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Full text of "Quarterly statement - Palestine Exploration Fund"

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THE J. PAUL GETTY MUSEUM LIBRARY 



J J » 11 . 

11)-'* 



PALESTINE 
EXPLORATION FUND 



Patron— THE QUEEN. 

iluarterly Statement 

FOR 1877. 



LONDON : 

PUBLISHED AT THE SOCIETY'S OFFICE, 9, PALL MALL EAST, 

AND BY 

RICHARD BENTLEY & SON, 8, NEW BURLINGTON STREET. 



• • • ' 



THE J. PAUL GETTY CENTER 
LIBRARY 



INDEX. 



Abrikha, 171 

Ailom, 26 

'Aiu el Mudauvvereh, 122 

'Ain el Melahah, 167 

'Ain et Tlneh, 122 

'Ain es Serar, 122 

Ai, Rock at, 27 

Alma, 174 

Aloth, 22 

American Explorers, 150 

Anath, 29 

Aphecos, 140 

Ard el Sauwad, 167 

Ascension of our Lord, Traditiouiil Site 

Ashnah, 22 [of, 22 

Asocliis, 140 

Ataroth Adar, 139 

'Athlit, 180 

Avim, The, 133 

Baalath, 139 

Barak and Sisera, 190 

Bekiiu, 29 

Belat, 166 

Belfort, 170 

Berea, 24 

Bethabara, 183 

Bethany beyond Jordan, 184 

Beth Dagon, 22 

Bethel of Judah, 29 

Bether, 28 

BeitRiiua, 26, 140 

Bethsaida, 13 

Bileam, 182 

Bint umm Jebeil, 167 

Biri, 181 

Birket 'aly edh Dhaher, 123 

Boundaries of Epliraim, Manasseli, and 

Issacliar, 41 
British Association, Grant of, 7 
Burjmus, 27 
Bussa, 174 

Byzantine and Crusading Sites, 141 
Capernaum, 123 
Capharnaum, 123 
Caphrath, 140 
Carmel, 180 
Chasbi, 87 

Cherethites, The, 138 
Chilzon, 187 

Christian and Jewish Traditions, 30 
Christian Sites, 97 
Cities of the Midbar, 23. 
Cities of the Negeb, 23 
Cities of the Plain, 23 
Cleruiout-Ganneau, M. : Cliurch of Holy 

Sepulchre, 76; Deir Eban, 154 
Conder's, Lieut., Notes from Memoir, 

20, 85, 137, 178 
Crusading Castles : Banias,173; Chateau 

de Moutfort, 1 76 ; Chateau du Koi, 177; 

Keratiya, 138; Chateau Pelerin, 182 
Cruisading Forts: Huniu, 169; Kalat 

ed Dubbah, 168; Kasr 'Atrn, 167; 

Taiyebeli, 169; Kal'at esh Shukif, 

170; Tibnin, 169 
Cydoes.sa, 3U 
Uan, 171 



Daphne, 171 

Deidebeh, 181 

Deir Eban, 154 

Dibl, 165 

Dolmens, 121 

Early Christian Churches, 165 

Abrikha, 171 

Early Cliristian Sites, 29 

Eder, 139 

Elijah's Fountain, 180 

El Jish, 125 

El Kheit, 167 

El Khudr, 172 

El Maudaseh, 27 

ElMejdel, 121 

En Kushi, 26 

Er Rameh, 167 

Feast of Shiloh, 180 

Ferka, 29 

Furn, 181 

Geba, 87 

General Committee, Meeting of, 192 

Gibbethon, 139 

Gibeah of Saul, 104 

Giloh, 24 

Giscala, 125 

Gitta, 30 

Habakkuk, Tomb of, 86 

Hachilah, 86 

Hagar's Spring, 28 

Hajr ed Ddm, 124 

Hamthau, 29 

Harosheth, Site of, 167 

Haruph, 28 

Hasbany, 171 

Hawa, 87 

Hazor, Site of, 167 

Hepha, 187 

Hiram, Tomb of, 174 

Hirieh, 140 

Herodium, 27 

Hittites, The, 13S 

Hormah, 24 

Hot Springs, 121 

Hunin, 169 

Ibleam, 182 

Irbid, 118 

Issachar, 87 

Itineraries of our Lord, 8 

Jabueel, 139 

Jacob's Well, 72 

Janoah, 24 

JemrHrah, 85 

Jerusalem, 21 

Age of the Temple Wall, 
75, 131 

,, Discovery at, 160, 205 

,, Excavations at, 9 

,, The Asnerie, 143 

,, The Holy Sepulchre, 76, 128 
Jeshanah, 182, 206 

Site of, 206 
Jeshua, 24 

Jewish Owners of Land, 177 
Jisr Benat Yakub, 167 
Jordan, Sources of, 171 
Jo.shua's Tomb, 182 



^^•^.s'^S^ 



iv 



IXDEX. 



Juilfeo- Greek Epitapli from Jalih, 106 
Judges iv., Topography of, 190 
Journal of the Survey, 113, 162 
Kabr Hebrun, 28 
Kades, 167 
Kalamon, 71 
Kalaat Jiddiii, 17S 
Kalat ed Dubbah, 168 
„ el Fenish, 138 
,, el Kurein, 176 
,, esh Shukif, 170 
,, es Subeibeh, 173 
„ Ibn Ma'an, 118 
,, Jalud, 205 
„ Marfln, 173 
,, Shem'a, 175 
Kasr 'Atru, 167 
Kefr Likitia, 29 
Keisun, 168 
Kerak, 120 
Keruthim, 29 
Khurbet Abu Sliusheh, 122 
„ Difnah, 171 
,, Hamsin, 175 
Kerazeh, 124 
Minyeh, 122_^ 
,, Shelabun, 167 
„ Ureidat, 122 
Kings of Judah, 195 
Kitchener's Reports, Lieut., 70, 116, 
Kunin, 169 [165 

Kurn Hattin, 117 
Kustul, 181 
Laish, 27 

Literary Remains of C. F. Tyrwhitt 
Lobnah, 28 [Drake, 126 

Magdiel, 181 
Makaz, 24 
Mahrakah, 173 
M'alia, 177 
Mamre, 28 
Manln, 166 
Megiddo, 13 
Meiron, 125 
Melloth, 139 
Meronoth, 28, 139 
Milla, 21 
Mizpeb, 21 
Moslem Mukams, 89 
Mount Heres, 139 
,, Tabor, 119 
Mujir ed Din, 170 
Mukams, The Moslem, 89 
Naorath, 26 
Nahr Hasbany, 171 
„ LeddCln, 171 
Nakurah, 174 
Kebartein, 124 
Neby Lawih, 180 
Nob, 51, 204 

Notes and News, 1, 67, 109, 159 
Nomenclature, 183 

,, of the Survey, 144 

Osheli, 86 

Palestine, State of the Country, 1, 163, 
Patras, 29 [164, 165, 176 

Pirathon, 139 
Porphyreon, 187 



Rabbith, 24 

Ras el Abiad, Inscription at, 175 

Representatives and Lecturers to the 

Robbers' Caves, 118 [Fund, 161 

Roche Taille, 181 

Saab, 140 

Safed, 124 

Sahyftn, 21 

Samaria, 180 

Sarid, 25 

Saul's Journey to Zuph, 37 

Scariotli, 183 

Sea of Galilee, 120 

Sefsaf, 121 

Sepulchres of David and Kings of Ju- 

Sellem, 86 [dah, 195 

Shakra, 168 

Shalisha, 139 

Sinjil, 88 

Sirah, 28 

Subeibeh, 172 

Sun Dial in the Haram, 88 

Surar, 181 

Survey, Fieldwork continued, 71 

Survey completed, 159 

Sycaminon, 187 

Sychar and Sycheni, 149 

Synagogues, 179 

Synagogue of Irbid, 118 

,, Nebartein, 124 

Sifsaf, 126 

Tabighah, 123 

Taiyebeh, 169 

Talmudic Sites, 29 

Tarichffia, 10, 181 

Tel Hum, 123 

TellelKady, 171 

Tell Hara, 167 

Temple at Belat, 166 
,, Kades, 167 

,, Keisun, 168 

Tiberias, 121 

Tibnin, 169 

Tirzah, 25 

Tomb of Habakkuk, 86 
„ of Jacob's Daughters, 124 

Tombs at Kedesh, 168 
,, of Shamai and Hill el, 125 

Tora'n, 181 

Torou, Castle of, 169 

Tyre, 173 

Tyrwhitt-Drake, C. F., Literary Re- 

Umm el 'Amftd, 175 [mains of, 126 

Wady Amud, 122 
,, el Hajeir, 173 
,, Hamam, 118 
,, Mesa'adet Aisa, 22 
,, llabadijeh, 122 
,, Selftkiah, 168 
,, Wukkas, 167 

Yaniieh, 176 

Yarun, 165 

Yassab, 29 

Zaanaim, 25 

Zanuah, 26 

Zemaraim, 26 

Zereda, 26 
Zion, 21, 178 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND: 

SOCIETY FOR THE ACCURATE AND SYSTEMATIC INVESTIGATION OF 
THE ARCHEOLOGY, THE TOPOGRAPHY, THE GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL 
GEOGRAPHY, THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS, OF THE HOLY LAND, 
FOR BIBLICAL ILLUSTRATION. 



PATRON : 
HEE MAJESTY THE QUEEN. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE: 
ARCHBISHOP OF YORK, Fresident. 



Dk. H. W. Acland, F.E.S. 

Rev. W. Lindsay Alexander, D.D. 

Rev. Henry Allon, D.D. 

The President of the American Asso- 
ciation 

Amhurst Tyssen Amhurst, Esq. 

Capt. Anderson, R.E. 

Rev. Joseph Angus, D.D. 

Duke of Argyll 

T. Farmer Baily, Esq. 

Rev. Joseph Barclay, LL.D. 

James Bateman, Esq., F.R.S. 

Rev. Canon Birch 

Samuel Biech, Esq., LL.D. 

Rev. W. F. Birch 

Rev. H. M. Butler, D.D. 

Marquis of Bute 

AucHBisHOP of Canterbury 

Earl of Carnarvon 

T. Chaplin, Esq., M.D., IFon. Sec. for 
Jerusalem 

Bishop of Chester 

Dean of Chester 

Dean of Christchurch 

Lord Alfred Churchill 

Lord Clermont 

J. D. Crace, Esq. 

John Cunliffe, Esq. 

Duke of Devonshire 

Earl Ducie 

W. Hepworth Dixon, Esq. 

Professor Don.vldson 

Lord Dufferin 

F, A. Eaton, Esq. 

S. Jackson Eldridge, Esq., Beyrotd 

Bishop of Exeter 

Rev. F. W. Farrar, D.D. 

James Fergusson, Esq., F.R.S. 

A. Lloyd Fox 

H. W. Freeland, Esq. 

M. Clermont-Ganneau 

F. Waymouth Gibes, Esq., C.B. 



Rev. C. D. Ginsburg, LL.D. 

Cyril C. Graham, Esq. 

James Glaisher, Esq., F.R.S. 

Samuel Gurney, Esq. 

H. A. Harper, Esq. 

Rev. J. C. Harrison 

A. J. Bbresford Hope, Esq., M.P. 

•Joseph D. Hooker, Esq., Pres. R.S. 

Holman Hunt, Esq. 

Gen. Sir Henry James, R.E. 

Lord Lawrence 

E. H. Lawrence, Esq. 
Eight Hon. A. H. Layard 

F. Leiguton, Esq., R.A. 
General Lefroy 

Lord Henry Lennox 
Professor Hayter Lewis 
Dean of Lichfield 
Ambrose L. P. De Lisle, E»q. 
Bishop of LLANDArr. 
Samuel Lloyd^ Esq. 
Bishop of London 
William Longman, Esq. 
John MacGregor, Esq. 
Duke of ilARLiiOitouoH. 
Dr. Samuel MANNixfr 
Master of University College, Oxford 
R. B. Martin, Esq. 
Rev. Samuel Martin 
Henry Maudslay", Esq- 
Edward Miall, Esq., M.P. 
Rev. Dr. Moffatt, 
Sir Moses Montefiore, Bart. 
Noel Temple Moore, Esq., IL.B.M. Con- 
sul, Jerusalem 
Samuel Morley, Esq., M.P. 
Rev. J. Mullens, D.D. 
John Murray, Esq. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart. 

Duke of NORTUITMREItLAXU 

Admiral Ojimaxney 
Professor Owen, F.R.S, 

B 



General Committee (contmued) — 

Sir S. Morton Peto, Bt. 

Professor E. H. Palmer 

Bishop of Peterborovoh 

Herr Petermakn 

Eev. E. H. Plumptre 

Rev. J. L. Porter, LL.D. 

Rev. PiioyEssoK Pritchard, F.R.B. 

Rev. Prof. Pusey, D.D. 

Sir Henry Rawlinson, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Rev. Professor Ra^linsox 

Henry Reeve, Esq. 

Marquis of Ripon 

Bishop of Ripon 

Earl Russell 

Dr. Sandreczky 

Viscount Sandon 

M. De Saulcy 

Lord Henry J. M. D. Scott, M.P. 

Earl of Shaftesbury 

"William Simpson, Esq. 



"William Smith, Esq., LL.D. 

Sir G. Gilbert Scott, R.A. 

"W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 

Captain R. "W. Stewart, R.E, 

Rev. John Stoughton, D.D. 

Viscount Stratford de Redcliffh 

Duke of Sutherland 

Rev. Canon Thorold 

William Tipping, Esq., M.P. 

Rev. Canon Tristram, LL.D., F.R.S. 

W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., F.R.S. 

The Count de Voguk 

Captain Warren, R.E. 

Dean of "Westminster, F.R.S. 

Duke of "Westminster. 

Rev. George Williams, B.D. 

Major "Wilson, R.E., F.R.S. 

George "Wood, Esq. 

Bishop of "Winchester 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: 
AV. IIEPWORTH DIXON, Esq., Chairman. 



H. A. Harper, Esq, 
"V\'illtam Longman, E.sq. 
Walter Morrison, Esq. 
Rev. Canon Tristram. 
"W. S. ^V. Vaux, Esq., F.R.S. 
Captain "Warren, R.E. 
Major "Wilson, R.E., F.R.S. 



Captain Anderson, R.E. 
Samuel Birch, Esq., LL.D. 
J. D. Grace, Esq. 
F. A. Eaton, Esq. 
James Glaisheh, Esq., F.R.S. 
George Grove, Esq., D.C.L, 
Samuel Gueney, Esq. 
Rev. F, W. Holland. 

BanJcers—M-ESS-RS. Coutts and Co., 59, Strand. The "Union Bank of London, Charing 

Cross Branch, 66, Charing Cross. 

Treasurer — "Walter ^Morrison, Esq. 

Hon. Secretaries— Rev. F. "W. Holland, and George Grove, Esq., D.C.L. 

Acting Secretary— ^ xJ.t'B.R Besant, Esq. OJice, 9, Pall Mall East. 



NOTE.— The Price of the "Quarterly Statement" is Half-a-Crown, It is 

sent free to Sulascribers. 



Quarterly Statement, January, 1877.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND, 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



The Survey party are at this moment actively engaged in preparing for 
their departure. It ha.s been decided to dispatch Lieutenant Kitchener, who 
assumes the command, to Damascu.s, -n-here he will buy horses and provide for 
the starting of the party. Everything ready, he will repair to Haifa vm Beyrout 
and the coast road, there to await the arrival of his staff, who will probably 
reach Palestine early in February, and will consist of Sergeant Armstrong, Avho 
has been in the Survey from the commencement ; Sergeant Malings, who was 
Avith Major Wilson on the Survey of Sinai ; Coi-poral Brophy, who was with 
Lieut. Condor in 1873—1875 ; and one other non-commissioned officer of Royal 
Engineers. 



Meantime, Lieut. Conder remains in England engaged in the preparation of the 
memoirs to accompany the sheets of the map. A great deal of work has already 
been done towards the reduction to order of his voluminous notes ; but a great 
deal remains. The map will be safely locked up until the Survey is comideted, 
and the difficulties which have arisen in the laying down of the work have been 
settled bv a revision on the field. 



Consul-Cleneral Eldridge reports from Beyrout that the country is quiet. Two 
of the men engaged in the Safed attack were still in prison when he wrote (Nov. 
30). The siun of £270 has been forwarded to England out of the £340 granted 
for fines and damages levied on the Safed people, and there can be no doubt that 
the moral eftect of this firmness will be excellent. The £200 claimed for com- 
pensation has not yet been allowed. 



4 NOTES AND NEAVS. 

The. Surv^-oJ" (iaililef, >udiHliug the lovelling for the depth of the Lake below 
the surface cf the sea, for wh'ch a grant of £100 was made by the British Asso- 
ciation-two yearp ago, is calcDlated to take until the middle of August. Lieute- 
nant Kitchener jiroposes then to finish oif the two hundred and fifty square miles 
at the south-west of Palestine yet remaining to be surveyed ; and, this done, will 
then ride through the country to clear up various points of difficulty which have 
arisen during the execution of the map from the notes. 



Such is the programme for the year 1877. If it is carried out successfully, the 
Committee will be, at its close, in possession of a complete map of Western 
Palestine, on the scale of one inch to a mile, with every town, village, ruin, tell, 
wady, hill, and plantation marked iipon it, and every name which our officers 
have been able to collect. 



The cost of this expedition, including the office expenses, printing, postage, 
&c., will amount to over £320 a month. The income of the Fund, which was, 
roughly, £4,200 iu 1875, fell to £3,800 in 1876, in consequence of no special effort 
having been made beyond the ordinary machinery of reminding subscribers and 
holding occasional lectures. The latter amount, which may fairly be assumed as 
an average income, seems to promise to the Committee a sufficient guarantee that 
means will be found to carry on their work even on this large scale of expenditure. 
It is, however, very earnestly requested that suhscrij)tions niay this year he paid as 
early as is convenient, so that the Committee may be free to act. 



The financial position on Jan. 4, 1877, was as follows. Income, Sept. 28, 1876, 
to Jan. 4, 1877, £1,146 2s. 9d., and the balance in the bank on the latter day was 
£538 Os. lOd. Opportunity has been taken of the lessened expenditure during the 
year to pay off nearly all the debts, as \\i\\ be shown in April by the balance- 
s'heet of the year. 



We have to announce with great pleasure that the offer made by Dr. Nathaniel 
Kogers, of Exeter, to subscribe £50 towards the complete clearing out of Jacob's 
AVell, has been seconded by a i)romiso from Miss Peache, of Wimbledon, to give 
the remaining £50 required for the work. Miss Peache also offers to give £50 
more for the purpose of surrounding and protecting the well with proper stone- 
work. The Committee have accepted this proposal of Miss Peache, and desire to 



NOTES AND NEWS. 5 

record here their grateful sense of this munificence. A design fur tlie stone-work 
■will be contributed by Mr. J. D. Grace. 



At least three cases have conic to the knowledge of the Secretary during the 
year of letters containing stamps being purloined or lost on their way to the 
office. It is extremely difficult, even next to impossible, to trace the theft home 
in such a case, and the only way to avoid its recuiTcnce is to send subscriptions 
by cheqiie or P.O.O., in every case payable to the or J.cr of Walter Besant, and 
crossed to Contts and Co. or the Union Bank of London. 



The ninth thousand of " Our Work in Palestine " is now in the press, and will 
be ready by the end of the month. It contains a full account of the work done, 
the results obtained, and the reasons for undertaking the work, down to the 
commencement of the Survey. It does not contain any of M. Ganneau's 
archajological work, or any account, except a few brief notes, of the Survey. 
A special work will probably be issued eventually, containing popular narratives 
of these explorations. 



The literary remains of the late Mr. C. F. T}Twhitt Drake will be published 
early in the year by Messrs. R. Bentley and Son, 8, New Burlington Street. They 
will be edited, with a memoir, by Mr. Walter Besant, and will contain, among 
other papers, his pamphlet on Modern Jerusalem, his Eeport on the Natural 
History of the Desert of the Exodus, materials towards a new Historical and 
Archaeological Guide to Palestine, Natural History Notes, Notes on Travel, &c., 
chiefly unpublished. His letters and reports which have appeared iu the 
Quarterly Statements of the Fund will not be reproduced in the volume. 



The Bishop of Adelaide has informed the Committee that he has established a 
Local Committee for the furtherance of ^the Society's objects in his diocese. 
Among the members are at present — 

The Hon. J. J. Way, Chief Justice ; 

The Hon. G. W. Guy, Surveyor-General ; 

C. Todd, Esq., Telegraph and Postmaster-General; 

Lieutenant-Colonel Barber ; 

J. C. Muir, Esq., Engineer-in-Cliief ; 
and J. Hyndraan, Esq., Hon. Secretary. 



6 XOTES AyiB XEWS. 

The following are at present the Diocesan Representatives of the Society : — 

Ai'chdeaconry of Hereford : liev. J. S. Stooke-Yaughan, Wellington Heath 
Vicarage, Ledbury. 

City and neighbourliood of Manchester : Rev. W. F. Birch, St. Saviour's 
Rectory. 

London : Rev. Henry Geary, 16, Somerset Street, Portman Square. 

Norwich : Rev. F. C. Long, Stowupland, Stowmarket. 

Peterborough : Rev. A. F. Foster, Farndish Rectory, Wellingborough. 

Worcester : Rev. F. W, Holland, Evesham (Member of General and Executive 
Committee, and one of the Hon. Secretaries to the Fund). 

Dioceses of Canterbury, Rochester, and Winchester : Rev. R. J. Griffiths, 10, 
Trafalgar Road, Old Kent Road, S.E. 

Diocese of Ripon : Rev. T. C. Henley, Kirkby Malham Vicarage. 

Ireland. 

Rev. G. J. Stokes, Blackrock, Dublin. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications by officers 
of the Fund, the Committee beg it to be distinctly understood that they leave 
such proposals to be discussed on their own merits^ and that by publishing them 
in the Qicarterhj Statement tlie Committee do not sanction or adopt them. 



Annual subscribers are earnestly requested to forward their subscriptions for 
the current year when due, at their earliest conV'Cnie'iice, and without waiting for 
application. It is best to cross aU cheques and post-office orders to Coutts 
and Co. 



The Committee are always glad to receive old niunbers of the Quarterly State- 
'iiient, especially those which are advertised as out of print. That for January, 
1872, is especially wanted. 



Ladies desirous of joining the Ladies' Associations are requested to communi- 
cate with Mrs. Finn, The Elms, Brook Green, London, W. The full report of 
meetings held by Jklrs. Finn during the last ijuarter will be found in the 
business sheet. 



GRANT OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. / 

<;a.se.s for binding the QuarUrhj Statement are now ready, and can be liad on 
application to Messrs. 1?. Bentlcy and Son, 8, New Burlington Street. They are 
ill green or brown cloth, with the stamp of the Society, uniform in appearance 
with " Our Work in Palestine," and are sold at the price of one shilling. 



Lieut. Kitchener's Guinea Book of Biblical Photographs is now ready, and can 
be bought at ilr. Stanford's establishment, 55, Charing Cross. It contains 
twelve] views, with a short account of each. They are mounted on tinted boards, 
and handsomely bound. 



GRANT OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

The following is the Report of the Committee, consisting of Major AMlson, 
K.E., and Mr. Kavenstein, appointed for the pui-pose of furthering the Palestine 
Explorations : — 

The sum of £100, granted at the last meeting of the British Association for the 
inirpose of furthering the Palestine explorations, was paid over by Major Wilson 
to the Palestine Exploration Fund, with a request that the wishes of the General 
Committee of the Association, as expressed in their resolution, might be carried 
out. 

No complete account of the work of the last twelve months has yet been 
received from Lieutenant Conder, R.E., the officer in charge of the Survey ; but 
from his monthly reports to the Committee of the Fund, it would appear that, 
since the grant of £100 was made, the triangulation of Palestine has been carried 
southwards as far as Beersheba, and that a large tract of interesting country, in- 
cluding the plain of Philistia and the southern slopes of the mountains of Judah, 
has been surveyed and plotted on a scale of one inch to a mile. 

Amongst other results have been the recovery of several ancient sites, and 
the corrections of many errors in the topography of Southern Palestine. 

Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, E.E., were recently engaged in running 
a line of levels from the Mediterranean to the Sea of Galilee ; but this work 
was unfortunately stopped by the attack made upon Lieutenant Conder and his 
party by the people of Safed. 

Lieutenant Conder, who was badly wounded, has been unable to send a full 
report on the levelling ; but in a letter written shortly before the afiray he 
mentioned that more than ten miles, or about one third of the levelling, had been 
completed, and gave some details of the manner in which the work was being 
carried out. The line of levels was being run by two independent oba?rvers 
(non-commissioned officers from the Ordnance Survey) ; bench-marks were being 
cut at frequent intervals, and their position fixed by a line of traverse survey 



8 ITIXERAEIES OF OVR LORD. 

from the Mediterranean to the Sea of Galilee, which will be laid down on tho- 

one-iuch sixrvey. 

Lieiitenant-General Sir Henry James, the Director-General of the Ordnance 
Survey, was kind enough to lend instruments for the work, and he lias taken 
much interest in its progress. 

In consefiuence of the attack on the Survey party and the spread of cholera, 
it has been decided to withdraw Lieutenant Conder and his staff from Talestine 
for the present ; but as soon as the Survey is recommenced the levelling will bfr 
completed. 



ITINEEAEIES OF OUE LOED. 

In the history of our Lord's life and labours no subject is of deeper- 
interest (apart "from tbe purely sacred aspect of His work) than the 
itineraries. Yet no special and continuous study has been given to this 
important subj^-ct. Every one who writes about the Sacred Story has, 
of course, to mention His various journeys, and to mention that Ho 
went up to Jerusalem for the great feasts and returned to His home in 
Galilee. Certain points in these journeys are, of course, fixed points. 
Our Lord is at Bethlehem, at Nazareth, at Jerusalem, at Jericho, at 
Sychar, at Cana, at Capernaum, at Bethany, and so forth. But the 
roads by which He travelled from place to place have not been scien- 
tifically laid down. We are not certain, as yet, by which road He came 
up from the Jordan valley to Jerusalem. There was a great military- 
highway from Jericho to Jerusalem by way of Bethany. This was 
probably the road usually followed by the Teacher and His disciples. 
But there was another road by way of Wady Farah— a less frequented 
road. It is probable that road passed by iEnon, the place where John 
baptized. If it can be proved, as I think it can, that JEnon lay on 
or near this second road from Jeiicho to Jerusalem, we shall have a 
fixed point in this part of our Lord's journeyings. 

The whole subject invites evidence and discussion, and the attention 
of special students of New Testament archaeology cannot be too seriously 
called to it. I shall be glad to see the matter taken up and elucidated 
by our subscribers and correspondents in the next and following- 

Quarterly Statements. 

^y. Hepworth Dixon. 



• • • c c * 



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« « c c < 



9 



DECENT EXCAVATIONS AT JERUSALEM, r.Y IIEER 
C. SCHICK, K. K. BAURATII. 

I HAVE, on more than one occasion, drawn attention to tlie good 
work Avhicli my friend Mr. Schick is doing in a quiet way at Jerusalem, 
by ascertaining the actual level of the original rock surface whenever it 
is exposed, and I have now much pleasure in communicating a short 
note on an excavation recently made by him which will be of interest to 
those who make a study of Jerusalem topography. 

It appears that some time last year, the ground, at a point a little- 
east of the bazaars, suddenly gave way, carrying with it a fig-tree and 
several bushes of cactus, and leaving a large crater or depression in thfr 
surface. For some months occasional earth-slips took place, and it 
became evident that the debris was finding its way into one or more 
subterranean chambers ; the ground was at the time considered too 
dangerous for examination, but last summer Mr. Schick was requested 
by the Pacha to investigate the whole matter. It soon appeared that 
the earth had been riuming away into a great chamber over 100ft. long 
and 17ft. 6iQ. wide, and that the cause of the slip had been the sudden 
fall of a portion of the covering arch. The interesting point is, 
that in the floor of the chamber, which is entirely of rock, we have 
presented to view a larger area of the original surface of the ground on 
which Jerusalem stands than has hitherto been exposed within the city 
walls. We have, too, not only the depth of rubbish at a point near 
which there were few previous rock levels, but the actual fall of the 
rock over a distance of 100ft. in a north and south direction, or com- 
biaed with the known level of the rock in the street to the north, a. 
section over more than 200ft. 

I was hardly prepared for the great accumulation of rubbish, 80ft., at 
this particular place, or for the rapid fall in the rock, 1 in 4, towards 
the south, Avhich seems to indicate that the valley running eastward 
from near the Jaffa Gate is deeper than has generally been supposed, 
and that it may perhaps partake of the ravine nature of the valley 
examined by Captain Warren under Eobinson's Arch. The section from 
east to west, though only ITft. 6in. long, is of value as showing a steady 
fall of the rock towards the east, and thus indicating that the axis of 
the spur between the valleys from the Jaffa and Damascus Gates has 
been passed. 

Mr. Schick's investigation has also proved that the bazaar called on 
the Ordnance Map of Jerusalem, ^^^^^ scale, Suk-al-Khowajat, formerly 
extended as far north as the other two bazaars, and has brought more 
prominently to notice the great depth of rubbish on which all the bazaars 
stand. 

The long cistern or chamber is parallel to the bazaars, and as it was 
evidently not originally intended to be used as a cistern, we may perhaps 
have in it the line of one of the streets of ancient Jerusalem. The- 



10 TAEICHE.T; AND BETHSAIDA. 

cliamber, at any rate, offers a favourable base of operations for an ex- 
ploration of this part of tlae city, as galleries could be driven in several 
directions to examine the gi'ound. 

I take this opportunity of pointing out the great importance of collecting 
and registering in a methodical manner the levels of the rock exposed from 
time to time at Jerusalem, as it is only by obtaining a correct idea of the 
topographical features of the ancient city that we can hope to under- 
stand Josephus. Mr. Schick has published amongst Zimmermann's maps 
of ancient Jerusalem a map showing the original features of the ground, 
and coming from such an authority it is of considerable interest ; but 
we have, unfortunately, none of the data used in its construction. There 
Axe still places at Jerusalem where it is impossible to say what the 
rubbish conceals, and any map showing, by contours, the natural features 
•of the ground, must for the present be considered premature, or at most 
suggestive. How much is still left to the imagination of the draughts- 
man may be inferred from the fact that on a line joining the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre with the Dome of the Rock, a most important part 
of the city, there is not a single rock level. It is to be hoped that some 
day Mr. Schick may find time to prepare a table of rock levels for pub- 
lication, for since Cajit. Warren left the city our knowledge of under- 
ground Jerusalem is almost entirely due to him, the excavations of 
M. Ganneau and Mr. Maudslay being, I think, the only exceptions. 

December 5th, 1876. C. W. W. 



THE SITES OF TAEICHEiE AND BETHSAIDA. . 

A COXVERSATIOX with M. Ganneau some time ago relative to the 
positions of Taricheie and Bethsaida, two important places On the 
shores of the Sea of Galilee, led me again to examine the question of 
.their respective sites, and to modify considerably the opinion expressed 
in the "Recovery of Jerusalem" with regard to that of the former 
place. Lieut. Conder's approaching return to Palestine offers a favour- 
able opportunity for examining these questions on the ground, and the 
following notes may draw his attention to certain points which might 
otherwise escape notice. 

Taricheoe. — In 1866 I too hastily assumed that Dr. Robinson and other 
distinguished travellers were right in identifying Taricheaj with Kerak, 
the mound covered with shapeless ruins which occupies such an im- 
portant strategical position at the point where the Jordan leaves the 
lake, but a careful perusal of Josephus leaves no doubt in my mind that 
Taricheaj was north and not south of Tiberias. Tarichea3 appears to 
have been a place of considerable importance, and to have played a con- 
spicuous part in the Roman campaign against the Jews in Galilee, as 
well as in the troubled times which preceded it ; the description of its 
capture by the Romans, and of the great naval engagement on the Lake 



TARIOnE.E AXD BETHSAIDA. 11 

Avhicli followed, is amongst the most graphic and interesting passages 
of Josephus, and to this I must refer the reader for fuller detail than 
space will now allow. The description is contained in B. J. iii. 0. 7, 
8, and 10. 1, and there are other passages in the Life. 

To summarise briefly, Vespasian, whilst enjoying the hospitality of 
Agrippa at Csesarea Philippi (Banias), determines to make an expedition 
against the two cities Tiberias and Taricheaj, and sends Titus to bring 
up troops from the maritime Csesareato Scythopolis (Beisan), the largest 
city of Decapolis, situated in the Jordan Valley a few miles south of 
the Sea of GaUlee. Vespasian proceeds to Scythopolis and, on the 
arrival of Titus, marches against Tiberias with three legions, and pitches 
his camp at a place called Sennabris* in full view of the city and thirty 
stadia (three and three-quarter miles) from it. A decurion, Valerian, 
with fifty horsemen is sent forward to hold a parley with the peace 
party in the city, but being treacherously attacked whilst on foot, he is 
obliged to retire ; upon this the chief men of the city, fearing Vespasian's 
wrath, fly to the Roman camp and ofier their submission, whilst the 
members of the war party who had attacked Valerian deem it prudent 
to run away to Tarichesc. The next day Trajan is sent forward to secure 
the citadel, and the gates are thrown oi:)cn to the Eoman army, but as it 
"was a great while in getting in at the gates, they were so narrow, 
Vespasian commanded the south wall to be broken do\vn, and so made a 
broad passage for their entrance." 

After the capture of Tiberias, Vespasian pitches his camp between 
that city and Tarichese, and fortifies it strongly, "suspecting that he 
should be obliged to stay there and have a long war ; " the soldiers were, 

* M. Ganueau, in his paper on Hippos, adds an interesting note on the 
subject of .^nnabris, from which it ajipears that during a skirmish between Bald- 
win and the Saracens the latter were camped near a place called El-fakkharin in the 
Jordan Valley, whilst the former were at Sinnabra, near the Jordan, opposite the 
ascent of Fik, and three miles from Tiberias ; there was also a bridge of Sinnabra 
which played an important part in the fight. Josephus, B. J. iv, 8. 2, says 
<;ennabrin (Sennabris) was a village at the commencement of the Ghor or Great 
Plain ; Schwarz mentions a ruin called Sinabri, and in Baedeker's Guide I find 
•Sennabris (Es Sinnabra) identified with Kerak. There is no difficulty in identify- 
inst the ruins of the old bridge which connected Kerak with the eastern bank of 
Jordan with the bridge of Sinnabi-a of the fight ; but Kerak itself does not answer to 
the Sennabris of Josephus, as it is too far from Tiberias, and is not visible from that 
place. There are, however, some inconsiderable ruins, such as would be left by 
a ^ illage, situated on the slope of the hills which run down to the lake south 
of Tiberias, within full view of the ruins of the old town, and exactly at the 
required distance, 3| miles, from them. Here, where there is space for Ves- 
pasian's camp, and where the level ground in the Jordan Valley commences, 
was probably Sennabris, and it is not unlikely that the name, after lingering to 
the middle ages, may still be known to the fellahin of Semakh or the Ard el 
Huma. Whether the form Gennabrin given by Josephus, like Gennesareth, 
may retain traces of the old name Chinnereth, is a question for consideration. 



12 TAEICHE.E AND BETHSAIDA. 

however, attacked whilst forming the camp, and it appears never to 
have been completed. 

We here have Vespasian advancing northwards from Scythopolis to 
Tiberias, entering the latter city over its south wall, and passing on to 
camp between Tiberias and Tarichete ; this cannot be reconciled with 
any theory placing Taricheae south of Tiberias, or with the position 
assigned in the note, with some probability, to Sennabris ; we are there- 
fore led to the conclusion that Taricheae was north of Tiberias. 

The actual position of Taricheae must be determined by the topo- 
graphical indications given by Josephus. They arc briefly as follows. 
The city was " situated like Tiberias, at the bottom of a mountain ; and 
on those sides which are not washed by the sea, had been strongly 
fortified by Josephus, though not so strongly as Tiberias." A great 
many ships fitted for sea-fights were possessed by the people. There 
was a plain "before the city," on which a number of Jewish soldiers, 
sufficient to make Titus and 60Q horsemen hesitate before attacking 
them, were assembled. Vespasian sends 2,000 archers " to seize upon 
the mountain that was over against the city, and repel those that were 
upon the wall, which archers did as they were commanded, and pre- 
vented those that attempted to assist them that way." Titus extends 
his horse, and charging across the plain, cuts his way through the Jews : 
but their numbers were so great they were able to force their way 
into the city; a tumult ensues between the peace and war parties, and 
taking advantage of this, Titus rides down to the lake, and marching 
along its shore enters the city. This manoeuvre appears to have discon- 
certed the Jews, and a great slaughter followed, many being " slain as 
they were getting into their ships." In his Life, par. 32, Josephus 
states that Tarichcie was thirty stadia (three and three-quarter miles) 
from Tiberias ; and the size of the place may be inferred from the 
numbers, 45,000, said to have been killed, sold as slaves, or otherwise 
disposed of at the time of the capture. The numbers are evidently much 
exaggerated, but they still indicate a large place. 

Now, just three and three-quarter miles from the ruins of old Tiberias 
(south of the modern town), towards the north, is Mejdel (Magdala), 
and here it seems to me must have been Taricheae. I find from my note- 
book that a considerable extent of ground at Mejdel is covered with 
remains of foundations, apparently those of houses, and that these ruins 
can be traced to the shore of the lake, where there is the tomb of a 
sheikh shaded by a large tree. Behind the village itself the cliif rises 
abruptly, about 1,000 feet, to the plateau on which Irbid lies. We have 
at Mejdel all the requirements of Josephus's narrative ; it lies at the foot 
of a hill like Tiberias ; it appears at one time to have extended to the 
lake ; the beach is admirably suited for drawing up war galleys ; there 
is some level ground to the south on which the fight may have taken 
place; the cliff overhanging the landward face of the town would 
enable the archers "to repel those that were ujion the wall," and the 
shallowness of the lake at this point would be favourable to the form of 
attack adopted by Titus. 



MEGIDDO. 13 

The position of Mejdel is of some importance, commanding tiie north, 
end of the road passing by Tiberias along the western shore of the lake to 
the Jordan Valley, and I would suggest that there was originally nothing 
more than a small fortified position, the IMigdol, Magadan, or Magdala of 
the Bible ; that afterwards the town spread down to the shores of the 
lake, receiving the name of Tarichese ; that this new to\vn was fortified 
by Josephus, the old Migdol becoming the citadel; and that on the 
captui-e and destruction of the town by Vespasian the place sank into 
insignificance. As in many other cases, the later name may have faUen 
into disuse, and the original name, under the form Mejdel, may have 
survived to the present daj'. The camping-place of A^espasian, half-way 
between Tiberias and Tarichea?, would be the plain of Ain Barideh, on 
which, according to a very early Christian tradition, the o,000 were fed. 
There are other minor points connected with the question which need 
not be entered upon at present. 

Betlisaida. — In the " Eecovery of Jerusalem," p. 375 — 3ST, I gave my 
reasons for believing that there was only one Bethsaida, afterwards 
called Juhas, at the point at which the Jordan enters the lake. At the 
time of the visit of Captain Anderson and myself the Jordan was in 
flood, and the state of the country very unfavourable for examination. 
We were, however, stopped in our progress over the plain by a deep 
arm or backwater of the lake, which is shown on the map of the 8ea of 
Galilee, and it has struck me that this may have been either an old bed 
of the Jordan, or an artificial cutting made to isolate the site of Beth- 
saida- Julias in the same way as Kerak is isolated at the point where the 
Jordan leaves the lake. It would almost seem from the map that this 
backwater was the former outlet of the Jordan, and that the river now 
follows the course of an old artificial ditch; and if this were the case, it 
is easy to see how Bethsaida may have been sometimes considered as 
belonging to Galilen. Lieut. Conder will probably have an ojiportunity 
of visiting the ground when the water is lower and the country not 
flooded, and I think the question of the original course of the Jordan at 
this point one well worthy of examination. A few small excavations 
amongst the ruins between the Jordan and the backwater might also 
serve to throw light on the question. 

Novemler 11, 1876. C. W. W. 



MEGIDDO. 

I. 

There are few places in Palestine which possess more general interest 
for students of the Bible than does the ancient Cauaanite city of Megiddo. 
It was here that the death of Josiah, King of Judah and ruler, apparently, 
of the greater part of Palestine, closed the history of the Jewish monarchy, 
being immediately followed by the defeat, at Carchemish, of the victo- 
rious Necho, the siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar (2 Chron. xxxv., 



14 MEGIDPO. 

xxxvi.), and the captivity of the children of Judah. To the student 
of prophecy, again, it is of importance as identical with the "place 
called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon " (hill of Megiddo) (Eev. xvi. 
16). It is curious to find that so important a site has been identified by 
Dr. Robinson on such ajiparently insufficient evidence. 

Megiddo will be found on the map placed about four miles north of 
Taanul-, the ancient Taanach, at the large ruin of Lejjfni, on the western 
edge of the great plain of Esdraelon. Lejjun is undoubtedly the ancient 
Legio, a place well known in the fourth century, and mentioned by 
Jerome as being four miles north of Taanach. There is, however, nothing 
to connect Legio with the Biblical Megiddo. 
The arguments in favour of the site are three. 

1st. That Megiddo is mentioned in many passages in connection with 
Taanach, and was therefore probably near it. 

2nd. That we find, in Judges v. 19, the expression, " then fought the 
kings of Canaan in Taanach, by [Heb. Al, "over"] the waters of 
Megiddo," pointing to the same connection. 

3rd. In Zechariah xii. 11 we read " the mourning of Hadadrimmon in 
the valley of Megiddon." This word is taken by Jerome to be the name 
of a town, and he identifies it as being the place called in his time 
Maximianopolis, " in Campo Magiddo." The distances given by the 
Bordeau Pilgrim serve to fix Maximianopolis at or near the present 
village 0^ Itiimmaneh, near Taanach, as discoveredbyVandevelde, whence 
the identification made by Jerome ; and hence Jerome's supposition that 
the " plain of Legio " (the modern MerJ Ihn 'Amir) is equivalent to the 
" valley of Megiddon " comes to \)Q accepted. 

It will be noticed that none of these arguments fix Megiddo at Lejjun, 
which is only adopted as the most important site near both Taanach and 
the Hadadrimmon of Jerome, in a place well supplied with water, and 
which in the fourth century gave its name to the great plain. Insuffi- 
cient as these arguments evidently are, they have been pretty generally 
accepted, in default of any better proposition, and in consequence of the 
very scanty information as to the position of Megiddo which can be 
gleaned from the historical books of the Bible. 

There are, however, at the outset, objections even to these arguments 
which may be stated as follows : — 

1st. Megiddo is often mentioned in connection with places farther 
east in the Jordan valley. 

2nd. The battle in which Sisera was defeated was not fought at 
Taanach or Megiddo, but near Mount Tabor. This is to be gathered 
from the Biblical account (Judges iv.), and it is clearly stated by 
Josephus that Barak camped " at Mount Tabor. . . . Sisera met them , 
and pitched not far from the enemy " (Antiq. v. 5. 3) ; an account in 
strict accordance with the expression, " And I will draw unto thee to the 
river Kishon Sisera" (Judges iv. 7), for the sources of the Kishon are at 
the place called d ]\fiijahri/('h, or " the springhead," where is to be found 
an extensive chain of pools and springs, "about three miles west of the 
foot of Mount Tabor. 



MEGIDDO. ^ 1;> 

Thus the site of this famous battle is almost identical with that of 
Napoleon's battle of Mount Tabor, and the advantage obtained by Barak 
in his impetuous descent from the mountain on the enemy in the 
plain is evident. Had the battle taken place at Taanach, he would have 
had to come the whole width of the great plain, and would have attacked 
from low ground the enemy on the spurs of the hills far away from the 
main bed of the Kishon. The words " in Taanach," therefore, mentioned 
in connection with the " waters of Megiddo," over which the kings 
fought, must either be taken to be a district name applying to all the 
plain, of which Taanach was the capital, or it must be translated to its 
meaning, " sandy soil." This term is evidently derived, in the case of 
the town of Taanach, from the loose, basaltic soil in its neighbourhood ; 
and the same soil is found all over the great plain and in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Tabor. 

3rd. As regards Hadadrimmon, it is sufficient to remark that Jerome's 
identifications are often extremely misleading, that Megiddo wass- 
evidently unknown at his time, that it is doubtful whether Hadadrim- 
mon was the name of a town or of a pagan deity, and that the 
Hebrew word Bilcah, rendered "valley," is not properly applicable 
(judging by other instances) to a broad plain like that of Esdraelon, but 
rather to a great valley such as that leading down to the Jordan at 
Beisan. 

The discovery that there is an important ruin in the neighbourhood 
of Beisan, called MejedcVa, led me to re-examine the question with the 
view of seeing whether the site would fit the various requisites of the 
case, and the arguments appear to me sufficiently favourable to bear 
discussion. 

II. 

Megiddo occurs in connection with other towns in the following 
passages : — 

Josh. xii. 20, 21. 

Shimron Meron (in Upper Galilee). 

Achshaph (near Accho). 

Taanach (west of the great plain). 

Megiddo. 

Kedesh. 

Jokneam (west of the great plain). 
Again: Josh. xvii. 11. 

Bethshean (in the Jordan valley). 

Ibleam (probably in the same direction). 

Dor. 

Endor (near the Jordan valley). 

Taanach (west of the great plain). 

Megiddo. 
Again ; Judges i. 27. ' 

Bethshean. 



IG , MEGIDDO. 

Taanach. 
Dor. 

Ibleam. 
Megiddo. 
Again : 1 Cliron. vii. 29. 
Betbsliean. 
Taanacli. 
Megiddo. 
Dor. 
Lastly : 1 Kings iv. 12, Solomon's 5th district included. 
Taanach. 
Megiddo. 
Bethsliean. 

Zartanah (below Jezreel). 
It is evident that a position near Beisan is not at variance with the 
Tarious notices of Megiddo in these j)assages. 

Placing Megiddo in this position, the " valley of Megiddon " becomes 
the great A^alley leading down from Jezreel to Bethshean, and the 
" waters of Megiddo " the strong stream of the Nahr Jalud, which 
receives a considerable supply from numerous large springs round the 
site, called MejedcCa. We are thus brought much closer to the neigh- 
bourhood of Tabor, where the battle was fought by the "kings of 
Canaan " against Barak ; nor is the distance from Taanach itself very 
great, as it is situate 14i English miles west of the proposed site at 
MejediVa. 

Two other passages remain in which Megiddo is mentioned : 1st, the 
account of Amariah's flight from Jehu ; and, 2nd, the battle of Megiddo, 
in which Josiah lost his life. 

Amariah flying from Jehu " by the way of the garden house" [Betli- 
hacj-Genn) was slain "by Ibleam. And he fled to Megiddo, and died 
there " (2 Kings ix. 27). The town of Jema is generally supposed to 
represent the garden house, but the explanation of the topography on 
this supposition is extremely confused, as it obliges us to trace the 
flight southwards from Jezreel, and afterwards back northwards (that 
is to say, aioay from Jerusalem) to the supposed site of Megiddo at 
Lejjun. 

If, however, we suppose the Beth-hag -Genu, or " garden house," to be 
the modern Beit Jenn, the flight of Amariah was directed northwards ; 
and there exists in a position intermediate between Jezreel and Beit 
■Jenn a site called BeVamth, which may very probably represent Ibleam. 
In this case the King of Judah by a detour would have reached Megiddo, 
lying on his route towards Jerusalem along the Jordan valley, and it is 
worthy of notice that all the district thus supposed to have been 
traversed is suitable for the passage of a wheeled vehicle. 

As regards the battle of Megiddo there is but little to be said. The 
Egyptian records make it pretty clear that the route across Pales- 
tine, usually followed by the Egyptian armies, was the same as that by 



MEQIDDO. 17 

which the Midianltes descended into Egypt with Joseph, Following 
the great plain northwards until the high Judean watershed and the great 
Samaritan chains were passed, it struck across the lower hills and 
emerged into the plains near Dothan. Thence along the great plain 
of Esdraelon it led towards the valley of Jezreel, and descended by 
Bethshan to the fords of Jordan at the Makhddet 'Abdra. Here the road 
crossed into the plain below the plateau of Mount Gilead, and so con- 
tinued eastwards towards the empire of Assyria. 

There can be but little doubt that this was the route pursued by 
Necho, being the shortest and easiest which he could choose in crossing; 
Palestine; and on this route we find the ruin of Mejedd'a, whilst Lejjiia 
lies some mUes to the north of the line. Still further, there is no point 
at which the King of Judah would be more likely to intercept the ad- 
vance of the Egyptians. To toil over the mountains of Judea, to pass-- 
the hostile district of Samaria, to camp at a spot north of the enemy's 
line of march, and thus to cut himself from his own base of opera- 
tions, would have been a dangerous and difficult, and yet further, an 
extremely improbable course for Hezekiah to pursue ; but an advance 
along the highway of the Jordan valley into a strong position on the 
flank of the enemy, threatening them in their attempt to cross the- 
river, would have been an easy and, sti*ategically, a probable proceeding. 
Any reader who wiU take the trouble to look for a moment at the map ■ 
will see that Mejedd'a, near Bethshan, is a natural place of meeting for 
the Egyptian and Jewish armies. 

As far, then, as the scanty indications obtainable from Biblical ac- 
counts are concerned, there is fair reasons for identifying Megiddo 
with the present Mejedd'a, 



III. 

In three ancient Egyptian documents, Megiddo is mentioned in con— ■ 
nection with other towns, namely : — 1st, in the history of Thothmes 
III., especially in the document called the *' Battle of Megiddo ;" 2nd. 
in the "Travels of a Mohar;" and, 3rd, in the "Geographical List 
of Shishak." 

With regard to the last, it is sufficient to remark, that though ■ 
Taanach occurs in the same list it is separated by ten other names ■ 
from Makedau, which is supposed to represent Megiddo. In the same 
way, in the lists of Thothmes III., Megiddo stands first, as being the 
objective of the campaign; but Taanach, in company with other places 
in the great plain, is to be found in the third group as No. 42 on the 
list. 

It remains to see how the other documents fit with the new site, for 
the difficulties which arise in endeavouring to reconcile these with the 
generally accepted position at Lejjfm are very considerable. 

The Egyptian advance is described with considerable niinutenesp. 
from the "fortress of the land of Sharuana," where the troops as- 

C 



18 MEGIDDO. 

sembled. The advice of the allied chiefs, with regard to the line of 
march, is given as follows (see " Eecords of the Past," vol. i., p. 39) : — 

I.INE. 

26. " They say in reply to his Majesty what is it like going on this 

road 
'11. which leads along so narrow . . . 

31. The enemy were standing at the main roads 

32. of Aaaruna they will not fight. Now as to the course of the main 

roads. 

33. One of the roads it leads . . . us . . . 

34. of the land Aanaka the other leads to 

-35. the north road of G-euta. Let us proceed to the north of 
Maketa. 

36. How will our mighty Lord march on (the way in triumph there) 

Let his Majesty make 

37. us to go on that secret road." 

This advice was, however, rejected by the king with contempt. "I 
^vill go on this road of Aaaruna," said Thothmes, " if there be any 
going on it," and a march over difficult country followed, the third 
fragment commencing as follows : — 

LINE. 

1. " Aaruna the powerful troops of his Majesty followed to 

2. Aaruna the van coming forth to the valley. 

3. They filled the gap of that valley. 

12. (It was the time of) noon when his Majesty reached the south 
of Maketa on the shore of the waters of Kaina it being the 
seventh hour from noon his Majesty pitched . . . 

14. The south horn of the army of his Majesty was at the shore of 
Kaina the northern horn to the north-west of Maketa." 

In j)reviously discussing the question of this march, I found consider- 
able difficulty in reconciling these details with the position of Megiddo 
at Lejjun. As I had then occasion to explain, the site of Arrdneh 
would fit well with the Aaruna of the list of Shishak, but could not be 
reconciled with the present account, supposing Megiddo to be cor- 
rectly identified. (See Quarterly Statement, April, 1876, pp. 90, 91.) 

In the same way we are obliged to seek for Kaina south of Megiddo, 
and this identification is easily made with the important ruin of Ka\m 
in the Jordan valley, supposing Megiddo to be at the newly proposed 
site. 

The route may probably be traced as follows : — 

The main road from Jerdn towards Egypt passes, as I have had 
occasion to explain pi-eviously, along the plain north of Dothan ; the 
easiest route then follows one of the spurs to the north of '-dlr?'a6e/i,^nd 
descends by the villages of Kefr Ba'i, 'EUar, and ^Attil, to the plain of 



MEGIDBO. 19 

Sharon. A little to tlie north is the strong site called Jett, -which 
wovild seem to be the Geuta or Gethuna of Thothmes. 

A second road passing through Jett leads across more open country 
to the neighbourhood of Lejjun, and thence descends by Jezreel into 
the Jordan valley, north of Mejedd'a. This is probably the route which 
the allied chiefs proposed to follow, and though longer it is undoubtedly 
easier than the former. 

The valley of Aaruna, first reached by the troops of Thothmes, is 
probably the plain of Esdraelon, in which 'Ardiieh now stands. It does 
not appear clearly whether they attacked a town of that name, but we 
understand that they advanced to Kaina, south of Maketa, and conse- 
quently we must suppose the main body at least to follow the line of 
the Eoman road eastwai'ds from Jenin to the site of Ka'ilii, in the 
Jordan valley, four Eoman miles south of Mejedd'a. The northern 
horn, which was on the next day to the north-west of Maketa, may very 
possibly have taken a more direct route by the old road through 
'Arraneh across Mount Gilboa. 

As regards the time required for these operations. From the plain 
of Shai'on to Jenin is a distance of fifteen Roman miles, which might 
probably be traversed in five hours, aud from Jenin to Mejedd'a, or to 
Ka'un, is some ten miles farther, or three hours. Thus, leaving the 
neighbourhood of Geuta at 4 a.m., Thothmes might easily have ai'rived 
by noon at the " shores" or border of Kaina. 

This explanation of the topography is not only consistent in itself, 
but the new position of Megiddo serves to confirm the identifications 
proposed by me for several places in the Geographical List. (See 
Quarterly Statement, July, 1876, p. 146.) Thus Nos. 9 and 10, Eaba and 
Tutina {Baha and U?nm et Tut), are now on the line of march, and Nos. 
14, 15, Atara and Abara {et Tireh and el Bireh), in the Jordan valley, 
are a little to the north of the new site for Megiddo. 

Turning to the journey of the Mohar, we find the new site for 
Megiddo also presents less difficulty than the old. (See Quarterly State- 
ment, April, 1876, p. 81.) In this document Megiddo appears in com- 
pany with Beithsheal {JBeisdn), Bohob {Sheikh Arehdh), and the fords of 
Jelden {Wady Jalud), and it would seem to be close to the latter, if we 
accept the most simple rendei-ing of the words : 

" The fords of Jelden, how does one cross them ? let me know the 
passage to enter Mageddo." 

The difficult country of which the Mohar is wax'ned lay apparently 
west of Mageddo, and to avoid it he makes a detour. This is easily 
explained if we accept the new site for Megiddo at the foot of Gilboa, 
and suppose the Mohar to follow that same north road along the valley 
of Jezreel, which was recommended by the allied chiefs to Thothmes, 
and which necessitates a considerable detour before joining the direct 
road to Egypt. 

As far, then, as this document is concei*ned, the site is possible, and, 
indeed, fits in a remarkable manner. Thus not only do the lists of the 



20 NOTES FROM THE MEMOIR. 

Old Testament and those of Thothmes and of Shishak all allow of the 
proposed identification, but the site allows us to trace in a satisfactory 
manner the routes pursued by successive expeditions in various direc- 
tions, namely, that of Thothmes advancing from the south-west, that 
of the Mohar reaching Megiddo from the north, and that of Pharaoh 
Necho in his direct advance on Carchemish. 

IV. 

It only remains to investigate the relations between the Hebrew and 
Arabic words, and to describe the site. 

The Hebrew word Megiddo is apparently derived from the root 
Jeded (to cut down). It is certain that the translators who rendered 
Zech. xii. 1 1 regarded it in that light, for the Greek reading in this 
passage has eKKoirrofj.evos, where the English has Megiddon. This root, 
Jeded, is synonymous in its meanings with another Hebrew root, Jed'a, 
with the guttural Ain, also meaning " to cut down." In Arabic, how- 
ever, the root Jed'a only has this meaning, " to cut down ;" thus the 
Arabic dei'ivative, Mejedi'a, is the equivalent in meaning of the Hebrew 
Megiddo ; and the fact that the Ai-abic root, Jedd, has no connection 
with the Hebrew Jeded, but means " to be large or great," explains in 
a satisfactory manner the existence of the guttural in the Arabic which 
is not found in the Hebrew. 

Mejedd'a means *' the grazing place," or place cut down by sheep. It 
is not improbable that this may be the original meaning of the name 
Megiddo, as the site is situate in a part of the country where a plentiful 
supply of water produces a large crop of hei'bage during the greater 

part of the year. 

As regards the site itself, it resembles most of the more ancient cities 
of Palestine in presenting nothing beyond huge mounds of debris, with 
traces of ruins rendered indistinguishable by age. It has every appear- 
ance of having been at one time a place of importance, and no less than 
four springs exist close to it, the water being clear and good, and a con- 
siderable stream flowing north-east from the ruins to join the NuJn- 
Jalud. The distance from Jenin is ten Roman miles, and from Beiadn 
about four. 

These notes may perhaps serve to show that a place of great im- 
portance, previously identified on very insufficient grounds, has been 
recovered by the Survey pai-ty. The name Mejedd'a will, howevei", be 

found on Murray's new map. 

C. R. C. 



NOTES FEOM THE MEMOIR. 

The following points have been noticed in preparing the nomen- 
clature of the southern sheets of the map since the publication of the 
last Quarterly State/aent. 



NOTES FKOM THE MEMOIR- 21 

Jerusalem Sheet. — During the three months in which the non-com- 
missioned officers were left at Jerusalem in the summer of 1874, they 
were employed in the revision of Major Wilson's Survey of Jerusalem, 
to bring it up to date. Following our usual plan, they were instructed 
to endeavour to obtain every native name in the environs, and in this 
they received most valuable assistance from Dr. Chaplin and other 
residents. The result is the addition of nearly eighty Arabic names 
within the boundaries of the six-inch Survey, but outside the walls of 
the city, the nomenclature within which had already been most carefully 
studied, as is evident to all who consult the larger scale-map of 
Jerusalem. 

One of the most curious discoveries resulting from this work relates to 
Zion. 

(1.) Zio7i has been placed by diiferent authorities in very different 
positions, and generally has been thought by modern writers, as by the 
early Christians, to refer to the higher hUl on which the upper city of 
Josephus stood. The name, however, has never been recovered. Ac- 
cording to Gesenius it means " sunny," and the proper equivalent iu 
Arabic or in Syriac, according to this same authority, is Sahyun. It is a 
remarkable fact that about one and three-quarter mUes west of the 
Jaffa Gate there exists a valley having exactly this name, Wddy Sahyiln. 
It runs southwards towards the Convent of the Cross, and debouches on 
the plain near Beit Sufafa ; duriag part of its course it is called Wddy 
'Ammdr, apparently meaniag " the cultivated valley." This discovery 
may perhaps lead students to consider the name Zion as a district name 
rather than that of a particular mountain.* 

(2.) Another curious point seems to bear on the question of Millo, the 
name of a part of Jerusalem which is rendered Ala-a by the LXX., and 
is thus very probably identical with the Acra of Josephus. The root 
from which the word is derived has the meaning " to fill up," and hence 
it is doubtful whether " a mound " or " a trench filled with water " is to 
to be understood. It has apparently escaped notice that the pool west 
of Jerusalem, commonly called the Upper Pool of Gihon, has a similar 
name. It is called Birket MamUla by Eobinson, and he derives the 
name from the Church of St. Mamilla, which is mentioned by Bernhard 
the Wise, 780 A.D., as existing near, traces of which still remain. By 
the native scribes, however, the word is written Ma Milla, which may 
be rendered Water of Millo. The Arabic root Mela means " to fill," and 
Ma Meld 11 would mean "full of water," but Milla must come from 
another root, Mell, " to hasten," unless it be derived from the Hebrew. 

As regards the mediseval St. Mamilla it is important to know if such 
a saint existed, as the Crusaders were often in the habit of creating 
saints to suit localities, as in the famous instance of St. Architriclinus, at 
Cana of Galilee. 

(3.) A third point of interest relates to the name Mizpeh. Many 

* It is remarkable that in 1334 a.d. Isaac Chelo speaks of Zion as being not 
at but near Jerusalem. 



22 NOTES FROM THE MEMOIR. 

students, including Dean Stanley, are of opinion that a town of this 
name stood on the range now identified with Scopus, north of Jeru- 
salem. The main objection to this view is that no ruins have been 
found in this direction. It will, however, be of interest to scholars to 
hear that the name Sufa, which almost exactly represents the Hebrew 
Mizpeh, refers, according to oiu- nomenclature, to part of the ridge in 
question, which is called 'Arkuh es Suffa, or the " ridge of the view." In 
former notes I have spoken of the probable position of the Mizpeh of 
Samuel and of the later Mizpeh of Jeremiah. 

(4.) Another very curious name occurs in the Jordan valley on 
Sheet 18 of the Sui-vey— viz., Wady Mesaadet 'Aisa, "the valley of the 
ascension of Jesus." It applies to a large valley leading from the ridge 
of the ^Osh el Ohiirdb, a prominent peak north of Jericho, which I have 
proposed as identical with the Eock Oreb. This is not far removed 
from the traditional scene of the temptation of Christ at the Quarantania 
mountain, and it is possible that the name retains some reminiscence of 
a monkish tradition making the ^Osh el Ohiirdb the " high mountain " 
of the temptation. The question, however, requires further investiga- 
tion, for it may also refer to some tradition of Joshua. 

The following are scattered over the southern sheets in various direc- 
tions : — 

(5.) Ashnah. — This town belongs to the Shephelah group (Josh. xv. 
33), occurring between Eshtaol {Eshu'a, according to Vandevelde) and 
Zanoah {ZanWa, Eobinson). M. Ganneau has proposed 'Aslin, which 
supposes the sm to represent the Hebrew shin, the L to take the place 
of N, the 'ain for aleph, and a final N not in the Hebrew. It must be 
remarked that some of these towns, as well as some of those in the next 
group, were certainly north of the boundary of Judah, as given in 
Joshua XV. 1 to 12. Mr. Grove points to the probable identity of 
Ashnah with the £. Asan of the Onomasticon. This is probably, as I 
have already endeavoured to show {Quarterly Statement, July, 1876, 
p. 151), the present Beit Shenna, two and a half miles north of 'Amwas. 
The only objection to the identification of this spot with Ashnah is that 
the place is north of the boundary line of Judah, but the same objection 
applies to the sites of Zoreah, Eshtaol, Naameh, Beth Dagon, Adithaim, 
and Gederah, which are nevertheless fixed with tolerable certainty, 

(6.) Aloth (1 Kings iv. 16), in the tribe of Asher, means " higher 
places." It does not appear to have been suggested that this is the 
present 'Alia (i.e., " higher place") in a position which seems to fit the 
account of the division into districts. 

(7.) Beth Dagon. — This is one of the points on the boundary of 
Zebulon (Josh. xix. 27). Other points on this line — Zebulon, Neiel, and 
Shihor Libnath — I have already noticed, as all leading to the suppo- 
sition that the Eiver Belus formed the northern boundary of Zebulon. 
Beth Dagon was apparently on this same line, near the western end of 
the boundary. This leads to the identification with the large site called 
Tell Dauk, which will be found on the Survey sheet close to the banks 



NOTES FROM THE MEMOIR. 23 

of the Belus. The'cliange is similar to that of the name Dagon, applying- 
to a place near Jericho, called afterwards Doch, and now Duk. 

(8.) Cities of the Plain. — Our information as to these cities is so slight 
that any notes will be of interest. The Eev. W. F. Birch, of Manchester, 
suggests to me the identity of Admah with the " City Adam " of Joshua 
iii. 16, the modern Damieh probably representing the name at the point 
where the plain of Jordan contracts into a narrow valhy. Of Ghomorrah 
I have already spoken. Zoar we seem to owe to Dr. Tristram. Sodom 
and Zeboim alone remain entirely without a suggestion. 

(9.) The Cities of the Midhar (Josh. xv. 61).— This group of six towns 
includes Engedi, and they have been sought accordingly in the desert 
west of the Dead Sea. The entire absence of ruins or of water in this 
district is very much against the supposition that it was ever inhabited. 
It would seem more probable that the cities stood on the hills skirting 
the desert. The first of these cities has been supposed identical with the 
Beth Arabah of Josh. xv. 6 ; but it is worthy of notice that according 
to the Talmud there was a place called Beth Arabah near Bethlehem 
(see Quarterly Statement, April, 1876, p. 98). Secacah, the third of the- 
to-wns in question, may perhaps be the present ruin called Khurlet e$ 
Sikheh, and also ed Dikkeh east of Jerusalem. Engedi is already well 
kno-wn, and it is very tempting to suppose the " city Maleh," or "of 
Salt " to be Tell el Milh east of Beersheba. The identification of this 
last site with Moladah of the Negeb does not rest on a very secure 
basis, and the latter site may prove to be farther west, perhaps at the 
present Tell Melciha. Two of the six cities, Nibshan and Middin, remain 
-without any suggested site. 

(10.) Another question of considerable interest regards the Cities of the 
Negeb, some of which belong to Judah, some to Simeon. The total 
number of this group is given as twenty-nine in the Hebrew ; but the 
number of names as translated in the Authorised Version is no less thaa 
thirty-seven. Many of these towns are far south of the limits of the 
Survey, such for instance as Kedesh and Hezron, and probably Eder 
and Heshmon; but others have been identified as some fifteen miles 
north of Beersheba ; and the Negeb included, as we know, the neighbour- 
hood of Debir, even farther north. The word Negeb, "dry land," so 
evidently refers to the waterless chalky district in the south of Palestine,, 
that the limits of the Negeb may very naturally be considered to exist 
at the line where the formation changes, giving place to the harder 
limestone. In this case the country west of Debir and north of Beer- 
sheba must be included in the Negeb, as we know it was included in the 
Christian district of Daroma, which is synonymous in meaning. 

In this country are a large number of ruins, and their names immedi- 
ately recall many of the group of Negeb towns, as will be seen from the 
following list of possible identifications : — 

1. Hormah (Zephath). Sulifat. 

2. Sharuhen. T. esh Sheri'ah. 

3. Shilhim. Kh. Shelkhah (?) 



24 NOTES FKOM THE MEMOIR. 



4. Aslian. 


'Aseileh. 


5. Etam. 


'Aitun. 


6. Hazar Susim. 


Beit Susin. 



HormaJu — The meaning in Hebrew is " destniction," and it is tvnce 
nsed (Numb. xxi. 3 ; Judges i. 17) to denote places where a destruction 
Tiad been made. There is no reason, however, to conclude that the site 
is the same in the two cases, and indeed the fact that the historical 
origin is different in each case, seems clearly to point to two sites. 
The town in question was called Sephath, and only named Hormah after 
its destruction; some of the towns in its neighbourhood may be 
identified as being north-west of Beersheba, hence geographically the 
site of Sulifdt would be suitable, whilst it represents the Hebrew 
Zephath more closely than any formerly proposed name. Close to 
Sulifat is a large mound called Tell Hora, in which name possibly we 
liave a trace of the second name Hormah. 

(11.) Berea. — The account of the advance of Bacchides on Jerusalem 
(1 Mace. ix. 4 ; Ant. xii. 11), contains some points of topography little 
understood. The town of Berea where he encamped is called apparently 
Beth Zetho by Josephus. Judas Maccabeus encamped at Eleasa, or, 
.according to another reading, at Adasa. Bethzetho is thought to be 
a corrupt reading for Berzetha. Eleasa was apparently farther from 
Jerusalem than Berea. The defeated troops were pursued to Mount 
Azotus (or Aza, according to Josephus) (1 Mace. ix. 4). Bacchides was 
. advancing from Arbela in Galilee, and the mention of Adasa shows that 
the place of the battle is north of Jerusalem. 

The Survey clears up the whole of this question in a remarkable 
.manner, by the following identifications : — 

1. Berea. el Bireh. 

2. Adasa. Khurbet 'Adaseh. 



Bir ez Zeit. 



3. Berzetho. ) 

4. Mount Azotus. j 

5. Eleasa. Khurbet H'asa. 



(12.) Janoah, a town of Naphtali, probably the modern Yamikh, near 
the western limits of the territory of this tribe (2 Kings xv. 29). This 
is, I believe, a new identification. 

(13.) Oiloh (Josh. XV. 51) is possibly the present Khurbet Jala. 

(14.) Jeshua (Neh. xi. 2G), a town near Beersheba, is very probably 
'the important ruin of S'nwi in this direction ; the letters being the 
same with a slight introversion. 

(15.) Makaz (1 Kings iv. 9).— Possibly the modem Kh. Makkus, written 
with the Had. 

(16.) Rahhith, a town of Issachar (Josh. xix. 20). The two next towns 
on the list are unknown, though Abez might perhaps be the modem 
Yahid ; but Rabbith seems very probably towards the southern limits of 
the tribe. In this direction we find the modem Raba, a place of import- 



NOTES FROM THE MEMOIR. 25 

ance, situate soutli-east of Jenin, and due east of Bdnwlc, supposed to 
be the Eemeth of Issachar. 

(17.) Sarid. — This place is one of the unknown points on the southern 
boundary of Zebulon (Josh. xix. 10-12). It is to be sought near the 
north boundary of the great plain, and between Chisloth {Iksal) and 
Jokmeam {Tell Keimun). This is the position of the large ruin Tell Shad- 
dud. It is possible that we should read Shadid instead of Sharid, and 
this supposition is strengthened by the LXX. reading SeSSook. The 
confusion of D and E, in Hebrew and Aramaic is Avell known to be of 
constant occurrence. 

(18.) Tirzah. — This important town, once the capital of Israel, has 
been identified (though not with great confidence) by Eobinson as being 
the modern Tullvza. 

The argument in favour of the site cannot be taken from similarity of 
name, because the Arabic ta does not properly represent the teth, nor 
does the 7.ain ever take the place of tzadi as far as yet proved. The 
double L also remains to be accounted for. Brocardus speaks of Thersa 
as " on a high mountain, three leagues from Samaria to the east." 
Tiilluza is only six English miles from Samaria, and is not on a high 
mountain. At the distance of twelve English miles is an important and 
ancient site, standing in well-wooded country, on the main road from 
Nablus to Beisan, and called Teiasir. The word is spelt with the sad, 
and the identification supposes only the introversion of the last two 
letters, as the first letter is a te (or tetJi). The site seems well fitted to 
represent an ancient and important town, and there are numerous 
ancient sepulchres and caves north of the village, which may perhaps 
include the tombs of the first four kings of Israel buried at Tirzah 
(1 Kings xvi. 6). Full notes of the antiquities of this site have been 
made during the course of the Survey. 

(19.) Zaanaim (Elon Bezaanaim) may be rendered "the plain 
of Bezanaim," and is rendered by the Targum " plain of swamps," i.e., 
BiTZAH, in modern Arabic BassaJi. In the Talmud also (Tal. Jer. Megilla 
70a) the B is evidently considered an integral part of the name from the 
translation Atjina Kedesh, Agina being the rendering of Bitzah, "a 
swamp" (Josh. xix. 33). It has been supposed identical with the place 
called Plain of Zaanaim (Elon Bezaanaim), near Kedesh (Judges iv. 11), 
but the towns mentioned in connection with this plain, namely Adami, 
Nekeb, &c., are easily identified with places east of Tabor, ed DameTi, 
Naldh, &c. 

It is remarkable that Barak called together the children of Israel in 
Kedesh, and then took up a position on Mount Tabor. It seems highly 
probable that this is another Kedesh, not Kadesh Naphtali, which is 
thirty English miles from Tabor, and separated by some of the most 
difi&cult country in Palestine. In this case we may very probably sup- 
pose Bezanaim to have been east of Tabor, and may identify it with the 
modern Bessiim. This is a discovery of no little importance as bearing 
on the whole account of the battle of Tabor, and on the position of 



26 



NOTES FEO^t THE MEMOIR. 



Harosheth of the Gentiles, wkich may very probably be placed at el 
HaratMyeh. The site of this Kedesh has still to be recovered, and there 
are independent reasons for supposing a town of this name to have 
existed in the same direction, probably at the place now called Kadis 
on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. 

(20.) Zanoah (Josh. xv. 56) was identified by Eobinson as the present 
Zanuta, but there are philological and topographical objections to this 
view. The name Zendkh, applying to a valley beneath the important 
ruin of Beit 'Amrah, represents the Hebrew far more closely, and the 
ruin is apparently in the required position, though it would seem to 
have lost its original name, the modem one meaning only "the in- 
habited building." 

(21.) Zereda, the birthplace of Jeroboam (1 Kings x. 26), is possibly 
the modem Surdeh, one and a quarter miles south of Jufna, and therefore 
within the limits of Mount Ephraim, as we gather Zereda to have been 
from the LXX. interpolation (1 Kings xii. 24.) 

(22.) Zemaraim, a town of Benjamin (Josh, xviii. 22), has long been 
identified as the present Khuriet Sumra in the Jordan valley, but the 
reason why the name is in the plural is explained by the Survey, for two 
ruins of the name Sumra will be found close to one another. The name of 
Mount Zemaraim (2 Chron, xiii. 4) also possibly survives in the modern 
Tal'at es Sumra. 

(23.) Out of about 400 places in Western Palestine known to the 
authors of the Onomasticon, only some twenty remain now to be fixed. 
The early Christian topography is indeed far more completely recovered 
than could have been foreseen. Among the places not fixed are the 
following : — 

Ailom, or Aialon, is also mentioned as a place three miles east of Bethel. 
This would seem to be the modern 'Alia. Jerome identifies it with 
Ajalon, but states that the Jews in his time considered Alus {Yalo), near 
NicopoHs ('Amwas), to be the true site, as it is now held to be. 

(24.) Two Talmudic sites have also fallen into place, namely: 1st. 
Beth Eima (Mishna Menachoth, viii. 6), a place in the Judean hiUs, 
whence good wine was brought. It is no doubt the modern Beit Rima 
in the hill country north of Jerusalem. 2nd. En Kuslii is mentioned 
(Tal. Jer. Abodah Zarah, v. 4) as near Kefr Shalem, apparently in 
Samaria ; this would seem to be the spring below Kh. Kefr Ki/s, one and 
a half miles north-west of Salim, near Nablus. 

(2o.) Another site, Naarath, which is noticed more than once as on the 
boundary of Ephraim (Josh. xvi. 7), may possibly be fixed by the 
following evidence : — 

1. Naorath is mentioned in the Onomasticon as being five miles from 
Jericho, which is the position of a ruin called Khiirhet el Aujeh (a com- 
mon Arabic name meaning "crooked," taken from the valley near the 
ruin). 

2. Josephus (Ant. xvii. 1.3, 1) mentions that Herod " diverted half the 
water with which the village of Neara used to be watered, and drew off 



NOTES FEOM THE MEMOIR. 



27 



that water into the plain to water those palm-trees which he had planted." 
An ancient aqueduct leads to the ruin noted above from 'Aia Diik, and 
several channels lead out of it at right angles, evidently for purposes of 
irrigation. This, coupled with the distance given in the Onomasticon, 
seems to point clearly to the identity of Naarath with Khurhet el Atljeh.* 

(2G.) Laish, near Anathoth (Isaiah x. 30), is possibly el Ismoiyeh, in 
the required direction. 

(27.) Another discovery of no little interest is the name of one of the 
Jordan fords, el Mandeseh, which means "the place struck." It is 
situate north-east of Jericho, and we are immediately reminded of the 
verse 2 Kings ii. 8 : — . 

" And Elijah took his mantle and wrapped it together and smote the 
waters, and they were divided hither and thither, so that they two went 
over on dry ground."! 

(28.) The present name of Herodium, where Herod was buried, is 
Jehel Fureidis, or " little paradise mountain." The word is a diminutive 
of Ferdua, " a paradise." We have over and over again had occasion to 
remark i'ka.i foreigmvords—lj&iva., Greek, or Frankish— undergo strange 
metamorphoses in the Fellah language. It is not impossible that Ferdiis 
is a corruption of Herodus, and this supposition is strengthened by a 
discovery which I made personally in the middle of the country of a 
sepulchre to which the title Kahr el Meleh Ferdiis applied. This can 
scarcely be supposed to mean, " tomb of King Paradise," but may mean 
"tomb of King Herod," being probably one of the many Idumean 
princes who bore the name. This explanation would account for the 
modem name of Herodium, and serve to still more certainly identify the 
site. 

(29.) Another very curious name applies to a remarkable rock feature 
near Et TeU, Major Wilson's Ai. It is called Burjmus> and the word 
having five radicals, cannot be Arabic or Hebrew. It is, however, 
exactly the pronunciation which would be given by the natives to the 
Greek wepyafMos, which means originally " a high rock." We have here 
a Greek word preserved, a fact of very rare occurrence in Palestine-! 
Farther north we find a Latin word, also corrupted in a cui-ious manner, 
for the fortress which is called District (Petra Incisa) by William of 
Tyre, is now known as Dustrey. 

(30.) A sacred place called Jami'a AbuNejeim, " Mosque of the Son of 

* Naarath, or Naaran, is also mentioned in the Talmud (Medrash Ekha i. 17) 
in connection with Jericho. 

t It must, however, be remarked that there is on Sheet 9 a marsh called el 
Mondesi, so that the word would appear to apply to the character of the ground 
near the ford. The other name of the marsh is el Maskeniijeh, or ' ' place of 
sinking." Freytag in his Lexicon gives "to be prostrate," and " to exude" (of 
water from the sides of a well) as other meanings of the root Nedcs, the primary 
meaning being "to strike" — with a spear, or club, &c. 

X In the same way the Arabic Burj is the Greek irvpyos, " a tower," though 
perhaps not immediately derived from it. 



28 NOTES FROM THE MEMOIR. 

the Star," exists about two miles soutli-west of Jebel Fureidis, not far 
from the Pool of Solomon. 

The neighbourhood of Bether {Bitter) suggests a possible connection 
with Bar Chozeba (perhaps named from the town Chozeba, now Kueiziba, 
about seven miles farther south), called by his followers Bar Chochebas, 
^'Son of the Star." 

(31.) The name Kahr Hebrun, "grave of Hebron," applies to an 
ancient Jewish sepulchre outside Hebron on the west. The origin and 
ajitiquity of the name I am not able to vouch for, but the fact is well 
worthy of notice. 

(32.) On Sheet 21 (Hebron Hills) there are several points of con- 
siderable interest to be noted. 

The present site of Mamre is shown at the BaUutet Sehta, or "oak 
of rest," a fine old tree, almost entirely withered, near the Russian 
Hosjace, north-west of Hebron. Close to this site is a spring called 'Ain 
Khcir ed Din, "spring of the choice of faith." This is probably due to 
a tradition of Abraham's choice of faith. "And I will make my 
covenant between me and thee " (Gen. xvii. 2). 

It is often impossible to obtain from the peasantry the traditions 
attaching to such names, and when obtained it is uncertain what may 
be their antiquity, but the present name is interesting in connection 
with the Kabr Hebrun, and the passage speaking of "the field of 
Machpelah before Mamre, the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan " 
(Gen. xxiii. 19), and it is further remarkable that the name of Canaan 
is still applied to a ruined site close to Hebron on the south {Khurhet 
Kan' an). 

(33.) The origin of the name Sirah, the well where Abner was 
killed (2 Sam. iii. 26), is also of interest. It means "withdrawn," and 
the present name, 'Ain Sareh, has the same meaning. It is probably so 
called from its position being reached by a little alley leading out of the 
main road. The modern name might be thought to be connected with 
Sarah, Abraham's wife, but Sirah is spelt with SamecJi, which is pro- 
perly represented by the Arabic sin, 

(34.) Hagar's Spring. — On the same sheet. No. 21, south-west of 
Hebron and east of Dura, is a fountain called 'Ain el Ilejeri, " spring 
of the fugitive," or, as it might also be rendered, "of Hagar." This 
cannot really represent the Beer Lahai Roi (Gen. xvi. 7-14) which is to 
be sought south of Beersheba, but may be connected with a traditional 
site of the occiirrences mentioned in this chapter, being situate on the 
high road from Hebron to the desert of Shur. 

(35.) Three other indications of places mentioned in Scripture may 
be added : — 

1. Meronoth, a town mentioned Neh. iii. 7, possibly the present 
Hferrina. 

2. Haruph, the home of one of David's heroes, probably the present 
Khurhet Kharuf. 

3. Lohnah, noticed by the Onomasticon as identical with Libnah, and 



NOTES TROM THE MEMOIR. 29 

situate in the district of Eleutheropolis, is not improbably the large 
ruin called Beit el Ban in the required direction. 

(36.) Talmudic Sites. — About 350 places in Western Palestine are 
noticed in the Talmudic writings, the large majority being incidentally 
referred to in the Gemara. Nearly 230 of these are easily identified, 
and the following new proposals may be added : — 

1. Ferha (Mish. KeHm, xvii. 5; Orlah, iii. 7) is generally identified 
mth Ferhha, but the name is more properly represented by Beit Furik. 
Its nuts are mentioned in the Mishna, and walnuts still flourish in the 
neighbourhood of the modem B. Furik. 

2. Bekiin or Pekiin, in or near the maritime plain (Tal. Jer. Chagiga, 
3a ; Tal. Bab. Sanhed. 32b) is not impossibly the present Wady Fukin. 

3. Anath, a town built by the giant Ahiman (Tal. Bab. Yoma, 10a) is 
not improbably the early Christian Anna, " a city above Jericho," and 
very probably the modem Xefr 'Ana, north of Bethel. 

4. Kefr Likitia, (o) Hamthau, (6) and Bethel of Judali were places 
where Hadrian placed posts to stop the Jews flying from Bether 
(Midrash Ekha, ii. 3). They are, therefore, to be sought on the main 
roads leading from Bether, and may very well be identified with the 
places called El Kalt on the southern main road, Khamasa (Emmaus) on 
the western road, and Beit Aula (Elath or Ailaof the Talmud and LXX.) 
on the south-western. 

7. Kcruthim, a word in the plural, referring, therefore, apparently to 
more than one place, is noticed (Mish. Menachoth, ix. 7) as a place 
whence the best wine was obtained. There are, in the Shephelah, 
within the boundaries of Samaria, two villages called Kerdwa near each 
other, and at one of these, Kerdwa Ihn Hasan, are unusually numerous 
remains of ancient cultivation, wine-presses, and vineyard towers. 

8. Yassilh, a place which has never been correctly fixed. Neubauer 
identifies it Avith the Yassuf of the Samaritan book of Joshua, which I 
have proposed to identify with the modern Yassuf. It is noticed with 
the next. 

9. Patris, noticed in connection with Antipatris (Tosiphta Demoi, 
ch. i.) is probably the village of Bxidrus, not far from Rds el 'Ain 
(Antipatris). 

(37.) Early Christian Sites.— A very curious remnant of a Greek name 
has just presented itself. Nearly all the long titles given by the Greeks 
to places in Palestine, e.g., Nicopolis, Maximianopolis, Diocletianopolis, 
have entirely disappeared or have left but a fragmentary reminiscence, 
as el 'Atr for Eleutheropolis, esh Shok for Scythopolis. In the latter 
category we may now rank Aristohulias, a city near the wilderness of 
Ziph, mentioned in the life of St. Euthymias (see Reland, p. 685), and 
noticed with Kephar Barucha, the present Beni Na'im. Close to Tell 
Zif, which is near the last-mentioned place, is the large ruin of Isiabfd, 
which, having four radicals, cannot be referred to any known Arabic 
or Hebrew root. We can scarcely hesitate in recognising in this name 
the remains of the Greek title Aristohulias. 



30 CHEISTIAN AND JEWISH TRADITIONS. 

Cydoessa, a town noticed by Josephus as near Paneas, is evidently 
the modem Kadeisa. 

Oitta, the native place of Simon Magus (Justin Martyi", Apolog. ii.) 
is generally supposed to be the modern Kurict Jit, but it may much 
more properly be placed at J eft, the Gath of the lists of Thothmes HI. 
All that is known of Gitta is that it was a Samaritan town, which would 
fit with the proposed site. 

The following is a rough conspectus of our present information of 
topography in Palestine : — 

Biblical sites 420 known . . 160 unknown . . 580 total. 

Talmudic sites 240 ,, ..110 ,, .. 350 ,, 

Early Christian sites . . 370 ,, ..30 ,, . . 400 ,, 

Many of the imknown sites lie beyond the bounds at present sur- 
veyed. 

C Iv. C. 



CHEISTIAN AND JEWISH TEADITIONS. 

The question of the value to be attached to traditions concerning 
Biblical sites is one of so great imj^ortance that many readers will be 
interested in knowing what bearing the Survey of Palestine has upon it. 
The following remarks are intended to illustrate the value in various 
cases of the early and mediaeval writings, both Christian and Jewish, in 
instances which have not been touched by general controversy, but from 
which we may draw deductions to guide us in the more important 
questions, especially as regards Jerusalem topography. 

Whatever may be the history of the early Christian Church in Pales- 
tine, and the continuity of its traditions, it cannot be denied that from a 
literary point of view there is a break between the New Testament 
writings and the earliest pilgrimages of nearly 200 years. We find, 
indeed, in the writings of Justin Martyr (circ. 150 a.d.) a reference to 
the grotto of Bethlehem, but the earliest account of the sacred places of 
Palestine is the Jerusalem Itinerary (a.d. 333), composed by the anony- 
mous pilgrim of Bordeau, who visited the city just at the time of the 
building of Constantino's Basilica. 

That the Christians were in the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries spread 
tnrough the whole country the Survey abundantly testifies : from the 
deserts of Beersheba to the slopes of Hermon we have come across 
innumerable convents and churches which cannot be dated later than 
this period. The nomenclature of the country bears witness to the 
existence of flourishing communities, charitable convents, and holy 
Christian sites, in every part, and the titles given to many ruins show 
the fate they finally underwent in perishing by fire. 

It was during this time (a.d. 420) that St. Jerome came to Palestine 
and commenced in the dark grotto at Bethlehem his translation of the 



CHKI3TIAN AND JEWISU TiiADITIONS. 31 

Bible. He was, as is well known, one of the few fathers of that period 
who were acquainted with Hebrew ; and it would appear also that he 
understood the Aramaic, which was, as ho informs us, in his day the lan- 
guage of the natives. To him we owe the first attempt at a Bible dic- 
tionary, in his enlarged translation of the Onomasticon of Eusebius. 
The work contains some 400 places in Western Palestine, defined with 
sufficient exactitude to allow of their being still recognised. The study 
of this work leads, as I have often had occasion to remark in former 
papers, to two very clear conclusions. 

1st. That St. Jerome's knowledge of the country was most intimate 
and accurate. That he had traversed almost the whole of Palestine, and 
had been able to note the direction and distances of places so exactly 
that they measure sometimes to a few hundred yards on the map. This, 
probably, was because the milestones on the great Roman roads were 
stiU in use. 

2nd. That similarity of name was considered sufficient reason for 
identifying a Scriptural with a then existing site without any very 
careful examination into the question whether the position was geo- 
graphically satisfactory. It follows that although the identification is 
often correct, Jerome's opinion cannot of itself be considered authorita- 
tive, unless supported by other considerations. 

In order to clearly establish this statement it wiU. be well to give the 
most striking instances in which accui'ate information has been com- 
bined with inaccurate conclusions ; but in justice to the memory of the 
great man whose work we are now able thus to criticise, it must be 
i-emembered that the number of instances in which he has enabled us to 
preserve undoubted traces of the Scriptural nomenclature equals, if it 
does not surpass, these instances of error. 

In the Onomasticon we find AduUam fixed as ten Eoman miles east of 
Eleutheropolis, or about the position of the new site at 'J idelmd, but this 
is coupled with the extraordinary statement, " which also is Eglon " (a 
city known to exist at 'Ajldn, eighteen miles south-west, at a site which 
is mentioned by Jerome under the name Agla, and actually suggested as 
identical with Beth Hogla, now known to be 'Ain Hajleh, in the Jordan 
vaUey, or quite on the opposite side of Palestine). The origin of this 
mistake as to Eglon has been explained by M. Granneau in his paper on 
Adullam. 

Another striking instance is Jerome's identification of Ajalou as being 
three miles east of Bethel, evidently the modern 'Alia ; for he admits 
that the Jews in his time considered Ajalon to be situate at a village 
called Alus, "not far from Nicopolis " — evidently the modern Yalo, now 
generally accepted as representing Ajalon. This error is also remark- 
able because Jerome knew of the position of the upper and nether 
Bethhoron, which renders his site for Ajalon qitite inadmissible. 

The ideas formed of the position of the tribe boundaries must have 
been very vague, for Jerome places Gibeah of Benjamin, or of Saul, 
which he confuses with Gibeah Phineas (now Awertah), between Beth- 



32 CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRADITIONS. 

lehem and Eleutheropolis, evidently at the modem i/ei'ct, whereas the 
proximity of Michmash and Eamah, both of which he identifies cor- 
rectly, should have suggested quite a different direction. 

Again, in speaking of Neiel (now Ya'nui), on the boundary of Asher 
and Zebulon, he suggests Betocenea, which, as I have shown previously, 
must be the modern 'Aiiin, in the territory of Manasseh. And again, 
he makes the same place to be Bethanoth of Naphtali, speaking with 
even greater certainty. 

Anob, a city close to Debir, in the extreme south of the hills of Judah, 
is transported by the Onomasticon to the neighbourhood of the low hills 
at Heit Nuba. Jerome hesitates between this site and that of 'AnndbeJi, 
a little farther north. Anab was fixed by the Survey at 'Andb, close to 
edh Dhdheriyeh (proposed by me as identical with Debir). 

Beth Arbel was the farthest northern limit of Palestine, and is to be 
sought north of Tyre and Sidon ; yet Jerome would place it in the great 
plain, nine miles from Legio, evidently the modern 'Ariiboneh, on the 
boundary between Galilee and Samaria. Anim, a town in the Negeb, is 
supposed by Jerome to be situate at " the terebinth," now called 
"Abraham's house," north of Hebron. Yet the site now accepted as 
that of Anim, the modern cl GMweln, is fixed with considerable precision 
in the Onomasticon, and the fact that there were two sites, " the upper " 
and " the lower," which are both still in existence, is noted, but one of 
these he supposes to be Anob, which he had already fixed in another 
position ; whilst he would seem to place a second Anim at the vipper 
site, which he notices as entirely Christian in its population, Ain, the 
city of Simeon, also supposed to be Bethemin, two miles from "the tere- 
binth," evidently the modern Beit ' Ainun, far away from the territory of 
Simeon. 

It is clear from the account given in Joshua xv. that the Valley of 
Achor, where Achan was stoned, lay south of Jericho, probably being 
the present Wddy Kelt, but Jerome notes the existence of the name north 
of Jericho. His identification of Ebal and Gerizim as being in the same 
neighbourhood has been enlarged upon in a former paper {Quarterly 
Statement, October, 1876). 

A few other important errors may still be added, including the sup- 
position that Emmav;s Nicopolis was the Emmaus of the Gospel, and 
that Makkedah was eight miles east of Eleutheropolis, or in the hills of 
Judea. It is also inexplicable how .Ferome can suppose Engannim of 
Judah to have been close to Bethel, yet he places it there evidently at 
the modern ^Ain Kduia. Gedor, again, a town in the hills near Hebron, 
he supposes to be Gedrus, which from the distances given is evidently the 
present Jedireh, not far from Gezer and Ekron in the plains, and pro- 
bably identical with the ancient Gederah of Judah. 

From this weight of testimony there is no escape. It shows clearly 
that the Christian writers of the fifth century were treating of a country 
strange to them, and of a topography which had been at least partially 
lost. Though the greatest scholar, and perhaps one of the ablest men 



CHEI3TIAN AND JEWISH TRADITIONS. 33 

of his time, St. Jerome was evidently puzzled in regard to the whole 
question of the ancient topography, and unable to settle many impor- 
tant points in spite of a complete acquaintance with the country as then 
existing. 

In the Onomasticon we see tradition not made, but in the process of 
making. The method by which the early fathers endeavoured to arrive 
at an understanding of Scripture geography was apparently not far 
■different from that employed by modern writers ; the miraculous dis- 
covery of sacred sites dates later, and has no place in the writings of 
Jerome, and the main difference which we detect is that when a father 
of the church jumped at a conclusion not strictly warranted by his 
facts, his opinion was generally adopted without being subject to the 
very strict criticism of our day. 

It is scarcely to be expected that the reliability of tradition would in- 
crease with the lapse of time. The period between the early centuries of 
church history and the Crusades was one of trouble in Palestine. From 
the era of the Hegira down to 1100 a.d., the opportunities of studying 
the geography of the country were few and small. The early travellers, 
Arculphus and WillibaJd in the eighth, and St. Bernhard in the ninth 
century, followed nearly the same route, and treat principally of the 
more important sites which it is not proposed now to touch on. One 
thing only is very remarkable, namely, the gradual increase in the 
number of sacred places ; Arculphus only notices about half a dozen 
sites in Jerusalem, but St. Bernhard, little more than a century later, 
mentions nearly twenty, and Scewulf in 1102 adds many more. In 
crusading times there were upwards of twenty churches in Jerusalem, 
all supposed to mark sacred spots ; but the only one which can claim an 
antiquity at all equal to that of the church of the Anastasis, appears to 
be that of the Tomb of the Virgin, in the Valley of Jehoshaphat. 

With the advent of the Crusaders we enter upon a new era, and upon 
a traditional topography of a new and entirely different character. There 
is now no doubt that we deal with men entirely strange to the country, 
and very ill acquainted with the contents of the Bible. 

It is here for the first time that we meet with undoubted instances of 
transference of tradition, and as this question has an important bearing 
on many disputed points, some instances may be of value. 

The best known instance of such transference relates to the site of the 
martyrdom of St. Stephen. A very early tradition fixed this on the 
north side of Jerusalem, outside the Damascus Gate, and near the spot 
where the ruins of the crusading Asnerie have lately been recovered ; as 
late as the time of Scewulf (1102 a.d.) the site was unchanged, and 
WiUiam of Tyre still places it north of the city ; but St. Stephen's Gate 
is now shown on the east of Jerusalem. 

More important places were in the same way transferred to new sites, 
and the most remarkable case is that of Capernaum. To Jerome 
Arculphus, Willibald, and other early travellers, Capernaum was 
known as situated on the shores of the Sea of Galilee , but in 1160 a.d., 

D 



34 CHEISTIAK Airo JEWISH TRADITIONS. 

Benjamin of Tudela places it at a site whicli lie calls Kefr Thancum 
between Haifa and Caesarea. I have already sliown [Quarterly Statement, 
Jan. 1876) that the distances given by him fix this site at the modem Kefr 
Lam, which is probably thus a corruption of Refer Nam or Capernaum. 
Kefr Thancum is probably the Kefar Tanhum of the Talmud, a name 
somewhat resembling the Talmudic Kefar Nahum, which seems undoubt- 
edly to be identical with Capernaum. As early, however, as the time of 
Jerome the H had been changed to \iin in this word, for he translates 
Capernaum " villa pulcherrima " (NArM), instead of " town of consola- 
tion " (Nahtjm). 

We find the same site for Capernaum again noticed in the Itinerary of 
Hichard I. with circumstances which still further serve to fix it as situate 
at Kefr Lam, for the king, after halting there, proceeds to the "house 
of narrow ways," evidently situate at the point south of the Tillage, 
where a rocky passage has been cut through to give a communication 
between the plain and the shore separated by a sandstone ridge. Farther 
on in the same narrative we find Maon mentioned among the castles in 
the maritime plain destroyed in 1191 a.d. by Saladin, and Eabbi Ben- 
jamin of Tudela informs us that Maon was the same place as Capernaum. 
The remains of a fine crusading fortress are still visible in the modern 
village of Kefr Lam. 

This site thus furnishes us with a double instance of ti'ansference. 
Maon was known to be close to Carmel, the city of Judah, where Nabal 
lived, the true site [Mahi] was well known to Jerome, who carefully 
distinguishes between the town of Nabal (now Kurmid) soiith of Hebron 
and Mount Carmel, where Elijah oifered his sacrifice. This distinction 
was unknown to the Crusaders who, being only acquainted with the 
mountain, were forced to transfer the site of Maoa a distance of nearly 
one hundred miles, to a place in the vicinity of Mount Carmel. 

Tyre and Sarepta, in like manner, were transferred southwards to the 
very same neighbourhood. Sarepta is correctly placed in the Ouomas- 
ticon in the neighbourhood of Sidon " by the public road," evidently at 
the real site of the modern Stirfend, and Tyre was known to William of 
Tyre, who was bishop there for many years. Yet this author, in'com- 
pany with other medijBval writers, speaks of " ancient Tyre " as a site 
south of Caipha and seemingly the modern 'Athlit, the cmsading 
Castellum Perigrinorum. This curious mistake necessitated two others. 
Porphyrion was a town near Tyre, and is accordingly placed by William 
of Tyre at Caipha, which was supposed by the Crusaders to have taken 
its name from Caiaphas the high priest, or from Cephas, the second 
name of St. Peter. Sarepta also was to be sought near Tyre, and we 
still find a second village called Surf end immediately north of Kefr 
Lam, 

Thus Maon, from the extreme south of Palestine, Capernaum from 
the east, and Tyre and Sarepta from the north, wei-e all brought within 
a few miles of one another ; and as the Cast ■Hum Perigrinorum was the 
principal landing-place for pilgrims, one is tempted to suppose that 



CHRISTIAN A:^iD JEWISH TKADITIOXS. 35 

motives of expediency had sometliiug to do in the matter, as neither 
Capernaum nor Maon lay in country then held by the Crusaders, and 
as the pilgrims would naturally be anxious to visit sites of so much 
interest. 

Instances of such confusions may be multiplied indefinitely. Thus 
the crusading maritime fortress of Arsuf, the ancient Apollonia, was 
supposed to represent Ashero Antipatris, and even Ashdod, the true sites 
of which were all known to Eusebius and Jerome, all at considerable 
distances apart. 

Benjamin of Tudela places Keilah of Judah, a city west of Hebron, at 
Caco (now Eakun), some sixty miles from the real site, now A'i7a/^, which 
seems to have been known to Jerome. 

Nob, the city of the priests, was apparently unknown to Jerome, who 
confuses it with Nobah (Judg. viii. 11), but to the Crusaders it was 
pointed out as identical with Betenoble {Beit Nuha), in a situation quite 
iiTeconcileable with the requirements of the Scripture narratives. 

Two still more glaring errors are to be found in William of Tyre,, 
who places Gath at Ibelin, now Yehaah, the ancient Jabneel, whilst he 
identifies Beit Jihriti with Beersheba, explaining its modern name to 
mean "house of Gabriel." There is still in Beit Jibrin a sacred place 
called Mukdm en Neby JihrV, "station of the Prophet Gabriel," close 
to the remains of a crusading church, but this interpretation and the 
consequent connection with Gabriel are evidently late, for the older 
form of "the name found in the Talmud is Beto-Gabra. Both Beer- 
sheba and Gath were known and fixed at their true sites in the time 
of Jerome. 

In conclusion, we find at this period the site of Adullam transferred 
to its present position {MUgJidret M'asa) from the true situation known, 
to Eusebius. 

It is evident, therefore, that a broad distinction must be made between 
the statements of the early Christian writers and the wild guesses of the 
mediaeval chroniclers. 

The question of Jewish mediaeval writings is one entirely apart from 
that as yet treated, and as we have already seen, the Jews in the 
time of Jerome knew the real site of Ajalon, though their hatred of 
the Samaritans induced them to transfer those of Ebal and Gerizim 
to the neighbourhood of Jericho. It must be remembered that we 
have in their case to deal vsdth an indigenous population which never 
entirely lost its hold on the country, and with a traitition in which 
there is no break. In the Talmud we get not a traditional but an 
actual topography ; and in the travels of Jewish pilgrims we find a 
thorough acquaintance with Talmudic characters and topography, 
which gives to their statements a reality and value not possessed by 
Christian chronicles. 

Immediately after the fall of Bether (120 A.D.) the Sanhedrim fixed 
its seat at Jamina, and afterwards successively at Ausha {IJusheh, C. E. C.) 
Shafaram {She/a 'Amcr), Beth Shearim, Sepphoris, and Tiberiaa. By 



36 



CHRISTIAN AKD JEWISH TBADITI0N3. 



200 A.D. Eabbi Judali, the saint, had committed the Mishna to writing, 
closing the list of the doctors called Tanaim ; by 300 A.D. the Jerusalem 
Talmud was complete, and by 500 A.D. the Talmud of Babylon was 
finished by the last of the Amoraim. Thus we have an unbroken series 
of writers till after the date of Jerome, and their casual references to 
places and natural features are of the highest value because only inci- 
dentally introduced. 

The Talmudic topography is that of Palestine as actually then exist- 
ing, but instances of identifications do occur, notably in commenting on 
the list of the towns of Naphteli and Zebulon which are identified as 
follows : — 



XIX, 



33. 



Josh, 
Heleph . . 
AUon •) .. 

Bezaanaim i {Bessilm, C. 
Adami {ed Ddmeh) 
Nekeb [Nahih, C. E. C.) 
Jabneel . . 
Lakum . . 

Josh. xix. 15. 
Kattath 
Nehallal 
Shimron 

Idalah {ed Dalieh, C. E. 
Bethlehem (5. Lahia) 

Josh. xix. 35. 
Ziddim . . 

Zer 

Hammath {el Hiimmdm) 
Eakkath {Tuhenyeh) . . 
•Chinnereth {Beit Jenn) 



E. C.) 



C.) 



Tal. Jer. Megilla, 70a. 
= Heleph. 
=: Aialin. 
= Agnia Kadesh. 
= Damim {Danmn). 
=■ Zedatha. 
= Kaphar Jamah. 
= Lekim. 

= Katunith {Kateineh). 

= Mahlul {M'aird). 

= Simunieh {Sammilnieh). 

= Hiriah. 

= Bethlehem Zeriah. 

= Kaphar Hitia {Hattin). 
(near) Desmikah Lah. 
= Hamatha. 
= Tiberias {Tuhenyeh). 
= Genezar. 



This comparison is of value as showing that many sites had been lost 
even to the Jews as early as 300 A.D., and that tlie nomenclature had 
xuidergone a change, for many of the identifications here enumerated are 
to all appearance correct, though others are seemingly wrong. 

Passing on to the Jewish mediajval travellers we find statements fully 
in accordance with those of the Talmud. Thus, E. Samuel Bar Simson 
states that the synagogue of Arbela was built by R. Nitai, and in the 
Mishna we find Arbela noticed as the native place of E. Nitai, who lived 
about 200 B.C. 

The Jews of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries visited 
Palestine chiefly on account of the tombs of their ancestors. Hence, in 
their writings we find constant notice of the tombs of many worthies 
both of Biblical and also of later times, and most of these sites remain 
.to the present day. They also give the names of the builders of various 
^synagogues, and there seems no reason to doubt the accuracy of their 



Saul's journey to zuph. 37 

statements. Thus we learn that no less than twenty- four synagogues, 
mostly in GaHlee, were built by E. Simeon bar Jochai about 120 A.D., 
among which were those at Kefr Birim, at el Jish, and at Meirun, pro- 
bably the ones visited by Major "Wilson, as this date agrees with the 
opinion formed by architects as to the character of the work. Two 
others are noticed at Sasa and Tiria which have still to be discovered, 
and it is not impossible that others of the known synagogues are to be 
attributed to the same founder. 

As regards the tomjbs the Jewish information appears also to be- 
reliable. Thus at Gath-Hepher, which he identifies correctly, Isaac 
Chelo mentions the tomb of Jonas now visible in the centre of the 
village. It is remarkable, however, that Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela, a 
little earlier, places Gath Hepher at Caipha. 

The tombs of Joseph at Balata, near Shechem, and of Hillel and 
Shammai at Meirun, are still shown as described by these mediaeval 
Jewish pilgrims ; the sepulchre of Samson at Zoreah, is no doubt the 
present Mukdm of Sheikh Samit, and it will in all probability prove 
equally easy to recover the numerous sepulchres in Upper and Lower 
Galilee mentioned in these itineraries, many of which are of considerable 
interest. 

The deductions which it appears to me may safely bo drawn from the 
facts detailed in the foregoing pages, are simple : — 

1st. As regards early Christian topography, and especially that of the 
Onomasticon, the authority of the writers is not sufficient when unsup- 
ported by other evidences to establish the identity of a Scriptural site. 

2nd. Crusading topography subsequent to 1100 A.D., is so hopelessly 
obscured by the ignorance of priests and pilgrims alike, and by the 
continual transference of sites from their true place known by the 
early Christians into new positions, quite irreconcileable with the- 
requirements of the original narrative, that it must be considered 
entirely valueless in fixing the real sites. 

3rd. The mediaeval Jewish pilgrims appear, as a rule, to have had 
a much more accurate knowledge both of i!he country and of the 
Bible, their assertions are borne out by existing remains, and are inr 
accordance with the Scriptural narrative, and the indications contained 
in their writings frequently appear to be of the greatest value. 

Claude R. Conder, Lieut. E.E. 

21th October, 1876. 



SAUL'S JOUENEY TO ZUPH. 

1 Sam. ix. and x. 

The wanderings of the hero "who, seeking asses, found a kingdom," 
form one of the most curious pix;5zles in Scriptural topography, for the 
starting-point is unknown, the point to which he returned doubtful, and 



9% saul's journey to zuph. 

the intermediate places, though noted with much apparent exactitude, 
have not been recognised as identical with any well-known or important 
sites. The following notes derived from the Survey may, however, prove 
interesting to those who have given attention to the subject : — 

1. The starting-point was Saul's home. Kish, his father, was a 
Benjamite, and it seems almost certain that he must have inhabited 
Zelah, a Benjamite city (Josh, xviii. 28), for here we find later the 
** sepulchre of Kish," in which the bones of his descendants were interred 
(2 Sam. xxi. 14). 

We find, however, immediately afterwards, a town or a district known 
as Gibeah of Saul as being the home of the king. It may be, therefore, 
that this place, called Gabaoth Saule by Josephus, is the starting-point. 
The question is too long to enter upon at present, but as it appears that 
Saul first passed through Mount Ephraim, the starting-point may be 
generally stated as towards the northern limits of the temtory of 
Benjamin. The consecutive order of the list in the book of Joshua 
•would seem perhaps to place Zelah (more properly translated Tzd'a) in 
the northern part of the land of Benjamin, and it may perhaps be 
identified with a large ruin called Khurhet Sh'ab Saldh, " ruin of the 
ridge of Zelah," the last word being a natural equivalent of the 
Hebrew Tzel'a. This place is only four miles north-west of Jeb'a (Geba 
of Benjamin), and there are strong arguments in favour of identifying 
-Jeb'a with Gabaoth Saule, which need not, however, be discussed here. 

2. On leaving his home at Zelah, or Gibeah, Saul first passed through 
Mount Ephraim (ix. 4). According to Josephus (Antiq. vi. 4, 1), having 
first sought over the territory of his own tribe, he went over that of 
other tribes. This would seem to make his first direction northwards. 

3. Leaving Mount Ephraim, Saul passes through the laud of Shalisha 
(ix. 4). It is only natui'al to connect this name with that of Baal 
Shalisha or Beth Shalisha (2 Kings iv. 42), and this place may be fixed 
as at the present Sirisia, thirteen miles north of Lydda, from entii'ely 
independent considerations. (See Quarterly Statement, April, 1876, p. 69.) 

4. Leaving this district, Saul comes to the land of Shalim (or " foxes "). 
This might be identical with the "land of Shual" (of the fox), near 
Ophrah (1 Sam. xiii. 17); but this seems irreconcileable with the last 
indication, and the land of Shalim was not in the land of Benjamin 
(comp. verse 4, lower down), which the land of Shual evidently was. 
Gesenius, in giving the meaning of the word (S.V. Shalim), suggests a 
more probable identification, utimely, that the territoiy of Shaalabim 
("foxes "), a city of Dan (Josh. xix. 42), is here intended. This place 
has been fixed at Selhit, south of Lydda, which gives a direct journey 
.southwards of about a day's duration. 

5. Saul next enters the land of Yemeni ("Benjamites," A.V.), and 
passes through it. Selhit, it may be remai-ked, is not far from the 
western border of Benjamin, which would be crossed in journeying to 
Zuph if identified as below. 

6. Saul arrives at the land of Zuph, the farthest point of his journey, 



saul's journey to zuph. 39 

and here encounters Samuel at a certain city, the name of which, is not 
given (ix. 5, 6). 

The meaning of the woi-d Zuph has not been determined with certainty, 
the Targum on the passage, however, connects the name with the root 
Zephah, meaning " to shine," and hence "to be conspicuous," whence 
come the words Zephathah, Zophim, Zephu, and Mizpeh. In other 
targums the words Zophim and Mizpeh are used indiscriminately in 
speaking of one place, both words being applicable to a " watch-tower," 
or city in an elevated situation. Zuph was, however, the name of a 
man, and it is not impossible that the land of Zuph may have been 
named after him (1 Sam. i. 1). In the first case the city in the land of 
Zuph would possibly be Mizpeh, in the second it would be Bethlehem 
the home of Zuph. The former identification appears to me the more 
probable for the following reasons, 

1st. That the Targum derives the word from the root Zephah. 
2nd. That on the departure of Saul, Samuel immediately gathers 

Israel together in Mizpeh (x. 17). 
3rd. That the city is evidently one of those visited by Samuel (see 

ix. 12), and cannot be Bethel or Gilgal (see 1 Sam. vii. 16). 
4th. That placing Mizpeh near to Kirjath Jearim, the land of Zuph 
would be reached immediately on leaving the land of Benjamin. 
Mizpeh may be fixed as in this station on entirely different 
grounds. (See Quarterly Statement, July, 1876, p. 149.) 

Zuph has ah'eady been fixed as in this neighbourhood (see Murray's 
new map) ; but the identification with SOba is open to the objection that 
there is no good authority for supposing the letters F and B ever to be 
confused. 

The root Zephah is represented by two Arabic roots, Safa (whence 
Mesuffa, " a place of view "), meaning " bright, shining, conspicuous," 
and Shdf (whence the exclamation Shfif, "look"), having also the mean- 
ing, " shining, looking out, viewing." Thus the modern Khurbet Shufa 
represents the Hebrew Zophim or Mizpeh, with which I have proposed 
to identify it on account of its position near Ebenezer and Kirjath 
Jearim. The name Shitfa probably still denotes a district, for there is 
a hill called Rds Shu/a about two miles north of Khurbet Shufa. This 
district, I would suggest, may be the land of Zuph. There is, however, 
another site which might also claim to be identified as Zuph, viz., the 
village of Sufa, ten miles west of Bethlehem; and this position, indeed, 
fits in yet better with the subsequent part of the journey. 

Thei'e is only one valid objection to these views. Josephus gives the 
name of the city as Eamah. Hence it has been supposed to be 
Eamathaim Zophim, which is here intended. Eamathaim Zophim was, 
however, in Mount Ephraim, and so not far from Zelah, in which case 
it seems impossible that Saul on his return journey should ever arrive 
at Rachel's sepulchre. 

There is no space here to discuss the value of this statement by 
Josephus. The whole of his account (Antiq. vi. 4) is shorter and less 



40 satjl'b jourjtey to zuph. 

detailed tlian that in the Old Testament, and the order of the events 
differs. It -will be generally allowed that the history of contemporary 
events given in the Wars and later books of the Antiquities, gives indica- 
tions to be placed in quite a different category to those of the earlier 
books. The Survey gives many opportunities of forming a judgment as 
to the value of Josephus's descriptions in such cases as the sites of 
Herodium, Masada, and Jotopata. In some cases it seems impossi- 
ble to reconcile Josephus with the Mishnic doctors, and in these cases 
the Talmud is often the better guide. 

7. Leaving Samuel, Saul first arrives at " Rachel's sepulchre, in the 
border of Benjamin at Zelzah" (x. 2). Supposing this to be the 
modem Kuhbet Rahil, near Bethlehem, which Saul might have reached 
in journeying to the main road along the watershed, two questions 
arise. 

1st. How can this monument be called " in the border of Benjamin," 
being four miles south of that boundary in the territory of Judah ? 

2nd. Where was Zelzah ? supposing it to be the name of a town, foi* 
no such name has been found anywhere near Bethlehem. 

It is possible that the reading of the Vulgate, which renders Zelzah 
by the words " in meridie" (towards the south), gives the best explana- 
tion, and that we should read Eachel's sepulchre towards the south, 
either of Zuph, or of Saul's route, or of the border of Benjamin. 

8. Supposing Saul to be returning to his own home, it is natural to 
suppose the plain of Tabor (x. 3) which follows to be the plain south of 
Jerusalem and north of Eachel's sepulchre, now called the Meiddn. 

9. The end of Saul's wanderings appears to be reached at a place 
called " the hill of God," where is the garrison of the Philistines (x. 5). 
This place, Giheah-ha-EIohim in the Hebrew, appears to have been so 
called because it contained a "high place" (see verse 13). 

In another verse it is called simply Gabatha (" the hill," A.V,, verse 
10), and Josephus also calls it Gabatha. It would seem that Saul's 
uncle lived here (verse 14), which would lead us to identify it with 
Gibeah of Saul. It was not improbably on the road to Gilgal where 
Saul next went, which would seem to place it at Geba of Benjamin, and 
it was a Philistine garrison, which points in the same direction, for im- 
mediately after we find Jonathan smiting " the garrison of the Philis- 
tines," which was in Geba (1 Sam. xiii. 3). After the great meeting at 
Mizpeh, we find that Saul " went home to Gibeah " (x. 26). 

The outcome of these various expressions seems to point to Saul's 
return to Gibeah of Saul, and to the identity of this town with Geba of 
Benjamin. There are many independent arguments which lead to the 
identification of these two places as the modern Jeb'a, which may, how- 
ever, be reserved for the present. 

C. R. C. 



41 



ATTEMPT TO TEACE THE BOUNDAEIES OF EPHEAIM, 
MANASSEH, AND ISSACHAE. 

The boundaries of the tribes of Epbraim and Manasseb bave not, so 
far as I know, been yet laid down in accordance witb the outline given 
of them in the sixteenth and seventeenth chapters of Joshua. In every 
Biblical atlas that I have seen they are always drawn from side to side— - 
i.e., from the sea to the Jordan, in a sort of parallel lines, whereas it 
does not appear to me that any of them touched the Jordan at all, 
except, it may be, in a single point. Having given this subject con- 
siderable attention, I have obtained results, in singular conformity with 
the description of Joshua that traces out the entire outline of these 
tribes, and have discovered some curious aspects of the case that have 
hitherto escaped observation. Of course I have not been able to deter- 
mine the borders with perfect geographical certainty at every point, as the 
topography of the country has undei-gone such changes in the course of 
between three and four thousand years, and the names of places have either 
disappeared or been so altered that they cannot now be easily identified. 
The great natural features of the country, however, remain, along witli 
a few of the more permanent ancient names, by which we are enabled 
to some extent to grope our way. With the aid of these, and a more 
accui-ate reading of the book of Joshua, I hope to be able to give such 
an account of these two tribes as to clear up this part of the map, throw 
some new light upon the lot of Issachar, and meet a difficulty that 
has so long been felt in the geography of Palestine. 

(1.) Joseph. 

The southern border of Joseph is laid down in Joshua (xvi. 1) with 
considerable clearness, so that it is not difficult to follow the descrip- 
tion, even though several of the landmarks are lost. It is as follows : — 

"And the lot of the children of Joseph fell from Jordan by Jericho, unto the 
waters of Jericho on the east, to the wilderness that goeth up from Jericho 
throughout Mount Bethel. And it goeth out from Bethel to Luz, and passeth 
along unto the borders of Archi-Ataroth, and goeth down westward to the coast 
of Japhleti, unto the coast of Bethhoron the Nether, and to Gezer ; and the out- 
goings thereof are at the sea." 

Starting from a point on the Jordan nearly opposite to Jericho, this 
line passes to the north of that place, ascends the ravine on the north 
of Jebel Kuruntil, passing the fountain of 'Ain Doch, the ancient 
"Dagon" of the Maccabees, and pursues its course through the mountain 
passes till it comes out near to Bethel and Luz, >vhich it reaches on the 
south of them. Luz and Bethel may indeed be regarded as the same, 
seeing they either lay contiguous to each other, or were actually united. 
IVom Bethel the border proceeds westward by Archi-Ataroth to the 
coast of Japhleti (places now unknown, but lying somewhere on the 
ridge that runs between the Wadies Budrus and Suleiman) till it reaches 



42 BOUNDARIES OF EPHRAIM, MANAS3EH, AND ISSACHAE. 

tlie end of that ridge on a very prominent hill lying to the south of the 
Nether Bethhoron. From this place, which commands one of the finest 
views of the great western plain, the border line descended into the 
course of the Merj-lbn-Omeir, touching Gezer on the Wady Suleiman, 
which it followed on to the sea. 

This tracing is corroborated by the sketch which Joshua has given of 
the northern border of Benjamin, which is almost exactly the same as 
far as it goes (Josh, xviii. 11). 

"And the lot of the tribe of the children of Benjamin came up according to 
their families : and the coast of their lot came forth between the children of 
Judah and the children of Joseph. And the border on the north side was from 
Jordan ; and the border went up to the side of Jericho on the north side, and 
went up through the mountains westward ; and the goings out thereof were at the 
wilderness of Bethaven. And the border went over from thence toward Luz, to 
the side of Luz, which is Bethel, southward. And the border descended to 
Ataroth-adar, near the hill that (lietli on) the south side of the Nether Beth- 
horon. And the border was drawn (thence) and turned southward," &c. 

With a little variety of description, this line is identical with the 
former so far, and the variation only helps to fix the track laid down 
above with the greater precision. Commencing at Jordan, as before, 
the border passes Jericho on the north, and runs iip the deep defile 
before described, till it comes out upon the high plateau of " the wilder- 
ness of Bethaven." Here it proceeds to Luz, and passes it on the south 
side, descending westward to Ataroth-adar, which is clearly the same 
with Archi-ataroth. "Without referring to Japhleti, the description 
carries the line at once " to the hill that lieth on the south side of the 
Nether Bethhoron ; " or rather, Ataroth-adar is so near this hill that it is 
connected with it. But here the boundary of Benjamin takes a sweep 
to the south, to form the western limit of that tribe. It is fortunate that 
the two Bethhorons have been preserved to this day, and help us easily 
and at once to decide where we are. The hill that lieth to the south of 
Beit Ur et-Tahta was ascended by Dr. Robinson, who has given us a very 
satisfactory account of its commanding position. It abuts upon the 
great western plain like a promontory, and takes in an extensive view of 
Eamleh, Lydda, Ajalon, and other places of less note, while it stands 
between the two Bethhorons, at the head of the famous pass, the descent 
or ascent of Bethhoron, so famous in Biblical story. Dr. Robinson in his 
ascent of it found, on one of its ridges, the remains of what he supposed 
to be an ancient castle, that seemed to have guarded the pass, and still 
crowned the brow of the hill. This is probably the " Ataroth," the crown, 
or Ataroth-adar, the "glorious crown," looking forth so beautifully over 
the western lowlands, and forming a conspicuous ornament to the hills 
of Ephraim. 

(2.) Ephraim. 
So far, then, these two lines are the same, and so far we have a well- 
defined base laid down for our future investigations. "We therefore take 



BOUNDARIES OF EPHRAIM, MANASSEH, AND ISSACHAR. 43 

up next the description of the lot of Ephraim, which lies to the north of 
this base, and which has not been so clearly defined. 

Josh. xvi. 5 : " And the border of the cliildren of Ephraim according to thoir 
families was tlms : even the border of their inheritance on the east side (was) 
Ataroth-adar unto the Upper Bethhoron. And the border went out toward the 
sea (west) to Michmethah on the north side ; and the border turned about east- 
ward unto Taanath-shiloh, and passed by it on the east to Janohah ; and it went 
down from Janohah to Ataroth, and to Naarath, and came to Jericho, and went 
out at Jordan. 

" From Tappuah the border went out westward unto the river Kanah, and the 
goings out thereof were at the sea. This is the inheritance of the tribe of the 
children of Ephraim by their families. 

" And tlie separate cities for the children of Ephraim were among the inheritance 
of the children of Manasseh, all the cities with their villages. And they drave 
not out the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezcr ; but the Canaanites dwell among the 
Ephraimites unto this day, and serve under tribute." 

The commencement of this survey seems to be a fragment of a fuller 
description of the southern border of Ephi'aim, containing only two 
references, and these to places about the centre of the line,* Ataroth- 
addar and Upper Bethhoron. The LXX. seem to have felt this, and they 
fill up the account by saying that the boundary went on to Gezer, and 
then to the sea. We can thus make nothing of it but to congratulate 
ourselves that it is of no importance, as we have a double description of 
the line already laid down. The survey properly begins in the next 
verse, which says, " And the border on the north side went out on the 
ivest t to Michmethah." Michmethah, we are told, in the account of 
Manasseh's border, " lieth before X Shechem," so that we must take this 
for our starting-point ; and as this place has not yet been identified, 
we mnst fix it as we can from the language of the text, and the 
tribal position of Shechem. First, then, it is near to Shechem, 
and lieth before it, that is, in sight of it. If V.?''?J^ meant always 
"on the east of," Michmethah would have lain on that side of 
Shechem ; but as it has this meaning only at times, we are not obliged 
to identify Michmethah with el-Miikhna. From the fact that 
Shechem was within the ti'ibe of Ephraim, and was its chief Levitical 
city, we must place Michmethah on the west of it, and perhaps 
this is the meaning of the phrase " the border went out on the west," 
as if it had originally been " the west§ of Shechem." If we place this 
starting-point on any other side, it will throw Shechem, as we shall 
soon see, out of its own tribe. Take, then, for Michmethah, the site of any 
one of the many small towns to the luest or north-west of Nablus, say 
Zawata, and from it carry the border round to the east along the back 

* The original description, which seems also to have run from west to east, 
t nS'n seaward or westward. 

+ ''?.^~''? before, in view of, in front of. 

^ Or rather that Michmetha was at the west end of this east-going line. 



44 BOUNDARIES OF EPHRAIM, MANASSEH, AND 18SACHAR. 

of Mount Ebal, and then south-east in the direction of Yanun, which 
represents Janohah ; for " the border ivent about from Michmethah east- 
ward unto Ta'anath-shiloh, and passed by it on the east to Janohah." 
The site of Ta'anath-shiloh may have been about where the modern 
Salim stands, and as Shiloh in the one case and Salem in the other are 
closely cognate and almost identical, we cannot say but that they are 
the same. From Janohah, the border touches next at Ataroth, an emin- 
ence somewhere probably on the Wady Fusail, near to its head : and 
then it passes Na'arath and comes to Jericho. Na'arath seems to be 
the same place that is called Naaran in 1 Chron. vii. 28, on the east of 
Bethel, as Gezer was on the west, in the tribe of Ephraim. Jerome 
mentions Naaratha as a town five miles north of Jericho, just about the 
place whei*e we should expect to find it ; but Josephus is still more 
decided, for he mentions once and again a town called Neara, to the 
north of Jericho, supplied Avith abundance of water, the half of which 
Archelaus diverted from that village into the plain to irrigate the palm- 
trees that he had planted at the palace he had rebuilt with great mag- 
nificence at Jericho. These notices leave us in little doubt that this 
place was somewhere about " Ras el-Ain," which is just about five miles 
to the north of Jericho, and pours a considerable stream into the Wadi/ 
Naivayimeh. 

From Na'arath the boundary "came to Jericho;" but I'JS here trans- 
lated " came," has a much more definite meaning. It means that this 
boundary line touched, met, and struck into the line that came from 
Jordan and formed the southern base line of the tribe, running out 
hence with it to the Jordan. 

We have thus traced the eastern half of the north border of Ephraim, 
and must now return to where we started near to Shechem, and take 
up the remaining western half. This is pretty distinctly laid down 
by Joshua with only a single difficulty, and that at the outset. Instead 
of commencing from Michmetha he begins with Ea-Tappuah, but 
this place he tells us, in the description of Manasseh's border, was a 
little way to the south of Michmethah, as we shall by-and-by see. 
We must therefore seek a site in this direction that will answer to 
the character of En-Tappuah which has disappeared from this part 
of the map. It will not, however, be difficult to find such a fountain 
as we require, for there are several hereabout, almost any of which 
will answer. There is, four miles south of Shechem, the fountain of 
el-Mukhna, pouring its waters into the plain so called. A mile and 
a half, or thereabouts, farther south, is the fountain 'Ain Abuz, and 
beyond it a little way Jem-'ain, but that of Abuz appears to be the 
more pi'obable site of Tappuah, besides the seeming etymological 
reference to the name. 

From Tappuah the boundary of Ephraim ran south-west into the 
brook Kanah, which is not above two miles from it. This brook has 
been well identified by the retention of its ancient name, so that here 
we are again certain of our course out to the sea, which formed 
the terminus of this border 



boundaries of ephraim, manasseh, and issachar. 45 

(3.) Manasseu. 

Having now followed the outline of the tribe of Ephraim, so clearly 
defined by Joshua, we must next trace that of its confrere Manasseh. 
This tribe lay to the north of Ephraim, but instead of crossing the 
country from east to west, as it is usually made to do, it occupied only 
the half of that space, and lay along the sea to the west, bounded on 
the east by the range of Mount Cartnel. The description is as 
follows :— 

Josh. xvii. 7 : "And the coast of Manasseh was from Asher to Michmethah, 
that lieth before Shecliem ; and the border went along on the riglit hand unto 
the inhabitants of En-tappuah. [Now Manasseh had tlie land of Tappuah : 
but Tappuah on the border of Manasseh belonged to the children of Ephraim.] 
And the coast descended unto the river Kanah, southward of the river ; these 
cities of Ephraim are among the cities of Manasseh : the coast of Manasseh 
also was on the north side of the river, and the outgoings of it were at the 
sea : southward it was Ephraim's, and northward it was Manasseh's, and the 
sea is his border ; and they met together in Asher in the north, and in Issa- 
char in the east." 

The boundary of Manasseh is here described as commencing from 
Asher, which is not a toivn, as has so often been supposed, but the 
lot of Asher with which that of Manasseh bordered in the north, as 
the concluding words of Joshua above indicate. The tribe of Asher 
would seem to have embraced a portion of the coast south of Carmel 
as far as the royal city of Dor, for Dor was given out of Asher to 
Manasseh. The border of Asher on the south was probably the Nahr 
Zurka, if not a lesser stream nearer to Dor, and passed up over 
Carmel, crossing the highest ridge about the famed site of el-Maharaka. 
It was from about this spot we think the border of Manasseh commenced; 
and from this it ran along the ridges of the range west-south-west, in 
a dii'ect line for Michmethah, that famous landmark on the west of She- 
chem, a distance of at least thirty-fiye miles. The line of division now 
went, we are told, " along on the right hand," this is, to the south, 
"unto the inhabitants of En-tappuah." This, as we said above, clearly 
defines the position of En-tappuah, and may yet serve to identify it. 
Joshua here inserts an explanatory note with great precision, which may 
be also useful, that the district of Tappuah lay within the lot of 
Manasseh, but the town of Tappuah itself lay within that of Ephraim. 
That city and its territory were thus divided by the boundary line, but 
the fact is carefully noted that there might be no division between the 
tribes in regard to its possession. If the town of TefFuh is ever discovered, 
this singular precision of Joshua will show by it the line of demarcation. 
We have already indicated ^Ain Abuz as the probable site of Tappuah ; 
but if another fountain, and one nearer in name to that of Tappuah, 
should turn up, the point wiU be determined. From this place the border 
line bends down west to the brook Kanah, as we have shown above in 
Ephraim's northern border, and then it follows th3 course of that tor- 



46 BOUNDARIES OF EPHRAIM, MANASSEH, AJ^D ISSACHAR. 

rent to the sea. From Michmetha westward the border of the two 
tribes is the same, and yet there is a curious legal-like reiteration of 
terms, as if there was some risk of misunderstanding this part of the 
line which nature itself has drawn, for it seems that this brook is deep 
and rugged in its banks, so as to form a very marked boundary. 
" The coast," says Joshua, " descended unto the river Kanah, south- 
ward of the river ; these cities of Ephraim are among the cities of 
Manasseh." The punctuation here is not very certain, and the descent of 
Manasseh's border to the south of the stream is as little so ; for it seems 
to be contradicted by what follows ; while the expression, " these cities," 
would seem to imply that they had been named, but have been somehow 
lost fi-om the account, so that the words stand meaningless and uncon- 
Hected. The passage that follows is clear and decisive as to the natural 
boundary here between the two tribes, " the coast of Manasseh also was 
on the north side of the river, and the outgoings of it were at the sea : 
southward it was Ephraim's, and northward it was Manasseh's, and the 
sea is his border." This of course does not imply that there were drawn 
two border lines, but merely that the lot of Manasseh lay north of the 
river, and that of Ephraim south. The river was the border. 

A passage in the account of Ephraim's border line, to which we did 
not advert when that tribe was under discussion, appropriately comes in 
here. It is — 

" And the separate cities for the children of Ephraim were among the inherit- 
ance of the children of Manasseh, all the cities with their villages. And they 
drave not out the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer ; hut the Canaanites dwell 
among the Ephrainiites unto this day, and serve under tribute." 

The statement in the description of Manasseh's border is rather indefinite, 

"these cities of Ephraim are among the cities of Manasseh "—it not 

being clear on which side the cities lay, and to whom they belonged ; 
but in the passage quoted above it is perfectly plain. They were cities 
and their suburbs within the lot of Manasseh that belonged to Ephi-aim ; 
but, not being named, we are left in utter ignorance about them still. 
"We know that in the lot of Issachar and Asher there were four cities 
and their surroundings that were assigned to Manasseh which exceedingly 
" increased the territory and importance of the Litter tribe, viz., Beth- 
shan, Ta'anach, Megiddo, and Dor, with their towns. The three former 
were taken from the tribe of Issachar, and Dor, the latter, from that of 
Afiher. By the addition of Dor to the lot of Manasseh, it is probable 
that the most, if not the whole, of that portion of Asher which lay to 
the south of Carmel was given to Manasseh bo as to run their boundary 
line along the entire ridge of that range. 

There remains only one sentence of the description of Manasseh's 
border to be considered, but it is one of some importance, and which has 
never before been attended to. 

•' And they met together in Asher in tlie north and in Issachar in the east." 



BOUNDARIES OF EPHRAIM, MANASSEH, AND I6SACHAR. 47 

The border of Manasseli marclied in the north with that of Asher, 
and in the east with that of Issachar. "They met together" [nyssn 
is the very same word that we found before, describing the coincidence 
of Ephraim's north border in the south border line at Jericho, where 
they formed one ; so here it singularly occurs again to describe one of 
the most striking and conclusive features of the sketch we have given 
of these tribes. 

(4.) Issachar. 

The outline of the above two tribes marks out to some extent the 
lot of the tribe of Issachar. It lay to the east of them, along the entire 
line of the Jordan, from the sea of Chineroth on the north to nearly the 
Salt Sea on the south, where the border of Benjamin had a small part of 
it, from the Wady Kelt to the north bay of the sea. Issachar, as a 
tribe, is not described by Joshua, who only mentions the names of towns 
contained in it. It did not require description, as the containing boundaries 
of Ephraim and Manasseh on the west, with the River Jordan on the 
east, sufficiently defined it. It was of a triangular form, having its apex 
at Jericho and its base to the north of the plain of Jezreel, where it was 
met by the border of Zabulon, and where its chief cities lay. It contained 
thus a long tract of territory, but as this was for the most paii wilder- 
ness, its dimensions were much greater than its worth, while three great 
and fertile districts were taken from it and given to Manasseh. 

Such is the account we have drawn from the simple reading of Joshua, 
and we have followed that reading closely, without bending, as we think, 
a single word to serve a private purpose. The outline, if correct, gives 
an entirely new configuration to these three tribes, relieves a very intri- 
cate and important part of Scripture of the cloud that rested on it, and 
may, we hope, help to open up the way to a better delineation of the 
other northern tribes that still remain so confused and undetermined. 

DuNSE, 1st November, 1876. Daniel Kerr. 



NOTES ON THE ABOVE. 

There can be no doubt that the general direction of the boundaiies 
is correctly understood by the author of the above paper, and that the 
arrangement will be new to the general public. The Survey allows of 
our throwing further light on the details. The following seem to me 
the most important points to notice. 

1. Archi Ataroth. The first word is considered by most scholars to be 
separate from the second, and to be the name of a tribe (the Archites, 
2 Sam. XV. 32, &c.) derived from a place called Arich. I have already 
pointed out [Quarterly Statement, 1876, p. 184) that this is probably the 
modem ^Arik, between Bethel and Bethhoron. 

2. Bethel and Luz. The Hebrew has Bethel Luzah where the English 
has " Bethel to Luz." The Vulgate reads Bethel Luza, and the LXX. 
BoueijX Aou^a. As we have also the direct assertion (Gen. xxxviii. 19) 



48 BOTJNDAEIES OF EPHRAIM, MANASSEH, AND I3SACHAR. 

tliat Bethel was " called Luz at the first," we cannot hesitate in coup- 
ling the two names together as referring to the modem Beltin. 

3. Gezer. The author places this town on "Wady Suleiman, apparently- 
forgetting M. Ganneau's identification of Gezer at Tell Jezer, much farther 
south. It is possible that there was more than one Gezer ; and, again, 
that the word Gezer in this passage may be a corruption. On the other 
hand, a position for Gezer near Jimzu, on Wady Suleiman, would fit 
well with the description of its position given in the Onomasticon ; and 
it is impossible to bring the boundary of Ephraim farther south than 
Wady Suleiman, because the sites of Aijalon, Beth Hanan, Beneberak, 
Jehud, and El Tekeh, all towns of Dan, are pretty certainly fixed imme- 
diately south of this line. The Gezer, however, of this passage has not 
as yet been recovered. The proposed line agrees also well with Josh. 

xvii. 10. 

4. Ataroth Adar. The author has not apparently noticed my pro- 
posed identification of this site with the modem et Tireh {Quarterly 
Statement, 1875, p. 168) though agreeing with his view of the subject. 

5. Asher 1iam. Michmethah. It is the opinion of Eeland and others 
that the two names refer to one site, the second being a qualify- 
in" term. This considerably simplifies the understanding of Josh. xvii. 
7 "Asher to Michmethah that lieth before Shechem." The site has 
been identified in various places as Teiasir, or as ^Asireh (Asher of the 
early Christians), north-east of Shechem, or as 'Asireh, south of She- 
chem ; but the last two names are spelt with the Ai)i and the Sad, and 
represent properly an ancient Ozor or Hazor. The word Michmethah is 
of uncertain meaning, but is thought by some to mean " rocky" (Arabic 
MaTchammeh ; compare Michmash and Mukhmds, the Kite for the Hebrew 
Caf). There is immediately west of, and in sight of Shechem, a remark- 
able precipice crowned by a sacred building called Sheikh es Sireh (spelt 
with the Sin). This seems to me the most probable site of this important 
point, and there are two indications which tend the same way : 1. The 
head of the " Brook Kanah" leads up towards this point as now laid 
doAvn by us. 2. Ophrah of Abiezer (in the territory of Manasseh) is not 
improbably the modem Fer'ata immediately north of the same line (see 
Quarterly Statement, 1876, p. 197, Ophrah). We have not, however, any 
very definite idea of the north boundary of Ephraim, though it very 
probably ran close to Shechem, and so towards Salhn, to the head of 
Wady Far' ah (the waters of Mnon), which formed, there is good reason 
to suppose, the north-east division between Ephraim and Manasseh. 

6. Ataroth, in the Jordan Valley, is very possibly Tell et Truni, not far 
north of the next site. 

7. Naarath. The question of the identification of this site will be 
found discussed in the "Notes from the Memoir," No. '2o, of the 
present number of the Quarterly. 

8. En Tappuah. The author does not notice Eobinson's identification of 
this site with the present 'Atuf, to which there is no valid objection, and 
the " Land of Tappuah," lying north of the large and important valley 



BOUXBABIES OF EPIIHAIM, MANASSEII, AND ISSACIIAR. 49 

called Wddij Far'ah, would naturally belong to Manas.seh, though the 
town was given to Ephraim. The word used to specify the position of 
this town does not strictly mean on, but rather near the boundary line, 
being near the north bank of the valley; the words, "on the right 
hand vinto the inhabitants of En Tappuah," may be better rendered 
" south of the dwellers in En Tappuah ;" it cannot properly be rendered 
"southwards to," nor is there any indication that the place was south 
of Shechem instead of east, as generally placed. The author appears 
to have had a difficulty in tracing the boundary line from Shechem to 
Wddy Kunah, which is due solely to the latter having always been 
incorrectly laid down on the maps. It rises not far from Shechem. 
Its suggestion that Jtruaui may be En Tappuah is unfortunate; the 
word has nothing to do with the word En, " a spring," but appears to 
be the dual of Jan a, " a people," and it is very curious that the greater 
part of Mount Ephraim is called by the native peasantry Beldd el 
Jein'aln, " land of the two tribes." 

9. Taanath Shiloh is not identified by Mr. Kerr; there are, how- 
ever, two sites which may be proposed, viz., 1. T'ana, a ruined site 
north of Y\inun (Janohah). 2. Tliala, east of 'Atuf, which appears to 
have been the Thena of the Onomasticon, being exactly the distance 
from Shechem noticed by Jerome. 

None of these notes, though considerably strengthening the general 
correctness of the conclusions made in the above paper, at all interfere 
with the statement made by me in the paper on Samaritan Topography, 
that "we have no description of the boundaries of the two great 
Samaritan tribes similar to those for the northern and southern tribes." 
Mr. Kerr, as well as Mr. Grove (Bible Diet. s.v. Michmethah), agrees 
Avith me in the conclusion that the Book of Joshua " is incomplete in 
the portion referring to Samaria.^' 

10. Issachar. It is probable that all the tribe boundaries were natural, 
and Issachar appears to have had plains and no hills. Thus, though the 
north and north-east boundaries of Manasseh are undescribed, the 
identifications of Eemeth {Rarneh), Tirzah [Teiasir), Eabbith [Rdba), 
Aner {'AUar), allow us to divide the two territories along a natural 
watershed. 

11. Asher. The paper here noted does not remove the great difficulty 
of the passage, " and they met together in Asher on the north " (Josh, 
xvii. 10), though it does explain how the tribes met "in Issachar on the 
east." The enumeration of separate towns of Manasseh, "in Issachar 
and in Asher," is followed by a list of places all in the lot of Issachar, 
except Dor, which belonged, according to Josephus, to Dan. It is 
usual to suppose that a strip of coast between Carmel and the sea 
belonged to Asher, which thus touched upon Manasseh, but the follow- 
ing are the objections to such a supposition. 

1st. The following identifications may be proposed for places on the 
northern boundary of Zebulon, the southern of Asher. 

1. B. Dagon Tell Daul; C. R. C. 

2. Zebulon Sh'ab, C. E. C. 



50 BOUKDAEIES OF ErHKAlil, M.V^'ASSEU, AND ISSACHAE. 

3. Han. Neiel Y'anin, C. E. C. 

4. Cabiil . . . . . . . . Kabul. 

0. Shilwr Lihnath . . . . . . Wddy Shaghur, C. E. C. 

These all point to tlie Belus as forming the boundary of Asher on the 
south. 

L'nd. Josephus states Asher to be bounded by Actippus (ez Zib) nortk 
of Acre. 

3rd. Josephus states Carmel to have belonged to Zebulon. 

■ith. The town Idalah of Zebulon may be identified with ed Ddlieh on 
Carmel. 

tjth. The places on the south boundary of Zebulon, between the sea and 
the " river that is before Jokneam " (Josh. xix. 10-12), may be identified, 
as existing between the sea and Tdl Keimun along the south boundary 
of Carmel as follows : — 

1. Maralah = the crusading Mcrla . . = el Mezr'ah, C. E. C. 

2. Dabbasheth (the hump) . . . . . . = ed Duweiheh, C. E. C. 

3. Jokneam . . . . . . . . . . = TeJl Keimun. 

If this view be correct, Ashor was separated from Manasseh by the 
land of Zebulon. 

It appears, therefore, more probable that the Asher intended in the 
present sentence (Josh. xvii. 10) is Asher-ham-Michmethah, which Avas 
situate at the north-west comer of the tribe of Ephraim. 

The following is the complete list of places identified on the boundaries 
of Ephraim and Manasseh. It is very scanty as compared with the 
detailed account in the case of Judah, and it follows that the question 
of the boundaries between Ephraim, Manasseh, Issachar, and Zebulon 
(or Asher) is the most difficult topographical question in the Book of 
Joshua. 



1. "Waters of Jericho 


. . ^Ain ed Duk. 


2. Wilderness of Bethavcn 


, , 


3. Mount Bethel 


. , 


4. Bethel Lu/ah . . 


. . Beitin. 


■J. Archites . . 


. . 'Am 'Arik, C. E. C. 


0. JaphUtes . . 




7. Bethhoron the upper . . 


. . B. I'r el FCka. 


8. Ataroth Adar 


. . et TireJi, C. E. C. 


9. Bethhoron the lower . . 


. . B. Ur et Tahtu. 


10. Gezer 


■ • 


11. Asher-ham-Michmethah 


. . Sh. es Sireh, C. E. C. 


12. EnTappuah 


.. Ahtf. 


13. Taanath Shiloh 


. . Tfxila, C. E. C. 


14. Janohah . . 


T'aitun. 


15. Ataz-oth 


.. Tellet Tnan;C.li.C. 


16. Naarath . . 


.. Kh.eJ'Aurh,C.Il.C. 


IT. Brook Kanah 


. . IWidy Kdiiali. 




C. E. C. 



2)ith Noveniler, INTG. 



51 



NOP.. 

Jekome says that the ruins of Nob wore visible from Diospoli^ of 
Lydda. A better acquaintance with the Holy Land in recent years has 
shown that the statement must be incorrect. 

Nob is mentioned in three passages in the Bible — 1 Sam. xxi., &c. ; 
Neh. xi. 32 ; Isa. x. 32. From the last place it is evident that it was 
on the way fi'oni Geba to Jerusalem — i.e., in the land of Benjamin. 

It is called (1 Sam. xxii. 19) "the city of the priests." This would 
seem to mean "the city of the priests who were slain," and further, 
since Nob was entirely desolated by Saul, and burnt, as Josephus adds, 
a city specially appropriated to them. 

So far no difference of opinion seems to exist. 

In Joshua xxi. 4 it is said that thirteen cities were allotted to the 
children of Aaron — i.e., to the priests. In case, then, of Nob being one 
of these, the question of its position is brought within a very narrow 
limit, if not virtually settled. 

Josephus, himself a priest, seems to assert without hesitation that 
Nob was one of the cities set apart by divine command (under Joshua) 
for the priests, since, in moralising about Saul, he speaks of his " over- 
throwing the city which Grod had chosen for the property and for the 
support of the priests." (Whiston. Far the remainder of the pas.sago 
see below, Addenda o.) 

This language is apparently as plain and precise as could be desired, 
but it is not stronger than is warranted by fact so far as concerns Levitical 
cities, for their number was fixed at forty-eight by divine commanif 
(Numb. XXXV. 7), and the particular cities were given by ht at Shilch 
(.Joshua xxi. 2 ; but see also Jos. Ant. v. 1. 24). This language, how-- 
ever, is utterly without meaning if Nob was neither one of the forty- 
eight cities originally selected nor situated within the confined limits 
of their suburbs. 

Admit the testimony of Josephus, and the question is at once settled 
in favour of Nob being one of the thirteen priestly cities (Josh. xxi.). 

No hesitation should be felt in accepting this conclusion merely 
because the name of Nob is not given to any of these cities, for it was 
no uncommon thing for a city to have more than one name {e.g., Hebron 
and Kirjath-jearim). 

It has been suggested, however, that Nob was either added to the 
forty-eight Levitical cities or substituted in the place of one of them. 
This view mu.st be examined, for if one instance of such addition or 
substitution can be clearly proved, then the expression, "the city of 
the priests," certainly, and the words of Josephus perhaps just possibly, 
cannot be used as an argument that Nob was one of the thirteen priestly 
cities so assigned under Joshua. 

I have failed to find any evidence adduced in favour of either of these 
euggestions. 



52 xoB. 

On the other hand, it "would seem absurd to expect to be able to demon- 
sti'ate that no addition or substitution was ever made in regard to the 
original forty-eight Levitical cities. 

Certain evidence, however, on the point at issue is forthcoming. 
There is a second list of Levitical cities in 1 Chronicles vi. dating after 
the captivity. There is much that points to its being a parallel list to 
that in Joshua. 

That the total number of cities is given at forty-eight seems to me at 
once to dispose of the question of any addition having been made to the 
original forty-eight cities. 

But though the totals of the two lists agree, the list of names in 
Chronicles is defective. 

A comparison of the lists shows this result (see Paper A below) : — 

Joshua, CJironidcs. 

Names of cities given 43 Xames of cities wanting 6 

, , same as iu Joshua, or with 
difference admitting of 

explanation 38 

,, entirely different (appa- 
rently) 4 

48 48 

It is remarkable that the only difference in the order of the names in 
the two lists exists in regard to the cities in Benjamin — viz., in Joshua 
Anathoth precedes, and in Chronicles follows, Almon or Alemeth, 

When it is borne in mind that the text of the Chronicles is very cor- 
rupt, that certain knowncities had actually two names, that the four excep- 
tions (Kishon, Helkath, Kartah, Dimnah) were in Galilee, where there 
was a great mixture of nationalities, four unexplained discrepancies 
will hardly be taken as sufiRcient to disturb the probable identity of the 
two lists. Further, while I;evites and even priests seem to have been 
settlers in other tribas than those among which their respective cities 
were situated, we have, I believe, conclusive evidence — 

1st. That to the priests there never were assigned special cities within 
what became the limits of the kingdom of Israel. For on the division 
the kingdom (2 Chron. xi. 13, 14) "the priests and the Levites that 
were in all Israel resorted to him (Rehoboam) out of all their coasts. 
For the Levites left their suburbs and their possessions and came to 
Judah and Jerusalem ; for Jeroboam and his sons had cast them off 
from executing the priest's office unto the Lord." 

The priests are not here said to have left their suburbs, and with 
reason, since they had not any to leave in Jeroboam's kingdom, accord- 
ing to the original institution. 

But a passage in Joshua (xxiv. 33, &c., LXX.) seems at first sight to 



NOB. 53 

assert an instance of a perpetual possession being assigned to a priest 
in the tribe of Ephraim outside the limits of the special inheritances : 

" They buried Eleazar in a hill that pertained to Phiaehas his son, 
■which was given him in Mount Ephraim." 

But if this had been an inheritance appertiining to a priestly family, 
why is no mention of it made in the above passage in 2 Chronicles 
xi. 13, 14 ? 

What thus antecedently woiild seem to be an exception to is rather a 
confirmation of the above (the 1st) proposition. 

2nd. That to the Levites there never were assigned special cities 
■within the tribes in which the thirteen original priestly cities •were 
situated (2 Chron. xxxi. 19, Auth. Vers.; also \b verse). 

" Also of the sons of Aaron the priests, which were in the fields of 
the suburbs of their cities, in every several city, the men that were ex- 
pressed by name, to give portions to all the males among the priests, and 
to all that were reckoned by genealogies among the Levites." 

Here nothing is said about the cities of the Levites. But if there had 
been any precedent for giving additional cities to the tribe of Levi, 
sui'ely the time for thus acting would have been when the Levites for- 
sook their possessions and flocked in a body to support Rehoboam ; 
and some trace of such an assignment ought to appear in this passage. 

Nehemiah xi. 3 and 20 perhaps, at first sight, seem to tell the other 
way, but I think not really, for while Lev. xxv. 32-34 preserved the 
original possessions of the Levites, there was no regulation laid down 
to prevent their acquiring and holding as an inhei'itance houses in a 
walled city, as Samuel apparently did. 

So also 1 Chron. ix. 2 is to be explained. Clearly Neh. xii. 28, 29, 
and 1 Chron. ix. 16, prove only residence on the part of the Levites, 
and not specially assigned dwelling-places allotted to them, and 
this, too, at a date after the return from the captivity (i Chron. ix. 3). 

May not a wide dispersion of the Levites be contemplated in the 
repeated expressions in Deuteronomy, ' ' The Levite that is within thy 
gates" ? just as it seems to be confix-med by Judges xvii. 7 ; xix. 1 ; I 
Sam. i. 1 ; vii. 1, Abinadab being a Levite, according to Josephus, 
and much later, 2 Chron. xxiii. 2. 

Even ShUoh does not seem to have been specially allotted to the tribe 
of Levi, and when David brought the ai'k to Jerusalem there is no 
indication that he assigned lands to Abiathar and the Levites (1 Chi'ou. 
xvi. o, 6, 37). 

The case then may be summed up thus : — 

1. Josephus regarded Nob as one of the thirteen priestly cities. 

2. The difference between the two lists of Levitical cities in Joshua 
and Chronicles is such (of so slight and uncertain a charactei") that no 
argument for the diversity of the cities can be based upon it. 

3. We find the original regulations in regai-d to the forty-eight 
Levitical cities strictly observed in these two respects : — 



54 XOB. 

1. Xo special cities in the ten tribes were, up to the time of Eeho- 
boam, ever allotted to the jn'ksts as their peculiar property, although 
the ark was for a long time at Shiloli in the tribe of Ephraim, 

2. No special cities (so far as we know) were ever peculiarly allotted 
to the Levitcs in the kingdom of Judah, although there were special 
circumstances favourable to such an allotment_ being made, if allow- 
able. 

It seems, then, reasonable and fair to conclude that the rest of the 
regulations in regard to the Levitical cities were strictly observed — i.e., 
that the tribe of Levi never had any city appropriated to itself other 
than the forty-eight originally given, and that, therefore. Nob was one 
of the thirteen priestly cities named in Joshua, just as Josephus dis- 
tinctly states. 

From Isaiah x. 32, Nob was evidently in Benjamin, and so one of 
the four priestly cities — Gibeon, Geba, Anathoth, Almon. 

As the second and third are also mentioned in the above passage, 
the final choice lies between Gibeon and Almon. 

The argument (attempted above) must now prove a hopeless dilemma 
if the conditions under which Nob is mentioned in the Bible are not 
satisfied by the situation of one of these two places. 

Major Wilson {Quarterly Statement, 1875, p. 95) gives reasons for 
rejecting Gibeon. It remans therefore that Almon or (Chronicles) 
^ilemeth is the city Nob under another name. 

The name Almon or Alemeth, as obviously applied to a place, is only 
found in the two lists of Levitical cities, and happily there seems to be 
no question about its identification. 

One mile north-east from Anathoth (Anata) is a ruin marked 
Almit on Yan de Velde's map. 

Dr. Porter says, " Descending from Anathoth into a bleak valley, we 
see on a hill on the right a ruin called Almit, the ancient Alemeth or 
Almon, a city of Benjamin." 

It remains now to submit this site to the ordeal supplied by the 
requirements of the three passages in which Nob is mentioned. 

1st. It is mentioned in the flight of David (1 Sam. xxi., &c.). Almit 
is not much more than two miles east of Tuleil el Ful (generally taken 
to be Gibeah) ; but since David manifestly went to Nob to consult the 
pi-iest, as the story shows, the question is not one of a few miles in 
any direction. 

A curious coincidence may be mentioned here, even though there be 
nothing in it. David, to quiet Ahimelech's alarm at not seeing any 
attendants with him, replies that Saul had commanded him saying, 
" Let no man know anything of the business . . . and I have ap- 
pointed my servants to such and such a place." 

LXX. tV TO) t6-KUI T^ XfyOfifUO! 6(0V TTlffTlS (piXoCfl 'AX.jUWVI. 

It is odd that the word "AXfiwi, Almon (however explained), should 



NOB. 55 

turn up in this place, when it is sought to show that Nob itself was 
Almou. From the New Testament we learn that David actually had 
attendants with him, though they kept out of the priest's sight. (Per- 
haps there was not so much of falsehood in what David said as is 
generally supposed.) 

The command of Solomon to Abiathar (1 Kings ii. 26, and Josephus), 
■" Get thee to Anathoth, unto thine own fields," would seem to show 
that the inheritance of Abiathar was in that priestly city. Could the 
contiguity of the two places (Anathoth and Almon — /.<., Nob) in any 
way explain the circumstance that on a Sabbath day the only food 
Ahimelech had within reach was the shew-bread just removed from the 
table ? 

Indeed the two places were so close to one another that their 
Levitical boundaries must have almost touched, if not intersected, so 
that after the destruction of Nob its lands might have been said to 
be at Anathoth. 

'2nd. It is named in the march of Sennacherib (Isaiah x. 28-32) in 
■a passage on which the present Survey will probably throw much 
light. 

He conies to Ai, passes through Migron, 

At Michmach deposits his baggage; 

They cross the pass, Geba is our night station ; 

Terrified is Eamah, Gibeah of Saul flees. 

Shriek with thy voice, daughter of Gallim ; 

Listen, Laish ! Ah ! poor Anathoth ! 

Madmenah escapes, dwellers in Gebim take flight. 

Tot this day he halts at Nob : 

He shakes his hand against the mount, Daughter of Sion, 

The hill of Jerusalem. 

{Dictionary of the Bible, Art. Nob.) 

The great king, instead of advancing to Jerusalem by the easier 
voad past Beeroth (Bireh), here first is found or comes into sight at Ai, 
and passes on (through or) to Migron, or the precipice (no place would 
seem so well to answer this description as the broken clitf on the 
north side of the passage of Michmash, and then the south cliff might 
well be the Migron of 1 Sam. xiv. 2, the two making the rocks Bozez 
and Seneh. See Lieutenant Kitchener's photograph), to secure for 
himself as a base for operations Michmash, a position of advantage, as 
being the centre of a fruitful district {Quarterly Statement, 1876, p. 125, 
and I Sam. xiii. IT), and of great strength (held by Saul, 1 Sam. xiii. 
2; by the Philistines, id. 5; and the residence of Jonathan, Jos. 
Antiq. xiii. 1, 6, and 1 Maccab. ix. 7.3). Here then he lays up his bag- 
gage, crosses the great ravine by a short march to Geba, where he 
■encamps for the night. The next day he continues his advance upon 



56 NOB. 

Jerusalem by the road past Anathoth, but abruptly, after a very sliort 
stage, turns aside a little out of the way to Almon — i.e., Nob. 

This slow advance may have been due to the pestilential distemper 
from which (Josephus says) Sennacherib found his army suffering. 

Isaiah's description seems to be worked up to set forth in the 
strongest light the greatness of the catastrophe, being equivalent to 

He has occupied the strongest position, 

Crossed the most difficult ravine. 

Seized the fortress of the northern frontier, 

Penetrated to a very secluded spot in the country, 

Threatens to destroy Jerusalem ; 

And then himself is suddenly overthrown. 

Note 1. Perhaps the mention of Nob, recalling the memory of its 
former total destruction, is meant to be ominous of Sennacherib's ap- 
proaching overthrow, and to encourage confidence in the fulfilment of 
the second terrible prophecy by the recollection of the first. 

Note 2. It seems possible (see below, Addenda 4?*) that Nob was near 
the road to Jericho, and so commanded the road eastward as well as 
northward. 

The words in Isaiah xiv. 25, " Upon my mountains tread him under 
foot," would seem to indicate that Sennacherib's disaster took place 
in the mountainous district of Judaea. 

Josephus says, " On the very first day of the siege" {i.e., of Jeru- 
salem), but it is a question how far this statement is consistent with 
2 Kings xix. 32 : 

" Therefore thus saith the Lord concerning the King of Assyria, 
He shall not come into this city, nor shoot an arrow there, nor come 
before it with shield, nor cast a bank against it. By the way that ho 
came, by the same shall he return." 

Is it necesary, however, to understand that Sennacherib's army was 
destroyed at Nob, or that even from that place he was to shake his 
hand against the mount of the daughter of Sion.* 

A further examination of the passage (Isa. x. 28-32) will perhaps 
hoAv that it is not less worthy of an accurate topographer than of aa 
inspired prophet. 

It is highly probable, if not certain, that the places are named in 
consecutive order as they would be thought of by, if not rather actually 
visible to, an observer on the look-out from Geba. 

First, looking north, he sees the invader rushing down from the 
heights of Ai, marching through (or on to) Migron, occupying Mich- 
mash, crossing the ravine and ascending to Geba. 

The next morning (as has been said) dawns upon a terror-stricken 
neighbourhood. The spectator faces southwards towards Jerusalem, 
and, beginning from the right (as in the view of Moses from Pisgali), 
he sees in thought, or in reality, and probably in the very order 



NOB. 57 

specified, all the cities named — viz., Ramali, Gibeah, Gallim, Laish, 
Anathoth, Madmenali, and Gebim. Nob also is probably in^ sight 
(and, perhaps, just possibly Jerusalem itself). 

The accompanying tracing from Van de Velde's map shows the 
relative position of the above places, so far as they are known for certain, 
and always supposing that map to be correct. The new map of the 
Fund will settle the positions conclusively. 

[noktu.] 



O Ai 



Gibeah O 



O Jlkhma-ih 
O Geba 
O I'vamah 

O Goba(? = Gebim) 
O Azmavcth (.' = Madnieuah) 

O Ahuou 
oSAnathoth 



Sumah (.'= Gallim) O 



O Laish 



O JERUSALEM 



-58 >^0B. 

Places mentioned Isaiali x. 28—32, and seen in tlie panorama from Geba: 





Modem 






Situated 




name. 






on 


.\i 


Et Tel 





Is vi.sible from Geba . . . 


Hill. 


Migiou ... 


— 


Not identilied, but if a district, 
near tlie passage of ]Micbmash 


)> »» 




^ficlinia.sli.. 


Jlukhmas 


— 


J J J) 


Hill. 


•CJeba 


Jeba 


. — . 




Hill. 


liamah 


Er It am 


Xot visible from Geba accord- 










ing to ^Murray' s f^uide book, but 


Xot visible. 


Hill. 


Oiheah 


TuleilelFul 


— 


Is visible from Geba ... 


Hill. 


<;allini 


? Sum all 


Named in Captain Warren's 


f Is probably visible 






or 


letters, page 19. 






Kbirbet el 
Soma 


Lt. C. R. Condcr. Possibly 
the .same place 


I from Geba 


Hill. 




) 




T,ai.sli 


L'Isawiyeh 


Lt. C. 11. C, in a valley (per- 
haps ruins also on a bill) in 


1 Jlav be visible from 
r Geba 






Auata 


either case 


Is visible from Geba ... 




Auatbotli 


(I believe) 


HiU. 


jiadraenali 




Xot identified f=Hizmeh, i.e. 


> 








Azmaveth — ■which, as re- 
quired, is to the left of 
Anathoth, or some other ruin 


Is probably visible 
1 from (Icba 


Hill. 




1 








thereabouts 


J 




"Cubim 




Not identilied (in this locality), 
but almost so by Capt. "War- 
ren (Letters, p. 29), who men- 
tions "a high hill S.E. of 


ilust be visible from 








Geba (in the position re- 
quired), which may have been 


{ Geba 


Hill. 




I 








one of tlie ancient Gibcahs 


j 








or Gibeons " 


J 




Xub... 


Almit 


— 


Mu.st also, I believe, be 
visible from Geba. 


HilL 

1 



Ihit Jerusalem (?) r-aii hardly be visible from Geba. 



If all tlie places named Ramah-Gibeali .... Gebim were visible 
from Geba, it might seem that Nob also might consistently be expected 
to be visible. 

It is said that nine mined towns are visible from Geba. A careful 
examination of the prospect from the spot would probably, according 
to the above theory, settle the doubtful or unknown sites here men- 
tioned. 

I hardly think that any part of Jerusalem can be visible from Almit 
(though this point can only be finally settled by a careful observer), so 
that the condition that " Siou should be visible from Nob," can scarcely, 
I imagine, be fulfilled by the proposed identification. 

This condition, however, though very desirable, is not (so fai* as I 
can see) absolutely required, or necessarily involved in the words, 
'' he shall shake his hand against the daughter of Siou," which may be 
only a very significant expression for threatening Jerusalem with, 
destruction. 



,xoi5. 59 

It is stated that the Rabhius assert that Jerusalem might be seen 
from Nob ; but, on the other hand, D. Kimchi says his father took it 
for Jerusalem (on 1 8am. xxi. 1). 

.■3rd. Nob is mentioned in Neh. xi. 32 next to Anathoth, agreeably 
to what is stated above, that Almit is in close proximity to Anata. (See 
Paper B.) 

Addenda. 

In conclusion, a few points of doubtful value may be briefly touched 
\ipon : — 

1. Among David's warriors were men from several cities in Benja- 
min — ^viz., Gibeon, Gibeah, Azmaveth, Anathoth, Rama, Beeroth, and 
Bahurim, but none are mentioned from Almon, which was likely to be 
the case if Almon was Nob, all of wlnise inhabitants, except Abiathar, 
were slain by Doeg the Edomite ; though, of course, it is not necessary 
that every native of Nob should have been in Nob at the time so as to 
be slain. (See below, § 4.) 

2. Can the remarkable tombs or peculiar constructions {Quarterly 
Statement, 1874, p. 78) a mile north of Almit, called generally Kabuv 
Beni Israil or Kabur el Amalikeh. mark the spot where the massacred 
priests or people were buried, and by these interchanging names pre- 
serve the memory of the victims and instrument of Saul's frenzy, for 
Tioeg the Edomite might perhaps be an Amalekite. The number of 
priests slain (A. Y. 8 j ; LXX. 305 ; Josephus, 385) shows that with all 
the inhabitants of Nob included, a great multitude of persons must 
have been slain, and that Nob itself was therefore a considerable 
place. 

3. I think from Paper A it will be seen that we might fairly expect 
to find the Levitical cities among the tribal cities. Can the city of 
Benjamin called (Josh, xviii. 2-1) Cephar-Aammonai represent the city 
Almon? Cephar = Kefr or village, just as we have Beth-azmaveth, 
■or simply Azmaveth. 

4. Tlie Targvim says Bahurim (2 Sam. xvi. 5) was the same as Almon. 
Bahurim still defies identification, and the question is too wide to be 
discussed here, but it may be mentioned that — 

a. David went past the top of the hill [i.e., Mount of Olives), and one 
road to Anathoth still crosses the same ridge. 

b. '• There are two Roman roads to Jericho, one near El Isawiyeh 
and one by Bethany" (Lt. C. R. Conder) ; perhaps the former, farther 
on, passes near Almit. 

c. The same road to Anathoth would probably bring David nearer to 
Saul's estates, so that Ziba would more easily lucet him. 

d. The above road by Anathoth (if continued, as siipposed) would 
also bring Phalti to Bahurim (= Almon) on the direct way to his home 
at Laish (2 Sam. iii. 16). 

e. The words (2 Sam. xvii. 20), " They be gone over the brook of 
water," are of doubtful meaning, but possibly might apply to Wady 
Farah or W. Suweinit. 

0. This point is suggested by the remainder of the passage quoted 
from Josephus, Ant. vi. 12. 7, which pei-haps ought not to be kept out of 
sight, lest it should seem to have been purposely suppressed, because by 
the novelty of its statement it might appear to throw discredit on the 
previous part of the sentence. The words quoted already are, " over- 



60 NOB, 

throwing the city whlcli God had chosen for the property and for the 
support of the priests" (the remaining words are) "and prophets. 
which were there, and had ordained as the only city allotted for tht> 
education of such men." 

The instant objection is obvious — viz., that we do not know of ai-y 
particular cities being allotted to the prophets. 

But, then, what is meant by " prophets " '1 

We learn this from a comparison of 1 Sam. x. o, 

"Thou shalt meet a company oi pro'plids coming down from the high, 
places with a jJsaUery , and a tahret, and a X)ipe, and a harp, before them ;. 
and they shall prophesy," 
with 1 Chron. xxv. 1, 2, 3, 6, ' 

" David separated to the service of the sons of Asaph, and of Heman,. 
and of Jeduthun, who should prophesy with harps, and p)salteries, and 
cymhaUr 

"■ The sons of Asaph which prophesied according to the order of tho 
king." 

"The sons of Jeduthun who prophesied with a Jiarp).^' 

All these were of the tribe of Levi receiving their appropriate work. 
Why should the prophets mentioned by Josephus bo different Y Why 
should musical instruments not be used in the service of the taber- 
nacle before the time of David ? 

It seems, then, that there is no reason for thinking that Josephus. 
makes his assertion without any Avarrant. 

But if one had to show that Nob was famous for the education 
of such men {i.e., men skilled in sacred music), something might per- 
haps be built upon the baffling expressions, "With psalteries on 
AJamoih" ( = Alemeth = Almon), 1 Chron xv. 20; "A song upon 
Alamoih" (Title, Psalm xlvi,). W. F. Birch. 



NOTE ON THE ABOVE. 

The country in question consists of a series of parallel ridges of about 
equal height. The view from Tell el Ful is very extensive, including 
Jerusalem, Anathoth, Hizmeh, Jeb'a (Gibeah of Saul, C. R. C.). Michmash 
is hidden, and the neighbourhood of Ai and Rimmon is seen. From 
Anathoth also a good view is obtained of the villages lying north, 
Hizmeh (Azuiaveth) being very conspicuous. Almit is visible from near 
Anathoth, but Jeb'a is hidden by the Hizmeh ridge. As regards the 
remainder, Ai (et Tell) is not visible from Jeb'a, nor is Rameh and Laish 
(L'IsaAviyeh), which is hidden behuid Anathoth ; Almit being directly in 
line, i.s hidden from Jeb'a by Hizmeh. The view from Jeb'a is not so^ 
good as might be expected, and is especially veiy contiued on the north 
and north-west. It is certainly impossible to see Jeru.salem from ' Almit 
or from any x^lace north-east of the Olivet ridge. 

The peculiar position of Jerusalem makes it impossible to place Nob 
near Anathoth, or indeed in any position except near Tell el Ful, and 
the only objection to its identification with Sh'afat (a word having a 
similar meaning) lies in the identifying of Tell el Ful with Gibeah of 
Haul, for which no adequate reason has ever been adduced. Placing the 
latter at Jeb'a the Avhole question is simi)lified. See my note, Quarterhj. 
Btatement, 187a, p. 183. C. E. C. 



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64 



NOB. 



Papeb B. 

The only object of this note is to show that Nob (in Neh. xi. 31-35) 
is not out of its place in being named after Anathoth instead of before 
it. The consecutive order of the places must only be looked for within 
certain limits. 



p< 






Relative Situation 


Direction in which 


2 


Name. 


Modern Xame. 


represented 
(roughly). 1 


mentioned. 








Bethel 




( 


1. Michmasli... 


Mukhmas 


Ai 




1 


2. Aija = Ai... 


Et Tel 


• 


From S.E. to N.W. 


( 


3. Bethel 


Beitin 


^Michmasli 




^1 


1. Anathoth ... 

2. Nob 


Anata 
Aim it 

Beit Hanina 


• Almit 
• Anathoth 


From S.W. to N.E. 


( 


1. Ananiah = 




^1 


2. Hazor = 


0. 1!. C. 

Khirbet Ilazur 

C. R. C. (Q. S. 

1875, p. 183.) 


Hazor Ananijih 


? E. to W. 

Perhaps points to Gittaim 
being near Ramah. 


^1 


1. Eamah 


Er It am 




? Northward — ? near 


2. Gittaiiu 


? Liiknowu 




Beeroth. Inhabitants 








of Beeroth Hed to Git- 










taim, 2 Sam. iv. 3. 


•^! 


1. Hadid 


?=E1 Haditheh 


Neballat 




2. Zeboim 


? Unknown 


• 


S.W. towards N.E. 


( 


9j. Neballat ... 


Beit Nebala 

1 


• Hadid 




•1 


1. Led 


Ludd 


•Ono 




2. Ono 

.3, Valley of the 


Kefr Anna 




S. to N. with some W. 


Craftsmen 


? Unknown 


• Eod 





From the above, with one exception (in which case no map has been 
consulted, No. 3), it would seem that the universal direction of the cities 
of each gr'oup is S. to N., sometimes inclining to W., occasionally to 
theE. 



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General Committee {continued)- 

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Professor Owen, F.R.S. 

Sir S. Morton Peto, Bt. 

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QUARTEKLY STATEMENT, ApRIL, 1877.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



The Survey Expedition is once more in the fieKl. Lieut. Kitchener's letters, 
■dated the 29t]i of January, the 6th, 14th, and the 20th of February, announce in 
succession a dehiy of eight days at J^ort Said, his arrival at Beyrout and at 
Damascus, and his dej>arture for Haifa. He received the greatest assistance at 
Beyrout from Consul-General Eldridge. Tlie new Wali of Syria arrived while lie 
was at Beyrout, and lie liad an opportunity of showing him a portion of the 
map-work. Horses, which are veiy dear, in consequence of an epidemic in 
Egypt and extensive purchases by the Government, were bought at Damascus, 
Here, too, Lieut. Kitchener saw Abd el Kader, who expressed his deep regret 
that the Safed outrage had been perpetrated by his followers, and gave him 
letters which should secure the party from a rejx'tition of the attack. The 
country is report xl quite quiet, and apparently safe for surveying pur|X)ses. 
The noncommissioned officers were to have landed at Haifa, but were eavried on 
to Beyrout in consequence of bad vveather. The heavy luggage was sent back to 
Haifa by sea under charge of Corporal Brophy ; and Lieut. Kitchener, with 
Sergeant Malings and Corporal Sunderland, rode down tlie coast from Beja-out. 
Work was started on the 27th. The work already completed consists in tlie 
filling-in of the detail of the Akka jilain, and running the line of levels from 
Mejdel to the Mediterranean. 



Lieutenant Conder, as his papers in this number of tlie Quartcrhj Stat^nncnt 
prove, is occupied entirely in the preparation of his notes for the Memoir to 
accompany the Map. All the sheets drawn during the last year are consigned to 
the charge of the Union Bank of London for greater safety. "When Lieut. 
Kitchener has been able to clear up certain points of difficulty which require 
investigation on the ground, there will be nothing to prevent the publication of 
these sheets. 



The programme for 1877, announced in Januaiy, has thas been fairly com- 
menced. The cost of the whole is, as then stated, upwards of £300 a montli. 
The supporters of the undertaking will remember that the Committee arc 
always in want of money, and that the earlier subscriptions are paid, the better 
it i§ for the Society. ' 



. 8 NOTES AND XKWS. 

We publish a paper by M. Clermont-Ganneau on the "Tombs of Joseph and 
Nicodemus" in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Tlie discovery there 
announced and described is of great importance from an archaeological point 
of view. If his conclusion be correct, then the Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
would seem to be built over— not one tomb only, but a collection of undoubted 
Jewish tombs. 

Local Societies have been formed since last January in Norwich, where the 
Dean has consented to join the General Committee ; in Derby ; and at Melbourne. 
The particulars of the formation of the latter are given iu a letter below. 



Captain Anderson gives an account of Jacob's Well and its surroundings as he 
saw it on his visit ten years ago. AVe are able to promise for the next number 
a drawing from a sketch made on the spot two years ago, by Mr. H. W. Harper. 
Meantime Lieut. Kitchener will report to the Committee, as soon as he has time 
to visit the place, what can be done there. Until this report is received, no 
further action will be taken in the matter. 



An offer has been made by Mr. F. Locock of £50 towards a special fund for the 
examination and preservation of IJachel's Tomb. The Committee have ordered 
this ofter to be recorded. As in the case of Jacob's Well, no action can be taken 
until a report has been received from Lieut. Kitchener. 



A letter has been received from the Eev. Selah ilerrill, of the American 
Palestine Association. He has presented the Committee with a sketch of his 
route map east of Jordan. He was to start for Moab on the (3th of March, with 
the design of visiting Kerak, the south end of the Dead Sea, Lezer, Kamoth- 
Gilead, Penuel, and many other places. 



The following is the finajicial position of the Fund (March 29th). Eeceipts 
from Jan. 1 to March 29th, £1,201 15s. 3d. Expenditure for the same period : 
Exploration, £856 Is. Id. ; office and management, £206 16s. 6d. ; unpaid 
bills, £100. The balance in the banks on the 2Dtli was £362 19s. 3d. This "is 
only equal to the expenditure for the month of April. The sum of £2,000 is 
ask^d for between April 1st and Sept. 30th. This will be very easily raised if 
subscribers will be good enough to forward their subscriptions for the year at 
once instead of waiting till the end of the year. The balance-sheet and Treasurer's 
statement will be found in their usual places. 



Several cases were discovered in 1876 of postage stamps being lost on their way 
to the oflice. The only way to avoid such loss is to send money by P. 0.0. or 
by cheque, in every case payable to the order of ll'aUcr Jlcsant, and crossed 
to C'outls and Co., or the Union Bank, Chariny Cross Brarcli. 



The ninth thousand of "Our Work in Palestine " is now ready, and may be 
ordered of booksellers. This book carries the work down to tlie commencement 
of the Survey, but does not embrace M. Ganneau's discoveries nor the results of 
the Survey. 



NOTES AND NEWS. fi!) 

The following are at present Diocesan Representatives of the Society : — 

Archdeaconry of Hereford : l{ev. J. S. Stooke-Yaughaa, "Wellington Heath 
'^'icarage, Ledbury. 

City and iicighbourhooil of Manchester : liev, "W. F. Birch, St. Saviour's 
Kectory. 

London : Rev. Henry Oearj^ 1(3, Somerset Street, Portman Square. 

Norwich : liev. F. C. Long, Stow-upland, Stowniarket. 

Peterborougli : IJev. A. F. Foster, Farndish Rectoiy, Wellingborough. 

Worcester : Rev. F. AV, Holland, Evesham (Jlember of General and Executive 
Committee, and one of tlie Hon. Secretaries to the Fund). 

Diocese of Ripon : Rev. T. C. Henlej', Kirkby Malham Yicarage. 

Ireland. 

Rev. G. J. Stokes, RIackroek, Dublin. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications by officers 
of the Fund, the Committee beg it to be distinctly understood that they leave 
such proposals to be discussed on theu- own merits, and that by publishing them 
in the Qaarierhj Statement the Committee do not sanction or adopt them. 



Annual subscribers are earnestly requested to forward their subscriptions for 
the current year when due, at their earliest convenience, and without waiting for 
application. 

The Committee are always glad to receive old numbers of the Quarterly State- 
ment, especially those which are advertised as out of print. 



Ladies desirous of joining the Ladies' Associations are re<iuested to communi- 
cate with Mrs. Finn, Tlie Elms, Brook Green, London, W. The full report of 
meetings held by Mrs. Finn during the last quarter will be found in the 
business .sheet. 

Cases for binding the Quarterly Statement are now read}', and can be had on 
ap{)lication to Messrs. R. Bentley and Son, 8, Now Burlington Street. They are 
in green or brown cloth, with the stamp of the Society, uniform in appearance 
witli "Our Work in Palestine," and are sold at the price of eighteen pence. 



Lieut. Kitchener's Guinea Book of Biblical Photographs is now ready, and can 
be bought at Mr. Stanford's establishment, 55, Charing Cross. It contains 
twelve views, with a short account of each. They are mounted on tinted boards, 
and handsomely bound. 



FORMATION OF A NEW LOCAL ASSOCIATION AT MELBOURNE. 

The following Report, dated Dec. 21st, 187C, has been received from Mr. H. 
W. Fry, authorised to act on behalf of the Soidety during his visit to Australia 
and New Zealand : — 

"I have much pleasure in now sending a risiimc of the work I have done in 
this town. When 1 arrived I presented your letter to Mr. ^\., but found that the 
interest he takes in the subject is only very general, and he has not the time to 



70 LIEUT, kitchener's REPORTS. 

assist us. I therefore wrote to the leading paper liere on the subject, but before 
I got au answer I was introdueed to the Kev. W. Poole, of Dorcas Street, 
Emerald Hill, Melbourne ; and I determined to accept his offer to undertake 
the post of secretary. He knows almost everj' one, is very energetic, and takes 
great interest in the work. He promised to get up a committee, but after I left 
him I thought there would be nothing like doing what could be done at once, 
so I arranged to hold a meeting at the earliest date convenient, and did all 1 
could to get a fair attendance. The meeting was held on "Wednesday afternoon^ 
an account of which you will find in the papers which I send you. It was there 
resolved to appoint a in-ovisional committee, and Mr. Poole secretary ^)ro <«)?., 
and to hold another public meeting this afternoon, which was advertised and 
done. The committee were then made permanent, and one or two names added^ 
and thcv all pledged themselves to support the Society. The committee consist 
of the "following gentlemen : the Very Rev. Dean Macartney ; Revs. S. L. 
Chase, A. Gosrean, A. Davidson, C. JI. Yelland, AV. Wood, G. P. Lush, and 
Mr. E. :M. Gibbs ; also the treasurer. Dr. Iffla. There already exists a, 
good deal of interest in the matter amongst the general public. Mr. Poole 
would like two calico maps similar t j those 1 have, and he and the other clergy 
on the committee will give lectures on the subject. I asked the Governor, Sir 
Geo. Bowen, to let his name appear as patron, and I think he will do so. I am 
not able to write more fully now as 1 am just leaving for Tasmania. I think 
we may congratulate ourselves on having started very well here, and I quite 
believe it will prove a very valuable branch. " H. W. Fuy." 



LIEUTENANT KITCHENER'S EEPOETS. 

I. 

Palestlxe Survey Camis Haiefa, 
6th March, 1877. 

After seven days' delay at Port Said, owing to the non-arrival of 
the Russian steamer, I reached Beyrout on the Gth February, and found 
that the newly-appointed Governor-General of Spia, Zia Pacha, had 
not arrived. He was, however, daily expected, and on the 8th Februai-y 
he landed. On the 9th I went with Mr. Eldridge, who was making his 
official visit, and saw him. The "WaU appeared to take considerable 
interest in our work, and wished me every success. I was informed 
that he probably would not be able to give me the letters I required until 
he reached the seat of his government at Damascus. On the 11th, there- 
fore, I went to Damascus to await him there, as also to collect our 
scattered servants and to buy horses. Mr. Jago, the EngHsh Consul at 
Damascus, kindly asked me to stay with him. 

After calling upon the acting Govenior-General, I saw the Emir 
Abd el Kadcr, who received me very well, and expressed great regret for 
the conduct of his people in the late aflfaii- at Safed. On his returning 
my visit ho gave me letters to his chiefs at Tiberias and Safed, which I 
hope will prove of great use to me. 

While at Damascus I heard of the arrival of my noncommissioned 
officers at Beyrout, having been driven past Haiffa by stress of weather, 
and as the Wall did not seem likely to attempt the crossing of the 
mountains, I went back to Beyrout, hoping to get my letters there. 
After three days, by the kind efforts of our Consul-General, Mr. Eldridge, 



LIEUT- kitchener's reforts. 71 

I received the required letters, and as my party was now complete, men 
and animals, I started the same day for Haiffa, where I arrived with my 
noncommissioned officers on Saturday, the 24th. 

Some time was lost in getting our things out of store, in repairing 
•damages, and in cleaning instruments. On "Wednesday, the 28th, I am 
glad to report that work was fairly started. The day before I saw the 
Pacha of Acca, who received me very well and gave me a letter to all his 
kaimacams; also, after a short correspondence,.! have received from him a 
special letter for the kaimacam of Safed and two zabtiehs to be per- 
manently attached to the expedition. The country seems to be very 
quiet and orderly, the Government having determined to put down all 
fanaticism, and the calling out of the rodifs has drained the country of 
young men. I have, therefore, no apprehension of any difficulty oc- 
curring to delay our work or to interfere with the manner of its pro- 
gress. 

The work that had to be done from this camp was : 1st. The 
detail of the Acca Plain had to be worked in ; 2nd, the line of levels 
running from the Mediterranean to the Sea of Galilee had to be com- 
pleted from Mejdel to the sea. I am glad to be able to report that both 
these works have been satisfactorily finished. The detail of forty- 
five square miles has been worked in, and two bench-marks have been 
cut at Haiffa on the rocks, and one at Jiden, thus finishing the levelling 
on this side. 

Owing to the lateness of the rainy season this year the country is 
still in a very swampy condition, and even had we not been unavoid- 
ably delayed, work could hardly have been begun before. The Kishon 
has to be crossed in a boat, the horses and mules swimming, and as we 
have had to cross it twice every day it has caused great loss of time. 
The first day we found considerable difficulty in crossing the Plain of 
Acca owing to the marshy nature of the ground after the late rains, and 
could only get to our work by making a long detour alter some of us 
had experienced the pleasures of a mud bath. We were also delayed 
one day by wet weather. 

I have also made a strict inquiry after the name of ''Kulmon" or 
" Kalamon," mentioLcd in Quurtcrhj Statement, January, 1S"6, p. 20, as 
to be found on the maps of Eobiuson, Eitter, and Jacotin, but not on 
those of M. Guerin andVandevelde, and which also occurs on Murray's 
map. The German colony here have purchased nearly all the land 
north of Tirch, and by the kind permission of Mr. Sennaker, I have 
been allowed to carefully examine their title-deeds ; though they have 
land all round Khurbet Kefr es Samir, no such name occurs. 

I have also ridden to Tireh with the sole olyect of finding this name. 
I asked every one I met on the road there and back, about twenty 
people, first for all the names of the country round, and as a last re- 
source, if they had ever heard of " Kulmon," " Kulamon," or anything 
like it. At Kh. Kefr es Samir I found an old man who inhabited a cavo 
close by, and put the same questions. At Tireh I saw the sheikh and about 



72 Jacob's well. . 

two dozen men ; none had ever heard of such a name. Since then the 
superior of the convent of Mount Carmel, who knows the district most 
thoroughly, has assured me that no such name occurs. I can therefore 
only assume that the name does not exist, and that our map is there- 
fore right in not putting it on. How other maps have procured the 
name seems difficult to understand ; but, as in some other case, it may 
have been supplied by some too enthusiastic traveller, who looked more 
for what ought to be in the country than what is. 

Lieutenant Conder appears to have got over the difficulty of the want 
of the name in the case of the identification of Kalamon, vide Quarterly 
Statement, January, 1876, p. 20. 

I hope to-morrow to move my camp to Hattin, and from thence, and 
the camp after, to survey the shores of the Sea of Galilee. 

H. H. KiTCHEXER, Lieut. E.E., 

Commanding Survey of Palestine. 



JACOB'S WELL. 



A PAEAGKAPn in the last Quarterly Statement informed subscribers 
that Dr. Nathaniel Eogers, of Exeter, had contributed £50, and Miss 
Peache, of Wimbledon, £100, for the purpose of clearing oiit Jacob's 
Well, and for surrounding and protecting the well with stonework. 
Before this can be done it is necessary that a cSreful examination should 
be made of the site, and this will be carried out at the earliest oppor- 
tunity by Lieutenant Kitchener, who is now in Palestine. Pending 
the receipt of Lieutenant Kitchener's report, it may be interesting to 
the subscribers to have before them an account of the well and the 
adjacent site from notes taJren on the spot by our explorer, Captain 
Anderson, in 186G. 

''March Zlst, 1877. 

" Jacob's Well is situated at the spot where the Vale of Shechem 
merges into the Plain of El Mukna, and the ^ite is acknowledged by 
Jews, Moslems, and Christians. The existence of a well sunk to a 
gi-eat depth in a place where waterspriugs on the surface are abundant 
is sufficiently remarkable to give this well a peculiar history. It is 
remarkably characteristic of the j)rudence and forethought of the great 
Patriarch, who, having purchased a parcel of ground at the entrance of 
the vale, secured on his own property, by dint of great toil, a perennial 
supply of water at a time when the adjacent watersprings wei'c in the 
hands of unfriendly, if not actually hostile neighbours. 

"In the midst of a mass of ruined stones, among which are two or 
three columns still standing, is a vaulted chamber about fifteen feet 
square, and in the floor of the chamber are two opejiings four feet apart, 
one of which is the proper mouth of the well. The other opening is 
either an accidental breach, or has been designedly made in a rough and 
ready way for the convenience of having two mouths, by which pitchers 



74 JACOlj's -SVELL. 

could be lowered into the well simultaneously. The true mouth of the 
well has a narrow opening just wide enough to allow the body of a man 
to pass through with arms uplifted, and this narrow neck, which is 
about four feet long, opens out into the well itself, which is cyUndri- 
cally shaped aud about seven feet six inches in diameter. The mouth 
and upper part of the well is built of masonry, and the well appears 
to have been sunk through a mixture of alluvial soil and limestone 
fragments till a compact bed of mountain limestone was reached, having 
horizontal strata which could be easily worked, and the interior of the 
well presents the appearance of being lined throughout with rough 
masonry. 

" The well, when examined in 1866, Avas only seventy-five feet deep, but 
there can be no doubt that the original depth was much greater, as 
quantities of rubbish have fallen into the well from the ruins of the 
buildings that formerly covered it, and passers-by for many centuries 
have probably thrown stones into it. Eobinson states that the well in 
1838 was 105 feet deep, and if his measurement is correct, debris to a 
depth of thirty feet has accumulated in thirty-eight years. In 1875 
the depth was found by Lieutenant Condor to be seventy-five feet, the 
same as in 18G6. The well was undoubtedly sunk to a great depth for 
the purpose of securing, even in exceptionally dry seasons, a supply of 
water, which at great depths would always be filtering through the 
sides of the well and would collect at the bottom. When examined 
in April, 1866, the well was dry, but an earthenware pitcher was found 
at the bottom of the well and not broken, which would indicate that 
water still collects in the avcII at some seasons, as the pitcher would 
have been broken had it fallen upon the stones. 

"The vaulted chamber over the well might possibly be the crypt of 
the church built over the well about the fourth century.* Arculphus, 
one of the early travellers in Palestine, describes the church in the form 
of a cross and the well in the middle ; but by the time of the Cru- 
saders the church was destroyed, and subsequent travellers who visited 
the well mention only the ruins around it. 

" It would be a matter of the greatest interest if the Committee 
Aveio enabled, through the liberality of Dr. Rogers and Miss Peache, 
not only to clear out the well, but to excavate and disclose to view 
the foundations of one of the earliest cruciform churches. It would 
then be for consideration how to give cfTect to the proposal to surround 
and protect the well Avith stonework. 

" The accompanying woodcut illustrates the state of the vault as it 
appeared nine years ago, but since then many of the stones compos- 
ing it, and probably all the well- cut .stones in the adjacent ruins, 

* 111 (luarlcrhj Statement, Jau. 1874, page 6, reference is made to the church 
at Abu Ghosl), named after St. Jerome, where excavations have disclosed a 
crypt, forming a coini)lete subtenanean church, which contains a cave or cistern 
filled with water. 



AGE OF THK TEMPLE W.S.LL. 



75 



have becu removed to supply materials for the new Turkish barrack, 
situated half a mile distant iu the direction of Nablus. 

"S. A." 

Mr. H. A. Ilarper, another member of the Executive Committee, has 
kindly consented to contribute to the next Quarterhj SLatement a sketch,. 
taken in iSTo, of Jacob's Well and the adjacent slope of Mount 
Gerizlm. 



AGE OF THE TEMPLE WALL. 

A QUESTION having arisen as to the possible date of the small jar of 
Phoenician pottery found by Captain "Warren iu a hole scooped in the 
rock, three feet east of the corner foundation-stone of the south-east 
angle of the Temple wall, the Committee have referred the jar itself 
to theii' colleague, Dr. Birch, probably the highest living authority 
in relation to such matters. Dr. Birch's report is as follows : — 



"My dear Sie, 



"Jaiwari/ lOth, 1877. 
-The little vase -which you left accompanies the- 




present letter. It is of rather rude shape and course terru-cotta, and 
closely resembles some in the British Museum, said to have been 
found in Eachel's tomb at Bethlehem. As there -was also found at 
the same site a shell engraved -with figures, and partly carved, -which 
might be as old as the fourth or fifth century B.C., it is just possible 
that the vase, -which resembles Egyptian -svare in shape, might be as 
old as that period, but there are no data to my knowledge from 
inscriptions on this class of pottery to determine its actual age. 

" Believe me, 

" Yours very truly, 
"Walter Besant, Esq." "Samuel Biech. 



76 



THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 
I. — Tomb op Joseph of Arijiath.ea. 

About twenty yards west of the Holy Sepulchre, in the church itself, 
is a little crypt traditionally known as the Tomb of Joseph of Ari- 
luathsea, or the Tombs of Joseph and Nicodemus. The question 
v/hether this crypt is ancient or not has long been recognised as one 
of the essential elements in the great controversy over the authenti- 
city of the Sepulchre. 

The ascertained existence in this place of remains belonging without 
doubt to a Jewish burial-place, Avould at once remove one of the 
principal objections to the authenticity of the site. 

The question may, in fact, be resolved into two propositions, the 
latter subordinate to the former — ^viz., (1) Can the traditional Sepul- 
i;hre, which is within the walls of the modern city, really be a Jewisli 
tomb ? and (2) If so, can it be the Tomb of our Lord ? 

The presence round the Sepulchre of a group of ancient tombs would 
solve the first difficulty, which many desire to see removed before pro- 
ceeding to the second. They do not see their way to admit that there 
were, in the time of our Lord, tombs existing on the spot which now 
is shown as His. It is, therefore, most important to establish, if pos- 
sible, the fact that the shrine now adored has, or may have, within it, if 
not the very tomb in which Jesus was laid, at least a real Jewish tomb. 

Both adversaries and partisans of the Sepidchre have appreciated 
the value of this preliminary difficulty, and have from the first made 
it the starting-jioint of theii- argument. But neither have, in my 
opinion, produced an exhaustive examination of the place in dispute. 

I have been enabled, by a careful study of this crypt, to ascertain 
sundry points which I believe have not been noticed by my predecessors, 
and which appear to me decisive in this question. 

Mr. AV. Hepworth Dixon has recently, in a remarkable article on the 
Holy Sepulchre,* called attention to this aspect of an archteological 
problem which, in spite of its erudite character, has had the rare privi- 
lege of exciting general interest and raising the most passionate dis- 
cussions, and he has shown the value of the new facts ascertained by 
my own researches on this point. I will endeavour to explain very 
briefly the nature of these results, and to bring before the readers of the 
Qaarterhj statement a few observations on their natin-e and extent. 

A few yards west of the Holy Sepulchre, which rises isolated in the 
midst of the rotunda of the chui-ch, we enter, after passing through 
two of the columns on which the cuj^ola rests, a little chapel belonging 
to the Syrians. At the end of the chapel is an apse looking west. A 
passage on the left, at the commencement of the apse, gives access 
obliquely to a narrow and dark retreat partly formed by walls cut in 
the rock, and partly by the wall belonging to the church itself. 

* Gentlanan's Magazine, Ifarch, 187". 



THE UOLY IjEPULCnKE. 



■7 



There is a step cut in the rock. Mounting this, we see at our feet, by 
the uncertain Hght of a smoky hunp, a Uack and angular hole in the 
rocky soil. A few inches beyond we have before us the wall cut verti- 
cally in the rock. In the middle of this wall is an arcade semicircular 
and sunk in the wall, about 4 feet in height by 2i feet in breadth. 
It covers two smaller arched openings, two black and gaping jaws— 
l-oHm (K J, Fig. 2), which are sunk horizontally into the rocky founda- 
tion to a depth which we shall presently learn. 

On the right is another wall of rock, making, with that of the end, 
an obtuse angle. Two other openings (I H) are pierced in it, but 
these are walled up. Between the second mouth and the entrance of 
the vault the wall is constructed ; in it is a door (E) shut with a key. 




i'is 



The wall on the left is made up of a thick wall (Fig. 1) which traverees 
diagonally the ditch cut in the ground,°and forms, 's\-ith the two other 
walls, two very acute angles. The lamp is suspended to this wall. 

This singular retreat is therefore triangular. Two only of the sides 
are of rock, the third being a part of the wall belonging to the church, 
which appears to have been thus built across'a pre-e?:isting cave. The 
greater part of the roof is also cut in the rock. 

At the left extremity of the wall, at the back, beside the opening of 
the hole K, we may recognise the existence of a third opening similar to 
the others, but walled up and partly hidden by the thick oblique wall. 



■8 



THE HOLY SEPULCnKE. 



The stopping of this opening is not so perfect but that we can insert a 
thin stick and prove that here is a third place, L, parallel to the 
other two, and lying, like those, horizontally in the rock. 

On the wall to right we make a similar observation. There was once 
following the two openings I H (Fig. 2), in the place occupied by the little 
closed gate E, a third opening parallel to the preceding. It is easy to 
ascertain, towards the point O, the commencement of the lateral wall of 
the opening now destroyed. 



'/'. 



•',/,// ■/"///■ 




Already in this disposition of rock-cut openings had been recognised 
the general form of Jewish tombs, which consists of a small square cave, 
with a certain number (generally 3+3 + 3) of loculi in three of the four 
faces. But even those who admitted this resemblance were unable to 
give a satisfactory account of the primitive form which belonged to this 
cave, and could offer no reply to the grave objections which their ad- 
versaries made on certain strange peculiarities. 



TTIB HOLY SErULClIRE. 



79 



Before proceeding further, let us consider a point wliicli has contri- 
buted largely to the controversy ; it is the kind oi hole cut in the 
rocky floor of the chamber in front of the loculus K, which I have 
already mentioned. It consists of a triangular opening, Z G, the angle 
of which is opposed to the oblique wall on the left. The two sides of 
this angle show on the edge a small groove or rebate, probably intended 
to receive a horizontal slab. Along the wall the edges of the trench are 
irregularly cut away. 

On descending (at G) into this hollow, which is 3ft. Tin. deep, we 
find ourselves in a kind of long cave, marked in dots on the plan (Fig. 2), 
wliich runs partly (especially on the right between S S) under the rock ; 
thus we can see at G, on Fig. 2, how it penetrates beneath the loculi 
K J. This hole is less than 5ft. long by 1ft. Sin. in breadth. Certainly 
no adult body could have been placed in it. Still less, again, in the 




Fig. 3. 



hole Z, which is close to G, and separated from it only by a thin j)artition 
cut in the rock. This is rectangular, and 2ft. in length by 1ft. Tin. in 
breadth ; it is partly covered over by a fragment of flat rock. Its 
height is 2ft. Tin. Between the edge of the rock forming the ceiling and 
the upper edge of the partition, which separates the two trenches Z H, 
there is only lOin. of breadth. 

The smallness of these dimensions renders the examination of these 
holes extremely di&cult. That is probably the reason why no one 
before me ever ascertained a fact of capital importance, so much so as to 
profoundly modify all received ideas vp to the present on one side and the 
other. 

But before stating what I may without any exaggeration call a dis- 
covery, let me return to a few details which are not without interest. 



80 THE HOLY SEPTJLCnEE. 

Tliose who maintain the apocryphal character of the Holy Sepulchre, 
relying on the dimensions of the two latter holes (to which tradition 
attaches the names of Joseph of Arimathcoa and Nicodemus) deny them 
any sepulchral character, because they are not large enough to contain 
the bodies of adults. The objection is specious, and it has been even 
pushed to an extreme by the supposition that we have here a pseudo- 
sepulchre hollowed out at the period of the Crusaders on a Jewish 
model, in order to furnish a material justification of the legend- I need 
not point out how inadmissible this supposition is, and how little in 
accordance with popular habits, Avhich generally imagine the legend 
in order to explain the monument. 

It might be replied that we have simply two hollow places excavated 
as ossuaries, and intended to receive the bones accumulated in the 
sepulchre either dii-ectly or by means of those little fmierary chests or 
coffins of which I collected so many and such curious specimens during 
my mission. 

The same objection has been ui-ged against the loculi K J placed 
in the higher level. In fact, these two loculi hardly measure more 
at the present moment than oft. in depth, which is insufficient for a 
body of ordinary propoi'tions. 

The loculi have in general a depth of 6ft. Gin. ; and it must be 
owned that this time the objection is more embarrassing than before, 
and that those who think these are fictitious or artificial sepulchres may 
find an occasion for triumph over this argument. The leply, how- 
ever, although it has never to my knowledge been made, is easy. 

We saw above that the mouths of the two loculi are ^Wthin a sunken 
arcade ; hollowed out, that is, of the flat vertical wall. Suppose for a 
moment that the arcade was made after the loculi. What follows ? 
The loculi would be increased in length by the space which they lost in 
sinking the arcade, as the arcade would have simply shortened the 
loculi by cutting away the front jiart. Well, that is exactly what has 
happened. ThQ loculi originally extended as far as S S in the draw- 
ing; we have the material proof. The removal of the rock has not 
been so skilftdly effected as not to leave behind the visible traces of 
this original extension. These traces are easily to be recognised in 
the engraving of the cave. 

We must also observe that this unmistakable mark, which goes con- 
siderably beyond the end of the arcade, is slightly in advance of the 
perpendicular face of the wall, which wovild tend to prove that the wall 
itself had experienced a slight setting back. 

If we proceed to restore the loculi to their original dimensions by 
measiiring them from the end to the line S S, we shall find ample room 
for our regulation two metres. 

But, it Avill be asked, for what purpose was this arcade hollowed out 
and the two loculi thus disfigured P For what purpose ? Here we may 
introduce our legend. Popular belief attached to this place the names 
of Joseph and Nicodemus. The double site has been localised in the 



THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 



81 



two loculi, visible at onco to pilgrims, to tliis crypt half destroyed by 
the construction of the church. Then, in order to fix this association 
indissolubly to the spot, and to give the sanctuary in course of forma- 
tion a religious consecration, they constructed this kind of niche, con- 
venient for the purposes of Avorship, and lending to these openings thus 
<3onnected the aspect of a little chapel. I am convinced, for my own 
part, that in the middle ages the two tombs revered were the two 
Joctili, and not, as is generally admitted, the two little subterranean 
hollows to the consideration of which I must now come. 

If we descend into hole G and contrive to introduce a head into the 
narrow opening of Z (lOin.) to examine its walls, we shall be amply 
i-ewarded for this disagreeable kind of tour de force, which makes the 
archaeologist, so to speak, stand on his head. The same results can, to 
be sure, be arrived at by lying flat on the ground and then sliding into 
the hole head first : a position quite as uncomfortable as the first. We 
perceive, then, that the rectangular hollow, Z, is not in reality en- 




Fiij. 4. 



tirely formed by the rock, but that one of its sides, that of the end, 
parallel to the partition of rock, consists of a vertical slab about 2ft. Siti. 
in height. 

This slab covers the entrance of a long passage apparently cut in the 
rock ; it seems to be placed against a little rebate, also well cut and 
jutting out behind it. I was able to introduce between the interstices 
of the slab and the rock in which it rests a long stick, which penetrated 
to more than 6ft. 6in. ; after that I could get no farther, and I thought 
I was stopped by earth and rubbish. I repeated my experiment 
several times, and touched with the stick the side walls and roof of 
this kind of corridor. M. Lecomte relieved me in this fatiguing work 
and it is thus that we were able to get the elements of the figures 
marked F in Figs. 2 and 3. After a good many failures I managed 
to light up the passage by arming the extremity of my stick 

G 



82 



THE nOLY SEPULCHRE. 



■with a bit of lighted candle, and so verify by sight what I had discovered 
by touch. 

A single glance at the dramngs will show all those who are at all 
conversant with the question the considerable value of this fact, which, 
I think, I was the first to discover, and by which the field of a discussion 
already large is remarkably enlarged. I need hardly speak of the 
ardent curiosity Avhich impelled me to find out, if possible, -whither the 
passage blocked by this mysterious slab leads. There is the chance of 
finding oneself in some new sepulchral chamber totally unknown before ; 
perhaps inviolate, perhaps pillaged, but so as to leave behind some 
relics precious to an archeeologist — fiuierary objects, worthless in them ■ 
selves, but fui-nishing valuable evidence of synchronisms ; ossuaries, 
fragments of ossuaries, with Hebrew inscriptions such as I found in 
other places round Jerusalem. Cannot we picture to ourselves the con- 
clusions which might be drawn, on the points at issue, from an epigraphic 
document of this kind ? I indulged in all these dreams of an antiquary, 
and I may go on indulging in them, because the authorisation to remove 
the slab could not be procured. The possession of this sanctuary is, like 
so many others, the object of dispute among the various clergies, so that 




Fig-- 5. 

one does not knoAV where to apply. Besides, at the moment I was in a- 
very delicate situation towards the administrative and religious authori- 
ties of Jerusalem, in consequence of the quarrel aboiit the " Moabite "" 
potteries and the Gezer case. I had raised up against myself so many 
animosities that even my personal credit was beginning to suffer. 
Everybody knows, besides, what grave political complications may be 
caused in that singular city of Jerusalem by the least attempt to touch, 
not only a stone, but even a rag, or a naU, in these disputed sacred 
places. 

Is it possible, from what we already know, to form any idea of what 
this unknown passage may be ? 

The first idea which presents itself is that, as in many other sepulchral 
chambers, a corridor gives access to a second chamber situated at a lower 
level (Fig. o). But, on reflection, that seems difficult to suppose. The 
dimensions of this corridor, although narrow, are indeed broad enough to 
admit of passage, and the different cemeteries of Jerusalem furnish us ex- 
amples of corridors as narrow and as low ; but the dimensions of the 
mouth of the passage, between the edge of the flooring and the partition, 
are certainly too small. A living man might with difficulty thrust him- 



THE HOLY SEPULCHUE. 83 

self through this kind of cleft ; but it appears to mo almost impossible 
to force a body through. The rigidity of death would prevent the 
bending of the limbs necessary to get through this cleft into the passage 
itself. 

The same objection may be raised against those who may be tempted 
to consider this space (F, Fig. o) as belonging simply to a supplementary 
locidus, the slab closing the original opening, and the loculus coming to 
an end in the rock close to the point A, where I ascertained the presence 
of the debris. Passage or loculus, this hole offers equal difficulties to the 
introduction of a corpse. Besides, in the latter assumption, we are 
open to new considerations. 

1 . The mouth, nearly impracticable, of this opening, would be in advance, 
in the middle of the sepulchral chamber ; we should expect it to be, as 
usual in such cases, below the loculi in the left wall, and in the vertical 
level of this wall. 

2. The height of this loculus, about 2it. Tin., would be greater than 
that of the loculi (L K J) of the same sepulchre.* 

.3. The length of this pretended loculus, measured from the partition 
which separates G and Z to the point A reached by my rod, is 9ft. lin. ; 
that is, it would exceed by 2ft. Tin. the regular length of the loculi. If 
we oidy measured from the slab D — i.e., from the rebate, we should 
obtain the normal length of 6ft. Gin. ; but what are we to make, in that 
case, of the trench Z, which would then be situated in front of the 
loculus, and would be a useless and unintelligible prolongation ? 

4. The accumulation of rubbish in A (Figs. 2 and 3), at the end of the 
passage, seems to show that there is a large space beyond from which 
the rubbish comes ; the angle of this accumulation _\ leads us to believe 
that the debris has fallen in a direction from A to D, and not from D to 
A, in which case the angle would be Z, just the reverse. Noav, the end 
of the loculus being exactly marked by this point A, whence come tho 
debris which we find where we looked for rock ? 

This place, therefore, is not a blind passage. 

The right wall (E O, Fig. 2) is not the original wall, although it is cut 
in the rock. It would form, with the rocky wall at the end (in which aro 
the loculi K J), nearly a right, and not, as in fact it does form, an acute 
angle. It is probable that it lay originally along the line R T, and 
that it was afterwards cut again to enlarge the chamber, and especially 
to form a passage between the wall on the left and the point O. Naturally 
the loculi I H E have been shortened by the operation, so that we can 
now predicate of them that when it is possible to explore them, they 
will not be found of the normal length of 6ft. Gin. 

The original point de depart of this wall thus altered is perhaps marked 
in the rock by a small notch at the point R, although this lies a little 
behind the marks at S S, the mouths of the loculi K J. 

* The same remark applies to the niche G, which is nearly of the same height, 
and which we cannot, for reasons given above, consider as a loculus, but as 
a receptacle for ossuaries. 



84 THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

We may observe besides, that in adopting this, so to speak, forced 
reetoration of the wall on the right, we note that one of the walls of 
the locuH N and E (in O) is manifestly perpendicular to this imaginary 
line. If we suppose that the side walls of the three other loculi have 
been slightly altered or re-cut transversely to a depth at which they 
were originally irregular, we can establish between the wall on the 
right and the loculi which were pierced there, the perpendicularity 
which is de. rigueur, and which the present state of the jdace is far from 
Bhowing. 

The loculus J of the wall at the end, and the loculus I on the right 
wall (Fig. 2), considered by themselves, are very nearly at right angles 
at E, as is the custom in the tombs of Palestine ; but the irregularity 
commences at the second side wall of the loculus I, which is not parallel 
to the first. 

Taking all these observations into consideration, we had better suppose 
the corridor to be nothing else than a loculus belonging to a neighbour- 
ing chamber (Figs. 4 and 5), and that the end of it was perforated and 
prolonged at the time when the trenches G and Z were cut. It is an 
accident which not infrequently happens in the tombs of Palestine: 
often two sepulchral caves are so close, that the koktms of the one pene- 
trate to the interior of the other. This penetration may be accidental, 
the result of inaccurate measurements, or ignorance of the existence of a 
neighbouring chamber, or intentienal to establish a communication be- 
tween the two caves and make them one and the same tomb. Here the 
commiinication would seem to have been due to accident, otherwise 
they would have had to make access to the "corridor" easier and less 
painful. Nevertheless I cannot be certain on this last point ; it is most 
prudent to wait for a complete exploration. 

However that may be, loculus or corridor, it is moi'e than probable 
that this passage, imknown up to the present day, leads to a second 
sepulchral chamber situated on a slightly lower level than that of the 
first, and completely covered over with the building of the church. 

II. — The Fkieze over the South Door. 

In one of my Reports published in the Quarterly Statement of the 
Palestine Exploratio7i Fund (1874, p. 140) I gave an account of a remark- 
able bas-relief in marble, found in an Arab's house in Jerusalem, and 
representing the triumphal entry of our Lord on the Day of Palms. I 
ascertained the presence in this fragment of the mediaeval dressing, 
which I have proved to be the infallible sign of Crusaders' work in 
Palestine ; and I drew the conclusion that the monument, despite its 
Byzantine air, was really Western work. I also observed a general 
inclination of the figures forward, which seemed to show that the sculp- 
ture was intended for some door-lintel or decorative frieze, and meant to 
be seen from below, like that which surmounts the entrance to the 
Chuicti of the Holy Sepulchre {not the Church of St. John, as by some 
typographic error I am made to say in the Quarterly Statement). 



NOTES IROM THE MEMOIR. 8'> 

I believe I have found the exact origin of this interesting fragment ; 
and if so, this origin fully confirms all the observations and conclusions 
I then drew from the appearance of the fragment. 

It is nothing else than a piece of the frieze of the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre which represents different scenes in the life of our Lord. On 
examining recently a drawing of the frieze, I find that there is a great 
gap in the scene of the triumphal entry, which this fragment just fills 
up. I have a photograph of the fragment, but, unfortunately, none of 
the frieze, else I might be able to show at once that the edges of the 
fragment correspond with the border of the frieze. 

It is to be desired that the fragment might be restored to its original 
place, which would be an exceedingly simple operation. They told me 
that it belonged to the foundation of an Arab house ; very likely the 
truth, because the mutilation may be old enough to allow of the piec*" 
broken off being used over again in new buildings. We have on this 
point evidence as far back as 1480, that of the German monk, F. Faber, 
otherwise Friar Schmidt, who has left us a minute account of the church. 
After saying that the lintel over the entrance of the church is of white 
marble {de candidissimo rnarmore), and that it is sculptured on the out- 
side to represent the entry into Jerusalem of the Lord mounted on an 
ass {scv.lptuin imaginihus de ingressu Domini super asinam in Jeru- 
salem), the scene of those who bought and sold in the Temple, and the 
resurrection of Lazarus, he adds that these sculptures have been broken 
and mutilated {violenttr destrucUe et mutilatce memhris). The mutila- 
tion is thus at least as old as the loth century. Baedeker's Guide says : — 
" Then follows the entry into Jerusalem : here, unfortunately, the prin- 
cipal figure is destroyed, with the exception of the head. . . . The 
execution of the whole work is remarkably lifelike." 

C. Clermont-Ganneatt. 



NOTES FEOM THE MEMOIE. 

The memoir of Sheet 7 is now complete, and contains many 
points of interest. Among others the notes on Coesarea will be of great 
value, as giving dated specimens of the Crusading work. It is possible 
to distinguish the work of Gautier D'Avesne (1218 a.d.) in the walls, 
from that of the time of St. Louis (1251 A.D.), and thus to give indica- 
tions as to the date of many buildings in Palestine as yet undetermined 
and not heard of in history. The use of " male "' and " female " arches 
in the cathedral and other buildings, also, is of importance, as disproving 
the idea that one kind was Saracenic, the other Gothic. 

The mediicval history of Palestine is of the greatest importance. If 
ignorant of the towns and castles built by the Crusaders, we shall always 
be in danger of imputing too great antiquity to existing ruins, and 
unable to disentangle the threads of native and foreiga tradition. I 



86 NOTES FKOM THE MEMOIR. 

have now prepared an index of more than 300 mediaeval sites ; but many 
will be added by study of the Chrcnicles before this can be considered 
at all complete. 

One or two out-of-the-way identifications may be noted. 

Stllem was a casale, or village, which was given to the Teutonic 
knights, about 1200 a.d. It was in Galileo, and mentioned with Mogar 
[el MiioJidr), Zekkauin {SaL-Juiui), Arabia i^Arrabeh), and Eomano 
{Rummanch). It is evidently, therefore, the modern Kltirrhet SeUumfU, 
the Salamis of Josephus ; bat the identification seems to have been missed 
by M. Key, who identifies the other places. It was a Druse village, but 
was reduced to ruins in 1110 a.h. 

r Jemrurah. — This curious name exists in the south, oa Sheet 21, applied 
to a ruin. It is no doubt the Gammarnris mentioned by the geographer 
Ptolemy [cirai 140 A.D.) as in Iduma;a (a term applied to all the 
Hebron hills by Josephus) on the west of Jordan. 

Osheh, in Galilee, was one of the seats of the Sanhedrim, the only one 
as yet unknown. It was saparated from Shafram {Slw/a-Amr) by a 
sabbath day's journey. Tliis serv^es to identify it with the little ruiu 
called Hushi'h, S.AV. of the latter town, and which, if we allow each town 
to have had a limit of a sabbath daj's journej', is separated from Bhc-fa 
'Ainr by the required distance. 

Toiiib of HahaM-uh. — This was shown according to St. Jerome at 
Eccela, seven miles from Eleutheropolis, which he supposes to be the 
site of the hill Hachilah (Onom. s.v. Erhda). Again he spaaks of the 
same place as being Keilah (s.v. Ctila), and eight miles from Eleuthero- 
polis towards Hebron. Again, speaking of Gabatha, twelve miles from 
Eleirtheropolis (s.v. Gahaath), he states that the tomb of Habakkuk was 
to ba seen there. The remains of Habakkuk and Micah are said to have 
been found at Keilah in the time of Zebanus, Bishop of Eleutheropolis. 
according to Xicephorus (h.e. xii. 48) and Sozomcn (h.e. vii. 28). The 
two accounts of Jerome do not seem to agree; the first place, Keilah or 
Hachilah, is evidently the modern Kilali, Avhich is about seven Roman 
miles from Eleutheropolis, where old tombs occar. Tlie Gabatha 
mentioned is evidently JehC, further north, eleven Roman miles from 
Beit Jibrin, near which is a rain called Ilaheik, which it struck me 
might have seme connection with the name of Habakkuk, as it comes 
from an equivalent root. The Miikdias here do not preserve the name 
required. 

Ilar.hilah. — As regards Hachilah, Jerome is evidently wrong. The hill 
Hachilah (ExeAa) was on the right, or south of the Jeshimon (1 Sam. 
>:xiii. 19), and is also noticed as " facing " it (1 Sam. xxvi. o). The 
Jeshimon is generally supposed to be the desert between the Dead Sea 
and the Hebron hills. It seems to me most probable that the name of 
this famous hill is preserved in the Dhnhrei el Kohih, or " hilly ridge," 
which runs down fiom the plateau on which /// stands, towards the 
desert of Engedi. The identification supposes a softening of the first 
guttural, of which there are accepted examples. The Hebrew caf is 



NOTES FROM THE MEMOIR. 87 

properly represented by its equivalent ia Arabic, and tlie sliglit cliange 
'.vould b9 accounted for by the meaning tlius given to the -word in 
Arabic* 

Geha. — Another place of tliis name is note! in the Onomasticon as 
five miles from Gophna, in the direction of Neapolis. This is evidently 
the modern Jibla, a village in the required direction. Jerome makes 
it the Gebim of Isaiah x. 13, but the position seems rather far north 
for this to be correct. Out of 211 places known to Jerome, and noted 
in the Onomasticon, the following only have escaped identification : — 

1. -4(Zasa, near Gophna. 

2. Addara, near Thamnitica and Diospolis. 

3. Adia, near Gaza. 

4. Jrath, west of Jerusalem. 

5. Aser, between Ascalon and Azotus. 

C. AzeJcah, on road from Eieutheropolis to Jerusalem. 

7. Gittha, between Antipatris and Jamnia. 

8. Eriiaithtliu, in Daroma. 

9. Ea Nadab, ten miles from Eieutheropolis, on the way to Jerusalem. 

10. Carncea, nine miles from Jerusalem. 

11. Lochis, seven miles south of Eieutheropolis. 

12. Morasthi, east of Eieutheropolis. 

13. Salaba, a large village in the country of Sebaste. 

14. /SctJif/n, east of Neapolis. 

15. fJapldis, in Judea. 

Tins will give an idea of the completeness with which the topography 
has been worked out. Sites without the present boundary of the work 
(about six in all) are not in this list. 

Chasbi. — This place, which Jerome makes to be Chezib, he notices as 
deserted, and near AduUam. The name is probably preserved in the 
modern ^iiii Kezbeh, near Beit Nettif. Jei'ome's identification seems in 
this case not improbably correct. (Compare Joshua xv. 44.) 

IJawa. — This word entei's into the names of many places in Palestine, 
and has, I tliink, been generally mistranslated. Thus Eobinson renders 
Kaulcab el Ilawa " Meteor of the air," and Dsir el Hawa " Convent of 
the wind." Bat the original meaning of the root in Arabic is "to fall 
down," and in Hebrew the same word means " ruin.'' It would seem a 
considerable improvement to render these names " Kaukab the fallen," 
and " the tumbled-down convent," titles which apply -well to the heaps 
of fallen masonry. Kauhab means, among other things, " a prison," and 
is the name of several places in Palestine. 

Issachar. — The cities of this tribe are important, because its limits 

* la a former report I proposed the hill of Yakui as Haahilah, but there are 
several objectious to this : first, it is west, not soidh of the Jeshimou ; secondly, 
tlie letter K is a Kopli, not a Kaf, as rer[uired ; thirdly, the place lias been 
identified as the site of the town of Cain. 



88 NOTES FROM THE MEMOIR. 

are not otherwise mai-ked. Those identified as yet are given in the list 
below : — 

1. Jezreel . . . . . . . . . . = Zerin, 

2. Chesulloth .. .... .. = Iksal. 

3. Shunem . . . . . . = Sulem. 

4. HaphraiDi(AfFarea, Onom.). . .. = elFarrii/eh, CR.G. 

5. Shihon (Seon, Onom.) 

6. Anaharath = enN'aurah, CR.G. 

7. Rabbith = i?<7ia, C.E.C. 

^. Kishion 

9'. Abez . . = el Khuzneh ? C.R.a 

10. Eemeth . . . . . . . . = Rdmeh. 

11. En Gannim . . . . . . . . = Jenin. 

12. En Haddah 

13. Beth Pazzez 

Abez means white (Arabic, Abeid) ; the town from position would 
perhaps be near Taanach (as Kishion is near Kedesh = T. Abu Kudeis). 
There is here an important rain called el Khuzneh (" the treasure"), 
and a spring called 'Aiii el AheUl (" white spring"), perhaps a trace of 
Abez. The last two sites may perhaps be recovered in the Jordan 
valley or the hills just above it. 

:^'un Dial in the Haram. — This is a curious piece of solid masonry, 
shown on the Ordnance Plan south-west of the Kubbet es Sakhrah, on the 
platform. Its use was explained to me by the sheikh of the mosque. 
The dial is, however, gone. 

In the anonymous description of Palestine [circa 1151-57 a b.), pub- 
lished by De Yogue (Eglises de la Terre Sainte, p. 426), is a passage 
"which may be translated from the Latin as follows : — ■ 

"Between the temple and the altar was Barachias the son of 
Zacharias slain, which altar, afterwards converted by the Saracens into 
a sun-dial (horologium), may still be seen in the court." 

The Temple (Templum Domini) in the middle ages was identified with 
the Kubbet es Sakhrah. In the rock the chronicles suppose the ark to- 
be hidden under the Holy of Holies ; in this they follow Jewish tradition ,. 
which supposes the ark iu the Temple of Herod to have been in a 
cave under the Eben Shatiyeh, or stone of foundation. 

Sinjil. — This curious name, applying to a village just Avest of the 
Nablus road, and about twenty miles from Jerusalem and twelve from 
Nablus, has always been a puzzle to me. In the itinerary above men- 
tioned we probably see the explanation, for the name, containing four 
radicals, is apparently not Arabic. 

" Ten miles from Sychem is the Casale of Saint Gilles (Sancti Egidii), 
taking its name from the Count of Saint Gilles (Raymond, the fourth 
Count of Toulouse, called of Saint Gilles — first Crusade, according to Du 
Vogue's note), who here camped with the Frank army the day before 
they came to Jerusalem. Fourteen miles from this Casale is Jerusalem." 



THE MOSLEM MT7KAM3. 8^ 

The proportionate distances agree, though the mile used seems to haye 
been longer than the English mile. This is almost the only case I have 
met of a town retaining a Crusading name ; there were many others 
to which the Crusaders gave new names, as Casal Blanc {Kueikdt), 
Casale Lambert, Casal Beroard {Mind d KuVah), Casale Eoyal, whick 
have lost their mediaeval names. C. E. C. 



THE MOSLEM MUKAMS. 



I. 

Next to the study of the language of the peasantry in Palestine there 
is probably nothing which -svill throw more light on the question of tho 
origin of their race than that of the vulgar faith as exemplified in the 
local sanctuaries scattered over the country, a study which is also of no 
little importance in relation to the ancient topography of Palestine, as 
is shown by the various sites which have been recovered by means of 
the tradition of sacred tombs preserved after the name of the site itself 
had been lost. 

In his interesting paper on the Peasantry {Qaarterhj Statement, Oct., 
1875) M. Ganneau remarks: "A methodical search for these Mnkams is 
of the greatest importance." This search has been made during the 
coul-se of the Survey, so that the names of no fewer than 300 sacred places 
are now marked on the map, many of which are of the greatest value. 
It is proposed here to give a sketch of the character of these sites, 
abstracted from the notes which are to form part of the memoir. 

It must be stated first that there is a marked difference between the- 
Bedouin and the Fellahin in regard to the Mtikdms. In the country 
occupied by the nomads no such buildings exist, with exception of one 
or two fallen into ruins. The Arabs, or Bedouin, are by profession 
Moslems, by practice (at all events cast of Jordan) heathen and moon- 
worshippers, as in the time of Mohammed. Their sacred x>laces are the 
tombs of their ancestors, and tho ancient history of Palestine forms 
no part of the religion of a race which only entered and conquered 
the country a thousand years after Christ. 

With the Fellaldn it is far different. In their religious observances 
and sanctuaries we find, as in their langiiage, the true history of the- 
country. On a basis of polytheistic faith which most probably dates 
back to pro-Israelite times, we find a growth of the most heterogeneous 
description ; Christian tradition, Moslem history, and foreign worship 
are mingled so as often to be entirely indistinguishable, and the so-called 
Moslem is found worshipping at shrines consecrated to Jewish, Samari- 
tan, Christian, and often Pagan memories. 

It is in worship at these shrines that the religion of the peasantry 
consists. Moslem by profession, they often spend their lives without 
entering a mosque, and attach more importance to the favour and jiro- 



90 XnS MOSLEM JirKAMS. 



tection of tlie village Muled ni than to Allah himself, or to Mohammed 
his prophet. 

The word Muhdm (the Hebrew J/'fAom) means simply "a ijlace " or 
" station," but the use as meaning a " sacred place " dates back to the 
Bible times, and it is found in Deuteronomy (chap. xii. v. 2) applied to 
the places of false worship existing throughout Palestine at the time of 
Joshua's conquest.'' Other titles are applied to the sacred sites. Ilaram 
("sanctuary"), Kahheli ("dome"), JZ/'w/'a ("meeting-house" or 
"mosque"), Mazdr ("shrine"), Jlcsh-hcl ("monument"). The latter 
is used also for the little i)iles of stones {Mesha-hcd) raised by pilgrims 
at the various high points {McsMrif), Avhence the sanctuaries first 
become visible. 

The divinities are also known by various titles : Nehy (Hebrew Nehij), 
" the prophet," only aj)plied to tlie more important and generally the 
most ancient; Sidna, "our Lord," applied to the patriarchs and to 
Moslem saints of the first order; li'e/.;/, "favourite," or saint, a term 
often ai^plied by a very simple ellipsis to the building itself; SheihJt, 
" chief" or " elder," by far the commonest term; and TldJ, "liilgrim," 
ax^plied very rarely. 

The MuMms are not always supposed to stand over the tombs of the 
saints to whom they are dedicated. A cenotaph is indeed almost 
always to be found thei'c, but often they are regarded merely as 
"stations," like those in Eoman Catholic countries, not necessarily 
connected \vitli the history of the saint, though very often erected on 
spots where it is considered probable that he once stood. 

The white dome of the MiiLdm is the most conspicuous object in a 
Syrian village. The sacred chapel on the hill-top, or the sacred tree by 
the road-side, is of constant occurrence, and brings forcibly to mind the 
words of Scripture denouncing the idol altars on mountain-tops and 
" under eveiy green tree." Few who have visited Palestine will doubt 
that in the Mukdms we see the survival of the Canaanitc false worship ; 
and in one case {Slieihh Aha 'Amr) I found beside the chapel a huge j)lat- 
form of unsquared stone and a pit cut in rock, which seemed not impos- 
sibly to be the remains of the ancient altar of this divinity, whose present 
title means simply " the father of worship." 

The Muhdms differ very materially in their importance. Mr. Drake, 
writing on the subject {(Jnarterli/ State/ mud, October, 1872, p. 179) 
remarks that whilst in one instance the M'ulMin is a mosque, in another 
it is merely a rude circle of stones. In some cases nothing is to be seen 
at all, in others (as at Tihneh) the name is attached to a sacred tree, to 
the branches of which rags are attached as votive offermgs. 

The reverence shown for these sacred spots is imbounded. Everj' 

* Tlie word is also used iu Exod. xx. 24, as follows: "Ju all places {Ham- 
Makom) where I record my name 1 will coine unto thee, and I-will bless thee." 
The passage iu Deuteronomy is as follows: "Ye shall utterly destroy all the 
places [Ham-Mukmolh) wherein the nations which ye sludl possess served their 
^ods upon the high mountains, and upon the hills, and under every green tree." 



THE MOSLEM MUKAMS. 91 

fallen stone from the building, every withered branch of the tree, is 
carefully preserved. The chapels are sanctuaries in which property can 
be left with perfect safety. Thus a jilough is often to be found put 
away inside, and one of the sheikhs receives the title " the trustee," 
from the fact that articles of value to the peasantry are left under his 
<^are. The ordinary Mnkdm is a little square building, some 10 feet 
side and 8 feet high, surmounted by a dome, generally having a rude 
stone crescent in the centre. The building is generally modern, of rude 
masonry, whitewashed, and therefore very conspicuous. In the south 
wall, in the interior, is a Miliruh, or " prayer niche," and very generally 
there is a rude grave in the corner— a cenotaph resembling a modern 
Moslem tomb. A few mats cover the floor, the door is often ornamented 
with henna, and a pitcher of water is left for the pilgrims. A large 
•tree, also held sacred, very generally grows close by, a carob, or oak, or 
terebinth being the most common. 

There is frequently a custodian to the site— a religious shcil'li, a 
dtrwhli, or perhaps the elder of the neighbouring village. 

The sanctuary is never entered except with bare feet, and the expres- 
sion destur ("permission") or destdr ya mubarnl'eh ("your leave, O 
blessed one ") is used on crossing the threshold. 

It is stated that sacrifices ai-e offered at these places, but this I have 
never witnessed ; votive offerings are given, and when a person is sick 
a little earthenwai-e lamp is lighted at the Mtil-rhn. Processions round 
the chapel are also often made, csj)ecially at the feast of Beirdm.* 

The fear of the anger of the local divinity is deep-rooted in the hearts 
-of the people. To forswear oneself by the sacred tomb is thought sure 
to bring disaster and death on the offender. Many j)ersons state that 
they have received blows from invisible fists, supposed to proceed from 
an enraged Xebi/. The intluenco of a powerful sheilch is thought to 
extend ten or twenty miles round his Mi'iluim. 

The Miihuins may be divided into seven categories, though the dis- 
tinction is not observed by the natives, and saints or Wchjs are now 
living who will at death be honouved with Muh'ams. The separate 
species are as follow: — 1st. Biblical characters. These arc, no doubt, 
generally the oldest, and can often be traced back to Jewish tradition, 
lind. Christian sites venerated by the Moslem i^easantry, and not always 
distinguishable from the first class, but often traceable to the teaching 
of the monasteries or to monkish sites. 3rd. Native heroes or deities 
not to be_identified as belonging to either of the other class, and per- 
haps sometimes the most ancient sites of all. 4th. Later and kno'wn 
historic characters, oth. Saints named from the place where they 
occur, or having appellations connected with traditions concerning 
them. 6th. Sacred sites not connected with personal names. Some 
of these are of the greatest value. 7tli. Ordinary Moslem names which 
may be of any date and are often modern. These classes Avill be con- 

* The Jews do perform sacrifices of small objects at Josejth's tomb and that 
of Bar Jochai the Cabalist. 



92 THE MOSLEM MUKAM3. 

sidered in order, and tlie deductions whicli naturally may be drawn will 
prove to be — 1st. That however modern the bmlding, the site is often 
of great antiquity. 2nd. That in the mixture of so many separate 
classes of sacred sites we find proof of the mixed character of the peasant 
popvdation, and the influence of successive races and religions on the 
original stock. 



II. 

Biblical Characters. — The patriarchs, from Adam downwards, and 
Scripture characters, including Our Lord himself, being venerated by 
the Moslems as by Christians, it is not always easy to make certain 
whether a tradition concerning them is of native or of imported Chris- 
tian origin. Many Scripture stories are, indeed, found more or less 
garbled among the peasantry ; but these, by internal evidence, can often 
be shown to come from monkish teaching, and very often are modem 
and due to the inhabitants of neighbouring convents. Many examples 
of this corruption of true tradition might be adduced to prove the point. 
Thus, for instance, the Druse inhabitants of Mount Carmel visit and 
revere the grotto of Elijah which is now in the centre of the chapel of 
the convent, and the ceremony of devoting a child to the prophet I 
have myself witnessed in this church. 

If, however, the tradition be traceable to Jewish origin, it is, of 
course, of greater value ; and instances of this kind are not wanting, as 
in the case of the sacred rock in the temple of Jerusalem, to which tra- 
ditions now attach which reproduce exactly those to be found in the 
Mishnah concerning the Ebeii Sliatii/eh, or foundation of the Holy of 
Holies. 

It is among the Nehys principally that the Scripture worthies are to 
be recognised, and of these shrines no less than fifty have been found as 
yet, including most of the patriarchs and greater prophets. 

Adam and Eve are traditionally supposed to have been buried at 
Mecca, and have no Mtikdms in Palestine. On expulsion from Para- 
dise, however, they are supposed to have hidden themselves in or near a 
spring at Hebron, which is now called Aia el Judeideh, or the " ex- 
cavated fountain," being cut in rock with an arch above. Here also 
the red earth, from which Adam was said by the Jews to have been 
formed, is shown by the Moslems. * 

Cain and Abel also are not, properly speaking, represented in Pales- 
tine. The tomb of Abel is shown at Abila above Dauiascus, and is 
thought by modern explorers to be only a huge reservoir. A curious 
tradition of the wanderings of Cain with the body of Abel bound to his 
back here exists. Cain, however, appears among the prophets as A'e% 
Yiihin, but this is evidently a case of the saint being named from the 

* The tradition is mentioned by several writers in tlie time of the Crusades, 
and may be ot" Christian origin. 



THE MOSLEM MDKAM8. 93 

place, as the ruin of Yukta has been identified with the town of Cain. 
(Josh. XV.)* 

Nimrod again, though having no sacred place, is an important 
character in the native mythology. He is supposed to be the author 
of many ancient forts, notably the Kusr Nimricd below Hermon at 
Karat el Jindl, where no dew ever fall8,''according to the natives, 
because his body lies buried there. Another tradition concerning him 
attaches to Khurhet Mird (Mons Mardes) in the Desert of Judah, as 
mentioned by M. Ganneau. 

Noah, again, is a favourite divinity, and has several sanctuaries ; one 
at the ancient Adoraim {Dura) in the south of Judah, and another at 
Khurhet Nuh farther west, where there is a tradition of Noah's daughter 
and of a spring whence the flood originated. Of his sons. Ham alone 
has a Mukdm in the Gaza district, and farther north we find at Besh- 
shit (the House of Seth) the tomb of Neby Shit, who has also another 
sanctuary — Haram en Neby Shit, in Samaria, and another in Lebanon. 

First of all the Bible heroes, however, Abraham, " the friend," stands 
out in the estimation of the native peasantry, and his tomb, in the 
sanctuary of Hebron, is now the most sacred spot in Palestine. The 
monuments of the patriarchs are mentioned by Josephus and by all 
subsequent travellers, and the tradition is thus, no doubt, older than 
Christian times. With Abraham lie the bodies of Isaac, Jacob, and 
the three wives — Sarah, Rebecca, and Leah. 

Isaac enjoys a peculiar reputation as being the most easily offended 
of all, and the Moslems are more afraid of his wrath than of that of 
uny other prophet or chief. There is another Mukdm of Isaac [Neby 
Ts-Jidk) in Galilee, the origin of which is not known, but as the name 
is of common occurrence among the Jews it may possibly represent the 
tomb of a later historic character, for, as we shall see clearly in pro- 
ceeding, historical names are often wrongly applied in the confused 
mythology of the peasantry. 

Jacob also has a second Milkdm, the mosque of the Hizn T'akilb, or 
" mourning of Jacob," connected Avith the tradition that here (at 
Shechem) he mourned the loss of his son Joseph. It may perhaps 
represent a tradition of Samaritan origin. 

At Hebron also the tomb of Joseph is shown outside the Haram 
wall, but this tradition of the transportation of his bones from Shechem 
to Hebron is apparently of later origin, and Jews, Samaritans, and 
Moslems unite in venerating the Kabr Yusef, or " tomb of Joseph," 
outside Nablus, a tradition of great antiquity, and traceable, through 
Josephus, to Jewish origin. By Christian and Jewish writers alike, 
from the fourth century downwards, this tradition is handed on un- 
changed. 

Hebron contains other sanctuaries of less note, the tombs of Esau, 
Abner, and Jesse being shown by the Moslems in and around the town. 

* The Crusaders considered Keimihi (ancient Camon) to mean " Mount Cain," 
and showed at this site the place where Lamech killed Cain with an arrow. 



94 THE MOSLEM MUKAMS. 

Alone and separated from the family sepulchre, the little " dome of 
Eachel " stands between Jerusalem and Bethlehem. The Kitbbeh itself 
is modern, and has been repaired of late years. In 700 A.D. Arculphus 
saw only a pyramid, Avhich was also visited by Benjamin of Tudela ir^ 
1160 A.D., and perhaps by Sanuto in 1:322 A.D. The site has been disputed 
on account of the expression (1 Sam. x. 2) " in the border of Benjamin," 
and there can be no doubt that the Ktihlet Sahil never was on or very 
near this border. The Vulgate translation, however, seems perhaps to 
do away with this difficidty, and as Eachcl's tomb was only ' ' a little 
way" from Ephrath, "which is Bethlehem" (Gen. xxxv. 16—19), 
and the tradition is of great antiquity, there is no very good reason for 
rejecting it. 

Farther up the country, near Sharon, is another sacred place dedi- 
cated to SheiJck 'Oheid Rahil, or " Eachel's servant." 

Next in order come the children of Jacob. At Shechem, outside the 
town wall, is iho MtiMm Oidad Y'uJalh el 'Asherah, "the ten sons of 
Jacob," a tradition dating no doubt after the division between Judah 
and Israel.* In Galilee is the sanctuary of the Benat Y'akub, or 
" daughters of Jacob," and abridge over Jordan also bears their names. 

Of the twelve patriarchs, we find the MiiMms of seven, not including 
the northern tribes, in the part as yet unsurv-eyed. Joseph has two 
sanctuaries as above noted. Benjamin may perhaps be represented by 
Ncbi/ Yemni, whose Mukrhn is towards the centre of Samaria. Reuben 
{Ncbij Pa'thhi) lies near the shore south of Jaffa, Simeon {Nchj Shein'on) 
in the plain of Sharon. Levi is possibly Nebt/ Laivin. Judah has a 
Muhim {Ncby JTudah) in the Sharon plain, near which, in the territory 
of Dan, is the Mi'ihnm eii Xchj Dan. Issachar, Zebulon, Asher, Naphtali, 
Gad, Manasseh, and Ephraim,t we have not as yet found in themimbcr 
of the sanctuaries. 

Proceeding to the period of the Conquest, we find south-west of 
Jericho the reputed tomb of Moses, much revered by the Moslems. But 
this tradition appears to be of Christian origin, and will be subsequently 
noticed. The tombs of Eloazar and Phineas are, however, more pro- 
bably authentic, and have been already described in my paper on 
Samaritan Topography. Aaron was buried on Mount Hor, where his 
tomb is now sho\vn. Joshua requires a more particular notice. 

The foregoing characters are all known by the peasantry in their 
proper relations. No special legends seem attached to the tombs, but if 
one inquires who Nebij Iliulah was, the answer of an intelligent native 
will be, "The son of our Lord Jacob." There is one curious instance 
of confusion, however : Neby Tarud Ibn Y'ahiih, who probably repre- 
sents Jared, the ancestor, not the son of Jacob (Gen. v. 15). "When, 
however, we seek for the memory of Joshua we find the name to have 
entirely disappeared. At Jericho he is confused with the Imam 'Aly Ibn 

* This tradition is noticed by Josephus. 

t The Mukums of Ephniim and Gad and Manasseh might be expected east 
of Jordan. 



THE ISrOSLEi: MUKAMS. 95- 

Abu Tdleh, brother-in-law of the prophet, in a tradition which seems 
most probably of Christian origin, being located to a sacred spot stand- 
ing apparently on the site of the mediajval Chapel of the Apparition of 
St. Michael to Joshua ; but Joshua also seems to appear under the name 
of Xcby KrJlJ, " the apportioner," whose iT/«Av/>« is shoA\'n in Ke/r Ildris, 
•where mediLoval Jewish tradition fixes the site of Timnath Heres. Neby 
Kifil has two other sanctuaries in the centre of the country. At Tibneh, 
Avhich is now generally held to be the true Timnath Heres, there is a. 
large oak called Sheikh et Ttim, " the chief the servant of God," and in 
this perhaps some memory of Joshua is still retained, but it is remark- 
able that the name of so great a hero should so completely have dis- 
appeared from the native mythologj*. 

Proceeding to the later period of the prophets, kings, and judges^ 
succeeding the Conquest, the mythology becomes more confused. Barak 
may perhaps be recognised in Sheikh Ihreilc, a Miikdm standing over 
the Kishon, in which the host of Sisera -was engulphed ; but Gideon Is 
forgotten, unless he be recognised as Nehy Diihy, " the general," whose 
sanctuary stands above the site of Gideon's battle on the summit of 
what is supposed by many to be the " HUl of Moreh." 

Samson, however, plays a more conspicuous part. The tomb of 
Sheikh Samat I discovered, and described in October, LSTS, at Sur'ah 
(Zoreah). It is mentioned in 1334 apparently in the same position by 
E^bbi Isaac Chelo, so that the tradition is apparently not of Christian 
origin. M. Ganneau has given the legends which arc connected with 
Shamshun el Jebbar (" the hero "), the brother of Sheikli Samat, which 
are, however, of doubtful origin. At Gaza, Samson has also two Mulcf/ms, 
that of ^Aly Mirntdr, on the hill south of the town, traditionally that 
to which the gates of Gaza were carried, where an annual festival takes 
place,* and that of 'Ahj Miriuda (" Aly the enslaved"), now supposed to 
be the tomb of Samson. The origin of these legends is as yet undis- 
covered. It is remarkable that on the hills east of Gaza is another 
chapel dedicated to 'Ahj {at Daiueimeh), near which is a ruined convent 
called Deir Samat, which raises a suspicion that Christian teaching as- 
to Samson has been confused by the peasantry as referring to 'Aly, the 
famous Imam, who has many sanctuaiies all over the country. 

Samuel, the next hero, has but one sanctuary, Nehy Sumw'il, but this 
tradition seems of Christian origin, and is not recognised as genuine by 
Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela, who accuses the Christians of pretending 
to have transported the body from Eamleh, which he considers to have 
been Eamathaim Zophim. If the latter place is to be identified with 
Saffa, then perhaps the real tomb of Samuel may be represented by the 
sanctuary of Shehdb-ed-Dvi, "the hero of the faith." There was, 
however, as will be seen later, a historic character of this name. 

The tombs of David and Solomon at Jerusalem ai-e sanctuaries of no 
mean order, and the praying-places of Abraham, David, and Solomon 
are shown in the cave of the Sahhrah, but the origin here again is- 
* This tradition dates from the middle ages. 



KG THE MOSLEM MUKAMS. 

doubtful, and cannot easily be traced to indigenous tradition.* There 
are many sanctuaries of Sheikh Baud in the country, but whether con- 
nected with the king it is impossible to detei-mine. There is also a 
•curious tradition of the Bint SHltan el Fenish, " the daughter of the 
Phoenician Sultan," not far from Tell Jezer, which may perhaps be 
attached to Solomon's wife, whose dowry was Gezer. 

We have finally to deal with the names of the later prophets, of 
whom the most famous is Elijah. In the native mythology he is called 
H Khudr ; but as the same title is also applied to St. George, it is 
impossible to distinguish the two in many cases. There is, however, in 
Samaria a Muhdm dedicated to Neby Elyds, in which we recognise the 
name of the prophet unchanged. 

^ Daniel {Neby Bdnidn) has five sanctuaries, and is perhaps to be re- 
cognised also as Neha Kunda, "the Chaldean," whose sanctuary exists 
near Yebna. 

Ezekiel also is represented ia Nehy HazMn, on a high hill over the 
Jordan valley, and perhaps Isaiah in Neby S^ain above Nazareth, a 
name which is of otherwise unknown origin. 

Jonah has no fewer than four Mukdms : that at el Mesh-hed (Gath 
Hepher), where his tomb was shown at an early period, the ti-adition 
being apparently of Jewish and not of Christian origin ; secondly, Neby 
Tunis, south of Jaffa, on the coast, representing probably a tradition of 
the spot where he was left by the whale ; thirdly, Neby Tunis, at Halhul, 
which seems at one time to have been considered to be the tomb of the 
prophet Gad ; fourthly, the tomb near Sarepta, a tradition which dates 
from the middle ages, and appears to be of Christian origin. 

Of smaller prophets Haggaiis perhaps NebyUuj, near Gaza; Zechariah, 
Neby Zekariya,\ near el Medyeh ; and Baruch possibly Neby BurTc, at 
Burha, though this may be a case where the tradition originates from, 
the name of the town. 

One important name remains still to be collected — the Miihdm of 
Nahum the Elkoshite. It was shown to Isaac Chelo in 1334, on the 
road from Tiberias to Kefr 'Anan, and may prove to be the Kubbeh in 
Abu Shusheh, situate above the 'Ain el Madaiverah, which Dr. Tristram 
identifies with the Fountain of Caphamaum. Could this be settled, we 
should have entirely new materials for settling the position of Caper- 
naum, which is still so much disputed, for the tradition in this case is of 
Jewish and probably indigenous, and not of Christian or foreign 
origin. 

It may bo thought that the above is a mere list of names to which 
traditions should have been attached. The natives, however, as a rule, 

* Trofessor Palmer informs us that the tradition of the site of David's tomb 
is of jmrely Moslem origin, and (hitcsback only to 1447 a.d. (Jerusalem, Besant 
.and Palmer, p. 436. See also the account of the discovery of the tomb given by 
Henjaniin of Tiidcla.) 

+ This, however, is also perhaps Christian in origin, as the site is noticed by 
Marino Sanuto as being the birthi)iac'e of John tlie Baptist. 



THE MOSLEM. MUKA.MS. 97 

are either ignorant, or affect ignorance of the history of the saints. 
This is no doubt partly due to suspicion and fear of consequences in 
telling sacred names to infidels ; but it seems to me certain that in many 
cases the ignorance is real, and that the name has long survived any 
memory of the circumstance which first consecrated the sacred station. 



III. 

Christian Sites. — The sites treated of as yet are, as far as can be judged, 
mostly of pure native origin, and often traceable to Jewish and therefore 
indigenous sources. Nothing is more important in studying Palestine 
than to draw a broad line of distinction between all that is of native 
origin on the one hand, and foreign traditions principally Christian on 
the other. 

The second class of Mukdms includes those sites which, though now 
venerated by the peasantry, are undoubtedly of Christian origin. A 
few examples will show clearly that such sites exist undistingtdshed 
from those belonging to a more reliable tradition. Thus on the hill east 
of Hebron, near Beni Nairn, stands the Minaret and Sanctuary of Nehy 
Lut, and a tradition existed in the fourth century that it was from this 
point that Lot and Abraham surveyed the Promised Land. From this 
origin doubtless the modern site has arisen. Again, in the Jordan 
valley we are surprised to find the reputed tomb of Moses {Nehy Musa) 
near Jericho. Many traditions connected with the prophet exist ; a 
valley, a pool, and an aqueduct are called by his name. Yet there is 
evidence which points to the Christian origin of all this mythology, for 
in the Itinerary of Antoninus Martyr we find the "thermae Moysi " 
mentioned in connection apparently with Wddy Kelt, and the Quaran- 
tania mountain, near Jericho, in which we may probably recognise the 
present Birhet Musa. 

There are also two Mukdms sacred to our Lord, one in a village near 
Hebron, where a church once existed, the other at Nein, connected with 
the site of the raising of the widow's son, and no doubt standing on the 
site of a mediaeval chapel. In the centre of the country also there is a 
MuJcdm of Sitti Miriam, the Virgin Mary, whose memory is kept alive 
at Jerusalem in the Birket Sitti Miriam, which is not, however, a sacred 
place. 

Several of the apostles also have Mukdms, notably Neby Metta, the 
" prophet Matthew," whose sanctuary, in the village of Beit Ummer, is 
no doubt the St. Matthew mentioned by Willibald of Oldenburg, 
724 A.D., as between the Fountain of the Eunuch {'Ain Dhirweh) and St. 
Zacharias {Beit Iskdria), south of Jerusalem, or in the very position of 
the village above mentioned. 

St. John has a very curious Mtikdm, called Nehy Yahyah, in the plain 
of Sharon, which, though it is now a Moslem sanctuary with Cenotaph 
and Mihrab, is yet sometimes called Mar Hannah, " St. John," as well 
as Neby Yahyah, the native name of the Baptist, 



98 THE MOSLEM MUKAMS. 

St. Paul again is recognisable in Nehy Bulus, wliose sanctuary lies 
near SHr'ah, in the Shephelali, and a little farther south Ave find at 
Beit Jibrin the Mfihdm en Nehy Jihrin. The town was called Gibelin by 
the Crusaders ; but William of Tyre translates the original name to 
mean " House of Gabriel ;" and two churches, one to St. John {Sanda- 
Jiannah) and one to St. Gabriel, seem to have existed here. The last is 
almost entirely destroyed, but Nehij Jihrin is worshipped on a plot of 
open ground just south of one of the aisles, in a part which probably 
was once in the middle of the church of St. Gabriel. 

St. George, el Khtidr, was considered by the Saracens to be the patron 
of the Crusaders, and his sanctuaries, though now Moslem, seem to be 
almost always on the site of chapels or churches. Thus at Deir Belah 
(the Fort of Darum of the Crusaders), the Miikdm of el Khtidr is full of 
fragments of Christian work, and the second name of the village is Deir 
Mar Jirius, monastery of St. George. At Ascalon and at Blanchegarde 
the same saint is worshipped, and the name attaches to many Christian 
ruins, and to one Christian village. "WTierever, in fact, el Khtidr appears, 
we may suspect Christian origin to attach to the ruins. 

St. Anne {Sitti Hanniyeh) has also a Moslem sanctuary, but the most 
curious confusion is in the large Kubbeh, on the edge of the Sharon 
plain, now called Sheikh Saiidahdivi, in which -we recognise at once an 
original St. Eve or St. Eva, now changed in sex as in creed, to become 
a Moslem chief. 

The adoption of so many Christian worthies appears to me to show 
that at some time, probably the peaceful era of the fifth century preced- 
ing the invasion by Omar, the peasantry were considerably under the 
influence of the monastic establishments which then covered the whole 
country, and of which an almost affectionate memory seems retained in 
such titles as " the charitable convent," &c. 

It is to this period that the class of legends which treat of Scripture 
history may be referred with great proljability ; with the invasion the 
names were changed, and hence to the companions of the Prophet we 
find the deeds of Joshua and Samson now ascribed. In some cases 
Scripture traditions may be of even later origin, and due to direct 
monastic teaching at the present time. 



IV. 

NaUve Traditions. — There is a third class of sacred characters which I 
have not succeeded in identifying with certainty, but which are occasion- 
ally of great iiaterest, and which form a large proportion of the whole 
number. 

Thus, for instance, Haj 'Aleiydn is a much-respected saint, whose 
history I have told in a former report {Quarterly Statement, Jan., 1874, 
p. 23), and several prophets may be enumerated. Nehy Sdleh, "the 
good prophet," has four Mtthdms, one of which is shown as the place of 
his martyrdom. The red streaks in the limestone are supposed to be 



THE MOSLEM MUKAMS. 99 

due to his blood ; and the cave in which his son hid is also shown near 
the place. Who was Neby Saleh ? is a question still to be answered. 
Neby Beldn and Nehy Balidii belong to this class. Nehy Heiyis (possibly 
Ahijah), Nehy Mdniin, Nehy 'Anin (or Ananiah), Neby N'amdn (Naanian), 
Nehy Kdmil (" perfect prophet "), and Nehy Nurdn. 

Two others have a curious bearing on Scripture — viz., Nehy Turf mi, 
which maybe rendered " the Tarpelite," one of the races which were 
brought by Asnapper (Ezra iv. 9, 10) to colonise Samaria, and secondly, 
Nehy Leivaun, near Jerusalem, whose name recalls that of the unknown 
King Lemuel (Prov. xxi. 4). Equally obscure are Nehy Kundah (the 
Chaldean), Nehy Tdri (the Stranger), and Nehy Serdkah, perhaps named 
after Sunk, " the valley of Sorek." 

Amongst the Sheikhs also curious names occasionally occur, as Ahya 
(Ahijah), 'Awed (Uz), Iskander (who appears to be Alexander the Great). 
In the Jordan valley, not far from the sites which I suggested as repre- 
senting the Eock Oreb and "hole " of Zeeb, we have Sheikh edh Dhidh, 
"chief of the wolves," or possibly a tradition of Zeeb. At Beit Jibrin 
is Sheikh Sh'ath, the native name of Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses. 
At Adullam is Sheikh MadhkUr, " the famous chieftain," perhaps David 
himself. 

Then there are Sheikh Nedhir, " the Nazarite," Sheikh Kanwdsh, " the 
Ethiopian," and Sheikh Kdmir, a name apparently of Syriac origin, 
meaning " priest," and found applied (2 Kings xxiii. 5) to the idolatrous 
priests "put down" by Josiah. 

There are also female Saints among the native divinities, and it is 
instructive to find couples in which a sister or mother is revered with 
the Sheikh, or in a neighbouring sanctuary. Thus, close to Sheikh Ahu 
Leimun, we have the Umm esh Sheikh, "mother of the chief," who was 
the daughter of Ahmed ed Dujdni (the man of Beth Dagon). At Yebnah 
Sheikh Waheh, "the devoted," has a sister, Sheikhah S'adeh, " the for- 
tunate." And many other instances occur of this purely pagan mytho- 
logy. With these we may class the many "ladies "—Sitt el Kdmeh, and 
Sitt Nefisah, apparently representatives of Lucina ; Sitt Eslamiyeh, 
■who gives her name to Mount Ebal ; Sitt Nekiyeh, "the pure lady," 
and Sitt Men' a, "the recluse." From these titles we gain no small 
insight into the native religion, and the fifth category still further 
enlightens us; but before proceeding to it it is necessary to separate 
out the sacred characters of later historical times. 



Historical Characters. —The early companions of the Prophet have 
gradually become mythical characters of importance. Not only is this 
the case with the Nuseiriyeh, Druses, and other heretical sects, but in 
Palestine they have developed into saints of the first order, and 
have grouped round themselves the history, tradition, and mythology 
of other races and creeds. We have seen that the Imam 'Aly Ihn Abu 



100 THE MOSLEM MUKAMS. 

T'aleb, son-in-law to the prophet husband of Fatimah, and "lion of 
God," with Belial Ihn Rubdh, the Muezzin of the Prophet, have been 
converted at Jericho into Joshua and his servant. 'Aly also, on the other 
side of the country, represents Samson, and he has many other sanc- 
tuaries in the centre and north of Palestine. 

At Hebron we have ^Aly Bukha, who died in 670 ; and west of this 
Sheikh es Sehab, "the companion" (of the Prophet). There are also 
some half-dozen sanctuaries dedicated to the Arh'atn Ghazdwy, "the 
forty champions," companions of the Prophet, the most important being 
the White Mosque at Eamleh, where their memory has been confused 
with the Forty Martyrs of Cappadocia.* We have also two Miikdms of 
Sheikh Khalif, " the Caliph," or " Successor," of the Prophet, and thus 
we gradually descend to more modem times. 

South of Jerusalem is the Deir Abu Tor, where is the monument of Ahu 
Tor, or Sheikh Ahmed et Tori, " the father of the bull." This worthy, 
whose name was Sheikh Shehdb ed Din el Kudesy, " the sacred hero of 
the faith," was a follower of Saladin, who in 1187 gave him the 
monastery of St. Mark, now called Deir Abu Tor.t Professor Palmer 
tells us that he derived his name from riding on a tame bull. At St. 
Mark's he lived, died, and was buried, and has now become a saint. 

Then, near the great plain, we have on a high hill Sheikh Shibleh, 
who was a powerful Emir about 1700 A.D. Though now a saint, he 
was, when alive, no better than a common robber. Maundrell, the 
traveller, had the satisfaction of seeing him in the flesh, and was 
" courteously relieved " by him of his great-coat as baksheesh. 

At 'Arsiif (the Crusading Arsur) is the Haram 'Ahj Ibn Aleim, who 
lived in the time of Sultan Bibars, 1270 A.D., and defended the town 
against that monarch. His mosque is said to have been built by Bibars 
himself. 

South of Jerusalem is a real "Mosque of Omar," Jami'a 'Amr Ibn 
Khuttdb, close to the village of Beit T'dmir, dating perhaps from 636 
A.D. West of Jerusalem is Sheikh Abu Ohosh, a bandit whilst in the 
flesh, about 1813 A.D., now a respected saint. It is curious to find in 
Galilee Jewish rabbis in the same category, as, for instance, at 'Arrdbeh, 
where is the Kabr Y'akub es Seddik, " tomb of Jacob (or James) the 
Just," probably representing that of Eabbi Chanina, shown here as far 
back as 1564, the Rabbi himself (if Chanina ben Dosa) having lived 
about 70 A.D. 

* Sidna Hdshem, the prophet's father, is buried at Gaza. 

t Abu Tor might be thought to be St. Mark himself, whose emblem is the 
bull. The place is also called Deir el Kaddts Modestus, "Monastery of St. 
Modestus," probably the monk who restored th« Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 
about 620 a.d. 



THE MOSLEM MUKAMS. 101 

VI. 

Appellations. — The fifth category includes no less than eighty names, 
nearly a third of the whole, the saints being principally of the second 
order, Sheikhs, or "chiefs," known by titles either showing their origin 
or their attributes. The peasantry appear to believe that the saint 
sometimes gave his name to the town where his Mukdm exists ; but 
there is often historic evidence to prove that the process has really been 
the reverse, and the saint has been created from the town. Thus at 
Tdnun we have Nehy Nun (apparently the father of Joshua), but the 
name of the town is probably a corruption of the ancient Janoah. 
Nehy Tuba, again (perhaps Tobiah), has his sanctuary at Tdhds, the 
ancient Thebez. Nehy Yiikin derives his name from the town called 
Cain, and Nehy Hushdn, at Hdsheh, from the place which is apparently 
Osheh, the seat of the Sanhedrim. 

Another curious case is that of Sheikh Selmdn el Farsi, companion of 
the prophet, whose sanctuary stands on Mount Salmon, whence it pro- 
bably derived its name originally. At Tell Jezer, again, we have 
Muhammed el Jezdri (the Moor), who seems to derive his name from 
Gezer. Nehy Btirk is found in Burka, Sheikh er Rdfdti at Eafat, Sheikh el 
Huhdni at Hubin, Sheikh Arehdb at the ancient Rehob, and Sheikh 
Mukhnah in the plain of the same name, the word meaning " camping- 
ground." 

The second class of appellations is of more value, and examples taken 
at random will serve to show clearly the attributes and characters of 
these revered saints. Thus we find in Philistia " the father of the lion," 
and "the father of curls" (names, perhaps, for Samson), also "father 
of the crescent," "of the mail coat," " of the olive," "of the carob," 
"servant of the almighty," and "servant of the prophet." "The 
Stranger," "the Median," "the man of Aleppo," "the rain-giver," 
"the idiot," "the madman," "the goodly," "the pleasant," "the 
Bhining," "the healer," "the place of sickness," "the high place," 
"the place of prayer," "the place of steps," "the dwarf," "the sun 
of the faith," "the honour of the faith," "the trustee," "the 
pilgrioi," "the soldier," "the full moon," "the propitious," "the 
place of protection," "the place of flight," "the conqueror," "the 
champion," "the inspired," " the just," " the fortunate," " the wise," 
" the snow-white," " the beautiful." 

In this category of adjectives we see the character of the mythology. 
The personal names in these cases are often common Moslem names, but 
in some cases the title very probably conceals an important name. The 
peasantry shrink from pronouncing the true name, especially before 
Christians, and prefer a circumlocution, just as the English and Scotch 
peasantry might speak of "the good people" and the "canny folk." 
The titles are, however, of no small value. They show that the 
mythology is extremely mixed, and that many strangers are admitted 
into the pantheon. They show also that the Sheikh is the protector of 



102 



THE ISrOSLEM MUKAMS. 



property, the giver of rain, the healer of sickness ; that the olive, the 
carob, the oak, are sacred to him; that -warriors, madmen, idiots, 
pilgrims, are alike canonised after death, and that prayer is offered and 
assistance begged in all the calamities of life from the genius loci of 
each village or town. 

YII. 

Sacred Sites. — A few MiiMms not to be classed under either of the 
foregoing titles appear to refer to traditions now forgotten. Thus we 
have the Hizn Y'aMb, "mourning of Jacob," the Jamfa el 'Amud 
(Pillar of Shechem), and the 'Am&d ed Din, marking, as I have proposed 
to identify it, the monument erected on Ebal by Joshua. At Shiloh, 
also, there is the Jamia el Yetaim, "mosque of the servants of God," 
retaining probably a memory of the tabernacle. Such sites are, how- 
ever, few, and the traditional connection appears to be lost. 



VIII. 

Last of all come the common Moslem names applied to some fifty less- 
important Miikdms ; Abdallah, Omar, AH, Abraham, Kasim Mohammed, 
Hasan, Moses, Othman, Joseph, Masud, David, and Solomon are 
among these. 

In some cases it is possible these names may be falsely given, in others 
they are distinguished by adjectives, "the long," " the tall," &o., and 
appear certainly genuine. In one or two instances the peasantry differ 
as to the name, but this is never the case where a Neby is concerned. 

Such is a brief review of the worship and origin of the Mukams. 

The subject is well worth further study by competent Arabic scholars. 

Traditions may probably remain to be collected, and other names may 

be added ; but the greatest caution is necessary, and the subject could 

scarcely have been further pursued during the course of the Survey 

without raising the fanatical suspicions of the peasantry, from whose 

zeal and superstition the Survey party has always been in continual 

danger. 

Claude R. Conder, Lt. R.E. 

Feb. IT, 1877. 





List 


OF THE Neby Mukams. 


1. 


Mukam on Neby 'Aisa 


Jesus. 


2. 




,, 'Anin 


Ananiah ? 


3. 




,, Balian 




4. 




Belan 




5. 




,, Bulus 


Patd. 


6. 




Burk 


"Blessed. 


7. 




,, Danian 


Daniel. 


8. 




,, Baud 


David. 



THE MOSLEM MUKAMS. 



103 



9. 


Miakam 


on Neby 


Dan 


Dan 


10. 


1 1 


)) 


Duhy 


" Leader." 


11. 


) ) 


)) 


Elyas 


Elias. 


12. 


>' 


)> 


Ham 


Ham. 


13. 


)) 


) J 


Heiyis 




14. 


)> 


)) 


Hudah 


Judah. 


15. 


)> 


) ) 


Huj 


Haggai? 


16. 


)) 


)) 


Hushan 


Osbanite. 


17. 


) J 


)) 


Is-bak 


Isaac. 


18. 


)) 


>> 


Jibrin 


Gabriel. 


19. 


) J 


) ) 


Kamil 


" Perfect." 


20. 


>) 


>) 


Kifil 


Joshua, " divider 


21. 


>) 


>) 


Kunda 


Chaldean. 


22. 


) ) 


)» 


Lawin 




23. 


) ) 


)> 


Leimun 


Lemuel ? 


24. 


)> 


>) 


Lut 


Lot. 


25. 


)) 


J > 


Mamin 




26. 


)> 


>> 


Metta 


Matthew. 


27. 


J y 


>) 


Musa 


Moses. 


28. 


t ) 


)> 


N'aman 


Naaman. 


29. 


)> 


I) 


Nuh 


Noah. 


30. 


)) 


)) 


Nun 


Nun. 


31. 


>) 


>> 


Nuran 




32. 


>) 


>) 


Rabi 




33. 


> J 


) ) 


Rubin 


Reuben. 


34. 


J > 


) > 


S'ain 




35. 


J J 


)) 


Saleb 


" Good." 


36. 


) J 


>) 


Samwil 


Samuel. 


37. 


J) 


)) 


Serakah 


Sirach ? 


38. 


) ) 


3> 


Sbem'on 


Simeon. 


39. 


)) 


>> 


Shit 


Seth. 


40. 


>> 


>1 


Tari 


" Stranger." 


41. 


)> 


>) 


Toba 




42. 


)) 


)) 


Turfini 




43. 


) > 


)) 


Tabyali 


St. John. 


44. 


) ) 


Y'arud Ibn T'akub 




45. 


) ) 


) ) 


Yemin 


Benjamin ? 


46. 


J ) 


)) 


Tukln 


Cain. 


47. 


)> 


)> 


Tunis 


Jonah. 


48. 


)> 


)! 


Zakariya 


Zechariah. 



104 



aiBEAH OF SAUL. 

The site in question is one important to fix, as a good deal of topo- 
graphy depends upon it. Thus, though no new discovery can be claimed 
in this case, I may perhaps be allowed to state the arguments which 
appear to me sufficient to determine the situation of this town. 

In the first place I would again insist on the importance in all such 
cases of having the name identical. No site can be considered aa 
identified unless two conditions are fulfilled : 1st, that the name be 
recovered ; 2nd, that the position be suitable. It will, I think, be 
found that in almost every instance where a site has been fixed without 
connection between the native existing name aud the ancient title, the 
site has proved, sooner or later, unsatisfactory. I may point to Megiddo 
placed at Lejjun, to Mizpeh at Nehy Samwll, to Tirzah at Talluza, aa 
instances in which the sites can only be considered conjectural, and 
against which there are important objections. The same applies to 
Gibeah of Saul placed at Tell el Fill. Gibeah was about 30 stadia from 
Jerusalem according to Josephus. Tell el Fill is little over 22 stadia. 
If it represent an ancient Hebrew name it is a former Ophel that has 
become transformed into the modern Arabic " bean hill," and it is more 
probably the site of Ophni of Benjamin, as far as the derivation of the 
name is concerned. 

Robinson, in visiting Palestine for the first time, was inclined to 
place Gibeah of Saul near Geba of Benjamin (the present Jeb'a), a con- 
clusioQ which he afterwards rejected, choosing the site of Tell el Ful. 

The word Gibeah is the feminine, according to Gesenius, of Geba, 
" a hill," but a further difficulty has been raised in this case by the fact 
that the authorised version has occasionally Gibeah where the Hebrew 
reads Geba. In the list of the towns of Benjamin (Josh, xviii. 24, 28) 
we have two names — Gaba, which is generally supposed to be JeVa 
nea.r Mukhmds, and Gibeah, which is noticed as near Kirjath {Kuriet). 
This second town is, however, probably JiWa, a ruin north-west of 
Jerusalem near Kuheibeh, and a place distinct from Gibeah of Saul, 
for it occurs in a difi'erent category among towns far from the site in 
question. If this conclusion be correct, Gibeah of Saul is not noticed 
in the enumeration of the cities of Benjamin, unless indeed it be identi- 
cal with Gaba. 

Another connection between Geba, or Gaba, and Gibeah exists in the 
history of the Levite whose wrongs brought punishment on the Benja- 
mites. Travelling along the north road from Jerusalem towards Mount 
Ephraim, he " turns aside" towards Gibeah and Ramah (Judg. xix. 13), 
arriving at Gibeah, whose inhabitants were Benjamites. 

In this chapter, and the one succeeding, the place is invariably called 
Gibeah except in two verses (Judg. xx. 10, 33), where it appears in the 
Hebrew as Geba of Benjamin, and again "the cave of Geba" (A. Y., 
" Meadows"). 



GIBEAH OF SAUL. 105 

A third connectiou between Gibeah and Geba lias been noticed in tho 
paper on Saul's journey to Zupli, where he returns to Gabatha, "thi^ 
hill," whore was a gai-rison of the Philistines. Such a garrison wc find 
to exist in Geba of Benjamin shortly after (1 Sam. xiii. 3). 

Thus we find, apparently, places close together, or identical, known 
under the names of Geba, Gaba, Gabatha, Gibeah of Benjamin, and 
Gibeah of Saul. The natural conclusion would be that they are on<' 
and the same j)lace. It seems probable, however, that the feminine^ 
form Gibeah was used for the country in which the city Geba stood. 
This idea will be found to be supported by the passages in the book o!' 
Judges above referred to, and also by the various notices of Gibeahs 
near Geba. Thus we have " Gibeah in the fields " {Guhathah hi Badeh), 
Judg. XX. 31, and in the later history of Saul we find the king " in the 
uttermost part of Gibeah under a pomegranate tree which is in 
Migrou " (1 Sam. xiv. 2). And, again, " Saul abode in Gibeah under a 
tree in Ramah" (1 Sam. xxii. 6). It may also be remarked that many 
of the Hebrew words signifying "land" or "country" are of tho 
feminine gender. 

But beyond the evidence of name it would appear from the facts of the 
case that there was only one town of the name in this direction. The 
Levite turns aside to Gibeah of Benjamin, an expression which certainly 
applies well to Jeh'a but not to Tell el Ffd on the main road. The town 
where he was insulted was, as we have seen above, Geba of Benjamin, 
the same town afterwards taken by Jonathan, and here, at the passage, 
was the rock of Senneh, which is translated " thorn." 

Now in speaking of Gabaoth Saule (B. J. v. 2. 1) Josephus places it 
near the Valley of Thorns, and at the present day the valley below Jeh'a 
is called Wddy SuweinU, " the valley of the little thorn tree." Josephus 
is not absolute as to the distance of this place from Jerusalem, but. 
states it at " about 30 stadia"— the distance being nearer to 40 to Jeh'a — 
but this fits the text as well as the 22 stadia to Tell el Ffd. 

In addition, it may be urged that the watchmen of Saul, in Gibeah of 
Benjamin, were able to see the conflict which was going on at Michmash, 
and to hear the sound of the battle. Tell el Ffd, though Jeh'a be visible, 
does not command a view of Michmash, and the distance is no less than 
five miles between the scene of the battle and Saul's supposed position. 
Finally, in Gibeah of Benjamin there was a cave large enough to con- 
tain the ambush (Judg. xx. 33). No cave exists near Tell el Ffd, but a 
large cave exists at Jeh'a. 

The conclusion appears to me to be that Saul's city was Geba of Ben- 
jamin, and that the district round was called first Gibeah of Beajamin, 
afterwards Gibeah of Saul. 

If we accept this view, the question of the position of Nob is greatlj' 
simplified, and tlio position of Gabatha, to which Saul returned after his 
journey to Zuph. is also confirmed. G. R. 0. 

1 



106 



JUDJEO-GEEEK EPITAPH EEOM JAFFA. 

The little inscription of which you send me a sketch is very much like 
those of which I found a great number of specimens in the ancient 
cemetery of Jaffa. In my earliest reports {Qv.arterJij Statement, 1874) 
I determined the site of this cemetery, and called attention to the 
importance of fuller examination on a spot so interesting to Hebrew 
archeeology. 

This new text is engraved on marble. I may add, without fear of 
being wrong, guided as I am by analogy, that it must be, probably, a 
very thin slab — that is, a tituhis. The symbol below the fourth line is 
the seven-branched candlestick of the Temple. I have already found it 
on similar epitaphs of Jaffa, notably on one very much mutilated, on 
which only the ends of the words could be made out. 

The new inscription is somewhat difiicult to decipher from the pencil 
sketch, you ought to obtain a squeeze. It begins with the word AAZAPOT, 
genitive of Lazarus ; the word fj-vrtfia, expressed in some of the Jaffa 
stones, is understood here. Then comes the word KM, followed by a 
proper name also in the genitive, but difficult to x-estore on account of 
the doubtful characters in the middle of the line. Perhaps it is CHAA 
for CIAA, genitive of CIAAC, a name common among the Judseo- 
Greeks ; for example, a friend of Agrippa (Joseph. Aatiq. xviii, 6. 7 ; 
xix. 8. 3) ; a Babylonian (Joseph. Bell. Jud. ii. 19. 2 ; in, 2. 1) ; a 
tj'rant of Lysias (Joseph. Antiq. xiv. 3. 2) ; a governor of Tiberias 
(Joseph. Lip. xvii.) ; a companion of St. Paul, chief of the church of 
Jerusalem (Acts ©f Apostles, xv. 22), &c. We see also the name of Silas 
borne by an Egyptian priest (Zoeg. Cat. Codd. 546. 2) ; many Jews, 
whose epitaphs I found at Jaffa, were of Egyptian origin, as is stated in 
the inscriptions. 

The inscription ends by the name, also in the genitive, of Simon, 
written CTMnNC for ciMnNO, an interesting form which occupies 
a middle place between '2,v/xieivos, Symeou, and 'Si/j.ui'os, Simon. It 
is probable that we must read immediately before the name KAI, 
instead of KA, the I having crept in accidentallj'. As for the letters 
which follow as far as the CHAA, they are too indistinct to permit a 
restoration. We may have to add them to CHAA in order to form a 
proper name, and we may look for the name TiriN among them. The 
frequent inaccuracies in these little texts make it imperative in every 
case to have a careful squeeze. C. CLERMO^'T-GANNEAU. 



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GrENEEAJj Committee {continued) — 

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THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND, 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

The following Resolution of the Executive Committee, passed July 3, 1877, 
lias been ordered to be communicated b}- means of the Quarterhj Statement of 
July to all subscribers : — " That considering the heavy expenses of the Survey 
now in progress, -which must be met during the next three mouths, the Com- 
mittee beg that every subscriber who has not j'et paid his subscription for the 
current year will kindly send it in at once, either to the Head Office or to the 
Hon. Sec. of his town, although it may not fall duo till the last quarter ; that 
intending donors will bear in mind the urgent importance of finishing the Survey 
at once ; and that Honorary Secretaries be asked to forward the subscriptions 
paid to them as soon as they may be conveniently collected. " 



The progress of the Survey is detailed at fortnightly intervals in the "Journal " 
extracted from Lieut. Kitchener's letters. In starting the work he received the 
greatest assistance from Consul-General Eldridge ; got letters from the new Wali 
of Syria and fi'om Abd-el-Kader ; was welcomed at Safed, the scene of the late 
attack; and has proceeded undisturbed with his triangulation. Up to the latest 
account the total amount surveyed was 550 square miles, leaving about an equal 
amount to complete the Survey of Northern Palestine. 



If things remain tranquil, Lieut. Kitchener will have finished Northern Pales- 
tine by the middle of August. He will then probably move southAvards, in order 
to settle various points of difficulty which have arisen in laying down the 
map. This done, there will remain only a small area of 200 nules at the extreme 
south, where two tribes have been can-ying on war against each other for the last 
three years. 

In order to assist in promoting a friendly feeling towards the party, the Com- 
mittee have resolved on giving up their claim to the rest of the fine imposed on 
the Safed people. They have addressed a letter, which is now under conside ,;- 
tion, to the Foreign Office, asking for the re-establishment of the Haifta consulate. 



The actual depression of the Sea of Galilee has been ascertained to be 682'554. 
This result may be slightly jnodified on rc-oxamination. The papers are in \\\> 



110 NOTES AIs^D KEWS. 

hands of Major Wilson, and will ho read at the next nicetiug of the British 
Association. 



From the camp of Tiberias five extinct volcanoes -were observed fiom which the 
basalt has hecn thrown out over the surrounding country : the plains being 
covered by the ashes and lioulders of basalt ai-e rendered extremely fertile. Two 
miles south of the Kurn Ilattin occur two extinct volcanoes, and Liei;t. Kitchener- 
is of opinion that the Kurn Ilattin is another. 



The di'awing of Jacob's \\\ll as it now appears, which is our frontispiece to 
the present number, has been drawn aad presented to the Committee by Mr. 
ri. A. Harper from a sketch taken by himself on his last visit to the Holy Land. 



The Eev. Selah Merrill, Arclueologist of the American Association, passed 
through London last month on his way to New York. He was rooeived by the 
Committee, to whom he showed his route map and explained some of his dis- 
coveries and theories. These will shortly be published by the American 
Committee. 



Lieut. Condcr is still occniiied upon the ilemoirs ; part of his woi'k, with his 
own conclusions, is published in this Statement. 



An othcc lias been taken at tli* Koyal Albert Hall, Avhere the work of map- 
drawing can be at once proceeded with. The services of two non-commissioned 
officers have been granted by the War Office, who will work under the superin- 
tendence of Lieut. Conder. 



The Committee have to thank Captain Hamilton, li.E., for the two sketches 
which are published to illustrate Lieut. Kitchener's report. They were taken on 
the si)ot while Captain Hamilton was with the Survey party. 



A complete set of the American photograjihs, one hundred in number, has. 
been presented to the London Committee. They are large and handsomely 
mounted. About fifty of them arc views of places never before taken. Among 
them arc photogiaphs of Um el Jenieil, Lake Phiala, Bozrah, Salchad, &c. Thero- 
arc also views of Canon Tristram's discovery, the Kuins of Mashita. These 
photographs are lying at the office in 0, Pall ]\rall East, where they may be seen 
by any visitor. 



The new Statement (the fourth) of the American Society is also ready. 
Extracts from this will be given In the October Quarkrhj Statement. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



Ill 



The ibllowin- is the iluaiicial iioaitiou of the luiud (June 30th). llcccipts, 
^larch 29th to°Junc 30th, £930 3s. Sd, Expenditure : Exploration, £673 Is. 
ya.;omceandrnaiiagement, £185 5s. lid. Tlie balance in the hanks on the 
latter day was £398 Os. Id. We aslced in April for £2,000 between then and 
.September 30th. At present we have moeivcd less than £1000. We now ask 
for £1000 in the present quarter, or ratlier in tlie present month, brfore the 
summer holidaj's begin. 

Attention is railed to the statement advertised .m the cover, that subscribers 
to the Fund are privileged by the publisher to receive Ijoth the "Literary 
lleraains of the late Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake," and the " Undergi-ound 
-lerusalem " of Captain Warren, at reduced rates. The former book will be sent 
for ten shillings, the latter for sixteen shillings, postage paid. But letters asking 
for thcmmust^e sent to the oflice at 9, Pall .^lall East only. 



Oxford subscribers will make a note i!.at an account 
<Jld Bank by Canon Ridgway for the receipt oi subscriptions and donations. 



An Association for the Exploration of Palestine has been formed in Germany. 
The prospectus is signed l)y Dr. Zimmermann, and Professors Socin, of Tubingen, 
and Kautzscli, of Basel. Among the committee are Count von Moltke, Karl 
Baedeker, Dr. Kiepert, the German Consul of Jerusalem, Dr. Sandreczki, and 
rierr Schick. A long list of those who have promised support includes the 
names of Professors Ebers, Schlottinann, Sepp, and Spreiiger, Herr Weser, and 
other well-known men. The society will publish a "Quarterly Journal of 
Palestine llesearch," wliich, like our Quaricrl >/ Statrmcnt, wiil be issued free to 
all its subscribers. It will contain papers on Topography, Xatural History, 
Ethnology, including Folk-lore, Statistics, Political History, Coins and Inscrip- 
tions, and General Literary News. The yearly subscriptions will in the first 
instance be devoted to this magazine, and if the revenue of the society exceed the 
cost of the periodical, a fund will be formed for the issue of scientific works on 
the subject. 



Several cases were discovered in 1876 of postage stamps being lost oh their way 
to the oflice. The only way to avoid such loss is to send money by P.0.0. or 
by cliecpie, in every case x'ccyahla to the order of Walter Iksant, and crossed 
to Coutts and Co., or the Union BanJc, Charino Cross Branch. 



The ninth thousand of " Our Work in Palestine " is now ready (price Ss. 6d.), 
and may lie ordered of booksellers. Tliis book carries the work down to the 
■commencement of the Survey, but does not embrace ^L Ganneau's discoveries 
nor the results of the Survev itself. 



112 NOTES AND NEWS. 

The followiug arc at pie^eut Representatives and Lecturers of tire Society, in 
addition to tlie Hon. Sees. : — 

ArcMeacourj- of Hereford : Kev. J. S. Stooke-A''augliaa, "Wellington Heath 
Yiearage, Lcdburj-. 

City and neigliboiirliood of Manchester : Kev. ^V. F. Birch, St. Saviour's 
Kectory. 

London : Eev. Henry Geary, 16, Somerset Street, Portman Square. 

Norwich : Eev. F. C. Long, Stow-npland, Stowmarket, 

Peterborough : Eev. A. F. Foster, Farndish Kectory, Wellingborough. 

Worcester : Kev. F. ^V. Holland, Evesham (Member of General and Executive 
Committee, and one of the Hon. Secretaries to the Fund). 

Diocese of Ripon : Kev. T. C. Henley, Kirkby Malham A'icarage. 

Ireland.— Diocese of Armagh : Kev. J. H. Townsend. 

Kev. G. J. Stokes, Blackrock, Dublin. 

Scotland. — Kev. K. -J. (.'raig, Dalgetty, Burntisland. 



While desiring to give every publicity .^ ^.roposed identitications by officers 
of the Fund, the Committee beg it to be distinctly understood that they leave 
such proposals to be discussed on their own merits, and that by publishing them 
in the Quarferbj Statement the Committee do not sanction or adojit them. 



Annual subscribers are earnestly rerpiested ta forward their suljscriptions for 
the current j'car when due, at their earliest convenience, and without waiting for 
application. 

The Committee are always glad to receive old numbers of the Quarterly State- 
ment, especially those which are advertised as out of print. 



Ladies desirous of joining the Ladies' Associations are requested to communi- 
cate with Mrs. Finn, The Elms, Brook Green, London, W. The full report of 
meetings held by Mrs. Finn during the last quarter Avill be found in the 
business sheet. 



Cases for binding the Quarterhj Statement are now ready, and can be liad on 
application to Messrs. R. Bentley and Son, 8, New Burlington Street. They are 
in green or brown cloth, with the stamp of the Society, uniform in appearance 
with " Our Work in Palestine," and are sold at the price of eighteen pence. 



Lieut. Kitchener's Guinea Book of Biblical Photographs can be bought at j\lr. 
Stanford's establishment, 55, Charing Cross. It contains twelve views, with a 
short account of each. Thf^y are mounted on tinted boards, and handsomely 
bound. 



113 



JOURNAL OF THE SUEVEY. 

The following extracts from Lieut. Kitchener's letters give a rough 
current history of the progress of the party from Lieut. Kitchener's 
arrival in Palestine : — 

" Bci/joui, Feb. (!, liSTT. — You will be glad to find that the country is 
not in so bad a condition as you think. I have seen Consul Eldridge 
to-day, and he thinks there is no reason against my taking the field. 
The Moslems are quiet, and the Government has a strong wish to put 
down any rising or disturbance, and is keeping the people in capital 
order." 

"Damascus, Feb. 14, 1877. — ThenewWali of Syria arrived at Beyrout 
on the 8th, and next day Eldridge very kindly took me with him when 
he was making his oflScial visit. Of course no business could be done. 
Next day the Wali returned Eldridge's call, and I saw him again and 
showed him some of our work. Both times Eldridge spoke very highly 
of it, and the Wali agreed that it was of gi'eat importance. I cam" here 
the next day Avith Jago in order to collect the servants and horses. 
Eldridge said if possible he would get the letters I want from the 
Wali. He has written to say that I had better wait for him here, as he 
(;annot do business out of his government. . . . Since I have been here 
I have seen Abd-el-Kader, who was very civil indeed. We spoke of the 
Safed affair, and he expressed his deep sorrow that his followers should 
have behaved so badly. I asked him for a letter to his people in the 
country, which he promised me." 

"Beyrout, Feb. 29, 1877. — The men have arrived here safely. They 
were not able to land at Haiffa owing to bad weather. All the luggage 
is safe. The new Wali has not yet gone to Damascus, and Eldridge has 
written officially asking for an answer about my letters. I have no 
doubt I shall receive them in a day or two. I got letters from Abd-el- 
Kader to his people at Tiberias and Safed, so that I shall have no 
difficulty in that part of the country from our old assailants. The 
delays of this country are most annoying. Eldridge recommends my 
waiting still for the Wall's letters. . . . My time has been fully taken 
up bargaining for horses and getting the party together. I intend 
sending Corporal Brophy with the heavy luggage down to Haiffa on 
Friday morning, the 23rd, by steamer. I dare not risk being carried on 
to Port Said myself, so with Sergeant Malings, Corporal Sutherland, nnd 
all the necessaries for finishing the levelling, I mean to ride down the 
coast, starting from here on Saturday morning. I think this is the best 
way, though it is rather difficult, owing to all our loose things being at 
Haiffa. I hope to be at Haiffa on Monday, and to start work on Tues- 
day, the 27th. The rains are very late this year, so it is perhaps as 
well that we have not been in tents up to now. On last Saturday there 
was a tremendous storm all along the coast. The authorities have all 
been very polite, and I have on every occasion found the scientific p<isi- 



114 JOURXAL OF THE SURVEY. 

tion of tlie Society mucli thouglit of. I liave seeu a great many Paslias 
and officials. Nothing could be kindcv than Mr. Eldridge and Mr. 
Jago, who have greatly helped me since I have been here. I am sure 
you will understand how anxious I am to begin work, and that it is 
■only a series of insurraonn table delays that keeps me here. However, 
you may be sure that work will be started on the 27th, unless some- 
thing new turns up." 

"P. E. Fund Camp, Haiffa, March G, 1877.— You will see by my 
report how we have been getting on, and I hope yoii will be satisfied. 
. . . Next time I shall have a more attractive country to describe. All 
is going quietly ; the country is quiet, and I hope to do well. Colonel 
.Fremantle, of the Coldstreams, is now with me for a short visit." 

'■'Tiberias, March 30, 1877.— We. are getting on all right with the 
work, and I hope in another fortnight to have finished the shores of the 
Sea of Galilee, and be on the road to Safed again. My servants rather 
dread going back, so I shall have to keep a look-out on the rearguard as 
well as in front going up the hill. Eldridge has gone to a good deal 
of trouble to make things go well. ... If the Fund could get a consul 
established at Haiffa it would be a very good thing. If I am well 
received at Safed and report satisfactorily, would the Committee give 
up their claim to the rest of the fine imposed? It would smooth 
matters. . . . The Druses are giving a good deal of trouble, cutting 
people's throats on the road to Damascus. Also there is a report of war 
between the Druses and Arabs in the Jebel Druse, and Mohammed 
Said Pasha is to be sent with a large force to put it down. This is 
merely an on dit, and not very reliable. In the south, near Hebron, 
the Arab tribes Tarabin and Teyyaha have had a fight. The latter 
lost 101 men killed, the former only 12. This U reliable. Consul 
Moore has telegraphed and sent out people to stop all travellers from 
going that way. It is lucky I am doing the north after all." 

"Safed, April 11, 1877.— You will be glad to hear that we have made 
a most successful entry into Safed. The Governor, Kadi, and H.B.M. 
Consular Agent, with twenty-two followers, came out about an hour 
and a half on the road to meet me. Yfe rode into the town in quite a 
triumphal pi-ocessiou. I at once went to the Serail and was saluted by 
the guard. After coffee with the Governor, I pitched camp, and then 
the Governor came and culled. After him the British Agent, and then 
the Kadi, with all the m-mbers of the Mejlis. Nothing could be more 
civil and obliging than everybody was. To-day I have had the Governor, 
the British Consul, and our old enemy Ali Agha Alan, the cause of the 
row; the latter expressed deep sorrow for what ho had done, as well he 
may, as I hear he and the Mogrcbbins arc all but ruined. I called on 
the Consul and tlie Kadi and measured up the castle. . . . On Monday I 
shall move to Meiron, where we shall have rather a long camp, working 
\\Y> to date and carrying the triangixlation north. Of course without 
Sergeant Armstrong I shall not get done so soon as I said in my estimate, 
though I do not think we shall be much bohiud time. . . . Captain 



JOUEXAL Oi' TUE SURVEY. 11-3 

Hamilton, li.E., who has been staying with me, takes this. He will be 
in town on May .5th, and will give yuu all the latest news." 

"J/eu-oH, April 17, 1877. — Yesterday I left Safed for this place, 
having had a most successful camp there. Everybody was very polite. 
The Grovernor came here yesterdaj^, and has impressed upon the 
psople the necessity of doing all we want. In the evening he dined 
with me. H.M.S. Torch has been at Akka. I was informed by a tele- 
gram from Eldridge when he Avould come, and was thus able to make 
considerable impression on the minds of the natives. I do not know 
what to think about war or peace, I get such contradictory telegrams, 
but I suppose every one is iu the same case. In case of war breaking 
out, 1 hope to fiuish up to Banias before marching to the coast ; but it 
is a very difficult thing to see what effect it would have on the countiy. 
I might be able to go ou without interruption, or I might have to march 
to Beyrout and wait a little." 

" Jleiron, April 25, 1877. — I may not be able to send a report per 
next post — i.e., the one this will go by — -as I shall be on the move north. 
We have been getting on very well, and I have found two new syna- 
gogues and four dolmens. They are small, but very distinct, and two 
have names. I have been obliged, on account of the triangulation, to 
modify my plan of moving direct on Banias, and shall go to Dibl, or 
near there, and thence to Kedesh, and so on to Banias. I hear on all 
sides that war has been declared, but have not yet received any 
telegram to that effect from Eldridge. I shall continue the work until 
I see a good cause for shutting up, and then shall probably move to 
Beyrout and wait. I see no reason as yet why I should not finish the 
north, but of course any day may change this view of the matter. 
I am in constant correspondence with Eldridge, who is most kind, 
and sends me all the news. I wish you could get the matter of the 
consuls in North Palestine looked into by the Foreign Office, as it is 
really wanted. An Englishman at Haiffa or Akka, and an advance to 
-some of the consular agents, such as at Safed, who have neither seals of 
office nor any status in the country, though French, Austrians, and others 
have, is much wanted. When we have finished this camp, in four days 
we shall have surveyed 400 square miles, judged roughly. It is very 
close country just about here, full of names, and takes time. 

" I shall send you a report next mail oa the Sea of Galilee.. We have 
been kept in camp two days here by wet weather." 

" Dihl, May i. — Yesterday I saw our northern boundary and took trigo- 
nometrical shots into what will be ourmost northern station. Our triangu- 
lation has been very satisfactory, 17ft. diftereuce in check lines of from 
10 to 12 miles Health of party has been exceptionally good." 

" Dibl, May 13. — Correction for the Tibeiias Report. The aqueduct 
above Ain et Tinoh is 52 feet instead of 57, which makes it and the top 
of the reservoir nearly on a level. The reservoir was levelled down to 
the sea, and the aqueduct computed by the theodolite. ... I have very 
little additional news to tell you. Wo have surveyed 130 square miles 



11*J LIEUT. KITCHEXEIl'S REPORTS. 

and found a good many inscriptions and the remains of one fine early 
church. The country is full of villages. I move to Kadesh the day 
after to-morrow, and shall probably be at Banias before you get this." 

" Taiyeheh, May 25, 1877.— Since the declaration of war I have pushed 
on the work as fast as possible, and even before that, for many reasons. 
I had no time for any excavations such as at Khan Minyeh and some 
other places. We are now at the northern boundary of our work, and 
I hope to finish in the estimated time, but this will depend on the nature 
of the ground near the coast, which I am afi-aid is rather diflacult. We 
may be a week or two later on this account. The total surveyed is now 
550 square miles, and the triangulation is already finished from this 
camp. 

"I find the authorities in the country most active and obliging in 
helping the work as far as they can. I have had no serious difficulty 
with the natives. The health of the whole expedition has been excel- 
lent." 



LIEUTENANT KITCHENEir>S EEP0ET8. 

II. 

Camp at Tiberias, 30f/( March, 1877. 

Having completed th(^ Survey of the Akka Plain, and finished the 
levelling down to the Mediterranean, it was necessary to carry the 
eastern portion of the Survey north, from a line about two miles soxith 
of Tabor, and to run the line of levels down to the Sea of Tiberias. 

Camp was struck at Haifta on the Sth of March, and after passing 
one night at Nazareth we arrived at Hattin, an important village on the 
road from Nazareth to Tiberias, seven miles from the latter, and well 
situated for the work we had to complete. 

The triangulation was started next day by taking a series of observa- 
tions from Jebel Toran. Our old trigonometrical stations were satis- 
factorily picked up, new cairns being erected at all the stations, and the 
triangulation well advanced. This work occupied us nine days. The 
detail was then started, and has been worked in for 100 square miles, 
reaching as far north as the village of Yakuk. The levelling was also 
begun at the same time. The difficulty of running the levels to the Sea 
of Galilee was considerable, owing to the steep inclines and the narrow 
and precipitous gorge of the Wady Hamam, down which it had to be 
carried. The result, however, is very satisfactory. In the 16^- miles 
levelled, the difference between the results obtained with the two instru- 
ments used is •215 of a foot. Adopting the ten- inch level readings 
thi-oughout, and considering the theodolite readings merely as a check 
on the more accurate instrument, we arrive at a depression for the Sea 
Galilee of 082554 feet. Thirty-five bench marks have been cut on the 
line of levels and fixed on our map. 



LIEUT. KITCUENEIl's REPORTS. 11 

In this portion of the Survey we have mai:>ped five extinct volcanoes 
from which the basalt has been thrown out over the surrounding 
country ; and the plains, being covered by the ashes and boulders of 
basalt, are rendered extremely fertile. Other smaller outbreaks have 
also been noted. Two miles south of the Kurn Hattin occur two 
extinct volcanoes, one of which is called the Kal'at es Sandii, or " The 
Basalt Castle;" in both the black basalt rock is seen thrown up, forming 
a crater in the centre. The Kurn itself is, in my opinion, another ; 
the basalt does not show itself so much, but the rocks forming the 
crater bear signs of the eruptions that took place, and the plains around 
are strewed with basalt rocks and d/'bris. North-eastward of the latter 
are two more large outbreaks overhanging the Plain of Genesareth, one 
of which is called el Waret es Sanda, " The Eocky Plain of Basalt." 

Immediately above oiir camp at Hattin was the field of the last great 
fight of the Crusaders. The Kurn rises about 100 feet in rocky ridges 
above the plain on the south-west, whilst on the north and east there 
is a very steep descent of 800 feet to another plain, the Sahel Hattin, 
which again terminates abruptly over the Sea of Galilee. The Kurn 
Hattin, or "Horns of Hattin," was the last place held by the king 
and his brave knights Avhen surrounded by the forces of Saladin. 
The rocky top seems a very natural fortress, and well adapted to be 
defended against far superior numbers. The Crusaders were, how- 



»"• 



ever, worn out by their long marches and hard fighting, and after 
driving back the stormers three times the place was carried, the king 
surrendered with the remnant of his forces, and the Christian king- 
dom in Palestine ceased to exist. The name of the plain south-east 
of the Kurn is " 'Ard el Burnus.'' Burnus is the Arabic form of 
"Prince." In a history of Palestine by el Kadi Mujir ed Din, 1585 
A.D., Count Eenaud de Chatillon, Lord of Kerak, who was the cause 
of the war, is always called el Burnus Irbat, or el Burnus, Emir of 
Kerak. The story is told of the King of Jerusalem when in Saladin's 
tent passing water to "el Burnus" after the fight, which the Sultan 
does not admit as an act of hospitality to "el Burnus;" afterwards 
the Sultan offers him his life if he will change his religion for that 
of Islam ; but on the " Emir of Kerak " refusing to do so, he was- 
slain by Saladin himself. No one else in the book receives the title 
of el Biirnus; we have therefore an historical name remaining attached 
to the site of the battle. 

On the Southern Horn of the Kurn are the foundations of an 
ancient squai-e tower and some small cisterns ; the former was probably 
a watch-tower on the great road to Damascus. A copious spring of water 
flows out of the north-west base of the Kurn, where a short wady breaks 
down from the plain above. In this wtxdy, immediately above the 'aia, 
is the Kubbeh of Neby Shu'aeb (Prophet Jethro) still existing. Robin- 
son, in Bib. Res. p. 23{>, in a footnote, mentions that, according to 
Boha ed Din, the Kubbeh stood upon the Tell in his day — i.e., at 
the close of the twelfth century (Vita Salad, p. 69). The same is 



1 1 8 LIEUT, kitchener's REPORTS. 

lueutioned iu tlie Jewish. Itinerary in Hettinger's Cippi Hebraici, p. 74-, 
ed. 2. Uuavesuiiua supposes the remains on the top of the Kiira to 
be those of a chapel (ii. p. S.56). 

The top of the Kuru is called Medinet el Aikeh, perhaps from the 
large number of loose stones which resemble the ruins of an important 
place. 

At the mouth of the gorge of the Wady Haniam on the southern 
side occur the ruins of Irbid, the ancient Arbela, in which there is a 
very good specimen of a ruined synagogue, which has been measxired 
and described by Major Wilson, E.E. {Quarterly Statement, No. 2, p. 40). 
Two columns and one doorpost remain standing m situ : the lower part 
of the other doorpost also remains. They arc all monolithic blocks of 
limestone. Among the ruins lie several fine capitals of different sizes 
and styles ; black basalt and white limestone seem to have been mixed 
both inside and out ; some of the capitals being of the latter material. 
The ground on which the synagogue stands slopes towards the north, 
tlie southern portion being cut away to receive it. In the centre of the 
southern wall is a mihrab or apse 6ft. 4in. in diameter and 4ft. 2in. 
deep. Among .the ruins are several blocks of cut stone with semi- 
attached columns 9in. in diameter with Ionic capitals ; these seem to 
have been portions of the exterior decorations. On one block were 
two semi-attached Huted columns Gin. in diameter, one with straight 
and the other with twisted Hutiugs. Lying to the north of the syna- 
gogue there is a cut stone which appears to have been the top of a 
niche ; it measures oft. long, 2ft. Sin. high, by 1ft. Sin. thick. In the 
centre of the length is a circular niche 2ft. 4in. in diameter, cut lOin. 
into the depth, with lines radiating from the centre. A moulding 3iu. 
wide and raised 2in. above the face of the stone runs rounds the niche ; 
enclosing this is a triangular moulding, its apex being above the centre 
of the niche at the top of the stone, and its two ends at tlie lower ex- 
tremities of the stone. It is raised 4iu. above the face of the block on 
the outside, and is 4in. wide ; three slight mouldin;rs are carried along 
it, and on the inside it is flush with the face of the stone; the bottom 
line of mouldings end at the moulding round the niche. Special plans 
and drawings have been taken of the building and details. 

In the precipitous rocks of the Wady Hamam, east of Irbid, are 
situated the celebrated caves from whence Herod the Great dislodged the 
robbers by attacking thorn from above. Both sides of the wady are 
honeycombed by caves, but the principal ones, called Kal'at Ibn 
Ma'an, are situated on the southern side, where the cliffs are upwai'ds 
of 1,000 feet above the bed of the wady. A steep slope on the debris 
fallen into the valley leads up aboutGOO feet to the footof cliffs, which then 
rise perpendicularly, and in some cases have crumbled away below till 
they are overhanging. The castle is situated opposite where the Wady 
Muhammed el Khalaf breaks into the valley, and immediately below is 
a Hue spring, 'Ain es Serar. The traces of well-made basalt stairs lead 
up to the foot of the castle. The entrance was flanked by small round 



LTEUT. kitchener's REPORTS. 119 

towers, besides loopholed galleries on tlic face of tlie rock. The castle 
consisted of natural and artificial caves in several tiers, walled in on 
tlie outside and connected by galleries and staircasee along the face of the 
rock. The walls were built with great care and finely dressed ; they axe 
of crystalline limestone and black basalt in rows ; they are loopholed. 
All the arches are pointed, and the building appears to be very good 
Arabic work of probably the fifteenth century, -when also Avell-bnilt 
khans were constructed on the road from Damascus, such as Khan 
et Jujjar, near Mount Tabor. 

Inserted in the lower wall is a large block of limestone bearing two 
lions facing each other, one front paw of each being j)laced on some in- 
distinguishable object. It appears to me extremely probable that this- 
stone, quite distinct from those around it in material and workmanship, 
was brought from the ruined spiagogue at Irbid. It also greatly 
resembles the stone bearing two lions at the synagogue at Umm el Amud. 
Should it have been brought from Irbid, it would appear that both 
synagogues had sindlar lintels ornamented Avith lions. The first cave 
entered is a large natural cavern, which probably served as a stable for 
the horses of the garrison ; from this a staircase leads uj) to smaller caves 
opening from a gallery along the face of the rock ; stairs led up from 
cither end of this gallery to similar caves in different tiers. Some are now 
quite inaccessible from below. The place is inhabited by immense flocks 
of pigeons, from which the valley takes its name, and a great number of 
vultirres and eagles. Water was brought from Irbid by an aqueduct 
running along the face of the cliff above the castle, and then fell verti- 
cally into cisterns in the building. At one i)lace the Avater was conducted 
through an earthenware pipe. 

This fortress, rendered almost impregnable by nature an 1 art, might 
afford accommodation for six hundred or seven hundred men, and com- 
mands the mam highway from Damascus to "Western Palestine, Avhich 
leads up the Wady Hamam. 

The ruins on Mount Tabor were also -visited from this camp. Thev 
consist of a large cnceinie defended by numerous towers built of drafted 
masonry and surrounded by a large rock-cut ditch. These works appear 
to date from the time of the Crusaders, and to have been built of the old 
materials of previous fortifications. The remains of three chui'ches have 
been uncovered in the recent excavations by the Latins, besides numerous 
foundations. It is proposed to pay a further visit to this interesting 
place, and a fuller description will be given in a subsequent report. 

The country is now very lovely, carpeted with flowers and green with 
the growing croi^s. The people comj)lain of being short-handed owing 
to the large numbers that have been taken away for military service. 
The second ban and some of the third ban of redifs have been called 
out, and the iieople fear lest the Muharf ez or Landwehr may be required. 
Old men and women have to take their places in the fields, and when 
the harvest time comes it will bo very difficult to gather in the crops. 

Owing to the good offices of Mr. Eldridgc, H.B.M.'s Consul-General 



120 LIEUT. KITCHEXEU S REPORTS. 

at Beyrout, and the ■willing assistance rendered to lue by the Muttescrif 
of Akka, I have not had the slightest difficulty in the prosecution of the 
work ; still it would be an immense advantage to this part of the country 
if the British Consulate at HaifFa were re-established. 

The influence of an Englishman at this port would be of the greatest 
benefit to all the Christians of the district, which contains a thriving 
English mission and schools at Nazareth, many English subjects among 
the Jews of Tiberias and Safed, besides a considerable amount of English 
shipping trade from Akka . 



III. 

Meiron, Ajiril 30, 1877. 

The work of this month includes the survey of the shores of the Sea 
of Galilee, where a great many points of interest occur. 

The scenery of the lake is hardly what woiild be expected of a basin 
C)So feet below the sea level. The hills on the eastern side have an 
almost perfectly level outline, scarcely broken by any valley of import- 
ance, and decidedly monotonous in appearance ; still the bright sunshine 
throws a rosy haze over the country, and the contrast with the bright 
blue water is very beautiful. 

The best views of the lake are from a distance on the many heights 
from which it is visible, as thus seen in the evening it is particularly 
lovely. Deep blue shadows seem to increase the size of the hills, and 
there is alv/ays a rosy flush in the sky and over snow-clad Hermon. 

The road at the southern end of the lake passes through Kerak, 
which appears to have been a fortified j)lace of considerable strength. 
Two castles, one on either side of the road, with a wall joining them, 
seem to have guarded this entrance to the shores of the lake. On 
the west a spur runs down from the hills ending steeply close to the 
road — on this the western castle was placed. On the east there is a large 
partially artificial plateau which extends from the road to the exit of the 
Jordan; a bi-oad water ditch from the Jordan and the river itself de- 
fends two sides, while the third is on the shore of the sea, thus leaving 
only a narrow entrance on the west from which it might be attacked. 
The remains of both castles are very slight, as the place has been 
ploughed up. There are ruins of modern dwellings on tlie north-west 
comer of the plateau, where probably the principal citadel stood, and 
traces of a wall round the plateau and joining the two castles. The only 
remains of the western castle are heaps of stones. The place must have 
been of great importance, as it closes the passage of the valley, and also 
that of the Jordan at its northern extremity, where it is now crossed by 
a ferry. It also must have required a large garrison owing to the great 
size of the plateau. 

Josephus describes Vespasian as advancing to the attack of Tiberias 
from Scythopolis or Beisan: "He then came with three legions and 



LIEUT. KITCHEXEr's REPORTS. 121 

Ijitched his camp thirty furlongs off Tiberias, at a certain station easily 
seen ; it is named Sennabri.s." 

Measuring 30 furlongs north from Kerak it brings us well within the 
ruins of the ancient town of Tiberias, though not up to the walls of the 
present city. 

I think it is possible that the large artificially levelled plateau, sur- 
rounded by traces of a wall on the east of the road, may be the remains 
of that camp of the Roman army here described, and that this was the 
station on the road named Sennabris. IJ miles north of Kerak, and 
4 of a mile west of the road, is Khurbet Kadesh ; below it runs the 
aqueduct which brought water from Wady el Fajjas to Tiberias. 

The next place of interest is the hot springs, with theii- baths, much 
frequented by the Jews of Tiberias. The three principal springs had a 
temperature of 132, 143, and 144 degrees respectively, commencino- 
with the southern one. Above the Hammam, or baths, is the tomb of 
Rabbi Mair Ramban, the celebrated Maimonides. Two schools are now 
built over his tomb, one for the Askenazim and the other for the 
Sephardim Jews. 

A quarter of a mile farther north commence the ruins of the ancient 
town of Tiberias — they have been largely excavated for cut stone for 
modern buildings. A gi-eat number of fine granite columns are lyino- 
about, in one place as many as nine close together; there are also 
remains of the sea-wall, with towers, along the coast. These ruins are 
of considerable size, extending a mile south of the present town, and it 
seems probable that the latter is entirely or partially on a new site. 
Immediately behind the ruins the cliffs rise steeply, with traces of former 
fortifications on them. 

Two miles north of the southern wall of the jjresent Tiberias (which 
may be on the site of the northern wall of the ancient city), a spur runs 
down from the hills ending in a rounded hill, the eastern slope of Avhich 
descends steeply to the water. On this top are ruins called Khurbet 
Kuneitriyeh, consisting of heaps of cut stones, with foundations of 
walls. Near the seashore is a spring called 'Ain Fuliyeh ; to the north 
is an open space where Wady Abu el 'Amis runs down to the sea, now 
occupied by some gardens ; beyond are the high rocky hills called Burj 
Neiat, which again run down steeply to the seashore. 

This must have been a very strong position on the road, and I think 
fulfils the requirements of TarichetB, which was besieged after Tiberias 
by Vespasian, his camp being placed between the two towns (B. J. iii. x.). 
The road north leads along the slope of the hills to el Mejdel, a small 
village with a few ruins, which has been identified with Magdala ; it is 
situated on the southern extremity of the plain of Gennesaret or el 
Ghueii-. The hills here fall back from the sea, leaving the plain, wliich 
extends 3:f miles along the coast, and is IJ miles wide at its greatest 
part. Beyond the Wady Hamam the hills are topped with black basalt 
as far as Wady Amud, and there are two small outbreaks on the plain 
itself. The coast line is nearly straight, broken by small bays. 



1-22 LIETJT. KITCHEKEIt S EEPOKTS. 

Tlie land is extremely licli, but is now only partially cultivated by a 
few Bedawin and tbe ijeople of Mojdel. It is wonderfully well watered, 
no less than five streams of water running to the sea througli it, com- 
mencing from tlie soutb. First, tbe "VVady Hamam brings down a good 
stream tbrougb a narroAV precii^itous gorge. The water is supplied from 
two springs, 'Ain es Serar, near wbicb is Klmrbet Ureidat, situated two- 
miles from the sea in tbe gorge, and 'Ain Wady Hamam farther up. 

The water is used for irrigation purposes directly it reaches the 
plain. 

The second supply is from 'Ain el Mudaitv\-ereb (the round foimtain), 
so named because it rises in a round basin formed by a low masonry 
wall 32 yards in diameter. The water in the basin is very clear, and 
there were niimbers of coracinus and other fish s-^-imming in it. The 
supply of water is rather less than half that of Wady Hamam. 

The next stream is Wady Rabadiyeh, the largest of any, descend- 
ino- through an oj)on valley, and used to turn a number of mills. On 
reaching the plain it is at once diverted for irrigation purposes. The 
supply of water is about twice or three times that of Wady Hamam. 

Immediately north of Wady Rabadiyeh is Khurbet Abu Shusheh, 
situated on the slope of the hills, where there are no remains of import- 
ance to be seen ; only a few basalt huts and some scattered stones, round 
a white wely called Sheikh Hassan Abu Shusheh. 

The fourth supply of water comes from Wady Amud, a winter torrent 
which, I was told, dries up in summer; it was probably on this account 
that water had to be brought by an aqueduct to fertilise this northern 
portion of the plain. 

'Ain et Tineh is the most northern running water on the plain ; it 
bubbles out by several heads under the rocks which close the north-east 
of the plain ; it forms a clear stream of good Avater with many fish ; 
slightly warm around it, there is most luxuriant vegetation and papyrus ; 
it runs into the sea after forming several pools. 

Besides those mins at Mejdel and Abu Shusheh, the only remains 
found on the plain were those at Khurbet Minyeh, where there are ex- 
tensive ruins, though nothing but remains of walls are now visible. I 
was informed ' by two authorities that hewn stones and good walls ex- 
isted below the present surface, and are excavated f or buikling jiurposes : 
inifortunately, I had no time to test the truth of this assertion. The 
Khurbet is situated near the north-east extremity of the plain, and about 
100 yards from the shore of the sea. 

The Damascus road traverses the ruin, and a little farther on it passes 
the now ruined Khan Minyeh, which is still occui)ied by a few Arabs ; it 
then passes up on the western slope of the steep hill which here ends the 
plain. On the toji of this hill is an artificially levelled square plateau,. 

* Pi-asants were ol)served by Ur. Merrill digging at this spot in April, 1876,. 
and unmasked a wall, at a depth of five or six feet, of fine squared stones iu 
superior workmanship. See Fourth Statrment. |i. 67, American Exiiloratiou 
.Societv. 



LIEUT. KITCnENElx's REPORTS. 123 

with truces of walls and buildings ; there are also traces of steps 
leading uj) to it. It is called Khurbet 'Aiireimeh. Round the 
southern brow of this hill, where the rock runs steeply down to the lake, 
is the rock-cut aqueduct now used as a road, and described by Major 
Wilson. It is o2 ft. 4 in. above the sea, which is almost perpen- 
dicularly beneath it at one part, and has a fall of 7 feet in the mile ; the 
water would not have been carried far on to the plain, but would have 
watered the gardens round Khurbet Minyeh. Half a mile farther along 
the coast is the pleasant bay of Tabighah, where there are several small and 
one very large spring which turns several mills. The water is brackish. 
The 'Ain is enclosed by walls of masonry forming an octagon 2G feet 
side ; by this means the water was raised to the required height, and 
carried by the aqueduct to the plain. Considerable remains of tho 
masomy of the aqueduct leading to the rock-cut portion, and a small 
piece beyond, -with the watercourse coated Avith thick cement, still 
remain. 

The height of the top of the reservoir is ol feet above the sea, thus 
it would require very little more to carry the water over the rock- cut 
portion of the aqueduct. I was informed by the people that this 
reservoir Avas built by Dhaher el'Anor, and it is now called Bu-ket 'Aly 
edh Dhaher. It was probably repaired by him when building the mills 
around it ; the lower portion appears to be older, and is built of better 
dressed stone coated with cement. The whole structure is of basalt. 

The coast between Tabighah and the Jordan is still indented with 
small bays ; the country is entirely basalt, and slopes gradually down to 
the sea. The ruins at Tel-Hum, 1 J miles from Tabighah, are along the 
Avater's edge, and are of considerable extent, and contain the famous 
synagogue excavated and measured by Major Wilson. A little 
beyond Tel-Hum are the ruins of a few basalt hovels called Khurbet 
'Eyshsheh. At the mouth of the Jordan there is a small plain, in which 
are tAvo small collections of huts Avithout any traces of antiquity ; they 
are called Khurbet Abu Zeiny and Khurbet esh Shemaliyeh. There is 
a small lagoon at the mouth of the Jordan, and the ground in Avet 
weather is deep. 

The site of Capernaum is the most interesting of all the places around 
the lake. I cannot helj) thinking, Avith Dr. Robinson, that it Avas at 
Khurbet Minyeh. The guard-house, vvrhere the Centurion resided, was 
probably on the great Damascus road at Khurbet el 'Aureimeh, Avhich 
seems to be the ruin of such a station. 

Joseijhus describes the fountain called Capharnaum as watering the 
l)lain, and that some thought it to be a vein of the Nile, OAving to its 
containing the fish called coracinus. This description evidently alluded 
to the 'Ain et Tabighah, the Avater from which Avas brought in an aque- 
duct past Khurbet Minyeh to Avater the i^lain, and was naturally called 
after that place. The source is only £ of a mile aAvay, Avhereas it is 1£- 
miles from Tel-Hum, and all the Avater Avas carried in exactly the oppo- 

L 



124 LIEUT, kitchener's reports. 

» 

site direction, so that it could hardly be called after the latter place had 
it been Capharnaum. The coracinus was not observed in the 'Ain. 
The reservoir is nearly full of reeds, and the water is not clear, so that 
it is impossible to see the bottom where these fish occur ; other fish were 
seen, and I was convinced there was no reason why the coracinus should 
not be there. 

Our next camp was at Khan Jubb Yusuf , where we an-ived on the 4th 
of April. The Khan is a large building falling into ruins on the main 
road to Damascus. There was no village near, the country being 
occupied by Bedawin of the Semakiyeh and Zenghariyeh tribes. To 
the east the country was entirely composed of broken basalt, while to 
the west all was limestone, much contorted, and forming north-west 
the Jebel Kauan range. From the camp we visited Khurbet Kerazeh, 
generally allowed to be the remains of Chorazin. The ruins are exten- 
sive, and contained a synagogue, measured and described by Major 
"Wilson. The highly ornamented niches of this building, entirely cut 
in basalt, remain as sharp and clear as when new. 

North-east of our camp we found the first perfect dolmen I have seen 
in the country; it is called Hajr ed Diim, " the stone of blood." From 
the camp at Meiron we fouiid four others. They are small, the covering 
stone measuring 11x7x1" '6, and no traces of signs on them were observed. 

On the loth, camp was moved to Safed, where previously we had some 
difficulty with the natives. By the kind offices of Mr. Eldridge, Consul- 
General for Syria, the Governor was warned of our coming, and prepared 
to give us a good reception. We were met half way by the Governor, 
the Consular Agent, and the Kadi, surrounded by a score of fol- 
lowers, and conducted to the town, where I was received with every 
civility. 

Unfortunately, on the road the standard barometer got broken, and 
had to be i-eplaced by our duplicate one from the store at HaiflEa. 

From this camp the ruined synagogue at Nebartein was visited. 
The principal remains are prostrate columns, and the fine lintel with 
Hebrew inscription. A squeeze and photographs were take of the latter. 
On the pedestal of a column there is an engraved hare. The occurrence 
of animals figured in these synagogues seems to be common. At Umm 
fil Amud there are two lions ; at Irbid there were probably the same. 
The stone is now in Kal'at Ibn Ma'an. At Nebartein a hare; at Kefr 
Bir'im, on two synagogues, lambs. At Sefsaf the remains of a syna- 
gogue were found by us ; the lintel bears two sheep's heads. At el 
Jish, in a ruined synagogue discovered by us, an eagle resembling the 
top of a Homan standard, which seems to show that though the Jews 
objected to the Eoman standards in the Holy City, they were put up 
in the country synagogues without trouble. I hope in my next month's 
report to give a fuller description of these very interesting buildings. 

I also visited at Safed the Mukam Benat Yakub, where I was told the 
seven daughters of Jacob lay embalmed. The place is only a collection 
o*" caves walled up and made into a holy place. There are no mummies. 



LIEUT. KITOHENEll's REPORTS. 12-5 

On the 18th, camp was moved to Meiron, a Jewish holy place. There 
are the I'eraains of a fine synagogue and a great number of rock-cut 
tombs. One has sai'cophagi for thirty-seven bodies, covered with stone 
lids ; this is said to be the tomb of Rabbi HUlel and his thirty-six com- 
panions. The tombs of Eabbis Shamai and Hillel, and several other 
great Rabbis, occur here. Over the tomb of Rabbi Simeon Ben Jochai 
there is a large modern building, where the Jews come from all j^arts of 
Palestine on his fete day, the 30th April, to hold a sort of revel, lasting 
two or three days and nights. They dance and pray and light fires over 
the tomb. It is very extraordinary to see them in their long dressing- 
gowns and large hats dancing round in a circle. 

The country to the north of this camp is thickly covered with villages, 
Christian, Druse, Mahommedan, and Mettawaleh. Grapes are exten- 
sively cultivated, and a number of young trees have been planted, prin- 
cipally figs and olives. 

El Jish, the ancient Giscala, is situated on the south slope of a hill 
three miles north of Meiron. It is a thriving village of approximately 
."JOO Christians and 400 Mahommedans. On the top of the hill there is 
a small church, which is probably built nearly on the site of an old 
synagogue, the remains of which are strewed about and built into the 
walls of the church. Several large stone sai'cophagi, with ornamental 
garlands and bands, have been turned up round the village. There are 
also a large number of cut stones scattered about, which jirobably com- 
posed the walls Josephus built round this place. On the western slope 
of the descent to Wady el Jish are the remains of another synagogue. 
Three pedestals are in situ, and the doorposts, with traces of the walls. 
A badly preserved square Hebrew inscription has been found on one of 
the pillars, and an eagle, resembling a Roman standard, on a detached 
stone. We also discovered the I'emains of a hitherto undescribed syna- 
gogue at Sefsaf. The lintel of one of the small doors is built in over the 
door of the mosque, and the niche, with ornaraeiital voussoirs belonging 
to the principal entrance, are arranged above. A few portions of 
columns are all that remain above ground. From the highly ornamental 
character of the lintel of the side door, the principal lintel would pro- 
bably be very fine if discovered. The two synagogues at Kefr Bir'iui 
were also visited and planned from this camp. Close round Meiron, in 
the rocky hills, four dolmens have been discovered. 

The amount of country survej^ed up to the end of this month is 350 
.square miles. 

On the 28th I received a telegram to the effect that war had been 
declared between Turkey and Russia. I hope this sad news will not 
interfere with the successful completion of the survey of Galilee. 

II. II. Kitchener, Lieut. R.E., 

Coinmandirig Puleitine Survey. 



126 



LITEEAEY EEMAINS OF C. F. TYEWHITT DEAKE, 
WITH A MEMOIE.-^ 

The " Journal of the Palestine Exploration Fund " is tlic fittest place 
wherein to notice, however briefly, a work which gives an account, 
modestly but clearly written, of the comparatively uneventful life of 
one, whose various qualities and qualifications fitted him in a remark- 
able manner for the excellent work he accomplished during the two 
years and a half he was employed on the Survey of Palestine. 

Born at Amersham in 1846, and educated at Eugby and "Wellington 
College, Mr. Drake went to Cambridge in the hope of being able to 
carry out the solid student work for which he had already given good 
promise, especially as an accurate observer of subjects of natural 
history. But, though tall and otherwise robust iu frame, Mr. Drake 
suffered from an incurable chest disease, which compelled him after a 
short stay at Cambridge, where he distinguished himself as a rifleman, 
to go for the winter (of 1866) to Morocco. Here, however, he was able 
to complete most successfully the ornithological studies for which he 
had shown so decided a taste while yet a schoolboy, and, in two visits he 
paid to this part of Africa (valuable as these were to him personally, 
that they gave him a practical insight into the habits and the language of 
Arab populations'), to collect and bring home no less than 169 species of 
North African birds, many of them of considerable interest and variety. 
In 1868, he for the first time visited Egypt, and came to the natural 
conclusion that " the sphinx was rather a delusion," and, in 1869, com- 
menced his exploration of the Holy Land; first, alone, in Sinai, and 
subsequently with Prof. E. H. Palmer in the Desert of the Tih — the 
University of Cambridge having given him a small grant to enable him 
to prosecute, his researches there in natural history. The scientific 
results of this jjedestrian expedition have been published in the 
Quarterly Statements of the Palestine Exploration Fund. About the same 
■time, or rather on the conclusion of this tour, Mr. Drake had the good 
fortune to make the acquaintance of Captain and Mrs. Burton, some ap- 
preciative notices by each of whom, incorporated in this memoir, show- 
ing how highly he was esteemed by them, and being, at the same time, 
among the most interesting communications the editor has been allowed 
to embody in his narrative. 

In company with Caiitain Burton, Mr. Drake made more than one 
journey of exjdoration, most of which are published in their joint 
volumes entitled " Unexplored Syria," the most important, probably, 
being that to Hamatb, where he was able to obtain paper squeezes and 
photographs of the famous hieroglyphical inscriptions still remaining 
there. It is now generally admitted that the Rev. W. Wright made the 
first suggestion that these inscriptions were of Hittite origin. One 

* R. Bentley and Son, 8, New Burlington Street. Price, to subscribers only, 
10s., postflge paid. 



LITERARY REMAINS OF C. E. TYRWHITT DRAKE. 127 

district of Upper Syria, that of El Alah, Mr. Drake examiaed alone, 
and found there many ruined cities abounding in Greek inscriptions. 

In the autumn of 1871 Mr. Drake "volunteered" his services as 
naturalist, draughtsman, and linguist for the " Survey of Palestine," 
•which were gladly accepted, and, going out early in 1872, became for 
some time, owing to the sudden illness of Captain Stewart, the head of 
the exploring party. Soon after, however, Lievitenant Conder took the 
chief command. From that time till his unfortunate death on June 23, 
1874 — that is for about two years and a half — ^Mr. Drake was of the greatest 
assistance on the "Survey." "What he did has been for the most part ad- 
mirably detailed in the letters from him, published from time to time 
in the Quarterly Statement ; but in these he did not tell the world, what 
it is most important should be recorded — viz., how greatly the expedi- 
tion was aided by his remarkable serenity of temper and invariable good 
humour, together with his singular skill in dealing with the native 
population. Of his letters the editor justly remarks, that the charm 
of them lies " in the quiet style, the earnestness, and the occasional 
strokes of humour " which chai'acterise them and demonstrate "the 
unpretending thoroughness with which he went about his work. 
Always, whether he wrote, spoke, or worked, it was as the quiet typical 
English gentleman." 

It will be readily believed that in a life so busy, as long as he had 
the power to make use of his abilities, and yet, withal, so short, 
Mr. Drake had but little time for writing either books or brilliant 
essays ; besides, however, his letters, he left behind him several papers, 
more or less finished, which the editor of this memoir has very properly 
made public. They are as follows : — 

1. "Modern Jerusalem" (printed separately as a pamphlet), pp. 
51-113". 

2. " Notes for the History of Jerusalem " (a plan for a larger and 
more comprehensive work), pp. 115-147. 

3. "Notes for Travellers in Palestine," pp. 149-178. 

4. " Morocco and the Moors," pp. 179-211. 

5. "Notes on the Birds of Tangier and Eastern Marocco," pp. 
213-236. 

6. " Reports on the Natural History of the Tih," pp. 237-277. 

7. " Extracts from Journal in Egypt," pp. 279-305. 

We recommend this record of a life, short, indeed, but rich in work, 
to those who followed Charles Tyrwhitt Drake's too brief career in the 
Holy Land. 



128 



THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

II. — TojiB 01' Joseph of Arimath.'ea. 

In an extremely interesting paper in the last Quarterly Statement, M. 
Oanneau has drawn attention to the tomb -chamber (Fig. 1) in the Churcli 
of the Holy Sepulchre, known as that of Joseph and Nicodemus, and has 
given his reasons for believing that there is a second and somewhat simi- 
lar tomb-chamber at a lower level. There is nothing improbable in this 
suggestion, though I think it rather hazardous, as the facts upon which 
M. Ganneau bases his argument might be explained in another way. 
My object, however, is not to criticise M. Gannoau's paper, but to give a 




I'ig. 1. 

f< w additional details which came under my own observation whilst 
i'uiployed upon the Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem in 1864-5. 

'.The first is that, contrary to the usual custom at Jerusalem, the tomb- 
chambor is excavated in the hard {missaj) and not in the soft {malalci) 
strata of limestone ; the second is that the beds or floors of the Icohim 
slope downward from the mouth, the general rule being to cut them hori- 
>:ontal, M. Ganneau mentions a door, E (Fig. 2), on the right of the cham- 
ber of which he does not appear to have been able to procure the key. 
I was more fortimate, and the following note on the chamber to which 
the door gives access may be of interest to the subscribers of the Fund. 
The chamber, as will be seen from the plan (Fig. 2a), is irregular in shape ; 



THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 



129 



the waU on the light-liand side on entering is masonry ; tlie remaining 
sides, as well as the roof, are rock. It is evident that the chamber was 
formed, probably when the church was bnilt, by cutting away a portion 
of the original tomb-chamber in such a manner as to leave a] sort 
of cave, and the floor was lowered at the same time for a certain pur- 
pose explained below. I think M. Ganneau is quite right in supposing 







Fis. 2. 



that the door, E, was originally a A-oA-, though its shape is now rectangu- 
lar ; this Iwh has entirely disappeared, and so has that marked H, with 
the exception of the mouth and a small portion of the sides. The third 
holi', I, is of special interest ; the right side and a portion of the roof 
have been cut away, but the bed has been left untouched, and the 
remaining portion of the roof forms a sort of rock-canopy over it. 



130 



THE nOLY SEPULCHRE. 



The reason (Fig. 3a) for loAvering the floor {<j f) is now apparent ; it Avas. 
to convert the bed of the koh {d a) into a raised bench or altar, and I 
believe on certain occasions it is still used as an altar by the Syrian com- 
munity to whom the chamber belongs. Fig. 3a shows also m elevation 
the openings of the JcoMm H, I, and of the door E, in the thm wall of 
rock which separates the chamber from the original tomb-chamber 







gpll HoiklEkmhon 



YvA. 2A. 



of " Joseph and Nicodemus." In my notes to the Ordnance Survey of 
Jerusalem, I alluded to the light which the A.-/;, I, might possibly 
throw on the primitive form of the Holy Sepulchre. My impression is 
that if the Holy Sepulchre were originally a /co/.— and I see no reason 
why it should not have been— the^mode of proceeding was somewhat 



THE HOLY SEPULCnRE. 



131 



similar to that described above ; that is to say, the floor of the original 
tomb-chamber was lowered, the side of the hoh was cut away, and a 
canopy of rock left over its bed. As time went on and changes were 
made the hoh would probably bo entirely isolated, the canopy of rock 
disappear, and the tomb assume its present form. I have endeavoured 




Fig. 3. 



Floor ofJfP Iff ndn 



^^^JiccTt See. Horn 
\2^ascvrt/ D" 







^^^J ByckJElcvnUoii 




r 



Fis. 3i. 



to show this in the sketch (Fig. 4). Felix Fabri, 1480 A.D., mentions 
that pilj^rims were iu r.iie habit of knocking off little pieces of the rock 
to carry away a< relics, and it is possible that this may partially account 
for the disappearance of the roof of the h'oh (<;/). Some of the earlier 
pilgrims mention a cave ; this may be explained by reference to the little 



132 



THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 



Syrian cliamber in whicli a roof of rock has been left, and tlae Holy 
)Sepulchre may have undergone similar treatment. 

M. Ganneau, in his opening paragrajihs, alludes to the doubt which 
at one time existed as to the nature of the so-called tombs of Joseph 
iind Nicodemus ; I cannot understand how any one who had ever seen 
the rock-hewn tombs near Jerusalem could have any doubts on the sub- 
ject. The chamber in which they are situated is unmistakably a Jewish 
tomb-chainber, and the tombs themselves are as clearly Jewish kokim. 
Whether this tomb-chamber was inside or outside the second wall is 
quite another question ; I think myself it was inside, but the question 
is one which would require more space for argument than can be given 
at present. 







I'-if;-. i. 



a h. Present floor of chapel of Holy Sepulchre sunk below floor. 
/ c. Of the original tomb-chamber. 

c (1. Bed of original kok now covered with marble slab, 
e /. Roof of kok cut away at some period of alteration. 
k k i. Rock cut away at some period of alteration. 
<j h. Masonry above level of rock. 

There is no rock visible in the chapel of the Holy Sepulchre at the 
present day ; it is entirely concealed by the marble casing. 

c. w. w. 



III. — Note by Lieut. Cunuer. 



" And laid it in Lis own new tomb, wliich he liad hewn out iu the rock : and 
lie rolled a great stone to the door of the sopulclirc" — Matt, xxvii. CO. 

It has long been pointed out tl)at the stone closing the door of our 
Jjord's tomb was not a mere shapeless mass of rock, but a carefully- 
constructed apparatus peculiax w Jewish tombs. There are one or two 



THE HOLY SErULCURE. 133 

points ■witli regard to tlie rolling stone which I have not, however, seen 
noticed in any account of such tombs. 

The rolling stone is not a very common method of securing the 
entrances of the rock- cut sepulchres, and it is natural to suppose, from 
the great advance in mechanical simplicity, that it is a late contrivance. 
The large majority of the rock-eiit sepulchres, some 500 of which have 
been examined in the course of the survey, are not fitted with the groove 
necessary for the use of the stone. They are closed in some instances by a 
sort of portcullis of stone, but most frequently by a stone door on pivol s 
fitting into holes bored above and below the eutrance, and closed by alock. 
The lock was probably of metal, since in every instance yet examined 
it has disappeared. The rolling stone generally measures about 3 feet 
diameter, and is 1 foot thick in some instances, resembling a cheese set 
on end. It rolls right or left of the doorway, which is some 2 feet wide, 
and it is kept up by a ledge of rock having a groove behind it, into which 
the stone is pushed back to open the tomb. The bottom of this groove 
is slightly sloping in some cases, so that the stone would roll down to 
close the door by its own weight. The weight, taking the specific 
gravity of the rock at 2' 7, would be about 6 cwt. Thus not only is 
it entirely impossible to open the tomb from within, but it is difficult to 
do so from without; and a shock of earthquake would not, as has been 
lately suggested, cause the stone to roll back up hill, nor would it 
remain in that position unless scotched beneath. 

The principal point to be noticed is that this kind of door seems to 
belong to the later Jewish tombs. This accords exactly with its use in 
the new tomb of Joseph of Arimathsea. The only dated example known 
is that of the tomb of Helena, Queen of Adiabene, mother of Izates, 
who was buried in Jerusalem in the first century (Ant. xx. 4. 3). 
In addition to this, it may be remarked that in the country north of 
Ca3sarea, where there are many examples of this kind of door, the 
tombs are of the loculus description, and not Jcokim tombs. The same 
remark aj^plies to the instance of a tomb near Endor, and in other cases 
the tombs contain both Jocnli and l-oJiim; but we have collected no 
instance of a tomb with JcoJdm only closed by a rolling stone. In a 
former paper I have shown reasons for supposing the Lohim tombs to be 
the older form used by the Jews, the locuJi to be the later form, also used 
by them. (See Quarterly Statement, Jan., 1876, p. 19.) In the Mishna 
(Baba Bathra vi. 8) a description of a tomb is given having kokim, but 
no account of a rolling door is added, and the form of antechamber 
prescribed i^rccludes the possibility of such a method of closing the 
entrance, but the description applies exactly to the majority of tlie more 
ancient Jewish sepulchres. 

The conclusion which may be drawn from the above notes seems to 
be that the Holy Sepulclire was in all probability a loculus tomb. 

This deduction is in accordance with the description in the fourth 
Gospel (xx. 12) — "two angels in Avhito sitting, the one at the head- 
wind the other at the feet whore the body of Josus had lain " — a dis- 



134 THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

l^osition wliicli is evidently impossible in the case of a tomb with 
a /.o/.a, which is, as has often been explained, a sort of pigeon-hole 
running in from the wall of the chamber some o to 7 feet in length, 
and 2 feet 6 inches to 2 feet broad, the feet of the corpse being at the 
nearer end, the head at the further. The liOlca was closed by a slab 
2 feet broad, 2 to 3 feet high. The locidus tomb has a sort of sarco- 
phagus under an arched roof, the body lying parallel to the wall of the 
chamber. 

An argument for the identity of the present site has been drawn by 
De Vogiie and by M. Ganueau from the existence of an ancient kok 
tomb in the church. This position has been considerably strengthened 
by the quotation of the Mishna furnished by Mr. Hepworth Dixon 
(Baba Bathra ii. 9), which runs as follows : — 

" Corpses and sepulchres and tannei'ies are separated from the city 
fifty cubits." 

Still there is evidence from the same sources to show that sepulchres 
dating from an early period existed within the walls of Jei-usalem, and 
I may perhaps be allowed to collect these passages for the use of those 
interested in the argument. 

Mishna Parah iii. 2: "The buildings {IlazerotJi) of Jerusalem were 
founded on the rock, with caves beneath them, because of the jLubr Hat 
Taldum " (or " Sepulchre of the Abyss ")• 

The passage continues to explain that for the same reason the children 
sent to fetch water for the Red Heifer Sacrifice from Siloam wei'e 
mounted on bulls, in order to have their feet olf the ground, so as to 
escape pollution from the same source. 

The explanation of the term " Sepulchre of the Abyss " is given by 
Maimonide.s, commenting on another passage (Nezir ix. 2), where he 
speaks of it as a hidden tomb, the depth of which was not known to any 
man. Thus it would appear from the Mishna that the Jews were aware 
of the existence of ancient tombs in and beneath the surface of the 
city. 

The Toslphtah gives us further information. It is a work of authority 
almost equal to that of the Mishoah, being attributed to Rabbi Hijah, 
about 120 A.D. Commenting on the same tract (Tosiphtah Baba Bathra, 
ch. i.), it states that all the sepulchres within Jerusalem wei-e transferred 
outside the Avails except those of the family of David and of the prophetess 
Iluldah. 

Another passage of the Tosiphtah is given by Neubauer (Edouyoth, 
ch. ii.) : " Bones had once been found in a house of wood. The Rabbis 
wished therefore to declare the capital unclean, but Rabbi Jehoshua 
objected, sayiug, ' It would be shameful if we declare our houses 
uuclean.'" C. R C. 



135 



AGE or THE TE]\irLE WALL. 

II. PlLASTEllS OF THE WesT IIaEAJI "W'aLL. 

Ix investigating the rock-cut aqueduct wliicli leads froiu the Twin 
Pools to the Haram wall just south of the great rock scarp at the north- 
west corner, I was able to penetrate into a chamber (sec Fig. 1) whence 
the old wall is visible at a higher level than that at which it has been 
observed at any other point. 

This discovery was briefly referred to in my report written after the 
visit which Avas made April, 1873, in company Avith Mr. Shick and a party 
of young Englishmen then in the city. 

AVe passed along the passage which had been cleared out by Joseph 
Effendi on boards, and reached the end of the aqueduct at the point 
where the masonry had been previously described by Mr. Shick 
{Quarterly Statenienf, April, 1872, p. 50). The most interesting point with 
regard to the wall at this place is the fact that each course is set back 
about (3 inches, thus giving a batter to the wall. The care taken to 
preserve the effect on the eye produced by the sunk draft is remarkable. 
The set-back would naturally have the effect of making the hoiizontal 
drafts appear narrower than the vertical, which are flush, and for this 
reason the former are made 6 inches broad, the latter being only 
3 inches ; thus the total breadth of the surface on one plain is equalised. 

The level of the rock at this ijoint is 2-109, 29 feet higher than the 
base of the great course, the highest left in situ along the greater part 
of the south wall. The height of the course visible is greater than the 
average given in Captain Warren's table, and less than that of the great 
■course, being 4 feet 7 inches. 

A batter was seen on the east wall by Captain Warren (" Eecovery of 
Jerusalem," p 1G8) at a level 2370 and upwards. The set-back was here 
4 J inches. 

From the point where the aqueduct begins to turn round towards the 
Haram wall, a small passage leads due east beside the south face of the 
great corner scarp. We were thus able to ascend through the floor into 
a small chamber built against the Haram wall outside (see Fig. 2). A 
window in this chamber looks into the Court of the Haram, which has 
here the level 2431. We found the masonry of the wall to be similar to 
that beneath, and the windo^r to be ancient. Still more interesting was 
the fact that the wall is here seen built with pilasters projecting just like 
those of the Haram at Hebron. The breadth of the pilaster is more 
than double that at Hebron, which is, I believe, 2 feet 6 inches, and the 
distance apart o feet, whereas the buttress here visible is 4 feet 9 inches 
broad, and the distance from the corner one 8 feet 9 inches. The pro- 
jection is 1 foot 6 inches.* 

* The rock buttresses found in Souterrain Xo. 29 north of the platform iniglit 
also be compnreil ; they are 3 feet 6 inclie-s broad, and from 12 to 10 feet apart. 
Their projection is about 8 feet. 



136 



WEST HARAM WALL. 




PLAX SCALF. ^. 

Kig. 1. 




NOTES FROM THE MEMOIR. 137 

The north wall of the chamber is partly of rock, which here rims up in a 
scarp to the level 2434 ; in the north-east comer is a buttress of masonry 
1 foot 6 inches broad. In the intervening space is the window with a 
Hat lintel, the wall being 8 feet thick, the window 4 feet broad. 

The projection of the pilasters is due to a bevelled set-back in the wall 
at the level of the sill of the window (2429). This measures 2 feet along 
the slope and 1 foot horizontally. The course immediately under the 
bevelled stones projects G inches, and is thus flush with the pilaster. 
This arrangement is similar to that of the tower at the north-east corner 
C)f the Haram. (See Plan and Sketch.) 

This is, I believe, the only point where the masonry of the Haram has 
been observed at a higher level than that of the interior of the court, and 
it appears to show that the outer wall was originally decorated with 
pilasters. In his restoration of Herod's Temple, M. De Voglie has so 
represented the wall. 

It is probable that there would have been 70 of these buttresses along 
the south wall, but unfortunately the third buttress is south of the soiith 
wall of the chamber, so that the space between cannot be checked. 

Claude E. Conder, Lieut. R.E. 



NOTES FEOM THE MEMOIE. 

Since the publication of last Quarterly Statement the Memoir has been 
making very steady progress. Four sheets are now arranged, being 
resjjectively the Cajsarea sheet (7), the Bethshean sheet (9), the Gezer 
sheet (16), the Jericho sheet (18). The Jaffa sheet is also nearly ready 
(13). In addition, the translation of the nomenclature (6,000 names) is 
completed, and many valuable results have thus been obtained. Some 
150 sites have been recovered (according to identifications pro]DOsed by 
me), which bear the names of Biblical towns, not to mention the nume- 
rous additions to our information as to Egyptian, Samaritan, early 
Christian, Talmudic, and Crusading sites furnished by the map. 

The principal points of interest in the sheets as yet comj)leted may 
thus be briefly summed up. 

Sheet 7. — A full description of Eoman and Crusading Ca3sarea, the 
hippodrome, temple, theatre, harbour, the Crusading cathedral and 
walls, the two great aqueducts, an account of Kcfr Lam (the Crusading 
Caijernaum), and of various rock cemeteries along the shores. 

Sheet 9. — The description of the Eoman town of Scythopolis, its theatre 
and hippodrome, the Crusading citadel. Full account of the fortress of 
Belvoir, of the sites of Nain, Endor, Jezreel, and Shunem ; also the pro- 
posed sites of the well Harod, of Bethabara ( 'Ahara), and of Megiddo 
{MujediVa). 

Sheet 16. — An account of Yebnah (Jabneel), its church and mosques, 
with their inscriptions, the probable site of Gath at Tell e$ SOfi, and of 



138 XOTES FEOir THE MEMOIR. 

Gezer at TeJl Jezer, witii its inscriptions. Ekron, Aslidod, and a number 
of tte towns of Judah. 

Sheet 18.— This is one of unusual interest and importance. The ques- 
tion of the three sites of Jericho, the Eoman town at the foot of the 
pass, the Crusading at Enha, and the Jericho of Joshua at 'Ain es Sultan, 
receives illustration. The early site of Gilgal recovered by the Survey 
Party, and the Crusading site found by Captain Warren, are discussed. 
The Mountain of the Scapegoat comes also into this sheet. 

The numerous Crusading monasteries of the Jericho plains are de- 
scribed ; the inscribed frescoes of the Quarantania chapels are shown by 
a careful comparison of the characters with those at Bethlehem to belong 
to the twelfth century. The mediaeval "high mountain " of the Temp- 
tation, shown to be the 'Osli el Qhurab. 

The most interesting points in the nomenclature are noticed in a 
separate paper. The latest identifications resulting from this study may 
be noted as follow : — 

The Hittites. — Egj'ptian records show that the Chita, or Hittites, ex- 
tended their dominion at one time to the borders of Egypt. It is 
possible therefore that the town Hatteh, in PhHistia, may be named from 
them, as well as Ke/r Ilatfch in the centre of the country, Ilattin has 
been previously fixed as the Kefr Hlttai of the Talmud, another Hittite 

town. 

The ^r/»i.— This aboriginal people dwelt in " Hazeroth," or walled 
towns, as far as Gaza. It is therefore probable i\i&i Beit Ainm is named 
after them, as the word represents the Hebrew Aid closely. This ruin 
lies on the borders of Philistia, in a district where several Hazors occur 
in the Bible, and where remains of great flint walls surrounding the 
ruined towns are still standing. 

The Cherethites appear to have been a division of the Philistines dwell- 
ing in the Maritime Plain, near the Negeb (I Sam. xxx. 14). They 
appear in the same connection in Zephaniah ii. 5. The LXX. translate 
the word Kp-nrai, whence has arisen the theory that the Philistines came 
from Crete. But, as far as their origin is known, this great people were 
Caphtorim, or Kahfu, as the word appears in the Egj-ptian records, a 
name connected with the modern Kuht, or Copt, and this agrees Avith the 
derivation of the Caphtorim from Mizraim or Egypt (Gen. x. 14). 

A relic of the name of Cherethi exists, I would suggest, in the 
important village of Kerafi/ja, spelt with the Kaf and Te, as in the 
Hebrew. It is situate in the very centre of the Philistine country, and 
at the edge of the Negeb, or " dry country." 

In the town of Keratiya there is an ancient Crusading castle. To 
this the natives have given the name KiiVat el FcnisJi, or " Castle of the 
Fcnish." The name of the Fenish lingers in the neighbourhood of 
Philistia at various points : at Soba, where the Fenish sultan had his 
palace in summer, his daughter dwelling at Khurhct Ikhdla below ; at 
/yrf<r/?», where were his winter quarters, near which is the " spinning 
mound of the Fenish sultan's daughter;-' at Beit Jihriii, where is the 



NOTES I'ROM THE MEMOIE. l'"»9 

" Cavern of the Fenish," and the " Garden of the Fenish." The tradition 
seems, as far as can be ascertained, localised to this part of Palestine. 
Hence one is led to conjecture that the peasants have made the usual 
change of L into N, and that the Fenish are really Fdisli, or Philistines. 
If this be the case, it is curious that we should find both the Cherethites 
and the Pelethites (who are supposed to be the Philistines under a 
slightly changed form of the word) leaving traces of their name in one 
village of Philistia. 

Ataroth Adar. — This important point on the boundary of Benjamin 
is described (Josh, xviii. 13) as "near the hill that lieth on the south 
side of the nether Beth-horon." I have already noted that a village, 
et Tireli, here exists which may represent Ataroth. I now find there is 
also in the same neighbourhood a ruin called ed Ddrieh, which is very 
possibly Adar. 

Edei', one of the towns of Simeon, is very possibly Khurhet 'Ader, 
south of Gaza (Josh. xv. 21). 

GihhetJwii of Dan may perhaps bo the ruin of Oeihilta north of 
Jaffa. 

Baalath of Dan iias never been fixed in a thoroughly satisfactory 
manner. I would suggest Bel'ain as being in the same part of the 
country Avith the toAvns next on the list (Josh, xviii. 44). 

Jahneel of Najihtali is not impossibly B'ahieJi. an ancient site for which 
no identification has yet been offered. The loss of the final L is 
supposed. 

Mount Herns was a district of Mount Ephraim in which lay Timnath 
Heres, where Joshua was buried. Its real signification seems to be 
"rugged mountain." Traces of the name perhaps may be recognised 
in Batn Harasheh ("rough hilltop"), Ildt-is, Kef r Hdris, and i>erh.a,]^s 
Khurhet Hirsha (Charashim), all towards the west of Mount Ephraim. 

Shalisha, a district seemingly west of the last in the Shei^helah 
(1 Sam. ix. 4). Besides Sirisia, which represents, as I have before shown, 
the Baal Shalisha of the Onomasticon, there are in this direction ruins 
called Salita, Shilfa, and Kefr Thilth, which are all modifications of the 
Hebrew Sh(dsh, "three" 

il/croiio^/i, noticed 1 Chron. xxvii. 3, Neh. iii. 7, is probably the present 
Jx^hitrhet Marruia. 

Pirathon is a city noticed in the book of Judges (xii. 15) as "in the 
land of Ephraim in the Mount of the Amalokite." It is commonly 
supposed to be the modern Firata, but this is a mediiEval identification, 
and if the Samaritan Chronicle is to be received, the ancient name of 
Fer'ata was Ophrah. It would seem better to place this site at the im- 
portant ancient site of Feraun, supposing only the loss of the weak letter 
Teth. The name is known as early as 1322 A.D., being marked as Farona 
in an approximately correct position by Marino Sanuto on his map. 

To pass on to sites not noticed in the Bible, but all of some interest. 
M 7?o//i is noticed by Josephus (B. J. iii. 3. 1) as the western boundary 



HO NOTES FKOM THE MEMOIB. 

of Upper Galilee. This would seem to fix it at the modern M^alia, the 
Castrum Eegium of the Teutonic knights. 

Saab, a town in Galilee (B. J. iii.), native place of Eleusar son of 
Sameos, is no doubt the modern SJi'al. 

Caphrath, a town fortified by Josephus, in Galilee (see Eel. Pal. p. 684), 
is probably the modern Kef rah. 

Asochis is the name of the great plain north of Nazareth. l\o trace 
of this title has as yet been disoorered. The word in Greek is written 
Affwx" (Vita 41 and45), and this would be represented probably in Hebrew 
by the Cheth. The name of the mountain south of the eastern part of 
the plain is Jehel es Sih ("mountain of running v/ at er "), having many 
fine springs on it. 

One of the valleys running from this hill into the plain is called Wddy 
cs SVili, In these, pci-haps, we may see traces of the required name. 

Aphecos, a place mentioned in Samaria (B. J. ii. 10. 1) is perliaps the 
present Kh. If lias. 

Beth Rima. — The importance of the identification of this site vnih. the 
modern Heit lihna is great as giving another point near the boundary of 
Judaea and Samaria. It is noticed in the Mishnah (Menachoth ix. 7) and 
identified by Neubauer (Gcog. Tal. p. S3). From it was brought wine 
of a secondary quality, but it must have been in Juda3a, as no wine can 
have been allowed in Jerusalem if brought from Samaria. The wine of 
various Samaritan places Avas forbidden {Tal. Jer., AbodahZarah, v. 4), 
and even that from Eegueb iir Peraja was doubtful because it had to pass 
tkrough part of the land of the Cuthim {Tal. Jer., Hagigah, iii. 4). 

The modern village is south of the great valley which seems to have 
been the boundary, and not far from Bruldn, which I j)ropos3 to bo 
Borceos (see Quarterly Statement, April, 1876, p. 67). It would perhaps be 
better to identify the Anuath of Josephus, "belonging to Borceos" 
(B. J. iii. 3. b), with Ktfr 'Ain, close to Brukut, rather than with the 
Anuath of the Onomasticon, Thus we get the following towns on the 
boundaries all on the Jewish side. 

Antipatris . . . . . . Ras el 'Ain. 

Borceos . . . . . . Briikin, C.E.C. 

Anuath Kefr 'Ain, C.E.C. 

Beth Eimah . . . . . . Beit Eima. 

Beth Laban . . . . . . Lubben. 

Shibh Seilun. 

Corea . . . . . . . . Kuriyut. 

Keiuthim . . . . . . Kurawa (?). 

These would seem sufiicieut to determine the great valley of Dcir 
IJaUiit as the boundar3'. 

Tlir'u'h is a p'aco mentioned in the Talmud {Tal. Jcr. Megillah i. 1) as 
identical with the Biblical Idalah of Zebulon (ed Diilieh, C.E.C), Josh, 
xix. 15. The position suggests that the place meant by the commenta- 
tors is the ruin now called Jhncarah, which is an ancient site near Beth- 
lehem of Zebulon, 



NOTES ITKOM TJIE HEMOIK. 141 

In tlie Byzantine and Crusading period several otlicr places of interest 
may be noticed. 

Bdh Bur is noticed in tlie Onomasticon as a place one mile from Eleu- 
theropolis. It is probably therefore the modern Khurlet es Surah in the 
required direction. 

Mc'jiddo. — It is interesting to know where the Crusaders supposed 
Alegiddo to have been, as we can often trace our errors to their ignorance 
of the country. Marino Sanuto gives its modern name as Sububa. This 
is evidently the ruin called Ezluha, south of el Lejjuu, on the west side of 
the great plain. 

Gihon. — Another curious instance of Crusading error is found in the 
media3val identification of the Upper Gihon and Lower Gihon with the 
pools now called Birlvet M((miUa and BirJai cs Sulidn. These identifica- 
tions are countenanced by Eobinson, but there is an important passage 
in the " La Citez de Gherusalem" : — 

" When one had passed over Zion one found a lake in the A^alley 
which was called Lac Germain, because the Germans caused it to be 
made to gather the waters which descended fi'om the mountain when it 
rained." 

This Lacus Germanicus is shown on the charts as the Birhet es Sultan. 
The description given of the Lacus Patriarchas, or Birl-ei MamiUa, leads 
to the suspicion that this also was of the same date, but it is not posi- 
tively stated to be of mediaival origin. The Crusaders placed a Mount 
Gihon on the hill south of this last lake. Robinson apparently accepts 
this identification, which is curious, since Eeland had previously shown 
that Gihon was probably Siloam. The word means " springing forth," 
and is therefore only applicable to a fountain, none of which exist west 
of Jerusalem. In the Targums Siloam is put instead of Gihon, and 
there is no reason to doubt the identificatiou. The question is of great 
interest, becavise it would follow that the great water channel from the 
'Ain Umm ed Deraj (en Rogel) to Siloam is the work of Hezekiah, and 
further light would be thrown on the locality of the City of David. 

Tlic Stone of Bolian is placed by Marino Sanuto on Olivet. This is of 
course a gross error, but it is interesting to observe that there are heaps 
of flints on Olivet, now called Riijfim el BeJumeh, and this word comes 
from the same root with Ihhdm, which is the Arabic equivalent of the 
Hebrew Bohan, or "thumb." 

Sliafat. — This name contains the radicals of the Hebrew Jehosaphat, 
and the natives of the place state it to have been named after a king of 
Jerusalem. A place of the name Jehosaphat is noticed near Jerusalem 
by Marino Sanuto, and Fetellus in his account of the city describes the 
Church of St. Stephen as between Jerusalem and Jehosaphat. This 
church was outside the Damascus gate, and it would seem that Fetellus 
means Slt'afdt by Jehosaphat. The name of this town was perhaps 
altered by the Crusaders, or slightly modifiel from the word Sh'af (in 
the plural Sh'afdt, spelt with Te), meaning a "mountain top," or any 
high place, like the Hebrew Nob. 



fc) 



42 >'CTES l-ROM THE MEMOIR. 

Mountain of the Temptation. — Tt appears to have escaped notice that 
there was a second site shown in the middle ages as connected with the. 
temptation of our Lord. Quarautania [Jehcl KiirUnti'd) has been shown, 
from the twelfth century downwards, as the site of our Lord's fast of 
forty days (Matt. iv.). Saewulf (1102), howevei', places the " high moun- 
tain " of the Temptation three miles from Jericho (which was then iden- 
tified with the modem Enlia), in the direction of Galilee. Fetellus 
(1150) places Quarantania two miles from Jericho, and the "high 
mountain " two miles from Quarantania. John of Wirtzburg (1100 A.D.) 
gives the same measurements. The tradition afterwards underwent 
modification. Sir John Maundeville (1322 a.d.) knows of Quarantauia 
only, nor does his contemporary Marino Sanuto mention the " high 
mountain." John Poloner (1422) speaks of Quai'antania, and adds: 
" Others say that it is that high hill towards Galilee, distant two leagues 
from the aforesaid mountain, on whose summit was a chapel." This 
would be probablj' the site mentioned above. 

Measuring on the plan it becomes clear that the place meant is no 
other than the remarkable conical peak of the '0*7/ cl 'Ghtirab. It is a 
curious instance of the ideas then entertained, that the summit of this 
" high mountain," whence the Crusaders believed our Lord to have seen 
" all the Idngdoms of the earth," is about 300 feet below the surface of 
the Mediterranean. 

The question has, however, a farther interest. I have noted before 
that one of the valleys leading from the hill in question is called Wady 
Mesd'adet 'Aisi (" Yall^y of the Ascent of Jesus "). The reason is now 
clear, for the origin, like that of toe name Kurunttd, is evidently Christian. 
This is then acase wberi ihe Bedawin have preserved amediseval monkish 
tradition. Quarantania is another ; tlie site shown to Captain AVarren as 
Gilgal {Tell Jilj'U', or Khiirbct Mifjir) is a third, for the place represents 
apparently the Crusading Gilgal. This throws considerable doubt on 
the origin of other traditions with regard to Biblical sites found among 
the Bedawin. 

Tomb of Micali. — This was discovered, according to Sozomen (vii. 29, 
Hist. Eccles.), ten stadia from Kilah, at a place called Barath Satia, and 
was named iu the native language Nephsa Xeemana, or " Monument 
cf the Faithful." In this very neighbourhood, west of Kilah, we found 
a f acred place dedicated to Nchy Naavian, the name attaching now to a 
sacred tree near the ruin called Khiirbct Hherweh. In my paper on the 
Mukcims I have pointed out this name, but was not then able to explain 
how Naaman occurs among the prophets. C. R. C. 

Note. — Papers on "Archaeology in Palestine," "On the Value of 
Josephus'.s Descriptions," and some further notes, are under con- 
tideratiou. 



143 



THE ASNEEIE. 

Ix the mediaeval account of the Holy City, dating about 1187 A.D., 
known as "La Citez de Jhcrvisalem," a building called the Asnorie, 
or " donkey," is described as outside the gate of St. Stephen, 
Avhich is stated to be the northern gate {Bab 'Ainucl el GMrdh). The 
Church and Monastery of St. Stei)hen stood towards the right on enter- 
ing, and the Asnerie, in front of it, to the loft, or cast of the northern 
road. The monastery was destroyed by the Christians before Saladin's 
siege, because it was near the walls and might be used in the attack, 
but the Asnerie was not dcstroj'cd and was afterwards in use. 

The remains of this building were excavated by the ovniev of the 
groimd in I8T0, as mentioned in my re^jort {Quarterly Statement, October, 
1875, p. 190), but no full description has as yet been published of the 
discoveries. The following notes are taken from those made on the spot 
during our stay in Jerusalem in May, 1875. 

Outside the Damascus Gate {Bah 'A mud el Ghurah) is the hill called el 
Ileidhemhjeh, " the cutting," in which is the so-called Grotto of Jeremiah. 
A plot of ground at a lower level extends between this hill and the 
road, with a house in its south-east corner, as shown on the Ordnance 
Sui-vey. On the north and west it is surrounded with a modern wall, 
and the garden is entered from the road in the north-west corner. The 
plot thus enclosed is about loO feet square, with a scarp of rock on the 
north and east. It seems probable that the great inn called the Asnerie, 
originally belonging to the Hosiiitallers, occupied the whole of this site. 

The scarp on the north was excavated in 1873 (see Quarterhj Statemenf, 
October, 1873, p. 153) and traces of arches observed along it. A chamber 
is cut in the scarp, which was apparently a Christian double tomb, and 
this was found to be full of bones. The eastern half of the chamber 
measures 11 feet 7 inches by 7 feet 10 inches, and has three loculi 2 feet 
wide, one on either side, one at the east end. On the east wall are two 
crosses, rudely painted in red, with the Greek letters A and n either side 
of the cross. The other half of the chamber on the west measures 6 feet 
2 inches east and west, 10 feet 8 inches north and south, and was full of 
bones. This tomb is entered by a double door on the south — the eastern 
2 feet wide, the western about 4 feet. 

Near the cistern marked on the Ordnance Survey, which appears to be 
very extensive and cut in rock, remains of piers of masonry were found, 
the stones about 2 to 3 feet long. On one of the stones a masons' mark, 
representing the letter E, occurs, sho\\ang the masonry to belong to the 
Crusading period. The stone has the diagonal dressing found on the 
best specimens of such date. A capital in marble, the base of a small 
attached column, and a pillar shaft 1 foot 6 inches thick, were also 
discovered. 

About forty jjaccs south of the garden gate the excavations laid bare 
the remains of a building — a wall of masonry similar to that above 
described running in two directions from its south-west corner, which 



144 THE XOMEXCLATUKE OF THE SUKVEY. 

was laid bare. Xortliwards the wall extended 33 feet 6 inches, where it 
ends apparently at a gateway. A cross wall runs east 6 feet (3 inches 
south of the north end. Eastvrard the excavations were pushed for 
about 36 feet — both walls are 6 feet 6 inches thick. 

Inside the southern wall are a rov/ of what Avould appear to be stone 
juangers for the beasts here stabled. Each manger is 1 foot 9 inches 
broad, and they are separated by pai tltions 4 inches broad — about fifteen 
were uncovered. The back of the mangers slopes, so that at the top they 
are 2 feet G inches, measuring north andsoutb, and at the bottom 1 foot 
10 inches, the depth being S inches. Tlu-ir discover}'' is of great interest 
as confirming the opinion which I ventured to express previously as to 
the identification of the building. 

It is probable that the Church of Saint Stephen, built in the fifth 
century by the Empress Eudoxia, may still remain to be discovered 
beneath the rubbish on the west side of the road, where tombs woro 
discovered in 1876, as reported by Dr. Ch;iplin. [Quarterly Statement, 
January, 187G, p. 9}. 

C. E. C. 



THE NOMENCLATUEE OF THE SUEVEY. 

The translation of G,OUO Arabic names on the Survey sheets has just 
been completed, and I propose to sum up some of the principal points of 
interest noticeable in this mass of nomenclature. 

That the task of translation requires special acquaintance with the 
peculiarities of the peasant dialect may be easily shoAvn. In the 
Quarterly Statement, July, 1872 (pp. 123, loO), Dr. Sandrezcki's pro- 
visional translation of the names collected by Captain AVarren, and 
written down by the dr.igomau, is given. The true local meaning of 
the v.'ord is in a great many cases apparently unknown. A few instances 
will be sufiicient to show how materially the translation may bo im- 
proved. 

Ku, rendered "retreat," or " window," is used by the Bedawin in its 
original Hebrev^ signification of a "hollow place." TahakaJi, rendered 
"stage," or "story," or "floor," occurs constantly in the Jordari 
valley, meaning a "terrace" with precipitous edg.es. Iliseh un- 
translated means the "mace tree" {Cvrdia viyxa). Matul es Sirch 
is best rendered " the ridge of the sheepfold," not " extension of 
the march." Mat/ch means a "height," not a "shepherd's staff," and 
Rikheh is constantly used for a "hill-top" (properly Itdldh), not a 
"knee." Jit rat cf L'eid nicaiiH " the white hollow," but is transformed 
by the dragoman into "ditch of eggs." JIaicdrah is the term used for 
a kind of soft white chalk, which fits bettor than the translation " a 
new-born camel." 'Ain el 'Ahharah means "sjiring of the mock orange " 
{Styrax officinal is), a plant Avhich gives its name to a large wooded 
district near Carmel. This cannot but be considered an improvement 



THE >"OME\CLATURE OF THE SURVEY. l^) 

on " fountain of the fleshy damsel." In addition, Butn is a word often 
used in Palestine for a round hill-top, or " belly," as the Avord strictly 
originally means. Ilish- also is applied to a confused underwood, and 
should not be rendered " tumultuoiis assembly." Many other examples 
might be added. 

The system according to which the Survey names were collected was as 
follows. A guide accompanied the surveyor and gave the name on 
the spot. It was repeated in camp in his presence, and written down by 
an Arabic scholar. Thus correctness of locality and of pronunciation 
was as far as possible secured. This nomenclatui-e I have three times 
examined all through — once with a native scribe, once with the official 
lists and others furnished to us in the country, lastly with three Arabic 
Dictionaries, one Hebrew Lexicon (Gesenius), and one Aramaic (Buxtorf). 
Whenever the word was strange and new the meaning was as far as 
possible obtained from the guide, and a note made opposite. The late 
Mr. Drake had a very unusual acquaintance with the peasant dialect, 
and the Survey has the full benefit of his knowledge. In addition, the 
meaning of words is often rendered quite clear by the comparison of 
various instances of their occurrence in different parts of the country. 

In addition to the various precautions to ensure accuracy described 
above, it must be understood that unusual or important names were not 
accepted on the testimony of one person, that every effort to check the 
veracity of the guides was used, incompetent guides dismissed, and 
spurious names cancelled. It is our hope, therefore, that what has been 
producovd may prove to be accurate as well as sufficient. 

Cajjtain Warren* has stated that we have probably collected less than 
one ha,lf of the existing names, and this might lead to an impression that 
our work is imperfect in this respect. I would therefore call attention 
to the character of the native nomenclature, for it appears to me 
that the value of many names has been immensely overrated, from the 
fact that their origin and meaning have been entirolj' unknown. It is 
probable that the sheets might be thickly covered with such titles as 
the following given on one man's authority, or very probably im- 
promptu inventions : Sliehhdkh et Tor, 'Alitn el Hadn, Maradd Hani. 
Abu Selkeh, Hanui el Aleiii, Makarfet el Kattum, Kuniet Sahsul Hameid. 

These titles actually occur on the Survey sheets, and might, as they 
stand mitranslated, bo considered of importance ; they mean re- 
spectively, "the place where the bulls lie down " (beside a spring), " the 
directing sign-pos-t," " the twisting zigzag —father of length " (a wind- 
ing mountain ascent), " the public booth," " the place smelt by Kattum "' 
(an Ai-ab having here fallen on his nose from his horse, as explained by 
the guide), "the peak of the fall of Hameid" (a Bedawi boy having 
fallen thence and broken his neck). 

It is clear, probably, from the above that the map without a transla- 
tion of the nomenclature will be a sealed book, that we shouLi be in 
danger of falling into the error of the traveller who wrote down Md- 



* 



"Underground Jcmsaleni," p. 26i 



146 THE NOMENCLATURE OF THE SURVEY. 

Mruf (" I don't know ") as the name of a village, and that in very many 
cases only the explanation obtained on the spot will account for a 
curious and uniisual name. 

The examination of the nomenclature shows that the answers given 
by guides and other natives were generally truthful. No attempt 
to work on our ignorance of the language appeal's to have succeeded, 
no evidently absurd names can bo detected, and the fact that the most 
valuable names are those of ruins and villages gives reason to suppose 
that the various titles which might be added would prove of little value, 
being simply descriptive and modern: "brown mountain," "bubbling 
spring," or " heap of stones," being titles which obscure the map with- 
out any advantage. 

With regard to the comparative value of names, two important points 
must be noticed : first, a great difference between the nomenclature of 
the peasantry and that of the Arabs ; secondly, the antiquity of ruin 
names as compared Avith the later descriptive titles applied to natural 
features. On these points I have touched before, and there is nothing 
in them conti-ary to expectation ; but it is important to remember the 
last, because if all important ruins are, as we hope, marked, and their 
names attached, then probably all that is of value in the nomenclatiu-o 
of the Survey has been collected. The number of names in the Bible 
relating to Western. Palestine is under 600, and the collection of 7,000 
modern names ought in all probability to ensure the recovery of all that 
can be recovered. Already all but about 100 are fixed with more or 
less accuracj', without including disputed sites or those within Upper 
Galilee, and the topography of Bj-zantine and Crusading Palestine can 
be worked out in even greater perfection from the Survey documents, as 
I 'hoY)Q the Memoir will clearly show. 

Another interesting aspect of the nomenclature is the light which it 
throws on the language of the peasantry. I have already tabulated 
some of these i-esults, but other points of interest have since come under 
notice which may be briefly enumerated. 

The words used in the nomenclature may be divided into various 
classes : first, those exclusively of Hebrew or Aramaic origin not used 
in modei-n Arabic ; secondly, words common to Aramaic and Arabic ; 
thirdly, foreign words. The question of the change of words from their 
original form is part of the same subject. 

In the common vulgarisms of the peasant dialect valuable indications 
may be detected. Thus the confusion of the gutturals and the hardening 
of the AJeph into the gutteral ^Ain, which were a reproach against the 
Galileans in the older times of the Talmudic writers, are still remark- 
able among the peasantry. The placing of an AJeph at the beginning 
of a word, as Ahzik for Bezik, AjdCir for Jedur, and the introduction of 
Aleph and Wow in various words giving a broader and longer sounds, 
are peculiarities noticeable in Aramaic nomenclature Avheu compared 
with Hebrew, and also in the peasant dialect. In addition to this, 
various letters are pronounced in a manner which agrees with their 



THE NOMENCLATURE 01' THE SURVEY. 



14: 



proper relation to Hebrew. Dhdl, the Hebrew Zain, is pronounced like 
Z. Tha, tlie equivalent of Sin, like the Hebrew Sin. The iST and L are 
confused constantly, as also in Aramaic. The pronunciation of the 
Bedawin differs from that of the peasantry in many letters, and the pro- 
nunciation of townspeople is again different. The words used by the 
Arabs are again local, and not used by the peasantry in many cases. 
Thus in the Jordan Valley Ttnveil is the title employed for the long 
knife ridges, and is derived from the root " T/V," to be long. Suiuud 
is used for a cave ; Ilaruhbet for a cistern ; Fulz for a shepherd. The 
peasantry commonly use the words Sh\ib, Mwjliamh, Birkeh, and E'ai 
instead, these being Hebrew words, and the Bedawin words more strictly 
Arabic. 

The laws of relation between Hebrew and Arabic letters are well 
known. Though the sound may differ as in Aleid, the Arabic of the 
Hebrew Aberc, "white," still, in my opinion, no change can properly 
be said to have taken place where the Arabic is the proper equivalent of 
the Hebrew or Aramaic. It is commonly said that the original nomen- 
clature has been much altered, in order to give a significance in modem 
dialect to ancient words. The examination of the nomenclature does 
not, however, bear this out so fully as may have been expected. It seems 
that the word has often remained quite unchanged whr-re the meaning 
has been lost, or that the peasantry attach a more archaic meaning to 
the word than we suppose ; but scarcely one substantiated case has 
been found, as far as I am aware, of any very considerable " intro- 
version " or radical change of a name, except in cases njhere the name is 
of foreign origin. 

Many words commonly used have meanings in Hebrew or Aramaic 
which apply well, but have no topographical significance in Arabic. 

Thus S/tuaJ is a word applied in several cases to caverns, and has the 
significance of the Hebrew root, "to be hollow." In Arabic it would 
mean" a firebrand." Fukhteh is used to mean " a quarry " or " cutting," 
as in Hebrew. In Arabic it means " a i)igeon." 'Aiui is used as in 
-Aramaic to mean " a flock," in Arabic it means "a she ass." Many 
instances of this archaic condition of the language might be adduced, 
and, as I have previously noticed, the common words such as Win, 
Khurheh, Tell, iS:c., &c., are all Hebrew words unchanged in the modern 
nomenclature. These form a very largo proportion of the whole. 

The translation of the nomenclature also furnishes us with various 
identifications which might otherwise be lost ; thus 'Ain el Jem'atn means 
apparently " spring of two troops," and its position suggests it to be the 
well Harod, where Gideon divided the men Avho laj)j)ed from the rest. 
Wddy Mes'adet 'Aisa means "valley of the ascension of Jesus," and 
applies to a point where mediseval tradition supposes our Lord to have 
been carried to a lofty mountain-top by the tempter. El Mahrakah 
means "place of burning;'' were this unknown we should have no 
indication of the possible site of Elijah's sacrifice. 

To pass on to the more modern or strictly Arabic nomenclature. This 



148 THE NOJIEXCLATURE OF THE SURTEY. 

as before observed, belongs princinaily to the nomadic peoxjle. The old 
names are forgotten, and modern descriptive titles substituted; in 
addition to this, modern events, such as the slaughter of an Arab by 
Government, the destruction of a camp by a flood, the fall of an Arab 
boy from a cliff, result in well-known titles of formidable appearance, 
but of no value for purposes of Biblical research. The majority of the 
Jordan Valley names belong to this kind, and the deserts of Judah and 
Beersheba repeat the same class of titles. The Bedawin have in addition 
to their peculiar dialect a sort of s-lang, which we found ourselves quite 
miable to understand, the words being all new to us. This they use 
apparently to prevent the peasantry or Government officials from under- 
standing their conversation. When in commiinication with them or 
with us they used a corrupt Arabic, mth various peculiarities of pro- 
nunciation. 

The stock of the language is apparently Aramaic, as it was in tho 
fourth century, and this gives a clear explanation of the preservation of 
the ancient nomenclature. Various foreign Avords have, however, crept 
into use. Thus Ddrdifr/an is the Ita,lian Portnijallo, an orange. Burj is 
equivalent to Burg, or Try^-yos, " a tov/er." There are also indications of 
the earlier importation of foreign words. To the Greeks tho nomenclature 
owes no doubt TerLumieh for Tricomias ; Fendehumkh, Pentecomias ; 
Burjmus, Pcrgamos ; Bcidus, Pedeios. To the Eomans, Kohniyth 
for Colonia, Kiistul for Castellum, and many others. To the Crusades, 
finally, many titles are Jbo be traced — Sii^Jil for St. Gilles, Bardaivil 
for Baldwin, Dustrey for District, are instances. 

It is ia these foreign words that change and corruption is, as might 
naturally be expected, most clearly to be traced. The classical titles of 
Scythopolis, EleutheroT)olis, and Sycaminos have disappeared entirely, 
unless a trace exists in tho words Shoh; "thoi'n;" d 'A(r, "scent;"' 
Scmak, " fish ;"' applied to ruins close to their sites. With regard to the 
latter, it is curious to observe that the Talraudic writers found just as 
great difficulty with the name Sycaminos, which became in their hands 
Shikmijiiah. One may remark in tho Talmud the clumsy attempts to 
transliterate Greek or Latin words, giving evidence of the difficulty with 
which the natives of PalestiuG adaj^t their tongues to an Aryan language. 
The native nomenclature does indeed give instance? of change, as in 
l^hcfa 'Amr for the Talmudic Shafram, the modern name meaning 
" hoalino: of Omar," and connected with a tradition ; but such instances 
are few compared with the almost universal corruption of the foreign 
words. 

Thus translated the nomenclature becomes, I think, of value, tho 
ground is cleared, the origin of various names explained, and the really 
ancient and valuable titles distinguished from the surrounding cloud of 
modern and unimportant names. 

Claude li. Condeb, Lieut. R.E. 



149 

8YCHAE AND SYCHEM. 

In the new illustraled edition of Dr. Farrar's " Life of Christ," part 0, 
p. 1(34, a view of Nahliis is given with the title Sychar beneath it. There 
are, however, good arguments, it would seem to me, in favour of the 
view that the Sjchar of the fourth gospel (iv. 5) is a place distinct from 
the ancient Shechcm. 

The reason for supposing identity between the two sites appears to be 
Eobinson's assumption that Sj^char (" drunkard ") was a Jewish, corrup- 
tion of Sychem, in contempt of the Samaritans. 

By Jerome the two are considered as distinct places. Thus in the 
Onomasticon (s.v. Sichar) Jerome and Eusebius agree in placing this 
tov>ai "before" {i.e., east of) Shechem, and the Bordeaux pilgrim (Itin. 
Hierosol) places Sechar one mile from Sechim by Jacob's Well. 

In his time the ancieut site of Shechem was supposed not to be 
actually at Neapolis (Nablus), but at ruins farther east nearer to 
Joseph's tomb, which accounts for the distance given by the Bordeaux, 
pilgrim. 

In Crusading times, however, the distinction between Shechem a,nd 
Sychar was not observed, thus Jaques de Yitry identifies Neapolis vnth 
Sychar (Gesta Dei, p. lOTS). 

It is important in this connection to mention another name connected 
v/ith this spot. In the Onomasticon we have the name Balanus, "id est 
quercus Sicimorum " (Judges ix. G), as close to Joseph's tomb. Of this 
title we have a trace in the modern Baluta, which may probably be 
connected with Bullilt, " an oak " in Arabic. This place is mentioned in 
the Samaritan book of Joshua, and is perhaps the Elonah Tabah or 
Shejr el Kheir {i.e., " Holy Oak ") of the Samaritan Chronicle. (See the 
paper on Samaritan Topography.)* 

It would appear that Sychar was in Jerome's time separated from 
Shechem, having near it another village, Balata, supposed to represent 
the " oak of the pillar that was in Shechem " (a. v., 'plain). 

The reason why Eobinson failed to identify Sychar with the village 
of 'Aslar, just above Jacob's Well on the side of Ebal, seems to be that 
he did not know the name, which does not appear in his lists or in his 
account of Nablus. The identification has been supported by Canon 
Williams and Dr. Thomson, and the main ditficulty appears to lie in the 
existence of the guttural 'Aiii in the name. 

A comparison with tbe Samaritan Chronicle is of interest as removing- 
the philological difficulty (see Quartcrlij Statement, October, 1876, p. 197), 
for in the list of places inhabited by the high priests after Tobiab wo 

* In spite of the fact tbat the Greek reads ^aXavos, and tlie Lathi Balanus in 
the Onomasticon, it is probable that the word intended is the Aramaic tOI'^S, nu 
oak, eqiiivalent to the Hebrew p^t<. The radicals in the Aramaic word are the 
same as in the Arabic Baluta, thongh the word in Arabic moans "pavemeut." 

The same place is probably intended by the " Terebinthns iu Sicimis," where 
Jacob hid the idols (Gen. xxxv. 4), " juxta Neapolim " (Onomasticou). 



150 THE AMEEICAN EXPLOllERS IX TALESTINE. 

find "botli Shechem and Iskar ("i^D^). If tins latter be the Sychar of the 
gospel it is possible that it has no connection wfth the Hebrew word for 
" drunkard," but comes from a Hebrew and Aramaic root meaning " to 
be shut up." Sikra (X'^3"'D) is noticed in the Talmud as the name of a 
place (Baba Metzia 42a, 83a), and En Sukar (131D ]''V), is also noticed in 
the Mishna, Menachoth vi. 2. The Samaritan Chronicle dates back to 
1150 A. D. ; the Arabic translation gives \isJiar us a rendering of the 
Samaritan Iskar, and as by comparison of other towns we find the 
Arabic evidently to intend the same place with the original, we see that 
the Samaritans themselves identify the modern 'Askar with an ancient 
Ischar or Sichar. The Arabic word means "a collection" (hence an 
army). 

In vv^riting on this subject (see Smith's Bible Dictionary, art. Sychar) 
Mr. Grove has remarked how much more naturally the nai-rative in the 
gospel would apply to a comparatively obscure site than to the very 
capital of Samaria itself. 

" Then cometh he to a city of Samaria (f is ir6\iv r^s ^anapelas), which 
is called Sychar, near to the parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son 
Joseph. 

"Now, Jacob's well was there. . . ." (John iv. .5, G.) 

This dcscrij)tion is most accurately applicable to 'Asl-ar. The well of 
Jacob is situate at the point where the narrow vale of Shechem begins 
to broaden into the great plain of the Mukhnah (or Camp). It is about 
2,000 yards east of the town of Nablus, which lies hidden from it. 
Immediately west lies the little village of BalSta with its fine spring and 
gardens. Little more than a third of a mile north-east is the tomb of 
Joseph, and from this a path gradually ascending leads to the village of 
'AsJcar, which is visible from Jacob's Well. It is merely a modern mud 
\'illage with no great indications of antiquity, but there are remains of 
ancient tombs near the road beneath it. 

As regards the position of Shechem, it may be noticed that the 
ancient cemetery occupies the side of Mount Ebal above the modern one, 
and extends thence westward, being separated by about 1 i miles from 
the site of 'AsJcar. 

In confusing Shechem and Sychar Eobinson has, as in other cases, 
followed that very monkish tradition of the middle ages which he so 
strongly condemns in other instances. C. E. C. 



THE AMERICAN EXPLOEERS IN PALESTINE. 
(Reprinted from the Athciunun, by permission of the Proprietors.) 

Beirut, Syria, May 10, 1877. 
Ti]E bettor acquainted I become with the country east of the Jordan, 
the more I am amazed at its fertility and natural resources. The 
scenery everywhere among the Gilead hills is picturesque and beautiful. 
The forests and cultivated fields, the green valleys and grassy slopes, 
remind one of the park scenery in England. The hills in many parts 



THE AMERICAN EXPLORERS IN TALESTINE. 151 

are well wooded, but besides tbis tkere are also dense forests of large fine 
old trees, such as are not elsewhere seen in this peeled and povertj'- 
stricken laud. The upper portion of AVady Yabis is called " el Akhdar " 
—i.e., the green, and its gardens and orchards, as well as its fields of 
grass, combine to render it a charming place. But Wady Ajlun sur- 
passes the Yabis in respect to cultivation and beauty, because it is 
larger, and the fountains which feed its copious stream are at a much 
higher level in the mountains. Ain Jenmeh is near the head of tbis 
wady, and the fountains and streams flowing among the olive trees and 
walnut groves there make this one of the most delightful valleys in 
Syria. There are three other flourishing villages, Ajluu, Anjara, and. 
Keferenji, all except the latter in the immediate neighbourhood of Ain 
Jenmeh, and the valley at that point is full of ancient ruins, which 
extend clear up to Kallat er Rabad itself, showing that this locality has 
been occupied by towns or cities from remote times. 

At one place on this wady I saw an orchard of unusual extent, in which 
there were at least eight kinds of fruit trees— the fig, olive, apricot, 
quince, plum, lemon, apple, and the pomegranate growing &ide by side. 
The valley is full of mills, flour-mills, of which I counted about twenty, 
but not all of them were in' working order ; and not only on this but on 
many other streams as well the number of ruined mills surprises one. 
For instance, on the line of the Zerka, or Jabbok, I counted between 
twenty and thirty ruined flour-mills, besides a very few that were in 
operation. I learn that in some cases the locality chosen for the site is 
not a good one, and the investment proves a failure ; and in the more 
dangerous seclions, as has doubtless been the case on the Zerka, the 
people have been either driven away or murdered, consequently the 
place and the business have been abandoned. 

As yet I have only referred to the region of Jebel Ajlun, or the 
mountains of Gilead. But the great plateau which stretches eastward 
from the lake of Tiberias to the Lejab, and south to Dra (Edrei) and 
Gerash, is one vast natural wheat field. Some portions of this plateau 
are rocky, but these furnish excellent pasture ; the soil, however, is for 
the most part tolerably free from stones, and the ploughman has no 
excuse for turning a crooked furrow. Those who are familiar only with 
the country west of the Jordan will perhaps hardly believe me when I 
state that on the Hauran plains I have seen in the ploughed fields 
furrows a mile and a mile and a half in continuous length, and as 
straight as one could draw a line. 

The region south of Bozrah, towards Um el Jemal,and south-east of 
Dra, and east of Gerash, is full of ruined towns, and the soil is fertile 
and once supported a large population. For generations, however, this 
section has not been occupied, because life and property have been so 
insecure. But within a year or two past a good many families ha,ve 
gone in there and occupied some of the ruined towns, and are attempt- 
ing to cultivate the land. They will succeed if they are not interfered 
with ; but they are exposed to danger, and it is to be feared that the 



152 TnE AMERICAN EXPLOESKS IX PALESTINE. 

Aneizeh Arabs are not yet sufficiently civilised to overcome their 
instincts for plunder. The people of El Hosn and of Dra informed us, 
however, that thus far these settlers had not been molested. The 
Hauran ^vheat is considered one of the very best kinds in Syria, and if 
the government would encourage the farmer, instead of oppressing and 
robbing him, this section would become a source of wealth to the 
country. It is difficult to exaggerate the extent and beauty of the vast 
plain about Fik, and along Wady 'Allan, and at Nawa, and those which 
stretch southward to Tel Ashtara, Mazarib, and Dra. This would be a 
paradise for the wheat-grower, if he could only be protected in his 

rights. 

In searching for Biblical sites, I have followed up the whole line of 
the Zerka from its mouth to its source, and I find the valley pretty 
extensively cultivated. It being sixty-five or seventy miles in length 
its capacities are great, because the supply of water is abundant, and 
«very acre could be reached by irrigating canals. There are already a 
multitude of farms in this valley, and the wheat-crop this year is good. 
With regard to the canals just referred to, the present cultivators of 
the land say that they dig no new ones, and the Arabs say that those 
which exist now have always existed there. There are on the hill-sides 
many unused canals, a few of which can be traced to a distance of five 
or ten miles. These remains show that in ancient times there was a 
perfect system of irrigation, by which not only the bottom land was 
bi'ou^ht under cultivation, but in some cases even the foot hills them- 
selves. When the present farmers want to utilise a new piece of 
o-round, all they have to do is to clear out and repair one of these old 
canals. Some of these canals exhibit such skilful engineering that I 
often wondered how the people of to-day, whether Arabs or fellahin, 
■could have built them, until they assured me repeatedly that neither 
they nor their fathers had anything to do with their construction. 
They must have been built originally at great expcRso, for they lead 
under ledges, and around bold rocky cliffs, where oxily skilled woi-k- 
men could carry them, and in one case the canal was carried along 
far up on the hill-side, keeping its level, and following the irregularities 
of the mountain to a great distance. The farmers generally combine 
and share the expense of keeping a certain canal in order, and then 
each will have specified days when he can use the water for himself. 

I have in former letters mentioned the fact that the Jordan valley 
between the Zerka and Nimrin was quite barren, because there are no 
streams or fountains in the hills to water it ; while north of the Zerka, 
where streams are numerous, the valley is clothed with wheat-fields and 
vegetation. Just south of the Zerka there are some traces of ancient 
canals, showing that a portion of the valley between the Zerka and the 
road leading from Nabh'is to Es Salt was formerly under cultivation, 
although it is now a desert ; excepting, of course, during the winter 
rains. Perhaps more than half of the Jordan valley (I speak always of 
the valley east of the river) is now reached by irrigatinir canals ; and in 



THE AMERICAN EXPLORERS IN PALESTINE. 153 

those sections not occupied Lj^ wlieat-fields tlie thistles aud. weeds tiro 
rank, and grow as high as a liorse's back, and often as high as the 
shoulders of a man ou liorseback, and form such dense jungles tliat it is 
almost iaipogsible for a horse to make his way through them. I have 
examined the Jordan valley throughout its whole extent, with special 
reference to its beiug irrigated from the Jordan itself; and I am con- 
vinced that the project is very feasible. Every square mile not now 
■irrigated could be watered from the Jordan, and the expeuse for a dam 
and canals would be small compared with the largo number of square 
miles of valuable land that would thus be made productive. If we 
reckon the valley at sixty miles ia length, and from two or three to six 
miles in width, we shall have 180 square miles of land as fertile as any 
prairie, and which, at twenty or twenty-five bushels per acre, would 
produce between 2,000,000 and 3,000,000 bashels of wheat. If it is 
objected that people could not live in the valley, the answer is, that 
the people who cultivate the soil there at present live there all the 
year round, and besides, the ruins of a dozen important towns along the 
line of the foot-hills show that the valley has been inhabited by civilised 
people at some time in the i^ast. These reinarks with regard to irriga- 
tion apply with equal force to the vast plains of Cojle-Syria, along the 
Xieontes, and those of Hums and Hamma and others along the Orontes 
to the north. Give these plains and deserts water, and you can trans- 
form them into gardens. 

If we go south of the Zerka Ave find the Jazer region, which the 
children of Eeuben and the children of Gad once coveted as a fine pasture- 
ground for their cattle (Numb, xxxii.), still abounding in wheat fields 
and covered Avith numerous flocks and herds of the Bedoiiin. At Khui-bot 
♦Sar there is a large plateau extending north and east a distance of three 
miles perhaps, and in this plateau is the watershed between the Zerka on 
the east, and wadys Keferein and Hesban on the west and south. Tho 
region is studded with ruins, and among them I think I am able to iden- 
tify some of the cities of the tribe of Gad. 

In these notes I can only refer to the Bolka or plains of Moab, which 
equal in fertility the most favoured sections of the country elsewhere, 
and which, Avhen covered with wheat-fields and herds of cattle, as they 
are about the 1st of May, is not surpassed in beauty by any plain in 
England or America. 

Tho wheat-fields at the mouth of wadys Keferein and Hesban, as well 
as those in the upper Jordan valley between the Zerka and the Lake of 
Tiberias, are as fine as any in the world. In the former locality, i.e. on 
the Shittim plain, the harvest began about the middle of April, and 
farther north about the 1st of May. 

Some of tho tribes in tho Jordan valley, north of the Zerka, cultivate 
their own land. But the more aristocratic Bedouin, like the Adwan, the 
Beni Sakhr, and tho Beni Hassan, employ fellahin entirely. Along the 
upper Zerka, in the Jaazer region, in the fertile sections of the Shittim 
plain, and elsewhei'e, fellahin do all the work. Large numbers of Chris- 



154 DEIB EBAN, THE GREAT EBEX, AND EBEX HA-EXER. 

tians go out from Es Salt to the Zerka every year for the purpose of 
cultivating the land on shares. The peasant or farmer is given, at the 
beginning of the season, four or five or six dollars, as the case may be, 
and a pair of shoes at the outset. He also has seed furnished him ; be- 
sides this he receives nothing. He must do all the work, from ploughing 
to threshing, furnish cattle and tools and men, and his own food; and 
at the end he receives one-fourth of the crop. I Avent one bright moon- 
lio-ht night to visit the theatre at Amman, which, by actual measurement, 
I had found would seat upwards of 10,000 people ; and in one of the 
corridors I aroused a man, v/ho proved to be a " Saltce," as they are called, 
a Christian peasant from Es !;alt, who was cultivating land for the 
Arabs, and who found here at night a temporary shelter for himself and 

his cattle. 

A poor ignorant Christian cultivating land for a degraded and 
wretched Bedouin, the present nominal owner of the soil, and making 
his home in the ruins of a theatre that was once brilHant with ten 
thousand eager spectators gathered together from a city of churches 
and palaces and temples— the people of intelligence and wealth all gone, 
the people and buildings that remain sunk down into moral and physical 
ruin — is in human judgment a strange reversal of the law of progress, 
which gives rise to serious and painful reflections. 

Selaii Merrill. 



DEIE EBAN, THE GEEAT EBEN, AND EBEN HA-EZEE. 

(Reprinted from the Academy, by permission of the Editor.) 

Paris, Odoher 20, 1876. 

In my last, very brief, report (Palestine Exploration Fund, Quarterly 
Statement, No. XIII., October, 1874, p. 279), I formally proposed the 
identification of Deir Ehdii with the great Eben on which the ark was 
placed on its arrival at Ekron. I had long before arrived at this result ; 
I have repeatedly spoken of it to several persons, especially Messrs. 
Drake and Conder, reserving to myself the right of dealing with the 
question in detail, and particularly the relation of the great Eben to 
Ehen Jia-ezer. Mr. C. R. Conder having in one of the recent Statements of 
the Palestine Exploration Fund (July, 1870, p. 49) proposed afresh to 
recognise in J>eir Elifni the Hebrew word Eben (stone), and to locate 
Eben ha-ezer there, I am happy to see him partially adopt my theory, 
and I think 1 ought to seize this opportunity to set forth briefly the 
conclusions at Avhich I long ago arrived on this subject. 

(1) TJie Oreat Ehen. — The Philistines, bringing back the ark on a 
waggon from Ekron to Beth-Shemesh, reach the verge of that city, now 
represented by Ain Shems (1 Sam. vi. 12); the waggon stops in the field 
of Joshua the Bcth-Shemeshite, where there was a great stone (Eben) ; 
the ark is rested on the " great stone," a sacrifice is off'ered in this place. 



DEIR EBAN, THE GREAT EBEN, AND EBEX HA-EZER. 155 

and the cows which were drawingthe ark are sacrificed (v. 14-15). A little 
further on (v. 18), in speaking of the gold offering, the narrator returns to 
this " great stone "* on which the ark was rested, and which is pointed 
out to this day in the field of Joshua : it seems this time to indicate 
clearly the limit of the Philistine territory (to the great stone . . . ), 
which, moreover, is confii'med by the fact that the PhiUstines go no 
farther, and that, after accompanying the ark to this point, they return 
to Ekron. The memory of this event is, if my opinion is correct, pre- 
served in the name of Dei)' Ebdn ; as to the extraordinary importance 
assigned it by the book of Samuel, this is explained by the following 
considerations : f 

(2) Eben lia-ezer. — The Israelites on their way to attack the Philistines, 
who had advanced to Aphek, encamp — probably on the confines of their 
territory — -near the stone of succour (Eben ha-ezer). Beaten the first 
time, they bring up the ark of Shiloh, and again try the fortunes of 
battle ; they are completely defeated, and the ark, which falls into the 
hands of the Philistines, is transported by them from Eben-ezer to 
Ashdod. These events occur, be it understood, he/ore those which we 
have just related. 

Is it not natural that later on the ark should have been carried back to 
the same point where it had been captured ? On the very same spot where 
the sacrilege had been committed should the expiation be made. Now 
this spot bears precisely, as we have seen above, the name of " the great 
stone " {Eben). 

There is yet another argument. It is only farther on (chapter vii.) 
that the narrator tells us the origin of the name of Eben ha-ezer, whence 
it results that, at the moment of the return of the ark, the place did 
not yet bear this name of Eben ha-ezer, and that the narrator only used 
it by anticipation when speaking of the defeat of the Israelites : as the 
religious outrage inflicted on the ark had been repaired on the very 
same spot where it had taken place, so the national outrage was to be 
atoned for under identical conditions. It was at Ebon ha-ezer itself 
that the Israelites, beaten at Eben ha-ezer, were to take, under the 
leadership of Samuel, a signal revenge. It was then only that the 

* Abel must be corrected into chen in the opinion of all the commentators. 

+ Between Deir Eban and Ain Shems is a rocky spot called Tantura, and 
perhaps also Es-sd fye. This was the scene in ancient times, according to the 
legend, of a great massacre of fellahs by the soldiers of the Government {aic). 
Since that time clhabat tantHra has been a proverbial expression for a great 
massacre. It should be 'noted that the word dhabha (slaying) is precisely the 
Hebrew zebah (sacrifice). In the middle of the valley between Sar'a, Artoul', 
Ain Shems, and Deir Eban, there is also a low flat-topped hillock, covered witli 
small stones, called Khirbet cr-ltoucljouin ; there was there a qal'a like a churcli 
(sic). The old name of Deir Eban, according to the fellahs, is Zeicl el-mdl. This 
word mal (silver, money) is added to many names of places as a kind of epithet ; 
thus we have, between Ranileh and Jaffa, Sarsend el-nidl (in alhision to Sarf cl- 
onal, money-changing) ^ zeid el-mid, meaning "increase of silver. " 

N 



156 DEIR EBAN, THE GREAT EBEN, AND EBEN HA-EZER. 

battle-field, determined by the position of Maspha, Bethkar, Sen (and 
Aphek), was consecrated by the erection of a stone to which Samuel gave 
the name of Eben ha-ezer, "stone of succour."* It marked the point 
reached by the pursuit, and the Philistines never again crossed the 
borders of Israel. 

It results, therefore, from these comparisons, which I can now only 
briefly indicate, waiving certain obscure points : — 

(1) The place where the Israelites were beaten and where they lost the 
ark did not assume till a later date the name of Eben ha-ezer. 

(2) It is to this same spot, this time called Eben, that the Philistines 
carried back the ark. 

(.3) The Israelites having beaten the Philistines in their turn at this 
same place called it Eben ha-ezer. 

(4) This place must have been on the confines of the Philistines and 
the Israelites— may, perhaps, even have been one of the boundary- 
marks. 

(5) All these data, including that of the Onomastkon, apply remark- 
ably well to Deir Eban.t 

Ch. Clermont-Ganneau. 

* It results from a passage in Josephus that the stone must have borne in 
certain Hebrew MSS. the name of Azaz (strength, strong), with a final min in- 
stead of a resch, for he translates this name by lax"?^"^ strong. 

t The track of tlie loaggon carrying the ark from Ekron to Deir Ebau must 
have been by the present Wady Sarar, which is certainly the Valley of Sorek, 
as I conclusively proved by the discoVery of KhirheL Soiirtq, in 1874. 



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Quarterly Statement, October, 1877.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND, 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



We are liappy to announce that tlie survey of the nortli of Palestine is at 
length completed. It was commenced by Lieut. Kitchener on the 27th of Feb- 
niary, and finished on tlie 10th of July. In the course of the work 1,000 square 
miles of country were surveyed ; 2,773 names were collected, and 476 ruins were 
visited and described, some with special i>lans. All the villages were also de- 
scribed with regard to the number and religion of inhabitants, the remains of 
ancient buiklings, and the nature of the country. The water-supply has also in 
all cases been specially described. The whole country has been hill-shaded ; the 
altitudes of a great number of points have been obtained by aneroid readings 
besides the obsei-ved heights : special notes have been taken on the geology, 
archffiolog}-, &c., of the country. The line of levels connecting the Mediterranean 
and the Sea of Galilee was completed on the 24th March. Photographs have 
been taken of the more interesting sites. 



The whole of this work, except the photographs, has arrived in England, 
having been brought home by Sergeant Malings. It is now placed under the 
charge of Lieutenant Conder, at the Koyal Albert Hall. 



Among the reports sent home by Lieut. Kitchener were a number of Greek 
inscriptions, many in a fragmentary condition. These will all be published 
together in Januarj% 

With regard to the progress of the j\[emoir, Lieutenant Conder writes that 
since the last report two more sheets have been entirely completed. Sheet 13 
contains the coast round Jaffa and Piamleh, and these towns and Lydda are 
described. The site of Antipatris, as suggested in 1850 by Consul Finn (" Bye- 
ways of Palestine," p. 133), and upheld by Major Wilson, is shown to agree with 
the distances in the Antonine Itinerary (see Quarterly Statement, January, 1878, 
p. 13). The Mlnet Rubin, or harbour of Jamnia, is described, as well as the 
White Mosnue at Ramleh and the Church of the Virgin, first planned by the 
Survey party, with the inscriptions of the time of Bibars in the mosque. Sheet 
5, though not a full sheet, lias a very long memoir. It includes Nazareth, 
Carmel, the Kislion, Haifa, Shefa 'Amr, Seffurieh, and other places of import- 



160 NOTES AND NEWS. 

ance. The towns are all described at length, and the population of every in- 
habited place on the sheet given on Consul Rogers's authority. From this an 
average population of four hundred and fifty souls is deduced as that of a country 
village, which will allow of an estimate of the population of Palestine when the 
Memoir is finished. 



Di'. Chaplin has forwarded an account, with a plan ^>y Ilerr Schick, of a dis- 
covery at Jerusalem about which we liave written for further information. He 
says, in a letter dated Aug. 2, 1877 : " There seems little room for doubt that 
the lower portions of the tower Pscpliinus has been at last discovered. In the 
plan of the so-called " Goliath's Castle " appended to the Ordnance Survey 
of Jerusalem, two square masses marked "Old masonry " are shown, and cotres- 
ponding to these, on the west, two other similar structures have been recently 
exposed bj' the Latins in their excavations for the foundations of a new college. 
These four huge piers are connected by an arch of very ancient appearance, and 
appear to have formed the foundation of the tower. Mr. Schick has been good 
enough to make a plan of the locality in its present state. The angle of a verj- 
old wall of rough megalithic masonry which is shown lying to the south of the 
piers is very interesting. It is the only relic I know of which seems likely to> 
have formed part of the hastily erected Avail of Nehemiah." 



At the anmial meeting of the General Committee (see the Report, p. 192), Mr, 
John MacGregor, after an absence of three years, again became a member of the 
Executive Committee. Tlie death of Mr. "William Longman has deprived the 
Committee of a member who took a very deep interest in the welfare of tlie 
Society and the progi'ess of its work. 



A report on the levelling of the Sea of Galilee was read before the British 
Association in August by Major Wilson. AVe shall be probably able to publish 
this in the January Quartcrhj Statemrnt. 



The following is the financial position of the Fimd (Sept. 19th). Receipts, 
June 30th to September 19th, £706 13s. 5d. Expenditure : Exploration, 
£650 6s. 2d.; ofiicc and management, £170 4s. lid. Reduction of debt, £55. 
The balance in the banks on the latter day was £208 Is. 8d. "We asked in 
July for £1,000 between then and September 30th. "VN^'e now ask for £1,500 
in the present quarter. 

Attention is called to the statement already advertised, that subscribers 
to the Fund are privileged by the publishers to receive both the "Literary 
Remains of the late Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake," and the "Underground 
Jerusalem " of Captain "Warren, at reduced rates. The former book will be sent 
for ten shillings, the latter for sixteen shillings, postage paid. But letters asking 
for them must be sent to the office at 9, Pall Mall East only. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 161 

~ Several cases were discovered in 1876, and one or two tins year, of postage 
stamps being lost on their way to the office. The only way to avoid such loss is 
to send money by P. 0.0. or by cheque, in evertj case payable to the order of 
Walter Besant, and crossed to Coutts and Co., or the Union Bank, Charing 
Cross Branch. 



The ninth thousand of " Our Work in Palestine " is now ready (price Ss. 6d.), 
and may be ordered of booksellers. This book carries the work down to the 
•commencement of the Survey, but does not embrace M. Ganneau's discoveries 
nor the results of the Survey itself. 



The following are at present Representatives and Lecturers of tbe Society, in 
addition to the local Hon. Sees. : — 

Archdeaconry of Hereford : Rev. J. S. Stooke-Yaughan, Wellington Heath 
Vicarage, Ledbur}'. 

City and neighbourhood of Mancbester : Rev. W. F, Bircb, St. Saviour's 
Eectorj'. 

London : Rev. Henry Geary, 16, Somerset Street, Portman Square. 

Norwich : Rev. F. C. Long, Stow-upland, Stowmarket. 

Peterborough : Rev. A. F. Foster, Farndisb Rectory, Wellingborough. 

Worcester : Rev. F. W. Holland, Evesbam (Member of General and Executive 
Committee, and one of tbe Hon. Secretaries to the Fund). 

Diocese of Ripon : Rev. T. 0. Henley, Kirkby Malham Vicarage. 

North Wales : Eev. John Jones, Treborth, Bangor. 

Yorkshire and Durham : Rev. James King, 13, Paradise Terrace, Darlington. 

Ireland.— Diocese of Armagb": Rev. J. H. Townsend. 

Rev. G. J. Stokes, Blackrock, Dublin. 

Scotland. — Rev. R. J. Craig, Dalgetty, Burntisland. 

The Eev. Horrocks Cocks, 19, Edwardes Square, Kensington, has also kindly 
offered his services among the Nonconformist churches. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications by officers 
of the Fund, the Committee beg it to be distinctly understood that they leave 
sucli proposals to be discussed on their own meritSj and that by publishing them 
in tbe Quarterly Statement tlie Committee do not sanction or adopt them. 



Annual subscribers are earnestly requested to forward their subscriptions for 
the current year wben due, at their earliest convcniev/:e, and without waiting for 
application. 



Tbe Committee are always glad to receive old numbers of the Qiiarterly StatC' 
vient, especially those which are advertised as out of print. 



162 JOUBNAL OF THE SURVEY. 

Ladies desirous of joining the Ladies' Associations are requested to communi- 
cate with Mrs. Finn, The Elms, Brook Green, London, "VV. The full report of 
meetings held by Mrs. Finn during the last quarter will be found in the 
business sheet. 



Cases for binding the Quarterly Statement are now ready, and can be had on 
application to Messrs. E. Bentley and Son, 8, New Burlington Street. They are 
in green or brown cloth, with the stamp of the Society, uniform in appearance 
with " Our "Work in Palestine," and are sold at the price of eighteen pence. 



Lieut. Kitchener's Guinea Book of Biblical Photographs can be bought at Mr. 
Stanford's establishment, .^5, Charing Cross. It contains twelve views, with a 
short account of each. They are mounted on tinted boards, and handsomely 
bound. 



JOUENAL OF THE SUEYEY. 

Nakura, June 24. — All -well so far. I hope that before you get this you 
will have got a telegram, "North finished, all well, Lebanon," which 
will mean that I have finished the north and am off to the Lebanon for 

three weeks after that Phognicia was the worst country we 

have surveyed yet, all up and down, and crowded with ruins and 
villages; where Murray has 7 names I had 116; instead of 7 villages 

and ruins I had 63 I took the last observations for the 

triangulation of the country the other day, 

Haifa, July 11. — I have fini>^hed the north under my original esti- 
mate and without Armstrong, and there has been no accident, as you 
will have been informed by telegram. We ara now off for the Lebanon 

for three weeks' rest, which we sadly want A report Avas. 

started in the Beyrout paper that I had been attacked and Avounded by 
Bedouin near Banias. Eldridge sent soldiers and scoured the country. 
I in the meantime had gone peacefully across to Tyre, so there was no 
end of alarm at my not being found or heard of. 

Aleih, Mount Lehahon, July 24. — We arrived here safely on the 21st, 
after a hot march from Haifa. I have now started office work' in^ a 
room close to our camp, and I think we shall have a month or more 
hard work ; everything has to be made in duplicate, and all observa- 
tions, descriptions, &c., have to be copied out. It is charmingly cool 
up here compared to what we have been used to in the low country. 
Mr. Eldridge and several Europeans are living here for the summer- 



JOURNAL 01' THE SUllVKY. 1G3 

montlis ; in fact, it is quite a return to civilisation again 

I enclose a letter just received from H.E. the Paslia of Acre, which will 
show you the good relations existing between us and the Government. 
The superior of the convent on Mount Carmel has also presented me 
with a copy of the History of the Carmelites. 

Aleik, Mount Lebanon, July 31. — We have been hard at work since I 
last wrote getting everything into order, writing out notes, and malting 
dupHcates of the map-work. I am soiTy to say my sergeant is laid up 
Avith fever ; this will delay the work a little, as I should like to get 
everything done and put away before starting a fresh piece of work. 
I start to-morrow for a short excursion in the Lebanon, leaving the 
noncommissioned officers here under Mr. Eldridge's care. I hope to 
be in Jerusalem the first week in September, and then, if everything 
goes well, four or five weeks will finish the map, and I shall have only 

revision to do Don't be nervous about us, we are safer 

here than you are in London. 

Aleih, Aug. 15. — I have arranged that Sergeant Malings shall return 
to England Avith all the original work, leaving here by the Austrian 
steamer on the 23rd, and taking an English ship at Port Said. You 
may therefore expect him in England about the 8th September. I 
found it was impossible to send him by the French to-morrow ; firstly, 
because he is in bed very ill, and not able to take over the things and 
attend to them properly on the journey; secondly, becavise I could not 
finish up work in hand in time, which would make j)art of the work 
arrive incomplete in England. I shall start for the south at the same 
time he does for England. I had intended starting to-morrow, but 
I think it will be mser to wait and see the work safely out of the 
country ; also I have my hands full of work now. One of my horses 
had a bad accident with Corporal Brophy ; it seems he ran away on 
the French road and tumbled over one of the parapets, rolling down 
the hill some forty feet. The horse is dreadfully cut about, and will 
not be able to move for some time. It is a wonder the corporal was 
not killed — a loose seat saved him. I had a very pleasant trip in the 

Lebanon I hope not only to finish the southern portion of 

the survey, but the revision as well. Don't got a panic like the 
Damascus Christians. I shall take every precaution for the safety of 
the party. 

Camp at Aleili, Aug. 22. — "VVe have been working from G to G to 
get done, Sundays included, so that the sergeant may take everything, 
at the same time leave all behind in duplicate. Directly I receive 
the receipt for the work I will send you the dui;)]icates. I have been 
delayed here doing this, otherwise I should be at Jerusalem now ; how- 
ever, it is all for the best, as I could not have moved one of my horses. 
. . . . The sergeant starts on the 23rd and I on the 24th. Eight 
or nine days will take me to Jerusalem, and then for the Desert. 

JernsaJem, Sept. 7. — All safely arrived here after a dreadfully hot 
journey down the coast. Our first day, from Aleih to Sidon, was the 



104 JOURNAL OF THE SURVKY. 

hottest day that has been known for seventeen years ; up at Nazareth 
the thermometer registered in shade 114 deg., according to Dr. Varton. 
I got a slight sunstroke on the plain by the seashoro, and was not able 
to get into camp at Sidon till 1.30 a.m. Everybodj^ was very much done 
up. Next day we started in the evening and travelled in the night. 
We made Tyre, Acre, and then Nazareth. At Acre I saw the Pasha and 
settled some little things. At Nazareth I presented the gun to Ab- 
dallah Agha, who wishes to express his thanks to the Committee, and 
to say that he is entirely at their service for anything that may be 
wanted. The gun was very suitable. 

On leaving Nazareth I paid a visit to the tents of Fendy el Feis, the 
chief of the Beni Sakr. He was encamped at Solam, on my road to 
Jenin. The sheikh was very civil, and I spent two hours in his tent ; 
he showed me a coat of mail and a Damascus sword ho was very proud 
of. The large flocks of camels belonging to the Arabs do some damage 
to the country, but otherwise I heard nothing certain of any extortion 
•or stealing committed by them. The Government are on good terms 
with the Beni Sakr, as F6ndy el Feis can muster 4,500 spears, which 
renders him an undesirable enemy. The Arabs show no great patriotism 
for their co-religionists at war ; they hate the Turk, and do not much 
care v>'hich way the war goes. Fendy el Feis expressed his willingness 
to helj) in everything he could do if a survey was made of the east of 
Jordan. He is now the most powerful chief in that country. 

The sheikhs of the Adouan have been taken prisoners by the Pasha 
of Nablus^ ed Diab, Aly ed Diab his son, and about twenty chiefs, have 
been sent to Damascus for trial. As I heard the story, it seems that the 
Pasha of Nablus sent to the Adouan to come and help him drive out 
the Beni .Sakr, witlifwhom the Adouan have a feud. The sheikh came 
to consult with the Pasha on how they should attack the Beni Sakr, 
when they found themselves surrounded by soldiers, cut off from their 
horses, and taken prisoners. I am afraid this will have a bad effect on 
the tribe, which has always had a good name from travellers before. 
My next threeVlays were Jenin, Nablus, Jerusalem. 

Next mail I will send you a full report on the recent discoveries at 
Jerusalem. I think the ancient work unearthed by the Franciscans is 
the foundation of an Herodian tower or gateway. There are^ several 
other discoveries of which you shall have an account next mail ; now 
I have no time to do it, as the mail goes to-day. 

I am anxious to be off south as soon as possible, but there is lots to 
do here. Early next week I shall be off. 



IGj 



LIEUT. KITCHENEE'S EEPOETS. 
lY. 
P. E. F. CAiiP, TAlYEBEfi, '30th May, 1877. 

This month's work has finished the Survey up to the northern 
boundary, the River Leontes. The next camp will be at Banias, and 
when that is finished there v/ill only be tlio strip along the seashore to 
do to finish the survey of the north. I hope this will be accomplished 
before the cud of July. 

On the 2nd of May camp was moved from Meiron to Dibl, a Christian 
village eleven miles north of Meirun. The inhabitants were extremely 
glad to see us, as our presence afforded them some protection. They 
were debating whether they should desert their village for some safer 
place, but finally decided to remain and see how matters would turn 
out. There are several large Christian villages in this part of the 
country, and they are naturally in a great state of alarm and panic. 
They fear, in case of a Turkish defeat, that the neighbouring Mohammedan 
villages will revenge it on them. They are anxious to buy arms and 
defend their lives and property in case of attack, but up to the present 
time the Mohammedans have given very little cause for alarm. The 
Government has always promptly suppressed any fanatical feeling, and 
is evidently doing its best to tide over a critical time. The Christian 
villages are very superior iu cleanliness to their Moslem neighbours, and 
a great deal mors care is taken in the cultivation of the ground. They 
are generally surromided by vineyards and fig-trees, and a few mul- 
berry-trees are cultivated. The people are simple and devout, looking 
up to their priests as their guides in every difficulty ; they are mostly 
Maronites, and the priests marr}'. Every village has its little chapel, 
and at Dibl they had a service every evening. After sunset a bell was 
beaten in the village, and all the male population went to chapel, where 
there was a short service in Arabic. After this they often came and 
sang and danced in front of our tents till a very late hour. The 
country round our camp consisted of low hills, either cultivated or 
covered with brushwood. To the west the brushwood increased, and 
the wadies ran iu deeper gorges down towards the sea. Villages are 
very numerous and seem to be prosperous ; they have generally large 
herds of cattle and goats, and are surrounded by well-tilled fields. 
There are not so many olive-trees as in the south. The water- supply is 
23rincipally from cisterns v/hich keep the rain-water ; besides these, large 
birkets or pools of rain-water occur at every village ; springs are rather 
scarce. 

At the village of Yiirun, south-east of Dibl, are the remains of an 
•early Christian church, The ruins occur on a tell immediately east of 
the village, and the foundations of the church, Avith three apses, are 
clear. It measured eighty-eight feet long by fifty feet Avide, and the 
stones are large and Avell- dressed. The capitals are principally Corin- 



166 LIEUT, kitchener's REPOllTS. 

thian, and tlie cliurch was paved with Mosaic woi-k. A good many 
carved stones lie about, and there are cisterns and aa old rock-cut birket, 
with a double round arch for supporting the water-wheel. "West of the 
church was another round birket of good masonry. In the mosque of 
the village I found a Greek inscription— the left-hand side had been cut 
away, on the right a palm-tree was very well carved in relief. The stone 
measured five feet by two feet four inches. A plan of the church and 
drawings of the detail have been made. The village is built round the 
east and northern slopes of a slight basalt outbreak, the top of which 
has been quarried into large cisterns, and the natives asserted it was once 
the site of a castle. Large well-dressed stones are continually dug up, 
and there are several sarcophagi and rock-cut tombs round the village. 
The inhabitants are half Mutwaly, half Christians. At el Khurbeh and 
Tell 'Ara — ruins half a mile south — I found similar cut stones and some 
columns ; at the latter place there is a large sarcophagus. 

North of Yarun, on the top of high hills, is the village of Marun. 
Here there are also some similar carved stones to those at Yarun, mixed 
up with large well-dressed stones, apparently the remains of an early 
Christian church. There is an inscription on the remains of an archi- 
trave. At Dibl, in an ordinary rock-cut tomb with ten square-headed 
loculi, there is also an inscription— it occurs immediately above the 
loculi ; and another on a stone dug up in the village. There are also 
remains of a fine mosaic pavement, in a fair stite of preservation, in the 
village. 

The most extraordinary ruins of this neighbourhood are those of Belafc 
(marble), which have been described by Dr. Eobinson {Later Biblical Re- 
searches, page 65). On the top of a high wooded ridge are the ruins of 
what must have beeu a noble temple. The remains of sixteen columns 
are apparently in situ, and six of them still bear an architrave. If the 
building was originally uniform it would have been formed of a double 
colonnade of twelve columns, the intercolumnar distance varying from six 
to eight feet. The total length of the colonnade is ninety-nine feet seven 
inches, and its breadth sixteen feet ; the whole is surrounded by a wall at a 
distance of seven feet. The columns and architrave make a total height 
of fourteen feet six inches. The entrance was probably in the centre of 
the eastern side, where two columns are squared on the outside — it Avas 
probably double, with a round column between. The end columns at 
both ends of the colonnade were squared on the outside, forming a 
double column on the inside, exactly the same as in Jewish synagogues, 
such as at Kcfr Ber'am, where the southern columns of the portico were 
two double columns corresponding with those at the north end of the 
building. Another point of resemblance is the direction of the colonnade, 
being within twelve degrees of north and south. The columns are very 
much weathered, and some of them are considerably out of the per- 
pendicular. There seems to have been no elaborate decoration — the 
architrave is not cut, and the capitals are simply rounded blocks of 
stone. A plan and photographs were taken of the ruins. Adjoining, 



LIEUT. KITCHENEK's REPORTS. 107 

on the eastern side, are the foundations of some buildings. Enclosing a 
paved court, with a large cistern in the centre, flights of steps led down 
the side of the hill. 

Er Eameh, the ancient Eamah of Ashur, is a small Mutwaly village 
two miles west of Dibl. It is situated on a rocky watershed where two 
vaUeys start east and west ; the sides of the hill are terraced, but there 
are no other remains of antiquity except a few sarcophagi ; the hills 
around are covered with brushwood. 

At Kh. Shelabun, about the same distance east of Dibl, there are two 
very finely ornamented sarcophagi on a raised platform ; the ornamenta- 
tion consists of figures bearing up wreaths and trophies of arms similar 
to those at Kades described by Major Wilson. 

On the 16th camp was moved to Kades, the ancient Kedesh of 
Naphtali. The road led past Bmt Umm Jebeil, a populous Mutwaly 
village, whore a market is held every Thursday, which is largely 
attended. Kades is situated on a spur overlooking on the east a long 
narrow plain, which runs north and south, and is enclosed by low hills 
covered with brushwood. On the east these hills fall abruptly to the 
Huleh marshes. Tell Hara stands out prominently to the south-east, 
and its eastern slopes descend to the northern shore of the Lake Huleh. 
Immediately below the steep slope of the hill is a very large spring, 
'Aia el Melahah, which at once turns a mill. "West of the lake is the 
broad plain of El Kheit, occupied by Arabs and a few Mughrabins ; the 
lake is three and a half miles long, and broadest at its northern 
extremity, where it ends in an impenetrable jungle of papyrus canes 
growing out of a marsh, which extends for five and a half miles north, 
and is about two miles broad. One and a half miles south of the lake 
is the bridge across the Jordan, Jisr Benat Yakub, over which passes 
the main Damascus road. Opposite the bridge are the ruins of an 
ancient khan, and south are the remains of a small Crusading fortress 
called Kasr 'Atru. The whole district is, by tradition, intimately con- 
nected with the life of Jacob. There is only one place in this district 
that might have been the site of Hazor ; it is called Ard el Sauwad, and 
is immediately west of Khurbet el Wukkas. A square plateau of con- 
siderable size appears to be artificially constructed, with traces of walls 
upon it. The natives assert that it was not a ruin, and it has more 
the appearance of a camp or entrenchment, perhaps to guard the 
Damascus road, than the ruins of a large town. There are some large 
springs in Wady Wukkas, just below this site. Tell Hara, identified by 
Major Wilson with Hazor, appears much more like the site of 
an ancient and royal city. The name Hara seems to me to be more 
nearly allied to Harosheth of the Gentiles ; perhaps this is the site of 
Sisera's head-quarters. 

The ruins at Kades are of considerable extent. The village is situated 
at the end of the ridge, and below it there is a spring. A few columns 
and capitals are found in the village, but the principal remains occur 
beyond the spring. The first building is a masonry tomb thirty- 



168 LIEUT, kitchener's reports. 

five feet square; solid piers at tlie four corners support round arches, 
whicb. rise to a height of twenty-one feet; between these arches 
are the loculi, three between each, and one on either side of the door, 
which takes up the southern side. The arches were walled up on 
the outside, and the whole was probably covered with a dome. There 
is a niche on the outside, to the right of the doorway ; a little beyond 
this there are several sarcophagi on a raised platform ; two double and 
two single ones still exist ; they were formerly carved with figures, but 
these have been effaced. The next building, about 100 yards east of 
the first, is the Temple of the San, which has been examined and 
described by Major Wilson. The building forms a rectangle 63 feet 
by lo feet, and one of the doorposts still standing is 15 feet high; 
themasoniy was large blocks of well-dressed limestone. On either side 
of the main entrance are two small doors with ornamented lintels ; and 
outside these, on the left, is a niche with traces of a robed figure cut on 
it, and on the right a small projection has a hole leading to the interior, 
through which money might be passed ; on the inside there was a recess 
in the wall opposite the orifice. The highly- ornamented lintel has been 
described by Major "Wilson. Plans and photographs of all these build- 
ings were taken. 

Four miles south of Kades, in the hills descending to the plain, are 
the ruins of Keisun, where are the remains of an ancient temple ; three 
bases of columns still remain in situ on a wall over a ruined birket 
facing north, and one has fallen from its position. To the west there 
are pedestals inthe'walls, as if for columns ; both sides, north and west, 
seem to have been washed by the water of a large birket, and a cause- 
way was found across from the north-west corner to the temple. There 
are remains of a highly-ornamented cornice similar to that at the 
Temple of the Sun at Kades. On a stone, with a slight draft round it, 
I found a Greek inscription, a copy of which is enclosed. There are a 
good many rock-cut tombs around the ruins. 

North of Kades, on a sjjur running out into Wady Selukiah, occur the 
ruins of a small Crusading fortress called Kalat ed Dubbah. The Crusad- 
ing remains of large drafted stones with rough jn-ojecting bosses are 
slight, and the place was probably totally destroyed when taken ; it has 
been rebuilt under the Saracens, and these latter walls are in fair pre- 
servation. A rock-cut ditch encloses the castle. There are several 
cisterns and a few sarcophagi cut in the rocks near. The castle is now 
inhabited by two families ; it measures 100 feet wide by 220 feet in 
length, and encloses a courtyard. A jjlan has been made of the build- 
ing. The position in the wady is very jucturesque and romantic ; high 
hills close it in on both sides, so that it is not visible until quite close. 
In the centre, on a very narrow ridgo rising about half as high as the 
suiTOunding hills, stands the castle. It is so shut in by hills that I 
believe it never has been seen by any travellers before. To the west 
of the castle is the village of Shakru, where I obtained a copy of an 
inscription. 



LIEUT. KITCIIEXEU'S llEPOBTS. 16'J 

The sheikh of the village was extremely rude, and threw stones against 
the inscription when I attempted to copy it. I therefore left without 
doing so, and reported the matter to the governor, who immediately put 
the sheikh in prison. The next time I went to the village there was no 
opposition to my copying the inscription, I therefore had the sheikh set 
at liberty. At the village of Kunin there is a lintel seventeen feet long, 
with an inscrijition. 

On the 24th camp was moved to Taiyebeh, a village within easy dis- 
tance of the Leontes, the northern boundary of the Survey. From this 
camp three Crusading castles were photo graj)hed and planned. 

The castle of Tibnin stands on a high steep ridge breaking down from 
the west ; the north and south slopes descend to the same deep wady, 
which makes a curious bend, cutting the ridge about half a mile east 
of the castle. Immediately below the castle on the west is the small 
village of Tibnin, containing 200 Christians and 450 Mutwaly. A broad 
paved way led up from the village to the castle, and the slopes were 
faced with dressed stones, at a steep angle ; there were no ditches, as 
the ground falls all round. The castle measures 512 feet north and 
south, by 440 feet east and west. The principal walls are Saracenic, 
only the bases of a few towers on the outside showing Crusading work. 
These consist of either large stones roughly squared, or of similar stones 
drafted with the bosses left rough. In the interior the Crusading 
remains are all of finely- dressed stones. The modern Saracenic work 
has now fallen to ruins ; in the north-west corner, however, there are 
still large vaulted chambers, and sufficient accommodation for the Modir 
or governor of the Blad Besharu, who is an intelligent old gentleman, 
exceedingly polite and obliging. The princix^al portion of the interior 
of the castle is a shapeless mass of ruins. The view from the castle is 
very fine, over undulating and cultivated ground to the sea and Mount 
Hermon in the distance. 

We know from William of Tyre that the castle was built in 1107 A.D. 
by Hugues de St. Omer, Seigneur of Tiberias, and received the name 
of Toron. It is expressly stated that it was built because no strong 
place existed on the road from Tiberias to Tyre, and the remains may 
therefore be taken as a fair example of the Crusading style of masonry. 
Hunln is another Crusading castle, eight miles north-east of the 
latter; it was on the ancient road from Tyre to Banias, and must have 
been a place of considerable strength. It is situated on a slight eleva- 
tion in a gap in the hills, where they fall steeply to the Huleh valley. 
Adjoining the castle on the east is the small village of Hunin. The 
castle measures 740 feet east and west by 340 feet north and south. 
On the west a rock-cut ditch, 40 feet broad, surrounded a citadel 240 
feet square, separating it from the remainder of the castle. There were 
two entrances, one by a causeway which led up to the castle on the 
south, similar to the one at Tibnin, and the other was a gateway in the 
eastern wall, which still remains, showing Crusading work. The whole 
of the interior is a mass of shapeless ruins, and most of the Saracenic 



170 LIEUT, kitchener's bepoets. 

Avails and buildings are also ruined. There was a mosque on the south 
side, but the roof has fallen in. The Crusading remains show similar 
work to that at Tibnin in every respect, and there seems to be nothing 
which would lead to giving to this castle an earlier date than the 
former. 

In Ansel Jelil, by El Kady Mujir ed Din, a history of Jerusalem and 
Hebron, dated 900 A.H., it is said : After the battle of Hattin, asSaladin 
went to Tyre, he detached a chief to invest the castle of Hunin ; the 
garrison were reduced by famine and surrendered. Saladin gave the 
castle to one of his chiefs, Beder ed Din Widram el Barizny. 

Kal'at esh Shukif, the Crusading castle of Belfort, is much the finest 
building in this part of the country. Situated on the top of an almost 
perpendicular precipice, which descends 1,500 feet to the Eiver Leontes, 
it is thus quite impregnable from the east. On the west the ground 
falls rapidly, so that the castle is on the top of a narrow ridge running 
almost north and south. The castle measures 500 feet long by 200 feet 
broad east and west ; the greatest diagonal length to outside of rock- 
cut ditches would be 700 feet. A broad rock-cut ditch, with large 
reservoirs for water, surrounded the castle on three sides ; the fourth 
was defended by the precipice. The rocky escarp of the ditch was faced 
with well-dressed stones, and the top crowned by round towers and 
ramparts. The base of one round tower at the south-west corner forms 
a striking feature, as the circle has been strictly preserved, gradually 
increasing in size down to the bottom of the ditch ; the whole was faced 
by smooth-dressed stones. The entrance is at the south-cast corner, 
and the passage was carried along the eastern front on a terrace over- 
hanging the precipice, considerably below the main portion of the 
fortress, which was reached by stairs at the north-east corner. There 
is a plentiful supply of water ia immense cisterns. On the top of the 
castle is a small groined building which may have been the chapel. 

The masonry of this building is of the same type as Tibnin and Hunin, 
drafted stones with rough bosses on the outside, and smooth-dressed 
stones on the inside. Some of the ancient walls were nine feet thick, 
and built with wonderful solidity. There seems to have been a later 
addition in Crusading times on the east side of the castle, giving probably 
increased stable accommodation ; this part is all of smooth-dressed 
stones. The principal doorways were formed by lintels cut to represent 
drafted voussoirs ; there is also a pointed arch in the drafted masonry 
wall, the only difference being that the bosses of the voussoirs were 
hammer-dressed. On the top of these magnificent Crusading remains 
the Saracenic masonry looks ridiculously small and insignificant. The 
castle of Belfort is first mentioned by William of Tyre as the refuge 
of the Christian knights after being defeated by Saladin near Banias in 
1179 A.D. The Crusaders evidently knew the value of stone walls 
against the attack of irregular forces. Small garrisons in Belfort town 
and Hunin must have kept the whole of the north secure against raids. 



LIEUT. KITCnENER's REPORTS. 171 

Belfort is the most northern point of the Survey. The country has now- 
been surveyed from Bir Scba to a point north of Dan. 

At the village of Abrikha there are the remains of an early Christian 
church ; one of the columns is still standing, bearing its capital, and 
several pedestals are in situ. Under the altar there was a rock-cut 
tomb, with the entrance to the east, outside the church. 

The amount surveyed up to the end of May is 640 square miles. 

The country is still quiet, though disturbed by numberless rumours, 
which are started without the slightest foundation. A good many of 
the Christians have loft their villages in this part of the work, but 
apparently without cause ; the Government officials are doing all they 
can to keep the people from panic. 



Camp at Nakurah, 30;/j Jane, 187". 

On the 2nd June the survey of the country round Taiyebeh was 
completed and camp was moved to Banias. 

The road descended steeply to the Iluleh plain, here covered with 
basalt rock and debris, and considerably raised above the marsh, which 
commences about five miles south. After crossing the bridge over the 
Nahr Hasbany, a fine torrent running in a deep gorge it has cut for 
itself out of the basalt rocks, the plain appears to be studded with small 
springs that bubble up everywhere, the water now running to waste, as 
this portion of the plain is uncultivated ; these gradually increase as we 
approach the great spring of the Nahr Leddun. Tell el Kady, the site 
of Dan, is a round tell, broad and low, on the northern side, rather 
steeper to the south ; it is situated a mile south of the slopes of 
Hermon, and stands up prominently on the plain, marking the boundary 
of the basalt. There are two springs at Tell el Kady ; one of them, the 
largest in the country, starts on the west side of the tell, the other from 
the centre joining the first stream immediately south of the tell, where 
they form the Nahr Leddun. This is the largest source of the Jordan, 
being, as far as I could judge, about twice as large as the Nahr Hasbany. 
The ruins on the tell are very slight. I saw nothing but the basalt 
remains of modern cattle-sheds. Two very large trees by the side of the 
centre stream shade the tomb of a dog which has been turned into a 
holy place under the name of the Sheikh Merzuk. It must have been 
the favourite of some Arab chief. 

The river rushes away south through luxuriant vegetation, irrigating 
the country round ; it passes Khurbet Difnah on the east, a smaller 
mound than Tell el Kady, Avith no ruins of importance, which has been 
identified with Daphne. The stream then runs close alongside the Has- 
bany and joins the Nahr Banias four miles south of Tell el Kady ; the 
two together are then joined half a mile farther south by the Hasbany. 
The ancient records always speak of ihe spring at Banias as the source 



172 LIEUT, kitchener's repoets. 

of the Jordan, and, though the correctness of this has been doubted, 
they seem to have been quite right. "Working up the river, the Hasbany 
joins the stream composed of the Nahr Leddiin and the Nahr Banias, 
and as it is smaller than either of them there can be no doubt that it is 
only an affluent of the Eiver Jordan ; farther up these two separate, and 
then, the flow of water being nearly equal, the longer course was taken, 
and the source was fixed in the romantic cave of Banias. The water 
from the Leddun is much diverted for irrigation purposes in the plain, 
which yields splendid crops, and some of the water is even carried into the 
Nahr Banias. 

From Tell el Kady to Banias the road passes through park-like 
scenery, the country being thickly studded with trees, principally oak, 
not very large, but very refreshing after the bare plain on the west of 
the tell. After mounting a slight ridge, the village of Banias is seen 
situated in a small plain at the junction of two wadies coming from the 
north and east; these join in front of the town and run south. The 
village is completely surrounded and shut in by trees of all sorts, and 
looks remarkably green and lovely, with the castle of Subeibeh tower- 
ing above it. 

On approaching the village the rushing water is seen falling over 
cascades, tearing through thickets, and almost hidden by creepers. The 
source is to the north-east of the town, and the stream runs west till it 
joins the wady from the north at the north-west angle of the town, in 
which there is also a small stream ; it then rushes down a steep fall form- 
ing a foaming torrent to its junction with Nahr Leddun. 

A bridge crosses the stream before the town. The spring itself is a few 
hundred yards east, and before reaching the bridge a great deal of the 
water is diverted for irrigation and to turn mills in the town. Little 
streams seem to be running in every direction, cooling the air, and 
making this one of the most lovely spots in Palestine. Above the 
spring there are about forty yards of stones and debris, which gradually 
rise to a large cavern in the face of the rocky cliff. The roof of the 
cavern has fallen in, but it shows no visible signs of artificial work. Im- 
mediately to the right are the three niches for statues, two of which 
have inscriptions on tablets cut in the rock ; these have been often 
copied and described. 

On the left of the cavern, high up on a ledge of rock, is the little 
Moslem sanctuary to el Khudr, or St. George; the rock is a good deal 
cut on this side to allow of buildings on the ledges, and the hill-side 
seems to have been terraced, and the walls of the terraces ornamented 
by small stones three inches square set diagonally in cement. A little 
farther west, about 200 yards from the spring, some mosaic pavement 
was found running under the roots of very largo olive-trees. 

The town was naturally fortified on three sides, north and west by 
the river, and south by a deep valley. On the eastern side a wall with 
three large square towers was defended by a broad and deep ditch , 
which was probably flooded with water. At the noi-th-west angle 



LIEUT, kitchener's keports. 173 

another large square tower defended the bridge over the river and the 
northern side, Avhere the river does not run so deep as on the western 
side, and therefore more liable to be attacked. Surrounded by water, 
and with strong towers and walls, this must have been a very strong 
place in the early days of siege operations. 

All the fortifications are of large drafted stones, and appear to be 
Crusading work ; they probably are the remains of the citadel of the 
town alluded to by William of Tyre (XX.), which resisted Noor ed 
Deen's attack on the town. 

The only other remains of ancient Banias are some fine granite 
columns lying about, and the remains of a Eoman aqueduct running 
through the town, now almost buried in refuse. 

The castle of Banias, Kal'at es Subeibeh, is situated on a lefty 
spur IJ miles east of the town, and towers nearly 1,500 feet above 
it. It is the finest ruined castle I have seen in the country, measur- 
ing 1,450 feet from east to west, by an average of oUO feet north 
and south. Deep valleys defend it on the north and south ; on the 
west there is a rock-cut ditch, and the end of the spur falls steeply 
away from it; on the east, the only approachable side, it is difficult 
of access, as the rocks rise steeply from the narrow ridge to the 
castle. The walls are defended by round towers, and are built of 
drafted stones* with the bosses left rough, having a good many 
masons' marks. There seems to have been an earlier tower at the 
north-west angle, built of much larger stones, with the faces ham- 
mer-dressed, and without masons' marks. Some of the stones are 
double drafted ; in this i^ortion there are the remains of an un- 
doubted pointed arch, thus limiting the date of the most ancient 
portion. 

In the interior the rock rises to nearly the level of the top of the 
round towers, and at the eastern end is a massive keep. A good many 
chambers are still perfect. The Saracenic repairs seem not to have lasted 
as well as the ruins themsQlves, and, except the inscriptions cut on more 
ancient work, they have almost totally disappeared. The earliest of 
these dates from 625 A.ii., and details how Melek el Azis Mm-ad ed Din, 
nephew of Saladin, rebuilt the eastern portion of the fortress. There are 
several others of nearly the same date, relating how different kings and 
sultans restored or rebuilt portions of the walls. The castlo is well 
supplied with water in very large cisterns. A special plan and photographs 
of the castle were made. On the 11th camp was moved to Mahrakah, a 
village on the highland of Pha?nicia, about two hours east of Tyre. The 
road led across the deep "Wady el Hajeir, in which there is a fine spring, 
and past Kal'at Marun, a modern Saracenic castlo, toMahi-akah, which is 
situated on the top of a ridge. The rocks of this district are composed 
of white chalky limestone, and the valleys are deep and difficult to 
cross. The country is thickly covered with villages, but, except just 
round them, is bare of trees, and has a very barren appearance. A re- 
markable feature is the number of olive-presses ; they occur on almost 

P 



174 LIEUT, kitchener's reports. 

every top, and are different to the more southern ones. Two square 
pillars of stone stand side by side about five feet high, with a slit cut in 
each of them, and by them is the circular stone press about four feet in 
diameter. Occasionally the round stone is also there that crushed the 
olives by being rolled round the press. The stone pillars, which do not 
occur in other parts of the country, were evidently to hold up the rolling 
stone, and the centre of the press is always raised slightly to receive the 
framework to which the roller was attached. They have a very ancient 
appearance, and as these pillars stand up very distinctly all over the 
country they look like ancient landmarks. The steep hills are almost all 
terraced, and there are a great number of ruins, showing that the ancient 
population of this part must have been very great. No remains of im- 
portance were found ; all the ruins are simply heaps of stones with door- 
posts and lintels of stone. Some rude figures cut in the rock occur at 
different places ; they are of the rudest description, occasionally only a 
parallelogram with a small circle for the head, which is pierced for eyes, 
mouth, &c. Others are better finished, and show portions of the dress. 
They occur on the face of the rock generally near tombs. Another 
feature in this jiart of the country are the large number of sarcophagi, 
which occur all over the country, some on pedestals, some lying on the 
ground. The grandest remaining is the tomb of Hiram, though I think 
there must have been formerly many equally magnificent, though now 
ruined. A very good view of this tomb is given by Dr. Tristram. The 
sarcophagus measures twelve feet long by six feet high, and the largest 
portion of the pedestal, which projects at five feet above the ground, 
is fourteen feet two inches long by nine feet nine inches broad. 
On the north side stejis lead down to a small rectangular rock- 
hewn chamber; it was arched above and was full of water. This, and 
many places in the country round, I was told, were excavated by the 
French. Some enthusiastic Freemason has left a badly- scratched repre- 
sentation of the crossed triangles on the tomb. Tyre has been so often 
and so thoroughly described that I shall not attempt a description in 
this month's report ; next month I hope to spend a few days there to 
plan and photograph the cathedral. I was much struck with the 
enormous monolithic columns of red granite which had been used in 
that building ; they have evidently been taken from some ancient temple, 
and two of them are perfect double columns, as in the Jewish synagogues. 
If these wore taken from an ancient temple, not a synagogue, it would 
appear that the Jews imitated those ancient buildings, and would 
account for the double columns at Belat, which may have been a copy 
of the more magnificent temple at Tyre. 

Our next camp was at Nukurah, which we reached on the 22nd. Here 
we closed the triangulation of the north, the point on Eas en Nakurah 
being our last station. The country round this camp is principally 
limestone hUls covered with small scrub and bushes. The roads are very 
bad. There are two large Christian villages in the neighbourhood. Alma 
and Bussa ; the latter is situated on the south side of the Ras en Nakurah, 



LIEUT, kitchener's keports. 17 



and contains from 1,200 to l,oOO inhabitants. The former is on the top 
of the hills, and shows by its superior cultivation that these bare hills 
might be made very j)roductive. The country east of Alma is princi- 
pally given up to the Arabs of the Haramsheh and Khletat tribes. Some 
members of the former are active thieves. Not long ago an Englishman 
was robbed on the road to Tyre, a little north of the Ras en Nakurah, 
and there are continual tales of robbery and murder in this district. 
North of our camp on a high top is Kal'at Shem'a, only 140 years old, 
and uninteresting except from its fine position. This country, which 
looks so bare and uninviting, was once covered with villages, the ruins of 
which occur on almost every top. Nothing of interest was discovered at 
any of them. They are mostly merely heaps of stones, with traces of 
foundations and cisterns. Some of them have a few pillars and tombs. 
At Kh. Umm el 'Amud there are a good many columns and other traces 
of an ancient temple ; there are also remains of an ancient mosaic pave- 
ment and a good many olive-presses. The French have excavated here. 
The road from Tyre to Akka shows a large amount of ancient paving, 
pai'ticularly so after passing the white promontory Eas el Abiad. An in- 
teresting inscription was discovered at the 'Ain at Nakurah. giving an 
account of the mending and enlarging of this road. Unfortunately, the 
name of the king is cutout. The inscription reads : " He has given the order 
to make the road broader and to build the walls of it between Akka and 
Tyre. By the virtue of God, our King, his Highness, the Great Sherrif 
(name broken). The Victorious (broken), He is great and high and 
pure. This inscription was written in the year seventy and eight hun- 
dred." The year 870 of the Hejira would be 1294 A.D., and at that time 
there reigned over Egypt and Palestine edh, Dhahr Khushukdum, one 
of the Memluk julers : he reigned 7J years and died in 1296, The 
inscription is probably due to him. I made an expedition by sea to the 
end of the Ras en Nakurah, in order to see an inscription I was told 
existed on the face of the rock. There was nothing but a few natural 
marks in the rocks, which looked something lilte letters. I expect the 
boatmen have started the delusion in order to get travellers to hire their 
boats. 

One of the most remarkable monuments of antiquity in the country is 
a solitary column that stands upon the low hills forming the eastern 
edge of the Akka plain, immediately north of the entrance of Wady Kurn ; 
it is called Khurbet Hamsiu. Three courses of large stones form a 
pedestal 11 feet by 10 feet and 9 feet high. A deep moulding runs 
round it near the top, almost entirely worn away by the weather. The 
column is composed of 11 cii-cular discs 2 feet 10 inches high, and 
is 17 feet in circumference. It does not stand on the centre of the 
pedestal, being only one foot from the eastern edge. The total height of 
the monument is 40 feet ; around it are a few ruins with some small 
columns and a few old olive-presses. 

The amount surveyed up to the end of the month is ?70 square 
miles. 



*176 LIEUT, kixchexer's reports. 

I hope to finisli the survey of the north about the luth of next 
month. 

There is very little information in the country of how the war is really 
going on, though there are a great many rumours started without founda- 
tion. All regular troops have now left the country for the seat of war. 
The Bedouins of the Beni Sakr tribe liave taken advantage of this, and 
are now in the ghor under their chief, Fendy el F'ais. They muster about 
4,000 spears. Their raids ai-e quite unopposed by the authorities, and I 
hear they are demanding the Khowy or Arab tax from the fellahin. 
Fendy el F'ais, I am told, took £300 from Tiberias on this i^lea a short 
time ago. 

VI. 

Camp at Aleih, August 14, 1877. 

On the second of the month camp was moved to Yanueh, a small 
village situated on the brow of the hills east of Akka. We were here 
1,500 feet above our last camp at Nakurah, and consequently in a much 
pleasanter climate. The view over the whole of the Akka plain, bounded 
by Carmel and Eas en Nakurah, Avas veiy fine. Unfortunately two of 
our baggage camels fell on the road up the hills, and one of them died ; 
the mules had, therefore, to make a second journey, and it was 2 a.m. 
before we got all our things safely into camp. Nothing of importance 
was broken. The country round our camp was principally composed 
of rocky hills, covered with small scrub and brushwood, only used as. 
pasturage for goats. The cultivation occurs in patches near the 
villages, and large tracts of country lie waste Avhich were probably once 
covered with vineyards. 

The work from here was entirely surrounded by surveyed country, 
which made our progress more rapid. In the ten daj's we finished 140 
square miles. The heat was very great in the low portions of the 
work, and the want of roads and diiSculty in finding and examining 
ruins in the thick brushwood made it more tiring and took up a good 
deal of time. 

The principal ruin of importance is the Kal'at el Kurein ; in the 
Crusading times this was the Chateau de Montfort, and previous to its 
history under that name there appear to be no records of its existence. 
It is situated on a spur from the hills forming the southern bank of the 
Wady el Kurn, and is about 560 feet above the river in the valley below. 
The slopes fi-om the sharp ridge on which the castle was placed 
descend very steeply on the north and east to the river, which here 
forms a bend on the west to a valley running into Wady el Kurn, and 
on the south it is cut off from the hills by an artificial ditch, Avhich also 
formed the quarry where the s^jlendid stones used in the construction 
of the building were excavated. 

The ridge was not cut away to receive the castle, the outer walls were 
built some little way down the slope, the same as in several other 



LIEUT, kitchenek's eepokts. 177 

Crusading castles in this country, such as Belfort and Subeibeh. Thus 
a solid building was formed, the core being of natural rook ; in this 
enormous cisterns were excavated, and on it the upper stories of the 
building rested firmly. The walls were all built with great care of large 
well-dressed stones, drafted on the outside, and with their faces smooth- 
dressed ; the interior work was not drafted. These walls closely re- 
semble the earliest portion of the masonry at Kul'at Subeibeh, and 
have been assigned to Phoenician origin, principally on account of the 
splendid size of the stones employed, and from the drafting and dress- 
ing, which resembles the Herodian work at Jerusalem. In both cases, 
however, there are undoubted remains of pointed arches, which seem 
to prove that the art of building had not degenerated in more modern 
times. 

At the south-west angle one of the lower courses overlaps the 
coui'ses below ; it seems to have been thus constructed either to pre- 
vent scaling or to increase the size of the platform above ; it seems to 
me to be a great defect in the defences of the castle, as it would form 
an easy lodgment from which the walls might be undermined, and 
unless carried up in successive courses^much higher, of which there is 
no proof, would have been easily surmounted by a scaling party. 

On the northern side of the castle a large octagonal pillar remains, 
which probably formed a part of the chapel of the castle. The 
dimensions of the castle were 570 feet long, north and south, by from 
84 to 125 feet broad. The remains are now unfortunately only 
slight, and are mixed up with Saracenic work of j)robably the time 
of Dhahr el Amr. 

In the valley below there is a fine spring besides the stream of running 
water ; there are also the remains of an ancient bridge, Avhich probably 
carried an aqueduct over the river to drive a mill immediately below the 
•castle. The position is a fine one, and the castle must have been of 
great strength. 

Photographs and a special plan were made of the ruins. 

M'alia is another Crusading site 2^, miles south-east of Kal'at Kurein ; 
it was called Chateau du Roi. No traces of the ancient buildings now 
remain in situ, but there are a large number of di'afted stones with 
bosses left rough built into modern walls and lying about. 

A modern Christian village now occupies the place ; it is situated on 
a round space, forming the south-east corner of two ranges of hills 
coming from the north and west, and rises steeply from the broad valley ; 
•on the south it is slightly detached from the hills by small valleys. 

In the south-eastern portion of our work from this camp a large 
number of Druses are settled in one of their villages, el Bukoiah; there are 
also some Jewish families who till the ground. They state that their land 
has been handed down from generation to generation for a groat number 
of years. I believe these are the only Jews who own and till land in 
this country. It is cui-ious that they should thus appear close by where 
we find so many ruins of their ancient synagogues. 



178 NOTES FROM THE MEMOIR. 

One mile and a half west of our camp is the Kal'at Jiddin, built in 
the time of Dhahr el Amr, who ruled this country as an independent 
chieftain. The castle from a distance has an imposing appearance, but 
on close inspection it is found to be a badly constructed pile of buildings 
without interest and rapidly falling to ruin. It is quite unoccupied, 
though there are several chambers and vaults that could serve as habita- 
tions. The coimtry round is given up to the Arabs, except close round 
some small hamlets, where a few crops are grown. 

On the 10th Jidy the survey of the north was finished, containing 
1,000 square miles of country; 2,773 names have been collected, and 476 
ruins have been visited and described, some with special plans. All the 
villages have also been described with regard to the number and religion 
of inhabitants, the remains of ancient buildings, and the nature of the 
country round, &c., &c. 

The water-supply of the country has also in all cases been specially 
described. 

The whole country has been hill-shaded ; the altitudes of a great 
number of points have been obtained by aneroid readings besides the 
observed heights. 

Special notes have been taken on the geology, archaeology, &c., of the 
country. 

The line of levels connecting the Mediterranean and the Sea of Galilee 
was completed on the 24th March, 

Photographs have been taken of the more interesting sites in the 
country. 

On the 11th, camp was moved to Haifa, and after four days' arranging 
stores, &c., we marched up the coast to Aleih, where Mr. Eldridge, 
H.B.M's. Consul-General, has his summer residence. The journey was 
very trying from the intense heat. Office work was at once started, a 
room in a ruined house close to our tents being all we required. 

I hope early in September to be at woi-k in the south, the only portion 
now remaining to complete the Survey of Palestine. 

H. H. Kitchener, Lieut. R.E., 

Commanding Palestine Survei/. 



NOTES FEOM THE MEMOIR. 

Zion. — In a former paper I noticed the occurrence of this name at 
some distance west of Jerulalem. I may perhaps be allowed to cite 
some of the passages tending to suj)port my \'iew that Zion is to be 
taken as a district name, like " Mount Ephraini." From 2 Chron. xxxiii, 
14, and xxii. 30, we gather that Hezekiah's aqueduct Avas brought to 
the west side of the City of David from Gihon, which was the Virgin's 
Pool, according to the Jews, the Lower Gihon being Siloam in the 



KOTES FROM THE MEMOIR. IT'J 

Targiims (see Qmrtcrhi statement, July, 1877, p. 141). Thus tlie city of 
David, in this case, is Ophel. From 2 Chron. v. 2 we learn that the city 
of David was Zion. But Millo (A/cpo) was also in the City of David, and 
this extends the names to the lower city. Again, the Temple was on 
Zion (1 Maceab. iv. 36-39) ; and, lastly, the " stronghold of Zion''^ (or 
" movmtain fortress," as the word may be rendered, 2 Chron. xxxii. 5 ; 
2 Sam. v. 8 ; 1 Chron. xi. 7) was in the City of David, and is called by 
Josephus the Citadel, as distinguished from the Lower City (Ant. vii. 
3, 1). This seems to point to the Upper City of Josephus, the modern 
Zion. 

It seems, then, that not only is Mount Zion used in the poetical books 
in a general sense, but that the terms, City of David (which means Jeru- 
salem in general, according to Josephus) and Zion were applied to Ophel, 
to Moriah, to Millo or Acra, and to the Upper City. Thus we may 
naturally suppose it to be a general title applicable to the site of Jeru- 
salem and to the hills round among which the same name, " Sunny 
Mountain," still lingers. 

The question where the early Christians and Crusaders placed Zion is 
distinct. Besides the notices of Jerome and the Bourdeaux pilgrim, 
which refer apparently to the modern Zion, we have the following, 
Arculphus (700 A.D.) places the Gate of David on the west of Zion : this 
is shown as the present Jaffa Gate on all the old charts. The city did 
not, according to him, cover the southern part of Zion, which is now 
outside the walls. The ground north and east was lower, as is the case 
with the present Zion. Aceldama {Hak ed Dumra) was south of Zion, 
and the Church of the Last Supper was on Zion. St. Bernard, in 867, 
mentions the Chapel of Peter in Gallicante (the place where he hid when 
the cock crew) as towards the east of Zion. This vault is still shown 
on the modern Zion. 

Scewulf, in 1102, places this chapel outside the city wall, on the slope 
of Zion, and all later chroniclers and the Crusading maps give the same 
position to the hill and its two churches. 

From the fourth centru-y downwards Zion has thus apparently been 
localised in its present position, that of the "Upper City" of Josephus. 

Synagogues.— The synagogues as yet visited and described have been 
in Upper Galilee, and wore principally built about 120 A.D., according 
to Jewish accounts, as I have before pointed out. At this period the 
Jews were beginning to gather in Galilee, and the Sanhedrim had its 
seat at SJiefa 'Amr and Osheh {Htisheh). It might be expected that 
some synagogues would occur near these places, as also farther south — 
the Jews inhabiting Haifa and Caesarea to a late period. There is 
a ruin called Taigibeh, near Shefa 'Amr, at which occurs one of those 
curious double columns distinctive of the corners of the colonnades to 
synagogues in Galilee. Excavations among the heaps of hewn stones 
here might, perhaps, bring another synagogue to light. On Carmel, 
also, is a ruin called Khurhet Senimaka, or the "ruin of the Sumach 
tree." Here I found, in 1873, a cauple of lintels and a part of a 



180 NOTES FROM THE MEMOIE. 

colonnade. The larger lintel belonged to the eastern door, and is still 
in situ with its jambs. The mouldings which are carried back so as to 
form a sort of T head, resemble those of the lintel at Meirun and at 
Kefr Birim. The pillars are about the usual dimensions of the pillars in 
the synagogues, and the lintels about the usual size. The second lintel 
has two lions carved on it mth a cup between, as at the synagogue of 
TJmm el ^ Avied. 

Carmel. — The scene of Elijah's sacrifice on Carmel is noticed, and 
the history of the convent, taken from the records and recollections of 
the oldest monks, is given in full. The statistics of the German colony 
will also be found in section D, with many traditions collected from 
the natives. Gotapata and Khtirbet Kana are also noticed in detail, 
and the site of Sycaminon at Tdl cs Semak. 

'AtJdit.—A full account of the beautiful fortress of 'Athlil (Castel Pele- 
grino), built by the Templars in 121S, is given, and also of the older ad- 
vanced post of Detroit, now called Dustrey. A very important observation 
was made at 'Athlit : the masonry is all drafted and in situ, whence it has 
been supposed to be earlier work than the Crusading erections, but the 
posterns of the towers have pointed arches, in drafted masonry, identical 
with that of the walls, showing that here, as at Kaukab el Hawa, the 
Crusaders cut their own stones and drafted them. The synagogue (as it 
appears to be) on Carmel is described, and the important necropolis 
at Sheikh Abreik. Last, but not least, the ruined aqueduct to Sej)- 
phoris, and the construction of the tower above that town, partly 
crusading, partly eighteenth century work. In section D, the history 
of the famous native family of the Zeidamyin is given, as taken from 
the lips of the last survivor of the race. 

Samaria. — The extent of Samaria on the north differed at various 
times. It is doubtful if the plain of Sharon belonged to Judea or to 
Samaria, for Csesarea was inhabited by both Jews and Samaritans. 
A yearly feast was held in commemoration of Bethshean being taken 
by the Jews from the Samaritans. There are two indications of border 
Samaritan towns on the north, which are, perhaps, of value : 1st. 
Khurhet es Samrvjch, "ruin of Samaritans," just south of Bethshean. 
2nd. Ke/r es Sanur, "village of Samaritans," called by the Jews 
Castra, and said by them to be the seat of heretics. This is the place 
known later as Calamon. 

The Feast of Shiloh (Judg. xxi. 21). — Some memory of the locality of 
this feast may perhaps be retained in the name 3IerJ el 'Aid, "meadow 
of the feast," applying to the plain south of Shiloh. 

Elijah'' s Fountain. — Another instance of an imperfectly preserved word 
occurs in this case, for the valley in which this spring, now called 'Ain 
es Sth (" sjiring of gathering of water") exists, is called by the natives 
ytshliil el Haiijeh, "waterfalls of the snake," i^robably corrupted from 
FAiha, or Elijah. 

Neoij Laivih. — This names applies to a Mukam below Silct ed Dhahr, 
north-west of Nablus. The word means " Lcvite," and it is curious to 



NOTES I'ROM THE MEMOIK 



181 



observe that it is applied by the Saniaritans to Sanballat the Horonite, 
who was, according to them, the head of the House of Levi. 

TaricJuva. — Lieutenant Kitchener mentions this as, perhaps, near 
Mejdel, north of Tiberias. There is, however, in Pliny, a passage, as 
follows : — 

"On the east Julias and Hippos, on the south Tarichsea, by which 
name the lake also was formerly called, on the west Tiberias" (Eel. 
Pal., p. 440). 

Tarichsea must therefore be sought on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, 
thirty stadia south of Tiberias. 

McKjdiel was a place five Eoman miles north of Dor {Khiirhet Tanturah), 
noticed in the Onomasticon. The distance brings us to an important 
ruined site now called Met I hah, 

Biri is a town noticed in the Talmud (Tal. Jer. Pesachim iv. 1) as 
near Kabul. This points to Berweh, but the identification is omitted by 
IN'eubauer. 

Tor'an. — This name is applied to a mountain and village in Galilee. 
It seems to have no Arabic meaning. It may, it is suggested, be the 
old French word Turon, used by the Crusaders, as in the castle of that 
name and the mount east of Acre, also so called by them ; the meaning 
is given by Eey, speaking of the Castle of Toron, as signifying an 
isolated hill, such as Jebel Tor an is. Here probably we have another 
Crusading Avord to which we may add perhaps the next. 

Kustul. —This is the name of a well-lmown village near Jerusalem, 
and there is another called Kastlleh or Kmtlnelt, which has probably the 
same origin. The word suggests the Latin Castellum ; but at Seffurieh 
the gardens and mills round the great spring about a mile south are 
called Kmtul Sefffcrich. Perhaps a better derivation is from the Crusad- 
ing word Casale, also derived from the Latin, but applied, according to 
William of Tyre, to country villages, and used by the thirteenth 
century writers of places not defended by walls. 

Boche Taille was the name of the present river Falik ; the Arabic, it 
may be noted, has the same meaning. 

Deklebeh is the name of a mountain. It has, apparently, no Arabic 
meaning, but in Aramaic it means a " watchtower." On the top of the 
mountain an ancient watchtower exists. 

Siirdr. — A good instance of the peculiarities of the peasant language 
is furnished by this word. A native of Beyrout called on me, and I 
asked him if he knew what the word meant. Though an educated man, 
he could not tell, but Mr. Bergheim, who lives among the peasantry, 
informs me that it means " pebbles." Thus the word, unknown to the 
townsmen, but retained amongst the peasantry, is the Hebrew Tzerur, 
"a pebble." 

Fur 71,. — This word means in modern language " an oven," but it is 
applied to various large mounds throughout the country, and in especial 
to one near Beisan. It seems to be a corruption of the Aramaic Pharan, 
a royal house like a basilica," according to Buxtorf. This 



182 NOTES FEOM XUE MEMOIR. 

is striking, because in the case mentioned above, Jerome [Ep. ad Ecang.) 
states that the ruins of the palace of Melchisedec were to be seen near 
Scythopolis, or Beisan. 

B'dearii and Ihlcani are often supposed to be the same towns, but the 
first appears to have been towards the west of the territory of Manasseh 
(1 Chron. vi. 70), and may very well be BeVa, near the plain. This does 
not suit the requirements of Ibleam. If that town be near " the garden 
hoiisc," which is generally supposed to be Ji^nia (2 Kings ix. 27), then 
Mr. Drake's identification with BcVameh, a ruin in the valley beyond 
Jenin, is most satisfactory. It is, however, worth notice, that the name 
"garden house" (Beth-hag-bon) is preserved in Belt Jenn, north of 
Jezreel, and that a Bd'cnneh exists in this direction also. 

Jesiianah. — I am happy to support M. Ganneau's identification with 
the modern 'Ain Sinia, p. 20j. Before the publication of this suggestion, 
the same identification had been independently communicated by me to 
the Fund. 

Joshua's Tomh. — It is certain that the modern Tibneh represents the 
site supposed by Jerome to be Joshua's tomb. He speaks of the place 
as on the road from Lydda to Jerusalem, and the tomb as still shown. 
The name of the sacred tree, ShciJih ct Teim, may perhaps preserve the 
memory of the " servant of God ; " but the Jews have always held Kefr 
Haris, south of Nablus, to be Timnath Heres, and their traditions gene- 
rally prove the most reliable. In this case, Nehy Kifl (" the apportion- 
ing prophet ") must represent the tomb of Joshua, though, as in the 
case of Joseph's tomb, the building is modern. 

The neighbourhood of Chasteau Peleriii is minutely described in the 
tract called " Citez de Jherusalom" (1187 a.d.) 

The monastery of St. Margaret is here noticed as on the side of 
Carmel, near the place where Elijah used to live. This appears to be 
the ruined Deii', south of the promontory by Elijah's spring. A league 
and a half away were habitations of Carmelite hermits, in the side of 
the mountain by springs. Between St. Margaret and these places was 
a place above the sea called Anne, where the nails Avere made for the 
cross. In front of the hermits' habitations was a place called St. John, 
of Tyre ; in front of Chasteau Pelerin, not far off, was Capharnaon, 
where the forty marks were struck for which Christ was sold. 

This curious piece of topography is explained by the Survey. St. 
Margaret had a rock- cut chapel and a Greek monastery : this points to 
cd Dtir, where such a rock-cut chapel exists. There are caves and ruins 
with water east of Chasteaii Pelerin {'AthlU), south of ed Dier, eight 
miles by Wddy en Neb'a, *' valley of the perennial spring." Just in 
front of them is a Mukam of Sheikh Yahyah, the native name for " John 
the Baptist," facing 'Athlit. Capharnaon I liave shown in former 
papers is the modern Kefr Lam, according to the distance given by 
Benjamin of Tudela from Haifa. 

In this case the place called Anne, on a hill above the sea, must be 
'Ain Hand, "spring of the trough," sometimes called el 'Aiu only. It 



NOTES 1-EOiI THE MEMOIR. 183 

lies between the two places just mentioned— ed Deir and Wady en Neb'ti 
— on the top of a spur above the sea. 

St. John of Tyre was so called because Chasteau Pelerin was supposed 
to be Ancient Tyre by the Crusaders. The reason for this identification 
it is very difficult to imagine, but it may perhaps have arisen from the- 
name Tireli belonging to a neighbouring village owning extensive 
lands — a name very easily confounded with " Tire,'" as the word is spelt 
in ancient chronicles. 

Scarioth. — The native town of Judas was shown to the Crusaders ten 
miles from Ctesarea to the east (Fetellus). It seems to have been on 
the road leading to Porphyreon (Haifa) by Cairn Mons, or "Mount 
Cain " {Keimun), where Lamech was said to have killed Cain. On this 
road, twelve English miles from the shore at Cassarea, is a well with 
ruins called ^16it ,S7ioA7-a, "father of red colour." This very probably 
preserves the tradition, being in the right direction east of Cjesarea. 

The Nomenclature.— The following arc the lists compared by me in 
arranging the nomenclature : — 

1st. The Survey Lists, corrected byNaaman Kasatly^ the scribe 
of the party. 

2nd. Official Turkish lists for the provinces of Jerusalem and 
Acre, furnished by Consul Moore in 1875, containing all the 
villages and many ruins. 

3rd. Lists of Nablus and Acre provinces, furnished by Consul 
Rogers in 1859, with the population of the villages and towns, 
and the cultivation and taxes. 

4th. A list for Northern Palestine, furnished by the Rev. J, 
Zeller, of Nazareth, including ruins and villages. 

5th. A similar list near Nablus, furnished by Rev. J. Elkarey, 
of Nablus. 

6th. Robinson's lists. 

7th. A list of the possessions of the family of Zeiddn, furnished 
by the last liviug member, 162 villages and ruins in Galilee. 
From the comparison of aU these lists a great amount of certainty as 
to spelling is obtained, as they are aU in Arabic characters. 
The lexicons used in translation were : — 
1st. Lane's Arabic Lexicon. 
2nd. Freytag's Latin and Arabic Lexicon. 
3rd. Newman's English and Arabic Lexicon. 
4th. Katafago's English and Arabic Lexicon. 
5th. Gesenius's English and Hebrew Lexicon. 
6th. Buxtorf's Chaldee and Latin Lexicon. 
The number of standard works which I have abstracted for use in the 
memoir to the map is now over fifty, according to the list. Nearly one- 
third of the Memoir is now completed. ri t» n 

C R. C 



184 

BETHANY BEYOND JOEDAN. 

" It is generally admitted by Biblical critics," writes tbe author of 
the article entitled, The Autliorship of the Fourth Gospel {Edinburgh 
Bevieiv, January, 1877), "that the true reading of chap. i. 28 (St. John's 
Gospel) is Bethany, not Bethabai-a." 

The Sinaitic Codex with the Yatican and Alexandrine reads Bethania 
[fin^avia), and Origen states that in his time (186-253 A.D.) most of the 
ancient manuscripts had this reading (in Evan Johannis, tom. "vdii.). 
He, however, adopted the reading Bethabara. " For Jordan is far off 
from Bethany," and Chrysostom (347-407 A.D.), though mentioning the 
reading Bethania, prefers the now accepted Bethabara. Jerome follows 
in the same steps, and speaks of Bethabara only. 

The objection made by Origen is the same which has lately been 
urged by the author of " Supernatural Eeligion," who points out the 
probability that Bethania is the true reading, and that while this cannot 
refer to the town of Lazarus, it "is scarcely possible that there could 
have been a second village of the name " (vol. ii., p. 420). He farther 
states that the place in question "is utterly unkno"\\Ti now." 

That Bethania, if the true reading, has no connection with the village 
near Jerusalem, is clearly evident from the Fourth Gospel, as the posi- 
tion of that place is defined (chap, xi., verse 18). 

" Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, about fifteen furlongs off." 

The place in question " beyond Jordan" is therefore not in any way 
connected -\\-ith this village, for " beyond Jordan" is applied in the Old 
and New Testament, and in the Talmud, to the third division of the 
Holy Land, called in the Mishma (Shevith ix. 2) Perea, the limits of 
which are fixed with great exactitude by the Eabbinical commentators.* 

To show that Bethany beyond Jordan is a well known title, and that 
this reading is quite reconcileable Avith the other reading Bethabara, 
seems to me a point of considerable interest, as materially strengthening 
the argument of the topographical correctness of the Fourth Gospel, the 
geography of which has been lately subjected to severe criticism, though 
not by authors very well acquainted with the subject. 

The Edinburgh reviewer points to the identification of Bethany beyond 
Jordan with a certain Tell Aniliji, as proposed by Dr. Caspar! (see 
Ed. Rev., p. 14, note) ; but this will not be admitted by any Arabic 
student as representing the word Bethania, because the H and the J 
are radicals, which have no equivalents in the Greek word, and because 
the name applies to a Tell east of Jordan, about twenty-one miles from 
Kaua ; it has a descriptive meaning in Arabic which may be rendered "the 
prominent (or conspicuous) hillock." 

It is, however, quite a gratuitous assumption that Bethania is here 

* The Greek title Perea has the meaning "lieyoud." The limits of Perea, or 
the country "beyond Jordan" {irepav rov lopZavov), are given by Joscphus, and 
agree >yith those described in the Tahmid. The title is erxuivaleut to the Hebrew 
^Aler ha Yarden, "over Jordan," used in the Bible. 



BETHANY BEYOND JOllOAX. 185 

meant to be the name of a village or town, and the suggestion I would 
make is that the writer refers to the well-known district of Batanea, 
which has left traces of its name to the present day in the district called 
Ard el Bethdniek "beyond Jordan." 

The name Batanea occurs in the Targums and the Samaritan versions 
of the Old Testament, in the writings of Josephus, Ptolemy, and 
Eusebius, and the following are the indications of the position of the 
district : — ■ 

1st. In the Targum of Jonathan (Psa. Ixviii. 23), Bothenin (jonn) 
stands instead of the Hebrew Bashan, and the same change occurs in 
Deut. xxxiii. 22. In the preceding chapter (xxxii. 14) the Targum of 
Jerusalem reads Bathenia («"''': nn) for Bashan. The two words are, 
in fact, the same, Sin and Teih being convertible in Hebrew, as they are 
constantly interchanged in the language of the native peasantry, who 
pronounce the The of the Arabic alphabet like Sin. The Targums there- 
fore identify Batania with Bashan. 

2nd. The Samaritan Pentateuch reads Batanin (("'JnD) in every in- 
stance where Bashan occurs in the Hebrew. 

3rd. Eusebius (Onom. s.v. /Sao-af) gives its name as existing in his day 
under the form Batanaia [^aravaia), in which statement he is followed 
by Jerome. 

It is, therefore, important in the next place to state the limits of 
Bashan, and these are approximately given in the Old Testament (Deut. 
iii. 10-14 ; Josh. xii. 5). It belonged to the half tribe of Manasseh, and 
was situate north of Gilead, and extended as far as Hermon. On the 
east it included Salchah {Sulkhad), on the west it reached to the Arahah 
or Jordan Valley (see Bib. Diet.); the name signifies "soft and level 
soil" (Ar. Bathana), d.n(\. applied to the rich cornland of this district, 
■where the crops are finer than in any other part of the Holy Land. 

4th. The notices of Batanea in Josephus are few. The districts of 
Trachonitis {el Lejah), of Gaulonitis {Jaulan), and Auranitis [Hauran)^ 
were within the limits of the ancient Bashan, and Batanea appears to 
have been specially applied to a district south of Trachonitis and west 
of Auranitis (see Eel. Pal., p. 108). The name Ard el Bethdnia now 
applies rather farther east to the district of the Lejah, north of Jehel 
Hauran (the hill of Bashan) ; but the position given by Josephus would 
appear to include the south-western j)ortion of the kingdom of Og. 

5th. Ptolemy (140 A.D.) speaks of the region of Batanea as including 
Trachonitis, and gives it apparently a greater latitude of meaning, and 
the same extension of the meaning, as referring to all Bashan, is deducible 
from Josephus (Ant. iv. 7, 4), Avhere Golan is jjlaced in Batanea, which 
thus reached to the Jordan valley (see Eel. Pal., p. 318). 

6th. In the Onomasticon Batanea is made identical with Bashan, as 
above noticed, and the following places are noticed as within its limits: — 

1. Ashtaroth c$ Sunamein. 

2. Golan in the Jauldn. 

3. Gergasa on the east of the Sea of Galilee, 



jgg BETHANY BEYOND JORDAN. 

besides otliers of doubtful position. In addition to these, a place of some 
importance to the present question must be noticed, wbicb is also placed 
by the Onomasticon in Batanea— namely, Namara. 

Under the head of Nemra Eusebius mentions a town as existing in 
his day called Nahara, or according to another edition, Mara. The 
former is more probably the correct reading, as the Latin has Namara, 
but it is worthy of notice that the place is identified by Eusebius with 
Nimrah, near Heshbon (Numb, xxxii. 3), and that Epiphanius (Contra 
Hjeres 51, oth cent.) reads Bethamara for Bethabara (Eel. Pal. p. 627). 
This town of Nabara was in Batanea according to Eusebius, and would 
seem to be possibly the same which is mentioned as identical with Beth- 
nimrah (Josh. xiii. 27), a town of Gad, and as being near to Livias, 
which was situate in the neighbourhood of Mount Nebo. Eusebius 
evidently refers to the true site of Bethnimrah, opposite Jericho, in one 
case, but in the other probably to a ruin still existmg near Kancmdt, 
within the limits of the modern Ard el BethaniuJt, and called Nimreh. 
This T)lace is noticed in the Jerusalem Talmud as on the eastern boundary 
of the "land." 

The curious connection which thus apparently exists between Batanea, 
Abara, and Nimrah, has led modern scholars to place the site of Bethabara 
at N'imrui, in the Jordan valley, opposite Jericho (see Smith's Bible 
Diet, and Murray's new Map), yet this connection is only apparent, as 
the reading Abara is easily shown to be a corruption, and because the 
Jordan valley site is not in Batanea as Namara was. 

The general drift of the above notes tends to show that Bathania was 
the well-known late appellation of the kingdom of Og, which still 
existed in the fourth century, and of Avhich traces still remain. The 
exact limitation of Batanea is not deducible, but Eeland, one of the 
o-reatest authorities on the subject, considers the district to extend to 
Jordan, and thus a town near the river could have stood within this 
territory, if it were not further south than that part of the valley which 
is opposite to Lower Galilee. It is impossible, however, to include the 
traditional site of Bethabara, or that at Nimriii, within the limits of 

Batanea. 

An objection to the identification of Bethany beyond Jordan ^vith 
Batanea may perhaps be founded on the long form ^n^avia, but as 
has been sho^vn above, the longer form Bothenin occurs in the Targums, 
and in addition to this, the use of the letter H in the Greek of Old and 
New Testament is irregular. Thus in the LXX we have firjeaaHee for 
Bathsheba, and Paepecpa for Bethrapha. In the New Testament Beth- 
phage is spelt with the long H and also with the short E, and in the Ono- 
masticon Bethshemesh and other words are given in the same way with 

both. 

An old objection to the topographical exactitude of the fourth gOspel 
was founded on the assumption that Bethabara was near Jericho, and 
that it would thus be impossible for our Lord to reach Cana of Galilee 
"on the third day;" but there is no evidence beyond the tradition of 



SYCAMmON, IIEPHA, POHPHYREOX, AKD CHILZON. 187 

the fourth century to fix Betliabara so far south, whilst a position near 
upper Galilee would both suit the narrative and allow of the reconcilia- 
tion of the two readings Bethany and Bethabara. 

Bethabara is commonly spoken of as the site of our Lord's baptism. 
In this again we follow the fourth century tradition. From the gospel 
we gather nothing beyond the fact that it was the scene of certain events 
which are placed in the Gosjjel Hannonies (see Smith's Bib. Die. p. 721) 
after the Temptation, and which occupied two days, seemingly consecu- 
tive, whilst on the third Jesus reached Cana of Galilee. 

In a former paper [Quarterly Statement, April, 1875) I called attention 
to the fact that the name 'Ahnra stUl applies to the principal ford of 
Jordan north of Beisan, and thus leading to Bashan or Batanea, whilst 
the site is within a day's journey of the neighbourhood of Nazareth. 
Against this identification all that can be urged is the tradition which 
places Bethabara near Jericho. It may be said also that the name is 
merely descriptive, and might apply to any other ford ; to this I can 
only reply, that of more than fifty fords the names of which were col- 
lected by the Survey party, not one other had any name at all approach- 
ing in sound to this, and that, though doubtless descriptive, it is not a 
common name in the country, as it does not reappear in the hst of 6,000 
names within the limits of the Survey. 

It seems difiicult to understand how the name Bethabara can have 
been accei^ted by the early fathers of the church unless the site either 
existed in their day, or a tradition dating as early as the middle of 
the second century pointed to it as the site of the Bathania of the 
Gospel. The above notes will serve at all events to show that the topo- 
graphy is capable of exact explanation whichever reading be the more 
authentic. Claude E. Coxder, Lieuf. E.E. 



SYCAMINON, HEPHA, POEPHYEEON, AND CHILZON. 

The question of the sites of the four towns above named is interest- 
ing and somewhat complicated. 

Haifa is noticed in the Talmud under its modern name (Gemara, 
Sabbath, 26a) and by the name Cay^jhas in Crusading chronicles, such 
as Geoffry de Vinsauf 1187, Scewulf 1102, Benjamin of Tudela 1160, and 
Sir John Mandeville 1322 ; under this title also it is marked on Marino 
Sanuto's map ^1321). The name comes from a Hebrew root meaning 
" shore," and in Arabic a "mountain side," referring to its position at 
the foot of Carmel by the sea. The Crusaders, however, had curious 
ideas of the derivation of the title. According to some it was built by 
Caiaphas, the high priest, and named from him ; others supposed a con- 
nection with the name Cephas, and referred it either to the " stonyness" 
of the place, or to Simon Peter, who fished there according to one account. 



188 SYCAMIKON, UEPHA, PORPHYEEON, AND CHILZON. 

This curious legend has probably some connection with the Crusading' 
Capernaum, which was shown near the shore of the Mediterranean 
farther south, at Kefr Lam. 

The Crusaders further called Haifa Porphyreon, as is certain from 
William of Tyre. The real town of this name, which was derived from 
the purple of the Murex there caught, was eight Roman miles from 
Sidon towards the north, and just south of the Eiver Tamyras {Nahr 
Damur), but the Crusading idea was probably connected with their 
extraordinary fancy for placing Ancient Tjtc at 'Atldit, which would 
bring Porphyreon into a relative position near Haifa. 

The question of Palfetyrus, or Ancient Tyre, thus becomes connected 
with the present subject. This place, the original site of TjTe, was, 
according to Strabo, thirty stadia south of New Tyre on the promontory ; 
yet there is a passage which looks as if even in the fourth century it was 
placed near Athlit, for Jerome speaks of Dor (s.v. Dornapheth, Ono- 
masticon) as nine miles north of Cassarea (at Kluirhet Tantilrali) "to 
those going to Tyre now deserted." The Crusaders added to their 
theory the position of Porphyreon at Haifa and of Sarepta, possibly at 
Surafeud, just south of 'Athlit. They also grouped the sites of Caper- 
naum and Meon (the town of Xabal) close by, and the pilgrim on land- 
ing was thus shown immediately sacred places, the true sites of which 
were removed by days of travel.* 

There is further some evidence that Sycaminon was also placed, in the 
fourth century, at Haifa. Jerome, in the Onomasticon (s.v. Japthie), 
identifies Haifa with Japhia of Zebulon {IT/fu, near Nazareth) and with 
Sycaminon. The latter name appears as Shikmonah in the Talmud 
(Mishna Demoi I.), referring to a place celebrated for its pomegranates, 
and Sycaminon is also noticed by Josephus (Ant. xiii. 20) as near 
Ptolemais. The derivation is supposed to be from the Sycamine iigs, 
one tree of which still remains on the shore near Haifa. Sycaminon is 
also noticed in two early itineraries, and its distance given from Acre 
and Cpcsarea. 

The fact that in the Talmud both names occur seems to indicate that 
Sycaminon and Hepha were distinct places, and this leads to their 
identification with the ruined sites of Haifa el ^Atika (ancient " Haifa ") 
and Tell es Seiiiak ("mound of the fish"), the latter possibly a corrup- 
tion of Shikmonah ; but as these two are only two miles apai't they 
might easily be confounded, as identified in the Onomasticon ; in the 
Crusading times we find them again distinct — -Haipha, under the name 
Cayphas, whence the modern Prankish Caiffa originates, and also as 
Porphyreon, Sycaminon, and Sycamazon, a bishopric under the metro- 
politan of Csesarea, as early as 431 a.d. 

The distance of Sycaminon from the two well-known points of Acre 

* The name Tveh, aiiplied to a village near Athlit, may perhaps have some 
connection with this idea. 



SYCAMIKON, UEPUA, POEPHYREON, AJTD CHILZON. 18& 

and Caosarea is difForeutly given by the Antonine and Jerusalem 

itineraries, thus : — 

AiitDuine. Jerusa'eui. 

Sycaminon to Acre xxiv. r.m. xv. r.m, 

,, Cajsarea .... xx. r.m. xvi. r.m. 



Total area to Ciesarea 44 Roman miles 31 r.m. 

The true total distance is thirty-five and a half Roman miles measur- 
ing in a line, and by road thirty-nine and a half Roman miles. As 
Sycaminon was close to the Carmel promontory, according to every 
early account, it could not be only sixteen miles distant from Caesarea, 
and a single X has evidently dropped out, which would bring the total 
of the Jerusalem itinerary nearly right, thus : — 

Sycaminon to Acre 15 r.m. 

,, Caesarea (xxvi.) . . 26 ,, 

41 r.m. 

This, if the road went a little inshore of the Bay of Acre, would be 
correct. In the other itinerary, on the contrary, an X seems to have 
been added to the northern measurement, for Sycaminon under Carmel 
near Haifa could not have been twenty-four Roman miles from Acre. 
The con-ection makes the total thirty-four Roman miles, which is rather 
short unless direct measurement over the Bay of Acre be supposed. 

There is, however, another difficulty in the question, for Sycaminon 
in the Jerusalem itinerary is placed after Calamon, three miles farther. 
Now Calamon was really three miles farther on the road than Sycami- 
non, and situate at Khiirbet Kefr es Sumir (see Quarterly Statement, 
January, 1876, p. 20), and this would seem to make the total from Acre 
to Ctesarea forty-three miles.* 

The two itineraries, however, agree in placing Sycaminon fourteen to 
fifteen miles from Acre, measuring along the shore, and this distance 
agrees with the position of Tell es Semah, fifteen Roman miles from 
Acre and three Roman miles from Calamon {Kefr es Samir) and twenty- 
four and a half Roman miles from Csesarea. 

The sites of Sycaminon and Haifa were thus near one another, but 
separate towns, as the literature of the subject indicates, and the ruins 
and names and distances point out. 

The cm-ious question remaining is whether Chilzon was ever a name 
applied to Haifa. 

* A possible explanation of the Calamon difficulty suggests itself to me as 
follows : That the Bordeaux Pilgrim crossed over Carmel to Calamon and went 
north to Sycaminon. This route would fit the distances very well, as follows : — 
Acre to Kefr es Samir (Calamon) 12 r. m., really Hi- r. m. 
Kefr es Samir to Tell es Semak 3 ,, ,, 3 r. m. 

Tell es Semak to Cajsarea 26 ,, ,, 24-^- r. rc. 

This would make the Jerusalem itinerary agree with the known position of 
Calamon without giving too great a total. 



190 BARAK AXD SlSEllA. 

The name is tliat of the Murex, and means " snail" in Hebrew (the 
Arabic Hahun). It has thus the same derivation with Porphyreon, also 
named from the Murex which yielded the purple. Reland supposes 
a connection with the text (Canticles vii. o), "Thy head like Carmel, 
and the hair of thy head like purple," as alluding to the fishery of the 
Murex near Carmel. Chilzon is noticed, according to this authority, as 
a town from which, as far as the ladder of Tyre, the Murex was caught, 
but Neubauer supposes the word to be used only for the name of the 
mollusk in the Talmud. 

In another ancient itinerary the town Chilzon is noticed as distinct 
from Haifa, and might be the northern or true Porphyreon. In the 
Targums the Chilzon or Miu-ex is noticed as among the riches of the 
tribe of Zebulon, and as "coming up into the hills" (Buxtorf). This 
seems to give a clue to the real position of the place, for Zebulon did 
not'possess any of the land north of Sidon where Porphyreon really 
stood, but the country from Carmel to Acre, and the Belus, in and near 
which the Murex is found and was caught originally. 

The name still exists. It is applied to a large valley, a confluent of 
the Belus, called Wudy Halziln, "the valley of the snail" (or Murex). 
Here, then, if anywhere, Chilzon most likely stood, and not at Haifa, as 
supposed by Eeland, if, indeed, a town of the name ever existed. 

The fishery of the Murex extended from Phoenicia down to the Bay 
of Acre, and along these shores the mollusk [Murex Trunculas) is still 
found. 

Claude E. Conder, Lieut. R.E. 



BARAK AND SISERA. 

Judges iv. 



There are few episodes of the Old Testament history on which more 
light has been thrown by the Survey discoveries than that of the famous 
defeat of the Canaanites under Sisera. 

The topography hitherto has been wonderfully obscure. The central 
position is Tabor. Hazor, Kedesh, and Bitzaanaim have been generally 
placed in Upper Galilee, over thirty miles from Tabor, whilst Megiddo 
has been placed close to Taanach, fourteen miles south-west. This is 
contrary to what we generally observe in the Scripture narrative, for 
the places noticed in a single episode are almost always close together. 

I propose to sliow how the whole scene can be laid in the neighbour- 
hood of Tabor within a radius of five or six miles. 

The kings of Canaan (or of the low lands) were governed by Jabin, 
who lived at Hazor. They assembled at Taanach, and by the waters of 
Megiddo, but the battle was api)arently not fought close to these places, 
f :>r in Psalm Ixxxiii. we read that they " i^erished in Endor," and the 



BARAK AND SISEllA. 191 

army of Sisera was destroyed in the Kishon, which has its origin far 
north of these towns. 

It cannot be supposed that Barak would desert the fastnesses of 
Tabor and undertake a long march of fifteen mUes over the boggy 
plain to attack the Canaanites strongly placed on the slopes of the low 
hills at Taanach. fieriptnro saja, " I will draiu unto thee, Sisera . . . 
unto the river Kishon." And here, with the full advantage of a rush 
from the high ground, Barak, like Napoleon in his battle of Tabor, 
descended upon the Canaanites, who were driven into the bogs and 
swamps from which the main stream of the Kishon rises, and in which 
the Turks lost so many men in the later battle. It is true that an 
affluent of the Kishon comes from near Taanach, but the Mujahlyeh, or 
*' spring head," is under the Nazareth hills, just west of Tabor. 

The notice of Endor shows that the kings in the first instance ad- 
vanced from the south, and no doubt posted themselves at the foot of the 
conical mountain on which Endor is placed before venturing into the 
open plain south-west of Tabor. Thus the position of Megiddo at the 
ruin called Mujedda, in the Jordan valley, which I proposed in a paper 
•on the subject on entirely different grounds, is in accordance with this 
advance. The " waters of Megiddo " must be the innumerable streams 
of the broad valley of Jezreel and the springs which flow in abundance 
from the mound of Mujedda. 

The defeat of Sisera drove his host into the Kishon, "that river of 
battles— the river Kishon " (according to Gesenius' rendering instead of 
■"ancient"). 

This points to the identity of Harosheth of the Gentiles with el 
Haratluyeh as generally accepted, and the name "wooded country" is 
derived, no doubt, from the fine oak woods on the hills west of the 
Kishon, towards which the Canaanites who succeeded in getting throuo-h 
the swamps would have fled. 

But Sisera fled away by himself to the plain Bitzaanaim, which was 
in the neighbourhood of that Kedesh where Barak had gathered his 
men before advancing to Tabor. 

Barak was of the tribe of Naphtali, and this has directed attention to 
Kedes (Kadesh Naphtali) and the great plain near it. We must then 
suppose Sisera to have fled for thirty miles, over mountains 4,000 feet 
high, through the most difficult country in Palestine. We must 
suppose Barak to have marched down from these hills to the plain, and 
then back again to Hazor, over the waters of Merom, according to 
Josephus. 

There is, however, a far simpler explanation. There is a Kedesh on 
the shores of the Sea of Galilee, only some sixteen miles from Tabor, a 
place appropriate for a gathering of the tribes and within the bounds'of 
Naphtali, as that tribe held all the country east of Tabor. And between 
this Kedesh and Tabor there is a broad plain, and in it a place called 
Jlesstim, a word radically identical with the name Bitzaanaim, and close 
to the towns of Adami {ed Dumeh) andNekeb {NaVih), which are noticed 
in the Book of Joshua (xix. 33) in connection with Bitzaanaim. 



192 MEETING OF GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

Thus the whole of Sisera's flight is reduced to the far more probable- 
distance of five or six miles from the scene of his defeat — a distance 
possible for the powers of a man so exhausted as Sisera was, and is 
directed in a lino just opposite to that of the pursuit of his army 
towards Harosheth. It may be added that the name Bitzaanaim has 
not been recovered in the old supposed position, and does not occur in 
any other part of Palestine. 

Much might be added in illustration of this episode with regard to the 
storm, the meteor shower, the butter given by Jael, the hammer and 
nail, and the alleged reasons, according to the Jews, for the murder: 
but this paper is intended to point out only the probable topography 
of the account. C. E. C. 



MEETING OF GENEEAL COMMITTEE. 

The Annual Meeting of the General Committee was held at the office 
of the Fund on Tuesday, July 17th, the Eev. Dr. Joseph Barclay in the 
chair. 

1. The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

2. The following Eeport of the Executive Committee was then read : — 
' ' The Executive Committee have, on resigning the trust committed to 

them on June 26th, 1876, to render an account of their administration 
and work during the past twelve months. 

1. On then- first sitting Mr. W. Hepworth Dixon was elected Chairman 
for the year. 

2. The number of meetings held during the year has been twenty-four. 
There have also been meetings of the Publication Cominittee, the Finance 
Committee, and various sub-committees, specially appointed from time 
to time, to investigate and report on matters of importance as they 
occurred. 

3. The exploration work of the year divides itself into two portions — 
the field work, and that of drawing the map, calculating the observations, 
and preparing the memoirs. From June to January the whole strength 
of the Eoyal Engineers in the service of the Committee was employed on 
the latter branch of work, two oflicers and five non-commissioned 
officers being engaged upon the map in an office taken for them for this 
purpose. The result is tha.t out of twenty-six sheets, twenty are so far 
advanced that, were it not for a few points of difficulty which must be 
answered by re- examination of the ground, they might be put into an 
engraver's hands at once. As regards the memoirs, which are the special 
work of Lieutenant Conder, the last report of progress shows that the 
whole of the names collected by Lieutenant Conder for the map— 6,000 
m number — have been translated, compared wth the official lists and 
those of Eogors, Eobinson, Zeller, and others, and the translation has 
^»een completed as far as possible. This very important part of the 



MEETING OF OEXERAL COMMITTEE. 193 

Avork will be carefully examined beforci publication by tbe best Arabic 
scholars. 

The memoirs of three of the sheets (Nos. lo, 10, and 18) have been 
■completed, and two more (viz., 7 and 9) only have to be rearranged in 
accordance with the modified plan of the editors. 

The greater part of the indexes of the remaining sheets have been 

mtide. 

At the beginning of the year the Committee thought themselves 
justified in sending out Lieutenant Kitchener with a party of three non- 
commissioned officers to complete the survey of Western Palestine. There 
remained, as was estimated, about 1,200 square miles in northern Pales- 
tine, and 200 in the south. Lieutenant Kitchener's letters have reported 
steady and uninterrupted progress. In his last letter he estimated that 
ihe Avork would be finished in the north by the end of July. By a tele- 
gram which reached the Chairman on Saturday last, the Committee 
receive the gratifying intelligence that the whole of the northern portion, 
which appears to consist of 1,000 square miles, or 200 less than was 
estimated, has been now completed. 

There remain, therefore, only the 200 square miles in the south and 
the examination of certain points in the country to clear up the diffi- 
culties mentioned above. 

The Committee take this opportmiity of expressing their high sense 
of Lieutenant Kitchener's ability and zeal. He has conducted the work 
ior six months v/ithout any accidents diu-ing a period of suspicion and 
excitement. His reports, which are in the hands of the General Com- 
mittee, are careful and intelligent, and his monthly accounts show due 
regard to economy. He has hitherto managed to conduct the Survey 
for a monthly sum less than that which the Committee gave him as a 
maximum. It is hoped that he will return to England in the autumn, 
bringing his work with him, after which the Committee recommend that 
no time will be lost in arranging and working up the detail, with a view 
to the early publication of the map and its accompanying memoirs. 
This map, when produced, will, the Committee may fairly promise, 
fully justify the work and expenditure of the last five years, and will 
form by far the most important contribution ever yet made to the know- 
ledge of the lands of the Bible. 

4. The income of the Fund from June 30th, 187G, to Juno oOth, 1877, 
was £3,709 14s. Id. The classified expenditure during the same period 
was as follows : — Exploration account, £2,399 12s. Sd. ; Printers, 
£317 12s. -Id. ; Loan repaid to Treasurer, £100 ; Postage, £80 18s. lOd. ; 
paid to Photographer, £109 7s. 9d. ; Office, Eent, Salaries, and Advertis- 
ing, £049 los. od. The balance in hand on June 30th was £398 Os. 4d. 

The Committee, on considerations of general policy, have decided on 
abandoning their claim to the rest of the damages awarded for the Safed 
outrage. They have received from Consul- General Eldridgo the sum of 
£262 12s. od., representing an amount of £270, less exchange. 

o. Several new Local Societies have been formed in Australia and 



194 MEETIXG OF GEXEllAL COMMITTEE. 

New Zealand throuf^li the exertions of Mr. H. W. Fry, to whom the best 
thanks of the Committee are due. 

6. The holding of drawing-room meetings continues to be carried on 
by Mrs. Finn, and the best thanks of the Committee are due to those 
ladies who have held meetings. 

7. The publication of the Quarterly statement has been under the con- 
sideration of the Committee. It has been proposed to make certain 
changes in the contents of the periodical, which shall tend to make it 
more generally interesting. The matter has been referred to a sub- 
committee, consisting of the Chairman and one of the Hon. Secretaries, 
who will report and recommend what, if any, change is to be made. 
The Executive Committee recommend that powers be granted from the 
General Committee to adopt such improvements in the management of 
the Quarterly Statement as, on consideration, they may find best suited 
to serve the interests of the Fund. 

8. The Committee have undertaken to examine and restore to its 
proper use, so far as may be found practicable, the interesting site of 
Jacob's "Well. For this purpose £100 has been given by Miss Peachc, 
and £50 promised by Dr. Eogers, of Exeter. It is proposed to clear out 
the well, take away the rubbish which lies round it, and have it guarded 
by the low wall, i^art of which is still standing, that once formed part of a 
church erected over it. Another special offer of £<50 has been made to 
the Committee for the purpose of examining Rachel's Tomb. This will 
be done if possible. 

9. The special thanks of the Committee are due to Consul-General 
Eldridge for the very great trouble he has taken in starting Lieutenant 
Kitchener in his work ; to Mr. Harper, Captain Anderson, and Captain 
Hamilton for sketches published in the Quarterly Statement ; to the Duke 
of Northumberland, Mr. G. Harris, the Hon. "W. Cowper-Temple, the 
Earl of Aberdeen, Lord Forbes, Miss Baxter, of Ellangowan, Mr. H. N. 
Middleton, Mr. Jno. Edward Wilson, Mr. P. Mackinnon, G. M. E., Sir 
T. Archibald, Mr. W. H. Gamlen, Lord Lawrence, Mr. Dimmock, Mr. 
Arthur Jones, Mr. Maitland Spencer, Mrs. Lawrence, Mr. Eobinson 
Douglas, Mr. H. M. Ormerod, Mrs. Stewart Dykes, Mr. W. Kemble, 
Eev, W. Hall-Houghton, the Bishop of Norwich, Rev. Archibald Morri- 
son, Sir W. Ramsay Fairfax, Sir W. C. Trevelyan, Lady Herschel, Mr. 
S. H. Officer, G. C, Rev. C. Watson, Mrs. Atkinson, Rev. S. S. Mander, 
Mrs. Cunliffe, Rev. G. Lawrence, Mrs. Ohphant, Mr. Wagner, M. J. T. 
Houghton, Professor Kinke, Mr. F. Pease, J. S., Captain Warren, Mr. 
E. H. Palmer, and others for donations varying from £.3 to £lOO, 
Many of these are second, tl\ird, or fourth donations." 

3. This Report having been formally adopted, the Committee proceeded 
to confirm the action of the late Executive Committee in strengthen- 
ing the body of the General Committee by the names of the Bishop of 
Adelaide, Mr. M' Arthur, M.P., and the Dean of Norwich. 

4. The Executive Committee was then re-elected for the following 
year, with the addition of Mr. John MacGregor. 



THE SErULCilRES OV DAVID AND OF THE KIXGS OF JUDAII. 195 

The Honorary Officers were re-elected. 

5. A vote of thanks was passed to the President of the American 
Association for the gift of their photographs. 

G. The Executive Committee received full powers to deal with the 
improvement or alteration of the Quarterly Statement as might be found 
expedient. 

7. A vote of thanks was then ^passed to the Chairman, and the 
Committee adjourned. 



THE SEPULCHEES OF DAVID AND OF THE KINGS 

OF ■ JUDAH. 

A HALO of intense interest surrounds the tomb of David. While its 
true position is a much disputed point in the topography of Jerusalem, 
its discovery would reveal the most ancient monument connected with 
the Holy City, and perhaps might throw some light upon the expres- 
sion, " the city of David." 

The recovery of such a precious relic of the past is a reward yet in 
store for some successful explorer ; the definition of its exact or probable 
position it is now proposed once more to assay by argument. 

We possess but scanty knowledge about early Jewish tombs, yet in 
three instances in the Old Testament (the sepulchre of Abraham, of the 
prophet at Bethel, and of Elisha) their situation S3ems to have been at 
least at some little distance from human habitations. 

It is stated, however, in the Bible more than twenty times of some 
one or other of the kings of Judah, that he was buried in the city of 
David, frequently with the additional words, " with his fathers." No 
special honour was necessarily conferred by such burial ' ' in the city of 
David," as is clear from the case of Jehoram, who was so buried (2 Kings 
viii. 24; 2 Chron. xxi. 20), whilst Josephus says (Ant. ix. 5. 3), "They 
neither buried him in the sepulchres of his fathers, nor vouchsafed him 
any honours, but buried him like a private man." 

The surprise naturally arising at this intramural sepulture on the part 
of the Jews increases to amazement when one reads that all Israel 
*' biu-ied Samuel in his house at Eamah" (1 Sam. xxv. 1). 

Perhaps, however, in our simplicity we have been making the Jews 
to do what they neither did nor thought of doing ; so that it is necessary 
to examine the two expressions, " buried in his house," and "buried in 
the city of David," with the view of ascertaining the precise meaning of 
the three words " house," ''city," and " iu." 

(A.) House. " They buried Samuel in his house." 
The Hebrew word here used for house is " Beth." In the following 
passages the same term is applied to a tomb : — 

Job XXX. 23. " The Jiouse appointed for all living." 



o 



■190 TJIE SEPULCHRES OF DAVID AND OF THE ICIXGS OF JUDAH. 

Job xvii. 13. " If I wait, the grave is mine house." 

Eccles. xii. 5. " Man goeth to his long home" (= house). 

Isaiah xiv. 18, 19. " All the kings of the nations, even all of them, lie 

in gloiy, every one in his own house. But thou art cast out of thy 

grave." 

Unless it can be very clearly shown that the use of the Avord Beth in 
these passages in the sense of tomh is inadmissible in the historical books, 
it seems that without hesitation it ought to be admitted that house 
= tomh in these thi-ee passages, viz. — 

1 Sam. XXV. 1 (as already quoted and elsewhere suggested). 

1 Kings ii. 34. •' Joab was buried in his own house in the wilderness." 

2 Chron. xxxiii. 20. " They buried Manasseh in his own house." (Com- 

pare the parallel passage in 2 Kings xxi. IS, "Manasseh slept with 
his fathers and was buried in the garden of his own house, in the 
garden of Uzza." 

This seems to me sufficient to dissipate the common misapprehension 
that when Samuel is said to have been buried in his house, he was buried 
in his dwelling-house. "House" in such pissages — (and should be 
translated) tomb or sepulchre. 

(B.) City, as in the words "the city of David," and similar expres- 
■^ions. 

From one passage it may be conclusively demonstrated that citij (in 
the phrase citi/ of Jtis refuge) embraces the surrounding suburbs — i.e., 
fields, and all the space within the Levitical boundary of 2,000 cubits. 
See Numb. xxxv. 2o-2S. Here it is said — 

2o. " The slayer shall abide in it " {i.e., the city of his refuge). 

26. " If the slayer shall at any time come without the border of the city 
of his refuge; (27) and the revenger of blood find him without the 
borders of the city of his refuge . . . and kill the slayer ; he shall 
not be guilty of blood : 

:28. " Because he should have remained in the city of his refuge." 

These verses shov/ that the slayer was not required for safety's sake to 

remain within the v/alls of the city of refuge, but only within its 

Levitical boimdary ; and yet if he went beyond that boundary and was 

slain, the avenger was not guilty, for the other ought to have remained 

■ ill the city — i.e., within its proscribed boundai'ies. 

•Hence it is clear that the word ciiij in such a case as Hebron or Kedesh 
includes a district outside the fortified walls. Why should it not have 
the same meaning in other cases, and even in the expression, " the city 
of David"? 

Indeed, in the story of Sliimoi (1 Kings ii. ;5(), 37) Jerusalem evidently 

means more than the city witlun the walls, for Solomon first says to 

•.iiim, "Build thee a house in Jerugalera, and dwell there, and (jo not 



THE SEPULCHRES OF DAVID AND OF THE KINGS OF JL'DAH. 197 

/orth thence any wliitlior ; " and then adds, " For ifc shall be, that on the 
day thou goest out and passest over the brook Kidron, . . . thou shalt 
know for certam that thou shalt surely die.'' Thus the limit imposed 
was not strictly the circuit of the walls of Jerusalem, but its suburbs, 
at least in one direction, so far as the Kedron. 

(C.) The Hebrew prefix translated in A. V. " in," is given by Gesenius 
as also signifying " at" — " near." 

The following passages in which this prefix is in A. V. rendered in, 
seem obviously to require it to be translated " near " : — 

1. Gen. xiii. 18. "Abraham dwelt in the plaui of Mann-o, which is ia 

Hebron." 
Surely not within the city itself, but only near it. 

2. Gen. xxxvii. 1:2, 13 (twice). " Feed their tlock in Shechem." 
This must be equivalent to " at " or " Jicr." 

^. Josh. xxiv. 32. "The bones of Joseph buried they in Shechem, in 
the jjarcel of ground which Jacob bought." 

vSurely the Shechemites would never have sold any of the land in the 
city to a stranger ; and the story in Genesis shows they did not. 

4. Josh. V. 13. " When Joshua was h>j Jericlio." 

This passage happily removes the last shadow of doubt. Here it was 
impossible for the translators (taking Jericho as — the city within the 
walls, as in chap. vi. 1, " Jericho was straitly shut up '") to render the 
Hebrew prefix any longer by the word in, so that they substituted " hi/," 
since " in Jericho " was just where Joshua was not. 

These examples are enough to show that in certain cases the prefix 
translated " in " cannot mean within, but only at or near; and there- 
fore the oft-repeated phrase rendered in A.V. " in the city of David," 
■does not of necessity mean within the walls of the city, but may equally 
well mean near the city of David. 

The prevalent opinion, then, that the sepulchre of David was withiii 
the city of David, having been founded on the above repeated expres- 
sion, is thus shown to be based on a misapprehension. The narrow 
meaning of "m" {i.e., within) being given to an equivalent having 
equally the wider signification of " at" or " near," has given rise to an 
" ignis fatiuisJ' 

Therefore the position of the sepulchre of David, whether within or 
without the walls of the city of David, must be decided on other con- 
siderations than this most misleading translation " in the citij of David." 

Farther, there is strong, if not conclusive, evidence in the Bible that 
one kiug said to have been buried in tlie city of David was really buried 
indsidc the walls. Azariah (or Uzziah) having been smitten with leprosy 
for his profane attempt to offer incense, was " a leper unto the day of 



198 THE SEPtJLCnRES OF DAVID AND OF THE KINGS OF JUDAII. 

Ms death, and dwelt in a several house And they buried him 

with his fathers in the city of David ('2 Kings xv. 5-7). In 2 Chron. 
xxvi. 23 this is explained, and it is more fully stated, that " they buried 
him with his fathers in the field of the burial which belonged to the 
kings ; for they said he is a leper." The fact of his being a leper was 
the reason of his being buried in a separate rock-cut chamber of his 
own in the same field (LXX. TreSiV) indeed, but not in the sepulchres of 
the kings. 

Josephus says (Antiq. ix. 10. 4) : " So he abode out of the city for 
some time, and lived a private life ; . . . after which he died with grief 
. . . and was buried by himself in his own gardens." 

If the defilement of leprosy shut out Uzziah for the rest of his life 
from the city, and when he was dead excluded him from sepulture in 
the sepulchres of David, we can hardly suppose it would have admitted 
of his burial within the city walls. 

The indirect testimony of Josephus is hardly conclusive either way. 
From his statements (Ant. vii. Ij. 3; xiii. 8. 4; xvi. 7. 1 : and "Wars 
i. 2. 5) of the great treasures buried in the tomb of David, it has been 
urged that the tomb could not have boon outside the walls, otherwise it 
would have been plundered when Jerusalem was besieged by foreign 
armies. To this there is the unanswerable reply, that if ever such 
treasures were deposited there it is incredible that they should have 
been left untouched in the dire extremities to which the kingdom was 
reduced, as for instance " when Hezekiah cut off the gold from the 
doors of the temple of the Lord." The suggestion that Hyrcanus took 
the Corban and then invented the story about the treasures found in the 
tomb of David, or that Herod spread the tale about Hyrcanus to excuse 
his own entrance into the tomb, seems satisfactorily to explain the state- 
ments of Josephus. It is highly probable, however, that the tombs of 
some of the kings, if not the sepulchral chambers of David and Solomon, 
had been riiied long before ; for in Baruch ii. 24, reference is made to 
the prophecy of Jeremiah (viii. 1) as already fulfilled. " At that time, 
saith the Lord, they shall bring out the bones of the kings of Judah 
. . . out of their graves." Still the passage (Ant. xvi. 7. 1) may be 
worth something as bearing upon the position of the tomb. On the 
words, " Elatpx^Tai npay/xaTeucrdnevos ^Kiffra fxiv iv rfj irdAa (pavepms elvai, 
Lewin observes, ' ' He was anxious to elude the observation of those in 
the city, from which the inference arises that the tomb itself lay v;ithout 
the city; for if both the palace and tomb were within it, the words in 
the city would have been superfluous." 

"We now come to the exceedingly valuahlc, but (to most) very per- 
2>hxin(j testimony of the book of Nehemiah — valuable, because it alone 
gives any indication of the position of David's sepulchre ; perplexing, 
because the position indicated has by most authorities been considered 
as lying outside the walls of the Jerusalem of David's time ; and there- 
fore has seemed to clash with the oft-repeated statement " in the city of 
David:' 



THE SEPULCHRES OF DAVID AND OF THE ICINGS OF JUDAII. 199 

Two passages have to be compared in Nehemiah — 

iii. 15, 16, 26. xii. 37. 

T/ie gate of the fountain At the fount a in gate, 

repaired Shallum ... lie built it wbich was over against them, they 
. . . and the wall of the pool of went np by 
Siloah by the king's garden, and 

unto the stairs that go down from the stairs of the city of David, 
the city of David. at the going up of the wall, 

After him repaired Nehemiah . . . 
unto the place over against the 

sepulchres of David, and to the pool above the house of David, 
that was made, . . . 
(26) Moreover the Nethininis 
(marg.) Avhich dwelt in Ophel, (re- 
paired) unto the place over against even unto 
the ivater gate toivard the east. the ivater gate eastward. 

This is not the time to enter upon the difficult question of the course 
of the wall and position of the gates of Jerusalem as restored by 
Nehemiah ; but it is agreed (universally, I believe) that the description in 
chap. iii. begins at the north-east and goes round by the west and 
south, returning at last to the starting-point at the north-east ; and 
that in the procession in chap. xii. the first company proceeds from west 
by south to east. The pool of Siloah is also admitted to be the pool 
of Siloam, so considered now, at the south end of the Ophel hill. 

Beyond this the case is almost one of " quot homines, tot sentential y 
Still since the position of the sepulchre of David is affected by the 
position of other points named in these passages, reasons are given 
below (Note A) which seem to me to indicate that — 

1. The /oifnteiji graie was near the pool of Siloam. 

2. The water gate was a gate leading from Ophel to the virgin's foun- 
tain, and was near to it. 

o. The p)Ool that was made was one lower down the Tyropooon valley 
(the '\old 2)001" on the oi'dnance map). 

4. The stairs of the city of David led down the Ophel hill to near the- 
pool of Siloam. 

The remarkable coincidence (in the parallel verses above) will have 
been observed. 

iii. 16. xii. 37. 

" The sepulchre of David " (corresponding to) " the house of David." 

If now we take the word " house " (it is the former word " Beth ") in 
the sense it has been shown to possess by paragraph A, the difficulty 
about the palace of David vanishes, having all along been based on a 
misapprehension, and the two passages in Nehemiah, mutually support- 
ing one another, afford us their combined assistance towards fixing the 
position of the tomb of David. 

The order given in Neh. iii. lu seems to me to show that the stairs 



200 TilE SEPULCHRES OF DAVID AXD OF THE KINGS OF JUDAIl. 

of the city of David could not liave descended westwards from Ophel 
into the Tyropceon valley to a point at all considerably north of the 
pool of Siloam; for (1st) the procession went up a< (most probably = 
■close to) the fountain gate, and (2nd) it most certainly went up by the 
stairs, ai the jioiut where the wall went up, ''at the. (joing up of the 
7vaU." 

Agciin, as the pool that -was made seems almost certainly to be the 
loiver pool of Siloam, the first company cannot possibly have gone round 
by the south side of it, because such a course for the wail would not 
admit of the stairs of the city of David forming a point in the rebuilding 
of the wall between the pool of Siloam and the jmoI that was made. 

The city wall may have run round the north side of the pool of 8iloam, 
i-c, of the upper pool, or (less probably) on the south side of it. 

If the stairs were close to the wall (which seems in-obable) then since 
the company went ahove {= over, as in xii. 37, " (from) ahove the gate of 
Ephraim," &c.) the sepulchre of David, it is rather difficult to under- 
stand how the entrance to the tomb could have been otherwise than 
outside the wall of the city. But if the stairs diverged from the wall, 
then they might have been said to have gone over the house (= tomb) 
of David, even while the ejitrance was within the walls. Again, 
Nehemiah (iii. IG) might probably have been said to have repaired over 
against {= in sight of, or opposite to) the sepulchres of David, whether the 
entrance was within or without the city, for it is diflftcult to limit the 
use of the words "over against" exclusively to objects either inside or 
outside the line of the walls. (See Note B.) 

It may be added that, since it seems to have been an especial mark 
of honour to possess a sepulchre in an elevated situation — as was the 
case v/ith Shebna's tomb (Isa. xxii. 16), "He that heweth him out a 
sepulchre on high" (LXX. iv ^v^v), and perhaps with Hezekiah's(2 Chron. 
xxxii. 33), " They buried him in the chiefest (margin, "highest;" LXX. 
fc ava^daei) of the sejiulchres of the sons of David " — it seems probable 
that the entrance to the tomb of David was either cut in the face of a 
high wall of rock or situated near to the top of the steep pomt (forty or 
fifty feet high, Eobiason's " Researches ") with which the ridge of Ophel 
ends, just over Siloam. The field of the burial of the kings, 2 Chron. 
xxvi. 23 (in which Uzziah was buried in his own gardens, probably the 
same as the garden of Uzzah, 2 Kings xxi. 18, 2G), may have been just 
below in the Tyroiioeon valley, at the south end of Ophel, the position 
apparently (Zech. xiv. 10) of the king's winepresses and near the king's 
garden. 

The actual discovery of the tomb of David is more properly the 
v/ork of the pick than of the pen, but if the argument here attempted 
be sound, the position of the tomb is brought within very circumscribed 
limits. 

If, therefore, the Ophel wall could be found near the pool of Siloam 

and traced east or north-east till opposite the lower end of the 

j}ool that luas made (the old pool, O. S.), we must come somewhere to 



THE SEPULCnUES OF PAVID AKD OF THE KINGS OF JUDAH. 201 

" the (joing up oftJtc wall,'" and then wc ought to find cut in the rock on 
its western side the stairs of the city of David. Ascending these we 
pass over the tomb of David, while its entrance would seem to be below 
ns, somewhere on the right hand. Captain "Warren (" Recovery of 
Jerusalem," p. 2S0) speaks of steps existing at Siloam, and states that 
they lead up towards the Ophel hill. 

NOTE A. 
Founfain Gate. — It will be allowed by tho supporters of all theories- 
that— 

1st. The fountain gate stood somewhere on a line drawn from the south- 
east I'Vow of the upper city to the pool of Siloam, perhaps p>assinci throiujh 
a point up the Tyropoeon valley and ending dose to the pool of Siloam. 

2nd. The wall of the city, after the rebuilding hy Nehemiah, at lead 
approached near to the sa)ae pool. 

A wall must certainly have done so in the time of Hezckiah to protect 
the pool ; but that another wall ran across the Ophel hill farther north, 
to a point opposite to the Virgin's fountain, seems to me to be a pure 
supposition ; while the crossing of Ophel along such a line would have 
formed so remarkable a feature in the night journey that its omission 
in the narrative would be inexplicable. A necessary consequence of this- 
second point seems (to me) to be that we must allow that — 

3rd. The wall of the pool of Siloah means (as seems natural) the city 
wall towards the south end of Ophel, close to the pool, and not (as has- 
been suggested as probable) the wall on the distant heights round the 
lower part of the Tyropoeon. 

4th. There luas a gate or some kind of outlet from the city close to this 
siwt.— For (1) if the pool were outside tho walls and no access to it- 
• existed at this point, whither did the stairs lead ? but (2) if the pool 
were inside the city wall, the weakest point in this part is taken thereby 
into the line of defences, and -with its admission the objection to draw- 
ing the city wall from the south-east corner of the upper city to Siloam 
at once vanishes. Then the fountain gate ceases to be one leading down 
from the city wall above, having found its natural position close to the 
fountain of Siloam, and it becomes instead an outlet from the city at 
the south of Ophel. In placing the fountain gate elsewhere than close 
to the j)Ool of Siloam, we should have to account for the extraordinary 
omission of any mention of, or allusion to, a gate near Siloam, even 
while we are told of the wall being repaired at this point as far as the- 
stairs that go down from the city of David. Besides, we should have also 
to alter our translation of Neh. iii. 37, which is (I think) fairly ren- 
dered — " At the fountain gate, which was over against them, they went 
up by the stairs." 

It would seem, therefore, that it is not practicable to avoid placing- 
the fountain gate close to the pool of Siloam, whether we adopt the 
curve round the Tyropoeon, or tho line straight across to Siloam, as the 
course of the city wall on the south. 



202 THE SEPULCHRES CF DAVir A^'D OF THE KINGS OF JUDAH. 

The water gate towards the east.— It seems to me that this ivater gate 
was the gate by which women used to go down from Ophel to draw 
water from the Virgin's fountain. Captain Warren's interesting dis- 
covery of the way in which it was rendered practicable to obtain water 
■from this spring without going out of the city, tends to show that there 
was a need for using this supply ; and that therefore it was previously 
the custom to go outside the city to draw water from this source. 

We ought, then, naturally to look for a gate near the Virgin's foun- 
tain, and we seem to have such a gate (agreeing both in name and 
2)Osition with what we want) in that mentioned as the water gate towards 
the east. (The same descriptive expression is used in connection with 
the ?iorse gate farther north in Jer. xxxi. 40, " Unto the corner of the 
horse gate toiuard the east.") Obviously there must have been a gate 
in this position, so that if it was not the Wfiter gate mentioned in iii. 2(5, 
we have one gate (and even two, if we suppose the fountain gate not to 
be near the pool of Siloam) passed over without any mention or allu- 
sion in chap. iii. ; for in ver. 7, " the throne of the governor on this side 
the river" ansv/ers, I believe, to the gate of Ephraim, the place for 
administering justice being, of course, at the gate. 

No argument against the water gate having been a gate in the outer 
wall seems (to me) to lie in the fact that no mention is made of its 
having been repaired, since the same silence is observed both in regard 
to the horse gate and the gate MiphJcad (not to mention the Ephraim 
^ate) ; and if it be urged that no one of these three was in the outer 
wall, then we have to explain the astounding circumstance, that there 
is neither any mention of, nor allusion to, any outer gate in the Avhole 
course of the eastern wall— a thing perfectly incredible, while so many 
particulars are given of the repairing of that wall. 

The pool that luas made.— In csise of the water gate being an outer 
gate near the Virgin's fountain, as seems to me to be proved above, 
then in default of any evidence of a pool situated farther south in the 
valley of the Kedron, it follows that the pool that was made must be a 
j90oZ in the Tyropceon ravine, somewhere lower down than the pool of 
•Siloam— that is, it must be the lower pool of Siloam, marked Old Pool 
(O. Survey), and now indicated by the remains of an embankment across 
the mouth of the valley. 

It seems probable, however, that we must arrive at the same result 
irom other considerations. 

In three jjlaccs (2 Kings xxv. 4, Jer. xxxix. 4, Iii. 7) we are told that 
Zedekiah escaped by the gate between the two walls near the king's garden. 
Had mention been made only of the Icing's garden, then it might have 
been that he escaped by a gate near the Virgin's fountain, since the 
royal gardens were near this spot (see Qnarterhj Statement, No. V., 1870, 
p. 253, and Jos. Ant. vii. 14. 4). Or had mention been made only of the 
two vxiUs, then he might have escaped on the west side of the city near 
the valley gate, since certainly in the time of Manasseh there were two 
walls in this part (2 Chron. xxxiii. 14), though the difficulty of eluding 



WIE SEPULCHRES OF DAVID AXD OF THE KINGS OF JUDAH. 203 

the ChaldiEans would have been vastly increased by quitting the city on 
its western side. The combined mention, however, of the king's garden 
and the two walls, forces upon us the conclusion that Zedokiah escaped 
down the Tyropoeon valley, or at all events through the part of it near 
the pool of iSiloam, 

This seems to be the way indicated by Josephus when he says he fled 
out of the city through the fortified ditch (icapTepos (papayyos. Ant. x. S. 2). 

The LXX. have a remarkable gloss on Jer. lii. 7, for they render be- 
tween the two walls by avajxtcrov tov reixov'^ kol tou TrpOTetX'C^aTor. 

When this is compared -with their translation of 2 Chron. xxxii. 5, 
" (Hezekiah) buUt up all the wall that was broken and raised it up to 
the towers and (elw irpoTi'iXt(TiJ.a &\\o) another ivaU without," one is inclined 
to think that the translators possessed considerable topographical know- 
ledge in this case, and that -rrpoTeixicrixa in both cases represents the same 
wall. It seems to me reasonable to conclude that the wall " without " of 
HezeJciah and that of Manasseh (2 Chron. xxxiii. 14) were not identical, 
but that while the latter was on the west side of the city near the valley 
gate, the former was either (1) built by Hezekiah from near the pool of 
tSiloam (or the south part of the Ophel wall) taking in the pools of Siloam, 
and reaching to the south-east part of the upper city wall, or (2) was 
an outer wall built round one or both of the two pools of Siloam of the 
present day ; at any rate round the lower pool, since the uj^per might 
previously have been within the walls. 

As the two walls in the three passages named have undoubtedly to do 
mth some part of the Tyropoeon valley, south of the present city wall, 
it seems only reasonable to consider that they are also referred to in 
Isa. xxii. 11. "Ye made a ditch (= pool) between the two walls.'" As 
this took place in the time of Hezekiah, there seems every reason for 
concluding that the very same pool is referred to in 2 Kings xx. 20, 
where among the acts of Hezekiah it is stated that he " made a pool." 

As we are not told of any other pool being specially made, it seems 
that nothing short of a very strong reason can release us from conclud- 
ing that the pool thus already (apparently t\vice) mentioned as heing made, 
is the identical pool described in Neh. iii. 16 as the pool that was made. 
Thus we arrive at the former result in another way. From this it would 
seem that the king's pool (Neh. ii. 14) must be the Virgin's fountain, 
and so identical with Solomon's pool (Jos. Wars, v. 4. 2) ; while the 
contracting of the Kedron ravine at this point may have caused the 
ridns to have completely blocked the way. 

Stairs of the citg of David. — As these are mentioned after the fountain 
gate and the wall of the pool of Siloam, and hefore the pool that was 
made, it is obvious that they were both near the pool of Siloam, and 
on the hill of Ophel; while if ''at the fountain gate" is a correct 
translation, meaning " close to it," it follows that the foot of the stairs 
must have been very near not only to the gate but also to the pool 
of Siloam ; because the order in Neh. iii. 15 is the gate, the pool, and then 
the stairs. 



204 NOTE ON KOB. 



NOTE B. 



' Evoii on the admission (Note A) that the pool that was made was in 
the Tyropccon valley, it might still be urged that the loioer pool of 
Siloam was the pool of Siloah, and the iq-ti^er pool of Siloam was the 
pool made by Hezekiah. 

Such a view may possibly be consistent with the LXX. rendering of 
Nell, xii. 37, Isa. xxii. 11, though the objections to it on other grounds 
seem to me very strong. If it could be maintained, then the line of the 
wall and stairs would have to be [drawn from the north end of the 
embankment up the Ophel hill, and the position of the tomb of David 
altered accordingly. W. F. BiRCii. 

St. Saviour's Eectory, Manchester. 



NOTE ON NOB. 

(0) Bearing on page 56, lines 15, 14 from the end, and page 58, last 
paragraph, is the important passage in Ecclesiastious xlviii. 18, "In his 
time Sennacherib came up and sent Eabsaces, [and lifted up Ms hand 
against Sion and boasted proudly" (LXX., koI aTvjpe (e'/c Aax^'is) koI eir^pe 

Xe'ipa). 

The words in italics seem only a reproduction of Isaiah x. 32, "As 
yet shall he remain at Nob that day : he shall shake his hand against the 
motint of the daughter of Zion." 

Here it has been commonly .assumed that the shaking of the hand 
was to be effected both at NoV and also in sight of Jerusalem. The 
writer of Ecclesiasticus, however, the earliest commentator on the passage, 
evidently takes Isaiah's Avords to refer to the haughty message of Sen- 
nacherib delivered by Eabshakeh (2^ Kings xviii. 17— xix. 4). 

Therefore the shaking of the hand took plac{? not at Nob, but in fact 
within earshot of Jerusalem — "by [the 'conduit of the upper pool, 
which is in the highway of the fuller's field," and the condition that 
" Zion should be visible from Nob " is not required by Isa. x. 32. 

(6) I cannot but think that; Lieutenant Condet must have fallen into 
some mistake in saying in his note on page GO that — 

(1) " Ai (et Tell) is not visible from Jeb'a." My observations give 
ct Tell as visible from a point of lower elevation than Jeb'a, about half 
a mile east of it, and as b jing a hill to attract attention all the way 
to Eamah. 

Eobinson (Eesearches, vol. ii. p. 113) from Jeb'a saw Dcir Diwan ; so 
that the loftier et Tell immediately west of it can hardly be out of 
sight. 

(2) "Jeb'a is hidden by the Hizmeh 'ridge" {i.e., I suppose from 
Anathoth). But {id., p. 110), "From this point Anata there was an 
extensive view. Jeb'a was before us, bearing N. 10 degrees E." 

These discrepancies show how sometimes even careful observers may 



NOTE ON kal'at jalud. 205 

be mistaken. Accordingly I still hope that some part of the hill of 
Eamah jnay prove to be in sight from some part of Jeb'a, perhaps from 
the old tower, possibly also Almit, as well as the western ridge over- 
looking L'Isawiyeh, since Laish might easily have stood higher than the 
present village. 

(c) One reason for identifying Tell el Ful with Gibeah of Benjamin is 
th t the Levite (Judges xix.) going north from Bethlehem proposed to 
lodge at Gibeah or Eamah. Josephus (Ant. v. 2. 8) says, that from 
near Jerusalem he went on twenty stadia and came to Gibeah. Lieut. 
Conder says the distance to Tell el Ful is little over twenty-two. The 
agreement is sufficiently close. 

Again, Tell el Ful may be identified with Gibeah of Saul, for Titus, 
marching from Gophna ("Wars, v. 2. 1), pitched his camp at the valley 
of thorns, near a village called Gabaoth Saul — i.e., the hill of Saul, 
being distant from Jerusalem about thirty stadia. The " distant " refers 
to the valley, not to the village or hill, and even then Josephus, who 
often speaks in round numbers, only ventures to say ahout thirty stadia. 
Geba lies quite away from the direct road. 

That there should have been two Gibeahs close together, and that 
both names should have perished, seems more improbable than the 
identity of Gibeah of Benjamin and Gibeah of Saul. 

It is allowed that Gibeah may = Geba in 1 Sam. xiv., but that Geba 
■was ever called Geba (or Gibeah) of Benjamin (xiv. 16) is not so clear. 

Errata. — For visible from, etc. (p. 51), read visible not far from 
Diospolis or Lydda, in justice to Jerome, whose words are, " ffaud 
procul ab ea [i.e., Lydda) vidit Nobe." 

After but (p. 58, line 8) read ? 

After S.E. of Geba {id., line 26) read called Goba. 

W. F. Birch. 



NOTE ON KAL'AT JALUD. 

In 1872, I sent home a sketch of the southern chamber of this castle 
and some notes published in the Quarterly Statement for October of that 
year (see p. 172). 

The drafted masonry is of no great size, and the bosses are rustic. 
On the west wall of the south chamber is a pointed arch, with masonry 
dressed with a draft, the boss carefully worked; there are five voussoirs 
to the arch. The piers, which are older than the small modern masonry, 
have alf«o rustic bosses to the stones. I saw nothing^ iu the two 
chambers which I visited which could be ascribed to an earlier period than 
the Crusading Tancred's Tower. The descriptions given in the memoir 
of the Crusading castles of 'AthlU, Kauhah, and Kalansdwieh, built in 
places where no old ruins of importance are known to have existed 
before the twelfth century, will, I hope, show clearly that large masonry, 
three to five or six feet in the length of the stones, was hewn by the 

R 



206 ■ THE SITE OF JESHANAH. 

Crusaders, and dressed with a deep draft and a rustic boss quite dif- 
ferent from the dressing of the temple stones. The tool marks are often 
diagonal (as at Soba), and the stones used in pointed arches at 'Athlit 
are of exactly similar character, and must evidently have been quarried 
by the twelfth century masons. C. E. C. 



THE SITE OF JESHANAH. 

(Reprinted from the Athenccum, by permission of the Proprietors.) 

Eehoboam, son and successor of Solomon, was powerless against tlie 
usurper Jeroboam, who caused the schism of the ten tribes, and estab- 
lished, for his own advantage, the kingdom of Israel. The hands of 
the king of Judah were too fidl already with the invasion of the Egyptian 
Shishak, protector and, jjerhaps, father-in-law of Jeroboam. 

Eighteen years later, Abijah, Eehoboam's son, found himself strong 
enough to measure arms with his father's enemy. He assumed the 
offensive, and, at the head of a strong army, invaded Jeroboam's terri- 
tory, taking up his position in Zemaraim, in Mount Ephraim, north of 
Jerusalem. Jeroboam, whose forces were double those of his adversary, 
accepted battle ; wishing, however, to take advantage of his superiority 
in numbers, and to attack Abijah in flank, he divided his forces in two 
parts, and was completely defeated. Abijah, following up the victory, 
took possession of three cities. Bethel, Jeshanah, and Ephron, each 
" with the towns thereof" (2 Chron. xiii. 19), a fact which assigns them 
considerable importance. Two of these places are already identified, 
Bethel with Beitin, EjDhron with Ophrah at Taiyibeh. As to Jeshanah, 
it is classed among the desiderata in Biblical topography. 

These three places, whose capture is the immediate result of Abijah's 
victory, must be very near each other. They formed a strategic group ; 
they were on the confines of Jtidah and Israel; Bethel marked very 
nearly the frontier, Jeshanah was probably to the north of that place, 
and in its neighbourhood; it would, therefore, belong to Ephraim, a 
fact which explains why it is only mentioned once in the Bible, the list 
of Ephraim, as every one knows, being omitted from the Book of Joshua. 

This granted, I propose to locate Jeshanah at Ain Sinia, about five 
kilometres north of Beitin. 

The village of Ain Sinia is indubitably an ancient site. Its numerous 
and abundant springs must very early have attracted residents. A large 
cemetery is cut in the rock, and on the door of one of the tombs I found 
an inscription in ancient Hebrew character, in which I traced the name 
of Hananiah, son of Eleazar. 

The name of Sinia, found also in that of the valley where the village 
stands, corresponds exactly to the Hebrew Jeshanah, generally explained 
to mean old. Geographical names commencing in Hebrew with je 



THE SITE OF JESHANAII. 207 

generally lose the initial syllable on passing into Arabic, as Jericho= 
Eiha, Jesh.imotli=Su\veimeli, Jezrael=Zerin, &c. ; the Hebrew shin be- 
comes an Arabic sin, the alteration of a into « is quite natural in the 
mobility of Semitic vowels. We thus obtain successive and normal 
transformations, Jeshanah, Shanah, Sanah, Sinah. From Sinah to 
Sinia is but a single step, and we have the analogous names of Kebbia, 
Ain Kefria, Jilgilia, &c. 

Topographically and onomastically, Ain Sinia has every right to be 
accepted for the ancient Jeshanah. It is remarkable that Beitin, Ain 
Sinia, and Taiyibeh, otherwise Bethel, Jeshanah, and Ephron, form a 
triangle (its south point represented by Bethel), which must have pos- 
sessed considerable strategic value, occupying as it does a plateau 
whence run in different directions the wadys to the Mediterranean and 
the Dead Sea. It is in this triangle that I would place the territory 
acquired by Abijah with the "benoth," or villages dependent on the 
three cities, and now represented by ruins or scattered hamlets. 

C. Clekmoistt-Gaiweau. 



PALESTINE 
EXPLORATION FUND. 



Patron— THE QUEEN. 



^arterly Statement 



FOR 1878. 



LONDON : 

PUBLISHED AT THE 

SOCIETY'S OFFICE, ii and 12, CHARING CROSS, S.W., 

AND BY 

RICHARD BENTLEY & SON, 8, NEW BURLINGTON STREET. 



INDEX. 



Abel Mea and Abel Maula, 21 
Acra, 185 

Ai, The Site of, 74, 132, 194 
Anath, 20 
Arimathrea, 20 
Ataroth Adar, 18 
Beidan, 20 
Bethabara, 120 
Betliamari, 20 

Bethel and Dan, The Calves of, 27 
Bethphage, The Stone of, 51, 146 
Bethulia, 18 
Beth Shearaim, 19 
Bir Eyiib, 21 
Bornata, 22 

Charashim, Valley of, 18 
Conder's, Lieut. , Notes from the Memoir, 
18, 76 
,, ,, Notes on Architecture 
in Palestine, 29 
Debir, 121 ^ 

El Heidhemiyeh, 20 
El Mineh, 22 
Elon, 19 

Etam, The Rock, 116 
Galilee, Synagogues of, 123 

,, Survey of, 159 

,, Expedition to Sea of, 176 
Gaza, Note on, 199 
General Committee, Meeting of, 108 
German Association for the Exploration 

of Palestine, 200 
Gilgal, 118 

Gutter, The (Heb. Tzinnor), 184 
Hinnom, The Valley of, 179 
Irpeel, 18 

Itineraries of our Lord, 15, 67, 193 
Jebel T6r'an, Panoramic view from, 122 
Jerusalem, Eecent Discoveries at, 78 
Joshua's Tomb, 22 
Kefr Kama, 19 

Kirjath-jearim, The Site of, 114, 196 
Kitchener's, Lieut., Eeports : — 
(7 and 8) Jerusalem, 10, H 



Kitchener's, Lieut., Reports : — 

„ (9) Nablus, 14 

,, New Pliotographs, 134 

,, Report of, 174 
Lachish, 19 

.Maccabees, Tombs of the, 74 
Meiron, Note on the Ancient Synagogue 

at, 24' 
Midian and its Gold, The Land of, 141 
Moabite Pottery, The, 41, 88 
Nain, The Village of, 115 
Nehhaliu, 18 

Notes and News, 1, 47, 105, 155 
Palestine, Northern Boundary of, 76 
Patriarchs, The Tombs of the, 20 
Kabbah of the Children of Amnion, 189 
Saiyadeh, 19 
Scapegoat, The, 118 
Seir and Jearim, Mounts, 19 
Sharon, The Rose of, 46, 51 
Siddim, The Vale of, 18 
Siloah, Siloam, 187 
Sion, The Position of, in the fourth, 

fifth, and sixth centuries, 16 
Sirah, The Spring of, 121 
Sisera, The Death of, 115 
South Kensington, Meeting at, 4 
St. John, The Penance Mountain of, 20 
Succoth, 21 

Succoth and Pcnuel, 81 
Surtubeh, 21 

Survey, Corapletion'of the, 5 
Survey, Journal of the, 8, 62 
Sychar of St. John, The, 114 
Tarichepe, Note on, 79 

,, Notes on the Position of, 190 
Temple, The Veil of the, 79 
Tent Work in Palestine, 50, 114 
Virgin's Fountain, 187 
Wady Kelt, 119 
Werdeh, 22 
Yemma, 19 

Zion, The City of David, 129, 178 
Zir, 21 



Quarterly Statement, January, 1878.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND, 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

*^* On and after December 27th, the address of the Fund will Le at 11 and 
12, Ghariug Cross, S.W. 

We were aljle early in October, immediately after the issue of the Quarterly 
Statement, to announce that the Survey of the n-liole of Western Palestine was 
coniiileted on the 28th of September, and that Lieut. Kitnliener had started from 
Jerusalem to execute the revision of certain portions of the country. This, too, 
is now finished, and the materials for completing Map and Memoirs have 
all arrived in England. Thus the Survey, announced in the Q.uarterly 
Statement of January, 1872, as then commenced, has taken exactly six years to 
execute. Had it not been for the interruption due to the attack at Safed, it 
would have been accompliJ.-^ied a year ago. 



We print at page 5 the letter sent by the Chairman of tlie Executive Com- 
mittee to the papers announcing the completion of the Survey. 



Lieut. Conder's Memoirs steadily progress. Hi=! party are now at work in an 
ofRce placed at the disposal of the Committee by Her ]\Iajesty'3 Government iu 
the South Kensington Museum. 

The work of the Committee for 1878 will probably consist entirely in the pre- 
paration of Map and Memoirs. It is believed that Lieut. Conder will finish his part 
of the Memoirs early in the spring. Probably Lieut. Kitchener will not require 
more than a year for the Memoirs of North Palestine, and the hill-shading, 
observations, and map-drawing will be pushed on as rapidly as possible. 



The following is the financial position of the Fund (Dec. 12, 1877). Receipts, 
September 19th to December 12, £874 13s. 9d. Expenditure : Exploration, 
£485 ; office and management, £172 17s. 7d. Printers, &c., £190 19s. 7d. The 
balance in the banks on the latter day was £230 16s. 

The maintenance of a large staff of engineers, with the current expense of 
printing our reports, &c., requires an expenditure of over £200 a month; there 
are debts to pay amounting to about £600, and it will be most desirable to have a 
fund in hand for future work. Will subscribers remember that the earlier their 
.subscriptions are jiaid in the better it is for the Committee ? It would be, indeed, 
best that all subscriptions should date from the beginning of the year, but this 
point is only suggested, as it has always been tlie practice in the Fund for sub- 
scribers to choose their own time. 



o 



2 NOTES AND NEWS. 

Lieut. Kitchener -writes Avitli regard to Jacob's Well: — " "WTien passin_ 
I^ablus, on my way to Jerusalem, I paid a visit to Jacob's "Well. As it -was 
late when I arrived, and I was obliged to leave early next morning, I had not 
much time to examine the well very thoroughly. The well is situated in an 
almost square enclosure, which measui'es 192 ft. by 151ft.; the wall of this 
enclosure is almost entirely destroyed ; in many cases it is completely levelled 
with the ground ; the ground contained by this enclosure is completely covered 
with shapeless ruins, forming a large mound. The well is situated in a vaulted 
chamber, the entrance being through a broken portion of the roof of the vault, 
with about 7 ft. drop on tlie inside. Above this vault there is about 3 ft. to 
6 ft. of rubbish accumulated. The entrance to the well itself was closed by large 
stones." 



The shield of Hamseh has been taken down from the mosque by the Pasha, 
and is now in the serail. It was said that a brass plate was found in the Haram 
bearing the arms of the twelve tribes of Israel, and there was some excitement 
amongst the Jews. It appears to have been the cover of a baptismal font or of 
some vesiel, and is made of bronze containing a great deal of silver. The work 
appears to Lieut. Kitchener to be Italian, of the twelfth century ; the shield was 
cast. 



Outside the Damascus gate an inscription has been found in a tomb west of 
Jeremiah's grotto and near the probable site of St. Stephen's Church ; it is in 
one line on a slab of stone 4 ft. by 2 ft. V^ in., and runs as follows : — 

+ 0hkha"ia*epsc 



Lieut. Conder reports that he has obtained from Jacob Shellaby, now in 
London, some interesting information on Samaritan traditions. He states that 
the Samaritans believe the Cave of j\Iakkedali to be a certain cavern now blocked 
up on the side of Gerizim, between the place of sacrifice and the road leading 
down to Kas el 'Ain. 

At 'Awertah are not only the tombs of Eleazar and Pliinehas, Init also of 
Ithamar and Abishuah (supposed author of the famous Samaritan Roll), close to 
the tomb of Eleasar. At Kefr Haiis, south of Shechem, they believe Joshua, 
of Nun, and Caleb, son of Jephunnch, to be buried. Joshua died in 'Awertah, 
Avhich agrees with the account in the Samaritan book of Joshua. 

Lieut. Conder also reports as follows on the nomenclature: — "During the 
months of August and September Mr. S. Bergheini, of Jerusalem, was in London. 
Being the owner of 5,000 acres of land at Abu Shusheh, he has lived there many 
years, and knows thoroughly the peculiar dialect of the peasantry. I was glad to 
submit to him, therefore, the translation of the nomenclature, on which lie pro- 
nounced a very favourable oyjinion, and also gave me the local meaning attached 
to a variety of curious words, and special information as to the neighbourhood of 
Abu Shusheh, and as to many places in Jerusalem. It must be bonn; in mind 
that the peasant dialect proves to be much nearer to Aramaic (which Jerome 
.says was the native language in his time) than to modern literary Arabic, and 
the criticism of persons who are familiar with this dialect is thus of the highest 
value. The natives of the great towns are often quite at a loss to understand 
the peasants, and ignorant entirely of the meaning of many words which they 
use commonly. 

Lieut. Conder proposes (see p. 46) that the Pose of Sharon, l^the meaning of 
which has never been certainly determined, is probably the Narcissus, a plant 
which grows freely in spring in the Plain of Sharon. 

A letter fiom the German Consul at Jerusalem, Baron Von Munchausen, 
whicli we repioduce from the AtJu'i ceum, deicribes a visit to Moab, in which he 
found certain vases and idols resembling the "Moabite" antiquities sold by 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



Mr. Shapira to the German Government. We publish this letter, with Mr. 
Shapira'.s notes, and Professor Neubaucr's reply, in continuation of the argu- 
ments for and against the genuineness of this collection which have already 
appeared in these pages. 



Lieut. Gender is engaged on a work entitled " Tent- work in Talestine," in 
which lie will give an account of his work, its progress, its dilhculties, and some 
of its results. The book, which will be ijublished for the Committee by Messrs. 
Bentley and Son, will be in two volumes at 24s. But a large reduction will be 
made for subscribers. As in the case of other writers, the Committee leave 
Lieut. Conder to express his own conclusions, without in any way san(;tioning or 
adopting them. 



Several cases were dissevered in 1876, and one or tv»o last year, of postage 

stamps being lost on their way to the office. The only way to avoid such loss is 

to send money by P. 0.0. or 1>y cheque, in every case 2}a]/nble to the order of 

Walter Besant, and cronsed to Coutts and Co., or the Union Bank, Charing 

Cross Branch. 



The ninth thousand of "Our Work in Palestine" is now ready (price 3s. 6d.), 
and may be ordered of booksellers. This book carries the v/ork down to the 
commencement of the Survey, but does not embrace M. Ganneau's discoveries 
nor the results of the Survey itself. 



The following are at present Pi,epresentatives and Lecturers of the Society, in 
addition to the local Hon. Sees. : — 

Archdeaconry of Hereford : Kev, J. S. Stooke-Vaughaa, Wellington Heatli 
Yioarage, Ledbury. 

City and neighbourhood of Manchester : Piev. W. F. Birch, St. Saviour's 
Hectoiy. 

Lancashire : Rev. John Bone, St. Thomas's Vicarage, Lancaster. 

London : Rev. Henry Geary, 16, Somerset Street, Portman Square. 

Norwich : Rev. F. C. Long, Stow -upland, Stowmarket. 

Peterborough : Rev. A. J. Foster, Farndish Rectory, Wellingborough. 

Worcester : Rev. F. W. Holland, Evesham (Member of General and Executive 
Committee, and one of the Hon. Secretaries to the Fund). 

Diocese of Ripon : Rev. T. C. Henley, Kirkby Malham Vicarage. 

North Wales : Rev. John Jones, Treborth, Bangor. 

Yorkshire and Durham : Rev. James King, 13, Paradise Terrace, Darlington, 

Ireland. — Diocese of Armagh : Rev. J. H. Townsend. 
Rev. G. J. Stokes, Blackrock, Dublin. 
Scotland. — Rev. R. J. Craig, Dalgetty, Burntisland. 

The Rev. Horrocks Cocks, 19, Edwardes Square, Kensington, has also kindly 
offered his services among the Nonconformist churches. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications by officers 
■of the Fund, the Committee beg it to be distinctly understood that they leave 
■such proposals to be discussed on their own merits, and that by pul>lishing them 
in the Quarterly Statement the Committee do not sanction or adopt them. 



Annual subscribers are earnestly requested to forward their subscriptions for 
the current year when due, at their earliest convenience, and without waiting for 
application. 



The Committee are always glad to receive old numbers of the Quarterly State' 
ment, especially those which are advertised as out of print. 



4 MEETING AT SOUTH KENSINGTON. 

Attention is called to the statement already advertised, that subscribers 
to the Fund are privileged by the publishers to receive both the "Literary 
Kemains of the late Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake," and the "Underground, 
Jerusalem " of Captain Warren, at reduced rates. The former book will be sent 
for ten shillings, the latter for sixteen shillings, postage paid. But letters asking 
for them must be sent to the office at 9, Pall Mall East only. 



Ladies desirous of joining the Ladies' Associations are requested to communi- 
cate with Mrs. Finn, The Elms, Brook Green, London, W. The full report of 
meetings held by Mrs. Finn during the last quarter will be published in April, 
as, owing to the early publication of this Statement, it could not be prepared in 
time. 



Cases for binding the Quarterly Statement are now ready, and can be had on 
application to Messrs. R. Bentley and Son, 8, New Burlington Street. They are 
in green or brown cloth, with the stamp of the Society, uniform in appearance 
with "Our Work in Palestine," and are sold at the price of eighteenpence. 



Lieut. Kitchener's Guinea Book of Biblical Photographs can be bought at Mr. 
Stanford's establishment, .^5, Charing Cross. It contains twelve views, with a 
short account of each. They are mounted on tinted boards, and handsomely 
bound. 



MEETING AT SOUTH KENSINGTON. 

On Monday eveuing, November 12tli, a meeting on behalf of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund was held in the Vestry Hall, Kensington, 
the Vicar presiding. The hall was densely crowded by an attentive and 
enthusiastic audience, and a large number of persons were unable to 
obtain admission. On the platform were the Eev. Dr. Hessey, Eev. Dr. 
Stoughton, Dr. Gladstone, F.R.S., Mr. J. MacGregor, M.A., Mr. W. S. 
W. Vaux, Eev. H. Cocks, Dr. Ealeigh, Mr. S. C. Hall, Eev. S. Sabunjie, 
D.D., of Beyrout, Eev. G. Wingate, M.A., Eev. E. Macbeth, Mr. T. 
Fordham, Lieutenant C. E. Conder, E.E., Dr. Grove, Mr. Edmond 
Beales, M.A., Mr Walter Besant, Dr. Dudfield, Eev. J. S. Eussell, 
M.A., Mr. H. Wright, J.P., Eev. C. T. Ackland, Mr. Hugh Matheson, 
and other gentlemen. The Eev. Horrocks Cocks having stated that 
letters from the Earl of Shaftesbury, Lord Lawrence, G.C.B., Mr. J. A. 
Froude, M.A., the Bishop of Sydney, Sir Trevor LaAvrence, M.P., Mr. 
W. Hepworth Dixon, Eev. Dr. Forrest, Major Wilson, Hon. Captain 
Maude, E.N., Lord Kensington, M.P., and several other gentlemen, 
had been received, all cordially approving of the object of the meeting, 
the "Vicar, after a short but suggestive address, called upon Mr. George- 
Grove, founder of the Fund, to address the meeting. Mr. Grove, in a. 
most lucid address, explained the origin and purposes of the Exploration 
Fund. Mr. John MacGregor (Eob Eoy) gave a description of the size 
of the Holy Land, and taking Hyde Park as representing Jerusalem, 
gave the relative positions of the Temple, the Mount of Olives, the 
Dead Sea, Bethlehem, the Sea of Galileo, and other localities. Mr. 
MacGregor said that the outline was but a cough one, but it was sugges- 
tive. Thus modern Jerusalem might be supposed to occupy that part of 



COMPLETION OF THE SURVEY. O 

Hyde Park to the cast bounded by the Serpentine. The site of the Temple 
— Mount Moriah — the space north of the Achilles statue, and Zion — the 
Dairy. Gethsemane would be located at Grosvenor Square, and the Pool 
of Bethesda at Grosvenor Gate, while the Pool of Siloam would be Buck- 
ingham Palace Gardens water, and the brook Kedron Park Lane. 
The Holy Sepulchre would be on the site of the Barracks, and 
Herod's Palace on the house of the Eoyal Humane Society. The 
Guards' House at the bridge represented the Jaffa Gate, and the Mount 
of Olives — 2,700 feet above the sea level — would be in Bond Street. 
The uj)per pool of Gihon would be at the Eound Pond in Kensington 
Gardens, and the Damascus Gate would be represented by Victoria Gate. 
Petersburg-place, Bayswater, would be the site of the Russian Convent, 
and Eachel's Tomb would be close to Chelsea Bridge. Bethlehem would 
be on Wandsworth Common ; Hebron at Eedhill ; the Dead Sea — -1,300 
feet below the sea level — at Erith ; Carmel at Leicester ; Nazareth at 
Peterborough ; and Mount Hebron at the mouth of the Humber ; while 
the Sea of Galilee would be in the Fens of Norfolk, near Stoke, and the 
Mediterranean at Great Marlow. Dr. Gladstone followed in an earnest 
and admirable speech, and he was followed by Lieutenant Conder, E.E., 
who, in a most interesting and instructive address, gave an outline of 
some of his discoveries in the Holy Land. Lieutenant Conder was fol- 
lowed by the Eev. Dr. Stoughton, the Eev. Horrocks Cocks, and the 
Yicar. 

The following is the first list of subscriptions and donations, some 
given in the room, and some following after the meeting : — 



The Vicar of Kensington . 

Dr. Gladstone, F.R.S 

Lord Lawrence, G.C.B. . 

Lord Kensington 

H. Wright, Esq., J.P 

Miss E. Hockley ... 5 

Miss Maiy Hockley 5 

Mrs. Deane Browne , 

Eev. C. D. Reade, M.A. ... 
Rev. Francis Hessey, D. C. L 
Rev. R. W. Forrest, D.D. 
Hod. Capt. Maude, R.N... 
Edmond Beales, Esq., M.A. 

Capt. Obert 

S. C. Hall, Esq., F.S.A. .. 



£10 








10 








5 








5 








5 








5 








5 








5 








2 


2 
















































Rev. C. T. Ackland £1 

Rev. N. L. Blewitt 1 

Gisborn Molineux, Esq 1 

Mr. Lyon 1 

Mr. Walter T. Lyon 1 

Mr. Reuben Green 1 

Mr. C. R. Stanham 1 

Mr. W. N. Froy 1 

Mr. E. M. Com-tney 1 

Miss Browne 

Mr. AV. Wright 

Mr. Webb 

Small sums 

Collection at Vestry Hall ... 24 

















































10 


6 


10 


6 


10 


6 


14 


6 


3 


6 



COMPLETION OF THE SUEVEY. 

The following letter appeared in the morning papers of October 5th, 

1877 :— 

" Palestine Exploration Fund, 

" 9, Pall Mall East, Oct. 3. 
" Sir, — I have great pleasure, in the name of the Committee of this 
Fund, to inform you that a telegram has this day been received from. 



b COMPLETION OF THE SURVEY. 

Lieutenant Kitchener, E.E., the officer in command, announcing the 
completion of the scientific Survey of Western Palestine. When that 
officer took out the party in January last there remained to be done about 
1,000 square miles of Northern Palestine, including the greater portion, 
of the province of Galilee, and 200 miles in the south, between Gaza 
and Beersheba. The northern piece of country, begun on the 27th of 
February last, was finished on July the 10th. The whole of this portion 
of the work, including the map in sheets, the hill-shading, and the 
special plans, was put together in the Lebanon, and sent home by one 
of the noncommissioned officers. It is now under the charge of Lieu- 
tenant Conder at the Society's working office in the South Kensington 
Museum. After a short rest the expedition proceeded to the south and 
completed the small portion there waiting to be smweyed. Lieutenant 
Kitchener is now riding over the district already surveyed in order to 
clear up on the spot certain small difficulties which have arisen in lay- 
ing down the work at home. We expect the party back in England 
before the end of the year. The Committee, in making this gratifying 
announcement, must express their sense of the zeal, ability, and vigour 
with which their work has been conducted by the officers of Eoyal 
Engineers placed at their disposal br her Majesty's Government during 
the last twelve years, including the names of Major Wilson and Captain 
Anderson, the first officers sent out by the Societj^, and that of Captain 
Warren, the excavator of Jerusalem. With the exception of fifteen 
months in 1875-76 spent in office work, the Survey has been in active 
progress since its commencement in January, 1872. Its history, which 
remains to be v."ritten, and which we hope to present to the world before 
long, abounds in records of events, adventures, and escapes, as well as 
of solid and uninterrupted labour. At the very beginning success was 
threatened by the illness which compelled the officer who began the 
Survey, Captain Stewart, to return to England. His place was taken and 
the Survey carried on by Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake until the arrival of Lieut. 
Conder. In the third year of the Survey Mr. Drake fell a victim to the 
climate, exposure, and hard work. After his death Lieutenant Kitchener 
Avent out to join the party as second in command. In the fourth 
year, July 187j, occurred the attack on the expedition at Safed, 
after which the party came home and remained in England during the 
necessary office work until last January, when Lieutenant Kitchener 
went out again to complete the task now happily accomplished. We 
now hold in our hands the materials of a map which will give the 
world such a geography of Palestine as ■will make the tojaography of the 
Bible for the first time completely intelligible. The map will consist of 
twenty-six sheets, each to be accompanied by its own memoir. These 
memoirs contain some thousands of names, very many of them of Biblical 
places heretofore not identified, together with many of those found in 
Talmudic, early Christian, and Crusading histoiies. There are special de- 
tailed plans of the most important ruins, and thei'e is a vast mass of in- 
formation on Biblical subjects which Lieutenant Conder is now reducing to 



COMPLETION OF THE STJKVEY. 7 

shape. As regards the future of the Society we have, as our first duty, 
to get our observations worked out, the map-drawing and hill-shading 
completed, and the memoirs finished. "We are confident that the 
sujjport which has enabled us to complete our Survey will be continued 
until the map and the results of the exploration are placed in the hands 
of the public in an available forni. 

" I remain, Sir, 

" Your obedient servant, 

" W. Hepworth Dixox, 

" Chairman of the Executive Coruviittee." 



The following correspondence has passed between the Chairman of 
the Executive Committee and H.E. Musurus Pasha : — 

Palestine Exploration Fund, 

9, Pall Mall East, Nov. 1, 1877. 
Sir, — I have the honour, in the name of the Committee of this Society, 
to inform yoiir Excellency that the Survey of Western Palestine is now 
completed, and that the Committee have in their hands material for the 
construction of an accurate map, on the scale of one inch to a mile, of 
the whole of that country. 

The success of this important work has been much aided by the liberal 
and generous way in which it has been regarded from the outset by the 
Imperial Ottoman Government and by the Pashas and Governors of the 
districts over which the work was cai-ried. The Committee desire to 
express to your Excellency their sense of the assistance thus afforded. 
The duty further devolves upon me of conveying to you the best thanks 
of the Committee for your personal intervention on more than one occa- 
sion in favour of our work. 

Vt^'e believe that we shall have the map ready for publication in the 
course of the next year, when I hope to have the honour of forwarding 
one of the earliest copies to your Excellency for the use of the Imperial 
Ottoman Government. 

I have the honour to remain. 

Your obedient servant, 

W. Hepwoktii Dixon, 
Chairman Executive Committee. 



Imperial Ottoman Embassy, 
London, Nov. 3, 1877. 
Sir, — I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
the 1st instant, in which you are good enough to express the thanks of 
the Palestine Exploration Committee for the assistance afforded by the 
authorities of the Imperial Government in the Survey of Western Pales- 
tine. 

In thanking you for your kind intention of sending me a copy of the 



8 JOURNAL OF THE SUEVEY. 

map for the use of the Imperial Government, I beg to say that I shall 
have much pleasure in communicating your above-mentioned letter to 
my Government, who will, I am sure, share the satisfaction I experi- 
ence at having in any way contributed to the success of the efforts of 

your Comnuttee. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

MUSUEUS. 



JOUENAL OF THE SURVEY. 

The following are extracts from Lieut. Kitchener's letters to the 
Committee : 

Jerusalem, Oct. 2, 1877.--I am sure you will be glad to hear that the 
map is an accomplished fact, and six years' work has been finished. We 
wound up at Beersheba on the 28th of September, much quicker than I 
expected, though the work in the south was 340 square miles instead of 
200. The fact is we had to work hard ; the water was so bad, being 
salt, and the colour of weak tea, and our bread all went mouldy. The 
country we have been in is only inhabited by Arabs, who have been at 
war amongst themselves for the last three years. They said no Europeans 
had ever been in this part of the country before, which I can believe 
from the very bad state of all existing maps of the district. You will 
see by my report the details of our campaign and the discovery of 
Ziklag. Everybody was very full of the danger of going to Beersheba, 
but I found no Arabs within five hours of the place. In fact, every one 
is so afraid that no one goes there. I had some difficulty in getting rid 
of the expensive escorts the Kaimacam of Gaza wanted to impose upon 
me, but at last we started with only our own party. The Kaimacam 
did it out of civility, and really was afraid of us. We got back here at 
the end of the month, a week earlier than I had calculated upon. I 
now have a full fortnight of office work, and will then send you home 
the results, keeping duplicates ; we shall then take up the revision, which 
I expect will take some time. I cannot say how long it will take me 
till I get it well in hand ; I will then send you an estimate. Expenses 
were high among the Arabs, and I had a great deal of travelling, but I 
still keep on the right side of the estimate. From Beersheba I had to 
take my camels by force, as those that brought us wished to desert and 
leave us there, in which case wo might be there now. 

The most important revision work is about Nablus, and I hope to do 
Jacob's Well up at the same time. The party are all well, none the 
worse for the roughing it. The news in the country is of the murder of 
a young Englishman named Gale, who started from Nazareth to walk 
to Haifa, and was not afterwards heard of. His remains have since 
been found. I knew him at Haifa, and am extremely shocked and dis- 



JOURNAL OF THE SURVEY. » 

tressed at his sad end. Mr. Moore is going up to hold an official inquiry. 
Hero everything is quiet, and people hope for travellers to bring a little 
cash. There is a good deal of distress, as the year has been very bad, 
harvest failing entirely, and all the men taken for the war. A com- 
mittee have started subscriptions for the poor families of redifs. The 
country seems quite safe for travellers. If any one asks you, I believe 
myself safer than before the war, as there are so few young men in the 
country; extra precautions are now necessary against thie7es, as 
deserters are hidden about in all the hills, caves, &c., and make raids in 
the night-time. I am not sure whether I told you before of an expedi- 
tion that was made to Moab to verify the Shapira pottery. It was sent 
by the German Government, and the consul here, Baron Von Mun- 
chausen, Avent as the principal commissioner. 

Jerusalem, Oct. 11.— I have little or no news to tell you. The ther- 
mometer has been at 102 deg. in shade at noon every morning for the 
last week. I am in treaty with the Patriarch about Jacob's Well. If I 
build up the wall, repair the well, &c., I want him to build a small 
lodge and undertake to keep a guardian to preserve the site. His 
Beatitude, as they call him here, has referred the matter to the synod, 
and will give me an answer in a few days. Of course I give up all 
claim to the promised site for the Protestant Church. 

Jerusalem, Oct. 15. — To-morrow I start for the north, and work the 
revision back, doing Jacob's Well en route. The Greek Patriarch has 
delayed me two days in negotiating about the well. I told you in my 
last he had refused. I saw him next morning early, and put it clearly 
before him that a refusal, after having promised to allow the work, 
would cause a very bad impression in England. After considerable 
talk he promised to see the synod again on the subject, and Monday 
afternoon called upon me. I was unfortunately out revising ; however, 
this morning, by his desire, I attended a service in the H. S. Church, 
and afterwards saw him at the Patriarchate. It was his fete day, and 
he held a reception of all the Greek community. I was treated with 
the greatest civility, chair and carpet in the church, and a seat next 
Patriarch above all the bishops in reception. He then showed me a 
French document declaring I had no claim on the site, and that Protes- 
tant Church had none, that no work could be done without his per- 
mission. This I agreed to, but stipulated if I put a wall round the site 
and a gate, that all Christians should have a right and facility of 
entrance. This was at once agreed to. He then said they had no money 
to build the chamber for the guardian, as I had asked him to do, and 
that the key should be kept till he could do so at the Greek convent in 
Nablus. I objected, and said in that case I would buy the gate, but 
not put it up till the guardian's chamber was ready. At last we came 
to the decision that the key should be kept in the village close by, 
within a stone's-throw, and that a notice in English of where it was to 
be procured should be put on the gate, and notice of any change should 
be given to the English Consul. I hope these arrangements will meet 



10 LIEUT, kitchener's REPORTS. 

■witii the approval of the Committee. All discoveries of antiquities, &c., 
are to be handed over to Greek Patriarch by agreement. Corporal 
Brophy is ill, but will be well enough to start to-morrow, I hope. I 
have seen the German Consul about his visit to Moab. The Baron 
was extremely civil and obliging in giving me a detailed account of his 
expedition. The qiiestion seems, however, still an open one as to the 
genuineness of the pottery. A curious point was on a cave they dug 
open ; there was vegetation on the earth and rocks that had to be 
removed to effect an entrance. They found a broken idol and some pots 
inside. 

Nahlus, Nov. 4. — I have just received the October Quarterly, and wish 
to notice a mistake in punctuation which makes my description of Malia 
nonsense. It is on p. 177. Will you alter it thus : 

" A modern Christian village now occupies this site. It is situated 
on a narrow top, forming the south-east corner of the ranges of hills 
coming from the north and west, from which it is slightly detached by 
small valleys. A steep descent on the south leads to a broad valley." 

I was very much gratined at the way the Committee mentioned my 
work at the General Meeting. 

I hope, if we are not further delayed by wet weather, to finish up by 
the end of November. The revision has been the hardest work I have 
done yet, and not at all the pleasant trip it has been described to be. 

■ Beit Ur el TaJitd,'Nov. 10. — We are getting on very well with the 
revision. I have discovered Ai, I think — Khiu-bet Haiy ; I do not think 
any one has found it before, but am not sure. It is one mile east of 
Michmach. I think all the sites proposed hitherto for Ai have been 
west of Michmach. 



LIEUT. KITCHENER'S EEPOETS. 

VII. 

Jerusalem, 7th September, 1877. 
The work of this month has been entirely office work and travelling. 
In order to send home the map of the north everything had to be made 
in duplicate for fear of loss on the journey. Early in the month I took 
a short trip in the Lebanon, leaving the non-commissioned officers at 
work at Aleih. I first visited Mr. Jago at Eludan, and then rode round 
by Baalbek, the Cedars, and Nahr el Kelb, back to Aleih. This route is 
so well known that a descrij^tion of it would be suijerfluous. On my 
return I found the resolution of the Committee, recalling one of my 
non-commissioned officers with the map. I selected Sergeant Malings 
to go, as he had been suffering from fever for some time, and he left by 
the Austrian steamer of the 23rd with all the originals of the map com- 
plete. A duplicate of everything has been kept in this country. On the 
24th I started from Aleih for Jerusalem. Our first day was to Sidon. 



LIETJT. kitchener's REPORTS. 11 

We suffered considerably from the heat. For over ten years so hot a day 
has not been known in the country. At midday I got a slight sunstroke, 
and I did not get into camp at Sidon till 1.30 a.m. Everybody was 
much exhausted, and my dogs nearly died, though they were carried all 
the way. At Aleih the thermometer stood at ninety-three degrees in 
the shade, and at Nazareth at 114 degrees. Next day we started at 
six p.m., and travelled by moonlight, which was much more pleasant. 
In the next three days Ave camped atRas el 'Ain, Acre, and at Nazareth. 
At Acre I saw H.E. the Pasha, who was very polite and obliging 
I stayed two days at Nazareth to rest the animals, and then left for 
Jenin. On the way I paid a visit to the sheikh of the Beni Sakr — his camp 
was close to Solam. The tribe have come from the other side of Jordan, 
and now occupy the country between Beisan and Tiberias ; their large 
troops of camels are seen grazing over the plain of Esdraelon. The 
fellahin have to take up whatever crops remain on the ground before 
they are ripe, or have it eaten by them. Fendy el Feis is the chief 
sheikh of the tribe, and can muster 4,500 spears in case of necessity. 
His tent was much longer than any of the others. The sheikh is a very 
fine old man, and was better dressed and cleaner than the others. We 
received Arab hospitality, in the shape of excellent coffee, preserved 
dates, &c. The sheikh showed us his sword, a Damascus blade kept 
with great care, also a coat of mail, which probably dated from early 
Saracenic times. They had none of their trained falcons with them, 
having left them all on the other side of Jordan. The sheikh said he 
would be very glad to help us if we came to make a map of his part of 
the country. Next day we arrived at Nablus, and I visited Jacob's 
Well, about which I send you a few separate notes. The day after, the 
2nd September, I rode into Jerusalem. The mules had to make two 
days of this journey, so we put up in the hotel for one night. 

I hope soon to be able to start for the southern portion of the Survey. 
The country is now quiet in that direction for the fii'st time for three years. 
I send you some special notes on recent discoveries at Jerusalem. 

VIII. 

Camp at Jerusaxem, Odder 2nd, 1877. 

I am glad to be able to report that the work of this month has finished 
the map of Palestine from Dan to Beersheba. There remains only the 
revision of the earlier portion of the map, and when that is completed 
all the data necessary for the publication of the map will be safely in 
England. 

On the 12th September we left Jerusalem with the object of surveying 
the desert between Gaza and Beersheba. Our first day's march was to 
Hebron, where I attached two soldiers to the expedition. The acting 
kaimacam replied to my request for the soldiers that two were quite 
insufficient. However, on my asking for his reply in writing to submit 
to the pacha, the soldiers were immediately forthcoming. I found out 



12 liiEUT. kitchener's reports. 

here ttat the next village I was going to, Dhoheriyeh, was entirely 
deserted. Owing to the bad year, the inhabitants were not able to pay 
taxes, and found it better to desert their homes. There is also a great 
want of water in the countrj'. 

I therefore changed my plans, and marched to Beit Jibrin. Here we 
found barley and provisions very dear, owing to the bad harvest. I 
could learn little or nothing about the country I was going to, as the 
fellahin and Arabs have always a feud with each other, and neither dare 
venture into the other's territory. However, I found out that there was 
water at Tell el Hesy, and determined to find my way there. Next day 
we marched to Tell el Hesy, and encamped there. We were now entii-ely 
in the Arab country, having left all villages some hours behind us. The 
principal sheikh of the Jubarat Ai-abs, Sheikh 'Aid ed Dibs, came, and 
was very civil, promising all sorts of assistance. The Arabs were 
naturally extremely astonished to see us, as no travellers had ever been 
in their country before. I found it was necessary to establish an Arab 
guard on the tents, as the Taiyahah Arabs make frequent raids in this 
part, and by this means Sheikh 'Aid ed Dibs was made to a certain 
extent responsible for anything that might be stolen. 

The whole country was as bare as a freshly-ploughed field, and, far 
from being a dead level, as shown on existing maps, not a tree or house 
to be seen in the wide prospect of rolling ground. In the spring, how- 
ever, all this country is green ^\4th barley. Last year the crops en- 
tirely failed. "We had luckily come to the only place with water for 
many miles round, and here it was very brackish, and the colour of 
%veak tea. 

On Saturday, the 15th, we started the tiiangulation, and were able to 
finish in one day after observing from three points. On Monday the 
surveymg commenced. Our Arab guides were a cause of some difficulty, 
as they were afraid of going far south, and were most exorbitant in 
their demands for backsheesh. Luckily it is Eamadan, the month in 
which the Moslems are not allowed to eat or drink while the sun is up, 
so that we escaped being obliged to feed a large number of visitors. 

All the week the work went on steadily. Coming back from the south, 
or enemy's country, in the evening, wc often scared the Arabs with 
their flocks of camels, and once Corporal Brophy was charged by an 
Arab with a spear to within a few inches of his face. 

Our principal discovery was the ruins of Ziklag, which still bears the 
name of Khurbet Zuheilikah. Lieutenant Conder first heard the 
name, and suggested the identification. The ruins occur on three small 
hills in the form of an equilateral triangle, nearly half a mile apart. 
The highest hill of the three is to the north, and forms the apex of the 
triangle. There are a number of ancient ruined cisterns at the ruins, 
but, as in almost every case in this part of the country, the stones have 
all been removed, the sites ploughed over, and they are only visible 
now by the white patches on the dark soil, which show Avell even at a 
distance at this time of year, though in the spring they are completely 



LIEUT. KITCHENEU'S EEPORTS. 13 

hid by the crops. The site is in the open rolling plain, some distance 
from the low hills of the Shofalah. It is 11 miles distant from Gaza, on 
a line bearing 25 degrees south of east, and is 19 miles south-west of 
Beit Jibrin. 

Three miles south of Khurbet Zuheilikah runs the broad Wady 
Bashkhah, or Wady Sheri'ah (both names are used for it by the Arabs). 
This may be the brook Besor mentioned in 1 Sam. xxx., whore the 200 
faint and weary stayed from following David in his pursuit of the 
Amalekites. South of this is the country of the Azzazimch Arabs, the 
modern representatives of the Amalekites, and even now continual raids 
are made across the wady into the northern country, from which 
they carry off all they can lay hands on. One hundred and sixty govern- 
ment soldiers are now stationed on the wady to prevent these incursions. 
It is evident that this portion of the country is in a very similar state to 
what it was in the time of David, when this wady probably formed the 
boundary of the kingdom of Gath. 

Another fine ruin, Khurbet Zebalah, five miles east of Khurbet 
Zuheilikah, appears to me as likely to represent Baalah or Balah of the 
list in Josh. xv. It is a large and important ruin on the banks of a 
wady, with many cisterns and an ancient well. 

On Monday, the 24th, camp was moved to Kuweilfeh, where there is 
a line well of water. Our Arab friends, though very strong in their 
protestations that they could not let us go to Bir es Seba alone, at the 
last moment shirked off, and would not come, which I was not sorry for. 
We had one hard day's work amongst the low hills of the Shefalah, 
which are studded with large ruins, principally of early Christian times, 
judging from the remains of churches found at them. Kuweilfeh itself 
is a large and important ruin commanding a pass through which the 
main road leads from the hills to the plain. A large partially artificial 
plateau was probably the site of some important fortress, of which there 
are now no traces except cisterns. The valley down to the well shows 
many traces of ruined buildings. 

Three quarters of a mile south of Kuweilfeh is another important 
ruin, Khurbet Umm er Eemamin, which has been identified with Eim- 
mon. Here there are foundations of many buildings. Oa the top of 
the hill there are the foundations of an important square building of 
large well-dressed stones, and lower down there are the bases of three 
columns in situ, which probably belonged to a church, though without 
excavations it is impossible to say exactly. There are numbers of caves 
and rock-cut cisterns at all these ruins. 

On the 2Gth we moved camp to Bir es Seba. "We had been warned of 
some danger from the Arabs in this part, but found the country entirely 
deserted. The fact being that this portion of the country is equally 
feared by both tribes, therefore neither dare venture into it except for 
raids. We had considerable difficulty about the names, and I am con- 
vinced that in less troubled times more might be collected in this part. 

From this camp we finished the map commenced almost exactly six 
years ago. 



14 LIEUT, kitchener's REPORTS. 

Our journey back was rapid, owing to all cur bread having gone 
mouldy and our provisions run short. Our first day took us to Dura 
on the road. At the wells near El Burg some fellahin were watering 
their flocks of goats. Seeing a mounted party arriving from the Bedouin 
country, they raised a shout of " Bedouins ! " Away went the goats at a 
gallop up the hills. This we were used to, and rode on trying to reassure 
them by shouting "Soldiers!" when about fifteen men ran together 
behind some stone walls, and after gesticulating frantically, opened fire 
upon us. The balls whistled by and threw up the dust under our horses' 
feet, so we pulled up, and after some difficulty succeeded in making 
them understand who M^e were. After all, we ran more danger from 
our friends than from the much-dreaded Arabs. At Dura some boys 
threw stones at Corporal Sutherland, so I had them publicly flogged. 

Next day, Saturday, we marched into Jerusalem, our horses rather 
done up by their hard work. Our tents and camels did not arrive till 
after dark. We shall now have about a fortnight's work preparing 
everything in duplicate. I will then send home the last portion of the 
map and take up the worlc of the revision. 

The amount surveyed was 340 square miles, making a total since we 
have been out of 1,340 square miles. 

One hundred and four ruins have been examined and mapped in this 
latter portion of the Survey. 



IX. 

Nablcs, 1st November, 1877. 

The early portion of the month of October was taken up in preparing 
the last 340 square miles of the map to go home ; this was done at Jeru- 
salem; some revision of the country round was also completed. Ar- 
rangements were also made with His Grace the Greek Patriarch of 
Jerusalem, granting me full permission to repair Jacob's "Well. 

On the 17th I marched north to Zerin, revising on the road. My 
camps were Khan Lebban, Jeb'a, Zerin. 

From Zerin I sent an expedition to Tiberias to inquire after the name 
Sinn en Nabia, which I had heard still existed on the shores of the Sea of 
Galilee. The name was found to be well known, and applies to the 
ruins west of the road at Kerak. A description of this site was given in 
my report on the Sea of Galilee. 

On the 23rd the revision of the country round Zerin was complete, 
and camp was moved to Nablus, where I intended to repair Jacob's 
Well. Unfortunately, owing to the bad government here, that design 
has been frustrated ; when the matter is settled I will forward a special 
report on what has occurred. 

A special plan has been made of Samaria, and another of the church 
there ; also one of the town of Nablus. 

The revision of the country round is almost completed. 



ITINERARIES OF OUR LORD. 15 

The weather has been very bad— heavy storms of wind and rain ; two 
days have been lost by wet weather. 

The country is, in my opinion, now in a more dangerous state than it 
has been anytime this year. I attribute it to the elation felt by Moham- 
medans at having been able to beat so large a Christian power as Eussia. 

H. H. Kitchener, Lieut. E.E. 



ITINEEAEIES OF OUE LOED. 

St. Aidan's College, Nov. 1877. 

In the January number of the Quarterly Statement for 1877, Mr. 
Hep worth Dixon invited attention to this subject. Having studied it 
carefully myself, I shall be glad to lay the results before the readers of 
the Quarterly Statement, and hope it may call forth further information. 

Our Lord's ministry lasted, in all probability, three years and a half. 
In this opinion, and in my succeeding statements, I follow Robinson's 
Harmony, a cheap edition of which has been published in English by 
the Eeligious Tract Society, and forms an excellent manual for studying 
the subject. We may divide the three years and a half into |three 
periods, reckoning by the Passovers which occurred during our Lord's 
ministry. The first period will be eighteen months, the second a year, 
the last also a year. In the first period our Lord's Itinerary would be,, 
so far as the places are mentioned in the gospels : 1 , Bethabara to the 
wilderness; 2, to Cana of Galilee; 3, to Capernaum ; 4, to Jerusalem 
for the first passover ; 5, to the Jordan ; 6, to Sychar ; 7, to Cana of 
Galilee the second time ; 8, to Nazareth ; 9, to Capernaum, which 
became our Lord's headquarters in Galilee, and from which He made 
various excursions, of which no details are given; 10, to Jerusalem 
again for the Passover. It should be noted here that instead of Bethabara 
which appears in our Bibles as the place of Christ's baptism, the best- 
manuscripts read Bethany in John i. 28. 

In the second period the Itinerary woidd begin again at Jerusalem 
and go (2) to Capernaum ; (3) to the Mount of Beatitudes ; (4) back to 
Capernaum; (5) to Nain ; (6) back to Capernaum, from which our Lord 
made a circuit through Galilee, and returned to the Sea of Galilee, where- 
He preached from the ship ; (7) to Gadara ; (8) back to Capernaum ; (9) to 
Nazareth the second time ; (10) back to Capernaum, from which He made 
another circuit in Galilee; (11) to Bethsaida east or north-east of 
the lake; (12) to Capernaum, when He walked on the sea. 

This ends the second period. Our Lord did not go up for the Passover 
that year (John vii. 1), but He went up to the Feast of Tabernacles six 
months later. The third period, therefore, begins at Capernaum in the 
spring. From Capernaum He went ( 1 ) to the coasts of Tyre and Sidon ; 
(2) to Decapolis ; (3) to Magdala and Dalmanutha across the hike ; (4) to 
Bethsaida; (5) to Ciesarea Philippi ; (i>) to the Mount of Trans liguration, 

C 



16 THE rOSITION OF SIGN. 

probably Hermon, and not Tabor as generally supposed ; (7) to Caper- 
naum for the last time; (8) to Bethany; (9) to Jerusalem for the Feast of 
Tabernacles ; (10) to Bethany again ; (11) to Jerusalem to the Feast of 
the Dedication in winter ; (12) to Bethabara (or Bethany beyond Jordan), 
where He was baptized ; (13) to Bethany to raise Lazarus ; (14) to Ephraim ; 
(15) through Pertea ; (16) to Jericho ; (17) to Bethphage and Bethany; 
(18) to Jerusalem for the last Passover. 

These Itineraries, though partly conjectural as to the exact order, are 
in the main features, and in the names of the places, clear and certain. 
They are also of the deepest interest, yet, as Mr. Hepworth Dixon has 
observed, no special and continuous study has been given to the subject. 
I have never seen maps drawn to illustrate these Itineraries, except what 
I have drawn myself. 

I should like also to add a supplement to a letter of Lieutenant Conder 
in the Quarterly Statement of October, 187G. He there gives a list of 
twenty-two names which he says " almost, if not entirely, exhausts the 
toj)ography of the New Testament " as regards Palestine. Yet he has 
omitted the following : (1) Arimathca ; (2) Azotus ; (3) Bethphage ; (4) 
Dalmanutha ; (o) Gadara ; (6) Gergesa ; (7) Joppa ; (8) Lydda ; (9) 
Magdala. We should observe that instead of Magdala in Matt. xv. 39 
the Sinaitic and Vatican MSS. read Magadan ; also that the name Persea, 
which does not appear anywhere in the common text, is given in Luke 
vi. 17 in the Sinaitic MS. 

J. T. KlXGSMILL. 



THE POSITIONS OF SION IN THE EOUETH, EIETH, 
AND SIXTH CENTUEIES. 

The following extracts, taken from Tobler's " PalsestinEe Descrip- 
tiones ex Sa3Ciilo, IV., V., et VI.," contain what bears upon the 
position of Sion in the accounts of travellers of that period. They are 
given here without note or translation for the iise of those interested in 
the determination of this question. 

1. The first is from the Bordeaux Pilgrim (a.d. 333). After describ- 
ing the site and condition of the Temple, he says : — 

" Item exeiuiti Hierusalem ut ascendas Sion, in parte sinistra et 
deorsum in valle, juxta niurum, est piscina qute dicitur Siloa et habet 
quadriporticum et alia piscina grandis foras. 

Inde eadem via ascenditur Sion, et paret iibi fuit domus Caiphse 
sacerdotis, et columna adhuc ibi est, in qua Christum flagellis cecide- 
vunt. Intus autem, intra murum Sion, paret locus, ubi palatium habuit 
David. . . 

Inde ut eas foras murum de Sion eunti ad portam neapolitanam ad 
partem dexteram, deorsum in valle sunt parietcs, ubi domus fuit sive 
pra3torium Pontii Pilati ; ubi Dominus auditus est antequam pate- 



THE POSITIOIT OF SION. 



17 



retur. A sinistra antem parte est monticulus Golgotha ubi Dominus 
crucifixus est. Inde quasi ad laj^idis missuui est cryptu, ubi corpus ejus 
positum fuit et tertio die surrexit. Ibidem mode jussu Constantini 
imperatoris basilica facta est, id est, dominicum mirae pulcbritudinis 
habens ad latus exceptoriuui unde aqua levatur, et balneum a tergo ubi 
infantes lavantur." 

II. Sanctae Paulse Peregrinatio (circa a.d. .380). After praying at the 
Holy Sepulchre she ascends Sion : — 

" Inde egrediens ascendit Sion qute in arcem vel speculam vertitur. 
Hanc urbem quondam expugnabit et reasdificavit David." 

III. P. Eucherii epitome de aliquibus locis Sanctis (a.d. 427) : — 
"Situs ipse urbis pene in orbem circumactus, non parvo murorum 

ambitu, quo etiam montem Sion quondam vicinum jam inti'a se recipit 
qui a mcridie positus pro arce urbi supereminet. Major civitatis pars 
infra montem jacet in planitie humilioris collis posita. 

Mons Sion latere uuo quod aquilonem respicit, clericorum religios- 
orumqe habitationibus frequentatur cujus in vertice planitiem mona- 
chorum cellulse obtinent ecclesiam cirumdantes quse illic, ut fertur, ab 
apostolis fundata pro loci resurrectionis dominicse reverentia. 

Primum de locis Sanctis. Pro conditione platearum divertendum est 
ad basilicam qua3 martyrium appellatur a Constantino magno cultu 
extructa. Dehinc cohasrentia ab occasu insunt Golgotha atque anastasis ; 
sed anastasis in loco est resurrectionis Golgotha vero medius inter anas- 
tasim ac martyrium locus est dominicse passionis ; in quo etiam rupes 
apparet quae quondam ipsam, affixo Domini corpore, crucem pertulit. 
Atque htec tum extra montem Sion posita cernuntur quo se ad aquilonem 
deficiens loci tumor porrigit. Templum vero in iuferiori j)arte urbis 
in vicinia muri ab orieute locatum magnificeque constructum quondam 
miraculum fuit, ex quo parietis unius in minis qutedam pinna stat super 
reliquis ad fundamenta usque destructis. 

Ab ea fronte montis Sion quse prajrupta rupe orientalem plagani 
spectat infra muros atque e radicibus collis fons Siloa prorumpit." 

IV. Theodori Liber de situ Terrco Sanctee (sixth century) : — - 

" In medio civitatis est basilica. A parte occidentis intras in sanctam 
resurrectionem ubi est sepulcrum Domini nostri lesu Christi. Et est 
ibi mons Calvarise ad quem montem per gradus callis est. Ibi Domi- 
nus crucifixus est et ibi est altare grande ; sub uno teeto est. De 
SepulcroDomine usque in Calvarige locum sunt passus numero XV. . . . 
De CalvarifE loco usque in Golgotham passus sunt numero XV. . . . De 
Golgotha usque in Sanctam Sion passus numero CO, qua3 est mater omnium 
ecclesiarum. . . . De Sancta Sion ad domum Caiaphte qua3 est modo 
ecclesia Sancta Petri sunt plus minus passus numero L. De domo 
Caiaphaj ad praetorium Pilati plus minus passus numero C. Ibi est 
ecclesia sanctae Sophiae." 



18 



NOTES FEOM THE MEMOIE. 

The Vale of Siddim. — There has been much doubt as to the meaning- 
of this name. Gesenius compares it with the Arabic Sidd, and Dean 
Stanley with Sddeh. It is worthy of notice that the words Sidd and 
Sddeh are frequently used in the Jordan valley with a meaning peculiar 
to the dialect of that part of the country. Thus we have Sidd el 'Atiyeh, 
*' the dry Sidd," applying to one of the great marl banks below the cliffs 
of the Dead Sea, near Eas Feshkhah. The word was in this instance 
explained to us as meaning a cliff. Again, we have Deir es Sidd, 
" Convent of the Cliff," a ruin on the edge of a precipice; Sidd Hariz, 
"the fortified cliff," a precipice near Phasaelis; Sddet el Fikiah, "the 
cracked cliff; " Sddet el Mirmil, " cHff of rue ; " Sddet en Nahleh, " cHff 
of the torrent;" Sddet et Tdleh, "the straight cliff;" Wddy Siddeli, 
" the valley of cliffs." The word is unknown to the inhabitants of the 
towns ; it seems peculiar to the Jordan valley, and does not occur in the 
nomenclature of the other parts of the country. We may perhaps render 
the Yale of Siddim " Valley of Cliffs," and the title would apply to the 
neighbourhood of the Dead Sea or to the whole valley. 

Ataroth Adar (Josh, xviii. 13). — This place is of the highest importance 
in drawing the boundary line of Benjamin. It is most minutely described 
as " near the hill that lieth on the south side of the nether Beth-horon." 
Looking at this spot on the map, I find it occupied by the ruin of 
ed Ddrieh, which no doubt represents the ancient name Adar. The 
same place is perhaps the Addara of the Onomasticon, east of Lydda. 

Irj)eel (Josh, xviii. 27) is a town of Benjamin, long sought in vain. 
The root of the name may be recognised in the modern Rd-fdt, being 
the same from which the name Eephaim is derived. The final el would 
in this case be supposed to have been lost, as in many other instances 
in the country in which it has disappeared. 

Valley of Chnrashim, — I do not think I have ever noticed that this 
word is recognisable in the ruin called Hirsha, on the side of the valley 
which has always been supposed to be intended (1 Chron. iv. 14 ; Neh. 
xi. 35). 

Nehhalin, near Jerusalem, may perhaps be the native town of Shemaiab. 
the Nehelamite, the enemy of Jeremiah (Jer. xxix. 24, 31, 32). 

Bethidia. — This site has never been fixed in a satisfactory manner. 
The narrative of the Book of Judith requires that the place should be in 
the neighbourhood of Dothan {T. Dothdn), and within sight of the plain 
of Esdraelon. It has never, I think, been noticed that this applies to 
the neighbourhood of the modern MithiUa, east of the main road from 
the plain of Esdraelon to Shechem. Mithilia approaches very closely in 
name to Bethulia ; it is only about three and a quarter miles from 
Dothan, and the plain of Esdraelon is visible from the pass south of the 
village. The site is thus described in the Memoir : — 

"A small village with a detached portion on the north, and placed 



NOTES ¥RO:sL THE MEMOIR. 

on a slope, with a knoll to the south. It is surrounded by good olive- 
groves, and has a plain to the north." 

The place is not far from Sanur, where Bcthulia is generally placed, 
but Sanur is open to the objection that the plain of Esdraelon cannot 
be seen from it. 

i:ion, a town of Dan, near Jethlah (7?. Trd) and Thimnatha (Josh. 
xix. 43). Possibly this might be Beit Ello, in which case Thimnatha 
would be the northern Tibneh, not far off. 

Mount Stir and Mount Jcarim wore places on the boundary of» Judah, 
between Kirjath Jearim and Beth Shemesh ; the last was close to 
Chesalon {Kesla). There are two ruins which seem to preserve these 
names. 1st. Batn es Suijlur, a ruin on the great ridge west of Soba. 
2nd. Khurbet 'Erma, a ruin on the brrhk of the great valley, two miles 
south of Kesla, or Chesalon. 

The New Work.— A. cursory glance at the new traces which arrived in 
September shows that a great deal of value is to be recovered from them. 
The following points may be noticed. 

Yemma, near Tabor, no doubt represents the Caphar Yama of the 
Talmud, which is said (Tal. Jer. Megilla, 70a) to have been the late name 
of Jabnecjl of Naphtali. 

Xe/r Kama is probably the Lekim of the same passage, the ancient 
Lakum of Naphtali. 

Saiyadeh is no doubt the Ziadetha of the same passage, the ancient 
Nekeb, near Damieh, or Adami, of Naphtali. 

Higher up the country is a ruin called Ummah, perhaps Ummah of 
Asher. 

In the bit of desert near Beersheba and Beit Jibrin is a ruin called el 
Bendwy, possibly Libnah. 

As regards medieval and other places there is also much of value 
in the new traces. There was a town of St. George, the position of 
which is carefully described by Marino Sanuto as in the great valley 
now called Wady Shaghur. Here I find a place sacred to St. George, 
marked on the new work by one of the principal villages. 

The tomb of Habakkuk is often noticed by mediaeval Jewish travellers 
near Yaktek ; it is shown on the new trace. 

Beth Shearaim was an important place, as being the seat of the San- 
hedrim. A ruined site called Sha'arah has been found in a position 
which seems suitable. 

Lachish. — The part of the country in which this town should appa- 
rently be sought is now completed, and I find nothing to shake my 
previous view, which is as follows : — 

The site was apparently known in the fourth century, and is placed 
seven mUes from Eleutheropolis, towards Daroma, that is towards the 
" south," and not, as some have supposed, towards the town called 
Darum by the Crusaders, which is explained in the Chronicles to mean 
" Greek Monastery " (Deir-er-Eum). 

Eobinson's site at Unun Lays, as the name is pronounced, does 



20 NOTES FEOM THE HEMOIE. 

not agree in distance with the Onomasticon, nor in name has it any 
connection with Lachish. The place was, I may boldly say, never the 
site of an ancient city, consisting only of a few traces of ruins, two 
masonry cisterns, and a small low mound, which I visited in 1875. 

On the main road from Beit Jibrin (Eleutheropolis) to Gaza is the 
great moimd of Tell el Hesy (" hillock of the water pit "). It is a con- 
spicuous and important site, supplied well Avith water, and giving its 
name to a great valley. It is ten miles from Beit Jibrin, and not 
far from 'A)Idn (Eglon). The name el Hesy may, I would suggest, be 
a corruption of Lachish, the Hebrew Caj)h being changed into the 
guttural, just as it has been changed in the case of Muhhmds. Tell el 
Hesey is evidently an important site, commanding the approach to the 
hills, and fits well in position the requirements of Lachish. 

Passing from Biblical questions to those of mediaeval sites, I may 
enumerate the following : — 

The penance mountain of St. John was shown to Bertrandon de la 
Broquiere in 1432, between Gaza and Hebron. I find on our map that 
the hill south-west of DMheriijeh still retains the name Mu'kufat Ahya, 
" the place of separation of St. John the Baptist," showing yet one 
more Christian tradition lingering among the Moslem peasantry. 

The Tomhs of the Patriarchs were shown to Paula at or near Shechem, 
as noticed by Jerome. Eobinson expresses his inability to find a trace 
of this tradition ; but there is a sacred place on the north side of the 
town of Nablus, near the modern cemetery, which is called OuJdd 
Ta'kuh el 'Asherah, " the ten sons of Jacob." This, no doubt, represents 
the early Christian site. 

Anath, a town of Judea, north of Jerusalem, mentioned in the 
Talmud (Neubauer, p. 754) as built by the giant Ahiman, is perhaps 
Ke/r 'Ana, near Bethel. 

JBethamari, noticed in the Onomastion as near Gabaa, is probably 
Sett Ummar, near the southern JeJ/a, south of Jerusalem. 

Beidan is noticed in the Samaritan book of Joshua as being the place 
of purification of the hosts entering Palestine to build the temple on 
Gerizim. The upper part of the great Wady Farah, by which a host 
from beyond Jordan would naturally approach Shechem, is called i>eic?an, 
and is well siipplied with water for the purifications described. 

Arimathcea. — A very good instance of the uncertainty which was felt 

regarding many Scriptural places in the fourth century is afforded by this 

town. Jerome mentions two places — one in the district of Thamnitica, 

near {juxta) Diospolis, which he makes to be both Ramathaim Zophim and 

also the to^vn of Joseph. This would probably be Rentieh, near Lydda. 

A second place, called Ecmphis, in the bounds [finihus] of Diospolis, was 

considered by many to be ArimathiToa. This second site farther from 

Lydda would be the modern Jlenth. Evidently there was no certain 

tradition, at least on this subject, in the fourth century. 

El Heidhemiijch, "the place torn down," is the native name of the 
rock which Christians call Jeremiah's Grotto at Jerusalem. This is a 



XOTES FROM THE MEMOIR. 21 

valuable instance of change. Mr. Bergheim tells mo that in the six- 
teenth century, according to the Moslems of Jerusalem, the name is 
found in Arabic MSS. written Iltireiatyvh, or "Jeremiah," and is thus 
derived from the fifteenth-century tradition. Hence we may see how- 
many changes have occurred which it is now quite impossible for us to 
trace in the nomenclature, and how wide a field of conjecture might be 
entered upon if we once discarded the rule to accept for identification 
only names radically unchanged. 

JBir El/ill). — Here also we find a change creeping over a tradition. 
This well was discovered and opened up by the Crusaders in 1184, and a 
century later it had come to be considered the ancient En Eogel, whence 
the modern name, " Joab's Well." In the eyes of the peasantry, how- 
ever, it is Neby Eyub, or Job, not Joab, after Avhom the well is named. 
The tradition has thus become distorted, and furnishes yet another 
instance of the preservation of Christian traditions and of the influence 
of the monks over the peasantry during the palmy days of Christian 
rule. 

Succoth. — A great deal of argument has been expended on the ques- 
tion whether Scikfit in the Jordan valley could be Succoth. The general 
conclusion has been that it Avas not the Biblical town, which is rather to 
be sought east of Jordan, and much farther south. The name Sdhut has 
radically not the least connection with Succoth, the first letter only 
being common to the two words in Hebrew. It is interesting, how- 
ever, to note that Marino Sanuto on his map marks Succoth just where 
Sdhlt now exists. Probably, therefore, we have here a media3val tradi- 
tional site. 

Abel Mea and Ahel Maula were places, the first on the way from 
Scythopolis to Neapolis, the second ten miles south of Scythopolis, and 
called Beth Aula in the fourth century. The first would probably be 
represented by the ruin of BeVanieh, south of Jenin, on the road from 
Beisan to Shechem, across the great plain. The second is evidently the 
present 'Ain HeJtueh, ten miles south of Beisan. This would very well 
suit for Abel Mehola, with which Jerome identifies it. 

Surtuheh is well known to have been a beacon station in the late 
Jewish times connected with the watching for the new moon. Perhaps 
the name Dalitk, "burning," applied to one of the principal tops of this 
block, may have a connection with this fact, especially as the valley 
leading down from the peak is called Wddt/ en Ndr, "the valley of 
fire," and another of the j)rincipal peaks is called Uvwi Hallal, "mother 
of the new moon." 

Zir.— In the last Statement of the American Society I notice traditions 
of this famous chief in the Jordan valley. We also collected some of 
these traditions. The camp of Zir is shown close to Fusail, and one of 
the fords of the river at this point is named apparently after his brother 
Jerro. Farther north, at Ma Ml, near Nazareth, the curious structvu-al 
tomb measured by Major Wilson is called " Zir's house," and a little 
farther north is the Meiddn or "open place" of Zir. Zir and his 



22 Joshua's tomb. 

brothers Kuleib ("little dog") and Jerro("cub") are said to have 
come from beyond Jordan, and to have camped at Semmunieh, west of 
Nazareth. Their tent-pegs were made of acacia wood, and from them 
sprang the acacia trees of Semmunieh, which are of a species {Acacia 
vera) not generally found in Palestine. 

It must be noted that the same tradition occurs in the south of Pales- 
tine (see Finn's "Byeways," p. lol). The acacia trees of Wacli/ es Sunt, 
which is named from them, are said to have sprung from the tent-pegs 
of a certain king of Egypt called Abu Zeid, who was here defeated. 

The derivation of a few curious names may also be noticed. 

Bornata, meaning "hat," is a name applied to several ruins. Per- 
haps it may be considered to be the Aramaic BirnatJiah, meaning "a 
palace " or large building. 

Werdeh, commonly translated " rose," is the name of a great many 
springs in Palestine. It is unnecessary to say that there arc no roses 
near any of them, because roses do not exist in Palestine. The word 
has a very special meaning of " going down to fetch water," and is thus 
equivalent to the Hebrew Yered, which has a similar meaning. Thus at 
Tell Jezer we have a spring which is called either Werdeh or Yerdch, the 
latter from being understood by the peasantry to mean " collection " of 
flocks, &c., round the water. It is, in fact, the root of the name of 
Jordan, " the descender," which still lingers in the language. 

El Muieh. — This title is applied to the various harbours along the 
coast, but it is not an Arabic name. In the Talmud the harbour of 
Csesarea is called Lemineh, though not a Hebrew word. It is, in fact, 
the Greek Xifx-nv, "a harbour," which was adopted apparently by the 
Jews, and which has become corrupted into El Mrneh. The Jews were 
not a maritime people, and Palestine has no harbours ; thus for the 
small ports built by the Eomans they seem to have adopted a foreign 
title still used, though its derivation is obscured by a slight corruption. 

lG//i November, 1877. C. E. C. 



JOSHUA'S TOMB. 



There are two places in Palestine which might claim the honour of 
being the jjlace of sepulture of Joshua. The one is pointed out by 
Christian tradition, the other by Jewish and Samaritan. 

The name of the city where Joshua was buried was Timnath Heres, 
and it was situate in Mount Ephraini ; but the exact site of it is not 
defined in the Bible, except by the statement that it was on the north 
side of Mount Gaash, a place as yet not known. 

Christian tradition points to the town of Thamnathah, now the 
ruin of Tibneh, on the Roman road from Antipatris to Jerusalem. 
Jerome speaks of this place as on the border between the possessions of 
Dan and Judah (though that border was not very well understood in 



JOSHUA S TOMB. 



23 



his days), and on the way from Lydda to Jerusalem ; here Joshua's tomb 
was shown in his time. 

The ruiu of Tibneh has a roinarkablo rock cemetery, containing nine 
tombs south of the site of the town, which was once the capital of the 
surrounding district. One of these tombs is large, with a portico sup- 
ported on rude piers of rock with very simple capitals. One of the 
piers was destroyed between ISGU, when Major Wilson visited Tibneh, 
and 1873, when the Survey party were there. There are niches for over 
200 lamps, once burning in front of the tomb entrance. Within there 
is a chamber with fourteen graves, or Icokim ; and a passage, which at 
first looks like another grave, leads into an inner chamber with only one 
koka. 

There is no direct evidence as to the date of this tomb, but in most 
cases where the more important rock tombs with such porticos can be 
approximately dated, they do not seem older than about the first century 
of our era. Thus, though the tomb may well be that described by 
Jerome, there is considerable doubt as to its being really that of Joshua. 

There are two other curious facts as to Tibneh. The great oak-tree, 
some forty feet high, near the tomb, is called Sheikh et Teim, " the chief 
the servant of God." There is also a village, about three miles to the 
east, called Kefr IshiCa, or " Joshua's Village." 

The second site for Timnath Heres is Kefr Haris, south of Nablus 
and about nine miles from it. The Samaritans of the present day state 
that Joshua, son of Nun, and Caleb, son of Jephunneh, were here buried. 
On the map of Marino Sanuto (1322) the same place will be found 
marked as Timnath Heres. The two tombs of Caleb and Joshua are 
noticed as here shown by Eabbi Jacob of Paris in 1258 A.D., and thus 
three separate traditions point to the same place. 

Kefr Haris is an ordinary village on a hill among olive groves. It has 
on the east of it two sacred places resembling the other Mukdms of the 
country, inclusive of Joseph's tomb. One of these has the curious 
name Nelij Kijl, "Prophet of the division by lot," who is called now 
" Companion of the Prophet." The other is now named Nehy Kulda or 
Kunda, possibly a corruption of Caleb. May we not under the title 
Kifl recognise Joshua, who divided the inheritance among the children 
of Israel ? It seems by far the most probable that the place to which 
Jew and Samaritan both point would be the true site, for it is most 
striking to find Jews visiting and venerating a place in the country 
of Samaria, yet in Samaria the tombs of Joseph, Eleasar, Phinehas, 
Ithamar, and Abishuah are still shown, and if we follow the indigenous 
rather than the foreign tradition, it is here that we should place the 
tomb of Joshua also. C E. C. 

olst October, 1877. 



24 



NOTE ON THE ANCIENT SYNAGOGUE AT MEIEON. 

Leeds, Oct., 1877. 

I OBSERVE in Lieutenant Conder's " Notes from tlie Memoir " in last 
montli's Quarterly, an incidental mention of the [ancient synagogue at 
Meiron, in whicli he refers to the singular T-shaped moulding on the 
lintel of the main entrance. 

This reminds me of an outline sketch in my journal, which I send, as 
it may possibly prove interesting to your readers. During my four years' 
residence in Palestine I spent a month in Galilee, in 1859, and camped 
at Meiron on the 30th April, the day of the annual Jewis fete in honour 
of Eabbi Simeon Ben Jochai. 




The scene was such as I shall never forget. "We could scarcely find 
room to pitch our tent for the crowds of Jews assembled from all parts 
of the world. Eepresentatives were there, not only from Jerusaleni and 
all parts of Palestine, but European Jews, and others from America. 
Two had come all the way from Calcutta, ostensibly to pray at this " holy 
place." Men, women, and children filled the building over the Eabbi's 
tombaswell as the surrounding ruins, andjcovered the ground like locusts. 
As night approached a fire was lighted in the court, and many who had 
brought offerings of valuable garments, embroidery, shawls, and 
jewellery, threw them into the flames, Avhile old and young joined 
in frantic dancing and singing round the fire. It looked more like some 
heathen orgies than anything akin to modern Judaism. 

The dancing, drinking, and singing was kept up the greater part of 
the night, which happened to be moolight, and, together with the wild 



NOTE ON THE ANCIENT SYNAGOGUE AT MEIllON. 25 

rocky hills around, liglited up partly by the moon and partly by 
numerous camp-fires, constituted the most strangely weird picture I 
ever beheld.* 

Next morning, May 1st, we visited the ruins of the ancient synagogue, 
and were struck with the sharpness of the masonry, considering it had 
stood probably for seventeen centuries. 

Eobinson's description of the ruin, written seven years before our 
visit, is so much to the point that I cannot do better than transcribe it. 

" The site is an area, artificially levelled ofF, on the eastern side of a 
huge overhanging rock. The edifice fronted toward the south, and hero, 
too, only the fine portal and a portion of ,the front wall (including side 
doors), t is standing. The architecture is almost precisely like that of the re- 
mains at Kefr Bir'im, but of more massive proportions, larger stones, and 
richer sculpture. Some of these stones are 4A feet long by 2},- feet thick. 
The portal is nearly 10 feet high by 5k feet wide. Its side posts are 
each of a single stone, elaborately sculptured. The sculptured lintel 
projects somewhat beyond the side posts, and is without inscription and 
■without the wreath. The portico is wholly gone, except a corner 
pedestal fitted inside for a double column. Some fragments of columns 
and sculptured entablatures are scattered around. The area of the inside 
is empty." — Bibl. JRes. Hi. p. 74. 

The coincidence of the T-shaped moulding occurring both at Kefr 
Bir'im and at Khurbet Semmaka, on Carmel, is curious, and would seem 
to imply that they were about equal in date, while the absence of either in- 
scription or sculptured symbols at Meiron, such as are found in the other 
synagogues, might lead to the inference that this building was the latest 
of the three. 

The broken and displaced lintel may perhaps be a record of that 
terrible earthquake which, so lately as the year 1837, ruined the neigh- 
bouring village and castle of Safed. 

Speaking of Jewish symbols introduced as architectural ornaments, I 
find in my sketch-book a note of a door I saw at Hebron in 1856. What 
was the building of which it formed a part, or whereabouts situate, I 
cannot now recall — not even whether the building were occupied or a 
ruin. One thing appears certain— namely, that the sculptured lintel is 
not in its original position. It may have belonged originally to the 
same structure, and even to the same door, but the three stones with 
the seven-branched candlesticks (two upright and one reversed) enclosed 
in a moulding or entablature, while evidently belonging to one another 
and in their proper relative position, have been built into their present 
place, above the true lintel, at some time subsequent to their first em- 
ployment. This is evident from the abrupt termination of the moulding. 
The use of this sacred symbol stamps these stones as Jewish, and siiggests 
their having belonged to a synagogue. This, if true, would be very 

* llobinsou Bibl. Res. ii. p. 431. 

+ One side door is imperfectly preserved, but its ruin is recent. 



THE CALVES OF BETHEL AND DAN. 27 

interesting, occurring in Southern Judoa, while all the ancient syna- 
SToerues hitherto described have been in Galilee and the north. The 
sculpture has all the appearance of antiquity. I trust the officers of 
the Survey may be able to throw additional light upon this interesting 
fragment. Edward Atkinson. 



THE CALVES OF BETHEL AND DAN. 

It is generally supposed that the idols erected by Jeroboam were 
placed, the one at the sources of Jordan beneath Hermon, the other at 
the town which lay on the north boundary of the tribe of Benjamin; 
but this was not the understanding of the mediseval writers, who placed 
them upon the two mountains Ebal and Gerizim. The authorities are 
as follows : — 

Marino Sanuto, who represents the opinions of the Crusading epoch, 
gives a very exact account of Shechem. On a high mountain west of 
the town he states that Jeroboam placed the one calf, and on a second 
higher, east of it, the second. The city lay in a valley beneath and 
between these mountains. 

John of Wirtzburg in like manner (1100 A.D.) speaks of Shechem as 
between Dan and Bethel, and says that the latter, also called Luz, was 
beside Gerizim. 

The manuscript of Fetellus (IIjO A.D.) is yet more explicit : — 

"In Sichem, at the foot of Gerizim, by the spring, Jeroboam made 
the golden calves ; one he placed in Dan, another in Bethel. The Samari- 
tans say that four mountains overshadowed Sichem ; Gebal and Dan 
to the east. Bethel and Gerizim to the>outh" (see Du Vogiie, " Eglises 
de la Terre Sainte," p. 424). 

It is evident that the Crusaders here adopted the Samaritan view. 
Gerizim, according to them, is Moriah, where Abraham sacrificed Isaac, 
and also Bethel of Jacob's vision. The ruins below the main peak on 
the west are still called Lozeh, or Luz, the ancient name of Bethel, and 
this site is constantly noticed from the time of Jerome downwards by 
pilgrims visiting Shechem. 

There are also traces of the name Dan on the opposite hill. A spur 
of height not much less than that of the summit runs out west of 
Ebal, and is north-west of Shechem, as Gerizim is south-east, agreeing 
roughly with the description of Sanuto. On this hill stands the sacred 
site of 'Amdd ed Dm, " monument of the faith," which I have previously 
proposed as the site of Joshua's altar erected in Mount Ebal. The hill 
itself is called Eds el Kadi/. 

Dan in Hebrew means "judge," and at the northern Dan under 
Hermon the meaning, not the name, is preserved in the title Tell el 
Kadij, " hill of the judge." Here at Shechem it would seem as if the 



28 THE CALVES OF BETHEL AND D^VX. 

same change had occurred, and the media3val Dan is now represented 
by Has el Kachj, " mountain top of the judge." 

It is curious that in the possession of a Samaritan at Nablus I 
found a small brazen calf, for which, however, he asked an estiavagant 

price. 

The facts of the Crusading view are thus clear ; it is interesting to 
consider further whether they were right. It seems at first sight very 
probable that Shechem would have been chosen by Jeroboam as a 
religious centre, for Gerizim vras the Mount of Blessing, and on Ebal 
Joshua's altar was perhaps still standing. There are many indications 
which point the same way which may be briefly enumerated. 

1st. Bethel of the Calf was close to the king's palace (Amos vii. 13), 
and Jeroboam lived in Shechem (1 Kings xii. 25). 

2nd. The southern Bethel was taken from Jeroboam by the king of 
Judah (2 Chron. xiii. 19), but the calf of Bethel was not destroyed, nor 
is it mentioned as having been taken. It remained standing long after 
(2 Kings X. 29). 

3rd. The southern Bethel was in the tribe of Benjamin (Joshua xviii. 
22), and would scarcely have been chosen as a reHgious centre by a king 
who was anxious to draw away the people from Jerusalem (1 Kings 

xii. 28). 

4th. The Bethel of the Calf is constantly mentioned in connection 
with Samaria (1 Kings xiii. 32 ; 2 Kings xxiii. 19 ; Amos iv. 1—4 ; 
V. 6), and the old prophet at Bethel was, according to Josephus (comp. 
2 Kings xxiii. IS), a Samaritan. 

5th. The Samaritans in Shechem having been plagued with lions, a 
priest was sent to Bethel to instruct them. It is most natural in this 
case also to suppose a Bethel close to Shechem (2 Kings xvii. 28). 

6th. The ancient name of Bethel still lives amongst the peasantry on 
the slope of Mount Gerizim at the ruins of Luzeh. 

7th. The southern Bethel was the seat of a school of prophets visited 
by Elijah, which is scarce consistent with the existence of the calf 
(2 Kings ii. 2, 3). 

■^Tiilst thus stating what appears to me a strong case in favour of the 
supposition that the golden calves were erected in Ebal and Gerizim, 
and thus became the original cause of the establishment of a rival 
religious centre at Shechem, which has been carried down to our own 
day by the Samaritans, it is fair to state the objections to the view, 
which are two. 

1st. Josephus certainly understood by Dan the site at the source of 
the Jordan, a place not consecrated either by the prescriptions of the 
Pentateuch or by the memories of Jewish history (Ant. viii. 8. 4). 

2nd. The prophet Hosea mentions Bethel and Bethaven together. 
The passage is considered by the Jews and by Jerome to mean that the 
two places were one ; the verse contains a paronamasia, the prophet 
saying that the place once Beit-Al, " house of God," had become Beit- 
aun, " house of vanity," a change of which we have an echo in Beitin, 



NOTES ON ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE, 29 

the vulgar pronunciation of the name of the modem Bethel (Hosea 
iv. 15 ; V. 8 ; x. 5). 

Whether this last passage can be considered as conclusive appears to 
me doubtful in face of the extreme improbability of the establishment 
of a place of worship by Jeroboam beyond the bounds of his own king- 
dom, but it is certain that a district of desert east of the Bethel of 
Benjamin was called Bethaven (Joshua xviii. 12) probably meaning " the 
empty placa," as being uninhabited, and it is also certain that a town 
socalled existed near Bethel (xviii. 12) and distinct from it (1 Sam. xui, 
o ; xiv. 23) ; this place Major Wilson places at Khiirhet An. Hosea, 
however, refers to Bethel itself. 

The question appears to me worthy of consideration by Biblical 
students as tending to throw a new light on the history of Israel. 

Claude E. Conder, Lieut. E.E. 



NOTES ON ARCHITECTUEE IN PALESTINE. 

The different rate of progress which has been observed in architectural 
style in various countries renders it very important that any building of 
unknown date should be compared with examples of known date which 
exist in the same country and were erected by the same nation. The 
notes in the Memoir to the Map are more than half devoted to the 
description of ruined buildings. Many of these are dated, and I propose 
to abstract all that I have been able to collect of value as throwing 
light on the question of the dates of those which possess any marked 
architectural features. 

Palestine may be said to have had five building epochs. First, the 
Jewish period before the nation became subject to the western powers of 
Greece and Eome ; secondly, the period when Jewish architecture was 
influenced by that of the western nations, which might conveniently, 
if not very exactly, be entitled the Herodian epoch ; thirdly, the By- 
zantine period ; fourthly, the Crusading ; and lastly, the Saracenic. These 
may be considered separately. 

I.— Jewish Architecture. 

It is not a new remark, but it is an important one to keep in 
memory, that the Jews were not a great building people. At one 
of the first meetings of the Fund (July 23rd, 1866), Mr. Layard, M.P., 
warned the subscribers that "they could not expect such important 
results as had attended the investigations in Assyria and Babylon." 
The explorations have fully justified this dictum, for whilst topographical 
discoveries of the highest interest are obtained, and the illustration of 



30 KOTES OX ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE. 

the Bible most fully carried out, no great arcliaeological finds like those 
in AssjTia have ever been made in Palestine outside Jerusalem. There 
is only one building which has been thought worthy of notice in the 
Bible— Solomon's Temple ; of this we find the foundations, but even this 
was the work of foreign masons obtained from Hiram king of Tyre. 
The Jews were forbidden to produce sculptured images, and they were 
evidently not an inscribing race, or inscriptions would occur on the fine 
sepulchral monuments of the country, which is scarcely ever the case. 
The Temple of Jerusalem was their one central building, the pride of 
the nation, and their supreme architectural effort. That we have 
found, and no other building remains to be found,'as far as we have any 
indication in Scripture. 

On the other hand, many passages may be adduced to show that the 
Jewish ordinary architecture was, on the whole, much what is now the 
natural style of the country. 

Thus we may point to the rapid overthrow of the Canaanite cities by 
Joshua, to Joab's proposal to draw a Avhole town into the river, to 
Samson's destruction of a house supported on two pillars, to the removal 
of the roof of a building in order to lower the sick of the palsy, and to 
many other indications which show that the buildings were neither large 
nor very solidly constructed. 

In the time of Saul the people are found living in caves just as they 
still do in parts of the country where protection is most needed. In the 
account of the siege of Megiddo by Thothmes III., the defeated army 
is said to have been dragged up the walls of the town by those inside, 
who let down their cloaks from above ; evidently the town walls were 
not very lofty. 

The names used for cities in the Bible include " fenced cities," which 
were surrounded with stone walls (1 Kings xv. 22) and un walled hamlets 
(Perezoth). The former may be thought to have resembled some of the 
Galilean villages which were walled round by the great native family of 
the Zeidaniyin, and which have houses built against the walls, just as 
Eahab's house at Jericho was built. 

Of these ancient towns nothing seems now left beyond what is cut in 
the rock. If we remember the repeated overthrow of almost every im- 
portant place in successive invasions, the violent action of weather, and 
the fact that these buildings Avere erected two or three thousand years 
ago, it is surely unreasonable to expect to find much else remaining. In 
Palestine a building of the sixth century, or five hundred years earlier 
than the Norman conquest, is looked upon as quite modern and un- 
interesting. 

Time, weather, and the hand of man have left of the Jewish cities 
only the great mound on which the modern houses stand, but there 
are indications that the power and energy of the old inhabitants far 
surpassed that of their descendants. The town (which stands almost 
invariably on the old site, as far as wo can judge from name and the 
position of the water supply and cemetery), is often surrounded with a 



NOTES ON AllCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE. 31 

scarp of rock artificially cut. The most wonderful of these scarps is 
that at the south-west corner of Jerusalem, where a carefully worked 
wall of rock, 50 feet high, is traced for over loO yards. Similar scarps 
on a smaller scale are not uncommon throughout the country. 

The second indication of an ancient site is the existence of rock-cut 
reservoirs and cisterns. The bell-mouthed cisterns occur so constantly 
near and in connection with Jewish tombs that it seems natural to 
ascribe them to Jewish workmen, though they have no marks of date 
which will fix them so early. 

Still more important are the rock-cut tombs which generally serve to 
show that the site is unchanged, for they are cut on the hill-side oppo- 
site the modern village or ruined site, and hardly ever are found within 
or beneath the ruins. The rock-cut tombs may be conveniently divided 
into three classes — 1. KoJcim tomhs. 2. Locidus tomhs. 3. Sunk tombs. 
The two first classes seem to be of Jewish origin, but the third will be 
noticed later. 

The Koh'm tombs are those which have parallel tunnels running in, 
three or four side by side, from the walls of a rectangular chamber. The 
bodies lay with their feet towards the chamber, and stone pillows for 
raising the heads are often found at the farther end. The Kohim vary 
in number from one or two up to fifteen or twenty, and are of various 
lengths, from 3 or 4 feet to 7 feet. There is no system of orientation, 
and the entrance-door is in the face of the cliff, the chamber within 
being directed according to the lie of the rock. 

This kind of tomb is certainly the most ancient in the country, for the 
Kol'im are sometimes destroyed in enlarging the tomb on a diiFerent 
system. There are also instances of tombs in which the old outer 
chamber has Kohim, the inner or late chambers locuJi, but the reverse 
has not been found. There are cases of a transition style, in which an 
arched recess has been cut, and two bodies laid beneath it, side by side, 
the feet pointing to the chamber. 

These tombs were used by the Jews. Over one we found a Hebrew- 
inscription ; over another, the representation of the golden candlestick ; 
others are sacred to the modern Jews as the tombs of their ancestors ; 
and if further proof were required, the description of a tomb in the 
Talmud might be adduced. 

As regards their date, they are earlier than the locidus tombs, because 
they have been afterwards enlarged on that system. They are therefore 
earlier than the Christian era, but how much earlier there is as yet no 
evidence to show. 

One further relic of Jewish architecture must be noticed — the vine- 
yard towers. These buildings are generally about 15 feet square out- 
side, and the same in height. The walls are of unhewn blocks, 4 or 
5 feet long; the roof, supported on a buttress, is of slabs 7 or 8 feet long. 
These solid and rude buildings occm- near rock-cut wine-presses and 
ancient tombs, and appear to be referred to in Scripture (Mark xii. 1). 

D 



32 NOTES 0:N' AECHITECTUEE in PALESTINE. 

II. — Heeodian Peeiod. 

Altliougli the conservativ e portion of the race set its face against the 
■ways of the heathen, the influence of Greece and of Eome penetrated 
into Palestine about the time of Christ. The great works of Herod 
at Csesarea, Samaria, Ascalon, Antipatris, Jerusalem, and Herodium, 
described by Josephus, were conceived in imitation of Soman art- 
These buildings have, however, almost entirely disappeared. 

At Caesarea, excavation might recover entirely the theatre and the 
temple, the sites of which we found and planned in 1873. The two 
magnificent aqueducts on the north are no doubt also of this date, and 
these have been traced and carefully described. 

At Samaria, the columns still stand in place, -wdthout their capitals, 
but the superstructure has disappeared. These jjillai'S are of no great 
size, being only 1 1 feet high and 2 feet diameter. 

At Ascalon, the Crusaders seem to have uprooted Herod's colonnades, 
and to have used the shafts in the walls of the town as thoroughbonds. 

At Antipatris, nothing remains above the surface. At Herodium, 
there are buildings of moderate masonry, well cut, but in no way 
remarkable for grandeur or beauty. At Masada, all that can be 
ascribed to Herod is of rude workmanship, and the masonry of no great 
size, 

Thus it is only at Jerusalem and at Hebron that the megalithic 
masonry occurs with the peculiar draft and dressing of the stones, the 
like of which is not found elsewhere in Palestine. This is ascribed by 
M. Du Vogue, in the case of Jerusalem, to Herod, and Mr. Fergusson 
dates the walls of the Hebron Haram to the same epoch. The peculi- 
arities of style in the two monuments are the same, and even the pilas- 
ters of the Hebron Haram occur, as I found in 1873, on the walls of the 
Haram at Jerusalem. 

Perhaps to this epoch we may also ascribe some of the aqueducts 
which bring water down the Kelt valley to the foot of the hUls, where 
the Jericho of Herod seems to have stood. The Aqueduct of Pontius 
Pilate, 41 miles long, is of the same kind of masonry — small and rudely 
he^vn, but laid in excellent mortar ; and this would point to the great 
reservoirs called Solomon's Pools, which form part of the same system, 
and resemble the aqueducts in masonry, being also dated as the work of 
Pontius Pilate. 

We have also to consider at this date the Galilean synagogues. That 
at Arbela is said by Samuel Bar Simson (1210 a.d.) to have been built 
by Rabbi Xitai, who lived about 200 B.C. Rabbi Simeon Bar Jochai 
lived about 120 A.D., and he built twenty-four synagogues, including 
those at Kefr Birim, el Jish, and Meirun (where he was buried). Four 
other synagogues visited by Major Wilson at Tell Hum, Kerazeh, 
Nebartein, and Umm el 'Amed, may very probably be ascribed to this 
builder, as they closely resemble in style the three dated examples ; and 
the synagogue at Taiyibeh, with the one on Carmel, and perhaps the 



NOTES ON ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE. 53 

ruiii at Balata, might serve to swell the number. The conclusion thus 
arrived at historically agrees with the judgment of architects, founded 
on a study of the architectural style, fixing these synagogues as of the 
second century of our era.* 

The tombs belonging to this second Jewish epoch are far more am- 
"bitious works of art than the koJcim tombs. They have facades covered 
with decoration of a peculiar kind, a rude copy of classic mouldings 
with details entirely original. There is generally a portico with a frieze 
above, supported by pillars cut in the rock with Ionic or Corinthian 
capitals. Within, the chamber is sometimes ornamented, and has an 
arched recess with a sort of x-ock-cut sarcophagus or loculus beneath, 
the body lying parallel to the side of the chamber. If Robinson's argu- 
ment be allowed, we have a dated example of this style at Jerusalem, 
in the tomb of Helena, queen of Adiabene, which belongs to the first 
century of our era. This agrees with the conclusion at which architects 
have arrived by study of the style, and the curious admixture of classic 
and native ideas cannot well be ascribed to any other period. 

The rolling stone is found almost invariably with the Ucidus, not with 
the koka. This agrees with its use in the time of our Lord, and the fact 
that the Holy Sepulchre must have been a loculus tomb. The only in- 
scriptions which can be certainly ascribed to the same period are the 
Hebrew inscription over one of the Jerusalem tombs, and a Greek one 
consisting of only the word " Parthenes," which occurs at Sheikh Ibreik, 
in a cemetery of tombs with Icokim enlarged later with loculi. 

There are several other methods of closing the entrances of the tombs : 
Btone doors with pivots, doors with a bar across, doors which slide down 
from above, and doors of masonry carefully built up, as though intended 
never to be opened. The rolling stone was perhaps a late invention, 
remarkable for its simplicity. It may be described as a stone like a cheese 
on end, roUing in a deep groove in front of the entrance ; the groove 
generally inclmed, so that unless wedged up the stone ran down across 
the doorway. In order to open the tomb it had to be rollei up hill. 

III. — Byzantine Period. 

Advancing to late times, we come to the most important building 
epoch in the country. From the year 32G A.D., when Helena visited 
Palestine, down to 636 A.D., when Jerusalem fell into the hands of 
Omar, a Christian invasion of the country was carried out. Jerome 
speaks of ' ' the great multitude of the brethren and the bands of 
monks," and mentions a town full of Christians almost as far south 
as Beershcba. It is therefore natural that we should find the country 
covered with the remains of Byzantine monasteries and chapels. 

We possess two dated examples during this period — the Basilica of 
Constantine at Bethlehem of the fourth century, and the fortress of 

* See Major Wilson's "Notes on Jewish Synagogues in Galilee," Quarterl]/ 
Siatemcnt, April, 1869, p. 37. 



34 NOTES OX ARCIIITECTmiE IX PALESTINE. 

Justinian round Zeno's churcli on Gerizim in the sixth. The Bethlehecar 
Basilica serves to show the plan on which a church was built at that 
time, with an atrium, narthex, basilica, transept, and apse; the character of 
the pUlar capitals is also important, and the fact that they support not 
arches but a straight entablature. 

The fortress on Gerizim is of value as giving a dated example of 
drafted masonry, and this drafted masonry is found in all the innu- 
merable Byzantine buildings which have been planned during the course- 
of the Survey. It is very important to note the difference between this 
masonry and that at Jerusalem ; the draft is deeper and broader, 
irregularly cut, and finished with an entirely different dressing. It has 
too often been assumed that drafted masonry is always of Jewish origin, 
because the Temple stones are drafted. It is impossible to suppose that 
in every case where a monastery was built ancient foundations or old 
drafted stones were found and used up. The only natural explanation 
is that the masons in the fonrth, fifth, and sixth centuries were in the- 
habit of drafting their masonry, and this is borne out by the fact that 
in a great many cases the stones have evidently been cut to fit the place 
ia which they stand in the walls. 

A second important feature of this style is the character of the arching. 
Semicircular arches are used, and the keystone is narrow, whilst the 
haimch stones are broad. This is also the case in the tunnel vaulting of 
the buildings (as in the church of St. John at Beit Jibrin, for in- 
stance). 

If, as appears almost certain, this kind of arch is peculiar in Palestine 
to the Byzantine period, then the roofs of the double passage in the 
Haram, of the two great Tanks No. 1 and No. 3, and of the Twin Pools, 
are all of this period, as they all have round arches with the narrow key- 
stone. 

Another peculiarity by which Byzantine buildings may be known, is 
that a large and heavy lintel, generally having the cross upon it, once 
existed above every door. The weight in many cases is really taken by 
a low relieving arch above, but the lintel seems to have been used in- 
variably, and is often all that remains to show the site of a large build- 
ing. The lintels sometimes have inscriptions on them, as at Khoreisa, 
where we found a Greek text, " This is the gate of the Lord, the righteous 
shall enter in." 

This construction, a lintel with a low relieving arch, may also be ob- 
served at Jerusalem at the double gateway, and the supposed date 
again agi'ees with that of the vaulting of the passage within. The lintel 
in this case is, however, probably older than the arch above, as it 
is drafted like the wall below it. 

It may be here noted that the peculiarity of the Byzantine arch is not 
found in the arching of the Dome of the Eock. The arches in that 
building are indeed round, but the voussoirs are all of one breadth, and 
in appearance they approach nearer to the arches used in the earlier 
Crusading churches, as hereafter to be described. 



NOTES ON ARCniTECTUllE IN PALESTINE. 35 

The question of the kind of tomb nsed in the Byzantine period is not 
•a very easy one. The rock-sunk tomb, to be described later, occurs near a 
liyzantine monastery, but the kind of tomb most frequent near such 
sites is the loculus tomb. At Shefa 'Amr is a tomb of this kind, 
elaborately ornamented with a Greek inscription and crosses which are 
cut on bosses, so that they must evidently be part of the original design. 
At jBe^aA we found a /ocui'ms tomb iuscribed "One God alone," Avith a 
date 332 a.d. At Deir Serur, a fine Byzantine site, probably the ancient 
Sozuza — an episcopal towTi in the fifth century — is a cemetery of loculus 
tombs. There are crosses cut on the walls of tombs of every class, but 
very rudely, and they seem to be due to hermits who have lived in the 
sepulchres. At Jerusalem, however, there is a tomb with a loculus and 
crosses in red paint, with the A and n either side. Nor must we forget 
the tombs in the so -called Hinnom valley with inscriptions, "The ex- 
cellent monument, the tomb of Amarulph of Germany," and "The 
monument of various persons of the Holy Zion from Rome," proving 
that Christian pilgrims — for the cross occurs in the inscriptions — were 
buried in loculus tombs. 

I,! fcThe Jews cannot be supposed to have shared their cemeteries with the 
Christians, and the tombs in many cases were certainly not old Jewish 
tombs used again by Christians, but special sepulchres hewn in Byzan- 
tine times. 

if |,The only method by which it seems that the Jewish loculus tombs can 
be distinguished when inscriptions do not exist, is by the existence of 
holcim tombs in the same cemetery. The Christian loculus tombs occur 
by themselves, and are never enlargements of older kokiin tombs. 

IV. — Crusading Euins. 

The following table of dates, compiled from various sources, will be 
valuable as the foundation of the study of Crusading work in Pales- 
tine : — 

Jerusalem taken by Godfrey 1099 

Toron [Tihnin) built llOi 

Church on Tabor 1110 

Montreal, east of Jordan 1115 

St. Marie Latine in Jerusalem 1120 

Tyre taken, a period of peace begins 1124 

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre built 1130 

The Castle of Ernuald 1134 

The fortress of Gibelin {B. Jihrin) 1134 

The Monastery of Bethany 1138 

The Hospital and St. Marie La Gi'ande 1140 

Blanche Garde (r. es »§«/) and Ibelin (reZ^«o) .. 1144 

The church at Bireh 114(5 

Mirabel [Rds el 'Ain) built before 1149 

JS'ablus, the Hospital 115G 



36 NOTES ox ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE. 

St. Samuel [NeUj Samw71) 1157 

Darum [Deir el Beldh) 1170 

Beauvoir {Kaulcab el Hawa) 1182 

Nazareth, the Church 1185 

Saladin takes Jerusalem 1187 

Asealon, Plans, Capernaum, Galatia (rebuilt) . . 1190 

Castel Pelegrino {'Athlit) 1218 

Csesarea 1218 

Saida 1227 

CfBsarea restored 1251 

Bibars destroys Csesarea 1269 

Acre taken from the Christians 1291 

From this outline of the best dated specimens an idea of the pro- 
gressive style of the Gothic work in Palestine may be obtained. The 
question has been fully treated by competent authorities, and I only 
propose to add a few notes of practical utility. 

The whole building period is confined to about sixty years, with the 
exception of the towns along the coast. The most ancient buildings 
are the frontier fortresses and the churches round Jerusalem ; the latest 
are the thirteenth-century erections in the neighbourhood of Acre, the 
last Christian stronghold in Palestine. 

In the earliest specimens, as in the Hospital at Jerusalem, we find the 
semicircular arch used, and the heavy mouldings approach the Byzan- 
tine style. In the Convent of St. Marie la Grande we have a beautiful 
window (Photo. No. 16, Lieut. Kitchener's set), with mouldings which 
approach the English " dog-tooth " of Early English work, but the arch 
is here slightly pointed. Even as late as the latter half of the twelfth, 
century the round arch is occasionally in use, as at the Churck of 
Samaria. At Beit Jibrin we have remains of the Church of St. Gabriel, 
a Crusading structure, dating probably about 1134 A.D. (Photo. No. 29, 
Lieut. Kitchener's set). In this the arches are slightly pointed, but the 
heavy pillars and cornice have a Byzantine appearance. In most of the 
earlier Crusading churches marble capitals in imitation of Corinthian 
style occur, and iii some cases there seems no possibility of their being 
derived from any older building. The fact that some half-dozen are 
found in one building all exactly alike (as at Beit Jibrin) induces one to 
conclude that this kind of capital was sculptured by the twelfth century 
masons, and not, as in the case of Saracenic buildings, stolen from some 
other ruined structure. 

As we advanco, the character of the architecture gradually changes, 
the heaviness of proportion disappears, beautiful clustered columns take 
the place of heavy pillars, and ribbed groins are introduced. In the 
thirteenth century we find the pointed arch exclusively in use, with 
voussoirs, sometimes an odd sometimes an even number. The Corin- 
thian capital disappears, and is succeeded by an endless variety of form, 
from the smooth-leaved " crochets" of Samaria, to the deeply-serrated 



NOTES ON AECniTECTURE IN PALESTINE. 



37 



leaves at Blreh. The beauty of the later churches far surpasses that of 
the clumsier buildings of the earlier period. 

There are two other points of great importance to note in Crusading 
sites. One is the character of the masonry, the other is that of the 
inscriptions. Either of these is sufficient to class a ruin without the 
discovery of pointed arches. 

M. Ganneau was, I believe, the first to call attention to the diagonal 
dressing on the stones as distinctive of Crusading work. It is not so 
much that this dressing is the only one which they used, but that the 
diagonal dressing is not to be found on earlier work. Care is, however, 
very requisite in this examination, because the Saracenic masons also 
used this dressing, though their work being rougher, it is generally 
possible to recognise it. 

The use of a toothed chisel is still common in Palestine, and this in- 
strument may be driven over the surface in any direction, so that in a 
wall of twelfth-century work the stones will be found dressed at every 
angle, but always in parallel lines. 

A far safer indication of Crusading work lies in the masons' marks. 
No other buildings but those of the twelfth century and thirteenth cen- 
tury in Palestine have masons' marks. These marks are finely cut on 
the best dressed stones of interiors, and vary in size from an inch to 
two or three in length. They include every letter of the alphabet except 
D G Q and X, with various geometrical signs. The same mark is found 
in buildings separated by the entire length of the country ; the marks 
have no reference to the position of the stone in the building, but suem 
rather to be those distinctive of the workmen employed. Some build- 
ings have a great variety, others have the same often repeated. As a 
rule, the larger buildings seem to have a greater number of different 
marks, the smaller fewer, showing that a larger number of masons were 
employed on the more important buildings. There is no impossibility 
in matter of date in the view that each mark is distinctive of one man, 
for the thirteenth-century marks, though similar, are not identical with 
those of the twelfth century buildings. The collections of these marks 
are given in the Memoir- to the Map.* 

The above remarks apply to the masonry of interiors. The exteriors 
are of much more massive ashlar. In the case of the fortresses, the 
stones are almost invariably drafted. The only exceptions are the 

* The diagonal dressing of the stones is characteristic, as Professor Hayter 
Lewis remarks, of Norman work in England, as is also the comparatively small 
size of the masonry. The toothed chisel was used, he says, in England and 
France in the thirteenth century — rarely before. The church of St. Marie la 
Grande (1140) has masonry dressed with this kind of chisel. The size of the 
stones is from 1 foot to 2 feet in length, and 1^ feet in height. Almost all the 
Crusading masonry is small, excepting that of the exterior of the fortresses, 
the dratted stones being 2 feet high, and from 2i to 5 or 6 feet in length, as at 
'AtUit (1218 A.D.) and Kaukab el Hawa (1180 a.d.)— C. K. C. 



38 NOTES ON ARCHirECTUEE IN PALESTINE. 

tliirtcentli-centmy works, wHcli have sloping scarps of small masonry. 
This drafted masonry difiers both from the Jewish and from the Byzan- 
tine in having a rustic boss to the stone, which projects sometimes a foot 
from the draft. I found instances in which the draft had diagonal 
dressing at Soba and Koloniah. 

These exteriors have nearly all at various times been ascribed to the 
Phoenicians, yet we know that in many cases the sites chosen by the 
Crusaders were entirely new ones, where no old city had stood. The 
use of this rustic masonry in the middle ages is not peculiar to Pales- 
tine, and not only is the diagonal dressing found on the drafts, but the 
pointed archways of gateways are in some cases of drafted masonry 
exactly similar to that of the walls. It is thus clear that these stones 
were quarried by the Crusaders and cut with a draft ; and the presump- 
tion, when a drafted stone with a rustic boss is found, is, that it 
was cut by a twelfth-century mason, who would have used such a 
draft, and not by the Phcenicians, whom we do not know to have made 
use of such masonry. I have, indeed, not seen a single piece of masonry 
in Palestine which could be ascribed to the Phoenicians, and histori- 
cally, I believe, we do not know of their territory having extended 
beyond Phoenicia proper. 

The question of inscriptions is also of great importance. At Bethle- 
hem we have the dated example of the Mosaics which were erected in 
1169 A.D. by the emperor Manuel Comnenos. In the inscriptions of 
these Mosaics we have various peculiarities distinctive of the time. The 
shoes of the letters, the peculiar forms of U, M, and N, the contractions 
used, the accents, and the smaller size of the vowels, which are placed 
above the line, are all distinctive. It is important to notice these indi- 
cations in the case of the numerous frescoes on the walls of various Cru- 
sading monasteries of the Jordan valley and in those of the chapels on 
the Mount Quarantania. These frescoes are thus shown to belong to the 
twelfth century, and not, as has been supposed by former travellers, to 
the fourth or fifth. 

Lastly, we come to the question, how the Crusaders buried their dead. 
Wherever rock-cut tombs are found near Crusading ruins (as, for 
instance, at Mejdel Yaba), they belong to the kind called " Eock Sunk." 
A shaft some 7 feet long and 3 feet wide is sunk 5 or G feet in the flat 
surface of the rock ; on either side an arched recess is cut back, and thus 
two bodies lie, one each side of the shaft, parallel to each other, and to 
the length direction of the shaft. 

We have no indication that this form of tomb is Jewish. The natives 
of the country say that such cemeteries are Frank cemeteries, and the 
tomb seems fitted for the reception of a man and his wife. In Jerusa- 
lem such a tomb has been found to contain leaden coffins with crosses 
on them. At another site we found an inscription with crosses cut at 
the back of one of the locuU. It runs thus— + MIMOPIN + rEa.PriO. 
The form of the letters, the barbarous Greek, and the small size of the 
vowels, seem to point to a twelfth- century origin for the text. The only 



NOTES ON ARCniTECTURE IN TALESTINE. 39 

question whicli remains donbtful is as to wliether this kind of tomb was 
used also in the fifth century, but there is no evidence of any kind to 
carry it back to the Jews. It does not occur at the really ancient sites, 
but only in connection Avith Christian ruins ; and as we know the tombs 
used in former eras, we may perhaps safely ascribe the " Sunk Tomb " 
to the Crusaders. 



V. — Saracenic Builders. 

A few words only in conclusion are required. The Saracenic build- 
ings are fortresses, khans, and mosques ; they are thus easily distin- 
guishable, except in the matter of the fortresses. In this question 
we must be guided jirincipally by the masonry. A building with 
masons' marks cannot be ascribed to the Saracens, for their dated 
buildings (as in the White Mosque at Eamleh)have no such marks. The 
large drafted masonry of exteriors is, again, never found in buildings of 
Saracenic origin. 

The work of the Moslem conquerors of Palestine was destructive 
rather than constructive. We have Saladin's walls of Jerusalem either 
repairing or replacing the Crusading work. We have the great mosque 
of Eamleh, and a few more such edifices, but the buildings of this class 
are not numerous. Christian churches were converted into mosques, 
Christian strongholds were patched up, and almost the only native 
work, excepting the khans, consists of the small fortresses in Galilee 
built by the famous native family of Zeidaniyin. Thus the fifth epoch 
is not by any means so important as the two which preceded it. 

The value of these architectural notes will lie in the application of the 
observations to sites of unknown date and origin, which may be judged 
of from the following distinctive marks : — 

1st. To distinguish a Jewish site, the presence of tombs with KoJcimis 
almost indispensable, and the great mounds with rock scarps, cisterns, 
and pools are almost the only other indications. 

2nd. Later Jewish work may be recognised by the florid character of 
its ornamentation, combining the classic with native ideas of art. The 
finer tombs with loculi, and the synagogues with their peculiar double 
pillars at the corners of the cloisters, are to be ascribed to tliis period. 

3rd. Byzantine buildings may be distinguished by lintel stones with 
crosses, by round arches with a narrow keystone, by irregularly drafted 
masonry, and by the architectural details of capitals and cornices. 

4th. Crusading buildings are known by masons' marks, by the diago- 
nal dressing of the stones, by the character of the written inscriptions, 
by the rustic masonry of the exteriors, and by the clustered columns 
and pointed arches. 

5th. Saracenic buildings are known by the small and less finely-cut 
masonry, without masons' mai"ks ; by the pointed arches, and by the 
comparative timidity of the low relief in ornamental designs as con- 
trasted with the bold sculpture of the Crusaders. 



40 :ifOTES ox ^VECHITECTHRE IX PAiESTIKE. 

The deductions which are to be obtained from an archteological 
examination of Palestine seem to me to be — 

1st. The Jews were not a great building people. Fine buildings of 
Jewish origin are not to be looked for, nor does the Bible lead to the 
expectation that they will be found. They were not an inscribing 
people ; and it is not probable that many important inscriptions will be 
found in Palestine dating back to Bible times. 

2nd. The influence of the "Western nations is to be noticed in later 
Jewish buildings, which date back only as far as the Herodian period, 
or about the time of Christ. 

3rd. The great buildings of the country are to be ascribed to the 
Byzantine and Crusading Christian epochs. 

4th. The study of archEeology in Palestine, by excavation or other- 
wise, is not likely to bring to light very much of value with respect to 
the illustration of the Bible. The work which is really of importance 
is that in which the Fund is now engaged, namely, the examination of 
the topography of the land : from this we may expect, and have 
obtained, results of the highest importance, as illustrating the accu- 
racy and consistency of the Bible history ; and thus the discovery of 
even the most obscure of Bible towns, and its identification by the 
recovery of the ancient name radically unchanged, together with the 
examination of the natural features of the ground, and of the ways 
and customs of the peasant population, are studies of infinitely more 
valuable character than the costly attempt to explore by excavation, 
with results which, though of antiquarian interest, have no bearing on 
Bible questions. Claude E. Coxder, Lieut. E. E. 

The above notes are necessarily rather brief and general, but for those 
who wish for further information a perfect mine exists in the Memoir 
from which these are extracted. The size and dressing of masonry was 
always noted in every ruin, with the character of the mortar and all 
other points to which attention had been called by architects in the 
papers given to me before leaving En gland. Mouldings of capitals, cornice, 
and bases were measured with the greatest accuracy possible, and 
sketches of tracery made. Photographs of buildings and of architec- 
tural details were taken when possible, and to these notes I nmst refer 
those who wish for further information. 

11th November, 1877. 

Note. — A paper on the actual measurements of various places de- 
scribed by Josephus, such as Cajsarea, Masada, &c., is under con- 
sideration. 



41 



THE MOABITE POTTEP.Y. 

The following letters have appeared in tlie Athenceum, and are here re- 
produced by kind permission of the Proprietors : — 

Consulate of the German Empire for Palestine, 
Jerusalem, November 1st, 1877. 

My dear Me. Shapira,— Mrs. Shapira has informed me of yoiir 
departure for England on business, and, at the same time, requested me. 
to give you in writing my detailed opinion on the present state of the 
disputed Moabitic question, immediately after my expedition to Moab, 
and to forward it to you in London. 

I accede with pleasure to so reasonable a request, and hereby authorise 
you expressly to have the following statement translated into English, 
and to make such use of it as you may think fit. 

According to my humble opinion, nothing at all had been positively 
proved respecting either the genuineness or non-genuineness of your 
collections before the expedition of Dr. Almkvist to Moab ; nor did the 
learned antagonists of their genuineness— the Professors Socin and 
Kautzsch— finally arrive at any other result in their well-known work. 
The difference between myself and these gentlemen, as well as other 
antagonists of the genuineness, was only that I considered the falsifica- 
tion of the collections to be less probable. 

The researches made by Dr. Koch in the summer of 1875 have proved 
it to be utterly impossible to manufacture such pottery- ware here in 
Jerusalem ; a similar result had been already obtained, by the researches 
made by Mr. Drake. The pottery-ware manufactory alleged to exist at 
Jericho by the Sheikh Kaplan, on whose statements the local antagonists 
of the genuineness— Pater Antonin and Missionary Klein— are relying, 
has long ago been proved to have been a fable. On this occasion I may 
state that my most sincere exertions to obtain light in this direction have 
remained without success. Both these gentlemen always decline to 
name their authority, however often and ui-gently I begged they Avould 
do so. It was from another source only that I obtained information of 
Sheikh Kaplan's being one of them. No proof could therefore be estab- 
lished in this way, and all I can do is to consider all statements coming 
from that quarter as empty talk. 

But if the pottery-wares have not been manufactured here, might 
they not have been made at Damascvis, Port Said, or even in Europe ? 
Certainly not in a position to refute these questions, I nevertheless hold 
such a proposition to be most improbable, especially with respect to the 
first collection. How could a falsifier risk so uncertain an undertaking, 
subject to such large expenses as this manufactvire would have necessarily 
implied, before the Prussian Government bought the first collection ? 
But as utterly impossible I must declare the supposition that the manu- 
factured objects had been interred in Moab in order to give the finishing 
stroke to the forgery. 



42 THE ilOABITE POTTERY. 

Whoever is acquainted with the superstition and greediness of the 
Bedouins will surely agree with me that they would not have permitted 
the execution of an undertaWng, which must needs appear to them as 
monstrous and adventurous, such as the interment of thousands of vases 
and idols in the ground of which they are the sole lords and masters, 
and the desecration of which must unavoidably be followed by the 
heaviest divine punishments — to say the least, by lasting dearth; I say 
that the Bedouins would not have suffered all this, not even on payment 
of the entire sum given by the Prussian Government. How, then, 
about the expenses ? In this case the falsifiers would, indeed, have 
done more than travailler pour le Roi de Prusse. 

I cannot enter here individually on the attacks of the learned, and 
must limit myself to expressing my regret at the want of moderation, 
objectivity, and especially impartiality they manifest so frequently. 
Thus everything stated by M. Ganneau is declared to be proof a priori, 
and whatever falls from M. Weser is subjected to polemical criticism. 
One of these gentlemen goes, indeed, so far as to declare at once, 
that the result of Weser's expeditions of verification is null, because 
Selim, who was suspected of falsification, was concerned in it ; but he 
says nothing about Pastor Weser's having also undertaken one expedi- 
tion without Selim, during which also something has been found. This 
silence, however, throws a curious light on that critic. I must here 
ignore entirely the superficial opinions which have been put forth among 
the German public in consequence of the jDamphlet emanating from 
Kautzsch and Socin, and which found expression during one of the 
sessions of one of our parliamentary bodies in such a manner as to appear 
comical to those conversant with the actual circumstances. Such was 
the state of affairs up to the end of last year, and this state I will resume 
once more in this sense, that nothing has been positively proved either 
for or against, except that the pottery-wares could not have been made 
here, and that notwithstanding a sentiment antagonistic to the genuine- 
ness pervades the circles of both scholars and laymen in Germany. 

All of a stidden this state of things was altered by the expedition of 
Dr. Almkvist. This scholar, who set to work with the utmost distrust- 
fulness found in the rocky wall of a cave in the Moabitish mountains, 
ehoseii by himself at a venture, after delving for two hours, two feet deep 
in the rocky wall, a jar with a Moabitic inscription I But Selim was 
ao-ain present ; yet would it be certainly insulting to these gentlemen 
to expect from any of them an opinion to the effect that Selim had been 
able to conjure also this jar into that place, surrounding it afterwards, 
artificially, by a rock of one metre in thickness. Moreover, such a 
supposition, independently of the physical impossibility, Avould stamp 
honest Dr. Almkvist, who Avent to work nmch rather with distrust than 
with gushing confidence, as a liar, declaring expressly as he does that 
he, entirely liy his own inspiration, had indicated that identical spot to com- 
mence opening the rock. The discovery made by Dr. Almkvist offers, 
therefore, a real proof —indeed the first— not only to the impartial, but 



THE MOABITE POITERY. 43 

also even to the prejudiced observer, that pottery-wares had been lying 
for considerable periods in the rocky soil of Moab. 

Less fortunate was the result of my own expedition, which was 
interrupted by the Russian war. The discovery I made represents, in 
my opinion, a proof only to an unprejudiced judge. After perusing sa 
many criticisms on Weser's expeditions, — I mean besides Prof. Socin, 
also the learned geographer Hellwald, — one must be prepared for any- 
thing. Both my companions and myself found the caves of Kubeibe, 
Mack'ad, and Kyriath-Aleyan, materially changed from the description 
given by Almkvist. No doubt some people have continued digging 
after that expedition. It seems, too, that the principal proprietor, the 
Sheikh Mutlak, also had obtained some experience in forming an 
opinion on the rocks. He told us that the pottery-wares were to be 
found only in certain formations. Here I mentally hear the learned 
critics exclaim, " Ah, very well ; those are Mutlak's own formations, 
behind which he has hidden his or Selim's manufactures." But I should 
like to see the great conjuror who is able to create artificially that 
stratum of flint protruding from the side wall of one of the caves more 
than one metre high above ground , and losing itself in the depths of the 
earth, behind which, after excavating for sevex'al hours, we found some 
large fragments o£ clay, bearing inscriptions. 

The surface (of the cave) was covered by a kind of fine grey moss , 
which was distributed over it like mould, having ruts worked by the 
passage of insects, a proof that no human hand had touched it for long 
periods. This stratum, which rose diagonally from below, reaching 
into the side wall of the cave, was burst, and soft earth had sunk into 
the rents. Thus we were enabled to loosen them by degrees, and, after 
having rolled aside several fragments of rocks of upwards of a cubic 
foot in diameter, we found behind them, in the soft earth that had fallen 
down, these fragments of clay, together with a small idol and several 
bones. After these boulders of rock had been removed, a niche in the 
cave was discovered behind them, which, so long as the flint stratum 
had not been touched, could not even have been seen, much less entered. 
But now my companions examined it with a lantern. They found, in a, 
crack of the rocky ceiling over the niche, a large idol, consisting of two 
portions, not entirely fitting together, the front part of which shows 
Moabitic letters in relief, while at the back they are imprinted, as is the 
case with the articles of the present collections. 

The gentlemen appointed to accompany me on the part of the 
Imperial Government, — consisting of Massrs. Schick, Councillor for 
Architectiu-e, Ser Murad, first Dragoman to the Imperial Consulate, and 
A. Niepagen, Inspector of the Euius of the Convent of St. John, all of 
whom are perfectly impartial and unconcerned in all matters relating to 
the disputed Moabitic question, — have declared with me that the supposi- 
tion of a forgery was, under these circumstances, utterly impossible. 
Mr. Schick did not even consider it worth while to allege, in his tech- 
nical report to the Imperial Government on the results of our expedi- 



44 THE MOABITE POTTERY. 

tion, all the individual elements calculated to prove the correctness of 
our supi^osition. Certainly the objections which, no doubt, wUl be 
raised against it in Berlin can, in the presence of the tangible facts in 
the cave, only make him smile ; but I, being cognisant of the state of 
things there, and aware of the criticisms lavished on the results of 
"Weser's expeditions, could not be satisfied, and, therefore, completed 
Schick's rei)ort in the essential points. 

It is thus to be hoped that the truth may at last be known respecting 
this interesting question. 

In the hope that the foregoing explanation may be of service to you 
in England, I remain, my dear Mr. Shapira, very faithfully yours, 
(Signed) Freiiierr von MuNCHHAUSEisr, 

Imperial German Consul in the Holy Land. 



London, Nov. 29th, 1877. 

Allow me to state here the results of my own observation : — 

I observed that the rocky mountains south-east of Moab, from the 
upper Wadi Themad to the lower part of it, called Wadi Vali (the maps 
all wrongly give two separate wadis), as well as farther south to the 
Wady Sepha (perhaps the Supha of the Bible) and the Eiver Arnon, 
consist of white soft limestone intermingled with masses of flint, 
as also some other harder stone called Missi in Arabic. Many holes 
oocur in the limestone, some smaller, some larger, especially near the 
flint strata, which holes seem to be natural earth bubbles. The softer 
parts of the rock are apt to dissolve into very fine white dust, which 
tumbling down, and mixing ^vith some harder pieces of stone fallen from 
above, in process of time petrifies, and so forms a new " rock." 

The same thing must, in my opinion, have happened in the hundreds 
of caves I have seen, all of which are hewn in the original rock. The 
tipper parts resolved themselves into powder, and the idols, vases, etc., 
hidden in the natural holes there (and used as talismans ? or monuments ?), 
also fell down to the bottom of the caves, and are, consequently, often 
foirnd under ground near the rocky walls of the caves. Others, which 
were hidden in a hole in the midst of the rocky wall of the cave, behind 
a prominent row of flint, became covered by a petrifying new wall, 
formed in process of time from the dust, stones, or even buried pottery, 
which had fallen slowly from above. 

Dr. Almkvist is Professor of Oriental Languages at Upsala. Mutlak, 
I may add is Selim's greatest enemy, and would have long ago killed 
Selim if not afraid of me. 

M. W. Shapira. 



Bodleian Library, Oxford, Dec. 3, 1877. 
All Semitic scholars, I have no doubt, will read with the greatest 



THE MOABITE POTTERY. 45 

satisfaction, Freiherr von Munchausen's letter, addressed to Mr. Shapira, 
so far as his new discoveries of Moabitc idols and potteries, with and 
without inscriptions, are concerned. No one ever believed that the 
Mesha inscription was the first and the last made by Moabites, and 
hopes were expressed that some other documents would turn up in the 
land of Moab, and I may add, perhaps, even in the land of Amnion. 
But, as to the potteries bought at Berlin, no official or unofficial docu- 
ment will ever prove their genuineness. Before Profs. Socin and 
Kautzsch had even the idea of investigating the subject, I had shown, 
from Prof. Schlottman's specimens, published in the Transactions of the 
German Oriental Society, that, from a palseographical point of view, 
the inscriptions published by him must be a forgery, since we find there 
not only one and the same letter sometimes in the right position and 
sometimes upside down, but also Himyaritic and even Arabic characters, 
which cannot occur in a genuine document of at least 600 B.C. It is 
probable that the unskilful falsifier worked with a table of alphabets, 
let us say with that of Gesenius. I shall not insist, either, on the shape 
of the goddess of the earth, which, according to my opinion, represents 
rather the type of a German girl — this must be left to the judgment of 
the archjBologists — or on a passage of these inscriptions which repre- 
sents a permutation of a passage of the Proverbs, which might, per- 
haps, be disputed. If I am right in the last point, the falsifier must 
have been a person knowing the Hebrew text of the Bible. At all 
events, as I have pointed out, whilst no two words can be explained in 
the specimens published by Prof. Schlottmann, not even with the pro- 
fessor's strange method of decipherment, by having recourse to all the 
Semitic dialects, the Mesha inscription is read with facility except in 
the broken parts. I may add that the Moabite potteries at Berlin are 
considered tacitly by all the German Semitists, with the exception of 
Prof. Schlottmann, as forgeries, otherwise the inscriptions found upon 
them would have been published already. I may remind the Imperial 
German Consul in the Holy Land that the Crimean tombstones with 
Hebrew inscriptions, mentioned in your columns, were declared by a 
professor of geology to have lain buried horizontally for 1,800 years; 
and, in spite of this statement, it is now evident, from Dr. Harkavy's 
researches, that the inscription, which was believed to be 6 B.C., is not 
earlier than the thirteenth century A.p. Allow me to express the hope 
that, in the further discussions concerning these Moabite antiquities, no 
' one wilbimitate the example of Prof. Schlottmann, who declares, in the 
Norddeutsche Zeitunfj, M. Clermont Ganneau's statements to be the 
result of chauvinisme. Science is, and ought to be, cosmopolitan, and 
professors have to give the first example to the general public of con- 
fraternity and candour. Ad. Neubauer. 



46 



THE EOSE OF SHAEON. 
(Cant ii. 1 ; Isaiah xxxv. 1.) 

The question of the proper translation of the word HahatstseletJi, 
rendered "rose" in the English version, has never been settled with 
certainty. The following notes may be of interest regarding it : — 

The word in Hebrew comes from the root Batzl, "bulbous," from 
which it has been generally concluded that some kind of lily was in- 
tended, and a great many species have been proposed. 

The Targums translate the word by Narlcus, the narcissus, which is 
not only of the lily tribe, but also a plant very common in spring in the 
Plain of Sharon. 

Eoses are not found in Palestine, though the dog-rose flourishes on 
Hermon in the cooler atmosphere 6,000 feet above the sea and in the 
Anti-Lebanon. It seems improbable that the climate of the lower 
regions can ever have been fitted for roses. 

We found that the name Buseil was applied to one plant only in 
Palestine, and that plant is the narcissus. This is confirmed by M. 
Bergheim of Abu Shusheh, whose acquaintance with the peasant 
language is intimate. 

The agreement between the modern name and the Jewish tradition 
of the meaning of the word used in the Bible seems perhaps sufficient 
to identify the rose of Sharon with the beautifid white narcissus which 
covers the low hills in spring and is also found on the plain. 

C. R. C. 



Quarterly Statement, April, 1878.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



Lieutenant Kitchener returned to England in January, and after a short leave, 
joined Lieut. Conder at the South Kensington Museum, where he is now engaged 
in arranging and writing the ]\Iemoirs for the sheets of the Map executed by him- 
self. The Memoirs of Lieutenant Conder are almost completed. He leaves the 
service of the Committee at the end of April, after six years' work on the survej' 
of Western Palestine. A note on his new book will be found later on. 



The work done from the end of Febn;ary to the end of November, nine 
months, amounted in all to the triangulation and survey of 1,340 square miles of 
country ; every ruin was examined, and special reports on all villages and water 
supply were drawn up ; the line of levels between the Mediterranean and the Sea 
of Galilee was completed, 1,700 square miles of country were revised, 3,850 names 
were collected and 816 ruins examined and described, 29 special plans and 19 
photographs were taken, besides notes on all archaeological and geological points 
of interest in the country. 



The most interesting discovery, from a Biblical point of view, announced in 
the present Quarterly Sta'cvient, is that of the "Stone of Bethphage. " The 
account given by Captain Guillemot differs from that of Lieut. Kitchener in 
one important particular. The stone is not in the centre of a circular chapel, 
but within a chapel the plan of which has been drawn by Lieut. Kitchener. It 
is probably that mentioned by Theodoricus, the passage from whom is quoted by 
M. Clermont Ganneau (p. 59). AVe have here, therefore, the Bethphage of 
tradition. 



The work for the year will consist entirely of the preparation of Map and 
Memoirs. Everytliing is being pushed on as rapidly as possible. 



48 XOTES A^S'D XE'^S. 

The following is the financial position of tlie Fund (March 25, 1878). Receipts, 
December 12th to March 25th, £911 6s. 5d. Expenditure, same period : Explora- 
tion, £455 6s. Printing, £200. General expenses and small bills, £355 Is. 6d. 
The balance in the banks at tlie latter date was £126 13s. 5d. 



This small balance would probably have been much larger but for an ap- 
parently preA'alent belief that the work of the Fund is over, and its expenses no 
longer heavy. First, the special work of the survey of Western Palestine is by 
no means over, nor will it be over until Map and Memoirs are completed and 
published. And secondly, not only is there the usual monthly expenditure to 
be met, but there are many debts which have to be paid off. Subscribers mil 
strengthen the liands of the Committee verj"^ much if they will send their sub- 
scriptions for the year as early as convenient. 



The controversy on the Moabite pottery has been continued during the last 
(juarter. "We reproduce the most important portions of the letters on the subject 
published in the Athcnceiim. The two "idols" lirought home by Lieut. Kitchener 
are now in the office of the Fund, and can be seen by any visitor. 



Two mistakes were allowed to pass in the January Qiuirtcrhj Statement. In 
one of them the meeting in the Kensington Vestrj- was spoken of as a meeting in 
South Kensington. And in tlie other, the extracts from the Dcscriptioncs Palces- 
tinm on the Position of Sion were headed Positions of Siou. 

In the account of the Kensington meeting in the last Quartcrhf Statcnienf, the 
names, also, of the following speakers were omitted : Eev. Dr. Francis Hessey, 
Eev. Dr. Kaleigh, and Mr. Edmond Beales. 



We have to report the loss of three members of the General Committee by 
death. The first of these, Mr. Ambrose Phillipps de Lisle, was a member of the 
Committee ft-om the beginning, but has not of late taken an active interest in 
work. The second. Sir Gilbert Scott, also jomed the Committee at the founda- 
tion of the Society. The third is the Piev. George Williams, whose interest in the 
Fund has been imflagging, and whose personal assistance in addresses, speeches, 
and writing has always been very great. Canon Williams is chiefly known by his 
work on Jerusalem called the "Holy City." The first edition of this, partly 
prepared during his residence in Jerusalem, appeared in 1845. A second edition, 
greatly enlarged, and enriched by Professor Willis's paper on the Architecture 
of the Holy Sepulchre, was issued in 1849. The author was at the time of his 
death, which was sudden, engaged in the preparation of a third edition. It is 
not yet known how far he had advanced with this design. 



The death is also announced of Mr. Joseph Bonomi, the companion of Mr. 
Catherwood, the first European who (in 1833) examined and surveyed the Haram 



NOTES .\JN'D NEWS. 49 

area. Mr. Bouomi, wlio spoke Ara])ic liuentl}^, had often visited, but was not 
able to survej' or sketch, the Dome of the Kock and the Mosque el Aksa in the 
disguise of a Mohammedan pilgrim. Mr. Catherwood, who wore the dress of 
an Egj'ptiau officer, was suffered to make drawings and take measurements, 
in the belief that he was ordered to do so by ilehemet Ali for the jjurpose 
of repairing the holy X'laces. He introduced Bonomi and Mr. Arundale, on 
the pretence of requiring assistance, nor was it till the work was completed 
and the travellers at a safe distance from the city that the deception was dis- 
covered. Mr. Bonomi was for many years Curator of the Soane Museum. 



Later on will be found an announcement of the general contents of Lieut. 
Conder's new book. It will be published at 24s. The Committee have resolved 
on reducing the price to subscribers to 17s. 6d., postage paid. But it can only 
be obtained at this price by application to the London office. Names will be 
received in advance. The book will be ready towards the end of April. 



Several cases were discovered in 1876, and one or two last year, of postage 
stamps being lost on their way to the office. The only way to avoid such loss is 
to send money by P.0.0. or by cheque, in every case payable to the order of 
Walter Besant, and crossed to C'outts and Co., or the Union Bank, Charing 
Co'oss Branch. 



The ninth thousand of "Our Work in Palestine " is now ready (price Ss. 6d.), 
and may be ordered of booksellers. This book carries the work down to the 
commencement of the Survey, but does not embrace M. Ganneau's discoveries 
nor the results of the Survey itself. 



The following are at present Ptepresentatives and Lecturers of the Society, in 
addition to the local Hon. Sees. : — 

Ai-chdeaconry of Hereford : Kev. J. S. Stooke-Vaughan, Wellington Heath 

Yicarage, LedburJ^ 
City and neighbourhood of Manchester : Ptcv. W. F. Birch, St. Saviour's 

Eectorj-. 
Lancashire : Rev. John Bone, St, Thomas's Vicarage, Lancaster. 
London : Rev. Henry Geary, 16, Somerset Street, Portman Square. 
Norwich : Rev. W. F. Creeny. 

Suffolk : Rev. F. C. Long, Stow-iipland, Stowmarket. 
Peterborough : Rev. A. J. Foster, Farndish Rectory, Wellingborough. 
Worcester : Rev. F. W. Holland, Evesham (Member of General and Executive 

Committee, and one of the Hon. Secretaries to the Fund). 
Diocese of Ripon : Rev. T. C. Henley, Kirkby Malham Vicarage. 
Noi-th Wales : Rev. John Jones, Treborth, Bangor. 



50 NOTES AND NEWS. 

Yorkshire, Durham, and the Nortli : Rev. James King, 13, Paradise Terrace, 
Darlington. Mr. King is now in the Holy Land, but communications for 
lectures, &c., can be sent to the Office at Charing Cross. 

Ireland. — Diocese of Armagh : Rev. J. H. Townsend. 

Rev. G. J. Stokes, Blackrock, Dublin. 

Scotland. — Rev. R. J. Craig, Dalgetty, Burntisland. 

The Rev. Horrocks Cocks, 19, Edwardes Square, Kensington, has also'_kindly 
offered his services among the Nonconformist churches. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications by officer* 
of the Fund, the Committee beg it to be distinctly understood that they leave 
such proposals to be discussed on their own merits, and that by publishing them 
in the Q^uarterlij Statement tlie Committee do not sanction or adopt them. 



Annual subscribers are earnestly requested ta forward their subscriptions for 
the cuiTent year when due, at their earliest convenience, and without waiting for 
application. 



The Committee are always glad to receive old numbers of the Quarterly State- 
ment, especially those which have been advertised as out of print. 



TENT WOEK IN PALESTINE. 

Lieut. Conder's book is expected to be ready about the third or fourth week 
in April. The Committee are anxious that the work should be understood to be 
presented by Lieut. Conder not as the scientific result of the Survej', which will 
be looked for in the twenty-six sheets of the Map, and the voluminous Memoirs, 
plans, special sm'veys, and drawings which will accompany them, but as a book 
naturally growing out of the note-books and observations of a traveller. It is a 
record of personal adventure, with sketches and drawings made on the spot. It 
contains also a more popular account of certain interesting discoveries and 
suggested identifications than is possible in the dry details of a scientific memoir. 

From the table of contents of the book are taken the following heads : — 

Vol. I. An account of the Samaritans and of the ancient manuscripts of Shechem. 
Description of Ebal and Gerizim. The accounts of Josephus compared with the 
results of the Survey as regards Samaria, Civsarea, and Masada. The origin of 
the monastery of Carmel told by one of the last monks who remembers the 
foundation. Cana of Galilee, with an account of the early notices of the place. 
Adventures among the Arabs of Sharon, Damascus, and Baalbek. From the 
Summit of Hernion. (.'hristmas at Bethlehem. Easter at Jerusalem. The site 
of Calvary. The site of the Temple compared with tlie ascertained rock levels of 
the Haram Area. 

Vol. II. Jericho, Gilgal, and the Cities of the Plain. The Jordan Valley. 
Bethabara and MegiJdo. David's Wanderings. The Desert of Judaa. Masada. 



THE STONE OF BETIIPIIAGE. 51 

The Valley of Miclimash, Bethel, Ai, Spring in Thilistia, Lachish, Ascalon, 
Galilee. The Safed attack. Ciistoms, language, and probable origin of the 
Fellaheen. Arabs, Jews, Russian Pilgrims and German Colonists. Fertility 
and Future of Palestine. 

In an appendix will be published a complete list of the cities and towns men- 
tioned in tlie Bible, with the identifications which have been proposed. 

The illustrations, all from drawings made by the author in Palestine, or from 
new })hotographg, and chiefly of scenes never before figured, consist of six full- 
page and about thirty half-page woodcuts, engraved by Mr. Edward Whymper. 

Those subscribers who wish to avail themselves of the privilege of obtaining 
the book at reduced price are requested to forward their names to the Secretary 
as soon as possible. 

Although the work is issued by the Committee, it must be understood that the 
opinions expressed are those of the author, and that the Committee do not, in 
publishing the book, sanction or adopt Lieut. Conder's views. 



THE EOSE OF SHARON. 

Mrs. Finn writes, with reference to Lieut. Conder's note on this subject 
{Quarterly Statement, Jan., 1878, p. 46) : " During our seventeen years' residence 
in Palestine I had many opportunities of seeing roses growing in the Holy Land, 
both cultivated and wild. I have a wild dog-rose gathered in Lebanon. I saw 
another growing and in blossom on the roadside between Nabliis and Jerusalem. 
Roses have been also cultivated in Palestine for a very long period, and they 
hrive well. The Hebrew word may well mean the Rose. It signifies, as does 
its cognate Arabic, the root of a bulbous plant. The flower of a rose is like a 
bulb in the way its petals are folded over each other. Hence the name applied 
to both." 



THE STONE OF BETHPHAGE. 
I. 

(Abridged from a paper published in the Rcvuc Archceologiquc, Dec., 1877, by 

M. Clennont Ganneau. ) 

I HAVE received from the Frere Lievin certain documents and 
drawings relating to an important discovery lately made near Jerusa- 
lem. They describe a Crusaders' monument, interesting both as regards 
the history of Western art in the East, and as illustrating the topography 
of Jerusalem. Frere Lievin was fortunate in obtaining the valuable 
assistance of Captain Guillemot, to whose pen we owe the drawings 
here engraved. Farther on will also be found a notice drawn up by 
Captain Guillemot on the monument, its origin and destination, in 
support of which I shall have a few remarks to offer. The drawings 
are the more valuable because the monument has greatly suffered since 



9 THE STOKE OF BETHPHAOE. 

the clearing out. I heard, for instance, in October, that a part of the 
inscription painted on the western side fell off shortly after it was 
copied. 

The excavations undertaken with a view to clear out the monument 
met Avith every kind of obstacle from the natives until the intervention 
of Eeouf Pacha, who has rendered a great service to science in this 
matter — one which ought not to be forgotten, and which leads us to 
count on him for the future as an enlightened protector and patron of 
archreological research. 

The following is the text of Captain Guillemot's report : — 
" On leaving the Convent of Carmelites on the Mount of Olives to go 
to Bethany, the path to the east follows the contour of the south side 
of the mountain. After a gentle descent of about five hundred metres it 
turns abruptly to the south, passing over a natural ridge, which unites 
the Mount of Olives with that of Bethany. 








""When you are arrived at the middle of the ridge, turn to the east, 
the Dead Sea is visible in the distance ; behind you, on the west, is tho 
group of sanctuaries, the Ascension, the Pater Noster, and the Credo ; on 
the north, at the left, you are overlooked by the new constructions of 
the Kussian Archimandrite ; the road of Bethany, on the right, runs to 
the south, and if you advance a few steps you are on the spot where 
the most ancient traditions place Bethphage. 

" Some time in the spring of the present year a, fellah of Jebel Tur, 
digging on this spot in the hope of finding building stones, struck upon 
a polished block, upon which, on clearing away the earth, he found 
paintings and characters. In the hope of backsheesh he ran to his 
neighbours the Russians ; these, however, preoccupied with the coming 
war, told him to cover all up and leave it for the present. 

" For centuries past the Franciscans have been accustomed to celebrate 



THE STOXE OF BETIIPIIAGE. Oo 

every year the Feast of Saint Magdalene at Bethany ; on their return 
they halt at Bethphage in order to recite the Gospel of Palm Sunday. 
During the ceremony of this year (Jvily 23, 1877) an assistant perceived 
certain letters on the stele, which had been imperfectly covered over, 
and clearing away a portion of it, found a Latin inscription in Eoman 
characters. The father in charge of the sacred places, recognising at 
once the importance of this discoveiy, instructed Frere Lievin to com- 






mence excavations as soon as possible ; to take notes of and to copy 
accurately everything that should be found. 

" Shortly after, Frere Lie via, having with him a small band of work- 
men armed with pickaxe and sjDade, brought me to the Mount of Olives 
and asked for my assistance. The moment our work was commenced the 
ci^pidity of the feUahin began to raise diffictdties. Every resident of 
Jebel Tur pretended immediately to be the sole proprietor of this spot, 
hitherto neglected ; and, to crown all, the villagers of Bethany declared 



THE STONE OF BETHPHAQE. 



55 



that the place belonged to their territory. I had, however, time to 
make notes of two fragments of inscription and a sketch of the north 
side of the fresco, representing the master of the castle according to the 
two disciples permission to carry away the ass and the foal. 

" Next day, when I came back to compare my finished drawing with 
the original and to study the details, the excavations had been completely 
fiUed up and again partly cleared out. Hapijily, the part which I then 
wanted was not hidden. 

" Next day, the same trouble ; there was only the western face which 
remained partly uncovered. It was possible, however, to draw, the 
figures bearing palms and hardly visible which stand on the right and 
left of the niche. Two days afterwards the whole was completely 
covered over ; not even the top of the stone was visible. 




" These proceedings resulted from disputes between thb fellahin, some 
of them wanting the excavations to proceed in the hope of getting back- 
sheesh, and the others filling them up, as fast as made, out of jealousy. 

" Things being in this position, Frere Lievin had recourse to the Pacha, 
who immediately accorded us his protection. Orders were given by 
his excellency to the chiefs of the villages of Bethany and Jebel Tur ; 
a soldier was placed on guard over the excavations, and we were enabled 
to continue our labours in peace. 

" The fresco which I had, happily, copied carefully had been seriously 
damaged by the pickaxes and by the continual friction with stones and 
earth ; several letters of the inscription had disappeared. I made haste 
to note all that remained ; it was fortimate that I did so, because 
shortly afterwards an unkno^vn hand destroyed in our absence the greater 
part of the rest. 



56 THE STONE OE BETHPIIAGE. 

"The s^fZe measures 1*30 metres (4ffc. 3"18in.) in its greatest lengtli ; in 
breadth it is 1"13 metres (3t't. 8'49in.) at the northern end, and 1"06 
metres (or 3ft. 5'63in.) at the southern end. The height at the northern 
end is irregular, and averages one metre (3ft. 3'37in.) At the southern 
end it is 0-90 metres (2ft. ll'4in.). It is constructed of the rock on 
which it stands, a porous limestone, lying in irregular strata, with 
alternate soft and hard beds. 

" The monolith has not been separated from the rock of which it forms 
part, except on the four faces. 

" At first sight the monument would be taken for an altar, or even for 
a tomb. But there exist no traces of the steps and other accessories to 
an altar. As regards the second, there is no sign of any opening. The 
white stucco which covers it is still solid in certain places. The paint- 
ings are finely executed and of a striking character. Nevertheless, the 
inscriptions leave no doubt as to the origin of this decoration. 

"But is it only a restoration? At what period was the stone cut? 
That is a question impossible to answer. Those who thus ornamented 
it must have had no doubt that formerly the rock stood out above the 
level of the soil, presenting a sort of rustic seat, and that our Lord 
may have sat upon it on a certain memorable day. 

" The Resurrection of Lazarus. — The choice of the south side for this 
painting, which faces Bethany, and the subject, that of the permisssion 
to take the ass and the foal, makes me think that the west part, facing 
Jerusalem, must have represented the triumphant entry of our Lord 
into the Holy City. The figures which can still be seen bearing palms, 
on the two sides of the niche, are in favour of this hypothesis. 

" This painting is much superior to the others. I believe, however, 
that it is by the same hand. 

" On the facade of the Church of the Holy Sei^ulchre there is a Eesur- 
rection of Lazarus carved in the prolongation of the lintel. It is in 
great measure identical with that of Bethphage. Did the painter copy 
the sculptor ? Perhaps while studying the vigorous bas-rehef he may 
have acquired a more perfect understanding of the line and of light 
and shade. I am happy in having been able to cojjy this composition 
in time. At present it is greatly damaged ; wet fingers have been 
passed over the figures, and have effaced them ; many of them have 
quite disappeared. 

" The fresco on the other side appears to be the blessing of the 
restoration of this little sanctuary. The notch which is observed in the 
upper part, about the middle, may have been to hide a defect in the 
stone. 

' ' On clearing away the earth from our excavations we came upon a 
circular construction of a m.uch more ancient appearance than the 
decoration of the stele. The disposition and arrangement of the ma- 
terials have nothing in common with Crusaders' work. Besides, at two 
metres from the circumference we found the fragment of a column 
standing still upright upon its base. Is this the first and most ancient 



THE STONE OF BETIIPIIAGE. 57 

sanctuary, which, those who restored the monument were unable to 
repair in its original grandeur ? More complete examination of the 
place is required to prove the point. 

" In any case, we ascertained that the stele itself was in the centre of 
the circiilar space.* 

"Near the monument lie a number of cisterns, some in ruins, some 
covered over and still in use. Their depth and size, and the fact that they 
are gathered together over a narrow space, their acknowledged antiquity, 
all go to prove that there once existed an important village in this place. 
Two of the reservoirs are in ruins ; two others serve as watering-places 
for cattle. A small rocky ravine which used to feed these cisterns 
separates them towards the west from a mamelon which may very well 
be the site of Bethphage. I have seen on the ground broken pillars, 
fragments of marble pavement, an enormous quantity of broken Jewish 
pottery, and mosaic cubes of all colours, all of which have been brought 
to light by the cultivation of the soil. 

" I one day met the proprietor on the spot at the moment when he was 
taking out of the ground a stone evidently once part of an aqueduct, 
and evidently of great age. I asked him if he found many things like 
it. He replied, ' You see all this place ; I cannot dig anywhere without 
finding walls.' Then he added, ' There was formerly a city on this 
spot.' That, indeed, is the opinion of the whole country. 

"It does not seem to me possible that Bethphage could have been 
placed on the side of a road which, shut in to right and left by two hills, 
is a mere gulf for the west wind, so terrible in this country. The old 
cities in the vicinity are all built on slopes which incline to the south- 
east. Now this mamelon near the cisterns has a similar inclination. 

" Again let us turn to the sacred narrative. The Saviour came from 
Jericho towards Jerusalem ; He had passed Bethany, and passed over 
the ground broken by the hills which separate the valleys of Bethany 
and Bethphage. ' Go,' He said to His disciples, ' to the village over 
against you, ' (Matt. xxi. 2). Now the road has not been changed, since 
it could have passed no other way than over the narrow ridge to join 
the Mount^of Olives. If, then, the village was on the road, .why send the 
disciples, since the Lord would pass it Himself ? And if we look at the 
plan, we may be sure that the disciples, to make a short cut, descended 
the valley to climb the mamelon of Bethphage, while our Lord, with the 
rest of His disciples, continued to follow the road in the direction of the 
Mount of Olives, and there waited the return of the disciples. 

" And to the faithful this stone would be that on which Jesus rested 
by the wayside and when He mounted the ass." 

To this report M. Clermont Ganneau appends several pages of valuable 
comment. He points out that the niche shown in the drawing may, as 
Captain Guillemot suggests, have been carved on the stonei originally, 
and in order to hide some defect ; or it may have been cut by a fellah 
of more modern days to receive a beam for some construction of his 
* See Lieut. Kitchener's Eeport and Plan, p. 6]. 



THE STONE OF BETIIPHAGE. 59 

own. The inscription he ascribes, as beyond doubt, to the twelfth 
centmy. On one of the faces occurs the name of Bernard Witard. 
There appears in the Cartulary of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre the 
name of Johannes Guitard (= Witard). Probably Bernard belonged to 
this famUy, and defrayed the expenses of the monument. 

As regards the constructions found round the stele, M. Ganneau is of 
opinion, in which Lieut. Kitchener's observations (see plan, p. 61) sup- 
port him, that the wall was not actually circular, but apsidal, and part 
of a church, and he calls attcTition to the importance of proving 
that the church was buUt before the stone was painted. His own dis- 
covery of the taiUe medioevale {Quarterly/ Statevient, April, 1874) may be 
applied here. 

As regards Captain Guillemot's suggestion that the stone may have 
been regarded as that on which our Loid rested, M. Ganneau brings 
direct proof that such was the case. He quotes Theodoricus de Locis 
Sanctis (a.d. 1072) : — " Milliario ab Hierosolymis Bethania, ubi domus 
Simonis leprosi, Lazari et ejus sororum Marise et Marthse erat, distat, 
ubi Dominus ssepe hospitari solebat. Sita est autem Bethania juxta 
vallum Oliveti, montem a parte orientali terminantem. A Bethania ergo 
in die palmarum dilectissimus dominus noster Jesus Christus prsecedens 
et Bethphage veniens, qui locus inter Bethaniam et montem Oliveti 
medius est, ubi etiani honesta capella in ipsius honore est fabricata binos 
ad adducendum asrnam et pullum misit discipulos, et stans super lapi- 
dem grandem qui in ista capella manifesto videtur, et asino insidens per 
montem Oliveti Hierosolymam properavit cui turba multa in descensu 
montis ipsius obviam processit." — Tobler's edit. p. 52. 

So that in the second half of the twelfth century they showed between 
the Mount of Olives and Bethany the site of Bethphage and the place 
where Jesus had sent two of His disciples to seek the ass and the colt. 
There they had raised a "fair chapel" — honesta capella — and in this 
chapel was visible the stone on which our Lord stood before mounting 
the ass. 

"This rock," says M. Ganneau, " can be no other than this monolith, 
from which the surrounding rock has been carefully cut away, lovingly 
covered on all sides by delicate paintiugs, which remind one of illumina- 
tions in a precious missal rather than an ordinary fresco drawn to hide 
the naked stone. . . . We may remember that the Crusaders had an 
especial predilection for fresco painting ; they covered the walls of all 
the churches on the sacred sites ^\dth frescoes. Many pilgrims, especially 
John of Wurzburg, have preserved the description of these paintings, the 
siibjects of which, all borrowed from the Old and the New Testament, were 
in accordance with the traditions of each sanctuary. These paintings were 
accompanied by long inscriptions, generally in rhymed Latin, according 
to the fashion of the time. It is a pity that John of Wurzburg did not 
visit the place and copy the inscriptions. He mentions, however, the 
church of Bethphage. Several other writers of the twelfth century 
speak of Bethphage and its church. Soewulf, however (a.d. 1102), 
speaks as if a church had not yet been erected: "Bethphage, ubi 



60 THE STOA'E OF BETIIPHAGE. 

Dominus prtemisit discipiilos ad civitatem est in monte Oliveti, sed fere 
nusquam apparet." 

Bernard (a.d. 865) says : — " In descensu etiam de monte Oliveti ad 
occidentalem plagam ostenditur niarmor, de quo descendit dominus super 
pullum asinte." 

The " western" slope of Olivet will not fit in with, our stele, but the 
fact remains that in the ninth century such a stone was shown. 

M. Ganneau goes on to show that the traditional site of Bethphage 
was maintained up to the 17th century. He concludes his paper {Revue 
Archceologi'jue, Dec, 1877) as follows: — "We know, therefore, beyond 
any doubt, the point where the Crusaders localised the episode to which 
the name of Bethphage is attached. The ruins noticed by M. GuUlemot 
not far from the painted stone belong to the Bethphage so called by the 
Crusaders. Is this mediaeval Bethphage identical with that of the 
Gospel ? This is a question quite distinct from the first. We know how 
different are opinions on the site of Bethphage. According to some who 
rely on the Greek text of Luke xix. 29, it is placed to the east or the 
south-east of Bethany ; others consider it as identical with the modern 
village of SUwan ; others, again, relying on the authority of the Talmud, 
make Bethphage a suburb of Jerusalem. For my own part, I confess 
that I ask myself whether Bethphage is not simply the village of the 
Mount of Olives called Kefr ct-Tur. I believe this village ancient on 
account of its name of Kefr, on account of its situation, and on account 
of the ancient remains that one sees there. Kefr et-Tur means the 
Village of the Moumt of Olives ; it may formerly have had a designation 
more personal, which is lost. Now the Gospel tells us of an ancient 
locality whose name has disapj)eared ; it is Bethphage, the Village of the 
Mount of Olives, 

" This hypothesis will enable us to explain and understand certain 
Talmudic passages, which are all clear if one admits that Bethphage 
marked on the East the boundary of the Sabbatic zone which on every 
side surrounded the city. The Mount of Olives (by which we may now 
understand a particular point of this mount) was exactly a Sabbath-day's 
journey from Jerusalem. And what point could this be except the 
village of the mountain which occupied its principal summit and now 
bears its name r " 

II. 

LiEUTEXAKT Kitchener's EEronT. 

The road from the Mount of Olives to Bethany crosses a narrow 
ridge of land which joins the Mount of Olives to the hill above Bethany. 
On this narrow strip ancient tradition placed the site Bethphage, men- 
tioned (Matt. xxi. 1 ; Mark xi. 1 ; and Luke xix. 29) as the place Avhere 
our Lord mounted the ass for his triumj)hal entry into Jerusalem. The 
remains of an ancient chapel have been imcovered, dating probably from 
the twelfth or thirteenth century. 

In the chapel there is an almost square block of masonry or rock 
covered with paintings ; it measures 4ft. 3in. by 3ft. Gin. by 3ft. lOin. 



THE STONE OF BETHPHAGE. 



61 



high, and its position in the chapel is curious — being on the north 
side, probably between two columns of the nave, as seen on the accom- 
panying plan. 

This square block is supposed to be either an altar, a shrine, or a 
portion of the rock cut out and ornamented, being the exact place 
where our Lord mounted the ass. 

PLaii' of Tcc€nt' SLscovery 
■ Moimt ct Olives 



I 




^ 




«ir_ 



The paintings, of which I send you pen-and-ink sketches, are well 
done, though now much disfigured. On the south side is the Eaisino- of 
Lazarus ; on the north are the Disciples fetching the Ass ; on the east 
there are a number of persons standing in a row, but it is too much 
disfigured to be recognisable ; on the west there is a niche covered by 
an arch, which was probably supported by two small columns; below 
the niche is a portion of an inscription still remaining ; several lines 
have been destroyed. 

On the top there was also some design and the traces of an inscrip- 
tion. The walls of the small chamber to the south were also painted 
with a design of squares containing circles, and the walls of the church 
were painted in a common pattern. 

M. Le Capitaine Guillemot was the first to visit these remains, and 
he has made elaborate drawings and copies of the paintings and inscrip- 
tions when everything was almost perfect. These he is about to publish. 
He was able to read on different parts of the inscription, " Hie est," 
"Bethphagus," and "Hierusalem." H. H. K.' 



62 



JOUENAL OF THE SUEVEY. 

Jerusalem, 23i'd November, 1877. 

Tlie obstruction of the authorities of Nablus to my repairing Jacob's 
"Well continued during the whole time I was there, in spite of all the 
measures I took to gain their compliance in a work which could only 
be for the good of all, Mohammedans and Christians alike. I was 
subjected to many indignities by the officials, which culminated on the 
3rd of November by my being stoned by a mob of boys in the streets of 
Nablus. My letter of complaint to the acting governor was sent back 
unopened, showing that, if they had not connived at the insult to me, 
they intended taking no steps to punish the delinquents. The case 
is now officially before the ambassador, but owing to the unsatisfactory 
state of things in Turkey there is little hope of its being attended to 
for some time. 

Wliile at Nablus the revision went on steadily, and many important 
results were obtained. I made considerable search on Mount Ebal for 
the el Keniseh (the church) described by Major "Wilson, and with some 
difficulty found the name of a ruin (el Kuneisah) spelt differently, and 
therefore not meaning a church. The people from the north side of the 
mountain who cultivate the ground Avere an extremely bad lot, and I 
had to make three expeditions to the top before I could gain any reliable 
information. 

I sent Corporal Brophy with an expedition to Tulkerum to revise 
that portion of the map, which was successfully accomplished. On the 
2nd I rode out to Teiasir to search for the tombs of the kings of Israel. 
As I was passing the village of Tubas I made some search after an 
inscription which had been reported, but after careful inquiry and 
search among the tombs, I could not hear of any inscription answer- 
ing to my description. On visiting the mosque, however, they told 
me of a valuable stone that was built into the wall. Getting my 
fingers into a crevice under the stone, I could feel that it was inscribed. 
I therefore urged them to pull it out to adorn the mosque, and after 
a little persuasion in the shape of bucksheesh they set to work and 
soon rooted out the stone. It proved to be an Arabic inscription, very 
much defaced, telling of the building and dedication of the mosque. 
Tubas is a large village of about 1,500 inhabitants, situated in a most 
fertile country. By paying £100 in gold to the Pasha of Nablus the 
people have escaped the conscription up to now, but I expect their teim 
is nearly out, and unless they pay another heavy bribe they will soon be 
called upon to make up for the time they have been spared. 

At Teiasir I was unable to identify the tombs of the kings. There are 
large numbers of caves and tombs on the side of a valley, but nothing to 
distinguish any above the rest. The surface of the walls is cut up with 
winepresses and cisterns. On the top of the hill, above the tombs, 
there seemed to be traces of what might have been sonic large attached 



JOURNAL OF THE SURVEY. 63 

sarcophagi, but they are so broken and worn down that it was impos- 
sible to be certain about them. The village is deserted, owing to the heavy 
demands for taxes and conscription. Half a dozen very unpleasing- 
looking men rushed out of a cave when they heard us, evidently mean- 
ing mischief ; but on seeing that we were three, and well armed, they 
skulked off amongst the bushes. Poor creatures ! they looked pinched 
with hunger, and were evidently very nearly driven to desperation. 
These are the sort of people that are making the country dangerous at 
this time. After visiting all the rock-cut tombs and caves and examining 
the remains of the old Roman masonry tomb, which reminded me of the 
one at Kades, though much smaller, we rode back along the remains 
of the Roman road. At one place four Roman milestones were thrown 
together in a heap. The engineering of these Roman roads was excellent. 
Over a most difficult country such as this it excites admiration to see the 
way that difficulties were got over with the least possible expenditure 
of labour. Should Palestine ever be reopened to civilisation, these 
roads will form the basis of the principal lines of communication through 
the country. 

On passing Wady Farah I visited the tent of Fendy el Feis, the chief 
of the Beni Sakr. The tribe left the neighbourhood of Zerin on account 
of the row that was made about the murder of Mr. Gale, near Nazareth. 
The government had long wished to get rid of them, and seized the 
opportunity, when Mr. Moore arrived at Acre in a British man-of-war 
to inquire into the murder, to inform the Beni Sakr that it might be 
disagreeable to them if they remained, as suspicion was likely to fall on 
some of them. 

Their tents were pitched in a lovely spot close to Burg el F'arah, on 
the high ground between the two springs 'Ain el F'arah and 'Ain ed 
Duleib. Both of them form streams of water at once, and run through 
groves of oleanders and bushes. 

Fendy was absent in Moab arranging for the sale of camels for the 
Haj. The tribe make about £1,500 a year by selling or hiring camels 
for the pilgrimage to Mecca ; the Beni Sakr tribe seem to have almost the 
monopoly in this trade. While at Bosra the government on some plea 
took Fendy prisoner ; his son at once got together a baud of Arabs and 
came to the rescue of his father. The first shot fired by the escort 
guarding Fendy killed his son ; this seems to have ended the affray. 
There was some fear that this would be a cause of feud between the 
tribe and the government, but Fendy is reported to have said on the 
occasion, "My son and I were servants of the Sultan, now he has one 
less," which is taken to mean he does not intend making a feud of it. 
I got back to my tent late. 

On the 3rd I sent the two non-commissioned officers to Lebban with 
a party to go on with the revision of that district. I stayed at Nablus 
owing to a telegi-am from the consul-general asking me to wait and 
see what steps the Vali of Syria would take in the matter of Jacob's 
Well. I rode out and examined the fine site of El 'Ormah, south-east 



64 JOUKXAL OF THE SUllVEY. 

of Nablus. The position was very grand, standing higli above the 
surrounding hills ; from a distance the castle seems almost inaccessible ; 
by approaching it from the west, however, a narrow tongue of land leads 
to within a little of the top. A stiff climb along rock terraces and over 
scarped rocks leads to the plateau on the top on which the castle was 
situated. The foundations of two square towers of large drafted masonry, 
similar to Crusading work, still guard the southern entrance ; these 
and some cisterns and ruined houses are all that now remain ; the whole 
area of the plateau would be about three-quarters of an acre. The rock 
was scarped perpendicularly on the west side ; on the east and north 
sides the hill descended very steeply about 500 ft. to a valley ; on the 
south a very narrow ridge led to another small round hilltop, slightly 
lower than the fortress, which was equally inaccessible. The place 
must have been one of great strength ; the remains still existing do not 
seem to date from a period previous to the times of the Crusaders. 

I returned by the village of Awertah, which is very pleasantly situated 
amongst olive-groves, and well supplied with water. It is famous for 
the tomb of Eleazar (el 'Azeir), which is held in high veneration by the 
Mohammedans, Jews, and Samaritans. I had to search for the tomb 
of Phinehas ; but, though there are three other sacred places, the inhabi- 
tants knew nothing of Phinehas. The three others are Sheikh el 
Mansury, Neby el Mefuddil, and el 'Azeirat, and in each there are 
Samaritan inscriptions. In Neby el Mefuddil the inscription is plastered 
up. The people are very obKging, and all the sacred places are kept in 
excellent repair. A Samaritan told ma that Sh. el Mansury was the tomb 
of Phinehas according to their records, but it seems more probable from 
the positions on the ground that el 'Azeirat, which corresponds with el 
'Azeir, should be the site. The place is evidently very ancient ; there are 
many rock-cut tombs, Avine-presses, cisterns, and a fine spring of water. 
The people told me that el 'Azeir was a very great Neby next to 
Mohammed, and that he had even lived before the Prophet of God. 

As I found, on my return to camp, that the government intended 
still to raise objections, though they had received a pressing telegram 
from the Vali, I determined to move next day to Beitin. Telegraphic 
communication at Nablus is in a curious state, no telegrams being con- 
sidered private. The Greek bishop often brought me copies of telegrams 
received by the government, and I am quite convinced the authorities 
received copies of mine probably before they were forwarded. To 
frustrate this I sent some of mine round by Jerusalem. Next day I 
moved camp to Beitin, as nothing official had arrived in the twenty-four 
hours. My non-commissioned officers were there before me. From 
this camp a large tract of country was revised. 

Corporal Brophy having reported some inscriptions and carved stones 
at Jifna, I rode there next day. The inscriptions are on a small modern 
bridge, and are in modern Greek and Arabic, stating the bridge to have 
been built by the head of the convent. 

Let into the wall of the Greek chui-ch there is a very beautifully 



JOUllNAL OF THE SURVEY. 65 

carved sarcophagus in perfect preservation. It is very rare in this 
country to find figures unmutilatcd, but in this case the sarcophagus 
was found on Greek ground, and the village being Christian, it has 
escaped. The work and finish is very fine : four small angles support a 
wreath hanging in festoons ; in the centre of each compartment thus 
formed above the wreath is a cherub's head ; the expression on the faces 
is very beau tif id ; the whole is cut in white marble. There is a great 
difference between this sarcophagus and those described by Major Wilson 
at Kades, of which two remarkably well-preserved specimens may be 
seen at Kh. Shelabun. The work is much smaller and finer, and I 
should think of a later date. 

Next day I moved camp to Beit Ur et Tahta, every one revising on 
the road, as usual when we moved camp. 

The following day I rode down the great valley that witnessed the 
flight and pursuit of the Philistines by Joshua on that day that was 
like no other. After visiting Beit Nuba and Yalo I returned by Beit 
Sira, and met a bridal party. Our village had arranged to give a bride 
to a man of Bir Main in exchange for one of equal beauty and wealth 
for one of their sons. Both brides started at a given time from their 
villages, accompanied by all the women in their gayest attire, and 
escorted by mounted men galloping frantically about performing 
" fantasia," as they call it. The brides were veiled and so mufiled up 
that they could hardly move. The women kept up a chant the whole way. 
When the two processions came within sight of each other they halted, and 
the brides were dragged off their horses and took leave of their friends 
with a good deal of lamentation. They were then mounted again, and 
two men led the horses alone to the opposite party ; the men changed 
horses midway, and brought back the new brides. They were at once 
received with great joy, and had to dismount again to receive the con- 
gratulations of their new friends. Both parties then returned with a 
good deal of shouting and firing off of old rusty guns. In the evening 
the shouting and noise in the village was kept up to a late hour. 

The following day I sent the non-commissioned officers to make sj)ecial 
plans of the White Mosque at Eamleh and the reservoir of St. Helena. 
I rode to Jaffa revising, and slept there ; the ground was very deep in 
the plain, owing to the rains, and great care had to be taken. Our 
horses were frequently up to theii* girths in the soft ground. 

I was astonished to learn at Jaffa that the French steamer would 
arrive on the 23rd instead of the 29th, as I had expected and calculated 
for. It was extremely important that the non-commissioned officers 
should go home by that steamer, as otherwise they would have to wait 
a fortnight for the next. I rode from Jaffa to Arsuf to examine the 
castle, while the non-commissioned ofiicers made a special plan of Eas 
el Ain and revised the country round. The castle at Arsuf is very Hke 
Ascalon in the style of its masonry and the excellence of the cement 
employed. In places where the stones are weathered away, the cement 
remains. It was almost impossible to break off a piece. In other 



6 JOURNAL OF THE SURVEY. 

places the pointing remains as fresh as when the masons left it. The 
castle was built on a bad foundation of very soft rock, on the seaside ; 
this has been woi-n away, and the walls have slid down bodily. They 
are naturally cracked and broken, but immense portions of the walls 
have rolled down from a great height without breaking up. In some 
parts the walls look as if they had been built on sloping scarps, so 
perfectly have they slid from their high position. A quantity of green 
sulphate of copper is scattered about attached to rocks in crystals. I 
had to leave eai-ly, as it was necessary to get back to camp at Lidd that 
evening. Next morning I sent Corporal Brophy up to Jerusalem to get 
on with the packing up, and moved camp to Deir Aban. I visited Mr. 
Bergheim's farm at Abu Shusheh, and found the position of 'Ain et 
Tamuir. It is now applied to a spot on the hill side, where the aiti is 
said to commence. The water is carried from this spot ia an aqueduct 
Tinderground to the present 'Ain el Yerdeh, lower down. This theory 
is carried out by the discovery, when the men were cleaning out 'Ain el 
Yerdeh, that the water came into the well from an aqueduct. After 
examining the country round, I rode to Amwas to see the church. I 
entered the mosque and measured it up. On coming out I found a 
throng of people, who said it was a most sacred place, being the tomb 
of Sheik Obeid. I apologised for going in with my shoes on. The 
people were extremely civil and obliging, and though I had a Turkish 
soldier with me, they expressed their longing that England would take 
the country and give them the benefits of a just government. Nothing 
I could say would induce them to believe that England had no inten- 
tion of doing anything of the sort. There had been a wedding that 
day, and as the bridegroom has to stand a certain amount of powder 
for fantasia on these occasions, the young men very sensibly determined 
to use it for firing at marks, instead of throwing it away uselessly. They 
made some very good practice. At a certain time they all formed in 
line in front of the mosque, with the old sheikh in front, and went 
through their devotions together. They were very fervent in their 
prayers that God would give victory to the Sultan and confound the 
Muscovites. I then visited the remains of the magnificent church. The 
stones are very large, and the church, in my opinion, is older than the 
Crusading times, very probably dating from the fifth century. 

I next visited the tine remains of the Crusading castle at Latron ; it 
must have been an important place, and is still in very fair iireservatiou. 
I had no time to make a jilan of the remains. Pushing on for Deir 
Aban I soon caught Corporal Sutherland, who had been revising in 
another direction; his horse was evidently very ill, and as Corporal 
Suthei-land had a very bad foot I had to load it all the way, about six 
miles, to Deir Aban. We got in some time after dark ; the horse was 
very bad on the road, and though everything was done he died a quarter 
of an hour after getting into camp. It was sad he could not last another 
day, as that would have finished his work. 

Next day we marched into Jerusalem. I visited Beit Atah and EUar 



ITINERARIES OF OUR LORB. 67 

et Tahta, making inquiries about Azekah, but could hear of no sucb 
place except Ez Zak near Khuweilf eh, and Kh. Habeik, both well-known 
places. 

I cami3 round by Solomon's Pools and the Bethlehem road revising, 
while Corporal Sutherland took a straighter course ; Corporal Brophy 
revised the road on his way up from Lidd. The revision of 1,700 square 
miles was therefore completed on the 17th November. We had some 
very bad weather during the month — six days may be characterised by 
continuous rain — but the work was carried on the same and no day was 
lost. Packing up and arranging for the sale of the horses took two 
days. The men left on the 22nd and sailed next morning with all the 
luggage. I made some final arrangements and sailed myself for Con- 
stantinople on the 26th. 

The work done from the end of February to the end of November, 
nine months, has been 1,340 square miles of country triangulated and 
surveyed, every ruin examined, and special reports on all villages and 
water supply; the line of levels between the Mediterranean and the Sea 
of Galilee completed, 1,700 square miles of country revised, 8,850 names 
collected and 816 ruins examined and described, 29 special plans and 
19 photographs, besides notes on all archgeological and geological points 
of interest in the country gone over. 

H. H. Kitchener, Lieut. E.E. 



ITINERAEIES OF OUE LOED.— CANA OF GALILEE. 

St. James's Terrace, Eegent's Park, 
March 30th, 1878. 

In trying to lay down the routes by which our Lord made his journeys, 
nothing is more important than to fix, if possible, disputed sites. A 
place identified becomes a fixed point, from which other Hues may be 
pushed out. Happily, a few of the more important places— Nazareth, 
Bethlehem, Bethany, Mount Olivet, Jerusalem, and Jacob's Well — have 
never been the sport of theorists. But this good fortune has not 
attended Cana, Bethsaida, Capernaum, and Bethabara. If all these 
places could be fixed beyond dispute, much would be done towards 
framing an outline for the Itineraries. In the following notes I venture 
to submit the case in favour of Cana, and to ask for a verdict on the 
evidence adduced in favour of the historic site, against the theorists. 

Where was this sacred place ? 

All the native Churches, whether Gi-eek or Latin, Coptic, Nestorian, 
or Armenian, reply that Cana of the marriage feast lay at Kefr Kana, 
on the road from Nazareth to Capernaum. Kefr Kana means Village 
of Cana. Till the days of Eobinson there had been no dispute about 
the locality. Cana was a common name in Palestine, very much like 



68 ITIKERARIES OF OUR LORD. 

Asliton in England, Steinberg in Germany, San Lucar in Spain. There 
was a Cana in Judtea, a second Cana near Mount Tabor, a third Cana near 
Tyre. There may have been more. Villages of this name rose and 
perished ■without a record. One such village floui-ished in a recent 
period at a spot some six miles north of Sephoris, and is now called 
Khurbet Kaua, Ruins of Cana. An ignoyant Frank confused the new 
Cana north of Sephoris with the old Cana north-east of Nazareth ; but 
the false suggestion died with the ignorant Frank who made it. Qua- 
resmius, hearing of the suggestion, put an end to it by simple state- 
ment of the facts. Robinson revived the doubt. 

On going up the hill of Nazareth with his Arab seiwant, Abu Nasir, 
to get a view of the country, Robinson heard of that dead Cana, lying 
beyond Sephoris. The name was new to him, and the spot indicated 
was a desert place. Abu Nasir spoke of it as Kana el- Jelil — Cana of 
Galilee. Robinson adopted the ridiculous heresy which Quaresmius 
fancied he had crushed. Robinson thought he had caught the monks 
at their tricks. The real Cana lay out of their way, and they changed 
the site for their own convenience. Abu Nasir' s word was enough. 
"The name is identical. . . . On this single ground, therefore, we 
should be authorised to reject the present monastic position of Cana." 
When Robinson had made up his mind he found plenty of texts to 
support his theories — found them by the easy process of misreading 
and false translation. He never went to see the spot ! The place was 
called Khurbet Kana, Ruins of Cana ; but he never asked whether the 
ruins were new or old — the waste of an Arab village later than the 
Crusades, or a Syrian hamlet earlier than the birth of Christ. Enough 
for him that Abu Nasir called it Kana el- Jelil ; Abu Nasir's word out- 
weighed for him the authority of all the native Churches. 

This story sounds like farce ; and yet, since Robinson's time, Khurbet 
Kana has for many persons usui-ped the place of the genuine Cana of 
Galilee. Karl Ritter adopted Robinson's mistake, and his authority 
has led to the insertion of his blvmder in many maps. A note to the 
last edition of Ritter' s work affords the means of correction ; but several 
map-makers were misled before that correction came ; see Chambers's 
map of Palestine, Hughes's map of Syria, Boedeker's " Galilee," and 
(Ifam sorry to add) Murray's far more valuable map of the Holy Land. 
Let us scan the evidence of fact. 

I. — Evidence or Name. 

Kefr Kana (Village of Cana) and Khiarbet Kana (Ruins of Cana) are 
places in the same district of Galilee, hardly a dozen miles apart. In 
Greek their names are identical — they are both called Kavd; in our 
English form Cana. To distinguish either of them from Cana in Judaea it 
was necessary to add the words " in Galilee" or " of Galilee," as we, in 
speaking of our northei-n Richmond, should add " in Yorkshire " to dis- 
tinguish it from the better known town near London. Robinson's first 
mistake arose from treating the form "Cana of Galilee" as a proper 



ITINERARIES OF OUll LORD. 69 

name. His whole theory rests on this foundation. " Cana of Galilee," 
he argues, is the name of a place mentioned by St. John; "Kana el- 
Jelil " is the name of a place mentioned by Abu Nasir. They must be 
one and the same. Such is his process — such bis proof. 

But was " Cana of Galilee " a proper name ? Some names of towns 
are compound, the words wedded and inseparable, like Civita-Castellana, 
Boulogne-sur-Mer, and Ashton-under-Lyue. Is "Cana of Galilee" 
such a compound name ? If not, Eobinson's theory is imtenable — his 
inference unsound. 

On this point there is not much room for philological mistake. Cana 
is mentioned by two authors, and no more. They mention it by the 
same name, and with very nearly the same descriptive adjunct. These 
authors are Josephus and St. John. The name is only known in the 
Greek form Kafd, to which the English form Cana corresponds with 
perfect accuracy. No Hebrew, Chaldee, or Aramaic form of the word is 
known. All modern forms, whether Arabic or Frankish, are derived 
from the Greek word, and must be carried back to it in case of variance. 
Robinson saw an argument in favour of his heresy in the fact that some 
modern Arabs have rendered the Greek word Kava by two Arabic forms, 
Kana and Kenna. So he used the form Kana in reference to Khurbet 
Kana, Kenna in reference to Kefv Kana. There is no ground for such 
a distinction. Kana and Kenna come from Cana and return into Cana. 
Such variations as occnr in the name of Cana belong to modern Arabic, 
not to ancient Greek. 

Josephus and St. John knew Cana well. While Josephus held his 
command in Galilee, he lived at Cana ; a convenient post from which 
he could watch Sephoris on one side and Tiberias on the other side. 
Cana figures in the narrative of his life on at least one very important 
occasion — that of his night- march on the capital of Lower Galilee. 
Josephus calls the place in which he lived and from which he started 
"a village in Galilee called Cana." Nothing in his text suggests that 
the place was called " Cana of Galilee," as Robinson imagines it to have 
been called. St. John knew Cana as well as Josephus. He was at the 
marriage feast. Cana was the home of Nathaniel, his fellow-disciple, 
and was only a few miles from his own house at Capernaum. He calls 
the place Cana of Galilee. The name occurs twice in the fourth Gospel 
— in the second chapter, and in the twenty-first chapter. Our trans- 
lators render the first passage Cana of Galilee, and the second Cana in 
Galilee. The texts of Josephus and St. John leave no doubt that Cana 
is a proper name ; Cana of Galilee, or Cana in Galilee, a descriptive 
phrase. Josephus says " a village of Galilee called Cana," as we should 
say "a village in Kent called Sevenoaks." He never mentions his 
dwelling-place as a village called " Cana of Galilee." There being more 
than one Cana in Palestine, as there is more than one Richmond in 
England, like causes produced like use of language. A Yorkshire 
writer mentioning Richmond would describe it as Richmond in York- 
shire, not because " Richmond in Yorkshire " is a proper name, but 



70 ITINERARIES OF OUR LORD. 

because he might otherwise run some risk of being thought to mean 
Richmond in Surrey. John uses the form Cana of Galilee in order 
that his ordinary readers may not confuse the scene of the marriage 
feast with the better known Cana in Judtea. Cana in Judaea had in the 
days of St. John a fame like that of Sedan in our own days. There 
Antiochus had given battle to the Arabs. There he had fallen, and his 
whole army had been destroyed. A Jew writing in those times of 
" Cana" would be understood to mean Caua in Judaea, the scene of 
that great disaster to the Jewish arms. Hence, for the sake of clear- 
ness, both Josephus and St. John added the name of the province in 
which his Cana lay — the first saying, simply, a village of Galilee called 
Cana; the second, no less simply, Cana of Galilee. 

When the notion of " Cana in Galilee " being a proper name is set 
aside, it is waste of time to seek a modern equivalent in Arabic for that 
unknown form. If any place is now called Kana el-Jelil — Cana of 
Galilee — the place is likely to be modern, and the name a mistake. 
Kefr Kana is an exact Arabic rendering of the Greek words used by 
Josephus— Village of Cana ; so that the whole argument from philology 
is in favour of the native Churches. 

II. — Evidence of Site. 

Cana (Kefr Kana) is five English miles from Nazareth, in a north- 
eastern line, on the present main road to Tiberias and the lake district. 
Sefurieh (old Greek colony of Sephoris) stands north-west of Kefr Kana, 
on the road to Acre, the city called in the time of our Lord, Ptolemais. 
Sephoris was a walled city, and the Eoman road passed through its 
streets. 

The heap of ruins now called Khurbet Kana lies five miles due north of 
Sephoris, which waUed city cut it off from the whole region in which 
the Teacher lived. Khurbet Kana is not on the road from Nazareth to 
Capernaum. A man coming up from Capernaum to Nazareth, as in the 
Gospel, could not have come near the ppot now called KhurbetKana. That 
spot lay on the road from Sephoris to Ptolemais, not on the road from 
Sephoris to Tiberias. A man coming up from Blackwall to Highgate 
does not pass through Harrow. 

In the time of St. John, Cana was a station at the crossing of two 
roads ; a country road used by Hebrew herdsmen and peasants, and an 
imperial road used by Roman and other strangers — a fact which gave 
it value from a military point of view. The country road led from 
Nazareth, and other open towns and villages, through Cana, to 
Magdala, Capernaum, Bethsaida, and other water-places on the lake. 
The Eoman road ran from Acre (then Ptolemais) to Sephoris, the old 
Greek capital of Upper Galilee, and thence through Cana to Tiberias, 
the new Roman capital of Lower Galilee. Thus, Cana was a station on 
the I'oad between Sephoris and Tiberias, very much as Rochester is a 
station on the road from Ijondon to Dover. 

Keeping this position on the map in mind, turn to the several texts 



ITINERARIES OF OUR LORD. 71 

in whicli Cana is mentioned. Jesus, coming np from the lake country 
with his disciples, met his mother at Cana (St. John ii. 2). From Cana 
He goes "down to Capernaum" (ii. 12). The expressions show that 
Cana stood on the ledge of the hill country, above the lake, and on the 
road from Bethsaida and Capernaum to Nazareth. The words could 
not apply to a place standing six miles beyond Sephoris, on the way ta 
Ptolemais. Again, the nobleman of Capernaum, coming to seek Jesus, 
finds Him in Cana. " Come doiun, ere my child die," says the father. 
On being assured that his son lived, the nobleman went down. " As he 
was now going down, his servents met him." A journey from the spot 
now called Khurbet Kana could not be described as " going down ; " 
for the road first leads up to Sephoris, the capital, and then through a 
rough sort of table-land as far as Cana ; and it is only from this point 
that the road begins to drop down. Every word in the Gospel narrative 
implies that Cana stood near the ledge of the hill country over the 
lake. 

Next turn to Josephus. Happily for us, Josephus had a good deal to 
do with Cana. Sent from Jerusalem into Galilee, as a delegate of the 
Sanhedrin, he first went to Sephoris, capital of Upper Galilee, where 
he found the people excited but at peace. He next went to 
Tiberias, capital of Lower Galilee, where he found the people 
in revolt. Josephus raised a large body of men, fortified several 
strong places, including Mount Tabor, and in a short time be- 
came master of the whole province. He saw a good deal of fight- 
ing. Twice he had to storm Sephoris ; four times he had to storm 
Tiberias. These populous cities had to be sternly watched. In order 
to keep effective watch over both, Josephus fixed his camp at Cana, a 
position in the hill country between the two capitals. When John of 
Gischala induced the Jews of Tiberias to rise against Silas, Josephus 
says he left Cana with 200 men. made a night-mai'ch down the hills, 
and came before Tiberias early in the morning. That night-march 
was possible from Kefr Kana ; impossible from the place now marked 
as Khurbet Kana. The distance from Kefr Kana to Tiberias is about 
ten miles ; and a night march means, in the language of Josephus, a 
march from midnight watch to morning watch, a period of five houi's. 
Everyone who has walked in Palestine knows that ten miles down-hill 
are not easily done in less time than five hours. If the camp of Josephus 
had been at the spot now called Khurbet Kana, the Jewish captain 
could not have made his secret night-march at all ; since he would 
have had to pass through Sephoris, a walled city, with her gates closed 
and her sentinels on guard. 

The whole argument derived from site is therefore in favour of the 
native Churches. 

III. — Evidence of Remains. 

The evidence of existing remains is no less strong than that of name 
and site. Kefr Kana is an old place and a prosperous place ; Khurbet 



72 ITINERAMES OF OUB LOED. 

Kana is a new place and a deserted place. At Kefr Kana there are 
remains of ancient edifices ; at Kliurbet Kana, though, the buildings 
are in ruins, there is nothing older than late Saracenic times, even if 
the bi'oken tanks and cisterns belong to Saracenic times at all. 

No one can look at Kefr Kana without a strong conviction that the 
place is old. Here is a house old enough to pass for that of St. Bartholo- 
mew. Here are the foimdations of an early church and monastery- 
The church, built in honour of the miracle, was standing in Cana 
before the Moslems established their power in Galilee. St. Willibald 
prayed in that church, then dedicated to the Ruler of the Peast. " A 
large church stands here," said the English saint in 721. Four 
hundred years later — that is to say, in 1102 — another English pilgrim, 
Ssewulf, saw that monastic edifice. Eive hundred years after Ssewulf, 
Quaresmius mentioned the monastery. To-day the ruins of that early 
Christian edifice may be seen. This sort of evidence is, for ordinary 
men, decisive. Syrian Christians build a church and monastery at 
Cana, in honour of the marriage feast. Various pilgrims from the 
western countries see that shrine from time to time during a period of 
900 years. The foundations of these buildings are now in site. 

Are there any i-emains of ancient buildings at the other Kana ? None 
at all. The village is a heap of rubbish ; but the dust and ashes are 
new — not old. No house there is old enough to be shown as that of St. 
Bartholomew. There are no foundations of church or convent. All 
the dwellings are small and mean. The shards of pottery are not of 
ancient form or colour. Here and there you come on a tank or cistern 
of later date ; but these are seemingly of Arabic construction. The 
stones used in building are small, and of a modern pattern. Jackals 
prowl in the ruins, and wild boars gi'ub among the tanks, while the 
hillSjai'ound are barren and the plains in front are desert waste. No 
vestige of an antique world is seen. In truth, from the mere evidence 
of remains, a traveller without a theory to supj)ort wou.ld say that 
Khurbet Kana was a modern village which had sprung up round a 
potter's field and furnace, and had perished with the trade that gave 
it birth. 

On the other hand, the house of St. Bartholomew and the monastic 
ruins prove the antiquity of the true Cana ; so that from the evidence 
of existing remains a traveller, without a theory to support, would have 
no difficulty in identifying Kefr Kana with the Cana of Josephus and 
St. John. 

IV. — Evidence of History, 
The evidence of history, as regards Cana of the marriage feast, is a 
chain in which there is no missing link. St. Willibald, visiting Galilee 
in 722, started from Nazareth on his way to Cana. His route lay east- 
ward, not northward — that is, toward Kefr Kana, not toward the place 
now called Khurbet Kana. He took Cana on his way from Nazareth 
to Mount Tabor. " He stayed at Cana one day, and then continued 



ITIXKRARIES OF OUll LORD. 73 

his journey to Mount Tabor." Klivirbet Kana lies in the opposite 
direction. Ssewulf, who went to Galilee in 1102, is even more precise. " Six 
miles to the north-east of Nazareth, on a hill, is Cana of Galilee, where 
our Lord converted the water into wine." Saewulf uses the Roman 
mile of 1,614 yards ; and his guess of " six miles " is near the actual 
truth. If oiir knowledge of the site of Cana had perished as completely 
as that of Bethsaida or that of Chorazin has perished, the bearings 
and distances supplied by Ssewulf would enable us to lay it down cor- 
rectly on a map. When Ssewulf was in Galilee, Cana had been partly 
but not wholly destroyed. " Nothing is left standing," he says, " except 
the convent called after the Ruler of the Feast "■ — -Holy Architriclinius. 
Later in the twelfth century, Phocas, following in the track of Stewulf, 
from Acre to Nazareth, describes the points of his journey. Leaving 
Acre, Phocas comes — first to Sephoris, next to Cana, and then to Naza- 
reth. To all these witnesses, Kefr Kana was the true Cana of 
Galilee. The distance of Cana from Nazareth is given by Mandeville 
in 1322 : " four miles from Nazareth." Mandeville uses the old English 
mile; which gives the distance of Kefr Kana pretty accurately, but 
not the distance of Khurbet Kana, which is fully eleven miles from 
Nazareth. 

Robinson was not original in the mistake corrected by so many proofs. 
The first blunder is due to Marino Sanudo, a Yenetiau, who compiled 
a book on Palestine for the use of Crusading princes. Sanudo lived in 
the fourteenth century. There is no evidence that he ever visited Pales- 
tine, or that he had the use of actual itineraries in making his tract and 
chart. He placed his Cana to the north of Sejihoris, instead of to the 
south-east. At that time Palestine was closed to pilgrims. Saewulf 
and Phocas were the latest authorities on the subject, but their accurate 
observations seem to have escaped the notice of Sanudo. After Sanudo 
had put Cana in the wrong place on his map, a Frank pilgrim now and 
then fell into his error, until Father Quaresmius, a monk who lived in 
Palestine, took the matter up, and settled the dispute in favour of Kefr 
Kana. 

The only passage which Robinson found in any writer previous to 
Sanudo that appeared (only appeared) to favour his theory, is a line in 
Sa3wulf. " Cana," says that author, "stands six miles north-east of 
Nazareth." This is the true text; but Robinson, ignorant of the use 
of middle-age Latin, translated Saewulf's six miliariis ad Aquilonem, 
'•'six miles north," instead of six miles north-east. (See Wright's 
Vocab., p. 16, for illustrations of the meaning of aquilo in the age of 
Ssewulf.) Contrary to the usage in classical Latin, this word, iu the 
time of Ssewulf, was always used for the north-east wind. 

Such is the evidence in favour of Kefr- Kana as the true Cana "of 
Galilee" — identity of name; identity of site; constant record of the 
Syrian Churches ; actual remains of antiquity ; and the testimony of a 
succession of travellers from East and West. 

W. Hepwortii Dixox. 



74 



TOMBS OF THE MACCABEES. 
From our camp at Lidd, I visited El Medyeh, to resolve, if possi- 
ble, tlie much disputed site of tlie graves of the Maccabees. I first 
visited SheLkh el Gharbawy, which M. Ganneau has proved not to 
be the site. There are a good many tombs in the neighbourhood, 
some of which are called Kabr el Yahud, tombs of the Jews, but 
a deep valley separates them from Medyeh, and the sea cannot be 
seen from immediately above. I next crossed the ravine and visited the 
village, which is evidently an old site. To the south of the village and 
close to it there is a round hill, flat on the top, which has almost an 
artificial appearance ; it is called er Eas. From this hill a good view 
of the sea is obtained. On the top I found one rock -cut tomb, which 
had been turned into a cistern; there are many cisterns, and some 
other cuttings in the rock which might prove to be tombs if they were 
cleared out. A Mohammedan holy place, el Arbain, now occupies the 
top. I have no doubt in my own mind that this was the site of the 
tombs of those celebrated heroes of later Jewish history. The hill 
is a very prominent feature, and appears to me to fulfil all the requisites 
of this very important and much disputed site. A little farther on I 
took refuge from a storm in a curious rock-cut cavern, el Habis. A 
large face of rock has been scarped perpendicularly, leaving an over- 
hanging ledge at one end. This ledge projects considerably, and is sup- 
ported by rough square blocks cut out of the rock and left when the rest 
was excavated. High up in the face of the rock a small hole gives access 
to a gallery running in a circular direction. Ledges along the sides in 
alcoves seem to have been intended for sarcophagi. I have little doubt 
that this was once a spacious tomb, and that the overhanging ledge 
supported by square columns ran the whole length of the scarped rock 
— some 50 yards. H. H. K. 



SITE OF AI. 

From our camp at Beitin I found, in the course of the revision, that 
the name of Kh. Haiy was well known at Deir Diwan, but on talking to 
the natives I heard of another Kh. Haiy, which seemed to me nearer to Ai. 
Having secured a guide who knew the place, he led me to a ruin about 
one mile south-east of Mukhmas and north of Wady Suwcinit. It 
appears to have been an old and important place. The ruins have 
escaped previous observation owing to being hidden away behind a small 
rising ground. 

It is extraordinary how the name of Haiy, or something like it, clings 
to this region. First there is Kh. Haiyan close to Deir Diwan, then 
there is a Kh. Haiyeh south of "VVady Suwcinit, and now there is a third 



SITE OF AI. 75 

Kh. Haiy one mile east of Mukliinas ; thus we have three ruins having 
the name of Ai in a space of about two square miles. 

Kh. Haiyan has been suggested by M. Ganneau for Ai, and I would 
point out that, if Deir Diwan be Bethaven, as suggested by the Rev. 
W. F. Birch, this site is most certainly beside it, as mentioned in 
Joshua vii. 2. Looking at the position on the ground, Kh. Haiyan 
appears to have been only the site of the graves and cisterns of Deir 
Diwan, and may have been, as the natives say, the former site of that 
town. As a strong place of ancient times it is hardly suitable, and the 
difficulties of the position of et Tell are still prominent at Kh. Haiyan. 
It also seems difficult to see how the people of Bethaven took no part in 
the fight, and how their town was not taken with Ai. Kh. Haiyeh, 
south of Wady Suweinit, is evidently not Ai. 

The third Kh. Haiy has, however, some claims to consideration. 
Situated one milo south-east of Mukhmas, on the ancient road leading 
up from Jericho into the interior, it would be naturally the first strong- 
hold Joshua would have to overcome. 

Dean Stanley, Sinai and Palestine, p. 199, says: "The designation of 
the site of Michmash is so similar to that which is used to describe Ai as 
inevitably to suggest the conjecture that it was the successor, if not to 
to its actual, at least to its general position." This deduction exactly 
suits the new position, hardly one mile south-east of Michmash. 

Major Wilson, E.E., had identified et Tell with Ai, but there seems 
some difficulty in this case in accoaimodating 5,000 men and .■jO,000 men 
in ambush on the west of it, so that the people of Bethel, only one and 
a half miles distant, knew nothing about it. From Josh. viii. 17 it 
appears that not only the people of Ai sallied out after the Israelites 
when they pretended to fly, but also the people of Bethel ; they there- 
fore could have known nothing of the ambush. Also there is some 
difficulty in seeing how a force attacking from the east should move 
across an almost impracticable valley in order to attack from the north 
across the same ravine. 

At Kh. Haiy these difficulties are cleared away. There is a plain to 
the north not cut off by any impassable valley and very fit for a battle- 
field. There is also plenty of room for the ambush to hide without beinf 
seen by the men of Bethel. 

The connection between Ai and Michmash in the Bible is very close 
in Isa. X. 29. Here Bethel is not vaentioned, as it seems natural to 
suppose it would have been had Ai been at et Tell, and this seems to me 
to point to a different site for Ai. Kh. Haiy, however, would have to 
be passed by the great king before the baggage was laid up at Mich- 
mash for the passage of the Wady Suweinit. H. H. K. 



tb 



NOETHEEN BOUXDAEY OF PALESTINE. 

The new sheets throw much light also on the boundary between " the 
Land" and Phoenicia, which is minutely described in the Talmud. 
Thus, in J'athfoi we recognise the G'atin of the Talmud, and in JeW the 
Katzra of Gelil mentioned in the same passage. The list in the Talmud, 
which is of no Uttle importance, now stands as below, giving the 
boundary from Acre to Hermon. The general result is to draw the 
Phoenician boimdary farther south than it is usually placed, thus 
agreeing with Josephus, who makes Ecdippa [ez Zih) the boundary. 
The great valley of Nalr Mefshdhh forms the division, having Nos. 2, 
3, 4, and 5 along its course. 



L 


Accho . . 




'Akka. 


•> 


Gatin . . 




J'athun. 


3. 


Kabartha 




el Kabrj'. 


4. 


B. Zanita 




Zuweinita. 


5. 


Katzra of Gelil 




Jelil. 


G. 


Kubaia . . 






i . 


Bir 




pefr Bii-im. 


8. 


Tirii 




Tireh. 


9. 


Tifni 




Tibneh. 


10. 


Ailshitha 




'Atshis. 


11. 


Aulem . . 




'Alman. 


12. 


Mejdel Kherub 




el Khii-beh. 


13. 


Chasm of Ayun 




Merj 'Ayun. 


14. 


Tortagla ( ' ' Snowy Mountain " ) 




Hermon. 


15. 


Kisrin . . 




Banias. 


Of these fourteen identifications ten are, I believe, 


quite new. 


I would further suggest that the Beth-Baltin 


of the Talmud may be 


the present Belatun. 




C. E. C. 



NOTES FEOM THE MEMOIE. 

The Memoir is now rapidly approaching completion, and the sheets 
from Nazareth to Beersheba may be expected to be complete in the 
month of April ; the Jerusalem sheet (the heaviest of all the twenty-six 
sheets) being now nearly finished. 

The following points are Avorthy of notice as concluding notes from 
my portion of the Memoir : — 

The Cities of the Segch. — In a former report it was noted that many 
of these towns might be identified with places farther north than is 
generally supposed. Thus in the district within ten miles of Beit Jibrin, 
to the south, we have Shualiyeh, possibly Hazar Shual; Jedeideh, 



NOTES FROM THE MEMOIR. ?7 

perhaps Hazar Gaddali ; Unnn Deimnah, for Madmenali ; and Hazzdrah 
for Hazor Hadattah, or "new Hazor." 

Northern Sheets. — Several valuable names have been collected also in 
the nortli, including above all the title IlmVureh, a Avord radically- 
identical with Hazor. This is applied to a mountain, a plain, and valley- 
some four miles east of the position in -which the Eoyal Hazor — said 
by Josephus to have been over the waters of Merom (the Hfdeh) — has 
hitherto been placed. No name approaching that of Hazor has been 
found in this district by former travellers, but in Lieutenant Kitchener's 
lists the name occurs under the same form in which Eobinson found it 
preserved in the Southern Desert at the site of another Hazor. Madon, 
also a royal city, which has long been sought in the neighbourhood of 
the Sea of Galilee, is no doubt the ruin of Maclin, on the plateau west 
of that sea, and the neighbouring ruin of el Aikeh may well represent 
the ancient Lakum, which is to be sought in the same district. 

Diblath, a town mentioned, apparently, as in the north of Palestine 
(Ezek. vi. 14), may, I would suggest, be the modem Dibl ; and the 
position of Edrei (Josh. xix. 37), near Kedesh and En Hazor, seems to 
agree with that of the modern Y'afir, some three miles north-west of 
'Hazireh (En Hazor), at the edge of the high hills of Naphtali. The 
change of D to T is not unknown, and the modern name preserves the 
guttural found in the Hebrew. 

Two places mentioned in the Book of Judith near Shechem do not 
appear, as far as I can gather, to have been recognised — viz., Esora and 
Chusi, which may very well be the modem 'Asireh and Kuzah, in the 
neighbourhood of that city. 

One of the few places noticed in the Onomasticon, and not as yet 
fixed, was Arath, west of Jerusalem. This I would suggest is the ruin 
of Hardsh, near Kolonia. 

It is also worthy of notice that the modem name of the valley of 
Aijalon, the site of the great defeat of the Canaanites by Joshua, is 
Wddy el Mihteleh, " the Valley of Slaughter." 

In conclusion of these last notes from the Memoir, I would call atten- 
tion to one more example of the archaic character of the peasant dialect. 
The word commonly employed for a threshing-floor is Beiddir, which is 
a corrupt pronunciation of the proper word Neiddir. But among the 
peasantry another word, Jiirn, is often employed, which in ordinary 
Arabic means a "trough," but is in this case used in the sense of the 
Hebrew Goren, for " a threshing-floor." 

0> H. G< 

8th March, 1878. 



EECENT DISCOVERIES AT THE KAL'AT JALUD, 

JERUSALEM. 

Ith Septemher, 1877. 

An interesting discovery has been made lately by the French monks 
at Jerusalem. While digging for the foundations of a new school on 
the site of the KaFat Jalud, or " Goliath's Castle," they came upon four 
massive piers of ancient drafted masonry. A number of ruined vaults 
and masses of rubbish have been removed, and now the ancient work is 
uncovered almost down to the rock. Two of these i^iers were seen by 
Major Wilson, and were, in his opinion, of media; val date ; but the 
lower portions now disclosed seem to be earlier. The French monks are 
quite confident that they have here discovered the foundations of the 
tower of Psephinus. 

The stones are large, measuring 8ft. 6in. by 2ft. 9in. by 2ft. 4in. high, 
and 7ft. 6in by 2ft. Sin. by 2ft. 4in. high. Some are rather smaller ; 
they are all drafted, the draft varying from three to four and a half 
inches. The joints are carefully finished, and the courses are quite 
regular ; the stones are fixed [together by a thin layer of very hard 
cement. The bosses are left rough and project in some cases as much 
as eight inches ; the stones show no signs of being weather-worn. Four 
courses of the ancient work remain, and they measure Oft. 4in. in height ; 
on the top of these courses is mediaeval work for two or three courses ; 
there are also walls of probably the same date faced with large drafted 
masonry. In the vaults and passages there are also considerable remains 
of Crusading work. I have sent you a plan which will show the form of 
the four piers ; where the lines are dotted the walls were not visible. The 
enclosed photograph was given me by the French monks. It seems 
impossible to make an octagon out of these remains, which is necessary 
for the tower of Psephinus, according to Josephus. I could see no traces 
of ancient arches, or any clue to what these piers supported originally. 
As far as I was able to see, there is no reason why the piers should not 
have been originally joined, forming two walls running south- cast and 
north- Avest ; this would then have probably been an ancient city gate. 
The scarped rock on the north-west, on which the city wall is built, runs 
out almost at right angles to the line of this gate, and on the south- 
west there are traces of ancient work running in the same direction ; 
thus the gate Avould appear to have been fianked by two towers. That 
on the south-west may have been Psephinus, as it would have been on 
the highest ground of the city. 

I am glad to bf^ able to report that the owners have modified then- 
plan so as to preserve these interesting remains for futiiro examination. 
Unfortunately an ancient comer of wall south-east of the piers had to 
be removed. The stones are described as larger, and the appearance 
was not so finished us those recently found. Major Wilson examined 
them while excavating in this direction. 

H. H K. 



79 



NOTE ON TAEICHyEA. 

Nablus, 1st November, 1877. 

Lieutenant Conder, in one of his "Notes from the Memoir," October 
Quartcrli/, p. 181, states: — "Tarichtea must be sought on the shore of 
the Sea of Galilee, thirty stadia south of Tiberias." 

In the passage he quotes from Pliny no mention is made of distance. 

Pliny's account of the lake in the passage quoted appears to me very 
difficult to understand, unless he had a very imperfect itnowledge of 
what he was writing about. He states Julias to be on the east of the 
lake, whereas, from the fight Josephus had near that place, it must have 
been very near the entrance of the Jordan, and therefore north. 

As Sennabris is now undoubtedly fixed at Kerak, it seems to ine Pliny 
must have made another mistake with regard to Tarichsea. 

Josephus lived a considerable portion of his life on the shores of the 
sea, and in the localities in question I think his evidence should have a 
prior claim to consideration. His description of Vespasian's march appears 
to me to give conclusive proof that Tarichjea was situated north of 
Tiberias, and other accounts by him make it close to the latter place. 

A distance of thirty stadia south of Tiberias is, if I remember right, 
luentioned by him with regard to Sennabris, and answers very well to 
the distance between Tiberias and Kerak, as I think I pointed out in my 
report on that district in a former Quarterly. 

H. H. K. 



THE VEIL OE THE TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM AT 

OLYMPIA. 

{Reprinted from the " Athenceum" bij pcrmlssioii of the Frojirieiors.) 
In pursuit of the hitherto neglected question of the connection of 
the Phoenicians with the Peloponuese, I have been led to ascertain the 
existence in the province of Elis of certain facts, customs, and observ- 
ances which offer a remarkable analogy with what we know of the 
Phcenicians, and, particularly, of the Hebrews, I confine myself in 
this place to a succinct enumeration of the principal points, fall details 
of which will appear in my forthcoming work, called " Le Dieu Satrape 
et les Pheniciens dans Ic Peloponnese." (Nearly ready : E. Leroux, 
Rue Bonaparte, 28, Paris.) 

1. The Eleans, alone in Greece, cultivated the hyssus, a textile plant 
the Oriental origin of which is incontestable. Pausanias tells us that 
the Elean byssus was quite equal in fineness to the byssus of the 

" Hebrews." 

2. The Eleans were forbidden, for religious reasons, to breed mules : 
the same interdiction existed for the Jews, as we kuow. It was based 
on a passage of Leviticus (xix. 19), 



80 THE VEIL OF THE TEMPLE. 

3. In Elis, near Lepreos, a city whose name is traditionally explained 
as derived from the leprosy which afflicted its earliest inhabitants, flowed 
a river anciently called 'idpSavos — the same as Jordan. 

But it is especially at Olympia, the famous theatre of the Olympic 
games which have given Elis so considerable a place in Greece, that we 
are presented with points which strike las at once as resembling observ- 
ances of Semitic religion. 

4. Anointings with oil were practised on the celebrated statue of 
Olympian Zeus (to preserve the ivory, says Pausanias). 

•5. In the temple of Olympian Zeus were certain 0mij.o(, held in ex- 
treme veneration, formed by the accumulation of the ashes of victims, 
and exactly similar to the deposits of ashes coming from the altar of 
Jehovah, — deposits regarded as sacred (Leviticus i. 16, iv. 12 ; 1 King, 
xiii. 3 ; 2 Mace. xiii. 8). 

6. The women of Elis were absolutely forbidden to penetrate into 
the sanctuaries of Olympia : they were not to pass beyond a certain 
limit. This is parallel with the Court of Women. The women of Elis 
were also forbidden to be present at the Olympic games and to cross 
the waters of the Alpheus at certain periods, the whole under pain of 
death. This idea of woman's constitutional impurity, this implacable 
penalty which sanctioned it, are traits essentially Semitic. 

7. The women of Elis, thus kept apart, had ceremonies of their own, 
on the other hand, which seem based on those of the Phoenicians, those 
mourners for Adonis and for the solar Tammuz whom Ezekiel (viii. 14) 
shows us in the very Temple of Jehovah. *'At a certain season," says 
Pausanias, "at the moment of the setting sun, the women of Elis went 
to weep round the empty sepulchre of him whom they called Achilles," — 
a fabulous Achilles, an Achilles sprung from some Oriental ' A5 wi/tao-^urfs, 
rather than from Homeric tradition. 

8. At Olympia, near the Temple of Hera, sixteen women were em- 
ployed in weaving the peplos of the goddess, just as the women wove 
the sacred tents for Asherah in the Temple of Jehovah (2 Kings xxiii. 
7; Ezek. xvi. 16). 

9. At Olympia also was adored the singular Zevs AnSfivios, whose 
literal prototype is found in Baalzebub, or BaaA ij.v7a of Ekron (2 Kings i. 
2, 3, 16). 

10. Finally, there was in the sanctuary of Olympia a great woollen 
veil, of Assyrian workmanship, dyed with the Phcenician purple, given 
by Antiochus, and executed, perhaps, on the same plan as that great 
veil of the Temple, of Babylonian texture, the marvels of which have 
been described by Josephus. 

I even venture to ask whether this veil of the Olympian Temple might 
not have been the very veil of the Temple of Jerusalem carried off by 
Antiochus IV., the grand pillager of temples. 

This conjecture may appear rash at first sight. There are, however, 
certain facts which seem to me to lend to it a high dogree'of probability. 

The first book of Maccabees (i. 23, 24) informs us that Antiochus 



6UCC0TII AND PENUEL. 81 

took away from tho holycitj'- "tho golden altar, andtlie candlestick of 
light, and all the vessels thereof, and the table of the shewbread . . . and 
the veil {rh KarawiTacri^a) . . ." This is confirmed by Josephus, according 
to whom Antiochus "did not spare even the veils made of fine linen 
and scarlet " (" Antiq. Jud.," xii. 5. 2). 

Pausanias said that Antioch\is dedicated {avierjKiv) his oriental veil 
in the Temple of Olympia. 

It was the custom to adorn temples with similar trophies. 

But there is more. 

Pausanias minutely explains that the irapaviTaa-jxa, or curtain of the 
sanctuary of Olympia, in place of rising up to the roof as, for instance, that 
of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, was dropped to the ground from 
above by means of ropes. He might have spared himself a good deal 
of trouble by stating at once that it was not a wapanfTaa-fxa, but a 
Kara-KiTaatxa (down-curtain), «'.e., he might have used the word always 
employed by Josephus and in the texts of the Maccabees to designate 
the Jewish veil. St. Matthew also says that the veil {Ka-rairiTaaixa) 

was rent, &vuQev ewy koltw. 

Again, to whom did Antiochus dedicate the Temple of Jerusalem- 
plundered and defiled by him ? To Olympian Zeus (2 Mace. vi. 2), 
We need not be astonished, therefore, if he hung up the veil of the 
Jewish Temple in that of the Olympian Zeus. Are not always the 
spoils of the conquered deities consecrated to the victorious deities ? 
(Cf. the sacred utensils of Jehovah consecrated to Chemosh by Mesha, 
king of Moab.) 

If the veil of the Olympian and'that of the Jewish Temple are identi- 
cal instead of being similar, the argument which I thought to draw from 
an analogy to establish an afiinity must be set aside. On the other 
hand, we obtain a result important in qviite another way. There are 
not two objects to be compared, but two deities placed side by side. 

I think the foregoing reflections are of a kind to draw special atten- 
tion to the excavations now being conducted at Olympia. Should, for 
instance, any discovery be made bearing upon Syrian rites, religions, 
and antiquities, I for one should not be sixrprised. 

C. Clermont Ganneatj. 



THE IDENTIFICATION OF SUCCOTH AND PENUEL. 

{Reprinted from the " Athenceuvi" hy x)ermissiun of the Pro2»'ictors.) 

Andover, Mass., U.S. 
These places are mentioned in the Bible in connection with such 
men and events as to make their identification a matter of peculiar 
interest and importance. But before I give the facts which my recent 
researches have brought to light, it will be necessary to correct an error 
into which two Biblical scholars no less eminent than Mr. Grove in 



82 SUCCOTH AND PEKUEL. 

England and Dr. Robinson in America have fallen. Burckbardt, in a 
passage wbicb refers to tbe west bank of the Jordan, makes the state- 
ment,—" Near where we crossed, to the south, are the ruins of Sukkot." 
This has been misunderstood as referring to some ruin on the east of the 
river. But it will be noticed that after Burckhardt had crossed the 
river, he gives the names of all wadies, ruins, or tombs between the 
crossing and the Zerka or Jabbok, and among them Sukkot is not men- 
tioned. Bui-ckhardt did not himself visit Sukkot. In the Leisure Hour 
for 1874, p. 599, Eev. W. Wright, formerly of Damascus, appears to 
take it for granted that Bui-ckhardt's Sukkot was on the east of the 
river. He says, — "Jerome places Suceoth east of the Jordan, opposite 
Scythopolis, at the place where Bm-ckhardt found its ruins." Dr. 
Eobinson and Mr. Van de Velde \'isited a place on the west of the river, 
about ten miles south of Beisan, which they call " Sakut." This Dr. 
Eobinson labours to identify with the Suceoth of the Bible. Mr. Grove 
thinks this place is " entii-ely distinct both in name and position from 
that of Burckhardt," while in my judgment they are identical. But 
independently of these -writers I can testify that in the portion of the 
valley opposite Beisan there are no ruins, nor, fm-ther, are there any- 
where on the eastern side of the river any ruins bearing the name of 
Suceoth or any name that might correspond to it. 

As to Dr. Eobinson's view, that the Biblical Suceoth was on 
the west of the river, all the facts seem to prove the opposite. In the 
division of the country under Joshua, Suceoth was allotted to the tribe 
of Gad, and hence must certainly have been on the east of the river. 
Jerome seems to know of a town named Suceoth which was ' ' beyond 
the Jordan." The Tabnud in its physical divisions of Perea adopts those 
of the Bible, namely, "Beth Haram, Beth Nimrah, Suceoth, and 
Zaphom," which makes Suceoth a district as well as a town, and fixes it 
on the east of the river. Again, in Gideon's pursuit of Zebah and 
Zalmunna, it was after he had crossed the Jordan, going south and east, 
that he came to Suceoth. Mr. Grove is right in saying that the "Sakut " 
of Eobinson is too far north, and entirely out of the way of any route 
leading from the Jabbok to Shechem. This writer's conclusion, derived 
from Genesis xxxii. 30 and xxxiii. 18, that Suceoth lay between Penuel 
(on the Jabbok) and Shechem, is correct and important, and must be 
borne in mind in discussing this question. 

It is necessary also to remember the physical di\'isions which the 
Bible makes of the valley east of the river, and which are repeated, as I 
have said, in the Talmud, namely, " Beth Haram, Beth Nimrah, and 
Suceoth." Beth Haram is the vast oasis of the Shittim plain at the 
north end of the Dead Sea. Beth Nimrah is the vast oasis immediately 
north of the Shittim plain, and which appears to be really a part of it 
when looked at from the neighbouring hills. From Wady Nimrin 
northward to the Jabbok there are no foimtains or streams, and that 
portion of the valley is entirely desolate and barren, except during the 
rainy season. About the mouth of the Jabbok there is a plain of great 



SUCCOTH AND PENTTEL, 



83 



extent and fertility, and this is the Succoth region of the Talmud, and 
here, if anywhere, we are to seek for the Succoth of Jacob, and Gideon, 
and Jerome. 

But have we any clue as to the precise locality which bore the name 
of Succoth y I think we have, and, further, I think that this interesting 
Biblical site can be identified beyond any reasonable dispute. The 
Talmud states definitely that in its time Sviccoth was called "Ter'alah," 
and in the great plain north of the Jabbok, about one mile from the 
stream, and about three miles from where the river leaves the hills, 
there is a large mound or tell, which bears the name of Der'ala. The 
letters correspond to those of the Hebrew Avord, excex)t that t in 
Hebrew becomes d in Arabic, a change of very frequent occurrence. 
There are places in other sections of the country bearing the name of 
Der'ala, but in this case the fact of its being found in this particidar 
locality, considered in connection Avith the testimony of the Talmud, is 
more than a coincidence. Adjoining this tell is a smaller one, a kind of 
shoulder, on which there are at jiresent some ruins, with a few columns. 
The princii^al mound is so thickly covered with broken pottery that it 
could be raked into heaps. I picked up as I passed over the tell as 
many as twenty specimens of different kinds and qualities of pottery • 
On one side of the tell some animal had burrowed, which enabled me to 
examine the soU for at least four feet below the surface, and I was sur- 
prised to find that the broken pottery extended all through it. I was 
anxious to make some cuttings into the mound, but had neither time nor 
means to do so. The Bedawin living in that region have a tradition 
that a city existed upon that mound in ancient times. This I mention 
incidentally, attaching to it no special weight. Among the facts brought 
to light in this region during my researches is that of a ford or cross- 
ing of the Jabbok, some distance to the east of Tel Der'ala, but before 
the hills are reached, which bears the name of " Mashra'a Canaan," 
i.e., Canaan's Crossing. Canaan may here be a man's name, or 
the name of the country, and the words may mean " the cross- 
ing which leads to Canaan." But either way this discovery is very 
interesting and important, because, as I shall soon show, the course of 
the Jabbok is the only feasible route by which the caravans of commerce 
and the swarms of Midianites from the east and south could reach the 
country of the Hebrews on the west of the Jordan. 

If we examine the account of Gideon's pursuit of the Midianites, we 
may get some hints as to where we should look for Penuel. After their 
terrible midnight rout in the valley of Jezreol, a remnant escaped 
amounting to about 15,000 men. These were pursued by Gideon, who 
crossed the Jordan, and came first to Succoth and afterwards " went up 
thence to Penuel," asking at both places for assistance, and being each 
time refused. (Judges viii.) Gideon threatened to punish the men of 
Succoth, and with regard to Penuel he says, " I will break down this 
tower." Those '" children of the east " keep to the lowlands, plains, and 
the good roads. They come from the deserts of Arabia, they follow the 



84 SUCCOTH AND PENUEL. 

course of the Jabbok to the Jordan, they move up the Jordan valley till 
nearly opposite Beisan, and then cross and spread themselves, "like 
grasshoppers for multitude," over the great Esdraelon plain. After the 
rout just referred to they retrace their steps, hotly pursued by one of 
the heroes of Hebrew history. Gideon crosses the Jordan by one of 
the fords near Beisan, hurries down the Jordan valley as far as Succoth, 
and halts there to rest and refresh his weary but resolute band. The 
men of Succoth reason with themselves : " We live on the great army 
route between Canaan and the east, and it will not do for us to show a 
decided friendship for Gideon ; for if we do, and he is unsuccessful, Ave 
shall bring upon our heads the terrible vengeance of the Midianites. 
Our own safety demands that we be strictly neutral. The men of Penuel, 
living on the same great thoroiighfare, were actuated by similar motives, 
and likewise refused to assist Gideon. 

It will be noticed from the eighth verse of the chapter just referred to 
that Gideon goes uj) from Succoth, evidently leaving the Jordan and 
turning into the mountains to the east. But we know with absolute 
certainty from the account of Jacob's return (Gen. xxxii.) that Penuel 
was somewhere on the line of the Jabbok, and hence we are justified in 
concluding that Gideon on this occasion followed the course of that 
stream. 

The impression that I get from reading this eighth chapter of Judges 
is that Penuel was at no great distance from Succoth, although there 
are no certain hints to prove this beyond dispute. The points that have 
been hitherto established with certainty are, 1, that Penuel is on the 
line of the Jabbok, and 2, that below Penuel, near where the stream 
leaves the hills, there is a ford called " Canaan's Crossing." It is also 
established beyond any reasonable doubt that Succoth is situated a 
little to the west of this crossing and north of the Jabbok. So far every- 
thing seems to corroborate Mr. Grove's conclusion noticed above, that 
Succoth must be somewhere between Penuel and Shechem. If Succoth 
is where I have placed it, it will be on the direct route between the 
Jabbok and Nablus or Shechem by way of the Damia ford. But we 
have still an interesting hint with regard to Penuel in the life of Jero- 
boam. After the division of the kingdom " Jeroboam built Shechem in 
Mount Ephraim and dwelt therein ; and went out from thence, and 
built Penuel " (1 Kings xii. 25). It will be remembered that Gideon in 
his threat to the men of Penuel says, " I will break down this tower," 
as if a tower or fortress were a principal feature of the place. This leads 
to the suggestion, which is confirmed by all the circumstances con- 
nected with the case, that Penuel was a frontier fortress, built on the 
great thoroughfare from the cast for the purpose of repelling invasions 
from that quarter. When Jeroboam comes into possession of his king- 
dom he feels the need of a defence on that side, and hence one of his 
first acts is "to go out" and rebuild Penuel, which lay almost directly 
east from his capital ; otherwise invading bands or hosts might pour 
do^vn the valley of the Jabbok, cross the Jordan by the Damia ford, and 



SUCCOTII AND PENUEL, 85 

sweep up what is now called Wady Fari'a, and attack him in his royal 
residence. The rebuilding of Penuel was evidently of such importance 
to the nation as to demand the personal attention of the king, and such 
as to receive special mention in the annals of his reign. 

In the account of Jacob's journey after he had parted with Esau it is 
said : " And Jacob came to Succoth, and built him an hoiise, and made 
booths for his cattle" (Gen. xxxiii. 17). Even to this day the fertile 
fields along the mouth of the Jabbok are the favourite resort of the 
powerful tribes which occupy the eastern plains, for here they find 
abundant pasture for theii" numerous flocks and herds. They could not 
go south of the Jabbok, and very seldom do they go very far north of 
it ; but if they desire to find pasture for their cattle they go directly to 
the Succoth region. The same physical conditions exist now that existed 
in Jacob's time, and coming from the east with his sheep, and cattle, and 
camels, he went at once to Succoth, where he abode perhaps for a con- 
siderable period. 

I have alluded to the valley of the Jabbok as being the main thorugh- 
fare from the eastern plains to the Land of Canaan. There is more 
evidence for this than perhaps would occur to the casual reader. When 
Gideon pursued the Midianites from Succoth up through the eastern 
hills on to the plains beyond, he " went up," it is said, " by the way of 
them that dwelt in tents " — i.e., went up by the route which such people 
usually took ; as if they were confined to one route, or had at least a 
favourite route by which to approach the country on the west of the 
Jordan. The apparently incidental circumstance which the words just 
quoted record did not assume in my mind the importance which it now 
has until I had been backwards and forwards over all that region several 
times, and followed the whole course of the Jabbok from its source to 
where it enters the Jordan. North of the Jabbok there is no other 
possible route until the valley of the 'Ajlun is reached, and this is 
altogether out of the question is considered as a thoroughfare for the 
"children of the east" on their way to Canaan. South of the Jabbok 
again, as far as the line of the Dead Sea and Hasban, while there are 
difficult paths, there is no feasible route by which large caravans or any 
invading " host " could pass down into the Jordan valley on its way to 
Canaan. For various reasons I judge that the phrase " the way of those 
dwelling in tents " refers to a well-known route that has been followed 
for ages. It was not once, but often, that the swarms of Midianites 
and Amalekites invaded Western Palestine, and caused terrible distress 
in all that region. 

With regard to their route it may be said : 1. That such people as are 
here under consideration do not, when they move in large masses with 
their flocks and herds, go over difl&cult hills if there is a better road, even 
if this should be somewhat longer. 2. From a thorough personal ex- 
amination of the country, I think I can say with truth that neither to the 
north nor to the south of the Jabbok is there any other feasible route by 
which to enter Canaan from the plains and deserts of Arabia, 3, Along 



86 SUCCOTH AND PENUEL. 

the course of the Jabbok these people were sure of a good and easy road 
for themselves and their camels. 4, Here they would always be sure 
of grass for their flocks. 5. Here they would always be sure of abun- 
dance of water. 

It is on this great thoroughfare that I suppose Penuel, a frontier 
tower or fortress, to have been built in the earliest times in order to 
repel invasions from the east. Jeroboam, as we have seen, felt the need 
of defence on that side, and therefore he rebuilt Penuel. This frontier 
fortress may have played a more important part in the history of those 
troublous times than wc at present have any conception of. How many 
times the! garrison was successful in repelling invasions, or how many 
times they must yield to superior numbers, and allow the desert hosts 
to sweep on to plunder their fatherland, we cannot even guess. 

But can Penuel itself be located with any certainty P In my judg- 
ment the possible places that can represent Penuel are reduced to a 
single locality, which I will proceed to describe. 

About one hour and twenty minutes, or say four miles, above Canaan's 
Ford or Crossing, following the course of the stream, there is one of the 
most singular formations in Syria. At this point the valley is quite 
narrow, and its walls are precipitous. In a line with the valley, the 
course of which is from east to west, there spring from its lowest level 
and rise to a height of two hundred and fifty feet two conical hills. One 
of these sugar-loaf hills is on one side of the stream, and the other is 
on the other side, and the stream winds about them in a peculiar manner 
which can only be described by a chart. The sides of these mounds 
are steep, and it took me fifteen minutes to reach the summit of one of 
them. These hills are called at present Tulul edh-Dhahab, or " Hills 
of Gold." The inhabitants of the region can give no account of the 
origin of the name. They speak of a place on the side of one of the 
tells from which a strong current of^air issues at times, but I did not re- 
main there long enough to investigate the matter. The prevailing stone 
or rock upon the tells is a yellow sandstone which one might fancy to 
resemble gold, and the name may have arisen from this fact. On both 
these tells there are extensive and ancient ruins. The one to the west 
is larger than the other, and has upon ifc more ruins ; but the ruins 
upon the one to the east are remarkable. They consist of the ruins 
of buildings on the summit, and of a long wall of massive stones 
which runs from the summit to the foot of the mound on the south- 
west side. The hill at this side is so steep that it is a marvel to 
me how the wall could have been built. In addition to this wall 
there is, about half way up the mound or a little less, a great plat- 
form running along the side of the hill for several hundred feot, which 
is supported by a wall of great strength and solidity. In some places 
this wall is fifteen and twenty feet in height, and one portion of it is still 
quite perfect for a distance of over one hundred feet. The walls which 
remain have a substantial appearance, and the platform referred to was 
probably the foundation of a castle or fortress. Whatever the nature 



SUCCOTir AND TENUEL. 87 

of the structures once standing here may have been, they could have 
been built, considering the nature of the ground and the size of the 
stones, only at enormous exi^ense. The work is certainly not Moslem, 
nor does it appear to be Roman ; while the great unhewn stones would 
seem to classify it more properly with the ancient cyclopean work which 
still exists in a very few places, perhaps half a dozen, in the country 
east of the Jordan. This, if anywhere on the Jabbok, would be the 
most suitable place for a frontier fortress, and such we have reason to 
believe was Penuel. A fact which seems to indicate that this may have 
been Penuel is, that on the whole line of this great thoroughfare which 
followed the Jabbok there are no ruins, except ruined mills here and 
there, until Kalat Zerka is reached, fifty or sixty miles from the mouth 
of the river. At this point the Haj road touches the Zerka, and this 
castle was built for the protection and convenience of the pilgrims to 
Mecca. 

If this is Penuel, the ruins are certainly such as would justify Jero- 
boam in recording in his public annals the fact of his having rebuilt 
the place. 

What I have called the " Succoth region" answers very appro- 
priately to the " valley of Succoth" iu Ps. Ix. (repeated in cviii.) This 
psalm appears to refer to some victory, or to the wresting of some por- 
tions of the fatherland out of the hands of their enemies. Patting 
Succoth where there are valid reasons for locating it, the order of 
places is very natural — namely, " Shechem, the valley of Succoth [in 
the direct line towards Gilead], Gilead, and Manasseh." 

With regard to the name Penuel or Peniel I am pretty well convinced, 
since I have been over the ground and examined the strange physical 
conformation there existing, that it is connected in its origin with that 
remarkable phenomenon. Mr. Grove has already anticipated me in 
referring to a similar fact occurring in another section of the country : — 
" The promontory of Ras es Shukah, on the coast of Syria above Beirut, 
was formerly called ' Theouprosopon,' face of Ood, probably a translation 
of Peniel, or its Phoenician equivalent" (Smith's "Bible Dictionary," 
article Peniel). An Oriental people would easily persuade themselves 
thas such a place as the Hills of Gold marked the site of some special 
manifestation of Deity, and would give it a name accordingly. And as 
the same name is frequently given a second time to one and the same 
place, the foregoing remarks can be made without invalidating or 
obscuring in the slightest degree the truth and beauty of that incident 
in the life of Jacob where the process of giving this particular name was 
a second time repeated. 

From the ruins and summits of these strange tells, as my eye fol- 
lowed the course of the valley east and west, I felt that I was looking 
down upon the very route along which the ancient " sons of the east" 
passed with their camels, a wild throng from the desert, on their way 
to the land of Canaan, or by which they returned, either laden with 
plunder gathered from the Hebrews on the west of the Jordan, or, as 



88 THE MOABITE POTTERY. 

sometimes happened, a fugitive rabble, — tbe mere wreck of a liost, 
beaten and ruined by tbe bravery of some Old Testament bero. Succotb 
and Penuel are interesting places in tbe geography of Palestine from 
their connection with Gideon, but especially because they are associated 
with the life of Jacob. Here at Penuel the patriarch wrestled all night 
with a strange messenger, and at sunrise he passed on to meet his 
brother. Esau came from the south along this very road, and some- 
where, not far from this spot, probably, was the scene of the famous 
meeting and reconciliation between them. It was at Succotb that Jacob 
rested for a season on his way to Canaan, after his injured father-in-law 
and brother bad been appeased, and the offending one had by them been 

forgiven. 

Selah Merrill. 



THE MOABITE POTTEEY. 

The controversy on the genuineness of these collections has been 
carried on vigorously during the last quarter in the pages of the 
AthencBuvi. From the letters which have appeared we make, by per- 
mission of the Proprietors of the AtJienceinn, the following extracts, in 
the endeavour to present everything that is urged on either side as faii-ly 
as possible; but without the repetitions which have naturally found 
their way into the long letters written from either point of view. 

I. — Letter from Mr. Shapira. 

The main arguments against the genuineness of the Moabite pottery 
are four, as follows : — 

First, many false inscribed stones and squeezes of inscriptions bad 
been forged in Jerusalem and Nablus, some of which came into my 
possession; why then should the pottery also not be forged, especially 
as SeHm, my agent, is certainly a great rogue ? For this reason I my- 
self doubted the character of the pottery ; hearing of thieves makes a 
man cautious, yet it does not follow every man he meets is a thief ; but 
Prof. Koch has sho-wn in his well-known pamphlet that the forgers of 
the stones could have had no hand in the pottery. 

The principal forger of inscribed stones was Martin Bulus, who 
appears to have learned imperfectly the ali)habet of the Mesa stone and 
some of the names found on that monument. He is an ingenious stone- 
cutter, but an ignorant man. In his forgeries the words Jehovah, Israel, 
Melek, Mesa, Moab, Chemosh, recur suspiciously, often with Abraham 
and all the patriarchs. In one case all the twelve tribes are named ; in 
another, he brought me the squeeze of a large stone, with the words 
" the holy shekel " on it, in Hebrew, evidently from some coin; and in 



THE MOABITE POTTERY. 89 

another the inscription, AVSVSTVS HADPNNVS, by which he pro- 
bably meant Augustus Hadrianus. On the other hand, I may remark 
that, in many hundred inscriptions which I have examined on the pot- 
tery, the words Mesa and Melek, Israel, Jehovah, and Abraham never 
occur, and Chemosh only twice ; nor is there any evident attempt to 
make the inscriptions interesting to the casual reader of the letters. 

Secondly, it was thought suspicioxis that nothing of the kind had been 
found before, and that the American exploring party found no speci- 
mens. I can only say to this that Dr. Almkvist and Baron Miinchhauseu 
have shown in their reports that the pottery was too carefully hidden to 
be found except by special excavation. The American party never went 
into Moab proper, and it is not likely that the Arabs would have shown 
the pottery to strangers accompanied by a Sheikh (Kablan) of the 
hostile tribe of the Adwan, considering that Mutluk would not even 
give a single piece to Mr. Shick, who went over with the Consul, though 
he was represented to have come over from me to build a water-mill 
Avhich the Arabs had asked for. 

Mutluk had found jjottery about six years ago in digging for saltpetre, 
and, Avith a few companions, had sought for it since with great secrecy, 
in fear of his life. The BedaAvin believe that the inscriptions are charms 
or directions for finding hidden treasure, and that to reveal where they 
are to be found should be punished by death. 

Thirdly, the letters of M. Ganneau have raised an imfavourable feeling 
regarding the pottery. I will answer this objection shortly. M. Gan- 
neau has never seen pottery made in Jerusalem like the Moabite ; he 
only reports the hearsay evidence of a few wretched underlings, who 
contradicted themselves and one another, and were probably told by a 
servant or dragoman that they had better tell a tale likely to be accept- 
able. Attempts to get imitations from the Jerusalem potters only showed 
that they were unable to imitate the texture or art of the Moabite anti- 
quities, and if Selim did attempt to forge any small objects he certainly 
did not succeed. 

The attack made by Prof. Kautzsch is even less important {Allge, 
Zeitung, June, 1876). He begins by giving me a high character for 
honesty and uprightness, but argues that all my supporters rely on my 
critical judgment, whilst I myself did not confidently believe in the 
genuine character of the pottery, as I had refused to sell any more 
specimens till they had been proved not to be forgeries ; but evidently 
it does not follow that because not proved genuine they were, therefore, 
in my opinion forgeries. 

Again, this gentleman says he was told in Jerusalem (by Mr. Klein) 
that an Arab boy had told his informant that Selim had ordered pots to 
be made, and had engraved upon them the inscriptions after they were 
baked, which, he says, explains how all attempts faUed to trace them to 
the potters, as they knew nothing of what happened after the pots left 
their hands. Now, not only does this theory not account for the jars 
with raised letters and the idols, but the professor has not even taken 



yU THE MOABITE POTTERY. 

the trouble to notice that the sunk inscriptions are not engraved after 
baking, but must have been made by impressing the clay when damp. 

Still stranger is the proof of forgery which he gives, that a gentleman 
from Jerusalem had told him that he had heard from his Arab servant 
that an Arab merchant from Es Salt had said that he met a Bedawin 
passing over Jordan, and when he asked, " What have you got in your 
saddle-bag!'" he answered, "Seventeen bits of pottery, which I am 
going to bury in the East for the Consuls to find," in which the pro- 
fessor recognises for certain the twelve inscribed pieces found by Pastor 
Weser and his party at Madeba. When the man who related this story 
was asked, he said it occurred in the summer of 1874. Thus we have a 
new natural phenomenon. The seventeen pieces buried in the summer of 
1874 had increased in the course of two years haclnvards to the August 
of 1872, to twelve inscribed pieces and several hundred not inscribed 
found in Madeba, with forty-two at Diban, all the result of interring 
seventeen pieces only two years later ! 

Fourthly, the most important and substantial objection is on the 
palseographical grounds which liave been relied on by English and 
French scholars : some letters supposed to belong to a later period are 
found with others thought to belong to an earlier one. Three letters 
especially have been suspected from their peculiar shape — namely, the 
Mim, the Yod, and the AljjJia. This question is about to be treated in 
Schlottmann's large work soon to be published, and Prof. Koch has 
already partly answered the objection in his pamphlet. 

I will only add that the three disputed letters are all found on the jar 
discovered by Dr. Almkvist, the genuine character of which cannot, of 
eourse, be disputed ; and that these letters are consequently indisputably 
Moabitic. 

But, finally, all that is said above only shows the objections to have 
no ground ; but, as the idols and inscrij)tions are destined to form so 
important a new link in the obscure history of the habits and ritual of 
the nations surrounding Israel, it is only natural they shoidd not be 
accepted imless positively proved genuine. I come, then, to the most 
important point. It has been proved by the greatest technical authori- 
ties in Europe, by Mr. Behme, the owner of the great pottery at Halle, 
and by one of the first techrucal authorities in Berlin on the subject, 
the Commercienrath Marsch, that the jars and idols with raised letters 
on them require an artist of technical skill, as the letters are not stuck 
on but the soft clay cut away round them to leave them standing out — 
a most difficult plastic work, and requiiing that the jar shoxdd be kept 
wet for seven or eight days until moulded. Mr. Marsch thinks that 
with all their modern improvemeuts it would be impossible to make such 
a jar for less than seventy marks (£3 10s.), and an idol would be yet 
more costly. This kind of work is, according to these gentlemen, en- 
tirely new, and they cannot explain why the Moabite jjotters should 
have done their work in so difficult a manner, unless, they say, the 
potters wished for that holy jjurpose to imitate the stone idol sculptors. 
In any case the Jerusalem potters or any Others in the country would 



THE MOABITE POTTERY. 91 

not know how to do sucli work ; and why should a forger choose so ex- 
pensive a method, costing ten times what he would get for the jar 'i My 
expenses in actual price of the antiquities are often very small, the 
principal cost being in travelling to fetch them. The objects were also 
proved to be of many different styles of workmanship, and of different 
kinds of clay, especially those of my third collection. 

The above proof seems to show that the pottery is imquestionably 
genuine. See the Report of the above-mentioned gentlemen (No. 40 
Beilage der^n*/. Alhje. Zeitunrf, 1S77). 

The jar found by Dr. Almkvist was also examined by these gentlemen, 
and was found in all respects similar to those in the Berlin collection. 

The above proof refers only to the raised inscriptions ; fortunately 
some of the same jars have also impressed inscriptions made when the 
clay was moist, and nearly all the large idols have such double inscrip- 
tions raised in front and impressed behind. The impressed must con- 
sequently also be genuine. Other specimens which have only impressed 
inscriptions are found to resemble, in the peculiarities of different 
systems of writing from different localities, as well as in texture, those 
with the double inscriptions. These also are thus shown to be genuine. 



II. — From M. Clermont Gajnneau. 

Paris, 4 Dnemhre, 1877. 

Je viens de lire dans VAthenceum la longue lettre de M. le baron de 
Miinchhausen tendant a etablir I'authenticite des poteries moabites. 
Comme mon nom s'y trouve incidemment mentionne, et qui, d'ailleurs, 
les conclusions de M. de Miinchhausen visent incontestablement les 
idees que j'ai cmises le premier sur cette question, et qui sont celles de 
la majorite des savants anglais, allemands et franyais, permettez-moi de 
repondre quelques mots — niais quelques mots seulement, car je con- 
sidere, pour ma part, que c'est perdre son temps et sa peine que de 
revenir sans cesse sur cette affaire dej)uis longtemps jvigee. D'autres 
travaux plus serieux me reclament. 

La majeure partie de la lettre de M. tie Miinchhausen est consacree a 
exposer sa maniere de voir d'apres des faits dcja, connus et discutes ; elle 
ne nous apprend de ce chef rien de neuf, et il serait oiseux de recom- 
mencer da capo, pour I'edification personnelle de M. de Miinchhausen, 
tout ce fastidieux morceau. Je retiens seulement de cette premiere 
partie de la lettre une indication : c'est que M. de Miinchhausen avait 
deja son opinion faite sur I'authenticite quand il a entrepris son excursion 
au pays de Moab. Je crois d'ailleurs (si je ne m'abuse ou si ma memoire 
ue me trahit) que c'est precisement sous M. de Miinchhausen qu'a eu 
lieu en 1874 la grande enqucte considaire dirigee par M. Weser, enquete 
((hsoJumpnt of/icieUe, comme je I'appris non sans quelque etonnement 
aprcs avoir re(;u de M. Weser I'assurance positive du contraire. M. de 
Miinchhausen ne saurait done se presenter, je ne dis pas comme un juge 
impartial, mais comme un arbitre neutre. Son siege etait fait depuis 
longtemps quand il s'est rendu en Moab. 

Je n'ai jamais pretendu qu'on ne trouverait en Moab aucxm monu- 



92 THE MOABITE POTTERY. 

ment authentique ; la stele de Mesa serait la pour donner a une aussi 
absurds assertion le plus eclatant des dementis. J'ai seulement affirme, 
et j'affirme encore, que les poteries moabites de Berlin sont apocrypbes. 
M. de Mimcbbausen aurait done parfaitement pu decouvrir dans la 
grotte de Sbeikb Mutlak des poteries dont je serai le premier a recon- 
naitre la "genuineness" si elles sont "genuine"; j'aurais meme ete 
dispose, jusqu'a plus ample examen, a tenir ces poteries pour autben- 
tiques ; mais si, comme 1' affirme M. de Muncbbausen, ces poteries sont 
identiques a celles de Berlin, je declare a priori, que pour moi, elles sont 
fausses. Maintenant, M. de Muncbbausen, dont le dire n'est point 
parole d'evangile en matiere d'archeologie, peut se tromper dans son 
critermm — et c'est a soubaiter dans I'interet meme de sa decouverte. 

Je ne saurais discuter ici les conditions dans lesquelles cette nouvelle 
trouvaille aurait ete faite; j 'attends sur ce point le rapport tecbnique 
annonce de M. Scbick, pour I'autorite de qui je prof esse une grande 
estime scientifique ; en tout cas la "kind of fine grey moss " qui re- 
couvrait le sol de la caverne, et les "ruts worked by tbe passage of 
insects" (lesquels?) sont des arguments bien faibles pour en tirer avec 
M. de Muncbbausen la preuve que " no buman band bad toucbed it for 
long periods " ; il suffit d'une saison pour que la mousse pousse, et de 
quelques beures pour que des "insects" (p. ex. de vulgaires lombrics) 
se frayent un cbemin dans un sol precedemment remue. 

M. de Muncbbausen relate en passant que le Dr. Almkvist, accom- 
pagne de Selim, a fouille une caverne de Moab cboisie par lui seul, au 
basard, et y a deterre une jarre avec inscription moabite. Si le Dr. 
Almkvist n'a reellement obei a aucune suggestion, directe ou indirecte, 
de son compagnon eminemment suspect, s'il n'a pas ete victime de ce 
tour de passe-passe, que nous appelons en fran9ais la carte forcee, on ne 
peut qu'admirer cette bonne fortune qui du premier coup, sur un point 
pris au basard dans le pays de Moab, le fait tomber precisement sur 
ime de ces jarres epigraphiques qu'il etait alle y cbercber ! Je ne con- 
nais d'ailleurs ni la relation du Dr. Almkvist, ni le monument qu'il a 
rapporte ; je m'abstiens done de tout autre commentaire, mais je reclame 
le droit de rester, jusqu'a nouvel ordre, dans mon scepticisme. 

Je me permettrai, en terminant, de demander a M. de Muncbbausen 
pourquoi le Museum de Berlin n'a pas cru devoir acquerir les suites de 
la collection si interessante de M. Sbapira, pourquoi Ton a renonce a 
exposer et a publier les monuments dej a acquis. Si les arguments de 
M. de Muncbbausen possedent reellement la valeur qu'il leur prete, il 
semble que le premier effet qu'ils doivent avoir c'est de convaincre ses 
propres compatriotes. 

III. — ^From M. Clermont Ganneau. 

Paris, 16 Decemhre, 1877. 
Je viens do lire I'article de M. Sbapira dans le nombre dc VAthencKum 
du 1 j courant. Ce long ijlaidoyer 2^'ro dmtu sua, fruit natui-el et attendu 



TIIE ilOABITE POTTERY. 93 

de la lettre de M. de Miincliliaiisen, ne contient aucun element nouveau 
d'information poui- ceiix qui sont au courant de la question. 

M. Shapira affecte de faire porter le debat sur des points qui sont horg 
de conteste, et qui lui offrent I'occasion de triompher a peu de fraig 
d' objections imaginaires. II neglige en revanche de repondre aux argu- 
ments les plus directs et les plus categoriques. Ainsi, par exemple, je 
n'ai jamais, pour ma part, attribue la fabrication des poteries moabites 
au lapicide Martin Boulos ; je sais, je savais et j'ai publie, bien avant 
que M. Shapira ne le siit et ne le publiat, ce dont ce concurrent de Selim 
etait capable ; Martin Boulos a fait, en effet, ses premieres armes sur la 
stele du Temple que j 'avals decouverte et qu'Ll avait travaiUe, pour mon 
compte, a degager du mur ou elle etait encastree. 

Les essais infructueux tentes pour fau'e fabriquer a certains potiers de 
Jerusalem des poteries analogues a celles de M. Shapira, ne sont pas de 
mon fait ; je n'ai jamais eu recours a ce moyen pueril qui devait neces- 
sairement echouer, parceque ceux qui ont eu la naivete d'y recourir ; ne 
s'adressaient pas aux veritables fabricants, en s'adressant aux potiers 
arabes. 

M. Shapira crie victoire pareequ'il croit devoir tirer des trouvailles de 
MM. Almkvist et de Miinchhausen la preuve qu'il est possible de decouvrir 
dans le pays de Moab des monuments epigraphiques authentiques ; mais 
— qu'il me permette de le lui dire — c'est encore ce qu'on appoUe enfoncer 
une porte ouverte : cette possibilite n'a jamais ete mise en doute, et il 
est plus que superflu de I'etablir. Les trouvailles de MM. Almkvist et 
de Miinchhausen, fussent-elles a I'abri de tout soup9on— et nous avons 
vu qu'il etait loin d'en etre ainsi — ne prouveraient absolument rien pour 
I'authenticite des series actuellement a Berlin ou entre les mains de 
M. Shapira. 

En effet, ou les objets recueillis par MM. Almkvist et de Miinchhausen 
ne resemblent pas aux poteries contestees, et alors ils ne peuvent etre 
invoques en leur faveur ; ou bien, au contraire, ils leur ressemblent, et 
alors ils tombent sous le coup des graves accusations dont leurs soeurs 
n'ont encore pu se faire decharger par aucun tribunal serieux. Ces 
objets, deterres par MM. Almkvist et de Miinchhausen, soit en com- 
pagnie de Selim, soit dans une caverne de Cheykh Mutlak (I'lm des ex- 
comparses de Selim), appartiennent par leur aspect — d'apres ce que nous 
apprennent ces messieurs eux-memes — a cette famille plus que suspecte. 
Tant pis pour ces objets I lis partageront le sort commun. 

En un mot M. Shapira raisonne a peu pres ainsi : 

"Les premieres poteries sont les congeneres des nouvelles poteries; 
or les nouvelles sont authentiques (?), done les premieres sont egalement 
authentiques. 

On me laissera libre, j'espi^re, de retourner ce raisonnement arbitraire 
et de dire : 

Les nouvelles poteries sont les congeneres des premieres i:ioteries ; 
or les premieres sont apocryphes, done les nouvelles sont egalement 
apocryphcs. 

H 



94 THE MOABITE POTTERY. 

C'est un peu la fameuse liistoire du prisonnier : 

" Mon capitaine ! j'ai fait un prisonnier I — Eh I bien, amene-le I — Je ne ■ 
jjeux pas I il m'emmene I " 



lY.— FpvOM Major Wilson, E.E. 

December, 1877. 

I have hitherto taken no part in the discussion as to the genuineness 
or otherwise of the so-called Moabite pottery, nor do I wish to do so 
now, but the letter of Freiherr von Mlinchhausen, in your issue of the 
1st inst., which I have only just seen, seems to call for some remark. 
The letter is avowedly written for publication, and, as it were, officially 
recognises the genuineness of the pottery. There are, however, two or 
three points which have never been satisfactorily cleared up, and I still 
hesitate to believe in the pottery. No inscribed pottery, or images of • 
any kind, that I am aware of, were found in Moab before the discovery 
of the Moabite stone, of which Selim is known to have made a copy, 
opened up visions of untold wealth to the hungry eyes of the Bedawin 
sheikhs. The visits of Messrs. Shapira, "Weser, and Munchhausen to 
Moab have been hurriedly made for the purpose of digging up pottery, 
or proving that pottery could be dug up. On the other hand, Prof. 
Palmer and Mr. Drake heard of no pottery during their stay in Moab, 
and the members of the expeditions sent by the American Palestine 
Society, who passed not days but weeks in Moab, have been similarly 
luifortunate. Is it likely that the scientific officers of the American 
expeditions, in daily communication mth the Bedawin, would have 
allowed articles of such extreme interest, if genuine, to have been un- 
earthed only by gentlemen from Jerusalem ? 

In one respect Fr. von Mimchhausen's letter is likely to create a false 
impression as to the conclusions arrived at by the late Mr. Drake. Mr. 
Drake, it is true, at first believed, though doubtingly, in the genuineness 
of the pottery, but he was at last quite convinced that the greater 
number of the pieces, including all tliose Avith inscriptions, were forgeries. 
(See Quarterly Siatemcni of P. E. F., April, 1874, p. 119.) 

I may add, that after carefully reading the German Consul-General's 
letter, I can quite conceive that he was deceived by the Bedawin. 



V. — From the " Athen.'eum." 

The latest event in the history of the " Moabite " pottery is the arrival 
in England of two idols recently brought home by Lieut. Kitchener. 
These were procured in Jerusalem, and their manufacture has been traced 
by Lieut. Kitchener to the renowned Selim el Kari. He has also ascer- 
tained that similar pottery may be obtained at a low price from the same 
source. The two specimens have been seen by Baron Miinchausen and 
others in Jerusalem, and are regarded as identical with the idols of the 
Shapira c»llection. Ono of them is a truncated figure in hollow pottery, 



THE MOABITE TOTTEKY. 95 

the front of which is covered with the familiar letters, not inscribed, but 
in relief ; the neck is decorated with the constantly recurring seven 
dots, and the back is adorned with inscribed letters. The second is a 
hollow, circular tube, with a face. The front has the letters in relief, 
and the back inscribed letters. The faces resemble those of the drawings 
and photographs already sent home of the Shajaira collection. As Mr. 
Shapira has very kindly offered to lend to the Committee of the Pales- 
tine Fund a small collection of his pottery, comparison will shortly be 
possible. Meantime Lieut. Kitchener's idols remain for the present at 
the office of the Fund. Any definite conclusion, from these specimeus 
alone, as to the worthlessness of the whole would be at present prema- 
ture, but it may be useful to point out that, as the case at present stands, 
the following facts are indisputable: (1) Two independent investigators, 
Messrs. Gamieau and Drake, working in ignorance of each other's move- 
ments, arrived almost simultaneously at the discovery that Selim el Kari 
was engaged in manufacturing sham antique pottery, and (2) Lieut. 
Kitchener has traced the production of his two idols to the same work- 
shop. 

VI. — From Me. Shapira. 

Jerusalem, Jan. 11, 1S78. 

It is with great satisfaction and pleasure that I announce to you that, 
after several years of vague rumours about Selim having fabricated 
" Moabitica," some specimens of his manufacture have, during my recent 
absence, been at last discovered. An investigation in reference to those 
forgeries was at once instituted by the Freiherr von Miinchhausen, the 
Imperial German Consul for Palestine, who communicated to me a state- 
ment of the results hitherto obtained, which I would ask you to insert 
in yoirr valuable paper, for the benefit of all who desire to arrive at the 
truth concerning the Moabite pottery. 

The statement of the Freiherr von Miinchhausen was accompanied by 
a note in German, of which I give the English translation : — 

"Jerusalem, Jan. 9, 1878. 
" Enclosed I hand you the English translation of a truthful descrip- 
tion of an investigation concerning traces of Moabitic forgeries which I 
instituted during your absence, my attention having been drawn to the 
subject by Lieut, Kitchener's purchases. Let me add that, although 
Selim has, in the meantime, escaped to Alexandria, I have not failed 
to follow up the traces, and hope soon to be in a position to communi- 
cate to you further results. 

(Signed) " Munchhausen. ' ' 



Lieut. Kitchener, the chief of the last expedition sent out by the Com- 
mittee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, showed me, a few days before 
-liis leaving for England in December last, some Moabitic clay idols. 



96 THE MOABITE rOTTEEY. 

bearing inscriptions, which had been secretly and in strict confidence 
shown to him, and which he had subsequently purchased. He could 
not, therefore, tell me the name of the person from whom he had bought 
them, but stated that not only had that person declared these idols to 
be forgeries, but that he had also expressed his readiness to lead him, 
Mr. Kitchener, to the house where the Moabitic antiquities were made, 
and especially that he would show him there a similar idol, made of 
clay, but not yet fired, or burnt. When I asked Mr. Kitchener, just 
before he left, about the results of his investigation, he told me that 
though he had actually had the house pointed out to him which was 
said to contain the unburnt idol as well as the whole factory of Moabitic 
antiquities, he had been unable, notwithstanding repeated efforts, to 
gain admission there. 

The day after Mr. Kitchener had left, I discovered his informant, and 
the next day the house which had been pointed out to him. The former 
is a certain Kattan, a seemingly honest young Arab tradesman : the 
house is no other than that of Selim el Kary, whose name is sufficiently 
notorious in this controversy. Having at once procured a warrant from 
the Tm-kish police, I caused the house to be searched in the presence of 
one of the agents of the consulate, when the following articles were 
found : — 1 . A newly made unburnt clay idol, in a sitting posture, and 
more than a foot in height ; 2. Four small iron chisels, which had clearly 
been used in the manufactmre of this figure. No other pottery wares 
were found, nor any tools, except those mentioned, and no oven capable 
of being used for firing was to be seen in the whole house. These 
articles were confiscated by the police, and courteously placed at my 
disposal by the governor. The inscription on the idol's breast differs 
essentially in character from those of Mr. Shapira's antiquities : the 
letters, too, are very much smaller. They have been neatly enough in- 
scribed — no doubt with the confiscated chisels — but they differ consider- 
ably from the usual alphabet. Besides, a number of fantastic marks are 
interspersed here and there among genuine letters. The figure itself is 
hollowed out a little at the base, but is otherwise massive and solid, and 
consequently very heavy, whereas the articles in Mr. Shapira's collection 
are mostly quite hollow and light. 

When I examined Kattan and Selim el Kary at my office, I found them 
to agree in this, that they both stated that Selim had sold five Moabitic 
clay figures to Kattan, and that the latter had sold two of them to Mr. 
Kitchener. But with regard to the main point, viz., the origin of these 
articles, they contradicted each other. While Kattan asserted that 
Selim had declared them to be his own manufacture, Selim said, as he 
has often said before, that he had never imitated any Moabitic pottery 
at all, but that the five clay figures in question were part of a collection 
which had been offered two years ago to Mr. Shapira by a Bedouin, that 
Mr. Shapira had at that time declined purchasing them, and that he, 
Selim, had then bought them very cheaply. When I questioned him 
about the unburnt idol, he replied that he had received it from the well- 



THE MOABITE POTTERY. 97 

laiowii antique forger, Martin Boulos, as also the four chisels, the latter 
for the purpose of closing up certain cracks and crevices in the clay. He 
further said that Martin Boulos had held out brilliant prospects to him 
which they might realise together if such forged articles could be sold. 
It is remarkable that Selim, in his declaration (upon which, since lying 
has become his second nature, no reliance whatever can be placed), 
always wished to give the impression that he could tell much more, but 
that he would only do so in Mr. Shapiro's presence. This probably supplies 
the key to the whole business. 

When, through the publication of Messrs. Socin and Kautzsch's pam- 
phlet, the market value of the Moabitic antiquities had considerably 
fallen, Selim was dismissed by Mr. Shapira, who till then had kept him 
in his employment, and he was reduced to great poverty. A short time 
before Mr. Shapira left for Europe, SeHm presented a petition here, in 
which he claimed wages due to him by his late employer; whereas, 
according to two bills in Mr. Shapira's possession, he proved to be the 
creditor, and not Selim. As the latter, however, would not yield, but 
persisted in his claims, I referred him to the competent Tm-kish authori- 
ties. There, of course, on the production of the bills by Mr. Shapira, 
Selim's claims were rejected ; and on that occasion he told several persons, 
so that I came to hear of it, that if Mr. Shapira did not satisfy his 
demands to the last farthing he would " expose the whole of the Moabitic 
antiquities." 

Even if, as above mentioned, the two idols acquired by Mr. Kitchener 
are suspected to be imitations, such is not the case with the other three 
clay idols which Kattan bought from Selim, and which he has since 
shown to me. To judge by their colour they seem to be very old, and 
in the deeply and elaborately engraved letters, all belonging to the well- 
known Moabitic alphabet, is found a quantity of hard, ancient-looking 
earth, firmly adhering to the clay. Some persons entirely unbiassed in 
this controversy, and experienced in judging of the age of pottery wares, 
to whom I showed the idols, declared them to be genuine, or at all 
events extremely old. The idea of these articles, as well as of those of 
the former collection, being imitations or forgeries is improbable, for 
many and frequently stated reasons, and yet it is not impossible that the 
idols in Mr. Kitchener's possession may be imitations, since even Mr. 
Shapira declares that he has one non-genuine clay figure. Mr. Koch's 
investigations in the year 1875 have proved it impossible for these 
articles to have been fabricated here in any great quantity, and yet the 
factory where they were fabricated to have remained undiscovered all 
this time. But, even granting such a possibility, the great and very 
geuTiine poverty of Selim seems sufficient proof that he could not have 
taken part in the wholesale profitable manufactm-e of ungenuine 
" Moabitica." He must, in such a case, at least have earned enough to 
save him from the utter poverty into which he has now fallen. The most 
probable explanation of his conduct, and of the circumstances under 
which the confiscated articles came into his possession, seems to be simply 



98 THE MOABITE TOTTERY. 

that he attempted to extort money from Mr. Shapira. Thus his way 
of selling them to Kattan shows his Avish to excite curiosity by an 
affected mysteriousness of demeanour, and my agent informed me that 
Selim's conduct during the search in his house could not but make him 
suspect that he actually wished for it, and was glad that it took place. 
And if, besides, his absurd statement when examined by me is taken 
into consideration — viz., that he could only tell the whole truth in Mr. 
Shapira's presence, the conviction is almost forced on one that he pro- 
cured the unburnt idol and the four chisels, and cautiously directed 
public attention to them, in order to compromise Mr. Shapira, and 
thereby perhaps manage to extort something from him for himself, or 
simply by way of revenge. However, I shall not content myself with 
this impression, but shall continue my investigations, and hope to obtain 
some definite and final resiilts. Baron Mu:s'cniLViTSEif. 



By Freiherr von Miinchhaussen's kindness I have been allowed to 
take a photograph of the unbaked idol mentioned in his statement. 
In sending you a copy of the same, together -with a photograph of 
genuine pottery, taken, some three years ago, by Lieut. Kitchener, I 
ihope that the publication of the two woodcuts, side by side, will enable 
your readers to arrive at an accurate idea on the subject. 

M. W. Shapira. 



VII. — From the Eev. W. Hayes Ward. 

New York, Dec. 31, 1877. 

It may be interesting, in connexion with Mr. Shapira's late commu- 
nications to the Athenceum, to tell the reasons why some in America 
have been so slow to accept his wares as genuine. 

About six years ago, before the first collection of his wares was pur- 
chased by the German Government, through the kindness of the Eev. 
D. Stuart Dodge, of Beirut, a collection of squeezes of "Moabite" 
inscriptions, and drawings of pottery and idols with their inscriptions, 
including a fair share of the coarse and obscene figures, was obtained 
from Mr. Shapira, and sent to New York to be examined by the direc- 
tors of the American Palestine Exploration Society, with a view to a 
purchase. A number of these copies are before me as I write. 

These inscriptions and figures were carefully examined, among others 
by Mr. Addison van Name, Librarian of Yale College, Prof. Isaac H. 
Hall, and myself, and our judgment was decidedly averse to their 
genuineness, although they came endorsed by Mr. Shapira's signature. 

We found that it was utterly impossible to put them into words of a 
Semitic character. This was not through any lack of legibility, nor 
because the inscriptions were not of sufficient length. There is abso- 
lutely no reason to expect anything but inscriptions in a Semitic lan- 
guage from that region ; but it was not in any way j)ossible to reduce 
them to sense. 



THE MOABITE POTTERY. 99 

Then, again, tlie shape of the characters sufficiently proved that they 
■were forgeries. There are, in the Phoenician alphabet, certain letters 
■which, as every epigraphist kno-ws, belong to the same class, so far as 
their construction is concerned, and •which change their shape together. 
Such letters are dahtli and resh ; and such are mem, nun, and shin. To 
see daleth as a triangle and resh rounded was enough to prove the 
forgery. So it -was absurd to find mem written in the later form, with 
the strokes at right angles, while sliin was written in its oldest style, 
like our English W. 

I may add that it was also startling to find, on the same squeeze, two 
long inscriptions, in two different alphabets, that could not have co- 
existed by less than five hundred years, one of these being Pha^nician of 
the composite character above described, while the other was apparently 
made by random strokes, so as to produce the general effect of ISTaba- 
thean. 

Other evidence even more startling -was " not wanting. Of two of the 
longest inscriptions squeezes were sent. I noticed on the brown paper, 
over considerable portions, a light, whitish cloud, which appeared to me 
to suggest lime. It occurred to me, especially as the impressions of the 
letters and other marks seemed to agree therewith, that instead of being 
taken from black basalt at Um-el-Easas and Aroer, they had been taken 
from a bed of mortar, impressed when wet "with the inscription. This^ 
led to a more careful examination of the paper, when there were found 
adhering to it quite a number of hard white particles, which on analysis 
proved to be carbonate of lime, and which were just such as might have 
been detached from the bed of inscribed mortar, from which I have no 
doubt the squeezes were taken. This was confirmed by evident slips of 
the stick -with which the letters were traced, so that the lines crossed 
each other at the apex of angles. 

Not less surprising was the character of the border of the inscription. 
lu one case the squeeze showed a border around the inscription of large 
dots, and in another of short diagonal lines, thus suggesting that the 
idea was taken by some ignorant forger from some plate in which the 
engraver had thus represented the edge of the stone. 

The Palestine Exploration Society was advised not to purchase 
Mr. Shapira's collection, which was afterwards secured, much to our 
surprise, by the German Government. 

"WilliajSi Hayes Waed. 

P.S. — ^Mr. Shapira says that "the American party never went intO' 
Moab proper." The American party, in 1873, made its camp in Hesh- 
bon, a Moabitic city, and were there all summer, and made excursions 
into all parts of the country north of the Amon, including all the places- 
from which Mr. Shapira's pottery was at that time said to have come, 
including Heshbon, El-'Al, Mahsuh, Madeba, and Main. There was- 
then no difficulty about hostile tribes, and the range of the Adwan 
extended as far as the Zarga Main, south of Madeba, without hostility.. 
A son of Kablan, who acted at times as guide of the American party^ 



100 THE MOABITE POTTERY. 

confidentially yet repeatedly told them that none of the antiquities in the 
possession of " the gentleman of Jerusalem," moaning Mr. Shapira, 
came from the east of the Jordan. Further, one Eev. Bahnam Hassuni, 
formerly pastor of the Protestant Church at Es-Salt, informed them 
that at the beginning of his career Selim endeavoured to induce him to 
enter upon this work of forging and palming off antiqiiities from Moab. 

VIII. — From M. Clermont Ganneait. 

Paris, Eue de Vaugirard 60, Fevrier, 1878. 

1° La premiere fois que j'eus occasion d'examiner des reproductions- 
de poteries moabites (a Londres, vers 1872) je n'hesitai pas i declarer 
que, pour moi, ces poteries etaient fausses, et que j'y croyais reconnaitre 
la main d'un Arabe chretien nomme Selim. 

2° Plus tard, pendant ma mission a Jerusalem (1873—74), j'acquis et 
publiai les preuves materielles de ce qui n'etait jusqu'alors qu'une pre- 
somption : je surpris lo faussaire la main dans le sac, et se faussaire- 
c'etait le dit Selim — et de deux. 

3" D'un autre cute, M. Drake, qui ne pent etre soupfonne d' avoir obti 
a des idees precon^ues, attendu qu'il a cru, au debut, a 1' authenticity des 
poteries, arrivait au meme resultat et rencontrait, comme moi, au fond 
de I'affaire un nom, celui de Selim — et de trois. 

4" II ne manquait plus, pour achever de convaincre les plus incredules, 
que I'aveu meme du mystificateur ; cet aveu nous I'avons aujourd'hui, 
gnice au Lieutenant^ Kitchener, et celui qui le fait c'est Selim— et de 
quatre I 

La piquante decouverte de M. Kitchener me fait un devoir de livrer 
a la publicite un curieux document que j'ai conserve par devers moi 
pendant plusieurs mois : c'est une lettre autographe de Selim, ecrite en 
grec moderne fort incorrect, et a moi adressee au mois d'Aout, 1877. 
J'y joins une traduction litterale que je dois a I'obligeance d'un de mes 
amis d'ici. 



A Monsieur Ganveau. 

De Jerusalem, 3Iois dc Aofd, 6.* 

D'abord je te demande des nouvelles de ta sante et ensuite je te dirai 
que quandf ... les antiquites avec Khavadja Sapira, il me jiarla et me 
dit: "Jete donnerai beaucoup d' argent pourvu seulement que tu ne 
paries pas des choses secretes relatives a la provenance des choses." Je 
lu'en suis beaucoup occupe et a cette heure il me traite en ennemi parce 
(jue quand nos gardes s'en allerent il me dit que je paie les hommes qui 
avaient mal parle de nous, et moi, tout ainsi qu'il me I'avait dit, j'ai 
paye, d'ai voulu rentrer dans ces depenses alors il me dit: "Main- 
tenant je ne te crains plus parce que le roi le sait bien que ce sont 
des mensonges, il m'a paye ; toi et Ganneau (il sait) que vous voulez me 
nuire." 

Pour moi je veux Ic perdro comme il ni'a perdu, ear jo connais toute- 

* Vicux style. t I^i mi ii^ot douteux. 



THE MOABTTE POTTERY. 101 

son affaire. Si tu veux que je vienne pres de toi afin que je te disc tout 
at que tu le publies dans les journaux ut qu'ainsi je devoile tous ses 
men.songes, si tu lo veux, ecris a un do tes amis qii'il m'avance les fonds 
pour que je vienne pi'es de toi et t'explique tout claireuient, si tu veux 
que je sois present pour rend re manifestes les mensonges depuis le coni- 
uiencement jusqu'a la fin. Ton serviteur, 

Saxim Kaui. 



La suscription seule est en arabe. La lettre m'est arrivee par I'inter- 
mediaire d'un de mes amis de Jerusalem que Selim etait venu trouver et 
:i qu'il a debite une foulo de choses que je m'abstiens de repeter. Je 
decline naturellenient toute espece de responsabilite pour cette lettre, 
dont je n'entends endosser en rien les assertions. 

Je suis paye pour savoir la creanco que meritent les dires de maitre 
Selim, mon ex-accusatcur, devenu spontanement mon correspondant. 
Conuaissant le peleiin, je n'avais pas attache a cette missive, embrouillee 
et paraissant dictee par un sentiment de vengeance, plus d'importance 
qu'elle n'en comportait. Je me demandais me me par instants, je I'avoue, 
si cette demarche bizarre ne cachait pas un piege dresse contre moi, et si 
Selim ne jouait pas au Zopyre. Je mis done la lettre de cote, sans y 
repondre bien entendu, et j'attendis les evenements: I'evenement est 
venu sous la forme des statuettes achetees par M. Kitchener. 

Libre aiix derniers partisans de rauthenticite de refuser de se rendre 
a r evidence ; ce n'est certes pas moi qui entreprendrai la conversion de 
pecheurs aussi endurcis. Apres tout, il leur reste toujours la ressoui'ce 
d'expliquer I'inexplicable volte-face de Selim par une influence occulte, 
d'y voir meme le resultat d'un plan machiavelique. N'est-ce pas moi 
qui ai oifert autrefois a Selim, dans la rue des Chretiens, je ne sais plus 
quelle somme fabuleuse pour acheter son faux temoignage contre M. 
Shapira ? Aujourd'hui c'est Selim qui m'a fait des avances pour 
" perdie " le dit M. Shapii-a ! 



IX.— Fkom Dr. Neubatjer. 

Bodleian Library, Fcl. 15, 187S. 

During my last visit to Berlin, in December, although very busy with 
the more particular object of my journey, I could not help devoting a 
day to visiting the famous MoabJtic collection of pottery; permission 
having been most courteously granted me by the authorities in the 
Ministry of Public Listruction, where this collection is preserved ia a 
room by itself, and not in the Maseum, as is wrongly stated by Prof. 
Socin and M. Clermont Ganneau. It must be said, to the honour of 
the authorities of the Museum, that they never thought of accepting it 
for their establishment. 

As I have already stated in your columns, I was perfectly persuaded, 
from the specimens published by Prof. Schlottmann, in the Journal of 
the German Oriental Society, that the pottery and idols are forgeries, 

I 



102 THE MOABTTE POTTERY. 

and I was confirmed in my belief by the elaborate book of Prof. Kautzsch, 
published in 1876, after a personal examination of the Berlin collection 
as well as those at Stuttgart and Basle. Still I thought I might find 
one or more pieces in the collection which would make the impression 
of being genuine, and justify Prof. Schlottmann's belief. I must say, 
however, that I have never seen such a heap of ugly objects altogether 
as in this collection, and I was quite astonished that a man of learning 
and common sense should not have seen in them at once the rudest 
forgeries possible. I shall not insist again upon the palseographic?! 
evidence of their spuriousness, nor on the fact that not a single Semitic 
woi'd can be read in any of them, this having been made clear over and 
over again. Prof. Schlottmann, however, thinks he is able to explain 
the variety of forms assumed by one and the same letter in tbe same 
line, and Dr. Koch still believes the language might be some unknown 
one, although we know from the Mesha inscription what the Moabite 
language was like. 

It has already been stated by Prof. Kautzsch, that the shape of one 
of the gods has a resemblance to Napoleon the Third, weaiing a.chapeau 
de gendarme, and by myself that the goddess of the earth looks like a 
German girl ; and now I find from personal inspection that one of the 
idols (that near the window at Berlin) is a copy of a Chr-ist in the Greek 
churches, and tliat, too, executed in the rudest way possible. 

Prof. Scblottmann says that these ugly figures are meant in the Old 
Testament by the word i'^pay, which I deny. The word means "abomina- 
tion," and is applied to all idols in general, and even the Venus of Milo 
would not have had another denomination. The Prophets from first to 
last speak of idols of gold, silver, and other metals, of stone and wood, 
but never of those of clay. Would, for instance, the passages in 
Isaiah xli. 19, 20, Jeremiah ii. 28, Psalms cxv. 4 to 8, not have been the 
place to make allusion to such fragile idols ? The only mention of idols 
formed by potters is to be found in the apocryphal book, "Wisdom of 
Solomon, xv. 8, whicb refers probably to the Greek period in Palestine. 
How is it to be explained that in a place where so many idols and vases 
have been found not a single one in wood and metal occurs, as the Old 
Testament would lead us to expect ? What are those beaps of smaller 
and larger tablets, or tesseroi, in the collection of Berlin if not a forgery 
by a person who knew of the existence of such objects in old times ? 
How comes the vase near the door of the collection to be ornamented 
with four Maltese crosses ? The forgery is evident, and is confirmed 
now by the discovery of Lieut. Kitchener. Ad. Neubauer. 



The correspondence has for the present closed vnth a letter from 
Mr. Sliapira, in which he analyses the letters on the inscribed jars, and 
one from the Baron Von Mlinchhausen, which called forth two notes 
from Lieut. Conder and M. Ganneau. It contains, however, no new 
fact likely to be of service to those who take interest in this discussion. 




DOORWAY OF NEWLY-DISCOVERED SYNAGOGUE AT SUFSaF. 

(From a Photograph by Lieutenant Kitcheiur. , 



Quarterly Statement, July, 1878.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



The two points of greatest interest at the present moment are : (1) the Publi- 
cation of the Map, and (2) the Future Work of the Fund. With regard to the 
former, the Executive Committee have announced (see report of meeting of 
General Committee, p. 108) that by an arrangement made with the Ordnance 
Survey Department the whole of the sheets are now being photodithographed 
and prepared for publication by the Director of the Ordnance Survey. Tliey are 
also being photogi'aphed to a scale of three-eighths, on which scale they will be 
laid down on three sheets, which will form the reduced Map. It is proposed that 
this shall be engraved as rapidly as possible, and published simultaneously with 
the larger Map. It is expected that the two ]\Iaps, the greater and the lesser, 
will be issued earlj^ next year. 



With regard to the Memoirs, Special Plans, &c., the Executive Committee are 
not at present in a position to recommend any method for their publication.' The 
work will be of a very voluminous and costly nature, embracing long lists of 
Arabic names with their English equivalents, which will have to be carefully 
examined by an Arabic scholar, the whole of the notes prepared by Lieutenants 
Conder and Kitchener, and a large number of special plans and drawings made 
for the Committee by the officers of the Survey, by Majors Wilson and Warren, 
Captain Anderson, Professor Palmer, Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake, and JI. Lecomte (the 
architect who accompanied M. Clermont Ganneau). 



The work proposed for the immediate future will be found in the Eeport of 
the Executive Committee. It is recommended to organise and dispatch a special 
expedition with the object of examining, by means of excavation M'here necessary, 
the shores of the Sea of Galilee, and the determination by this method of the 
sites of Capernaum, Chorazin, Bethsaida, and the other places on these shores 

K 



106 NOTES AND NEWS. 

associated with the New Testameut history. A detailed prospectus showing 
what is wanted and how it is proposed to supply that want will be issued without 
delay. 



Meantime Lieutenant Kitchener is occupied at the working office of the Fund, 
Soutli Kensington Museum, in laying down the reduction of the Map, and in 
finishing his Memoirs. He calculates that he has six months' work before him. 



Lieutenant Conder's 3Iemoirs were finished on April 30th, when he formally 
handed over everything to the Committee, and took his leave of the Societj'-, in 
whose service he has worked for more than six years. He has accepted, how- 
ever, an invitation to join the list of General Committee, so that the advantage 
of his counsel and expei'ience may still be looked for. 



His book, "Tent Work in Palestine," was published on Monday, June 3rd. 
Extracts from it will be found farther on (page 114). ^Meantime subscribers who 
wish to take advantage of the reduction of 27 per cent, in the price (17s. 6d.) are 
requested to forward their names to the office, 11 and 12, Charing Cross, with as 
little delay as possible. 



Invitations to join the General Committee have been issued to the following 
gentlemen : — 

Lord Talbot De Malahide. 

The Bishop Designate of Lichfield. 

Col. Sir John Cowell, K.C.B. 

Sir Howard Elphinstone, K.C.B., C.M.G. 

General Cameron, R.E. 

Colonel Home, R.E., C.B., C.M.G. 

Dr. Erasmus AVilson. 

Lieutenant Conder, E.E. 



Major Warren, E.E., C.M.G., now in command of a troop of cavalry (the 
Diamond Fields Horse) at the Cape, retires from the Executive Committee the 
following members of General Committee have been invited to join the 
Executive : — 

Lord Dufi'erin, 

Mr. "William Simpson, F.R.G.S. 



The income of the Fund from all sources from !JLarch 2Sth, 1S78, to" June 27th, 
1878, was £519 18s. 8d. The expenditure was as follows : Exploration (expenses 
of sui-vey party), £262 8s. Gd. ; printing, £1G3 15s. 8d. ; office management, and 
bills, £221 6s. 3d. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 10 

Subscribers are entreated not to think that the expenses of the Fund are over 
because the field work in Western Palestine is finished. The monthly expenses 
amount to about £180 ; the liabilities of the Committee are not yet discharged, 
and provision must be made for the future work. 



For the next six months, while the working office at the South Kensington 
Museum will be occupied by Lieutenant Kitchener and his noncommissioned 
officers, friends of the Fund are invited to call at that office and see such portions 
of the Map as maj^ be then under their hands. 



The death of Earl Eussell deprives the Fund of one who had been a member of 
General Committee from the very foundation of the Society. Lord Russell showed 
his continucLl interest in the work of the Committee by a donation —his second 
— made to the Fund in 187 5. 



Several cases have been at various times discovered of postage stamps being 
lost on their way to the office. The only waj^to avoid such loss is to send money 
by P. 0.0. or by cheque, in every case pay ahle to tlie order of JValter Besant, and 
crossed to Coutts and, Co., or the Union Bank, Charing Cross Branch. 



The ninth thousand of " Our "Work in Palestine " is now ready (price 3s. 6d.), 
and may be ordered of booksellers. This book carries the work down to the 
commencement of the Surve}^, but does not embrace M. Ganneau's discoveries 
nor the results of the Survey itself. 



The following are at present Eepresentatives and Lecturers of the Society, in 
addition to the local Hon. Sees. : — 

Archdeaconry of Hereford : llev. J. S. Stooke-Vaughan, Wellington Heath 
Vicarage, Ledbury. 

City and neighbourhood of jlanchester : Plcv. "\Y. F. Birch, St. Saviour's 
Piectory. 

Lancashire : Eev. John Bone, St. Thomas's Vicarage, Lancaster. 

London : Rev. Henrj^ Geary, 16, Somerset Street, Portman Square. 

Korwich : Eev. W. F. Creeny. 

Suffolk : Eev. F. C. Long, Stow-upland, Stowmarket. 

Peterborough : Rev. A. J. Foster, Farndish Rectory, "Wellingborough. 

"Worcester : Eev. F. W. Holland, Evesham (Member of General and Executive 
Committee, and one of the Hon. Secretaries to the Fund). 

Diocese of Eix^on : Eev. T. C. Henley, Kirkby Malham Vicarage. 

North "Wales : Eev. John Jones, Treborth, Bangor. 

Yorkshire, Durham, and the JTorth : Eev. James King, 13, Paradise Terrace, 
Darlington. Mr. King has now returned from the Holy Land ; communi- 
cations for lectures, &;c., can be sent to the Office at Charing Cross. 



108 MEETIXG OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

Ireland.— Diocese of Armagh : Rev. J. H. Tovmsend. 
Eev. G. J. Stokes, Blackrock, Dublin. 
Scotland.— Rev. R. J. Craig, Dalgetty, Burntisland. 

The Rev. Horrocks Cocks, 19, Edwardes Sciuare, Kensington, has also kindly 
offered his services among the Nonconformist churches. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications and other 
conclusions arrived at by officers of the Fund, the Committee beg it to be dis- 
tinctly understood that they leave such proposals to be discussed on their own 
merits, and that by publishing them in the QiMrtcrhj Statement the Committee 
do not sanction or adopt them. 



Annual subscribers are earnestly requested to forward their subscriptions for 
the current year when due, at their earliest convenience, and without waiting for 
application. 



The Committee are always glad to receive old numbers of the Quarterly State- 
ment, especially those which have been advertised as out of print. 



Attention is called to the statement already advertised, that subscribers 
the Fund are privileged by the publishers to receive both the " Literary Remains 
of the late Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake, " and the " Underground Jerusalem " of 
Captain Warren, at reduced rates. The former book will be sent for ten 
shillings, the latter for sixteen shillings, postage paid. But letters asking for 
them must be sent to the office at 11 and 12, Charing Cross only. 



Cases for binding the Quarterly Statement are now ready, and can be had on 
application to Messrs. R. Bentley and Son, 8, New Burlington Street. They 
are in green or brown cloth, with the stamp of the Society, uniform in 
appearance with "Our Work in Palestine," and are sold at the price of 
eighteenpence. 

Lieut. Kitchener's Guinea Book of Biblical Photographs can be bought at Mr. 
Stanford's establishment, 55, Charing Cross. It contains twelve views, with a 
short account of each. They are mounted on tinted boards, and handsomely 
bound. 



MEETING OF THE GENEEAL COMMITTEE. 

TuE General Committee Meeting was held on T'jesday, June llth, at 
the Society's Offices at Charing Cross. 

The Chair was taken by Professor Donaldson. 

The Minutes of the last meeting having been read and confirmed, the 
following Report of the Executive Committee was read. 



MEETING OF TUB GENERAL COMIIITTEE. 109 

"On resigning the trust committed to them on July ITth, INTT, tlio 
Committee have to render an account of their administration during the 
past twelve months. 

1. On their first sitting Mr. Hepworth Dixon was elected for the 
second time Chairman for the ensuing year. 

2. The number of meetings hekl during the year has been twenty- 
two, which does not include the meetings of Publication and other sub- 
committees, held for various objects. 

3. The Committee were able to report at the last nieetmg of the 
General Committee that the whole of the northern portion of the'Survey 
of Western Palestine was then completed, and that there remained to^be 
surveyed at that date only a small district of 200 square miles in the 
north, together with the revision of certain sheets. On October ;ird, 
1877, the Chairman was enabled, by the receipt of a telegram] from 
Palestine, to send a letter to the papers containing the welcome intelli- 
gence that this remainder was also happily accomplished, and the whole 
of the work on its way home under charge of the noncommissioned 
officers. Lieut. Kitchener himself, to whom the Committee granted a 
month's leave of absence, arrived in January, and joined Lieut. Conder 
at the workmg office at South Kensington, very kindly lent to the Fund 
by Her Majesty's Government. Here he has been, and is still, employed 
in the preparation of his memoirs and plans and the reduction of the 
map. 

4. It is duo to this officer to state that his work, although it is in no 
respect inferior to that of his predecessor in command, was accomplished 
imder the most urgent necessity for dispatch. For a large part of the 
eight months during which he was in the country he and his men worked 
without intermission in order to get the work completed while the 
country, then threatened with disturbances, was still tranquil. No serious 
hindrance was met with, nor was there any opposition from the natives, 
except at Nablus, where Lieut. Kitchener was attacked and stoned in 
the streets, and where he was prevented from executing the proposed 
repairs of Jacob's Well. The Committee desire to express their sense 
not only of the energy and ability, but also of the tact shown by this 
officer in the conduct of his expedition, and of the careful economy with 
which he kept his expenses below the estimate. 

0. Lieut. Conder completed his Memoii's on the 30th April, and on 
the 1st May rejoined his corps, after a period of six years' consecutive 
work in the service of the Committee. No other officer has worked so 
long for the Society, and the Committee feel that they must ask the 
General Committee to record an expression of thanks for his services 
and of regret at his departure. 

6. The Committee have the greatest satisfaction in announcing that 
they have made arrangements, through the courtesy which has always 
been extended to them by the different departments of Her Majesty's 
Government with whom they have been in corresjjondeace, for photo- 
lithographing and preparing for publication the whole of the large map of 



110 MEETING OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

"Western Palestine by the Ordnance Survey at Southampton. The sheets 
are now in the hands of General Cameron, E.E., the Director, for that 
purpose. Each sheet of the work will bear the usual imprint of the 
Department. There seems good reason to believe that the map will 
be ready for publication on this large scale as soon as the Committee 
can prepare the small map, which for business purposes must be issued 
simultaneously. The arrangement so made will enable the Committee 
to publish this large map on a scale of economy not originally considered 
possible. Facilities have been kindly offered by the department for pre- 
paring the smaller map also. Correspondence on this subject is still 
proceeding, and the Committee expect that their communications will 
result in an arrangement by which the publication of the smaller map 
Avill be greatly assisted both in time and economy. It is hoped that this 
may be completed within the coming twelve months. 

7. The Committee, considering the desirability of providing a record 
of their Survey in a more popular form than their scientific memoirs, 
resolved on inviting Lieut. Conder to write for them a book which should 
contain such a record. This book, called ' Tent Work in Palestine,' is 
now ready. It is illustrated from drawings made by Lieut. Conder 
himself, and engraved by Mr. J. S. Whymper. 

They have followed the example set in the ' Ptecovery of Jerusalem,' 
in making a large allowance for subscribers, by whom it can be obtained 
at a reduction of 27 per cent, post free. 

8. The Committee have next to consider the present and future opera- 
tions of the Society. 

The origuaal prospectus of the Society contemplated the following 
main branches of exploration : — 

(1) Archceology. — In this branch Jerusalem alone has occupied the 
attention of the Committee. Their excavations under Major Warren, 
although extensive, wore necessarily not exhaustive, in consequence of 
the impossibility of obtaining permission to dig in the Haram area. 
The other places mentioned in the original prospectus are still awaiting 
examination. Among them are Mount Gerizim, the Valley of Shechem, 
Samaria, the Roman cities of the coast, especially Csesarea, Antipatris, 
Gaza, the tombs of Tibneh, the mounds in the valley of the Jordan, 
Eethshean, and Jezreel. 

Special detailed plans of many of the places, especially Csesarea, 
where Lieut. Conder believes that he has found the remains of the Temple 
erected by Herod, have been made during the Survey, but no excava- 
tions of any kind were conducted during the progress of that work. 

A great quantity of archfcological work has also been done for the 
Committee by the officers in charge of their several expeditions, especially 
by M. Clermont Ganneau in 1874. This work has all been published in 
the Quarterly Statement, which has been made, as far as possible, a 
medium for publishing other discoveries and researches made in Pa- 
lestine. 

(2) Manners and Customs.— TJndiQv this head the Committee originally 



MEETI]N-G OF THE OEXEKAL COMMITTEE. HI 

contemplated producing sucli a work on the Holy Land as was written 
by Mr. Lane for Egypt, wliicli shonld describe in a systematic and 
exhaustive order, with clear and exact minuteness, the manners, habits, 
rites, and language of the present inhabitants. A mass of materials 
has been collected towards such a work. They have been published 
among the reports of M. Olenuont Ganneau, Lieut. Conder, Mr. Tyrwhitt 
Drake, and others. This part of their programme, however, remains to 
be carried into execution. 

(3) Topography. — The exact words of the original prospectus, written, 
it must be remembered, thirteen years ago, were : — 

' Of the coast-line of Palestine we now possess an accurate map in 
the recent Mmiralty Charts. What is wanted is a suivey which, when 
we advance inland, should give the position of the principal points 
throughout the country with equal accuracy. If these were fixed, the 
intermediate spots and the smaller places could be filled in with com- 
parative ease and certainty. In connection with the topography is the 
accurate ascertainment of the levels of the various points. The eleva- 
tion of Jerusalem and the depression of the Dead Sea are abeady pro- 
vided for by the liberality of the Eoyal Society and the Eoyal Geo- 
graphical Society ; but the level of the Sea of Galilee (on which depends 
our knowledge of the true fall of the Jordan) is still uncertain within 
no less than 300 feet — as are other spots of almost equal moment. 

'The course of the ancient roads, and their coincidence with the 
modern tracks, has never been examined with the attention it deserves, 
considering its importance in the investigation of the history.' 

It is gratifying to record that, so far as Western Palestine is concerned, 
all these points then noted as requiring examination have been entirely 
cleared up. We have a complete survey of the country ; the positions 
of all the principal points are observed ; the levels are noted ; that of 
the Sea of Galilee has been obtained ; the ancient roads have been laid 
down. 

Of Geology, Botany, Zoology, and Meteorology, almost the same 
words may be used now as were used in 1865. The objects then pro- 
posed by the Committee remain still to be carried into execution. 

So far, therefore, the Committee have carried into effect the original 
prospectus of the Society. It remains to be considered what steps should 
be recommended for the future. 

a. For the immediate future, or rather for present work, the Com- 
mittee recommend the publication of the map as speedily as possible. 
Every hope is entertained of having both the larger and the smaller 
map ready before the next meeting of the General Committee. 

h. This should be followed by the publication of the Memoirs and 
special plans. The Executive Committee are not at present prepared to 
recommend a mode of undertaking this costly publication, which should 
include the special plans of Lieuts. Conder and Kitchener, those of 
Majors Wilson and Warren, and the drawings made for the Committee 
by M. Le Comte and others, now in their possession. 



112 MEETIXG OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

c. As regards future field work, the opinion of Major Wilson, Captain 
Anderson, and Lieuts. Conder and Kitchener, has been invited, and 
their views have been considered by the Committee. 

It is recommended that an expedition should be sent out as soon as 
may be found convenient, with the special object of examining, by means 
of excavations where necessary, the shores of the Sea of Galilee, and the 
determination by this method of the sites of Capernaum, Chorazin, 
Bethsaida, and other places connected with the New Testament history. 
A special appeal might be made for this Mission to Galilee. 

An alternative expedition would be the examination by a geologist of 
reputation of the Jordan valley and the Dead Sea. Both the Lake of 
Galilee and the Dead Sea must be examined at the same time of the 
year, namely, in the winter. 

In the absence of any definite communication from the American 
Committee, nothing can be recommended as regards the survey east 
of Jordan. But it must be borne in mind that the work remains 
to be done. 

Excavations would certainly yield valuable results at Jerusalem, 
Samaria, Caesarea, Jezreel, Ras el Ain, Jericho, and many other places. 

A special prospectus of future operations should be issued as soon as 
possible. 

10. The Committee have to regret the loss by death of several members. 
These are, Mr. Ambrose de Lisle, a member of the General Committee 
from the commencement of the Fund ; Mr. William Longman, on several 
occasions a member of the Executive Committee; Earl EusseU, who 
showed his interest in the Society by several donations; Sir Gilbert 
Scott, one of its original founders ; and the Eev. Canon Williams, author 
of the " Holy City," Avho, from the foundation of the Society, was active 
in rendering assistance on every possible occasion by addresses, by 
writing, by counsel, and by presiding or assisting at meetings. 

It is proposed to fill up these losses by inviting the following gentle- 
men to join the General Committee : — 

Lord Talbot de Malahide. 
Sir Howard Elphixstome. 

Col. Sir JOHIf COWELL. 

General Cameron, R.E. 
Dr. Erasmus Wilson. 
Col. Home, R.E., C.M.G. 
Bishop of LicnpiELD. 
Lieut. Conder, R.E. 

The Committee also recommend that Lord DufFerin and Mr. William 
Simpson be invited to join the Executive Committee. 

11. The income of the Fund from June .30th, 1S77, to June 11th, 1878, 
from all sources, has been £3,029 Is. 3d., a sum less than that received 
during the preceding twelve months by £680 12s. lOd. The falling off 
is not due to a decrease in the number of annual subscribers so much as 



MEETIXG OF THE GEXEllAL COMMITTEE. 113 

to the cessation of donations on the announcement that the Survey was 
finished. 

The Committee have no doubt that when another expedition is an- 
nounced their income will rise to its former level. 

The balance in hand this day amounts to £100 lis. lOd. The expendi- 
ture has been distributed as follows : — Exploration, £2,002 8s. Od. ; 
sundries, petty cash, postage, &c., £126 12s. ; printing, £390 ; salaries, 
management, advertising, rent, and all other expenses, £681 8s. 6d. 

12. The best thanks of the Committee are due to those ladies who 
have kindly opened their drawing-rooms for meetings to be addressed 
by Mrs. Finn. 

13. The special thanks of the Committee are due to the Rev. W. F. 
Maclagan (now Bishop Designate of Lichfield) for taking the chair at 
a meeting at the Kensington Vestry Hall, to the gentlemen who ad- 
dressed the meeting, and to the Eev. Horrocks Cocks for the great 
trouble he took in organising it. Also to Mr. James Bateman, F.Il.S., 
Mr. Eobinson Douglas, ;Mr. Hall Dare, Lord Lawrence, Mr. J. P. Bacon, 
Mr. Dimmock, General Lefroy, Mr. R. D. Wilson, Mr. S. H. Officer, 
Mr. Burges, Miss Peache, Colonel Haig, Mr. Ormerod, Mr. Harper, 
Mr. Mackinnon, "Esther and Maud," the Sunday School Union, 
Lady Tite, Miss Hockley, Miss Mary Hockley, Mrs. Deane Browne, 
Mr. Cecil Turner, Mr. S. Morley, Dr. Gladstone, Lord Kensington, 
Mr. Jones, Mr. Gotto, Mr. Herbert Dalton, Miss Wakeham, Rev. 
F. E. Wigram, Mr. Wingfield Digby, Rev. G. H. Egerton, Rev. 
W. D. Maclagan, C.E., Rev. H. Hall-Houghton, Rev. W. H. 
Walford, H. Heywood, the Dean of Lincoln, Rev. C. "Watson, Mr. 
Hastings Middleton, Rev. W. H. Gamlen, Mr. J. T. Houghton, 
CD., Miss Ridding, Mr. David Johnstone, Mr. William Atkinson, 
Mr. W. Scott, the Earl of Shaftesbury, the Bishop of Exeter, Mr. J. S. 
Mander, Valley Field, Mr. J. F. Gibson, Mr. Peter Denny, Mrs. Na- 
thaniel Muggeridge, and others, for donations, many of them annual, 
of sums varying from £5 to £100. Also to all the Hon. Local Secretaries, 
by whose assistance and encouragement interest in the work of the Fund 
is maintained. W. Hepworth Dixon, 

Chairman.'' 

It was Resolved that this Report be accepted. 

A letter was then read from Mr. George Grove, proposing to resign 
his office as Honorary Secretary on the ground of pressure of woi-k. It 
was Resolved — That the Committee receive this letter with the greatest 
regret ; that they hope Mr. Grove will reconsider his resignation, and 
will continue as Honorary Secretary, to give the Committee his counsel 
on occasions of emergency and importance ; and that in this hope they 
should proceed to re-elect the Honorary Officers of the Fund. 

It v>-as next Resolved — That the thanks of the General Committee 
be conveyed to Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener for the skill and 
devotion displayed in the successful conduct of the Survey of Western. 
Palestine. 



114 TENT "^ORK IN PALESTINE. 

It was then Eesolved — That the thanks of the Committee be passed 
(1) to Mr. Hep worth Dixon, for his two years of oflB.ce as Chairman of 
the Executive Committee ; and (2) to Mr. "Walter Besant for his zeal and 
activity as Secretary to the Society. 

After a vote of thanks to Professor Donaldson for taking the chair 
the Committee adjourned. 



TENT WOEK IN PALESTINE. 

We published in the last Quarterly Statement the table of contents of these 
two volumes, which have since been issued. These pages arc not the place 
for a criticism of Lieut. Conder's book, but we may be allowed to show by 
a few extracts something of the nature of the work and of the manner in 
which the prospectus we gave last quarter has been carried out. We confine 
ourselves exclusively to those passages which most directly concern the 
special work of the Fund, Biblical illustration. Lieut. Conder's con- 
clusions on the topography of Jerusalem, the present state of tlie Samari- 
tans, the Bedawin, the modern colonists of Palestine, the fertility of the 
comitry, and other topics of the greatest interest, must be looked for in 
the book itself. 

The Site of Kiejatii Jeaeiji. 

" This fine site, standing out black against the sky, with its grand 
ravine and wild copses, is evidently an important spot ; yet the name 
Soba does not recall any Scriptural place, though not far diflferent from 
the Hebrew Zuph Avhere Saul met Samuel. In modem Arabic it means 
' a heap,' such as the grain-heaps of the threshing-floors, a title which 
applies well to the shape of the hill, but probably this is a corruption of 
some older word. Dr. Chaplin, of Jerusalem, who is perhaps the soundest 
antiquarian in the country, supposes it to mark the real site of Kirjath 
Jearim, and there many points in favour of such a view. First of all, 
Kirjath Jearim is mentioned as on the boundary of Judah next to 
Mount Seir, which, in turn, is next to Chesalon. Chesalon is known to 
be the present Kesla, a village on the same ridge with Soba, and between 
them is a mountain called Saghir, a word radically identical with Seir. 
Then again the thickets west of Soba may well represent those of the 
ancient Mount Jearim, ' the hill of thickets.' Geba also was a place near 
Kirjath Jearim, and a ruin called Jeb'a exists close to Soba. Baalah 
was another name for Kirjath Jearim, and the word means 'high' or 
' elevated,' applying well to Suba, which is a strong place. It is also 
not impossible that in the name Soba we have a trace of Shobal the 
founder of Kirjath Jearim." 

The Sych^ve, of St. John (iv. 4). 

"It is hero no doubt that we recognise the Sychar of the Fourth 
Gospel. An unaccountable confusion has grown up lately between 



TENT WOKK IN PALESTINE. 115 

Sychar and Sliecliem, for which the Crusaders are originally responsible, 
as they are indeed for most of the false tlieories on sacred sites. It is 
only through careful study, and by such work as that of the Survey, that 
we are beginning to escape from the entanglements and confusion caused 
by the ignorance of knights and priests, arriving, in the twelfth century, 
strangers and illiterate enthusiasts in a hostile country. 

" It will be evident to all readers of the Gospel narrative that Sychar, 
' a city of Samaria ' near Jacob's Well (John iv. 5, 6), is a description 
hardly to be expected of Shechem, which is moreover mentioned by its 
original name in the New Testament (Acts vii. IG). The early Christians 
recognised the distinction, and place Sychar a mile east of Shechem, as 
noticed in the ' Itinerary of Jerusalem,' 333 A.D. It is clear that they 
refer to 'Askar, and the identity is maintained by Canon Williams and 
others ; but a difficulty has always been felt by students because the 
modern name begins with a guttural, which cannot have occurred in 
the name Sychar. This difficulty the Samaritan Chronicle seems to me 
to remove, for in it we find a town mentioned ajaparently near Shechem, 
called Ischar, which is merely a vulgar pronunciation of Sychar ; and 
the Samaritans themselves, in translating their Chronicle into Arabic, 
call it 'Askar. Thus the transition is traceable from the Hebrew form, 
having no meaning in Arabic but originally ' a j)lace walled in,' 
through the Samaritan Ischar to the modern 'Askar, ' a collection ' or 
' army ' in Arabic." 

The Village of Nain. 

" The village of Nain lies below on a sort of spur to the north of 
Neby Duhy, and the road from Nazareth ascends in a hollow to the west 
of it. On the right of the road, yet farther west, are the rockcut tombs, 
and thus the procession bearing the young man's body would have come 
down the slope towards the little spring westwards, meeting our Lord 
on the main road. The mud-hovels on the grey tongue of limestone 
have no great marks of antiquity, but the surrounding ruins show the 
village to have been once larger, and a little mosque called ' the Place 
of our Lord Jesus ' marks, no doubt, the site of an early chapel. There 
are, as far as we could see, no traces of a wall, and I think we should 
understand by ' gate of the city,' the place where the road enters 
among the houses, just as the word is used often in Greek, and in 
modem Arabic in such expressions as ' gate of the pass,' ' gate of the 
valley,' and even ' gate of the city,' where no wall or gate exists." 

The Death of Sisera. *^* 

" The Bedawin have a delicious preparation of curdled milk called 
Leben, which is offered to guests but generally considered a delicacy ; 
from personal experience I know that it is most refreshing to a traveller 
when tired and hot, but it has also a strange soporific effect, which was 
so sudden in its action on one English clergyman after a long ride, that 
he thought he had been poisoned. It was perhaps not without a know- 



-^16 TENT WORK IX PALESTINE. 

ledo-e of its probable effects, that Jael gave to her exhausted guest a 
tempting beverage which would make his sleep sound and long. 

" The murder of a fugitive and a guest is so contrary to the morality 
of the Semitic nomads, that we must seek for a very strong justification. 
It could not have been national enthusiasm whicli actuated Jael, for she 
was a Kenite, not a Jewess, one of a nation hostile to Israel, and there 
' was peace between Jabin King of Hazor (Sisera's master) and the house 
of Heber the Kenite.' The true reason is probably to be sought in 
Sisera's entering the tent at all. There are instances in later history in 
whicli a defeated Arab has sheltered himself in the women's apartments, 
but sucb an infringement of Eastern etiquette has always been punished 
by death ; and it is not improbable that in revenge for such an insult 
Jael seized the iron tent-peg and drove it with the mallet, used to fix 
the tents to the ground, through Sisera's brain. 

"One final illustration maybe added, suggested to me quite lately 
by an English clergyman. In the magnificent song of Deborah, the 
great storm which swelled the Kishon is described : 

"'They fought from heaven, the stars from their courses fought 
against Sisera ' (Judg. v. 20). 

" The season was probably that of the autumn stonns which occur 
early in November. At this time the meteoric showers are commonest, 
and are remarkably fine in effect, seen in the evening light at a season 
when the air is specially clear and bright. The scene presented by the 
falling fiery stars, as the defeated host fled away by night, is one very 
striking to the fancy, and which would form a fine subject for an artist's 
pencil." 

The Eock Etam. 

"About two miles west of Beit 'Atab, a valley running north and 
south, separates the high rugged mountains of the 'Arkub from the low 
rolling hills of the Shephelah district, beyond which is the Philistine 
plain. This valley joins the great gorge which bounded Judah on the 
north, and forms a broad vale, half a mile across, filled with luxuriant 
corn, with a pebbly torrent-bed in the middle, and low white hills on 
either side. The vale is called Wady Siirar (a Hebrew word, meaning 
' pebbles '), and is the ancient Yalley of Sorek. The ruins of Bethshe- 
mesh lie on a knoll surrounded by olive- groves, near the junction of the 
two valleys above mentioned. On the south is Timnah, where Samson 
slew the lion ; and on the north are the little mud villages, Si'ir'a and 
Eshu'a— the ancient Zoreah and Eshtaol— the hero's home. The scene, 
looking up the great corn valley to the high and rugged hills above, is 
extremely picturesque, and is that which was spread before the eyes of 
the five lords of the Philistines, as they followed the lowing oxen, which 
bore the ark on the ' straight way ' from Ekron to Bethshemesh. 

" Here also, at the edge of the mountains, is the village of Deir Aban, 
supposed, by the early Christians, to mark the site of Ebenezer, the 
boundary' of Samuel's pursuit of the Philistines, and of the land held by 



TENT "WORK IN PALESTINE. 117 

the Jews at that period. On the north brink of the Vale of Sorek (in 
which also Delilah lived) there is a conspicuous white chapel on the hill, 
dedicated to Neby Samit, and close to the village of Zoreah. Confused 
traditions — which are, however, probably of Christian origin — connect 
this prophet with Samson, whose name is recognisable in other parts of 
this district under the forms Shemshiin, Sanasin, and 'Aly (as at Gaza), 
and also a little farther south as Shemsin and Samat. It appears yvo- 
bable that the tomb now shown at Zoreah, is that known, to the Jews, 
in the fourteenth century as Samson's ; and the tradition, thus traced to 
other than monkish origin, is very possibly as genuine as that which 
fixes the tombs of Joseph and Phinehas near Shechem. Here, then, we 
are in Samson's country, and close to Zoreah we should naturally look 
for the Rock Etam. 

" The substitution of B for M is so common (as in Tibneh for Timnah), 
that the name ' 'Atab ' may very properly represent the Hebrew Etam 
(or 'eagle's nest'); and there are other indications of the identity of 
the site. It is pre-eminently a ' rock ' — a knoll of hard limestone, 
without a handful of arable soil, standing, above deep ravines, by 
three small sjirings. The place is also one which has long been a 
hiding-place, and the requirements of the Bible story are met in a re- 
markable way ; for the word rendered ' top of the Eock Etam ' is in 
reality ' cleft ' or ' chasm ; ' and such a chasm exists here — a long, 
narrow cavern, such as Samson might well have ' gone down ' into, and 
which bears the suggestive name Hasuta, meaning ' refuge ' in Hebrew, 
but having in modem Arabic no signification at all. 

" This remarkable ' cave of refuge ' is two hundred and fifty feet long, 
eighteen feet wide, and five to eight feet high ; its south-west end is 
under the centre of the modern village ; its north-east extremity, where 
is a rock shaft, ten feet deep, leading down from the surface of the hill, 
is within sixty yards of the principal spring. 

"The identification thus proposed for the Eock Etam is, I believe, 
quite a new one ; and it cannot, I think, fail to be considered satisfactory, 
if we consider the modern name, the position, and the existence of this 
remarkable chasm. Eamath Lehi, where the Philistines assembled 
when searching for Samson (Judg. xv. 9, 10), is naturally to be sought 
in the vicinity of Zorea — Samson's home, and of the Eock Etam where 
he took refuge. 

"A little way north-west of Zoreah, seven miles from Beit 'Atab, is a 
low hill, on the slope of which are springs called 'Ayim Abu Meharib, 
or the 'fountains of the place of battles.' Close by is a little Moslem 
chapel, dedicated to Sheikh Nedhir, or ' the Nazarite chief ; ' and, higher 
up, a ruin with the extraordinary title Ism Allah — ' the name of God.' 
The Nazarite chief is probably Samson, whose memoiy is so well pre- 
served in this small district, and the place is perhaps connected with a 
tradition of one of his exploits. The Ism Allah is possibly a corruption 
of Esm'a Allah — ' God heard ' — in which case the incident intended will 
be the battle of Eamath Lehi. Finally, we were informed by a native 



118 TENT worac in Palestine. 

of the place that the springs were sometimes called 'Ayun Kjira, in 
which name we should recognise easily the En Hak-Kore, or ' fountain 
of the crier' (Judg. xv. 19). 

" To say that this spot certainly represents Eamath Lehi— ' the hill of 
the jaw-bone'— would be too bold. It seems, however, clear, that a 
tradition of one of Samson's exploits lingers here ; the position is appro- 
priate for the scene of the slaughter \vith the jaw-bone, and we have 
not succeeded in finding any other likely site." 

The Scapegoat. 

" According to the Law of Moses the Scapegoat was led to the wilder- 
ness and there set free. This was not, hov/ever, the practice of the later 
Jews. A scapegoat had once come back to Jerusalem, and the omen 
was thought so bad that the ordinary custom was modified, to prevent 
the recurrence of such a calamity. The man who led the goat arrived 
at a high mountain, called Sook, and there Avas at this place a rolling 
slope, doAvn which he pushed the unhappy animal, which was shattered 
to atoms in the fall. It was always a matter of much interest to me to 
find out where this mountain was. 

" The Scapegoat was led out on the Sabbath, and in order to evade 
the law of the Sabbath-day's journey, a tabernacle was erected at every 
term of two thousand cubits, and became the domicile of the messenger, 
who, after eating bread and drinking water, was legally able to travel 
another stage. Ten such tabernacles were constructed between Sook 
and Jerusalem, and the distance was ninety Pus, or six and a half 
Eno-lish miles. The district was called Hidoodim, and the high moun- 
tain Sook. The first means 'sharp,' the second ' narrow,' both apply- 
in"- well to the knife-edged ridges of the desert. The distance of ninety 
Pas brino-s us to the great hill of El Muntar, and here, beside the ancient 
road from Jeiiisalem, is a well called Suk, while in the name Hadeidim, 
applied to part of the ridge, we recognise the Hebrew Hidoodim. 

" Here then, I think, we may faii-ly conclude is the Mountain of the 
Scapegoat. From this high ridge the unhappy victim was yearly rolled 
down into the narrow valley beneath, at the entrance of the great desert, 
which first unfolded itself before the eyes of the messenger as he gained 
the summit half a mile beyond the well of Suk. Beside this well stood 
probably the tenth booth to Avhich he returned after the deed, and 
where he sat until sun-down, when he was permitted to return to 
Jerusalem." 

GiLGAIi. 

"A question of even greater interest is that of the long- sought site of 
Gilgal, and our inquiries were rewarded with success. Eobinson had 
heard the name Jiljulieh, but had not been able to fix the site. A 
German traveller (Herr Schokke), in ISGu, had been more fortunate, and 
was shown the place at a mound about a mile east of Eriha. It was 
important to ascertain the reliability of this discovery, and I succeeded 



TENT VOKK IX TALESTIXE. 119 

in fixing the spot visited by this traveller, by means of the compass- 
bearing which he bad been wise enough to take. I found three persons 
who knew the site by the name Jiljulieh, and one of them conducted 
me to ruins to which a curious tradition applies. 

'* There was, however, stUl a difficulty to be met ; for Captain. "Warren 
had been shown another place, as the true site of Gilgal, north of this 
Jiljulieh, where are ruins of a large mediaaval monastery. The explanation 
is, however, the usual one. Our Jiljulieh is the Gilgal known to the 
early Christians, which St. WilHbald (724 A. D.) places two miles from 
the Jericho of his time, and five miles from Jordan ; Captain Warren's 
site is just in the position in which Gilgal is shown on the media3val 
map of Marino Sanuto. The Crusaders have again in this instance 
changed the site, and both traditions are extant among the natives. 
The questions naturally arise, which is the true one, or whether either 
is worthy of notice ? The ruins of Jiljulieh, east of Jericho, appear to 
me to bear away the palm, for two reasons ; first, the position is that 
described in the Bible, ' in the east border of Jericho ' (Josh. iv. 19) ; 
secondly, the fourth-century site is noticed by Jerome, not as fixed by 
a monkish tradition, but as held in reverence by the inhabitants of the 
country, and thus apparently connected with a genuine or indigenous 
tradition. It is true that the existing ruins, with hewn stones and 
tesserae of glass, indicate traces of the early Byzantine monastery, which 
is noticed as containing the Church of Galgalis, but this does not 
militate against the genuine character of the site, for the tradition, in 
this case, appears to be derived from a more authentic source than that 
which fixes most of the early Christian sacred sites. 

" The recovery of Gilgal ranks as one of the most important successes 
of the Survey work. The name is not commonly known among the 
natives, for the site is generally called Shejeret el Ithleli, ' the 
tamarisk-tree,' from the very large tamarisk just west of the ruins. 
The tradition connected with the place is, however, apparently common 
among the Arabs of the neighbourhood." 

Wady Kelt. 

"Wady Kelt has been also thought to be the Brook Cherith, and the 
scene seems well fitted for the retreat of the prophet who was fed by the 
' 'Oreb,' whom some suppose to have been Arabs. The Avhole gorge is 
wonderfully wild and romantic ; it is a huge fissure rent in the moun- 
tains, scarcely twenty yards across at the bottom, and full of canes and 
rank rushes between vertical walls of rock. In its cliffs the caves of 
early anchorites are hollowed, and the little monastery of St. John of 
Choseboth is perched above the north bank, under a high, brown 
precipice. A fine aqueduct from the great spring divides at this latter 
place into three channels, crossing a magnificent bridge seventy feet 
high, and running a total distance of three miles and three-quarters, to 
the place where the gorge debouches into the Jericho plain. On each 
side the white chalk mountains tower up in fantastic peaks, with Ion"-' 



120 TEXT WOEK IX PALESTINE. 

knife-edged ridges, and hundreds of little conical points, with deep 
torrent-seams between. All is bare and treeless, as at Mar Saba. The 
wild pigeon makes its nest in the ' secret places of the stairs ' of rock ; 
the black grackle snns its golden wings above them; the eagle soai's 
higher still, and over the caves by the deep pools the African kingfisher 
flutters ; the ibex also still haunts the rocks. Even in autumn the 
murmuring of water is heard beneath, and the stream was one day 
swelled by a thunderstorm in a quarter of an hour, until it became a. 
raging torrent, in some places eight or ten feet deep. 

"The mouth of the pass is ako remarkable; for on either side is a, 
conical peak of white chalk — one on the south called the ' peak of the 
ascent ' (Tuweil el 'Akaboh), while that to the north is named Bint 
Jebeil, ' daughter of the little mountain,' or Nusb 'Aweishireh^ 
'monument of the tribes.' " 

Bethabara. 

"The fords were collected and marked in the natural course of the 
Survey, the names carefully obtained, and every precaution taken to 
ensure their being applied to the right places. It was not, however, 
until the next winter that I became aware how valuable a result had 
been obtained. Looking over the nomenclature for the purpose of 
making an index, I Avas struck with the name 'Abarah applying to a, 
ford. The word means ' passage,' or ' ferry,' and is radically the 
same word found in the name Bethabara. I looked 'Abarah out at once 
on the map, and found that it is one of the main fords, just above the 
place where the Jalud river, flowing down the valley of Jezreel and by 
Beis&n, debouches into Jordan. 

" One cannot but look on this as one of the most valuable discoveries 
resulting from the Survey ; and I have not, as yet, seen any argument 
directed against the identification which seems to shake it. It may be 
said that the name 'Abarah is merely descriptive, and perhaps applies to 
several fords. That it is descriptive may be granted ; so is the name 
Bethabara, or Bethel, or Gibeah, or Raniah. That it is a common 
name may be safely denied. We have collected the names of over forty 
fords, and no other is called ' Abarah ; nor does the word occur again in 
all the 9,000 names collecied by the Survey party 

" Here at 'Abarah we have the name, and nowhere else, as yet, has 
the name been found ; the question then arises, is the position suitable ? 

"We speak commonly of Bethabara as the place of Our Lord's baptism. 
Possibly it was so, but the Gospel does not say as much. It is only 
once mentioned as a place where John was baptizing, and where certain, 
events happened on consecutive days. These events are placed in the 
Gospel harmonies immediately after the Temptation, when Christ 
would appear to have b( en returning from the desert (perhaps cast of 
Jordan) to Galilee. Bethabara, ' the house of the ferry,' was ' beyond 
Jordan ; ' but the place of baptism was no doubt at the ford or ferry 
itself; hence the ford 'Ala ah is the place of interest. It cannot be 



TENT WORK IX TALESTIXE. 121 

Christian tradition which originates this site, for Chiistian tradition has 
pointed, from the fourth century down to the present day, to the fords 
of Jericho as the place of baptism by St. John. 

"'And the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee' 
(John ii. 1). Here is the controlling passage. The hostile critics of the 
fourth Gospel have taken hold of it ; they have supposed the traditional 
site to be undoubtedly the true one, and have thence argued the 
impossibility that in one day Christ could have travelled eighty miles 
to Cana. To the fourth-century inquirer the difficulty would never 
have occurred ; he Avould have answered at once that Our Lord was 
miraculously carried from one place to the other ; but the Gospel does 
not say so, and we should therefore look naturally for Bethabara within 
a day's journey of Cana. The ford 'Abarah is about twenty-two miles 
in a Jine from Kefr Kenna, and no place can be foimd, on Jordan, muck 
nearer or more easily accessible to the neighbourhood of Cana. 

" I leave these facts to the reader, asking him to choose, between the 
difficulties attendant on the traditional site, and the suitability of the 
new site, where alone as yet the name of Bethabara has been recovered. 

"There is, however, another point with regard to Bethabara which 
must not be overlooked. The oldest MSS. read, not Bethabara, but 
Bethany, beyond Jordan. Origen observed this, yet chose the present 
reading, and we can hardly suppose that the early fathers of the Church 
made such an alteration without some good reason; perhaps the original 
text contained both names, ' Bethabara in Bethany ' beyond JcrdaEv. 
being a possible reading. 

" If Bethabara be a true reading, the place should thus most f)robablv 
be sought in Bathania, and the ford should the'refore lead over to . 
Bashan. This again strengthens the case for the 'Abarah ford, which is 
near the hills of Bashan, whereas the Jericho fords are far away, 
leading over towards Gilead and Moab." 

The Spring of Sirau (2 Sam. iii. 26). 

"After his interview Avith David, Abner set out on his way to Jerusalem-, . 
and had gone as far as the Spring of Sirah, when Joab's messengers- 
overtook him and brought him back to Hebron, where he was murdered 
in the gate (2 Sam. iii. 26). Now on approaching the modern town by 
the old paved road to the north, the first spring beside the way is called 
Sarah. Like the Hebrew Sirah, the word means ' withdrawn,' and the 
title is, no doubt, due to the fact that the spring is under a stone arch, 
at the end of a little alley with drystone walls, and is thus withdrawn 
from the high-road. This place may therefore be considered as one of 
the few genuine sites in the neighbourhood of Hebron." 

Debir (Joshua xv. 48). 

"There seems to me to be every reason for supposingDhaheriyeh to be 
the ancient Debir, a place not identified before the Survey. The name 
has the same meaning, derived from its situation on the 'back' of a 



122 TEXT WOllK IN rALESTINE. 

long lidge ; and the position between Shoclioli (Shuweikeh), Dannah 
(Idhnali), Anab ('Anab), and Esbtemoa (Es Semu'a), seems very suitable 
(Josh. XV. 48). The place, moreover, is evidently an ancient site of 
importance, to which several roads lead from all sides. The springs 
near Debii' given to Achsah (Judg. i. 15) might well be the beautiful 
springs of Dilbeh, about seven miles north of the to^vn, and the 
identification seems to me to be amongst the most valuable of those due 
to the Survey." 

Panoramic View feo:m Jebel Tok'ax. 

The view from the summit of Tor'an is interesting and extensive. 
The Sea of Galilee is visible, and we were able to fix the direction of 
many points along its shore. 

" On the south, separated from Tor'an by a second plain, lay the low 
bare range of the Nazareth hills, Neby S'ain, and Gath Hepher with 
the tomb of Jonah, being visible, while rather farther east Kefr Kenna 
stood among its olive-groves and gardens of pomegranates. 

" Tabor, crowned with two monasteries, was also plainly visible, east 
of the Nazareth range, the slopes partly hidden by oak-groves. 
Through a gap, between it and the western hills, the outline of Gilboa 
and part of Jebel ed Duhy could be seen. The plain of Esdraelon was 
hidden, but the cone of Sheikh Iskander was visible to the south-w^est. 

" To the west the view extended over the low wooded hills to the long 
range of Carmel, which was visible, from the Peak of Sacrifice to the 
white monastery where, on a little spit, stands the German Avindmill, 
which showed up quite black against the gleaming sea. 

"The brown and fertile plain of the Buttauf, in the basaltic soil of 
Avhich tobacco, corn, maize, sesame, cotton, and every species of 
vegetable grow luxuriantly, lay at our feet. The high blunt top of 
Jebel Deidebeh ('mountain of the watch-tower'), crowned with its 
ring of thicket, rose behind, shutting out the view. Beyond this was 
the chain of hills running eastwards, with rolling grey uplands dotted 
with olives, whUe farther still, some ten or twelve miles away, rose the 
mountain-wall of Upi)er Galilee, culminating in Jebel Jermuk, a bare 
craggy ridge which closed the view to the north. Turning yet farther 
east, the large town of Safed shone white on the mountain side, divided 
into two quarters, with a double-pointed summit behind them. Beyond 
all, dark and dreamlike, the great Hermon, ' Sheikh of the moun- 
tains,' was seen streaked with silver lines of snow. 

" But the view due east of Tor'an was yet luoro interesting. A yellow 
plateau shelves down from the foot of the mountains of Upper Galilee 
and runs into little tongues and promontories, separated by tiny bays, 
along the north-western shores of the Sea of Galilee : only in one part 
of this ^line is there a cliff, just where the little fertile plain of 
Gennesaret terminates at Khiin Minieh; the rest is sheMng ground 
almost to the water's edge. 

"The deep chasm rumiing down from Safed, and known as ' the Yalley 



SYNAGOGUES OF GALILEE. 123 

of Doves ' (W. el Hamam), debouches into tlie green oasis of Ghuweir, 
or plain of Gennesaret. East of the sea the long flat plateau of 
Bashan stretches from the precipices which enclose the lake, and 
reaches away to the volcanic cones and dreary lava-fields which are 
backed by the peaks of Jebel ed Druz. 

"Tiberias was hidden below the cliffs, and only about half the blue 
and limpid lake was seen behind them ; most conspicuous on this line 
are the Horns of Hattiii, so fatal to the Christian kingdom in 1187, 
and here also, as on the east, a broad plateau runs almost to the top of 
the precipices. 

" Itis wonderful to reflect how numerous are the ancient towns which 
encircled this little lake ; speaking of the west side alone, they number 
more than twenty. Hidden by the cliffs we have Tiberias, or Kakkath, 
andHammath (El Hummam), Tarichaoa (Kerek), Sinnabris (Sennabreh), 
and Magdala (Mejdel), with Kedish, the probable site of the Kadesh 
of Barak, 

" On the western plateau stand Adamah(Admah), Adami(Ed Damieh), 
Bitzaanaim (Bessum), Lasharon (Saruna), Shihon (Sh'ain), and other 
sites of Biblical interest. Arbela, with the synagogue of Eabbi Nitai 
(200 B.C.), Hattin (the ancient Zer), Yemma (the Talmudic Caphar 
Yama), Kefr Sabt (Caphar Sobthi), Seiyadeh (the Talmudic Ziadethah), 
Tell M'aun (Beth Moan), Sha'arah (Beth Sharaim), and several other 
towns of later times swell the long list of cities. The district is full 
of sacred places : Rabbi Akiba, Eabbi Meir, and the great Maimonides, 
were buried near Tiberias, and the supposed tombs of Jethro and 
Habakkuk are still shown on the hills above." 



SYNAGOGUES OF GALILEE. 



TnE number of known examples of synagogues in Palestine is eleven; 
besides these there are three doubtful specimens which may have been 
synagogues, making the total number fourteen. By dealing first with 
the three doubtfid specimens the way will be left clear for a consideration 
of the date of these interesting buildings. The only specimen that 
LiOes not occur within the limits of Galilee is that on Mount Carmel, 
described by Lieutenant Conder, at the ruin of Kh. Semmaka. Two 
lintels were found, one still resting in situ on its stone doorposts. 
The mouldings resemble those common in other synagogues, being carried 
back on the lintel in the peculiar T-shaped beading clearly seen in the 
synagogue at Meiron. Lieutenant Conder describes this principal door- 
way as being the eastern door, which is peculiar. The only other known 
example of the entrance being on the east is at the synagogue at Irbid, 
and there this position was rendered necessary by the fall of the ground 
on which the synagogue was built. 

Part of a colonnade was observed, the pillars being about the same 



124 SYNAGOGUES OF GALILEE. 

dimensions as those usual in synagogues. The second smaller lintel lias 
t%vo lions carved upon it, with a cup between them; this is another 
peculiarity, as on all the other synagogues where carved figures occur 
they seem to have been on the principal lintel or upon all three. There 
is no other example known where the side-door lintels were thus 
ornamented and the principal door left bare. 

The second doubtful synagogue is at Kh. Taiyebeh, not far from 
Shefa 'Amr. A single double column and some pieces of ordinary 
columns were observed in the ruins of a small building, too much 
destroyed to be at all intelligible in its present condition. Excavation 
here might lead to the discovery of a synagogue. The third is the ruins 
at Belut, where the peculiar double columns again occur at both ends 
of a long colonnade. It was described by me in Quarterly Statement, 
October, 1877, p. 166, and the only photograph of these interesting 
remains is now in the Palestine Exploration Fund series. Though this 
building has some points of resemblance to synagogues, it is not, in my 
opinion, one of that class of buildings. In the first place it is longer 
and narrower than any known synagogue, the want of mouldings on 
the architrave, the archaic form of the capitals, and the general 
appearance of the building, seem to point to a much earlier date than 
that at which the synagogues were erected. The aisle or passage 
between the columns is made wider than in synagogues, and there is 
only one specimen (the small synagogue at Kefr Bir'im) where only 
two rows of columns occur. There is no sign of a southern doorway, 
though there is some reason to suppose that the entrance was in the 
centre of the eastern side, which is, as before pointed out, unlike the 
generality of synagogues. On the eastern side of this building there 
are the remains of buildings enclosing a courtyard containing a large 
well that resembles such as one would expect to find of a monastery or 
castle. The situation, on the top of a very commanding, steep, and 
narrow ridge, difficult of access, is unlikely to have been the site of an 
important town, of which there are no traces. From these con- 
siderations I am led to the supposition that we have here one of the 
most perfect and earliest specimens of a temple dedicated to some 
deity worshipped on this " high place," and attended by a number of 
priests or votaries wha were lodged in the surrounding buildings. 
To its isolation in this, the wildest part of the country, is probably due 
its preservation up to this time. 

It seems probable that from this and other specimens of the same 
class then existing, the architects copied those peculiar double columns 
that are always found terminating the colonnades in synagogues. 

Another fact pointing to this view of the case may be derived from the 
enormous monolithic double columns of red granite now lying in the ruins 
of the cathedral at Tyre. These were certainly not made for the cathedral, 
as all the interior decoration of that building was of white marble. 
They must have been taken from some building, or, more probably, were 
found lying, half covered with sand, on the site, when the cathedral was 



SYNAGOGUES OF GALILEE. 125 

about to be built, and, from their great size and beauty, were used in 
that building by the Christians who did not know their Pagan origin. 

Wo then come to the question, Were they not used in a synagogue 
formerly on this spot ? If so, the Jews of that time were able to import 
from a distant country, probably Egypt, larger monoliths of more 
beautiful marble than any other race had been capable of bringing to 
the country. In no synagogue has any marble been found, the hard 
limestone of the country is always used, and the columns and door- 
posts, though of monoliths, are nothing like the stupendous size of 
these enormous blocks of granite. It appears to me that these columns 
are the remains of a very early and most magnificent temple, dedicated 
to some unknown deity. The remains at Belat (within sight) appear to 
have been an offshoot and, probably, a copy of this temple. What 
mysterious religion was inculcated at these places there is no evidence 
to show. 

If it is allowed that synagogues were copied from an earlier form 
of temple, much additional interest is added to the study of the details 
of these buildings. 

The known examples are eleven, and stated in order of their preserva- 
tion would occur thus : — 

Large Synagogue at . Kefr Bir'im. 

Synagogue at ... Meiron. 

,, ... Irbid. 

Small SjTiagogue at . Kefr Bir'im. 

Synagogue at ... Tell Hum. 

,, ... Kerazeh. 

,, ... Nebratein. 

Small Synagogue at . el-Jish. 

Synagogue at ... Umm el 'Amed. 

Large Synagogue at . el-Jish. 

Synagogue at ... Sufsaf. 

I have very little doubt that there were also synagogues at Tiberias and 
Sasa. At both there are traces, but not sufficient evidence without 
excavation to say for certain that they are those of synagogues. The 
whole area covered by these synagogues is very small ; only a little 
larger than Rutlandshire. 

This shows how local the Jewish influence was in the country when 
these synagogues were built. A striking characteristic of these build- 
ings is their similarity in plan and detail of ornamentation; at all of 
them the same class of mouldings are observable ; and in many cases 
they are identical, even when cut out of the hard basalt as at Kerazeh. 
No modifications were allowed, and the niches of this specimen are 
even more elaborately carved than in other cases. The capitals show 
some variation, being Corinthian, Ionic, and with simple mouldings ; 
but all these forms occur in the synagogue at Irbid, and cannot therefore 
be taken to show diffex'ent dates. These points seem to show that they 



126 sy^'AGOGUES of galilee. 

were all built at nearly the same time, and that no later specimens 
were attempted. Thus we arrive at the conclusion that the Jewish 
influence which gave rise to these buildings was both extremely local 
and short-lived. 

In the New Testament, synagogues are frequently mentioned ^s 
occurring commonly at all towns and villages : at Jerusalem, John xviii. 
20, Luke xiii. 11 ; at Nazareth, Luke iv. 16 ; at Capernaum,' Matt. xii. 9, 
John vi. 5, Mark i. 23, Luke vii. 5 ; Synagogues in all villages. Matt. iv. 
23, xiii. 54, The question then is, are these ruins the remains of the 
synagogues there mentioned ? 

In the " Bible Dictionary, "on Synagogues, under the sub-head " Struc- 
ture," it is stated': " Its position was, however, determined. It stood, 
if possible, on the highest ground in or near the city to which it 
belonged." This is not what is found as characteristic of these ruins. 
Major Wilson, R.E. {Quarterhj Statement, No. 2, p. 37), states: "In 
choosing sites for the synagogues in the different towns, the builders 
have by no means selected the most prominent positions." 

Eeturning to the "Bible Dictionary," we find: "Audits direction, 
too, was fixed — -Jerusalem was the Kibleh of the Jewish devotion. The 
synagogue was so constructed that the worshippers as they entered and 
as they prayed looked tov^ards it (Vitringa, pp. 178 and 457)." The 
existing remains have, with one exception, at Irbid, where the ground 
would not allow of this arrangement, their doors on the southern side, so 
that every Jew entering Avould have to turn his back on Jerusalem. 
The ark, if there was one in these synagogues, must therefore have'been 
kept at the northern end, and the Jews would therefore pray Avith their 
backs to Jerusalem. 

We know besides how abhorrent to the Jews were the figures of 
animals ; yet in these synagogues we find them prominently carved'ia 
stone in six out of the eleven, and they probably existed in the others 
and in greater quantities than those already noted, but have been 
destroyed by the Mahommedans as contrary to their religion. 

It may therefore be said that they differ vitally from the known 
form of the earlier synagogues, as well as from the tenets of the earlier 
Jewish religion, and yet there can be no doubt that they are synagogues ; 
the Hebrew inscriptions and the sacred Jewish symbols carved on the 
lintels prove it. 

Milman's "History of the Jews," Book XIX., gives an account of 
the establishment of the Patriarchate of Tiberias after the fall of 
Barcochab, less than sixty years after the war under Hadrian. 

Before the close of the second century after Chi'ist, the Jews present 
the extraordinary spectacle of two regular and organised communities : 
one, under a sort of spiritual head, the Patriarch of Tiberias, comprehend- 
ing all of Israelitish descent who inhabited the Roman empire ; the 
other under the Prince of the Captivity, to whom all the Eastern Jews 
paid their allegiance. 

The Sanhedrin was re-established under Simon, son of Gamaliel, and 



SYNAGOGXTES OF GALILEE. 127 

five others, who were named by Juclah, son of Bavah, secretly, before he 
•was slain by the Eomans ; these were Judah, son of Ilai, Simon, son of 
Jochai, E. Jo&e, E. Elasar, E. Nehemiah, and E. Meir. 

The foreign communities of Jews at Eome and in the whole of Asia 
Minor acknowledged at once the authority of the i^atriarch, and either 
came to live in the district or sent alms to their spiritual head. 

The Eomans recognised the Patriarch of Tiberias, and by their mode- 
ration granted him many indulgences ; ho was empowered to appoint 
his subordinate ministers and apostles, who visited all the colonics of 
the Jews in distant parts, and also to receive from his despised brethren 
an annual contribution. By this kind treatment and by the influence 
of the foreign Jews, who had been completely naturalised to the lan- 
guage and customs and partially to the religion of the people with 
whom they dwelt, the Jews of Palestine became tractable to Eoman 
rule and Eoman customs, and developed their great characteristic love 
for commercial pursuits which has ever since been typical of them. 

Thus the colony round Tiberias became very powerful, and under 
Antoninus Pius, 138-161 A.D., some additional privileges were accorded 
to them, such as the permission to perform the rite of circumcision. 

Synagogues were at this time erected in the villages belonging to the 
colony, and it seems probable that they were erected in imitation of the 
great works of that emperor in Syria. 

At the beginning of the third century they were in high favour with 
the Emperor Alexander Severus; this emperor was even called the 
Father of the Synagogue, and this name may have been given him from 
his influence over the erection and architecture of these buildino-s. 

At this time the most celebrated of the rabbinical sovereigns, Jehuda 
the Holy, had ascended the Patriarchal throne, which was then at the 
height of its power, and after his death its glory sank. Milman 
describes its fall : — " The small spiritual court fell like more splendid 
and worldly thrones, through the struggles of the sovereign for 
unlimited sway and the unwillingness of the people to submit even to 
constitutional authority. The exactions of the Pontiff, and of the 
spiritual aristocracy, the Eabbins, became more and more burdensome 
to the people. The people were impatient, even of the customary 
taxation. Gamaliel succeeded Jehuda, Jehuda the second Gamaliel." 

Falling rapidly as Christianity arose, we find the two powers in 
frequent collision in later times. A last flicker of life was given to the 
community under the Emperor Julian, the apostate. His proposal, in 
360 A.D., to rebuild the temple on Mount Moriah, gave the Jews an 
immense impulse ; they flocked to Jerusalem, but the signal failure of 
the enterprise gave the last blow to the power of the community, and 
the Patriarchate became extinct in 414 a.d. 

We thus find that there was a powerful body of Jews established at 
Tiberias, receiving contributions in money from the Jews of the whole 
Eoman Empire; even the Babylonian Jews, under the Prince of the 
Captivity, acknowledged the supremacy of the Patriarch of Tiberias, 



128 SYNAGOGUES OF GALILEE. 

about the year 180 A.D. ; and also that this power was under the 
protection of the great builders and restorers of temples in Syria, 
Antoninus Pius and Alexander Severus. The existence of the power of this 
commimity was also very short-lived ; one century, or almost the life 
of one man, Eabbi Jehuda the Holy, appears to have been its limits. 

It seems, therefore, almost a certainty that these emperors inspired 
and aided the erection of these synagogues, and that they were built by 
Roman labour; perhaps the same as restored the temple at Baalbek and 
built the Temple of the Sun at Kades. The Jews themselves, having 
taken to commercial pursuits, were unable to perform work of this sort, 
and by using Eoman workmen obtained much finer results than we 
are led to think they would themselves have been capable of. The 
architecture of these buildings bears out this view of their erection. The 
dressing, size, and nature of the masonry is certainly Roman, so much 
so that the Temple of the Sun at Kades has been mistaken for a 
synagogue. No synagogues of the same kind have been found in other 
countries, though ther3 were many in Babylon and in the colonies of 
the Jews, and this type has never been perpetuated in later works ; no 
tradition of the Jews appears to have lingered that this was the proper 
form of a synagogue, and we have seen how many points of their 
religion were disregarded in their design and ornamentation. We may 
therefore suppose that they were forced upon the people by their Roman 
rulers at a time when they were completely submissive to that power, 
and that directly they were able, they deserted such Pagan buildings as 
a disloyalty to their religion. It has been stated that Rabbi Simon, son 
of Jochai, was the founder of these buildings ; it is related that he built 
with his own money twenty-four synagogues in this part of the country, 
but putting aside the immense riches one man must have possessed to 
be able to build so many beautiful temples, from what we know of this 
rabbi he was a most fanatical teacher of the law, and during a public 
debate bearded Rabbi Jehuda, who was praising the Romans, and 
abused them roundly. For this he was adjudged by the Romans to 
have forfeited his life. This great scholar could therefore hardly have 
erected so many buildings in violent contradiction to so many points 
of the religion he guarded so jealouslj'. 

From these considerations I consider the date of these synagogues to 
be between the year 150 a.d. and 300 A.D. 

Plans and detail drawings of the remains of all these buildings will 
be published in the memoirs to accompany the sheets of the large map. 
Photographs of most of them may be procured at the Fund Office. 

Some points of interest, such as the formation of the court in front of 
the Great Synagogue at Kefr Bir'im might be mentioned. In this case 
the court was formed two bays wide, and the total length of the front 
of the synagogue. The j)illars are on pedestals, and are as high as the 
building ; they support an architrave with simple mouldings, and from 
a peculiar portion of this ai'chitrave that I found, I am led to suppose 
that over the centre bay, opposite the great door of the synagogue, the 



ZIOX, THK CITV OF DWID. 129 

architrave was carried up to a jioint. This must have been a striking 
feature in the bailding, and is a very peculiar formation ; it may have 
been copied from the gate Tadi of Herod's temple, which is described as 
having been of this nature in the Talmud. The corner pillars of this 
porch or court were of the peculiar double form seen at the corners of 
the colonnades in the interior of all synagogues. 

H. H. KiTCHEXER, Lieut. E.E. 



ZrON, THE CITY OF DAVID. 

TVnERE WAS IT? now DID JOAC MAKE HIS WAY IXTO IT? AJN'D WHO 

HELPED IIIM ? 

Arauxati could easily have answered these questions. Unhappily, 
we have not the spiritualistic power of cross-examining him. 80 we 
must be content if we can get conclusive answers by the laborious 
process of close investigation. The Bible, with various works on 
Jerusalem, and Captain Warren's remarkable discoveries, will be found 
to furnish sufficient materials for this end. 

While the thrilling incident of the story will attract the general 
reader, the savans will require full proof of the statements advanced, so 
that both are given, but separately, to suit different tastes. 

The Story. 

Ancient Jerusalem stood on a rocky plateau enclosed on three 
sides by two ravines ; that on the west and south was called the 
King's Dale, that on the east the Brook Kedron. The space thus 
enclosed was further cleft by another ravine called the Valley of Hinnom. 
On the narrow ridge running between the " Brook" and "Valley," and 
towards its southern extremity, stood, at the beginning of Davids' 
reign, the hitherto impregnable fortress of Jebus. On the west side of 
this ridge, in the " valley," lay the rest of the city, once at least already 
captured by the Israelites, but occupied (perhaps at times in conjunction 
with them) by the Jebusites. On its east side, near the " Brook," was 
an intermittent fountain, or rather one of irregular flow, called then 
Enrogel, once Gihon in the "Brook," for a time Siloah, but now the 
Fountain of the Virgin. 

To a stranger, this position of the fortress of Jebus or Zion would 
not have seemed to be well-chosen, for it was built on an inconsiderable 
hill, while loftier and more precipitous eminences were close at hand. 

The founder, however, of this stronghold of Zion was a very subtle 
man. While the art of erecting and taking fortified places was then in 
its infancy, water was, of course, as much as ever a necessary of life. 
An ordinary wall of no great height was enough to baffle the most 
skilful general and the bravest army — always supposing the besieged 
kept a sharp look-out. Bethel on its low hill was a match for all the 



130 ZIOX, THE CITY OF DAVID. 

might of Ephraim. Late in David's reign the shrewd Hushai proposed 
to capture a fortified city by dragging it down with ropes ; and if the 
more practical Joab preferred raising a bank and using a primitive 
battering ram, still he too would have found considerable difficulty in 
dealing with the steep sides of Zion. Even perpendicular cliffs without 
water to drink would have been useless, while, after all, the height of 
walls was but a question of labour. Very wisely, therefore, the stronger 
positions on the western hill and northern part of the ridge were passed 
by, and the humbler slopes of the sunny Zion selected as the site of 
the future fortress on account of the copious fountain overflowing at 
its base. 

It was not, however, that the damsels of Jebus might have a less 
distance to go for water that the stronghold was built on the hill of 
Zion. 

The far-seeing mind of some Hittite or Amorito (perhaps of Melchi- 
zedec himself) had another project in view, which resulted in the 
execution of a monument destined after 3,000 years to be discovered by 
Captain "Warren. A sketch of it is given. 

It occurred to this engineer, who had never seen Woolwich, that from 
inside the city wall a subterraneous passage might be dug through the 
rock to the spring below, and so in troublous times, when the daughters 
of Zion could no longer venture outside the gates to draw water from 
the fountain, the needful supply would by this ingenious device be 
always obtainable, probably without the knowledge of the besiegers, 
and not less certainly without risk to the besieged ; for what enemy 
would attempt the all but impossible feat of diving along a watercourse 
for 70 feet, and then climbing 50 feet up the smooth sides of a vertical 
rock- cut shaft ? 

This clever scheme was carried out, and though four centuries had 
rolled on since the conquest of Canaan, the stronghold of Zion was still 
unsubdued. Jericho had fallen by a miracle. Bethel by treachery, 
Hebron though defended by giants. In the plains alone, where war- 
chariots could be used, did the ancient inhabitants hold their ground 
against Israel. In the mountains but one invincible stronghold remained, 
and that was Jebus, never once taken — never, the Jebusites thought, 
likely to be taken ; and possibly we may add, one that never would have 
been taken if Joab, the son of Zeruiah, and Araunah the Jebusite had 
not lived, and that perhaps at the same time. 

The first act of David on being made king over Israel was to attack 
Jerusalem (i.e., Jebus) with all his forces. The city in the valley fell 
into his hands, but the impregnable fortress on the hill above it baffled his 
most vigorous assaults. So secure, indeed, did its defenders deem them- 
selves that, placing their lame and blind upon the walls, they defied David, 
saying, "Except thou take away the blind and the lame, thou shalt not 
come in hither." 

Somehow David got to know how the Jebusites obtained their supply 
of water. There was evidently no chance of taking the stronghold by 



ZrON, THE CITY OF DAVID. 131 

assaulting its walls. "Would any form a forlorn hope and try the 
desperate expedient of one by one first pushing through the horizontal 
water-channel, at the imminent risk of being drowned, then of scaling 
the perpendicular shaft, when one stone dropped from the top would 
probably be certain death, and afterwards of penetrating into the fortress 
through the narrow passage, which two or three could easily hold against 
a hundred ? 

Desperate indeed the attempt seemed, but there was no alternative 
plan ; David therefore issued a proclamation to his army that whoever 
first got up the " Gutter," or Tzinnor, which was the name of this aque- 
duct or subterraneous passage, and smote the Jebusites, should be com- 
mander-in-chief. 

Great was the reward offered, but immense was the risk. David had 
plenty of heroes about him, who were not easily to be deterred from 
venturing on the most hazardous exploits ; but, eager as they were to 
grasp the prize, one only attempted this most daring feat. That one 
(and sacred history justly records his name) was Joab. 

He was a man of boundless ambition, who could brook no rival. The 
supreme command of David's army was the object on which his heart 
was set. This and his life he now staked on one tlirow. He made the 
venture and won. 

Sacred history relates but the simple fact that "Joab the son of 
Zeruiah went up first and was chief." 

It might seem idle, therefore, to speculate how the deed was per- 
formed ; how he drew off the water in the channel, or got through it 
without ibeing drowned ; how he scaled the rocky shaft without falling ; 
how he clambered through the low passage (and perhaps at last opened 
the gates to his comrades) ; and in all this how he escaped the notice of 
the Jebusites. 

The second Joab, an Englishman, ten years ago found it no pleasant 
work to follow the track of his predecessor even in time of peace. One 
cannot read the account of his ascent of the Tzinnor (" Jerusalem Re- 
covered," pp. 244 to 247) without coming to the irresistible conviction 
that Joab never performed such a feat without aid from within — i.e., 
that] some confederate among the Jebusites helped him in what was 
nevertheless a dangerous exploit. That such were to be found is clear 
from the ^history of Jericho and Bethel; while, again, great as was 
Joab's valour, his craft was greater. Who, then, was this traitor among 
the Jebusites ? With whom did Joab tamper about the secret surrender 
of the stronghold of Zion ? What " bucksheesh " was given for the 
betrayal of the impregnable fortress ? 

Years'after this, at the close of David's reign, we find a Jebusite (a 
man of rank, too, it is probable), by name Araunah, actually in posses- 
sion (strange to say) of the threshing-floor just outside the city of 
David ; nor only of the threshing-floor, which was naturally the common 
property of the city, but also of lands adjacent, which he sells to the 
king for the enormous sum of 600 shekels of gold by weight. 



132 Ai. 

How any Jebusile came to be left in possession of so mucli valuable 
property in such a situation the sacred history does not tell us. 

Josephus says, " Araunah was not slain by David in the siege of 
Jerusalem, because of the good-will he bore to the Hebrews, and a 
particular benignity and affection which he had to the king himself." 

I have no doubt it was something particular, yet not particularly credit- 
able to Araunah, though, fortunately for him, we have no Jebusite 
accouxvt, nor, indeed, any professed account at all, of the transaction, 
otherwise there might be a revulsion of poj)ular feeling as to his nol)le 
character. Araunah was the (but 721/ de mortuis nisi bonnrn) one who lost 
nothing when Zion fell, neither life, nor goods, nor, so far as we know, 
even character. 

One word in the Hebrew (Tzinnor), followed by Captain Warren's 
wonderful discovery of the secret passage leading from the Virgin's 
Fount, has enabled us to understand a most obscure and baffling passage 
in the Old Testament, and to follow the very track by which the adven- 
turous Joab gained access to the stronghold of Zion. 

Who will say that a great discovery is not recorded in chapter ix. of 
"Jerusalem Eecovered " ? Who will question about the Bible being 
the most accurate and truthful of all books ? 

W. F. BlRCH- 



AI. 

Lieut. Kitchener's suggested identification of Ai with Kh. Haiy, 
ouo mile east of Mukhamas, has much to recommend it. 

1. Ai was on the east of Bethel (.Josh. vii. 2) and of Abram's tent 
(Gen. xii. 8). As the orientals call every wind an east wind which 
blows from any point between east and north and east and south 
(Jahn, Antiq., p. 17), this extensive meaning of east favours equally any 
position for Ai in any degree east of Bethel. 

2. " The Israelites pitched on the north side of Ai; now there was a 
valley (Hebr. gai) between them and Ai. . . . (13) Joshua went that 
night into the midst of the valley (Hebr. emck) " (Josh viii. 11-13). 

With Ai placed at et Tell or Kh. Haiyan, Lieut. Kitchener well ob- 
serves on the peculiarity of a force after approaching the city from the 
cast crossing an almost impracticable valley, to be rccrossed the next 
day. The valley north of ct Tell might suitably be described as the 
fjai, but we have also to find another wider valley answering to emeJc ; 
for the two different words cannot here well mean exactly the same 
valley. The " iihiin to the north of Kh. Haiy" would, however, just 
fcuit the expression emeh ; and possibly the gai may be a ravine inter- 
posed between the liers in wait and Ai, unless the gai was the bed of a 
watercourse in the emclc (see 1 Sam. xvii. 2, 3, 40). 

3. As all the men of Bethel assisted Ai, it is strange that the former 



AI. 13 



o 



city was not taken at the same time, for the Israelites would be close to 
it, if Ai = Et Tell or Kb. Haij-an. That the two cities were not takeu 
together seems clear from Josh. xii. 9, 10. 

4. But putting Ai at Kh. Haiy, where it commanded the road into 
the interior, its capture becomes essential to further progress. 

5. From the order of the names, Michmash, Ai, Bethel, in Neh. 
xii. 31, it is natural to look for Ai between the other two, but in Neh. 
vii. 31, 32 they are classed differently. "The men of Michmas, 122. 
The men of Bethel and Ai, 123." Clearly there is no geographical order 
here. Probably, however, the places are grouped in Neh. vii. according 
to other considerations. In verse 29 the three Gibeonito cities, Kirjath- 
jearim, Uhephirah, and Beeroth are joined together ; Gibeon (25th v.) 
being, as it seems likely, not the town of that name in Benjamin, but 
some Gibeah in Judea. So likewise the political connection first seen 
existing between Bethel and Ai (in Josh, viii.) may have led to these 
two places being always named together (Josh, xviii. 22, 23 ; and Neh. 
vii., xii. above). In Esdras v. 21 the two places are curiously welded 
into one — viz., BT]To\iai, though Michmash was afterwards built between 
them, a possible origin of the apocryphal (BeniAoua) Bethulia. 

6. If Sennacherib invaded Judfea from the east, as did Joshua, then 
he would naturally come to (Ai) Kh. Haiy, and we escape the difficulty 
of having to account for his diverging from the central north road, so 
as to get to et Tell or Kh. Haiyan. 

7. The theory that all the places in Is. x. 28-32 (except Jerusalem) 
are visible from Geba is unaffected by Kh. Haiy being Ai. I may 
rather say it receives a finishing touch from the identification. Lieut. 
Kitchener ascertained, on the revision of the survey, that not only et 
Tell was visible from Geba, but also Kh. Haiy. Taking Mignon {i.e., 
the precipice) in Isa. x. 28 to be the hill forming the north cliff of the 
passage of Michmash, the proper order of the names with Aiat et Tell 
or Kh. Haiyan ought to be Aiath, Michmash, Migron ; but with Ai at 
Kh. Haiy the order as seen by a spectator from Geba would be exactly 
as in Isaiah, Aiath, Migron, Michmash. Supposing Geba to be the 
centre or axle of a wheel, and straight lines drawn from it to the 
various places named (Isa. x. 28, 29, 30, 31) to be the different spokes, 
all the places will be found to be named exactly in geographical order, 
without one exception. This is the perfect result given by the new map. 
I may add, on the same authority, that Anathoth is visible from Geba, 
and so also must be Laish, since the relative heights are Geba, 2,220 feet ; 
Anathoth, 2,225 feet ; and a mile farther south, Laish, 2,390 feet. As to 
the other places I have no further information. 

It seems to me highly desirable for Kh. Haiy to be visible from the 
site of Abram's encampment on the east of Bethel, and I should think 
it certainly is. W. F. Biech. 



134 



LIST OF PHOTOGEAPHS TAKEN IN GALILEE, WITH 

DESCEIPTIONS. 

I. KiiVat Tihmn, the Crusading Castle of Toron.— The view is taken 
from the south-west across the pool of v/ater near the village, and gives 
a view of the whole of the western side of the fortress. The existing 
walls are Arabic work built by Dhahr el 'Amr, but the foundation and 
some of the interior vaults of Crusading masonry still remain. The 
entrance is seen on the right, and the whole of the hillside was formerly 
faced with smooth-dressed stones at a steep angle. The castle still 
forms the residence of the governor of the Belad el Beshara, a consider- 
able district in the centre of Northern Galilee. 

Hugues de St. Omer, Prince of Tiberias, founded the castle about the 
year 1107, in order to protect the road from Tiberias to Tyre. After 
the death of that prince the castle Avas given to a fiimily who took 
their name, De Toron, fz'om it, and of whom there are still descendants. 

The place was taken twice by the Mahommedans — -first in 1187, by 
Saladin, and secondly, in 1219, by the Sultan Melek Mohadam, who 
destroyed it. It was rebuilt in 1229, and became a cause of dispute 
between the Teutonic knights and the heirs of Philip de Montfort, who 
by his marriage had obtained the right of lordship over the castle. 

II. KiiVat Kureiii, the Crusading Castle of Montfort. — This castle 
was situated in the hills to the north-east of Acre, on the southern 
cliffs of the Wady el Kurn, in which there is a fine stream of water. 
Like many other Crusading castles, its site was chosen on a narrow 
rocky ridge, separated by deep valleys with steep sides from the sur- 
rounding country. 

The view is taken from the south-west, and is the first photograph 
taken of this castle. 

On the east the narrow rocky ridge was cut artificially into a deep 
ditch, thus defending the most vulnerable part of the fortress. On this 
side of the castle the keep was situated, built of immense blocks of 
stone, beautifully dressed and drafted. This masonry resembles the 
larger work in the western tower of the castle of Banias. 

The rock below the castle was faced with large masonry, as can be 
seen on the right of the picture below the keep. 

The ridge was not cut away to receive the castle, the outer walls were 
built some little way down the slope, the same as at Belfort and Banias. 
Thus a solid building was formed, the core being of natiiral rock. In 
this enormous cisterns were excavated, and on it the upper stories rested 
firmly. 

The photograph shows how the castle was built in steps, the highest 
on the right being the keep, the next the barracks and dwelling-places 
of the garrison, at the extremity of which was a large chamber with a 
centre octagonal column that can be seen in the view. This was pro- 
bably the chapel. The next step was a courtyard defended by bastions 



rnOTOGRAPIIS TAKEN IN GALILEE. 135 

and looplioled towers. From that the hill falls steeply 5G0 feet to the 
valley below. 

The first account in history of this fortress, in 1229, relates how the 
Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, Herman de Salza, by a treaty 
with the Lords of Mandelec, became possessed of the fortress of Mont- 
fort. The castle was rebuilt, and received the name of Stai'kenburg. 
It was designated as the treasury of the Order, and the grand treasurers 
became guardians of it. Four of their names are known : 
Helmerich, 1223 a.d. 
Conrad, 1240 a.d. 
Jean de Nifland, 1244 a.d. 
Jean de Saxe, 1270—1272 a.d. 

The Sultan Melek ed Dhahr Bibars made an tmsuccessful attack upon 
the fortress in 1266. In 1271 he returned, and was successful. The 
Arabian historian, Ibn Ferat, describes the siege minutely, and relates 
how the castle was taken in stages, first the lower courtyard and so on. 
The Sultan destroyed the castle, and left it probably in very much the 
condition it now is in. 

III. EitVat esh ShuMf, Crusading Castle of Belfort.— Situated high 
on the precipitous cliffs, 1,500 feet above the Eiver Litany, this castle 
is one of the most prominent and finest remains of Crusading times in 
the country. A little over two miles to the south, the river makes a 
curious bend at right angles and cuts through a deep gorge to the sea 
a little north of Tyre, forming the northern boundary of the survey. 

The view is taken from the east, showing the Eiver Litany and the 
precipitous hill on which the castle is placed. 

The form of the castle itself was determined by the site ; it is long 
and narrow and in two portions ; the lower of these is built on a terrace 
overhanging the precipice, the upper portion on the top of the ridge of 
rock. 

The southern and western points are protected by deep ditches cut in 
the rock, and the scarp was faced with blocks of dressed stone ; on 
the southern side there are two round towers that form a prominent 
feature, as the facing has been carried round symmetrically, gradually 
increasing in size towards the base. 

The entrance was from the south, opening from the village that 
formerly occupied a plateau of rock at that side of the castle, and was 
protected by an outwork built by the Knights Templar ; it led into the 
lower court of the castle, and from this a narrow ascent, cut out of the 
rock, had to be followed, entirely commanded by the upper works. This 
led to a gate at the southern end ; on passing this obstacle, an entrance 
was obtained to a large court or "place desarmes; " from this a vaulted 
passage led to the upper fortress, and after that the keep, which was 
massively built on the top, might hold out for some time. 

The masonry is very massive drafted Crusading work, with eome 
Saracenic patching, which has mostly fallen to ruins. 

The Arabian historian, Muhammed Ezz ed din Shedad, relates that 

M 



136 PnOTOGEAPHS TAKEX I>'^ GALILEE. 

the Kiirat esli Shukif was taken by Fulke, king of Jerusalem, in 1139. 
At that time it was in the possession of the Emir Shehab ed Din. It 
was made over to the Lord of Sidon, and from that time the title was 
Lord of Sidon and Belfort. In 1192 Saladin besieged this castle, and 
as the siege" seemed likely to be long, and success was uncertain, he 
resorted to a ruse. He demanded an interview with Count Raynauld 
of Sidon, who was defending the fortress, and sent his ring as a 
guarantee of safe conduct ; when the count came he was seized and 
imprisoned, and as he would not give up the fortress he was taken in 
front of the walls and tortured ; but, instead of counselling the 
defenders to surrender, he ordered them to hold out to the last. The 
count was sent to prison at Damascus, and after two years' siege the 
castle surrendered with the condition of their lives and the liberty of 
Count Raynauld. 

In 1240, a treaty with Salah Ishmael, Prince of Damascus, gave back 
Belfort to the Crusaders, but the prince had to come himself and besiege 
the castle in order to carry out his promise. It was then rebuilt and sold 
to the Knights Templar. 

The castle was finally taken by the Sultan Bybars Boudoukay the 
2Gth AprQ, 126S. 

IV. KuVat Subeibeh, or KiiVat Nimrud, Crusading Castle of Banias. — 
This castle was situated at the extreme north-east of Palestine proper, 
overhangino; the town of Banias, thi3 Panium of Josephus and the 
Csesarea Philippi of the New Testament. It must have been within 
sight of this castle that the Transfiguration of Our Lord took place. 

The site of the castle is a narrow rocky ridge, with deep valleys on 
the northern and southern sides. It is certainly the largest and best 
preserved ruin of its class in the country; it measures 1,450 feet east 
and west, by an average width of 360 feet. The only approach to the 
castle is from the east, by a narrow pathway amongst the steep rocks 
that rise to the castle ; this path leads along the southern front past 
the keep, and then enters by a Crusading gateway in a square tower. 

The view is taken from the south-east, and on the right are the ruins 
of the citadel, which is still in a fair state of preservation, many 
vaulted chambers and passages being still perfect. The wall was 
defended by round towers and strongly built of drafted stones, the 
bosses left rough, on which there are a number of masons' marks. At 
the western and north- western side there was another citadel of very 
much larger stones, beautifully dressed and drafted; some of these 
measure 8 to 10 feet long by about 4 feet square. In this the most 
ancient portion of the castle, the pointed arch was everywhere 
employed. 

There are a number of Arabic inscriptions cut on more ancient work, 
detailing how different princes rebuilt portions of the castle ; but very 
little Saracenic work remains, the old ruins holding out better than 
the patching attempted by these princes. The earliest dates from 
625 A. II., equivalent to 1227 A.D., and details how Melek el Azis 



rnOTOGRAPHS TAICEN IN" GALILEE. 137 

Murad ed Din, nepliew of Saladin, i-ebuilt the eastern portion of tlie 
castle. Immense cisterns supplied the gai-rison with water. 

There is no history of the castle before the time of the Crusades ; it 
then followed the fortunes of other fortresses in Palestine. It was 
conquered by Nur ed Din, prince of Damascus, when the town of Banias 
fell into the hands of the Saracens (" William of Tyre," Book XV., 
ch. viii.). 

V. Ktd'af Hunin, Crusading Castle of Chateau Neuf. — This castle was 
situated in an indentation of the hills overhanging the Jordan valley, 
and with Belfort, Toron, and Banias, protected the northern and eastern 
frontier of the Crusading kingdom. 

The view is taken from the north-west, and shows the castle and 
village of Hiinin. The castle consists of a large courtyard sm-rounded 
by walls defended by round towers. On the north-eastern side there 
was a place des armes overhanging the steep descent of the hill. The 
whole of the north-western portion was taken up by a square citadel, 
surrounded by a rock-cut ditch of considerable dimensions, and showing 
excellent workmanship. The older portion of the masonry shows drafted 
stones, with rough bosses, and some without draft, as at Tibnin. The 
citadel was reached by a drawbridge communicating with the courtyard 
in the interior. The castle has been much destroyed and rebuilt by 
Saracenic workmen, and their work is also ruined and mixed up with 
the original masonry in hopeless confusion. A Crusading gateway leads 
into the village. There is very little history of this castle. An Arab 
historian, Ansel Jelil, relates that after the battle of Hattin, Saladin 
detached a chief to invest the castle of Hunin. The garrison were 
reduced by famine and surrendered. It was probably built about the 
same time as Toron, and seems to fulfil the required position of the 
Crusading castle of Chateau Neuf. 

VI. KiiVat Jiddin. — A Saracenic castle built by Dhahr el 'Amr during 
his rebellion against the Turkish Government. Some parts of the castle 
are still in a fair state of repair, though now it is entirely deserted and 
is rapidly falling to ruin. The castle shows some good Saracenic 
masonry, and was protected by a wall with round towers on the eastern 
side. 

The view is taken from the north. 

VII. Large Synagogue at Kefr Bir'im. — This is the most perfect 
example of the facade of a Galilean synagogue remaining in the country. 
The south front is almost in a perfect condition, as shown in the photo- 
graph. The history and date of these synagogues, with some descrip- 
tion of the peculiar porch of this synagogue, which resembled the gate 
Tadi in Herod's Temple, as described in the Talmud, are given in another 
paper in this Quarterly, on " Synagogues of Galilee." 

VIII. Central Doorway of Ditto. — This view shows the mutilated 
remains of the sculptured Pascal lambs that once decorated the main 
entrance to the synagogue, also the finely-cut representation of a ^^ne 
and grapes over the doorway. 



138 PHOTOGEAPHS TAKEN IN GALILEE. 

IX. Gateway of Small Synagogue at Kefr BirHm.—ThXs fine gateway 
stands alone, the rest of the synagogue having disappeared. Major 
Wilson, R.E., was able, by means of excavation, to trace the walls of 
the building, and to show that this synagogue, unlike the majority, had 
only two rows of columns {Quarterly Statement, No. 2, April, 1869). The 
square Hebrew inscription on the lintel has been read by the late Mr. 
Emanuel Deutsch, " Peace be upon this dwelling-place." The remains 
of sculptured figures of lambs are still traceable, though much mutilated, 
on the lintel. 

The gateway measures 11 feet high, and is 5 feet broad; the lintel is 
9 feet 7 inches long, by 2 feet 9 inches by 2 feet 6 inches deep. 

Both doorposts have been much shaken, but that on the left in the 
view has been shifted bodily in, as can be seen by the mouldings. How 
the gateway stood under this treatment, which was probably caused by 
earthquake, is a marvel. 

X. Synagogue at Meiron.— Next to Kefr Bir'im the facade of this syna- 
gogue is the most perfect remaining specimen in Galilee. It was built 
on a rocky ledge, the west side and floor being excavated out of the 
rock. Traces of the position of the pillars in the building are still to 
be found on the floor. From this a plan of the building has been con- 
structed. The eastern and southern walls, built on unstable made-up 
gi'ound, have been entirely destroyed by time. 

Meiron was an early sacred place to the Jews after the destruction 
of Jerusalem by the Romans. It is the traditional burial-place of 
Shammai and Hillel, and later the great Rabbi Simon Bar Jochai was 
buried here. Pilgrimages are made to his tomb by Jews in all parts of 
the world, and the scene of one of these annual meetings is described in 
my report from Meiron {Quarterly Statement, July, 1877). 

The principal gateway is 14 feet high to the top of the lintel, and 
6 feet wide. The lintel is 4 feet 2 inches high. 

XI. Lintel of Synagogue at Nebratein.—On. this lintel is seen the 
Jewish form of the seven-branch candlestick, and a Hebrew inscription 
somewhat difficult to decipher. The remains of the synagogue are 
traceable, and on the pedestal of one column there is a carved re^jre- 
sentation of a hare, an unclean animal to the Jews. 

XII. Newly Discovered Synagogue at ,Sw/sa/.— This is one of the two 
newly discovered synagogues found during the course of the survey 
last year. The remains seen in the photograph consist of a sculptured 
lintel built in over the doorway of the modern mosque of the village, 
and surmounted by a carved niche surrounded by ornameutedvoussoirs. 

The lintel measures 5 feet long by 1 foot 8 inches high, and on it two 
rams' heads are sculptured on either side of a wreath with surrounding 
ornamental scroll work. 

It appears probable that this lintel formerly belonged to one of the 
smaller of the three doors common to these synagogues ; the niche is 
placed over it as it probably was in the original building, but the 
ornamented voussoii'S probably came from the larger doorway, as they 



PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN IN GALILEE. 139 

do not fit round the niclie. The probable voussoirs of the smaller 
doorways are seen built into the wall on the left. 

With such an ornamental lintel for the side doors, the great one of 
the central doorway, if found, would probably be very elaborate. 

XIII. Colonnade at Belat. — On the top of a high wooded ridge in the 
wildest part of Galilee are the ruins of what must have been a noble 
temple. The remains of sixteen columns are apparently in situ, and 
some of them still bear an architrave. The original building was 
formed of a double row of twelve columns, 16 feet apart, and with a 
varying intercolumnar distance of from 6 feet to 8 feet ; the total 
length being 99 feet 11 inches. This is suri'ounded by a wall at a 
distance of 7 feet. The columns and architrave make a total height of 
l-i feet. The entrance was probably on the eastern side, where two 
columns are squared on the outside. The direction of the colonnade is 
within 12 degrees of north and south, and the end columns are doubled 
like those in synagogues. The view is taken from the southern end. 
The architrave shows no signs of mouldings, and the capitals and 
pillars have an archaic form ; they are very much weathered by 
exposure. 

The origin of this singular ruin is discussed in the paper on 
" Synagogues of Galilee" in this Qnurterhj. 

XIV. Masonry Tomb at Kades. — This is probably a Roman tomb. 
Four massive piers supported arches, and may have been surmounted 
by a dome. In the spaces under the arches masonry loculi are built. 
The building measures 35 feet square, and a plan has been published 
{Quarterly Statement, No. 3). 

The view is taken from the south-east, and shows the moulded door- 
way and niche on the right. 

XV. Temple of the Sun at Kades. — The view is taken of the eastern 
facade of the temple. The great doorway and two smaller doorways 
are seen with their ornamented lintels and doorposts. On the left is a 
small niche, with traces of a robed figure cut in it, and in a cor.-e- 
sponding position on the right there is a small hole leading into a recess 
in the wall, by means of Avhich oracles might be given or money passed 
through to the interior. The ornamental lintel lying in front in the 
photograph shows the winged delineation of Lhe sun as at Baalbek. 

The building forms a rectangle, 63 feet by 75 feet, and one of the door- 
posts standing is a monolith measuring 15 feet high. The view is 
taken from the south-east. 

XVI. Ditto. — This photograph of the front gives a better view of the 
ornamentation on the doorpost, and also shows a large Corinthian 
capital, that probably surmounted one of the two enormous columns 
that formed the portico of the temple, like those in Syria. It is taken 
from the north-east. 

XVII. Hirani's Tomb. — This tomb is situated in the low hills 
running down to the sea on the east of Tyre. 

It is the traditional tomb of Hiram, king of Tyre, in the daya of 



140 PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN IN GALILEE. 

Solomon, but is unlikely to be tbe real place of sepulchre of that 
monarch. The number of sarcophagi in this part of the country is 
very large, and there must have been formerly many monuments 
equalling, if not surpassing, the iDresent one. This, however, is the 
most perfect tomb of this kind existing, and gives some idea of the 
grandeur of this mode of burial. 

The sarcophagus, cut out of a solid mass of limestone, is placed 
on a base 9 feet 8 inches high, formed of three courses of whitish lime- 
stone in large blocks. The upper course, projecting 6 inches all round, 
makes a platform 9 feet 9 inches by 14 feet 2 inches ; on this the 
sarcophagus, measuring at its base 7 feet 9 inches by 12 feet 2 inches, 
stands. The lid is made with a ridge, and is 3 feet 7 inches high in the 
centre. 

Immediately on the north side of the monument, two flights of a few 
rudely-cut steps lead to the door of an artificially-made cavern, 8 feet 
wide by 10 feet long. The view is taken from the south-east, and 
shows the Freemasons' mark that some too enthusiastic member of the 
craft has lately scratched on this monument. 

XVIII. Cathedral at Tyre.— The cathedral occupies the south-east 
corner of the modern wall of Tyre. It is now in ruins ; only the eastern 
portion with the three apses remains. The northern one of these is 
the most perfect. 

The inside dimensions of the church were 214 feet long by 82 feet 
wide; the central apse has a diameter of 36 feet. The transepts project 
15 feet, and have side chapels in them with small apses made in the 
thickness of the wall. 

The masonry is small, of soft stone, fixed in strong cement, and having 
some masons' marks. 

In the interior there are magnificent monolithic columns of red granite, 
measuring 27 feet long. They were probably taken from some ancient 
temple, and show the form of double column peculiar to synagogues. One 
of these, and fragments of others, are to be seen in the foreground of the 
photograph. The rest of the interior decorations appears to have been of 
white marble. 

The windows of the apses are ornamented on the outside by zigzag 
tracery. 

The cathedral, according to M. de Vogue, was Crusading, dating from 
the latter half of the twelfth century. It probably occupies the site of 
the church built by Paulinus, and consecrated by Eusebius 323 AD., in 
which the bones of Origen and the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa were 
buried. Some excavations were attempted in 1874 to find these tombs, 
but without success. 

XIX. The Source of Jordan. — The great spring at Banias has from an 
early date been allowed to bo the real source of the River Jordan. The 
water gushes out of a cave situated in the face of a cHfi" of limestone 
rock about 100 feet high. Earthquakes have shaken down great frag- 
ments of rock, so that the base of the cliflf has been blocked up and the 



THE LAND OF MIDIAN AND ITS MINES. 141 

cave almost entirelj' mined. The water now finds its way througli this 
mass of stones by different channels, uniting immediately below the d'jbris, 
and forming at once a strong stream that irrigates the surrounding 
gardens and makes Banias the most beautiful place ia Palestine. By 
this stream stood the ancient Panium of the Greeks, and here Herod 
erected a temple in honour of Augustus. There are three votive niches 
in the face of the rock, one of which is visible in the photograph. They 
were once much higher above the ground than now. Two of them bear 
Greek inscriptions, in one of which " Priest of Pan " is mentioned. This 
was also the site of Caisarea Philippi of the New Testament, and it has 
been suggested that this rock was intended in our Lord's words, " Upon 
this rock I will build My church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail 
against it " (Matt. xvi. 18). 

XX. rahstine Survey Camp at Banias. — The magnificent olive trees 
formed a delightful shade, while the trickling stream of water led through 
our camp, making everything cool and delightful. Under the roots of 
these great trees we found remains of tesselated pavement in different 
coloured mai'bles, showing that some ancient building once occupied 
tliis site. A hundred yards to the east of our camp was the great source 
of Jordan, clear and sparkling, and delightfully cold. 

H. H. Kitchener, Lieut, R.E. 



THE LAND 0^ MIDI AN AND ITS MINES. 

ReprinUd from the " Times." 

Alexandria, April 27//i. 

The return of Captain Burton and his party from the Land of Midian 
at the beginning of this week is already known by telegraph in England. 
The object of the exx^edition was to examine into the mineral wealth of 
the country, which hitherto has been very little visited by travellers, 
and is only imperfectly known to geographers. Yet the minerals of 
Midian were known both in Biblical and classical times. Everybody 
remembers how Moses, when he fled from the face of Pharaoh, dwelt in 
the land of Midian and married the priest's daughter ; aiad how, not- 
withstanding this alliance, the children of Israel, after the Exodus, 
vexed by the wiles of the Midianites, made war upon them and slew 
their kings, and burnt their cities and their goodly castles, and spoiled 
them of " gold, silver, brass, iron, tin, and lead," and " jewels of gold, 
chains and bracelets, rings, earrings, and tablets ; " and now Moses 
ordered the wrought jewels of gold to be brought into the tabernacle as 
a memorial. It is equally well known, too, how theEomans long after- 
wards again worked the mines whence these metals were dug, and many 
are the traces of their work which Caj)tain Burton has recently found. 
Yet next to nothing is now known of the country, its wild wastes of 



142 THE LAND OF MIDIAN AND ITS MINES. 

rock, its barren valleys and precipitous mountains, its vase lialf- worked 
mines, its ruined cities, and its wandering and savage population. That 
it lies to the east of the Eed Sea, that it belongs, for some mysterious 
reason, to Egypt, is about all ninety-nine out of every hundred people 
know about it. Captain Burton's two expeditions will have at least 
one good result— they will instruct the people. Thanks to his Icindness, 
I am able to give a sketch of his recent doings, and even my summary 
will prove the land to be at least as interesting as many countries 
which have long been the happy hunting-field of enterprising travellers 
of all nationalities. 

The expedition left Suez December 10th, ISTT, and returned there on 
April 20, 1878. During four months of hard travelling and voyaging 
upwards of 2,500 miles, they only lost one soldier, who died of fever. 
They brought home some 25 tons of geological specimens to illustrate 
the general geological formation of the land ; six cases of Colorado and 
Negro ore ; five cases of ethnological and anthropological collections — 
such as Midianite coins, inscriptions in Nabathean and Cufic, remains of 
worked stones, fragments of smelted metals, glass and pottery ; upwards 
of 200 sketches in oil and water colours, photographs of the chief ruins, 
including catacombs, and of a classical temple, apparently of Greek art , 
and, finally, maps and plans of the whole country, including 32 ruined 
cities, some of whoso names can be restored by consulting Strabo and 
Ptolemy, besides sketches of many atdiers, where perambulating bands 
like the gipsies of ancient and modern times seem to have carried on 
simple mining operations. 

Among the specimens are argentiferous and cupriferous ores from 
Northern Midian,and auriferous rocks from Southern. There are collec- 
tions from three turquoise mines, the northern, near Aynuneh, already 
worked ; the southern, near Ziba, still scratched by the Arabs ; and the 
central, until now unknown, save to the Bedouins. There are, moreover, 
three great sulphur beds, the northern and the southern, belonging to the 
secondary formation (now invaded by the trap granite), and the central, 
near the port of Mowilah, of pyretic origin. Eock salt accompanies the 
brimstone, and there are two large natui-al salt lakes. The whole of the 
secondary formation supplies fine gypsum, and in parts of it are 
quarries of alabaster, which served to build the ruins of Maghair, 
Sheoayb, Madiama (of Ptolemy), and el-Haura (Leuke Kome), the 
southernmost part of western Nabathea. 

The term Midian, popularly derived from Medan, the Hebrew, is 
really the Old-Egyptian " Madi," a word which occurs in many papyri, 
whose plural is Madian, or Madina. The modern tribes that hold the 
land confine " Madyan" to the strip of maritime country between the 
coast Ghauts and the sea, from the fort of Allabah (lat. 29deg. 30min.) 
to Mowilah (lat. 2"deg. 32min.). Captain Burton calls this country 
Northern Midian, and he applies the term Southern Midian to the tract of 
about similar size stretching south from Mowilah to the greatWady Hamz 
(lat. 25deg. 55min. losec), where Egypt ends, and the Hedjaz, the Holy 



THE LAND OF MIDIAN AND ITS MINES. 



143 



Land of the Moslems, the capitals of whicli arc Mecca and Medina, 
begins. He also divides the country into two mineral districts: the 
northern, with Maknii as its port, has not been much worked ; the 
southern, with Wedj as its harbour, shows extensive traces of ancient 
scientific labour. But he describes the whole as affording great mining 
capabilities to modern science. These [conclusions he arrived at by- 
dividing his four months' exploration into three several excursions — 
northern, central, and southern. 

The caravan consisted of eight Europeans, three Egyptian officers 
of the staff and two of the line, 25 soldiers and 30 minors, 10 nudes, 
and about 100 camels. The northern excursion commenced atMowilah, 
the port of arrival in Midian. They revisited the country covered by 
Captain Burton's expedition last year, the story of which will be told 
in his forthcoming book, " The Gold Mines of Midian," which I must 
not anticipate. After reinspection of the ancient workings 'of the 
precious metals, passing the traditional site of Moses' Well, they 
marched upon Makna, the port, and spent a week digging into and 
extracting the veins of silver v.-hich thread the quartz, carelessly 
cupeled specimens yielding 15 to 20 per cent, of silver. The hill is 
within a few minutes' walk of the coast, and by means of Mr. Haddan's 
cheap tramways it would be easy to ship the ore in the harbour. 
Leaving Makna they rounded the windy Gulf of AUabah, and the 
incorrectness of the British hydrographic chart very nearly shipwrecked 
the party on tbe reefs off the island Tiran. They reached Mowilah again 
on February 3rd. 

The second expedition followed and was directed to the iidand region 
east of Mowilah. The object was to determine the longitudinal breadth 
of the metalliferous country. A double chain of ghauts subtends the 
coast, and a succession of valleys cut through these heights. Beyond 
the ghauts a rough and precipitous pass, terrible for loaded camels, 
leads to the Hisma, a plateau some 4,000 feet high, of new red sandstone, 
which is in reality the western wall of the Nejd, or great central 
uplands of the Arabian peninsula, and is remarkable for the beauty of 
its brick-red precipices and castellations. East of the Hisma lie the 
dark lines of the Marreh, the basaltic and doubtless volcanic regions 
whence the miners of old brought the rough mill-stones that served for 
their first grindings. But here the expedition reckoned without its 
hosts, the Maazeh, a semi-Egyptian tribe, who received them apparently 
with friendliness, but all the while were preparing for attack, murder, 
and plunder. The trap, however, was badly set for an old traveller. 
Captain Burton guessed the coming danger, and was able to beat a 
hasty retreat without bloodshed. The expedition, altering its plans, 
then turned to the south-east. They passed through the lovely Wady 
Daumah, once teeming with fertility, now laid waste by the Bedouin, 
" the fathers of the Desert." They discovered the ruins of the city of 
Sheewak (the Souka of Ptolemy), which, with its outl>^ng suburbs, its 
aqueducts carefully built with cement, its barrages across the village 



1-44 THE LAXD OF illDIAX AXD ITS MES'ES. 

heads, its broken catacombs, its furnaces and vast usines, covers some 
four miles. Here and elsewhere the furnaces were carefully searched. 
The Colorado quartz-ore and the chloritic greenstone, used as flux, 
showed what ore had been treated ; but so painstaking were these old 
miners, that not the minutest trace of metal was left to tell its own 
tale. Sheewak was evidently a city of workmen, probably of slave 
workmen. A few miles to the south lay Shaghab, the ruins of which, 
far superior in site and construction, suggested the residence of the 
wealthy mine-owners. Here the expedition turned west. The country 
was barren, roadless, and very thinly inhabited, but they came upon the 
ruinous traces of mining operations at every stage. March 5th they 
arrived at the flourishing little port of Ziba (Zibber on the hydro- 
graphic chart), built with the remnants of some older town. Near Ziba 
was found the southernmost of the turquoise mines. Its natives have 
leamt the art of promoting the growth of pearls by inserting a grain of 
sand into each oyster. 

The third, or southern excursion, which Captain Burton was enabled 
to undertake by the dispatch of a second ship and another month's food 
from Suez, proved by far the most interesting to mineralogist and 
archfBologist alike. Gold mining evidently here takes the place of silver 
and copper extracting, and the vast traces of the labours of the scientific 
old miners in shafting and tunneling teach exactly their modus operandi. 
The Marreh, or volcanic district, which they inspected, extends as far as 
Yembo, and possibly as far as Medina, the Holy City. It is covered 
with ruins of mining Avorks, and the expedition found gold threading 
and filming the basalt, which led them to believe this district to be the 
focus of the mineralogical outcrop. Meanwhile, M. Marie, the mining 
engineer, proceeded to the southern deput of sulphur, and discovered a 
third hill distant only two miles from a navigable bay. He secured 
specimens of this rock and also of chalcedony, the material of the finely- 
engraved seals and amulets worked by the natives. He found, and the 
whole party afterwards visited, an outcrop of quartz, in mounds, hillocks, 
and gigantic reefs, called " Abel Marwah," and the disused works, of 
great extent, were surveyed. The caravan, now guided by the Balizy 
tribe, which claims some of the old mining districts, left the port of 
Wedj March 23, and visited the ruins of Um el Karayyat (" Mother of 
Villages "), where the remains of mining operations lie scattered about 
in aU directions. In parts the hill of snowy quartz had been so well 
burrowed into that it has fallen in. All the shafts and passages were 
duly explored. The precious metal was extracted from the rose-coloured 
schist veining the quartz, and specimens of free gold appeared. The 
next march showed the Um el Kharab ("Mother of Desolation"), in 
which an extensive vein had been worked, and pillars of quartz left 
standing between roof and floor. Travelling through a land once rich 
and prosperous as mining could make it, now the very picture of dreary 
desolation, the travellers reached the plain El Beda (Bedais of Ptolemy). 
Here the hills of red porphyry were covered with religious inscriptions 



THE LAXD OF MIDI.^:X AND ITS MIXES. 145 

in the Cufic and modern Arab cliaracters ; nothing Nabathcan, occurred. 
On April 8, after traversing another quartz country, the expedition reached 
their Ultima Thule, the Wady Hamz, the great gap worked by water 
in the maritime mountain chain which forms the highway for pilgrims 
returning from Medina, and constitutes the frontier between Egypt and 
the Hedjaz, which belongs to Turkey. Here a pleasant surprise awaited 
the party. On the southern brink of this wild watercourse was the site 
of a beautiful little temple, built of white and variegated alabaster, dug 
from neighbourmg quarries. The foundations alone were left, and a 
few years ago the place was a tumulus into which the Arabs dug for 
treasure. The "Wady had washed away the northern wall, and the 
adjacent bed was strcAvn with fragments of columns, bases, and capitals, 
all of alabaster, and cut in the simplest and purest style of Greek art. 
Can this be a vestige of that ill-fated expedition in which ^Uus Gallus 
was foiled by the traitor Nabathsesus ? 

This closed the expedition. The party returned to Suez, and arrived 
in Cairo the 21st of April. They received a most courteous welcome 
from his Highness the Khedive. Specimens of their ores will be sent to 
Paris and London ; the rest will be analysed in Cairo by a local com- 
mission, while the curiosities of all kinds will be exhibited first in Cairo 
and then sent to the Paris Exhibition. So ends the story. After all 
allowances made for the traveller's love of the scene of his labours, it 
must be admitted that the Land of Midian is a wonderful place. As 
one hears of the mines that are spread over the country, with their 
shafts and their tunnels, theii' furnaces and their barrages, the towns of 
workmen, and the cities of mine owners, one begins to understand why 
" all King Solomon's drinking vessels were of gold, none were of silver, 
it was nothing accounted of in the days of Solomon." And when one 
reads of the mines that are yet unworked, with their quartz and their 
Colorado ore, one feels tempted to ask why the Khedive at Cairo, like 
Solomon at Jerusalem, should not "make silver and gold as plenteous 
as stones." But hitherto brilliant prospects for Egypt have turned out 
very grey-toned realities. So we Egyptians are content once more to 
possess our souls in patience until the cool and cautious capitalists of 
Paris and London put their hands into their pockets, pay the Khedive 
a handsome royalty, and turn the Land of Midian into a limited liability 
company. One thing is certain. This dead country of Midian, thus 
suddenly brought back to Hfe, is no fabulous land, where all the world 
can go and pick up gold and silver. Its development will need capital 
as well as science, and Egypt must, therefore, be content with a royalty 
and leave the risk and the work to foreign skill and enterprise. 



146 



THE STONE OF BETHPHAGE. 

The recent discovery of the " Stone of BetLpbage" has created con- 
^•iderable interest among Biblical students. Three months ago, on 
starting for a tour through the Holy Land, I was requested to inspect 
this monument and furnish a few details to the Quarterhj Statement oj 
the Palestine Exploration Fund. 

Accordingly, on arriving at Jerusalem, I made inquiries respecting 
the stone, and was astonished to find that even the guides of the city 
had not heard of the discovery. Mr. Shapira, of Moabite pottery fame, 
was the first to assure me that the discovery was no cunningly devised 
fable; and he moreover informed me that the site of the monument was 
somewhere on the eastern slope of the Mount of Olives. Dr. Chaplin 
further indicated the exact locality ; and thus fortified with topographical 
knowledge, I set out with much pleasure to gaze upon the precious 
relic. Passing out of the Holy City by David's Gate, I followed the 
course of the walls by Mount Zion and the Temple Hill, then crossing 
the valley of the Kedron, I ascended by the village of Siloam to the 
spot on the Bethany road where Christ wept over Jerusalem. From 
this point I climbed the south slope of Olivet, and after reaching the 
Carmelite Nunnery near the summit of the ridge, I followed the 
mcuntain path which runs due east along the side of the hill for about 
half a mile. Here Olivet proper ends, and is separated from the high 
lands above Bethany by a deep valley, while the path is continued 
over a ridge of limestone rock which spans the valley, and forms a kind 
of natural bridge. Before reaching the ridge we turned to the left into a 
field of corn, and after searching in vain for some time, at length I came 
upon some old foundations and a huge square block of limestone rock. 

Fortunately Mr. Shapira with his daughter approached the stone 
ju&t as we were about to examine it, and proved of great assist- 
ance by their valuable suggestions in deciphering the faded paintings. 
The frescoes are upon the whole well executed, and are evidently the 
workmanship of skilful hands ; the perspective of the figui-es is accurate 
and the colouring vivid. 

That on the north side is akeady much defaced, in consequence of 
exposure to the weather and the rough handling of the fellahin. It is 
therefore fortunate that drawings have been made by Captain Guillemot, 
otherwise many interesting details would have been lost for ever. The sub- 
ject of the picture is the master of the house at Bethphage granting per- 
mission to the two disciples to take the ass and colt to Christ. The animals 
occupy the centre, and the heads especially are drawn and coloured with 
much care. Nine or ten persons were originally depicted, but many 
of them are now well-nigh obliterated. The figures of the two 
apostles— probably SS. Peter and John — are on the right hand ; one, 
holding the bridle, is leading away the ass, while the other, stand- 
ing by the head, has his right hand raised, and is represented as 



THE STONE OF BETIiniAGE. 147 

saying to tlie owner, " The Lord hath need of him." The figure in the 
foreground, and consequently the most prominent, is the master of the 
house, who, with outstretched hands, is granting permission to the dis- 
ciples to take them away. At first this prominent figure "was thought 
to be the Saviour, but on further consideration it became evident that 
this could not be the case, first, because the Saviour was not at Beth- 
phage when the colt was taken ; and secondly, a comparison of the 
picture with the fresco on the south side of the stone revealed the fact 
that, while the figure under consideration has no hair on the face, the 
Saviour depicted on the latter wears the Pauline tonsure, and conse- 
quently has a large beard. The figures in the background represent 
those spoken of by St. Mark: "And certain of them that stood there 
said unto them. What do ye loosing the colt ? " At the bottom of the 
IDicture a well-executed face, looking downward, caused us much trouble, 
but from an inspection of Captain Guillemot's drawing, it is the face of 
a person who has just loosened the ass, and with the binding chain in 
hand, still retains a stooping posture. 

In the background is the house at Bethphage, and the back door 
near to which the colt Avas tied. The place is evidently the courtyard 
or back part of the house, in accordance with the text of St. Mark xi. 4 : 

" Kat eupov Tov rrooKov SeSe/jLiPOV irpos ttji/ Ovpav e^oo eiriTOv a,iJ,<f)65ov," "And they 

found the colt tied by the door witliout, at the hack of the house," not 
" where two ways meet," as the English version translates it. Ai-ound 
the courtyard is a wall with a battlemented corner ; and it is worthy of 
notice that leading up to the courtyard is an inclined sloping battle- 
mented wall, suggesting the idea that the house, and consequently 
Bethphage itself, occupied an elevated position. The monument itself 
is near a level spot on the side of a hill, from 50 to 100 feet above the 
valley immediately below. 

The fresco on the south side, facing Bethany, is the raising of Lazarus. 
And here the artist has shown his skill, not only in the arrangement of 
a complicated subject, but also in the superior finish of the details. 
Unfortunately the figures on the left side of the picture, including that 
of the Saviour, are much defaced, and the bottom part is well-nigh 
obliterated. 

Christ, standing on the left side, has come to the tomb; Mary has 
fallen at His feet ; Martha, on her knees, remains in a suppliant posi- 
tion. A third woman, perhaps Mary Magdalene, sits in front, looking 
in the same direction as the Saviour. Jesus has said, " Take ye away 
the stone," and a well-executed figure occupying the right coi-ner is 
carrying away the huge stone taken from the mouth of the cave. The 
command, " Lazarus come forth," has been given by Him who had just 
said, " I am the resurrection and the life," and Lazarus, bound hand 
and foot with grave-clothes, is stepping forth from the sepulchral 
chamber. 

On the west side of the stone, facing Jerusalem, it is said that the 
subject was a representation of the triumphal entry of Christ into the 



148 THE STOXE OF BETHPHAGE. 

Holy City on Palm Sunday, and there is no reason for disbelieving tliat 
tliis was the case ; but at present the picture is so sadly marred that it 
is scarcely possible to trace the outline of a single figure. In the centre 
of this face a large niche, with a semicircular head, measuring two feet 
by one, has been cut deep into the stone. It seems to have been done 
subsequently to the fresco, but for what purpose it is difficult to say. 

On the east side, which is probably the front of the stone, the picture 
contains about a dozen figures, all of whom, with one exception, are 
standing close together, as an attentive audience, listening to the person 
who, standing by himself, is addressing them with earnest mien. The 
compact arrangement of the figures made us at first conclude that the 
representation of a multitude was the ruling idea of the artist, and since 
other two of the frescoes are subjects connecting with Palm Sunday, 
we very naturally supposed that these constituted the multitude that 
followed the triumphal procession and cried, "Hosanna to the Son of 
David." On more minute examination, however, it was noticed that 
they bore no palms in their hands, and their faces were not turned to- 
wards the right, as they would have been had this picture been a con- 
tinuation of the subjects on the north and west sides of the monument. 
Captain Guillemot suggests that the subject may be the blessing of the 
restoration of tljis little sanctuary. This may be so, but it ought to be 
observed that the figures are not looking out from the stone, but seem 
for the most part turned towards the speaker, who, judging from his 
demeanour, is neither praying nor praising, nor uttering a benediction, 
but fervently addressing an attentive audience. This being so, I 
would suggest that the picture represents the first scene in the Ascen- 
sion — namely, the part where, having led out the disciples as far as to 
Bethany, Christ, before leaving His desponding apostles, is addressing 
to them words of comfort and assurance. This suggestion seems to 
acquire additional force from the consideration that the four frescoes, 
namely, the Loosing the Colt, the Raising of Lazarus, the Triumphal 
Entry, and the Ascension, are the four most striking events in the life 
of the Saviour that occurred near the spot where this monument stands. 
Moreover, as the Triumphal Entry faces Jerusalem, and the Raising of 
Lazarus faces Bethany, I would further suggest that the artist designed 
each of the four frescoes to face the scene of the picture, and therefore, 
that while Jerusalem is situated towards the west, and Bethany towards 
the south, that the traditional site of Bethphage was on the compara- 
tively level table-land north of the stone, and the traditional site of the 
Ascension was the spot across the valley fronting the stone, where the 
road winds round the grassy mound towards the village of Bethany. 

The monument has already been named the " Stone of Bethphage," 
and it is said to mai-k the spot where the village of Bethphage stood. 
Some there are who undervalue such an archseological discovery, while 
others, in their ardent zeal, rush too hastily to conclusions, and in their 
anxiety to find the site of the long lost village, they give loose reins to 
their wishes, and conclude that this monument must needs mark the 



THE STONE OF BETHPHAGE. 149 

site of Bethphage. Until such time a,s the public are in possession of 
the promised publication of Captain Guillemot on this recently dis- 
covered monument, it seems desirable not to indulge too freely in bold 
conjectures, and therefore my remarks will rather be of a suggestive 
than exhaustive nature, and will deal mainly, if not solely, with data 
already furnished. First, then, it seems to me that there is nothing in 
the frescoes themselves that tends to prove that the stone marks the 
site of Bethphage. It is true that the picture on the north side repre- 
sents the loosing of the colt, an event that occurred at Bethj)hage ; but 
if from the existence of such we conclude that the stone marks the site 
of Bethphage, then by parity of reasoning we might pronounce the site 
to be Bethany, because the south face represents the raising of Lazarus ; 
or Jerusalem, because the side facing the west represents the triumphal 
entry of Chriat into the Holy City. Beside the frescoes, however, s'ome 
inscriptions were also found painted on the stone. oSTo traces of such 
inscriptions were visible when we examined the monument six weeks 
ago, and I am therefore sorry to think that such have been obliterated. 
I had been informed that one inscription was, "Hie est Bethphage," 
and this seemed to establish the fact, not indeed that the stone neces- 
sarily marked the Bethphage of the Gospels, but that such was the tra- 
ditional site in the days when the inscription was inscribed on the stone. 
On looking at the drawings of the mutilated inscriptions as furnished 
by Captain Guillemot, I am disappointed in not being able to find the 
words " Hie est Bethphage." There are, indeed, the words, " Hie est," 
and only part of the initial letter of the following word, now obliterated. 
And although it is impossible from our present data to say what that 
word was, yet, as the fragment of this initial letter is certainly not a part 
of the letter B, we are morally certain that the word was not Beth- 
phage. The word Bethphage does certainly occur in juxtaposition with 
that of Hierosolyma (a medieval name of Jerusalem) in an inscription 
found on a difEerent part of the stone, but until the import of such 
inscription is better known than it is at present, the mere occurrence of 
the name Bethphage no more proves the spot to be Bethphage than the 
name Hierosolyma proves it to be the site of Jerusalem. 

James King. 







Scal^ - -^JT «/ «t«. //K-Zi £tf rf y/fi^ 



»•</-•/■■• 



Quarterly Statement, October, 1878.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



Ou Tuesday, SepteiiiLer lOtli, Lieutenant Kitchener formally handed orer to. 
the Committee the whole of the maps and :nemoirs Gomplete. His linal report, read 
to the Committee at the time, -will be found further on (p. 174). The -work 
thus completed consists, first, of twenty sheets, each with its memoir, prepared by 
Lieutenant Conder, ami, seconelly, of six, _ each with its memoir, prepared by 
Lieutenant Kitchener. There are also the special plans, surveys and drawings, 
•made by both officers ; there are the pen-and-ink sketches and water-colour drawings 
made by Lieutenant Conder, and Lieutenant Kitchener's photographs. In addi- 
tion to all this there are the three sheets of the smaller map prepared by 
Lieutenant Kitchener, according to the instructions of the Committee. 



On Tuesday, September 19th, Lieutenant Kitchener started for Cyprus to 
commence the survey of the island, to the command of which he has been 
appointed by the Foreign Office. 



The Committee, at their meeting of September 10th, passed the following 
/•esolution : ' ' That the Committee desire to express their grateful thanks to 
Lieiitenant Kitchener for the way in which h-e brought the Survey of Western 
Palestine to a successful termination, and congratulate him on his appoiniment 
to the very important work of a similar nature which has been entrusted to him 
by the Secretary of. State for Foreign Aflairs." 



The Quartcrlfi Statcmsnt for 1878, therefore, closes with the completion of the 
Survey of "Western Palestine, the history of which was commenced in the Quar- 
terly Statement of January,1872. The Survey has taken seven years to complete. 
The sheets of the map have been placed in the hands of the most competent judges, 
and are stated to Ije in every respect equal to the best work possible in map- 
making. The year 1879 will be the year of publishing. It is j^roposed that the 
regular subscriptions should be devoted to this purpose. It is needless to explain 
that a large part of the scientific memoirs and special plans, wliich must be 
published, can hardly be expected to pay the expenses of publication. Probably 



156 NOTES A^y'D XEWS. 

in the January Qiutrterly Statement we may be prepared -n-itli a prospectus ot 
time, price, &c. 



In Lieutenant Conder's book, " Tent Work in Palestine," an opportunity has 
been afforded of turning oyer the leaves, so to speak, of the memoirs. The book, 
though published in a bad season, and not at the best time of the year, has done 
very -well. It is satisfactory to record that the general opinion of the press has 
been very favourable, and that its sale has already justified the Committee in 
their confidence in the author. 



. The sale has, in fact, left, at the present mament, little more than a hundred 
copies in the hands of the publishers. Those subscribers who want to have the 
earliest and library edition should therefore send their names to the office without 
any delay. 



By an oversight in the July Qv,artcrly Statement, the editor omitted to 
mention that the illustration, •" Jewish Sjmagogue at Sufsaf," was supplied bj- 
the kindness of the editor of the Builder, where it first appeared. 



On p. 176 will be found the prospectus of the proposed expedition to Galilee. 
This has been ali-eadysent to the General Committee, and- circulated privately to 
a limited extent. A first list of subiscribers has been obtained, and is here pub- 
lished. The amounts are iii some cases jn'omised, in others already paid. The 
prospectus itself has been printed in large numbers, and copies can be had 
on application to the Secretary. It is illustrated with a wood-cut of Tel Hum, 
the proposed principal site for excavation. 

Marquis of Bute.' : '...£50 

Samuel Morley, Esq., M.P :.... 50 

Lord Clermont ^ 25 

John Edward Wilson, Esq '... 25 

. W. Hepworth Dixon, Esq 10 10 

John MacGregor, Esq ' 10 

Lord Talbot de Malahide 5 

Rev. Canon Lightfoot 5 

W. M' Arthur, Esq., M.P. 5 5 

W. Atkinson, Esq .5 

J. Braithwaite, Esq 5 

• Fritz Eeis.s, Esq ' 5- 

Right Hon. Stephen Cave, M.P 2 2 

Rev. F.W. Holland..... -2' 2 

Rev. W. F. Birch 2 2 

F. L. Hausberg, Esq 2 

MissErskiue 2 

Rev. Dr- Ginsbui-g 2 

Miss Mends ..••. 10 

Per Hon. Sec. for Chelmsford ....• • i 5 

The list AVill remain open. Subscribers can, if they please, devote their amounts, 
or any portion of t^hem, to this special fund. 



NOTES AND NEWS. lo7 

The small map of Galilee wliich forms the frontispiece to this number and 
illustrates the prospectus of page 176 shows the country which will be the field of 
operations of the new expedition. The western side of the lalce has been already 
surveyed bj» Lieutenant Kitchener. The eastern side is almost unknown. The 
map itself is a portion of the reduced map on the three-eighths scale, the hill 
shading being omitted. 



This is the first specimen of the reduced, map published. It is noteworthy that 
it contains about iive times as many names as any other existing map of this 
portion of the country, ami this, although one half the map belongs to the 
unsurveyed part of Palestine. 



At the meeting of the British Association in August three "^lapers of interest 
to readers of this Journal were read : one by Lieutenant Kitchener, on the Survey 
of Galilee ; one by the Eev. F. W, Holland, on his recent journey to Sinai ; and 
one by Captain Burton, on hi^ last expedition to Iilidian. We reproduce the first 
(p. 159), and hope, when the others are published, to present extracts from them. 



We have to regret the death of the Eev. Samuel ;j.Iartin, a member of the 
General Committee froni the foundation of the Society, and "of General; Cameron, • 
R.E., the Director of the Ordnance Survey at Southampton. General Cameron 
had only just joined the General Committee, but had on various occasions 
show-n his appreciation of the work and rendered gi'eat help to the Committee. 



The. death of that great geogi-apher, Herr Petermann, also a member of this 
Committee, is announced at the moment of going to press. His contributions 
to Biblical geography deserve a special notice, which we hope to give next 
quarter. 



The income of the Fund from all sources, from June 27tlrto September 19tli, 
137S, was £814 5s. 4d; The expenditure was as follows : — Exploration, 
£219 13s. 6d. ; ofilce expenses, £172 14s. lid. ; bills, £68 Is. 6d. 



It has been asked whether, since the Survey is finished, the Quartcrhj State- 
ment will be discontinued. The completion of the Survey does not mean the 
completion of the work of the Society, as reference to the original prospectu.s 
will show at once. And there is, inore thaii ever, need of a periodical devoted 
to the special line of research which is the raison d'etre of this QuartcrJij Statenicat. 
It wiU therefore be continued as long as the Society exists and there is work of 
the kind which it represents to be done and reported. 



The first number of the Journal of the new German Association has been 
received. A summ:u-y of its contents will be found on page 201. We .shall receive 
• and exchange the numbers regularly, and propose to transfer to our own columns, 
with due acknowledgment, whatever new intelligence and matter of interest the 
Journal may contain. Under the vigorous management of the Executive Com.- 
mittee elected to carry on the Association it ought to prove successful. 



158 KOTES AND NEWS. 

Several cases have been at various times discovered of postage stamps being 
lost on their way to the office. The only way to avoid such loss is to send money 
by P. 0.0. or by cheque, in every case jJayablc to the order of Walter Bcvnit, Esq., 
and crossed to Coutts and Co., or the Union Ban!:, Charing Cross Branch. 



The ninth thousand of " Our Work in Palestine " is now ready (price 3s. 6d.), 
and may be ordered of booksellers. This book carries the work down to the 
commencement of the Survey, but does not embrace il. Ganneau's discoveries 

nor the results of the Survey itself. 



The following are at present Representatives and Lecturers of the Society, in 
addition to the local Hon. Sees. : — 

Archdeaconry of Hereford : Eev. J. S, Stooke-Vaughan, Wellington Heath 
Vicarage, Ledbury. 

City and neighbourhood of Manchester: Rev. 'W. F. Birch, St. Saviour's 
Rectory. 

Lancashire : Rev. John Bone, St. Thomas's Vicarage, Lancaster. 

London : Rev. Henry Geary, IG, Somerset Street, Portmau Square ; and Mr. 
C. Stuart Lockhart (address at the office). 

Xorwich : Rev. "\V. P. Greeny. 

Suffolk : Rev. F. C. Long, Stow-upland, Sto\\Tnarket. 

Peterborough : Rev. A. J. Foster, Farndish Rectory, Wellingborough. 

Worcester : Rev. F. W. Holland, Evesham (Member of General and Executive 
Committee, and one of the Hon. Secretaries to the Fund). 

Gloucester and Bristol : Mr. John Brion (address at the office). 

Diocese of Rii>on : Pi,ev. T. C. Henley, Kirkby Malham Vicarage. 

Xorth Wales : Rev. John Jones, Treborth, Bangor. 

Yorkshire, Durham, and the North : Rev. James King, 13, Paradise Terrace, 
Darlington. JMr. King has recently returned from the Holy Land ; communi- 
cation's for lectures, &c., can be sent to the Office at Charing Cross. 

Irelaitd.— Rev. G. J. Stokes, Blackrock, Dublin. 

Scotland.— Rev. R. J. Craig, Dalgetty, -Burntisland. 

The Rev. Horrocks .Cocks, 19, Edwardes Square, Kensington, has also kindly 
ffered his services among the Nonconformist churches. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund, the Committee beg it to be dis- 
tinctly understood that they leave such proposals to be discussed on their own 
juerits, and that by publisliiilg them in the Quarterly Statement tlie Committee 
do not sanction or adopt them. 



-Annual subscribers are earnestly requested to forward their subscriptions for 
the current year when due, at their earliest convenience, and without waiting for 
application. 



SURVEY OF GALILEE. 159 

The Committee are always glad to receive old numbers of the Quarterly State- 
■mcnt, especially those wliich have heen advertised as out of priut. 



Attention is called to the statement already advertised, that subscribers to 
the Fund are privileged by the publishers to receive both the " Literary Remains 
of the late Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake," and the " Underground Jerusalem " of 
Captain Warren, at reduced rates. The former book will be sent for ten 
.shillings, the latter for sixteen shillings, postage paid. But letters asking for 
tliem must be sent to the oificc at 11 and 12, Charin" Cross onlv. 



Cases for binding the Quarterly Statement are now ready, and can be had ou 
application to Messrs. E. Bentley and Son, 8, New Burlington Street. They 
are in green or brown cloth, with the stamp of the Society, uniform in 
appearance with "Our Work in Palestine," and are sold at the price of 
cighteenpence. 

Lieut. Kitchener's Guinea Book of Biblical Photographs can be bought at IMr. 
•Stanford's establishment, 55, Chai'ing Cross. It contains twelve views, with a 
.short account of each. They are mounted on tinted boards, and handsomely 
bound. 



SUEVEY OF GALILEE. 

A Paper read Iff ore the Geograplikal Section of the British Association hy 
Lieut. H. H. KixcnENEn, E.E., F.E.G.S. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — I appear before you to-day as the repre- 
sentative of the Palestine Exploration Fund, an association which, as many 
of you are aware, was formed several years ago under the patronage of 
Her Majesty, and of many great functionaries in Church and State, for the 
purpose of exploring the Holy Land. The great work on which, the 
Society has been occupied for the last seven years is a map of Palestine 
on the model of the Ordnance Survey of England and L-eland. 

This map of Palestine from Dan to Beersheba on the 1-inch scale has 
now been completed, and will shortly be published. It was oommenced 
by the Palestine Exploration Fund sending out Major Stewart, II. E., and 
a party of noncommissioned officers at the end of 1871. Major Stewart 
was invalided home after a very short period of service, during which he 
had, however, established a base line on the plain near Eamleh ; this 
base line was over four miles long, and was calculated with considerable 
accm-acy. Mr. -Tyrwhitt Drake had then charge of the party until the 
arrival of Lieutenant Conder, in July, 1872. ' The work then proceeded " 
regularly, the tria"ngulation being carried southwards to the hill country, 
and then northas far as the plain of Esdi-aelon, on which another base 
line was measui-ed. The calculations and measurements of this check 
base agreed most satisfactorily, and proved the accuracy of the whole 
triangulation. In November^ 1874, 1 joined the party, and after a year's 
work in the plain of Philistia, when commencing the survey of Galilee, 



DiAtRAM 
SKEwirto TKt: WORK ocriE 



PALESTINE 

IB77. 



I SURVEYED IS77 
£SS^ REVISED 1877 




SURVEY OF GALILEE. IGl 

we were met at Safed with a fanatical attack from the natives. As after 
this we all sufFej-ed severely from fever, and chftlera was spreading rapidly 
all over the country, the party Avas withdrawn. After eighteen months of 
plotting and fair-drawing the work we had done, Lieutenant Condor's 
health not allowing him to retjirn to the coimtry, I was entrusted with 
the command of an expedition to finish the Survey of Galilee. My 
party consisted of t'hreo noncommissioned officers of the Iloyal Engineers, 
appointed from the Ordnance Survey. I left in January, 1877, and by 
the end of February my men had joined me at Haifa, and everything 
was ready for an active campaign. 

On the 27th of Febrna^y work was commenced. The survey of the 
Plain of Acre occupied one noncommissioned officer, while the other 
two and myself were employed in taking up the line of levels between 
the Mediterranean and the Sea of Galilee, for whicli a special grant had 
been received from this Association. After discovering our former bench 
mark at Mejdel the levelling went on swimmingly, almost too much so 
while ci-ossing the swampy plain and the Kishon swollen by the winter 
rains. A paper on the sviccessful completion of this line of levels was 
read by Major Wilson at the last meeting of this Association. 

The weather was hardly settled at this time ; storms of wind and rain 
made our tents no very pleasant abode. On the 8th of March the levelling 
and surveying were completed,, and we marched across the country to 
Hattin, breaking the journey for one night at Nazareth. 

Hattin is a village of some importance, well situated for our work. The 
natives proved civil and obliging. Our camp consisted of five Egyptian 
tents, seven little Arab horses, seven mules, four Europeans, ten 
natives, and two bashi-bazouks with their horses, attached to us by 
the Government. . . _ 

From this camp we had to pick up the old triangulation-points which 
had been left on the withdrawal of the party in 187-5. The cairns we 
had built wei'e all destroyed, but after a careful search we found th.e 
broad arrows cut on the rock under where the cairns had been, and were 
thus able to carry on the triangulation from a base of 25 miles, and other 
calculated liue^ from 8 to 12 miles long ; < subsequently, after carrying 
the triangulation round the country, as will be described, the calculated 
length of this base was only 66 feet different from the measurement we 
had started with, or a little more than 2 feet in the mile of possible 
error. On our scale, this error in 25 miles is only the thickness of a 
pencil line. 

The triangulation. took eight days from, this camp, as the old cairns 
had to be rebuilt, and new ones erected in the northern country. By 
thus doing the triangulation and survey of the ground from each camp, 
we were able to keep both going together ; and the strength qf my party 
was not sufficient to adopt any other method. While observing from 
the top of Mount Tabor I examined three chapels recently unearthed by 
the Eoman Catholic monks; they date from Crusading times, when this 
was supposed to be the Mount of the Transfiguration, and the three 



DIAGRAM 

C" TRIANCULATION 



NORTHERN 'PORTION 

OF SURVEY OP 



PALESTINE 



CELrorT 




tltSY QAHY 



SURVEY OF GALILEE. 1G3 

cliapels are mentioned in old chronicles of that time. The massive 
fortifications on the top of the mount, enclosing tlicso later remains, 
were probably those erected here by Joscphus in order to resist the 
Roman armies under Vespasian ; they consist of a solid wall built of 
large drafted stones, flanked at intervals by square towers enclosing a 
large rectangular space that occupied the whole of the top of the hill. 

Looking down on the broad plain of Esdraelon stretched out from our 
feet, it is impossible not to remember that this is the greatest battle- 
field of the world, from the days of Joshua and the defeat of the might}'- 
host of Sisera, till, almost in otir own days, Napoleon.the Great fought the 
battle of Mount Tabor; and here also is the ancient Megiddo, where 
the last great battle of Armageddon is to be fought. 

The country surrounding our camp was formed of decomposed basalt 
and the ashes and debris thrown from the volcanoes that once occupied 
this region ; in some places the black basalt rock crops out, but the 
general colour of 'the ground is a deep red. Immediately above our 
camp was one of these extinct volcanoes ; it is called the Kurn Hattin, 
or Horns of Hattin, being two peaks on the top of a steep mountain, 
having between them the crater of an extinct volcano ; it-will ever be* 
remembered as the scene of the final struggle of the Crusaders after the 
fatal battle on the plain below. On the top was the king surrounded 
by his nobles, with the chiefs of the great Orders of the Temj)lars and 
the Hospitallers, hemmed in on all "sides by the seething masses of the 
Saracen host under Saladin. Thrice the heights were stormed and thrice 
the besiegers were driven back with immense slaughter, till at last, 
worn out by thirst, fatigue, and the hopeless task of holding out 
against such odds, the brave Remnant surrendered and the Christian 
power in the country ceased to exist. Curiously enough, we found the 
plain just below still retains a reminiscence of this scene; it is called 
the Plain of Burnus, the Arabic designation of Count Rainaud of 
Chatillon, Seigneur of Kerak, who had caused the war by plundering a 
convoy of Moslem pilgrims, among whom was the mother of Saladin ; 
he was killed immediately after the battle by the hand of Saladin himself. 

During our triangulation we found some little difficulty from the 
natives, who thought we were magicians, with power to find hidden 
treasure under the ground, and that our cairns were marks to remember 
the places by. It was. an unfortunate idea, as the result was that in 
tlie night time our cairns often disappeared, and the natives groped 
through any earth to the rock below, hoping to forestall us. After 
making the offenders rebuild the cairns on one or two occasions these 
annoyances ceased. 

On the completion of the triangulation, the levelling had to be talcen 
up from the last point on the line. The bench mark was found without 
difficulty. It was most fatiguing work dragging the levelling staves 
and heavy instruments over the rough country, and when the descent 
below the sea-level, in a steep narrow gorge, was attained, it was 
extremely trying ; however, in seven days' work, IG^ miles were 



164 SXJUTEY OF GALILEE. 

accomplislied and tile seashore .was readied, giving a depression of 
682 feet 6 inches below the Mediterranean. 

The survey of the detail had then to be done. Our process was very 
well suited to this open and barren country. From the lixed triangula- 
tion-points a number of supplementary angles were taken to every 
village, hill- top; prominent tree,-or important object in view; as this was 
done froni every point when these lines were plotted, we had intersections 
■fixilig these objects. Practically almost every place of importance was 
fixed in this way. 

The surveyor then started with this diagram of fixed points, and by the 
interpolation of the angles taken with his prismatic compass was able to 
fix his own position at any point on paper ; he then sketched in by eye 
the detail that was in his close vicinity, and by going through the same 
process all over his work the detail was obtained with considerable 
accuracy. The heights of all places of importance were taken by ane- 
roids, besides the calculated heights of all the triaugul.ation points. These 
aneroids were checked morning and evening with a standard barometer' 
kept in camp. The slopes of the hills were taken by Abney's level, 
,and on returning to camp in the evening a report was made of all 
ruins, villages, and water-supply* in the work of the day. The 
nomenclature was written down in Arabic by a well-edncated scribe 
kept for that purpose. Each surveyor had a guide with him, who gave 
the names of the different places. , The surveyor wrote them down as 
near as he could to the sound, and on returning to camp he repeated them 
in front of the guide and the scribe. The guide then pronounced the 
names correctly, and the scribe wrote it down from him. I afterwards 
transliterated the Arabic in accordance with Robinson's method, and the 
proper spelling was thus obtained and written on the map. 

Every possible check on the veracity of the natives was employed by 
asking numbers of people independently the names. 

Dishonest guides were dismissed, and as these people are peculiarly 
susceptible oi sarcasm, the offenders were not happy when they were 
laughed out of camp for not knowing their own country as well as we 
knew it. 

One of the great values of the map is the number of unknown names 
it has made public ; thus on this part of the survey 2,770 names were 
•collected, only about 450 of which are to be found on the best existing 
map of the coiintry. 

Another is the accuracy of these names, taken down from the natives 
in a manner never attempted before, and the result has been to throw a 
vast light on the ancient nomenclature of the country and the origin of 
the races that inhabit it. 

The survey of the detail took five more days, and on the 27th March 
"we were able to move camp to Tiberias, with the assurance of having no 
obstacle of a technical nature to hinder our work. Our camp was 
pitched along the shores of the sea, and as the Governor had already 
received a reprimand from the Pasha of Acre for not answering a letter 
of mine, we were well received by the officials. 



SURVEY OF GALILEE. 165 

The scenery of the lake is decidedly monotonous, l:ftit there is a great 
charm in that dry and thirsty land in having a vast expanse of fresh 
water spread out before the eyes, and at night the effect of the moon in 
Eastern brightness shining on the calm lake was exceedingly beautiful. 
During the survey of the shores we made one considerable discoveiy: 
the site of ■ Sennabris, mentioned by Josephus as the place where 
Vespasian pitched his camp when marching on the insurgents of 
Tiberias. The name Sinn en Nabra still exists, and is well known to 
the natives ; it applies to a ruin situated on a spur from the hills that 
close the southern end of the Sea of Galilee ; it formed, therefore, the 
defence against tin invader from the Jordan plain, and blocked the gi'^iit 
main road in the valley. 

Close beside it there is a large artificially-formed- plateau, defended 
by a water-ditch on the south, communicating with Jordan, and by 
the Sea of Galilee on the north. This is called Kh. el Kerak, and is, I 
have not the slightest doubt, the remains of Vespasian's camp described 
by Josephus. It is just like another Eoman camp found near Jenin, 
where an army was camped. Thus we have an example still in the 
country of the military precision of those irresistible conquerors. This 
Kh. el Kerak has been identified with Tarichece, but, as Major Wilson 
has i^ointed out, that site must be sought to the north of Tiberias. 
The finding of Sennabris, the place where the Eoman host encamped 
before marching on Tiberias and Tarichese, clearly proves that the latter 
place could not have been anywhere near the southern end of the lake. 

The next point of interest on the shore is the hot springs of the 
Hammam, three copious springs burst out of the rock, with a tempera- 
ture of 140 deg., and containing a considerable quantity of sulphur. 
Baths have b3en built, and they have been famous for ages for the cures 
of rheumatism and other disorders. They are constantly used by the 
natives, who often come-from long distances to benefit by them. 

The ruins of ancient Tiberias with its sea-walls and scattered 
columns extend nearly as far south as these springs, and it may be 
fairly supposed that the modern site of the town is situated to the 
north of the ancient place. 

The next point of interest is the site of Tarichese, an important towr- 
on the seashore. We know that it could not have been far from 
Tiberias, on the northern side, also that.it was strong to the south, but 
had a plain to the north, for Vespasian, attacking from the south, 
sent his cavalry under Titus round the town to attack the Jews on the 
open grotmd, where he routed them, and entered the town with the 
fugitives. A ruined site was found answering to all these qualifica- 
tions at Kh. Kuneitriah, situated on the top of a steep round hill 
rising abruptly from the seashore. This was, in my opinion, the 
citadel of Tarichsea ; the town itself was probably on the plain to the 
north, along the seashore, where there are traces of ruins and springs 
of water. 

Passing the ruin and the plain beyond, the path leads along the side 



1(35 ■ SURVEY OF GALILEE. 

of the steep slope of the hills, with rocky cliffs towering above, and the 
sea almost directly below; turning a corner, the Plain of Gennesareth 
lies spread out before ns,with the cluster of ruined hovels of the village 
of Mejdel in the foreground. A fine stream of water irrigates this 
portion of the plain from Wady Hamam, the narrow gorge through which 
the levelling had been brought down, with cliffs 1,000 feet high on 
either side. In those on the southern side are the romantic caves of 
the brigands who were subdued by Herod the Great by letting down 
n-angsof soldiers on platforms from above on the despairing defenders : 
these, sooner than be taken captive, slew one another with their swords. 
I, explored the caves, which consist of galleries at different heights 
conducted along the face of the precipice leading to different sizedcham- 
bers ; some appeared natural, while others were artificial ; there were 
spacious halls, small sleeping-places, and some enormous stables, all 
cut out of the solid rock. Water was brought by a long aqueduct, 
cut in the face of the precipice, and poured down into cisterns inside 
the fortress. The place has been since occupied by Ai-ab marauders, 
who have built walls to defend the outside of the galleries and round 
towers at different elevations on the face of the rock, to bring a flanking 
fii-e on the entrance, which was reached by a long flight cf basalt steps. 
Now all is ruined, and only forms the resting-place of the eagle and 
the vulture ; but in the bright future that seems to be about to dawn 
on that land, what a delightfully cool retreat this would make for the 
owner of the fair plain stretched out 1,000 feet below. 

Beyond Mejdel on the Plain of Gennesareth, and round the northern 
shores of the lake, are the most interesting sites of all ; Capernaum, 
Chorazin, and Bethsaida. The country here has been so carefully 
examined by Major Wilson -that the survey was not able to throw much 
new light on the question of these sites, the solution of which 
must be sought underground. I am sorry I ccmnot agree with Major 
Wilson on the position of Capernaum at Tell Hum, but would rather 
place it at Kh. Minyeh on the plain, believing the fine remains of Tell 
Hvim to be the relics of the known grandeur of the ancient Bethsaida. 
The clearing ^^p of this intensely interesting question by means of ex- 
cavation is one of the objects to be attained by the future expedition 
that the Palestine Exploration Fund intends sending out as soon as 
sufficient funds are available. 

On the 4th April our camp was moved to Khan Jubb Tusef, situated 
on the great Damascus road, and some distance from any inhabited 
village. The country round is occupied by wandering tribes of Bedouin 
Arabs with their goat flocks ; to the east it is a mass of basalt which 
has flowed over the country, and down to the shores of the lake ; to the 
west we had the limestone hills of Safed. 

I visited the extensive ruins of Kerazeh, the ancient Chorazin, and 
was struck with the jn-ecision and minuteness of the ornamentation of 
ihc niches of the ruined synagogue cut out of the hardest basalt, and 
remaining as fresh and sharp as they were when new. 



fiURVEY Oi' GALILEE. 



167. 



On tlio lOtli we marcliccl to Safed, tho scone of our conflict with the 
natives on a former occasion. Mr. Eldridge, the British Consul- 
General for Syria, had kindly arranged that I should be well re- 
ceived, and the arrival of H.M.S. Torch at Acre, of which I was 
informed by telegram, made it certain that I should not be molested 
on this occasion. The governor of Safed, with a score of soldiers 
and followers, came out half way to my camp to meet me, and we 
rode into the town in a triumphal procession. I remained six 
days, and was much annoyed by the continual visitors I had to 
receive. The most interesting of these was Aly Agha, the cause of 
our former impleaoantness. Now he came as a ruined, humble man, 
after undergoing his term of imprisonment, to beg for forgiveness. I was 
glad to be able to remit a small portion of the fine, some £(50, that had 
not been paid, on account of their good behaviour on this occasion. 
TJnfortmiately our standard barometer was broken on the journey to 
Safed. I had to send to our store at Haifa for a duplicate one to be 
brought on foot. 

The country was natitrally very much excited about whether there 
would be war or not. and I was very pleased to learn on the very 
best Turkish authority that peace was assured, Bismarck having 
been dismissed. Unfortunately, next day a cipher telegram from 
Mr. Eldi'idge»warned me that war was declared and advised a retreat. 

I visited a Mohammedan sacred place in the town called the Mukam 
Benat Yakub, or the sacred j)lace of the daughters of Jacob. Many 
legends were attached to the j)lace. I was shown without difficulty into 
the little mosque and then into a large square cave, which had originally 
been a tomb of some importance. Two I'ows of recesses for sai-cophagi 
lined the walls. Here tradition relates that Jacob and his children 
lived, and that when he was old and blind they brought him Joseph's 
coat, and the smell of it- at once cured him. On regaining the outer 
mosque I saw a small door with a green curtain hanging ovei' it and 
incense burning in front ; this I was told was the tomb of the seven 
daughters of Jacob. There they were said to be aU as in life, their 
beauty unimpaired, but it was too sacred to be approached by any 
but a true believer. I insisted, and was then told that these beautiful and 
holy maids were very quick to take offence, and devoured any one who 
came too near their place of rest. However, after a little persuasion 
I pushed the sheikh aside and squeezed through the hole, being nearly 
stifled with the bad incense. After a drop of some feet I found 
myself on the floor of a cave that opened into another. I explored 
the caves, one of which had been a tomb; the roof had fallen in, 
probably in the earthquake of 1838. No recumbent Semitic beauties 
awaited me, and I was very glad to get out into the fresh air again. 

Our next camp was at Meiron, where we were received very cordially, 
owing to the governor of the district, who accompanied us thus far, 
informing the villagers that if we were not well treated ia every- 
thing he would come next day and burn the village down. 

o 



168 SURVEY OF GALILEE. 

From this camp the trianguLitioii Vequirecl a considerable amount o£ 
attention. The Jebel Jermuk, the highest peak in Galilee, reaching an 
altitude 3,930 feet, had been observed from the south, but now it was 
necessary to ascend and obsex've from it ; this was accomplished, and 
the triangulation was thrown well forward to the north, but I clearly 
foresaw that the triangulation woi^Jid not allow of our descending 
to the low, unhealthy Huleh marshes as early in the year as I had 
hoped .to do, and another two or three ca,mps must intervene before we 
got that critical portion of the survey accomplished. 

The village of Meiron is a famous Jewish place of pilgrimage, for 
there Rabbi Shamai andHillel and the great SimeonBenJochai lie buried. 
The rocks around are honeycombed with ancient tombs, and there 
still remains an almost perfect facade of an ancient synagogue, dating 
pi'obably from the second century after Christ. 

The great pilgrimage of the year came off while we were there, on 
the 30th April, and lasted three days. The Jews arrived in thousands 
on foot, on donkeys, camels, or mules ; some came from great distances — 
it was said some even came from England ; and yet it was a very bad 
year, owing to the distitrbed state of the country. The governor 
arrived to keep order, and a guard of soldiers protected the roads. 
This was no unnecessary precaution, as the first day they brought in 
an Arab they had shot while rifling some stragglers on the line. In 
the evening the ceremonies began in the large modern building that 
.contains the tomb of Rabbi Simeon Ben Jochai. The whole place was 
turned into a fair — feasting, dancing, and singing went on all night ; 
great torches were lighted over the tomb and lit up the motley crowd ; 
into these torches, or rather braziers, the devotees cast embroidered 
scarves, silks, and dresses. The chief rabbi sells by auction the right to 
light up these fires, and is said to clear £200 in one hight. 

The men kept up an incessant din with rude instruments and 
singing ; they ran round and round in circles, holding each other's 
hands and occasionally throwing np their arms ; they were all dressed 
in dirty long dressing-gowns and huge felt hats. Lit up by the 
blazing torches they had the most grotesque appearance. The contrast 
between all these intensely- excited Jews, some of them apparently 
intoxicated, and the solemn, unmoved serenity of the Turkish Governor 
and officials, sitting on their mats smoking, was very striking. 

The women occupied the upper chambers of the building, and seemed 
.more devout ; some of them were engaged in prayer. They have a 
firm conviction that these pilgrimages insure their having children. 

The principal results of the survey of this district were the discovery 
of three dolmens. During the course of the survey eight dolmens were 
discovered, and as these are the first that have been noted in Palestine, it 
adds a new -district to those already known to possess these rude stone 
monuments, and may be a connecting link between the ancient 
inhabitants of Europe and India. 

Thp remains of two synagogues, unobserved hitherto, were discovered. 



IJUliVEY OF GALILEE. 1G9 

one at Siifsaf and the other at el Jish. These add considerably to our 
knowledge of these interestiuf? buildings, and the discovery -of the 
Roman eagle • engraved in relief in the synagogue of el Jisli adds 
new proof that these buildings are due to Roman influence over a 
subjugated people. The eleven specimens that remain to us of these 
buildings were carefully examined and j)lanned during the course of the 
survey where it was possible to trace the original work. 

On the 3rd of May I moved camp to Dibl, a Christian village. I 
had received a telegram from the Society directing me to take steps for 
the safety of the party, and I th'erefore attached four bashi-bazouks 
to the expedition as guards. AVe thus formed a large party, quite 
capable of resisting any small fanatical rising ; and as most of the 
vcung men had been drafted away in the conscription, I had no fear of 
ti sreneral massacre of the Christians. 

The inhabitants of Dibl were packing their few portable articles, and 
preparirig for flight to Tyre, when we arrived. 

Our greeting was most enthusiastic, as they at once determined not 
to desert their village and crops, and to remain under our protection. 
There are a good many Christian villages in this part of the country 
quite distinct from the Moslems. A Christian village can be known 
from a distance by the greenness of its vineyards and fields, in striking 
contrast to the barren desolation surrounding most Moslem villages. 
The terrible fatalism of their religion destroys the country. " If God 
■wills that fi'uit trees or vineyards should grow they "will grow," says the 
Moslem, as he sits and sttiokes. 

These Christians are perfectly distinct from the Levantine mongrel 
race of Greeks who inhabit the towns on the seacoaet. They^re poor, 
honest, and very religious, though not very intelligent ; their creed is 
either Maronite or Greek, generally a mixture. The Maronite priests 
marry, and are looked up to as the father of their flock, and their 
director and representative in all cases of difficulty. It was soon spread 
through the neighbouring Christian villages that we had arrived, and a 
deputation of the priests came to me for advice. I recommended them 
to remain quietly at their villages, and to warn their people not to get 
into any dispute with the Moslems. 

They were very anxious to buy arms and defend themselves, but that 
course might have led to what they most dteaded. I am glad to say 
that our influence in the countrj' at this crisis caused these poor 
Christians to remain in theii" vi