. C. R., 11, 

35, 178 
Convents, 40, 72 
Crusading Constructions, 165 

David, Tower of, 64 

Dead Sea, 188 

Deir el Kelt, Inscriptions at, 89 



Dor, 12 

Drake, Letters from Mr. C. F. Tyi- 
whitt, 24, 64, 1 87 

Ed, Altar of, 241 

Elashah, 150 

El Kenise, 107 

Er Riha, 74 

Eshtaol, 17 

Etam, 17, 27 

Excavations, 93, 107, 134, 165 

Fenich, Legend of, 148 
Flint Implements, 158 
Forgeries, 90 

Geology, 45, 186 
Gezer, 5, 56, 75, 78, 276 
Ghor, The, 75 
Gibeah, 61 
Gideon, 182 
Gilgal, 36, 71, 170 
Gumran, 74, 83 

Hadrian, Head of, 7, 207 
Hajar el Asbah, 80, 190 
Hareth, Forest of, 148 
Haram Area, 91, 134 
Hermon, 51 
Herodiiim, 25 

Imam Aly, Sanctuary of, 86 

In Memoriam — C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake, 

131 
Inscriptions, 8, 9, 88, 89, 95, 102, 136, 

141, 142, 147, 159, 160, 164, 167, 

261, 275 

Jaffa, 3, 4, 5, 103 
Jebcl Kuruntil, 73 
Jehoshaphat, Legend of, 108 
Jericho, Fort of, 71, 85 

,, Traditions of, 87 
Job, Legend of, 110 
.loshua, 174 
Judah, Boundary Line of, 68 



IV 



INDEX. 



Judeeo-Ohristian Inscriptions, 8, 9 

Kabur Ben Israini, 78 

Kaukab el Hawo, 179 

Khirbet Ikbala, 77 

Khirbet el Moufjir, 85 

Kubbet es Sakhra, 65, 138, 151, 152, 

164 
Kurn Surtabeh, 173, 189 

Low Hill Country, The, 15 
Lydda, 57 

Maarath, 76 

MaUia, 160, 161 

Manocbo, 162 

Mar Saba, 28 

Medieval Stone Dressing, 91 

Medyeh, 45, 58, 78 

Mered, Son of Judah, 110 

Meteorology, 211 

Miamas, 15 

Mount of Olives, Sepulchral Cave near, 

93 
Moabite Stone, The, 2 
Mogharet Umm el Tumaymiyeh, 19 
Mogharet Kharaytdn, 25 
Mosaics, 138, 262 
Moses, Legend of, 103, 171 
Mozah, 79 
Mukhalid, 15 

Natural History, 44 
Neby Musa, 171 
Neby Samwil, 60 
Nehalin, 23 
Nomenclature, 6 7 

Oreb, The Kojik, 40 
Ossuaries, 147, 149 

Pusey, The Rev. Prof., on Ashkelon, 30 

Questions, &c., suggested by the Royal 
Institute of British Architects, 127 



Ramleh, 56 

,, Inscription at, 66 
Report of M. Ganneau, Prof. Hayter 

Lewis on the, 126 
Rock-cut Chambers, 105, 142, 166 
Roman Milestone, 90 
Rukhleh, 48 

Samson, Tomb of, 23 

Sarcophagi, Judajo-Christian, 7 

Second Wall, The, 145 

Schick's Work at Jerusalem, 125 

Scopus, Mount, 93, 111 

Shafet, 107 

Shapira CoUection, The, 114, 201 

Sharon, Plain of, 13 

Sorek, Valley of, 18 

Suk Wady Barada, 46 

Survey of Palestine, The, 248 

Tekua, 27 

Tell el Ithle, 88 

Tells, 180 

Tombs, 93, 95, 98, 105, 107, 108, 109, 

146 
Tumuli, 24, 161 

Vase of Bezetha, 264 
Venus, Head of, 104 
Vessel in Basalt, 263 

Wady Kana, 16 
Wady Kelt, Legend of, 103 
Wasps, Tradition of the, 151 
Well of the Plague, 149, 160 

Yasoul, 101 
Yasur, 5 
Yerzeh, 178 

Zarthan, 174 
Zeeb, Winepress of, 40 
Zion, Cavern in Mount, 98 
Zorah, 17 



QUAETERLV STATEMENT, JaNUAHY, 1874.] 



THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 



PREFACE. 



It is with great pleasure that we puLlish. the first Reports 
received from M. Clermont-Ganneau. They are, as might have 
been expected, of the greatest interest. His labours began from 
the moment of his arrival at Jaffa, where he found the ancient 
Jewish Cemetery ; and were followed up on his way to Jerusalem, 
when he visited the site of Gezer, and was able to trace out in 
part the plan of the old Canaanitish city. In Jerusalem he has 
unade a careful study of the sarcophagi lately found on the Mount 
of Offence. Besides the other points of interest raised in his 
Heport, it is startling to find in a tomb close to Bethany, of date 
certainly early Christian, and very likely of the 1st century, the 
names, all together, oi^imoia., Martha, and Lazarus. Whoever were 
the persons named, we have here certainly a tomb of Jewish 
Christians of a very early period, and belonging to a priestly family. 

Of no less interest are the Reports of Lieut. Conder and Mr. 
C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake. The latest letters contain the gratifying 
intelligence that the Survey is going on very much faster. We 
have now done more than a third of the whole area of Western 
Palestine. 

Now that the work of the Fund is divided into two i^arts, the 
Survey and the Researches at Jerusalem, it is needless to say 
that the expenses are proportionately heavier. We have to face the 
next year with a considerable debt, and with a promised annual 
income of a great deal less than the expenses which will be 
inciuTed. These expenses mean about £2,400 for the Survey, 
and perhaps £1,000 for the Jerusalem work, besides the expenses 
of printing and publishing, which cannot be avoided. We ask 

B 



2 PREFACE. 

for increased support in annual incomes or for tlie raising of a 
sum of money at once, to enable us to finish off tlie whole worlc. 
We estimate that some £10,000, in addition to what is promised, 
would cover all work at present contemplated. The Qimrterlj 
Statement is sent to 3,000 persons. It is suggested to those 3,000 
subscribers that if each were to obtain only additional subscriber's, 
to the extent of £3, the anxieties and difiiculties of the Com- 
mittee would be removed. Papers showing the aims and objects- 
of the Fund, for distribution, can be had of the Secretai-y. Further, 
as at the beginning of the year the claims on the Fund are 
pressing, we beg to remind our friends that they give twice 
who give C|uickly. "We ask the wealthiest country in the world 
to help to an end a work which concerns the highest interests 
of all mankind. 



THE MOABITE STONE. 



The two large fragments, together with tlie smaller pieces of the 
Moabite Stone which M. Clermont-Ganneau succeeded in rescuing, are 
now in the Loiivre at Pai'is. Until the small pieces have been fitted 
into their places with as much certainty as a comparison with M. Gan- 
neau's original squeeze will allow, the monument will not be open to 
the general public, nor will any casts of it be issued. 

The Committee have received a letter from the curator of the Deparie- 
ment des Antiques, inviting the Palestine Exi^loration Fund to cede to 
the Louvre the fragments which Captain Warren brought home -with 
himi These, which contain in all fifty- sis letters, have been already 
cast in fac-simile, and these casts have been presented to M. Clermont- 
Ganneau. The presentation, therefore, of the fragments themselves 
would not further advance the restoration of the inscription. On the 
other hand, it would be satisfactory to the French to have in their 
hands the whole existing remains of the monument. But to part with 
the i)roperty of the Fund is beyond the j^ov/er of the Executive Com- 
mittee, aud it is therefore proposed to call a meeting of the General 
Committee eaidy next year, at which the matter may be fully discussed. 
At this meeting, also, certain questions connected with the publication 
of pai:)er3 on subjects of Biblical interest, not written by the Com- 
mittee's exploring officers, will be also considered. 

Subscribers are invited to forward to the secretary any opinions or 
suggestions they may have to offer, which will receive full con- 
sideration. 



THE JERUSALEM RESEARCHES. 



LETTEES FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

I. 

Eamleh, Nov. G, 1873. 

I write a few words in haste from. Eamleli, where I have just arrived 
on my way to Jerusalem, The French mail packet will touch to- 
morrow at Jaffa, and I snatch the opportunity of letting you know 
that we arrived safely on Monday, the 3rd, after a tolerably good 
voyage and three days' quarantine at Alexandria. 

I took advantage of our short stay at Jaffa to make some esami- ^^^^!>- 
nation of the city and its environs. I believe I have succeeded in 
settling a point which has for a long time engaged my attention, and 
is of great importance for the history of Jaffa and ulterior researches, 
nameljs the situation of the ancient cemetery of Jaffa. I observed a 
circle, which extends in the great gardens outside Jaffa, bounded by a 
little hamlet called Abou K'bir* (Abu Kebir), and by the well of Aboa 
I^abbout (Abu Nabbut). This circle, called Ardh (or Jebel) Dhabitha, 
contains a quantity of tombs cut in the tufa, and exposed every day to 
the light by the fellahin. I had the good fortune to purchase on the 
very spot, of a peasant, a small slab of marble, with an inscription that 
I think to be extremely curious. It is the epitaph, in Greek, of a Jewish 
personage, with the representation of the seven-branched candlestick 
and the funeral palm. It is the exact pendant of the inscription of 
Thanouni, which comes also from Jaffa, a squeeze of which I sent you 
for the Exhibition. By the next mail I will give you a reproduction 
with a translation. I propose to return and explore the environs of 
Jaffa, which promise valuable "finds." We must at least find two or 
three more inscriptions of the same kind coming from the same neigh- 
bourhood. 

Jerus.ilem, Nov. 12, 1873. 
The business of getting settled, procuring furniture, finding a house, 
hiring servants, receiving and paying visits, have not left us very much 

* In the reports and letters of M. Ganneau, the French spelling of Arabic 
names will be preserved, but after each -will be given the spelling according 
to Robinson's method. Mr. Drake spells the names in his reports according 
to his own method. The Committee have in considoration the adoption for their 
map of a uniform system. 



4 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

time for work. Notwitlistanding, we have neglected no opportunity, since 
setting foot on the sand of Jaffa, of making observations or getting 
information ; and the following is a succinct account of what I have 
done up to the present moment. 

Jaffa. I had already, during my first stay in Palestine, remarked at 

Jaffa, in an Arab house belonging to M. Damiani, the French Consular 
Agent of Ramleh, a fragment of bas-relief in marble fitted in the 
pavement. The first thing I did was to go and examine this. M, 
Lecomte made a very pretty drawing of it, which you will get by the 
next mail, with other illustrations of these letters. The las-relief 
from Ca3sarea represents a tragic mask a great deal mutilated and 
broken below the nose : the head is in fairly good style, and may 
belong to the best part of the Greco-Roman period. Judging by the 
arrangement of the hair, the disposition of the fillet, and the en- 
semble of the features, the mask must belong to a woman's head : 
the eyes are deeply sunk ; and the mouth, in great part gone, must have 
been open for the classical rictus. A fragment of ringlet on the 
left, and a bit of wing on the right of the head, seem to indicate that it 
formed part of a decoration, and other particulars tend to show that 
the whole was to be looked at from beneath, and formed part, pei'haps, 
of a frieze, rather than the decoration of a sarcophagus. May we 
recognise here a piece of the Roman Theatre of Csesarea ? 

The City I made the tour of the city walls, trying to pick out the por- 

tions that are ancient, whether of construction or of matei'ial. I 
observed, especially towards the north, and on the seaward side, a 
considerable quantity of fine rusticated blocks. The people of the place 
told me that they were brought here from Csesarea and St. Jean d'Acre. 
Along the wall may be very plainly distinguished from place to place, 
in front of the actual wall, old foundations at present partly underwater. 
I rau along the south part of the wall which separates the city from 
the sea in a boat. Starting from the advanced bastion, above which 
rise the lighthouse and the traditional house of St. Peter, extends a 
basin of water of very small depth, the boat touching the bottom every 
moment. This sea basin is surrounded by a reef of rocks, and bears 
the name of BirJcet el Oamar (the Basin of the Moon), All this place, 
and that portion of the site which adjoins it, deserve to be minutely 
explored. The coast here is covered with ruins apparently ancient. 

Traditions. There is living at Jaffa a certain ISIussulmau named .'Ali Sida, master 
mason. This man, now of advanced age, has directed all the construc- 
tions ordered at the commencement of the century by the legendary 
Abou Nabbodt (Abu Nabbiit), Governor of Jaffa. It would be inter- 
esting to collect from him and on the spot every kind of information on 
the considerable changes that Jaffa underwent at that time. 

Auiiilioia. An extremely intelligent Arab, living at Jaffa, spoke to me of an 
amphora handle found in the gardens of Jaffa, and bearing characters 
of which he showed me a copy made by himself. As far as I could 
judge byjthis reproduction, simple enough, but seriously meant, the 



GEZER. 

inscription is Greek, and gives the name of the potter. I will try to see 
the original on my first journey to JaiFa. 

On leaving Jaffa to go to Jerusalem, I wished to verify an important Ancient 
point, which has engaged me a long time, and I think that I have '^"^^ ^^' 
positively arrived at it — it is the site of the ancient cemetery of the 
city. With this object, on leaving the gate of the city, in place of fol- 
lowing the ordinary road, I directed our little caravan to the left — i.e., 
to the north, across the gardens which surround Jaffa on all sides. We 
soon arrived at a small hamlet named Sakneh Ahou K'b?r {Sukneh Abie 
Kehir), where I spoke to some of the fellahin. One of them led us 
a few steps farther in the interior of certain gardens very little culti- 
vated, when I ascertained the presence of numerous recent excavations 
designed to get building stones. These excavations have brought to light 
at several points sepulchral chambers cut in the limestone. Such tombs 
are found, it appears, from the hamlet of Abou K'bir (Abu Kebir) as 
far as the Jewish Agricultural Institute, on the other side of the road, 
and to the present Catholic Cemetery. The peasants assured me that 
they had found in these tombs lamps and vases in terra-cotta, and 
stones with inscriptions. At my request one of them went to get such a 
stone ; it is the same of which I spoke in my first note from Ramleh. I 
bought it for the Society. I examined it at leisure at Jerusalem, and 
find it to be positively an epitaph in Greek of a Jewish personage, 
designated as 4'PONTICTHC AAEHANAPIAC. The mention of this function 
occupied by him at Alexandria gives this inscription a great historic 
value. I ijropose to send you by the first opportunity a facsimile and 
an interpretation. 

After this short but profitable diversion we made our way to the Yazour 
picturesque fountains of Abou Nabbout, to get back to the ordinary ('^^s^'")- 
road. We followed it without finding anything worthy of note, as far 
as the little village of Yazour (Tasur). Here I left the road to cross 
the village and examine a little nearer an old building, church or small 
castle, flanked with centre forts. The only information I obtained 
relates to the name of the place. A fellah, less savage than his com- 
panions, was good enough to inform me that Yazour used to be called 
formerly Adalia, and that after the place was taken by an ancient king, 
by main force {hez-zur), it received the name of Yazour. Without at- 
taching importance to an etymology based upon a mere play upon 
words, I thought it well to note it. It may, besides, be remarked that 
in this region, as far as the mountains, local tradition often assigns two 
names to places, the one reported ancient and the other modern. This 
particularity, which I have often observed in my previous researches, 
must have its weight with any one who gives himself up specially 
to onomastic topography. 

At Eamleh, where we passed the night, I had no time to do any- cczer. 
thing. We stai-ted early in the morning in order to pass by the site 
of the ancient Gezer, which I discovered on the spot three years ago, 
after determining it a priori by theoretical and historical considerations. 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 



Site of 
Primitive 
Dwelling; { 



Dispositicn 
of houses 
by isolated 
gi-oups. 



AbaCcsh. 



We rode straight to the place, crossing over fields split open by the 
drought, across which it was difficult to urge the horses. Arrived at 
the summit, we found a house in process of construction, and met 
there Messrs. Bergheim fils, who are building it, and who told us they 
had bought the whole hiU. Let us hope that this acquisition will 
make research on the site of the old Canaanite city easier for the future. 
The works of MM. Bergheim have caused the discovery of certain 
cuttings in the rock, of which they showed me some which appeared to 
me very curious. In passing I gave one look at the great birket, the 
plan of which I drew on my first visit. It is now cleared out almost 
to the bottom. 

After taking leave of the new Seigneurs of Gezer, we traversed the 
whole length of the tell and made the descent in the direction of A'in 
Tardi and Goubab (El Kubab), On the road I made a fresh examina- 
tion of the wine-presses, tombs, and foundations cut in the rocks, 
which had so much struck me on my first visit. I believe I have 
been enabled to determine in certain cuttings of the rock the position 
of the ancient houses. Thus, in certain places may be seen four or 
five steps abutting on a horizontal platform cut in the sloping rock. 
These cuttings are a trace, a kind of impress, of great houses now 
disappeared. In other places may be perfectly distinguished the place 
where the back part of the house rested. It would be well to draw 
exactly the most characteristic of these incisions and excisions of the 
rock : they may possibly throw great light on the restoration of the 
primitive buildings of Palestine. Such drawings and plans can alone 
make us understand what a Canaanitish city was like. Perhaps we 
shall be able, with the help of M. Lecomte, to visit the place again 
and make them. 

Another remark that I made during this second visit relates to the 
manner in which the quartei's of Gezer were distributed. In the centre 
and on the summit of the tell, the strategic importance of which must 
have been considerable, certainly stood the stronghold of the city — the 
city proper. Ai-ound it and along the sides were distributed a series of 
small isolated centres of agglomeration, a kind of satellites of the city 
itself, whose positions are determined by the cuttings in the rock, of 
which I have spoken above. This disposition to scatter itself, of which 
Gezer surely does not offer us the only specimen, explains in a striking 
manner, it seems to me, the Biblical phrase, " the city and her 
daughters." Apparently it was this series of isolated groups, form- 
ing an integral part of the city, which was ingeniously called the 
" daughtei's." 

We halted a moment passing before Giliat el 'Eneh (Kuriet el Enab), 
a village of Abou Ghoch, to visit the church, named after Saint Je- 
rome, which has been recently conceded to the French Government. 
Certain excavations undertaken since the concession have partly dis- 
engaged the ciypt, which forms a complete subterranean church, and 
contains a cave or cistern filled with water. We remarked signs cut on 



SARCOPHAGI, 7 

the blocks of tlie cliurcli above, which I had noted a long time. They 
ieave no doubt as to the mediaeval Latin origin of the monument. 
In the outside -walls may be seen many blocks of rusticated stone, 
which remind me singularly of those utilised in the buildings of the 
•church (also of the Crusading period) of Neby Shamouel and the ruined 
■edifice of Colonia.* 

Small Bas-relief from J.sca?oH.— A man brought me from Ascalon a ArcTifcoIogi- 
little slab of marble with a sculpture representing two doves, bii'ds 
symljoUcal of the town. (Sketclied by M. Lecomte.) 

Fragment from the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. — We have also a 
drawing of a fragment of sculpture in marble, found dm-ing the demo- 
lition of the old cupola, the end of a bracket representing a lion devour- 
ing a grotesque human head. Greek characters in relief, A. r. 

Marble Head found at Jerusalem. — A Mussulman of Jerusalem, Rabah 
EfFendi, has found in taking down a stone wall on his property, not far 
from the flour el molouk, a very fine head in marble of a man bearded, 
with curled hair, and a fillet adorned with a medallion representing an 
«agle. The type of this head, in good Eoman execution, and the charac- 
teristic and individual aspect of the features, seem to indicate that we 
have here a portrait and not a common head. Probably it is one of some 
historic personage who played his part at Jerusalem. And if we are 
to take the details of his fillet as marks of royalty, perhaps we have 
the portrait of one of the Herods. Up to the present I have only had 
time to glance at this remarkable head. I will see it again and make 
^ careful examination of it. Perhaps it is a broken piece of the statue 
of an emperor. 

Fragments of Insrrij)tions coming from the Haram" es Shereef. — The 
Russian Archimandrite, a man of considerable learning and veiy 
•obliging, has shown me three fragments of interesting inscriptions 
"brought to light during the repair of the Mosque. Two are in Byzan- 
tine Greek, one is in Latin. 



II. 

Jerusalem, Adorer?! &er 13 — 27,1873. "^ ' 

I have already told you of the discovery, in a sepulchral cave judfco- 

.at the Mount of Offence, of a group of Jewish sarcophagi. I have now Cmistiau^^ 

the satisfaction of telling you that I was not wrong in attributing a with in- ° ' 

very great value, archaeological as well as epigraphic, to these monu- fo^d ou^' 

meuts. A fuller and more frequent examination has only con- *'*'' Mount 

'■ •'of Otfeuce. 

* Abu Gosh is situated at the east end of the Wady Aly, on tlie road I'loni 

-Jafia to Jerusalem. It is called in ilurray's map Kuriet el Enab, but it generally 

TDears the name of Abil Gosh, from the brigand of that name, who, aftin- nearly 

iifty years of crime, was at last seized in 1840. It was identified by Robinson 

with Kirjath Jearini. (See .'Smith's B!bliccJ Lvjiicm-^i', sub voce.) 



8 LETTERS FKOM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

firmed my first judgment. I wish I could have taken photogi-aphs, 
but Tve cannot yet get at the apparatus. In their absence I tried to 
take squeezes of the ornamented surfaces as well as of the inscriptions 
themselves, the decorations being engraved lightly, so as to present 
few difficulties to this method of reproduction. 

The ornamentations are exactly like those of similar monuments 
already known and published in the BuUetin da Musee Parent, the 
Eecovery of Jerusalem, and in a memoir of my own which appeared in 
the Revue Archeologique of this year. Their principal motif consists. 
of two roses geometrically constructed with greater or less com- 
plication. 

The lids are of different forms (triangular, semicircular, rectangular, 
in section) and fitted to the sarcophagi in different ways, either placed on 
two or four internal rebates, or sliding into the sarcophagus just like 
the lid of a box of dominoes. The latter are provided at the upper part 
with a notch for the hand. The inscriptions, in Hebrew and Greek,, 
are sometimes on the lids, but more often on one of the sides or ends- 
of the sarcophagus itself. Some are painted or traced with kalam, or 
even with carbon; the larger number are engraved with a pointed 
instrument, but not deeply. Several, not only Greek, but also Hebrew,, 
are accompanied by crosses, which leave no doubt of the religion 
of the persons whose remains were preserved in theui ; others present 
a sign of cuneiform appearance : others, again, have no symbol what- 
ever, not even the palm or the seven-branched candlestick, which I 
have so often found on funeral insci'iptions incontestably Jewish. 

Here is a translation of the principal of these inscriptions. I send 
you my notes without attempting a classification : — 

I. Hebrew inscriptions : — 

(1.) rnirr nuN Di*7iy. Salome, wife of Judah, engraved in very small 
chai'acters. Below, in large characters, ^ ^ DT7w, Salome (orperhaps- 
a formula, as " pax"), with the symbol, [ which appears like a leaf,, 
or a bow with its arrow, but which ^ is, nevertheless, in my 
opinion a cruciform sign. 

nmn^ TiwK DTTC. Salome, wife of Judah, on a flat lid which very- 
likely belongs to the preceding sarcophagus. On the other face of the 
lid a Hebrew inscription indistinct, but with the same ci'uciform sign 
as that given above. 

(2.) rnin\ Judah, with the cross + . Perhaps the husband of Salome, 
for the others of the same name whom we meet with afterwards do not- 
appear to have been Christian?'. 

(3.) i£Dn min\ Judah the Scribe. The quadrangular samech is a. 
very interesting form. On another face of the sarcophagus, and rather 
carelessly engraved, "^SlDn "lil'TS "^3 rrnn', Judah, son. of EUazar the Scribe^ 
The word safer is this time written in full, with the vau, and the tamech 
is triangular as usual. 

(4.) riC' 13 priC Simeon, the son of Jesus (Bar J esha'o). In charac- 
ters neai-ly microscopic, but neatly engraved (conip. Elymas Bar-jesua 
the magician). 



SARCOPHAGI. 1) 

(5.) nV3r\3NniO. Martha, daufjhter of Pasach. "with the tsade in 

place of the samech is quite admissible in vulgar orthography. The 
tsade is due to the attraction of the strong letter heth. Perhaps 
the name is Jewish as well as Christian. 

(6). \n3 -13 -IT1?'?S. Eleazar, son of Nathan. The form Nathai for Nathan 
is not uncommon (cf. TannaT, &c.). j\Iay we recognise in this Eleazar 
the father of Judah the Scribe in No. 5 ? 

(7.) n"'JJm3 n"nn\ Judah, the son of Ilanaiu'alt. It has been traced in 
Jcalam, appearing to be followed by the word V, Man o/(cf. Luke iii. 26, 
for the name only). 

(8.) In^n lU'tt^ r\2 JVir-V^?. Salamtsion, daugJder of Simeon the. Print. 
The name of the woman, Salam Sion, is of the gruLitest interest. We fiiul 
it under other forms in the Talmud (as the name of the wife of Alex- 
ander Janna3us). It is the name Salampsion of Josejihus (daughter of 
Herod). It appears to me formed exactly like D'TwP"', Jtrusahm, Jtru- 
being replaced by Sion, and the order of the parts reversed. 

(9.) ]V'^'Chv. Salampsion. 

(10.) Dp~ip. Perhaps a transcript from Kopal-KopcKos. 

There are several others that I have not been able to make out 
except in part. 

II. Greek inscriptions : — 

Jesus. lECOTC, twice repeated, with the cross +. Nathaniel, 
NATANHAOT; HAHA; KTP0AC ; MOCXAC; MAPIAAOC; HA, accompanied by 
a cross apparently of a later date >i<. 

These inscriptions raise a large number of questions of which I defer 
the consideration for the memoir which will accompany the drawings. 
Their value rests principally upon three points. 

(1) Epigraphy. New documents throwing strong light on the his- 
tory of the square Hebrew character, and enabling us to establish a 
synchronism with other inscrij^tions known but not dated. It is now- 
evident, for example, that the inscription engraved on the sarcophagus 
taken by M. de Saulcy from the " Tombs of the Kings" {K'bour tl 
Molouk) is contemporary with these, and can scarcely, therefore, be 
far removed from the Christian era. 

(2) History of the origin of Ciiristianity. Monuments belonging to 
the beginnings of Christianity, before it had any official position, 
coming from the very soil where it had its bnth. No monument of 
this kind had hitherto been brought to light. The cave on the Mount 
of Offence belonged apparently to one of the earliest families which 
joined the new religion. In this group of sarcophagi, some of which 
have the Christian symbol and some have not, we are, so to speak, 
assisting at an actual unfolding of Christianity- The association of 
the sign of the cross with names written in Hebrew constitutes alone 
a valuable fact. 

Perhaps, also, we ought to consider those which have no such symbol 
at aU as Christians of the most ancient period. Perhaps " Judah the 
Scribe," and even " Simeon the Pi-iest (Cohen) " belonged to the new 



■JO LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

religion. In that case tliis Simeon might very well be the second 
Bishop of Jerusalem. But then would arise (only to be solved) the 
grave question of the marriage of Christian priests, since Simeon has a 
daughter named Salamsion. 

I must add that in one of the sarcophagi (unfortunately it is impos- 
sible now to know which) were three or four small instruments in 
copper or bronze, much oxidized, consisting of an actual small bell, 
surmounted by a i-ing. The Arabs thought they were a kind of 
castanets. Can we trace here the equivalent of the bells hung on 
the robe of the high priest ?* And do these ornaments come from the 
sarcophagus of our Simeon ? We took drawings of them just as we 
did of the vases and vials of terra-cotta found in the other sarcophagi. 

The explanation of the symbol also deserves serious attention. 

3. The names. What gives additional value to these short inscrip- 
tions is, that they furnish a v/hole series of names found in the Gospels, 
in their poj>ular and local Syro-Chaldaic forms — the use of hat- for 
ben (son), for instance. The presence of the names of Jesus, written 
with its vulgar contraction, and Martha, of v/hich we only knew histori- 
cally that it was the feminine form of the Aramaic KITD, would alone 
be sufficient to make this collection important from an exegetic point 
of view. 

By a singular coincidence, which from the first struck me forcibly, 
these inscriptions, found close to the Bethany road, and very near 
the site of the village, contain nearly all the names of the personages 
in the Gospel scenes which belonged to the place : Eleazar (Lazarus), 
Simon, Martha ... a host of other coincidences occur at the sight of 
all these most evangelical names, if it were not imprudent to indulge 
in conjecture thus early in our researches. 

• It is deplorable that this interesting family tomb should have been 
opened by unintelligent and rude hands, which have carried away the 
sarcophagi without taking any kind of precautions, mixing up the lids, 
breaking the bones and the vases of terra-cotta. It is impossible now 
to know in what order they were arranged. I am told that they were 
placed over each other, giving some sort of chronological key, which it 
is a great pity to have lost. I think T ought to note that I have not 
seen among all these remains a single fragment of glass, and 1 have 
not been informed of a single object of this material among all the 
collection. C. Clermont-Ganneau. 

* Sea Exod. xxxiv. 24—26 ; Joseph. Aniiq. III., vii., § 4 ;>nd Ecclus. xlv. 9. 



THE SURVEY OF PALESTINE. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE E. CONDER'S REPORTS. 

XVI. 

P.E.F. Camp, Bltjdan, August 27, 1873. 

In my winter repoi-t I endeavoui-ed to give a detailed account of the 
proportions of various kinds of arclia3ological relics, interesting to the 
explorer and Biblical student, with which we had met during our pre- 
ceding work. I will on this occasion endeavour to give a general idea 
of the country we have passed thi'ough, and of its ruins and natural 
features. 

The Ordnance Survey now extends over 1,800 square miles. The |'"°sress of 
upper part of the Plain of Sharon and the Carmel promontory are 
complete, and thus two sheets are ready for pulolication along the 
coast, namely, the Athlit and Cajsarea sheets. Before Christmas I 
have great hope of completing the Jerusalem sheet, and in early spring 
the Jaffa and Pv-amleh sheets will also be fit to engrave. Thus there 
will soon be a possibility of presenting to the public the results of part 
of our labours, which have extended over portions of no less than 
eight sheets of the map. 

Our summer and spring work was in the district between that of the 
year 1872 on the east, and the sea on the west. By keeping the camps 
as far apart as possible, and increasing the size of the triangles, we 
were able to obtain a material increase in the rate of work, and left on 
breaking off rather less than a fortnight's work in the Plain of Sharon 
to fill up the whole of the blank space and to complete the coast line 
from Haifa to Jaffa. 

The south side of Carmel — a rugged and tangled country of hard 
grey rock and pistachio wildernesses — is undivided by any great natural 
feature from a block of hills of rather less elevation, but equally steep 
and wild. The Plain of Esdraelon is to the east, and a nai-row strip of 
flat fertile corn-land lies to the west, separated from the shore by a sort 
of wall of sandstone, and edged by groves of olives at the very foot of 
the hills. 

This line of country runs southward for about twenty miles from the 
Carmel promontory, and is bounded by the River Zerka, a torpid 
stream flowing through fetid marshes, in which reeds, canes, and the 
stunted papyrus grow, and where alone in Palestine the crocodile is 
found. Beyond the river the plain suddenly widens to more than 
double, and a new chai-acter of country succeeds. 

In the midst of the wild range thus bounded the remains of an ancient 
cultivation are still traceable. Little square watch-towers with dry- 



12 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 

stone walls, huge rock-cut -wine-pi-esses, ruins of terraces and stone 
boundaries, occur liere and there. A Druse village, remarkable for its 
fine race of hardy men and fair -women, bears the name of Dalyeh 
(the trained vine), and the rich soil -which covers the iron rock, even 
though now untilled, supports a luxuriant wild growth of bushes and 
small trees: mastics, oaks, and hawthorn abound, and in spring a 
carpet of gay-coloured flowers is spread, a marked contrast to the bare 
mountains of Judsea and the brown corn-land of the Plain of Jezreel. 

In the middle of this wild country, in a strong site, with a deep bare 
ravine behind it, stand the ruins of Kh. Semmaka, a Roman to-wn, of 
which the wall, the foundations of a little temple, and other relics, 
remain. I have in a former report* given the reasons which seem to 
point to its identification with the Ecbatana of Josephus. 

Descending into the plain beneath, we find ourselves in a land of 
tombs. Both faces of the sea-wall are excavated into innumerable 
sepulchres, and the rocks at the foot of the chain are similarly mined 
out. The probable date of these tombs is that of the Roman occu- 
pation of Palestine, and all, without exception, have been opened and 
their contents rifled. 

Although at the present day this is one of the wildest and least 
populous districts of the country, there is little doubt that then it must 
have been covered with villages, and as fertile as any other part of 
Palestine. Along the sea-coast runs the great high-road to Egypt, and 
the ruts of the light chariot wheels are still visible in places on the 
rock. Passages leading to the various towns were cut through the sea- 
wall, and contained guard-houses on either side. The masonry of the 
various sites has long since crumbled away, but cisterns, steps, and 
foundations cut in rock attest in places the existence of considerable 
buildings. 
Dor. The site of the ancient Dor,t called later Tantura, appears to have 

been the chief town at this period. A great mound alone remains, from 
which the ashlar has been long ago abstracted, and on the shore of the 
little harbour the bases and capitals of large columns belonging to the 
temple of some maritime deity. A landing-place -with flat slabs and 
traces of a building, no doubt for the accommodation of sailors and 
traders, are found upon the shore. Behind the town a fine causeway 
runs south, and passes by a number of granite shafts planted perpen- 
dicularly in a line beside one another. 

Here also are remains of another great building epoch, that of the 
Christian occupation of Palestine, consisting of a tall solid tower of 
rubble faced with ashlar, which is a conspicuous landmark for a great 
distance on every side. It formed one corner of a fortress long since 
fallen into dust, and stands boldly out on a little brown promontory 
south of the Roman town. 

* Quarterly Statement, 1873, p. 96. 

+ Joshua ii.'2 ; xii. 23 ; and Judges i. 27. 



ATIILIT AXD C.ESAREA. 13 

The headquarters of the Crusaders were, however, farther north, at 
the great seaport of 'Athlit, the C'astel Pelegrino of medieval writers, Athlit. 
where first the new levies landed on the comfortless coast of the Holy 
Land. « 

Yery impressive must have been the general appearance of the town 
to the pilgrim. The church, a decagon, with its three eastern apses, 
the great hall of El Kaynifeh towering above all, the long vaults for 
stabling and storage, the groined roofs and noble masonry, with the 
strong surrounding walls, must have made 'Athlit perhaps the finest town 
of the period in the country. The strong outworks of Dustrey (Petra 
incisa) and other ruins made it unassailable on the land side; whilst 
two shallow harbours, protected from various winds, rendered it acces- 
sible at any period of the year. 

The pUgrim travelling inwards was defended by a line of forts at easy 
distance. Shellaleh (the cascade) and Rushmia carried him over 
Carmel to the Plain of St. Jean d'Acre, and Seflfuriyeh brought him 
close to Nazareth. Going south he passed fi-om Tantura to Caesarea, 
and thence, by the high tower of Kakun, the beautiful hall at Kalen- 
sawyeh, and the caravanserai at Jiljulia, down to the settlements near 
Eamleh, and hence to Jerusalem. 

On crossing the Zerka we enter another region. The precipitous 
inland cliffs which mark the shore-line of a foi'mer geological period 
recede suddenly, and form the north boundary of the great Plain of The Plain of 
Sharon. Half of its width is of marl and alluvial soil, the other half of 
old red semi-consolidated sand of sandstones and shelly breccias of 
blown sand in huge encroaching patches. The hills beyond are of the 
softest chalk, lying in gentle slopes, which are in parts covered by 
woods of oak, the trees standing park-like at intervals, with a floor of 
sand in some places, or of hard limestone in others. 

It was here that Herod the Great chose the seat of his capital, and 
built upon a barren coast, of white stones brought from a distance, the 
Csesarea Palestinse which was to form the connecting seaport between Casarea. 
Jaffa and the northern harbours. Hidden by rolling sand-hills, it 
stands low on the sea-shore, and exhibits in April long expanses of 
a yellow composite flower, with thin patches of weed- strangled corn, 
fi'om which the brown ruins stand out contrasted. The period was 
unfavourable for excavation, and we were content with survey alone. 

The Roman town was of considerable extent, but little of it remains 
except the mounds which indicate where masonry has been. The line 
of the wall we were able to trace, and the site of some of the pi'incipal 
buUdings enumerated by Josephus in his account of the foundation. 

His estimate of the harbour as being equal to the Piraeus is exag- 
gerated, as it only measures about 300 yards across. The mole on its 
south side, equal nearly in length, still remains, and though its buildings 
are Ci-usading, the original plan seems to have been reproduced, for 
half was left as a breakwater {irpoKOfiaTia), the rest, covered with buildings, 
I'eplacing the tower Drusus of Herod. Great blocks of granite lying at 



14 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 

its feet in the water are no doubt fragments of the huge stelse which 
rose on the same sjDot, like towers. Of the temple to Csesar only a 
foundation wall remains. It would, however, perhaps repay excavation. 
Its white stones contrast with the brown sand-blocks of the later 
builders, and attest Josephus's accuracy in describing the materials as 
brought at great expense from a distance. 

But perhaps the most interesting relics are those of the theatre and 
amphitheatre. The Greek of Josephus's account, accurately rendered, 
runs thiTS : " He made also a theatre of stone, and towards the south 
of the port he placed an amphitheatre capable of containing a great 
number of men, suitably situated for a view of the sea." -j-. We see at 
once that by the amphitheatre is intended the great earthwork with its 
surrounding ditch, its ramp, and principal entrance, which exists south of 
the medieval town. This may well be described as capable of containing 
a great crowd of men ; 30,000 could be gathered within it. The situation 
of the theatre is not defined, but it is specified to have been of stone ; and 
a semicii-cular stone building, sufficiently large to have been a theatre, 
exists in the mound itself. It seems, therefore, within the bounds of 
probability that the ajxtpiQUrpov was rather the building round the theatre 
than a double theatre, according to the usual acceptation of the term. 

Close to the wall of the Roman enceinte on the east is a longitudinal 
sunk enclosure resembling a stadium, with fallen stelse of beautiful 
granite. This building, however, is unnoticed by the historian. 

The second building age of Csesarea has left ruins far more perfect, 
though of less interest. The great cathedral rose almost on the founda- 
tions of the Pagan temple. The fortress of the port stood on the site 
of " Drusus '' above the tesselated pavements of the earlier age. In the 
north quarter of the town another small church was built, whose 
ruined walls overhang the low cliff. The enceinte, however, was reduced 
to about a tenth of the area. 

The watei'-supply of the town was a matter of some difficulty, from 
the nature of its porous, sandy soil, and its level, which was very little 
above that of the sea. One shallow well exists near the cathedral, and 
numerous cisterns are scattered about, but in Roman times the popula- 
tion must have depended principally on the great aqueducts. 

The low-level aqueduct, with its single tunnel, 7 feet high , ran straight 
to the Zerka. A dam here erected, 20 feet in height, collected the 
waters in a pool, whence they were drawn. A fine masoni-y wall 
stretched from the hills to the sea-wall, and prevented the drainage of 
the northern marshes from finding any other channel of escape than 
the Zerka river. But the high-level conduit was a far more ambitious 
attempt. Starting at the clear chalk springs in the hills, near Sindiain, 
it collected a further supply of good water banked up by weirs near 
Miamas, and crossed the marshes on arches of fine masonry. The sea- 
wall intervened between it and the shore, and was pierced by a tunnel, 
to which great flights of steps led down a depth of 30 feet. This diffi- 
culty overcome, the remainder of its course was less difficult to engineer, 



THE LOW HILL COUNTRY. 15 

and the long row of arches are visible covered with the blown sand 
hillocks in part stretching along the shore of the sea. The channel 
was double, but the existence of a cornice built into and hidden by the 
substructions of the western conduit show that this second was added 
later, when the supply proved insufficient. 

North of Ctesarea, and at the foot of the hills, we find at Miamas AHamas. 
another centre of Roman life. A theatre only remains, converted later 
into a Saracenic fortress, but the strewn columns by the springs in its 
neighbourhood point to the existence of other public buildings. Upon 
the hill above are some curious vaults, which are undoubtedly of Eoman 
origin, but for what piirpose, unless for the kenneling of the wild 
animals, it is not easy to decide, and the distance from the theatre is 
considerable. 

But little else of interest was left to explore in the plain, as the 
remains of Antipatris were without the limits of this year's work. At 
Mukhalid and Burj el Atut are relics of the Mohammedan great build- MukhaUd. 
ings— a tower and a khan. Tombs, with the interior painted and ^tu^**' 
cemented, occur in parts along the sandstone cliffs, and here and there 
an artificial mound or tell. The towers of Kakun and Kalensawyeh Kakun 
represent Crusading times ; and a fine hall of Gothic architecture, roof- yeh. 
less and half- obliterated, exists at the latter place. 

The third district, which occupied us during May and part of June, 
was the low hill country east of the plain, and at the foot of the central ]^?f, ^'"' 
range. It consists of a hard limestone, with a few flints and fossils, country, 
covered with more or less underwood, and with stragj^ling patches of 
barley, destitute of springs, and becoming more and more difficult and 
barren as we advance south. The miserable villages stand deserted 
and half broken down, and the ruin of the broken-spirited inhabitants 
by the exactions of greedy tax farmers gives a desolate appearance to 
its whole extent, contrasting with the rich and fertile olive-groves and 
corn-lands of Samaria and Galilee. The grass grows on the housetops 
and the stones choke the corn. The district is unvisited by the ordi- 
nary toui'ist, and the savage, inhospitable brutality of the peasants, with 
bad water and scarcity of provisions, made us glad to find ourselves at 
the end of our v/ork in the Belad el Jem'ain and Beni S'ab. The 
first site of importance which we found was the Khirbet Dayr Asruhr, or 
perhaps more properly Serur, although there is no vowel in 
the Arabic to direct the spelling. I have described it fully in a former 
paper.* Its other names are Khirbet el Musk'ufi, " Euin of Ceilings,"' 
and Khirbet Nasirah, " the Christian Euin." I feel but little hesi- 
tation in identifying it with Sozuza, the seat of a Christian bishop, first- 
mentioned at the Council of Chalcedon (in the middle of the fifth 
century), and placed on an ancient map to be found in the "Geographia 
Sacra" of Carolus a Sancto Paulo (Amsterdam, 1704), between Csesarea 
and Samaria, close to the actual position of the ruin in question. !No 
earlier notice appears to exist, but the town must have dated before 
* Quaritrhj Statement, 1873, p. 139. 



16 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 

Christian times, or it would scarcely have been cliosen as an ecclesi- 
astical centre. The ruins also seem of Roman character, and the great 
public building, although with its door to the west like a church, has 
no apse, and is founded on a moulded podium, like the temples of 
Coele-Syria discovered by Captain Warren. I have already mentioned 
that we obtained a Roman coin on which S C alone was legible, said 
to have been found on the spot. Roman tombs also exist in a necropolis 
east of the town. 

The next camp was principally noticeable for the number of small 
square towers which were found in every direction. Their time- 
worn appearance and large stones point to their great antiquity. A 
dozen sometimes are to be seen within a few hundred yards of one 
another. They are no doubt the signs of an ancient cultivation long 
since swallowed by the spreading wilderness of pistachios, and remind 
one of the rich man who " planted a vineyai-d, and set an hedge (of 
stone) about it, and digged a place for the wine-fat, and built a tower, 
and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country " (Mark 
sii. 1). The great wine-vats, hewn in rock on flat places, attest the 
ancient fruitfulness of this deserted land. 

fi Having with difficulty conducted our heavily-laden pack animals 
WadyKana. over the terrible Wady Kana (the boundary Eiver Cana of the Book 
of Joshua), we found ourselves in a part of the country where ruins 
were numerous. The principal were convents, of which Dayr Kala'ah, 
a fortress overhanging a deep precipitous valley, was the finest and best 
presei-ved specimen. Their date is probably about the fourth or fifth 
century of the Christian era. 

Farther south yet we visited the wild and rugged site of Joshua's home, 
where, amidst deep valleys and steep hill-sides, the simple tomb stands 
blackened by the smoke of its hundred votive lamps, Hence to the 
plain we traced the noble Roman road, with its firm pavement and 
ably engineered slopes, along which St. Paul was hurried by night 
to Antipatris ; fallen milestones, with lettering long since worn away 
by rain, lie beside it, and at Dayr 'Allah we pass by a large 
Roman town, with just the traces of its little temple visible in the 
middle. 

This rapid review of the country thus thoroughly explored, in con- 
junction with the copies of our various surveys sent home, the full 
list of which I attach, will show, I think, that our time has been 
spent in a district little known, and amongst ruins which cannot 
fail to be of high geographical and antiquarian interest. The work 
to which we shall so soon return in the Bethlehem hills, and along 
the lower part of the Jordan Valley, by Jericho, the Dea Sea, and 
the wild Marsaba ravine, will, we hope, prove equally interesting, 
if not altogether such unstudied ground. 



BEIT 'ATAB camp. 17 



XVII. 



P.E.F. Camp, Beit 'Atab, 19th October, 1873. 

Our pleasant stay in the Antilibanus came only too soon to an end, 
and all our spring and summer results were only just fully worked out, 
when we again started on a long journey to the south, in accordance 
with, my plans already explained. 

Our great caravan of eighteen pack animals and eight horses created 
quite a sensation as we went down the steep, narrow streets of Bludan, 
and winding away over the hills descended by a steep wady into the 
great Buka'a plain, losing sight of our hospitable home for the last three 
months. Next day we were in Beyrout, and on the 29th of September 
I marched out again, accompanied by Corporal Armstrong, to perform 
the journey to Jaffa by land, partly in order to see Tyre and Sidon, 
partly to shoot sea-birds for stuffing along the coast, but chiefly because 
I was unwilling to leave oar valuable animals to the care of Syrians 
without supervision, especially after the miserable appearance they had 
presented on arriving at Beyrout from the south. The journey was long 
and tedious, especially lis hours the last day, but on the 3rd of October 
we reached Jaffa at sunset, and found Sergeant Black safely landed with 
all our heavy baggage. Saturday and Sunday were allowed for rest to 
man and beast, and a violent storm of rain on the latter day was oppor- 
tune, as we were not under canvas. Monday night found us at Jeru- 
salem, where considerable operations of packing and refitting occupied 
a few days. Friday we reached our present camp, chosen on a [spot 
whence the west and south limits of the Jerusalem sheet can be reached ; 
and so rapid has been our work under the new arrangements that I hope 
to find eighty or ninety square miles complete at the end of the twelf tk 
day. 

The country we are at present surveying is perhaps the most interest- 
ing we have as yet visited. A great number of Bible sites have already 
been identified in it, and more remain to be fixed. A few suggestions- 
of interest I will venture here, although identifications are not in my.,- 
department of the work. 

The wild and impassable wadies, the steep, hard, rocky hills, witBi- 
their wildernesses of mastic, clear springs, and frequent caves and pre- 
cipices, are the fastnesses in which Samson was born, and from which 
. he descended into the plain to harry the Philistines. The possessions of 
his father, Manoah, lay between Zorah and Eshtaol (Judges xiii. 2), T^orah anl 
and in the same spot he was buried (Judges xvi. 31). The former has ■^®'^*''°^- 
been identified with the present Sera, and Sergeant Black has suggested 
that Eshu'a, a mile or so to the east, may be the representative of the 
other name. 

Another site to which we directed our attention was the rock Etam. The Rock 
to which (Judges xv. S) Samson retired before his cowardly surrender ^'''°*- 

c 



18 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDER S REPORTS. 

by the elders of Judah. I am ignorant what may be the precise trans- 
lation of the word rendered "rock" in the English translation, but the 
place must have been one supplied with water, and also of considerable 
extent, for in verse 11 we read that " 3,000 men of Judah went to the 
top of the rock Etam." It was not far from the patrimony of Manoah, 
from which Samson "went down " to it. The requisites of the case are 
all met by Beit 'Atab, which Sergeant Black suggested might 
be the place for which we were hunting. Standing somewhat lower 
than Eshu'a towards the south, it yet, from the gradual slope of the 
ranges, is a conspicuous point from more than one direction. It could 
not be better described than as a rock — a steep, stony, bare knoll stand- 
ing amidst the winding, narrow valleys, without a blade of corn upon its 
sides, whilst long olive groves lie at its feet and round its three clear and 
abundant springs. The site is a remarkable one, and one or two old 
tombs are found in the northern valley, whilst a cave, narrow, but of 
considerable length, exists in the hill, running from near the spring to 
the middle of the village, the whole 250 ft. being artificially mined out.* 
Timnath, the present Tibneh, where Samson chose his first wife, 
is but a little distance west of this place, but its vineyards, in which he 
slew the lion, are now only marked by the traces of ancient cultivation 
and rock-cut wine-presses existing in the vicinity. 
VaUey of I may add another identification, which almost fills up the list of the 

Sorek. places noticed in this part of the Scripture. The valley of Sorek was 

the home of Deiilah, and appears to have been a natural feature of some 
importance on the borders of Philistia. There can, I should imagine, be 
but little doubt that this is the present Wady Surar, which runs 
as a broad, flat valley through the lower hills, and reaches the sea at 
Yebneh. It must have been up the same valley that the little cart 
with its lowing kine came jolting in the " straight way " unbroken by a 
single hill from Ekron to Bethshemesh, now Ain el Shems, when the 
peasants, lifting their heads from the reaping, saw the ark, as we can 
picture to ourselves, coming up among the round white hillocks, dusky 
in the sloping light of the afternoon sun, which casts long shadows 
among the winding valleys, backed by the brown plain and yellow sand- 
hills of Philistia which stretch far away to the gleaming horizon of the 
sea. 
The place, however, which may perhaps prove of the highest interest 

* Beit Atab is situate .1 on a high hill, and is seen from all parts of the country 
round ; but although it overlooks a great extent of the lower region towards the " 
south and west, it does not afford so extensive a view of places as we had hoped 
to find. The country is full of sites of niins and villages, some inhabited 
and some deserted, at least for portions of the year. Beit Atab has several 
high square tower-like houses of two stories ; the rest are small and low ; but all 
are of stone, solidlj- built. In tlie centre is a ruined tower or castle, but so 
dilapidated as to be nearly lost among the houses. — Robinson's Biblical Re- 
searches, vol. ii., p. 339. 



MOGHARET UMM EL TUMAYmIyEH. 



19 



is a cave called Mogliaret Umm el Tumayraiyeh. On the ITtli inst. I u^rf^'' 
visited it in company with, the Eev. Mr. Neil and Dr. Chaplin, and Tumay- 
vre executed a careful plan, to which I have added several sketches. We '^ 
obtained the same guide who accompanied M. Ganneau, and I subjoin 
a full description of a site which may prove of importance. 




MOGHARET UMM EL TXTMAYmIyEH. 

Flying from the face of Saul, David first sought refuge at Gath, and 
thence he came to Adullam, where he remaiueJ, whilst sending news of 
his position to his native town. 

It is remarkable that the range of country over which his wanderings 
extended was never large, and even when mo^t piessed and driven away 
south, to Maon and Ziph, he was scarcely 30 miles from his home. This 



20 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

may perhaps be accounted for by tbe very difl&cult nature of the countrr 
he had to traverse, and the facilities for hiding from an enemy even 
when close at hand. It would seem, therefore, natural to suppose tlie 
Cave of Adullam to be at no great distance from either Gath or Betli- 
lehem. The position of Gath is very distinctly stated by Jerome (Comm . 
on Micah i.), as being five miles from Eleutheropolis (Beit Jibrin), on 
the road to Gaza. Thus the site in question would be on the way from 
Gath, and some ten miles from Bethlehem. 

The present name is Mogharet Umm el Tumayraiyeh, " The Cave 
of the Mother of Two Twins." We have not found the name of Adullam , 
unless it be recognised in TVady Dilbeh, which bounds the ridge in 
which the cave is found, on the northern or opposite side.* The cave 
took its name, Josephus tells us, from the city of Adullam, in its 
neighbourhood ; a ruin called Kh. S'aireh or Kb. Dilbeh exists on the 
south of the wady about a mile north of the cave, above a very fine 
spring. It is not, however, of any great extent. 

The place is one very striking to the imagination, and commends itself 
as a likely site. Leaving the ordinary road, we descended into a very 
narrow ravine between steep and rocky hills. No path led over its 
loose shingle, alternating with smooth, slippery slides of rock, worn bj^ 
the winter torrents. The wild, dark pistachio bushes sprung in a dense 
thicket, interspersed with thorny shrubs, with bushes of cistus and a 
carpet of thyme and mint growing amongst the hard, dark ledges of the 
limestone. Traces of ancient terraces we passed in places, but all is now 
a silent, tangled wilderness. At length, before us we saw a cliff with a 
small cave some few hundred feet up the slope, and I naturally supposed 
this to be the place until my attention was called to an opening close at 
hand in the shelving rock. So curiously is this formed that one might 
easily pass by without seeing it, and a few bushes would effectually hide 
it from observation. 

Descending rapidly, we found ourselves in a great round vestibule, 
partly choked by fallen debris from the roof, and measuring about IGO 
feet in diameter. The height is greatest at the sides, where a passage 
leads round to other compartments. On the extreme east is a small one, 
sinking suddenly, and supported on stalagmitic columns, one of which, 
supposed to resemble a man in a helmet, I have sketched. Several 
curious low excavations, like rough tombs, run in from its sides. North- 
east of this is a second basin, surrounded curiously by a natural raised 
gallery, supported on stalagmitic columns : seen in the lurid light, half 
of day and half of our candles, it seemed like one of the mystic halls 
which Southey describes in Thalaba, a weird and indefinitely extensive 
succession of caverns, pillars, and pendants, glistening like silver. 

Farther north is a more important part of the excavation, showing 

the handiwork of man. A little pool, which even at this time contained 

over a foot of water, famous for its medicinal qualities, is cut in the floor 

of a small cave on a higher level, and is no doubt supplied by the infil- 

* See Quarterly Statement, 1872, p. 116. 




JUGHAEET UMM EL 'iUMAYMlYEH (IKTEKIOK). 



22 LIEUT. CLAUDE R, CONDEr's REPORTS. 

tration through the strata. A channel leads down at a steep angle, 
apparently to a second cistern, now much broken. The sides of the 
rock are here cut with the pick, a work of some considerable labour. 

The most striking feature, however, remains to describe. A narrow 
winding gallery, with pillars of stalagmite, leads to a long tunnel, 
ending in a natural well over 60 feet deep. This gloomy place possesses 
an interest of its own. The Mohammedan peasantry are extremely strict 
in certain moral points, and this well is the death-place of those who 
offend. Only two years ago an unhappy woman and her lover wero 
brought here. The man was thrown down the steep slide which leads to 
the hole and shot at as he fell. The girl followed, but was not shot,. 
and fell upon his body. She was rescued later by her relatives, but did not 
escape her fate. 

The slide is a place somewhat difficult to descend, as the floor is 
covered with bats' manure, aud affords hardly any hold for foot or hand. 
I was therefore made fast by two stout ropes, and crept cautiously to 
the edge of the well, to the very bottom of which I was unable to see 
even then. The diiSculties of descent were so great, that I did not go 
any farther, and calculated the depth, by the fall of a pebble, to be 
about 50 feet. The well is dry, I believe, and almost circular, about 
15 feet across. To all appearance it is entirely natural. Any one who 
"went heedlessly or in the dark to the edge of the slide must inevitably 
meet with his death. 

As I have said before, the cavern suggests itself as a likely site to the 
imagination. The four hundred men in distress, in debt, or discontented, 
who stole up that stony ravine to join the outlawed chief, we can well 
fancy seated round their smoky fires ; poor, ragged, sunburnt fellows^ 
no doubt, stealing in and out of the gloomy, damp recesses of the cave, 
and startling the thousand pigeons which may then as now have found 
refuge in the clefts of its rocks. For defence also the place was admir- 
ably suited, not, oiily from its inaccessible position and inconspicuous 
entrance, but also by reason of the great mass of earth, fallen like a- 
traverse, as the word is used in fortification, before the door, roucd 
which, in a narrow passage, the invaders must advance. That this 
debris is ancient is, I think, shown by the pillar which is formed by the- 
junction of a stalactite from the roof with a stalagmite on the rock which. 
has fallen. 

On the other hand, however, there are objections to the site, the priu- 
cipal of which is it entire unfitness for human habitation. Water there 
is, indeed, but in too great a quantity; everywhere the stalactitic pen- 
dants adorn the roof, the sound of dropping water is heard, and a dam]) 
and hot atmosphere, almost unbearable, exists throughout. Nor is thi.'j 
a modern alteration, for the character of the rock permitting the infil- 
tration which no do'ubt first formed the cave is unchanged. The great 
columns require an action of au indefinite period for their formation , 
and bear witness to the same fact. For men to live in the cave or sleep 
in it for even a night must inevitably result in a severe attack of tho 



TOMC OF SAMSON. 



23 



same fever and ague with -wliicli Mr. Neil was slightly affected during a 
very short visit. 

Our next undertaking was to hunt for the tomb of Samson between l°^^^l^ 
the two villages already noticed. To say that we have found it may 
perhaps be too bold, but we have found what may bo very probably 
assumed to be the same. The book of Judges places it between Zorah 
and Eshtilol, but Josephus says that Samson was buried " in Sarasat 
(Zorah or Sera), his own country, with the rest of his family" {Ant. 
V. 8.12). Now about a quarter of a mile north-east from Sera are the 
remains of a rock- cut cemetery, the tombs being broken and filled with 
rubbish, and amongst them is a large tomb, now only a cave, being 
broken away from its original form. It is highly probable that here we 
have the burial-place 'of the strong ruler and the patrimony of his 
father, Manoah. Is it too much to imagine that the name Sh. Samat, 
which is an unusual one, and has never occurred in our work pre- 
viously, but which here is found in the village of Sera, may be con- 
nected with some tradition of Samson. 

The country is also full of ruins and names which belong to a time of 
Christian colonisation ; among these are Bir el Sahb (Well of the Cross) 
twice occurring, Khallet Musellabeh, 'Ain el Kassis, &c. Such titles 
never occur except in parts where the early or Crusading Christians 
had for a time a footing. Among the ruins are three small churches 
with very thick though roughly built walls, occuri-ing at El Kubua, Kh. 
Ain el Keniseh, and 'Allar el Sifleh. Beit Skavia also, a ruin on the 
watershed line close to one of the fine Eoman roads which here traverse 
the country in every direction, was a place of some importance in Chris- 
tian times. In it I discovered two Byzantine columns with the usual 
clumsy capitals of ninth or tenth century work ; at Kh. S'aideh are also 
traces of some large building with a crabbed Greek inscription of which 
I send a sketch. A Hebrew inscription we discovered on the door of a 
tomb near Beit Natif. 

There are a greater number of names in this part of the work ; we 
have from this camp collected 240, 36 of which are on Yandevelde. 

There are an immense number of springs here observable, due per- 
haps to the very regular bedding of the hard uptilted limestone, which 
causes a supply of water collected on the hill-tops to flow down through 
one fissure between two beds undispersed till it reaches the lowest point, 
or one where it can easily escape. In the course of three days' survey I 
fixed twenty springs, of which only one is shown on Vandevelde's map. 
Our list of names from this camp includes no less than forty-one, not 
numbering those which have the name of the village they supply. 

We have been successful in obtaining many fossils which will no doubt 
be of value. They are principally bivalves belonging to the Jurassic 
period, but there exists in one spot a regular bed of fossil oysters of some 
extent. 

At Nehalin, a village not far from us, is the tomb of a famous olieikh. 
Haj 'Allan, whose story, related to me by our very intelligent guide, is 
more worthy to be recalled than most Mohammedan legends. 



24 MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 

Travelling from his native town along the coast this poor old hermit 
•went, according to custom, into the mosque to pray. His raggedness, 
misery, and uncleanliness offended the fat and comfortable worshippers 
from the rich seaport town, and the abba he spread was regarded as a 
contamination to the sacred place. One by one they withdrew from near 
him, and the mosque authorities finally turned him out. Driven to the 
shore, in his anger he flung the abba, which he could not spread on earth, 
into the sea, but obedient to God's command the waves at once became 
smooth, and a firm standing-j^lace ■was found for the pilgrim on the 
untrodden sea. The miracle once known, the sanctity of the sheikh 
became generally acknowledged, and his name, long after he slept under 
the great shadowing oaks which surround his white tomb-house, was 
remembered from one end of the land to the other. 

Claude R. Conder. 



ME. TYRWHITT DRAKE'S REPORTS. 

XV. 

On October 25th I rejoined the Survey at Bethlehem, where the 
rest of the party had arrived the previous evening from Bayt 'Atab. 

The immediate neighbourhood of Bayt Lahm (Bethlehem) shows 
well the extent of ground which can be brought under cultivation in 
even the steepest wadies by means of terraces. Every available inch 
of ground is j)lanted with olives, figs, and vines. At some of the neigh- 
bouring villages, for instance El Welejeh and Bittir, the water-supply 
is abundant, and the terraces are green with vegetables of many kinds, 
for which a ready sale is found in the Jerusalem market. At the latter 
village, indeed, many of the old olive-trees are being rooted out, and 
vines planted in their stead, as being much more profitable. 
Tumuli. North of 'Ain Talo we came across some very curious mounds, 

unlike any that I have ever seen in this country, with the exception of 
that near Amwas, which is called by the natives Eijm el Haik bint 
Sultan" el Fenish, "the Spinning Mound of the Pha^nician King's 
Daughter," as I mentioned in a former report. There are in all five 
of these mounds, of which four are on the crests of ridges, while the 
other is situated near the head of a shallow gully. The three largest 
are named Rijiim el Atyyah, El Tarud, and El Barish. Small tentative 
excavations — by Captain Warren, R.E., as I am told — have been made 
in this last, but a thorough examination of one of them would, I think, 
be likely to prove of groat interest. 

The mounds vary from twelve to thirty feet in height, and from 
fifteen to fifty feet in diameter at top. The construction of all seems 
identical. Rough stones of no great size are closely packed with chips 
and a certain proportion of mould, and thus form a very compact 



HERODIUM. 



25 



mass, wliicli can only liave been erected witli the expenditure of muck 
labour. Hence the prima-faric view is that tliey were piled up for 
eome special and important purpose. The position of two of them, and 
the close proximity of all, precludes the idea of their being beacon- 
stations or landmarks. If, as seems not unlikely, they are tombs, we 
may hope to find objects of interest in them. Tlie most practicable 
way of examining them would probably be to drive a mine to tho 
centre along the ground level, as by this means any central interment 
or traces of incremation would be immediately discovered. These 
mounds differ essentially from those on the neighbouring Plain of 
Rephaim (so called), and known as Seb'a Eijum — the Seven Mounds. 
These latter are merely heaps of hard limestone thrown cai-elessly to- 
gether, and have all the appearance of being composed of the rocks and 
stones collected during the process of clearing the adjacent lands for 
the purposes of cultivation. 

Jebel Ferdays (or Euraydis, as it is variously pronounced), the old Heroilium. 
Herodium, has proved not without interest. The ruins are neither 
extensive, however, nor well preserved. The castle on the summit was 
circular in form, with semicircular towers to the north-west and 
south, and a larger circular one to the E.N.E. The most interesting 
point was a circular chamber with a domed roof below the northern 
towei-. The masonry throyghout has all the appearance of the Roman 
or Herodian work visible at Csesarea and Tantura on the coast. 

The outer part of this castle is a slope of 35 degs., composed entirely 
of cietns, and now indistinguishable from the surrounding soil. This 
is to be accounted for by the fact that most of the stone used in the 
building is very soft and friable, and rapidly disintegrates. 

Below the mound to the north are the ruins of a large oblong build- 
ing, with vaults on the north and east. Some on the latter side are 
still in fair preservation. The roof is barrel, without a keystone ; an 
inner arch, however, has one. Windows 1-emain in the wall of the 
eastern vault, about 1ft. high by 2ft. wide outside, but cut away 
inside so as to throw the greatest possible amount of light within. 

The other remains consist of a few wells, a small clump of ruined 
houses, and a tank called Birket el Hammam. This was formerly 
supplied with water from ' Ain Urtiis, which rises about 60 ft. higher. 
I shall presently notice this aqueduct and its construction. 

Lieutenant Conder has made a plan of the ruins of Furaydis, and 
also of the cave variously called Magharet el M'asa, or Magharet 
Kharaytun, which has by many been accepted as the Cave of 
Adullam. 

The main objection urged against this being David's lair is its position, Magharet 
which is said to be too far eastward, but in all other respects it is most ^^harajtun. 
admirably suited for an outlaw's hiding-place. The cave El Tumaymiyeh, 
lately visited by Lieutenant Conder, seems from all descriptions to be 
most unsuited for human habitation. This cave, on the contrary, is 



26 MR. TYRWHITT DRAKe's REPORTS. 

dry and airy, and resembles a rabbit warren in the extent and intricacy 
of its passages.* 

A few words will show the strength of the position. On arriving at 
Bir el 'Ainayziyeh, a tank of seemingly Roman masonry, we found 
ourselves on the brink of Wady Kharaytun, a glen as rugged and 
precipitous as the Kedron at our present camp. To the left were the 
niins of the monastic buildings dedicated to St. Chariton, perched on 
the brink of the precipice and clinging like swallows' nests to the 
ledges and crevices. To the right a steep, rugged zigzag descends to 
a broad ledge of rock leading to 'Ain el Natuf (the Dripping Spring), 
where even at this dry season there was a sufficient supply to fill a 
wine-bottle in three or four minutes. The water is collected in two 
little rock-hewn basins. 

Halfway down the rugged path just spoken of we turned off along 
a ledge of rock some eight feet wide to the cavern. A huge fallen 
block, about seven feet high, has to be surmounted ; between this and 
the upper rock is a space of two and a half feet. Continuing along 
the ledge we come to another fallen block, and mounting this we are 
confronted by the door of the cave. Two other openings beside the 
door fully command the path to 'Ain el Xatuf, which consequently 
could not be used by an attacking party, whilst owing to the over- 
hanging rocks a besieged party might draw their water with impunity, 
as the wady is too broad for archers to be able to harass them to any 
considerable extent. 

The entrance to the cave seems the only part which has been 
touched by the hand of man. Several short intersecting passages 
would place any invader who had succeeded in penetrating so far 
entirely at the mercy of the defenders. 

A few feet from the entrance we came into a large chamber some 
sixty feet long and perhaps thirty or forty feet high. A low burrow, 
which has to be traversed on hands and knees, leads from this to 
another chamber ; mounting a few feet a narrow cleft leads to another 
large chamber, to reach which one has to descend a steep slide some 
fourteen feet high. From this chamber a main passage with intricate 
ramifications, which can only be understood by the plan, leads to the 

* I have just been talking to M. Clcrmont-Ganneau, Avho arrived at Jeiiisalem 
a few days ago, and find that the cave and ruin of 'Ayd el Jlid, which he dis- 
covered and identified with Adullani, lie some five or six miles farther south than 
the cave of El Tumaymiyeh described by Lieutenant Conder. This position 
agrees fairly well with the situation ascribed to the city of Adullam by Eusebius, 
namely, ten miles east of Eleutheropolis. In Joshua xv. 35 Adullam is said to 
be in the "valley" {i.e., Shefelah), which could not apply to Magharet Kharay- 
tun if the cave were in the immediate vicinity of the town, as is perhaps most 
probable. 

Till, however, I have seen both places I feel that I must withhold judgment, 
only showing how admirably adapted this cave of Khaiaytun is for an outlaw's 
"hold." 



teku'a. 27 

last cliamber, beyond wliicli notliing extends but. a narrow -winding 
passage -whicli, in no place large, at last contracts to a mere crack. 
The greatest length of the cavern is 550 feet. 

The air of the cave was dry and pure, though earth washed down from 
above shows that water penetrates it in the winter. The first chamber, 
however, would probably always continue dry. The whole cave seems 
formed by water action ; the sides and roof are smooth, with frequent 
rounded hollows, and in more than one place passages run side by side, 
with merely a thin slab of rock separating them. The rock is hard 
and very white. We found bats in some of the chambers, but not in 
great numbers. In one of the side passages I picked up fragments of 
a brass or copper fibula much corroded ; this and a piece of very 
ancient coarse pottery were the only relics we found. 

Riding from here to Teku'a took me half an hour. The ruins at this Tekfi'a. 
place are extensive but uninteresting. To the east are many excavated 
caves and cisterns, but the town itself is simply a heap of ruins, the 
stones of which are small and friable. A fine octagonal font, orna- 
mented on four sides with crosses and the double square, stands over 
a well-mouth. It is cut in the hard pink marbly stone known at Jeru- 
salem as the Hajr el Musallabeh, from the fact of the finest quality 
being found in the neighbourhood of the Convent of the Cross (Dayr 
el Musallabeh). 

Proceeding westward, my object was to find the aqueduct coming A<iuedact. 
from Wady el Arab, which runs near Bayt Fejjar at a considerable 
distance to the south, and proceeding to 'Ain 'Atau at Solomon's Pools, 
and so by the low-level aqueduct to Bethlehem and Jerusalem. This 
aqueduct was first traced, I believe, by Herr Shick, of Jerusalem. Its 
construction differs from that of the other aqueducts, and will be 
described farther on. After a slight difiiculty at first where the pas- 
sage v/as subterraneous, I was enabled to trace the channel as far as 
the hill south of Urtas, where it had been already observed. 

The wadies in this part are steep and long, consequently the aqueduct 
winds in and out to a wonderful extent, and probably extends to five or 
six times the length of the direct distance. 

It seems that Urtas is generally considered as the Etam of the Etam. 
Bible, but I am not aware whether it is known that a spring exists a 
few hundred yards south-east of El Burak (Solomon's Pools), called 
'Ain 'Attiu, which corresponds exactly to the Hebrew dcj:. 

Of these there are no less than six connected with Solomon's Pools Aqueducts. 
and Urtas. 

1. This is the longest, extending from Wady el 'Arub to Jerusalem, a 
distance of ten miles as the crow flies. It receives a branch from Wady 
el Biyar, and again from 'Ain 'Atiiu. As, however, the construction of its 
continuation from El Burak to Bayt Lalim and Jerusalem is diff"erent, 
this must be considered as a separate aqueduct. The jjart which I ex- 
amined between Teku'a and Urtas was sometimes cut in the rock, but 
mostly carried over a foundation of rubble masonry, the outer wall of 



28 MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 

whicli in some places is as much as 6ft. or 7ft. higli, and faced Tvith 
aslilai-. Tlie cliannel varies from 18in. to 2ft. in width, and 1ft. to 2ift. 
in depth ; it is lined throughout with good cement, and covered in 
with loose blocks or slabs of stone. 

2. Is the continuation of this, which still supplies Bethlehem, and oc- 
casionally the Haram at Jerusalem, with water. Earthen pipes set in 
masonry form the channel in this case, while air-holes at intervals 
relieve the pressure. 

3. The high-level aqueduct passing through stone pipes is carried by 
the tomb of Rachel and the south of Mar Elias, on to the (so-called) Plain 
of Rephaim, whence it (conjecturally) passed above the Jewish Alms- 
houses, and rounding the Birket Mamilla entered the town from the 
north. 

4. Is a ruined aqueduct, discovered, I believe, by Major "Wilson, R.E. 
It passed near the high road from Hebron to Jerusalem, east of El 
Khadhr, but recent alterations have obliterated all trace of it. 

5. This aqueduct leads from 'Ain Urtas along the northern side of the 
valley to Birket el Hamman at Jebel Furaydis. The upper part is cnt 
in the rock. Lower down the channel rests on a substructure of rubble 
and large stones. Before reaching Jebel Furaydis all traces of it are 
lost in the soft chalky formation, but the direction shows its destina- 
tion, which is further confirmed by the difference of level between 'Ain 
Ui'tas and Birket el Hamman. 

6. Is an aqueduct traced by Lieutenant Conder from Urtas to a 
ruined Birket called Kasr el Tahuneh, along the south side of Wady 
Urtas. The natives assert that this also went to Jebel Furaydis, but 
this is impossible. 

The construction of all these aqueducts, the masonry of Solomon's 
Pools, and the appearance of tbe cement used to line the channels, 
seems to me to be Roman work. This, too, seems probable on re- 
ferring to Josephus' Antiq. xviii. 3. 2, and Wars, ii. 9. 4, where we 
are told that Pontius Pilate made an aqueduct with the Corban, or 
the money from the' Temple ti-easury, bringing the water from a dis- 
tance of 200 (in the latter passage it is 400) furlongs. 

The n:ionastery, or properly Laura, of Mar Saba, clinging to the 
precipitous side of "Wady el Nar, as the Kedron is called, surrounded 
by the ruins of numberless hermitages built on rock-ledges or in hollows 
and caves, is too well known to need description here. The suiTOunding 
country is now a scene of utter desolation, a glaring wilderness of 
steep chalky hills strewn with flints and loose stones. Yesterday we 
had occasion to go to a point some seven miles distant in a direct 
line, and this took us three and a quarter hours to ride. Descending 
into Wady el Nar we crossed it and wound up a side valley till we 
reached its head. For some time our path led us up and down the 
heads of numberless valleys, but soon we found ourselves among 
rocks and ravines, where the horses could scarce find a footing. Tired 
of this, and finding that the guide knew but little of the country, I 



5IAR SABA. 29 

struck upwards to a watershed, along which we travelled with ease, 
though the paths, originally made by, and intended for, goats, afforded 
barely suflBcient footing for the horses, who by one false step would 
have been precipitated, in some cases several hundred feet, down 
slopes varying from 30 degs. to 40 degs. Descending at last an 
almost precipitous rocky slope, we reached Wady Dabbar, one of the 
most important drains of the country east of Jerusalem. Here we 
found two caves hewn in the siile of the valley and filled with rain 
water. The lower consisted of two tunnels 40ft. long, and separated 
by a wall of rock, while in front a wall of rough masonry formed the 
cave into a cistern. The upper cave was deep and full of water. 

Passing onwards we ascended a rolling spur, and by a rugged Nagb, 
or pass, mounted to the crest of the ridge, at the east point of which 
was to be our point of observation. Here we found two cairns of large 
heavy stones. The one was roughly circular, but the stones were 
strewn without order. The other was smaller, but appeared to have 
been in the form of a circle some 15ft. in diameter. They are known to 
the Arabs as El Tabz Ektayf, and are the only monuments of the kind 
I have yet observed in the country, though they are common in Sinai 
and the Badiyet el Tih. 

There are no villages in this wilderness, and but two or three 
ruins. A few wells exist from which the Arabs procure their water, 
but there is absolutely nothing of real interest in the whole region. 
The Arabs are divided as follows :— To the south the Ta'amireh ; 
near Mar Saba, El Abbaydiyeh ; north of these El Hetaymat, El Sa- 
wahavet, El Wad, and El 'Arab Abu Nusayr, who extend as far as 
Wady Kelt and Jericho. 

jjOTE. — Having occasion to ride up to Jerusalem the other day I 
found most interesting repairs going on in and outside of the Kubbet 
el Sakhrah. All the Kijshdni (encaustic tiles) have been stripped off 
one of the faces of the outer wall and the original masonry lies dis- 
closed. The present pointed windows, sis in number, are built within 
semicircular arches, and above these are thirteen arches also semi- 
circular, which originally formed an open balustrade. I have taken 
measurements and sketches of the arches, cornices, &c., and will send 
them as soon as I can find time to finish drawing them otit. 

As this discovery seems important, I have asked Lieut. Conder, who 
has occasion just now to go up to Jerusalem, to have a photograph taken 
before the tiles are restored to their former places. 



THE EDINBURGH REYIE^yER OX THE TALMUD. 

In the July number of the Edinburgh Bevieiu, the author of the paper 
on the Talmud remarks on my version of the " Tract on the Mea- 
surements of the Temple" (see Quarterhj Statement of the Palestine Ex- 
ploration Fund for 1872, p. 12), that it is translated ■5\'ith "less than 
absolute accuracy." 

The instance given to prove this observation is that " the translator 
has provided the guards of the Temple with cushions." 

It is the author of the IMishna, and not the translator, who has done 
so. If the reviewer be acquainted with the Hebrew language he must 
know that the word (irOD^) means "his cushion" or "pillow." And 
though Rabbi Judah Hakkodesh says afterwards that " his garments 
(viJD) were burned" yet the explanation is obvious. The drowsy 
Levite reclined in his clothes, which became his cushion, and when he 
was found sleeping they were set on fire by the captain of the watch. 

Joseph Baeclat. 



ASHKELON. 

The following letter, by the Regius Professor of Hebrew at Oxford, 
will be read with interest. It has been despatched to the Society's 
explorers in Palestine, in the hope that the questions raised by Pro- 
fessor Pusey may receive a satisfactory solution : — 

Dear Me. Grove, — Thank you very much for your reply. I had, 
perhaps, better say what my ground is for thinking that the As- 
calon of the Crusades cannot be the Philistine Ashkelon. 

Tou have yourself, I see [Did. of BihJe, Jabneel), drawn attention to 
theMaiumas of Gaza and Ascalon, and Jamnia. There were also two 
Azotus', one by the sea (see Eeland, page 215). The three, then, Gaza, 
Jabneel, Ashdod, were inland ; and were, I suppose, like Athens, pur- 
posely so built for fear of pirates. Even Gaza, which was nearest, was 
(it appears from Soz., v. 3) distinct in boundary from its Maiumas. 
They had fields {&ypoi) belonging to each, having altars between them. 

The probability, on the ground of its having a port, and from the 
three other cases, is that Ascalon itself was inland. Ascalon and its 
Maiumas must have been distinct cities, since the bishop of each signed 
a synodical letter inserted in the Acts of the Council of Constantinople, 
A.D. 536, as also the Bishop of Gaza and Maiumas Gazse. (It is in col. 
I1G3, 1164 of the Cone. T. v. ed. Colet.) But it is so well-known a 
rule that there cannot be two bishops of one town, that when Julian 
had annexed the Maiumas Gazte to Gaza, the Bishop of Gaza on a sub- 
sequentvacancyintheepiscopateof the Maiumas claimed that its clergy 
should on this ground be subject to him, though it was locally distinct. 
The provincial council refused it, because the civil privileges had been 



ASHKELON. 31 

taken away from Maiumas Gazse by a heathen prince, on account of 
its Christianity. But, according to all descriptions, Ascalon has too 
little depth from the sea to have ever contained two towns, and its 
outside boundary is very marked, being built along a natural ridge, in 
the shape of a bow ; the chord, as William of Tyre describes it, being 
towards the sea. 

2. Benjamin of Tudela, who must have been on the spot, says that 
*' Ashkelona is new Ashkelon, which Ezra the pi'iest built on the sea- 
shore, and at first they called it Benibra, and it is four parasangs dis- 
tant from the former Ashkelon, which is desert." His account was 
naturally the tradition of the Jews whom he found there. Benjamin 
of Tudela's pronunciation of the modeim town is Ashkelonah (as in the 
time of the Crusades it is Askelona), whereas, in his explanation, he 
speaks of "new Ashkelon," "the old Ashkelon" keeping the Biblical 
termination. His account is too concise for him to give an explanation, 
but Benibra is doubtless a Greek corruption for Bethnimrah (as Bethna- 
bris in Eusebius is for the Bethnimrah, or later, Bethnimrim, of Gad), 
and the sweetness of its waters (the aquce jpotahiles within it) is noted by 
successive writers, I suppose because, so near the sea, they might be 
expected to be brackish. I think that the tradition in his time that 
there was an Ashkelon which lay waste, is remarkable, though the 
Jews, his informants, might be inaccurate as to its distance, as they 
were not much concerned about the site of a desert place. 

I myself think it most probable that the Askalon which Herod 
beautified was the present Askalon; and that it, the Maiumas Ascalonis, 
being the more considerable, obtained the name of Ascalon, as Windsor 
and Sarum must, I suppose, have been originally New Windsor, New 
Sarum, and yet in early times have been called absolutely Windsor, 
Sarum; and what is now called Shoreham was, in my memory, still 
New Shoreham. Tou will be familiar with other such instances, old and 
new. There must have been great accumulations of sand, which may 
have buried the old Ascalon, since the sands are only held back 
by the walls, with which they seem to be almost level, from burying 
the new Ascalon. 

As you take such kind interest in my question, I thought I ought to 
tell you my grounds. 

With best thanks. 

Tours very faithfully, 

Nov. 28, 1873. E. B. Pusey. 

P.S. — Looking at Porter's map, there is apparently a plain enclosed 
in a sort of triangle between the roads from Burbareh to El Mijdel and 
that which turns off to Askulan. The places which he mentions 
(p. 268) are not marked in the map. " One mile from Burbareh is Jiyeh ; 
half an hour beyond it is Beitimab," which must have been, I suppose, 
where the two roads part. For Porter says, " our path turns to 
the north-west, along the border of the sandhills. In twenty-five 



32 ASHKELON. 

minutes we come to Nalieh, a poor village on the east side of a low 
narrow plain, wliicli appears to be sometimes flooded in tlie winter. A 
ride of ten minutes across the plain, and twenty minutes more over 
iht hroad ridge of sand, brings us to the gate of Ascalon." 

1. But the Jews {JosepJms, B. J. 3. 2)jwere assaulting Ascalon. If, 
then, that Ascalon were the present Ascalon (which I am inclined to 
thinlc\ where is " the whole plain," which was "broad, and the whole of 
it suited for the action of cavalry" (ttSv iinraa-i/xof), over which the flying 
Jews were scattered and 10,000 killed.^ 

2. What is the depth of Ascalon ? Is it so built that there could be 
two distinct cities within its present walls, so that one should be an 
inland city, the other its port ? In a description which I have seen, 
there is mention of a creek running up into the present city ; 
though the harbour was purposely destroyed by Sultan Bibars, in 
order to preclude any renewed landing of Crusaders there. 



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Quarterly Statement, April, 1874.] 



THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND, 



PREFACE. 

The voluminous reports with wliich we commence our account of 
the year's work will be found to tell their own story without pre- 
fatory explanation. From Lieut. Conder we have additions to oisf 
knowledge of Gezer, where he observed the surest proofs of the 
former existence of a town — in tombs, quarries, oil-presses, and 
fragments of pottery ; of Eamleh, with its Church and its White 
Mosque ; of El Medyeh, the probable site of the tombs of the 
Maccabees ; of Gibeah, a site of extreme interest in connection 
with the history of Saul ; and the site of Ai, on which Major 
Wilson has already given the Eund a valuable paper ( Quarterly 
Statement, Eirst Series, p. 123). 

Lieut. Conder has sent also reports on the excursions and obser- 
vations made during his last summer holidays about Bludan. Bu<^ 
the point of greatest interest in his reports will probably be the 
passage in which he describes the site of Gilgal. It has been 
known for many years that a name of Jiljul, or Jiljilia, existed in 
the neighbourhood of Er Eiha ; but although a German traveller,. 
Herr Zschokke, discovered the spot in 1866, and fixed it by compass 
angle, it was found impossible by Lieut. Conder to identify the 
place in his first attempt. He has now, however, succeeded in 
finding it. Although, with the few data in our possession, it is 
impossible to speak with certainty, it will be at least acknowledged 
that the spot described by Lieut. Conder comes nearer than any 
other to the requirements of the case. It is not the traditional site 
assigned by the early pilgrims, Arculj)hus and Willibald, which is 
at Kasr Hajlah, five miles from Jericho. Lieut. Conder has 
carefully examined the tract from the Jordan mouth to Has 
Eeshkah for traces of the Cities of the Plain, but finds none at 
all. There is, however, a curious artificial mound, called Tell el 
Eashidujeh, at the Jordan mouth ; and it seems probable, as he 



34 PREFACE. 

points out, tliat the gradual rise of the level of the plain, caused 
by the constant washing down of the soft marls from the western 
hills, would effectually cover over any such ruins, did they ever 
exist, below the siu^face. Lieut. Condor's paper on the Identification 
of Scopus may be read in conjunction with M. Clermont- Granneau's 
remarks on the same subject. Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake's reports partly 
cover the same ground as those of Lieut. Conder. His remarks on the 
boundary line of Judah show that he does not agree with some of 
the opinions of M. Ganneau. But all the three reports must be 
taken together; each is independent of the other, and each 
represents opinions sometimes different, but always based on the 
same facts. The real importance of our explorers' reports will 
always lie, first, in the facts themselves ; and secondly, in their 
indication of the direction in which the facts seem to point. 

We have received from Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake an extremely 
valuable paper on " Modern Jerusalem : its Population, Religions, 
Trades, &c.," which has not been introduced here, because it seems 
to the Committee beyond the limits of their work to describe a 
modern city. No doubt Mr. Drake will publish it elsewhere. 

The simultaneous exposure of the so-called "Moabite pottery" 
by M. Ganneau and Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake will be foimd on p. 113. 
The letter of M. Shapira himself to the Editor of the AtlmiOium is 
added, to show that the vendor of the pottery has not yet acce^^ted 
the fact of their forgery. 

The reports of M. Ganneau are those of a careful and minute 
archa3ologist : the illustrations given with them are from the pen 
of M. Lecomte. We have already received more than twenty sheets 
of plans, sketches, and drawings, of which these are a specimen. 



FINANCIAL POSITION OF THE FUND. 

It has been decided to publish every quarter .a statement such 
as the following, in order that Subscribers may know the actual 
position of the Fund. 

Eeceived from Jan. 1st to Mar. 2Gth, 1873 : — 

By Subscriptions and Donations £858 19 4 

Profit from Collections at Lectures ... ... 88 4 5 

*SaIe of Publications 3G 9 7 

*Sale of Photographs 21 3 6 



Balance in hand March 26 469 7 10 

* Including those sold at Lectures. 



THE SURVEY OF PALESTINE. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER'S REPORTS. 

XYIII. 

GiLGAL AXD THE PLAINS OF JeRICHO. 

'AiN EL SuLTA^-, December, 1874. 

I AVAIL myself of tlie first spare day since last I wrote to send a 
xaontUy report. 

The map shows our progress under the new arrangements which, ^^'^^y- 
by a certain amount of extra work on my own part, I have been able to 
make, doubling the detail parties by addition of myself and Lance- 
Corporal Brophj', and also doubling the observation parties. Sergeant Black 
and Corporal Brox)hy being accompanied by Mr. Drake, whilst Corporal 
Armstrong and mj^self take simultaneous observations at another point. 
We are thus enabled to reach, and even pass, tlie average which I had 
formerly promised. Moving from Bayt Atab to Bethlehem, and thence 
to Mar Saba and our present camp, we have laid in 280 square miles in 
a month. Lately, however, the weather and other causes have delayed 
xis considerably, but the camp being well and centrally placed we have 
filled in 180 square miles of its neighbourhood, and the average is still 
above 250 square miles per month. 

The labour of surveying the Zor or lower bed of the Jordan, as well 
as the land lying immediately north of the Dead Sea, was very great. 
The mud was so deep that it was impassable for horses, and a great part 
had to be done on foot. Sergeant Black and I have, however, succeeded 
in getting it finished at last in a satisfactory manner. 

The following plans and surveys must bo added to the list of forty-one 
already sent home : — 

1. Plan of Cave Umm el Turraymi'n, rr^-;. 

2. General plan of buildings, Jebel Furaydis (Frank Mountain). 

3. Plan of circular building on the Tell J. Furaydis, ^ijj. 

4. Plan of lower building, J. Furaydis, ^^^i^. 

5. Plan of cave at Kharaytiin (traditional AduUam). 

6. Plan of chapels, Jebel Koruntil, ^|^. 

7. Frescoes in central chapel. 

8. Kasr el Yahud (Double Plan, -^jo). 

9. Kasr el Hajlah (Double Plan, 1j^). 

10. Dayr el Kelt (Double Plan, ^i-). 

11. Bridge near the same. Plan and sections, 5^^). 

12. Castle at Khan Hadhrura, -jls. 



36 LIEUT. CLAUDE E. CONDER's REPORTS. 

The fitting of the triangailation, large and well-sliaped, -^vitli the old 
one, as tested at the important point of Kurn Sartabeh, is very satis- 
factory. 

The Mar Saba camp produced scarcely anything of interest beyond 
the discovery of ruins belonging to Crusading vineyards in a desert now 
■u-ithout a tree or a drop of watei". It was, however, important for its 
geological indications. The present camp is surrounded with places of 
the greatest interest, of which I propose to give some account. 

The total amount of country surveyed is now over 2,200 square miles, 
or one-third of Palestine. 
Cilgal. rjijjg determination of this site has always appeared to me the most 

important and interesting point in this part of the country. 

Dr. Eobinson, in his earlier travels, says that he was able "to ascer- 
tain definitely that no trace of its name or site remains." He would, 
however, place it in the neighbourhood of the modern Er Eiha, in accord- 
ance with Josephus's description, "on the east border of Jericho ten 
stadia from that city and fifty from Jordan." He was, indeed, informed 
that the name Jiljilia existed in the neighbour-hood, but failed to identify 
its position. 

I am indebted to M. Ganneau and to Major "Wilson for directing my 
atteitltion to the subject.* A German traveller (Herr Zschokke) travelling 
in 1865 speaks of the discovery of a Tell Jiljul, which he fixes by a com- 
pass angle to Kasr Hajlah. Yet, although I went to the spot in M. 
Ganneau's company, we failed to find the place, and it was not till after 
his return to Jerusalem that, on revisiting the spot, I found the name 
was still known to a few of the older inhabitants of Er Eiha, though not 
to the Bedouins who now accompany us. I took every precaution in 
making inquiries, which I put in various forms to three or four persons, 
and came to the conclusion that the name, though almost lost, still 
lingered in the memory of a few. 

On the north side of the great "Wady Kelt (the traditional Brook 
Cherith), about one and one-third English miles from the tower of the 
modern Jericho (Eriha), towards the east, is a solitary tamarisk known 
as the " Shejaret el Ithleh," to which a local tradition points as standing 
on the site of the " City of Brass." 

The tradition of its siege by a great Imam, of the fall of its walls when 
he had ridden round them, of the destruction of the infidel inhabitants, 
and of the miracle of the sun standing still over Koruntil at the 
Sultan's command ; all these confused reminiscences of the great events 
of the life of Joshua and of the siege of Jericho point to a connection 
which may, indeed, date no further back than early Christian times ; or, 
on the other hand, may be of really valuable antiq^uity, attaching the 
eite to the history of the Jewish invasion. 
^ There are not, however, any extensive ruins on or near the spot. A 

■* Herr Zseliokke was chaplain to tlie Austrian Consulate at Jerusalem, and 
published a pamphlet ou the ideutitication of Jiljul with Gilgal, which was printed 
at Jerusalem in 1865. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. OONDER's REPORTS. 37 

pool, choked witli soil, scattered stones, hewn but of ordinary size, and a 
large cemetery of tombs, seemingly Arab, though not strictly directed to 
the Ka'abah, were all we at first observed. Ou revisiting the place I 
found that the name Birket Jiljulieh undoubtedly applies to the pool in 
question, situate about 150 yards south-east of the tree, built with walls, 
some 2 feet 6 inches thick, of rolled pebbles, (5 to IS inches in diaireter, 
well packed. No cement is visible. The dimensions of the Birket are 
about forty paces by thirty. 

The remains which will, however, prove perhaps of greatest interest 
are situate south-east and east of this point, being a number of small 
mounds, seemingly artificial, and known as the Tellayla't Jiljulieh. 
There must be about a dozen of them within a square mile, eight or ten 
feet diameter, and not more than three or four feet high. They, are 
said to be very ancient, and remains of the City of Brass. The angle 
shows that it was to one of these that Herr Zschokke obtained the name 
Tell Jiljul. I hope again to visit the spot and open one of the mounds, 
making a sketch and special plan of the site at the same time. It may 
seem bold to propose that these mounds are traces of the permanent 
Israelite camp on the spot, yet we know that nothing in Palestine is 
more ancient than are such earthworks. 

It might be objected that perhaps the name is only the lingering 
remembrance of a Crusading or early Christian site for Gilgal, the 
tradition of a tradition, but the Crusading site seems to have been 
placed far south at Kasr Hajlah ; and not unnaturally so, for at 'Ain 
Hajlah exists the only spring of freshwater in the plains of Jericho, and 
the road from the ford of El Kenu to Er Eiha passes close by. Even in 
earlier times Arculphus mentions the church of Galgalis (a.d. 700) as five 
miles from Jericho, evidently referring to the same site. It is, however, 
only fair to notice that Willibald (721 — 27) places it five miles from the 
Jordan ; from it he went to Jericho, ^even miles from Jordan. This 
would apply to the site of Jiljulieh at El Ithleh, but it would also, 
though perhaps less easily, apply to Kasr Hajlah, which is indicated by 
the earlier author, unless a corruption be thought to have crept into 
his text. 

The long time during which the camp at Gilgal was maintained 
points clearly to its having been well supplied with water. There was 
also perhaps a city on the same site, although it does not seem by anj 
means certain that this spot was the Gilgal visited by Samuel in his 
yeai-ly round, which should rather be sought in the mountains ; jierhaps 
at the modern Jiljilia, situate south of Selfit and north of Attara. In 
any case it becomes, as the early traditions fully recognised, a point of 
great importance to find a water-supply sufficient for a large host. 

On visiting Birket Jiljulieh to-day I found a rapid, though muddy, 
stream flowing right through it. This is generally diverted into other 
channels for the irrigation of the gardens of Jericho ; but the very 
existence of a birket shows that the site was once well supplied with 
water, the most natural source for which would be the 'Ain el Sultan. 



Sultan. 



38 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDEr's REPORTS. 

Jiljulieh. is on the direct road from the upper ford at Kasr el Yahud! 
(St. John on Jordan), about four and a half miles from this point, and 
one and one-third from Er Eiha. The latter distance is exactly that given 
by Josephus from Jericho, and reading thirty for fifty (a very easy 
clerical error in the Greek) we get the exact distance from Jordan also 
correctly. The whole plain is only about fifty stadia broad, and thus 
the present reading will hardly allow a position for Jericho in the plain. 

The interest of the site is great, not only for its own associations, but 
as showing the ford by which the Israelites would have prepared to cross 
the Jordan. Like many other of the sites which date from so remote an 
antiquity, in a country subject to continual inroads and devastation, 
there must naturally be a certain amount of doubt or difficulty attached 
to its identification, bub it seems certain that no site iDreviously fixed, 
upon comes so near to the fulfilment of all requisites of the case. 
•Ainel Difficult as it seems to be to fix the site of the later cities of 

Jewish, Eoman, and Byzantine times, ther6 is happily but little 
doubt as to the position of the Jericho destroyed by Joshua. The 
"Sultans Spring," or Fountain of Elisha, is indeed the only natural 
site for a citj^ in the whole country surrounding it. Three fine springs 
are found within but a little distance of one another, while the rest of 
the plain can show but one, and that far less considerable. Nothing, 
indeed, but the curse on the site and the terror inspired by the sub- 
sequent fulfilment of that curse could account for the displacement of 
the city. The flight of the spies to the hills points to the same position. 
From modern Jericho flight in any direction would be equally danger- 
ous, but from 'Ain el Sultan, a deep ravine covered with bushes of the 
Zakkum and Spina Christi, and filled with a jungle of cane, leads to 'Ain 
Duk (the ancient Doch or Dagon), at the foot of the cliff of Koruntil, 
amongst whose caves and rocky precipices the two Israelites, flying to 
" the mountains," might lie hid in safety. 

The ruin at the spring itself seems to be that of a small Roman temple, 
such as is often found at springheads. Other foundations farther north, 
contain capitals and shafts seemingly Byzantine. In the direction of 
Er Eiha, foundations, low mounds, channels for water, and portions of 
roads hidden in the thorny copse which here covers the plain, seem all 
to point to the former existence of a great town. 

Still farther south, near "Wady Kelt, two large mounds or tells com- 
mand the road as it descends the narrow pass from Eayt Jabr. These 
have been considered as remains of Eoman Jericho ; pieces of wall and, 
perhaps, of an aqueduct, with the 02nis reticulatum of its masonry, seem 
to confirm this theory. Close by is the fine reservoir, fed by aqueducts, 
known as the Eirket Musa, measuring about 190 x IGO yards. 

There is a very large number of tells in the neighbourhood, all of 
the most important having been examined and excavated by Captain 
Warren. Of these Toll el 'Ain cl Samarat, Abu Zelef, Abu el Hindi and 
ol Arais, with the Tullul abu cl Alayj are true tells, artificial mounds 
with a central building of unbui-nt brick. Tell Daj-r Ghana'm, el Jm-n, 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 30 

el Mutlub, Derb el Habaysh, el Kus, el Mcfurij^eli and Moghyfir, ^v'itb 
others still less important, are but heaps of debris formed by ruins of 
various date. 

Of our visits to the Hajar el Esbah, to Gumran, and 'Ain Eeshkah, I The Plain: 
have nothing myself to relate. Nothing is more striking, however, than 
the general aspect of the country we have thus passed over. The broad 
plain, bouudedeast and west by the steep rocky ranges, at whose feet 
lie the low marl hillocks of a former geological sea ; the green lawns of 
grass leading to the lower valley, where, in the midst of a track of thick 
white mud, the Jordan flows in a crooked milky stream, through jungles 
of cane and tamarisk,- — are all equally unlike the general scenery of Pales- 
tine. Eound Elijah's fountain a taugled wood of Zakkum, Spina Christi, 
and near the water au occasional castor-oil plant, spreads out to Jericho. 
The yellow berries of the deadly solanum appear everywhere. The 
chorus of birds and the flow of water are sounds equally unusual and 
charming in the stony wildernesses of the Holy Jjand. 

The'palm groves of Jericho have disappeared since the eighth century, 
A solitary survivor grows close to the tower of Er Eiha, and in the valley 
north of Kasr el Hajlah I met with another clump. When the copses 
of the fountain are left behind, and the first descent is made into the 
flat mud valley below the half-consolidated marl cliffs at Kasr el Hajlah, 
then we are at once reminded of Josephus's expression, that the Jordan 
flowed ' ' through a wilderness." The views of the lake — with its shining, 
oily sui'face, its salt and sulphurous springs, its brown precipices, with 
the fallen blocks at their feet, its white drift logs, crusted with salt, 
brought down by the freshets in the river, and now stranded along the 
crisp, shingly beach — are perhaps even more striking ; whilst the soft 
shadows and rosy suffused light in early morning, or at sunset, mako 
the trans-Jordanic i-anges all au artist could desire to study. 

Were it not that negative information is, next to positive, the The Cities 
most interesting and useful, I should scarcely have touched on this *^ ^^' 

subject, but having carefully examined in person the whole tract 
from Jordan mouth to the Eas Feshkah, I do not hesitate to say 
that, if the cities of the plain were within this area, all trace of 
them has utterly disappeared. The ruins, which have been described in 
language not sufHciently moderate for the cause of truth, at Gumi'an 
and at Eijm el Bahr, I have visited. The former are probably late ; 
the heaps of unhewn stone at the latter (which seems to have been at 
one time the traditional site of the Pillar of Salt, judging from an ex- 
pression of Maundrel) are, I think, unquestionably natural. A curious 
artificial tell — Tell el Eashidujoh, situate near the Jordan mouth — is the 
only evidence of man's work I could find on that side. It is strewn 
■with ancient potterj% iron coloured and almost iron in hardness. It 
seems to me certain that the gradual rise of the level of the plain, caused 
by the constant washing down of the soft marls from the western hills, 
would effectually cover over any such ruins did they ever exist below 
the surface. The tract, liowever, presents literally nothing beyond a flat 
expanse of semi-consolidated mud. 



40 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R, CONDEr's REPORTS. 



'Ash el 
Ghorab. 



Convents. 



I am tempted here to mention a curious possible identification of 
this point, though perhaps it will not stand criticism. The hill in 
question is a sharp conical peak, its name signifying, ' ' The Eaven's Nest." 
Two miles north-west of this is a wady and mound, known as the 
Tuwayl el Diab. Here, then, we have the two famous Midianite leaders' 
names — Oreb, the Eaven; and Zeeb, the Wolf — in connection, reminding 
us of the passage (Judges vii. 25) relating that the men of Ephraim 
" slew Oreb on the rock Oreb, and Zeeb at the winepress of Zeeb." 
There is nothing in the Bible or Josephus to show that these places 
were east of Jordan, and it is quite possible that the kings, flying 
southward to Midian, sought to cross by the fords near Jericho, which 
had , however, been already seized by their enemies. The only diflQ.culty 
is in the subsequent passage by Gideon at Succoth higher up. The 
peak is most remai-kable, and would be weU fitted for a public 
execution. 

There is another point which might perhaps confirm this idea. 
Elijah, living by Cherith, was supported, as some suppose, by a tribe of 
Arabs living at an Oreb, or having that name as an appellation. The 
proximity of the 'Ash el Ghorab to Wady Kelt, the traditional Cherith, is 
interesting in connection with such a supposition, and it has been 
thought that this Oreb might be identical with the rock Oreb in the 
history of Gideon. I feel, however, that the suggestion is one not to 
be put forward as more than a possible one. 

The great events of which the Plain of Jericho had in early times 
been the scene, together with its traditional connection with our Lord's 
temptation, and actual interest with regard to his baptism, and other 
events, attracted the Christians of a very early age to this j^art of 
the country. Hence the precipices of Koruntil were burrowed with 
hermit's caves and small chapels, already described by Dr. Tristram, 
who seems amongst the earliest explorers. We were engaged for a 
morning in visiting those of most interest, planning the chapels and 
sketching the old and blackened frescoes on their walls. From Justinian's 
time the plain began to be covered with monastic edifices ; the splendid 
cistern at Kasr el Yahud (St. John on Jordan), mentioned by Procopius 
as the work of this emperor, is still visible, in an almost perfect condi- 
tion. The grand aqueduct from the 'Ain el Sultan to it is no doubt of the 
same date. The cistern is thirty feet deep, and is supported on rows of 
piers. The aqueduct is merely a long mound, showing hardly a trace of 
the channel, but running straight as possible through the copse over 
the flat plain between the mud mounds, until disappearing close to the 
convent. 

The convent itself was destroyed and rebuilt in the twelfth century, 
to which date, in all probability, the ruins I have planned belong. The 
most remarkable point about the building is the use of an apparently 
artificial stone, containing flints and fragments of harder stone. The 
chapel is subterranean ; the outer stones are drafted ; fragments of tcsse- 
lated pavement remain, and some inscriptions, or graphitco, carved on 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDEr's REPORTS. 41 

the walls. This famous establisliment, with the small chapel on the 
banks of Jordan belonging to it, are mentioned by almost every traveller 
of mediaeval times, and the " fair church, of St. Jolin the Baptist " was 
still standing wben visited by Sir John Maundeville in 1322, but ruined 
before the year 1097. 

In the fifth, century there was another convent of St. Panteleemon 
in the plain, and in the twelfth the destruction of one of St. Gerasmius, 
near the Jordan, is mentioned. At this period of revival the greater 
number of these constructions were rebuilt, including the convents of 
St. Calamon and St. Chrysostom. 

It does not appear that either of these names applied to the Kasr 
el Hajlah, which, however, no doubt dates from the same century. 
The ruins of this fine old religious fortress are better preserved than 
those of Kasr el Yahud, and the plan occupied neaiiy two days, hav- 
ing never, I believe, been previously taken. Though much shaken by 
earthquake, its vaults are entire. The aj^se of the large chapel remains, 
and the whole of the smaller, including the octagonal drum support- 
ing its dome. The surrounding walls are entire, except on the north. 
The frescoes are much defaced, almost every inscription and all the 
faces being purposely erased. A certain limit is given to the antiquity 
of the building by the occurrence of the name of John Eleemon, 
Patriarch of Jerusalem in 630, attached to a figui-e. Crusading graphitce 

— the names " Piquet" and Petre de le Senchal — are scratched 

deeply, as though with a dagger, on the haunch of an arch. Tesse- 
iated pavement is found in fragments. The kitchen is entire, with its 
row of little ovens. Other cells, with a subterranean chapel, are covered 
with crosses and religious signs. The most curious frescoes are those 
representing saints receiving the white resurrection robe from attendant 
angels. They are fresher in colour and no doubt later than those of 
Koruntil. 

Tell Moghyfir, the Gilgal of some authors, is the site of another such 
convent, now entirely destroyed. Scattered stones, with fragments of 
frescoes and Greek letters, painted pieces of tesselated pavement, a 
small cistern (well lined), and ruins of aqueduct channels leading to the 
epot, are all that remains. It seems probable that we have here the 
site of the convent of St. Eustochium, mentioned by "Willibald in 721 
as in the middle of the plain, between Jericho and Jerusalem, a descrip- 
tion applying perfectly if he travelled by the Mar Saba route to the 
capital. 

Kb. el Mifjar, north of 'Ain el Sultan, shows ruins excavated by Captain 
"Warren, who found the apse of a chapel pointing south (perhaps the 
transept of a great church), remains of houses, and a chamber with 
frescoes ; these have now disappeared. The site covei's about 300 yards 
square, and is evidently that of an important establishment. 

Yet another convent is to be found in the hills overhanging the north 
side of Wady Kelt, and a small rough chapel in Wady Dubbar marks 
the site of D-^vyr el Mukelik. Thus we have five existing ruins, without 



42 LIEUT. CLAUDE E. COXDEr's REPORTS. 

counting tlie churcli mentioned by Sir John Maundeville, and still re- 
maining on tlie summit of Koruntil, vrliilst historically -we know of the 
previous existence of no less thau seven, of which, however, only three 
are identified. 

Dayr "VVady Kelt merits a more particular description. Like every other 
monastery in the hills, it is hung on a precipice. It consists of a 
series of cells, and a hall supported on vaults, through which lies the 
entrance. The chapel, perched close to the rock, is not oriented, being 
in aline of 49 degs. M., but the east window, beside the apse, is so turned 
as to bear at an angle 90 degs. M. The evident reason of this is the 
direction of the rock scarp. The rest of the building is not in the same 
line as the chapel. There are at least three dates discoverable, as two 
layers of frescoes cover the wall, whilst the inscriptions of the newest are 
covered in part by the piers supporting the ribs of the roof. The chapel 
is built of dressed stones, w^hilst the cells and vaults are of masonry 
roughly squared. This part bears every sign of twelfth century work. 
Perhaps the little side chapel, with rock-cut chamber, and the vault 
containing ancient bones, to which a corridor covered with frescoes re- 
presenting the Last Judgment leads, is the oldest part of the building. 
Numerous caves, now inaccessible, are visible in the face of the cliff", 
which for a distance of eighty feet is covered with frescoes, now almost 
entirely defaced. One of these cells has at its entrance a heavy iron bar 
2)laced vertically, no doubt originally to support a rope or ladder. Like 
the upper chambers at Koruntil, this is probably a funeral vault. 

A badly cut inscription in Arabic and barbarous Greek, over the more 
modern part of the door, commemorates a restoration by a certain 
Ibrahim and his brothers. 

The examination of the very complicated system of aqueducts 
which are connected with the old irrigation of the plain, formed one 
of oui- principal investigations. I have had a separate plan made of 
them, and will endeavour to explain their arrangement. There are in 
all six springs from which the channels are fed, and twelve aqueducts. 
The springs are 'Ain el A^vjeh, 'Ain Nuwaymeh, 'Ain Duk, 'Ain Kelt, 
'Ain Farah, and 'Ain el Sultan. From the first of these, situate about 
eight miles north of Er Pdha, a cemented channel follows the course of the 
AVady el Awjeh on the south side. On gaining the plain it crosses the 
valley, and runs away north, having no less than five branches running 
about a mile from it at right angles, at intervals of a quarter to half a 
mile apart. There is no doubt that this is simply intended for irriga- 
tion. One branch leads to a mill. A second and far more important 
branch leaves the first aqueduct at about one and a half miles from its 
source. It winds away south in a very devious course for three and a 
half miles, when it reaches the two springs of 'Ain Duk and 'Aiu 
Nuwaymeh, situate only a few yards apart. It crosses the valley on a 
curious bridge of many arches, all pointed, and apparently late or 
modern in date. From this point the aqueduct inclines eastward and 
follows a course equally undulating for upwards of four direct miles. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE K. CONDEr's REPORTS. 43 

passing through various cisterns by Kh. el Mifjar, and over another 
bridge -with pointed arches, having a well cut cross on the" haunch of 
one of the arches. A shorter aqueduct from 'Ain el Sultan, joins this at 
Khirbet el Mifjar, and has pipes for the water channel instead of the 
cemented channel of the other. This devious course terminates at length 
at a birket called Heydar, a cemented cistern, the total length from 
'Ain el Awjeh to this point being over eight miles. 

We next turn to the aqueduct from 'Ain Duk, which is there joined 
to the last. It feeds the Tawahiu el Sukkar, or Crusading Sugar Mills, 
and crossing Wady Kelt by a bridge now broken, terminates in the 
same ruins, including a birket not far east of Birket Musa. A fourth 
aqueduct branches from No. 2 (the long one) just before the latter 
reaches 'Ain Bixk, and runs east to the plain. I feel but little hesitation 
in attributing these aqueducts, with their branches, to Crusading times, 
with probable subsequent restoration by Moslem workmen. 

We have next to consider no less than five aqueducts which follow the 
course of Wady Kelt, three from 'Ain Kelt and two from 'Ain Farah. 
A single channel runs from the former spring, crossing the tributary 
wadies by small bridges, and showing a cemented channel. Within a 
quarter of a mile east of Dayr el Kelt, it reaches a fine bridge placed at 
right angles to its course. This structui-e, now broken, reaches a height 
of over 60ft. above the bottom of the ravine. But the aqueduct is at a 
level nearly 100ft. higher, and is boldly brought down a slide of about 
half over the face of the rock, and enters the channel of the bridge on 
a cui-ve. At the first, or north buttress, there seems to have been a 
shaft, and part of the water descends to a still lower level, and follows 
the north side of the wady, passing beneath the convent. The re- 
mainder crosses by the bridge, which again turns sharply at right 
angles, and another shaft allows part of the current to descend some 
30ft., separating into two aqueducts at different levels. Thus from this 
remarkable bridge we have no less than three channels to follow, with- 
out counting the branch which passes above Dayr el Kelt at the original 
level of the single channel, and thus supplies the convent with water. 
The fact that the water has descended the great shoot, is shown by the 
sedimentary deposits found upon it. The sharp turns were no doubt 
intended to break the force of the fall, but must have severely strained 
the bridge by the unequal pressure so produced. The good masonry, 
round arches, and cement filled with wood ashes, which are remarkable 
in its structure, seem to point to its having been an early Christian 
work. I need scarcely say that we carefully measured and examined it 
throughout. 

To follow the northern aqueduct— it continues to the bottom of the 
pass, and then turning north, terminates near the Sugar Mills. It has a 
cemented channel in which pipes are laid. 

The two southern courses fiow parallel to the mouth of the pass, 
where the lower terminates in a birket, and the upper disappears. They 
are structural throughout, and opposite Dayr el Kelt there is a fine wall 



44 LIEUT. CLAUDE K. COXDER's REPORTS. 

of well-cut masonry, on the top of which the upper aqixccluct runs, 
whilst a channel for the lower exists in its thickness below, the wall 
being built up against the cliff, which was too precipitous to afford a 
channel. 

The date of the next two aqueducts is possibly earlier. Side by side 
they run from 'Ain Farah, following the south side of "Wady Kelt 
considerably above the last pair. At one point they cross and recross, 
and in many places they are tunnelled. One of the bridges, a solid and 
massive structure, placed to carry the high level, at a point where the 
low level, by a bend, is able to cross' without, is remarkable for its 
rubble masonry pointed with dressed ashlar, for its rough but pointed 
arches, and for a vault or cistern probably of Crusading date. A second 
vault, known as Bayt Jubr el Fokani exists lower down, and here the 
aqueducts disappear. They run seemingly in tunnels to Bayt Jubr el 
Tahtcini, a small fort commanding the opening of the pass, and of 
Crusading date. Here the upper channel descends by a rapid shoot, and 
filling the birket immediately south of the fort, runs on to the great 
Birket Musa, which no doubt it was mainly intended to supply. The 
course of the lower channel, which is cemented without pipes, is not 
so easily made out, and it seems more than probable that the two 
unite at the tunnel and form one stream. 

Only three more aqueducts remain to trace, which are fed by the 'Ain 
cl Sultan. No. 10 crossing Wady Kelt by a bridge still perfect, with 
pointed arches (evidently a restoration), is traceable into the neighbour- 
hood of Tell Moghyfir, which it was doubtless intended to supply. Here 
it is lost, and careful search makes me feel certain that it went no 
farther south. No 11 is a fragment also in the neighbourhood of Tell 
Moghyfir, seeming from its direction to have branched out of No. 12, 
the great aqueduct from 'Ain el Sultan to Kasr el Yahud (a distance of 
six miles). 

I have not been able to find any traces of cultivation farther south 
than Tell Moghyfir, or any aqueduct to Kasr el Hajlah, which must 
have depended for its water-supply on the great rain-water cistern, and 
on the neighbouring spring of 'Ain Hajlah. 
Xatuial Our best thanks are due to Mr. W. K. Green, the British repre- 

Uistoiy sentative at Damascus, for his kindness in the instruction of 
Corporal Armstrong and of myself in the art of bird-stuffing. We 
now find the full advantage of the acquisition on entering a region 
interesting as is the Jordan Valley. In a little over two months the 
collection has mounted up to nearly one hundred specimens. The 
large majority have been shot and stuffed by Corporal Armstrong, who 
is an enthusiastic collector. Occasionally I have been able to lend a 
hand when the number of birds was too great, or other work less 
pressing. Among the best specimens are the kingfishers, especially the 
gorgeous Smyrnian species in blue, chocolate, and white. Tristram's 
Gracklo and the Passer Moabiticus, we have also obtained, with eaglo 
owls and the famous sunbirds of Jericho. Bulbuls, the hopping thrush, 
doves, partridges, and many species of wader, desert, and Persian larks, 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 45 

with, a few sea birds obtained in our journey down the coast, may bo 
added. The collection promises to be a good 'one, and will interest 
equally the naturalist and the biblical student. 

"We are now in the midst of that region in which the whole Geology, 
interest of Syrian geology centres. Having studied carefully the 
geology of the watershed and west plains, I am now endeavouring to 
connect these obsei'vations with others which shall point out the timo 
geologically of the depression of the Jordan Vallej'. To write decisively 
would be i)remature ; but the consistency of the old and new observa- 
tions is instructive and encouraging. 

The following succession of strata is observable throughout Pales- 
tine : — 



Tertiaiy. < 



Niunmulitic and Oolitic limestones of the Lower Eocene 
period, as at Nablus. 



I 2. Soft chalk with large tlints, as in Galilee. 

Cretaceous. ■! 3. White marl with flint bands, as at Nablus. 

( i. Hard white basebed with flints and fossils, as at Carmel. 

. (5. Compact limestone, Avith a few flints and fossils, as at 

( Jerusalem. Dolomitic beds. 

An unconformity is distinctly traceable between the two last groups in 
many sections. The Nubian grit underlies the dolomite, but does not 
appear in Palestine. 

The numerous observations of dip and strike, with the levels and 
sections which I have collected, will, I feel sure, lead to a very definite 
theory on the formation of the Dead Sea and Jordan Valley ; but it 
would be hasty and unwise to publish these notes before they are com- 
jilete. That a great lake or sea of still water existed in the neighbour- 
hood of the Dead Sea, but at a much higher level, I hope to make out 
clearly. At present at least three distinct levels are traceable : 

1. The level of the Ghor, or mud valley, through which the Jordan 
runs. 

2. The level of the plain of Jericho, consisting of soft white semi- 
consolidated waves, with salt and sulphur, evidently deposited in still 
water, with the excei^tion of the later formations in the valley beds. 

3. The level of the coloured marls of Nebi Musa, which are uncon- 
formable with the more ancient white cretaceous marls. The basiu 
between Koruntil and Konaytra, formed by the dip of the older strata, 
is filled up with these deposits, and corresponds to a similar basin on 
the east of Jordan. The lake at this period would therefore have 
stretched to the feet of the main chain. 

The Talmudical writers speak of a "long journey," and define it as ^^^''y^li- 
being as far as from Jerusalem to Modiu, or beyond. 

Maimonides explains this as meaning fifteen miles. This is just the 
distance from El Mcdyeh to Jerusalem, and the Eoman mile, if that is 
intended, only differs slightly from the English. 



Barada. 



4(3 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 

XIX. 

Excursions from Bludan. 

Jerusalem, Jan. 7, 1874. 

The exceptionally stormy year wliicli (now that Ave have recovered 
from the severe attack of fever) still keeps us within doors at Jeru- 
salem, leaves me time to fulfil the wishes of the Committee in for- 
warding a short account of some excursions made during our stay at 
Bluda-n. 
Sflk AVady The first of these was a visit to Suk Wady Barada, a site of consider- 
able interest, being, as it is with great reason supposed, that of the 
capital of Abilene, mentioned by St. Luke (iii. 1) as the tetrarchate of 
Lysanias, son of Ptolemy and grandson of Menna3as king of Chalcis, 
about B.C. 60. The tablet, twice repeated beside the Roman road, 
records its reconstruction by the Emperors Marcus Aurelius and 
Lucius Yerus, at the expense of the inhabitants of Abilene. The 
name Abila, applicable to the capital itself, is supposed to linger in the 
Kabr Abil, or tomb of Abel, a huge sunken birket 30ft. in length on the 
heights above. 

Suk Wady Barada is one of the most picturesque sites in this part of 
Syria. Travelling from Damascus along a desolate expanse of flat 
stony soil known as El Sahrah, we came suddenly to the feet of the 
precipitous chain of the Antilebanon, and entered a fine gorge over- 
hung with craggy cliffs. Deep down in this the Barada (ancient 
Arbana) has worn its bed hidden by the thick growth of tall poplars 
and flowering shrubs, through which the refreshing sound of its 
brawling water strikes the ear. The steep high banks are formed of a 
sort of conglomerate, with a soft white matrix, in which the prints of 
leaves, branches, and twigs brought down and embedded by the river 
action, are most delicately preserved. The great depth of this forma- 
tion, evidently marking the gradual deepening of the gorge by the 
powerful action of the rapid stream, together with the indications of 
date given by the species of the leaves, would enable a geologist to 
measure approximately the rate at which the water bores downwards. 
The modern village, watered also by streams which run from the hill- 
sides, lies low down among the poplars. The extensive use of wood in 
its construction, its flat mud roofs projecting over verandahs which 
surround the houses, give an almost Sv/iss appearance to the hamlet, 
contrasting forcibly with the bald, comfortless appearance of the 
villages of Palestine set among the stony mountains, treeless and 
unwatered. 

On the north side of the river, below the precipices, lies the necropolis 
of the ancient town. Higher up, the stream turns sharply round in 
the very narrowest part of the gorge, and falling by a succession of 
small cascades, each with a deep pool beneath, it passes under a 
modern single arcli. Above this point the course is still between 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEll's REPORTS. 47 

poplar beds, but the gorge opens until tbe long plain of Zebedany is 
reached, where at the foot of a craggy ridge the Barada springs up full- 
grown in a blue pool surrounded with rushes and extending to an 
unknown de^Dth. 

Suk Wady Barada is a well-known site, and the history of its cap- 
ture by the Sai-acens in 634 a.d., during the annual fair, is supposed to 
be the origin of the modern name, " The fair of Wady Barada." 

I am not, however, aware that the ruins have ever been systemati- 
cally studied, although several inscriptions have been obtained from 
them. We executed a sketch survey of the site, and took plans of over 
a dozen tombs, examining about twenty. They are of great interest as 
forming a clue to the date of other tombs of similar construction, and 
thus giving a basis in the comparison of the great number of specimens 
we have already collected. The inscriptions which we obtained not 
already known have been communicated by Mr. Wright to the Fund ; 
they are all in Greek, and without exception tombstones. One found 
in place consists of four tablets over a sunken tomb; three are inscribed, 
biit much defaced. The name Archelaus as a patronymic occurs in 
two : a column fallen into the stream beneath is inscribed at the top 
and near the base, the latter giving o Aovxios vios ee-^Key. The remainder, 
numbering six in all, some very well preserved, were lying loose in 
various places near the town. 

The Roman road with its tablets, the aqueduct beneath, part rock- 
cut, part built with large slabs against the cliffs, the fa(;ades with pedi- 
ments and figures much defaced, are too well known to require descrip- 
tion. We noticed a great number of fine stones in the village itself, 
and the remains apparently of a temple, now transformed into a school; 
it seemed doubtful, however, how much of the material was in situ and 
not taken from another site. North of the road, and east of the village, 
a wall with fragments of cornice and pillars indicates the position of 
another classical building. 

Descending the stream still farther, and crossing by a most 
picturesque bridge, we reach the place of another small temple, the 
best preserved ruin in the neighbourhood. The eastern and southern 
walls are easily traceable, and the spot might repay excavation. I took 
measurements of the pillars and cornices which appear fallen in con- 
fusion. They are bold and massive in character and formed of large 
blocks. There are several mounds in the vicinity which no doubt 
mark the sites of other buildings, giving the idea that in Roman 
times the mouth of the gorge was occupied by a lai-ge and important 
town. 

Our second expedition was to Baalbek, where we remained a day, 
returning on the third. The object of this was to enable me to send in 
a report on the present precarious condition of the ruins, which has 
already appeared in print. The discovery which we made, but which 
requires further examination, of a pillar-shaft built into the founda- 
tions exactly beneath the famous trilithon, cannot fail to be considered 
of the very greatest importance. 



48 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 

Circumstances considerably delayed oui- projected visit to Hermon, 
and it was not till after a shower or two bad fallen tbat tbe atmospbere 
became sufficiently clear to allow of our attempting an expedition 
intended for tbe observation of very long distances. At lengtb, bow- 
over, we started ; Mr. Green, Her Britannic Majesty's representative at 
Damascus, came with us, and Mr. Wrigbt, accompanied by Corporal 
Armstrong, was to join us at Paibbleb. Tbe first day we slept at 
Easbayab, an important town tbree hours north of tbe summit ; the 
second we passed on the top itself; the third at Kala'at el Jindel ; and 
on tbe nth September we returned by the eastern slopes and through 
the croro-e of tbe Barada to Bludan, a march of nine hours for the horses 
and fourteen for the mules, including tbe stoppages. 

We passed, in the first instance, by tbe fine ruin of Dayr el Ash'ayir, 
which has been visited and described by Captain Warren. The walls 
are standing to the height of tbe capitals, which ai-e Ionic, with a Greek 
fret beneath tbe volutes. There are vaults in tbe stylobate which are 
at present inhabited. Anxious, however, to reach Rukhleh at the 
appointed time, we did not even dismount at this place. 

The road ascends a steep narrow wady winding between huge 
boulders of rock. We here missed our proper path and entirely lost 
Corporal Brophy, who subsequently met tbe natives sent to look for 
him. Some charcoal-burners brought us back to a little plain fi'om 
which a steep track leads to one of tbe ridges. Here we found 
another great valley running eastwards, with tbe village on its southern 
slopes, whilst beyond towered the steep sides of Hermon with the knife- 
like ridge which culminates in tbe principal summit. 

Eukbleh also has been visited by Captain Warren, and I only add 
such notes as are supplemental to his. There are four principal build- 
ings. The upper eastern temple, the upper western temple, the lower 
northern temple, and a building called El Burg north of the last upon 
a high point of rock. Of these bis notes are principally confined to 
the second. (See Quarterly, January, 1870.) 

There are several Greek inscriptions lying in tbe indistinguishable 
ruins of tbe higher eastern temple. Of these we copied two, one on a 
pillar, of which a copy has already appeared [Quarttrhj, March, 1870). 
The transcription, however, resulting from the joint efforts of Mr. 
Green, Mr. Wright, and myself, is more perfect, although it is ex- 
tremely difficult to see tbe letters under tbe ordinary light. A sort of 
cartouche surrounds the central portion of the inscription, which seems 
nevertheless to read straight across. It is most interesting as re- 
ferring to a cex-tain Epiarch of Abila, whose name might perhaps be 
made out by a copy taken at night with a lamp; it refers to the 
guardians of the temple, and a certain Bernicc, as having done some- 
tbing (probably in restoration or adornment of tbe temple) at their 
own expense ; it also contains a date. 

The second inscription, on a large stone, was more rapidly copied, 
and would repay the trouble of a squeeze. It commences, 6ias 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 40 

Ae(u)reo0eaco, and the words avTois apyvpta avaXtocravt — xnrep Trjs Ovpas are 
distinctly legible in one part. There are in all ciglit lines, the longest 
containing twenty-two letters : the Upora^itai, or guardians of the temple, 
are again mentioned in it, I am not aware that it has been previously 
made public. 

The second building is farther west, about the same height, but 
hidden between houses which are on the level of the vaults in the 
stylobate. The roof of a house covers up the eastern end, but there is 
no doubt that this was a temple also. Its extreme width is 24ft. 3in., 
and the height of the stylobate, a fine piece of Avork, the profile of 
which I have carefully measured, is 5ft. 7in. It consists of very large 
blocks of stone. The building is divided by a cross wall at a distance 
of 22ft. from its east end, and the door of this was surmounted by a 
massive lintel of bold mouldings, which I also measured. The most 
curious point in the structure is the existence of an apse at the western 
end having a good hemispherical dome of small well-cut masonry. 
There is no special sign of this being a late addition, as although the 
ashlar is smaller (which is commonly the case in Eoman buildings in 
Palestine), the stone seems to be of the same character. 

This building is locally called Kala'at el Melek, or the King's Castle. 
An inscription on a tablet upon a small pillar is here built vertically 
into a wall, so that only half is visible. It was copied by Captain 
"Warren, but we add a few letters to his. It is well preserved, and 
should be taken out, when the whole would be legible. 

The third building is the famous temple with the head of Baal in its 
wall. This has been described many times, and especially by Captain 
"WaiTcn. Its dimensions are 56ft. from north to south, and 82ft. to the 
line of the apse, interior measurements. The bearing we made to be 
120 degrees, but Captain Warren 127 degrees. It has been said that 
the apse at the eastern end has been added at a later period, but I 
should feel inclined to go even farther, and consider that hardly a 
stone in the building is in situ,, and that from the present dimensions 
we cannot judge without excavation of those of the temple. The 
courses of the south wall, of which I took a careful sketch, are ex- 
tremely irregiilar ; a portion of a cornice is built in at the east end, then 
comes the slab 5ft. by 6ft., the height of two courses, on which is the 
head of Baal, of fine classic outline, but much defaced. It is sur- 
rounded with a border of honeysuckle pattern. Next to this two 
courses — the upper 3ft. 2in. in height, the lower 1ft, lOin., the upper of 
two blocks 5ft. lin. and 6ft. lin., the lower of six stones in the same 
length. A stone 4ft. long follows in the itpper course, and then a suc- 
cession of much smaller masonry in five courses, reaching to the fine 
sculpture of an eagle, which resembles the Eoman eagle on the soffit 
of the great lintel at Baalbek, 

In the western wall the courses vary also considerably ; the jambs of 
the door seem very probably to have been pieces of a cornice. In the 
north-west corner a bit of cornice is built in horizontally, at the height 

E 



50 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

of the lintel of tlie door. The ground here, either from the natural 
slope or from the accumulation of rubbish, reaches up to this frag- 
ment. 

The northern wall is almost entirely of small stones. The apse 
courses differ considerably in height, and on the outside various niches 
are built into the wall in a most irregular fashion. Thus no wall of 
the building can be pointed out as probably remaining intact from the 
earlier times. The church was divided into a nave and two aisles, the 
latter being 16ft. wide. There were two rows of five columns each, the 
two attached to the corners of the apse being probably a trifle larger ; 
the average diameter is 3ft. and the height 22ft. 6in., including base 
and capital. The latter are of Ionic order. Of all these details I have 
carefully measured sketches. There appear also to have been two 
rows of pilasters attached to the outer walls, also of Ionic character, 
and having a fret similar to that at Dayr el Ash'ayer below the volute. 
Above these, both inside and out, was a coi-nice, and a plain architrave 
connected the columns. Of the roof, however, there are no indica- 
tions. The door in the west wall was not central, but communicated 
with the southern aisle. There was also a smaller door on the north, 
but whether any on the south appears to be extremely problematical. 

Between this ruin and the former there are many fragments of cor- 
nices, pillars, and niches, a large bii'ket now dry, and a deep funnel- 
shaped well with a flight of steps. Just opposite the modern Druse 
village are ruins of houses which we did not examine. There are two 
illegible inscriptions in Greek, one on the east wall, the other towards 
the south-west corner, inside the church. South of the village is a 
regular cemetery of rock-sunk tombs, and a cave with two compart- 
ments containing loculi parallel to the sides. 

There only remains one building to describe in Eukhleh, and this is 
called El Burj — the tower. It is on a high knoll north of the church, 
and presents a platform of rock about 10ft. high and 12 by 15 paces 
area. A building on a low stylobate, with large well-cut stones, show- 
ing no traces of mortar or of drafting, stood on the platform. On 
the east is a lower building, six paces broad, which seems to have con- 
tained rough columns supporting the roof. 

There can be no doubt that this village was once an important town. 
The occurrence of the name of Abila in two of its inscriptions is 
curious. It would well repay further investigation and excavation 
when visited by our American colleagues. 

Leaving Eukhleh late in the afternoon, we pursued a path more 
rocky, it seemed to me, than any I had as yet seen in Syria ; after 
passing a narrow ridge we began descending a long, narrow valley, at 
the end of which the Druse village of Kefr Kuk stood above broad 
slopes of vineyards, brUliant apple-green in colour, and lighted by the 
setting sun. Below, on our right, was the curious plain which in 
winter becomes a lake. Some few days after heavy rain a roaring 
noise is heard beneath the ground, and a stream issues from a cavern. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 51 

quickly submerging the wliole extent of flat ground lying between steep 
mountain ridges. 

After sunset we reached Ailia, where the remains of a temple are 
visible, but as darkness came on we did not stop, but hurried on to tho 
great town of Rashaya, placed on two low hills facing one another, 
and filling the low ground between them. Here the kaimakam, on a 
prancing steed, hurried out to welcome the English consul's party. 
The infantry of the garrison, four soldiers and a sergeant, advanced in 
Indian file, turned into line, and presented arms. The irregular 
cavalry rode madly about over one another, and finally one of their 
number fell over his horse's head. At last all our calvacade was jammed 
in a narrow street, where the horses of the English party began to 
kick out, and the kaimakam, having thus fulfilled his duty, speedily 
retired. 

Next morning a great deputation waited on Mr. Green. The kai- 
makam, the Druse shaykh, the chief Greek priest, and the Protestant 
schoolmaster, came amicably together, surrounded by their admirers 
and followers. This audience having been brought to a close and re- 
turn visits paid, we commenced the ascent of the mountain, a long, 
steep slope of small loose shingle most fatiguing to the horses. 

Our camp was pitched in a sheltered hollow, but we experienced a Ascent of 
difficulty rarely felt, of the want of water. Not a vestige of snow was 
to be found on any part of the mountain, and we were obliged to send 
the animals down again to the 'Ain Jeruiyeh, a spring one and a-half 
hours from the summit on the western slope. We were engaged till 
after sunset in taking observations, and after dai'k we fired the 
surrounding patches of a prickly shrub, which burns for a very con- 
siderable time, thus announcing our safe arrival to the ladies atBludan, 
whose return watchfire we, however, unfortunately missed seeing. The 
night was extremely cold, in spite of our wraps. The non-commissioned 
officers remained up all night, taking observations for latitude. In the 
morning we rose before sunrise, and the day being fairly clear we 
obtained some good observations, especially a line to Carmel, which has 
thus been observed both ways. Safet, Tiberias, and many of the ruins 
in the northern district of our Survey, kindly picked out for us by Mr. 
Wright, were well seen. We took a few shots into Lieut. Steever's 
country, and angles to all the vUlages visible on the slopes of the 
mountain. There is a district on the south and south-east of the 
summit which has, I believe, never been explored, and which cannot fail 
to contain many ruins of interest. 

!My next care was to obtain a careful survey of the summit of Hermon, 
and a plan of the temple, intended to supplement that of Captain 
Warren. The top of the mountain may be described as consisting of 
three peaks, of which two are approximately noi'th and south, and of 
almost equal height, being joined by a flat plateau depressed in the 
middle. The third peak to the west is considerably lower, and divided 
by a valley -head from the former. 



52 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 

The name of this thii'd peak is El Miitabkliiyat, -wliicli means, I am- 
informed, the " place of cooking." The plateau is called El Dar, the 
northern peak Kawasr el Dar. The southern is that on which the 
temple is built, for which our informant (an old goatherd, who bad lived 
many years on the mountain) gave the name of Kasr el Shabib. The 
name Kasr el Antar is incorrect, referring to another building. He 
denied that the name Kasr !Nimrud, given: by Captain Burton, was- 
correct; and I am inclined to believe it is applicable rather to the 
building at Kalaat el Jindel, which I shall describe later. The building 
itself is a small temple on the southern side of a block of rock which 
is surrounded by an oval of well-dressed stones. On the top of the 
block is a rectangular sunken trench or birket, and close to it a round 
shaft, not deep, unless it is filled up, and supposed, as Mr. Wright 
informed me, to have been the flue of an altar. The surrounding wall 
seems to me never to have been more than a dwarf wall. A great 
quantity of ashes is still observable on the west, without its boundary. 
There does not appear to me ever to have been any outer enclosure. 
There is, however, south of the temple, a retfiining wall of rough stones, 
evidently intended to bank up the earth at the head of a small valley 
■which starts on this side. The stones of the temple wall are drafted, 
and one measured 4ft. 4in. by 2ft. by 2ft. 8in., with a face smooth- 
dressed and a draft ^in. deep, tiin. wide one side of the stone, 3^in. on 
the other. A fragment of a very simple cornice we also measured. A 
Greek inscription is said to be still lying on the spot, but we searched 
for it in vain. 

The cave upon the plateau I also entered and measured ; it is rough 
in shape, 15ft. Gin. by 24ft. 6in. in dimensions ; the roof is partly 
supported by a rough rock-cut pillar. The height varies from 7ft. to 8ft. 
It faces very nearly east. A rock-cut stair of three steps leads down 
to it, and a small lintel was^thrown across this outer entrance. Above 
the cave the rock is cut down, leaving a rectangular flat space 26ft. by 
33ft. I have no doubt that there was a building over the cave at some 
period. 

These notes are all that we are able to give in addition to the full 
account of Captain Warren, and supplementing the careful survey of 
the summit and plan of the Kasr el Shabib which we executed. 

The chief interest which Heimon possesses for the Biblical student 
is as the traditional site of the Transfiguration of Christ. The narrative 
relates (Mark ix.) that being;, then at Ca^sarea Philippi our Lord took 
his three disciples '"into a high mountain apart." That reference is 
thus made to some part of Hermon there can be no doubt. It is a 
curious observation that on the summit of Hermon the) e is often a 
sudden accumulation of cloud, as quickly again Idisjjersed, often visible 
when the remainder of the atmosphere is perfectly clear. I have myself 
noticed this on more than one occasion, and we had some fear that 
during ovv stay on the summit our view would be thus suddenly cut 



LIEUT. CLAUDE K. CONDER's REPORTS. 53 

■off. We cannot fail to be reminded in tliis phenomenon of " the cloud 
that overshadowed " the apostles. 

A short day was necessitated both by the time taken in observations 
and by the falrigued condition of the baggage animals. We therefore 
fixed upon Kalaat el Jindel, a Druse village on the east of the summit, 
iis our camping-ground. 

This point was not visited by Captain Warren. The name is applied 
to the village itself, and the castle is said to be the resting-place of one 
of the sons of Nimrod, if not of the hunter himself; for which reason 
no dew ever falls in Kalaat el Jindel. The two are separated by Van- 
develde, who shows the Kalaat on the wrong side of the wady. 

The building is a curious one, and its origin may be very ancient, 
though I am inclined to look upon it as mediajval. It is a rectangular 
fort commanding a narrow gorge, and almost entirely cut in the rock, 
facing 190 degrees in the direction of its length. It is divided into 
two compartments, the western of which contains a Mohammedan kibleh 
niche, and another recess with jambs and lintels moulded, on the west 
Avail ; whilst on the north is a loophole of mediaeval character, and a 
broad rock-cut window exists on the south. The eastern chamber had 
structural walls on all sides but the south, where a step oft. or 4ft. high 
leads to an open window. Through this we gain a passage on the same 
levqj, running parallel to the two chambers, and looking down a steep 
scarp into the valley below. Both the chambers have been cemented 
at some time or other; the masonry is of large proportions. A cave, 
which is not easily accessible through a small window in the east face, 
exists below the building, in the scarp. Close to it on the west is a 
tomb resembling somewhat those at Suk Wady Barada. If this were 
originally a temple, it is the only known instance on Hermon of a 
temple facing west. 

From Kalaat el Jindel I accompanied Mr. Wright on a visit to 
Burkush, which was the last site we investigated. It was situate one 
and a-half hours' ride north of our camp, to which we returned. The 
following day we were too much occupied to allow of our stopping, nor 
did we pass any very remarkable ruins. 

The ruins at Burkush are the finest which we examined, but they have 
been very fully described by Captain Warrea. I, however, took the plan 
as carefully as time allowed. 

On approaching the spot, one sees a strong, well-built platform wall Bm-kush, 
from which a row of cantilevers for supporting arches project. On the 
platform are foundations of a large Byzantine building, and small 
hovels of the modern Druse village are built against the eastern wall. 
At a distance north of this of 175 feet are the remains of another 
huilding, with a tumbled mass of masonry belonging to the upper 
courses. 

The plan of the substructures I take to have included two great vaults 
running the entire length and breadth (130 feet and 160 feet) of the 
building, with a roofing of flat slabs upon arches at intervals of 3 feet 



54 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDER'S REPORTS. 

6 inches. Tlie southern of these vaults is now broken down ; the western 
I could see still exists, though it is not attainable, and much choked 
with rubbish. On the north the ground attains the height of the plat- 
form, and is in places cut away. On the east there are smaller vaults 
and chambers. There is also another paii* of vaults with simple bai*rel 
roofs on the west ; of all these I have obtained a perfect plan, with their 
relative positions. From the great south vault, which is 19 feet broad, 
we enter into some small chambers and a passage placed in the south- 
west angle of the platform. There are two very small cells, one of 
which I should take for an oratory, having a niche for holy water or 
something of similar character in the northern wall. The other is a 
chamber for washing, or latrine. Another flight of steps here leads to 
further ranges of vaults beneath, but having no candle we could not 
examine them in the time at our disposal. 

Over the doors of several of these chambers and on the interior walls 
the following signs are cut severally. 

+ 10 A T L M 

The second occurs frequently, the rest I was inclined to look on as num- 
bers to the various cells. Several crosses are cut carefully on stones of 
the outer wall, but probably late. 

A very simple cornice runs along the south wall ; its moulding is the 
Cyma recta. 

The building above must have consisted of three walks, the central 
one 36 feet broad. The rich and fantastic moulding of the capitals, 
many of which I measured and copied, show it to have been a very 
magnificent building. The magnetic bearing in the direction of its 
breadth was 124 deg. Of this also I found time for a plan. The masoniy 
is very large, twelve courses giving 40 feet height at the south-east 
corner of the platform. 

I was at the time inclined to consider the building as of one date, but 
Captain Warren's discovery of an Ionic capital in the ruins militates 
against this, and there is no doubt that the apse of the second structure 
is built on. Of this structure I made a careful plan, and sketches of 
the two small attached columns on stools flanking the doorway. The 
masonry is very large and well-cut except in the apse, and no drafting 
appears in any of the stones. 

There are a great number of ruins round this central basilica, show- 
ing the remains of a large town ; and a building halfway down the hill» 
whose foundations only remain, seems to have been a church. At the 
foot of the hill is a huge sarcophagus, with a bust in basso-relievo, and 
on a stone close by is an illegible Greek inscription. 

There are considerable traces of ancient cultivation on Ilermon. In 
the deserted plain on the east, in the rocky fastnesses at Rukhleh and 
its neighbourhood, old stone terraces and vineyard watch-towers 
are scattered. At the present day the long slopes of vineyard, especi- 
ally remarkable at Kefr Kiik, Rashayah, and Burkush, with the scanty 
patches of baiiey, are all that remain. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEli S REPORTS, 



55 



In conclusion to this report I will note that the fine temples at 'Ain " ^^^ ^'J'- 
Fiji, near Suk Wady Barada, have just escaped a great danger. They 
owe their preservation to Mr. Wright, who passed them when the 
Wali of Syria was engaged in their destruction. The arch from which 
the stream flows beneath the temple was stopped up, and the ingenuity 
of Syrians could suggest no other method of clearing it out than 
blowing up the building itself. The expostulations addressed by Mr. 
Wright to the Wall stopped these proceedings for a time, and I at 
once sent Corporal Armstrong to make a plan of the ruins. The 
workmen were by that time withdrawn, and the buildings have, I hope, 
escaped destruction. 



XX. 

Jerusalem, Jan. 30, 1874. 

Gezer, MoDiN, Gibeah, anb Ai. 

I am at length able to report that a full sheet of the map, probably Survey. 
the most difficult and interesting of all, has been completely filled 
in. The Jerusalem sheet contains over 1,400 names, and the number of 
ruins planned and drawn is very large. We worked in the Ghor till the 
commencement of the heavy rains, and have — round Jerusalem and from 
a flying camp at Dayr Diwan — filled in on the few fine days such portions 
as could not be reached from other stations. During excursions which I 
have made when weather allowed, I have visited every important site 
within twenty miles of the city, and have increased the number of special 
surveys to sixty-three, including seven churches not to be found in M. 
Du Vogue's " Churches of Palestine," and among the later additions the 
survey of Tell Gezer, the plan of the tombs of the Maccabees, the gi-eat 
church at Ramleh, &c. 

Of late, however, the whole country has become unfit for outdoor 
work, and we are engaged in getting our materials into order, a work 
which will occupy us all our time until the Jordan valley shall have 
become fit for camping, when I hope to return to it for survey. 

The two principal excursions have been that to Eamleh, undertaken 
by myself and Mr. Drake, and that to Dayr Diwan, where Sergeant 
Black accompanied me. We camped for two days at this place, and filled 
in about twenty-five square miles during very bad weather and a violent 
hailstorm. I propose to give a short account of each of these journeys. 
Leaving Jerusalem on 17th, about 8 a.m., we proceeded by Kolonia, 
where I noticed the building with drafted stones. There are many vaults 
and foundations round it, and I think it probably is the site of one of 
the Crusading conventual edifices, in which the masonry of an older 
date is constantly used up again. 

At Khirbet Ikbala, near Abu Ghosh, we examined a very prominent 
ruin. It proved to be a convent, probably, from its style, of the same 
date as the neighbouring church. Numerous masons' marks are found 



66 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

on the walls, but the chapel has Tbeen ruined, and was not traceable. 
A strong stream, dropping over the rock ledges in little cataracts, runs 
by it. Even in summer there is a good water-supply, and a grove of 
siudian trees may be the remains of the old convent garden. 

At Latrun are the confused and scattered ruins of another Christian 
site. The rain, however, obliged us to keep straight on for Eamleh, leav- 
ing this and Tell Gezer till later. 

Starting on the following morning for the latter site, we crossed the 
swampy plain, and reached Abu Shusheh at nine in the morning. There 
is no doubt that in itself, apart from the strong argument in its favour, 
the site is most striking and remarkable. 

Situate on a swell of the low hills, its tombhouse is visible in every 

direction from a distance, and forms a conspicuous object from the 

Jerusalem road. We have on the Tell a fine site for a city. Though not 

remarkable in a military point of view, it commands the pass to a certain 

■extent. The fine spring of 'Ain Yerdi, on the east, would supply an 

■unlimited amount of water, and the rich coruland in the vicinity stretches 

•down to the sand dunes on the coast. The view is very fine. The plain 

of Sharon lies spread out like a map, the fantastic minarets of Eamleh 

and the white columns at Lydda set in its dark olive groves ; the 

emerald plain lapping the feet of the dark Judean range, which were 

then covered with heavy wreaths of cloud ; beyond all, the blue sea, 

shining as it always does under the winter sun. The Tell is long and 

irregular in shape, and on its sides are terraces, which prove supported 

by long walls of great unhewn blocks. Near the eastern end is a square 

raised i:)latform of earth, about 200 feet side, also containing similar 

blocks. This is no doubt the foot of Gezer; I was not, however, able 

to find the foundations mentioned by M. Ganneau, although there are 

many ancient quarries, while rough tombs and oil-presses exist below 

the Tell on the north and north-west. The ground is everywhere strewn 

with small fragments of pottery and of glass. The curious idol found 

by M. Bergheim, as well as a number of worked flints, have been 

already mentioned. The house he is building, and the kubbet, with 

its graveyard, are the most conspicuous objects on the sjiot. 

Ramleh. The afternoon we devoted to the two principal buildiugs in Ramleh, 

the church and the white mosque. 

The church is supposed to be of the 12 th century. In the 10th two 
churches existed, which were destroyed and rebuilt. The only other 
notice I have been able to find is that by Sir John Maundevillo, who in 
1322 speaks of " a fair Church of our Lady," '' besideEamla," "whereour 
Lord appeared to our lady in the likeness that botokcneth tho Trinity." 
M. du Vogiie in 1800 could not enter it, but the fanaticism of the 
Moslems is less marked nowadays, and our survey cost only 5s. as 
" backsheesh." 

The building, which I have been, as I believe, the first to plan, consists 
of a nave and two aisles, with the principal and side apses, and with 
seven bays of clustered columns. Tho nave is built with a clerestory, 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEll's KEPORTS. 57 

the greatest height being about 40ft., the length 150ft., and the breadth 
*io£t. It is the finest and best preserved church I have seen in Palestine. 
The spaces between the piers are irregular, varj'ing from 12ft. to 14ft. 
This is not uncommon in Crusading work, and I believe the inaccuracy 
of many plans arises from only taking a single measurement, supposing 
the buildiug to be symmetrical. I am, however, careful to take every 
measurement, as such variations are curious and interesting. The thick 
coat of plaster which the Moslems have added, as the ordinary embellish- 
ment of a mosque interior, has covered the delicate tracery of many 
capitals, and makes the finding of masons' marks impossible. 

The Jam'ia el Abiad, or White Mosque, at the opposite extremity of the 
town, is as fine a specimen of Saracenic architecture. It has been known 
under the erroneous titles of " Church of the Templars," and " Cistern 
of St. Helena;" and its tower, as that of the "Forty Martyrs" (an 
important point in our triangulation). Robinson has, however, pointed 
out that there is no reason for supposing it other than a Moslem con- 
struction, and the date, 1318, on the great tower, is not improbably of its 
building. Christian masons' marks do, indeed, appear .on some of the stops 
of its staircase and on a window,' but these stones no doubt belonged to 
the 10th century churches, and the style of the building seems Saracenic 
in its details. The massive walls, strong core, and well-finished pilasters 
and windows, make it one of the most beautiful and best built of the 
edifices of the country. Shaken often by earthquake, it still stands 
almost uninjured, and affords a striking view from Xalkilia on the north, 
down almost to the limits of Palestine on the south. The name Arb'ain 
Maghazi (Forty Champions), is applied to one of the three extensive 
vaulted colonnades beneath the mosque court, to which a pilgrimage is 
made once a year, and which is filled with the little piles of stones 
tised to mark all such sites throughout Palestine, notably at El Mesharif 
and other points from which Jerusalem is first visible. 

The double colonnade of the mosque itself, fast falling into confused 
ruins, is on the plan of the Damascus and other ancient mosques. I 
took a plan of the whole enclosure, as of architectural interest from the 
date attached to it. 

Starting on the following day to return to Jerusalem, we took the lyMa. 
more northern route through Lydda, Beth-horon, and Nobi Samwil. At 
Lydda I re-examined the famous Cathedral of St. George, an important 
building mentioned by nearly every mediaeval writer as far back as St. 
"VVillibald. The present ruins are about. the 12th century. There is no 
question in this case as to the name of the patron, which since the 8th 
century to the present day has been that of St. George, whose body is 
supposed to lie in the crypt, under the high altar. 

This church is an instance of the rapid demolition of many such edifices 
in Palestine. When visited by Du Vogi'ic, the south apse was quite 
perfect ; but now that it has been restored by the Greeks, and a modern 
church made out of the first two bays of the nave and north aisle, the 
southern one has been quite destroyed, and I did not remark any traces 
of its apse. 



( 



58 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

M. du Yogiie does not, however, appear to have entered the mosque, 
the courtyard of -which is bounded on the east by the west "wall of the 
Greek church. In this I found a pier and pillar belonging to the south 
aisle, not noticed in his plan. The number is thus brought up to five or 
six bays, which would make a well-proportioned church, the total length 
either 130ft. or 150ft., and the breadth about 80ft. The beautiful 
moulding ;of the capital and other details has been well reproduced by 
the French artist. Another visit may, perhaps, enable me to settle the 
question of the total length, in a perfectly satisfactory manner. In the 
meantime I may note that my measurements agree perfectly with both 
those of Robinson and of M. du Yogue. 
ElMedyeh. Leaving Lydda we ascended gradually to El Medyeh, passing 
Kh. Zakariyeh and Kh. Kelkh, Christian sites of some little interest, 
the details of which, including the curious Hermit's Cave of El 
Habis, I measured. The plan of the tombs of the Maccabees — the 
structural monument, north of Dr. Sandreczki's rock-cut sepulchres, 
known as the Kabur el Yahud (probably a Frank name), I was now able 
to complete. It is extremely interesting, and a point about it which I 
had not previously noticed is, the apparent existence of a little coui't or 
vestibule to each tomb. The general appearance presented is that of an 
oblong building, with cron walls. These are not indeed always visible, 
and without efficient excavation it cannot be said certainly that more 
than two intermediate and two end walls exist; still the appearance of 
the ground, sinking in seven wells of rubbish, plainly intimates that 
formerly there were originally five intermediate. It was in the thickness 
of these walls that the tombs were built, being about oft. 5in. broad, 
and the wall having a thickness of over 4ft. 6in. The tomb was open on 
the eastern side, and the grave itself sunk in the floor of the chamber 
and covered by a slab. Thus the present sunken pits, about 6ft. 9in. 
square, appear to form vestibules between the tombs. From the discovery 
of a capital of most primitive appearance, roughly approaching the 
Ionic order, each would seem to have been ornamented by a column, 
probably supporting a level roof. There would probably be steps 
leading dovra into these, thus explaining how the intermediate tombs, 
to which there can have been no other means of communication, were 
reached. It may be to these pillars that Josephus {Ant. xiii. 7. 6) and 
1 Maccabees (xiii. 27) refer ; that they were monolithic is highly probable, 
though they hardly deserve to be called " great pillars." The " cunning 
device" round about which they were set, and spoken of as in the 
pyramids, may be supposed to be the vestibules in question; and 
it is noticeable that Josephus does not speak of the pillars as in the 
cloisters. 

By the latter expression I understand the enclosure, equal in extent 
with the monument on its western side, surrounded by a fine wall, with 
stones 8ft. long in parts, and measuring about 80ft. each way. It is 
remarkable that the outside walls are o cubits thick (a cubit of 16in. as 
generally accepted), the interior 3^ cubits, the vestibules o cubits square ; 



60 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEU's REPORTS. 

and the length of the graves also 5 cubits, an unusual length, and 
greater than that prescribed by Talmudical rules. 

The last question with regard to this monument is its height, ■which 
is described in both accounts as being very great. The question of 
the height of the pyramids is included in this. It has been said that 
the sunk centres of .several stones show the resting-places of these 
structures, but this is doubtful for several reasons. First, that only 
one of these stones is ia situ. Secondly, that the sunk portions do not 
occur in the middle of this slab which covers the east tomb. Third, 
that in the case of another stone not in situ, the sunken portion is 
not central. It is still not impossible that the theory is true, in which. 
case about 3ft. would be the side of the base of the pyramid, which 
would not allow a greater height than Oft. or 10ft. The height of the 
rest of the building was 8ft., and thus the maximum was .under 20 or 
about 15 cubits. 

The graves beneath are rock-cut, and may have preceded the monu- 
ment, as is rendered probable by the two accounts. Two small tovcers 
o cubits square flanked the entrance to the vestibule of the eastern 
tomb. Thus we have a monument capable of reconstruction in cubits 
within a foot of my measurement of the total length. 

Josephus speaks of the stone used as "polished," but it seems 
to me not impossible to have been tuhitewasJied or plastered, in which 
case from its position it could not fail to bo conspicuous from the whole 
extent of the sea-shore, visible from about the latitude of Mukhalid far 
down towards Gaza. 

From El Medyeh we returned to Jerusalem, passing beneath Nebi 
Samwil, which I had visited on a previous occasion, and a short account 
of which may therefore find a proper place here. 

Nebi Samwil was known to the Crusaders under a variety of names, to 
which they added one of their own, calling it Mount Joy. The strong 
rock-cut passage to the east of the church, with vaults of good masonry, 
a Crusading fireplace, and other details of similar character, may very 
probably belong to this period. No plan of the fine church has been as 
yet, I believe, published, although of considerable interest. It was cruci- 
form in plan, with a sort of side building added on the north of the nave, 
although it is doubtful whether any corresponding structure was built 
on the south. It is worthy of remark that the present cenotaph placed 
in the ends of a modern building occupies the exact centre of the old 
nave, and is thus probably of Crusading date, although the tomb of 
Samuel is never mentioned by early writers. The south transept is 
perfect, with a Mohammedan niche in its wall ; the north has been filled 
up with irregular cells of Lloslem work. The choir probably terminated 
in an apse, but this is quite destroyed, and a modern wall cuts short tho 
edifice. 

My second expedition was commenced on tho 22nd inst. Our way lay 
first through Hezmeh, where I measured carefully the five curious 
tombs called Kabur bcni Isr'aim, and planned their relative positions 



LIEUT, CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. CI 

and distances, taking carefully the bearing of each. Their construction 
is interesting, and points to the antiquity of drystone monuments in the 
country. In the disposition of a series of chambers included in one rec- 
tangular wall they resemble the El Mcdyeh tombs, but are not sepa- 
rated by intermediate vestibules. There seems no rulo as to their 
orientations, and lengths and widths seem to have no connection. 

"We next pushed on to Jeb'a, a point of extreme interest in connection Cibeah. 
with the history of Saul and Jonathan. It is a small village, and con- 
spicuously situate over the rocky slopes of one of the branches of Wady 
Suwaynit. The road to Mukhmas (Michmash) descends the hill in an 
easterly direction, and a patli equally rugged and precipitous leads up 
to the latter place, situate at a considerably lower elevation. It is not, 
however, at the village itself that we should look for the site of that 
famous camp of the Philistines which was attacked by Jonathan and his 
squire, prototypes of later chivalry. Josephus describes the site of that 
encampment as being " on a precipice which had three tops that ended 
in a small sharp but long extremity, whilst there was a rock that sur- 
rounded them." Such a site exists on the east of Michmash, a high hill 
bounded by the precipices of Wady Suwaynit on the south, rising in 
three flat but narrow mounds, and communicating with the hill of 
Mukhmas, which is much lower, by a long and narrow ridge, the 
southern slope of which is immensely steep. 

Whilst thus presenting an almost impregnable front towards Jeb'a, the 
communication in rear is extremely easy; the valley here is shallow, with 
sloping hills and a fine road, affording easy access to Mukhmas and tho 
northern villages. The hill in question forms, therefore, the foot of 
Michmash. 

We have now to consider the position of Saul's camp, whence Jonathan 
started. Both Geb'a and Michmash had been taken by the Philistines, 
and Jonathan had only lately succeeded in forcing from them former 
possessions. "The fortress of the Philistines" in Geb'a is generally 
identified with the present Jeb'a, from which, therefore, they had fled 
across the deep narrow valley. Saul then came down and remained 
"in the uttermost part of Gibeah under a tree which is in Mizron," 
that is to say " among the precipices." From thence the contest and 
the flight of the enemy were visible distinctly, and the sounds so loud 
that the greatest hurry in arming was thought necessary. Coupling 
these facts with the expression of Jonathan's crossing "to the other 
side," as if already on tho bank of the great valley, there can be little 
doubt that tho place in question was very near to Jeb'a, probably in 
those " fields of Geba which must have lain east of tho village on tho 
broad corn plateau overhanging Wady Suwaynit." That tho site should 
bo found at Tell el Eul, from which Michmash is not visible, is of 
course impossible, nor do other arguments in favour of the latter site 
appear to me of any great weight. Without entering into the question 
of the probable identity of Gibeah of Saul with Gibeah of Benjamin, I 
would simply add that Goba often is found in the Hebrew where Gibeah 



62 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDER's REPORTS. 

occurs in the English, and that on the •whole it seems most rational to 
suppose that the name refers to a district of which Geba was the capital. 
Josephus mentions the village of Gabaath Saule, near the Valley of Thorns 
(the name of which is still preserved in that of Wady Suwajmit) at 30 
stadia from Jerusalem. This does not i^ideed agree with Jeb'a, which is 
40, but Tell el Ful, situate about 22 from the capital, is also inconsistent 
with the historian's measure. 

Intermediate between these two camps were the " teeth of the clifE " 
or " sharp rocks," Sen eh and Bozer. So steep was the slope that it 
"was considered impossible not only to ascend to the camp on that 
quarter, but even to come near it." 

h How it should have been possible for Dr. Eobinson to find two hills 
in the valley to which such a description should be applicable, is inex- 
plicable to me, for it is steep and narrow each side, formed of sharp 
ledo-es and precipitous cliffs ; the passage of which still seems an 
almost impossible feat, and indeed would have been so, had not the 
outposts, who might have destroyed the climbers with a single rocky 
fragment, been, as Josephus describes, withdrawn. 

The name Bozer, if meaning shining, would well apply to these 
smooth and polished rocks ; and Seneh Mr. Drake identifies with 
Suwaynit,* and Josephus's Valley of Thorns. 

Here, then, the heroic prince, climbing with'diflficulty down, and yet 
more painfully up the opposite side, fell upon the strong post of the 
Philistines, who in their panic emote one another down, till the 
"spoiler quaked," and the watchmen saw "the multitude melted 

away." 

The passage of Wady Suwaynit by the road to jNIukhmas, though 
at a point where no cliffs occur, still occupied nearly half an-hour. At 
Mukhmas we found traces of an ancient town, lai-ge stones, a vaulted 
cistern, and several rough rock tombs. 
j^ Near to Dayr Diwan is the extremely interesting site of El Tell, 

which has been identified by Major Wilson with Ai. My first in- 
quiries, put in every variety of form to various inhabitants on and 
around the spot, wore directed to determining whether the name was 
simply El Tell, or whether some descriptive adjunct, such as Tell el 
Hojar, was added. The replies of more than a dozen separate witnesses 
fully corroborated Major Wilson's former conclusion that the name 
is El Tell, "the heap," which is used in that passage of 
the Bible (and in only three others) where Joshiia is said to have made 
Ai " a heap for ever." 

The present condition of the site is interesting ; conspicuous from a 
distance, the long mound dipping in the same direction with the strata 
towards the east, stands out in contrast of grey stone from the rich 
brown soil of the fields. A few ancient olive trees stand on its summit 

* The modern AViuly Suwaynit corresponds fully with the Hebrew HJD, a 
thorn bush: Josephus calls the place full of thorns.— C. F. T. D. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. G3 

surrounded by huge mounds of broken stone and shingle ten feet high. 
On the east a steep slope of fifteen or twenty feet is covered with the 
same debris in that part where the fort of the town would seem to exist. 
The town must literally have been pounded small, and the fury of its 
destruction is still evidenced by its completeness. The interest which 
will, to my mind, attach to other sites, where the similar appearance 
of broken masonry is observable, will be very great as possible marks of 
Jewish invasion; these, though not numerous, are very remai'kable, and 
they have been noted in each case on the Survey. 

The north side of the town is protected by the deep valley (Wady el, 
'Asas) which nins straight down to the Jordan valley. On the west 
however, there is a curious conformation. A steep knoll of rocky 
masses, called Burjmus, rises to a narrow summit, and is divided from 
El Tell by the head of a valley down which the ancient road from Bethel 
passes. The result is that on this side the view is entirely cut ofi". 
Another feature noticeable is that the valleys here run nearly due south 
for many miles, to meet Wady Suwaynit. The deduction from these 
facts is evident. The pai'ty for the ambush following the ancient 
causeway from Bethel to Jordan (which we have recovered throughout 
its entire length) as far as Michmash, would then easily ascend the 
great wady west of Ai, and arrive within about a quarter of a mile of 
the city, without having ever come in sight of it. Here, hidden by the 
knoll of Burjmus and the high ground near it, a force of almost any 
magnitude might lie in wait unsuspected. The main body in the mean- 
while, without diverging from the road, would ascend up the gently 
sloping valley and appear before the town on the open battle-field which 
stretches away to its east and south. From the knoll the figure of 
Joshua would be plainly visible to either party, with his spear stretched 
against the sky. It is interesting to remark that the name Wady el 
Medineh, a name we have never met before, " valley of the city," is 
applied to this great valley, forming the natural approach to Ai. There 
are no other ruins of sufficient magnitude to which such a name could 
be applied, and the natural conclusion is that El Tell was the city 
so commemorated. In the wady, about half a mile from the town, are 
ancient rock-cut tombs, seemingly as old as any I have yet seen, and 
extensive quarries. Farther up, three great rock-cut reservoirs, 36, 15, 
and 46 paces long respectively, and, I am informed, of great depth 
(they were then full of water), are grouped together. They are known 
as El Jahrdn. Numerous other cisterns exist near the ruins, and mill- 
stones of unusual size. 

The view from this point eastwards was extremely striking. The 
rocky desert of the Judsean hills, grey furrowed ledges of Lard and 
water-roughened limestone, with red patches of the rich but stone- 
cumbered soil, stretched away to the white chalky peaks of the low 
hills near Jericho. The plain beyond, green with grass, stretched to the 
brown feet of the trans-Jordanic chain. Heavy cloud wreaths hung 
over these, but their slopes gleamed yellow and pink in that wonderful 



64 MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE S REPORTS. 

beauty with wliicli they are ever clothed by the sinking sun. The calm 
water of the salt sea, with a light mist brooding above, added to the 
charm of the view. Well might Lot, who from nearly this very spot 
looked down on this green valley, contrast it favourably with the 
steep passes and stony hills which he relinquished to Abraham. Half 
the breadth of sea and plain was visible ; the western half is hidden 
by the hills. The cities of the plain, placed, as we conclude, at a 
distance from the " mountain " to which Lot could not fly, and in 
the vale of Siddim, "which is the salt sea" (Gen. xiv. 3), were 
therefore in all ' probability visible in gleaming contrast with their 
green palm groves, now, alas ! extinct, but still standing in the 
times of Arculphus (a.d. 700), thus resembling Damascus in its oasis 

of trees. 

Having worked through a severe hailstorm on the following day, 
I returned to Jerusalem on the 24th, passing the Basilica of El 
Mukatir, which Major Wilson supposes built en the traditional site 
of Abraham's altar. This, as well as the Church of Birch, I planned 
carefully, as no plan has been as yet published. The curious church 
of El Khadhr, near Tyyibeh, was measured and drawn by Sergeant 
Black in the same expedition, and the total number of these valu- 
able plates of unplanned monuments throughout Palestine is thus 
brought at present to 63. 

CiiATJDE E. CoNDEE, Lieut. E.E., 

Commanding Survey Party. 



MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE'S REPORTS. 

XVI. 

Jerusalem, January 3, 1874. 
El Kal'ah, SoME time ago I was induced by the patchwork appearance of this 
the Towe" building to make a careful examination of it in company with Herr 
of David. Schick. The general impression left on my mind after this examination 
is that the stones (of the lower part) are in st7»— that is to say, that the 
building has not been reconstructed with old materials. The upper part 
need not be taken into consideration, as it is of undoubted mediaeval 
construction. The basement of the tower is concealed by a glacis and 
other constructions, which probably date from the period of the Crusades. 
Eight courses of large stones are visible above this. On some of them 
there is a double draft, which, being in an unfinished state, leads to the 
conclusion that the draft was worked after the stones had been set in 
their places. The width of the draft, as I measured it, in many places 
was 3, 4, 6 or 7 inches, the greater breadth being always at the sides or 
bottom, usually the latter. The height of the courses varies from 4ft. 
lin. to 4ft. 2in. The' following aro the lengths of several stones which 



MK. TYRWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 65 

Imeasui-ed: Sft., 5ft. 2in., Oft. 2in., lr,ft. Tin., Oft. oin., 10ft. Oin., 
14ft., while the breadth at the north-east corner varied from 3ft. Tin. 
to 3ft. Sin. At this point I was unable to detect any cement between 
the courses. The bosses are irregular, and project from 4in. to Sin., the 
former being the more usual. 

The tower, especially on its eastern face, has been much cracked and 
damaged by earthquakes and time. These gaps and cracks have been 
stopped by the Turks with a liberal dose of small stones and mortar, 
which gives the tower the appearance of being more ruined than it 
really is . 

One of my chief objects in examining the building was to see if there 
were any practicable way of deciding the question as to whether it is 
solid or not. There is a tradition that Ibrahim Pasha forced an entrance 
but was driven back by a miraculous outburst of fire ; or, as we should 
say, by fire-damp. Since that time no attempt has been made to solve 
the difficulty. A careful examination of the exterior led me to believe 
that the only place through which access can be gained to the interior 
is by a small window — now closed with small stones and mortar — im- 
mediately beneath the modern bevel which divides the media3val from 
the other construction. I send a sketch of the stones at this point which 
"will give an idea of the masonry. 

In the north-west part of the fort are two wells, marked on the 
Ordnance Survey. They are called Bir el Hadid (iron) and Bir el Hissar 
(Turkish : castle). ' The latter is interesting from the fact that its supply 
of water is said to be derived from and from beyond the Eussian 
buildings. If this be the case, as there seems no reason to doubt, the 
old aqueduct found by Dr. Chaplin when building his house outside the 
town, is probably one of the system which supplied this part of the town 
with water. 

With this report I send you a sketch of one side of the Kubbet el Knit'/ietsi 
Sakhrah as it now appears, with the casing of Kishani tiles stripped ofl\ ' 
during the so-called process of restoration.* It discloses a feature 
which hitherto must have been quite unknown, as it was concealed ors. 
one side by the encaustic tiles, and on the other by a thick coating of 
plaster. This feature is the round, arched balustrade, which forms the 
parapet of the outer wall. 

Those who have stood on the leads of the lower building, below the 
central dome, will have noticed that a parapet wall about 7ft. high sur- 
rounded them. This, before the outer coating of tiles was affixed, was 
an open row of semicircular arches with plain capitals. Of these arches 
there are thirteen on each side. It has been, I believe, long known that 
the present pointed windows are built into older semicircular arches, of 
which there are six on each side. I hope that, as soon as the weather 
permits, a photograph will be taken of this very interesting disclosure. 

The whole of the Haram el Sherif is now being restored under the 

* I purposely call it a sketch, as, owing to deficiency of scaffolding, I was 
unable to take all the measurements necessary for a detailed plan of elevation. 

F 



GG 



MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE S REPORTS. 



Arabic In- 
scription 
from 
Ramleh. 



direction of an Armenian Christian architect, Serkis EfEendi. The 
Masjid el Aksa is already finished, and reeks of whitewash aud tawdry- 
painting. A fine glass chandelier, said to have cost twelve hundred 
nounds (Turkish) in London, and presented by the Yalide Sultana 
(queen-mother), is now being put up in it. The Kubbet el Sakhrah is 
filled with scaffolding inside, so that one cannot see what progress is 
being made. The capitals of the pillars beside the Mehrab el Hanafi in 
the Kubbet el Sakhrah have been a little cleaned, and prove to be 
Christian work having heads at the sides. They are not unlike those 
found by Professor Palmer and myself on the north-western minaret of 
the Haram. Most of the tiles on the outside are being taken down and 
reset, the gaps, where necessary, being filled up with modern Constanti- 
nople ware. All the mouths of the cisterns have been closed with iron 
o-ratings, which are kept locked, and some little effort has been made to 
render the low-level aqueduct from Bethlehem and Solomon's pools 
serviceable. 

The inscrii^tion, of which the following is a translation, is engraved 
upon a long block of grey marble, and lies on the southern side of the 
enclosure adjoining the "White Tower — frequently, though erroneously, 
called by travellers the Tower of the Porty Martyrs — at Bamleh. To 
the west of the town there is also a Cufic inscription in the plaster of a 
cistern called El 'Anayziyeh. This may be of some interest, but hitherto 
I have found that the want of light, and the constant dampness of the 
plaster, have prevented my copying it accui-ately. 
The final part of the inscrii)tion has been purposely defaced : — 
" In the name of God the merciful, the compassionate. None restores 
the mosques of God but he who believes in God and the last day . And 
God, whose majesty be exalted, allowed the issuing of the mandate (?). 
Eecause of the knowledge which he beforehand had permitted to his 
servant the Poor one, who relies upon him and tiu-ns to him in all his 
affairs, who is strenuous in his ways, Nasr el Dia, the Assister of the 
EeLigion, and his Proj^het, and the .... of his Friend, the most 
roajestic Sultan, the Intelligent, the Crescentator, the Conservative, the 
Fortifier, the Defender of the Faith (mujahid) of this world and the next, 
the Sultan of Islam and the Moslems, Bibars ibn 'Abdallah Easim, 
Commander of the Faithful, aud may God spare him to us. And he 
sallied forth with his victorious army on the 10th of Eejeb the Unique 
from Egypt, with the object of going on a holy war and making a raid 
upon the Men of Sin and Obstinacy, and he halted at the foot of Yafa in 
the beginning of the day, and ho conquered it by the permission of God 
at three o'clock of tho same day.* Then he ordered that this dome should 

be begun over the lanthorn by the hand of Khalil ibn 

Dhiir May God pardon his son and his parents . . 

in tho year sixty and six and six hundred 

and the Moslems." 



Sultan Bibars in 1266 a.d. finally took Ramleh and Jaffa from the Christians. 



MR. TYRWIIITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 67 

''When speaking of the White Tower of Eamleh, Dr. Robinson (iii. 38) 
makes a mistake in saying that the inscription over the door bears the 
■date of 710 a.h. (1310 a.d.); it really is 718, as stated by Mejir el 
Din (quoted 1. c.), and says that the work was completed in the middle 
■of the month Shaban, and further gives the name of the builder as 
"Abu'l Fatah, son of our Lord tho Saltan, the martyr, the King el 
^ansiir." 

The persistence of Dr. Eobinson in ■wishing to make out this "White 
Mosque" to be a khan, in opposition to the statements of Arabic 
writers, is equally curious with his wish to transform vaulted cisterns 
into warehouses. Such stores are never found in khans, as goods would 
be open to robbery, which is not the case when, as they invariably are, 
they are stored in small chambers^ of which the owner keeps the key. 
The shape of the biiilding is that always employed by Mohammedans 
till after the usurpation of the Khalifote by the Tartar Dynasty, and 
numerous examples are to be found in North Syria, Egypt, and North 
Africa. The usual form is a courtyard, with a single arcade on three 
sides, that on the south, or towards the Kibleh, consisting of two or 
more rows of arches. In mosques of this early date the minaret is 
frequently, though not invariably, placed in the centre of the north 
side (as here), or in the north-west corner. 

The makam of the Arb'ain Maghazi (forty champions ?) is in one of 
the vaults, and though these saints, under the different titles of Arb'ain 
Shahed (forty martyrs), frequently occur in Moslem Palestine, early 
travellers seem to have imagined that a Christian church, dedicated to 
the forty martyrs of Cappadocia, must have formerly stood here, and 
hence the absurd belief that the minaret was the old belfry. This 
tradition, too, seems not to have originated until two centuries and a 
half after the building of the tower. 

. This branch of the Survey would lately have presented many difficulties Notnen- 
to one unacquainted with the various dialects of Palestine. The fellahin clature. 
south of Jerusalem speak with a different pronunciation to those farther 
north, while the semi-Bedawi tribes, such as the 'Abbaydiyeh and Ta'a- 
mireh, differ both from them and from the genuine Bedawin farther 
«ast. These latter again have a patois differing much from the Arabic of 
the south. 

This is not the place to discuss the differences of language found in 
these various dialects, but I v/ill instance the pronunciation of a few 
words to show how easily one ignorant of these differences might be 
deceived. L and N are frequently interchanged, especially at the end of 
a word. The kaf is by the fellahin and some Arabs pronounced di (as in 
cheat), and this sometimes degenerates into sh. The kaf is pronounced 
in four ways. 1. Ey not pronouncing the k, but supplying its place by 
a sort of catch in the breath, or hamzeh. 2. Properly as a hard strong k. 
3. As g, 4. Asj. The first method is common throughout Syria and 
the large towns of Palestine. The second is rarely used, except by well- 
educated persons in the towns, and some of the fellahin. The third is 



68 MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 

affected by the southern Bedawin, and the fourth by the Bedawin east 
of Jerusalem. The other day I quite puzzled a native friend of mine, a 
man of unusually good education, by asking him to explain some ordi- 
nary words which I pronoimced to him c2 la Bedawi. 

To instance what I mean, I may say that the Hajr Dabkan is called 
by various men Dabchan, Dablich, Dabkil, and Dabchil. The transposi- 
tion of letters in a case like this is of course not unusual in most lan- 
guages. Again, the Arabs always called the great wady between Jericho 
and Jerusalem Wady Jelt, while the fellahin say Gelt or Kelt. Yet the 
same men who say Jelt invariably say Khirbet Gumran, never Jumran ; 
always gamr (the moon), never jamr ; but yet they say jahjiir for kahkur 
(a pUe of stones), and rafijna for rafikna (my friend). As yet I have not 
been able to find any rule by which they are guided in this use of g and j 
for k. The use of ch for k, though puzzling at first, is in reality a great 
help to the transcription of names, as it distinguishes beyond a doubt 
between the hard and the soft k. 

The Hajr Dabkan, which I mentioned above, is an upheaved ledge of 
rock of some oOft. long and 12ft. to 14ft. high. It is famous throughout the 
countryside for the legend attached to it, which runs thus. It happened 
that El Dawwari, the ancestor of the Arabs Abu Nusayr — a branch of 
the Hetaymat, who live east of Jerusalem — was making a pilgrimage to 
Jerusalem, accompanied by his slave Dar'aya, when suddenly his camel 
fell down dead. Undaunted by this misfortune, he mounted a rock 
(some say by the advice of the angel Gabriel) and called out, " Sir ya 
mubaruk " (start ofT, blessed one). The stone thereupon arose and carried 
him as far as this place. Like all holy spots, it is the repository for 
ploughs, grain-pits, &c., and is decorated with the usual Ai-ab offerings 
of rags, sticks, glass bracelets, &c. A short distance off is a burial-place 
of the Abu Nusayr, called Makbaret el Dawwars. It is usual for Arabs 
of another tribe before passing through these to cry out " Destiir (per- 
mission) ya Dawwars," and, if he be sufficiently instructed, to mutter a 
few words of the Fat-hah or opening chapter of the Koran. 
(Tie bound- TJie boundary line of Judah, east of Jerusalem, is described in Josh. 

irv 11116 of »/ ' 

Judah. XV. o, 6, 7, thus : " And the east border was the salt sea, even unto the 
end of Jordan. And their border in the north quarter was from the bay 
of the sea at the uttermost part of Jordan : And the border went up to 
Beth-hogla,* and passed along by the north of Beth-arabah ; and the border 

* Is it not possible that the En-eglaim of Ezekiel xlvii. 10 is the same 
as this IJeth-liogla / In Arabic, the 'Ain is not very unfrei^ueiitly changed 
into ha; but whether this ('haiige occurs ;dso in Hebrew 1 cannot at this 
moment say for certain, though from the cognate nature of the language it 
seems probable. In the vision of Ezekiel the names En-gedi and En-eglaim 
seem to denote extreme points, and there is nothing, as far as I can see, 
from the context, to favour the idea that it is near En-gedi ('Ain Jidy). In 
describing Beth-hogla, the author of "Teboutli Hoarcz" ("Fruits of the Earth,"' 
a Jewish treatise on Palestine), in ch. iii, p. 53, concludes by .saying that he is of 
opmion that 'Aiu Hogla and and En-eglaim are one and the same. 



MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 69 

went up to the stono of Bohan the son of Ecuben. And the border went 
up toward Debir from the valley of Achor, and so northward, looking 
toAvard Gilgal, that is before the going up to Adummim, which is on 
the south side of the river : and the border passed toward the waters 
of En-shomesh, and the goings out thereof were at En-rogcl." In the 
eighteenth chapter, w. 17, 18, 19, where the adjacent boundary of 
Benjamin is given, this account is repeated, with the diiference that 
Geliloth* is put for Gilgal, Debir is omitted, and Arabah is put for Beth- 
arabah. The latter, however, by comparison with v. 22, is probably 
correct. The valley of Achor, too, is omitted. 

Let us now now take each point separately, and see how the line is 
likely to have run. It is plain that the Dead Sea formed the eastern 
boundary as far as the Jordan mouth, and that thence the line ran north- 
eastwai'ds to Beth-hogla. There seems but little doubt that this name 
is preserved in the Arabic 'Ain Hajla, and as natural features were 
probably chosen as the boundary lines, the wady which debouches near 
the Jordan mouth, called in its lower part Khawr el Kataf, and in its 
upper Khawr el Tamnir, may perhaps have been the line it took. This 
valley passes by Tell el Moghyfer, where there are ruins of early 
Christian if not of older date. Being the only place in the neighbour- 
hood where there are any ruins of importance, it is perhaps not unlikely 
to have been the site of Beth-arabah. 

Then comes the stone of Bohan, the son of Reuben. Unfortunately, 
the clever identification of M. Clermont-Ganneau [Quarterly Statement, 
New Series, No. II. p. lOj), will not hold good, and I believe that 
M. Ganneau himself has come to much the same conclusion. On 
visiting with him the boulder to which the Arabs apply the name 
of Hajr el Asbah, we found that the name is not asb'a (of the 
finger), but asbah (whitish) {faras sallia is a mare with a long 
white mark on her forehead). Its position, too, precludes the pos- 
sibility of its being the stone in question, as it lies six miles 
south of Jericho. The line then goes up towards • Debir from 
the valley of Achor. Of the city of Debir no traces seem to remain, 
unless it be in the name Thoghret el Dabr — the Pass of Dabr — 
which lies a little west of Khan Hathrurah, on the Jerusalem and 
Jericho road. The valley of Achor is most probably Wady el Kelt, 

* Geliloth. This -word, which is here substituted for the Gilgal of Josh. xv. 7, 
while the same expression is used in Hebrew with regard to the position of each, 
namely, "over against" (nJJ) the ascent of Adummim, is translated acZ tt«)U4^os. 
I cannot help thinking that it is not a corrupt reading, as has generally been 
supposed, but that the line of Benjamin's boundary is merely described in rather 
difl'erent words to those used in laying down that of Judah. This being the 
case, the tumuli referred to would be some of the many momula which form such 
a very conspicuous feature "over against" the ascent to the mountains. Of the 
many "tells" near Jericho, by far the most conspicuous and important are the 
live or six nearest tlie mountains. 



70 MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 

fhere being no other valley than it and the before-naentioned Khawr ej 
Tanirar anywhere near Eriha. Next we have " the going up to Adum-- 
mim, which is on the south side of the river." By the river, Wady Kelt 
only can be meant ; it is the most prominent feature here, and contains, 
besides three sets of springs. 
Adumniim. Adummim in both the above-quoted passages is coupled with the 
" going up to " or ascent to it. It seems most probable that this must 
be placed at Tel'at el Damm, the media-val fortress, surrounded by a rock- 
hewu moat, which stands above Khan Hathriirah, and commands tho 
Jericho road. As will be seen, the name " Mount of Blood " applies not 
only to the castle, but to the eminence on which it stands. The road 
from the Ghor to this point is nearly all uphill, while between it and 
Jerusalem there are many ups and downs : hence the term " going up to 
Adummim " would be applied to that part of the road between Tel'at 
el Damm and the Ghor, and this lies on the south side of the "Wady 
Kelt. 

"With regard to Adummim, M. de Saulcy has arrived at the samo 
conclusion as myself, but curiously enough he was led to it by a wrong 
name being given him. Khan Hathrurah was called to him Khan el 
Ahmar (the Eed Inn), while the name Tel'at el Damm seems to hava 
escaped him altogether. He very properly argues — if Tel'at el Damni 
be substituted for Khan el Ahmar — that the peculiarly bright red 
patches of rock at this place gave the reason for the various names :. 
Adummim, the medieval Tour Eouge, and the modern Tel'at el Damm. 
The Arabs say it is called the Mount of Blood because of a severe battle 
once upon a time fought there, but the bright red limestone and marl 
are much more likely to be the true cause. 

Now remain En-shemesh and En-rogel. Of the former name na 
trace remains, unless it be in jlagharet el Shems (Cave of the Sun) ; but 
this lies north of "Wady Kelt, and on the other side of the watershed. I 
should not have mentioned it but for a rather curious expression used 
by an Arab with regard to it. I asked him, while talking of the cave,, 
whether there was no 'Ain cl Shems (Spring of the Sun), to which he 
replied, "This is 'Ain el Shems;" and on my making him explain 
himself he said they sometimes called the cave the Eye of the Sun ('ain 
being a spring or an eye), because the rising sun shone directly into it — 
that it looked directly in the eye of the sun. En-shemesh is, however, 
more probably 'Ain el Hawdh, east of El Azariyeh, beside the high, 
road, or else the neighbouring well of Bir el 'Add, which contains a never- 
failing spring. The much disputed En-rogel I am in favour of putting 
at the so-called Virgin's Fount, and if this bo the case the boundary- 
line from the edge of the Ghor would just correspond with the present 
high road from Jerusalem to Eriha. 

The above quoted author a little farther on (Voy. en Tcrre Sainte, vol. i., 
p. 196) falls into a double error by accepting the name Tell Abou-s-Salait, 
for the mound near tho Jericho road, and by attempting to connect it with. 



MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE'S REPORTS. 71 

the Hebrew Gilgal (wliich lias a sense of rotundity or rolling), because 
it is a round tumulus. The real name of the mound is given in a note, 
but the word 'alayk does not mean clots of Hood, but in Bedouin dialect 
signifies a HoseJa^r for ahorse or camel ; it might also moan a bramble, 
biit the former is the explanation given mo by the natives. None of the 
Arabs or fcllahin had ever heard of the name Tell abu Salayt anywhere 
in their country. There is a place of that name east of the Jordan, 
called after a tribe of Beda-^in of that name. Again, in tho Book of 
Joshua we are expressly told (v. 9) that the place was called Gilgal, 
because the reproach of Egypt was there rolled away from the Hebrews ; 
not on account of any natural feature at the spot. 

The Tulul Abii'l 'Alayk (vulg. 'alayj), one of which is north and the Fort of 

Tpricliu 

other south of Wady Kelt, are not improbably the two forts of Thrax kupros' 

and Taurus, mentioned by Strabo (bk. xvi.) as standing at the entrance Dociis, &c. 

to Jericho, and which were ultimately destroyed by Pompey. May not 

the] Bayt Jabr too be the Arabic form of the Greek Konpos, especially 

with the confusion that exists between j and k ? Josephus tells us (Ant. 

xvi. 5. 2, and IVars ii. 18. C) that Herod built a fort of this name above 

Jericho. At present there is only a small mediceval or Saracenic building, 

but this is built on a scarped rock, and fully commands the* road which ' 

runs immediately beneath and beside it. 

The name 'Ain Duk is doubtless, as first suggested by Dr. Eobinson, 
the word oijK or doch mentioned in 1 Mace. xvi. 15 as a small fort in 
which Simon Maccaboeus and his two sons were treachnrously murdered 
by his son-in-law Ptolemy. Near the makam of Ali ibn Taleb M. 
Ganneau found two rock-hewn tombs, with pigeon-hole loculi ; 
immediately below (south-west of ) there are traces of somewhat 
extensive ruins called Ivhirbet Abu Lahm. On retui-ning from the 
tombs we visited the hill-top immediately above the makam, and found 
that the land side had been protected by a rude wall and a ditch, while 
there were traces of a tower and other buildings to the south. This 
seemed to me a very likely position for the " little hold " of Docus, for 
this would be, as Josephus tells us it was, "above Jericho," and it 
would also command the "Wady Nuway'ameh, which here forms a large 
recess into the mountains, and the vai-ious hill-paths which lead up to 
Bethel, Eimmon, &c. : 

With regard to the site Jiljidyeh, examined by Lieut. Conder, GUgal. 
there is much to be said. JosejAus slates it to have been 10 stadia from 
Jericho, and 50 from the Jordan. Now this is impossible, as the whole 
plain at Jericho is only a little more than six miles, or about 50 to 52 
stadia wide in this part. Instead, however, of laying, as it is but too 
much the fashion to do, the fault on Josephus's shoulders, let us see how 
a copyist's error may have affected the question. Fifty is represented 
by N, and this is so easily changed to A. (thirty), that if the case 
requires it we may do so without much hesitation. 

If the Jericho of Josephus stood near the modern Eriha, these measure- 



72 ilR. TYRAVHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 

ments of 30 by 10 stadia exactly suit vrith tlie position of Jiljulyeb. 
On the other hand, after hearing the legend from the mouth of one of the 
Abid, how the Imam, 'Ali ibn Taleb, mounted on his horse Maimun, 
attacked the infidels inhabiting the Medinet el Nahas (City of Brass, 
which stood near the Shejaret el Ithleh and Jiljulyeh), overthrew their 
walls and slaughtered them, but finding the day too short called out to 
the sun, "Euthani ya mubarakeh," and how the sun turned and stood 
still over the ridge still called Dhahret el Thenij-eh ; after hearing this 
adaptation of the history of Joshua I could not rid myself of the 
suspicion that this legend was derived from Christian sources originally, 
and consequently that the name Jiljulyeh must be accepted with 
caution. Taking into consideration the fact that there were at least six 
monasteries in the immediate neighbourhood of Jericho, without 
reckoning Mar Saba, Dayr el Mukellik, and Payr Kharaytiin, it is not 
only possible, but even probable, that Bible histories have by their means 
been transmitted to the Arabs, who, as is usual in such cases, have 
transferred the names of the principal Persons and Places from the 
Unknown to the Known. 
3ioi:as- Of the monasteries of which we find the ruins, four, namely, Easr 

el Yahud, Kasr Hajla, Tell Moghyfer, and Xhirbet Mefjir (besides 
W^ady Xuway'ameh) are in the plain, and three in the mountains, 
namely, the caves of Kuruntil, Dayr WadyKelt, and Dayr el Mukellik. 
In all of these, except Kasr el Yahdd and Khirbet Mefjir, frescoes more 
or less defaced have been found. At the former place are several 
graphitie seemingly in Georgian, one in Greek, of which I could only 
make out a few letters and the following date {r) which would read 
900 4- 20 + 90 + 9 = 1019. I may observe that this method of writing 
a date with several letters when fewer would have sufficed, frequently 
occurs in the inscriptions I found in the Alah (see " Unexidored Syria," 
vol. ii.) At this river there is pretty conclusive evidence that the coarse 
tesselated pavement was used by the Crusaders in the fact that in the 
upper story some of it still remains in situ over a vault with a pointed 
arch. 

At Dayr el Kelt, Arabic girq)Jiitce in ordinary character (not Cufic) 
show that the first frescoes existed up to a comparatively late period. 
These lower frescoes are much superior in composition to the later ones 
by which they are covered, these latter being simply mural paintings on 
coarse plaster. The figures of the various saints have, as usual, their 
name and quality written above ; one is of some little interest as show- 
ing that the monastery of St. Kalamon was not then as now quite sunk 
into oblivion. The other names, such as o ayios adavacnos rov aOwvos, have 
no interest. The rude bilingual inscription over the door refers to the 
restoration of the monastery, but gives no date. 

Dayr el Mukellik is situated in by far the wildest and most inac- 
cessible spot of all the haunts of the holy men of old, who certainly, 
as I told our Arab shaykh Jemil, to his great amusement, lived amongst 
the rocks like the loabi' (coney or hyrax), which always choose the 



MR. TYRWIIITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 73 

wildest and ruggedest spots for their linhitnt. This monastery is situated 
in even a wiUler spot than that in Wady Kelt. Our road to it from 
'Ain el Sultan lay through El Hazim, as the downs around Nebi Musa 
are called. Striking the Ilaj road from this place to Jerusalem, which 
is kept in good repair on account of the great annual pilgrimage, wo 
rode along almost as far as Rijm Ilalayseh. Turning to the left we 
soon found traces of an ancient path constructed on the sides of a 
rough wady. Leaving our horses, we scrambled down on foot to the 
ruins which are situated at the foot of a precipice some 00ft. or 80ft. 
above the wady bed. The buildings that remain are small and insig- 
nificant; high up on the face of the cliff are two niches of masonry, 
clinging like swallows' nests to the rock, containing frescoes, one of 
the Blessed Virgin and the other of the Crucifixion. From the sub- 
jects of the paintings I am led to believe that they are not of very 
ancient date. Below the ruins is a large cistern, and around are 
several caves which seem to have been used as lairs by the Eremites. 

The scene as we sat on the ruins was one of the wildest I have 
come across in Palestine. Above us towered the ledges and precipices 
of rust-coloured limestone ; the sky above was wild and covered with 
storm- scuds relieved by frequent gleams of sunlight. Beneath us a 
ruddy torrent formed by the late rains washed and foamed ; griffon 
virltures sailed majestically down the valley on full-spread wings, flocks 
of rock- doves dashed by occasionally, and now and again the clear 
full note of the orange-winged grakle rose startlingly shrill above the 
murmur of the waters. But for these the silence was unbroken, and 
not another living creature appeared in the solitude. What an 
existence must have been that of those who devoted themselves to 
death in life, to wasting the energies and vital power bestowed on them 
in droning and sleeping av,'ay their time instead of courageously doing 
their duty in the battle of life, may be seen by those who look deeper 
than the surface in such convents as Mar Saba, Sta. Katarina in Sinai, 
and others similar. 

It was almost by chance that we discovered the fact that a monastery, Jebel Ko- 
or at all events a church, had existed at Tell Moghyfer. Some stones 
had lately been dug up by the natives, and on turning over one of 
these I found a portion of fresco containing a few Greek letters 
attached to it. 

The existence of the apse of a small chapel on the summit of this 
mountain is w^ell known, but I am not aware that the remains of the 
strong crusading fortress beside it, with its steep glacis and rock-hewn 
fosse on the land side, have ever been described. The main building — 
of which only the outer walls are traceable — is about 250ft. long by 100ft. 
Avide. On the north, east, and south it is protected by the precipitous 
cliffs. Westwards a crescent-shaped ditch — now much filled with drhris 
— has been cut in the rock. I could find no trace of any cistern or 
reservoir, which must, however, have existed, as there is no water nearer 
than that of 'Ain Duk, which flows some nine hundred feet below. 



7-1 



MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE S REPORTS. 



Khirbet 
Gumn'in. 



Eriha and 
climate. 



A similar fortress, also cut off from tlie land side by a fosse, is to be 
seen — but in even a more ruinous condition than tbat on Jebel Ivuruntil — 
on the extreme edge of the hills on the north side of Wady Kelt. De 
Saulcy called it Beit bint el Jebail, but this name is not known at all. 
After much trouble I succeeded in finding the true name to be Kusayb 
el 'Awayshireh. 

Most of the Christian ruins near Jericho are built of a soft oolitic 
limestone, which seems all to have been quarried at Khirbet el Sanirah, 
an extensive ruin some four miles north of Eriha. Here the quarries 
and quarry caves are extensive, and probably date from a very early 
period. The oolite here is overlaid by beds of stratified mud and con- 
glomerate containing flints and water-worn stones. 

Khirbet Guinran lies two miles north of 'AinFeshkah, on a spur at the 
base of the cliffs. The ruins are rude, and consist of a wall to the east ; the 
steep slopes to the south and west seeming to have been considered sufficient 
protection in themselves, while to the north the ground is occupied by 
a collection of buildings now an 'indistinguishable mass of rude stones. 
A small birket lies between this ruin and the wall, and like all the other 
remains, is built of unhewn stones, which are packed with smaller ones 
and roughly plastered. The most remarkable feature at this sj)ot is the 
enormous number of graves which lie beside it. I computed them at from. 
700 to 750, including some outliers on two adjoining hillocks. Those 
south of the ruin lio 20 degrees east of north, the head being to the south. 
They are arranged in regular rows, and close together, and are all 
covered with a paving, or rather roofing, of uncut stones : a large upright 
stone marks the head, and a somewhat smaller one the feet. On digging 
into one of these in company with M. Ganneau, we found, at the depth 
of 41 inches, sun-dried bricks, 15 by 11 inches and 9 inches thick, over- 
Ij'ing the body. The bones were much decayed, and I could only obtain 
some teeth, which were unusually large and iu good condition. No 
objects of any kind were found in the grave. On digging into another 
tomb we failed to find anything at a similar depth, and were prevented 
from carrying on our researche.s further by the approach of night. 

The curious regularity of the graves, their position — so unlike that 
employed by either Christians or Moslems — and the use of sun-dried 
brick, renders the identification of the place a jDuzzle which seems likely 
to remain unsolved, as no inscription or even worked stone was to be 
seen amongst the untrimmed materials used. The only thing besides 
pottery that I fo-und was a small nearly defaced copper coin, presumably 
Jewish. 

The pleasant clear weather, with cool breeze and warm but not hot 
sun, which succeeded the first rains, and the verdant appearance of the 
country, rendered the first fortnight of our stay at 'Ain el Sultan very 
enjoyable. This agreeable weather, however, is perhaps the most un- 
healthy part of the year; and so it proved to us. Fourteen men out of 
seventeen connected with the Survey suffered from more or less severe 
attacks of fever. The change, however, to the high level of Jerusalem, 



MR, TYRWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 75 

and the great kindness and attention received there by tliose wlio were 
ill, lias restored the whole party to their state of wonted health. 

The climate of Jericho would semingly have changed since the days 
of Josephus, or more probably the surplus irrigation was not then, as 
now, suffered to become stagnant pools, causing malaria and fever. The 
great Jewish historian in many passages vaunts the wonderful fertility 
of the place, and calls it 0?iov x'^P""', f, region fit for the gods. At 
present the luxuriance of vegetation is almost tropical, but the in- 
habitants are lazy, dissolute, and incapable of continuous work. As the 
governor of the village told me, " to rouse them you must take a stick, 
to make them work a kurbaj " (cowhide). All kinds of vegetables, such 
as tomatoes, vegetable-marrows, &c., are in season all the year round. 
Grapes grow to a great size, the vines being trained over trellises sup- 
ported on poles 4ft. high, as iu some parts of the Pyrenees, and occa- 
sionally in North Italy. Indigo flourishes, but is seldom cultivated; 
sugar, too, and cotton, would doubtless succeed. Sloth, however, and 
indolence on the part of the government and peasants, now reign supreme, 
where a little care in drainage and steady cultivation might annually 
raise produce of equal value rath, the revenues of all the rest of Palestine. 
The timber, too, beside the Jordan might with but little trouble be made 
to supply a great deficiency in the Jerusalem market, where nothing 
whatever but foreign timber can be procured, and that at a high rate ; 
for in addition to the transport from Jaffa, which is longer than that 
from the Jordan, the sea carriage must also be considered. 

During our stay in the Ghor I found that the hedii (ibex) still exists 
in Wady Kelt, never quitting the security of its deep, rugged solitude. 
Jedu'a, brother of Shaykh Jemil of the Abu Nusayr, is the Nimrod of 
these parts, and brought a buck into camp one day. Pie told me it was 
the sixth buck he had shot in the valley, as he never kills the females ; 
he estimated their number at present at not more than eight or ten in 
all. I have preserved the skin and horns, which, as far as I can judge 
without comparison, differ in nothing from the Sinaitic species ; the 
Palmyrene, on the contrary, I believe to be a different variety, with 
stouter horns. The ivahr, too (coney or hyrax), is also, though very 
rarely, found in Wady Kelt. Hitherto, I fancy, the existence of either of 
these animals so far north in Palestine has not been suspected. 

Sleet commenced on Friday, December 26, and on the 27th a heavy Snow, 
fall of snow took place, accompanied by thunder; by Monday, however, 
nearly all traces of it had disappeared. Owing to the unusual quantity 
of rain which has fallen (l2'o9in. by our observations, but that at 
Jerusalem will probably be more), the wells and cisterns are already 
nearly full. A few days ago the Bir Ayyub overflowed. This is always 
a rather unusual occurrence, and seldom if ever has been known to take 
place before the month of March. 

Some interesting discoveries have been made at this ancient site by Antiiiuities 
the Messrs. Bergheim, who have purchased laud and been building aiellJezar.' 
house there. The clay image in basso-relievo, of which I send you a 



76 



MK. TYRWHITT DRAKE S REPORTS. 



Maaratli. 



ProfTess of 
the Sui-vey. 



sketch, was picked iip by Mr. P. Bergheim, from among tke earth 
turned up in digging for liown stones for building purposes. This figure 
is very interesting, and, I imagine, unique; the front seems to have been 
moulded, to judge from the appearance of the edges and from the 
rounded back. The headgear, too, is remarkable, and reminds one rather 
of the castellated crown seen on Sidonian coins. For the account of a 
statue of Venus at Gaza, which in many respects resembled this figure, 
see the letter of St. Porphyrion (Bolland, Acta Bandorum, Feb., tome 
iii. p. 648), quoted by F. Leuormant, Lettres Assyriologiqiies, &c., tome 
ii. p. 165. I am indebted to the kindness of these gentlemen for some 
flint flukes and an arrowhead also found there. The flint flukes are 
similar to those I formerly purchased from tho Abbe Moretain, who 
discovered them at Baht Sayur, near Bethlehem, and which now belong 
to the Christy collection ; the arrowhead is unlike, anything I have 
previously met with in the country. 

Maarath is mentioned in Josh. xv. 59 as one of the cities in the 
mountains of Judah. It seems very probable that this may be the 
mons mardes where St. Enthymius found ruins {Ada Sandorum, ii. p. 
o06), and which I now identify with Khirbet Mird near Mar Saba. 
Gesenius derives the word from a root meaning openness or barrenness ; 
either of these significations would applj^ equally well to Kbirbet Mird, 
which is situated on a round, almost isolated hill on the west of the 
Bukay'a or open plain which extends between Mar Saba and the ridge 
of cliffs overhanging the Dead Sea. The view from the ruin embraces a 
considerable extent of country, and though there are traces of vineyards 
in the Bukay'a, still the general character of the surrounding hills is 
that of extreme barrenness. 

The progress of the Survey is most satisfactory, as will be seen by the 
fact that last year the average amount filled in by each man was 2'35 
square miles, and this year is about 2"75 square miles per man on each 
day in camp. By days in camp I do not include Sundays ; but all other 
days employed in moving camp, penning in, and rainy days, on which 
ficldwork was impossible, are included, so that an actual day's work is of 
course much larger than this, which is merely the average of days 
spent under canvas. 



stormy 
weather. 



XVII. 

Jerusalem, Jan. 2, 18T4. 

The exceptionally cold and tempestuous winter still keeps us prisoners 
here, and were it not for the house kindly lent us by Dr. Chaplin we 
should be in bad way. Our time, however, is fully employed indoors, 
and also abroad whenever a few hoiU'S of sunshine enable us to go out. 
The Maritime Plain is such a swamp that the fellahin are beginning to 
despair of ever being able to get the spring crops in, and say that those 



MR. TVKWIIITT DKAKe's REPORTS. 77 

ali'eady sown run mucli danger of being spoiled. The hills are not only 
impassable for cross-country work, but the winds are so keen and chill- 
ing that neither man nor horse could camp out without great risk. The 
Jordan valley is a simple quagmire, and the Z6r, or second bed of the 
river, is in full flood. 

Such^being the condition of the country we must perforce wait here till 
not only the rains have somewhat ceased, but till a week's fine weather 
has rendered the survey j^racticable. This enforced sojourn here has 
enabled me to drag up a fuller account of modern Jerusalem than any 
which, as far as I am aware, has ever yet been published. 

The few fine days we have had have been employed by Lieutenant 
Conder and myself on various small excursions in the neighbourhood. 
On the 16th we rode down to Eamleh to make a plan of the church 
there. When camped at Eamleh in 1872, I had not M. do Vogue's 
" Churches of Palestine," but felt sure that he would not have neglected 
such a conspicuous and well-preserved monument. It seems, however, 
that he was j^reveuted from doing anything by the fanaticism of the 
inhabitants. In 1872, however, I wandered about the whole building 
unmolested and unnoticed. 

Ell route Lieutenant Conder made a plan of the crusading ruin of Khiriiefi 
Khirbet Ikbala, south-east of Kariyet el 'Anab, and about a quarter of a 
mile south of the bridge on the high road. This is said by the natives to 
have been Dayr el Benat, a nunnery, where dwelt the Bint Sultan el 
Fenish — the daughter of the Phoenican king. Since the telegraph has 
been laid along the highway they have made an addition to the story, 
and say that she communicated with her father, whose summer quarters 
were at Soba, by means of a long wire. Her father's winter quarters 
are placed at llathin, as the natives almost invariably call Latrun ; 
between this place is another relic of the daughter in a small tumulus, 
which I hope to oiDcn some day, called Eijm el Haik bint Sultan el 
Fenish. The aqueduct, which formerly led from near Tell Jezar (Gezer) 
to the Birket el Jamus at Eamleh, seems also referable to her, as it is 
named Kanat bint el Kafir — the water-channel of Infidel's daughter. 

In Gen. ix. IG we read that Gezer was taken by Pharaoh, king of 
Egypt, from the Caananites, and given to his daughter, wife to King 
Solomon, and in the following verse this latter monarch, we are told, 
rebuilt it. The connection between Pharaoh's daughter and the Bint el 
Kafir seems very probable. 

Beyond Kariyet el Anab I tried to identify the places mentioned by 
Schwartz (p. GS, ed. 1852) as Khirbet Midian and Jebel Modiim, but not 
one of the many fellahin whom I asked had over heard of such nameS; 
nor had I any better luck with his Izpa or Mizpah, near Kastal. Though 
sometimes ingenious, this author is generally incorrect in his accounts 
and untrustworthy in his nomenclature. 

The effects of the heavy rains haye been almost fatal to the carriage 
road ; indeed, if it be not soon repaired it will soon become impassable 
for wheeled vehicles. In places it is deeply scored by the torrents, ia 



t b 



MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS 



Abu 
Shusheli. 



Modiu. 



Heb. 

Azmaveth, 
Ar.Hezmeli. 



Kabur £en' 
Israini. 



other parts heaps of solid stones give it the appearance of a wady-bed, 
vrhile on the plain most of the bridges have been destroyed by the floods. 
The water was then out to such an extent that between Eamleh and Jaffa 
it was necessary for them to swim, their horses. 

From Eamleh we visited Tell Jezar, to enable Lieutenant Conder to 
make a plan of it. The name of the village at its southern end, Abu 
Shusheh, is said to be derived from a dervish who once upon a time, in 
season of excessive drought, prayed for rain, and was told by a rammed 
(diviner by sand) that if water came, he — the dervish — must perish by 
it; to this he did not object, and soon water gushed out of the earth and 
formed a pool into which he stepped and was drowned, and nothing but 
his top-knot of hair remained in view, and when the people saw this they 
cried out "Ta, Abu Shusheh !" — (oh, father of a top-knot). 

Returning by El Medyeh, v/o completed the plan of the curious tombs, 
which I think without doubt are those of the Maccabees. Dr. Sandreczki, 
to whom belongs the honour of identifying El Medyeh with Modin, never 
saw the constructed tombs, but only those hewn in the rock about one- 
third of a mile south of Shaykh el Gharbawi, beside which former are 
situated. Erom this point a great expanse of sea-horizon is visible, and 
the situation well suits the description of Josephus." 

I enclose a sketch (see p. 59) of the most perfect chamber of the building, 
which will show by the style of masonry that it is no ordinary sepulchre. 
I also enclose a proposed restoration of the pyi-amids mentioned by 
Josephus {Ant. xiii., vii. 6), which I have drawn on the model of the 
rude funerary bas-reliefs found by Frofessor Ealmer and myself at Fetra. 
This restoration gives a height of eleven feet above the building, which 
itself must have been nearly as much. This height is sufficient for seven 
white pyramids, such as are described (Josph. 1. c.) to have been visible 
at a very great distance. The name Kabur el Yehud was given to Dr. 
Sandreczki as applying to the rock-hewn tombs ; now the fellahla apply 
it to both, but the original name of the built-up sepulchre seems to have 
been El Ikbirreh. 

A short distance north-east of Jerusalem is a small village named El 
Hezmeh, which seems to answer very well to the Azmaveh (ri^D'y) of 
Neh. vii. 28, and Ezra ii. 24, where its inhabitants are mentioned with 
those of Anathoth, the modern 'Anata, which lies a short distance south 
of Heymeh. The change of 'Ain into Ha is, as I have more than once 
had occasion to remark, not infrequent. 

On the side of the wady north of El Heymeh and opposite to it are 
five constructions of peculiar form, consisting of a double wall forming a 
parallelogram from 98 to 176 feet in length by 9} to 16 feet in breadth ; 
the height varies from 3 to 6 feet. The interior is formed of a mass of 
loose stones of various sizes. The walls are composed of rough stones, 
sometimes of great size, packed with smaller ones to render them more 
even. No mortar is used. In one of them a square chamber is to be seen, 
and also a kind of cist. Doubtless such cavities exist in the others, and 
I hope before leaving Jerusalem, if the weather allow of it, to mako some 



MR TYRWHITT DRAKES REPORTS. 



•9 



excavations ^vitli tlie object of discovering tlieir cliaracter, wlietber 
sepulchral or not. 

Dr. Robinson's account of these curious monuments (Later Bib. Ees. 
p. 287 ; ed. 1856) is very incorrect, and unworthy of liis usual shrewd- 
ness. He says, after various wrong measurements and details, "they 
are such as the Arabs may have thrown together in no very distant 
times." To me the rude massive character of the constructions and their 
disposition give them an air of great antiquity. Lengthwise they lie, 
generally speaking, north-east and south-west, but the direction varies m 
each. Among the people they are known as the Kabur Ben' Isralm. 
When I first heard this curious form I had it repeated, and then it was 
put in the more usual way, Kabar Beni Israil, but the former was given 
me by three separate individuals. They are also known as Kabur el 
Amalikeh. 

Mozah, a town of Benjamin (Josh, xviii. 26), usually considered ^^ozah. 
to be Kolonyeh, because in the Mishna a place named Motsa is men- 
tioned as being below Jerusalem, and that willow branches were brought 
there for the Feast of Tabernacles, and the Gemara adds that the place 
w^as a Colonia (see further, Diet. Bil^le ii. 439). The name seems to 
linger in the Khirbet Bayt Mizzeh, which lies on the hill above Xolonyeli 
northward. 
A lar£?e quantity of this substance has lately risen, and specimens lUtumen 

T 1 j_ T J.1 A u rrn from the 

have been brought into the Jerusalem market by the Arabs. me ^eadSea. 
quantity is estimated at thirty kantars, or about seven and a half tons. 
Being exceedingly hard and of very good quality, this bitumen used to 
fetch as muchi as forty-five pounds the kantar in Austria, where it was 
much used in making varnishes. At present it is not worth more than 
four pounds the kantar, owing to the discovery of a mine in Europe which, 
produces an equally fine quality. 

Chaeles F. Tyrwiiixt Drake, F.E.G.S. 



80 



THE JERUSALEM RESEARCHES. 



LETTERS EROM M. CLERMOIsTT-GANNEAU. 

III. 

Jerusalem, Ocioler 5 — 10, 1873. 

to Jerkho. TiiE day before yesterday we returned from Jericho, Laving taken 
advantage of Lieutenant Conder's presence tliei'e to visit the place, in 
the liope of verifying certain points. We passed five days in the 
Survey Camp, meeting with the most friendly reception from the officers 
in charge, and came back here on the third. 

The two points which were the motives of this journey wei-e ',1) the 
examination of the site of the Hajar el Asbah, which 1 had for a long 
time,* for various reasons, proposed to identify with the Stone of 
Bohau;t and (2) the project to excavate a cemetery near Goumran 
pointed out as curious by MM. Rey and De Saulcy. In view of the 
latter I had brought with me two peasants of Silwan, formerly work- 
men under Captain "Warren, and taken certain tools, such as picks, 
shovels, and crowbars from the Society's storehouse. The Jericho 
people are of no use for this kind of work, as they even employ the 
fellahin of the mountains to cultivate their own lands. 

Our journey was accomplished without incident, except that arriving 
after nightfall, and badly guided by our two peasants, we wandered, 
about for two hours in the darkness and the thorn thickets before 
discovering the camp, masked as it was by the Tell el A'in, at the foot 
of which it was placed, 
iiajar el We started the next day, accompanied by Messrs. Conder and Drake, 

the stone of f*^^' Hajar el Asbah J and the Khirbet Goumran. We arrived at the 
Hohan. territory (ArdL) of the former after crossing in succession the Wady el 
Kelt, the Wady Daber, and the little Wady el A'sala. It is a small 
plain extending between the foot of the mountains and the sea, to a 
bold and well-marked promontory which one of our guides called, I 
believe, Edh-dh'neib e'yeir (?). In the northern portion of this region, 
almost at the foot of the peak, lie four or five great blocks of rock, 
probably fallen from the summit or flank of the mountain. The most 
northerly of these, very nearly cubical in form, and measuring two 
metres and a half in height, was pointed ovit to us as the Hajar el 

* Quarterly Statement, 1871, p. 105 ; and Quarterly Statement, 1872, p. 116. 
t Joshua XV. 6, and xviii. 17. 

+ Hajar el Asbah is marked on tlie maps of Vandevelde and Murray as Hajar 
Lesbah, on the north-west of the Dead Sea. 







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82 ' • LETTERS FROM M. CLERMOXT-GANNEAU. 

Asbali : it is cloven in the middle. The scantiness of its proportions 
forms a striking contrast with the importance accorded to this simple 
piece of rock, which, without any thrilling character, has nevertheless 
given its name to a surrounding piece of country comparatively large. 
The form of the stone hardly appeared to me to justify the signification 
which in my memoir on the subject I had assigned to the Hebrew 
Bohan, and to the Arabic word Asbah (for Asb'a), thumb ov fimjer. On 
the other hand, I discovered close by, and standing on the side of the 
hill, a remarkable isolated peak, which struck me at first sight as well 
as my companions. This point of rock presents a striking resemblance 
to a fist closed with the thumb raised, as \n\\ be easily seen by looking 
at M. Lecomte's sketch. Nothing more natural than to apply to this 
finger-shaped point of rock the characteristic denominations of thumb 
or finrjcr, only unfortunately the guides assured us that the Hajar el 
Asbah was really the fallen block we had just visited, and that thia 
other rock was called Sahsoul H'metn or Goitrdet Sahsoul H'Tneid, which 
it seems difficult to attach etymologically to Eben Bohan. 

"What are we to understand from these facts ? It may very well be 
that the Arabic translation of the Hebrew word at first applied to the 
peak has been transferred to one of the blocks fallen from the moun- 
tain close by. What would seem to justify this conjecture is that the 
name of Asbah is extended over the whole of the plain, as we have seen. 
There seems nothing impossible in supposing that after this extension 
of meaning it should be again concentrated on a single block within 
the space, and that towards the point by which the place was ordinarily- 
reached, the north. The transference of name might possibly be dated 
back to the falling of the stone itself from the mountain ; such an 
accident may have struck the next visitors so much as to have 
caused them to fix the denomination of the whole region to this single 
stone. 

I collected from the Bedawi who accompanied us a variation of the 
name Hajar el Asbah, viz., Hajar cs Bubeh. 

Not only the ]Deak itself in which I wished to find the Stone of 
Bohan has a highly characteristic form, but the shadow which it threw 
on the side of the hill, at the moment when we passed before it, 
gave a curious profile suggesting also the signification of the name. 

Lastly, I will add to these observations one which appears to me of 
great value in this important question of Biblical topography. This 
peak marks the exact point where the mountains which fringe the 
western side of the Dead Sea change their direction, or at least to the 
eye appear to change it. It is at the extremity of the Cape which, 
looking from north to south, closes the landward horizon, appearing 
from this side to plunge into the sea. It is a point which forms a natural 
position, and there is therefore nothing astonishing in its being chosen as 
one of the points in the border line between Benjamin and .Tudah. This 
consideration appeared to me so important that on oiir return I begged 
M. Lecomte to make, from the toj) of the Tell Ain es Sultan, a panoramic 



LETTERS FROM 51. CLERMOXT-GANNEAU. 83 

view of tlie plain of Jericho and its horizon of mountains from the 
TaiuaMn es SouH-a?' to the sea. 

We must remark that the peak only presents its profile clearly 
indicated when one looks at it from the north ; seen from the south, as 
we remarked on returning, it had lost its first aspect ; on the other 
hand, it resembled now, in a very striking manner, a colossal statue, 
seated in the Egy^stian manner. 

After a brief halt at Hajar el Asbah, we continued our journey to Excavation 
the south, to examine the site of the Khirbet Gomran, and especially TomUs of 
the cemetery pointed out here by MM. Rey and De Saulcy. The Gomian. 
ruins are quite insignificant in themselves: a few fallen walls of mean 
construction; a little lirlrt, into which you descend by steps; and 
numerous fragments of irregular pottery scattered over the soil. Our 
attention was principally attracted by the numerous tombs (perhaps a 
thousand) which cover the mound and adjacent jjlateaux. To judge 
only by their exterior aspect they might be taken for ordinary Arab 
tombs, composed of a small elliptical tumulus, suiToxxnded by a range 
of rough stones, with two large stones placed upright at the two 
extremities. All that distinguishes these sepulchres distinctly from 
modern tombs is the orientation : they all have their major axis 
north and south instead of east and west. This particularity had been 
already noted by the Mussulman guides of M. Rey, and it called from 
them the remark that they were the tombs of Kouffar (not Mussulmans). 

I resolved to open one of the tombs. Our two men of Silwan set to work 
under our eyes, while we followed — Mr. Drake, M. Lecomte, and myself 
— the progress of the excavation. After digging about one metre in 
depth, our workmen came upon a bed of rough clay brick measuring 
0'40 X '20 X -12 metres, and resting on a kind of flange cut in the 
earth itself. On removing these bricks, we found in the grave the bones, 
partly destroyed, of the corpse which had been buried there ; and 
managed to pick out a bit of a jawbone, with teeth adhering, which will 
perhaps enable anthropological conclusions to be drawn. There was no 
article of any kind in the tomb. The head was turned to the south, and 
the feet to the north. You will gather from M. Lecomte's sketches some 
idea of the dimensions and disposition of the tomb which we opened, 
as well as of the general aspect of this enigmatical cemetery. The 
principal plateau, which contains the greater number of these tombs, 
is crossed from east to west by a kind of alley dividing the tombs into 
two zones. It is difficult to form any opinion on these sepulchres, prin- 
cipally on account of their abnormal orientation. Can they belong to 
some ancient Arabic ti-ibe of the JaJiiJii/eh period.-^ If they were 
Christian tombs they would offer some characteristic sign or religious 
emblem, for the employment of bricks to cover the body, and the com- 
parative depth of the graves, show that the tombs have been con- 
structed with a certain amount of care. 

I took advantage of Sunday to make a little excursion to Riha and its Rilia. 
environs, accompanied by M. Lecomte. We paid a visit to the Mutesdlim 







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LETTERS FROM M. CLER.MONT-GANKEAU. 85 

of the place, wlio resides in tlie Arab horj, in the hope of getting some 
information from him. We found a man of Eiha who pretended to 
have discovered some days before three stones with inscriptions ; 
perhaps they were only fragments of sculpture such as we had already 
found at the Tmvalwi es Suuhlcar, mere pieces of capitals and friezes on 
which the Arabs wanted us to see inscriptions. However that may be, 
it was impossible for us to get a sight of these three inscribed stones, 
and the owner ended by saying that he had given them to a man of 

Sllwan. FraRmmts 

We then entered an enclosure belonging, they told us, to the of scuiiitura 
Russians, in which had been accumulated a great quantity of ancient xeiis of 
cut stones taken from excavations made in the surrounding Tells, and J^inclio. 
intended to serve for a new building projected by the Russians. We 
examined with the greatest care this kind of Avorkyard, principally 
furnished from the excavations at Tell el Matlab, and observed great 
quantities of architectural fragments of mouldings, bases, capitals, 
shafts, fragments of sculptured friezes, bits of sarcophagi with 
garlands, &c., and stones bearing the cross. Farther on, in the garden, 
almost entirely buried in the soil, was a great block of red granite. 
It would be important to know exactly the origin of these remains, 
which are certainly the debris of considerable buildings, as some 
conclusion might be drawn from it as to the site of ancient Jericho. 

Unfortunately, only a limited faith can be put in the assertions of 
the Arabs, although the greater part were nnanimous in indicating 
Tell el Matlab as the place which had furnished most of the stones. 
And, indeed, we found, on the way back to camp, fresh traces of exca- 
vations in that Tell, and some blocks recently dug out. This indication 
agrees well enough with the tradition mentioned below, which places 
the ancient Jericho at the Tell el Matlab. M. Lecomte went the next 
day to copy the most interesting of these fragments. 

In the afternoon I went alone on a little excursion north of Jericho, 
taking for guide a fellah of El 'Azariye (Bethany), who often comes 
down to Jericho for agricultural work, and knows its environs better 
than the inhabitants of the place itself, from whom one can get no in- 
formation whatever. 

I went first to visit Klurhet el Muufjir, north of the Wudij Noue'jne, Kliirhctrf 
not far from the aqueduct which crosses the valley and was i^ointed 
out to me under the name of Jesr Ahou Ghahhouch. Its ruins are 
composed of little mounds extending over a considerable space, some 
of which have been excavated by Captain Warren. These excavations 
brought to light, among other things, a fragment of an apsis whose 
convexity pointed south, perhaps the extremity of the transept of a 
church of regular orientation. The same name (Khirhet, or TawilhiH 
el Moufjir) is applied to very considerable ruins about a quarter of an 
hour to the west, at the end of an aqueduct supported by an arcade with 
nearly semicircular arches. A little wady, a lateral affluent of the Wady 
Noue'me, which I remarked not far otf, was pointed out to me as the 



83 LETTERS FROM 51. CLER.AIOXT-GANIv^EAU. 

"Wady Moufjir; later on tlie Bedouin of tlie locality assured me tliat 
it was not the Wady Moufjlr, but tlie Wady Seurhan; others again 
maintained that it was not a wady at all, but a simple place called "the 
zagyoimis of Seurhan [Z^youmTit Beiirhan) since a certain Seiirhan had 
been killed there by the Adouan. 
.Saiictuarj- of "We then proceeded to Ain ed Doulc, crossing the territory of the 
Aly. ' sanctuary of the Imam Aly {Ardh Muqam el Imam AJy), a sanctuary 

which is the object, in this locality, of the greatest veneration, and is 
often simply called the 3Ia(/am. We shall see immediately the curious 
legend which belongs to this Moslem sanctuary. We passed on our 
way to the maqam by the Tell el Abraike. The maqam has nothing 
remarkable in itself. I found a Mussulman tomb protected by a low 
wall of uncemented stones and surrounded by a number of implements 
and tools deposited by their proprietors under the safeguard of the sanc- 
tity of the spot. Farther on are two large shafts, which seem to mark 
the exact site of the maqam. A small plateau in front is fitted with 
pits dug in the ground, and also confided to the protection of the saint. 
The maqam is at the foot of a considerable eminence called (avc shall see 
directly why) Monedhhen Eh'Ial, that is to say, the jdace where EhJal uttered 
the call to jjvayer. This hill commands all the environs and the Wady 
Noue'me ; and its eminently strategic position may perhaps justify us 
in regarding it as the site of the fortress of Doch or Dagon (.?). 
Toml) with We continued to ascend the Wady Noue'me, which widens at this 
amrscu^i^^^ place, following the foot of the mountains which bound it on the north, 
tured bed. Arrived at the Well of Ain ed Diik, and of Ain Noue'me, I went to see 
a tomb cut out in the side of a hill, the entrance to which is visible 
from the bottom of the valley. It consists of a chamber with twenty- 
one perpendicular loculi disposed in two stages. The number 21 
(7x3) is essentially a funereal number. I remarked two sarcophagi, of 
which one is longer and broader than the other ; on the ground, in the 
midst of a pile of cut-up straw {fihtn), lay a fragment of a sarcophagus 
lid sculptured and ornamented with triangular pediments, and other 
fragments of lid and sarcophagus mixed up. The chamber had been 
recently opened, I was told, by a Bedawi, who had managed to make a 
granary of it. I saw, indeed, at the door of the tomb, the earth which 
had been taken out of it ; it was all mixed up with bones, fragments of 
pottery and glass, &c., and appeared to have been deposited very 
recently. By the side of this Avas another tomb like it, almost 
entirely filled with earth. I came back the next day and made an 
excavation, which led to no result of importance. The second tomb, 
Avhich appeared to me unfinished, had in any case been violated a long 
time before. We found in the earth at one of the corners bones which 
- seemed to beloug to a body inhumed here after the building of the 
tomb, perhaps of some Arab. Mr. Drake and M. Lecomte went the 
next day and took drawings of the plan of the tomb and the sarco- 
phagus lid. 
Legend. * It is probably the presence of these tombs which has given rise to 



LETTERS FROJI M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 87 

tlie legend wiiicli my guide told me Avlien he pointed them out from the 
valley. " Deep down in the flat ground of Ahou Laliem (fi qn' 'Khaur 
AbouLaJicm) is a stone with an inscription; beside it is a leaden 
casket, which contains another of gold, and this contains the body of 
a man." 

The same guide told me that the old men of Eiha said that the site of 
ancient Jericho was Tell el Matlab. 

The whole of Monday was taken up with the useless excavation of i-iiating'to 
the neighbouring toml>. In the evening, talking over it in the camp '^^fj^^j^^* 
with one of the 'AhU employed by Lieut. Conder, I took down from of Jericho, 
his mouth certain traditions, which seem to me sufficiently important 
to be related in detail, J^ecause they attach themselves, in a confused 
but undoubtful sort of way, to the name and stoi-y of Joshua. I attach 
tlie more importance to these legends— an echo of the Biblical narra- 
tive—because they were told me by a man extremely simple and almost 
a savage, before an Arab audience, Avho could have pulled him np 
short, and because the stories themselves have undergone changes too 
strange and too local not to be original. 

The Bedawi began by relating how, not far from the TcU-cl.ifJde, there l^r^^^lZkL 
exist ruins with Dawaris {i.e., ruins of old things), and that there was by imam 
the ancient Jericho, the City of Brass, medmet en nalias, surrounded by " 
seven walls of brass. The city was in the power of the Kovffar (in- 
fidels), on whom the Imam Aly, son of Abou Taleb (he of the maqam), 
made war. Aly mounted his horse Meimoun, rode round the city, and 
overthrew its walls by blowing on them {heu-nefes), the ramparts falling 
of their own accord, stone by stone. This legend recalls the Biblical 
account of the taking of Jericho, and there is another circumstance 
which shows how, under the name of Aly, lies hid the personality of 
Joshua. After his combat with the Kouffar of the City of Brass the 
day drew to an end, and the infidels were about to profit by the darkness 
to escape, when the Imam Aly cried out, addressing the sun, " Return, 
O blessed! return, O blessed!" {Erdja'ij ya muharclx- ! Jntliimj ya 
mouharclce !) Immediately, by the permission of God, the sun, which 
was in the west, and on the point of disappearing behind the 
mountain, placed itself once more in the east, in the place Avhence it 
had started, and since that time the mountain above which the sun 
was hanging at the moment of the miracle has been called Dahrat 
■ eth-thiniye (the croup of the turning, from inthana,to turr,, return). 
It is the low chain running at the foot of Mount Quarantania above 
the Taiuahm es SouJd-ar, which one passes, in going from Ain cs Sultan 
to the meiqam, on a point covered with little heaps of stones {chaiuahid) 
raised by Mussulmans, who can see from this i^lace Neby Musa. 

As soon as the Imam Aly saw the sun return to the east, he cried to 
his servant Eblal (or Belal), who at this moment was on the mountain 
now called Moucddlien EhkiJ, to make the call for the morning prayer 
(Edhfm), whence the name given latterly to the mountain (Place of the 
Call to Prayer by Eblal). Perhaps this name belongs to a group of the ' 






Ithl^. 



88 LETTERS FROH M, CLERMOXT-GAXNEAU. 

tribe of tlie 'Abid called Belalat. The miracle having assured victory to 
Imam Aly, he exterminated all the infidels, and demolished the city 
from the foundations, the fugitives being entirely destroyed by wasps. 

We easily observe in this simple legend the leading features of the 
story of the fall of Jericho and the victory of Joshua over the Amorites, 
only in consequence of the absolute want of historical perspective 
which belongs to popular stories, facts and personages the most widely 
separate are mixed up together. We remark as well a very pro- 
nounced tendency to localise details by attaching them in the most 
rudimentary etymological manner to the names of places. It is not, 
however, without interest to have collected on the very spot where the 
events took place these popular accounts which have preserved their 
memory. 
Tell el On Tuesday morning, while M. Lecomte was occupied in making a 

drawing of the plain of Jericho, taken from the Tell el Ain, we went 
with Lieutenant Conder to Tell el Ithle, to which the story related above 
had drawn our attention. We remarked nothing striking. Lieut. 
Conder left us here to go and explore the Till el Moufjir. I wanted to 
examine the environs of l\ll el Ithle, but, unfortunately, my guide 
was a Riha man, extremely stupid, who could give no information 
■whatever, and I was obliged to renounce the design. I regretted this 
exceedingly, for on my return to Jerusalem I saw on reading the 
guide of Liuvin, and the dissertation of Zschokke, that not far from 
there was the probable site of Gilgal, now called Tell el Jcldjoul. I 
could have wished to verify this on the spot, but I immediately pointed 
out the fact to Lieut. Conder, who has just informed me by letter 
of the correctness of the information with which I fui-nished him. I 
am convinced that there would be interesting researches to be made 
in this place, the identification of which would determine i^r contre- 
coup the precise site of the difterent Jerichos. 
Inscriptions From Tell el Ithle I went to Eiha, where my guide professed to have 
at Riha. j^ jjjg i^ouse an inscribed stone found at Tell el Qos ; it was nothing 
more than a simple piece of marble with certain scratches made by a 
j)ick. I passed nearly an hour in examining stone by stone all the 
tumble-down houses in Jericho. This minute in'spection resulted in 
nothing. I only saw the place where, three years ago, a fine monu- 
mental Latin inscription had been taken away. I took a squeeze of it 
then. It contained, in all pi'obability, the name of the famous usurper 
Pescennius Nicrer. 
Ancient The afternoon was devoted to visiting, with Mr. Drake and M. Lecomte, 

the Wady° ^^^ Convent of Deir el Kelt, situated in the wildest part of the wady of 
Kelt. the same name, the plan of which had been taken a few days before by 

Lieut. Conder. I went there principally to take the squeeze of a 
Greek and Arabic inscription Avhich Lieut. Conder had found and 
copied. In order to reach the place we followed on foot the aqueduct 
which descends the wady on the north side. The road was as bad as 
possible, and the heat considerable. 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 89 

There is nothing very remarkable about the convent ; the frescoes 
which decorate the interior of the church and the ruined chapel appear 
to belong to several periods. They are covered with' graffiti, painted or 
engraved. The only detail which struck me was that the church 
having no orientation, on account of the direction of the rock to which 
it clings, the builders had to compensate for this infraction of the rules 
of religious architecture by placing sideways the window of the apse, of 
which the two sides (themselves oblique) form between them and with 
the apse itself, such angles that the mean axis of the window is 
directed exactly towards the east. Symmetry is thus unhesitatingly 
sacrificed to the exigencies of custom. 

The inscription spoken of is over the entrance. It is bilingual, and f^L^fptioii. 
probably of a late period. The Greek is exceedingly incorrect in 
orthography and in syntax. It is, besides, negligently carved, and 
very difficult to decipher. 

This is what I have read of it up to the present :— 

-|- AN0EKEN . . . + was dcdiccated 

.... AIAXIPOC . . by the hand 

BPAXIMTOrCA . . . of Ibrahim and his 

AEA>I>OTCATTOTC . . brothers. 

xn 

While the Arabic inscription reads as follows: — "This . . . has 
been built by Ibrahim and his brothers . . Moussa from Jifne {?) . . 
May God hold them in his mercy. And he said : Amen." 

Perhaps the Arabic word which I cannot translate refers to the 
building of the gate itself. I have, however, in my hands a squeeze 
which will probably enable me to read more of it. 

I forgot to add that I profited by the presence of our two workmen 
to disengage a part of the little ruined building which surrounds the 
fountain of Elisha. I distinguished very clearly an apse with a niche, 
which probably belonged to a little 'pagan temple consecrated to the 
goddess of the fountain. Unhappily the people of Riha made me 
discontinue the work for fear of spoiling the water. 



IV. 

I had read the first word of the Greek part of the inscription at Deir The Graeo- 

, ^- , , - , , . . . , . 11 • Arabic in- 

el Kelt (see above), anqeken, admittmg an mcon-ectness m speUmg, scnption afc 
of which the rest of the inscription offers several examples. An Deii- el Kelt- 
attentive examination of the squeeze shows me that it should have 
been read ANEKENICQH (for aueaamaeri), "has been repaired or rebuilt." 
This new reading, of which there is no doubt, changes the whole 
construction of the i^hrase, which otherwise appeared singularly con- 
fused. Evidently AIA XIPOC, "by the hand" (of Ibrahim), belongs to 
the verb, completing the predicate, while the group of letters between 



00 



LETTERS FROM Jr. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 



I'racr- 
iiieiit of a 
Roman 
milestone. 



Forged 

instTiptinn 
in Hebrew 
J'lianiciaii. 



the t\ro contain the noun wliicli is the subject of the passive vei-b. 
This noun np to the present has resisted all my efforts to read, which 
is the more to be regretted, because it certainly names the building, or 
the part of the building, repaired. I think it was preceded by the 
feminine article v '■ it begins with IIA, followed apparently by a sign of 
abbreviation. It might have been raXaia (the ancient). In this case 
the true name would begin with the second line, M'^, which I am 
tempted to consider as an abbreviation for MONH (monastery), a form 
much used, if I mistake not, in ecclesiastical inscriptions. "The old 
convent has been repaired by the hand of Ibrahim," &c. 

The carver had first written KAi TOT Aaea*OT ATOT con-ectly 
enough, save for the omission of the T in auTov, but he afterwards 
added two sigmas, so as to make it run rhvs aSeXcpuvs avrov, choosing, 
apparently, to sacrifice grammar to truth, in order to pepetuate the 
plurality of Ibrahim's co-operators. The Arabic text sj^eaks of several 
brothers. 

As to the last line, which contains a religious invocation of some 
kind, I cannot yet make anything of it. 

I found at Khan el Hathrour what seemed to me the fragment of a 
Roman milestone, .brought, however, from some other place. Lieu- 
tenant Conder has pointed out to me that the old Roman road from 
Jericho diverged from the j^resent road before Khan el Hathrour, 
and passed more to the south, and, besides, that the distances 
between Khan el Hathrour and the Dabbiis el 'Abid is more than 
a mile. 

I send you a copy of an inscribed stone presented to me by a man at 
Jerusalem on my arrival. It is a curious specimen of the nianufacture 
of pretended inscriptions which has been carried on here for three 
years, and to which I have called attention on several occasions in 
Europe. The stone is a kind of Cornelian cut in the form of a cone : 
the inscription consists of four lines in Pho3nician characters like those 
of the Moabite Stone, the engraving of which is alone sufficient to prove 
the forgery. The lapidarj-, for instance, makes his characters approach 
the Greek and Latin types: — the /A' is written like E, the rati, like a 
k, the caph like a C. This inscription has a certain advantage over 
its brethren, being invented by a man with some pretensions to know- 
ledge, for it can really be translated without difficulty into sense. This 
fact proves that it comes from a different origin to the Shapira things. 
It reads, in Hebrew, thus — 



-I3S 

-in 
tS3 



' The servant of Jehovah, David, King." 
David's own seal, and for ten francs ! Certainly far from dear, and the 



forger must be credited with great moderation. 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMOXT-GANNEAU. 91 

On the IGth of December I went for the fii st time to tlie Haram, ^^^^^^ *'^^ 
in company with M. Lecomte and Lieutenant Conder. The visit was 
a brief one, but was not without results. I found in one of the little 
oratorios which surround the esplanade of the Sakhra a Cufic inscrip- 
tion of the third century of the Hejira, Avhich I intend to copy. A little 
farther on I remarked a beautiful old sarcophagus, ornamented with 
roses, and then we examined closely the curious semicircular arches 
in the upper part of the exterior wall of the Sakhra. They were 
brought to light on one of the sides which had been stripped during 
repairs of the covering-iu tiles which concealed them. The existence of 
these arcades is a fact of great importa,nce, and one which may lead 
to new conclusions as to the original form of the mosque ; we must 
not, however, be in too great a hurry to deduce proofs as to this or 
that date. The arcades must be studied with the most minute care 
before we can determine their period with any precision. "We propose 
to give our attention to it immediately, and to take a photograph, 
as soon as the weather will allow, of the side now exposed. 

I do not think it out of place to communicate an observation which I Distinctive 

^ character 



made some time ago, and which I have not seen any notice of else- of the stones 

Wliere. ^ ^ crusaders. 

It has, I think, a certain value, because it leads to no less than an 



.,. -p,! iiji/~i -I Criterion by 

almost aosolateli/ certain diagnosis ot the stones cut by the Crusaders. which to 

This distinction concerns not only the mediaeval archaeology of Pales- them'on^ 

tine, but also, and almost to the same degree, the archaeology of earlier fiist iiispec- 
^. ° °-' tioa. 

times. 

One knows already how little people agree respecting the age of Gothic, 
several of the Palestine monuments ; it is not rare to see contradictory ;if,'nv"s. 
theories on the subject of the same edifice, or the same part of an t*^™- 
edifice, oscillate between the most diverse epochs, Hebrew, Jewish, 
Eoman, Byzantine, Mediaival, Western, and even Arab. 

The reason of this is, that people confine themselves usually to the 
examination of forms and styles, and that nothing is more deceptive 
than this kind of evidence when other means of identification are not 
at one's disposal. I will cite but one example. One looks upon it as 
an established truth that every pointed arch with ?io?-ma/ joints is Arab, 
and that every pointed arch with vertical joints is lacstern. 

This rule, elsewhere fixed, is frequently violated in Palestine, and 
will assuredly mislead those who would take it for an infallible guide. 

The peculiarity which I now point out enables one to decide, stone 
by stone, what materials were worked into any edifice by the 
Crusaders. 

As is already known, a great number of the blocks fo\;nd in the 
consti'uctions ei'ected in Palestine by the Crusaders show masons' 
marks consisting of letters of the Latin alphabet, including various 
symbols, some of which are very characteristic (the fleur-de-lis, 
for example). I have collected some hundreds of examples in my 
notes. No possible doubt would exist if each stone showed these 



92 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

incontestable signs, but unfortunately this is far from the case. But 
my course of observations enables me to supply tbeir absence and to 
arrive at tbe following conclusion : — Tbat I believe myself able, witb- 
out too mucli boldness, to generalise as follows — " Tbe stones bearing 
media3val (Latin) letters have their exterior faces dressed, or rather 
scored, in a special manner, which of itself alone suffices to characterise 
them." 

This surface dressing consists (on stones with plane surfaces) of 
oblique lines closely ranged, all in the same dii'ection, done with a 
toothed instrument. The obliquity of the lines appears generally to be 
at an angle of 40" to 45°. This uniform line is particularly visible 
when the stones are illuminated by a side light. I have foiuid it on 
a quantity of stones without masons' marks, but employed concur- 
rently with signs on "stones in perfectly homogeneous buildings. 

Its presence is so specific that it has often led me to note masons' 
marks which would otherwise have escaped me, because it determines, 
d 2^riori, the age of the stone, and warns me that, perhaps, a mason's 
mark is to be found. 

I have noted the existence of this surface dressing on stones of all 
shapes and positions : blocks, in courses, in walls or pillars, voussoirs 
of arches, and even in rebated blocks. It exists also on stones with 
carved surfaces placed vertically, shafts of columns, concave or convex 
blocks of apses, or circular walls. 

But in this case the cuts are very slightly oblique, and approach 
perceptibly to the vertical which is the normal of the cylinder ; when, 
on the contrary, the cylinder is disposed horizontally (horizontal 
mouldings) the lines of the cut are very nearly horizontal. 

These facts are easily explained by the necessity of making the tool 
follow a rectilinear direction ; if, for example, the same method had 
been followed as for plane surfaces, the tool would only have touched 
the curved surfaces perpendicularly to their normal, and would have 
produced marks only instead of lines. I have remarked another group 
of stones also dressed obliquely, but on which the cuts are replaced by 
a series of dotted lines. I have not yet studied this peculiarity 
sufficiently to say if these stones belong to the same epoch as the 
others. 

So far I have not met with a single fact in contradiction to the 
broad rule which I think I am able to lay down as follows (restricting 
it, be it well understood to those parts of Palestine with which I am 
familiar) : 

All stones showing what I propose to call "the medieval dress- 
ing " (taiUc r)ie(UcBvah) were worked in by the Crusaders. 

There is no need, I think, to insist further on the advantages which 
may arise in a multitude of cases from an application of this rule, 
reposing as it does on the result of minute observation, so to speak, 
on what one may consider the " epidermis " of the blocks. 

One knows also how much importance technical men attach to 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 93 

this detail. " The nature of the dressing is one of the most certain 
means of recognising the date of the construction," says one of the 
most learned architects of our time, M. VioUet le Due, in his 
Didionnaire liaispnne de I' Architecture Francaise. 

One of my first cares has been to commend these facts to the 
attention of M. Lecomte, whose j)rofessional competence in the matter 
is indispensable to me in order to determine with precision the instru- 
ment and the method, by the aid of which was obtained this charac- 
teristic dressing which appeared with the Crusaders, and which seems 
to have disappeared with them. 

I hope very shortly to send the Committee some photographs, draw- 
ings, and squeezes, with which to supply to archaiologists comparative 
graphic specimens of the different sorts of " dressing " employed at 
different epochs in Palestine, and to place in their hands a convenient 
and certain means of distinguishing at least one of these periods. 

With the sanction of the Committee I would collect original speci- 
mens of the stones themselves, to be submitted to men of the pro- 
fession, and be judged definitely by them. This study may be peculiarly 
fruitful in what relates to the blocks employed in the heterogeneous 
enclosure of the Haram, and by analogous observation it may perhaps 
establish a clear distinction, hitherto unknown, between the so-called 
Herodian and Solomonic materials. 

Besides the practical and local application which I have indicated, 
this fact which I have pointed out concerning the " mediaeval dressing " 
is capable of furnishing a new element in the history of the develop- 
ment of Western architecture itself. It is known that the dressings 
vai-y in the West according to the district and period. The period 
being known, it would perhaps be easy to determine the original 
European region of the method in question, and, in consequence, to 
find out to what school the builders belonged who were employed by 
the Crusaders. 

It will not be forgotten that it was precisely in the twelfth centuiy 
that (in France, at least) the different styles of dressing reached a great 
degree of perfection. Some authors are even tempted to attribute this 
result to the influence of Gra3co-Iloman art in Syria. I leave it to the 
specialist to fijid out whether the point I raise is contrary to this expla- 
nation or in its favour. 

My researches with regard to the real site of Scopus have inciden- Excav.ition 
tally led to a little "find" of some interest. In the course of my cinai cave 
work I have had occasion to explore a sepulchral cave cut in the j^oimt'uf 
mountain situated to the north of the Mount of Olives, near the place oiive?. 
where the word Scopus is written on the Ordnance Survey map (scale 
1-10,000). I should remark, by the way, that this mountain is called by 
the feUahin of the locality, Ez ze 'lueyqa. The south-eastern brow 
to the north of the road leading to 'Anata bears the name of El 
Maittala, which means, literally, an elevated place whence one can see — an 
obsei-vatory ; a word which is the exact equivalent of the Greek Scopos. 



94: LETTERS FROM SI. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

Sliould we place Scopus there, or at tlie other point, the northern 
extremity, of this lon^ chain on the Roman road going to Nablous, at 
the point marked on the Ordnance Survey map A 2686, 3. ? That point 
has the very characteristic name, which I was the first to point out — 
(see Burton and Drake's " Unexplored Syria," vol. ii.) — of Cherefe or 
Medairif — observatory, '[)lacc ivlience one can see, which is the exact trans- 
lation of Bcopos. Perhaps the true Scopus is neither the one nor the 
other, but another part of this chain, extending from the Mount of 
Olives to the Nablous road, whose summits bear different names, not 
yet marked. As soon as the present bad weather is over I propose to 
explore this chain very carefully from the onomastic point of view. 
A j)Wori, the site Avhich would appear best to answer to the data of 
the question, is the mamelon on which, in the Ordnance Survey maj), is 
marked the word Mount (preceding the word Scopus). The fellahin 
call it, if I remember rightly, KJull't el ^adjouz. This is the highest 
point of the range ; it is, besides, at the precise distance mentioned by 
Josephus. We shall see if any local tradition confirms this hypothesis 
rather than any other.* 

But to return to my sepulchre. It is composed of three rooms, com- 
municating with each other by passages, pierced in the direction of the 
axis of the doorway. I penetrated into the first by a kind of cistern- 
mouth, opened in the roof to about three or four metres of eai'th. The 
normal entrance is entirely masked from without by accumulations of 
earth ; from within is seen the door, closed by a great slab, still in its 
place. The first chamber contains nine loculi, perpendicular to the 
walls, and distributed three by three on three sides ; the second con- 
tains other loculi similar, less carefully cut ; as to the third, I have 
only been able to penetrate into it with great difficulty, for it had been 
almost entirely filled up with water by the rains. I remarked in the 
first chamber, half filled with earth, the end of a bench cut in the 
rock, which would run all round. 

Many pieces of sarcophagi in soft limestone, exactly like those of 
which I have often spoken before, both in material and form, were 
scattered over the ground, with a quantity of bones and pieces of 
pottery. Evidently the sepiilchre has been violated, but the violaters 
did not take the trouble to carry away what they broke. I had all this 
dehris carefully collected, and minutely examined the loculi in the first 
chamber. My search produced results, and I had to send to the village 

* Mr. Conder has just sliowii me a note on the position of Scopus, in wliiclilio 
considi-rs the question from a practical and niilitnry point of view. These con- 
siderations Avould tend to justify my first liypothesis, which consisted (see above) 
in identifying Scopus, properly called, with cl Mccluirif. Two points may ha 
remarked — (1) the existence of a great well at el IMccharif ; (2) that of a large 
number of mechdhid, little heaps of .stones placed there by the Mussulmans 
IjBcause, they say, it is the lyoint from which Jerusalem and the mosqzce of the Sakhra 
are first ohservrd iii enmirwj from Nuhlons. Porliaps the word Scopus embraced tlio 
whole of the chain stretching from the Mechfirif to the Mount of Olives (see p. 111). 



LETTERS FROM JF. CLERMOXT-GANNEAU. 95 

of Djebel efc Tour for an ass to carry away my ai'cboBological booty. 
The most important pieces are : three fragments of Hebrew inscriptions 
on pieces of sarcophagi ; a lachrymatory in glass, very well preserved, 
and of an elegant form ; a little lamp in terra-cotta, unbroken (without 
Christian symbols) ; a little instrument in bronze, forming a twig, 
finely ornamented, having at one end a bud and at the other the 
commencement of a narrow spatula ; two large nails ; a hundred nail- 
heads, oxydised, seeming to indicate the presence of wooden coffins ; a 
great many fragments of vases and lamps in terra-cotta ; and pieces of 
sarcophagi' ornamented with roses. I have already found among the 
latter fragments the materials for three complete sarcophagi. I 
collected, besides bones, which may be of use to an anthropologist, 
fragments of skulls, jawbones with teeth, &c. Lastly, which might be 
the most important of all, I found in a loculus an antique coin in 
bronze; unfortunately it is so much defaced that it is probably impos- 
sible to identify it, and so to deduce a minimiim limit for the date 
of the inhumations and the inscriptions. Other considerations, 
already publiehed, make me place this about the first century of the 
Christian era. 

These unlooked-for results inspired a very strong desire to pusli 
my researches farther. I could have wished to examine the third 
chamber, which might have given me new texts or other objects — even 
to have cleared away the entrance so as to study the mode of closing 
the tomb. The proprietor of the ground, however, Avould not consent, 
and I was obliged to put off my work till another day. I believe, how- 
ever, that I shall eventually overcome his scruples without very great 
expense. 

Here are the three fragments of inscriptions : — 

(1) A name beginning with . . . in% followed by jnD, son of, and 
traces of letters belonging to the patronymic ; the letters which follow 
. . . in"" are not very distinct; the last is certainly a ], the two 
others appear to be a nun and a tau, — Jehonathan. 

(2) There are four characters very clear, of which the two last, without 
doubt, ai'e Jamcd and sliin ; as to the first or two first I do not know if 
it is a hoph or a samecli, followed by another letter. 

(3) Two characters, the first being certainly a pe, followed by a letter 
mutilated by the fracture, but in which I see quite clearly the elements 
oiahimed; but the Hebrew names beginning with these two letters 
are too numerous for me to risk a restoration. 

I have just observed a group of sepulchres cut in the rock, which, ?'°^J^f .*="* 
so far as I know, have never been noticed. They are all in a large field in the 
lying between the moat north-east of Jerusalem and the magnificent ami' lluuf ' 
pine standing close to a winepress worked by Mohammedans ; this yi^^fj;' 
place is generally known imder the name of Ker7n ech-clieikli. These 
sepulchres are interesting from a double point of view : (1) in regard 
to their form, they belong to the horizontal system of rock sepulture ; 
the entrance consists of a rectangular trench about Im'GO. by Om-45, 



Jerusalem. 





H 
t-t 

o 

H 

« 
E-r 

P=i 
O 

a 
o 
< 

in 
■< 

I 

a 

H 
O 



C3 



O 



H 



O 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 97 

and more than a metre in doptli ; at the end a rebate cut in the rock 
appears to have been destined to receive and support a slab closing the 
tomb properly so called, jjlaced in a sepulchral chamber situated below. 
So far as I have been able to judge of the exterior, these chambers are 
excavated in a vaulted form : they appear to have a considerable 
extent, and the proprietor of the ground has assured me that many of 
them communicate. I have not yet been able to examine further, 
because they are partly inundated by the late rains. There have been 
found in them, I am told by the proprietor, quantities of Irenes, broken 
pottery, " boxes " in soft stone, and an ear-ring in gold, which he pro- 
mised to show me. 

(2) The position of the sepulchres may be of importance for the 
question, adhuc suhjudice, of the third wall of Jerusalem. They extend 
along a line of about 125 degrees, starting from the south-east angle of 
the building, marked close to the great pine on the Ordnance Survey 
map, and running to the road which passes along the moat of the city 
at the north-east. "We counted a dozen openings of tombs, and the 
last are hardly 40 metres from the moat of the city. If the examination 
of these tombs, that we are about to make without delay, leads us to 
assign them an ancient date, it is clear that the existence of a cemetery 
of a certain date may furnish us proofs for or against the existence of 
a third wall to the north of this point. 

The proprietor of the ground told me that they had found another 
great tomb cut in the rock under the wall north-east of the present 
building (at the south side of the little court margined on the house 
on the Ordnance Survey map). It appears, besides, that a tradition 
assigns to the Kerm ech-cheikh a maqam of JEl Khadher (the prophet 
Elijah). I think that there must exist about here many tombs of the 
same kind. We know that it is very near this point that the parti- 
sans of the identity of the tomb of Agrippa with the modern northern 
wall place the Fuller's monu,ment spoken of by Josephus. 

Note. — Accompanying this report were drawings and photo- 
graphs, including: — 

(1) The stripped side of the Kubbet es Sakhra, showing the newly 

discovered balustrade, with round arches. (Photo.) 

(2) The idol lately found at Gezer. (Photo.) A drawing of this 

also arrived from Mr. Drake. 

(3) An ancient sarcophagus, now placed in the Haram. (Photo.) 

(4) Bilingual inscription from the Deir el Kelt. See p. 89. 
(Photo.) 

(5) Lamp, lachrymatory, SiC. (Photo.) 



98 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 



Creat 
eavem in 
the side of 
lUonnt Zion 



"Ivmlv cut] 
m the rock 
north- east 
*>i Jeru- 



Jerusalem, Ja7i. 22, 1874. 

A slight illness, whicli kept me in bed for eight days, and the bad 
'\veather, which has rendered outdoor work impossible, have together 
made the last fortnight one of small profit. I have, however, been able 
to iitilise this forced inaction in studying by text certain questions which 
should be the object of future research. 

While exploring, some days before I fell ill, that part of Mount Zion 
where, according to my calculations, the tombs of the kings of Judah 
• should be, I remarked, about 280 English feet east of the great mulberry, 
tree of Silwan, situated at the south-east angle of the " Old Pool " of the 
O. S. map, a curious great cavern. The entrance is very narrow, but the 
cave, which appears to be in part cut by the hand of man, enlarges 
considerably, and plunges almost horizontally into the side of the hill. 
At the end a pillar, rudely cut, supports the roof of the cavern, and I 
think I saw openings to other galleries. Unfortunately, the interior 
is in great part filled with earth, so that at certain points one is obliged 
to creep in order to pass between the ground and the roof. I under- 
took a small excavation in order to ascertain the extent and the direc- 
tion of this cavern ; above all, its extent. I cut a narrow trench of no 
great depth, with the intention of pushing it as fai* as the cave extends, 
intending later on to cut deeper in order to reach the original bottom. 
We were already fifteen metres from the entrance when my illness put 
a stop to the works. The excavation has, up to the present, produced (1) 
considerable quantities of bones, which appear to have been thrown in 
pell-mell, as into a charnel-house ; (2) bits of broken pottery by the 
thousand, some of which appear very ancient ; (3) a large number of 
fragments of great stone vessels, worked all round in flutings and 
mouldings ; (4) and lastly, one stone weight. I have brought away all 
the things indiscriminately, and we have taken out and put aside for 
photographing some as being worthy of attention. It is evident that 
all this rubbish has been designedly accumulated in the cavern. I 
believe that it would be desirable to pursue this reseai-ch, which may 
be managed within the modest means at my disposal, as I only employ 
two or three workmen at a time. I hope that, as we dig deeper down, 
the fragments will become more ancient, and that we may find among 
them some with characters — stamped jai'-handles and the like. Besides, 
it seems to me very curious to know where this subterranean passage 
leads. Without assuming that it may have a connection with the Tombs 
of the Kings, we may suppose that it will teach us something on the 
topogi'aphy of Zion. 

As soon as I could walk, after my illness, I paid another visit to 
the very curious tombs of which I spoke in my last report. We 
have, with M. Lecomte, drawn up an exact plan of the ground where they 
lie, so as to give their position relatively to the city. We have care- 
fully noted the orientation, which differs with each. Within the plot of 



w 

O 




-'«W»v^^/.,^„,.,^^^ 



,::..L^1_J^ 



i^t b 



100 LETTERS FROM 31. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

ground wliicli is bounded by a dry stonewall bordering tlie road we counted' 
13 openings, some completely open, somepartiallyfilledAvitb earth, otbers 
which seem to have been commenced and left unfinished. Opposite the 
gate of the ground, on the road itself, we also remarked traces in the 
scarp of the rock of three rectangular graves (belonging probably to the 
same system) and of a great wall. On the counterscarp of the city 
moat there exists one other grave, which might belong to the same 
group. 

We have not yet the time to study completely the interior of these 
tombs. Up to the present we have only penetrated into those marked 
I. and II. on the general plan. The plan and the detailed sections will 
be found in a special drawing. We entered by the opening No. I., 
half destroyed by stonecutters, who here quarry the rock, and will very 
soon destroy these remarkable monuments. 

It is difficult to give, in a simple description, any idea of the arrange- 
ment of these tombs, which (so far as we have seen) are composed 
of a chamber oblong in plan, vaulted in the manner known technically 
as " arc de doUre," or " coved vault,"' formed by the direct penetration. 
of two cylinders ; whilst the vault known as " voute d' aretes," (the plain 
(jrorned vault), is obtained by the intersection of two cylinders. Archi- 
tects are well aware that the first-named system is older than the 
second. 

M. Lecomte has added to his plan a little sketch giving the geo- 
metrical perspective of this vault. Below the springing of the vaults 
are vertical walls ; at its summit is the opening of the grave, com- 
municating with the exterior, and of this the bottom seems to have 
been closed by a big block resting on a rebate cut in the rock. 

The first chamber (0) which we entered, almost entirely filled with 
earth, communicated by a small round opening (R) with a second 
chamber (P). This is very small, and contains three loculi cut trough 
fashion and parallel. A hole pierced by the Arabs in one of the angles 
permits the visitor to penetrate to an adjoining chamber (Q), which 
is only separated from its neighbour by a very thin wall of rock. 

This third chamber is filled with earth nearly to the springing 
of the vault, so that we could not discover the funereal arrangement. 
At the top is the rectangular opening marked in the general plan 
(under No. 2), by which this chamber opens directly to the exterior. 

We visit a very curious tomb, in which, to the left on entering, 
one sees an " arcosolinum " (?) covering in a troiagh, rounded at one 
end, square at the other : the rounded end was evidently that in 
which the head was, so that the feet were turned towards the 
entrance. A second chamber, situated in the axis of the other, is 
ended by a "hemicycle" (or semicircular apse). I have never untn 
now met with this singular arrangement ; we shall see presently the 
plan and section of this sepulchre, which is iinique in its way. 

We shall return soon to the exploration of the other tombs, which 
are at present filled with mud and water. I can at present give no 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 101 

•opinion whatever on the exact age of these tombs, and my 
hesitation is increased by the importance of the question connected 
with it, and which. I indicated in my last report, viz., the 
-extension of ancient Jerusalem to the north of this point. I will 
only observe for the moment that in building the Latin Patriarchate 
there were found inside the present city, about 250 metres west of the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, tombs with sarcophagi identical with 
those ofwhich I have many times spoken, and a number of lachrymatory 
glass vases, like those picked up by M. de Saulcy at the entrance of the 
Gobour el Molouk, and to that found by myself in a sepulchral cave, 
with fruijincnts of Ilehreio inscriptions. 

I think it would be of some interest to attempt an excavation on this 
spot to try to clear out one of the tombs not yet violated ; perhaps one 
might come across something of an epigraphic character, or at least 
some objects which might help us to determine the period to which 
they belong. 

One may compare the interior arrangement of the second chamber 
with that of a tomb described by Lieut. Conder {Quarterly Statement, 
1873, p. 22), which is close to the excavation marked Ko. 81 on the 
Ordnance Survey map of Jei'usalem.* A little distance north of the 
house of the Kerm ech Sheykh is an old Arab cemetery, which appears 
to have been long abandoned. 

Near the point where the curve ot the level (2479 of the Ordnance Aqueduct. 
Survey map) meets the counterscarpf of the city moat (at the eastern 
«nd of the curve) debouches an aqueduct, which appears to have come 
from the north and to have been cut by the moat. It would perhaps 
be worth while to ascertain its origin. I do not know whether it has 
yet been pointed out. 

Some metres east of this point the counterscarp cut in the rock turns Possible re- 
abruptly at a right angle, then resumes its original direction for 25 .^i^^j^u^^ 
metres, and makes another rectangular bend. This redan does not Piscina cut 
appear to me necessitated by any strategic reasons, for it corresponds 
Avith no salient of the wall. May this not be, perhaps, an 
ancient little "birket," of rectangular shape, Avhich may have been ciit 
across, and almost entirely destroyed by the moat. In that case the 
aqueduct and pool, if aqueduct and pool they were, would make 
a part of the water-system of the north-east region, at present so 
obscure. I confine myself for the present to the simple suggestion. 

Descending the Wady en Nar, below the Bir Eyub, on arriving at ^'isoufCpei'' 
Ain el Loz, ten minutes' walk, a small wady is seen on the right, which Azal of 
■comes from the west and drains into the Ain el Loz. This wady, which ^^*'''^" ^^^' ^^ 
is tolerably broad but very short, is marked, but without a name, on 
some of the maps. The men of Siloam call it Wiidy asoiu, which we 
must resolve into Wad + yasoul, not into Wady + asuul ; for other 

* It is on the right-liand of the gi-eat north road, a short distance from the city. 
t Close to the Damascus Giite. 



102 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

peasants liave pointed it out to me as Eheb yasoul and Ardh yasoul. 
In any case, the word is certainly written with the sad and not the sin, 
so that it con-esponds exactly, satisfying all the rules of etymology, 
with the Hebrew b^S. which occurs in the difficult and famous passage 
of Zechariah xiv. 5 : " And ye shall flee to the valley of the mountains 
(Ge-harai) ; for the valley of the mountains shall reach unto Azal : yea, 
ye shall flee, like as ye fled from before the earthquake in the days of 
Uzziah king of Judah : and the Lord my God shall come, and all the 
saints with thee." Schwarz in an ingenious note has proposed to see 
in Geharai the Eruge of Josephus, mentioned by him d iiropos of the 
earthquake in the reign of Uzziah.* As for Azal, the greater number 
of commentators agree in considering it a place near Jerusalem ; t 
some have even identified it with the Beth-ezel of Micah (i. 11) : " The 
inhabitant of Zaanan came not forth in the mourning of Beth- 
ezel." May it be YasAl ? Whatever it be, this little valley presents 
points of great interest. In the south side have been excavated 
several sepulchral caves. The bottom of the valley is full of 
broken pottery, cubes of mosaic work, certain indications that the 
place has been at some time inhabited. On the north side, half-way 
up, I remarked in a plot of ground belonging to a Silwan man and 
called Kerm Gamar (the enclosure of the moon) cisterns, niins, the 
base and the capital of a column, a fragment of lintel with a cross, 
and an extremely elegant lid of a sarcophagus in hard stone. You will 
find enclosed a sketch of Lecomte's giving these interesting remains. 
I have, besides, acquired of the proprietor of the ground two out of 
twenty lamps found by him in a sepulchral cave cut in this Kerm : the 
one is of elegant form with ornaments finely executed ; the other bears 
a Greek inscription that I have not yet been able to decipher. 
Objects I have just seen at the Latin Patriarchate a very interesting coUec- 

se^chre^t tion of objects taken from a tomb opened in a plot of ground of Beit 
Beit Djala. pgjala belongingto this religious establishment. Two very fine alahastra, 
a gi-eat deal of terra-cotta with a star drawn in the centre, a quantity 
of phials in glass of various forms and sizes (double, with blue enamel, 
&c.) , many lamps in terra-cotta ornamented with crosses of different 
shape— one with this inscription— thC geotokot (of the virgin). I 
will photograph the entire group. 
Fragments I have seen in the hands of a Mussulman, and I hope to get it myself 
inscription for a trifle, a fragment of a Greek inscription found not far from the 
fnunil at the 

Damascus * " In the meantime a great earthquake shook the ground, and a rent was 
made in the temple, and the bright rays of the .sun shone through it, and fell 
upon the king's face, insomuch tliat the leprosy seized upon him immediately : 
and before the city at a place called Eroge, half the mountain broke away from 
the rest on the west, and rolled itself four furlongs, and stood still at the east 
mountain till the roads, as well as the king's gardens, were spoiled by the 
ohstraction."— Josephus, Antiq., ix. 10. 4. 

t Schwarz places it El Azariyeh, the traditional Bethany. 



gate, 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 103 

gate of Damascus (north of it), perhaps near the tombs pointed out by 
Lieutenant Conder, of which I speak above. The characters are clear, 
distinct, and deeply marked; they appear to be of the Byzantine period. 
I give a transcript, though not an exact drawing : — 

HIMn 
NATT 
EPOI 

Could this fragment be connected in any way with the Church of St. 
Stephen, which was near here ? 

I have gathered from the mouth of a Mussulman of Jerusalem a Legend of 
rather curious legend on the Wady Kelt and its aqueducts. Although the Wad/ 
his narrative is deficient in local accuracy, and I shall have to vei'ify it '^''^''• 
on the spot, it will not be inopportune to note it here. 

A Christian woman caused an aqueduct to be constracted in the 
Wady Kelt, in order to irrigate the plain of Jericho. Then came Moses 
(Sidna Mousa), who wanted to do the same. The Christian woman 
having refused to help the labour of Moses in allowing him to run his 
aqueduct over a certain place, a challenge followed on either side as to 
who should first finish the work. Then Moses took his rod and traced 
on the ground with the end of it a road which the water followed 
immediately, running into the Birhet Musa, which is at the foot of Beit 
Djaber. The remarkable point of the legend is that it gives us, in all 
probability, the real origin of the name Wady Kelt ; it was, in fact, to 
irrigate the plain {minchati yi<jaUit) that the rival constructors wished to 
make their aqueducts. Now yigaUit is the second form of a verb galad, 
which has not the sense of irrigating, filling a reservoir, at all: it 
is the verb galat which has this meaning. The change of the final d 
for a t would be the result of rapid pronunciation. And just as this 
is yigaUit for yigcdlid, so then might be the Wady trc/i (kelt) for the 
Wady Geld. On this theory the Wady Geld, Gelt, or Kelt, signifies 
the valley of irrigation, a name which is explained by the presence 
of the three aqueducts which we find there. 

The same man told me that there was in the same valley a spring legend 
whose name he did not know, bewitched ivith the black inan and the luhite enchanted 
{marsoud 'ala 'l-'abed ou'l-horr).* The water of the spring at one f?'"Jy'^'V ™ 
moment wells up abundantly and at the next disappears, so that often Kelt. 
you have not the time to drink. The reason of this intermittence is 
that the white man and the negro are waging a pei-petual battle ; when 
the negro has the better the water comes up, when the white is con- 
queror the water disappears. 

During the heavy winter rains there are formed, close to the gardens The Buas. 
of Jaffa and to the west, real lakes of considerable extent. The 
largest of these marshy ponds lies south of the road, and is called 
by the name of Bassa, a word applied in other parts of Syria to similar 
pools. As for the signification of the word in Arabic, nothing more 
* "Horr" literally means /wc??ia?i; " 'abed" sfow. 



104 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

satisfactory can be found tlian that of firebrand, lighted wood. The 

same word, on the other hand, is found in the Bible (Bissa, nX3) 

used to signify a lahe or marsh. " Can," asks Bildad (Job viii. 11), 

"the rush grow up without mire? can the flag grow tip without 

water ? "( nunxbD). And further on (Job xl. 21) " (Behemoth) lieth under 

the shady trees, in the covert of the reed and fens." And the word is 

also found in Ezekiel xlvii. 11, "The miry places thereof and the 

marshes thereof shall not be healed, they shall be given to salt." 

Commentators and lexicographers (cf. Gesenius and Fiirst) derive this 

Aramaic word from a hypothetical root "il>"3, to which, relying on the 

Arabic hudhdha, they give the meaning of '' paidatim fluxit et emanavit 

aqua.'"'' The supposition appears to me entirely gratuitous ; in fact, the 

existence of the Bassa at Jaffa and other places proves that Bassa, 

in the sense of pond, is allied with the Arabic hassa, to shine. The 

origin of the word shows that the meaning "pond" is connected 

with shining or glittering in the sun. It is exactly the same idea 

which has given the similar word its meaning of firebrand. A similar 

reasoning could be extended to the word ain, which in Hebrew and 

Ai'abic has the double meaning of a7i eye and a fountain, surely far 

enough removed from each other. The meaning in both cases has 

been borrowed from one and the same primitive sense. 

Head of I have just acquired of an Arab mason two curious objects found 

statue and ,,. .. .. , r -< i- 

figure of by him some years since m repairing a sewer and some loundation 

Venus. work under the Mehkeme. The first is a head, rudely carved in lime- 

stone, and of a very curious appearance. Ton might be tempted at 
times to ascribe an Egyptian origin to it, but the execution is too rude 
for me to assign any period to it. 

The other object is a little figure in lead of about five centimetres in 
height, representing a woman nude to the girdle, the lower part of the 
body draped, the arms folded and raised above the head, an attitude 
which reminds one of certain statues of Venus. The statuette has been 
a good deal injured, but the outlines are still elegant, and the whole 
figure is in conformity with the rules of ancient art. According to 
ecclesiastical tradition there was, as we know, a temple in which the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre now stands, consecrated to Yenus, and the 
mysteries of Adonis were celebrated in the Grotto of the Nativity at 
Bethlehem. Are we to see in this statuette a specimen of the Yenus 
of (Elia Capitolina ? You shall have drawings of these two things next 
"week. 



VI. 

Jeeusaiem, February 8th, 1874. 
The bad weather which prevails at present, Avith rain, snow, and hui-ri- 
cane, has prevented the carrying out of my plans, and has confined our 
operations to a few intermittent labours, interrupted at every moment, 



LETTERS FROM M. CLEEJIONT-GANNEAU. 105 

and resumed whenever the Veathcr permits. The effect of the inter- 
ruptions will be clearly noticeable in the results which I forward you. 

The Committee will probably romembor that among my i^roposed j.^'^.^^nf" 

researches I pointed out certain rock-cut chambers immediately beside clKunbeis 
■■^ . •' west ol tlio 

the rock in the Ecce Homo Church. The presence, previously unsus- Ecue Uoma 

pected, of these excavations in the interior of Jerusalem, and in a place ^''ii"''^''- 

which is particularly interesting as regards the topography of the Holy 

City, is a fact of great importance, and one of my first cares was to visit 

the chambers with M. Lecomte, in order to get an exact j)lan of them. 

The work, which it was desii'able should be accurate, was rendered difficult 

by the complication of modern houses placed at different levels, and leaning 

on the flank of Bezetha, so as to mask the general direction and particular ♦ 

aspect. We were therefore obliged to give several days to the work. 

We met with an excellent reception froiu the residents of the houses — 

Arabs of Greek religion — and every facility for accomplishing our task. 

The work was nearly finished, and there only remained a last visit to be 

made to take cei-tain measurements, when an unforeseen accident put an 

end to our examiaations. The very day when we were to return, an 

hour before our arrival, the house, an old tumbledown ruin, saturated 

with the heavy rains, suddenly fell down. We found nothing but a 

mountain of debris, completely barring the Via Dolorosa. We had had 

a narrow escape. An hour later and we should have been in the cellars 

of the house, and in all jjrobability there would have been an end of all 

oui- archaeological labours. Fortunately the house was uninhabited. 

The worthy people next door escaped with no worse injury than a 

horrible fright. They had, however, to decamp immediately, theii- own 

house appearing desii'ous of following its neighboiu-'s example, so that 

it was judged expedient to anticipate its wish and pull it do^vn at once. 

This mifortunate contretemps leaves us with an unfinished plan on our 

hands, and I fear they will j)ile up the fallen stones in such a way as to 

hinder access to the chambers. Anyhow, the essential part of the work 

is done, and the plan, such as it is, very minute, so far as it goes, gives a 

good idea of the place. 

The followinr^ notes Avill serve to some extent to describe what we 
found : — ■ 

You know the escariHuent of rock (O. S., No. 72) in the Ecce Homo 
Church, forming, with a length of sever;il meti'cs, part of the northern 
wall of the chm-ch. The escarpment suddenly stops, interrupted by the 
houses which rise west of the church, and which line the Via Dolorosa 
as far as the garden of the Austrian Hospice. It is behind these houses 
(there arc three) that I found and marlced the rock forming a continua- 
tion to this escarpment, about 25 metres in length. Proceeding from 
east to west, in the first house is observed a piece of rock in nearly the 
same line as the escarpment of the church. The wall makes almost 
directly an obtuse-angled bend to the north-west, and gets buried among 
buildings where it cannot be followed. The presence of the rock up to 
this point is noted by Tobler (" Dritte Wanderung," p. 249). Passing 



106 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

into the next house, we find the rock with its general direction to the 
west (slightly southing), with a length of about 12 metres. Arrived at 
this point, the rock offers a peculiarity of double interest to the archse- 
ologist and topographer. In the vertical wall is cut a corridor, -winding 
at first, which plunges into the masonry and takes a north-west direction. 
It divides in two my first chamber, irregularly cut in the living rock, with 
flat ceiling, flanked right and left by two broad stone benches, measuring 
nearly 2*20 by 2-40 metres. After this it immediately abuts on a second 
chamber also cut in the rock about 3 by 3 metres, with irregular angles. 
A space opening out in the wall north of this chamber loses itself in the 
earth and masonry. In the last wall is indicated a doorway whose 
framework has given way ; the upper part alone is pierced, and gives 
access to a little alcove, which seems an unfinished chamber. In the 
south wall two doors have been opened similarly with fallen in frame- 
work, one of which communicates with the first chamber already de- 
scribed, and the other debouches into a thii'd chamber cut in the rock, 
with a complicated arrangement of benches. This is not all. On the 
lower floor — the cellar, so to speak, of the house — the same wall of 
rock is perceived descending below the actual level of the street. A 
broad bay forming a vestibule is cut in it, and gives access to a 
group of chambers also cut in the rock, extending in a north-west 
direction under the chambers above, with which they communicate by 
means of a hole. 

Lastly, in the third house near this, the rock is found again, at the end 
of the lower caves or chambers ; it has been cut in the same way, and 
appears to have been cloven by an earthquake. Immediately beyond 
is the partition wall separating this last house from the garden of the 
Austrian Hospice. 

The exploration of these lower regions was not by any means easy 
or pleasant, on account of the mass of filth and rubbish piled up 
nearly to the roof in the rock-cut chambers, over which we had to 
clamber and creep ; one room in which we were obliged to remain several 
hours was a mere receptacle of sewage, though fortunately disused for 
some time. However, temporary uneasiness is forgotten in thinking 
how nearly this wretched place was becoming our tomb. 

Cisterns made at different points along this line of the rock have 
been sounded by us, and have given depths which show that the rock 
extends several metres below the level at which it ceases to be visible. 
This line is at a mean distance of about nine metres at the back and 
north of the Via Dolorosa. It is more than probable that it is directly 
connected with the rock which was observed in the construction of 
the Austrian Hospice, at the north-east angle of the actual building. 
There also is found a rock-cut chamber which Tobler ( " Dritte Wan- 
derung," pp. 244, 245) is tempted to consider as a stable of great an- 
tiquity. It is difficult for one to pronounce on the destination of this 
chamber, now transformed into a cistern and consequently inaccessible ; 
but I am sure, and M. Lecomte entirely agrees Avith me, that the 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 107 

chambers visited and noted by us have not been cut for any such 
pui-pose as a stable ; the only doubt is whether to call them chambers 
for the living or for the dead. The latter destination appears much 
more probable, and in this case it is unnecessary to point out that 
sepulchres cut in a place situated more than 250 metres south of the 
north wall of the present city, and at a few metres only from the town 
of Antonia, must necessarily go back to a remote antiquity, and bring 
us to the time of the Jebusites, or at least to a period which precedes 
the reign of Herod Agi-ippa. 

The people of the house reported to us that, according to an ancient Ancient 
tradition, there was formerly in one of the higher cliambors into which johu^the j 
there is an entrance by the passage described above, a chapel dedicated ^^v^*^ ' 
to St. John the Baptist {3far Hanna el m'a moudany). I do not know 
what foundation this legend may have. It is not impossible that at 
some time or other one of these chambers was converted into a little 
chapel; if so, the little alcove spoken of above woizld certainly serve 
as a small apse. It appears that some years ago ancient coins were 
found in the square opening cut at the end of the second chamber. 

I have ascertained the existence, at about 110 metres north-west of Ancient 
the ancient tank. No. 81 of the O. Survey, and west of the great the^ash^^ 
northern road, of two tomb openings cut in the rock, apparently be- ^^^P*- 
longing to the same system as the sepulchres which we found near the 
Kerm-ech-cheikh (see Eeport No. V.). 

The excavation on Mount Zion (see preceding Eeport) is goino- on. Ercavati<ni 
We have reached the end of the gallery, and the men are now zion.'* 
cutting down to the rock as they work back to the entrance. We 
keep on finding an incredible quantity of fragments of stone vessels 
in all shapes and sizes, together with certain other objects, among them 
spur rowels in hard stone, and a truncated cone in stone worked all 
round, which ought to be of very ancient date, judging by the calca- 
reous deposit which adheres to one side. There is another stone object 
also representing a truncated cone. Up to the present, no trace of in- 
scriptions, if we except a plain cross -}- on a jar handle. 

We profited by a little clearing up in the weather during the last few Cho'at 
days to make an excursion to Chofat. We examined the village atten- 
tively, and remarked hardly anything old in the buildings. The only 
observations worth being noted are the following. 

We penetrate into a Mussulman's house to examine Avhat the people El KenisS. 
call El Kenise (the Church), and find in the midst of suflfocating smoke, 
which nearly blinds us, a piece of wall Avith two windows in ogive of 
fairly good workmanship, looking east ; no trace of an apse ; the 
dressing of the stone does not appear of Crusading date. Above, 
on a terrace, a chimney in stone reminding one of that which I pointed 
out at Neby Chamouil. There is no spring in the village, nor in the 
neighbourhood. The wely of the place is called Sultan Ibrahim. The 
old name of Chofat was Alaikon. I was also told of Dcir el Malirowj, 
the burned convent. 



I 



lOS LETTERS FROM M. CLERMOXT-GANNEAU, 

The name of Alaikon is strange, and I do not see wliat its origin 
could have been. It was given me by a woman, the accuracy of whose 
information I have since i^roved. I have often remarked in Palestine that 
the women are much more archaic, so to speak, than the men, in manners, 
language, conversation, recollection, and costume. I have often been able 
to get information from them that I should have vainly asked the men. 
The inhabitants of Chofat are very savage and mistrustful. I had at 
first aE the trouble in the world to get them to answer any questions. 
The woman who gave me the name of Alaikon had hardly pronounced it 
when her husband ordered her to be silent, and abused her in round 
terms for revealing the name to a stranger. Some carried their ill- 
temper so far as insolence. One, v>^hoso name I asked, informed me 
with a grin that he was called Khobez (bread). I replied that I was 
named Toiimm (mouth), and was quite ready to make a mouthful of him. 
Bringing them thus to theii- senses, we so far succeeded in parting friends 
that the fellah whose house we had visited actually refused to take any 
lakhcJdch ! 
.egendof According to a legend of the country, evidently of Christian 
>hat, King origin, there was formerly at Chofat a king named YilchdJTd, of whom 
<f Chofat. Biention is made in the I'ora (Bible). It was he who gave his name to 
the place. It is not necessary to explain that this second-han-d tradition 
has not even the advantage of being based on any etymological analogy, 
for the Hebrew name of Jehoshaphat does not contain the aiii which 
exists in the word Gho'fat. Perhaps the proximity of the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat has had something to do with this made-up tradition, 
'omb with A boy of the village told me of a cavern into which he had entered 
us. while running after a porcupine, and where he had found several saaa- 

di(j (sarcophagi) of stone -rtith bones in them. AYe immediately went to 
the place, which is about twenty metres from the village, in the direction 
of the Eussian buildings. After examining it I decided upon setting 
four or five men at work to dig and clear out the entrance of the tomb. 
The next day I returned, and found that the men had cleared out for 
several metres in length the tunnel made by the porcupine in order to 
get at the tomb Avhich he had chosen for domicile. I crept into this 
narrow passage, along which one had to cravd at full length. About the 
middle I had to tm-n, keeping the same position, and at one time I 
thought that I could neither advance nor recede. At last I succeeded in 
dragging myself to the door of the chamber, and got in. Here I found 
nine locuU, in the form of ovens, disposed thi-ee by three in each of the 
three walls. At the left of the entrance, half buiied in the ground 
which filled up the chamber and in places nearly touched the roof, I 
found a sarcophagus in stone, of very small dimensions, ornamented 
with roses, and at the smaU end with a palm branch. It contained 
fragments of the bones of an adult. At the end of another locidus, and in 
the direction of the axis, was placed a sarcophagus of larger dimensions 
and finer work, covered with a lid. At the foot and in front is placed 
upriglit a little phial in terra-cotta. Another loctdas on the side opposite 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 10!) 

to this was covered with a great slab rudely cut, wedged up by little 
stones placed between its higher edge and the margin of the entrance 
of the loculus. I had it taken away at once, but there was nothing 
there except a few fragments of bones falling to j)owdcr, and the 
skull of an adult. All the earth in the chamber was turned over and 
dug up by the animal which had installed itself there and left plenty 
of traces of his dwelling, such as quills (r29 metro long. He had 
made himself a very comfortable place, the loculi serving for all sorts 
of purposes. 

I gave the men orders to clear out the real entrance to the tomb, and 
to look in the earth for any other objects or bones. 

Next day I went with them, and saw that the primitive opening of 
the tomb, by which it was now easy to enter, was 10 metres at least 
apart from that by which I had entered. At the end of the trench I 
distinguished clearly the great block of stone which originally closed 
the door. Its displacement shows, what was clear already from the 
internal aspect of the tomb, that the sepulchre is not in its original 
condition, and that it has evidently been used for a second time. I think 
that the sarcophagi belong to the earlier period, for we afterwards 
found many fragments in the earth. Other sarcoj)ha,gi imbroken have 
since been- brought to Hght, notably one larger than any of the rest, 
covered with a triangular lid. 

I ought to have received yesterday everything that was found in the 
tomb, but the snow, which has been falling for the last two days, has 
prevented the fellahin from bringing the things. I hope to find inscrip- 
tions on the sarcophagi, Avhich appear to be of the same material as 
those previously described by me. 

One of my men told me that Khirbet el 'Adese, north of Bir Nebala, Khirbet el 

•^ . Adese. 

is called also BeitLidje. 

Some days ago we went A%dth a Silwan man and a Bedouin of g°??^®|J* 
the Sawaheret el "Wad, to visit some tombs near Beit Sahour, in the el 'Ati'ga. 
Kedron Yalley, a little below the Bir Eyub. The tombs that we saw 
offer nothing new or remarkable. We visited the great tomb first 
explored by Captain Warren, and found there a quantity of bones and 
skulls, apparently of recent date. 

Our guides gave to the little wady south of the great wady which Wady es 
separates these tombs from the ruins of Beit Sahour the name of ' 
Wadf/ es Sulci, or Bjuft es Scda. On the road I gathered certain bits 
of information from the guides, some of which seem to be of value. 

The high hill rising to the west of Beit Sahour, separated from the Djebel el 
Djebel Deir Abou Thor by the Wady Yasoul, is called DJeM el Muta- Mukabber. 
chahber (el-mukabber). From the summit one can get a very fine 
panoramic view of Jerusalem from the Tower of David to the south-east 
angle of the Haram. High up grows an olive-tree called Zeitonnet en 
oiehy (the prophet's olive-tree). The projihet (Mahomet, the legend xhc I'ro- 
says) being come to besiege Jerusalem, occupied by Pagans, c?y«7ii7/?/r P'^'^'s olive 
(neither Christians, Jews, nor Mussulmans), i^laced himself at this 



110 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANXEAU. 

tree, and began shooting arrows at Jerusalem. One of them struck 
the king of the Pagans, who was at a window of the Haram, and killed 
him. But the Pagans came out in force against the prophet, and made 
him beat a precipitate retreat. It was not till later that the Pagans 
were vanqmshed and Jerusalem taken by Hassam, son of Paul (Boulos), 
father of Martha, brother of Simon (Sim'an), sumamed ^Es SaHbi, 
meaning Salib, a cross. 
Care of One of the guides, speaking of the cave at Khureitun, the traditional 

caUedel' cave of Adullani, said that it was called Mcgharet el Mi'sd. 
3l"rd the ^^ ^^^*^ gave us a long story about the ruins of Merd, south of the 
city of :sini- Neby Mousa. These, he said, were the city of King Nimrod (Medinet 
Nimroud), who impiously caused himself to be adored by his subjects, 
and who was killed by a wasp or a mosquito (heshes) sent by God to 
chastise him, and which got in at his nose (a well-known legend). They 
still show at this place the tomb of Nimroud. Here we have evidently 
to do with the onomastic legends, to which I have already called 
attention; in fact, the name of Nimrod comes, like that of Merd, from a 
root (marad) used in Hebrew and Arabic. 
,5 All attempts to find an ancient locality hidden under the name of 

'1 Merd have hitherto failed. Some have proposed the Maroth of Micah i. 

12 ("For the inhabitant of Maroth waited carefidly for good ; but evil 
came down from the Lord unto the gate of Jerusalem"), confounded by 
Schwarz with Me'arat. 
Mered, son In the genealogy of Judah, as it is given in 1 Chron. iv.,are a crowd of 
trf Judah. names of cities belonging to the territory of the tribe of Judah presented as 
'< personages descending from the patriarch. Among these synonyms 

'J are the group of the sons of Ezra. 1 Chron. iv. 17 : "And the sons of 

Ezra were Jether, and Mered, and Epher, and Jalon." "Without 
entering into the various questions arising out of this obsciu-e pass- 
age, which exegesis has not yet solved, I confine myself to remarking 
that the ethnical synonym Mered is the exact equivalent of the Arabic 
'j/ierd, and that it is possible that the text refers to the locality designated 
under the latter name. 
KrEyoub. I heard my guide say Ber, not Bir, Eyoub. The pronunciation is 
curious, because, under this form, the word ber (well) gives exactly the 
vocalisation of the corresponding Hebrew form. 
iegcDd of A 2^fopos of Bir Eyoub, a current tradition among the Silwan 
niraculous people tells how Job (Neby Eyoub), lying ill, and eaten by worms, 
we at Bir p^tired into a cavern situated to the west of Bir Eyoub (in the side of 
Djchcl es Soneik), whither his Avife came every morning bringing him 
food. (Here follows the legend that may be read in Khoudemir, and 
which is found at length in Herbelot's Oriental Library). Every day 
Job went to bathe in a hole filled with water where the well now stands, 
untn, by the wUl of God, he recovered his health, and came out of 
the bath young again, like a boy of fourteen years — ibn arba'atacher 
senc — literally, " like a eon of fourteen years." The latter expression is 
very striking, for it is the literal representation of the Hebrew form. 



ON THE IDENTIFICATION OF SCOPUS. 



Ill 



that is seen, for example, in 2 Chron. xxvii. 1 : " Jotham was twenty 
and five years old . . ." Literally, " Jotham was a son of twenty 
and five years." 

This hole, filled Avith water, became then a fountain, which is now 
the well. The fcUahin distinguish very clearly between the water of 
Bir Eyoub, which is sweet {helwe), and that of the Silwan fountain, 
which is brackish {muVlia). This fact is the more curious because 
Josephus expressly speaks of the sweet water of Siloam. I do not see 
how to fit this characteristic detail, which would apply much more to 
Bir Eyoub, with the theory which makes the fountain of Silwan the old 
Siloam. 

C. Cleemont-Ganneau. 



ON THE IDENTIFICATION OF SCOPUS.^ 

In a previous report (see Quarterly Statement, Jan., 1873, p. 20) I 
mentioned a site which appeared to me undoubtedly that of Scopus. As 
my views have lately met with unexpected confirmation, I propose to 
enlarge a little more on the subject. 

The point which it appears to me has been most neglected is that 
Scopus was not a mere high point of ground, but in the immediate 
vicinity was a plain [xQap.a\os, depression) of some considerable extent. 
Not only have we the positive assurance of this by Josephus ( Wars, 
V. 2. 3), but the events which are recorded iu connection with this 
locality also require such a supposition. Alexander, advancing on Jeru- 
salem, from the north, was here met by the high priest and priests 
(Joseph. Antiq. xi. 8. 5) accompanied by a great multitude. That some 
spot should have been chosen where the spectators, spreading out on 
a convenient extent of plain ground, might have witnessed the meet- 
ing upon whose termination the fate of Jerusalem depended, it is only 
natural to suppose. Such a site it is not easy to find in many places 
on the north side of Jerusalem. When we read that in two distinct 
advances upon the city by Cestius and by Titus a camp was formed, it at 
once suggests that the site must have possessed military advantages of a 
striking character, and a position favourable for the construction of a 
camp. 

Looking at the matter simply from a military point of view, it is also 
evident that generals, experienced as were the Eomaus, would never 
have committed the mistake of a flank march in the face of the enemy, 
which would have left their main line of communication open to attack. 
Now, knowing as we do that the 12th and loth legions were advancing 
from Galilee, through Samaria and Gophna, and there is no reason 
to suppose by any other than the main Eoman route through the country 

* See Josephus, Ant. x. 8. 5 ; Wars, ii. 19. 4 ; v. 3. 11. 



112 ox THE IDENTIFICATION OF SCOPUS. 

passing by Nablus, it seems absurd to imagine tbat on aiTiving at the 

rido-e north of Jerusalem they should have marched away eastwards to 

the narrow summits which stretch towards the traditional Mount Scopus. 

And again, when we reflect that these legions were afterwards 

employed towards the west, and not on the eastern side of Jerusalem, 

•where another force was subsequently encamped, it becomes impossible to 

suppose that Titus should have marched and countermarched so im- 

] portant a portion of his army eastwards and westwards always in face 

* of the enemy. 

1 Prom these considerations we obtain certain requisites for the position 

i of Scopus. First, that a plain should be found capable of containing at 

least two Eoman legions, encamped in custra cestiva, and not a mere 
hasty construction intended simply for one night's occupation. Secondly, 
that in the immediate vicinity of this plain should exist a ridge from 
which Jerusalem should for the first time become clearly visible to those 
advancing from the north. Thirdly, that the distance of the site should 
be seven furlongs from the wall bounding Jerusalem on the north in the 
time of Cestius, commonly known as the third, being that built by 
Agrippa, measured probably from a gate or point of importance on that 
line. Fourthly, that the site should be upon the very route by which 
the Eoman army advanced. Fifthly, that it should present military 
advantages as a camping ground. Sixth, and lastly, that at the dis- 
tance of some three furlongs farther north, a second camping ground 
■^ should be found for the 5th legion advancing by the same line to support 

those in position at Scopus. If, in addition to these very definite data, 
the name, or one of similar meaning, can be found in the immediate 
neighbourhood, the question, it would seem to me, is virtually set at rest. 
The site which more than a year ago I pointed out as f ulfilKng these 
requii'ements is immediately east of the great north road from Jerusalem 
to Nablus. It is one of the peculiarities in the site of the capital that it 
is entirely concealed until the last ridge has been reached, from which 
the road descends rapidly and passes along to the Damascus gate. From 
this ridge the grey northern wall of the city is seen in its full extent — 
the great domes of the Holy Sepulchre and Jewish Synagogue, the Tower 
of David, and the crescent of the Mosque lying low down on the sloping 
site which makes Jerusalem appear as if in constant danger of sliding 
r, into the Kedron valley — all these burst suddenly on the view at a 

" distance of about one and a half miles, and remind one forcibly of the 

i; description by Josephus of that place "very properly called Scopus," 

from whence first ".a plain view might be taken" of the great Temple 
and the flourishing city, now dwindled into a round chapel and a 
moderate Oriental town. 

Directly in front of this ridge is a small plateau averaging 300 yards 
in breadth, and extending for about 800 yards eastwards to a point where 
the ground sinks rapidly and forms a shallow valley, which, turning 
Bouth, runs into the larger Wady ol Goz. On the west the ground becomes 
rougher and higher, extending to the eminence above the tombs of the 



ox THE IDENTIFICATION OF SCOPUS. 113 

Judges. Southwards, and between the city and the plateau, another swell 
in the ground divides the latter from Wady el Goz, into which there is a 
rapid descent. Thus, any force upon the plateau is completely hidden 
from observation in the city. Occupying thus a position of considerable 
strength, and commanding the approaches on the south and south-east, 
where the ground is lower, the site is only approachable on a level on 
the west, but a very small force holding the ridge upon this site would 
effectually prevent surprise from any quarter. The ridge behind the 
camp communicating with the rear along the north road, runs also con- 
tinuously round to the summit of the traditional Mount Scopus, and thus 
for any force on the plateau there was a perfect communication along 
ground which could not be commanded with that encamped on the 
Mount of Olives. It is clear, therefore, that the plateau possesses the 
military advantages of being directly upon the line of communication, of 
being difficult to approach from the front, and having good communica- 
tions with the flanks and in rear. Finally, it is capable of holding a 
large body of men entirely concealed at no great distance from the enemy. 

We have now to consider whether the site is large enough for the 
numbers encamped, observing, however, that if it be not, nevertheless it 
is the largest available on this side of the city, where it would be 
exti'emely difficult to find a similarly suitable bit of ground. 

The numbers of the Eoman legion differed essentially at different 
periods of the history of the city ; we have, however, only to deal with the 
ordinary numbers during the Imperial period. The legion was thett 
divided into ten cohorts, of which the first, which belonged to the eagle, 
consisted of 960 men, the remainder of 480 each, answering to a brigade 
of 11 battalions in modern warfare. The total number of men was 
therefore 5,280, and we must count on 15,000 men for the sum of the 
two legions in question without reference to supplementa and camp 
followers. 

In the fourth century of the era of the city a hasty camp for two 
legions with cavalry and socii, a force of 16,800 foot and 1,800 
cavalry, measured 2,017 Roman feet (11'6 inches) square, and contained 
therefore about 114 acres. In the seventh century three legions with 
supplementa — a consular army, occupied a stationary camp [castra 
(estiva) which measured 2,320 by 1,620 Roman feet, or an area of about 86 
acres. It was of the latter rather than the former proportions that the 
camp of Titus for two legions was constructed, and wo shall therefore 
require a space of about 60 acres at least. The i^lain, as measured with- 
out encroaching upon the slopes of the hills, occupies about 50 acres, but 
the remaining 10 are obtainable either by crossing the road or by- 
descending slightly the slope of the valley on the east. The space is 
therefore sufficient for the site of the required camp. 

There is no difficulty as to the position required for the second camp, 
that of the 5th legion. At a distance of some three furlongs north, aal 
beyond the ridge, there is a considerable piece of plain ground extending 
towards Tell el Ful, close to the great north road. 

I 



114 THE SHAPIRA COLLECTIOX. 

The military and other requirements are thus fulfilled by the site iu 
question in a manner not possible under other circumstances. 

Finally, "we obtained yesterday a confirmation for which I had hardly 
hoped. The name El Mesharif had been already obtained as 
applicable to certain points along the ridge, but the unhesitating verdict 
of more than half a dozen witnesses separately interrogated during our 
ride pointed to the ridge immediately over which the Nablus road passes 
as being the exact poiut to which this title, meaning "the look-out," and 
identical with the Greek <tkoitos, applied. 

It seems to me, therefore, impossible to dispute the identification, 
which is of value, because seven furlongs, measured from the centre of 
the plateau, reaches exactly to the large masonry discovered by Captain 
Wilson and supposed to be part of the third wall, thus militating against 
the modern idea which would on the north confine ancient Jerusalem to 
the narrow limits of the modern town. 

Claude E. Coxder, Lieut. R.E. 

Note. — I learn that JI. Ganneau had already obtained this name for the same 
spot in 1S70. 



THE SHAPIEA COLLECTION. 

The following correspondence appeared in the AtJicnceum of Jan. 
24 and March 7 of the present year. It is reproduced here, by kind 
permission of the Editor, in order that our readers who have already 
read the first announcements of these forgeries in earlier reports, may be 
informed of the exposures that have been made. 

"Jerusalem, Dec 29, 1873. 
" Before detailing the results obtained on the spot in the elucidation 
of this question, I raay be permitted to record the fact that my opinion 
on the subject was formed at the outset, and has never varied. The 
first papers printed in Germany on the subject of this inscribed pottery 
produced upon mc the immediate impression that it was the work of a 
forger, while the drawings sent to London, and shown to me, served to 
confirm this first impression. Nevertheless, my judgment being based 
on indirect, and, so to speak, personal proofs, I did not think myself 
justified in pronouncing my opinion publicly, although several times 
invited to do so. Before the verdict of scientific authority so consider- 
able as that of Germany, I thought it -wise to reserve an opinion which 
might have seemed rash, or even inspired by a sentiment of jealousy or 
envy. I had, however, several opportunities of speaking confidentially 
to members of the Palestine Fund Committee, who can bear witness to 
my assertions. I had even gone so far as to point out « priori, and 
without any information, the probable forger — the author of the mys- 
tification. The event has proved me right. The name of the person 



THE SnAPIRA COLLECTION. 11.5 

very soon figured in the official Ilcports (whicli accompanied and 
authenticated many of the specimens) as the princpal agent employed 
by M. Shapira, whoso good faitli, I hasten to say at once, I have no 
intention of suspecting, and who appears, so far as I have gone, to bo 
the first dupe, and not the accomplice, of this colossal deception. The 
forger in question, as I have always said, is Selim el Gari, a painter by 
trade, to whom the habit of daubing bad Neobyzantine pictures for 
Greek pilgrims has imparted a certain readiness and skill. I had to do 
■with him at the commencement of the Moabite Stone business. He had 
•copied a few lines from, the original seen by him at Diban, and I have 
always carefully kept this copy, which was rough but faithful, and 
which at least enabled me to detect from the very first, in the fantastic 
inscriptions of the Shapira Collection, the characteristic and peculiar 
manner in which our artist sees, understands, and designs the Moabite 
letters ; among other things, there being a certain manner of drawing 
the viini peculiar to him, which, covipled with other facts of the same 
land, enabled me to recognise his workmanship with as much readiness 
as one recog-nises a man's handwriting. 

" In addition to this, the examination of the inscriptions was, accord- 
ing to me, amply sufficient to show that they, v/ere apocrj^phal. How 
to explain, for instance, that hundreds of texts found in Moab written 
in characters sensibly similar (much too similar) to those of the stele of 
Mesa should be completely unintelligible ? For it is impossible to receive 
as serious translations certain unfortunate attempts made in Germany 
and England to make sense of these inscriptions — attempts often con- 
tradictory, which have served to show, not only the ingenuity and 
erudition of their authors, but the impossibility of translating texts, 
supposed, froni the alleged circumstances of the 'finds,' and their palseo- 
graphic appearance, to be contemporaneous with the Moabite Stone. 

"At the date, then, of my leaving France, my mind was perfectly 
made up on the question, although I had as yet communicated my 
opinion only to certain scholars of France and England who did me the 
honour of asking it. I knew beforehand what I should find at Jerusa- 
lem, when I proposed to bring to light the whole of this tangled 
business, and to find material proofs of what, hitherto, I had only 
advanced with great reserve. 

"One of my earliest cares, therefore, on arriving here was to visit 
the new collection of M. Shapira, at present ui course of formation, and 
intended to join its elder sister in the Museum of Berlin. It was not 
without trouble that I obtainedlthe "necessary authorisation ; and it was 
only through the good offices of Mr. Drake that I was enabled to over- 
come the scruples of the owner, who believed me, I do not laiow why, 
animated by some hostile sentiment. I visited the famous collection in 
company with Mr. Drake, and in presence of M. Shapira himself. It is 
composed of statues and vases, covered with inscriptions, supposed to 
be Moabite, lavished iu'''suspicious profusion. The figures arc rudely 
formed, and yet betray the hand of a modern. It is quite sufficient to 



IIG THE SHAPIRA COLLECTION. 

compare them "wdth the statues, certainly rough, but authentic, of 
Cyprus, to see immediately the clifFerence between a work simple and 
rudimentary, but spontaneous and sincere, and that of a modem Arab 
reproducing mechanically models more or less disfigured. I at once 
recognised, in these models of badly baked earth, the manner and style 
of oiu- artist, of whom I already possess certain di-awings, which I pro- 
pose to publish ^vT-th his copy of the Moabite Stone, for the edification 
of the learned. 

"Not only the form of the objects, but the material itself of which 
they are made, cry aloud, ' Apocrj'j^hal I ' The clay is absolutely iden- 
tical with that used now by the Jerusalem potters ; it is hardly baked at 
all, and yet you will obsei-ve under the faces of the little discs of properly- 
baked clay with which some of the vases were full, and which are taken 
for coins and tesserce, the mark of the threads of the linen on which the 
soft plate had been laid in order to be cut into circles. I have also seen 
on some of the specimens the famous deposits of saltpetre, which play 
so great a part in the question, and which have been produced by the 
partisans of authenticity as proofs of their extreme antiquity. These 
saltpetre deposits are only superficial, and must have been obtained, as 
I have always said, by plunging the things in a solution of nitre. If in 
some of these siiecimens which I have not seen the saltpetre has pene- 
trated through the whole mass, it is because the clay was still less baked 
and the bath Avas longer prolonged. 

"In short, I did not see, in the whole collection, one single object u'liicli 
could he TC'jardcd as genuine, so that I remarked to Di'ake when we came 
out, ' There is only one thing authentic in all that we have seen, the live 
ostrich the Ai-abs have brought here with the pottery. And as to the 
pottery itself, it only remains for us to find who is the potter that made 
it.' My opinion is, and always has been, that the collections of M, 
Shapira, all derived from the same source, are false from beginning to 
end, — not only the inscribed pottery, but also that which has no letters 
on it, and is like the other in form and material. 

" The preceding may be regarded as furnishing no sufficient proof. 
Accordingly, since my arrival here, I have been looking about for argu- 
ments more positive and material, and for palpable proofs. Convinced 
that the pottery was the work of Selim el Gari, and that it was made at 
Jerusalem, I took measures to surprise him, la main dans le sac. It 
was evident to me that Selim himself made the statues ; as to the vases, 
he might either make them himself, or cause them to be made by a pro- 
fessional potter, adding, for his 0"V\m part, the inscriptions intended to 
make them valuable ; in either case he must have recourse to a potter, 
in order to get his things baked in a proper oven. Starting with this 
certainty, I looked about among the potters of Jerusalem, five or six in 
all, and very soon found out the whole truth. 

" The fii'st piece of information, which put mo in the right track, was 
given me by a certain Abd el Bagi, sumamed Abu Mansura, a journey- 
man now in the employ of the potter Hadj Khalil el Malhi, whose shop 



THE SHAPIRA COLLECTION. 117 

is between the Spaiiisli Consulate and the Damascus Gate. This man, 
"whom I questioned with the greatest care, for fear of his discovering the 
-object of my curiosity, told me that ho had once worked for a certain 
Selim el Gari, vhomade statues and rases in earthemvare {terre cnite) ivith 
tcrifiiujs, but that he had left oft" worldng for him for some time. In 
order not to awaken suspicions, I did not press my questions any further, 
but confined myself to asking him if he knew to what potter Selim now 
sent his vessels to be baked. Abu Mansura indicated a potter by name 
Bakir el Masry, to whom I then went. This information was not cor- 
xect. Bakir, whose name and accent indicate his Egyptian origin, had 
never worked for Selim, but ho had, and still has, in his service a young 
apprentice, Hassan ibn el Bitar, who has for a long time worked 
at the pottery of Ahmed 'Alawiye, at the present time employed 
by|Selim, whose shop is between the Mawlawiyeh and the Damascus 
Gate. 

" What follows is the exact narrative which I took from the mouth of 
Hassan, always being very careful to let him speak, without suggesting 
anything by injudicious questioning : — 

' ' ' Hassan entered into the service of Bakir about four months ago : he 
Avas formerly ajsprenticed to Ahmed, with another boy named Khalil, 
son of Said the barber, and Abu Mansura, journeyman. 

' ' ' Selim el Gari got soft clay of Ahmed, made out of it, at his own 
house, statues of men, dogs, and women, -with noses, hands, feet, and 
breasts, the whole covered with writings : he also made little discs of 
clay like saldout (pieces of money) : then he sent them to Ahmed's to be 
baked. Ahmed also made vases for him in turn, and Selim wrote letters 
on them. 

" ' It was Hassan and his fellow-apprentice Khalil who were charged 
Avitli carrying the things from Selim' s house to the shop, and vice versa. 
The first time Selim himself took him to his house to make him 
know it ; he was then staying in the street called Ilarat el DJonwalide, 
near the Latin Patriarchate. He has since moved, and has gone to the 
street Agahat el Battikh, near the Spanish Consulate. 

' ' ' Hassan has only been once in the latter house. Selim at first ad- 
dressed himself to the potter, Hadj Khalil el Malhi, but could not come 
to terms with him. 

" ' Selim, after having shown his house to Hassan, gave him two 
iechliks : for every journey he made he gave him one hchlik, or a hcchlik 
and a half, sometimes two. To the workman, Abu Mansui-a, he gave 
■one or two mejelies, and to Ahmed, a sum much larger (a pound, if I 
remember right). 

" ' The jom-neys were made between the MagJireh and the Icha ; that is 
to say, in the three or four hours which follow sunset : Hassan, for his 
part, carried the things under an a&«?/e, hiding them as much as possible, 
as he had been instructed. He even asserts that he left Ahmed in order 
not to continue an occupation which made him fearful of being arrested 
by the patrol. 



lis THE SHAPIRA COLLECTION. 

" ' Xot oiily were the objects minutely counted, but if any one got 
broken, the very smallest fragments were carefully picked up. Selini 
gave, one day, two piastres to a boy who picked up a sahtoutiu clay that 
Hassan had dropped. 

" ' Once they gave Hassan to carry a large statuette, still hot, which 
burned his hands, his chest, and his arms. 

" ' When he brought the things to Selim, he saw him on many occa- 
sions dip them into a caldroTi JiUed u'ith irater; one night Hassan himself, at 
the request of Selim, drew water from the cistern to fill the caldron. 
Selim left them to soak for some time, and then took them out to dry :. 
he said that it was to make them gi-ow old.' 

"I insist particularly on the sj)o«;aHeo«s character of this narrative, 
which I have pui-posely reproduced in its own simple and methodlcss 
style ; it contains details Avhich cannot have been invented, and the 
exactness and veracity of which I have been able to establish by other 
means. I beKeve it conclusive : it is notably instructive as to the pro- 
cess adopted by Selim in order to impregnate his things with that couclie 
of saltpetre ■R^hich was to be their brevet of authenticity. I think that 
we can henceforth, with these elements of information, consider the 
matter as settled. 

" C. CLEEIMOXT-GAJXA-EAr." 

XoTE. — In printing the above extract from M. Ganneau's letter, it 
mil perhaps be well to state the line of action taken up by the Com- 
mittee of the Palestine Exploration Fund from the fii'st announcement 
of the " find." It is to Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake that the Committee owed 
their first sketches and copies of the jars, idols, and inscriptions. Other 
copies Avere verj'- kindly sent by Dr. Chaplin. On Lieut. Conder's arrival 
in Jerusalem, he made careful water-colour sketches of the more impor- 
tant objects ; but the figures and vases failed to carry with them, to the 
eyes of English archajologists, any evidence of theii- genuineness. Still, 
as nothing but copies had been sent home, opinion Avas AAdthheld until 
specimens could be seen and handled. "With the inscriptions it was 
different. Mr. Vaux, himself a member of the Executive Committee, at 
once declared, without hesitation, that these were, one and all, forgeiies. 
Acting chiefly on his opinion, the soundness of which is now clearly 
estabhshed, the Committee refused to have anything to do with the 
collection. Meantime, fresh intelHgence arrived. Two German travel- 
lers, -svith M. Shapii-a, had dug up similar fragments of vessels them- 
selves in Moab. New specimens came m. freely. It was repoi-ted that 
whole camel-loads of pottery were habitually transported to Damascus 
to be broken up ; pamphlets Avere written on the inscriptions ; and then 
the German Govei-nment, bujdng the whole of the first collection, gave 
a stimulus to the production of a second, which has since been proceed- 
ing rapidly. Against this evidence were to be placed the facts that 
recent travellers had found nothing similar in Moab ; that the American 
survey party in Moab had positive assurance from all quarters that 



THE SHAPIRA COLLECTIOK. 119 

nothing ever had been found ; that Mr. Wright, of Damascus, had 
disproved the camel-load story ; and that the English archajologists 
refused to be convinced. 



" Jerusalem, Feb. 11, 1874, 

" I had noticed, as I thought, a difference in style between the later 
inscribed and the earlier uninscribed pottery, but my suspicions had 
never taken a definite form till early in November. I then received 
accounts from some Bedawin, who said that the ' written jars ' were 
made at Jerusalem, and thence transported to Moab, buried there, and 
shoAvn to Mr. Shapira as found among ruins or in caves. This informa- 
tion I privately transmitted to the Palestine Exploration Fund, on the 
1 1th of the same month. On the 24th of December my inquiries resulted 
in a statement voluntarily made by a potter, one Haj 'Abd el Bald,* 
with whom I had been in communication since the end of November, 
of which the following is a translation : — 

' ' ' Since more than a year, Selim and his father the chandler used to 
come over to me and ask me to make for them large and small pots, and 
to take from me clay, and make it into images, and Avrite upon them, 
and bring them to me to bake for them, and they called them " Antika," 
and they used to make of it hundreds of different objects ; such as 
birds, and heads, and images, and hands, and spoons, and such like : 
and I baked them and retm-ned them to them, and they gave me a 
bakshish, and asked me not to mention it to anybody; they never left 
with me any piece, however small, but delivered them to me counting 
them, and received them back in the same manner. 

(Signed) " 'El Haj Abd el Baki.' 

" ' At the request of Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake, I hereby certify that 
the foregoing statement was read over to Haj 'Abd el Baki el fawakhiri 
in my presence, who declared that it was his OAvn, and that he fully 
confirmed it. 

" 'British Consulate, Bee. 24, 1874. 

(Signed) " 'Noel Temple Moore, Consul.'' 

" No one who has, as I have, seen almost every object in the collection, 
Avill, I think, fail to admit the differences observable between the earliest 
and the latest. Among the former, few were inscribed ; and among the 
latter it is just the contrary ; the later pottery differs, too, in texture 
from the earliest. The theory which seems to me most probable is, that 
having sold a genuine lot of antique earthenware to M. Shapira, the 
forger then proceeded to duj^e this energetic collector, of whose honesty 
and good faith in the matter I have no doubt. 

* JI. Ganneau spells this name Bagi, and that of Selim el Kari, Gari. 



}20 THE SHAPIRA COLLECTION, 

" I cannot see -wliy so mncli stress is laid on the fact, that some of the 
iesserw have tlic impression of linen (or as it rather seemed to me of 
rough-grained wood) at the bottom, for every one must be well aware 
that marks as fine, or even finer, such as the lines in finger prints, are 
found in pottery, whose antiquity is undisputed, if it has been preserved 
under favourable circumstances. I think also, that if M. Ganneau had 
seen the former collection, he would not have stated that, ' if in some 
specimens which I have not seen, the saltpetre has penetrated through 
the whole mass, it is because the clay was still less baked and the 
bath was longer prolonged.' I distinctly remember one of the early 
jars, made of good red pottery, being destroyed by the efEorescence of 
salt, and consequent flaking off of the outer coats, in a manner similar to 
that which may be seen in the case of some undoubtedly genuine terra- 
cottas found in Palestine, and now in my possession. ... At 
present, I fear the genuine and the forged are inextricably mixed up in 
the Berlin Museum, unless some competent archaeologists are able to 
separate them. I may add that immediately on receipt of the news 
communicated in the cohmms of the Athencmm, Dr. Kersten, Acting 
Consul-General for Prussia, proceeded with Pastor Weser, the Lutheran 
Minister here, who accompanied Shapira to Moab, and searched Selim 
el Kari's house throughout, but did not succeed in finding any evidence 
to confirm the charge laid to his door. 

" C. F. Tyiiwhitt Deake, F.E.G.S." 



"JEEUS.VLEM, Feb. 19, IS'74. 

" Since my letter of the 12th inst., an unofficial inquiry, to which I 
was invited, has been held at the German Consulate, by Pastor Weser 
and Mr. Dinsberg, to try and find out the truth of the statements made 
by the potters to M. Ganneau, and mentioned in his letter of Dec. 29, 
18T3, in the Athenaium of Jan. 24, 1874. 

• " The result of this inquiry, which extended over four days, is most 
unsatisfactory. The old man, 'Abd el Baki, declared for three days that 
he knew nothing of the matter, and that he never made the declaration 
(published in my former letter) in the English Consulate, though when 
the document was sho^vn him he acknowledged the signature. The 
boy, Hasan ibn el Bitar, at first declared the story ho told to M. 
Ganneau to bo in all respects true ; he then, after two such declarations, 
changed his tactics, and asserted that M. Ganneau had taught it him. 
The other potters denied all knowledge of the matter. On the last day 
M. Ganneau was present, and an arrangement seems to have been made 
among the potters. 'Abd el Baki and Hasan both swore roundly that 
they had been taught their story by M. Ganneau, and Selim el Kari 
comijleted the attack by saying that he had been offered £100 by that 
gentleman if he would confess that he and Mr. Shapira forged the 



THE SHAPIRA COLLECTION. 121 

pottery. After such contradictory statements and varying evidence it 
■was both, useless and impossible to proceed furtlier witli the case. 

" The conviction rests unchanged in my own mind, that the decla- 
ration made to me on December 24 by 'Abd el Bald is the truth. It is 
now, however, utterly impossible to estimate the extent of the forgeries. 
The seeming combination and pre-arrangement of testimony among the 
potters show that the forgers (for there are probably more than one) 
have spared no pains to hide the truth, in which they have succeeded 
but too Avell. The manner of their- attack on M. Ganneau seems to me 
to point to their guilt, now imi)0ssible to prove, though it seems not 
unlikely that a few months' patient inquiry would have served to settle 
and define the extent of it. 

" CnAS. F. Tyrwhitt Drake, F.E.G.S." 



To the Editor of the " Athemcuin." 

" Jerusalem, Feb. 19, 187-4. 

"Allow me to inform those of jouv readers who have perused M. 
Ganneau's letter concerning the above subject, that the evidence adduced 
therein is just now being sifted on the spot by four gentlemen of the 
highest character, one of whom is an Englishman ; and, although the 
Minutes of the Proceedings are not yet in my hands, I am warranted 
in telling you that all the witnesses on whom M. Ganneau relies have 
been found utterly worthless. 

"I, for myself, have not given any credence either to their former 
testimony or to their present statements levelled against M. Ganneau ; 
but the investigators have, by a severe cross-examination of several 
days' duration, not only of the witnesses themselves, but also of many 
other persons to whom attention was draAvn in the course of the inquii-y 
as being connected with the pottery trade, not been able to produce the 
slightest evidence against the genuineness of my collection, nor has the 
sudden search of Selim, the suspected forger's house, brought anything 
to light to warrant the accusation. 

" Moreover, it has proved impossible, in spite of many attempts, to 
obtain from any of the potteries here any woi'k resembling the Moabite 
pottery ; whilst, on the other hand, during a visit to Moab, which I 
paid some two months ago, together with the E,ev. H. Weser, seven 
more vases with inscriptions were found by us which, from the place 
and the circumstances under which they were dug out, must unquestion- 
ably be genuine. 

" I hope, with your permission, to give you, by-and-by, a detailed 
and complete refutation of the charges brought against the genuineness 
of my collection. 

"M. W. Shapira." 



122 THE SHAPIRA COLLECTION. 

"Jerusalem, Feb. IT, 18T4. 

" Thiit part of my report on tliis subject wliich appeared in the 
Aihencewn of Jan. 24 has not been received here, as might have been 
expected, without producing considerable disturbance. I did not 
conceal from myself the probable consequences of doing what I con- 
sidered, and still consider, my duty. 

"M. Weser, a German clergyman, who takes a very peculiar interest in 
the affair, instituted, immediately on the news of my letter reaching 
Jerusalem, a personal inquiry into the facts that I had revealed. I was 
not made acquainted with this inquiry at its commencement, and it was 
only two days ago that he wrote inviting me to hear the new declara- 
tions of certain persons named in my report — declarations presenting 
' essential differences ' to those obtained by myself. I had no reason 
for refusing this gentleman, whom I had not the j)leasure of knowing, 
the means of carrying to its end an examination which he had under- 
taken of his own accord, and which he told me, on the occasion of his 
visit, was to preserve a strictly jirivate character. Perhaps it would have 
been more correct if he had addressed himself to me from the commence- 
ment. However, this"? Kttle irregularity could easily be overlooked, 
after receiving his verbal explanations, and I proposed a meeting at the 
temporary residence of my friends and neighbours, Lieut. Conder and 
Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake. I went there with M. Lecomte. Pastor Weser 
was accompanied by two of his fellow-countrymen, one of whom served 
as Arabic interpreter. 

' ' The ajjprenticc Ha ssan ibn el Bitar, whose declaration you have had 
already, was brought forward, and declared, in my presence and on his 
oath, that having been brought to my house, I had locked him tip, beaten 
him, and threatened him tvith death, to force him to repeat the lesson 
which I had taught him. 

" After him, we heard another potter, Abd el Bagi, called Abu Man- 
soura, of Avhom Mr. Drake had previously obtained a deposition, written 
before the English Consul, certified by him, and containing simiLir 
revelations to those of Hassan on the ceramic proceedings of Sclim. 
The new witness swore by Allah and the triple divorce that I had 
sought him out and told him that he must repeat, tvordfor word, all 
that he said and signed later on before the Consul. 

" Baker el Masry next affirmed, also on oath, that Hassan, on coming 
away from me, had told him exactly what precedes. 

" Another potter, Ahmed el 'Alamiye, deposed in the most enei'getic 
manner, and on the most sacred oaths, that all the declarations related 
above were the exact truth, that he absolutely did not know Selim, and 
had never worked for any one of that name. 

' ' To crown the whole, they brought the hero himself, Selim el Gari, 
who, as I am informed, had been arrested and imprisoned up to that 
moment at the German Consulate. 

"Solim, after having protested his entire innocence, turned to me with 
an oratorical gesture, which was not without tlignity, and began to 



THE SHAPIRA COLLECTION. 



12a 



apostroi)liizc nie witli vcliemence. Thereupon, one of the German 
gontlouien, who served us interpreter to Pastor Wcser, interrupted him 
sharply, and told him to be quiet. 

" Surprised at the eagerness ^Yith which his silence was commanded, 
and not suspecting the intention, probably charitable, which animated 
the interruption, I insisted on Selim being allowed to finish his discourse, 
and ordered him myself to speak at full liberty. 

" ' M. Ganneau,' he went on, ' meeting me two months ago in the 
street of the Christians, under the Arch, near the Greek convent, told 
vie that lie tvouJd (jive me a hundred iwunds if I woidd affirm that Hie 
Bhapira jwitery teas false, and luas fabricated hy Shapira and myself.^ 

' ' In all these depositions there is a remarkable and striking uxianimity. 
Summed up, they amount to this : — M. Oanneau, hy laying traps, hy 
hloivs, tlireats of death, promises, hrihery, and other measures not to he con- 
fessed, has ohtained, or tried to obtain, lying evidence to prove the falseness 
of the Shapira antiquities. 

" The matter, put thus clearly, adnnts of only one way of looking at 
it : — (1) Either I have devised this black plot. (2) Or these men are 
either hardened scoundrels, or else poor devils telKng their story from 
fear or interest, and under pressui-e of the kind that they pretend me to 
have exercised on them. 

" I do not know which alternative Pastor Weser and his countrymen 
have decided on adopting, not having wished to insult them by asking, 
and supposing that this absurd accusation would refute itself by its very 
enormity. 

" Let us ]Dut aside personal feelings. In admitting the first hj^othesis 
the matter would be settled ; and not only at the bar of public opinion, 
but in the courts of justice, woiild my conduct be arraigned. But even 
then one Avoiild have to consider: (1) the reasons which would have 
urged the adojition of a line of conduct so dangerous, and, so to say, so 
clumsy ; (2) the reasons why these worthy Arabs did not accuse me at 
once, — why they commence, as Pastor Weser loyally informed me, the 
one (Hassan) by repeating tivice purely and simply the confession taken 
down by me ; the other (Abd el Bagi) by absolutely denying his wiitten 
deposition placed in the hands of Mr. Drake ; and, lastly, the reasons 
why they have suddenly turned round, like one man, and denied their 
contradictory statements, in order to accuse me, luith common accord, of 
the most unlilvcly conduct that could be imagined. 

' ' If, on the contrary, their story be taken for what it is worth, we find 
ourselves facing the second hypothesis, which may be considered under 
two diiferent aspects : — 

" (1) Either these people lie by an instinctive movement of self-defence 
natural to Arabs when they think they are threatened ; or, which is 
more probable, considering their suspicious unanimity, in obedience to 
an order given by the oidy man among them really compromised ; and 
they now deny entirely the truth they made no difficidty about confess- 
ing six weeks before. 



124 THE SHAPIRA COLLECTION. 

" (2) Or else tliey lie to-day, as tliey lied six weeks ago ; and we have 
no more right to believe whatthey said then, to Drake and to me, than 
what they say now. 

" In the former case the conclusion is clear : it is what I have exposed 
in my report, and which I maintain still — the pottery that I have seen, 
with all like it, is false. 

"In the second case, I should have made myself the echo of a calumny 
in setting down inconsiderately imputations invented at pleasure. But, 
then, how to explain that these arbitrary imputations contain details 
presenting the most strange coincidences with all that we know abeady 
of the affair, the persons, and the things mixed up ? 

"How, for example, could the young apprentice Hassan, who, I repeat, 
related the facts perfectly simply, without being guided h/ amj leading 
questions, know the name, the profession, and the successive residences 
of Selim ? How could he, spontaneously, describe the Uttle tesserce of 
clay (sahtout), the statues of men, dogs (sic), and women, the vessels 
covered with writing, &c., if he had never seen them ? How, on the 
other hand, could the workman interrogated by Mr. Drake have given 
him separately information entirely agreeing with that of Hassan ? 
The only reply is, that what these people said then was true, or that I 
have, in fact, organised the fantastic conspiracy that they now bring to 
light. Lastly, and not the least argument, if I had been the dupe of a 
lie, Selim Avould be innocent : now if Selim is iimocent, his role is per- 
fectly simple ; strong in his cause, he has only to deny. Why have 
recourse to the expedient, desperate in its audacity, of accusing the very 
man who hoped to unmask him of trying to corrupt him ? Either he 
tells the truth, and the pottery is authentic, or he lies in accusing me, 
and the pottery is as false as his allegations. He has bound himself to 
one of these conclusions indissolubly, and with his own hand. To 
myself, this clumsy calumny seems as good as a confession. Those who 
do me the honour of supposing me incapable of the basest, the most 
odious, and at the same time the most stupid machination, may say 
"vvith me — hahemus confitentem reum. 

"To sum up, we have returned to our point dc dejoart ; but our journey 
has not been in vain. "We have, on the Avay, eliminated the possibility 
of error; we have brought ourselves face to face with a dilemma. 
Either I am myself an illustrious impostor,— or the pseudo-Moabite 
pottery must be definitely banished from that scientific domain into 
which it should never have been allowed to enter. 

" Charles Clermoxt-Gaxneau." 



125 



NOTES. 

(1) Mr. Schick's Work at Jerusalem. 

Our esteemed contributor, Bauratii Schick, furnishes some interesting 
information relative to excavations made by him in the vicinity of 
Jeremiah's Grotto. The excavations were undertaken in the hope of 
finding the continuation of the remarkable aqueduct leading to the 
convent of the Sojurs de Sion (see Quarterly SUdement, 1S72, p. 47), and re- 
sulted in the discovery of the remains of several rock-hewn channels, but 
unfortunately at such a level as to preclude the possibility of their 
being connected with the aqueduct, and "we have still no clue to the 
source from which it derived its supply of water. 

In fi'ont of the scarped rock at Jeremiah's Grotto, Mr. Schick 
excavated to a depth of fifteen feet without reaching rock, and found 
that at some period a number of buildings had been erected against 
the rock. Excavations were also made at the foot of the scarped rock 
in a garden a little to the north, and here a row of arched chambers 
was found running along the face of the rock, and following the line 
of the escarpment on the eastern side of the garden. In the middle of 
the garden excavations were made in an old pool, uncovering a portion 
of a well-built pier of masonry, on which were found some masons' 
marks similar to those on the churches built in Palestine during the 
Crusading period. In the face of the rock escarpment, at the north end 
of the garden, the entrance to a rock-hewn chamber was discovered. 
This chamber, 1,5 feet wide and 11 feet long, was at one time divided 
into two rooms, and provided with a window to admit light, as well as a 
door with iron hinge and bolt. It was found to be half full of bones 
and earth, and apparently had been used as a general tomb — possibly 
Christian, as two crosses were painted in red on the walls. A skeletoa 
was also seen in the rubbish at the side of the excavation. Mi\ Schick 
is of opinion that in those remains he has found the old convent and 
church of St. Stephen, but they are more probably those of the Asnerie, 
which was left standing for some time after the capture of the city 
by Saladin. , 

(2) LiEUTEX-^'T Coxder's Eock Plax of Jerusalem. 

Lieut. Conder writes that the contour plan of Jerusalem, published 
in the October number (1873), was not, as stated in the preface, con- 
structed entirely from previous work, and that it contained the results 
of his own work, from which the Valley of the Sisters of Zion and the 
lie of the rock in the Muristan were deduced. 

(3) The Promised Specimeis' of the New Map. 

It has been found necessary to postpone the Carmel map, taken, 
from Lieutenant Condor's Survey, for another three months. The 



12G NOTES. 

proof, sent to Palestine for correction and annotation by that officer 
lumself, has been returned, but too late for production in the present 
number. 

(4) The AMEEICA2J Society. 

A second " Statement " has been issued by the American Society, in 
which the work has been brought down to the commencement of 
Lieutenant Steevers's expedition into Moab. Want of space obliges us 
to postpone a notice of this interesting publication till the July 
number. 

(o) The FEAGiiEXTS or the Moabite Stone. 

At a meeting of the General Committee, held in the Jerusalem Chamber, 
Westminster Abbey, on Tuesday, Feb. 24th, 1874, it was resolved "that 
the application of the French Ministry of Public Instruction, Worship, 
and Fine Arts, for the fragments of the Moabite Stone, containing fifty- 
six characters, to complete the much larger portion possessed by the 
Museum of the Louvre, be acceded to, in the interests of science and 
archaeological knowledge." 



(G) Peofessor Hayter Lewis on the Eepoet of M. Cleemont- 

GtANjVEAU. 

The following is extracted from a letter by Professor Lewis : — 

" M. Ganneau is quite right in thinking that the tool marks will be 
of important service in identifying the buildings in which they are 
found. 

' ' The peculiar delicate looking tooling (always anglewise) distinguishes 
nearly every specimen of Norman masonry with which I am acquainted. 
You may see it close here, in St. Bartholomew's Church, Smithfield, 
and wherever else time has left the surface tolerably perfect. The 
Norman tooling goes across the flat stone, but follows the lines of the 
mouldings. This also M. Ganneau has noticed. The dotted marks are, 
I have no doubt, the well-known thirteenth century tooling, which was 
done by a claw tool, leaving a number of notches or dots, and so was 
quite distinguished from the diagonal Norman. I have no doubt what- 
ever that if M. Ganneau finds the mosque of Hebron to be, as I believe 
that Mr. Fergusson thinks it to be, English work of the thirteenth 
•century, he will also find that the pillars have been tooled with such a 
tool, and bear the marks which he describes as dotted. 

" But in addition to the above, the size of the stones should be noted. 
The Norman work is very peculiar. The stones are seldom above nine 
inches square, or a size near this ; very regular and well jointed, closely 
at the uprights, ]in. to ^in. at the bods. To a practised eye this masonry 
can be detected at a glance. With the thirteenth century came more 
machinery and larger stones ; still very regular masonry." 



127 

LIST OF QUESTIONS AND MEMORANDA SUGGESTED 
BY THE CONSERVATION COMMITTEE OF THE ROYAL 
INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS. 

N.B.— In all cases tlio most important objects required after jolioto- 
gi-aplis of the work have been obtained are accurate plans and kcc- 
tions, plotted to scale if possible on the spot, with the dimensions 
clearly figured on all the dra^wings. 

1. Name of spot in Arabic (if possible written by a native), and general 
description. 

2. What is the bearing of the structure in relation to the compass ? 
B'lasonry. — 3. What is the geological nature of the stone — especially 

of the wrought stone ? Can it be identified with any local stone ? 

4. Are there any marks of fire on the same, or any evidence of its 
having been under water ? 

5. Describe the character and material of the mortar, and state the 
thiclaiess of the joints. 

G. Joints to be noted when superficial, and depth of joints figui-ed. Is 
the jointing rectangular? and are the horizontal joints continuous or 
broken ? 

7. How is the ashlar work bonded ? and of what thickness ? 

8. How is the rubble work laid ? Dry ? or with little mortar ? 
(N.B. — It is desirable to procure photographs showing different speci- 
mens of this work.) 

9. What is the character of the masonry ? Show it in detail draw- 
ings, carefully measured, and note especially "draft" or "bevelled 
margins." 

10. Describe the nature of all tool-marks, masons' marks, &c., and 
procure rubbings of the same if possible. 

11. Is there any mark of a Lewis or other means of raising ? 
Arches. — 12. Note and accurately plot the direction of the joints in 

arches. State whether the arch is crowned by a keystone, or v/hether it 
has a vertical joint in the crown. 

13. Is there any indication of skew-arches ? 

14. In cases of a brick structure, describe the size of bricks, the thick- 
ness of the joints, and the natiu-e of the mortar. 

General Description of the Structure. — 15. Is the pavement level 
throughout or raised in any part ? (N.B.— If pavement be destroyed, 
its level may often be identified by marks left in the wall.) 

16. Are there any traces of vaults or subterraneous chambers ? 

17. Are there any traces of an apsidal plan, whether circular or 
polygonal ? 

18. Arc there any remains of windows? If so, give their height, 
position, &c. 

19. Give the same information respecting any door or doors. 

20. Give the same information respecting any pillar or pillars. 

21. Are there any remains of roofs? If so, describe whether they 
are flat, barrel-vaulted, groined, or domical. 



128 LIST OF QUESTIONS AND MEMORANDA. 

22. In case of domical vaulting, describe pendentive and springing. 

23. As extensive remains will probably be those of a temple, syna- 
gogue, a cburch or mosque, particular search should bo made for any 
remains of altars, inscriptions, monograms, &c. 

Cromlechs. — 1. What is the nvimber of stones supporting the top 
slab ? and in case of one or more sides being open, to which point of 
the compass is the opening directed ? 

2. Are there any holes pierced through either of the stones ? 

3. Are there any signs of the stones having been squared, or other- 
wise worked with a tool ? 

4. Ai-e there any remains of stone circles, stone pillars, tumuli, or 
other monuments near ? If so, show the general plan. 

5. Are there any signs of burial in the tumuli or within the crom- 
lechs ? If so, describe the exact position of body, and carefully pre- 
serve any remains of skulls. If it be not 'possible to remove them, take 
their exact contour. 

Most of the above questions have been attended to by Captain Wilson 
and Captain Warren, whose series of photographs are very admirable. 
They are, however, generally of too small a size to give the information 
required as to the details of the architecture, and in some of the most 
interesting photographs of the masoni-y there does not appear to be any- 
thing to give an idea of the scale. We would suggest that the plan used 
by Monsieur Viollet-le-Duc be adopted, of having a measuring rod put 
against the work to be drawn or photographed. It is, however, in 
respect of the details that further information is more particiilarly 
required. Unless the observer be thoroughly acquainted with the 
various phases which the mouldings, ornaments, &c., have assumed at 
different times and under different influences, a mere description of them 
will be of little value. The column of a building, for example, described 
as Ionic, might be of the date of the immediate descendants of Alexander, 
or of the Eomans, or their descendants, the Italians, at any period for 
several centuries, or of the Byzantines— or it might have been carved by 
Greek architects imder Eoman influence. In order to obtain information 
sufiicient to indicate the date, &c., of any work, the following would 
be required in addition to what is above mentioned : — Sections of movdd- 
ings full size (as the contour of these varied very much at different 
periods and in different styles, they should, when jDossible, be drawn 
by means of the cymograph) ; large photographs, or squeezes of portions- 
of the ornaments, so as to show the precise way in which they were 
carved — as both the method of carving, and the general design, varied 
as much as the form of the moiddings. All traces of pointed architec- 
tm-e should be particularly noted, and the mouldings and ornaments 
should be copied with great care. The above memorandum will also 
apply -with great force to any sarcophagi, or to the tombs, ornaments, 
&c., whether rock-cut or other-wise. In all cases careful search should be 
made for fragments of mouldings built into the walls, and for different 
kinds of masonry, as these would indicate an earlier structure, and give 
a clue to its date. 



Quarterly Statement, July, 1874.] 

THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND 



P K E F A C E. 



It is "with the deepest sorrow that vre record the death of Mr. C. 
F. Tyrwhitt Drake, which took pLace at Jerusalem, on Tuesday the 
23rd ult. An attack of fever was followed by complications of a 
kind which, although the patient rallied at one time so as to give 
hopes of recovery, proved fatal after three weeks of suffering. Mr. 
Drake was only twenty-eight years of age. His loss is a grievous 
one to the work of exploration, and our readers will greatly miss 
the intelligent and pleasant letters which have for two years and a 
half helped to keep tliem informed of the progress of the Survey. 
In oiir pages farther on will be found a short memorial paper by 
Lieutenant Conder. 

Lieutenant Conder contributes to the present number a paper on 
the identification of zEnon, the " place near Salim, where there was 
much water" (St. John iii. 23). Three sites have been proposed; 
Lieutenant Conder advocates that fu-st proposed by Dr. Robinson. 
He offers an answer to the problem of the tells of Palestine ; they 
are, he thinks, brickmaking accumulations. He traces the victory and 
pursuit of Grideon (Judges vii.), identif^-ing, as he goes, the places 
whither the host fled, " Beth-shittah in Zererath, and to the border 
of Abel-meholah " (Judges vii. 22). If the chapter be read side by 
side with Lieutenant Conder's comments, it will be found to have 
received much additional light. If his proposed identification of 
Zererath with Ain Zahrah be accepted, it is an entirely new 
discovery. Lieutenant Conder's argument in favour of Eas el Ain 
as the site of Herod's Antipatris maj^ be read with the paper by 
Major "Wilson on the same subject. 

Mr. Drake, in the last report we have from him, speaks of the 
continued subsidence of the bottom of the Dead Sea. He also 
speaks of the curious Kurn Sartabeh, of Akrabeb, and the ruins of 
Herod's town of Phasaelas. 

The voluminous reports of M. Ganneau continue to be of the 
greatest importance and interest. They are full of inscriptions^ 
legends, traditions, and suggestions. To architects and those 

K 



130 PREFACE. 

interested in the controversies -which, have grown up round the 
Ivubbet es Sakhra, the most vahiable portions of the rejiorts "will 
be the account of the columns and balustrade of the building. 

The excavations in Jerusalem are, for want of funds, very limited, 
consisting printipall}- of those in and about the rock-cut chambers 
north of the Yia Dolorosa. 

The identifications proposed by M. Ganneau in this number, 
are, that of Malha with Manocho (see the Septuagint version, Joshua 
xix. 9), the Forest of Hareth (1 Sam. xxii. 5) with Herche, and Kurn 
Sartabeh with the place in which Joshua saw the captain of the 
Host of the Lord (Joshua v. 13 — 15). 

An account of the Second Statement of the American Exploration 
Society will be found in the present number. It is necessarily 
brief. 

The most recent information on the Shapira Collection is also 
published. We do not, however, undertake to give in future 
further arguments on the basis of facts already known. 



FINANCIAL POSITION OF THE FUND. 

Received from Jlarcli 26111, to June 26tli, 1874 ... £788 11 5 

Incliuling ])iocceLls of Lectures ... ... ... 31 19 4 

Sale of Publications ) at Lectures ... 19 14 2 

Sale of Photographs ^ and elsewhere ... 9 16 



Balance in banks (June 26th) 306 14 

PROPOSED ARRANGEMENTS OF THE FUND. 

Lieutenant Conder will return to Palestine in the autumn, and resume the 
work of the Survey. Tlie non-commissioned officers are in Jerusalem, under the 
charge of Dr. ("haplain. 

Lieutenant C'ondcr will read a paper on the Survey at the meeting of the 
British Association in August, at Belfast. 

j\I. Ganneau will continue his work at Jerusalem and elsewhere during the 
summer. 

TRANSLITERATION AND NOMENCLATURE. 

It has been decided by the Publication Committee to adopt for the future 
Robinson's system of transliteration in ail their rejwrts and papers. 

THE PUBLICATION OF THE MAP. 
It has been resolved that until the new map is completely finished no steps shall 
be taken towards publishing any portion of it 

THE ANNUAL MEETING. 
This was held on Tuesday, June 23rd, at the Royal Institution. In the 
unavoidable absence of the Archbi.shop of York, the chair was taken liy the Dean 
of Westminster. Lieutenant Conder read a paper on the Survey, and resolutions 
were i)ro]iosed by Sir iiartle Frere, Gen. Sir Frederick Goldsmid, Rev. George 
Williams, Rev. Dr. Planning, Rev. Dr. Porter, and Mr. George Grove. A full 
report will be published in the next Quarterly Statement. 

PRICE OF THE QUARTERLY STATEMENT. 
In future this will be half-a-crown to non-subscribers. 

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY. 
Intelligence has been received from the Secretary of New York tliat the sum 
of 60,000 dols. has been collected, and that the money is still Howing in. A 
second expedition to carry on the work of the first will be dispatched imme- 
<liatelv. 



Vift*r*dK.*T. ■ - • --.-:,- -.iiwxKofr, 



CHAELES r. TYEWHITT DEAKJ5. 

London, 26th June, 1874. 

The sad news ■wliicli has just reached us from Palestine entails 
on me the painful duty of writing a few last words on one who 
for two years has been my constant and almost only companion. 
The death of Charles E. Tyrwhitt Drake adds one more name 
to the list of those who have fallen in harness in the exploration of 
Palestine. The fatal Jordan valley climate, to the effects of which 
I think our heavy loss is mainly attributable, took one member 
from Lynch's party. Dr. Tristram's expedition did not escape a 
similar .calamity. The exploration of Jerusalem cost the life of 
one of Capt. Warren's men, and the health of another. In all of 
these expeditions, however (as in the parallel case of African 
travel), the actual head of the party invariably escaped. We had 
trusted that, in the serious illness which obliged Capt. Stewart to 
resign the command of the survey of Palestine, our debt to the 
country was paid, and we invariably looked forward with hope 
and in confidence that all other members of the original party 
would be able to see the satisfactory termination of their work. 

It has pleased God that this should be otherwise, and the only 
consolation which can be found for the survivors is, that all that 
could be done was done to preserve the valuable life ; that Mr. 
Drake was in the hands of kind friends and trustworthy followers ; 
that the medical advice of Dr. Chaplin was, both fi-om his 
peculiar experience and his unusual ability, all that could be 
desired, and that his treatment of the case was entirely confirmed 
by the opinion of his brother practitioners. 

I believe that from his childhood Mr. Drake suffered from an 
asthma, which rendered life in his native country almost an impos- 
sibility. He often told me that he felt it beyond hope that ho 
should live to see his prime, and it was to the enthusiastic desire 
to do something worth remembering in a short life that we must 
attribute that disregard of fatigue and imprudent expenditm^e of 
strength which hastened on the end. 

It is but a poor comfort for those he has left behind to remem- 
ber that bis ambition was to a great extent realised, and that, 
though he was just on the point of undertaking new and im- 
portant explorations, still he felt that already his name was 



aj^M^b-^jB^t-JJWv^M.iaa^M^saay^^tMBjfe^ 



w^sixmi^^^^iiis^^il^ty^^fi^^^iii^^^ii^yisji 



132 



IK MEMORIAM. 



made, and that as long as any interest is felt in tlie question of 
Biblical investigation, it will be remembered with honour and 
esteem. 

His acquaintance with Bible lands dates from the commence- 
ment of the Sinai Ordnance Survey. Of that expedition he was 
to have been a voluntary member, but circumstances detained 
him, and prevented his joining till the work was almost com- 
pleted, and a severe attack of dysentery very nearly proved fatal 
at the oiitset of his career. His subsequent work in the Desert 
of the Wanderings in company with Professor Palmer, leading to 
important and interesting discoveries, is well known ; as also his 
explorations in the Antilibanus, and the eastern deserts and 
Hauran, described in " Unexplored Syria." The value of these 
labours were fully appreciated by the Eoyal Geographical Society 
(of which he was a Fellow), and all other authorities capable of 
forming an oj)inion. Had he been able to complete these latter 
explorations, he would probably have known more of trans- 
Jordanic Palestine than any one now living. 

On joining as a volunteer the Survey Expedition, he found 
himself suddenly called upon (in consequence of Captain Stewart's 
illness) to assumeallthe responsibilities and duties of a commander. 
Had he shrunk from the delicate and difficult position which a 
civilian lias to occupy when in charge of trained soldiers, the 
Great Survey would have been a failure, and the success of this 
important work must always be attributable in great measure to 
his courage and tact. For six months, and those passed in the 
worst hill country in Palestine, at the very commencement of the 
work, when Europeans and natives were alike unused to the 
practical details, and unable to communicate together, Mr. Drake 
had to act as commander, guide, interpreter, and archaeologist. 
The progress was extraordinary, and his firm and just manage- 
ment, tact, and acquaintance with the habits, prejudices, and 
character of the Syrians were advantages of which I have felt 
the benefit ever since the command devolved upon me. 

Throughout the expedition he suffered much in health. A man 
less enthusiastic would have quitted Palestine, and perhaps 
escaped the sad fate which I cannot but attribute to want of due 
care for health and over-work and exposure at a time when rest 
and a good climate were indispensable. Bent as he was, however, 
on continuing the work he had begun, it was worse^than useless 
to endeavour to persuade him to give it up. Soon after my 
arrival his liver was seriously affected by the trying work entailed 



IX MEMORIAM. 



133 



on US all in measuring the check base line. He was obliged to 
leave on a visit to Egypt, but it was not until he returned to 
England last spring that any marked improvement in his health 
took place. On his return in October, we all thought him look- 
ing stronger and better. Then came the most serious check our 
work ever sustained, of which little is known to others than 
members of the party. In November the terrible Jericho fever 
broke out in our camp at 'Ain el Sultan. In a few days no fewer 
than ten members of the party, including Mr. Drake, were struck 
down, and the anxiety of those who escaped was, as may be 
imagined, very great. A full day's journey (and it was by special 
Providence that we were not more) from a doctor, or from any 
source of supply, in a malarious climate, a desert, and surrounded 
by wild and hostile tribes, with most of the servants incapable, 
and the rest only kept from deserting us by the certainty of beino- 
shot down, the anxiety of the position was as trying as can well 
be imagined. The unexampled kindness of Dr. Chaplin and Mr. 
Neil, under the circumstances, is an honour to England. Thouo-h 
suffei-ing himself, and quite unfit to be out of bed, the doctor 
mounted his horse, and accompanied by Mr. Neil, set out to come 
down to xis at Jericho, and met us bringing up Mr. Drake in the 
litter. The hotel-keepei-, Mr. Hornstein, at the risk of losino- 
every one of his guests, took him in, and spared no pains to make 
him comfortable. 

The English hospital was a refuge for our poor servants. The 
care andskiU of Dr. Chaplin saved Mr. Drake's life, and probably 
that of others. His recovery was rapid, and his state of health 
seemed more satisfactory than it had been for a longtime, but he 
was, I think, quite unaware of the extreme danger he had o-one 
through. I found six months later that he had never known 
how Dr. Chaplin, suffering himself most cruelly, had watched 
with me a whole night of delirium, hardly expecting that he 
would live till morning. We both felt at the time that he ought 
on his recovery to leave the country, and I shall always re"-ret 
that I did not represent this more strongly to the Committee, but 
that recovery was so rapid, and apparently so satisfactory, that 
it justified us in hoping he might be able to continue the work. 

I have enlarged on these circumstances, thinking it mio-ht be 
some consolation to his friends to know that all care was taken 
of him in his first illness, whence they may judge that he was 
equally well cai-ed for and attended during his last. 

The survey of the Jordan valley was resumed. The exposure 




IX MEMORIAM. 

and liardsliip were greater than anything we had before endured. 
For ten days we drank brackish water, and for nearly all the 
time we wei'e subject to alternations of extreme heat and cold, 
snow, rain, and unusual atmospheric pressure. The whole party 
was much exhausted, although consisting of men beyond the 
average in strength and power of endurance. It was true that 
Mr. Drake was far more cautious and saving of his strength than 
formerly, but he was unable to escape the effects of rain and 
malaria. 

On leaving the country I had felt some apprehensions of the 
return of the fever in summer, and written to his friends at 
Damascus, where I expected him to be, warning them not to 
allow him to journey alone in June — a time when he usually 
suffered from low fever. When the news arrived that he had 
been, seized, I could not but feel thankful that he was still in 
Jerusalem, knowing that the medical care he would get there 
was far superior to any in other parts of Palestine. In the 
face of such complications, however, as followed rapidly, no 
medical skill could, however, be of use. 

Of Mr. Drake's personal character, it will not become a 
younger man to speak. I always felt the comfort of .his ex- 
perience and his just and honourable dealing. His fitness for 
the work was in some respects peculiar, and he may behest judged 
by the fact, that whilst travelling in company with men of very 
various disposition and ability, he never complicated the difficulties 
of work by personal quarrels, and was well spokeu of by all. His 
excellent colloquial knowledge of Arabic, no less than his fiue 
figure and skill in all exercises, made him unusually respected by 
the Arabs and native authorities. His justice,integrity, and firmness 
were qualities invaluable in the East, and his good-nature and 
gentlemanly feeling enabled us for two long years of trying work, 
in a delicate relative position, to live together, almost unseparated^, 
without so much as a single unkind word passing between us. 

Claude R. Colder, Lieut. R.E. 



RU M^^^J - ^-i.^ '^/IW^^i 



THE JERUSALEM RESEARCHES. 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

VII. 

Jerusalem, March 5, 1874. 

In one of my recent visits to tlie Haram, I remarked tliat in one or tvro Excavation 
places they had taken away some of the slabs covering the ground within ga^hr" "^ 
the Sakhra : (1) before the gate of the cave ; (2) before the Eastern gate 
called Bab en iiehy Daoud. Ascertaining that on Saturday last they were 
going to dig at the second point, I went on that day to the Mosque, but 
unfortunately too late ; the excavation, insignificant (0'30 metre) in 
dicf:eusions, was already finished and the hole filled up. Vexed at losing 
an opportunity which might never occur again, I succeeded in my 
entreaties that the excavation should be begun over again before my 
eyes. I chose a point different from the first, trying to get as near as- 
possible to the rock. We attacked the soil again, OJO metre, S.S.E. 
of the angle of the south pillar placed between the eastern gate and 
the first circle of columns and pillars which surrounds the Sakhra 
properly so called. 

The excavation was pushed to a total depth of 0-90 metre, not count- 
ing the thickness of the upper slab. After a layer (O'SO metre) com- 
posed of greyish earth, mixed with stones and fragments of marble, a 
bed of cement was reached extremely compact and about 0*07 metre in 
thickness; the material was very hard, and the pick struck fire against 
the fragments of stone which were mixed u^ with it. I gathered a. 
specimen of this cement, which is grey in colour, and seems, like the 
Arabic cements, to be mixed with cinders and charcoal. 

Immediately beneath this layer appears the red earth, the same as is- 
to be seen in Jerusalem and its environs, in those places where there 
have been few inhabitants. We excavated in this earth for 0-33 metre 
more, till it was impossible to go any lower without making a regular- 
excavation and exciting susceptibilities. The conclusions to be drawn, 
from this little sounding are these : (1) There is no rock 0'90 metre- 
below the surface at the point of examination, which might have been 
guessed beforehand, as, judging from the Sakhra iteelf, the rock must 
have about here a general inclination of west to east. (2) The existence 
of a layer of earth almost untouched. (3) Immediately above this earth 
a bed of cement, forming the general substratum of the edifice, and 
apparently of Arabic origin. (4.) A layer of earth between this and the- 
surface slabs. 



13G LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

fragments A number of Arabic texts, neslcM, flourisbes, are daily being dis- 
t/o'ns^"'^ covered in the interior of the Sakbra during tbe course of the works ; 
many of these inscriptions are on plaques of marble wbicb bave been 
used in covering up tbe interior walls of tbe edifice, tbe bases of columns, 
sides of pillars, &c. Many of these texts are interesting from an epi- 
-rapbic point of view, or for tbe history of tbe Haram. They prove 
in any case how many successive alterations the Mosque has undergone. 
Not only are these ancient materials wbicb bave been used in tbe first 
construction, there are also anterior Arabic materials used for subse- 
<iuent modifications and alterations. Among these texts I remarked 
very fair specimens of Kurmatic writing : one in nesJihi contains a part of 
the Som-ati of the Goran called El Koursi ; and the mention of a work 
executed by tbe orders of an Emir Zeyned-din, son of Aly, son of Abd- 
allab, about the year 500 of tbe Hejira. 
Uases of We bave been several times to the Mosque to study tbe bases of 

colni>ii!r,Sc. -^^ piUars and columns uncovered, and the famous semicircular arca- 
dino- of tbe external wall. M. Lecomte has made detailed drawings 
(jf our observations, which will reach you with this report. An important 
fact has been revealed by the fall of certain mosaics. It is tbe existence 
of a strino' course in stone in tbe interior, and nearly in the middle of 
the drum which supports the cupola. Tbe profile of this string course 
appeared to M. Lecomte to resemble a mediieval profile of tbe 12tb 
century. Here is a new element which appears now only to complicate 
still more the already obscure problem of the origin of the actual 

monument. 

As for tbe semicircular arcade of tbe external wall, it is still very 
difficult to pronounce upon it. Up to the present, however, two things 
avQ quite certain : (1) The absence of the mediaeval dressing on tbe 
blocks entering into tbe construction of tbe wall and the arches ; (2) tbe 
existence on one of tbe blocks of a mason's mark of undetermined 

i)eriod, having this form ^T It is on tbe second pier left of the west 

door, and tbe third course above the leaden roofing. 

Viojected ^ ^q^]^ ig about to be undertaken in tbe Haram, which I shall follow 

wUhiiftTic ^ith the greatest attention. There has been found, it is said, in the 

"'""'""■ wall of tbe Haram, an Arabic inscription, which states that by digging 

at the place where it was written a great quantity of stones will be 

found which will serve for repairs or reconstructions. Three years ago, 

following this indication, they sunk a shaft of some depth, since covered 

up, but which I bave seen open. This excavation led to no result. The 

new director {viem(.ur) sent from Constantinople to superintend all tbe 

Haram works is about to reopen this shaft. The work, in the Haram 

itself, may be of tbe greatest importance, and I shall follow it with the 

greatest care possible. The point chosen is a little south of bench mark 

2387 -7 of the Ordnance Survey map. 

The inscrip- The inscription spoken of above is on the exterior of the eastern wall 

inner" ^^^ at the height of the loopholes (second course, counting the battle- 

^tones. ments), about 133 metres north of the south-east angle. Observe that 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 137 

at this place is a very sensible break in tae continuity of the Arab wall, 
seeming to indicate a later repair ; tbo line of junction is oblique, 
descending from south to north at an angle of about 45". The inscription 
is as follows : "In this place are stones buried for the use of the Ilaram 
esh Sherif." 

The writing is of the kind called sulus. The text presents in con- 
struction and orthography certain faults which seem to indicate a 
Turkish hand. It may be that this text was contemporary with the 
works executed in the reign of the Sultan Selim, who repaired the 
ramparts of the city. The first excavation undertaken under Ivondrot Bey 
on these indications had been placed immediately behind the inscription. 
The mtmour proposes to open it a little farther to the north, and, if 
necessary, to push a trench parallel to the wall. According to Captain 
Warren's map, we ought to light on the rock at a depth of about ten 
metres. It remains to be seen whether the inscription is in its original 
place. 

On going back to the Harani we examined a very fine base placed near inscription 

the entrance of the magazine close to El Aksa, at the east. The lower buudfn"- of 

face is entirely covered by a beautiful Arabic inscription in relief, the '''^®p'^"^'?■ 
. • . west wall, 

meanmg of which I made out at once, to the great astonishment of my 

Mussulman companions. It relates the restoration or construction of a 

suri'ounding wall {sour) of the city, or Haram, under the reign of the 

Sultan El MeJih el Mansour seif ed dSii Gilaoun es salehy. This sultan, 

seventh king of the Mameluke dynasty of the Baharites, reigned from 

■678 to 698 of the Hejira (1279—1290 a.d.) 

The Ai-abic historian of Jerusalem, Mejir ed Din, mentions among Rectifica- 
the works executed by order of this sultan, A.n. 678, the reconstruction passage^lu 
of the "roof" of the Mesjid el Aksa, on the south-west side, near the Mejired 
Mosque of the Prophets. Such, in fact, states the Arabic text published 
at Cairo. It is evident that the editors have made the mistake of writing 
sagaf for sour, roof for ivall. This is clear (I) from the possible con- 
fusion of these two words in Arabic writing ; (2) from the impossi- 
bility of speaking of the roof oi the Me?jid el Aksa, the phrase mean- 
ing the whole Ilaram ; (3) from the inscription which I have just 
quoted. 

Between the El Aksa and the Sakhra I observed, at the foot of the jxejjjcvai 
south staircase which leads to the platform, on the left, a fragment of a mouldings, 
moulding with the mediajval dressing strongly marked. This morceau, 
which M. Lecomte will sketch on the first opportunity, is extremely 
interesting, because it furnishes us with a moulding belonging with- 
out possible doubt to the period of the Crusades, further specimens 
of which we shall doubtless find in edifices of date hitherto undeter- 
mined. In the Barrack wall I have found another, of which also we 
shall take a drawing. 

"We have at length been enabled to examine closely the base of the The blocks 
arches hitherto hidden by a casing of marble, over the columns of the inter- ?^"J™oiint- 
mediary peristyle of the Kubbet es Sakhra. One of the external faces columns of 
was stripped, and we obtained leave to mount a ladder and examine cs Salira!' 



138 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU . 

the capital closely. You will have a drawing of it ; meantime here are 
a few words of description which will give an idea of the arrangement, 
to the knowledge of which archteologists attach great importance. 

The capital of the column is surmounted by a cubical abacus, over 
which passes the beam which runs all round the edifice. This beam con- 
sisted of two pieces of wood, clamped by a dovetailed coupling. The 
point of junction is in the middle of the abacus. Upon the beam rest 
the abutments of the arches. It is evident that this part of the beam, 
now masked by the marble casing, was originally intended to be seen, 
because we found the ornamentation of the beam continuing under the 
marble. As for the abacus, it seems clear that it was always intended 
to be covered with some kind of ornamentation, for its bare surface and 
its rudeness would have made a disagreeable contrast with the richness 
of the general decoration. 

As for the presence of the beam passing over the capitals, one can 
only rem.ember the classical fact not long since mentioned by M. de 
Yogiie, in these terms: — "The presence of the wooden tiebeam is cha- 
racteristic ... it appears to be of Arab invention, for it is found in the 
greater number of early mosques, such as the Mosque of Amrou at 
Cairo, and the Mosque el Aksa, and has never been found, so far as I 
know, in any church of the fifth or sixth century." We have now to 
see what is hidden by the marble casing which surmounts the column 
of the interior perimeter. I hope to obtain equal facilities in this in- 
vestigation. 

It may be interesting to note here an observation that I have re- 
cently made, and which I have never seen anywhere else. The scaffold- 
ing now erected within the Kubbet es Sakhra has enabled me to 
examine closely the mosaics ornamenting the walls. I have ascertained 
that on many of the vertical walls in the interior of the Kubbet es 
Sakhra, the coloured and gilded little cubes of glass which produce 
together so marvellous an effect, are not sunk in the walls so that their 
faces are vertical, but are placed obliquely, so that the faces make an 
angle with the walls. This ingenious inclination is evidently intended 
to present their many-coloured facets at the most efEective angle of 
incidence to the eye below. Such is the simple secret which produces 
the dazzling and magical effect of this decoration. Curiously, the same 
method has been followed in the construction of the splendid windows of 
the edifice. They consist of plaster cut into charming designs; in 
the holes so formed are fixed small pieces of coloured glass, arranged 
with exquisite taste. I have been able to examine a fragment of one 
of the window frames, and I observed that all these bits of glass are 
inserted obliquely, and not vertically, so as to overhang and meet the 
eye of the visitor at right angles, whence this charming brightness of 
colour. Perhaps this arrangement of the mosaics belongs to a certain 
known epoch, perhaps to the time of the construction of the windows, 
i.e., the sixteenth century. 




CAPITAL IN Tin: KUEIiET ES SAKllKA. 



140 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

Bas-relief in A bas-relief, very remarkable, comes from an Arab house situated 
presenti^ng near the Damascus Gate, and was found in the basement. One of the 
the tri- g^^jgg gjio^g the medioeval dressinf' to which I have ah-eady called atten- 
entry of our tion. This particularity furnishes us with our limit oi date, the tune 
^°"'" of the Crusades, which is very likely, judging from the appearance 

of the work, to be its real date. Is it the work of a Byzantine artist, 
working perhaps for the Latin kings ? The fragment belongs to a bas- 
relief representing the triumphal entry of Christ on the Day of Palms. 
Christ, clothed in a long tunic, with broad sleeves, in folds of classic 
form and execution, is sitting astride, not sideways, on the ass, which is 
walking straight on, and seen in profile. The head, which would seem 
to have been a three-quarters head, has unfortunately been destroyed, 
apparently by the Mussulmans ; the foot is also broken. In the left 
hand Jesus holds the reins, and with the right hand, now disappeared, 
gives the benediction with the ordinary gesture, as is easily to be recog- 
nised by the movement of the right arm, half raised. It is a pity that 
this hand has been destroyed, as it would have been easy to see if the 
sculptor was under Latin or Greek influence, the position of the fingers 
in the Latin benediction being totally different to that in the Greek. 
The ass, which is covered with a cloth ornamented with rich embroidery, 
has also been decapitated by the same iconoclasts apparently. Neverthe- 
less, it is impossible to hesitate on its identity, although the fine shape 
of the body might cause it to be taken for that of a horse. All doubt, 
however, is removed by the jiresence of the foal, which plays by the 
side of the mother, the head down in a pretty and truthful attitude, 
showing that the sculptor made a sincere study of nature. 

Behind the group, on the right, are to be seen the remains of figures, 
mostly destroyed by the hammer ; on the left are two other figures, 
■clothed in flowing drapery, which have sufl'ered less. The hinder part 
of the ass rests upon the framing. 

The sculpture is in high relief, with attempts at shade effects, and a 
general inclination of the figures, showing that it was intended to be 
seen from below. Probably it was some door lintel, or decorative frieze, 
such as that which surmounts the entrance to the Church of St. John. 

It is interesting to compare this subject with the same scene repre- 
sented in the mosaics of the church at Bethlehem. Essential difference 
of style and composition exists between these two works. Por example, 
at Bethlehem Christ is seated on the ass, but the foal is absent. These 
variations are the more curious, because, as has been remarked already 
(Do Vogiio, "Eglises de la Terre Sainte," p. 96), the composition at 
Bethlehem is absolutely in conformity with the prescription of an ancient 
Byzantine "Guide of Painting," which contained detailed rules on the 
manner of treating different subjects. 

The author of the mosaics of Bethlehem appear to have followed the 
nearly parallel narrations of St. John, St. Mark, and St. Luke, who only 
speak, the one of a young ass [oyapiov), the other two of a colt {irci\ov). 
Our artist, on the other hand, seems inspired by St. Matthew- 



LETTERS FROM il. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 141 

The mosaist of Betlileliein, and the Byzantine school to which he 
belonged, took the words used by the Evangelists literally, representing 
Jesus sitting, and not astride upon the ass. It is hardly necessary to 
remark that this literal interpretation is hardly reasonable, for the Gospel 
of St. Mark uses the same term in speaking of an ass " -whereon never 
man sat," the word there being evidently used in the ordinary sense of 
riding. 

Besides, we may show by the Hebrew text of Zachariah ix. 9 — " Behold 
thy King cometh unto thee . . . riding upon an ass, and a colt the 
foal of an ass," to which the Evangelists all four refer— that the normal 
method of riding is intended, for the word used is roJceh. 

The interpretation adopted in our bas-relief, although it departs in 
appearance from the tradition usually followed, is thus in reality more 
exact and nearer the truth. The sculptor who thus set aside the Byzan- 
tine traditions belonged, perhaps, to another country, perhaps to another 
epoch. 

The constant communications which I have with the Silwan people Ai-ab colony 
have brought to my knowledge a curious fact. Among the inhabitants DMban ' 
of the village there are a hundred or so, domiciled for the most part in g*?!*!*^'^ ^* 
the lower quarter, and forming a group apart from the rest, called 
Dlddhiye, i.e., men of Dhiban. It appears that at some remote period a 
colony from the capital of King Mesha crossed the Jordan, and fixed 
itself at the gates of Jerusalem at Silwan. The memory of this migra- 
tion is still preserved, and I am assured by the people themselves that 
many of their number are installed in other villages round Jerusalem. 

Passing the other day by the gate of St. Stephen (Bab Sitti Miriam), c^i'eek in- 

I remarked outside the city, in the wall, some metres south of the gate, embedded 

a fragment of Greek inscription which had escaped my attention up to J," *}^q ^^ l^ 

that moment. No one had ever remarked it, although it is one of the 

most frequented spots in the place. It is on the sixth row of stones. 

The letters appear well formed, but it is so badly placed, and in such an 

unfavourable light, that I have only been able to make an imperfect 

copy. I will make a squeeze of it. Meantime, this is what I have made 

out : — 

C. . . 

T. . . . 

OT . . . . 

U. . OC 

The stone is placed on its side, so that the lines descend verticallj'. 
There is on the left the trace of a framework, which shows that we have 
the commencement of the text, which apparently consisted of four lines. 

Another inscription in Mediaeval Latin is unfortunately also incom- irediwval 
plete, but Latin texts of Frank origin are so very rare at Jerusalem Latin in- 
that I have thought it worth while to put it together as well as possible. 
You shall have a drawing of it made after a squeeze. 

The inscription appears to have been cut at its two extremities, in 
order to obtaia a block of size convenient for the use for which it was 



142 LETTERS FROM M. CLERxMONT-GANNEAU. 

adapted. It is, in fact, a step in the staircase of an Arab's house, near 
the Damascus Gate ; the same house as that in which the bas-relief 
I have described above was found. 

It is composed of seven lines, of which only the middle part remains, 
the beginning and the end having been sacrificed by the mason who 
utilised it. The letters are 0.19 metre high; they are of Gothic 
form, and although roughly executed they appear to be contemporary 
with those of the sepulchral slab of Pliilippus de Auhingni, placed near 
the entrance of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This view is sup- 
ported by the identity of the formulae employed, which enables us to 
reconstruct a great portion of the mutilated inscription. 

ETIO 

DELA 

FRATEK 

AROCH 

SANIM 

SC I 

Comparing this with the inscription of Philippus de Aubingni, we 
find that the ct of the first line is the end of the formula, " Hie jacet," 
probably preceded by the cross ( + ). Then comes the name of the 
person interred, beginning with I and O, or Q. Wo have a choice of 
names, such as locelinus, lordanus, loscevandus, Johannes, &c. Tho 
second line began with part of the name, followed by de la, indicating 
the origin of the person, probably French, if the characters LA are the 
article, and not the commencement of the name of the place. We have 
numerous examples of the use of the proper name in the Latin, and 
the place in the vulgar tongue, as Ricardus de Belmont, locelinus de 
Calmont, &c. 

The third line begins with the name of the place, and shows by the 
word /ra^er that the person spoken of belonged to some religious order. 
The fourth line gives A EOCH . . ., but the E may be a P. Per- 
haps it is the name of the order. In the fifth we have the word anim(a), 
certainly preceded by (cuju)s. In the sixth line we have part of 
(requie)scat i(n). The seventh line ought to have imce, followed by 
amen, of which there are traces. 
Rock-cut We can now forward you the plans and sections of the rock-cut 

chambers chambers near the Ecce Homo Arch. The complicated arrangement of 
Dolorosa, the chambers, and the accident which for some time kept us from getting 
access to them, has retarded the preparation of the plans. 

I have already sent you* a detailed description of the place. I have 
now to add some remarks on certain new facts with relation to a point 
almost i-^nored. I have considered, in connection with this subject, tho 
rock which is visible at the Church of the Ecce Homo, already known, 
because it has an intimate relation to the position of the well observed by us. 
We have thus a full development of the rocks in aline nearly 42 metres in 

* Quarterly Statement, K\m\ 1874, p. 105. 



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p. 




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A 




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C3 


CJ 


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Ui 


o 


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u 


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144 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMOXT-GANNEAU. 

length. If we consider tliis line generally on my plan, we observe that 
it lies in a direction sensibly constant, only at about the middle of 
its course it makes a sharp turn at an obtuse angle, after which it 
resumes its original orientation.'^ This is important, because the line has 
been cut nearly everywhere with the pickaxe, and is not a natural for- 
mation. This cutting is most visible in the Ecce Homo Chmch, and 
is found again in the rock of the house E, and in that of the adjacent 
houses Q and E'. In the house Q, it seems now that the cutting has 
suppressed one of the walls of the chamber cut in the rock S. This 
result is a valuable indication for the date of this chamber, and the group 
of those of which it forms a part, a date anterior to the period of the 
cutting of the rock. (The vestibiile Y has undergone a similar ex- 
cision.) 

If, now, we turn to the general section, and particularly to 
the small section, we may easily follow the slope of the rock 
from east to west in the direction of the slope of the street. The pas- 
sage, which now debouches into space, might originally have opened 






ioS^T' 




Floor of the Clmich 



"■"t i 



,»-^O^V.V«J>.>i«^VICN ?^^' J-'"V .'»Ji>?JJ'JiJ^' ^V"'i>.> 



i^^^ -;iia^^li^^;Mas&l||l^ 



upon a layer of rock which has now disappeared, owing to the same 
cause which has destroj-ed a wall in one of the chambers. 

Another general remark. The normal axes of the chambers and the 
direction of the passage form acute and obtuse angles with the present 
face of the rock, which could not originally exist, for it would be con- 
trary to all known usage up to the present day iu that kind of 
excavation. 

In the passage on the left may be remarked a broad " notch," appa- 
rently indicating that the workman wanted to rectify the sinuosity of 
the passage. The square opening made at the end of the chamber P 
seems to communicate with another chamber filled with earth, which I 
should very much like to dig. It is a question whether this opening 
is not the original entrance to the cave, and whether a passage has not 
boon cut afterwards from the inside, to attach the chamber V directly 
■with the exterior. I must add that the conjecture is rendered difficult 
by the configuration of the ground, as one makes it out, the chamber 
appearing to plunge into the depth of the hill. On this hypothesis, we 
should have to admit that the chamber P communicates with another 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNBAU. 145 

chamber by the square hole, and that the chamber filled with 
earth had its entrance communicating with the exterior by the west 
face. In that case, the real primitive outranco of the group of chambers 
would have to be sought to the east of the Austrian hospice, near the 
second A in the word Mahometan in the 0. S. map. We may, in fact, 
admit, without too much temerity, that the side of the hill turns and 
faces the west. All this, however, is purely conjectural. 

If we pass to the examination of the lower chambers, we shall make 
the following notes. The people of the house told us that the chamber 
Q was provided with a bench cut in the rock ; it is impossible to ascer- 
tain the fact now as the place is filled with ordure to the ceiling. The 
wall of rock, which we saw in the third house, appears to be in the align- 
ment of the extremity of the rock of the neighbouring house, Q ; there 
is, between the two, a solution of continuity of only a few metres. 

In this third house the rock had been also excavated to make a 
chamber, partly destroyed. A piece of the ceiling of this chamber has 
fallen (section K L) through some movement of the ground overloaded 
with houses, or an earthquake. Most likely the latter was the cause, for 
the wall of the chamber is cloven vertically. 

If now we search for the origin of this rock-work and the period at The Second 
which it was effected, we are reminded of what Josephus says about the ditc^.^"^ '*^ 
fortress Antonia, which 7vas separated from the Hill Bezetha, not only 
naturally, but ly means of a deep ditch cut so that the foundations of 
Antonia tvere not at the foot of the hill and, therefore, easy of access. The 
same historian informs us, besides, that the second wall, starting from the 
Gennath Gate, joined Antonia, only circumscribing the northern region. 

The second wall, then, evidently starting from Antonia, must have 
been directed to the west, and turned its face to the north. Now, dur- 
ing the first part, it was exposed to the same inconveniences as Antonia 
in being commanded by Bezetha. To the same evil the same remedy 
was applied — the rock was cut, or the moat of Antonia extended. Can 
we not see in the face of the rock cut by the pickaxe, which we found 
behind the houses, the counter-scarp of the prolonged moat, cut to protect, 
not Antonia, but the second wall ? It was not necessary to prolong the 
moat beyond the point where is now the eastern wall of the garden of 
the Austrian hospice, for at this point the base of Bezetha seems, 
according to our observations, to turn to the north, forming one of the 
sides of the great valley from the Damascus Gate, which the second wall 
must necessarily have crossed. In the eastern flank of this valley were 
excavated chambers, belonging, perhaps, to a cemetery, of which those 
chambers found by us formed a portion. In that case these chambers, 
cut across by the moat and consequently older than it, were probably 
more ancient than the building of the second waU. 

These facts are of extreme importance in helping us to find the second 
wall ; it seems to me that it must have passed between the two streets 
called ' Tarik as Serai al Kadim ' and ' Daraj as Serai ' in the Ordnance 
Survey map. JS'ow all the west part of this place is occupied by a large 

L 



146 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

space of ground belonging to the Catholic Armenians, where I believe I 
could easily obtain permission to dig. Captain Warren has already 
sunk a shaft on this side in the street Harit el Wad, without results, but 
possibly he missed the wall by some few metres. 
Tomb at I resume my interrupted enumeration of our researches explained in 

ueitsahur. ^^^ drawings sent off by the last mail. 

I have only a word to add to my description of the sepulchre with a 
semicircle found at Wady Beit Sahur (No. 18). The form of the sarco- 
phagus pointed out by me in the Haram (photograph D.) may be com- 
pared with the form of the trough of the first chamber, the inside of the 
sarcophagus being rounded at one end and square at the other. The 
sarcophagi coming from Jerusalem are generally equare at their two 
extremities with a receptacle formed in one of the angles to support the 
head of the corpse, 
cemeterj' at I have already spoken of this valley, the name and direction 
Yatoul. of which are accurately given by Tobler (Jerusalem u. Seine Umge- 
bungen II. 7). It lies at a few minutes' distance from the Holy City, and 
contains a vast cemetery, with many hundreds of sepulchres cut in the 
rock, which appears to have been a sort of succursale of the Jerusalem 
cemetery. "We have visited a large number of the tombs, some of which 
are extremely important. As an illustration of the singular arrange- 
ment formed among them I may mention that sketched in plan No. 21, 
brought to light by our excavations. 

Plate 19 represents a sepulchre. There is an arcosolium covering a 
bench in a lower chamber, which is connected with an upper chamber by 
the end of a loculus like an oven. On this bench is indicated by a light 
hollowing out the place where the head and shoulders of the corpse 
would lie. It is only the second example of this kind that I have found 
in the tombs round Jerusalem. Immediately below the bench and in 
the vertical wall were cut two little alcoves to receive bones. When we 
opened the tomb I found these alcoves and the four oven-like recesses 
still closed by slabs wedged in with small stones ; they contained nothing 
but fragments of bones. 

Plate No. 16 shows another tomb also excavated by our men, in. 
which we remarked the following points : three little recesses, like those 
in the former, serving as depositories for bones, the third of them con- 
sisting of a small grave cut at the end of a loculus, and closed by two 
slabs of black stone with a layer of cement interposed ; within were 
bones and the skull of an adult. In the wall at the end, above and a 
little to the left of the entrance of the central loculus, a litth^ cross carved. 
In the corner of No. 5, on the bench, fragments of sarcophagi of well- 
known type ; in the opposite corner (H) fragments of lamps in terra 
cotta : two of the recesses were furnished at the end and laterally with 
two boxes at right angles with them, one of which, still closed with a 
slab, contained fragments of bones. This tomb has certainly been used 
again, perhaps at the period when the cross was engraved. 

Plate 17 reproduces the details of another tomb of greater importance, 
because it was partially inviolate. 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 147 

The first chamber has nothing remarkable except the great irregu- 
larity of the loculi, and the strange deviation of one of them, which 
pierces the wall of a loculus of a neighbouring chamber at the same level. 
In the middle of this first chamber, furnished with a bench, is a rect- 
angular grave, through the pierced wall of which is access to a little 
lower chamber. The entrance was closed by a slab. It is very small, 
and has an ornamentation quite different to that below which it extends. 
The ceiling forms a low arch ; right and left stand two walls cut in the 
rock, and forming two troughs, each of which is divided into two parts, 
one by a diaphragm of rock, the other by a slab placed vertically. Be- 
tween these two troughs is a kind of empty passage, almost entirely 
filled with earth ; the lid of a little sarcoi^hagus in soft stone placed 
transversely towards one of the two exti-emities, forms a small partition. 
Three of these "boxes," Gr, H, P, contained the bones of at least three 
skeletons. 

To the right of the entrance had been cut in the vertical wall a very 
small recess, where we found an ossuary of soft stone (F) without a 
lid, filled with bones ; sides bare : made to be closed with a groove ; 
with feet ; the lid forming the partition I fits it perfectly. 

To the left of the entrance is hollowed out another recess, divided 

into two parts by the rock forming its diaphragm. In the left division 

stood an ordinary ossuary, placed parallel to the diaphragm ; no feet or 

grooves ; bare sides ; the lid broken by the fall of a piece of rock ; bones 

in it. At the side of this ossuary, and at right angles with it, another 

ossuary, B ; bare sides ; no feet ; lid with grooves ; bones, among others 

two skulls placed on the surface, at the two ends of the ossuary. 

In the right division, ossuary C, parallel to the diaphragm, orna- Ossuary, 

, . , , n J 7. P j_ 1- • 01-iiameiited 

mented with roses and an elegant framework of traditional type ; witii 

ornamented sides relieved with red ; feet ; flat lid ; no leafwork ; on the msc'iipTion 
small face a Hebrew inscription in graffito ; bones. Behind this ossuary 
and in the same direction, is the fifth ossuary, D ; a rose simply de- 
signed ; feet ; leafwork for lid ; no lid ; bones. The lid has been used 
to raise at the side an upright partition forming a new recess, serving 
for an ossuary, and containing a number of bones. Without doubt this 
unviolated chamber has been used a second time, at a very ancient 
period ; the adaptation of two of the lids into partitions serves alone 
to show it. We took great care in collecting together the bones of the 
earlier occupants of the sepulchre. These sarcophagi are undoubtedly 
more ancient than the second use of the tomb, which agrees perfectly 
with the existence on one of them of a Hebrew inscription. In my next 
report I will give you the inscrij^tion. The absence of any glass or 
pottery is very remarkable. 



yiii. 

Jerusalem, March 19, 1874. 
I have paid a second visit to the Greek inscription which I had previ- Greek fn- 
ously observed in the wall of the city, quite close to the gate of Saint thJ w'lii'of" 

the city. 



148 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

Steplien spoken of in my last report. I tried to take a squeeze, but there 
was so high a wind that I failed to get anything good ; at the same 
time, thanks to a ladder, I was able to examine the text closely and to 
Uke an exact copy, after carefully cleaning it. The following is a 
reproduction of the inscriptions made by the aid of the copy and the 
squeeze : — 

E KO I I 
THAT 

on M 
4- nioc 

The stone, cleaned of the mortar which plastered it up, showed a little 
cross engraved at the beginning of, and a little above, the fourth line. The 
inscription, then, is Christian. It appears, also, to be a funerary inscrip- 
tion, judging from the first word, which we may restore as iKoi^i)et] 
"here lies," a word often recurring in sepulchral formula3 of Christian 
times, from which is, of course, derived the word Koiixy)Tl)piov cemetery. 

The word which begins the second line, THAT, may mention a consul 
or proconsul {vizaros), or it may be the name of the deceased person. 
OTIM in the third line may be separated into ov, the genitive termi- 
nation, and (/i the beginning of a name, or it may be the Greek way of 
writing a Latin word beginning with vim. In the fourth line the second 
letter is perhaps an E, and the fourth an S or an E. In the former case 
we have the preposition ^poy. 
■Greek ill- A fellah of Abu Gosh has just told me of an inscription between 

tieiir Ahi Kubeibeh and Tell el Gezer, not far from Ain Yarde. He showed me 
Yardo. some letters rudely copied by him, but it was easy to recognise the cha- 

racters. I made out aaikion, perhaps A^ikiov (?) I propose to visit the 
place and see it. 
'rhe Lcsend J gathered from the same fellah farther information about the Fenich, 
-Fenich. in whom I proposed, some years ago, in a note sent to the Institute, the 
Philistines. The Fenich king, or the King of the Fenich, had his summer 
residence at Souba, and his winter residence at Eathoun or Latroun. 
He had several brothers, one of whom lived at Sara in summer and at 
Beit Alub in Avinter ; another at Beit Our in summer and El Bourdj in 
winter; another at Boit Jibrin, &c. I shall, perhaps, return to this 
common popular legend of the Fenich, to which I have been the first to 
call attention. 
Jruiyet. This resident of Abu Gcsh told mo that his village, Kuryot el Enab, 

was the Ivuryet jj«r excellence, called so without any other qualifying 
name. He told me, besides, of a place not far from Yalo called Ilcrchc, 
which means forests ; one cannot help being struck by the singular 
resemblance of this word with the Hebrew Hareth, the name of the 
forest which served as a refuge for David (1 Sam. xxii. o, "Then 
'ilie Forest David departed and came into the forest of Hareth.") The shin and 
the < are constantly interchanged in Hebrew and in Arabic; the other 
letters are identical. If it is not the Biblical Hareth, there would be 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 



149 



nothing impossible in its being tbat wbicli passed for it in the time of 
Eusebius and St. Jerome, for the Onamasticon places an Arat, whicli it 
identifies with. Arith, David's place of refuge, west of Jerusalem. 

Perhaps we might connect with this place the name of Mount Heres of 
Judges i. 3J— " The Amorites would dwell in Mount Heres in Aijalon, 
and in Shaalbim "—shown as occupied by the Amorites, and whence it 
seems that Aijalon and Shaalbim were also, according to the literal tenor 
of the verso. I know that some think that "Mount Heres" is really 
Irchtmes, City of the sun, but this supposition is quite gratuitous and may 
easily be refuted. The question is too complicated for me to solve it en 
passant. I hope to return to it. 

The same peasant told me that there was at Amwas {Emmaus) a. well i!J>'=^J'^;J|j^''^' 
now closed, whence formerly the plague issued to spread over all the ^^ Am'was. 
world ; this well is called Sir et taoun, the ivell of the plague. It is easy 
to find the origin of this tradition, which has a historical foundation. 
The terrible epidemic which desolated the Mussulman army after tho 
conquest of Syria by tho lieutenants of Omar, of which mention is so fre- 
quently made in the chronicles of Arab historians, is called by them the 
Plague of Emmaus, probably because the first cases broke out there. To 
localise the birth of the scourge, and to make it spring from a well, 
is but one step. 

I had already ascertained the existence of a fountain named Ain Nini, Ain XiuiL 
at Amwas. My fellah confirmed the fact. May we recognise in the name 
a truncated echo of the old word Nicopolis ? 

There has been, probably, some confusion in the publication of these 
travelling notes, written apparently at different periods and in diffe- 
rent places. It is desirable that the names belonging to each region 
should be classified and grouped, in the interest of future explorers east 
of Jordan. 

Permit me to insert in my report certain observations which have observa- 
been suggested to me by reading over again a list of names published in f-°"of"^ ^^'^ 
the Quarterly Statenicid of July, 1872. It is a list collected by Captain P^''^°«^ ^^^^^ 
Warren, and examined by MM. Sandreczki and Palmer. The places are Jordan, 
given as east of Jordan. In fact, the first pages (123—164) appear to be- P'^blished in 
lone to this redon. I will add as well Jebel Atarus, written Atrud'— the Quarterly 
Ataroth of the Moabite Stone- and mentioned immediately before Zuka juiy^ 15,72,, 
Main and Moudjib. But at page 144 we leave the trans-Jordar.-ic coun- 
try, and get an enumeration of places belonging to the environs of 
Jericho. Again, at page 167 we are transported to the west of Jerusalem, 
to judge by the juxtaposition of such names as Deit Atah, Saide, Sola, 
Neby Danyal, etc.* 

Certain Arabs of the city, fired with archfcological ardour by my Newiy- 

-, r. ;i-ji -ii-ii found 

recommendations, have just extracted frour a tomb m the neighbourhood „ssuanes 

of Jerusalem four ossuaries of ordinary type in soft limestone, three being "jfj ggi^^ev.- 

ornamented with roses. One of them, without roses, bears on the edge inscrip- 
tions. 
* M. Ganncau's remark is coiTect. On republishing these lists they will be 

proi^erly separated. 



150 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

of one of its faces the name ATirONA, -whicli is, probably, tbe equivalent 
of WvTtySfT]. Is the omission of the N the fault of the engraver ? I 
should be tempted to attribute it rather to a voluntary suppression, the 
result of a common custom in Jewish orthography. The assimilation of 
the letter n with that which follows it is a constant fact in Hebrew. 
In virtue of this phonetic law, for instance, we write bat for bant, benet, 
daughter. It would not be extraordinary if this, an organic law of the 
language, were applied to proper names borrowed from the Greek. I 
have already* pointed out a very remarkable instance, for the letter r, in 
the Hebrew transcription of Bennigi for Berniki (Veronica). The word 
before us may have undergone exactly the same transformation, only it 
would have been in conformity with_the Hebrew usage to write ATTirONA ; 
the n, which disappears, would bo replaced by a double t. The name 
of Antigone was extensively used by the Hellenising Jews. The regular 
form is ANTirONOC, but we find also ANTirONA, for example, in the 
monument of Patron (Greek Inscriptions of the Louvre, No. 240), where 
in a group of eight names figures an ANTiroNA immediately after a 
MAAXi^H (The last name has an unmistakably Semitic appearance, and 
these two persons were very probably of Turkish extraction). ANTirONA 
is, perhaps, the feminine form of ANTiroxou, and in the monument of 
Patron as well as on our own ossuary we have two women. The 
Hellenising Jews, however, affected the genitives in alpha for many 
masculine names, Avhich they brought to the termination as in the 
nominative, as 'Apre^as, ©euSax, KXeoiras, for 'ApT6|Ui5copos, 06(^5aipos, KXeoirarpos. 
It is true that this systematic alteration was in general preceded by a 
contraction which we do not find in \vTi-yova. 

The second ossuary bears on the upper part of its long side, which is 
ornamented in characters legible but more cursive than those of the 
preceding, the name EYTPAnEAcjT in the genitive. I do not know if 
the Sif\]CGtiYQ thrpiiriXos [versatile, <jay, clever) has ever before been met 
with in a proper name. As it is of two genders it is difficult to say 
whether the iiame belongs to a man or a woman, most likely the former. 
It is probably the translation of some Hebrew name having the same 
signification, and it makes us think of the names 'Adna, 'Ailnah, 'Adin, 
'Adiiio, etc. 
;;il). The third ossuary has on the back face, opposite to the ornamented 

side, a graf&to in square Hebrew characters, broadly traced by means 
of a point which appears to have been notched. The letters, though 
cursive, are written by a sure and practised hand : they read Elashah. 
The name, which signifies literally " created by El," is borne by several 
persons in the Bible, notably by a priest who in the time of Esdras 
had married a Gentile Avoman (Ezra x. 22). Another of the same 
name was sent by Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar at Babylon (Jer. xxix. 3). 
The characters, as in writing, are uniformly inclined to the right. 
The " lamed " is formed by a long haste without a hook. I have already 
* " Nouveaux ossuaires Jiiifs." A mimoirc read before the Academy of 
Inscriptions, and published in the Ilevuc Archeologique, 1873. 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 151 

found several instances of this form used in epigrapliic Hebrew. On 
one of the small faces of the same ossuary is engraved another Hebrew 
inscription much less easy to make out. The first letter is a long 
vertical stroke like the lamed of the preceding : then comes a compli- 
cated group which appears to bo formed by the combination of two 
characters. There are the complete elements of an aleph ; but this 
letter once pulled out, it is very diflacult to do anything with the re- 
maining strokes;— a tsade ? ateth? If we admit, on the other hand, 
that there is a stroke common to the two characters, this complexity 
resolves itself into an aleph + chin. As to the last letter, it appears, 
from its prolongation below the line, to be a nun rather than a lavwd. 
None of these probabilities give us very happy results, and I do not 
very well see, for the moment, how the word is to be read. 

We have not been able to take squeezes of these texts, but have con- 
tented ourselves with the sketches (PI. 33, B C D E) forwarded here- 
with. The proprietors of the ossuaries have the most extravagant ideas 
of their value. 

The Bedouin legend of Joshua, given in a previous report (p. S7), ^/^^ ^Jf^^j^g 
says that the pagans of Jericho were finished off by wasps sent from wasps, 
heaven. This is entirely Biblical, and reminds us strikingly of a 
passage in the "Wisdom of Solomon, xii. 8, in which the writer is speaking 
of the Canaanites and their sanguinary rites. " Nevertheless, even those 
thou sparedst as men, and didst send wasps, forerunners of thine hosts, 
to destroy them little by little." And we may compare the passage 
(Deut. i. 4-1), " The Amorites, which dwelt in that mountain, came out 
against you, and chased you, as bees do, and destroyed you in Seir, even 
unto Hormah." Not only the image, but the words also, are identical in 
the Hebrew and the Bedouin story. To the same order of ideas belongs 
the passage in Isaiah (vii. 18) — " It shall come to pass in that day, that 
the Lord shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the 
rivers of Egypt, and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria" — and that 
in Ps. cxviii. 12, " They compassed me about like bees." The Hebrew 
word deher, derived from the same root, signifies extermination, and 
T.-as used particularly for the plague, which attaches itself by preference 
to armies. The Arabic word dabra applies especially to the flight of a 
defeated army. It ia very possible that these different significations, 
sprung from the same root, are connected with each other by the meta- 
phorical bond which I have thought it best to explain. 

At last we are able to send you the results of our examination of the K»i?^et es 
balustrade of the Kubbet cs Sakhra, and of a certain number of the bases ' 
belonging to the columns of the edifice. This work has cost a great deal 
of time, and has been necessarily delayed. We have at least the satis- 
faction of forwarding precise and definite information on these important 
parts of the mosque, only recently discovered and already beginning to 
disappear. With the photograph you have already received, and the 
five plates sent with this (Nos. 28 to 32), containing M. Lecomte's 
drawings, you will bo able to attack with profit the interesting questions 



152 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

raised by these unlooked-for facts, facts whicli may throw precious 
light upon the much dispiited origin of this monument. 
Bases of the See Plate 31. During the course of the repairs several columns of the 
interior. intermedia peristyle of the Kubbet es Sakhra have been laid bare by 
the removal of the marble casing which covered up the base. One of 
these columns has even had its abacus partially exposed, as I stated in. 
my previous report. M. Lecomte will probably be able to send a 
drawing of it by the next mail. 

By reference to Plate 2 of the Ordnance Survey the positions of the- 
columns examined can be easily ascertained : A, column S. of the S.E. 
face; B, column N. of the same face; C, column S. of the E. face; E, 
column N. of the same face; F, column N. of the N.E. face; I, column 
of the S. face, represents a column and a base, having already undergone 
a restoration which will very soon cover up all the preceding. 

The other bases of the intermediary peristyle have not yet been 
stripped of their old covering ; as to that of tbe interior perimeter none 
has yet been touched. We wait impatiently for the moment when they 
will undergo this operation. 

A glance at the drawings will show the form of their bases better 
than any description. It sufFices to show one positive fact: that thej'- 
are heterogeneous. We cannot certainly deny that there is a great re- 
semblance in the profiles A, E, C, if we only consider form ; but the- 
proportions, sensibly different for each of these three bases, do not 
permit us to refer them to a single type. Besides, they vary in every 
case absolutely from the base E, as much in the dimensions as in the 
disposition of the mouldings. Finally, the marble in which they are cut 
is not of the same kind for each. 

The aspect of the bases fully confirms (what the variety of modules 
in the columns above them might teach us) the opinion of those who see 
in the primitive building ancient materials fi'om various sources used 
over again. This use, which seems very improbable in an ancient work, 
even of late period, is on the contrary quite in accordance with Arab 
customs. It is clear that if the bases and columns, whatever their abso- 
lute age,* had been specially made for the Kubbet es Sakhra, thej' would 
all be alike. The builders would have no interest in seeking for the 
absence of symmetry, which shows itself not only in the variation of 
profile in the bases, but also in differences of thickness and height in the 
shafts. No caprice, no supposed intention, can account for the last and 
grave irregularity which the sketches show. It was so striking that it 
fully justifies the adaptation of these false bases, which arc at least 
regular, formed of marble slabs ; it is very probable that from the very 
beginning the deformities of the halting columns had been disguised by 

* This absolute ago is difficult to deteruiine, for it is dangerous to apply to 
Palestine, still so little known, rules exact, perhaps, for other plaees. M. 
Lecomte thinks that the form of tliese bases might go Lack to the sixth century 
in the East, and come down as far as the teuth iu certain parts of the West 
(Lombardy, for examiilc). 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 153 

this dress of marble, and that this remedy is as old as the evil. The value 
of this fact is proved ■when one reflects that these bases and these hetero- 
clite columns support a wall ornamented with mosaics, dated from the 
year 72 of the Hegira (a.d, 691), that is, the very year of the first con- 
struction of the Arab edifice. 

Plate 29. Bases of exterior columns. To complete this group of bases, exterior 
M. Lecomte has made notes of three others, which are found outside the columns, 
building, to the right of the east and north porches (the gate Neby 
Daoud, and that of Paradise). We know that these porches have been 
added to the building, and are not an integral part of it. Consequently, 
we cannot draw any conclusions, in the sense of the preceding, from the 
aspect of these bases. Nevertheless, they deserve, by their singularity, 
to be brought to the attention of architects. 

G is on the north side, and II on the south of the eastern gate (Ord- 
nance Survey, Plate II). 

D is on the west side of the north door. 

They are in one block, and show a bastard profile, formed by mould- 
ings, which are complicated and do not belong to any determined 
category. They present one curious detail, on which M. Lecomte 
rightly insists, because it may put us on the path of their origin. The 
higher part of the base surmounting the pedestal has one of its faces 
lightly curved, as the sketch of the base G shows, in which the to7-e 
dehor de on the vertical face of the plinth. These bases, although different 
in detail, appear to belong to one building, and the same part of the 
building, perhaps circular. 

Plates 28, 29, and 30, give the ensemble and the detaHs of the exterior ^heextlmal 
wall of the Kubbet stripped of its tiles. wall of the 

The elevation on the scale of 1 -100th shows two of the sides sakhra 
of the octagon, the west and the south-west. At the right extremity of 
the south-west side has been shown a portion of the tile covering, to 
show the way in which this interesting and unsuspected arrangement was 
masked. If we begin by studying this latter face, we shall remark that 
the wall is pierced by seven high and nari'ow semicircular arches (a 
fact already known), of which the upper half forms the bay of the windows 
lighting the interior. The lower half is solid, and covered with a plating 
of marble ; the bays of the two arches at the extremities are blind, and 
not blinded, as the arrangement shows. Above the great arches runs 
a projecting band, which gives passage to six leaden gargoyles, by which 
the rain-water runs out above the six piers. This band is surmounted 
by a high course, which supports a series of small semcircular arches, 
resting on coloimettes grouped two and two. 

These arches, of which there are thirteen on each of the two sides seen, 
have been closed suhsequeiitl!/ to their construction. In fact, (1) the side 
of the wall which fills them up is in the same plane as the general face of 
the wall and the cutting of the capitals of the columns; (2) the columns 
are in fact part covered up by the filling in ; (3) the filling in is effected by 
stones quite difi'erent from the rest of the building ; (4) one of the arches 



154 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU, 



in the west front tas been opened, and has given evidence that it was 
originally destined to be always so. 

Lastly, immediately above the little arcades, at a tangent to their 
extrados, runs a terminal cornice, the profile of which is extremely diflS.- 
cult to arrive at, so much has it suffered. 




mi-mMm:Mmfm 







liROLIHD Lr. 




vyj-^y^ "j'j'i'i'' ' 



' I' • 

A \. 




■in 



-- - f, ■,..,["1111 

1 



A^^. 



GROD>;; ■ 




The western face shows the same arrangement. We remark only that 
the last of the higher arches on the right extremity has been opened 
duringlthe works, and that the great central arch which serves as the door 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 



155 



is broader than the six other arches. This breadth has been secured by 
the narrowing of the bays, the breadth of the piers remaining sensibly 
the same. The proportions of the higher arches remaining unaltered, 
there results a general difference between the west and the south- 
west faces; in the latter the higher arches are calculated in such a 
manner that their axis, two by two, corresponds with the axis of the 
arches below, if we count 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13; with the axis of the piers 
if we count 2, 4, (5, 8, 10, 12. In the west face, on the other hand, this 
correspondence does not exist. 

The drawing represents in stippling the projection of the porch, which 



ELEVATION 




PLAN 



' ^^>y7^f 






'iimif,'',v ■ 



''\ '%.:■-: 




i 



p 



SECTION 







is supposed to have been taken away to show the original entrance. The 
sui-face of the blocks of the whole construction has a good deal suffered. 
It, is, besides covered with holes, serving to fix the casing which covered 
it. As a result, the dressing (tool marks) has almost wholly disappeared ; 
we have, however, been able to ascertain that the dressing is not that 
which I have shown in a previous report (see p. 136) to be mediaeval. 
The only lapidary sign which we have noticed is one spoken of in my 
last report (p. 136) ; it is engraved on the third course of stones, below 
the left abutment of the third great arch of the western face, starting 
from the left. It is, as may be seen from the copy of it in Plate 28, too 



156 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GAI^'NEAU. 

indeterminate in form to permit us to attach it to one epocli rather than 
another. 

Plate No. 29 represents the detail of the opened arch, and plate No. 
30 gives the details of the colnmns, base, and capital, in full scale. 

It is more than probable that the six other faces of the octagonal wall, 
still concealed by the tiles, would show exactly the same respective 
disposition as these two, if they were also stripped. 

Starting from the band, the wall in which the higher arches are built 
is much less thick than the great wall on which it rests ; this appears to 
indicate that it has originally been treated as a lighter construction, not 
having so much to support. 

The existence of those arches running all round the monument reveals 
to us a previous state very different to the present aspect, and raises 
curious historical questions. 

Above all, we should take account of two essential facts: (1) the 
arches are semicircular ; (2) they were originally destined to remain open. 

This fact established, if we try to determine the date of this building 
exclusively by the aid of technical considerations, we shall be much em- 
barrassed. We may nevertheless hold for certain that the whole wall, 
from the higher arches to the Imlf of the lower arches — that is to say, in 
the whole of its height which has been exposed — is, in spite of the differ- 
ences of thickness, of homogeneous construction, and can have only one 
date. As for the part below it is difficult to pronounce. The casing 
of marble hides the true wall, except at the right feet of the gate of the 
western face, where it seems to show that the wall is entirely the same 
from the top to the bottom. 

Besides the absolute age of the construction, it remains to fix the period 
of the transformation which it subsequently underwent, and which led to 
the stopping up of the upper arches. It is evident that the transforma- 
tion is at least contemporaneous with the decoration of the monument 
by means of the tiles placed upon the wall : the beautiful sourate of the 
Coran (Yasin) in white letters on a blue ground, which runs all round 
the eight faces of the octagon, passes away nearly in the middle of the 
arches (Ten land. Although the employment of these tiles, called 
Kechany, is of different dates, there is a general agreement in fixing the 
first application of them in 'the sixteenth century. It is easy to under- 
stand that the decorators, in trying to get as large a surface as possible 
to cover with their enamelled tiles, thought of gaining this surface at the 
expense of these closed arches, which had perhaps a long time before 
lost their natural use, and which were treat(>d as a higher prolongation of 
the wall. 
Porches and What was this natural use ? To answer this question we must ga 
the Tevi- back six centuries, to the time of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem. We 
nnn\he"" ^^"^^ several descriptions of the 'TemjtJu m r)o7ni7i i , made by contemporary 
time of the authors. Among these descriptions there are none more exact and more 
detailed than that of John of Wirzburg. Unfortunately, I have not 
with me the original text, and I quote from the partial translations of 



LETTERS FROM M. CLEEMONT-GAXNEAU, 157 

Tohler and De Yogiie tlio following iiuportaut passage : " Between the 
external wall (pierced by four doors and by windows) .... and 
the interior columns (12 + 4) supporting the interior wall, loss broad, 
higher, and pierced by twelve windows, there is a row of sixteen 
colunins and eight pillars. This circle of columns supports a roof which 
joins the interior to the exterior wall, and a ceiling ornamented with 
beautiful caissons. The roof is surrounded h// a continuous <jaUery, witli 
pipes of lead to carrij off the rain ivater.'" This description applies ad- 
mirably to the monument in its present state, and proves how few were 
the essential modifications which the Kubbet es Sakhra has undergone 
since it ceased to be the Tempi um Domini. 

As to the valuable detail which terminates the description of John of 
Wirzburg, it appears to me to exactly correspond vath the description 
brought to light by the repairs. Here is Tohler's translation, in his 
own words: "Am unterm Dache war ein Eundgang zum Lustwandel 
und bleierne Eohren schcnkten das Eegenw^asser aus." The lower 
roof is that properly so called in opposition to the cupola; the Rund- 
(jang zum Lustivandel is a gallery running round. 

There is no possible doubt our arches are nothing else than a little 
portico surrounding this gallery ; the inclined roof would, at its lower 
end, approach the horizontal, or, at least, stop suddenly to permit a 
passage, which would not need to be very broad. The breadth of the 
lower wall (1 metre, plate 28, section A.D.) is of itself sufficient. A spout 
and leaden pipes, corresponding with the present gargoyles, would sufiice 
for the rain-water to pass away. 

A man standing upright in the internal wall is just able to look with- 
out by the bays of these arches, whose height, measured from the 
summit of the arch to the base represented by the great wall, is at 
least two metres. 

It is not necessary to remark how this explanation accounts for the 
existence, and justifies the utility of this little portico, which, later on, 
closed and transformed into a wall, seemed to have no reason at all for 
existence, and gavs to the right faces of the octagon the unpleasing ap- 
pearance of eight panels cut out in cardboard. Unfortunately, the re- 
pairs follow the same error, and this light colonnade, exposed for one 
moment, will again be transformed into a massive wall, this time not 
even having the excuse of bearing the elegant fayence of Soliman. 

Henceforth we may hold for certain that such was the disposition of 
the 2'tmpium Domini. I will add that we may see a vague but real 
confirmation in the reproduction of this edifice which figures on the 
seal of^he Templars ; there are clearly to be distinguished two rows of 
bays superposed. 

This gallery, adorned with porticos still in use at the time of the Cru- J^'f''"^'.'!"" 
saders, the traces of which are now wholly lost — did it exist before their time of the 
time? I think that we may, without hesitation, reply that it did, for ^'"''-''^•^'^rs. 
plenty of reasons : the absence of mediaeval dressing, the use of the semi- 
circle, the historical certainty that the Crusaders have never interfered 



158 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GAT^NEAU. 

■with the work, as a whole, of the Khubbet es Sakhra, the homogeneous 
nature of the arcade and the -wall which supports it. 

To these general reasons one more pi'ecise may be added. A Persian 
author, NasiribnKhosrou, who visited the Khubbet es Sakhra in the year 
438 of the Hegira, that is to say, some years before the first Crusade, 
describing the exterior wall of the Khubbet, says that it was 20 "yards" 
high and 33 long, on each side of the octagon. I have not the original 
here, and forget what was the exact measure called by the English 
translator, Major A. E. Fuller, a yard, consequently I do not know the 
real dimensions expressed by the author. At any rate, the proportion of 
height to breadth was as 20 : 33. Now these dimensions are actually 12 
and 27 metres. In order that the ratio of Nasir's dimensions should 
be as 1 : 2, there wants 7-66ths ; in order that the ratio of the actual 
dimensions should be as 1:2 there wants 1-18. Now, the difference 
between 1-18 and 7-66 is only 5-99, a difference so small that we may 
neglect it, and conclude in consequence that the wall before the Crusades 
was the same height as it is now. And we have seen above that it may 
be considered as produced at a single effort. 

As to the period which extends between this epoch and that of the 
first construction, the field is still open to conjectui-es as to what concerns 
this part of the monument. 

If we wanted to find examples of analogous dispositions we might, as 
M. Lecomte suggests, find the point de d'part in certain edifices of 
central Syria, towards the fifth or sixth century. As to relations with 
other places, we might multiply them, but without great advantage 
to the chronological elucidation of the special question which occupies 
us. 

I have other and important observations which the repairs in the 
Haram have enabled me to make. These bear upon the works executed 
by the Crusaders in the sacred enclosure ; but time presses, and I must 
defer them to the next mail. 



IX. 

Jerusaleji, April 19, 1874. 
Lnyer of If, leaving the place called El Mesharif to the north of Jerusalem on 

me'Its north ^^^ Nablus road, the name of which is the equivalent of Scopus (see my 
of Jeiusa- preceding reports), you turn to the east, you find at about two hundred 
^^^' metres' distance certain mounds or hills called by the fellahin liujm el 

Blame, literally, "the heap of the animal." The thing that gives par- 
ticular interest to these hills is, that they are entirely composed of a 
prodigious quantity of flint chipping?. 

"We have only as yet devoted one visit — that very rapid and necessarily 
superficial ; but it results from this first examination that these mounds 
of elongated form, and representing thousands of (actual metres, ought 
to be thoroughly explored. How to explain this enoraious mass of flint 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 159 

broken up small ? A few steps farther on crops up the very rock from 
■wbicli these fragments come. With what object did they cut up the 
rock into these tiny pieces ? The collection in heaps may be explained : 
it was perhaps done to clear the ground and to facilitate cultivation. 
But bow to explain the formation of the fragments '■^ I thought at once, 
and I am still tempted to think, that we have here a workshop of flint 
implements. The existence of tools and arms in flint at different parts 
of Palestine is a fact beyond all doubt. It is enough to recall the 
authentic finds at Beit Sahur, near Bethlehem, and at Gezer. We may 
note as well that the flints from both these localities, far apart from each 
other, are, as regards form, identically the same ; a fact which would 
lead us to suppose that the flint instruments came from certain centres 
of fabrication, and were thence sent into the rest of Palestine, This 
mode of production seems very probable when we observe that layers of 
flint suitable for the purpose, and in abundance, are distributed over 
certain regions, and that it is therefore probable that the work would 
take place near the material. 

Are we then to see in the Rujin el Blnme the waste cbippings of one 
of these primitive manufactories which supplied the land of Canaan ? 
One would hardly dare to affirm this, but I am not far from believing it. 
We passed some time in searching on the surface of the mounds for 
specimens of cut flints. We found quantities which seem to have been 
roughly prepared ; others which seemed to have been commenced and 
abandoned ; not a single specimen perfect, or so perfect as to be pro- 
nounced with certainty a weapon or a tool. I intend to excavate these 
mounds, and perhaps a few crucial incisions will throw some light upon 
this interesting question. 

Local tradition of the Lifta people calls the place the site of an ancient 
city, or rather of an ancient inhabited place ; but it is silent as to the 
flint, and contents itself with calling the cbippings souivaniit (flint). I 
forgot to say that we found on the surface some fragments in terra cotta. 

A fellah of Abu Gosh, the same spoken of in a previous report, has inscripti ms 

brought me a rough copy, made by himself, of an inscription at El ^eibeh. 

Kubeibeh : 

CIIOIXI 

AEV II 

DifBcult to get anything out of this ; but it seems like a Latin in- 
scription on account of the R. The X would then be a numerical sign. 
Have we some inscription of the Tenth Legion, or is it a piece of a 
Eoman milestone ? It is interesting on either hypothesis. As soon as 
time permits I will examine this inscription, as well as that of Ain Yarde. 
The same peasant spoke to me of a sarcophagus with three rosettes which 
is at El Boueire. It is something else to visit. 

I have seen and made a squeeze of a fragment coming from Beit Sahur Fragment 
et Ati'ga. It contains nothing but three Greek letters of Byzantine tion'a't^Beit 
appearance — Hno, with a large character underneath, like an A laid Sal""", 
horizontally. 



1(30 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMOSfT-GAKNEAU. 

Greek in- J i-eceived a visit from a trans- Jordanic Bedouin, Jasem, son of Slieikli 

from*the Goblan, wlio, besides giving me certain curious information, brought 

Ammon ^^ ^^^ squeeze of a Greek inscription in the "Wady el Katar, west of 

Khan es SMb (lat. 31 degs. 25 sees., long. 36 degs. 9 sees.). 

•tlAO 

HOYATPin 

KOKKHIOYAK 

KOKKTiiov would be the genitive of the Latin Cocceius. The Cocceian 
dens was an important one ; the Emperor Nerva, and the historian, 
Dion Cassius, both belonged to it. The squeeze is as good as a Bedouin 
can make it ; that is to say, detestable, and the characters are hard to 
decipher. Perhaps the word (pt\o is part of an official title, such as 
<pi\oKdia-ap, (piAoorj/Aos, or (pikopufiaios. In this case it is a great pity 
that this word is lost, because the inscription would then have a great 
historical value. At times the second line looks like as if it contains the 
name Agrippas. 

Lastly, a peasant sold me, with a lot of terra cotta coming fi-om "Wady 
Beit Sahur, a fragment of soft stone, with certain characters, which 
seem to have been written with the point of a knife. 
The Well of Apropos of the Btr et-Ta'oun at Amwas, of which I have spoken 

\mwaf '^'^ already, here is a remark which occurred after I wrote my account 
of it. I have already explained the origin of this legend of the Well of 
the Pest, but very likely another tradition has been engrafted on the 
former, relating to the closing of the well. The passage in Sozomen 
has often been quoted which mentions at Emmaus Nicopolis, identified 
with the Emmaus of the Gospels, a source situated at the intersection 
of three roads, and endowed with miraculous healing powers, which it 
owed to the touch of Christ. 

This miraculous fountain was closed by order of the Emperor Julian, 
in order to suppress the Christian belief which was attached to it. If 
Amwas be really the Emmaus of Saint Luke, would it be rash to con- 
sider the legend of Bir et-Ta'oun, closed as it is, a confused amalgam of 
reminiscences relating to very different events — the suppression of the 
beneficent source, and the appearance of the epidemic called the pest of 
Emmaus ? Perhaps an inquiry made on the spot will furnish me with 
more precise information on this point. 

MaUia. J i^ave just made an excursion to the village of Malha, south-west of 

Jerusalem, where I picked up a little information not without its 
value. There is nothing very curious in the houses, except a ruined 
burj near the mosque. I remarked in the angle of a house not far from 
it a broken inscription, very faint, perhaps only a flourish. Inside 
another house I was shown the entrance, now closed, of a cavern, the 
door of which would have borne an inscription. The approaches to the 
village, and the little hill which rises before it (same orientation) are 
filled with tombs cut in the rock, one of them containing fragments 
of ancient pottery. They showed mo a kind of long box in dried earth, 
\Fith rounded angles, found probably in one of these tombs, full of bones. 



T.KTTEKS FROM M. fLERMONT-GANXEAU. 161 

It measures very nearly thirty-six inches in length, and looks like a small 
bath. I propose to go and open one or two of these tombs. 

According to a tradition of the Mawalch, or inhabitants of Malha, 
they may bo divided into two categories of different origin : the one 
coming from trans-Jordanic regions, the other from Egypt. 

Their pronunciation is something quite peculiar. It is chiefly charac- 
terised by the sound of the long o, which is very full, and closely resem- 
bles the sound of o. 

The water of the fountain, Ain Yalo, a little distance west-south-west 
of Malha, enjoys a great reputation. The Mawaleh, when they wish to 
praise it, say tJiat they weighed its water in the Mijau, and found it 
lighter than gold; which does not prevent it from being heavy for 
drinking. 

The immediate environs of Malha contain many localities which appear 
to be of importance : for example, Xhirbet el Fowagesi, on a hill, whose 
terraces in stages can be seen, from Ain Yalo. A little more to the 
east is a place called Q 7a es sounwan, the rocks of flint, to which is 
attached a singular legend. It was formerly an inhabited place; but the 
people having drawn on themselves the wrath of God, the whole region 
was transformed into flint. The sin committed was that the women 
did not use the bread for the nourishment of their children. I do not 
see what larks beneath this story, unless it be some relation with the 
use of flint by the Canaanites in primitive ages. I shall see when I visit 
the place if it shows any traces of the working of stone. 

The Mawaleh have pointed out to me, not far from Malha, three Tumuli, 
great mounds, on the Jehd et-tau:agi, west of the village, Eujm Afanil, 
Eujm Ataya, and Rujm et-Tazoiid. They are probably the three tumuli 
indicated by Prokesh and Tobler (Topog. 7G1), on the left hand of the 
road from Malha to Ain Karem. The Barud of Tobler must be my 
Tarud. I see, too, that Mr. Drake [Quarterly Statement, Jan., 1874) 
speaks of these tiunuli, which he names El Atyya, El Tarud, and El 
Barish. 

The position of Malha, and the numerous tombs which surround it, ^lalkliaya. 
are enough to indicate that we must look for an ancient locality near it. 
Up to the present no identification proposed appears cither happy or 
important. The best known is that of Schwarz, which has been gene- 
rally repeated. Malha would be mentioned in the Talmud under the 
form Malkhaya, as the country of a certain Rabbi Jose. From a 
phonetic point of view this identification is very well ; but it has no 
historical value at all, this being the only place where Malkhaya is men- 
tioned at all. Some authors have even doubted the exactness of this 
otherwise insignificant connection. Thus Neubauer, in the " Geography 
of the Talmud," remarks that the Talmudic Malkhaya must be looked for 
in Upper Galilee, because this Rabbi Jose is named in the passage with 
another rabbi coming from Sikhnin, a place undoubtedly Galilajan, and 
he recalls the fact of the existence of a town called Malha in the neigh- 
bourhood of Cccsarea. 



162 



LETTERS FKO.M .11. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 



Caphar 
Gamala. 



Caphar 
Melich. 



llanoclio. 



Tobler, not without hesitation, in whicli he is right, compares Malhr^ 
with. Caphar Gamala, tlie place where the body of St. Stephen was 
found by a cei-tain Lucian. (Top. 101.) 

Its connection with, the Caphar Melich of the Cartulary of the Holy 
Sepulchre (pp. 90, 93), would be more acceptable phonetically; but we 
must not forget that Caphar Llelich is mentioned with Auquina (r) 

I sball propose, in my turn, with some confidence, a new identifica- 
tion of Malha, which, if it is admitted, will have the advantage of 
solving one of the lesser problems of Biblical topography. 

One knows the important group of eleven cities of Judah added in the 
Septuagint version to Joshua xix, 9. All the critics are agreed in con- 
sidering this passage, which does not exist in the Hebrew text, not as an 
interpolation, but as the translation of an original verse omitted by a 
copyist. Several of these cities are easily identified : e.//., Tekoa, Beth- 
lehem, Faghom-, Karem, Bettir. Others are less easy to identify on 
account of the variations of the different manuscripts. "With these 
I have nothing to do for the moment. I shall only remark that all the 
MSS. name, after Bettir, with very slight differences, a city called 
Manocho — Mavoxw, Mavax. Critics have connected this place with Mana- 
hat, whither were transported the men of Benjamin, originally from 
Geba (1 Chron. viii. G); but it seems to result from Judges xx. 43 that 
this Manahat is identical with Menonha, situated in the territory of 
Benjamin. However that may be, 1 Chron. ii. 2 and 4 appear to 
indicate very clearly that this was a Manahat or Menouhat in Judah. 
It is to this Manahat or Menouhat that the Manocho of the Septuagint 
corresponds. Both are, in my opinion, the actual village of Malha. 
The change from n to / is a constant fact in Arabic, especially in vulgar 
Arabic, in proper names ; so that when the fellahin say MaJha, it is ex- 
actly as if they pronounced Munha. This little phonetic alteration 
would have been facilitated by the natural attraction tending to bring 
the Hebrew word to the Arab word Malha, salted. 

Topographically, Malha perfectly agrees, for it is on the road to, and 
a little distance from, Bettir, which stands immediately beside Manocho 
in the Septuagint list. In any case it is in the country of Judah, to 
which this Greek passage applies generally. * 

Another interview with the fellah Il^rahim Almud gave me new tra- 
l«gendsaLd ^itions On the ancient Nicopolis which are not without their value. It 
is always the famous pestilence of which I have ali-eady spoken in my 

* Soliwarz {Holy Land, 79) supposes that the ManOLlio of the .Sei)tuagiiit eor- 
responds with a Hebrew form, Manuka. The Greek ch might possibly, according to 
the custom of the Sejituagint, be the representation of a caj)h, but it holds quite 
as often the place of a khet. Besides this supposed form Manuka once obtained, 
Schwarz is obliged to have recourse to another conjecture, lie admits an inter- 
vcraion in the word, and connects it with the Mekonah of Nehemiah xi. 28, one 
of the cities reijeojilcd after the captivity by the men of Judah, and finally with 
Jlechamim, or Machamim, mentioned in the Onomasti'.'oii Ix'twi'Mi J.TUsalem aiid 



Amwap. 



LETTEES FROM >I. CLERMONT-GANNEAi;. 163 

previous reports wlaich fills the principal part in these vague souvenirs 
of the past. 

On the first appearance of the pestilence at Emmaus, the inhabitants, 
who wore all Jews, mostlj' fled. Nearly all who remained died. The 
scourge passed, the fugitives came back to the town. But the following 
year the epidemic appeared again, and the people all perished without 
having the time to escape by flight. At this moment arrived Neby 
Ozeir (Esdras), who found all dead — men, women, and children. The 
prophet having asked of God why he had so rudely chastised the 
country, supplicated the Almighty to resiiscitate the victims. It was 
done, and since that time the Jows have been named onlad el mite {the 
children of the pidtimj to deatli). 

It is to this epidemic that the city of Am was owes its name, according 
to oui- fellahiu. They say, in fact, of the pestilence, amm-ou-asa {it tvas 
extended generally, and was an affliction). (I have not been able to deter- 
mine precisely the meaning of the second verb, which I omitted in my 
notes.) Of course I put no faith in the truth of this etymology, which 
is evidently artificial, like many of the same kind met with in the Bible 
as well as in the mouths of the people, and on which I have many times 
in these reports found occasion to insist. 

It will be curious to give, side by side with this rustic etymology, a 
philologic explanation of the same kind given us by St. Jerome pre- 
cisely apropos of Emmaus. The leai-ned Fulton translates the word 
Emmaus as popidus abjectiis, alias ahjicientes, which proves that he de- 
composed Emmaus into Am, people, and Maiis, refuse. St. Jerome 
appears to allude to various Biblical passages where this word is 
applied by Chi-istian exegesis to the Jewish people, and to have had 
notably present in his mind the verse of Lamentations iii., " Thou 
hast made us as the oflfscouring and refuse in the midst of the 
people." 

It is clear from this etymology, more ingenious than probable, but 
to which we ought to have paid a little attention, that in the time of 
St. Jerome the Semitic name of Nicopolis was pronounced 'Emmaus, 
'Ammaus, with the cdu, and that consequently the Arabic foi'm 
is much nearer the original than the Talmudic Amaous with the 
cdeph. 

This interpretation of Saint Jerome is, besides, an additional proof 
that, for him, the Emmaus of the Gospels was Nicopolis, and conse- 
quently the Amwas of our time ; it also shows that the word Emmaus 
was nothing at all to do with Hamath, which is written with a hhet, 

Beit Jibrin, eight miles from the latter city. This series of su]ipositions is very 
improbable, especially if we reflect with ilr. Grove {Bib'c Did. s. v.) that the 
Mekonah of Nehemiah, joined with Ziklag, was probably much farther to the 
south of Palestine. Schwarz adds at tlie end of his paragraph, odcr Malclia, 
only, in his article on Malcha and Machaya, p. 89, he does not breathe a word 
of this identification, which presented itself to his mind for a moment, but with- 
out any plausible reasons. 



1G4 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

and whicli some authors want to identify witli it. Here are names 
of diiferent places situated at Amwas. Khall't el Adlira, the well of 
KhalVt el luuiimam ; Ersoum ; KlialVt et taga, where they show the 
place where knelt the camel of Saleh, the prophet sent to the Themon- 
dites. The fountain of Ain Nini dries up in summer. Formerly there 
was an aqueduct cai-rying water to Amwas from Bir et Tine, on the road 
near Bir Eyub. 
insciiptions I have just seen at a mason's in Jerusalem a fragment of a strange 
blenis!'" inscription, brought to light, it appears, in repairs made at the Meh- 
keme. The block on which it is engraved has the mediaeval dressing, 
which gives us as our limit the period of the Crusades. There 
is only one line of characters rudely traced and difficult to make out : 

U U S N - - 11 
but what is interesting is that the line is surrounded by representa- 
tions of tools and instruments : the first resembles a great cullender, 
the second a stove, the third is certainly a cleaver ; then comes a kind 
of pestle ; next a cutlass in scabbard. The whole resembles the appara- 
tus of a cook. Perhaps we have the epitaph of some great chef. We 
know that the representation on the tombstones of certain artisans of 
the instruments of their trade was a common thing in the middle ages 
as well as in antiquity. Perhaps we may see in the first letters of the 
fragment uus, the end of the word coquus. You shall have a drawing of 
this enigmatic stone. 
Haram I have at length succeeded, after many researches in the various 

^alfr'^'^of'^*^ libraries in Jerusalem to which I have access, in getting at the original 
the Kubbet text of John of Wirzburg, and in studying the principal passage of this 
^* ' ^ ^^' author quoted in my last report on the little arcade round the Sukhra. 
Here is the passage : — 

" Supra se etiam, juxta tectum, locum deambulatorium circum qua- 
que exhibentibus et habentibus canales plumbeos qui aquam pluviatilem 
evomunt." 

The constrviction of the jJirase is sufficiently obscure, and the manner 
in which Tobler and M. de Vogiie render it seems to me a paraphrase 
rather than a translation. If we keep to the text, taking the architec- 
ture itself as our commentary, it seems that stqjra se should mean, in 
the incorrect language of the author, " above the exterior wall " of 
which we have just been speaking, as well as of the interior wall, and 
not " above the roof," since immediately afterwards we have/Mxto tectum, 
" near the roof." It is the only explanation possible, if we admit the 
punctuation adopted by the editor of the text and followed by these 
two learned archaeologists. But I think that this punctuation, which 
makes of the words supra se a phrase by themselves, is an error ; 
and, in fact, by cutting up the text in this fashion, the words cxJnbent- 
Has et hahentihus belong to nothing at all. Replace the colon by a 
comma, and restore the passage as follows : — " cum pulcherrimis 
laqueariis supra se etiam, juxta tectum," &c., and translate : " Between 
the two walls there is an intermediary roof, with a beautiful panelled 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 1G5 

ceiling, over whicli (which has above it), running all round, is a gallery, 
and which has leaden pipes for getting rid of rain water." From this 
rigorous translation, it is clear that the gallery was above the ceiling, 
and therefore had a large relative width, not being limited to the 
breadth of the wall. Possibly the inclination of the roof stopped sud- 
denly before reaching the external wall, surmounted by arcades, and 
let the water fall upon the floor of the gallery : here they would be 
caught by the leaden gutters and thrown out by gargoyles placed most 
likely at the same points as we now see them. Tobler translates canales 
by rohren, De Yogiie by iiajaux. It is better, I think, to use the French 
word rlieneaux derived from it, and signifying, not a tabular conduit, 
but au open canal. 

The excavation undertaken by the Memour against the interior of the Excavation 
east wall of the Haram, of which I have already spoken, has been sunk Haram**^*^ 
to more than 30 feet. The point chosen is nearly 160 metres (173 yards) 
south of the Golden Gate. We have now reached, and even passed be- 
low, the level of the soil outside. The excavation has led to no 
archeeological or practical result ; nor any traces of the dressed stones 
searched for. It has passed through made-up earth mixed with pottery, 
cubes of mosaic, fragments of marble, &c. We descended the shaft, 
which is not very cleverly made, and narrowly framed in. We were 
able to examine the wall as far as the shaft goes, and can state that 
the stones have no medijeval dressing. ... I am afraid that the shaft 
will be shortly closed. 

At the bottom of the shaft the wall presents two successive sets back, 
the first 3 in. of projection and 15 in. of height ; the lower 7^ in. of 
pi'ojection, with a height as yet undetermined, the shaft having stopped 
at ... . At a point 6 ft. 6 in. above the first projection the wall 
shows a v6ry sensible change in construction, seeming to indicate two 
successivevisible epochs, visible also from the outside : the more ancient 
below, the more modern above, naturally. 

Now a few remarks on my visits to the Haram. The blocks of the Flints inlaid 
inner side of the exterior wall of the Kubbet es Sukhra, visible in the |" *'}f 
frame of the wooden stair leading to the roof, are pierced by numerous 
openings, in which have been inlaid small pieces of flint, having their 
visible faces cut and polished. I cannot explain the purpose of this 
singular arrangement, which has perhaps a superstitious origin. The 
dressing of the blocks is not mediaeval. 

The application of the rule of media3val dressing has led us to estab- ciusadiu? 
lish several important facts in the enceinte of the Mesjid. (1) Great ti°'ns''n\"i 
bases of engaged columns on the platform and near the Mosque of the Haram. 
Mogi'ebbin, certainly mediajval. (2) Various fi-agments of ai-chitec- 
ture of the same origin built up here and thei'e. (3) Mediaeval stones 
and gate in the wall north of the gallery, which joins the Aksa to the 
Mosque of the Mngvebbin. (4) The whole south-ivest angle of the es- 
planade of the Sahhra is entirely mediceval. (5) Several buttresses on the 
west side of the platform are made iip of materials of the middle ages. 



166 



LETTERS FROM 31. CLERMONT-GaNNEAU. 



Niche of 

ancient 

•Statue. 



South face 
and S.E. 
angle of 
Antonia. 



AVall west 
and north 



Tlic ruck- 
cut chani- 
))ers be- 
tween the 
Ecce Homo 
and the 
Austrian 
hospice. 



.Shaft and 

Raliery in 

the Arme 

niau 

south 

Austrian 

hospice. 



I observed on the pillars of the porcli north of the Haram a large 
number of Latin masons' marks (pricked with the point of the tool) ; 
they are engraved on great blocks, which have been stripped of their 
mediceval dressing. I suppose them to be older blocks simply used 
again by the Crusaders, who put signs on them to facilitate placing 
them in proper positions. 

On examining the large hollow stone which the Mussulmans consider 
the cradle of Jesus, I believe I have discovered that it is the niche for 
a statue of small dimensions. 

The south face of the scarped rock north of the Haram requu-es to 
be studied attentively ; at a certain point it makes an abrupt return at 
right angles and due north. I have not seen this angle marked in 
the map of the Ordnance Survey. Perhaps it is the east limit of 
Antonia. A little more to the west an ancient cistern is cut in the side 
of the rock ; here and there, and at a uniform height, are to be 
seen in the rock quadrangular holes seemingly intended to receive 
beams. 

The thin wall of rustic-work to the west and the north, indicated in the 
Statement of April, 1872, is again accessible and visible. We hope to 
make an exact sketch of it, the published plan giving a very insufficient 
idea of it, and not indicating the kinds of pilasters, recalling those of 
the enceinte of the Mosque of Hebron and the debris of the Eussian 
ground behind the Holy Sepulchre. 

We have just undertaken two excavations. 

The first, in the chambers cut in the rock between the Austrian 
hospice and the church of the Ecce Homo. I at first tried to push 
myself into the opening I, at the end of the chamber P, hoping to 
arrive at another chamber, or at a primitive entrance. I had to force 
my way in the midst of a mass of rolling stones, which shook at every 
movement. After two days of stubborn as well as dangerous work, we 
were obliged to give it up. We have, however, meanwhile, succeeded 
in seeing and touching to right and left two vertical ivalls of rock, at 
right angles, the angle being about one metre from the opening. These 
two walls may belong to a chamber like that lettered P ; but they may 
also be the walls of a vestibule, whose sides were cut in the rock, and 
which was open to the sky. In favour of this hypothesis, the ground of 
the passage i, Plate II., above the surface of the chamber P, is on a level 
with that of the region X, still to explore, an arrangement which 
applies better to the entrance of a tomb than to a simple communica- 
tion between two chambers. Besides, the enormous mass of stones, 
against which we have vainly endeavoured to struggle, implies the 
existence of u hollow much higher than a single chamber. Either this 
chamber has lately given way, or else it was always open to the sky. 

The second excavation is in the Armenian ground (27 O. S.). Cap- 
tain Warren has already made an excavation on this side in the 
^Tf"the Street of the Valley (March, 18G9). The point that I have chosen is 
sixty metres more to the east, at the lowest point of the ground. One 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAIT, 167 

shaft is already five metres deep. I propose to open a shaft to the 
S.S.E., in order to cut the probable line of the second wall. 



Jerusalem, ]\kiy .3, 1874. 
Seven days ago, as I was preparing to make an excursion to Jericho, ^rfp^t?on at 
an Arab of Jerusalem, who owns and cultivates a large piece of ground Bird 
at Latrun, came to tell me of the discovery, or rather the apparition, of 
a large inscription close to that village. After the information which 
he gave me, I thought it best to adjoui-n the projected excursion and to 
repair withouL delay to the spot, in order to examine the text, which 
might be important, consisting, as he professed, of twelve lines, written 
all round, and inside a well, called the Bir el Helou. We arrived at the 
well, which is situated a few minutes south-east of Latrun, at the bottom 
of a broad valley, whose waters it drains ; it is a veritable " well of 
living water," and not a cistern, circular, and of careful construction, 
covered with a vault, in which ai-e seen two openings showing the 
ancient place of a heyyara or noria. The water drawn by this machine 
was poured out into a small hirJcet, and from thence directed by an 
aqueduct, half destroyed, upon the ground for irrigation. The diameter 
of the well is 3'70 metres. I immediately proceeded with an pmpressement , 
easy to understand, to search for the famous inscription : and in fact 
I saw running all round the interior wall of the well a considerable 
number of very small characters, of which I counted in certain places 
as many as twelve or thirteen lines. The first line, the lowest, was a 
very little above the level of the water, which was low in the well. The 
characters, traced at some distance fi'om the margin of the well, were 
so small and so close together, that I could only distinguish them by 
means of a glass. I say distinguish, because it was perfectly impossible 
for me to read a single one, or to determine the language and the 
character of this mysterious inscription, to the great disappointment 
of the Arab who accompanied me. I estimated the number of letters 
at ten thousand ! 

After the fruitless attempt I went back to the village of Latri;n, 
where I had to pass the night, and took advantage of the opportunity 
to revisit Aniwas. In both these villages I found the fellahin in a state 
of great excitement on the subject of the inscription round the well. 
They all gathered round me, eagerly inquiring if I had been able to 
make out the characters. I had humbly to acknowledge my inability. 
In turn I interrogated them as to how the inscription was first remarked, 
and got the following information. Twelve days before the women of 
Latrun went to the Bir el Helou to draw water, and came back in a 
great fright, crying out that the well was miraculously filled with 
writing. Nothing had been noticed the day before, though the well is 
much frequented and supplies the whole village. The fellahin imme- 



168 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANIsEAr. 

diately imagined that the inscription was a manifestation of the will of 
Sidna el Khalil (Abraham). The rumour ran about the neighbouring 
villages, and every day hundreds of them came on pilgrimage from the 
places round to contemplate the characters traced by the very hand of 
the patriarch. 

This explanation of the enigmatic inscrijition which appeared in a 
single night was the more natural becau^se there exists in the country 
an analogous legend. Forty years ago a great discussion arose on the 
boundaries of Deyr Byub and Latrun (the latter is lual'f of Hebron and 
included in the lands of the Miri). No one knew which side to take, 
when the patriarch himself intervened, and jjlaced in the night a mound 
on the point where he meant the boundary to pass. Next morning the 
newly-arrived hillock was seen, and everybody submitted, without 
further question, to the decision given by this supreme judge. They 
show the Eujm el Khalil on the left hand of the road leading from 
Deyr Eyub to Latrun. This new intervention of Abraham in the 
affair of the inscription was the more marked because the Eir el Helou 
is also called the Bir el Khalil, the Well of Abraham, and because 
Abraham rested here, according to the local tradition, between his 
departure from Orfa and his arrival at Hebron. The fellahin are so 
convinced of the miracle that they are coming every instant to see if 
the writing does not increase, and if, by chance, the patriarch has 
added a postscript to his long missive. 

As for the explanation of the fact, they offer a very singular one. 
Abraham manifested his will by writing to show that he would no 
longer tolerate Christians in the country. All were agreed in deriving 
this conclusion from the miracle. At Abu Gosh, which I passed both 
going and returning, the people were of the same opinion, and there 
■was only one voice in the environs. Nevertheless, they did not fail to 
question me very carefully whether I had been able to translate the 
inscription, and when I was obliged to say no, they gravely shook their 
heads, and appeared to draw from my inability a new argument in 
favour of its supernatural origin. 

I passed a bad night at Latrun, partly on account of a hard bed, 
and partly by reason of this strange affair, which perplexed me greatly. 
The next day I rose before daybreak to go back to Jerusalem, but I 
wanted first of all to see once more this phenomenon of inscriptions, 
and to get it off my mind. I put in requisition the furniture of my 
host, and went to the well with a little ladder, a table, and a rope. A 
great number of the people of Latrun accompanied me, some of 
them assisting mo with a good grace. I placed the ladder horizontally 
in the water, holding it in its place by the rope, and placed the table 
on it like a plank ; then I lowered myself down to this position of 
unstable equilibrium, half raft half scaffold. I was now able to touch 
the characters with my finger, and consequently to study them at 
leisure. They appeared to me traced with the fjaluin, with ink of a 
reddish black on an old coating (of plaster), which covered the Avail of 



LETTERS FROM M. CLKRilONT-CANNKAl'. 169 

the well. Where the coating had fallen off, the lines contiuued. The 
two last lines appeared to have been smeared by a rise in the water at 
the moment when the ink was not yet dry. The letters remained some 
time undecipherable by me ; they appeared to consist of signs entirely 
arbitrary, vaguely recalling the writing of certain talismans ; the 
execution made me think of Arabic inscriptions written at the present 
day on the wall with ink and the (jidam. 

Looking more attentively, I discovered a fact which shows peremp- 
torily that the text has been written only a few days. The water, which 
two or three weeks ago was at a higher level, having dropped, several 
bits of straw floating on the surface had stuck to the wall. !Now I 
observed that the strokes of the (jalam passed over several of these bits ; 
striking one away, I observed the interruption of the stroke. 

I had seen enough. I climbed out and told the fellahin in plain 
terms, thinking it best to make a breach in their fanaticism, that the 
inscription had been made a few days before by some ill-advised joker. 
But they would not give up. If the inscription appeared to be recently 
executed it was one proof more that it came from the hand of Abraham ; 
the characters must be Yalioudi, 'Ebrany, or Sjjrium ; that was the reason 
why I did not understand them. At this moment there appeared at 
the bottom of the valley a caravan of camels charged with grain coming 
from Gaza, escorted by two Jews, whom I called in to convince these 
obstinate peasants. The Jews declared that the inscription was not 
Jewish. Trouble lost ! 

Decidedly the metier of archeeologist becomes more arduous in 
Palestine. After the pseudo-Moabite pottery, we have a quasi- 
patriarchal phantom ; after the fraud comes the miracle. If fanaticism 
joins in, one will have to give up. The inscription of Bir el Helou is, 
then, of recent date. But how to explain the object with which it was 
drawn ? It must have taken very considerable time and pains to write 
these thousands of signs, even though they are arbitrary, close to the 
edge of the water, in lines perfectly horizontal. Evidently the work 
was done during the night, since the evening before nothing was seen, 
and the next morning the women ran to announce the miracle. 

Two explanations suggest themselves ; I propose them under reserve. 
Some Mussulman searcher after treasure may have inscribed these 
magic signs, hoping to make the object of his search spring from the 
Avell. Or perhaps the intention of the writer is revealed by the effect it 
has produced — the aiuakening of fanaticism tending to the e.rpidsio/t of the 
Christians. The thing that makes this last hypothesis probable is that 
in fact for two or three years past many Ottoman and European 
Christians have made great acquisitions of territory about this place 
with the view to agricultural operations. This intrusion is jealously 
regarded by the fellahin, with whom the new proprietors have generaUy 
a bone to pick. Some mischievous villager may possibly have had re- 
course to this ruse to provoke against these Christians a religious 
reaction, shaking the sole cord which remains among the people of 



170 LETTERS FROM jr. CLERMONT-GAITKEAU. 

fanaticism. Without meaning that one may see here the elements of 
a Mussulman Jacquerie, I must own that the emotion i^roduced in the 
country by this miraculous incident has been very lively. 
A few remarks made on the road : — 

(1.) At Colonia, south of the road, in front of the ruined building, 
in a field, two great roussoirs with the mediasval dressing. 

(2.) The hill close to Abu Gosh and south of it is called Jjuten El 
Kheyme. At a few minutes north-wesfc of the village is a well whose 
water is endowed with healing properties. It is called Bir An Koudi. 

(3.) Latrun was surrounded by a triple wall, according to the fellahin. 
I have examined the ruins, Avhich appear to me important and v/orthy of 
being noted. 

(4.) At Emmaus I visited several houses and saw pieces of sculpture 
coming probably from the church. The exact site of the Bir et Ta 'oun, 
or Avell of Pest, is unknown. The Wely, placed on a height east of 
the village, is called Sheikh Moal iben Jebel. 

(5.) The Fenich were three brothers, all kings ; their tombs are north 
of, and not far from, Suba ; you get to them by a well. There is, the 
peasants tell me, a subterranean communication between Suba and 
Latrun. 

The day after my return from Latrun we left for Jericho, v/here I 
went to ascertain certain points before heats set in. M. Pierre Decosse, 
overseer of the works at the Church of Saint Anne, was good enough 
to look after the excavation in the caverns of the Yia Dolorosa and in 
the Armenian ground. We went to Jericho by the shortest and best 
known road; our journey there offered nothing worthy of note. We 
installed ourselves on a little hill at the entrance to Eiha, near the 
cemeterj'', and not far from Burj. 
<^iii?ai- j^ext day we went to the presumed site of Gilgal, which we had not 

been able to visit on our first journey to Jericho, the existence and 
the name of which I had spoken of to Lieut. Conder. This place, 
situated not far from Tell el-Ithle (or Hithle), has been pointed out to 
several travellers (Schokke and Frere Liewin) under the name of 
Jiljulieh. The people of Riha told us that this was a name peculiar to 
the Franks.* However that may be, we tried a few little excavations 
in the mounds of El Ithle and Jiljulieh; these were not deep, and led 
to no great results. In the first, a large quantity of pottery fragments, 
cubes of mosaic, and lots of glass; in the second, sand. It is certain 
that there was once an edifice here of considerable importance, to judge 
by the mosaics. But that proves nothing for or against the identifica- 
tion of Gilgal, Avhich appears to me still a doubtful point, 
of Icuii'tu'-c Next day we examined the Tawahin es Soukker again, and especially 

=***■*"= an aqueduct where I had remarked at our first visit materials of 

I'aw.ililii es ^ 

.Soukker. * p^^ example which proves with what care one must put questions to 

the fellahin and draw conclusions from their answers. Some time ago the 
Archimandrite of the Russian Mission having asked, on my indication, to see 
.liljulich, was taken to Tell el Mufjir, which they sliowed him h\ that name. 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-C.ANNEAU. 



171 



ancient origin. We turned over all tlie blocks scattered about the 
environs, and pulled down certain bits of tlie broken aqueduct, whicb 
brought to light a few sculptured fragments, evidently belonging to 
naonumeuts of importance. They were drawn by Lecomte. 

In the afternoon we went to Tell el M'gheyfer, also called sometimes TeR el ^^^ 
Tell el Koursi (Tell of the Throne or the Chair), and considered by some ° "^^ "' 
authors as the real Gilgal. The Eussians are at present digging 
there for building materials, they have already a considerable quantity 
of stones laid down with blocks brought from elsewhere in a place 
near Burj. Many of these blocks are covered with fragments of fresco 
painting in Greek style. I greatly desired to have a sketch of Kurn 
Surtabeh from this point, and while Lecomte Avas taking it our two 
workmen dug into the site, but without success. 

The next day broke up camp in order to return to Jerusalem by way Xeby Mflsa. 
of Neby Musa. This sanctuary, so deeply venerated by Mussulmans, 
is in a state of complete dilapidation. We could not get into tlie 
central chambers, which were locked. We could only examine the 
exterior dependencies, and look through the window at the cenotaph 
of Moses, covered over by a silken sheet with embroidered inscriptions. 
Everything appears to be of Arab construction.* The only things 
that deserve mention are : in the balustrade of the minaret a stone 
with oblique mediaeval dressing ; in the interior of one of the windows 
of the centra] building a fragment of a granite column; in the 
southern face of the peristyle a base sculpture in red limestone 
polished, consisting of a series of flutings, in which stands out in very 
high relief a kind of rosette of foliage elegantly entwined. 

All was nearly deserted ; a few Bedawin were halting there like our- 
selves to breakfast ; there is fresh water, of a slightly bituminous taste, 
in a well of no great depth. 

Some minutes farther on stands a little wely, called the Kubbet er 

ra'i, Avhere reposes, according to local tradition, the Shepherd of Moses, 

called Sheikh Hassan. 

The memory of Moses is certainly alive among the inhabitants of Traditions 

of Aloses 
this region. At every moment I heard the Arabs swearing, " By the 

life of the son of Amran." I qviestioned some of them to find out if 
possible the xwint de depart of the legend which places the tomb of Moses 
on this side of the Jordan, and consequently in such flagrant contra- 
diction with the Biblical tradition. They told us, in reply, that when 
the angels announced to Moses that his last moment was come, he was 

* See Mejir ed Diu for several details on the history of tliis ]\Iussiilniau 
sanctuary. He commences by ineiitioniiig the doubts on the authenticity of the 
tomb, adding that general opinion places it here. He assigns the construction of 
the Kubbet to Melek ez Zaher Bibars, who built it after his return from pilgrimage 
to Mecca and his visit to Jerusalem in 668 (A.H.). These additions were after- 
wards made. The minaret was built in 880. He mentions the annual pilgrimage 
hither, and speaks of apparitions and prodigies at the tomb, proving that it was 
that of him "who spoke with God." — Kelim Allah. 



172 



LETTERS FROM 31. CLEUMONT-GANNEAU. 



The rod of 

Moses. 



on tlie east of the Jordan, and that he fled, to escape the fatal moment, 
to the place now called the Neby Musa. There it was that he found the 
angels occupied in hollowing a tomb into which he descended, deceived 
by the subterfuge that we know. Arrived at this desert place, he said 
to God, " There is nothing here to drink, nor any wood to make a fire." 
And God said to him : " Thy water shall come from the well, and thy 
fire from the stones." And that is the origin of the wells dug near the 
sanctuary, and of the combustible stones of schist which abound at 
this place. 

There is met with here and near Jerusalem an insect like a centipede, 
called the rod of JMoses. This inoifensive creature resembles a long 
blackish r/orm, and is provided with a large number of feet, by means 
of which it advances, preserving its straightness of form ; in fact, you 
would think it a little stick endowed with the power of motion. If you 
touch it, it rolls together into a ball. This mode of locomotion and 
this aspect have made the little animal popular among the Arabs, who 
have connected it by its name with the miracle performed at the burn- 
ing bush. 

I got at Jericho new details on the life of Imam Aly, who is only, as 
I have said before, a travesty of Joshua. The boundary of the 
Ghor Seisaban and the Ghor of Beisan was traced by the sword of the 
Imam Aly, who cut through with a single stroke of his sword an enemy, 
the bridge or aqueduct on which he stood, and the ground beneath him. 
It was impossible for me to find out exactly where is the place indicated 
in this legend ; it is called Jisr. Aly, again, had a great war to wage 
acainst the Emir Abu 'Obeide, before the time of Mohammed. Abu 
Obeide is a historic personage, who came with Omar. His tomb exists 
still east of the Jordan. 

The Arab Avho gave me this information so curiously jumbled up, 
pronounced the name 'Obweide ; the intercalation of the w with the h 
and the i is familiar to the Bedouins ; thus they say hweino instead of 
heino. Our two workmen, two worthy peasants from Beit Iksa, a little 
village situated west of Jerusalem, who worked sometime at the repair- 
ing of the locanda at Jericho, gave me the history of Aly and the sun 
with a singular variation, which I will transcribe faithfully, but 
I cannot state whether it is their own invention, or if obtained by 
them from the inhabitants of Jericho. 
Aly and the Imam Aly received guests at a time when there was a great famine 
^""' over all the country. Having nothing for them to eat, he went to a 

him a single imaum of wheat, offering him in ex- 
a measure of gold. The Jew refused, saying that he would 
only give him the wheat on condition of getting it back again before 
sunset of the same day; failing which, Aly was to give him his son. 
The sun was about to set, and Aly searched vainly for wheat to restore 
the borrowed measure, when God said to the sun, " Return, O thou 
blessed ! " He thus gave him the time necessary to get the wheat for 
the Jew, and he was not obliged to give him his child. 



Bedouin 
pronuncia- 
tion. 



Jew and begged of 
change 



LETTERS PROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 173 

The men of Beit Iksa told me that their village bears also the name n^mc of 
of Umm-el-ela : another of those double names that I 'have so often Kelt iksa. 
pointed out. The present inhabitants belong to the Beni Zeid, and 
come from the north ; they obtained permission of Umm-el-ela, and 
gave it the new name of Beit Iksa. The ethnical name to which Iksa 
belongs is Keswani, in the plural Kesawne — Beit Iksan or Ikswan. We 
must, therefore, in Palestine topography, keep account of the mi(/ration 
of names transported with the population from one place to another. 

The route between Neby MAsa and Jerusalem offers nothing remark- Sculptured 
able in archaeology. The only thing we have to notice is a fine fragment at Bethany. 
of sculpture fitted into the wall of a house in Bethany ; at the angle of 
the fragment is the head of an ox ; one of the facings shows the mediccval 
dressing. This will be drawn. 

Some minutes before arriving at El 'Azariyeh (Bethany), on the east La|^rus°^ 
of the village is a rocky pla^teau, covered with sepulchral and other exca- 
vations, walls, Avine-presses, &c. ; one would say that there has once 
been an inhabited place, It was impossible for me to find out if the 
place had a name, and whether it was simply called a Khirbet : only at 
the southern extremity of the plateau local tradition shows a piece of 
rock half buried in the earth, and called the ass of Lazan;s, saying that 
the animal was petrified after having been ridden by Jesus. Are we to 
place on this side the pi-oblematic Bethphage ? 



My principal and only aim in going to Jericho, was to study on Kum 
the spot a point whose full importance I realised on my first visit, I ' 
mean Kurn Sartabeh, and a Biblical tradition which seems to me 
narrowly connected with that well-known mountain. 

If, in the vast plain of Jericho, you raise your eyes northwards you 
will see the horizon partly closed in the distance by a long chain of blue 
hills, above which rises a conical peak known as Kurn Sartabeh. This 
peak, which is seen from a long way off, and which appears to command 
all the low ground at its feet, attracts the eye by its bold fi'ont, and 
retains it by its strongly marked form. Eobinson is right when he 
says that this commanding summit appears from Jericho like a bastion 
of the western chain. 

The first part of the name (written by Robinson Kiiru, and by me 
Q'reiii, diminutive of Kurn, a horn) is frequently applied by the Arabs 
to remarkable peaks. It is this sense which has made Lynch commit 
the singular error of assigning to the name the meaning, "horn of 
the rhinoceros." The meaning of Sartabeh is completely unknown, 
and we must probably look for some ancient name to correspond 
with it. 

It is, first of all, essential to establish its orthography. I have care- 
fully noted the pronunciation of the Arabs of Jericho and its neigh- 
bourhood, and have ascertained that the first letter is a soft S (sin), and 
not the hard S (sad), as the transliteration of Robinson shows. 



174 



LETTERS FROM il. CLERMOST-tiAKNEAI'. 



The Sarta- 
beh of tlie 
Talmud. 



Zarthan. 



Apparition 
to Joshua. 



Ur.der tliis form it is easy to recognise the name of the monutains 
mentioned in the Talmud, and written n3C"iD and n2C"id. Here is 
the ] assage, quoted often since the time of Eeland, which I think I 
ought to give in full for the better understanding of what follows : — 

" Signals of fire,' serving to announce the New Moon, were made from 
the Mount of Olives to Sartabeh, from Sartabeh to Gerufna, from 
Gerufna to Khoran, from Khoran to Beth Baltin." 

M. Neubauer (Gcographie du Talmud, p. 42) says : " They announced 
the New Moon to the country districts by means of fii'es lighted on the 
mountains. Later on, the Samaritans, in a spirit of hatred, lighted 
other fires, which caused errors. Therefore the fires were suppressed 
and couriers substituted." 

I have no occasion here to occupy myself with the historic side of the 
question, and to examine if it was really possible to make a direct 
signal from the Mount of Olives visible at Kurn Sartabeh. I confine 
myself to the simple identification of one hill with the Talmudic Sar- 
tabeh. Observe, further, that the Hebraic orthography of the word is 
different to that of Robinson; that is, the word no more contains a 
tsade than it does a sad. 

This fact will permit us to pass immediately to a Biblical relation 
advanced for Sartabeh. It is quite natural to suppose that the Bible 
did not pass over in silence the name of a mountain so important. 

Starting with this idea, some writers think themselves authorised to 
recognise in Sartabeh the new Zarthan (Zaretan of Joshua iii. 16), and 
placed by the Bible in the Jordanic region. Nothing is less admissible 
than this identification, which rests wholly on an etymology entirely 
recent. The external resemblances which seem to exist between the 
two words completely vanish when we compare them letter by letter. 
The nun final might correspond with the h, but both the a and the i 
are radically difi'erent in the two words. 

Must we then abandon altogether the hope of finding this peak men- 
tioned in the Bible ? I think not, and I believe, on the contrary, I can 
adduce a passage of the highest interest, though under a form mytho- 
logical rather than geographical. 

In Joshua v. 13 — 15, is related a strange episode which seems to 
attach itself to the consecration of Gilgal as a sacred place. Here is 
the litei-al translation^ — " And Joshua Vvas at Jericho, and he lifted up 
his eyes and looked, and behold there stood a man before him with his 
sword drawn in his hand ; and Joshua went towards him and said unto 
him, ' Art thou for us or for our adversaries ? ' and he said, ' Nay, but 
as captain of the host (SAESABA) of the Lord, and now I am coming 
towards thee.' And Joshua fell on his face to the earth and did wor- 
ship, and saith unto him, ' What saith my Lord unto his servant ? ' 
And the captain of the Lord's host said unto Joshua, ' Loose thy shoe 
from ofi" thy foot, for the place whereon thou staudest is holy.' And 
Joshua did so." 

The Hebrew word Sarsaba signifies chief of the army, and is rendered 



LKTTERS FKO.M M. CLEUMONT-GANNEAU. 17o 

iu the Septuagint by apx^arpaTriyos. The different versions of tlie Bible 
render it captain of the anni/ of Jehovah. We know that Jehovah him- 
self is sometimes called Jehovah Sabaoth, when mentioned as the head 
of the army of angels or stars, and that this expression appears in the 
Gnostic formulary, Sulaoth. 

I only wish for the moment to call attention to the striking resem- 
blance which exists between Sar Saba and Sar Taba, when the Hebrew 
tsade is replaced in the Talmudic and Arabic form by a tet and a ta. 
This substitution of the t for an s is one of the most frequent re- 
marked in the passage of the Hebrew to the Aramaic ; thus Tyre is now 

Sor(-iV)- • 

This etymological coincidence being- so complete cannot be fortuitous. 

It leads us to ask whether it does not conceal a close relation between 

the mountain and the apparition. 

Let us remember how often mountains are found in relation with 

visions analogous to that of Joshua. Mountains, it is well known, 

occupy a considerable place in Semitic religions, and even the Hebrews 

attached sanctity to them. We iinderstand how they served as a 

natural theatre for the manifestations of the Deity. I could cite many 

examples. Let us take only one or two. 

First, the appearance of Jehovah to Moses in the burning bush on 

Mount Horeb. Closes, perceiving the supernatural flame, advanced 

towards it, as Joshua towards the man. Just as Sarsaba told Joshua, 

who came towards him, to take off his shoes because the place was 

holy, in exactly the same terms Moses is ordered to do the same 

thing. 

For the suddenness of the vision we may compare Zech. i. 8 ; ii.!||5. 

It is the same prophet who says (viii. 3), "The mountain of Jehovah 

Sabaoth is a sacred mountain," and also shows us (xiv. 3, 4) the Lord 

going forth to fight with " his feet upon the Mount of Olives." 

One of the apparitions which has the most literal resemblance with 

that of the Sarsaba to Joshua is th-e appearance of the destroying 

angel to David. This episode is told more simply in the Book of 

Samuel (2 Sam. sxiv. 15), but with greater detail in 1 Chron. xxi. 14 — 

17. The latter strongly recalls the passage in the Book of Joshua, and 

especially if we compare the Hebrew text. 

Jehovah having sent his angel to smite Jerusalem, had pity 

on the unhappy town, and said to the Destroyincj Angel {Melelc ha-Mach- 

Mt), "It is enough ; stay now thy hand." David lifted up his eyes and 

saw the anyel stand between the heaven and the earth, having a, draw)/ 

sword in Iris hand. He threw himself iqion the ground. The angel, who 

Avas at this moment above the threshing-floor of Oman the .Jebusite, 

caused Gad to tell David to go up and''sef up an altar on the threshing 

floor. 

It results from this passage that the angel was above Mount Moriah. 

It may not be useless to remark that the angel called Machhah seems 

onomastically connected with the Mount of Olives, often designated by 






176 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

the Blucli -disputed name of liar ha-MachJut* "We know tbat the two 
mountains of Moriah and Olivet were intimately connected from a reli- 
gious point of view, and in ceremonies, and tliat on tlie latter (2 Sam. 
XV. 34) was a place where David adored Elohim. 

These analogies alone would be enough to make us seek in this episode 
of Joshua's life the existence of a mountain. And is this mountain 
anything except that Avhich now is called by the significant name of 
Sartabeh, or Sar-Saba ? 

The stoi-y of Joshua analysed, means two things : (1) the height of 
the point where the apparition stood, for he lifted up his eyes ; (2) a 
considerable distance between the vision and Joshua, for Joshua went 
totvards him ; and the angel said, I come towards thee. Further, the use 
of the word icj;, stars, means that the supernatui-al being was upright 
on a base. 

The dominant position and the characteristic aspect of Sartabeh, the 
master of the plain, makes it an admirable place for the appearance of 
the Captain of the Lord's host, 
strategic It is not superfluous to remark that, besides its probable character 

s"T'/T*''^' ^^ sanctity, the peak had great strategic importance. Schulz has 
already proposed to place on it the Alexandrion of Alexander J annseus, 
and the considerable ruins which Zschokke found on the summit have 
induced him also to share this opinion. The fact of its military strength 
would help to explain Joshua's question, " Art thou for us, or for the 
enemy ? " 

The appearance of the warrior-angel of Jehovah hovering over this 
strong natural fortress with which he identified himself, perhaps, is 
quite topical. Who knows even that the naked sword in his hand, as 
that of the destroying angel (of the Mount of Olives and Moriah), is not 
in some way connected with the flame which, according to the Talmud, 
was lit on the determined moment on the summits of the sacred 
mountain ? 

What are we to understand exactly by Sar Saba ? The question is 
extremely difficult, and belongs to the more obscure side of the Hebrew 
religion. I cannot touch on it here. Let us only remark that God 
himself is called (Dan. viii. 11) Sar Ha Saba, which agrees perfectly 
with Jehovah Sabaoth. There is no doubt as to the general meaning : 
it is (Oin'mander-in-cJiicf. Thus Omri was Sar Saba over all Israel. It 
is the exact representative of the present Mussulman Serasker.f 
common to Turks, Persians, and Arabs. 

* >rost commentators derive Jlaclihit, the name of the Mount of Olives, from 
Maehah, and translate it oil, while they make Machliit distinctive from Cbaliat. 
I do not know the true etymology for each of these words, but what is without 
any doubt is they singularly rescmlde each other, and that this resemblance, 
added to the coincidence of the events, cannot be accidental. 

+ As for the etymolojjy of Serasker it is, I believe, wrong to make a hybrid 
composition of the Persian scr, head and the Arabic 'asker, soldier. Serasker is 
liistorically an Arabic term ; it is thus, linguistically, a Semitic' word ; scr corre- 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANKEAU. l77 

We see in Daniel that many nations have their sar or guardian angel; 
for example, Greece and Persia. The sar of Israel is Michael, who in 
other places in Daniel is qualified as the chief of the power, Sar ha- 
malkot, and the chief of the grand chief, Sar hag-gadol ; " Sar Michael 
is your chief." 

Michael generally personifies the divine power, particularly in his 
manifestation of violence, or when he combats with Satan to help man. 
One remembers (Jude) Michael and the devil disputing over the body 
of Moses. 

The later traditions do not hesitate to recognise Michael in the angel 
which appeared to Joshua. 

Phocas speaks of a Bounos (tell) which was situated in front of the churcli of 
Moimt of Temptation, on which stood a temple indicating the place ^^' ^^^''^jj^' 
where Joshua saw the Archangel Michael. the vision. 

An anonymous description (AUat. 13) says, that below the monastery 
of St. Euthymus there was a monastery of the Virgin, whence Joshua 
saw the angel. Daniel also speaks of a church at Gilgal, where they 
had added a convent dedicated to St. Michael, because it was on the 
spot where Joshua had his vision. 

It results from the testimony that tradition admitted the vision of 
Joshua to have taken place during his sojourn at Gilgal. I have already 
remarked that this conclusion appeared to be indicated by the tenor of 
the episode and by the position that it occupies in the chapter, although 
it begins with the words " at Jericho." We need not take the expres- 
sion too strictly, and may very well understand by it the environs of 
Jericho. 

The disposition of the mountains which border the plain of Jericho 
is such that the Sartabeh is invisible west of Riha, since it is completely 
masqued by the chain of the first plain, and especially by the height of 
Ichche Ghorab, which terminates it at the east. But starting from 
Biha to the east it appears at all points of the plane. The drawing 
that M. Lecomte has made is better from Tell M'gheyfer, one of the 
sites proposed for Gilgal. We have also a sketch of Tell el-Ithle, taken 
from Jiljulieh. 

I must note an observation of some interest. Coming from the east, 
as one approaches Jericho, Sartabeh retreats little by little to the eye, 
between Ichche Ghorab, which ends by covering it up completely. 
The pi'ofiles of these two mountains and the chain on which they stand 
olFer the strongest analogies, taking account of perspective and pro- 
portion. 

It has been entirely impossible for me to collect the smallest legend 
on this peak ; nor any indication except that of the iron ring and the 
great cavern of which Zschokke was told. I thought at first that I 

.sponcls with sar, Hebrew, chief, and 'asker is counucted with the Heluew root 
achkar, to liiie troops ; the aiu, additional, in the last word is purel}^ prosthetic ; 
we have already in Hebrew achkar with a prosthetic aleph, and the transforma- 
tion of the aleph into the ain is frequent ; thus Achkelon becomes 'Askalon. 

2( 



178 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 

could find some connection between tlie venerated magam of tlie Imam 
Aly- Joshua and the sacred magam, where Joshua stood while he spoke 
to the angel ; but the Mussulman sanctuary is too far to the west to 
permit Sartabeh to be seen. 



THE SURVEY OF PALESTINE. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER'S EEPORTS. 

XXL 

28!!7i April, 1874. 
Since last I wrote from "W. Far'ah the Survey, though, still impeded 
slightly by wet weather, has been steadily advanced, and we are able by 
two days' work in subsidiary camps to. fill in the whole piece required to 
complete the Jenin sheet, bringing the total to about 2,800 square miles, 
and giving the whole of the Jordan valley from the Dead Sea to within 
a mile or so of the Sea of GalUee. Our intermediate camp between Wady 
Far'ah and Beisan was placed at W. Maleh, and was by far the most 
desolate site which Ave have as yet been forced to select. A few f ellahin 
and Arabs Avere settled not far off, and supplied us with guides and 
meat. The water in the neighbourhood is all more or less salt, 
Avhence the name given to the pi-incii3al stream. We Avere therefore 
glad to remove to the jjlentiful springs and open rolling country of the 
neigbbourhood of Beisan. 

The following are the chief points of interest which, we have noticed 
during the last fortnight : — 
ye:-2eh. Terzehi is a ruined site of very considerable extent, lying at the foot of 

the fine isolated hill called Eas Kader. The ruins seem of a late Grseco- 
JcAvish type, and the whole of the site is covered Avith a confused debris 
of moderately-sized rough-hcAvn stones, beneath Avhicli foundations are 
visible in parts. One or tAvo stones have a broad flat di'aft, and seem 
rather to have been intended for tablets. ToAvards the north of the 
toAvn are pillars and a fine lintel, probably remains of a temple. The 
ornamentation of the lintel Avith rosettes and the conventional Adne is of 
the ordinary debased classic style. There are a considerable number of 
rock-cut tombs, internally very rough, and Avith loculi of both kinds ; 
externally the circular arch above the door is very avcII cut, and in one 
case structural. A Greek inscription, illegible all but a fcAV letters, 
Avith a rough ornamentation, is to be found on the front of one of these 
sepulchres. There are one or tAvo moderate cisterns cut in rock. An 
ancient road leads by the spot at the foot of the hill. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE K. COXDEr's REPORTS. 179 

Tyasir, like most of the old sites in this part of the country, is lyasir. 
almost undermined with caves and rock-cut tombs. On the south-west 
of the village there exists, however, a very interesting little monument, 
of which I have taken very careful measurements. 

It seems probably to have been a tomb, and its door is placed towards 
the east, the interior being square, mth four corner piers, which sup- 
ported a groined roof, as far as can be judged by the shape of the 
remaining haunch stones. The projection of the piers gives a recess 
on each side of the chamber, three of wliich may have been occupied by 
sarcophagi. A regular stylobate runs round the outside, and on it stand 
attached pilasters ^vith a projection of only two inches; there are two 
intermediate and two corner i^ilasters on each face of the building. The 
projecting profile of the door is very curious, and resembles that at 
Nebi Yahyah to a certain extent. We did not succeed in finding any 
capitals, but fragments of cornice, mth classic details and very rich 
foliated work, were lying near. The size of the stones, some over four feet 
long, their excellent workmanship, and the beauty of the carved work 
of the cornice, show that the monument* must have been, when com- 
plete, a very fine one, and probably the property of a man of dis- 
tinction. 

The narrow gorge above the warm springs of El Maleh is commanded Burj el 
on the north by a fortress set in an almost impregnable position. With 
much trouble we reached the top, and executed a plan of the enceinte. 
It is irregular in shape, fitted like a modern redoubt to its rocky site, 
and surrounded, as usual in the Crusading buildings, with vaulted 
chambers. The masonry generally used is neither large nor well cut, 
but the comer stones .of the fortress, both externally and within the 
princij)al gate on the north side, are all marked with a rough draft. 

Kaukab el Hawa, situated on the cliffs south of the Sea of Galilee, and Kaukab el 
visible from Beisan, seems to be also a Crusading fortress. Its enceinte wall, 
of great thickness (eleven feet), is built of blocks of black basalt, which 
are nearly all drafted. It is a point of considerable interest to determine 
whether such blocks were cut by the Crusaders themselves, or only used 
where found in older buildings. It has been argued that the Crusaders 
would employ lighter material, in order to allow of greater rapidity of 
construction ; but strength seems in their days to have been the most 
important requisite, and in no fortress which I have as yet seen in Pales- 
tine is small masonry used in the outer walls of the place. Kaukab 
(Bel voir), standing on no Roman route, and with masonry which bears 
every sign of being intended for its present use, argues strongly in 
favour of the large drafted masonry having been actually quarried by 
the Crusaders. The Saracenic buildings, such as the great Khans, are, 
on the contrary, generally of smaller masonry, and in one instance 
(Caesarea) a sloping revetment of small stones in very hard cement 
covers the larger masonry of the Crusading wall. 

* It was photographed and planned liy Major Wilson, E.E. See Photo. No, 
97, old series. 



180 LIEUT. CLAUDE E. COXDER's REPORTS. 

The plan of tlie fortress of Kaukab is irregular. There appears to 
have been a central building supported on vaults, and vaulted chambers 
ran round the town immediately within the wall. The gate on the east 
was closed by a portcullis, the place for which is still visible. A ditch 
fifty feet Avide surrounds the fortress on three sides, but on the east u 
steep slope leads dii-ectly down to the Jordan valley. 
"^^^^^ Attention was first drawn to the great interest of these curious 

mounds, which were first excavated at the same time by Captain 
Warren, who supposes them to have been fortifications. In a subse- 
quent number of the Quarterlij it was pointed out that similar mounds 
are in process of formation at the present day both in Egypt and in 
India, being made by the accuniidating refuse of sun-dried bricks which 
are picked on these heaps, those which are Sjpoilt seiwing as a sort of 
platform on wliich others are baked ; thus gradually a mound accumu- 
lates, and woidd, when deserted and overgrown, present exactly the 
appearance of a tell. The tells are found in the Plain of Esdraelon, 
and in that of Acca, near the Kishon, but more especially in the 
Jordan valley. I have already given a list of the true tells near 
Jericho which Captain Warren found to consist of sun-dried bricks. 
Near Beisan, and in the plain south of it, there are twenty true tells, 
apparently of the same character ^vith those at Jericho, besides other 
mounds formed of crumbled ruins to which the name tell is also 
applied. In confirmation of the latter theory of their formation I would 
call attention to one or two points. First, they occur invariably in the 
immediate vicinity of water, generally at a spring or beside a running 
stream. Second, they are always found in alluvial plains and in places 
where clay may be expected to exist ; thus, for instance, at Beisan they 
are found in the " clay lands " between Succoth (generally supposed to 
be S'akut) and Zerthan, which was below Jezreel, where Solomon cast 
the brass work for the temple service. Third, they are known, at least 
at Jericho, to consist of sun-dried bricks. It has been remarked that 
they occur at the mouths of passes which they were supposed^to defend, 
but I may remark that this is hardly a rule, as many are placed in 
positions which can have no military significance, whilst the wadies at 
whose mouths they are placed always contain water. Neither can they 
be held to defend the Jordan fords, for many important fords have no 
tell near them. Where they do occur along Jordan it is in places where 
springs or tributary streams flow down to the river. Their great an- 
tiquity is shewn first by their being mentioned in the Bible at an early 
period (Geliloth) ; secondly, by their ha%dng been subsequently built 
upon in a few cases in Eoman times. None of the true tells have, 
however, been identified with Biblical sites, unless, indeed, we except 
those at 'Ain el Sultan. 

The shape and appearance of the true tells woidd also point to the same 
explanation of their origin. They are evidently accumulations. Often 
two occur close together of different size, or two or more small tells spring 
on a platform formed by a large one; sometimes a small subsidiary 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEIl's REPORTS. 181 

luound, as though only lately commenced, will be found at the foot of a 
veiy large one. 

The interest and importance of such remains can hardly be over- 
estimated. Tliey form a key to the understanding of all the more; 
ancient ruins in Palestine. Nothing is more natural and probable than 
that the Jews who in Egypt, as we know, were employed in the manu- 
facture of bricks, and whose first possessions in the country were in the 
plains, should have^resorted to this material for the rapid construction of 
towns, necessitated by the total destruction of the Canaanite cities. The 
method in Avhich this destruction was made, its completeness and 
vapidity, seem to show that these cities themselves were of no great 
strength, and it is even possible that the brick-making may be carried 
back to Canaanite times. Of architectui'e as a fine art there seems good 
reason to suppose the Jews were ignorant, nor is there anything in the 
Bible or in the country to indicate that the towns of the early Biblical 
period Avere better built or more important than the present Syi-ian 
villages. In the time of Saul we find the people dwelling in caves, and 
there is much evidence which points to the old inhabitants of Palestine 
having been much addicted to such a practice. Even at the present day 
the natural caves and larger tombs are used as dwelling-places and 
stables. 

In modern Damascus we have an instance of a city mainly built of 
siui-di-ied brick, and the chopped straw in its clay calls to mind the 
bondage of the Egyptian brickfields. Wood is used in combination with 
this hardened mud, and may have been in the early Jewish towns at a 
time when it was more plentiful than now. At the same time, it must 
be recognised that stone-quarrying was very extensively undertaken at 
some period of Jewish history, as is evidenced at the present day in 
every part of Palestine, though the period it is almost impossible to 
decide. In the hill country the use of stone must naturally have been 
greater than that of brick. So now in Palestine the hill villages are of 
stone, and those in the plains mere collections of mud huts. 

The interest of the inquiry is very great in explaining how it occurs 
that the more ancient ruins of the country are mere mounds in which 
the presence of stone is scarcely discernible, and the grey colour of the 
mass alone distinguishes the site. Were brick supposed to have been 
extensively used, this peculiarity of the ruins of Palestine would be 
easily accounted for. 

The sui-vey of the extensive ruins of Beisan occupied some time, Beisan. 
and the twelve-inch map of the whole was executed by the corporals, 
whilst Sergeant Black accompanied me to the short camps at Kawkab 
and Sulem, where, with an average temi^crature of about 92 degrees in the 
shade, we completed the Avork to the northern line of the Jenin sheet. 
The principal Eoman ruins are the Theatre, Hippodrome, and some 
large tombs. The tell fortifications are possibly crusading, and a ruined 
mosque, two fine viaducts, and a good-sized khan, no doubt Saracenic. 
The theatre, situate in the basin which isolates the tell, and through 



182 LIEUT. CLAUDE K. CONDEr'S REPORTS. 

which two streams flow, joining at the lower bridge, is built of black 
basalt, and in better preservation than most of the ruins of the country. 
It is a semicircle and a third, being closed on the north by a massive 
wall, the foiuidations alone remaining, including a block of marble 
six feet nine inches by four feet, which forms the chord to an ai'C of 120 
degrees. Nino vomitories remain more or less perfect. They are double, 
and out of the western passage of each a narrow gallery leads diagonally 
to a cage open towards the interior of the theatre. Each cage is a 
holloAV quarter sphere eight feet in diameter, and was no doubt closed 
by bars in front. There seems to have been twelve rows of benches 
eighteen inches high, but they are scarcely traceable beneath the rank 
gi'owth of spring herbs. 

The stream from a mill flows close to the theatre, and may have been 
turned into a basin of some kind for the naval entertainments. 

The Hippodrome is almost entirely destroyed, and its plan recovered 
with difficult}'. It appears to have been constructed by two cii'cles 
seventy-six feet radius, with centres 128 feet apart. Its longest axis is 
nearly east and west ; the entrance probably on the east. Stone seats 
eighteen inches high surround it on all sides. The base of what was 
probably one of the goals lies towards the western end of its greatest 
diameter line. 

Capitals, fragments of ornament, and other indications, prove the 
great extent of the to^vn, which stretched south of the modern village, 
and both north and south of the main stream of W. Jalud. The tombs, 
cut in a soft sedimentary river deposit, in cliffs close to the stream, re- 
semble in arrangement those at Sh. Abreik, with this peculiaritj-, that 
they contain sarcophagi larger than the loculi placed in a row parallel 
with the length of the chamber. "We planned them carefully, but found 
no inscriptions. Xot far from them, on the north-west, is a fine cistern 
or birket lined with hard cement, and once roofed over. A row of 
pillars exists close to it, and a large building seems to have stood on' the 
spot. The extent of the Eoman town we were able to make out, fully 
tracing its walls, nine feet thick, of black basalt, including an area of 
one-thu'd of a square mile. 
Giileon's There is perhaps no corner of Palestine where the events of Bible 

history crowd so thick upon one another as in that portion which we 
have just completed. On the north, the Sea of Galilee, Avith its sacred 
memories ; on the west. Tabor and the hill Moroh, the Valley of 
Jesreel, and the chain of GUboa ; on the south, Succoth ; and on the 
east the winding Jordan. But perhaps the history most fully illustrated 
by our present survey is that of Gideon's victory over ZMidian, and sub- 
sequent pursuit (Judges vii.). The nomadic hordes of the !llidianites 
had, like the modern Beni Suggar and Ghazawiyeh Arabs, come up 
the broad and fertile Valley of Jezreel, and then- encampment lay, as the 
black Ax'ab tents do now in spring, at the foot of the hill Moreh (Nebi 
Dahy), opposite to the high limestone Icnoll on which Jezreel (Zer'ain) 
stands. As on the first night of our camping at Sulem (Shunem), when 



victoi-y. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. C'ONDEr's REPORTS. 183 

six horsemen and fifteen foot of the Bedouin came down on the village 
and retreated, -nftcr stealing a horse and a cow, followed by the fellahin 
with shouts and a dropping fire, so in Gideon's time the settled 
Jewish inhabitants assembled to drive back the marauders. The well 
Harod, where occurred the trial which separated 300 men of endurance 
from the worthless rabble, was no doubt the 'Ain Jalud, a fine sjjring 
at the foot of Gilboa, issuing blue and clear from a cavern, and forming 
a pool with rushy banks and a pebbly bottom more than 100 yards in 
length. The water is sweet, and there is ample space for the gathering 
of a great number of men. It has, however, like most of the neighbour- 
ing springs, a slightly sulphurous taste, and a soft deep mud covers the 
middle of the basin below the surface. 

The graphic description of the midnight attack, when, no doubt con- 
cealed by the folds of the rolling ground, the 300 crept down to the 
Midianite camp " in the valley beneath," and bm'st on the sleeping host 
with a sudden flicker of the concealed lamps, can be most readily 
realised on the spot. The immediate flight of the nomadic horde is 
most easily traced on the map. "The host fled to Beth-shittah in 
Zererath, and to the border of Abel-meholah " (vii. 22), a course directly 
down the main road to Jordan and to Beisan. Beth-shittah may perhaps 
be identified with the modern village of Shatta, and Abelmea (as it was 
called in Jerome's time) with Wady Maleh. Zererath would appear to be 
a district name, and is generally connected with the Zerthan and Zeretan 
of other passages of the Old Testament. It is known to have been 
" below Jezreel," and near Beisan. I think, therefore, we can scarce 
doubt that the name still exists in the Arabic, 'Ain Zahrah and Tullid 
Zahrah, three miles west of Beisan. Thus the immediate pursuit drove 
the enemy some ten or fifteen miles towards the Jordan banks. A 
systematic advance immediately followed. Messengers went south two 
days' journey to Moimt Ephraim, and the Jews descended to the lower 
fords of Jordan at Bethbarah, which has been supposed identical with 
the Bethabara of the New Testament, and which was in all probability 
situate at the traditional site — the pilgrims' bathing-place near Kasr el 
Yehud,. east of Jericho. Meantime Gideon, having cleared the Bethshan 
valley of the Midianites, crossed by the fords near Succoth at its 
southern extremity (the modern Makhathet Abu Sus), and continued the 
pursuit along the east bank of the Jordan. The Midianites were thus 
entu-ely cut off. They appear (or at least some part of the host) to have 
followed the right bank southwards towards Midian, intending, no 
doubt, to cross near Jericho. But they were here met by the men of 
Ephraim, and their leaders, Oreb and Zeeb, executed on that side of 
Jordan, their heads being subsequently carried to Gideon," on the other 
side." This confirms positively the theory which I offered somewhat 
cautiously in a former report, and makes the identification of the 
" Eaven's Peak " and the " Wolf's Den" with the 'Ash el Ghor'ab and 
Tuweil el Dhiab a natural and probable one. The sharp peak over- 
looking the broad j)lain north of Jericho would indeed form a natural 



184 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDEH S REPORTS. 

place for a public execution, wlich would be visible to tlie whole multi- 
tude beneath. 

Additional interest attaches to the identification of Zererath or 
Zerthan, for it points to the locality where the Jordan was miraculously- 
blocked during the passage of the Israelites. The Ghor or Lower Jordan 
valley is not continuous here ; in parts the cliffs are closely approached, 
and a blockage of the river at one of these narrow places would leave 
its bed dry for a very considerable time, as a lake would gradually form 
in the wider basins above, and a rise of more than fifty feet, with a 
width of nearly a mile, coidd be obtained in place of a river some twenty 
yards in breadth. Such a blockage might any day be occasioned by one 
of those shocks of earthquake which from the earliest historical period 
down to the present day have been constantly felt in the Jordan valley, 
and which point to the volcanic natui-e of the agency which has caused 
this extraordinary depression. 

Our work in this part of Palestine, including what we hope will prove 
the refinding of Gilgal, the settlement of the boundary of Judah, the 
identification of the rock Oreb, and yet more certainly that of the 
doubtful iEnon, with the explanation of the flight of Midian and the 
discovery of Zererath, cannot fail to be considered of the highest interest, 
and proves how much light the survey of Palestine must throw on the 
simple, exact, and graphic descri^jtions which abound in the Bible, and 
which are only apparently confused or contradictory because we in 
times so remote have almost lost the key to their explanation. 
Antipatiis. Having finished the Jenin sheet, and carried up the Jordan to within 
a mile or two of the Sea of Galilee, we proceeded by easy marches to 
the Maritime Plain, and arrived at Kefr Saba on the 23rd, the foiu'th 
day from Sulem. Here about 120 square miles remain to be put in, 
which will complete the Jaffa sheet of the map ; and to this work, after 
having settled the triangulation, which is here a matter of no small 
difficulty, I propose to leave the non-commissioned officers under Mr. 
Drake's care, starting myself for Jerusalem, in preparation for my home 
visit. When finished the party ^v^ll move to Jerusalem, where they 
will await my return, emjiloyed in the execution of the plans. 

The question of most interest in this part of the work is that of the 
site of Antipatris, and it seems to me that a very slight investigation of 
the ground is sufficient to decide the matter. The town built by Herod 
bearing this name in honour of his father was on the site of the ancient 
Kaphar Saba, the name of which stUl lingers at the village where our 
camp is now pitched. The points in favour of its identity, further than 
the i^rescrvation of the name, are, however, few. Antipatris was 150 
stadia, or about sixteen miles, from Jaffix. Kefr Saba is rather more 
than fourteen. Again it was, according to the Onomasticon, twenty- 
six miles from Cassarea, lying between it and Lydda. Kefr Saba is 
about twenty-five Roman miles from Caosarea. On the other hand, it 
is said by Jerome to have been six mUes south of Galgula, but Kefr 
Saba is about three miles north-west of Jiljulioh, which is possibly the 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. OONDER's REPORTS. 185 

place ill question, and nearly due west of Kalkilia, whicli might perhaps 
be identified with Galgula. 

Antipatris was protected on the south by a ditch and wooden rampart, 
with towers constructed by Alexander Balas as a defence against the 
advance of Antiochus from the south. Th(! Eoman road from Jerusalem 
to Cicsarea led through Antipatris, whicli was surrounded by a river 
and by fertile wooded country, and situate close to a hilly ridge. All 
these latter requisites are quite inconsistent with the Kefr Saba site. 
No Eoman road leads to it from the hills ; no river is found, the water 
being from a couple of wells ; no trees or ruins of a large town exist. 
The indication of direction is also a very important point (although 
slighted by Dr. Eobinson), as it is far less likely to have become cor- 
rupted in copying than the numbers which indicate distances would be. 
It would seem, therefore, that the name has wandered from some other 
site in the neighbourhood, and become affixed to this modern village. 

It remains, therefore, to find in the vicinity a site which shall fulfil 

the requisites enumerated and form a natural position for one of those 

noble towns which sj)rung up in Palestine during the prosperous times 

of Herod the Great. Such a site has been already suggested at Eas el 

'Ain, where the ruined shell of the fine old Castle of Mirabel stands 

above the " wonderfully beautiful" springs of the Auj eh river. The 

fine Eoman road which we have traced step by step from Jerusalem to 

•Jifneli, and thence to Tibneh, descends the steep hills and runs down 

straight to Eas el Ain. It was by this road, as is now generally allowed, 

that St. Paul was hurried by night to Antipatris, whence he proceeded 

to Cassarea. From Eas el 'Ain another Eoman road, marked in one 

place by a milestone, leads along the foot of the hills to Jiljulieh and 

Kalkilia, and thence to Kaisarieh. It is the main road from Eamleh 

through Lydda, and Eas el 'Ain thus lies exactly between Lydda and 

Caesarea, which cannot be .said of Kefr Saba ; still further, it is south of 

the site of Galgula, being three and a half miles from Jiljulieh and about 

six from Kalkilia. To Jaffa is eleven miles, to Caesarea thirty Eoman 

miles. These numbers, though less exact than in the former case, are 

yet approximately correct in comparison with the words of Josephus 

and Jerome. But what is more important to observe is that Eas el 'Ain 

is the natural site for a town in the neighbourhood. The streams 

which burst out round the mound are the surrounding river of Josephus. 

The hilly ridge rises just behind. The trees, indeed, are no more, 

having shared the fate of the great oak forest, the stumps of whose trees 

cover the sandhills from Mukhalid to Jaffa, but there can have been no 

spot so likely to be fertile in the Plain of Sharon as the sources of the 

Auj eh. It would be interesting to find the ditch whicli was dug by 

Alexander Balas, and which was no doubt filled with water from the 

Auj eh, and intended as a more direct line of defence than that of the 

winding wady bed. Mr. Drake informs me that a ditch full of water 

some fifteen feet wide exists near the bridge, but this is some five or six 

miles from Eas el 'Ain and directed south-east. The trench reached the 



Geology. 



ISO LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDER's REPORTS, 

" Sea of Joppa," according to Josephus, and has no doubt been filled in 
by the light soil of the plain and left no more trace than its wooden 
wall and towers. At Kefr Saba no signs of a trench are visible, nor is 
there any suj)ply of water to fill it. Thus balancing the evidence as a 
whole, we arrive at the pretty safe conclusion that the Antipatris of 
Herod was, like his Jericho, built at the source of one of the finest springs 
in the country. A visit to the site, with its mound occupied on the west 
by the Kala'at, and presenting in other parts an appearance similar to 
that of the ruins of Eoman Cgesarea — heaps of broken stone and occa- 
sional large blocks overgrown with the yellow composite flowers which 
invariably mark such spots — serves to strengthen this impression. 

The whole district passed through since leaving Jerusalem is geologi- 
cally of the highest interest. I have already noticed the discovery of 
old sea levels and the very striking indications as to the date and mode 
of formation of the Jordan valley, on which I propose to offer the Com- 
mittee a separate paper when my notes have been completed and 
digested. The great valley of Far'ah (not to be confounded -ndfch Wady 
Far'ah, near Jerusalem) is no ordinary water-worn depression, but has 
been formed by some considerable convulsion, no doubt at the same 
date as the depression of the Ghor, upon which it will throw considerable 
light. It marks a change in the character of the country. The dip of 
the beds north of it is much less violent, and an upper plain called El 
Bukeia forms an intermediate step betAveen the Ghor and the hills of 
the Avatershed. Crossing this plateau Ave arrive again in another district 
where there is much local disturbance. Trap rocks here first appear 
on the east, and a veiy considerable outbreak is found in the iippcr part 
of Wady Maleh. The springs in the neighbourhood are more or less 
salt, as the name signifies. The stream in the valley has a temperature 
of about 85 degrees, and the so-called Hammam is a spring of 100 
degrees Fahrenheit. A red marl similar to the formations of the Nebi 
Musa basin here appears in the loAver hills near the Ghor ; it overlies 
beds of red and Avhite banded marls, and is in most places capped Avith 
a sort of conglomerate Avhich seems to be of fresh-Avater origin, point- 
ing to the probability that the present Plain of Succoth and Beisan 
was at one time a lake, one in the great chain of lakes Avhich seem 
most probably to have extended from the Dead Sea to the Huleh. 

On arnAdng at Beisan Ave again change the scenery and obtain a 
country purely A'olcanic. The hills of Gilboa haA-e a general dip 
iipAvards toAvards the north-Avest, and from beneath them the hard 
black basalt comes out as noticed first at Zer'ain. The AA'hole breadth 
of the Wady Jalud has a basis of black basalt Avhich has tilted up the 
limestones of Nebi Dahy (Little ITermon), and has formed various 
cones and small craters in its neighbourhood. Kaukab el HaAva seems 
to have been a centre of eruption, and a shelf on Avhich Beisan stands is 
due to this disturbance. The basalt here ovci-lics the AA'hite marls — a 
valuable indication of freological date. The hills north of Wady Bii-eh, 
bordering the Sea of GaHlee, are principally basalt, the limestone where 



MR. TYRWHITT DRAKe's REPORTS. 187 

it does crop out having a clip upwards towards tlie north-east. It is a 
remarkable instance of tlic ignorance of Palestine geology that this 
great field of basalt, extending over perhaps 200 square miles, is not 
shown on Lartet's map, though the smaller outlying fragments of it in 
some cases are. 



ME. TYRWHITT DRAKE'S REPORTS. 
XYIII. 

Camp iiv "W^ida'" el F.ui'aii, March 21, 1S74. 

On the 24th ult. we left Jerusalem and descended to 'Ain el Sultan. 
En route we visited El Marassas and Shunet Marassas, a Christian ruin 
of considerable extent, containing the ruins of a church, of vfhich two 
apses and a portion of mosaic pavement in red, yellow, black, and white 
are still visible. There are also a number of unusually large rock-hewn 
cisterns with well mouths ; on one of these crosses ^ are cut on each 
of its eight sides. Tradition tells of a gentle recluse, named Kaddis 
K'raytun (the priest Charit