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Full text of "Quarterly statement - Palestine Exploration Fund"

THE J. PAUL GETTY MUSEUM LIBRARY 



PALESTINE 
EXPLORATION FUND. 



Patron— THE QUEEN. 

^arterly Statement 

FOR 1875. 



LONDON : 

PUBLISHED AT THE SOCIETY'S OFFICE, 9, PALL MALL EAST, 

AND BY 

RICHARD BENTLEY & SON, 8, NEW BURLINGTON STREET. 



THE J. PAUL GETTY CENTER 
LIBRARY 



INDEX. 



Adailali, 28 

AJafi), 31 

Ader, 93 

Adullam, 145, 163 

Alexaudriini], 12 

Ami it, 22 r 

Auuual Meeting, 108 

Antipatris, 32 

Acjueduct, Pilate'a, 71 

Ancient Jewish Graves, 177 

Arabic and Hebrew, 227 

Arabs, Tlie, in Palestine, 19[> 

Arab, 14 

Aradus, 

Ascalon, 152 

Ashdod, 157 

Attack on Survey Expedition, 195 

Aven-Hash Slietiyeh, 182 

Azekah, 191 

Aziz, 18 

Baniah (EW, 22 
Beit Jibrin, 139 
Bethabara, 72 
Eethsbean, 30 
Betlisura, 67 
Bezeth, 69 
Bir el Scba, 23 
Blessing, Valley of, 70 

Camps, 144 
Caves, 143 
Chozeba, 13 

Crusading Fortresses, 2& 
,, Sites, 157 

David's Outlaw Life, 41 
David and Goliatli, 191 
Debir, 48 
Deir Belah, IG'i 
Drake, Mr. Tyrwhitt, 

,, Last Report, 27 

Engedi, 132 
El l!amah, 16 
Elah, Valley of, 193 



Eplies-Damuiini, 192 
Eshcol, 6Q 
Etani, The Koek, 12 
Eustochiuni, St., 93 

Fnrbia, 157 

Gadida, 157 

Galatia, 158 

Gath, 144, 194 

Gaza, 158, 161 

Geology, 27 

Gerar, 162 

Gezer, 5, 57, 74 

Ghurra (El), 25 

Graves, Ancient Jev/isli, 177 

Hacliilah, 47 
Haram Area — 

,, Christian "Work in, 6' 

,, Greek Inscription, G 

,, Mosaics, 6 

,, Arches, 7 

,, Glass, 7 

,, Passages, 7 

,, Vaults, 11 

,, Souterrains, 97 
Hareth, 42 
Hippos, Site of, 214 
Hora (El), 26 

Inscriptions, 19, 30, 34, 56, 79, 103., 
104, 159 

Jebeil, 222, 225 

Jerusalem, 6, 7, 11, 56, 77, 187 
Judah, Hill Countrv of, 6Q 
,, Plain of, 138 

Kawkab el Hawa, 29 
Keilah, 149 
Kh. Khoreisa, 19 
Kurmul, 20 

Levitical Cities, Limits of, 15- 
Libnah, 150, 181 



O Q.CJ ri W 



IV 



INDEX. 



Maaratli, 13 

Maon, Kock of, 45 

Makkedali, 165 

Masada, 133 

]\Liiid.slay, Sir. lieniy, Work in IMount 

Zion, 8 
Masonry and Jlasons' JIarks, 80 
Mejdel, 152 
Mesliasli (El), 24 
Mediaeval Topograpliv, 89 
Middin, 129 
Mintar (Kh.-cl), 20 
Mogharet Sufl-i, 17 
Muristan, 77 

Nob and the Higli Places, 37, 94, 182 
Notes, General, 3, GO, 106, 187 

Philistia, 180 
Pilate's Aqueduct, 71 
Pillar of Salt, 94 

Rameh (El), 16 
Retrospect forl87{5, 188 
Richard's Marcli, 89 
Roman Camps, 144 
Euad, Notes on, 218 
Ruins, 16 



Safed, Attack at, 195 

Sandahannah, 141 

Saweh, 2« 

Seal, Ancient, 10 

Semua, 20 

Shaaraim, 182, 194 

Shephelah, 138 

Shoehoh, 191 

Skulls, Niches for, 228 

Survey, Progress of, 11, 22, 03, 135, 183 

Susieh, 18 

Tartus, 

Tels, 28 

Tel el Milh, 25 

Tel el Siba, 23 

Temple of Herod, 97 

Tomb of David, 102 

Tribes, List of, 28 

Umm el Andau, 18 

Yebna, 167 

Zanoah, 15 

Zarthan, 31 

Zion, Scarp on, 7, 81 

Ziph, 44 

Zz, Clitrof, 14 




L<>ndo 



Establishment l^ondon 



Quarterly Statement, January, 1875.] 



THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND, 



PEEFACE. 



The Survey has been resumed, and is now in active progress, 
tlie party having been at Avork since the middle of Octolier in the 
hill country south of Judali. This little-known region has j'ielded 
results of the greatest importance to the cause of Bililical topo- 
graph3^ Among the identifications proposed hj Lieut. C'onder are 
especially that of Dhoheriyeh, with the Levitical city of Debir, on 
Avhicli Lieut. Conder writes with great force and clearness ; that of 
Bezetho or Beth Zetho, 1 Maccab. vii. 19; Chozeba, 1 Chron. iv. 22 ; 
Maarath, Joshua xv. 59 ; Arab, Joshua xv. 52 ; Zanoah, Joshua 
XV. 56 ; the Bock of Maon, 1 Sam. xxiii. 25 ; and the Hill of 
Hachilah, 1 Sam. xxiii. 19. His reports may lie also referred to for 
his valuable information on the Bock Etam, the Forest of Hareth, 
the wood of Ziph, and other places. 

The Survey party have been searching for boimdary marks round 
the Levitical cities of Juttah and Eshtemoa. No such inscriptions 
as those which rewarded M. Clermont-Ganneau at Gezer have 
been yet discovered ; but, on the other hand, boundary stones, which 
may be ancient, are observed at Eshtemoa, and it is curious that at 
both places the cardinal points at the presumed Levitical distance are 
on hill-tojis. 



2 PREFACE. 

Lieut. Conder's discoveries in the Passages iiortli of tlie Kiil)bet 
es Sakhra (pp. 7 and 11), and those of Mr. Mandsley on Mount Zion, 
promise to be of great importance in the topographical difficulties of 
Jerusalem. 

The .specimen of the new map published this (|Uartcr is of the 
Carmel ridge, one of the least known and most interesting parts of 
the Holy Land. It is on the scale of one incli to the mile, and con- 
tains about^ eight times the number of names to be found in any 
other map, besides the sites of ruins, ancient towns, vineyards, &c.„ 
upon it. One of the most important features in the new map — less- 
important, perhaps, in this portion of Palestine than in those con- 
nected with the Books of Judges and Samuel — is the course of the 
ravines and valleys. A great ste}) is taken in the issue of this speci- 
men portion of the new map : it is an earnest of tlie whole, and the 
Committee are certain that its appearance will serve as an assurance 
to subscribers that the work is being carried out in the most thorough 
and complete manner. 

The Committee in July last asked for £2,500 before the end of 
the year. Of this sum, up to the present date (Dec. 29th), less thaii 
£2,000 have been paid in, the total income of the Fundfor the year 
being about £200 less than that of last year. Owing, too, to a great 
increase in prices in Palestine, the expenses of the two expeditions have 
been muck higher than was anticipated, consequently the new year 
begins with a heavy load of debt. The Committee most earnestly 
beg their friends not to allow this Survey — t!ie greatest work ever 
attempted in the Holy Land, a work for all time and the whole 
world. — to languish for want of assistance. 



NOTES. 

JI. Cleriuont-Gauncau lanJGil at Marseillos early in' December! 'He has 
hronght with hiiu the " Vase of Bezetha," of which a full accoiint was given in 
the Quartcrhj Statement for October last; a cast of the supiiosed "Head of 
Hadrian ; '' two of the Gezer letters ; and a very large quantity of inediteJ. 
inscriptions and sipieezes. 



In the autumn it is hoped to publish in one lai'ge volunic a complete account 
of his Archffiological work in Palestine, Avith a great number of illustrations. 
Full particulars will be advertised. Meantime, a reduction in the price will be 
made in the case of subscribers, as was done with the " Recovery of Jerusalem," 
and names of those wishing to have a copy will be received at the office of the Fiind, 



The Report from the late Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake, puljlished dn this 
niimbcr of the Statement, was found after his death among his j\i]^>er3. It hatl 
not received his corrections, but is published as it was found. 

His pamphlet on "Modern Jerusalem" has been now published by ilr. 
Stanford, 6, Charing Cross. It contains a report on the population, the industries, 
and the characteristics of the city, wliich will l)C read with great interest. It 
was written for the Committee of the Fund, but not published in the QuartcrJ}/ 
Statement, as it appeared not to fall within the objects of the Societj-. 



It is proposed to hold a meeting in Januarj' in order to review and discuss. 
some of the latest work of M. Ganneau. When the day is fixed it will be 
ailvertised in the Times and other papers. 



LieutenantH.il. Kitchener, 11. E., the successor to Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake.^ 
arrived in Palestine in November. The health of the party is reported to be 
good, with the exception of that of Sergeant Black, of whom, however, the 
latest report sjieaks favourably. 



There ar(> no new facts connected witli the Shapira Collection. An emineuT 
Semitic scholar, I\I. ISTeubauer, has added his voice to that of those who regard 
the inscriptions as forgeries (^c«ffe?;i?/, Dec. 12, 1874). So-called " Moabite '' 
pottery is now exhibited for sale at other places in Jerusalem besides the estab- 
lishment of Mr. Shapira. Photographs of some of these have been brought home 
by M. Clermont-Ganneau. They are precisely similar to all the rest, no variety 
of type being presented in any yet sketched or brought home. 

The researches of Mr. Henry Maudsley on Mount Zion (see Lieut. Conder's 
Reports, p. 7) have resulted in discoveries of great interest and topographical 
importance. It is to be hoped that he will be encouraged to carry on investi- 
gations which have been cro\med with such great success. 



4 - XOTES. 

The AmdrcaiiA'riSotiacion 'have not yet tiespatuhed their secoud expedition. 
The Coi-uuii;.te^-, howevsi;, are carefully considering their next step. It has 
ah-eady heen^ )epor-i,ed'tha+ n, fir larger siim has been collected in the States than 
that with which our own Fund was started. 



The amount received from September 22nd to December 22nd, from all 
sonrces, was £1,243 15s. 5d., being more than £300 a month, a rate which, if 
it could be maintained through the whole year, would place the Committee fairly 
beyond anxiety. The income always asked for is £5,000. The balance in the 
banks on the l:itter date was £107 6s. 3d. The expenses of the Survey amount, 
necessarily, and at the lowest estimate, to £200 a mouth. 



A meeting was held at Manchester on Thursday, Dec. 17th, under the presi- 
dency of Mr. Hugh Birley, M.P., Avhich was addressed by Mr. Grove, M. Cler- 
mont-Gamieau, Major Wilson, Eev. W. F. Birch, and other gentlemen. The 
meeting pledged itself to raise the sum of £500 for the Fund during the follow- 
ing year. 

The Eev. William "Wright, of Damascus, has kiiully consented to act as 
Honorary Secretary for the Fund in tliat city. Dr. Chaplin lias already for 
some years acted as the Honorary Secretary for Jerusalem, while the Consul- 
General at Beyrout and the Consul at Jerusalem are both members of the 
General Committee. 



THE SURVEY OF PALESTINE. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE E. COXDER'S REPORTS. 

XXII. 

Jerusalem, 1st October, 1874. 

I SEND home a few notes on points of interest which I have noted on 
coming back to the country before recommencing our active work. 

I landed at Jaffa on 20th September, having left England on the 
night of the 10th, and spent a Sunday morning in Bologna. This is 
about as rapid a joui-ney as could possibly be made under existing 
arrangements. 

Qezer. — On passing from Ramleh I made a detour by Abu Shusheh to 
visit Tell Jezer, and the place where the two inscriptions were found. 
Tell Jezer, which I have had occasion to describe previously, is a pro- 
minent mound, partly natural, partly artificial, commanding one of the 
main routes from the plains to Jerusalem. On the south are rough 
caves and tombs, some having names, as shown on the Survey. On the 
east, in the valley, is a fine spring 'Ain Yerdeh, and on the opposite 
slope is the ruin of the same name. It was on the top of this flat hill, 
rather more than a mile from Tell Jezer, that the two stones were 
found. The line which joins their positions (about 100 yards apart) runs 
approximately north-west and south-east. They seem to have formed 
portions of the integral rock, -and were written on its flat surface, which 
renders the fact that one inscription has to be reversed to read the 
Greek more easy to understand. There are evidences of considerable 
work ; round this part of the hill the rock is cut in various places, and 
some shallow troughs, looking like sarcophagi with the sides knocked 
ofi", are visible. Somewhat in the same line, farther north, I was shown 
a long, rough stone, with two large letters, about a foot high, cut at 
the end. It has fallen on another, in a manner which suggests the 
former existence of some rude monument or sarcophagus. I was told 
of the existence of another stone farther south-east, but did not see it. 
Of the two first found, nothing is visible beyond the chipped rock in the 
place where they were cut out. The first is in the Serai at Jerusalem, 
where it is to be seen, and a photograph and several sketches have been 
taken. The other is in the Serai at Ramleh. 

Mr. Brake's Last Illness. — It is a melancholy consolation to find how 
kindly Mr. Drake was treated during his last painful illness. The kind- 
ness of all the English residents was marked and untiring, and all that 
skill and care could do was done. I fear I hardly did justice in my 



S LIEUT. CLAUDE E. COXDER's REPORTS. 

memoir to Dr. Thcvier, who had been so serviceable and kind in his 
former attack. The good doctor undertook; at a moment's notice, a long 
and tedious journey to Jericho. He lost his way, and suffered by the 
fall of his horse. He reached us in the middle of the night, and by his 
prescriptions afTorded immediate relief to Mr. Drake. He never left us 
until we were all safely established in Jerusalem, when the immediate 
danger was over. During Mr. Drake's last illness ho showed the same 
kindness and attention. 

The behaviour of Mr. Hornstein was also worthy of the highest com- 
mendation. Nothing could exceed his care and thoughtfulness. During 
the long and trying period of forty-two days hardly any one in the hotel 
seems to have been able to take any rest, and Dr. Chaplin was finally 
ifiuitejworn out, and suffered very considerably for some time after. 

Christian IVurk in the Mosque. — On the 25 th inst. I visited, in companj' 
with Mr. Shick and Sergeant Black, the Haram enclosure, under a 
special invitation from the sheikh, to see certain new discoveries. The 
first of these was a small figure in bas-relief, lately uncovered on the 
side of the little table which supports the Shield of Hamzeh. The 
whole of the work of this piece apjiears to be Christian, as are also 
several of the capitals to the columns, such as those on each side of the 
Mirhab. The little figure seems to represent a saint in flowing drapery, 
with the aureole, and holding some indistinguishable object in the raised 
light hand. 

Greeli Christian Inscription. — The second discovery, made a few days 
ago, whilst renewing the pavement of the mosque floor, is of greater im- 
portance. One of the flags was found to have a well-cut and preserved 
Crreek inscription on the under side. It contains a date, and the 
srosses show it to be of Christian origin. 

As far as I am able to make out at a first glance, it is a memorial 
tablet, but part of the stone has been unfortunately lost, and I was 
only able to recover this part of the inscription by means of the cast 
made by the deep cut letters in the underlying bed of mortar. No 
doubt this stone will prove of great interest (see p. 56). 

Mosaics. — The wooden frame which surrounds the sacred rock has 
been taken down, but nothing of importance was .visible in addition to 
what is already known. The works are rapidly approaching completion, 
and the appearance of the interior and dome, now that the paint has 
been renewed and the mosaics washed, is wonderfully beautiful. The 
curious question of the method in which these mosaics are placed in 
the wall, we carefully investigated. There is no doubt that the gold 
tessera have baen intentionally fixed in an inclined position, so that 
the rays directly reflected may be directed towards the spectators below, 
whereby the brilliancy is greatly increased. (See "Letters from M. 
Clermont- Ganneau, 1874," p. 138.) The pieces of other colours have not, 
however, been so placed. 

In parts, where the mosaics are defective or dull in colour, a coat of 
oil paint has been supplied. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 7 

Arches. — The marble casing, in black and wbite, to tbo arches sup- 
porting the drum has never been removed, and we are thus still ignorant 
of the true form of the arch. The exterior has never, however, been 
correctly ropreseuted. The keystone of each arch has a horizontal 
soffit, so that the arches cannot be said to be cither pointed or round. 

Olass. — Mr. Shick is of opinion that the apparent resemblance in the 
glass mosaic of the windows to the method above described of placing 
the mosaics of the dome, is only the result of accident, or of clumsy 
mending at a former period. 

The Passages north of the Kullet es Sakhrah. — On the 28th inst. I 
visited, in company with Sergeant Black, some of the great cisterns of 
the Haram, which are only dry just at the end of summer. "We first 
descended No. 3, afterwards No. 1. These, as will be remembered, are 
under the platform to the north of the Kubbet es Sakhrah, and the 
western one (No. 3) is inclined in such a manner that its production in 
a line north-east would intersect that of No. 1, at about the line of the 
north steps of the platform, so that a connection with the vault running 
■east and west on that side, and supposed by Mr. Fergusson to be part of 
a basilica, may be conjectured. I had always suspected that the north 
side of these two passages would be found to be modern, but had feared 
that the plaster would hide the work. I was, therefore, greatly pleased, 
-on descending No. 3, to find at the farther end a wall, ^evidently more 
modern, closing the passage, and built irregularly in an oblique line 
across it. The lower part was cemented, but above the work showed 
and proves to be irregular in size, with broad mortar joints. The pas- 
sage, which is throughout about thirty feet high, is roofed with a semi- 
circular arch of fine masonry. The keystone of the arch is very nai'row, 
and the voussoirs gradually increase in breadth as they approach the 
haunches. This character of work, similar to that of the twin pools of 
the Sisters of Zion, is probably Eoman. The voussoirs are cut irregularly 
by the end wall, and there can be no doubt that the passage continues 
farther north. On descending No. 1 I made the same remark, although 
the masonry of the cross wall was not so easily seen, but the voussoirs 
of the roofing arch run beyond in the same way. The passages, though 
now used for cisterns, were probably cut first for another object, and 
■communicated with the exterior (see Note, p. 11). There is a side 
chamber in No. 3, with a well mouth, which may very probably be 
the House of Baptism, or, more properly, Bath-room, mentioned in the 
Talmud. 

The Zion Scarp. — Since Captain Warren left Jerusalem, no work has 
been undertaken equalling in interest and importance that which is 
now being carried out at his own expense by Mr. Henry Maudsley, 
M.I.C.E. This gentleman has undertaken various improvements in the 
Bishops' School on Zion, and in prosecuting these with a purely benevo- 
lent motive, he has contrived to carry his researches for stones and for 
cisterns in such directions as are best calculated to give results of 
archaiological interest. The illustration of Josephus's account, furnished 



8 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

by the present discoveries, is in the highest degree instructive, and 
all travellers should in future make a point of visiting the school and 
its grounds. 

Mr. Maudsley kindly undertook to show me the whole of his work,. 
which I will endeavour shortly to describe. 

The Bishop's School grounds stand partly on rock, partly on made 
earth, brought down from above, forming a garden terrace which extends- 
to the English cemetery, a length of about four hundred feet in all. Mr. 
Maudsley's excavations are exactly those which I recommended should 
be made in this part in one of my early reports to the society, and the- 
results are those which I hoped to obtain. The dining-room of the 
school-house proves to be founded on a rock, buttress, or tower," some- ■ 
twenty-five feet square, and reached by a flight of rock-cut steps on one- 
side. The tower, whose scarp has an average height of about twenty 
feet, stands on a second rock platform of about twenty feet width, beyond 
which line Mr. Maudsley finds a drop of more than twenty-five feet. 
On the north-west side the scarp is now traced back, and a line discovered 
running due north, with a similar scarp directed on the present south- 
west corner of the city wall (a discovery of the utmost value, showing 
the line of the old west wall of the city, and proving the tower in ques- 
tion to be the ancient south-west angle of the first wall). 

It was found in building the school that this scarped block had formed 
the base of a pair of cisterns, with walls some six to eight feet thick, 
also rock-cut. Behind the tower, Mr. Maudsley has just lit upon a 
very large cistern, cut in the rock, and with a mouth about the level of 
the top of the rock platform. There is a communication between this 
large cistern and the base of the tower. No one reading this description 
can fail to see how exactly it carries out the description by Josephus of 
the smaller towers upon the first wall. They were twenty cubits (or 
about twenty-six feet) square, with steps leading up. They had a solid 
base twenty cubits high, not, as has been previoirsly supposed, built so 
with large stones, but hewn, as we now see, in the solid rock. Finally,. 
above this base were cisterns and rooms. The work, as now exposed in 
parts, is magnificent. The labour of hewing these great scarps, appar- 
ently with an instrument not more powerful than the modern picks used 
by the natives, must have been immense. 

On the western side were found numerous fallen stones, many of which 
seem to me to be Roman work, with a draft of three inches broad. There 
are also voussoirs of arches evidently of considerable span, fragments of 
column shafts, some three feet in diameter, and the jamb and lintel 
stones of a great doorway. The stones were found principally face down- 
wards, as though fallen from the tower above, or pushed over from 
within. 

I have already described, in a former report, the system of cisterns 
which runs along the top of the scarp east of this first tower. Mr. 
Maudsley has now succeeded in clearing this great scarp, Avhich faces 
south, and has reached the bottom of it. The total height is about 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 9 

thirty feet, and it stands on a rock platform of unknown width. There 
would, no doubt, be another fall beyond this, but I doubt the 
existence of a regular second scarp below, for which there would be no 
real use. The rock is probably rough, and left in its natural state. 

A curious buttress sticks out of this scarp, and forms a division 
between two large cisterns, which seem to have been of masonry on the 
other sides. An inspection of the cement used in these, leads me to con- 
clude that the cisterns are Saracenic work applied to the ancient scarp 
of which they form no part. 

We now arrived at a sort of tunnel driven by the workmen against the 
face of the scarp, and on the platform as a base. Following this we 
came to the foot of the set of rock-cut steps explored by Captain "Warren, 
and marked on the Ordnance Survey. It proves to be, as Captain 
Warren supposes, the base of the scarp, and the total height presented 
to the enemy at this point is some thirty feet. At the top of the steps 
are two cisterns or baths, with rock-cut sides and a masonry arch. These 
were the earliest discoveries of Mr. Maudsley, and I noticed them in a 
report which was mislaid in England. Above and behind these are a 
brick-kiln, a cistern, and a wall, apparently more modern, but of good 
masonry. 

In the portion of the scarp nearest the tower already described, is a 
rock chamber, containing a large water-trough, cut like a sarcophagus 
out of the rock, and beside it are two mangers also rock-cut. These 
were found during a visit by Mr. Drake, and are mentioned by him ira 
his last report, which I have just sent home. 

The explorations are rendered complete by the discovery of a second 
tower. It forms the corner of the cemetery, and its scarp juts out at 
right angles to the line already described, and has a height of upwards of 
thirty feet. In the corner thus formed, Mr. Maudsley has made a 
cistern so as to leave the discovery open and visible. This second tower 
has also a largo cistern within, and the steps lead directly to it. The 
work of the scarp is magnificent, and the appearance it must have pre- 
sented when standing with its towers above, is well worthy the eulogy 
of Josephus. 

Further exploration has shown a counter-scarp, or opposite scarped 
side, giving a ditch some twenty feet wide, with a rough rock slope 
beyond. It is not certain whether this ditch is continuous, and there 
is certainly none at the western tower. The line of the counter-scai-p, 
where laid bare, is not strictly parallel to that of the scarp. It is possible 
it may in places be intended to form an extra protection where the rock 
without the fortress stands higher. This ditch reminds one of the 
ditch or gutter which Joab crossed in David's siege of Jerusalem, but 
the side on which that attack was made is uncertain. 

Two other interesting details may be mentioned. The method of 
moving the large stones has been always a matter of doubt. Mr. 
Maudsley showed me a voussoir, with a hollow cut in the top, similar to 
the square sunk holes in some of the temple stones. There was a strong 



10 LIEUT. CLAUDE K. CONDEr's REPORTS. 

bar of some comi^ound metal resembling lead, but harder, securely 
cemented across this, to -which a hook or cord might be attached. In 
making his excavations, Mr. Maudsley also lit upon a curious stone 
die, with ^numbers not in regular succession. It seems to me to be 
cogged, by being of irregular shape, for on throwing it a great number 
of times, the majority read 12, the highest number. 

With the boundary wall of the cemetery we reach the confines of Mr. 
Maudsley's field of operations. A huge mound of rubbish covers the 
opposite side of the tower. It would be in the highest degree interesting 
to pursue the work on this side according to the proposal I made in an 
early report, and the confirmation of my expectations on the west leads 
me to feel sanguine of results on this side also. There seems little 
doubt that a gate existed here. A double scarp is visible, and cisterns 
on the other side, with an artificial line terminating a rocky buttress, 
makes it almost certain that we should here uncover a third tower, 
flanking the gate on the east side as the second described does on the 
west. 

From the junction of this tower we should be able, perhaps without 
mining, but at all events at a depth of less than thiiiy feet, to follow 
this rock scarp along from tower to tower over the south-eastern slope 
of Zion, and to determine the most interesting question on this side, 
namely, the manner in which the south wall was carried across the 
Tyropceon valley to that other fortification found by Captain "Warren on 
Ophel. 

But though this investigation has yet to be made, a great step has 
now been secured in the thorough investigation of the scarp, proving 
beyond doubt that we hero see the south-west corner of the ancient 
Jerusalem. A very useful indication is also afforded in seeking for the 
position of the royal towers, for the solid bases mentioned by Jesephus 
must, in this case, also be suj^poscd to consist of hewn rock ; and the 
different heights of the bases, thirty, fortj', and twenty cubits, would 
indicate their relative positions with regard to the level of the ground, 
without the tops of the scarps being naturally considered as upon the 
same level. 

Seal. — A curious' seal, lately found in the vicinity of Gaza, is in pos- 
session of Dr. De Hass, the American Consul, and he has kindly given 
me an impression. It represents a human figure with four wings, seem- 
ingly like those of a fly or bee, and with a large misshapen human head. 
In each hand the figure holds an animal resembling an ape, head down- 
wards, being held by the hind leg. Dr. De Hass supposes this to be an 
efllgy of Baalzebub, god of Eki'on, to whom apes were sometimes ofi'ercd. 
The seal is square, about one inch wide, and the figure in low relief, 
roughly cut. A similar seal was found some years ago, and is now in 
England. It represents a fly or mosquito, with an inscription, the 
equivalent of the Arabic "Allah," perhaps the symbolical effigy of 
the deity of Ekron. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE E. CONDER's HEPORTS. 11 

Note (Dec. 2ud, 1874). — The Vaults ]\^os. 1 and ^ JIa ram Enclosure. 
Captain Warren's remark sent tome is as follows: — " Is the masonry 
at tlie end of the cistern above or below tlie line of the rock?" He 
points out that if it only forms the iilliug in of tho arch, it is no proof 
that the cistern extends any farther. This sound criticism shows the 
necessity of accurate writing. The difficulty of seeing is so great with- 
out magnesium wire that I cannot speak with absolute certainty as 
regards No. 1 , but as regards No. 3 there is no doubt. The rock walls 
are not vortical throughout, but curve over at the top, so that the 
masonry forms only the crown of the arch. The masonry in the cross 
wall at the northern end of the cistern is visible below the line of the 
rock, and the cement rendering is not so high as at the sides in parts. 
In addition to this, the wall is not built at right angles to the line 
of the cistern, in itself almost a sufficient proof, as it has no connection 
with the masonry of the voussoirs, which could not, if the cistern here 
was bounded by the rock, be continued, as they are irrespective of the 
cross wall. The southern end of each passage is covered with cement 
to the mouth of the entrance shaft, but there can bo little doubt that 
they do not extend farther in this direction. It is, however, quite 
possible that the drain from the Sakhrah, being of a cross section, 
3ft. X 2ft., may lead into No. 1, and have been stopped and cemented 
over so as to leave no trace. I may remark that the masonry of the 
vaulted roof, which is very fine, is exactly similar to that of the double 
passage, the Twin Pools, and other passages near or in the Haram, but 
differs from that of the piers of Solomon's stables. C. E. C. 



XXIII. 

TuTTA Camp, Novemler Bth, 1874. 

The Survey has now been in progress for a month on its sixth cam- 
paign, during which time we have completed 230 square miles and 
collected 460 names. The number collected from Halhid, 258, was 
beyond any total yet obtained except at Bethlehem, where in about the 
same area 287 were noted, but in this case the main part were ruined 
sites, whereas at Bethlehem many were modern bnildings. The 
country is indeed in this part more interesting than in any former 
campaign, from the number of sites and from the great completeness 
of the Biblical lists in the tribe of Judah, which as yet have hardly 
been touched by the Survey. Besides the four important identifica- 
tions connected with the life of David which I have given in a separate 
paper. I propose here to give suggestions upon seven sites of moi'e or 
less interest. 

The j)rogress of the work has not been so rapid as in the Jordan 
valley, but as I find myself unable to stand the fatigue of detail sketch- 
ing, Avith all other duties in addition, the field sketchcvs are reduced to 



12 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 

three. Thus, whereas the monthly rate was seventy square miles per 
man it is now increased to seventy-six, partly because of continued 
fine weather and partly from greater practice, but perhaps principally 
because the country is easier riding and the distances traversed there- 
fore greater. With the assistance of Lieutenant Kitchener, whom we 
are anxiously expecting, we may ho-pe to reach, or perhaps even to 
exceed, the former rate of progress. 

The health of the party has been fairly good, notwithstanding the 
very sickly season and the trying alternations of cold west breezes and 
hot east winds. The Jebel Khalil, where our work lies, is almost the 
only healthy part of the country just now ; we shall remain in it long 
enough to allow of the first rains thoi-oughly purifying the lower lands, 
and then if all goes well descend to the lower deserts of Masada and 
Engedi, returning to Jerusalem before the heavy rains begin. 

With this brief summary of progress I may proceed, first, to the new 
identifications as the subject of most interest. 

1. Alexai/druim. — The site of this important fortress, which was, 
Josephus tells us, near Coreas, has been variously located. It has- 
been already placed at Kefr Istuna, near to the village of Keriut, 
which lies north of it, and which has been identified with Corese. In 
June last Corporal Armstrong visited the site and discovered the foun- 
dations of an importa-nt building called El Habs. Two courses of its 
walls remain perched on a rocky scarp. The stones are all of a very 
great size, one being eighteen feet in length by three feet eight inches 
high — equal to the average of the Temple ashlar. 

2. The BocJc Etam. — In a former report from the camp there placed, 
I put forward the identification of Beit 'Atab with the rock Etam, a 
most j)robable site, considering that the village lies in the limits of that 
small section of Palestine to which Samson's exploits seems to have 
been confined. Zorah and Eshtaol, his native country, lie on the 
opposite side of the great valley which here forms the boundary of the 
tribe of Judah to the north. The existence of a remarkable rocky knoll 
on which the modern village stands is also in favour of the site, as is its 
peculiar position, Avliich, whilst really low compared to the main ridge 
at the watershed, is yet from its form and the surrounding lower hills 
a very conspicuous point : thus whilst on one hand it forms a strong 
defensive position, on the other it is perfectly in accord with the 
peculiar expression of the Book of Judges, that the men of Judah 
"carae doivn to the Eock Etam." 

In studying the subject further I find, however, another confirmation 
of the theoi-y which has induced me to dwell upon it a second time. 
The word, which in the English version appears as top — " the top of the 
rock Etam," Judges xv. 11 — has in reality in the Hebrew the significa- 
tion of" a cleft" [iiCQ Bihle Dktionary, "Etam"). At Beit 'Atabwefound 
an unique style of rock excavation unlike anything we have met else- 
Avhere ; it was a rock tunnel running from the middle of the village 
eastwards for a considerable distance towards the principal spring. I 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 13 

gave at tlie time some account of it, and full notes and measurements 
are now stored up in England. I cannot, therefore, liere give details, 
as I depend only on memory, but I would suggest that this excavation 
■which, from the lamp niches at its entrance and other indications, we 
judged to be very ancient, is the cleft or cave in which Samson took 
refuge, and which would so effectually have concealed him from all who 
were unacquainted with the i^lace that he might have been sought on 
the very spot for a long time without any one lighting, except by 
accident, on the entrance of the tunnel. The identification will, I hope, 
lead subsequently to that of the famous sj^ring of En Hakkore, the site 
of the slaughter of Philistines with the jaw-bone. It must, from the 
narrative, have lain in the lower and more open ground, where the 
Philistines could " spread themselves." It is, therefore, as yet, beyond 
the limits of the Survey. 

3. Chozcha. — This town is only once mentioned in the Bible, in the 
curious list of 1 Chron. iv. 22. It here occurs between the neigh- 
bourhood of Mareshah (now Marash, on the borders of the Philistine 
plain) and the possessions of "Saraph, who had the dominion in 
Moab." From this indication we should be inclined naturally to place 
Chozeba in the hill country of Judah. It has, however, in default of 
information, been supx50sed identical with Chezib, and this again to be 
a form of the word Achzib, a city occurring in the list of the towns of 
Judah situate in the plains near Mareshah. 

Whatever may be said as to the identity of Chezib and Achzib, for 
which I have a new site to propose, I would suggest for Chozeba a ruin 
of importance which we have lately found north of Halhiiil, bearing the 
name of Kliirhet Kueizihah, which almost exactly reproduces the Hebrew 
name. It is a ruin of some interest standing on a hill side with the 
usual indications of great antiquity. It is, however, better preserved 
than most, and the walls of many of the houses are standing in parts 
to the height of eight or ten feet. The masonry is a fine ashlar of very 
square pi-oportions, the stones being over three feet in height and 
three to four feet long. Each house seems to have formed a small 
fortress in itself, so strongly are the foundations built, and a fort or 
citadel dominates the town. The buildings are probably of Roman 
date, but the name no doubt preserves that of the city inhabited by 
" the men of Chozeba." This identification is of interest, as showing 
an extremely archaic name preserved almost unchanged. The passage 
in Chronicles says expressly, " and these are ancient things " (ver. 22) ; 
it also shows that even the obscurest passages of Scripture are capable 
of illvistration by the Survey, owing to the wonderfully pei'fect condition 
in which the manuscripts of the Old Testament seem to have come 
down to us. 

4. McCarutli. — This town, the name of which is almost identical with 
the Arabic Mogharah {a cave), belonged to the list of places lying 
between Bethlehem and Hebron (Josh. xv. 58). It forms one of a 



14 LIEUT. CLAUBE K. CONDER S REPORTS. 

gronp of six, of wliicli four are known occurring in fhc folbwing 

order : — 

Halliul now Hallnil. 

Betlizur „ Beit Siir. 

Gedor ,, JejiUir. 

IMaaratli . . . . . ,, 

BetliAnoth ,, Beit 'Aintiu. 

El Tekon ,, 

The list seems to give the three western towns going from south to 
north and then to return to the eastern towns. "\Ve should look, 
therefore, for Ma'arath near to Beit 'Ainun, and here we find that an 
ancient site occurs south of the last-named village. The valley above 
which it stands has the name of "Wady el Moghair at this sj)ecial point, 
though no caves were remarked, the name generally applied to the rest 
of its course being "Wady Nusara. The site itself is scarce distinguish- 
able except by a fine clump of olives, which often form a sure indication 
of former buildings, as notably at Ai. The site has no known name at 
the present day, but the local appellation of the wady very probably 
retains the old name of Ma'arath. This leaves only one of the six 
cities to be settled, but we have not succeeded in finding anything that 
answers to the requisites of this site. From position one would, how- 
ever, be inclined to identify it with Teku'a, lying in the same district 
and not mentioned in any of the lists except in the interpolated passage 
in the Septuagint mentioned in my last report. The Hebrew Ain is, 
however, a stubborn letter and not accustomed to be lost in any 
change of name. The matter seems to me, therefore, to remain 
doubtful. 

5. Arah. — Among the cities of the groiip surrounding Hebron occurs 
one of the name of Arab. Unfortunately, out of the list of nine only 
four are identified, and one of these is very doubtful ; the district seems 
to lie principally west of the capital, and many of the towns lie pro- 
bably still outside the work as yet completed. East of Hebron a very 
ancient site was found by Corporal Armstrong, known as Khurbet el 
'Arabiyeh (the Arab ruin). It is marked by the existence of many 
wells and cisterns, and lies near one of the main roads. It may be 
objected to this identification that the Hebrew AJeph is here repre- 
sented by the stronger form of Ain, but we have a notable instance of 
a precisely similar change in the name of Ascalon, now 'Askelan, and 
the change is here all the more natural as it gives a meaning to the 
word in the modern Arabic language. 

6. The Cliff of Zi';;.— This place is only oace mentioned, 2 Chron. 
XX. 16, a passage which I illustrated in my last report. The Bedouin 
horde from east of Jordan advanced towards Jehosaphat from their 
camp near to Engedi : "Behold, they come up by the cliff of Ziz ; and ye 
shall find them at the end of the brook, before the wilderness of 
Jeruel," which may be properly paraphrased thus : " Behold, they come 
up by the going up of Ha Ziz, and ye shall find them at the head^of 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS, 15 

tlie wady." The word used is Ma'aleli, whicli in tlie case of Ma'aleli 
Akrabbim and Ma'aleli Ila Dummim, lias been given correctly by the 
English translators as " the going np." I have thought it worthy of 
notice that just south of our Yutta camp is a very large and important 
ruin known as Khirhet 'Aziz. It is a recognised law of change that 
the Ain and tbe He are interchangeable. "We find in this, therefore, 
the name of Ziz preserved. The site is, it may be said, a long way 
from Engedi, and, indeed, the valleys lying directly east do not run 
down to the Dead Sea but to the Mediterranean. It is, however, to be 
noticed that Wady Khubara, the main valley just south of Engedi, 
runs westward directly towards this ruin, to which the ascent from the 
Dead Sea shore would be by the course of this large watercourse. 
Although I do not overlook the difSculties of position, the similarity of 
name is sufficiently striking to make this worthy of notice. Were 
Ehirbet Aziz an important town in the later Jewish times it is possible 
that the main valley leading up to it may have been called with pro- 
priety "the going up to Haziz" through its entire length of some twenty 
miles. 

7. Zanoah. — There were two towns of this name : the one among the 
fourteen cities of the Shephalah, and identified by Eobinson with the 
present Zanu'a ; the other is also in the lot of Judah, and is men- 
tioned among the ten cities south of Hebron. It occurs in the list 
between Juttah (Yutta) and Cain (Yekin), which it immediately pre- 
cedes. Dr. Eobinson has, however, placed it at Zanuta, to which 
identification there is an important objection, namely, that Zanuta is 
in quite a different group of towns immediately in the vicinity of 
places belonging to the royal city of Debir (now identified with 
El Dhoheriyeh). 

We have, however, just found an ancient site which bears the name 
of Khirhet Sa'niU, the letter "a" in this case being an Aleph. Its 
position agrees well with that required for Zanoah, being situate 
immediately west of Khirbet Yekin, which is probably the ancient 
Cain . 

The Limits of the Levitical Cities. — To this important subject we 
have paid considerable attention since the discovery of the stone at 
Tell Gezer. The towns of Yutta and Semu'a have been identified by 
Eobinson with Juttah and Eshtemo'a, towns set spart for the Levites. 
We endeavoured, therefore, to discover traces of the boundaries of 
these towns as laid down in Numbers xxsv. -A and 5. The explanation 
generally given of the passage is, I believe, that it refers to a double 
enclosure, the inner of which had a breadth or radius of 1,000 cubits, 
beyond which was an outer boundary measuring 2,000 cubits from the 
former on every side. This gives a square, the side or diagonal of 
which, as the case may be, would measure 6,000 cubits, the city being 
in the centre. The theory proposed by M. Ganneau and by the 
Americans I understand to be that it was the diagonal which was thus 
given, and that the four angles of the square pointed to the cardinal 



16 LIEUT. CLAUDE E. COXDER S REPORTS. 

points. We, tlierefore, scored tliese points on the traces and found, 
curiously enough, that in the case of both towns all the points were on 
hill tops. Our investigations, however, though conducted in the after- 
noon, when the slanting light is most favourable for seeing incised 
inscriptions, did not lead to the discovery of any single mark of 
important or distinct character at these points, and I feel convinced 
that no inscriptions ever existed there. 

So far our efforts were without result, but I may mention an indica- 
tion at the more southern town, Semu'a, which is not without interest. 
On the road to Semu'a a stone was pointed out to Corporal Brophy, 
called Hajr d Bahhuhi, forming the boundary between the lands of 
Senii'a and the lands of Yutta. It is a little more than 3,000 cubits of 
sixteen inches north of the centre of the village, but we are not certain 
that the measurement of the suburbs may not have been taken from 
the outside of the town, which would bring the distance more nearly 
correct. It is, however, a quarter of a mile east of the theoretical 
point. On visiting the spot I found two rude marks lately cut in the 
stone, which is a soft rock, standing upright, and about three feet high. 
I found three similar stones roughly in line west of the one in question, 
evidently making the boundary. If this modern boundary is con- 
sidered to coincide with the Levitical, it follows that the corners of the 
square are not at the cardinal points, but that the four sides of the 
square face in these directions, an arrangement which would seem the 
more natural, especially as we have no recorded instance of the 
measurement of a diagonal in Jewish architectural descriptions. 

To the list of these Biblical identifications we may add those of 
Hareth, New Zijjh, the EocJc of Maon, and the Hill of Ilachilah, Dehir, 
the royal city of the Canaanites, and the upper and lower springs, giving 
the respectable number of twelve new identifications of interest, and 
more or less certain made since we left Jerusalem. The fulness of the 
lists leads me to hope that we may add to this number a great many 
more before we leave the territory of the tribe of Judah. 

In no part of the country yet visited have we seen so many large and 
important ruins. The state of preservation in which they are found is 
superior to that in other districts, which is due to a very simple cause. 
South of Hebron there are only four inhabited villages, viz., Yutta 
(our present camp), Semu'a (Eshtemoa), Dura (Adoraim), and the more 
modern large village of El Dhoheriyeh. The consequence is that fewer 
stones are required for building purposes, and the ruined sites are 
left undisturbed. We had, however, the other day a specimen of the 
manner in which these ruins are gradually disappearing, for no less 
than four camels were being loaded with si.ones from the fine ruin 
of Aziz, intended for the construction of a new house in Yutta. 
The following ruins are those most worthy of notice : — 
1. El Bameh, situate north of Hebron, the traditional site of 
Abraham's oak at Mamre in the fourth century. The tradition has now 
been shifted to the Balliitet el Sibta, nearer to the city. A very fine 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEll's REPORTS. 17 

building exists here east of tlie Hebron road, called Beit el Khalil, or 
Abraham's bouse. It is an enclosure 21-i feet long from east to west, 
and 162 broad from north to south. The walls are of splendid masonry, 
stones averaging three and a half feet iu height, and some of them 
eighteen feet in length, whilst others are only fifteen inches in length. 
In the south-west corner is a well seventeen feet diameter, havinsr a 
spring of water in it. The masonry is very good, the stones being 
curved to the form of the circle. Beside it are the remains of a trough, 
lined with excellent red cement, harder than stone. This large ruin 
has by some been supposed the remains of the Basilica here built by 
Constantine, but is rather to be looked upon as the market-place which 
existed near to the Basilica, and where slaves were sold. The ruin of 
the Basilica seems to have escaped notice ; it exists about fifty yards 
farther east, but is hardly traceable. Its masonry is inferior to that of 
the large enclosure, but resembles other specimens of Christian early 
work in the country. Its breadth was thirty-three feet, and the length 
of the atrium thirty-eight feet. The apse, however, is quite indistin- 
guishable, so that the total length cannot be ascertained. The corner- 
stones are rudely drafted and resemble in character those of the great 
convent which we discovered last year at Deir Kala'ah. 

2. MogMret Suffa. — From Halhiil I visited a very remarkable cavern, 
similar to that at Umm el Tuweinun. It lies near the ruin of Suffa on 
the side of a great valley leading to the Mediterranean. We had to 
cross a very difiicult valley to reach it, and the native scribe, Na'aman, 
had a narrow escape of his life. Riding over the slippery ledges of 
slanting rock is always delicate work ; at one point I planted my horse's 
foot in a bush and passed the slide safely. The native, however, was 
less careful, his horse slipped and reared, turning round in the air. He 
had just time to jump off when the beast fell and rolled over twice down 
the hill side. Though bruised he behaved very well and recovered his 
horse before it had time to escape. I have noticed since that he 
dismounts and leads his beast over similar places. 

The cave proved to be in the face of a precipice and not attainable by 
horses ; leaving them I had therefore to scramble down some hundred 
feet and advance cautiously along a narrow ledge of rock to its mouth. 
The interior was full of flies, and the tunnel turned at right angles to 
the entrance and descended at a steep slope of about a quarter or one- 
fifth. My single candle scarce gave any light, the heat was oj^pressive, 
and I was in constant expectation of finding a pit-fall or a pool of water. 
After about forty paces (100 feet) the cave, which, was only some seven 
to ten paces wide, turned again to the right. At this angle I left a 
light and proceeded cautiously, but now the rushing sound as of a 
great wind, and the squeaking of innumerable bats, was heard. They 
flew about my head and nearly extinguished the light. After sixty 
paces the cave became broader, and I found the pit I had been expect- 
ing from experience in other caves. It was, however, not more than 
twelve to fifteen feet deep, and some twenty paces across. I cautiously 

C 



18 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 

descended part of the way and ascertained that the cave here ended. I 
was, however, told by the Sheikh of Halhul that another passage, now 
choked, led from the pit, and that an iron ring hangs above it in the 
roof of the cave. The exploration and return to the horses occupied a 
fall hour and proved very fatiguing from the heat and the sudden . 
return to the hot sun and glare from a region of total darkness and bad 
air. Creeping along these tunnels one imagines oneself to have gone 
double or three times the distance, and thus the exaggerated accounts 
of the natives are easily understood. 

3. Umm el 'Amddn. — West of Yutta, marked on Vandevelde, but 
apparently never before visited. This is the ruin of an early Christian 
Byzantine convent, standing in a very large ruin. The chapel is more 
perfect than usual. It had a nave separated from the side aisles by two 
rows of four columns. Tliree are standing on the south side, with an 
entablature of unmoulded blocks eight feet long in place above. The 
capitals and other details are very archaic and rudely finished, but 
evidently belong to an early Byzantine period. The convent occupied 
an area of about 100 feet square, and contained three good cisterns and 
some excavated cells in the rock beneath. Only the foundations 
remain. This site, in common with the three next described, has one 
peculiarity. In the middle of the ruin in every direction large caves 
are to be found, the entrance doors carefully cut, five feet broad and 
eight or nine feet high, with a long passage or shaft, with steps leading 
down. A semicircular arch occurs at the door in some instances, but 
the cave within is rough. In one of the largest I found a rock-cut 
feeding-trough, and am led to suppose that some are stables for cattle, 
which would have been remarkably plentiful in the district at the time 
when these flourishing towns existed, as indeed they yet are, and were 
in David's time, the Negeb, which extends north about as far as 
Tutta, being a pu.rely pastoral district. Others of these caves are 
tombs and cells. 

4. 'A7Az. — About half a mile south of Yutta is an even larger ruin, 
which contains the relics of a church below the town on the east, to which 
a main street leads. It is marked on no map, and is hidden from view 
of the main road south, from which most of the sites in the district 
seem to have been fi:xed, with more or less hesitation on the part of 
former travellers. A colonnade leads at an angle in the direction of 
the church, and a large building with pillars is to be found on the top 
of the hill ; a smaller chapel is also traceable south-west of the church. 
There is little doubt that the ruins belong to the same period as those 
of Umm ei 'Amdan, but the date of that period has yet to be fixed. 

5. Susieh, marked on Mvirray's new map, seems nevertheless not to 
have been visited. It is the largest ruin in the country, and seems to 
have been divided into two quarters, each containing a principal 
building. Though seemingly Christian, it is probably earlier than the 
former. Its linteljstones have more correctly classic mouldings, its 
capitals are more graceful in outline, and, curiously enough, nothing 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER'S REPORTS, 19 

of a cliurcli is discernible. The gi-eat western building seems to have 
been a hall or palace of some kind, fallen pillars, lintel stones, and 
capitals remaining. It measures in breadth from north to south fifty- 
one feet, and its total length is a hundred and sixty feet. We made, of 
course, detailed plans and sketches. South of this building is a wall of 
stones, much larger than most of the masonry, measuring nine and a 
half feet long by two and a half high, but not drafted. The building 
in the eastern quarter is the church, if any existed, but is too much 
destroyed to be traceable. It seems to have had a cradle vaulted roof, 
and the doors were surmounted by flat lintels having various orna- 
ments upon them. On one is a Greek inscription, but so battered by 
age and weather that scarce a letter is distinctly traceable. 'Aziz must 
have been a very important place in early Christian times, but, like 
most places in the district, the water supply is derived merely from 
rain. 

6. Kh. Khorcisa. — This ruin, which we have so curiously identified with 
<he Wood of Zipli, was before entii-ely unknown, and we had some little 
difficulty in getting its name in a satisfactory manner. I may remark, 
however, as adding to the value of the identification, that it did not 
occur to me until after the name had been settled. Although evidently 
an ancient site, with bell-mouthed cisterns, which generally date long 
before Christian times, Kh. Khoreisa seems to have been an important 
town in the Christian period. The ruins of a church are traceable, a 
basilica, eighty-four feet long, including an atrium of fifteen feet six 
inches, the breadth being thirty-nine feet six inches, and the width of 
the nave sixteen feet, with two rows of three pillars. Only the founda- 
tions and fallen shafts remain, but there is a lintel eight feet nine inches 
in length, once over the west door, having an almost illegible Greek 
inscription on it. Our paper being very bad, we did not succeed in 
taking a proper squeeze. Corporal Armstrong, however, copied the 
letters on the day he discovered it, and I again made an independent 
copy, after carefully cleaning the stone. The result was as below. 

ATTHIITI 

HTOYKT 
lOTAIKAI 
lEIC AEYc 
TENAT IH 

The most valuable part of the inscription, which seems to have been 
only a text or religious sentence, are the two letters IH, which occur in 
a corner, not on the tablet bearing the rest, but to the right, parallel 
with the last line. These ai*e no doubt the date, and, when the era from 
which they are to be counted is determined, they will serve to fix, not 
only the date of this particular building, but also the century to which a 
large number of very similar ruins in Palestine is to be attributed — a 
period which I find, on visiting England, is still in dispute between 
eminent architects. 



20 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDERS REPORTS. 

7. Khirlet el Mintar. — In addition to the ruins tlius enumerated, a 
small basilica exists at this ruin, north-west of 'Aziz. The pillars are 
still standing, and the details of the lintels show the work to be of the 
same period. 

Thus, within an area of some fifty square miles we find (including 
Kiirmul) the ruins of no less than eight basilicas, all of which were 
previously ainknown or unexamined. Northwards there are several 
more, and farther south there are others. We find evidence of an 
extensive Christian settlement at an early period, probably the fifth 
and sixth centuries, and of towns of considerable magnitude. Indeed, 
this district, which has hitherto been almost unknown, must then have 
supported a large population. Nothing is more striking than the large 
number of Christian ruins in Palestine ; four-fifths of the total number 
of ruined sites in the country are probably to be attributed to Byzantine 
or Crusading periods. The general impression of great antiquity in the 
ruins of Palestine is certainly a false one, however ancient the localities 
may be. M. Ganneau's excavation at El Medyeh is only another 
instance of the probably late period to which remains supposed to be 
Jewish are to be attributed, and confirms, as do many other facts which 
I hope some day to bring forward, the theory as to the special form of 
tomb at El Medyeh which I advanced in an early report. In every 
case where indications of any sort are available these tombs have proved 
to be Christian. 

8. Kurmul. — This interesting site, which has been hardly visited of 
late years, shows the ruins of a very important site of Christian times. 
There are no less than three buildings which might be churches. The 
first, to the north, is unmistakable. Its apses are clearly visible, and 
it measures seventy- seven by forty-five feet. Over the door was a 
curious lintel, with geometrical ornamentation more florid than iisual. 
The second building is immediately east of the famous Crusading 
tower, the two are contained within the same enceinte, and are sur- 
rounded with a sloping revetment. This great building is within 3^ of 
the true east and west line, and had two rows of columns one foot ten 
inches diameter. If a church, it was a very large one, compared 
with the others, being ninety- nine feet in total length. The Crusading- 
tower requires no notice ; it is of the ordinary character, and we care- 
fully measured and planned it. Sixty-three by forty-eight feet exterior 
measurement, and twenty-four feet from the top to the Chemin des rondes. 
Its walls ai-e seven feet thick. A round birket of masoni-y, twenty- 
eight feet eight inches diameter, exists on the north side. Farther 
south than the tower is a third colonnade building, measuring seventy 
by forty feet, apparently also a basilica with an atrium. 

9. Semu'a. — This is the most interesting of all the group here men- 
tioned, and gives evidences of great antiquity. We had some little 
difficulty with the pious population, who took umbrage at Corporal 
Brophy's proceedings in booking the names of all objects in their 
vicinity. Seven strapping fellows suggested to him that he was a dog, 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDEH's REPORTS. 21 

a pig, an iufidel, and other objectionable similes, and made attempts to 
drag the guide from his mule. They seem even to have had some 
thoughts of stoning the corporal, as their numbers were superior, but 
he prudently produced a revolver, which had some effect, and retreated 
to camp to report the amenities which he had experienced. As good 
luck would have it, the sheikh of the village just then rode into Yutta, 
and I sent the native soldiers to capture him, and explained that he 
would have to proceed under escort to Hebron as surety for the appear- 
ance of the four chief offenders, whose names we got from the guide. 
The consternation produced throughout our village by this arrest was 
considerable, and the whole family of sheikhs came |to beg off their 
fellow in misfortune ; but it seems to me a rule, for the safety of the 
Survey party, to show not the least mercy in similar cases. The old 
gentleman, who was quite unconscious of the affair, did, however, 
succeed in making his escape from the soldier who kept him, and from 
whose wages I deducted the amount which I thought [it likely the 
sheikh could afford as a bribe for his liberty; for the soldier did not 
respond to my proposal that he should confess the exact amount. 

A letter to the Kaimakam of Hebron resulted in the immediate 
imprisonment of the four offenders, and I took the corporal to Hebron 
in case he was required as a witness. We found the Kaimakam a very 
civil little Beyroutine, and he showed us a French and English New 
Testament which he could read, and expressed a wish for an Arabic 
version. The only legal ,'proceeding was his asking me how long I 
wished the culprits kept in j)rison, which I left to him to decide, 
knowing it to be only a question of their J pecuniary condition at the 
time. 

The next day we went down to Semu'a, and made some show of 
measui-ing up the ruins and writing notes in the centre of the village, 
keeping up an interesting conversation, and ignoring altogether the 
assembled villagers, who looked at us with mingled fear and sulkiness. 
On the next day but one we again visited the village, and did more 
measuring, the people looking on from the house-tops. 

By these means I hope to have induced these good Moslems to believe 
that, whether pigs or dogs, we are strong enough to carry matters our 
own way, and to put a stop to any remarks or signs of hostility. 

The site thus held precious in the eyes of its inhabitants impresses 
one as the most ancient and important we have yet seen; but there arc 
tAvo periods to its buildings, and it is not easy to say decidedly to which 
some of the buildings belong. The whole site stands on the summit of 
a hill, and spreads principally east and west. In the centre are the 
remains of a castle almost perfect, and used as a sheikh's house at the 
present day. The ashlar of its walls is fine, though small. It has an 
archway which is most properly described as elliptical. The general 
appearance is that of a Crusading or mediaeval fortress of some des- 
cription. 

The main ruins lie west of the inhabited part of the village, but 



23 LIEUT. CLAUDE K. CONDER's REPORTS. 

througliout its extent the houses stand amongst foundations of noble 
masonry. The stones are of those peculiarly long and narrow dimen- 
sions which Ave are accustomed to consider as a mai'k of Jewish work ; 
many of them are eight to twelve feet in length, but under three feet 
in height. Some are smooth dressed, others have large riistic bosses. 
One of the largest areas has on the east a doorway with a great lintel 
above, and a relieving arch of small masonry above it. This disposition 
seems a mark of early Byzantine work, but does not prove the large 
masonry to belong to that period. Two lintels we remarked, the first 
having the vine pattern, the second a very archaic form of two half 
circles, with pilasters of equally ancient design. These details resemble 
closely the ornamentation of the tombs near that of Joshua at Tibneh, 
and for this reason I was inclined to look on them as Jewish. It must 
not, however, be forgotten that the vine pattern is found in the Hauran 
and eastern ruins of a considerably later date. There are many rough 
cave tombs on all sides of the village, and one is peculiar, having a 
pointed masonry arch over its door. Several other tombs seem to have 
had buildings above them. The number of wells, or rather cisterns, 
for the only supply is rain water, is very great — there must be forty or 
fifty in all. 

Soiith -west of the village, at some little distance, is an interesting 
little monument called El Baniah, a word which I am informed means 
a tomb in this southern dialect. It is a square building twenty feet 
side, standing on four steps, two feet tread and one foot six inches rise. 
Four attached pilasters are visible on each wall, with capitals which are 
not easily described, but which are probably early Byzantine. The 
total height is about eighteen feet, the roof either a dome, or more 
probably a cradle vault. From comparison with other ruins, I came to 
the conclusion that this building is a tomb resembling others in the 
north of Palestine. This is strengthened by the discovery of the 
foundations of a second similar building farther west, having its door 
on the north, and a rock-cut entrance to a vault beneath each of the 
other three walls. The disposition is therefore not unlike those of the 
tomb at El Medyeh. 



XXIV. 

El DnoHEftitEH, lotJi November, 1874. 

^HE Ordnance Sui-Vey has at length touched its southern boundary, 
and will, I hope, soon be extended all along it. An area of about 300 
square miles lies beyond the southern limits of the Hebron and Gaza 
sheets to the line of the great boundary valleys, Wady el Seb'a and 
Wady Seyal. From our present camp we organised a small expedi- 
tion to fill in the country between Tell el Milh (ihe ancient Moladah) and 
Bir el Seb'a (Beersheba). This area, including the two plains, Sahel el 



LIEUT, CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 23 

Butin and Sahel el Fer'ah, has never been thorouglily explored. _ It is 
about 120 square miles iu extent, and [Murray's new map contains six 
names within its limits. 

The number which we succeeded in collecting reaches a total of fifty- 
Jive, so that it will be seen there was plenty of scope for the Survey, 
without mentioning the great inaccuracy of the maps, places being fixed 
many miles from their actual position. The work was attached to the 
rest of the Survey by means of two fine triangles, which fix the positions 
of Tell el Seb'a and Tell S'aweh. 

In addition to this we took observations for latitude and time, both at 
Khirbet Bir el Seb'a, within fifty yards of the great well, and on the 
nest day at our camp close to Tell el Milh. The principal sites of 
interest are seven in number, viz., Tel el Seb'a, Bir el Seb'a, El Meshash, 
Tell el Milh, El Ghurra, Sa'weh, and Hora. I propose to give an abstract 
of our notes on each. 

Tell el Seb'a.— This large double tell, standing at the junction of Wady 
Khalil and Wady el Seb'a, is a point conspicuous on all sides, yet seems 
to have escaped notice. It has a well within one-fourth of a mile west 
of it, separate entirely from the wells of Beersheba, and situate on the 
south bank of the valley. 

On the top of the tell are a collection of Arab graves, but lower 
down towards the east are traces of a considerable ruin. I would 
suggest that in this we have the solution of the difficulty found in the 
list of the towns of Simeon, where Sheba (Shb'a) occui-s immediately 
after Beersheba, and between it and Moladah. The site of Tell el Seb'a 
is within two miles of Beersheba on the direct line to Moladah (Josh. 
xix. 2). There is a considerable dam, now ruined, across Wady Khalil 
below the tell, and traces of reservoirs to contain the water so collected. 

Kh. Bir el Seh'a.—The site of these famous wells has never before been 
fixed with any amount of accuracy. The positions on various maps are 
as follows : — 

Robinson . . Lat. 31°. 14' Long. 340.56' 

Vandevelde , . „ 31 .16 „ 34 .54 .30" 

Palmer ... „ 31 .13 „ 34 .48 

0. S. ... „ 31 .14 „ 34 .47 

Mr. Palmer's position is the most nearly correct, being only about 
half a mile wrong in longitude. In latitude he is one mile and three 
quarters too far south. From this it is evident that, whereas the com- 
pass angles of his route sketch come very nearly correct, the great 
distance of the starting-point has made the method of calculating 
distance by time give an appreciable error. The work, however, cannot 
fail to be considered very good of its kind, and contrasts favourably 
with Vandevelde, who is six and three quarter miles too far east in his 
longitude, and one and a half miles too far north in latitude. 

The ruins at Beersheba are extensive. They seem to belong to early 
Christian times, and a church stood close to the dry eastern well, a 



24 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEK's KEPORTS. 

tesselated pavement being remarkably close to the bank of the valley. 
There are remains of hard burnt bricks — very thin and of red hard 
cement — in what appears to be a large cistern ; but every ruin has been 
razed to its very foundations, and little of the town is to be seen beyond 
the heaps of rolled pebbles and flint, which are strewn on every side, 
with a few cut stones of the hill limestone. 

The houses must have been made of these flints built up with some 
sort of mortar or mud, and were no doubt perishable structures. The 
place must, however, at one time have been of considerable importance. 

The wells are three in number, two containing water. There are 
also some ruined cisterns for rain water, now filled up, but the Arabs 
did not know of more wells than those we saw, and the fourth near Tell 
el Seb'a. 

The central well was the one at which we camped. The distance to 
the water we found to be thirty-seven feet, and the diameter of the 
well twelve feet three inches. It is well built, of regular courses, with 
stones from eight inches to eighteen inches in length, which have their 
faces cut to the curve of the circle. There are numerous channels worn 
in the lip of the -well by the constant friction of the ropes drawing 
buckets for the watering of flocks, herds, and camels. It is curious that 
no former traveller appears to have noticed an inscription, built in 
evidently its proper place, in the fourteenth course of the masonry on 
the south side. The form of the letters approaches more closely to 
modern Arabic than to Cufic. The word AUak is distinct, and seems 
followed by Moliammed — a sentence probably containing the expression 
" Apostle of God Mohammed." 

An Arabic 5 and a cypher, and probably another <5 (though imperfect) 
occur above, giving oOo AH. This would place the date of the present 
masonry in the twelfth century, thus sadly contradicting the romantic 
fancy that the great furrows may have been first traced by the ropes of 
the followers of the first Patriarch, who dug the well. 

The other well, on the west, is much smaller (five feet in diameter). 
The dry eastern well we found to be nine feet two inches in diameter, 
and twenty-three feet deep, the bottom being filled with large stones. 

Beersheba was a considerable place in the time of Jerome, and later 
on an episcopal city under Jerusalem. The tuins are probably attri- 
butable to this period. 

El Mesliaah. — The course ofWady el Seb'a seems never to have been 
followed, for on no other supposition can I account for the loss of such 
an important site. 

El Meshash is about three miles west of Tell el Milh, and lies at the 
foot of the white chalk peaks of El Ghur. It is hidden in the valley 
and by the rolling ground, and thus not visible even a few hundred 
yards away. We came upon it suddenly, and found besides the ruin, 
which is considerable, but resembles the others ,in this part of the 
country, two wells, each full of water, and surrounded by great crowds 
of thirsty animals. 



MKUT. CLAUDK K. CO^iDKRS KEPORTS. 2o 

El Meshash has a meaning in Arabic of "the finger joint." Dr. 
Kobinson, who however never heard of this site, gives another meaning 
of the word, a " water pit " or small pool. The word is not uncommonly 
used among the Arabs with [this signification, and applied to several 
other localities, as Wady Meshash, 'Ain Meshash, &c., Sec, whence one 
is led to suspect that the name is the corruption of some ancient title, as 
the site is evidently old and important. The list of Simeon in this part 
of the country contains the following names : — 

Moladah. Hazar Shual. 

Hazar Gadduh. Sheba. 

Heshmon. Beersheba. 
Beth Palet. 

For all of these, except Beth Palet, which is doubtful, we may, it will 
be seen, now propose identifications ; some new, some confirmations of 
those already proposed. 

It will be seen that only one site, and that probably on the hills at El 
Ghurra, intervenes between Heshmon and Moladah. Moladah being 
undoubtedlj^ Khirbet el Milh, the site of Heshmon would be very well 
placed at El Meshash, and the .'similarity of the names seems to me 
sufficiently near when the fact of the Arabic being twisted into a word 
of ordinary signification is borne in mind. 

Tell el Milh. — 'This is a large and important site, a tell conspicuous in 
the middle of the Sahel Eer'ah, having Arab graves on the summit, 
whilst an extensive ruin stretches on the south, consisting of mounds, 
some with hewn stones, some strewn with flint blocks, others merely of 
earth. There are two wells, one dry the other containing water at a 
depth of more than forty feet. The Arabs here, almost naked and 
without any head-dress, drawing water furiously in time to a rude chaut, 
were some of the wildest fellows we have yet seen ; but, although at first 
they demanded backsheesh, they soon got tired of being completely 
ignored, and went back to their work of water drawing, or driving off 
the immense flocks which seem to thrive on nothing in these broad 
plains, destitute in the autumn, when we visited them, of even a single 
green leaf. 

The water proved to be slightly brackish, perhaps from layers of salt 
in the strata, or perhaps from the filthy condition of the mud round the 
wells, through which the spilt water filters back into the porous rock, 
and so again into the well . 

JJl Uhurra. — This appears to be El Jurra on Vandevelde's map, but 
is not shown by Professor Palmer, who places S'aweh nearly on its site- 
El Ghurra is visible from Tell el Milh, but S'aweh, which is three miles 
noi-th on another range, is not visible from any point in Professor 
Palmer's second route. Erom its position close to Tell el Milh, we should 
be inclined to place at this important .site the town of Hazar Gaddah. 
This identification was first proposed by Mr. Grove for the Jurrah of 
Vandevelde, and he remarks that the change of D into E is not uncom- 



26 LIEUT. CLAUDE R, CONDEr's REPORTS. 

mon in Semitic words, in. addition to wliicli we have the extreme 
similarity of the two letters in square Hebrew, and a certain amount of 
likeness in Aramaic, either of which would account for an error of 
transcription. 

The point which is most strongly in favour of the identification is the 
character of the site. Hazar means an " enclosure," and may therefore 
be supposed to refer to a walled town. El Ghurra stands on a higb, 
almost isolated marl peak, with precipitous sides. 

The ruins include three reservoirs, two caves, and buildings of large 
blocks of flint, and the whole site is sui-rounded by a wall built also of 
blocks of flint, thus fully meriting the prefix Hazar. 

S'aioch. — This also is a similar site on a high bluff, with an isolated 
tell north-east of the ruin. It has been identified with Hazar Shu'al, 
and a confirmation of the identification here also exists in a city wall 
surrounding the site, as at Ghurra, and built also of large flint blocks. 
The list of identifications stands, therefore, thus : — 
Moladah Tell el Milh. 



Hazar Gaddah 
Heshmon 
Hazar Shual 
Sheba . . . 
Beersheba 



. El Ghurra. 

. El Meshash. 

. S'aweh. 

. Tell el Seb-a. 

. Khirbet Bir el Seb'a. 

El Hora. — This important site corresponds in name to none of the 
towns in the list of Simeon, or of the southern cities of Judah. From 
position it might very well be Beth Palet, " or house of flight," a name 
appropriate either from its being beyond the plains, or, as will be seen, 
from its strongly fortified character, but if so the name seems lost. 
The signification in Arabic of its present title is connected with the 
drawing of water, for the place is remarkable for the number of its 
cisterns and reservoirs. The buildings are of flint throughout, the 
pieces being rudely squared. They average three or four feet in length, 
and are no doubt of the natural thickness of the flint layer which here 
lies at the top of the white marl. 

How they were cut there is nothing to show, but they may possibly 
date from very early times, being almost imperishable. There is nothing 
distinctive about the character of the buildings, but one peculiarity in 
the site not noticed by former travellers I have never remarked in any 
other ruin in Palestine. It consists in five small outlying forts which 
surround the town. Hora stands on a low, white marl hill, and the 
outer forts, at a distance of less than a mile, are placed also on low 
eminences. 

They are called by the natives Kasur el Mehafseh. 

Adadah. — I may add to this report a valuable identification as giving 
an indication of the district where a large number of unknown sites are 
to be found. In the south of Judah ten cities are mentioned (as correctly 
counted) between Kabseel, the first on the whole list, and Kerioth (pro- 
bably the present Kuretein). Adadah stands sixth, or about the middle 



MR. 



TYRWHITT drake's REPORTS. 27 



of the group. According to Smith's dictionary it has never been traced. 
Murray's new map gives the ruin of 'Ad'adah, exactly corresponding 
with the Hebrew word, as near Tuweirah el Foka. I find from the Arabs 
that this town does really exist, though marked on the map as doubtful. 
It is, no doubt, the ancient Adadah, and this leads us to look for the 
group in their proper place, the district west of the southern part of the 
Dead Sea. 

Some of them may probably come within our limits in the district 
round Tell Arad. This identification makes the fifth either newly dis- 
covered or confirmed by the Survey out of the list of towns in the lot of 
Simeon, without counting the probability of identity between Beth Palet 
and Hora. 

Geology.— Th.Q Beersheba plains consist of a rich marly soil, which, 
with irrigation, would become extremely fruitful. The climate seems 
healthy, and a great field for civilisation might be found in the colonisa- 
tion of this remote district, in preference to the stony hills of Judcoa, 
which' generally attract more attention. The strata here all belong to 
the white marl, and the hills are capped by dark flint bands. On the 
southern slopes of the spur, which terminates in Tell el Ghur, we found 
the same brown limestone which throughout the Jordan valley caps the 
marl. The high hills of the Debir district, the Negeb, or dry land of 
Ziph, Maon, and Eshtemoa, consist of the soft, white, porous limestone, 
with flint nodules, so often before noted. 

The unconformity with the chalk is well marked in a north and south 
section from Hebron to Moladah, confirming what I have formerly 
written on the subject. 

The dry character of this district is entirely explained by the thick- 
ness of the porous strata which forbids the existence of springs. 

The value of the Survey work in these districts, now including the 
recovery of some twenty biblical sites, as yet unknown or very doubt- 
fully identified, cannot fail to be generally appreciated. 

Claude E. Condek, Lieut. E.E. 



Mr. tykwhitt deake's eeport. 

XIX. 

Camp, Jerusalem, May, 1874. 

[The fdllowing was found among Mr. Drake's papers after his 
death] : — 

The Ghor or Jordan vaUey is now happily finished. It was one of the 
districts where we might have experienced considerable difficulties, both 
On account of the climate, the unsettled population, and the difficulty 
of procuring supplies. The exceptionally cool season wfts much in oui' 
favour, though the frequent rains somewhat delayed us. The abundant 
herbage served as fodder for our horses and mules — no elight item, when 



2S JIR. TYRWHITT DKAKe's REPORtS. 

I say that barley was 40 to 43 piasters the midd at Nablus, the usual 
price being 7 to 9 ; while, two years ago, I bought it in the Haurau 
for 3|. 

From all the Arabs and Fellahin in the Ghor we experienced nothing 
but civility. As little seems to be known of these tribes, I here give 
a list of them, beginning at the extreme south of Palestine, and going 
up to the Sea of Tiberias along the western side of the Jordan. The 
number of tents and men is averaged from the numbers given me by 
different Bedawin. I do not here give the many clans (Arabic— 
Tairai/f, hamyh, or (ishiret) into which they are subdivided, as I hope at a 
future period to publish a list of all the tribes in Palestine, with their 
Wasum, or tribe marks. 

TENTS, MEX. TltlUi;. 

— - El Tyyahah | -^^ ^^^^ p^^^,^,^ ^j- ^]^^ -^,^i^_ 

— — El Terabin S 
— • — El 'Azazimeli. 

— — ElDliullam. 
I''l .Telialiii, south of Hebron. 
El Ka'abineli, in Masferali, south of Hasasa, and 

north-east of Hebron. 
El Kashaideli, near 'Ain Jidi. 

El Ta'amirali, .south of Bayt Lahni, and iMar Saba. 
J<:i Abbaydiych, serfs of the monastery of Mar Saba. 
El Hetaymat. 
YA Sawaharet el AVad. 
El Abn Nnsayr. 
El 'Abi'd, serfs of the last, who live near Ain d 

8nltan. 
El Ka'abineli, nortli of Wady el 'Awjeh. 
El Mesa'ayd (under an Emir), in Wady el Ear'ah, 

and east of Nabhis. 
El Belawni i from east of Jordan, but usually 
El Faliaylat [ have a few tents in the Ghor near 
El Sardiyeh ) Wady el Maleh. 
El >Sakr, near Baysan, and in Wady Jalud. 
El Ghazawiyeli (under an Emir), east of Baysan. 
El Beshatwi, near Jisr el Muj^mi'a. 
S'khur el Glior, soutli of tlie Sea of Tiberias. 

The pasturage of Wady Fusail belongs to the Fellahin of Me j del, 
Beni Fadhil. The three clans of the village Tubas are the Deraghmeh, 
the Sawaftah, and the Fok-hah. Of these, the two first leave their 
houses in early spring, and live in tents like the Bedawin, pasturing 
their herds in Wady el Maleh and Wady Ivhashneh respectively. 

A very large number of tells are found in the Jordan valley, on the 
great plain of Esdraelon, and a few on the Maritime Plain. I am in- 
clined to look upon them as of very early date, and consider them as 
marking the site of ancient towns, or at least of their Acropolis, but 



100 


150 


50 


70 


60 


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360-400 


1000 


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300 


50 


80 


100 


150 


50 


100 


110 


160 



150 


400 


60 


100 


40 


70 


35 


60(?) 



MR, TVRWIUTT DHAKk's HEPORThl. 29 

cannot tit all countenance the theory that they are formed by the debris 
of bricks laid out to dry in the sun. Consisting as they do of from 
1,000 to 10,000 tons of earth, this idea seems to me untenable. Again, 
their steep ylopes show that they were heaped up with an eye to utilis- 
ing them as strongholds. The sun-dried bricks found in them at 'Ain 
el Sultan by Captain Warren, and at Tell el Salahiyeh, near Damascus, 
are not broken up, but regularly packed, and laid with mud instead of 
mortar, which tends to prove that sun-dried bricks were used in their 
construction to give them solidity. If they were composed only of 
debris and faulty bricks, where are the ruins of the good bricks used in 
construction, which must have exceeded the others in bulk, but of which 
no trace other than the tells is to be seen ? 

The fact that they are almost invariably found near a good supply of 
water, and always in open plains, or at the mouths of passes where 
there is no natural elevation suitable for fortresses, is to me conclu- 
sive proof that they were thrown up for the purposes of defence. A 
considerable part of the surface is doubtless due to the decay of the 
buildings which stood upon them, but the basis must have been pre- 
pared. 

Many of the tells which are identified with ancient sites, such as 
Tell Kaymun, Tell 'Arad, Tell el Kadhi, Tell Dothdn, Tell Jezer, Tell 
el Milh, and Tell el Husn at Baysan, Tell Thora, Tell Lejjun, and Tell 
el Semak, are natural mounds or extremities of spurs running down 
from the hills, which have been cut and trimmed into the desired shapes. 
This may perhaps tend to show that the isolated tumuli of the plains 
belong to a period anterior to the Jewish invasion. They differ much 
in shape from the gradually accumulated heaps on which the villages 
in Egypt are built, being more regular and very much steeper. If 
this be considered in conjunction with the fact that in Egypt rain is 
very rare, while in Palestine it is heavy, it will, I think, sufficiently 
prove that they are artificial constructions for a definite purpose. In 
the hill country such fortifications would be impossible and unnecessarj', 
but the villages and ruins are very frequently — especially in the district 
south of Jerusalem — built on isolated knolls, entirely occupying the 
summits of them. 

A line of crusading fortresses seems to have run along each side of f"'saiiing 
western Palestine. Between Jerusalem and Jericho is the castle of Tel'at 
el Damm. On the summit of Jebel Kuruntil is another; the ruins at 
Kurn Sartabeh lie in such confusion that it is impossible to assign any 
date to them. The large bossed stones, however, may possibly have been 
crusading work. The next point northwards is Burj el Maleh, from which 
both Kawkab el Hawa, north of Baysan, and Zal'at el Eabad, east of 
the Jordan, are visible. 

Kawkab el Hawa seems to have been a crusading castle captured by 
Saladin, in a.d. 1188, and built by King Fulke, about a.d. 1140 (cf. 
Eobinson, " Bib. His." iii. 227). The masonry of the outer walls is 
very fine, and cut out of compact basalt. It is superior to the work at 



30 



MR. TYRWHITT DRAKES REPORTS. 



Baysan : 
Bethsheaii, 
or'^f^ytho- 
poli8. 



Athlit, wliicli is, however, only limestone. The position is a very fine 
one, commanding as it does the whole of Wady Jalud, from Zera'in 
eastwards, and the Jordan valley from the Lake of Tiberias to some dis- 
tance south of Baysan. Two springs run under the cliffs to the south, 
about 500 yards from the fort. The most northern has a temperature of 
71 degrees, and is slightly brackish ; it is preferred to the other, which 
is cool and sweet, but which has the reputation of producing fever. 
Over this second spring is a rude Arabic inscription on a basaltic 
boulder. I have not yet been able to decipher it, but it seems merely to 
relate the finding or digging of the spring by a certain Emir. 

The ruins of Baysan have been so frequently described that I shall 
only mention one or two points which may be new. Near Tell el Husn, 
the mound of the fortress, I discovered a fine H shaped vault of Eomau 
masonry, and the fa9ade of a temple built of great blocks of nummulitic 
limestone, which must have been brought from a great distance, con- 
taining one large central niche, and a smaller one on each side, as though 
for statues. This portion of the ruins is almost concealed by rubbish, 
and would in all probability repay excavation. On the north side of 
the river Corporal Armstrong discovered two subterranean tombs of 
masonry, with domed roofs, now, however, fallen in. They are inte- 
resting, and similar to that tomb (El Kasr) near Tiyasir described by 
Lieutenant Conder, though much coarser and ruder in execution and 

finish. 

Jami'a el Arb'ain is a ruined mosque with a broken tower near the 
modern village. Over the mihrab is a large block of stone, with a very 
rudely-cut inscription, which I thus translate, two or three words 
being quite unintelligible, " In the name of God .... through 
God, when the end of the building was accomplished by the ransom (P) 
of 'Akka : the blessing of God be perfected, and prayers in it upon 
. Mohammed : and the completion was in the year . . . 
and ninety and a hundred." (a.d. 806). 

The following inscription I copied in July, 1872, and mentioned it in 
a report of that date. As it was not then printed, and the stone has 
since been done away with, I send another copy of it : 

*IAinnOC OMEFAA 
THN KPH lAAEnOIHC 
EPrON TOTEMBOA 
ETAE A NE. 
I have made several sections of the mouldings to the bases of the prin- 
cipal columns near the theatre, where most of the finest buildings seem 
to have stood, and these will probably be sufficient to determine their 

date. 

The position of Baysan is very fine. Situated on the edge of the 
clifi's which descend from "Wady Jalud to the Ghor, it catches the sea 
breeze, and even in the middle of summer is cooler than many other 
places that are situated at a greater elevation. Water is everywhere 
abundant, and with such a climate, indigo, cotton, sugar, cereals, and 



MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 31 

all kinds of vegetables, miglit be easily grown. Under a fostering 
government, tbis miserable village of squalid balf-bred Egyptians would 
soon become a thriving city. It lies, too, on one of the main routes to 
the extreme east, and should a railroad ever be made to Persia, the 
line from Akka or Haifa through Baysan will commend itself, perhaps, 
even before that from Tyre through the Buka'a, and certainly to unpre- 
judiced persons before that of Alexandretta and Aleppo. 

Abel Mehola is mentioned in Judges vii. 22, as a place to which the ^^^^^^^ 
Midianites fled in their panic from Gideon : the term here used is 
literally " to the lip of Abel Mehola," and to this I shall presently ad- 
vert. In 1 Kings iv. 12, the place is mentioned in conjunction with 
Bethshean. There is a ford over Jordan, some five miles north-east 
of Jericho, called Makhadhet Umm Enkhola, but this seems much too 
far south. However, there is a Mazar, or Moslem chapel, on the east of 
Jordan, about eight and a half miles south-east of Baysan, called 
Sherhabil— or, as one man named it to me, Shefa Habil, which would 
mean the lip of Habil. I asked many of the Arabs what the place was, 
but the only answer I could get was, that it was a Mazar, and called 
Sherhabil, but why they did not know. One of the Ghazawiyeh Arabs 
told me that it was the tomb of a certain Shaykh Mohammed Sherhabil, 
but this seemed a palpable invention for my special delectation, as none 
of his companions had ever heard of such a person. Eusebius places 
Abel Mehola at a place called Abelmea, eight miles from Baysan, which 
agrees well enough with this site. 

Zarthan (1 Kings iv. 12; vii. 46) is mentioned as being below Jezreel, 
and near Baysan. Between it and Succoth were the clay grounds in 
which Solomon cast the brass utensils for the temple services. Hitherto 
no trace of the name has been found. The reading of the Alexandrine 
Codex seems, however, to throw a light on the subject. Here we have 
2tapa^, and there is a very conspicuous and unusually large mound 
three miles south of Baysan, called Tell Sarem, a name identical with 
that in the Greek text. There is a good deal of clay to be found also 
between this place and Dabbet Sakfit, which may, I think, be accepted 
as Succoth. Zarthan is also mentioned (Josh. iii. 16) as near the city 
Adam; the proper rendering here is, " and the waters which came down 
from above rose up upon a heap very far oif by Adam, the city which is Adaic. 
beside Zarthan" (see Bib. Diet. sec. v. Adam). The meaning of Adam 
is red earth. Near Tell Sarem, one mile to the south, is Khirbet el 
Hamrath, the Red River, which may not impossibly be a translation of 
the old name. The colour of the soil in this district is also pointed 
out by the name of a ford near Dabbet Sakut — this is Makhadhet el 
Imghar (red earth). It has been suggested that the waters of the 
Jordan were suddenly dammed up by a landslip or similar convulsion ; 
the adherents of this theory might perhaps point to the present appear- 
ance of the banks and the curious bends of the river near this place in 
support of their idea. 

A few other ancient sites and their supposed identifications may 



32 Mil. TYRWHITT DRAKe's IJEPOHT.S. 

well be mentioned here. A monntl, marked Umm el Ashera, is found 
on Van de Yelde's map and quoted by Dr. Tristram (Topography 
H. Land, p. 219), but all inquiries among the Arabs failed to show it 
me. None of them had ever heard of such a place. In Robinson, 
however, I found it Um-el-'Ajra, and this gave me the clue, and I 
then saw how Tell el Ma'ajerah had been corrupted into Umm el 
Ashera. 

^non and Salim (John iii. 23) have been identified by Yan de Yelde 
as Bi'r Salim and Shaykh Salim. Inquiries of the Arabs and fellahin 
of the district resulted in not a man of them having ever heard of 
either of these places. Salim is mentioned by Eusebius as being 8 e.m. 
from Baysan to the south. I can only imagine that there is a mistake 
in the distance, and that Tell Sarem, which I have proposed above 
for Zarthan, must be the place intended. 

There are a very large number of springs about here, and it is 
emphatically a place " where there is much water." 

Meroz and Beth Shittah are, I think, without doubt, IMarassas and 
Shatta, two villages occupying important positions on the summits of 
knolls, to the north of Wady Jalud. Dr. Tristram speaks of "a 
large inhabited village, Kefrah, with many Jewish ruins, and apparently 
the remains of a large synagogue." At present it is uninhabited, the 
small ruins are quite modern, consisting of rough stones and mud, 
while hardly a dressed stone is to be found in the place, and there is no 
trace of a large building of any kind. 

A considerable extent of Wady Jalud and the Ghor is under cultiva- 
vation, but the chief wealth of the district consists in flocks and herds. 
Of these the greater part belongs to the Sagr Arabs. From one point 
may often be seen several herds, containing from one to three hundred 
head of cattle, besides innumerable sheep and goats and a fair sprink- 
ling of camels and horses ; of these latter the tribe formerly possessed 
a large niimber, and freely harried their neighbours by their means 
till their power was broken some seven or eight years ago by Moham- 
med Said, then Pasha of Nablus. Since then they have remained 
quiet, but are gradually recommencing their marauding habits under 
the present impotent government of Nablus. 

The satisfactory identification of Antipatris in face of the various con- 
flicting accounts seems now impossible. The usual site assigned to it 
is Kefr Saba. Kal'at Ras el 'Ain was first proposed, I believe, by Major 
Wilson, and by Herr Shick, of Jerusalem. The evidence in Josephus 
seems to me slightly in favour of the latter position, as do the dis- 
tances given in the Itineraries, but the ancient name of Capharsabe 
points to the modern Kefr Saba. The following table shows the 
distances : — 

Antipatris. Kefr Salia. Kas el 'Ain. 

.Jerusalem .... 38 (42 i:.M.) 40^ 35 

Ccesarea 2m-Hi n.yi.) 23 28i 

Lvdda 9^(10u.M.) 16 lOA 



MR. TYRWHITT DRAKE's REPORTS. 33 

From Kefr Saba a ditch, eighteen miles long is said to have been dug 
(Ant. xiii. 15. 1) to the sea, or shore of Joppa (B. J. 1. iv. 7). There is a 
manifest, error in this distance, which will only touch the sea either 
south of Jatia or north of Nahr el Falik. This ditch did not serve its 
purpose, and is said to have been filled up ; so that we can hardly 
imagine it to have been a work of any magnitude. No trace whatever 
of any ditch is to be seen west of Kefr Saba, where the ground consists 
of rolling hills of sandy loam. At the commencement of the Survey, in 
1872, I noticed a ditch falling into the 'Awjeh, near the village of 
Jerisheh, and running in the direction of Ras el 'Ain, at the foot of the 
low hills south of the 'Awjeh bridge. It does not, however extend for much 
more than a mile. Antipatris is said to have been near the mountains, 
a description which applies equally well to the rival sites. It is said to 
have been well watered, and to have had a river flowing round the city 
(J. Ant. xvi. 6. 2). This cannot apply to Kefr Saba, but does to Eas el 
'Ain. The goodness of soil applies equally well to both, but the 
presence of a grove of large trees round it seems to point to Kefr Saba, 
to the east of which still exist the remains of the forest which formerly 
covered all the low hills on the Maritime Plain between Carmel and 
Jaffa. 

An old man of the neighbouring village of Jeljulyeh told me that he 
had heard that the ancient name of Kefr Saba Avas Antifatrus, but of 
course a statement of this kind is not of much value. 

It is pei'haps not impossible that formerly Capharsabe stood at the 
fountains of the 'Awjeh ; for it is remarkable that such an important 
position should only be called the " Fountain-head," and that subse- 
quently it was transferred, name and all, to the position it now 
occupies. Such a solution may appear forced, but in face of the con- 
flicting evidence above quoted seems to me the only solution of the 
difficulty. 

In 1 Chron. vii. it is curious to compare the proper names with those 
of villages existing at the present day ; for instance, in Benjamin, 
Anathoth and Alameth with the modern Anata and 'AJmit ; in 
Manasseh, Ulam with the village of 'Awlam (in this case, however, the 
initial Hebrew Aleph is changed into the Arabic 'Ain). In Ephraim, 
'Zabad and Uzzensherah with Kefr Zibad and Bayt Sira. 

Ea route from Kefr Saba to Jerusalem, I visited the village of Mejdel 
Yaba, or Mejdel et Sadik as it is sometimes called, in order to copy the 
Greek inscription said to exist there. It is in a winged tablet on 
the lintel of a door on the right-hand side as you enter the Shaykh's 
palace — for the building he occupies is nothing less — and is founded on 
an older fort, having three bastions to the west. The arch over the in- 
scription, which faces eastwards, is semicircular, with a keystone ; the 
masonry is good. Inside the doorway the arch is very slightly pointed, 
and the barrel vault of the chamber, which seems to have been the 
ground floor of a corner tower, is seemingly of later date. The in- 
scription is in bold letters, some four inches long, and runs thus : 

D 



34 ON THE SITE OF NOB AND THE HIGH PLACES, 

MAPTTPIONTOT 
AnOTKHPTKOT 

A few yards N.W. of the Shaykli's dwelling is a fragment of riiin, 
to all appearance of Crusading date. 

An English gentleman, a civil engineer, is now engaged, at his own 
expense, in making many alterations and improvements in the Bishop's 
School on Zion. The run of tkis scarpe^l rock, which he has laid bare 
in many places, is curious, but one point in his work is especially 
worth noticing. In the scai*p he has found several water channels, 
some small excavated caves with steps across them, and some cisterns 
constructed against the face of the rock, which undoubtedly formed part 
of a system of baths. In confirmation of this idea it is curious to find 
that this point is called by the natives Hammam Tabariyeh (or Ham- 
mam Daoud) — the Baths of Tiberius (or David), the latter name is 
probably due to the neighbotirhood of the so-called Tomb of David. 
The former name is given by Dr. Schultz in his map, cd. 1845. 



ON THE SITE OF NOB AND THE HIGH PLACES. 

By Lietttenant Conder, R.E. 

The wanderings of the ark, and the positions of the great religious 
centres in Palestine previous to the final settlement at Jerusalem, are 
questions not so easily understood from the Bible accounts as might at 
first be supposed, and the identification of one principal site connected 
with this question, namely, the city of the priests, to which David fled 
from Saul, has remained hitherto a moot point. 

After the conquest of the hill country by Joshua, the ark and the 
tabernacle "were removed to Shiloh, where they remained until the dis- 
astrous days of the high-priesthood of Eli. It w^as thence that the de- 
feated Israelites brought the great palladium of their nation to the camp 
at Eben Ezcr. It is not stated whether or not the ark was unprotected 
by any proper covering or tent, but the general impression produced by 
the description is, that the tabernacle remained stationary, and the ark 
only was moved. On the defeat of Israel it was carried to Ashdod 
(Esdud), whore it was lodged in the house of Dagon, another indication 
that the ark alone was taken. On the destruction of Dagon's statue, it 
was senttoGath (a site yet to be identified), and thence to Eki-on (Akir), 
in the valley of Soreg (Wady Serar). From Ekron the kine brought it in 
the cart to Beth Shemesh ('Ain Shemis), and hence the men of Kirjath 
Jearim (Kariet el 'Anab) fetched it tip to their own village, w^here it 
rested until the time of David. When finally it was decided to bring 
the ark to Jerusalem, we find that David went down (2 Sam. vi.) to 
Baalath of Judah and fetched it from Gibeah. It was then left after the 
death of the unhappy Uzzah in the house of Obed Edom the Gittite, 
and from thence finally taken to Jerusalem, where it dwelt " within 



ON THE SITE OF NOB AND THE HIGH PLACES. 35- 

cm-tains " xmtil the consecration of Solomon's temple. Baalath. was, as. 
■we learn from another passage (Joshua xv.), the same jjlace as Ku'juili. 
Jearim, bvitof the site of the house of Obed Etlomwehave no indication. 
The word Gibeah is the " hill " of 1 Sam. vii. 1, the higher part of the 
village of Kirjath Jearim. 

It appears, therefore, that from the time of Eli to that of David 
the ark was wandering, and separated from the great religious 
centre of the country. It seems also, from the .various accounts of its 
transport on carts from place to place — no mention being made of the 
transfer of the sanctuary with it, whilst its temporary lodging was a 
house or a heathen temple— that the ark was, during that period, sepa- 
rated from the tabernacle, for the history of which we are obliged to 
seek other indications in the books of Samuel. A passage in the second 
book of Chronicles is conclusive on this point. Solomon, we learn, went 
to the " great high place of Gibeon " (1 Kings iii. 4), " for there wa.s 
the tabernacle of the congregation of God, which Moses the servant of 
the Lord made in the wilderness." " But the ark of God had David 
brought up from Kirjath Jearim to the place which David had prepared 
for it : for he had j)itched a tent for it at Jerusalem " (2 Chron. i. 4). 

The indications of places in which the tabernacle Avas pitched are not 
numerous. We find Israel gathering to Samuel in Mizpeh, where he 
sacrificed to God (1 Sam. vii. 9). A high place near the boundary of 
Benjamin is mentioned soon after as one where Samuel was accustomed 
to sacrifice, and which seems probably to be the same Mizpeh again 
mentioned as the rendezvous of the nation demanding a king (1 Sam. x. 
17). Mizpeh and Bethel were sacred places before Eli's time, but the 
pouring out of water "before the Lord," together with its being- 
a place of general assembly for all Israel, seems to place it above 
the rank of the secondary places of worship at one time considered 
lawful. 

The places chosen as sacred, and for judgment of the people by 
Samuel, were Gilgal (near Jericho), Bethel (Beitin), and Mizpeh, his. 
home being at Eamah (Er Earn). Mizpeh is mentioned in Joshua 
(xviii. 2(3), in connection with Gibeon (El Jib), Eamah (Er Eam), 
Beeroth (Bireh), Chephivah (Kefireh), all in the hiU country of Ben- 
jamin). In Nehemiah (iii. 7) it appears with Gibeon, and in Jeremiah 
it is mentioned in connection with the same toAvn as the stronghold of 
the Jews. 

Vague as these intimations are, it seems more than probable that 
Mizpeh was at one time the religious capital, that it was near Gibeon, 
and that probably the tabernacle was there erected on its removal from 
Shiloh. When, however, we advance to rather a late period, we find 
that the site of the tabernacle is at Nob. Thus, David fleeing from 
Saul at Eamah (Er Eam), after his interview with Jonathan and on his- 
way to Gath, comes to Nob, where Ahimelech the priest gives him the- 
shewbread, and inquires for him of God ; the ephod also is mentioned, 
and it seems from the passage clear that the tabernacle was at that tima 



36 ON THE SITE OF NOB AND THE HIGH PLACES. 

placed at Nob ( 1 Sam. xxii. ) Of the position of this important place we 
have but little indication, and it has consequently been placed in a 
variety of sites. In the book of Joshua it does not appear at all, or at 
all events not under that name. We find it, however, once more in 
the great descriptive chapter in Isaiah, where its position is indicated 
with some exactitude. The host has come to Aiath (El Tell), passed 
to Migron, laid up its carriages at Michinash (Mukhmas), gone over the 
passage (Wady Suweinit), and lodged at Gcba (Jeba). "As yet," 
says the prophet, ' ' shall he remain at Nob that day : he shall shake 
liis hand against .... the hill of Jerusalem " (Isaiah x. 32). 
It seems, therefore, that Nob Avas a place of some military im- 
portance, as are the others previously mentioned — -that it was within 
sight of Jerusalem, and in the neighbourhood of the Benjamite 
cities. 

It is at once evident that there is a strong parallelism between the two 
sites of Nob and Mizpeh, and it is remarkably suggestive that, as shown, 
the two names never occur in one passage. Mizpeh was a high place, 
at which apparently the tabernacle was for some time erected, a place 
of military strength and importance, and situate in the hill country of 
Benjamin, near Gibeon and Eameh. Nob in like manner was the site 
of the erection of the tabernacle, a place of military importance, and 
situate in the hill country of Benjamin, near Eameh and Gebim, which 
is in all probability Gibeon. When, in addition to this parallelism 
between the Mizpeh of Samuel and the Nob of David, we find the 
meaning of the name to be nearly the same — Mizpeh being a watch- 
tower, and Nob a high place — the conclusion seems almost irresistible 
that the two are but varieties of one name, that of the " great high 
place." 

Bold as it may appear, there is yet room for still further identif jang 
these two sites with the high place of Gibeon mentioned in the time of 
Solomon. It has been ali-eady seen that the tabernacle was for some 
time at least placed at Gibeon, whilst the ark was in Jerusalem, and 
nnless there be good evidence in favour, it should hardly be assumed 
that the centre of worship underwent continual and unnecessary change ; 
nor is there anything strained or unnatural in the supposition of their 
identity, since, as already noted, both Nob and Mizpeh are mentioned 
in various passages in connection with this important royal to\vn. 

The full confirmation of the theory depends, however — (1st) on the 
further information contained in the Talmud ; and (2nd) on certain 
topographical and philological indications existing at the present time. 

The account given in the Mishna with reference to the tabernacle is 
so interesting that it may well be given here in full. It is to be found 
in the 14th of Zebahim, and may be translated as follows : — ■ 

§4. "Before the tabernacle was erected high places were lawful 

after the tabernacle was erected high places were not 

lawful." 

§ 0. " When they came to Gilgal, and the high places were lawful, 



ox THE SITE OF NOB AND THE HIGH PLACES. 37 

tlic most holy tilings were eaten within the enclosure, the less holy 
anywhere." 

Maimonides comments on this, quoting Levit. xvii. 3, and explains 
that there was no permanent structure at GUgal, but merely th.e original 
tabernacle. 

§ 6. " ^Vhen they came to Shiloh, the high places began to be un- 
lawful ; but there was no roof there, but a lower structure of stone and 
an upper tent. And it was a place of rest. Then the most holy things 
were eaten only within the enclosure, but the less holy and the second 
tithes wherever the house was visible." 

Maimoilides says this building was called either "the house" or 
"the tabernacle; " quoting 1 Sam. i. 24, "the house of the Lord in 
Shiloh," and Psalm Ixxviii. 60, "the tabernacle of Shiloh." As tbe 
structure Avas semi-permanent, he explains, high places were unlawful. 

§ 7. "When they came to Nob and Gibeon, the high places were 
allowed, but they used to eat the most holy things within the enclosure, 
and the less holy in all the cities of Israel."" 

Maimonides explains as follows : — 

" After the sanctuary erected in Shiloh was destroyed for our sins, 
they erected the tabernacle whicli used to be in the desert in Nob, and 
transferred it to Gibeon, and it was in Nob and Gibeon fifty-seven 
years. Meantime it was lawful to sacrifice in the high places, for Shiloli- 
was the place of rest and Jerusalem the heritage (as mentioned Deut.. 
xii. 9, "the rest and the inheritance"). He then explains that dui-ing 
the time of rest the high places were temporarily disallowed, but on the 
establishment of the inheritance they became unlawful for ever, as is 
also stated in the next verse of the Mishna. 

§ 8. " "WTien they came to Jerusalem the high places were prohibited.,, 
nor were they ever again lawful. For this was the heritage . . . " 

Maimonides and Bartenora both explain precisely that the Divine 
Majesty abode in Shilob 369 years ; that in Saul's time the site Avas 
changed to Nob, and talcing Nob and Gibeon together, it remained there 
fifty-seven years, or until the time of the building of Solomon's 
temple. 

This interesting and exact account fully bears out, as wUl be seen, 
the conclusions already deduced from the Bible records. The first period 
at Gilgal Avas but a temporary pitching of the tabernacle of the AvUder- 
ness. The establishment at Shiloh for more than three and a half 
centuries Avas a structure of a more permanent character, intended to 
last only until Jerusalem came into the hands of the Jcavs by the defeat 
of the Jebusites, after Avhich the first natm-al thought of DaAdd Avas to- 
estabhsh permanently the sacred service in the holy city of inheritance. 
But Avath the disastrous times of Eli came the great shock of separation 
betAveen the ark and the tabernacle. The established place of sacrifice 
at Nob, where the mercy-seat Avas never present, and Avhere only the 
desert tabernacle Avas erected, was felt to be but a temporary arrange- 
ment, and the same laAvs which held good for the Avanderers of the 



•38 ON THE SITE OF NOB AND THE HIGH PLACES. 

v-vvilderness were resumed. Finally, it must be remarked tliat the natural 
interpretation of the account is that Nob and Gibeon were close together, 
or the removal from one place to another would have constituted a 
period as distinct as the others mentioned by the Mishna. The word 
Mizpeh is not used in this passage of the Talmud, and we are therefore 
led to the conclusion that if Mizpeh were the site of the erection of the 
tabernacle it must be identical with Nob or Gibeon. 

Enough, then, is found to lead to the conclusion that only four sites 
have to be considered as being at various times the religious centres — 
■Gilgal, Shiloh, the high place (or Nob) of Gibeon, and Jerusalem itself. 
At the first we should not now expect to find any traces of the site of 
the tabernacle, though the sand mounds at Birket Jiljulieh, which I men- 
tioned in the report on the establishment of the probable site of Gilgal, 
may by some be supposed to have some connection with this account. 
At Shiloh, however, we naturally expect to see traces of the more per- 
manent structure erected, and there can be little doubt that they exist, 
as already pointed out by Major Wilson, who says, — 

" Northward the Tell (at Seilun or Shiloh) slopes down to a broad 
shoTilder, across which a sort of level court, 77 feet wide and 412 long, 
has been ciit. The rock is in places scarped to a height of o feet . . . 
there is no other level space on the Tell sufficiently large to receive a 
■tent of the dimensions of the tabernacle." — Quarterly Statement, Jan., 
1873, p. 38. 

The tradition of the tabernacle is no doubt recognisable in the unusual 
.title of the principal mosque at Seilun, Jami'a ed Daim (mosque of the 
Eternal). 

The interest attaching to the third site is equal to either of the former. 

Dean Stanley has shown that the site of the high place of Gibeon is 
indisputable, but the position of Nob is not settled in the same satis- 
factory manner. The simple examination of the original Hebrew leads, 
however, to an irresistible conclusion, and allows us to reconcile his 
identification Avith that commonly given for Mizpeh, and also to fix that 
■of Nob. The Hebrew word Nob, or Neb, contains no vowel, and there 
is therefore no philological difficulty in connecting it with the Arabic 
Nebi. We have here the common process of change of meaning which 
has preserved so many Hebrew names with scarce an alteration beyond 
that necessary to give them an intelligible meaning in Arabic. As 
instances, Timnath converted into Tibneh, " strawy ;" Sycaminum into 
Tell el Semak (mound of the fish) ; and a host of similar cases may be 
mentioned. Neb having no meaning of " high " in Arabic, is converted 
into Neby, " a prophet ; " and as tradition naturally grows more detailed, 
so the name of a particular prophet of one who was most intimately 
•connected with the place iii question is added, and the Hebrew Nob 
reappears in the modem unusual title of Nebi Samwil. 

The site in question fulfils in a remarkable manner the requisites 
already explained. As in the case of the Altar of Ed, we here again deal 
svith one of the most remarkable sites in the country. Nebi Samwil is 



OS THE SITE OP NOB AND THE HIGH PLACES. 39 

SO close to Gibcon that there can bo no doubt as to its being the high 
place visited by Solomon. It is within sight of Jerusalem, and not far 
from Michmash and Geba, whilst as a military point it is of the greatest 
importance. Thus the description of Isaiah applies exactly, and it is, 
moreover, directly on the way of Da\4d's journey from Eamah to Gath, 
Thus, as Dean Stanley remarks, by its close connection with the most 
interesting period of Jewish history, "a significance is given to what 
would other-svise have been a blank and nameless feature in a region 
where all the less conspicuous hills arc distinguished by some historical 
name." 

As generally happens in Palestine, the site still retains its original 
character. A great high place in JcAvish time, it Avas the site of a 
beautiful church biult by the Crusaders, and this in turn has become a 
mosque whose minaret is visible from great distances in every direction. 
The Aiew from Nebi Samwil is splendid, and its steep sides form a 
picturesque detail, contrasting with the rounder outlines of the Judsean 
and Bonjamite summits. 

In a report Aviitten during last Avinter {Quarterhj Statement, April, 
1874), I noticed the curious rock-cut approach to the gi'eat church, which 
we were at the time inclined to attribute to Crusading date ; it does 
not, however, show any very distinctive marks of date, and may very 
well be older. It is true that no permanent structure was erected at 
iSTob, but a flat court of some kind would be necessary for the outer 
enclosure; and when we reflect on the discovery by Major Wilson of a 
similar com-tyard at Shiloh, it seems very probable that this cutting was 
originally intended for the accommodation of the tabernacle. A very 
curious narrow passage conducts to it ; outside are pools carefully hewn ; 
and a great birket, with an aqueduct channel and a number of rock-cut 
chambers, are found lower doAvn the hill. The plan of the top of the 
hill we have taken very carefully, though'not at the time aware of its 
probable importance, and thus all the traces indicative of the tabernacle 
have been properly noted and preserved. 

The outcome of the preceding pages amounts,'therefore, to this — ^that 

.at Nebi Samwil we find Nob the high place of Gibeon, and probably, 

though it is not possible to assert this definitely, the Mizpeh of Samuel, 

and that traces of the exterior court of the tabernacle in this great high 

place are yet discoverable on the summit of the hill. 

Before leaving this interesting subject, a few words may in conclusion 
be said as to the high j)laces mentioned in the passage quoted from the 
Talmud, and of which traces are yet visible in Palestine. 

The land, on the invasion by the children of Israel, was fuU of sites of 
pagan worsliip, and we find a special command given (Deut. xii. 2) to 
destroy all the places of the false gods " upon the high moimtains and 
upon the hills and under every green tree.'' This tradition of worship 
was, however, never completely eradicated, and to the present day it is 
a remarkable feature in Palestine that almost every important hiU-top 
is the seat of a white mazar or tomb-house, a sacred place of prayer, 



40 ON THE SITE OF NOB AND THE HIGH PLACES. 

generally shaded by a great tree, and often no doubt preserving tbe site 
of a pagan altar. Every green tree in similar manner is in the more 
barren part of the hill country held sacred ; rags and threads hang from 
its branches as votive offerings, and the name of a saint or prophet is 
often connected with the spot. 

There are, however, allusions in the Bible to "high places" which da 
not seem directly connected with idolatrous worship. Thus, in the 
time of Solomon's accession, "the people sacrificed in high places, 
because there was no house built unto the name of the Lord until those 
days." Asa, again, though irreproachable in his religious conduct, did 
not remove the high i^laccs, and in the'time of Jehoshaphat " the people 
offered and burnt incense in the high place " (1 Kings xv, 14, and xxii.. 
43). Still later we find the Cutheans mentioned as fearing the Lord, 
and making priests of the high places. 

The Talmudical comments explain how it came to bo merely a venial 
offence that these high places were not removed. Until the building of 
the temple they had been at alternate periods lawful places of worship- 
and unlawful. On the establishment of the kingdom at Jerusalem they 
became forever \mlawful,"and the danger of theii- leading to a local 
perversion of the purity of the religion rendered their destruction of the 
greatest importance. Their use had, however, become a habit of the 
people, and was not so easily abolished as would have been the case had 
Jerusalem fallen in the first attack on the country. The foreseen 
consequence came quickly, and the worship of golden calves symbolical 
of Jehovah in the high j)laces made by Jeroboam (1 Kings xii. 32) 
led soon to the adoption of the original idolatry of the indigenous, 
population with all its paraphernalia of groves, teraphs, images, and 

pillars. 

The site chosen by Jeroboam gives a most remarkable confirmation of 
this view, for one of the calves was erected in Bethel, a place specially 
sacred to the true God since the time of Jacob, and one of the three 
visited yearly by Samuel at a period of the history when, as shown by 
the Talmud, high places were still lawful. 

Durino- our Survey we have met with two sites which seem tmdoubtedly 
to bear traces of this worship in high places, but which have been scarce 
mentioned in our former reports. 

The first is situate at Jebel Bir Asur, on the range north of Samaria ; 
here on the highest point of the shed is a great square structure, some 
ten feet high, of roughly-he^^'n blocks. It is evidently of great antiqmty, 
and the size of the stones precludes the possibility of its being erected, 
by the shepherds. It served us instead of a rijm for a trigonometrical 
point, and we whitewashed it most irreverently. A well exists near,, 
and on the same ridge are no less than three saint-houses all overshadowed 
with large trees. 

The second site of the kind is mentioned in a report of Mr. Drake's. 
I made a lAnn of it and carefvil notes. It is close to the small temple 
of Abu 'Amr, west of the Plain of Esdraelon. The soil is soft and 



SCENERY OF DAVId's OUTLAW LIFE. 41 

marly, and a deep pit has been roughly hewn and still holds water— a 
narrow flight of steps leads down to it. Immediately above is a solid 
mass of masonry, the stones of great size and roughly he^vn ; two or 
three fine oaks overshadow it; it measures 35ft. by 30ft., and is some 
Oft. to 8ft. high. Close by is the tomb-house of Sheikh Selameh, and a 
little farther on the same hill is the Roman temple. There is no reason 
to doubt that we here find an instance of the altars erected " under 
every green tree." 

In concluding this paper I would remark that there arc two methods- 
of studying the subject of identification. The one natural in England 
is the literary comparison of various passages leading to conclusions 
which it is sought to verify by aid of the map. In Palestine the process 
is naturally reversed. The prominent points in the landscape arrest the 
eye, and the interest of connecting them with Scripture history is far 
greater than that of the study of obscure Hebrew names. The prose- 
cution of this method must naturally lead to discoveries of the greatest 
interest, and among these may be mentioned those made lately durmg 
the prosecution of the Survey, of which a list is given below. 

1. Kh. Semmakah (Ecbatana, a Eoman town on Carmel). 

2. Kh. Deir Serur (Sozuza, an early Christian episcopal town). 

3. Kerawa (Archelais, a site not as yet described). 

4. Tell el Semak (Sycaminum — according to Mr. Drake). 

5. Eshu'a (Eshtaol — with the probable tomb of Samson). 

6. Jiljulieh (Gilgal — a confirmation of former discovery). 

7. Wady Suweinit (the Senneh of Jonathan, with the site of Philistine 
camp). 

8. 'Ain Zahrah (Zererath or Zerthan, mentioned in Gideon's history). 

9. Tubas (probably the Tabbath of the same passage). 

10. 'Ash el Ghoriib (Eock Oreb of the same account). 

11. Tuweil el Dhiab (mnepress of Zeeb in the same connection). 

12. Kum Surtabeh (the altar of Ed, Josh. 22). 

13. Beit 'Atab (Eock Etam of Samson, as suggested by Sergeant 
Black). 

14. Nebi Samwil (the high place of Gibeon and city of Nob). 

Claude E. Condee, Lieutenant E.E. 



THE SCENEEY OF DAYID'S OUTLAW LIFE. 

By Lieutexaxt Conder, E.E. 

The extension of the Survey in the hill country of Judah has now 
enabled us to explain the wanderings of David in his outlaw life, during 
the latter period of the reign of Saul ; a story which, in its romantic 
incidents, yields in interest to none of the many adventurous histories of 
the Old Testament. Four new identifications may now be published 
■with a great degree of confidence, and the thorough examination of 



42 SCENERY OF DAVID's OUTLAW LIFE. 

the country forming the theatre of these episodes enables us to give 
force, by the comparison of its existing character with that reqiiired by 
the narrative, to the faithful indications of the ancient accounts. 

David's first flight was from the royal capital of Gibeah of Benjamin, 
probably the present Jeb'a, which stands on a plateau on the south brink 
of the great Michmash Valley, in the centre of the lot of Benjamin. His 
first resting-place on his way to the Philistine plain was at Nob, then the 
resting-place of the Tabernacle and the chief religious centre. For this 
site, hitherto unfixed, I have already proposed the modern Nebi Samwil, 
which fits well with the requisites of the present narrative. Leaving 
immediately the fated spot, soon desecrated by the daring murder of the 
entire priestly family, David descended into the borders of the Shephalah, 
then in the hands of the Philistines, and took refuge with Achish, King 
of Gath, a Philistine capital not as yet fully identified, but which seems 
most probably identical with the great White Mound of Tell el Safi, on 
the borders of the Maritime Plain, commanding one of the main adits 
to the hill country, the Valley of Elah, already so famous in David's 
history as the scene of the death of Goliath of Gath. A confirmation of 
this identification (first proposed, I believe, by Dr. Porter), from a 
passage in Josephus, where Gath appears under another name, I pro- 
pose to put forward later on. In the meantime it is sufficient to say 
that the distance at w hich David now considered himself safe from the 
purstiit of Saul was less than thirty English miles. 

Indeed, in the whole account, nothing is more striking than the small 
extent of the country traversed, and its short distance from the royal 
capital. David appears to have wandered in an area the radius of 
which did not exceed twenty miles from his native town of Bethlehem. 
Generally speaking, he inteiiDOsed this city between himself and Saul, 
and as we know that he was able to communiaate with relations there 
(1 Sam. XX. 1), it seems probable that he thus ensured an early notice 
of any attempt on the king's part to surprise him when betrayed by the 
men of the various localities in which he sought refuge. 

Recognised at Gath, David again fled and entered the possessions of 
Judah, hiding in the far-famed Cave of AduUam. This site is as yet 
outside the bounds of the Survey, but has been identified by M. Ganneau 
with a great degree of certainty. There was a city of the name, and an 
important place, enumerated among the royal Canaanite capitals. The 
cities which occur in connection with it — Maresha (El Marasb), Jarmuth 
{Yarmuk), Socoh (Shuweikeh) — all lie in a short distance of one another 
in the low hills south of the Valley of Elah (Wady el Sumt) close to 
the scene of the famous duel. It is here that M. Ganneau finds the 
name of 'Aid el Mia, which represents very well the Hebrew 'Adlem, 
an identification which we hope aiterwards to confirm. The site is a 
hill-side near Socoh (Shuweikeh), which is burrowed with caves, part 
natural, partly enlarged by human agency. 

JIa7'eth. — From Adullam, David next went over to Moab, to seek an 
asylum for his father and mother in the country of his ancestress Euth. 



SCENERY OF DAVID S OUTLAW LIFE. 43 

It appears that he then lived for a time in the desert, for the parallel 
passage in Josephus represents the piophot Gad as recommending him 
to leave " the desert," and go into " the portion of Judah " (Ant. VI., 
xii. 4). The Authorised Version gives " the hold," a title which it 
applies to more than one of David's places of refuge. The place to 
•which he next departed is called in the English the " Forest of Hareth," 
and many theories on the ancient fertility of Palestine are founded on 
tlie existence of this forest, and of the " Wood of Ziph." It may, how- 
ever, appear in this paper that both these readings are mistaken, and we 
may, in fact, succeed in cutting down both the forests at a single blow. 

The word used in the Hebrew is (°iy), Y'ar, which means properly 
a grove ; but a remarkable difference exists in the Septuagint. The 
Vatican and Alexandrine manuscripts both read ey noXft, in the city, a 
difference which is due to the transposition of Yeh and 'Ain, reading 
'Ayr for Y'ar. The parallel passage of Josephus also reads the " city " 
of Hareth. 

The improbability of any forest or collection of timber trees having 
existed in this part of Palestine cannot be too strongly insisted on. 
That extensive woods have been cut down, that a forest once covered 
half the Plain of Sharon, that wild thickets abounded as they still do 
on the slopes of Carmel, is certain ; but it is contrary to the character 
of Judaean scenery to suppose in times as late as that of David, when 
the water supply and seasons were almost the same that they now are, 
and just befora the time when Solomon was forced to bring all his 
building timber from Lebanon, that any forest properly so called should 
have existed. 

We are bound, it seems to me, to take the concurrence of the two 
ancient manuscripts with the authority of Josephus, when thus taking 
the side of probability, rather than the translation of the Authorised 
Version, depending upon a transposition of the letters, which might so 
easily have occurred. 

The second part of the question is to discover the position of the town 
of Hareth, thus transformed into an imaginary forest. It is not men- 
tioned in any other passage, and we have only two indications of its 
position, and these but slight. In the first place, it was in the lot of 
Judah, and from the general indications above noticed, we should be 
inclined to place it south of Bethlehem, though the Onomasticon puts it 
west of Jerusalem, probably close to the boundary of the tribe. The 
second indication is more precise. From thence David went to the aid 
of the men of Keilah attacked by the Philistines. There was no special 
reason for his succouring this town except one. Keilah (now Kilah) is 
a well known place at the foot of the higher hills, south-east of AduUam, 
and some six miles from it. It is not, therefore, in the region of David's 
native place, and its inhabitants were in no way specially attached to 
him, for we find that, with the ingratitude so characteristic of the 
ordinaiy oriental, they were ready to deliver up their deliverer to Saul, 
immediately after he had saved their threshing-floors from the Philistine 



44 SCENERY OF DAVID's OUTLAW LIFE. 

nomadic hordes. The simple reason must, therefore, have been that 
David and his men were at the time in the immediate neighbourhood of 
the village, and that his own safety was to a certain extent endangered 
by this unusually far-pushed Philistine ghazoo. 

We may, therefore, look for Hareth, or, as the Hebrew is properly 
transliterated, Kharith, in the neighbourhood of the modern village of 
Kilah, and here, up higher in the hills, on the north side of Wady 
Arneba, one of the heads of the Yalley of Elah, now stands the small 
modern village of Kharas, a name embodying all the essential letters 
of Harith, though with a slightly different termination. The site is an 
ancient one, with the usual indications — ancient wells, cisterns, and 
rough caves in the hill side. Its position in the same district formerly 
serving as a refuge to David is interesting, and it may, I believe, bo 
accepted as the site of the City of Hareth. 

The confinement in a citj' " that hath gates and bars "was not con- 
sistent with David's predatory and fugitive life. From I\eilah he 
escapes yet further south, a distance of fifteen miles, and " abode in the 
wilderness in strongholds, and remained in a mountain in the wilder- 
ness of Ziph ; and Saul sought him every day." 

We now come to one of the most beautiful episodes of the history. 
The unselfish love of Jonathan (perhaps the finest of the Old Testament 
characters) prompted him to seek the oppressed and fugitive bandit, and 
renew his pledges of friendship. Jonathan goes to seek David, who was 
"in the wilderness of Ziph in a tvood" and went to David "into the 
wood and strengthened his hand in God " (1 Sam. xxiii. 16). 

Wood of Ziph. — We are, therefore, here called upon to identify or 
to destroy a second forest, and this with even greater certainty than 
that of Hareth. The position of the northern Ziph, at Tell Zif, has 
long been known. It is a conspicuous mound, lying south-east of 
Hebron, and although it shows at the present day no trace of build- 
ings, we found a quarry on the northern side, and some large Jewish 
tombs; one, having a portico with rude rock pilasters, is to be found 
lower down on the south. It is, however, usual to say, " that the wood 
of Ziph has disappeared," which we may further supplement by asserting 
that in all probability it never had any real existence. ' 

The Septuagint versions seem here to give the local colouring with 
unusual fidelity; the " wilderness of Ziph" they translate by the word 
(avx/j-^s), meaning dried up or parched, and the wood appears as yr) Kawn 
in the Vatican, and rj Katvij in the Alexandrine — "the new ground," or 
the "new place" of Ziph. It is very striking to find, on turning to 
Josephus, whose works date earlier than either manuscript, that the 
interview is said to take place " in a certain place called the New Place 
belonging to Ziph" (Ant. VI. xiii. 2). The explanation is, however, 
very simple, and the verdict must once more, I think, be given against 
the English reading. The Hebrew term here used is Choresh, and the 
difference between it and the word translated by the Septuagint, "the 
New Place," is not one of letters, hut merely of points. 



SCENKRY OF DAVID's OUTLAW LIFE. 45 

This is by no means a solitary instance. Many others could be cited 
in the topographical passages of the Bible in which the points cause 
a, considerable difference. It is evident that the modern points cannot 
have been the same as those used (if any) at the time of the Septuagiut 
trani^lation, and in a question turning upon points alone, the decision 
must be made on independent grounds. 

The existence at any time of a wood in this part of the country is 
geologically almost an impossibility. From Hebron to Beersheba not 
a single spring of any importance exists in the eastern hills in which the 
story now lies. The soil is a soft, chalky limestone, so porous that 
every drop of water sinks through the strata to the hard dolomite 
beneath. The rounded hills, which invariably mark this formation, are 
not only entirely without culture, but show no signs of any different 
condition at a former period, except in the immediate neighbourhood of 
some of the large sites, where the vine seems to have been cultivated. 
The country is emphatically a dry land, looking down on the barren 
wastes which lie above the Dead Sea between Masada and Engedi. 
There is no moisture capable of supporting vegetable growth. The 
cistus and the belan bushes grow among the ledges, but not a single 
tree exists in the whole country. 

The character of the district leads us therefore to adopt the Septuagiut 
reading and that of Josephus, but yet further we have recovered amongst 
the two hundred names in the country round Yutta, that of Khirhet 
KJioreisa, which is applied to an ancient site about one mile south of 
Tell Zif. I have occasion to speak more fully of this site iu another 
report, as we found in it a Greek Christian inscription of some interest, 
but it is sufhcient here to say that its bell-mouthed cisterns and extensive 
caves burrowing the hill side, prove it to be an ancient localitj^ and we 
can have little hesitation in identifying it with the Choresh of Zif, a 
village or hamlet belonging to the larger town at Tell Zif. 

The Bock of Maori. — The inhabitants of the district seem to have been no 
better than their descendants, and their betrayal of David forced him to 
descend still further south. In the wilderness of jNIaou he abode, accord- 
ing to Josephus, " in a great rock." The passage in Samuel has the curious 
expression that he " went down unto a rock." Maon is no doubt the 
present Tell Ma'in, the most prominent object in the landscape, a huge 
knoll, some 100 feet high. It is, however, on the same level as Tell Zif, 
and I would suggest that the passage refers to ]Vad)/ d Wa'r, "the 
valley of Eocks " — a place so rugged as to be particularised by a namo 
which might be considered in some degree applicable to many of the 
neighbouring valleys. The wady has its head close to Tell Ma'in, and 
the long ridges running east to the Dead Sea form a fitting site for 
that narrow escape, when, separated but by a single crest, David was 
only saved from discovery by the dramatic incident of a sudden Philistine 
invasion. 

The scene now changes to the vicinity of Engedi, where David next 
retii-ed. It may be remarked that thus descending gradually to the 



46 SCENERY OF DAVID's OUTLAW LIFE. 

lower level, and again retiirning at a later period to the neighbourhood 
of Ziph, David follows the custom of the modern Bedawi, whose tents 
in winter are on the sheltered plains by the Dead Sea shore, but in 
summer on the hills at the verge of the cultivated districts. It is very 
probable that in this we have an indication of the season, and that it 
was only the unbearable heat of summer that forced the band from their 
secure fastnesses, " the rocks of the wild goats," or ibex, still found in 
Wady TJmm el Bcden, to the hills of Ziph, where they had already so 
little cause to expect a safe retreat. Saul again pursues David, and the 
magnanimous treatment which the king receives at his hands brings 
about a temporary reconciliation. The scene is a cave which Josephus 
mentions as being deep and hollow, and also near Engedi. That it was 
on the roadside from Gibeah we learn from the Authorised Version. 
Caves are not very numerous in that district, and we may succeed, when 
surveying that part of the country, in determining by these indications 
the exact cavern in question. Meanwhile it may be remarked in illus- 
tration of the passage, that nothing is more usual in Palestine than the 
herding of sheep, goats, and cows in the innumerable caverns which are 
found everywhere. The cave in question must have been of considerable 
extent to have given shelter to David "and his men." His band 
numbered about 600 at this time, although it does not follow that they 
were all in the cave. 

The next episode is that of Nabal of Carmel. Of this there is little to 
write. The fact of his possessions being in Carmel, whilst he himself, a 
Ziphite, lived in Maon, is easily understood, for the distance from Maon 
to Carmel is only about ' two miles. It is possible that the latter place 
was chosen for the sheep- shearing, in consequence of the fine reservoir 
lying in a hollow beneath the great Crusading castle. Even in autumn 
it was full of water, and surrounded by herds of the Arab camels. The 
country in this part preserves its original character ; a little corn and 
maize is grown in the valleys, and at the ruins are traces of wine-presses, 
showing the former cultivation of the grape, but the greater part is 
pasture land, rough rocks with the dry vegetation on which goats and 
even sheep seem to thrive. The village of Yutta is said to boast 17,000 
sheep alone, the sheikh himself owning 2 jO, besides goats, cows, camels, 
asses, and good horses. 

The possessions of Nabal would therefore entitle him to be considered 
one who " liveth in prosperity " at the present day, as he owned 3,000^ 
sheep and 1,000 goats — the latter being still the less numerous here, 
whereas in other districts they outnumber the sheep by perhaps ten to 
one. 

In connection with the character of the country, it is also interesting 
to note the present brought by Abigail— 200 loaves, two skins of wine, 
five sheep, five measures of parched corn, 100 clusters of raisins (now 
extensively manufactured around Hebron), and 200 cakes of figs. These 
products show the cultivation to have materially decreased, though the- 
pastures remain probably unchanged. 



SCENERY OF DAVIB's OUTLAW LIFE. 47 

The Hill of Hachilah.—We now come to the last meeting wliicli took 
place between Saul and David, the last reconciliation which was soon 
followed by the diastrous defeat on Gilboa, and the termination of David's 
nomadic life. From the wilderness of Paran ho comes up again to the 
territory of the treacherous Ziphites, who bear news to Saul in Gibeah — 
" Doth not David hide himself in the hill of Hachilah, which is before 
the Jeshimon." From another passage we learn that it was " on the 
right hand " of the Jeshimon, and from Josepbus it appears that Saul, 
coming down to Ziph, was overtaken by nightfall in the hill over which 
or by which the road ran, and so encamped; "and Saul lay in the 
trench, and the people pitched round about him," 1 Sam. xxvi. 5. From 
the bolster at his bead David took the king's spear and the cruse of 
water, which is never found far from a sleeping Syrian ; resisting the 
temptations of his nephew, marked with the same cruelty which the 
other brother, Joab, showed afterwards to Abner, David ascended a hill 
top, far off yet within call, and there upbraided the sleeping guard, 
" for they were all asleep, because a deep sleep from the Lord had fallen 
upon them." 

The topographical indications in this passage are so definite, and the 
scenery of the country so marked,that there can be but little question as to 
the locality of this closing scene. From Hebron southwards to Maon the 
country presents one uniform surface, rising eastwards to a long clilf over 
the lower plateau of Engedi. Ploughed as it is by shallow valleys, it 
yet presents no stronghold or remarkably high hill, but, as viewed from 
the summit of Tell Ma'in, a succession of long-succeeding rounded ridges. 
The site must have been north or north-east of Ziph, where the hills rise 
to a greater elevation, and where deep wadies start suddenly and fall 
steeply down towards the desert. Such a position agrees also, as shown 
above, with the requisite position of Saul's camp. The hill must, more- 
over, face the Jeshimon on the right hand, that is to say, in speaking 
from Gibeah on the west. A site fulfilling these requisites has necessarily 
a very limited choice of positions. 

The Jeshimon (for the article is invariably used) was, as the word sig- 
nifies, a desert or solitude. Peor and Pisgah are mentioned in another 
passage (Num. xxi. 20) as facing the Jeshimon, and we cannot hesitate 
to identify it with the plateau or Bukera abovo the Dead Sea on its 
western side. 

The probable site of Hacbilah is the high hill bounded by deep valleys 
north and south on which the ruin of Yekin now stands. Yandervelde, 
with some hesitation, suggests this as the town of Cain, but apparently 
is unaware of the proper form of that name, which is written Kakin in 
the Hebrew, thus considerably closer to the T)resent form than he appealrs 
to have supposed. Between Hakin and Hakila there is a very strong 
afiinity, and it is unnecessary to state that the n and the 1 are 
frequently interchanged, as for instance in the words Sinasil or Silasil 
which in modern Arabic both mean an earthquake. 

The name therefore exists almost unchanged, and the indications on the 



48 THE ROYAL CANAANITF. AND LEVITICAL CITY OF DEBIR, 

■spot are strong. A good road following the Juda3an. watershed and 
leading south to Ziph exists on the side of the hill. A large ancient ruin 
with caves and cisterns stands on the brink of the steep slope, and 
looks down upon the white maid ridges of the Jeshimon, barren and 
rugged, patched with buff and brown, dotted with low black tents, but 
destitute of any single shrub or tree. On the north the twin peaks of 
Jebel el Shukuf above Ain Jidy, and beyond, all separated by the gleam- 
ing thread of sea, scarce seen in its great chasm ; below are the long 
ridges of Moab, the iron precipices, the thousand watercourses, the great 
plateau of Kerak, the black volcanic gorge of Callirhoe, all lying in deep 
shadows under the morning sun, or brightened with a crimson flush at 
sunset. The scene is as wild and striking as could be desired for the drama 
there enacted. 

Yet further the meaning of the " trench " may perhaps be explained. 
On the south side the road passes by a fiat plot of ground, lying low 
and having steep cliffs on either side ; it forms the head of a large wady, 
and has two wells of living water close to the roadside. It was no doubt 
here, sheltered from view and near to water, according to the modern Arab 
fashion of hiding an encampment, that Saul would pitch his tents. High 
up on either of the hill tops David stood to call to the host, and no doubt 
the special expression that he passed over to the other side intimates his 
crossing the valley and ascending the opposite hill. 

Here we may close the record ; the town of Ziklag is not yet known 
to which David retired, and where he was at the time of the battle of 
Gilboa. Its position, north of the Brook of Besor, in the territory of 
Gath, three days' hard journey from Jezreel, will, however, I hope, 
•enable us to fix it next spring, when surveying the southern Maritime 
Plain. 

The extremely definite character of the topographical notices was 
insisted upon by Mr. Grove in the " Bible Dictionarj^" and first drew 
my attention to the subject. " It is very much to be desired," he says 
(See Maon, "Bible Dictionary"), that some traveller should take the 
trouble to see how the actual locality of M'ain agrees with the minute 
indicationsof the narrative." I hope that the preceding pages, the result 
of careful comparison of the various passages, and a detailed inspection 
of the ground, maybe considered satisfactory in settling the disputed points 
and in giving clearness and consistency to the history of the nomadic life 
of David and his men. 



THE EOYAL CANAANITE AND LEYITICiVL CITY OF 

DEBIR. 
By Lieutenajs't Conder, R.E. 

El Dhoheriyeh, Nooemher 7, 1874. 
TiiE systematic arrangement of the topogi-aphical lists of the Book 
•of Joshua is a subject which has as yet been little studied, and very 



THE ROYAL CANAAXITE AND LEVITICAL CITY OF DKBIK. 49 

often it is altogether denied. Tlie present siu-vey, by placing known 
sites in tlieir proper relative positions, by coiifinning identifications 
already proposed, and yet more by the addition of a larger number of 
new identifications than have been made since the time of Robinson^ 
will be most invaluable in the elucidation of these difficult questions. 

" So little," says:Mr. Grove (article " Zior," " Bib. Diet."), " is known 
of the principle on which the groups of towns are collected in these 
lists, that it is impossible to speak positively " as to many probable 
identifications. 

A careful inspection of the various groups in the lot of Judah has led 
me to a discovery which, as I have never met with it in any standarci 
work, I am led to consider new. It is one of immense interest, as 
showing tljat the topographical system is far more perfect than would 
at first be imagined. It may be briefly stated thus : — 

TJie list give/1 in, the t'velfth cJiajiter of Joshua, and preceding all other 
topographical lists, forms the key to the whole. 

Nothing could be simpler than the system depending- on this defini- 
tion. The towns here referred to, thirty-one in number, were royal 
cities of the Canaanites. They reappear in the succeeding lists, and it 
will be found that, with one exception easily explained, every separate- 
group of towns contains a royal city. The larger groups occurring in 
the plains and lowlands contain naturally more than one, bnt the- 
country is at once divided by these royal cities into districts, which will,, 
on inspection, be found to have natural boundaries, and to be to a 
certain extent preserved to the present day. 

Without enlarging further on this subject, which T propose to follow 
out later on, it will l^ecome evident that of all sites in the country these , 
royal cities are the most valuable as indicating the locality of other 
towns connected with them. 

Of the thirty-one no fewer than twenty-six were known long ago^ 
M. Ganneau added one to the list in the discovery of Gezer, and only 
four remain to be fixed, Debir in the south, and Lasharon in the 
north of Palestine, with Libnah and Makkedah in the Philistine plain. 

The site to which ovir attention has been specially directed since 
leaving Jerusalem is that of Debir, which has never as yet been placed 
in a satisfactory manner. The name Dewir Ban, which some have 
supposed to be the modern representative of the site, exists within a 
couple of miles of Hebron, south, and not as placed on Mnn-ay's new 
map, north of the valley containing Ain Unkiir, which, under the 
incorrect form of Nunkur, Dr. Rosen mentions as a probable site for 
the Upper and Lower Springs. 

There is, however, a fatal objection to this identifi.cation. Dewir 
Ban is the name, not of an ancient site, but merely of a hill-top among 
the vineyards close to Hebron. 

To say nothing of its being far out of the district where Debii' should 
be sought, it is not natural to suppose that this capital city should have 
existed so close to Hebron, especially as it does not occur in the list of 
the Hebron group. 

E 



THE llOYAL CANAANITE AISD LEVITICAL CITY OF DEBIR. 

A second identification is proposed by Vandevelde at Khirbet Dilbeli ; 
it is, however, very evident from his remarks that he never visited the 
spot. The city of Debir stood, as will be seen, in a dry land, and it is 
therefore directly contradictory to the plain statement in Joshua to 
place it at the only spot in the country where fine springs occur. In 
addition to vrhich Khirbet Dilbeh, which lies close to the spring of that 
name, is an unimportant site, and not apparently of any great 
antiquity. 

" The subject, and indeed the whole topography of this district, 
requires further consideration," is Mr. Grove's comment on the 
attempts as yet made to fix the position of Debir ; and indeed there 
are few parts of Palestine so little known and so incorrectly mapped. 
It is evident that most of the sites have been fixed by inquiries made in 
passing along the rziain lines of communication, and it is often quite 
plain that where two ruins have been seen almost in line, the traveller 
pointed to the one generally the farthest, whilst the native gave the 
aame of the nearer. 

Indeed, the proper district of Debir has never been correctly under- 
stood, in consequence of a very fatal mistake made in the first instance 
by Dr. PLobinsou. 

Fixing correctly the position of Socoh, or Shueikeh, he has placed 
Anab (the modern 'Andb) immediately east of it. I was considerably 
surprised at not being able to find this important name in our list from 
Yutta camp, but our guides explained with one accord that this ruin 
was much farther west out of their country, and west of ElDhoheriyeh, 
and such proved to be the case, according to the testimony of the 
inhabitants of the latter place. 

Tne site so named by Dr. Eobinson is really called Deir el Shems, a 
name which has been placed farther north on the maps. 

This error lias been followed by other travellers, who have no doubt 
merely copied from Robinson's map. . It is even to be found in Professor 
Palmer's route sketch, although he spent a night at El Dhoheriyeh ; 
"but there is not a shadow of doubt that the name was either wrongly 
given to or wrongly understood by Eobinson, and that the true site of 
Anab is a ruin containing remains of a church and a modern tov/er 
existing on a ridge immediately w^est of El Dhoheriyeh. This fatal 
error has caused the site to be sought in the wrong direction, and its 
correction leads naturally to the identification. The group of cities of 
which Debir was the capital was eleven in number, as follows : 



1. Shamir 

2. Jattir 

3. Soooh 

4. Danuah 


.. 'Attir 

, .. Shueikeh ... 

... Domeh 


Eobinson. 
. . Eobinson, 
.. C. R, Condcr. 


5. Kirjatli Seplier 

Kirjatli Saiinah, or Debir 
(5. Anab 


... El Dhoheriyeh ., 
... 'Anab 


.. C. E. Conder. 

.. Eobinson, C. E. C, 


7. Eshtomoa 


... Scmu'a 


.. Eobinson. 



THE ROYAL CAXAANITE AND LEVITICAL CITY OF DEBIR. 51 

8. Amm El Dilbeh C. R. C. 

9. Goshen Lekiyeli C. R. C. 

10. Holon, or Hileii 

11. Giloh 

It will be seen tliat a sufficient nvimber are known to allow of the 
district being pretty evident. It is an area of some Imndred square 
mile of low hill country, including part of the gi-eat valley which, 
starting at Hebron, flows to Beersheba, and thence to the Mediter- 
ranean. 'Attir and Semi'i'a lie on the eastern limit, beyond the Wady 
Khalil. The northern boundary is given by Domeh, lying near the 
foot of a higlier range which runs east and west, on Avhich stands 
Dura. This higher district belongs to the Hebron capital. On the 
south the desert of Beersheba forms the natural boundary of the 
district, and on the west the hills sink suddenly into the Shephalah, in 
which stand the sites of Umra el Eumamin and Khuweilfeh, identified 
with towns belonging to Simeon and now inhabited only by Arab 
tribes. The district of Debir is indeed just the limit of the settled 
population and of cultivation ; it is remarkable for its broad rolling 
downs, with a fruitful soil. The inhabitants of its two modern villages, 
El Dhoheriyeh and Semu'a, are very rich, especially in horses, flocks, 
herds, and cattle. It is pre-eminently a dry land, as not a single spring 
is to be found in it ; but it is not less remarkable that in the very 
corner of the land the finest collection of springs in Southern Palestine 
is to be found, which, though not properly belonging to it, seem yet 
included in its territory. The explanation of this irregularity in the 
following of the natural boundaries is found very fully in the Book of 
Joshua. 

"We may now turn to the accounts of the capital contained in the 
Old Testament. 

Debir, or Debr, for it occurs ydi\i and without the yeli, is first men- 
tioned in the account of Joshua's Philistine campaign. From Eglon and 
Lachish the conqueror advanced up the main pass of Wady Duweimeh 
to the mountains of Hebron, and having seized this important town 
he attacked Debir. '• And Joshua returned (or turned back), and all 
Israel with him, to Debir ; and fought against it : and he took it, and 
the king thereof, and all the cities thereof ; and they smote them with 
the edge of the sword ... he left none remaining" (Josh. x. 38 — 40). 

The expression here used is peculiar, and not found in any other 
verse. It shows that Debir was not in the direct line of his march, but 
required a special detour. This would place it south of Hebron most 
probably, for being the last of his conquests the next march would by 
rights have been northwards, from Hebron to Gilgal. 

It does not, however, appear that Debir was deserted by its original 
inhabitants, for we find soon after that in the time of Caleb it stood 
another siege, when Othniel, his nephew, took it and received it as a 
dower with the hand of Achsah, his cousin. 

This again points to its being near Hebron, the possession of Caleb. 



52 THE ROYAL CANAANITE AjSD LEVITICAL CITY OF DEBIR. 

There is a peculiar expression in tlie Book of Samuel where the 
Egyptian slave relates how the Amalekites had attacked the coasti 
belonging to Judah and "the south of Caleb" (1 Sam. xxx. 14). It 
would appear therefore that the possession of Caleb extended to the 
South land, or Negeb. The most important passage, however, imme- 
diately follows this second conquest, and relates how Aclisah begs of 
her father an additional " field," or territory. 

The wording of the account is the same in the two records, Joshua xv, 
19 and Judges i. 15. " Give me a blessing ; for thou hast given me a 
south land ; give me also springs of water. And he gave her the upj)er 
springs and the nether springs." 

The following notes for the elucidation of the passage -were kindly 
sent me by Dr. Chaplin, and are of great use in the correction of the 
rather obscure translation : — 

(1) A south land, in the Hebrew Erets-han-negeb, an arid land. 
(This, I may remark, is the avxfios of the Septuagint, Avhich I have 
mentioned in the paper on the wood of Ziph.) Negeb is from a Semitic 
root, signifying to he dry. The Vulgate and French, Italian, and 
Spanish versions have " a dry land." Jewish commentators have the 
following:— " A portion of territory dry and without springs of water. 
Negeb signifies dry." The Targum of Jonathan Ben Uziel has 
Daruma, a south (a name, I may add, used in the " Onomasticon " to 
specify the territory of which we are now speaking). The southern 
part of Palestine seems to have been called Negeb, because it was 
dry. 

To this note I may add that the expression Negeb would properly 
refer to all that district of hills of soft, porous, chalky limestone 
extending from the desert on the east (the Jeshimon) to 'An:ib and the 
plain on the west, and from Dilbeh and Yutta on the north to Beersheba 
on the south. 

The water supply in this district is derived from the rain alone, and 
not a single spring of any importance occurs. 

(2). Springs of tmter. — In the Hebrew, GuUotli maim {Fools of tuater). 
The Targum of Jonathan Ben Uziel has Beth Shalcah d'Maiah — locus 
irrigedionis eiquccrum — a well-watered place, as in Gen. xiii. 10. Bashi 
says QuUoth maim is " beth-hab-haal," a piece of land that does not 
require irrigation. Other Jewish commentators say it was a land Avitb 
fountains and springs of water. 

(3). Upper Springs and Lower Springs — GallotJi, 'ileth and GuUotk 
takhteth. 

(4). The Vulgate rendering of the passage is, "Quia terram arentem 
dedisti mihi da et irreguaiu aquis. Dedit ergo ei Caleb irriguam 
superiam et irriguam inferiam." 

In this, as in many other cases, the Vulgate seizes the full force of 
the passage, which is obscured by the reading " south land," although, 
strictly speaking, the south land and dry land were synonymous terms. 
The passage may be better paraphrased thus, " Thou hast given me a 



THE ROYAL CANAANITE AND LEVITICAL CITY OF DEBIR. 53 

tliy district ; give me also a stream." Here, then, we may sum up all 
materials which come to hand for the identification of Debir. 

1st. Debir is to be found in the south-west of Hebron, and between 
the towns of Socoh and 'Aniib, near Dannah, that being its position on 
the list. 

2nd. It must itself be placed in a district destitute of springs, but at 
some little distance, on the borders of its territories, a well-watered 
district with springs at the head of and lower down in a valley must 
occur. 

With regard to the name Debir, which is a form unlikely to endure 
in Arabic without change, it is said to signify remote, and occurs in one 
passage as Debir (1 Chron. vi. 5, 8), in another as Debr (Josh. x. 38), 
and in a third Deberah, or Debrah (Josh. xv. 49). Under this 
name it does not appear to have been known to Jerome. In 
the earlier passage (Josh. xv. 49) its original name is given as 
Kirjath Sannah, " the city of the Palm." In another it is said to have 
been first called Kiijath Sepher (Judges i. Ill, " the city of books," a 
title which has given rise to many conjectures as to the civilisation of 
the Canaanites, some having looked upon Debir as a sort of collegiate 
town or Amalekite university. 

The name, however, is not in this case so safe a guide as the two 
indications before noticed, to which must be added that so important a 
site must have left traces which are unmistakable. Rock excavation 
is the surest indication of antiquity in Palestine. The Troglodytes, who, 
as Josephus informs us, descended from Abraham and Keturah, must 
at one time have existed throughout the country, or imparted their 
habits to other tribes. The ancient Canaanites seem to have lived 
principally in caves, and no nation subsequently has done as much in 
the country in the excavation of caves, cisterns, and tombs out of the 
living rock as was done by the early Jews or their Canaanite prede- 
cessors. 

But beyond these excavations evidence must also be derived from the 
roads. A capital such as Debir must have communicated with its 
dependent towns on every side, and these ancient roads, marked with 
rude boundary blocks of rock, are easily traceable in the south of 
Palestine. 

There is, I think we may now say with certainty, only one site which 
fulfils all these requisites. The modern village of El Dhoheriyeh. 
This site has hitherto been much neglected. Professor Palmer slept 
-there one night in 1870, and was the first to recognise its antiquity. 
Murray asserts that " there is nothing of interest to detain the pilgrim," 
but he finds it " a most interesting place. The dwellings consist 
principally of caves in the natural rock, some of them with rude arches 
carved over doorways, and all of them of the greatest antiquity. . . . 
The village is evidently an ancient site, and in the centre is a building 
of massive masonry containing three arched apartments." 

Professor Palmer, misled by Eobinson's mistake as to 'Anab, does 



54 THE ROYAL CANAANITE AND LEVITICAL CJTY OF DEBIR. 

not, ho-wever, propose any identification. ^"With regard to tlie caves 
with arched entrances their antiquity is doubtful, for from their con- 
stant connection with Christian ruins, as well as from the fact that no 
arches occur in the really ancient ruins of the country, I have been led 
to consider them Christian. The central building, called El Ilosn by the 
villagers, is also probably of the same date. That El Dhoheriyeh is a 
really ancient site is, however, indubitable. 

Hewn cisterns with well-worn mouths and ancient rock-cut tombs are 
seen on every side, and it forms the central point whence many ancient 
roads diverge. To Attir and Zanuta on the south-east, to Shuweikeh 
and Semii'a on the east, to 'Aniib and Ghuzzeh on the west, to Beersheba 
on the south, to Domeh, Dura, and Hebron|on the north ; to all of these 
good roads principally of antiquity lead. A careful examination of the 
country shows farther that El Dhoheriyeh is the only ancient site in the 
neighbourhood which, as I have already shown, is very restricted by the 
terms of the various indications. 

It is also very, probable, though much stress cannot be laid on this 
point, that Dhoheriyeh is a corruption of the ancient name of Deberah, 
and the more so as the name has a distinct meaning in Arabic, being 
derived from Dhohr or Zohr, a back, and thus in the adjective form signi- 
fying the village on the ridge, for it stands, not as shown in previous 
maps half way up a slope, but oa the very top of the long flat ,ridge 
which runs south from the higher hills of Diira. 

Debir was one of the Levitical cities, we therefore carefully searched 
for inscriptions or other marks. 

I had occasion, in one of my last reports, to explain how we found the 
boundary of 3,000 cubits at Semu'a marked bj' a large stone with a name 
still forming the boundary of the lands belonging to the village. This 
discovery is all the more interesting if, as has been suggested, the SjOOO 
cubits marks the distance of a Sabbath day's journey. 

In the case of El Dhoheriyeh Corporal Brophy discovered on the main 
road leading south, and exactly at the distance in question, taking the 
sixteen-inch cubit, a stone similar to the Hajr el Sakhain but larger: it 
had not, however, a, name ; there was also another stone of the same 
character (a large rough block similar to some of the English primeval 
monuments) to the west on the line, and at the south-east corner and 
close to the south-west corner were large wells. 

On the north side Sergeant Black observed wells and wine-presses 
placed on the boundary line, if drawn with the sides not the diagonals of 
of the square facing the cardinal points, which still seems to me the 
more natural explanation of the Biblical account. 

The second part of the question remains, however, still to be dis- 
cussed. To place Debir at a spring is, as has been seen, evidently a 
mistake, but we are still bound to find in its neighbourhood the Zipper 
and Loioer Springs of the Book of Judges. 

As has been shown, no ordinary spring will satisfy this account; 
a copious suj^ply of water is to be inferred, and two springs or groups of 



THE ROYAL CANAANITE AND LEVITICAL CITY OP DEBIR. 55 

springs. Tho account is, ho-wever, fully satisfied by tlie Seil El Dilbeli, 
a secluded valley to the west of Yutta, and only six and a lialf miles 
north of El Dhoheriyoh. 

On visiting this beautiful spot in the very end of October I found a 
considerable brook running in the midst and extending through tho 
small gardens a distance of four or five miles. Such a supply of water is 
indeed a phenomenon in Palestine, and yet more extraordinary in the 
Negeb where no others occur. There are also, as required, both upper 
and lower springs, and these so copious that the various translations, 
pools of water, fountains for irrigation, or Ayell watered places, are all 
fully accounted for. 

There are in all fourteen springs divided into three groups. 

The first includes 'Ain El Pureidis, 'Ain abu Kheit, and 'Ain Shkhakh 
abu Thor, and one other, situate near one another high up on the slopes 
of the hills south of Dura. 

From thence the Seil or brook runs east to the second group, including 
'Ain el Majur, 'Ain el Dilbeh, 'Ain el Hejeri, and three smaller springs 
situate in the bottom of the valley some 100 yards apart. The Seil then 
gradually turns south and passes the third group a little lower down, 
consisting of 'Ain el Fowar and three smaller. The total "amounts, 
therefore, to fourteen. The site thus discovered exists, as would be 
expected, not exactly in the natural territory of Debir, but on its 
extreme north-east limit ; so that it could, at the request of Achsah, be 
added to the Negeb country which she already possessed. 

I would propose also to j^lace near to it the town of Anim, which is 
written with the yli'H, and is no doubt derived from '■Ainainj\the' two 
springs. The Yeh does not appear in the present Hebrew text, but may 
very probably have been lost, being a small letter, for it is represented 
in the Septuagint version of AiSafj.. This town was supposed^ by 
"Wilson, the traveller, to be found at Ghuweiu, but this site has been 
with more probability identified with the 'Ain of Simeon. 

Khirbet el Dilbeh is, as I have before said, not an important ruin, but 
on the hill bounded north and east bj' the Seil are two fine tombs, and 
south of this, at Khirbet el Jif , there is an ancient site which may pos- 
sibly be the exact spot where Anim is to be placed. 

"We have seen, therefore, that El Dhohcriyeh is the only ancient site 
between Socoh (Shuweikeh) and Anab ('Andb, as now correctly placed). 
The position of Dannah, or Deneh, has not been hitherto proposed. I 
have supposed it to be the modern Domeh, which is immediately north 
of El Dhoheriyeh, at a distance of about two miles. Domeh has hitherto 
been identified with Dumah, under the impression that it was north of 
Khirbet Dilbeh. In its true position it cannot, however, be so identified, 
for Dumah belongs to the group immediately round Hebron, amongst 
which Beth-Tappuah (TerfEdh), Arab (Khirbet el 'Arabiyeh), and Zior 
(S'air), are enumerated, a district in the high hills north of the Negeb. 
In order, however to make the identification more certain, I may re- 
mark that on the western boundary of this higher district stands the 



5G GREEK IXSCRIPTIOIf FOUND IX THE SAKHRA OF JERUSALEJI. 

village of DmueimeJt, whicli may be identified with far greater propriety 
■with Dumah, thus leaving Domeh for the town of Deneh, in the exact 
position which it holds in the list. 

I may point to this as a fair example of the results of the Survey. 
Nothing but minute examination would have led to the discovery 
of the Upper and Lower Springs, to the correction of Eobinson's error 
as to Anab, or to the proj^er placing of Domeh, which destroys the very 
plausible identification as yet attached to its supposed position. 

It will be remarked also that from this instance of the exactness of 
the lists, they seem, as in the case of Zanoah and of Maarath, to give, 
by the order in which the towns occur, correct indications of relative 
position. 

Claude E. Condee, Lieut. E.E. 



GEEEK INSCEIPTION FOUND IN THE SAKHEA OF 

JEEUSALEM. 

The following notes on the inscription mentioned by Lieut. Conder 
(p. 6), appeared in the Academy for November 7, 1874. They were, 
together Avith the passage on the word AXkios and that on forgeries in 
Jerusalem, taken from a letter by M. Ganneau to the Secretary of the 
Fund. The notes are here reproduced by permission of the Editor of 
the Academy : — 

A Greek inscription has recently been discovered on the buried side of 
one of the flags used in the flooring of the Sakhra at Jerusalem. Copies 
of it have been sent to the ofiice of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 
both by M. Clermont -Ganneau and by Lieut. Conder. The following is 
the text, with the short commentary furnished by M. Ganneau : — 

KHMEPKIAPIOS ANEYI02APE0BI . . 

nNT2 . . . riN EN0A RATA KITE . . OA . . 
. . SKriNETHETE THEnATTOT A 

H 
no TH2 02IA2 MNHMH2 MAEKEMB . . 

+ INA A ETOY2 PA + 

+ 

Commerciarius, covisin of Arcob (indos ?) . . of the . . lies here, 
the . . Pray for him ... of holy memory . . in the month of Decem- 
ber . . . + Indiction I. year 104. + . 

About half of the inscription, that on the left, appears to be want- 
ing. Comerciarius is put for KafifxepKiapios, an official title under the 
Byzantine Empire ; the proper name Areobindos is nearly certain, and 
is that of a historic family which played an important part under Anas- 
tasius and Justinian : several persons of this name were invested with 
important functions, and that of our inscription would be one of them, 



GREEK INSCRIPTION FOUND IN THE SAKHRA OF JERUSALEM, 5/ 

since it was thought proper to mention his relationship with the object 
of the inscription. 

It seems that the Icttei'S which precede ivda KaraKire (for KaraKUTai) 
belong to the genitive plural in uv, pointing out, perhaps, the titles of 
Areobindos : the same observation appHcs to the first word of the tliird 
line, perhaps (5 aTro .... The imperative et/|6T6 shows the cax-ver's im- 
perfect knowledge of Greek. 

The day of the month of December was probably indicated. The 
grave question is that of the date : according to what era is the year 104 
calculated ? If, as one is tempted at first to beUevc, it is the era of 
Diocletian and the martyrs, this date would correspond to the year of 
our Lord 388, according to the Art de Verifier les Dates. The number of 
the indiction agrees perfectly in this case. Nevertheless, the debased 
forms of the orthography and the appearance of the characters would 
lead us to admit an epoch somewhat earlier ; but we know how little 
these orthographic and palseographic rules are applicable in Palestiue. 
If this date be exact, we are brought to the time of Theodosius. 

M. Gamieau thinks he has possibly obtained some clue to the mys- 
tei'ious "AAkios of the Gezer inscription. He ■writes : — 

" A jjropos of the AUdos of the bilingual texts of Gezcr, I have lit 
upon a curious coincidence. Some years ago a sarcophagus was dis- 
covered at Lydda with, a Greek inscription, of which Major Wilson gives 
a part only. I myself found the commencement about foui' years since. 
It mentions a certain Pyrinoiiu, surnamed Malthakes, grandson of AUdos, 
son of Simon, (son of) Gobar. The two names of Alkios being identical, 
perhaps they are those of the same personage ! In fact, between the 
date of the sarcophagus, which probably belongs to the Herodian period, 
and that of Alkios, there are two generations, which brings us to the time 
of the Maccabees, at which I place the Gezer inscription. In this case 
our Alkios, son of Simon, Governor (r) of Gezer, would have this Pyri- 
noun, who was buried at Lydda, for his grandson. 

' ' If the tomb which I opened on my last excursion is a family 
sepulchre, which everything leads me to beKeve it to be, it would result 
that our Alkios of Gezer was a native of Lydda. We may remark the 
resemblance between the Greek "AXkios and the Hebrew Hilkiah." 



m\ 

mi 



Of 

z 
or 



< t f f r t < I ' t ' f ^ * 

" ' ' ' , , r ' • ' t 



I 11! 




UJ 

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< 
I- 



1- •- 






— > X " 

CO H < 
or en "- 

z 

5ir 
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o 



Quarterly Statement, April, 1875.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND, 



PREFACE. 

The latest news from the Survey party is satisfactory. Lieut. 
Couder liad removed from Jerusalem to the "Wilderness of Judah, 
whither he was to be followed by Lieutenant Kitchener, who had 
completely recovered from a severe attack of fever. Sergeant Black 
has returnedto England, and will be immediately replaced by another 
non-commissioned officer who has already been asked for. The 
reports furnished in the present number of this Quarterly Statement 
contain the Survey hi Tell Jezer, a proposed identification of 
Bethabara (John i. 28), a paper on the Mediceval Topography of 
Palestine, a detailed account of Mr. Henry IMaudslay's work on 
Mount Zion, and a report from Hallud which should have been 
published in the last Quarterly Statement. 

The illustration wliich appears as the frontispiece is drawn from 
a water-colour sketch made by the late Mr. Tyi'whitt Drake. It 
represents the peak, now called Kvu-n Surtabeh, which Lieutenant 
Couder proposes as that on which the " Altar of Witness " was 
raised (see Quarterly Statement^ October, 1874). 

With regard to their financial position the Committee ask for the 
sum of £3,500 before the end of the year. This will enable them to 
clear off their debts as well as to support the Survey expedition. 



60 NOTES. 

Perhaps it would be possible for other towns to follow the example 
of Manchester and to endeavour to raise a definite sura. 

While desiring to give all publicity to the suggestions of the 
exploring ofiicers of the Fund, the Conamittee again beg it to be 
distinctly understood that they leave such statements to be accepted 
or not, on their own merits, and that their publication here of 
proposed identifications, conclusion as to tribe boundaries, theories 
in the date of any building, and such subjects, does not imply their 
sanction and adoption by the Committee. 



NOTES. 

A meeting was held on March 11th at the Theatre of the Royal Institution, 
Albemarle Street, at which a paper by M. Clermont-Ganneau, on "Unknown 
Palestine," was read, the chair being occupied by Dr. Birch, F.E S. The 
author, after enumerating some of the principal archaeological results of his 
expedition, plunged at once into the subject of his paper, which was an attempt 
to prove the lineal descent of the modern fellaheen from the Canaanites by 
reference to their language, their manners, customs, and superstitions, and by a 
comparison of the two invasions of Joshua and the Caliph Omar. The paper was 
heard with the greatest interest. It will be published, in the first instance, in 
the May number of Macmillans Magazine. 



The forthcoming work by M. Clermont-Ganneau will be the second great 
published instalment of tlie Society's labours. It will thus be the successor to 
the "Recovery of Jerusalem." Full particulars will be advertised in the next 
Quarterly Statement. Meantime, those who wish to possess the work may 
forward their names to the Secretary. It will be issued at a reduced rate to sub- 
scribers. 



Lieutenant Conder reports that he has now duplicate lists of names in Arabic 
as follows : — 

Jerusalem sheet .... 1,400 names. 

Nablus „ . . . . 900 „ 

Jaffa ,, .... 300 approximately. 

Caesarea ,, .... 300 ,, 

In all 2,900 names. The Jerusalem sheet was submitted to Mr. Nt)el Temple 



NOTES. 61 

Moore, H.M. Consul at Jerusalem, who very kindly went through it, finding 
only twenty correetions to make out of the whole, and these consisting of 
vulgarisms used by the fellaheen and purposely adopted by Lieut. Conder. 



The Balance Sheet and Treasurer's Statement for 1874 will be found in their 
usual place. The Balance Sheet shows a larger expenditure on exploration than 
in any preceding year. The heavy debt under the head of Sundry Unpaid 
Accounts has already been reduced by £450. 



The amount of subscriptions, donations, and proceeds froni' lectures and other 
sources paid to the central office from Juue 1 to March 22nd, was £1,439 14s. 5d. 
The balance of current account at the same date was £469 18s. Id. 



It will be a great help to the Committee if subscribers will kindly pay their 
subscriptions to the local secretaries or to the central office without waiting to be 
reminded. 



The following are the Resolutions which have been passed by the Manchester 
Committee : — 

"That this meeting warmly approves of the objects of the Palestine Explora- 
tion Fund, and pledges itself to use every exertion to raise the sum of at least 
£500 during the year 1875." 

"That the Committee are highly gratified to learn that there is a prospect 
of the £500 asked for at the Manchester meeting being raised, and that it 
shall be devoted to the outfit and maintenance of another special man on the 
Survey." 

" That an effort be made to raise the sum of £500 as soon as possible." 

Meantime up to the present date (March 20) the sum of £272 has been 
subscribed and forwarded to the central office. A new man has been asked 
for at the War Office. 



Among Lieutenant Conder's reports will be found a special account of the 
discoveries made by Mr. Henry Maudslay, M. Inst. C.E. (whose name was 
erroneously spelt Maudsley in the last Quartcrhj Statement) of the rock scarp 
on Zion already referred to. 



A part of the collections made in Palestine by Captain Warren, M. C'lermont- 
Ganneau, and other officers of the Fund, will be sent in April to the Yorkshire 
Exhibition, which will be held in Leeds. 



(62 NOTES. 

Many of the back numbers of the Quarterly Statement are out of print. 
Inquiries are constantly made as to the possibility of procuring complete sets. 
The Committee would be very much obliged to any subscriber who does not 
want his old copies if he will kindly forward them to the Secretary. 



In the January Quarterly Statement, p. 6, the name of Dr. Thevictz is wrongly 
called Thevier. 

Also, p. 51, Lekiyrh should have been placed opposite to Giloh : opposite to 
Holon should be Hilch. No identification has been as yet suggested by Lieut. 
Conder for Goshen. 



THE SURVEY OF PALESTINE. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER'S REPORTS. 

XXV. 

Eetrospect of the Principal Results of the Survey 

"Work in 1874. 

At the close of the year which has proved the most eventful of the 
three which have yet passed during the Survey of Palestine, I may, I 
think, very well sum up the results as far as they are new and 
important. 

The first number of the Quarterly contained the account of the site of 
Gilgal at Shejeret el Ithleh, where first Robinson (though vaguely), 
then Herr Zschokke, had already found the name Jiljulieh applied 
to certain mounds, and a ruined pool in the neighbourhood of a 
tree which is considered a famous and sacred site to the Bedouin. It 
appears that in all probability there was a convent once on the spot, 
and the name may be a relic, not of Jewish but of early Byzantine 
memories. Mr. Drake, however, pointed out that this site, the only 
one in the plain where any relic of the name of Gilgal has ever been 
found to exist, fulfilled the requisites of the Biblical and Jewish 
accounts better than any formerly proposed. 

In February we commenced our difficult and trying work in the 
Jordan valley, and our first results were the exploration of 'Ain Fasail, 
the Phasaelis of Herod, and the discovery of the true junction of Wady 
Far'a, seven miles lower down than it had been ever fixed before. We 
also discovered a large area in which salt springs occur, possibly 
one of the sources of the Dead Sea salt. Up to this point also I 
succeeded in tracing the old geological shore line of the Dead Sea, the 
geological notes being throughout of the highest interest. 

Our second camp was in Wady Far'a at the feet of the mysterious 
Kurn Surtabeh, the identification of which with the great witness altar 
Ed. one of the most interesting sites in Palestine which rer.-ained un- 
known, I have already suggested. The identification of the Eock Oreb, 
lower down the valley, was made during the December of the preceding 
year. 

We wei-e also able to give fresh proof of the theory proposed by 
Robinson, but not generally accepted, that Wady Far'a is the true site 
of the springs of (Enon, where St. John baptized — a site of immense 
interest, hitherto placed at a Sheikh Salim, of which we failed to find the 



64 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

name known at a spot where tlie supply of water is insufficient and not 
as at Wady Far'a perennial. In Wady Far'a, also, the town of 
Arclielais had been placed as marked on the Peutinger tables (a.d. 393). 
It had, however, been always placed at Tell Busiliyeh, where no ruins of 
any interest occur. "We found that at the plain which lies at the base of 
the Kurn-Surtabeh, through which Wady Far'a flows, there are remains 
of a large and important site, with tombs of the Greek period, one 
having a much defaced Hebrew inscription, containing, however, 
nothing beyond a common Jewish name. This ruin, called Keiawa, is 
probably the site of Archelais, of which Josephus tells us that it was 
built by Archelaus the Ethnarch (Ant. xvii. 13. 1). 

We passed next to Wady Maleh, where we were obliged to drink 
brackish water for ten days, and suffered much from the rain and 
oppressive atmosphere. We here took the temperatm-e of the various 
springs and visited the site of Succoth ('Ain Sakut). The geological 
observations here were very interesting, tending to show that another 
lake once filled the plain of Beisan, and that a region of great volcanic 
activity hitherto unknown existed round Wady Maleh. This is the last 
salt stream, and the springs higher up the valley, as well as the Sea of 
Galilee, are sweet. 

We continued the work to within a few miles of the Sea of Galilee, 
and made a large plan of Beisan, showing the hippodrome and other 
interesting details, as well as the line of the Roman walls. We 
also were able to throw much light on the defeat of Midian by 
Gideon, identifying the Zererath of that account with 'Ain Zahrah, 
and showing that the account is in accordance with the existence of 
the Eock Oreb near Jericho. 

Marching across the country to the Maritime Plain, we completed 
100 square miles and surveyed Arsuf (Apollonia), confirming Major 
Wilson's identification of Antipatris with the ruins of Kala'at Kas el 
'Ain, and showing the improbability of any large town having stood at 
Kefr Saba, the ordinary identification. 

The period of my absence in England was not without work. The 
site of Alexandrium was visited, and the great tower which there exists 
measured and observed ; various other short expeditions, intended to 
check former observations, were made, and 100 square miles completed. 

The autumn campaign commenced later than I could have wished, 
but was carried through country intensely interesting and very little 
known. 

The principal Biblical results were — (1) The possible identification 
of the Choresh of Ziph (doubtfully translated wood) with the Khoreisa 
close to Tell Zif, and of the wood of Hareth (probably a cori-uption) with 
the town of Kharas close to the little village of Keilah. (2) The hill of 
Hachilah I also proposed to find at Nebi Yekin, and the striking agree- 
ment of the site with the requisites of the Bible account of David's 
attack on Saul's camp were explained. (3) Still more important was 
the examination of Robinson's position of 'Anab, suggesting the iden- 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER'S REPORTS. 65 

tification of the royal city of Debir witliElDhohenyeb, and the " upper 
and lower springs " with the Seil-ed-Dilbeh, the only stream in this 
country whicli is dry and dependent on rain-water throughout. (4) The 
recovery of Zanoah at Kh. Saniit, which is more in accordance with the 
position of this town in the lists of the cities of Judah than the 
identification by Robinson with Kh. Zanuta. (5) From Yuttah, also, 
we made the interesting and valuable discovery of the possible Levitical 
boundary of the town of Eshtemo'a (Semu'a), a large stone called Hajr 
el Sakhain existing beside the north road to the village, at the distance 
of 3,000 cubits, and forming the boundary of the village possessions at 
the present day. 

In visiting Beersheba we made an important difference in the posi- 
tion of the wells as formerly fixed ; we also saw reason to suspect that 
the stone-work of the well was far more modern than had been pre- 
viously supposed. In surveying the line from thence to Moladah we 
discovered a site previously unknown, called El Meshash (the pits), with 
two fine weUs, answering well to the position of the Scriptural Heshmon, 
not previously identified. We also fixed the sites of Hazar Shual and 
Hazar Gaddah, and found the interesting fact that these sites are walled 
towns of flint, answering to the meaning of Hazar or enclosure. 

In conclusion, the report just sent home shows how important our 
work has been in the possessions of the tribe of Benjamin ; and the 
suggested identification of Sechu, possibly fixing the sites of Ramah and 
Gibeah at Er Ram and Jeb'a, is one of the most valuable we have yet 
obtained. The exploration of the Adasa of the book of Maccabees, the 
explanation of the various places passed by in Saul's journey in search 
of the asses, the probable identification of Beth Car, giving the line of 
Philistine invasion in the time of Samuel, the fixing of many unknown 
sites in the west of Benjamin or on the border of Dan, the recovery 
of Luz at Khirbet Lozeh, close to Beitin, and further illustration of the 
grand descriptive passage in Isaiah x., are among the most valuable of 
these. The identification of Nob and Mizpeh with Sh'afat, and the sug- 
gestion that Tell el Eul is one of the resting-places of the tabernacle, 
cannot fail to be considered of interest, and although not entirely new 
are given on new grounds. 

In conclusion we have added the surveys of Tell Jezer and of the 
Zion Scarp, and brought the total amount surveyed to over 3,400 square 

miles. 

Claude R. Conder, Lieut. R.E. 



66 



XXVI. 

The Hill Cottntry of Judah — Fifth Campaign. 

On the otli of October, we arrived at our new^camp, on the highest 
part of the Hebron watershed, near the village of Halhul, and just above 
the fine spring 'Aia el Dherweh, which an ancient though erroneous 
tradition points out as the site of the baptism of the Eunuch by Philip, 
as commemorated by a small mediteval chapel, now in ruins. On the 
7th we recommenced the out-door work, and the rest of the week was 
spent in erecting cairns and observing from them. 

The country we have now entered is a district containing a great 
deal of interest, but it is fairly well known already, and was carefully 
explored by Dr. Robinson, whose information appears throughout to 
be extremely exact. The number of ancient sites is unusually large, 
and the majority of them have been identified in a satisfactory manner. 
Among these maybe mentioned Halhul itself, unaltered from the name 
in Joshua's time ; Beth Anoth (Beit 'Ainun) ; Jedor (Kh. Ejdur) ; Ado- 
raim, fortified by Eehoboara (Dura) ; Tekoa (Teku'a) ; Eamah (El Ea- 
meh) ; Beth Tappuah (Tuffiih) ; and Keilah, on the borders of the low 
land, or Shephelah, now the village of Kila. Immediately north lies a 
district which is omitted in the list of the cities of Judah in the Hebrew 
Bible. This omission is supplied by an insertion in the Septuagint of 
eleven cities, all immediately south of Jerusalem ; and it is remarkable 
that nine out of the eleven are easily identified. The passage, however, 
does not appear to have been much studied, and it is possible that one 
or two of the identifications will be new as given below : — 

Teku'a. 



Theco . 

Ephrata, or Bethlehem 

Phagor . 

.^tan . 



Beit Lahm. 

Beit Faghiir (Rob. ) not Beit Fejjar. 

Urtas (the name remains in 'Ain 

'Atan, near the pools). 
Kelonia. 



Kulon . 

Tatam . 

Thobes ..... Soba. 

Karem 'Ain Karem. 

Galem Beit Jala. 

Thether (or Baither) . . . Bittir. 

Manocho 

All these places are sites of some importance, if not in the early, at all 
events in later times. The passage, if interpolated, is due to some 
authority having an intimate knowledge of the country, but is more 
natural to suppose it lost from the Hebrew lists of the fourth century. 

E'thcol. — Another identification of some interest proposed by Vandevelde 
seems to fall to the ground on careful examination. He mentions Eshkali 
as the name of a fountain in the valley north-west of Hebron, but the 
fellahin have pronounced the name to us as Keshkali. Whether the 
letter Kaf, or Chaf, as here pronounced, can be supposed to have taken 



THE HILL COUNTRY OF JUDAH. 67 

the place of the aleph in the Hebrew, I leave to others to determine, but 
those who would place the great vine valley farther south, will not 
readily feel disposed to accept the identification. Hebron has, however, 
been always famous for its vines, and their luxuriance is very striking, 
as no special advantages of climate seem observable, unless it be the low 
sweeping cloud wreaths which come up in autumn from the sea, covering 
the hills, as they do also in Lebanon and on Hermon, where the cultiva- 
tion of the vine is still considerable. 

Bethsura.— One of the most interesting questions in this part of the 
land is the campaign of Antiochus Eupator against Judas Macchab?eus, 
which I have now studied carefully on the ground. Autiochup, coming 
from Antioch, ari'ived in Idumsea and laid siege to the strong town of 
Bethsura (Antiq. xii. 9). The position of this town as fixed by Eobinson, 
is as good an identification as any in Palestine. Built as a stronghold 
against Idumaja, and occurring under the name of Bethzur in the list of 
towns between Halhul and Jedor, with the name existing unchanged 
almost to this day as Beit Sur, there can be no question as to its position. 
It is remarkable that a confusion should have been made which would 
make this word the name of the citadel of Maccabean Jerusalem, and 
refer the events here occurring to the siege of the capital, but a careful 
examination leads to the conclusion that such a theory is not supported 
by any passage in Josephus or in the Book of Maccabees. The impor- 
tance of the site consists in its natural strength, in its commanding the 
only good line of advance upon Jerusalem from the south, and in the 
existence of a fine spring. The ruins are exactly opposite the camp, upon 
a rounded hill, the sides of which are scarped in parts. A large tower, of 
mediaeval origin, stands ruined, and is surrounded by vaults and founda- 
tions of a late town, but large stones and a rude column or two have 
been used in these constructions, giving the usual indications of an older 
site. On the east are three rock-cut chambers, square and without loculi, 
and farther away on the west are two groups of similar tombs, but all 
are filled with earth or closed by the natives, probably containing the 
body of some unfortunate stranger, murdered at perhaps no distant 
period, for a robbery, causing the death of one victim and the maiming 
of two or three others, occurred on the high road not far off, scarcely 
more than a week ago. The spring itself is at some little distance, being 
on the main road, but situated so low as to be under control of the 
defenders. In case of a siege, they could also fall back on a well, fed 
apparently by a spring which exists on the north-west, in the midst of 
the ruins. 

The town thus situated formed a formidable obstacle in the advance of 
Antiochus, as it had been the site also of many Maccabean successes 
before. Judas, leaving Jerusalem, hastened to raise the siege, and took 
up a position at Beth Zachariah, a distance of 70 fuidongs north. 
Antiochus advanced at once to meet him, and the battle so graphically 
described by Josephus took place at "certain straits." The unwieldy 
elephants were made "to follow one another through the narrow passes 



68 THE HILL COUNTRY OF JUDAH, 

because they could not be set sideways by one another." The rest of the 
army was made to " go up the mountains," and " exposed to sight their 
golden and brazen shields, so that a glorious splendour was sent from, 
them, and when they shouted the mountains echoed again." It was in 
this battle that the gallant Eleazer, brother of Judas, perished beneath 
the suj^posed royal elephant, but the commander, "seeing the strength 
of the enemy, retired to Jerusalem." 

Nothing could well be more exact than this description. In many 
parts of Judsea it would be almost an impossibility to make use of 
elephants, and this, no doubt was the reason why Antiochus, though 
coming from Antioch, advanced on Jerusalem from the south. The road 
from Beit Sur to Beit Iskaria, though in places rough and rocky, has 
nowhere very steep gradients, and is generally open and smooth, allow- 
room for the march of a great force. The distance of the latter site is 
about seven and a half English miles from Beit Sur, the distance given by 
Josephus being a little over eight. It appears to me, however, that the 
exact site of the camp of Judas has not as yet been satisfactorily fixed. 

Beit Iskaria stands on an almost isolated hill promontory, being con- 
tained on the east, west, and north, by valleys of great depth starting 
suddenly from the narrow watershed, whilst on the south is a narrow 
neck of land connecting the site with the spurs of the main chain. 

The ruin stands just within this isthmus on the north, but shows few 
signs of antiquity. Two or three columns are observable amidst the 
remains of ruined houses, and in the entrance to the little mosque are 
two capitals of a Byzantine style, belonging to the eleventh century. 
There are two or three cisterns in the village, and the most ancient indica- 
tion is a broad causeway, protected on one side by a station or guard- 
house. Drafted stones are observable in the stone fence on either side of 
the road, and on the main road beyond are two fallen columns and a 
Eoman milestone. 

The site thus described, and supposed by Eobinson to be that of Judas' 
camp, is indeed, as he says, "an almost impregnable position; " but 
looked at from a military point of view, it would only have been avail- 
able in case of attack from the north, for on that side the great depth of 
the valley forming the head of Wady Musur would forbid any general to 
select a place where, in case of defeat, he would be driven down a steep 
and in places precipitous hill-side. In the two accounts by Josephus 
there is no indication of such a disastrous flight, but the idea of a regular 
retreat is conveyed, and we should look, therefore, for a site in the vicinity 
where, whilst defended on either flank and in front by the conformation 
of the ground, the Maccabean general would have his retreat in rear left 
open, and where, moreover, he would be supplied with water, which must 
always have been deficient at the village itself. 

Now, immediately north-east of Beit Iskaria is a position which not 
only fulfils these requisites and answers to the description by Josephus, 
but which is also one of the finest strategical points in Southern 
Palestine. 



THE HILL COUNTRY OP JUDAIL 69 

A Ion"' narrow range, culminating about one mile from Beit Iskaria 
in the high summit of the Eas Sherofeh, is separated from tlie ruin 
by the deep valley already noticed. On this side the descent to the 
hills is very sudden, and lines of grim precipices and steep slopes 
run down more than 1,000 feet. On the opposite side (the east) 
the descent is almost as steep, and the ground is extremely rocky 
and difficult. In front, a low and narrow ridge leads towards the 
range, which widens sufficiently to allow of the deployment of a 
considerable force. The importance of the position lies in its com- 
munications. The main Hebron road runs beneath it on the east, and 
is here so bud from rocky ground and narrow passes, that a very small 
force on the flank would effectually arrest the approach of the enemy, 
who would be unable to turn the position, as the valleys towards the 
east grow even more intricate and impassable. Another fine road leading 
up from the south winds along the west brow of the range, and is marked 
by Roman milestones. Just in rear it joins the great Roman road from 
Beit Jibrin, and the two fall afterwards into the Hebron road near the 
Pools of Solomon. This point is therefore the natural defence for Jeru- 
salem on the south, commanding three main lines of advance from the 
Hebron hills and from the plain. The retreat over open ground in rear 
is easy, and the water supply from a good spring on the hill side ('Ain 
el Kassisj, with the great reservoirs behind, is sufficient for any num- 
ber. The distance of the summit agrees even better than that of the 
ruin of Beit Iskaria, with the 70 furlongs from Beit Sur, whilst it is 
sufficiently near to be best indicated by the name of this the nearest 
village. In order to bring the elephants through these passes, it 
would have been necessary to divert them from the main road to the 
gentler approach leading to the hill, and no doubt the Jewish general 
foresaw that here, if anywhere, he could make certain of a position im- 
pregnable except in front. 

Bezeth.—A-nothev site famous in Maccabean history may perhaps be 
considered as now identified as follows : 

Bezeth, or Bethzetho, is described as a village with a great pit. It was 
occupied by Bacchides, after retreating from Jerusalem (A.nt. XII. x. 2), 
and afterwards by Judas, who was there defeated. There is no mention 
of the direction in which we should look for this site, but as Bacchides 
returns thence to Antioch, and would very probably have advanced in 
the same direction in which Antiochus himself had just marched on the 
city, we may very well look for Bezeth on the south. 

I would suggest therefore the identity of Bezeth (which in the Bible 
Dictionary is compared with the name Beth-zait, applied in the Syriac 
version of the New Testament to the Mount of Olives) with the ruin 
of Beit Z'ata, inaccurately obtained formerly as Beit Z'ater. 

The only known requisite — the large pit — may perhaps be considered 
as satisfied by a birket or pool of unusual magnitude from which one of 
the branches of Pilate's aqueduct leads. The site is without doubt 
ancient and very extensive. On the west is the ruined village of Kufin, 



70 THE HILL COUNTRY OP JUDAH. 

and nearer the road are crumbled stones, a broken sarcopliagus, and a 
fine rock-cut wine-press. Farther soiith is a row of ancient rock-cut 
sepulchres, all closed by the modern villagers, and one in especial, a 
single chamber, is remarkable for an irregular court in front about 50 
feet long by 25 feet wide, containing in its walls over 150 niches for 
lamps. This disposition I have never seen except here and at the tomb 
of Joshua. East of the road is a small tower or station, with a fine 
beehive cistern, and yet farther east a ruined building of considerable 
antiquity, though without any indication of date or origin. The site 
stands high on the east of Beit Ummar, and commands the road which 
on either side ascends to it from a valley. 

Ancient Toimr. — Between Beit Iskaria and Beit Z'ata is a ruin of some 
interest. It lies south of Beit Sawir and east of a ruin called Deshar. 
It is a tower about 50 feet square, composed of huge blocks of very 
roughly-hewn stone. These stones, cut from the rock of the natural 
thickness of the stratified bed, are only some 16 inches thick, whilst in 
length tbey are sometimes 8 or 9 feet, by 5 feet in breadth. No modern 
peasant hand piled such large blocks upon one another, and they bear 
throughout the marks of extreme age, and of having been exposed to 
the action of wind and rain for centuries. Such rude drystone monu- 
ments are amongst the oldest found in the country, and may well date 
back to early Jewish times. The tower in question is too large to be 
classed with the ancient vineyard towers, and must have been con- 
structed for purposes of defence. It has fallen principally on the south, 
where many courses are piled above one another. Not far off is a square 
cemented cistern, also covered by one huge block of similar character, but 
allowing room for a man to creep in. 

The Valley of Blessing. — One of the most graphic passages in Chroni- 
cles is connected with another portion of the work from this camp, 
and as I am able to further illustrate it by a new identification, it may be 
enlarged upon here. In 2 Chron. xx., we read that the children of Moab 
and of Ammon having come in great multitudes from " beyond the sea " 
to Hazazon Tamar, "which is Engedi," and having "come up by the 
cliff of Ziz to the end of the brook before the wilderness of Jeruel," 
had finally attacked the "inhabitants of Mount Seir, utterly to slay 
and destroy them : and when they had made an end of the inhabitants 
of Seir, every one helped to destroy another." Jehoshaphat meanwhile 
had come forth with his army " into the wilderness of Tekoa." " And 
when Judah came towards the watchtower in the wilderness, they looked 
unto the multitude, and, behold, they were dead bodies fallen to the earth, 
and none escaped," verse 24, " and on the fourth day they assembled 
themselves in the Valley of Berachah (blessing), for there they blessed the 
Lord." To this account Josephus (Antiq. ix. 1) adds but little. He 
mentions a place called " the eminence," apparently as identical with 
the "end of the brook," and also clearly explains that the "sea" in 
question is the lake Asphaltitis. To any one who has visited the 
country the description reads with remarkable force and exactness. 



THE HILL COUNTRY OF JUDAH. 



71 



The mixed force from cast aud south-east of the Dead Sea had 
crossed round its southern end, or perhaps by the old fords of the 
Lisan, and camped at Eagedi, the finest spring on the western shores. 
The cliff of Ziz is generally supposed to be a pass by which at the 
present day (as Dr. Eobinson remarks) the Arabs ascend towards the 
villages in their marauding expeditions. The direct road leads towards 
Teku'a, and an important pass towards the village of Beit 'Ainuu. No 
attempt has as yet been made to identify the Seir of this passage, which 
must not be confounded with that east of Jordan, or with the Mount 
Seir west of Jerusalem. In the pass just mentioned exists the village 
of S'air, hidden between the hills and surrounded with gardens; being 
well supplied with water, it was no doubt always a rich district, and 
it lies entirely unprotected from such incursions. We may, therefore, 
•well suppose a marauding party to have come up to the village, aud 
retreated to the desert once more on the road to Tek'ua. 

The position taken by Jehoshaphat at the " watchtower of the wilder- 
ness" beyond (or, as Josephus has it, below) Tekoa, was intended to bar 
the approach to the capital, and was no doubt on the edge of the higher 
hills, whence the view extends over the long succession of rolling 
chalk hills which lie between Engedi and the watershed. Thence he 
would look down on the discomfited host, who, quarrelling no doubt 
over their booty, had so providentially turned their swords on one 
another. 

The valley of Berachah is also known. The name Breikut applies 
to a ruin at the head of the great Wildy 'Arrub, which runs under 
Beit Fejjas eastward, at no great distance from Teku'a. Here, then, 
in a broad rich vale, well watered by copious springs, and giving space 
for the collection of a great multitude, the people assembled returning 
from the desert to rejoice in their deliverance. In the same way now, 
when the waters burst out from the well of Joab at Jerusalem, the whole 
valley is fiUed with the inhabitants, who, bringing down their provisions 
with wine or raki, sit all day long under the olive, rejoicing in the rare 
luxury of a flowing stream. 

Pilate's Aqueduct.— In a report from Bethlehem, the late Mr. Drake 
gives an account of a part of this aqueduct, which we have been the 
first to trace to its source. He rode along it as far as the neighbourhood 
of Teku'a. Corporal Brophy, in whose district it lies, has now again 
taken it up, and traces it in the first place to the Wady el 'Arrub 
just mentioned. Here we find a large birket, resembling those 
near Urtas (Solomon's Pools), fed originally by the springs of the valley. 
The aqueduct now divides into two, the longer line following the foot 
of the hills on the south side of the wady, and passing through another 
pool. The true source is found at 'Ain Kueizib'ha, in the wady and near 
the ruin of the same name. The other branch comes, as before noticed, 
from the birket at Kufin. 

The length of this extraordinary engineering work, measured along its 
course, cannot be less than 30 miles. The southern source is 15 Koman 
miles from Jerusalem in a straight line on the map. Josephus states 



72 THE SITE OF BETHABARA, 

that Pilate brought the water a distance of 200 furlongs, or 25 Roman 
miles, a computation which, taking the course into consideration, is ex- 
tremely moderate. The channel winds like a seri^ent along the contour 
of the hills, and succeeds occasionally in running up a valley without 
losing its level. It is carried over Wady Marah el Ajjal on a parapet 
over 12 feet high. The masonry is throughout similar to that of 
the pools, and of the other aqueducts near them, being roughly hewn 
and packed with small stones, but the cement throughout is hard and 
well preserved. 



xxvii: 

The Site op Bethabaea. 

The site of Bethabara is of interest as the probable one of our 
Lord's baptism, and as such has been eagerly sought. As yet, how- 
ever, no trace of the name has been recovered, and the arguments 
on the probable position are far from satisfactory. Bethabara is only 
once mentioned in the New Testament, as the place where John 
was baptizing soon after, and probably at the time of the commence- 
ment of Christ's ministry (John i. 28). We learn, first, that it was 
"beyond Jordan" {jipav tov \ophavov) ; and, second, probably in the 
"region round about Jordan" (Matt. iii. 5); the -n-epixuipos which is 
supposed identical with the Ciccar of the Old Testament, a term by 
which Dean Stanley understands the Zor or lower valley through 
which the Jordan flows in the middle of the Ghor or broader de- 
pressed plain. 

From the fact that "Jerusalem and all Judaea" went out to be 
baptized, Bethabara has been generally located in the southern part 
of the valley near to the traditional site of the baptism, and in ex- 
plaining the topography of the flight of Midian, and the slaughter 
of Oreb and Zeeb, I have had occasion to point out that such a site 
would best fit the Bethabara of the Book of Judges — the ford held by 
the men of Ephraim, and generally thought to be identical with the 
New Testament Bethabara. 

The word Bethabara ("House of the crossing over" or " Ford") is 
one very likely to be applicable to many points on the course of the 
Jordan. In the south it would have a special application, and might 
be considered as traditionally preserving the memory of the great 
" crossing over " — the passage of the Jordan by the children of 
Israel under Joshua. It would seem probable that the Bethabara, 
or house of the ford, was a small hamlet or group of houses in the 
immediate vicinity, and it may even be supposed that part was 
west, part east of the river, thus explaining the qualification of 
" Bethabara heyond Jordan." This is rendered yet more probable if 
the irepixaipos be properly equivalent with the Ciccar, as in this case 
the site of Bethabara is limited to a distance of about half a mile 
from the water. 

Curiously enough the oldest manuscripts read Bethany instead of 



THE SITE OF BETHABARA. 73 

Betliabai-a, but the reading is not admitted, nor would tlie Judaean 
Bethany be a fit place for baptism, or in any way to be described as 
in the region of Jordan. Bethabara is mentioned as a known 
place by Eusebius, but he seems evidently to refer to the modern 
traditional site. In the absence of more exact information, it has 
been generally identified with Bethnimrah, '.which has been fixed at 
the modem Nimrin. This identification rests solely on the fact that 
Eusebius describes Ne/^po as a large village in Katania, and called Abara. 
It seems, however, to have escaped notice that there is a serious 
objection to placing Bethabara so far south. Our Lord descended 
from Galilee to Jordan, and to Galilee he returned after the baptism 
and temptation. In the chapter which relates the testimony of John 
the Baptist to Christ, and which contains the passage, "these things 
were done in Bethabara, beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing," 
we leaa-n, in continuation (ver. 43), " the day following Jesus would 
go forth into Gaillee," and the next chapter commences, " and on 
the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee," at which 
Christ was present (John ii. 1). 

It seems to me, therefore, that the search for this site should be 
confined to the immediate ^neighbourhood of Jordan, within thirty 
miles of the site of Cana of Galilee (the present Khii-bet Kana), and 
it is precisely in such a position, one mile north of the mouth of 
Wady Jalud, within an easy two days' joui-ney (twenty-five miles) 
of Nazareth and Cana, and at one of the principal fords, that we 
have found the name. 

The fords of Jordan, some shifting and insignificant, but others per- 
manent and lying on principal roads, have as yet been very little known. 
We were careful to collect every one we could, and to verify the 
names and positions. It was no slight task, as our sketch of the river 
now shows upwards of fifty, of which eight only are to be seen on 
Murray's map lately published. The labour of this part of the Survey 
was very trying, but we should be sufficiently rewarded by this simple 
discovery if generally accepted. 

The ford in question is called Makhadhet 'Abara, or the " Ford of 
the Crossing Over," for the name is derived from the Ai-abic root, 
'Abr, having the meaning of crossing; and thus, though the second 
a is an alcph, and would not occur in the Hebrew Beth'abara, the 
Arabic root and the Hebrew root, and consequently the meaning of 
the name in both languages, is identical. 

Makhadhet 'Abara is one of the principal northern fords ; the 
great road descending Wady Jalud on its northern side, and leading 
to Gilead and the south of the Hauran, passes over by it. The 
situation is well fitted for the site of the baptism, not only on account 
of its nearness to Galilee and Nazareth, but also because the river 
bed is here more open, the steep banks of the upper valley or ghor 
lesser and farther retired, thus leaving a broader space for the 
collection of the great crowd which had followed John the Baptist 
into the wilderness. 



74 THE SURVEY OF TELL JEZER. 

As regards the village itself, no traces seem now to exist. In the 
valley of Jordan there was scarcely any ruins, and those round 
Jericho all date seemingly in Christian times. Were the former 
villages similar to the miserable mud hovels of Jericho, Scythopolis, 
and Delhemiyeh, it would, however, be quite possible for all traces 
to have vanished of the hamlet here standing eighteen centuries 
ago. The position on a principal road would in any case make the 
proposed site that most probable for a hamlet, and it seems unlikely 
that any more important place would have been situate so near to 
the banks of the river. 



XXVIII. 

The Survey of Tell Jezer. 

In accordance with the instructions of the Committee, we took the 
earliest opportunity of visiting Tell Jezer, to make a special survey of 
the country within a mile of the tell on each side, to the scale of six 
inches to the mile. In sending home a finished copy of this survey, as 
well as the photographs taken by Lieut. Kitchener, I think best to 
append a detailed report on the work and notes on its bearing upon the 
questions which make the spot specially interesting. 

We started oa Thursday, the 3rd of December, and reached the 
village of Kubab about two p.m., where we arranged a camping- ground, 
and then at once proceded to the work. We measured a base line on 
the tell, and found the position of the various stones, and made the 
necessary preparations for beginning the theodolite work next morning. 

On Friday we started again early for a long day's work. Our base 
line, which was traced on a distant tree to ensure accuracy, measured 
2,312 links, and had a true bearing of 73° 30'. From the east end the 
position of the first stone and of a cairn erected near the second, as well 
as that of the inscription found by Dr. Chaplin, were visible. Observa- 
tions wei'e made with a five-inch theodolite from both ends to the top 
of the dome of Sheikh Mohammed el Jezair, which is a point in the 
triangulation of the one-inch survey. A point was chosen south of the 
base line, and observed from both ends of the base. Observations were 
then made from this point to the first stone. Dr. Chaplin's inscription, 
and the cairn near the second stone. These lines will be calculated and 
the position of the stones definitely fixed. 

Having finished this part of the work, we plotted the results, and 
commenced filling in the necessary detail. The plan of the tell itself 
will be reduced from a much larger compass sketch made last winter. 
The rest was done by the ordinary method of interpolation used on the 
one-inch plan, and every precaution has been taken to ensui-e accuracy. 

The day was one of the worst we have had this autumn. A strong 
east wind blew in our faces during the whole course of the observations, 
and the dryness and peculiarly depressing absence of ozone made our 
task far from pleasant. Lieut. Kitchener succeeded in obtaining some 



THE SURVEY OF TELL JEZER. 75 

photographs under peculiarly unfavourable circumstances, and after 
nine hours fatiguing work we returned to camp very tired. 

Saturday morning we devoted to the vicinity of the inscriptions. At 
the stone visited by Dr. Chaplin we made a careful measured sketch of 
the letters, and a rough plan of the position of the blocks. Between 
the first and second stones Lieut. Kitchener at once found the other 
inscription noticed by M. Ganneau. We took a sketch of its position 
on the stones, but I was aware that M. Lecompte had made a good 
drawing, and taken a squeeze of it ; we therefore only fixed its exact 
position. 

The Stones. — The first and most interesting question as regards 
Jezer is that of the position of the inscribed stones. The bearing from 
the second or south-eastern stone to the cairn erected for observation 
■was 145°. Fi-om the cairn to the first or north-west' stone the bearing 
Wtts 323°. The first distance was 53 paces, the second 138 paces. This 
makes the bearing from one stone to the other as nearly as possible 
152°. The variation of the compass was 4°, which gives 148° as the 
true bearing, being 13° otf the north-west line. The stones* are so near 
one another that this diff"erence would make a very sensible error in the 
plotting of such a large area as is supposed to be represented by their 
direction. The reason why the bearing was obtained through an inter- 
mediate point was, that the two stones are not in sight of one another. 
The true east and west line from-the south-east stone passes through 
the tell towards the south side. 

It must not be supposed that these inscriptions occupy a conspicuous 
position; they are on a low hill-side, among rough rocks, and far from 
any road or track. The south-east stone is not visible from the tell, or 
from the first inscription. It is with difficulty that one recovers the 
places, even when knowing approximately where to look for them. No 
indication of the foundations of a oippus or other conspicuous monu- 
ment which, as M. Ganneau pointed out, might have been thought to 
stand above them is traceable near to either. 

The next question is that of the distance of the stones from the tell, 
which is now definitely settled by the theodolite observations from an 
accurately measured base, the only method which could with safety be 
adopted, owing to the hilly nature of the ground. It will be seen that 
they measure (85 chains) 5,600 feet from the centre of the tell, but it is 
impossible to give this very accurately, as there is no fixed point from 
which to start. 

In addition to these two stones, which, as will be seen, lie at a 
distance of 480 feet apart, there are twoother rude inscriptions in the 
same locality. I was under the impression at the time of our visit that 
a fifth was known to the villagers of Kubab. Another inscription south 
of those mentioned is spoken of by the fellahin of Kubab as existing 
still, but they profess themselves afraid to show it. I informed them 
that I knew of four altogether, at which they appeared surprised. At 
' length one volunteered the information that the stone which remained 

G 



7G THE SURVEY OF TELL JEZER. 

lay between tlie otliei' two. This refers, of course, to the Hebrew inscrip- 
tion seen by M. Ganneail, which lies eight paces from the line of the 
boundary stones, and seventy-two paces on the line from the north- 
western or first stone. I send a sketch of the block upon which it 
occurs ; the face of the stone is sloping, and a sort of rim is left above, 
as if to protect the inscription. 

The fourth inscription, north of the two others, was noticed by Dr. 
Chaplin in a late visit to'Jezer; it consists of only two letters. The 
bearing from the first stone is 310°; it is therefore not on the line. 

The Stone on which they are found is irregular in shape, and lies upon 
a second with one side seemingly cut hollow. The inscribed stone may 
once have stood vertically ; the whole group may be natural, but bears 
some resemblajice to a rude dolmen. Lying on the ground between 
the first stone and the last described, Lieut. Kitchener pointed out a 
broken fragment not far from the road, on which appeared to be two 
Roman letters. It seemed most likely a fragment of a milestone, but 
we did not consider it of any interest in its present condition. 

The' Site. — I will here briefly describe the points noticed whilst making 
the sui-vey of the district. The first point of importance was the ex- 
amination of the other angles corresponding to that supposed to be 
represented by the second or south-east stone. We determined that 
there was no hope of finding anything on the north or west, as both 
places would lie beyond the rocks and in the middle of the corn land. 
On the south also we found no inscription. The ruin of Sheikh Jobas 
lies near to the point in question,, upon the summit of the hill. 

The most marked featvire at this site is the great number of wine- 
presses.* We have marked twenty-three on the plan, and it is possible 
that one or two may still be omitted. The finest specimen, of which I 
send a plan, is on the east side of the tell, at the spot where two tombs 
and two winepresses are marked. I have only seen one finer specimen 
in Palestine. The tomb is also interesting. It is of that kind which 
has for its opening a shaft descending from the surface of the rock, and 
covered usually, as at El Medyeh, by a huge block of stone. A single 
luculus, parallel to the length of the shaft (which measures 6 or 7 ft. by 
2 or three ft., and is about 5 ft. deep), is placed on either side. I have 
given reasons before for considering this style of tomb early Christian. 
In the north of Palestine tradition makes them so. At Iksal is a 
large cemetery of such tombs, called the Frank cemeterJ^ In no 
instance that I know has any Hebrew or pagan inscription been found 
on such a tomb, whereas Greek inscriptions, with crosses, have been 
found in more than one instance on the Mount of Olives. Such a tomb 
was found containing two leaden coffins, each with crosses on it. We 
hare therefore, it seems to me, evidence of Christian work at Tell Jezer. 

In a former report I have described the Tell itself {Palestine Explora- 
tion Fund Quarterly, April, 1874, p. 57), with its terraces of rude stone 
and the sort of citadel at its eastern end, as also the great cistern near 
* See M. Ganneau's letter, Quarterly Statement, Jan., 1874. 



THE MURISTAN. 77 

the farm, whicli seems to have been at one time a chapel, the apse 
hollowed in the eastern wall being still visible. There are compara- 
tively few tombs at Tell Jezer, and none in the vicinity of the inscrip- 
tions. According to the Talmud, no tombs should exist within the 
Levitical boundary. At Tell Jezer there are several within this area, 
but the same objection would hold good of the sites of Tutha and 
Semu'a as well as at El Dhoheriyeh, so that too much stress must not 
be laid upon this fact. 



XXIX. 

The Muristan. 

1st February, 1875. 

Lieut. Kitcheni:r and I have lately paid two interesting visits to 
the large site in Jerusalem known as the Muristan, and some of our 
remarks seem likely to be of value. 

This large area is bounded by the streets known as Christian Street 
(the Crusading " Street of the Patriarch ") on the west, David Street 
on the south, the small street now called Harat el Dubbaghin, and 
by the Crusaders, Street of the Palm-sellers, on the north, and on the 
east by the Bazaars (the Crusading " Street of the Latin Gold- 
smiths "). It measures about 170 yards east and west, and 150 north and 
south, and in the year 1869 it showed only ruins of a church, and a 
field some fifteen feet in level above the outer streets. The eastern 
half of the property was granted to the Prussian Government (see 
Quarterly Statement, April, 1872, p. 100), and is now completely ex- 
cavated, proving stUl to hold the piers and walls of those noble buildings 
which had, it was supposed, entirely disappeared. 

The site thus recovered is, however, unfortunately that of less historic 
importance ; under the western banks of rubbish lie the remains of 
the most interesting of mediaeval ruins— the Hospital of the Knights of 
St. John of Jerusalem. That which has been recovered is, however, of 
considerable importance as a beautiful example of the best period of 
Italian Gothic in the East. 

The history of the site is very fully given by Count de Vogiie 
("Churches of Palestine"), and a few words will suffice to explain it. 
The large church of Ste. Marie la Grande was erected in the north-east 
comer of the domain in 1130-40, and was the abbey church of a nunnery 
of the same name existing south of the church. This establishment was 
connected with the order of the Ilosjjitallers, founded in 1099 by the 
monk Gerard Tunc, who held the western portion of the property. A 
narrow street separated the church on the east from the hospital on the 
west ; but after the Christians under Godfrey entered Jerusalem, the 
importance of the order of military monks so increased, that by the time 
of King Amaury they obtained leave to build beyond the street 
boimding their property eastwards, and filled the south-eastern comer 



78 THE MURISTAN. 

of the parallelogram with buildings belonging to the hospital, occupy- 
ing the part south of the nunnery, and thus extending over more than 
two-thirds of the whole area described above. These additions also date 
about 1140. 

The original hospital is mentioned by Bemhard the Wise in 867 as 
the Hostel of Charlemagne ; and the later Crusading works by Benjamin 
of Tudela in 1160-73. In 1216, Shehab ed Din, nephew of Saladin, con- 
verted the church of the hospital (which was opposite to the Church of 
Calvary, and is not to be confounded with that of Ste. Marie la Grande) 
into a mosque, under the name Kubbet Dirkah, which is probably that 
now known as the Jami'a Sidna 'Omar, conspicuous for its tall minaret, 
dating from about the fifteenth century. We endeavoured lately to 
penetrate into this mosque, but only reached its courtyard by a 
circuitous passage, and saw no signs of ancient work. Its floor is 
about the level of Christian Street, and the mosque itself is kept 
locked. 

The hospital was still standing when visited by Sir John Maunde- 
ville in 1322, and he notices 124 marble columns and 54 stone pillars 
built into the walls. In the seventeenth century it had become a 
total ruin, and subsequently it entirely disappeared, and still lies 
buried beneath the rubbish, which has accumulated in an inexplicable 
manner. 

The most complete part of the ruins is the shell of the church of Ste. 
Marie la Grande, described by Count de Vog'i'ie, a plan of which has been 
published by the Fund. The walls and the apses alone remain. The 
great piers are now entirely broken down, and only their bases remain 
in situ, with fragments of the tesselated pavement which once covered 
the whole floor. The little staircase, with its window surmounted by a 
double horseshoe arch, is no part of the original jjlan, but an Arab addi- 
tion of the fifteenth century. The only points of special importance are 
the two doors. The principal one, on the north from the Street of the 
Palm-sellers, is spanned by a round arch carved with representations of 
the months symbolised by small figures. The southern door near the 
apse consists of another round arch, ornamented with a billet pattern 
of simple character. The same billet pattern occurs on the exterior of 
the north windows of the church. I would here point to the fact that 
semicircular arches were used by the Crusading architects as late as the 
middle of the twelfth century, in combination with the pointed arch, 
which occurs in the windows of Ste. Marie, of a peculiarly graceful shape, 
and which is generally found in all the Crusading churches of Palestine. 
Passing through the southern door, we enter the square court sur- 
rounded with cloisters in two stories. Most of the masonry is inferior 
in size and character to that of the church and of the Crusading buildings 
hereafter to be described. It is ascribed by the Count de Vogiie to the 
fifteenth century as Arab work, and the ai-ches are all pointed, badly 
shaped, and the vaults made of rubble, with ribs of ashlar. It is here 
to be remarked how far more coarsely the stones are di-essed, and that 



THE MURISTAN. 79 

we found no masons' marks, after careful examination, on any of tbem. 
They are also more worn, having been more exposed and less carefully 
chosen. 

The walls of the courtyard appear to be of the same date with the 
church, as are also the piers, with attached slender columns having 
capitals of various design, some unfinished occurring in the north cloister. 
The piers in question have a simple cornice, similar to that on the south 
wall and east end of the church. The south-east pier of the cloister is the 
same, but in the southern, eastern, and western walls the piers are 
of later work. The arches are throughout the same. The appearance 
of the Crusading cloister must have been extremely fine; the piers alter- 
nated with pillars, and from these interior arches probably sprung to the 
small attached semi-pillars. 

The masonry of the south wall of the church is Crusading on its in- 
teiior or north face, but on the south face the wall seems to have 
been thickened by the Arabs when rebuilding the cloister. The tooling 
of the stones of Crusading origin is here almost entirely diagonal, but 
in the more careful apse stones for the most part vertical. 

Under the church wall a grave was built, from which a skull deeply 
dented mth a long sword cut, and various small trinkets, were taken 
during the excavations. At the east end of the church was a solid bel- 
fry tower, and beside this, in the west wall of the court, is one of the 
most wonderful windows I have ever seen. Lieutenant Kitchener has 
photographed it, and this will give a better idea of its character than 
any description. It has a broad pointed arch, and a number of mould- 
ings remarkable for their bold relief and their effective shadows. The 
dentellated and network patterns resemble the details of Norman work 
in the West ; but these are not, as far as I am aware, usually found in 
connection with the pointed form of arch here visible, as well as in other 
Crusading relics. 

The intelligent Abyssinian (an old overseer of Captains Wilson and 
WaiTcn) who showed us over the place, took us out of the middle door 
on the west side of the court (see plan) to where a pier stands, between 
two doors leading south and west, and on the bottom of this pier on the 
east side he pointed out to us the following inscription : — 

-f 0HKIAIA 
*EPOTCAM 

HNATnEPnnPoi; 

The first two lines are of well-formed letters, perfectly distinct. In 
the lowest line the letters are much crowded. The last letter is evidence 
of the barbarous character of the inscription. 

The third photograph devoted to the Muristan shows the piers which 
have been lately cleared out, and which belong probably to the buildings 
of the hospital, dating about 1140. They stand on huge walls of rougher 
masonry, and beneath are great reservoirs, forty to fifty feet deep, sink- 
ing down to the rock in the Tyroposon valley. These cisterns I visited 



80 THE MURISTAN, 

in 1872, but the notes I tten made are now in England. In a former 
report I have mentioned the rock-cut steps at the bottom of the prin- 
cipal reservoit, and the manner of raising water by a huge wheel fitting 
in a slot between the arches of the vaults. "We have as yet obtained 
no plan of this part of the building, but I shall endeavour to get one 
now that the excavations are completed. 

On the west of the Prussian property some vaults are now being 
explored which may prove of interest. The roofs are perfect, and con- 
sist of rubble work in black mortar (full of cinders). They seem to me 
evidently to be the VoUoe Concamhii Hospitalis, Avhich opened on the 
narrow street between the hospital and the church. A document relative 
to the letting of these as storehouses bears the date 1 144. 

There is one point of great interest which I may here enlarge upon — 
namely, the masonry of the Crusading portions of the Muristan. 

M. Ganneau, in a late report. Quarterly Statement, April, 1874, page 91, 
pointed out the distinctive character of mediaeval dressing. In fact it is 
almost always easy to tell a stone of the Crusading time, for several 
reasons. First, the masons' mark, which neither Jewish, Eoman, early 
Christian, nor Saracenic builders seem to have used, except in the case 
of the north wall of Baalbek. Second, from the stone having been 
well selected, its edges sharply cut, the joints fitting very closely, and 
the corners very squarely made. The stone is laid apparently with due 
regard to its quarry bed, and a hard species of mezzeh is preferred. 
Thirdly, from the dressing, which differs from that of the earlier styles, 
and is far finer than the Saracenic tooling. 

In those specimens of masonry belonging to Crusading interiors, 
which I have studied with special regard to the tooling of the masonry, 
and of which the best examples are the Madeleine and Ste. Marie la 
Grande in Jerusalem, I find that the stones are finely dressed with a 
pointed instrument, in lines generally parallel, or very nearly so, and 
differing in interval. 

Some of the hues are continuous chisel-marks, others are in detached 
strokes of various lengths. These are diagonal, vertical, horizontal, or, 
in less careful specimens, curved ; and sometimes the same stone is 
differently dressed in various parts. All the varieties will occur in a 
single wall. In very many cases some parts (perhaps harder, or found 
to project when the tooling had been completed) are tooled with short 
strokes in a direction opposite to the general lines. Of these various 
details I have made sketches on the spot. The great blocks of the piers, 
which are remarkably fine specimens of masonry, are differently dressed. 
In these the surface of the hard stone has a mottled appearance, as 
though worked with a blunt point, carefully and lightly struck at right 
angles to the face of the stone. 

In studying the masonry of the Arab additions to the Muristan, I 
find the Crusading tooling imitated, but the work is less j: atient, the 
strokes less regular and farther apart, the corners and edges rougher, 
and the appearance of the stone often very patchy. A toothed instru- 
ment is also often used. 



THE ROCK SCARP OF ZION. 81 

It seems to me, therefore, that there would always be some danger 
of mistaking between the better specimens of Saracenic masonry and the 
worse of Crusading origin ; and although the tooling of th'o stones may 
be at times of use in absence of other indications, its importance must 
be held secondary to that of the masons' marks. In general, the 
appearance of the stones, without a more minute inspection, will suffice 
to give a tolerable guess at their character ; but nothing Uke certainty 
is possible unless masons' roarks can be found. 

These remarks only apply to the smooth-dressed masonry of interiors. 
The coarse hammer-di-essed stones of the outer walls show neither 
masons' marks nor fine tooling in any Crusading building I have 
examined. 

Of masons' marks the late Mr. Drake first pointed out to me the 
value. We commenced a classification, at which I am still engaged as 
new examples come in. We agreed in considering that they show date 
to a certain extent, but have no reference to the position of the stone 
iijL the building. 



XXX, 

TaE EocK Scarp of Zioif. 

Jerusalem, \Oth January, 1815. 

Hating, in accorclance with my instructions, made a proper sur^y 
by traverse, with five-inch theodolite, of the rock scarp of Zion, whifch 
very probably formed the south-west angle of ancient Jerusalem, I 
think it best, in sending home a tracing of the plan, to give a detailed 
account of the work, 

Mr. Henry Maudslay, to whose unassisted exertions this interesting 
exploration is due, arrived in Jerusalem last winter with the intention - 
of executing some work, which should be at once a benefit to the town 
and a labour of archaeological interest. The jealousy of the Turkish > 
Government prevented his carrying out his original intention of clearing 
the Birket Israil, making it fit to hold water, and at the same time 
carrying out an exploration of the highest interest ; and his attention was 
diverted to the precincts of the Bishop's School on Zion, where there 
was room for much improvement in the comfort of the children and m 
the sanitary arrangements. Mr. Maudslay very ably contrived ^to extend 
his researches for stones and building materials in such a direction as 
would ensure valuable archseological results, and enable him to procure 
the ancient masonry ready cut for use. His work is now nearly complete ; 
his trenches and clearings, extending in places 35 f6et below groimd, 
are pushed along the face of the scarp as far as (and even beyond) 
the property of the bishop. The school has been completed and re-opened,' 
and Mr. Maudslay has so arranged that the old work can be easily seen 
throughout ; thus an attraction has been added to the school premises, 
which will well repay the attention of visitors to Jerusalem, who, I 
believe, for the most part yisit this school for its own sake. 



82 -THE BOCK SCABP OF ZION. 

It will perhaps be remembered tbat in an early report I gave an account 
of the then existing condition of this place {Quarterly Statement, Oct., 
1872, p. 167). I pointed out that no spot near Jerusalem was so likely 
to give good results with tolerably easy work. I supposed that mining 
would not be necessary, but that trenches and short shafts, perhaps not 
lined, such as Mr. Maudslay has successfully sunk for some 50 feet or 
more, would be sufficient. Here, if anywhere, we have a solid basis, 
whence to commence our reconstruction of the city of Herod and of David, 
and if we add to this the valuable work of Captain Warren on Ophel, 
we only want two more points to enable us to reconstruct the first, or old 
wall of Josephus — namely, first, the northern line, which probably passes 
very near Dr. Chaplin's town house (as generally admitted) ; and, second, 
the point, where the Tyropeeon is crossed, which, I hold, could now be 
found by continuing Mr. Maudslay's work to the eastward, following the 
scarp, and thus tracing the Hue of the wall along the brow of the hill. 

Commencing from the west I will now describe in detail all that has 
been discovered. 

The scarp has been traced from the corner of the north wall of the 
school-house for about 100 feet, and in a line directed on the south- 
west corner of the present city wall. The scarp is here perpendicular, 
and at the corner by the tower 24 feet high ; it is not quite in a straight 
line. Mr. Maudslay's work terminates at a wall built at right angles to 
the scarp, and beyond this nothing is visible, a high mound of shingle 
covering every vestige of rock. A curious buttress of rock is observable 
about four feet broad and eight feet long, as shown on the plan. At this 
point there is a great quantity of Mosaic pavement, rather rough, with 
good mortar, apparently fallen from above. A rubble wall has been 
built on the top of the rock, but at what date it is impossible to 
say ; I should not, however, be disposed to consider it very ancient. 

Close to the school-house wall a cistern is cut in the top of the scarp, 
bee-hived in shape, with a square mouth. This is no doubt very ancient. 
The square mouth is rare in the north of Palestine, though very common 
round Hebron. This cistern is 12 feet deep, and is now entirely cleaned 
out and in good repair. 

The ground in front of the scarp is here occupied as a cemetery by the 
Greek Catholics, and could not therefore be lowered to show the whole 
scarp. Mr. Maudslay has, therefore, built a wall at right angles to one 
scarp, leaving a narrow passage by which the rock may be reached and 
seen to great advantage. The wall consists entirely of fine stones from 
three to four feet long, having a deep marginal draft. To me, after com- 
paring them with other work I have seen in Palestine, they appear to 
be Eoman, though of what date it is of course difficult to say. Their 
size is not great, but we have no reason to suppose the masonry of the 
old wall to have been of any gi-eat size, as Josephus only speaks of the 
wall of Agrippa and the royal towers as containing extraordinary ashlar. 
The stones of which I speak were all found during the excavations, 
and evidently had fallen from above, most being discovered with the 



THE ROCK SCARP OF ZION. 



83 



drafted side downwards, as though pushed over from within. One of tho 
stones has a curious loophole in it. Evidently the greater part was cut 
through the next stone below, and in this only the circular head of 
the loophole is visible, the draft on the stone following the circle. . 
The loophole is about six inches diameter without and a foot or more at 
the back. I am particular in mentioning this wall, for one traveller 
has already taken it as conclusive proof that the line of the ancient wall 
ran in a direction at right angles to that which it actually took, and in a 
few years it ii possible that theories may be founded on a wall built 
in 1874 of old material from various places. We have, therefore, been 
careful to note its character on the plan. 

We now arrive at the first tower or buttress of rock upon the top of 
which the dining-room of the school-house is placed. This square foun- 
dation of rock is about 45 feet either way, and its general level is 
20 feet above an outer ledge of rock which surrounds it. The ledge is, 
roughly speaking, 20 feet broad, and beyond another scarp appears to 
exist, for the shafts sunk to find the rock were continued to a depth of 
from 12 to 20 feet in the spots indicated on the plan by the numbers 
(19, 16, and 12), being th«5 height of the rock above the zero level, which 
will be mentioned immediately. The section and plan will best explain 
how these various levels occur. The general result is that a tower pro- 
jected 46 feet from the scarp at this point, having its top level with tho 
crest of the scarp, and that it stood upon a broad ledge, also scarped, 
which probably had steps leading down from it, although from the im- 
possibility of tracing the whole line, they have not been discovered. In 
the passage leading to the upper story of the school-house, the south 
face of this tower is exposed, forming one wall of the passage, and the 
steps which led up from the outer ledge or platform are seen in profile 
as they run parallel to the south face. Their width cannot be ascer- 
tained, as the school dining-room wall is built upon them, and unfortu- 
nately no record seems to have been preserved of the appearance of the 
rock before the school was built. 

Mr. Maudslay has also made it clear that a cistern once occupied nearly 
all the top of the tower scarp, which in turn supplied the other cisterns 
cut in the main scarp from which the tower projects ; of these there were 
four, but three have been lately blown into one by Mr. Maudslay, and 
extend as shown on the plan. 

The cistern with an oval hole to the south of the three blown into 
one is of great interest, for it was found to have been entirely and pur- 
posely filled, probably at an early period, with masonry set in mortar 
even harder than the stone itself. The wall of the tower, as found 
under an archway in the bakehouse, would ajjpear to have been of 
similar character. 

Behind the school dining-room is a passage the floor of which is just 
above the rock level, and on the other side of it are offices — kitchen, bake- 
house, and word store. Here Mr. Maudslay discovered two other large 
cisterns, cut in rock and roofed with masonry, as shown in the plan. He 



84 THE ROCK SCARP OF ZION. 

also found that the scarp has an inner as well as an outer face, and that 
the rock slopes away so much that when the walls of the offices, on the 
side farthest from the passage, were built, they had to sink eight or ten 
feet before reaching a foundation. Farther east, in a carpenter's shop, 
at a point marked 32 feet, the level of the rock sinks, at the back, to 
that of the outer platform of the tower. 

This proves, then, that for at least a third of its length, and presumably 
throughout the whole extent, the great scarp is a parapet of rock 
presenting a vertical wall, in places forty feet high on the oxitside and 
at least fourteen feet within. This discovery has a certain bearing on 
the interesting question of the scarp in the Via Dolorosa, and shows 
that it may possibly be the interior face of a similar rock parapet upon 
which the wall was built, and not, as has been supposed, the counter- 
scarp of a ditch beyond the wall. | 

The scarp, after passing fifty feet east of the first tower, turns 
through an angle of some forty degrees, and runs in this direction, 
about 100 yards, to the outer or eastern wall of the Protestant cemetery. 
Immediately beyond the turn a curious detail was discovered in con- 
sequence of exploration undertaken by Mr. Maudslay at Mr. Drake's 
request. There is here a laundry room, the floor of which is on a 
rock ledge raised five feet above the level of the outer platform, on 
which, as has been explained, the tower stands. The north wall of the 
laundry is the face of the main scarp, and in this a large square trough, 
with a recessed arch above, resembling the loculus of a tomb of the 
later period in Palestine, was found behind the plaster, and a little 
farther west two mangers cut in the rock, similar to those planned by 
us in the rock-cut stables of Khii-bet Dustrei (Petra Incisa) at 'Athlit. 
It appears, then, that a small stable, having, no doubt, an entrance 
from the tower platform, was here built on the very edge of the scarp, 
and probably outside the fortification wall. Its outer wall must have 
been of masonry, and it is quite possible that a small force of cavalry 
may here have been held in readiness for a sudden sally, more rapid 
and unexpected tha^i any issuing from the body of the place could be. 

Continuing our course east along the plan, we arrive next at a 
buttress of rock fifteen feet high and about five feet square. At its 
foot is a trough, rock- cut, and within at the back is another fine rock- 
cut cistern. The level of the scarp here rises suddenly five feet by a 
sheer wall, irregularly dressed, which runs in at right angles to the 
general direction, and forms, as shown, the east wall of a carpenter's 
shop. There is a good deal that points to there having been an inter- 
mediate tower at this spot, probably with a shallow ditch, the line of 
the counter-scarp being traceable for a short distance. As I have pre- 
viously explained, two large cisterns were at one time built up against 
the exterior face of the scarp at this point, lined with a hard, red cement, 
and with outer walls of masonry. I am, however, inclined to consider 
these cisterns as later Saracenic work, from the character and appear- 
ance of the cement, which is extremely hard and full of pottery, re- 
sembling that used in the scarp at Caesarea and in other places. 



TUB ROCK SCAUP OF ZIOX. 85 

In the excavations at this point, whence a great number of the stones 
were obtained, large voussoirs, belonging to semi-circular arches, were 
found, with bases of pillars, some eighteen inches' diameter of shaft, 
and corbels as if to support a floor, roof, or projecting turret. The 
most interesting find was, however, the tombstone of a Crusader, with 
the inscription in Gothic characters, Hie requiescit Johs de Valencinis. 
It has no date. * 

A little farther on there are interesting remains of a quarry, whence 
stones of size similar to those discovered in the debris were hewn, the 
process at the same time making the scarp higher and more formidable. 
Four of these stones remain in their places, having been cut out on 
every side, but requiring to be prized out beneath. A series of steps 
wei-e left in the quarry, by which, as Mr. Maudslay pointed out to me, 
the stones could gradually be raised from the lowest bed to the very top 
of the scarp. 

It will be seen by the plan that a portion of the scarp here projects 
to form an intermediate tower, twelve feet broad as measured from the 
scarp. It is, however, at a considerably lower level, being eight feet 
below the level of the platform upon which the first or great corner 
tower is based. 

Mr. Maudslay kindly excavated this at my request, and traced the 
face of the projection some twelve feet. The buttress already mentioned 
has some connection with the structure of this tower, which, like the 
former, seems to have had a great cistern above its base. 

The scarp continues eastwards without any rema,rkable details. The 
rock is rough and irregular at the top, but the general level is about 
forty feet of height. The amount of labour expended on this magnificent 
woi-k can be well appreciated by any one standing at its foot, in the 
passage cut by Mr. Maudslay, and when some forty or fifty feet of 
strongly built wall stood above the rock, tlie result must have been a 
splendid and impregnable fortification which might well defy any 
attempt to take Jerusalem from the south. 

"We now reach the flight of steps first explored by . Captain Warren, 
who at this point reached the bottom of the scarp. The natural lie 
of the rock according to the stratification gives a dip of perhaps five 
degrees towards the east, and it is therefore possible that the levels 
19, 16, 12, outside the tower outer platform, already described, with the 
levels 17, 15, 13, at the bottom of these eastern steps, and west of them, 
and the zero level farther east, represent the surface of a path or ledge 
running along the foot of the scarp, and gradually ascending westwards; 
perhaps forming a narrow path from the valley, leading up to that gate 
called the Valley Gate, which it is supposed lay somewhere in this 
neighbourhood. 

From the sudden rise of thirteen feet between the point where the 
zero level is found, and the bottom of the steps to the third tower, it 

* A facsimile of this inscription has been forwarded by M. C. Ganneau. 



86 THE ROCK SCARP OF ZION. 

seems probable that the steps return, and that a second flight, contain- 
ing probably twelve or fourteen steps, could be found beneath the ledge 
which here occurs at the foot of the scarp and leading from it to the 
zero level. 

At the top of the thirty-six steps (see *' Recovery of Jeriisalem," p. 
280) the arch of a small cistern iised to be visible. This and another 
also is now cleared out and holds water. They are cut in rock, with 
broad steps, giving six feet of water at the back of each. The first is 
roofed with beautiful masonry in a round or barrel vault. This work 
resembles exactly the arching of the reservoirs at the Convent of Zion, 
and those in the Haram (Nos. 1 and 3 O. Purvey), which I wrote about 
lately. The keystone is nai-row, and the width of the voussoirs gradu- 
ally increases towards the haunches. The workmanship is excellent and 
appears to be Roman. 

It will be observed at this point on the plan, that a semicircular 
wall is shown, and the number Oft. shown within; this is the zero point, 
or lowest level of the rock. The excavation was 35 ft. beneath the soil, 
and the grand scarp was here 45 ft. high. Another tower evidently 
existed here, to which the flight of steps led up. This is shown by the 
fact that the scarp runs perpendicularly to its general direction, which 
forms the foundation of the cemetery wall. A very little excavation 
would probably result in laying bare the whole tower, but the property 
here belongs to the Mosque of David, and special negotiations with the 
proprietors are requisite. 

The rest of the scarp remains as when first I described it, and is of the 
highest interest. A broad trench here exists, and forms in all probability 
an approach to a gateway. Two caverns are found in the face of the 
scarp somewhat resembling those in the Yia Dolorosa, and on the o*her 
side is a square rock platform, with a cistern 9 ft. deep, and some flat 
steps. The rubbish on every side is flush with the surface of the rock; 
but a straight line of rock is visible on the eastern side, and I am 
sanguine of the success which would attend excavation at this point. 
I have previously noticed and sent home plans of the caverns, of 
which I have no copy, and as they were closed at our recent visit, the 
entrances only are shown on the plan. 

Such being the present state of this interesting exploration, I 
f*hould wish to call attention to its archaeological value, and to the 
light which it throws on the accounts of the fortifications of Jerusalem 
given by Josephus and Tacitus. 

Josephus thus describes the fortifications of the ancient wall of 
Jerusalem, and that of Agrippa especially : — ■ 

" Now the towers that were on it were twenty cubits in breadth and 
twenty cubits in height. They were square and solid as was the wall 
itself. . . . Above this solid altitude of the towers, which was 
twenty cubits, there were rooms of great magnificence, and over them 
_ upper rooms and cisterns to receive rainwater. They were many in 
number, and the steps by which you ascended to them were every one 



THE ROCK SCARP OF ZION. 87 

"broad. Of these towers, the thu-d wall had ninety, and the spaces 
between them were each 200 cubits, but in the middle wall were furty 
towers, and the old wall was parted into sixty ; whilst the whole com- 
pass of the city was thirty-thrca furlongs " (B. J., v. 4, § 3). 

The dimension of 200. cubits here given is evidently a mistake or 
corruption, as the length thus given to the wall is at least double what 
it could possibly have been, and even (as is the plain meaning of the 
sentence) if the measure refers only to the latest wall— that of Agrippa 
— it is still impossible ; whilst, if it refers to the old wall as well, there 
is a manifest error, as the total circumference of the city in that case 
would be about sixty furlongs. If, then, we can rely upon the numbers 
of the towers (although a difficulty occurs in the text as to the forty 
of the second wall), it becomes interesting to see what the distance 
apart of Mr. Maudslay's three towers is, and how they tally with the 
generally accepted course of the old wall. 

The distance between the inner sides of the two eastern towers is 
162 ft. or 108 cubits of eighteen inches (the medium cubit used 
ordinarily in the dimensions of buildings). The distance to the east 
wall of the great corner tower from the east wall of the intermediate 
tower is 200 ft. Subtracting 40 ft,, which makes the breadth of the 
intermediate tower come to the place where a buttress projects, and 
where the scarp rises, which would seem most probably the line of the 
western wall of this intermediate tower, we obtain 160 ft. or 106 cubits. 
"We may say roughly, then, that the towers are 100 cubits apart, though 
doubtless not quite regular, and placed in suitable positions where the 
rock projected or the scarp was low. The result, if a line be taken 
from the Citadel to Wilson's Arch, and from the Ophel wall round by 
the contours to the cemetery and school-house, and so to the Citadel (a 
rough mean of the extreme lines given by different authorities), gives, 
by measurement of it on the Ordnance Survey, just sixty towers, the 
proper number for the old wall. 

As regards the towers themselves, they answer well, as will be seen, 
to the general description of Josephus. The mean height of the scarp 
being thirty feet is the twenty cubits of the description. The projec- 
tions of the towers seem to be about thirty cubits broad, but the 
building above would be set back, and thus, in all probability, twenty 
cubits square. The steps and cisterns belonging to each tower have 
been already described. 

It will appear from the plan that noless than eighteen cisterns sup- 
plied the three towers with water. 

It is interesting here to notice that the bases of the towers of the 
modern wall, at its north-east corner, are rock-cut, and similar to 
those just described. The foundation of the Burj Luglug is a little 
over twenty cubits either way ; the tower south of it is close upon 200 
cubits from it, and the two west of it are ninety cubits apart. This 
may, perhaps, when coupled with the new discoveries, point to their 
being on the line of the old wall also, and show that the distances were 
not uniform, but differed according to circumstances. 



88 THE ROCK SCARP OF ZlON. 

We may further inquire wlietlier this scarp, wliich forms so marked 
a feature when exposed, was not of sufficient importance to be noticed 
in the very exact accounts which we possess of the fortifications of 
Jerusalem. 

It is not to be expected that it continued on every side, for the slope 
of the rock and character of the ground would, in places, preclude the 
possibility of this, and although nothing conclusive can as yet be said on 
the subject, I may here note that the Broad Wall of Nehemiah, accord- 
ing to some restorations, would come close to this part of the enceinte. 

Josephus, describing the course of the old wall, says : — " It began at 
the same place (Hippicus), and extended through a place called Bethso 
to the gate of (the Essenes, and after that it went southward " ( facing 
6outh, according to the best authorities, B. J.,v.4, § 2). Hence we see that 
the " place called Bethso," and the Gate of the Essenes, were towards 
the south-west corner of the city, which renders it possible that for 
Bethso we should read Bethsur, " the house of the scarp," and that by 
excavating the supposed approach to a gate, mentioned above as east 
of Mr. Maudslay's work, we should recover the gate of the Essenes. 

I have, I think, said enough to show how valuable Mr. Maudslay's 
work has been, and how desii*able it is to continue it from either end. 
The discovery of a second tower, north of the corner tower, under the 
school-house, would make the question of the intervals much clearer; 
and if a gate were found, as seems probable, it would be a valuable 
discovery. Eastward, also, I contend that a little further exploration 
might set at rest the question as to where the old wall crossed (as it 
undoubtedly did) the Tyropceon valley. 

But the discovery that a basis of rock, and not a mere solid mass of 
masonry, formed the foundation of wall and tower, has an even more 
interesting bearing, as it shows that there is a well-grounded expecta- 
tion that we may yet recover the Royal Towers, on the position of 
which so much depends in Jerusalem Archaeology. 

Tacitus (Hist. v. 11) explains — " The extreme parts of the rock were 
craggy, and the towers, when they had the advantage of the ground, 
were sixty feet high ; when they were built on plain ground they were 
one hundred and twenty feet. ... To those who looked at them 
at a great distance they appeared equal." Thus we may suppose that 
the three royal towers, which diflPered considerably in height, were built 
up to the same level at the top, and that the difference was in the solid 
base according to the dip of the ground. This is unquestionably the 
case with Hippicus and Phasaelus, each of which was fifty cubits high, 
though the totals were eighty and ninety, because the solid bases were 
respectively thirty and forty cubits high. (In the case of Hippicus 
the base was in part at least artificial.) Mariamne also, if it was 
seventy cubits high, had the difi'erence made up by the higher ground 
on which it stood, its solid base being only twenty cubits. This 
is to a certain extent an indication of the position of the royal 
towers, and it is quite possible that the sloping scarp of David's 



MEDIEVAL TOPOGRAPHY OF PALESTINE. 89 

Tower covers the solid base of one of them (most probably Phasaelus), 
as it is popnlnrly supposed to be solid within, and as we have many 
instances in Palestine of sloping scarps being added in the middle ages 
to ancient sheer walla. The shoi-test and surest way to solve these 
questions, which are amongst the most important of those connected 
with Jerusalem Archa3ology, is to follow along the line of Mr. Maudslay's 
excavations, which are very valuable as showing that, however the 
masonry may have been destroyed and lost, we may yet hope to find 
indications of the ancient enceinte in the rock scarps, which are 
imperishable. 

Claude R Conder, Lieut. E.E. 



XXXI. 

Medieval ToroGRAPHY of Palestine. 

29th January, 18 To. 

The early Christian and Crusading sites of Palestine, furnishing as 
they do many of the principal ruins of the country — churches, castles, 
hospices, and walled towns, of an architecture far exceeding in strength 
and beauty the majority of earlier work, are in themselves of consider- 
able interest ; and occasionally we are able, by means of the traditions 
they preserve, to fix upon the true locality of a place of Scriptural im- 
portance. 

The majority of such sites are well known, and recur in the accounts 
of the various pilgrimages, but I propose here to give an account of 
some of the more obscure names, which I select from a list of about 
150. And, first, to consider the topography of the famous march 
made by the English under King Eichard Lion Heart from Haifa to 
Jaffa. (Itin. of Rich. I., Book IV., chap. 12.) 

King Richard's March. — The army having reached Cayphas, the 
modern Haifa, so called, we are informed, by Sir John Maundeville, 
A.D. 1822 (who, however, confused it with 'Athlit), because Caiphas 
was lord of it, encamped at the foot of Carmel, between the town and 
the sea; that is, on the plain near the Kishon, in all probability, as water 
was the first necessary; and a river, as will be seen subsequently, gene- 
rally chosen. No description of the town at this period exists, and 
Benjamin of Tudela, who visited it thirty years before the arrival 
of King Eichard, mentions only the Jewish tombs which, with the 
candlestick rudely carved upon them, still form an important feature 
on either side of the town. (See the specimen Map of Carmel.) 

The baggage was here lightened, and the march commenced on a 
Wednesday, towards the end of September in the year A.D. 1191. 

The first day's march was a long one, " impeded by the thickets and 
the tall and luxuriant herbage," proving that the amount of wood has 
sensibly decreased since that date, for now only occasional bushes 
are found, and most of the land is under cultivation, except where 



90 MEDIAEVAL TOPOGRAPHY OF PALESTINE. 

the sand has encroached. Arrived at Capernaum, "which the Sara- 
cens had razed to the ground," the king rested, but the oamp was 
fixed for the night at the house called " Of the Narrow Ways." 

One would naturally expect that 'Athlit was the first stoppage, especi- 
ally as it is about half way to the next camping-ground, and yet further 
because the old name for Khirbet Dustrey, the outlying fort of 'Athlit, 
is Petra Tucisa — the scarped rock — a title due to the fort itself, with its 
stables, being principally rock-cut, or perhaps from the rock-cut passage 
through the bar of rock separating the narrow plain from the sea-shore 
by which the main road, with the marks of wheeled vehicles (chariots or 
Crusading carts) still visible upon its surface, reaches the fortress of 
'Athlit, or Castel Pelegrino. We have, however, an identification of this 
Capernaum by the venerable Eabbi Benjamin, which makes it most 
probably the same as Tantura. 

" It is four parasangs hence" (from Cayphas), he says, " to Khephar 
Thancum (probably the Kefr Tanchumin of Jerome and of the Talmud), 

which is Capernaum identical with Meon Six parasangs 

brings us to Csesarea, the Oath of the Philistines " (" Early Travels in 
Palestine," p. 81). The proportional distances are about those of Tan- 
tui-a, which is eighteen miles from Haifa and eight from C«3sarea. The 
identification of Scriptural sites had got into considerable confusion at 
this time, but where so definite an account is given by a writer gene- 
rally pretty correct, we can have little hesitation in fixing Capernaum at 
Tantura, where a supply of water could easily be obtained. There is no 
doubt that a considerable Crusading place was once standing at the ruins 
of El Burj, close to the modern village. A tower stands conspicuously 
on a little headland, once forming one corner of a square fort. The 
remains of a harbour and landing-place, with a colonnaded building of 
early Christian date, are noted in former reports. The harbour is neces- 
sary for the identification, as we find that the army " remained two 
days in the above-mentioned station, where there was plenty of room for 
their camp, and waited there until the ships arrived." The country is 
open and level near Tantura, and besides the rock-cut passage described 
above, four others were found, and are described in our notes, having 
guard-houses cut in the rock on either side, and completely barring com- 
munication between the shore and the interior. Two are between 'Athlit 
and Tantura, one opposite the latter town, and the last some little way 
south of it, probably the one here meant, as the principal road passes 
through it. 

The distance thus traversed was nearly twenty miles, which in the 
hot September days on foot, or heavily laden with armour, must have 
been a raarch of extraordinary length, no doubt rendered necess.i,ry by 
the absence of water in sufficient supply for an army of about 100,000. 
Two days' rest were required to recover from its effects, and on a Satur- 
day the king arrived at the E.iver of Crocodiles, passing by a town 
named Merla, a march of five miles. There is no doubt that the river 
is the Zerka, the only river in Palestine where crocodiles now exist 



MEDIAEVAL TOPOGRAPHY OF PAl-ESTINE. 91 

according to native evidence,* but tlie name Merla seenas probably a 
corruption, and may possibly apply to El Mozra'a, where a strong 
Crusading tower still remains in ruins beside the main road here 
traversed. 

The route taken by King Eichard is, I may observe in passing, the 
same which we followed in oui* journey from Beirut to Jaffa, but being 
unmolested by Saracens, and not encumbered with armour, we accom- 
plished a distance of 44 miles in one day, where the Crusaders took in all 
ten days. 

At the Zerka the Crusaders rested for Sunday, and on the Monday 
they advanced by Ctesarea, which was ruined by the Saracens, but which 
the chronicler admires considerably. " The circuit of the City of Csesarea 
is very great (alluding, no doubt, to the Roman town), and the buildings 
are of wonderful workmanship." Here also the fleet communicated 
with the land force, and by night the camp was fixed at the Dead Eiver, 
five miles from the Zerka. 

It will be found that in all, five rivers are mentioned (including the 
Crocodile River) between Capernaum and Joppa, and as there are five 
streams of considerable breadth, and of perennial supply, we cannot 
hesitate in identifying these with the rivers of the narrative in the order 
in which they occur. The Dead River, therefore, is the Nahr el Mifjir, 
as it is generally called, although it has four other names in various parts 
of its course. The remains of a bridge, with 15 ft. width of causeway, 
here occur at a part where the river is 60 to 70 ft. broad, and by this no 
doubt the main part of the army crossed, though the baggage train, 
which, for protection, followed close to the sea- shore, would have forded 
this and the others, as we were obliged to do, close to the mouth. 

On Tuesday, apparently another short march of five miles brought 
the army from the Dead River (so called, no doubt, from its sluggish 
character) to the Salt River, being harassed all day by the flying clouds of 
Turks and Bedouin. It is remarkable that one of the names of the 
Nahr el Mifjir, near its head in the hills, is "Wady Maleh (salt), but, 
nevertheless, we must identify this river with the Nahr Skanderuneh, a 
very broad and marshy stream, which flows through the midst of " a 
country of most desolate character and destitute of everything." The 
chronicler adds : " For they were compelled to march through a moun- 
tainous country because they were unable to go by the sea-side, which 
was choked by the luxuriant gi'owth of the grass." 
< "We must, I think, understand from this that the way lay over the 
rolling sand hills, which extend along the coast in this part, and that the 
object was to avoid the difficult and intricate rushy and marshy ground 
which is impassable to those not well acquainted with its windings, and 
unfitted for the advance of a large body of men. 

The next was the longest march undertaken, with the exception of the 
eighteen miles to Tantura, and was again necessitated by the absence of 
water. The army had rested by the Salt River two days, and proceeded 



Mr. MacGregor asserts that crocodiles exist in the Kishon. 



H 



92 MEDIJSVAL TOPOGRAPHY OP PALESTINE. 

on Friday through the forest of Assiir, or Arsur, to the river " commonly 
called EochetaQle." In this forest we recognise the long extent of park- 
like scenery in the neighbourhood of Mukhalid, where groups of Sindian, 
the ordinary oak of Palestine {Q. Infedoria), are dotted over the rolling 
plateau of red semi-consolidated sand, covered with thin grass and 
carpeted in spring with flowers. But very little brushwood exists, a few 
low bushes of the Abhar (mock orange) and other shrubs are seen in 
places, but the accidents of the ground would have furnished abundant 
cover of that kind which the Bedouin prefer, and it was accordingly 
here that an ambush was fully expected. The River Eochetaille we at 
once see to be the Nahr Falik, a considerable stream, now almost dry in 
autumn, where the papyrus grows even moro luxuriantly than in the 
Zerka River. The reason of the name is found in the long narrow rock 
channel, cut artificially at some former period through the inland cliffs, 
by which the river finds a channel to the sea-shore as marked on the 
CiBsarea sheet of our map. 

The distance from the Nahr Skanderimeh is nine and a-half miles, 
the way being through the greater part over forest, or rather open park- 
like scenery, 

' ' On the Saturday, the eve of the Nativity of the blessed Virgin 
Mary," the great conflict with the enemy took place. The Saracens, 
emboldened by the apparent impunity with which they attacked the 
heavy advancing columns, became so insolent that a conflict was un- 
avoidable, and the vivid description of the great battle on the moors 
round Arsur, or Arsuf, occupies six long chapters of this interesting 
chronicle. Sunday was spent on the field in masses for the dead, and on 
Monday the army arrived at the River of Arsur, and immediately after 
passing this (evidently the Aujeh) they reached Joppa, where they 
" refreshed themselves with the abundance of fruits." 

The account of this famous journey occurs in the Itinerary of Eichard I., 
by Geoffry de Vinsauf, B. iv. chap. 12 to 25. 

The enumeration of the castles destroyed by Saladin, which follows, 
is of great interest. Some such, as Mirabel (Eas el 'Ain), Ramula 
(Eamleh), Blanchward (Tell es Safi), and St. George (Lydda), are well 
known. Others, such as Galatia, Belmont, Toron, Ernuald, Beauverie, 
in the south, still require identification. Two others, Maen and the 
Castle of Plans, I propose to notice further. 

After the requisite rest at Jafi'a, Eichard set out to rebuild Maen and 
Plans, and encamped (the chi'onicle says "after a short march") 
between the two. The Templars, whilst engaged on the latter, 
received an attack from " Bombrac," and Richard sent reinforcements 
to them, apparently from Maen, though whether in return for a 
message is not clear. I am ignorant whether these castles are mentioned 
in any other chronicle, but Benjamin of Tudela evidently identifies 
Maen, or Maon, as we have already seen, with Tantura, which, as men- 
tioned above, was in ruins. Bombrac is, no doubt, the modern Ibn 
Ibrak, and this would point to Plans as being in an intermediate position 



MEDIAEVAL TOrOGRAPIIY OF PALESTINE. 93 

on tho plain. I should propose, thoreforc, to identify the Castle of Plans 
with Kalensawieh, an important Crusading site, which I have described 
in a former report. It is a about twenty miles from Ibn Ibrak, and tho 
samo distance from Tantura. IIow the name came to bo so elongated or 
contracted (as the case may be) it is not easy to imagine, but there aro 
parallel cases in the Crusading chronicles, and orthography seems to 
have been a very neglected science in the 12th century. The distance 
seems rather long, but we see that ten miles was not an extraordinary 
march, and, indeed, much longer ones -were frequently made in the 
latter part of the campaign. Prom the camp, at some station half- 
way to Tantura, the Castle of Plans would not be over this distance. 

Kalensawieh stands on thc'edge of the woodlands of Mukhalid, not far 
from the foot of the hills, and is a miserable mud village, in the centre of 
which is a strong Crusading tower. Beside this grows the only palm 
which (as far as I am aware) exists between Haifa and Jaffa, and east of 
the tower is a hall of beautiful masonry, with vaulted stables beneath, 
of which a plan and description wUl be found in our notes. 

From these notes on the identification of the eight opposite sites of 
Capernaum, the House of Narrow Ways, the Salt, Dead, and BochetailU 
Rivers, Merla, Flans, and Maen, I now turn to one or two interesting 
sites mentioned in yet earlier accounts. 

The Toiver of Ader. This site is first mentioned in Genesis xxxv. 21, 
as the residence of Jacob, and is stated in the Onomasticon to be 1,000 
paces from Bethlehem. Arculphus (a.d. 700) and St. Bernard the Wise 
(a.d. 867) notice it, the fii-st as " containing the monuments of the three 
shepherds to whom, on the spot, the angel announced the birth of our 
Lord," the latter as the " Monastery of the Holy Shepherds," one mile 
from Bethlehem. 

The Mediceval site is recognisable in the Keniset el Ra'wat, a small 
chapel, with pillars and other traces of a larger former building, which 
is to be seen still in use, although the door is generally locked, on the 
outskirts of the Shepherd's Plain east of Bethlehem, and close to Beit 
Sahur el ' Atika. From the context we find that the original place of the 
"Tower of the Flock," as Edar is properly translated, was between 
Rachel's Tomb and Mamre. In Micah (iv. 8), " The Tower of the Flock" 
is mentioned as " the stronghold of the Daughter of Zion," seeming to 
connect it with Jerusalem ; but the identity with the site now discussed 
is doubtful, and it seems to me not at aU improbable that the true site 
of Jacob's Camp is preserved under the tradition of the Shepherd's Plain, 
for considering the extremely rugged and difficult character of the 
coiintry round Bethlehem, there is no spot so well fitted for an encamp- 
ment as is this, especially when we remember that it was occupied 
apparently for a considerable period. 

St. Eustodiium. The number of monasteries upon the plains o 
Jericho was very great, and yet more names are known, but not identified. 
Amongst these is St. Eustochium, which was placed, according to St, 
Willibald, " in the middle of the plain between Jericho and Jerusalem." 



di NOTE ON LIEUT. CONDER's IDENTIFICATION OF NOB. 

The only site which at all fulfils this definition is that of Tell Moghyfer 
(at one time identified with Gilgal), where are remains of a considerable 
convent of early period, fed by aqueducts which come down from Elisha's 
fountain. 

The same writer, who was more enterprising than most of the early 
travellers, mentions Thectia as the site of the murder of many children 
by Herod, and a Saint Zacharias, which is evidently Khirhet Beit SJcaria 
— the ancient Beth Zacharias. This brings back the date of the Church 
at Teku'a (of which only a few pillars and a magnificent octagonal font 
remain) to the eighth century, to which also, from the style of architec- 
ture, we should be inclined to attribute the remains of a church at Beit 
Skaria, now much destroyed, but showing capitals of early Byzantine 
character. 

The Pillar of Salt. The traditional site of Lot's wife appears to have 
been entirely lost to modern writers. Benjamin of Tudela thus describes 
it: — "Two parasangs from the sea (about eight miles) stands the salt 
pillar into which Lot's wife was metamorphosed, and although the sheep 
continually lick it, the pillar grows again, and retains its original shape." 
It appears that the traveller did not visit it. 

Sir John Maundeville (1322) speaks of the same site: — "At the 
right side of the Dead Sea the wife of Lot still stands in likeness of a 
salt stone, because she looked behind her when the cities sunk into 
hell." 

Mandi-ell, in 1697, says: — "On the west side of the sea is a small 
promontory, near which . . . stood the monument of Lot's metamor- 
phosed wife, part of which (if they may be credited) is visible at this 
day." He was not, however, tempted to visit the spot. 

These descriptions seem all to refer to the same j^lace on the west 
shore of the sea, and I would suggest that they refer to the unique 'and 
extraordinary crag which M. Ganneau describes on the western shore 
near to the Hajr el Sulah. This curious pinnacle of rock, standing out 
from the cliflf, and rudely resembling a shrouded figui-e, is called by the 
Arabs, Kurn Sahsi'd Hemeid, a name for which I am unable to give any 
interpretation. It seems well fitted for the legend attached to it, and no 
other monument to which it could have been applied is to be found on 
the north-western shores of the sea. 

Claude E. Condee, Lieut. E.E., 

In Gommand Survey of Palestine. 



NOTE ON LIEUT. CONDEE'S IDENTIFICATION OF NOB. 

It seems to me that in seeking to identify Nob with Neby Samwil, 
Lieut. Conder has completely misunderstood the force and meaning of 
one of the most graphic and picturesque passages in the Bible, that of 



NOTE ON LIEUT. CONDER's IDENTIFICATION OF NOB, 05 

Isaiah x. 28-32, wliicli I give in full, as detaclied sentences are often 
misleading : — 

He comes to Ai, passes through Migron, 

At Michmash deposits his baggage ; 

They cross the pass, Geba is our night station ; 

Terriiied is Raiiiah, Gibeah of Saul flees. 

Shriek with thy voice, daughter of Gallim ; 

Listen, Laish ! Ah ! poor Anathoth ! 

Madmenah escapes, dwellers in Gebim take flight. 

Yet this day he halts at Nob : 

He shakes his hand against the mount, daughter of Sion, 

The hill of Jerusalem. (See Dictionary of Bible, art. Nob.) 

In this passage, if it has a meaning— and I cannot'suppose that it has 
not— the prophet describes, in such detail that it is difficult to believe he 
is not describing an actual event, the march of an Assyrian army upon 
Jerusalem ; and we may be quite certain that, with his knowledge of the 
country, and writing as he did for those who were equally well acquainted 
with it, he would describe a line of march which, under certain condi- 
tions, an army would naturally follow if its special object were 
the capture of Jerusalem. The conditions to which I allude are the 
passage of the great ravine at Michmash {Mukhvias), and encampment 
for the night at Geba [Jeha) ; why this route was selected in preference 
to the easier road along the line of water-parting we have no means of 
ascertaining, and it does not affect the question. 

Of the places mentioned by Isaiah, we know with a considerable 
degree of certainty the positions of Michmash, Geba, Eamah, Gibeah, 
and Anathoth ; of the others nothing is known. From Geba to Nob 
was evidently a day's march in the progress of the army, and the order 
in which the villages are mentioned leads us in the direction of Jerusa- 
lem, and not of Neby Samwil. If we are to suppose that the King of 
Assyria went to Nob simply for the purpose of shaking his hand against 
Jerusalem, the lofty summit of Neby Samwil would answer ad- 
mirably; but if, as I believe, the passage means that the fierce 
Assyrian warrior was leading an army from Geba against Jerusalem, 
and that his progress was suddenly arrested at Nob on the way thither, 
we must seek a site for Nob on the road between those two places ; and I 
cannot imagine a more natural one than some place in the vicinity of 
that Scopus whence, in later years, Titus and his legions looked 
down upon the Holy City. Certainly no general advancing with an 
army from Geba against Jerusalem would lead it to Neby Samwil, a 
high peak four and a half miles from the city, and separated from it by 
an intricate country and the deep ravine of Wady Beit Hanina. 

The only other passage in the Bible which gives any clue to the 
position of Nob, and that a very slight one, is the account of David's 
flight from Eamah to Gath by way of Nob ; it is of course possible that 
David may have reached the Philistine plain by way of Gibeon {El Jib), 
but it is equally possible, and in my opinion more probable, that he took 



96 NOTE ON THE SOUTERRAINS, JERUSALEM. 

the road passing by Jerusalem and BotMelieni, liis native place, whicL. 
was quite as short and convenient, if Gatli were, as there are some reasons 
for believing, at Tell es Safieh. 

The fanciful derivation of the Neby of Neby Samwil from Nob will 
not bear a moment's scrutiny ; there is no reason why this particular 
Neby should be derived from Nob more than any one of the hundred 
other Nebys in Palestine, and the Arabic Neby is hardly an exact repro- 
duction of the Hebrew Nob. It may also be remarked that the tradition 
respecting Neby Samwil is antecedent to the Moslem conquest ; in the 
time of Procopius there was a convent of St. Samuel on the summit, and 
it is only a natural transition from the Christian tomb and convent of 
St. Samuel to the Moslem tomb of the prophet {Nely) Samwil. 

In his attempt to identify Nob with Neby Samwil, Lieut. Conder 
identifies it also with the " high place " of Gibeon, the site of the taber- 
nacle during the early part of Solomon's reign ; this, however, is 
unsupported by any passage in the Bible, and the quotations from the 
Talmud given in Lieut. Conder's paper seem to me to prove conclu- 
sively that Nob and the high place of Gibeon were distinct places. It 
is also reasonable to suppose that after the massacre of the priests at 
Nob the tabernacle would be removed from the scene of so much blood- 
shed ; we do not know when it was erected at Gibeon, but there are 
some grounds for supposing that it was with Saul on Mount Gilboa. Dean 
Stanley has proposed to identify the high place of Gibeon with Neby 
Samwil, but he is careful to state that there are no grounds for the 
supposition except the apparent suitability of the place for the magni- 
ficent ceremonial on the occasion of Solomon's visit ; on the other 
hand, it shoiild be remembered that Neby Samwil is one and a quarter 
miles from El Jib (Gibeon), a distance so great that it would lead us to 
expect the place to have its own distinctive name rather than one derived 
from Gibeon. "We may also observe that Gilgal and Shiloh, where the 
tabernacle rested for many years, were not prominent places ; the Temple 
at Jerusalem was on the lower hill of the two ; and even the temples of 
Jeroboam, at Dan and Bethel, were not on prominent sites such as Neby 
Samwil and many other peaks in Palestine. It would almost seem as if 
these positions were selected as a sort of protest against the general 
custom of worship on the high places, and there is certainly no indication 
that prominence was an object in selecting a resting-place for the taber- 
nacle. C. W. Wilson. 



NOTE ON THE SOUTEEEAINS IN THE NOBLE 
SANCTUAEY, JEEUSALEM. 

A CONSTANT feature of the rock-cut tanlis of Palestine is the rock-cut 
staircase running round the walls from top to bottom ; the small bottle- 
shaped tanks of tAvelve to fifteen feet diameter being an exception to 
the general rule. 



THE TEMPLE OP HEROD. 97 

These staircases may be seen in the tanks at Beit Jebrin, Deir Dubban, 
Maresa, and at Nos. V., VIII., XI., and XXII. in the Noble Sanctuary. 

"We may therefore look for traces of these staircases in Souterrains 
Nos. I., III., and XXIX. ; and not finding them, may we not fairly 
draw the inference — 

1. That these souterrains are not tanks, but are ancient passages, 
which must have entrances and exits not now apparent ? 

2. That if they are tanks, either {a) the' steps have been cut away ; or 
(h) they still remain in the tanks blocked up -with masom-y ? 

As it is very improbable that rock-cut staircases would bo cut away 
without any apparent object for so doing, we may, from the absence of 
these staircases, have much reason for supposing (whether they be tanks 
or no) that these souterrains are of greater extent than the plastered 
walls would at present indicate. It is very desirable that all informa- 
tion on the subject should be collected together, as the matter has an 
important bearing on the question of the site of the Temple. Lieut. 
Condor's recent researches cause renewed interest in the matter. 

Jan. 4, 187*5. Chakles Wabeen. 



THE TEMPLE OF HEEOD. 

[This article and the following note on the tomb of David are reprinted 
from the Athcnceum of Feb. 20th and Feb. Gth respectively, by kind per- 
mission of the proprietors.] 

The measurements of the Temple given in the Mischna are rendered 
with great precision, and are so perfectly intelligible that they have the 
appearance of having been taken on the spot or from a correct plan of 
the buildings. In the works of Josephus, on the other hand, however 
correct may be his descriptions, some of his measurements are given 
with a certain vagueness and want of method, rendering it very difficult 
to realise the form of the buildings he describes, and rather inducing 
the supposition that he spoke to some extent from recollection, and 
was often in want of memoranda or notes for the purpose of refreshing 
his memory. 

For example, he tells us that the old cloisters of King Solomon (Ant. 
XX. ix. 7) were 400 cubits in length ; that Herod, in rebuilding the 
Temple, encompassed a piece of ground twice as large (Bel. I. xxi. 1) as 
that before enclosed, and yet that the courts of Herod measured only a 
stadium or 600 feet a side (Ant. XV. xi. 3). It is not in these passages 
alone that Josephus appears to contradict himself, for, on the several 
occasions when he mentions the size of the Temple courts, there is an 
ambiguity presenting great difficulties. 

I offer a solution to the problem by assuming that the 600 with regard 
to Herod's outer courts should be applied to cubits instead of feet ; that 
Josephus' s I memory recalled the 600 feet, which is the measure (by my 
construction from the Talmud) of the length of the Inner Court, and ap- 



98 THE TEMPLE OP IIEROD. 

plied it ill en-or to the 600 cubits of the outer coui-t. This solution wUl 
clear up the anomalies in Josephus's own text, and will allow it to agree 
with the Talmudic measurements. 

From this standpoint let us reconstruct the outer courts of Herod, 
represented on the exterior by the east, west, and south walls of the 
present Noble Sanctuary, and by a line defining the exterior of north wall 
drawn parallel to northern edge of raised platform, 8 cubits north of 
the Golden Gate. These walls, measuring respectively 1,090, 1,138, 922, 
and 997 feet, give an average of 593 cubits, a very close approximation 
to the 600 cubits I have imputed to Josephus. If we now allow 8 cubits 
(Bel. VI. V. 1) for the wall all round, 30 cubits (Bel. V. v. 2) for width of 
cloisters on north, east, and west sides, and 105 feet (Ant. XV. xi. 5) for 
that of the Southern Cloister, we obtain an average length of 505 cubits 
for inner sides of these cloisters, th'e Talmudic measurement being 500 
cubits, this again being a close approximation. "We thus obtain coin- 
cidence between the external measurements of the Mischna and of 
Josephus. Within the area thus obtained let us re-construct the plan of 
Temple and courts according to the above authorities, and observe what 
buildings, souterrains, and cisterns now in situ can be identified with 
portions of the Temple of Herod. 

The Golden Gate (the old foxmdations of which are still in situ) will 
now be found to form a continuation of the double wall of the Northern 
Cloisters to the east, just as the Arch of Eobinson led from the Southern 
Cloisters to the west. The Golden Gate is thus that on which "was 
portrayed the city Shushan. Through it one could see the High Priest, 
who burnt the heifer, and his assistants going out to the Mount of 
Olives." There appear to have been steps on arches leading down from 
this gate into the Cedron towards the east, and leading up again past 
the southern end of present Garden of Gethsemane : even now (see 
Ordnance Survey 'toooo) there are stone walls in the valley which per- 
haps may indicate the line of these steps ; they appear to have ascended 
again to east, and, reaching the present road to Bethany, to have con- 
tinued south-east on to a spot on level 2,460 feet just below some exist- 
ing ruins shown on the Survey plan. 

From this spot a view could have been obtained direct over the east 
wall, through the Gate Nicanor, over the altar into the Sanctuary. The 
production of this visual line to east passes through the centre of the 
present open court of the Ascension on summit of Olivet. 

On this east wall, in which the Golden Gate is built, are, at the south- 
east angle, the Phoenician characters in red paint, establishing the 
great antiquity of this wall, and on which, until the destruction of 
Jerusalem, stood the Porch or Cloister erected by King Solomom (Ant. 
XX. ix. 7). 

The Temple lies square to the west wall of the outer court, its western 
end coincident with the western side of raised platform, and its southern 
side eleven feet south of southern end of said platform. 

This position is governed in some measure by the following passages 



THE TEMPLE OP HEROD. 



99 



in Joscphus : — Ant. XV. xi. o, Ant. XX. viii. 11, Bel. II. xvi, 3, where it 
is stated that King Agrippa built himself a dining-room (overlooking 
the Inner Courts of the Temple) in the palace of the Asamoneans, which 
was situated at the northern extremity of the Upper City overlooking 
the Xystus, where the Bridge (Wdson's Ai-ch) joined the Temple to the 




Xystus. It can be seen on plan that in order to see into the Inner Court 
it would be necessary to be in a line parallel to the side of the court, 
and thus the position can bo fixed to within a few feet either from the 
northern or the southern portion of the Inner Court. Taking other 



100 THE TEMPLE OP HEROD. 

matters into consideration, it is apparent that it was the southern portion 
which King Agrippa buUt his dining-room to overlook. 

The Altar, as suggested in "Eecoveryof Jerusalem," p. 207, stands 
over the western end of Souterrain No. V., a remarkable underground 
passage, which may well have served as a communication under the 
courts of the Temple in connection with the great water system neces- 
sary for keeping in order the Temple courts ; whether it may have led 
from the altar to the Blood-passage, which apjaears to have been dis- 
covered at the south-east angle of Noble Sanctuary, or whether it 
connected the Gates Mokhad and Nitsots with the waterworks, or 
whether it was the underground communication to Gate Nicanor (Ant. 
XV. xi. 6), under which it runs, is not yet certain ; possibly it may have 
served for all these purposes, but in either case it would have been a 
passage of some imj)ortance. There is a legend in Mejir ed Din that 
one of the ancient kings threw a roll from Olivet, which fell near the 
portion of raised platform where No. V. is situated : it is possible that 
this may have some reference to the concealment of the volume of the 
Sacred Law in this souterrain. The plan of Temple and Courts is con- 
structed entu-ely from the Talmud ; the chambers of the court can only 
be obtained from the descriptions in the absence of any measurements. 
The three gates to Inner Court, both on north and south, are placed at 
equal intervals from each other, and from the corners of the courts. 
The Gate Nitsots falls in such a manner that the Sakhra Cave entrance 
opens into it: this cave would appear to be continued through into 
Souterrain No. 1, forming a passage to the Gate Tadj. This may 
be the passage into the chU mentioned in the Talmud as leading 
from Nitsots, and, if in connection with No. V. Souterrain, it 
would have been also the occult leading from Antonia to the Gate 
Nicanor, made for King Herod (Ant. XV. xi. 6). Between this and 
the Gate Corban lies the rock over which the present dome is buUt. 
On this fall the chambers of the washers and of Parva. The drain dis- 
covered on the top of the rock may be the passage by which the refuse 
from the " inwards " was carried off. 

The room Parva lies directly over the Sakhra Cave, and the notes in 
the Talmud (see " Prospect of the Temple," p. 377) are sufficiently 
curious, and appear to prove a complete identification. " Parvah is the 
name of a man who was a magician, and there are some of the wise 
men that say that he digged a vault underground till he could come to 
see what the high priest did on the day of expiation." 

The gates, according to the Talmud (" Prospect," p. 326), were 46f 
cubits from centre to centre, and, if we produce the Souterrain No. III. 
upon the line of the Inner Court, we find it falls upon the Gate Mokhad. 
The position of this Souterrain and the chambers in it apjaear to coin- 
cide very closely to the chambers spoken of as leading from Mokhad. 
It passes obliquely towards where Souterrain No. I. is supposed to run 
out at the gate Tadi, on northern edge of raised platform. The Mischna 
tells U8, " in the gallery that went under the chel he passed out through 



THE TEMPLE OP HEROD, 101 

Tadi." Again wc read, "tlie priest gets out and goes along in tlie 
gallery that goetli under the Temple, and candles flare on every side, 
tiU he Cometh to the bath-place ; " and, again, "he gocth down a turn- 
ing staircase that went under the Temple." Dr. Lightfoot says that it 
was some vault undergroimd through which they passed from the north- 
west room of Mokhad, and thence to Gate Tadi. The position and shape 
of Souterrain No. III., vnth its chamber adjoining, appear to exactly 
fulfil the requirements of the case. 

In the southern side of the Inner Court the chamber of the draw-well 
lies just north of Cistern No. VI., and not far from No. XXXVI., 
which two cisterns are in communication with the large tanks of the 
southern portion of the Noble Sanctuary, and with the water supply 
from Solomon's Pools and Wady Biyar. Dr. Lightfoot (p. 351) supposes 
the house of Abtinas to have been over the chamber of the draw-well, 
and the Mischna tells us that the priests guarded the Sanctuary in three 
places : in house of Abtinas, in the house Nitsots, and in the house 
Mokhad. 

We thus find the priests guarding the Inner Court at the three 

points where there were subterranean communications with the exterior. 

The Huldah Gates are represented by the double and triple gates 

on south side, the latter of which was also formerly a double gate, 

its old foundations being still visible. 

The western gates are stiU in situ, that leading from Souterrain 
No. XXX., south of Bab al Mathera,;is the gate (Ant. XV. xi. 5) leading 
to the other city, or Acra, by a great number of steps down into the 
valley, and thence up again by the ascent. This may be the Gate 
Kipunus spoken of in the Mischna, the meaning of which word is 
"hole" or "through passage" ("Prospect," p. 226), giving a correct 
description of this vaulted descent. 

South of this is the bridge or causeway leading over the valley north 
of the Xystus to the Upper City, along the first wall, at Bab as Silsile. 
This causeway is stUl in situ, except at Wilson's Arch, where a more 
modern construction has replaced the ancient bridge. 

Further south are the two suburban gates (Ant. XV. xi. 5) at Bab al 
Magharibe and Eobrnson's Arch. 

In the absence of fm-ther information, the shape and position of the 
Castle Antonia must remain highly conjectural ; probably it stood on 
site of the modern Military Serai, comiected with the Outer Court of 
Temple by two passages or cloisters. 

The plan now put forward is thus shown to suit the features of the 
ground in a remarkable degree, and to coincide with existing ancient 
remains. 
Throughout this article the cubit is assumed to be 21 inches. 

C. Waeeen. 



102 THE TOMB OF DAVID. 

THE TOMB OF DAVID. 

January 21th, 1875. 

We leaiTi (Joseplius, Bel. V., iii. 2) that Titus, wlien besieging Jeru- 
salem, wished to pitch his camp nearer the city, and for this purpose 
made all the place level from Scopus to Herod's Monument. 

Again we read (Bel. V., vii. 3) that Titus, on getting within the city, 
took up his position at the place called " The Camp of the Assyrians," 
and that Herod's Monimient (Bel. V., xiii. 3) was near to the camj) on 
north-east of Jerusalem. 

We know (from Ant. XV., ix. 4 ; Bel. I., xxxiii. 2, and other pas- 
sages) that Herod was buried in the fortress Herodium, which he had 
built for himself, eight miles south of Jerusalem, and we have no account 
of any of Herod's family having been biu-ied at Jerusalem. 

Whence then arises the term " Herod's Monument" {iJ.yriiJ.e7oi'), applied 
to the erection on north-east of Jerusalem ? 

The answer appears to be supplied by Ant. XVI. vii. 1, where it is 
related that Herod, having met with some strange obstacles in his 
attempt to plunder David's Tomb, built a propitiatory monument 
[ixyrj/xa.) in white stone at the mouth of the Sepulchre. 

From this it follows that the entrance to David's sepulchre was 
situate outside the north wall of Jerusalem to the east. 

On turning to the account of the city wall (Bel. V., iv. 2), we read 
that the north wall, after passing by the royal caverns (translated by 
Whiston, " sepulchral cavern of the kings "), bent again at the tower of 
the corner. 

The propitiatory monument would thus have stood near the royal 
caverns, which may have contained the sepulchi-es of the kings. 

If we now examine the ground itself, regarding the present north 
wall as on the site of the old outer wall, we find the extensive caverns, 
or subterranean quarries, called the Cotton Grotto, to be situated on 
the spot where we would expect to find the royal caverns. 

These quarries were apparently used in getting out the stone for the 
ancient buildings of Jerusalem, and it has been surmised (by Major 
Wilson, I think) that the blocks were brought down on an incHne to 
the Temple platform through an opening to the south now lost to 
view. 

May we suppose that David, having hewn the stones from these 
quarries ready for the building of the Temple, took advantage of the 
subterranean recesses thus afforded for the formation of his sepulchre ? 

Portions of the roof of these quarries have fallen in, which may pre- 
vent effectual search, but it is possible that further examination may 
result in the discovery of the continuation of the cavern to the south, and 
advance us a further step in our knowledge of the Holy City. 

Major WUson (p. 50, Vol. II., "Palestine Exploration Fund," 1872) 
proposes to identify the aqueduct which runs over the Cotton Grotto to 
Convent of Sisters of Sion, -with the conduit of the upper pool in the 



GREEK INSCRIPTION. 103 

highway of the fuller, by which Eabshakch stood when he addressed 
the Jews on the walls of the city (2 Kings xvii. 17). In this he appears 
to be borne out by the account of Josephus, who places (Bel. V., iv. 2) 
the royal caverns (Cotton Grotto) near the Fuller's Monument. Major 
Wilson also suggests that this conduit was cut across near the grotto in 
the time of Herod, and this appears to strengthen my proposal as 
regards the Tomb of David, and accounts for its entrance being found on 
north side of the city. 

I suppose that on first cutting into the quarries of the Eoyal Cavern 
the entrance was to the south, opposite the Temple, the entrance to 
the royal tombs also being in same place, that this continued until 
after time of Xehemiah (Neh. iii. 16). On the re-building of the 
Temple by Herod, the ditch was cut to north of present wall, exposing 
to view the northern end of the cavern ; and this new entrance being 
well outside the city was used in preference to the old southern entrance, 
which may possibly have been filled in for defensive reasons. The 
conduit of the upper pool (2 Kings xvii. 17) is so often supposed by the 
best authorities to be identical with the upper water-course of Gihon 
(2 Chron. xx. 30) that I should mention that I consider them to be 
quite distinct ; the former entering the city (as suggested by Major 
Wilson) over the Cotton Grotto, the latter entering at the Tower of 
Hippicus (Bel. V., vii. 3), near the present Jaffa Gate, and rimning 
straight down to the west side of the City of David (2 Chron. xxii. 30) 
into the pool of the Bath, otherwise called Hezekiah's Pool, which I 
suppose to be Gihon in the Valley (2 Chron. xxxiii. 14). 

Charles Warren. 



GEEEK INSCRIPTION. 
In the Quarterly Statement received this morning I observe, at page 19, 
an imperfect inscription, of which Lieutenant Conder remarks it " seems 
to have been only a text or religious sentence." No doubt many others 
will find no difficulty in completing the text, but in case it should not 
have been so obvious as it seems to me, I beg to send you the solution. 

E. B. FiNLAY. 
' Folkestone, January 16, 1875. 

Psalm cxviii. 20 (Septungint, Psalm cxvii.). — Auttj rj ttwAtj tov Kvpiov Si/caioj 
fltT€\(V(rovTai eV aurjj. 

AYTHHn(T) 

(A)HTOTKT(P) 

lOTAIKAIO 

IEIC(E)AET(;(0NT) 

AIENAT(,THI) 



104 INSCRIPTION AT EL GEBAL. 

INSCRIPTION AT EL GEBAL. 

M DE Vogue, French Ambassador at Constantinople, lias recently 
made a communication to the Academic des Inscriptions et Belles 
Lettres, of wlucli lie is himself a member, on a Phoenician inscription 
found at Byblos, the Biblical Gebal. It contains fifteen lines, the sixth 
and the seventh of which are much damaged on the right-hand side, and 
many letters in other parts of the inscription are scarcely to be recog- 
nised. We are informed by M. J. Derenboiu-g that the bas-relief 
represents the goddess Baaltis, in the shape and -with the emblems of 
the Egyptian Isis, the king Yehumeleldi in a Persian costume facing 
her, and offering her a cup which he holds in his hand. Since we know 
that the kings of Gebal are represented in Greek costume on other bas- 
rehefs, we may date the present inscrij)tion from the Persian time. As 
far as we are informed, the inscription does not contain historical facts, 
but important contributions to Phoenician grammar and lexicography, 
which we shall enumerate, partly according to the kind communication 
of M. Derenbourg. 1. The pronoun XT and ]T in the inscription, such 
being a composition of the Hebrew T of HT and the A-amaic K and I of 
Xn and p. 2. The i occurring for the first time in Phoenician inscriptions 
as the possessive pronoun of the third person. 3. mn, "to live," for 
n^n, root which we find in the name of Hava (Eve), and probably in the 
avo in the Foenulus of Plautus. 4. The root yin, in the sense of carving, 
and pj3 Avith the meaning of " grandson." — Academy, Feb. o, 1875. 



Quarterly Statement, July, 1875.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 



PREFACE. 

The followiug jiages contain the linal reports on tlie survey of 
the south of Palestine, with accounts of ]\Iasada, Gaza, Gerar, the 
Shefalah, Gath, Adullam, Keilah, Ascalon, Ashdod, the Crusading 
sites, the caves, and Roman camps. Tlie papers written by Lieu- 
tenant Conder and M. Clermont-Ganneau, separately, on the site 
of AduDam, will be found, between them, to give everything that 
can be urged in favour of a site whose identification, if it be 
accepted, will remove many difiiculties. 

The survey of Avestern Palestine, which lias occupied the Com- 
mittee for four years and a half, noAv approaches completion. It 
is calculated that another year's work iu the country will finish 
it completely. The work of the Americans Avill be fitted in to 
our own, and the whole may be expected to be published in the 
course of the next three years. As yet nothing has been decided 
as to the manner of publication. 

In April last the Committee asked for j£3,50O before the end 
of the year. One-third of thjs sum has already been received 

I 



106 KOTES. 

since tliat date. Perliaps subscribers will remember tbat tlie 
summer montlis are comparatively barren, and tliat those who for- 
ward their subscriptions at once are helping the Committee to 
tide over the dead season. A great part of the debt has already 
been cleared, and the Committee look confidently to work it oft" 
cc>mpletely before the end of the year. 



NOTES. 

While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications by ofRcers 
of tbe Fund, the Committee beg it to be distinctly understood that tliey leave 
such proposals to be discussed on their own merits, and that by publishing them 
in the Quarterly Statement the Committee do not sanction or adopt them. 



Annual subscribers are earnestly requested to forward their subscriptions for 
the current year at their earliest convenience and without waiting for apphcation. 
It is best to cross all cheques to Coutts and Co., and if so crossed they may be 
safely left payable to bearer. 



The Committee are always grateful for the return of old numbers of the 
Quarte7-Iy Statement, especially those which are advertised as out of print. 



At a meeting of the General Committee held on June 22ud, 1875, Mr. WiUiani 
Longman in the chair, the following were added to the General Committee : — 
Tlie President of the American Association. 
Eev. Dr. Joseph Barclay. 
Mr, John Cunliffe. 
Rev. F. W. Farrar, D.D. 
M. Clermont-Ganneau. 
Mr. Holman Hunt. 
General Sir Henry Jamesg 
Mr. F. Leighton, R.A. 



107 

Mr. Henry Maudslay. 
Sir Charles Nicholson. 
Herr retermann. 
Viscount Sandon, 
Dr. Sandreczk}^ 

It was also resolved that the Executive Committee should in future all resign 
at the annual meeting of the General Committee in June. 

The following gentlemen were then elected from the General Committee, to 
serve as an Executive Committee for 1875-76 ; — 
Mr. S. Birch, LL.D. 
Mr. J. D. Grace. 
Mr. W. Hepworth Dixon, 
Professor Donaldson. 
Mr. F. A. Eaton. 
Jlr. Glaisher, 
Mr. "William Longman. 
Mt. Henry Maudslay. 
Eev. Canon Tristram. 
Mr. AY. S. W. Vaux, F.R.S. 
Capt. Warren, R.E. 
Major Wilson, R.E. 
The honorary ofticers were re-elected. 



The amount received from all sources from March 22nd to Juno 30th was 
£950 5s. 7d. The balance of current account at the latter date was £320 10s. 

In the last Quarterly Statement, page 61, it was stated that the amount 
received from June 1st to Alarch 22nd was £1,439 14s. 5d. ; it should have been 
from January 1st. 



M. Ganneau's paper has been unavoidably delayed in publication. It is 
expected to appear in the August number of 3[acmillans Marjazinc. 



The second American expedition is now (July 7th) in London on its way to 
Syria. It is commanded by Colonel S. Lane, who has with him the Rev. 
Selah Merrill, Mr. Treat, and Mr. Rudolph Meyer. 



108 NOTES. 

At Beyroiit his party will be increased by the accession of a photographer. 
The graduated students of the Syrian Protestant College will act as his Arabic 
interpreters. The tract of country which Colonel Lane proposes to triangulate 
jcaches from the soiith of the Dead Sea to Damascus, and has an average widtli 
of forty miles. He considers that two years will suffice for the completion of 
liis survey. 



Ladies desirous of joining the Ladies' Association are requested to com- 
samiicate with 3Irs. Finn, Tlie Elms, Brook Green, London, W. 



ANNUAL GENERxVL MEETING OF THE PALESTINE 

EXPLORATION FUND. 

HELD AT THE ROYAL INSTITUTION, lOrii JUNE, 1875. 

His Ghace the AiicnBisHOP of York in the Chair. 

The Chaieman : I call upon Mr. George Grove to read the Eeport, 

Mr. Grove read the Eeport as follows : — 

" The Committee rejoice in being enabled to report a year of nnia- 
terrupted progress and thoroughly sound work. 

" The archcGological mission of M. Clermont-Ganneau, for which his 
services had been granted for one year by the French Foreign Office, 
terminated in November last, when he returned to Europe. 

"Reports of his labours were published as they arrived in the Quarterly 
Statements of the Fund ; these will now be re-written and published in a 
single volume, which the Committee hope to issue in the autumn of the 
present year, when the importance of his discoveries will be folly 
recognised. 

" The present work of the Committee consists wholly of the survey. 

"A heavy loss was siistained last year in the lamentable death of 
Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake, which took place on the very day of the Annual 
Meeting. His place has been taken by Lieut. H. H. Kitchener, of the 
Eoyal Engineers. 

"The party now consists of Lieuts. Conder and Kitchener, Corporals 
Armstrong, Brophy, and Junor, with a Syrian scribe. 

" Field work was resumed in October in the hill country south of 
Judah, a little known and most important part of Palestine. It was 
interrupted for a short time . by the extremely severe weather of 
January, but, by the last account received a few days ago, the Com- 
mittee are enabled to report that in spite of this drawback the whole 
of the south country, including Philistia, with the exception of a very- 
small area, is now completely triangulated. Fifteen hundred square 
miles have been added to the map since the last meeting. The survey 
has not been confined to map-making alone. Among the more impor- 
tant identifications proposed or confirmed by Lieut. Conder are those 
of the Hill of Hachilah, the Rock of Maon, Zanoah, Arab, Maarath, 
Chozeba, Beth Zetho, the Levitical City of Debir, the Cave of Adullam, 
the Tower of Ader, the Forest of Hareth, the Wood of Ziph, the Altar 
of Ed, the Ford of Bethabara, and many others. Some idea of the work 
done by the surveying party may be gathered from the facts that during 
the spring campaign alone 1,000 square miles have been surveyed, and 
1,067 names, a very large number of which were previously unknown, 
have been collected. 



110 THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

" Further, Lievit. Conder reports in his last letter thirty new identifi- 
cations, the details of which he reserves until he has been able to consult 
books. It will be understood that such archa3ological results as are 
obtained in the course of exhausting labours in triangulation must not 
be taken as part of the duty which the oflQ.cerB are sent out to execute, so 
much as additional proofs, if any were needed, of their zeal and ability. 
The real work for which Lieuts. Conder and Kitchener are responsible is 
the great map of Palestine. 

" Two of the most valuable discoveries of the year are due to 
M. Clermont-Granneau. The first of these is that of the boundary of 
Gezer. He has found in situ, and absolutely for the first time, the actual 
inscriptions marking the limits of a Levitical city. There are two of 
these, carved on the rock, in Greek and square Hebrew, and pointing 
probably to a Maccabean date, which contain the word Gezer precisely as 
it is written in the Bible. Casts of the inscrijotions have been sent to 
England, and a full account of this precious contribution to Biblical 
research will be found in M. Ganneau's new volume. This discovery is 
the more interesting as it confu-ms the theory which M. Ganueau had 
already advanced on the site of Gezer. The fact, also, that the name of 
the place is still Tell Jezer, furnishes another illustration of the vitality 
of Bible names. The second discovery is that of the city of Adullam. 
The name had been found and the place visited by M. Ganneau in 1871, 
and again in 1874. It was first mentioned in Captain Burton's " Un- 
explored Syria " (1873). Lieut. Conder has now, acting on M. Ganneau's 
information, visited and examined the site in the course of the sui'vey. 

" The identification of the Altar of Ed must not be passed over. This 
most striking recovery of a site mentioned only once in the Bible, and 
belonging almost to the earliest history of the Hebrew race, is entirely 
due to Lieut. Conder. Full particulars have already been published. 

" The total area surveyed up to this time reaches the amount of 4,430 
square miles, leaving some 1,500 miles still to be filled in. To this must 
• be added the reconnaisance of the Negeb or south country, on the com- 
pletion of which the survey of "Western Palestine will be finished. The 
Committee can now with reasonable confidence promise that a complete 
and exhaustive map of the whole of Western Palestine — including, that 
is, nine-tenths of the scenes of the Bible narrative — will be brought to 
England in the autumn of 1876 and given to the world about a year later. 
" This invaluable and enduring work will be the result of the subscrip- 
tions of private individuals united by the one common bond of being 
students of the Bibie; it will be completed without State aid, and once 
finished will be a work for all time absolutely indispensable to every 
future student of the Bible. As the survey approaches completion the 
Committee feel more deeply thankful, not only that the necessary funds 
have been subscribed by their friends, but also that it has been carried 
on without hindrance or opposition, and up to the present time without 
any serious check. 

"The Committee of the American Association are now sending out 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. Ill 

their second expedition. It ■will be commanded by Colonel Lane, who 
"will have under his orders Herr Rudolph Meyer, of Hamburg, as 
•assistant surveyor, and the liov. Selah Merrill as archajologist. The 
New York Committee have sot aside the sum of £6,000 to meet the 
expenses for the two years which, it is believed, the survey of Moab 
and the country east of Jordan will require. It is worthy of remark 
that whereas most of our income is derived from one-guinea subscribers, 
the larger part of the money raised by the American Society has been 
subscribed by leading New York merchants. 

' ' The Committee have to report that a special cflfort has been made in 
Manchester to raise the sum of £i300, more than half of which, by the 
liberality of the residents in that city, has been already forwarded to 
the London office. The expenses of one man. Corporal Junor, will be 
wholly defrayed by the Manchester subscribers. 

" The income of the Fund since the last annual meeting has been up 
to this morning, from all sources, £4,179 I83. lid., and the amount 
received since the 1st of January is £2,103 4s. od., being £550 more 
than that subscribed up to the same date of last year. The cost of the 
expeditions in Palestine has been £3,500. 

"The Committee have realised during the year, by the sale of their 
books and publications, the sum of £160. They have just published the 
eighth edition of their small popular book callel'OurWork in Palestine.' 

" The present year was commenced under a heavy load of debt but a 
diminished expenditure. About half of the liabilities have been already 
•cleai-ed off. 

" Among the donations received within the last twelve months must 
be specially mentioned those of the British Association, the Syrian 
Improvement Committee, Mr. Charles Morrison, the Grocers' Company, 
and an anonymous donor whose initals are " G. M. E." These have 
each given £100 to the Fund. Dr. Peter Wood, Miss Chafyn Grove, 
•and the Mercers' Company, have also given £50 and 50 guineas 
respectively. 

" The Edinburgh Local Association has sent £100, Leeds £65, and 
Newark (an association of ladies) £77, and smaller sums have been 
received from other Local Associations. ' 

"To these donors, to the city companies, to the hon. secretaries who 
have given their personal exertions to the cause, and to all their friends 
and subscribers, the Committee desire to express their most sincere 
thanks." 

The Chairman: My Lords, Ladies and Gentlemen, — It is not my 
fault that I occupy this chair again this year. It would have been much 
more in accordance with my feelings if I could have made way for some 
worthier person instead of occupying this responsible post. I have no 
pretension to be connected with the inner working of this Society, for I 
feel myself rather in this position to represent the figure-head of the 
ship, while Mr. Grove maybe likened to the engine that gives it its 
I'apidity and successful motion. At the same time, in zeal for the 



112 THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

objects of this Fund, I yield to none. No member of this Association 
watches its proceedings with a greater wish for its success than I do 
myself. I am obliged to repeat what I have said in former years, be- 
cause it is necessary for the chairman to say something of the general 
purposes of the Association. I have, however, first to mention that I 
have received a letter from that venerable man, Sir Moses Montefiore, 
who regrets his inability to attend the meeting, and I have also a letter 
from the Eev. William "Wright, who was advertised to speak at this 
meeting, but who finds he cannot attend. I shall presently give way to 
the Earl of Shaftesbury, and no one is more fully entitled to speak to a 
meeting of this kind than the President of the Bible Society, because 
we are in our way a kind of Bible Society. We have also to-day to 
welcome the Rev. Dr. Barclay, who for many years lived at Jerusalem, 
and who there welcomed and assisted our explorers to the utmost of his 
power. We have also the presence of Captain Burton, who has been our 
Consul at Damascus, a gentleman whom it would bo impertinent in me 
to praise, whose reputation is of European growth, and who, I am sure, 
does not requii-e a word of mine to introduce to you. We have, more- 
over, to welcome the Eev. Horrocks Cocks, who has paid great attention 
to this subject. I will now proceed to discharge my duty in the best 
way in my power. This Society was instituted some years ago for 
the purpose of increasing our knowledge of the Holy Land, and at 
our first meeting it was surprising to listen to the testimony of people 
representing almost every field of human knowledge to the effect that 
we knew very little about tho Holy Land. Many had visited it, and a 
great deal of excellent and accurate work had been done, and if I were 
permitted to lift my hand I could point out some of the principal explorers 
in that sacred country. But they found that they could do but little. 
The work of exploration in Palestine is attended with great expense, 
great risk to health and life, if continued month after month and year 
after year ; and it was found that there must be some organisation with 
a good long purse in the background, so that when one investigator is 
weary another might be found to take his place. I am obliged to say it 
is not merely that weariness may overtake them, but sometimes they sink 
under their exertions. Only a year ago Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake, as you know, 
lost his life in our cause. The Society whose claims we are now consider- 
ing takes its origin from the meeting I refer to, and there is no cause, on 
the whole, to say that we have been unsuccessful in the high task we then 
proposed to ourselves. It is very true that persons who do not accurately 
attend to the subject might have expected greater and more sudden 
results; not those who did give attention to it, and who knew the country, 
because they knew that the Avork would necessarily lie underground, and 
that work of this kind is necessarily slow and difficult ; and as Sir 
Henry Eawlinson said at one of our meetings, our explorers are not 
always very welcome to householders in that country. I am sure we 
can well understand that, for if I knew that a gentleman was burrowing 
100 feet under York Minster, it is very probable that I should wish to 



THE ANXUAL MEETING. 113 

go down myself and put a stop to his operations ; and we find that 
persons in Jerusalem take the same line of action. Wo have done a good 
deal of exploration in Jerusalem itself. Those among you who have 
looked at our Quarterly Statements and the Reports of Major Wilson 
and Captain Warren, and particularly the book called " The Eecovery of 
Jerusalem," must have come to the conclusion that a great deal has been 
done by this Society in the way of actual exploration. But we have for the 
last three years turned our attention in another direction — namely, to the 
survey of the country of Palestine. We depart somewhat from our origi- 
nal undertaking about the poetry and romance of exploration, in com- 
parison with which a survey of the land is a most prosaic thing. The 
signification of the names of places, and putting them upon the map, 
would appear to be no better or worse than going on our own hill-tops and 
making an ordnance survey of England. Nevertheless, I may appeal to 
every geographer and man of science whether we have not taken the right 
line in endeavouring to get a great work completed upon which many 
future discoveries might be hung. And here, to our general astonish- 
ment, we find that we had a great deal to do. The outer black line shown 
upon that map on the wall marks out what has been already triangulated. 
There is a little j^ortion at the bottom which has not yet been done, but all 
the rest is as correctly laid down as our own ordnance survey of England. 
Now, I do say this is the very work for the people of England to under- 
take. The people of England have done more for the Bible than any other 
people in the world. They have circulated more copies over the face 
of the earth, and I believe they have read it more than any other 
people ; and, if so, oui- going on to pay attention to the scene or stage 
upon which the great events recorded in the Bible transpired was a 
natural and logical proceeding on our part. Wo pride ourselves on being 
a logical people, and on a belief that no obstacles can daunt us. If there is 
a mountain higher than the rest in all the world, half a dozen Englishmen 
wUl be sure to be climbing up it. If there is ever an expedition involv- 
ing some kind of danger in it, an Englishman is sure to volunteer to go 
upon it. It was said that people could not be found to go in the Arctic 
Expedition which has recently left our shores, but it was soon found that 
there were not only plentj^ of volunteers well qualified for the work, but 
others who it was thought would not be able to survive the rigors of 
the climate, and who were rejected on that account. And in like manner 
we have gone in for this Survey of Palestine. I will admit that it has 
cost a great deal of money, and people may say, " Oh, your box of oint- 
ment might have been sold for a great deal and given to the poor, and 
there are many things that you might have given your money for which 
wou.ld have been better than that." But I do not admit that argument. 
It is always used in the wrong place, and by the wrong people. It is 
used by those who wish to give to the poor, but it is not as if there was 
only one purse. The wealth of the earth is great, and the wealth of the 
people of England is enormous, and the wealth we have drawn fi-om it 
is not worth mentioning. What is the money spent for a purpose like 



114 THE ANKUAL MEETING. 

tills to the honour and glory of the people of England. What is it to the 
130 millions of money which they spend for their drink every year ? But 
I approach the subject from a totally different side. So far from taking 
money from higher and better objects, if higher and better there be, it is 
taken for the purpose of increasing our interest in that religion which 
we profess, and to which we belong, and to give a higher aim and open 
fresh sources to our benevolence, so that the poor will still take the benefit 
of our exertions, and a purer tone of thought will be created about these 
things. Therefore on that score I have not the slightest sympathy with 
the objectors to our proceedings. We are striving to get a rich nation, 
which is spending thousands and thousands on its amusements, to spend 
a little in order to put on record an object worthy of the nation. But we 
are no monopolists. Every man, whatever his profession or religion may 
be, or whatever country he belongs to, may co-operate with us. It is 
true that an archbishop of the English Church occupies the chair of 
your Committee, but on that Committee are members of the most various 
denominations, and there is only one qualification for a supporter of this 
Fund, that he shall feel an interest in the land of the Bible, and a desire 
to promote a knowledge of that land. With regard to other nations, I may 
remind you that while we are exploring Palestine on one side of Jordan, 
the Americans are exploring it on the other side. And we have here a 
proof of what I wish to draw your attention to, and that is the power we 
have to raise up an interest in the subject in others who have not yet 
taken an interest in it. Here are two great peoples busy in exploring 
Palestine. America is a younger sister of England, and, I say it 
with great respect, perhaps a little emulous of her elder sister ; but 
she does not sit down and grumble at what we are doing, she wishes 
to take a share in our work, and, iu fact, we are working in entire 
harmony ; and when the question was asked about the copyright of the 
map which we shall produce together, it was answei-ed immediately that 
there is not the slightest reason to suppose that our American brethren 
will offer any difficulty in that respect. That is, of course, very 
delightful, and it will do a great deal of good in eveiy way. I have a 
little sheet here, issued by Mr. Henry Maudslay, who has been explor- 
ing at his own expense, which is most valuable and important ; and 
I dare say Mr. Maudslay would admit that the fact of our having 
paid attention to the subject turned his own attention to it : eo that, besides 
the work we do ourselves, we stimulate enterprise and interest in this 
direction, and I have no doubt we shall in time have a great many explo- 
rations going on besides our own. With regard to this Survey of Pales- 
tine, it may be supposed after all that there is very little to do beyond 
the triangulation of well-known sites. I do not pretend to give an 
explanation of the operations of surveying, but I know it is a great 
organised system of research, and that it requires the very closest re- 
search. It is all very well for a policeman to walk up and down Regent 
Street, but that is a very different thing from a house-to-house visitation 
and exploration of the lanes and alleys adjoining it. We have to search 



THE ANNUAL MEETING, 115 

in every hole and corner of the country and see what is there, and 
classify everything iu proper form. We know that in the best maps of 
Palestine eight fords of the Jordan are marked, but we have ascertained 
that there are about fifty across the river. What is topography if it 
does not give the roads and passages across the country ? Upon the 
whole, not to detain you longer, our object is to know Palestine through 
and through, to work with every one who will assist us ; and oftr reason for 
turning to Palestine is that Palestine is our country. I have used that 
expression before, and I refuse to adopt any other. That is my country, 
which has given me the laws by which I try to live — which has given me 
the best knowledge I possess — that is my country, to which I look for 
rules in the conduct of my life — in which has dwelt my King and my 
Lord. England is my country, I know it and feel it, but Palestine also 
is my country. I am sure you all know and feel as I do, and that is the 
reason you take such an interest in the quiet work of this excellent 
Society. (Cheers.) I have now great pleasure in calling upon the Earl 
of Shaftesbury to move the first resolution. (Cheers.) 

The Eight Hon. the Eakl of Shaftesbury, K.G. : — May it please your 
Grace, Ladies and Gentlemen, — It has always appeared to me a matter 
of great wonder in past times that men did not rush by common con- 
sent into the exploration of the Holy Land ; but since the discoveries 
which have been made, and the certainty of greater treasures which are 
yet to be developed, I am joerfectly astonished that our Report should 
only represent an income of about £4,000 a year — and as to those 
antagonists of this Society who complain of the waste of money which we 
expend on foreign objects, I repudiate it altogether. Gentlemen of that 
kind might well be informed of the advice which Bishop Stanley, of 
Norwich, gave me many years ago. He was often pestered by similar 
remarks, but he said, " Whenever I give a guinea to go across the water, 
I give a guinea to be spent on this side of it." These are convenient 
arguments which cover parsimony under a pretext of discrimination. I 
have not in this matter any great geographical or antiquarian knowledge ; 
though I have a strong antiquarian feeling on the subject. I have 
always considered this question upon a broader basis, and therefore this 
resolution is one of the most satisfactory I ever moved in my life, 
although the words in which it is expressed are somewhat too weak to 
express my feelings : — It is " That this meeting cordially approves of the 
action of the Committee, and pledges itself to use every eif ort to carry 
the suiwey to a successful termination." Now, approval is much too weak 
a word ; we ought to have one far more powerful to express what we feel. 
And then, as to the successful termination of our work, we must use a 
stronger expression than that we pi^edge ourselves to bring this about. Let 
us not delay to instruct our friend the Hon. Secretary, Mr. Grove, to send 
out the best agents he has in his power to search the length and breadth 
of Palestine, to survey the land ; and if possible to go over every corner 
of it, drain it, measure it, and, if you will, prepare it for the return of 
its ancient possessors, for I must believe that the time cannot be far off 



IIG THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

before that great event will come to pass. We have there a land teeming 
with fertility and rich in history, but almost without an inhabitant — a 
country without a people, and look ! scattered over the world, a people 
without a country. I recollect speaking to Lord Aberdeen, when he was 
Prime Minister, on the subject of the Holy Land ; and he said to me, 
" If the Holy Land should pass out of the hands of the Turks, into whose 
hands should it fall ? " Why, the reply was ready, " Not into the hands 
of other powers, but let it return into the hands of the Israelites," 
and surely there are signs to show that the time is near at hand when 
the Lord will have mercy upon Zion, I had once a conversation with 
that grand old Hebrew, Sir Moses Montenore, now in his ninety-first 
year, but yet on the point of starting again on a pilgrimage of mercy. I 
had a conversation with him a few years ago, and we entered upon the 
whole subject of the Jewish question. A more liberal-hearted man does 
not exist on the face of the earth. I see in him a concentration of the 
spirit of the Maccabees. "The future of the Holy Land," he said, 
" is this : Give us security for life and property, and the Jews wUl 
return and take possession of their ancient territory." I have had letters 
to a similar purport from the Bishop of Jerusalem, who will no doubt 
confirm what I say. The number of Jews who have already returned to 
their land is considerable. Yiilas are growing up in the neighbourhood 
of Jerusalem, they are occupied by Jews, and I hear that there is mani- 
fested a great inclination among the Jews in all parts of the South and the 
East for their return to the Holy Land, whenever they are assured that the 
Turkish Government will be not only able but willing to carry into effect 
the measures which have been ratified in their behalf. I do not wish, 
far from it, to disparage the labours of those men who hitherto have 
been engaged in the exploration of Palestine. On the contrary, I am 
astonished at the skill, diligence, and ability they have manifested, 
and I feel that everything they have added to our knowledge of the 
country is so much added to oui- knowledge of revealed truth, and, there- 
fore, their exertions are to be spoken of with the highest gratitude and 
esteem. But I cannot help saying that we want to go much farther than 
the point they have reached. We may be told that we are impatient, and 
that we are not prosaic enough. I admit all that, and yet I cannot re- 
strain myself, when I have such an object before me, from a desire to go 
into the matter deeper and deeper, so that not the coasts only, but the 
very bed of the Eiver Jordan, should be explored ; but, more than all, do 
I want to get, where we shall get at last, into the Mosque of Omar 
itself, and dive down into the cellars and recesses which are excavated in 
that limestone rock. I have heard from Jews, living on tradition as 
they do — and some of their traditions are well-founded — that the Ark of 
the Covenant is yet to be found there. They know that it was never taken 
away — there is, at least, no record of it — either in the time of Nebu- 
chadnezzar or of Titus. Then, how could it disappear ? The prieata 
regarded it as the holiest of all their treasures ; they bid it in some 
hour of peril in the vaults of the rock on which the Temple was built. 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 117 

The priests wHo did it, so runs the telief, -vvero f^lain in the siege, aud 
the secret perished with them. At any rate, it is well worth our looldng 
for ; and if it could be brought to light — that grand old Ark of the 
Covenant — good heavens I what a discovery it would be ! What an 
evidence in a day of trouble, of rebuke, and of blasphemy 1 This is par- 
ticularly an age in which all our thoughts, and the whole of our hearts, 
are given to the present, indifferent to the past, and regardless of the 
future ; but if we can bring men's minds to look back with reverence to 
days gone by, we shall, as Dr. Johnson eays, have advanced somewhat iu 
the dignity of thinking beings ; and it might create in the minds of many 
people that strong desire expressei in the happy and burning words of 
old Moses, " Lord, I pray thee let me pass over and see that good land," 
that goodly mountain, and Lebanon. I can only say that such feelings 
have passed through my own heart thousands and thousands of times. 
My old age is on this point not much tamer than my earlj' life, nor am I 
singular, for I believe you will find, among the great mass of our people, 
thousands who read and love their Bibles, and who have aburning affection 
for that land, over whose " acres walked those blessed feet which eighteen 
hundred years ago were nailed, for our advantage, to the bitter Cross." 
It is somewhat remarkable the passion which people in my own county 
of Dorsetshire have for Hebrew names, so delighted are they to be con- 
nected with the Old Testament. Thus, in my little churchyard, there is a 
tombstone, which I have often shown to strangers, with this inscription : 
"To the memory of Methuselah Coney, who died at the ago of twelve 
months." The love they have of Bible names neglects all consistency. 
Who would speak in disparagement of the antiquities of Mexico, of 
Greece, or Eome ? but nono of these can lead us to the sentiment which 
must be derived from the antiquities of Palestine, to the sanctifying 
effect of such researches, and which must excite solemn and reverential 
feelings in the heart of man. I may be speaking only my own senti- 
ments, you may perhaps not all sympathise with me, but if so, I can 
only apologise for warmth of expressions which come from the depths of 
my own heart ; and I cannot stand forward to move a resolution of this 
sort without saying thus much. Aud here, to conclude, I wear upon 
my finger something which hourly reminds me of these truths. When 
Dr. Alexander, the first bishop of Jerusalem, himself a Hebrew, went to 
the Holy City, he found one man, and one man only, who was cunning 
to engrave. That one man presented to him a small square bloodstone, 
which you see here on my finger, very rudely carved. Knowing the zeal 
I felt in the welfare of Israel, he sent it to me in a letter, aud I have 
had it set, and wear it in a ring, which I hope to transmit to my posterity. 
On that stone is engraven — and I may point it out as a ground of 
union between us and the poorest Hebrews, though they believe but 
one half of the Bible — you will concur with me in the prayer which is 
engraved upon it — it will, I trust, be the prayer of all this assembly — 
" Oh, pray for the peace of Jerusalem ; they shall prosper that love thee." 
(Cheers.) 



118 THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

The Rev. Dr. Barclay: — My Lord Archbishop, Ladies, and Gentle- 
men, — When the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Pund did me 
the honour of inviting me to second this resolution, I naturally turned 
over in my mind what I ought to say, and a story flashed across my 
memory, which was once told me by a clerical friend of mine. Many 
years since, some friends of his were travelling in Palestine, and he 
directed a letter to one of them in Jerusalem. Two months elapsed, 
but he received no answer. Another month passed by, and there was 
still no answer. He then went to the village post-office, and asked the 
post-mistress if she had seen such a letter. After thinking the matter 
over, she said, " Oh yes, that is the letter I have upon the shelf. I have 
not posted it, because I knew Jerusalem was a place in the Bible, but I 
did not think it was a place on earth." The schoolmaster has been abroad 
since then, but people are not altogether so wise as they should be 
now. Five years ago I was living with my family in Jerusalem, in 
which holy city some of my children were born ; and there were 
people who saw them afterwards, not perhaps with disappointment, 
but with surprise that they were not born black. Now, the 
Americans have done much to spread the Bible abroad, and we cannot 
know too much about its history and geography. When an American 
minister proves to be a useful man to his congregation, they put apart 
a certain sum of money to send him to Palestine, on the condition of his 
writing to them a series of letters describing what he sees : and 
they consider that money has been well invested, for they feel 
that a religious teacher ought to be stored with information. But 
the majority of book writers cannot speak the language of the country 
when they get to Palestine, and they are therefore cut off from in- 
formation, and are obliged to rely upon their dragomen. These men are 
very polite, and give them every information they think they desire, 
but the Arabs sum up their position by saying that ' ' unless a man 
speaks the language of the country he is in danger of dying of starva- 
tion." All the information we have got respecting Palestine does not 
satisfy the increased desire for further enlightenment on this important 
subject ; and we especially want an accurate Ordnance map and sui-vey 
of the whole country. Some people have an imaginary Palestine of their 
own, and do not want to go too much into detail about it. I have met 
with clergymen who have declined to visit Palestine because their minds 
are so made up about its geography that they do not wish to be dis- 
turbed in their ideas. Such persons have a paradise of their own, in 
which they live, but we want men who are competent to seek 
after truth, and they cannot seek after truth in a better land 
than Palestine. It is the whole earth in miniature, for while 
you have perpetual snow on the summit of Lebanon, you have, 
perhaps, the hottest spot on earth in the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea. 
In the mountains and valleys, also, we have a variety of climates, which 
are not met with anywhere else. All animals can live there ; all plants 
can gi-ow there ; and a ride of a few miles will take you to another atmo- 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 119 

sphere. Besides, Palestine is a special object of interest to the devout 
mind. When you turn to the Bible you find it said, " It is a laud the 
Lord thy God careth for ; the eyes of the Lord thy God are always 
upou it from the beginning of the year even unto the end of the year." 
" Careth for," in this passage means " seeketh after," and consequently 
it ought to be an object of interest to us. I am sure that underlying 
this movement there is a desire to know more and more of Palestine, 
and it is with this object that different explorations have been made in 
different parts of the country. I remember, by the kind permission of 
Captain Warren, going down the shafts which were sunk under Jerusa- 
lem, and particularly under the south-eastern wall of the Haram 
enclosure, and I shall never forget the wonderful feeling I experienced 
in seeing the red-paint marks upon the stones, as fresh as if the 
workmen had just left them. I felt as if Hiram and Solomon were 
quite close to me. When we investigated the fallen arch in the 
Tyropoeon valley, we searched the court pavement for the ruts of the 
carriage wheels of ancient times, and it brought before us vividly the 
scene when the Temple was in flames, and Titus was standing in the 
outer court expostulating with the Jews and entreating them to 
spare the upper town. In exploring Jerusalem, my Lord Shaftesbury 
has touched upon one important point. We have still to get under the 
Mosque of Omar. I do not think the arguments I have heard, and 
which his Grace has alluded to, are valid ones. There is under the 
"Dom.e of the Eock " a place with a slab laid over the entrance, 
and if we could lift that up and let a man down, we might make 
important discoveries. I have often remonstrated with the keepers 
of the mosque, and tried from time to time to induce them to let 
me go down, but the answer was, "My beloved, we love you too 
much to let you do that ; we do not know what might occur to you. 
There was once a sultan from Egyi)t who went into the Cave of 
Machpelah, and there he saw Sarah sitting up combing her haii-, and 
she struck him blind." " Well," I replied, " you have more concern 
for me than I have for myself." "Even so, my beloved," was the 
reply. There is, however, still another work to be done in Jerusalem, 
and that is the exploration of the second wall. Captain Warren made 
some excavations in this direction, but he could not find the con- 
tinuation of the wall. But, twelve years ago, I was commissioned to 
build a house in Jerusalem, and the plans were sent out to me from 
England. It was to be built on the northern slope of Mount Zion. 
We excavated to the depth of 39 feet, and could not find a foundation ; but 
after a time we came upon the remains of an old tower, in what we 
thought was the wall. I had neither the means nor the time to en- 
gage further in the exploration, but we made it into a cistern to 
contain rain-water. But, even supposing that to be the second wall, it 
would only obviate one objection to the Holy Sepulchre, it would 
not prove the genuineness of the present site. Time would fail me 
to allude further to these excavations ; but it is most interesting to 



120 THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

think of any spot on wliicli our Lord stood. The question is often 
asked, " Can you show us, amid all these traditions, any place 
where our Lord stood?" Now, as you go out to Bethany there 
is a road on the hill-side, cut in the solid rock; an old Roman 
pavement remains there now, and a gentleman of eminence 
and knowledge of this question rode out with me upon this road, and 
when we came to the spot where our Lord must have jjassed, he said, 
"I cannot ride over that place: will you hold my horse?" and he 
walked over it. I hope, by the exertions of this Society, we shall arrive 
at a true solution of the dimensions of the Jewish cubit. With regard 
to the other discoveries which have been made there is sjiecially that 
one of the Moabite stone, which I look upon as a page from Josephus 
himself. And, with regard to Josephus, I may say that I went to 
Palestine with a prejudice against that author, but I have tested 
him, so far as his topography is concerned, and have found it correct, 
and therefore my estimate of his accuracy has been increased a 
hundredfold. The more we investigate these things the more we shall 
be able to realise the facts of our religion, for it is a system of 
facts. Before I sit down I will venture to express what I think is the 
feeling of all Bible scholars, that we owe the greatest gratitude to Sir 
Henry James and his officers for the work they have done in Sinai. We 
have now established without doubt the site of the giving of the Law. 
What we wish done for Palestine is the same that was done for 
Mount Sinai ; but we must not forget that this is expensive work, 
and that we want money. There is not only the cost in money, but 
the wear and tear of human life. Some of our explorers have given 
their lives to this work and are now sleejoing their last sleep there till 
the roll-call of the Great Captain ; and others may have to suffer in 
the work. It is a very difficult thing to make explorations amongst old 
ruins, but the men selected to do the work of this Society have been 
the right men in the right place. They have felt their responsibility, 
and they have done their duty. Everywhere throughout the world 
people are now waiting for the result of this Survey, and I have no doubt 
the speech of the noble Earl this day will find a response, for it is v/ritten, 
"Thy servants take pleasure in her stones, and favour- the dust thereof." 
(Cheers.) I have great pleasure in seconding the resolution. 

The resolution was carried unanimously. 

Capt. R. BuKTON : Your Grace, Ladies, and Gentlemen, — Almost at 
the last moment your excellent Secretary, my good friend Mr. Walter 
Besant, sent me an " immediate" inviting me to speak about the trans- 
Jordanic region, and gave me the following resolution : 

" That this meeting has heard with great satisfaction of the despatch 
of a second expedition by the American Association for the exploration 
of the Holy Land, and heartily wishes it every possible success." 

As this meeting well knows, that part of Syria has been the happy 
hunting ground of your Anglo-Amei'ican colleagues, who propose con- 
tinuing their researches. They will doubtless prove formidable rivals 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 12i 

in the extent and value of their discoveries. The invitation so kindly 
conveyed orders me to renew a great sorrow. I had, as early as 1870, 
proposed to myself two trans- Jordanic trips. The first was to the great 
plateau of central Arabia, known as El Nejd, on a line a little north of 
that taken by Mr. GifFord Palgrave, whose charming book is in the hands 
of every one. But his geography is perhaps the loosest on record; he 
gives us no intelligible account of the mysterious region El Jauf, or the 
"hollow,"anexceptionalfeature which, from the reports of theBedawin, 
I am disposed to consider a great meridional depression corresponding in 
lay and length with the Jordan Yalley, but wanting the river. To this 
feature especially I would draw the attention of our future travellers. 
The picturesque pages of Mr. Palgrave give no notice of the Roman, or 
rather the classical ruins which are said to extend from the Hauran to 
the highlands of El Nejd. I have often been assured of their existence 
by the Bedawin, who compared them with the Kasr el Hayr, the ruia 
near Karyatayn, on the way to Palmyra, and for a description of the 
latter I venture to refer you to Mrs. Burton's book, " Inner Life ia 
Syria." The walls are reported to be "mukattab," that is, covered 
with inscriptions. The second excursion which I had kept for myself, 
and which I now recommend to others, is a visit to El Hijr, the district 
lying south-west of the Dead Sea, on the road to El Medinah. It is 
annually traversed by the great pilgrimage caravan which travels from 
Damascus to Meccah, and I had made all my arrangements to ti'avel 
with the Arab chief who escorts the Tayyareh or flying caravan sent 
to relieve the returning pilgrims with provisions and medical comforts. 
The strangest tales are told concerning EI Hijr, and yet, though many 
have proposed visiting it, the tract remains unexplored. Thirty years 
ago the Eitter von Kremer, at the recommendation of that most dis- 
tinguished Orientalist, Baron von Hug el, went to Damascus for the 
purpose, and was deterred by the large sums demanded from him. 
Lately at Bern, in Switzerland, I passed a couple of days with my 
kind friend Professor Aloys Sprenger, and we discussed at full lengtk 
the wonders of El Hijr. I only hope that our Anglo-American 
collaborateurs will not neglect to borrow some of his local knowledge. 
Finally at Basel I strongly advised my young friend Prof. Socin, so wel 
known by his travels from Damascus to the Euphrates, to attack 
El Hijr. He is one of the best men for explorations amongst Ai-abs, 
as he knows them thoroughly. The following two anecdotes may 
prove his tact and savoir-faire. On one occasion when a revolver was 
stolen from him he procured its restitution by threatening the Shaykk 
with a refei'ence to Constantinople, and he punished him by the fine of 
a dollar by way of permit to his servant. They who know what the 
Bedawi thinks about a " stone dollar," as he calls it, will appreciate the 
just severity of the proceeding. On another occasion his escort at- 
tempted to desert him, when he cocked his rifle and declared he would 
shoot the first mare that moved. Had he said the first mxu, all would 
have laughed at his beard, but they thought much more seriously 



122 THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

about tlie murder of a mare. Mohammed, as many of you know, when 
passing through El Hijr, hooded his head, veiled his face, and hurried 
at fuU speed to escape from the phantoms which appal the sight, and 
the terrible voices which shriek in the wayfarer's ear. He declared it 
to be an accursed land, and every caravan, I am told, still follows his 
example. I would suggest that the idea arises from the number of 
statues and figures carved in the rocks. The peculiar measure of con- 
verting Damascus, the metropolis and head-quarters of Syria, from a 
consulate to a vice-consulate, caused my recall in 1872, and lost for me 
the chance of visiting the Nejd and El Hijr. But the glory of a dis- 
coverer is not the small addition to general knowledge which his in- 
dividual efforts may secure ; his aim is to excite emulation, and induce 
others to labour in the field which he has opened up. A certain book 
called " Unexplored Syria," has, I am told, had this effect, and has 
sent to Palmyra many students who before never thought of going 
there. The same, I hope, will be the result of a translation of Dr. 
Wetzstein's " Reise" to Hauran and the (two) Trachones. He describes 
and figures a world of ruins which is now passing away ; the next 
generation will probably see nothing of these weird and ghostly basalt 
walls, which, deserted a thousand years ago and more, look as if the 
tenants had passed from them yesterday. These wondrous buildings, 
in which the hardest stone was worked like wood, are being pulled to 
pieces by the Druzes, and other races, to make their miserable cots. 
I will not call them, with the llev. Dr. Porter, "the giant cities of 
Bashan " — in fact I hold, with Mr. Freshfield, that they are not " giant 
cities" at all. But I strongly recommend them to Colonel Lane. 
Another book is about to appear, and you will hail its appearance. 
The iiTeparable loss which the Palestine Exploration Fund, not to 
mention individuals, has sustained in the death of my lamented friend, 
that noble worker, Charles F. Tyrwhitt Drake, need not be enlarged 
upon in your presence, especially as it has been alluded to by Mr. 
George Grove. His widowed mother has resolved, you will be glad to 
hear, to publish in a collected form all those letters whose arrival iu 
England used to be anticipated with so much eager curiosity, and read 
'with so much pleasure and profit. Non omnis moriar will thus apply to 
the memory of that good and gallant English gentleman. 

It is reported that the United States expedition has been amply pro- 
vided with funds, the sinews of travel and of war, and we may believe 
the report, for our Anglo-American cousins never " do things by 
halves," as the phrase is. Their liberality contrasts strongly with the 
feeble support which the general j)ublic of England has bestowed upon 
your great undertaking ; and this lukewarmness has ever been a marvel 
and enigma to me. We should of course have expected that in a country 
in which the Bible is the book most read, Bible lands would have been 
the most interesting on earth, and that your especial object, which is to 
illustrate those lands, would be the most popular of objects. Tou are 
changing careless and incorrect for highly finished maps upon a large 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 123 

scale ; a KT-fi/xa is oel — you are labouring at tlie geology, the botany, the 
arcbaeology, and the omnis res scihills of Palestine. "Sylvia's Lovers," a 
clever novel by Mrs. Gaskell, told me long ago that amongst the lower, 
that is, the uneducated classes of England, there is an idea that Biblical 
sites and cities like Jerusalem and Nazareth once existed, but now exist 
no longer ; and did this idea extend to cultivated levels it would explain 
the curious apathy with which the vast additions to our knowledge 
proposed by the Palestine Exploration Fund have been received. The 
same, strange to say, appears to be the case with the Israelites 
dwelling in Europe ; theoretically they take an immense interest in the 
homes of their forefathers — practically, it is difficult, I am assured, to 
unloose their purse-strings for the benefit of Judea. I have trespassed 
long upon the patience and courtesy of this meeting; but when wishing 
long life and success to the Palestine Exploration Fund, I would also 
express a hope that it will not consider its mission perfect when its 
map is published. North, south, and east of Palestine proper, there 
are wide regions whose inhabitants were and are still connected with 
it by ties of blood, and by the sympathisers of society. The country 
immediately about Damascus, the Leja, the 'Alah, the Hauran, and many 
others, still await serious study, and this will be the work of long and 
laborious years. I will conclude with proposing the resolution, and 
with requesting this influential meeting to join me iu off'ering our best 
wishes for the safety and success of Colonel Lane, the chief of the 
American Expedition, and his adventurous companions. 

The Eev. Horrocks Cocks, of Kensington, on rising to second the 
resolution, expressed the great pleasiu-e it afforded him to be present at 
this annual meeting. He said he presumed that one of the reasons why 
he had been requested to speak to the resolution so ably moved by Cap- 
tain Bui'ton was, that he had several times visited the United States and 
Canada, though he thought that on this question England could justly 
claim the co-operation of the friends of Palestine in the Dominion, and 
he had, therefore, endeavoured to awaken an interest in the minds of 
some of the leading men of Canada in the important investigations 
which the Committee were carrying on in the Holy Land. The United 
States had no hoary past to glory in, no great international questions 
to discuss, no York Minster, no Westminster Abbey, no grand old build- 
ings nor ruins to boast of; but most of the problems the Americans had 
to solve were territorial and material, and this to some extent explained the 
characteristics of the Transatlantic press. Still a section of the American 
people were devoting their attention to Palestine, and as this Society 
was rather emuloiis of co-operation than jealous of competition, the 
resolution would commend itself to them for cordial adoption. Having 
in a very humorous manner replied to the objections of certain would-be 
philanthropists who maintained that the dens of London needed explora- 
tion more than the sites of Palestine, the speaker pointed to the untiring 
labours of the Earl of Shaftesbury iu grappling with the evils of our 
overcrowded cities, and said that the noble Earl was quite as much 



124 THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

interested iu foreign as in home enterprises, as indeed his speech that 
day indicated. The speaker said that his mind -was first awakened 
to the claims of Palestine by the labours of Dr. Traill and Isaac 
Taylor, whose joint translation of Josephus he eulogised, and said that 
some of the plates for this important work were prepared in his own 
residence, though he regretted that Dr. Traill was cut off so sadly and 
so suddenly by disease. He felt assured that in ten years to come 
where ten travellers now visited the Holy Land fifty would explore the 
regions east and west of the Jordan, and the important work projected 
and accomplished by this Societ}^ would materially assist future travellers 
and explorers in the Eastern lands. The speaker then said that he did 
not think it necessary, after the admirable addresses which had been 
delivered, for him to detain the meeting by any speech, though if there 
was one theme which fired his enthusiasm, and on which he delighted 
to dwell, it was Palestine, and he had come prepared to speak for an 
hour, if necessary, upon the work which this Society had accomplished. 
He did not intend to dogmatise on questions of theology or prophecy, 
but if he might be allowed to add another article to his creed it would 
be — Judea for the Jews. Dwelling on this topic for a few moments, the 
speaker concluded by stating that the Palestine Exploration Society 
was carrying on a most important enterprise which challenged the 
sympathy and support of all Christian people. The survey which they 
had already accomplished was of great importance, and he predicted for 
the land which they were now exploring a brilliant industrial, com- 
mercial, agricultural, and spiritual future. 

Ml'. Grove proposed a vote of thanks to the Chairman. 

Eev. G. Williams : I have great pleasure in seconding the resolution, 
and am glad to avail myself of the occasion of doing so to say that 
lately when I was staying at Oxford I had an opportunity of talking 
over this map of Palestine with Dr. Pusey, and I promised him that 
if I had the opportunity I would communicate to this meeting the very 
great value he attaches to the work which is being done in Palestine 
by this Association. No person can better appreciate the work than 
Dr. Pusey, and I am glad to say that it has his most entire approval 
and support; and I may perhaps be allowed to mention, as a hint 
to the Executive Committee, that many of us would, I am sure, be 
very glad indeed if this map could be at once taken in hand and pub- 
lished in parts as rapidly as those parts can be completed, and then put into 
a complete form perhaps two or three years hence. In the meantime many 
of us who are interested in the geography of Palestine are exceedingly 
impatient to have the results of that great work which this Society 
has undertaken. It is a great satisfaction to me, my Lord Archbishop, 
to second the vote of thanks to your Grace, who has watched with 
such interest the proceedings of this Society, and whose services iu 
advocating it have been so valuable. (Cheers.) 



THE SURVEY OF PALESTINE. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER'S REPORTS. 

XXX IL 

Beit JiBEm, 20th Marcli, 1875. 
The Stjevey of the Dead Sea Desert, axd a Yisit to Masada. 

The wearisome period of indoor work wliicli we are yearly compelled 
to undergo during the violent cold and wet winter weather — a time when 
we all suffered much in health, and which is never looked forward to 
with pleasure — is at length over, and I hope that only one more winter 
in Palestine remains to be gone through. 

On the 25th February, as soon as a storm of rain and wind had sub- 
sided, we once more took the field. The expedition was cut down to the 
utmost, only such clothes as could be carried in the beds were allowed. 
Books, meteorological instruments, photographic apparatus, and one 
tent were left behind. Lieut. Kitchener having only just recovered 
from a sharp attack of fever, as well as our head servant, who has for 
some time past suffered very much from the effects of our hard campaign 
in the Jordan valley, remained in Jerusalem in order to comjilete the 
selling off of Fund property authorised by the Committee, and thus the 
party being reduced considerably, we managed to place our whole 
equipment, including barley for three days, upon twelve pack animals. 
The reason of this change was that we proposed, by forced marches and 
rapid work, to fill in the Judajan Desert from the line of Wady el 
Taamireh to the boundary of the trigonometrical survey at Wady 
Seiyal, 330 square miles in all, and as supplies were not to be obtained, 
nor camels to be hired in this wild district, we had to carry all we wanted 
with us, and it was a great object to move as rapidly as possible. 

Our success was greater than we could have expected ; we were not 
stopped by weather until quite the end of the time. In twelve days we 
surveyed the whole 330 square miles, settled over 200 names, and only 
paid about £7 in backsheesh, whereas other travellers had been obliged in 
fourteen days to pay as much as £30. We made a correct plan of the 
fortress of Masada and visited 'Ain Jidy. Thus, in spite of two days 
during which we were detained in Hebron by a violent storm, we suc- 
ceeded in reaching our present camp in the western plain on the 11th 



126 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

March. On tlie 13th Lieut. Kitchener re-joined, and the ordinary survey 
work was re-commenced. 

During the whole of this period not one of the natives who accom- 
panied us was able to speak a word of any language but Arabic — a fact 
which is, perhaps, worth mentioning, as showing that the party has 
become pretty independent in the matter of language. 

The main points of Biblical interest in this area were, first, the 
recovery of those of the six cities in the Midhar or wilderness which are 
as yet unknown — namely, Middin, Sekakah, the City of Salt, and Nibshan, 
apparently all lying between Jericho and Engedi ; and, in the second 
place, the identification of the famous cave "by the sheepcotes (Gede- 
roth) on the way" from Engedi to the land of Benjamin, where Saul 
and David met on the occasion when the king came down "to seek 
David and his men upon the rocks of the wild goats" (1 Sam. xxiv. 2). 

As regards the fij'st our success has been indifferent ; with the excep- 
tion of Middin, I am unable to propose any identifications. We found 
the Arabs very willing and intelligent, and every ruin we could hear 
of we fixed and explored, but the total number did not exceed seven, 
and of these only one (Khirbet Umm Haleseh) seemed undoubtedly an old 
site. The remainder were the traces of small convents, hermit's caves, 
and other indications of early Christian monkish establishments, pro- 
bably belonging to the fifth and sixth centuries, when such numbers of 
saints and hermits came to these dreary solitudes to spend their days in 
retirement. 

There is no want of care or thoroughness in the work which can 
account for not finding the ancient sites and names we had hoped ta 
fix, but a reason which seems to me to preclude the possibility of the 
preservation of the names exists in the modern and descriptive character 
of the nomenclature throughout the district. We have always found it far 
easier to collect names among the Arabs than among the Fellahin or 
villagers. The names are quite as numerous and better known ; the 
nomadic tribes far more intelligent and more willing to give the names. 
At fii-st sight, the chance of identification would seem greater in 
the wild country where no plough has passed over the ground, and no 
village has been built from the dismembered relics of ancient structures, 
but' experience teaches us that the reverse is the case. The settled 
population have j)reserved the ancient names under forms more or 
less modified, the wandering Bedouin have replaced them by descriptive 
titles of their own, and thus the names of ruins are merely "Mother 
of Pillars," "Father of Oaves," "Pigeon's Cliff," " Yalley of Nests," 
"Valley of Wild Goats," "The Convent," "The Steps," or some 
similar insignificant but well-known appellation. The nomenclature 
ah-eady obtained before the survey is far more correct here than in other 
parts of Palestine ; we were able most fully to confirm the results of Dr. 
Tristram's work along the shores of the Dead Sea, as well as to admu-e 
the energy which must have been necessary to enable him to push for- 



LIEUT. CLAUDK T. CONDER's REPORTS. 127 

ward in places where I should have thought it impossible for pack 
animals to'pass. The labours of Eobinson here, as everywhere, are mar- 
vellously accurate and satisfactory ; and of the forty names on Murray's 
map (one-fifth of the number we obtained) we found all but two correct, 
although the positions of some places were altered as much as four 
miles. 

It was extremely fortunate for us that the great storm which caught 
us at Teku'a last December and drove us back to Jerusalem forbade our 
attempting to push through the Desert as we intended. Even in the 
early spring we had considerable difficulty in obtaining water, and I 
think that, as scarcely any rain fell in this desert, we should have found 
it impossible to proceed at the former time, even if there had been no 
danger of fever, as we were warned there was; and, indeed, considering 
the pestilence which raged over the j^lains last autumn (reducing the 
population of many villages one half), and also remembeing the unhealthy 
condition of Jericho, even as late as Janxiary, we should probably have 
suffered severely in the lower country near 'Ain Jidy. 

The route we took through the countiy differs from that of both Tristram 
and Eobinson. "We camped for two days at the principal well iu 
Wady Hasasah (Bir el Sekeiriyeh). Thence we removed to 'Ain Jidy, 
where our Arabs were anxious for us to camp at the fountain. Looking 
down, however, from the top of the cliffs at the narrow serpent-like 
path or Nulch, which led down 1,200 feet to the spring, I came to the 
conclusion that it would be impossible for heavily-laden animals, tired 
with five hours' march, to get down in safety, so we camped on the top 
of the cliff, and sent all the beasts down unloaded to drink and to bring 
up water. It took them one hour to get down and one hour and a 
quarter to get up again. "We afterwards descended to the Dead Sea 
shore for survey, and were of opinion we should have lost half of our 
beasts if we had followed the advice of the Arabs (who have no idea 
what a horse can or cannot do). One false step and an animal might 
roll to the bottom without stopping, as we afterwards heard had hap- 
pened to more than one unlucky camel bringing loads of salt from Jebel 
XJsdum. We afterwards found water in a hollow of the rocks, and on 
this we existed for two days. 

From 'Ain Jidy we removed to Bir es Sherky, a fine rock-cut reservoir, 
nearly full of water, and containing also many frogs and weeds. The 
taste was unpleasant. We stayed hero one day, and visited Masada, 
nine miles distant. Thence we removed to Wady Seiyal to the encamp- 
ment of Abu Dahi'ik (son of the famous sheikh of that name). Here 
we were caught in the most tremendous gale which we have yet ex- 
perienced in tents ; and oiu" next march of nineteen miles in a perfect hur- 
ricane of bitter wind, with showers of sleet and hail, necessitated by the 
fact that all our barley and other stores wore consumed, was the hardest 
bit of experience we have yet encountered. Our dogs and two muleteers 
were unable to face the storm, and took refuge in caves. Old Sheikh 



128 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

Hamzeh (the famous guide, of wliotn Dr. Tristram, Mr. Palmer, and 
others have written) fell off his pony twice, and had to be tied on. The 
braye beasts struggled for eleven hours, and crossed more than one 
torrent of cold water up nearly to the girths, but by eight at night they 
were in a warm stable, and we had found refuge in Hebron in the house 
of a German Karaite Jew, whose hospitality was as great as his sub- 
sequent charge was high. We passed the following day in the house, 
and on the Wednesday encamped on the green in front of the town. 
On Thursday we again packed the tents wet, and descended to our 
present camp at Beit Jibrin, where a day was devoted to getting the 
camp dry, resembling a ship after a storm, with every sort of article, 
bedding, clothing, tents, &c., exposed to the sun and the breeze. The 
horses showed for several days the effects of the two nights' exposure to 
cold and wet in the forms of rheumatism, sore bacli, and sore heel, but 
so hardy are these Syrian horses that not one was off its feet through 
the whole of the time. 

To return to the results obtained. There is an important canon of 
identification which, though it is hinted at more than once by Mr. 
Grove, has been entirely ignored by many of the later writers on Biblical 
sites. As it is in jjerfect accordance with the discoveries made during 
the course of the survey, I feel no hesitation in confirming its value, 
and the beauty of the explanation thus given to what has often been 
supposed a confused and fragmentary inventory of towns will be at once 
recognised. The proposition may be briefly stated as follows: — ''The 
order of occurrence of the names in any of the (jroups of toiuns mentioned in 
the hook of Joshua is invariahhj an indication of relative situation." The 
order is, in fact, the natural one in which any modern inhabitant of the 
country might enumerate the sites, whilst the different groups are all 
natural divisions of the country according to physical characteristics. 
This fact, which I hope to prove definitely in my next report, is the 
next step to the classification in groups under the various roj'al cities 
which I pointed out as being the first step in systematic distribution of 
the sites. The third step remains : the identification of each site in 
accordance with these jiropositions, towards which the survey will have 
done more than has been done since the time of Robinson; and thus I 
hope that one and not the least valuable of its results will be the vindi- 
cation of the systematic and contemporary character of the topographical 
passages of the Book of Joshua. 

I feel that this subject is of such interest that it cannot be too strongly 
insisted on. In the papers which I have sent to the Committee on the 
topography I have, to a certain extent, followed it out. In the tribe of 
Judah the towns, 126 in all, are divided into twelve groups. The cities 
of the south country (the first group) lie beyond the Beersheba limit of 
our work. The fourteen towns of the Shephalah, the sixteen cities of 
the Plain, the nine cities of the lowlands of Libnah, are so little known 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 129 

that I liope my report on tlie identifications in these districts will quite 
revolutionise some of the theories previously put forward. The three 
cities of Philistia are all known, but the Western Negeb (capital Debir) 
and the group between this and the Jeshimon were scarce known at all 
till last autumn. Last, but not least, is the group of nine, of which 
Hebron is the capital, and of which we have newly identified three. 
The remaining groups are better known, being those in the hills ; six 
cities, of which Gedor was the capital ; and those mentioned by the 
Septuagint immediately south of Jerusalem, with six in the Midbar. 
In every one of these groups I hope to be able to show that the canon 
of identification proposed above holds good, but more than one old 
identification will bo found to fail under the test in cases where a simi- 
larity of name alone has been thought sufficient. 

Judging by this indication of position the site of Middin should be on 
the northern limit of the Midbar or Desert. The position of Betharabah, 
first in the list, though not certainly identified, is known to have been 
near to W. Kelt, south of Jericho. Middin stands next to it. This 
consideration leads me to identify it with Khirbet Mird, a famous site 
on the edge of the Bukeia, east of Mar Saba. It is noticed by M. 
Ganneau and Mr. Drake in former reports, and there is no doubt that 
it was an ancient site of considerable importance. It stands upon a 
steep cliff, and the water supply is derived from a fine aqueduct leading 
to rock-cut reservoirs. Other caves containing water are hewn at the 
foot of the bill. Eui ther details I cannot give from memory alone, and 
my notes and plans connected with the site are now in London. At a 
later period the site was known as Mons Mardes, but if it be, as I 
believe, an acknowledged law that E and D are often interchanged, then 
we have in Mird a corruption jiossibly of Midd, and the name is the 
same as that of Middin, the loss of the final N being very common in the 
Arabic modification of Hebrew names. Were it not for the position of 
the site and the impossibility of identifying it with any town except 
one of the list of six cities in the Desert, I should hesitate to put forward 
this suggestion, but taking the various circumstances in favour of the 
identifications, the name seems to me to be sufficiently near. 

It is not, however, possible to suppose that any large or important 
places ever existed in the dreary wastes, rocky valleys, conical chalk 
mounds, white flint-bound ridges, or in the winding muddy wadies, 
with an occasional reservoir hewn in the harder stratum of the limestone 
to supply water in a country destitute of springs. Except at 'Ain Jidy, 
the Hazazon Tamar, or Southern City of Palms, there is no natural 
site for a city in this " solitude," aptly so called in the Bible (Heb. Ha- 
Jeshimon). One may travel all day and see only the desert partridge, 
and a chance fox or vulture. Only the dry and fleshy plants, which 
require no water, grow on the hills, and in the valleys the most luxuri- 
ant vegetation consists of the Eetem, or white broom bushes which 
were just coming into bloom. Wearisome to ride over, and uninterest- 



130 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

ing to sui'vey, the Jeshimon is in parts (as below ' Ain Jidy ) deserted even 
by the Arabs, and is tbe most desolate country we have ever come 
across. I am sti-ongly tempted to suppose tliat Sekakab, Nibsban, 
and the City of Salt, were small mud villages on the borders of the Dead 
Sea, in the vicinity of such springs as 'Ain Terabeh and 'Ain el 
Ghuweir. The name City of Salt suggests a connection with the Salt 
Sea, unless, indeed, it were to be placed at Tell el Milh, " the Hill of 
Salt ; " but here the question of relative j)08ition comes in, and seems 
to me to prevent the identification. It might possibly be thought that 
Sekakah has some connection with Eas el Shugf, but the suggestion is 
scarce worth mentioning, and unless some future careful explorer is 
more fortunate than we were, I fear that the four cities of the desert 
have shared the fate of Sodom and Gomorrah, and have left no trace 
behind. 

In the second question, that of the cave where Saul and David met, 
we shall, I hope, turn out to be more fortunate. In the lower country 
the ridges above the Dead Sea caves are not numerous, and all my 
inquiries failed to produce one sufficiently large for the requirements of 
the case. A few small Tors, as they are here called, exist, but in none 
of these could "David and his men "be hidden "in the sides of the 
cave," so as to be unseen by Saul as he entered. There are, however, 
caves on the edge of the higher hills, and we at last heard of a cave, 
said to be of considerable size, at Khirbet Minieh, on the direct route 
from Jerusalem to 'Ain Jidy. I was not able at the time to visit it, but 
shall make a point of doing so from Jerusalem in May. These caves 
are still used by the peasantry from the hill country as sheepcotes; 
and if, as seems likely, this cave prove to be of unusual extent, upon 
the direct I'oute, and as far as we have been able to find the only one 
upon that route, there will be at least a considerable probability that it 
is the site in question. 

The difficulty of the country, especially towai'ds the north of the 
district, is very considerable. On our first day's expedition across 
country it took las over four hours to advance five miles, owing to the 
great depth of the valleys, and at length, when we fancied we had 
arrived at our point, we found it would take two hours more at least to 
reach it. Fortunately we got a good view of the valley at our feet, and 
were not absolutely obliged to revisit the point in question. Farther 
south the country is absolutely impassable, as huge gorges 1,000 to 
1,500 feet deep, and nearly a mile wide in some places, are broken by 
the great torrents flowing in winter over perpendicular precipices into 
the sea. We descended and followed the shore at 'Ain Jidy as far as 
the sulphur springs discovered by Dr. Tristram. These proved to be 
dry, though there was a very strong and local smell of sulphur, observ- 
able only for some few yards near the shore. The season was much 
drier than that when Dr. Tristram visited the shore, and the Seil, or 
brook in Wady Sideir, which he saw, and of which our Arabs spoke, 
was quite dry, as well as that in Wady el Areijeh. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE K. CONDEr's REPORTS. 131 

The scenery along the shore is so magnificent in its wild and desolate 
grandeur that it was worth any discomfort or weariness to see it. Below 
is the blue oily water, the white capes, and little mud cones of a soft 
deposit, marking a former geological level; above, the tall crags and 
castellated precipices of the great wall, which runs ever higher and 
steeper to near Masada. From 'Aia Jidy the square isolated block of 
Masada was visible, and the low mole-hill of Jebel Usdum ; whilst on 
the east above the deep gorges of the Arnon and lesser streams among 
the Blue Mountains, " scarred with an hundred wintry water-courses," 
the white towers of Kerak were distinctly visible, standing apparently 
imapproachable upon a great cliff. The ride to Masada was equally 
grand ; and the appearance of this wonderful fortress, as it stood up 
black against the morning sun, and the shining level of the Dead Sea, 
while below, in the valley, a herd of leden (the Ibex, or wild goat) were 
hopping from boulder to boulder, was as grand and picturesque a bit of 
savage scenery as a painter could desire. I was sorry Lieut. Kitchener 
was unable to accompany us for photography, especially as I had no 
time for sketching. Corporal Armstrong took three dry-plate views, 
two of v^^hich seem satisfactory, but the great gale at Masada made 
photography almost an impossibility. 

The Ta'amireh Arabs, amongst whom we were first, have a very bad 
name in Jerusalem, but we found them civil and obliging, and very 
intelligent, especially Sheikh Abel el Kader, at whose camp— the largest 
encampment I have yet seen, twenty-eight tents, or about thirty guns — 
we first pitched in Wady Hasasah. These Ta'amirehs are not true 
Arabs, but half Fellahin. They are fine-built fellows, of a browner 
colour than the true Bedawi, and wear shoes and turbans, instead of 
the kufeyeh and sandal. They are also so degraded as to cultivate 
the ground, and grow com, which they store in Bethlehem, and sell for 
very high prices. 

On the second day, when out alone with Abel el Kader, I met some 
very wild-looking fellows belonging to the K'aabineh ; they were true 
Bedouin, with the peculiar silvery tint which overlies the brown of their 
complexion, giving them a dusky appearance. They all wore sandals, 
and a single shirt, with ram's horn for powder, and a very long gun 
slung behind. Though at first they ran at us as though to annihi- 
late us, they were very civil, knowing the sheikh well, and on his 
explaining that I was one of a party of Kanasil, a term I afterwards 
found to be the plural of consul, a European dignitary for whom the 
Bedawi has unlimited respect. I hope that I shall be pardoned for thus 
involuntarily assuming such a title, but it appears that in the desert it 
is not always possible or wise to refuse honours when "thrust upon 
one." 

The Bedouin appear to look forward to a millenium, when the Chris- 
tians will turn the desert into a Paradise of running streams, gardens, 
and vineyards. In this, it seems to me, we have a tradition of Crusading 
times. The Crusaders appear to have turned considerable attention to 



132 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 

tlie cultivation of tlie Jordan valley and Dead Sea basin. At Beisan 
and Jericho we found traces of sugar manufacture, and tlie drystone 
walls of the Crusading vineyards extend over all the Bukeia, or low 
plain beneath Mar Saba. Farther south we found the lioman camps 
were called by our guides to Masada, Karum Kharliui, or "ruined 
vineyards." 

The great luxury coveted by the Bedouin is tobacco, and we soon 
found that the present of a pipeful would bring the whole tribe on us 
in a swarm, in relation to which the Jehalin pipes, as I informed Abii 
Dahuk, hudifinjans, or coffee-cups, by mistake, for bowls, being, I should 
fancy, about double the capacity of the ordinary native pipe. 

From 'Ain Jidy southwards, the country belongs to the Jehalin, who, 
as far as our experience goes, we found fully worthy of Dr. Eobinson's 
remark that they are the filthiest and most degraded of Arabs. The 
former tribes have no horses, but the Jehalin have some strong and large 
mares — not, however, I imagine, very well bred. The young Sheikh 
Abu Dahuk is one of the greatest ruffians I have ever met, and I have 
no doubt might any day endeavour to emulate the prowess of his 
father. 

At Wady Hasasah we heard great accounts of a raid by the Dhullam 
Arabs, and that the Jehalin had been driven from their country, but I 
was inclined to disbelieve the story altogether, and it was not till we 
were leaving the country that we found a body of cavalry posted 
close to our camp at Wady Seiyal, and that a serious fray had really 
occurred just before we arrived, which may account for the excited 
bearing of many of the Arabs we met. The Bedouin are for some reason 
or other all much excited just now in the south, and we hear that war 
is going on within three hours' distance of our present camp at Beit 
Jibrin. 

Two sites of especial interest demand a special description, namely, 
'Ain Jidy and Masada. 

'Ain Jidy. — The spring of 'Ain Jidy comes out from beneath a rock on a 
little plateau oOO feet above the Dead Sea, and 1,200 feet below the top 
of the cliffs. Its temperature at the spring head on a cool cloudy day 
we found to be 83° Fahr., unpleasantly warm to the taste, though the 
water is clear and sweet. I was not previously aware that it was a 
thermal spring. The stream flows in a long cascade over the steep 
face of the cliff, and is lost in channels for irrigation beneath. Its 
course is marked with tall rushes and low bushes, and the gigantic 
leaves of the 'Osher, the yellow berries of the Solanum, or apple of 
Sodom, and the flat cedar-like tops of the thorny Dardara, make a 
thicket round the spring. The bulbuls and hopping thrushes delight 
in this cover, and on the cliffs above, the black grakles, with their 
golden wings and melodious note, may be seen soaring. Beneath the 
spring on every side are ruined garden walls and terraces, and a large 
teiraced mound or tell, perhaps the site of the ancient town. An aque- 
duct leads from the spring to Wady el Areijeh, where are other smaller 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEll's REPORTS. 133 

water channels, relics of some well-watered garden of perhaps Crusading 
times. The tombs found by Dr. Tristram we did not see, but what 
seemed to me of most interest was a rude, square, solid platform, about 
10-15 feet wide, and 3 feet high, consisting of unhewn blocks, and having 
very much the appearance of what might not unnaturally be expected 
to exist in such a spot — namely, an ancient altar, dating back, perhaps, 
to Jewish times. 

There is a ruined mill, apparently modern, at the spring, and a 
building resembling a small tower, beneath the gorge of Wady el 
Areijeh, but beyond what is mentioned above, we saw no indications 
of antiquity. Not a single palm exists this side of the Dead Sea, and 
the shore presents alternately masses of boulders and broken stones, 
or fine shingle, very tiring to walk upon. The whole extent is utterly 
barren until the cane-brake and marshy ground near the northera 
springs and Has Feshkhah are reached. 

3Iasada.—Th.e site of Masada requires, perhaps, more careful explora- 
tion than we were able to give to it. Time pressed, and we could only 
afford a single day, so we got into the saddle by 6 a.m., reached the ruin 
by 9 a.m., and remained till 3 p.m. "We executed a traverse survey of the 
top with the prismatic compass and tape, and special plan of the chapel. 
We also fixed the positions of the Eoman camps below. A very severe 
gale of wind came on, and we found great difficulty in taking our 
observations. I was disappointed in the hope of descending to the 
tower at the north angle, being afraid to venture in so strong a wind 
70 feet down over the edge of the precipice, although I had brought 
ladders and ropes for the purpose. Perhaps some opportunity may 
occur later of making this interesting exploration. We returned to 
camp at 6 p.m., and were kept awake all night by the wind. 

To give an adequate idea of the appearance of Masada is by no means 
easy, a great plateau standing 1,500 feet or more above the Dead Sea, 
and measuring 2,080 feet along its greatest length, which extends north 
and south, and 1,050 feet east and west ; it is surrounded on every side 
with vertical walls of rock, and cut off from the rest of the cliff by 
deep gorges on the south, south-east, north-west, and west, whilst on 
the east it stands above a broad plain reaching down to the shore of 
the Dead Sea. 

The first point which strikes one on approaching the ruin and climb- 
ing to the plateau is the wonderful exactitude of the description by 
Josephus (B. J. vii. 8.2). Left last to the Jews as a stronghold after 
the captui-e of Herodium and Machcerus, it was not until every other 
disturbance had been quelled that the Romans turned to the tremendous 
task of reducing Masada. Flavius Silva "got together all his army" 
and besieged Eleasar, chief of the Sicarii, and having garrisoned the 
surrounding country, " he built a wall quite round the entire fortress ; 
he also set his men to guard the several parts of it ; he also pitched his 
camp in such an agreeable place as he had chosen for the siege, and at 
which place the rock belonging to the fortress did make the nearest 



13^ LIEUT. CLAUDE K. CONDEr's REPORTS. 

approacli to the neiglabouring mountain." Yet furtlier, the main diffi- 
culty of the siege, the absolute impossibility of obtaining not only pro- 
visions, but even a drop of water, was overcome by Roman energy and 
system, and supplies were brought into camp probably from a great 
distance ; as no water exists, as far as we could discover, within a 
radius of about ten miles, the principal supply was probably from 'Ain 
Jidy and the springs near it along the seashore. 

Josephus goes on to describe the fortress and the valleys, of which he 
says well " that the eye could not reach their bottoms." Two approaches 
alone existed, one on the seaside, one on the west or land side. The first, 
called the " Serpent," from its innumerable windings, appears to have 
been a mere track by which a man could climb, and has almost entirely 
disappeared ; but looking cautiously over the edge I could see far down 
faint traces of a parapet wall near the bottom of the precipice, looking 
like an outwork perched upon the crags. This is no doubt part of the 
more difficult ascent. The land approach was easier, a narrow knife- 
like promontory of softer limestone here juts out from the rocky wall. 
This is the White Fromontory. The junction of the tongue with the main 
cliff is now hidden by a huge mound of debris reaching up perhaps 300 
feet. This huge earthwork is the ramp which the Eoman general made 
to attack the fortress from the side of his camp in the most accessible (or 
rather the least impossible) dii'ection. 

On reaching the summit one is struck, first, by the small extent of 
the ru.ins compared with the area of the plateau ; secondly, with the 
difficulty of supplying the garrison with water. The first is fully 
oxj)lained by Josephus : " For the king reserved the top of the hill, which 
was of a fat soil and better mould than any valley, for agriculture, that 
such as committed themselves to this fortress for their preservation 
might not even there be quite destitute of food in case they should ever 
be in want of it from abroad." Thus it is quite natural that the prin- 
cipal and most ancient ruins should be confined to the northern corner 
of the enclosure. The whole plateau was surrounded by a wall which 
now remains in heaps of good-sized masonry rudely squared and 
apparently never laid in mortar. The length of this wall we make to be 
4,880 feet; according to Josephus it was seven furlongs, or about 4,620 
feet ; another instance of the fact that the supposed exaggerations of this 
author disappear before careful examination. Even the great length 
which he ascribes to the " Serpent ascent," thirty furlongs, only gives an 
average length of thirteen times the vertical height to be scaled, which 
cannot be thought excessive, being, as far as I can calculate, almost 
exactly the gradient of the terrible Nukh or descending path from the 
upper cliff to the spring at 'Ain Jidy. 

The towers round the wall are still traceable in places, and the block 
of Herod's palace "within and below the walls of the citadel, but 
inclined to its north side at the western ascent," is to be identified, I 
think, with the great square area 200 feet wide, which now presents 
nothing but a confused mass of fallen walls and masonry, and which 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 135 

ficljoins the top of the western ascent close -within the "wall. There is a 
striking resemblance between the masonry and that at Jebel Fureidis. 
Near the north corner of the fortress a small vault remains perfect. It 
has a cradle roof semicircular, and with the narrow keystone and broader 
stones at the haunches which I have so often had occasion to point out 
as being distinctive of Roman work. Another peculiarity is common in 
the two sites. The main part of the ruins consist of long parallel walls 
of rudely squared masonry extending some lOOfeet, and having intervals 
of only 10 feet. It will be found that a precisely similar disposition 
equally puzzling exists in the ruins of the great building generally con- 
sidered the site of Herod's summer palace at the foot of Jebel Fureidis. 
la all probability these foundation vaults were used as storehouses, and 
in them would be found those treasures of corn and fruit which, laid up 
by Herod, were found fresh and good 100 years later by Eleasar. 

Josephus frequently speaks of " the very top of the mountain," and 
the expression seems to refer to the high mound at the north angle, from 
which a subterranean passage led to the palace. The western ascent was 
guarded by a large tower 1,000 cubits below (about 1,300 feet, again a 
very correct estimate) ; from the summit of this we did not remark any 
traces, and no doubt it was destroyed by the Romans. It can hardly, I 
think, be identified with the curious circular tower at the north angle, 
70 feet beneath the platform, which I was unable to visit, but which 
does not seem to be specially mentioned by Josephus. 

The next question is that of water supply, concerning which we read 
that Herod " cut many and great pits as reservoirs for water at every 
one of the places that were inhabited." Of these we found six in all 
pretty evenly distributed over the area, and averaging 50 to 100 feet in 
length. In addition to this there is a fine masoniy reservoii' measuring 
nearly 50 feet in length placed in the southern angle, and a small well 
on the west near the wall. The great pits were all di-y, but this is pro- 
bably due to no rain having fallen, and not to the decay of the fortress, 
for with one exception they do not seem to have ever been cemented. 

To return to the Roman siege of Masada. The "White Promontory was 
300 cubits (400 feet) beneath the plateau, and the mound made by Silva 
was 200 cubits, or 270 feet high. On the top of the mound it was, 
therefore, necessary to raise another structure, and " another elevated 
work of great stones compacted together was raised upon that bank : this 
was 50 cubits (about 70 feet) both in breadth and in height." This, also, 
remains intact upon the top of the mound, a narrow causeway at a slope 
of aboiit one by one, and reaching about the height and breadth men- 
tioned by Josephus to within a short distance of the present gateway. 
It consists of large blocks rudely hewn and very closely built together. 
The exactitude of this description furnishes, I would suggest, a good 
answer to those writers who are only too apt to discover exaggeration 
and error in the descriptions of the Jewish historian, written, as they 
would have us believe, at a distance from the spot which he himself 
had never visited, and after a lapse of time sufficient to account for any 



136 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDER's REPORTS. 

SLii^posecl errcrs. This is emi:)'hatical]y imtrue as regards Masada. The 
description is that of one familiar with the site and accustomed to 
describe what he saw with an accuracy to which the majority of modern 
writers cannot hay claim. 

The Eomau investment remains perfect to this day, and as one looks 
down ujDon the long wall and orderly cami:is spread out as upon a plan 
Leneath, the mind conjures up the system and discipline of a Eomau 
army, the shining armour and orderly ranks which Josephus delights to 
describe, and one can imagine the despair of the wretched zealots as they 
looked down secure but helpless on the inevitable fate which the genius, 
energy, and determination of a Eoman general was slowly but surely 
preparing for them. 

On the west side of the fortress, upon a low spur "of the hills, lies the 
camp which Silva held in person. It is a square of some 200 feet wide, 
as far as we can judge, rather larger than the average of such camps as 
exist near Jenin and Beit Jibrin. The four gates, with their internal 
traverse, and the Via Principalis, are distinctly traceable. In the north- 
west corner is an inner enclosure, which I suppose to be the position of 
the general's tent. The walls are now huge heaps of stones, but they 
seem to have been built up in courses which remain visible here and 
there. 

A second camp, almost of equal magnitude, is laid out on the plain 
south-east of the rock. It has the peculiarity of a sort of bastion in the 
south-west angle. The surrounding wall runs in front of these camps, 
and in connection with this there are six small square forts of perhaps 
oO feet wide, two in front of the eastern camp, two between it and that of 
Silva, and two yet farther west, the last being skilfully hidden behind a 
conical peak so as to be invisible from all that part of the fortress which 
is most nearly ai3proached to this outwork. These forts remind us of 
those mentioned in the famous siege of Jerusalem by Titus. In fact, the 
attack has many striking points of similarity ; it is made on the open 
ground north and east of the fortress, and on the other sides the great 
wall, as at Jerusalem, scales the steep slopes of the hills on the opposite 
sides of the ravine and runs along the plateau above. It is quite possible 
that Silva, when he planned the attack on Masada, had in his mind the 
example of the emperor in that successful blockade which, to a soldier, 
seems remarkable for its hapj)y choice of position. 

The value of this perfect example of the method employed by the 
Eomans in conducting a siege in the stonier parts of Palestine is unques- 
tionable ; by the light of what we can here learn we shall be able to 
search at Jerusalem for indications of the great surrounding wall, and 
of the site of Roman camps, and I already see that the great flint mounds 
near Scopus, which have as yet escaped the attention of explorers, will 
require careful examination, as very probably connected with the first 
Eoman camp there established. We cannot, however, expect at Jeru- 
salem, where the ground is all under cultivation, that any traces so 
perfect as those round this desblate fortress should have been left to the 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 137 

present clay. The lesson we learn from Masada — untouclied and scarce 
visited since it met its fate from Silva — is, that the destruction of ruins in 
Palestine is due far more to human agency tiian to the gradual action of 
time. 

Eoman ruins, though the most interesting, are not, however, the only 
ones at Masada. In the centre of the area stands a Byzantine chapel, 
which, from the disposition of the atrium and the rounded arches of the 
windows, I should be disposed to think earlier than Crusading times. 
There are no masons' marks on its walls, and the masonry of the apse is 
finished with a tooling which, as I have previously described it, belongs 
to Byzantine times. 

The entrance gate to the fortress is, however, evidently later, and 
has a pointed arch with a keystone cirt out beneath so as to give the 
apex of the arch. On the outside are the marks which M. de Saulcy 
compares with planetary signs. 

The first is the well-known Wus/u, or tribe mark of the Easheideh 
Arabs, two of the others are claimed by sections of the Jehalin. The 
remaining marks, some old, some fresh, cut, are of the same origin, and 
show the assertion made by various tribes in turn of proprietorship of 
the hidden treasures which the Bedouin suppose to exist here. I did 
not observe any mark which seemed to me of earlier character. 

Two curious details remain to notice — the hermit's cave and the pigeon- 
hole niches in the walls of the buildings. The first, a small tomb-like 
cavern immediately south of the chapel, I have never seen noticed. I 
entered and planned it, and found on the wall of the vestibule the 
following short inscription painted on the white rock in that curious red 
l^igment which is observable in the graphita3 on the pillars of the Holy 
Sepulchre church, and in those of the Basilica at Bethlehem, in the apse 
of the chapel in the Convent of the Cross, and in other places where 
mediaeval graphites remain : — 

-fKTPmKOc+ 

On the left is a rude bit of ornamentation which I take to represent a 
branch with two pomegranates and some leaves. 

The pigeon-hole niches formed by the disposition of the masonry in 
the interior wall of a tower on the west wall, and on both sides of the 
wall forming the chord of a semicircular structure in another part of the 
ruin, have been photographed before, and have considerably puzzled most 
explorers. I suppose them to be of Christian origin. We shall have occa- 
sion to mention similar niches in the cave chapels at Beit Jibrin. At 
Damascus the Burj el E.us, or " tower of heads," has similar niches, 
where, 1 believe, the skulls of criminals used to be exhibited. The 
niches are larger than those for lamps, so common in tombs, as at 
Tibneh. The disposition of skulls into trophies is a ghastly fancy, 
common in Italy and in parts of France as well as in Sinai, and the most 
natural explanation seems to me that the skulls of the monks or hermits 
who, as we see from the chapel and the Christian inscription, once fre- 
quented the spot, were collected and exhibited to their brethren upon 

L 



138 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

these walls. The semicircular building is away from the site of the 
Eoman remains in an isolated position, and as it falls approximately to 
the east I suppose it to be a ti-acc of another chapel, though I failed to 
find traces of the walls of a nave. 

For further particulars I must refer to the plan which we shall send 
home as soon as possible, and to detailed notes which are stored in our 
note-books. Of subterranean cayerns, beyond a few caves in the face of 
the cliff looking like hermits' habitations, I saw no traces ; but, as I have 
said above, I was unfortunately unable to attempt the descent to the 
great circular tower, and did not therefore see those entrances wLich 
Dr. Tristram mentions as probably leading to great vaults. Such vaults 
are not, however, mentioned by Josephus in his general descrii)tion, 
although he makes mention of a cavern iu which the seven Avretched 
survivors found refuge. This need not, however, of necessity have been 
larger than the supi^osod hermit's cave or tomb described above, which 
would hold easily more than double that number. 



XXXIII. 

Beit Jibrin, March 2QtJi, 1875. 

The Shephalah and Plain of Judah, Beit Jibrin, Gath, 
Adullam, and LiBNAn. 

The survey is at present steadily advancing through the lowlands and 
Plain of Judah. Nearly half the towns which are noticed in the topo- 
graphical lists of the Book of Joshua belong to districts now being 
surveyed, and for the most jiart almost unknown. With the exception 
of Captain Warren's survey of part of the j^lain, Eobinson's journey to 
Beit Jibrin and Gaza, Vandevelde's journey along the same line and along 
the coast, and Tobler's "Wandering," scarce any attention has been paid 
to this part of Palestine. The district west of the Dhoheriyeh hills and 
south of Beit Jibrin, as well as the very intricate hill country north and 
east of our present camp, more particularly require exploration. They 
prove to be more thickly strewn with ruins than any portion of the land 
we have seen, and most of these sites show evidences of great antiquity. 
Our progress is therefore slow and careful, and we shall endeavour, if 
possible, not to lose a single name. Our guides are taken from many 
villages, those nearest the part surveyed being adopted in turn, and the 
native scribe is sent into the field to secure the orthography when the 
natives cannot be brought as far as the camp. 

Of the general results it is premature to speak in detail as yet, and I 
will reserve the report of our identifications till the country of Judah is 
completed, when it can be treated altogether. Some idea of the value of 
crrr work may, however, be derived from the following statement : — 



LIEUT. CLAUDK R. CONDER's REPORTS. 139 

The eleven districts into wMcli the cities of Jiidah are divided (exclu- 
sive of twenty-nine cities of the Negeb, south of Beersheba, afterwards 
allotted to Simeon), contain in all niuety-seven names of towns; of these 
forty-two were placed ia the low hills (or Shephalah) and on the mari- 
time plain. Of the total of ninety-seven, thirty-five had been identified 
with tolerable certainty before the period of the survey ; but of these, 
three (Adullam, En-gannim, and Beth Dagon) have only lately been fixed 
in consequence of the researches of M. Ganneau. Of the remainiug 
thirty-two, by far the greatest number are due to Robinson, whilst Yande- 
velde, Wolcott, and others, have added an occasional stray discovery. 

At the time at which I write, the number of new identifications in 
Judah, sufficiently well considered for publication, due to our Survey, 
has reached a total of thirty-three. I fully expect that at least four 
or five more are still to be made, as well as identifications of towns 
not mentioned in the 15th chapter of Joshua. I do not include in this 
total sites previously proposed and now confirmed by our work. But 
it is not only in numbers that we have made a step in advance, for, as 
the number of sites known will now average more than three-quarters 
of the total in each district, it becomes possible to understand the system 
according to which the names occur, and to define the limits of the 
districts. This is especially the case with regard to the lowlands of 
Libnah, a group of nine towns, of which this royal city was the capital, 
and of which only three are previously identified by Robinsm. I hope 
that we shall be able to show thoroughly good identifications for the 
remaining six, and thus to pi-ove that the order of occurrence of the 
names is perfectly regular in this case, being in a circle from right to left. 
This is only one instance of the canon which we have, I hope, established, 
that " the order of occurrence of the names in the topographical lists is 
a certain indication of relative situation." The final identification of 
three out of every four sites mentioned, which may reasonably be ex- 
pected, is indeed a great advance in Biblical illustration. 

The principal sites of interest now visited are Beit Jibrin, Tell el Safieh, 
the Valley of Elah, and the site of Adullam, which should, I think, be 
accepted as identified by M. Ganneau with the present 'Aid-el-raia. 

Beit Jibrin. — Beit Jibrin, identified by Dr. Robinson with the Eleuthero- 
polis of Jerome and the Betogabra of the Acta Sanctorum and Peutinger 
tables, was known as Beit Jibril to the Arab geographers of the middle 
ages, and this was converted into Gibelin by the Crusaders. Whatever the 
ancient name of the site, its present title dates in all isrobability from 
Christian times. There is on the N.W. side of the village a small plot 
of ground, with a few scattered stones, which is held sacred as a Weig (a 
contraction meaning a spot sacred to some holy personage), but no 
building of any kind is erected on it. The place is called Nebi Jibril, or 
Nebi Jibrin (the fellahin invariably change the L into M orN, e.g., Ism'ain 
for Ism'ail, Israim or Isr'ain for Isr'ail). The translation of this is, of 
course, the "Prophet Gabriel," and the veneration of this site is no 
doubt due to a traditionary remembrance of the church which Dr. 



140 LIEUT. CLAUDE R, CONDER's REPORTS. 

Robinson heard of close to this spot, ' ' with pictures in the southern part 
(of the Kalah) now shut up, and indeed buried beneath the ruins." All 
traces of this church seem to have disappeared beneath the mounds which 
here exist ; but the circumstance is of value, as seeming to show that 
the name Beit Jibrin is not a corruption of any Hebrew or Aramaic 
word, but simply signifies "The House of Gabriel," being so called, I 
would saggost, in early Christian times, from the church to the Angel 
within the town. 

Lying Ioav on the side of a white chalk hill, hemmed in with higher 
rolling ridges, and surrounded with extensive and very ancient olive 
groves, Beit Jibrin can hardly be seen in any direction at a distance of a 
mile. It is a site peculiarly rich and sheltered, but of no natural 
strength, and cannot therefore be identified Avith any place which was 
famous as a stronghold in early times. 

The ruins in and round the town are very extensive and interesting. 
The soft rock seems to have tempted its inhabitants in every age, and 
traces of Jewish, Roman, Byzantine, Crusading, and Saracenic workmen 
are to be found. The most striking peculiarit}', which it shares with a 
few other sites in the Shephalah, is the great number of enormous 
caverns which are to be found on every side. As a rule, there is an 
open court, or sunken approach, hemmed in with walls of rock, and 
leading to great domed apartments having man-holes in the roofs. This 
class, of which there are eleven principal examples, goes by the name 
of Arak. Where the entrance is a narrow door, or well-mouth, and the 
caves have no light, the natives call it a Ulai/lKD'aJi. The third kind, the 
rock-cut sepulchres, they name here, as throughout Palestine, Namus 
(plural Nawamis), which means a mosquito, and is a vulgar corruption of 
the proper Arabic title Naus (pi. Nawawis). 

That Beit Jibrin is an ancient site may be judged from the existence 
of rock-cut wine -presses and olive-presses in its vicinity, and of 
sepulchres of unusual size, one containing thirty-four loculi, running 
in from the sides of its two chambers in the ordinary manner of Jewish 
tombs, the length of each being no less than 8 feet 4 inches. There are 
four good examples of this style of tomb, as well as several which have 
been broken into and destroyed in the process of enlarging the great 
caverns. 

The village itself consists of mud huts, with a good stone house be- 
longing to one of the two great families in the centre. On three sides 
it is surrounded with mounds, which might very possibly be worth 
excavating, but on the north, about one hundred paces from the houses, 
runs the line of the old fortifications. Tfu'ee or four courses are visible 
almost throughout the whole extent, and at the N.W. angle the N. and 
W. walls reach up to 8 or 9 feet, whilst within stands a fort, or Kal'ah, 
200 feet wide. 

These fortifications, with the remains of a ditch and counterscarp, are 
put down by Dr. Robinson as dating from the Roman period, but it 
seems to me questionable whether they can be carried back further than 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEli's REPORTS. 141 

the 12tli century, ■when King Fulke, who found the pLice an ancient 
ruined site, rebuilt it in a.d. 1134, with " impregnable walls, a mound, 
bastions, and advanced works," as described by William of Tyre (quoted 
by Eobinson). A careful traverse with the compass shows that the wall 
recedes towards the centre of the north side so as to make a curtain, and 
that the counterscarp is thrown out in a circle, so as probably to allow of 
an interior ravelin or advanced work of some kind. The Kal'ah also 
has towers at its corners, and the N.W. part of the line projects as a 
sort of bastion. These peculiarities resemble Crusading rather than 
Roman work. That part of the Kal'ah, at least, is of this date we suc- 
ceeded in proving by the examination of a long vault, built in four bays 
"with pillars, having marble capitals of good workmanship, the acanthus 
patterns in low relief, similar to Crusading buildings at Kalensawieh, 
Cajsarea, and many other sites ; there is a simple cornice, with well- 
execute 1 mouldings and dentcllated work above the pillars, good pointed 
arched and groined ragwork in the vaults ; finally, on the better pre- 
served stones we noticed the diagonal chiselling which M. Ganneau 
pointed out as distinctive of a certain class of Crusading work, and we 
found three masons' marks which I recognised as occurring in the 
Muristan, the castle of Kaukab el Ilawa, the church at Abu Gosh, 
and many other 12th century buildings. 

I feel, therefore, little hesitation in putting down the whole of the forti- 
fications as Crusading, though a fine arch, seemingly of a gateway, exists 
within the wall at the N.E. corner, which is apparently semicircular, 
though it mau have a slight point, and 24 feet span, with a double ring 
of masonry in the voussoirs. It might possibly be thought Eoman at 
first sight, but the windows of the great church, next to be described, 
have precisely the same structure, and are certainly Byzantine. The 
length of the line of fortification visible is close upon 2,000 feet, or three 
times that of the village. Beit Jibriu must therefore in the middle ages 
have been a very considerable place. 

Lieut. Xitcheuer has photographed the vault on the side of the Kal'ah, 
the Great Church of St. John, and one of the curious caves at Tell 
Sandahannah near the town. The weather, however, is very grey as yet, 
hot and hazy, with strong east wind at night. 

SandalianrtCih. — xibout a mile S.E. of the village are the remains of the 
great church or cathedral, called by the fellahin Sandahannah or St. John. 
It is the finest specimen of a Byzantine church which I have yet seen in 
Palestine, and possesses a great peculiarity in its two side chapels. The 
nave is 32 feet wide, and must have been, it would seem, in the original 
plan, 121 feet in length. Two walls run out in continuation of the apse 
diameter, pierced with two tiers of two windows with circular arches. 
Each wall is 61 feet long, giving a total width of lol feet to the building. 
In the two corners, N."W. and S.W., are chapels about 70 feet long by 
20 feet broad, inside, their apses being in lines parallel to the main 
apse, which has an orientation 20" S. of east. The southern chapel 
has only the apse left, but in the other the foundations of its walls 



142 LIEUT, CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 

remain, with, two vaults, having good round arches and cradle roof 
below. 

This original plan of the building has subsequently been altered by Cru- 
sading architects ; piers are built on to the walls of the nave, supporting 
pointed arches, and one bay remains with its roof almost entire, 18 feet 
broad, from centre to centre of pier. A curious difficulty liere occurs in 
the roof. The magnificent apse is covered with a beehive roof, of whicb 
every stone is in place, forming a hollow quarter-sphere ; the height 
from the to]3 is 43 feet, but the Crusading roof to the nave is about 10 
feet lower. The way in which the semicircle thus left open on the 
diameter of the apse was closed it is now impossible to understand. 
There seem to have been some fine marble columns in the nave, standing 
on pedestals beneath the base, each pedestal about 3 feet high, with a 
cross upon it, surrounded with a laurel wreath. All these and other 
details wo measured and sketched carefully. The church is a splendid 
example of the most careful style of Byzantine construction and masonry. 
The tooling of the stones is precisely that which I have described in a 
previous report as belonging to early Christian work. One of the stones 
in the great apse is 8 feet long, the average is from 2 to 5 feet. None of 
the stones are drafted. The height of the courses is 18 inches. 

The Crusading parts of the work consist of smaller masonry, and the 
diagonal chiselling is visible upon the pier stones. 

The Caves.- — The question of the date of the great caverns here and at 

Deir Dubban is interesting and puzzling. At Beit Jibrin every cave or 

system of caves has a name, but these seem to be modern and trivial, 

unless any importance is attached to the title 'Arak el Finsh, or the 

Phoenician Cavern. The principal are 'Arak el Kheil, Abu Mizbeleh, El 

Moia, Heleil, Esalmi, El Mokat'a, El Finsh, Sandahannah, Sherraf, 

Sobek, and Eerhud, with 'Arak Hala some little way west of our camp. 

In all of these the same disjposition is visible — rounded chambers with 

domed roofs, from 20 to 50 feet diameter, communicate with one another ; 

detached pillars support the roof in places ; the height is 30 or 40 feet ; 

and a thin crust only of the hard rock, pierced with a round well-hole, 

exists above. The walls are sometimes very rough, sometimes coarsely 

but regularly dressed with a pick diagonally. In two places springs 

exist within the cave. In many of them crosses of various character are 

cut on the walls, sometimes 15 to 20 feet from the ground. In one cave 

is a rude drawing deeply cut, and 10 to 12 feet from the ground. It is 

so curious that I enclose a sketch. Many of these rounded caves have 

the appearance of chapels, and have apses facing east. It is possible, 

therefore, that this may be a rude, unfinished representation of the 

Crucifixion, dating from early Christian times. In all the caves where 

crosses occur there are also Cufic inscriptions, generally at a low level, 

within reach, and consisting of short religious ejaculations — Ya Allah, 

Ya Mohammed, or "There is no God but God; Mohammed is the 

Messenger of God." There is, however, one very long and important 

one, which Dr. Eobinson did not (as he afterwards regretted) find time 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 143 

to copy. I send a sketch, for it requires a very considerable scaffold to 
approacli it for a squeeze. It contains the name of Saladiu, who took 
Beit Jibrin in about 1187 a.d. 

There is one, however, of these Anils which deserves special notice. 
It was visited by Eobinson, and has the peculiarity of a chamber 50 feet 
long by 18 feet wide, with a well-cut barrel vault for the roof, beneath 
which on either side runs a band of tracery in low relief, 2 feet wide. 
The pattern, which is decidedly mediceval, differs on the two walls. I 
copied it carefuUj', and send a specimen. "We also planned the whole 
of this system of caves, and found some dog-tooth moulding cut on one 
of the doors, which resembles the window photographed in the Muristan 
by Lieutenant Kitchener. There is also a niche, with what seems to bo 
a figure, now much defaced. Another peculiarity visible in many of the 
caves consists of long rows of niches, some 8 to 10 inches either 
waj^, placed round the walls. In one case a sort of buttress exists, with 
niches in front and at the sides. South of the town, near Tell Sanda- 
hannah, is a cavern which contains 1,774 of these niches. Lieutenant 
Kitchener has taken a view of it ; it is 9G feet long and 7 feet wide ; 
the niches, placed in two tiers, separated by pilasters into 12 bays ; each, 
tier consists of five rows of four in a row, giving ten rows in a total height 
of about 12 feet. There are also four transepts, about six feet broad 
and 26 feet long, three having only an upper tier of niches, and a broader 
space below. The niches arc about 10 inches either way. Two side 
doors led from the south end of the gallery. The object of the excava- 
tion is puzzling in the extreme. Lieutenant Kitchener is of opinion that 
they are catacombs, and that skulls were placed in the niches, and 
trophies of bones below. We have seen similar niches in rock-cuttings 
near Tanturah, but never before in such numbers. The only other ex- 
X)lanation besides that above which occurs to me is that urns for ashes 
were kept here, in which case the cave would date back to Eoman rather 
than to Christian times. 

The whole hill round Tell Sandahannah is burrowed with caves, but 
these, again, are of a different character. They are not lighted from 
without, and the floors are reached by winding stairs. They consist of 
circular domed chambers, well cut, and communicating with one another. 
There is also a great square chamber, supported on rude rock pillars. 
Of the most perfect system, visited by Dr. Eobinson, we made a plan. 
The chambers are dry, but full of mud, and may very possibly have been 
intended for cisterns. No other use suggests itself. 

The question of the date of all these excavations is difficult. Through- 
out the south of Palestine, in the soft limestone district, I have invari- 
ably found the great caverns connected with Christian ruins. Even in 
the hard rocks of the desert the fifth century hermits hewed caves to live 
in. The niches, also, where we have before met them, seem connected 
with Christian sites, which renders the explanation given above, and 
enlarged upon in a former report, very probable. That the caves are 
subsequent to, or -were at all events very greatly enlarged at, a period 



144 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 

later than that of the Jews is, I think, proved by the way in which 
the ancient sepulchres are broken into, and appear cut in half high 
up in the roof of the caverns. As shown above, the caves are full of 
Christian emblems, and it seems on the whole most probable that they 
are partly quarries (as is very plainly seen in places where half-quarried 
stones remain), and partly used for dwellings, chapels, or, perhaps, as 
now, for stables to flocks during the earlier Christian times. No doubt, 
however, more than one period should be found in them, and as Christian 
and Moslem succeeded one another, each may have added something to the 
number and size of the caves. 

Roman Camps. — Beit Jibrin seems, at some time, to have been be- 
sieged by the Eomans, if I am correct in supposing that the three great 
tells which surround it are the sites of Roman camps ; they may, how- 
ever, have been constructed later, when the Crusaders fortified the town. 
They are known as Tell Burnat west. Tell Sandahannah south-east, and 
Tell Sedeideh north-west. On each is a square enclosure, with a foun- 
dation, seemingly of a wall of small stones, but some 4 feet thick. 
The square faces towards the cardinal points, and the length of a 
side is about 50 yards. The positions chosen entirely command the 
town, and the artificial character of the top of each tell is at once 
visible from a distance. An aqueduct leads from near Tell Sedeideh 
to a cistern close to camp, but this appears to be of Saracenic date. 
It is possible we may find some clue to the identification of Beit Jibrin 
in the history of the places besieged by the Romans in this part of 
Palestine. 

Gatli. — Beit Jibrin has, I believe, been identified by some authors 
with Gath, but to this there seem to me to be many objections. The 
Onomasticon is not always a safe guide, but in this case is almost 
the only one we have, and, to say the least, it was easier to find 
an old site in the third century than in the nineteenth century. The 
Onomasticon defines Gath as being north from Eleutheropolis (or 
Beit Jibrin), on the road to Lydda, and again visible to those who 
went from Eleutheropolis to Gaza (probably for Gazara, or Gezer, at 
Tell Jezer), at the fifth milestone. This is a fatal objection, at least 
to the Gath uf Easebius being at Beit Jibrin ; in addition to which 
Gath was in the country of the Philistines — the plain I'ather than 
the Shephalah — it was a strong site, and fortified by Eehoboam, not 
as is Beit Jibrin, a position naturally weak. Josephus mentions the 
"Borders of Gath " in connection with Ekron. Gaza to Gath he again 
gives, apparently as defining the whole extent of the southern plain 
taken by Joshua. 

In the flight of the Philistines down the Yalley of Elah, they 
were smitten to Sha'araim and Gath. None of these indications, 
slight though they are, fit with Beit Jibrin, but they all fit well with 
the other proposed site at Tell el Silfieh, the sti'ong fortress of Blanche 
Garde or Alba Specula. The most conclusive passage in Josephus 
Day be added (Ant. v. 1. 22), where he defines the limit of the tribe 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 145 

of Dan—" Also tliey had all Jamnia and Gatli, from Ekron to that 
mountain where the tribe of Judah begins," a definition which places 
Gath very far north, and at all events not farther south than Tell el 
Siifieh. 

In one passage Josephns substitutes Ipan (Ant. viii. 10. 1), where 
Gath occurs in the Old Testament (2 Chron. xi. 8), but this does not 
appear to assist the identification much. Gath seems to have been 
one of the principal Philistine strongholds, and as such its position 
must have been important. It is, however, curiously omitted in 
the topographical lists, as is also Ascalon, another Philistine city — 
probably because neither was taken during Joshua's campaign in the 
plains. 

The magnificent natural site of Tell el Safieh, standing above the broad 
valley, which seems undoubtedly the Yalley of Elah, and presenting 
on the north and west a white precipice of many hundred feet, must 
have made this place one of importance in all ages. In its mounds, 
excavation might be productive of good results, bat even of the fortress 
of Blanche Garde no trace seems to remain beyond the scarped side 
of the rock upon the east, evidently artificial. There are many large 
caves in the northern precipice, and excavations, where grain is now 
kept. The village at the top is a collection of miserable mud huts, in- 
habited by insolent peasantry, one of whom I had the satisfaction of 
sending bound to Hebron for threatening me with a stone. 

The isolated position of this site would fully account for its being 
held (as the Jebusites held Jerusalem) by the original native popula- 
tion, never expelled by Joshua, whilst the plains round it were in the 
hands of the Jews, and from this outpost there Avas an easy passage 
up one of the great high roads to the hills— the Yalley of Elah in which 
Samson and Samuel, and probably also David, in turn, so repeatedly 
encotmtered the Philistine invaders. 

AduUam, — The site of, perhaps, primary interest in our work from 
this camp is that of the royal city of AduUam, with the cave or hold 
so famous in the history of David, in the identification of which I am 
happy to say our work entirely confirms the previous discovery due to 
M. Ganneau. The traditional site of Adtillam is east of Bethlehem in 
Wady Klmreitun— an extraordinary cavern with long winding pas- 
sages. The jreneral identification of later times has, however, been 
with Deir Dubban, " The Convent of Flies," apparently because no name 
which approached more closely in the district in which Adullam was 
known to lie could be found, and because a cavern similar to those just 
described, is here to be found on the west side of the village. In a 
report from Beit 'Atab {Qaarterlij Statement, January, 1875, p. 19) I 
described the cavern of Umm el Tttweimin tinder the impression that 
this was the spot M. Ganneau had supposed identical with Adullam, 
but this mistake he afterwards pointed out to me and gave me indica- 
tions of the whereabouts of the trtie site. 

There is no reason to suppose that the cave of Adullam was a site 



146 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

separate from tlie royal city of that name. Joseplms says tliat David, 
escaping from Gath, " came to the tribe of Judah, and abode in a cave 
by the city of Adullam" (Ant. vi. 12. 3). Theuce he sent to his 
family in Bethlehem, and here he first collected to him "every one that 
was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was 
discontented" (1 Sam. xxii. 2). 

Tiie site of the city itself appears to be very ancient. The patriarch 
Judah is mentioned as going clown (from the hill country it would 
seem to the Shephalah) to visit his friend Hirah the AduUamite. It 
api^ears in the list of royal cities taken by Joshua (Joshua sii. 15), 
between Libnah and Makkedah. It is again mentioned (Joshua xv. 
35) in the list of fourteen cities of the Shephalah, and its name here 
appears between those of Jarmuth (Tarmuk) and the northern Socoh 
(Shuweikeh\ That it was a site of natural strength we infer from the 
expression " the hold," which is used in reference to David's retreat, 
in or close to it (1 Sam. xxii. 5), and also from its being fortified by 
Rehoboam (2 Ohron. xi. 7), as mentioned in the list of his fortresses, 
the name occurring between Socoh and Gath. In this list, however, the 
order of occurence throughout seems of little value. A further indica- 
tion of position occurs in the notice in Micah i. 15, where it is named 
with Achzib and Mareshah. The requisites for the site of Adullam are 
therefore as follows : — 

1st. That it be in the Sliephalah or low hills. 

2nd. In the neighbourhood of Jarmuth and Socoh. 

3rd. At no great distance from the district of Mareshah and the 

northern towns of the Libnah district. 
4th. Probably between Gath and Bethlehem. ^ 
5th. That it be a strong natural site. 

6th. That it be an ancient site of importance with rock-cut 
tombs, good water supply, ancient and main roads and 
communications from ditferent sides. 
7th. That it contain one or more habitable caves. 
8th. That the modern name contain the important letters of the 
Hebrew, especially the 'Ain. 
The fact that this town whilst in one district is yet mentioned in 
connection with the northern tosvns of the district immediately soirth 
of it, is in itself a very important indication, and would fix Adullam 
as tov.-ards the south part of the district to which it belongs. 

The requirements are, it will be seen, fully met in every particular 
by the site I am about to describe. Upon Murray's new map it will be 
seen that a great valley separates the Shephalah from the high hills, 
and runs first north-west, then north, from the watershed near Hebron 
to the neighbourhood of Socoh or Shuweikeh ; it then turns west and 
runs near Tell el Safieh, and so into the sea, north of Ashdod. The first 
part to Socoh is called Wady Sur, afterwards it becomes Wady Sumt, 
the probable Valley of Elah. 

On its eastern brink, about five miles south of Socoh, is the hill 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 147 

of Keilali, above wliicli, in tlie high hills, stands Klmrds, which I have 
proposed to identify with Hareth. West of Socoh are the scenes of 
other battles with the Philistines, and a visit to the spot explains their 
choice of this part of the counti-y for raids. The broad valley is, in the 
greater part of its course, over a mile across, and the rich arable ground, 
watered by a small brook from springs farther up, presented, when we 
visited it, a long vista of green cornfields and brown furrows, now 
ploughed by fellahin, who come down from Surif, from S'air, and from 
other villages in the hills. Thus from their stronghold of Gath (if 
Tell es Safieh be Gath), on the side of the valley, at the edge of the 
XDlain, the Philistines had a broad highway leading through the richest 
corn laud of Judah on the one hand, east even to Jerusalem, and on 
the south to the neighbourhood of Keilah. Thus we see how important 
it was to hold the entrance to this rich but ill-protected countrj^ and 
the occiirrence of contests between Socoh and Gath is explained, whilst, 
on the other hand, we understand how the invaders came to penetrate 
to the apparently remote village of Keilah, where they robbed the 
threshing-floors (1 Sam. xxiii. 1), although it is on the west, separated 
from Philistia by the entire breadth of the rocky hills of the Shephalah. 

Upon the western slope of this valley, north-east of the village of 
Umm Burj, and about half way from Keilah to Socoh, there will be 
found on Murray's map (1874) a Kubbeh, or Saint house, called Wely 
Mudkor. It is here that we place Mullam. The Kubbeh stands on 
the north edge of a range which rises some 500 feet above the broad 
valley. The sides of the hill are steep, and cut into terraces. The 
Kubbeh is surrounded by heaps of stones and ruins of indeterminate 
date, but there is no dou.bt of the antiquity of the site. Wherever the 
rock appears it is cut and quarried, and on the west I observed the 
entrance of a tomb, now closed up. 

A tributary valley runs into Wady Sur on the north, and on the 
south a narrow neck of land, somewhat lower than the raised citadel 
near the Kubbeh, connects the site of the city with the remainder of 
the ridge. Thus it will be seen that the site is one of considerable 
natural strength. 

In the valley beneath are two weUs, one of great antiquity, circular, 
about 8 to 10 feet diameter, and provided with twenty-four stone 
troughs similar to those at Beersheba, but roughly shaped and oval, 
or quadrangular, instead of round. At the junction of the branch with 
the main valley stands a great tree known as Butmeh Wady Sur (the 
Terebinth of Wady Sur). In this, and in the name Deir el Butm 
(Convent of the Terebinth), applied to a ruin near Tell el Safieh, we 
have the last traces of Emek-Elah, "the Yalley of the Terebinth." 
The tree is conspicuous for a long distance, and is one of the largest in 
Palestine. There are also several smaller Terebinths along the course 
of Wady Sur. 

Next in importance comes the question of roads. A main line of 
communication from Hebron to the plain passes along Wady Sur by 



148 LIEUT. CLAUDE K. CONDER's REPORTS. 

this site. An ancient road, witli stone side walls, is traceable towards 
Umm Biirj, but is not, as shown on the map, the Roman road from 
Eleutheropolis to Jerusalem. Lastly, an important road leads up to 
Surif and Bethlehem, and thus on the east, west, north, and south, with 
Bethlehem, Beit Jibrin, Tell el Safieh, and Hebron, there are ancient 
and main lines of communication. 

Conditions numbers one, four, five, and sis, are therefore satisfied, 
but the others are more important. 

As regards the district, this site is about three miles south-east of 
Socoh, and rather farther south of Jarmuth, which, in the order of the 
list, is its natural position. As relates to the cities of the Libnab dis- 
trict, it it about three miles from Keilah, and eight from Mareshah, 
being, indeed, just on the border between the two districts. 

We turn, then, with interest to the two last questions — the Cave, and 
the name. 

There is no great cavern at the ruin in question, no such lofty 
chambers as at Beit Jibrin ; no halls with stalactitic columns, as at 
Umm el Tuweimin ; no winding galleries, as at Khureitun. This is 
precisely why the site seems most probable. Such cavei'ns are at the 
present day carefully avoided by the troglodytic peasantry. The 
dampness, and the feverish character of the atmosphere, the size 
requiring many lights, the presence in the darkness of scorjpions 
and bats, seem to prevent the large caves from being ever used as 
habitations. The caves which are so used ai'e much smaller, being 
about the area of an ordinary cottage, some twenty to thirty paces 
across, lighted by the sun without, and more or less dry within. Wliere- 
ever they occur the roofs will be found black with smoke, and large 
families are lodged in some, while troops of goats, cattle, and sheep 
are stabled in others, the smaller being reserved to store grain and 
straw. 

It is in caves of this kind that our site a,bounds. Round one upon 
the western slope hundreds of goats were collected. Two moderate 
caverns exist on the northern brow of the hill, and another farther 
sou-tb. On the opposite slopes of the branch valley a regular line of 
excavations, all smoke-blackened, and mostly inhabited, extends for 
some distance. There is therefore plenty of accommodation for the 
band of outlaws who surrounded David at AduUam. 

Finally, as to the name. The ancient site is called, according to the 
correct orthography, Khirbet el Sheikh Mudhkur, " The ruin of the 
famous Sheikh." As such we fixed its position with the theodolite in the 
autumn of 1873. There are, however, low down in the branch valley, 
some heajjs of stones and ruined wails to which the traces of the ancient 
name seem to cling. We heard it from eight or ten people, and even 
from Beit Jibrin the situation with regard to Sheikh Madhkur was 
described to me correctly. It is pronounced 'Aid el Mieh, which means 
in Arabic, " Feast of the hundred," and a confused tradition of some 
feast held on the spot seems attached to it. The name contains all the 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. COXDER's REPORTS. 149 

letters of the word Adnllam (Elebrew, A, D, L, M), and contains none 
otlier of vital imiiortance. The change, therefore, to a title having a 
distinct meaning, may be regardei as only another instance of a well- 
known law of identification. 

If this identification, proposed by M. Gannean, and, as shown above, 
so accordant with the requisites of the case, be admitted, new light will 
be found to have been thrown on the life of David. The whole topo- 
graphy assumes a consistency which traditional sites have desti'oyed. 
From Gibeah (Jeba near Mukhmas) David flies southward to Nob, 
thence down the great valley to Gath (Tell el Safieh), from Gath he returns 
into the land of Judah, then bounded by the Shephalah, most of which 
seems to have been in the hands of the Philistines ; and on the edge of 
the country between Achish and Saul, Philistia and Judah, he collects 
his band into the strongest site to be found in the neighbourhood of 
the rich corn lands of Judah. At the advice of the seer he retires to 
the hills, and if my identification of Hareth be correct it is but a march 
of four miles distance. Here, as at Adullam, he was also within easy 
reach of his family at Bethlehem. At Kharas he hears that the 
Philistines, whose advance he probably barred when holding Adullam, 
had invaded Keilah immediately beneath him, and, as in a former paper 
I fully explained, it is this propinquity alone which accounts for his 
attack upon the marauders. 

Keilah. — In returning to camp we passed close to Keilah, having fol- 
lowed the brook up Wady Sur through a broad green valley of rich soil 
with low scrub-covered hills on the west, and a fine view of the contorted 
strata and dee^^ gorges of the high watershed range on the east. I 
have been asked to describe this site. It is a hill with steep' sides 
terraced and covered with corn, but quite devoid of trees. The terrac- 
ing, which must have been a work of immense labour, and which, 
whilst strengthening the site enlarges the arable area on the hill side, 
is in itself a mark of the a,ntiquity of the site ; at the foot of the hill is 
a well called Bir el Kos (Well of the Arch), from a sort of conduit or 
arches leading to a cistern beside the well (as well as could be judged 
from the distance). Lower down the valley is another ancient well, Bir 
el Su-weid, with stone drinking troughs as at Adullam. Tiiere are 
rock-cut tombs at the foot of the hill, and remains of a miserable 
ruined village at the top. The wady is here narrower, and the ruin 
hidden in its folds stands above corn-fields in a very strong situation, 
fully explaining how a town of importance " that hath gates and bars " 
(1 Sam. xxiii. 7) came to be placed here. 

Lieutenant Kitchener took two very successful photographs of 
Adullam. In both the great Terebinth appears in the foreground. The 
first shows the ancient; site, the Kubbet el Sheikh Mudhkur and its 
ruins, the cave on the hill-top and the broad corn-fields of the valley. 
The second has in the foreground the remains of a small aqueduct 
which leads from the well and appears to have been used for irrigation. 
In this plot the well is shown, and the ruins to which the name 'Aid el 
Mieh applies, as also the caves on the opposite hill. 



150 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 

Lihna. — One of tlie great unsettled questions of the southern plains is 
the site of Libnah. The indications of its position are few and vague, 
especially so -when it is remembered that out of the cities of which it 
was the capital, only three had been identified before the present 
time. 

The notices of Libnah are as follows. It was taken by Joshua before 
Lachish and after Makkedah, and from the regularity of the order 
in which these sieges occur it may be considered as between the two 
(Josh. X. 29). In the topographical list of its district it is mentioned 
first, followed by Ether, Mareshah being the last name in the list (Josh. 
XV. 42). It was a city of the priests, and as such we should expect 
from the examination of other Levitical sites that it was in a pleasant 
situation and had natural advantages to recommend it (Josh. xxi. 13). 
It is principally famous as having been besieged by Sennacherib in his 
advance from Lachish (Umm-Lakis) on Jerusalem (2 Kings xix. 8), and 
it was here apparently that the destruction of the Assyrian army "took 
place, when the " angel of the Lord went out and smote in the camp of 
the Assyrians an hundred and four score and five thousand." 

By Josephus Libnah is mentioned Ant. ix. 5. 1, and Ant. x. 1. 4, 
but no light is cast on the subject of its position. 

By the Onomasticon it is briefly noticed as a village of the district of 
Eleutheropolis. 

In the absence of any more definite information we are obliged, 
therefore, to fall back on the general position of the district and the 
place of occurrence in the list of names. From its importance as a 
royal and Levitical city we should expect a position marked by natural 
advantages and remains showing the existence of a considerable site. 
The name signifying tvliite leads us also to place it where white cliffs or 
soil of a light colour, such as is found remarkably in many ancient sites 
of the Shephalah, are to be noticed. 

The only exact clue as yet given exists in the following lists of identi- 
fications in the district, of which, I believe, five are entirely new: — 



1. 


Libnali 


Beit Jibvin 


C. R. C. 


2. 


Ether 


Khirbet 'Atr 


C. E. C. 


3. 


Ashau 


Khirbet Hazauali 


C. E. C. 


4. 


Jiplitah 






5. 


Asluiah 


Idliuah 


C. E. C. 


6. 


Nezib 


Kh. Beit Nu-sib 


Eobinson, 


7. 


Keilah 


Khirbet Kila 


Eobinson, 


8. 


Achzilj 


Kiissah 


C. R. C. 


9. 


Mareshah 


Khirbet Mer'ash 


Eobinson, 



A few words will show the satisfactory nature of these discoveries. 
Khirbet 'Atr is unmistakably an old site, and the name I have care- 
fully verified. It is about a mile north-west of Beit Jibrin, and shows 
the usual indications of antiquity in rock-cuttings, foundations, 
terraces, and ruined cisterns. The same description ax^plies to Ashan 
some five miles south of Beit Jibrin. Idhnah, the same distance south- 



LIEUT. CLAUDE B. CONDER's REPORTS. 151 

east, is still inhabited, and from this point the names run north and 
west in rcgiilar succession till we arrive at Mareshah, one mile south of 
Beit Jibrin. The names occur, therefore, in the most direct succession 
going south, east, north, and returning westward. The district which 
is so marked is entirely in the Shephalah or low hill country south of 
the other Shephalah district, of which Adullam and Jarmuth were 
capitals. 

The inference seems to me irresistible that Beit Jibrin was the 
capital, and that its position between Ether the second, and Mareshah 
the last of the names, occurring, as I have shown, in a sort of circle, 
entitles us to consider it as Libnah. The site, still important upon the 
junction of several main roads, ha^?, as I have before noted, lost its 
ancient name. We cannot identify it with Gath or with ]Makkedah, 
which were much farther north, nor with any but one of the Libnah 
group. 

Situate in a sheltered and fruitful valley amongst olive groves, and 
(as witnessed by the presses) once surrounded with vineyards, it might 
well be taken for a priestly city, for, as we have remarked, the.Levites 
generally had a full share of the fat of the land. The great cliffs now 
burrowed with caves present all round it gleaning patches of white 
rock, and the soil of its corn-fields is also white and chalky. This 
peculiarity, if marked in spring, must be ten times more so in the dry 
summer and autumn. 

Beit Jibrin is also on the direct line from Lachish to Jerusalem, that 
which Sennacherib would probably have followed, lying as it does in 
the direction of the great Roman road to Gaza from the capital. The 
site is also between Makkedah (if placed near Ramleh) and Lachish, 
though not in a direct line. The object of Joshua's campaign was 
evidently, however, the subjugation of the royal cities, and thus of the 
districts of which they were the capitals. Thus after the cajDture of 
Makkedah the next district easily approachable was that of the Libnah 
lowlands, the southern plain coming next in order. 

The description of the tombs at Beit Jibrin leaves no doubt of the 
importance of the spot in Jewish times, and although the loss of the 
name forbids any satisfactory confirmation of the theory here put 
forward, the determination of the district before so doubtful seems to 
me sufficient evidence of the correctness of my conclusion. 

The modern village of Beit Jibrin does not, however, exactly occupy 
the ancient site. It lies on the west slope of a low rounded mound or 
hill called El Mekurkush, which is covered all over its extent of 
ploughed land with relics of tesselated pavement, pottery, and other 
indications of former buildings. Numerous coins are found on this spot, 
of Crusading, Byzantine, Eoman, and Greek periods, huge Ptolemies 
of copper. The FeUah'm tradition also points to this having been the 
ancient site, for the name Bab el Mediueh (" gate of the city ") is 
applied to a place on the east side of the mound, where, however, 
nothing remains to account for the title. 



152 LIEUT. CLAUDE B. CONDER's RErOKTS. 

Another curious name is applied to traces of former cultivation — an 
aqueduct witli seven cisterns of good masonry (evidently for irrigation, 
as seen in various parts of the plain), with ruined enclosures of large 
stones, rock-cut wine- presses and an oil-press stone, which are to be 
found west of the village. This piece of ground is called Bustan d 
Finsli. If Finsh means, as usually interpreted, Fhivnician, we have here 
" the Phoenician garden," but the fellahin say that Ei Finsh was a 
Christian king of Beit Jibrin, in which case the name is more likely a 
corruption of Alphonse. This supposition is strengthened by the same 
name being applied to the Crusading tower at Keratiyoh which is called 
Kal'at el Finsh. 

Mej'del, April 2. — Beit Jibrin has proved the most valuable camp we 
have yet completed ; 424 names were collected, and 180 square miles 
surveyed. The majority of ruins are early Chrii^tian, and in the low 
hills they average three ruins to every two square miles. 



XXXIY. 

ASCALON, ASHDOD. 

Gaza, Ain-il 20th, 1875. 

Since last report another large piece of country has been laid in on 
the maritime plain. The original and better plan of the campaign 
would have taken iis south from Beit Jibrin, but as the Arabs were all 
quarrelling, and serious fights had just occurred, it seemed best to 
remain still in the fellahin country, and to enter the Arab district 
from Gaza when they had had time to cool down a little. 

We therefore camped at Mejdel, some twenty miles west of Beit 
Jibrin, and thence we have visited Ascalon, Ashdod, Lachish, and 
Eglon, making a special survey of the first to the scale of 12 inches to 
the mile. "We have connected Gaza with Ramleh and Tell Jezer by 
triangulation, and obtained some very fine lines across the country and 
down the sea coast. Our next two camps will give us over 1,000 square 
miles completed since leaving Jerusalem, and thus our work in about 
two and a half months will be equal to the total amount surveyed in 
1874. 

Ascalon. — The site of primary interest in this area is the great English 
fortress of King Richard, on the border of the sea, and we spent in all 
five days here surveying, exploring, and photographing. I turned 
special attention to the questions concerning Ascalon raised by Trof. 
Pusey, and I believe the correct solution to be as follows : — 

In the January number of the Quarterly Statement for 1874 subscribers 
will remember a letter from Prof. Pusey, to which my attention was 
specially called by the Committee, in which the identity of the Ascalon 
of Herod and of the Crusades with the Ashkelon of Scripture is disputed. 
The arguments in favour of this view are both drawn from mediaeval 



LIEUT. CL.VUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 

sources, tlie first being the fact that in 536 a.d. a synodical letter was 
signed both by the Bishop of Ashkelou and by the Bishop of Maiumas 
Ascalon, from which it is evident that the two were distinct towns; the 
second passage is to be found in Benjamin of Tudela, who distinctly 
states that there was another Ascalon four parasangs from tlie sea-side 
town, and traditionally the more ancient, the Ascalon of his time having 
been built, he informes us, by Ezra. This other Ascalon was at that 
time (1163 A.D.) in ruins. The value of the traditional information here 
given is, however, very slight, as Bejamin of Tudela gives identifications 
•of the most extraordinary character throughout his narrative. The 
passage is of value as corroborating the former in the statement that 
there were two Ascalons, but the distance cannot be relied on ; for 
whilst the distances of places through, which Eabbi Benjamin passed are 
generally pretty correct, those of places he did not visit are often very 
anuch in error. The distances from Ashkelon to Ashdod he makes two 
parasangs, which would give five miles for the parasaiig, and twenty 
miles as the distance between the two Ascalons. 

It appears, then, that as far as positive evidence goes, the argument 
•only tends to show that there were two mediseval Ascalons. Which of 
these was the Ashkelon of Herod or of Scripture is a separate question. 
The mediseval Ascalons both exist still, as we have been the first, I 
believe, to discover. 

We were considerably surprised to find, when working north of Beit 
Jibrin, that an Ascalon (Khirbet 'Askalon) existed in the hills near 
Tell Za Kariyeh. At first I thought a false name had been purposely 
given us, but as I obtained it twice myself, and Corporal Brophy three 
times, from different witnesses, there is no doubt that it is a well-known 
site. The termination of the word differs from the name of the sea- 
side town, which is pronounced ^Askaldn. The site shows remains of 
an early Christian church, or convent, and a great lintel of stone, with 
a deeply-cut cross in the centre, resembling somewhat the Maltese 
Cross, lies on the ground. Such lintels are to be found in all that class 
of ruins which date from about the fifth to the seventh century. The 
distance from the shore is about twenty-three miles, which would agree 
with the four parasangs as deduced from the distance to Ashdod, but I 
am not able to find the length of the parasang given in any book we 
have here. 

Thus we have a simple explanation of the two mediaeval quotations. 
'Askalon we should judge to have been an inhabited site in the sixth 
century, but in all probability fallen into ruins by the twelfth. 

We may now turn to the question of the ancient site of Askelon. 
That it should be placed at the Christian ruin in the hills is of course 
impossible; and our information, though very slight, and restricted to 
one passage in the Bible, and one in Josephus, seems to me, neverthe- 
less, to point to the Philistine Ashkelon being identical with the 
media3val Ascalon. The only passage in the Bible of topc-graphical 
value as concerns Ashkelon is that in Jeremiah xlvii. 7, where the 

M 



154 LIEUT. CLAUDE V.. CONDER's REPORTS. 

prophet speaks of "Aslikelon and tlie sea-coast," leading one to sup- 
pose that the mediajval Ascalon, or Maiumas Ascalon (Ascalon by the 
sea), is intended. In the absence of any contradictory statement it 
seems to me also safe to assume that the Ascalon of the later Jewisb 
times was that beantified by Herod ; and it can be proved, I think, that 
Herod's Ascalon was both that of the Bible and that of the Crusaders, 
for, in the first place, Josephus distinctly states that the Ascalon where 
the Jews attacked Antonius (Bk. iii. ii. 1) was " an ancient city that is 
distant from Jerusalem five hundred and twenty furlongs." This Avould 
be about sixty-five Roman miles. The present Ascalon is only about 
fifty Eoman miles by road from Jerusalem, so that it cannot well be 
taken to mean any inland town. In the second place, the Ascalon of 
Herod and Richard arc probably the same, for v^^e learn that " for those 
of Ascalon he bailfc baths and costly fountains, as also cloisters round 
a court, that were admirable both for their workmanship and largeness," 
BJ. I. xxi. 11. In the Itinerary of Richard I. we find it mentioned that 
the builders erected their towers ripon ancient foundations, and we 
find that all along its huge walls great columns of syenite, 15 to 20 
feet long and o feet diameter, have been built into the masonry as 
through-bonds. Such was indeed the constant practice of the 
Crusaders in any place where ancient pillars were to be found, but iii 
such sites as 'Athlit they do not occur ; and as the syenite must have 
been brought by sea from Egypt, we cannot suppose the Crusaders ta 
liave first brought these pillars to Ascalon, but must regard them as 
the remains of Herod's cloisters utilised by those practical masons 
to whose indifference to archaeology we owe the loss of many an interest- 
ing ruonument. 

The outcome of this inquiry is, therefore, that the Aslikelon of the 
Bible, and of Ilerod, and of the Crusaders, are all one town on the sea- 
shore, distinguished from another early Christian inland Ascalon by 
the title Ascalon Maiumas. 

This title may, I believe, be best rendered by our English " watering- 
place," and like it does not apparently apply to a port or harbour only^, 
for the fine springs north of Ciesarea, with remains of a teuiple and 
theatre, and of a great aqueduct to the city, still retain the name of 
Miamas, which is no doubt the representative of an ancient Maiumas, 
or place of toutcr. 

Ascalon not only has not, but it may be safely said never could have 
had a real port. A straight coast-line of cliffs, from 20 to 70 feet high, 
exists on its sea side, and a strong sea wall was built by the Crusaders 
against these. The port destroyed by Sultan Blbars must have been an 
artificial Crusading harbour, of which there ai-e still remains, for a 
jetty of pillars placed side by side, as at Csesarea, seems to have run out 
beneath the sea-gate on the south, a few of those nearest the shore still 
remaining in place. That it possessed no natural harbour in the middle 
ages is evident from the following passage, which I quote at length, as 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 155 

clearly sliowing ttat the Maiumas Ascalon of Christian times could not 
have applied to any properly so called port. 

" The city of Ascalon lies on the coast of the Grecian Sea, and if it 
had a good harbour, could hardly find an equal for its situation and the 
fertility of the adjoining country. It has, indeed, a port, but one so 
difficult of access, owing to the stormy weather in which the army 
reached it (Jan., 1192), that for eight days no vessel could enter it. . . . 
At last, Avhen the weather became more favourable, some ships entered 
the harbour with provisions ; but the storm returned and the army 
began again to be in want." 

At the present time a small brig is lying off the coast taking in a 
cargo, but it is unsafe for ships to approach too near, and the wreck of 
one vessel lies on the sand a little north of the ruins. It is evident 
that the harbour cannot have been much better in Crusading times, 
when English sailors were unable to bring food to the starving army. 
It is true that the sand has covered a great deal of the ruins, but the 
existence of a creek is rendered, I think, impossible, by the unbroken 
line of cliff, at the foot of which lov/ reefs run out into the sea. 

Next to the question of the Maiimias comes tliat of the sacred lake 
of Derceto, but of this we could find no traces, unless tbe name of the 
modern village north of the ruins El Jura, " the hollow," — generally 
applied to an artificial reservoir or pond, — be supposed to preserve a 
tradition of the .site. The village itself stands p)retty high, but there is 
a low tract full of beautiful gardens between the ruins and the houses. 

Ascalon is one of the most fertile spots in Palestine. The great 
walls, which are well described by William of Tyre as a bow with the 
string to the sea, enclose a space of five-eighths of a mile north and 
south, by three-eighths deex?. The whole is filled with rich gardens, 
and no less than thirty-seven wells of sweet water exist within the 
Avails, whilst on the north, as far as the village, other gardens and more 
wells are to be found. The whole season seemed more advanced in this 
sheltered nook than on the more exposed plain. Palms grow in num- 
bers ; the almond and lemon-trees, the tamarisk and prickly pear, 
olives and vines, with every kind of vegetable and corn, already in the 
ear, are flourishing throughout the extent of the gardens early in April. 
Only on the south the great waves of ever-encroaching sand have now 
surmounted the fortifications and swept over gardens once fruitfal, 
threatening in time to make all one sandy desert, unless means can be 
found to arrest its progress. 

The ruins of the town are now covered with some 10 feet of good soil. 
Marble pUlars, inscriptions, and bits of ai'chitectural ornamentation, are 
constantly dug up, and all the good stones are carried to Jaffa or Gaza, 
and sold for modern buildings. Thus the Roman and Crusading ruins 
are at once hidden beneath, yet not protected by the soil, but disappear- 
ing piecemeal, and scattered over the country. At every well a pillar 
shaft is placed on its side, and worn into lui-rows by the ropes, whilst a 
capital or base is used to tie the cord to. It was on one of these that we 



156 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

found the only fragment of inscription we could see anywhere, being 
carelessly written as follows : — 

niKPA. 

In the north quarter of the town, on the higher part of the cliff, stands 
•what is traditionally known as the church. Its true hearing is 98°, and 
part of the apse can be just seen, but the ruin has been so defaced by the 
abstraction of its ashlar that it was impossible to make a plan. A few 
pillar bases of white marble have been excavated, and lie together within 
the ruins. There is a curious fact connected with them, each base has 
masons' marks, intended apparently to show Avhat shaft belonged to each, 
but in three cases these marks were all Phoenician letters in three 
groups. 

I do not remember ever to have seen similar marks in any building in 

the country. 

The walls of Ascalon are almost all that now remain, and are in many 
places covered over with sand. They are not of very great thickness, but 
strong towers at intervals give flank defence throughout. In the south- 
west corner is a postern, and on the east the principal gate, leading side- 
ways into the interior, through a projecting return in the wall. The 
stone used is the soft crumbling sandstone of the cliffs, and the masonry 
is very small throughout ; but against these natural disadvantages the 
splendid workmanship of the time has triumphed, and the stones are set 
in a cement so hard that with thick beds and a mass of hard shells from 
the shore the whole forms a sort of concrete seemingly indestructible. 
The base of a turret, 20 feet diameter and 6 feet high, lies on the east, 
overturned like a gigantic cheese, and wherever huge blocks have fallen 
or walls breached and gutted stand up like skeletons, it is evident that 
the hand of man, and not the lapse of time, have ruined these magnificent 
piles so hastily yet so solidly constructed. 

In the account of the building of Ascalon (" Itin. Eic," Book V., chap, 
vi., p. 262. — Bohn), five towers are enumerated as having names, viz. : — 1, 
The tower of "the Maidens;" 2, of "the Shields;" 3, the "Bloody 
Tower;" 4, the "Admiral's Tower;" o, the "Bedouin's Tower." Of 
all these traces still remain, and it would be curious to identify them. 

One curious tradition connected with Ascalon remains to bo noticed. 
It appears, according to our guide, a very superior old sheikh, that thirty 
years ago the fellahin, digging outside the walls near the cemetery, which 
surrounds a modern wely, close to the eastern gate, found a broad slab 
of stone, and on raising it they discovered what seems from the descrip- 
tion to have been an embalmed corpse, with sword by side and ring on 
his finger. Frightened by the glare from his eyes they reclosed the tomb, 
nnd as the violator died soon after they concluded it was a prophet, and 
built a rvxde tomb above the slab, now used as a wely, or place of prayer. 
We had some thought of digging up this body, probably a Crusading 
hero, especially as we were told at first that it was a mummy, but there 
seemed many objections to touching a place held sacred, and close to 



o 



IJEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 157 

modern tombs, -which were sufficient to deter us if wo could have dis- 
covered the true spot and had no respect to the supposed reward for so 
sacriligeous an exploration. 

Ashdod, — Jamnia, Gaza, and Ashdod being inland towns had each a 
post or small suburb on the sea-shore. That of Ashdod is not marked on 
the maps. Ashdod itself presents very little of interest, it is a large mud 
village, with numerous palms on the east and agi-eat marsh on the west ; 
a sand-hill shelters the village from the sea wind, and is covered with 
gardens fenced -with cactus. On this hill, according to Dr. Porter, the 
temple of Dagon stood. A large khan, now in ruins, but thirty years 
ago still in use, lies near the village, and a very fine sarcophagus of 
Eoman period just behind it, at the principal wely. Lieut. Kitchener 
took a general view from the south, but the site is not well adapted for 
effective views. 

Leaving Ashdod itself, we struck west, over the great sandhills, which 
have now reached the village. Upon the sea-shore we found what is no 
doubt the ancient Maiumas, an extensive ruin with fragments of tesselated 
pavement, cisterns lined in cement, and on the north side a Crusadin 
castle of masonry similar to the fortifications of Ascalon. It measures 
180 feet N. and S., by 144 feet E. and W., and has a round tower at each 
corner and two flanking the central gate on the west, whilst scomingly 
there were two others on the east, but one has disaj)peared. A curious 
inscription was found by the non-commissioned officer on one of the stones 
of the foundation on the north-west, being well and sharply cut as below 
— possibly the crusading name of the place : eaom. 

It is said that there is a greater depth of water at this point between 
two reefs north and south of the castle than anywhere else along 
the coast, and boats touch here in preference to Ascalon. In fact, we 
found on bathing that the shore sloped more rapidly here than in other 
places where we have swum. It seems, therefore, natural to place the 
Maiumas of Ashdod here, especially as the present name of the ruin, 
Minet tl KaVah, "Harbour of the Castle," shows that at some time or 
other there was a port here. This discovery completes the list of the 
ports along the coast of Philistia. 

Crusading sites. — The great plain so famous for the exploits of Samson 
and of David in their contests with the Philistines and with the nomadic 
tribes became, in the twelfth century, the theatre of war between the 
English and Saladin, and the Crusading chronicles are full of names 
which represent the garbled versions of Arabic names adopted by the 
new conquerors of the land. Many of these it is impossible to identify 
from want of indications, but a few may be placed as below : — 

Furhia. — This fortress was between Gaza and Ascalon, and was held 
by Eichard in 1192. We cannot hesitate to identify it with the modern 
Ilerbia, on the road between these. The foundations of a Crusading 
castle still remain on the south side of the village. 

Oadida.— This town or village was the scene of King Eichard's contest 
with a furious boar, to which the Chronicles devote a whole chapter 



]^58 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER S REPORTS. 

("Itin. Eic," V. 31, p. 280.— Bohn). It was visited from Ascalon, and 
would most probably be the present Khirhd Jedeiyedeh, about three miles 
south of Keratiyeh, in the middle of the plain. 

Galatia. — This was a strong fortress, afterwards destroyed by 
Saladin. Leaving Blanchcgarde (Tell el Safieh), "and advancing all 
night by the light of a splendid moon, they arrived at Galatia ; there 
they rested a short time and sent to Ascalon for provisions " (" Itin. Ric," 
V. 3, p. 303.— JBohn). The tov/n of Keratlya, in which are remains of a 
strong Crusading fort, agrees well, as pointed out by Lieut. Kitchener, 
with the position required for Galatia. It is about eight miles from Tell 
el Safi, and ten from Ascalon. Corporal Armstrong subsequently found 
another ruin about three miles north, called Jelediyeh. The name is 
more nearly the same, but the distance from Tell el Safi seems rather too 
small. 

In conclusion I may give here the identification of the castles destroyed 
Iby Saladin in 1192, those with the star being new identifications. 

Galatia *Keratiya. 

Blanchewarde Tell el Safi. 

Plans . . . . • • • • *Kaleusawi6h. 

Moen *Tantm-a. 

St. George . : . . • • Lidd. 

Eamala Eamleh. 

Belmont . . . . . . — • 

Toron Tibnin. 

Ernuald, or Arnald . . . . *Latruu. 

Beauveoir, Belvoir . . . . Kaukab el Hawa. 

Mirabel lias el Ain. 

Castle of Baths (near Eamleh 

and Lydda) . . . . . . — 

As regards Toron and Beauveoir it is, however, possible that there 
may have been two of the name, and that they also stood in the maritime 
plain, as do the remainder. 



XXXV. 

Gaza, Gerar, and Makkedah. 

At the time of commencing this report the spring campaign of 1875 
is rapidly dramng to a close. This campaign completes southern 
Palestine as far as Beersheba and Gaza (the boundary being the great 
valley running from Beersheba to the sea), with the exception of about 
200 square miles north of Beersheba, in the country of the Teiaha 
Arabs. A very fierce contest is at present going on between this tribe 
and the Azazimeh, the central point of the fighting being Beersheba 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEr's REPORTS. 159 

As the season Avas getting late for staying in the plains, it seemed on 
tlio whole best to fill in the more interesting country lying south of 
Eamleh, and to -leave this bit of desert country until the Arabs have 
C'ithcr made peace or have been exterminated. 

The total amount now surveyed is 4,430 square miles; some 1,400 
only remain, as far as I can roughly calculate, to be filled in. 

Since last report we have examined several sites of interest, esjiecially 
Oaza, Umm Jerrar (supposed to be Gerar), El Moghar (first pro- 
posed, I believe, by Captain Warren as the site of Makkedah), Yebna 
(Jamnia), the valley of Elah, the valley of Sorek, and several other 
important places. 

Inscriptions. — Gaza and its neighbourhood abound in Greek inscrip- 
tions ; very few, however, have escaped M. Ganneau. I give four which 
•are, I believe, new, though not of great value. 

No. 1, upon a granite column, fonning the east goal of the Mcidan 
or racecourse of Abu Zeid. It stands close to the road leading south- 
cast from El Muntar, and is just a mile, or 1,000 ba'a, from the 
western goal, also close to the road. These pillars, originally taken 
from some great building probably of Eoman times, are half buried in 
the soil ; the first two lines of an inscription were alone visible, deeply 
though rudely cut. They were noticed by Lieut. Kitchener and Corporal 
Armstrong, who excavated the remainder of the text. The racecourse 
is sa,id to have been laid out by the Saracens 700 years ago ; the pillar 
must apparently have passed through an intermediate period of existence, 
when it T\ras used as a tombstone. 

AOMECTIKOY 
YREP AOME 
CTIKOT T 
lOY AE0H 
KEN .... 

No. 2, a curious fragment of inscription, mth contractions, evidently 
Christian, on a piece of marble about IS inches long, lying beside a rude 
wely, or cenotaph, on a sandy top, some four miles south of Gaza. The 
place is called Sheikh Eashed, but the inscription is probably brought 
as an ornament from somewhere else. It runs as follows, being broken 
off on the right : — 

+ HAIN 

No. 3 forms the cover of a well, or selil, in the courtyai'd of EI 
Khudera, a small mosque in the village of Deir Belah. A round hole 
10 inches diameter has been cut through the centre of the inscription, 
which is much worn in the upper line. 

ETE 

MATPE-APAPIANO 
Ano • INHCIOTAI0 



160 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

The stone is partly covered with mortar on the right, so that the lines 
may originally have extended farther. 

No. 4, a slab on the floor of the same mosque, near the cenotaph of 
St, George, The first line is almost obliterated by the feet of visitors* 
It runs as below : — 

ITI^QICAPATC ... n 

AMAAnOAAOAflPn 

OT EK TON.IAinNETXA 

This, from the expression ek twi> iSiSn', would also appear to be a funerary- 
inscription. 

Deir BelaJi. — This \'illage, at which the two last inscriptions occur, 
lies beyond the boundary valley. I visited it in company with Mr. 
Prichett, who is engaged in founding schools at Gaza, which promise 
to be very successful. His native catechist was the first to discover the 
stones, and pointed them out to us. The mosque in which they occur 
is a small building about 18 feet long by 12 feet wide, having three 
alcoves or small apses on the east side. The cenotaph of Mar Jirjis, or 
El Khudr, stands in it, placed north and south, contrary to ordinary 
Mohammedan fashion. The building itself bears 11.5° or 25' south of 
east. On the floor, besides the slab-bearing inscription No. 4, is another 
large slab, 6 feet long, having two crosses of the Maltese form, 
with A and H each side of each cross. There is also another device 
which, as well as we could make out in the dark, was in the form of a. 
mitre, with its pendent ribbons. From this chamber, which bears some 
resemblance to a small Christian chaj^el, an ascent of three steps leads 
to the outer cloister. Another fragment of inscription is built into 
the upper step, but the letters are very rough, and only the word a-rro 
could be deciphered. There are fragments of marble built into the walls 
of the court, two of which resemble parts of an altar. A cornice, well 
cut and floridly ornamented, is built-in face down, and only just visible- 
The traditional history of this mosque is, that it stands on the site of a. 
large convent which had a chapel, and this accounts for the name Mar 
Jirjis, or El Khiidr, which never occurs, as far as I can find, except on 
Christian sites, Mr. Pritchett informs me that, according to the people 
of Gaza, Deir el Belah (Convent of dates) is a modern name, arising, no 
doubt, from the great number of date palms surrounding the village, and. 
more abundant here than in any place I have visited in Palestine. The 
old name seems to have been Deir Mar Jirius, and the Bishop of Gaza, 
who resides at Jerusalem, bears the additional title of Bishop of Mar 
Jirius to the present day. The population of the village is, however, 
now entirely Mohammedan, though a Greek Khuri (or Cure), and a few- 
Greek Christians, lived here within the half-century, 

Deir Belah is supposed, with reason, to be the Fortress of Darum, 
south of Gaza, and near the Egyptian frontier. This fortress is ofteix 
mentioned in the history of King Richard's adventures in Philistia, and 
■was rebuilt by him after having been taken. No remains of fortification. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 161 

exist, nor is the site remarkably strong, but it was undoubtedly at one 
time in Crusading hands, and fragments of their work may be seen in 
scattered pillar-shafts and in the remains of the chapel. The name is 
apparently lost or contracted to Deir, but a curious relic of it remains, as 
we foimd, and as has been previously noted by Eobinson. The southern 
road from Gaza passes by a spot just at the edge of the town, to which 
the name Bab Darun, or Oate of Darum, still applies. This southern 
road passes near Deir Belah on the east. 

Gaza. — The population of Gaza is said at one time to have outnum- 
bered that of Jerusalem. There are now 18,000 inhabitants, of whom the 
majority are Moslems, oOO only being Greek Christians. The remains 
of antiquity are not of any gi-eat interest beyond the curious church, 
now a mosque. The principal question with regard to Gaza is the 
situation of the ancient town, concerning which opinions differ. I am 
disposed to think that it stood on the hill where the main part of the 
j)resent town stands ; broad mounds svirround this eminence, and appear 
in the middle of the buildings. Judging by comparison with other 
sites, these probably mark the site of former fortifications. Considerable 
suburbs have grown up round this position on the north, south, and 
east. Mohammedan tradition points to a spot south of the town near the 
Bab el Darun, where seven j)illars have been placed as Mohammedan 
tombstones. This place is said once to have been within the city, some 
say at its centre. Others, again, say that Gaza once extended to the- 
hill of El Mimtar (the traditional hill to which Samson carried the 
gates, and probably the real site). It is, however, certain that the town 
stood on a hill in the time of Alexander, and there seems no good reason 
for supposing the site to be changed. It appears that a considerable 
to"\vn stood on the sea-shore in early times, and this, no doubt, was the 
Maiumas Gazoe, which — like the Maiumas Ascalon — was a separate 
ecclesiastical see. PiUar-shafts, marble slabs, glass, and tesseras, are 
constantly found. In the middle of the sand-hills, near the shore, is a 
beautiful garden of lemons, sui-romided by a mound, which seems to 
mark the site of this second to^vn ; near it is a ruined jetty on the sea- 
shore, probably denoting the site of the port. 

Another tradition gives great antiquity to the olives round Gaza, 
These magnificent groves, which form a long avenue on the north of the 
city, are said to have been planted by the Greeks, and it is asserted that 
at all events since the coming of the Saracens some 700 years back not a 
single new tree has been planted. It is quite possible that there is some 
truth in this, for many of the trees stand on huge roots, and have evi- 
dently sprung up from the remains of former trunks now rotted away. 
Thus, considering the immense age to which olive-trees attain, it is pos- 
sible that the trees may be the natural descendants of former planted 
olives. 

The great church is described by Eobinson as older than Crusading 
times, and possibly dating back to the fifth century. The arches are, 
however, pointed, and the western door is of mediaeval character and 



162 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDER's REPORTS. 

very fine. Of this, as well as of the interior, Lieutenant Kitchener took 
a photograph. The church consists of four bays, having a total length of 
110 feet. The nave is 22 feet wide in the clear, the north aisle 13 feet. The 
south wall has been pulled down by the Moslems and a second arcade 
added on this side, but its outer wall is not parallel with the axis of the 
church. A niihrab is placed at the east end of this, and is again 
skewed in such a manner as to point approximately to the Kibleh. A 
wall has been built across the east end of the nave and north aisle, pro- 
bably at the place where the steps of the main apse commenced, 
though it is possible that the church extended one bay farther. The 
result of these alterations is that no one of the three apses remains. 

The style of the capitals is Byzantine, and the semi-pillars of the 
clerestory are much heavier than in most Crusading works, but the 
arrangement of the windows and roof is mediseval. The piers suppoi't- 
ing the clerestory are of a fine brownish mai-ble, and the mouldings of 
the bases are very well cut. The diagonal chiselling so remarkable in 
one style of Crusading masonry is here very distinct and well executed. 
Upon the clerestory pillar nearest the east end on the north side is a 
curious device cut in low relief on the shaft. A squeeze was, I believe^ 
taken by M. Ganneau, and I did not therefore give it special study. A 
wreath surrounding the golden candlestick and a tablet with three lines 
of inscription are all that can be seen from below. The Crusaders seem 
to have been in the habit of using this device, for a capital belonging to 
the Church of Gabriel at Beit Jibrin lies near the Bir el Hammam, 
having a representation of the golden candlestick on the boss. It is, 
however, curious and unusual to find a device cut on the shaft of a 
pillar, especially as no other in the church is so ornamented. 

A small Greek church exists in the Christian quarter of the town ; we 
visited it, but it seemed to have nothing ancient about it, and the v/hole 
structure, with the exception of two Byzantine columns which look very 
much out of place, is extremely rude. The Greek priest, however, 
informed lis that it was 1,440 years old, and had been built by a 
Byzantine emperor. There is also said to be a register 1,000 years 
old in the church, and another, dating even earlier, and said to be 
written on canvas, is reported to be in possession of the Bishop in 
Jerusalem. 

Gerar. — Perhaps the most interesting question in this part of the 
covmtry is that of the site of Gerar. This ancient town, the dwelling- 
place of Abraham and Isaac, is indicated as being between Kadesh 
(on the east) and Shur (on the west). In later times we find that Asa, 
having defeated the Ethiopians nearMareshah (2 Chron. xiv. 13), drove 
them back on the road to Egypt as far as Gerar. To Eusebius Gerar 
was known as being twenty-five Eoman miles from Eleutheropolis, or 
from Beit Jibrin. Doctor Eobinson was here, as usual, the first to hear 
of the existence of the name, and Mr. Eowland, travelling from Gaza 
to Khalasa, came upon a broad valley called Jorf el Jerar (the banks of 
Gerar), which he identifies with the valley of Gerar in which Abraham 



LIEUT. CLAUDE K. CONDER's KEPOUTS. 163 

lived. To Vandcveldo the ruin of Umni el Jerar was pointed out as 
situate near Tell el Jema, but lie docs not appear to liave visited 
the spot. 

Even Murray's new map is defective in this part of the coimtry, 
and the run of the valleys is incorrectly shown. The great Wady 
Ghuzzeh runs from Beershcba to the sea some six miles south of 
Gaza. At about the same distance from the city, rather towards the 
east, on the north bank of Wady Ghuzzeh, and in the position with 
regard to Toll el Jema indicated by Vandevelde, we found the site of 
Umm Jerrar, which is thirty English miles in a straight line from Beit 
Jibrin. The Jorf el Jerrar must be applied to the precipitous earthy 
banks of this great valley, the bod of which is here about 200 yards wide. 
The word Jorf is appKed throughout Palestine to similar mud cliffs. If 
we attach any value to the indications of the Onomasticon, which seem 
to m.e to be generally very correct, we cannot put Gerar farther south. 
The valley is wide enough to explain how the patriarch is said to pitch 
ills camp in it, and at the time we visited the spot a large encamp- 
ment of the Terabin Arabs was settled on the north bank. One great 
question remains, that of the wells of Abraham. We could neither find 
nor hear of any wells in the neighbourhood, or indeed any nearer than 
Beersheba. The springs, too, marked on the maps are equally fabulous. 
The Arabs, who are extremely numerous, supply themselves with water 
by digging in the bed of the valley, when they come upon it. These 
excavations, or small ponds, are known as Ilafireh. The valley has 
evidently been entirely formed by water-action of considerable violence, 
and it receives the drainage of an immense area, as its head is close to 
Hebron, whence it runs by Beersheba to the sea, a distance of over sixty 
miles. It is, indeed, the longest watercourse in Palestine. When I was 
last at Hebron a stream three feet deep and some ten to fifteen feet 
broad was rushing along its upper course. On reaching the plain the 
water sinks into the soil and suj)plies the living wells of Beersheba as 
well as the Arab Hafireh lower down its course. We are accustomed to 
consider Abraham's wells to have been very important and durable 
works, partly because the stone-work of the wells at Beersheba is 
generally attributed to the Patriarch. The Arabic inscription which 
we discovered in the principal well at Beersheba shows this to be a 
fallacy, and I think we have evidence that Abraham's wells at Gerar 
were not very important works in the fact that, though made in a 
friendly country, they had become filled up in the time of Isaac, who was 
obliged to re-dig them. It would seem to mo, therefore, that the Arab 
Hafireh sufficiently fulfil the requirements for the site of Gerar as far as 
water supply is concerned. 

The name as pronounced by the Arabs is Umm el Jerrar, with the 
sliuddeh, or mark of the double letter, over the first r. This is important. 
Jerar in Arabic signifies ivaterpots, and it might be supposed that the 
title "Mother of pots " was given in consequence of the huge mounds 
of broken pottery visible on the wady bank near at hand. Jerrar, 



104 LIEUT, CLAUDE R. COXDER's REPORTS. 

according to the dictionary, comes from a root meaning colledion or 
drawing together (Jarr), as in "Askirjemir," "a numerous army." 
Catafago gives, however, another meaning, " a seller of ivuterpots.'" 

The Hebrew n"\J is supposed by Gesenius to mean " a residence," 
but Buxtorf derives it from a root having a meaning similar to that of 
the Arabic Jarr. 

A more important objection to the identification consists in the cha- 
racter of the site. No ruins are visible, and the swell of ground to 
which the name applies is covered Avith a poor crop of barley or with 
coarse grass. There are over a dozen cisterns scattered round, being 
constructed of small stones laid in thick beds of cement of reddish 
colour mixed with jjottery and sea shells. The cisterns are circular, with 
domes above some four or five feet diameter and six or eight feet deep. 
They are now used for storing corn, but from comparison with other 
ruins I am inclined to think they once were intended for rain-water, 
especially as a sort of channel in cement leads to one of them, and the 
remains of a trough are to be seen at another. This peculiar form of 
cistern is, as far as our experience goes, confined to the southern plain^ 
and we can scarcely hesitate to ascribe it to Crusading times, partly on 
account of the character of the mortar and the ilse of sea shells peculiar 
to CruEading Avorks along the coast, partly from the occurrence of suck 
cisterns in exclusively Crusading sites. I have sought in vain for evi- 
dence of greater antiquity, and the conclusion most natural is that these 
cisterns represent, as in other parts of the plain, works for irrigation 
dating from the middle ages, and possibly the natural successors of 
similar works of greater antiquity. 

The heaps of pottery on the north bank of the valley arc very- 
curious. They are semi-consolidated by the infiltration of mud, and 
some ten feet high, as seen in section on the side of the cliff. There 
are fragments of every size, and handles of pots were visible. The 
material is a red colour, differing from the modern black jiottery of 
Gaza. Similar heaps are visible farther west at Khirbet el 'Adar, and 
both might be worth excavation. It is remarkable that the sand- 
hills from Gaza to Yebna are strewn throughout with similar red 
pottery. 

The only other relics noticeable at Umm Jerrar are a few marble 
tesserte (generally a sign of a church or convent), and some bits of 
glass. 

So far, therefore, there is nothmg indicative of an ancient city at 
Umm el Jerrar, unless it be the pottery heaps which may mark an old 
mound, such as exists at every town and village in Palestine where 
refuse is thrown out, and which at the same time forms generally a 
sort of boulevard or pleasure-ground, on the summit of which the 
elders of the place sit smoking and chatting in the cool of the day. 
There is, however, an ancient site of no small importance immedi- 
ately south of Khirbet Umm Jerrar, which bears the name of Tell 
Jema. It is an enormous mound, crescent-shaped, about 100 yards on 



LIEUT. CLAUDE H. CONDER CJ REPORTS. 105 

tlie diameter, situate on tlic brink of Wady Gbuzzeli on tlie south side. 
Its steep sides are covered with broken pottery, and it appears as a very 
conspicuous point from the north and east. Here, if anywhere in the 
vicinity, the ancient Gerar would seem to have stood ; nor is tliis a solitary 
instance of the name lost to its proper site still lingering in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood. The names of Adullam, and of the Altar Ed, may 
"be cited as other instances, and there seem to me reasons for supposing 
that the true site of Eglon is to be sought at Tell el Hesy, immediately 
south of 'Ajlan, where a fine supply of water and large mounds indicate 
a natural site for a great city. These notes on the site of Gerar may 
prove of interest, but, like many others of the more ancient cities, the 
locality can hardly be considered capable of demonstration, and can at 
best be conjectured. 

Mahkedah. — One of the most important towns of a Eoyal Canaanite 
city, the site of the first great victory of Joshua's Judasan campaign, 
has escaped more than the merest conjecture, and even Captain "Warren's 
suggestion for its identification has not, as far as I am aware, ajspeared 
in print. 

Makkedah is to be sought in the plain country of Judah, and in the 
neighbourhood of Beth-Dagon and Xaameh, names which immediately 
precede it in the topographical list. It must also be in the neighbour- 
hood of one or more caves, and should show indications of an ancient and 
important site. 

There is another consideration which limits the position of Makkedah. 
Joshiia, who had marched from Gilgal to Gibeon, a distance of some 
twenty miles, before dawn, pursued the defeated Canaanites down the 
valley of Ajalon to the plain, whence they fled to Azekah and Makkedah. 
Makkedah was taken, and the five kings hanged by sunset, and thus we 
cannot place it more than some eight or ten hours from Gibeon — that is, 
under thirty miles. It should also be on the natural route southwards 
from the point where the valley of Ajalon enters the plain. These con- 
siderations would lead us to place Makkedah near the north boundary 
of Judah, a situation also indicated by the fact that it occurs last in a 
list enumerating the towns in regular succession from south to north. 

The site of El Moghar, a village on the north side of the valley of 
Sorek, fulfils in a remarkable way all these conditions, as may be briefly 
enumerated thus : — 

1st. El Moghar is immediately south-west of Ekron, one of the cities 
on the north tribe-line of Judah. 

2nd. It is not far east of Dejjun, the true site of Beth Dagon, as 
fixed by M. Ganneau. It is five miles south-west of N'aaneh, in which, 
I think, we can hardly fail to recognise the ancient N'aameh. 

3rd. It is an undoubtedly ancient site, as evidenced by the rock- 
quarrying, and by the existence of tombs with the loculi running in 
from the sides of the chamber. 

4th. As far as careful examination has allowed us to determine, it is 
the only site in the plain where caves occur. The houses are built over 



166 LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEll's REPORTS. 

and in front of caverns of various sizes, and small caves called Moghair- 
Summeil exist in the face of cliffs nortli of the village. 

5tli. It is some twenty-five miles from Gibeon in a line down the 
valley of Ajalon, and close to the main road north and south from Gaza 
to Lydda. 

6th. It is not far removed from Azckah, v/hich, as will be shovvTi later, 
v/as some ten miles farther east. 

Yth. Its name signifies in Arabic the caves. The Syriac version of 
Josh. X. 10 famishes, however, a linlc bebween the modern Arabic and 
the ancient Hebrew, as the v/ord Mahkedah is there rendered ]\Iokor, 
which approaches the Arabic Moghr, of which the plural form is 
Moghar, or more commonly Moghair. 

These various points, when taken together, seom to me to form a 
pretty satisfactory identification, placing Makkedah in tha district in 
Avhich Mr. Grove, and all the best authorities, have contended that 
Makkedah should be sought. Vandevelde's identification at Summeil, 
some twelve miles faither south, depending on the reported existence of 
a cave of which vv^e could find no traces, and on the existencs of ancient 
ruins which do not, however, date beyond the middle ages^ falls to the 
ground, as would be naturally expected from its great distance from the 
site of Gibeon. 

A short description of this remarkable site may be of interest. The 
broad valley of Sorek, the homo of Dalilah and the scene of the return 
of the ark from Philistia, expands upon leaving the hills into a flat plain 
of rich corn-land bounded by the hills of Gczer on the north, and by 
rolling uplands separating it on the south from the next great water- 
course, the valley of Elah. About half-way along its course, from the 
hills to the sea, a sort of promontory runs out from the uncultivated 
downs around Ekron (now, a5 then, the property of nomadic tribes 
settled among the peasantry). The valley has, in fact, made a way here 
through a bar of soft sandy stone, and a corresponding promontory or 
tongue on the south melts away into the southern uplands. The northern 
is the highest, and is divided into throe tops, the last of which falls 
abruptly and supports a large mud village clambering up the steep 
eastern side and crowding round the caves. Another village, and a 
remarkable tell or knoll immediately north of it, form the termination 
of the southern promontory. The first village is El Moghar, which 
I propose to identify with Makkedah; Iho second, Katrah or Gatrah, 
which, as I shall have occasion to explain later, seems to me the true 
site of Gederoth, afterwards known as Kedron. 

North of El Moghar are gardens hedged with cactus extending over 
the whole hill-top. South of it are ancient olives, a,lso walled with 
cactus, whilst east and west extend fine cornfields and broad flat 
expanses of brown ploughed laud. 

The slopes of the promontory are steep on the east, and in part pre- 
cipitous. It is in this respect unique, for in no other part of the plain 
do the sandstone cliffs thus appear. Hence it is, I believe, the only 



LIEUT. CLAUDE K. CONDER's REPORTS. 167 

place- wliere caves are to be found. Ouc of these, now broken away in 
front, has, curiously enough, five loculi rudel}^ scooped in its sides. It is the 
only cave I saw Avith such loculi, and an enthusiast might contend that 
here we have the very place of sepulture of the five kings who " Avere 
found hid in a cave at Makkedah." 

The site seems well to answer the requirements of the case. Hidden 
from view, and perched high above the route of their pursuers, the five 
sheikhs would have looked down in fancied security on the host hurry- 
ing beneath on the high road to Azekah and Gath and other " fenced 
cities." The fact of their discovery and capture before the taking of the 
town would show that it is to one of the caves outside the city that they 
must have retu-ed. These caves are generally very small ; some are 
broken away in front, and others filled in; but two at least can be 
pointed out wherein five men might crowd, and the entrances of which 
could easily be blocked with the "great stones" which lie scattered 
near. No trees now exist near the caves, though olives and others are 
to be noticed south of the village ; but the number of trees throughout 
this part of the plain is much greater than farther north, and the most 
enthusiastic could scarcely hope to discover those which in the time of 
Joshua supported the corpses of the five royal victims. 

Yehna. — The site of our fourth Philistine camp is also a famous place, 
and one of those mentioned on the north tribe-line of Judah, which 
reached the sea at the mouth of Nahr Eubin, or River of Reuben — so 
called from the reputed tomb of Reuben on its banks. In the Book of 
Joshua the name is Jabneel, and later, Jabneh or Jamnia. 

There is nothing of great interest in the modern village, with the 
exception of the so-called church, a building 49 feet long, by 32f feet 
broad, interior measurement. The fellahin say it was originally a 
church, but it has neither apse nor western door, and is divided into 
two walks of equal width, with a kibleh niche on the south side — not, 
however, in the centre of the bay. The main door is on the north, and 
has a pointed arch. The windows are of the loopholed form found 
in the white tower at Ramleh, and the whole construction, including 
the minaret at the north-west corner, bears a strong resemblance to the 
Rimleh White Mosque, which was built in A.D. 1318. A well-cut in- 
scription stands in, evidently in situ, on the north wall of the minaret, as 
is well seen in Lieut. Kitchener's photograi)h. It runs as follov/s, being 
taken down by our scribe : — 

" In the name of God the merciful, the pitiful. Founded this minaret 
the blessed, the poor, before most high God, the pious the Emir great 
and (lion-like) Soliman el Nasri, in the fourth month, in the year eight 
and thirty and seven hundred." 

The minaret therefore dates at the close of the fourteenth century, 
subsequent to the Ramleh mosque. The remainder of the building is 
possibly of the same date. The mosque of Abu Harirch, on the Avest 
side of Yebna, contains two Abrabic inscriptions dating earlier than the 
one above translated. The one contains the names of Bihars and of 



168 THE SITE OF ADULLAM. 

Klialil ih)i Saiuir, Wall of Eamleh, with the date 673 A.li. ; the other 
the name of " Melelc el Munsur Kalawun," and the date 693 A.H. 

Ycbna, like Ashdod and Gaza, had its port, but of this very little 
remains. Eiding down the course of the iSTahr Rubin by the Saint-house 
of Eeuben, where is a courtyard cool and delicious from the shade of 
nine huge mulberry-trees, I found the ruins some little way south of 
the liver mouth. Very little masonry remains, except on the south, 
where a square mass of retaining wall shows evidence of Crusading work- 
manship. This tower is known as Khirbet Dubbeh. Farther north are 
three ancient tombs in the face of the sandy cliff, one having eight loculi 
running in from its sides. These are called by the natives El-dekkaldn 
(" the shops "), a title often given to such tombs from the fellahin fancy 
that the loculi, like the cupboards of a modern bazaar, were used to 
store the goods of the shopman who sat presumably on the sort of divan 
which often runs round three sides of the chamber. 

The port would seem to be naturally better than any along the coast 
of Palestine south of Csesarea. There are, however, dangerous reefs 
liidden beneath the waves, and visible from their dark colour in the 
beautifully transparent water. A very little trouble in clearing a passage 
through these would, I imagine, render the jMinet Eiibin a better port 
than Jaffa, as the reefs are farther from the beach. 

The river, even in May, was full of water for several miles above the 
shore, and deep pools exist throiighout its course. It is fed by springs 
at and near the foot of the hills, and is the most formidable natural 
Ijarrier between the Aujeh and Wady Ghuzzeh. It therefore forms 
along the latter part of its course such a natural boundary as would be 
required between the jjossessions of Judah and of Dan. 

Claude E, Conder, Lieut. E.E., 

In Command Survey of Palestine. 



THE SITE OF THE CITY OF ADULLAM. 

By 0. Clermont-Gais'js'EAu. 

Four years ago I was led to place the city of AduUam at Ayd el 
Mieh, a ruin situated north-east of Beit Jibrin, not far from Sbuweikeb 
(the ancient Shocoh), on the road from Jerusalem to Beit Jibrin. I 
oonimunicated this identification to several persons while it was still a 
conjectiu-e, especially to Capt. Burton and Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake,* 
on their journey to Jerusalem in 1871 ; to M. Eenan, who wished to 
communicate it to the Academy of Inscriptions ; and, later on, to Lieut. 

* "Unexplored Syria," 1872, ii. 294. "AduUam . . site. M. Gamieau 
pointed out the true site farther east, at the Kliirbet Adahniyeh, pronounced by 
the people Ayd el Miyya, at a short distance froni the well-known Bayt 
Nutof." 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 169 

Conder,* to whom at the same time I pointed out several oLlier obser- 
vations made during the same excursion, when I first saw Ed el 
Miye; among others the tomb of the Bauyldcr of Noah and El Azhek 
(=Azeka ?) at Ellar, and the sculptured cavern and the inscriptions at 
Khirbct Za Kariyeh, and several names of localities marked in my route. 
I propose to state the considerations which decided me to adopt hypo- 
theses in which I am the first to detect certain weak points. 



The first appearance of the name of this city in the Bible is found in 
Genesis xxxviii., in connection with the episode of Judah and Tamar. 
Judah, who was with his brothers at Hebron, Avent doiua to Hirah 
the Adullamite, and married the daughter of the Canaanite Shuah.f 
Later en, the patriarch, accompanied by his friend Hirah, J goes up to 
Timnath to the sheep-shearing. According to Knobel, this Timnath 
has nothing to do with the Timnath of the tribe of Dan (=Tibnch, 
not far from Ain Shems), but would be the Timnah cited by the 
Book of Joshua (xv. 57), with Hak-kain (Cain) and Gibeah in the 
moimfains of Judah. 

At the time of Jerome another opinion prevailed, for the Onomasticon 
(s. V. Thamna) identifies this Timnah, where Judah went for his sheep- 
shearing, with a great town, Thamna, situated between Jerusalem and 
Diospolis, and belonging to the common territory of Dan and Judah. 
The passage is, perhaps, corrupt ; at all events, considering the evident 
theory of the author, we ought to read Eleutheropolis (Beit Jil>riu) 
and not Diospolis (Lydda).§ 

* When I arrived at Jenisalem, at tlie ciul of 1S73, MM. ConJer and Drake 
had just visited the great cave of Umm el Tumaymiyg with Mr. Neil and Dr. 
Cha])lin, tliinking that it was the place pointed out by me as the possible 
Adullam. Dut I never visited this iilace. ]\Ir. Drake rectified Ins error in a 
subsequent note. 

t There is a village, Esh'u, not far from tlie neighbourhood of these events. The 
name may possibly preserve some recollection of Shuali, who would be of import- 
ance in the genealogy of Judah. 

+ The Septuagint and the Vulgate translate Eo'e, shepherd, which seems to 
agree with what follows. 

§ Nevertheless the Onomasticon places the Timnath Serah of Joshua in the 
territory of Dan, whicli adds to our difficulties. Besides, whether tlie Onomas- 
ticon understands in this passage the Timuatli Serah of Ephraini (wliicli is ex- 
tremely impi-obable) or the Timnath near Ain Shems, neither of these localities 
is found between Diospolis or Eleutheropolis and Jerusalem, or even on tl.e 
road from one to the other. If, on the other hand, the Onomasticon has iu 
view an unknown Timnatli, that grouped in the Book of Joshua between 
Gibeah and Hak-kain, the neighbourhood of Gibeah would bring us to the middle 

N 



170 LETTERS FROM M. C'LERMONT-GANNEAU. 

Judali, before arriving at Timnaili, meets Tamar at " an open place," 
or a place called Enaim,* or possibly Patali Euaim, on the road wliicb 
leads to Timnatb. It bas been supposed tbat Enaim was uo otber than 
Enam, mentioned in tbe first group of tbe towns of the Sbefelab 
(Joshua XV. 36), which would imply the identity of our Timnatb with 
tbe Danite Tibneb. As we do not know from what place Judah went 
to Timnatb, we cannot deduce from the account much light on tbe 
position of AduUam, as some writers have been disposed to admit. 
The city itself is not once mentioned, except as being tbe natal place of 
Hirah. 



II. 

The Book of Joshua gives more precise indications. In tbe list of 
Canaanite kings defeated by the successors of Moses (xii. 15), tbe king 
of Adullam figures between those of Libnab and Makkedah. 

Farther on (xv. 36) we see tbat the city of Adullam belonged to tbe 
territory of the tribe of Judah ; it forms, with Jarmuth, Socbo, and 
Azeka, a group apart among tbe fourteen cities placed in the first line 
in tbe Shepbalah. 

I once proposed tbat tbe Shepbalah might be considered, not as the 
plain, as is generally understood, but as tbe low country, tbe second 
slope of tbe great mass of bills which forms tbe territory of Judab 
and its level undulations in the plaius. This idea was adopted 
by Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake and others to whom I submitted it. I 
still think it is perfectly borne out by the facts. Shepbalah bas properly 
tbe sense of low, and not oiflat : tbe word under this form corresponds 
with the Arabic as/el, in the feminine soufla. Tbe vulgar form of souffla, 
siffla, is applied at the present day in a geographical sense : thus, tbe 
village Ellur es sijla (the low) as opposed to EUar el foka (the high), is 
placed near several cities indicated as being in the Shepbalah ; and about 
a mile and a half north-east of Zanoua (Zanoab cf the Shepbalah) there 
exists a little village called Siiia or Sifala, which may possibly still 
mark tbe eastern limit of the Shepbalah. 

of the road from Jerusalem to Eleutlieropolis, only it would be inadmissible to 
extend the territory of Dan so far. Tlie passage in the Onomasticon leaves the 
question open wliether it meant Timnath near Dan or Timnatli near Gibeah. 

* The Ouomastioon, apparently making itself an echo of the current Kab- 
binical traditions of the time, indicates Enan as a desert place near the Thamna 
already quoted, with a spring— wlience its name — and an idol held in great 
veneration. St. Jerome adds that the Hebrews explain the expression by biviicm, 
a word which he adopts in the Vulgate. Perhaps it is best to read "in the en- 
trance of Enaim." Farther on, the people of the place are spoken of, so that it 
was inhabited. It is to be regretted that Jerome does not ex^^lain the nature of 
the worshix) paid to tbe "idol" in his own time. Perhaps it was one of the 
Canaanite deities — an Astarte, pati'oness of the class to which Tamar belonged. 



LETTERS FROM JI. CLEKMON T-GA.VNEAIT, 171 

We must not, therefore, persist in seeking Adullam in the plain, 
nor ought we to be astonished if we find the place as high up amon<»' 
the hills as Eshtaol, Zorah, or Zanoah, belonging like itself to the 
Shephalah.* 



III. 

In the First Book of Samuel we learn that David, pursued by the 
unrelenting hatred of Saul, and no longer able to rest at Gath, took 
refuge in the cave of Adnllam. His brothers and his relations came 
down from Bethlehem and joined him there. The little group of exiles 
was increased by the accession of " eveiy one who was in distress, and 
every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented," and 
of such materials the future king formed his first army. On one occa- 
sion, David having expressed a desire to drink "of the water of the 
well of Bethlehem that is at the gate," three of the bravest of the 
Gihhorim successfully passed through the lines of the Philistines and 
brought him the water for which he longed (1 Chron. xi. 19 j 2 Sam. 
xxiii. 13). 

It is clear from the double account of this episode that there was no 
question of supplying a lack of water, but of satisfying a longing for 
home quite intelligible in an exile. I insist on this fact because some 
have been led to imderstaud from this touching episode that Adullam 
must be near Bethlehem, which is possible, but not necessary. f 

The narrative in both the Book of Chronicles and that of Samuel 
clearly imi^lies that Adullam had a strategic importance, so that it is 
quite natural to find it among the cities fortified by Rehoboam (2 Chron. 
xi. 7) between Bethzur and Shoclio. 

It is mentioned in Nehemiah (xi. 30), between Jarmuth and Zanoah, 
as ha%ang been inhabited after the captivity by the sons of Judah. 
Judas Maccabeus here celebrated the Sabbath at the head of his army 

* On the otlier hand, many names of towns certainly situated in the jJain are 
nowhere classed among those of the Shephalah. Tlie existence of the cities of 
the Shephalah in the liighlands has so much embarrassed commentators, that some 
of them have had to suppress the difEculty by a gratuitous invention — viz., that 
the word Shephalali is not Hebrew at all. 

t This is the opinion of Thenius (Die Bucher Samuel, ]i. 10.3). The same 
commentator supposing that David, after placing his parents in safety in Moab, 
came back to the cave of Adullam, and that it is to this locality that the words 
of Gad apply ("Abide not in the hold; depart, and get thee into the land of 
Judah"), concludes that if the city of Adullam was in the territory of Judah, the 
cave was without, in that of Benjamin. But is it sure that by Eres Yehoudah 
the text means tlie territory of the tribe ? Is it demonstrated that the events 
followed as Thenius interprets them ? Are there more reasons for placing the 
cave of Adullam in the tribe of Benjamin than in that of Dan, for example ? 
One thing, however, is cpiite clear — the cave and tlie city were quite close to each 
other ; both were in the land of Judah, and both in the Shephalah. 



172 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

after defeating Gorgias, wlio fled to Maveslia, near Beit Jibrin (2 Mace, 
xii. 38). 

Lastly, in the clia]3ter of Micali (chap, i.) which contains a curious 
series of jeux de mots on different towns of Palestine, Adullam 
is associated with Mareshah in one of these alliterations, with 
an apparent tendency to isolate the first syllable of the word, Ad- 
AduUam. 



IV. 

If we pass from the Bible to profane texts, we have to remark iu 
Josephus the transcription of the name as Adullame (Antiq. vi. 12, 3). 

The Onomasticon gives us indications on the position assigned to it by 
tradition in the fourth and fifth centuries, which are extremely involved. 
We must try to clear them up. 

" Eglon, which is also called AduUam, in the tribe of Judah, where 
king Debir was slain by Joshua. It is still a large town in the 
region of Eleutheropolis, at ten miles (Jerome says twelve miles) 
distance." 

The expression irpos ovaroXas may mean, according to the well- 
established practice of Eusebius, rather the north-east or south-east 
than direct east. Gczer is thus placed in an easterly direction with 
regard to Emmaus, eV ^opeion — in the north. Now I have found it 
at Tell el Jezer, which is north-west of Emmaus. The plural appears 
to mark intentionally a direction intermediate to the cardinal points. 

How does this confusion between Eglon and Adullam arise .? The 
error must be assigned to a neglect of the Hebrew text, because no 
Greek copyist could confuse ErAHN and OAOAAAM. In fact, the 
fault is due to the Septiragint, which has taken in Joshua x. 5, pit; 
for Db-ijT, and has written oSoAAa^i (or oSoWa). The gimel was taken 
for a daleth, the two letters in the alphabet then in use resembling each 
other very strongly, and the substitution of the Mem for the Nun was 
thus almost forced.* 

It is thus that the strange contradiction in the passage of Eusebiusmay 
Lave been caused. Eglon is, without doubt, Khirbet Ajlan, about twelve 
Boman miles almost due west of Beit Jibrin. Eusebius, harassed by 
his supposed obligations to the text of the Septuagint, and preoccupied 
by another locality cast of Beit Jibrin, where he placed Adullam, applied 
to Eglon what he really intended for the former city. Jerome, in his 
turn, recognising the impossibility that two different places should be the 
same, and having rightly ascertained that the distance of Eglon from 
Eleutheropolis Avas twelve miles and not ten, corrects the narrative of 
Eusebius, but preserves the orientation applicable only to Adullam. In 

* Tlie Gi7nel in the ancient inscriptions that I found at Jerusalem was written 
very much like the Daldh. Lower down, iu Joshua xv. 39, the Septuagint gives 
correctly EFAflN. 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANXEAU. 173 

another passage (s. v. x""^^'). the Onomasticon says that Chasbi (Chezib), 
where the wife of Judah gave birth to Shelah (which is probably the 
Achzib of the group in Joshua xv. 37), is shown in a desert place near 
Dollam, or Odollam, in the confines of Eleutheropolis. Piocopius of 
Gaza (Commentary on Joshua) — who seems to have only reproduced a 
portion of the Onomasticon, with a correction of the distances — after 
stating that Yerimoth is at the fourteenth mile from Eleutheropolis, 
near Eshtaol, adds, without any indication of the connection in his own 
mind, the name of AduUam.* 

Lastly, the Onomasticon places Makkedah, a city celebrated for the 
cavern where Joshua killed the five kings, eight miles from Eleuthero- 
polis in the east, irpos avarSKas ; this is within two miles the distance 
and the position attributed to Adullam=Eglon. We may imagine that 
the cave has produced a new confusion between the two cities, like 
that which we have pointed out above, and we may put down the 
measure of eight miles to the account of AduUam. It is, in fact, dif- 
ficult to believe that AduUam and Makkedah, which belong to two 
distinct series iu the lists of Joshua, were no more than two Eoman 
miles apart. 



Y. 

In working upon data so uncertain it is clearly difficult to determine 
tbe exact position of AduUam. Nevertheless, a tradition — we may 
boldly call it a legend — sprang up in after years, which placed the cave 
of AduUam at the immense grotto known as Moghuret Khureitun, 
not far from Bethlehem and quite close to Tekoa. The description 
of this cave has been given a hundred times. The legend was only 
concerned with the cave, and did not trouble itself to establish the 
proximity of a city. (See Tobler, II. 509 et scq.) 

It has long been proved that the name of Khureitun applied to the 
cave to the adjacent ruins, to a spring, and to the valley below, is no- 
thino- else than that of the ascetic Chariton, who founded in this place 
one of his two Lauras, called Suka, fourteen stadia from Tekoa. The 
orio-in of the word Suka has been a good deal discussed. It is from the 
Syriac. Tobler and Sepp explain it by the Hebrew Succah, a tent or 
house. I think that they are wrong. We should have in that case ax 
and not a k in the Greek transcription, the k'jpjxc implies a Jcojyh in 
tlie original, and upsilon an i rather than an o or an ou.\ 

Now why did tradition get hold of this cavern called KpefiacrToi/ and 

* Trepi tV EtrSadiA Kuiu.r]v 'OSoAXau. Perliaps tlu' })hrase may be separated by 
a stop before the last word. 

f We have also 2ou/ca. So tlie Scptuagint gives us acox" and (tcoxo^v for Socho. 
So in the Arabic the convent Mar Saba is called Deir es Sik. In the Annals of 
Eutychius (II. 108, 242, 243) the convent of Chariton and that of Saba are 
called the old and the new Deir es Sik. 



174 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GA"S"XEAU. 

make Adullam out of it ? Probably on account of its remarkable di- 
mensions and its proximity to Bethleliem. Perliaj)s tlie name of SnJca 
went for something. It is probable that tliis belief took its origin at 
tlie time of the Crusades; it is certainly as old as that date; and the 
confusion of SuIm with Sik and Sccho would have been impossible for 
a Semitic race, but the Crusaders would be helped in their identification 
by an apparent resemblance, the city of Socho being associated with 
Adullam in the Bible narrative. This mistake would be quite in accord- 
ance with their habits. 

We cannot, as critics, accept such a ftible. But we ourselves have 
not been more fortunate. Our own topography has proposed for 
Adullam in succession, Deir Dubban, Beit Alam, Beit Doula, &c. 

Not one of these hypotheses answers to the conditions of the 
problem. 

First of all, the name of Adullam must be considered separately. 
Whatever its etymology, it is certain that, however preserved by the 
Arabs, it would have undergone considerable modifications. For 
example, it might have been Adlun, under which name we shovild at 
once recognise it. This name exists, but unfortunately it is attached 
to a place very far from the territory of Judah, on the coast of 
Phoenicia, between Tyre and Sidon. These caprices of Onomastic echoes 
are not rare in Syria. 

We should expect a deviation of the final syllable into oun, in, or an ; 
a disappearance of the d by assimilation with the double I ; and a 
transformation of the ain into ghaln, and perhaps into li. 

Starting with this principle, I was struck by the resemblance of 
the Hebrew word Adullam with that of a ruin called Ed el Miye* 
situated on the road from Jerusalem to Beit Jibrin, not far from 
Shuweikeh or Socho. 

In 1871 I resolved to visit the place in order to verify conjectures 
resting upon nothing more than appearances which might be vain, and 
I included this place in the programme of a little excursion — the same 
in which I discovered Gezer. The following are some of the notes 
which I made on the journey : — 

" Starting from Jerusalem on the 30th of January, in a pelting rain, we 
pass (my companion being Frere Lievin) by Bettir, Houbin, and Ella 
el Foka. Facing this latter place, on the other side of the valley, 
towards the south, exists a place called El Azhek,t whose name singu- 
larly resembles that of the city, hitherto unknown, of Azeka. It is a 

* It will be found that Lieutenant Conder spells the word Ayd el Mieh. 

t Azeka, we know, is a crii,x intcrpretum. If we fix it at EUar, there would 
he among other advantages — (1) Tliat it would remain in the groitp of Joshua xv. 
36. (2) It would agree with the fixing of the PliiHstine camp (1 Sam. xvii. 1) if 
Vandevelde's Damun is Dommim. (3) It would he half-way between Jerasalem 
and Beit Jibrin, in accordance with the Onomasticon. Khirbet Za Kariyeh has 
been proposed ; one might also think of Beit Iska and of Khirhet Haska. 



LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 175 

rocky plateau, surrounded by lulls of greater elevation, with no other 
trace of ruins than a great circle of shapeless stones called Bar el 
Kihliyc. 

" Then Khirbet Hanna, Khirbet Harik esh Shekhaleb, with the tomb of 
Noah's daughter, Khirbet Jairieh, the Spring of Tannur (legend of 
the Deluge), Ellar es Sitia, or Bawaij (mediasval ruin). From thence we 
directed our course due south-east, and arrived a little before sunset at 
the broad valley on one of the sides of which are the ruins which I. 
wished to see. They were called Ed el Miye, or Id el Miye. Like most 
of the ancient sites in Palestine, they have no determined character, but 
appear to cover a fairly large extent of ground, as well as could be made 
out among the late grass with which they were covered ; there is also a 
lai'ge well, suri'ounded with several troughs, where they bring the 
cattle to drink. 

" The place is absolutely uninhabited, except in the rainy season, 
when the shepherds take refuge there for the night. These peasants 
are here at present in large numbers. 

" We climb the hill at the foot of which these ruins extend. Other 
ruins lie on the top of it, and a small monument dedicated to the 
Sheikh Madkur. 

" The hill is perforated with natural grottoes, where the shepherds are 
already housed for the night. It is easy to imagine David and his 
companions lodged in these lai-ge caves ; from them one commands the 
plains and valleys to a great distance round, and a ghazzia once effected, 
this natural fortress would offer a sure and commodious shelter. 

" As we journey without tent, with our horses alone, and with what our 
Tchordjes hold, we seek a shelter in the rocks, and leave our beasts in a 
neighbouring cave. But the fellahin, who make no difficulty about 
number, protest against the profanation by our animals of a grotto 
sacred to Madkur. 

"We install ourselves as well as we can in this rustic sanctuary, taking 
certain precautions, for the country is at the moment a prey to 
famine. We divide our provisions with the little circle of curious 
visitors who surround us, near a great fire lit in the liwan. The bread 
is a welcome gift to these poor wretches, who have been living for weeks 
on leaves of khoubbeije (a kind of mallow). So that I get from them 
without any trouble valuable information on the place. Local tradition 
says that the city of Ed el Miye once — but a long while ago — suffered 
total destruction and a general massacre. Men, women, children, 
nothing was spared. They massacred, among others, eighty couples of 
brothers, reminding one of the eighty couples of {Go?:ot) brothers^ 
priests, spoken of in the Talmud. 

" Sheikh Madkur — some call him Maukur — was the son of the Sultan 
Beder. His descendants are settled at Beit Natif — they have built and 
keep up the wely. 

" We pass the night with a little distrust of the vagabonds round us — 
hunger is a bad adviser. But Sheikh Madkur, or the ancient divinity 



176 LETTERS FROM M. CLERMONT-GANXEAU. 

T^''llom lie represents, watches over us, and the morning arrives -svithout 
accident. We set off immediately, casting one rapid glance at the hill, 
which is full of caves, tombs, and cisterns, and covered over with great 
Idocks of cut stone. Wo have to get as quickly as possible to Beit 
Jibrin, for the sake of our horses, who have had nothing to eat but 
grass." 

Since that moment the idea that I had seen the ruins and the cave of 
Adullam dwelt continually in my mind, without, however, becoming a 
serious conviction. During my last visit to Palestine I proposed, by an 
excursion in the region of Beit Jibrin, to make another journey to Ed el 
Miye. We found the place completely deserted, the whole country being 
ravaged by a typhoid fever. I ascertained afresh that the plateau was 
covered with ruins, and had once been the site of a city. Among the 
tombs cut in the rock was one with a cross.* We explored the large 
■cavern near the wely. We were at a loss because we had nothing to 
'give us light, when, to our surprise and joy, we discovered in the wely 
a packet of candles still in their blue paper cover, and deposited by some 
pious hand for the purpose of lighting the sanctuary. Decidedly the 
good genius of Sheikh Madkur visibly protected us. I made no scruple 
about appropriating one of these providential candles, and I subtituted 
a small piece of money for the benefit of the pious donor whose offering 
I had been obliged to use. We were thus able to visit the cavern in all 
its extent without risk of breaking our necks, as had nearly happened to 
me already at Shiha. 

In a halt at Ellar I picked up a new legend on Ed el Miye which 
enables us to fix the orthography of the name. 

The day of the great feast of Mussulmans (id) a terrible fight took 
T)lace, a long time ago, between the hostile liammonles who lived in the 
city. A hundred (miye) of the inhabitants were slain. Since that time 
the place has been called the Feast of the Hundred. 

It is curious to remark that the explanations in vogue among the 
rabbis of the fourth and fifth centuries on the etymology of Adullam 
tended also to sejiarate it into two parts. 

St. Jerome, in fact, who was the pupil of the Jewish doctors, translates 
in his De Nominihus Hehraicis, Adullamitem by testificatem, sive testimo- 
nium aquce ; Adullamim, by congregaiio eornm; and OdoUam by testi- 
rnonium eorum.f Ho merely separates the first syllable to assimilate it 
to the Hebrew cd, witness. As to the second part, to which he once gives 
the name of iraicr, he has in his mind the Hebrew maim. Some of these 
contradictory interpretations would be very well explained by a form 
analogous to the Arabic Ed el Miye. 

In spite of the striking resemblance, I have a certain scruple about 
connecting Ed el Miye with Adullam. Generally the Arabic names give 

* A detail of some importance : if the place was inhabited at the Cliristian 
epoch there is a chance of its having preserved its ancient name, and one nnder- 
stanils how a survival of tlie name was found by the writer of the Onomasticon. 

t Cf. also on Amwas, Emmaus, Quarterly Statement, July, 1874, p. 163. 



ANCIENT JEWISH CRAVES. 177 

US contractions rather than the reverse. Wo should have to admit that 
Ed el Miye is connected with Adullam by means of the ethnic form in tho 
feminine Edchny, Edd Mijic. 

Ed el Miye is about eight Eoman miles from Beit Jibrin, as nearly as 
can be hxed from existing maps, and north-east of this city. It is exactly 
the distance of the position assigned by tho Onomasticon to Mellkedah ; 
but -wc have seen that this passage had in view Adullam, placed else- 
where at ten miles. 

It is certain that in placing Adullam at Ed el Miye we not only 
approach tho statements of the Onomasticon, but also satisfy very nearly 
all the conditions demanded by the texts quoted above, including the 
expedition of the three Gihorims who went to fetch water from Bethlehem. 
The journey from Ed el Miye to Bethlehem and back, about twelve 
leagues, would be nothing for the light-footed mountaineers who sur- 
rounded David. Those who consider the distance too much have only to 
i-emember that it is related as an exploit, and that the fatigue has to be 
added to the risk. Let us not forget, besides, that when David as a boy 
killed Goliath he carried provisions to his three elder brethren from 
Bethlehem to the camp of the Israelites — that is to say towards Sodom, 
in the valley of the Terebinth —nearly as far and in the same parts as 
Ed el Miye. 

All these coincidences, then, give a high degree of vraisemhlance to 
the identification, but from that to a certainty, such as we have in Gezer, 
is a long step. I ought to add, in conclusion, without attaching any 
other importance to it, that two localities might also pretend to the 
honour of representiug Adullam, if we confine ourselves to the phonetic 
point of view — EUar, already named, and Beit Ellia, a little to the east 
of Ed el Miye ; but the phonetic point of view is not anything in topo- 
graphy, and besides, even from these considerations, Ed el Miye has the 
advantage. 



ANCIENT JEWISH GRAVES. 

Letters fkom Dr. Titus Tobler. 

The following letters from a well-known veteran in Palestine Explora- 
tion will be welcome to all who desire accurate knowledge on an 
important branch of Jewish archyeology. They refer to papers pub- 
lished in diff'erent numbers of the Quarterly Statement by Major Wilson, 
Lieut. Gender, and M. Clermont-Ganneau. 

I. 

Munich, 24:th March, 1875. 
The different kinds of graves are described in the Quarterly Statement 
in siich a manner as to justify me in drawing your attention to them. 
I recognised four kinds of graves {Oolgatha, 1851, p. 216, &c.). 



178 ANCIENT JEWISH GRAVES. 

■wliicli I closely investigated, in the neigliboiu-hood of Jerusalem. 
1. The common grave, sunk in the floor of the grave-chamber, which 
the visitor enters. 2. The sliding or oven grave, in the Talmud Kok 
(plural Kvlcim), a rectangular sloping space cut into the wall of the 
rock, extending six feet horizontally, sufficiently wide and high to admit 
of a corpse being pushed in. This is my reason for thus naming it. 
3. The slu'lf or hench grave, a shelf or niche, six feet long, cut in the 
wall of the rock ; and upon this the corpse was laid, even when it had 
first been j)laced in a coffin. 4. The troiKjli grave. If a trough was cut 
in the shelf just mentioned, this made a trough grave, into which the 
corpse was laid. This division of mine was accepted by the German 
savants, and I have also read in a French work, "Trois ans en Judee, 
par Gerady Saintine " (Paris, 1860, p. 219) : L'examen . . , nous permet 
. . . d'etablir quatre categories des chambres faneraires; les chambres 
a four avec ou sans rainure dans le milieu, celles a tablettes, celles a 
auge, enfin celles a couche souterraine." I must make the very unwil- 
ling confession that I, who first of all and most thoroughly examined 
and described the ancient Jewish graves, am not altogether clear about 
the reports which I read upon these graves in the Quarierly Statement — 
a most valuable and indispensable publication. Captain Wilson's 
description of the varieties of graves, in the Qaarterhj Statement, 1869, 
p. QQ, &c., interesting as it is, would not sufficiently clear up the matter 
if it were not accompanied by a sheet of diagrams ; I should not have 
understood "deep loculi" and "sunk IocuIi"sLt least not the first. 
Lieut. Conder's paper in the Quartcrhj Statement, 1873, i)p. 23, 47, 141, is 
not clear enough. It is hardly justifiable to use the Latin word Joculus 
{locus in sepulchro) for an ancient Jewish grave; or even, according to 
Drake {Quarterlij Statement, 1873, p. 58 ; 1874, p. 71), to help it out with 
" pigeon-hole Jocuhis," because the ancient Jewish grave — which, as far as 
I know, one might seek for in vain in the west, setting aside the modern 
mural construction, such as at Barcelona— is a TTo/o; I consider that 
this definite term should always have the preference, if my term sliding 
or oven grave is less suitable, which I freely admit. Therefore, if 
loculi were found in Rome, they could not be designated as Koldm. 
In the cemetery of S. Callistus, and the catacombs of S. Sebastiano, the 
loculi shelf r/raves were introduced like the bunks of a ship. The term 
"pigeon-hole Joculus'' could not be applied here either, because it is 
not a columbarium, or niche of that sort. M. Clermont-Ganneau, in the 
Quarterly Statement, 1874, p. 108, expresses himself more accurately, 
" loculi in the form of ovens." If I had not written first to Jerusalem, 
and another time to Nazareth, I should not yet have solved the problem 
as to which sort of graves were meant. It is surely an obvious necessity 
that the varieties of graves should be accurately and similarly desig- 
nated by the reporters. I avoided the subject of the rock chambers or 
the rock grave-structure for fear of diffuseness. The Quarterhj State- 
ment, from the wide survey obtained, contains much valuable informa- 
tion upon them. 



ANCIENT JEWISH GRAVES. 179 

I venture to draw your attention to something else. Stai'ting from 
the point of view that it is very important if possible to obtain correct 
tests of the authorities, I edited the " Itinerarium Burdigala Hieroso- 
lymam," the " Peregrinatio S. Paulfo," the descriptions of S. Eucherius, 
of Theodosius (Theodorus), of Antoninus Martyr, of S. Willibaklus, of 
the Commemoratoriam, of Bernardus Monachus, of John Wirziburgensis ; 
not to mention Theodoricus and the " Citez de Iherusalem." See " De- 
scriptiones Terrse Sanctse," Leipsic, 1874, p. 525. I see that the con- 
tributors and editors of the Quarterly Statement have taken no notice of 
all this. Tou know how much trouble Clermont-Ganneau gave him- 
self to obtain the text of John of "Wiiizburg [QuarterJy Statement, 
1874, pp. 156, 164). At last he got it, but not the one which 
I had revised, v.'hichis tobe recommended in preference to the "Templum 
Domini " on account of some important improvements. As I considei*ed 
it important to edit more correct texts, I think that it would also not 
be unimportant for your readers to look into them. At the same 
time I have the honour of sending you my treatise against Mons. de 
Saulcy, which contains some mention of the ancient Jewish graves. 

Geokge Geove, Esq. Titus Toblee. 



II. 

Mttnich, 17;/i April, 1875. 

I was delighted to get an answer from you, and it gives me much 
pleasure to continue the correspondence. 

I take the liberty of drawing your attention to a few other matters. 
Prof. E. H. Palmer, who visited Beit Jibrin, mentions the inscriptions ; 
but, if I am not mistaken, does not speak of. the very curious rock 
columbaria, which, I might almost say, are exact patterns of those which 
one sees built (gemauert) in Rome and Pompeii. It would, therefore, 
be desirable, if the engineers reach this point, that the right "terminus'* 
should be chosen. In my third journey (p. 131) I recognised an evident 
columbarium there — one can plainly see the niches for the urns. 

In the Quarterly Statement it is supposed that there was a fortress on 
the Quarantana mountain. To corroborate this you will see the same 
thing mentioned in my edition of Theodoricus (1863, ]). 72). In this 
author may be found mention of two other castles — Sapham, and one 
which is not named, and is difficult to find in the authorities (p. 98). 
In " The Exploration of Palestine, from its foundation to Dec, 1870," 
one finds (p. 15) the following : " At a point 600 feet distant from the 
south-western angle, the Tarik Bab es-Silsileh passes into the Haram 
through the Bab es-Silsileh, over luhaf had always been supposed to he 
an earthen cmbanJcment." I examined this cave in 1846, and described 
it to the Fund in my memorandum (Denkblattern, p. 41 IF.), where I 
positively declared (p. 141 f.) the Suk Bab es-Sinsleh (Silsileh) to be a 
bridge. In my " Topography of Jerusalem," Bk. 1, p. 206, I further 



180 NOTES BY CAPTAIN WARREN, M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU, ETC. 

proved tliat this so-called causeway (Williams) of later topographists 
served as a bridge (pons) at the time of the Crusades, and that a street 
led under it from the Stephen's Gate (now Damascus Gate) to the 
Tanners' Gate. This I inferred from the Citez de Iherusalem, in the 
incorrect text of Beugnot, as I then knew it (1853). 

I am sui-prised that this incorrect Williams-Beugnot text should 
still be used in England, since as early as 1854, in the " Topography " 
just mentioned, in 1859 in the " Recueil des Historiens des Croisades," 
and in 1860 in De Yoglie's " Eglises de la Terre Sainte," better and 
here-and-there thoroughly correct texts are to be found. A recently 
revised text — the first critical one — is to be found in the " Descriptiones 
Terreo Sanctse" published by me. 

I am not acquainted with the space to the south below the temple 
plateau and the mosques, between the stejjs under the Aksa mosque and 
the western wall of the Haram esh-Sherif ; perhaps I overlooked it in 
Morison's " Recovery of Jeriisalem," in " Our Work in Palestine," or 
in the Quarterly Statements ; of the latter, in spite of all my efforts, I 
have not been able to get hold of the first number. 

In " The Exploration," the map is entitled " Thirty square miles of 
Judaea, showing the amount of our present knowledge of the country " 
(1870). A fcAv things are wanting in this map. For instance, Ain 
Attan, which I found at Wadi Biar ; Ain Kasas, near the so-called 
tanks of Solomon; the important ruin of the convent at Der es-Seiar ; 
the Wadi Saich, below the Wadi Rahib ; the Wady Tawahun, below the 
Wadi Artas ; in fact, the Arabic names of valleys generally apply only 
to very short distances. Compare letterpress and map of my "Deuk- 
blattern," and of my Third Journey. 

George Grove, Esq. Titus Tobler. 



PHILISTIA. 

The following suggestions with regard to possible identifications of 
ancient sites, not hitherto recognised, the results of my reconnaissance 
of the plain of Philistia in 1867, are put forward with some diffidence. 

May, 1875. Charles Warren. 

The word Shephalah * may be found in 'Allar es-Sifla (or 'AUar of the 
low lands), in contradistinction to 'Allar el-Foka (the upper). 

Page 162, Quarterly, Joshua xv 

P.E.F., 1871. 

Abu Kabus Cabbon. 

Kebu Cabbon. 

Eilin Dilean. 

* Seep. 170. 



NOTES BY CAPTAIN WARREN, M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU, ETC. 181 



BesLit 
Sluaueli . . 
Huleikafc 
Bir en Nalil 
Hatta . . 
Beit Affa 
B'alln . . 
Ibneli 
Mogbara 



Bozkatli. 

Sharaim. 

Gath. 

Enaiu. 

Ether. 

Jeplita. 

Dilean. 

Libaala. 

Makkedah. 



SITE OF LIBNAH. 

This ancient city was one of the most important of those attacked and 
taken by Joshua, and its subsequent history leads to the surmise that it 
occupied a strong and commanding position; its site, however, has 
hitherto escaped discovery, although it is suggested as being repre- 
sented by Arak el Menshiyeh (Vandevelde), by Tell es Safieh (Dean 
Stanley), and by Beit Jibrin (Lieut. Conder). 

Jabneel and Jabnah are each only mentioned once in the Old Testa- 
ment, and are recognised as being one and the same place. I propose 
to identify these names -with that of Libuah, the modern equivalent 
being Ibna, a ruined city situated on a conspicuous hill on the sea-coast 
between Jaffa and Ashdod. 

The Jabneel of the Old Testament is given as Lebna in the LXX., 
and again the Libnah of the Old Testament is in one instance given 
in the LXX. as Lemna. 

We have Jebneel, Jabnia, Jamnia, Jafneh, lamnia, Ibelin, Ivelyn, 
Libnah, Lebna, Lemna, Yebna, and Ibna as various changes upon the 
old words Libnah and Jabnah, the modern word Ibna representing both 
these early forms. 

Libnah was given over to the jjriests, the sons of Aaron, and sub- 
sequently we find Jamnia to be the great seat of Hebrew leai'ning, 
where the Sanhedrim sat. 

The modern Ibna occupies a very commanding position on the great 
road along the coast of Palestine ; it is 170 feet above the level of the 
sea, and has an ancient port attached, as had Gaza, Ascalon, &c. It 
was in the time of Josephus one of the most populous cities of Pales- 
tine. In modern days the encroaching sand has swallowed up the once 
fertile sea-board of Philistia. The position I thus assign to Libnah 
appears to agree well with the account of its attack by Joshua. 

May 14, 1875. Charles "Warren. 



182 NOTES BY CAPTAIN WARREN, M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU, ETC. 

NOTE ON SHAAEAIM. 

In Josluia xv. 33-36 there occurs the following group : — • 

"Eshtaol, Zoreah, Aslinali, Zanoali, En-gaunim, Tappuah, Enam, 
Jarmuth, Adullam, Socoli, Azekab, Shaaraim, Aditliaim, Gederali, and 
Gederothaim, fourteen cities with tlieir villages." 

Aslinah = Asalin, quite close to Sara. 

En-gannim = Um Jina. 

Tappuali =: Artuf. 

In my paper on Adullam will be found some notes on Azeka. 

As to Shaaraim, I am very nearly convinced that w^e find it in the ruin 
Sa'ire, which is not marked on any map, but is in Robinson's lists 
district of Arkab between Shuweikeh (Socho) and Beit Netif^r.e., 
precisely in the region required. 

C. Clermont-Ganneau. 



AVEN HASH-SHETEYAH. 



In Joma v. 2 we read, " there was there (in the Holy of Holies) a stone 
from the time of the first prophets. It was called Sheteyah, and its 
height from the earth was three fingerbreadths." Ui^on this stone the 
ark would appear to have been j)laced, and it was a notion of the 
rabbis that the earth was founded upon, or rather from, it. In the 
Toldoth Jesu the Aven Sheteyah is affirmed to be the stone which the 
patriarch Jacob anointed at Bethel. Upon it was said to be written 
the nomen tetragrammaton, the ineffable name of God, and lest 
any one should learn the letters of this name, and become possessed of 
the wondrous powers which that knowledge conferred, two dogs were 
placed near the sanctuary, which, if any one had succeeded in learning 
the letters of this name, barked so fiercely at him as he was passing 
out as to cause him immediately to forget it. It is said that Jesus 
having entered, learned the name, wrote it npon parchment, and placed 
the parchment in an incision which He made in His thigh, the skin 
growing over it on the name being pronounced, and having escaped the 
canine guardians of the place, thus became possessed of the super- 
natural powers which He afterwards manifested. 

Rabbi Schwarz (Das Heilige Land) identifies this wonderful stone 
with the Sakhrah, and after remarking that it is now raised about 10 
feet above the ground, adds, " so that since that time (when Joma was 
written) the temple hill has been lowered nearly 10 feet." 

It seems strange that this stone should have been confounded with 
Zoheleth, yet in the Jewish manual arb'a taanoth (tisha b'av) this 
identity is suggested. J- C 

Jerusalem. 



NOTES BY CAPTAIN AYAKUEN, M. C'LERMONT-GANNEAU, ETC. 183 

Witli reference to preceding remarks of T>v. Chaplin, I liave to 
suggest that the "Little Sakhrah," now lying at the northern end of 
the Haram enclosure, raay possibly be tlie stone wliich Jacob anointed 
at Bethel, and which is supposed to have been placed in the Sanctuary 
of the Temple at Jerusalem. 

The Sakhrah, on which the Dome of the Eock is built, is a portion of 

the solid rock of :Mount Moriah, only elevated about 24 feet above the 

general level (2,420 feet) 'of the Haram enclosure. It is doubtful, 

therefore, whether its highest peak could have been on so high a level 

as the floor of the Sanctuary of the Temple. 

C. W. 



NOTE ON NOB. 

Theke is a certain amount of evidence as to the position of this 
place, which not only escaped me when first writing on the subject, but 
also appears to have escaped the notice of Major Wilson, whose argu- 
ment in favour of another site is confined to the one requisite that Nob 
should be on the direct road to the capital. 

Major "Wilson mentions only two passages in the Bible as referring 
to Nob, but he has omitted the most important, Nehemiah xi. 32, where, 
in a systeiiatic enumeration of towns in Benjamin, we get the names, 
Anathoth, Nob, Hananiah, Hazor, consecutively. This would place 
Nob between Anata on the east and Beit Hanina, close to which is 
Khirbet Hazur on the west. 

Major Wilson says that, " of the others [towns enumerated Isaiah (x. 
28 — 32)J nothing is known." For these towns— viz., Laish, Gallim, and 
Gebim— I have already proposed identifications which seem to me 
probable— viz., for Laish, which is evidently near Anathoth, i'/saiwVe/i, 
the next village to Anata; for Gallim, " the heaps," Khirhet el Soma, "ruin 
of the heap;" for Gebim, el Jih; and possibly we may add, for Madmenah, 
near Gebim, Bir Xchdla, close to El Jib. 

All these indications point to the correctness of the site given by- 
Mr. Grove for Nob— viz., the village of Sh'afat, the modern name having 
a meaning almost the same as that of Nob. This site also fulfils the 
other requisites : 1. It is in full sight of Jerusalem. 2. On the direct 
route. 3. A conspicuous point. This last requisite is in accordance 
with the expression Zopliim—i.e., the place whence the tabernacle was 
visible. As the second tithes were allowed to be eaten in all the 
Zophim, it is only natural to suppose a site would be chosen so that 
a o-ood view of the tabernacle might be obtainable at a considerable 

distance. 

These arguments do not in any way interfere with the identity of 
Mizpeh and Nebi Samwil, for which I contended in the original paper, 



184 NOTES BY CAPTAIN AVARREN, M. CLERMONT-GANNEAU, ETC. 

and I hope to show that the balance of evidence is in favour of this 
identification. That Nehi Samwil should he identified with some 
name besides that of High Place of Gibeon, Major Wilson himself 

allows. 

" It should be remembered," he writes, " that Nebi Samwil is one and 
a quarter miles from el Jib (Gibeon), a distance so great that it would 
lead us to expect the place to have its own distinctive name rather 
than one derived from Gibeon." 

C. R. 0^ 



Quarterly Statement, October, 1875.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 



PREFACE. 

The Survey of Western Palestine, after three years and a half of 
nninterrupted work, has received a temporary check by the attack 
on the party at Safed, on July 10th. The full particulars of this 
attack will be found in the report partly drawn up by Lieutenant 
Couder, but signed and despatched during his illness, by Lieutenant 
Kitchener. On the arrival of the intellie-ence the Foreisn OfHce 
was at once communicated witli, and no time was lost in sendiuar 
instructions to Palestine. Our last news, dated August 20th, in- 
forms us that the trial was fixed to come on at Acre. Lieutenants 
Conder and Kitchener remained in the Convent of Carmel in ordei" 
to give their evidence ; they will stay there till the affair is settled : 
and the British Consul-General of Beyrout has been instructed by 
the Foreign Office to be rejjresented on the occasion. No provo- 
cation of any kind has yet been discovered for the attack. 

Meantime the triangulation is for the moment stopped. Tlie 

Committee have been put to great additional expense, and, pending 





186 NOTES. 

;'the result of the trial — iii consideration, also, of the unhealthy 
<state of the country — the non-commissioned officers have been sent 
home. 

It is hoped to resume the triangulation without much delay ; the 
^office work will meanwhile go on in England as well as in Palestine, 
;.-and the check to the Survey will not, it is trusted, be greater than 
■the time occupied in settling the affair. Justice must, however, be 
obtained before the party can again venture into the disturbed 
Klistrict. 

Such an accident has naturally caused a considerable strain upon 
'the finances, and our supporters are earnestly requested to remember 
^that the expenses of the year have to be met. In April last the 
'Committee asked for £3,500 before the end of the year. This 
iippeal has been so far met that a fair proportion of the amount has 
'-"been forwarded to the office within the six months which have 
/elapsed since April 1st. The sum looked for up to the end of the 
•year to meet expenses and pay off the more important liabilities is 
^-about c£l,500. Subscribers are most carnestli/ asked to make their 
:j>ayments as early in October as possible. 



NOTES. 

- While desiiing to give every publicity to propose 1 ideutiiications by officers 
: Tea the Fund, the Committee beg it to be distinctly understood that they leave 
<s-a.ch proposals to be discussed on their own merits, and that by publishing them 
viiii tiie Quarterly Statement the Committee do not sanction or adopt them. 



NOTES. 187 

AiiiJual subscribers are earnestly requestfd to forward tlieir subscriptions for 
tlie unrrent year at their earliest convenience and without waiting for application. 
It is best to cross all chcf|ucs to Coutts and Co., and if so crossed they may be 
safely left payable to bearer. 



Dr. Ch;iplin writes from Jerusalem, August 13, 1875: — "Tlic souterrain 
north of tlic platform in the Haram has recently been opened. Ou comparing 
my notes -with those of Caj'tain Warren, it appears that tlie chamber is in the 
.same state as when he saw it. If the earth can be removed into the bays it will 
be possible to examine the two ends. As to the northern side and what is 
beyond it, I fear that we shall learn nothing more tlian we know at present. 
They may perhaps dig a hole in the wall and try to ascertain if there is, or has 
been, a chamber beyond. The present aspect of the wall does not give mucli 
hope of finding a church beyond. It is a comparatively modern wall of very 
rough workmanship, and I could not find any trace of pillars, or piles, or arches, 
such as might be supposed to separate the aisles of a church from the nave." 

Further examination Avas stopped by command of the authorities. 



The Committee are always grateful for the return of old numbers of tlie 
Quarterly Statement, especially those which are advertised as out of print. 



The amount received from all sources between June 30th and September 30th 
was £867 Is. 6d. The balance of current accounts at the latter date was only 
£140 Os, 6d, 



The Committee regret to announce that Mr. St. Clair, who has lectured for 
the Fund for nearly six years, has resigned his appointment. Application for 
lectures can be addressed to the Secretary, by whom, for the present, arrange- 
ments for the season M'ill be'made. 



Ladies desirous of joining the Ladies' Association are ref|uested to communicate 
with Mrs. Finn, The Elms, Brook Green, London, W. 



A memorial window to the late Charles F. Tyrwhitt Drake is to be put up in the 
chapel of Wellington College. Half of the expense will be borne by the college, 
half by Mr. Drake's personal friends. Any of these who would wish to join 
in this tribute may address the Eev. W. F. TjTwhitt Drake, Great Gaddesden. 



THE SURVEY OF PALESTINE, 



EETEOSPECT FOR 1875. 

CoxYENT ON Caemel, 12th Auffust, 1875. 

As a detailed report is due from me, but impossible under present 
circumstances, I send home a few notes on our discoveries during the 
course of this year. 

On the 28th of February we succeeded in leaving Jerusalem, and in 
twelve days filled in and triangulated 330 square miles of the desert 
west of the Dead Sea, visiting and planning Masada. Wo experienced 
at the close of this work some of the most boisterous weather we have 
ever withstood. 

Crossing to Beit Jibrin at the edge of the Philistine plain we com- 
menced on the 12th of March the survey of this most interesting 
district, and completed the whole, except a very small portion near 
Beersheba, by the loth of May. Our main results were as follows : — 
We visited the ruin of Sheikh el Madhkur, where we verified M. Gan- 
neau's discovery of the existence of the name 'Aid-el-Mieh, attaching 
to a part of the ruins. In my report I showed the fitness of the site for 
identification with Adullam, as suggested by M. Ganneau, including the 
existence of caves still inhabited. 

We were next able to thi'ow light on the difficulty as to the existence 
of two Medioeval Ascalons by our discovery of a Ivhirbet 'Ascalun, 
evidently an early Christian ruin. We made a careful survey of Ascalon 
to a large scale, with photographs by Lieut. Kitchener. 

In the neighbouihood of Gaza we discovered five new Greek inscrip- 
tions, and obtained some information as to the ancient extent and site of 
this city. Lieut. Kitchener was the first to photograph the interior of 
the cathedral of St. John Baptist, now a mosque, formerly a church, 
even earlier than Crusading times. 

We also visited and described the ruins of Khii'bet Umm el Jerar, 
generally supposed to be the Gerar of Abraham. 

Turning north, our most interesting exploration was the village of 
El Moghar, suggested by Captain Warren to be the site of Makkedah. 
We found caves here, being the only place in the plain where such caves 
exist. We also discovered a site called Deir el Aashek, which I have 
proposed to identify with the long lost Azekah. We visited the sites of 
the valley of Elah and the valley of Sorek, of both of which Lieutenant 
Kitchener took eS'ective photographs. 



MEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEll's KEPORTS. 189 

The following is a sketcli of tlio identifications -wliicli I imagine to bo 
new, which I wouLl suggest for reasons afterwards to bo given in full. 
They extend over the whole of the tribe of Judah : — 

1. 'A~ckah — Dcir el ^Aaaluk, from its position and the similarity of name. 

2. Shaaraini, in the LXX. 'Zmapi^ with Tell Zekarlych, from its position. 

3. Gederah — Tell Jedcldch, from position and name. 

4. Zaanan — Kh. Sdnicli, from position and name. 

5. Ifadashah—'Abdas, from position and name. 

6. Dilcan — Beit Timn. Yiindevelde's identification with Tinch, which on 
some maps is coufouuded with Beit Tima, can he proved inadmissible. 

7. Mispcli — Kldrhet el JTicsheirefeJi , near Gaza. The position fits, and the 
name is the Arabic equivalent of the Hebrew. 

8. Cahbon — Ul Kuhclhch, from proximity to the next. 

9. Lahmas — Khirhct d Zahm, near the last. 

10. Kithlish, may be, I suggest, Kh. Makkus : in the LXX. Maax^s takes the 
place of Kithlish. 

11. Gcderoth — Gatrah, from name and position. 

12. Naameh — Na'ani, from name and position. This may be known to sonio 
scholars, but has not, I believe, been published as an identification. 

13. Libnah, it is suggested in a former report, may be Belt Jiorin. 

14. Ether — Khirbet 'Afr, from name and position. 

15. Ashan — Kh. Hccz^anah, from name and position. The Hebrew 'Ain 
becomes the Arabic He. 

16. Ashnah — Idhna, from name and position. 

ir. Aelizib — Kussa ; the name has the same signification ; in the Hebrew "a 
lie," in the Ai-abic " a fable ; " the position fits well. 
IS. Dannah^Domeh, from position. 

19. Debir—El Dhohcrhjeh. 

20. Holon — Khirbet Koheleh, name and position. 

21. Arab—Kh. el 'Arabiyeh, name and position. 

22. Dicmah or Rumah — El Rameh, from position. 

23. Eshean — Es-lut, from name and position. The Arabic He takes the place of 
the Hebrew ^Ain. 

24. Jcmum — Beit CJiamhi, from position. 

25. Zanoa/i — Kh. Sdniit, in a position better fitting tlic lists than that of 
Eobinson's Zanuta. 

26. Maarath, el Jlogh'air, from position and name. 

27. Galcm — Beit Jala, from name and position. 

28. Bezcdel — Eeir Esncid, from j^osition. 

About a dozen other identifications in Judah have been mentioned in 
former reports. I am not aware that any ordinary philological rulea are 
infringed in these proposed identifications. 

Dr. Chaplin upholds the identity of the strong village of Soha with 
Kirjath Jearim. I have found a curious apparent confirmation of this in 
the possible identification of Mouid Scir on the boundary of Judah with 
the present Batn (hill-top) el Saghir, just in its proper place. Dr. Chaplin 
has also shown me very strong arguments for the identification of 
Ebenezer, Shen, and Mispch. 



190 LIEUT. CLAUDE 11. CONDEIl's REPORTS. 

"Whilst resting in Jorusaleia wc examined the Asneric, a Crusading 
inn for pilgrims, which has been excavated by Ilcrr Schick, and shows- 
lo':)g rows of mangers. It is close to th.e Grotto of Jeremiab. 

Passing up the country wo made several notes of interest. We foucd 
that a Khirhtt Lozeli or Kh. ll'ad Lozeh, not yet placed on the map, really 
exists near Betbel. At Nablus we found that nearly the whole of tlie 
floor and foundations of the early church built over Jacob's well exists, 
hidden by modern vaults. We also discovered that the name Khirhet Luzeh, 
about which there has been much argument, applies to some ruins 
on the south side of Gerizim. 

Arriving in the north, we commenced the ordinary survey in con- 
junction with tlie raiining a lino of levels across from the Mediter- 
ranean to the Sea of Galileo. Before the outrage at Safed, on 10th 
July, we comj)leted ISO square miles, and twenty out of thirty miles of 
levelling. Some 1,200 square miles, or six mouths' work, now remain 
to be done. 

Our discoveries in the north promised to be of groat interest: many 
identiticetions want only confirmation to bo proijosed, such as Bdh- 
Dagon, ShiJior-LlhiiatJi, Ztbtdon, NeaJi, &c. 

At Shefa 'Ainr we found a magnificent sepulchre with inscription and 
elaborate ornamental work, which Lieut. Kitchener photographed. We 
found the present church to be built on the remains of one seemingly 
previous to Crusading times. AYe also fixed the date and authorship of 
the fortifications. 

Wo next found iia Khirhet JluineJi a site of no small media3val interest. 
According to an early Jewish traveller there was in the very neighbour- 
hood of this ruin a place called liuma, where v/as the sepulchre of 
Benjamin, and a cave called Caisran, whence the Messiah was expected 
to appear. At A7;. BumeJi, which eighty years ago was a viUage, I found 
a rude Jewish tomb much ruined, and a cave of some size beyond it, also 
remains possibly of a synagogue. 

We visited the rival sites of Cana of Galilee at Khirbet Kana ; 
I discovered traces of antiquity and a grotto, ajiparently that said 
to be used as a church in the middle ages. We also ascertained the 
existence of an ancient site called Khirhet Kcniui, v/est of and near to 
Ivefr Kenna. 

We photograiDhed and planned the fine church of St. Anno in Seffu.- 
rieh, and found the date of the castle. 

We are able to identify the Hlou/it Asamon of Josejihus with Bas d 
Hazivch north of the Euttauf plain. 

I have found the date and builder of several of the synagogues 
discovered by Major Wilson, and I hope to obtain evidence from them 
as to the length of the cubit. 

The total amount surveyed in ISTo has been 1,200 square miles. 

Claude E. Co^'L)E^v, Lieut. E.E. 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEU's REPORTS. 191. 



DAYID xiND GOLIATH. 

"\'cr. l-l) : " Xow the Philistines gathered together their armies to battle, 
au'l wore gathered together at Shochoh, AvLich belongeth to Judah, and- 
pitched between Shochoh and Azekah, in Ephes-dammim. And Saul 
and the men of Israel were gathered together, and pitched by the valley 
ot'EIah . . . and the Philistines stood on a mountain on tho one side,, 
and Israel stood on a mountain on the other side : and there was a valley 
between them." Ver. 52 : " And the wounded of the Philistines fell 
down by tho way to Shaaraim, even unto Gath, and unto Ekron " 
(1 Sam. xvii.) 

Few events in Scripture have the site more definitely indicated. Tho^ 
valley of Elah has long been known, but the interesting attempt to fix. 
tho very spot where David slew Goliath has been rendered ditficult by the- 
fact that Shochoh alone of all the sites enumerated (not including Ekron) 
has been definitely identified. 

I propose to consider each of these sites in turn, with tho indications' 
known as to their position, and to put forward new identifications for 
Azekah, Ephes-dammim, and Shaaraim ; these will, I think, very clearly 
indicate the position of the two armies, and the meaning of certair^ 
details in the description not hitherto illustrated. 

ShocJioJi. — There were two places of the name, one in the Debiv district^ 
far away from the scenes of combat with the Philistines, the other in the 
district of the Shephelah, or low hill country on the south side of Wady 
Sumt, as identified by Eobinson with the modern Shuweikeh, a position, 
fully in accord with its mention in the topographical lists as between 
AduUam ('Aid el Mieh) and other northern towns of the district. 

Azekah. — This town occurs in the same list with Shochoh (Josh. xv. 
3o), as in the Shephelah. The only other indication of it.s position is ta- 
be found in the account of the flight of the defeated Canaanites from, 
Ajalon to Makkedah and Azekah (Josh x. 10). In the topographical list 
Azekah stands between Shochoh and Shaaraim. It must therefore h& 
sought in the Shephelah, but the same reasons which induce us to place 
Makkedah at El Moghar — namely, the distance from Gibeon, and the 
relative position with the mouth of the valley of Ajalon^ would point to 
Azekah being near the north boundary of Judah, and close to the plain. 
Azokah has been placed by some writers at Tell Zekaria, but to this- 
there is the objection of an important difference in name. Yandeveldc- 
speaks of a place called Ahbek, near Beit Nettie, as being both Aphek. 
and Azekah. In the same neighbourhood M. Ganneau tells me he heard- 
the name El Azek. Vandeveldo's Ahbek is applied to a prominent peak, v. 
but on his map the name is written Akbeh. The true name as colleei^^d:' 
by us is El Salah. Akbeh is no doubt merely 'AkaheJi, " the ascenti"-' a 
title generally applied to such hills. As to El Azek, wo have been- 
unable to obtain the name, although a sj)ecial expedition was made, and 
the camp fixed for two days close to the site. The Sheikh of Beit ' Atab^ 



192 LIEUT. CLAUDE P.. CONDEr's REPORTS. 

one of the best guides we liavc ever liad, and well acquainted with this 
part of the country, denied that such a name existed, but gave me the 
name which I afterwards have verified and consider to represent the 
true site. 

There is a great objection to placing Azekah so far east in the hills, 
which is that it supposes the defeated Canaanites to have fled across 
some thirty miles of the most difficult hill country, intersected by three 
or four impassable valleys. A position near the plain is the only one 
natural to the interpretation of the flight from Ajalon. 

The site which I should propose for Azekah bears the name of Deir el 
'Aashek (" the monastery of the lover "), a somewhat extraordinary title, 
according to its significance in modern Arabic. The change of the name 
to one having a similar sound but a distinct meaning in Arabic, is only 
another case of the well-known law of which Tibuah (strawy) for 
Timnah, El Semak (the fish) for Sycaminum, Aid el Mieh (feast of the 
hundred) for Adullam, Er Eameh (the reservoir) for Eamah (the hill, in 
Hebrew), and many others, are instances. It is situated on the south 
side of the valley of Sorek, eight 'miles north of Shochoh. A main 
road leads to it from the valley of Elali. It may be thought that the 
•distance from Shuweikeh is too great, but it must be remembered that 
no knoivn ancient site exists between the two. The position agrees per- 
fectly with the other indication, as it would immediately confront the 
Canaanites flying southward from the valley of ,' Ajalon. The distance 
irom El Moghar is rather greater than that from Shochoh. 

The site itself has undoubtedly been at one time crowned by a convent. 
A very large square reservoir of rubble masonry, resembling that at Tell 
Jezer, supplied the inhabitants. The remains of a chapel, an apse fifteen 
feet diameter, exists north of this birket, and the northern wall, twenty- 
six feet from the north side of the apse, shows that the building was of 
some size. At present all is overgrown with weeds and tall thistles, so 
that the time is unfavourable for exploration. Cisterns and caves, 
however, occur, and the site is considerablylarger than would be required 
for a religious edifice only. Another very large ruined site, Khirbet 
Ferred, exists just south of Deir el Aashek. A main road from T. 
Zakeria to Tell Jezer leads close by the site which looks northward to 
the broad plain of the Valley of Sorek, and this is a natiu'al line of flight 
for the Canaanites, who we read '"'entered into fenced cities," such as 
Makkedah, Azekah, Gath, Shaaraim, and, no doubt, Gazer also. The 
existence of the convent shows the origin of the term Deir, but there is 
nothing against the antiquity of the site in the fact of its subsequent 
occupation by Christians. 

Eplies-dammim. — What and where Ephes-dammim may be is a diffi- 
cult question. The translation offered for the word in the Bible Dic- 
tionary is " boundary of blood," in which case it may be taken to apply 
to some great natural boundary, the scene of frequent fights between 
the Jews and the Philistines. In another account, apparently of this 
same battle, the word is shortened to Pas-dammim (1 Chron. xi, 13). 



LIEUT. CLAUDE R. CONDEll's REPORTS, 193 

In Josephus it is given as Arasam (Ant. vii. 12, § 4-). VauJeveldc 
speaks of a ruin called Damiin on the noilb. side of "Wady Sutnt east of 
the Roman road to Beit Nettif, but for this ruin wc have obtained a 
different name, nor have we as yet been able to ascertain for certain 
whether the name Damun really exists, though, accoi'ding to some of the 
peasantry, it applies to a site nearer the high hills. The memory of 
ancient engagements in the Shephelah may reasonably be thought 
traceable in such titles as " springs of the warrior," " well of the hero's 
mother," unusual names applying to natural features, and therefore 
undeniably ancient. The only traces of the title, " boundary of blood," 
which we have met, may perhaps be found in the name Beit Fased 
applied to a ruin close to Shuweikeh ; both in sound and meaning this 
approaches Pas-dammim, for the S in Hebrew being a SumcrJi is repre- 
sented by the Arabic 'Sad, vvhilst the meaning, "house of bleeding," is 
cognate to the Hebrew " boundary of blood." It was, no doubt, the 
great valley itself separating the possessions of the Philistine from the 
country belonging to Judah which was the real boundary of blood, and 
as the expression "in Ephes-dammim " might be supposed to indicate, 
the title is that of a district of country rather than of a single site. 

VaUei/ of EI ah. — The valley itself is well known to be the great valley 
rising near Hebron, and running northwards by Keilah, Nezib, and 
Adullam to Shochoh, and thence westwards to the sea by Gath and Ashdod. 
The Hebrew " Yalley of Terebinths " receives the name of "Wady Siii- in 
the upper part of its course, and Wady Sumt (the acacia) in the lower, 
becoming finally a deep gully under the name of Nahr Svikereir. Never- 
theless the cause of its original title is still traceable in the number of 
huge terebinths which occur along its course. That at Adullam I have 
had occasion already to notice ; one almost equal to it exists south ; near 
Tell Zekaria is another of great antiquity, which we have photographed. 
On the sides of the tell just mentioned are others, and small terebinths 
exist on the low hills bounding the valley. This great natural division 
of the Shephelah is still the highway from Hebron to the plain, and 
seems in all the early periods of Jewish history to have been the scene 
of constant fighting. Holding Gath and Shaaraim the Philistines held 
the key to the plains, and a strong outpost for attack upon the 
Shephelah. 

There is a point with regard to the valley which has always been con- 
sidered to requii-e investigation on the spot. Saul camped in the Emek, 
" broad or deep valley," whilst between him and the Philistines was the 
Gai, generally translated ravine. The valley is, however, of uniform 
breadth, nor does a gorge of any kind exist in its lower course, as the 
usual interpretation supposes ; the derivation of the latter word is, how- 
ever, according to Dean Stanley, from Gtli, "to break out, used of 
water bursting forth." It may be very well applied, therefore, I should 
suggest, to the trench or glior dug out by the winter torrent. This bed, 
some ten to twenty feet wide, with banks over ten feet high, would form 
a natural barrier between the hosts, and a formidable obstacle to the 



inl LIEUT. CLAUDE K. CONDER's REPORTS. 

flight of tlie defeated. It was in tliis that David found the five smootk 
stones of the brook which, according to tradition, cried out, "By us 
thou shalt defeat the giant." The gleaming torrent bed, and the steep- 
water-worn banks, consist of pebbles of every size worn smooth by the 
great winter brook which has brought them from the hills. 

Shaaraim. — No identification has ever been proposed, I believe, for 
this town. Like Shochoh, it belonged to Juclah, and was evidently east 
of Gath. In the topographical list it occurs next after Azekah. The- 
Septuagint version of our text renders it by its meaning "the two- 
gates," as if referring to the gates of Gath. The Targum of Jonathan, 
ben Uzziel on the Ilagiographa, however, carefully preserves the word. 
Shaaraim, though in expression " gates of Ekron " in the same verse 
it replaces the Shaari of the Hebrew by an Aramaic equivalent meaning 
gates. In the topographical notice (Josh. xv. 36) the two principal 
LXX. versions give SctK-api'u and "Sapyapet^u, which naturally suggests to one- 
who attaches importance to these variations the identity with Tell 
Zeharia. Such a position for Shaaraim would be in exact accordance- 
with the site projDosed for the combat, for Tell Zekaria is close above 
the south bank of the valley, and must be passed in escaping to Gath.. 
It is a huge hill, with steep terraced sides and caves ; on the south is a 
sort of citadel or raised terrace, and beneath, in the valley, is a fine 
ancient well. The old sites in this part of the country bear a wonderful 
resemblance to one another. Keilah, Adullam, Shaaraim, and even 
Gath and Gezer, might be described in almost the same words. Positions 
naturally of immense strength, they show in their terraces, caves, and. 
crumbling mounds the traces of their ancient importance, and a good 
water-supply exists in each case near these cities. Shaaraim, if in the 
hands of Judah, would have formed an important outpost against Gath; 
but though, unlike the latter, it occui-s in the lists of Joshua, it had pro- 
bably fallen into the hands of the Philistines, who, in the time of Saul^ 
seem to have reached the plenitude of their power. 

Gath. — As regards Gath, it is only necessary to say that the require- 
ments of the narrative seem fully met by the Tell el Safi site advocated by 
Dr. Porter, and which alone fits with the description of the Onomasticon^ 
Gath so placed guards the entrance of the valley of Elah into the j)lain, 
and is about six miles from the scene of the conflict. 

The sites thus proposed servo considerably to elucidate the account 
of the battle. Saul, coming down from the hills by the ancient road_ 
from Jerusalem to Gaza, which passes near Shochoh, must have encoun- 
tered the Philistines very near the great bend in the valley. Thus the- 
two forces divided by the torrent bed are placed in a natural relative 
position : Saul on the east, coming from the east ; the Philistines on the 
ti'cst, coming froiii the west, having Shochoh south of them and Shaaraim 
behind them. The position usually assigned north and south has no- 
such strategical significance as the one thus advocated. 

The photographs of Lieut. Kitchener, showing on the one hand the 
sweep of the valley, its broad extent of cornfields, flanked with low hills- 



TJIE SArEB ATTACK. 195- 

of rock and brushwood, and on the other the groat hill of Shaaraim and 
the olives and terebinths at its feet, will give a far better idea of tho 
scene than any I can conve}'' in words ; but to one standing on the spot 
and looking across to the high and broken line of the hills of Judah, 
and at the broad vale in which a great host might easily have encamped,, 
there will appear to be a perfect fitness in tho site to the famous events- 
occuiring in it, 

Claude K. Condek, Lieut. E.E., 

In Commaud Sin'vc)/ of Palestine^ 



THE SAFED ATTACK. 

MouxT Cakmel, loth Juhj, ISTo. 

Beixg placed in command of the expedition, owing to the tem- 
porar}' illness of Lieutenant Conder, I write by hi.s wish to inform the- 
Committee that the survey is at present entirely suspended in consequence 
of two causes — tho first being a murderous and unprovoked attack on 
the party by Moslem inhabitants of Safed (particulars enclosed) ; the- 
second tho gradual spread of cholera over the north of Palestine. 
Lieutenant Condor and myself consider, under these circumstances, that 
we cannot take tho responsibility of conducting the party again into the 
field till a very severe punishment has been awarded to the inhabitants 
of Safed, and until the steady advance of the cholera is checked. I feel 
certain that neither of these obstacles will be removed under two. 
or three months. 

Dr. Yarton, who is at present in attendance on Lieutenant Conder,. 
with Dr. Chaplin, and other medical men, predict an unusually un- 
healthy autumn, which will be followed by the two or three months of 
winter, during which work is impossible. 

The non-commissioned officers, though ready to go through any 
amount of work or danger, are much discouraged at the prospect of an 
indefinite delay without employment, which, in my opinion, is more 
trying in this climate than work. The south country is also closed, as 
the Ai-abs have refused to lay down their arms, and arc, I believe, still 
engaged vfith tho Government. 

Under these circirmstances. Lieutenant Conder and myself both con- 
fcider it our duty to recommend tho Committee to break up the expedition 
for a time, and recall the non-commissioned officers, em]3oweriug 
Lieutenant Conder and myself to remain as long as the legal proceedings 
require our presence. In case of any delay or difficulty iir obtaining 
justice, we feel we have a right to expect that the Committee will give 
us their strongest support. Lieutenant Conder has considered it his 
duty to report the facts of the case to the Deputy Adjutant-General, 
Eoyal Engineers. He has telegraphed to Constantinople, and placed 
himself in communication with the Consul-General at Beyrout. 



19G THE SAFED ATTACK. 

Lieutenant Coader is at present in bed, recovering from an attack of 
fever, brought on by the severe nature of tlie wounds on the head he 
received in the fight at Safed. Five of our servants are ill in their beds, 
besides one in hospital at Safed, and I myself am still suffering from the 
bruises I received during the engagement. The non-commissioned 
officers were only slightly bruised. 

H. H. Kitchener, Lieut. E.E. 



Copy of Letter to the Consul- General of Beyrout. 

Haifa, lith July, 1875. 

Sir, — I have to request your interference in an exceedingly serious 
case of murderous and unjustified assault on my party by the Moslem 
inhabitants of Safed, who, at the time at which I write, are still un- 
punished. 

On Saturday, the 10th July, we arrived about 4 p.m. at Safed, from 
" Ei Ba'ineh," and erected our tents on a piece of uncultivated ground 
i;nder olives near 'Aiu el Beida, north of the Moslem quarter. A number 
of Moslems became spectators of our proceedings. A small English 
tent was being erected when many of these persons, including one well 
-di'essed in a turban and white abba, came down to it and began in a 
very insolent manner to examine it, laying their fingers on everything 
and behaving with marked want of courtesy and respect. I am informed 
■that they said they had seen " many dogs like us before." 

A ten-chambered revolver, hanging on a tree by the tent, was missed 
at this moment, and its owner, one of my servants, began to inquire 
whether any one had seen it. I am informed that the leader of the 
Moslems cursed him in reply. At this moment I came out of my tent, 
Avhere I was resting, and heard my head servant address this man with 
civility, using the expression hadrahuk, and telling him to go away, as 
it was not his business. I heard the sheikh reply violently with impre- 
cations, and saw him fling two or perhaps three very large stones at my 
head servant. The latter did not reply by violence, but took the by- 
.standers to witness that an unprovoked assault had been made upon 
.him. 1 advanced as quickly as I could without arms, and with nothing 
in my hands. Before I spoke a single word the sheikh seized me violentl}'- 
by the throat. In defence I struck him in the face with my fist, and 
.knocked him down. lie got up and again assaulted me, when I struck 
him right and left, and cut open his lip. "When on the ground he drew 
a knife, which measures half a foot length of blade. My head servant 
fortunately saw him just before he stabbed me, and two of my people 
took it away from him, and seized him, intending to retain him until the 
.arrival of government officials. They also bound him, but not by my 
order. 

The sheikh called ^out many times, "Where are my young men?" 
{shehah), and some of those who were with him ran to the houses. 



THK SAl'EU ATTACK. 197 

A crowd collected in an astonisbingly short time, and in a few minutes- 
it must have numboi'od two hundred or more men. 

I ordered tlio sheikh to bo immediately released, but ho refused at 
first to leaye the camp, though ho subsequently retired for arms. Mean- 
while he encouraged his people to kill all the Christians. 

They began by a shower of enormous stones upon our party, which 
only numbered fifteen persons, of whom two were ill at the time. 

Lieutenant Kitchener and myself, supported by our three non-com- 
missioned officers, none having any firearms or other offensive weapon 
in our hands or about our persons, endeavoured to calm the disturbance, 
and to separate the crowd from our servants, who, infuriated at the 
treatment I had received, were anxious, in spite of their small numbers, 
to attack the Moslems. The five Europeans were in imminent danger of 
their lives from the falling stones. Whilst thus engaged, Lieutenant 
Kitchener was seriously injured on the thigh with a huge stone. 
Corporal Armstrong and Corporal Brophy less severely on the feet. 
We restrained both parties, and entirely jirevented our servants from 
using any offensive weapon, though many of them were struck on the 
head and body with stones. As soon as a separation had been made, I 
ordered all my party into the tents, to prevent aggravation of the in- 
furiated mob, who were heaping every species of blasphemous epithet 
on our religion and on the Saviour. The natives of my party were toa 
excited to obey my order. I went out in front and threatened the mob 
with heavy future punishment, daring them to stone me, but they had 
lost their senses too much to be intimidated. 

At this moment there arrived a number of armed men, apparently the 
sheikhs of the quarter, who encouraged the crowd. Of these, one man 
had a large scimitar and a carbine, another a battle-axe ; two had large 
clubs [dahbus), and another a long gun. To these weapons I can swear 
and believe there were many more. 

Lieutenant Kitchener and I were immediately surrounded. Three 
came to me and asked with curses what I was doing. An old man 
thrust his battle-axe violently into my side, but I did not like to strike 
him, though I had now a hunting crop in my hand. I told them they 
were mad, and would be severely punished if they struck an Englishman. 
About this time other members of the party saw a gun levelled at me 
five yards off, but fortunately the man's hand was caught before he 
fired. A man now came into the crowd which surrounded me, and dealt 
me a blow on the head with a large club with great violence, causing two 
wounds on the side of my head, covering my face with blood. A second 
blow, directed with full foi'ce at the top of my head, must inevitably have 
brained me Lad I not put my head down to his chest. My servants gave 
me up for dead. The blow fell on my neck, which ever since has been 
so stiff and swollen that it is impossible to turn it round. The rest of the 
party saw me fall. As soon as I got up I dealt this man a blow in the face 
•with the handle of my whip which staggered him, but my whip flew out 
of my hand and left me entirely unarmed. I must inevitably have been 



^93 THE SAFED ATTACK. 

murdered but for the cool and prompt assistance of Lieutenant Ivitchcnor, 
■who managed to get to me and engaged one of the club men, covering 
my retreat. 

A blow descending on the top of his head ho parried vith a cane, 
T\'bich was broken by the force of the blow. A second wounded his arm. 
His escape is iinaccountable. Having retired a few paces from the thick 
■of the fray, I saw that the Moslems were gradually surrounding us, 
stealing behind trees and through vineyards, and I well understood thut 
in such a case, unless the soldiers arrived at once, we must all die. Many 
-of the servants had indeed already given up hope, though no one fled. 
I gave the order to leave the tents and fiy round the hill. 

Lieutenant Kitchener vras the last to obey this order, being engagtd 
in front. He retreated to his tent, and whilst running he was fired 
at, and heard the bullet whistle by his head. Ho was also followed 
for some short distance by a man with a huge scimitar, who subsequently 
wounded with it more than one of our people. 

Gaining the cover of some trees, we stopped on a bare hill-side to 
^consult, and ventured back to the broAV to reconnoitre. At this moment 
the soldiers arrived with an ofBcer, and the Engliyh Consular-Agent, 
Herr Marcus Cigal. I am informed that all the offensive weapons were 
immediately concealed, the stoning and blasphemous language ceased 
■at once, and not an individual of the crowd remained. 

I confine this report to the actual experience of myself and Lieutenant . 
Xitchener. The evidence of the rest of the party v,^as taken by Herr 
Marcus. The more serious injuries may be bricUy summed up as 

iollows : — 

1. Lieutenant Conder : Two raw w^umds on the head, and violent 

swelling from a blow on the neck. 

2. Lieutenant Kitchener : Bruise covering all his left thigh, and 

another on his arm. Both still very painful. 
o and 4. Corporals Armstrong and Brophy : Bruised with stones. 
■o. Baud (groom) : A large raw wound on the side of the head, re- 
quiring to be sewn up. He remains very ill with wounds and 

fever in the JeAvish Hospital, Safed, and when I last saw hiiu 

was in a precarious' condition. 
(3. Takub (cook) : Severely beaten, and hit in the side and on back 

with large stones. Appeared to be dying. 
7. Habib (dragoman) : Was fired at, was severely hit in the wind 

with a stone, and lay on the tent floor incapable of defending 

himself. He received many other blows. 
S. Hussein (muleteer) : Received Iavo wounds on his head and neck 

with clubs and stones, and was shot at. 
9. Hassan Abeideh (muleteer) : Struck with sticks and stones. A 

violent blow with the scimitar levelled at him cut the tent ropes 

in two. 
The rest of the fifteen were all more or less injured with clubs, 
stones, and a few with sword cuts. The c.ily wonder is that more 



THE AKABS IN I'ALESTINE. 190 

injury was not done, but tliis is perhaps due to the conspicuous dress 
of the Europeans, especially Lieutenant Kitchener and myself, who wore 
■white jackets, and stood in front of the partj'. 

«**#♦** 
This report was left unfinished by Lieutenant Conder when he was 
taken ill. It will, I think, iuform the Committee of all the necessary 
particulars of the conflict. We retired next day to lilejdel Karum, and 
on Monday arrived here. 

H. II. KiTciiEXEE, Lieut. R.E. 



THE AEABS IN TALESTINE. 

{Read at the Royal Institution and reprinted from '^ Ifacmillau^s 

Magaziiic.'''') 

The labours of numerous explorers, and especially of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund, have thrown much light on Biblical archasology and 
•topography, and many memorials and souvenirs have been found which 
help to make us in some degree familiar with the old world of Bible 
■times ; but of the country and its inhabitants, as they are at present, it 
is not too much to say, that but very little is known, especiallj^ as 
regards the light that may be thrown by them upon the past. It is to 
this modern Palestine — the Palestine of the Arab, as it may be called — 
ihat the following observations refer, and they have been made in the 
hope of showing how the attentive study of it may serve to light up 
:and explain many a dim and misty page in the history of the Palestine 
of old. 

The Biblical texts have been worked at by successive generations of 
commentators, until all that could be got from them has been extracted, 
and the periodical return of certain exegetical combinations shows that 
the series is complete, and the question, so far as they are concerned, ex- 
hausted. Next to the important facts which may result from future 
•excavations, there are, in my opinion, two things required to lift Biblical 
■archajology out of the vicious circle in which it has a tendencj' to turn, 
•and to give it new life — viz., a thorough investigation of the writings of 
the various Mohammedan authors in the original Arabic text, and an 
exhaustive study of the manners, customs, and traditions of the sedentary 
fellaheen of Judaja. For both, a knowledge not only of literary Arabic, 
but also of the vulgar tongue, is absolutely necessary. 

Up to the present time very little information as regards Palestine has 
been derived from Arabic historians and geographers ; with the excep- 
tion of four or five, and those not the most useful for our purpose, Ihey 
have been almost entirely neglected. This is a mistake, for they contain 
a whole mine of valuable indications which may put us oa the path of 
great discoveries, especially of the topographical kind, bj' adding to the 
•chain of traditions the link, so difficult to seize, which connects the actual 



200 THE AKABS IN I'ALESTINE. 

names witli tlio latest evidence of the authors of antiquity. An example- 
taken from my own experience illustrates this, and affords a striking 
contirmation of one of my recent discoveries of this nature. 

Biblical students have long been familiar with the name of Gezer, the 
city whose Canaanitekinglloram was defeated by Joshua, and which be- 
came the western limit of the territory of Ephraim. Assigned with its 
suburbs to the Levites of the family of Kohath, it had the rank of a 
priestly city, and its primitive inhabitants, through spread by the 
Israelites, were massacred by one of the Pharaohs, who took the place 
and gave it iu dowry to his daughter. King Sclomon's queen. The 
Hebrew monarch reconstructed Gezer, which was certainly a place of 
great strategic importance, as is shown by the considerable part it played 
during the struggles of the Maccabees. 

Much information as to the position of the city exists. We learn from 
many sources — the Hebrew books, the Apocrypha, Josephus, Eusebius, 
Jerome — that it was situated not far from Beth-horon, in the region of 
Jabneh and Jaffa, on the confines of the territory of Azotus, about four 
Eoman miles from Emmaus, the site of which has been satisfactorily 
fixed at the modern Amwas. It is rare to find such precise indications 
of the position of any Palestiue city, and yet the identification of Gezer 
remained up to 1870 one of the stumbling-blocks of commentators, and one 
of the lacuiice of Biblical topography, the more to be deplored, since in 
addition to the interest of the place itself, the discovery of its site would 
give the key to the junction of the territories of Dan, Judah, and 
Ephraim. Many conjectures have been hazarded. Most commentators, 
in despair, and supported by a superficial resemblance of names — a 
mirage which too often deceives explorers not familiar with Semitic- 
tongues— placed Gezer at the village of Yazoor, west of Jaffa, and quite 
close to it : and though both philology and history were agreed that this, 
identification could not be sustained, it was virtually accepted, no exami- 
nation of the country producing any better solution of the problem. It 
was my privilege, however, to succeed where others had failed, and that 
too without ever having seen the place. 

As an astronomer finds in space the position of an unseen planet, I 
marked on the map the exact spot where Gezer would be found, and a 
subsequent visit only confirmed the previous conclusion. Nor was this 
result due to exceptional penetration or sudden inspiration. It occurred 
in the most natural way in the world ; and was an application of the 
method just indicate 1. 

In reading the Arab chronicler, Mejr ed Deen, a writer known chiefly 
through certain very incorrect extracts given by M. du Hammer Purg- 
stall, I lighted on an incident which took place in Palestine in the year 
900 of the Hegira. The chronicler is speaking of a skirmish between a 
party of Bedaween brigands and a governor of Jerusalem named Jau 
Boolat, in the district of Eamleh ; and iu the course of the nairative ho 
says — and this was the point that arrested my attention — that the crits- 
of the combatants reached as far as the village of Khulda (now well known). 



THE ARABS IX PALESTINE. 201 

and were distinctly heard at another village called Tell el Jczor — the Hill 
or Mount of Jci^er. Now the word Jezor corresponds exactly with tho 
Hebrew Gezer, especially if tho initial letter is pronounced soft as in 
Egypt; and the tract of country was just the one in which to look for 
tho lost site. But unfortunately, all the maps that I consulted were 
silent on the place, whose existence was nevertheless thus positively 
asserted, and corroborated by an Arab geographer of the thirteenth cen- 
tury of our era, Yakut, who speaks of Tell el Jezer as a strong place in 
the district of Falestin — i.e., Ramleh. On consideration, it was clear that 
Tell el Jezer, being within hearing of Khulda, could not be very far from 
that place ; even allowing the Bedaween a more than ordinary power of 
lungs. I therefore set to work within a limited radius, and after some 
search discovered my Gezer at less than three miles from Khulda, close 
to a village figuring in the map as Aboo Shusheh. Here I found the 
site of a large town presenting all the characters of a stronghold, and 
answering to every one of tho required conditions. But it was not 
without trouble that the accuracy of my calculations was thoroughly 
established ; for the name of Tell el Jezer, though familiar to the 
inhabitants of Aboo Shusheh, of which village the tdl forms a part, was 
quite unknown to the people of Khulda, their neighbours, to whom I at 
Urst addressed myself. But just as I began to despair of success, an old 
peasant woman told me that it was at Aboo Shusheh that I must look for 
Tell el Jezer. 

This, as I may almost call it, accidental discovery, which I announced 
at the time to the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Letfres, and which 
was received with some incredulity, met with the most unexpected con- 
firmation four years afterwards — viz., in 1874, when, on revisiting the 
spot in the service of the Palestine Exploration Fund, I discovered at 
Aboo Shusheh, in the exact locality I had fixed upon as the site of Gezer, 
bilingual inscriptions in Greek and Hebrew deeply carved upon the rock, 
ivith the Biblical name of Gezer luritteii in fall, and repeated twice, and 
marking without doubt the priestly limit, or Sabbatical zone, which 
surrounded the place. 

It is needless to insist upon the inappreciable value of these inscriptions, 
the correct reading of which is now agreed on by the leading savants 
both of England and France, and which constitute undoubtedly one of the 
principal monuments of Jewish history. It will be sufficient to mention 
the principal gains they furnish to Biblical knowledge. They enable 
us, first, to know exactly what was the Sabbath-day's journey of the New 
Testament ; secondly, to establish in a decisive manner the position of the 
.city which was the dowry of Pharaoh's daughter ; and thirdly, to fix the 
boundaries of Dan, Ephraini, and Judah. And, more than this, they 
justify in a most unexpected manner the use of the inductive method 
hitherto pursued in Biblical topography, and supply a written authori- 
tative tcstimonj' which may serve to throw great lighten other identifica- 
tions obtained by the same method. 

P 



202 THE AKAHS l^' PALESTINE. 

This one example is enongli to sliow liow fav a single line of a tliirtl- 
rate Arabic vrriter maj' lead us. 

But it is not Arabic texts only that must be consulted in order to 
advance the study of the Bible, it is even more important to examine the 
traditions preserved by the resident fellaheen. I do not mean by this a 
few questions put to stupid and suspicious peasants as to the name of 
village, ruin, or valley, but close, minute, methodical observations of the 
manners, customs, legends, and superstitions of those peasants. Inter- 
rogation is in Palestine the worst of all possible means for getting at the 
truth. The art of questioning Arabs consists in knowing when to shut 
your mouth and keep your eyes and ears open — listening so as to draw 
them onto tell stories, and thus gradually extracting information, while 
carefully abstaining from asking questions calculated to suggest ideas to 
minds so credulous and so easily influenced. 

The illustrious Robinson and his successors often made the happiest use 
of oral traditions for topographical purposes. "We must, however, bear in 
mind that this fount of information, abundant as it is, if drawn upon 
daily will in time diminish ; and, what is more serious, that its purity is 
often troubled by the suggestions of imprudent travellers, which a new- 
comer, inexperienced in the character of the natives, is liable to consider 
as so many spontaneous recollections and genuine traditions. If to thi^i 
source of error, which reminds one of Antony's mystification by Cleopatra 
when ho caught a salt-water fish in the fresh waters of the Nile, we add 
the want of philological knowledge in the questioner, of which many a 
pleasant instance might bo cited, it is easy to understand that unlimited 
and exclusive credit must not be accorded to information acquired by a 
method which needs peculiarly delicate handling. There is something 
else to be got out of the fellaheen besides a mere list of names ; and it is 
to this point that I would invite the attention of travellers. 

Few countries are more travelled in than Palestine ; and in few are thg 
manners and customs of the people less known. We m.ay truly say that 
the population of Oceania, of the extreme East, of Central Asia, of India, 
of Egypt, and even of the Bedaweon tribes beyond the Jordan, are now 
more familiar to us than that of this little corner of the earth, so often 
trodden by European travellers. Tourists, pilgrim?, acd savants pour 
into the country, but all, nearly without exception, for different reasons 
neglect to notice, and to reader any account of, the only thing which is 
entirely fresh and untouched — the natives of the place. The reason of 
this may chiefly bo found in the mode of travelling to which the 
European is condemned in Palestine. Nearly invariably he has to hand 
himself over to the mercy of the inevitjiblo dragoman, an obstructive 
animal, peculiar to the social fauna of the Levant, and combining the 
functions of interpreter, maltre cVltutd, guide, and courier, whose 
acquaintance ho has probably already made in Egypt. There, however, 
it mattered little, for not even a dragoman can spoil the effect produced 
by the splendour and magnificence of the temples and tombs of the 
Phaiaohs. But while on the banks of the Mile he is kept in his place as 



THE ARABS IX rALESTINE. 205^ 

a servant, iu S^'iia lie becomes a master and a despot. An amusing 
picture might be drawn of the misfortunes of those who havo become the 
prey of these gentry, but I will merely mention the great drawback to 
their presence — viz., that it hinders all direct contact with the peasants, 
and has the effect of a scarecrow on the suspicious people whose coufideuce 
is of supreme value to the investigator. 

The Erank traveller passes through Palestine, along the beaten 
track, with an indifferent glance at the characteristic mien of the men, 
and a more appro^ing one at the dignified bearing of the women as they 
Avalk light and erect beneath their heavy loads. He notices, too, 
perhaps, the picturesqueness of the costumes ; and, when he has learnt 
from his dragoman that these are fellaheen Arabs, he is charmingly 
satisfied with the completeness of his information. Little does he suspect 
ihat he is in daily companionship with a race which, rude and rough as 
it is, affords the historian a study of the very highest interest. 

The peasants of Judcea are commonly said to be Arabs ; and I am 
willing to admit that they are so in the sense that they speak Arabic. 
But we must understand what is meant by this vague and deceptive term 
which is applied to so many distinct races and the heterogeneous remains 
of so many peoples. Since the predominance of Islam, the whole s^'stem 
of Semitic nationalities has followed the irresistible tendency to unity 
resulting from the pressure of linguistic conformity and political neces- 
sity ; and all its numerous divisions, small and great, have j^oured their 
waters into this Arab lake, and have converted it into an ocean, in which 
every confluent loses its name. Looking at this immense Arab sheet, 
which extends beyond our sight over Asia and Africa, we may well say, 
" It is a sea," But it is the duty of science to inquire into the origin of 
this collective reservoir ; and to track to its source, if need be along its- 
dry bed, each one of its tributary streams. 

The race which occupies Juda3a, especially its mountainous part, a 
sedentary and not a nomadic one, with customs of its own, and a 
language full of peculiarities, is not, as I have before had occasion to 
state, that of the nomad hordes who came from Arabia with the Caliph 
Omar, and who are for the most part settled in the towns. The odd 
popular prejudice which obstinately believes that the Mussulman Arabs. . 
who became masters of Syria after the defeat of the Greek troops, took 
altogether the place of the original inhabitants of the country, and are, 
in fact, the people whom we find there now, cannot be too strongly 
combated. No such change resulted from the Mussulman conquest,- 
and it is important to insist on this point because it throws a remarkable 
light, at an interval of more than 2,000 years, on the conquest of Canaan 
by the Bent Israel, or " Children of Israel," as they are called iu. 
Deuteronomy. 

The Mussulman Arabs, who founded their empire on the ruins of the 
Byzantine and Persian kingdoms, intentionally left untouched the- 
civil'sation which they found already installed and in use. They only 
added one thing — a dogma— or, to use a less positive term, a religious.- 



204 THE AKABS IX TALESTIXE. 

entliusiasm : and while strong enough, to tuke everytliiDg, were at the 
same time wise enough to destroy nothing. Conquest was to them a 
means of gaining easily at the point of the sword the power of sharing in 
the enjoyment of wealth and prosperity which if left to themselves they 
could have made no use of. They carefully abstained from meddling with 
the complex institutions of the Lower Empire. Mastei's of the marvel- 
lous, and to them incomprehensible, mechanism whose fascinations had 
excited their envy, these historically recent races and their successors 
declined to touch a spring which they were incapable of regulating, and 
thus the great pendulum set in motion by the impulses of Rome and 
Byzantium peacefully continued its oscillations under the Caliphate, and 
still continues them, marking with gradually diminishing force the 
already numbered hours of the Empire of the East. 

Arab civilisation is a mere deception — it no more exists than the 
horrors of Ai'ab conquest. It is but the last gleam of Greek and Roman 
civilisation gradually dying out in the powerless but respectful hands of 
Islam. A civilisation, be it remembered, cannot be produced spontane- 
ously, or improvised, any more than can a patrimony ; it is the here- 
ditary accumulation of living forces — a treasure framed by the hoarding 
of ages, which a robber may take in a moment and dissipate in a day, 
but which his whole life would be insufficient to create. But the Arab 
conquerors, iiarvenus though they were, without a history and without a 
past, respected everything — administration, science, and arts — only 
turning everything to their own profit. They even went so far as occa- 
sionally to grant the privileged holders of this intellectual monopoly a 
concession, which, to the army, enlightened only by the flame of 
fanaticism, must have cost much — viz., a truly admirable religious 
liberty. 

The basis of all finance being the revenue of the soil, it is the first 
business of a conqueror to reassure the vanquished by allowing those 
who have always cultivated the ground to continue doing so. And this 
the Mussulman conquerors, who, as regards agriculture, knew no soil 
but the sand of the desert, and no tools but the point of the lance, with 
rare good sense did. They retained in Syria the cultivators of the land 
in the same way that they retained the cultivators of arts and of know- 
ledge. This arrangement was acquiesced in more readily by the peasantry 
than by the townspeople, though the latter made but a faint show of 
resistance. In fact, the whole population accepted by a large majority, 
not only the language of their- conquerors, which was somewhat akin to 
their own Semitic dialect, but also their religion, in which they saw a 
slight but attractive resemblance to their own vague Christianity. 

Of this phenomenon, however, a still earlier example may be cited in 
the history of Palestine. For who were the peasants whom the Mussul- 
mans found on their entrance into Judsea, and who have become the fel- 
laheen of our days ? Were they Jews ? The wars of extermination waged 
by Vespasian, Titus, Trajan, and Hadrian, and the persecutions of the 
Christian emperors, left not one stone upon another of either political or 



TIIF. .\i:\.rs IN- PALESTIXE. 205 

etlinic Judaism ; they made it a tahuhi ram, and cast tlio J'hris to the four 
winds of heaven. Jewish tradition, properly so called, is for ever lost in 
Palestine; and all the Jews now found there have, without exception, 
come to the country at a comparatively recent date. Were they Greeks ? 
We know for certain that, during the period that elapsed between the 
dispersion of the Jews and the appearance of the Arabs, the villages of 
Judoea were occupied by a population speaking a Semitic dialect. If, 
then, these peasants were neither Jews nor Greeks, what were they ? 
I answer that their origin may be traced to a far earlier period, and that 
if we examine into the question, we shall find very strong proof that the 
Mohammedan conquest was almost the literal repetition of the more 
ancient invasion of Joshua. The analogy between the two events is very 
striking ; in both we have a people conquered and enslaved bj"- 
masses pouring in from nearly the same regions, and impelled by the- 
same necessities. 

Nomads like the first Mussulmans, and imbued like them with the- 
irresistible force of religious conviction, the Israelites burst over the- 
Promised Land, attracted by its natural wealth and by a civilisation, the- 
existence of which may be inferred from the r>iblical writings. In some 
parts of the country they speedily obtained a footing, though in others 
they encountered a more obstinate resistance than the Mussulmans did, 
the federative system of the Canaanites lending itself better to a 
prolongation of the strife, and the political conditions being different. 

The problem of the permanent occupation of the country received the 
same solution as in the later invasion ; the chief thing in both cases 
being to secure the proper cultivation of the ground. This fact has led 
to the remark, in itself a just one, that the Mosaic legislation was 
founded on agriculture. But shepherds could not have transformed 
themselves in a single day into agriculturists ; they must at first have 
made those who understood it produce for them the fruits of the land 
which they had divided into tribe territories and family fiefs. It is true 
that they expelled from the country certain turbulent clans who, not- 
withstanding their forced submission, for a long time exorcised on the 
intruders a pressure not unsalutary ; and who finally, with character- 
istic elasticity, came back after the disappearance of the Jews to the 
places whence they had been driven. But the new occupants were 
obliged, whether they wished it or not, to allow the bulk of the primitive 
inhabitants to remain in the cotintry ; and the precautions of all sorts 
taken by the Jewish lawgiver to prevent the vanquished and the con- 
querors from mixing, lest the religious belief of the Jew should suffer by 
the contact, is itself a proof that they lived together side by side. That 
the aborigines, after troubling the religion of Israel a long time by their 
pagan superstitions, should end by adopting it, and by being mingled 
though not confounded with their conquerors, was natural enough ; 
and opinions are still divided as to which of these two races, allied in 
speech, abandoned its own dialect and adopted that of the other. 

The union was, nevertheless, not so complete as to prevent the 



206 THE ARABS IN PALESTINE. 

Assyrians from oaaiiy picking out for deportatiou the families of pure 
Israelite race ; and thus depriving the country of its foreign aristocracy, 
while they left on the soil the serfs by whose labour it could be made to 
render tribute. For great empires did not carry on war for the barren 
pleasure of destruction (a pleasure insufficient even for barbarians), but 
to augment their wealth ; and it is evident that such partial coloni- 
sation as that of Samaria would have been insufficient to repeople 
Palestine. 

The unstable amalgam of races which, on the return from exile, 
endeavoured to reconstitute itself into a nation and even acquired some 
cohesion under the energetic rule of the Hasmoneans, could not escape 
fulling to pieces when brought into contact with Greek inflaences. The 
Hellenizing spirit against which those who were Jews by descent and 
conviction had to contend, and which found partisans even among them, 
marks the commencement of this dissociation. It made continual 
progress under the Herods, and was completed when the very name of 
Jew was struck out of the bock of nations by the hand of Rome. Gra3C0- 
Roman paganism had only to show itself in Syria to be accepted and 
loved. Endowed with a plastic tolerance which embraced with astonish- 
ing ease the religious forms of other nations, sometimes pouring itself into 
their moulds, sometimes melting down their monstrous idols and re- 
making them after its own images, this paganism — this extra-biblical 
monotheism of antiquity — brought with it, to those who welcomed it 
with rapturous submission, but one reforming element, that of a33thetics ; 
it exacted but one sacrifice, that of ugliness ; imposed but one discipline, 
that of pleasure, and one dogma, that of taste; and introduced but one 
revelation, that of the beautiful. Full of consideration for the religions 
which accepted its seductions, it exercised no violence except upon those 
which resisted them. The ancient Syrophoenician divinities, to adopt the 
term used in the Gospels, willingly consented to inhabit temples of 
exquisite architecture, whore the onlj' conditions of entrance were a 
Greek costume, and the assumption of one of the many names and attri- 
butes in the rich pantheon. Then it was that, under the stimulating- 
action of the breeze from Greece and Italy, the dried-up flora of Semitic 
mythology burst into a thousand new perfumes and colours. Palestine 
had a large share in this reawakening, and from Dan to Beersheba 
regenerated polytheism soon obscured the very recollection of the austere 
law of Jebovah. 

The political triumph of Christianity crushed this growth. The laud 
where the seed of the Crucified Sower had so marvellously fructided ; 
where grew the first ear -of that corn which was to be multiplied infi- 
nitely, and to furnish the religious needs of the world for centuries with 
the bread of tho Spirit ; the nursery of a creed whose cradle was a tomb, 
and whose flag a gibbet — this little land became the object of a si^ccial 
adoration, a kind of topolatry, when the Church mounted with Oon- 
■stantine the throne of the Caesars, and assumed the imperial diadem, 
after having worn so long the martyr's crown. 



THE APvAL'S IX i'ALESTIXE. 207 

So great was this love of lioly places, and so passionate tlie desire to 
expiate the cruel mj'sterics of whicli they had beeu the theatre, that 
during the whole Byzantine period Judiiea was overrun by monks, and 
transformed into one vast convent. Everywhere local paganism had to 
give Way to Christ returuiug as a master to the land of Llis birth; but, 
as a fiual protest against the persecution to which they submitted, the 
pagans, driven out from their temples, now transformed iuto churches, 
took refuge in the schisms and heresies of which Syria was always the 
grand manuf;vcturer. 

At this troubled period, while the country was agitated by the conflict 
between the new propaganda and the old beliefs, a new element appeared 
on the scene. Islam is in fact a form of Christianity, most schismatic, 
most heretical if you will, but still Christianity, for many a sect of so- 
called Christians differs more than Mohammedanism does from certain 
established axioms of Christianity. The new dogma. Christian in doctrine, 
Jewish in ritual, made up of laws and regulations suited to the wants of 
wandering Arab tribes, owed its escape from the ignominious extinction 
which befell similar sectarian creeds, to certain political causes. The secret 
of its wonderful success was that it placed itself in opposition to Byzantium, 
and became the heart and soul of the struggle against official Christi- 
anity. This it was that gave it strength and life, and enabled it to rally 
to its side those popuhitions who had only renounced paganism and 
accepted Chi-istianity under compulsion, and who welcomed the Mussul- 
man conquest, and the supremacy of the faith of Islam, as a means 
of protesting against the politico-religious tyranny from which they had 
suffered. 

These Koofars—a.n appellation derived from theirjiving in Kefrs, the 
Arabic for villages, just as the similar term -pac/ani is derived from the 
Latin ^«^i' — would have returned to their old heathen creeds when once 
withdrawn from the Christian yoke ; but on this point the Mussulmans 
were inflexible ; they tolerated the Christians and the Jews as being 
their own spiritual forefathers, but they had inherited against the pagans 
the implacable hatred which animated Christianity, and which utter 
extermination could alone satisfy. 

Eesigned Mussulmans under the Mussulman rule, bad Christians under 
the Christian rule, after having been fervent pagans and mediocre Jews, 
the land-tilling mountaineers of Judtea, sons of the soil and the rock, 
are ready to become afresh whatever their masters of to-morrow may 
demand, if only they are allowed to remain on the land. It is this extra- 
ordinary attachment to the soil which has made and still makes them 
willing to endure everything rather than leave it. 

If this race has thus been able to resist, or rather, to survive conquest ; 
if this stratum of humanity has been unchanged by the other strata 
which have been laid upon it, a fortiori has it been little effected by the 
many ephemeral invasions, the human deluges, which have overrun 
Palestine from time to time. The wave swept away everything that tried 
to stop it, but could make no impression on this impermeable stratum 



208 THE AEADS IN PALESTINE. 

over whicli it ran foaming, and which emerged intact as soon as it had 
jiassed. The invasion which most resembled a conquest, and at one 
moment threatened to reverse the destinies of Palestine, was the occupa- 
tion of the Crusaders ; but it was too shortlived to have any effect on the 
Arab ways of thought and feeling already impressed upon the people. 
It merely left here and there what maybe called an anthropological trace 
of its passage ; and the yellow hair and blue eyes which sometimes even 
at the present day the astonished traveller may see beneath a Bedaween 
kefeeyeh or a fellah turban, are the sole legacy of the Crusader to the 
i:)eople of Syria. 

I have, therefore, arrived at the conclusion that the fellaheen of 
Palestine, taken as a whole, are the modern representatives of those old 
tribes which the Israelites found settled in the country, such as the 
Canaanites, Hittites, Jebusites, Amorites, Philistines, Edomites, &c. In 
what proportion these various tribes are now represented, and whether 
they were preceded by a still older autochthonous population — Ankim, 
Horites, &c., are questions which, in the existing state of science, it 
would be useless to enter into. But though this race, or rather conglo- 
meration of races, which may be designated, for want of a better, by the 
vague title of pre-Israelite, still survives beneath its Mohammedan 
exterior, it has not remained uninfluenced during the lapse of centuries 
by the many events and circumstances that have happened in Palestine. 
Each successive change in the social and political condition of the country 
has more or less affected it in various ways ; and we must not be sur- 
prised, when studying the fellaheen, at finding Jewish, Hellenic, 
Eabbinic, Christian, and Mussulman reminiscences mingled pell- 
mell and in the quaintest combinations, with traits which bring us 
back to the most remote and obscure periods of pre-Israelite existence. 

It is very difficult to sift this farrago, and determine to what epoch 
each part belongs ; the more so because chronology, the perspective of 
history, is as entirely ignored and even hated by the popular mind, as 
was ordinary perspective by the primitive artists, and the difficulty is 
increased by the fact that the same tradition has often— like those re- 
stamped coins which are at once the joy and the despair of numismatists 
— received impress after impress from the successive coiners who have 
left their effigies on Palestine. 

Although criticism is at present unable thoroughly to analyse these 
complex products, we must not cease collecting them, remembering that 
all the changes in a tradition are in themselves the surest proof of its- 
antiquity and of its spontaneous development. It may be that in ascer- 
taining the difference between the written story and the legend we may 
be able some day to calculate, by a sort of ideal triangulation, how far 
they are both from the truth. Meanwhile science is fortunate in having 
ascertained the fact that there still exists in Palestine, not only some 
remains of the old Semitic polytheism— as I urged six years ago in the 
Revue de V Instruction Puhliqiie, and which no one will deny now— but 
also that there are relics, still to be recognised, of Biblical tradition^ 
just as in our fairy tales are found fragments of the Aryan mythology. 



TllK AlIAliS IX I'ALESTINE. 209 

The astonishing way in which the peasants have preserved the names 
of places is a good instance of this, and is also a proof in favour of the 
argument that they themselves are unchanged. It is worthy of remark 
in passing that the etJtnic name — that is, the name by which the hilmhit- 
ants are known, and which is derived from the locality — is very often 
more archaic in form than the name of the place itself. There are many 
examples of this interesting fact which may prove very useful in testing 
the accuracy of proposed identifications. 

The tenacity with which old religious customs have been kept np is 
another remarkable circumstance. Not only have the fellaheen, as- 
Eobinson conjectured, preserved by the erection of their Mussulman 
l-vhhchs, and their fetishism for certain large isolated trees, the site and 
the souvenir of the hill sanctuaries and shady groves, which were marked 
out for the execration of the Israelites on their entry into the Promised 
Land ; but they pay them almost the same veneration as did the 
Canaanite l-oojfars, whose descendants they are. These onakoms, as- 
Deuteronomy calls them, which Manasseh rebuilt, and against which 
the prophets in vain exhausted their invectives, are word for word, 
thing for thing, the Arabic mal-ams, whose little white-topped cupolas- 
are dotted so picturesquely over the mountain horizon of central Judaja. 

In order to conceal their suspicious origin, these fellah sanctuaries- 
have been placed under the protection of the purest Mohammedan 
orthodoxy, by becoming the tombs or shrines of sheylxlis, iceli/s, and 
nehi/s — elders, saints, or prophets — deceased in the odour of sanctity. 
But there are numerous indications of their true origin beneath this 
simple disguise. For instance, the name given to them is often the 
same as that of the locality, and is not merely a simple name, but a 
personification, or deification, if I may say so, of the place itself ; for 
many legends show that, in the eyes of the peasants, the nehy or p^'ophet 
has (jiven his own name to the place. 

This close connection of names and places is found in the Phcenician 
and Canaanite mythology, which is remarkable for the number of its 
local divinities, and it helps to explain why Moses, not content with 
ordering the destruction of the pagan sanctuaries, insisted upon the 
abolition of the names. A methodical search for these malcams is, there- 
fore, of the greatest importance, because their names will enable us to 
fix the site of cities of which not only the ruins, but the very remem- 
brance has disappeared. 

Another point of religious resemblance is the worship of female divini- 
ties which we know was common among the Canaanites, and is still 
pi-actised, many modern kubbehs being consecrated to women. In 
certain cases there is duality : the wely, or the neby, being venerated 
in conjunction with a woman, who p>asses generally for his sister or 
his daughter. This relationship, originally conjugal, which has been 
changed by the Mussulmans into one of consanguinity, ofters an 
equivalent of the sexual symmetry of those Phreuician couples so 
clearly brought to light by M. de Togiie. 



210 THE AEAliS IX TALESTIXE. 

Many of these sacred places are open to the sky, and nearly sur- 
rounded by a wall of stone — a veritable Jiarara. Others are in natural 
■or artificial caverns. One evening, for instance, I was most positively 
refused permission to stable my horse in a grotto consecrated to Sheykh 
Madkur, because the wely would infallibly have shown his displeasure 
by killing the beast. The Aboo N'sair venerate, not far from Mar Saba, 
a great stone — Hajar ed Dawiiere — which they say was once metamor- 
l^hosed into a camel in oi'der to carry across the desert the father of 
their race. This practice of worshipping an animated stone — the hetyle 
— is confirmed by certain modern practices analogous to those formerly 
in use — e.g., the liturgic unction which is still performed with henna over 
the porch of a Icuhheh, the fellaheen touching the lintel respectfully, and 
asking the wely for destoor — i.e., permission to enter. Some even avoid 
profaning the threshold by stejiping over instead of on it, like the wor- 
shippers of Dagon Avhcn entering his temple. 

These rustic sanctuaries are crowded with rude ex-voto offerings ; and 
the sacred trees, loaded with rags tied to their branches by pious hands, 
iire familiar to every traveller in Palestine. In the kuhhehs are placed 
iighted lamps, a practice alluded to in the sixth chapter of the Book of 
Bai'uch : while the various points on the surrounding hills whence the 
viaJcam is visible are marked by mesluildds, small pyramids of stone which 
are the mergamas (acervi Mercurii) of Proverbs. 

The fellaheen attribute to these local divinities a supernatural power 
oIl working miracles altogether contrary to the principles of Islam. Not 
only do they adore but they dread these holy personages, and have for 
them that horror saar which is the mark of true religious adoration. A 
viaJiam is a place of inviolable sanctity. No one would dare to touch a 
thing or jDerson on its sacred soil. An infidel may sleep there in perfect 
safety, provided he does not break through any of the required religious 
observances. I have often, when travelling, for the sake of economy, 
without tent or baggage, taken advantage of this prerogative, and ex- 
perienced, after a long and fatiguing day, the delicious sensation — from 
an archaeologist's point of view — of passing the night on the bare but 
holy floor of one of these Arab sanctuaries, haunted and guarded by the 
.shades of the Canaauite Baals and Ashtoreths. 

But the best proof of the religious character of this feeling, and of the 
•deep hold it has upon the fellaheen, is to be found in the oaths most com- 
monly used by them. The word Allah (God) is for ever on their lips, and 
the formula " iva haiat Allah," based upon the Hebrew ha'i Elohim, is 
used to attest truth or falsehood without the slightest hesitation. They 
swear fluently, and perjure themselves without scruple, by the light, by 
the life of their souls, by their heads, by the heads of their companions, 
hj the Temple of Jerusalem [Ilaram esh Bhereef), by the SaJchra, or sacred 
Tock on which stood the altar, &c. ; oaths which were lavished with equal 
prodigality by the Jews, and bitterly censured by our Lord. But, and 
this is the remarkable point, if we wish to bind them by a serious oath, 
it is sufficient to make them take it on their local sanctuary, and then it 
is extremely rare to find them faithless or bearing false witness. 



THE AK.VBS IN TALESTIXE. _ 211- 

Many otlier significant facts" might be brought forward ; such as the 
propitiatory sacrifices made by the feUahoen, the ceremonies attending 
which seem borrowed from the Pha?nician ritual; their superstitions 
about the moon; the amulets, magical hands, the eyes of Osiris in 
Hebron enamel, made after the method of the Phoenician glass- 
workers ; their fetes, their parables, their tales, their old songs in 
strange Arabic, the peculiarities of their dialect, in which the vocalisa- 
tion strangely resembles the Masoretic punctuation of Hebrew, &c. 
But I will pass on, without dwelling upon these, to one or two ex- 
amples of what may be called veritable echoes of the Bible. 

Here is the history of Samson as it is told to-day at Sara, Ain Shemcs, 
and Artoof, that is to say, on the very scene of the exploits of that hero : — 
Aboo Meizar, called by some Abool Azein, but known to all under the 
name Shamshoun el Jebbar, originally of Sar'a, and brother of a certain 
Neby Samet, whose monument is shown in those parts, was purblind. 
In the Rumeyleh, the old name of a part of the city of Ain Shemes, stood 
a church. Aboo Meizar said to his compatriots, " What will you give 
me if I destroy the church and kill the Christians ?" " The quarter of 
the revenue of the country," they replied. Upon this Aboo Meizar went 
down to the Eumeyleh, entei'ed the church where the Christians were 
assembled at prayer, and crying, " Ya Eabb !" (O Lord !) gave a great 
kick to the column Avhich supported the edifice. Down it fell, burying 
beneath its ruins Aboo Meizar and the Christians. The inhabitants of 
Sar'a came to look for his body, and easily recognised it because, as he 
had told them would be the case, he was stretched on his back, while all 
the Christians lay face downwards. His maJnim stands on the very spot 
at Sara where they btiried him ; and the Sheyhk attached to its service, 
who resides at Beit Atab, still receives a quarter of all the olives grown 
between Deir Eban and Ain Shemes — indeed a fellah who once refused 
to pay these additional dues is reported to have pressed blood instead of 
oil from his olives : — while it is even now a common saying among the 
old people of the village that " between Sar'a and Bayt el Jemal was 
killed Shamshoun el Jebbar." It may be remarked, in passing, that 
this saying, if compared with the verse in the book of Judges which 
places the tomb of Samson between Zorah and Eshtaol, would tend 
to fix the site of the latter city, hitherto undiscovered, at Bayt el 
Jemal. Another fragment of this same legend has lighted on the head 
of a certain Neby Hosha, venerated at Eshou not far from Sar'a. This 
neby, born at Bayt Nabala, being one day pursued by a troup of his foes 
the KoofFars, took refuge at Eshou, and crying, "It is here that I am 
doomed to die," sat down, threw his ihrcan over his shoulder, and expired. 
A wooden sabre, with which he is said to have slaiu his enemies, is still 
■shown at the maJcam at Eshou. This story may be compared with an 
incident in the travels of a Jewish pilgrim of the middle ages, Isaac 
Chelo, who saw at Sar'a the tomb of Samson, where they still preserved 
the ass's jawbone with which he killed the Philistines. 

Turn next to the modern legend in which are embodied confused but 



212 THE ARABS IX TALESTI^TE. 

undoubted traces of the taking of Jericho by Joshua, and the standing 
still of the sun. It varies in many curious ways from the Bible-story ; 
but the following is the pith of it as told to me in the plain of Jericho: — 
Not far from the site of the City of Palms are the ruins of the City of 
Brass, so called because it was once surrounded by seven walls of brass ; 
and a little farther off is the maham of the Imam Ali, son of Aboo Taleb, 
a sanctuary open to the sky, and the object of extraordinary veneration, 
in the surrounding country. This city, then belonging to the Kooffars, 
was besieged by the Imam Aboo Taleb. Mounted on his horse Mei- 
moon, he made the round of the city and overthrow the seven walls 
of brass one after another by blowing iipon them. Then began a 
terrific combat, and as the day was drawing to a close, and the in- 
fidels were about to profit by the darkness in order to escape, the Imam 
Ali cried out to the sun, " Return upon thy steps, O thou blessed one !" 
Immediately, with the permission of the Most High, the sun, which was 
about to set behind the mountain, came back to the east ; whereupon 
the Imam Ali ordered his servant Eblal, who at that moment was on 
the opposite mountain, at the foot of which is now situated the maJcani, 
to sound the call for the morning prayei", and proceeded to complete the 
rout of the pagans with great carnage, and to utterly destroy their city ; 
those who escaped the slaughter being annihilated by wasps. Since that 
time the two mountains which figure in the story bear respectively the 
names of the Mountain of the Return, and the Mountain of Eblal the 
Muezzin. 

Lastly, listen to the tragic history of the Levite of Ephraim and his 
wife at Gibeah. This is how it was told me by an old fellah on the very 
place itself, which is still called Jaba : — A Cliristian of Bethlehem was 
on his way with his wife or his daughter to Tayyibeh, and stopped, as 
night was beginning to fall, to sleep at Jaba. While they slept certain 
men of the town came to the house and violated the woman, who was 
found dead in the morning. The Christian cut the corpse into two 
pieces, and sent one to Tayyibeh, and the other to Mukhmas, to the 
people of his own religion. These rose immediately. One band came 
from the east, the other from the west. The first, pretending to fly, 
drew the people of Jaba out of their town ; and thus caught between 
the two hosts, they were all slaughtered. The massacre took place in 
the plain called El Merj fil Moonka, between Jaba and the commence- 
ment of the Wady Bab esh Shab. To this day the wheat grows to a 
great height on this accursed spot, but produces no grain. 

These examples of what may be called phantoms of the past are 
enough to show how much the peasant of Palestine, in preserving his 
own identity, has done for the past history of liis race and nation. But 
living side by side with this obstinately conservative peasant, there is, 
paradoxical as it may appear, a class yet more conservative who defend 
even more vigilantly, and guard with greater attachment the ancient 
forms and beliefs — I mean the women. This curious circumstance has 
often been remarked in other countries, but nowhere is it more strongly 



THi; ARABS I\ PALESTINE. 213 

marked than in Palestine. There the women have eontiuued to be the 
depositaries of old memories which yon would vainly seek for among the 
men. They are indeed behind their husbands by several centuries: and 
the disdain with which a fellah, if you speak to him of certain curious 
customs among the women, replies, with a shrug of his shoulders, 
" Shouijhl nisouun !'" (women's affairs), is itself enough to show how 
true this is. 

It would be extremely interesting to examine closely these daughters 
of Canaan, to study their special customs, their funeral dances, their 
marriage and mourning songs, their prejudices, their peculiar legends, 
their habitual forms of expression, and a variety of other matters, down 
to the details of their toilet, which Isaiah denounces as the arsenal of 
idolatry. Besides, it is among the women — in the often charming 
patterns with which they tattoo themselves; in the simple paintings 
with which their pious hands love to decorate the walls of the sacred 
monuments ; in the marvellous embroidery of their veils and robes ; in 
their elegant, shield-shaped dishes, made of coloured and twisted straw ; 
in the forms of the vessels for water and grain, the fabrication of which 
has retained their monopoly ; in the patterns of their jewels and their 
painted boxes, which they have perpetuated religiously in the bazaars 
by refusing to buy any other kind — that we shall find what artistic traces 
yet remain of a people who never really possessed any art but of the most 
rudimentary kind. 

Ample indeed is the bar vest which one might hope to reap upon this 
feminine soil. But unfortunately the explorer has to encounter the 
almost insurmountable obstacle of sex. Nothing is more difficult for a 
European than to associate in the slightest degree with the fellah 
woman, although they do not, like the w^omen of the towns, cover 
their faces with a veil, but merely draw their long blue sleeve over 
the mouth. It is no question of modesty or morality ; these are senti- 
ments which have always been, and are still, but little known in the 
East. It is rather an instinctive feeling of mistrust towards a stranger, 
than any shyness of him as a man. And yet they do not seem to avoid 
him designedly ; they will often readily render him small services, and 
address him as " my brother," and will willingly enter into conversa- 
tion in certain cases; but let him make the slightest attempt to put 
any question, or betray ever so discreet an inclination to get behind 
the scenes, they take fright at once at a curiosity which they do not 
understand, and their confidence, gained for a moment, takes wing 
like a frightened bird. It requires a woman to approach this wild 
flock ; and a European woman prepared to penetrate, without the aid 
of an interpreter, into the — what shall I say ? — the harem of their 
ideas and their traditions, would carry off a load of scientific plunder 
far more precious than anything to be found in the uninteresting 
seraglios of Constantinople and Cairo. 

There are in certain corners of the globe races which have had the 
unenviable privilege of undergoing no change, not even for the better. 



214 THE SITE OF HIPPOS. 

These the historian would like to preserve for his own purposes, in their 
archaic integrity, as fields of study, if not of experiment, and as a kind 
of laboratory in which he could observe at leisure the phenomena of 
human evolution. But, unfortunately, or perhaps fortunately, sucli- 
day-dreams are always destined to be upset by the progress of civili- 
sation, which everywhere, sooner or later, sweeps away the ruins of 
the past to make room for the future. Palestine, so long spared, i& 
already undergoing the common lot. A strong current of immigration 
from central Europe has for some time set in upon it, and a few years, 
wil] do what centuries have not been able to effect. 

There is no time to be lost. Already the first note of menace has been 
sounded, and a projected railway from Jaffa to Jerusalem, warns us to» 
make haste and accomplish the laborious task of exploration, and perfect 
a complete inventory of the historic and scientific treasures of this unique 
country, before it has been deprived of every relic and memorial of the- 
past. It will be too late when, on the spot where the cry of Rachel 
mourning for her children still lingers, we hear in mocking echo the- 
shrill scream of the railway whistle, and the loud shout of ''Bethlehem t 
Dix minutes (Varret ! Les voyageiirs ][iour la ]\[er Morte chavgent de- 
voiiure!" 



THE SITE OF HIPPOS. 

By C. CLEKilO^-X-GANNEAU. 
(From the licvue ArcheoJogique.) 

I HAVE, on several occasions, insisted on the importance of reading- 
Arabic literature in the interests of Biblical topography. I havo been 
enabled to i^rove the utility of this study by discoveries of importance,* 
and to show that it not only offers a method of control, but also, in 
certain cases, a jjoiiit de dcjjurt for real discoveries. 

I have now to offer a new fact establishing the importance of the geo- 
graphical information furnished by oriental texts. It concerns a place- 
outside the limited area of my own researches — another reason for advanc- 
ing it, because it will be easy for the first traveller who explores the- 
shores of the Sea of Galilee to verify my suggestion on the spot. 

The Decapolis, connected with the gospel narrative by three jDassages 
only (Matt. iv. 25 ; Mark v. 20, and vii. 31) is the least-known part of' 
Palestine. "We are neither agreed upon the general limits of this dis- 
trict, frequently mentioned by profane authors, nor on the very names- 
of the ten cities which composed it — " in quo non eadem omnes obser- 
vant," as Pliny says. 

There are, however, some as to which there is no doubt at all. Among 
these is Hij^pos. Hijipos, according to Eusebiua and Jerome, formed, 
with Pella and Gadara, the centre of this privileged confederation,, 

* By tlii« means, for instance, I found the royal Canaanito city of Gezer.. 



•THE SITE OF IIll'I'OS. 2 1 ;> 

w'bich ap ears to have been a special kind of nohvork matter extending 
over distinct provinces, rather than a province by itself. " "Aurr; cWi^. 
7/ eirl rfj Ufpaia K6i,ueV?) ajxrpl t))v 'Ittttoi' Ka\ UeWav Kol TaSdpav'^ (Onomasticon). 
Pliny, in his cnumeratii^i of the cities of the Dccapolis, names Hippos 
between Gadara on the one hand, and Dion and PcUa on the other, 
placing it with Julias on the east of the Sea of Galilee. Ptolemy men- 
tions it between Capitolias and Abila. Josephus says that Hippos was 
thirty stadia from Tiberias, and the Onoma,sticoa places it beside a 
fortress called Apheka. 

It would bo useless to recall the very brief history of this city, to 
which numismatists attribute those imperial Greek coins bearing tho- 
singular designation of ANTinXEHN TriN nP02 innn. M. de Saulcy 
supposes that this legend belongs to a Mount Hippos, placed by 
Ptolemy in company with another Mount Asalamos, Alsadamos, or 
Asalmanos, near the Desert of Arabia, and that a city of the same- 
name was built upon the slope of the mountain.* 

Perhaps this singularity may be indirectly explained by the passage 
of Stephen of Byzantium relating to Gadara — " a city of Coole Syria 
which is also called Autioch and Seleucia." Wo should be tempted to- 
apply these words in jiart to Hippos, especially when we remember that 
the destinies of the two neighbouring cities seem to have been closely 
allied, and that Josephus qualifies them as Greek cities, taken from the 
rule of Herod Archelaus, and annexed to Syria after receiving their 
freedom from Pompey, and being temporai-ilj' handed over to Herod the 
Great. Anyhow it is certain that Hippos was of sufficient importance- 
to give its name to a district, Hippene, which bordered on Galilee. 

A long time ago attention was called to the connection between 
Hippos and Haifa, the town of Carmel. Lightfoot was the first to find 
Hippos in the Sousitha of the Talmud. The principal Talmudic passages,, 
collected by Neubauer, show us Sousitha inhabited by pagans, and often.- 
mentioned with Tiberias ; the two cities ojiposite to each other and 
separated by the lake, were enemies. A rabbi identifies the Tob of the 
Bible (Judges xi. 3), and consequently the Tobion of Maccabees (1 Mace. 
v. 13), with the environs of Sousitha. 

Not only do remarkable topographic coincidences connect Hippos with 
Soubitha, but there is also a striking etymological affinity. Sousitha is 
naturally derived from sous, a horse : so that the Semitic name has the 
same signification as the Greek. This signification seems to have been 
long known, for the ruins of Hippos represent a horse, winged or not. 

Opinions as to the site of Hippos are divided. Some place it at Kalafc 
el Hosn near Feik or Fik, on the eastern bank of the Lake of Tiberias,, 
and identify the same Fik with the Apheka of the Onomasticon ; others 
incline to Khirbet es Samra, a little more to the south, and nearer the 

* " Numismati'pie de la Terre Sainte, " pp. 344, 345. In reality Jlonnt Hippo.-; 
is placed by Ptolemy near Judxea, that is, far away from Mount Alsalamos ; its 
position, G8' 10' 32", is nearly that attributod to Hippc, the city of Ccele Sjana 
or the Dccapolis, 68° 32' 30". 



216 THE SITE OF HIPPOS. 

Jordan. A third opinion, represented by Riess, considers Sousitha 
and Hippos as two different cities, and identifies the first -with the 
similarly named ruins of El Shusheh or Abu Shusheh, to the north-west 
of the Lake of Tiberias. 

The question is complicated : here is a fact which will help us to 
simplify it. 

It is furnished by a certain Ibn Khordad Beh, Director of the Posts 
of the Khalifat in the fourth century of the Hegira, who left behind him 
an interesting taUeaa of the provinces submitted to his administration, 
under the title of " Book of Roads and Provinces." This valuable text, 
much ill-treated by copyists, was edited with rare ability by M. Barbier 
de Meynard. 

After describing a route which, starting from Damascus, connects 
Keswe, Jasem, Fik, and Tiberias, the chief place of the Jordan, distant 
respectively twelve, twenty-four, twenty-four, and six miles, the author 
enumerates in this part of the empire, thirteen districts, the Jordan, 
Tiberias, Samaria, Beisan, Fahl (Pella), Hawim, Nablus, Jadar, Abel, 
Sousya, Akka, Kedesh, and Sur (Tyre). 

Sousya is the literal equivalent of the Talmudic Sousitha ; the slight 
difference in the termination is insignificant ; it may even be purely 
graphic and consist in a single displacement of diacritic points, which 
every student in Arabic will understand. Nevertheless Yakut, in his 
reat geographical dictionary, citing this city as belonging to the dis- 
trict of Jordan, gives this orthography, which is besides perfectly 
acceptable and confirmed by the Kamus. 

The context suflaciently proves that we are in the same region with 
Sousitha, and the topographic agreement is as satisfactory as the phonetic 
resemblance. 

The certain existence of this Arabic form, Sousya, permits us at once 
to put aside the proposed connection of Sousitha with Abu Shusheh (the 
man with the tuft), a vulgar name which might, as it did at Gezer, mask 
some important locality, and lead to the solution of the still unsettled 
question of Capernaum. 

But there is more : not only the Sousya of Ibn Khordad Beh corresponds 
with Sousitha, but it is presented under conditions which assimilate it 
entirely with Hippos, and it supplies the gap which separated the Syro- 
Greek from the Talmudic city. 

We have seen, in fact, that ancient documents frequently associate 
Hippos with Gadara and Abila. Well, the Arabic text groups together 
Sousya, Jadar, and Abel. On the other hand. Hippos was the centre 
of a district meationed by Hippene, which is the district (Koura) of 
Sousya d'Ibn Khordad Beh. 

The same passage shows, besides, that in the fourth century of the 
Hegira, Gadara, which now, according to travellers, bears the name of 
Umm Keis, still preserved its original name, and it is probable that a 
careful search on the spot would establish that although fallen into 
disuse, it has not ceased to exist. 



to 



THE SITE OF HIPPOS. 217 

The same accident must liave happened to Sousya-IIippos, The true 
name, without being forgotten, may be hidden by another vulgar 
appellation ; and, for my own part, I believe that a conscientious investi- 
gation will enable us to find a Ivhirbet Sousya, whether at Es Samra, or 
at Kaliit el Hosu, or at some other place. When we find it, we shall be 
able to place there the enigmatic Hippos. 

Besides, the Hebrew word sous (horse), which gave birth to Sousitha- 
Hippos, is not so strange to Arabic as might be supposed. There is 
the well-known term, sa't's (groom), the origin of which is clear. Then, 
I have found in the environs of Lydda, an Arabic locution still employed 
in the technical language of certain old camel drivers, to signify a 
track, in distinction to a metalled road, a way practicable only to camels. 
One is tank er-fs'!f, the other tarlh es sehane. The word se'isanc, which 
you will find in no lexicon, is the plural of a disused singular, evidently 
coming from the root sous. It is to be noted, in passing, that the appella- 
tion, tank cr-r'slf, indicates in general the existence of a Roman road. 

I cannot terminate this note without touching upon a delicate point 
introduced into the question by Reland. This scholar, apropos of 
Hippos, and in the hope of getting some etymological light to bear upon 
the problem, quotes a curious passage of Pliny, speaking of a certain 
family oi crustacece. He says: "In Phenice litKtls vocantur, tanta3 
velocitatis ut consequi non sit." " In Phoenicia there are certain crabs, 
called horsemen, so rapid that they cannot be caught." Eeland had 
under his eyes another reading A i'^jjjoe, which he regarded as a trans- 
lation of iTTTTot, to judge by the connection which he endeavours to make 
with our word Hippos. 

I do not know which is the true reading : in any case, it seems to me 
that PHny has only translated a passage of Aristotle, in which the same 
word occurs : " riepl Se ti)V ^oiviK-qv yivovTai eV rw aiyiaXw ovs Ka\ovaiv 'nnri7s 
Sia rh ovTus raxfocs deiv, wcrre /utj paSiov eivai (rax^ois) KaraXaduf." 

However that may be, it would appear that in Phoenicia the crabs 
were called horsemen, or horses, by reason of their extraordinary rapidity. 
The last simile would be the more logical. Thus a group of crustacece 
is mentioned by Pliny under the name of lions. 

But why does not Pliny use the Latin c<^uifes, instead of the Greek 
equivalent ? "Was 'iinrui or 'nnrus a local idiom of Greek used on the 
Phoenician shore ; or does it conceal a phonetic transcription of a 
Phoenician word ? If so, although this is not likely, the city of Haifa, 
the Hepha of the Talmud, presents itself to the mind with this strange 
coincidence, probably fictitious, that Gaba of Carmel, identified by some 
with Heipha, is called by Josephus the " city of horsemen," toAjs imreSiv. 
But I have already shown that Haifa has nothing to do with Hippos. 
If Ave admit that the crabs bore a Phoenician name signifying ho7'se, 
what could that word be ? 

The Semitic vocabulary ofi'ers us an embarrassing choice. The Hebrew 
sous occurs in the name of a Simeonite city, Ilasar Sousa (.Joshua xv. 
ol), or, in the plural, Hasar Sousim (1 Chron. iv. 31). 

Q 



218 NOTES OX KUAD. 

Here is a precedent, particularly if, as Fiirst thinks, following a 
similar train of derivation, it has already furnished the meaning of 
swallow in Isaiah xxxviii. 14, transferring this idea of rapidity from 
running to flj'ing. The word is, besides, considered Phccnician. It is 
found in the name, Abad-Sousim, and perhaps in that of Cabarsus 
^.= K'phar Sous?). 

If the word sous had the treble sense of horse, swallow, and crcih, to 
which of the three does Sousitha belong? The Greek translators and the 
numismatic symbols show that at a certain epoch the most general 
interpretation, that of Iwrsc, was the only one received. But this ex- 
planation, certainly the most natural, need not be taken for the earliest 
and truest. We may hesitate in presence of the passage in Pliny : 
They still bring to the market of Jerusalem fresh-water or land- crabs 
which abound in certain points of the Jordan basin. Must we admit, if 
we adopt Eoland's view, which certainly seems forced, that Hippos, 
situated not far from the i-iver and on the borders of the Lake of Tiberias, 
owed its name to the presence of these crabs ? 



NOTES ON EUAD (AEADUS) AND ADJACENT PLACES 
IN NOETHEEN SYEIA. 

By Geeyille J. Chestee, B.A., Member of the Royal 
Archgeological Institute. 

Few, if any, places on that lonely coast of Syria, which once " echoed 
with the world's debate," excite the imagination and the curiosity of 
the passing voyager more powerfully than the small island of Euad, the 
Arvad of the Book of Genesis, the Aradus of the Greek period, and one 
of the most ancient historic sites in the world. 

The whole coast of Syria is remarkably free from islets, and those 
which exist are mere uninhabited skerries, but Ruad is not only an 
island but a city ; and snch it seems it ever has been ever since its 
foundation by Arvad, the son of Canaan. Other and more important 
Syrian cities have risen and have fallen again, and of some scarce even 
a trace remains; but this island-city of the sea occupies the same 
space it occupied of old; and its present inhabitants, a fine and 
courteous race, are what they were in the time of the prophet Ezekiel, 
viz., bold and skilful mariners, worthy successors of those who aided in 
navigating the ships of King Hiram. Their profession is still that of 
the sea, and they are counted able seamen, fishermen, and divers after 
the sponge, which forms their only article of commerce. 

Arvad or Aradus was, and Euad still is in appearance, very much 
what Tyre was before Alexander the Great joined it to the mainland by 
his long artificial causeway — a city, i.e., of limited extent, but occupy- 
ing the entire surface of a small, flat island of solid rock, rising but 



NOTES ON RUAD. 219 

sliglitly above the waves. But in point of beauty of situation the less 
celebrated Avvad far surpasses the world-famed city of Tyre. The view- 
thence is every way striking. 

In front, Arvad looks out on the sea, Avhose deep blue waters wash 
its veiy walls, and stretch out from thence to Chittim and the Isles of 
Greece. Behind it looks on Tartus, or Antaradus, the Tortosa of the 
middle ages, with its massive castle and magnificent church ; and be- 
hind Tartus on a cultivated plain, stretching upwai'ds to quiet hills of 
graceful outline. To the left, across a noble bay, Arvad turns towards 
Lebanon, with its vine-clad terraces, its stupendous precipices, its deep, 
torrent-cut gorges, its vast fields of glistening snow. To the right it 
looks on the solitary grandeur of Jebel Okra, the seldom-visited and 
little-known Mount Casius of the ancients. 

Euad lies at a distance of less than two miles from the mainlaid, 
and is not opposite to but considerably to the south of the present 
Tartus. The cemetery of Antaradus, however, at all events during the 
Greek period, extended southwards along the coast, and a lonely Tel 
close to the sea still farther to the south, may mark the end of the 
]n-Gcincts of the ancient city in that direction, and is nearly opposite to 
Aradus. 

The island is a low rocky platform, and it possesses a small double 
harbour, defended by rocks and ancient moles nj)on them, to the north- 
east, on the side, i.e., towards Tartus. The anchorage here, and in the 
channel outside, under the protection of the island, is pretty good, and 
safer than most upon that open and dangerous coast. 

Modern lluad occupies almost entirely its ancient site. Along the 
edge of the harbour, both on land and in the water, are strewn about 
great numbers of columns of grey granite, turned black by age, and 
which, I conjecture, in ancient times, formed colonnades and open 
markets during that later period when Aradus, as distinguished froni 
Arvad, was an independent state. Similar colonnades seem to have 
existed at Tripoli, Byblus, and Tyre. Far the most interesting remains, 
however, at Ruad, are those of the sea walls, which belong apparently 
to a far earlier epoch — to that, viz., of the siihsirudiutis of the temples 
of Baalbec, and to the megalithic remains of Amrit. The immense 
stones of which these walls are built seem to have been hewn out of the 
rock on the spot, and enormous mechanical power and great skill must 
liave been employed to get them out of their original bed and into 
their present position. Some of the stones are ten to twelve feet long-, 
by seven and eight high. It is worthy of particular remark that these 
great stones are not hcrdJed. Four only have deej) grooves cut into> 
their upper surface on the side next the land; of these grooves three 
are semicircular and one square. It is hard to conjecture the purpose 
of these indentations, but they may possibly have been intended as 
holdfasts for the cables of ships. In one or two places are vestiges of 
rude steps, leading upwards to the top of the walls. The two largest 
fragments of the existing walls are on the western side, i.e., towards 



220 NOTES ox RUAD. 

the open soa. They are set on a platform of solid rock, cut even for 
their reception, and are of four or five courses inside, but of more 
towards the sea. The total height is probably between thirty and forty 
feet. In places the interstices are filled up with one or two layers of 
small hewn stones of coeval antiqviity, but in no case has mortar been 
anywhere used. In one place a great oblong ring has been left project- 
ing seawards from the face of a stone, for the purpose, doubtless, of 
securing the cable of a ship. 

Immediately under these magnificent fragments of ancient masoniy 
is a narrow terrace of levelled rock, washed by the waves and over- 
grown with seaweed, and this again descends precipitously into the 
deep sea. Between the two largest remaining fragments of wall, at the 
distance of only a few yards from the main island, but divided from it 
by a deep channel, is a small rocky islet, with an artificially levelled 
surface, designed apparently for the site of a temple ; and, in fact, a 
Jocal tradition relates that one actually existed on the spot. 

The walls of Aradus have been spoken of as " double," but I could 
discover no certain evidence of the fact. They seem originally to have 
been of great breadth, and the circumstance of the central and less 
durable portions having been washed away by the action of the waves, 
has apparently given rise to the statement. No inscriptions whatever 
exist on these ancient walls; one stone, however, is pierced with two 
deep cii'cular holes. Upon a rock on the south-western side is indented 
tlie representation of an object resembling a gigantic pastoral staff. 
The local tradition is that it represents and commemorates a huge 
serpent which once infested the island. It is interesting in this con- 
nection to remember that some of the Phojnician coins of Aradus bear 
impressed upon them the figure of a human-headed sei'pent, which 
seems to have been one of the forms of the god Dagon. 

On the south side of Ruad are the remains of several houses with, 
chambers cut in the solid rock and left isolated, and in some of them 
are a few shallow niches which may have served to hold lamps or the 
figures of household divinities. Some of these rock-hewn dwellings 
are still lined with plaster. There are, likewise, several remains of 
baths, both public and private, and one of these is lined with plaster, 
into which have been let bits of red pottery. Within the walls there 
seem to have been open spaces between them and the main town. Here 
the rocks were smoothed down when required, and the fissures were 
filled in with water- worn gravel, pottery, bits of marble and rubbish, 
which, by the infiltration of water charged with lime, has been con- 
•vert-ad into a mass of moi'e or less solid breccia. As in some places the 
foundations of ancient houses exist on the top of this mass, it is evident 
that this is no accretion of modern times. The flat surface, however, 
acquired by the means just described seems generally to have been 
kept open for locomotion or trafiic ; no unimportant point in a space 
so limited as that of Aradus. There seems to have been no spring of 
fresh water in Ai-vad, nor is any known at present. The whole water- 



NOTES OX RUAD. 221 

siipply is drawn from ancient cisterns with conical roofs, executed in 
the solid rock, and of these there are said to be no less than fonr 
hundred. Dr. Porter, following some earlier writer, speaks of several 
Greek inscriptions beginning, " The Senate and the People of Aradus." 
These no longer exist in situ. I was assured they were only four in 
number, and that they had been carried off to France. I noticed, how- 
ever, two uninscribed altars, one of black granite near the harbour, and 
the other of white limestone, on the verge of the burying-ground. An 
interesting discovery has recently been made of very minute silver 
Pha3nician coins. These are of several types, of which the one most 
easily deciphered has, obv. a male head, and rev. a (sea ?) tortoise. 
M. Peretie, the eminent numismatist of Beyrout, to whom some of these 
minute pieces had been brought, believing that they were found in the 
harbour, conjectured that they were intended to be thrown into the 
water by departing mariners as a propitiatory offering to the deity of 
the sea. I was assured, however, on the spot that they were never 
found in, but only on the brink of the harbour, and a place was pointed 
out on the edge of the cemetery, on the opposite side of the island, 
where several had recently been discovered. M, Peretie's conjecture 
may, perhaps, therefore need correction. I saw similar minute Phoenician 
coins which have recently been found near the Mina of Tripoli at a 
point where the sea has encroached upon the land. It may suffice 
here to remind the reader of the equally small copper coins of the lower 
empire known to collectors as " Minima" which are supposed by some 
to have been used to throw among the populace on occasions of popular 
rejoicing. Altogether the ancient coins of Aradus form an interesting 
series. Besides coins of Alexander the Great, of Persian Satraps, of 
Egyptian Ptolemies,* and of several Roman emperors, there are several 
types of Aradian money in silver and copper which pertain to the place 
as an independent city. Of these the most important are the large 
bilingual silver coins, of which a considerable number has recently been 
found near Jebeil. They bear obv. the veiled and turreted head of a 
woman, impersonating the city of Ai-adus; rev. a victory within a crown 
of leaves with the legend APAAinN and a date in Greek, and in addition 
one or more Phoenician characters. Another type in silver, also in- 
scribed APAAinN, with obv. a bee, and rev. a deer in front of a palm- 
tree, seems to be copied from that of well-known coins of Ephesus. 
Many other coins in silver and copper have Phoenician inscriptions only, 
and most of them bear on the rev. the prow of a ship— a type appro- 
priate enough for the coins of an island city. One has on the obv. 
Dagon, the fish-god, and another, already alluded to, a serpent or 
serpentine fish with a human head. 

Having approached Ruad from Beyrout and Tripoli by sea, I pre- 
pared to return by land, and accordingly crossed over to Antaradus, 

* Some of the Ptolemaic coins inscribed A P may perhaps belong to Arsinbe, 
or Crocodilopolis, the present Medinet Habon, the capital of tlie Fyoum. 



222 NOTES ON RUAD. 

Tortosa, or Tavtus, a place still containing many remains of interest, 
although, perhaps, none of very remote antiquity. 

The chief building here is the castle — an immense structure of 
massive drafted masonry, witli an outer wall and square flanking towers 
beyond, descending into a wide artificial ditch cut in the rock outside, 
except on the side next the sea, where the main castle walls abut upon 
the beach. Although portions of the wall may belong to an earlier 
period, I much doubt whether the structure generally dates back to a 
time anterior of the Crusades. At all events, it is a grand mistake to 
conclude that a building is of "Phoenician" work simj^ly because its 
stones are bevelled. The undoubtedly ancient walls of Arvad and the 
monuments of Amrit, as has already been remarked, are not drafted, 
and the same observation holds good of the vast substruction and tho 
celebrated Trilithon at Baalbec. It is true that the guide-books tell us 
that King Solomon bevelled, but it admits of the gravest doubt whether 
any of the drafted stones in the walls of the Haram area at Jerusalem 
belong to any period earlier than that of Herod. That the Romans 
drafted is true, witness part of the Porta Maggioi'e at Rome and other 
buildings there and in Syria, but then no less certainly the Arabs 
drafted, and the Crusaders drafted. So also did the builders of the late 
mediaeval walls of Nuremberg, so did the Medicean Italians, so also at 
the present day do the Christian Maronites of Batrun. Drafting, 
therefore, or bevelling, upon which some lay so much stress, is, as the 
test of the date of a building, a very insecure guide. Bearing this caution 
in mind, I should, on the whole, imagine that the castle of Tartus is in 
the main a building of Crusading times, incorporating in some places, 
and built on the lines of walls of earlier construction, many of whose 
Rtones have been used, and their di-afting in other cases imitated for 
the sake of uniformity. The castle in form approaches a square, and 
is of vast extent, enclosing within its walls a large village with an open 
pZrtce in the centre. The principal gateway, which was anciently 
approached by a bridge over the ditch, which at this point assumes 
the appearance of a ravine, is on the north-east side, and close to the 
sea. Within this gate-tower in the outer wall is a lofty Gothic hall, 
with a groined roof of stone. Another vaulted hall, within the main 
castle, is of still larger dimensions, and has the vaulting of the ro f 
^ringing from elegant Corinthianising capitals or corbels, and in one 
instance from the head of a crowned king. One of the most curious 
features about the castle of Tartus is the extraordinary number of 
masons' marks which exist upon the stones which compose the walls, 
iind of which similar specimens are found upon the castle of Jebeil. 
These marks appear to be of two kinds, those, viz., which are formed by 
a blunt instrument being punched into the stone, and those which are 
incised by some sharp tool. Of these, the former appear to me to be 
far the more ancient. It is highly desirable that copies should be 
made of similar marks upon other ruins in Syria, in order that, by 
comparison, a correct opinion may be formed concerning them. Mean- 



NOTES 0.\ RUAD. 223 

while tlie fiicfc that some of them resemble Phceniciau letters, and that 
others rcsemlh Greek monograms, on coins of Philip, Alexander the 
Great, . Alexander ^gus and the Ptolemies, should by no meaus be 
taken as conclusive that they belong to so early a pei-iod. At the same 
time, it is proper to remember that undoubted Pha-nician characters 
exist on the lower part of the magnificent walls of Tarragona. In 
the case of Tartus, as also of Jebeil, some of the marks are plainly Arab 
and others of Christian origin. 

The cathedral which stands outside the walls of Tartus to the south- 
east of the town is a very noble building, and in a most extraordinarily 
perfect state of preservation. Its plan displays a lofty nave and aisles, 
separated by tall but massive piers, with columns with Corinthianising 
capitals. The west front has a pointed doorway, with a large threefold 
window above it, of which the third light is above and between the 
other two. Seen from within, nothing can be more perfect than the 
proportions of this noble triplet. On either side, at the Avest end of 
each wing or aisle, is an elegant lancet window, with a small square 
window above, the southernmost lancet having its moulding on the 
left side ending in a sculptured lion. Over the great western entrance 
is a large slab of red granite. The church consists of four bays besides 
the sacrarium, each of which is separated externally by a massive 
square buttress. The east end, which ends inside in three majestic 
apses, has each apse square outside, those to the north and south, to- 
gether with two vaulted sacristies, being, as it were, enclosed in two 
square towers, which do not rise higher than the roof. The roof itself, 
which Dr. Porter, who does not seem to have visited the place, most 
strangely describes as '* entirely gone," is, on the contrary, intact. It is 
of vaulted stone, and into the lower part of its curve small square- 
headed windows have been cut — a very unusual feature. In each bay 
of the side aisles is one, and in some instances two, lancet windows. 
The south door is ornamented with a rich moulding. The characteristic 
of this noble church, whose dimensions are said to be 130 feet long by 
93 wide,* is simple grandeur, and its condition is such that it might at 
any moment be used for Christian worship. The Muslims have recently 
run up a wretched little minaret over the north aisle, and have placed a 
paltry pulpit of wood opposite the remains of that of stone which once 
adorned the nave, but with these insignificant exceptions all is as it 
was. It is matter for regret that with such noble models for imitation 
as are presented by this and some other mediseval ecclesiastical build- 
ings in Syria, such a mean and abortive structure should have been 
put up as the Anglican church at Jerusalem. 

To the north of Tartus, at a distance of about a quarter of a mile 
from the walls, is a small nrina, or harbour, with a few ancient stones 
lying about on the low rocks, which scarcely serve to shelter it from 
the open sea. On an isolated rock is a vaulted building, apparently a 



* .See Murraj'"s " C!ukle to Syria. 



22-i NOTKS ON RUAD. 

store-liouse of CrusadiBg times. In this neigliboiirliood are sevei-al 
tombs liewn in the rock which probably belonged to the early Phoenician 
inhabitants, but the cemetery of Greek and Roman times was on the 
sandy ground south of the town, and this still yields many interesting 
objects of antiquity. Several fragments of sciilpture were offered to 
me for sale. One of these was a draped torso of good style, and I was 
sorry to be obliged to leave behind a head carved in limestone with a 
decidedly Egyptian cast of countenance, and with the usual Egyptian 
head-dress.* 

At the distance of about an hour and a half south of Tartus are the 
ruins of Amrit, formerly Marathus, the remains of which are of extreme 
importance, and ought to be carefully explored, planned, and photo- 
graphed. Unluckily my visit had been preceded by heavy rains, which 
had so flooded the neighbourhood as to prevent a close approach to two 
of the existing monuments. The first object of interest was an arti- 
ficially scarped rock to the left of the track. This rock presents a 
principal face with two projecting wings. In the front are three round- 
headed entrances to tombs, the entrance to a tomb on either side being 
square. About a mile farther to the south is a curious excavated 
enclosure, cut in the solid rock to the depth of about ten feet, but slop- 
ing down from the south northwards, the north side of the court, if 
such it may be termed, being altogether open. In the midst of this 
excavated area a platform has been left of natural rock, upon which is 
erected a shrine of four great stones, of Avhich the uppermost is of 
larger size and ornamented with a rude overhanging cornice. Within 
is a stone bench or seat, apparently for the ancient divinity of the 
place, like those in many Egyptian grottoes, as, for instance, at Gebel 
Silsileh, but I could not get exactly in front, as the enclosure was fuU 
of water, and my horse got engulphed in a bog in my endeavours to 
reach it. 

Half a mile farther south, on the left of the track, are a series 
of monuments, which, in point of interest and curiosity, vie with the 
most celebrated structures in Syria. These are four tombs, or rather 
four sepulchral monuments, which stand near the edge of a ridge of 
gi-ey rocks running parallel with the sea, and not, as Dr. Porter asserts, 
"in the desolate plain." The first of these monuments consists of a 
pedestal formed of a single vast stone, upon which are placed two others 
which taper upwards, the upper one having a conical top. The whole 
structure forms a kind of rude obelisk between thirty and forty feet 
high. Close by stands a second monument of similar but somewhat 
lower dimensions. Upon a huge pedestal stands another stone, which, 
at somewhat more than half its height, decreases in size, and then again 
decreases nntil it ends in a rounded top. Just below the apex and again 
below the shoulder there is a battlemented moulding, and the four 

* Just outside the North Gate are the remains of some ancient baths close to 
the sea. 



NOTES OX RUAD. 225 

<'orners of the pedestal below are sculptured to represent the fore parts 
of as many lions. These curious and weathorbeaten sculptures belong, 
doubtless, to a very remote period, and may be regarded with great 
probability as the most ancient in Syria. Still farther to the north are 
two more monuments. One of these resembles in its form the second 
already described, but it is considerably smaller. The other is a struc- 
ture in the form of a sarcophagus, but covering, not the tomb itself, but 
the entrance to a tomb, which is approached by a square aperture 
hcAvn in the rock beneath its southern extremity. On the sides of the 
ridge upon which these remarkable monuments stand, the rocks are 
scarped and quarried in every direction, and in one place I perceived 
the indications of an ancient road cut in the rock. 

Still farther south, to the right of the path, is another interesting 
building, which, at the time of my visit could not be entered, as it stood 
in a pond of deep water. It is a kind of square tower, built of vast 
unbevelled stones, and surmounted by a bold cornice. In the midst of 
the eastern side is a square aperture or door. Hard by was another and 
somewhat similar structure standing on higher ground, but now a heap 
of ruins. On a hill considerably to the rigbt I observed another large 
square structure of stoue, which, however, in very stormy weather, and 
with a march of eleven hours before me, I was unable to visit. Not a 
human habitation now exists amidst these relics of the past nor around 
the once populous precincts of Ain el Haiyeh. Yet the lower ground is 
ploughed in places by the Bedouins, who dot the neighbouring plain 
with their black tents, and on the rocks are fed numerous flocks of sheep 
and goats. The almost crimson colour of the soil, especially where 
turned up by the numerous moles, contrasted beautifully with the green 
springing corn, and the grassy places were literally bejewelled with 
innumerable wild flowers. The country around is studded with an 
immense number of Tels, which would doubtless repay a visit as mark- 
ing the sites of ancient and long-forgotten towns. 

On my way back to Beyrout, betweeujTripoli and Batrun, I passed some 
ancientremains which may deserve mention, as IcanTfind no notice of them 
elsewhere. These remains consist of the ruins of what was apparently 
a small temple, situated on lofty ground, commanding a tine view of the 
sea and of the Eas of Enfeh far below. Two niches in the outer wall are 
of curious construction. Upon a basement are placed two upright 
stones, which are flat -within, but externally/ are cut out so as to form 
recesses or niches, the two upright stones being|in both cases surmounted 
by a single large one. In the fields hard by lie many sculptured stones, 
a rude piece of a frieze, and a huge circular J stone with a shallow basin 
cut in its upper surface, and designed apparently for an altar. In the 
road is a cistern hewn in the rock. The place is named Ard Zacroon. 
On a still higher point, a little to the south, are some other vestiges of 
ancient buildings. 

The town of Jebeil, formerly Gebal and [afterwards Byblus, offers 
many objects of antiquarian interest. A good deal of drafted masonry 



226 NOTES ON IIUAD. 

exists about the haiboiir, where also the immense number of prostrate 
granite columns, ■wliicli lie about in all directions, testify to tlie splendour 
of the colonnades wbich once adorned the spot. The picturesque castle, 
still jjartly occupied by the Tru-kish garrison, is built throughout of 
bevelled stones, some of which are incised with masons' marks like those 
at Tarlus. Its plan exhibits a lofty central keeji, surrounded by a 
massive wall with square towers at each angle, of which one is plainly 
of later work than the rest. That the whole is a reconstruction is 
evident from the fact that columns and portions of carved friezes of 
earlier buildings are worked into the basement of the walls. The build- 
ing may jirobably be ascribed to the Crusaders. The keep is entered by 
a square-headed doorway of drafted masonry (which indeed is employed 
throughout), and above it is the segment of an arch composed of three 
stones. The material employed is partly yellow limestone and partly 
conglomerats or pudding-stone. In an outbuilding a Greek inscription 
has been built into the wall, and close by a staircase leads down into a 
passage which is said to end only at the sea. In the garden of a cottage 
south-east of the town several remains of Eoman time have recently 
been brought to light. Among them I noticed four altars, one iu perfect 
preservation and with its four " horns " complete, a votive niche with its 
figure wanting, but bearing an cijc sculptured in relief in the pediment, 
and two mutilated inscriptions, one in memory of a Roman soldier and 
the other dedicated to a certain Fortunatus. The principal Maronite 
Church of Jebeil is a large and handsome Gothic structure. It has three 
apses with a round-arched window in each. In the front is a pretty rose 
window. Over the north door is a Cufic inscription, and outside it a 
beautiful Baptistery, of which one side leans upon the church. It exhibits 
a dome supported by four pillars, and the lofty pointed arches above are 
enriched with exquisitely varied chevron mouldings. In the yard outside, 
covering tombs, are two beautifully carved fragments of Greek sculpture in 
white marble. At the distance of about an hour and a half from Jebeil, and 
about half an hour from the Nahr Ibrahim, I made a somewhat interest- 
ing discovery. This was a cave to the left of the road, within which 
rude benches have been cut in the rock. I found here great quantities 
of hard breccia like that discovered by Dr. Tristram near the Nahr el 
Kelb, and comi^osed of an immense quantity of flint flakes worked by 
hand, bones and teeth of animals, and sea shells, the occupants of which 
had, without doubt, been used as food by the primitive inhabitants of 
the cave. The teeth were, I believe, those of the ox. I was informed 
that the place is named AsforojeJi. In this connection it will bo proper 
to mention a discovery recently made at Beyrut. "While waiting for the 
steamer at Jaffa I purchased of a young American of the United States 
a beautifully worked lance-head of flint which he had picked up on the 
Eas. On arriving at Beyrout I took advantage of the late extraordinary 
heavy rains to visit the spot, which is situated in the midst of the 
accumulation of blown sand which occupies the highest portion of the 
Eas. No time could have been more propitious for the purpose, as the 



AKAI3IC AND HEBREW, 227 

rains had in many places washed the sand entirely away and exposed 
the hard, dark-red marl beneath, and such an opportunity may not 
occur again for years. I found that this marl was in places strewn 
with flakes of flint, amongst which I discovered a beautiful leaf-shaped 
lance and two saws, shaped out of yellowish flint. Half a mile to the 
south-east of this spot I came on another place of the same kind, where, 
if possible, the flint-flakes were even more numerous than in the flrst. 
In subsequent visits I picked up two carefully worked lance-heads, some 
more saws, and two larger implements. That these flint implements 
were made on the spot is plainly evident, for I discovered at least 
eight little mounds where the flint-workor had sat chipping at his 
manufacture. These spots abounded with large flints, as well as in flakes 
and more perfect specimens. It is to be feared that these interesting 
mounds will be speedily reburied in sand. Besides the relics of the 
prehistoric period, this site abounds in Remains of later epochs and 
people. Great quantities of fragments of broken glass of various 
colours are strewn about in all directions, and belong, apparently, both 
to Grceco-Phoenician and Eoman times. To the latter, also, may be 
referred the numerous tessera) and pieces of green Egyptian porphyry, 
verde antico, and other precious and now extinct marbles, which are 
always signs of occupation by wealthy people. I found also a small 
Phoenician and a small Roman coin in copper. M. Peretie, I under- 
stand, has obtained numerous coins from the same place. 

WoTE. — Since writing the above I have seen the Rev. Henry 
Maundrell's "Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem," 1697; Second 
Edition, 1707. He gives an interesting account of his visit to Amrit 
(he did not cross over to Ruad), tolerably correct engravings of the 
two principal towers, and a plan of the sepulchral chambers, now 
closed up, which he found underneath them. 



AEABIC AND HEBEEW. 

I WOULD call attention to the manner in which many modem 
Arabic words may differ from the Hebrew or Aramaic, just as do 
modern Spanish words from the Latin. Thus we have in Latin and 
Spanish respectively : — Porous, puerco ; Bono, bueno ; Bos, Buey ; 
Capillulus, Cabelluelo ; Cornu, cuerno ; Tempus, tiempo. And we have 
in Hebrew and Arabic : — Socho, Shuweikeh ; Saphir, Sawafu, &c. Fol- 
lowing on this track we obtain from Luweireh, Loreh ; Dawaimeh, 
Dumeh ; Suweimeh, Sumeh ; Kawassimeh, Kassimeh ; Hawara, Hara, 
&c. No doubt there are many known differences in European languages 
which may be found to apply also to Hebrew and Arabic. I have to 
suggest that a few simple rules on this subject might be arrived at 
which woiild aid the explorer in rapidly making a tentative cxamica- 



228 NICHES FOR SKULLS. 

tion of any Aiabic 'word in order to test its likeness to the Hebrew or 

Canaanitish. 

Charles "Waiuien. 
IStb June, 1875. 



NICHES FOR SKULLS. 

'2nd Aiic/ust, 1875. 
In reference to Lieutenant Gender's opinion that the pigeon-hole 
niches at Masada were for skulls, I may mention a recent example 
which I saw in the island of Samos. A small Greek church, built 
about twenty years ago, had on each of the two bay sides six such 
niches. Each contained a skull and crossbones — an extraordinary sight. 
These, \1 was told, were in honour of the founders of the church. The 
other bones, as is common among the Asiatic Greeks in burial, had 
been; destroyed by quicklime. Whether this is in any degree a vestige 
•of cremation may be worth investigation. While a Turkish village is 
surrounded by numerous tombs, giving rise to the vulgar error of the 
decay [of the population, a Greek village of the same or larger size 
5vill not show any beyond the very small graveyard. 

Hyde Clarke. 



PALESTINE 
EXPLORATION FUND. 



Patron— THE QUEEN. 



^arterly Statement 

FOR 1876. 



LONDON : 
PUBLISHED A.T THE SOCIETY'S OFFICE, 9, PALL MALL EAST, 

AND BY 

RICHARD BENTLEY & SON, 8, NEW BURLINGTON STREET. 



INDEX. 



'Aak, 141 

Aana, 142 

Aaruna, 90 

Abala, 143 

Abar, 143 

Abel Meholah, 15 

Abira, 94, 144 

Acre, The Trial at, 7 

Adjai, 80 

'Ai, 93 

'Aina, 141, 144 

'Ainini, 84 

Ajmes, 145 

Akadla, 144 

Akara, 143 

'Akbara, 144 

Akidu, 94 

Aksakaba, 84 

Aksaph, 76 

Aksep, 97 

Aleppo, Hebrew Manuscripts at, 55 

Altar on Ebal, 191 

Amashna, 96 

'Araekii, 144 

American Expedition, Tlie, 47 

Ani, 143 

An Kenamu, 144 

'Ansu, 93 

Anuath, 67 

Anuheru, 141 

'Aphla, 141 

Apht(en), 142 

Aphuken, 142 

Arana, 96 

Ashushen, 142 

'Astalatu, 96 

Asor, 72 

Atamm, 97 

Atara, 94, 143 

Atsion, 84 

'Awertab, 194 

Badia, 144 
Bamai, 93 
Bar, 141 
Baratu, 144 
Bartu, 94 
Batna, 95 
Beithsheal, 82 
Berk(na), 145 
Bet Anata, 144 
Betariph, 72 
Bethar, 12 
Betheked, 73 
Bethelia, 15 



Bethsarisa, 68 

Betoffiuea, 71 

Bet Shara, 144 

Bezek, 69 

Caphar Gainala, 16 

Ceperaria, 71 

Chasbi, 15 

Ohoba, 71 

Cofer-Marlou, 79 

Conder, Lieut., On Early Christian 
Topography in Pa- 
lestine, 11 
„ ,, Eock-cut Tombs, 17 

„ ,, Address at Manches- 

ter, 32 

Conference at the Scientific Apparatus 
Loan Exhibition, 153 

Cozeba, 70 

Dapour, 80 

Diocletianopolis, 11 

Djaraou, 75 

Ed, The Altar of, 28 

Emmaus, 172 

Enani, 66 

Etam, The Rock, 175 

Fathoura, 72 

Fenekhu, 90 

Garob, 70 

Geba of Horsemen, 15 

Geneth Asnah, 141 

Gerizim, 190 

Geuta, 90 

Graves without Chambers, 19 

Habatza, 142 

Ham, 145 

Hamath, 78 

Harkara, 144 

Harkatu, 144 

Harnemata, 80 

Hasta, ?2 

Hatzara, 96 

Hazor, 77 

Hemut, 94 

Heshbu, 141 

Hiklaim, 143 

Horar, 143 

Ibl'amu, 141 

Ihmam, 142 

Ilatu, 144 

Iphu, 142 

Irtah, 142 

Iskar, 197 

luluta, 90 

Jacob's Well, 162 



IV 



INDEX. 



Jah . . and Matamim, 78 

Jelden, 82 

Jenetu, 142 

Jerusalem, Discovery at, 9 

Tomb at," 61 
Joshua's Tomb, 192 
Juhem, 90 
Kaana, 96 
Kalamon, 20 
Kamata, 9-4 
Kaphuta, 144 
Kasuna, 97 
Kebatua(n), 140 
Kebau, 145 
Kefr Aziz, 70 
Keneb, 91 
Kenetu, 143 
Kenneratu, 96 
Kenut, 142 
Kerara, 143 
Keramen, 144 
Keret Sennau, 94 
Keriathaal, 82 
Keriath Anab, 80 
Kethu (na), 93 
Khaouretsa, 81 
Kiliimna, 141 
Kokim Tombs, 18 
Latau 'Araka, 141 
Lauza, 96 

List of the Birds collected for the Pales- 
tine Exploration Fund by the Survey 

Party in Palestine, 200 
Luten, 142 
Maaza, 142 
Madna, 95 
Mageddo, 82 
Makata, 96 
Makerphut, 143 
Maklatu, 144 
M'arama, 94 
Maramam, 143 
Mashala, 97 
Masonry Tombs, 151 
Meeting of General Committee, 110 
Mejdel, 142 

Merrill, Letter from Rev. Selah, 177 
Moabite Stone, The Sha^ie of the, 181 
Mountain of the Scape-goat, On the, 164 
Mount Ousor and Mount Ikama, 77 
Nekebu, 141 
Nekhai, 84 
Netopha, 69 

Note by Capt. Warren, 8 
Note on the Arabs in Palestine, S 
Notes on the Language of the Native 

Peasantry in Palestine, 132 
Note on Various Jewish Traditions as 

to the Place where Messias should be 

born, 98 
Notes from the Memoir, 149, 167 



Notes, General, 3, 57, 107, 160 
Notes on Masonry, 197 

Numana, 143 

Odulam, 81 

Onomasticon, The, 13 

Ophrah, 197 

Ouati, 84 

Ousorniara, 84 

Pa Hurah, 96 

Pakaikna, 76 

Palestine before Joshua, 87, 140 

„ The Fertility of Ancient, 120 
,, The First Traveller in, 74 

Paris Geographical Exhibition, 9 

Qodesh, 80 

Raba(na), 94 

Rabau, 143 

Eabbatu, 144 

Rahebu, 87 

Ranama, 142 

Raphia, 85 

Ras Ketes, 141 

Rehobroth, 84 

Rock-sunk Tombs, 19 

Roebuck, The, 152 

Rohob, 82 

Roma, 16 

Royal Geographical Society, Letter to 
the, 154 

Ruten, 89 

Samaritan Topography, 182 

Salim, 72 

Sarana, 95 

Sati, 90 

Sats . . aal, 84 

Semana, 97 

Sestsou, 83 

Shapira Pottery, 99 

Shechem, 192 

Shem'anau, 94 

Shemesadmah, 141 

Shenama, 97 

Side Loculi Tombs, 18 

Sozuza, 12 

Stone of Foundation, 23, 62 

Suka, 142 

Survey, Proposed Tests for the, 66 

Taanak, 140 

Tamena, 79 

Tamesku, 94 

Taphu(nu), 144 

Tebuh, 93 

Tobler, Letter from Dr., 103 

Tsidphoth, 81 

Tubi, 95 

Tuti(na), 94 

Tzafza, 145 

Tzella, 145 

Umm el Amud, The Synagogue of, 22 

Yajur, 70 

Zartha, 144 



y 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND: 

A SOCIETY FOR THE ACCUJILVTE AND SYSTEMATIC INVESTIGATIOX OF 
THE ARCHAEOLOGY, THE TOPOGRAPHY, THE GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL 
GEOGRAPHY, THE MANNERS AND CUSTOilS, OF THE HOLY LAND, 
FOR BIBLICAL ILLUSTRATION. 



HEE 



PATRON : 
MAJESTY THE 



QUEEN. 



COMMITTEE : 
*ARCHBISHOP OF YORK, President. 



Dk. H. W. Aclan]), F.R.S. 

Rev. W. Lindsay Alex- 
ander, D.D. 

Rev. Henry Allon, D.D. 

The President of the 
American Association 

Amhurst Tyssen Amhurst, 

Esq. 
*Capt. Andeeson, R.E. 

Rev, Joseph Angus, D.D. 

Duke of Argyll 

T. Farmer Baily, Esq. 

Rev. JosephBarclaYjLL.D. 

James Bateman, Esq., F.R.S. 

Rev. Canon Birch 
♦Samuel Birch, Esq., LL.D. 

Rev. H. M. Butler, D.D. 

Marquis of Bute 

Archbishop of Canterbury 

Earl of Carnarvon 

T. Chaplin, Esq., M.D., 
lion. Sec. for Jerusalem 

Bishop op Chester 

Dean of Chester 

Dean of Christchurch 

Lord Alfred Churchill 
*J. D. Grace, Esq. 

John Cunliffe, Esq. 

Duke op Devonshire 

Earl Ducie 
*W. Hepworth Dixon, Esq. 
♦Professor Donaldson 

Lord Dufferin 
*F. A. Eaton, Esq. 

S. Jackson Eldridge, Esq., 
Bey7-out 

Bishop of Exeter 

Rev. F. W. Fauras, D.D. 

James Fergusson, Esq., 
F.R.S. 

A. Lloyd Fox 

H. W. F'reeland, Esq. 

5a?tA;ers— Messrs. Coutts and Co., 



Rev. 
Rev. 
Rev. 
Sir 



M. Clermont-Ganneau 

F. Waymouth Gibiss, Esq., 
C.B. 

Rev. C. D. Ginsburg, LL.D. 

Cyril C. Graham, Esq. 
*James GlaisheKjEsq., F.R.S. 

Samuel Gurney, Esq. 

H. A. Harper, Esq. 

Rev. J. C. Harrison 

A. J. Beresford Hope, 
Esq., M.P. 

Dr..JosephD.Hooker,F.R.S. 

Holman Hunt, Esq. 

Gen. Sir Henry James 

Lord Lawrence 

Right Hon. A. H. Latard 

F. Leiqhton, Esq., R.A. 

Gener.al Lefroy 

Lord Henry Lennox 

Professor Hayter Lewis 

Dean of Lichfield 

Ambrose L. P. DeLisle,Esq. 

Sakuel Lloyd, Esq. 

Bishop of London 
*WiLLiAM Longman, Esq. 

John MacGregor, Esq. 

Master of University 
College, Oxford 

Rev. Samuel Martin 

Henry Maudsl.a.y, Esq. 

Edward Miall, Esq., M.P> 

Sir Moses Montefiore, Bt. 

Noel Temple Moore, Esq., 
H.B.M. Consul, Jerusalem 

Samuel Morley, E.sq., M.P. 

Rev. J. Mullens, D.D. 

John Murray, Esq. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bt. 

Professor Owen, F.R.S. 

Sir S. Morton Peto, Bt. 

Professor E. H. Palmer 

Bishop of Peterborough 

f59. Strand. The Union Bank of 



Herr Petermaxn 
Rev. E. H. Plumptrk 

J. L. PoRTERj LL.D. 
Charles Pritchard 
Prof. Pusey, D.D 
Henry Rawlinsoit, 
K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Rev. Profes.sor Rawlinsok 
Henry Reeve, Esq. 
Marquis of liiPON 
Bishop op Ripon 
Earl Russell 
Dr. Saxdkeczky' 
Viscount Sandon 
•M. De Saulcy 
Lord Henry J. M. D. 

Scott, M.P. 
Earl of Shaftesbury 
William Smith, Esq.,LL.B. 
Siii G. Gilbert Scott, R.A. 
W. Spottiswoode, Esq., 

F.R.S. 
Captain R."W.Stewart,R.E. 
Rev. John Stoughton, D.D- 
Viscount Stratford i>k 

Redcliffe 
Duke »f Sutherland 
Rev. a. W. Thorold 
William TippiNG,EsQ.,M.r. 
*Rev. Canon Tristrah-., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
*W. S.W. Vaux, Esq., F.R.S- 
The Count de Vsouk 
*Captain Warren, R.E. 
Dean of Vv'^estminstei^ 

F.R.S. 
Duke of Westminster. 
Rev. George Williams, B.I). 
*M A Jou Wilson, R.E., i\K.S. 
George Wood, Esq. 
Bishop of Winchester 



London, Charirig 



Cross Braiieh, 66, Charing Cross. 

Treasurer — *Walter ^Iorrison, Esq. 

Hon. Secretaries — *Eev. F. W. Holland, and *George Grove, Esq., LL.D. 

Acting Secretary — Walter Bhsa^'T, Esq. Office, 9, Pall Mall East. 

* Member of the Executive Committee. 



r;.IGIITH THOUSAND. 



OUR WORK IN PALESTINE 



la this book will be fotxnd not only a complete account of 
the work of the Committee to the commencement of the Survey, 
but the reasons of the work a,nd the aims of the future. It is 
published at the lowest possible price, and will be added to from 
time to time. 



Crown 8ro. 350 |);; With Fifty Illustrations. Price 2>s. Qd. 



THIRD EDITION. 

THE RECOVERY OF JERUSALEM. 

PRiCE ONE GUINEA. 



BENTLEY & SON, 8, NEW BUELINGTON ST., W. 



TEEASUEEE'S STATEMENT. 

The income of 1875 shows a gratifying increase on the subscriptions of preceding 
years. Those of 1873 and 1874 were respectively (from donations and subscrip- 
tions only) £3,170 12s. 4d. and £3,382 9s.J10d. That for 1875 is £3,971 9s. 9d. 
This is the hirgest amount yet received, and the steady increase may fairly be 
taken to show the growth of interest in the objects of the Fund. The year began 
with a heavy debt of £1,440 19s. Sd. against a balance of £378 8s. Id. It finishes 
with a debt of £1,081 14s. lid., against fwhich must be placed a balance o;' 
£321 16s. lid. Tlie position of the Society is therefore improved by £300. 
Since the beginning of the current year a further sum of £250 has been paid off 
from the unpaid accounts ; and at the present date (March 28) the Society i:s 
liable, after deducting current balance, to no [more than £300, a position niucli 
better than we have held for the last three years. 

The Publications of the Fund realised last year the sum of £128 17s. 9d. This 
includes a small amount from the sale of " The Recovery of Jerusalem." The 
major portion is derived from the sale of "Our Work in Palestine." There is 
also some demand for tlie Quarterly Statements. The amount received from 
Lectures shows a great falling off, but this is due to the resignation of Mr. St. 
Clair in August last, just before the commencement of the lecture season, so that 
the receipts under this head are those for half the year only. The Photograpli 
balance for the ilrst time shows a profit — viz., of .£36 10s., the amount of 
^18 15s. 2d. shown in last year's Balance Sheet as balance of cost of stock in hand 
being now cleared off, so that future sales will be no longer burdened witli a 
balance of debt. 

The Expenditure under the head of Exploration consists of ^2,773 14s. 9d. This 
*ium represents all the expenses of the exploring party until their return in the 
autumn, with their pay until the end of the year, their passage home, and the 
expenses entailed on them by the attack at Safed, and their consequent stay at 
Carmel to attend the trial, with medical expenses due to the injuries received. 
Under the head of printing fall the expenses of the Quarterly Statement. The 
heavy postage is accounted for by the fact that nearly 5, 000 of these Statements 
are sent out each quarter by post to subscribers. 

The subdivision of expenditure is as follows : — 

Exploration ... 

Printing and Lithography 

Advertising 

Office, including Rent, Salaries, and 

Sundries... 
Posta.ge 

The office expenses are raised above those of last year by an increase of salaries 
necessarily incurred by the increased office-work. The payment of all officers 
employed by the Committee monthly instead of quarterly made also a slight 
diflerence for the year. In tlie Notes will be found a statement of the actual 

current expenses. 

(Signed) W. MORRISON, 

Hon. Treasurer. 



70 '15 per c 


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LIST OF DONATIONS AND SUBSCRIPTIONS, 

DECEMBER 28TH, TO MARCH 2STH, 1876. 



a denotes Annual Subscriber. 



J,* If any omission or mistake be observed in the following lists, the Secretary will be very glad 
to be iuformed of it, ami will rectify the en-or in the next Quarterly Statement 



■aRev. H. Adcock 

aRev. T. S. Aldis 

«Rev. "W. Armstrong 

Lodge of Antiquity, per S. 

Tomkins, Esq 

«The Misses Badcock 

«Miss Bancroft 

«Rev. Dr. Barclay 

rtRev. F. R. Barker 

«Dr. Barlow 

«Rev. W. H. Barlow 

rtR. S. Bartlett, Esq 

«Rev. A. C. W. Bean 

«Miss Beaufort 

«Rev. C. D. Beckford 

aRev. W. R. Bell 

aH. F. Bell, Esq 

aJ. Bernard, Esq 

«Jas. Berry, Esq 

«Rev. T. Blackburne 

fl-Robert Blake, Esq 

«Rev. W. H. Blamire 

«C. Graham Blatchley, Esq. ... 

aR. Blair, Esq 

aRev. C. E. Blencowe 

aRev. W. Bilton 

«Mrs. Birkbeck 

«.J. W. Bogg, Esq 

aMiss S. Bourne 

aRev. D. J. Boutflower 

«J. Bowi'OD, jun., Esq 

a J. H. Bracken, Esq 

«Miss Bracken 

«Rev. E. H. Bradley 

aJno. Brash, Esq 

aW. B. Brayshay, Esq 

«Henry Brown, Esq 

aMrs. Comisli Brown , 

«Rev. John Brooke 

oF. P. Brown, Esq 



' £ s. 

10 

1 1 
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21 
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1 

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10 
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1 1 
1 1 

3 3 

10 

1 1 

10 

1 1 



d. 
6 

6 



G 








6 

6 


6 

6 




6 
6 




aRev. F. G. Burnaby 

«J. H. Buxton, Es([ 

oJno. R. Byrom, Esq 

aRev. R. Callender 

rtMrs. R. Callender 

aJ. Carrick, Esq 

a^V. M. Carr, Esq 

aRev. W. H. Chambers 

aMiss Chambers 

aRev. W. Champernown 

aRev. G. Christian 

i;ffj. Chapman, Esq 

'aMiss Carruthers 

aW. J. Church, Esq 

aMiss Clendinning 

aG. Clark, Esq 

Lord Clermont 

aC. C. Clifford, Esq 

aMiss Mary Clode 

aRev. H. B. Clough 

aMrs. Cornish 

aJ. L. Cover, Esq 

Miss M. A. Corrie (a£l Is.). 

aMiss G. Corrie 

aG. M. Cockin, Esq 

aRev. J. J. Oort 

aHenry Courtice, Esq 

«G. C. Courthorpe, Esq 

aH. Courtney, Esq 

aW. Cole, Esq 



aDr. Colby. 



aJ. D. Crace, Esq 

aG. B. Crewdson, Esq.... 
aMrs. A. H. H. Corsbie 

a J. E. Cooper, Esq 

ff General Cracklow 

G. C 

aRev. Dr. Culross 

aRev. L. G. C. Cure ... 
aRev. T. Dalton 



£ s. 


d. 


2 





5 





10 





10 


6 


10 


6 


1 1 





10 


6 


10 


6 


1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 


.( 


1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 











1 





10 


6 


10 


6 


1 1 





10 


6 


6 6 





1 1 





10 


6 


10 


6 


1 1 





1 1 





2 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





2 2 





1 1 





2 2 





5 





10 


6 


2 





1 1 






LIST OF SUBSCRIPTIONS. 



«Rev. G. W. Dalton 

K. Damon, Esq., proceeds of 

Lecture - 

f/Edward Davies, Esq 

«W. R. Davies. Esq 

f/Rev. W. H. Davy 

aMajor Deedes 

«Miss E. Devenish 

aRev. W. AY. Dickenson 

aG. D. W. Digby, Esq 

Major Ditraras («10s. 6d.) 

aC. G. Dobbs, Esq 

rtS. H. Dodgson, Esq 

ftRight Rev. Bishop of Dover... 

aMrs. Tyi-whitt Drake 

rt Edgar A. Drummond, Esq. ... 

aMrs. Dyott 

reRev. Dr. Eadie 

«Rev. Jno. Edmoud, D.D 

rtRev. W. J. Edwards 

iliss Ellison 

«W. Farrer, Esq 

«Rev. AV. Farrer 

<^rRev. A. R. Faussett 

rtMrs Hester Fen wick 

a Airs. Gerrard Forsyth 

«Rev. R. AV. Fiske 

«Rev. S. T. Fowler 

«Rev. G. E. Fox 

«J. H. Fox, Esq 

aRev. AV. S. Fowler 

aRev. F. H. Freeth 

oE. AV. Fry, Esq 

AV. L. F 

aJ. Gadsby, Esq 

rt Alessrs. Gall and Inglis 

rt Aliss Garratt 

aAIrs. Garnett 

ftJIrs. George, sen 

rtAIrs. German 

rtRev. AV. Gibb 

rtRev. J. Godson 

«Mrs. G. A. Goddard 

A. F. Govett, Esq 

aRev. A. Gray 

rtRev. R. Green 

rtAIiss Julia Greene 

rtAIiss Grove 

rtRev. Canon Haddock 

R. Hanbury, Esq 

rtMrs. Hancock 

«J. Hankinson, Esq 

Rev. J. H. Harris («£1 Is.) ... 

aAIiss 0. Hardy 

rtRev. J. H. Harrison 

rtMrs. AA''. Ma und}'- Harvey 

rtMiss L. Heath 

rtRev. S. Hebditch 

rtLord C. A. Hervey 

6 



£ s. 


d. 


1 1 





3 5 





1 1 





1 1 





10 


6 


1 1 





1 1 





2 2 





10 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





2 2 





1 





1 





10 


6 


1 1 





2 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





10 


6 


5 





1 1 





10 


6 


1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





100 





1 1 





1 





10 


6 


1 1 





1 





10 


6 


10 


6 


1 1 





10 





10 





1 





1 1 





10 





10 


6 


10 


6 


10 





1 1 





1 1 





4 4 





1 





1 1 





1 1 





10 





10 


6 


1 1 






aRev. J. Hewetson 

a A. A. Heywood, Esq 

aRev. S. Highton 

aRev. Melsup Hill 

aj. Hilton, Esq 

aHiram Hitchcock, Esq 

aMiss A. M. Hoare 

aS. K. Hodgson, Esq 

aRev. Jas. Holme 

aMrs. E. T.Holland 

aRev. C. H. Hole 

aRev. J. H. Hooper 

aC. G. Hopkinson, Esq. ... 

aMiss A. Hunter 

aMiss Hutchinson 

aJ. R. Hutchinson, Esq.... 

1 J. J 

I "Iota" 

1 E. Johnson, Esq 

jaVen. Archdeacon Jacob... 

[aL. Jaques, Esq 

aMrs. C, Kemble 

aMrs. Kiln 

aAV. King, Esq 

aRev. Jno. Kinross 

aJno. Kirkpatrick, Esq. ... 

aR. L. Kirby, Esq 

aCol. Kitchener 

I aMrs. Knapi^ing 

aRev. T. Ladds 

aG. Lawrence, Esq 

aHenry Leask, Esq 

aAV. J. Le Cooq, Esq 

jaC. H. S. Leicester, Esq. 
!aAV. H. Leighton, Esq. ... 

jaRev. H. Lewis 

!aG. P. Leycester, Esq. ... 

aMiss Lindsay 

laAV. Long, Esq 

aMrs. Lorrimer 

:aA. Lupton, Esq 

aRev. J, Lyon 

aLuke Mackey, Esq 

aAV. B. Maingay, Esq 

aT. W. Mansh, Esq 

aMiss Martin 

aE. Symous Martyn, Esq. 

«Rev. Jno. Matthewson .. 

aJ. McKinnell, Esq 

aR. Mullings, Esq 

aC. H. Millar, E.sq 

aE. Millar, Esq 

i aMiss E. Mitchell 

aAIrs. J. Lloyd Morgan .. 

aRev. J. H. Moore 

aH. H. Morrish, Esq 

ffRev. Geo. AV. Mullins .. 

aD Murray, Esq 

aRev. Vernon Musgrave .. 



£ s. d. 
10 
5 5 
5 
110 



1 1 
10 



1 1 

1 1 














10 



10 6 



1 1 
1 1 
1 1 

10 

10 
2 

1 1 

1 1 

2 2 

10 
2 2 
10 

1 1 
10 

1 1 

10 

1 1 
1 1 

10 















10 



1 1 
1 1 

1 10 

1 1 







(» 










10 

1 1 

10 « 





5 

2 2 
2 2 

1 







10 () 
10 

10 

1 1 
1 1 



10 



LIST OF SUBSCRIPTIONS. 



«J. H. Neilson, Esq 

aBishop of Nelson 

a J. R. Norton, Esq 

rtGen. F. J. Nuthall 

«M. A. Obert, Esq 

«Rev. G. D. W. Ommanncy 

G. C. Orral, Esq 

«Rev. J. N. Palmer 

Miss Peache 

oD. M. Peebles, Esq 

E. Pewtress, Esq 

aAlex. Peckover, Esq., per.. 

«J. H. Plowes, Esq 

«Rev. C. Potchett 

aRev. R. L.Pratt 

Rev. Canon Prescott 

«Rev. R. W. Pritchard 

reRev. F, D. Pritt 

aRev. E. S. Prout 

aRev. W. H. B. Proby 

«Rev. J. J. Purcell 

«W. H. Rawson, Esq 

«Mrs. W. H. Rawson 

aLady Katherine Raymond... 

aW. R. Reeves, Esq 

aRev. A. M. Rend ell 

aRev. T. Rigaud 

aRev. Philpin de Riviere 

aMissM. Roberts 

nRev. D. D. Robertson 

aJ. N. Robertson, Esq 

aDixon Robinson, Esq 

aGeorge Robinson, Esq 

aDr. Rogers 

aMrs. Rouse 

aC. J. A. Rumbold, Esq. ... 

aW. Sandy, Esq 

aT. Scarborough, Esq 

aMiss Emily Secretan 

aMiss Shennan (collected) ... 

aRobert L. Smith, E.sij 

aLady Smith 

aCol. E. Smyth 

aR. J. Snape, Esq 

aT. Sopwith, Esq 

N. M.S 

aRev. G. Studdert 

aUr. Taylor 

aMiss Taylor 

J. D. Thomas, Esq 

n Rev. Archer Thompson 

aMrs. Wyndham Tufnell 

aRev. W. Twiss Turner 

aRev. S. S. Unwiu 

aDr. J. Vaughan 

aW. S. ^Y. Vaux, Esq 



£ s. 


d. 


1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





1 





10 





1 





2 





1 1 





100 





1 





1 1 





2 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





2 2 





10 


6 


1 1 1 





10 


6 


1 1 





10 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





10 





1 1 





10 





10 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





10 


6 


1 





5 





10 


6 


1 1 





1 





10 


6 


13 


6 


1 





2 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





12 





1 





10 


6 


10 


6 


15 





1 1 





1 





2 2 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 






aRev. W. Vincent 

Henry Wagner, Esq 

Miss Wakeham (a£5 5s.) 

aJ. E. Wakefield 

aRobert Walters, Escj 

aCapt. W. Ward, K.A 

I Capt. Warren, ii.E. (proceeds 

of Lecture) 

aWilson Waterfall, Esq 

aJ. H. Watson, Esq 

aG. F. Watts, Esq 

aA. B. Webber, Esq 

aRev. J. C. Wharton 

a J. J. Wheeeler, Esq 

aRev. J. 0. Whitehouse 

aJ. R. Wigham, Esq 

aRev. F. E. Wigrana 

aSir R. Wilbraham 

aCaptain Williams, R.E 

aRev. W. W. Willson 

aRev. E. Wil.son 

aW. A. Wood, Esq 

aMiss Woodward 

aT. Woodruff, Esq 

aMrs. Baring Young 

aYorkshire Prov. Grand Lodge, 

N. and E. Ridings 

aN. and E. Ridings Prov. Grand 

Chapter 

Per Rev. A. F. Forbes :— 

Rev. G. Whitmore 

G. Howard McLean, Esq 

Mrs. Griffiths 

Rev. F. Corbet 

Lord Wrottesley 

Rev. A. T. Pelham 

Earl of Dartmouth 

Edward Cheney, Esq 

Rev. R. H. More 

Rev. F. Hotham 

Mrs. Brasier 

Earl of Bradford 

Rev. H. T. O'Eorke 

W. Lay ton Lowndes 

R. H. Boycott 

Charles Cooper, Esq 

J. N.Miller, Esq " 

aMiss Vickers 

aJIiss Wasey 

Per Rev. T. C. Henley :— 

Rev. F. W. Pierson 

Mrs. Finn, on account: — 

Jan. 19 

March 25 

Per Messrs. Williams and Deacon, 
per Rev. J. W. Carr 



£ 

1 

10 
110 

1 



1 



f) 

1 (> 





1 1 



1 

1 
1 
1 

10 (J 

1 
1 
1 

5 

1 
1 

10 i; 

10 

1 

10 
2 
1 



1 

1 



1 
10 

(I 

1 
10 









1 
1 

10 fi 









1 1 



40 
110 








110 



LIST OF SUBSCRIPTIONS. 



LOCAL SOCIETIES. 



ABERDEEN. 



March 24.— Pa- cheque £16 



' fj^W'itli tlie following list : — 

T^Iisses Gow, London 

]Jo., per Mr. Singer 

j\rr.s. Maelnre '. 

.lolm Smith, Es(] 

John Morrison, Es([ 

ilrs. Macpherson 

Do. (second sub.) .... 

]'ev. H. Cowan 

< leo. Thompson, Esq 

A\^ Henderson , Esq 

Alex. Nicol, Esq 

JohnF. White, Esq 

Alex. Simpson, Esq. 

W. Yeals, Esq 

P. Eplemont, Esq 

) ! eo. Jamieson, Esq 

A. Stroriach, Esq 

W. Hunter, Esq 



£1 1 
1 1 

10 

1 () 
(I 10 
10 
r> 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

5 

1 
10 
10 
10 
10 



J. Chalmers, Esq 

J. Aiken, Esq 

J. A. IMurray, Esq. 
Andr. Murray, Esq. 

W. Smart, Esq 

C. Chalmers 

J. Marr, Esq 

Professor Ogston ... 
Mrs. John Crombie 
Alex. F. Moir, Esq. 
G. F. Duthie, Esq. 



Collector's commission 16s. 6d. 
Postages draft, &c. ... 2s. 6d. 




6 



£0 10 9 
10 6 
5 
10 
10 6 
10 
110 
110 
10 6 
10 
5 

£17 2 



19 



£16 3 



ARBROATH. 
Feb. 17.— By cash £10 IC 



.\lexander Gordon 

David Corsar 

William Salmond and Sons. 

Andrew Lowson 

James Shanks 

D. Eraser and Sons 

Balfour and Cumming 

A. Nicol and Co 

Fras. Webster 

James Muir 

W. K. Macdonahl 

William RoUo 

J. M. McBain 

W. Salmond 



£1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





10 


6 


10 


(i 


10 





10 





10 





10 





10 





10 





5 





5 






Rev. F. Mudie 
George Yule .. 



W. Briggs 

Rev. J. Chalmers 

George Lyon 

Alex. Ferguson ... 
G. W. Laird 



R. W. Phillip I 

A. Petrie, sen 

Geo. Sturroek 

H. Paterson 

D. Leslie 



J. Lumgair 

W. J. Anderson. 



£0 


5 








5 








5 








5 








5 








5 








5 








2 


6 





2 


6 





2 


6 





2 


6 





2 


6 





2 


6 





2 


6 



AYR. 



Jan. 3.— By ca.sh £5 8 

Subscriptions to Palestine Exploration Fund, 1875 : — ■ 



Miss Aytoun 

D. Currie 

Campljell Douglas 
Rev. Dr. Dykes . , 

John Flint 

General Lennox.. 



£0 








10 
5 
10 
10 
10 
10 



John Murdoch ... 
I R. D. Murdoch . . 
James McMnrtrie 
5Ir.s. Macneille ... 
Miss MeTa;r£cart... 



611 



10 


6 


1 1 





5 





5 





10 






8 



LIST OF SUBSCRIPTIONS. 



BELFAST. 



March IS.— By cash 



£6 



AVni. Ewart, Esq 

"\Vm. Q. Ewart, Esq. ... 

L. M. Ewart, Esq 

Charles Thompson, Esi|. 
"\V. E. Crothers, Es<[. .. 



£1 
1 
1 
10 
10 



Airs. Montgomery . 
Charles Druitt .... 

Miss Druitt 

Mrs. Warnock .... 



£0 10 


fi 


10 


6 


10 


G 


10 


G 



BIRKENHEAD. 
March 27.— By cheque £20 



With' the following list : — 

Jan. 19.— Col. Y. King 

Feb. 15.— Eev. C. I. Stephen... 

,, Rev. Canon Feilden 

,, Rev. P. E. Robin ... 

24. — Miss Thompson 

., W. Williamson, Esq. 

28.— S. Stitt, Esq 

,, James Irvine, Esq. ... 



£1 !,Feb. 28.— B. Darbyshire, Esq... 
5 I Mar. 3.— P. A. Williams, Esq. 
, 11. — The Misses Harrison 

, ,, H. Bell, Esq., jun 

, ,, H. Scott, Esq 

, 1(>. — E. Perrin, Esq 

, 18.— Rev. M. Fearnley ... 






10 


6 


2 


2 








5 








10 





1 


1 





1 


1 






£1 

1 
1 



10 

1 1 
10 







6 





BISHOP'S AVALTHAM. 
Feb. IS.— By cash £2 12 6 

BRIGHTON. 
Jan. 3. — Miss Gainsford £1 1 

BROADSTAIRS. 

Jan. 15.— By cash .^0 17 6 

Miss Brown £0 10 

Rev. J. H. Carr 5 

Mrs. Howard 2 G 

BURNLEY. 

March 15.— By cash £2 7 

Rev. C. L. Reynolds £ 1 1 

Mr. F. J. Grant 10 6 

L. W. Reynold.?, Esq 10 6 

Mr. Strange , 5 

CANADA : TORONTO. 
Jan. 24.— By ca.sh £51 11 3 

1874. 1875. 

Dols. Dols. 

Chief Justice Draper 5 5 

C. S. Gzursbi, Esq 5 5 

T. S. Steyner, Esq 5 5 



LIST OF SUBSCRIPTIONS. 



1874. 
Dols. 
Lieut. -Col. Motiatt 5 

D. H. Adams 3 

Eev. R. V. Clementi 5 

Hon. A. Vidal 5 

Rev. E. Rogerson 5 

Chief Justice Hagarty 5 

Hon. W. McMaster 5 

Rev. Provost Whitaker 5 

Professor Wilson 5 

C. Robinson, Esq 5 

A. McL. Howard, Esq 5 

Rev. J. Broughall 5 

Rev. L. Taylor 3 

Hon. J. Ferrier 5 

E. H. Dobell, Esq 5 

Hon. B. Flint 5 

Hon. A. Morris 5 

Hon. J. Aikins 5 

Hon. J. S. Geddes 5 

J. Edwards 

J. Beard 

J. Reynolds, Esq 5 

Rev. J. Hebden 

Hon. D. L. Macpherson 5 

Hon. Geo. Allan a 



1875. 
Dols. 

5 

3 

5 

.'> 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

o 



5 
5 



3 
3 



5 
5 



■n T " 



-.«. i 



CORK. 



Jan. 5. — T. Duncombe, Es(i 



£0 2 



DARLINGTON. 
Jan. 1.— By cash £37 4 



Rev. T. E. Hodgson, 1874 and 
1875, at 10s. 6d 

Mr. T. L. Pratt, 1875 

Mr. Whitfield, 1874 

Mr. Goddard, 1874, 1875, 187(j, 
1877, 1878, at 10s. 6d 

Mr. Grieveson, 1875 



1 


1 





1 


1 








10 


6 


o 


12 


6 





10 


6 



|Mr. Deighton, 1875 

.Mr. Arthur Pease, 1875 I 10 

Mr. C. R. Fry, 1875 I 1 

'Mr. J. W. Pease, M.P., 1875 ... ' 5 
]Mr. E. Backhouse, M.P., 1875 ' 5 

Mrs. G. Pease, 1875 j 10 

'Mr. S. Elton, 1875 



-f ■. 2 


1 












0- 



DUNFERMLINE. 



March 22. — By clKque 



With the following list : — 

Thomas Alexander, Esq | £1 

(Jeorge Birrell, Esq } 10 

Rev. James Brown .. 
Robert Donald, Esq. 
John Duncanson, Esq, 
Rev. Andrew Graham 
John Landale, Esq 



10 

1 
10 
10 




10 



Daniel Laniond, Esq ^ 

Jame Macfarlane, Esq I 10 

AVilliam Matthewson, Esq j 1 



£15 4 (» 



Messrs. W. and J. Maclaren . . . 

Rev. Alex. Mitchell 

Rev. Daniel Maclean 

David Russell, Esij 

Henry Reid, Esq 

John Ross, Esq 

William Reid, jun.. Esq 

Patrick F. Soutar, Escj. (1875-6) 
Andrew Wallace Esq 



£0 10 


G 


2 


6 


10 


G 


1 





1 





10 


G 


5 





2 2 





2 






10 



LIST OF SUBSCRIPTIONS. 

EASTBOURNE. 

Dec. 31.— By cash £5 

Very Rev. H. R. Alder £l 1 

F. C. S. Roper, 1874 and 1875... 2 2 

Rev. H. R. Whelpton 1 1 

Dr. Bransby Roberts 10 6 

W. Routledge, Es(i 10 (3 



FARNHAM. 

Jan. 24— By casli £0 4 

Feb. 5.— Rev. G. E. Fox 



10 



^Irs. Knight 

]\Ir. K. Bacon 

Mr. G. Slomau 

Rev, F. £. Utterton 



£1 1 





1 1 





10 


6 


10 


6 



Mr. G. Curling > £1 1 



Mrs. A. Steven 

J. H. Knight 

Rev. C. Hankey (don.). 



10 

1 1 
10 



FAVERSHAM. 
March 2.— By cash £5 16 



Mr. J. A. Anderson, jun. 

ilr. H. Anderson 

Mr. B. Adkins 

Mr. C. Bryant 

Jlr. H. E. Coulter 

Rev. C. E. Donne 

Mr. F. F. Giraud 

Mr. S. Higham 

Miss Jones 

Mr. R. J. Hilton 

Mr. P. Neame 

Mrs. Rigden 



;o 


5 








2 


6 





2 


6 





2 


6 





5 








5 








2 


6 





5 








5 








5 








5 








10 






Mr. W. E. Rigden 

Mr. R. "Watson Smith 

Mr. L. Shrubsole 

Mr. C. Smith 

Mr. J. Tassell 

Mr. J. Warren 

Mr. R. Wyles 



Paid for advertisine; 



£0 


5 





1 


1 








2 


6 





10 


6 





5 


(» 





2 


6 





5 





£5 


6 


6 





5 





£5 


1 


6 



GREENOCK, 

March 3.— By cash £39 

List of subscribers for year ending 31st December, 1875, per Donald MacDonald, 
Hon. Local Treasurer : — 



James Morton, Esq 

Alexander Qurrie, Esq. 

Duncan Shaw, Esq 

Archibald Adam, Esq 

John Erskine, Esq 

James Stewart, Esq 

John Macgregor, Esc| 

John C. Hunter, E.sq 

Colin S. Caird, Esq 

^Vm. McClure, Esq 

Alexander Ferguson, Esq. . 

T. 0. Hunter, Esq 

Thomas Prentice, Esq 

John M. Hutcheson, Esq. . 

Graham Brymner, Esq 

Robert Little, Esq 

Alexander Scott, jun., Esq. 

^V. B.Paul, Esq 

John Paul, Esq 



£3 
2 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 



3 



2 




























































































Edward Blackraore, Esq 

John R. Allison, Esq 

Donald MacDonald, Esq 

Mrs. Andrew Carmichael 

Robert Binnie, Esq 

Samuel F. Nicol, Esq 

Matthew Hill, Esq 

J. H. Carmichael, Esq 

Thomas Carmichael, Esi| 

G. R. McDougall, Esq 

Wm. Letham, Esq 

D. D. Adamson, Esq 

Rev. Alex. Walker, Millport, 

Cumbrae 

John B. Crawhall, Esq., London 
John Marquis, Esq., Liverpool 
George Elder, Esq., Knock 

Castle, Wemyss Bay 

James Miller, Esq. , Rothesay . . . 



£1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





1 





1 





1 





10 





10 





10 





10 





10 





1 1 





1 1 





1 1 





1 





1 






u 



LIST OF SUBSCRIPTIONS. 



HULL. 
Feb. 21.— By cash £26 10 



J. P. Bell, M.D £110 

T. Carrick 110 

Colonel Francis 1 1 

Eev. E. Jackson 1 1 

l!ev. Canon Musgi-ave 1 1 

J. Pyburn, M.D 110 

William Sissons , 110 

J. E. Wade 110 

Mrs. Wilson 110 

R. G. Smith 1 1 

Eev. J. Deck 110 

EcT. J. E. Clapham 110 

J. M. Hamilton 110 

Eev. J. Byron, M.A 10 6 

MissE. Bromby 10 6 

E. J. Cook 10 6 

C. Copland 10 6 

Eev, J. EUani i 10 6 

•G. Hardy [ 10 6 

J. H. Hill 10 6 

T. Holden I 10 6 

W. J. Lunn ' 10 6 



Eev. Dr. Mackay ... 

G. Myers 

W. Parker , 

H. Soulsby 

Mrs. Stamp 

Eev. W. T. Vernon 

Mr. Wake 

Samuel Watson 

Eev. G. Wilkinson 

T. Bach 

J. S. Elsworth 

M. W. Clarke 

A. Pickering 

Mr. Middlemiss 

Miss Eadford 

J. S. Cooper 

J. F. Holden 



Less postage, &c. 



£0 10 


6 


10 


6 


10 


6 


10 


6 


10 


6 


10 


6 


10 


6 


10 


6 


10 


6 


10 


6 


10 


6 


10 


6 


10 


6 


10 


6 


10 


6 


5 





5 





26 15 





5 





26 10 






Wm. Sissons, Treasurer. 



IPSWICH. 



Jan. 19. — By casli 

Archdeacon of SulTolk 

G. C. E. Baur, Esq 

B. Binyon, Esij 

W. Brown, Esq 

J. C. Cobbold, Esq 

Eev. S. Garratt 



£9 17 



£1 


1 







1 







1 







1 















1 






Mr. E. Miller 

Eev. W. Potter' 

Eev. C. A. Eaymond 
Eev. J. E. Turnock .. 
S. Westhorp, Esq. .. 



£1 
1 1 
10 
10 
10 



LANCASTEE. 

Feb. 29.— By cash £6 11 6 

T, Storey, Esq £5 

Eev. W. E. Pryke, Eoyal Grammar School 110 
J. Daniel, Moore. M.D 10 6 



LEAMINGTON". 

Jan. 29.— Miss Dall £0 10 

March 6.— By cash 6 19 



Eev. C. C!arus-Wilson 
J. Fenn Clark, Esq.... 
E. Burr, Esq 



Miss AVight 



1 


1 





1 


1 





1 








2 


2 






Miss Blackljurne 

Mrs. Marshall 

Miss Collins (Warwick) 



£10 
10 6 
5 



LIST OF SUBSCRIPTION'S. 
LEEDS. 



March 29. — By cheiiuc 



£5i 1 



LISKEAED. 

Kev. J. 0. West (2 years) £2 2 

W.J. Corin 10 



MALVERN. 

March 4.— Eev. R. F. S. Perfect 



^1 1 



MANCHESTER, 

March 21.— By cheque £12 4 

1875.— Already forwarded ... £440 G 

Jan. 11. — By cheque 42 16 

„ 24.— Ditto 17 4 



With the list :— 

^Y. Cunliffe Brooks, Esq.,M.P. 

H. H. Howorth, Esq 

Herbert Philips, Esq 

Neville Clegg, Esq 

C. L. Clare, Esq 

Joseph Lee, Esq 

aRev. T. A. Stowell 

Samuel Cottam, Esq 

Henry Taylor 

fiJohn Lowe, Esq 

J. Armitage, Esq 

J. Galloway Meller, Esq 

W. Gray, Esq 

aRev. H. A. Crosbie 

Charles J. Heywood, Esq. . . . 
aH. B. Jackson, Esq. (1875-6) 
aDavies Colley, Esq 

S. Burridge 

John Robinson 



Total for 1875... £500 



«Rev. W. F. Birch (1876) 

aW. Woodward, Esq 

I Friend 

aMrs. Ci'uso 

Miss Ffarington 

iaRev. C. F. Buckley 

S. J. Shaw, Esq 

aF. W. Grafton, Esq 

|reH. M. Lawrence, Esq 

aH. Marsh, Esq 

I Lecture at Urmston 

*aW. Openshaw, Esq 

aW. Birkenhead, Esq 

aJ. Jackson, Esq 

Lecture by H. Birch, Esq. , at 
St. Matthew's School, Ard- 

wick 

aG. Robinson, Esq 

Interest 



no 


10 





2 


2 





10 








1 


1 





1 


1 





1 


1 








10 


6 


2 


2 








10 


6 


1 


1 








10 





1 


1 





1 


1 





1 


1 





5 








2 


2 





1 


1 





1 


1 





5 









£1 


1 





1 


1 





10 


o 





1 


1 





1 


1 





1 


1 





1 








2 


2 


0' 


1 


1 





1 


1 








8 


6 


1 


1 








10 


6. 





10 


6. 


1 








1 


1 








6 


7 



NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE. 

T. Hodgkin, Esq., B.A £2 2 

R. G. Hoare, Esq 110 



NEWARK. 

March 9. —By cash, per Mrs. TaUents £26 6 

Subscriptions collected by Mrs. Tallents : — 



Mrs. Kendall i £1 



T. S. Godfrey, Esq 

Jlrs. George Gilstrap . 
Mr. and Mrs. Tallents. 

Mr. John Thorpe 

Mrs. Gilstrap 

Mr. Lammin 



Mrs. H. Beaiiston. 
Mrs. Bakewell .. . 

Mrs. Wilson 

Mrs. Deeping .... 
Miss Lawtons .... 



Miss Fillingham 
Mr. J. Eidgo 



£0 10 





10 





10 





10 





5 





5 





5 






13 



LIST OF SUBSCRIPTIONS. 



Subscriptions collected l>y Miss Eeadhou.se 



Viscountess Ossington . . . . 

R. Middleton, Esq 

Mr. J. Bilson 

Mr. E. Bousfield 

Mr. Henry Walton 

R. Wcarwick, Esq 

Miss Good 

R. King. Esq 



£1 1 
2 2 
1 
12 
12 
10 
6 
10 



Mrs. Dring 

Miss Creasey 

Rev. H. A. Martin 

C. Readhouse 

Rev. J. Miller 

Captain Sinclair ... 
Mrs. Taylor 



£0 10 





5 





1 1 





10 


6 


5 





5 





10 






By Mrs. Prince :— 

Mrs. Hall ' £1 1 

Mrs. Beanston 1 1 



By Mrs. Falkner :— 

P. R. Falkner, Esq £1 1 

Evelyn Falkner, E.sq 1 1 

3Ir. John Harvey j 2 



I' Mrs. Howitt 
Mr. Marcli... 



£0 5 



ilMrs. Hutchinson 
j A Friend 

6 11 






5 





£0 



5 
2 







XORWICH. 
Feb. 8.— G. Clark, Esq £0 10 6 



KORTHAMPTON. 



Mar. 9.— By cash 

The Mayor (Jos. Gurney, Esq.) 

Sir Henry Drj'den, Bart 

Rev. E. T. Prust 

T. Scriven, Es(| 

T. Osborn, Esq 

Henry Marshall 

P. P. Perry, Esq 

E. F. Law, Esq 

W. T. Law, Esq 

J. Williams, Esq 

J. Williams, jun 

Rev. H. S. Gedge 

Rev. T. Arnold 

Rev. S. J. W. Sanders 

W. Jones, Esq 

W. Adkins, Esq 

J. Robinson, Esq 

M. P. Maniield, Esq 



£21 



6 



£1 
2 

3 

1 
1 
1 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



T. Wetherell, Esq 

Rev. J. T. Brown 

Mr. W. Marshall 

Rev. M. Barton 

H. Mobbs, Esq 

Rev. S. Gedge 

E. Law, jun 

Mr, J. Smith 

Mr. E. Evans 

Mr. Covington 

Rev. N. T. Hughes 

W. Gray, Esq 

Rev. Geo. Bass 

Rev. E. N. Tom 

Right Rev. Dr. Am erst 

P. Gray, Esq 

Rev. Canon Robson 



£0 10 


6 


10 





10 





10 





10 





5 





5 





5 





5 





5 





5 





5 





r. 





5 





5 





5 





5 






PLYMOUTH. 

Mar. 15.— By cash £11 1 

Jolui Bayley, Esq £10 

Rev. AV. Sykes 1 1 



:4 



LIST OF SUBSCRIPTIONS. 



PUESTOX. 
Jan. 28.— Bv cash £1 11 



T. Lancaster, Esq. 
Rev. li. Brick et . 



£1 1 
10 6 



READING. 



Jan. 29.— By casli 

ftRev. F. E. Williams 

alley. G. G. Smyth 

(cTheodore White, Esq 

«R. Worsley, Esq 

Geo. Palmer, Esq 

W. J. Palmer, Esq 

aH. B. Blandy, Esq 

«Mrs. H. B. Blandy 

«T. E. Hawkins, Es(| 

«C. J. Andrews, Esq 

rtJas. Boorne, Esq ' 

« — Long, Esq 



£17 



£10 

.5 

10 6 

10 6 
10 

1 
10 6 
10 6 
10 6 

10 6 

1 1 
110 







a — AUaway, Esi j 

-Wellsteed, Esq 

aJ. B. Monck, Esq 

aR. Bracher, Esq 

aT. T. Taylor, Esq 

ft J. H. Hounslow, Es(| 

aRev. W. Payne 

aMessrs. C. and G. Philbrick. 

aS. Derham, Esq 

oG. Carley, Esq 

aG. Leyburn Carley, Esq 






10 


c 





10 


G 


£1 


1 








5 





1 


1 





1 


1 


(1 





10 


G 





IC 


G 


1 


1 





1 


1 





1 


1 


(1 



REIGATE. 
Jan. 13.— Rev. H. Brass £2 2 



SCARBOROUGH. 
Mar. 2.— By cash ■ £11 6 



Mr. Travis 

Archdeacon Bh^nt 

Mr. Spurr 

Mr. Smyth 

Mr. H. Turnbnll .. 

Ditto 1874 

Mr. Graham 

Rev. R. H. Parr .. 



£0 10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



Mr. Phillips 

Mr. Thackm-ay... 

Miss Stephen 

Colonel Kendall . . 

Miss Stephen 

Miss Spence 

Mr. C. Peacock 

Rev. J. L Bedford 






10 


6 





10 


G 





10 


6 





10 


G 


1 


1 





2 


o 





1 


1 








10 


G 



ST. GERMANS. 

Feb. 29.— By cash £3 

Rev. Alan Furneaux £110 

Henry Pole, Esq 110 

R. Kerswill, Esq 110 



T.TST OF .SVJIiSCIlIPTIOA'S. 



SEVENOAKS. 
marcliG.-Bycasli .Co 18 'J 



1876. i 

Lieut. -Col. Nortliey I £1 

Edward Webb, Es.i | 10 

Hugh Jackson, Esq 

W. J. Thompson, Esq 

Eev. G. B. Lewis 

Eev. H. M. Gunn 

C. A. W. Kycroft, Esq 

Mr. G. W. Harrison 

T. G. Jackson, Esq 

Taken at the doors at the 
lecture on Feb. 25, by the 
Kev. E.J. Griffiths 



10 

1 1 

10 
10 

1 1 

10 
10 



1 



£9 



1876. 1 

Hire of Assembly Room on ] 

Feb. 25 

Printing and postage of notices 

of lecture on Feb. 25 

Balance 



£2 



1 4 



IS 



9 
9 



£9 



March 6.— By cash 



Miss E. A. Heygate.. 
Mrs. E. A. Heygate.. 
Eev. W. E. Heygate 
Mrs. Thos. ©eygate., 

Mrs. Burleigh 

J. Page, Esq 



SOUTHEND. 



£0 10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



£5 



Miss Beard 

Mrs. Haultain 

Mrs. Moorhouse 

Mrs. "Whittington ... 
Mrs. Barker (Ireland) 



10 





5 





10 





10 





10 


6 



TIVERTOK 

Feb. 4.— Byrash £5 

March 7.— JDitto 2 9 6 



Eev. P. C. Eos.siter i £0 10 

Eev. J. Dickinson 

Eev. G. Hadow 

Rev. E. Highton 

Miss Graham 

Eev. AV. Knight 

H. S. Gill, Esq 



10 


6 


10 





10 





5 





1 





10 


6 


10 


6 



Eev. E. Duckworth £0 10 6 

H. Stoke.s, Esq 

Eev. E. T. Gregory 

Mrs. Eow 

Eev. H. A. Jukes 

Collection (less expenses) after 
lecture by Eev. F. Bellamy... 



10 





10 





1 1 





5 






18 6 



TORQUAY. 

Feb. 17.— Bv cash £2 11 6 

March 23.— Eev. J. H. Howard 4 4 

C. Eyre Parker, E.sq £10 

Miss Gamble 110 

Miss Lanfear 10 6 



TUNB RIDGE WELLS. 

On Tuesday afternoon, March. 21st, there was a verj' large gathering at the Great Hall, 
on the occasion of a lecture in aid of the Palestine Exploration Fund, given by the Eev. E. 



16 



LIST OF SUIJSCIIIPTIONS. 

J. Griffiths, K.A., on tlie sulijcet of "Our Work in ralestine." Tlir Itcv. fiinon Hoare 
presided, witli whom on the platt'orni were tlie Kev. J. Cobb, (!. liartriini, Escj. (hon. 
sec), and AV. F. Browcll, Es([. 

The C'iiAi];.MAN' briefly opened the proceedings, remarking that hs looked back with 
very great interest to the lecture given a year ago, and he hoped the one about to he given 
would prove as instructive. He spoke of the interest all must feel in Palestine — that land 
given to Abraham's seed, which belonged to tlieni now, and which every year assumed a 
deeper interest as the time approached when once more the chosen people would be in 
possession. 

The Eev. 11. J. Gkiffiths commenced by referring to the changes likely to take ]ilace, 
from the present aspect presented by the nations in Europe, affecting the Holy Land, 
I'emarking that whatever effect the present movements in the East may have uiton the 
nations, there must be some change in the Government of Palestine, and, perhaps, they 
may find the long lost tribes ere long returning to their inheritance. Keverting then to 
the subject of his lecture, he said Tunbridge Wells had done much in the past in behalf 
of the Palestine Exjiloration Fund, and if they only read the reports, and looked back to 
the time when the Society was started in doubt and weakness ten years ago, he thought 
they might congratulate themselves upon having assisted in doing something towards 
this great work. He then proposed to glance at some of the most important discoveries 
made, and to explain some striking topographical subjects which had done so much to illus- 
trate Scripture, and lastly, to touch upon the character and nature of a few of the relics 
which he iiad brought with him. He made an earnest appeal to them for assistance in 
the present year, stating their intention to complete the Map of Palestine, for which 
],200 square miles had to begone over, about six months' work, and adding that it was 
impossible to tell what political events would be at work even in a week, and what they 
might be able to accomplish with regard to ancient Jerusalem. Never in the history 
of the Society had they stood on the threshold of such discoveries as now. He also 
commended the work to them as a cause not only worthy their active sympathy and 
svipport, but also their prayers. It was a work for all time, and which would enable 
them to read God's Word with a new blaze of light, new force, and new beauty, and 
he asked them, therefore, not to rest .satisfied with what had been done, but to support 
heartily the future work, believing as he did that the report of the Society in the future 
would eclipse all that had been dreamt of by their most sanguine friends. 

The Kev. J. Cobb, who had taken the chair, Canon Hoare being compelled to leave 
to fulfil another engagement, then addressed a few words to the meeting. 

The meeting then closed with the Doxology and Benediction. The collection amounted 
to .£17 9s. 2d. 



WAKE. 

Jhu. 13. — By cash, per T. Fowell Buxtoii, E,si[.... £18 8 6 
., 21.— Per Kev. J. Neil 119 6 



WHITBY. 

Feb. 15.— By cash £3 5 

Mrs. Cholmlev £10 

E. W. Chapman 10 

Mrs. Wells 10 

Mr.s. J. Brewster 10 

Mrs. C, Piicharuson 5 

ir 



LIST Oi" SL'LSCRirXlOXS. 

WINCHESTER. 

Jan. 26.— By ca.sh £2 12 G 

Mrs. Walsh £1 1 <• 

Miss Forster 10 <; 

Miss Zornlin 1 1 

WOLVERHAMPTOK, 

March 13.— C. Wheeler, Esq .CO 1 G 

Mr. W. Sweetmau 10 6 

WORCESTER. 

Per Kcv. ISIelsup Hill : — 

Miss. M. A. Corrie («£1 Is.) £6 G 

«Miss G. Corrie 1 1 



ERRATUM. 
In last Quartcrhj SUUcmciil, for Eev. R. 0. Bronifiekl, 10:j. Od., read^l Is 



IS 



LADIES' ASSOCIATIONS. 



In the last p\il)lished list umler the heaJ of Chichester, !Rlrs, Durnford's name 
M-as printed Farnford. 

Meeting at Mrs. de Ijergue's, 1", Kensington Palace Gardens, AV., 
January 6, 1876. Receipts £10 5 

aJIrs. E. Petavel, 84, Avenue Road, X.W. £0 10 (J 

«.Mrs. Thwaites (care of Mrs. de Bergue) ... 1 d 

Mi-s.s Scott, Eavenseourt (i 1,') d 

aMrs. C'apel Berger, Zion House, Lower 

Clapton 1 1 

Jliss Sladcn, rhillimore Lodge, Kensing- 

to]i, W ' 1 (I 

Mrs. T. Layton, 2.S., Miss C. Gallini, 5s. (i 7 

John Noble, Esq., Park House f) 

rtThe Countess of Castle Stuart, Broom Hill, 

Honiton, S. Devon o 10 (j 

MeetingatEev. T. Coruthwaite's,"\V"althainstow, January 11, 187(5 ... 8 :^ 6 

rtMrs. Johnston, AVoodford Green £0 10 G 

«Mrs. Machines, West Heath, Hampstead In (5 

rtMrs. Piouiiuette, WalthamstoAV.. () 10 

«Miss Rouquette , do. • 1 1 

ilrs. Stanton (care of Rev. T. Cornthwaite) 5 

«Mrs. AYalker, Elm Hall, Wanstead, E. ... 10 G 

Edinlnirgh Ladies' Association (secretary Mrs. Main), by Miss L. 
Stevenson 7 - G 

Mrs. Keith Johnstone, 13, Magdala Crescent £1 1 (i 

Mrs. Bruce, 18, Athole Crescent 2 

aU. S. Wyld, Esq., 19, Inverleith Row ....... 1 1 

Miss Wyld, Lennox Street 10 

Miss J. "Wyld, London 10 

f/.Mrs. J. Anderson, Dalhousie Grange Ki G 

Do. do. 10 

Mrs. Rob.son Scott, 27, Abercrombie Place 10 

From ]\Irs. ]\Lain, balance of subscriptions — 

«Miss Boyd 10 G 

Mrs. Miller G 

11 

L:t(lie.s A.'risouiation, Sydenham. Secretarj-, Mrs. Standriiig, Soutli- 
hill, Crystal Palace Park ". " 5 G 

January 17. 

Rev. — Frankh'n £1 

Miss Messiter..". 2 (i 

Mrs. Jas, Duif Hewitt 10 G 

Mr. H. A. Palmer 2 2 

Rev. J. M. Clark, St. Stephen's Parsonage, 

S. Dulwich 1 1 

Rev. Jordan Palmer U 10 

19 



ladies' associations. 

Various sums — 

January 10. 

Miss Rainsden (collected by), '2, Coates Crescent, Edin- 

burc;li £0 17 o 

Miss J. Houldsworth, 9, Claremont Terrace, Glasgow ... 1 U 
aMrs. Marion Pocock, (ilenridge, Virginia AVater, Staines 10 G 

Meeting at Lady Smith and Col. Finney's, Somerton Erleigli, Somer- 
setshire, January 21, 1876 10 10 

Lady Smith and varions donations £10 S 6 

aEdward WeLsh, Sunnyside, .Somerton 10 (5 

Meeting at J. H. Dickinson, Esq., and Jlrs. Dickinson's, Kingwestou, 
Somerton, January 25, 1876 8 9 10 

«E. C. Trevilian, Esq., Curry Pavel £1 1 

rtPiobert Impey, Street, Somerset U lO 6 

« John Morland, Glastonbury 010 (i 

Capt. J. T. H. Butt 1 

Miss C. Magens 2 

Servants of Rev, M. Carey and Mr. Dick- 
inson 6 

a¥. H. Dickinson, Esq 1 

Meeting at Weston-super-Mare, February 1, 1876. Secretary, ]\Irs. 
Tomkins 6 U 2^ 

Various sums £6 3 8!^ 

oMiss M. Clark, Aldbourn Villa 10 6 

Meeting at Rev. J. H. and Mrs. Stephenson's, Lympsham, Weston- 
su])er-Mare, February 2, 1876. 

Various donations 2 17 3^j 

Meeting at Miss Heptinstall's, 3, Rodney Place, Clifton, February 

3,1876 5 7 4 

Various donations JE3 16 10 

aMiss P. Taylor, Valetta Lodge, Clifton Park 10 6 
Admiral Talbot, Merton liOdge, Oakiield 10 



Meeting at Miss Harris's, Avondale House, Clifton, Down, February 

8th, 1876 3 10 2 

cRev. R. A. Taylor, Korton Malreward, 

near Bristol £0 10 

Various donations 3 2 

Meeting at Mr. and Mrs. "Wingfield Digby's, Sherborne Castle, 
Dorset, February 10, 1875 16 7 S^ 

Major Fal waster, Sherborne £1 

Various donations 7 4 8 

«Mrs. AVingfield Digby 3 3 

j R. Wingfield Baker, Esq., Orsett Hall, 

Orsett, Essex 5 

Meeting at Rev. Canon and Miss Meade's, Rectory, Castle Gary, 
Somerset, February 11, 1876 <5 1^ f 

Various donations £^ 4 

Mrs. Boyil, Castle Gary 10 

20 



ladies' associations. 

^r^eting afRev. Goilfrey nml Mrs. Tliriiij,''s, Honil)lottou Rectory, 
Castle Cary, Somerset, Fehruary l.">, 187»> £(> ^' 

rtRev. Godfrey Thriiig £1 o 

Mrs. Pratt, Ke.tory, Slippton Mallet 1 d 

Various donations '■' !• <> 

aMrs. Goldney, East Pennard, Shcpton 

Mallet 10 (! 

Sleeting at Rev. M. and j\trs. Ilawtrcy's, ];im[itoii Rectory, Slier- 
liorne, February 17, 1876 - H ^ 

«Mrs. Hawtrey £0 10 6 

Various donations 2 (> 

Meeting at Mr. and Mrs. Bennett's, Sparkford Hall, Ilcliester, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1876 7 2 

aH. E. Bennett, Esq £0 10 C 

Rev. Canon Wynter, Gattou Tower, 

Reigate -. 10 

Various donations 5 11 6 

Meeting at Rev. Canon and Jlrs. Pratt, Rectory, Shepton Mallet, 

February 21 4 

flMrs. F. Spencer, Ashwick Grove, Oakhill, 

Batli £1 1 

Various donations 3 2 3 

Meeting at Dr. and Mrs. Macintosh's, Mordcn Hall, Torquay, February 
25,1876! 12 



o 



Mrs. Hunt, Quintella, "VValdon Hill, Tor- 
quay 

aMiss Hunt, Quintella, Waldon Hill, Tor- 



quay 



1 1 



«Dr. Ayerst, 2, lielgrave Terrace, Toniuay 10 6 

Various donations 7 1 3 

a A. R. Hunt, Esq., Southwood, Tor(iuay... 110 
aMiss S. J. Marriott, A.sheldon Copse, 

Aslu-ldou Road 10 6 

MissSealy r> 

Miss Stone (towards Map of Palestine) . 10 
(Also Mrs. Macintosh's usual subscription, remitted to 

the Secretary) 110 

Meeting at Mrs. Tinney's, Snowdenham, Torquay, Feb. 29, 1876 ... 24 4 
aMiss E. Wills Sandford, Hightield, Tor- 



quay 



£0 10 6 



rtMJss M. Macaulay, Hacqueville, St. Mary 

Church, Torquay 10 6 

Various donations 5 6 10 

Mrs. Salisbury, Sherwood, Torquay 1 

Miss Haliburton, Grafton, Torquay T) 

Mis. Tinney, Snowdenham, Torquav 1 

Rev. Flavel Cook, Clifton \ 12 6 

Rev. G. S. Hele, Tor(iuay lO 

Meeting at Mrg. A. R. Hunt's, Southwood, Tortiuay, March 2, 1876 3 11 6 

aMiss F. Gumbleton, Connemara, Torquay £0 10 6 

aMrs. Minton, Belmont, Torquay 10 6 

aMiss Master, Hughfield, Torquay 10 6 

Various donations 15 



ladies' assooiatioxs. 

Mrs. HoJqsou Hiiide, Ixalsdoii, ToiT|uay £1 

iliss Gum'bleton r> « 

«Miss Jessie Coats, Northcoxirt 10 fi 

rvCliarles Martin, Esij^., Claniiiarina 10 n 

Ladies' Association, Rarley, near Ecading. Secretary, Mrs. C. Steiilicns, 

AVoodley Hill, Earley. 

Meeting at Mr. and Mrs. C'. Stephens's, Woodley Hill, Ivirlc}-, 
Heading, March 8, 1876 -^28 '2 

Capt. and Mrs. llirch. Park House, Reading £2 

Mrs. Grahame, Eastern Avenue 1 10 

(tco. Bennett, Esq., Caversham Vicarage... 10 

Mrs. Knox, Sonning, Reading 1 o 

Col. Chambers, Whiteknight's Park, Read- 
ing 1 1 

Mrs. Marsland, The Wilderness, Reading ... 1 1 

Rev. John May, Woodside, Earley 10 

aMrs. Mav 10 6 

(«Mrs. D. Birch, Heathireld 10 G 

Miss Waterhouse, Whiteknight's 1 1 

«Miss Vesey, St. Mary's Vicarage, Reading 10 C> 

Mrs. H. B. Blandy, Clifford, Reading 10 

Miss JMaurice, Graylands, Earley, Reading 10 

Mr. and Mrs. Porter, Earley 5 

:\[rs. Phillips, Earley Hill 10 G 

rtMrs. Durand, Earley Vicarage 10 

Miss Cow.slade, Eastern Avcjuic 10 

J. Cowslade, Esq., do 10 

aC. Stephens, Esq., Woodley Hill, Earley... 110 

Ditto, ditto f) 

« Mrs. Stephens, Woodley Hill, Earley 110 

Rev. J. ^y. Taylor, Sawbridge House, Earley 2 

Mrs. Lowndes, Grayland.s, Earley 10 

Mrs. Ander.sou 2 

ALady 2 G 

Meeting at Miss Bucklaud's, Blenheim House, near Reading, 

MarchlO 1 ■ 

rtMrs. Lockett, Blandford House £0 5 

aMrs. Wait 5 

VarioiTS Donations 12 G 

Meeting at Rev. H. andSlrs. dcBrLsay's, 12, Bradrnore Road, Oxford, 
March 13th, 14th, and 17th, 1S7G 17 : 

Various donations, 13th and 14tli £6 IG 3 

aRev. W. B. Caparn, G, Clarendon Villas 10 G 
«Miss E. C. Backhouse, 5, Christ Church 

Terrace 10 

«Mrs. Lloyd Crawley 1 

By ]\Iiss Sewell, New College 17 G 

Mrs. Acland 110 

Mrs. Lowndes f) 

E. andM 2 

Pupils at Training College 10 

«Rev. H. de Brisay 110 

« Mrs. Gan dell, Holywell Lodge 10 G 

Mrs. Talbot, Keble Col! 10 

CoL Chambers 10 

Rev. E. and Mrs. Palmer 2 

22 



ladies' associations. 

Meeting held at Jfrs. Charles', Coiiibe Edge, Piranch Hill, Hamp- 
stead, Maicli -Jl, 1870 £V: 10 f. 

a^rartin Ware, Esq., Branch Hill, Hamp- 

.stead i'l 1 (I 

«^Irs. J. Mathesoii, West Heath Ijodge, 

Ilampstead 1 1 (» 

ftMrs. Lyon, Montague Grove, Hampstcad 2 2 n 

«Mrs. Morris, Oakhill House, Hampstead... U lo ti 

«I\Irs. IF. Hill, Invcrleith House, Hamp- 
stcad 10 6 

r/Mra. Charles, Combe Edge, Hampstead... 10 G 

Various donations 6 2 !) 

rtMrs. Hugh Matheson, Heathlands, Hamp- 
stead 1 1 

Meeting at Col. and Miss Fj-ers', 25, Kensington Square, W., March 
22, 1870 i» 13 

«Miss Gordon, 75, Gloucester Place, Hyde 

Park £1 1 

reMiss Matson, 10 7, Gloucester Terrace, 

Hyde Park 1 

Mrs. Alcoek, 11, Clarence Parade, Sontli- 

sea 10 

Mrs. Acland, 27, Kensington lSi{uarc, W. 10 6 

Mrs. Merriman, 45, Kensington Square ... 1 

Mrs. E. Anderson, 7, Kensington Gore ... 10 (? 
J\Irs. J. C. Dimsdale, 52, Cleveland Square, 

I-Iyde Park 1 1 

Various donations 3 15 

ALady 5 

Meeting at Mr. and Mrs. Johnston's, Woodford Green, March 23, 
1876 49 14 

E. N. Buxton, Esq., Knighton, Buckhurst 

Hill £10 

W. Fowler, Esi]_., Forest House, Ley ton- 
stone 10 

Andrew Johnston, Esq 10 

— Venables, Esq., Wanstead, E 2 2 

Henry Fowler, Esq., Woodford, E 2 2 

Capt. Kyndersley, Wan.stead 1 1 i> 

F. S. Deck, Esq., Loughtou 1 1 

Dr. F. C. Cory, Buckhxu-.st Hill 1 1 

H. Gore, Esq., Wan.stead 1 1 

J. Mills, Esq., Woodford 1 1 

A Lady 5 o 

In the 3 n\y QiuirterTij Staiemcnt \\ill be published a complete list of Ladies' 
Associations. 



LECTURES AND MEETINGS. 



Place, 



APDRES.SF.n r.Y LIKUT. CONIlKn, Tl. i:. 

Date. 



Easneye 
Wave" 





ItKV. H. GEARY. 


St. James's, Holloway 


Jan. 18 


St. Anne's, Holloway 


„ 25 


Willesden 


Feb. 1 


Chislehurst 


„ 8 


Farnliani 


„ 22 


St. Tliomas, Portnian Square 


Mar. 25 




REV. T. r. HENLEY. 


]\[alhani Tarn 


Feb. 14 


Arncliffe 


„ 15 


Grassington 


„ ui 


Kettlewell ... 


I— 1 


Malham 


IS 


Airton , 


„ 19 


Jargrave (seriiinn) 


„ c> 


Long Preston (sL-rmon) 


„ 9 




LEY. R, J. GRIFFITH.'?, 


Sevenoaks 


Feb. 25 


Tunbridge Wells 


Mar. 21 


Maidstone ... 


„ 20 




REY. A. F. FORKE.<. 


Wombourne 


. . • 


"Wombonrne 




Weston 




Albrighton 


... 


Pallinuham... 


. • • 



Proceeds. 


£ s. 


t/. 


18 8 


6 


15 8 


.3 


8 6 


7 


4 8 


4 


3 2 


2 


G 17 





7 


?, 


8 14 


() 


17 


ih 


in 





2 1 


G 


11 


9 


5 


6 


1 9 


S| 


1 7 


3 



9 10 



5 18 


9 


20 19 


9 


4 5 


7 


2 11 


6 


10 





1 C 


7 


3 17 


3i 


2 3 






Donations and Subscriptions from the T.eeture Lists : — 

St. James's, Holloway : — 
aLady Barringtoa 



24 



LECTUllES AND MEETINGS. 



St. Anne's, HoUoway: — 

,T. Chaniherlain, Ksq. (jivomisnd) 
Cliislehui'st : — 

Rev. V. H. Mumy 

Fainham : — 

Rev. G. r. Irl.y 

Rev. G. .1. TIi<iinas 

Anon 
Easneye : — 

T. Fowell Buxton, Esfj. (cl.m.) 
Do. 

Mrs. Wigram 

Ware : — 

R. Hanbury, Es(i 

Mrs. Collins 

Mr. Collins 

Tunbridge Wells : — 

Rev. A. Stuart 

Mrs. Cromwell... 
Maidstone : — 

Rev. T. Harvey 

Rev. H. D. Fin<b 

AV. Page, Esq 



£1 1 





1 (1 





10 





]n 





10 





5 5 





o 2 





1 1 





10 





10 





5 





10 


6 


10 


6 


10 


6 


. 10 





. 1 1 






Promised to be paid to Vicar of Ware, Rev. E. E. W. Kirby 
Joseph Chuck ... 

aMr. Mayhew 

aG. Ekins ... ... 

aB. Cunning 

Rev. E. E. W. Kirby 






5 








5 








5 








8 








10 


6 



3S 



PUBLICATIONS — LIST OF HON. SF.CRETAPJE3, ETC. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Richard BcnUey and Son. 

The Recovery of Jerusalem, One Guinea. To annual subscribers of one Guinea, 

Sixteen Shillings, post free, by api^lication to the OiRce of the Society only. 
Our Work in Palestine, 3s. 6d. 

Quarterly Statement. First Series, 1869 and 1870, Captain AVarren's Work. 
Do. Second Series. Professor Palmer's Work. 

Do. The Survey of Palestine, 1872, 1873. 

Do. The Survey of Palestine and the Researches of M. 

Clermont-Ganneau. 1874, 1875. 
It is now impossible to furnish subscribers with complete sets of the State- 
ments. It may be useful to note that the numbers out of print are as follows : — 
First Series, Nos. III. and IV. 
Second Series, Nos. I. and III. 
Januarj^, 1872; October, 1873 ; January and October, 1874; January, 1875. 



LIST OF HONORARY SECRETARIES AND LOCAL 

ASSOCIATIONS. 

Alloa : Rev. Alexander Bryson and Rev. J. M'Lean. 

Aberdeen: Rev. Prof. Milligan, D.D. 

Anstruther : W. H. Mackintosh, Esq. 

Arbroath : W. J. Anderson, Es?];. 

Ayr : Robert Murdoch, Esq. 

Barnsley: Rev. W. J. Binder. 

Basingstoke : Rev. W. Marriner. 

Bath : Rev. T. P. Methuen. 

Bedford : Rev. Canon Haddock. 

Belfast : Rev. Dr. Porter and Charles Druilt, Esq. 

Bishop's Waltham : Rev. H. R. Fleming. 

Birkenhead : Rev. J. T. Kiugsmill, St. Aidan's College. 

Blairgoavrie : W. S. Soutar, Esq. 

Blackburn : Rev. Canon Bircli and Rev. A. B. Grosart, 

Bodmin : S. Hicks, Esq. 

Bolton : George Monk, Esq. 

Bournemouth: Rev. Dr. Ederslieim. 

Brighton : Rev. C. E. Douglass. 

Broadstairs : Rev. J. H. Carr. 

Bromley : Rev. W. J. Devereux. 

Burnley : Rev. C. L. Reynolds. 

Bury : Hon. Trcas. — Rev. Canon J. Hornby ; JTon. Sec. — Rev. E. J. Smitli. 

Cambridge: W. M. Hicks, Esq., B.A., St. John's College; G. T. Bettany, 

Esq., B.A., Gonville and Cains. 
Canada; Toronto. — Subscriptions are received by the Hon. G. W. Allan. 

20 



LOCAL ASSOCIATIONS. 

Cabdifi" : "W. Jones, Esq. 

Chelmsfoud : llev. G. T.. IlamiUoii. 

Cheltenham : Dr. E. "Wilson. 

Chester : Rev. J. Davidson. 

Chutenham : A. T. Keary, Esq. 

Clifton and Bkistol : Eev. C. H. Wallace and Eev. J. B. Goldberg. 

City and County of Coiuc : H. S. Perry, Esq., Monkstown. 

Damascus : Eev. W. Wright: 

Daklington : J. P. Pritchett, Esq. 

Devonpoiit J. Yenning, Esq. 

DoRCHESTEK : Rev. Haudloy Moule. 

Dover : Mr. W. P. llummery. 

Dundee : Eobert Mackenzie, Esq. ; Hon. Tnas.— Xlcx. Scott, Esq. 

Durham : Eev. J. Talbot. 

Dunfermline : Eev. A. Graham, Ciossgates. 

Eastbourne : Eev. H. E. Whelpton. 

Edinburgh : Eev. W. Lindsay Alexander, D.D., and T. 15. Johnston, Esq.» 

F.E.G.S., 4, St. Andrew Square. 
Exeter : Eev. Prebendary Acland, Broad Clyst, and Eev. "W. David. 
Falmouth, for the County of Cornwall: A. Lloyd Fox and W. P. Dyniond, Esq. 
Farnham : John Henry Knight, Esq. 
Favershaji : Charles Smith, Esq. 
Forfar : T. Wilkie, Esq. 
Fleetwood : G. Curwen, Esq. 
Frome : Eev. T. G. Eooke. 
Gateshe^vd : Eev. H. 0. Sterland. 
Gaza : J. G. Pickard, Esq. 
Glasgow : Eev. AV. Dickson, D.D., Eev. Donald Macleod. D.D., and A 

M'Grigor, Esq. 
Gloucesteu : Eev. J. Bowman and F. Cooke, Esq. 
Greenock : D. MacDonald, Esq. 
Guildford: Capt. Campbell, H.M.LISr. 
Halstead : Eev. S. J. Eales and Eev. J, W. Coombes. 
Hastings : J. E. Liddiard, Esq. 
Helensburg : Eev. A. Slurray MeCalhim. 
Hertford : W. M. Armstrong, Esq. 
Hexham : John Hope, Jun., Esq. 
Hitchin: J. Pollard, Esq. 
HoLYWOOD : Major Griffin. 
Huddersfield : Henry Barker, Esq. 
Hull: J. P. Bell, Esq., M.D. 
Huntingdon : Ven. Archdeacon Yesey, 
Ipswich : Eev. J. E. Turnock. 
Irvine : Adam Sutherland, Esq. 
Jerusalem : Dr. Chaplin. 
Kendal : Eobert Somervell, Esq. 
Kirkcaldy : John Bamett, Esq. 
Lancaster: J. Daniel Moore, Esq., M.D. 
Leamington : Eev. C. Cams- Wilson. 
Ledbury : Eev. Salter Stooke-Vaughan. 



LOCAL ASSOCIATIONS. 

Lkeds : Eihvard Atkinson, Esq. 

Lkith : James Braidwood, Ivsq. 

Lewes: llev. R. Stratieu. 

LiSKEARD : W. J. Corin, Esq. 

Lichfield : Hubert M. Morgan, Esq. 

LiNX'OLX : llev. A. I?. Maddison. 

Liverpool : S. Lewis, Esq., M.D., l.')7, Duke Street. 

Londonderry: Convener of Local Coiiiniit tee, I'itt .Ski]>ton, Esq, 

Maidstone: l!ev. Thomas Harvey. 

JL\LVERN : Ivcv. C. E. Ranken. 

Manchester : Rev. W. E. ])ir( li and Rev. Canon Crane. 

Mansfield : T. AV. Clarke, Esq. 

Margate : Rev. G. Collis. 

Market Harborough : Joseph Nunnelly, Esq. 

Melton Mowbray : Rev. Arthur M. llendell. 

Melrose : Ralph Dunn, Esq. 

Middlesborotjgh : Rev. Edmund Jackson. 

Montrose : Mr. Maokie. 

Morpeth : Dr. Robinson. 

JIossley : Rev. J. Taylor. 

Newark: Ladies' Committee. Hon. T/-ca,'?.— Mrs. Tallents ; 7/o?!. &c.— Mrs. 

G. Hodgkinson. 
Newcastle: Hon. Treasurer. — Tliomas llodgkin, E»i. ; Hon. See. — 

W. Lyall, Esq. 
Northampton: H. Marshall, Esq. 
Oxford : Rev. Canon Kidgway 
Paisley : Rev. J. Dods. 
Perth : John W. Jameson, Esq. 
Pitlochry: Hugh Mitchell, Esq. 
Plymouth : J. B. Rowe, Esq., and J. Shelly, , 
Preston : Rev. E. F. Linton. 
Reading : G. Leyburn Carley, Esq. 
Reigate : Edward Home, Esq. 
Richmond, Surrey: Henry Douglas, Esq. 
'^' "HARBOROUGH : Rev. J. Bedford. 
Sevenoaks : Graham Jackson, Esq. 
SissiNGHURST : Rev. W. Peterson, 
Sherborne : J. Farmer, Esq. 
SowERBY : Rev. A. L. W. Bean. 
St. Albans : Rev. W. J. Lawrance. 
St. Andrew's : Dr. Lees and Dr. Mitrhell. 
St. Germans : R. Kerswill, Esq. 
Stalybridge : Rev. Dr. Cranswick. 
Stockton : Joseph Laidler, Esq. 
Stirling : Rev. \V. Taylor. 
Stroud : T, S. Osborne, Esq. 
Teignmouth : Rev. H. Hutchins. 
Tiverton : Rev. H, A. Jukes. 
Torquay : Rev. Preb. Wolfe. 
Tunbridge Wells : Geo. Bartram, Esq. 

23 



AGENTS. 

Victoria, Australia : Rev. "W. R. Fletcher. 

AVahminster : W. Frank Morgan, Esq. 

Wells : W. I. Welsh, Esq. 

Westox-supeh-Mare : Rev. H. G. Tomkins, and J. Titley, Esq. 

WuiTBY: E. W. Chapman, Esq. 

AViLLESDEN : Rev. J. Crane Wharton. 

Winchester : Miss Zorulin. 

Windsor : Rev. Stephen Hawtrey. 

Wolverhampton : Mr. J. McD. Roebuck. 

Worcester : Rev. Francis J. Eld. 

The Committee would be very ^lad to communicate with gentlemen willing to 
help the Fund as Honorary Secretaries. 



AGENTS. 

The following are the Agents authorised by Local Secretaries to receive, dis- 
tribute, and sell the publications of the Fund. 

Aberdeen : Messrs. W3dlie and Sons. 

Arbroath : Mr. J. F, Hood. 

Barnsley : T. andC. Lingard, Chronicle Ollice. 

Bath : Mr. R. E. Peach, 8, Bridge Street. 

Birkenhead : Mr. T. W. Plumb, 8, Bridge Street, Hamilton Square. 

Bodmin : Messrs. E. and H. G. Liddell, 7, Fore Street. 

Bournemouth : Mr. Hankinson. 

Brighton : Messrs. H. and C. Treacher, 170, North Street. 

Burnley : Messrs. Burghope and Strange, St. James's Street. 

Cambridge : Mr. Dixon, Market Hill. 

Cheltenham : Messrs. Westley, Promenade. 

Clifton and Bristol : Jilr. W. Mack, 38, Park Street. 

Darlington : Mr. Harrison Penney. 

Dover : Mr. J. J. Goulden, 176, Snargate Street. 

Dundee : Miss IMiddleton, High Street. 

Eastbourne : Mr. Leach, Grand Parade. 

Edinburgh : Messrs. W. and A. K. Johnston, i, St. Andrew Square. 

Falmouth : Mr. R. C. Richards. 

Frome : Mr. C. J. Sage, Upper Market Place. 

Greenock : Messrs. J. McKelvie and Son. 

Halifax : Mr. King, North Gate. 

Hitchin : Mr. John Palmer, High Street. 

Huddersfield : Mr. Alfred Jubb, Estate Buildings. 

Hull : Messrs. Leng and Co., 15, Saville Street. 

Irvine : Mr. C. Marchland. 

Leeds : Mr. Jackson, Commercial Street. 

Newark : Mr. E. J. Ridge, Market Place. 

Northampton: Mr. Jas. Taylor, Gold Street. 



AGEZ^TTS, 

Perth : Mr. Jno. Christie. 

Preston : Mr. H. Oakey, Fisliergater 

Eeading : Mr. G. Lovejoy, London Street . 

ScAKEOROUGH : Mr. G. Marsliall, 72, Newborongh. 

Sevenoaks : Mr. Harrison, High Street. 

St. Andrew's : Mr. W. C. Henderson, Church Street. 

Skipton : Messrs. Edmondson and Co. 

Stirling : Mr. Peter Drummond. 

Stockton : Mr. "W. W. Wilson, Silver Street. 

TuNBRiDGE Wells : Mr. Pt. Pelton, Parade. 

Wells : Mr. Thomas Green. 

Weston : IVrr. Ptobbins, High Street. 

Whitby : J\Ir. Reed. 

Winchester : Messrs. Jacob and Johnson, Hampshire Chronicle Of&ce. 

WoLVERHAMi'TON : Mr. J. M'D. Eoebnek. 



PHOTOGRAPHS. 

Agent, Mr. Edward Stanford, 55, Charing Cross. 

(1.) A series of one hundred photographs has been selected from those in the 
possession of the Society, which can be purchased by subscribers for £4, and by 
non-subscribers for £5. Those marked in the list * are the 25 best, and can be 
purchased by subscribers for 25s., and by non-subscribers for 35s. Those marked 
t are the 50 best, and can be i^urchased by subscribers for 4.5s., and by non- 
subscribers for 55s. A selection of any 25 or 50 can be made at the same terms, 
but the marked ones are recommended as the best photogi-aphs. Each of the 
three sets forms a complete series of itself. Single ^jhotographs from among these 
selected ones are charged Is. 3d. to subscribers, and Is. 9d. to non-subsoribers. 
Lists may be obtained of the Agent or at the Office of the Fund. 

(2.) The Moabite Stone. Restoration by M. C. Clermont-Ganneau just ready. 
At same price as the preceding. 

(3.) Lieut. Kitchener's Guinea volume, with letterpress. Ready for Easter. 

(4.) Lieut. Kitchener's Fifty Photographs, at the same price as the first series. 
List on page. 



QUARTEULY STATEMENT, JaNU.UIY, 187G.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 



PEEFACE. 



During tlie -winter months necessarily spent in England tlie 
officers of the Survey are engaged upon the office work connected 
with the great map of Palestine. For this purpose a room has 
been engaged in London. The materials brought home by Lieu- 
tenants Conder and Kitchener are of far greater importance than was 
expected. They consist of an addition to the map-work of 1,600 
square miles, chiefly lying in the territory of Judah and Philistia. 
About 180 square miles of Lower Galilee are accomplished. There 
i-emain only some 1,400 square miles to complete the map of 
Western Palestine from Dan to Beersheba. We may therefore 
look forward with some confidence to the speedy completion of this 
part of our work. The reconnaissance of the Negeb, or South Country, 
with the examination of the ruined cities of that district, and a few 
disputed sites, will follow. 

About 20 miles of levelling between the Mediterranean and the 
Sea of Galilee have been concluded. It was for this object that the 
British Association made, in 1874, a grant of £100. A very large 
number of names have been collected in the low hills of the Shep- 
helah, the proportion previously unknown being nearly nine- 
tenths. The number of special plans is now 83. Among the new 
ones are surveys of Ascalon, Ai'suf, anl Beisan, to the scale of a foot 
to the mile, and one of Masada, showing the positions of the Roman 
camp and the wall of circumvallation. Among the most interesting- 
late ruins of Palestine are those of the churches. We have now 

c 



2 PREFACE. 

special plans of thirty of these. Notes on the architectui'al features 
of these have appeared from time to time in Lieutenant Conder's 
reports. The Crusading castles, also of interest from an architectural 
point of view, have been planned. A very large numljer of masons' 
marks have been collected. 

Lieutenant Kitchener's photographs are about to be pviblished. 
A selected list will be found in another page. Among them are 
many views never before taken, and of the highest Biblical in. 
terest, such as the Valley of Elah, the Valley of Sorek, two 
views of M. Clermont-Ganneau's proposed site of Adullam, the 
site of Jonathan's attack on the camp of the Philistines, and 
others. The descrij)tiA'e letterpress of these })hotogra]")hs will be 
written by Lieutenant Kitchener himself. 

The notes accumulated during the year's work have been far more 
voluminous than our published reports would seem to show. These 
reports, indeed, are bub a very small part of the whole, which can 
only be published when the work is completed, and when the 
descriptions can be accompanied by plans, sketches, and illustra- 
tions. Among the notes are some obtained from one of the last 
surviving monks of Carmel, on the Carmel convents. The identi- 
iicatious newly proposed are now over one hiindred. Some of these 
have been combated, but the Committee, while putting them for- 
ward as Lieutenant Conder's conclusions, would ask the readers of 
the Quarterly Statement, if they cannot accept them, to refrain from 
comment until they can be tested by the safest method of proof, a 
comparison with the map itself. 

The prepai'ations for the return of the party will commence 
almost immediately, and it is hoped they will again be afield at the 
commencement of early spring. 

With regard to the attack on the Survey Party we have little to 
report except what will be found in the next page. The claim made 
by the Consul for payment of expenses incurred is still under con- 
.sideration. 

The plan for diocesan representatives will, it is hoped, lead to a 
general increase of interest among Church of England jieople. The 
Committee are most anxious to let it be known that they are not 
<leparting from the undenominational character which the Society 



NOTES. 3 

has always preserved. Any suggestions for a similai' use of 
Nonconformist organisations will be gratefully received and con- 
sidered. 

The income of the Fund during the year 1875 has shown a grati- 
fying increase. We ask for continued and earlij support daring 
1S76, the tenth year of our existence. 



NOTES. 

While desiring to give every publicity to proposed ideutitlcations by officers 
of the Fund, the Committee beg it to be distinctly understood that they leave 
such proposals to be discussed on their own merits, and that by publisliing them 
in the Quarterly Statement the Committee do not sanction or adopt them. 



Annual subscribers are earnestly recjuested to forward their subscriptions for 
the ciu'rent year at their earliest convenience and without waiting for application. 
It is best to cross all cheques to Coutts and Co., and if so crossed they may be 
left payable to bearer. 



The Committee are always grateful for the return of old numbers of the 
Quarterly Statement, especially those which are advertised as out of print. 



The amount received at the central office lietween September 30th and 
December 2Sth was £1003 8s. Sd. T]\e balance of current accounts at the 
latter date was £184 12s. 8d. 



Ladies deshous of joining the Ladies' Associations are requested to commmiicate 
with Mrs. Finn, The Ekus, Brook Green, London, W. 



Cases for binduig the Quarterly Statements are now ready, and can be had on 
application to ]\Iessrs. R. Bentley and Sou, 8, New Burlington Street, or to the 
office of the Fund. They are in green or brown cloth, with the stamp of the 
Society, uniform in appearance^vith " Our "Work in Palestine," price one shilling. 
They can be obtained for any year liy subscribers who have procured their sots. 



4 NOTES. 

DIOCESAN EEPRESENTATIVES. 

The Committee have resolved upon obtaining, if possible, a representative and 
lecturer for every Diocese in England, who will be prepared to give lectures or 
to preach in behalf of the Fund, and to act generally as organising secretaries 
within the limits assigned to them. These appointments are by no means in- 
tended as a dcjiarture from the neutral ground on which the Society rests ; but 
solely as a Iielp to Church of England supporters to the Fund, and, as stated else- 
where, the Committee will be very glad to use the organisation of the Noncon- 
formist bodies in any practicable way which may be suggested. 

The following gentlemen have already kindly offered their services : — 

Provin'ce of Cantehbury. 

Diocese of Exeter : Eev. Franklin Bellamy, St. Mary's Vicarage, Devonport. 

Gloucester and Bristol : E. H. Stanley, Esq., SO, City Koad, Bristol. 

Archdeaconry of Hereford : IJev. J. S. Stooke-Yaughan, Wellington Heath 
Vicarage, Ledbur)^ 

Archdeaconry of Salop : Rev. A. F. Forbes, Badger Rectory. 
,, Lichfield : ,, ,, 

London ; Rev. Henry Geary, 26 b, North Audley Street. 

Norwich : Rev. F. C. Long, Stowupland, Stowmarket. 

Essex : Rev. "W. H. A. Emna, Great Blakenham Rectory. 

Peterborough : Rev. A. F. Foster, Farndish Rectory, Wellingljorough. 

Worcester : Rev. F. W. Holland, Evesham (Member of General and Executive 
Committee, and one of the Hon. Secretaries to the Fund). 

Archdeaconry of Surrey ; Rev. R. J. Griffiths, 10, Trafalgar Road, Old Kent 
Road, S.E. 

Province ok York. 

York : Rev. J. De Courcy Baldwin, Training College, York. 

Archdeaconry of Craven : Rev. J. C. Henley, Kirkby Malham Vicarage. 

It is hoped to fill up this list before the next Quarterly Statement. 

Suggestions and offers of help from Scotland and Ireland will be most gi'atefully 
received. 



LADIES' ASSOCIATIONS. 

Drawing-room meetings have been held in various places during the last 
three months, ilr. and Mrs. F. Braby, of Sydenham, gathered a number 
of their friends together on the evening of Nov. 10, to hear from Mrs. Finn 
an account of the work, Pliotographs and water-colour drawings were used to 
illustrate the subject, and a Ladies' Association for Sydenham was at once formed. 

In Edinburgh and Glasgow a series of drawing-room meetings has been held. 
One on Nov. 12, at tlie liouse of the Misses Stevenson, where about 130 
were present and listened to the sketch of our woik given in about an hour 
and a half with the help of photographs and drawings, and of a model specially 
prepared of Mount Moriah and the Temple Enclosure in accordance with the 



NOTES. O 

survey and discoveries of Major Wilson and Cai)taiu Warren. Here, and at 
the suci'eediiig meetings in otiicr liouses, contributions were made to tlie Fund. 
The Rev. Mr. White (successor to Dr. Candlish), spoke at this ineeting. 

The next meeting was lield on November 15th at the house of the Dean 
and tlie Hon. Mrs. Bfontgomery. The Dean opened the proceedings ; among 
the visitors was the Bishop of Edinburgh. 

On November 17th a meeting was hehl at the liouse of the Rev. V. G. and 
Jlrs. Faithfull, and on the next day, the 18th, at the house of the Rev. Mr. 
and Mrs. Main, Mr. W. Dickson, who had liimself been in Jerusalem, fol- 
lowed up the account of the exjiloration, giving the results of his own experience 
and travels in the Holy Land. The Rev. Mr. Main also spoke, and pointed 
out in a few forcible sentences the immense value, as sliown l)y these recent 
discoveries, of the apparently "dry lists of names" contained in the Bible, 
but which now give us invaluable evidence as to the accuracy of Holy Writ. 
]\Ir. SheriiT Campbell added his testimony as to the value, in a legal point 
of view, of evidence of this nature. Dr. Moir also spoke. 

On Saturdaj', Nov. 20, a meeting was held at Lord and Lady Teignmouth's, 
and the proceedings were opened by Lord Teignmouth. After Mrs. Finn had 
described the Exploration work, the Bishop of Edinburgh summed up, drawing 
attention to the wonderful and unexpected results of the work done in laying 
bare tlie mighty works of old, beneath the vast accumulation of rubbish and 
debris in Jerusalem, and well described the accounts of the explorers as being as 
interesting as a romance in their wonderful details. 

The last meeting in Edinburgh was at the house of ]\h". and Mrs. Caird, and 
was presided over by tlie Rev. F. Horatius Bouar, who opened the proceedings, 
and spoke with the keenest interest as having himself visited tlie Holy City, 
and having followed the reports of the work done and doing there as one who 
has been on the spot cannot help doing. JL'. W. Dickson spoke here, also, and 
■ earnestly commended the work to those present as one which it was a national 
disgrace to leave incomplete. 

The result of these meetings was the formation of an influential Ladies' Associ- 
ation, and a considerable sum was contributed in money. Our warm thanks are 
due to the ladies and gentlemen above mentioned, and to the Bishop of Edinburgh, 
for the hearty support which has been given to this effort on behalf of our work. 

At Glasgow the meetings were arranged by the local secretaries, the Rev. 
Donald Macleod, Rev. Prof. Dickson, and ifr. SleGrigor, with the active and most 
kind co-operation of their lady friends. Mrs. Macleod had the first meeting in 
her own drawing-room on Nov. 23 ; the next was held at the house of Mr. and 
Mrs. Collins. The Rev. D. Macleod made a long and interesting speech, kindly 
liere and elsewhere assisting in the proceedings, which, on account of the absence 
of Mrs. Finn through' illness, were conducted by lun- daughter. Meetings were 
held at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Alston (Nov. 26), Mr. and Mrs. McGrigor 
^Nov. 27), Sir James and Miss Watson (Nov. 29). A large meeting of ladies 
was addressed on Dec. 2, and on the evening of the same day Mrs. Archibald 
Watson assembled a large party of her friends, among whom was Lieut. Van de 
Velde, to whose early survey of Palestine, in 1852, we owe the fullest map of the 
<;ountry hitherto published. Here in Glasgow, as in Edinburgh, the ladies have 
formed an association with the intention of doing all in their power to assist in 
raising the funds needed for a vigorous x>rosecution of the work begun by the 
Palestine Exploration Fund. 



b NOTES. 

Mrs. rmn'(Tlie Elms, Brook Green, W.) will gladl}' give assistance to any 
ladies who may be disposed to follow tlie examples given above, by interest- 
ing their friends in our work, and helping us to bring it to a successful 
conclusion. 



NEW PHOTOGRAPHS. 

Lieutenant Kitchener has brought home with him a small collection of 
photographs, which have been added to the list of those already published. A 
selection of twelve will be issued immediately with descriptive letterpress by 
Lieiitenant Kitchener himself (price one guinea). The others will follow. They 
can be procured of the agent, Mr. Edward Stanford, 5C, Charing Gross. The- 
following is a list of the selected twelve : — 

1. The Valley of Sorek (1 Sam. vi. 12). 

2. The Valley of Jlichmash (Judges xx. 31, and Isaiah x. 28). 

3. Mount jMoriah. 

4. The Mosque El Aksa. 

5. Elisha's Fountain (2 Kings ii. 22). 

6. Bethlehem. 

7. Interior of the Dome of the Rock. 

8. The Baptism in Jordan. 

9. Caua in Galilee. 

10. Bethany. 

11. The Way of the Cross. 

12. The Holy Sepulchre. 



THE TEIAL AT ACEE. 

In compliance witli instructions received from Sir Henrj' Elliot, 
H. B. M. Ambassador at Constantinople, Mr. Noel Temple Moore, Consul 
at Jerusalem, proceeded to Safcd on the 31st August to represent the- 
English interests in the trial of the persons accused of participation in 
the attack on Lieutenant Conder and his party. 

On arrival at Safed he found that the trial was awaiting his presence 
ftt Acre, whither the accused persons had been removed. 

At Acre Mr. Moore found that his Turkish colleague was Colonel 
Rushdi Bey, chief of the police force of the Villayet of Syria. It was 
arranged with the Governor of Acre that the trial should be held 
before a special commission consisting of Colonel Rushdi Bey, Mr. 
Moore, the Cadi, and a Mohammedan and a Christian member of the 
local Medjliss. 

The proceedings commenced on Saturday, the 11th of September, in 
an apai-tment of the Serai specially allotted for the purpose. Lieutenants 
Conder and Kitchener personally attended the greater part of the 
sittings. Great diflficulty was experienced at the outset in discovering 
who were the delinquents. By dint of cross-examination thirteen were 
inculpated. 

The trial closed on Tuesday, the 28th September. At the subse- 
quent meeting of the Commission a paper was produced embodying the 
views of the Medjliss (for the remaining members had now been added 
to the original three) as to the punishments to be inflicted, of which the 
Turkish delegate appeared to have no previous knowledge. Of the 
sixteen individuals convicted, eight were condemned to two months', 
six to three mouths', and two to one year's imprisonment, and £112 10s. 
was awarded as damages. The eight men sentenced to two months' 
incarceration were natives of Safed, who were punished chiefly for with- 
holding evidence as to the names of the men who commenced and took 
an active part in the attack. The other eight were all Algerines 
settled at Safed. AH Agha Allan (a connection of the Emir Abd el 
Kader), who was the primary cause of the fray, and five others, namely, 
Hadj Aiab, Mohammed et Tahir, Ali Zeyyan, and Mohammed Rosa» 
were condemned to three months, while the remaining two, namely, 
Kahloush, and the negro Massoud, were sentenced to one year's im- 
prisonment, because they were seen immediately after the attack with 
weapons in their hands, one carrying a gun and a sword, and the other 
pistols and a club. 

On the reading of the paper strong remonstrances were made as to the 
inadequacy of the punishments, and on these representations the sum 



8 TRIAL AT ACRE. 

of £37 lOs. was added to the fine, being tlie value of certain things 
stolen from the tents ; a month was added to the smaller periods of im- 
prisonment, and six months to the sentence on Kahloush and Massoud. 
Mr. Moore's Turkish colleague concurred with him as to the shortness 
of the periods of imprisonment, but differed as to the amount of damages. 
The latter has now been fixed at a sum which we hope will be acceded 
to by the Superior Court of Damascus. 

It is also intended to make efforts to enforce the due execution of the 
sentences upon the guilty persons. The satisfactory result of the trial 
is due in a great measure to the vigour and promptitude of Mr. Noel 
Temple Moore. 



NOTE BY CAPTAIN WAEEEN. 

Sejit. 30th, 1875. 

I WISH to correct a few misapprehensions into which Lieut. Conder 
lias fallen in recent communications. 

Quarterly, 3rd July, 1875, p. 166. Mahlcedah. The identification of El 
Moghar as Makkedah was made by me, and published in Quarterly of 
1871, p. 91, and in " Our Work in Palestine," p. 217. 

Idem, p. 134, Masada. The " Serpent's Path " was scaled by the Eev. 
Dr. Barclay and myself in 1867, and I have no doubt is still accessible, 
though rather a difficult path during the hot season. 

Quarterly, October, 1874, p. 244. I examined the summit of Kurn 
Surtabeh in 1867, and found there the citadel of a town, a good plan of 
which was then in existence, published by Herr Zschokke. C. W. 



NOTE ON M. GANNEAU'S PAPEE, "THE AEABS IN 

PALESTINE." 

A COREESPONDENT scuds US the following: — In the remarkable paper 
on " The Arabs in Palestine " that appeared in your last number, it is 
stated by M. Clermont-Ganneau, at p. 208, that the fellaheen of Modern 
Palestine are apparently the descendants of the ancient Oanaanite 
nations. It will be very interesting to ascertain whether this is the 
oase. If it is, it throws light on several passages in Scripture that have 
perplexed me for some years, I mean those which speak of these ancient 
tribes as existing in the last days, and being then destroyed by the 
vengeance of God. I subjoin a list of these passages. It will be found 
that all of them point more or less distinctly to this fact. Numbers 
xxiv. 17-24; Isaiah xi. 10-14; xxv. 10; xxxiv. 5, 6; Ixiii. 1-6; 
Jeremiah xlviii., xlis. ; Ezekiel xxv., xxxv. ; Daniel xi. 41-43; Joel 
iii. 15 ; Amos i. 6 ; ii. 5 ; ix. 12 ; Obadiah 17-21. To the above may per- 
ha,ps be added— Psalm Ix. 8 ; Ixxxiii. 6-8, and possibly other passages. 



NOTES. 



DISCOVEEY AT JERUSALEM. 

Jerusalem, Oct. 21, 1875. 
In the piece of ground -west of the north road leading from Damascus 
Gate, about 150 yards from the gate, some interesting tombs have been 
i-ecently discovered. The proprietor was digging a cistern, and about 
fifteen feet below the surface came upon rock which sounded hollow 
when struck. He broke- through this and found beneath it some 
sapulchral chambers. In the structure of the tombs there is nothing 
very unusual, but in one of the chambers is a large stone chest which, 
when discovered, contained human bones. It is cut from a single stone, 
measures 7 ft. 7 in. in length, 2 ft. 8 in. in breadth, and 3 ft. 2 in. iu 
height. It stands upon four feat, and has its rim cut to receive a lid. 
Some broken pieces of what is believed to have been the lid were found 
near. The rock roof of the chamber has been cut away in order to 
admit this chest, which is evidently of far later date than the tombs, 
which appear to be very ancient. Its use is not very clear. It is not 
an ordinary sarcophagus, and is much too large for a body. The most 
probable supposition that suggests itself is that it formed a cover for the 
protection of the wooden or leaden coffiu of some distinguished person 
which has long since been rifled and removed. Near, perhaps over, this 
spot once stood the church dedicated to St. Stephen. Is it possible that 
in this chest we have the last resting-place of Eudocia ? I send you an 
excellent plan and sections of the tombs made by M. Schick. 

Thomas Chaplin. 



THE TAEIS GEOGEAPHICAL EXHIBITION. 

The following correspondence has been received on the map work sent 
to the Paris Geographical E.x^hibition : — 

1. Lieut. -Col. T. Montgomerie, E.E., to the Chairman of the Pales- 
tine Exploration Fund. 

Sept. SOth, 1875. 

To the Chairman of the Palestine Exploration Fund. 

Sir, — I have the honour to inform you that the Paris Geographical 
Congress intends to send you a Letter of Distinction in recognition of tho 
services of the Palestine Exploration Fund. This letter will be forwarded 
lo you in due course, as you will see bj' the enclosed. 

I have the honour to bo, Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

T. Montgomerie, Lt.-Col. E.E., 
H.M.'s. Commissioner, Paris Geographical Congress. 



10 PAEIS EXHIBITION. 

2. The Commissary- General, International Congress of Geographical 
Science, to the Commissioner for Great Britain. 

Paris, le IG Septembre, 1875. 
Monsieur lo Commissaire, 
J'ai rhonnour de vous informer que le Jury International des recom- 
penses du Congres International des Sciences Geographiques a decerne 
uue recompense de I'ordre le plus eieye au " Palestine Exploration 
Fund." 

Aussitut que les rapports du Jury mo seront parvenus, je m'empres- 
serai de vous adresser cette Lettre de Distinction. 

Veuillez agreer, Monsieui- le Commissaire, I'assurance de ma haute 
consideration, 

Le Commissaire General, 

Bakon Eeille. 



South Kensington Museum, 23rd Dec, 1875. 
Sir, — I am directed by the Lords of the Committee of Council on 
Education to acquaint you that theii- Lordships have received through 
Her Majesty's Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, with a request that 
it might be forwarded to its proper destination, the accomj)anying testi- 
monial, or letter of distinction, awarded to the Palestine Exploration 
Fund by the International Geographical Congress which was held this 
year at Paris. 

It is stated in the despatch received from Lord Lyons that letters of 
this description are the highest testimonials awarded by the Congress to 
exhibitors. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

NOEMAN MACLEOD. 

The President, Palestine Exploration Fund, 
9, PaU Mall East, S.W. 



Societe de Geographie. 

Congres International des Sciences Gcographiqnes. 

Deuxieme Session, tenne a Paris. 

1875. 

Lettre de Distinction. 

Paris, le 11 Aout, 1875. 
7e Groupe. 

Monsieur le President,— L'Exposition du Palestine Exploration 
FujN^D a paru au Jury International meriter une re'compense cxceptionelle. 
Les cartes, plans, reliefs, photographies, etc^., de la Terre Samte, 
envoyes par cette association scientifique au Congres de Paris presentent 
une telle importance geographique que les distinctions prevues par le 
reglement ne pouvaient leux etre a]3pliquees. 



EAKLY CHRISTIAN TOPOGRAPHY. 11 

J'ai rhonneur, au noin du Cougres de porter ii voire counaissance cettc 
liauto appreciation du Jury et de vous delivrer pour lo PALESTINE EXPLO- 
RATION Fund la presente Lettre de Distinction comme la recompense 
de I'ordre le plus eleve decernee :\ I'occasion de I'Exposition. 

Yeuillez agreer, M. le President, I'assurance de ma haute consideration. 

Le Vice-Amiral, 

President du Congres, 
Et de la Societe de Geographic, Paris, 

De La Eonciere-le-Noup.y. 
A Monsieur le President du Palestine Exploration Fund. 



EAELY CHEISTIAN TOPOGEAPHY IN PALESTINE. 

The study of the topography of Palestine in periods subsequent to 
Biblical times is not merely a matter of antiquarian curiosity, it is 
intimately connected with the more important study of the topography 
of the Bible. We possess valuable works, like the Onomasticon of 
Eusebius and Jerome, the ancient Itineraries, and the media3val 
travels. Christian and Jewish, containing hints and observations, the 
importance of which depends on the trustworthy character of the work 
in which any of them appear. To estimate fairly how far we may rely 
on these supplementary authorities we must consider the later topo- 
graphy as a whole, and thence deduce the amount of confidence to be 
placed in any particular statement bearing on Biblical questions. 

I have in former reports touched upon mediajval and Crusading sites, 
such as the Tower of Eder, the two Ascalons, &c., but a few remarks on 
the earlier topography of Byzantine Palestine and of the Onomasticon 
may perhaps be of value. 

Of the thirty-three episcopal towns of the Palestina Prima of the 
fifth-century division of the Holy Land (a district almost exactly 
answering to the Roman Juda;a aud Samaria taken together), six only 
remained unknown in the time of Eeland, who has carefully ai ranged 
the whole number in alphabetical order. These six are — -l^a nns, 
between Jericho and Sebaste ; Dioddianopolis, south of Jerusuleui ; 
Minois, near Gaza ; and Somza Toxus. Miiiois alone is immediately 
recognisable as being the present ruin of El Minieh, on the north 
bank of Wady P.eiah, the supposed Eiver of Egypt. 

I. 

'' Dioddianopolis was a town of some little importance as an episcopal 
see, and the bishops appear as early as the Council of Chalcedon, 4bl 
A.D. R-eland, however, gives no indication of its position, aud the 
identification depends on a passage in an Italian work called '" Siria 
Sacra," of which I discovered a copy in the library of the Carmel Con- 
vent, dating 1695 a.d. Here we find that Diocletianopolis was on the 



12 EARLY CHRISTIAN TOPOGRAPHY. 

road from Jerusalem to Hebron, and "come nota il Baudran" was 
originally called Betlisaca. Athanasius, mentioned in the papers of 
the Synod of Jerusalem, was one of its bishops under the Patriarch 
Peter. 

Now we find from Reland that the southern town of Bezek, probably 
the 0e^€K-n of Ant. v. 1, was on the same road fi'om Hebron to Jerusalem, 
and two miles from Bethzur. It was of this town that Adonibezek was 
lord (Judges i. 4), whoso thumbs and great toes were cut off by the 
men of Judah after a great battle against the Perizzites and Canaanites 
in Bezek. Reland, with his usual critical acumen, proposes the 
identity of this site with the Bezeth of the book of Maccabees ; a 
measurement on the map leads to the same conclusion, for the large 
ruin of Beit Z'ata, which I have proposed to identify with Bezeth, lies 
about two miles north of Beit Sur, the ancient Bethzur. It is interest- 
ing to observe the existence of those niched vaults which Dr. Tobler, in 
•confirmation of my suggestion on the subject when wi-iting about Beit 
Jibrin, informs us were originally JRoman] columbaria ; they are not 
common in Palestine, and occur only in parts where other indications 
of Roman work exist. Here, therefore, as at Beisan, Lydda, Amwas, 
and in other places, the Hebrew or Aramaic name has outlived the 
more pretentious title conferred by the conquerors, and the Diocle- 
tianopolis of the early Christians, the Bezeth of the Maccabees, and the 
Bezek of the Old Testament, may, it would seem, be identified, with 
tolerable certainty, with the important ruins surrounding the modem 
village of Kufin. 

II. 

Of Sozn::a I have spoken in former reports. It seems clear that the 
site of the town lay between Ca3sarea Maritima and Sebaste. It is 
variously written Soscuris and Sorucis, whence the transition to Sei'ur, 
which I proposed last year, is easy. Deir Serur, the town discovered by 
us between Sebaste and Cajsarea, shows signs of having been a large 
and important place in early Christian times. 

III. 

Betliar, another site mentioned in the Itineraries, is of great import- 
ance as serving to fix the position of Antipatris. It is called Bethar 
both in the Antonine and in the Jerusalem or Bordeau Pilgi'im's 
Itinerary; its distance from Cajsarea is variously given as sixteen and 
eighteen Roman miles, and that from Antipatris was ten Roman miles. 
It appears to me to agree well with the present village of Tireh on the 
road from Ras el 'Ain to Ca^sarea, which is nearly nineteen Roman 
miles from the last noted, and about nine from Ras el 'Ain, making 
twenty-eight in all. This completes the list of distances round Anti- 
patris, which stand as below, affording pretty satisfactory evidence of 
identity of Ras el 'Ain with Antipatris : — 



EARLY CHRISTIAN TOroORAPIIY, 13 

LyJda to Antipatiis 12 Koman miles ; to Ras el Ain Hi Roman miles. 
Tiieh „ 10 „ „ „ 9 

Ccesarea „ 28 „ „ „ 28 

Gal-ula (GalgiUeh) (5 „ „ „ 6 

Jalla (150 stadia) Vj „ (!) „ ,, 13 

The distance, 150 stadia, given by Josephus, agrees with no proposed 
site for Antipatris, but if we read pi = 110 for pu = 150, a change easily 
made, we get 13f Roman miles, which is quite near enovigh. 

IV. 

2'he Onomasflcon. In his valuable introductory chapter Reland sums 
lip carefully the merits and defects of this great work as far as his 
information allowed him to criticise it. The merits he eniimerates are 
five, the defects five, as below : — 

Merits. 1. Certainty of correct reading where Greek and Lathi agree. 

2. The annotations and corrections of Jerome. 

3. The additional information given by Jerome. 

4. Mutual corrections in errors of orthography, names, &c. 

5. Passages omitted by Jerome recoverable in the Greek text. 
Defects. 1. The principal places whence measurements are made are not 

defined as to relative position. 

2. The four quarters of the compass alone are noticed, minor 

divisions being disregarded. 

3. Relative positions often important places are not given. 

4. The descriptions are sometimes vague, 
f). Irrelevant matter is inserted. 

To this list I would propose to add another merit and another 
defect : — 

Merit. 6. The minute acquaintance sllo^^^l by Jerome wich the out-of-the- 
way parts as well as ^vith the more frequented in Palestine, 

Defect. 6. The impossible identifications of Scriptural sites occasional] v 
occurring dependent on a similarity of name alone. 

The real value of the Onomasticon and other topographical notices 
by Eusebius and Jerome, seems to me to consist in the accurate know- 
ledge of the country shown by the axxthors. That the distances should 
when the text is uncorrnpted, be correct, is not a matter of astonish- 
ment when we I'emember that the pi'incipal Roman roads, to which 
alone they refer, were marked with milestones, which remain in numbers 
to the present day. 

As regards the identification of ancient sites, the only advantage 
possessed by these authors was in the more perfect preservation of the 
nomenclature in their time as compared with the nineteenth century, 
but it seems plain that they were far more hasty than modern students 
of Mr. Grove's school would be in fixing upon a site of similar name 
without reference to other rcciuisites. 

I may add a few examples which seem to bear out these views, and 



14 EARLY CHRISTIAN TOrOGRAPHY. 

to sliow that tlie value of the Onomasticon lies in its facts and not in 
its deductioos : — 

(1st.) As regards knowledge of the country. Anah, a town of Judah, 
is identified by Eusebiiis with Betoannaba, four miles east of Lydda- 
Jerome, however, adds a note that many supposed it to be Beth-anna- 
bam, eight miles in the same direction. Now in a direction south-east 
of Lydda we find at the present day, at the distance of five Roman miles, 
the village of Annabeh on a road which leads five miles farther to Beit 
Nuba. In these I think we can hordly fail to recognise the Betoannaba 
and Bethannabam of Jerome. 

Under this very head we have, on the other hand, a remarkable 
instance of misidentification ; neither of the sites is within the territory 
of Judah, and the town of Anab lay in the region of the Negeb or 
Daroma, Vt'here we fixed it as west of Debir (Dhdheriyeh), some thirty 
miles from the place where it is fixed by the Onomasticon. 

Other instances occur as follows : — Three Gilgals are noticed in the 
Bible, and occur in the modern nomenclature ; with all of these Jerome 
was acqviainted, and he describes them all accurately. Salem, near to 
CEnon, is placed south of Beisan, but Jerome fails not to notice another 
Salem eighteen miles from the same centre, but situate in the great 
plain of Esdraelon. The distance agrees exactly with the village cf 
Salim, near Ta'anik. Jerome even notices that the native place of 
Nahum the Elkoshite was pointed out to him in Galilee, near Jordan 
— no doubt the present Elkasyun, near the Huleh lake, giving us an 
idea of the extent of the more out-of-the-way parts of Palestine visited 
by this great author in his wanderings. 

(2nd.) The instances of incorrect identification are very numerous. 
Thus, Betam, or Bethemin, which lay four miles from the Terebinth of 
Mamre, is evidently the modern Beit 'Ainun at aboiit that distance from 
Eamet el 'Amleh, where the terebinth was in the fourth century sup- 
posed to have stood. Yet Eusebius would identify it with Ain, a city 
of Simeon lying in the Beersheba desert. Bareca and the Yalley of 
Blessings are now identified with the ruin of Breikut and Wady Arrub. 
(I may observe in passing that W. el Arrub is probably the Ai-ruboth of 
1 Kings V. 10, in which case the Socoh mentioned with it would be 
Shiukh, a town close to Wady el Arrub on the south.) Jerome makes 
Kefr Barucha to be identical with the modern Beni Naim. He further 
mentions a Bareca as near Ashdod, probably the modern Burka, close to 
Esdud. 

V. 

A few more obscure sites mentioned by the Onomasticon may be 
very easily identified. Thus, Kaphar Zachariah, near which existed the 
House of the Terebinth, and where the tomb of Zachariah was found, is 
no doubt the modern Kefr Zalxria, near which is a Christian ruin 
called Deir el Butm— Convent of the Terebinth. Maspha, a Mizpeh 
lying north of Eleutheropolis, is no doubt Khirlet el Mesherfeh in the 



EARLY CnrvISTIAN TOrOGllArilY. 15 

same direction, the name having the same meaning as the Hebrew 
Mispeh. Bera, eight miles north of Eleutheropolis, is evidently the 
modern Khirhet cl Bireh at about that distance. If, as M. GanneaiT 
thinks, the Timnath of the Onomasticon is to be sought near the road 
from Eleutheropolis to Jerusalem, a Khirhet Tihneh will be found to 
exist in that direction, besides the two well-known ruins of the same 
name which probably represent Timnah of Samson and Timnath of 
Joshua. To nearly all these sites, correctly described by Eusebius and 
Jerome, incorrect identifications or suggestions are added by those 
authors. 

The Survey of Palestine will, I hope, show clearly that the topo- 
gi'aphical lists of Joshua are neither fragmentary nor unsystematic ; 
that, as I have before pointed out, the towns are grouped under their 
royal cities, and occur in regular order. Such classification was first 
hinted by Mr. Grrove ; the new identifications by M. Ganneau observe 
the rule, and so agree well with those of the Survey. It seems to me, 
therefore, that identifications, whether ancient or modern, which dis- 
regard such conditions, and trust, as did Jerome or Eusebius, to simi- 
larity of sound alone, are but of little value, and serve rather to confuse 
what we have already made certain. 

A place called Chashi is mentioned by the Onomasticon as a deserted 
spot near Adullam. It seems identical with the Achzib or Chezib of 
Josh. XV. 44, which again appears Micah ^i. 14, in connection with 
Maresha and Adullam. It seems also likely to be the same as Cason 
(Kaauv, LXX. Alex.), translated in authorised version " in the harvest 
time," which if a town was near Adullam. This forms a good check 
both on the identification of Adullam by M. Ganneau and on my own 
identification of Achzib or Chezib with Khirbet Kussa, "the ruin of the 
tale " taking the place of the Hebrew "town of liars," and the site being 
at a distance of about five miles from 'Aid el Mieh. This is an instance 
of the true value of notices in the Onomasticon. 

Abel Meholali is a case in which the identification of the Onomasticon 
seems correct. It existed eight miles south of Beisan, and has there- 
fore been i^laced on Murray's new map at a ruin called Shukk. It 
seems, however, to have escaped notice that the name still exists under 
the form 'Ain Helwe, in the plain east of Shukk and west of Sa'kut, the 
" meadow of circles " being the broad downs of the south end of the 
Beisan valley, but the name now transformed into " Sweet Spring." 

Oeba of Horsemen, a town on Carmel, is often mentioned in the 
Itineraries. Eusebius places it at Gabe, sixteen miles from Cassarea. 
The j)lace is of importance as defining the limit of Lower Galilee. It 
is evidently the modern Jeb'a, on the west slopes of Carmel, not far from 
'Athlit, but this village is not to be found on Murray's new map of 
Palestine. 

VI. 

A few mediseval sites from other sources may be mentioned in the 
same connection. Bethelia was a town with a famous heathen temple 



16 EARLY CHRISTIAN TOrOORAniT. 

situate close to Gaza. It is no doubt the modern Beit Lehia, wliicli 
lies among the olive groves north of the city, and retains its religious 
character by the mosque and minaret -which no doubt replace the 
ancient temple. Caphar Oamala was the place to which Gamaliel, 
according to a venerable tradition, conveyed the bones of St. Stephen 
after martyrdom, and where they were afterwards miraculously ;dis- 
covered. It was twenty miles from Jerusalem, and may therefore be 
identified with Beit Jemal, near Yermuk, an identification which I do 
not find noticed in the Bible Dictionary. 

In a former report from Beit 'Atab I proposed with some diffidence 
that the little tomb house of Sheikh Samit, standing prominently above 
the valley of Soreg, near Ser'a, might have some connection with a 
tradition of the tomb of Samson. I now find, in the course of my 
studies of mediaeval writers, that as late as 1334 a.d. the tomb of 
Samson was shown to Isaac Chelo, in this same village, which renders 
the connection with Sheikh Samit highly probable.* 

In the same Jewish Itinerary we find mention of Roma or liamah, 
where was the cave of Caisrau whence the Messias was expected to 
appear. I have shown in a former report that this cave is to be found 
at the modern ruined village of Rumeh. The tradition originates in an 
extraordinary Targum on Exod. xii. 42, which runs as follows : " For 
Moses goeth forth from the desert and King Messias from Eoma." 
Isaac Chelo, as well as other Jewish travellers of the same date, show 
throughout a familiarity with the Targums and Talmud which is very 
valuable in some of the Galilcean sites, as I hope later to be able to 
show in the case of Capei'naum. 

VII. 

The advent of the Crusaders acted as a disturbing element in the 
topography of Palestine. Their knowledge of the country was very 
imperfect, their imitation of Arab names is barbarous, and the mistakes 
made in sites not generally famous are numerous. The passion for 
localising sacred memories had reached its height in the ninth century. 
Thus in 700 a.d. Arculphus visited only seven or eight holy places in 
Jerusalem, but Bernard the wise, in 867 a.d., notices about twenty, 
and a few more were added in the twelfth century. A well-known 
instance of Crusading error exists in the identification of the modern 
Arsuf, a coast town north of Jaffa, with Antipatris, Asher, and even 
Ashdod. In the same way William of Tyre places Porphyi-ion, which 
stood, according to the ancient Itineraries, between Sidon and Beirut, 
at Haifa, and accordingly we find that the Bishop of Haifa, or Por- 
phyrion, was u.nder the metropolitan of Ca3sarea. This error has a 
certain value because it serves to show that the town of Sycaminos is 
not to be placed at Haifa, but as having a bishop sei^arate and distinct 

* I see that M. Ganneau {Quarterly Statement, October, 1875, p. 211) men- 
tions a tradition, evidently of Cliristian origin, in which Sheikh Samit appears as 
the brother of Shanishim el Jebbar. 



nOCK-CUT TOMBS. 17 

from the Bishop of I'orphyriou, must be considered a separate site, and 
placed probably (from its distance in the Antonini Itenerary) at Tell el 
Semak, where ai-e remains of a considerable eai-ly Christian town, as 
pointed out by the late Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake and by myself in former 
reports. 

The Crusaders, as Keland remarks, even confounded the Sea of 
Galilee with the Mediterranean, and placed the site of some places 
mentioned in the New Testament as near Tiberias on the shore of the 
Mediterranean. Thus they supposed a connection between the name 
of the town Caiapha or Caiaphas (the modern Haifa), which Benjamin 
of Tudela makes to have been founded by Caiaphas the high priest, and 
Cephas, the Greek name of Simon Peter. Hence, at Haifa the Crusad- 
ing clergy showed the rock where Simon Peter fished, possibly the 
present Tell el Semak, or " mound of the fish." A second rock was 
shown at Jaffa, probably near the Church of St. Peter, with the same 
tradition. To this curious confusion of ideas may also perhaps be 
traced the existence of a Crusading Capernaum between Caipha and 
Caesarea. 

In a former report [Quarterly Statement, April, 1875, p. 90) I supposed 
this site, called Kefr Tauchumin by Jerome and the Talmud, and Kefr 
Thaucum or Capernaum by later writers, to be the present Tantura ; 
the distances given by Benjamin of Tudela, however, serve to place the 
Crusading Capernaum at the modern village of Kefr Lam, where are 
remains of a mediaeval fortress. This will appear from the Itinerary as 
below : — 

Caiphas to Capernaum, 4 parasaugs = 14 English miles. "^ ]3eaiamin Tudela. 
,, Cffisarea 10 ,, 35 ,, J 

Th« true distances are : — 

Haifa to Kefr Lam, 14 English mih-s. 
,, Civsarea, 36 ,, 

These brief notes will, I hope, be enough to show that a great amount 
of incidental information as to scriptiu-al topography is to be obtained 
by study of the obscurer sites mentioned in Talmudic and early Chris- 
tian writers. Where, however, the more famous, such as Capernaum, 
Gilgal, &c., are concerned, ecclesiastical tradition of the middle ages 
tends rather to confuse than to assist the student. C. E. C. 



ROCK-CUT TOMBS. 



The question of rock-cut sepulchres being one of special interest in 
Palestine as connected with the great question of the Holy Sepulchre, 
I may pei-haps be allowed a few words to supplement Dr. Tobler's 
notice in the last Quarterly Statement. 

c 



1« EOCK-CUT TOMBS. 

In tbe course of tlie Survey I have examined some 400 or 500 tomls, 
and have obtained about 100 plans, endeavouring always to get some 
indication of the date of the structure. 

The four species mentioned by Dr. Tobler may be divided into two 
groups: 1st, those with hokim ; 2nd, those with side loculi. He does 
not meution the other varieties common in Palestine, viz., 1st, graves 
not in rock chambers ; 2nd, x-ock-simh graves with two loculi. 

Of each of these four divisions there are specimens serving roughly to 
fix the date. 

1st Group. Koltim tomhs. — These have been variously described as 
tombs with the '-perpendicular," "pigeon-hole," "oven," 'deep," 
'•sunk," or " long'' loculus, to all of which titles Dr. Tobler objects, 
proposing the very simple expedient of securing uniformity of descrip- 
tion by returning to the original Jewish title, which I intend in' future 
to adopt. Such tombs are carefully described in the Talmud, and the 
dimensions there given tally with the average size of cbamber and 
graves of this class. 

There seems to me evidence in Palestine itself of these tombs being 
Jewish work. In many cases the JcoJd/n exist in one chamber, with 
loculi ditTerently arranged in another, but in every case, as far as my 
experience goes, it is the outer, or more ancient chamber, which has 
the JcoJcim, whilst the loculi exist in the inner or more recently ex- 
cavated. 

The scanty inscriptions in Hebrew which I have found on tombs have 
all belonged to tombs with holdrn, and I have never seen a Christian or 
a Greek inscription on such a tomb. The seven-branched candlestick 
we have also found only on tombs with lolcim. 

Another indication of antiquity may be found in the osteophagi to 
be discovered often in these chambers. They bear, as described by 
M. Ganneau, Hebrew inscriptions which he dates at about the first 
century a.d. The first of these inscriptions were communicated to 
the Fund in August, 1873, by Dr. Chaplin. As the osteophagi are 
not sufficiently large for an entire body, yet contain the bones of 
adults, it seems evident, as he then remaiked, that they can only have 
been used after the body had decayed and the skeleton fallen to pieces. 
If, then, they were used to preserve piously the bones of former occu- 
pants of the kokwi, when it was desired to place other bodies in these 
receptacles, it seems to argue a great antiquity for the kokim. 

Thiit further accommodation was often so obtained without the labour 
of rock excavation, we see clearly at Beisan, where sarcophagi of full 
size have been ranged parallel with the side loculi of the chamber. 

2nd. Group. Side loculi tomhs.— UnAai this head I would include the 
three varieties mentioned by Dr. Tobler as shelf graves, trough graves, 
and sunk graves. 

The disposition is in either case the same. An arched recess, gene- 
rally G to 7 feet long, and Ih feet wide, and 5 to 6 feet high, is cut at the 
back and on either side of the chamber. The loculus consists either of 



HOCK- CUT TOMBS. 10 

f!, grave sunk iu this recess, or more generally there is a rock wall 
reaching 2 to 3 feet up in front, and thus forming a deep sarcophagus 
covered with flat slabs. If the recess is not on the level of the chamber 
floor we have the shelf loculns. In either case the body lay with its 
side (not with its feet) to the wall of the chamber. Thus the title side 
locidus applies to all. There seems no distinction of date between the 
three kinds, but rather one of labour, the better tombs containing the 
trough loculus, which required more labour, though more than one 
kind may be found in the same tomb. 

In some cases more than one loculus exists under one arch or arco- 
solium. A sort of transition style may be recognised where two loculi 
exist with a space between under one arcosolium, but endwise to th«; 
out^r chamber like holdm. 

These tombs appear later than the hokira tombs. I measured a great 
number of valuable examples with Greek inscriptions (some known) at 
Suk Wady Barada (ancient Abila). In Palestine itself I found an 
example with a Greek graphita at Sheikh Bureik. The inner or more 
recent chambers of the holiitn tombs have often side loculi. At Shefa 
'Amr, a seat of the early Eabbis, I visited such a tomb highly decorated 
"with Christian emblems and a Greek inscription. Unless we suppose 
that other nations buried their dead with the Jews, we must conclude 
this to be a later Jewish style of tcmb. This fact may be cited in 
favour of the authenticity of the traditional Holy Sepulchre. 

3rd Group. Graves wihout chambers. — The Romans in Palestine seem 
to have used columbaria or sarcophagi, but a few examples occur, as 
near Seffurieh, of sarcophagi sunk in the rock, and covered with the 
usual lid. Another kind of grave, Avhich is indeed the arcosolium cut 
in the face of a cliff instead of within a chamber, occurs in cemeteries 
of the second gi-oup. The columbaria exist in well-known Roman sites, 
such as that of Diocletianopolis, which I hope to show clearly is to be 
found at the modern village of Kufin, an interesting identification, and, 
as I think, quite new. 

4th Group. Bock-sunk tombs. — By this term I have invariably described 
a kind of sepulcre not mentioned by Dr. Tobler, and scarcely known to 
exist near Jerusalem. One example occurs on Olivet, and others were 
planned by M. Gauneau in the Kerm es Sheikh. It consists of a trough 
some 6i feet long, 3 feet wide, and from 4 to j feet deep, sunk in the flat 
surface of the I'ock, and covered by a great block 7 feet long ; on either 
long side of the trough exists a recess or arcosolium, with a grave sunk 
in its floor. Thus the tomb held two bodies, and no more, placed side- 
by side, with the trough between. 

According to native tradition these tombs are Christian. A large 
cemetery of such exists in connection with a mediaeval tower at Ik sal. 
and is known as the Frank cemetery. The tombs are supposed to have 
held man and wife. 

Several of this class of tombs give instances of Greek Christian in- 
scriptions, as that found by M. Ganneau at Kh. Zakeriyeh. In the one, 
on Olivet were found two leaden coffins with crosses upon them. 



20 KALAMON. 

None of these systems of burial seem to have had auy reference to 
orientation, and are hence not used by the Moslems. 

A few specimens of structural sepulchres on the first or second system 
exist in Palestine. 

Thus arranged and dated, we find tlie method of sepulture used by 
each succeeding race, Jew, Heathen, or Christian, in Palestine. 

The Crusaders seem to have been buried as in Europe, thus we may 
confine group No. 4 to the Byzantine period, when a great deal of 
rock excavation was executed. 

A careful paper, should I have time to draw it up, with plans of the 
important specimens collected by us, and professional opinion on the 
architectural details, would, I hope, in our present state of information, 
go far to settle the question of date, which would render the sepuldires 
thus classified of extreme value to antiquarians. C. R. C 



KALAMON. 



In his paper on the Jerusalem Itinerary, published in the "Bulletin 
de la Societe' de Ge'ographie" for July, 1875, M. Gauneau calls attention 
to the omission of the name Kalamun upon our map of Carmel as well 
as upon those of M, Guerin and Vandevelde, whilst it is to be found on 
the maps of Robinson, Ritter, and Jacotin. The explanation is simple, 
and, as in many other cases in Palestine, I have little doubt that the 
place has two names, the second of which is suggested by M. Ganneau, 
and actually appears on our map. 

Eitter places Kalamon north-east of El Keniseh. Kalamon is men- 
tioned by Isaac Chelo (1334 A.D.) as an important ruin near the sea, 
between Sycamines and Coesarea. The French army, in returning from 
Acca, passed through a place of the same name, and in the Notitia of 
the Roman knights it is mentioned as the quarters of one cohort and of 
certain native mounted archers. There is, therefore, little doubt as to 
its whereabouts, and M. Ganneau concludes thus: "Far induction la 
position de Kalamoun tomberait d'apres ce raisonnement uu peu au nord 
du point marque oW dans la carte du Lieutenant Condor en face de 
Perch Iskander." This position agrees with that given on Murray's 
new map. 

I find, on inspecting the .specimen map of Carmel, published in the 
Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly for January, 1875, that the "point 
marked oW" in questiou is a well. M. Ganneau appears to have mis- 
taken the small circle which in large surveys generally marks a well 
for the letter o ; W. of course stands for well. A little to the north- 
east is a ruin of some importance occupying the position of the Kulmon 
of the new Murray ; it is called by us Khirbet Kefr el Samir, and con- 
tains rock-cut tombs. On reference to the ruiu list I find it to consist 



KALAMOX. 21 

of heaps of stones, and that a lintel with a cross cut on it was observed — 
an indication, as we suppose, of the place having been inhabited by the 
early Christians before the time of the Crusades. 

M. Ganncau himself suggests the identity of Kalamon and the Castra 
of the Talmud (mtSDp). This site is mentioned by the Gemara as 
situate in Galilee near Khiphab, apparently the modern Haifa, and it is 
noted as one of the phices inhabited by the Minim or pagans. " The 
Jews dwell in Khiphah, but the Minim in Castra" (cf. Reland, s. v.)- 
This mention of its inhabitants makes it almost certain that the Castra 
of tho Talmud is the Castra Samaritorum noticed by Antony of Piacenza 
as near Sugamia (Sycamiuos), and beneath the monastery of tho prophet 
Elijah. One other step alone is required in tho identification, and I 
think it will hardly be denied that Kefr el Samir (village of the Samir) 
is the corrui>tion of Castra Samaritorum (camp of the Samaritans), for 
the simple r'^asou that tho monastery in question is none other than tho 
Dayr at Ain Siah, a spring known to the Carmelite monks as the Foun- 
tain of Elijah. 

It is not to be supposed that Antony of Piacenza refers to the convent 
at present existing, which dates only from 1825 A.D., or to its prede- 
cessor on the same spot founded in 1631. 

Tne convent of St. Brocardus was founded in 1209 at the Fountain 
of Elijah. In 1238 the monks were all massacred and thrown into a 
laro-e reservoir still existing beneath tho fountain, whence the valley over 
which the ruins of the convent stand is known as the Valley of Martyrs. 
A curious legend of the petrification of certain fruits by the prophet 
attaches to the place. The owner of the garden existing in Elijah's time 
(and still flourishing) refused to give the prophet any of its fruit, and 
said his ground produced only stones. " Stones be they," was the angrj' 
reply, and tho petrified plums and melons are still visible, though a 
heretical geologist might give them the harder appellation of geodes. 
This site is mentioned by Mr. Drake {Quarterly Statement, April, 1873, 
p. 15), and wo possess detailed notes as to the remains of the convent. 
It will be found to be placed on the map half a mile north of Kefr el 
Samir, and is considerably higher up tho side of tho hill. The two serve 
to verify one another, and may plainly be identified with the Castra 
Samaritorum and convent of Elijah mentioned by Antony of Piacenza. 

It seems, therefore, that we have recovered the more important of the 
two names by which this site was known at diffei-ent periods. Whether 
the other title, Calamon, still exists in the memory of the peasantry it 
will be easy to find on revisiting the spot ; meanwhile it is satisfactory 
to be able to show that an important ruin has not been omitted in the 
survey work. C. E. C. 



THE SYNAGOGUE OF VMU EI. AMUD. 



THE SYNAGOGUE OE UMM EL AMUD. 

August loth, 1875. 

The only synagogue of tho interesting group in Galilee first explored 
by Major Wilson which the survey party have as yet examined is that 
•of the ruin of Utnm el 'Amud on a hill east of the Butfcauf plain. I have 
not found this mentioned in any of tho early travels in Palestine which 
serve to identify and date many of the other synagogues, and, indeed, 
the name of the site is lost, being replaced by the modern title, meaning 
' ' Mother of the Column." 

The synagogue is much ruined, and a part has been removed to build 
a sort of small keep or fortress south of it, near the Roman road. There 
are, however, traces of four rows of columns, and the plan seems to have 
been identical with that of others, namely, five walks, three doors to the 
south, and a double column (as described and sketched iu Major Wilson's 
paper, Quarterly Statement, April, 1869), at tho north end of the two 
outer rows of pillars. Of these outer double columns the greater part of 
that on the north-west corner is here standing msi'^w; the other has fallen 
and lies near to its oiiginal position. The basas of the two most southern 
columns, flanking the middle walk, are also in situ. Thus wo have the 
means of ascertaining both the length and the width of the sjnagogue. 
The measurements thus obtained give a striking indication of the stan- 
dard used, which seems to me to be clearly the medium cubit mentioned 
by the Talraudical writers, wh'"ch was used in the measurements of 
buildings, and which from actual measurement of tho unit (the barley- 
corn), of -which it contained U4, has been fixed by some writers at 16 
inches. 

Measurements taken. Feet. Cubits. 

Length of colonnade 53ft., approximately . (53' 4") equals 40 cub. 

Breadth of two walks 26ft., do. . (26' 8") „ 20,, 

Base of a column measures 2' 4" ,. 1^,, 

Upper diameter do 18 ,, I4 ,, 

Total height of pillar (abacus to ba.se incL). 13' 4" ,, 10 ,, 

Height of pedestal and stylobate 1' 4" ,, 1 ,, 

Capital of attached pilaster 8" ,, 0^,, 

Lintel main door, length 8' 4" ,, 7 ,, 

Do. do. height 2' 4' ,, li} ,, 

The decayed state of the ruin prevented the two main measures from 
being taken within a few inches, but they are near enough when taken 
with the exactor measures of the details. 

The outer wall of the synagogue has disappeared beneath rubbish, but 
the entire plan of the building can perhaps be recovered by comparison 
with more perfn^ct specimens. Thus in the width we have five walks 
ten cubits broad, giving fifty cubits interior measurement. 

The length of the colonnade is 40 cubits, which with 6 columns 



THE STOXK or rOUXDATlON' AND THE SITE OF THE TEMI'LE, 23 

1^ cubits base gives an intercolumniation of 5'9 cubits, or about 7' 10", 
beiug very nearly the same as that of the synagogue of Arbehi, which is 
exactly 6 cubits = 8 feet. Adding G cubits on either end of tho building 
(in imitation of the plan of the Tell Hum synagogue), wo obtain a total 
interior length of 52 cubits, being 4 cubits short of the length of the 
great synagogues of Tell Hum and Kerazeh. 

The capitals of the pillars arc of a very simple character. Attached 
pilasters seem to have been built against the walls either in or outside. 
A stylobatc of simple moulding, identical with that of the pedestals on 
which the pillars stood and sixteen inches high, ran round the building. 

In the little keep I found, besides pillar shafts of dimensions identical 
with those of the synagogue, three lintels which probably belonged to 
the three southern doors of the synagogue. The longest, 8' 4" by 2' 4", 
represents two lions flanking a base, which may perhaps represent tho 
pot of manna (see Photograph No. 73, old series). They are boldly 
though roughly cut ; the stone is broken in two. The other two have 
sunk centres with a surrounding conventional border of a very effective 
twisted pattern. 

It would bo very interesting to know the date of this building, but of 
this we have no positive evidence. 

It is known that Eabbi Simeon bar lochai built twenty-four sj-na- 
gngues at his own expense. Among these were the synagogues of 
Kpfr Birim, El Jish, and Mcirun (where he is buried), visited by Major 
Wilson, also one at Etham, of which we have, I believe, found the site, 
with two others as yet unknown at Trria and S'asa. This famous 
doctor and builder, called "the great light," and also "the spark of 
Moses," is said to have been the author of the cabalistic book Zohar. 
He lived about 120 A.D. 

The six synagogues enumerated above date, therefore, from the very 
commencement of the second century. It is extremely probable that 
1 lie synagogue of Umm el 'Amed may be attributed to the same date 
and the same builder. 

Claude E. Coxder, Lieut. E.E. 



THE STONE OF FOUNDATION AND THE SITE OF 

THE TEMPLE. 

\_The substance of this j^aper has already appeared in the Athen-T.um:.] 

L 

The question whether tho " stone of foundation " was a portion of tho 
solid rock or a movable stone is one of considerable interest in connection 
with the topography of the temple. If the former, it will be easy to fix 
with all but absolute certainty its position, and from it as a starting- 
point, to lay down the sites of the temple, altar, and courts, with no 



24 THE STONE OE EOUNDATION AM) THE 

more uncertainty than the uncertain yalue of the cuhit renders in- 
evitable. 

The use of the "word px woiild imply that it was a movable stone, but 
its (supposed) history, as given by the Eabbis, quite removes it from 
the category of ordinary stones and represents it as the centre* or nucleus 
from which the world was founded. "It is taught that from it the 
woi'ld was founded, which is the same as to say from Zion the world 
was created. The doctrine of the Bareitha is that Eabbi Eliezer said 
the world was created from its middle, as is said, ' when the dust 
groweth into hardness and the clods cleave fast together ' (Job xxxviii. 
28). Rabbi Joshua said the world was created from the sides. . . . 
Rabbi Izaak (Niphka) said the Holy One, blessed be He, threw a stone 
into the sea, aud from it the world was created " (Yoma, 54?*). Eashi 
explains: "Zion was first created, and around it the clods were com- 
pacted together until the world was completed on every side." 
The teaching of the Talmudic doctors therefore indicates clearly 
that the aven slideyali was rock, and not a detached stone, aud also 
affords an explanation of the use of the word px in connection with it. 
Originally, according to their ideas, it was a stone, but when from it the 
world was created, either by a process of accretion from without, as E. 
Joshua held, or by a kind of growth from within, as taught by E. 
Eliezer, it was no longer a stone, though still retaining the name, but 
the foundation of the world, the holiest spot on earth,! " Zion the per- 
fection of beauty," the place where the ark of the covenant was deposited, 
aud where alone the " visible majesty of the divine presence " manifested 
itself, t 

The notion that it was a movable stone appears to have arisen in 
later times, and to rest upon no better authority than that of the Toldoth 
Yesu — a work containing so many silly and blasphemous stories that its 
statements can hardly be regarded as worthy of serious consideration. 
Moreover, the testimony of this book is by no means of a definite charac- 
ter, for whilst, according to Buxtorf (Lex. Talm. 2541), it represents the 
stone as identical with that which the patriarch Jacob anointed at 
Bethel, the edition of Wagen.seil gives quite a different account of its 

* In subsequent times the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was made the site 
of this as well as of some other traditions stolen from Mount Moriali. 

+ The Rabbis hav^e, indeed, a quibble that the chamber over the Holy of 
Holies was holier than the most holy place itself, because it was entered only 
once in seven years, whereas the Holy of Holies was entered every year 
(Pesach. 86«). 

J The expression "from the time of the former prophets" (Samuel, DaviJ, 
and Solomon) appears intended to indicate that in the time of tlie second temple 
there was no doubt about the site of the Hoi v of Holies in Solomon's building. 
Tosefta Yoma (ch. ii.) expressly notes that tlic ark had been placed upon the 
stone of foundation. About the extent of the holiness of the most holy place 
towards the east in the second temple there was a doubt (Yoma 51?*, and R. 
Obadiah on Midd. iv. ~). 



HUE 01' THE TEMPLE. 2.> 

origiu — namely, that King David, wlien digging tlie foundation (of the 
temple), found it "over the mouth of the abyss" with the name 
engraved upon it, and that he brought it up and placed it in the Holy 
of Holies. 

On the whole, then, it is difficult to come to any other conclusion than 
that the avtn shitei/uh was a portion of rock projecting three finger- 
breadths upwards from the floor of the Holy of Holies, covering a cavity 
which was regarded as the mouth of the abyss, reverenced as the ceiitre 
and foundation of the world, and having the ineffable name of God 
inscribed upon it.* 

II. 

The statements made in the Talmud, and repeated over and over again 
with great accuracy by rabbinic writers, supply us Avith the following 
data — viz. : 

1. The stone of foundation (in other word?, the solid rock) was the 
highest point within the mountain of the house, projecting slightly above 
the floor of the Holy of Holies. 

2. There was a gradual descent from it by means of several flights of 
stairs to the floor of the mountain of the house opposite the eastern 
gate, the difference of the level of these two points being twenty-two 
cubits (and three finger-breadths). 

3. A lino produced from it through the centre of the house towards 
the Mount of Olives would intersect the top of that mount. 

4. From it the rock sloped downwards on the western, northern, and 
southern sides, as well as on the eastern, a " solid and closed founda- 
tion " six cubits high being made all raund the house in order to raise 
the floor to (within three finger-breadths of) its summit. On the eastern 
side this solid foundation was covered by the steps leading down to the 
court, but whether these steps extended along the whole breadth of the 
house is uncertain. 

5. Although the difl'erence in level of the floor of the mountain of 
the house at the eastern gate, and the floor of the temple was (as above 
stated) twenty-two cubits, the rise of the ground outside the courts, 
from east to west, was such that the floor of the temple was only twelve 
cubits above it at the southern and (perhaps) northern gates of the upper 
court. 

The summit of the Sakhrah under the great dome of the rock is the 
only spot in the whole enclosure which answers to these data, and it 
will not be difficult to show that it answers to them in a very remarkable 
degree. 

The Holy House, with its courts, was not in the centre of the enclosure, 

* It is impossible not to .suspect in tlie.se Jewish traditions the origin of tlie 
sneredncss which the Mohainmeclans have attached to the Sakhrah. The "stone," 
which was the foundation of the world, might afford a fitting resting-place for 
the Prophet on his mysterious journey, and the " great abyss " may well have 
suggested the nwful legends which still cling to the "well of souls." 



2G THE STOXE or rOFXDATIOJf AND THE 

but was nearer to its vrcstern boundary than to its nortberu, nearer to 
its nortbora than to its eastern, aud nearer to its eastern than to its 
southern ; in other words, the largest free space was on the south, the 
next on the east, the next on the north, and the smallest on the west. 
In the Tosifoth Tom Toy and Middotb, the following measurements are 
i^iven — viz. : 

Northern space. ... ... ... ... ... ... 115 cubits. 

Breadth of court (north to sonth) ... ... ..~ ... 135 ,, 

Southern space ... ... ... ... ... .. 250 ,, 

r.oo 

Western space ... ... ... ... ... ... 100 cubits. 

Length of court (west to east) ... ... ,.. ... 187 ,, 

Eastern space 213 ,,. 

500 

What authority the author may have bad for this statement I know not, 
but taking it as a useful hypothesis from which to work, and reckoning 
the cubit at twenty iucbes,* we find (1) that if the centre of the Sakbrah 
be regarded as the centre of the Holy of Holies, the northern boundary 
of the mountain of the bouse would come to within a few feet of the 
northern limit of the present platform, where is the scarped rock dis- 
covered by Captain Wari'en ; (2) that the northern boundary would 
come to within a few feet of the entrance of El Aksa, a point near which 
other considerations would lead to the .supposition that the mountain of 
the house terminated ; (3) that the western boundary would fall a few 
feet west of the foot of the pre^ent western ascent to the platform; and 
(4) that the eastern bouudary would fall within a few feet of the present 
eastern wall. 

The difficidty presented by the large .space left on the west between 
the present boundary wall and the boundary of the ancient enclosure, as 
liere supposed, may be met by I'emembering the probability that there 
Avere bouses (treasuries, dwelling-houses, &c.) on the western side, and 
that these may have occupied the space. 

As to the levels. Within 153t feet east of the centre of the Sakbrah 
the rock should descend 10 feet ; 93 feet farther east, where the court of 

* The choice of 20 inches is of course purely arbitrary. In building their 
t;ibernacles the Jev/s still make use of the hand-breadth, closing the band and 
doubling in the thumb. Such a hand-breadth, as I have ascertained by repeated 
measurements, is seldom less than 3^ inches, giving a cuhit of 21 inches. Seme- 
times the point of the thumb is made to project upwards and included in the 
hand-breadth, which of course makes the latter much larger, aud brings the 
cubit to 26 or 27 inches. It may be hoped that it is still within the bounds of 
possibility that the ancient standards preserved in Shushan Habbireh (at the 
eastern gate) may be recovered. 

t I here follow Rabbi Oliadiah in taking the di.stance between the altar and 
the lowest of the steps leading up to the porch to be three cubits (cf. Midd. iii. 6, 
and the Commentaiies). 



SITE OF THE TEMPLE. 27 

iho women began, tliere should be another descent of H3 feet 8 inches ; 
and 225 feet still farther east another of 10 fVet. Altogether the ground 
should be 36 feet 8 inches lower than the top of the Sakhrah at a distance 
of 513 feet towards the cast. 

"Within 58 feet of the centre of the Sakhrah on the north and on the 
south the rock should descend 10 feet (to the level of the upper court), 
<and 54 feet farther on the south, and perhaps on the north, other 10 feet 
(to the level of the mountain of the house at that part). 

Captain Warren's valuable sketch-map of tlie levels of the Ilaram 
Area which faces page 159 of " Our Work in Palestine," shows that if 
the Sakhrah bo thus taken as representing the Holy of Holies nearly all 
these levels will fall in without straining. 

On the north there is some reason to suppose that the descent from the 
court was not so rapid as on the southern side. The house Moked, 
which was there, is understood by the rabbinic writers to have been 
built on the ground, and the northern half of it was certainly outside 
of the court, so that we need not be surprised to find that the rock 
makes its farther descent at a greater distance from the Sakhrah 
on the north than on the south, which the map shows to be the 
case. The descent into the court of the women is a greater diffi- 
culty, because the drop of the rock appears to be too far east, but 
it will be evident that these distances and measurements cannot bo 
regarded as absolutely exact. The doubt about the cubit prevents 
it. Also the uncertainty as to whether the stairs leading up to the 
court projected into the court or outwards towards the mountain 
of the house. Those between the court of Israel and the court 
of the women are generally supposed to have projected outwards 
towards the latter, bat the slope must have commenced farther west, 
because there were chambers under the court of Israel opening into 
the court of the women. The steps leading up to the court of the 
women from the east are believed to have been outside that court in 
the chel. Possibly some of these steps may have been cut in the rock 
itself. Another element of uncertainty is the possihility of the tup oj 
the Sakhrah having been cut away since the temple was destroyed,"* also 
the question to what extent the space eastward of the courts was 
filled up artificially. A not unimportant topic of inquiry is whether 
there were steps leading up to or from the eastern gate of the moun- 
tain of the house, or whether that gate was on a level with the ground 
outside and inside, questions to which I have not been able to find a 
satisfactory answer in the Jewish writings. Eashi, indeed (in Berachoth 
54a), speaks of the eastern gate being "outside of the mountain of the 
house in the low wall which was at the foot of the house," but it is not 
certain from this that he understood steps to lead up to the higher level, 

* This is in fact a very probable supposition. Possibly the Mohammedans 
may have shaped it to suit their purposes, and made the gutter upon it to carry 
oil' the blood of their sacrifices. 



28 THE IDENTIFICATION 01" THE ALTAK Or EI). 

nor is his opinion on such a subject decisive. Maimonides intimates 
that from the eastern gate to the end of the chel was one level; apparently 
this was from the inner side of the gate. (Beth Habbech vi. 1.) 

Relative to the summit of the Mount of Olives the position of the 
Sakhrah is precisely that indicated in the Talmud as the position of the 
Holy of Holies. I have repeatedly proved by observation that a person 
standing on the top of the mount (near the minaret) may look straight 
through the little dome (judgment-seat of David) and the door of the 
dome of the rock towards the Sakhrah, and conversely, that a person 
placing himself at the eastern door of the latter building and looking 
away in a line at right angles to the door, will look strnight at the top of 
the Mount of Olives, a few feet south of the centre of the minaret. 

Thomas Chaplin, M.D. 

Jerusalem, September 24:th, 1875. 



THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE ALTAE OF ED. 

The following letter expresses difficulties which have been felt by 
many with reference to Lieut. Couder's proposed identification of the 
Altar of Ed. The paper has been shown to Lieut. Conder, who has fur- 
nished a reply to the various points raised by Dr. Hutchinson. The 
substance of this is appended. 

" Let us run through the narrative, and see how cleai-ly it both implies 
and states that the Witness Altar stood on the left or eastern bank of 
Jordan ; that it was erected by Eeuben, Gad, and half Manasseh within 
the borders of their own inheritance, and therefore could not possibly 
be identified with the western Kurn Surtabeh. 

The Lord had given ' ' unto Israel all the land which He sware to give 
unto their fathers ; and they possessed it, and dwelt therein " (Josh. 
xxi. 43). And so Ephraim, in whose territory the Kurn stands, was in 
full possession and enjoyment of his lot, stretching from the Mediter- 
ranean right up to the west bank of the Jordan. 

Mark this fact as bearing on the argument, and recollect also that 
Shiloh, the great rendezvous, whence Reuben, Gad, and half Manasseh 
started for their inheritance, was also in Ephraim, and only about four 
and a half miles west of the Kurn. 

The western tribes being in full enjoyment of their inheritance, and 
Eeuben, Gad, and half Manasseh having faithfully fulfilled their 
compact (Numb. xxii. 17-19 ; xxxi. 32), Joshua solemnly blesses and dis- 
misses them to their trans-Jordanic inheritance, warning them signifi- 
cantly to "take diligent heed to do the commandment and the law 
which Moses, the servant of the Lord, charged" them (Josh. xxii. 5). 
As a result of this warning the trans-Jordanic tribes raised this Witness 
Altar in their own isolated inheritance for the information and instruc- 
tion of their descendants. When and whore was this altar laised ? 



THE lDENXIF10AT](t.\ Ol' T}IK ALTAR OF ED. 29 

"The childreu of Reuben, and the children of Gad, and the half-tribe 
of Manaseeli returned, and departed from the children of Israel out of 
Shiloh, -which is in the land of Canaan, to go unto the country of Gilead, 
to the land of their possession. . , . And when they came uuto the 
borders of Jordan, that are in the land of Canaan, the children of 
Eeuben, and the children of Gad, and the half-tribo of Manasseh built 
them an altar bj* Jordan, a great altar to see to. And the children of 
Israel heard say. Behold, the children of Reuben, and the children of 
Gad, and tlie half-tribe of ^lanasseh. have built an altar over against the 
land of Canaan, in the borders of Jordan, at the passage of the children 
of Israel" (Josh. xxii. 9-11). 

Clearly, then, the erection of the altar was not accomplished while the 
two and a half tribes were on their march ; separated from their homes 
and belongings by the length of the campaign, they would naturally 
hurry homewards, and it was not until they had passed over Jordan 
unto "the country of Gilead," Gad's inheritance, and directly opposite 
Shiloh, that the two and a half tribes resolved upon building the Witness 
Altar. That it was erected in the Gilead " borders of Jordan " is evident, 
because — 

1. The deputation sent by the children of Israel and headed by Phine- 
has, was ordered over " into the land of Gilead," and there encountered 
the two and a half tribes (Josh. xxii. 13-15). It is more than probable 
that Phinehas opened his speech with the Witness Altar in full view ; 
and, as it were, tangible, when he exclaims, " What trespass is this that 
ye have committed against the God of Israel?" (Josh. xxii. 16.) The 
-point of the deputation and its address would have been lost if the dis- 
puted altar lay in foreign territorj-, even though that was the territory of 
Ephraim. 

2. It is impossible to believe that the halt of the returning tribes 
around the Kurn, not five miles from Shiloh, and their operations on its 
summit, would have prompted the wording of Josh. xxii. 11, " And the 
children of Israel heard say." Such a proceeding in the great and 
quarrelsome tribe of Ephraim, hard by the sanctuary at Shiloh, could not 
have been a matter of hearsay ; and if the altar took a long time to erect 
the work could easily have been arrested in limine by the heads of the 
tribes residing at Shiloh. Cleaily the intelligence came, as if from afar, 
after the deliberate erection of the altar, and I think the hearsay report 
implies that it was not within eyesight or earshot of Shiloh, which it 
would have been if erected on the Kirrn Surtabeh. 

3. It is impossible to believe that this Witness Altar could have been 
erected by the trans-Jordanic tribes on territory other than their own ; 
Ephraim would have resented the intrusion, and certainly would take no 
pains to keep the monument in repair ; this would naturally be the care 
of its erectors, but could hardly be maintained in a foreign tribe, sepa- 
rated from them by the at all times rapid and yearly-inundated Jordan. 

4. Again, the main object of the Witness Altar would have been de- 
feated if it had been erected on the right bank of the Jordan. The two 



JV) the IDENTIi'IOATION OF THE ALTAR OF ED. 

and a half tribes clpaily foresaw (what eventually happened) that the 
rapid and annually-flooded Jordan would slowly but surely raise a sepa- 
lating barrier between the eastern and western tiibes. Mark their 
words : " If we have not rather done it for fear of this thing, saying, In 
time to come your children might speak unto our children, saying, What 
have yo to do with the Lord God of Israel ? For the Lord hath made 
Jordan a border between us and you, ye children of Eeuben and children 
of Gad ; ye have no part in the Lord " (Josh. xxii. 24, 25). To obviate 
this, and bearing in mind the parting words of Joshua, "Take diligent 
heid to do the commandment and the law which Moses, the servant of 
the Lord, charged you" (Josh. xxii. 5), the trans-Jordanic tribes de- 
termined on erecting the Witness Altar, an exact representation in 
masonry of the brazen altar at Shiloh, to which they might appeal. 
" Behold the pattern of the altar of the Lord " (Josh. xxii. 28). 

The western tribes had the original altar at Shiloh, and would not 
require its pattern on the Kurn, only five miles ojGf ; its presence there 
would not have the significance which would be conveyed by its erec- 
tion on a trans-Jordanic site. It was not a witness for the western 
against the eastern tribes, but for the hitter against the former, conse- 
quently they (the latter) would jealously guard their witness model, and 
keep it in careful repair, for upon its entirety depended their right to 
membership in the national theocracy. Such being the case, could they 
consign the Witness Altar to the precarious care of the opposite tribe ? 
Surely not; the witness must be on their side of the Jordan, or, in the 
words of the narrative, " over against the land of Canaun; " it must be 
in their safe and jealous custody, and easily accessible to children and 
children's children. 

5. I do not think the expression " over against the land of Canaan, 
in the borders of Jordan " (Josh. xxii. 11), can bear any other interpre- 
tation than of exactly fixing somewhere on the left bank the site of the 
altar; the words are apparently added to clear up the somewhat ambigu- 
ous description of the tenth verse. The site is further localised by fixing 
it " at the passage of the children of Israel," and here the noithern ex- 
tremity of that great passage must be alluded to. We are told in Josh, 
iii. 16, " that the waters which came down from above stood and rose up 
upon an heap very far from the city Adam, that is beside Zaretan." Now 
Zaretan (the modern Zerthan) is to the north, but in the name of tho 
Damieh ford, we have probably traces of the city Adam (Lieut. Conder), 
so that we cannot be far from the whereabouts of the Witness Altar. 
AVhy may it not be sought in the great eastern range directly opposite 
tho Kurn, figuring in Eobinson's map as the Motintain of Gilead, 
and culminating in Jebel Osha ? 

6. I cannot understand how Lieut. Conder can make the expression 
" children of Israel " applicable to the two and a half tribes only ; if so, 
then analogy rtquires the application of the term throughout this par- 
ticular narrative, and so ver. 9 and others ought to read, ' ' And the children 



Tin; ruENxii'icATiox OF xnx: alxak of ed. 31 

of Israel (i.e., the two and lialf tribes) returned and departed from tlic 
children of Israel out of Sliiloh." 

7. Lieut. Conder treads on very dangerous ground when he brings in 
a casual local appellation to suit a namft which really does not exist ; the 
word " Ed " after altar does not exist in the generally received Hebrew 
text, but was supplied by our translators. The passage is literally as 
follows : " And the children of Reuben and the children of Gad named 
the altar, because that is a witness (Ed) between us that Jehovah is 
God " (Grove) ; so that Ayd has been unwarrantably treated in having 
his name assigned to a non-existent locality. I venture to bring forward 
with equal pretension a name which may assist in localising my eastern 
site ; for to the north-west of Mount Gilead, directly opposite Zaretan, 
and between the Wadys Aylun and Zurka, I find (on Eobinson's map) 
the name Abu Obeidah, the mid sylhxble of which, eid or eyd, is as close 
to Ed as Ayd is. 

I stated at the outset of my paper that " a careful consideration of the 
Scripture narrative, without any critical disquisition, is alone sufficient 
to upset Lieut. Couder's theory ; " let me now by way of disquisition 
add Josep bus's crushing testimony against the western site. 

" Now,.when the tribe of Eeuben and that of Gad, and as many of the 
Manassites as followed them, were imssed over the river, they built an 
altar on the banks of Jordan, as a monument to posterity, and a sign of 
their relation to those who should inhabit on the other side. But when 
those on the other side heard that those who had been dismissed had 
built an altar . . . they were about to pass over the river, and to punish 
them for their subversion of the laws of thei]- country. . . . Accordingly 
they sent as ambassadors to them Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, and ten 
more persons that were in esteem among the Hebrews, to learn of them 
what was in their mind when, ttpon passing over the river, they had built 
an altar upon its banks." — Antiq. B. V. These extracts clearly show, 
what I have attempted to prove, that the Witness Altar was erected after 
the passage of the river, that its site must be sought on the eastern, and 
not on the western bank of the Jordau, and that, therefore, it could not 
possibly be on the Kurn Surtabeh. 

Brighton, June 30, 1875. E. F. Hutchikson,' M.D. 

Lieut. Conder replies in substance as follows : — 

1. The Bible and Josephus are silent as to the keeping of the altar in 
repair, and as to its being in sight of Phincas during his speech on 
Mount Gilead. 

2. The Kurn cannot be seen from Shiloh. A high range of mountains 
separates them, and it would be difficult to find one point whence both 
could be seen at once. Also, the distance between the two places is 
eleven miles, not five. Therefore, the Kurn is not " within earshot of 
Shiloh." 

3. The children of Ephi-aim not only would have resented, but histori- 
cally did resent, the building of the altar on their ground. 



32 MEETING AT MAXCHESTEll. 

4. The object of the altar '.was not to preserve the memoiy of the 
brazen altar (by the Mosaic law all the men of the eastern tribes had to 
visit Shiloh and the brazen altar once every year); but "lest your 
children should say unto oiu- children . . . the Lord hath made Jordan a 
barrier between us." 

o. The ex2:)ression " over against the land of Canaan " is explained by 
Gesenius to mean in the fore part, in. front of. It must be borne in miud 
that the word Canaan means the " hollow country," or " low country," 
the Canaanites being the " Lowlanders." lu Josh. xi. 3 we find "the 
Canaanite on the east and on the west," i.e., east and west of the hills. 
The Arabs of the Ghor (" hollow or sunken country"), as well as in 
the plain of Sharon, now called the Ghawarni, thus correspond to the 
eastern and western Canaanites. It is therefore most probable that the 
Ghor is meant by the " land of Canaan " in this case, and the transla- 
tion " over against " will not militate against the site proposed. 

6. Lieut. Conder calls attention to the identification px'oposed by 
himself of Zaretan with Tellul Zahrah (see Quarterly Statement, July, 
1874). No " modern Zerthan " is known as yet to exist. 

7. The discovery of names which are " casual local appellations " has 
always been considered one of the strongest evidences which can be 
advanced in favour of any identification, and the more casually obtained 
the better. 

8. The name of the altar is "Witness" in the Septuagint and in 
Jerome. The word Ed occui-s in the Hebrew, and the meaning is clearly 
as in the A. V. 

9. As regards the suggestion of another site, Abu Obeidah, "admit- 
ting the propriety of depriving a Bedouin proper name of two out of 
three syllables for the sake of an identification of the one remaining 
(and this, moreover, in a case where the first syllable omitted contains a 
guttural so strong as never to be lost or added in any known case of 
identification), I would ask a scholar to compare £'cZ, written Ain, Daleth, 
with my Ayd, written Ain Yeh Dal, and with Dr. Hutchinson's Eid, 
written Yeh Dal. It is well known to philologists that the Jin is never 
lost, though sometimes changed to lie, in the conversion of Hebrew 
names into their present Arabic form. Thus, the remaining syllable in 
Obeidah lacks the most important letter of the syllable it is supposed to 
represent. 

10. As regards the quotation from Josephus, the word used is 
SiaBavres, as they were going over, or when they crossed. 



MEETING AT MANCHESTEK. 



The following report of the Meeting of December 8 is taken from the 
Manchester Courier of December 9. Lieutenant Conder has himself 
supplied the address : — 



:meetixg at Manchester. 33 

A meeting in connection with the Palestine Exploration Fund was 
held in the Town Hall of this city yesterday afternoon. The Very Rev. 
"the Dean of Manchkstee presided, and there was a numerous attend- 
ance of ladies and gentlemen. Lieutenant Conder, R.E., the officer in 
command of the Survey expedition, was present, and delivered an 
address. 

The Rev. W. F. Birch, the local secretary, explained the object of 
the present meeting. The survey of the Holy Land had to bo discon- 
tinued last summer, and it was intended to resume it again in February. 
He was anxious that another meeting should be held in Manchester in 
order, if possible, to obtain money, so that those engaged in the survey 
might be enabled to complete it. The people of Manchester had promised 
to raise £.500 in support of the fund, and ho was happy to be able to say 
that £400 of it had been received, (Applause.) He had no doubt that 
the other £100, and even more, would be forthcoming. (Applause.) 

The Dean said they must all feel indebted to Mr. Birch for his prompt 
action in this matter. If the exploration was to be resumed next 
February, it was quite time that the Committee in London, who were 
responsible for the expenses, should know what means they had at their 
command. As to the advisability of their attempts to raise money for 
such a purpose, he did not think there could be two opinions. All 
Christians, of course, must grant that the knowledge of the Holy Bible 
and everything that enabled us to understand it more clearly was of 
immense importance to us ; but not only Christians, but those who did 
not profess any Christian obligation, must still be called upon to helj) 
in this matter. The object of this fund was to enable us to become better 
acquainted with the Bible, and he was sure we could all read it more 
intelligently when wo had before us a trustworthy map, by means of 
which we should be enabled to solve difficulties. Merely upon that ground 
he thought it was a fair thing to appeal to the whole community to help 
in such a matter. (Hear, hear.) When we thought of the life of our 
Lord, and how our hearts bounded within U3 when we considered the 
possibility of having looked upon His countenance when He was on 
earth, he was sure that every person must have a desire to possess a more 
accurate and perfect knowledge of the Holy Land in which He lived, and 
where we had the record of His short life on earth ; and he could not 
conceive that any one could object or be cold-hearted in such a movement 
as this. (Applause.) 

Mr. H. Lee, who has visited the Holy Land, said that he acceded 
to the invitation of Mr. Birch to address that meeting with great 
pleasure. The interest he felt in the Holy Land had been greatly 
deepened since he had had an opportunity of going over it. He had 
heard of some people who had come away from Palestine disappointed, 
who stated that all their previous views of the country were wrong, and 
who had come back with the impression that the country had no interest 
whatever for the Christian man. But it depended very much upon the 
mood in which any man travelled in that country, and he (Mr. Lee) 

D 



34 MEETING AT MANCHESTER. 

thougLit that if a man went over it in a right frame of mind, he must 
come back with a deeper interest in it than he had before. (Hear, hear.) 
To those of them who were familiar with, and wore constantly in the 
habit of reading the "Word of God, such knowledge was invaluable ; and 
as they believed that the Bible was the one great book of all others on 
the face of the earth, the more accurate their knowledge of the spot to 
which it related, the more value it would be to them. (Hear, hear.) A 
great deal had been done during the last few years in the investigations 
which have been made in the Holy Land. The researches that had been 
made illustrated several portions of Scripture, and upon that account 
alone he thought they should do all they could to forward this great 
work. (Hear, hear.) It was a work which would throw additional 
interest round the Word of God, and therefore they ought to support it. 
Another reason why it claimed their support was because they must 
have some regard to the future destiny of Palestine, and whatever might 
be the destiny of that country it would be a very great matter to have a 
good map of it while we had the opportunity of getting it. (Hear, hear.) 

LIEUT. CONDEE'S ADDRESS. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — I hope that the subject upon which I 
have the pleasure of addressing you this evening will prove of sufficient 
interest to atone for an unpractised speaker. 

The sound of the words Ordnance Survey of Palestine is rather sug- 
gestive perhaps of a dry subject, and I am afraid it is so considered by 
the majority of the English public. I hope, however, that I shall succeed 
in showing you that our work has an interest not only for the scientific 
and professional public, or for critical students of the Bible, but generally 
for all those who have ever thought of or cared for the Holy Land and 
the Bible history. 

The Palestine Exploration Eund originated in the discovery made by 
certain English scholars who were engaged on Smith's great Bible 
Dictionary that our information as to the Holy Land was more deficient 
and inaccurate than had been at all suspected. 

It was found that the best published maps contradicted one another ; 
that the chances of finding any place mentioned in the Bible on such a 
map were more than five to one against success ; that scarce a point was 
to be found in Jerusalem concerning the correct position of which any 
two authorities would agree ; that the only scientific and accurate explorer 
of the century was an American, whose work was not by any means 
exhaustive. Of the manners and customs of the natives. Christian, 
Mahometan, Jewish, Druse, or Samaritan, scarcely anything was known. 
Their dress, their traditions, their very nationalities, were alike unstudied. 
Thus the dictionary, which was intended to illustrate with accuracy the 
innumerable details of local colouring which occur on every page of Old 
or New Testament, was obliged to seek materials in standard works on 
Egypt or Persia, as nothing of trustworthy information existed concerning 
the Holy Land itself. Scarcely any photographs of Palestine scenery had 



MEETING AT IMAXCHESTER. 35 

been taken, and the pictures wliicli endeavoured to give a realistic render- 
ing of Biblical events are few and far between. 

But yet further. One of the most important and interesting comments 
which at this remote period of timo we can make on the Biblical narra- 
tives is that which refers to the topogi-aphy of the country. Take any 
one of the numerous episodes of the Old Testament, the history of Gideon, 
of Samson, or of David, for example, you fiud the most minute details 
of time and place continually occurring. Could such details be studied 
on the spot, and could it be shown that there is a wonderful truthfulness 
of detail in each and all, it is evident that we should thus obtain a testimony 
to the genuine and contemporary character of the history perhaps more 
valuable than any other criticism now practicable. To all who wish ta 
see the opponents of the Sacred Eecord met on their own ground with 
arguments the force of which they must allow, such a work cannot fail to 
be of great interest. (Applause.) 

I have often been asked what results have been gained by the opera- 
tions of the Fund, since no great discovery has ever been reported from 
Palestine. I answer that in another two or three years, when the great 
work of the Society comes to be published, the public will be astonished 
afthe amount of accurate and valuable information collected in so short 
a time, and under so many difficulties. (Applause.) 

As regards Jerusalem, my predecessor, Captain Warren, E.E., has been 
the first to substitute facts for theory, and to lay a solid foundation of 
discovery upon which scholars can work in safety in restoring the ancient 
city, its Temple, its walls, its towers, and its palaces. A single shaft 
there has in some cases settled points concerning which volumes had 
previously been written on either side of the question. (Applause.) 

But turning to the work which I myself have for the last four years 
conducted for the Fund in Palestine, and which they consider the most 
important they have undertaken. 

As I have just pointed out, there was a field of exploration open to us 
beyond that of mere geographical discovery, and however good a 
map might be, it would be insufficient in such cases. Something to a 
larger scale and containing more minute details is necessary for the 
proper study of the subject, and thus it was determined that a survey to 
the English Ordnance scale should be run over the whole country from 
Dan to Beersheba. The work has been going on steadily for four years, 
in spite of vai-ious hindrances from weather, from sickness, and even the 
death of one valued member of the party, and now though a combination 
of unfortunate circumstances has compelled iis to suspend the actual 
field work for this winter, we still hope that the summer of next year 
will see the completion of our work to the sources of the Jordan. 

Our results are, as I have said, interesting to three classes — to scientific 
men, to Biblical students, and to the public interested in the Holy Land 
and the Bible history. 

As regards the scientific aspect, Palestine is to the naturalist one of 
the most interesting countries in the world. The summit of Hermon is 
9,000 feet above sea level; the Dead Sea, at the opposite end of the 



36 MEETI>"G AT M.VNCIIESTER. 

Jordan Valley, is 1,300 feet below sea level. Thus, ia tte short distance 
of 150 miles, ve have a range of fauna and flora extending from that of the 
arctic to that of the tropical regions. The mosses of Hermon are similar to 
those of Norwegian mountains, and in its desolate fastnesses now remain 
the last descendants of David's bear, often coming down to the mountain 
villages to feast on grapes in the luxuriant vineyards. In the valley of 
Jericho, on the other hand, the date-palm flourishes with proper cultiva- 
tion, the mimosas are full of delicate sun-birds, which belong to African 
fauna, and in the jungle of Jordan the cheetah, or hunting leopard of 
India, is found. 

Of this varied fauna and flora we have notes and specimens, collected 
in our spare moments, skins of hyenas, ibex, and gazelles (one a new 
.species, I believe), and collections of birds of every kind, &c., &c. 

Again, the geology of Palestine has more interest for students than 
that of almost any country. The Jordan valley, an immense fissure un- 
paralleled in the world, has never been studied throughout its whole 
extent. The theories of its formation have been conflicting, and scarcely 
any reliable facts had been collected whence to draw a satisfactory con- 
clusion. Captain Warren was the first explorer who ever passed along 
the whole length of the valley. Following him we have been the first 
Europeans who have ever lived in it. For three months of most variable 
weather we were camped in this wonderful country, moving slowly 
northwards, and only leaving it when the Bedouin themselves could no 
longer endure the heat of its climate. During that time we have col- 
lected a large amount of valuable information as to its topography, its 
climate, its fauna, and above all its geology. As regards the origin of 
its formation, how it happened, that this great crevice was opened, and 
at what period of the earth's history, I think we shall now be able to 
give a satisfactory explanation. Some have supposed (following the 
present Mahometan tradition) that the Jordan originally ran to the Eed 
■Sea, and that the present lake was formed at the time of the destruction 
of Sodom and Ghomorrah, forgetting, apparently, that it was by fii'e, 
not by water, these cities of the plain were overwhelmed. Others have 
made the formation volcanic, and some even have supposed it to be the 
result of ice action during the glacial period. The plain result of the 
observations now recorded is a complete answer to these theories. 

Dr. Tristram, the well-known naturalist and explorer, from observa- 
tions made on either shore, first put forward the theory which our 
observations have fully confirmed. (Applause.) The valley was first formed 
by a depression of the strata at a period subsequent to our English chalk 
period. The area formed was filled by a chain of great lakes, probably 
reaching to the sea, and resembling the great lake system at the head of 
the Nile. The depression continued, and is, indeed, slowly continuing at 
the present day, and as the climate altered, the heat and consequent 
evaporation increased until the great lake system had shrunk to its 
historical proportions, and is only represented by the present basins 
— the waters of Merom, the Sea of Galilee, and the Dead Sea, which has 



MEETING AT MiVKCHESTER. 37 

no outlet of any kind, but is simply dependent on the ovaponitlon for 
the maintenance of its level. 

This explanation cannot, I think, he disputed, being based on detailed 
observations throughout tho entire length of the valley. Faults in the 
strata unknown before wo discovered in more than one place. The 
general character and dip -we marked throughout, and the old shore 
lines of tho great lakes at various periods we traced in a tolerably com- 
plete manner throughout the valley. 

Turning to the critical aspect of the Survey work, few, I think, but 
the students who havo'made the topography of the Bible a si:)ecial study, 
can be aware how little we have previously known, and, on the other 
hand, how much there is still capable of recovery. Tho very interest 
which has been taken in Palestine from the third century of our ex'a to 
the present day appears to be the very reason why all the topography 
has become so frightfully confused and falsified. In the fourth centiuy 
we find St. Jerome, the great author of the Latin vulgate translation of 
the Bible, editing the work of Eusebius, the earliest attempt at a Bible 
dictionary ; but whilst we envy the minute acquaintance with the 
country which he shows throughout, the wild guesses at the relations 
borne by the then existing sites to those of the Bible forbid our accepting 
his opinion on any such identifications as authoritative. 

Later on, with the advent of the Crusaders, things grew worse. The 
knights themselves were not famous for their acquaintance with even 
the best known of Bible events, and the clergy, in fixing traditional sites 
not previously settled by the early Christians, seem to have been actu- 
ated by many motives other than the strict regard of truth. A very 
curious instance of the many errors into which thoy fell is the fact that 
they made a confusion between the Sea of Galilee and the Mediterranean. 
Thus not only did they show near Acca tho rock from which Simon 
Peter was said to have fished (a site which can still be identified), but 
yet further they gave the name of Capernaum to a neighboiu-ing seaside 
town, which still retains the ruins of its Crusading fortifications. 

This inaccuracy, due to the pious anxiety shown by men almost 
entirely ignorant of the country to localise all the Scriptural events, 
proves extremely puzzling to modern students. Almost every famous 
site has a shadow or double, the mediasval traditional site often at a con- 
siderable distance from it. One site often had to do duty for two or 
more Scriptural places. Thus, the fortress of Arsuf was supposed to be 
the site of Antipatris, of Asher, and of Ashdod, neither of which was a 
correct identification, as the nearest of the three places in question was 
five or six miles off, and the farthest more than forty. 

The first explorer who endeavoured to deal with this complicated 
puzzle, a jumble of traditions of every age, Jew and Gentile, early and 
late, was the celebrated American traveller. Doctor Eobinson, a man 
eminently fitted by his former studies and his great capacity to deal 
with the subject. The results of his travels form the groundwork* of 
modern research, and showed how much could be done towards recovering 
the ancient topography. He found that the old nomenclature clings to 



38 MEETING AT MANCHESTER. 

Palestine iu an extraordinary manner, and that in the memory of the 
peasant population the true sites have been preserved, though undis- 
covered by the Frank invaders. 

He started with a broad canon, very characteristic of his nationality, 
that no traditional information was of any authority. In this it appears 
to me he went too far. When properly distinguished as to date and 
origin, some of the traditions are of undoubted antiquity and value, 
i'hus, whilst the site of the Holy Sepulchre was only discovered in the 
fourth century, and by a miracle, the Grotto at Bethlehem, on the other 
hand, is mentioned by Justin Martj'^r in the second century, and the 
tradition thus dates back to the same authority which gives the earliest 
testimony to the Gospels themselves. (A.pplause.) 

The traditions, again, which group round the sacred rock in the 
Temple enclosure at Jerusalem, seem to have beentaken by the Moslems 
from the Jews, and serve to point to its identity with the Stone of 
Foundation on which the Holy of Holies stood ; an indication of the 
gi'eatest value to any student wishing to restore the Temple of Herod. 

This unqualified disregard of tradition raised at jB.rst great prejudice 
against Dr. Robinson's views, but they have come to be very generally 
accepted by students. It is in his steps that we have trod. With greater 
advantages, more time, and more money, we have been able to more than 
double the number of his discoveries ; but the cases in which we have 
found him wrong are few and far between. 

Within the course of our work we have recovered more than 100 lost 
sites, many of them of great importance. Among these we can reckon 
Bethabara, the site of J^our Lord's baptism, which we sought for over 
three months, collecting the names of over fifty Jordan fords, and only at 
the end of our survey of Jordan did we find the name still existing, some 
miles south of the Sea of Galilee ; a position little expected, but which 
Jaarmonises completely with the Scripture narrative. (Applause.) 

A very interesting papyrus has lately been edited and published in 
England. It contains an account of the travels of an Egyptian officer of 
state who visited Palestine at the time when Israel was oppressed by 
Jabin, king of Hazor, just before the deliverance by Barak. By the aid 
of our discoveries, I have succeeded in disentangling the complicated 
topography of this narrative, not previously understood. I find that it 
agrees with the topography of the Books of Joshua and Judges, and that 
I can trace his journey in a chariot from Tyre to the Sea of Galilee, and 
thence to Joppa. According to my explanation, he kept in the plains 
throughout the whole journey until he arrived at Megiddo; he then 
endeavoured to go down one of the precipitous valleys into the plain of 
Sharon, and the story tells that here, as we should naturally expect, ho 
entirely smashed his chariot.* 

But yet further, our discoveries have not only added an immense 
number of ancient sites to those previously fixed, but we have been able, 
by the collection of nearly three out of every four places mentioned in 
the Bible, to prove that the long topographical lists of the Book of 

* Lieut. Conder is engaged in a paper on this subject. 



MEETING AT MANCIIESTEE. 39 

-Joshua arc neither fragmentary nor unsystematic. I have been able to 
show that the towns are ennmerated in groups, each grouii a natural 
division of the land, and each division containing a Royal city as cajiital. 
Such a vindication of the character of these curious and hitherto little 
understood lists would, to my mind, be itself sufficient result to put 
before the public as the outcome of our labours. (Applause.) 

Turning now to the third aspect of our work, that which interests the 
general public, who are not specially attracted by either the scientific or 
the critical part of the undertaking. To a great many our work is. It 
think, interesting because wc are engaged in exploring the land of the 
Bible, and in noting the habit« and customs of a people almost unchanged 
since the time occupied by the Biblical events. 

A good illustration of the wish which is growing strong in England to 
clearly appreciate the Scripture narrative is to be found in the illustrated 
editions of the Bible lately published. The old conventionalisms of the 
great Italian painters, and the mediceval realisms of the Dutch masters, 
are alike seen to be false. One of the most imaginative of modern artists, 
M. Dore, has attempted to sujiply the want in sketches which aim at 
being Oriental. To any one familiar with the East, and who has studied 
the vivid episodes of Old Testament stories on the spot, these clever 
pictures are eminently unsatisfactory. They have none of the life and 
reality which might be thrown into really faithful pictures of the people 
and the scenes as we see them at the present daJ^ 

To give you even a general idea of all our discoveries would be im- 
possible in the time I have at command. I will, therefore, take a single 
example — an episode in the Old Testament — on the localities of which 
"we have thrown a remarkable amount of light, and from this you must 
judge of our results, with the assurance that there is no other episode 
which we have not studied with equal care, and in some cases with 
perhaps even more striking results. 

The example I propose to take is that of the early history of David 
down to the death of Saul. The topography includes no less than twenty 
sites, of which three of the less important are still unknown, five were 
found by Robinson, and the remaining twelve we have discovered 
lately. 

The scene in which David first comes prominently before us is that of 
the Yalley of Elah or of the Terebinth, where was fought the famous 
duel with Goliath. So many of the sites connected with David's wander- 
ings group round this valley that I may as well give a short description 
of its course. It rises close to Hebron, and runs as a narrow rocky 
ravine northward, being flanked by the ruined sites of many important 
towns, among which we notice Keilah — a city built on the top of a steep, 
terraced, treeless bill. A little beyond this point the valley widens con- 
siderably, and on its western side is another strong site with numerous 
caves ; this, as I shall show presently, is the true site of AduUam. 
About a mile farther north, the broad valley sweeps round westward, 
-and the old Roman road from Jerusalem comes in. Here, perched above 



40 MEETING AT MAK^CIIESTER. 

the loft bank, stand the ruins of Socoh. Continuing westward we find, 
on the south side, a yet more strongly fortified natural site, which I 
believe to be Shaaraim. At length we reach the place where the valley 
debouches into the groat plain of Philistia, and here, on a white and 
perpendicular cliff, stands the Philistiue stronghold of Gath. 

It will be clear, I hope, from this account that the valley of Elah was 
the great highway from the plains into the Mil country. It separates, 
the high mountainous tract held by the children of Israel from the lower 
hills, the country called Shephelah in the Bible. All along its course- 
the most beautiful cornfields in Palestine, the richest soil, and evidence- 
of the thickest former population exist. Huge terebinths still remain, 
showing the origin of its name, for the terebinth is not to be found in 
all parts of Palestine, and some of these appear to be of great antiquity. 
The sceneiy, with its foreground of cornland and its distant rocky hills, 
is throughout most picturesque, and there can scarce be found a part of 
Palestine more fertile or beautiful. 

We see, therefore, the reason why this valley was so often the scene 
of conflict between the Jews and the Philistines, and how when un- 
checked these marauders were able to penetrate to such a remote village 
as Keilah by simj^ly following the valley without crossing the inter- 
vening hills of the Shephelah. Holding Gath, they held the key of the 
valley, and the door to the best corn country in Judah. 

It was in this valley, then, that Saul encamped over against th.o 
Philistine host, coming up, no doubt, in the harvest time to pillage, as 
their modern representatives the Bedouin still come up in spring. The 
exact site of the battle may also now, I think, be pointed out at the 
bend of the valley, just the point where the Jerusalem road, down which 
Saul must have come, crosses the valley. For it is stated to have been 
in Ephes Dammim, between Socoh and Azekah, and between the modern 
sites of Shuweikeh and El Azek, which are generally supposed to repre- 
sent Socoh and Azekah, we have discovered Ephes Dammim. The name 
means Boundary of Blood, and was no doubt given because of the san- 
guinary conflicts there occurring. Here, then, below Socoh we still find 
a ruin with the name Beit Eased, or House of Bloodshed, no doubt as 
ancient a site as any of the rest. (Applause.) 

But in further illustration of this episode ; I found that much discussion 
had occurred as to two words used in the narrative, one meaning a broad 
flat valley, such as I have described, with low bushy hills and broad 
cornfields, the other a ravine or narrow channel. It was supposed that 
a gorge must exist somewhere, and this point explorers were required to 
clear up. On visiting the valley I could find no such gorge, but the 
true meaning at once became apparent on the spot. The Emeh or broad 
valley has in the middle of it the Gal, or narrow channel. The water 
of the turbid winter torrents has dug a deep channel in the middle of 
the valley. The course is strewn with smooth white pebbles, and the 
steep banks are built up of them. This, therefore, it seems to me, is 
the channel which separated the two hosts, and here David found those 



MEETING AT irANCHESTER. 41 

smooth pebbles of the brook which, according to the Jewish tradition, 
were gifted with voice and called out, " By us shalt thou overcome the 
giant." 

This site of the battle also agrees perfectly with the subsequent events 
when the Philistines fled back to their own country to Shaaraim (Tell 
Zakeriyeh, as I have already pointed out) and Gath, the stronghold at 
the mouth of the valley. 

I will pass over the episodes of David's life in Gibeah of Saul which 
are not of especial interest, merely noting that Gibeah and the well 
Sechu and one or two other sites, including Nob, the city of the Priests, 
have never been fixed before our survey in a satisfactory manner. 

Flying first from Saul, and after that from Gath, David took up his 
abode at one of the most famous sites mentioned in Scripture — the Cave 
of AduUam. This site we have at length fixed and explored. It had 
long been unknown since the traditional site had come to be regarded 
as irreconcilable with the narrative. In 1872 the French ex^jlorer, M. 
Ganneau, discovered the existence of the name on the borders of the 
valley of Elah under the modified form of Aid el Mieh, and following up 
this discovery we verified the existence of the name and found the site 
to agree well with all requirements. Briefly stated, the argument in its 
favour is that the cave is stated in one passage of Josephus to have been 
close to the Eoyal city of Adullam, and the whereabouts of this city had 
long been known before the recovery of the name. 

The question which I suppose would always be asked first is, What is- 
the cave like ? I fear many persons would be disappointed on visiting 
the spot. We imagine a great cavern such as we see in Salvator Rosa's 
picture of brigands, and such as really exist in Palestine. We find, 
instead, a row of small, low, smoky caves on a hill-side, some now used 
as stables for goats and cows, some inhabited by families of Arabs. 
But their insignificant proportions are just the best indications of the 
probability of the site. The great caves are far more picturesque, but 
they are unfitted for living in, and are never inhabited, nor probably 
ever were they. 

They are damp, and dark, and cold, full of huge bats and creeping 
animals, and, as I personally know only too well, are very unpleasant 
places to be in. The small caves, on the other hand, are almost always 
in use. The light comes in in front, a fire in the centre keeps them 
warm, and a single lamp lights them. 

A row of these small caves exists at Adullam, on the north and west 
of the city, separated from it by a narrow valley. On the top of the city 
hill are two or three other caves, also inhabited, and the whole number- 
might accommodate 200 or 300 men, a greater number than David could 
at any time reckon in his band. The site is very strong and defensible, 
and its position in a district which is a sort of border land between the- 
possessions of Judah and of the Philistines is most remarkable. David 
had two enemies to fear, Achish on the west, and Saul on the north-east, 
when, therefore, Adullam became unsafe, and he was obliged ta 



42 HEETING AT MANCUESTER. 

retreat farther, his natural course was south, placing Bethlehem, which 
miist have been friendly to him, between Saul and himself. 

We find that he retreated to Hareth, and that whilst there the Philis- 
tines, no longer restrained by his holding the strong position at Adullam, 
came uj) the valley of Elah, even as far as the village of Keilah, where 
they robbed the threshing-floors. David hearing, comes to the relief of 
Keilah. The question at once arises, Why should he have specially 
selected Keilah, whose inhabitants, as we see from their subsequent 
attempted treachery, were no special friends of his, when so many other 
towns were robbed without his offering assistance ? The reason seems to 
be that Hareth was close to Keilah. 

It is doubtful whether the wood of Hareth is a correct translation. 
Some versions give the city of Hareth. Whichever be correct, there is no 
doubt that a city of Hareth existed. No woods now exist, but it would be 
too much to say they never did, for pine woods existed in this very dis- 
trict and round Hebron as late as the times of the Crusades, though not 
a single tree can now be found. The site of David's hiding-place at 
Hareth we have, I think, been the first to discover in the strong ruined 
site of Kharas, which lies in the higher hills above Keilah, scarcely more 
than a mile from it, among inaccessible ravines, but easily reached from 
the valley of Elah, which forms the central theatre of his exploits up to 
this time. (Applause.) 

Driven away yet farther south, David next appears at Ziph, a site 
found by Eobinson in his first journey. Here wo made a very 
curious discovery, which is, I am happy to think, to be incor- 
porated in the new revised version of the Bible. (Applause.) His 
hiding-place we learn was the wood of Ziph. This wood has been 
sought in vain. Visiting the spot, I was unable to discover any traces 
of it, and yet more, it seemed to me, from the geological structure of the 
countrj', highly improbable that any such wood could have existed. 
For, leaving the high hill country to the north, we have here entered 
on an entirely different scene — one far wilder and more deserted 
a step occurs in the hills below Hebron and we descend to a district of 
rolling chalk downs, the country of the southern Hittites and the Horites, 
who dwelt in caves. This open country is specially fitted for such pas- 
turage as goats and camels, and even Syrian sheep, can thrive upon. 
Here we find Nabal living a pastoral life, and to the present day the 
riches of the peasantry consist in the numerous and thriving flocks and 
herds. There is not a single spring in their district, and scarce a tree ; 
the water sinks through the soft strata, and deep wells are required. 
How, then, could a forest be expected to exist in a country destitute of 
water ? 

The answer is, that no such forest existed, that the word Choresh is 
the proper name of a place. As such it is understood by the Greek 
version of the passage and by Josephus. The discovery, therefore, of a 
ruined site near Ziph with the modern name Khoreisa seems to me of 
^reat value. It is a sort of suburb of the town of Ziph, and might very 



MEETIKG AT MANCHESTER. 40 

■n^el], I tliink, liavo been thus called the Choresh of Ziph, v.-hcncc, tians- 
lated, Wood of Ziph.* (Applause.) 

Wo must now follow David into a yet more dcsolato scene. Leaving 
the pastoral country where he had levied a .sort of black mail on the 
great proprietors, as guardian of their flocks against the wandering 
nomadic tribes of the true desert just to the south, we find him driven 
to the most desolate region in Palestine, and perhaps in the world. 

The pastoral country of Ziph and Carmol looks down on the cast to a 
glaring wliite desert ; not a tree or shrub exists in it ; the bills rise into 
fantastic cones and kuife-liko ridges, separated by deep, dark gullies. 
There is no water, not a building or a ruin in it. The very beasts of 
prey seem to sh.un it. The desert partridge and the ibex are almost its 
only inhabitants, and in this episode of the narrative hoth are noticed, 
for David was "hunted as a partridge on the mountains," and sought 
by Saul among the "rocks of the wild goats." 

Few scenes can be finer than that at Engedi. The steep brown crags 
above, the clear thermal spring surrounded by a cane brake and by buge 
nightshade plants (the apples of Sodom), and spiny mimosas, of which 
the crown of thorns was woven, with birds of tbe tropics, bulbuls, 
thrushes, and sun-birds, in the branches. Beueatb lies the thick oily 
water of the Salt Sea, and, beyond, the towering crags upon which 
the great fortress of Kerak stands, like a mediaeval citadel, on cliffs 
seemingly impregnable. 

This Desert of Engedi, in which we passed two weeks, is, however, not 
habitable in summer. And this is probably the reason why we find 
David returning to the higher ground near Ziph. 

We endeavoured, when surveying this part of the country, to find the 
cave in which David encountered Saul, on the road from Jerusalem to 
Engedi. But in this we cannot be said to have succeeded, not because 
no cave exists, but because there are so many that it is impossible to say 
■which is the right one. The pastoral people send down their flocks from 
the plateau to the borders of the Engedi desert in spring. The descent 
to this desert is steep and sudden, the difference of level being some 
2,000 feet. Along all this descent there are innumerable caves ; at their 
mouths one sees the ragged shepherd boy sitting, and the whole flock is 
folded within. Such caves exist farther north, near Bethlehem, and in 
the Shepherds' Plain, where tradition makes the herald angels to have 
appeared. David himself must have been well acquainted as a boy with 
the district, when hs led his " few poor sheep in the wilderness." It is 
supposed that many are old dwellings of theHorites, who were troglodytes 
and lived in caves, and though this fashion ofliviog in caves extends 
throughout Palestine, and is constantly mentioned in the Bible, yet it is 
in the south country principallj- that the Horites lived, and that we find 
most caves inhabited and most mention of caves in the Old Testament. 

I may remark that all these caves ai-e of the class to which our newly 
discovered Cave of AduUam belongs, and not huge caverns such as 

* The place was probably called Choresh Ziph to distinguish it from another 
Choresh (Khubet Khoreisa) existing farther west. — C. E. C. 



44 MEETING AT MANCHESTER. 

exist in other districts, but wliicli are never inhabited at the present 
day. 

We now come to the last scene of David's persecution, the last meeting 
with Saul before the fatal battle of Gilboa. This is the Hill of Hachilah, 
where David came upon Saul's camp at night and stole the cruse of 
water and the spear from his head. This site was unknown before we 
explored the district, and perhaps the incident which we have most fully 
illustrated is that here occurring. 

David had ascended from the Dead Sea Desert and was again close to 
Ziph. The Hill of Hachilah is said to have overlooked the Jeshimon or Soli- 
tude, which is the desert in question. There can scarce be a doubt of its 
locality because there is only one hill east of Ziph ovorlooking the desert. 
The rest of the country consists of rolling downs at a lower level. On 
the summit of this hill we find a ruin called Yekin, and this name is 
only Hachil, or Hachilah slightly modified. You may object that it 
ends in an N and not in an L, but when I tell you that Ishmael is always 
called Ism'ain by the peasantry, the children of Israel the Ben Israin, 
and the towns of Jesreel, Zerin, and Bethel Beitin, you will see that the 
change of L into N is very common in well-known instances. 

There was, however, a curious point in the narrative which required 
illustration. Saul lay ♦' in the trench," with his men of war round him. 
Now had he encamped, as Josephus supposed, which seems to me very 
doubtful, as contrary to the customs of war among the modern Bedouin, 
it is not in the trench that he would have lain. 

Again, a visit to the spot clears up, I think, the difficulty. The hill of 
Yekin is a bold promontory, standing just at the edge of the plateau. 
It looks over the whole desert, and the cliffs of Engedi, the waters of the 
Dead Sea, the heights of Moab, are in full view. Just beneath the crest 
of the hill is a hollow, with another knoll beyond. It is the head of a 
great valley, which soon becomes precipitous, running down into the 
desert. In this hollow is a spring and a cave. 

This, I imagine, is what is meant by the trench. David is said to 
have crossed over to the other side, and we may imagine him standing 
on one or other of the hill-tops and looking down on the king and his 
sleeping party in the hollow. 

Nothing could be more in accordance with Bedouin custom than the 
choice of such a place for a sleeping-place. The Bedouin understand 
thoroughly how to take advantage of every fold in the ground. I have 
been more than once surrounded by ten or twenty men without knowing 
of their vicinitj\ At the right moment when they emerge from a depres- 
sion close at hand, they seem to spring as if by magic from the ground. 
To encamp on a hill-top or a point whence they might be easily seen 
would be contrary to all their ideas of prudence. Hence I have no doubt 
that it was in the hollow near to the only supply of water that Saul 
halted. The cruse of water and the spear are again little touches which 
seem to link the past to the present. The Syrians arc a, thirsty race, and 
at night they never sleep without a bottle with a spout at their heads. 
Again, the spear, a long bamboo with a knife-like blade at the end, and 



MEETING AT M.VXCIIESTEU. 45 

the tuft of black ostiich feathers beneath, is invariably set up on end, 
the spike at the butt being driven into the ground when a resting-place 
has been chosen. 

With the meeting at Hachilah David's persecution ceased. lie retreats 
again into Philistine territory, and settles in the town of Ziklag. Here 
we must leave him. The town of Ziklag was quite unknown until this 
year. I cannot say anything much about it at present, but I discovered 
whilst we were at Gaza that there is a ruined place of importance called 
Zehleika, in the middle of the plain north of Beersheba. This is a dis- 
trict of some 200 square miles, which we could not enter because of the 
serious fighting between the Arabs going on round Zehleika and Beer- 
sheba. It is just where all the circumstances of the narrative would 
lead us to place Ziklag, and _I hope that next year we may be able to 
go back and report another discovery connected with the history of 
David's wanderings. (Applause.) 

In taking leave of this subject I would beg you to remember how 
much of this minute illustration of the narrative is due to that dry and 
uninteresting piece of work, the Ordnance Survey of Palestine. 

The site of David's combat with Goliath was unknown. The Cave of 
Adullam had never been discovered or described. The Wood of Ilareth 
had been sought in vain ; the Choresh Ziph was not understood; and 
lastly, the scene of the last meeting, the Hill of Hachilah, was not 
identified. 

Not only were these places not known, but the full force of all the 
little incidental details could not be brought out because the story had 
never been studied on the spot. The trench in the valley of Elah, for 
instance, the brook whence David obtained the stones. Again, the 
reason why David went to help the men of Keilah was inexplicable, and 
the trench in which Saul lay was not understood. 

I have taken but one episode. It would be easy, if I had time, to 
show you how the history of Samson is illustrated in the same manner, 
and the stories of Saul and Jonathan, of Gideon, or of Joshua. Through- 
out the whole of the Old Testament narrative there is scarcely an episode 
on which we cannot claim to have thrown light in a similar manner. 

Some, however, will have confined their interest to the Gospel narra- 
tive, and will bo anxious to know what we have done towards illustrat- 
ing its topography. (Applause.) 

This, however, is just the part of the work which remains to be done. 
It is true that we have found Gilaon, BeLhabara, and Cana of Galilee, 
but the shores of the Sea of Galilee we have not yet visited. 

Many of you will have heard of the interruption of our work, and the 
attack on my party in Upper Galilee. The whole country from Beer- 
sheba to Nazareth, more than four-fifths of our work, we had completed, 
without any serious difficulties. We had passed through the Hebron 
hills, the stronghold of fanaticism, with only one row, which was 
quickly settled. We had at last reached the high hills of Upper Galilee, 
and were looking forward to the speedy and successful termination of 
cur labours. The insolence and fanaticism of the Mohametans in the 



46 MEETIXG AT MAXCHESTEE. 

district surpasses, however, anything of whicli wo have had experience - 
before. My servants were insulted and stoned without any provocation 
on their part, and I myself was assaulted before I had spoken a word. 
The serious fray which ensued seemed at the time inevitably fatal to us ; 
had we not succeeded in communicating with the Turkish Governor, 
who sent soldiers to our assistance, we should probably have been 
killed. Every member of the party was wounded, and we all suffered 
subsequently with bad fever. The legal proceedings, the gradual spread' 
of cholera, our own condition, and the lateness of the season, made it 
adv'sable to suspend operations for the winter. 

"VVe hope, however, to take the field in spring, and should we be unin- 
terrupted bj' }Aew misfortunes, we may count on finishing all our work 
from Dan to Beersheba by next summer. 

Among our future studies there is much which will, I think, surpass 
in iaterest what we have done before. The site of Capernaum is not yet 
fixed, and that of Bethsaida is unknown. Chorazin alone has been dis- 
covered. We have still hopes of doing something towards elucidating 
these interesting questions. 

Again, in Galilee we have objects of interest which exist in no other 
part of Palestine. I mean the synagogues which are to be found in all 
parts. Some of these were first discovered by Major Wilson whilst 
working for the Fund. Their date was not known, but I have succeeded 
lately in finding the names of the bailders, and the time at which they 
lived. It proves that some are earlier than the time of our Lord, aud • 
may be the very synagogues in which He taught. I have also obtained' 
indications of the whereabouts of two synagogues which have never been 
seen by any European, and I believe others besides are yet to be found. 
These discoveries we hope to be able to follow out early next year. The 
question of the measurements of the synagogues is of great importance. - 
We have here buildings of undoubted Jewish origin, some previous to 
the building of the Temple, others dating immediately after it. Erom 
their measurements we may hope to discover the length of the cubit, 
which is quite doubtful at present. I have very carefully measured the 
only syn'Bgogue we have yet visited, and I find that if we take the cubit 
at sixteen inches, the synagogaie is exactly thirty cubits by forty, and its 
pillars ten cubits high. I find that the measurements taken by others of 
the other synagogues give the same results, and to any one wishing to 
restore the Temple at Jerusalem this investigation, with others we have 
made, is of the greatest importance. (Applause.) 

My only object to-night has been to endeavour to create a greater 
interest in our work than is gene.*ally felt, to show what our real aim and 
object is, and that it has an interest not only for those who look to 
its scientific or its critical aspect, but for the English public in^genoral. 
That we throw a light on the Bible which is not only new, but which is 
more practical and more conclusive as to the character of the sacred 
record than any amount of criticism from those who have notj^studied 
Palestine and its inhabitants on the spot. 

If I have at all succeeded I may perhaps venture to hope that you will . 



THE AMERICAN EXPEDITIOX. 47" 

follow our futuro proceedings -witli iuterest, and wish, us a successful 
termination to our labours. (Applause.) 

On the motion of the Rov. Canon Ceane, seconded by the Eev. W. F. 
Birch, the thanks of the meeting were accorded to Lieutenant Gonder 
for his address ; and a similar compliment having been paid to the Dean 
for presiding, the meeting separated. 



THE AMERICAN EXPEDITION. 

The following letters from the Rev. Selah Merrill are reprinted from. 
ihe At hen (eurn by the kind permission of the proprietors. Itwill be re- 
membered that Captain "Warren has anticipated much of their work at 
Thellthatha, Eukleh, and other places in the Lebanon. 

Novemher bth, 1875. 

The friends of Palestine Exploration in England may be interested in 
some account of oxir reconnoissance survey of the Hauran, which we 
have just completed. It will be impossible, however, in a single letter, 
to give more than an outline of our operations. "We had with us twenty- 
three baggage animals and nine horses. Then we had eight muleteers, 
six servants, including two cooks and a table boj:, and two assistants and 
interpreters from the college in Beii-ut. Besides the four gentlemen who 
comprised the exploring party proper, there were with us three others, 
two gentlemen from Beirut, one an excellent botanist, and the other an 
excellent marksman, and our photographer. No person unacquainted 
with the facts can realise the difficulties to be overcome in order to secure 
good photographs in the Syrian deserts, especially in the summer. All 
green things are burned up, the air is full of fine dust, the sun is in- 
tensely hot, and the sky, of course, is affected accordingly. Both instru- 
ment and chemicals are often injured or ruined. Ordinary rules and 
laws cannot be followed ; and the skill and patience of the artist are 
constantly taxed to their utmost even to produce any work at all. Then 
the di£6.culty of obtaining pure water is another serious drawback. "We 
often carried water eight and ten and even sixteen miles for our 
photographer to use. But notwithstanding the obstacles to be overcome 
we have been remarkably successful. "We have brought away as trophies 
from the desert considerably over one hundred photographs of temples, 
churches, theatres, towers, castles, and other ruins, which, for the most 
part, have never before been visited by a photographer. Our small 
plates are nine and a half by twelve inches, and our larger ones are 
twelve by sixteen inches. The collection, we hope, will prove to bo one 
of great interest and value. 

"We left Abeih, whither hundreds from Beirut had fled to escape the 
cholera, on the 2nd of September, and passing over some of the Lebanon 
mountains, camped at Kefr Nebrakh. The next day we passed over the 
last Lebanon range, and down into the valley of the Litany or Leontes, 
which we crossed, and camped at Jub Jeuin. That day our photographer 



48 THE AMERICAN EXPEDITIOJf. 

went by another route, and took photographs of a fine grove of cedars 
■which had never been photographed. We went next over a low foot- 
range of Anti-Lebanon, and camped at Easheiya. The same day I went 
with the photographer to Thellthatha, or Nebi Safa, as it is sometimes 
•called, a place to the south, in the same range just mentioned, and 
photographed one of the famous Hermon temples which still exists therp. 
"VVe went north the same night, and joined our camp at Easheiya. 
Leaving our camp here, we wentiu an easterly and north-easterly direc- 
tion to Eukleh, where there are a number of inscriptions and the remains 
of two temples, one of which possesses some features of unusual interest. 
We took several photogi'aphs here, and also squeezes of the inscriptions, 
and returned to our camp in Easheiya. The next day we went to the 
top of Jebel esh Slieikh, and while the engineers took bearings and made 
observations, I, with the help of our guide and a fine glass, made notes 
(if the places and jioints of interest that can be seen from this wonderful 
observatory of nature. What appear from the distance to be mere 
patches of snow, we found, on reaching the summit, were great fields 
and drifts of it. The thermometer showed 3G degrees in the snow, 
and 72 in the atmosphere. This was on the 7th of September. The 
water which flowed in little streams from these snow banks was cold 
and refreshing. That night we went down the side of Hermon to Shiba, 
a place in the mountains a little to the east and south of Hashbeiya, 
which our camp had reached by the direct route. Here we found most 
excellent water gushing in full-grown streams from the foot of the 
mountain. From here we went over some of the lower or southern 
ranges of Hermon, past Medjel esh Shems, to Banias, where we camped 
and spent several days. We took a number of photographs in this region, 
including the castle Subeibeh, the famous oak grove of Hazor, the fountain 
of the Jordan at Banias, the other fountain at Tell el Kadi, and two or 
three besides. We then went to Lake Phiala, and made a thorough 
geological examination of that most interesting volcanic region, includ- 
ing Tell el Achmar, an extinct crater, two or three miles to the south cf 
the lake, and took a panoramic viow of the lake itself, and then went on 
to Medjel esh Shems, where we camped. 

AVe then pushed east into the desert, and what some have really found 
to be the land of danger, but from which we escaped unharmed. We 
crossed Nukr Sasa, which geologically and in other respects is a very 
interesting section, and camped at Sasa on a delightfully fresh and green 
grass-plat between two branches of the Jennani. The small tell on 
which Sasa stands is an extinct crater. From here we pushed east to 
Musmeh, the Phaeno of the Eomans, situated in the north end of the 
Leja. Here is a beautiful temple, one of the best preserved in the 
Hauran, which we photographed ; we also photographed a section of the 
interior, in order to show the architecture. The Leja I shall not attempt 
in this outline to describe ; but it seems to me that more travellers, 
especially if they are scientific men, ought to visit this largest and most 
wonderful lava bed in the world. Then the number of ruined towns 



THE AMERICAN EXrEDITION. 49 

which aro found ia the Leja, tho Trachonitis of tho New Testament and 
the Argob of the Old, is perfectly surprising. We went down the 
western border of the Leja and camped at Zara (or Zora, or Edra), a 
place of great antiquity, and important now for its ruins and inscriptions. 
We passed on then in a south-easterly direction through Ed Dur and 
several other ruined towns, and camped at Kirateh (or Kurrasseb), a place 
entirely uninhabited, but where we found a fountain of excellent water, 
full of fish. There is another Kirateh a little to the north of Zara : the 
two must not be confounded. I found somo exceedingly curious and 
interesting ruins, formed of very large unhewn stones, on the tops of 
some of the hills about this place, of which I shall give an account with 
drawings in my Eeport. From here wo went on to Kunawat, the Kenath 
of the Bible, and camped and took a number of photograps there, and of 
places in the vicinity, and also copied many inscriptions. I always had 
with me Waddington's invaluable work. My practice was to verify his 
copy, and to copy and take squeezes only of such as he had not seen. 
At Suleim, a little to the north-west of Kunawat, is one of the most 
beautiful temples in the East. We photographed this, and also two 
temples at Atil. Kunawat is remarkable for its situation as the centre 
of a populous and wealthy district. Six or eight cities or towns were 
clustered about it within a distance of two hours' walk, most of which 
were within sight from its temple-roofs and towers. Among them Sia, 
twenty-five minutes to the east and south, was a beautiful place, and 
intimately connected, as its inscriptions (both Grreek and Aramaic) show* 
with the history of Herod the Great. Our next camping-place was at 
Suweideh, where we also took photographs. We then went on by way 
of 'Are to Salchad, and photographed the splendid castle there. This 
castle forms a fine landmark, seen for many miles from the north, west, 
and south. As we found no good water here, we turned back on the 
the route we had come about one hour, to Aiyin, an uninhabited place, 
where there was a fine fountain and some very peculiar ruins. From 
there we went on south-west through Kerioth to Bozrah (or Bostra), and 
camped and spent several days, including Sunday, September 26th. 
Here the churches, theatre, columns, castle, old bevelled stones, streets, 
gates, triumphal arches, and reservoirs, not to speak of the inscriptions, 
are all wonderful, and I will undertake to describe them in due time. 
Here also we enlarged and enriched our collection of photographs. 

Leaving our camp here we went sixteen miles to the south-west into 
the genuine desert, to visit the ruins of Um el Jemal, which some sup- 
pose to be the Beth Gamul of the Bible. Barckhardt, Buckingham, 
Porter, Wetzstein, and other distinguished travellers have looked out 
from the castle at Salchad, or from that at Bozrah,* on to this dark mass 
of ruins with longing eyes ; but although two or more of these made the 

* I did not myself see the ruins of Um el Jemal from the castle at Bozrali, 
and make this statement on the testimony of others. But there are so many piles 
of ruins on the plain, that one might easily be mistaken and think he had seen 
Um el Jemal when he had not. 

E 



50 THE AMERICAN EXPEDI'lIOX. 

attempt, they did not succeed in reaching them. Mr. Cyril Graham and 
Mr. Waddington were the only Europeans who had visited the place 
previous to ourselves. Tho ruins of this unwalled town cannot here bo 
described, but I may say that they are very iustructivo even to those 
who are tolerably familiar with Ilauian and Syrian ruins as they exist in 
other places. Two or three photographs Were taken here. We went 
nest from Bozrah north-west in the direction of Der'at (Edrei or Adra'a) 
to Jisre esh Shirk, and camped ; and then on to Der'at itself, and turned 
south and camj^ed at Remtheh, an important place, on the pilgrim road 
from Damascus to Mecca. Thrcugh all this region we were obliged to 
guaidour camp at night ourselves. Wo found we could not trust our 
men for this, because they would invariably go to sleep, with the most 
perfect indifference to danger imaginable. It was while on guard at 
Remtheh that one of our party, Mr. T., took a severe cold, which brought 
on a fever and nearlj' cost him his life. We found heie only miserable 
water. The people had good Water in their cisterns, but they would 
neither give it nor sell it to us ; and had it not been for some Turkish 
soldiers there, who gave us some from the garrison supplies Avhen they 
learned our need, we might haVe fared worse than we did. The next day 
we had a long, tedious journey to Jerash, where we arrived on the 1st of 
October. That day tho thermometer was 87 degrees in the shade at 
noon, and we were entirely without water, either for men or animals, 
until near night, when we were almost within sight of Jerash. Wo 
came then upon a spring of cool, fresh water, which was worth more to 
us at that moment than a gold mine would have been. As for our 
animals, they were perfectly wild and unmanageable until they had 
quenched their thirst. 

We spent three or four days at Jerash, and brought away over forty 
inscriptions and some beautiful photographs. In regard to the heat, I 
may add that at Jerash, as well as while on our way there, and also at 
Bozrah, and afterwards at Es Salt, we had many days when the ther- 
mometer showed 85, 87, and even 90 degrees in the shade. Through 
Jerash, from one end of the city to the other, there flows a stream of 
cool, fresh, living water. Here is one of the flaest " water-powers" in 
the East. Erom here our sick friend was taken to Es Salt, our next 
camping-place, and from there, as soon as he could be moved, to Jeru- 
salem in a palanquin, i.e., a great box fastened onto long poles, and 
carried between two mules, one before and one behind it. At Jerusalem 
he was placed in the Mediterranean Hotel, under the care of Dr. Chaplin. 
We took photographs of Es Salt, supposed to be the Ramoth Gilead of 
the Bible, and several at Amman, the Eabbath Ammon of the Bible, 
which was our next camping-place after leaving Es Salt. From there 
we went to Heshhon, and visited Nebo, the peak called " Siagah," and 
supposed by some to be the Pisgah of Moses, Main, or the ancient Baal 
Meon, and several other places. We took photographs at Heshbon, 
and our photographer v/eut several miles east of Heshbon, to a place 
called Musshattah (some distance east of Ziza, but not down on the 
oidinary maps), and photographed a very beautiful temple which still 



THE AMERICA^T EXrEDITION. 61 

exists there.* From Ilcslibon we went north, to Aralj el Emir; and 
photographed the ruins of the wonderful castle of H^'rcanus, and also 
the face of the cliff, in which the chambers, reservoirs, and stables which 
Josephus describes, were excavated. Those " stables," in which there 
are accommodations for one hundred horses iu a single room dug out of 
the solid rock, appear something like a long livery stable, when one 
stands at the door and looks into it, except in this case there are no 
partitions for stalls ; but the mangers are quite perfect, and so are the 
rings cut in the rock by the side of each monger, where the horses were 
tied. From here we crossed the Jordan at Jericho, and went by way 
of Jerusalem and Nablous to Beirut. 

It has been impossible in tbis outline to give any special details of our 
work, yet we hope it will be found that our journey has been a very suc- 
cessful one. The whole country has been mapped out for future opera- 
tions; the bearings taken, the observations, and the various records and 
notes kept by the engineers, are important ; and the inscriptions copied, 
together with the measurements taken of ancient churches, temples, 
theatres, and other ruins, we hope will prove interesting and valuable. 
The geological, botanical, geographical, and arcbseological features of 
this east- Jordan land are of the highest interest. The fertility of this 
region, which we commonly call a " desert," cannot be exaggerated. Its 
populousness and prosperity in ancient times will always remain one of 
the wonders of history : and an industrious and enterprising people, 
under a good government, could again make those broad fields, now so 
desolate, as productive as Egypt in her palmiest days. 

VM EL JEMAL — THE BETH GA:m:TTL OF JEEEMIAH ? 

It has been my good fortune recently to visit the ruins of this little- 
known but very interesting city. Burckhardt made three attempts from 
as many different points to reach this place, all of which were unsuccess- 
ful. Buckingham still later was also unable to reach it. And even so 
recent a traveller as "Wetzstein was obliged to turn back without seeing 
it, after he had made every preparation and had proceeded half an hour 
or more from Bozrah on his way thither. Dr. Porter says, ' ' the only 
European who ever succeeded in reaching it is Cyril C. Graham." But 
the place has been visited, probably since the statement joist quoted was 
written, by Mr. Waddington, who, however, has not described it with 
any detail. Besides the two gentlemen just named, 1 am not aware 
that the place has been visited by any other Europeans previous to 
the arrival there of our own party. Out of the path of travellers, and 
even of adventurous explorers, it is not strange that books on Palestine 
and Bible dictionaries have very little to say about it. In Jer. xlviii. 
21 — 25, where it is said that "judgment is come upon the plain country," 
a list of eleven cities is given, and among them are mentioned " Beth 
Gamul, Beth Meon, Kerioth, and Bozrah." " Judgment is come," it is 
said, " upon all the cities of the land of Moab, far or near." The phrase 

* See Dr. Tristram's "Land of Mo*b." 



52 THE AMEKICAN EXPEDITION. 

"far or near" may prove a significant hint towards determining tlie 
question whetlier or not this site corresponds "with the Beth Gamul of 
Jeremiah. The sites and ruins of Kerioth and Bozruh, which places I 
have also recently visited, are supposed, by some, to be well known ; 
and it is argued, with good reason, that Beth Gamul must be in the 
same region. And Um el Jemal, or " Mother of the Camel," may, it is 
thought, represent the Hebrew Beth Gamul, or " House of the Camel." 

From the castle at Salchad, ai d some say from that at Bozrah also, 
one can see a pile of ruins far awi.y to the south-west, a dark mass rest- 
ing upon the treeless plain. They lie about sixteen miles from Bozrah. 
They are at jiresent uninhabited, there being no water there that we 
could find, although there is a large reservoir in the centre of the town, 
and I counted as many as four smaller ones in different parts of the 
city. There is evidence that the place contains also large cisterns, one 
such at least I saw, in which may be water. These it would be interest- 
ing to examine. The roof of the one that I looked into was supported 
by five Roman arches. 

We left our camp on Monday morning, Sept. 27, at five o'clock, and 
proceeded to the castle in Bozrah; for the officer in command, Ibrahim 
Efl'endi, proposed, as he had never visited the place, and was very much 
interested in antiquities, to accompany us with some soldiers. Fortu- 
nately the morning, and the whole day, as it proved, were quite cool, so 
that our ten hours and forty minutes in the saddle were less tedious 
than they might otherwise have been. "We were in all twenty men, 
well mounted, and well armed. Besides the animals we rode, we had 
three extra ones for photographic apparatus, water, and other baggage. 
About two miles outside of Bozrah we came upon a large encampment 
of Bedouin of over one hundred long black tents; and, judging bj' the 
deafening howl, there were three or four dogs to every tent. There 
were several hundred camels scattered about in groups ; and there was 
evidently excitement of some kind, for men were shouting and running 
in all directions. Some of them ran up to our soldiers, and told of a 
heavy robbery that had been committed dui-ing the night, and of the 
great loss they had suffered in cattle and camels. Our soldiers gave 
chase in the direction indicated by these men ; and it was a fine sight to 
see them, with such of the Bedouin as were mounted, dashing over the 
plain in their efforts to discover the robbers. These, however, had done 
their work too near morning, or else had taken more than they could 
manage, and had fled, leaving the camels, or most of them, to return at 
leisure to their masters. I counted in a single string one hundred and 
fifty camels, thus making their way back. During the next hour or two 
we saw as many as half a dozen groups of camels, at different places on 
the plain, that had passed through the experience of being stolen the 
night previous. Three miles south of Bozrah we struck the perpetual 
desert, the region of desolation. Not that the soil is barren, but in all 
this wide and naturally fertile district no man dare plough, or plant, or 
build. Here is land as level as any prairie, and as rich as any in the 
world, with stones enough upon it to serve for building purposes, lying 



THE AMEKICAN EXrEDITION. 53 

idle and useless. One can easily picture it cut up into hundreds of fine 
farms, and covered with dwellings and orchards and gardens, and all 
the marks of civilised and skilful husbandry. Yet this desert shovfs 
signs of former cultivation, for the stones in many parts have at somo 
time been gathered into long rows, evidently to serve as boundaries for 
fields. The plain is covered with a small shrub which resembles the 
sage bush. Then the crocus appeared in many places ; and the contrast 
between the barren burnt surface of the plain and these beautiful flowers 
was very striking. On the way we passed several ruins, the names 
of which we could not learn ; and the same was true of our return, as 
we came most of the way by a different route. There are scores of these 
ruined towns scattered about this plain awaiting the careful explorer. 
Far in the north-east the fortress, Al Salchad, loomed up a magnificent 
object on the horizon, commanding a view of all this wide plain to the 
north, east, south, and west. I noticed that the common barn-swallows 
were very abundant; and we also saw during the day ten or more 
gazelles, to some of which our men gave chase, but without success. 

We reached Um el Jemal after a ride of about five hours. The ruins 
do not abound in columns and temples like those of Kunawat or Jerash, 
still they are imposing, and make a peculiar impression upon one because 
they stand alone in the desert. They are remarkable, in the first place, 
from the fact that they present only two prominent styles of architec- 
ture, namely, Eoman and Christian, and not half a dozen, as is so often 
the case in other places. They are remarkable again because they afford 
a good example of an unwaUed town. Indeed, in this respect they are 
very instructive. The dwellings and buildings were not huddled to- 
gether. Then there has been no building and rebuilding on the tops of 
former buildings, according to later oriental style. The open spaces 
about the houses were large, and the streets wore broad. At least two 
avenues ran through the city from north to south, one of which was one 
hundred feet wide, and the other nearly one hundred and fifty feet. 
Nothing appears crowded. Everywhere there is a sense of roominess. 
It must have been a city noted for broad streets, spacious avenues, large 
courts, fine gardens, promenades, and the like. Consequently it would 
be a cool city, and no doubt delightful as a place of residence. Then, 
again, the houses, which wore built of stone, are not only the finest, but 
the best preserved of any that I have seen in the Hauran, or in all the 
country east of the Joi'dan. They were built on a generous scale. Some 
of them were three and even four stories high. I noticed that eleven 
and twelve feet was a common height for the ceiling on the first floor, 
and ten feet on the second, and in two or more cases the height of the 
ceiling on the third floor was also ten feet. The doors of the rooms 
were, as a rule, seven and a half and eight feet high in the second story 
as well as the first. The rooms were not small but spacious, that is, 
spacious for private houses. A number of those that I measured were 
ten feet by twenty-five, or twelve feet by twenty-four. There wore, of 
course, both larger and smaller rooms than these. A common style of 
building seems to have been a group of houses with a large open space 



54 THE AMERICAN EXPEDITION. 

around the outside, and a largo open court on tlie inside. These courts 
were fifty feet by seventy-five, and sometimes much larger. Stone stairs 
led up on the outside of the houses facing the court to the second and 
third stories. Many of these are in as good condition as if they had 
been built but one year ago. There are no traces of the Saracens here. 
Nor, on the other hand, are there any decided marks of great antiquity. 
In the large reservoir before mentioned there are some bevelled stones. 
It is the fullest bevel. Very many of the stones of which the houses 
were built were simply split, and not faced at all ; yet it should be 
observed that the splitting was remarkably regular. It was evidently at 
one time, and, I should judge, for a long time, a prominent Christian 
city. I found remains of what I consider to have been three Christian 
churches. Fui-ther examination might develop more. One of these, at 
least, had had a portico, and columns were lying about the front of it. 
In no other city east of the Jordan that I have visited do so many 
crosses appear on the lintels of the doors of private houses as here. 
Then, again, the inscriptions are by no means the least important fact 
connected with these ruins. I can, however, only allude to this fact at 
present. Mr. Waddington, whom I have already mentioned, has pub- 
lished several Greek and Latin inscriptions which -were found here, and 
during my short stay I found seven inscriptions which he has not given. 
Aramaic inscriptions also exist here. Without deciding whether or not 
this is the Beth Gamul of the Bible, it is certainly a rich field for 
research. 

I am sorry to state that the Arabs are every year carrying off the 
stones of this city to other places. As many as six men were at work 
while we were there, throwing down the walls and getting the long 
roof- stones, which were to be carried away on camels. Just before we 
reached the place we met thirty or forty camels that had started with a 
load of stone taken from these ruins. It is easy to see how important 
inscriptions may be carted off, and thus valuable historical material for 
ever lost. It was on account of this plundering which I saw going on 
that I regretted so deeply I could not remain and complete a thorough 
archgeological examination of the ruins at once. We took two photo- 
graphs of the city, and made some measurements, the details of which 
would probably not be of general interest. In regard to this place being 
identical with the Beth Gamul of Jeremiah, while I do not care to dis^ 
cuss the question here, I may say in a word that I see no special objec- 
tion to its having been the same. The objection offered by some scholars 
that it is too far north, can, I think, easily be removed. The place 
appears to have been deserted for centuries. I should judge that the 
desertion was sudden and complete. There are no traces of there having 
been any lingering, deteriorating remnant or people, nor of any wretched 
subsequent inhabitants to mutilate it, as is usually the case in these 
large ruined cities. I noticed an interesting fact with regard to the 
pieces of pottery with which the surface of the ground here, as in all 
these ruined towns, is covered. In most cases one sees only the red 
pottery, but iu Um el Jemal the black was the prevailing kind, and the 



MAxrscnirTs of the iiebkkw schii'TUREs. 5o 

red decidedly the exception. There are but few places in Syria where 
the black pottery is made. In the first centuiy, accordinj? to the Talmud, 
the black kind was considered superior to tlio rod, and brought a much 
higher price in the markets ; and what is also interesting in this con- 
nexion, a certain village in Galilee had a monopoly of its manufacture. 

On our way homo, as wo had no guide and paths do not exist, we took 
the wrong direction, and when wo had ridden five hours we did not find 
our Bozrah. We ascended a slight elevation, which commanded a view 
of a wide region. We had a choice of seven ruined cities which were in 
sight from where we stood ; but as night was rapidly approaching, even 
our Effendi could not tell which Bozrah was. We made a guess, which 
proved to be a lucky one, and aftei* one hour and a half hard liding in 
the dark we reached our camp in safety. Selaii Mekrill. 



MANUSCEIPTS OF THE HEBEEW SCEinUEES. 

l^Reprinicd hy permission of the proprietors from the ATHEN^Uil.] 

The Codex of the Hebrew Scriptures which Rabbi Aaron Ben Asher 
revised lias recently been discovered at Aleppo, and Dr. Ginsburg, the 
well-known Orientalist, intends to start, in a week or two, for Syria on 
purpose to collate it. This celebrated MS. was originally preserved at 
Jerusalem ; but probably when Saladin took the Holy City and put an 
end to the Latin Kingdom, it was i emoved to Egypt, where Maimonides 
(a.d. 1135-1204) saw it. He adopted it as his model, "because," he 
remarks, " I saw that there is a great confusion in all the codices which 
I have consulted with regard to these matters ; and even the Massorites, 
who wrote and compiled works to show which, sections are to begin new 
paragraphs and which not, are divided upon these matters, according to 
the authorities they leaned upon. I found myself necessitated to write, 
thus, all the sections of the Law, both those which begin new paragraphs 
and those which do not, as well as the forms of the accents, so that all 
copies might be made according to it. Now the Codex which is followed 
in these matters is the one well known in Egypt which contains the 
four-and-twenty Sacred Books, which was in Jerusalem for many years, 
that all the codices might be corrected after it, and lohose text all adopted, 
because Ben Asher corrected it and lahoured over it many years, and revised 
it many times. It is this Codex I followed in the copy of the Law I wrote." 

At present this important MS. is preserved in a cave under a 
synagogue at Aleppo, " at the entrance of which stands a chest in which 
are deposited crowns of the Law " {i.e.. Bibles written with points and 
accents), " and they are all adorned with flowers and blossoms in various 
colours drawn like chains around." At the end of the MS. is written, 
"This complete Bible, consisting of 24 Books, was written by E. Solo- 
mon, who was a skilful scribe, May the Spirit of God give him rest : and 
was punctuated and furnished with the Massora in the most proper way 
by the great teacher, wise, sagacious. Master of the Scribes, father of the 
wise, chief of the teachers, skilful in his works, prudent in his advice, 



56 MANUSCPvirTS OF THE HEBREW SCRIPTmiES. 

and altogetlier unique in his generation, E. Aaron Ben Asher, may his 
Boul be bound up in the bundle of life with the Prophets, the just and 
the holy ones — -and was presented as a holy gift by the great prince 
glorious and mighty. Master and Rabbi of Israel, the beauty of 
all Israel, wise, sagacious, holy and liberal. May the Lord lift 
up his banner, make his crown flourish and extol his glory," 
&c. The writer goes on to say that the MS. is to remain "at 
Jerusalem, in the possession of the two great patriarchs whose 
glorious, holy, and majestic names are Joshiahu and Zechez Riahu ;" 
and to be shown to the people on the three festivals of Passover, 
Pentecost, and Tabernacles. " Any learned Rabbi of the children 
of Israel" who shall wish to consult the MS. may do so ; but he must 
put it back in its place, and no unbeliever may touch it. 

We have said enough to show the immense antiquity and authority of 
this MS., to which attention was first drawn by Iben Safir, and the 
learned woild will no doubt look forward with some curiosity for the 
publication of Dr. Ginsburg's collation. 

Iben Safir has also called attention to another' important MS. of the 
Earlier and Later Prophets, imperfect at the beginning and end, which is 
deposited in the Karaite Synagogue at Cairo. It is the oldest of the 
MSS. the Karaites possess. At Cairo the ancient MSS. are usually pre- 
served with peculiar care, being placed in a shrine near the ark contain- 
ing the law, and a lamp is kept continually burning before it. It is in 
the square Spanish character, large letters, with points and accents and 
the Massora according to all its rules. At the end of the minor prophets is 
written, in the handwriting of its scribe, and in the same ink: "I, 
Moses Ben Asher, wrote this cycle of Scriptures with all correctness, as 
the good hand of God was upon me, in the province of Miziah, in the 
renowned city of Tiberias .... Amen. Finished at the end of 827 
years after the destruction of the second Temple. May the Creator of 
our souls return to it in mercy, rebuild it with stones of carbuncles, 
sapphires, and agates, so that it may be a perfect and durable edifice 
which shall not be forsaken, nor destroyed, nor pulled dowa for ever and 
ever. May this be done speedily in our own day, and that of all|Israel. 
Amen." On the same page is added: "Whosoever alters anything in 
this cycle or writing, or obliterates any letter, or tears any page of it, 
unless he thoroughly understands that we committed some error, whether 
in writing or punctuation, or Massora ... let him have no forgiveness 
nor atonement, and let him not see the beauty of the Lord, nor the 
good which is hid for those who fear God, but let him be as an unclean 
woman, and a leper shiit up, that his limbs may be crushed, his strength 
broken, his flesh consumed, and his bones rotten till he disappear. 
Amen." 

Iq a note on the following page, in the same handwriting as the above, 
we are told that "this book is now in the possession of Jabez Ben 
Salomon the Babylonian." 

Dr. Ginsburg intends to collate this MS. also before his return to 
England. 



Quarterly Statement, April, 1870.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND, 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



The constantly recurring attacks of fever under which Lieutenant^Conder has 
suffered during the winter have necessitated a postponement of the return of the 
Survey Expedition till the autumn. In order, however, that time may^not be 
lost, an office has been taken at the Eoyal Albert Hall, where the party are at 
present engaged in preparing the map for publication. It is hoped to be able to 
place in the hands of the engraver before the end of the year at least two-thirds 
of the great map of Western Palestine ("West of the Jordan). The part remain- 
ing to be finished consists of the greater part of Galilee and a small piece in the 
south. 

The Survey party consists of Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, Sergeant 
Armstrong, and Corporals Maule, "Wilson, Brophy, and Malings, all of tlie 
Royal Engineers. The four last liave l)een specially granted by the War Offi':e 
for this purpose. 



Full particulars of the mode, time, and place of the publication of the great 
map will be given in an early number of the Quarterly Staicment. At present 
we can only state, in addition to the above facts, that a Survey Publication 
Committee has been appointed ; and that the map will be accompanied 1;y 
special memoirs which will contain all the facts collected by the ofhcers of 
the Survey. 



Intelligence has been received that the Court at Damascus, to which appeal 
was made in the Safed affair, have confinned the judgment of the Acre Court. 
The ringleaders are in prison ; a fine of £150 has been levied upon the place, 
and is waiting for the English Consul-General of Syria at Acre. This is mucli 
less than was asked, and it is not yet certain that the English Government will 
consent to receive this amount as compensation. The moral effect of the judg- 
ment, the arrest of the prisoners, and the actual enforcement of the fine, is 
reported to be excellent, and the ueteriaincd attitude of Mr. Consul Moore in 
the affair will doubtless bear good fruit in the behaviour of the natives for some 
time to come. 



58 KOTES AND NEWS. 

The papers l)y Lieutenant Conder for this number of the Quarterly may he 
taken as illustrations of the results to be expected from the map. He has taken 
the two most ancient docimients existing on Palestine topography and subjected 
them to comparison with the new map. One of these, a translation of which 
Avas given by Mr. C. W. Goodwin, in the Cambridge Essays of 1853, and again 
published in the " Records of the Past," vol. ii., 1875 (Bagster and Co.), gives 
an account of the travels of an Egyptian official in Palestine. The date of the 
journey is assigned by M. Cliabas to some period between the 12th and the 
15th centuries B.C. Lieutenant Conder has followed the route of this traveller 
.step by step, identifying the places he visited by means of the new names 
he has obtained from the Survey. 

The second document is that published by Mariette Bey, and consists of lists 
on the walls of the pyloues of the Temple at Karnak, of places conquered by 
Thothmes III. Those names whieli belong to Palestine are of the Canaanite 
period. It is a list older than the lists in the Book of Joshua. The identifica- 
tions proposed by Lieutenant Conder will be found in his paper. 



The first memoir which Lieutenant '^'onder will prepare is that on the sheet 
called the Jenin sheet. It includes forty-eight biblical sites (either new or old 
identifications), with twenty identifications of early date. On examination of 
the list of names, the following points of interest were noticed. 

(1) Affarea, a town mentioned by Jerome as six Eoman miles north of Megiddo, 
= cl Farriyeh, at exactly that distance. 

(2) Arhol, noticed in the Onomasticon as nine miles from Megiddo in the 
great plain, = Arabunch, at the proper distance. 

(3) Adamah, a town of Naphtali, situate west of the Sea of Galilee, =: Kh. 
Admali, near Kaukab el Hawa, on the north of Wady Bireh (which appears to 
form the boundary). 

(4) Anem, a town of Manasseh, apparently near Jenin, ^ el Ghannam, two 
miles south of Jenin. 

(5) Kedesli, a town of Issachar, and therefore in the gi-eat plain, = Tell Abu 
Kadis, an ancient site near Megiddo. 

(6) Aner, a town of Manasseh, probably 'AUar, in the territory of that tribe. 

(7) Ain el Jcmain, "fountain of the two troops," possibly the well Harod, 
where Gideon divided his men, being near Gilboa. 

(8) AnaJiareth, a town apparently near Shuneni, belonging to Issachar. The 
name is almost exactly represented by the modern en-Naurali, in the required 
position. 

(9) Megiddo and Bethshan were separate cities belonging to Manasseh ; about 
a mile from each is a Tell with a name somewhat resembling Manasseh — viz., 
Tel Menesi, near the former, and Tell el Mcnshiyeh, near the latter. 

(10) In the plain of Beisan are found the name of Ealiah, a place called Gilgal 
near it, and a ford of Jordan called "the ford opened by God." 



The long promised restoration of the Moabite Stone by M. Clemiont-Ganneau 
is at last completed. A fac-simile cast, in white plaster, has been presented to 
the Committee by the authorities of the Louvre. A photograph has been taken, 
which can now be obtained at Stanford's establishment, 55, Charing Cross. The 



NOTES AND NEV.'S. 59 

position of the actual fragments is very clearly marked ; there can be no con- 
fusion between them and the part restored by means of the squeeze in the pos- 
session of M. Ganneau. 

We regret to say that the delay in the publication of the promised archicological 
work on the Researches of M. Clermont-Ganneau, is due to the illness of that 
indefatigable worker. But the book has not been given up, and will be pro- 
ceeded with as soon as its principal author is able to go on with it. 



"We publish on page 99 a remarlcablc paper by Professor Sprenger, the well- 
known eminent Orientalist, which sums up, and, we hope, finally disposes of the 
famous Shapira forgeries, which were first exposed almost simultaneously by 
M. Clermont-Ganneau and the late Mv. C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake. 



The American Expedition, east of the Jordan, commanded by Colonel Lane, 
has suspended work for the present. Colonel Lane has returned to New York. 
The Rev. Selah ilerrill is still in Syria. They have made a large collection of 
photographs, whicli will immediately be published. Their route lay through the 
Hauran, southward through Moab, and so on to Jerusalem. Among the important 
places photographed are Kunawat, the Kenath of Numbers xxxii. 42 ; Busrah, the 
Moabite Bozrali of Jeremiah xlviii. 24, sujjposed to be distinct from the Bozi-ah 
of Edom, mentioned elsewhere ; Um el-Gemal, identified as the Beth-gamul of 
Jeremiah xlviii. 23 ; Jerash, the Gerasa of Roman history ; and Amman, the 
Rabbath-Ammon of Scripture, and the Pliiladelphia of Greek and Roman annals. 
These cities are aU within a circuit of fifty miles to the east and south-east of 
the Sea of Galilee, except the last, which is more distant towards the south-east. 

The descriptive catalogue of about ninety has been prepared by the Rev. 
Selah Merrill. The whole will be published as soon as possible. The future 
action of the New York Committee has not yet been decided ujwn. 



Lieut. Kitchener's Guinea Book of Biblical Photographs will be published 
at Easter. It contains twelve views, with a short account of each. They are 
mounted on tinted boards, and handsomely bound. The following is the list of 
the selected views : — 

1. The Valley of Sorek (1 Sam. vi. 12). 

2. The Valley of Michmash (Judges xx. 31, and Isaiah x. 28). 

3. Mount Moriah. 

4. The Mosque El Aksa. 

5. Elisha's Fountain (2 Kings ii. 22). 

6. Bethlehem. 

7. Interior of the Dome of the Rock. 

8. The Baptism in Jordan. 

9. Cana in Galilee. 

10. Bethany. 

11. The "Via Dolorosa." 

12. The Traditional Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 

All Lieut. Kitchener's views can be obtained at the same rate as the ordinary 
photographs of the Fund, of the agent, Mr. Edward Stanford, 55, Charing Cross. 
The complete list is on page 62. 



60 NOTES AND NEWS. 

The financial position of the Fund may be ascertained by reference to the 
balance-sheet and the Treasurer's statement, shewing a balance of £555 still due 
to the Treasurer. It should be observed that the balance against the Fund has 
been reduced from £759 18s. on December .31, 1875, to £200 Os. 4d. on March 
28, 1876. 

The income from all sources from January 1 to Llarch 28 amounted to 
£'13'J5 I.jS. 4d., and the balance at the banks on the last day was £561 2s. 2d. 

TIio expenses during the stay at home are someAvhat diminished, but as 
the Survey party now consists of seven officers and men, about £200 a month is 
still required for the necessary expenses. Subscribers will observe that the work 
of map drawing is imperative, and would have had to be done at the conclusion 
of the Survey, so that no time is lost. The Committee earnestly hope that the 
annual subscriptions will be paid on the usual application being made, if not 
before. 



The following are the diocesan representatives of the Society : — 

Province of Canterbxjrt. 

Diocese of Exeter : Rev. Franklin Bellamy, St. Mary's Vicarage, Devonport. 

Gloucester and Bristol : E. H. Stanley, Esq., 80, City Road, Bristol. 

Archdeaconry of Hereford : Rev. J. S. Stooke-Vaughan, "Wellington Heath 
Vicarage, LedburJ^ 

Archdeaconry of Salop : Rev. A. F. Forbes, Badger Rectory. 
,, Lichfield : ,, ,, 

I^ondou : Rev. Henry Geary, 26b, North Audley Street. 

Norwich : Rev. F. C. Long, Stowupland, Stowmarket. 

Essex : Rev. W. H. A. Emra, Great Blakenham Rectory. 

Peterborough : Rev. A. F. Foster, Farndish Rectory, Wellingborough. 

Worcester : Rev. F. W. Holland, Evesham (Member of General and Executive 
Committee, and one of the Hon. Secretaries to the Fund). 

Archdeaconries of Canterbury, Maidstone, and Surrey : Rev. R. J. Griffiths, 
10, Trafalgar Road, Old Kent Road, S.E. 

Pkovince of Yor.K. 

York : Rev. J. De Courcy Baldwin, Training College, York. 

Archdeaconry of Craven : Rev. J. C. Henley, Kirkby ilalham Vicarage. 

Ireland. 

Rev. G. J. Stokes, Blackrock, Dublin. 

The Rev. llorrocks Cocks, 17, Edwardes Square, London, S.W., has also 
kindly offered his services among Nonconformist churches. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications by officers 
of the Fund, the Committee beg it to be distinctly understood that they leave 
such proposals to be discussed on their own merits, and that by publishing them 
iu the Qi.uirtcrly Statement tlie Committee do not sanction or adopt them. 



TOMi; AT JERUSALKM, 01 

Annual subscribers are earnestly requested to forward their subscriptions for 
the current year when due, at their earliest coiivenience, and without waiting for 
;ippIic;ition. It is best to cross all cheques and post-oftice orders to C'outts 
uiid Co. 



The Committee are always grateful for the return of old lanubcrs of the 
Quarterly Statement, especially those which are advertised as out of print. 



Ladios desirous of joining the Ladies' Associations are requested to communicate 
xvith Mrs. Finn, Tlie Elms, Brook Green, London, W. 



Cases for binding the Quarterly Statements are now ready, and can 1)3 had o:i 
application to Messrs. R. Bentley and Son, 8, New Burlington Street, or to the 
office of the Fund. They are in green or brown cloth, with the stamp of the 
Society, uniform in appearance with " Our "Work in Palestine," price one shilling. 
They can he obtained for any year by subscribers who have complete sets. 



TOMB AT JERUSALEM. 

A VEiiY interesting tomb has recently been opened about two miles 
from Jerusalem in the direction of Sur-babir. It consists of a cave in 
which has been constructed of masonry a chamber measuring seven 
and a half feet by ten feet, with " deep " loculi, also of masonry, on 
each of its four sides. The roof of this chamber is formed by the rock, 
■which slopes downwards towards the door. The loculi are eighteen 
in number — eight on the left side (four above four), sis on the right 
(four above two), two at the end opposite the door, and one on each 
side of the door. They are all somewhat larger than the usual 
rock-cut loculi, measuring nearly two feet by two .feet. They were 
each closed by a stone slab carefully fitted, and these slabs have 
been removed by the fellahin, and are now lying upon the floor of the 
chamber. On the north side, opposite the door, is the usual bench, 
also of masonry. The entrance is by a descent of seven (or eight) 
steps; it is closed by a stone door still in situ, and swinging on its 
pivots, and having a groove on its inner side for the lock. Some of the 
lead with which the lock was fixed still remains. The masonry is of 
large well-dressed stones, and the joints are carefully cemented. The 
loculus farthest from the door on the western side leads into a portion 
of the cave beyond the masonry, and in this are ancient loculi sunk in 
the rock. In one of the loculi remains of iron nails and wood were 
found, which probably formed part of a cofiin. No inscriptions or 
crosses were discovered upon the masonry, or the lamps found in the 
tomb, but a cross is rudely cut on the rock outside, and there can be 



62 NEW PHOTOGRAPHS. 

little doubt that the masonry is of the Christian period, an old sepul- 
chral cavern, whose loculi had crumbled away, having been utilised by 
building new tombs within it. On a hill just above is a site called 
Khirbet Subkhah, where are several cisterns and large stones. One 
of the latter bears some rude crosses cut upon it. Masonry tombs 
are very rare in South Palestine, and the stone door still upon its 
hinges is unique. It is much to be desired that this monument be 
preserved from destruction, but there is probably little chance of this, 
as the stones are valuable for building. The swinging stone door in 
a tomb of comparatively recent date is of considerable archa;ological 
interest, as showing that these doors were in use at a later period 
than is commonly supposed. Thos. Chaplin, M.D. 

Jerusalem, March 2nd, 1876. 



THE STONE OF FOUNDATION. 

The following from the Mishnah Yoma, v. 2, translated for me, 
January 30, 1872, by the late Emanuel Deutsch, may prove interesting 
with reference to Dr. Chaplin's paper on the " Stone of Foundation," 
published in the Atheticeum, p. 608, 1875 : — • 

Yoma, V. 2. " Since the ark had been taken away [i.e., since the days 
of the first Temple] there was [only] a stone there [in the Holy of 
Holies] from the time of the first prophets ; and its name was Shithiah 
[foundation], three fingers' height above the ground, and upon it did he 
[the high priest] place it [the incense]." 

Chaeles Warren. 

Waltlmm Abbey, Jan. 28th 1876. 



NEW PHOTOGEAPHS. 



The following is Lieut. Kitchener's complete list : — 

1. Scene of the Eeturn of the Ark. 

2. Scene of the Attack on the Philistines' Camp by Jonathan and 
his Armour-bearer. 

3. Mount Moriah, the Site of Solomon's Temple. 

4. Site of Solomon's Palace. 

5. Elisha's Fountain. 

6. Bethlehem. 

7. Interior of Dome of the Rock. 

8. The Jordan. 

9. Cana in Galilee. 

10. Bethany. 

11. Way of the Cross. 



NEW PIIOTOGEAPHS. 



63 



12. The Traditional Churcli of the Holy Sepulchre. 

13. Jerusalem: View from Palestine Exploration Fund house on 
Zion. 

14. Citadel at Jerusalem. 

15. Abbey Church of St. Marie la Grande, Jerusalem. 

16. West "Window of ditto. 

17. Cloisters of ditto. 

18. General View north of Jerusalem. 

19. Jeremiah's Grotto north of Jerusalem. 

20. Dome of the Rock, interior. 

21. Ditto, shomng architectural details. 

22. Sebil Keyafc Bey, Haram Enclosure, Jerusalem. 

23. Kubbet el Abd, near Jerusalem. 

24. Site of Bether (Bittir), near Jerusalem. 

25. Boundary of Judah — Kustal in the distance. 

26. Church of Santa Hannah, Beit Jibrin. 

27. Cave at Beit Jibrin (Columbaria). 

28. Fortifications at Beit Jibrin. 

29. Details of Arcade at Beit Jibrin. 

30. Adullam, showing the Caves. 

31. Ditto, showing the Site of the City. 

32. Ascalon : General View from East. 

33. Ditto: View from East Wall. 

34. Ditto : View on Sea-shore. 

35. Ditto : Tomb Sheikh Mohammed el Messelli. 

36. Ditto : Well (Bir el Kushleh). 

37. Ashdod from the South. 

38. West Door of Church of St. Joun, Gaza. 

39. Interior of ditto (now used as a, mosque). 

40. Mosque in Jamnia. 

41. Scene at Well, Jamnia. 

42. Makkedah (El Moghar) from the East. 

43. Valley of Elah, looking west, near Shochoh : scene of battle 
between David and Goliath. 

44. Ditto, looking East. 

45. Shefa Amr : Village and Castle. 

46. Ditto: Eock-cut Tomb. 

47. Church of St. Anne and St. Joachim at Seffurieh. 

48. Castle at Seffurieh. 

49. Convent at Kasr-Hajlah (Beth Hogla). 

50. Masada from North- West, showing the Eoman Bank. 

To these must be added a photograph of the Restored Moabite Stone 
and one of M. Clenuont-Ganneau's Vase of Bezetha. 



64 ladies' associations. 



LADIES' ASSOCIATIONS. 

We have pleasure in. stating that tlie Ladies' Associations in aid of 
the work of the Palestine Exploration Fund are increasing in number. 
Mrs. Finn has held meetiags at the houses of friends in various places, 
and one result has been that several hundred persons have heard — some 
of them for the first time — of the discoveries made by Major Wilson and 
Captain Warren in Jerusalem, as well as of those made by Lieut. 
Conder and M. Clermont Gannoaii in other parts of the Holy Land. 
Although many thousand copies of our Quarterly Reports have been 
circulated, and numerous articles on the subject have appeared in the 
newspapers and in magazines, it is the fact that there are still numbers 
of people who do not know that any very definite results have been 
obtained, or any discoveries of importance made in Palestine. Mrs. 
Finn has been able, by means of drawings, photographs, and a model of 
the Temple Sanctuary, to bring home to the minds of many the extra- 
ordinary nature of the ancient Temple walls discovered by Capt. Warren. 
The following is a list, in their order, of the meetings thus held, and the 
best thanks of the Committee are tendered to the ladies and gentlemen 
who, by opening their houses, have thus given us opportunities of making 
our work known in a pleasant and effectual manner. 

A meeting was held Jan. 6, at Mrs. De Bergue's, 17, Kensington Palace 
Ga,rdeus, and a large company was present. Colonel Gawler took the 
chair, and spoke in support of the object. 

Jan. 11. The Eev. T. Cornthwaite had a meeting at his house at 
Walthamstow, and he addressed the assemblage on the subject brought 
under their notice. 

Jan. IT. About sixty persons assembled, being invited to a private 
room kindly lent for the purpose, at the Crystal Palace, to Mrs. 
■Standring, the secretary of the Sydenham Ladies' Association. The 
Eev. Canon Gover, Eev. Mr. Franklyn, and Mr. Standring addi-essed 
the meeting. 

Jan. 21. Lady Smith and Colonel Pinney assembled theii- friends at 
their house in Somersetshire, Somerton Erleigh, to hear about the 
Exploration work. This meeting led to a series of other meetings being 
held in neighbouring places, viz., on Jan. 25, at Mr. and Mrs. F. H. 
Dickinson's, Kingweston; on Feb. 1, at Weston-super-Mare, where the 
Eev. Mr. Hunt jDresided, and Mrs. Tomkins undertook the office of 
Secretary to the Ladies' Association formed after the meeting. 

On Feb. 2 a meeting Avas held at Lympsham, which was attended by 
many ladies and gentlemen, as also by the inhabitants of the parish, 
invited by the Eector, Eev. J. H. Stephenson (Eural Dean), and Mrs. 
Stephenson. The Eector spoke, as did also the Ven. Archdeacon 
Denison, of East Brent, expressing their deep interest in the information 
-which had been given to the meeting. 

Two meetiags Avere held in Clifton, one by kind permission of Miss 



ladies' associations. 65 

Heptinstall, at 2, Eodncy Place. The Right Eev. Bishop Anderson 
presided, and addressed the meeting, as did also the Eev. W. Wallace 
and the Eev. J. B. Goldberg, local secretaries. Another meeting was 
held at the house of Miss Harris. The Eev. Eobert Taylor presided at 
this meeting. The next was held by invitation of Mr. and Mrs. 
Wingfield Digby, at Sherborne Castle, where a large party met. Mr. 
Digby presided, and addressed the company on the subject. The Eev. 
F. W. Portman, Eev. M. and Mrs. Hawtrey, and about seventy other 
guests were present at this gathering. 

On Feb. 11, the Eev. Canon and Miss Meade assembled their friends 
at the Vicarage at Castle Gary, and Canon Meade opened the meeting 
by a short address recommending the subject to his friends, among 
whom were Mr. H. E. and Mrs. Bemiett, of Sparkford Hall, who a few 
days afterwards (Feb. 18) collected another company at their own house 
for the same purpose. Meetings were also given at Hornblotton Eectory 
by the Eev. Godfrey and Mrs. Thring, and at Eimpton Eectory, by the 
Eev. M. and Mrs. Hawtrey, who spared no pains in coUectmg their 
various friends to hear the accounts of our work in Palestine. 

The Eev. Canon and Mrs. Pratt had a meeting at the Eectory, Shepton 
Mallet, on Feb. 21, presided over by Canon Pratt. Some of those who 
had attended the meetings above mentioned wrote to Torquay and 
enlisted the aid of friends there, who in their turn obtained the co- 
operation of others in extending our efforts among our lady friends. The 
first meeting in Torquay was held at the house of Dr. and Mrs. Mac- 
intosh, :and this led to others — i.e., one at the house of Mrs. Tinner, 
where the Eev. Flavel Cook made an eloquent address, urging the im- 
portance of the work now being done in the Holy Land. Another 
meeting was held at Mr. and Mrs. A. E. Hunt's. Meanwhile, friends 
living at Earley, near Eeading, arranged a meeting at the house of Mr. 
and Mrs. C. Stephens, and a Ladies' Association was formed at Earley, 
Mrs. Stephens undertaking the office of secretary. A similar meeting 
was held at Miss Buckland's, Blenheim House. Other friends had taken 
the matter up at Oxford. The Eev. H. and Mrs. De Brisay opened 
their house during a whole week for a series of meetings. A sj)ecial 
meeting was also held for a large number of young ladies. A very con- 
siderable interest appears to have been created, and we trust that our 
work may commend itself to many in that ancient seat of learning as 
one of real practical value. Measures have been taken for the formation 
of a Ladies' Association in Oxford. 

Mrs. Charles, of Combe Edge, Branch Hill, Hampstead, invited a 
large party to her house on the 21st March, and, in sj)ite of the incle- 
ment weather, about eighty assembled. On the following day, the 22nd, 
there was a full meeting at the house of Col. and Miss Fyers, 20, Ken- 
smgton Square ; and another very large meeting on the evening of the 
23rd, at Woneford Green, at the house of Mr. and Mrs. Johnston. 



66 mOPOSED TESTS FOll THE SURVEY. 



PEOPOSED TESTS POP THE SUPVEY. 

The following identifications I have carefully collected, and propose 
to enlarge upon as forming the best tests of the character of the Survey 
work. They refer to places the positions of which can be obtained with 
accuracy, from such sources as the Onomasticon, the Talmud, or the 
various itineraries. They have been collected during the last few 
months only, and consequently the luap has been made in ignorance of 
the existence of such records. If, then, we are able simply by measure- 
ment to discover in their proper places, and with their proper names, 
sites as obscure as those about to be noted, we may fairly argue that 
the probabilities are in favour of all the more important names and 
places existing on the new Survey, and reqtiiring only patience and 
scholarship to fix in a generally satisfactory manner. The examples 
given are merely a selection of those most evidently correct out of 
a number of about forty. 

Enam. — The words Fhathach 'Aini/n (d"':"'!; nn-]) occurring in Gen. 
xxxviii. 14, and translated in the English version " iti an open place," 
are understood by the Eabbis (Sotah, 10a Tal. Bab.)* to form the name of 
a town, situate, to use the words of the Authorised Version, " by the way 
to Timnath." The Septuagint agrees with this, translating the Avords 
TTphs Ta7s TTvXais 'Atvdv "by the gates of Ainan," or "by the opening oi 
Ainan." In the list of the towns of Judah we find the name of a town, 
TappuahEnam, occurring (Josh. xv. 34) immediately after En Gannim, 
which is i^roposed by M. Ganneau for the modern Unim Jina. This 
town, therefore, is also to be sought in the vicinity of Timnath, and in 
all probability would be identical with Phathach 'Ainim. 

In the Talmud 'Anim (□"jiO is noted as a Kefr or village (Pesikta 
Eabbathi, ch. 23), but the same place is evidently mentioned ra the 
Onomasticon under the name Aludy or iEnam as a ruin. ' ' Euntibus 
Thamnam nunc desertus locus et proximus Thamnte vico grandi" — viz., 
" now a deserted place and close to the great village of Thamna." 

Close to the site of Thamna, now Tibneh, three miles to the east, on 
an ancient road coming from Adullam — the very road by which the 
patriarch Judah would have come from Adullam to Timnah, as related 
in the passage commented upon (Gen. xxxviii. 14) — will be foimd on the 
Survey the ruin called '^lllin or Wad 'AUein. This, with the ordinary 
substitution so common in the Fellahin dialect of L for N or N for L, 
represents exactly the Hebrew 'Ainim or 'Anim. On the south side of 
the ruin there is, moreover, a spring to which the name Fatir is given, 
possibly a corruption of the Phathach or Tappuah of the Old Testa- 
ment. This discovery makes the list of fourteen cities of the Shep- 
helah in the group of which the Eoyal cities Jarmuth and Adullam, 
were capitals (Josh. xv. 33) almost complete. 

* The quotations of the Gemara are as a rule taken from Neubaner's GeogrcqjJiie 
du Talmud. 



PROPOSED TESTS EOR THE SURVEY. 67 



II. 

Anuath. — The division between Judasa and Samaria has never been 
very accurately determined. According to Joscphus (B. J. iii. ;J. o) the 
whole plain of Sharon up to Ptolemais belonged to Judsea, and Samaria 
therefore had no sea-coast. There is, however, some doubt as to this 
portion, for Antipatris is spoken of by the Eabbis as a boundary 
town between the Jews and the Samaritans (Gittin, 7(>a Tal. Bab.), 
and Caphar Saba as a Samaritan town (Demoi, ii. 2, Tal. Jer.) 
Josephus gives the village of Anuath as situate on the same boundary 
(B. J. iii. 3. o). The words in the Greek are {H)'Avovae BofiKeas 
irpoaayopevo/ji.ii'r] ku/xt]. "Anuath, a village heloriging to Borceos " 
[TTpoaayopivca having the meaning to assign or attribute to). This is badly 
translated '' which is also named,'' by Whiston. By a curious mistake 
Borceos has been identified with Burkin, near Jenin, under the mistaken 
impression that it marked the northern boundary of Samaria (cf . Neu- 
bauer's Geographie du Talmud, p. 57). A glance at the passage in 
Josephus is, however, sufficient to show this to be wrong. 

In the Onomasticon we find mention of a town called Anna or 
Ayova, as between Jerusalem and Neapolis. According to Eusebius it is 
on the road between the two towns, fifteen Eoman miles from the latter, 
but Jerome places it at ten miles from Neapolis. If this be the Anuath 
of Josephus, the town of Borceos is to be sought not far off. 

In a former paper I have shown that a similar discrepancy between 
Jerome and Eusebius is due to the fact of two places of the same 
name existing near one another. This is probably the case in the 
present instance. To the west of the main road, from Nablus to Jeru- 
salem, at a distance of thirteen English miles, or fourteen and one- 
third Eoman miles from Nablus, is the ruin of Aliata, marked on the 
Nablus sheet of the Survey ; this with the very common change of 
N and L, is very near in sound to Anna or Anuath. Farther north, 
and to the east of the ancient road through Shiloh from Nablus to 
Jerusalem, at the distance of nine English or ten Eoman miles from 
Neapolis, is the ruin of 'Ainah, Avhich even more exactly reproduces the 
Anna of the Onomasticon or the Anuath of Josephus. 

It seems most probable that this latter ruin represents the boundary 
town (for Aliata, the Anoua of Eusebius, is situate south of Shiloh, 
which appears to have belonged to Judeea) ; so placed, the boundary of 
Samaria and Juda3a becomes immediately plain. A great watercourse 
rising at 'Akrabeh (the Accrabi of Josephus) passes by the ruin of Ainah 
on the north, and descends into the little plain north of Lebonah 
{Lihlen). Thence it continues westwards and becomes of great depth, 
with precipitous sides passing Ferkha (Pherha of the Talmud) on the 
south side, and beyond this by the important village of Brukin. It 
here obtains the name of Wady Deir BalliU, from the fine ruined convent 
of Deir Ballut on its north bank. At this point I once crossed the 
valley and found it the most formidable we ever encountered, excepting 



68 PKOPOSED TESTS TOE, THE SURVEY. 

that of Miclimasli. Farthei' west, the same valley runs into the Aujeh 
Eiver close to Bas el 'Aiii, the i)robable site of Antipatris. 

There is more than one indication that this is the proper boundary of 
Samaria. 1st. The Accrabattene Toparchy, of which Accrabi (Akrabeh) 
was the capital, was on the marches between Samaria and Judaea (B. J. 
iii. 3). 2nd. Caj)har Eta3a was a Samaritan town, according to Justin. 
Martyr (Apol. ii.), and is no doubt the present Kefr ^Aiiu, near the head 
of the valley. 3rd. Shiloh and Lebonah, on the south of the division, 
appear to have belonged to Judaea, whilst Pherha [FerkJui) on the north 
seems to have been Samaritan. 4th. Again, Antipatris was on the 
very boundary which agrees with the debouching of the wady into the 
plain. 

If in the ruin of '..iinah we recover through the Onomasticon the 
Anuath of Josephus, it is evident that the village of Brukin represents 
Borceos. The distance of these two places apart is only eleven miles, so 
that Ainah may very well be said to have belonged to Brukin. 

As regards the northern Samaritan boundary the Survey also gives 
new information. Bethshean, En Gannim, and a place called Xaloth,* 
are noted by Josephus as on the boundary between Samaria and Galilee. 
To these the Talmud adds Caphar Outheni C^niy "^3^) {Mis/ina Gittin, 
vii. 8), which M. Neubauer supposes to be identical with the modern 
Kefr Kud (p. 57). Close to this, however, on the Survey (Jenin sheet) 
Avill be found the village of Kefr 'Adhdn, which evidently reproduces 
very closely the Aramaic name 'Autni. 

III. 

JBeilisarlsa. — In 2 Kings iv. 42, we find mention of " a man of Baal- 
shalisha." The LXX. version in both texts has Baida-apLcra. We find also a 
Xiand of Shalisha mentioned in Saul's journey to seek the asses of Kish 
(1 Sam. ix. 4), which may very probably be connected with the town of 
Beth Sarisa. 

In the Onomasticon we find noticed a paiOirapLaae, or Bcthsarisa, as the 
place called Baalshalisha in the English version, at about fifteen Eoman 
miles towards the north of Lydda (Diospolis), and in the Eegio Tham- 
nitica. Jerome uses the expression " ferme " — i.e., " scarcely " — in trans- 
lating the fifteen miles of Easebius. Measuring on the map, Ave find at 
a distance of thirteen English miles, or about fourteen and one-third 
Eoman miles, a large ruined village called Sirisia. There can be little 
doubt that this is the Bcthsarisa of the Onomasticon, though there is 
nothing so far to show whether or no it be the Biblical Beth Shalisha. 
The discovery is of interest principally as giving a point within the 
Eegio Thamnitica, or country of Timnath Heres, a district the boun- 
daries of which have not as yet been determined. The position of 

* Xaloth is generally identified with Iksal (ChesuUoth Joseph, Chisloth 
Tabor, Josh, xix.) This does not agree with the northern boundary of Samaria. 
It is more probably Ikzim on the south-v/est side of Carmel. 



PROPOSED TESTS FOR THE SURVEY. 69 

Sirisia tends to show that the limits are to be taken at the edge of 
the Plain of Sharon. 

Baal Shalisha (nu;7C? "/i'D) is also mentioned in the Talmud (San- 
hedrim 12a Tal. Bab.) The fruit is here said (commenting on that 
brought to Ehsha by one of its inhabitants) to ripen earlier than in 
other parts of Palestine. The Targum of Jonathan translates Shalisha 
by Daroma, the name of a district of which the boundariep are not well 
determined, though at one time it seems clearly to have included the 
country round Lydda (Pesachim v. 3). The Land of Shalisha was the 
first district entered by Saul on leaving Mount Ephraim, and is there- 
fore to be sought near to it. We have therefore here those indications 
of the position of Baal Shalisha : — 

1st. In Daroma, or the low hills near Lydda, according to the Tal- 
mudic use of the word. 

2nd. In low country not in the high hills where the seasons are later, 
and where Elisha (then at the mountaui Gilgal, now JiljUia) would 
have possibly found no com at the time (cf. 2 Kings iv. 42). 
3rd. Not far from Mount Ephraim (1 Sam. ix. 4). 
These all point to the identity of BaalshaKsha -svith the site claimed 
as identical by Jerome, and determined by us as the present ruin of 
Sirisia. 

IV. 
BezeTc. — I have had occasion to point out in a former report (January, 
1875, Quarterly Statement) that the value of the Onomasticon consists in 
its facts rather than in its theories, and that whilst the most intimate 
knowledge of the country is shown by Eusebius and Jerome, the science 
of identification was not well understood by them. 

Baalshalisha, we see by aid of the Jewish Commentaries, probably 
was correctly identified by them, but in the present instance an entirely 
wrong identification is suggested. 

The Bezek of Adonibezek I have shown to be probably the present 
Beit Z'ata, south of Jerusalem ; the Onomasticon, however, notices a 
Bezek on the road from Neapolis (Nablus) to Scythopohs (Beisan), and 
seventeen Eoman miles from the former. This we find on the Survey 
as the ruin of Ihzik, fourteen English miles (fifteen and a half Eoman) 
from Nablus on the road in question. In pure Arabic the name would 
be Bezik, the addition of an aleph before the consonant being a common 
vulgarism in the dialect of the Fellahin. 

V. 

Netopha. — This town is mentioned in the Bible (Esra ii. 22 ; Nehe- 
miah vii. 26), in lists of which the order appears consecutive, as being 
between Bethlehem and Anathoth. Under the name Netopha, or 
Metopa, the same place is noticed in the Acta Sanctorum as " in 
solitudine," or in the wilderness of Judah. 

In the Talmud (Sheviith ix. o, Mishna) the Vale of Beth Netopha 
(nam: iT'D ni7p3) is noticed as well watered and grassy. These two 



70 PEOPOSED TESTS FOR THE SURVEY. 

places can scarcely be the same. The Talmudic town may well be 
identified with the present Beit Nettif in the Shephelah, south-west of 
Jerusalem. 

The Biblical town has never yet been identified as far as I can find in 
the best authorities. On the Survey (Jerusalem sheet) the ruins of a 
town called Metoha or Z^'inm Toha will be found north-east of Bethle- 
hem on the edge of the Marsaba desert, thus fulfilling the requisites of 
the two Biblical lists, and of the later Acta Sanctorum. 

VI. 

A few scattered Talmudic notices may be classed together as 
follows : — 

1. Garoh is mentioned in the Gemara (Sanhedrim 103a Tal. Bab.) as 
situate three miles from Shiloh. M. Neubauer proposes to read Jeru- 
salem for Shiloh (Geog. Tal. p. 150) ajid identify it with Gareb (Jere- 
miah xxxi. 39). At the distance of three miles west of Shiloh {Seilun) 
and south of Lebonah {Libhen) will be found on the Survey a ruin 
called Oharaheli, which is j)robably the Talmudic Garob (3nj), the 
Arabic letter ghain representing, as in other cases, the Hebrew Gimel. 

2. Cozeha. — In a former report I have suggested the identity of the 
ancient town of Chozeba (1 Chron. iv. 22) with the present ruin of 
Kuweizihah. In the Talmud Beth Cozeba is noticed (Midrash Tanhuma 
sect. Hukkath G8a), as having a Beh'ah, or small plain. This would 
agree with the proposed site, which is situate immediately south of the 
great Wady Arrub (valley of Berachoth, 2 Chron. xx. 26), a broad 
valley to which the term would apply. 

3. Kefr Aziz — Is noted as being south of Jerusalem, as follows : — 

" If one shall train a vine upon any part of a fruit tree, it is lawful to 
sow seed under the remaining part. . . . Instance : E. Joshua went to 
Rabbi Ishmael at Kefr Aziz. He showed him a vine hanging on part of 
a fig-tree, &c., &c. (Mishna, Kilaim vi. 4.) 

llabbi Ishmael lived in Idumea, as we learn from another passage : 
" Eabbi Jose said, No one orders barley (for feeding a wife) except E. 
Ishmael, who was by Idumea. (Mishna, Ketuboth v. 8.) 

Kefr Aziz may therefore be very probably identified with the great 
ruin of Aziz discovered by the Survey party south of Yutta, in the 
borders of Idumea. This part of Palestine would appear to have been 
the home of more than one Eabbi, for we find that E. Ziphai was buried 
at Ziph (Berachoth viii.)- His tomb was visited by Isaac Chelo in 1334 
A.D., and is no doubt the fine sepulchral monument planned by us im- 
mediately south of the present Tell Zif. 

At Maon {M'a'm) also, a little farther south, there was a synagogue, 
traces of which still remain. 

4. Yajnr is mentioned (Tosaphta, Oholoth, ch. xviii.) with a place called 
Jub or Glib, and " the great tomb " as the limits of the impurity of the 
town of Ascalon. The inhabitants being idolaters, the town within these 
limits was not considered as part of the " Land." Thus, in discussing 



PROPOSED TESTS FOK THE SURVEY. 7l 

the limits of the Iloly Laud (Tosaphta, Shcviith vi. 1, dating about 
120 A.D.), the line is drawn at the " Gardens of Ascalon." This would 
lead us to identify Yajur with the site of the village of El Jurah, just at 
the limit of the Gardens of Ascalon. The great tomb may possibly bo 
the present tomb-house of Sheikh Muliamvied. Jub and the " Tharin," or 
"gates," cannot be identified, but it would seem from the above that 
the Eoman Ascalon was not much larger than the Crusading enceinte. 

lu more than one instance the present Wclij chapels seem to preserve 
Jewish traditions. Thus the Kubbet (or dome) of Sheikh Samt, at Ser'a, 
seems probably the traditional tomb of Samson mentioned by Isaac Chelo 
in 1334 A.D., and Berur Heil, the residence of E. Johanan ben Zakai 
(Sanhed. 326, Tal. Bab.), in the environs of Yebna, is not improbably the 
present small mosque of Ahu Hereir. (See the " Arabs in Palestine," by 
M. Ganneau, Macmillan's Magazine, vol. xxxii., p. 370, and Quarterly 
Statement, October, 1875.) 

VII. 

In conclusion, some of the less important sites noticed in the various 
early authorities may be readily identified by use of the Survey. 

1. Choha. — Xct!j8a is mentioned in Judith xv. 3, 4, and identified by 
Eeland with the Coabis of the famous Peutinger Tables (a Eoman chart 
dating 393 A.D.), which is shown as twelve miles south of Scythopolis, 
on the road to Nablus. This has been identified with the modern 
Kuhatieh, which, both in position and in spelling, is an unsatisfactory 
identification. Twelve English miles south of Beisan (Scythopolis) will 
be found on the Survey a place called El MehJiohhi, a ruin with a cliff 
beside it called ^Ardh Kliohhi. This is more probably the Coabis of the 
Tables, and the name is philologically nearer to Choba than the other 
identification. 

2. Ceperaria. — This also is marked in the Peutinger Tables as a station 
on the road from Bethgabri [Beit Jihrin) to Jerusalem. It is placed at 
eight miles from the former town, and the total distance to the capital, 
twenty-four Eoman miles, measures with great exactitude. There were 
three roads between Beit Jibrin and Jerusalem. The one shown on the 
tables is, however, marked as going eastwards to Ceperaria, where 
several zig-zags are shown, and it then turns almost due north. This is 
evidently the ancient road passing by Beth Zacharias (Beit Sakaria), and 
winding down the high hills into the valley of Elah, south of Adullam. 
The zig-zags represent exactly the general character of this part of the 
road, and beside it, just east of the great valley at the commencement of 
the ascent, stands the ruin of El Kefr, at a distance of 8| Eoman miles 
(7^ English) from Beit Jibrin. This is a new instance of the great value 
and exactitude of this ancient chart. 

3. Setocenea. — In speaking of Aniel, or Avetp, the Neiol of Asher 
(Josh. xix. 27), which is probably the present Y'anhi, east of Acca, the 
Onomasticon notices a town called Betojcnea as identical. It is said by 
Jerome to be situate " fifteen stones from Coesarea, in the mountain 



72 PROPOSED TESTS FOR THE SURVEY. 

towards tlie east side, where also the baths (Javacra) are said to be 
salubrious." 

At the distance of sixteen English miles east of Ccesarea, along the 
great road leading to the plain of Esdraelon, and some few miles south 
of our camp at Umm cl Fahm, we discovered a village called 'Anfn. In 
company with Dr. Chaplin and Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake, I visited this place, 
which we found to be an ancient site. Eock-cut tombs, now filled in 
with earth, exist to the north side of the village, and we investigated a 
curious system of water-supply, which I find mentioned in my note-book 
as follows : — 

" Close to 'Anin is a rock-cut passage cement lined just lai'ge enough 
for a man to enter. It runs some 50 feet into the hill, and then becomes 
only a foot high." 12th October, 1ST2. 

It is marked on the Survey sheet to the north of the ^dllage and east 
of the tombs. It leads out on to a sort of rock platform. 

In this we probably have remains of the baths mentioned by Jerome. 

4. Fathoura. — Under this head, commenting on the town Pethor, the 
home of Balaam (Numb. xxii. o), Jerome remaiks: "Also near Eleu- 
theropolis is a certain town called Fathura, on the way to Gaza." 

I discovered in the spring of 1875 on the ancient road to the plain from 
Beit Jibrin, at a distance of five English miles, the remains of a town 
evidently of importance in early Christian times, the present name of 
which is Fert. By a common introversion this may possibly be the 
Fathura of Jerome, though not the Biblical Pethor, which was east of 
Jordan. 

'). Salim. — No fewer than four towns of this name are noticed in the 
Onomasticon, which may be identified as follows : — 

1 . Saalim, 7 R. m. west of Eleutheropolis ; Summeil, 6^ E. M. 
'2. Salim, near Neapolis (John iii. 23). Salim. 

3. Salem, west of Jerusalem. Deir Salam. 

4. Salumias, in plain, 8 R. M. from Scythopolis. Salim. 

Under the head JEnon another Salem is noticed as being near that 
place and Jordan. iEnon is said to be eight miles south of Scythopolis 
(Beisan). This is the position of the large Christian ruin of Umm el 
'Amcldn, " Mother of Pillars," but we did not succeed in recovering any 
name like Salem or ^non. There are several springs near the spot. 

6. Betariph, a town "near Diospolis (Lydda) " is mentioned in the 
same work in connection with Avim of Benjamin. It is probably the 
modern Beir Tar'if, another instance of the fact that the title DeAr, 
" Convent," applies as a rule to Christian sites only. 

7. Hasta, between Ashdod and Ascalon, is probably the present ruin 
of Khasseh . 

8. Asor. — Four towns, apparently ancient Ilazors, are placed as follows 
by Jerome : — 

a. Aser, between Ascalon and Azotus, possibly Yasin. 

h. Ascr, 15 R. M. from Neapolis, on road to Scythopolis, possibly 
the important Christian ruin of Yerzeh, situate on an ancient 



PROPOSED TESTS FOR THE SURVEY. 73 

road 13 English miles from Neapolis, 14^ Roman. It is not 
marked on any published map that I have seen, but was 
evidently a largo place, 
c. Asor, in " the bounds of Ascalou, towards the east," possibly- the 
present ruin of Erzeli. 

9. Bethehed.—ln the account of the journey of Jehu from Jesrecl to 
Samaria (2 Kings x. 12), we find mention of the " shearing house in the 
way," where he met and slew the forty-two brethi'en of Ahaziah. 

Eusebius takes the words Beth Eked ("ipS7 n''3) to be the name of a town, 
and places it 15 miles from Legio, in the great plain. This brings us to 
the position of the present Beit Kad, on the eds;e of the plain of Esdrae- 
lon, near Gilboa. It is not, however, in the direct route to Samaria. The 
Arabic name Kad does not, however, at all represent the Hebrew Eked ; 
the biblical site is more probably represented by the present 'Akadeh 
on the west side of the great plain. 

In this connection I may notice one or two of the places in the preceding 
chapter. 2 Kings ix. 27. 

" He fled by the way of the garden house ( Jenin), and Jehu followed 
after him, and said, Smite him also in the chariot ... at the going up 
to Gur, which is by Ibleam, and he fled to Megiddo." 

The position of Gur between Ibleam (which Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake iden- 
tifies with Bel'ameh, near Jenin) and Megiddo {Lej'Jun) points to Kefr 
Kud as the site of Gur. The similarity of D and E in both Aramaic and 
square Hebrew results in continual transpositions as supposed in this 
case. 

The present paper upon these scattered topographical notices will be 
found to contain over thirty suggested identifications, all of which 1 believe 
to be new. Claude E. Conder, Lieut. E.E. 

List of the More Important Proposed Identifications. 

'Aiuim = 'Alliu. 

Anuath = 'Ainah. 

Borceos = Brukin. 

Baal Shalisha = Serisia. 

Kefr 'Autni = Kefr Adhan. 

Bezek = Bezik. 

Netopha = Metoba. 

Garob = Gharabeh. 

Kefr Aziz = Khirbet Aziz. 

Yajur = El Jurah. 

Choba = El Mekhobbi. 

Ceperaria = El Kefr. 

Betoseuea = 'Auln. 

Fathoura — Fort. 

Betariph = Deir Tarif. 

Gur = Kefr Kud. 

G 



r4 



THE FIEST TBAVELLEE IN PALESTINE. 

1. Hieratic Papyrus. Facsimile folio, 1842, pi. 35 — 61. British Museum. 

2. Translation by C. W. Goodwin, " Cambridge Essays," 1853, p. 267 — 269. 

3. "Voyage d'un Egyptien en Syrie en Phenicie en Palestine," &c. F. Chabas. 
Paris, 1866. 

4. " Records of the Past," vol. ii., p. 107—116. London, 1875. 

The history of the interesting document, which it is proposed to 
examine as far as regards the topography connected with Palestine, 
may be briefly given as follows. It formed part of a collection made 
by M. Anastasi, Swedish Consul in Egypt. It was examined by Lepsius 
in 1838, and bought by the British Museum, and published by them in 
facsimile in 1842. It consists of twenty-eight pages of fine hieratic 
writing, and by the character of the letters Egyptologists refer it to 
the 19th or 20th dynasty. By other arguments it is more exactly 
limited as to date, and assigned the 14th century B.C., and dates there- 
fore, according to the ordinary chnnology, about the time of the 
oppression of Israel under Jabin, king of Canaan. Its great interest 
consists in the enumeration of no fewer than 56 places, of which 18 are 
north of Tyre, and the remaining S8 are in Palestine proper. This 
gives us a topography which it is important to compai-e with the 
history of contemporary events to be found in the Book of Judges, as 
well as with the lists of the Book of Joshua referring to the same part 
of Palestine. 

The Papyrus gives an account of the travels of an Egyptian officer 
called a Mohar, a man evidently of importance, journeying in a chariot 
drawn by horses, and accompanied by a servant. It is not clear what 
his official duty may have been, but his journey commences near 
Aleppo, and he visits a certain town, which, as will appear later, must 
have been on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, and which formed a 
rendezvous with other Mohar s. Thence he returns to Egypt via Joppa. 

There is much in the Pa.pyrus that is very interesting and amusing, 
but quite unconnected with the topography. Those who wish to see 
how unchanged the character of a journey in Syria is since the time 
of this, the earliest visitor to the country of whom we have any record, 
and how much life and even humour is to be found in a papyrus 2500 
years old, should read the text for themselves in the " Records of the 
Past." The present paper will be confined to the question of the topo- 
graphy referring to Palestine proper and to a comparison with that 
of the Old Testament. 

I. 

The first and second sections contain eighteen names, of which eight 
are identified by M. Chabas as fnUows : — 

1. Kheta, a tribal name = the northern Hittites (Josh, i. 4). 

2. Khaleb = Aleppo, the modern Haleb. 

3. Kodesh = Kedesh on the Orontea. 



THE FIRST TRAVELLER IN PALESTINE. 75 

4. Kabaon = Gebal, the modern Jebeil. 

5. Berytus = Beirut. 

6. Sidon = Saida. 

7. Sarepta = Savafend. 

8. Tyre = Sur. 

It is sufficiently evident from tbese identifications that the whole list 
refers probably to towns near the coast of Syria, and between Aleppo 
and Tyre ; we need, therefore, devote no more space to this group, as 
the unknown towns all apparently lie north of Beirut. It is important, 
however, to obsei-ve that the order of occurrence shows a systematio 
progress southward by the coast road, where a chariot could be driven 
with safety. 

II. 

The third section of the Papyrus is of sufficient importance to be 
quoted : — 

PAGE LINE 

21 . 3 The entrance of Djaraou, and the order thou hast given to set 

this city in flames. A Mohar's office is a very painful one. 
21 . 4 Come, set off to return to Pakaikna. Where is the road of 

Aksaph ? 
21 . 5 In the environs of the city; come then to the mountain of 

Ousor : its top, 
21 . 6 how is it ? Where is the mountain of Ikama ? Who can 

master it ? What way has the Mohar 
21 . 7 gone to Hazor ? How about its ford ? let me goto Hamath, 

21 . 8 to Takar, to Takar-Aar, the all-assembling place of the 

Mohar s ; come 

22 . 1 then, on the road that leads there. Make me to see Jah. 

How has one got to Matamim ? 

This carious description seems to refer to a journey from Tyre to 
Tarkaal, including a notice of ten places, of which M. Chabas only 
identifies two with any degree of certainty. It will be best to notice 
each site in the order of occurrence. 

1. Djaraou. An alternative reading is Tsaraou. — This town seems 
to have been somewhat out of the line of the traveller's march, 
since we find him returning from it to the next. It seems to be 
near Tyre, and if we accept M. Chabas' identification of the next 
site, Tsaraou should be near the town of Kana. This would lead 
us to suppose an identity with the ruin of El IVlezra'ah, a spot 
which will be found marked on Muri'ay's new map, about three miles 
east of Kanah. The change is a very simple one, in accordance 
with the oi'dinary laws of the survival in Arabic of anci«nt names. 
Zera'a, or Tseraah, would mean " sowing," and the servile letter vnm 
may be supposed to have been added, making Me-Zera'a. or '• place of 
The road from Tyre to El Mezra'ah passes through Kana, 



76 THE FIEST TEAVELLER IX PALESTIIS^E. 

and thus tbe Mobar if intending, as seems most probable, to follow the 
coast, would naturally "return to Pa.kaikna." 

It is important here to note that tbe Mobar is travelling in a chariot. 
In tbe Bible we find contemporary record of " chariots of iron," but it 
seems clear that these chariots were used only in tbe plains. In our 
Papyrus it will be fovmd that the Mobar' s chariot is broken as soon as 
he attempts to pass down a difficult ravine (p. 23, line 3) ; previously 
we have no account of any great difficulties, excepting in tbe case of 
two mountains mentioned in the present section. It is, therefore, 
prima facie, most probable that tbe route should be traced across open 
country, avoiding as much as possible the rugged hills and deep 
ravines. 

2. Pakaucna, or, taking the alternative reading, Pakaitana. — This, as 
M. Chabas suggests, may be identified with Kanah tbe Great, " an 
ancient town whose ruins may be seen two hours and a half soiith- 
east of Tyre. It was here that M. Renan found the finest of the 
Tyrian sepulchres. Near Kana is tbe Egyptian bas-relief of Wady 
' Ashur. Thia is, however, only hypothetical " (Chabas' Memoir, p. 179). 
The position, it will be seen above, fits well with the genera] topography, 
as a road leads through Kana to El Mezra'ah, and again from Kana 
to the main line along the coast. 

3. JJcsaph. — The Hieratic Aksapou M. Chabas supposes to be the 
Achshaph of Joshua (xii. and xix.), a town occurring in the list of Asher. 
Dr. Eobinson has proposed to identify it with the present El Kesuf, but 
the objection to this position is very strong. The territory of Asher 
is defined by Josepbus as "that part which was called the valley, for 
such it was, and all that part which lay over against Sidon. The city 
Arce belonged to their share, which is also named Actippus " (Achzib), 
Ant. V. 1. 22. 

It is pretty evident in this case that El Kesaf, situate in the hills 
above the sources of the Jordan, and thus within the limits of the tribe 
of Naphtali, cannot represent a town of Asher, which must be sought 
in the valley or Shephelah, the low country bordering the maritime 
plain, and probably not far south of Achzib, the modern El Zib. The 
list of the towns of Asher in this part includes the names of the fol- 
lowing towns (Josh. xix. 25), which may be identified as below. 

1. Helkath = Yerkush — Schwartz. 

2. Hali = 'Alia— Vandevelde. 

3. Beten = Bethbeten — Onomasticon. 

4. Achshaph = Tasif— C.R.C. 

The towns thus enumerated occur in regular order, in accordance 
■with tbe proposed canon of identification published in the Quarterly 
Statement, July, 1875. It is unnecessary to go into tbe question of the 
south boundary ot Asher, because these places are-well within the limits 
of the tribe. El Yasif is a town on the very edge of the plain, south- 
east of El Zib, and the name corresponds exactly to the LXX. trans- 
lation A^tcj). 



THE FIRST TRAVELLER IN PALESTINE. 77 

The towns of Asher appear to be emimerated in order ; those on the 
east first, going southwards, and afterwards those on the west going 
north. If, therefore, the Egyptian be supposed to visit the Achshaph 
of the Old Testament— a place of importance and a royal city — he will 
be found to have followed; the coast road from Tyre almost to Akka, 
which is very practicable for a chariot, whilst the line from Tyre to El 
Kesaf is intersected by several very considerable water-courses, and 
runs over very hilly country. 

4, 5. Mount Ousor and Mount IJcama. — It is not clear whether the 
phrase " in the environs of the city " is an answer to the question, 
" Where is the road ? " or whether it defines the position of the two 
names following it. Achshaph is much nearer to the next place, Hazor, 
than to Tyre or Kanah, hence we should expect names to occur along 
the road, just as subsequently (p. 22, line 1) we find places mentioned 
out of order. M. Chabas compares Ousor with Asher, the tribe in 
whose territory the traveller is journeying. As noticed above, a Wady 
Ashiir exists close to Kana, and another Wady 'Azziyeh is to be found 
close to the great promontory of K,as el Abiad. 

It is worthy of remark that in the journey from Tyre to Achshaph 
the traveller passes over two promontories, the only places where 
any difficulty occurs in the road, one being the Ra8 el 'Ahiad, the 
second the Eas el Nakura, or Ladder of Tyre. The word translated 
"top," referring to Mount Ousor, is compared by M. Chabas with the 
form tt?X~i {Has), being identical with the Arabic Ras or jwomontory, as 
above. It is, therefore, quite possible that the document here describes 
the difficulties experienced by the traveller in passing round these two 
important headlands. 

6. Hazor. — The name Hazor, meaning in Hebrew " an enclosui-e," is 
of very common occurrence throughout Palestine. Two Hazors at 
least are mentioned as occurring in Galilee in the time of Joshua, and 
three Hazors are to be found in this district to the present day. 

The first of these is a Hazor close to Tell el Kadi the modern repre- 
sentative of Dan, at the main source of Jordan. This seems at first a 
likely identification, as a ford of Jordan exists near. It would agree 
with the position given by Robinson for El Kesaf if identified with 
Aksapou ; but to this there is the objection that the Mohar visits the 
west and not the esst coast of the Sea of Galilee, and that it would 
have been extremely difficult to proceed from Tyre to El Kesaf, or 
thence to Tiberias. 

The second Hazor is the En Hazor of Josh. xix. 37, a site identified 
with Hazzur or Hazzireh, close to Wady el Ayyun, and occurring in the 
lists in its proper order between towns in the same district also 
identified. There can scarcely, however, be any connection between 
this and the Plazor of the Egyptian. 

Of the position of the Eoyal Hazor, the seat of King Jabin in the 
time of Joshua, and of another Jabin, king of Canaan, at the very time 
of this Egyptian journey, we have no definite indication in the Bible. 



78 THE FIRST TRAVELLKR IN PALESTINE. 

It is said by Josepbiis to have stood above the waters of Merom, and 
is therefore generally identified with the present Tell Hurrawiyeh, 
east of Kadesh. 

It seems probable that the Hazor of Naphtali (Josh. xix. 36) men- 
tioned in connection with Raniah (Er Rameh) and Kedesh (Kedes) is 
the same place, i'or otherwise the royal city would not appear at all in 
the lists; but in spite of the wi rd used by Josephus there seems 
some ground for supposing that this royal city is the present ^Ain 
Hazzur, a spring, and a rain of importance existing near Er Rameh, 
the supposed site of Eamah of Naphtali ; for not only does the 
name occur next in the list to that of Eamah, but Jabin is called King 
of Canaan, or the " low lands," which seems a title scarcely applicable 
to the country near Kedesh. On the other band, Sisera, captain of 
Jabin's army, is found flying to the immediate neighbourhood of Kedesh 
after his defeat by Barak. 

Whichever be the site of the Royal Hazor, there can be but little 
doubt that 'Ain Hazzur represents the Hazor of the Egyptian Mohar, 
for if the position of Achshapb and its identity with Aksapou be 
admitted, this place lies on the road which he would naturally have 
followed in going from the maritime plain to the shores of the Sea of 
Galilee. 

An important valley starts near this spring, and the main road from 
Akka, down the plain of Eamah, passes north of it. Thus, without 
crossing any mountain ridge, the Mohar is able to drive from the 
western plain to Hazor, but here he is obliged to cross the watercourse 
of the main Wady, as we may understand him to mean when speaking 
of the " ford " of Hazor. 

7. Hamath. — M. Chabas himself is inclined to identify this with the 
fenced city Hammath of Naphtali (Josh. xix. 35) which we learn from 
the Talmudists was near Tiberias. The fact that the next places are 
to be found in the Jordan valley would seem almost decisive on the 
question. 

8, 9. Jah . . and Matamim. — The Papyi'us is here defective. North 
of the valley by which the Mohar would seem to have descended to 
Hammath is the present Takuk, the representative of the Biblical 
Hukkok, the Ikwk of the LXX. It is possible that this may represent 
the fragmentary woi-d la, a place evidently between Hazor and Hama,th. 
Metamim is a word which would seem to refer to watei' — compare the 
Hebrew D''73 (Mim) " waters." It may refer to the springs of the plain 
of Genesareth or to the waters of the lake itself. 

10. The phrase " to Takar (or Tarka) to Takar Aar (or Tarkaal) " may 
be supposed to refer to one place, as the al is probably the Hebrew el, 
" God," so often attached to the names of places, as Jabneel, Eslitaol, 
&c. M. Chabas identifies it with the Tarichsea of Josephus, a place 
thirty stadia south of Tiberias ( Yita, § 32) which is identified by Major 
Wilson, R.E., with the ruin of Kerak, at the point where the Jordan 
leaves the Sea of Gablee. This agrees well with the subsequent 
narrative. 



THE FIRST TRAVELLER IN PALESTINE. 79 

iir. 

The fourlh section of the Papyrus describes a group of towns, no t 
apparently in the main direction of the journey, though evidentlj* 
visited by the Mohar. It runs as follows : — 

PAGE LING 

22 . 3 I will speak to thee of the towns other than the preceding ones. 
Wentest thou not to the land of Tak his, to Cofer-Marlon, to Tamena, 

22 . 4 to Qodesh, to Dapour, to Adjai, and to Harnemata ? Hast thou 

not seen Keiiath-Anab, near to 
22 . 5 Beith-Tuphar ? Kuowest thou not Odulam and Tsidphoth I' 

Knowest thou not the name of 
22 . 6 Khaouretsa, which is in tlie laud of Aup ? 

These places, with exception of the last, would seem to be in the 
land of Takhis. This district should probably be sought in Galilee, for 
in another paj^yrus we find it mentioned with the tribes of the Amaour 
(the northern Amorites), the Kheta (the northern Hittites), and Ars 
(supposed to be Asher). M. Chabas proposes identifications with places 
scattered all over Palestine, many being in parts where a chariot could 
scarcely have penetrated. It will appear, however, that the majority 
at least can be found in Upper Galilee, in the neighbourhood of Kedesh, 
and in the very part of Palestine where, if we credit Josephus, the 
chariots of Jab in assembled. 

The number of names is ten, none of which are identified with any 
degree of certainty by M. Chabas. They may be discussed in turn as 
follows : — 

11. Cofer-Marlon, or Cofer-Maron.— The E and L appear to be in- 
distinguishable in the hieratic character. Two places of similar name 
are mentioned in the Old Testament, both royal cities— Ist, Shimron 
Meron, or " the watch-tower of Meron ; " and 2nd, Maron, the Mapo-^/of 
the LXX., which is written Madon in the English version (Josh. xi. 1). 
Both of these are noticed in later Jewish writings, and bo.h still exist, 
the former being apparently Meirua, a place famous in Talmudic times ; 
the latter Marun, near Kedesh. It would seem probable that the 
Maron of the Mohar is this Marun, the Gofer being the representative 
of the Aramaic Caphar or Arabic Kefr, " a village." 

It is curious to remark that Maron and Aclishaph with the town of 
Shimron (not apparently Shimron Meron, but another, now Summunieh 
farther south, and lying out of the Mohar's route) were the royal towns 
to whose kings Jabin of Hazor sent messages in the time of Joshua 
(Josh. xi. I). It would seem, therefore, that a league of some kind 
existed among these tribes, and it is not impossible that the Amorites 
and Canaanites in the time of Sisera were allied to Egypt against the 
children of Israel— an explanation fully agreeing with the subsequent 
narrative, when the Mohar appears to enter a hostile country on leaving 
Galilee and approaching the land of Manasseh. 

12. Tamena. — Two towns of similar name are to be found in the 
south of Palestine : Ist, Timnah of Samson, a town of Judah (Josh. 



80 THE FIRST TRAVELLER IN TALESTINE. 

XV. 10), now Tihneh ; 2nd, Timnatb, the town selected by Joslma 
(Josh. xix. 50), now Tihneh, in Mouut Ephraim. The present Timuath 
is, however, more probably one mentioned in the Talmud as existing 
in Galilee, and from its connection with Maron and Kedesh it may be 
identified with Tibnin, the Crusading Toron, about ten miles north- 
west of Kedesh. 

13. Qodesh is apparently Kadesh of Naphtali, a place often mentioned 
in the Bible. M. Chabas hesitates between this and several other 
Biblical towns of the same name; all, however, very far from the 
previous scene of the Mohar's wanderings. 

14. Dnpour, Bapiil, or Dubl. — The L and E being indistinguish- 
able. This name does not appear to represent any Scriptural place. 
There is, however, in the disti-ict visited by the Mohar, a site of some 
importance called in modern Arabic Dibl, which may possibly represent 
the place in question. 

15. Adjai ov Atai. — Not far from the site just noticed are ruins and a 
spring, to which the name of 'Ata is now given ; these two identifica- 
tions seem to agree well together. Ata is about four miles west of 
Kedesh, and DM six miles farther west. 

16. Harnemata.—This, if a Hebrew word, would mean " Mountain 
of Nemmata," a place apparently not mentioned in the Bible. If, how- 
ever, the next identification of Beth Anath with Keriath Anab be ac- 
cepted, it must be noticed that a town called Horem precedes Beth 
Anath in the list of Naphtali (Josh. xix. 38), just as Ilarnemata precedes 
Kariath Anab in the Mohar's list. Possibly, then, Harnemjita may 
be a lengthened form of Horem (the modern Hurah, as identified by 
Vandevelde). 

17. Keriath Anab. — The three names on the list now following Keriath 
Anab, Odulam or Aduram, and Beith Tuphal or B. Tuphar, naturallj' 
suggest the three towns in Judah — Kirjath Jearim, Adullam, and Beth 
Tappnah ; but it is remarkable that these names all recur in the nortli 
of Palestine, as does that of Bethlehem, and possibly that of Hebron. 
M. Chabas proposes to identify Kariath Anab v^ith the modern Kariet 
el 'Anab, often called Abu Ghosh. This is, however, probably a modern 
name. The real title, as we have often remarked, of Abu Ghosh, is 
simply Kariet, and it seems to represent the Kiijath of Benjamin (Josh. 
xviii. 28). In the north of Palestine we find a Beth Anath, mentioned 
in the list of the towns of Naphtali (Josh. xix. 38) as follows : — 

Migdal el = Mujeidel, Robinson. 

Horem = Hurah, Vandevelde. 

Bethanath = Hanin, C. R. C. 
Beth Anath is the Beth Aua of the Talmud, and the last mentioned but 
one of the towns of Naphtali in a list beginning apparently in the south, 
and going northwards to the district of Kadesh. 

Keriath Anab is defined as being near Beith Tuphal. It is curious to 
remark that Ilanin. is close to the Dibl, which it is proposed to identify 
with the Dupul of the Mohar; whether Beith Tuphal be the same place 



THE FIRST TRAVELLER IN TALESTINE. 81 

vecm-ring is of course doubtful, but if so, it would give a reason for tlie 
definition, and serve to identify the Kariath Anab of the Egyptian with 
the Beth Anath of Joshua. 

18. Odulam or Jduram, M. Chabas proposes to be cither Adullam 
or Adoraim, in the tribe of Judah. There is another Aiiullam in the 
north, the present 'Adlun, the site of the Greek town of Ornithon. If, 
however, the land of Takhis be circumscribed to the hill district of 
Kedesh, Aduram may very well be supposed identical with the Edrei 
("im K) of Napht;ili, the ESpaiv of the LXX. This site occurring between 
Kedesh and En Hazor (Hay.zur), may possibly be placed at the modern 
'Aitherun, some three miles west of Kadesh Naphtali. Thus the whole 
number of sites in this list is brought into a district of about 150 square 
miles. 

19. Tsjip/ioi/i.— Supposing the former identifications to correctly repre- 
sent the district visited by the Mohar, this town falls into place as the 
Tsephath of the Talmud and Seph of Josephus, the modern important 
town of Safed. This identification is hinted by M. Chabas, thoujjh he 
discards it in consequence of identifying the three preceding places with 
towns in the south of Palestine. 

20. Khaouretsa. — This town, evidently a fortress of importance, was 
in the land of Aup. The meaning of Aup is not exactly known. It 
occurs again in the first section of the Papyrus, and is supposed by M. 
Chabas to refer to a district near the Lebanon and the country of the 
Kheta. M. Chabas proposes to identify Khaouretsa with Harosheth of 
the Gentiles (Judges iv. 2), the home of Sisera, captain of Jabins host. 
There is as yet no satisfactory identification of this place, which is not 
mentioned in any other passage in the Bible. It has been placed at the 
present village of El Harathiyeh, but there seems no reason for this 
beyond a certain similarity of name, and it is far more probable that 
Ilarosheth is to be soug^ht in the neighbourhood of Kadesh and Safed, 
which would agree with the mention of Khaouretsa — if the same — in 
this part of the narrative. 

The towns of this section are thus supposed to represent the principal 
places in the tribe of Naphtali, with the addition of three not mentioned 
in any Jewish writings. 

IV. 

The narrative at this point would seem to take up the continuation 
of the Mohar's journey from the rendezvous of Tarkaal (Tarichaaa), and 
runs as follows : — 

PAGE LINE. 

22 . 7 Come then to the image of Sina : let me know Ro- 

22 . 8 HOB : represent tome BEiTH-SHEALas well as Keriathaal. The 

fords of the 

23 . 1 Jordan, how does one cross them ? let me know the passage to 

enter Mageddo, whereof it remains to speak. Thou art a Mohar, 
23 . 2 expert in courageous deeds. Is Ihere found a Mohar like 
thee to march at the head of the soldiers, a Marina 



82 THE FIRST TEA^'ELLEK IX PALESTINE. 

)'AaK LINE 

23 . 3 superior to thee to sboot an arrow ! Take care of tliegulf inthe 

ravine two thousand cubits deep ; fall of rocks and rolling stones. 
23 . 4 Thou makest a detour : 

The rest of the section describes the flight of the Mohar, his diffi- 
culties in a descent " full of rocks and rolling stones, no practicable 
passage; the road is obstructed by hollies, ladian fig, aloes, and bushes 
called jackal's shoes. On one side is the precipice, on the other rises 
the vertical wall of the mountaia (p. 24, lines 2 and 3). 

In this descent the horses become frightened and run away, the 
chariot-pole is broken ; and the Mohar impeded by thorny bushes, 
with the enemy behind, tortured by thirst and heat, is reduced almost 
to despair. He reaches, however, Joppa (p. 25, line 2), where his chariot 
is rei^aired. 

There is but little difficulty attending the topography of this section. 

21. The Image of Sina. — It would seem to apply to some place in the 
Jordan valley. 

22. Bohob. — From the context this is evidently the town of Rehob, 
near Bethshean. This is mentioned under the form Poa>0 in the Ono- 
masticon, and placed by Jerome four miles south of Scythopolis 
(Beisan). This is the exact distance of the ruins called now Sheikh el 
Eclidh, to Avhich site the Mohar evidently refers. 

23. Beitlisheal.- — M. Chabas himself identifies this with the town of 
Bethshean, one of the sejiai-ate cities of Ephraim (Josh. xvii. 11), an 
important site, with many Eoman ruins, now known as Beisan. 

24. Keriuthaal. — This name strongly suggests the Hebrew Kariathel, 
" City of God." It may perhaps be the representative of Izra-el, or 
Jesreel, " the sown of God," or "-field of God." The town of Jesreel 
would be passed by the Mohar in going to Megiddo. 

25. The fords of the Jordan, Jeldcn (or Jerden). — M. Chabas proposes 
the identification of this river with the Jordan, but to this there is 
the objection that the Mohar'a journey is directed away from the river, 
and that there is nothing to lead us to suppose he ever crossed it. 
In going from Tiberias to Beisan, or immediately after, he would, how- 
ever, be obliged to cross one of the princiisal affluents of Jordan, 
now called Wady Julud, which, rising at the Well Harod {^Ain Jalud), 
bi-ings a considerable stream down the broad valley from near Jesreel 
to the neighbotirhood of Beisan. It is perhaps to this (the L and R 
being so difficult to distinguish) that the Mohar here refers. 

26. Mageddo. — The " passage " to this town is no doubt the broad 
valley leading \i\) to the plain of Esdraelon, in which Megiddo stood. 
The town is identified by M. Chabas himself. 

The traveller is here warned of the precipitous character of the 
valleys, apparently those leading down to the maritime plain. He is 
directed to make a detour, and from this we may gather his general 
route. For, passing southwards to Engannim (Jeuin), he would arrive 
on the road by which the Midianites, in the time of Joseph, descended 



THE FIKST TRAVELLEK IN PALESTINE. 83 

to Egypt, passing by Dothan (Gen. xxxvii. 17). Advancing along the 
plain of Rameh, be would arrive at a sbort but difficult defile called 
Wady Miiss'm, probably that in which his chariot is broken, and here 
emerging into the plain of Sharon, he would be on the main road to 
Joppa, and only twenty-five miles from it. 

At Joppa he finds workmen capable of mending his chariot. It 
would n.ppear that here he enters a country subject to the Egyptians, 
or at least containing places named after Egyptian kings. 

V. 

The following list of eleven places is referred by M. Chabas to the 
neighbourhood of the Sinaitic peninsula. As, however, the last three 
on the list are identified by M. Chabas with Rehoboth, Raphia, and 
Gaza, it would seem more likely that the journey is here continued 
through Philistia from Joppa to the Egyptian frontier. The 5th 
Section runs as follows : — 

PAGE LINE 

27 . 2 Come let me tell all that happened to thee at the end of thy road. 

I begin 
27 . 3 for thee at the dwelling of Sestsotj (Ramses) : hast thou not 

forced thy way therein. Hast thou not eaten fishes of .... ? 
27 . 4 Hast thou not bathed therein ? O come, let us describe 

Atsion to thee : where is its fortress ? 
27 . 5 Come to the house of Otxati ; to Sestsou-em-paif-nakhtou- 

ousormara ; to Sats . . . aal,* 
27 . 6 also to Aksakaba .» I have pictured to you Ainini. Kno west thou 

not its customs ? Nekhai, 
27 . 7 and Rehobroth, hast thou not seen them since thy birth, O 

eminent Mohar P Eaphia, 
27 . 8 how about its entrenchment ? It covers the space of an aour 

going towards Gaza. 
The topography of this section is perhaps more doubtful than of the 
remainder, but it is controlled by the starting-point and destination. 
The Mohar would seem to follow the road branching off to the left from 
the main line to Egypt and passing along the foot of the Juda3an hills 
towards Rehoboth, in the Negeb or '• Dry Land." Thence by the long 
water-course called in Scripture the Eiver of Egypt, he i-eturns to 
Raphia on the sea-coast without passing through Gaza. Here on the 
borders of Egypt his adventures terminate with his return to his native 
country. 

28. Dwelling of Sestsou. — Failing the Semitic name of this place it 
seems impossible to identify this fortress, which was probably near 
Joppa, with any known site. 

29. The name of the river is unfortunately lost, biit we have the two 
valuable indications of its containing sufiicieut water to ^bathe in and 

* Sestsou-em-paif-nakhtou Oicsormara is the name of a fortress huilt by 
Ramses II., in Syria or Palestina and different from Ouati. The name means : 
"Ramses II. iu his victories." 



84 THE FIRST TRAYELLER IN PALESTINE. 

also fish. Tbese two points indicate pretty clearly the Nahr Rubin, 
the only real stream south of Jaffa — a winding, reedy river, which 
formed the bonndary line of the tribe of Judah. Fish are caught in it 
near the mouth, and the road from Jaffa to Egypt crosses it. If the 
sequence of the narrative be taken as correct, there can be but little 
doubt as to this identification. 

30. Atsion. — Tins name, applying apparently to a fortress, is compared 
by M. Chabas with the Hebrew {]V'J\}) Etsion. It is mentioned in im- 
mediate connection with a temple and with another fortress. If the 
temple be sought at Ashdod, as proposed below, Atsion may be identi- 
fied with Tell Fasin, an important point immediately south of Ashdod. 

31. The House of Ouati. — M. Chabas himself shows that this refers, 
in all probability, to a temple dedicated to a goddess. The name Ouati 
resembles that of the well-known Oannes, a fish divinity. We are at 
once reminded of Ashdod, originally the centre of worship of the fish 
god Dagon and the fish goddess Derceto. The latter deity was in later 
times worshipped at Ascalon, but the Mohar's route would hardly seem 
to have brought him into the neighbourhood of that city. 

32. Ousormara. — A town of Hazor, now Yasnr, exists immediately 
east of Ashdod ; another similar name, Asor, is noticed in the Onomasti- 
con as that of a place situate east of Ascalon. It would appear to be 
represented by the present ruin of Erzeh, 

33. Sats . . . aal, or Saj . . ar. — In the mutilated condition of the MS. 
it is impossible to identify this place with certainty. A site called 
anciently Saphir, and now Suafir, is to l)e found in the neighbourhood 
of Ashdod, on the road which the Moliar is here supposed to have taken. 

34. Aksakaba. — "We have apparently several instances of reduplica- 
tion in the names given by the Mohar, as Karutna for Kana, and Mehv- 
hroth for Rehoboth. Harnemata for Horem I have before supposed 
to be a similar case, and indeed the apparent accuracy of the Semitic 
nomenclature as given by the Mohar is surprising. Mistakes of a far 
graver kind than the mere confusion of syllables would be to be ex- 
pected in such a document. There is therefore, perhaps, but little 
objection to the identification of Aksakaba with the important spring 
of Aiu Kasaba, which lies on the main road to Rehoboth from the 
neighljourhood of Ashdod. 

35. ' A'inini or Ain Nini. — A place called 'Ain Nini exists farther 
north, at the edge of the Philistine plain. The district in which the 
preceding and Allowing places are probably to be found does not, 
according to existing maps, contain any names of similar sound. The 
Ordnance Survey of this part has, however, still to be completed. 

36. Nckhai. — Considering the continually occurring interchange of 
N and L, there is probably little objection to the identification of this 
place with the important ruined site called Z/eA%e7j, which stands just 
on the edge of the Philistine plain, and near the main road by which 
the Mohar is supposed to be travelling. 

37. Hehobroth. — This M. Chabas himself identifies with the Rehoboth 



THE FIRST Tl^.AVKLLER IN PALESTINE. OJ 

of Isaac (Gen. xxxvi. 22), a site lately identified as existing some six- 
teen miles south of Beersheba at the head of the great Wady Re/ah— 
the boundary of Egypt and Palestine from the time of Joshna to the 
present day. The present name of the site of Rehoboth is Er lluheiheh, 
and it lies on the same road pursued by the Mohar if visiting 'Ain 
Kasaba and Lekiyeh. 

/i;a/>/i«rt.— This site, an important town forming the south boundiuy 
of Palestine, and very often mentioned by Josephus, is identified by 
M. Chabas with the last place mentioned by the Mohar. From Reho- 
both he would have followed the course of W. Refah, probably the 
"River of Egypt" (Josh. xv. 4). Thus he would not have passed 
through Gaza, which he mentions, however, as not far off. Raphia 
has been long identified with the modern frontier village of Be/ah. 

YI. 

We have thus succeeded in tracing the Mohar on his travels through- 
out the entire length of Palestine on a theory which seems to have 
two great recommendations: — 

ist. That tlie route lies in plains or broad valleys where a chariot 
could be driven (and where, according to the Bible and Josephus, 
chariots were used) except in the striking instance of a narrow valley 
specially noticed in the MS. 

2nd. That the places occur in a regular order of succession, the only 
detour being that into the land of Takhis, when the section is headed 
with the suggestive passage, " I will speak to thee of towns other than 
the preceding." Although some of the identifications may be doubt- 
ful, there are, I would suggest, a sufficient number which can hardly 
be disputed, and which show the general scheme of the journey to be 
correctly understood. Thus, with the following properly fixed, namely, 
Tyre, Aksaph, Hamath, Takar-Aar, Rehob, Beithsheal, Mageddo, 
Joppa, Aksakaba, Rehobroth, and Eaphia, the general course of the 
journey is clear. The majority of these are suggested by M. Chabas, 
but he only identifies, five with any amount of certainty out of eleven. 
Again, Qodesh, Marlon, Tamena, and Tsidphoth, are sufficient to point 
out the position of the Land of Takhis. M. Chabas does not, however, 
identify any of these with decision. 

VII. 
It remains to compare this topography with that of the books of 
Joshua and Judges. The following are the places apparently identical 
with Scriptural sites : — 



1. 


Sidon 


Great Sidon 


Josh. XI. 8. 


2. 
3. 

4. 


Sarepta 

Tyre 

Kanana 


Zarephath 
Tyre 
Kan ah 


1 Kings xvii. U. 
Jush. xix. 29. 
Josh. xix. 28. 


5. 
6. 


Aksaj^h 
HaruLilli 


Achshaph (Royal city) 
Hammath 


Josh. xix. 25. 
Josh. xix. 35. 




Maron 


Maron (Eoyal city) 


Jush. xi. 1. 



86 THE FIRST TRAVELLER IN PALESTINE. 

8. Qodesh Kadesli Naphtali (Eoyal city) Josh. xii. 22. 

9. K<n-Iath Anab Beth Ana.h Josh. xix. 38. 

10. Aduratn Edreia Josh. xix. 37. 

11. Khaoui-etsa Harosheth Judg. iv. 2. 

12. Havnemata Horem Josh. xix. 38. 

13. Beithsheal Bethshean Josh. xvii. 11. 

14. Keriathaal Jesreel Josh. xix. 18. 

15. Mageddo Megiddo (Royal city) Josh. xii. 21. 

16. Joppa Joppa Josh. xix. 46. 

17. Rehobroth Rehoboth Gen. xxvi. 22. 

18. Gaza Gaza (Eoyal city) Josh. xv. 47. 

It appears, therefore, that nearly half the places mentioned by the 
Mohar are places which were of sufficient importance to be mentioned 
in the topographical lists of the Book of Joshua, or to have played a 
part in the history of the deliverance by Barak. Megiddo, Kedesh, 
and Harosheth, which appear in the Biblical account of this deliver- 
ance, are also mentioned in the Papyrus, whilst Tabor, the Kishon, 
Meroz, and Taanach, which are not mentioned by the Mohar, are known 
to have lain out of his route. The omissions are thus as striking as 
the places noted. 

A list, of so many Biblical sites, noticed by a contemporary witness 
so entirely independent, cannot fail to be very interesting to Biblical 
students. 

Dec. 21, 1875. Claude E. Conder, Lieut. R.E. 

TABLE OF PLACES. 

Egyptian name. Sugge.sted identifications. 

1. Djaraou ElMezraah, C.R.C. 

2. Kanana (i.) Kanah (Josh xix. 28) Khirbet Kana, Ch. 

3. Aksaph (ii.) Achshaph (Josh xii. 20)*... El Yasif, C.R.C. 

4. Mt. Ousor ... 

5. Mt. Ikama ... 

6. Hazor 'Ain Hazzur, C.R.C. 

7. Hamath (iii.) Hammath(Josh. xix. 35)... Hammam Tubariyeh, Ch. 

8. Takar-Aar ... Tarichrea (Vita, Jos. ( 32)... Kerak, Ch. 

9. Jah Hukok(Jo.sh. xix. 34)? ... Yakiik, C.R.C. 

10. Matamim 

11. Cofer- Marlon (iv.) Marou (Josh. xi. 1)* Marun, C.R.C. 

12. Tamena Tibuiu, C.R.C. 

13. Qodesh (v.) Kedesh (Josh. xii. 22)* ... Kede.s, Ch. 

14. Dapour Dibl, C.R.C. 

15. Adjai 'Ain Ata, C.R.C. 

16. Harnemata ... (vi.) Horem (Josh. xix. 38) ... Hiirah, C.R.C. 

17. Keriath Anab (vii.) Beth Anath (Josh. xix. 38) Haiiin, C.R.C. 

18. Aduram (viii.) Fdrel (Josh. xix. 37) Aithenin, C.R.C. 

19. Tsidphoth ... IVijliath (Talmud) Safed, C.R.C. 

20. Khaouretsa... (ix.) Harosheth (Judg. iv. 2) ... 

* The star represents Royal cities. 



PALESTINE BEFORE JOSHUA. 87 

21. Image of Sina 

22. Rohob Roob (Onoin) Shfiikh Rehab, O.K. C. 

23. Beitlisheal ... (x.) Bethshean (.Io.sli. xvii. 11) . Bci.-^au, Ch. 

24. Keriathaal ... (xi.) Jezreel (Josh xix. 18) Zerin, C.R.C. 

25. Fonls of Jorilan or Jelden W. Jalud, C.R.C. 

26. Mageddo (xii.) ]\Iegiddo (Josh. xii. 21)* Lejjun, Ch. 

27. Joppa (xiii.) Joppa (Josh. xix. 46) ... Yafa, Ch. 

28. Dwelling of Sestsou 

29. River ; Nalir Rubin, C.R.C. 

30. Atsion Tell Yasin, C.R.C. 

31. Ousormara Yasur, C.R.C. 

32. Sats . . aal... 

33. Aksakaba 'Aiu Kasaba, C.R.C. 

34. 'Ainini 

35. Xekhai Lekiyeh, C.R.C. 

36. Rehobroth ... (xiv.) Rehoboth (Gen. xxvi. 22) Ruheibeh, Ch. 

37. Raphia Raphia(Josephus, Ant xiii. 15. 4) Rafah, Ch. 

38. Gaza (.xv.) Gaza (Josh. xv. 47)* Ghuzzeh, Ch. 

* The star represents Roj'al cities. 



PALESTINE BEFORE JOSHUA, FROM THE RECORDS 
OF E(3^YPTIAN CONQUEST. 

I. 

A. VERY important contribution to our knowledge of the topography 
of Palestine was made last autumn in the publication of the Geographical 
Lists of the Temple at Karnak by Auguste Mariette Bey. 

The lists in question occur on the walls of the pvlones of the temple 
lately excavated, and record the victories of King Thothmes III., in the 
countries of Upper Ruten, of Kush, and of Pun. The geographical names 
are inscribed in hieroglyphics on small tablets attached to the necks of 
figures representing captiv^es from the various towns. The value of the 
list in the case of the Upper Puten district is also greatly increased by 
the fact that it is thrice repeated on different parts of the building ; thus 
Mariette Bey has been able to give variations unknown to M. Rouge in 
treating only of one list in his " Etude sur divers monuments du Eegne 
de Thouthmes III.," published in the " Revue Archeologique," Novem- 
ber, 1861, p. 346. 

Other points which render these monuments of the highest value are at 
ouce apparent. In the hieroglyphic we have the original text as inscribed 
at that remote period by the hand probably of a contemporary historian, 
and unchanged by errors of the copyist or translator. By the separa- 
tion of each name on a tablet hung to the captive's neck, we have a 
diviision made between each which obviates all chance of error in 
the cutting of one name into two, or the running of two names into one, 
which often causes so much confusion in the written Hebrew lists of the 



88 PALESTIXE BEFOllE JOSHUA. 

Old Testament. The great antiquity of the list (foi- Thothmfts III., accord- 
ing to the ordinary chronology, lived and fouglit before the conquest of 
Palestine) secures us the Ancient Cauaanite nomenclature for comparison 
•with that of the book of Joshua, and the great number of names in the 
list, 118 in all, makes the monument of real service for comparison with 
the Biblical topography. On the other hand, it must be remembered 
that the Egyptians were not a Semitic people, that their language, it 
would seem, was softer and less guttural than that of Canaan, and that 
the names, as represented in hieroglyohics, may in some cases therefore 
be more or less distorted, as they are at the present day, by English 
transliterators. Finally it is most natural to suppose that the list refers 
only to the part of Palestine actually conquered by Thothmes III., 
which may be to a great extent defined from other monuments. 

It is only to a part of the lists that our attention will be given, the 
conquests in Kush and Pun having no relation to Palestine, and forming 
only about a third of the total number of names. 

The title inscribed above the first copy of the list of Upper Eaten is 
thus translated by Mariette Bey. 

'• List of the princes of Upper Euten whom his Majesty has shut into 
the miserable town of Megiddo, and from whom his Majesty has led 
living captives to the stronghold of Suhen at Thebes in his first victori- 
ous expedition, in obedience to the order of his father Ammon, who has 
guided him in the right way." This inscription, followed beneath by 
115 geogi-aphical names in five lines, is to be found on the pylone 
numbered VI. by ]\Iariette Bey. 

The second copy is to be found <m pylone No. VIL, being a reproduc- 
tion of the firht with a few omissions. Over a group of captives about to 
be sacrificed is a short title, " Taken from the chiefs of Enten, and of 
all the unknown peoples, and of all the lands of Fenekhu." The captives 
bearing descriptives tablets are preceded by a goddess having the 
following inscription : — 

" Brought to thee (0 Ammon) from all the unknown peoples, and from 
all the lands of Fenekhu gathered under thy sandals." The captives 
who follow are also sui mounted by a title forming the third descri^Hve 
legend. 

"All the unknown lands of the coasts of Sati, which his Majesty has 
brought as living captives." 

On the walls of the same pylone is a third copy of the list, having four 
additional names, making 119 in all ; the title is the same as that of the 
first copy on pylone VII., and the variations in the names are generally 
of little importance. 

We have thus at the outset three distinct titles defining the position 
of these towns — viz., Upper Ruten, Sati, and Fenekhu. Further light 
may be obtained by the comparison of other Egyptian inscriptions. 

The account of the great expedition of Thothmes III., in the 22nd 
year of his reign, including the victory of Megiddo and conquest of 
Upper Ruten, is to be found in another inscription at Karnak, on a wall, 



PALESTINE BEFORE JOSHUA 89 

near the cella erected by Philip II., or Aridajus. It is unfortunately frag- 
mentary, but bupplies much important topographical detail. It will be 
found translated by Dr. Birch in " Records of the Past." vol. ii. From 
this text it appears that Thothmes III. assembled his army " iu the 
fortress of the land of Sharuana, commencing from luluta (or luruta)." 
He advanced against the rebel chiefs who were assembling at Megiddo, 
and arrived first at the fortress of Juhem. Various allies from Egypt 
andNaharaina (Mesopotamia — Birch), of theKhita(Ohattai, or Northern 
Hittites), of the Kharu (Syrians), and Katu (also a Syrian tribe), accom- 
panied the Egyptian army. 

The advice of the generals appears to have been to advance by a road 
leading north by Jutta, or Geuta. This was, however, rejected by 
Thothmes, who preferred a route by " the land Aanaka " (probably the 
Anakim), leading by a difficult pass, and a fortress called Aaruna. 

" I will go," he replies, " on this road of Aaruna if there is any going 
on it. Be ye on the roads of which ye speak." 

The king proceeds accordingly to Aaruna, and a battle occurs in a 
valley in which the Egyptians are victorious, and immediately advance. 

" It was the time of noon when his Majesty reached the south of 
Maketa, on the shores of the waters of Keneh." 

On the following day the army is drawn out against Maketa, or 
Megiddo. 

" The south horn . . was at the coast of Keneh, the northern wing ex- 
tending to the north-west of Maketa," joining perhaps the allies, who 
advanced apparently by the northern road. The conquest of Megiddo 
follows, and then a long enumeration of the spoils and captives taken. 

Among the tributary tribes enumerated in this inscription, are the 
inhabitants of Katesh (Kadesh), the Kharu (Syrians), the Shasu (also 
mentioned in the " Travels of an Egyptian," and apparently a Bedouin 
tribe), those of Arauatu (possibly the Biblical Iron), of Kanana, a fortress, 
probably that mentioned in the list to be discussed, and identical with 
Kanah of Asher (Josh. xix. 2S), and finally the Kefau and the Eutennu 
chiefs. It is evident, therefore, that our triplicate list containing th« 
districts of Rutennu and Fenekhu, with the towns of Kanah, Megiddo, 
and Kadesh, refers to tlie conquests made in this expedition of the 22nd 
year of Thothmes III., and it is therefore important to notice all that is 
known of the districts of Rideri, Sati, and Fenekhu, and of the towns of 
luluta, Geuta, Aaruna, and Keneh, in order to obtain a general idea of 
the part of Palestine in which the names of the triplicate list are to be 
sought. 

Ruten. — It is clearly shown by Mariette-Bey, that Euten, or Luton, 
in the triplicate list where it forms the name of a town, is the Biblical 
Lod, now Li/d. Hence he argues the probability that the district of 
Rutennu was near this town. 

In the so-called " Statistical Tablet of Thothmes III.," also found at 
Thebes, Katesh is mentioned as a city of Eutennu. In the account of 
the battle of Megiddo, three fortresses are noticed as in the same district 

H 



90 PALESTINE BEEOllE JOSHUA. 

— namely, Ananl-aaa, Yanuma, and KuranJcalu. The Kadesli conquered 
by Thothmes is undoubtedly Kadesb Naphtali. The other three names 
unfortunately do not approach near enough to any bii)lical names to 
admit of identification. Yanuma may, however, be the modern Yanio, 
■which has strong claims to be considered identical with Han-Neiel, a 
boundary town of Asher (Josh. xix. 27). 

Tbus the Eutennu district includes apparently Upper Galilee, in which 
many of the towns taken by Thothmes lay, and it is possible that this is 
" Upper Ruten, or Luten," as distinguished from the country rounii 
Lydda, which may be suj^posed to be " Lower Euten." It is perhaps 
worthy of remark that another Lyd or Lod exists in the plain of 
Esdraelon not far from Mogiddo. 

8ati. — Under this term Dr. Birch understands to be included " the 
eastern foreigners, or Arabians." The title occurs in the " Statistical 
Tablet of Thothmes III " in connection with Rutennu. In the account 
of the battle of Megiddo, Thothmes is mentioned as taking the title 
" Holder of the jo/n'ms of Sati," but there is nothing to show the exact 
district to which this title referred. 

Fenekhu. — There can be but little doubt that this name refers to the 
Phoenicians, and in the account of the battle of Megiddo tbe Kefau are 
also supposed to be Phoenician tributaries. 

luluia. — This fortress is mentioned as in the land of Sharuana (no 
doubt the biblical Sharon), which seems to have been under Egyptian 
rule at the time of the Rutennu rebellion. Its position is not a matter of 
great importance. It may possibly be the Uatu of the trii^licate list 
which will be identified later on. 

Geuta. — This fortress Dr. Birch proposes to identify with Gath, but 
the fact of its being on a road north of that leading through Aaruna 
(not far from Megiddo) would seem to place it farther north. It may 
very well be identified with the strong ruined site of Jett, on the borders 
of the plain of Sharon, some fourteen miles from Megiddo, and on the 
straight road to that town. 

Juhem. — The position of this fortress is very doubtful ; it would seem 
to have beea near the division of the two roads to Megiddo, in which 
case it may possibly be the same as the biblical Jokmeam (1 Chron. vi. 
68), a city of Ephraim given to the Levites. Jokmeam is not, however, 
at present identified. 

Aaruna is identified by some authors with Aijalon, a city of Dan, but 
to this there is the objection that it would seem clear from the account 
of the " Battle of Megiddo " that Aaruna was within a day's journey of 
Maketa. 

In the topographical list of Sheshonk (the Shishak of the Old Testa- 
ment, see Bible Dictionary, p. 1290) a town called Aarana occurs 
iinuicdiately before the name of Bileam. Bileam was a town near En 
Ganuim (now Jenin), and has been identified by the late Mr. Tyrwhitt 
Drake with the present ruin of Bel'ameh, a position fitting with the order 
in which the same name occurs iu our triplicate list. 

Thus Aarana, which is very probably the Aaruna of Thothmes, is to 



PALESTINE BEFORE JOSUUA. 91 

be sonc^ht in the neii^libonrliood of Jonin, and may be best identified 
with the strong and important villaj^o of 'Arrabeh, the change of n into h 
being of frequent occurrence in the Arabic survivals of Canaanite 
names. There is another site called 'Araiieh which would fit for Aarana, 
but not for Aaii'ina. 

Arrabeh stands on high ground west of Dothan, and south of the 
plain called Merj Arrabeh ; it is close to the road by which the Midian- 
ites descended to Egypt from Dothan, and the gorge in which the first 
struggle took place would be that up which the road comes into the plain, 
the head of Wady Mussin. 

Keneh. — This would answer to the Hebrew HJU, Genneh, and Arabic 
Jenneh, " a garden." It was situate south of Maketa, and a stream of 
water existed at it. It was also not far from Aaruna, nor from Maketa. 
For these reasons it may very well be identified with the biblical En 
Gannim, or " Fountain of Gardens." 

The deductions from the above arguments are simple. The plain of 
Sharon did not revolt. The advance of the Egyptians was directed 
against Megiddo. No towns are mentioned, nor do any details occur in 
the account of the campaign which would lead us to suppose that the 
more difficult hill country of Samaria or Judea was attacked. There is 
no account of the crossing of Jordan, or anything to point to the conquest 
of the country east of that river. The names are therefore to be sought 
along the line of the Egyptian advance in Upper and Lower Galilee 
and Phoenicia, or in the more open country bordering these districts, 
as well as in the plains of Sati, by which we may understand some 
district to the north-east of Egypt, such as the biblical Negeb, or " south 
country," would represent. 

Before proceeding to the detail of the names, a few remarks as to the 
changes to be expected may be noted : — 

1. Pe, the Egyptian article, is often prefixed to the name of an important 
town, and must not be considered an integral part of the Semitic word. 

2. Mar is sometimes prefixed to names of places of the second rank, 
although it is not certain that any instance occurs in these lists. 

3. Na is constantly added by the Egyptian scribe. An instance of 
the occurrence of this with the article is found in the " Travels of an 
Egyptian," where Pe-Kana-na represents the biblical Kanah. 

4. L and R are letters indistinguishable in the hieroglyphic character 
used. 

5. T, equivalent to the Hebrew n, often stands also for D ("i). This 
is because the Egyptian language has apparently no D sound. 

6. The gutturals of the Semitic names are often confused. This is 
not distinctive of Egyptian transliteration. The confusion of the various 
gutturals was a constant reproach against the Galileans, and the substi- 
tution of one Arabic guttural for another in Hebrew, of which it is not the 
exact equivalent, is generally recognised in many accepted identifications. 

7. K often stands for G and J in the Hebrew. 

These seven points are generally known to students, and only inserted 
h.ere for the sake of clearness. 



92 



PALESTINE BEFORE JOSHUA. 



The lists which ai-e to be considered contain 119 names. Of these 
Maiiette Bey pioi^oses identifications for 83 in all, leaving 36 as 
unknown. He does not, however, fix the exact position of many of 
these, and he supposes the list to include places as far north as Beyrout, 
and east of Jordan in Moab and Ammon, as well as in the hill country 
of Judasa. He divides the names into six groups. (1) In th<3 plain of 
Sharon. (2) In the Hauran, east of Galilee. (3) In Galilee, Phoenicia, 
and east of Jordan. (4) In Moab and Ammon. (5) In Benjamin and 
Judah. (6) In the plain of Sharon, and the Negeb or Beersheba country. 

The order of these groups is not consecutive, nor is that of the towns 
in each group as identified by him. It may further be ui-ged that the 
districts are not apparently for the most part those through which the 
Egyptians advanced before and after the battle of Megiddo. Considering 
also that so large a list of places could scarcely have been written down 
from memory, it would seem most natural to suppose, as I have before 
urged in the topographical list of the book of Joshua, that some sort of 
consecutive order is to be expected. 

The following twenty-eight identifications, which seem well established 
by Mariette Bey or by M. Rouge, agree with the theory of a consecutive 
list, and occur within the districts to which it would seem proper to 
confine our search. They may, therefore, be taken as the framework 
into which other identifications are to be fitted. 



No. 



EGYPTIAN. 


HEBREW. 




1. Katesu. 


Kadesh Naphtali. 


1 


2. Maketa. 


Megiddo. 


2 


16. Hamut. 


Hammath. 


3 


21. Sarana. 


Lasharon. 


4 


23. Batna. 


Beten. 


5 


26. Kaana. 


Kanah. 


6 


27. Arana. 


Iron. 


7 


31. Lauza. 


Laish. 


8 


32. Hazara. 


Hazor. 


9 


34. Keueratu. 


Chinnereth. 


10 


39. Mashala. 


Misheal. 


11 


42. Taanak. 


Taanach. 


12 


43 Iblaamu. 


Ibleam. 


13 


52. Anuheru. 


Anahareth. 


14 


62. Tapu. 


Joppa. 


15 


64. Luten. 


Lod. 


16 


65. Aana. 


Ono. 


17 


66 Apuken. 


Aphek. 


18 


67. Suka. 


Shochoh. 


19 


69 K'habatza. 


Chezib. 


20 


80. Kerara. 


Gerar. 


21 


86. Ani. 


Aiu (Rouge). 


22 


89. Hiklaim. 


Eglon. 


23 


94. Makerput. 


Beth Markaboth. 


24 


95. Aina. 


Anim. 


25 


96. Keraman. 


Carmel. 


26 


113. An Kenamu. 


En Gannim. 


27 


114. Kebau. 


Gibeah. 


28 



TALESTINE BEFORE JOSHUA. 93 

Of these twenty- eight identifications, nineteen have heen fixed by former 
travellers at existing towns, or ruins of towns. The identifications may be 
divided into two groups. (1) The northern group as far as No. 60, north 
of Joppa. (2) The south; the Shephelah and Negeb country. The 
number of names is sufficient to indicate very clearly the districts, and 
these may very probably be divided into (1) Euten and Fenekhuon the 
north, (2) the plains of Sati in the south. It is in these districts answer- 
ing to the Biblical, Galilee, Shephelah, and Negeb, that I propose to 
search for the remaining names. 

ir. 

First Group. 
Upper Buten and Fenekhu. 
Section I. 
The list commences with the names of the important towns form- 
ing the objective (to use a military term) of the campaign. Under 
the forms Maketa and Ketesh we recognise undoubtedly Megiddo and 
Kadesh Naphtali. No. 5 being apparently Beth Tappuah, and No. 16 
Hamraath, we have indications that the intervening names are to be 
sought to the south and east of Megiddo. 

No. 3, 'Ai. — This at once recalls the scriptural Ai, a royal city east of 
the Judasan watershed, with which Mariette Bey identifies it ; but the 
names which follow lead us to search for the site along the course of the 
Egyptian march. It may possibly therefore be represented by the 
modern village of Kefr R'ai, an undoubtedly ancient site some four miles 
west of 'An-abeh, supposing the r to have become doubled so as to give 
an ordinary Arabic meaning to the word. 

No. 4, Kethu{na). — The na is supposed by Mariette Bey to be an 
addition, and he identifies this with the Philistine Gath ; eight miles west 
of Kefr R'ai, we find, however, the important site called Jett, which I 
have noticed on a former page, as probably the Geuta against which 
Thothmes advanced. This northern Gath is not impossibly the Gitta of 
early Christian topography, the birthplace of Simon Magus. 

No. 5, 'Ansii.. — For this site no suggestion has been offered, but in the 
district in which the former towns may be supposed to lie is a village 
called 'Anza, some four miles east of Kefr R'ai, undoubtedly an ancient 
site, and close to the line of the Egyptian advance. 

No. 6, Tebuh.—This represents the Hebrew Tappuah, and accordingly 
Mariette Bey identifies it with Beth Tappuah in Judah. We have, how- 
ever, later on another similar name, Tapunu (No. 98) in connection 
with other names undoubtedly near to the Beih Tappuah of Judah. It 
seems, therefore, more probable that the present town is the Beth 
Tappuah of Ephraim identified by Robinson with the present 'Atuf, 
fifteen miles south of Jenin, being in a district open to and easily 
attainable by an army advancing towards the great plain. 

No. 7, Bamai.—Thxs name only occurs in the third copy of the list, 
and appears to be a variation or error in transcription of No. 8, which 



94 PALESTINE BEFORE JOSHUA. 

is absent in the third copy. A town of this namo is mentioned in the 
Talmud, but farther north. 

No. 8, Kamata. — The direction in which, this and the following names 
should be sought is apparently towards the east of the great j^lain. 
Here we find the village of Kubalieh in close proximity to Nos. 9 and 10. 
The change of m or 7i into h is very common, as in the case of Timnah, 
now Tibneh, &c. 

No. 9, T«^i(na).— The village of Umm el Tut, " Mother cf the mul- 
berry," is within a few miles of Kubatieh. It is apparently au ancient 
site. Indeed the same might be said of any existing village in Palestine, 
as the choice of a new site is probably almost without example. 

No. 10, Jiaba{na). — -The villpge of Baba will be found close to the 
last, east of Jeuin, near the southern border of the great plain. 

No. 11, Keret Senncui.— The direction in which we may now be 
supposed to advance towards the Sea of Galilee suggests the identifica- 
tion of this place with Beth-shan in the Jordan valley. The s in the 
Egyptian more properly represents the Hebrew Sainech, but an un- 
doubted example of a similar confusion of these two sounds will be 
found given by Mariette Bey iu No. 21. 

No. 12, M'arama or M'alma lies probably in a part of the country not 
yet surveyed. The nearest site in name and position is 'Aularn. i 

No. 13, Tamesku. — ^Mariette Bey suggests Damascus, but this being 
some eighty miles away from Beisan, and sixty from Hammath, seems 
at too great a distance. The name may possibly be recovered later. 

No. I4j Atara. — The proximity of Nos. 15 and 16 would lead us 
to identify this with th.e present et Tireh, a village overlooking the 
Jordan valley some ten miles north of Beisan. 

No 15, Abira, close to the last, is the village of El Bireh overlooking 
the wady of the same name. 

No. 16, Hemut, Mariette Bey himself identifies with Hammath of 
Naphtali, mentioned also, it will be remembered, in the "Travels of an 
Egyptian." The site of this town is known to have been near Tiberias. 
By Josephus it appears to be called Emmaus, and he mentions hot 
springs. This makes it probably the present Hiimradm Tubarti/eh, south 
of the town, where the hot-water baths exist still. A place called Beth- 
mau also existed four stadia from Tiberias on the road to Sepphoris, and 
therefore north of the town. This would seem, however, to be identical 
with the Beth M'ain of the Talmud, and consequently with the ruin of Ibn 
Ma'an, beside the main road to Sepphoris. These two sites must not be 
confused. 

No. 17, Akidu, is possibly the present Kadis, about two miles south of 
the last, unless it be an error for Eakkath, the ancient name of Tiberias 
down even to the fourth century. 

No. 18, Shein'anau, may very probably be the present Seb'ana, about 
five miles north of Tiberias. 

No. 19, Bartu, probably the ruins of ^Ain el BdrideJi (" the cold 
spring "), two miles from Tiberias. This is generally supposed to be the 
Dalmanutha of the New Testament. 



PALESTINE BEFORE JOSHUA. 95 

. No. 20, Madna.— It will appear from the succeeding names that this 
town is to be sought in the Ard el Hamma, the plateau above the western 
cliffs of the Sea of Galilee, the title of which has possibly a connection 
with that of Hammath. 

In this district two towns existed, the first being the Domai of the 
Jewish itineraries, and the present ed-Dameh, possibly the Adami of 
Kaphtali; the second, Adamah, which seems undoubtedly the present 
ruiu of Adiiiah discovered by the survey party. (Josh xix. ;i;3, 30.) 

Madna, by a very ordinary introversion, may represent either of these 
towns, but the latter perhaps best. Mariette Bey suggests the royal 
city Madon (Josh. xii. 19) ; but there is much reason to suppose that 
we should read Maron in accordance with the two Septuagint M8S. ; the 
confusion of d and r in Phoenician or in square Hebrew being of con- 
stant occurrence. 

No. 21, Sardiia.--Th.i3 site Mariette Bey proposes to identify with the 
royal Canaanite capital of Sharon, which appears in the English version 
as Lasharon (Josh. xii. 18). The position of Sharon has never been 
fixed as yet, but it occurs in the list of Royal cities between Aphek (pro- 
bably the northern Aphek near Jezreel, 1 Sam. xxix. 1, which may very 
well be the present Fakua), and Maron (in Upper Galilee). Jerome in 
the Onomasticon (S. V. Saron) informs us that " even to the present day 
the region between Mount Tabor and the Lake of Tiberias is called 
Sarona." 

This indication points clearly to the identification of the Biblical 
Sharon with the present Sirin, a village on the borders of the Ard el 
Hamma ; being situated immediately between the positions of Nos. 20 
and 22, it fits well with the Sarana of the present lists. 

22. r«ij.— This word, having the meaning of " good " in Hebrew, is 
the exact equivalent of the Arabic Talyibeh. A village of this name exists 
five miles south of Sirin. 

The list so far has been traced in a simple consecutive order, com • 
mencing with towns on the line of advance to Megiddo, and enumerating 
all the most easterly places taken. It is remarkable that these sites all 
lie in open country easily assailable. The stronger towns on Mount 
Gilboa, including Jezreel itself, are not noticed. An explanation of this 
may be taken from the book of Joshua, referring to the conquest of 
Galilee. " But as for the cities that stood still in their strength, Israel 
burned none of them " (Josh. xi. 13). 

Section II. 

The list would now appear to deal with the country conquered in 
advancing on Kadesh, as indicated by Mariette Bey's identification of 
Nos. 23, 20, 27 with towns of Asher and Naphtali, on the borders of 
Fenekhu or Phoenicia. 

No. 23, Batna, Mariette Bey identifies with Beten a town of Asher. 
According to the " Onomasticon " this was called Beth-beten in the 
fourth century, and situate eight miles east of Ptolemais. This position 
fits well with the order in which Beten occurs in the lists. Yandevelde 



96 PALESTINE BEFORE JOSHUA. 

suggests m Baneh as the site, but the distance from Acca is rearly 
twelve Roman miles. The true site has probably yet to be found in 
surveying this district. 

No. 24, Amashna, and No. 2b, MasaJcli, lie in country as yet unsur- 
veyed, and no suggestion can v?ell be hazarded as to their identification. 
They should, however, be sought between Tyre and Acca. 

No. 26, Kaana, is no doubt Kanah of Asher, as identified by Mariette 
Bey. This is apparently the Pa Kanaua of the " Travels of an 
Egyptian." 

No. 27, Jrana. — Probably the Iron of Naphtali, occurring in the 
Biblical lists between Migdel el (Mujeidel) and En Hazor (Hazzur). 
Vandevelde identifies it with the present Yarun, but this position is not 
altogether satisfactory, either as relating to the Biblical Iron or to the 
Egyptian Arana, and it may probably be recovered farther north in the 
course of the survey. 

No. 28, 'Astalatu, and No. 29, Anaurpaa, are still to be found in 
Upper Galilee ; the former might possibly be the 'Ailsbitha of the 
Talmud, which seems possibly to be the present 'Atshi'h, but this iden- 
tification is very doubtful. 

No. 39, Mahata, is to be sought near Laish (No. 31). This would 
point to its identity with the Biblical town of Beth Maachah, or Abel 
Beth Maachah (2 Sam. xx. 19), named with Dan and Kedesh. It is 
supposed to have been recovered by Robinson in the present Ahil el 
Kumh, three miles west of Dan. The confusion of the Ain and Aleph in 
these lists is of frequent occurrence, hence the fact that the guttural 
appears in the Hebrew is perhaps not important. 

No. 31, Lanza or Sauza, Mariette Bey identifies with the Biblical 
Laish, afterwards called Dan. The site of Dan is the present Tell el 
Kadi. Some remains of the name Lanza may perhaps be found in the 
ruin oiLuweizeh, some five miles farther north. 

No. 31, Hatzara, seems probably to be one of the Galilean Hazors. 
In spite of the statement of Josephus that the Royal city of that name 
overlooked the waters of Meron, no trace of the name has there been dis- 
covered. The identification of No. 32 makes it probable that the town to 
be understood in this case is the En Hazor of Naphtali, now Hazzur. 

No. 32, Pa Hurah, a town evidently of importance from the article 
prefixed, and mentioned also in the list of Rameses II. For this Mariette 
Bey suggests no identification, but it may very well be identified with 
the Biblical Horem of Naphtali, which Vandevelde identifies with the 
modern Hurah, a position fitting with that required for Pa Hurah. 

No. 32, i!re72wera/w, seems evidently to be the Chinnereth of Naphtali , 
a town which gave its name to the Sea of Galilee. It is mentioned with 
Adamah (Khirbet Admah according to my proposed identification), and 
may therefore be sought in the plateau of the 'Ard el Hamma. This 
suggests its identity with the present Beit Jenn in that district. The 
name is supposed to mean "garden of plenty," but is of great 
antiquity, and probably of Canaanite origin. In the later times it 
was changed to " Gennesar " and " Gennesaret," as noticed in the 



' PALESTINE BEFORE JOSHUA. 97 

Talmud, Snr being a Chaldean word, meaniug " Lord." It must, how- 
ever, be observed that there is another Jieii Jenn, or " lioiise of the 
garden," much nearer to Hftrah, a Druse village, seeming to fulfil both 
the requisites of the Egyptian record. The name 3,ppears as Kentu and 
Katu in the second and third copies on Pylone No. VII. 

At this point a certain amount of diJBSculty occurs in the lists ; the 
names of Nos. 36, 37, 38 bear a close resemblance to tlie biblical 
Adamah, Kishion, and Shunem, with which Mariette Bey identifies them ; 
but in this case we retrace our steps over a district already noticed, and 
a great break will occur between No. 38 and 39. The consecutive order 
is better preserved by the identifications here proposed. 

No. 35, Semana, from its position in the lists, is possibly the Selamis of 
Josephua, identified with the present ruin of Selldmeh. 

No. 36, Atamm or Adammim. — This may probably be the present et? 
Damun, a considerable village, twelve miles west of the last, in the 
direction in which the list evidently proceeds. 

No. 37, Kasuna, would in this case be identical with the ruined site 
called Tell Keisan, some two miles west of the last. 

No. 38; Sheiiama, from its position should be sought north of the last, 
in the country not as yet surveyed. A place called Ahu Sindn exists, 
however, according to Murray's map, in the required direction, about 
five miles north of No. 37. 

No. 39, Mashala, Mariette Bey identifies with Misheal, a town of 
Asher, near to Achshaph. Its identification with an existing site has 
not yet been made in a satisfactory manner. 

No. 40, Alcsep, is identified by Mariette Bey with Achzib, but it 
approaches nearer to the name Achshaph, a town of Asher mentioned 
in the " Travels of an Egj'ptian." I have endeavoured to show that the 
context of the Biblical list makes the position of Achshaph most probably 
identical with that of the present Yasif, which is situate close to the 
probable position of No. 39, and only about four miles from No. 37. 

The list brings us round, therefore, to the starting-point. No. 23, and 
enumerates in this second division the towns of Phoenicia and Upper 
Galilee. 

It is evident that the towns in the plain of Esdraelon remain to be 
enumerated before proceeding to the south. In this direction, therefore, 
we must seek the names occurring between Nos. 40 and 60, guided by 
Mariette Bey's identifications of Nos. 42, 43, and 52. C. E. 0. 

{To he continued.) 

Note. — For almost all the remaining seventy-nine places likely sites are found 
ou the new Survey Sheets. 



98 NOTE ON VARIOUS JEWISH TRADITIONS. 

NOTE ON VAEIOUS JEWISH TRADITIONS AS TO THE 
PLACE WHERE MESSIAS SHOULD BE BORN. 

No less tlian eeventy-two Targums upon various passages of the Old 
Testament exist in which the name Messias has been added in a sentence 
not to be found in the original. Two of these Targums have a geo- 
graphical value as giving the origin of certain later traditions. 

To the passage in Gen. xxxv. 21, in which Israel is mentioned as 
pitching his tent " beyond the tower of Eder," the Targum of Jonathan 
adds, " which is the place where shall be revealed the King Messias in 
the end of days." 

In a former report {Quarterly Statement, April 1875, p. 93) I have 
shown that Migdol Eder, or the " Tower of the Flock," was known in 
700 A.D. as about 1,000 paces from Bethlehem, where the mediaeval 
" Monastery of the Holy Shepherds " is still to be found represented by 
the present Keniset er Raw'at on the edge of the traditional shepherd's 
plain. 

A^rom a passage in the Mishna (Shekalim, vii. 4) we may also conclude 
that the SHuie place was not far from Jerusalem, and in the original 
text of the Bible it is mentioned in connection with Jerusalem (Micah 
iv. 8) and with Bethlehem (Gen. xxxv. 21). There is a considerable 
ruin near the Keniset er Eaw'at called KJdrbet Sir el Ohanem, " The 
Euiu of the Sheep Fold," It is, however, not a mere ruined sheepfold, 
for it is noted as follows in our list of ruins for the Jerusalem plate of 
the Survey : — 

" Walls arched, cisterns, vaults, and tombs, probably early Christian 
ruins." 

This is very probably the site of the original Tower of Eder. 

Another Rabbinical tradition seems to refer to the same neighbour- 
hood. A place called Beth 'Avba, Birath 'Arba, or Birath Malcha, is 
noticed (Preface to Midrash Ekha and Berachoth ii. 3, Tal. Jer., as quoted 
by Neuerbauer) as near Bethlehem, and as the place where Messias 
should appear. At the farther end of the Shepherds' Plain, on the edge 
of the Desert of Judah, is a lofty hill-top called Sh'aib el Eabcih, which 
is not improbably the 'Arba of the Talmud (K3~>y). Ancient ruins under 
the name Khirbet Johdhum exist at this place, and an old road from 
Jerusalem to the desert leads across the hill. The whole of the country 
round can be seen for a great distance from this summit, Bethlehem, 
four and a half miles to the west, being plainly visible. 

These traditions it is interesting to compare with the passage in 
Matt. ii. 4, whence it appears that in the time of our Lord the Messiah 
was expected to appear at Bethlehem. 

A second and entirely different tradition, also derived from a Targum, 
places the site of the birth of the expected Messias not far to the north 
of Nazareth. This Targum I have quoted in a former report, being an 
addition to Exod. xii. 42. 

" Moses cometh forth from the desert and Messias goeth forth from 
Eoma." 



THE SHAPIRA POTTEEY. 69 

' Roma is mentioned as though in Galilee by Sa3wulf in 1102 ad. 
Rabbi Jacob, of Paris, in 1258 a.d., visited the same place, and mentions 
the tomb of the patriarch Benjamin as existing there, as also a cavern. 
Rabbi Uri, of Biel,in 15G1A.D., speaks of the sameplace,andof the Cavern 
of Caisran (it is not certain whether this is a proper name or not), from 
-which cavern Messias was expected to appear. From these accounts 
we gather also that Roma was in the vicinity of Sepphoris (Seffurieh), 
Caphar Menda (Kefr Menda), and 'Ailbua ('Ailebun), and we are thus 
enabled to identify the traditional site with the present ruin of Rumeh, 
near the village of Rummaneh (Rimmon of Zebulon). 

Visiting this spot in the summer of 1875, 1 found on the east side of the 
site of the village (destroyed some thirty years ago) a cavern of moderate 
dimensions, of which we made a plan, and a rude Jewish tomb with 
kokim cut in soft rock. From the character of the capitals of pillars 
and other indications, it seems not improbable that a synagogue once 
stood close to this sepulchre. Instances of synagogues built close to 
sepulchres are not wanting in Galilee. C. R. C. 



THE SHAPIEA POTTERY. 

By Professor Sprenger, author of " The Liie of Mohammed." 
{Reprinted from the Academy of March llth, by kind 2>erwission of the Editor.) 
It is now a few years since the English press disposed of the Moabite 
antiquities, and most readers of the Academy have probably forgotten 
all about them. To refresh their memory we may be permitted to 
remind them that the stir caused by the s,-Ae; of the stone of Mesa 
among the Arabs both in Jerusalem and in the Desert was immense. 
Everywhere search was made after antiquities ; in the year 1872 almost 
every day brought some curious remains into the shop of Shapira in 
Jerusalem. They were of two kinds, both of which, though different 
from each other, had something in common with the stone that had 
fetched so much money. At first the discovery of stone monuments 
seems to have been frequent. They were not exclusively Moabitic, 
but resembled the Mesa stone inasmuch as they were all covered with 
inscriptions, one of them so covered even on both sides. Of archi- 
tectural ornaments or statues not a fragment tiirned up. In the eyes 
of scholars of the rank of Herr Weser, the value of these inscriptions 
was very great. He writes respecting one of them in the Journcd of the 
German Asiat. Soc. : — " This stone contains Psalm 117 in magnificent 
ancient Hebrew characters, similar to those on the stone of Mesa. 
"Who can tell whether it is not the original from which the Psalm was 
copied in the Holy Writ?" Some more sober Hebraists discovered 
several incongruities in the writing, and finally honest Shapira himself 
came to the conviction that it might possibly be a forgery. It is not 
improbable that the arch geologists of Jerusalem did not go to the 
expense of having the original executed, yet it is clear from these two 
instances that monuments in stone did not pay. They now concen- 



100 THE SHAPIRA POTTERY. 

trated all their attention on a less expensive article, ancient pottery ; 
bearing in mind that since the discovery at Mesa, "Moabitica" had 
become the rage in Europe, and that men of the stamp of "Weser have 
more taste for inscriptions than for the plastic arts. At this time 
those single-minded Arabs were very accommodating, and it might 
have been in the power of M. Ganneau to be of incalculable service to 
archaeology. This jj^entleman relates that he was asked what sort of 
inscriptions would be most acceptable. Now supposing he had informed 
them that in Nineveh a whole library on tablets of clay was dis- 
covered, they would have at once understood the hint, and we may be 
certain that by this time the Museum of Berlin would be in possession 
of the library of Balak. It appears from Dr. Socin's account, that the 
indefatigable Shapira formed in 1872 three collections of Moabite 
pottery, containing respectively 911, 473, and 410 specimens. The few 
drawings appended to the book before us enable the reader to form an 
opinion on the value of the contents of these collections without enter- 
ing deeply into the text. Fig. 1 represents an idol with a cocked-hat, 
imperial, sleepy eye's, and listless features. Every unprejudiced 
person to whom we showed it took it at tbe first glance for a clumsily- 
made copy of a likeness of Napoleon III. Fig. 2 is a ball, surmounted 
by a shapeless head, and perfectly meaningless. The object of the 
artist in modelling it seems to have been to find room for a new sort of 
inscription which he had just devised. There are only twenty-four 
letters on the ball, but they are so queer that Schlottmann, who 
exercised his ingenuity on them, considered the inscription as 
bilingual, and therefore particularly important. This seems, indeed, 
to have been the intention of those who devised it and allotted to it so 
prominent a place. Fig. 5 is a clay pipe. Fig. 7 is a bust in stays, 
the like of which we see in shop windows in Europe. Figures 8 and 9 
are legs with gaiters. From the descriptive part of the pamphlet we 
learn that the other specimens are no better than those delineated, and 
Prof. Kautzsch points to the fact that in the whole set a most deplor- 
able want of invention is observable. To the inability of the artist to 
devise new figures it is due that he modelled from objects like the 
picture of Napoleon, which, as he had formerly been m the service of 
M. Ganneau, it is to be presumed he had sufficient opportunity of 
seeing. 

Some of the pottery found its way to Stuttgart, other small lots may 
have been bought by tourists, but the honour of securing the lion's 
share was reserved for the Prussian Government. It bought 1,700 
choice specimens for 22,000 thalers (£3,300). Of this sum two thou- 
sand thalers were contributed by the Emperor. In the meanwhile the 
late Mr. Drake and M. Ganneau succeeded in tracing the fabrication of 
the pottery to a man of the name of Seleem, and in pointing out the 
very oven in which it had been baked. The evidence which they brought 
forward is so conclusive that it would even satisfy an Irish jury if 
Seleem had been an Irish patriot. No doubt it also satisfied so clear- 
sighted a man as Dr. Falk, the Prussian Minister of Public Instruc- 



THE SUAI'IRA POTTERY. lUl 

tion, and couvinced bim tliat he had been duped. His share in the 
business consists simply in his having run after false prophets. There 
were in Berlin men like Wetzstein, who is better acquainted with Syi*ia 
and the character of its inhabitants than any other man in Germany, 
and the late Prof. Riidiger, the soundest Biblical scholar of his days ; 
but instead of consulting these the Minister applied for advice to Prof. 
Fleischer in Leipsic, whose literary pursuits never went beyond the 
subtleties of Arabic grammar, and to Prof. Schlottmann, an enthusiast, 
and followed them implicitly. Yet even this mistalce, though serious 
in its results, is pardonable, for these two men enjoy great celebrity in 
Germany. The Minister might, thei-efore, without compromising 
himself, have taken such steps as circumstances demanded. He 
has as yet remained perfectly silent, and as he is a man of great 
energy we can ascribe his passiveness only to a desire to spare the aged 
monarch whose munificence has been so cruelly abused the annoyance 
which would be caused to him by increasing the publicity of the hoax. 
The German Consul in Jerusalem, assisted by Herr Weser, as soon as 
the revelations of Ganneau and Drake reached him, made a sham in- 
quiry, in which the simplicity of honest Weser rendered the task 
assigned to Seleem and his associates very easy. The principal witness, 
with Oriental complacence, contradicted the statement which he had 
given to Mr. Drake in writing, and the defendants invited the consul 
and Weser to an innocent game of hide-and-seek in the fields of Moab, 
where they afforded Weser the opportunity of disinterring ancient 
pottery with his own hands. A report of the proceedings was published 
in the Journal of the German Asiatic Society, and therewith was done 
what could be done to hush up the matter. If the objects of sale had 
been rotten silks or wine that turned into vinegar the affair might have 
been consigned to oblivion, but suppositious antiquities exhibited in a 
public museum are as dangerous as base coins put into circulation ; and 
it therefore now became the duty of scholars to take care ne quiddetrimenti 
capiat resjjuhlica. Prof. Kautzsch, a distinguished biblical archaeologist, 
and Prof. Socin, the author of Baedeker's Palestina und Syrien, responded 
to the call, caveant consules, and published the pamphlet, or rather the 
book — for it consists of 191 pages — under review. It is profoundly 
learned and free from egotism and animosity against opponents to a 
fault, and Prof. Socin's illustrations of the character of the Shemites, as 
well as Prof. Kautzsch's essay on the religion of the Moabites, have a 
permanent value. But it appears to us that a little scurrility would 
have better served the purpose than elaborate argumentation. 

It cannot be said that there is method in Seleem's forgeries ; they are 
extremely odd and whimsical, und archieologists found it difficult to 
classify them, and to tell for what purpose each description may have 
been intended. Luckily they were not met with in ruins of cities, but 
almost anywhere in uninhabited places, at no great depth under ground, 
and this circumstance reminded Schlottmann of the words of Isaiah 
(ii. 20), •' In that day a man shall cast his idols of silver and his idols of 
gald, which they made each one for himself to worship, to the moles and 



102 THE SHAPIRA POTTERY. 

to the Ijats," and lie pronounces them ioheYMnaanite penates castaway 
in the manner describpd by the prophet. Kautzsch remarks that the 
prophecy refers to the Israelites, and herein he is undoubtedly right ; 
yet it is very likely that it will also be fulfilled in reference to the 
Moabite idols at Berlin. Kautzsch's own labours may be the cause of 
their being cast to the moles. At Yienna they are already in discredit. 
I learn from a private letter that Shapira has sent some specimens for 
sale to the Oriental Museum there, and that they find no purchaser. 
The antiquarians have discovered two peculiarities in the terra-cotta 
figures which give them a clue to their meaning. One is the absence of 
every kind of detail or ornament, with the exception of seven dots, no 
more and no less, and in various positions. Tliere are seven dots 
round the cocked-hat ; there are as many on the inexpressible utensil, 
also under the chin of the pipe-head, as well as on the gaiters, and . 
equally on the moustache of fig. 6 of Kautzsch's illustration. Weser at 
once caught their meaning (whether by his own ingenuity or on a hint 
of Seleem we do not know) ; he recognises in them a symbol of the 
seven planets, and expresses his conviction that the worship of the stars 
was not unknown among the Moabites. By this charactei'istic feature 
a considerable group, bearing on star- worship, is separated from the 
rest. Schlottmann points to the fact that the capital of the Moabites is 
called Areopolis by the Greeks, and that the coins struck there at the 
time of the Eoman emperors bear the figure of Ares, armed with sword 
and spear, and shield, and he infers from it that Chemosh had, even at 
a more remote period, been considered as the god of war. Kautzsch 
reminds us that the Greeks were in the habit of giving to foreign 
proper names a Greek form, and that at the time when these coins were 
struck the Moabites had disappeared and the Nebateans had taken 
their place. He therefore derives Areopolis from Ar, the original name 
of the Moabite capital, and considers Mars on coins as natural a sequel 
of the nanie as the bear in the armorial bearings of Bern and Berlin. 
As the god of war was orisinally one of the planets, we may hope that 
the seven stars on the cocked-hat and the gaiters will enable Schlott- 
mann to hold his position ; the former evidently covers the head of Mars, 
•and the latter are not gaiters, but his boots. Bat, speaking seriously, 
I think Kautzsch's premisses do not bear so sweeping a conclusion, and 
that Schlottmann is right in assuming that the gods of small communi- 
ties generally bore a warlike character, and that in the Ares on coins 
there may be some recollection of Chemosh. 

The other peculiarity which is of great use to the antiquarian is the 
artist's predilection for obscene subjects. What is more natural than 
to consider all figures of such a character as illustrations of the 
cult of Astarte? Schlottmann has taken great pains to show that this 
lady ol doubtful reputaticm had as many votaries among the Moabites 
as among the Phrenicians, and he even succeeded in discovering an 
image of her, and the name which she bore, in M(jab. He writes, 
August 18, 1872, in a postscript to his first report on Moabitic treasures, 
published in the Joiirn. Oerm. As. (Soc, vol. xvi., p. 416 : — "At the 



LETTER NO. III. FROM DR. TOBLER. 103 

eame time I receive a copy of the size of the original of a naked female 
figure with a diadem in the farm of a crescent onherheiid, and on the 
diadem there is written, in elegant letters : el 'ammat. This means, in 
the siatiis constructus. Divinity of the peoj^le, or, what is more probable. 
Divinity of union, and is, in my opinion, equivalent to Astarte. It is, 
however, just possible that 'Uuiniath or 'Amnuith is the jirnper name 
of the goddess." Subsequently he published an engraving of the 
" Moabitic Astarte" in Eiehm's Havdiuurterliuch dtr lihl. AUertlmmsh., 
and as the editor of this work professes to exclude every c aitribution. 
containing controveitible asseitions, this novelty was theie])y at ojice 
raised to the rank of undoubted fact. Professor Kantzsch is visibly 
horrified at the thought that by these means the error is likely to be per- 
petuated in schools, and takes great pains to refute it, employing more-- 
particularly philological arguments. To me it appears that the in- 
scription is perfectly clear and unimpeachable. When Saleem had suc- 
ceeded in modelling the lady to his satisfactiim, he called her, for the- 
sake of fun, tlie aunt — this is the meaning of el 'ammat in Arabic. 
What I am struck with is, that he, in this instance, for once took the 
trouble to present to his decipheiers a legible word, whereas in other 
instances, as appears from Kaulzsch's analysis of the inscriptions, he 
put together any lettei s of the Moabitic alphabet at random, and em- 
ployed in the poser mentioned above even fancy letters of his own. 
He first became acquainted with the Moabitic character by copying 
part of the inscription of Mesa before it was brought to Jerusalem. 

I cannot conclude this notice without expressing my esteem for the- 
erudition, inaenuity, zeal, and candour of Prof. Schlottmann. What he 
wants is the quality which Goethe recommends to every man as most 
essential — resignation. It is this quality which gives to Kautzscb the 
vantage ground over his friend and colleague. Both savans enter on 
any given question with the same ardour; but Schlottmann invariably 
jumps to a conclusion, while Kautzsch weighs not only the pros but 
also the cci?/s, and whenever they are of equal force he has resignation 
enough to confess that his inquiries lead to no result. 

Note. — On Thursday, Marcb 16th, 1876, on the occasion of the Lower 
House of the Prussian Diet resuming consideration of the estimates of 
the Education Department, attention was drawn to tlie inefficient 
administration of the Eoyal museums, and, as an illustration, to the 
acquisition of the so-called Moabite antiquities. Professor Mommsen 
spoke strongly on the manner in which their genuineness had been 
advocated. The purchase was made on the recommendation of the 
German Oriental Society, and especially on that of Professor Fleischer. 
The administration of the museums is to be completely reorganised, and, 
we suppose, the collection destroyed. 



LETTEE NO. III. FEOM DE. TOBLEE 

Sir, — I have duly received your esteemed letter of the 11th, and 
the July number of the Quarterly Statement, and I am very satisfied with 



104 LETTER NO. III. TKOM DR. TOBLER. 

your translation. I regret that my Descriptiones Terrce Banctce, the con- 
tinuation of the Falestiiue Descriptiones, did not receive any detailed notice 
in the English papers. In the Academy they only appeared amongst 
the selected books ; in the Saturday Review, in such a manner that the 
writer of the notice could not have properly read the contents; and in 
the Athenwum, to my know ledge, not at all. In the latter paper specially 
I should have been glad to see a notice. If only for the sake of the 
Englishman Willibald, my compilation ought to have some attraction 
for England. At any rate, I must not think of you, as, from what you 
wrote to me, you are overwhelmed with business. 

As far as I know, the two monoliths in the Valley of Jehoshaphat, the 
northern or the grave