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Full text of "Quarterly statement - Palestine Exploration Fund"

THE J. PAUL GETTY MUSEUM LIBRARY 



PALESTINE 
EXPLORATION FUND 



Patron— THE QUEEN. 



Quarterly Statement 



FOR 1881, 



y/3 /v 



LONDON: 
SOCIETY'S OFFICE, i, ADAM STREET, ADELPHI, 

AND BY 

RICHARD BENTLEY & SON, 8, NEW BURLINGTON STREET. 



THE J PAUL GETTY CENTER 



I lODADX/ 



INDEX. 



Aarotli Adar, 41. 
Abel Meholali, 42. 
Adasa, 46. 
Aceldama, 271. 
Adraha, 77. 
Adullam, 44, 46. 
^non, 47. 
Ai, 36. 

Ain Kadeirat, 211. 
Ain Kariui, 101. 
Ain Kaseimeh, 211. 
Ain Qadis, 208, 211. 
Alali el Benat. 
Almon, 45. 

Anderson Major, death of, 243. 
Antipatris, 47. 
Anuath, 48. 
Aphek, 101. 
Apheka, 83. 
Ardir, 41. 

Assyrians, the, in Eastern Pales- 
tine, 224. 
Azotus, Mount, 45. 
Baalbek, 158. 
Bahnrim, 45. 
Balak's Altars, 278. 
Beit Anla, 89. 
Belfast, Meeting at, 136. 
Beth Haccerem, 271. 
Beth Eima, 48. 
Bethabara, 46. 
Bethel, 81. 
Bethulia, 45, 194. 
Berea, 45. 
Berzetho, 45. 
Bezek, 44. 

Biblical gains from the Survev, 34. 
Birkel el Melti, 189. 
B irk el es Seijideh, 190. 
Birket Israwy, 189. 
Hirket Suf S'afeh, 189. 
Borceos, 48. 
Bostra, 79. 
Cain, 37. 
Calvary, 48, 201. 
Cana of Galilee, 46. 
Capernaum, 47. 
Carmel, ts2. 



Choresli Ziph, 44. 
Cities of the Plain, 37. 
City and Tomb of David, 94. 
City of David, 327. 
Cliff in Haram, supposed, 56. 
Conder's, Lieut., Reports, 158, 246. 
Cubit, the, 296. 
Dean Stanley, death of, 240. 
Debir, 40, 4i. 
Deir Aban, 43. 
Deir esh Shebab, 259. 
Dera, 78. 

Eastern Palestine, Survey of, 26. 
Ebenezer> 100. 
Edinburgh, meeting in, 66. 
Egyptian Bronze, 125. 
Egyptian Harbour of Tyre, 181. 
Ephraim and Manasseh, boundary of, 
90. 

Elal, 44. 

Elam, 43. 

Eleasa, 45. 

Eleazar, Tomb of, 40. 

Emmaus, 46, 237, 274. 

Elam, 323. 

Exodus, Egyptian view of the, 229. 

Exodus, Topography of the, 145. 

EaUow Deer, the, 39. 

Gath, 44. 

Gelse Hemdeyeh, 105. 

General Committee, 131. 

Gerar, 38. 

Gezer, 46. 

Gibeh, 44. 
GibeoTi, 255. 

Gideon's Wine Press at Ophrah, 235. 

Gilgal, 40. 

Hachilab, 44. 

Hajr Dabkan, 82. 

Hamath lusci'iptions, 118. 

Hareth, 44. 

Harosheth, 42. 

Harrah, el, 73. 

H zor, 40. 

Hebron, 266. 

" Hebrew Migration," the, 110. 

Hcrmon, 82. 

Hiding PLices in Canaan, 235, 323. 



■^ "?; ^.^'^ c^ 



IV 



INDEX. 



Hinnom, Valley of, 103. 

Hittite Art, 174. 

Hittite Inscriptions, 221. 

Hittites, Capital of the, 218. 

Hittites, the. 218. 

Holland, death of Eev., 244. 

Holy Sepulchre, the, 205. 

Horns, Lake of, 165. 

Horns, 175. 

House of Aphrah, 85. 

House of Stoning, 48. 

Ibleam, 87. 

Idhameh, 77. 

Index of Identifications, 49. 

Inscription at the Pool of Siloam, 69, 

141, 282. 
Jacob's Well, 194, 195, 212. 
Jam Suph, 104, 107, 322. 
Jannes and Jambres, 311. 
Jar Handles, 304. 
Jebel Jermuk, 82. 
Jebel Qadis, 210. 
Jerivet Aly, 173. 
Jerusalem, 187, 272. 
Jett, 196. 

Jewish Tomb, Ancient, 203. 
Jezreel, Yalley of, 42. 
Job, Pillar of, 83. 
Joshua's Tomb, 46. 
Jufna, 196. 
Kadesh, 163. 
Kadesh Barnea, 60, 208. 
Kamxia el Hirmil, 161. 
Kenites, the, 37. 
Kefr Haris, 40. 
Kirjatli Jearim, 43. 
Khurbet el Beida, 75. 
Khurbet el Haiyeh. 
Kliurbet Hai. 
Khurbet Haiyan. 
Khurbet Dar Haiyeh. 
Khurbet el Lawatin, 187- 
Khurbet Umm el Ainud. 
Kvirn Siu'tabeh, 84. 
Kuryet el Anab, 43. 
Laodicea, 167. 
Lejah, the, 75. 
Life, Habits, and Customs of th. 

Fellahin, 110, 297. 
Liverpool, Meeting at, 140. 
Mahaneh Dan, 43. 
Mahrakah, el, 82. 
Manning, Eev. Dr., death of, 246. 
Makkedale, 40. 
Malhah, 82. 
Marina, 176. 
Manchester, Meeting at, 139. 



Meeting, Jerusalem Chamber, 5. 

Megiddo, 45, 86, 232, 319. 

Melkarth, Temple of, 183. 

Meselieh, 194. 

Migdol, 106. 

Mizpeh, 91. 

Mujedda, 45. 

Muristan, 274. 

Nablus, 199. 

Nakurah, 193. 

Native Customs, 49. 

Natives of Palestine, 325. 

Neby Mashuk, 83, 186. 

Nebo, Mount, 275. 

Negeb, the, 37. 

Nephtoah, waters of, 41. 

Pala? Tyrus, 185. 

Peretie, M., collection of, 214. 

Pliinehas, Tomb of, 40. 

Pihariroth, 105. 

Place of Stoning, 317. 

Pool of Sdoam, Inscription at, 69, 141, 

282. 
Prospectus of the Survey of Eastern 
Palestine, 26. 

Ram, er, 196. 

Eas el Ain, 188. 

Ras es Sherifeh, 101. 

Eemtha, 78. 

Eev. F. W. Holland, death of, 244. 

Rock Eimmou, 247. 

Safah, es, 75. 

Sal, 78. 

Scapegoat, the, 38. 

Scapegoat, Mountain of the, 205. 

Sechu, 44. 

Sirbonian Bog, 105. 

Seirath, 102. 

Seis, 76. 

Sefinet Neby Niih, 169. 

Sela-ham-Mahlekoth, 44. 

Seneh and Bozez, 41. 

Shabatana, 169. 

Shatat, 81. 

Sheikh Iskander, 83. 

Shen, 101. 

ShUoh, 81. 

Sidd, the, 171. 

Siloam, 197. 

Sinnabris, 48. 

Sodom, 101. 

Stanley, death of Dean, 243. 

Sisera. defeat of, 42. 

Stoning, place of, 48, 317. 

Sun worship in Syria, 80. 

Survey of Eastern Palestine, 26. 

Sychar, 47. 



INDEX. 



Tabor, 81. 
Tappuah, en, 195. 
Teli Asm-, SI. 
Tell el Baheireh, 171. 
TeU el Habish, 188. 
Tell el Hli-, 106. 
Tell, et, 

Tell Koteineh, 171. 
Tell Neby Mendeh, 165. 
Teller Kama, 101. 
TeU Shomarin, 171. 
TiUilia, 268. 



Tiphsali, 45. 

Tomb of David, 97. 

Topography of the Exodus, 105. 

Tribe Boundaries, 40. 

Tripoli, 176. 

Tyre, 178. 

Umm el Burak. 

Usileh, 77. 

Wady Qadis, 211. 

Wady Warran, 77. 

Yekin, 37. 

ZephathaJi, 89. 



g^^gtv-^^W^ ^e^.jrrem^J>a7estuw Hacplo 



ratioTv H/iuZ Si/rvey 



o n w n 




Stu'rcs from the Surx'c^ Map 



^Ea^tefn Shores- as at vre^ent Jmmvrv. 




tU One incJi to One nicU 



•Sran/b^dK Geoa^Xjoi 



We^'tejm StuTrB3 beroTe Jne jro^es-iuu^y ^^j,c/«//^/x<r/cy ^^.^^^^ -^^ 




The Committee earnestly request all Subscribers to the 
Great Map to pay for it immediately on receipt of their 
copies. The next Edition will be ready in January. 
Names are received at the Office. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Notes and News . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 1 

Eepoet of Meeting held at Jerusalem Chambee, Nov. 30, 

1880 5 

Prospectus of the New Survey . . . . . . . . . . 26 

Some of the Biblical Gains of the Survey . . . . , . 34 

Supposed Cliff in the Haeam . . . . . . . . . . 56 

Kadesh Baenea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 



ADDITION'AL. 

Since this number of the (Quarterly Statement was sent to press, accounts have been 
received of Lectures held at Marlborough College, Tunbridge Wells, and Speldhurst. 
Particidars will be pubhshed in the next number. The Eev. W. F. Birch has also sent 
in the following list from Manchester : — 



MANCHESTER. 











£ s. 


d. 








Oct. 12, by cheque 






4 3 









Nov. 3 








■ 6 16 


6 






Nov. 30 




. . 




4 4 









Dec. 14 


£ 


*. 


d. 


2 2 







s. 






Total .. 17 5 


6 










i ^ 


d. 


rtT. W. Freston, Esq 


1 








«Ven. Ai-chdeacon Birch 




' 1 


1 





Eev W. S. Barnes-Slacke . . 


1 


1 





rtj. H. Montgomery, Esq. 




1 


1 





rtJohu Krauss, Esq. . . 


1 


1 





r/Joseph Yates, Esq. . . 




1 


1 





aPrincipal Greenwood (Owens 








rtS. Cottam, Esq. 




1 


1 





College) 


1 


1 





aEev. T. H. Guest 







10 


6 


rtEev. J. Chippendall . . 


1 


1 





ffEev. T. N. Farthing . . 




i 


10 


6 


rt James Heelis, Esq. . . 


1 


1 





rtJ. B. Lee. Esq. 




i 


10 


6 


«Mrs. Grace Calvert . . 


1 


1 





rtEev. H. D. Eawnsley 







10 


6 


tiRev. W. Sjmonds . . 





10 


6 


aEev. H. A. Crosbie . . 




1 1 


1 





/7Epv E C TTore 





10 


ft 






1 






«Rev. Canon Tonge . . 





1\J 

10 


6 


Tota^ 


..17 


5 


6 


/^fYen. Archdeacon Anson 


1 


1 
















THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND: 

A SOCIETY FOR THE ACCURATE AND SYSTEMATIC INVESTIGATION 
OF THE ARCHJEOLOaY, THE TOPOGRAPHY, THE GEOLOGY 
AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF 
THE HOLY LAND, FOR BIBLICAL ILLUSTRATION. 



PATRON : 
HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE: 
ARCHBISHOP OF YORK, President. 



Dr. H. W. Acland, F.R.S. 

Rev. W. Lindsay Alexander, D.D. 

Rev. Henry Allon, D.D. 

The President of the American Asso- 
ciation. 

W. Amhurst T. Amherst, Esq., M.P. 

Major Anderson, C.M.G., R.E. 

Ret. Joseph Angcs, D.D. 

Duke of Argyll, K.T. 

Edward Atkinson, Esq., F.R.C.S. 

James Bateman, Esq., F.K.S., F.L.S. 

Rev. Canon Birch. 

Samuel Birch, Esq., LL.D., D.C.L. 

Rev. W. F. Birch. 

Rev. H. M. Butler, D.D. 

Marquis of Bute, K.T. 

Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Earl oe Carnarvon. 

T. Chaplin, Esq., M.D., Uon. Sec. for 
Jeru.ialem. 

Bishop of Chester. 

Dean of Chester. 

Dean of Christchurch. 

Lord Alfred Churchill. 

Lord Clermont. 

J. D. Crace, Esq. 

Lieut. Conder, R.E. 

Colonel Cooke, C.,^., R.E. 

John Cunliffe, Esq. 

Duke of Devonshire, K.G., F.R.S. 

Earl of Ducie. 

Professor Donaldson. 

Earl of Dufferin, K.P., K.C.B. 

Bishop of Durham. 

F. A. Eaton, Esq. 

S. Jackson Eldridge, Esq., Beiirout. 

Sir Howard Elphinstone, K.C.B. 

Bishop of Exeter. 

Rev. Canon Farrar, D.D. 

James Fekgusson, Esq., F.R.S. 

A. Lloyd Fox. 



H. W. Freeland, Esq. 

M. C. Clermont-Ganneau. 

F. Waymouth Gibbs, Esq , C.B. 

Rev. C. D. Ginsburg, LL D. 

James Glaisher, Esq., F R.S. {Chair- 
man of the Executive Committee) . 

Cyril C. Graham, Esq. 

George Grove, Esq , D.C L. {Hon. Sec. 

Samuel Gurney, Esq , F.R.G.S , F.L.S. 

Rev. H. Hall-Houghton. 

H. A. Harper, Esq. 

Rev. J. C. Harrison. 

Rev. F. W. Holland {Hon. Sec.) 

A. J. B. Bekesford Hope, Esq., M.P. 

Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.I. 

Holman Hunt, Esq. 

Bishop of Jerusalem. 

Lieut. H. H. Kitchener, R.E., F.R.G.S. 

E. H. Lawrence, Esq. 

Right Hon. Sir A. H. Layard, K.C.B. 

Sir F. Leighton, P.R.A. 

Genekal Sir J. Henry Lefrov, C.B., 

K.C.M.G. 
Professor Hayter Lewis. 
Bishop of Lichfield. 
Dean of Lichfield. 
Bishop of Llandaff. 
Samuel Lloyd, Esq. 
Bishop of London. 
John MacGregor, Esq. 
W. McArtuur, Esq., M.P. 
Duke of Marlborough, K G. 
Rrv. Samuel Manning. LL.D. 
Master of University College, 

Oxford. 
R. B. Martin, Esq., M.P. 
Henry Maudslay', Esq. 
Edward Miall, Esq. 
Rev. Dr. Moffatt. 
Sir Moses Mo.ntefioke. Bart. 



General Committee (continued). 

Noel Temple Moore, Esq., H.B.M. 

Consul, Jerusalpm. 
Samuel Morley, Ei^q., M.P. 
W. Morrison, Esq. (Trrasurer). 
John Mtjrrat, Esq., F.E.d.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart. 
Duke of Northumberland. 
Dean of Norwich. 
Laurence Oliphant, Esq. 
Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommannet. 
Professor Owen, C.B.,F.R.S. 
Professor E. H. Palmer. 
Sir S. Morton Peto. Bart. 
Eev. Prof. Plumptre. 
Eev. Prof. Pritchard, F.R.S. 
Eev. Prof. Pusey, D.D. 
The President, Queen's College, 

Belfast. 
Rev. Prof. Eawlinson. 
Henry Reeve, Esq., C.B. 
Marquis of Ripon, K.G. 
Bishop of Ripon. 



Bishop of Rochester. 

Dr. Sandreczky. 

Rt. Hon. Viscount Sandon, M.P. 

Lord Henry J. M. D. Scott, M.P. 

Earl of Shaftesbury, K.G. 

William Simpson, Esq., F.R.G.S. 

William Smith, Esq., LL.D. 

W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 

Major R. W. Stewart, R.E. 

Rev. John Stoughton, D.D. 

Duke of Sutherland, K.G-. 

Lord Talbot de Malahide. 

William Tipping, Esq. 

Rev. Canon Tristram, LL.D., F.R.S. 

W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., F.R.S. 

The Marquis de VootfE. 

LiEUT.-CoL. Warren, C.M.G., R.E. 

Dean of Westminsthr, F.R.S. 

Duke of Westminster, K.G. 

LiEUT.-CoL. Wilson, C.B., R.E., F.R.S. 

Bishop of Winchester. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE : 
Chai man.-- J AMES GLAISHER, Esq. 



Major Anderson. 
Samuel Birch, Esq. 
J. D. Grace, Esq. 
F. A. Eaton, Esq. 
George Grove. Esq. 
Samuel Gurney, Esq. 
Rev. F. W. Holland. 



Professor Haytkr Lewis. 
John MacGregor. Esq. 
Walter Morrison, Esq. 
William Simpson, Esq. 
Rev. Canon Tristram. 
W. S. W. Vaux, Esq. 
LiEUT.-CoL. Warren. 



Banlcers — Messrs. Coutts and Co., 59, Strand. The Union Bank of London, 
Charing Cross Branch, QQ, Charing Cross. 

Treaaiirer — Walter Morrison, Esq. 

Son. Secretaries — Rev. F. W. Holland, and George Geove, Esq. 

Acting Secretary — Walter Besant, Esq. Office, 1 Adam Street, Adelphi, W.C. 



Cheques and P.O. Orders payable to order of Walter Besant, ESq. It is particularly 
requested that both cheques and orders may be crossed to Coutts and Co., or to the 
Union Bank of London, Charing Cross Branch. Post Office Orders may be made 
payable at Charing Cross. 



NOTE.~The Price of the "Quarterly Statement" is Half-a- 
Crown. Sent free to Subscribers, 



Quarterly Statement, January, 1881.] 



THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



The Eeport of the Meeting of Greneral Committee held on November 30th, will be 
found on page 5. The single Resolution, for the discussion of which the meeting 
was summoned, was carried unanimously. It now remains to give it effect by 
organising and despatching an expedition to survey Eastern Palestine. 



In order to show exactly what is proposed to be done and why, it has been 
ordered by the Committee that the papers hiid before that meeting should be all 
sent to every subscriber to the Fimd, past and present. They are thereupon 
enclosed with the pi'esent number of the Quarterly Staiement. The com- 
parative map needs no comment : it shows the difference between a piece of 
country before and after it has been surveyed. The Prospectus of the new 
Survey will be found to carry on the work of the Society on the lines laid 
down in the Original Prospectus. The reasons for undertaking the Survey, the 
things which have to be done, the things which have to be sought, and the 
things which may be hoped for, will be found enumerated in the speeches 
made at the meeting of the Jerusalem Chamber. 



The Committee earnestly hope that, while the programme of their new 
expedition will show their present subscribers that their work of Bibhcal 
Illustration is not yet done, former donors and old subscribers will renew 
their support and carry this Survey also to a successful conclusion. The 
magnificent map of Western Palestine now before the world is a suiScient 
pledge and guarantee of what will be done in the East. 



The Quarterly Statement will, as before, contain reports and letters of 
the oiBcer in command of the expedition. 



B 2 



a^' ' ■ ' ' ' ' ' ' NOTES AND NEWS. 

" 'vyrte Committee Hare the pleasure of announc'Dg that they have invited M. 
Clel-morrt" Granrteau, Who will shortly become a resident in Palestine, to furnish 
tliem regularly with an account of everything that is discovered, attempted, 
or undertaken in archaeological research in the Holy Land. M. Granneau has 
accepted this invitation. His first letters will probably appear in the April 
number of this Journal. 



Nothing more has yet been received from Jerusalem with regard to the 
Phoenician inscription found in the Pool of Siloam. M. Ganneau has made out 
that it consists of at least eight lines. He has also traced about thirty 
characters, all in the Phoenician character of the Moabite stone. 



The drawings and plans for the first volume of the memoirs are now com- 
pleted. It may be looked for about the end of January. There will be, it is 
hoped, no such delays in bringing out the other volumes. That of the name 
lists will be published at the same time, or very shortly, after the first volume 
of the memoirs. It will be followed most probably, by Colonel Warren's 
volume on Jerusalem research. 



We have received a very interesting and valuable number of the Zeitschrift 
of the German Palestine Exploration Society. A summary of this number will 
be published in April. 



The appearance of Mr. Ohphant's book on the "Land of Gilead " is happily 
timed for those whose attention will now be turned to the land east of the 
Jordan. If anything were needed to show, more clearly than the Prospectus and 
the Report of the Meeting have shown, the necessity for our Survey, a perusal of 
this volume would furnish the last argument. Everywhere we read of bad maps, 
unknown districts, places where no European has ever been, ruins which have 
never been examined, strange people, and wild traditions. The " Land of 
Gilead," illustrates the remark made by the Dean of Westminster at the late 
meeting, that East of the Jordan lies a land of mystery. 



Another event of the quarter is the appearance of Colonel Wan-en's new 
book on " Jerusalem Topography." It is already well known that the author 
holds views on the subject diametri(!ally opposed to those advocated by Mr. 
James Fergusson in his " Temples of the Jews," and other books on the same 
subject. Tlie new work is essentially controversial, and as such, will be found 
a valuable addition to the literature on the sacred sites. 



The Eev. H D. Rawnsley writes as 'follows :—" May I call your attention, 
and the attention of all Interested in your work to the very great need that still 



NOTES AND NEWS. 3 

remains unsatisfied, so far as I know, of soine authorised list of (1) objects to be 
sought for ; (2) places to be identified ; (3) observations to be made ; 
(l) questions to bo asked ; (5) names to be inquired into, which could be 
obtainable eitlier at jour office, or at the consulates of Cairo, Beirout, antl 
Jerusaleni by any or all travellers in tlie Holy Land. Such a list would of 
course be varied from year to year; and if with it, these instructions could 
be given for the taking of temperatures, altitudes, levels, preparation of 
squeezes, rubbings, plants, and geological spechnens for examination at home, 
the chart or list would be of the greatest service to the amateur but willing 
agents for such work that each year send out to the East." 



The above valuable suggestion will be acted upon as speedily as possible. 
Such a list with such instructions will be prepared as soon as possible, perhaps in 
readiness for the spring travellers in Palestine, who are hereby invited to apply 
for it at the office of the Fund. Col. Warren will superintend it. 



The second issue of the Great Map is exhausted. The third is being 
prepared as rapidly as possible. 



The promised pamphlet " On Some of the Biblical Gains from the Survey " is 
published with this number of the (Quarterly Statement. 

Mr. Saunders' "Introduction to the New Survey" will be ready in a few 
weeks. 



The Committee are most anxious that the Map should have as wide a circvi- 
lation as possible. The Subscribers to the Fund may greatly assist them by 
advising the Map to be ordered for pubUc libraries, school and college libraries 
and institutions. 



it is also greatly desired that all those whose contributions have enabled this 
great work to be completed, may have an opportunity of seeing it. Arrange- 
ments have been made with the Rev. James King, of Berwick, for explaining and 
lecturing on the Map and its uses, during the winter. The Rev. Henry Geary is 
also ready to give one evening in every week to the Society, provided he be not 
invited to go too far from London. 

The Reduced Map of Modern Western Palestine is promised by the 
engravers for February ; it will be rapidly followed by the two ancient maps, 
already announced, on the same scale. A book has been opened at the office of 
the Society for the entry of names. The price is not yet fixed, but it will be as 
low as possible for subscribers. 



The Cheap Edition of " Tent Work in Palestine," has been published by 
Messrs. Bentley and Son. All the small illustrations which were in the Library 



4 NOTES AND NEWS. 

Edition, and two of the full-page drawings, will be found in the new Edition, 
which has also been carefully revised by the author. An additional chapter 
has also been added on the " Future of Palestine." The work will be read 
with greater interest now that the progress of the Survey may be followed on the 
Map. 



The income of the Fund from all sources, from Sept. 20th, 1880, to 
Dec. 13th, 1880, was £798 9?. 9d. The amount in hand at the last Committee 
Meeting was £1,212 3s. 3d.. 



It is suggested to subscribers that the safest and the most convenient manner 
of paying subscriptions is through a bank. Many subscribers have adopted this 
method, which removes the danger of loss or miscarriage, and renders unnecessary 
the acknowledgment by official receipt and letter. 



Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly/ Statement regularly, are asked 
to send a note to tlie Secretary. Great care is taken to forward each number to 
all who are entitled to receive it, but changes of addi'ess and other causes give 
rise occasionally to omissions. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterli/ Statement, the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood that these 
rest solely upon the credit of the respective authors, and that by publishing 
them in the Quarterli/ Statement the Committee neither sanction nor adopt 
them. 



MEETING OF THE PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 

Jerusalem Chamber, Westminster Abbey, Tuesday, November SOth, 1880. 

The Dean of Westminster in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the Minutes of the last meeting, and hiid before 
the Chairman, letters of regret at their inability to attend from the 
Ai-chbishop of Yoik, Lord Talbot De Malahide, the Dean of Lichfield, 
Kev. Canon Tristiam, Rev. H. Hall-Houghton, Mr. W. Morrison, Mr. 
A. Lloyd Fox, Mr. Laurence Oliphant, Eev. W. F. Birch, Colonel Cooke, 
C.B., R.E., and many others. 

The following is the letter received from Canon Tristram : — 

Durham, 27th November, 1880. 
Dear Mr. Besant, — It is with extreme regret that I have to write to tell 
you that my duties heie prevent my carrying out my intention of attend- 
ing the meeting on Tuesday, to plead the cause of the Exploration of 
Moab. 

I can, from personal observation, confidently state that no part of the 
country affords such virgin soil for the exploration as the rich and lofty 
table-land East and Nortli-East of the Dead Sea ; nor is any portion 
likely to produce more important results. "With the solitary exception of 
the fortress of Kerak, the land has known no settled inhabitants since it 
was swept nearly 1,300 years ago by the Persian destroyer, Chosroes. It 
is much as he left it. Time has done its work slowly and gently, unaided 
by man, for the great destroyer is not the Nomad, but the subsequent 
builder, who employs old material and adapts what he finds to his own 
use. 

Moab is absolutely strewn with ruins above ground, and honeycombed 
with cisterns. The ruins are not desolate heaps or grass-grown mounds. 
Pillars, arches, churches, streets, remain only partially damaged, and I 
have often scrambled over the vaulting which still covers the ancient 
streets. 

The names of the towns remain for the most part in their Semitic form 
in the vernacular of the wandering tribes. There are ruins like those of 
Shihan, undoubtedly megalithic, like the older remains of Basluui ; there 



6 HEPOKT OF MEETING. 

are many which tell of the Syrian occupation and the flourishing epoch of 
the Maccabees, while lionian, both pre-Christian, and of the Byzantine 
period, churches, towers, and basilicas abound everywliere. Here too we 
And the unique work of Chosroes, alone in its desolation, the marvellous 
palace of 'Mashita. 

I sincerely trust tliat earnest and zealous suppoi't will be given to the 
proposed enterprise by eveiy lover of the Bible and of Eastern history. 

Believe me. 

Yours veiy truly, 

H. B. TRISTRAM. 

The Chairman called upon Mr. Glaisher to propose the Resolution of 
the day. 

Mr. Glaisher. Mr. Chairman, and friends : 

When the completion of the map of Western Palestine was drawing 
near, and the several memoirs were in a state so advanced that we felt certain 
of theii' completion ; the attention of the Committee on ditferent occasions 
was directed to the completion of the Survey of Palestine, taking into con- 
sideration the present state of our knowledge with respect to the eastern 
side of the Jordan. You are well aware that the Americans had under- 
taken to make that survey, but when I point out to you the maps that they 
had sent in to us, of which here are several, and when I tell you that an 
endeavour to connect the points that were common, revealed discrepancies 
so large in amount that it was not possible by any amount of coaxing to 
connect the one with the other, you will agree with me that it became 
evident that if the eastern side of Palestine was to be surveyed and 
explored, the work must be begun de novo, using the majis as reconnaissance 
maps and no more. 

Then the Committee on different occasions met, and this pamphlet (the 
" Survey of Eastern Palestine,") was prepared, which, I believe, has been 
sent to every gentleman present, and perhaps under those circumstances 
I need not read it, but it may be taken as read. This paper shows that 
the country on the en stern side of the Jordan^Eastern Palestine — is 
very full of interest indeed. There are many ruins, and the photo- 
graphs, which may be seen by looking about the room, taken by the 
Americans, may lead one to the thought that there are many others 
which they have not visited, that much information is to be gained, 
and that, if careful explorations could be made of the ruins on the 
Eastern side of Palestine, many very valuable results would follow. Then 
the monetary question arose. It is a question which has frequently 
cropped up. It came before us when, ten years ago, we met in this room 
just before we began the Survey of Western Palestine ; but we now have 
large experience that we had not then, and probably the future will be 
very like the past. I should like, while upon this point, to speak of the 
subscriptions and donations that we have received. In the year 1872 we 
received £2,441. The party then took the field, and the next year, in 
conseqvience of that, I believe, the amount was increased to £3,170 ; the 



REPORT OF MEETING. 7 

next year X3,382 ; and in 1875 £3,971. There was an attack made upon 
the party that year, which prevented om- party going out in the year 
1870 ; and the consequence was the amount of donations and subscriptions 
fell £800. In the year 1877 the party went out again, and the subscrip- 
tions rose £200, and in 1878 the amount was £3,751. The greatest expen- 
diture in any one year was £2,951 on the part of the Survey ; buttlienwe 
had a party at work at home, and a party at work in the field. We had 
then the invaluable services of Lieutenant Conder, who has made, I may 
say, a lifelong study of biblical knowledge and of biblical association, 
leading to invaluable results to the Fund. It is a great pleasure to me to 
think that he, with his increased knowledge, may be at the service of the 
Fund, and that if we begin the Survey of Eastern Palestine, I am led 
to hope that he will be able to take charge of it. I feel confident that 
nothing will escape his attention, and that he will give that intelligent 
interpretation to facts which has always weighed hitherto, and will 
weigh in future with this Committee. Now, sir, the years of the Survey 
were 1872, 1873, 1874, and 1875, and as I have told you, in 1875 an 
attack was made upon the party by the Arabs, so that we had no party 
in the field in 1876. In 1877, Lieutenant Kitchener went out and com- 
pleted the Survey, and in the year 1878 and 1879, when our funds had 
decreased, the office work was done at home. The interest of the sub- 
scribers never flagged whilst there was a party in the field, but it must be 
remembered that while it is important for the party to take the angles 
carefully, it is quite as important to do the office work at home by 
computing the sides of the triangles of which they were part, and to lay 
the results down as we have done upon the map. The map is a splendid 
piece of work, very accurately performed, and is something that the 
Executive Committee feel, and I think justly feel, proud of. But we are 
ambitious. We are anxious to have the other side of the Jordan explored 
with equal or if possible greater thoroughness. 

Now what are the expenses 'I The working expenses for the years 1872- 
1877 were £2,675 a year, so that during the five years the expenses were 
between £13,000 and £14,000. I believe that for £13,000 or £14,000 we 
shall be able to have a map on the other side as accurate as we have it on 
this. When I was here ten years ago, the map I hold in my hand 
represented what we knew of the topography of Western Palestine. How 
great is the difference between our state of knowledge then and our state of 
knowledge as shown by the large and beautiful map upon the wall ! 

That which we are most desirous of doing, as we are now free — as we 
can give our undivided attention to the work — as we have trained officers 
who have their hearts thoroughly in the work, is to see if we cannot 
complete on the one side of the Jordan that which we have done on the 
other. Now the plan hitherto adopted has been to keep the party 
continuously in the field ; but it has been suggested by the Committee 
that perhaps a better plan would be to keep the working party in the 
field for the best six months of the year, and to have five months at home, 
doing office and other work, the other month being devoted to the going 



8 REPORT OF MEETING. 

and coming. If this plan were adopted the result we might look for, 
might perhaps be stated thus. Firstly, we should have the maintenance 
of the party for only seven months in the year ; secondly, we should give 
the party a beneficial change of air and rest ; thirdly, we should enable 
the work to be got up, and portions finished off, and probably some put 
into the engraver's hands ; fourthly, it would give the Committee better 
means of estimating the expenses and inquiring into methods of work. If 
this plan were not adopted, I do not think the expenses could be less than 
they were formerly — that is, about £2,700— and if oiu' office and all other 
expenses are taken into account, you will see that we should require between 
£3,000 and £4,000 a-year to carry out satisfactorily the objects which we 
have iu view. If, however, the early return of the party were resolved upon, 
we might perhaps save £400 or £500 a-year. These are matters to be con- 
sidered. Money, of course, is an important element to be regarded, but I 
cannot think that while the money is economically used, we shall have any 
trouble in procuring the necessary amount. The past leads me to 
feel confident that if we do our work steadily, faithfully, and well ; 
gaining information upon biblical points (and looking at this pamphlet 
it will be seen that there are a very large number of biblical associations 
of the highest interest, upon which we may hope to gain information), we 
cannot have much trouble or difficulty in procuring the money that 
we may require. Therefore, sir, without further remark, I would beg 
to move— That it is now desirable to take, without delay, the Survey 
of Eastern Palestine, under conditions similar to those which have 
been proved to be thoroughly successful in the case of Western Palestine. 
(Cheers.) 

Mr. Macgregor. Mr. Chaii-man, I do not think we require to convince 
any person around this table of the importance of the work which it 
has been proposed should be begun. If this were a meeting of the general 
public, who may be more or less ignorant of our work, and who would 
require to have descriptions given, what we might have to say would 
be very different. The great success which has hitherto been attained 
must afford cause for mutual congratulation, and I am sure the Dean will 
feel that it is deserved, especially by those who have worked hard— the 
Officers and the Committee— those who have gone away and those 
who have stayed behind. The great success gained should be an incentive 
to further efforts, because "nothing succeeds like success." Certainly 
it would never have done to have taken the Eastern side first, but now 
that we are strong upon the West, and can point to the results, our 
progress to the East becomes an absolute necessity. 

Thirty years ago I went to Palestine in the ordinary way, and but 
twenty years afterwards, I went in another way on the water. At that 
time the maps were very deficient ; I had the great privilege of the 
gift by Captain Wan-en, now Colonel Warren, of a little photograph of a 
map that had been made of the Sea of Galilee. This I copied, and 
put into a book on half -inch scale. That wj^s invaluable of course, especially 
as it was to be used on the water. I have brought here one of a great 



REPORT OF MEETIXr,. y 

number of maps that I had copied in the British Museum, and this 
was the best. It was rather old. It is the map of Seetzen in A.n. 1732, and 
is rather amusing to look at. But although that may appear ridiculous 
now, it was the only thing to be had some time ago, and we shall look 
back, I hope, in another year or two to the time when we had only 
those imperfect maps which are now superseded by the splendid map 
before us. 

Our work in Jerusalem will greatly depend, I think, upon the 
success of the Map and the Memoirs, and I suppose political matters are 
now sufficiently quiet to hope that this, at any rate, will be allowed, and 
that Colonel Warren and others will swing down these shafts 90 feet 
under the gi'ound, and feel as happy as he used to be when he was 
suspended there by a rope at the top. 

I am very sorry that the Eastern part will be a little impeded by 
the illness of Mr. Oliphant, who was to have been here to-day, and I am not 
able at all to plead in his stead, having little of his knowledge of the subject ; 
but he was so unwell that he was persuaded not to come. His book will, 
however, be out on the 7th of next month, and from what I have seen and 
know of it and of him, and from what we have already heard in an 
indefinite way, it will be sure to be interesting. It will come out at 
a very happy time for us all, when this work is about to be begun in 
the Land of Gilead, and I hope that a work of this description will 
make the place so interesting that the publication will come opportunely 
for the Fund. There is also another very remarkable work in connection 
with the Fund in one sense. The Jewish Chronicle, a well-known paper 
belonging to the Jews of London, and two or three other newspapers 
in foreign lauds, are tm-ning their attention to the East country, not only 
because of its general interest, but for purposes of future settlement and 
cultivation. It is too soon yet to say more than that there is to-day 
a very strong feeling on the part of many influential persons that 
something should be done in England which would enable the Jews 
to go back to Palestine. Where they should go, and by whom they 
should be maintained, and for what exact purpose, is of course no 
within our province to declare or to suggest, but it is, I think, within our 
province to remember that a Map and a completion of the Memoirs of the 
East might be even more useful to them than the Map of the Western 
part, seeing that the Western part is on the whole at present not 
considered so adapted for settlement as are the provinces on the Eastern 
side of the Jordan. 

Now there is one congratulation that I think ought to be made at this 
particular period of our progress, and that is, that whilst the Committee 
get some thanks— and the Executive Committee try to deserve some too— 
I think we ought all to thank our Secretary for the extraordinary 
attention he has given, and for the work that he has successfully ac- 
complished (applause). It is only necessary to see him as we do in the 
Executive Committee to feel that this tribute will be cheerfully 
accorded to him by the Chairman and the Committee. (Hear, hear.) 



10 REPOr.T OF MEETING. 

It is a striking thought too that in this year, and in this Chamber— the 
Dean will correct me if I am wrong — the revision of the New Testament 
is in progress. 

The Dean of Westminster. It is completed. 

Mr. Macgregor. "We have it from the chair that it is now com- 
pleted. That is a remarkable addition to the wonders of this year. 
Now the map is published, and the revision is completed, the two 
will go hand-in-hand, and each will help the other. Combined they form 
a picture Bible— a correct picture Bible— and those who know how many 
picture Bibles there are that are full of mistakes, will be delighted to find 
that at any rate, as regards the map, it is as correct as it can possibly be 
made. An erroneous picture Bible is one of the worst things for children 
to use, and a correct map of Palestine must be one of the best things for 
students to be guided by. The work that has been done is commended on 
all sides, and we can only hope that our American friends will resume in 
some other shape what they have confessedly failed in doing at the present 
moment. This cannot be for want of will. When we think that the whole 
of Palestine that is now surveyed, is only the size of Wales, and that the 
whole of Jerusalem within the walls would go into Hyde Park ; it is a 
wonderful thing if the two great nations of the world, receiving assistance, 
as they do, from Germany, Sweden, Norway, and other Protestant 
countries, cannot finish the work that has been so well begun. 

There is one suggestion I would make, and it is only a suggestion. 
No doubt the Executive will consider it afterwards. I happened to be 
yesterday with the new Lord Mayor, asking from him the use of the 
Eo-yptian Hall, for a meeting on behalf of the monument to the Martyr 
Tyndale. Now it is a matter for the Committee of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund to consider whether, having done a good deal among the 
literati and the universities, we should not also have a meeting in the city 
upon this subject under the presidency of his lordship— an earnest 
Christian man ; and we should then be able to go to one of the 
most powerful communities and which is sometimes called the largest 
Protestant Church in the world— that is the Wesleyans— those in 
America being assimilated to, if not actually part of the same body as 
those who are in England. We may well liope that the Lord Mayor would 
be as kind in giving us the use of that place and his presidency, as he has 
been for the other great purpose I have named. I Mdsh all success to 
the Fund. It is a great privilege to work with such kindly associates ; 
we never have a quarrel, and our Chairman would keep us in order if 
we had. (Applause.) 

Mr. F. A. Eaton. I am afraid, sir, the only excuse I can have for 
saying a few words, is that I am one of the very few persons who have 
had the good fortune to visit the countries east of the Jordan. It is 
now more than eighteen years ago. We were a party of seven, travelling 
alono- the beaten track in Western Palestine, when, thanks to a letter of 



EEPORT OF MEETING. 11 

introduction which two of iia had from you, Mr. Chairman, to the Pro- 
testant missionary at Nazaretli, M. Zeller, our plans were suddenly 
changed, and under the guidance of that gentleman, we struck eastwards 
across tlie Jordan hy the Jisr Mejamieh, traversed the Ghor to Pella ; 
thence forded the Yarmuk, and ascended the hot springs of Amathato Um 
Keis ; rode along the well-wooded slopes of Jebel Ajloon (Gilead) and the 
fertile plains of Bashau and the Haurdn to Mezarib, Dera, and Bozrah of 
Moab. Near Bozi'ah, our route lay through the other two subdivisions of 
the Hauran, the Jebel el Druze, or Ard el Bathaneeyeh, the land of 
Batansea, and the el Lejah, the Hebrew Argob and Greek Trachonitis, to 
Damascus. We paid no backsheesh and we had no escort, but trusted to 
the hos2)itality of the Arab and Druse Sheikhs, with whom M. Zeller was 
well acquainted, and all of whom entertained us right royally. Though 
our journey was a hurried one and only lasted a fortnight, and though it 
took us through but a small portion of Eastern Palestine, it was quite 
enough to show us that though not so lich in Biblical associations as 
Western Palestine, Eastern Palestine was infinitely riclier in archaeological 
remains. For one monument on the western side there are probably 
a hundred on the eastern ; nor have they suflPered so much at the hands of 
man. Neither the Crusaders, the Byzantine Greeks, nor the Arabs have 
played such havoc in the east as in the west. In the Hauran may still be 
seen those massive stone buildings, the materials of which, however com- 
paratively modern their arrangement and decoration were, it may be 
reasonably presumed, chiselled in a far more remote antiquity. It is no 
uncommon thing to see these houses in a complete state of preservation 
built of huge blocks of black basalt with slabs of the same for the roof, 
12 feet long, 1| feet wide, and h foot thick, and entrance doors also 
of basalt, hung on the ball and socket principle ; gi^eat solid stones of the 
same material being used as lintels at the toj) and bottom. I remember 
seeing some folding-doors of this kind at Dama, in the centre of that 
wonderful island of rock, the Lejah, which were 10 or 12 feet high, 
and 8 or 9 inches thick, and which turned in their sockets with the 
greatest ease. It may, indeed, be said that inexhaustible possibilities 
await the explorer here ; but time, great philological experience, an 
intimate acquaintance with Arabic dialects and with Hebrew, a trained 
and practised eye, and great care, are absolute essentials towards making a 
proper use of them. 

If I am not detaining the meeting too long Mr. Dean, I should like to 
read a short extract or two from a letter I have just received from 
that eminent Semitic scholar, M. Clermont Ganneau. I have only had 
time to glance over it, but, with your permission, I will roughly give the 
meeting an idea of a few of the things he says : — 

M. Ganneau is quite sure that all the countries on the East of the 
Jordan, if properly examined, have many surprises in store for the 
explorer, and that though we may not discover the iron bed of Og, King of 
Bashan, there is every hope of finding some basalt sarcophagus with 
a royal inscription like that of Eshmunazur in the Louvre. He lays great 



12 REPORT OF MEETING. 

stress on what he calls the onomastic traditions of biblical countries, and 
on the tendency of autochthonous tradition, a tendency very marked in all 
Semitic races, to think of and to consider as geographical entities those 
who were more or less conjiected with the history of the country. As for 
instance that the name of the modern Belkxi is the same as that of Balak, 
King of Moab ; that Shilidn, where M. de Voglie found a magnificent bas- 
relief of a king, is the same word as Sihon, the King of the Amorites ; the 
Aujeh, an effluent of the Jordan, as 0(/ the King of Bashan ; Ajloon as 
Eglon, King of Moab ; the town of Shohek as Shohack, one of Hadarezer's 
generals ; Dela, the old name of Zoar, as Bela (of. Balaam), the son of 
Beor, King of Edom ; while the name of Lot survives in Kaum Loot, the 
people of Lot, Madueen Loot, the Pentapolis, and Bahr Loot, the Dead Sea. 
M. Ganneau also connects the towns of Eabbath and Zoar or Segor with 
the two daughters of Lot ; to use his own words, "la grande et la petite, 
I'ainee et la cadette, Bekira et Seghira, Rabhetha et Seghirtha," who 
according to the Judfeo-Mussulman tradition gave their names to the two 
princijml towns of Ammon and Moab. Another very important point to 
which M. Ganneau draws attention is the possibility of finding at Pella 
monuments relating to the very earliest Christian times. He also directs 
attention to the topographical value of the milestones which bordered the 
Trans- Jordanic Roman roads, and the necessity for carefully searching for 
them ; one that he knows of near Ajloo-n bears a long inscription, wii;h 
the name of the place and the distance in miles. 

These are some of M. Ganneau's remarks, and they seem to me so 
valuable as showing what a rich store of interest awaits the proposed 
expedition, that I trust, sir, you and the meeting will pardon me for 
having so long detained you. 

Mr. Douglas Freshfield. Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen : I have 
responded to your kind invitation to come here to-day and say a few 
words about your proposed exploration of the east side of the Jordan, with 
great pleasiu-e, and the more so because for the last ten years I have had 
these few words more or less burning within me. It is quite ten years, I 
think, since Mr. Morrison asked me to come and speak at one of your 
annual meetings in Willis's Rooms. When I got there I was asked what I 
should talk about. I said "The east side of the Jordan." "Oh! "said the 
Society, " that will not do at all, because we have got something else on 
hand." Well, of course you were perfectly right to do what you had on hand, 
and to finish it in the way you have done ; but I confess at the time I was 
disappointed, because it seemed to me you were putting off" and handing 
over to the Americans what was the most important and likely to be the 
most useful j^art of all your work — the exploration of the country east of the 
Jordan. In saying this I should like to guard myself against being thought 
to slight in any way what has been done already. I think the map before 
us is one of the most admirable bits of private work I have ever seen, and 
I have used maps a good deal. I am quite siu'e, speaking as a member of 
the Council of the Geographical Society, that when we next award our 



REPORT OF MEETING. 13 

annual medals that ma]) will be limuglit before us, and we shall carefully 
consider amongst others, the claims of its maker or makers to distinction. 
But, good as this work is, it seems to me that when you get across the 
Jordan your work will be still more valuable. What has been ac- 
complished may be spoken of — roughly only of course — as a work of 
correction of previous authorities ; but when you go to the other side 
your map will be a creation. The old maps of the eastern side are prac- 
tically worthless, and this fact may be illustrated by what happened to 
myself. The first day we left Es Salt we tried to ride over the hills by 
Van de Velde's map as I had been accustomed to do in Western Palestine. 
We immediately lost our way and — the story has a double bearing — in doing 
so we came upon some ruins which I had never seen described before, and 
which I am not at all sure have been described since, and that is what you 
are constantly doing on the eastern side of Jordan. Then during the next 
two or thi-ee days we found rivers two or three miles out of their 
proper course, and villages on the wrong side of them — Roman roads not 
marked, or wrongly marked ; in short we had the most convincing 
evidence of how much a good map was wanted. 

As to archaeology it seems to me that there is scarcely any limit to the 
new knowledge that you may hope to collect by the identification of 
sites and the collection of inscriptions. When we get a complete set of 
photogi-aphs (those on the table already show how much may be done in 
that way) we shall be able to tell whether any remains of jM-imitive 
architecture really exist under the accumulations of Roman and Arabic 
civilisations. We shall certainly be able to bring before the eyes of 
English people what has been partly brought before the French public by 
the Count de VojrUe's beautiful book — it has often been a source of wonder 
to me no translation of it has been published in this country — in which 
there is a picture of a Roman town in the early centm-ies of our era almost 
as perfect as you get from Pompeii. Moreover, I think you will find the 
work not very difficult to carry through. One advantage you will have. 
Suppose the tribes come up and the country is dangerous— though I do not 
assume this will happen, refuge may be taken in the hills of Jebel Hauran, 
which will afford, not only a place of retreat, but a sanatarium probably, 
at all seasons of the year perfectly healthy. 

As to photography, I should like to add one remark. It seems to me 
extremely desirable that, if possible, one member of the expedition 
should be a good photographer. The other day we took steps at the 
Geographical Society which may result favourably in promoting that result. 
We referred it to one of our Committees to make arrangements by 
which intending travellers could be easily and cheaply instructed in 
London in photography. We should be very happy if one of the first 
instructed was a member of the Palestine Exploration Society. I will 
only add that the gist of what I have meant to say is this — that I think to 
stop now after your work would be a thousand pities — it would be like 
leaving off reaping in a field just when you have got to the very thickest 
part of the crop. (Applause.) 



14 REPORT OF MEETING. 

Colonel "Warren. Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen : — 

The undoubted success attendant upon the sale of the new map, and the 
demand that has occurred, appears to justify the course which it is now 
proposed to pursue of extending our work to the other side of Jordan. As 
fai- as I am concerned myself, I should strongly have advocated the 
continuation of this work, even if we had not the prospect of such a 
success as it has been, because I think as our work is the elucidation of 
the Bible, there is no doubt that many persons would have made up any 
deficiency ; but when we find that the public is entirely satisfied with the 
work, and there is already by the sale of the maps a small profit being 
made which may be placed to the credit of further work, it is undoubtedly 
our duty to continue our labour to the end, and not to take our hand from 
the plough. 

When we look at the map before us, we must acknowledge that it is a 
very beautiful specimen of work. We know that it is extremely accurate, 
and we must feel and acknowledge that it reflects the greatest credit upon 
Lieutenants Condel' and Kitchener, the accomplished surveyors who have 
produced it ; and I am sure we must all hail with great gratification the 
prospect of Lieutenant Conder being employed on this work a second time. 
It is not only as a surveyor that Lieutenant Conder's services are so 
valuable ; he unites to his professional attainments a knowledge of the 
])eople ; he is intimately acquainted with their manners and customs ; he 
knows their country, and, last of all, he is a student of the Bil)le. He 
knows the nature of the information which is specially wanted, and he can 
make a shrewd guess as to where things are to be found. I feel assured 
myself that the success of the expedition will be attained by retaining the 
services of Lieutenant Cinder if that can possibly be arranged. I 
do not wish to infer in any way that we ought not to throw upon our 
surveyors the duty of making identifications, etc. ; for I think it is 
their business to collect all the information they can possibly find and 
bring it home, and let scholars in England form their own deductions. 
But there is no doubt it is of the greatest advantage to have in the person of 
the surveyor, an oflicer like Lieutenant Conder who knows a clue when he 
sees it, and can follow it up, and who is not likely to let slip any chance 
matter which may come before him which would lead to good results. 
When we look upon the east of the Jordan, we find a country there far 
different to that on the west for surveying purposes. It is not broken up 
in the same deep woods and valleys as that on the west. It is in a great 
measure a table-land elevated 3,(H)() feet above the Mediterranean, and is 
well watered and well wooded. It is, too, comparatively healthy ; and in 
fact, in the summer of 1868, I took my party over to the east side actually 
to the benefit of their health. I think on that account, the Survey on the 
east side will be found much more pleasant work, and the triangulation 
that has taken place on the western side will be found of very great 
service to those on the east, and there are parts whei'e the ground is level, 
and a base of verification may be very accurately measured. 

I do not know whether we are all agreed upon the point to which the 



REPORT OF MEETING. 15 

Chairman of the Executive Committee alhided with reference to bringing 
the party liorne every year ; I must say that from a surveyor's point of 
view, I should rather feel inclined to keep the party out at least one year 
or eighteen months. I think after that time, some of the })arty may get 
jaded or ill, and it may be necessary to bring them home ; but I think the 
surveyors themselves, after they have been out there the first six months, 
will feel inclined to go on with the work, and would probably rather not 
come back, because they would be just getting into the very thick of it, as 
it were, and probably it would be as well for them to go on with it. 

The climate on the eastern side is not like that on the west. During 
some of the summer months over this plateau there is a cool wind blowing, 
and sometimes for eight or ten days togethei- the country is comparatively 
mild, and not in any way so unhealthy as the cauldron of the Jordan, or 
the shore of the Mediterranean. 

With regard to the population, some have stated that there is likely to 
be a diflficulty with the Bedouins. For my part, I think the fact that in 
this country, there are simply Nomadic population. Druses, and Moslems, is 
a great advantage. On the western side in the villages, there are Mussul- 
men of difierent kinds, and Christians of several denominations, Jews, 
Druses, Maronites, etc., a7id these people are continually intriguing and 
stopping the surveyor in his work in one way or another ; but on the 
eastern side there are simply the Bedouin who are not fanatical with 
regard to their religion, and who are very fond of the good word of an 
Englishman. They have many very good qualities, qualities which 
Englishmen regard, and I have no doubt that very little difficulty will be 
found with them. 

Again, people are inclined to say that this is not the time to go on with 
the work on account of the political complications that are likely to ensue ; 
but we may ask when were there not similar complications apparent upon 
the horizon ? — when was not the political horizon lowering in this direc- 
tion ? and one is tempted to cite the old proverb — " He that observeth the 
wind shall not sow, and he that regardeth the cloiids shall not reap." 

I can speak with regard to the numerous ruins which are on the 
eastern side, especially towards the countiy of Gilead. There, for many 
hundreds of years, hardly any change has taken place ; in fact, scarcely 
any change, since many of these magnificent old temples were cast to the 
ground during the earthquakes previous to the Middle Ages. And we 
must not forget that many of these old temples, which date from the time 
of the Antonines, are made of old material ; and there are architectural 
remains and mouldings which point to there having been a separate style 
of architecture in that country, previous to its occupation by the Romans. 
I feel certain myself, that when a systematic and prolonged search is 
made, some very remarkable results will be obtained. I think that the 
photographs which have been brought back, will in many cases show that 
there are some very ancient ruins^far more ancient than those of the 
Romans in that country, which are still to be brought to light ; and my 
own impression also, is that among these splendid ruins about Mount 

c 



16 KEPORT OF MEETING. 

Nebo, and in the high places between Mount Nebo, and Rabath Amman 
inscriptions similar to that of the Moabite stone are likely to be found. 
It may be said, of course, that the finding of the Moabite stone was an 
accident ; but we must acknowledge that one accident may lead to another 
accident : for instance, few can doubt that the recent discovery of that 
remarkable Phcenician inscription in the Pool of Siloam at Jerusalem, is 
due in a measure to the eyes of persons having been opened by the dis- 
covery of the Moabite stone. 

I must congratulate the Committee upon the favourable circumstances 
under which it will now commence its third, or I may say, fourth ex- 
pedition. Fourteen years ago, it was a society little known, and with- 
out money. Ten years ago it had become very well known, and had 
considerable credit ; at the present time it is not only well known, and 
its reputation established, but it has a fixed income by subscriptions, 
which, if supplemented in a small degree— it only requires to be supple- 
mented in a small way — will enable the Committee to carry out the work 
creditably to the reputation of the Society, and to the satisfaction of the 
public. (Ai^plause.) 

Professor Hayter Lewis. After what has been said by the difi^erent 
speakers of the architectural remains on the east side of the Jordan, and 
with the ]jhotographs about the room to give force to their remarks, I feel 
that there is really very little for me to add upon the subject. I will, 
however, call your attention to one or two points which have struck me 
very forcibly in considering what we should be likely to find on the east 
bank. There have been made quite recently one or two discoveries which 
may be regarded as remarkable. We knew of course from Irby and 
Mangles and others that scattered over the land, in different parts, 
there existed stone-monuments which you call prehistoric or unhistoiic, 
according to the nomenclature you may prefer — but I think very few 
people indeed realized or knew much about them until the publication of 
Professor Palmer's and Canon Tristram's journeys. Few imagined that, 
scattered to a large extent through the land, were large monuments, 
stone circles, etc., just as one sees on the mountains of Wales and the hills 
of Scotland, the names and dates and everything connected with which 
are at present entirely unknown ; and we may hope, after careful 
exploration (for I think few of them have been examined, and none 
of them have been carefully explored), to find some certain clue to 
the date, and the purpose for which these curioiis monuments were 
erected. The second surprise, I may say, to which I may allude in our 
time, was the exploration of the Hauran, described in that wonderful 
book of De Vogue's to which Mr. Douglas Freshfield has alluded, and 
which can scarcely be praised too much. So far as it goes it is per- 
fect. But it does not cover, or anything like, the ground we hope to 
cover, and I have no doubt whatever, that we shall find when the 
ground comes to be explored, remains which will amply repay in an 
archteological point of view, the cost, the time and trouble of exploration. 



EEPOKT or MEETING. 17 

I do not say that it was a diwcoveiy, because of course we knew from 
Burckhardt, who was I think, the first who went there ; and likewise from 
Cyril Graham and others, that these remains did exist, but it was an 
exceedingly cloudy sort of view that we had of them. Dr. Porter describes 
these cities, and many consitlered that we had in them the actual cities of 
Bashan ; we now know them to date very shortly after the Christian 
era. A remarkable series of monuments, of which I say we had simply the 
most imperfect descrij^tion in Burckardt's and other works, have been 
brought to light. The stone doors have been alluded to by Mr. Eaton, 
but I think very few persons know that we have one of them in the 
British Museiuu. I have been to the Museum over and over again 
with persons of scientific and archieological knowledge, but I never yet 
met with any one who had seen it. It is just at the entrance of the 
Egyptian room, and affords a specimen of the curious woi'k which ISIr. 
Eaton has mentioned. 

Then a real discovery in ova- time, and one of the most valuable kind, 
was that made by Dr. Ti-istram in the palace of Chosroes at Mashita. It 
reveals to us a new style of work. It shows that in a desert — or at least in 
a place that no one seems to have visited before — we have one of the 
most magnificent remains of the particular time of Chosroes. 

Now these few works that I mention give a sort of insight, I think, as 
to what we may expect to find when the country is carefully sm-veyed. 
At the present moment, to begin with, we have no remains, so far as I am 
aware, that you can call Phoenician architecture. That it was grand we 
may suppose from the description in the Bible of the work of the architect 
sent by the Phojnicians to do Solomon's work ; but except from the 
sarcophagi I think we are almost thoroughly ignorant of it. I have 
seen what there are of remains in the museum at Algiers. Of courstj 
there is to be seen at that museum a very large collection of Phoenician 
remains ; but all may be summed up in one line — a few inscriptions. There 
is nothing whatever beyond that. There is scarcely an ai'chitectural frag- 
ment ; in fact, I think I may say that there is not one. At Carthage, I 
believe it is the same. But one must certainly hope very strongly that if 
we begin to excavate under these buried cities we may find some clue to 
what was the character of the ancient architecture of the Phoenicians ; anti 
more than that, I do hope that we may discover some clue likewise to what 
was, I will not say the architecture of the Jews, but the style of work 
which was practised by them. At ^^reseut we know scarcely anything. 
Even the outline and the decoration of these two grand pillars which are 
described so often as being at the entrance of the Temple are simply 
matters of guess, and it is just possible that we may find in some of the bas- 
reliefs something which will help us to exjjlain the most interesting problem 
about the Temple. I need scarcely remind any one here of the finding, as 
I may call it, of the seven-bi-anched candlestick on tlie Arch of Titus. We 
ail know how many drawings and restorations have been made of that 
.seven-branched candlestick, and how entirely the whole were foimd to be 
incorrect when some genius suggested that we might on the Arch of Titus 

c 2 



18 liEPORT OF MEETI>TG. 

find a correct representation. This was found, and we know it perfectly 
agrees with all the descriptions in the Bible, and it does not agree, so 
far as I am aware, ■vvith any representation which had been formed by guess. 
I will not detain you any further ; there are other gentlemen who wish 
to address you, and who will speak with greater knowledge of the country 
than I can. 

Rev. Dr. Ginsburg. Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen: It is with peculiar 
pleasure that I hear from such an authority as Mr. Glaisher and from others 
that we are seriously intending to explore the eastern side of Palestine. I 
was in that country, as probably some of you know, about six years ago. 
My experience there was not of the best kind. Probably we ought to 
thank ourselves for much of the inconvenience which we suifered from. 

I have not the slightest doubt that remains are to be found in Moab, 
and in the whole region round about there, which will illustrate, not only 
the geographical and the narrative, but especially the linguistic part of 
the Bible. I have read some of the inscriptions that have been found. I 
must say that no inscription has ever been discovered which is of such 
extraordinary importance to the elucidation of the language of the Old 
Testament as the Moabite stone. For myself, I am convinced that the 
nation which dwelt in the place where such a stone has been found, must 
have been in the habit of erecting such stones to commemorate events ; 
that the erection of such a stone could not have been an isolated example, 
but that it must have been a regidar custom among the people to erect 
such stones ; and therefore, though it was simply by an accident that this 
stone was discovered, there can hardly be any doubt that if travellers could 
sojourn in the place quietly, and live with the Arabs as the Arabs live, and not 
by their costly style of living, arouse the cupidity of the Arabs for baksheesh 
or the price of redemption (which was what they expected from us and was 
the reason why they took us captives) many valuable discoveries might be 
made. I met the late lamented Mr. Drake and others of this Palestine 
Exploration Fund, living like Arabs — simply, unpretentiously — and I 
believe if the same thing is done on the eastern side of the Dead Sea it 
will be quite as successful generally, and far more successful from a topo- 
gi-aphical point of view, and from a linguistic point of view, than on the 
western side. The Moabite stone more nearly approaches to biblical 
language, than anything I have ever seen. I speak with all humility 
when I say that any one who knows Hebrew would be able to read the 
inscription upon the Moabite stone, without the aid of a dictionary even. 
This is the first time we have ever discovered anything in tha work of a 
kindred nation which comes so near the language of the Old Testament as 
the language of the Moabite stone. It will jirove of the greatest service 
to biblical students, and to those who wi'ite on grammar and lexicography. 
Many terms which have come down to us as later Hebrew terms have 
n ( iw been established beyond doubt from the Moabite stone as belonging 
tu an earlier period of the Hebrew language, and of biblical language ; and 
a great deal might be done in that way if the Society would only at the 



REPORT OF MEETING. 19 

same time take the hint which tlie Professor opposite me has given to 
examine into tilings that exist in museums in Europe. If this Fund were 
to make it a branch of its work to employ its members, or to ask its 
friends to look after these things, we should find that discoveries have 
been made entirely within our reach illustrative of Palestine. Only a few 
days ago a gentleman engaged in the British Museum, taking casts of 
coins, brought to me a coin which has been in the Museum for years, and 
which, if the Palestine Exploration Fund had known of it, would no 
doubt have sent some of its accomplished members to examine ; and on 
this coin — ^I submit it to you, Mr. Chairman — we have, as far as I can 
decipher, Jehu in his carriage. There he is, and the name Jehu in the old 
Hebrew characters exactly resembling the letters on the Moabite stone, only 
in fact more perfectly written. You will find Jehu consisting of three 
etters. On the right-hand side is Fod and He, and on the left-hand side of 
the figure is the vowel Vau, making Jehu. Then you have the chariot ; 
and I have the authority of the gentleman at the head of the numis- 
matic department of the British Museum for saying that is the onlv 
winged chariot that has ever been discovered on any coin. Putting 
the date at the very latest, the period of this coin would be about 
400 years before Christ. Now if we were to work on the spot carefullv, 
and if the gentlemen who go there were to put themselves on friendly 
terms with the Arabs and the Bedouins, who knows how many coins of 
that or a similar description might be found, for it is well known that 
the Ai-abian and the Bedouin ladies wear their coins round their heads 
as ornaments ; and thus a whole vocabulary, and a whole list of biblical 
names might be discovered. 

Professor Lewis has spoken of the want of knowledge on our part of 
Phoenician architecture. Here you have a specimen of Phoenician coinage, 
as I suppose it must be taken to be. The gentlemen at the British 
Museum think the coin must come from Gaza, and here you have a 
specimen of the way in which they have struck their coinage. The coin 
itself, as seen in the British Museum, is one of the best things of that 
period. How many such things await discovery in the unexplored and 
beautiful country which is to be the scene of the future laboure of the 
Society ! The ravines are, it is true, very rough, but it does not take very 
long to get from the ravine to the top of the hill ; and, though you may in 
the ravine, experience a tropical climate, the moment you get on the hill, 
after three or four hours' climb, you are in a cold climate, where you can 
sojourn for the night, and be recruited for the work of the following 
day. 

I therefore rejoice most heartily to hear that the Society has at last 
determined to go to work on the eastsrn side of the Dead Sea, and I have 
no doxibt that the Society will stick to its resolution, and will manifest its 
determination and its zeal in a similar way to that manifested by the 
Society in exploring the western side of Palestine ; and I have no doubt 
that those of you who can advocate the cause of this Society in its explo- 
ration of the eastern side of the Dead Sea, will only too gladly help in that 



'20 EEPORT OF MEETING. 

•way, and in other ways seek to bring about the accomplishment of this 
great work. 

Professor E. H. Palmer. Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen : Much has 
Ijeen said by the previous speakers as to the important discoveries that we 
are likely to make on the eastern side of the Jordan in archaeology, 
topography, and inscriptions, and with this I fully agree ; but I shoidd 
like to call your attention to possible discoveries which may be made in 
other directions — I mean in those of ethnology and philology generally, 
but especially as elucidating the Bible. During my own short sojourn 
Moab, I came across several very remarkable things. For instance, 
one of our own camel men bore the odd name of Fa'ur, a name that 
does not exist in Arabic, that certainly is not Mahomedan, but is 
really letter for letter identical with the name of the old Moabite idol, 
Baalpeor. Again, I constantly heard from the Arabs the word Hdreth, 
which means in ordinary Arabic, a ploughman, but which in Moab is 
always applied to the hills upon which most of the Moabite towns are 
buUt. In the Bible, we find the capital of Moab called Kir-Hareseth. 
Hareth in Arabic, and Haresh in Hebrew, are identical in orthography. I 
believe I am right in saying that the name Hareseth somewhat puzzled the 
■commentators, but if it were read according to the local meaning of the 
word — the city of the hill, par excellence, we see at once the reason for its 
appellation, and we also find the curious fact of a local Moabite word 
existing 'in the colloquial discourse of the Arabs of the present day. 

Another curious thing I found there, and which I have mentioned in 
my account of the country there — the so-called statue of Lot's wife, a 
curious rock by the shore of the Dead Sea, bearing, when seen from the 
distance, a curious resemblance to an Arab woman. This is called by the 
iiatives Bint Sheikh Lilt— the daughter of Sheikh Lot — and it is a curious 
fact that in Moab the word Bint, which properly means daughter, is by the 
Arabs of the present day, nearly always applied to a wife. I do not lay 
much stress upon that, but it affords a significant comment upon the well- 
known story in the Bible of Lot. 

Another thing is, that amongst the Arabs, those who have undoubtedly 
lived in the country for long generations, we find many names illustrating 
the old scripture records ; as for instance, in Judges we find that two 
princes were slain, Oreb and 2eeb. In that Very country to the present 
(lay, the ruling family of the sheikhs of the Ad wan, the elder branch is 
called Deab, which is exactly the same as the Hebrew name in spelling, 
and means also " wolves." The other name Oreb in Ai\abic, Ghordb, is 
likewise a common Arab tribal name. So I think we may hope to find 
even among these tribes many thing-s which will shed light upon the 
scripture history. 

What M. Ganneau has mentioned about the connection between 
names of places and biblical historical charactere also struck me in many 
instances. I only at this moment remember one — the ruined city of 
Shihan bearing the same name virtually, as Sihon the King of Moab. I 



REPORT OF MKETING. 21 

hope that when tlie expedition is sent to these parts its work will not be 
confined merely to the study of the Jordan district but that the survey 
may be carried further southward — on the Eastern side of Arabia, where 
so much that is of intense interest lies, and where so many discoveries 
may, it is to be hoped, be made. Poor Drake and I, when we went 
through Petrfea and worked our way up to Moab that way, came across 
more than one queer old town cut in the rocks — smaller examples like 
the large rock-cut city Petra— the Sela of the Bible — the city of the rock. 
There also in the neighbourhood of Petra lived a tribe of Arabs, or of 
fellaheen — half Arab, half fellaheen, who are called the Liyd theneh. 
Their lineaments, their habits, everything about them shows that far from 
being of the same stock as the other Arabs, by whom they are surrounded, 
they are nothing more or less than of Hebrew descent — in all i^robability a 
remnant of one of those numerous Hebrew tribes, who, after the dispersion 
of the Jews which followed the Eoman conquest, fled into Arabia, and 
who played so important a part in the early history of Islam. To move 
among these people, to get from them their folk-lore, their language, and 
their idioms, could not fail to throw very great light both upon the 
lanofuasfe and the manners of the Bible. In the whole of the Eastern 
side of the Jordan, as Professor Lewis has remarked, we may hope to 
discover more of those wonderful Persian ruins of which Mashita is a 
specimen ; and I may just note in connection with this subject, that the 
Arab histories tell us very explicitly that the great palaces of Chosroes on 
that side of the Jordan were robbed to build the new city of Bagdad ; 
and I think it would be at least interesting if some of the travellers who go 
that way were asked to look amongst some of the ruins of the old Kaliphs' 
palaces to see if there might not be something that may have come from 
the other side of Jordan, and which may contain not merely relics of 
Persian civilization, but older material — Phoenician and Moabitic work 
which had been worked up by the Persians, and afterwards stolen and 
carried off to Bagdad. I will not detain you longer than to say that I 
think an expedition to that part of the Jordan cannot fail to be attended 
with the very greatest success so far as discoveries go, in topography, archi- 
tecture, archgeology, and in philology. As for the difficulty of dealing with 
the natives, I do not for my own part believe that there exists any at all. 
I found them perfectly easy to manage when I was there — much more 
easy to deal with, in fact, than the fellaheen in the villages on the other 
side. The Arabs have some peculiar cu.stoms ; for instance, what they 
call the blood-feud , and the making a man dakheel, that is to say getting 
from some one a guarantee of your safety which he must answer for 
with his own blood ; and if the traveller does but learn these few things, 
and deal with the Arabs as they deal with each other, he may go from one 
end of Arabia to another without running the smallest risk of any per- 
sonal harm; and as for robbery and extortion he need fear very little of 
til at, if, as has been suggested by Dr. Ginsburgh, he only has the good 
sense not to parade his riches, but goes about in a simple manner. I think 
that there would be no difficulty whatever in travelling in the country. 



22 REPORT OF MEETING. 

I can quite endorse all that has been said about the healthiness of the 
place, for I found it was quite jjossible to get from a very hot valley up 
into a mountain, and be snowed up there for a fortnight ; and surely 
where one can count upon that elevation, and generally upon some snow, at 
any rate in winter, one need have very little fear of fever. There is nothing 
then, either in the country itself, or in the character of the natives, to 
throw difficulties in the way of the expedition, while the results may, I 
think, be expected to be even greater than on the other side — gi'eater 
especially because as the country has remained comparatively deserted for 
so long, and has had, comparatively speaking, so few inroads and incur- 
sions from other nations that it has remained longer in statu quo than 
the country on the other side, where a continuous population has always 
lived, and where there have been so majiy immigrations and incursions 
and journeys of people, that Western Palestine was, for so many centuries, 
the highway between the East and the West. 

Lieutenant Conder. Mr. President and Gentlemen : I feel that after 
so many distinguished gentlemen have spoken, that I have very little to 
say, especially as I have not been over the Jordan ; but I think perhaps a 
few words as to the method upon which the survey might be carried out 
may be of interest. But first I should like to thank the Chairman of the 
Executive Committee and the other gentlemen who have spoken, for the 
very kind way in which they have spoken of my work, and for the 
appreciation which they have shown of the Map of Palestine. I thank them, 
but I cannot say that I altogether agree with them. I have very good reason 
to know that the Map of Palestine is a work that is far from complete. 
We know that there are many defects in the map from the top to the 
bottom, and I feel that if I were called upon to write a critique on my 
work I could write a very scathing one ; but at the same time I think that 
I am right in saying that each and all my companions, including Mr. Drake 

-^hose death we so greatly deplore — Lieutenant Kitchener, Sergeant Black, 

Sergeant Armstrong, as I knov/ from personal experience, did his work 
thorouo-hlv conscientiously, striving night and day and at all times to over- 
come the difficulties of the task, and that it was not for want of 
good-will and earnest endeavour on our part that the map remains in soma 
particulars deficient. And this, I think, I may safely say with regard to the 
Map of Western Palestine, that although others may add to it, they will 
find very little that they will feel called upon to alter. Our object 
all through was not so much to be absolutely exhaustive, which 
would have been impossible, as it was to ensure that what we did put 
down was founded upon thoroughly good authority. The difficulties that 
we had to encounter I need hardly detail to the explorers who are present, 
who know thoroughly well that theoretical expectations at home are 
not always borne out by practical experience abroad, and who also know 
that what appears so hopeful and easy before one goes out is found to be 
surrounded with every sort of difficulty when one is on the spot. There 
are difficulties from the climate, difficulties from the suspicions of the 



REPORT OF MEETINO. 2o 

people, difficulties with the transport, and difficulties at almost every step 
you take. We had in the first instance, to overcome our own ignorance of 
the subject, and secondly, we had to overcome the suspicions of the natives 
and to make allowance for their extremely untruthful habits. Even 
in England we know that the Ordnance Survey encountered the greatest 
difficulty in settling the nomenclature of the maps in a satisfactory manner, 
and with these additional difficulties we found it one of the hardest of 
all the Survey tasks to procure names accurately. For that reason it 
was made a rule that, however tempting a name might be, it was not to 
be accepted unless it was proved by the concurrent testimony of more 
than one person ; and I think we may say that we had the most satisfac- 
tory instance of the nature of the nomenclature in the case of Adullam. 
M. Clermont Ganneau, whose discoveries are very well known to you all 
—who has shown a greater aptitude for the recovery of ancient sites than 
anybody else, and whose identifications are probably sounder than those 
of any one who has been in the country since Robinson discovered 
the site of AduUam and recognised it imder the name of 'Aid el 
MS. He gave me that information ; and when the tracing of that 
part came in I listened with great interest to hear whether the name 
'Aid el Ma would turn up. I found that my sergeant had discovered 
the name on the place indicated, and I went to the place the next day, and 
I met a group of Mussulmen there ; they refused to tell me the name ; 
they told me we knew the name better than they did. After this party 
were gone we came across the shepherds, who were really the best authorities 
upon the point, and from whom I again obtained the name. In that case 
the men who had discovered the name did not know that I knew it ; 
and yet that name was satisfactorily recovered ; and I think we may say 
of the majority of important sites, that we obtained the real ancient 
names which are testified to by more than one person. There 
is no doubt that we learned a great many lessons in working out 
the Survey of Western Palestine. We learned the ways of the people, 
and even in the technical v/ork we learned one or two points ; and 
I hope, if the Survey of Eastern Palestine is accomplished by the party of 
explorers whom I had the honour of leading, it would probably be 
more satisfactory as a whole, than the Survey of the West. With 
regard to the difficulties of the country, and of the nationalities to 
the east of the Jordan, I think it was Mr. Freshfield who inti- 
mated that we should find the Druses very intelligent allies ; and 
we should in the south be able to obtain the assistance of the Ad wan 
Tribe, who are accustomed to Europeans, and who are one of the dominant 
tribes in the district of Moab. The only country I have not a clear idea 
about is Mount Gilead, but that is a comparatively small district, and I 
think there would be very little difficulty in dealing with either of those 
three great districts which comprise the survey which it is proposed 
to take. Most of the gentlemen who have spoken hitherto appear to have 
confined themselves to the consideration of the scientific part of the work. 
Perhaps I might be allowed to say that it appears to rue that the scientific 



24 REPORT OF MEETING. 

side of the work is not that which has obtained the support which the 
Palestine Exploration Society have gained from the public. The reason 
why the public have supported the work of the Palestine Ex2)loration 
Fund appears to me to be the illustration of the Bible. We know that the 
study of the topography of the country, of its natural products, and indeed 
tlie study of Palestine generally, has led to very important illustration of 
the Bible, and I have no doubt from what I have seijn that the feeling 
on the part of the pul:)lic that this is the work of the Fund is the 
reason of the gi'eat interest wJiich has been excited ; and it is 
perhaps because it is supposed that on the Eastern side of the Jordan 
there is less biblical interest, that more importance has been attached to 
the scientific side of the woi-k. But we must remember that, although 
only one-fifth of biblical names are associated with places on the East side 
as compared with the West, yet that the majority of those names on the 
East are those of unknown sites. Those in the West belonged often to 
sites that were known before the work commenced, and for that reason 
there is, I believe, a greater field for identification on the East than on 
the West. Then too, some of the most interesting and romantic episodes 
of the Old Testament are connected with the East. We have the pursuit 
of Gideon to Kiirkor ; we have the retreat of David to Mahanaim ; we 
have the wood of Ephraim, where Absalom was killed ; we have perhaps 
half-a-dozen of these histories which are full of topography, and which 
require elucidation to a very gi'eat extent. We have to find the site of 
Mahanaim ; we have to find the site of Ashtaroth Karnaim where the 
great temple of the two-horned Astarte was situated ; we liave to find the 
site, or at all events verify the position of the site of Succoth where Jacob 
crossed ; we have to find the site of Jegar Sahaduta where his monu- 
ment was placed, and the memory of which was kept alive in the City of 
Pamoth. In addition to this, the Eastern portion is very interesting 
from the New Testament point of view. We may say that Galilee is the 
land of the New Testament, but we must remember that on the Eastern 
side is the country of the Gadarenes, and so many jilaces that ai"e con- 
nected with the history of Our Lord, and we may say that the Map of 
Palestine cannot be considered perfect until at all events the Eastern 
shores of the Sea of Galilee have been laid down. Although we may not 
all have the enthusiasm of M. Ganneau, for which he has ample justifictition 
in the work he has done, we may expect that some relics of very early 
Ebionite Christianity may be discovered in the district of Bashan and on 
the Eastern shores of the Sea of Galilee and as far down as Pella. 

With regard also to the recovery of monuments similar to the Moabite 
stone, I should like to remark that when I was in Jerusalem, in 1874, the 
American Consul-General there, who had recently taken a journey through 
Moab, informed me that he had seen inscribed stones similar to the 
INIoabite stone among the ruins of some of the Moabite cities, so that there 
is a reason, at all events, to take very great care in exploration in the dis- 
trict surrounding Hesban. 

The Dean of Westminster. After the very interesting speeches we 



REPOKT OF MEETING. 25 

have heard, I am iiinvilliug to occupy your time any longer. I have only 
to say that when the Palestine Exploration Fund was first set on foot by 
my friend Mr. Grove, though I sympathised heartily with the proposal, I 
felt what Mr. Freshfield has expressed as his feeling also, that the point at 
wliich every effort ought to be du-ected, was the exploration of Eastern 
Palestine. Beautiful as that map of Western Palestine is, and great as has 
been the light which has been cast by the explorations, that light is as 
nothing compared with the light that can be thrown upon the eastern 
district of Palestine. Of all the features of interest that struck me v^hen 
I first went to Palestine — a feature altogether undescribed, and of which 
I had not the least idea till I went there, of which no book of travel had 
given the slightest information — was the constant view of the mountains 
of Moab, and the great wall of the east of Jordan. Wherever we went, 
that wall, rising up from the purple chasm which separated us from it, 
was a beautiful source of mystery and of tantalization, filling us with a 
sense of ignorance, and with a desire to know what there was beyond it. 
I feel pleased and delighted beyond measure that that desire is now about 
to be satisfied. True, there are not nearly so many interesting places ; but 
still there are very many. Once before I mentioned a place, and I think 
Lieutenant Conder has mentioned it — which I would go any distance to see, 
and that is the Mahanaim. 

I think I need hardly say anything more. Everything has been dis- 
cussed from so many points of view that there is nothing further to be 
said. I am sure the Archbishop of York, who is recruiting his health 
elsewhere, will be very glad to hear of this successful meeting, and I am 
very glad to have been able to take his place. 

There is one remark I should like to make about the photographs. All 
the photographs of Palestine should be invariably photographs of buildings 
and of ruins ; photographs of landscapes appear to me always nearly 
worthless. I beg Lieutenant Conder if he has any influence over the 
photographer who is with him, to induce him to spend all his efforts upon 
the buildings, and none upon landscape. 

The Dean then put the following resolution : " It is now desirable 
to take without delay the Survey of Eastern Palestine under conditions 
similar to those which proved to have been successful in the case of 
Western Palestine." 

The Resolution was carried unanimously. 

Mr. Maudslat. I must be excused if I ask one word, and that is how 
we stand with reference to the exploration of the eastern side of the 
Jordan with regard to the Americans, and the nature of the arrangements 
by which it is proposed we should carry out what they had undertaken. 
The public may possibly be under the impression that the Americans have 
surveyed the country, and I think a few words should be said in this 
i-oom in explanation as to the character in which we go to the East of the 
Jordan. Perhaps Mr. Glaisher will cleai- up this point. 

Mr. Glaisher. As Mr. Maudslay says, an arrangement was made that 
the Americans were to take the eastern side, and we the western side, but 



26 



SURVEY OF EASTERN PALESTINE. 



they have not surveyed the country ; the result of their reconnaissances is 
in fact, this map which I hold in my hand ; and it is now distinctly 
understood by them that we are to take up the real survey. Colonel 
Warren made some reference to the money that we should want, and 
as I am on my feet, perhaps it would be well that I should state that 
we are entirely out of debt, and we have at the bankeis' more than a 
thousand pounds. One other remark. We have heard read portions of 
in interesting letter of Mons. Ganneau. Though it is not quite arranged 
at present, we hope that Mons. Ganneau will become our monthly corre- 
spondent in Palestine ; and if he discovers anything there, we have a 
great hope that we shall soon know the result of his labours. 

Rev. F. W. Holland. I have great pleasure in rising to propose a vote 
of thanks to the Dean of Westminster for kindly presiding upon this 
occasion, also for allowing us the use of this room. We have very often 
had to thank the Dean for his kind assistance at our meetings, and in 
other ways ; and I can only express the hope that he will feel rewarded 
to-day by the character of this meeting, and that we shall bring our work 
to a happy conclusion. 

Mr. Glaisher. It is my pleasing duty to second that. Ten years ago, 
in this room, the Dean was here ; the Archbishop was in the chair ; and 
to see the Dean still taking that same lively interest in Palestine that he 
expressed then, is a great pleasure, and you may readily know how gratifietl 
I feel at performing the duty of seconding this motion. 

The Dean of Westminster. I accept your resolution with thanks, and 
re-echo your wish for the success of the undertaking. 



The following 'is the Pamphlet referred to by Mr. Glaisher (p. 6). It 
is the Prospectus of the — 



NEW SURVEY OF EASTERN PALESTINE. 



The fpllowiug objects were proposed in tiie original prospectus of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund, issued in 1865 : — 

" 1. Archceology. — To search helow the surface in Jerusalem ; to examine 

the mounds and ruins which lie scattered over the whole country, 

and to gather from them the buried secrets which may help vis 

better to understand the Sacred History. 

" 2. Topography. — To complete the survey of Palestine, of which the 

coast-line is already accurately mapped in the Admiralty charts. 
"3. Geology. — Of which we still remain in comparative ignorance. 



SURVEY OF EASTERN PALESTINE. 27 

" 4. Natural Sciences. — Botany, Zoology, Meteorology. — These are at 
present but very imperfectly known, while the recent investi- 
gations of Mr. Tristram, limited as they necessarily were, show 
that researches are likely to furnish results of no common 
scientific interest. 

" 5. Manners and Customs. — To do for the Holy Land what Mr. Lane's 
' Modern Egyptians ' has done for Egypt — describe in a 
systematic and exhaustive order, with clear and exact minuteness, 
the manners, habits, rites, and language of the present in- 
habitants, with engravings intended, like his, ' not to embellish 
the pages, but to explain the text.'" 

On the conclusion of their excavations at Jerusalem, in the year 1870, Survey of 

Wpstcrii 

the Committee undertook the Survey of Western Palestine, a great woi'k Palestine. 
in which they have been occujaied without interi-uption for nine years. 

This part of the Survey is now happily completed and the Great Map 
in 26 sheets is already in the hands of subscribers, while the volumes of 
the memoirs and the reduced maps are well advanced and will very shortly 
be issued. 

These memoirs, as has been already set forth in the Quarterly Btatem.ent, The Memoirs. 
comprise not only a detailed description of the country, with its ruins, villages, 
mountains, streams, etc., by the officers in charge of the Expedition ; but 
also separate papers and essays by Colonels Wilson and Warren, Canon 
Tristram, Mr. Glaisher, Prof. Palmer, Mr. Trelawney Saunders, and 
others. One of the three reduced maps will show the position of the 
places mentioned in the Old Testament ; the second will give those of the Maps.*' 
New, the third will be a modern map. 

The large scale map is generally acknowledged to be the greatest con- The Great Map. 
tribution rendered to the study of the Bible since its translation into 
English : while the accuracy of the information obtained and the short 
space of time taken to comjilete and produce it compare favourably 
with any Government survey. The value of the work is highly appreciated 
by foreign as well as by English scholars ; one of the most venerable of 
English theologians writes to say that he thanks God that he has lived to 
see it completed. 

This map contains the whole of Western Palestine, having for its 
eastern boundary the Eiver Jordan and the Dead Sea. 

But Eastern Palestine has yet to be survey ed. 

The present condition of ovu' knowledge of this great district resembles Eastern 
very much that of Western Palestine when the Survey was first com- 



28 



SURVEY OF EASTERN PALESTINE. 



menced. The country has been visited by many travellers, who have 
described its general features and many of its ruined cities. Among these 
travellers may be mentioned Burckhardt, Seetzen, Wetzstein, Irby and 
Mangles, Lord Lindsay, De Vogu6, Waddington, De Luynes, Porter, 
Costigan, Lynch, Molyneux, Robinson, Cyril Graham, Thomson, Tipping, 
Tristram, MacGregor, Eaton, Zeller, Wilson and Anderson, Warren, 
Burton, Drake, Palmer, Socin, Steever, Merrill, Klein, Freshfield and 
Oliphant. 

Our own expeditions under Lieut. Warren and those of the American 
Exploration Society east of Jordan have made reconnaissances which will 
facilitate the work now proposed. 

The country to be surveyed comprises the following districts or 
provinces : — 

I. Bashan, the "level" land, which extends from the southern slopes 
of Mount Hermon to GUead on the south, the southern frontier being the 
River Hieromax, now called the Nahr Yarm1\k or the Shertat el Mandht^r. 
Bashan is subdivided into : — 

a. Jetur (Ituroea), now called Jedur, of which Philijj was tetrarch 

(Luke iii, 1) named after Jetur, the son of Ishmael (Gen. 
XXV, 15, 16). It was conquered by the Manassites (1 Chron. v, 
18-23), who lived there until the Captivity. This countiy con- 
tains the southern and eastern slopes of Hermon and the table- 
land eastward. 

b. The district named after the city of Golan (Gaulanitis) now called 

Jalan. This is a table-land rising by terraces from the Jordan 
Valley. The city (Josh, xx, 8), which gave a name to the district, 
has yet to be identified. Dr. Porter says that there are a 
hundred and twenty-seven ruined towns in it, among them the 
ancient towns of Aphek, Gergesa, Bethsaida, Hippos, Gamalaand 
Ashtaroth. 

c. The Hauran (Auranitis), a level land, with the ruins of 150 towns, the 

buildings of which are still remaining in good preservation, many of 
them with roofs, doors, and window shutters, all of stone and still 
in their places. A vast number of Greek and Roman inscriptions 
have been collected in this district. Those found by MM. de 
Voglie and Waddington have been published in de VogUe's 
magnificent work on the architecture and archteology of Central 
Syria. 

d. The Argob or Trachonitis, now called el Lejah, the " place of refuge," 

which is, correctly, a part of the Hauran. This formed part of 



SURVEY OF EASTERN PALESTINE. 29 

the kingdom of Og (Deut. iii, 4, 5), wlieii it held threescore 
cities "fenced with high walls." Eemains of more than sixty 
cities have been found here, but it has been but little visited of 
late, and never completely exploi'ed. 
e. East of the Hauran is the district of Batantea containing the 
Hill of Bashan. This country is that of the Maacliathites (Deut. 
iii, 14 ; Josh, xii, 5 ; 2 Sam. x, 6 ; 1 Chron. xix, 7). 
II. The land of Gilead, including territory allotted to the tribes of Land ol Gil. a.i. 
Eeuben, Gad, and part of Manasseh, extending southwards as far as the 
river Arnon. Of this country Canon Tristram wi-ites (" Bible Places," 
p. 322)— 

" The name of Gilead is still preserved in Jebel Jilad, little south of the 
Jabbok, one of the highest points of the mountain range which rises near 4,000 
feet from the Yalley of the Jordan beneath it. In all Gilead, whether forest, 
prairie, or valley, tliere is a wild grandeur, unequalled in any other part of 
Palestine. Eising abruptly from the Jordan Valley, its western bluffs are 
deeply furrowed by the many streams which drain the mountain sides. 

" The traveller rides up and down deep concealed glens : sometimes by a 
track meandering along the banks of a brook, with a dense fringe of oleanders, 
' willows by the water-courses,' shading it from the sun and preventing summer 
evaporation, while they waste their perfume on the desert air without a human 
inhabitant near. Lovely knolls and dells open out at every turn, gently rising to 
the wooded plateau above. Then we rise to higher ground and ride through 
noble forests of oak. Then for a mile or two through luxuriant green corn, or 
perhaps through a rich forest of scattered oUve-ti-ees, left untended and uncared 
for, with perhaps patches of corn in the open glades. 

" No one can fairly judge of Israel's heritage who has not seen the luxuriant 
exuberance of Gilead, as well as the hard rocks of Judsea, which only yield their 
abundance to reward constant toil and cave. To compare the two is to contrast 
nakedness and luxui-iance. Yet the present state of Gilead is just what Western 
Palestine was in the days of Abraham. Subsequently the Canaanites must have 
extensively cleared it, even before the conquest, and while the slopes and terraces 
were clad with olive-groves, the amount of rainfall was not affected. The 
terraces have crumbled away ; wars and neglect have destroyed the groves, until 
it would be difEcult to find any two neighbouring districts more strangely con- 
trasted than the east and west of Jordan. But this is simply caused by the 
greater amount of rainfall on the east side, attracted by the forests, which have 
perished off (he opposite hills. The area of drainage is about the same on each 
side. The ravines and wadys are numei'ous ; but few of the streams are 
perennial on the west — all are so on the east. Everj' stream draining from Moab 
and Gilead is filled with fishes and fresh-water shells. I never found living 
fresh-water shells but in two streams on the west side." 



30 SURVEY OF EASTEEN PALESTINE. 

vioab. III. Moab, whose principal cities are Dibon (where the Moabite 

stone was found), Eabbath Moab, and Kir Haraseth. 

" The whole of the country is a table-land, with the ridge nearly 3,000 feet 
above the sea, and therefore more than 4,000 above the Dead Sea, from vrhich it 
rises precipitously by a series of terraces so narrow and broken that passage is 
impossible ; and then from the crest, scarcely more than from two to four miles 
retired from the sea, it gently slopes mto the vast Belka, or " plain country," and 
the boundless wilderness beyond. It is deeply ploughed and seamed to its very 
centre by the stupendous ravines of the Callirrhoe (Zerka Ma'in) and the Arnon 
(Mojib), besides minor wadys."— Tristram's " Bible Places," p. 345. 

Hfthoa of the ^^^^ survey of this country wiU be conducted on the same system as 

iuivey. that of Western Palestine ; that is to say, the officer in command will be 

instructed : — 

1. To produce an accurate map on a scale of one inch to a mile. 

2. To draw special plans of important localities, and ruined cities. 

3. To make drawings or take photogi-aphs of buildings, sites, tombs, etc. 

4. To collect all the names to be found. 

5. To collect geological specimens, antiquities, etc. 

6. To make casts, squeezes, photographs, and copies of inscriptions. 

7. To collect legends, traditions, and folk-lore. 

8. To observe and record manners and customs. 

9. To excavate if time and opportunity permit. 

Where assistance is required in any of the above divisions it will be 
given, as in the " Survey of Western Palestine," by gentlemen who have 
made those subjects their special study. 

'.iiiiiiui associa- The following are some of the Biblical events connected with this 

lon.s. 

part oi the country : — 

The battles of the "four kings against five" (Gen. xiv, 1-12); the 
destruction of the Cities of the Plain ; the meeting of Jacob and Laban ; 
that of Jacob and Esau ; Jacob's vision at Malianaim ; the wrestling at 
Penuel ; the conquest of Bihon by Moses ; the battle of Edrei ; the 
" Pisgah View ; " the death and burial of Moses ; the story of Balak and 
Balaam ; the division of the land among the two and a-half tribes ; the 
establishment of the three Levitical cities ; the wars of the Manassites and 
Gadites with the Hagarites ; the pursuit of Gideon ; the revolt and 
victories of Jephthah ; the wars of David against Ammon ; the flight of 
Saul's sons, and that of David ; the campaigns of Ahaband his son Joram 
with their allies, Jehoshaphat and Ahaziah ; the wars with Moab ; the 
birth of Elijah ; the invasion of Tiglath Pilezar and of Hazael, and the 
captivity of the tribes. 



SURVEY OF EASTERN PALESTINE. 



31 



Here is the River Anion, the boundary between Moao and tlie 
Amorites, on whose banks stood Aroer, and the mysterious city " in the 
midst of the river." Here are Heshbon the capital of Sihon not far from 
Jahaz, where that king met with his overthrow ; Rabbath Ammon, the 
one city belonging to the Ammonites, besieged by Joab, and taken by 
David ; Ramoth Gilead, which played so great a part in the wars between 
the Syrians and the kingdom of Judah ; Gadara, whose modern inhabitants, 
like the demoniacs of the miracle which associates the city with the New 
Testament, dwell in the ancient tombs ; Bethsaida Julias, the scene of the 
miracle of Mark vi, 31-53 ; Csesarea Philippi, the northernmost point of 
our Lord's wanderings, where Herod built his temple of white marble ; 
Damascus, with the rivers Pharphar and Abana ; the Bozrah of Jerem. 
xlviii, 24 ; the river Jabbok, where Esau and Jacob met, the boundary of 
the Ammonites ; Machserus, where John the Baptist was beheaded ; 
Callirrhoe, whither Herod the Great repaired in hopes of recovery from his 
disease. On this side are also the great palace of Hyrcanus (Arakel 
Emir) ; the unfinished palace of Chosroes the Second (Mashlta) ; the 
fortress of Kerak, where Mesha sacrificed his son ; and Dibon where the 
Moabite stone was found. We must not forget, also, that it was on this 
side that the Christian Church found a refuge during the troubled 
times of the siege by Titus. 

The Committee invite a comparison of the three following maps. The 
first shows a piece of Western Palestine before the survey ; the second, 
the same piece after the survey ; the third, a piece of Eastern Palestine as 
it can now be mapped. The last mentioned portion selected for illustra- 
tion is not exceptionally unknown ; it is a piece of the country adjoining 
the Sea of Galilee. 



Comparative 
>Iaps. 



The following are the places mentioned in the Bible east of Jordan 
most of which require to be identified : — 



Abana river. 

Abarim. 

Abel Ceramim. 

Abel Mizraim. 

Abel Shittim. 

Almon Diblathaim. 

Aphek. 

Ar Moab. 

Arnon river, 

A roer. 

Ashtaroth. 

Ashtarolh Karnaim, 

Ataroth. 

Avith. 



Baal Meon. 
Baalgad. 
Bajith. 
Bascama. 
Beon. 

Beth Baal Meon. 
Beth Diblathaim. 
Beth Gamul. 
Beth Haran. 
Beth Jeshimoth. 
Beth Nimrah. 
Beth Rehob. 
Bezer in the Wilder- 
ness. 



Betonim. 

Bosor. 

Bozrah. 

Bozrah of Edom. 

Cam on. 

Casphon. 

Damascus. 

Dametha. 

Dibon. 

Dinion. 

Edrei. 

Elealah. 

En Eglaim. 

Gadara. 



D 



32 



SURVEY OF EASTERN PALESTINE. 



Galeed. 

Geshur. 

Golan. 

Ham. 

Hazar Hatticon. 

HeshboD. 

Hobah. 

Horouaim. 

lim. 

Ishtol. 

Jabbok river. 

Jabesh Gilead. 

Jahaz. 

Jazer. 

Jega r-saliadutlia. 

Karkor. 

Kedemoth. 

Kenath Nobali. 

Kir of Moab. 

Kii'iathaim. 



Excavations at 
the '^ea of 
GaliU-c. 



Lash a. 

Luhith. 

Maacliah. 

Madmen. 

Mali ana im. 

Maked. 

Maon. 

Medeba. 

Mepliaath. 

Miiiiiith. 

Misgab. 

Mizpeh Gilead. 

Mizpeli Moab. 

Nebo. 

Nimrim. 

Nobah. 

Pemiel. 

Peor. 

Pharphar, B. 

Pisgah. 



Rabbah. 

Eabbath Amnion. 

Eamath Mizpeh. 

Eamoth Gilead. 

Rebol. 

Eogelim. 

SaJcah. 

Shibmali. 

Shittim. 

.Shojjlian. 

Succotli. 

Tabbath. 

Taphon. 

Tob. 

Tophel. 

Zareth Shaliar. 

Zered Brook. 

Zoar. 



The following are the principal classical and mediaeval sites of the 
country : — 



Abila. 

Adraa. 

Aphnith. 

Areopolis. 

Ai'bela. 

Batanea. 

Bethezoba. 

Callirrhoe. 

Cauatha. 

Capitolias. 

Dionisia. 



Dios. 

Dosos. 

Essa. 

Gamala. 

Gerasa. 

Hippos. 

Julias. 

Kerak. 

Livias. 

Maclipprus. 

Neapolis. 



Nebdlo. 

Neve. 

Omba. 

Bella. 

Phaenos. 

Phenutus. 

Phiaila (Lake). 

Philadelphia. 

Philippopolis. 

Regueb. 

Rhose. 



Rudda. 

Saccaea. 

Samachu. 

Sebe. _ 

Seleucia. 

Soganiia. 

Solyma. 

Tyrus. 

Zara. 

Zerka. 



As' regards the cost, it will probably be at the same rate as that of 
the previous survey ; that is to say, the Committee will have to meet 
an expenditure of over £3,000 a-year. The east of the Jordan will be 
surveyed at a gi-eater speed, owing to the more favourable configuration 
of the country, than was possible to the west. The Committee confidently 
expect that the same support which was given before will be given again, 
because it is not to be believed that the English-speaking people will 
rest content while the Holy Land is only half surveyed. 

The Surveyors of Eastern Palestine will also be instructed to conduct 
these excavations on the shores of the Sea of Galilee which were proposed 
in the Quarterly Statement for October, 1878. The subscriptions which 
were paid in for the purpose of carrying out the excavations were plac«d 
on Deposit account as a special fund. It is hoped that excavations will 
definitively decide for us the positions of Capernaum, Choraziu, Beth.saida, 



SURVEY OF EASTERN PALESTINE. 33 

and Tarichese. Other questions of interest are connected witli Ain-el- 
Tabigah, the mounds of Genessareth, Trbid, Kerak, Kalat-et-Hasn, tlie 
ruins at Khersa, and other mounds and remains on the borders of the lake. 

As heretofore, the reports and letters of the officer commandinor the Quarterly stat»- 

"lent, 
expedition will be published in the Quarterly Statement of the Society, 

which will be sent post-free to all subscribers. 

Subscriptions and donations are received by the Society's Bankers, 
Coutts and Co., Strand, or the Union Bank of London, Charing Cross 
Branch. If sent to the Offices of the Fund they should be maole payable 
to the order of the Secretary, and crosfsed Coutts and Co. 

By Order of the Committee, 
1, Adam Street, Adelpbi WALTER BESANT, M.A., 

December, 1880. Secretary, 



D 2 



34 



BIBLICAL GAINS, 
ON SOME OF THE 

GAim TO BIBLICAL AIICH/EOLOGY 

DUE TO THE NEW SURVEY. 



The Survey Map of Palestine, west of Jordan, is now given to the 
public. Extending over 6,000 square miles, from Dan to Beersheba, its 
execution in the field occupied a period of seven years, and more than two 
years were subsequently spent in preparing the results for publication. 
The voluminous memoirs which will elucidate the maj), and probably fill 
eight quarto volumes profusely illustrated, are already in the press, and 
the fii"st instalment will soon be ready for publication. 

It is therefore a fitting time for the enquiry, what permanent resiUts of 
value and of interest to readers of the Bible have been gained by the 
successful accomplishment of this arduous task ? 

Geographical discoveries of remarkable interest and value are at 
once recognised by those who compare the Survey Map with former 
maps of Palestine. The Sea of Galilee proves to have a depression nearly 
100 feet greater than was formerly supposed. The courses of the main 
affluents of Jordan on the west are entirely different from those previously 
shown. The Crocodile River springs fi-om a source formerly unsuspected. 
Villages have been transposed from one side to the other of great boundary 
valleys, forty fords of Jordan are now known where only four were pre- 
viously marked. Ten thousand modern names occur on the maji, of which 
nearly nine-tenths were previously unknown. Important notes as to the geo- 
logical structuie of the country, its physical features, cultivation, soil, climate, 
and natural products have been collected, and the traditions and customs 
of its inhabitants have been noted. And from an archaeological point of view 
our information as to the dates, the positions, and the nature of the existing 
ruins, as to the character of the peasant language, and as to the manners, 
customs, and superstitions of the rustic population, has been enormously 
increased. 

As early as the year 1849 the late Canon Williams had pointed out the 
desirability of making a complete survey of Palestine. It was felt that by 
this process alone could we hope to obtain an exhaustive acquaintance 
with the topography of the country, and ensure the examination of those 
districts which, lying remote from the main lines of travel, remained 
almost a blank on even the best maps. 

The expectations thus expressed have been abundantly justified by 
the results of the survey, while errors of former travellers have been 
corrected by the survey officers. The most imjsortant discoveries have been 
made principally in those districts which were previously almost unknown, 



BIBLICAL GAINS. 3o 

and the close nature of the survey has been such as to justify the hope 
that but little of permanent interest has been left unexamined above the 
surface. 

The amount of new discovery in the single branch of identification may 
be judged by the attached index of names which Lieutenant Conder, R.E., 
has at various times proposed' for identification, and which are now incor- 
porated in the Memoirs. Roiighly speaking, a proportion of two-thirds of 
the Biblical topography of Western Palestine has now been recovered with 
some approach to certitude, and of this proportion no less than a third is the 
direct result of the survey work. 

The value of geographical discovery for the verification of the accuracy 
of scriptural history has lately been exemplified in a striking manner in 
the case of the Egyptian Records relating to the Hittites. The veracity of 
the Old Testament account of the Hittite Princes contemporary with 
Solomon had been deemed as presenting insuperable difficulties, but the 
indisputable testimony of the granite records of Thothmes and Rameses 
has left no doubt as to the contemporary rule of this powerful race 
in Northern Syria in the times of the Hebrew Judges and Kings. 
The subject of identification even in the case of obscure sites, or 
insignificant ruins, obtains, when viewed as part of a systematic study of 
scriptural topography, an extraordinary value and importance. Few may 
care to know, for instance, the exact site of Anaharath or Zaanannim, 
but many will be interested in the determination of the tribe 
boundaries, in the elucidation of the adventures of David, or of the 
tragic fate of Sisera, and it is only by a patient devotion to the study of 
minute details of topography that any striking general conclusions can 
safely be reached. 

That the topography of the Talmud, of the works of Josephus, of the 
Byzantine pilgrims, and early Chi-istian Fathers, of the crusading and 
Arab chroniclers, of the Samaritan, and the Egyptian or Assyi-ian records, 
have been elucidated in an important degree by the survey discoveries 
will be a matter more interesting, perhaps, to the antiquarian than to the 
general reader ; yet each and all of these vai'ious records of the history and 
o-eoo-raphy of the Holy Land are so bound up with the questions of 
Biblical history and geography, as to render it imperative that they should 
be exhaustively examined by any explorer anxious to arrive at sound 
conclusions as to Bible sites. The fruits of such research will find a place 
in the survey memoii's, and the present paper is only intended as a sketch 
of the most interesting results of direct Biblical importance which have 
been founded upon these extended inquiries. 

There is another peculiarity with regard to. Biblical geography which 
lends additional interest and importance to the subject. Palestine is a little 
country, the length of whitth might be traversed by rail in six hours and 
its breadth in less than two. The six hundred Bible sites which are to be 
found within its limits are thus on an average to be sought within an area 
of 10 square miles a piece. When David tied farthest from Saul he was 
yet not more than 40 miles from Bethlehem, nor more than 50 from 



36 BIBLICAL GAINS, 

Gibeah where Saul abode. Most of the famous deeds of Samson took place 
in a district containing an area of less than 40 square miles. Jerusalem 
itself covered at the height of its prosperity not more than 330 acres, includ- 
ing 30 acres of the Temple enclosure. The closeness of the toj^ography while 
on the one hand rendering its recovery more difficult, lends on the other 
a wonderful vividness and reality to the ancient episodes of Hebrew 
history. At Hebron we may almost trace each step of Abner's way from 
the Well of Sirah to his doom at the city gate. By Michmash we may gaze 
on the very rock up which Jonathan climbed. At Shechem we mp^y stand 
on the brink of Jacob's well, in tlie very foot prints of Christ. We are 
not content to know that Capernaum was north of Tiberias, and insist on 
tixing the exact spot now disputed by sites only about 2^ miles distant one 
from the other. Fierce controversies arise between those who place 
Cana 4 miles north of the traditional site and those who support the lattei- 
view. Topography, in short, takes the place in Palestine of geography, and 
for this reason a plan rather than a map is required. 

Of the character of the proposed identifications, their reasons, and 
comparative probability, the Appendix will give the reader some idea. It 
is proposed here briefly to run over the most interesting questions on 
which the trigonometrical survey has thrown new light, and for this 
purpose it will be most convenient to follow the sequence of the Scripture 
narrative rather than to adopt any geographical arrangement, especially as 
the episodes of Bible history are as a ride each confined to some well 
marked district of the Holy Land. 

Commencing, then, with the immigration of Abraham from beyond 
Euphrates, the first topographical question which arises is that of the exact, 
position of the Royal Canaanite city of Ai. (Sheet XVII.) 

The situation of this ancient town, afterwards entirely destroyed by 
Joshua, is minutely described in the Bible. It was " beside " Bethel 
(Joshua xii, 9), and the Hebrew has here the force of " close to," which 
appears fatal to the claims of various sites south and east of Michmash 
(or more than 6 miles from Bethel) which have been proposed. Ai lay 
also east of Bethel (Joshua viii, 9) with a ravine to the north (verse 11) 
and a desert to the east (verse 15), while to the west was a place fitted 
for the ambush which the Israelites set. These indications were so 
definite that but little doubt could exist as to the approximate situation of 
the town. Travellers visited and described a ruin called et Tell, " the 
mound," which seems first to have been pointed out by Vandevelde, 
and the somewhat fanciful conjecture was advanced that this place derived 
its name from the fact that Joshua made of Ai "aheap {Tell in the 
Hebrew) for ever." (Joshya viii, 28,) 

To this view there were, however, objections. There is no certain 
indication that the hillock of et Tell was ever the site of a city, and the 
expression " for ever " should be taken rather as a.n indication of the early 
date of the Book of Joshua, for Ai reappears as a town in the later Jewish 
Books. (Nehemiah xi. 31 ; Isaiah x, 28.) Fortunately the survey party 
were able to suggest a better explanation through the discovery of the 



BIBLICAL GAINS.. 37 

ancient ruins of Ildu/dn inunediately south of et Tell. The name recalls 
the Aina of Josephus (equivalent to Ai, Ant. v. ji, 9) and the existence 
of large rock-hewn reservoirs with tombs and cisterns jii'oves the site to be 
of importance and antiquity. To the north is a rugged ravine, to the east 
the desolate desert of Bethaven. To tJie west is Bethel, 2 miles distant, and 
between the two sites is the open ravine called " the valley of the city," 
where unseen, yet close at hand, the ambush may have lain concealed 
beneath the low cliffs or among the olive groves after creeping across from 
the northern valley behind the rough rocky swell which runs out to the 
mound of et Tell. 

It was from the flat ridge which rises between Bethel and Ai that 
Abraham and Lot looked down on the Cities of the Plain and on the 
" circle " of Jordan, and the view from this point over the desert ranges 
and the Jordan valley to Nebo and Moab is still striking and picturesque. 

As regards the position of these famous cities which Josephus believed 
to liave lain beneath the waters of the Dead Sea, but which modern 
students jjlace in the Jericho Plain or in the corresponding basin (Ghor es 
Seiseban) east of Jordan, the survey results were rather of negative than 
of positive value. A very close and careful examination of the ground 
showed that no traces of the sites of any towns occur between .Jericho and 
the Dead Sea shore, the remaining ruins belonging only to mediteval 
monastic establishments, and that no springs suitable for the supply of 
even small villages exist, or probably ever existed, in this district. Thus, 
although an ajjparently successful attempt has been made by Dr. Selah 
Merrill to recover the site of Zoar, our information as to the other foui- 
cities the destruction of which is described in the Book of Genesis (chaptei- 
xix) remains indecisive. Lieutenant Conder has, however, pointed out that 
the term " plain " {Ciccar) is applied in the Bible to the Jordan valley as far 
north as Succoth, which renders it not improbable that Admah, one of the 
lost cities, is identical with Adam, a city of Jordan (Joshua iii, 11), the name 
of which still survives at the Daniieh ford east of Shechem. (Sheet XV.) 

Among the nations inhabiting Palestine in the time of Abraham the 
Kenites — a tribe as yet unidentified — are mentioned (Gen. xv, 19). They 
iiihabited a strong fortress in the southei-n 2'art of the country and 
survived until the time of David. Lieutenant Conder projwses to identify 
this site with the town of Cain which Vandevelde found in the present 
ruin of Yekln. This affords an interesting illustration of the Old 
Testament narrative. Yekln perched on the edge of a steep cliff 
dominating the desert plateau west of the Dead Sea, is one of the most 
conspicuous objects against the sky-line looking from the east. To 
Balaam, on the summit of Nebo, it was in full view, and the words of his 
prophecy thus receive fresh force and significance, " strong is thy dwelling 
place, and thou })uttest thy nest in a rock." (Sheet XXL) 

The history of the late Patriarchs Isaac, Jacob, and his sons is mainly 
connected with the district called Negeh or " Dry " in the Bible 
Beersheba, Gerar, Rehoboth, and the unknown sites of Esek and Sitna, 
ai'e all to be found in this part of the country. The reason of this choice 



38 BIBLICAL GAINS. 

of country is plainly shown by the survey. The high hills of Hebron, with 
their steep, rocky valleys, rich soil, and numerous springs, are siiitable for 
agriculture and the growth of the olive and the vine ; the low chalky hills 
and the healthy Beersheba plateaii form a pastoral district still capable of 
supporting large flocks and herds. The Hittite mountains round Kirjath 
Arba (or Hebron) were already inhabited by an agiicultural population in 
the time of Abraham, and the nomadic Hebrews found a suitable home in 
the pasture lands of the Philistines and Amalekites in the " dry district," 
of which the distinctive character' remains unchanged. Where the 
Patriarchs once spread their tents the great tribes of the Azazimeh and 
Henajereh now pasture their flocks ; and in the mountainj of the sons of 
Heth the modern Fellahin lead an agricultural life. 

The site of Gerar was discovered before the survey, but was visited by 
the party from Gaza. Thei-e is little to describe beyond a gigantic mound 
on the side of a deep broad watercourse in the midst of rolling plains. 

The question of most interest was that of rediscovering the wells which 
Isaac dug again in the valley of Gerai- after those made 1)y Abraham had 
been filled in by the Philistines. (Gen. xs.v, 18.) No great masonry 
wells su;h as those of Beersheba were discovered ; and, indeed, at 
Beersheba itself the survey party were able to show that the masonry 
once thought to have been the work of Abraliam dates only from Arab 
times. It was ascertained, however, that a strong underground stream 
flows down the great valley which, rising near Hebron, runs southwards to 
Beersheba, and thence westwards to the sea, passing by the site of Gerar. 
The Arabs camping round this latter site are in the habit of making 
excavations in the bed of the valley, from which the water wells up, and 
which are called by the Hebrew name Hufr, or " pit." If the wells dug 
by Abraham were of this description tbey might easily have been tilled in 
by the Philistines suid reopened by Isaac ; while the loss of the sites of 
Esek and Sitnah is on the same suj^position naturally explained. 

The later books of the Pentateuch contain but Little infonnation 
concerning the topography of Palestine proper. A few notes of interest 
may, however, be heie given in connection with the sm-vey. 

According to the Law of Moses the scapegoat was set fi-ee in the 
wilderness (Levit. xvi, 9), btit at a later period an evasion or modification 
of this command was introduced by the Jews ; the goat was conducteei to 
a mountain named Tzuk situated at a distance of ten sabbath days' 
journey, or about 6| English miles from Jerusalem. At this place the 
Judjean desert was supposed to comm«rjce, and the man in whose charge 
the goat was sent out, while setting hira free, was instrxicted to push the 
unhappy beast down the slope of the mountain side, which was so steep 
as to ensure the death of the goat, whose bones were broken by the fall. 
The reason of this barbarous custom was that on one occasion the scape- 
goat returned to Jerusalem after being set free, which was considered 
such an evil omen that its recurrence was prevented f<u- the fatvire by the 
death of the goat, as described in the tract Yoma of the Mishna. 

The distance given between Tzuk and Jerusalem seems to indicate a 



BIBLICAL GAINS. 39 

lofty hill top now called el Muntdr, " the watch- to wei-," which dominates 
the desert west of Jericho. An ancient i-oad leads from Jerusalem to this 
point, and beside the road is an ancient well preserving the name Tzuk 
in the Arab form SiU: The eastern slope of the hill is steep, and falls 
unbroken to the stony valley benea.th. The goat, dashed on the rocks, in 
its fall must inevitably have been destroyed, while the mountain may 
well claim to be considered the eutrance to the dreary desert which 
stretches beneath its summit. (Sheet XVIIT.) 

Another discovery of some interest was the identification by the 
survey party of one of the species of deer mentioned in the Pentateuch. 
Tn the English version the Hebrew word Yalchw,or 1% rendered "fallow 
deer," but this interpretation has not been accepted by modern scholars. 
It now proves that the roebuck as well as the fallow deer is to be found in 
the Carmel thickets, and it has been ascertained that the old Hebi'ew 
name Takhmor is still applied by the natives to the former species — the 
English roebuck. 

The researches of Egyptologists have thrown considerable light on the 
condition of Palestine and Syria during the time of the Hebrew bondage 
in Egypt and during the time of the Judges. The records of the great 
conquerors Thothmes III and Eameses II give long lists of places 
situated in the Holy Land and in the country of the Hittites. The reason 
why the children of Israel entered Palestine from the east after their long 
sojourn in the Sinaitic desert appears to have been that the Egyptian 
Government was then firmly established in the Plain of Sharon. This 
agrees with the Bible account of the Philistine immigi'ation into the 
southern jilains from Egypt, and in this, as in so many other instances, the 
records of the Egyptian monuments fully coincide with the history of the 
Old Testament. 

Attemjats have been made by Mariette, Brugsch, Rouge, Chabas, and 
other Egyptologists to identify the towns mentioned in the records of 
Egyptian conquests in Palestine. Many have been recovered with cer- 
tainty, but it was not until the survey had been completed that it became 
possible to study the subject exhaustively. Many existing ancient sites 
not mentioned in the Bible are found to agree exactly with the 
Egyptian lists, and the pj'obable correctness of the identifications thus 
obtained is evinced by the ease with which the lists are shown to preserve 
a proper consecutive order, while the districts occur along the very line of 
mai'ch which we know, from other inscriptions, to have been followed by 
Thothmes and Rameses. The number of identifications proposed within 
the country covered by the survey may also be contrasted with our almost 
entire ignoi-ance of the topography of the Hittite towns lying north of 
Damascus, of which scarcely six are known out of a total of over 100 
noticed on the monuments. 

The Book of Joshua is the central focus of Biblical topogi-aphy, and the 
elucidation of this Book has been materially advanced by the survey. 
Several important cities before unknown have now been fixed with 
considerable certitude, and the boundai'ies of the tribes have been traced 
in a satisfactory manner. 



40 BIBLICAL GAINS. 

The survej' officers were able to confirm entirely the discoveries of 
M. Clermont Ganneau respecting the sites of Adullam and Gezer, and to 
these important towns they add the identification of Hazor and Debir, 
with a large number of less famous names. The site of Gilgal, discovered 
east of Jericho by the German traveller Herr Schokke, was fixed by the 
surveyors, who found the name JiljMieh still surviving. The site of 
Makkedah fixed by Colonel Warren, RE., at the present village el Mughdr, 
" the caves," has been adopted by the surveyors, who found that at this 
site only of all the possible sites for Makkedah in the Philistine plain do 
caves {see Joshua x, 22) still exist. The position also agrees well with the 
identification of the towns Gederoth, Beth-Dagon, and Naamah mentioned 
in the same group with Makkedah. (Sheet XVI.) 

The site of Joshua's tomb has long been sought, the identification with 
the rock seijulchre at Tibneh, north-east of Lydda, being unsatisfactory foi- 
several reasons. Joshua was buried at a place called Timnath Heres, in 
Mount Ephraim, and there is a remarkable consent of Jewish, Samaritan, 
and Christian tradition^ traceable from the fourth century downwards, 
which jDoints to a village Cidled Kefr Hdris, south of Shechem, as 
representing the burial place of Joshua. Lieutenant Conder ascertained 
that this tradition is still extant among the Samaritans, and although it 
ajjpears little understood by the peasantry, a sacred shrine exists outside 
the village of Kefr Haris to which the name Nehy Luslta (no doubt a 
corruption of Yehusha, or Joshua), is ajiplied. Ancient tradition also places 
the tomb of Nun at this same village, and a second sacred place called 
Neby NAn was found close to the supposed site of the tomb of Joshua. 

The Priests Eleazar and Phinehas, the successors of Aaron, were also 
buried in Mount Ephraim. The traditional site was sought in vain by 
the great American explorer Robinson, but the surveyors were more 
fortunate, and have visited and minutely described the tombs which 
according to Jewish, Samaritan, and Christian tradition alike, are said 
to be those of the sons of Aaron. The monument of Phinehas appears to 
be of great antiquity, but that of Eleazar has been rebuilt. They are both 
close to the village of Awertah, which the Samaritans identify with the 
Biblical Gibeah Phinehas. (Joshua xxiv, 33.) (Sheets XIV and XI.) 

There is no room in a jaaper like the present to go very deeply into 
the question of the boundaries of the tribes. Several important survey 
discoveries have been cordially accepted by students of the subject, and 
several very important modifications have resulted from the survey in the 
lines of the borders as formerly laid down. The general results of the 
new investigation appear to be as follows : — 

1st. The boundaries are shown to be almost entirely natural - rivers, 
ravines, ridges, and the watershed lines of the country. 

2nd. To many of the tribes were assigned distinct districts of the country. 
Issachar had the great plain, Zebulon the low hills north of it. The sons 
of Joseph held the wild central mountains, and Naphtali those of Upper 
Galilee. Dan and Asher occupied the rich Shephelah (or lowland) and 
maritime plain. Simeon inhabited the desert, while Judah, holding the 



BIBLICAL GAINS. 41 

largest share of territory, had both mouutaiii aud Sliephelah plain and 
desert in its j)ortion. 

3rd. The eimmeration of towns follows always an order i-oughly con- 
secutive, and all those of one district aj'e mentioned togethei-. 

4th. The proportion of territory to population is calculated to vary 
exactly in accordance with the fertility of the district. Taking as a basi.s 
the tribe populations (Numbers xxvi), it appears that the ancient popula- 
lations must have been most dense exactly in those districts in which the 
greatest number of ancient ruins is now fouud, aud which are still most 
thickly inhabited. 

Among the most important discoveries concerning the tribe boun- 
daries are the following : the waters of Nephtoah (Joshua xv, 9) are now- 
placed at the pools of Solomon (so called), besides which the spring 'Aidu, 
the Talmudic Etani, or Nephtoiih, still exists. Formerly they wei'e 
identified with the spring near Lifta west of Jei-usalem, probably Eleph of 
Benjamin ; but this theory renders the topography very confused, whereas 
the new pi-oj^osal when joined to the new identification of Kirjath Jearim 
makes the boundary line of Judah follow a natural watershed. 

On the north-west border of Benjamin, Aai-otth Adar {ed Ddrieh), 
aud Archi {'A in Arik) have been recovered in exact accordance with the 
words of the Bible (Joshua xviii, 13), which define the position of the 
former with the greatest minuteness. The course of the brook Kanah, 
(WMy Kanah) has now for the first time been correctly laid down, thus 
fixing the boundaries of Ephi-aim and Manasseh ; and the discovery of 
Rabbith and other sites has for the fii'st time defined the border of 
Issachar. Many new ^identifications are proposed for the towns of Dan 
and Asher, and a group of places belonging to NajDhtali has been fixed in 
an apparently satisfactory manner in the plateau immediately west of the 
Sea of Galilee. 

Let us now pass to the elucidation which has been effected, through 
the survey, of the episodical histories of the Book of Judges, — the 
adventures of Caleb, Sisera, Gideon, and Samson. 

The site of the city Debir, for the conquest of which the valiant Othniel 
was rewarded by the hand of Achsah, Caleb's daughter, had long been 
sought in vain. Many towns of the group surrounding it had been iden- 
tified. It was known to stand in the Negeb, or "dry," country south of 
Hebron, and that certain springs should be found not far olf. The name 
signifies " back," suggesting that the city stood on a ridge, and Lieutenant 
Conder was the first to point ovit the probable identity with the ancient 
village Dhdherttjeh (" of the back ''j, standing in a conspicuous position 
among ancient tombs and quarries close to the other towns of the grouj), 
while, at a short distance to the north, a valley was discovered full of 
springs, some on the hill side, some in the bed of the ravine, answering 
in a most satisfactory manner to the " upper and lower springs '' for which 
Achsah besought her father. (Judges i, 15.) (Sheet XXV.) 

The topography of the Scriptural episode of the defeat and death of 
Sisera has been as yet very little understood. The scene of the battle has 



42 BIBLICAL GAINS. 

often been placed on the south-west of the great Esdraelon plain, and the 
defeated general has been supposed to have fled a distance of 35 miles 
over the high mountains of tipper Galilee. The scene may, however, 
be now confined to a very small area (.see Judges iv). 

The forces of the Hebrews under Barak were assembled on the slopes of 
Mount Tabor, and the conflict took place on the plain south-west of the 
mountain near Endor. (Psalm Ixxxiii, 10.) The pursuit of the main body 
was westwards towards Kishon, and as far as Harosheth (el Harithtyeh) 
evidently through the plains, because chariots are mentioned. Thus the 
battle was almost exactly identical in locality with the famous battle of 
Tabor, in which Kleber repulsed the Turks, driving them into the 
treacherous quagmires, which now, as in 1799, or as in the time of 
Sisera, nearly 24 centuries earlier, fringe the course of the apparently 
insigniflcant stream of Kishon. (Sheets VI and VIII.) 

The flight of Sisera himself took an opposite direction to the plain of 
Zaanaim. The Jewish commentators have made it clear that this name 
should be translated not " by Zaanaim " but Bitzaanaim, " the marshes," 
and the occurrence of the same name in a group of towns west of the Sea 
of Galilee seems to show pretty conclusively that the neighbourhood of 
Bessitm, with its marshy springs east of Tabor, is intended. The Kedesh 
of the passage is probably a site so called south of Tiberias, and the tent 
of Heber the Kenite would thus have been spread on the open plateau 
within 10 miles of the site of the battle. 

Among the graphic episodes of Hebrew history there is, perhaps, none 
more picturesque than that relating to Gideon's victory over the Midianites. 
The general scene is known, the Valley of Jezreel, now Wady JalM ; but 
the details of the minute topography are still obscured through the loss of 
many sites east of Jordan. Beth-Shittah, Zererath, and Tabbath, Beth- 
barah, Penuel, Nobah, Jogbehah, and Karkor (Judges vii, 22 ; viii, 11) are 
still unknown, and it is only possible to say that the pursuit extended 
from .some point below Jezreel to the mountains east of Jericho. 

The survey tlirows light on the position of Abel Meholah, and Succoth 
is identified at Tell Der'ala. Suggestions may also be off"ered for the situa- 
tion of the famous " Spring of Trembling " (En Harod), where Gideon 
selected his band, and light may be thrown on the curious notice of a 
Mount Gilead, west of Jordan, in the same connection. 

It is clear from the account given by Josephus that Harod is to be 
sought not far from Jordan, and Lieutenant Conder has suggested that the 
name 'Ain el Jem'aln, " Spring of the two Companies," applying to an 
abundant stream at the foot of the eastern slope of Mount Gilboa, may retain 
a trace of the memory of Gideon's famous selection of three hundred tried 
men, who, as able to satisfy their thirst by water taken in the palm of the 
hand, were indicated as fitter to endure the trial of a long and rapid 
pursuit than the remaining multitude who drank more freely. 

As regards the name Gilead (Judges vii, 3), it has been found that from 
an early period the name JaMd or Jelde7i has applied to the stream flowing 
down the Valley of Jezreel, and it is suggested that the name Gilead, 



BIBLICAL GAINS. 43 

applying according to the p;issage above cited to a mountain near this 
stream is the true Hebrew form of the modern Arab Jahld and of the 
Jeldeu which is mentioned in Egyptian documents. 

The history of Samson has been ehicidated to a certain degree by the 
addition of tlie probable site of Etam to those already known, viz., 
Timnah, Sorek, Zoreah, and Eshtaol. 

There were several places in the south of Palestine named Etam 
(" The Eagle's nest "), but that which became the hiding place of Samson 
is described as a " rock " or " cliff'." (Judges xv, 11.) The new identifica- 
tion is with the village of Beit \itdb, standing on a conspicuous and 
rugged knoll of rock above a deep valley. Under the village is a long 
tunnel, to which a Hebrew name signifying " Cave of Refuge " still 
applies, and it is proposed to recognize in this curious cavern, close to the 
principal spring, the cleft (wrongly rendered " to]i ") of the Rock Etam 
into which the Hebrew hero descended when hiding from his enemies. 
(Sheet XVII.) 

The site of Ramoth Lehi still remains doubtful, but, with this exception, 
the scenes of Samson's life are now grouped round the vicinity of Zoreah, 
his native home, and at this village the site of Samson's tomb, according to 
mediaeval Jewish tradition, has been recovered at the shrine of the 
Prophet Samat, to which certain confused traditions still attach, in which 
the princi])al episodes of Samson's career may be recognized. 

A site long sought in connection with the history of Samson, and also 
with the succeeding episode of the Danite conquest of Laish, is that of the 
Mahaneh Dan, or " Camping place of Dan," which was " behind " {i.e., 
west of) Kirjath Jearim (Judges xviii, 12), and near Zoreah and Eshtaol. 
These indications could not be reconciled with the site usually proposed for 
Kirjath Jearim. It appeared probable that the wide corn valley east of 
Samson's home was the camping ground in question, but this is eight 
miles from Kuriet el 'Anab, where Dr. Robinson places the famous city 
Kirjath Jearim, the resting place for so many years of the Ark. 

It has now been pointed out that this latter identification rests on no 
surer basis than a fifth century tradition of foreign oiigin, and we are left 
free to seek the " Town of Thickets " elsewhere. The survey identification 
points to a ruin on a thickly covered ridge amongst copses and thickets, 
to which the name ^Erma still applies, corresponding to the latest form 
Arim, which took the place of the original Ya'rini, or Jearim. (Ezi-a ii, 25.) 
This ruin is distant only three miles from the great valley towards which 
it looks down. It lies close to the border of the lower hills and the high 
Judean mountains, and it shows evidence of having been an ancient site. 

Close to the same vicinity the survey party fixed the situation of Deir 
Aban, " The Convent of the Stone," which St. Jerome identifies with the 
site of Ebenezer, " The Stone of Help," a name so familiar to our ears as 
that of the monument raised by Samuel to commemorate the great victory 
over the Philistines (1 Samuel vii, 12), and probably marking the final 
limit of the pursuit. 

The situation of the site seems to render the traditional view not im- 



44 BIBLICAL GAINS. 

])robably correct, for the village stands at the month of the great valley, 
down which undoubtedly the Philistine hosts were driven, and just at the 
liorder which, until the time of Solomon, appears to have divided the land 
of the Philistines from the territory actually occupied by the sons of 
Judah. (Sheet XVII.) 

The history of Saul is elucidated by the survey in the recovery of Bezek, 
the mustering place of Israel. (1 Samuel xi, 8.) Jerome and Eusebius place 
this site, which is known to have been near the centre of the country, at a 
certain distance from Shechem on the road to Beisan. At this exact 
distance on the ancient road the ruin Ibztlc occurs on the survey, and this 
is a case which, if we take into consideration Mr. Grove's argument on the 
subject before this discovery had been made, may fairly be considered to 
be past dispute the recovery of a long lost site. (Sheet XII.) 

The exact site of the great cliffs Seneh and Bozez, which Jonathan 
climbed with his armour bearer (1 Samuel xiv, 4), has been pointed out by 
the surveyors through the aid of a remarkably exact description by 
Josephus of the site of the Philistine camp. The name Seneh, "thorn 
bush," given at a later period to the intervening valley (as noticed by 
Josephus) is still recognizable in the present Arab name of the same 
splendid gorge Wddg Suweintt, or "The Valley of the Little Thorntree." 
The name Bozez, or " shining," is explained by the fact that it is that of 
the northern eliff crowned by a mound of white chalky marl, presenting a 
shining and conspicuous asj:)ect, contrasting strongly during the daytime 
with the dark shadow of the southern precipice. 

The fixing of this famous spot depends to a certain extent on the right 
allocation of Gibeah fof Saul or of Benjamin), a site which Mr. Eobinson 
transferred to the old beacon platform called Tel el TCd. There is not 
here space for the arguments connected with this question, but it may be 
noted that the survey shows that Tell el Ffill cannot have been the site of 
an ancient town. 

The romantic adventures of David during the time of his exile and 
wanderings have received much important illustration from the results of 
the survey. Elab, Sechu, Adullam, Gath, Hareth, Hachilab, Sela-ham- 
Mahlekoth, and Choresh Ziph are now pointed outwith some degr'ce of 
certainty. The capital of the Cherethites (1 Samuel xxx, 14) is known 
and the site of Nob is fairly fixed. Visiting the ruins of the " hoki " 
of Adullam ('Aid-el-3Ia), first identified by M. Clermont Ganneau, 
the surveyors found a cave close to the ruins of the ancient town, a cave 
sufiiciently large to have been the habitation of David while his band 
were garrisoning the hold or fortress. Not many miles away lies the broad 
corn vale where the shepherd boy slew the giant with one of the smooth 
pebbles which still fill the bed of the winter torrent flowing through the 
valley. The various hiding places to which the future King of Israel 
retired occur in consecutive order, each south of the other, each further 
from his native town, each in a country more widely desolate, more 
difficult of access than that surrounding the preceding stix>ngholds. The 
probable site of the " Cliff of Divisions," Sela-ham-Mahlekoth, is the present 



BIBLICAL GAINS. 45 

WMj Malft,ky south of Ilaohilah (el K6lah), and close to the site of Maon 
{M'atn). Here, in full sight of the hunter, but protected by the mighty 
precipices of the gorge, David was rescued by the sudden Philistine 
invasion which coraj)elled Saul to retreat just as the prey appeared to be 
within his grasp. (1 Samuel xxiii, 26.) 

Among the most vexed questions of the later episode of David's flight 
before Adsolom was that of the site of Bahurim (2 Samuel xvi, 5), where 
the spies lay hid in the cistern covered by the corn. (2 Samuel xvii, 7.) 
It has been assumed that David's flight across Olivet was directed 
along the road leading by Bethany, but Bahurim belonged to Benjamin, 
and was identified by the Jews of the fourth century (see the Targum 
of Jonathan) with the later Almon, or Alemeth, lying beside the ancient 
road which leads across the saddle north of the principal summit of the 
Mount of Olives. Lieutenant Conder proposes to accept this explanation, for 
the site of Almon {'Alm/t) is sufficiently near to the "top of the hill" to 
render its identity with Bahurim possible, while the existence of numerous 
rock-cut cisterns with narrow mouths illustrates the incident of the con- 
cealment of Jonathan and Ahimaaz, who " came to a man's house in 
Bahurim which had a well in his court, -whither they went down, and a 
woman took and spread a covering over the well's mouth and spread 
ground corn thereon, and the thing was not known." (Sheet XVII.) 

Among the illustrations of later Jewish history springing from the 
siu'vey, we may notice the^ discovery of winepresses at Jezreel where no 
vines at present exist ; the probable identification of Tirzah (Teiaslr), 
where the Kings of Israel were buried, and the indication of a possible 
site for Megiddo at the important ruin Mujedd'a. The topogi-aphy of the 
apochryphal Book of Judith is now shown to be quite possible, and the 
famous city Bethulia has been located in a position answering every known 
requisite at the modern village of MithiUa. A curious but important 
distinction may now be made between Tipsah or Thapsacus, on Euphrates, 
and the Tiphsah where Menahem so cruelly avenged himself on rebellious 
subjects. (2 Kings xv, 16.) At a time when the King of Israel was 
a tributary of the Assyrian monarch it seemed highly improbable that 
Hebrew conquests should have extended to Euphrates, and an ancient 
ruin called Tafsah still existing south of Shechem seems more probably 
the site of the rebellious city, which refused to submit to the usurper 
Menahem after his conquest of Samaria and Tirzah. (Sheet XTV.) 

The victories and defeats of Judas Maccabseus are in like manner 
illustrated by recent discovery. The site of the great battle in which he 
lost his life has been variously placed near Ashdod, and north of 
Jerusalem. The identification of Eleasa (Ilasa), Berea (Bireh), Berzetho 
(Blr ez Zeit), and Mount Azotus near the last, now show that the 
position which he occupied was originally intended to intercept the 
retreat of Bacchides by an advance from Modin — the native town 
of the Hasmoneans — on the narrow pass through which the road 
from Samaria to Jerusalem leads in the vicinity of 'Ain el Haranilyeh. 
(Sheet XVII.) 



46 BIBLICAL GAINS. 

The site of the famous battle of Adasa in like manner is found at a 
spot where the two main lines of advance on Jerusalem from the north 
join one another ; and the first campaign of Judas, as is now clearly 
evident, consisted in the defence of the three main passes leading from 
the north-west, the west, and south-west to the Holy City. 

Turning from the Old Testament history to the study of the 
topography of the Gospels, it will be found that the survey of Palestine has 
not been without important results in illustration of the Ufe of Christ. 
New information has been collected as to Bethabara, Emmaus, ^non, 
Sychar, Antipatris, Caponiaum, Cana, and Calvary. 

Bethabara, " the house of the passage," was a place east of, but from 
its name and the fact that it was a place of baptism probably close to, the 
Eiver Jordan. The ancient MSS. in many cases read Bathania (Bashan) for 
Bethabara ; and though this may be considered to give some indication of 
the district intended by the Evangelist, there is sound authority in favour 
of the present reading, Bethabara. 

This place, which we often speak of as the site of tlie Baptism of 
Christ, is noticed in only one passage as the scene of events succeeding the 
Temptation. Cana of Galilee was apparently at the distance of not more 
than a day's march (20 miles) from Bethabara, and this circumstance has 
o-iven rise to much cavil on the part of commentators, who, assuming that 
the traditional site of Bethabara was indisputably the correct one, have 
arcfued the impossibility of a" journey of some 80 miles or more having 
been accomplished by Christ in a single day. This objection the surveyors 
have removed in the discovery of the Jordan ford to which the name 
\ihara still clings, just as the name of the city Adam also still sui'- 
vives at the lower ford of Damieh. The newly discovered ford is only 
some 20 miles from the most probable site of Cana {Kefr Kenna), and 
leads over to the lands of Bashan, the Bathania of the time of Christ. 

Sheet IX.) 

The identification of Emmaus is another instance of the importance of 
minute examination of the ground. The district where the supposed site 
is found was fairly well known, but the ruin hidden in a well-watered 
valley among gardens of lemon and orange had not previously been 
explored. It was generally recognized by scholars that the Emmaus, where 
Christ supped with two Disciples, could not be the same as the famous 
Emmaus Nicopolis where Judas conquered the Greeks. 

The latter city was 160 stadia from Jerusalem, but the village Emmaus, 
where Herod's soldiers were settled, was both according to St. Luke, 
and also according to Josephus, only 60 stadia distant from the capital, 
The name Emmaus is a corruption of the Hebrew Khammath, a " hot 
spring," applied to medicinal springs, even when not of very high 
temperature, as at Emmaus Nicopolis. The ruin which has now been 
found at nearly the exact distance (bostadia) from Jerusalem, is called 
Khamasa, thus representing the vulgar pronunciation of the Hebrew 
original. Ancient rock-cut sepulchres and a causeway mark the site as being 
of considerable antiquity, and the vicinity is still remai'kable for its fine 



BIBLICAL GAINS. 47 

supply of spring water. Among the numerous sites proposed for 
Emmaus there is none which has so many arguments in its favour as has 
the new discovery of the sui'vey party. (Sheet XVII.) 

"With respect to jEnon and Sychar, the Surveyors have only confirmed 
the views advocated l)y Dr. Robinson and Canon Williams. The existence 
of " much water " and of open ground suitable for the assembly of a 
crowd has now been pointed out in the vicinity of the village Srdim or 
Salem, and of the ruin 'Ainl\n or ^non. 

Of the numerous sites previously proposed there is no other which 
unites every requisite of name and water supply. Other ^nons exist 
far from any Salem, and other Salems in water districts where no name 
zEnon is found ; but in the Great WUdy Far'ah, which, starting at Shechem, 
formed the north boundary of Judea, in the Jordan valley, we find a site 
which appears to satisfy every requirement and to agree well with the new 
identification of Bethabara. (Sheet XII.) 

As regards Sychar, Canon Williams has argued in favour of the village 
'Askai', close to Jacob's well — a hamlet apparently overlooked by 
Robinson. The survey investigations have shown that the ancient 
Samaritan name of this village closely approached to the Hebrew Sychar, 
and the error first made by the crusaders, who confounded Sychar with 
Shechem, and which has subsequently been adopted by Dr. Robinson, in 
spite of the evidence of the early travellers of the fourth to the 
seventh centuries, and which has found its way into the pages of Canon 
Farrar's Life of Christ, may now be corrected through the explorations 
which prove the antiquity and ancient name of the village 'Askar near 
Jacob's well. (Sheet XI.) 

Antipatris, long since supposed to have stood at the great mound of 
Rits el .'Ain, is now proved to have been so situated through careful 
measurement to surrounding ])laces and through comparison of these 
distances with those recorded by ancient pilgrims. As regards Bethsaida 
the evidence is purely negative, no trace of the name of the supposed 
Galilean Bethsaida having been found. The theory that two Bethsaida^ 



■S 



existed on the shores of the Sea of Galilee was originated by the learned 
Reland , and has been adopted by many authorities. Lieutenant Couder, 
however, agrees with Renan and Robinson in supposing that only one 
site of that name existed, namely, the village afterwards named Julias, 
east of the Jordan and not far from its mouth. 

As regards Capernaum, the avithorities are still divided into two 
parties. Lieutenant Conder and Lieutenant Kitchener agree with 
Robinson, Renan, and many others in placing this city at the ruin 
Minyeh (the " town of the Minim " or Christian heretics who are called in 
the Talmud " Sons of Capernaum "). Colonel Wilson, R.E., has, however, 
clearly shown that from the fourth century down. Tell H<ku has been 
the traditional site of this town, and assumes that the Christian 
tradition is correct. Much still remains to be done to elucidate this 
subject ; careful levels along a line of aqueducts are required, and excava- 
tions at Minyeh are very desirable. 

E 



48 BIBLICAL GAINS. 

A site which, though not scriptural, was of much importance for the 
understanding of the topography of the Sea of Galilee, was recovered by 
Lieutenant Kitchener in the modern Sinn-en-Nabra, the ancient 
Sinnabris. This discovery supports the generally received identification 
of the impoitant town of Tarichea (Kerak), which owing to a misconception 
has been j^laced on recent maps north instead of south of Tiberias. 

The question of the boundaries of Samaria in the time of Christ is one 
not a little important to the understanding of His journeys through Persea. 
By the recovery of Anuath ('Aina), Borceos (Berkit), Antipatris, Beth- 
Eima, and other places, we have been able for the first time to lay 
down the line of the border between Judea and Samaria with considerable 
accuracy of detail, and to show the necessity of the journey across Jordan 
in passing from Galilee to Jerusalem. (Mark x, 1.) 

Without entering into the famous controversy as to the site of 
Calvary, it should be noticed that an important piece of novel information 
bearing on the question has been collected during the course of the survey. 
The place of execution used by the Jews before the destruction of 
Jerusalem, and called in the Talmud Beth-has-Sekilah, or the " house of 
stoning," is still shown by their modern descendants outside the 
Damascus gate north of the city. To Christians it is known as the clifi" of 
Jeremiahs grotto, in consequence of a ti'adition which is only traceable as 
far back as the fifteenth century. The fact that a i^recipice is mentioned 
(in the Talmudic account of the punishment of stoning) as existing at the 
place of execution ajjpears to confirm the tradition. This spot has 
according to modern authorities always been outside Jerusalem, and some 
travellers think they have observed a skull-like formation in the hill-top 
above the cave such as the early fathers often attribute to Golgotha. 
That Christ was executed according to Eoman custom rather than the 
Jewish is certain ; but there is no reason to suppose that Jerusalem 
possessed two jjlaces of execution at the time — the conservatism of the 
east would indeed point to an opposite conclusion. If the Jewish 
tradition be trustworthy we see in the site thus recovered an iden- 
tification which possesses in a high degree a claim on our attention, as one 
of the most important that can be expected in Palestine. 

The discoveries thus far described have been mainly topographical, as 
must be naturally exj^ected from the chai'acter of the work undertaken. 
The survey party, however, enjoyed unusual opportunites for the study of 
the manners and customs of the native peasantry and of the Bedawin, in 
districts where a Frank had sometimes never been seen before ; and from 
this intimate intercourse many interesting results were obtained in 
illustration of the manners and customs of the lower classes as described 
in the Bible. A detailed account of many of these discoveries will be 
found in the last chapters of " Tent Work in Palestine," published by the 
Committee, which are devoted to the description of vai'ious nationalities 
to be found in Syria. 

The antiquity of the native peasant stock is evidenced both by their 
language and by the peculiarities of their religion. Their pi'onunciation of 



BIBLICAL GAINS. 49 

many letters is archaic, and approaches much closer to the Aramaic or to 
the Hebrew than to modern Arabic. There are also many pure Hebrew 
words in use among the Fellahln which are unintelligible to the inhabitants 
of towns who use the modern Ai-abic words instead. The woi-ship of 
Mukams or " Shrines " among the peasantry is also intimately connected 
with the old wf)rsliip of trees and high places by the Canaanites, although 
the traditions attaching to these sacred places are traceable to crusading, 
Byzantine or Moslem origin as well as in other cases to an older indi- 
genous source. 

In manners, customs, and dress the peasaatry recall the incidental 
notices of the same population in pre-Christian times. The "round tires 
like the moon," against which Isaiah declaimed, are still worn by the 
women of Samaria. Like Jezebel, they stiU paint their faces ; hke Elijah, 
the men still gird up their loins. The " corner of the field " is still left for 
the poor, and a tithe of corn for the Levite (or Deiwlsh). The harvest 
customs and methods of tillage are unchanged ; the olives are stiii beaten 
down with a rod. These are but single instances of the numerous scrip- 
tural expressions which are now ilhxstrated by the customs of the Syrian 
peasantry. The nomadic life of the early patriarchs is in the same way 
illustrated by the manners of the Bedawin of the deserts, and, as abo\e 
stated, the settled and pastoral districts retain the same relative position as 
in earlier times. 

Such, briefly sketched, are a few of the principal Biblical gains accruing 
from the Survey. Until the voluminous memoirs have been placed before the 
public little idea will be gained of the amount of information and minuteness 
of detail which has been obtained. Many of the traditions of the country 
are carefully registered with the archaeological remains and the natural 
features of the land, and the aid of all standard works, from Josephus 
downwards, has been called in requisition to explain by historical connec- 
tions the origin and date of every monument. Though discoveries may 
still remain to be made in Palestine, we are j^robably justified at least in 
saying that no such comjilete accoivnt exists of any other Asiatic country as 
is now obtained for the Holy Land. 



INDEX OF LIEUT. CONDER'S IDENTIFICATIONS. 
N.B. — The Roman Numerals I, II, &c., refer to the Sheets of the Map. 

1. Abel Meholah, 1 Kings iv, 12. Jerome (Onomasticon s.v., Abel Maula) 

places this 10 miles south of Scythopolis " in Aulone " {i.e., the Jordan 
Valley) which indicates the present 'Ain Heliveh. (XII.) 

2. Abez, Joshua xix, 20. Probably the present ruin el Beida, at the 

north end of the plain of Esdraelon, The Arabic exactly corre- 
sponds to the Hebrew with the same meaning, " white." (VIII.) 

3. AcJishaph, Joshua xix, 25. Wrongly placed by Robinson near 

Bauias, probably the present village cl Yastf, north-east of Acre. 

E 2 



50 BIBLICAI- GAINS. 

It is often mentioned in Egyptian records, and the proposed site 
agrees both with these and with the Biblical indications of situa- 
tion. (III.) 

4. Adami, Joshua xix, 33. The present ruin A dmah, on the plateau south- 
west of the Sea of Galilee, in a satisfactory position with relation to 
towns noticed in the context. (IX.) 

.'}. Adasa, see p. 15. (XVII.) 

6. Adullam, see p. 14. (XXI.) 

7. Aenon, see p. 17. (XII.) 
8; Ai, see p. 4. (XVII.) 

9. Amad, Joshua xix, 26. Apparently the ruin called el 'AmAd, north of 
Acre, in correct relative position. (III.) 

10. Anab, Joshua xv, .50. The ruin 'Andb, west of edh Dhaheriyeh, 

incorrectly fixed by Eobinson at Deii' esh Shems, east of the same. 
(XXV.) 

11. Anaharath, Joshua xix, 19. The village en NaJiirah, in correct relative 

position to other towns of Issachar. (IX.) 

12. Aiiiem, 1 Chronicles vi, 73. The village ^ Anhi, in the hills west of the 

plain of Esdraelon, in a satisfactory position within the border of 
Manasseh. (VIII.) 
13 Aner, I Chronicles vi, 70. Possibly the present village 'Alldr, in the 
hills south-west of the plain of Esdraelon. 

14. Arab, Joshua xv, 32. The present ruin er Rahtyeh in suitable relative 

situation. (XXI.) 

15. Archi, see p. 10. (XVII.) 

16. Ataroth Adar, see p. 10. (XVII.) 

17. Baalath, Joshua xix, 44 ; 1 Kings ix, 18 ; VIII Ant. vi, 1. Pro- 

bably the present village Beldin, in a suitable position west of 
Bethhoron and commanding the main road to Jerusalem. (XIV.) 

18. Baal Shalisha, 2 Kings iv, 42. Probably the present villarge Kefr 

Thilth, in suitable situation in the territory of Ephraim on the 
lower hills. The Arabic Thilth is derived from the Hebrew 
ShaUsh{''t\vree"). (XIV.) 

19. Bahurim, see p. 14. (XVII.) 

20. Berea, see p. 15. (XVII.) 

21. Beten, Joshua xix, 25. Is identified by Eusebius (Onomasticon s.v., 

Batnai), with a village, Beth Beten, 8 miles east of Acre. This 
seems to indicate the village el Baneh. (IV.) 

22. Bethabara, see \). 16. (IX). 

23. Beth Dagon, Joshua xix, 27. Probably the present ruin Tell lyailk, in 

correct relative position near the mouth of the river Belus. (Com- 
pare Dagon or Docus, near Jericho, now 'Ain DAk). (V.) 

24. Beth Shemesh (of Issachar), Joshua xix, 22. Possibly the ruined site 

^Ain esh Shemstj/eh, in the Jordan Valley. (IX.) 

25. Bethulia, see p. 15. (VIII.) 

26. Betomestham (Judith iv, 6). The present ruin Masstn. (VIII.) 

27. Bezek, Judges i, 5. Probably the ruin Bezkah, south of Lydda. (XIII.) 



BIBLICAL GAINS. 51 

28. Bezel; I Samuel ii, 8. See p. 13. (XII.) 

29. Calvary, see p. 18. (XVII.) 

30. Charashim (Valley), 1 Clirouicles iv, 14, mentioned in connection witli 

Lod and One (Nehemiah xi, 35). The name survives at Khwbet 
Hirsha, on the bank of the great valley east of Lydda. (XVII.) 

31. Chezib, Gen. xxxviii, 5 ; Joshua xv, 44. The name appears to linger 

at the spring 'Ain Kezheh, near Beit NettJf, in a satisfactory position 
in relation to other towns of the same group. Jerome (Onomasticon 
s.v.) makes Chasbi a ruined site near Adullam, which agrees. (XXI.) 

32. Choba or Chohai, Judith iv, 4. The Peutinger Tables place Coabis 12 

miles south of Scythopolis. This points to the ruin called el 
Ilckhohby, on the ancient road from Shechem. The name has 
the meaning " hiding place." (XII.) 

33. Chozeba. 1 Chronicles iv, 22. Possibly the ruin Kuieziba, north-east of 

Hebron. (XXI.) 

34. Dannah (" low ground "), Joshua xv, 49. Probably the village Idhnah 

in the low hills. The position appears suitable. (XXI.) 

35. Debir, see p. 10. (XXV.) 

36. Diblath, Ezekiah vi, 14. Ajipai-ently the village Z>i6^, in Upper Galilee, 

unless it be an error for Eiblah. (IV.) 

37. Ebenezer, see p. 13. (XVII.) 

38. Edrei, Joshua xix, 37. Apparently the present village Y'ater. The 

relative position is suitable, and the letters T and D often inter- 
changed. (IV.) 

39. Eleasa, see p. 15. 

40. Eleph, Joshua xviii, 28. The present village Lifta, west of Jerusalem 

The situation agrees with the boundary of Judah. See p. 10. 

41. Elon, Joshua xix, 43. Probably the present village, Beit EllA. The 

relative situation is satisfactory. (XIV.) 

42. Elon Beth Ilanan ("plain of B. Hanan "), I Kings iv, 9. Probably 

the village Beit 'Andn, in the low hiUs east of Lydda. The situation 
agrees with the context. (XVII.) 

43. Emmaus, see p. 16. (XVII.) 

44. Eltekek, Joshua xix, 44. Apparently Beit Likia, in the teiritory of 

Dan. In the list of the victories of Sennacherib ( Assyi'ian Discoveries, 
pp. 302-305), the " plains of Eltekeh " are mentioned with towns of 
Dan. This agrees with the situation of the modern village. (XVII.) 

45. Enam, Joshua xv, 34. Possibly the rmn^ AlUn, in the low hills south- 

west of Jerusalem. The relative situation appears satisfactory. 
The change of N to L and M to N is not unusual. (XVII.) 

46. Engannim (of Judah), Joshua xv, 34. Apparently the present ruin 

Umm Jiiia. The relative situation is satisfactory. (XVI.) 

47. Enhaddah, Joshua xix, 21. Probably the present ruin Kefr Addn^ .south- 

west of the Plain of Esdraelou. The situation appears probable. 
(VIII.) 

48. Eshean, Joshua xv, 52. Possibly the ruin es Shnia, near Dumah 

(D6meh), south of Hebron. The situation is satisfactory, and the 
site ancient. (XXI.) 



52 BIBLICAL GAINS. 

49. Esora, Judith iv, 4. Probably the village 'Astreh, north of Shechem. 

The situation is suitable. (XI.) 

50. Etam, 2 Chronicles xi, 6. The present ruin 'AitAn, south-west of 

Hebron. The situation agrees with the context. (XX.) 
.51. Etam (Eock). See p. 13. (XVII.) 

52. Ether, Joshua xv, 42. Probably the ruin el 'Air, near Beit Jibrin, on 

the west. The situation apiJears satisfactory. (XX.) 

53. GaUim, 1 Samiiel xxv, 44 ; Isaiah x, 30. Possibly the village Beit Jala 

near Bethlehem. (XVII.) 

54. Gederah, Joshua xv, 36. (Mentioned in the Onomasticon, s.v. Gedor, 

as 10 miles from Eleutheropolis, on the road to Diospolis), the 
important ruin of Jedireh. The situation appears to agree with the 
context. (XVI.) 

55. Gederah (of Benjamin), 1 Chronicles xii, 4. The present ruin Jedtreh, 

north of Jerusalem. (XVII.) 

56. Gederoth, Joshua xv, 41. Probably from its situation the present 

village Kalrah, near Yebnah, as proposed also by Colonel Warren, 
RE. (XVI.) 

57. Gezer, see p. 8. (XVI.) 

58. Gibhethon, Joshua xix, 44. Probably the pi'esent village Kihbiah, at 

the foot of the hills near Lydda. The situation agrees with the 
context. (XIV.) 

59. Gibeah, Joshua xviii, 28. The present ruin Jihta, in the temtory of 

Benjamin. (XVII.) 
(10. Gibeah-ha-Elohim, I Samuel x, 5 ; and I Samuel XV, 3. See p. 14. 
Ul. Gibeah P/iinehas. See p. 9. (XII.) 

62. Gilead Mount. See p. 12. (IX.) 

63. Gilgal. See p. 8. (XVIII.) 

64. Giloh, Joshua xv, 51. Probably the ruin Jala in the Hebron 

Mountains. The situation appears to agree with the context. 
(XXI.) 

65. Hachilah (Hill). See p. 14. (XXI.) 

66. Hammon, Joshua xix, 28. Appai'ently the ruin Hima, sovith-east of 

Tyre. The situation appears to be satisfactory. (III.) 

67. Hannathon, S osh.\xSi -six, 14. On the boundary of Zebulon and INaph- 

tali. The present village Kefr ^Andn. (VI.) 

68. Ilaphraim, Joshua xix, 19. In the Onomasticon, s.v., the village 

Affarea is placed 6 miles north of Legio {el-Lejjiln) ; this fixes it at 
the ancient ruined site el Farrtyeh, which appears to be a suitable 
position for the Biblical town. (VIII.) 

69. Hareth. See p. 14, now Khards. (XXI.) 

70. Harod. See p. 12, (IX.) 

71. Ifazor, Joshua xi, 1. See p. 8, Hadirch. (IV.) 

72. Hazor, Nehemiah xi, 33. Evidently the ruin Hazz-Ar north of Jeru- 

salem. (XVII.) 

73. Horem, Joshua xix, 38. Apparently the ruin Hdrah. The situation 

seems possible. (IV.) 



BIBLICAL GAINS. 53 

74. Hozah, Joshua xix, 29. Apparently the present ruiu Ozziyeh, on the 

coast south of Tyi'e. The situation is satisfactory, and the changes 
of Win for Kheth and of Zain for Tzadi, are both recognized. (III.) 

75. Ijon ("ruin"), ] Kings xv, 20. Possibly Khiyam, in the Merj 'Ai/Aii, 

west of Banias. The name survives in the latter title, but the 
former may be a corruption and represent the exact site. (II.) 

76. Irpeel, Joshua xviii, 27. Probably the village Rafdt, north of Jeru- , 

salem. The name is derived from a similar root, and the situation 
is satisfactory. (XVII.) 

77. Jabneel., Joshua xix, .33. A town of Naphtali stated in the Jerusalem 

Talmud (Megillah i, 1) to have been called at a later period Caphar 
Yama. This indicates the ruin Yemma^ and the situation agrees 
with that of the other towns in this group. (VI.) 

78. Janoah, 2 Kings xv, 29. The present village Yanilh in the hills 

south-east of Tyre. The situation appears satisfactory as within the 
territory of Naphtali. There is a second YanHli fui'ther south. (II.) 

79. Janum^ Joshua xv, 53. Probably the village Beni Nairn, east of 

Hebron. The situation appears to agree with the context. (XXI.) 

80. Jeshanah, 2 Chronicles xiii, 19. The situation points to th iedentity 

of this site with the ancient village Win Sinia. (XIV.) 

81. Jeshua, Nehemiah xi, 26. Probably the present ruin S'awi, east of 

Beersheba. The situation is relatively satisfactory. (XXV.) 

82. Jethlah, Joshua xix, 42. Probably the ruin Beit TM, in the low hills 

west of Jerusalem. The situation appears probable. (XVII.) 

83. Joktheel, Joshua xv, 38. Belonging to a group of which little is yet 

known. Possibly the large ruin Kiitlaneh, south of Gezer. The 
words are from similar roots. (XVI.) 

84. Kedesh (in Issachar), I Chronicles vi, 72. Possibly the ancient site 

Tell Abu Kudeis near Lejjiln. (VIII.) 

85. Kibzaim, Joshvia xxi, 22. The name is radically identical with that of 

Tell Abu KabAs, near Bethel. The situation is not impossible. 
(XVII.) 

86. Kirjath, Joshua xviii, 28. The present Kuriet el 'Anab is more 

generally known to the natives as Kurieh. The situation agrees 
well for Kirjath of Benjamin, but not for Kirjath Jearim. (XVII.) 

87. Kirjath Jearim. See p. 13. (XVII.) 

88. Lachish, Joshua x, 3. (In the Onomasticon, s.v., this city is placed 

7 Eoman miles south of Eleutheropolis (B. Jibrin). The site of Tell 
el Hesy nearly agrees with this, and is more satisfactory than Umm 
Lakis proposed by Robinson. The identification supposes the 
change of Caph to Kheth, of which we have an accepted instance in 
the case of Michmash. (XX.) 

89. Lalimam, Joshua xv, 40. Possibly the ruins el Lahm, near Beit 

Jibrin. The situation appears satisfactory, the site is ancient. (XX.) 

90. Lasharon, Joshua xii, 18. Apparently in Lower Galilee. Possibly the 

ruin Sardna, west of the Sea of Galilee. Jerome (Onomasticon, s.v.) 
says that the plain east of Tabor was called Sharon in his time. 
(VI.) 



54 BIBLICAL GAINS. 

91. Luz, Judges i, 26. Possibly the ruin Luetzeh, west of Banias, on the 

border of the Hittite country. (II.) 

92. Maarath, Joshua xv, 59. Pi-obably from its relative position the 

present village Beit Ummar (the Bethamari of the Onomasticon). 
(XXI.) 

93. Madmannah, Joshua xv, 31. Possibly the ruin Umm Deimneh, north 

of Beersheba. The situation appears satisfactory. (XXIV.) 

94. Madon, Joshua xi, 1. Apparently in Lower Galilee, perhaps the ruin 

Madtn close to Hatttu. (VI.) 

95. Malianek Dan, see p. 13. (XVII.) 

96. Makkedah, see p. 9. (XVI.) 

97. Manahath, 1 Chronicles viii, 6. Possibly the village Malhah, south- 

west of Jerusalem, which apj^ears to be the Manocho of Joshua xv, 
60 (inserted passage in LXX). The change of L for N is common. 

98. Maralah, Joshua xix, 11. According to the description of the 

boundary of Zebulon, this would occupy about the position of the 
present village MaliU. The L and R are easily convertible. (VIII.) 
99. Jlearah, Joshua xiii, 4. Apparently Mogheirii/ch, north of Sidon. 

100. Megiddo, see p. 15. (IX.) 

101. Meronoth, 1 Chronicles xxvii, 30. Possibly the ruin Marrtna, in the 

Hebron hiUs. (XXI.) 

102. Misheal, Joshua xix, 26. Probably the ruin Matsleh, near Acre. 

The situation is suitable for a town of Asher. (III.) 

103. Mozah, Joshua xviii, 26. According to the Jerusalem Talmud, was 

called Kolonia. A ruin called Beit Mizzeh exists near Kolonia, 
west of Jerusalem, in a suitable situation. (XVII.) 

104. Naamah, Joshua xv, 41. Probably Na'aneh, south of Ramleh, as 

proposed by Colonel Warren, R.E. The situation is suitable. (XVI.) 

105. Nahallal, Joshua xix, 15. According to the Jerusalem Talmud 

(Megilla i, 1) this place was called, at a later period, Mahlul. 
This seems to indicate the village 'Ain Mahil, in a suitable 
position. (VI.) 

106. Nebo, Ezra ii, 29. Perhaps J^uha, south of Jerusalem. (XXI.) 

107. Neiel (Han-N'aial), Joshua xix, 27. The ruin Y'anhi is found in the 

required position. The change in the position of the guttural and 
of N for L is not unusual. (V.) 

108. Nekeb, Joshua xix, 33. The Jerusalem Talmud (Megilla i, 1) gives 

the later name of this site as Siadetha. This jjoints to the ruin 
Seii/ada on the plateau west of the Sea of Galilee, a position agreeing 
with the context. (VI.) 

109. Nephtoah, Joshua xv, 9 (a spring). The Talmud of Babylon (Yoma 

31a) identifies this with the En Etam, whence an aqueduct led 
to the Temple. This indicates 'A in 'Atdu, south of Bethlehem. See 
p. 10. (XVII.) 

110. Ophrah, Judges vi, 11. Probably FerAta, near Shechem, the ancient 

name of which was Ophrah (see Samaritan Clironicle). (XI.) 

111. Firathon, Judges xii, 15, and Pharathoni (I Mace, ix, 50). 



BIBLICAL GAINS, OO 

Possibly Fer'on, west of Shechem. The loss of the T is not unusudl, 
and the pl-esent name retains theguttiu-aL (XI.) 

112. Rabbah, Joshua xv, 60. Possibly the ruin liubba, west of Beit 

Jibrln. (XXI.) 

113. Rabbith, Joshua xix, 20. The present village Bdba, south-east of the 

plain of Esdraelon, apjjears to be in a suitable position. (XII.) 

114. Rakkoii ("shore "), Joshua xix, 46. The situation of Tell er Rakkeit 

appears suitable, north of Jaffa, near the mouth of the river Aujeh 
(probably Mejarkon). (XIII.) 

1 15. Sarid, Joshua xix, 10. The Syriac version reads Asdod, and the LXX 

reads Seddouk (Vat. MS.). The original may be thought to have 
been Sadid, in which case Tell Shaded occupies a very probable 
position for this site (compare Maralah). (VIII.) 

116. Secacah, Joshua xv, 61. In the Judean desert. Possibly the ruin 

Sikkeh, east of Bethany. (XVII.) 

117. Sechu, see p. 14. (XVII.) 

118. Seneh (Rock), see p. 14. (XVII.) 

119. Shaaraim, Joshua xv, 36. The ruin S'ah-eh, west of Jerusalem, 

occupies a suitable position. (XVII.) 

120. Shamir, Joshua xv, 48. Probably the ruin Somerah, west of 

Dhaherlyeh, the situation being suitable to the context. (XXIV.) 

121. Sharuhen, Joshvia xix, 6. Probably Tell csh Sheriah. The position 

is suitable, and the conversion of the guttural Kheth to 'Ain 
is of constant occurrence, as is also the loss of the final N. 
(XXIV.) 

122. Sorek (Valley). The name Surtk was found applying to a I'uin north 

of this valley, as mentioned in the Onomasticon. (XVII.) 

123. Thimnatka, Joshua xix, 43. Generally identified with Timnah of 

Judah, appears more probably to be Tibneh, north-east of Lydda, 
on the border of Dan. (XIV.) 

124. Timnath Heres, see p. 9. (XIV.) 

125. Tiphsah, see p. 15. (XIV.) 

126. Tirzah, see p. 15. (XII.) 

127. Ummah, Joshua xix, 30. The ruin 'Alma occupies a suitable position 

in the territory of Asher. The L represents the Hebrew M and 
the guttural is preserved. (III.) 

128. Uzzen S/ierah, 1 Chronicles vii, 24. Mentioned with Bethhoron. 

Possibly Beit Stra, south-west of the site of Bethhoron. (XVII.) 

129. Zaanaim, see p. 11. (VI.) 

130. Zartanah, 1 Kings iv, 12. Mentioned as " beneath Jezreel." Pro- 

bably the large site of Tell Sdrem, near Beisan. (IX.) 

131. Zereda, 1 Kings xi, 26. In Mount Ephraim. Probably the present 

Surdeh, west of Bethel. (XIV.) 

132. Ziz (Ha Ziz) (ascent of), 2 Chronicles xx, 16. Probably connected 

with the name Hazezon Tamar, for Engedi, Genesis xiv, 7 ; 2 
Chronicles xx, 2. The name Hasdsak was found to apply to the 
plateau north-west of Engedi. (XXII.) 



56 SUPPOSED CLIFF IN THE HARAM. 

This list contains 132 names. Out of about 620 topogi-aphical names 
mentioned in the Bible in Western Palestine, about 430 have now been 
identified (or about two-thii'ds). Out of these 430 a total of 132, as above 
shown (or about a third), are thus due to the Survey. 

On the other hand, out of about 200 names of the places in the Sinaitic 
Desert, or in the country east of Jordan, 70 only are known, including the 
latest identifications of the American survey and of Lieutenant Conder 
(Handbook to the Bible), being a proportion of little over one-third. Many 
important sites, such as Mahanaim, Jabesh Gilead, &c., remain still to be 
recovered east of Jordan. 



SUPPOSED CLIFF IN THE HARAM. 

Considerable importance has been attached to the question whether 
the rock on the western slojje of the Temi3le Hill may be supposed to fall 
with an uniform slope, or whether beneath the surface and within the 
west wall of the Haram, a cliff exists hidden by the filling-in which forms 
the present iiiterior plateau. 

In discussing the j^aper which I had the honour to read to the Eoyal 
Institute of British Architects, on 2nd December, 1878 (see "Transactions 
E.I.B.A.," No. 3, p. 41), Mr. James Fergusson said : — 

" So far as I can make out, and I believe I may state that Colonel 
Wilson entirely agrees with me in this : the rock rises gradually, though 
ii'regularly, from the valley of Jehoshaphat to a ridge tei'minating west- 
wards in something very like a cliff, where I believe the tower of Antonia 
to have been, and just behind the Holy of Holies of the Temple where 1 
place it." 

This passage explains the reason why impoi'tance is held to attach to 
the question, for if no such cliff should exist, then the Temple as restored 
by Mr. Fergusson must have rested on foundations of great depth, or 
on vaults as yet undiscovered, and not described by any ancient author. 

The difference of opinion as to this cliff is also shown in the plans 
published in the Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement for 1880, 
pp. 9 and 20, where Colonel Wilson shows the rock as rising much more 
rapidly than according to Colonel Warren's section would be the case. 

As regards these plans it may be noted in passing that a slight mis- 
apprehension occurs in the Editor's note, p. 97, by which I am si;pposed to 
be responsible for the first-mentioned plan, and am said to differ from both 
of the above-mentioned authorities respecting the lie of the rock in this 
part of the Haram. My plan, constructed in 1873, was taken from Colonel 
Warren's " Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 298, so far as the contours within 



SUPPOSED CLIFF IN THE HARAM. 57 

the West Haram Wall are concerned, and any discrepancies in the 
lithograph would have been corrected had not the proof unfortunately 
failed to reach me before publication. 

The main reason for supposing the existence of a cliflf in this part of 
the mountain is a geological one. The strata beneath the Haram, as 
in other parts of Jerusalem and its vicinity, having a dip of about 
10 degrees E.S.E., as described in the "Ordnance Survey Notes" (p. 3), so 
that a " crag and tail " formation, as it is termed, might be formed by the 
beds as exposed on the hill-sides ; the " crag " or cliff being always on the 
west, and the " tail " or gentle slope on the east. 

Cliffs, due to this position of the strata, occur towards the bottom 
of the western slope of Olivet, and are commonly found in Palestine 
in places where the hard crystalline lower beds are visible. 

A closer insj^ection of the geological question seems to me, however, to 
be less favourable to the theory, and a few words are necessary to explain 
the problem more clearly. 

The Mount of Olives consists mainly of soft chalky beds, the total 
thickness of which is given by Colonel Wilson at 291 feet, out of a height 
of some 400 feet from the present Kedron bed to the summit of the hill. 
The lower strata of the chalky beds are referred by L'Artet to the Upper 
Cretaceous Period, while near the summit of the mountain, separated 
by bands of flint, occur beds belonging to the Nummulitic or Middle 
Eocene period. Beneath the white chalk occurs a hard limestone, con- 
taining fossils and flints, with a total thickness of 71 feet ; and beneath 
this, again, for a depth of 40 feet, the soft white Malaki beds, whence the 
best budding stone is obtained ; whde, lower still, occurs the hard 
Dolomitic limestone, without flints or fossils, which extends lower than 
the Kedron bed. 

According to these measurements the levels of the beds on the western 
slope of Olivet are as below : — 

Above the Sea. 

Soft white chalk, bottom of bed 2,350 

Fossiliferous limestone .... .... 2,279 

Soft white limestone 2,239 

On turning to the Ordnance Survey Map (2-5^00)) i^ ^^^^ ^^ observed 
that the level of the top of the cliffs in which the so-called Tombs of 
Absalom, St. James, etc., are cut, is shown as 2,235, or about the level of 
the junction between the hard underlying Dolomite and the soft chalky 
Malaki beds. 

Above this level no cliffs occur. The Malaki has been worn by de- 
nudation to an even slope, and the soft chalk beds higher up the mountain 
present in the same manner an uniform slope instead of a cliff. The 
action of denudation has in short effaced the " crag and tail " formation 
which may have resulted from the original upheaval. 



58 SUPPOSED CLIFF IN THE HARAM. 

These observations may now be applied to the Temple Hill. The top 
formation within the Haram is the Mezzeh or fossiliferous limestone, and 
the cisterns are cut in the Malaki beneath it. Colonel Wilson describes 
the beds as dipping 15" N. and S., and about 10° E. and W. (" Ordnance 
Survey Notes," pp. 31-33). Near the north-west angle the Mezzeh beds have 
been removed to a depth of some 30 feet (compare Ordnance Survey Map 
and " Notes," p. 31). The Sakhrah consists of Mezzeh (p. 34), and near 
Tanks 12, 13, 14, there is only one bed of Mezzeh above the Malaki 
(p. 31), the surface level being 2,406. 

The Mezzeh and the Malaki both belong to the Neocomian series, and 
are conformable with one another. The thickness of the Malaki where 
covered by the harder stratum is therefoie most probably the same on the 
Temple HiU as on Olivet, viz., 40 feet. 

From these data may be constructed sections to a natural scale with 
the following result as to the levels of the beds on the west side of the 
Haram : — 
East and west section, through Sakh- East and west section at Pro- 

rah phet's Gate. 

Bottom of Mezzeh, 2,435 ft. above sea 2,370 feet above sea. 
Bottom of Malaki, 2,390 „ 2,330 „ 

Thickness of Dolomite above | .^ r- , 1 f t 

valley bed S 

These sections depend on the levels of the Sakhrah and the Tanks 
12, 13, and 14; but if they were based on the observations in the north- 
west angle the level of the Dolomite junction with the Malaki would be 
made yet lower. 

The levels near the Bab es Silsileh, where Mr. Fergusson places 
Antonia, are as given below, on the same construction as the preceding : — 

Bottom of Mezzeh 2,380 feet above sea. 

Bottom of Malaki 2,340 „ 

Thickness of Dolomite above bottom 

of valley 10 feet 

Now, as we know that the action of denudation on the Malaki and 
Mezzeh beds produces uniform slopes, and that cliflfs are found only where 
the Dolomite comes to the surface — as observed on , Olivet — we might 
expect a cliff near the base of the Haram Wall, and a gi'adual slope above 
it, where the soft chalky Malaki beds occur. The maximum height of the 
cliff would be only 40 feet (west of the Sakhrah), its top being 50 feet 
below the Sacred Rock. But at the points where Mr. Fergusson places 
Antonia and the Holy of Holies, the cliffs would be apparently only 
10 feet high, and their tops respectively 90 feet and 100 feet below 
the Sakhrah. Thus if the dip of the strata is uniform, the mean height of 
cliff' woujd be only about 20 feet, its top being 70 feet below the mean 
surface, and 100 feet below the Sakhrah. The existence of such a cliff' 
would consequently have little bearing on the question of foundations. 



SUPPOSED CLIFF IN THE HARAM. 



59 



Geological Sections through Haram. 
Natural Scale. 

24-4-0 




Section east and west through Sakhrah. 

24-IO 




Section east and west through Prophet's Gate. 



24-00 










w\e 



Section due south from Sakhrah. 

Several indications may be noted as confirming this view with respect 
to the unseen portion of the Temple Hill. 

1st. The tanks and galleries running in from the West Haram Wall, 
are lined with masonry, whereas, further east, where the rock is higher, 
they are simply cemented over the rough rock. This seems to indicate 
that the Western Tanks are not rock-cut, but only built in the made 
earth, and that the rock is consequently lower than the floors of these 
galleries. 

2nd. It seems reasonable to suppose that had such a cliiF as is con- 
jectured to exist on the west side of the Haram actually occurred, the 
West Haram Wall would have been built upon it, rather than in the 
valley bed to the west of it. 

3rd. Colonel Warren's shafts along the south wall indicate a gradual 
fall of the rock outside the Haram, and no cliff was found towards the 
west. 

4th. In Tank No. 24 (the only one towards the west where a rock 
floor has been found), the rock falls westwards at an angle of 30°, which if 
continued would strike the level of the Tyropoean bed within the West 
Haram Wall, without necessitating any cliff or steeper dip. 

This curious question has perhaps attained to greater importance than 
really belongs to it, for the top of the supposed cliff, if it existed, would be 
at least 50 feet lower than the Sakhrah, and 70 feet below the Barrack 
Scarp, but the problem has a controversial interest, and the objection 
briefly stated to the cliff theory is that the action of denudation on 



60 NOTE ON KADESH BAENEA. 

soft chalky limestone would render the preservation of a olifif highly 
improbable. 

Edinburgh, Oct. 20th, 1880. 



C. R C. 



NOTE ON KADESH BARNEA. 

The recovery of the site of Kadesh Barnea is the most interesting question 
of the topography of the Sinaitic Desert, and any indication leading to 
a clearer understanding of the question will be of some value. 

In the account of the southern boundary of Palestine (Numbers xxxiv, 
4 ; Josh. XV, 3), this site is noticed next to the Maaleh Akrabbim, and the 
next points to the west are named Hezron and Adar, or according to the 
earlier passage Hazar Addar. 

The Maaleh Akrabbim has been recognised to be some part of the 
ascent from the southern shores of the Dead Sea, towards the plateau of 
the Negeb, and although the name has not been recovered, the great 
feature called Wady Fikreh appeal's to answer to the "Ascent of 
Scorpions" (Maaleh Akrabbim) and to the later Acrabbatene (1 Mace, v, 
12 ; Ant. 812 Ant. VIII), where Judas Maccabeus defeated the Idumeans. 

It is curious that the identification of Hezi-on should have escaped 
even careful writers, but so far as I am aware, and so far as can be 
o-athered from Mr. Grove's articles in Smith's " Dictionary to the Bible," 
this site has not been recognised as yet. 

The name Hezron is derived from the same root with Hazor, signifying 
" an enclosure," and the Arabic equivalent is properly speaking Hadlreh, 
having the same meaning and spelt with the Dad, which is one of the two 
Arabic equivalents of the Hebrew Tzadi, represented by the Z in Hazor 
(more correctly Khatzor), the other equivalent being the Arabic Sad. 

There are two cases in which the name Hazor is similarly preserved in 
Arabic, one being 'Ain Hadtreh, representing the Hazeroth (plural of 
Hazor) which was one of the Israelite camps (Num. xxxiii, 17) ; the 
other being the Royal Hazor of Galilee, the name of which still survives, 
as discovered by the Survey Party, in the present Merj Hadh'eh, west of 
the Waters of Merom. 

We should, therefore, expect Hezron to appear in modern Arabic 
under the form Hailireh (plural Hadair), and on consulting the map 
it will be found that the prominent ridge north of the head of Wady 
Fikreh and west of the main route from Petra to Beersheba is called 
Jebel Hadtreh. (See Murray's Map, or the map opposite p. 238 of Conder's 
" Handbook to the Bible.") 

If this identification be accepted, agreeing as it does very completely 
with the boundary line as usually laid down, then the site of Kadesh 
Barnea should be sought to the east of Jehel Hadlrch, probably on the 
main route which ascends by the well-known pass of the Nukb es Safa, 
which Robinson strove to show to have been the Zephath of Judges i, 17, 
and the Hormah of Deut. i, 44. It is, however, by no means certain that 
the Hormah ("destruction") of the latter passage, is the same place, 



NOTE OX KADESII BAHXEA. 61 

while Zephath if identical with Zephathah (2 Clirou. xiv, 10), is to be 
sought much further north near Mareshah.* 

This identification of Hezrou would appear to be fatal to the claims 
of 'Ain Kades as representing Kadesh, and there are, on the other hand, 
many indications which seem to place Kadesh Barnea on the route 
from Petra to the vicinity of Tell el Milh (Malatha), Arad (Tell 'Arad) 
and Hebron. 

(1.) Kadesh lay between the deserts of Paran and Zin (Num. xiii, 26 
and XXX, 1), whereas 'Ain Kades must have been in the Desert of Shui" — 
the most western desert district, extending from Beersheba towards Egypt. 
Shur is translated Khalusa by Rabbinical writers, in reference to the 
important town of that name (now Khalisa, the Roman Elusa) north- 
east of 'Ain Kades. 

(2.) Kadesh was on the border of Edom (Num. xx, 16), as was also 
Mount Hor (verse 2.3), whence the vicinity of Kade.sh Barnea to Petra 
might be inferred, and indeed the Targum of Onkeios translates the name 
Ka'desh by " Valley of Rekem " (or of Petra). 

(3.) Kadesh was evidently not far west of the Dead Sea, as its name 
occurs second on the border line as described from the Salt Sea westwards. 

(4.) After the defeat of Israel at Kadesh by the Amalekites, the 
pursuit extended to Seir (Deut. i, 44), or the ridge of Mount Hor. 

(5.) The King of Arad attacked Israel (Num. xxi, 1), which agrees with 
the supposition that they were advancing from Mount Hor towards Pales- 
tine by the great route which leads up the Nukb es Suf a towards Tell Artd. 

(6.) The Israelites joiu-neyed from Ezion Geber — at the head of the 
Gulf of Akabah to Kadesh, and thence to Mount Hor (Num. xxxiii, 
35-37), their most probable route thus lying up the Arabah, which 
is both the easiest and the best-watered line of march towards the 
Palestine hills. 

It is evident fi-om a comparison of two accounts that Kadesh lay at the 
foot of a pass from the highlands. The Amalekites " came down " (Num. 
xiv, 45) from the "mountain" in which they dwelt (Deut. i, 44), and the 
site should thus ])erha))S be sought further north than the 'Ain el Weibeh 
of Robinson, or at the foot of the Nukb es Sufa, east of Jebel Hadireh on 
the main route. I may perhaps venture to suggest that Jebel Maderah, 
facing the Nukb es Sufa on the south, may represent Adar near Hezron 
(Josh. XV, 3). A visit to this pass would be of great interest, and the 
names Kadesh (Kades), Mishpat {Mishafdt), and Meribah {Menbeh or 
Uttivi Rtba) should all be sought for below the pass of es Sufa near 
the junction of Wady Fikreh with Wady el Yemen. 

C.R.C. 

* The valley (Gria) of Zephathah is mentioned (2 Cliron. xir, 10) as " at 
Mareshah." On the survey a ruin called Scljieh will be found 2i miles north-east 
of Merash (Sheet XX), close to the narrow valley above which stands Deir 
Nathkhash. The name Scifiek ("Shining,") is radically the same as Zephathah, 
and has the same meaning, and it seems clear tliat the " Ravine {gia) of 
Zephathah," is thus identical with tlie narrow valley below this ruin. 



QUAETERLY STATEMENT, ApRIL, 1881.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



DEPAETURE OP THE NEW EXPEDITION. 

The preparations for the new expedition to the East of the Jordan have 
occupied the Committee since the beginning of the year. The Secretary of 
State for War has granted the services of Lieutenants Couder and Mantell, of 
the Royal Engineers, for this special service. The Society are fortunate in 
secui'ing for their new Survey the experience and skill of the ofBcer who executed 
so large a part of the former work. Lieutenant Mantell is a young officer who 
has gained great distinction during his Woolwich coiu-se. Pei-mission has been 
also accorded to Pensioners (formerly Sergeants) Black and Armstrong to serve 
upon the Survey, and to draw their pensions while in Palestine. Thus the 
New Survey will not only be carried out by the same officer who did most of the 
work on the western side of the Jordan, but the same two surveyors, Black and 
Armstrong, who measured tlie base line and began the triangidation in Decem- 
ber 1871 will also begin the new work. At a meeting of the Committee 
called for tlie purpose on March 15, 1881, the officers received their final 
instructions, and started tlie same eveumg to carry out the next portion of the 
great work of the Society,— the Survey of the Holy Land. The two Surveyors 
followed a week later. The good wishes of aU who read this announcement 
must be with them. They have begun a work which is full of peril and 
anxiety ; it is for their friends at home to see that they are at least suppHed 
with the necessary funds. 



The total cost of the expedition, including the printing and circulation of 
Lieutenant Conder's reports, &c., will amount to about £3,500 or £4,000 a year. 
It has been proposed that the Honorary Secretai ies of the various towns where 
there is a branch of the Society shall invite their people to raise a certain sum yearly. 
The whole amount is a comparatively small one, and there should be no difficulty 
in getting it together. The earher in the year subscriptions are paid the more 
convenient it will be for the Committee. In the present appeal for assistance, 



64 NOTES AND NEWS. 

the Committee do not, as before, ask their friends to give in faith, because they 
hare now their great and splendid map to show as an earnest of the future. 
What has been done for Western Palestine shall be done, if possible, for the East. 

Letters and reports from Lieutenant Conder maj be expected about the 
middle of April. In order to meet the wishes of a great many subscribers, 
paragraphs of intelligence will be sent to all the principal papers. 



M. Clei-mont-Ganneau, who arrired in Jaffii in February, had proposed to 
visit Jei-usalem immediately on his arrival in order to examine the newly found 
inscription in the Pool of Siloam ; but he has unfortunately been laid up with 
an attack of fever, therefore we have not yet received any of his promised 
letters. 



Professor Sayce, however, has sent the translation of part of it to the 
Athenaum. His reading will be found on p. 72, together with a facsimile 
of the copy sent by Dr. Chaplin to the Committee. 



A remarkable illustration of the destruction of ancient monuments which sets 
in with every improvement in Syria, is illustrated by the " note " from the Eev. 
H. D. Eawnsley, pubhshed on p. 124. The Temple of Kades is now pulled 
down and destroyed. The ruins which have survived the violence of Eomans, 
Jews, Christians, Saracens, and Crusaders, are gone to make fomidations for a 
cotton store. The Temple and the sarcophagi are figured and described in the 
first volume of the " Memoirs." 



Mr. William Dickson, F.E.S.E., has accepted the post of Honorary Secretary, 
with the Rev. Lindsay Alexander, D.D., and Mr. T. P. Johnston, for Edinburgh. 
Mr. W. J. Janson (the Close, Croydon), has accepted the post of Honoraiy 
Secretary at Croydon. The Rev. W. Walmsley has undertaken to act -with the 
Rev. Canon Hornby at Bury. 

It is matter of great regret that so many delays have occurred in the 
issue of the next edition of the map and of the Memoirs. As regards the 
former it will be delivered to those who are waiting for it in the course of a 
fortnight beginning about April 25th. The first volume of the Memoirs will be 
ready at the same time. It is also hoped to get out tlie next two volumes, 
namely, that of the Name Lists, and that of Special Papers by the end of May. 
The reduced map is also nearly completed, and the first edition will be ready for 
issue about the end of April. The price to subscribers, ly application to the 
Central Office only, will be 6*. Qd. To the general public the price will be 
12*. Qd. 



The income of the fund from aU sources from December 13, 1880, to March 
16th, 1881, was £1,229 10«. 9rf. The amount in the hands of the Committee 
at their meeting of the 15th, was £1,800 15*. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 65 

Mr. Saunders's " Introduction to the Survey of Western Palestine " is now 
completed, and will be published immediaiely. Its history has been already 
told. Mr. Saunders was asked to write a pamphlet on the Physical Geography 
of Western Palestine from the Great Map. He undertook tlie work, which, it is 
unnecessary to explain, had been impossible before for want of such a map. 
But the pamphlet became a book, and the description has swollen into a detailed 
examination of the country, which is the most important result yet obtained from 
the Survey. It was intended to present the pamphlet to all those who asked 
for it. The book will be sent free, therefore, to all who up to this date [April 
4th) have asked Jor it, but to no others. 



It is most desirable on all accounts that the Map and Memoirs should have 
as wide a circulation as possible. The Subscribers to the Fund may greatly 
assist in this object by advising that they be placed in public libraries, 
school and college libraries, and institutions. 



It it also greatly desired that all those whose contributions have enabled this 
great work to be completed, may have an opportunity of seeing it. Arrangements 
have been made with the Eev. James King, of Berwick, for explaining and 
lecturing on the Map and its uses. The Eev. Henry Geary is also ready to give 
one evening in every week to the Society, provided he be not invited to go too 
far from London. The Eev. Horrocks Cocks, Egham, has also kindly offered 
services in lecturing on the work of the Society. 



A Cheap Edition of " Tent Work in Palestine," has been published by Messrs. 
Bentley and Son. All the small illustrations which were in the Library 
Edition, and two of the full-page drawings, will be found in the new Edition, 
which has been carefully revised by the author. An additional chapter has 
also been added on the " Future of Palestine." The work will be read with 
greater interest now that the progress of the Survey may be foUowed on the Map. 



It is suggested to subscribers that the safest and the most convenient manner 
of paying subscriptions is through a bank. Many subscribers have adopted tliis 
method, wliich removes the danger of loss or miscarriage, and renders unneces- 
sary the acknowledgment by official receipt and letter. 

Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly/ Statement regularly, are asked 
to send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward each number 
to all who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes 
give rise occasionally to omissions. 

While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood that 
these rest solely upon the credit of the respective authors, and that by publishing 
them in the Quarterly Statement the Committee neither sanction nor adopt 

them. ________^_ 

F 2 



66 NOTES AND NEWS. 



MEETING IN EDINBURGH. 

A very crowded meeting was held in the Masonic Hall, George Street, 
Edinburgh, on Tuesday, February 22, on the Proposed Survey of Eastern 
Palestine. The Chair was taken by Sir James Gardiner Baird, and among 
those who were present were : — 

The Rev. Dr. Main, Moderator of the Eree Church ; Principal Eainy, 
Bishop Cotterill, Rev. Dr. Teape, Rev. Dr. A. Thomson, Rev. Professor 
Blaikie, Rev. Dr. R. Macdonald, Rev. Dr. Taylor, Rev. Dr. Robertson, Rev. 
Professor Duns, Rev. Dr. Goold, Rev. Dr. Cazenove, Rev. Dr. Lindsay 
Alexander, Rev. Dr. Wylie, Rev. Alex. Whyte, ai.A. ; Rev. T. B. Johnstone ; 
Rev. W. Turner, Rev. C. G. Scott, Rev. Thomas Brown, Professor Maclagar, 
Dr. Robert Young, Charles Cowan of Westerlea, John Scott Moncrieff, 
William Dickson, Surgeon- General Eraser, C.B. ; John Rogerson, Merchiston 
Castle ; John M'Candlisli, John Miller of Leithen, Edward Caird of Finnart, 
James Sjme, Craigmount ; T. B. Johnston, Jown Cowan, Beeslack, Wilham 
Ferguson of Kinmundy, W. F. Burnley, D. G. Thomson, John Drybrough, 
Colonel Young, R. P. Simpson, and others. There was a good attendance of 
the public. 

Dr. Main having opened the meeting with prayer, 

The Chairman intimated that apologies for absence had been received 
from Sir John D. Wauchope, Mr. Macfie of Dreghorn, Rev. Principal 
Cairns, Rev. Dr. Horatius Bonar, Professor Grainger Stewart, General Nepean 
Smith, Mr. Stuart Gr<y of Kinfauns, Mr. G. E. Barbour, and others. 

Dr. Lindsay Alexander, one of the Honorary Secretaries of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund, after reading a letter of apology for absence from Sir R. 
Christison, explained that the meeting had been convened by the Committee 
of the fund to enable Lieutenant Conder to explain what he had already 
done, and what he hoped to do in his future explorations. The fund had 
been successful in securing the services of the officers of the Royal Engineers 
in their Siu-vey of Palestine, and how satisfactorily they had done their work 
they well knew. They now possessed a full and accurate map of Palestine — of 
that part lying to the west of the Jordan. In referring to Lieutenant Conder's 
share in that work and the eminent qualifications he possessed for it. Dr. 
Alexander remarked that he liad been successful in identifying more than 100 
places which were mentioned in the Bible, but of whieli hitherto we had known 
nothing but the names. He hoped Lieutenant Conder would receive a hearty 
encouragement to go forward with his work, and enter on his new enterprise, 
knowing that he had the sympathies of the Edinburgh pubhc with Ixim. 
(Applause.) 

Lieutenant Conder, who was received with applause, said that he desu'cd to 
say something in illustration of the work ab-eady done and the expectations they 
had for the future. The credentials he brouglit consisted of ihe map of Palestine 
before them. It took seven years in execution — four j ears in the field and three in 
England — and showed the whole of Palestine from Dan to Beersheba, west of the 
Jordan. It might appear to those who did not study the historical books of the 
Bible, neither interesting nor important that a large scale map of Palestine 



NOTES AND NEWS. 67 

should be made, but every student knew that there was a very great deal of 
minute topography in the Bible which it was most necessary to investigate, 
and the Survey afforded a guai'antee that every corner of the country had 
been seen and explored by one of the officers. The object for which it was 
determined that the Survey sliould be undertaken was mainly this, that 
although many travellers had gone through tbe country they always followed 
the same route, and it had been desired that every part of the Land sliould 
be explored with equal care and caution. One result of what had already 
been done was, that they were now able to lay down the tribal boundaries west 
of the Jordan with an amount of accuracy which formerly would have been 
quite impossible. The comparative sizes of the districts allotted to each of the 
tribes had thus been calculated, and when the population was compared with the 
areas, they found that the ancient population of Palestine must have been much 
the same as now. The populous parts of the Bible were the populous parts 
still ; tbe thinly-populated Bible districts were the sparsely-peopled districts now. 
Where the population had been thick, there were enormous quantities of ruins 
and ancient sites. Tliey had identified 14-0 towns on the west of Palestine — 
towns in regard to wliich no question had been raised as to their identification. 
There were others which were still open for reconsideration — but as to all 
the important sites in the Bible there was now no doubt about them. 620 towns 
were mentioned in the Bible ; 430 of these had been fixed, and of these 140 had 
been identified by the survey. To the east of the Jordan there were about 200 
Bible sites, and of these only 70 were yet known. Tlic work still to be overtaken 
was important, and though it was said to have a greater scientific interest and 
less Biblical interest than the west, there were many important Biblical incidents 
and places associated with the east — the flight of the Midianites, tlie flight of 
David from Jerusalem, the wood of Ephraim, Ashtaroth, Penuel (which took 
its name from the vision of Jacob), and many other Old Testament sites, of 
which they knew nothing as yet. The survey of the east of Jordan would 
include an area of 5,000 square miles ; it was expected to occupy three seasons in 
the field, and probably two years to work out at home, so tliat in the course of 
five years they hoped to have the companion survey of Palestine east of the 
Jordan. But the question of topography was not the only one that came within 
tlie limits of their explorations. He referred to the probability of obtaining 
ancient inscriptions on stones, and a great deal of interest and light might be 
thrown on Bible times by a greater knowledge of tlie habits, customs, and 
language of the present inhabitants of the coimtry. They had found during their 
past survey so much in common between the present peasantry and the ancient 
Canaanites that they expected even greater results to the east of Jordan, where 
the tribes were less under Jewish control. 

The Eev. Alexander Wbyte, Free St. George's, moved "that this meeting 
cordially approve of the resolution of the Palestine Exploration Fund Committee 
that the survey of Eastern Palestine be proceeded with without delay, and they 
resolve that efforts be made to increase the interest t;ikcn and the contributiov.s 
to biie fund in this city." Mr. Whyte pointed out that great and valuable 
results had already been gained, but that .the work was little more than half 
finished, and it would be a shame to stop until all that country had been surveyed. 
He had been astonished to find that all the operations of the fund had been 
carried on at so small a cost as £3,000 a year ; and he hoped that after this meeting 



68 NOTES AND NEWS. 

the contributions from Edinburgli would bulk more largely than they had ever 
done before. 

The Rev. Dr. Andreve Thomson seconded the motion, ■which was adopted. 

The Rev. Dr. Cazenove moved that the thanks of the meeting be given to 
Lieutenant Conder for his interesting and instructive address, with a respectful 
expression of our earnest wishes for his welfare, safety, and success in the 
important work to wliich he has again been called. (Applause.) 

Principal Rainy seconded the motion, urging the cummunity of Edinburgh 
to take a practical and creditable interest in the work by giving pecuniary 
support to the Society, and enabling them in a suitable manner and with 
suitable energy to carry it through. It was a work in whicli every Christian 
of every name covdd and ought to join together as with one heart and one 
soul. (Applause.) 

Lieutenant Conder having briefly replied, thanks were awarded, on the 
motion of Mr. John Miller, to Sir James Baird for presiding, and the meeting 
separated. 

Other meetings have been held at Croydon, when the Rev. Henry Geary de- 
livered an address on the new Map ; and at Eolton, where the Rev. James King 
spoke on the general work of the Society. Meetings are also arranged for 
Romsey, Cardiff, Winchester, and other places. 



69 



THE INSCRIPTION AT THE POOL OP SILOAM. 

In the month of August hist year the Committee received from Jeru- 
salem au auiiouucemeut of the discovery of an inscription in the passage 
leading from the Pool of Siloam to the Virgin's Fountain. A squeeze 
accompanied the lettei-, but this was imperfect, and only a few letters 
here and there could be made out. The Committee immediately authorized 
Dr. Chaplin to draw upon them for such money as might be necessary to 
get the water lowered, and a better copy taken. This work was entrusted 
to Herr Schick, but it was not until January that he succeeded in pro- 
curing a copy of the inscription ; this was not a squeeze, but a so-called 
facsimile, in other words it had been cojjied from the rock by the light of a 
candle. Tracings were made of the. facsimile and sent to various scholars, 
but no one ventured from such slender materials to attempt a reading. 
Meanwhile M. Clermont-Ganneau, who had been appointed French Consul 
at Jaffa, started for that place early in February with the intention of 
proceeding immediately to Jerusalem for the examination of the inscription. 
Unfortunately he has been laid up with illness. Another and aii 
improved transcript of the inscrijjtion arrived on the 1st of March, which 
was also copied and circulated, but with no result. This second copy is 
published with this number. 

Professor Sayce, however, has been able to examine and copy the in- 
scription on the spot, and has sent an important letter on the subject to the 
Aihenceum, a portion of which (by permission of the proprietors) we extract. 



An accident which befel me in Cyprus has brought me unexpectedly 
to Jerusalem, and given me the opportunity of examining the in- 
scription lately discovered in the conduit of the Pool of Siloam by Herr 
Schick. The inscription is the most important yet found in Palestine, as 
it belongs to the period of the kings, and is written in the oldest known 
characters of the Phoenician alphabet. As the readers of the At/ien<Bum 
are already aware, the inscription is incised on the lower part of a tablet 
formed by cutting the rock wall of the conduit to the depth of about an 
inch. It is engraved op the east side of a rock-hewn passage, through 
which the water is conducted from the north into the Pool, and about 
twenty-five paces from its entrance. 

I have paid two visits to the inscription, and succeeded in copying the 
greater portion of it. The task of copying, however, is a ditficult one. 
The water flows past the foot of the inscription to a depth of over four 



70 THE INSCRIPTION AT THE POOL OF SILOAM. 

J 



O 

t^ 
I— I 

O 

1-3 
O 
O 







H ><<^ „>o ,-, — "^ 






o ^ ^ 



*- ^ ^ c\ '^ 

g .Ij^ A ^ Z!i ffi 



v' 



g ' -^ 




-^ iL. \^ \\ \ I 



^^ 









THE INSCRIPTION AT THE POOL OF SII-OAM. 71 

inches, and in order to copy it I have had to sit in the water in a cramped 
position for more than an hour at a time, making out the letters, which 
are filled with silica, by the dim light of a candle. Had it not been for 
the kind oifices of my companion, Mr. John Slater, who held the candle 
for me while I copied the characters, I should have found the work even 
more troublesome than I actually did. 

The upper part of the tablet is smooth and plain, though ii graffito of 
three lines is scratched upon one part of it. Whether this is in any in- 
telligible system of writing I cannot say ; some of the letters look like 
cursive Greek, but at the beginning of two of the lines the Arabic ciphers 
1843 seem to occur. The lower part of the tablet is occupied by the ancient 
inscri])tion, which consists of six lines of about thirty-five letters each. 
The letters are of a considerable size, and must originally have been very 
clear. Now, however, in consequence of the silex with which they are 
filled, the difficulty of obtaining sufliicient light to see them, and the 
friction of the water, it is by no means easy to make them out. On the 
left side a fracture of the rock has caused the loss of several of the 
characters in the first three lines. Below the inscription comes an orna- 
mental finish in llie shape of two tiiangles, which rest upon their apices, 
with an angle between them similarly resting upon its apex. 

The forms of the characters are identical with those of the Moahite Stone, 
and the words are similarly divided from one another by points. One 
of the characters, Vv'hich occurs at least three times, is new to me ; I conjec- 
ture that it may represent the missing teth of Mesha's inscription. Th.e 
first line begins with the word riDp2 (H) ! ^^6*1 follow, after two words 

which I cannot read with certainty, (^'^)3V1 Jllpjil. ^^ ^^^ 

L L 

second line I. can make out only the words Jl^fc^ Xi^^1^'' ^T^"^ '^ 

U^i^i(L3) ^ [or Tih' Tlie third line ends with the word rTT^^- 

The fourth line begins with the word ^p^ ; then come, after a few doubt- 
ful letters, ){'^)'\^ *rji?"^ TT\\h U'^^(?"))l5 ^nd the line ends with xh^^. 

The fifth line reads: -^nS^in T^TSl'H ^« I^^H p D^r^H p 

TV^i^ n ' t^ '^^^ sixth line has been so much injured by the friction 

of the water that the only words in it which I can make out with certainty 
are tt'^t^'^ /V- I can find no words in the inscription for Jerusalem, 
Judah, or king (*TT^72)) nor any proper names. But the forms of the 
letters prove that it cannot be later than the time of Hezekiah, and the 
" three cubits " mentioned in the second line, as well as the " thousand 
cubits " of line 5, will probably afford a clue to the meaning of the inscription. 
It is clear from the word '^p^^^l iji the fifth line that the constructor of 
the conduit speaks in the first person. 

February 7, 1881. 



*t2 THE INSCRIPTION AT THE POOL OF SILOAM. 



II. 

The weather detained me at Jerusalem a day longer than I had 
intended to be there, and I accordingly paid another visit to the inscrip- 
tion about which I h^vve already written. It was well that I did so, as it 
enabled me both to correct my previous copies and to fill in some of the 
lacunpe in them. In fact, I may say that I now have as perfect a copy of 
the inscription as can well be obtained ; very little of it is missing, except 
where a fractui-e of the rock has occurred on the left hand side of the first 
three lines. I hope to place my copy, along with a translation of it, at the 
disposal of the Palestine Exploration Fund upon my retui'u to England. 

Meanwhile I must correct some of the statements I made in my previous 
letter. The more perfect copy I now possess shows that the inscription is 
not in Hebrew, as I imagined, but in Phoenician. The Phoenician relative 
pronoun "^^^^ occurs more than once, and there are other peculiarities 
in the lausuage which indicate that the author was a native of the 
Phoenician coast. On the other hand, as I have already stated, the forms 
of most of the letters are identical with those of the Moabite Stone, though 
there are two, or perhaps three, which seem to be still more archaic than those 
of Mesha's inscription. I do not see, therefore, how the inscription can be 
dated so late as the time of Hezekiah and his successors, when the destruc- 
tion of the kingdom of Israel renewed the intercourse between Judah and 
Phrenicia, which had been broken oit' by the revolt of the ten tribes. Con- 
sequently I have little hesitation in assigning it to the age of Solomon, or 
possibly of David (2 Sam. v. 11), when Phoenician workmen were employed 
in the construction of the public buildings at Jerusalem. In this case it 
will be the earliest specimen of Phnjniciau writing which we possess. Of 
course it is just possible that the inscription may be of yet older origin, 
and be composed in the dialect of the Jebusites ; but this is in the highest 
degree improbable. 

The inscription is merely a record by the nuister mason of the 
excavation of the conduit in which it is found, and which leads from Saint 
Mary's Pool to the Pool of Siloam, a distance of 586 yards. I was wrong 
in stating that it was WTitteu in the first person, as the word which I read 
■^nt^^D. i'* really ^Hi^^i the whole sentence running — 

nrnin h^ ^^)l^72n p D^r^n '):h^^ ntD« ^h^ ^n«t2i 

" And the waters flowed from iheir outlet to the lower pool for a 
distance of a thousand cubits." The inscription will be of greater value to 
the topographer than to the historian, as it contains the names neither of 
royal nor of other personages. Mr. John Slater and myself attempted to 
walk up the conduit as far as its exit in Saint Mary's Pool, as had already 
been done by Eobinson and others, since we thought that a second inscrip- 
tion might be discovered in some other part of it, now that the level of the 



EL-HARE AH. 73 

water running thi'ough the rocky channel has been so mnch reduced by 
Mr. Schick ; but we were stopped half-way by the lowness of the roof, 
which would have obliged us to crawl on all fours through a deep deposit 
of soft mud. A. H. Sayce. 

Fehrvarij 26, 1881. 



EL-HARRAH. 

By Cyril Graham. 



In the few remarks which I wish to make on the subject of the pro- 
posed exploration of those regions which either lie beyond Jordan or 
eastwards to the north of it, I shall confine myself to the country with 
which T am best acquainted, the Haur§,n, old Bashan cut off from the great 
prairie which extends to the Euphrates, and the singulai- district known 
to the Arabs as el-Harrah, with the ridge of hills es-Safah, which I 
believe never were visited by a European before me. 

The summits of es-Saf§,h can be seen distinctly on a clear day from the 
Antilebanon, and were represented until 1857 as two conical ;'f//s or hills in 
the most recent of maps in the book of the then most recent of exjjlorers, 
Professor Porter. 

My journey revealed the fact that they were merely the highest points of 
a range which extended over many miles. Like the Lejah, indeed, it seems 
to be a duplicate of that wonderful upheaval ; it is entirely volcanic, and I 
well remember Sir Eoderick Murchison telling me that both the Lejah 
and the Safah were monstrosities of Geology. 

An account of my travels will be found in the "Journal of the Royal 
Geographical Society " of 1858, and rough copies of the inscriptions to which 
I am going to allude presently, in a number of the " Deutsche Morgen- 
landische Gesellschaft," 1857, and in the annual volume of our own Royal 
Asiatic Society for 1859. 

I do not suppose, nor do I wish, that the resumption of our work should 
commence with Bashan and its wide outlying countries. Gilead, and 
Moab, more accessible, should be at first thoroughly explored, and every 
relic, whether of architectural structure, or of tablets or inscrij^tions on 
the stones lying m situ should be carefully drawn and copied ; and in the 
case of the latter it is of the utmost importance to philologists, and there- 
fore to the object we have in view, to obtain rubbings or impressions from 
them. I need scarcely remind those who are as well acquainted as I am 
with the difficulty of a mere copying of unknown symbols, how tedious 
such a process is, and how uncertain must be the results after all the 
labour which has been bestowed upon it. 

Amongst the places to which I think attention should be given in this 
southern section of our work, I pre-eminently place Kerak. Its history 



74 EL-HAREAII. 

from the times of the Judges, and its peculiar position, which defied the 
attacks of armed enemies, rendered it always a place of high strate- 
gical importance. The Crusaders considered its capture one of their 
greatest exploits ; but neither the kings of Judah nor of Edom, the 
invaders from the other side of the desert who annexed all the country 
to the west of the Jordan, or Anushirvan, or the Saracens, or the Franks 
seem for any length of time to have been its absolute masters. 

Still less is this the case with the present nominal owners of Moab. A 
firralin of the Sultan at Kerak is and has been for many a long day a worth- 
less bit of paper, and I am ready to suppose that such as it is, the autonomy of 
Kerak is one of the oldest in the world. To gain access to this inhospitable 
crag, black mail must be paid, and to prosecute deliberate researches there, 
a liberal fund must always be at the disposal of our explorers. I do not 
mean to say that money should be as lavishly expended as it was by M. de 
Saulcy ; liut we must be ])repared, in order to ensure the safety and 
success of our schemes, to advance a larger sum for Bakhshish than that 
which was found necessary in our attempts oa this side Jordan. 

2. Then come Pisgali and Nebo, the sites of which seem little doubtful. 
Good observations taken from the summit, whence Moses viewed the 
Promised Land, would naturally be of inestimable value. 

3. He.shbon and the whole tract rurming up to Um el Jem;il, Beth 
Gamul, standing alone in the plain with its walls and its towers, and its 
streets, and its houses, with their stone doors and windows still nearly 
perfect. 

This place, and numbers of others I could mention, such as Um er- 
Ruman, Um el-Kotein, were included in the Arabian kingdom of the 
Dynasty of el-Hareth, the founder of which, the Aretas of the Acts of the 
Apostles, was ruling there at the time of the conversion of St. Paul. And 
it has long been my opinion that it was in this then densely peopled 
Arabia, that the Apostle spent his two years in active work, preaching the 
Gospel, and not in solitude and contemplation in the Petrsean Desert.* 
At all events, history tells us that almost from the beginning these el- 
Ilareth were Christians ; they are known to Arabian Chroniclers as the 
Christian Dynasty, and it is not too much to assume that a large number 
of the subjects may have adopted the creed of their masters. The 
Sai-acenic invasion, which drove everything before it, must have scattered 
inhabitants of these outlying and exposed districts. We have a valuable 
catalogue by an Arabian geographer of the names of places both to the 
east and west of Jordan, but the list ends with Bozrah and Salkah and 
the Jebel Hauran, so that it is not unlikely that Um el-Jemal and its 
neic^hbourino; towns, and indeed all that region south and east of Salkah, 
had become abandoned by the end of the 7th century. If this is so, the 
discovery which I made of crosses painted in red upon many of the houses 
in Um el-Jemal may attest the fact of the introduction there of Christianity 

* Tide some admirable remarks on this subject in Professor Porter's " Five 
years in Damascus." 



EL-IIARRAH. 75 

at a very early period ; and indeed when I saw them I could not help 
saying to myself that perhaps I might have before me the marks of the 
first fruits of the labours of the greatest of Missionaries. However that 
may be, this branch of the whole subject connected with the Exploration 
of the East deserves oivr careful attention. 

In the northern country Golan— el Jaulan— should be thoroughly 
ransacked. It is easily traversed, and hundreds of ruins, with the Semitic 
names attached, either to the dehru, or if there are none, to the tells, 
which represent bygone towns, will yield us a fruitful harvest. 

The Lejah Argob would employ our energies for, I must say, an 
indefinite period ; but while one party is examining this, the inverse of 
our pleasing ideal of an oasis, another might be collecting relics from the 
Jebel Haurau. 

Were our funds unlimited, I could imagine another expedition working 
simultaneously with that to Bashau, in the districts to which I first 
referred, the Harrah and the Safah. Nearly every stone in certain 
localities there is inscribed. At one place in which I passed the night, 
I might say that every stone was trying to tell a story of the past. The 
basaltic lumps or blocks which crop out of the soil, or with which it is 
absolutely overspread, are at intervals covered with rough pictm-es of 
beasts and other objects with a cursive character surrounding them. I never 
shall forget my first introduction to these curious emblems. After a ride 
chiefly by nights, for the days had to be spent in some hollow so as to escape 
the observation of two hostile tribes of Arabs, one to the north, the other to 
the south of us — running the gauntlet of them in fact — my attention, 
on rounding the southern extremity of es Saffdi, was attracted by a stone 
which had scratched upon it the representation of a palm tree, and what 
was evidently a legend of some kind. 

I searched in vain for other indications of a like natiu'e, and resumed 
my way, " coasting " the long island of basalt. Presently I came to 
another solitary inscribed stone, and at an equal interval ujion a third. 
I should here remark that a line, evidently ai'tificial, in other words a 
clearing, existed through this wilderness of black boulders, and from its 
bearings I came to the conclusion, that I was possibly on the old 
highway which the world pursued between Bosrah and Tadmor in the 
palmy days of those great cities, and that my solitary stones were 
" mile-stones." Towards nightfall I i^eached a ruined town known to the 
nomads as Khirbet-el-Beida— the White Euin. 

The houses were of basalt as in the HaurS,u, with stone doors and 
windows, but it derived its name from a structure of white marble, or 
quasi marble, the calcareous limestone which is derived from the hills 
about Tadmor. It is called es-Serai, the Palace, and like everything else 
in that part of the world, its erection is ascribed by folklore to 
Chosroes, Anushirvdn, or to Timurlenk ! 

The building was rapidly falling into decay, not from the assaults of 
man, but from generations and generations of summers and winters. 
A fine hunting scene was sculptured on one face of it, greyhounds 



76 EL-HARRAH. 

attacking a lion and a panther, which reminded me of an Assyrian tablet ; 
and I found other stone lions about the place. The legend concerning the 
Kirbet-el-Beida I think I gave in the number quoted of the Royal 
Geographical Society. 

To the north of this second Argob lies Seis or Seyis, where there is 
water ; but for this very reason, I could not then approach it, for the 
wells were occupied by our enemies. I therefore struck eastwards and 
south-eastwards, and came, to my unexpresaible delight, upon inscriptions 
without end. One of the most interesting spots which I visited is en- 
Nem&reh, where lived once upon a time, a lady and princess celebrated in 
Arab song as Nimret bint en-Namur, Tigress, daughter of the Tigers. 

Although what T have related is on record, the materials are so old 
and so scattered, that 1 venture to think that I am doing service in recalling 
to the recollection of those who have read my papers, and in placing 
before those — the large majority of our members who have never heard 
of them or thought much perhaps of such outlying districts as the Harrah 
aiid the Safah — the fact that after we shall have explored Moab, Gilead, 
Golan, and Bashan. another field of such an expanse will present itself as 
to tempt us in our enthusiasm to attack Tadmor, the Euphrates, and 
ultimately the Nejd. 

The character on the stones represents one of those many cursive 
Semitic writings which are to be found in a form more or less varied 
anywhere between Yemen and the " Great River." 

The story of Job, so wonderfully and graphically told, belongs to the 
Hauran. Local tradition makes him native and Sheikh of ancient 
Kenath, now Kenawat. His friend Bildad the Shuhite came from 
Suweidah, three or four hours' ride from that place ; whilst the name of 
Teman still subsists, the probable birthplace or residence of Eliijhaz the 
Temanite. 

One of the greatest of geograj^hers, the late Karl Ritter, who was one 
of the first to investigate my researches, went so far as to suggest to me, 
that the " Sabeans" mentioned in the book of Job might be the Arabs of 
the Safah. 

Since my time, Wetzstein, de Voglie, Waddington, and a few others 
have thrown a certain amount of light on this north-easterii country. 

Their works, especially those of M. de Vogiie, are of high value, and 
should be cai'efully consulted by any officer who on our behalf may 
enter those regions. 



77 



THE OLD CITY OF ADRAHA (DERA) AND THE 
ROMAN ROAD FROM GERASA TO BOSTRA. 

By the President of Queen's College, Belfast. 

A SHORT extract from a journal written during a tour east of the 
Jordan, in the year 1874, may be interesting to the readers of the" 
(Quarterly Statement, in view of the proposed Siu'vey of that coimtry. So 
far as I know, no other traveller has followed my route from Gerasa to 
!Dei'a and Bostra. It is on the very outskirts of settled habitation, and 
not always safe. My escort consisted of the Sheikh of SAf, his brother 
and one or two retainers ; and we eucoimtered no difficulty. 

Leaving Gerasa, we rode over a low rocky ridge, thinly sprinkled with 
ilex, and then up a glen which gradually narrowed into a ravine. Traces 
of a Roman road were visible here and there cut in the rock. About five 
miles from Gerasa we reached the top of the pass, and had a splendid view 
southward, down the glen to the valley of the Jabbok, and north-east 
down another glen towards the great plain of Arabia. We entered the 
latter glen, still following the Roman road, having wooded ridges on each 
side, and occasionally a few patches of cultivated ground. We saw several 
ruins, but no modern habitations. The calls of shepherds, and the 
tinkling of beUs were heard amid the hills, and a mounted Ai-ab appeared 
at intervals on some commanding spot, as if watching our little cai-avan. 
As we descended, the glen opened, the forest became less dense, flocks and 
herds were seen on the pastures, and a few husbandmen were at work in 
the helds. 

At length we emerged from Wady Warr&n, for such is the name of this 
beautiful vaUey, and entered the open plain — a vast expanse of rich 
pasture land, extending on the east and south to the horizon, wliUe on the 
west it rises by an easy slope to the wooded hills of Gilead. A short 
distance to our right lay the ruins of Kubab, a small village apparently 
once fortified ; or it may perhaj^s have been one of those walled caravan- 
serais which one so frequently meets with on the borders of Arabia. 
Around its weUs and watering-troughs were collected the vast flocks of the 
Bene Hassan Arabs, whose tents we saw in a circlet out on the ])lain. 
The ground along the foot, and on the lower slopes of the hills, is exten- 
sively cultivated by them. 

We rode northward, still in the line of the old road, passing a Roman 
milestone beside a heap of ruins. Traces of villages, now deserted, were 
visible everywhere. Two, near the road, named Idhamah and UsJleh, 
were marked by large gi-een mounds honeycombed with caves. I observed 
in this region that most of the villages are, at least in part, subterranean, 
the houses being excavated in the calcareous rock, with nothing above 
groimd to mark theii- site except mounds of rubbish. One called S^l, 



78 THE OLD CITY OF ADRA.HA (dERA) AND THE 

beside which we encamped a fortnight later, when on our way to Gadara, 
had a popuhitiou of some forty families, all Troglodytes. 

Two hours' smart riding from Wady Warran brought us to Remtha, a 
populous village built on a little isolated hill in the midst of a cultivated 
plain of unsurpassed fertility. Here also were large numbers of caves, 
some used as dwellings, others as granaries. We now ascended a low 
bleak ridge, a spur from the Gilead range, and had from the top a magnifi- 
cent view of the plain of Hauran, bounded on the east by the mountain 
range of Bashan, and on the north by Hermon. I was greatly struck 
with the change which had passed over that whole region since my previous 
visit in 1854 ; then most of it was desolate, now it was almost entirely 
under cultivation. Signs of industry and growing prosperity were every- 
where visible. In a few minutes more we entered Dera, having been just 
seven hours and a-half in riding from Gerasa. 

The ruins of this strange old city I estimated as about two miles in 
circuit. They cover a semicircle, round the arc of which sweeps Wady 
Zedy, a glen from 50 to 60 feet deep, with steep, and occasionally 
precii>itous banks, and a little stream flowing through it. It is a singular 
fact that while the rock in the sides of the glen is either white limestone 
or conglomerate, the buildings are composed, like those in almost all the 
other towns of Bashan, of black basalt. The present village, which 
contained some 50 or 60 families at the time of my visit, occupies but a 
fraction of the old site. Most of the inhabited houses are modern ; 
built, however, of old materials, with flat stone roofs rudely con- 
structed, and occasionally stone doors. There are many other houses, in 
fact lono- lines of them, evidently much more ancient, but now almost 
completely covered over by the accumulation of ruins and rubbish. Dera 
is in this respect in part a buried city. I entered one or two of those cave- 
like houses, and found them similar in plan and style to those I had seen in 
other old cities of Bashan — massive walls, constructed of roughly hewn 
blocks of basalt, stone doors of the same material, and roofs formed of 
long slabs closely laid together. Most of these houses were originally above 
o-round, as is evident from the position of the doors ; but it is probable 
that there were other dwellings near them excavated in the soft rock. We 
found it dangerous riding over the site, as portions of the old roofs are apt 
to o-ive way under the horses' feet.* Excavation here might throw some 
lifht on the architecture and antiquities of Bashan. But Dera is not the 
only town in which some of the old houses are now buried. I have seen 
houses in Bozi-ah, Suweideh, Nejran, and other places, entombed under 
heaps of ruins. 

In the centre of the town is a large building with an ojjen com't 

* When at Dera I heard nothing of an "underground city" such as is 
described by Wetzstein in his lleisehericlit. There are cerlainly many caves, as 
there are at most other towns and villages in this region, which were used in 
part as dwelUngs, and in part as granaries. But Dera is one of those ancient 
sites which would well repay excavation. 



EOMAN KOAD FROM GEEASA TO BOSTRA. 79 

siHToundeil by rude cloisters. On one side is an old church or mosque, the 
roof of which is supported by six ranges of short columns and piers, all 
evidently taken from more ancient structures. I saw on some of the stones 
and shafts, Phoenician letters rudely cut, as if masons' marks, and I also 
found some imjjerfect Greek inscriptions bearing dates of the Bostrian 
era. 

At the western end of the town, is a large reservoir, partly hewn in 
the rock, and partly lined with fine masonry, apparently Roman. Beside 
it are the remains of baths. The water was brought to it by an aqueduct 
from the fountains of Dilly, about 15 miles to the north, and appears to 
have been conveyed across the glen through air-tight pipes or perforated 
stones. Another- aqueduct, also apjjarently of Roman origin, brought 
water into the town from the east, but I did not follow it to its source. 
On Smith's maj) an aqixeduct is represented as running from Dera across 
the plain by Remtha and Sal towards Um Keis (Gadara). Of this I 
saw no traces whatever, and from the nature of the ground I do not believe 
an aqueduct could be carried along that line. In the bed of the glen to 
the east of the town is a well, beside which are some ancient remains, 
including a sarcophagus of basalt, ornamented with rude sculptures. 

Dera I believe to be, not the Edrei of the Bible, the capital of the 
giant Og, but the Adraha of the Roman Itineraries, which is located by 
the Peutinger Tables, 16 miles from Capitolias, and 24 from Bostra. It 
became an episcopal city of the province of Ai-abia, and its bishop 
Uranius was present at the first Council of Constantinople, a.d. 337. 

From Dera we took a straight course to Bostra, partly to trace the old 
Roman road, and partly to examine a section of the country which, so far 
as I knew, had been hitherto unexplored. We encountered no difficulty, 
although on the very outskirts of settled life. The Roman road was visible 
from the moment we crossed the glen, and we followed its course to the 
gate of Bostra, to which it runs in nearly a straight line. The ancient 
pavement is in places perfect ; and the road crossed the Zedy by a 
Roman bridge of a single arch, in excellent preservation, with the ruts of 
chariot wheels several inches deep on its pavement. Villages, some in 
ruins, some partially inhabited, dotted the whole country to the right and 
left ; and large sections of the soil wei'e under cultivation. We saw 
husbandmen, and shepherds, and yokes of oxen in the fields ; while away 
on the southern horizon we also saw the black tents of the Bedawin. We 
halted for a time at Ghusam, a large village with old and massive 
houses. The gate admitting to an ancient court-yard was still perfect. It 
was of stone and double, each leaf measuring 7 feet 2 inches high, 3 feet 
wide, and 8 inches thick ; and it was so well balanced on its pivots above 
and below, that a man was able to shut and open it with ease. 

Not the least interesting part of the Survey of Eastern Palestine will 
be the tracing of the Roman roads, and the exploration of the strange old 
cities. I venture to predict that some most remarkable discoveries will be 
made in the new Siu'vey. 



80 



SUN WORSHIP IN" SYRIA. By C. R. Conder, R.E. 

The subject of the aboriginal superstition of the Sj'rian tribes is one of 
great interest but of some difficulty, as many remains and objects sup- 
posed by travellers to be relics of Sun-worship have been found to be 
very modern, while millstones and oil-rollers have often been mistaken 
for solar emblems, and ruined limekilns for Sun Temi:)les. 

Nevertheless we know for certain that the astronomical worship of 
Babylon, of the Hittites, Phoenicians, and Egyptians, was also the 
Canaanite creed : that Saturn or Moloch was worshipped as a Sun God by 
human sacrifices ; that the licentious rites of Ashtoreth or the Venus 
Pandemos were observed even in Jerusalem ; and that Thammuz, the Syrian 
Adonis, was annually mourned both on Lebanon and in Judea. We know 
that the shrines of these divinities, both at Jerusalem and also at Bethel 
and on Carmel, stood side by side with the altars of Jehovah ; and we 
should therefore naturally expect that some traces of this idolatrous worshiji 
should still exist in Palestine. 

Taking then in order the chief centres of Baal worship we must com- 
mence first with Bethlehem, where St. Jerome assures us the rites of Tham- 
muz were practised in his own time. Here we still find a sacred grotto 
which early tradition (not however sujiported liy anything in the four 
Gospels) has now consecrated as the cradle of Christ. It must not be 
forgotten that the Sacred Cave forms a very important feature of the 
ritual of Sun-worship, and the connection with the legend of Thammuz can 
hardly be accidental. Not only was the cave of Mithrah an essential 
feature of the rejoicings of the Bies Natalis Invicti Solis, but the Chapel 
of Moloch (mentioned by Kimchi in commenting on Mishna Sanhed vii, 7) 
seems to have been a similar subterranean sanctuary ; while the idea of 
the sun issuing from a cave is traced back even earlier than the Baby- 
lonian times to the Accadian name for the winter solstice month, " the 
Cavern of the Dawn." The peculiar rites which are celebrated at the 
Latin Christmas ceremony at Bethlehem— like the Holy Fire issuing 
from the Cave-tomb at Jerusalem- have striking affinities with the ritual 
of Mithra; and we shall find that throughout Syria the Sacred Cave 
almost always occurs in connection with Sun Temples. 

At Jerusalem itself the Temples of Ashtoreth and Chemosh (Venus 
and Saturn) stood on Olivet in Solomon's time ; and the rounded summit 
of this mountain still supports a round building in a round court covering 
the sacred footprint now said to have been that of Christ. Beneath this 
sanctuary there i a sacred vault or cave called Rahibat Bint Hasan by 
the Arabs, the Cave of Huldah among the Jews, or of St. Pelagia among 
the Christians — in each case a female deity. The site thus chosen for the 
Ascension does not agree with the words of St. Luke (xxiv, 50) where the 
event is recorded as having occurred near Bethany ; and it is perhaps more 
probable that the old Sun Temple of Chemosh stood on this hill-top. The 



SUN WORSHIP IN SYRIA. 81 

modern name of Olivet is et T6r — a Chaldee word from a root cognate 
with Tziir (" a rock ") and not to be confused with Thor, a bull. Tor is 
the term applied to rounded or isolated hill-tops throughout Palestine, 
as for instance at Gerizim and Tabor, and most of these Tors are still, 
and have from remote antiquity been, sacred mountains. The sacred foot- 
print is moreover not an invention of mediaeval monks, but a common 
feature of Indian nature worship (see note below). In Jerusalem we 
have another sacred rock with a sacred footprint, namely, the Sakhrah with 
the Kadam en Nehy or " prophet's footprint," which in the 12th century 
was called the footprint of Christ. Here also we find a sacred cave ; and 
in the Aksa mosque is another footprint, namely the Kadam Sidna 'Asia, 
which has been described in its present position since 600 a.d. 

North of Jerusalem we find the site now generally recognised as Nob ; 
namely, the village of Sh'afat, where Jewish tradition states that the 
Tabernacle once stood (see Mishna Zebakhim xiv). The name Nob is 
radically identical with iVe%, and also with Nebo the Assyrian Mercury. 
This deity was symbolised by a stone or a stone-heap, and he was one of the 
gods of the pre- Islamite Arabs, who worshipped stones (boetuli or stone- 
heaps) as representing A llah and sacred trees (the' Asherah or " grove " of the 
Canaanites) as symbolic of Alldt the female deity The worship of Mer- 
cury included the throwing of stones on a heap as mentioned in the Talmud 
(Sanhed vi, 7) and also by classic authors ; and it is of interest to point 
out that there is a most remarkable natural monument such as was under- 
stood by the name Zihr or Ed — a high conical rock peak (as noticed 
under the title Khui'bet es Som'a, " ruin of the heap," in the Memoir to 
sheet 17) immediately east of the road to Jerusalem at Sh'afat. 

Bethel was also a centre of idolatrous worship side by side with the 
" School of the Prophets." The Altar of the' Golden Calf stood here, as 
well as the cairn which Jacob raised and anointed. Colonel Wilson was, 
I believe, the first to point out the curious circle of stones immediately 
north of the village {see P. E. F. Photograph) which though much decayed 
reminds one irresistibly of the rude stone temples of our own country. 

At Shiloh we find no marks of Sun worship, but the lofty mountain 
called Tell 'AsUr north of Bethel is no doubt the old Baal Hazor or 
''Baal of the enclosure," an ancient circle of stones now destroyed. 
Traces of a similar circle were observed south-east of Jenin, and a 
rude stone monument described in the Memoir (sheet ix, Deir Ghuzdleh) 
has every appearance of being an ancient altar. A second altar west of 
the great plain at Ahu 'Amr is built of undressed stones, and beside it 
is a sacred tree and tomb and a cave with steps leading down. 

As we approach Galilee we find other centres on Tabor and Carmel. 
The ancient Tabor (" umbilicus ") is the modern Jebel et Tor ; Josephus 

Note. — I should mention that I am indebted for this piece of information to 
General Forlong, whose learned work on ancient religions is shortly to be pub- 
lished, and who has directed my attention to the question of Syi'ian idolatry 
generally, and given me much valuable assistance in understanding it. 

G 2 



8-2 SUN WORSHIP m syria. 

calls it Itabyriuni, and anotlier mountain of that name in Ehodes was 
consecrated to Jupiter. It is thus perhaps that the scene of the Trans- 
figuration has been shifted from its proper site near Banias to the sacred 
mountain of Talior. On Carmel we find the altar of Baal beside the ruined 
altar of Jehovah in the time of Elijah. The gi-eat peak of el Mahrakah ('' the 
place of Sacrifice ") at the south-east end of Carmel is still revered by 
the Carmelite Monks and by the Druses of Esfia, and appears to 
have been the place visited by Julian the Apostate when he sacrificed 
to the God Carmel, who had no temple but only an altar. The peak is 
admirably adapted for a sanctuary of the Sun God, and stands up con- 
spicuously, being visible from near Jaffa in fine weather. Beneath is a 
sacred tree beside a well. 

It is very remarkable that the tomb of Joseph is flanked by two 
pillar-like altars, on which sacrifices are still offered by fire. Such 
pillar-like altars are known to have belonged to the ritual of sun or fire- 
worship, like the fire towers of the Guebres ; and it might be suggested 
that the extraordinary conical mounds at Mdlhah near Jerusalem, one 
of which is 30 feet high, and 20 feet diameter at the top, and even the 
gi'eat conical hillock of Tell el Ftl, structures for which no date and 
no good explanation has yet been offered, may be remains of ancient 
altars or sacred beacons. In Galilee we find the sacrifice of articles by 
fire still observed by the Jews at the tomb of Bar Jochai, on the side of 
Jebel Jenmlk, the highest mountain of the district, and a sacred cave 
occurs close by. Of the rude cromlechs discovered by Lieutenant 
Kitchener in this district, one is called Najr ed JDumm, "the stone of 
blood," no doubt from a tradition of sacrifices there offered. 

Many sacred stones occur throughout the country, as the Hujr 
Dabkan, near Mar Saba, the traditions concerning which were collected 
by Mr. Drake, and the JIajr Sidna 'Aisa on the side of the conical 
mountain called Neby Duhy, and the Hajaret en Nusdra, or " Christian's 
Stone " above Tiberias, now connected with a monkish tradition. Nor 
must we forget the Meshdhed (bcetuli Edoth or " Witnesses ") which pious 
pilgrims erect whenever they come within sight of a famous shrine. 
The Survey Cairns were occasionally thought to be sacred structures, 
as at Jeb'a, where the Dervish volunteered to " pray for the pillar in the 
day of our journey." Among the ancient Arabs such stones were at 
once the bodies of divinities, and also altars on which their victims were 
offered. 

The great centre of sun worship was, however, apparently on Hermon, 
and the numerovxs temples which were built on this holy mountain, as 
late as the 2nd century a.d., were found by Colonel Warren to face 
the rising sun, seen to such advantage from the summit. 

On the top of Hermon is a plateau, and from this rises a sort of peak 
or natural altar, round which a circle of masonry has been built, while 
a small pit is sunk in the top of the rock. There was no temple actually 
on the summit, though a small one remains outside the circle on the 
south. On the north is a sacred cave with a flight of steps. Other caves 



SUN WORSHIP IN SYEIA. 83 

lower down the mouutaiu are used by the Druses for the retreat of their 
initiated, and the Druses are kuown to preserve the rites of the Gnostics, 
to whom sun worshij) was familiar. 

At Tyre, on an isolated hillock, stands the fane of Neby M'ash<ik, 
" the beloved of women," no doubt the ancient Adonis or Melkarth, 
and the tradition of this local snn god is preserved in the annual 
festival of St. Mekhlar, observed in this city, when his votaries descend 
to fish for the purple-shell or Chilzou, which is mythically connected with 
the history of the Tyrian Hercules, or Melkarth. 

The great shrine of Venus and Adonis at Apheka, lately described by 
Mr. Lawrence Oliphant, was destroyed by Constantine ; but many practices 
belonging to this worship survive among the Nuseu'lyeh and Ism'aUeh, 
who worship the sun, moon, and elements in the northern Lebanon, and 
even human sacrifice is said by the Maronites to be one of their customs ; 
a relic of the human sacrifices of Baal, Moloch, or Saturn among the Canaanites 
and Phoenicians, and a certain indication of sun worship. In connection 
with this question, it is curious to note how persistent this tradition of 
secret human sacrifice is in the Levant. Gibbon describes the charges 
of this kind brought by pagans against the eai'ly Christians, and St. 
Ejnphanius gives a detailed account of the "Perfect Passover" of the 
early Gnostics — the sacrifice of a child. The same charge was brought 
against the Templars in the 13th century, and it 'is yet a common 
imputation against the Jew in the East, as is shown by the following 
passage in one of the Sultan's proclamations quoted by Mr. Oliphant. 

" We camiot permit the Jewish nation (whose innocence of the crime 
alleged against them is evident) to be vexed and tormented upon 
accusations which have not the least foundation in truth," viz., "that 
they were accustomed to sacrifice a human being, to make use of his 
blood at their feast of the Passover." 

East of Jordan some traces of the worship of Ashtoreth should be 
found at her famous shrine. Mr. Olij^hant has already described the 
curious pillar of Job, which had never been visited since the 5th century ; 
but I believe no explanation has been offered of the occurrence of 
solitary pillars, as for instance, north of Acre, and near Baalbek. There 
seems every probability that they are columns on which the hermits who 
imitated St. Simeon Stylites used to seat themselves — a i^ractice much 
older than Clii'istianity, and directly connected with the worship of the 
Sun's creative power. Many of these hermits lived in the 5th century 
in Syria, more especially near Aleppo, where are the ruins of the great 
Cathedral of St. Simeon. Similar practices are recognisable among the 
Hermits, who by contemplating theii' own stomachs (like the Therapeutse, 
or the Indian Fakirs) at length beheld the sacred " Light of Tabor." 

It is not too much to say that every isolated round or conical 
mountain 'top in Palestine, was once a seat of sun-worship. Thus at 
Sheikh Ishinder, west of the Plain of Esdraelon, on a conical volcanic peak, 
we find the shrine of a prophet, who is described as contemporary with 
A-braham, and as having rams' horns like the sun-god Jupiter Ammon 



84 SUN WOKSHIP IN SYRIA. 

Neby Duhy is a similar conical peak north-east of the last, and has a 
domed shrine on the top. The legend attached states that the bones of 
the saint were carried there by his dog, which reminds us of the Parsee 
veneration of dogs (the companions of Mithra), who to the horror of 
Greek writers were permitted to devour the bodies of the most noble 
among the Persian fire-worshippers. 

The translation of bones or relics is a common Moslem tradition. 
Thus on Ebal we have the sacred shrine of the 'Amdd ed Dtn, " pillar of 
the faith," and near it the sacred cave of Sitti Islamtyeh, who gives her 
name to the mountain, and whose bones were carried through the air 
to this spot from Damascus. 

The remarkable mountain near Jericho with its natural conical top 
called '^s/i el 67mr«6, or " Kaven's Nest," is specially described in "Tent 
Work," chap, xiii, as having been supjDOsed by the Crusaders to be the 
Mountain of the Temptation, a tradition still extant among the Bedawiu. 
This curious but imjiossible legend may perhaps have its origin in an 
ancient sun-myth, connected with the hill, and adopted by the Byzantine 
Monks. 

The conical foi'm of the summit of the Knrn Sartabeh (the Jewish 
beacon station where a fire was lighted on the appearance of the new moon) 
is also very remarkable. It might almost be cited in favour of the identi- 
fication of this palace with the " witness " altar of Ed, which I proposed in 
1874, and to which the main objection lies in the opinion of Josephus that 
Ed was East of Jordan. 

The cone is 270 feet high, the sides sloping at about 35°. There is an 
oval surrounding the building on the summit, and formed by a mound of 
stones rudely heaped up. This measures 90 feet E. and W. by 260 N. 
and S. The central building is a platform or foundation built in 10 courses 
of large drafted stones (possibly crusading woi'k). Towards the north of the 
platform we found traces of burning, showing that a beacon had once been 
lighted here. The sides of the cone are artificially trimmed from the natural 
rock. To the east is a terrace with caves, an aqueduct collected surface 
drainage and carried the water to rocky reservoirs just beneath the peak. 
The general effect is that of an ancient Sun Temple which has been con- 
verted later into a small fortress. 

The shrines on every mountain, and under every green tree, have been 
already described in " Tent "Work." The prophets called Belan, Bali^n, 
and B'altn, are iJerhajas the modern representatives of the ancient Baalim, 
and a male and female saint are constantly worshipped, as were Baal 
and Ashtoreth in shrines near to one another, many of which have sacred 
caves beneath. 

Neby Turfini again possibly takes his name from the Teraphim, or 
" serpent images " such as those that Rachel stole from her father Laban. 

Those who are interested in ancient superstitions may find this shoit 
enumeration of facts of some value, and the subject (in spite of the 
difilculty of collecting reliable information) is one which deserves to 
be further pursued. 



85 



NOTES ON DISPUTED POINTS. 

House of Aphrah (n'^Di^'7 rT^^)- — ^^'- ^- ^- Birch treats this name 
(Micah i, 10) as tliat of a town, which he proposes to identify witli Beit 
'Affeh. 

I would submit that there are several objections to this view. First, 
that there is no i-adical connection between the Hebrew and the Arabic. 
Secondly, that the occurrence of the Hebrew particle in the sentence {Beth 
li Aphrah) seems scarcely to agree with the supposition that we have to 
deal with a topographical name, Beth Aphrah. The verse contains a pun 
on the noun Aphrah and the verb "^Q^ "to roll"; as does verse 14, on 
the name Achzib and the verb " to lie." The topographical value of 
the passage seems to be small, as the names Zaanan, etc., occur in 
other places, where the indications are better as to their relative positions. 
It may be noted that if Aphrah were really a town, a possible site might 
be found at the important ruin of Beit Far ("House of the Mouse'"') 
F&r representing the ancient Aphrah (" Gazelle ") with the loss of 
the initial guttural — of which there are occasional instances ; but this is at 
best only a conjecture, as the identification with Beit 'Affeh must 
apparently also be considered. 

Gath. — Mr. Trelawney Saunders adduces in support of his view that 
Gath was in the south of Philistia, the passage where Samuel is said 
to have recovered the cities of Israel from Ekron even unto Gath (1 Sam 
vii, 14) ; but against this it may be argued that Gath and Ekron occur 
frequently next one another in topographical lists.* 

The question which is thus raised is one of considerable interest, 
namely, whether the Jews ever possessed any land in Philistia proper. 

In the Book of Joshua, three of the five great Philistine cities (Ekron, 

* Mr. Trelawney Saunders appears to think that there is a pliilological 
disagi'cement between Professor Palmer and myself. If this were the case, 
I should no doubt be wrong, but we both stated that the Arabic for Gath 
was Jett ; and I beheve Professor Palmer would be the last to urge that 
a place called Jenneta was Gath, unless strong reasons could be adduced to prove 
the corruption of the word. 

Mr. Saunders is scarcely correct in stating that Sbaaraim was a town 
of Simeon, and therefore objecting to S'aireh. Shaaraim is attributed to 
Judah, and occurs with Adullam, Socoh, &c., in the Sheplielah (Josh, xv, 36), in 
a position exactly agreeing with that of S^atreh. 

It is true that the name stands in one passage (1 Chrou. iv, 31) for the 
Sharuhen of Simeon (Josh, xix, 6), but the nomenclature of the list in 
Chronicles is well known to be very corrupt. 

The route Mr. Saunders indicates for the defeated Philistines is even 
longer than that which I wrongly supposed him to mean. 

A pursuit and a return of more than 60 miles must have intervened before 
the Children of Israel got back to spoil the tents (1 Sam. xvii, 53). This would 
have occupied two or three days. It would have been remarkable if anything 
I'emained to be spoiled after this interval. 



86 NOTES ON DISPUTED POINTS. 

Ashdod, Gaza) are allotted, " with their villages," to Judah, but there is no 
enumeration of these villages, and the detailed enumeration of the towns 
of Judah is confined to the mountains and the Shephelah. 

In the time of Joshua's first campaign there is no mention of the 
conquest of Ekron, Ashdod, Gaza, Ascalon, or Gath, or of any town in the 
JSadeh or plain of Philistia, save Eglon and Lachish, close to the Shephelah 
hiUs. 

In Judges (i, 19) we read that Judah " drove out the inhabitants of 
the mountain but could not drive out the inhabitants of the Valley (Emek) 
because they had chariots of iron." Ekron, Ascalon, and Gaza were, 
however, conquered at this time (verse 18), though apparently soon after 
lost. 

In the time of Eameses II, all Philistia appears to have been under 
Egyptian rule ; and the Philistines were of Egyptian extraction. In the 
days of Samuel, Saul, and David, the contests with the Philistines 
occurred in the Shephelah and on the border of the Judean Mountains. 

Josephus also makes use of the remarkable expression — " that mountain 
where the tribe of Judah ended " ; and even Adullam is once spoken of 
(1 Sam. xxii, 5) as beyond the border of Judah. The frontier of Rehoboam 
was drawn from Zorah and Azekah to Gath, including the fortified towns 
of Adullam, Lachish, Adoi-am, Mareshah, and Shochoh. Thus it is clear 
that Philistia was excluded from his kingdom, and by the time of Ahaz 
the Shephelah also had been entirely lost, while the expeditions of the 
Hasmoneans into Philistia were mere raids, with only temporary 
results. 

It would seem then that Philistia never was conquered by Judah, and if 
this be the case, the cities recovered to Judah by Samuel between Gath and 
Ekron would probably be those enumerated in Joshua xv, 41, on the 
border between Philistia and the Shephelah, and near the site of Samuel's 
victory in the VaUey of Sorek. The recovery is noted as the result of 
that victory not as entailing a further campaign (c.f. Ant, VI, 2, 3) ; and if 
the above conclusion be accepted, the passage quoted by Mr. Trelawney 
Saunders does not place Gath in the south. 

Mr. Saunders suggests that " accepting Lieutenant Conder's interpreta- 
tion of Abu Glieith as Father of Rain, the designation suggests an 
attribute of mystic power, and so may be carried back to some incoherent 
traditional remembrance of Goliah." 

According to Freytag's Dictionary my translation is correct. I am 
not aware of any tradition connecting Goliah with the rain, but there 
are many traditions of Moslem Derwishes who were, and are, supposed 
to be able to give or withhold rain, and the name is probably quite 
modern. Inquiries on the spot might be interesting. 

Megiddo. — The suggestion that the name MuhuttcC may be a corruption 
of Megiddo is open to the objection that only the M is common to the two 
names, and, which is more important, that the ^^ in the Arabic word is 
the Hebrew ^ or strong t, which is not interchangeable with the Daleth. 

Mr. Trelawney Saunders also follows Robinson in an assumption which 



NOTES ON DISPUTED POINTS. 87 

seems to be contrary to two passages in Scripture, viz., in supposing that 
the stream which springs near LejjOn is the ancient Kishon, and thus 
unconsciously begs the question of the identity of the " Waters of Megiddo ' 
with the River Kishon. 

Now Barak encamped on Tabor before defeating Sisera (Judges iv, 12), 
and the Cana;inites advanced on that position. " I will draw unto thee to 
the River Kishon, Sisera " (verse 7). In the Psalms also (Psalm Ixxxiii, 9) 
we read "as to Sisera, as to Jabin, at the brook of Kishon : which perished 
at Endor," which is close to Tabor on the south. 

It thus seems clear that the name Kishon applied not to the affluent 
from Lejjiln, but to the stream from the springs* of el Mujahlyeh (" the 
place of bursting forth ") west of Tabor. 

Mr. Saunders says, " it seems impossible to separate Megiddo from the 
Kishon." If this were the case, then the site of Lejjfln could not be that 
of Megiddo according to the biblical definition of the Kishon. 

Robinson's identification of Megiddo with LejjCin rests mainly on the 
proximity of Taanach, a town often mentioned with Megiddo in the Bible. 
It cannot be too clearly stated that the only connection between the names 
Legio (LejjAn) and Megiddo is found in Jerome's paraphrase of the term 
Bikath Megiddon by the "Campus Legionis." Megiddo is mentioned 
with Bethshean Jezreel and other places in the Jordan Valley (separate 
towns of the trjbe of Maijasseh) as well as with Taanach, and there is no 
real foundation for the assumption- that the Valley of Megiddon was the 
Plain of Esdraelon, for the term Bikath (rendered Valley in the A. V.) is 
also used in the Bible of the Jordan Valley (Deut. xxxiv, 3 ; Zech. xii, 11), 
and on the edge of the broad Bikath of Bethshan the important ruin of 
Mujedda! with its springs and streams now stands. 

Mr. Henderson has quoted in defence of my theory, the translation 
given by Brugsch of a passage in the "Travels of a Mohar" (for the 
quotation of the Poem of Pentaur as including the statement that Megiddo 
was near Bethshean appears to be an oversight. The Pentaur Epic refers 
to the wars of Rameses Miamun against the Hittites). This translation is 
more favourable than that of Chabas, and was not previously known to me. 
In support of the Mujedda' site, another argument may be drawn from 
the account of the flight of Ahaziah from Jezreel (2 Kings ix, 27), " he fled 
in the direction of Beth-hag-gan " and was slain " at Maaleh Gur, which 
is by (or near) Ibleam, and he fled to Megiddo and died there." 

br. Thomson many years since proposed to recognise Ibleam in the 
ruined site of Yebla which gives its name to a long valley south-east of 
Tabor. On the plain east of Tabor also, fifteen miles from Jezreel, 
is the ruined village of Beit Jenn ("house of the garden"), exactly 
representing the Hebrew Beth-hag-gan, rendered " garden house " in the 
A. v., and the road from Jezreel past Tabor and past the head of 
Wady "febla, towards Beit Jenn, leads over a rolling plateau where 
a chariot might easily be driven. After crossing the bed of the 
Jezreel Valley it ascends gradually towards en N'atlrah (Anaharath), and 
on this Maaleh or ascent stands the ruin Kdra, a word derived from the 



88 NOTES ON DISPUTED POINTS. 

root Kiir, wliich is cognate to Mr or G'Ar, all having the meaning of 
" hollow." This ruin, possibly representing Gur, is 2j miles north-east 
from Jezreel, and five miles west of the ruin Yehla. We thus appear to 
recover the names Gur Ibleam and Beth-hag-gan in connection with some 
other north-east of Jezreel, and this is much in favour of the Mujedda' 
site, because an easy chariot road leads from Kara south-east, crossing the 
upper part of W. JalM, and thence skirting the foot of Gilboa to 
Mujedda'. 

I have hazarded the suggestion that the Kings of Judah used the 
Jordan Valley as tlieir highway to the north ; that, instead of toiling over 
the hostile mountains of Ephraim they marched up to assist the Israelite 
monarchs by the chariot road from Jericho, and advanced to oppose Necho 
by the same route. Megiddo would thus seem to have been their outpost 
on this route, and Ahaziah's retreat to it is intelligible, whereas the reason 
of his flying first south to Jenin, and then back north to Lejjtln has never 
appeared Intel ligible. 

In order to render this interesting subject inore clear, the following 
points are recapitulated as those which seem most to require consideration. 

1. There is no known connection between the ruin Lejjtln (Legio) 
and the site of Megiddo, either by name, by measured distance, or by 
tradition. 

2. It is purely an assumption that the plain of Esdraelon is the Valley 
of Megiddon. 

3. It is an assumption which contradicts Scripture that the stream 
from LejjAn is the ancient Kishon. 

4. It is a i^ure assumption (and a very misleading one) that the " Waters 
of Megiddo " were the Kishon river. 

5. The mention of Taanach in connection with Megiddo should not 
outweigh the notice of Bethshean, Ibleam, Endor, Zartanah and other 
places east of Jezreel, also mentioned with Megiddo (see Palestine 
Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement, January, 1877, p. 16). 

6. The Egyptian records, so far as they elucidate the subject, are 
favovirable to the Mujedda' site. 

7. The ruin Mujedda' is ancient, well watered, situated in a plain on an 
important high-road ; and here only has a name closely approaching to the 
Hebrew Megiddo been found. 

8. The topography of Ahaziah's flight may be explained in easy 
accordance with the situation of Mujedda'. 

I am far from supposing this question to be settled, but it seems that 
the Mujedda' site has claims to attention which recommend it to such 
careful critics as Mr. Henderson has proved himself to be ; and that it 
should not be condemned merely because the assumptions of Dr. Robinson 
are taken as of equal value with his sounder arguments. The Lejjtln site 
rests on a more flimsy argument than perhaps that which fixes any other 
important biblical site, for we have positively not a single statement of 
the identity of Legio with Megiddo by any ancient authority. It is a 
vague conjecture, and not an identification at all. 



NEW IDENTIFICATIONS. • 89 

Gibeah of Saul. In this case also we have to contend with an assump- 
tion of Dr. Robinson's. There is no connection either by name or distance 
between Tell el Ffll (pi'obaby a corruption of the Hebrew Ophel or 
"tumulus") and Gibeah; and after many visits to the site I entirely 
failed to find any traces of a town or village. Tell el FM is an isolated 
monument (probably a beacon) and not a city at all. 

In writing on this question Mr. Birch concludes that the Gibeah 
where the Levite's concubine was killed was not Geba of Benjamin, but a 
distinct city. It is, however, worthy of notice that a confusion is here 
introduced by the authorised version which in two cases reads Gibeah 
where the Hebrew has Geba. This has already been pointed out by 
Mr. Grove : — 

"That they may do when they come to Gibeah (^^^7) of Benjamin, 
according to all the folly they have wrought in Israel (Judges xx, 10), 
and again : — 

" The liers in wait came forth out of their places, even out of the 
meadows of Gibeah (^^^ (1"^^^^^ literally " from the cave of Geba," 
Judges XX, 33) ; this shows that linguistically no distinction was made 
between Gibeah and Geba, just as the word is now spelt indifferently 
Jeba^ and Jeha^h. 

Josephus places Gabaoth Saule at the Valley of Thorns ; and if he 
refers to Wady Suweintt (" valley of the little thorn tree "), this favoui"s 
the identification with Jeba\ 

That Gibeah of Saul was a district having its capital at Geba would 
seem to follow from the following passages : — 

" The uttermost part of Gibeah, under a pomegranate tree which is 
ill Migron " (1 Sam. xiv, 2), Migron being near Ai, probably a district 
name or that of a natural feature (c.f. Isaiah x, 28). 

"Saul abode in Gibeah, under a tree in Ramah" (1 Sam. xxii, 6) 
Ramah being south of W. Suweintt and west of Jeba'. 

C. R. C. 



NEW IDENTIFICATIONS. 



Beit Aula has generally been identified with Bethul, but is too far in 
the hills. The suggestion of Beit Leyi for Bethul leaves Beit Aula for 
Holon (Joshua xv, 51), which fits far better topographically. 

Zephathah (2 Chron. xiv, 10) is probably the present Sdjieh. See foot 
note to the note on Kadesh Baiiiea. 

C. R. C. 



90 

THE BOUNDARY OF EPHRAIM AND MANASSEH. 

In writing on this subject, Mr. Trelawney Saunders accepts in the main 
the line proposed by Mr. Kerr {Quarterly Statement, 1877, p. 41) which I 
have adopted in the " Handbook to the Bible " (p. 264), being convinced of 
the justness of Mr. Kerr's arguments. 

Mr. Saunders, however, proposes a slight modification near the Mukh- 
nah, carrying the line some two miles further north than I should do. 

Mr. Saundei's also proposes two new identifications, one for Asher, the 
■other for E)) Tappuah (Joshua xvii, 7) ; both of these appear to be open to 
very serious objections, and had Mr. Saunders been in possession of facts 
recorded in the Survey Memoirs he would, I think, have hesitated in 
proposing these identifications. 



^ SHECHEM 



MANASSEH 




/ » EL ""AZEIR 



5 



•. TAANATH SHILUM 



O AN O H AH 



t/A, ■--- 9 YASUF ^ 



EPHRAIM 




As regards Asher, Mr. Saunders says {Quarterly Statement, 1880, 
]). 226)— 

" On turning to the new map to discover Asher-ham-Michmethah that 
lieth before Shechem, there will be found the ruin El Azeir (Asher) in the 
Plain of Mukhnah (Michmethah) just outside Shechem, on the high-road 
to Jerusalem, and on the south side of Wady Kanah. The identification 
of Micmethah with the Plain of Mukhnah is suggested by Lieutenant 
Conder in his ' Handbook to the Bible,' p. 264, but he takes no notice of 
el Azeir except to insert it on the map." 

So far, however, is this from being the case, that a careful account of 
el Azeir will be found in the "Survey Memoirs," wliile the place is 
described in " Tent Work " (chajj. ii, p. 42, new edition) and mentioned in 
the " Handbook to the Bible," jx 256. The word is the common corruption 
of the Hebrew proper name Eleazar, and has only the E in common with 
Asher. The site is the well known tomb of Eleazar, the high-priest, son of 
Aaron, venerated by Jew, Samaritan, Moslem, and Christian alike, and 
mentioned by travellers from a very early period. A few ruins surround 
the monument, but the place is not the site of a town. It may also be 
noted that it is not in sight of Shechem at all, as implied in the Bible 
respecting Michmethah. 



MIZPEH. 91 

Such being tlie case, tliere i« no reason to enter into tlie question 
whether the site would suit Asher, or whether Mr. Saunders is justified 
in making the word an atljective — preceding as it does the article. 
Gesenius renders Micmethah " hiding phice," and it is not impossible that 

the word Asher is a copyist's error, reduplicating the word "(^^^i^^ 
(" which ") that follows Micmethah in the Hebrew. 

The second suggestion of Mr. Trelawney Saunders refers to En 
Tappuah, which he proposes as identical with the ruin Tafsah. The 
identification tempted me greatly when first considering this question, but 
the philological objection is too strong, for the introduction of the Sin 
(representing the Hebrew Samech) could not well be accounted for. There 
is, moreover, a more probable identification for this site, namely, Tiphsah 
(2 Kings XV, 16), noticed in connection with Tirzah and Samaria, as 
rebelling against Menahem, for it is impossible to suppose that in this 
passage the Thapsacus on Euphrates is intended. 

Mr. Trelawney Saunders argues that the main line of W. Jeixa' should 
be considered the Brook Kanah rather than the affluent W. Yasilf, but 
this must remain a question of opinion, because the name KAnah only now 
applies to the lower part of the great valley below the confluence of these 
two heads. 

The important passage respecting this question (Joshua xvii, 7) reads 
thus : — 

"The border went along on the south (" right hand " in A. V.) unto 
Yeshebi En Tappuah," rendered " lassib and the spring Taphthoth " in the 
LXX. The A .V. rendering, " unto the inhabitants of En Tappuah," is so 
imusual and unmeaniug, that it is only natural to conclude that the LXX 
translators were fight in treating Yesheb as a proper name. 

Now the confusion of F and B is a well known Samaritan vulgarism, 
and there is nothing impossible therefore in the identification of Yesheb 
with YasAf, especially as there are five springs in the vicinity, one of 
which may have been the ancient En Tappuah or "apple spring.'' 

It appears to me necessart/ to cany the border thus far south, because 
of the special definition " on the south " as above noticed : for Mr. 
Trelawney Saunders' line runs almost east from Taanath Shiloh, as will be 
seen on the detached diagram. 

This interesting question might perhaps be still settled by a very 
careful investigation of the names of springs in the two valleys ; for 
ancient names still stick occasionally to the springs. Inquiries have, 
however, been made in 1877 without result. 

Uth November, 1880. C. E. C. 



MIZPEH. 

Pah;stine is the place for panics. Seized with sudden terror, Philistines, 
Syrians, Romans, in turn left their fortifications and fled ; now at the 
rustling of a few leaves even Britons forsake the choicest identifications. 
Let those who stay behind divide the spoil. 



92 MIZPEH. 

Dr. Eobinson was " inclined to regard Neby Samwll as the probable 
site of Mizpeli," where Sarnuel prayed and fought ; judged Israel and 
proclaimed Saul king. It was exceedingly delightful thus to connect the 
most conspicuous land-mark of Southern Palestine with that grand 
Hebrew prophet. Afterwards an unaccountable doubt supervened and 
then, like a flock of sheep, away went half-a-dozen shrewd writers 
leaving the enthusiastic ones wavering, nor did the stampede reach only 
to Sha'fcU or Scopus, but even beyond Beth-car. 

Probably we may not rally the fugitives, but at all events let us try to 
re-occupy Mizpeh. 

The following conditions have to be satisfied : — 

(1.) Mizpeh was in Benjamin. Josh, xviii, 25, 26, " Gibeon, and 
Ramah, and Beeroth, and Mizpeh, and Chephirah, and Mozah." In Neh. 
iii, 7, the men of Gibeon and Mizpah are classed together. Both these 
indications very well suit Neby Samwll, about a mile south of Gibeon. 

(2.) The name (signifying a " watchtower ") implies that it was situated 
on an elevated spot. Here Neby Samwll has no worthy rival. 

(3.) It was fortified along with Geba by King Asa, apparently to pro- 
tect his northern frontier against the kingdom of Israel. 

Lieut. Conder("Tent Work," ii, 119) says of Neby Samwll :—" The 
very difficult approach, the magnificent panoramic view, and the numerous 
springs, would have indicated the place as a fitting position for a fortress, 
flanking the two main north roads to Jerusalem." 

(4.) It Qnust be visible from Jerusalem according to 1 Mace, iii, 46, 
" The Israelites came to Masjiha over against (KarevavTi) Jerusalem ; for in 
Maspha was the place where they prayed aforetime in Israel " (evidently 
identical with the Mizpeh of 1 Sam. vii, 6, 16 ; x, 17). As in the New 
Testament we have in Mark xi, 2, Karevavri answering to anivavri in Matt, 
xxi, 2, in the expression "the village over against you," we conclude the 
words are interchangeable. As again in I Mace, vi, 32, Judas is said to 
have pitched in Bethzacharias (direvavTi) " over against the king's camp " at 
Bethsura, seventy furlongs distant (Jos. Ant. xii, ix, 4), there is no force in 
the objection that Karevavri in 1 Mace, iii, 46, is not satisfied by the 
position of Neby Samwll ; for this hill is but forty furlongs from Jerusalem 
and also in sight. This (4) condition is most impoi-tant, since while ad- 
mitting such positions as Scopus, Sh'afat, and even Tuleil el Ffll, it 
excludes (I believe) aU the district to the north-west of Jerusalem except 
Neby Samwll. This must be borne in mind in considering the next 
point. 

(5.) The story of Gedaliah (Jer. xli). It is urged against Neby Sam- 
wll that as Ishmael went out of Miz))eh to meet the fourscore pilgrims 
going to the house of the Lord, therefore that city must have been close 
to the great north road from Jerusalem, and so coidd not have been at 
Neby Samwll. From such an eminence, however, a band of pilgrims like 
this would have been visible a long way ofl", so as to give Ishmael time to 
meet them ; and next Josejjhus ventures to say (probably with truth) that 
they were bringing gifts to Gedaliah. 



MIZPEH. 93 

(6.) Islmiael carrying captive the people in Mizijah departs " to go over 
(what ? —the Jordan 1) to the Ammonites ;" the loyal Jews, however, went 
to fight with him, " and found him by the great waters that are in Gibeon." 
Some writers are pleased to adopt the version of Josephus, who foolishly 
substitutes Hebron for Gibeon. But I would here ask two questions : — 
(1.) Who would think of going from Gibeon to Rabbath Amnion round by 
the southern end of the Dead Sea ? Such a route is almost as absurd as the 
theory which sends Jacob's body to Hebron round by the north end of 
that sea, through taking " beyond Jordan " in Gen. 1, 10, in a different 
sense from the same Hebrew words (A. V. " on the other side Jordan ") in 
Dent. xi. 30, see " Land and the Book," p. 580 ; " Handbook," p. 238. (2.) 
And next, why are the Hebrew and LXX readings to be rejected in favour 
of such an inaccurate writer as Josephus ? 

Ishmael in going from Mizjiah to the Ammonites doubtless went by a 
route which culturally led him near the waters which are on the eastern 
side of Gibeon. Accordingly we conclude that neither Sh'afat nor Scopus, 
nor yet Tuleil el Fftl, could have been Mizpah, since the way from each of 
these places to the Ammonites would lead him directly away from Gibeon. 
As therefore the only place suiting both the conditions 3, 4, 5, and 6 is 
Neby Samwil, we unhesitatingly assert that the only spot where Mizpeh 
could possibly have been was on the hill now called Neby Samwll. 

A few other points may be noticed : — 

A. Asa made a (great) pit at Mizpah (Jer. xli, 9) and Dr. Eobinson 

observes that the rock at Neby Samwll is soft. It is quite possi- 
ble that by searching this underground cistern might even now 
be found. 

B. It is a natural and (I believe) correct assumption to take this Miz- 

peh to be the one mentioned in Judg. xx. Jephtha's victory 
and the expression " Shiloh in the land of Canaan " are in the 
Bible Diet, used as points in favour of the eastern Mizpeh. 
Jephtha, however, was born after the events in Judg. xx, and the 
same expressionis used in Josh, xxii, 9, while in both cases Gilead 
is also named. 

C. Lieutenant Conder's explanation (" Handbook," p. 277) that Nob and 

Mizpeh are identical, becomes impossible, as Colonel Wilson has 
shown that Nob could not have been at Neby Samwtl. In the 
same place the notion is broached that the Tabernacle was at 
Mizpeh, because the words " before the Lord " are used in 1 Sam. 
vii, 6. The expression, however, does not necessarily imply this. 
David's covenant with Jonathan in the wood of Ziph and his 
anointing at Hebron were also made " before the Lord," but 
surely neither the Tabernacle nor the Ark was there at the 
time. 

W. F. Birch. 



94 



THE CITY AND TOMB OF DAVID. 

Valuable as is Lieutenant Conder's Sm^vey work, he is, I believe, 
radically wrong on Jerusalem. Theories pi'oposed by him, however, may 
not improbably be accepted by some, as well-established facts, so that it is 
necessary for me to j^oint out how his fire {Quarterly Statement, 1880, p. 
228) utterly fails to touch my position, viz., that the City of David was on 
Ophel (so called) ^.e., on the eastern hill south of the Temple. I will 
take his shots one by one. 

1. I objected to his position for the Tomb of David, as being beyond 
the limits of Zion. 'KeYe]AiQS.{Qiiarterly Statement, 1880, p. 228), " I am not 
aware of any direct statement in the Bible to the effect that the Kings 
were buried on Zion. The Kings were buried in the City of David." But 
the Bible twice states that the City of David was Zion. (1 Kings viii, 1 ; 
2 Chron. v, 2. " The City of David which is Zion "). I have already 
stated (168) tbat " in the historical passages of the Bible the stronghold of 
Zion and Zion are identically the same place — both are said to be the City 
of David." But to prevent further mistakes on this point the passages 
shall be here given fully. 

2 Sam. V, 7. "Thie stronghold of Zion : the same is — " 
„ „ 9. " David dwelt in the fort and called it— THE CITY 

1 Chron. xi, b. " The castle of Zion, which is — [> OF 

„ „ 7. " David dwelt in the castle ; therefore | DAVID." 

they called it — J 

These four passages with the two given above, make it the A B C of 
Jerusalem topography, tliat, Zion, and the stronghold (of Zion) and the 
City of David are all one and the same place. If this does not tally with 
Josephus, then so much the worse for that arch-error-monger. 

2. Lieutenant Conder thinks it " improbable that the City of David 
was on Ophel, for several reasons," viz. : (1.) That this identification is 
contrary to the account of Josephus ; but as he does not give particulars, it 
is not clear to what he refers. (2.) That the wall on Ophel was not one 
enclosing, but one outside the City of David. (2 Chron. xxxiii, 14.) What 
is the point of this '] Surely it was quite possible to build a second wall 
outside the enclosing wall of the City of David ; for it is quite unnecessary 
to suppose that the City of David occupied the whole of the Ophel spur. 

(3.) That Millo v/as according to the LXX the same as Akra, and was in 
the City of David, so that I must either place Akra on Ophel or discard 
this identification of the LXX. That the Akra of the Maccabees and 
Josephus was solely and entirely on Oj^hel is just what I have all along 
been earnestly contending for {Quarterly Statement, 1878, p. 185 ; 1880, jx 
168). The City of David being fortified was called the Akra (1 Mace, i, 33), 
and so Millo itself being a (considerable \ ) part of the former might easily 
in the LXX be translated " Akra." 

3. I may reply that when Josephus is at variance with the Bible, the 
only satisfactory plan is to discard liim altogether, and not make a 



THE CITY AND TOMB OF DAVID. 95 

compromise between truth and error, from which have arisen almost all 
the difficulties about Jerusalem. 

4. Josiah was buried in his own sepulchre (2 Kings xxiii, 30), and yet 
in the sepidclircs of his fathers. (2 Cliron. xxxv, 24.) Therefore Asa and 
Ahaziah equally with Jehoshaphat and others may have been buried in 
the sepulchres of the Kings, although each was buried in his own sepulchre. 
N.B. — To speak more exactly : Asa was " buried in his own sepnlchi-es 
(plural) which he had made for himself in the City of David " (2 Chi-on. 
xvi, 14). If Lieutenant Conder had carefully verified this reference of 
his, he would have altered the sight for the next shot, and so not gone so 
wide of the mark. 

5. Of course the fact that the Eoyal tombs called (Neh. iii, IG) " the 
sepulchi-es of David " existed on Ophel is the very centre of my position. 
But the case of Asa just cited shows that it is only wasting powder and 

shot to argue that "as the word is used in the plural (^^^.T*)) ^^^ 
David himself can only have occupied one sepulchre, we are forced to 
understand this expression as elliptical, and as meaning "sepulchres of the 
House of David." Clinging to an unsound theory, like blindly following 
Josephus, has evidently forced Lieutenant Conder into strange expedients, 

(1) to overlook " sepulchres " in his reference to Asa, (2) to find a difficulty 
in the Hebrew phmal, so as (3) to make " the sepulchres of David " to be 
necessarily elliptical for "the sepulchres of the House of David," even 
while Asa made sepulchres (plural) for himself. 

The words of Nehemiah must be taken to mean the place where David 
was buried, unless some better argument than this can be alleged against 
the identification (see below, 9 ). 

6. As the Royal sepulchres on Ophel are apparently those of David, 
since no elliptical expression is required, I take them to be identical 
with " the Eoyal cemetery (or rather catacombs) in the city of David," 
since the cemeterij itself is described as " the field of the burial which 
belonged to the Kings " (2 Chron. xxvi, 23). In this were (1) the system 
of catacombs, called " the sepulchres of David," or " of the (good) Kings," 

(2) the sepulchre of Uzziah, (3) the sepulchres of Jehoram, .Toash, and Ahaz. 
I consider, however, that Lieutenant Conder is quite correct in maintaining 
that Uzziah was buried on Ophel, and when I add a reference which he 
has omitted, viz., 2 Kings, xv, 7, " they buried him {i.e. Azariah = Uzziah) 
with his fathera in the City of David," — then from Lieutenant Conder's. 
premise, that " Uzziah was buried on Ophel," followed by the Bible's 
premise that " Uzziah was buried in the City of David," we draw the 
inevitable logical conclusion — that " the City of David must have been on 
Ophel," and my position is proved, and his own theory disproved by 
Lieutenant Conder himself. Leaving him to revise his premise we come 
to the next point. 

7. Solomon's palace no doubt stood on 'Ophel (so called). It is not 
however clear to me whether or not it embraced the " House of David 
(2 Chron. viii, 11) within the City of David, which house I am inclined to 
think was called Jlillo." 

H 



'96 THE CITY AND TOMB OF DAVID. 

The two passages quoted by Lieutenant Conder certainly do not show- 
that it was not in the City of David, for they both refer, not to Solomon's 
palace, but to the house which he built for Pharaoh's daughter. (1 Kings 
vii, 8.) " His house . . . Solomon made also an house for Pharaoh's 
daughter." 

8. Be it however that Solomon's palace was altogether outside the 
City of David, yet how is the conclusion to be drawn that " the tombs in 
the City of David ciinnot therefore, it would seem, have existed on the 
Ophel Spur " > This can only be on the groundless assumption that 
Solomon's palace occupied so much of Ophel as to leave no room for the 
City of David, while we know next to nothing of the size of either 
place. 

9. " The House of David " (Neh. xii, 37) I believe to be the place where 
he lived, but on the admission that it means his tmnb, Lieutenant Conder 
must again beg the point that it is an elliptical expression for the 
sepulchres of the hovise ( I = sons) of David, if we are to understand that, 
though it was the tomb of David, he was not buried in it. 

10. If by " in the Fort of Zion, in the City of David," Lieutenant 
Conder means which was in the city of Daoid^ this is an error, as the two 
are identical as shown by 1, in spite of Josephus. 

11. Lieutenant Conder (" Handbook," 335) takes Gihon in the valley 
(Nachal) to be En-rogel, how then does he propose to draw a wall 
" westwards to " it instead of on its western side (2 Chron. xxxiii, 14) ? 

12. I found it difficult {Quarterly Statement, 1880, p. 167} in regard to 
the House of David, to imagine how Lieutenant Conder could avoid 
placing it on Ophel ; for I never anticipated the dash which would make 
it to be a place with which David had nothing to do either alive or dead. 
The next two shots seem enough to burst the gun. Let me show the 
fallaciea 

13. " Solomon's palace was on Ophel. It was not in the City of David. 
Therefore the City of David was not on Ophel." Answer. There was 
room on Ophel both for Solomon's palace and for the City of David, just 
as there is room in Westminster for the Abbey and for the Houses of 
Parliament. 

14. " Manasseh built a wall on Ophel. This wall was not in the City of 
David. Therefore the City of David was not on Ophel." Answer. The 
walls of the City of David were not so low down the Ophel hill as to leave 
no room for building another wall outside them. 

15. " Millo was in the City of David. Millo, according to the Jews 
(who ? Josephus or LXX ?) was Akra. Therefore Millo was not Ophel." 
{on Ophel). I have admitted that MiUo might fairly be called Akra by 
the LXX, but as I challenge any one to show that either 1 Mace, or 
Josephus places Akra anywhere else than on Ophel, I cannot for a 
moment admit the conclusion, " Therefore Millo was not {on) Ophel." 
The true position of the City of David is discussed in another paper. 

My theory, whether ingenious or not, I believe to be true, and only foi- 
the sake of truth have I thus mercilessly pursued a friend through all the 



THE TOMB OF DAVID. 97 

errors which an excessive veneration of Josephus has chiefly produced, 
Strange as it may seem, Sion, Moriah, Akra, Ophel and Millo — are all names 
applied to one ridge. Be it observed, however, that the Hebrew Zion of 
the historical books is identical with the Greek Akra ; Millo is part of Sion 
i.e., of Akra ; Ophel really was not the name of a hill, but of a certain part 
of it, a locality apparently near the south-east corner of the Haram ; while 
lastly Mount Moriah, the part of the eastern hill on which the Temple 
stood — is only mentioned oiice in the Bible, for the term commonly used 
by the Jews was " the Mountain of the House," which is equivalent to the 
Mount Zion of the first book of the Maccabees. The only other decided 
hill which I believe could fairly ba reckoned into the Jerusalem of 
Nehemiah was the south-west hill, that of the upper city, and this is 
c:illed in the Bible "the hill(Gibeah) of Jerusalem" (Isaiah, jc, 32 ; see 
also xxxi, 4 ; lit. " against the hill ")_ 

W. F. Birch. 



IT IS REQUIRED TO FIND THE ENTRANCE TO THE 

TOMB OF DAVID. 

(1.) It is here assumed (as I think it may be demonstrated) that the City of 
David was on the eastern liill, south of the Temple. The following points 
are also assumed (though all are not at present capable of proof, while all 
(to me) seem highly probable) viz., that : — 

(2.) The Tomb was within the City of David, facing from west to 
south. 

(3.) The pool of Siloah (Neh. iii, 15) was in the Tyropseon between the 
south wall of the Haram and the present (so called) pool of Siloam. 

(4.) The stairs of the City of David (Neh. iii, 15) were near the pool 
and ascended some part of the west side of Ophel (so called). 

(5.) The entrance to the Tomb was in a vertical face of rock, as is 
common in Jewish tombs. 

(6.) The entrance was not covered over when Herod built the S. W. 
corner of the Haram Area. 

(7.) It was in the great malaki bed, 40 feet thick, mentioned by 
Colonel Wilson. 

To economise labour and expense it is desirable to ascertain how the 
malaki bed lies south of the Haram. Excavation must decide this ; but 
excavation may be guided by the following considerations. 

Colonel Wilson (Ordnance Notes) says (31) the upper beds of missaa 
dip 10° to east, and 15° to south. 

(34 p.) The rock has a dip of 12° in a direction 85° east of north. 

(3 p.) Strata near Jerusalem dip to E.S.E. at about 10°. 

H 2 



98 



THE TOMB OF DAVID. 



•. No doubt Colonel Wilson means these data to be taken for the malaki 
as well as for the missce, as Lieutenant Conder adopts them in Qxiarterly 
Statement. 1881, pp. 57, 58. 

As however any dip of from 10° to 15° would cause the malaki on the 
eastern hill to bury itself, while as a matter of fact it keeps for a long 
distance near the surface, the data of Colonel Wilson seem (to me) to fail 
to help us in endeavouring to find the position of the malaki on the old 
rock surface of the western side of Ophel (so called). 

Assuming therefore a uniform slope in the malaki and a uniform thick- 
ness, the average of the dip to south seems to be nothing like 10° {i.e. 
17-3648 feet in 100 feet) still less any further approach to 15° (i.e. 25-8819 
feet in 100 feet) but rather (so far as I can make out) about 7 feet in 
100 feet at the most. 

This conclusion is aiTived at thus : — 



^52 FT. 

2500 
2+60 




NB. THE VERTICAL 
HEIGHT IS EXAGGERATED 



zsoo 



The top of the malaki (which is excavated near the Damascus Gate, Ordn. 
Notes, p. 63) may be said to be about 2,500 feet above the sea, and the 
aqueduct, 1,250 feet distant from that point and near the N.W. of the 
Haram, is at a level of 2,409 feet {Quarterly Statement, 1880, p. 36), and 
the passages in the malaJd near the Triple Gate (Oidn. Notes, p. 76) are 
about 2,360 feet above the sea. 

(a) Therefore we have a fall from A to B {i.e., in 1,250 feet) of 91 feet. 

{b) and „ „ „ A to C {i.e., in 2,800 feet) „ 140 „ 

but at a dip of 10° we ought to have {see above a) in — 

1^50 
(a) A fall of -- — X 17i = or of more than 210 feet, and in 

^ ' 100 



(?0 



2800 



100 



X 171 = 



about 



480 



Here the discrepancy between the theoretical and actual fall is so great 
(viz. 210 feet instead of 91 feet, and 480 feet instead of 140 feet) that I 
think it will be apparent that the incline of the malaki southwards cannot 
be from 10° to 15° {i.e. from 17 feet to 25 feet in 100 feet) but about 7 feet 
in 100 feet. 

It is uncertain where the wall crossed the TyropjBon (see Quarterly 
Statement, 1879, p. 174). If the aqueduct L be (as I suppose it must be) 
as old as the time of Hezekiah, it seems (to me) that it must have been 
within the walls, and, therefore, in order to find room for the pool of Siloah 
within the walls (may it not have been without ?) the point H where 
dd intersects G K is apparently marked on the plan as far north as is prac- 



THE TOMB OF DAVID. 



99 



A SOU TH H API AN WALL Q 

—] "y^miPLE CATC 



n. Pool of Siloah. 

b. Fountain Gate. 

c. Stairs of the 
City of David. 

.( d d. Wall of 
City pasfsing 
over against, 
the sepulchres 
of David. 




SCALE or FEET 



N 



ABC. The area 
of malaki on 
Ophel on west- 
ern side of the 
hill. 

DBF. Area 
within which 
is the Tomb of 
David ^ALWAYS 
supposing it 
was in the 
great malaki 
stratdm;. 



300 



ticable for it to have been. The crossing -wall however may have been 
further south, even as far as J, in which case the area to be searched is 
reduced possibly even to Do E F.^. 

Thus so contracted may probably become the possible area of malaki to 
be searched for David's tomb, that one is forced to contemplate the possi- 
bility of its not having been made after all in the malaki bed. 

That the line of Robinson's arch cannot have been that of the stairs of 
the City of David seems to me impossible on account of the aqueduct " L " 
(see above). Nor can I think that Herod covered David's Tomb by his 
addition at the south-west corner of the Haram, 

As the malaki falls to the east, and as it is not proposed to question the 
accuracy of Col. Wilson's statement that the passages underground at the 
Triple Gate are cut in the malaki, it seems we must allow that the malaki 
crops up at that gate, and thence southwards is for some unknown distance 
the surface rock on the top of the natural rock-ridge of Ophel so called. 

Still assuming that the fall of the malaki is uniform, we must (as the 
Ophel hill falls very rapidly south of the Triple Gate) conclude that at 
600 ft. south of the Haram wall, the malaki has aJready come to an end. 



N 



TRIPLE CATE 



^\CREAT MALAKI BED 



SOO FT 




I question however whether it reaches as f;u- as 500 ft. (as in plan), and 
of this length;] the last 100 or 150 ft. would be too thin a layer to be 



100 EBEN EZEK. 

probably used for a tomb. In like manner in the previous plan, it is neces- 
sary to leave a considerable distance between the parallel lines E F, B C, 
since it is not likely that the Tomb would be excavated near the top of the 
malaki bed, lest the roof of malaki should not be sufficiently strong. 

The scarp {Quarterly Statement, 1879, p. 175) seems, however, to offer 
a short cat. Ten pounds spent by Mr. Schick would (I think) settle the 
question as to whether a wall ever stood at the top of it. If no city wall 
ever did, then (I believe) the face of the scarp (if bared; would reveal the 
entrance to a, if not to the, royal tomb. The cost might perhaps be £50. 

N.B. — The discovery of the wall crossing the Tyropa-an would be 
valuable on its own account, and would not, I imagine, be a difficult 
matter. 

The same may be said of the consequent discovery of the stairs of the 
City of David, and of the Pool (of Siloah), and these would show that we 
were on the right track for the Tomb of David, and would (probably) vastly 
reduce the area of malaki to be searched by giving us the right positions 
of D F or D2 Fj. W. F. Birch. 



EBEN-EZER. 

As sparks of topographical tnith are likely to be elicited by the collision 
of different opinions, I hope that the identification of Mizpeh with Neby 
Samwll will be attacked by those who disapprove ctf it. Confident that 
this is the real position of Mizpeh, we next turn to the Survey Map t( ■ 
seai-chfor the other places named in 1 Sam. vii, 11, 12, viz., Bethcar, Shen 
and Ebenezer. Mizpeh witnessed a trying hour for penitent Israel whei 
the Philistines drew near to battle as Samuel was crying to God : tin 
smoke of the burnt offering was still going up to heaven, when sudden);, 
the black cloiids burst in a terrific thunderstorm over the heads of tli 
unfortunate invaders. They reeled, tamed, :and soon before the well- 
known Jewish rush were flying panic-stricken down the long slope 
towards Yesin, nor did the pursuit along Wady Beit Haniaa cease unti 
they came under Ain Karim. 

Let us stand in imagination upon the octagon tower at Neby '"Samwii 
and survey this most interesting scene of Samuel's victory. 

There, due south of us, just three miles off on the high ground, "we see 
Shen (Yesin). More to the right {i.e. west) appears Ain Karim (Beth- 
car) under which the Philistines passed in their headlong flight. Still 
further to the right we detect Aphek (Kustul) three and a half miles ofl". 
Below us (between us and Shen), on the ridge running towards Lifta— -is 
a ruin (about a mile from where we stand) called Khurbet Samwil. There 
it was that " Samuel took a stone and set it up, and called the name of it 
Ebenezer, saying, hitherto hath the Lord helped us." 

I hope the New Expedition will accept the omen, and begin its valuable 



EBEN-EZER. 101 

work by taking a photograph of so deeply interesting a spot. And then 
if every person and place bearing this world-wide name will either take a 
copy or subscribe to the Palestine Exploration Fund, enough money will 
be at the disposal of the Committee to enable them to discover the 
sepulchre of David (on Ophel so called) in "the city of David, which is 
Zion." Thus will the great Zion controversy come to a happy end, in the 
complete identification of "the first three mighty" places of religious 
fame, Bethel, Ebenezer, and Zion. 

Shen, lit. Ha-Shen, easily assumes the form Deir (Convent) ; Yesin 
(Survey Map) ; or Dair Y<Mcen (Finn). 

Ain Kdnm. In Quarterly Statement, 1878, p. 198, it is suggested that 
this may be Kirjath Jearim. For Bethcar Lieut. Conder proposed 
Khurbet Hasan in 1876. Ain Karim, 1878, but rejects both in 1879 
(" Handbook," p. 424). 

Aphek, where the Philistines encamped near Ebenezer (1 Sam. iv, 1), 
is said to mean a fortress, and so identifies itself by reason of distance, 
character, and name, with "the fortress-like village" of Kiistiil, "an 
ancient ' Castellum ' of the Roman conquerors." A neighbouring spring 
called Ain el Foka, might also be taken to preserve the ancient name of 
Aphek, if " Foka " (upper) did not frequently occur elsewhere on the map. 

Ebenezer. The only previous site proposed (so far as I know) is 
Deir Aban (M. Ganneau, 1877, p. 155), advocated by Lieut. Conder, 
1876, p. 149, and "Tent Work," ii, 336. It is, however, twelve miles 
distant, as the crow flies, from ISTeby Samwil, and far more by Wady 
Surar. 

As the stone was set up between Mizpeh and Hashen, while in this 
line wady Beit Hannlna is but two miles distant from Neby Samwtl, the 
choice for a position for Ebenezer is very limited. 

A reference to the map will show that there is a declivity running 
towai-ds Lifta, on some part of which Ebenezer must have stood, since it 
is absurd to suppose that it was in the narrow ravine to the west. 
(1 Sam. iv, 1 ; v, 1.) Aphek is the present Kiistiil. 

Samuel's name might easily be connected with Ebenezer (just as 
Lieutenant Conder's is with the cairn on Ras es Sherifeh {Quarterly 
Statement, 18S0, p. 105), and the place being called Khurbet Samwil 
would easily lead to the height above being called Neby Samwil, 
suggesting the present traditions. The recovery of this celebrated site 
seems to me to witness to the great value and excellence of the Survey 
work. 

W. F. Birch. 

Sodom. After placing Zoar at Tell esh Shaghur, I have no choice left 
but to identify Sodom with Tell er Rama, about a quarter of an hour's 
walk towards the south. It is a gratuitous supposition to think that 
Zoar was nearer, to the hills than Sodom. The narrative also requires 
that there should be but a short distance between the two places. 



102 VALLEY OF IIINNOM. 

Seirath (Judg. iii, 26). The name apparently still survives in Umm 
Sirah and WAdy Umm Sirah, about three miles north-west of A in es 
Sultan. 

W. F. B. 



VALLEY OF HINNOM. 

I PROPOSE to reconsider Colonel Warren's theory of extending the Valley 
of Hinnom up the Kedron ravine to the east side of the city. The Dean 
of Westminster has endorsed it (" Recovery of Jerusalem," p. xiv), and 
called special attention to its importance. M. Ganneau, in 1870, advo- 
cated the same theory on finding a rock (Zehweleh) close to the Virgin's 
Fount, which he identified with, the rock Zoheleth, and the fountain En 
Rogel. Other writers have also affirmed that the valleys of Kedron and 
Hinnom are identical ; so that the theory would seem to have received 
some considerable endorsement ; and Colonel Warren has reaffirmed it 
recently in his " Underground Researches " in the following words : " I 
have shown that the Valley of Hinnom is to the east of the city," p. 19. 

It thus appears, a passage in Jeremiah has led eminent authorities 
astray, and that east gate has been accepted as a correct translation in 
chap, xix, 2. 

" Go forth into the Valley of Hinnom, which is by the entry of the east 
gate." Jer. xix, 2. 

This word would be as correctly translated west as east, and would be 
incorrect in either case, as the following comparison will prove. 

" Entry of the (haresoth), east gate." Jeremiah xix, 2. 
"Before the (haresath), sun went down." Judges xiv, 18. 

If it indicates sun-risuig in the first case, it indicates snn-setting in the 
other case ; and hence means west in the one case, and cast in the othei', 
which is an absurdity. 

The actual truth is simple enough. The word is used in the Bible to 
represent the fmn as god of day, whether in the east, or west ; and, 
therefore, the w.>rds shor haresoth (Jeremiah xix, 2) ought to have been 
ti-anslated by the simple title, sun-gate. It is the idolatrous and Moabitish 
name for the god of day, whether rising or setting. Hence, we read that one 
of the five Egyptian cities was called in the language of Canaan D"Tnn T'i^ 
= City of the Sun, or Sun City (Isaiah xix, 18). And in another place, we 

read : "He commandeth DinS= ^^e sun, and it riseth not (Job ix, 7). 
The Hebrew root-word is huras, and in Arabic, harasha. The feminine 
plural form is haresoth, as given in the disputed passage. 

A careful consideration of the whole chapter (Jeremiah xix), will make 
it self-evident that the prophet was not sent to the east gate of the Temple 
Area, but to some gate at the south of the Temple Hill, and of the Ophel. 
Here are aU the controlling passages. Let us examine them. 



VALLF.Y OF HINNOM. 103 

" Go fortli unto the Valley of Hinnom, by the entry of the (haresoth) east 

gate, and proclaim there the words that I eliall tell tliee." Jeremiah 

xix, 2. 

What definite locality is meant by the word there? no one can doubt 

it answers for the preceding words " Valley of Hinnom." But lohat place 

in the Valley of Hinnom is definitely meant ; is it east, west, or south of 

the Temple Area \ The two passages we now cite, which follow the above, 

will give a definite answer to this problem. 

" Behold the days come, Faith the Lord, that this place shall no more be 

called Tophetr Yer. 6. 
" Then came Jeremiah from Tophet, whither the Lord had sent him to 

prophesy." Ver. 14. 

These are the controlling passages : surely no one will pretend to 
say that Tophet was at the entrij of the east gate of the Temple Area, and 
yet Tophet was the exact spot where Jeremiah was sent to, and the place 
where he delivered the prophecy he was sent to deliver. 

Tophet was south of the Ophel Hill somewhei-e ; we need not discuss 
its exact place. No description of Tophet will apply to the eastern side of 
the city, or eastern front of the Temple Area along the Kedron ravine, 
especially Isaiah xxx, 33 ; 2Kingsxxiii, 10 ; Jeremiah vii, 31,32 ; xix, 6, 
11-14. Whatever place is meant by the haresoth, or sun-gate, in the • 
passage in question which has led to this theory, Tophet was the place 
intended, and no other is meant ; and Tophet is said to have been " by the 
entry " of this gate. 

Whoever supposes that Tophet was placed by the entry of the east 
gate of the Temjjle Area must also be prepared to admit that Josiah, 
when he defiled Tophet (2 Kings xxiii, 10 ; Isaiah xxx, 33 ; 2 Chronicles 
xxxiv, 4), made a permanent place of defilement in front of the east gate 
of the Temple Area somewhere in the Kedron Valley ; such in fact as 
ever aftei'wards became the only physical type of Hell known to a Jew. 
Such an abomination at the eastern front of the Sacred and Holy Place, 
and in sight of the worshippers, and under the very walls and foundations 
of the Holy Courts, is too horrible to contemplate, and would never have 
been permitted ; and hence such an interpretation and theory as make this 
word haresoth-gate to mean east-gate of the Holy Sanctuary is utterly 
inadmissible. The objection is fatal to any such supposition. 

It is much more reasonable to sui)pose that the jjrophet was desired to 
go to the south gate leading to Tophet, where the idolatrous people M-ere 
probably assembled, in front of all the places devoted to Moabitish 
wickedness— to Tophet at the entry of this south gate, where the sun was 
probably then being worshipped. And in such a case, what would be 
more natural than for the Moabitish name of the sun as the god of day, to 
Ije given to this southern gate, and to be branded for the time being with 
the Moabitish name of the sun, then being worshipped at the " entry of 
the sun-gate ? not that shor haresoth was its permanent name, but the 
locally descriptive name given to it for the time being, to be in accord 



104 NOTES ON THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE EXODUS. 

with the idolatry going on there, and the prophecy delivered by 
Jeremiah ? 

Colonel Warren says : " the Ai-abic accounts speak of the Kedron as 
the Wady Gehiunom." (" Eecovery of Jerusalem," p. 239.) This is true. 
But the name is against the theory. The Kedron is a true ravine, and the 
i^rabs call it tbe Wady Kedron ; when si>eaking of it east of the Temple 
Area, and independent of its relation to the valley south of the Temple 
Hill. But Wdd^ O'e-Jfinnom means ravine of the Valley Hiunom, which 
is technically correct, for Kedron is the ravine or wady which runs through 
the valley in front of the Ophel Hill, and of the Pool Siloam. If the 
word wdd^ was equivalent to vallei/, they would say W^dy Hinnom, 
but never Wady Gehinnom, which is what they do say. They never 
apply the word ffai to the ravine, and say Ge-Kedron, as they say Ge- 
Hinnom ; yet they say Wady Kedron, but never Wady Hinnom. These 
objections might be multiplied a hundredfold ; but I refrain, that my note 
may not be too long. 

Strathroy, Out., S. Beswick. 

Canada. 



NOTES ON THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE EXODUS, 

By Greville J. Chester, B.A. (Member of the Royal 
Archaeological Institute). 

The importance and interest of this subject will, it is hoped, be deemed 
sufficient excuse for my making a few observations upon Lieutenant 
Conder's jjaper in the Quarterly Statement of October, 1880. 

In his first section Mr. C<Mider sums up his arguments based upon the 
extension of land due to the annual deposit of mud upon the Mediterranean 
coast, by stating that " in all probability neither the bar nor the lagoon (of 
Serbonis) existed at all in the early historic period of the Exodus. The 
old Serbonian Bog has no doubt (1) long since become dry, as the present 
lagoon appears also likely in time to become, and the fact pointed out by 
Mr. Greville Chester that the Gelseh {i.e., Mount Casius) is merely a great 
sand-dune is of considerable importance in confirmation of this view." p. 232. 

Now in respect to this statement I have to remark that while I totally 
disbelieve that the Serbonian Bog is the Jam Siiph, for reasons given in 
my report of my journey to the place in question, and while I consider 
Dr BriK--sfh's theory of the route of the Israelites as far as Mount Casius, 
probably Baal-zephon, as in its main features a highly pi'obable one (how 
the Israelites got away from that point is another and diHerent question 
to be dealt with hereafter), I am disposed to consider Mr. Conder's 
i-emarks already quoted as destitute of any solid foundation in fact whatso- 
ever. While fully admitting the advance of land into the sea by the 



NOTES ON THE TOPOGEAPIIY OF THE EXODUS. 105 

processes of deposit and silting up on the coast to the West of Gelse 
Hemdeyeh (the presumed Pi-hariroth), I am convinced by personal 
observation that such operations or processes are not in progress at the 
present time to the East of that point, and I am strongly disposed to doubt 
whether they ever were. In fact, whether from a reflux from the Eastward 
set of the tides from the mouths of the Nile or from some other natural 
cause, the tendency of the Mediterranean from Gelse Hemdeyeh to El 
Gelse, and thence to the Eastern end of Sevbonis is not to deposit but to 
encroach. The low Gelse of Hemdeyeh has been shorn of its ancient pro- 
portions by the set of the marine currents, and some of the ancient fortifi- 
cations which crown its low elevation have been undermined by the waves 
and have fallen upon the beach. I have no sort of doubt that the Ras 
once extended further seawards than it does at present. This is indicated 
by the existence of an ancient well-shaft in the face of the present cliff ; 
and the existing stone walls of fortification which are adapted to a sea 
frontage were in all probability built as a kind of breakwater when a 
portion of the formerly existing town had been swept away. It is 
worthy of remark that the sea itself even for some miles West of Gelse 
Hemdeyeh has ceased to be muddy as it breaks on the shore, and all along 
the strip, from one end to the other of the Serbonian Lake, the water 
of the Mediterranean is as bright and clear as it ever is when the bottom 
is formed of sand. But further, the highest portion of the sand-dune 
of el Gelse (Baal-zephon) itself has apparently been bisected by the waves, 
and even when the sea is perfectly calm, as it was on the day of my visit, 
it is all one can do to pass between the sea and the headland. Driven 
by a north wind, the waves wowld doubtless impinge upon the cliflf. 
And here again there is not deposition but encroachment. In short I am 
convinced that if the Serbonian Bog had any existence at all in ancient 
times it must have existed upon its present site, and upon none other. 
It could not, as Lieutenant Conder fondly imagines, have been situated to 
the South of its present ai'ea, and since have disappeared, because the hills 
of the Gebel, which, in places, are of considerable elevation, dip right 
down into the Lake. In other woi-ds there is no room for the Serljonian 
Lake between the Mediterranean and the Gebel in any other position than 
that which it occupies at jjresent. 

II. The hypothesis advanced by Mr. Conder at the beginning of his 
thii'd section seems scarcely fairly put, for he assumes too much, and 
much indeed which is contrary to fact. He says, "If the distances 
implied by Brugsch are impossible, and the supposed route along the sand- 
spit was not only an unnecessary detoui^ but impossible, because no such 
spit then existed," «&;c., p. 233. Now "the supposed route," along the. 
sand-spit was not, and Mr. Conder has not even attempted to show that it 
was, "an unnecessary detour." I believe, on the contrary, and the 
testimony of Sheyk ArAdeh and his Bedaw-een confirm my belief, that the 
coast-route from Egypt to Syria to the North is as short, and even shorter 
than that through the Desert to the South of Lake Serbonis, and it is 
only rarely used at the present day by the Arab passers-by between 



106 NOTES ON THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE EXODUS. 

Egypt and Syria, from the impossibility of calculating beforehand whether 
or no a passage across the inlet at the spot called El Sai'antt at the 
Eastern end of the Lake could be effected at the required time, for when 
the sea is rough the transit is impossible. 

I cannot understand why Lieutenant Conder should assume that "no 
such spit then existed," if by the word " spit " he means the strip of san<l 
along which I journeyed between the Sea and the Lake. If the strip of 
sand which forms the Northern shore of Serbonis did not exist, then 
Serbonis would not be a lake at all, but a portion of the open Mediter- 
ranean, and I have already given sufficient reasons for concluding that the 
" great Serbonian Bog " could have had no other position than that it at 
present occupies. 

My reasons for suggesting that Tell el Hir is the site of the Migdol of 
Exodus and the Magdolon of the Greeks, ai'e that at that point I found not 
only the remains of a city of large extent and evidently of considerable 
importance in ancient times, but that at the same place I found a massive 
square toioer of crude brick, the remains, evidently, of a strong and 
important frontier fortress. The Tel es Semflt of Dr. Brugsch and several 
maps, I failed to find at all, and I am altogether at a loss to know why 
the Bedaween unanimously denied the existence of a Tel bearing any such 
a name. Mr. C/Onder jumps to the conclusion that it is an Ai'abic name, 
and translates it " Hillock of Acacias," but acacia trees do not grow in the 
Desert, and Dr. Brugsch claims the name as ancient Egyptian, and the 
place as having been in the XVIIIth dynasty the most Noilhern point of 
Egypt. He states that King Amenophis IV summoned workmen from 
the city of Elephantine to Samout, from one end, that is, of his empire, to 
the other. A similar collocation of places is mentioned in Ezek. xxix, 10, 
and XXX, 6, where the rendering of the A. V. " from the tower of Syene 
even unto the border of Ethiopia," is sheer nonsense, but is corrected in 
the equally authoritative margin, " from Migdol to Syene." It is worthy 
of note that there are severed places in Egypt bearing names similar 
to Samout, of which the large town of Samanhood is a good example. 
Upon what authority, for he advances none, Mr. Couder says, p. 234, 
" The Baal-zephon of Brugsch has been proved an impossible identification" 
I am altogether at a loss to imagine. Who has '■'■ p-oved" it? On the 
contrary, such a competent scholar as Professor Sayce considers the 
identification to be nearly certain, and where, if not at Mount Casius, 
could such a name and place as Baal-zephon be looked for 1 It is a curious 
fact, and worthy of note in passing, that a more northein Baal-zephon, now 
Jebel el Akra in Northern Syria, had also its ancient shrine succeeded by 
a Temple of Zeus Kasios. 

And here I would state that although I discovered by pereonal 
inspection that Dr. Bi'ugsch's Isthmus from the Gelse to the mainland has 
no existence in fact, and proved that the Serbonian Lake, being a mere 
brine pit with a shifting bottom, and consequently without either a 
lacustrine or marine vegetation, neither is nor could have been the 
Jam K^-Aph, I am yet strongly inclined to believe that, omitting minor 



NOTES ON THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE EXODUS. 107 

details, Dr. Brugsch's pi'oposed route of the Israelites from San ia, in tlie 
main, the truest and most probable one yet proposed as far as Mount 
Casiiis. At that point, however, as I showed in my former paper, I 
part company with Brugsch Bey. The Israelites could not have crossed 
the Lake Serbonis by a non-existent Isthmus ! 

What course, then, supposing them to have reached El Gelse, could the 
flying people have pursued, when ordered by Divine intimation to desist 
from their direct route into Phoenicia, by the way or road of the Philis- 
tines ? And here a point meets us of considerable importance. It is 
remarkable that throughout the direct narrative there is no mention of a 
Jam Silph, or Sea of Reeds, at all. The Jam, the Sea alone is spoken of. 
The Israelites were commanded to encamp not by the Sea of Reeds, but by 
the Sea, which can scarcely be understood of any other body of water than 
the Mediterranean, cf. Exod. xiv, 2. Again we are told tliat the Egj^ptians 
with all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh overtook the Israelites en- 
camjjing b>/ the Sea, beside Pi-hariroth, before, or over-against, Baal-zephon, 
Exod. xiv, 9. Moses, again, stretched forth his hand over^^e Sea, and the 
Lord caused the Sea to go back by a sti-ong East wind, and made the Sea 
dry land and the waters were divided. And the children of Israel went 
into the midst of the Sea, and the waters were a wall unto them on their 
right hand and on their left, Exod. xiv, 22. And the Egyjitians pursued 
and went in after them (upon the track made by the division of the waters) 
to the midst of the Sea. Then, when the chariots " drave heavily " and 
the Egyptians, convinced that the Lord fought against them, had turned 
to flight, the Lord said unto Moses, " Stretch out thine hand over the Sea 
that the waters may come again upon the Egyjitians, u})()n their chariots, 
upon theii" horsemen." And Moses stretched foith his hand over the Sea, 
and the Sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared, and the 
Egyptians fled against it, and the Lord overthrew the Egyptians in the 
midst of the Sea. And the waters returned and coveied the chariots and 
the horsemen, all the host of Pharaoh that came into the Sea after 
them, there remained not so much as one of them, Exod. xiv, 23-28. 
Now it is surely a remarkable circumstance that in all this direct 
narrative not one word is said about any Ja77i Si^ph or Sea of Reeds. 
The Sea is alone spoken of, and that in a manner suitable to the physical 
features of the region between the Gelse Hemdeyeh, the presumed 
Pi-hariroth, and El Gelse, Mount Casius, the presumed Baal-zephon. 
It is not until we come to the Song of Moses in the next chapter that any 
mention is made of a Jam Srlph at all, and this, coupled with the f;ict that 
the term Jam Stlph is unquestionably applied in other passages to the Gulf 
of Akdbah, cf. Exod. xxiii, 31 ; Judges xi, 16, may surely arouse the 
suspicion that the term Jam SAph (translated Red Sea m Exod. xv, 4) may 
have crept into the sacred text of the triumphant poem sung by Moses 
and the Beni-Israel without due authority. If this indeed be so, the way 
would seem comparatively clear. The Israelites advancing from Zoan 
Rameses, through Succoth, the booth or tent-country of the Nomad settlers, 
and passing Etham (possibly Tel Defneh) and Migdol (Tel el Hli-), would 



108 NOTES ON THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE EXODUS. 

have encamped before Pi-hariroth (Gelse Hemdeyeh) between Migdol and 
the sea, with the height of Baal-zephon bounding their view in the dim 
distance in front. At this point, with nothing but the narrow strip of 
land between the " Gulfs " of Serbonis and the Mediterranean in front, 
and with the wild desert behind — truly " entangled in the land " — they 
would have been overtaken by the King of Egypt and the Egyptian host. 
These last, it appears, halted to rest, probably from the fatigue of the 
hurried pursuit, and to prepare for their attack upon the host whom they 
felt they had, as it were, driven into a corner, and who could not escape 
them. Then began the passage of the host of Israel between the waters 
upon the narrow strip of land, which by the action of a strong east wind 
all night was wider than usual ; and consequently easier for the passage 
of the sons of Israel, who " went into the midst of the sea upon dry 
ground, and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand (the 
side of Serbonis) and on their left (the side of the Mediterranean), Exod. 
xiv, 22. When morning dawned the Egyptians first seem to have found 
that their prey was escaping them, and they too adventured in pursuit 
upon the sandy strip between the waters. But the Lord Jehovah fought 
against the Egyptians, and at the stretching forth of the arm of the 
Hebrew leader over the sea, the Lord " blew with His wind " and the sea 
returned to his strength and the waters returned and overwhelmed the 
chariots which already had drave heavily in the shifting sands, and over- 
threw the Egyptians in the midst of the sea, so that there remained not so 
much as one of them ; and, looking back, Israel saw the corpses of the 
Egyptians upon the sea-shore. 

Now if this be a fair compai-ison and adaptation of the sacred narra- 
tive to the physical features in the neighbourhood of the Mediterranean 
and Lake Serbonis, it will be seen how well the former is suited to the 
latter, and how admirably constituted the district in question must have 
been for the escape of the one host, and for the destruction of the other. 
When too there is added to these considerations the extreme improbability 
that the Israelites, whose object it was to get out of Egypt and out of 
reach of the Egyptian people as soon as possible, would have taken a 
Southerly course from Zoan, and passed through or skirted along Egyptian 
territory in the direction of Suez, and beyond that taken a route close to 
the Egyptian Establishments and garrison at Sarabet el Kadim in the so- 
called Sinaitic Peninsula, it will appear almost certain that the route 
advocated by Dr. Brugsch and traversed by myself is the actual one 
pursued by the people of Israel. It is surely far more than a mere 
coincidence that on the direct road between Zoan Eameses and Phoenicia 
an occasionally wave-swept track should be found with the waters on the 
right hand and upon the left ! When, however, their pursuers had been 
eugulphed and they saw their dead bodies strewn upon the sea-shore, 
what was the most probable course taken by the fugitives? Here it 
must be admitted that great doubts and difficulties intervene. If the 
Israelites had reached Mount Casius (Baal-zephon), the only place on the 
strip of sand which affords space for a numerous host, they could not, 



NOTES ON THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE EXODUS. 109 

when relieved of their immediate fears of pursuit, have crossed over 
directly to the main-land, because there is at that point no isthmus or 
tongue of land across the lake. Nor, in all probability, would they liave 
continued their onwai'd route along the strip and crossed at its Northern 
extremity, even if at that time there were no inlet from the sea, for- that 
course would have been directly in the teeth of the Divine intimation 
that they were not to follow the way or road of the Phceiiicians. They 
would be therefore compelled to retrace their steps along the strip again 
left dry by the return of the Mediterranean to its usual level by the 
action of a wind blowing across the Lake, as far as Pi-hariroth, or rather 
a little beyond it, and then, doubling round the end of Serbonis they 
may have turned in a South or South-easterly direction into the Desert of 
Shur. 

In what direction would they then in all probability have turned their 
steps ? Mr. Philip Smith has suggested to me that in three days (if 
indeed this expression may not be a rouud rather than a certiun number) 
the Israelites would have reached the Bitter Lakes, which he would identify 
with the Marah of Exodus. This view, however, seems to me to be open 
to two objections. Some at any rate of the Hebrew host must be supposed to 
have known that the lakes were bitter beforehand, and consequently the 
fugitives would rather have avoided them than du-ected their steps 
towards them. And, secondly, the position of the Bitter Liikes is such 
that the host in advancing from Pi-harkoth would have had to skiii, the 
hostile Egyptian territory all the way, if indeed the Liikes were not 
in Egyptian territory itself. The so-called Scrapeum near Ismailia, 
where large Egyptian remains have been discovered, are no great distance 
from the Bitter Lakes, and the latter would have been on the direct route 
to Sarabet el Kadim and the other Egyptian stations of the so-called 
Sinaitic Peninsula. The object of the Israelites being to avoid the 
Egyptians, they would surely have given them and their countiy as wide 
a berth as possible. It seems, therefore, far more likely that on leaving 
Pi-harii'oth they should have taken a South-easterly, rather than a Southerly 
course into the desert, and it is in that rather than in any other direction, 
I take it, that the key to the difficult question of the route of the Israelites 
should be sought for and will be found. 

In conclusion, I venture to add a few notes which may serve to illus- 
trate the general question. 

One of the principal French maps of Lower Egypt marks the Lake 
Serbonis as Lac desseche. Whether this was the result of an actual survey of 
the Lake I am very much inclined to doubt ; I doubt also whether even 
when the inlet at El Saranlt at the Northern end was closed the Lake was 
ever entirely dry. The rush of water into the Lake at this point at the 
present time, described by me as " like a mill-race " seems to prove not only 
the immense amount of evaporation incident to a body of water some lifty 
miles in length and bordered by the burning sands of the desert, but also 
that the lake is at a lower level than the closely neighbouring Mediter- 
ranean. Now if this be so another fact demands consideration. The strip 



110 LIFE, HABITS, AND CUSTOMS OF THE 

of sand between the waters is so narrow and of such an easily permeated 
material — loose sand with here and there detached slabs of conglomerate 
formed of shells and sand, bound together by the decomposition of the 
lime in the shells by moisture — that one cannot doubt that water is 
supplied to the Lake by infiltration from the Mediterranean, as well as by 
natural inlets. Now if this be the case, the lake would never be dry, 
never merit the term desseche ; although it might at times be rather a bog 
than a lake. 

Investigators of the route taken by the Israelites after the catastrophe 
which overtook their pursuers, will henceforth have to take into account 
the arguments of the anonymous author of " The Hebrew Migration from 
Egyi^t," who endeavours, and that with considerable force, to prove that 
Mount Sinai is not in the " Siniatic" Peninsula at all, but in the neigh- 
bom'hood of Mount Hor. In this connection I may state that the range of 
mountains to the South of Serbonis called by the Bedaween Hstleh (? Halal) 
w^ere described to me by the Suarka Sheik Aradeh as possessing springs 
and abounding in fine pasturage. If then the Israelites were on the way 
from Pi-hariroth to Mount Hor, they might have passed through Jebel 
Haleh, and would there have found sufficient pasturage for their flocks 
and herds, which they could scarcely have done amidst the arid and 
burning defiles of the tract generally received as Sinai. This point, and 
the exact meauing of the expression Yam SAph in connection with the 
Wilderness in the later Sacred Books, deserve careful investigation. 

Note. — The sketch map which accompanied my previous paper on my 
journey fi-om San to El Arish makes no pretensions to minute accuracy, 
and is intended only as a rough approximation to the jjlaces indicated. 



LIFE, HABITS, AND CUSTOMS OF THE FELLAHIN OF 
PALESTINE.* By Rev. F. A. Klein. 

{From the Zeitschrift of the German Palestine Exploration Societi/.) 

The present inhabitants of Palestine (that is to say the sons of the soil, 
may be divided into three tolerably distinct classes : 

I. The inhabitants of the large towns {madam, pi. madanije.) 
II. The villagers [fellah, pi. fellahin, peasants, agriculturists, from 
falah, he cultivates, tills the land). 
III. The Bedawin {bedawi, dwellers in the desert), who consider them- 

* Herr F. A. Klein (the discoverer of the Moabite stone) no longer lives in 
Palestine, but he had 26 years' experience of life ia the Holy Land, and in his 
position of pastor of the Protestant Arab community — which he held for five 
years in Nazareth and the rest of the time at Jerusalem — he found many 
opportunities of holding fan iliar intercourse with the Fellahui. 



FELLAHIN OF PALESTINE. Ill 

selves the veritable Arabs, and proudly^ call themselves (and are 
sometimes called) el '■arah. 

In their language, dress and the style of their dwellings, as well as in 
their customs and general mode of life, these three classes are sufficiently 
distinct, one from another, to enable those who have any knowledge of 
them to distinguish almost at the first glance or after hearing them speak 
a few words, the Fellahin from the Madamje, and both from the 
Bedaioin. 

Of covu'se there are individuals of each class, in whom one finds 
modifications with regard to intelligence, civilization and mode of life. 
And between particular towns, villages or Bedawiu tribes, we find more 
or less difference of character, language and dress. The Ndbuluser, for 
instance, is the representative of a somewhat silly and ignorant type, and 
his way of making the sch into s (saying sems for schems-sun) and his 
drawling pronunciation of the final syllables {ane ma suftooos instead of 
ana ma schuftosch) gives rise to many jokes at his expense. Again the 
characteristic of the people of Jaffa is, that they throw themselves heart 
and soul into trade ; money-making is their religion. The ]:)oor of 
Jerusalem are da^watsehije, the technical term for those who pray for the 
presei'vation of the Sultan and his 'Kingdom. In the holy places many 
high masses are celebrated both by Mahometans and Christians. Most of 
the Christians who are not attached to religious communities have become 
poor, and with a few notable exceptions, have lost all feelings of honour or 
independence of spirit, and seem to have no energy for earnest work. 
With regard to the villagers many are proverbial thieves and impostors as, 
for instance, the inhabitants of Bethany and Lifta, near Jerusalem ; others 
are restless and quarrelsome like the people of E&m Allah ; others again 
are complete blockheads like those of Beit Jala, both of which places 
are near Jerusalem. At Jifneh we find a village with quiet, honest, 
industrious people, and quite near at Ram Allah are a set of cheats, 
thieves, and robbers — who give the police and magistrates no end of 
trouble. Again at Bethlehem we find a particularly industrious, intel- 
ligent class of people who are both ingenious and enterprising, whilst 
scarcely half an hour's journey carries us to Beit Jala, where they are 
dull and boorish, and show plainly by their mode of speaking that they 
are of a rougher stock than the more polished Bethlehemites. The 
Nazarenes are fine, high-spirited people, with very independent natures ; 
there you hear more vigorous language, with the gutturals more clearly 
sounded, than anywhere else in Palestine. 

With respect to the Bedawin, the tribe of Bene Sakr look with sovereign 
contempt on the ti'ibe of Taamireh and also on the Ghawarineh of the Jordan 
Valley, partly because they are somewhat deficient in the manly feeling 
and courage which they themselves possess, but more especially because 
they do a certain amount of agricultiu'al work, and this the true Bedawin 
consider a real degi'adation. 

Although, as we have ah-eady said, the three classes may be pretty 

I 



112 LIFE, HABITS, AND CUSTOMS OF THE 

distinctly divided from one another, there are many places which combine 
more than one element. Thus there are some towns in which, althougli 
a civilized mode of life prevails, you will find so large an admixture of the 
Fellahin element that yon can only describe it as half a town, half a 
Fellahin domain. Gaza belongs to this category. On the other hand, in 
many of the large and prosperous villages like Bethlehem or Nazareth — 
(which in spite of its 5,000 inhabitants is only a large village of the 
Fellahin class) we find a good many of the higher elements of metropolitan 
civilization, and in such places the mode of life is very diflerent to that of 
the Mahometan or poorer villages. 

As a mixture of Fellahin and Bedawin, we may mention the 
people beyond Jordan in Jebel Ajhln and in the Belka, amongst whom 
with a little of the town and Fellahin element one finds, both in language 
and customs, a great deal that is of Bedawin origin. Esj^ecially in Kerak, 
for there nearly all the Christian families live in tents ail through the 
summer. It is only during the winter that they return to their dwellings 
and live like Fellahin. The women of this part of the country, whether 
Christian or Mahometan, are scarcely distinguishable from those of the 
Bedawin. 

The town peojile natui-ally consider that they have reached the ne plus 
ultra of civilization, and pity the stupid, boorish Fellah. The very name 
has become a term of reproach, and is used to describe a stupid, unedu- 
cated man. The Fellah accepts his position quite good humouredly and 
acknowledges his want of polish ; his naive excuse for any mistakes or 
stupid tricks is simply : Mani fellah ? Am I not a Fellah 1 But the true 
Bedawi looks down upon both Townsfolk and Fellahin ; springing on his 
noble steed he feels himself one of the lords of creation, and gazing from 
his tent over the wide-spreading plain, he asserts his supeiiority over these 
misera.ble dwellers in houses. 

The Fellahin villages vary according to the wealth of their inhabitants 
and the building materials which the neighbourhood can produce. In the 
mountain districts most of the houses are of stone, which is easily 
obtainable. In well-to-do villages you often see a number of fine buildings, 
with large yards for the cattle, which are enclosed by strong, high walls : 
The dwellings are large and lofty with thick walls, and the vaulted 
rooms rest on very massive pillars ; the builder cares little for beauty 
of style or even symmetry, his one idea is strength and durability ; 
one seldom finds neat edges, good arches or correct angles ; it seems 
that the love of the beautiful is no more developed in the present 
inhabitants of Palestine than it was amongst the ancient Hebrews. Never- 
theless, in the richer villages, especially in the N&bulus mountains, one 
often comes across houses, belonging to Sheikhs or other persons of 
importance, which are built with a certain amount of taste, and have 
balconies, galleries and flat roofs, and well decorated doors and windows. 
Proverbs and the date of building {tarich) are placed over the door, or 
somewhere on the walls ; great sums are often spent on their erection, and 
a Sheikh's house has more the appearance of an impregnable fortress than 



FELLAHIN OF PALESTINE. 113 

of an ordinary dwelling place. Such buildings were a necessity in the old 
days when their inmates were exposed to constant feuds between the 
different villages, and were always subject to sudden attacks. When the 
people are poor, they erect four walls of roughly cut stone built with 
mortar or peihaps only clay. These are roofed with trunks of trees, 
branches and faggots, over which they put a layer of earth about a foot 
deep and well stamped down. The whole is then overlaid with a mixture 
of clay and straw which soon hardens in the sun : the roof is sloped to 
allow the rain to run off. As a rule such a roof is strengthened before 
the winter with a cylinder. Where this precaution is neglected the rain 
soaks through to the layer of earth and makes it so heavy that should 
the supporting rafters be at all rotten, the whole roof falls through. After 
a long spell of rainy weather this not unfrequently happens and causes 
bad accidents. In the villages near the sea, where planks can easily 
be got, the upper rooms and roofs are often built of wood, and are made 
waterproof by a facing of cement, a mixture of lime, ashes and small 
flints. 

In the great plains (round Gaza, Jafa and 'Akko) the Fellahin build 
their houses, or rather huts, of sun-dried bricks. 

As a rule the villages are built either on the summit or slope of a hill, 
so that they may remain dry in the rainy season, during which many of 
the plains become impassable bogs, and also to protect them from the 
attacks of the Bedawin, who are far more formidable enemies on the plains 
than among the hills. 

Except where natural surroundings of vineyards, olives or palm trees 
lend them a little beaiity, the villages are very ugly and unromantic 
looking ; no red tiles or green shutters^uo cupolas or minarets break the 
monotony of the endless flat roofs. There are nothing but grey, meaning- 
less houses which either look ruinous or else unfinished. The best build- 
ings even have not so much as a parapet. The covering of cement makes 
them look like dull blocks of stone surmounted by mounds of earth, on 
which the grass grows in early spring, and on which sometimes one sees a 
goat grazing. The buildings are so much the colour of the surrounding 
ground that in the distance it is difficult to tell whether you are looking at 
a village or at a group of rocks. Perhaps the most wi'etched looking of all 
the villages are those on the great plains, which are built of bricks or even of 
mud. If, as sometimes happens, such a village is deserted by its inhabitants, 
a couple of centuries or less suffices to sweep away all trace of it, and 
unless it has contained wells or a large mill stone, there would be nothing 
left to testify to its former existence. This may be one reason why the sites 
of many places mentioned in the Bible can no longer be found. The 
Fellah cares little for light or air in his dwelling. He has no windows, 
for he could scarcely protect himself against the cold, rain, and sharp winds 
which windows would admit, seeing that the village carpenter (if one 
there be) has not mastered the mysteries of window sashes, and even finds 
a good deal of difiiculty in putting up an ordinary door. Still the chief 
reason why the Fellah contents himself with so little air is from a fear of 

I 2 



114 LIFE, HABITS, AND CUSTOMS OF THE 

night attacks, and from the necessity of being able to turn his honse into 
a little fort in the event of a village war or of hostile assaults. In many 
villages (as for instance at Ram Allah) it is customary to steal to an enemy's 
house at night and shoot through any hole Lhat can be found, in the hope 
that although the shot may not take effect, it will at all events startle and 
frighten the family. Pi-ovided the inmates do not sleep in a line with 
such an opening, these nightly visits cause more alarm than injury. By 
day the door is always open, it is against etiquette to close it, as they think 
it gives an impression that something is going on of which they are 
ashamed, or that they want to prevent the entrance of guests. Nor has 
the Fellah any need of much light unless he hajDisens to be a weaver or 
shoemaker (and of these there are but few), for his life is passed in the 
open air ; either in the vineyards and fig gardens, or in the market-place 
or the thrashing floor, taking a siesta in the sun, smoking his pipe and dis- 
cussing the news of the day with his favourite comrades. If he gets too 
hot or finds it wearisome, he goes to the inn {madafe) which is sometimes 
town hall, casino and church (for the Mussulman) all in one. He loves this 
out-door life, and only uses his close and un ventilated dwelling as a safe place 
for his night's rest. Most of the houses have only one story, but well-to-do 
people, and esjDeciaUy the sheikhs, think a great deal of an up])er floor 
where they can receive honoured guests, and where the host can remain 
with them and not be disturbed by the curiosity of callei's or chance 
listeners. The walls are decorated and the floor cemented, and it is 
altogether better than the ground floor, to which not only all sorts of 
people, but even the cattle, have entrance. In the better houses there is 
generally a small terrace on the upper story, which is finished with a para- 
pet (called a hazir in Nazareth and also imnhawioata) on which one has a 
good view and fresh air ; it is a pleasant resting place after the heat of the 
day. In the plains even the poorest huts have (lightly built) upper floors 
constructed of branches, mats, and leaves, where the inmates take refuge 
during the summer from the suffocating heat and from the vermin which 
make the lower stories almost uninhabitable. The stone which is most in 
use for building, everywhere except in the plains, is a kind of limestone, 
of which there are several varieties. The ka^kute, a rather soft yellowish 
stone, is easy to work and can almost be cut wath a knife when newly 
broken ; it hardens on exposure to the air, but is not durable, for it very 
easily breaks. On account of its lightness it is often employed in building- 
upper stories to lessen the weight on the foundations, and also as a facing 
to doors and windows whenever decorations are requu'ed. A much more 
durable stone is the malaJd, it is harder to work than Ica^Jcute, but it keeps 
its colour well and is of a good pure white ; the Fellahin generally use it 
for their better houses. The jelmdt or Jew's stone is exceedingly hard, and 
has been but little used for building purposes ; during the last few years, 
however, owing to a scarcity of material, it has been utilized in and about 
Jerusalem. Like the softer kinds it is cut in blocks, and the stone- 
masons of Bethlehem by the use of good tools and constant prac- 
tice, have acquired a particular reputation for hewing it. It must have 



FELLAHIN OF PALESTINE. 115 

been used in former times, for it is foxmd in some of the oldest ruins, 
though only in unliewn blocks or in a very rough state. Round about 
Nazareth they use a porous limestone called M«n-firestone, on account of 
its not splitting when exposed to heat. It is therefore much employed in 
building ovens. They have also a very porous, light stone called 'ahkacl. 
And latterly the mizzi lain (also a limestone) has been much used in 
Bethlehem and other parts ; it is a beautiful stone but very hard to work. 
In the regions of the Jordan and around the lake of Tiberias and the 
Dead Sea, black basaltic stone is often used and this gives the villages 
rather a melancholy aspect. If there are any ruins in the neighbourhood 
the people gladly make use of them so that one often sees ancient capitals 
and portions of pillars set into the modern buildings. They make their- 
mortar of lime mixed with sifted earth ; but for cottages or huts, clay 
is thought sufficient. The first consideration in building a house is making 
the foundations secure ; if possible they must be on a rock and for this 
purpose they not unfrequently dig as far below^the ground as the house is 
high above it in order to give it a firm basis. 

This is a very necessary precaution ; not only do the heavily built 
buildings require something to rest on, but the heavy rains in the winter 
bring a force of water that sinks into the ground for several feet and softens 
everything : a foundation only of earth would soon give way, and the 
building collapse. 

The erection of a new house is always a great event in the village ; the 
man about to build it thinks of nothing else. As soon as the plans are 
(b-awTi and the foundations commenced, he sits down beside his architect, 
foreman, and builder (one and the same person) and calmly smoking his 
pipe, follows the whole process with the greatest interest, occasionally 
signifying his approval by giving advice or urging on the work. When it 
is a Sheikh's or some other village potentate's house which is being built, 
the celebrities of the place, priests, elders, etc., join him in order to show 
their interest in the important event. On these occasions there is a great 
deal of chatter, smoking, and drinking of coffee ; the builder is praised or 
advised ; the boys, girls, and women run about with baskets and little 
wooden trays carrying away rubbish and returning with mortar. An over- 
seer, armed with a stick, marches round and brings up the idlers, giving 
them gentle reminders with his cane. After a long spell of work, or 
when the heat is very oppressive, their energy sometimes fails ; they then 
enliven themselves with a song. Some one starts them by singing a few 
bars, and then they all join in, the subject is often very nonsensical, but 
when it refers to the splendid haclsheesh or the good feast which they 
expect at the completion of the work, it always causes great merriment. 
The builder, as long as the work is in progress, is a person of gi-eat im- 
portance, and is treated with the greatest respect by his employer, even if 
this latter is a Mussulman, and the builder a Christian. A cup of black 
coffee is frequently offered him, to keep him in a good humour during 
the heat of the day, and this attention always pleases him. It is astonish- 
ing to notice how the Arab labourer wiU work from sunrise to sunset. 



116 LIFE, HABITS, AND CUSTOMS OF THE 



exposed to the most fearful heat, only resting an houi- and a half at mid- 
day, and taking scarcely any nourishment save the cup of black cofiee, 
which he considers the best of all refreshments when hot and tired. 

When the house has j^rogressed as far as the roof, that is to say when 
the side walls are up, and the framework and fiist covering of the roof 
is ready, all the village assembles to assist at its completion. Then 
follows much I'unning to and fro and screaming and singing enough to 
drive any one wild. Some prepare the moi'tar ; the boys, girls, and 
women hand it to tJie builder, and men bring up the stones. The 
builder places stone after stone, filling them in with mortar, and gasp- 
ing with hurry and excitement ; the children yell, the men sing choruses 
and the women join in the zaghdrlt, until the solemn moment ariives when 
the last stone is about to be put on. Then the builder pauses and prepares 
to complete the work in a becoming manner, a youth with a loud voice 
announces that the crowning point has been reached. 

The builder then makes a sign to the owner that all is finished, and this 
latter covers him with a mantle of honour (a black and silver embroidered 
aha) and hands him his hacJcsheesh. After which the whole company falLs 
to and devour a feast of meat, rice, and bread, and then depart highly 
delighted with their work and its reward. I have often witnessed such 
scenes in Nazareth and the neighbouring villages. Where the people are 
lucky enough to possess a newspaper or journal, a leading article enlarges 
upon the important event, and hands it down to posterity. 

Every well arranged house possesses a bakehouse, for with the Arabs 
bread is really the staff of life. If the poor people have only corn 
enough (or even dura, a kind of millet) to make their bread, they consider 
themselves well off. All other food, even meal, they regard as a sort of 
vegetable, which they can do witliout. Many houses have their own 
bakehouse, but sometimes one has to answer for several families. It is 
generally a hut built of stone and clay, and scarcely high enough to stand 
upright in. The most iiuportant part of the oven is a platter or tray made 
of clay ; it measures about 20 inches across ; its surface is covered with 
small flints, and it has a closely fitting cover of the same material with 
a long handle. When they are about to bake, the cover is put on, and 
a lot of dried manure is heaped above it and set tire to ; after a few 
hours, the whole thing is thoroughly heated ; the ashes are then removed, 
the cover raised, and the dough laid upon the glowing flints in thin layers 
(something like isancakes), which very soon bake. When the baking is over 
the shelf is again cov-ered up, the ashes are replaced, and more fuel is added 
so that the oven may be kept hot. As the bakehouse is generally warm, a 
Fellah often creeps in in cold weather to warm himself oi' to take a nap. 
It matters not to him that his clothes become somewhat scented by the 
odom-s of the peculiar fuel. He cares as little for that as he does for the 
jeers of his superiors. A little while ago during very cold weather, a 
mother put one of her young children into a bakehouse to warm it. She 
laid it on a mat and left it, but when she returned to fetch it, she found it 
dead and half baked, as the oven had become too hot. 



FELLAHIN OF PALESTINE. 117 

Each of the larger villages are divided into quarters (hdrdt) ; these are 
named either from their position or after the chief families* who inhabit 
them. {El-hCiret el-fokCi, the upper part ; el-hdret et-sahtar, the lower 
part.) For instance, in the village of Rc1,m Allah there is the hdret esch- 
schakara, the quarter of the Schakara ; and hd.ret el-ha,dade, quarter of 
the Hadade. Different families inhabiting the same village often have 
feuds which last for years, and whilst they continue all communication is 
cut off between the different quarters. Each side has its own inn, 
and if, as, for instance, in a Christian village, the church happens to be 
in the A quarter which is at enmity with the B quarter, perhaps for 
years no inhabitant of the latter will attend the service. If after a 
long time the quarrel is not made up, the quarter B will start a priest of 
theii' own, and perhaps build a church ; this, I know, happened at Saijibeh 
(Ophra ?) and thus all communication is cut off between the opposing 
parties. A common inn is generally a sign that the village is at peace, 
whereas two or three denote internal troubles. The villages only possess 
two public buildings, ojie for religious purposes, the church or mosque, 
and one for worldly use, viz., the maddfe, maztd, or inn. 

In many villages there is the tomb of some holy man, which is called 
a makdni ; it is generally a little building with a cupola, and is sur- 
rounded by a few shady trees. In Mahometan villages the inn is often 
used as the mosque, and there you may not only find shelter and food and 
converse with the neighbours about local or political events, but you 
may also join in the prayers of the priests. The market-place {suk) or 
Fruit Market in large villages, or the bazaars in smaller ones, are also 
places of resort where people meet to discuss the news of the day, and 
where the Fellah kills a portion of the time which so often hangs heavily 
on his hands. The internal arrangements of the Fellahiu dwellings are 
very primitive. The room is divided into two parts, one of which is 
occupied by the cattle (oxen, donkeys and fowls), and the other, which is 
reached by a few steps, forms the living room of the family, On this 
principle the Fellah, when he closes his door at night, has all his 
possessions under one roof, and can more easily protect them. The living 
room has a cemented floor, and as the cattle are not admitted, it can be 
kept fairly clean. If a guest arrives the wife or daughter of the house 
has only to give the floor a hasty sweep and lay down a straw mat, 
or in the better families a carpet on which the visitor takes his seat. 
After a while when one has become accustomed to the dim light one 
feels curious to see how this strange reception room is furnished ; a 
glance, however, suffices to show us that it contains nothing comfortable or 
ai-tistic. There are perhaps several corn-bins, which the women make 
out of clay and straw. They open at the top for the grain to be shot in, 
and low down there is a small hole, stopped with a peg, through which 
the daily portion is taken out. 

These bins generally stand a little out from the wall, leaving a useful 

* Samule— HamS il. 



118 THE ORDERS FOR MUSICAL SERVICES AT HAMATH. 

space for lumber and rubbish, which also forms a retreat for the female 
])ortions of the family. In one corner stands a large water butt called, 
like the bins, a chahije, and made in the same manner ; the water is 
ladled out with a little pitcher which also serves as a drinking mug. 
Where there is an attempt at anything a little more artistic, they have a 
little black earthenware mug ornamented with red designs, and made 
with a curved spout, from which (those who are experienced) allow 
the water to fall in a stream down their throat without touching it with 
their lips. We must not forget to mention another very important article, 
namely, the mill. For heating the room and for cooking or coffee roasting 
there is a sort of fireplace, without any proper aperture for letting out the 
smoke, which has to find its way through a small hole in the wall, after 
having blinded and nearly stifled the inmates. The chief advantage of 
this method of warming is that the walls of the room require neither 
paper nor paint, but soon acquire a fine brown or black surface. Over the 
fireplace or from some projection hangs a simple iron lamp* which is 
kept burning all through the night ; only the very poorest of the Arabs 
sleep in darkness. The saying " Poor fellow ! he sleeps in darkness," 
is equivalent to " Poor wretch, he hasn't a farthing to buy oil with ! " A 
many-coloured chest contains the family wardrobe and the women's 
jewels, and is also the safest place for the bestowal of money, papers, 
and other valuables. Although most of them are now provided with 
a simple apparatus which causes a beU to ring if the lock be turned, 
it not unfrequently happens that thieves carry off these valuable chests 
by means of a night raid. A few iron and wooden vesselsf are used 
for cooking utensils. A round mat, often very prettily made of red and 
black straw, and the work of the women, serves as table, tablecloth and 
dish ; an iron pot, or in some villages a leather bottle or pail is used 
for fetching water. 

Such are the simple necessities of the Fellah's life, and having them he 
lives contentedly and happily in his native land. 

{To he continued). 



THE ORDERS FOR MUSICAL SERVICES AT HAMATH. 

Many thousands of stones, or tablets of metal, inscribed with catalogues of 
Royal hecatombs or humble pious names have come down to us from 
Egypt, Palestine, Greece, and Rome ; but the four stone offerings from 
Hamath differ from them in many ways. These four tablets I can trans- 
late, and I affirm them to contain orders for musical services. When the 

* (Sirddsch). 

f Batije, pi. hawdti. 



O •) * » O i> ' 



^5iS5?!5i!g^5s^?i!p!pp;5pj^iJB|p!^^ 




THE OKDEES FOR MUSICAL SERVICES AT HAMATH. 119 

translations first came out they were rejected in many quarters witlicut 
examination, not because they fail in adequate proof, but because their 
contents are novel. If these stones had contained an order to sacrifice a 
hundred oxen at the expense of some Eoyal Sargon or Xerxes, well and 
good ; the proof is ample. If, however, the democratic Hittites, to whom 
even the great Eameses II paid tribute of corn in his old age, and to whom 
we owe the Exodus of the Jews, are proved by these stones to have 
delighted in musical services, then the cry goes round, it is nought, it is 
nought. One would have thought that the evident visible existence of 
these four stones, new in kind, would have aroused an eager curiosity 
among the learned in such things, and that I should not have been left 
alone for eight years, wherein, so far as I know, not a single workman in 
the world besides myself has decii^hered even one letter. The preli- 
minary knowledge, however, requisite to judge intelligently what I have 
done is, after all, only that of a moderate amount of Hebrew, with its 
relations to Chaldee, and I should suppose that among the subscribers to 
the Palestine Exploration Fund there may be, say, two himdred labourers 
who are competent. It is for them that I now write. 

Turning, then, to the two plates accompanying this letterpress, the 
student of the Hittite dialect will have to satisfy himself in the first place 
that what we may call the squeeze plate and the transliteration plate differ 
merely in arrangement. The squeeze plate is taken from the plaster cast 
in the British Museum. The transliteration plate is an enlargement of 
the squeeze plate, in which the letters are spread out and turned about 
when necessary, so that each line shall be read, as in English, from the 
left hand side to the right. I object most strongly to the encumbering of 
scholars with a fresh, heavy, and unnecessary burden, by writing the new 
language from right to left. There is not the slightest necessity for our 
doing so, for the examination of the squeeze plate shows us clearly that we 
have at present an option given us between the two methods of writing. 
The first line in it begins, we see, from the right, the second from the left, 
and the third from the right again. The Greeks in former days availed 
themselves freely of either of these systems ; and experience, in later days, 
has taught them the advantage of the method I propose to foUow in 
expounding the Hittite. 

After satisfying himself that the manipulation has been a fair one, the 
.student may take it upon trust that there are four of these squeeze plates 
now made known to us, which difiier a little among each other. They difi"er 
not only in the names of those who offered up the stones, but in the localities 
from whence the off"erents came uja to off"er, and in the state of preservation 
in which they have been found, and in the greater or less degree of care- 
lessness of the masons who manufactured the stone off'erings, and who 
obliterated or enlarged words here and there. I must, however, say for 
the masons that they seem to have been very much more conscientious than 
the similar class of men in Egypt, whose gross carelessness is disgraceful in 
reproducing portions of the Book of the Dead, paid for, no doubt, as 
genuine. 



120 THE ORDERS FOR MUSICAL SERVICES AT HAMATH. 

This may be a good place to call attention to the fact that this squeeze 
plate now published is not said to be a copy from a squeeze, but from 
squeezes. The meaning of this is that incomplete parts among the four 
stones have been consciously supplemented in each case by taking parts 
from the other three. If this had not been done the result would have 
been to compel us in each case to argue from an incomplete inscription. 
It will be found by-and-bye, when the types are ready, which I am told 
are being manufactured, that something of this sort will of necessity have 
been done in picking out model types. The fittest among them will 
survive, but not as the jierfectly exact model of the mason's work. The 
matter here mentioned is of no grammatical importance, but practically I 
find I have left a person named Sahidi- Jah as the name of the offerent from 
a place called Iban, whereas the man who came from Iban was T'sadahi- 
Jav. The portion of the j^late which would have given us the locality of 
Sahidi-Jah is unfortunately lost. The grammar is clearly not affected by 
this. 

Let us then supjDose our student with this hitherto unjiublished trans- 
literation 2)late before him. Take the first word, which looks as if it con- 
sisted of seven letters, that is to say, seven to the eye, but perhaps 
including a mute. For reasons which weigh with me T propose that the 
transliteration of these letters is to be given as a-gann-hu. There is of 
course some reason why I suppose it to be a-gann-hu. Some five or 
six years ago I remember being impressed wdth a notion that the stones 
belonged to a Chantry or Fane for saci'ed music. This impression found 
itself a place in the pages of the " Athenaeum." Later on it led me to 
examine divers Hebrew words expressive of music. The result was that I 
turned to Isaiah xxvii, ver. 2, " In that day sing ye unto her a vineyard of 
red wine." The word for " sing ye " is here given us as gann-u. The g 
is not the gamma but the hard or guttural " a??i " which is often mute. 
Now the decipherer, following the Newtonian method, is privileged to 
form one hypothesis for each of the unknown symbols or letters before 
him, even as Newton formed one hypothesis about the apple. It must be 
understood that Newton did not form a second hypothesis about the moon, 
but calculated a result about the moon's motion, which turned out to be 
right. Even so the intelligent student will observe exactly in the middle 
of the third line in the transliteration plate that I have made two hypo- 
theses by naming two letters as " d " and " ^'." He will agree therefore 
that when he comes to the last word but one on the plate it is not as an 
hypothesis, but as a result, that he there sees the word " di," which in 
Chaldee means " of." Unless he understands this he may as well shut up 
the book ; and if he does understand it, he will be entitled to say that on 
the hypothesis made in the middle of the plate about " d " and " ?'," a not 
inconsiderable amount of probabilitj' is given to the word at the end of the 
jilate being " di." The number of coincidences of this sort, where the 
allowable hypotheses produce most suitable results, is very large through- 
out all the inscriptions. I have merely taken this simple case as an 
example. Considering that all man's knowledge is acquu-ed in this way. 



SiJGGE,SlE.D TRANSLITERATION & TRANSLATION, 




A- gan n - hu 
Start ye the song 



se - kh- u- ku 
play ye 



no- gin -vat -I 
mv Harmonies 




I i r p i n n i k 

that they may cause thee to cure 



askura-t-ak 
Thy fee is 















nesuha-t-i 
the gift of me 



Sa h i d i -ja h 



m t n n e h 
from whence cometh 



h i 1 u I at I 

praise to 




Stc/iforcLs Geog^ HstaJb* 



THE ORDEKS FOK MUSICAL SEK VICES AT HAMATH. 121 

the way, namely, of hyijothesis aud suitable result, it is to be hoped that 
Orientalists may some day become conscious of the fact. In comparing 
the two words, the gannu of Isaiah xxvii aud the hypothetical a-gann-hu 
of the plate, I admit that we are not yet in the region of strong proba- 
bilities ; all that we are yet entitled to say is that the certain existence of 
gannu is a sufficient inducement to us to hypothecate a-gann-hu. 

If I supposed the language of the offering to be Hebrew I should be in 
a difficulty, for the aphel conjugation of verbs, which gives a causative 
meaning, is very little if at all used in Hebrew, but in Chaldee it is 
frequent. Causality in Chaldee is expressed by affixing the letter " a," so 
that in order to say " cause ye a song," or " start ye the music," we change 
the gannu into a-gannu. Here, again, this highly important result is got 
by using the Newtonian method. By the hypothesis of the first letter 
being an " «,"a result is obtained that the coujugation of the verb is aphel 
or causative. 

The recognition of the initial alepli as a sign of causation is very 
encouraging, and augments considerably the probability that the trans- 
literation of a-gann-hu is correct ; but unless we can also explain the 
" h '"' in the final " hu" I should admit that the explanation of the aleph 
is in itself not enough, and might reasonably be held to be a mere 
chance coincidence. I said, however, above, that there are foiu' of these 
stones. Let us then compare them with each other. Here let me say 
that in the fourth stone the masons were extremely pressed for room, 
so, instead of chipping out the word a-gann-hu they abbreviated it into 
merely an " a^." This admits, so far as I can see, of only one explana- 
tion, viz., that the word being thoroughly well known its abbreviation 
was also thoroughly well known. Just as "mem" in English would go 
occasionally for " memorandum," so " ag " in masons' Hittite went occasion- 
ally for a-gann-hu. Now the word a-gann-Iiu being a causative imperative 
second person plural, supposed by me to mean " cause ye " or " start ye " the 
song, is followed by what looks like another imperative second person 
plural, viz., fSe-Jchtik-u, supposed by me to mean " play ye " from the 
.same root as is found in the name of the Patriarch Isaak. And now 
for the triumph. Even in the document in which the masons have been 
so cramped for room, instead of writing Se-khuk-u, they have written 
Se-khuk-hn, the same final form as a-gann-hu. Three explanations may 
be ofi'ered for the appearance of "/a«" final for the imperative plural 
instead of " ii " final. Either it is an archaism, in which case the stone 
containing it may be older than the others, or it may be carelessness 
in the masons, or the symbol for the "zt" carries a breathing with it. 
It is quite within the normal order of things that in such an investi- 
gation difficulties of this kind should ajjpear, and until more material 
is to hand, I do not of course suppose I shall be able to force convic- 
tion. To have found already the formative symbols for causation, and 
the imperative plu-al second person in the first two words, together with 
the roots for to sing and to play, is good progress. Having then probably 
before us the words " start ye the song, play ye," we have to see whether 



122 THE ORDERS FOR MUSICAL SERVICES AT HAMATH. 

the third word will fit into its place. Some such word as " harmonies " 
would be very suitable. The word should be an accusative case after 
the verb play ye. A Chaldee word, if we can fairly find it, would be 
far more suitable than a Hebrew one, because the causative symbol we 
have already found is only causative in Chaldee, not in Hebrew. 
Casting, then, our eyes upon the third word we recognize a letter con- 
cerning which we have already in the first word made our hypothesis, 
that it is " n/' We see, in fact, a probable " n " twice given with a new 
letter between. Memory at once recalls to us the heading to the psalms of 
David giving us at once a clue to a word most suitable, both in meaning 
and form, viz., the word " Neginah." Neginah is, however, Hebrew, and 
it must be understood that the word in the plate does not read as Neginah, 
but as Neginvati, which includes the possessive pronoun " t," and would 
mean in Chaldee " my harmonies." For the sense then nothing could be 
more appropriate, " start ye the song, play ye my harmonies." 

The im]3ortance of understanding the foundation on which I am resting 
my transliterations is such that I will stop a little to build up the material 
I have been using in a somewhat different shape. 

It does not admit of any doubt at all that in languages akin to Hebrew 
there are three words, viz., "ganah" to sing, "sakhak" to play, and '"nagan" 
to strike or play an instrument. There is also (in Chaldee) a way of 
expressing causation, also of expressing command (imperative), also of 
expressing plural command, also of expressing possession. Now, so far as I 
have as yet gone I havemade twelve hypotheses. Let it be supposed (I have 
said) that the first letter is, by hypothesis, an " a," the second an " ain, 
the third an " ?f," the fourth another " ti," and so on. Is not the probabi- 
lity, thousands to one against the twelve hypotheses having produced three 
words expressive of music '? Is it not thousands to one against their 
expressing causation, command, &c. ? True it is that, instead of Newton's 
<jne hypothesis about the fall of the apjile, there are twelve,— about twelve 
letters ; but then, instead of Newton's one result about the motion of the 
moon there are many results, such as the meaning of three kindred musical 
words, and the expression of causation, command, possession, &c. I can 
\'ery well anticipate that many verbal and other mistakes may be pointed 
out in what I have done, but nothing, surely, can be said against my 
method, nor its main results. As an instance of this I may mention here 
that an objection may be made as to the position of the " i" both in the 
word neginvati and in a similar word to come, viz., nesuhati. In both 
cases this small letter may have been packed into a corner by the masons 
for their own convenience. Certain it is that the Egyptians at any rate 
were very careless when engraving well known words. 

The probability that the first three words are the record of an order 
for a musical service may be differently estimated by different people. 
For myself I feel so confident that I look about me at once to see what I 
think the next words would probably be, so as to keep in connection 
with the first three. A musical service being ordered, then it is natural 
to suppose that the purpose or object for which it is ordered would now be 



THE OKDERS FOR MUSICAL SERVICES AT HAMATH. 123 

mentioned. If so, the word required here is " aV or " el" " for the purpose 
of," or " with the object of." Then, after tlie symbol marked " I " in the 
plate we want some such word as " rapa " to heal. "We want it also to be 
future ; and we have to remember that one of the signs of the future is 
very peculiar, viz., that an additional letter "n" called the epenthetic nun 
should be inserted between the verb and the pronominal suffix. It is 
astonishing what a number of pecvdiarities are requii-ed in this sixth word. 
The cause or agent hei-e is the music, and the effect is the induced power 
of cure in the sacred college. The conjugation is again in aphel, exjjressive 
of causation in Chaldee. The first part of the verb is " irpinn," and if the 
word were in Hebrew, it would be in the Hophal form of " tarpan.'' The 
musical agent is feminine, as irpin is, and the expected cure is in the 
future tense. 

The six words now analysed form a sentence. The offerent, who is 
willing to incur the expense of manufacturing and building in this stone, 
requests therein the authorities to perform a musical service. The services 
are called /m services (viz., the offerent's services or harmonies), as being 
paid for by him, and inherent in these services the ritualistic offerent 
recognises the power of cure. But whether this woi-k of cure was on body 
or soul I know not, as the word rapa is used in either sense. 

A new sentence now begins with a word which ends with t-L In 
other words it ends with a feminine suffix second person. Consequently we 
are not left to hypothesis in saying that the word contains seven letters, 
concerning three of which we have already'made hypotheses, so that we 
may still make four. I have therefore marked in the plate four letters, 
a, k, u, and r. The word would therefore be asakura-t-k, " Thy fee is." 
The root sakar, from which the name of the Patriarch Issachar is derived, 
means to bargain. It may be said that it is not fair to put asakar and sakar 
as the same root, but the practice of putting in an aleph before a word 
beginning with a sibilant is not uncommon in dialects akin to Chaldee. 
Thus we have asman equals zeman for time ; sahta for ashbata sab- 
bath, and so on. It may be said also that the introduction of the 
" i " before the final letter /• proves the noun to be a feminine, whereas it 
is masculine ; but the noun is a participial one which lends itself easily to 
the formation of a feminine form. 

Nasuhati Sahidi-Jah, " the gift of me Sahidi-Jah," compare Daniel vii, 
15, " The spirit of me Daniel." In these two words there are thirteen 
letters, but eleven of them have already been made available in the 
previous hypotheses. Let the reader pause here a little to consider what 
is implied by such a statement. Newton proved gravity bv one 
hypothesis, one calculation, and one correct result. Here I prove these 
two words to be Chaldee by two hypotheses, thirteen calculations, and 
thirteen correct results. The two hypotheses are that a certain two letters 
are "s" and "A." The calculations are the putting thirteen letters into 
their places, and the results are found by looking into the Chaldee 
Lexicon, wherein we read " the gift of me Sahidi-Jah." The fact that the 
word Sahidi-Jah has a meaning of its own, one which can now be read 



124 NOTE. 

quite independently of any context, is a large addition to our wealth of 
proof. Sahid means witness, Sahidi means my witness, and Sahidi-Jah 
means Jah is my witness. 

As I admitted early in this paper that I was not yet in the region of 
strong probabilities, so now I claim that by accumulative heaps of 
correct results any further proofs are quite unnecessary. In the whole 
of the rest of the plate there are but two unknown letters to he found, 
and any one who has followed me so far will I hope be satisfied that the 
ending is the product of the beginning. It is not necessaiy to analyze 
word for word so easy a sentence as " Minneh Hilulat 1 Bahalahi di 
Iban," the meaning of which is "from whence come praises to his Gods of 
Iban." 

Dunbar I. Heath. 
Esher, Surrey . 



NOTE. 

On reaching Kades in May 1879, we were disgusted to find that the 
marble sarcophagi and the Temple ruins, were being broken up and 
demolished, to fill the yawning trenches that the Fellahin navvies had 
dug for the foundations of a Sugar Factory. 

It appeared that a Damascus merchant was speculating in sugar, so the 
Fellahin said : in cotton, so the Dragoman affirmed ; had bought the village, 
and, wishing to run up buildings cheaply, was going to utilise such marble 
as he found in the ruins near. We bargained with backsheesh, that at any 
rate the as yet unbroken sarcophagi should be buried in the trench as 
they were, and then enquired for antiqua. 

Fifteen feet below the ground had that day been dug up a silver 
coin so bright and fresh it might have but just left the mint. " Of Tyre — 
Tyre, the holy and unsullied one "^so ran the motto. Bearing on one 
side the Roman Eagle, the Roman Prefect's initials, and the date cor- 
responding to 46 B.C., and on the other, the powerful, though rather 
heavy face of the Sidonian Hercules Melkarth.* In the evening, a 
Mograbi builder, from the Moorish colony we had passed some four 
miles to the south, near Hazor, came to the tent, and said he knew 
of a god, that had been found in the same cotton and sugar factory 
foundation trench a few days before, but it was very small, and at the village 
four miles away. I told him to bring it early next morning, and at 4 a.m. 
he was squatting in the dusk and cold, hugging his god and waiting our 

* The coin is figured — and disfigured — in the illustrated edition of Farrar's 
" Life of Christ," p. 366. 



NOTE. 



125 



bargaining. The bargaining might have been for the whole village, fac- 
tory, temple and all, so vehement were the protestations of the worth of the 
god in question. All the villagers and masons joined in, words waxed 
high, and terms could not be come to. "We said we could not do business 
that day, packed up and slowly rode oiF, looking as if we were not at all 
interested in the little bronze we were leaving. But the season was late ; 
there would be no more travellers this year, and the Moor could not let 
this chance of a windfall pass. 

As we rode away, cries were raised, and all the village ran after 
us to lay the curio at the Khawaja's feet, and humbly take whatever 
was offered. So for a few francs this little Egyptian ram-headed, Pshent- 
capped, Sceptre head, or Staff head was brought from Kadesh. How it 




was brought there is a problem ; was it in battle, or in royal progress, in 
peace or in war 1 Whether it ever did service in the Temple, or at Court, 
whether it is bronze, or, as is more probable, a mixture of bronze and gold, 
the Chrysocalcon, that was in old time the king of metals, is unascer- 
tained. All that is known abovit it, is that as far as the British Museum 
collection of Egyptian bronzes goes it is pronounced x;nique. 

H, D. Eawnsley. 



Quarterly Statement, July, 1881.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



The new expedition lias been commenced by several discoTeries of very great 
interest. T' e first is that of Kadesh, the sacred city of the Hittites, a nation 
which at present occupies a good deal of attention among those engaged in the 
antiquities of the Holy Land. It was found by Lieutenant Conder, who had 
formed a theory as to its locality from previous study in England, and was 
rewarded by recovering the site not far from where he had placed it. Tlie 
identification seems, up to the present, to be generally accepted. 



After his journey to the Orontes, and on the arrival of his surveyors, Messrs. 
Black and Armstrong, Lieutenart Conder began his preparations for Eastern 
Palestine. Unfortunately he found that the distui'bed state of the country 
would prevent the carrying out of his original design, which was to begin the 
Survey in the North. He therefore changed his plans, and now proposes to 
begin it in the South. He has accordingly ridden through Western Palestine 
from Peyi'out to Jerusalem, where he was at the date of the last letter 
received. 



On his way he paid a visit to Tyre. Here he found a curious tomb, apparently 
of great antiquity, close to the modern cemetery of the town. In accordance 
with the Oriental conservatism, this may, he says, be also the site of the ancient 
cemetery of Tyre. He also examined the question of the Egyptian harbour, and 
other doubtful points in Tyrian Topography. At Khurbet Unim el Amud he 
was able to trace the plan of the ruined temple. At Jerusalem he lias lighted on 
a discovery which may prove of overwhelming interest. Those who have read 
his " Tent Work " will remember his theory that the crucifixion may have taken 
place, not on the traditional site, but on the north of the city at the place still 
called " the Place of Stoning," namely, a small hill above "Jeremiah Grotto." 
The neighbourhood in the time of ilcjr ed Deen was called el Sahara, and was then 
an ill-omened place associated in the Moslem mind with death and judgment. 

K 



128 NOTES AND NEWS. 

The bill itself, seen from one point of t'iov,-, is singularly like a skull. It is 
also a spot which, from its commanding position, would seem well fitted for a 
place of punishment, because it commands the city, and anything done upon it 
can be seen from the city walls. Immediately west of the knoll, Lieutenant 
Conder has found a most remarkable Jewish tomb, which he describes at length. 
It belongs to the later Jewish period ; it is not appai'ently a Christian tomb ; no 
other Jewish sepidchre "has ever been found so near the ramparts, and |[the 
discoverer asks the question — Can this ie in trtdli the Tomb in the Garden? 



We are indebted to the Eev. C. W. Bardsley for an account of his discoreiy 
at Jacob's Well. If the chapel wliich formerly stood over the well was of early 
Christian period, the stone niouth described and figured by him is probably 
no other than that of St. John iv. 6. 



The commentary on the inscription at the Pool of Siloam, now reprinted af 
p. 141, was issued as a separate pamphlet on June 10th. We have to thank 
Professor Sayce for presenting it to the readers of the Quarterly Statement. 
Tlie Rev. Isaac Taylor has sent us some notes upon Professor Sayce's reading. 

There is also a paper on the same subject in the Zeitschrift of the Grerman 
Society, but unfortunately of little value, because the writer had only the 
imperfect transcript published by us last April. 



The paper on Ain Qadis, by the Eev. II. Clay Trumbull, of Philadelphia, seems 
to clear up a great mystery. It is now forty years since Dr. Rowlands described 
in most glowing terms a fountain called Ain Qadis, -which he identified with 
Kadesh. No one has hitherto succeeded in reconciHng his description with any 
fountain near the place pointed out by him. Mr. Tnmibull has, however, re- 
discovered the place, which, whether it is on the actual site of Kadesh or not, is 
certainly a spot where Israel could liave rested " manj' days." 



The Germans are conducting excavations on Mount Ophel, under the direction 
of Herr Guthe. Lieutenant Conder, under the understanding that he was not 
to anticipate Herr Guthe's announcements, was taken over the works. 



M. Clermont Ganneau is recovering from his long attack of fever, and has 
resumed his archieological researches, which are at present confined to the neigh- 
bourhood of JaflPa. He hopes to send an account of certain discoveries recently 
made for the next Quarterly Statemenf . 



The first volume of the " Memoirs " has now been issued. The volumes of 
" Special Papers " and " Name Lists " will be sent out some time this month. The 
second and third volumes of " Memoirs " are in the press, and will be issued as soon 



NOTES AND NEWS. 129 

as possible. Tlio volume of " Jerusalem Work," whicli will be illustrated by a 
large portfolio full of plans, will be sent out about the beginning of next year. 



A new edition of the G-reat Map has been prepared by Mr. Stanford, and is 
now ready. The supporters of the Society will confer a great benefit on the cause 
of Palestine research by getting this map taken by libraries, schools, colleges, and 
public institutions. 



The reduced map (modern) will be ready for ju'inting in August, and will be 
issued as soon as possible. Mr. Saunders's Introduction to the Survey will 
also be issued in the course of the quarter. The two ancient maps should 
be readv in the autumn. 



The General Committee has been strengthened by the names of the Bishop of 
Liverpool, Mr. W. Adams, Mr. W. Dickson, Mr. Douglas Freshfield, Mr. Oliver 
Heywood, Eev. Prof. Sayce, Eev. William Wright, and Colonel Yiile. 



We are informed by Mr. Kershaw, the Librarian of Lambeth Palace, that the 
Archbishop of Cantcrbiiry is anxious to let it be known among the Membei's of 
this Society that he desires to increase the usefulness of the library by rendering 
it more accessible for purjjoses of study and the loan of books. A collection o£ 
modern works on the history and antiquities of Palestine has been formed in 
the library ; many Greek versions of the Scriptures, commentaries and other 
Biblical MSS. are here treasured, and here will be found the collection of the 
late Professor Carlyle, consisting of MSS. brought from the East, of great value 
to Oriental and critical scholars. 



Arrangements can now be made for lectures on the Survey and its Biblical 
Gains. The Eev. Henry Gray' and the Eev. James King will continue to give 
their services to the Society during the next winter. 



The income of 'the Fund from all sources from March 16th, 1881, to June 
21st, was £1,073 lis. 'id. The amount in the Bank at the meeting of General 
Committee of June 2l8t, was £1,068 9s. The sum required before the end of 
the year is about £2,000. 



A Cheap Edition of " Tent Work in Palestine," has been published by Messrs. 
Bentley and Son. All the small illustrations which were in the Library 
Edition, and two of the full-page drawings, will be found in the new Edition, 
which has been carefully revised by the author. An additional chapter has 
also been added on the " Future of Palestine." The work will be read with 
greater interest now that the progress of the Survey may be followed on the Map. 



It is suggested to subscribers that the safest and the most convenient manner 
of paying subscriptions is through a bank. Many subscribers have adopted this 

K 2 



130 NOTES AND NEWS. 

methocl, whicli rcmores the danger of loss or miscarriage, and renders unneces- 
sary the acknowledgment by official receipt and letter. 



Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly Statement regularly, are asked 
to send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward each number 
to all who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes 
give rise occasionally to omissions. 

While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement^ the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood that 
these rest solely \ipon the credit of the respective authors, and that by publishing 
them in the Quarterly Statement the Committee neither sanction nor adopt 
them. 



131 



MEETING OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The Annual Meeting of the General Committee was held at the Office of 
the Society on Tuesday, June 21st, at 4 o'clock. 

The Chaii- was taken by Mr. James Glaisher, F.RS. 

The Chairman informed the Committee that he held in his hand many 
letters regretting inability to attend, including one from Sir Moses 
Montefiore, who forwarded a cheque for ^'10 (the second donation this 
year) for the funds of the Society. The Secretary then read the Eeport of 
the Executive Committee for the lastyeai-, which was as follows : — 
" My Lords and Gentlemen, 
" Your Committee elected at the last General Meeting, held on March 
16th, 18S0, have, on resigning their trust, to render to you an account of 
their administration during the last year. 

" 1. The Committee have held thirty-two meetings since their last 
election. 

" 2. The subjects which have occupied their attention have been the 
following : — 

" I. The publication of the Map, and " Memoirs." 

" The first edition of the Map was ready in May, 1880 : a second edition 
followed in the autumn. These two editions were prepared by the Ord- 
nance Survey Department, Southampton. The plates were then placed in 
the hands of Mr. Stanford, by whom a third edition has been issued. The 
whole number printed has been 800, of which 699 have been sent out to 
subscribers, three have been used for office purposes, 17 have been given 
away, and the rest have been taken by the agent. A fourth edition is 
now ready. 

" The first volume of the " Memoirs " is now ready, and has been issued 
to subscribers. 

"The next two volumes, viz., the "Special Papers," and the "Name 
Lists," are very nearly read}', and will be sent out next month. 

" II. The Eeduced Map. 

" The plates of this map have been completed, and have been sent back 
for certain additions. The map will be ready for printing in a few weeks. 
The following testimony from a recent traveller in Palestine, the Rev. 
A. G. Girdlestone, to the value of the small map, will be interesting : — 

" ' I desire to thank the Committee for having kindly placed at my 
disposal in January an advance proof of their reduced map. And I cannot 
do so without testifying to its great utility for travellers. I had special 
opportunities for testing it, as I walked by its aid from Jaffa to Jericho 
right across the country, and from Hebron to Banias, through nearly) its 
whole length, I was frequently without any other means of finding the way, 
and it proved invaluable. Its great advantage was most manifest when 
we walked beyond its limits and lost its aid. I walked through large 
portions of Moab and Gilead, east of Jordan, and found the existing map 
nearly useless. And similarly in passing northwards from Banias, we sorely 
missed its aid,' 



132 .MEETlNd OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

" III. The publicatiou of the reduced map in two forms, adapted to the 
geogi-aphy of the Old and New Testament. 

" It was found that many of the subscribers were disappointed at the 
prospect of receiving only a modern map of the country. But as the 
Committee could not, as a body, make identifications and lay down 
boundaries, it was thought best to entrust the work to a geographer. 
Mr. Trelawuey Saunders accepted the invitation of the Committee to 
undertake these maps. They are now far advanced, and will it is hoped 
be ready in the autumn. The Society will therefore possess four maps of 
Western Palestine, viz., the great map on the scale of one inch to the mile, 
the reduced map of Modern Palestine three-eighths that scale, and the 
two reduced maps on the same scale of Ancient Palestine. 

" IV. Mr. Saunders has also written for the Committee a work entitled 
an 'Introduction to the Survey of Western Palestine.' This geo- 
graphical account of the country is based upon the water basins, and is 
therefore withheld until these have been laid down for the engi'aver. 

" V. The expedition to survey the East of the Jordan. This expedi- 
tion, necessary for the completion of the Survey of Palestine, was first 
formally considered at a meeting of the Committee held on October 19th, 
1880. A meeting of the General Committee was convened on November 
30th in order to discuss the proposed survey. This was held by permission of 
the Dean of Westminster in the Jerusalem Chamber. The chair was 
taken by the Dean, and the meeting was addressed by Mr. Glaisher, 
Mr. Macgregor, Mr. Douglas Freshfield, Colonel Wan-en, Mr, Eaton, 
Eev, Dr. Ginsburg, Professor Palmer, Professor Hayter Lewis, Lieutenant 
Conder, and the Chairman. The following resolution was unanimously 

adopted : — 

" ' That it is now desirable to undertake without delay the Survey of 
Eastern Palestine, under conditions similar to those which proved to have 
been thoroughly successful in the case of Western Palestine.' 

" A prospectus was therefore drawn up, showing what is the present 
state of our knowledge, what is required to be done, and the means by 
which the Society propose to perform the work. 

" The Prospectus was sent to all former supporters of the Fund, with 
results which have been, so far, encouraging ; that is to say, although the 
Committee hardly hope to reach the sum they asked for the first year, it 
has been proved that a great deal of interest has been aroused in the 
project, and the Committee have felt justified in sending out their party. 

" They have been so fortvmate as to obtain the services of Lieutenant 
C. E. Conder, R.E., the officer who was in command during the greater 
part of the former survey, and of Lieutenant Mantell, E.E. They have also 
received permission from the War Office to engage the services of Messrs. 
Black and Armstrong, formerly of the Eoyal Engineers, who were with 
Captain Stewart at the commencement of the survey in the year 1872. The 
expedition started in April, and have already done some preliminary work 
on the western side, including tlie very interesting recovery of the ancient 
sacred city of the Hittites, Kades on 'the Orontes. The general instruc- 
tions to the officers in command are as follows : — 



MEETINtt OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 133 

" 1. To ])roduce an accurate map on a scale of one inch to a mile. 

" 2. To draw s^^ecial plans of important localities and ruined cities. 

" 3. To make drawings or take photograplis of buildings, sites, 

tombs, &c. 
"4. To collect all the names to be found. 
" 5. To collect geological specimens, antiquities, &c. 
" 6. To make easts, squeezes, photographs, and copies of inscriptions. 
"7. To collect legends, traditions, and folk-lore. 
" 8. To observe and record manners and customs. 
" 9. To excavate if time and opjaortunity permit. 

"VI. Meetings in supi^ort of the new survey have been held at Edinburgh, 
Manchester, Belfast, Liverpool, Hull, Bolton, Cardiff, Winchester, Eomney, 
Newport, Abergavenny, and other places. 

" The Committee have next to ask that a vote of thanks be passed 

(1) to the Rev. Professor Sayce for placing at their disposal his valuable 
reading of the ancient inscription recently found at the Pool of Siloam ; 

(2) to the Rev. C. W. Barclay for sending to them a drawing of the 
ancient mouths of Jacob's Well, which he succeeded in uncovering ; (3) to 
Mr. Laiu-ence Olijjhaut for valuable advice and infoi-mation in the present 
state of Eastern Palestine ; (4) to the Royal Geographical Society for a grant 
of 100?. towards the purchase of insti-uments ; (5) to the Rev. Greville 
Chester, the Rev. Dr. Porter, Mr. St. Chad Boscawen, M. C. Clermont 
Ganneau, the Rev. W. F. Bu-cb, "Sir. Trelawney Saunders, and Mr. Dunbar 
Heath for pa]iers communicated to the Quarterly Statement ; (6) to the 
Rev. Dr. Porter, Mr. William Adams, the Rev. W. F. Birch, the Rev. J. L. 
Carrick, Mr. William Dickson, Mr. George Monk, and all those who have i^i'o- 
moted the success of meetings in aid of the Society ; (7) to Miss Peache, the 
Rev. H. Hall Houghton, Miss Wakeham, Mr. E. Gotto, Mr. F. Story, Mrs. 
Wolff, Mr. Burns, Rev. C. Watson, Mr. Fordham, Professor Pusey, Mr. 
C. F. Fellows, Rev. F. E. Wigram, Rev. M. T. Farrer, Mr. Ormerod, Mr. 
Budgett, the Dean of Lincoln, Sir Moses Montefiore, Rev. Canon France 
Hayhurst, Mr. Oliver Heywood, Miss Borrer, Mr. Dykes, Miss Buxton, 
Lady Tite, Lord Clermont, Mr. Herbert Dalton, Rev. W. H. Walford", Miss 
Bridges, Mr. Eustace Grubbe, Miss Ward, Mr. Lloyd, Miss Edwards, Sir 
Charles Wilson, Mr. S. Montagu, Mr. Clyril Graham, Mr. F. D. Mocatta, 
Rev. Joseph Lyon, Messrs. Rothschild & Co., Mr. A. F. Govett, Sir 
JiUian Goldsmid, Mr. Lewis Biden, Messrs. Sassoon & Co., Mr. Nathaniel 
Montefiore, the BishoiJ of Lichfield, Mr. G. Raphael, Mr. E. Trimmer, 
Mr. E. L. Raphael, Captain Burke, Mr. Middleton, Mr. Bevan, and 
Mr. Dent for donations varying from 100?. to 51. ; and (8) to all Honorary 
Secretaries and others who have given their assistance for nothing. 

" VIL The Committee have to regret the loss by death during the last 
twelve months of — 

M. de Saulcy. Mr. Edward Miall. 

Lord Stratford de Redcliffe. Mr. Georc;e Wood. 

" VIII. In accordance with the powers conferred upon them at the 
General Meeting of Tuesday, March 29tb, Mr. Lawrence Oliphant and 
Mr. Van de Velde have been invited to join the General Committee, 
and have accepted the invitation. 



134 



MEETING OF THE GENERAL COiMMITTEE. 



'IX. The following is the Balance Sheet of the year 1880 



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IMEETIXG 01' THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 135 

" The Society, therefore, commenced tlie ojjerations of the year with a 
balance, deducting the unpaid accounts, of 1,100^. ; the subscriptions 
received up to the present date are 1,638?. ; the current expenses are 
about 300?. a month ; the balance in hand at this date is 1,068?. 9?. Of this 
sum about 200?. is due for instruments and outfits. 

" X. It was with a feeling of deep responsibility that the Committee 
decided on sending out the exj^edition to the East of the Jordan. The 
heavy expenses which it will entail for four years at least have not yet 
been fully efuaranteed bv au increase in the number of annual subscribers. 
At the same time so great is the interest shown in the enterprise, that up 
to the present time a larger amount of subscriptions have been sent in than 
during the whole of the last year. It is therefore reasonable to hope that 
the money will be found, as in the preceding Survey, by the voluntary 
efforts of the subsci'ibers. The sum of 2,000?. is asked for before the end 
of the year, and the Committee wiU gi'atefully receive promises of assistance 
towards that amount. 

" XI. The Committee have to express their satisfaction at the ajjpoint- 
ment of M. Clermont Gauneau to an ofhcial post in Palestine, Avhere his 
great knowledge and arclijeological zeal will no doubt enable him to make 
valuable discoveries. 

" The Committee have now to resign into your hands the trust com- 
mitted to them at the hist meeting." 

This rejiort was adopted unanimously. 

It was proposed by Professor Doxaldsox, and seconded by Lord Talbot 
DE Malahide, that the Executive Committee be re-elected for the ensuing 
year. 

This was carried unanimously. 

It was proposed by Mr. Henry Maudslay, and seconded by Mr. William 
Simpson, that the following gentlemen be invited to join the General 
Committee : — 

The Bishop of Liverpool. Sir Albert Sassovm, C.S.I. 
Mr. William Adams. Mr. William Dickson, F.E.S.E. 

Mr. Douglas Freshtield. Mr. Oliver Heywood. 

Rev. Professor Savce. Mr. E. Thomas. 

Mr. W. Aldis Wright. Eev. William Wright. 

Colonel Yule, C.B., R.E. 
The Chairman then called the attention of the General Committee to 
the signal services i-endered to the Society during the last twelve months 
by Colonel Warren, C.M.G., R.E. It was resolved unanimously that a 
special vote of thanks be passed to Colonel Warren in acknowledgment of 
those services. 

After a vote of thanks to the Chairman, the Meeting was adjourned. 



136 



MEETmG m THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE, BELFAST. 

On the 23i'd April a large compauy, at the invitation of the Rev. Dr. 
Porter, President of the Queen's College, assembled in his own house, 
in the college buildings, for the purpose of hearing from him something of 
what had been done towards the exploration of Palestine, and what was 
in contemplation by the new Survey undertaken by the Royal Engin- 
eers of England. The company was leceived by the President in one of 
the large rooms of his private residence. The new ordnance maps of 
Palestine, and many objects of interest belonging to the eountrj^, were on 
view, and attracted considerable attention. Amongst those present were : 
—The Lord Bishop of Ossory, the Mayor (Mr. E. P. Cowan, J.P.) ; Mr. 
Wm. Ewart, M.P. ; Mr. E. J. Harland, J.P. (chairman of the Harbour 
Commissioners) ; Mr. James Musgrave. J.P. ; Mr. John E. Musgrave, 
J.P. ; Mr. James Torrens, J. P. ; Mr. Samuel Lowtlier, M.P. ; Mr. F. D. 
Ward, ^J.P. ; Mr. Thomas Sinclair, J.P. ; Mr. S. G. Fenton, J.P. ; Rev. 
Dr. Busby, Rev. Dr. M'Kay (president of the Methodist College), 
Dr. Parker (headmaster do.) ; Rev. Dr. Meneely, Rev. Dr. Bellis, Dr. 
Steen, Professor Watts, Professor Wallace, Professor Kileen, Professor 
Leitch, Rev. Dr. Murphy, Professor Nesbitt, Professor Everett, Dr. 
Hodges, Rev. Thomas Welland, Rev. Charles Seaver, Rev. Richard Irvine, 
Rev. M. Clarendon, Rev. Hugh Hanna, Rev. Thomas Hamilton, Rev. J. 
H. Moore, Rev. George Shaw, Mr. Otto Jaffe, Mr. John Jaflfe, Mr. R. W. 
Corry, Mr. Quartus Ewart, Mr. H. Matier, Mr. Glass, Mr. S. Wallace, Mr. 
W. L. Finlay, Mr. Wm. M'Neill, Mr. Clias. Thomson, Mr. W. Young, 
Mr. E. H. Clarke, Elmwood ; Mr. Alex. Jate, County Surveyor for 
Antrim, &c. There was also a large number of ladies present. 

Rev. Dr. Porter delivered a short address. He said the reason he 
appeared before them was to give some information relative to a country 
in which they all took an interest, and more particularly to tell them some- 
thing regarding recent explorations. Every one would admit that the 
religious element was one that entered largely into everything connected 
with Palestine. In that country they had three important religious, each 
of v/hich had exercised a paramount influence upon the destinies of man- 
kind. First, there was the Jewish religion, next in succession the Christian 
religion, and then the Mahometan. The most sacred shrines of these 
three forms of religion were to be found in Palestine. With the exception 
of the shrine at Mecca, there was none more highly venerated than the site 
of the ancient temple, and the burying-place of the patriarch Abraham. 
The ancient house of Israel looked upon tliis land — and rightly so — as the 
land of their fathers, and that great jieople also looked forward to that 
land as the place of their future hopes and aspirations. He was delighted 
to see some representatives of that ancient and historic race present there 



MEETIXG IX THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE, liELFA.ST. 137 

in their midst that aftemoou. "With regard to the Christian rehgiou, and 
its connection witli Palestine, he need say but little, as many places there 
were held sacred by every section of the Christian Cluu-ch. They had 
only to mention the names of Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Bethany, Nazareth, 
or the Jordan to call forth affection and sympathy, as they were places 
round which they cling, and ever must cling. Palestine was interesting 
historically. Some of the earliest chapters of the world's history opened 
up before them in connection with that country. After referring to some 
of the early events mentioned in the Bible connected with this land, the 
speaker went on to refer to the Canaanitish tribes who, he said, had been 
discovered to possess a literature, and a language of their own. The 
Hittites exercised more than an ordinary influence, and he believed they 
were the inventors of the alphabet that had been ascribed to the Phoeni- 
cians. All the places throughout Palestine had an important bearing on 
Roman history. The physical aspect of the country was also of great 
interest to the student, the surface formation being the most unique in the 
world. After explaining the position and physical bearings of the River 
Jordan, the president refeiTed to the architectural wonders of the country. 
He called attention to the huge stones which were used in many of the 
buildings, and the difficulties that must have been expeiuenced in getting 
them placed. He himself had seen some specimens which were computed 
to weigh some 1,250 tons. These would be difficult to manage ; but he 
supposed if Mr. Hailand had them down at the Queen's Island, he could 
find some means of lifting them. Some very large stones were placed 
100 feet from the ground, and as there wei'e some engineers present that 
evening, perhaps they could explain the process by which they were got to 
that position. Palestine was the mother of commerce. Tyre and Sidon 
were great cities ; they were the London and Liverpool of the world 
then ; and perhaps Beyrout might be compared to Belfast. These cities 
did a great timber trade, but he could not say whether any of it had 
found a place in the composition of the White Star Line. They were also 
famous for manufactures and arts. Linen may have found a jalace there 
— that linen which was jaerfected by the looms of Belfast, of which trade 
Mr. Ewart might be regarded as the representative. Such being some of the 
objects of interest presented in Palestine, he would ask what was being- 
done at present to develop them, or give the public more knowledge of 
what the laud possessed. The exploration scheme had done a great deal, 
it had thrown a flood of light upon its arclmeological and physii-al qualities, 
and other matters of great interest in that wonderful countiy. Great 
changes had recently taken place. The oidnance survey of Jerusalem 
had been executed just as thoroughly as that of any pai-t of our own 
country, and that by the Eoyal Engineers. It was gratifying to iind the 
attention of the Government being drawn to this Survey, and these men 
giving their time to such an important work. The Americans tried to 
siu-vey a portion of the land, but they disputed amongst themselves, and 
the company was broken up. As to what would be done in future, he might 
say that a meeting was held recently, under the chairmanship of the Dean 



138 MEETING IX THE QUEEX'S COLLEGE, BELFAST. 

of Westminster, who had taken a deep interest in the work from the first, 
and it was proposed now to proceed to the country east of the Jordan. 
The surveying party had the assistance of Lieutenant Conder, of the 
Royal Engineers, and as tlie staff was an efficient one, and as they intended 
to work there for three or four years, much good, no doubt, would be the 
result. The speaker, during the course of an interesting address, gave a 
grajihic account of his experience in the East, which was listened to with 
much pleasure. 

The Mayor rose, and said — Ladies and gentlemen, I have been asked 
to perform a duty which I have great pleasure in fulfilling. I feel sure it 
will meet with your approval, when I say that I have been asked to move 
a vote of thanks to Dr. Porter for his gi-eat kindness to-day in bringing us 
here to listen to such an interesting and instructive lecture as he has been 
pleased to deliver. It will require no words of mine to secure for this 
proposition a hearty reception. We all owe a deep debt of obligation to 
Dr. Porter for giving us the opportunity of examining his most excellent 
maps, and for the infoi-mation he has given about past explorations in 
Palestine, and also about that which is to come. I need not detain you, 
and I must say it gives me the greatest pleasui-e to move this resolution. 

Mr. EwART, M.P., seconded the resolution. He said — I merely rise to 
express the great pleasure it has giA'en me to be present on this occasion. 
We all feel under a deep debt of gratitude to Professor Poi-ter for the very 
learned and excellent lecture he has given us regarding a most important 
part of the world. (Hear.) I can speak for myself, and say that it has 
made an imj^ression on me that I will never forget, and it has stirred up a 
wish within me more than ever that I might have an opportunity before 
I die of visitiiig the country. 

The Lord Bishop of Ossory, who was cordially received, said— As a 
stranger, and as one who is present by mere accident, I may say that it 
has given me the greatest possible pleasure to listen to such a lecture as 
Dr. Porter has just delivered. It contained a vast deal of information, 
and was conveyed in a lucid and happy manner. There are two things 
that make me personally interested in this subject. One of these is that 
I was at a period of my life an engineer, and that long before I ever 
dreamt of being a parson, and at a time surely when I never thought of 
being a bishop. I know the work pretty well, and I must say it could 
not be committed to better hands than the Royal Engineers of England. 
The other reason is that I know a little of Oriental literature, although I 
have not travelled in the East ; but I hope that my feet shall yet stand 
within the gates of Jerusalem. (Hear, hear.) I have no doubt that the 
vote of thanks that has been moved and seconded, will be carried most 
vvarn)lv. 



139 



MEETING IN MANCHESTER. 

On the evening of June iTtli, 1881, a meeting was held in the h\rge room 
of the Association Hall, Peter Street, in this cit}', in aid of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund. The chair was occupied by Mr. Oliver Hey wood, and 
amongst those present un the platform were Lieutenant-Colonel Warren, 
the Venerable Archdeacon Anson, the Veneralile Archdeacon Birch, the 
Eev. Canon Stowell, Mr. H. B. Jackson, and the Rev. W. F. Birch (the 
Hon. Secretary). A letter of apology having been read from Professor 
Greenwood (Principal of Owens College), the Eev. "W. F. Birch read a 
statement of the amount subscribed to the fund in Manchester. In 1875 
it was resolved to make an effort to raise £500 in Manchester for the 
fund, and that sum was raised within a year. In the following year 
£100 l5. Id. was subscribed ; in 1877, £101 ; in 1878, £101 Zs. 6d. ; in 
1879 the amount fell to £76 6s. 6d. ; in 1880 to £66 12^. 6d. That 
money had been subscribed by not more than 200 people in INIanchester. 
There were other 'gentlemen who sent their subscriptions directly to 
London, but it was felt that in a great place like Manchester, a much 
larger sum than £66 ought to be returned for the important object with 
which the fund was started. 

The Chairman said he thought the Society had a right to hope and 
expect that larger contributions will come from this district than hereto- 
fore. It was with a sense of disappointment that he listened to the 
statement of the Hon. Secretary that during five successive years, the 
subscriptions, not large to begin with, had been steadily diminishing, 
Avhile the work which was being done had been steadily progressing. It 
was impossible to carry out great undertakings without considerable 
funds, and those who were invited to give considerable contributions not 
unnaturally liked to know what was being done and had been done. 
Until the Society was established in 1865, there had been no really 
systematic investigation and research of Jerusalem and the Holy Land ; 
but since then, under great difficulties, and with great zeal and perseverance, 
systematic investigation had been going on. We knew infinitely more of 
Palestine now than we did 1 5 years ago, both of the topography and the 
geography of Jerusalem buried 60 feet below its rubbish, and of the 
character of the country and of its natural history. It was under those 
circumstances that the Society asked for help. It was between 15 
and 16 years since Sir Charles Wilson first began his survey, which was 
followed within two or three yeai's afterwards by the interesting investi- 
gations which Lieutenant-Colonel Warren himself began and perse- 
veringly carried on for upwanls of three years, in and under Jenisalem ; 
and since that time Lieutenant Conder, Lieutenant Kitchener, Mr. C. F. 
Tyrwhitt Drake, and others had been pursuing the work in different 

directions. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Warren then gave an interesting sketch of the 

results of the work carried on under the auspices of the Palestine 



& 



140 MEETING IN MANCHESTEI!. 

Exploration Fuiul, in which he was assisted by several maps and diagrams. 
It was at first proposed that the Survey of Eastern Palestine should be 
undertaken by our American cousins, but after a recognaiaance of the 
eastern side had been made that plan fell through, and the work now 
devolved upon the Exploration Fund, aided by a number of Americans. 

On the motion of the Venerable the Archdeacon of Manchester, 
seconded by Mr. H. B. Jackson, a hearty vote of thanks was accorded to 
Lieutenant-Colonel Warren for his address, and it was resolved to raise 
^100 a year for five years, in Manchester, towards the fund for the 
Survey of the Eastern portion of Palestine. 

A vote of tlianks to the Chairman for presiding brought the meeting 
to a close. 



MEETING AT LIVERPOOL. 

A CROWDED meeting was held on the evening of June 18th, 1881. The 
Lord Bishop was in the chair. Lieutenant-Colonel Warren addressed the 
meeting in support of an explanation of the work of the Society. It was 
resolved to establish a local branch in Liverpool, and to raise £100 a year 
for the support of the Society. The Venerable Archdeacon Bardsley ac- 
cepted the post of Honorary Secretary. 



Meetings have also been held at Eomsey, March 2Sth, and South- 
ampton, March 29th, addressed by the Eev. Henry Geary and Colonel 
Warren at Abergavenny, May 3rd ; Cardiff, May 4th ; Newport, May nth, 
and Ledbury, May 6th, addressed by the Rev. James King. 



• ••..•, 



• •• • • • •• • •• • • 

Cc 



• •"•'• •••• 

• • ; • •• I • 



• • • • 

•• • • • 



-/- 'f%//k'W/'l^^'^^//^^//f///M^^^^ :^ 



t. \N^f// y.'p • ^^f//////////////m///rK 1'\G * 



^. a ^^ 5 • ^y 0¥^/^////./yf • "j ^ 



;,. ^J 1>'K^' ^ S^y//^r6^^ y : 



r.^y- "K^^- y6^' A,x-f^ 



6. %^^i:x^ 



OF THF Inscription of Siloam. 



7 ? 



11 •^^^'l- x<)i>^- w4^- ^-3 ^2^^^-Y;r^^^-^fjr 



^j<{5^ ^j(^. Wc^^y^- yy- yx^y 



A 



3 ? 



^^i^- v/+<l •^<^'#'^.a^«-^3^ 'f 2 ^ ''^^X 



•/ 



THE ANCIEXT HEBREW IXSCRIPTION, ETC. 141. 



THE ANCIENT HEBREW INSCRIPTION DISCOVERED 
AT THE POOL OF SILOAM IN JERUSALEM. 



B>- the Eev. A. H. Sayce. 

In June, 1880, an important discovery was accidentally made at tlie Pool 
of Siloam on the southern side of Jerusalem. One of the pupils of 
Mr. Schick, a German architect long settled in Jerusalem, was jjlayiug 
here with some other lads, and while wading up a channel cut in the rock 
which leads into the pool slipped and fell into the water. On rising to 
the surface he noticed what looked like letters on the rocky-wall of the 
channel. He told Mr. Schick of what he had seen, and the latter accord- 
ingly visited the spot as soon as possible. 

The channel in question is an ancient conduit which conveys the watei 
of the Virgin's Pool {Dirhet Sitti Maryam) on the eastern side of the city 
to the so-called Pool of Siloam. It is cut through the rock, and so forms a 
subterranean passage through the southern spur of the hill on which the 
Mosque of Omar stands. The Pool of Siloam lies on the eastern side 
of the ancient valley of Tyropoeon, at a considerable depth below the 
summit of the Temple hill. The passage connecting the two pools has 
been explored by Robinson, Tobler, Colonel Warren, and others. Ac- 
."ording to Colonel Warren, its length is 1,708 feet (569^ yards),* though the 
listance from the one pool to the other in a direct line is only 368 yards. 
The jDassage, however, is not straight ; it winds considerably, and there 
<ire several culs de sac in its course, from which we may infer that the 
engineering knowledge of its excavators was not sufficient to prevent them 
from missing their way. As we shall see, the newly found insciiption shows 
that the passage was excavated from both ends, the workmen meeting in 
the'middle, like the excavators of the Mont Cenis Tunnel. The height 
varies greatly, but the width is pretty uniform. I attempted to walk up 
it from its lower or Siloam end, along with my companion Mr. J. Slater, 
but after proceeding some distance the roof became so low that, in order 
to proceed it would have been necessary to crawl on all foui's through a 
thick deposit of black mud, and this, as we had no suitable dresses, we 
declined to do. However, I made my way sufficiently far to acquaint 
myself fully with the mode in which the channel had been constructed. 

* Kobinson makes it about 586 yards. 



142 THE ANCIENT HEBREW INSCRIPTION 

The roof is flat rather than arched, but the floor is hollowed into a groove, 
to admit the passage of the water, so that the general form of the 
conduit is that of an inverted sugar-loaf, thus Q . In some places I 
observed water trickling through fissures in the rocky wall of the channel, 
and here and there deposits of black mud had found their way into it 
through similar breaks in the rock. The whole bed of the channel, how- 
ever, was covered with a layer of soft mud from half-a-foot to a foot and 
a half in depth. The walls of the conduit, like the roof, are for the most 
part left rough ; but now and then I came across small portions which had 
a^Dparently been smoothed, as well as hollows or niches in the face of thew all. 
The inscription discovered by Mr. Schick is in a niche of this kind, 
at the lower end of the conduit, and about 19 feet from the place where 
it oj^ens out into the Pool of Siloam. The conduit is here from 20 inches 
to 2 feet in breadth, and the niche in which it is engraved is 27 inches 
long by 26 wide, the niche itself being cut in the rock-wall of the channel 
in the form of a square tablet, to a depth of an inch and a-half, and made 
smooth to receive the inscription. It is on the right-hand side of the 
conduit as one enters it from the Pool, and consequently on the eastern 
wall of the tunnel. The upper part of the tablet or niche has been left 
])lain, though a graffito has been scratched across it, which is probably of 
late date. The lower part alone is occupied with the inscription, which 
consists of six lines, and an ornamental finish has been added below the 
middle of the last line in the shape of two triangles, Avhicli rest upon their 
apices, with a similarly inverted angle between them. On the left side 
of the tablet the rock is unfortunately fractured, resulting in the loss of 
several characters in the first foiu- lines. According to the Rev. W. T. 
Pilter's measurements, the upright lines of the characters in the first line 
are about half-an-inch in length, those in the second line about fths of an 
inch, while in the remaining lines they average f ths of an inch. In the 
wall immediately opposite the tablet a triangular niche has been cut. 
Mr. Schick suggests that it was intended to hold the lamp of the work- 
man em])loyed in engraving the inscription. At the time the inscription 
was found, the greater part of it was below the level of the water which 
flows from the Pool of the Virgin into the Pool of Siloam. This will 
explain why it was not seen by former explorers of the conduit. The 
passage of the water has filled the characters with a deposit of lime which 
makes it difficult to read them, and in the last line the letters are almost 
entirely smoothed away by the friction of the water. Before the inscrip- 
tion could be copied it was fii'st necessary that the level of the water 
should be lowered. This was done at the expense of the Palestine Explo- 
ration Fund, the Committee, immediately after hearing (in August) of the 
discovery, having authorized Dr. Chaplin to draw upon them for the money 
necessary for the woi'k.* At the same time Mr. Schick was asked to take 
a better copy of the inscription than the one which had been sent to 

* According to Dr. Kauizscli (JUgemeine Zeltung for April 29th) the 
German Palestine Exploration Society also sent money for the same purpose, 



DISCOVERED AT THE POOL OF SILOAM. 143 

England. This he did in January, but as he was unacquainted with 
Phoenician epigi-aphy his success was not great, and the copy could not 
be read. A second copy, which arrived in England on the 1st of Mnrch, 
and was published in the last Quarterly Statement of the Fund (April 
1881), proved equally unintelligible. 

Meanwhile, I had succeeded in taking what I believe to be the most 
]>erfect copy of the inscription that can well be obtained. An accident 
I met with in Cyprus brought me unexpectedly to Jei'usalem at the 
beginning of last February, and one of my first occupations there was 
to call on Mr. Schick, and enquire about his discovery. He showed me 
his copy of the inscription — the same facsimile as that forwarded to 
London in January — and explained to me the difficulties he had laboured 
under in attempting to make it. I saw at once that it contained characters 
of the early Phoenician alphabet, and accordingly started as soon as I could 
for the conduit where it was found, in company with another gentleman, 
Mr. J. Slater. 

Mr. Schick had not exaggerated the difficulties which stood in the way 
of making an accurate transcript of the inscription. The last line of it 
was only just above the level of the water, which, though reduced very 
considerably below its former level, was still from 4 to 6 inches deep, and 
flowed with a steady and rapid current. In this it was necessary to sit in 
order to copy the concluding lines of the inscription, and the cramped 
position necessitated by the narrowness of the space was very fatiguing to the 
limbs after an hour or two's work. As there was no light so far up the 
conduit, the characters could only be seen by the dim light of a candle. 
This Mr. Slater was good enough to hold for me, — conduct the more heroic 
in that he sufFered severely from the mosquitoes with which the conduit 
swarmed. As the letters were filled with lime, they could be distinguished 
only by tracing the white marks of the lime upon the darker surface of 
the smooth rock. Besides the letters, however, every accidental scratch 
and flaw in the stone was equally filled with lime, thus making it impossi- 
ble for any one unacquainted with Phoenician pal9eograi)hy to take a 
correct facsimile of the inscription. 

The copy of the inscription here published is the result of three sepa- 
rate visits to the spot where it was found. It was only by repeated 
observation that the actual forms of some of the characters became clear 
to me, and it will be seen that there are several which still remain 
doubtful. Since my return to Enghmd, I have received another copy of 
the inscription, made independently of my own, by the Rev. W. T. Filter, 
which the author has been kind enough to send me. The commentary 
will show of what service a comparist)n of this with my own copy has 
been to me, I understand from Mr. Filter, that Dr. Guthe, the" head of 

but this seems not to be quite correct. Dr. Kautzsch has been in such a burrj 
to yindicate the German Palestine Association, that he supposes Mr. Schick's 
copy of the inscription, published in the Quarterly Statement, to be mine. 

L 



144 THE ANCIENT HEBREW INSCRIPTION 






; 



^ I 



the German Palestine Explora- 

^ ' tion Society, who has lately 

■»^'' arrived at Jentsalem, is having 

' the whole conduit cleared out, 

; in order to discover whether a 

second inscription is visible at 

M A .. . *} *^® other end. 

^ ' ^ ' .' The inscription is the oldest 

Hebrew record of the kind yet 
discovered. The word \U^ which 
occurs thrice in it made me at 

«^ ; '* ' onetime believe that it was a 

Phoenician monument, \2J^ being 

the Phoenician relative pi'onoun. 

t M. Hal6vy,* however, pointed 

^,<7 , /C/ y out that '^^i^ must be only a 

'^ defective spelling of the Hebrew 

I-* t::f )r] "j^i^, — which, by the way, 

p\ ' " throws light on the derivation 

y^ S of the Phoenician relative pro- 

'A/' noun,— and since the language 

^ _. *T" of the inscription is in all other 

J ' respects that of Biblical Hebrew, 

""^ ^ ^ including an example of waio 

conversive, that characteristic 
peculiarity of Hebrew idiom, no 
doubt can now remain as to its 
true nature. It is an early con- 
temporaneous specimen of the 
language of the Old Testament, 
y written in that ancient form of 

the Phoenician alphabet already 
M known to us from the Moabite 

Stone and a few legends on 
JT seals. 



I h 

J/ ' 

u --. 

^-'"^ The form of the alphabet, 

1^ however, belongs to an even 

V ^ ^ 

w \u 



I ' older period than that of the 

' «- Moabite Stone. While the 

words are divided from one 

another by single points, and the 

opening sentences by double 

^ points, as on the Moabite Stone, 

X "' and while, too, the majority of 

the letters have exactly the same 

* See the Athenaum, May 14th, 1881. 



DISCOVERED AT THE POOL OF SILOAM. 145 

forms as those re})resentecl on the monument of King Mesha, three of the 
latter, waw, zar/in, and tsadhe, are more archaic in shape than the correspond- 
ing letters in the Moabite inscription. The zayin was first identified by 
Dr. Neubauer, and, like the tsadM, presents us with a form from which 
the forms found on the Moabite Stone antl in later inscriptions are 
derived by dropping the loop, and in the case of the tsadhe by yet further 

modifications. ( ^ , Moabite ^ ; .ii-. , Moabite /*- ). The form of waw, 

though older than that of the Moabite alphabet, nevertheless resembles 
that of the early Hebrew seals, as well as of the Nimroud lion weights 
(8th century B.C.) The l-oph, again, resembles that of the ancient 
Hebrew legends rather than that of the Moabite and early Phoenician 
texts. So, also, does the beth with the long horizontal line at its base. 
On the other hand, the daleth, caph, lamed and tau are those of the 
Moabite Stone, not of the Hebrew seals, but the long rounded " tail " of 
the caph, mem, nun and pe remind us more of the Hebrew than of the 
Moabite inscriptions. The kheth, too, has three horizontal bars instead 
of only two as on the Moabite Stone. On the whole, the Siloam 
inscription presents us with a form of the Phoenician alphabet considerably 
older than any previously known, and more closely resembling that of the 
Moabite Stone than any other, although the early form of the waw found 
in it, which was lost in the Moabite alphabet, long survived in the more 
conservative alphabet of the Jews. An interesting specimen of the 
alphabet of the ancient Hebrew seals will be found in the last number of 
the Journal of the German Oriental Society (xxxiv, 4), bearing 
the inscription " Belonging to Abd-Yahu (Obadiah) servant of the king." 
As it was brought from the neighbourhood of Diarbekr, it may have 
formed part of the booty carried away from Judaea by Sargon or Sennacherib. 
I may add that the form of the zaym in the Siloam inscription supports 
De Eouge's attempt to derive the Phoenician alphabet from the hieratic 
form of the Egyptian alphabet during the period of the Hyksos ; though 
as much cannot be said of the waw and tsadliL 

Palajogi-aphically, therefore, the age of the newly-found inscription is 
greater than that of the Moabite Stone. Now a glance at the map will 
show that the Moabites must have obtained their alphabet, not directly 
from Phoenicia, but through either Judah or the southern half of the 
Kingdom of Israel, more probably the latter. As it is difficult to suppose 
that a more archaic form of the alphabet was in use at Jerusalem than at 
Samaria during the same period, it would follow that the alphabet of the 
Siloam inscription, and therefore the inscription itself, would be more 
ancient than the inscription of Mesha, that is to say, than the ninth 
century b.c. We may accordingly assign it to the age of Solomon, when 
great public works were being constructed at Jerusalem, more especially 
in the neighbourhood of the Tyropoeon valley. At all events, the 
historical records of the Old Testament do not warrant our assuming that 
further works of the kind were constructed at Jerusalem until we come to 
the time of Hezekiah, who " stopped the upper watercourse of Gihon, and 

L 2 



146 THE ANCIENT HEBREW INSCRIPTION 

brought it straight clown to the west side of the city of David." 
(2 Chron. 32, 30.) This could not be the conduit of Siloani, as the city 
of David lay on the western side of the Tyropoeon. Isaiah refers to this 
work of Hezekiah when he tells the rulers of Jerusalem that they had 
" gathered together the waters of the lower pool" (n^'^D.) ^^^ ^^^ " made 
also a ditch (or reservoir) between the two walls for the waters of the old 
pool " (nSHD,-) (Isaiah xxii, 9, 11 ; see vii, 3.) The pakieographical evidence 
of the inscription, however, is wholly against our assigning it to so late a 
period as the time of Hezekiah ; and this is the only evidence that is at 
present procurable. 

The seal brought from the neighbourhood of Diarbekr affords further 
evidence in this direction. The king, whose servant the owner calls 
himself, would be the king of either Judah (or Samaria) or of As.syria, and 
we are therefore justified in dating it as least as early as the seventh 
century B.C. This brings us near the period of Hezekiah. But, as we 
have seen, the alphabet of Siloam is older than that of the seal.* The 
construction of a tunnel like that which connects the Pools of the Virgin 
and Siloam implies both skill and wealth, such as would be more consistent 
with the epoch of Solomon than with any other in the history of the 
kino-dom of Judah. So far as we know, Phasnician workmen were not 
afterwards employed by the kings of Judah, and it may be doubted 
whether any native Jew possessed the engineering ability disj^layed, as the 
inscription seems to show, in the excavation of the conduit. Dr. Neubauer 
has pointed out to me that the work must have been begun at both ends 
simultaneously, the workmen finally meeting in the middle, like the 
excavators of the Mont Cenis tunnel. This will account for the culs de sac 
met with in the })assage. It was no wonder that one of the workmen, 
perhaps the chief engineer himself, recorded the successful completion of 
the undertaking in writing. The only difficulty is to explain why the 
upper half of the tablet in which the inscription is engraved is left smooth, 
the lower half alone being occupied with the inscription. I can only 
suggest that a historical record of the work was intended to be inscribed in 
the unengraved portion of the tablet, but that for some reason or other the 
intention was never carried out, while the existing inscription itself, being 
merely the composition of a private individual, was engi-aved in a place 
where it would be permanently concealed by the water. 

The size and clearness of the letters show that writing was no very 
unusual accomplishment in Jerusalem at the period when the inscription 
was engraved. At the same time, some of the letters have duplicate 
forms, which equally seem to show that it was in a somewhat unfixed 
state. Ah'ph has two forms, one of which is identical with the form 
found on the Hebrew coins, while the other is the form of the Moabite 

* Another seal of Hebrew origin, with the legend irTilTJ/ p liT'yDEi'? and a 
figure which has been compared with " the Golden Calf " of Dan, found on the 
banks of the Euphrates, cannot be cited as evidence, as it may be of the period 
of the Exile. 



DISCOVERED AT THE POOL OF SILOAM. 147 

and Phoeniciau inscriptions : zayin, also, has two forms, the loop appear- 
ing on the left hand side in one of them, on the right hand side in the 
other ; so, too, perhaps, have ivaw and rnern^ though I do not feel absolutely 
certain about the form Y and ^ . I can tlirow no light on the curious 
ornament which serves as a, finis to the inscription. 

Historically, the inscription gives us no information beyond the mere 
record of the cutting of the conduit. Topographically, also, our gains 
from it are small. We learn that the Pool of Siloam was known as the 
B'recM/i, or '^ Pool," and if my reading is right the Blrah, or "Castle," 
mentioned in Neh. ii, 8, and vii, 2, already existed on the Temple area. Jose- 
phus calls the latter the Br/pis {Antiq. 15, 11, 4), and it stood not very far 
from the modern gate of St. Stephen and the Virgin's Pool. In the 
Roman period it was known as the Tower of Autonia. M. Halevy, 
however, has very ingeniously suggested that the mention of tlie ^eleph 
ammdii or " thousand cubits," in the fifth line may throw light upon two 
passages of the Old Testament, Josh, xviii, 28, and Zech. ix, 7. In the 
first the rendering of the A. V. should be corrected into " And Tsela', the 
Eleph and the Jebusi, that is Jerusalem," which would mean that 
Jerusalem consisted of the three quarters of Tsela', Eleph, and Jebusi, the 
latter being the Jebusite stronghold, captured by David, to the west of the 
Temple hiU, In the second passage a slight alteration of the i)un.ctuation 

(reading f) ^ ^5 for ?] v'i^) would make the sense clear, and give us " he 
.shall be as Eleph in Judah, even Ekron as Jebusi." If M. Halevy is 
right, the " thousand " cubits of the conduit gave its name to the rocky 
height, through which it was cut, so that the southern part of the 
Temple hill, facing Jebusi or the " City of David " was known as Eleph 
or " The Eleph."* 

Metrologically the inscrijjtiou seems to fix the length of tlie Hebrew- 
cubit, or 'avundlt, the tunnel which, according to Colonel Yfarren, is 
1,708 feet in length, being said to be a thousand cubits long. In this case 
the cubic would ecjual 2()i inches. But it must be remembered that a 
thousand is a round number, and should not be pressed too closely. 

For philology and epigraphy the value of the inscription is very great. 
It not only gives us the Phoenician alphabet in a more archaic form than 
any previously knowTi, but it brings before us the Hebrew language as it 
was actually spoken in the age of the kings. The Hebrew scholar cannot 
but be struck l)y what may be termed the biblical character of the 
language. The very idioms to which he has been accustomed in the Old 
Testament reappear in this ancient lecord. At the same time it off"ers 
more than one peculiarity. Unless my reading is wrong, we have in the 

second line H^t^ U^^tl^ instead of H^b^- The same peculiarity, how- 
ever, is presented by the first woixi of the last line, which, although in the 
construct state, ends with hi instead of tau. It would therefore appear 
til at the engraver carried the tendency to reduce a final th to h even 

* See the AthencEum, May 14th, 1881. 



148 THE ANCIENT HEBREW INSCRIPTION 

farther than the classical Hebrew of the Bible. He has also written ^ to 
express the vowel a in two instances which cannot be paralleled in 
Biblical Hebrew, '^rih^^l "^ li"<^ 5' ^'^^^ TWX^TS '^'^ ^i^^ ^- The same 
scriptio plena shows itself in ^^1^1^ (hne 5), though on the other hand 
\J^^ is throughout written defectively for "ti^i^^. The spelling of the latter 
word is interesting as its suggests the etymology of the Phn?nician relative 
pronoun X^Js^. Other peculiarities of the inscription will be the use of 
the Hithpael of T\'2n i" ^^'^ peculiar sense of "eagerly working at," 
and the employment of a word unknown to Biblical Hebrew, which 

terminates with n"TT (''""^ '^)-* 

But the chief interest of the inscription lies in the indication it affords 
of the extent to which writing was known and practised among the Jews 
in tlie early age to which it belongs. It thus confirms the testimony of 
•those Old Testament scriptures which claim to have been wi'itten during 
the oldest period of the Jewish State. And its evidence will have to be 
■considered in future enquiries as to the epoch at which the Phoenician 
alphabet was first introduced among the Hebrew people. Above all, 
its discovery leads us to hope that other Hebrew inscriptions of an 
ancient date are yet to be found in Jerusalem itself. "Underground 
Jerusalem" has been as yet but little explored, and if we may find a 
record of the kind in a spot which is easily accessible, and has been not 
unfrequently visited, what discoveries may we not expect to make 
hereafter when the Temple area can be thoroughly investigated, and the 
subterranean watercourses of the capital of the Jewish monarchy laid 
open to view. 

Transliteration of the Inscription in the Hebrew Square 

Character. 

{^mr}) -nvn : nnp?:in . nna v) . n"^n . n^i : nnpMn) . p i 

:p:i . ^v'> . nip^\ii;« . on^^nn . i3n(n)n . [^nlnp:: ^ 

^':h^^ , ]n(:i) . ^« 

(n)t 2'2Tin . tr^-^ . h:^ . (Dni^n . nn(i)p(i)n . nn«n « 

* M. Dereinbourg has suggested that tlie S''V10 of line 5 is to be identified 
with the N^'ID of the Talmud. See Neubauer, "La Geographie du Talmud," 
pp. 152, 153. The Talmudical Motsa, however, is described as being near 
Jerusalem, not as forming part of the city, and as also bearing the Greek name 
of Kolonia {Alhenmum, May 14tli, 1881). 



DISCOVERED AT THE POOL OF SILOAM. 149 



Translation. 

Behold the excavation ! Now this is the further side {or the history) 
of the tunnel. While the excavators were lifting up the pick, each to- 
wards his neighbour, and while there were yet three cubits to the mouth 
(of the tunnel) the excavators were hewing. Each came to his neighbour 
at a measure's length (?) .... in the rock on high ; and they worked 
eagerly at (the) castle they had excavated (?) ; the excavators worked 
eagerly each to meet the other, pick to pick. And the waters flowed 
from then- outlet to the Pool for a distance of a thousand cubits, from the 
lower part (0 of the tunnel (which) they excavated at the head of the 
excavation here." 

Commentary. 
Line 1. The sense obviously requires ^J~f, for which there is just 

room. I had conjectured that this word ought to be read when I received 
Mr. Filter's copy. In this he has two characters which are cleai-ly ^pf 

followed by a point. His copy, however, shows no trace of a j^ before the 
next word, though without it the grammar would be awkward, and I 
have therefoi'e ventured to supply the missing letter. I was unable myself 
to make out the first letter's of this line. 

I read T\'2p'2i ! ^^^^- Filter's copy has nDp(!2» ^^ which case we had 
better translate " tunnel " rather than " excavation." The verb means 
" to bore " and is therefore well fitted to denote the construction of a 
tunnel. In Assyrian it is used of the construction of watercourses. For 
a similar signification of jl^p^ in Hebrew see Is. li, 1. HIlpQ 
should not be rendered "hammer" as in the A. V. (1 Kings 6, 7; 
Is. xliv, 12 ; Jer. x, 4), but " boring- tool" as is plain from this inscription. 
The name of Macchabseus, therefore, even supposing it were written 
^2p^ and not ''^^D ^'^ i* i^' would not mean " the hammer." 

The chai-acter which precedes "^^ is unfortunately doubtful. My 
first copy gave p, but "^^p is used in Hebrew only of graves, not of 
excavations genei^illy. In my third copy I made the character |^ ; 
"^^n» however, for Tl3,n would give but poor sense, and the grammar 
would be awkward. Mr. Filter's copy has ^, like the. facumile published 
by the Falestine Exploration Fund in their last Quarterly Statement ; 
this is obviously impossible. Dr. Neubauer has suggested "^3,1, which 
would give the meaning required, and agree with the Biblical style. 
I wish I could adopt it without misgiving, but my copies agree in 
delineating a loop rather than an angle, and I am therefore inclined 
to read 'yy^, supposing the sense to be that the lower end of the tunnel 
where the inscription is engi-aved had been the further side of the 
excavation, which was begun first at the other end. 

After 'n^^ comes a fracture of the rock, and it is possible that more 
letters ought to be supplied than those with which I have conjee 



•\cO THE ANCIENT HEBREW INSCRIPTION 

turally filled up the lacuna. After ^i there is not room for more than 
two letters, and CH^Jin ^» spelt defectively without "^ in line 4. 

I believe my restoration of y^^Tl is certain. The last letter is clear ; 
the preceding one, though much obliterated, can only be a 7, and before 
that comes a small triangular cake of lime which is too small to represent 
a daleth, and can therefore only be y. The sense given by "h^Tl is j«st 
that which is wanted. 

Line 2. rr\2 mvxst signify "a pick " here, not an " axe." This will 

be also its meaning in 1^ Kings vi, 7. 

For the Biblical idiom '\\^'y ^^ ^T^^i^, " each to the other," see Judges 
vi, 29 ; 1 Sam. x, 11, &c. The old form ')y-) is found in Jer. vi, 21. 
m'. Halevy was the first to notice that '^^''^ is a defective spelling of 
'^*i^. It is similar to the defective spelling of □n^jl. The spelling 
throws light on the etymology of the Phoenician relative pronoun \^^, 
which will have originally meant "man," and accordingly had no 
connection with the Hebrew relative "^^T^^, which originally signified 
" place." Over the first letter of '\yy is a mark, which does not seem to 
be a mere accidental scratch, but which I cannot explain. 

Instead of pIT^i^ "^^^ ought to have had r\72i^- I" ^^^^ ''"^st line, however, 
the eno-raver has^nade the final letter of a feminine noun in the construct 
state ;-j instead of ]-|, and it would therefore seem that the tendency of 
Hebrew to change final th into h had in his case gone considerably further 
than in the classical language of the Old Testament. If so, the inscription 
will afford us an interesting specimen of the local dialect of Jerusalem. 

We may notice that the article is expressed in writing in nCilT'' 
in contradistinction to -^^j:! in the following line. 

After the break in this line, caused by the fracture of the rock, we 
have, according to my copy, the lower part of a letter which is either a Q, 
a "I, or a TT ; then a point ,- then the remains of a character which may be 
either J^ or p, and then space for two letters, one of which I have copied 
very doubtfully as p\. The other copies give no help. As the sense 
requires the third pers. pi. of a verb, I supply the final ^ and read 
conjecturally I^Jp, " they hewed off." See Hab. ii, 10. The sense shows 

that we have to supply i^ before the final X^. 

Line 3. Here my copies would make the first character ^. HID' 
however, and the word which follows it, are extremely puzzling. The 
three last letters of the second word are certain, and are among the 
clearest characters in the whole inscription. Yet the only Hebrew root 
with which they can be brought into connection is -["^f, " to seethe." It 
is curious that Mr. Filter's copy has n!Jn instead of niD. " ""^ea^®'^^^^ 
bread," whi(ih reminds us of the use of the hiphil of -]*)) in Gen. xxv, 29, 
in the sense of preparing food. But neither the context nor the grammar 
agree with this reading, whereas my pjT^ s"its the passage well. Of the 
next word I can make nothing ;. the last three chai-acters, as I have said. 



DISCOVERED AT THE TOOL OF SILOAM. lol 

are certain, and the first seems certainly 1. At all events that is the 
reading of all my three copies, as ^vell as of Mr. Filter's copy. 

For the construction of nQ» «^^ Numb, xxiii, 3 ; Judg. ix, 48. 

Dr. Neubauer is clearly right in suggesting pIT^p^ written defectively 

for r\r2^p■ 

The verb which follows is certified by its recurrence in the next line. 
In the latter line, the second letter has to be supplied, which I suppose to 
be the J^ of Hitlii)ael, though Dr. Neubauer suggests (with less probability, 
I think) -^^n Xil- 111 Biblical Hebrew, n^PI n^eans to " expect " or 

" desire eagerly ; " here the Hithpael would have the sense of "working 
eagerly at " a thing. 

If my reading is right, n"^'^^ would be the castle at the north- 
eastern corner of the Temple area, near the Virgin's Pool, which is men- 
tioned in Neh. ii, 8 ; vii, 2, and is called Bnpis by Josephus (" Antiq.," 
15, 11, 4), the Antonia of the Romans. In this case, the word would 
not be a late one, as is usually assumed. The omission of the article 
may be explained by the use of the word as a proper name. In 1 Chron. 
xxix, 1, 19, Bo-dh is used for the whole Temple. Mr. Filter's copy has 
n?2^D. instead of HT^H' ^^* *^i^ i^ untranslateable. 

Line 4. The first word of this line is difficult both to read and to 
construe. Iily copies have "^l^nC]!)!! . Dp3' which is also the reading 
of Mr. Schick's /acs/m7e ; but I cannot translate it. Mr. Filter, how- 
ever, reads , rilp2' placing the jjoint after the pf though, it is true, 
he seems to read only one he, and this reading, with much hesitation, I 
have ventured to adopt. 

It is, however, very probable that Dr. Neubauer is right in making 
pj-^l^ a compound of the preposition "2, and then reading ^p2 with the 
translation : " And they worked eagerly in the . . . . at a hole." 

For the phrase 1^-) T^^^h U?t^ compare Gen. xv, 10. We may 

notice that Hlp^ f'^^" ni^'^pT' i^ written defectively. 

The waw conversive of 1^~il1 unmistakeably marks the Hebrew character 
of the inscription. It may be added that M. Stanislas Guyard has lately 
pointed out the existence of a " true " waiv conversive in Assyrian (" Re- 
cueil de Travaux relatifs a la Fhilologie et a I'Archeologie egyptiennes 
et assyriennes," ii, 4, p. 135, note 5). 

The scriptio plena of ^i^1^ is remarkable. In Biblical Hebrew we 
find only the Kal formatives i^^^T^^ Mi^^iltD' "ot the Hiphil i^i^'^^. 

nD"^2 is the common Biblical term for the " pools " or " reservoirs " 
which existed at Jerusalem and elsewhere. We may observe that the 
Fool of Siloam is called " the B'rechah " par excellence, as though it 
were the chief reservoir at the time the inscription was made. 

■ij-)^^^ I explain as a compound of the preposition -3, and the 
noun "ijni^Dj ^ scriptio plena of the Biblical ^j^^. In the Bible the 



152 THE ANCIENT HEBKEW INSCRIPTION 

word is used only of time, but it properly means " extension," and the 
temporal use of it is derived from the local one. 

Throughout the inscription Vf2 is written in its uncontracted form. 

This cannot be regarded as an Aramaism, but, on the contrary, as a mark 
of antiquity, like the use of 'ijnh5D "^ ^ local sense. 

Line 6. The first word of line 6 is certainly nPli^n. The sense 
seems to require some word parallel in meaning to J«^^^'^Q. I can 
think only of jiniHi '<^^^pk being written as in "^^i^^j '-^^^^^ ^'■^ taking 
the place of tau, as in the H^i*^ of the second line. But I must con- 
fess that the meaning of " lower part " would be more suitable to the 
Siloam end of the tunnel than to the other, to which it refers. It 
may, however, signify the grooved channel in the floor of the conduit, 
through which the water flows. 

The next word is read nHlp^n ^y ^^- Neubauer, doubtless cor- 
rectly. 

The noun ^^H) with the form of abstracts like Qtrt*5) i^ ^^^ found 

T T 

in Biblical Hebrew, ^^H^ taking its place. The participle ^^H ^^ 
used of the quarrymen who cut the stone for Solomon's temple in 
1 Kings v, 15 (Heb. v. 29). 

J^^ is used adverbially, as in Dan. x, 17. 1 could see no point 
between it and ^2?nn> ''^^^ therefore conclude that it was regarded as an 
enclitic. 

Additional Note. — Since the above was written. Dr. Neubauer has 
made two happy suggestions, which not only explain the difficult passage 
in line 3, but are also of great topographical importance. He proposes 
to make the first letter of ptH^^ ^^^ preposition as in "^^^j and to regard 
TT^l as a geogi-aphical name Yerah. The translation will accordingly be : 
"They worked eagerly at the excavation in Yerah." Now Yerah at once 
reminds us of the famous passage in Gen. xxii, 14, where Dr. Neubauer's 
suggestion justifies us in the rendering, " of which it is said to-day, in the 
mount of the Lord Yerah." Here the name is identified with the Temple- 
mount, that is, with the very part of Jerusalem in which the tunnel was 
excavated. But more than this, Yerah is the same word as Yeru, and 
Yeru forms the first part of Jerusalem. Since Melchizedek is called King 
of Salem, it is possible that the western portion of Jerusalem was 
originally known as Salem, the Temple-mount being Yerah or Yeru, the 
enclosure of the two sites within one wall giving rise to the compound 
name Jerusalem. It is noticeable that tlie punctuators make the latter 
word a dual. Dr. Neubauer's other suggestion is equally attractive. He 
would read HTP^^ 7T^^ ^^'^ render " to Motsah of Yeru-ziddah." 
Motsah was a place belonging to Benjamin, and near Jerusalem, according 
to Josh, xviii, 26, and my copy shows that the character I have read as 
daleth is not formed like the other daleths of the inscription, but like the 
left hand part of the tsadhe. With Yeru-ziddah, I would venture to 
compare the still unexplained name of Bezetha, on the north-east side of 
Jerusalem. Bezetha might very well represent Beth-Zidtha. 



PISCOVERED AT THE POOL OF SILOAM. 153 

Dr. Neubauer has also drawn my attention to Is. viii, 6 : " Forasmuch 
as this people refnseth the waters of Shiloah that go softly," where we 
should rather render " despiseth." The passage looks as if Ahaz had 
made a conduit for the rapid passage of the waters of Siloah, while the 
people ironically said of them that they went only softly. In this case the 
tunnel in which the inscription has been found would have been either 
constructed or repaired by Ahaz. 

After the above had been revised, I read the article of Dr. Kautzsch 
on the Inscription in the last number of the Zeitschrift des deutschen 
Palaestina-Vereins (iv. 1, 2), but learned nothing from it. A "copy" 
of the Inscription is published, which is as incorrect as that published in 
the last Quarterly Statement of the "Palestine Exploration Fund," and 
Dr. Kautzsch's readings based upon it are naturally worthless, as is also, 
for the same reason, his supposition that the Inscription is not older than 
the age of Hezekiah. 



n 

POSTSCRIPT. 



A FEW words may be added by way of supplement and correction to the 
above. In the first place, an important argument on behalf of its antiquity 
may be drawn from the fact that the modern Pool of Siloam is called 
in it simply " the Pool." This implies that no other artificial re- 
servoir of the kind existed at the time in Jerusalem. We are thus 
referred to an earlier epoch than the age of Isaiah, who mentions no less 
than four reservoirs, "the upper pool" (Is. vii, 3;, "the lower pool" 
(Is. xxii, 9), " the old pool " (Is. xxii, 11), and the newly made " ditch," or 
more properly "tank" {ib.). The latter, I fancy, was the reservoir still 
existing to the south of the Pool of Siloam, which I am inclined to identify 
with " the old pool." The Pool of Siloam is called " the pool of Siloah by 
the king's garden," iji Neh. iii, 15, and "the king's pool," in Neh. ii, 14, 
a designation which seems to show that it had been constructed by some 
famous sovereign. We know of none before the time of Ahaz and 
Hezekiah who could have executed the work, except either David or 
Solomon. As no other artificial reservoir appears to have existed in 
Jerusalem when the inscription was engraved, it is more probable that 
the reservoir was made shortly after the conquest of Jebusi by David, and 
the encirclement of the new capital by a single wall, than when the Temple 
was actually being built. 

It is difficult to suppose that the reservoir existed before the conduit 
which supplied it with water from " the dragon well," as it is termed in 
Neh. ii. 13. I believe, therefore, that the reference in Is. viii, 6-^" foras- 
much as this people refnseth the waters of Shiloah that go softly," — must 
be to the reparation of the tunnel by Ahaz, not to its original excavation. 
Ahaz had cleared out the passage, and so allowed the^water to flow rapidly 



154 THE ANCIENT HEBREW INSCRIPTION, ETC. 

through it ; his disaffected subjects ironically declared that it went only 
slowly. 

The two culs de sac found in the conduit, occur, according to Colonel 
Warren's measurements, at a distance of 900 feet from its outlet into the 
Pool of Siloam. The two false cuttings " go in for about 2 feet each " on 
either side of the tunnel. Here, therefore, must have been the place in the 
middle of the conduit where the two bodies of workmen met, to find that 
they had not followed exactly the same line, but that the ends of their two 
tunnels overlapped each other. A passage was accordingly cut from the 
one to the other, the space between the two turning out to be not more 
than the average breadth of the conduit itself. 

Since the publication of my pamphlet, I have received a letter from 
Mr. Filter, in answer to my qviestions about certain doubtful characters in 
the inscriptions. Another visit to the inscription for the purpose of 
specially studying the doubtful letters I had indicated, has had the 
following result. In the first line the reading "^2,1 is settled, the first 
character of the work being unmistakably a daleth, not an ^ai/in. We 
must therefore translate "This is the history of the excavation." It is 
further clear that the inscription was originally intended to commence 
with the words "Behold the excavation," and that the smooth upper part 
of the tablet tvas intentionally left uninscribed. 

In the third line Mr. Filter reads n"TT Or\) "^ H (^ .) !^^' ^e may 
therefore look upon the reading Motsah Yeru-siddah as fairly certain, 
since my copies leave no doubt that the point follows the pf, and does not 
precede it, while the doubtful letter can well be a resh. At the end of the 
line Mr. Filter still reads HT^^H. ^ believe, however, that I distinctly 

saw ni^tn. 

At the beginning of line 4, Mr. Filter finds "^^p . H^p^^ *^® ^^^^ word 
being " clear." This is very satisfactory, and does away with the necessity 
of assuming the difficult Mthpael form. Mi\ Filter adds Ihat some of the 
letters are no longer so clear and distinct as they were ; " perhaps 
Dr. Guthe's repeated washings of the stones to get rid of our candle-grease, 
and make his own gypsum cast, have washed away some of the lime 
deposited, which was so useful to us." 

A. H. Sayce. 



155 

III. 

The Date of the Siloam Inscription. 

Professor Sayce has, I believe, ovei'lnoked certain considerations whicli 
bear on the date to be assigned to the Siloam inscription. 

On p. 145, he gives it as his opinion that it represents an earlier stage 
of the Semitic alphabet than the Moabite Stone, and he assigns it with 
some confidence to the time of Solomon. On p. 152, however, with 
his usual candour, he draws attention to an historical argument of 
gi-eat weight, brought forward by Dr. Neubauer, which would bring 
the date down to the reign of Ahaz. But the pateographical evidence, he 
argues, is " wholly " in favour of the earlier date. 

On the other hand, I think that it may be maintained that the palgeo- 
graphical probabilites, as well as the historical evidence, are in favour of 
the later dat«. 

The Moabite stone belongs to the beginning of the 9th century b.c. 
If the Siloam inscription is of the time of Solomon, it would belong to the 
beginning of the 10th century, if to the time of Ahaz to the middle of 
the 8th. Here then is a very definite issue. To the practised eye of the 
paleographer, there ought to be no great difficulty in deciding whether the 
inscription is either a century older, or more than a century later than the 
reign of Mesha. 

The sole argument urged by Professor Sayce in favour of the earlier 
date is that three of the Siloam letters, tsadhe, ^vaw, and zayin, seem to 
him of more archaic forms than on the Moabite Stone. At the same time 
he admits that several other letters belong to the more recent type which 
is used in the legends on the ancient Hebrew seals. 

Now even if we admit the assumption as to the antiquity of the forms 
of the three letters, the conclusion by no means follows. It may be laid 
down as a pateogi-aphic canon, that the date of an inscription is to be 
determined by reference to the most recent rather than to the most 
archaic forms which it contains. The presence of one or two late forms is 
decisive evidence of the late date of a whole inscription, while the presence 
of one or two early forms is of no very great significance, as they can be 
accounted for as local survivals. For example, in Athenian inscriptions of 
the 5th century, we find the archaic form of the lambda, V , whereas the 
new form A has already made its api)earance in the Greek alphabet in the 
7th century, as is evidenced by the Abu Simbel inscription. The old form 
of the lambda at Athens is clearly a mere survival, and it would be prepos- 
terous on such a ground to argue that an inscription such as the Erechtheum 
survey must be antedated by three centuries, and assigned to a time earlier 
than the reign of Psammetichus. But this is in fact what Professor Sayce 
has done, when he ante-dates his inscription on the sole evidence of two 
or three letters which seem to exhibit exceptionally early forms. 

It must be contended that such a mode of argument is illegitimate, and 



156 THE DATE OF THE SILOAM INSCRIPTION. 

that the Siloam inscription, like all other inscriptions, must have its date 
determined by reference to the age of the most recent of the forms which 
it exhibits. 

Now at least half of the Siloam letters appear in forms which are 
unmistakably later than those on the Moal^ite Stone. The curvature to 
the left of the tails of the tailed letters, viz., beth, kaph,mim, nun, and/»e is 
more pronounced than on the Moabite Stone. Here we see in operation one 
of the chief causes which ultimately transformed the old Semitic alphabet. 
The cheth with three bars is also later than the Moabite form with two bars, 
and so is q^oph, whose head is partly opened, while the earlier form is 
completely closed. 

But an argument to which still greater weight must be assigned is 
derived from the variant forms in which the letters aleph, waw, mim, and 
resh are written. The old Moabite forms of these four letters are used in 
the Siloam inscription side by side with the later forms, which subsequently 
supplanted them. These letters establish decisively the fact that the Siloam 
alphabet is a transition alphabet, belonging to a period intermediate 
between the Moabite alphabet of the 9th century, and the newer forms by 
which in the 6th century they were replaced. 

Eefei'ring to the Siloam alphabet given by Professor Sayce on p. 144, 
the first aleph is the form on the Moabite Stone, while the second is the 
6th centm\y form which is found in the Gebal and the Nora inscriptions, 
and also on the early Hebrew shekels, which are ascribed by de Saulcy 
and Lenormant to the times of Ezra and Nehemiah. Again, the first form 
of resh approximates to the Moabite form, while the second is later. The 
same is the case with luaw. The second form in Professor Sayce's table 
is Moabite, while the first, instead of being earlier, as Professor Sayce 
alleges, is decisively later, as is proved by its being used on the early 
shekels of the time of Ezra. 

The two forms of mim, however, yield an argument so conclusive that 
they would by themselves suftice to settle the controversy. We actually 
have in the Siloam inscription, side by side, the two forms of this letter 
which are commonly used as the most convenient test to distinguish 
between the first and second epochs of the Semitic alphabet. The earlier, 
or zigzag form, is essentially the same as the Moabite form, and occurs 
twelve times. In the form which it had during the second epoch, with 
the horizontal bar and the cross stroke, the letter occurs twice, in lines 
3 and 5. Now this later form is not found on the Moabite Stone, or in 
the earlier Phoenician inscriptions, or on the Assyrian Lion weights 
which belong to the beginning of the 8th century. On the other hand, 
it is found on the Eshmunazar sarcophagus, in the Gebal inscription, in 
the second Sidonian, and many other inscriptions from the 6th century 
downwards. On the Assyrian contract tablets, however, which belong 
to the 7th century, it is usually found, but occasionally approxi- 
mates to the earlier form. Now in the Siloam inscription, the Moabite, 
or 9th century form appears twelve times, and the Sidonian or 6th 
century form appears twice. In the 7th century, as we learn from 



THE DATE OF THE SILOAM INSCRIPTION. 157 

the coutract tablets, the old form had nearly disappeared ; while at the 
time when the Siloam inscription was engraved, the new form was just 
beginning to come in. The evidence furnished by this letter alone might 
enable us with considerable confidence to assign the Siloam inscription to 
the middle of the 8th century, the exact date of the reign of Ahaz. 

Professor Sayce bases his sole argument for the early date on the 
assumption that the forms of the three lettere, wmv, znyin and tsadhe are 
older than those on the Moabite Stone. Even if this were the case, his 
conclusion would by no means follow, the later forms of mim and other 
letters affording decisive proof that the more archaic forms must be 
regarded only as survivals. 

But I cannot even admit that the forms of these three letters have 
the antiquity that is claimed for them. Much, no doubt, may be said in 
favour of the archaism of the forms of tsadhe and zaijin, but with regard 
to waw, the very form which Professor Sayce considers to be so ancient is 
actually the later Hebrew form, exactly as found on the shekels of the time 
of Ezra, and manifestly the transition form from which the Asmonean 
letter was obtained. Both zayin and tsadhe are letters of comparatively 
rare occurrence, and the evidence as to their history is therefore scanty. 
The letter zayin does not happen to be met with on any of the early 
shekels, but the looped form, which Professor Sayce considers to be so 
early, is found on the coinage of Bar Cochba, which was imitated from the 
earlier shekels, and has actually been ti-ansmitted to the modem 
Samaritan alphabet. 

As to the very peculiar shape of tsadhe, it seems impossible that it can 
have been the parent of the Moabite form, but on the other hand it can be 
connected without much difficulty with the form on one of the early 
shekels. On the whole, it may be affirmed that the weight of the evidence 
tends to show that Professor Sayce's three archaic letters are merely local 
Hebrew forms, and decidedly posterior to the Moabite letters. 

The conclusion, therefore, is that out of the twenty letters in the 
Siloam inscription eleven or twelve exhibit forms later than the Moabite 
Stone, that not one is decisively earlier, and that even if this were the case, 
. it would not affect the argument. Indeed, if it were not for the early 
forms of he and lamed, it would not be impossible to bring the inscrip- 
tion down almost to the time of the Captivity. The palaeographic proba- 
bilities tend, however, very strongly to support the ingenious conjecture of 
Dr. Neubauer that the conduit was excavated in the reign of Ahaz, that is 
about the middle of the 8th ceutui-y. 

It may be noted in conclusion that the Siloam inscription throws 
valuable light on the date and affiliation of the South Semitic alphabets. 
The peculiar double-looped form of tsadhe connects itself with the double- 
looped forms of this letter, which cliaracterize the South Semitic alphabets, 

e.g., the Himyaritic Q, the Harra Q , and the Thugga 3 • So again the 
looped zaijin is connected with the Himyaritic form of the letter 
5$ which is also looped. Isaac Taylor. 



158 

LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 

I. 

Beyrout, 22nd April, 1881. 

Having reached Beyrout on the 29th March, and being unable to 
commence actual operations until the arrival of our men, stores, and 
instruments, which were not due for a month, we cast about for some 
useful occupation of the time which must thus of necessity intervene — the 
month of April being one of the best in the year for held operations. Our 
projected field of action in the Hauran was for the moment closed, in 
consequence of difficulties between the Turks and the Druzes ; while the 
time necessary for travelling to the Sea of Galilee, and for making any 
really useful explorations on its shores, would have been so loug as to 
interfere with our other plans. We therefore determined to devote a 
fortnight to the investigation of a question which is probably of gi-eater 
antiquarian interest than any other, of those as yet unsettled in Northern 
Syria, namely, the recovery and exploration of the sacred southern capital 
of the Hittites — the famous city of Kadesh on the Orontes. 

For this purpose we hired horses and tents, and armed with a circular 
letter from the W41y at Damascus, kindly obtained by the Consul (Mr. 
J ago), we left Beyrout on the 1st of April — the third day after our 
disembarkation — and journeying across the Lebanon to Zahleh and 
Baalbek, pushed northwards to the lake and town of Homs, returning by 
the pass between Lebanon and the Anseirlyeh mountains to Trijx)Ii, where 
we were caught by the equinoctial gales, and whence, after the delay of 
two days due to the storm, we returned to Beyrout on the 17th April. 
The expedition was more successful in its results than we had hoped, and 
Lieutenant Mantell was not less of opinion than I am myself disposed to 
be, that the discovery of the true site of Kadesh — a city as old as the time 
of Moses at least — has been the reward of our investigations. 

Baalbek. 

We were detained for two days at Baalbek awaiting the Wixly's letter ; 
and our studies were, I hope, not without interest. Several inscriptions in 
the temple-fortress are enumerated by M. Waddington, and others were 
shown to me in 1873 by Mr. Wright ; but one which we lit upon, in a 
small ruined chamber behind the northern apse of the basilica of Theodosius 
in the great court, is possibly unknown. It is wi-itten in long naiTOW 
letters rudely jiainted in red on white plaster, and has been partly 
obliterated by the fall of the plaster. The form of the letters seems to 
indicate Byzantine origin, and the inscription seems probably to be of the 
date of the erection of this basilica (379 to 395 A.D.). It occupies a space 
of 1 foot 9 inches by 3 feet 3 inches, but there are traces of other letters to 
the right. On the left no further letters can have existed, the inscription 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S TtEPOllTS. 159 

being close to the south-west corner of the AJiult, near the ground. After 
carefully cleaning tha plaster the following letters became clearly visible : 

npoi'H 

N . . . P . . A , . 
TONPY , . . ENAYA . , 
P0CAAMBANi2N«>WCKAIAN 
Y . . . OYnPO*AieY . O , 

I have not the means at hand for attempting to decipher this text, 
although several words, including the TvpoffKafx^avuiv (pcos of the fourth 
line, are easily legible. It may be noted that the peculiar form of the Q 
(which resembles a W), is observable in another inscription at Baalbek, 
namely, in the round temple which was dedicated in later times by the 
Christians to St. Barbara. Here, on the stones of the interior, is painted a 
red cross on a white ground in a yellow circle, with the inscription tovtcovIkt], 
the form of the O being that of a W. There are many other crosses 
cut on this building, and also on the bases of the columns in the Temple of 
the Sun, or smaller temple. It is curious to observe that the basilica of 
Theodosius has its apses at the west end, showing that the practice of 
orientation was not invariably adopted until after the close of the fourth 
century — a conclusion which agrees with the direction of Constantine's 
basilica at Jerusalem. 

The basilica of Theodosius is built on the same central line with the 
gi-eat temple, of which only the six pillars remain. Lieutenant Mantell 
took careful azimuth and altitude observations, which determine the 
bearing of this line as 77° east of true north. The sun rises on this line on 
April 28th and August 14th (as nearly as can be determined), and sets on 
February 24th and October 17th. 

It may be remarked that the mourning for the sun-god Thammuz 
occurred in the sixth month of the Jewish year on the fifth day (£zek, viii, 
1-14), or about the middle of August — as nearly as can be reckoned 
considering the periodical intercalation of the Veadar month. This 
mourning was succeeded by a joyful feast three days later. Possibly the 
orientation of the Sun Temple may have some connection with tlie 
rising of the sun on this line on the 14th August. It is also noticeable 
that the Jebel Sunnin appears on the west framed by the pillars of the 
great temple, the centre line of which passes about 3° to the left of the 
apparent summit. "Whether this be designedly so arranged, or is merely 
accidental, seems doubtful. 

The inscriptions on the bases of the two columns of the portico at 
Baalbek, attrilouting the erection of this sanctuary, built in honour " of all 
the gods of Heliopolis," to Antoninus Pius, and to Julia Domna, wife of 
Septimus Severus, and daughter of Bassiauus, priest of the sun at Emesa 
(Homs), are well known. In the southern vault, by which the great plat- 
form is usually reached, there is, on one of the keystones, a bust of Hercules 
in high relief, with the inscription DIVISIO MOSCI, as recorded by 
M. Waddington. In the southern parallel vault are inscriptions shown to 

M 



160 LIEUTENAXT CONDER S EEPOETS. 

me iu 1873 by Mr. W. AVriglit, also ou keystones of the arclied roof ; the 
first, on the east, DIVISIO CHON ; the second near the west, CIESV. In 
the same vault is one keystone ornamented with a female bust in high relief, 
and another with some floral emblems. These are scarcely visible in the 
darkness, but the vaults were originally lighted by windows in the arches, 
which are now filled up with rubbish. 

On the north side of the great court are other fragments of inscrip- 
tions on pedestals projecting from the walls, doubtless once supporting 
statues. I do not know whether thej^ have been previously copied, but 
they are apparently too fragmentary to have any value. The first 
noticed is : — 

. . OnOCI . . . NEMI 

The second to the left : — 

10 . . LANAA. 

As the temples of Baalbek were dedicated to all the gods, it becomes of 
interest to study the symbolism of the niches and other decorated 
portions. One of the alcoves on the north wall of the great court has 
five niches with carved roofs, the central one having a head of the sun- 
god surrounded with lays, like that at Eukhleh on Hermon. On the 
left is a niche with the figure of a man, and another with an eagle 
flying among stars. On the right the design represents fishes swimming 
on a great shell ; the fifth design is unfortunately obliterated, but 
perhaps represented some kind of beast, all creation being thus shown 
surrounding the sun-god. 

. Among the busts carved on the roof of the colonnade surrounding 
the smaller temple may be recognised Diana -with her quiver, Ceres with 
the cornucopia, a winged genius — perhaps Eros or Ganymede, a warrior 
— possibly Mars, a graceful Dionysius with bunches of grapes, and other 
figures with attributes less easily interpreted. Dr. Eobinson speaks of 
one as a Leda. Hercules with his lion's skin and club is sculptm'ed, as 
above noted, in the southern vault. On the west side of the colonnade 
lies a portion of the fallen roof, with a design representing a female 
suckUng an infant— probably one of the nurse-goddesses of Asia. The 
size of this block may be imagined by the fact that innumerable names 
of visitors have been written on a single fold of the drapery. 

The frieze which is sculptured on the retaining wall of the raised 
western cella of the smaller temple has been mutilated by later occu- 
pants of the place; but it is sufficiently preserved to show that it 
originally represented some kind of religious dance. One figure blows 
a long pipe, a second appears to have some kind of horn, a 'Pan's 
pipe lies at the foot of the latter, and to the left the thyrsus is 
plainly visible in the hand of a long robed figure with floating hair. 
Beneath this cella is a vault, in which a tomb was discovered, containing 
human bones and other relics. These would probably belong to the 
Christian period, when this temple was converted into a church. 

The exterior masonry at Baalbek is generally drafted, though not with 
the regularity of the Temple walls at Jerusalem. A careful examination 



LIEUTENANT CONDEIl's KEPORTS. 161 

shows, however, that the totJing of the stones is entirely different. 
Those at Jerusalem were worked with a toothed instrument, while at 
Baalbek a pointed chisel had been employed. The criss cross dressing 
never appeai-s at Baalbek, and seems to be distinctive of the Herodian 
masonry at Jerusalem. In 1873, Mh Wright pointed out on the north 
wall some Greek masons' marks, but I was unable to find these again, 
perhaps in consequence of the direction of the light. 

Maguificent as is the ornamentation of these great temples, the work 
seems never to have been completed. We were much struck with 
evidences of unfinished work ; caijitals sketched in stone, but not cut out ; 
mouldings terminating suddenly, and leaving an unfinished line along the 
cornice. At the great height at which many of these details are placed, 
the imperfections are invisible ; but in many cases, when closely examined, 
there can be no doubt that the design has never been completely worked 
out. 

From Baalbek we travelled along the western slojDes of the Antile- 
l.ianon, passing Nahleh, which preserves the Hebrew na,me Nachal ("a 
Torrent "), due to the fine stream in the gorge beneath, and where are 
remains of a temple ; Lebweh, the Libo of the Antonine Itinerary, near 
io which is one of the principal sources of the Orontes ; and the village, 
El 'Ain, which seems not improbably to be the Biblical Ain (Num. xxxiv, 
2), south of Eiblah ; and on the evening of this day {6th), we reached 
Eas Baalbek, where we found Christian ruins and a tradition of a ruined 
monastery, with a holy spring, the water of which was said to give mUk 
to any nursing mother who might make a i:)ilgrimage to the spot — a 
tradition which may be found in other parts of Palestine, as, for instance, 
at Bethlehem. 

From Kas Baalbek we rode north-Avest to visit the fine blue pool of 
'Ain el 'Asy, the largest source of Oroates, situated in a desolate gorge 
under Lebanon, and thence to the little mediaeval hermitage of Mar 
Martin, where the ISIaronite saint is said to have had his eyes put out by a 
certain Nicola. The caves are situated in a cliff east of the river, and look 
down on the rushing stream beneath. A masonry wall, with loopholes, once 
protected the passage in front of the caves — a narrow ledge of rock ; the 
site was one well fitted for a hermitage, and similar caves occur west of 
the river, a few miles further north, at a site called Magharet er Eahib 
(" Monk's Cave "). 

Kamu'a el Hikmil. 

About noon we I'eached the conspicuous monument called Kamfi'a 
el Hirmil, from the village of Hirmil, which is not far from it, on the 
opposite or western side of the Orontes. The KamA'a (" Monument ") is 
perhaps the most cons])icuous landmark in Syria, standing on the summit 
of swelling downs of black basalt, with a view extending northwards in 
the vicinity of Homs, and southwards in fine weather to Hermou. We 
carefully measured and sketched the details of the monument, but it has 

M 2 



ail t 


:liat 


given 


ft. 
3 


in. 
G 




28 







21 







26 








162 LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 

been visited by Eobinson and Vandevelde, and the beautiful drawings of 
detail made by the latter (novp in possession of Mr. W. Dickson, in 
Edinburgh) leave little to be desired. The building appears to have been 
solid, and is founded on three steps of black basalt. It measures 10 
yards side at the base, and consists of two stories each, with flat pilasters 
aiid cornice, and a pyramidal superstructure above them. The height, as 
calculated from the vertical angles taken by Lieutenant Mantell, 
appears to be as follows (a much higher estimate than that given by 
Byedieker) : — 

Tlii-ee basalt steps 

First story, including cornice 

Second „ „ „ 

Pyramid 

Total 78 6 

On the lower story are designs in relief. On the east a wild boar 
hunted by two hounds, flanked by bows and quivers, with spears and 
other implements represented above. On the north are two stags, one 
standing, one lying, with horns like the fallow deer — s^Dears and other 
weapons flank and separate them. On the west are bears, one walking 
and followed by its young one, the other rising erect. On the south-east 
the monument, which appears to have suff"ered from earthquake, has fallen 
down-; and the design on the south side is partly destroyed, the foi'e-part 
of a dog pursuing a stag being, however, still visible. 

The monument is built of coarse limestone. The walls near [its base' 
are covered with the Was^im, or " tribe mai-ks," of the Tui'komans, who 
inhabit the desolate basalt moors which stretch to the north almost to the 
shores of "ilie Lake of Horns. The details of the cornices and pilasters, 
some of which we measured carefully, appear to belong to a late period of 
classic ai't, and the whole structure seemed most to resemble the work of 
the second century a.d. in Syria. According to local ti-aditiou, the 
KamA'a is the tomb of a Eoman emperor, and there is nothing about the 
monument which seems to necessitate the idea of any earlier origin. It 
may be noted that the name GONNA occurs in the Antouine Itinerary 
between Heliopolis (Baalbek) and Laodicea (Tell Neby Mendeh), in just 
about the proper position for the KamA'a, of which name CONNA may 
be perhaps a corrui^tion. 

From the Kamfi'a we rode north-east to Eiblah (Num. xxxiv, 2), a 
large mud village, with poplars, close to the Orontes on the east bank, and 
thence to Kuseir, the seat of a Caimakam, or lieutenant-governor, lying 
some 3 miles south-east of the Lake of Homs. The following day (8th 
April) we devoted to a thorough examination of the southern and eastern 
shores of this interesting lake, and on that day we discovered the actual 
site of the great Hittite city. 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S KEI'ORTS. 1G3 



Kadesh. 

Before detailing our observations on the sjiot, it will perha^DS be best 
briefly to explain the reasons why special interest attaches to this site. 
The conquest of the great eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties of Egyptian 
kings, in the fifteenth and fourteenth centuries before Christ, extended 
over the gi-eater part of Palestine and Syria, and even as far as Asia 
Minor. Amongst their most formidable opponents were the Kheta, a 
light-coloured hairless people, wearing high caps and dresses somewhat 
similar to those of the Assyrians, but specially distinguished by their 
pointed and turned up boots, like the modern Turkish slipper. The 
Kheta are by most antiquarians identified with the Hittites who inhabited 
Northern Syria (Josh, i, 4), and who had monarchs of their own in the 
time of Solomon (1 Kings x, 29 ; 2 Kings vii, 6). Thothmes III 
encountered these formidable mountaineers in his expedition against 
Meggido, and one of the pylons at Karnak, discovered by the late 
Mariette Bey, gives a list of towns, including the names of Kinnesrin, 
Aradus, Aleppo, and other places in Northern Syria conquered by 
Thothmes III after his subjugation of the plains of Palestine and 
Galilee. 

The most important contest, was, however, that betw^een Eameses II 
and the Hittites, in the fifth year of the Egyptian monarch's reign, when 
he marched against the city of Kadesh on Orontes. A formidable league 
was formed to oppose him. The Wysians, the Teurcians, the Dardanians, 
the inhabitants of Aradus, Aleppo, and Carchemish, and even the Trojans 
(Iluna), and the tribes of Mesopotamia (Naharain), are said to have 
gathered to the Hittite standard, with many other unknowTi tribes. On 
the hieroglyphic pictures the Semitic bearded allies are distinguished by 
dress and arms from the beardless Hittites, who ai^e supposed by some 
antiquarians to have belonged to a Turanian or Turkoman race from Asia 
Minor, which had overrun and subjugated the fertile plains of the 
Orontes, and had even penetrated to the very borders of the Egyptian 
territory. 

According to the ordinary chronology, the expedition of Eameses II 
occurred while Israel was being oppressed by Jabin, King of Hazar, with 
his chariots of iron ; and, as it is clear from Egyptian records that the 
Cana^inites were allies or tributaries of the Egyptians at this period, it is 
highly probable that the iron chariots came from Egypt, and belonged to 
that formidable force of chariots which Eameses brought up to the plains 
of Kadesh to subdue the Hittites. The route pursued by Eameses was no 
doubt controlled by the impossibility of crossing rugged mountains with a 
force of chariots, and the road which we know him to have followed either 
on his return or on his advance— and probably on both occasions— led 
along the sea-coast towards Tripoli, passing the Dog Eiver north of 
Beyrout, where three tablets carved in the rocks by his order still exist. 

Thothmes III , who had attacked Kadesh in the thirtieth year of his 
reign, founded a strong fortress near Aradus (er EAad) and Zamira (es 



164 LIEUTENANT CONDElfs REPORTS. 

Sumra, near the river Eleutherus), at the foot of Lebanon, and it seems 
probable that Rameses would have advanced from the same fortress — that 
is to say, from the Western Plain across the pass which separates the 
Lebanon from the Anseiriyeh mountains, and leads from Tripoli to Horns. 
The town of Kadesh on Orontes is generally said to have been on an 
island in a lake ; but the representation in the Ramesseum at Thebes of 
the great battle between Kameses II and the Hittites appears rather to 
show a fortress surrounded by a river, and situated not far from the borders 
of a lake. The name of this river in the hieroglyphs is Arunatha, or 
Hanruta, and the city is described as lying " on the western bank of Han- 
ruta at the lake of the land of the Amorites." 

The various references to Kadesh on Orontes were kindly collected for 
me in 1880 by the Eev. H. G. Tomkyns. The portion of the great battle- 
piece representing the town is to be found copied in Sir G. Wilkinson's 
" Ancient Egyptians," vol. i, p. 257. The city is shown with a double 
moat crossed by bridges ; on the left a broad stream flows to the lake, but 
on the right the piece is obliterated, and it is impossible to see whether the 
moat ran all round, or whether the town lay between the junction of two 
streams. Three higher and two smaller towers are shown, and the Hittite 
army occupies the gTound to the left of the river, near the shores of the 
lake. 

Mr. Tomkyns also called my attention to another representation of the 
town to be found in the Deukmiiler of Lepsius (III, plates 158, 159), 
where the plan is a long oval with a single moat. Three high towers are 
seen projecting above the rest, and the moat leads downwards on the left, 
and also away on the right, no bridges being shown. 

The lake, near or in which Kadesh stood, has long been identified with 
the Baheiret Homs, or Baheiret Koteineh, the lake 6 miles long and 2 
miles broad, through which the Orontes passes between Riblah and Homs 
about 8 miles south-west of the latter town. This lake, according to Abu 
el Feda, the geographer, was called in his times Bahr et Kades ; but the 
title is no longer known, and the actual site of Kadesh was doubtful. It 
is true that an island exists in this lake, but the Egyj^tian account of the 
fight cannot be understood easily on the supposition that this island, three- 
fourths of a mile distant from the shore, was the place attacked, and I was 
never able to understand the topography of the battle until, when standing 
on the true site of Kadesh, it became suddenly all clear. 

The Egyptian army was arrayed south of the city of Shabatun, with the 
brigade of Amun behind and the brigade of Ea west of Shabatun. Shasu 
(or Arab) spies were here brought before the Pharaoh and gave false in- 
telligence to the eff'ect that the King of the Hittites was far away, near 
Aleppo, whereas he lay really in ambush behind the town of Kadesh. 
Rameses accordingly began to descend towards the region north-west of 
Kadesh, and there halted to rest. His' scouts here informed him of the 
secret which they extorted from some Hittite prisoners, and the forces 
near Shabatun were ordered to advance. The King of the Hittites passed 
over the ditch south of Kadesh and fell upon and routed the brigade of Ea, 



LIEUTENANT CONDER S KEPORTS. 



165 



which retreated " on tlie road ufwards to the place where the king was." 
Eameses was thus attacked on his right flank, and his retreat cut oiF by 
2,500 chariots of the allie?. He, however, charged the Hittites, and drove 
them before him to the Orontes, where many of their soldiers and chariots 
were lost, and where the king of Aleppo was drowned. The battle is said 
to have been " in the plain of the land of Kadesh." On the following 
morning, Eameses attacked the city, which yielded to him, and a peace 
was made with the Hittite king and written on a i)late of sUver, the text 
of which venerable treaty remains to the present day preserved in the 
official accoimt of this campaign. 

Such, then, was the problem to be solved — the discovery of a moated 
city on Orontes near the lake of Homs, in such a position as to agree with 

LAKE OF HOMS 
Ccmp3s3 Sketch 




» I km tin 

<S KotshiKh 



i^ade 



Sc»f» 4 UJei to an Inch. 
■ t ^ ? ■? f 



a Miles 



the minute description of the Egyptian scribe. This site we lit upon un- 
expectedly in the important ancient city generally known as Tell Neby 
Mendeh, situated on the left bank of Orontes about four English miles 
south of the lake of Homs : for we discovered that the name Kades was 
known to all the inhabitants of the vicinity as applying to extensive rums 
on the south side of this great Tell, while Neby Mendeh is the name of an 
important sacred shrine on the highest part of the hill, close to which a 



16G LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS, 

small Arab village has now gi-owu up. Not only is the name of Kadesh 
thus preserved, but in looking down from the summit of the Tell, we 
appeared to see the very double moat of the Egyptian picture, for while 
the stream of Oroutes is dammed up so as to form a small lake, some 50 
yards across on the south-east of the site, a fresh brook flows on the 
west and north to join the river, and an outer line of moat is formed by 
earthen banks, which flank a sort of aqueduct parallel with the main stream. 
The united waters flow northwards from the Tell, and fall into the lake of 
Homs. Thus only on the south is Kadesh not naturally protected with a 
wet ditch, and the moat may very possibly have formerly been completed 
by cutting a cross channel from Orontes to the northern stream.* 

We spent some considerable time in examining this important site, 
and in taking compass observations from the Tell. The mound is remark- 
ably conspicuous from all sides, and the view from the top is extensive. 
On the south the plain of the Buka'a is visible, stretching between the 
Lebanon and Antilebanon, as far as the ridge or shed on which the 
KamA'a ' stands up against the sky-line. To the east is the rich fertile 
plain which extends from Orontes, some 20 miles, to the foot of the 
mountains, and the fine peaks above Palmyra, streaked with patches of 
snow, form the extreme distance. On the north-east the plains of Homs 
stretch to the horizon, and great Tells, the sites of buried cities, rise from 
the flat expanse, while a dusty mound, and a few white domes and mina- 
rets, with dark gardens to the left, mark the position of Homs itself. On 
the north the long naiTOw lake gleams between its shallow marshy shores, 
and tlu'e'e large Tells, one in the water, two on the eastern shore, are 
specially consjjicuous. The north-west shore is bare and black, the basalt 
moors rising westwards, to form a long low ridge, and dotted here and 
there with black Turkoman encampments, while behind these downs is 
seen the distant chain of the Anseiriyeh mountains, with the great 
crusading fortiess of Krak des Chevaliers (Kal'at el Hosn) in a con- 
spicuous position, on the heights. 

To the south of these mountains a gap occurs, and on the west and 
south-west the ridge of Lebanon, with dusky brushvrood and rocky spui-s, 
I'ises to the snow-clad summit of the Cedars. The rich plateau east of the 
Orontes is scattered with mud villages, with here and there a grouji of 
poplars, but the basalt moors are almost entirely uncultivated. In the 
arable land a race of Fellahin, whose black beards and hooked noses bear 
a strong family likeness to the feature of the ancient Assyrians, as shown 
on the bas-reliefs, is settled ; but the Turkomans, who may perhaps be 
considered to be the modern representatives of the Hittites, are encamped 
on the moors, and are found far west in the pastures below Kal'at el Hosn. 

* Dr. Robinson states that the only traveller who had visited Tell Neby Men- 
deh in his time was Dr. Thomson, of Beyrout, who in 1846 found a ditcli running 
from Orontes to tlie stream on the west (which he calls el Mukadiyeh). 
This ditch we did not see, but it possibly exists still rather further south 
than tlie point on which we followed the stream. Dr. Thomson especially 
notices that the Tell was thus isolated on an island between the two streams. 



LIEUTENANT CONDEll'S KEPOETS. , 167 

The scene is perhaps almost unchanged from tliat on which Eameses 
looked down as he crossed the western watershed and descended to the 
south-west shores of the Hittite lake ; and the same mixture of Turanian 
and Semitic nationalities which students trace on the walls of the Eames- 
seum is still observable by the traveller in the vicinity of Kadesh. 

Dr. Eobinson, whose journey only extended as far north as Riblah, 
identifies the site of Tell Neby Mendeh with the Laodicea of Lebanon 
(also called Laodicea Scabiosa), mentioned by Ptolemy and Polybius, and 
shown on the Peutinger Tables. The distance from Homs, and the fact 
that Polybius mentions a lake and marshes near this Laodicea, serve to 
confirm this identification, which does not in any way interfere with the 
supposition that the town w.is formerly called Kadesh. Laodicea ad 
Libanum (as it is called by Strabo and Pliuy) was one of the six towns 
named by Seleucus Micator (about 300 B.C.) in honour of his mother 
Laodice ; and the fact that the site at Neby Mendeh was that of an ancient 
capital of the district, would naturally have commended it to the Greek 
monarch, while at the present day we find, as in so many other cases in 
Palestine, that the ancient Semitic appellation has survived the more 
modern foreign title, and that Laodicea is once more known as Kadesh. 

Tell Neby Mendeh is a great mound without any trace of rock — so far 
as we could see — extending about 400 yards in a direction about 40° east 
of true north. The highest part is on the north-east, where is a Moslem 
gi-aveyard looking down on gardens in the flat tongue between the two 
streams. The height is here perhaps 100 feet above the water. On the 
south-west the mound sinks gradually into the plough land. The village 
is situated about the middle of the Tell, with the shrine of Neby Mendeh 
— a large square building with a very white dome, at the north-west 
angle of the group of houses, which are rudely built of basalt chips in 
mortar, with mud roofs. Large mud ovens are erected east of the village. 
On the south-west, at the stream of el Mukadiyeh, is the Talifuiet Kades, 
a modern mill built of older materials, chiefly of basalt, and immediately 
north of this the brook is crossed by a bridge of one arch, while a second 
arch crosses the outer channel or aqueduct, these bridges being just in the 
same position in which they ajjpear on the Egyptian picture, and while on 
the one hand they are of modern masonry, on the other they lead to roads, 
the line of which is probably unaltered. The stream is fresh and flows 
quickly ; we saw a good many fish sw^imming in it, and fragments of 
column shafts lay on the ground near the mill and the bridges. 

The ]3rincipal ruins are on the flat ground east of the mill. Here in 
1864 Dr. Thomson found the peasants breaking up the stones ; and long 
trenches have been dug, from which blocks of limestone have been ex- 
cavated and carried away. The ground is strewn with chips of limestone 
and basalt, and fragments of pottery all over the ploughland. A piece of 
wall is still standing, built of small rubble in hard mortar, which is full of 
pounded pottery and charcoal, while courses of thin well-burnt bricks, 
like those used by the Romans, are built in between the courses of rubble. 
Still further east are the foundations of a building called el Kamtl'a, 



168 LIEUTEXANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 

about oO feet square, with remains of a doorway in the south-east corner. 
Some broken pillar shafts lie near, and the walls appear to huve been 
ornamented with pilasters in low relief, the details of which, as well as 
those of a fragment of cornice, resemble the moulding at KamCi'a el 
Hirmil. These probably are remains of the Laodicea of later times, for 
even in the early Christian period this city was the see of a bishop. 

Eecrossing the western bridges we followed the stream of el Muka- 
dtyeh southwards, and found lying in a field a fragment of sculpture 
representing a seated figure without head or shoulders. It was of very 
nide execution, and jirobably not very ancient. No inscription was 
visible on the stone. 

Crossing to the south of the village we regained the great dam with 
sluices which is built right across the Orontes, at the foot of the Tell on 
the east. It occuijies the position of the eastern bridge shown in the 
Egyptian picture, and thongh the masoniy is apparently modei'u, the 
foundations may perhaps be ancient. The mill on the clam has several 
fragments of ancient masoniy built into its walls, and the door lintel has 
a curious design, with an Arab inscription much defaced, and a central 
circle enclosing what appears to be a sabre or cutlass. 

Near the eastern end of the dam — which is some 25 yards or more in 
length — a Greek tombstone has been built into the causeway, and had 
apparently been lately excavated. The following letters were very clearly 
legible on the stone which lies on its side : — 

OABI 

TYMBOt'EnEI .... 

MACE AAYAXENAFN" 

AMMAlC'HNAAEinA 

TPIEC . . 0( YNHC 

TEPEIAN 

ETQN 

NA 

So far as a cursory examination throws light on the text, it would appear 
to have belonged to a priest of Emesa {AiiiJ,Laa-rjv), and to contain his age 
at the time of his death (NA). This inscription proves the late period of 
construction of the upper part of the masonry in the dam. 

The inhabitants of the village were quite unaccustomed to seeing 
Franks, and much alarmed at our appearance accompanied by soldiers. 
They denied that any inscriptions existed on the spot, and would not 
allow that they had ever found coins or other antiquities in digging. 
Nevertheless, I have rarely met with any site which seemed more likely 
to repay cai'eful examination, and it seems? highly probable that, if a mine 
could be driven through the Tell, Hittite remains might be discovered. 
It is just such a mount which has lately, at Jer^blAs (the northern Hittite 
capital of Carchemish on Euphrates), produced the valuable sculptures 
now in the British Museum. The interest taken by Professor Sayce and 
other learned authorities in the recoverv of monuments similar to the 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. IGO 

Hamatli stones aud tlie inscriptions of Carclieniish and Asia Minor, 
would, I think, lead them to attach great importance to a complete 
examination of the ruins at the site of Kadesh, which, it will, I think, be 
generally admitted we have now at last recovered. The suggestion that 
the Haniath stones were of Hittite origin, was, I believe, first put forward 
in 1873 by the Rev. W. Wright, of Damascus, aud it is now generally 
admitted on the authority of Professor Sayce. The Hamath stones were 
cut in basalt, and the chief material used in the village houses at Tell 
Neby Mendeh is the same — a hard compact volcanic stone. It is possible 
that a minute examination of the village buildings, and of the interior of 
the shrine of Neby Mendeh, might result in the discovery of inscribed 
stones even above the surface ; but we were imable to see or hear of any 
such during our visit. 

Tell Neby Mendeh appears to be a sacred site of great antiquity, and 
this again is not unnatural when we reflect that the name Kadesh itself 
indicates a "sacred'' city consecrated to the sun-god, or to his consort 
Astarte. Neby Mendeh is said to have been a son of " Our Lord Jacob,'"' 
though which of the twelve tribes, is intended — unless the word be a cor- 
ruption of Manasseh — it is not easy to understand. The spring from 
which the tributary stream of el Mukadiyeh flows is called et Tannur 
(" the Oven ") a term applied (I believe in the Koran itself) to a certain 
deep chasm, whence, according to Moslem tradition, the waters of the 
Deluge first broke forth ; and it is evident that a tradition of Noah's 
flood still exists in connection with the Tell and the lake, for some thr^ 
miles north of the Tell and east of the river there is a curious site, known 
as Sefinet Neby NAh, " the Ark of the Prophet Noah." 

It is a great platform of earth, some 300 yards square, with small 
mounds at the four angles, as if representing the remains of towers. It is 
surrounded with a ditch about 40 feet deep and wide. No traces of 
masonry are visible, and the platform is covered with furrows, having 
been converted into a ploughed field by the peasantry. The direction of the 
sides is about north-east and south-west. An ancient road runs north- 
wards, a little to the west, and on this, close to ' Arjtln, about half-a-mile 
from Tell Neby Mendeh, we found a Eoman milestone lying fallen — 
another detail which favours the identification of the Tell with the Lao- 
dicea of the Itineraries. 

Before quitting the subject of Kadesh on Orontes, a word must be said 
as to the position of Shabatuna, the place whence Eameses II advanced to 
attack the Hittite capital. This town or fortress was situated north of 
the position occupied by the most advanced brigade of the Egyptian army. 
Eameses, at sunrise, went further upwards, and arrived south of Shaba- 
tuna ; he then went " further downwards," and came to the vicinity of 
the lake. The defeated brigade of Rameses retreated "on the road 
upwards to the place where the king was." The final advance on Kadesh 
was made in the evening, and the Hittites were driven into the Orontes. 

Now all these indications of topographical featiires are easily explained 
on the supposition that Rameses was advancing by the pass which leads 



170 LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 

from the plains of Tripoli to the lake of Horns. It is evident that in an 
advance of some 15 or 20 miles fi'om the vicinity of Shabatuua, the 
Pharaoh crossed a ridge and descended into the plains north-west of 
Kadesh, near the southern shores of the Hittite lake. 

Just such a ridge intervenes between the broad plains of Homs and 
the small basin called el Bukei'a, which lies west of the watershed, and 
which is commanded by the castle on the mountain to the north, the great 
stronghold Kal'at el Hosn. The lake of Homs is some 1,500 or 1,600 feet 
above the Mediterranean, and the top of the basalt ridge forming the 
pass is probably about 2,000 feet above the same level. The Bukei'a 
basin, which is a fertile plaiii about 5 miles wide, full of sj^riugs, which 
feed the river Eleutherus, dotted with clumps of oak and covered with 
Turkoman encampments, is surrounded with basalt hills, 400 to 500 feet 
high. The great Crusading fortress, on its steep limestone ridge, looks 
down on the whole region. To the west, the Mediterranean is seen 
beyond the low hills, and the broad seaside plain ; to the south, the spurs 
of Lebanon rise from the Bukei'a basin ; to the south-east, the greater 
]3art of the lake of Homs is seen, with two black mounds, one being the 
Tell Neby Mendeh, the other the island in the lake itself. 

A narrow pass is seen leading tlirough the basalt ridge from the 
western basin to the long flat eastern slope which stretches to the borders 
of the lake. In the Bukei'a basin, south of Kal'at el Hosn, a suitable 
situation for the great camp of the Egyptian armies might be found. By 
the eastern pass Eameses would have ascended and again descended in a 
distance of some 15 miles before reaching the battle-field. On the west an 
equally easy line of advance would have brought the Egyptian reinforce- 
ments from the sea-coast to the Bukei'a basin. The question thus 
naturally suggests itself whether Kal'at el Hosn may not stand on the site 
of Sliabatuna, and of that fortress at the foot of Lebanon built by 
Thothmes III , not far from the river Eleutherus. 

I find that this identification has already been proposed in 1ST4 in a 
paper communicated by M. Blanche, the French Vice-Consul at Tripoli, to 
the Institut Egyptien, on 7th August, and, through the kindness of this 
gentleman, I am able to give the arguments in favour of this view, which 
agree with the discovery of Kadesh at Tell Neby Mendeh. 

The last syllable Na, in the name Shabatuna, is probably an Egyptian 
affix, such as was commonly added to Semitic words. The word to be 
understood is the Hebrew Shabat, or Sabbath, which, in modern Arabic, 
would take the form Sebta, " rest" (as in the case of the BalKitet Sebta at 
Hebron). Now, immediately north of Kal'at el Hosn is the deep gorge in 
which the white monastery of St. George, with its red-tiled roof, is seen 
nestling ; and about a mile be'ow the monastery is the wonderful inter- 
mittent spring whence rises the Nahr es Sebta, or "Eiver of Best," the 
Sabbatic river of the ancients (see "Wars," vii, 5, 1), which still flows on an 
average once a week from its cavern. Here, then, in the inmiediate 
vicinity of Kal'at el Hosn, the name Shabat still exists, and is known from 
remote period to have always existed, and there seems, therefore, no 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 171 

cTood reason to doubt that the fortress of the Crusaders occupied the site 
of an older Egyptian stronghold commanding the important pass from the 
sea-coast to Tripoli. 

Our attention, after leaving the site of Kadesh, was devoted to the 

examination of the lake itsslf, which is generally allowed to be mainly and 

])erliaps altogether artificial. We visited the shore at the point nearest to 

the island, which is called Tell el Eaheirah, " The Mouud of the Lake." 

The shore is flat and marshy ; the island is about three quarters of a mile 

from the mainland, and perhaps a quarter of a mile in length. We found it 

to be entirely laid out in gardens, which are cultivated with a mattock. 

A few huts (el Mezr'ah) exist on the south-west, the peasantry crossing over 

on rafts formed of inflated skins, which are, however, only large enough for 

one man each, and quite unmanageable in a wind. Three of these rafts we 

saw, on each of which a man stood punting with a long pole, and drifting 

eastwards to the shore. We were informed that it would take five hours to 

make a raft, and that with the wind in the west the island could not be 

reached from that side of the lake — if, indeed, the raft could be used at all. 

The idea of constructing boats or large rafts to convey animals seems never to 

have occurred to the natives ; but my interest in the island was much 

lessened by the previous discovery of the site of Kadesh on the mainland. 

There is no reference in the Egyptian records to any attack on an island 

situate at so great a distance from the shore — no account of rafts or boats ; 

while the picture of Kadesh shows a double moat with bridges, indicating 

a river rather than a lake ; for the Hittites can scarcely be supposed, even 

if we consider the scale of the Egyptian picture to be distorted, to have 

constructed bridges nearly a mile in length, from the island to the shore, as 

would be necessary if this part of the lake were as wide at that time as it 

now is. 

Leaving the island, therefore, unvisited, we rode along the right bank 
of the lake, near which there are several mud villages and fine corn-fields 
and lentil patches. Tell Shomarin is a conspicuous green mound on the 
edge of the water, and Tell Koteineh a larger one, with a flat top and 
e'sddently artificial. Excavations in these Tells, as well as in two others 
bstween Kadesh and the lake, might lead to interesting results. On the 
north-east there are low cliff's of white limestone, but on the north-western 
shore the basalt appears to come down almost to the water, and the only 
ti-aces of ho,bitation are a few miserable ruins of basaltic stone, among 
which the Turkoman encampments are spread out. 

Our camp was pitched close to the Sidd, or great dam, which was built 
across the mouth of the lake, and which banked up the waters to a height 
of 10 feet above the level of the original river bed. The existence of the 
lake is mainly, if not altogether, due to the construction of this fine engi- 
neering work, and the original "Lake of the Land of the Amorites" 
would probably only have occupied the southern or upper part of the 
present basin, where the shores are flattest. 

The view from the Sidd in the evening was interesting, though not 
remai'kably picturesque. The flat basaltic slopes on the I'ight, concealed 



172 LIEUTENANT CONDEK'S KErOliTS. 

the pass by whicli Rameses approached. On the south-west, the black 
mounds of Kadesh and of the ishind were conspicuous, and Lebanon, with 
its snowy ridge, rose behind them. A strong breeze blew down the lake, 
which was covered with tiny " white horses," and broke in surf on its 
shingly shore. Great piles of cumulus towered above the mountains, and 
a flock of pelicans was soaring over the water, flapping slowly against the 

wind. 

The lake of Homs is mentioned by Talmudic write]-s under its present 
name as Yam Hemetz (Tal. Jer. Kilaim, Ix, 5 ; Tal. Bab. Baba Bathra 
74 b), and the Eabbis state that it was not a natural lake, but a reservoir 
formed by Diocletian at the junction of several rivers. In the time of 
Abu ei Feda tradition ascribed the building of the dam to the favourite 
Arab hero, Alexander the Great ; but while we liave evidence that the 
construction dates from the early Christian centuries, at latest, we have no 
sound reason for supposing that the Hittites were the original engineers of 
the dam. The object of constructing this great work was that of heading 
up the waters of the Orontes for the purpose of irrigating the plains round 
Homs. A great aqueduct between earthen banks (after the Egyptian and 
Chaldean fashion) leads from the east end of the Sidd to the gardens of 
Homs. Similar channels once existed west of the stream, and other 
earthen aqueducts occur near Kadesh ; and again, further south, running 
across the cultivated plain from the Orontes, which flows west of it. 

We examined the Sidd or dam carefully, but the waves were breaking 
over it, and the water was rushing through the ruined sluice and through 
the gaps in the masonry, so that it was impossible so early in the year to 
walk along it. The total length is about half a mile, and the thickness 
25 feet at the top. The dam is built in the shape of a very flat V with 
the point towards the lake. The difference of level between the lake 
surface and the stream below the dam is as nearly as possible 10 feet. On 
the outer or lower side, the thickness is increased by stepping the masonry 
regularly in each course. On the inside the construction is probably the 
same. The masonry is a coursed rubble of flat pieces of basalt, undressed, 
set in hard white mortar full of pounded pottery, with a little charcoal. 
The rubble was originally faced with small ashlar, also of basalt. There 
were at the western end buttresses on the lower side at frequent intervals. 
Near the centre of the dam there appears to be a pillar or vertical pier of 
masonry. This could not, however, be reached. The general impression 
obtained, by comparing the masonry with other monuments I have 
examined in Palestine, is, that fhe whole structure is Eoman work ; and 
the Talmudic story, which attributes the dam to Di(3cletian, may perhaps 
be founded on fact. 

There were several sluices and passages for the water, and masonry 
aqueducts leading off at different levels. The various streams now run 
at will, from all sides, and unite to form the main stream of Orontes at 
the mills about half a mile below the dam. At the west end of the dam 
a small mediceval tower has been built on a solid rubble base. It consists 
of a vaulted chamber with an upper story without roof. The walls are 



.LlEL"Ti:NA^"T coxder's kepokts. 173 

battlemented ; the total height is 28 feet ; the exterior measures 28 feet 
by 25 feet on phiu. There are loopholed -windows, and on the east a door- 
way 8 feet from the ground, the lintel of which consists of an inscribed 
block of basalt, which has been built in sideways, and is evidently not in 
sitto ; the inscription is boldly cut on a sort of tablet surmounted with a 
rosette, possibly meant for a cross in a circle, but much worn by the 
weather. The text is as below, and may possibly have some connection 
with the history of the dam. Of the tower and the lintel-stone we took 
careful measiu-ements, plans, and sketches, as well as of the masonry of 
the dam. The inscription is perfect, and too well jn-eserved to allow of 
any hesitation in transcribing. 

ETOY 
(HAY 
lAA 
AAI 
OCIAAAE 
OYAAYn 
EXAIPE 

It contains a date, and appears to be of eai-ly Byzantine oiigin, from 
the form of the letters— as comjiared with the dated iixsciiptions of the 
Hauran, collected by Waddington. 

A small town once stood on either bank of the Orontes below the Sidd. 
Tradition says that the village Sidd (which takes its name from the 
" dam ") was removed from this site to its present jDositiou down on the 
small Survey which accompanies this report. There aie five basalt shafts 
32 inches in diameter, lying about 300 yards from the little town, which 
is called Kusr es Sidd, on the left bank of the river. They at present 
suiTOund a modern tomb made of mud and stones, and covered with 
rags stuck on little stakes, so as to form streamers. A stone cut into the 
shape of an arch 3 feet 2 inches diameter, and 1 foot thick (a single block 
of basalt) has been laid on the south side of the tomb to form a kibleh, and 
piles of basalt chips are heaped up on the fallen pillar-shafts. The site 
is thus evidently a sacred shrine, to which pilgrimages are made, and it is 
called " Jerlyet Aly," " the slave of Aly." Probably this modern Wely 
marks the spot where a small temple was once dedicated, perhaps by the 
builders of the Sidd. 

Such are the main results of our visit to Kadesh on Orontes, including 
the recovery of the name at a site which fully agrees with the monu- 
mental records, and with the topographical notices which are to be found 
in the great Court Epic of Pentaur ; the recovery of traditions showing- 
the site to be an ancient sacred place ; the exj^loration of the lake and 
dam ; and the examination of the site of Shabatuna and of the route of 
the Egyptian advance. The Survey of the lake is laid down from 
comjDass observations taken at various points, and the eastern shore may 
be looked upon as well fixed, while the western shore is more roughly 
indicated. 



174 LIEUTENANT CONDEK S REPORTS. 



Appendix. 

[In connection with the discovery of Kadesh may be read Professor 
Sayce's learned paper on the " Monuments of the Hittites," published in 
the Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archoeology (vol. vii, Part II). 
These remains and inscriptions -the reading of which will probably throw 
as much light upon the early history of the Bible as the cuneiform inscrip- 
tions have already done— are found scattered over a wide area : at Karabel, 
on the road from Ephesus to .Sardes, which shows that they extended as far 
as the seaboard ; in Central Asia Minor, Cilicia, Phrygia, and Lycaonia ; 
at Aleppo, Carchemish, and Hamath, in the earliest times the " children 
of Heth " were in the south of Palestine. This sacred city on the Orontes 
has now been found ; of Jerusalem itself it is said (Ezek. xvi, 3) that her 
"father was an Amorite and her mother a Hittite." As regards the 
characteristics of Hittite art, they are thus described by Professor 

Sayce : — 

" It is modelled upon the bas-relief^:; of Nineveh, or rather the gems of 
ancient Babylonia, and like them represents human figures and other 
objects in relief upon stone. But it has a peculiar roundness and thick- 
ness ; the limbs of the figures are short and thick, and there is little 
attempt made to delineate the muscles. The feet are shod with boots 
which have the ends turned up, the head is usually covered with the so- 
called Phrygian cap, and a spear is often placed in one hnnd. A modifica- 
tion of the winged solar disk of Assyria is not unusual, and at Eyuk we 
find a representation of a doubled-headed eagle, which seems the proto- 
type of the Seljukian eagle of later days. At Eyuk also we have two 
sphinxes, which, though modelled on an Egyptian model, differ profoundly 
from the Egyptian type, while the mode in wliich the feet are represented 
reminds us of the prehistoric statue of Niobe on Mount Sipylus. At 
Boghaz Keui, the female deities wear mural crowns, from which we may 
infer the Hittite origin of this decoration of the Ephesian Artemis. The 
mural crown seems to have been a specially Hittite invention. On the 
other hand, the general character of the sculptures at Boghaz Keui, where 
some of the deities, for instance, are represented as standing upon animals, 
shows its dependence not on. Assyrian, but on early Babylonian art." 

As regards their history, it is learned from Assyrian and Egyptian 
monuments that they were the leading people of Western A sia from the 
seventeenth to the eighteenth centuries b.c. Their city of Kadesh, so 
curiously found by Lieutenant Conder, disapiiears from history after the 
thirteenth century b.c. Their city of Carchemish (now Juabis) was finally 
captured by Sargon, b.c. 717, when it became the seat of an Assyrian 
Satrap. Their connection with the Bible narrative is well known. 

Professor Sayce is of opinion that the Hittites did not speak a Semitic 
lanouage : and that they did not belong to the Semitic race. " Their 
features and physical type are those of a northern people, and their 
northern origin is confirmed by their use of boot?, which is, at least, as old 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 175 

as the beginning of their writing, since the boot is the commonest of the 
Hittite hieroglyphics. The boots are always represented with turned up 
toes, like the boots of the mountaineers of Asia Minor and Greece at the 
present day." — Ed.] 

HOMS. 

From the lake we rode to the city of Homs, wliere we remained for 
the Sunday. I made such inquiries as were possible respecting the site of 
the famous Sun Temple at this place, of which the Eoman Emperor Helio- 
gabalus was high priest, but no known remains exist, although Homs is 
full of ancient pillars and stones, with Greek inscriptions. A possible site 
is the great mound of the fortress south of the town, where a sacred place 
c-illed Mes-haf 'Othman still stands. The great mosque contains the 
remains of tlie basilica built by Constantine ; several of the pillar bases 
being in sitic, while capitals of early Byzantine character are scattered 
about the courtyard. On one of the bases we were shown the following 
inscription : 

KYKAOTEPHC KOCMOIO TYHOO BAPIAEYC EKO . . 

EGNEAHAin AM XONTACO^AIC* PECINHNIOX . . 

Kalat el Hosx. 

Our return jovirney from Homs led along Midhat Pasha's new road, 
north-west of the lake, and we made a long detour to visit the magnificent 
castle Kal'at el Hosn, which has been already described and explored by 
M. Rey. It is probably the finest specimen of Crusading work in Syria, 
and almost perfect, the battlements and machicoulis still remaining in 
place. We made a collection of masons' marks, some of which are unlike 
any previously collected in other parts of Palestine. Many of these occur 
on drafted stones, the drafts having (as at Soba and in other instances) 
the diagonal dressing distinctive of mediasval work. This is an additional 
instance of the fact (which has not as yet been generally grasped) that the 
Crusading masons in Syria, as in Cyprus and other places, made use of the 
draft in masonry which they themselves hewed. It has often been 
supposed that such masonry was always more ancient, and was re-used by 
the Crusaders ; but the presence of masons' marks on the drafted stones, 
and that such stones are often cut in the form of voussoirs for pointed 
arches, seem conclusively to prove that drafted masonry was actually cut 
by the twelfth century builders for use in their fortress walls. 

There is a finely executed Gothic inscription on the walls of the chapel 
at Kal'at el Hosn. I find, however, that it has already been deciphered 
by M. Rey. The text, which has many abbreviations, reads : — 

Sit tibi Copia, 
Sit Sapientia 
Formaque detur 
Inquiuat Omnia 
Sola Superbia 
Si Comitetur. 



176 LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 



Tripoli. 

From Kal'at el Hosn, we travelled to Tripoli, where we were detained 
by tlie storm, and were most kindly and hospitably received ])y M. Blanche, 
the French Vice-Consul. From him I gathered many interesting tradi- 
tions and other indications connected with the neighbourhood. We also 
visited the Dancing Derwish Monastery, and were much interested in the 
details of the symbolism observable in the performance, which, as is 
generally allowed, had its origin in an astronomical worship, the tradition 
of which is, however, apparently lost to the performers. 

The ancient name of Tripoli is unknown, but the name Kadlshah, 
applying to the river on which it is built, may indicate that here also an 
ancient Kadesh is to be sought. North of the town is the sacred shrine 
of el Bedawa, which M. Blanche assures me was an old church of 
St. Anthony of Padua, of whose title the Arab is a corruj^tion. 

In the courtyard is a basin or tank containing fish, which are held 
sacred by the Moslems. Vows and offerings are made to them, and in 
time of war they are said to disappear, and to dejDart to fight for the 
Prophet against the infidels, returning to Tripoli on the conclusion of 
peace. This occurred even during the late war with Russia, and no doubt 
accounts for the successful defence of Plevna. M. Peretie, at Beyrout, 
assures me that there is another tank of these sacred fish at Acre, in the 
great mosque, and when we remember the sacred fish of the lake of 
Derceto at Ascalon, and the sacred bath of Venus mentioned in the Mishna 
as existing at Acre, there seems good reason to sujjpose that in these tradi- 
tions we have the survival of the Dagon and Deiceto worship of the 
Phoenicians. 

Several other curious traditions have been related to me recently and 
carefully noted, but the only other point of interest for which space can 
be found in this long report is the curious chapel of Marina, south of 
Tripoli, to which our attention was drawn by M. Blanche, and which we 
visited on our way down the coast. 

Marina. 

A ledge of limestone, with a rock-wall facing east, and curving out 
above so as to form a natural roof, here constitutes a narrow platform with 
a rock-screen, which has been at one time covered with frescoes painted on 
a coating of cement. The greater part of the cement has fallen off, biit 
one row of designs with inscriptions is left. A niche in the wall formed 
a sort of apse, and seems still to be used, for the blackened stone gave 
evidence that some kind of lamp had recently been burnt before the 
picture. The place seems to have belonged to a hermitage, and various 
caves and rock-excavations were visible to the south. A pit, as if for a 
tomb, is sunk at one end of the platform, and another smaller recess under 
an arcosolium occurs in the rock-wall. 

The frescoes were originally painted in a series of square partitions, 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 177 

but at a later period a large head has been painted over the older designs, 
and is flanked with coarse letters nearly double the size of the older 
inscriptions. The designs are as follow, commencing on the right : 

First panel. — A saint visiting another saint represented as in bed, while 
a third figure, also with a nimbus, stande behind ; the saint raises his 
liand as though about to heal the invalid.,' Above, in Gothic characters, 
carefully painted in white on a blue ground, are the letters PATMRSS. 

Second Panel. — A child with a nimbus, brought by a long-robed figure 
on the sight to. another saint on the left. The older inscription is n^ajrly 
illegible, but the Gothic letters remaining of it read thus : . 

. .. . PTSABATS 
SPE . . 

Over the lower line a larger inscription has been painted in characters 
and with contractions similar to those found in the thirteenth century 
inscriptions at Bethlehem. 

AH MITPIOC 

Third PaneL — A robed saint with nimbus, kneeling to a second on the 
right, who appears to extend a cloak or some similar article towards him. . 

The Gothic; inscription is mutilated, but the letters remaining are 
SICUT - - LO - - IT : ANTE ABATE PROTE - - FILIA - - SUAM : 
beneath which is the remainder of the Greek inscription on panel No. 2, 
viz. : 

OAnoc 

Fourth Panel. — Two long-robed figures, with nimbi, are standing in 
conversation. The Gothic inscription is almost illegible, the words 
GEORGII — NIRIA alone being plainly recoverable. 

Fifth Panel. — A large design of the Saviour, seated, with the Virgin to 
the right (spectator's left), and Joseph to the left. The panel n>ea&ures 
72 inches in length by 30 in height. The original Gothic inscriptions read 
MATER and AS JOSEPH ABTI, over which the Greek texts appear, 
much contracted, but I'eading Mtjttjs 6tov and Iw on either side of the four 
letters IC. XC. (Jesus Christ). 

Sixth Panel. — A man ia a tree bearing apples ; beneath is a hart or 
stag ; and some native visitor has added a lion in black ink; and signed his 
sketch in Ai^abic. 

Seventh Panel. ^ — A nimbus only is left, with' an inscription in Gothic 
letters above, AN UNCIAT : VIRGOMARIA, showing that the design 
represented the Annunciation. The Greek letters, MP... QY (" Mother of 
God ") are scrawled across the Latin inscription, and the whole of the 
fresco is thus converted into a kind of -pictorial palimpsest. 

Eighth Panel. — A saint, with a hammer, probably Christ as the 
carpenter. Ther-i is no Gothic lettering visible, but the Greek reads 
thus : 

, HAnMAPIAi 

This, though much confused, is evidently to be rendered H. Ayia Mapia, 
and belongs to the design on the seventh panel to the right. 

We took a sketch with dimensions of these frescoes, and a rough plan 

N 2 



ITS LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 

of tlie place. In sheet XVIII of the " Memoirs " a similar case will be 
found (Section B., s. v. Deir el Kelt), where inscriptions of two periods 
occur above one another. The Latin inscriptions at Marina cannot well be 
earlier than the twelfth century, and the character of tlie Greek letters 
appears to belong to the thirteenth — as determined by M. du Vogue. 

Returning from Tripoli by land to Beyrout, we found Messrs. Black 
and Armstrong awaiting us, and commenced our active preparation for the 
Eastern Survey. Meantime I may, in conclusion, express my conviction 
that a most interesting field of operations awaits the archaeologist almost 
untouched in Noi'thern Syria. 

Claude E. Concer, E.E. 



II. 

Jerusalem, lAtli'May, 1881. 

In marching down the coast from Beyrout to Jerusalem, we halted for two 
days at Tyre, for the purpose of investigating more; closely the various 
points which have given rise to discussion in connection with its topo- 
graphy. The most important of these are : 1st, the extent of the ancient 
city ; 2nd, the position of the Egyptian harbour ; 3rd, the site of the 
Temple of Melkarth ; 4tb, the extent and situation of False Tyrus. 

I. — The AsrciENT Site of Tyre. 

It is generally agreed that the original city stood on the islands 
and reefs which were separated from the shore by a channel, filled up 
by the mound which Alexander the Gieat constructed during the 
course of his famous siege of Tyre. Two islands oiiginally existed, 
and are traditionally believed to have been connected by a mound, con- 
structed by Hiram, the contemporary of Solomon. A careful inspection 
seems to lead to tlie conclusion that very little, if any,- subsequent change 
has occurred since this connecting mound was made, and that the smaller 
island, which then lay south of the main reef, is represented by the 
promontory which projects at the sea corner of the present headland, 
enclosed by the Crusading v-^klls. That the reefs presented in the middle 
ages the same outline as at present, seems to be clearly indicated by the 
line of the 12th century fortifications, which rise close to the cliffs from 
the flat ledges of rock existing everywhere, both on the west and on the 
south. The pi-omontory, representing the smaller island, rises some 30 or 
40 feet above the sea, and is bounded by cliffs of soft sandy limestone 
above the flat reefs. There are no indications of any artificial alterations 
on these cliffs, and it seems very improbable that the action of the sea can 
have materially diminished the area of the island, for on the south, as will 
be seen immediately, the remains of the Egyptian harbour are clearly 



IJEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 179 

traceable, while all along the west the reefs have been hewn, with great 
patience and ingenuity, so as to form a series of small harbours, landing- 
l)laces for boats, and shallow docks, &c., salt-jjans, which are probably 
attributable to the early Phoenician period of Tyrian prosperity. In one 
place only on the west is -the line of reefs broken, by a little round bay 
with a fine sandy beach measuring some 70 yards in depth, and j^erhaps 
100 yards across north-east and south-west. It is probable that the 
original channel, dividing; the small southern island from the larger one, 
here ran out on the west. On the south also thei'e is a corresponding bay, 
but much shallower, measuring about 200 yards east and west, which 
may define the limits of the smaller island on the east. The area thus 
limited appears originally, to have included about four or five acres. On 
this islet stood a temple, which the Greeks called that of Jupiter Olympius. 
A sarcophagus measuring 7 feet by 5 feet 10 inches and 2 feet 5 inches in 
height (outside dimensions) lies on the smaller island. It is quite plain, 
and cubical in shape, with a pillow^ for the head of the corpse cut inside 
at one end. 

The western flat reefs, below the Crusading walls, extending to the 
north-west end of the larger island, present many points of interest. 
Fragments of the mediseval fortifications, rubble masonry bonded with 
l)illar shafts of granite and syenite, lie fallen upon them. The rise of 
the tide (about 18 inches) brings the water, on a calm day, almost on a 
level with the reefs, and in stormy weather they must be partially covered. 
In the summer, however, safe landing places, and channels for small boats, 
occur in every direction, many bearing signs of havijig been artificially 
enlarged and altered, while in other parts there are remains of an ancient 
concrete pavement, full of fragments of pottery, which seems to have bean 
spread over the sharp and uneven ridges, to form an open quay close to 
shore. In one place there is a basin some 3 feet deep and 40 to 50 yards 
long, surrounded on all sides by the reef. It has no entrance, but a boat 
could be easily dragged over the narrow rock-mole on the outside, and the 
basin would thus form a rude dock for the smaller craft in summer time. 
North of this, on a somewhat higher level, are the basins called Burak es 
Saltb, "Pools of the Cross" — four large salt-pans divided by cross- walls of 
rock some 3 feet thick. Oue of these pools measured 35 feet by 22 feet, 
the depth being about 3 or 4 feet apparently. These excavations were 
full of sea water, but are no longer used as salt-pans. Many smaller pans 
exist close by, and in other places along the reefs, resembling those at 
'Ath lit, which are still known by their proper name, el Melldhah.'*' 

Near the north-west angle of the reefs there is a heap of fallen pillar 
shafts, which, though quite black externally, show, when broken, a fine 
pink granite. They are some 2 feet in diameter, and look at first siglit 

* It may be remarked that the existence of these salt-pans and jetties forms 
an argument — were a new one needed — against the exploded notion of the 
partial submergence of the site of Tyre in consequence of earthquake shocks — 
an error which seems to have originated in the account given by Benjamin of 
Tudela.— C. E. C. 



180 LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 

like the remains of a small shriue on the reef, but possibly they may have 
bsen collected by the Crusaders for use in the walls, or for the construction 
of a jetty, like those which they formed at Csesarea, Ascalon, &c., and even at 
Tyre itself in the Egyptian harbour, and they may thus have been left 
unused in their present position. 

The above observations along the reefs seems to indicate that the 
Phoenician port included, not only the two main harbours on north and 
south, but also a series of quays, landing-places, and small harbours, on 
the west. On the east the accumulation of blown ■sand on the mound of 
Alexander has rendered the extent of the -original .site doubtful ; but it 
S3ems probable that the line of the Crusading walla on this side, founded 
as they probably are on rock, would mark a,pproximately the limits of 
the island. Within this line — which is indicated by ^the position of the 
Algerine Tower in the Orange Gardens on the south-east, and by the small 
mediaeval tower on the north-east of the city, which contains a well, and is 
partly built of rustic masonry, such as the Crusaders used— the ground is 
eveiywhere covered with fragments of broken masonry and pillar shafts. 
The inhabitants use this open space, east of the modern town, as a quarry, 
digging down to a depth of 10 or 15 feet, and excavating good building 
stones. Small gems, Cufic and Byzantine coins, and other antiquities are 
often found, belonging apjmrently to the early Christian period ; and a 
hoard of gold coins is said to \ime been lately discovered, but of what 
epoch I was unable to learn. 

The total area which seems thus to have been enclosed, within the 
insular site formed by joining the two islands, is little short of 200 acres ; 
and considering the small size of all the famous cities of Phaenicia (Sidon, 
Byblosor Aradus, the latter only occupying 100 acres) this appears amply 
sufficient for the site -of a town, even of the importance of Tyj?e. 

It would not be difficult to sink shafts beneath the superficial excava- 
tions now made by the townspeople, and results of interest might probably 
be exijected at a depth of some 30 feet ; but, in any further explorations at 
Tyre, it'would seem clear that the only place where excavation would be 
likely to succeed, is in that part of the site which lies east and south-east of 
the present town, within the area of the Crusading walls. 

As regards the . necropolis of ancient Tyre, we made an interesting 
discovery. The • modern graveyard' occupies .the ground north of the 
smaller Island, and in this part there is a clifiF, bounding the little bay 
already mentioned on the south-west side of the larger island. About 6 feet 
above the beach is ■ a narrower cleft, which has been, I believe, recently 
broken through, or enlarged by the fellahin. We squeezed into it with 
difficulty, and found within a grotto, which had been pointed out to us 
undei- the name Mughdret el Mujahed, " Cave of the Champion." There 
seems little doubt that it is an ancient tomb, a domed cave about 8 feet 
by 10. feet, and 11 feet -high. A shaft exists above, the roof being covered 
in with flat slabs of stone, which were all in place. No sarcophagus 
remains, and, unless the shaft has been at some time or other opened and 
again closed, no sarcophagus can ever have been placed in the chamber. 



LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 181 

There is on the north-east side a flat shelf or step, measuring 5 feet 6 inches 
by 2 feet 2 inches, on which, perhaps, the sarcophagus or coffin may have 
rested. No remains of wood or bones were noticed on the floor. The roof 
of the cavern is probably some 20 feet below the present surface of the 
ground on the top of the clifi". The discovery of this tomb, with the shaft 
arrangement which distinguishes the Phoenician from the ancient Jewish 
tombs, seems to indicate the possible existence of an old Phoenician 
cemetery, in the cliff's under and near the modern graveyard ; and this 
may account for the puzzling circumstance that the island city had no 
apjjarent necropolis. Remains of sunk places in the rocks immediately 
south of the cave may, perhaps, represent other tombs which have been 
desti'oyed in quarrying, but it is possible that some of these are salt-pans. 
In accordance with the ordinary conservatism of the East, I may, perhaps, 
suggest that the features of modern Tyi-e preserve ancient Phoenician 
localities. That the necrojJoUs is unchanged ; that the site of the great 
temple is indicated by the ruined cathedi'al ; and that the Euryehoros, 
or " wide-place," may have been identical with the broad Meidan, which 
is now found inside the line of the Crusading walls, and west of the 
modern town or village. The necropolis of Tyre was sought by Renan 
at the important cemetery in the hills east of the plain, a distance of nearly 
two miles ; but it seems probable that, altliough in later times the rich may 
have hewn their sepulchres on the mainland, the older tombs, at the time 
when (according to Pliny) a strait, 700 passus broad, divided the island 
from the shore, would have been hewn in the cliff's of the reef, and still 
exist buried some 20 feet beneath the modern graveyard. 

II. — The Egyptian Harbour. 

The opinion of Renan and other writers appears to be that the 
ancient southern harbour of Tyre is no longer traceable ;* and it is stated 
by Professor Socin that the supposed mole, on the south side of the 
town, was more probably the boundary of a piece of land artificially 
reclaimed from the sea. We gave eonsidei'able attention to this 
question during our recent visit. Lieutenant Mantell and I examined 
the mole and the harbour by swimming across it in various directions, thus 
ascertaining the depths, and closely inspecting the portions furthest from 
land ; and the conclusion at which we arrived was different from that of 
the authorities mentioned, being to the effect that the harbour is distinctly 
recoverable, and that the only changes which have taken place are due to 
the wilful blocking up of the inlets to the port, and to the filling in with 
stones of portions of the interior ; over which stones the sand has now 

* Lieutenant Conder, writing without books at hand, has here fallen into a 
slight error. Renan does not think that the Egyptian port is no longer trace- 
able. He supposes that the site generally proposed, and accepted by Lieut. 
Conder as the Egyptian port, was formerly a part of the island, and that the 
mole was a retaining w&ll. He places the Egy^jtian port farther east, and sup- 
poses that it has now been entirely silted up. (See Renan, " Phcenicie," p. 569, 
and "Memoirs of the Survey," vol. i, sheet 1, § B.)— En. 



182 LIEUTENANT CONDER S REPORTS. 

drifted, and partially silted up the harbour. Even in the narrowest part 
there is still, however, an anchorage for small boats, which we found lyiug 
close to shore ; while the water was far beyond our depth in that part of 
the port lying nearest to its western entrance. 

It should be remembered that the ancient ports along the Syrian coast, 
including the famous Phoenician harbours, are extremely small. The 
harbour of Sidon includes 20 acres, the Sidouian or northern ^jort at Tyre 
only occupies 12 acres. The harbour at Caesarea, and that inside the reef 
at Jaffa, are equally unfitted for the requirements of modern navigation ; 
and it seems never to have occurred to the Tyrians to constriict works 
connecting the various rocks in the two great reefs, which run out south- 
wards and northwards beyond the actual harbours ; although the existence 
of these reefs was no doubt the determining cause in fixing the site of the 
island city, as safe anchorage in the open roadsteads was thus obtained, 
from whichever direction the wind blew on shore. Strabo (xvi. 2) speaks 
of the Egyptian harbour as open, referring probably to the reef which 
runs out southwards, but the space enclosed within the southern mole is 
nevertheless equal to the area ( 1 2 acres) of the Sidonian harbour. 

The southern harbour we planned carefully. It is divided in two by a 
pier^which runs out from land, hnd which, in calm Aveather, is visible at a 
depth of 2 or 3 feet below the suiface, but is now covered by the silt and 
by sea- weed. The southern mole runs out westwards from the laud, at 
the extreme south-east angle of the ancient city, as defined by the Crusad- 
ing wall. 

It consists of ancient concrete full of large pieces of pottery, and had 
two paths paved with concrete, each about 4 feet wide, with a wall some ' 
6 feet thick between them. The length of this mole is about 500 yards, 
the western and eastern ends are closely defined ; and Lieutenant Mantell 
walked along a good portion which lies under water, between the extremi- 
ties, and found in one place those fallen columns on the line of the wall. 

The pier from the shore divides the harbour into two portions, the 
westei-n measuring about 400 feet north and south, by 500 feet east and 
west, while the eastern measures 400 feet at its widest, opposite the 
shallow bay previously noticed, which is enclosed in the harbour, while 
on the east the harbour narrows to a point between the cliffs and the 
mole. 

There are two entrances at least to this port, through the mole, one 
being 50 feet wide. They have been partially filled with great blocks 
thrown down apparently from the wall on the mole, but we were obliged 
to swim across each. Other entrances no doubt also occurred in the pait 
now under water, but the main adit was from the west, where is a gap, in 
the reef which runs between the mole and the shore, of 140 feet. This 
entrance is skilfully constructed with an inner traverse, formed by a small 
tongue in the reef, so that the approach is completely defended from the 
waves outside. The water is here still very deep, but laige blocks have been 
thrown down to close the entry, and the harbour is too small, and too 
much silted up, to be of any present value. 



LIEUTENANT CONDER's EEPORTS. 183 

Having carefully planned this harbour (which is, however, I believe, 
shown on Gaillardot'a " Survey of Tyre "), we were unable to come to any 
other conclusion than that it represents the Egyjjtian harbour. The reefs 
which run out 600 yards or more, in contiuuation of the rocks through 
which the western entrance is cut, break the force of the sea so that a 
calm open roadstead is formed within, in which a small bark was lying at 
the time of our visit. Without reference to the history of Alexander's 
siege of Tyre, I am unable to remember what was then done by his ships 
to the southern harbour. It is possible that the filling in of the port may, 
however, have been accomplished by the notorious Fakhr ed Din, who 
mined the harbours of Acre and Sidon, and who seems to have had a 
special aversion to maritime structures : there appears, however, no more 
reason to doubt that the Egyptian harbour still exists, than to question 
the identification of the equally small Sidonian harbour north of the 
present town of T_yre. 

III. — The Temple of Melkarth. 

I have susffjested above that the Christian church at the south- 
east angle of the modern town may stand on the site of this famous 
temple. Melkarth ("the King of the City") was the Tyrian sun- 
god, identified by the Greeks with Hercules ; and it is worthy of 
notice that from the site of the cathedral (which probably replaced the 
older basilica said to hold the bones of Origen), a clear view is obtained 
of the great centre of sun-worship. Mount Hermon. The ruined 
cathedral stands on the highest part of the larger island, in a position 
marking as nearly as possible the centre of the ancient city ; and the 
ruined apses are directed towards Hermon. The fact that Christian 
churches were originally built on the sites of heathen temples (as at 
Rome, Constantinople, or Jerusalem), is too well ascertained to need more 
than a passing notice ; and in the case of Tyre we find, lying within the 
Crusading building, various enormous gi-anite shafts, two being double 
with diameters of 3 feet 6 inches, the length of the blocks being 26 feet. 
Such monoliths are entirely unlike any work of the Crusaders, and the 
rude marble bases and capitals lying in the ruins, are too small to have 
been placed in connection with them. The shafts must have been 
employed as piers from which the vault ribs sprung, and would have had 
a clumsy and unsuitable appearance even then in contrast with the small 
masonry and delicate mouldings of the Gothic structure. The material of 
these huge shafts is a fine red granite, which must have come from 
Egypt ; and the Crusaders are little likely to have imported such stones, 
as they were always on bad terms with the Egyptian Saracens. Such 
monoliths are, however, still to be found at Jebeil (Byblos), and in other 
Phoenician towns, and it seems far more probable that the Phoenicians, 
who by religion and commerce were so intimately connected with the 
Egyptians, would have brought the pillars to adorn their great temple, 
which no doubt faced the rising sun on a line not far ditferent from that of 
the orientation of the Christian basilica. 



184 LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPOETS. 

The church has been already described by other explorers. We noted 
some smaller grey syenite shafts and a pillar base with the Greek cross, 
flanked by four globes, and having the A and Q below, the material being 
a erood white marble. This stands in situ on the south side of the central 
apse. We also found a marble capital of Gothic design, and both of these 
details were sketched and measured. The ancient font which was visible 
Bome years since has been, however, removed. I noticed that the windows 
of the apses show two periods of construction, the original " dog tooth " 
moulding, which ran round them inside, having been replaced in the upper 
part with small stones. 

The ashlar is of small size throughout, and the centre of the walls of 
rubble, as usual in Crusading buildings. The material is a soft sandy 
limestone from the neighbouring cliffs. Only a few masons' marks are 
visible. 

We copied the inscription which occurs at the foot of the wall, outside 
the north apse on its north. It is already known, but was seen under a 
good light 

PONTHN 
OnOMH 
O . . 01 . . N 
KPHTHS 

It is said that during the excavations of Sepp in 1874, a set of sacer- 
dotal robes, a silver cup or chalice, with rings and other treasures were 
discovered in the cathedraL 

I made inquiiy as to the festivals of St. Barbara and St. Mekhlar, said 
by Professor Socin to preserve the cultus of Melkarth, but found no one 
acquainted with either name. The Maronite church is called after Our 
Lady, and the Greek after St. Thomas. St. Catherine is also worshipped 
in the town. These chui-ches with their little belfrys, and the minaret of 
the single mosque, break the sky line in the long row of badly built 
cottages which constitute modern Tyre. There are also one or two better 
houses with red tiled roofs. The little Sidonian harbour was full of small 
craft ; the walls of the buildings along its mole, with heavier masonry 
below and smaller above, are decidedly attributable to the 12th century, 
as the upper storeys of the towers present round arches, such as are never 
used by the modern native builders. 

Various antiquities were presented to us, and I purchased a small 
yellow glass coin or medal, of which two were offered. It represents the 
sun-god with his whip standing in his chariot drawn by four horses, and 
was said to have been found in an excavation near the cathedral. 

IV. -Pal^ Tyrus. 

In describing Tyre, Pliny ("Hist. Nat.," v, 17), gives it a circum- 
ference of 19 miles including Palse Tyrus, the place itself extending 
22 stadia. 

The latter estimate would agree fairly with the area above described as 



LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 185 

probably occupied by the island city, but if the 19 miles were distributed 
along the plain between the Nahr el KasimJyeh (which Abu el Feda 
identifies with the Leontes) and the springs of Eas el 'Ain — as has been 
proposed I believe by M. Eenan, we should have to suppose a city almost 
one quarter as large as London, and quite without parallel in any other 
town of Syria. Strabo, on the other hand, mentions False Tyrus as existing 
20 stadia south of Tyre, and having a stream flowing through its midst, 
without in any way indicating a large suburb extending over the plain. 

A careful examination of the ground between the K4simlyeh Eiver, 
the hills east of Neby M'asht\k, and the springs of Eas el 'Ain on the south, 
seems to me to point clearly 'to the conclusion that no such extensive 
suburb ever existed, and that there is only one site within the area 
where an ancient town of any extent can have stood. Such ancient sites 
are clearly indicated in Palestine by various sure signs, such as the grey 
soil, the numerous thistles, the growth of the yellow marigold, the remains 
of pottery, cement, and glass, which -mark the crumbling mounds 
long after the original buildings have disappeared. At the great mound 
of Tell Habtsh, near Eas el 'Ain, these indications of an old site are 
found. At Neby M'ashAk there are -no remains which seem to indicate 
that there was more than a single building on the hill. The rest of the 
plain consists of red virgin soil or of sand dunes, with here and there 
traces of a single building.* The existence of a gi-eat open unprotected 
suburb extending over a flat plain without water, is entirely contrary to 
the ordinary Oriental method of growth in the more important ancient 
cities, where the houses appear generally to have crowded round the 
central fortress or sanctuary, and to have nestled close outside the walls 
when they cauld no longer find space within their circuit. 

There are no indications in the way of wells, cisterns, mounds of ruins 
or other remains in the plain which waidd lead to the conclusion that a 
great defenceless open suburb ever existed, and the theory appeals to 
depend only on the loose expression of Pliny, which may, perhaps, be other- 
wise explained, either as referring to the district of which Tyre was the 
capital, or else as being merely a blunder of the Italian writer, who had 
})robably not visited the city. 

The more definite description given by Strabo is easily reconciled with 
existing remains ; and these, including the sites of Neby M'ashtik, 
Khubet el Lawattn, Wady et Tin, Tell el Hablsh, and Eas el 'Ain, may 
in conclusion be -briefly described. 

A curious mound of rock rises in the plain due east of Tyre. The 
summit is about 100 ft. above the sea and 40 .ab@ve the plain. On all sides 

* At a point about half-way .'between Tyre and Neby M'ashuk and south of 
the ancient aqueduct, some boys digging in the sand dunes haTe found remains 
recently of a little shrine or chapel. Fragments of marble, of glass mosaic, of a 
small twisted pillar shaft, and the shoulder of a small statue in high relief, 
remains of a marble cornice with feebly executed mouldings, and some curious 
pieces of dark pottery, seem to indicate that a small Byzantine or Crusading 
chapel stood here among the dunes. 



186 LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 

the bare rock is visible, and on the east is a perpendicular cliff. Close 
to this cliff, on the south-east extremity of the hill, stands the shrine of 
Neby M'ashAk, with two domes and a courtyard containing a palm. A 
few hovels exist north of the building. The rock is quarried on the west ; 
and on the top of the hill there are indications of old foundations. On 
the north are rude rock steps, perhaps leading up to the ancient building 
on the summit, perhaps only made in quarrying. On the north-west are 
some rock-cut tombs of Tyrian character. The great aqueduct to Tyre 
runs close to the foot of the hill on the south, and once supplied a small 
mill, but its course seems to be controlled rather by the fall of the ground 
than by any intention of carrying water to Neby M'ashflk, as no cisterns 
to receive the su})ply appear to exist at this point. Parts of the hill were 
covered at the time of our visit with corn, and this may have concealed 
ruins, but a large part of the site shows only bare rock, and there is 
nothing to indicate that Neby M'ashCik was. ever the centre or the 
acropolis of a city or suburb, while the excavations m-ade by M. Eenan 
brought to lightionly the remains of a small and comparatively modern 
shrine. 

Although Neby M'ashftk does not, therefore, appear likely to have been 
the acropolis of the theoretical False Tyrus, there is no doubt that it must 
have been a sacred shrine of antiquity and importance. It has been 
proposed to identify it with a temple of Astarte, but the name M'ashi\k 
(" beloved ") is in a -masculine form (the passive participle of 'Ashaka), and 
the Neby is said to have been a man who was so fascinating that every 
woman who saw him fell in love with him. Probably, therefore, we have 
here the more ancient temple of the sun-god, pointed out by the Tyrian 
islanders to Alexander — the shrine of an Adonis, or youthful solar hero. 
A curious story is told in connection with the place. A cave is said to 
exist beneath it and to contain a treasure ; the cave is also said to be full 
of bees, and we were shown a narrow cleft in the eastern clitf supposed to 
be the entrance and from which honey is said occasionally to exude. We 
saw, however, neither bees nor honey, and although our guide's story was 
confirmed by other, witnesses on the spot, it seemed improbable that the 
narrow fissure in the strata should really be the mouth of a cavern. The 
natives say that if the cave were opened the building above would fall in 
ruins. The sacred -cave (as has been remarked in a recent paper in the 
Quarterhj Statement P. E. Fund) is usually an adjunct of a sun-worship 
centre ; while bees and honey are also intimately connected with the 
sun-god ; and bees form the string of the Indian Cupid's bow (Kama 
Deva). In this tradition we have, therefore, possibly an echo of the old 
cultus of the heathen divinity now known as the " beloved prophet." 

East of Neby M'ashAk lies the great cemetery called Khtirbet el 
Lawatin. Careful inquiry proved that "the spelling Awatln given by 
some authorities is incorrect. The word Is the plural of LuttAn, the well 
known name for a " lime kiln " in Syria, and the character of the site 
agrees, as will be seen immediately, with this tr.anslation of the title. To 
anyone who has read M. Eenan's account of this place, the impression 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 187 

« 

made by a visit to the spot is very disappointing. There are no excava- 
tions at all equal to those at Beit Jebrtn, and the character of the 
cemetery, in spite of its being an extensive site, is very rude, and quite 
beneath comparison with many other collections of rock-cut tombs in 
Palestine. The caves which M. Reuan describes as " immense hypog^es, 
of which the roofs have fallen in," appear to me to be nothing else thd,n 
quarries whence the soft chalk {Huudrah) used for burning into lime, has 
been obtained. Such excavations are common in all parts of the country 
where the very soft chalk appears, and the name Khurbet el Lawatin 
" ruin of the kilns," is no doubt an indirection of the origin of these 
caverns. The niches which have been observed in the walls of these caves 
appear to be the remains of loculi, occurring at different levels, showing 
that here, as at Beit Jebrhi, an ancient cemetery has been destroyed in 
quarrying — the original excavators finding it easier to commence operations 
by breaking up the walls of the tombs, than by cutting into the face 
of a solid cliff. Similar destruction of ancient cemeteries may be noted 
wherever modern quarrying has been undertaken in almost any j^art of 
Syria. There are no remains visible of the supposed roofs of the 
caverns, and they do not seem on inspection ever to have been covered 
in, except in such jsarts as still are roofed, where the excavations have 
been pushed deep into the cliff. These caves are now used as goat folds, 
but they are not of a size or execution in any way comparable to the great 
caverns of Southern Palestine. 

North of the chalk quarries,- the hill-side is covered with tombs. We 
took plans of several of these, all belonging to one type — a square chamber 
reached by a shaft some 6 to 10 feet deep, and having rude Kokim on the 
four walls. These tombs which, on account of their rude execution, might 
be thought very ancient, differ only from the Jewish Kohhii tombs in the 
existence of the shaft, which takes the place of the small door entered from 
the face of a low cliff, in the ordinary type of Jewish sei)ulchre. The Jew- 
hewed a chamber inwards from the face of the hill, while the Phoenician 
sunk downwards from the flat surface of the hill-top ; but the chamber 
within was in both cases identical in its general arrano-ement. 

The cemetery in question is certainly very extensive, and may contain 
unopened tombs. It seems, however, by no means clear that it is the 
ancient necropolis of Tyi-e, which, as .already suggested, is more probably 
to be sought on the island itself. The existence of the temple at M'ashfik 
may pe)-haps account for the cemetery, the Phceuicians being eager to find 
sepulture near the sacred place, jiTst as the Jew or the Moslem at 
Jerusalem, and in any sacred city, still desires to be buried close to the 
sanctuary ; but the hill towns or even distant cities may have had their 
share in this great graveyard, as well as the island town of Tyre,, which is 
distant sorae^two miles from these hills. 

Following the hills southwards, we visited the flat valley between Burj 
esh Shemaly and Burj el Kibly, which is sometimes called Wddi/ et Tin 
from the fig trees which occur on the slopes. On both sides of the valley 
there are tombs, and we obtained plans of some of these, which are simply 



188 LIEUTENANT CONDER S REPORTS. 

loculiin the rock : remains of wine presses also- occur, and on the south 
side of the valley, near 'Ain el Judeideh (" the rock-cut spring ") is the 
curioua bas-relief visited by Renan and Guerin, It measures 18 inches by 
23 inches, and is surrounded by a rude frame projecting 3 inches. The 
design (of which a sketch accompanies this report) represents a single male 
figure in long robes, the head purposely defaced. On the right, at his feet, 
is an animal most resembling a dog, and on either side an arabesque of 
grape-bunches and leaves (much defaced) runs vertically — the vine on the 
left springing apparently from a pot, as is generally the case where this 
design occurs (see 'AbM es SennVa, Shefa Amr, &c., in the " Memoirs "). I 
am aware that M. Gueriu has described these defaced details as representing 
the heads of sheep surrounded hy nimbi; but careful examination shows that 
the curving stem of the vine is continuous throughout. Nor is it clear that 
the human figure represents the " good shepherd,'" as the lamb or sheep 
which he would carry is not distinguishable. The exisstence of the vine, a 
symbol of the sun-god ; and of the dog (if dog it be), may indicate that the 
sun-deity, Hercules, is represented, whose dog is recorded first at Tyre to 
have discovered the Murex or purple fish, which he brought from the sea 
in his mouth. It seems clear, moreover, that there is a tomb beneath the 
block of rock on which the bas-relief is cut, although the entrance is now 
so completely blocked that excavation would require considerable time. 

Hitherto we have found no site which can really be considered to 
represent Pate Tyrus. A visit to the fountains of Easel 'Ain, however, 
made us acquainted with the importance of the ruin called er Rusheidtyeh, 
the old name of which is Tell el Hahtsh, "Mound of the Abyssinian." 
There is here a great hillock measuring about 400 yards, north and 
south and including some 25 to 30 acres. It rises about 60 feet above 
the sea, and has a modern farm-house on the flat summit. The hill 
was covered with corn, but remains of ancient masonry were visible all 
over its plateau. On the noith-east are two fine springs which have 
been enclosed with walls like those at Ras el 'Ain, the work, however, 
in parts looks like Crusading masonry. On the north-west is a small 
mill originally fed from these springs, but the water now runs in a 
stream to the sea. It appears, therefore, that at this site the description 
given by Strabo of Palee Tyrus, as having a stream running through its 
midst, as well as the distance of twenty stadia from Tyre, is realized in a 
satisfactory manner. A small jungle of brambles, canes, and wild figs 
o-rows on the edge of the Tell to the north, following the stream to the 
beach, and at Tell Habish we have every requirement for an ancient town, 
a fine water supply, a lofty and spacious mound, and a small landing place 
on the beach itself. 

Ras el 'Ain, about half a mile south of this gi-eat mound, may possibly 
have formed part of the site of Pala3 Tyrus, which would have covered 
the intervening space if it was indeed a town of any size. We visited the 
great reservoirs and aqueducts of Ras el 'Ain, and made a plan of the 
three principal tanks. There appear to have been originally two springs, 
of which one is enclosed in the great octagonal reservoir called Birket 



LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 189 

'Israwy, while the other rises in a quadrangukr cistern called Birket 
SufsMeh, which is situated 370 feet east of the former, and is connected 
by a short' channel, with a smaller rudely octagonal reservoir situate at 
the south-western angle of the Birket Sufsafeh. 

The level of the water in these two springs is- the same, about 80 feet 
above the sea. The two|groups of reservoirs were connected by an aqueduct, 
of which only a few traces remain. The walls of the pools are 20 feet 
thick, faced with fine ashlar of stones, sometimes 6 feet long, and built 
inside with concrete, formed by alternate layers of pebbles in hard cement, 
and of flat pieces of stone or pottery, Birket 'Israwy has th« appearance 
of having been originally domed over, the walls curving over above the 
water some 3 feet beyond the perpendicular of the inner surface. This 
Birkeh is now surrounded with small houses. Its sides are of irregular 
length, and were carefully planned by Lieutenant Mautell. On the north 
and on the east bifurcated channels lead from the su)'face of the pool to two 
pairs of vertical shafts of circular form, each 3 feet in diameter. These 
shafts are lined with good masonry, the stones having their faces cut to the 
form of the circle. They feed two modern mills, but are evidently part of 
the original structure of the reservoir. 

On the west side of this tank a modern pool ha» been built ; it is now 
covered with trees and canes^ but was distinctly visible from the top of 
Birket 'Isr§,wy. It is called Birket el Malti, and said to have been built 
by the Egyptian Emir Bishtr el Malti, apparently about the time of 
Ibrahim Pasha ; while the Birket 'Isr^wy is locally, though no doubt 
wrongly, attributed to Alexander the Great. 

Birket Sufsafeh (" the willow-pool ") measures 51 feet by 48 feet inside, 
with walls 10 feet thick. It is built on a hill side, so that on the south 
the path reaches almost to the level of the top of its walls, whereas the 
walls of the second octagonal tank are some 15 feet high on the west side, 
and over 20 feet in thickness. 

No ancient aqueduct leads from the quadrangular tank, but alterations 
have been made in its walls, and a modern aqueduct on arches, some of 
which are pointed, and others roand, runs south-west for a short distance 
from the east side of the tank. Probably these alterations may be attri- 
buted to the Crusaders of the 12th and 13th centuries. 

From the octagonal tank contiguous to the Birket Sufsafeh, the original 
aqueduct to Tyre still runs about 2 miles, to the vicinity of Tell M'ashAk 
on the north, where it turns round westwards, and disappears in the 
sand dunes ; the water which is carried to the town and rather beyond it, 
escaping to form a marsh behind the dunes. This aqueduct has the 
appearance of Roman work, and is lined with concrete. It has a channel, 
increasing from 2 feet 9 inches near the pool to 5 feet in width, and 6 feet 
in depth near Neby M'ashtak, where the arch is still intact, the voussoirs 
surmounted by a series of long slabs laid horizontally as a top covering to the 
structure. The fall, from Eas el 'Ain to Neby M'ashfik, is at the rate of 
about 10 feet per mile, which would give a level of about 40 feet above 
the sea at Tyre, were it continued uniformly. 



190 LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 

In crossing low ground the aqueduct is carried on large round arches 
with strong piers, and a string course is added above these as an orna- 
ment. The arclies are generally formed by voussoirs of even proportions, 
but Lieutenant Mantell noticed near Tell Hablsh a row of arches, not 
truly structural, but formed by cutting the stones of the succession 
courses into the shape of a round arch, eacli course being coi^elled out 
so as to form together a complete semicircle in elevation. This unusual 
construction may, perhaps, be a sign of the early date of the aqueduct, 
and the arches thus formed are dependent for strength, not on structure, 
but solely on the hardness of the cement used in building. The masons 
were, however, evidently not ignorant of the theory of the ai'ch, as 
voussoirs are used in other parts of the aqueduct. 

In addition to the three ancient reservoirs, and the later Birket el 
Malti, there is a fifth pool of quite distinct character situated north-west 
of Birket Tsrawy. An aqueduct with masonry of late character leads to 
this tank, which is some 12 feet square inside. The arches of its aqueduct 
were originally round, but near the tank an outer facing of masonry not 
bonded in, has been added with pointed arches on the north side of the 
piers. The tank is called Birket es Seiyideh, " Our Lady's Pool," and is a 
sacred place, pilgrimage being undertaken to visit the spot, and vows 
offered to the local divinity. The tank was probably filled at one time 
through its aqueduct from the more ancient aqueduct from Birket es 
Sufsafeh, or rather from the contiguous octagonal reservoir. It should be 
noted in connection with the last-named octagonal tank, that like Birket 
Israwy it contains a pair of cylindrical shoots of good ancient masonry, 
which convey the water to a modern milL 

It seems clear that the original constructors of these fine old water- 
towers had in view rather the utilization of the springs for mill-work than 
the supply of the distant city of Tyre by an aqueduct. 

The conclusions which suggest themselves after a visit to the spot are, 
that the three older tanks were originally built for local purposes, that an 
aqueduct to Tyi^e (seemingly Roman work) was afterwards made from the 
smaller octagonal reservoir. That the Crusaders subsequently built the 
Birket es Seiyideh and its aqueduct, as well as the broken aqueduct leading 
south-west from Birket Sufsafeh, and that the Birket el Malti is the latest 
addition to the group of five tanks at present existing. The arrangement 
will, however, be rendered clearer by a glance at the plan of the older 
reservoirs. 

The general results of our three days of exploration at Tyre may be 
briefly summarised in conclusion. They include : — 

First, the discovery of a tomb (Mtigharet el Mujahed), which seems to 
indicate the situation of the ancient Tyrian necropolis. 

Secondly, the examination of the existing remains of the southern or 
Egyptian harbour, and of the reef west of the island city of Tyre. 

Thirdly, a suggestion as to the position of the Temple of Melkarth, 
rendered probable by the conspicuous and central position of a site which 
has long been consecrated by a Christian basilica pointing towards Hermon, 



LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 191 

Fourthly, the examination of the hill of Neby M'ashCik, its traditions 
and the neighbouring Tyrian cemetery. 

Fifthly, the examination of the important mound of Tell Hal)ish and 
the neighbouring springs of Ras el 'Ain, the possible site of Pake Tyrus. 

Excavations at Tyre might still produce results of interest and impor- 
tance. They should be confined to the area within the Crusading walls, 
■or to the sites of el LawAtiu and Tell Habtsh, where alone promising indi- 
cations occur. The old necropolis of Tyre may, ]ierhaps, exist untouched 
beneath the accumulated rubbish heaps of Greek, Byzantine, Crusading, 
and Arab times, but the vicinity of the modern graveyard would make the 
exploration a very delicate matter. 

It should, however, be remembered that the remains as yet found have 
been of a very rude and uninteresting description, and that the Phamician 
inscriptions discovered by M. Penan in this district were of very late 
date. Perhaps the most interesting piece of work which could be sug- 
gested would be a complete excavation of the cathedral by shaft sunk to 
rock, or to such a depth as should enable the explorer to determine 
whether any relics of the famous temple of Melkarth still exist on the 
spot. 

Modern Tyre has been described as a rising place, and there is no 
doubt that since the Metawileh settled here, it has grown into a town 
from a condition of complete ruin. Its trade is, however, quite insignifi- 
cant, its harbours far too small to be of any value, and its inland conunu- 
nications too difficult to allow of its competing with Acre, Tripoli, or 
Alexandretta, as a point of strategical or commercial importance. 

The fisher spreads his net on the reefs and ruined walls, as the prophet 
of old proclaimed in one of the most poetic chapters of the Old Testament, 
(Ezek. xxvii), and the little town is scai'cely more than a fishing village 
with a small coasting trade in cereals, fruits and silk. Our knowledge of 
other ancient cities leads us, moreover, to conclude that even when the 
hardy Phoenician mariners were planting colonies in Africa, in Spain, or in 
France, and were the first of Orientals to discover our own stormy islands, 
the ports of the mother city, to which the merchants of Asia and the 
Mediterranean gathered from every quarter, were scarcely larger than the 
■capacity of a fishing harbour in England, while the metropolis itself only 
covered an area about equal to that of Hyde Park. 

The conclusions of archaeologists, which a short though careful exami- 
nation of the site led me to regard as requiring reconsideration, ai-e as 
already detailed. First, that the Egyptian harbour has disappeared ; 
considering the existence of a well defined port as large as the northern or 
Sidonian harbour. Secondly, that the Palre Tyrus was a gi-eat suburb 
covering the plains east and south-east of Tjtc ; since no indications of 
such a suburb exist, while the idea is quite contrary to all we know of the 
size and arrangement of ancient eastern cities. Third, that the necropolis 
of Tyre lay at Khurbet el Lawatiu ; since we were able to discover at least 
one Tyrian tomb on the island, the natural position in which the cemeteiy 
might be expected to exist. Fourthly, that the somewhat exaggerated 

o 



192 LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 

description which has been given of the caves at the site of el LawS,tin, 
should be modified by a comparison with similar excavations in other 
parts of Palestine. And lastly in general, the expectation of finding at 
Tyre an immense city equal in size to Eome or Athens, should be controlled 
by the experience which we derive from the examination of the other 
sacred or commercial cities of ancient Syria, which, like the modern towns 
of the country, seem to have been crowded into areas quite insignificant in 
comparison with those occupied by European metropolises, and strangely 
contrasting to the world-wide fame which such little cities as Tyre, Sidon, 
Jopjoa, or Jerusalem have obtained in later ages. 

Claude R Coxder, RE. 



III. 

From Beyrout to Jerusalem. 

Jerusalem, 2Sth May, 1881, 
The distu^rbances in the Hauran rendered it i^rudent to relinquish our 
original plan of commencing the Eastern Survey on the north ; and, as 
many of our heavy stores were in Jerusalem, it ajipeared necessary to shift 
our base of operations to the Holy City, whence we hope to proceed to 
Gilead and Moab. Leaving Beyrout on 7th May, we joiu'neyecl down the 
coast by Sidon, Tyre, Acre, and Nablus, reaching the capital on Saturday, 
21st. "We remained two days in Tyre, and one day in Nablus when we 
revisited the top of Ebal, and rebuilt the cairn erected in the summer of 
1872, as the point will probably be conspicuous east of Jordan. From 
Eba,l we beheld the great plateau broken only by the valley of the Jabbok, 
which is the scene of our expected labours. Many things, however, re- 
quired to be settled on a satisfactory basis before we could hope successfully 
to attack our work, and the time spent in thoroughly organizing the 
expedition will probably be saved later in the increased working power of 
the party. Meantime a fe\V- 'scattered notes, on the points which were 
observed along the road, will probably be thought of interest. 

Our camps were pitched at Neby Ytlnis (where we rested for Sunday, 
8th), Sidon, Tyre (where two days were spent), Nakfii-ah, el Bahjeh, near 
Acre (where the second Sunday was passed), Sheikh Ibreik, Jenin, Nablus, 
'Ain el Haramlyeh, and Jerusalem ; the result of our explorations at^Tyre 
are given in another report. 

The Eg ad. 

It has been suggested that the main coast road dates from Arab times, 
but it has all the appearance of Roman origin, not only because Roman 
milestones have fallen beside it at intervals, but because the broad cen- 
tral lib or backbone of cut stones is visible in jilaces, with side- walls of 
rough l^locks, both of these features being peculiar to Roman roads in 
Syria. In many places where the road runs along the beach, concrete 



LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 193 

was used instead of stone to form the roadway, and the remains of this, 
set in hard white or pink cement, are still to be found in parts. 

The remains of Roman bridges M'ith round arches are also observable 
both at the River Kasimiyeh and also at the Nahr Abu el Aswad when 
the arch is still joerfect. 

Khurbet Umm el' AlIUD.* 

This impoi-tant site south of Tyre (the old name of which seems 
to have been Laodicea) wa.s visited by Renan, who found here some late 
Phoenician inscriptions. There is a temple in a conspicuous position on a 
rugged hillside, and many other ruins, but they are so overgrown with 
copse that a long time would be necessary for their exploration. 
The plan of the tem^ile is very difficult to make out, but it appears to 
have had three aisles, and to have measured about 180 feet E. and W. 
(true bearing 30°), with an outei- colonnade 25 feet wide having two rows 
of pillars. The capitals are Ionic, and the mouldings have a simple 
and pure character which marks the temple as being earlier than the 
Byzantine period. Some cui'ious stones which have the form of segments 
of spheres about 18 inches in diameter (looking like slices from a Swiss 
cheese) have sockets in the spherical surface. They may, jierhaps, have 
formed parts of some ornamental erections over the cornices, either as 
bases from which a small needle was raised or perhaps as representations 
of shallow vases on a base fitted into the socket. 

We measured various curious details, including a sarcophagus with a 
projecting pilaster at one end, and a stone 5 feet square, 3|- feet high, with 
two square shallow troughs, 1 foot side sunk in the upper part, and rude 
scvilptures on the sides, one of which resembled a headless sphinx or lion 
apparently with wings. 

There is a second block 2 feet 8 inches square, 3 feet high, with a 
ti'ough 1 foot square and a few inches deep. Possibly these may have 
been altars, as there seems no other good explanation of the shallow sunk 
places in which a fire might have been kindled. A double tomb, rock-cut, 
exists further north, of which we made a plan ; but our visit was too short 
to enable us to obtain a good idea of the site. There is a large amount of 
broken tesselated pavement on the hillsides below the temple. 

Nakurah, 

I made special inquiries as to the meaning which the natives attach 
to this word applied to the pass generally identified with the ancient 
Scala Tyriorum. Professor Palmer renders the word "trumpet" 
and suggests that as Sfcr in Arabic may also mean " trumpet," the 
natives may have misunderstood Sur (Tyre) to mean a trumpet, and 
not as in Hebrew " a rock," and that in process of time they may have 
substituted the word NakArah, applying it to the promontory originally 
called SAr. 

* See " Memoirs," vol. i, p. 182, 

o 2 



194 LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 

The word NakArah comes, however (as Professor Palmer tells me), 
from a root meaning " to pick," or excavate by picking out. It occurs 
more than once in the survey nomenclature, as in 'Aiu en Nak<\rah, 'Ain 
en Nukr, and the village Nakfirah near Nablus, places which have no 
connection with Tyre. I find that the meaning attached by the natives 
to the term is that of excavation or scarjnng, which is exactly the Talniudic 
use of the word, where it is applied to caves excavated artificially. The 
name, in fact, of Eas en NakCuah, is do'ived apparently from the rock-cutting 
through which the road passes. This has been destroyed in making the 
new road, which is on a higher level than the old, but the vertical cutting of 
the rock is still visible in more than one place on both sides of the road. 
T may, perliaps, venture here to remark that I do not know a single instance 
in which the Fellahtn have substituted one word for another in the manner 
that Professor Palmer sui)poses. They adhere, it is true, often to the Hebrew 
name of a place, long after the meaning has been lost (as is the case also 
in our own country), sometimes modifying the sound slightly to give it a 
modern — and often erroneous — meaning. 

In the case of SHr, however, it should be noted that the word is still 
used by the peasantry to mean a rock, and it is not known, as far as I have 
ascertained, to mean a trumpet. 

Meselieii. 

In 1876 I proposed to identify the village of Meselieh, or Mithilia, 
south of Jenin, with the Bethvdia of the Book of Judith, supposing the 
substitution of M for B, of which there are occasional instances in 
Syrian nomenclature. The indications of the site given in the Apo- 
cryjjha are tolerably distinct. Bethulia stood on a hill, but not apparently 
on the top, which is mentioned separately (Judith vi, 12). There were 
springs or wells beneath the town (verse 11), and the houses were above 
these (verse 13). The city stood in the hill country not far from the plain 
(verse 11), and appai^ently near Dothan (Judith iv, 6). The army of 
Holofernes was visible when encamped near Dothan (Judith vii, 3-4), by 
the spring in the valley near Bethulia (verses 3-7). 

The site usually supposed to represent Bethulia — namely, the strong 
village of Sanfir, does not fulfil these various requisites, but the topography 
of the Book of Judith, as a whole, is so consistent and easily understood, 
that it seems probable that Bethulia was an actual site. Visiting Mithilia 
on our way to Shechem {see Sheet XI of the Survey), we found a small 
ruinous village on the slope of the hill. Beneath it are ancient wells, and 
above it a rounded hill top, commanding a tolerably extensive view. The 
north-east jiart of the great plain, Gilboa, Tabor, and Nazareth, are clearly 
seen. AVest of these a neighbouring hill hides Jenin and Wady Bela'meh 
(the Belmaim probably of the narrative), but further west Carmel appears 
behind the ridge of Sheikh Iskander, and part of the plain of 'Arr;lbeh, 
close to Dothan, is seen. A broatl corn vale, called " The King's Valley," 
extends north-west from Meselieh towards Dothan, a distance of only 
three miles. There is a low shed foi-med by rising ground between two 



LIEUTENANT CONDEK'S RErORTS. 195 

hills, separating this valley from the Dothiau plain ; and at the latter site 
is the spring beside which probably the Assyrian army is supposed by the 
old Jewish novelist to have encamped. In imagination one might see the 
stately Judith walking through the down trodden corn-fields, and shady 
olive gi'oves, while on the rugged hill-side above the men of the city 
" looked after her until she was gone down the mountain, and till she had 
passed the valley, and could see her no more " (Judith x, 10). 

Jacob's Well. 

In 1876 some misconceptions appeared to exist as to the condition 
of this famous site. The well itself has never been choked. It is 75 feet 
deep, and still at times contains watei-. Over the shaft, however, is built 
a Crusading vault (as described in the " Memoirs "), and this is entered 
from the present surface through a hole in the roof. The floor is covered 
with stones, which have fallen from above, and which, until lately, quite 
concealed the well-mouth. During the present travelling season the vault 
has been partly cleai-ed by an English traveller, and the mouth of the well 
is now visible with the shaft as far down as there is light enough to see it. 
A stone, 2| feet by 3| feet, covers the well, and in it is a circular hole^ 
18 inches in diameter, with a raised square moulding round it. The 
dressing somewhat resembles Crusading work. The masonry of the shaft 
beneath is apparently well finished. There are remains of mosaic pavement 
round the stone forming the well-mouth, and, as has been already noticed 
in " Tent-Work," two pillars of the ancient church are still in site in a vaidt 
north-west of the well. They are of grey syenite, and it is probable that 
the other shafts of similar character lying near the enclosure (70 paces 
square) in which Jacob's Well now stands also belonged, not as some have 
thought, to the Temple on Gerizim, but rather to the ancient Cruciform 
Basilica, which was so built as to have the well in the centre of the cross. 
Excavations would probably result in the tracing of this church under the 
present surface, but any interference with the place is looked on with 
extreme suspicion by the peasantry, who imagine that the Franks wish to 
take the well away to Europe. 

En Tappuah. 

^ According to the views of recent writers, this place is to be sought 

south of Nablus, and west of the plain of el Mukhnah. There are 

several good springs in the direction, and it seemed possible that en 

Tappuah, the " apple spring," miglit still exist under the Arabian form 

Ain et Tuff Ah (or Tiiff-Ah) somewhere either near 'Ain Abtls, or further 

south. We accordingly went along the route in question, as far south at 

Yas^if, and enquired, both at 'Ain AbAs and afterwards, for the situation 

of 'Ain et TuflTdi. In spite of this leading question, no one professed to 

know the site, and the goat-herds (who are the best authority on such 

questions) denied that any such place existed. They enumerated many 

other springs which are marked on the map, and curiously enough 



196 LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 

suggested that we meant 'Aiu Yasuf, which (according to the view 
advocated in the "Handbook to the Bible") is just where en Tappuah 
shoukl be sought. Although it is thus only a negative result which we have 
obtained, it is so far satisfactory that careful enquiry, both in 1881 and 
1877, failed to recover the name. So that there is no need to suspect that 
an important name has been omitted from the Siu-vey in this case. 

JUFXA. 

A curious instance of the way in which small objects may be over- 
looked occurred in this instance. The village had l)een visited in 1872 
by the Survey party, and subsequently by Lieutenant Kitchener. Colonel 
Wilson has also been there, and Dr. Clapton has visited the place, yet no 
one seems to have noticed the sarcophagus side built into the courtyard 
of the Greek Church of St. George, which stands south of the village in the 
valley. The design represents three wreaths supported by a winged genii, 
and three Medusa heads occur in medallions above the wreaths. The side 
has been broken off and built into the north wall of the courtyard, the 
door of which bears a modern Greek inscription, with the dates 1858 and 
1860. 

Inside the courtyard, in a corner, is a fine old Crusading font of the 
usual pattern, cylindrical, with a square basin and four semi-circular seats 
forming a quartrefoil within the circle (as at Tekoa and in many other 
places south of Jerusalem). There is also a rude Byzantine capital outside 
the Church, and the other portions of the sarcophagus lie near. Thus, in 
the little shrine of St. George, we have remains of every period from the 
Eoman epoch downwards, and the site with its fine trees and pomegranate 
bushes is probably an ancient shrine. 

Er Eam. 

At the shrine which is so conspicuous near this village are remains 
of a former chapel. The lintel stone (as it would seem) with a bas- 
relief of rosettes, has been found by Dr. Chaplin within the building, 
and a very curious stone mask is in his possession, obtained from the 
village. It represents a human face without hair or beard, the nose well- 
cut, the eyes and mouth very feebly designed. 

The mask is hollowed out behind, and has two deep holes at the back as 
if to fix it to a wall. It is over afoot in longer diameter, and curiously 
resembles some of the faces of the Moabite collection of Mr. Shapira. 
There cannot well be any question of its genuine character, and nothing 
like it ha§ been found sa far as I know in Palestine. 

Jett. 

Two Eoman lamps with double wicks were shown to me at Nab- 
lus, one is in the form of a bull, the forefeet extended in front to form 
the spouts for the wicks. These were found in 1874 at Jett, and I had 
often heard of the bull as an ancient idol. The place in question is 



LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 197 

situate near the plain of Sharon (Sheet XI), and is an ancient site of 
importance, probably the Gath of the Egyption records, and the Gitta of 
which Simon Magus is said to have been a native. 

Jerusalem. 

It is almost exactly six years since I last visited the Holy City, 
and during this time the growth of the place has been very rapid. A 
Jewish village, not marked on the Survey, has grown up along the Jaffa 
road, and the Jewish jTOjiulation is now estimated at 1,500 souls out of some 
2,503 inhabitants. The number of Germans has also largely iucreased, and 
similar changes are said to have occurred at Bethlehem and Hebron. 
There is always something new to find in the city, and Di-. Chaplin jDointed 
out to me several interesting details. The under-mentioned inscription is 
not to be found, so far as I am aware, in previous papers, and was unknown 
to Dr. ChajDlin, nor is it among those collected for the Society in 1873, by 
M. Gauneau. It was kindly pointed out to me by Mr. S. Bergheim. It 
occurs on the north wall of the tower in which Herod's Gate (Bab ez 
Zahreh) is built, and is placed on a sort of tablet, measuring 3 feet by 
1 foot with triangular wings. The stone is built into the wall upside down, 
and the existence of the tablet, the form of the letters, and the words in 
the 2nd and 3rd lines, Tr^s Kyias rrji, seem to show that it is of Chi'istian and 
Byzantine origin. 

TeP A<uN 

TAnNwNCYCI THC 

AriACTHC OIo) 

ANNOY . . . C . . INHe . ANTIcoN 
I have omitted various doulitful letters, as the inscrijition does not 
appear valuable. The stone is too rough and crooked to allow of a satis- 
factory squeeze being taken. It is some 15 feet from the ground, and I 
cojjied it standing on a ladder. It was probably taken from one of the 
■early Christian Churches in the city. 

In passing through the bazaars and the Via Dolorosa, Dr. Chaplin 
pointed out to us various remains of Crusadiug Jerusalem. The bazaar was 
known in the twelfth century as Jfalcuisinat, and the groined vaulting of 
the roof seems to belong to this period, while on one of the corbels support- 
ing the arches is cut in medireval characters the inscription 

n 

sea 
anna 

Probably there was property belonging to tlie Church of St. Anne at 
this spot. There are many other little Crusading relics at Jerusalem of 
which I have made notes at diii'ei'ent periods, and which serve to illustrate 
the curious mediaeval account contained in the " Citez de Jherusalem." 

SiLOAM. 

The excavations now conducted on the Ophel ridge by Dr. Guthe 
for the German Exploration Society are of gi-eat interest. Through 



198 LIEUTENANT CONDEIi'S REPORTS. 

his kindness we were enabled to visit f hem all, but I should ill repay his 
courtesy by forestalling his own account of his work. It is sufficient to say 
that he is engaged in investigating a corner of the city where, perhaps, 
more than anywhere else, success may be expected to attend the employer, 
and where, moreover, we are most in want of information. He has shown, 
moreover, that the Ophel spur Avas once covered with buildings down 
almost to the very edge of the pool. It is difficult to give a date for sucli 
buildings, but with some exceptions they seem at least not later than the 
time of Hadrian, and I was disposed to think that the continuation of 
Colonel Warren's Ophel wall has really been found by Dr. Guthe running 
southwards. Some remains seem, however, clearly (as Dr. Guthe also 
thinks) to belong to the Byzantine period, and the excavations require to 
be extended considerably before any final conclusions can safely be 
reached. 

Dr. Guthe also kindly gave us the opportunity of visiting the now 
famous inscription in the great i-ock-cut channel. Far from wondering 
that it was never seen before, the marvel appears to me to be that it was 
ever found at all. Two youths of Jewish birth endeavoured to walk along 
the passage to the north end, but failed to do so — yet stumbled on the 
inscription, but the water was then running almost on the level of the 
hiirhest line of the text. It has now been carried off so as to show the 
whole height of the tablet, which is about 2 feet square, with a face care- 
fully polished and slightly convex. The letters are remai'kably distinct, 
but the flaws in the rock render the text very difficult to follow. The 
letters ai-e filled with a dej^osit of lime formed by the Avater action, and it 
is consequently impossible to take a squeeze which will give any really 
valuable idea of the text. 

Dr. Guthe has taken several paper squeezes and one gypsum cast, but 
none of these give a good idea of the letters. With the aid of these, how- 
ever, and by sketching from the letters themselves, he has produced a copy 
which will probably sujjersede all others. This has taken him several 
weeks of work, and I thought it impossible to rival it in the time at our 
command. The inscription is on the right hand on entering the passage 
from the Siloam end, and some 12 paces fi-om the entrance. 

It is thought in Jei-usalem that Professor Sayce's copy and translation 
may prove too hasty to be of any value. Mr. Shajiira gives a different 
interpretation to the text, explaining it as referring to the cutting of the 
tunnel fi'om the two opposite ends. This we know was really how the 
excavation was eflfected, and Mr. Shapira's intimate acquaintance with the 
Hebrew idiom (as a Talmudist of 20 years' education) seems to render his 
opinion worthy of consideration. 

It might appear strange that the visitor who scratched his name in 
the upper part of the tablet did iiot see the text, but there was an old 
water-mark above the inscription when first discovered, and the letters 
were no doubt hidden. Dr. Guthe has found part of the ancient pool 
to which the channel ran, and the impression which I obtained on the spot, 
when carefully observing the scarps on either side of the valley, was, that 



LIEUTENANT CONDEIi'S REPORTS. 19!) 

the ancient pool of Siloam, the "ditch" which Hezekiah made foi' the 
water of the Old Pool (Isaiah xxii, 9, 11) may have been a large sheet of 
water forming a defence where the wall was lowest, and closing a weak 
point at the outlet of the Tyropoeou valley. 

Claude E. Conder, E.E. 



IV. 
Nablus. Jerusalem. The Mountain or the Scape Goat. 

Jerusalem, 1th June, 1881. 

It appears 'now unavoidable that some delay should occur 
in commencing the Eastern Survey, in consequence of the difficulties 
raised by the Turkish authorities which cannot be overcome without 
patience. Meantime much interesting work remains to be done, in 
collecting the various discoveries made by residents, and noting the results 
of excavations and alterations which have occurred during the last five 
years. During 1872 it was impossible to enter the mosques at Nablus^ 
but during my recent visit I was able, by the kind assistance_of M. Falsher, 
to visit every monument of interest within the walls of the town, and to 
collect several new ti^aditions. 

In the middle of Nablus is a quadrangular building with whitewashed 
walls, containing the tomb of Sheikh Badran or Sheikh Bedr er Eafia'. 
The walls are whitewashed, and the roof is supported by four pillars, 
having early Byzantine capitals and grey granite shafts. This is evidently 
an early basilica which has as yet, so far as I am aware, escajDcd notice. 
Sheikh Badran is said to have been the father of Sheikh 'Am&d ed Din, 
whose sacred place is on Ebal. This also indicates the Christian origin of 
the tradition, for the companion shrine on Ebal was originally also a 
church, and the Greeks and Latins alike in Nablus, regard it as the place 
where the head of John the Baptist was buried ; his body, according to an 
eai-ly but erroneous tradition, being buried at Samaria. 'Amdd ed Din 
('• monument of the faith ") appears (according to the description given by 
Marino Sanuto) to be the i)lace which the Crusaders called Dan, and 
where they supposed the calf to have been set uji by Jeroboam, — the 
Bethel of the narrative being, according to their explanation, the Samaritan 
site of Luz on Gerizim. 

In addition to the great mosque, the Mosque of Hezu Ya'kCib ("the 
wailing of Jacob "), and the Lepei-'s Mosque (the old crusading hospital in 
the north-east angle of the city), I visited the sacred place called Oulad 
Y'akAb, " the sons of Jacob," a sight which Robinson sought in vain,, 
and which seems to have an antiquity not inferior to Jacob's well or 
Joseph's tomb. It is recognized by Jew, Samaritan, and Moslem alike, and 
is mentioned by St. Jerome in his account of Sta. Paula's journey. It is. 
in the north-east angle of the town, north of the Leper's Mosque, and close 



200 LIEUTENANT CONDER'S EEPORTS. 

to the " Eaisiii M^irt '' (Khan Ezbib). A door on the north leads to a 
little paved court, with a division of stone, some 6 inches high, beyond 
wliich ones boots must be removed. In this court are two small marble 
pillar shafts, one of which has an Arab inscription, with the name of 
Malik \imr and the date 622 a.h. (13th century). In other respects 
the building seems quite modern. On the south side is a double chamber, 
the southern half entered from the east, while in the northern half is 
a large cenotaph of the ordinary kind, covered with green cloths, and 
having a high pilla with sculptured turban at either end. This, according 
to the Sheikh, was the tomb of three of the sons of Jacob, to whom 
he gave the names Reiyitldn, Sahyfin (apparently Sion), and Bushera 
(pei'haps Asher). 

I have also paid a visit to the Samaritan High Priest Y'akflb, for 
the purpose of enquiring as to various Samaritan traditions. We found 
him in the little synagogue, where a representative congregation, robed 
in white, were reading the law in high nasal key much like that of a 
Jewish service. The Samaritans appear to be prospering, as their 
numbers have increased from 135 to 160 souls ; and I was much impressed 
with the tine physique and handsome countenances of the men, which 
seem to contradict the idea that the race is dying out, as does also the 
fact that the number of males is considerably in excess of that of the 
females (98 to 62). 

I wa"s, however, disappointed by the results of our conversation with 
respect to the character of Samaritan traditions, not only because I 
found that the present High Priest has forgotten many things known to 
Amram, his uncle and predecessor, and has only a confused remembrance 
of many important points, but also because in many cases the traditions 
which he related, as commonly received, are of very recent origin, and 
traceable to the Crusaders. Thus, for instance, he believed that Dothan 
was not to be placed at Tell Dothan, the site recognized by Jerome 
and by modern writers, but at Khan Jubb Yusef, where it is placed 
by the Crusading historians, north of the Sea of Galilee. He stai;ed 
that this was to be proved from ancient Samaritan books, and was 
quite unaware of the unsatisfactory nature of the identification. 

The Samaritans have a tradition that the twelve sons of Jacob were 
buried each within the bounds of his own tribe. The sites which they 
point out are not, however, in accoi'dance with this view. As regards 
.Toshua'stomb, both the modern Samaritans and the mediaeval Samaritan 
writers are divided into two parties, the one saying that he lies with 
Eliazar and Phinehas at 'Awertah, the others that he is buried with Nun 
and Caleb at Kefr Haris. 

I found that Caleb is known among them as Kifl, which renders the 
identification of the three sites at Kefr Haris complete ; Neby Nun 
being Nun, Neby Kifl Caleb, and Neby Lusha' Joshua, in accordance 
with the account of R. Jacob of Paris, and other Jewish travellers of the 
middle ages. 

The tombs of the twelve sons of Jacob, as believed in by the Samaritans, 



LIEUTENANT CONDER's KEPORTS. 201 

are all now iu the hands of the Moslems, excepting perhaps that of 
Joseph, to which Jews and Samaiitans have access, and where they burn 
oil and incense on two altars, one at the head, the other at the foot of the 
cenotaph. Judah lies at Neby HAdah iu el Yehudiyeh (Jehud), north of 
Jaffa. Dan, at Neby Dan, iu the village of Neby Danian, a little f lu'ther 
east. Asher is said to be Neby Tota (the good prophet), in TUbas, north- 
east of Nablus. Simeon is Neby Shem'on, near Kefr Sata, north of Jaffa. 
Reuben is Neby EAbtn, a sacred place east of Yebnah, to which for at 
least 300 years pilgrimages have been made (far, however, from the lot of 
the tribe of Reuben). Levi is Neby Lawin, who has a conspicuous shrine 
near Slleh, north-west of Nablus. Benjamin, Gad, and Naphtali were 
unknown to the High Priest, who thought they might be the three buried 
at the Oulad Ya'kub as above noticed. I believe, however, that Neby 
Yemin near Neby Sham'on probably belongs to this gi'oup, and represents 
Benjamin. 

Issachar, according to the Pligh Priest, is now called Neby Hazkil 
(Hazkll or Ezekiel) by the Moslems, and lies in the village of Eameh. It 
is very remarkable that Rameh is a border town (Eemeth) of Issachar, and 
that the name Hazkin occurs again in the same connection in Jebel 
Hazkln, which exists on the border of the same tribe near the south- 
east angle. In this case, therefore, the tradition has sovae prima facie 
appearance of being genuine. Finally the High Priest had heard that 
Zebulon was buried somewhere near Sidon. I presume that he referred 
to Neby Sebelau in the hills above Tyre. He also stated that other 
children (probably descendants) of Jacob were bux'ied at 'Asiret el Hatah 
and at el Bizdneh ; all these places lie in the districts where in former 
times the Samaritans were numerous, and none are within the borders 
of Judaea. I give these traditions for what they are worth as a contri- 
bution to the folk-lore of Palestine. 

Jerusalem. 

I find that the identification of the hill above Jeremiah's Grotto 
with the probable site of Calvary, which dejjends mainly on the 
fact that, accoi'ding to Jewish tradition, this was the ancient place of 
public execution, has found favour with a large number of intelligent 
readers. I have already exjjlained that we are indebted to Dr. Chaplin 
for discovering the tradition ; but there are several facts in connection 
with this most interesting question which I have only recently ascer- 
tained. 

The modern Arab name of the place is el HeidhemHyeh (" torn down "), 
but this is a corruption of the earlier Adhemtyeh as given by Mejr ed 
Din, and there seems no doubt that it is derived from the tomb of a son 
of the famous Edhem, a historical character. The Sheikh of the Jerusalem 
Haram gave me this explanation, which is confirmed by Dr. ChaiDlin. It 
appears also from Mejr ed Din, that the neighbourhood immediately east 
was called es Sahira, and was an ill-omened place connected in the imagi- 
nation of Moslems with death and judgment (like the Kedron Valley 



202 



LIEUTENANT CONDER S REPORTS. 



beyond it). Possibly in this we may have some ti'ace of the ill-omened 
site of the ancient place of execution. 

Another point concerning this hillock has been noticed by recent 
visitors, who have seen in its outline a resemblance to a skull. This was 
mentioned to me by the Rev. A. Henderson, but I could not then remem- 
ber the circumstance. On walking from the north-east corner of Jerusalem 
towards the rock I perceived, however, what was meant. The rounded 
summit and the two hollow cave entrances beneath do, indeed, give 
some resemblance to a skidl, as may be seen in a photograph taken 
from this point of view by Lieutenant Mantell, which I enclose. It is the 
skull of an animal rather than of a human being, and I should not like to base 




NEWLT DISCOVERED TOMB, 200 YABDS WEST OF JEREMIAH"S GROTTO. — VIEW FROM EAST. 



an argument on so slight a resemblance. It is, howevei", of interest to note 
the fact, as many persons consider that Golgotha was a name derived from 
the form of the ground, rather than from the use of the site as a place of 
burial or of execution. 

It is more important to notice that the site of Jeremiah's Grotto is 
peculiarly fitted for a place of execution in consequence of its com- 
manding position. From the summit the eye roams above the city walls, 
over the greater part of Jerusalem, while on the west the ground rises, 
beyond the intervening valley like a theatre. There is hardly another 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 



203 



spot near Jerusalem so fitted to be the central point for any public 
spectacle. 

Still more interesting is a discovery which I made about a week ago, 
of an indisputably Jewish tomb immediately west of the knoll in question. 
It has only recently been opened, and has not been as yet described, I 
believe, by any visitor. It is cut in the east face of a very curious rock 
platform measuring about 70 paces either way — as shown on the Ordnance 



SECr/ON ON C. D. 




KEWLT DISCOVERED JEWISH TOMB NEAR THE CITY, 200 YARDS WEST OF JEREMIAHS GROTTO. 

Survey about 200 yards west of the grotto. The platform is roughly 
scarped on all sides, in an apparently artificial manner, and on the west 
is a higher piece of rock, also with sides rudely scarped. The rest of 
the space is fairly level, but there seem to be traces of the foundations 
of a surrounding wall in some low mounds near the edge of the platform 



204 LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 

I have long been aware of the existence of a curious cistern in the north- 
east corner of this scarp. It has a domed roof with a man-hole, and 
also a door with a passage 10 ft. long and 3 ft. wide, leading out east- 
wards. The cistern is about 8 paces in diameter, and three steps lead 
down from the door to the level of the cistern floor. This excavation 
seems originally to have been a chamber afterwards converted into a cis- 
tern, and there are sockets for the door-hinges and for bolts in the passage 
entrance. 

The ancient tomb is some thirty paces further south, and the entrance 
is also from the east. The whole is very rudely cut in rock, which is of 
inferior quality. The doorway is much broken, and there is a loophole or 
window, 4 ft. wide, either side of the door. The oviter court, cut in the 
rock, is 7 ft. square, and two stones are so. placed in this as to give the 
idea that they may have held in place a rolling-stone before the door. On 
the right (or north) is a side entrance, leading into a chamber with a 
single loculus, and thence into a cave, some 8 paces square and 10 ft. high, 
with a well-mouth in the roof. 

The chamber within the tomb enti'ance is reached by a descent of two 
steps, and measures 6 ft. by 9 ft. From either side wall, and from the back 
wall is an entrance 20 ins. wide and about 5^ ft. high, leading into a side 
chamber. A passage runs in continuation of each entrance for 4^ ft., and 
on each side is a bench about 2j ft. wide and 2j ft. high. A similar bench 
occurs at the end, the whole width of each chamber being thus 5| ft., its 
length 7 ft. 2 in., and its height from 5 to 6 ft. Each would contain 
two bodies lying beside the passage, but there would scarcely be room for 
three. In addition to these three chambers, there are two excavations on 
the floor-level, in the further corner of the central chamber. They are 
about 5 ft. square, with narrow entrances, and were scattered with human 
bones at the time of my visit. 

The discovery of this tomb is of no little importance in connection with 
Jerusalem topography. If it be compared with the great cemetery at 
Sheikh Ibreik, and with the monument of Helena at Jerusalem, it will be 
seen to belong to the later Jewish period — the centuries immediately pre- 
ceding the Christian era. It is not a Christian tomb, so far as can be 
judged, for the Christians in Palestine seem mainly to have used the 
" rock-sunk " tomb. A cemetery of tombs of the form commonly used 
by the Crusaders, was found in 1873 near the north-east angle of the Jeru- 
salem city walls, but no Jewish tomb has ever been found before so close 
to the ramparts of the modern city on the north : the next nearest being 
the tomb discovered in 1873, about 300 yards further north. 

It would be bold to hazard the suggestion that the single Jewish 
sepulchre thus found is indeed the tomb in the garden, nigh iTuto the 
place called Golgotha, which belonged to the rich Joseph of Arimathea ; 
yet its appearance so near the old place of execution, and so far from the 
other tombs in the old cemeteries of the city, is extremely remarkable. I 
am sorry to say that a group of Jewish houses is growing up round the 
spot. The rock is being blasted for building-stone, and the tomb, unless 



LIETUENANT CONDER S UEPOETS. 

preserved, may perhaps soon be entirely destroyed. It is now in a dis- 
gusting condition of filth, which shows that the Jews have little reverence 
for the old sepulchres of their ancestors. Perhaps some of our readers 
might feel willing to redeem this most interesting monument from its 
present state of desecration, and to purchase and enclose the little plot of 
rocky gi-ound in which it stands. Without such presei-vation the sepul- 
chre is doomed to destruction sooner or later. 

The platform of rock in which the tomb is cut seems possibly to have 
been the base of a group of towers with a scarped foundation. 

The distance from the monument of Helena, and the position with 
respect to the Cotton Grotto, agrees with the description given by Josephus 
of the position of the " Women's Towers " {see " Handbook to the Bible," 
page 352). If the third wall actually extended over this line, it is easy to 
explain why no other tombs of the same period exist so close to the present 
city. The extension of the fortifications rendered it necessary to remove 
the cemetery further off, since the Jews did not allow sepulture within the 
walls. The cisterns may have belonged to the period when the gi^eat 
towers were here erected, and the passage with steps may even have been 
a postern from the towers. 

If we could feel any reasonable certitude that in this single Jewish 
tomb (dating about the time of Christ) we have recovered the actual 
sepulchre in which he lay, an easy explanation of the loss of the site is 
afforded at once ; for the construction, some ten years later, of the 
"Women's Towers" by Agrippa, upon the rock over the tomb, would 
have caused the monument to be hidden beneath, or within tlie new 
buildings ; and thus the sepulchre could no longer be visited, and in course 
of time its existence was forgotten, until the zealous Helena destroyed the 
Venus Temple on the present site of the Holy Sepulchre Church, and 
" beyond all hope " (as Eusebius words it) discovered the rock-ciit Jemsh 
tomb, which the faithful accepted as the tomb of Christ. 

A careful plan of the site and of the tomb is being made by Lieutenant 
Mantell,* as the alterations in this part of Jerusalem are proceeding so 
rapidly, that on our next visit rock and tomb may alike have disappeared. 

The Mountaix of the Scape GoAT.t 

Since projoosing the identification of this mountain, I have been 
unable until yesterday to revisit the spot. Readers of " Tent Woi'k " 

* In making this plan, Lieutenant Mantell found various remains of early 
Byzantine sculptm-e belonging to cornices, also pieces of tesselated pavement and 
of a stone pavement of squares about 6 inches side. These were dug up south of 
the rock platform, near the spot where Mr. Schick discovered the great sar- 
cophagus, supposed by Dr. Chaplin to have been the tomb of the Empress 
Eudocia. It is known that the old chiu'ch of St. Stephen, which she built and 
where she was buried, existed on this spot, and the cornices and terraces are no 
doubt fragments of this basilica. 

t My identification of this site has been recently called in question by 



206 LIEUTENANT CONDEK'S ItEPORTS. 

will remember tliat there was a place called Tzuk, to wliicli the 
scape goat was conducted, and where his conductor, seiziusr him by 
the legs, pushed him over a precipice, so that rolling to the bottom 
he was killed, and thus the evil omen of his voluntary return to Jeru- 
salem was rendered impossible. The mountain was in a district called 
Hidoodim, and the i)lace of precipitation was called Tzuk. It was 
apparently at a distance of eleven Sabbath days' journey from the city, and 
was at the entrance to the desert. 

In 1876 I was able to show in the Quarterlij Statement how all these 
requisites are met by the site of el Muntar ("the watch tower"), a great 
hill north-east of Mar Saba, and about iih miles in a line from Jerusalem. 
The name Tzuk occurs under the form Sftk (radically exact) at an ancient 
well near the ridge. The name Hidoodim seems to be jJi'eserved, as I first 
remarked in 1876, in the title lladeiditn, applying to the ridge or spur 
running north-east from the mountain. The distance is almost exactly 
that required, and the view of the desert first opens on the traveller from 
Jerusalem as he nears the summit. Since I proposed the identification, 
Mr. Schick has visited the spot ; and in our recent visit we were able to 
recover the names as before from another witness, and to make several 
other observations of interest. 

Lieutenant Mantell, Dr. Chaplin, and myself I'ode yesterday to the 
• Mountain along the ancient road which leads to it from Jerusalem. This 
road, diverging from the Jei-icho highway at Bethany, leads west of Abu 
Dis, and descends into the upper part of the great Wady Abu Hindi, 
which will be found marked on our map west of the mountain. We could 
trace the ancient roadway by its side walls the greater ])art of the dis- 
tance, and verified the nomenclature of the map in a very satisfactory 
manner in ridinsf alonjj. Ancient wells, the sites of which are marked on 
the map and their names recorded in the " Memoirs," occur all along the 
course of the road. The well of SAL- or Tzuk (Bir es Sfik or Herubbet 
*s Stik) is a little south of the road, on the side of a shallow depression in 
the wolds which extend unbroken from Abu Dis to el Muntar. It has 
every ajipearance of antiquity, with a small aqueduct some 200 feet, 

Professor Neubauer, who docs not, howerer, appear to hare been aware of 
the strengtli of the arguments in its favour, as he refers only to tlie name 
Hadeidun. He supposes Tzuk to have been 12 Roman miles from Jerusalem, 
which is contrary to the explanation of the Mislina, given by Maimonides, and 
he places the site at Jebel Ivuruntid, which is over 13 English miles in a line 
from Jerusalem. The name Tzuk he proposes to recover in ^Ain Duk, at the 
foot of this mountain ; but this name (Doch or Dagon) has no connection 
with Tzuk (p1^). 

It may be noticed, moreover, that while el Muntar is a singularly conspicuous 
mountain, at tlie proper distance from Jerusalem, on an ancient road, and 
reached without crossing any great feature, Kuruntul can only be readied by a 
long detour northwards from tlie city; and far from being visible from the 
Temple, it is not even seen from Olivet, being hidden bj the surrounding ridges. 
Ivuruntul has, in fact, no circumstances in its favour, while the distance is about 
double that at which the site of Tzuk is to be sought. 



LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 207 

bringing surface water from the liill slopes on the east. The great block in 
form of a cylinder, with a round perforation in the middle, covering the rock- 
cut cistern beneath, has been broken in two. On the well-mouth lies a 
rude term or pillar 2 feet long and 9 inches in diameter, much resembling 
a small mile-stone. There is a second stone collar lynig beside the well, 
cut like the broken one in very hard stone, and showing no marks of the 
cords of shepherds' buckets, either because the well is little used, or be- 
cause the stone is too hard. The reservoir is full of good water, and our 
guide said it extended some way under the ground. There is a small 
hole in the side of the well, through which the water from the aqueduct 
enters the cistern beneath at the end of the channel, which is also rock- 
cut. 

Some 300 paces east of the well is a cave, with its mouth to the north. It 
is quite rough, and is 7 feet high and some 10 jsaces square. 

On the spur north of the well — a high ridge, whence Jerusalem and el 
Muntar are both distinctly visible, are remains of an enclosure called 
Eujm Ghuz^leh (" Cairn of the Gazelle "), with a tradition attached, that 
a favourite horse of an Arab Chief, called " the Gazelle " from its speed 
and beauty, was here killed in an Arab skirmish. The enclosure is 30 
paces east and west, by 24 paces north and south, presenting a single row 
of roughly cut stones, some being of considerable size (4 to 5 feet long), 
and one having a socket cut in it as if foi' a door post. 

The identification of the Scape Goat Mountain does not seem to 
require further evidence than that already brought forward. Still two 
curious points may be noticed. In the first place the word Ghuzdleh 
contains the root of the name Azazel, rendered "scape" in our version, 
but generally recognised as the name of a demon. The enclosui'e is 
just about the distance at which the last Tabernacle between Jerusalem 
and Tzuk should occui-, and the messenger as he pushed the goat over 
the precipice would have been in full view. It is again worthy of 
notice that the name Hidu is used for " India" in the Talmud, and 
that the unusual name Wddy Abu Hindi, "Valley father of the Indian," 
applies to the main ravine below el Muntar. 

As regards the mountain itself, I was delighted to find that my im- 
pression of the precipitous character of its eastern slopes was not exagge- 
rated. El Muntar is a gi-eat rounded hill as seen from the west, but a steep 
cliff as viewed from the east. A very steep slope of white marl, some 
hundreds of feet in height, here exists, and it would be difficult for a goat 
to find foot-hold in climbing on it, while if pushed over the edge it must 
inevitably roll to the bottom, and would no doubt be killed by the fall. 

The view also from the mountain is very remarkable. Jerusalem is in 
full sight, the Haram Courts are visible, and the Dome of the Eock is only 
hidden by a group of olive trees. I was not aware that any point in this 
desert near Mar Saba could be seen from the city ; but the mountain 
appears through a gap between Olivet and the more southern hills. Thus, 
when the unhappy goat was pushed over the precipice; the worshippers in 
the Temple would have been able, by straining their eye.s, almost to distin- 



208 A VISIT TO 'ain qadis. 

^uisli the figure of the conductor against the sky line, and the stations whence 
cloths were waved, to give the news of the death of the scape goat, need 
not have exceeded two or three in number. These observations serve to 
connect the mountain in a very remarkable manner with the ritual of the 
Day of Atonement ; and the act of dismissal of the goat is brought, as 
it were, within the same theatre with the other ceremonies of the day. 
From the Mount of Olives, the course of the messengers could be distinctly 
seen almost throughout the whole distance of the journey, for no deep 
valley intervenes between the city and the MuntS,r mountain, a narrow 
shed running out and connecting the hill with the Olivet chain. 

Nor is the view east less striking ; a traveller ascends the brown or 
tawny hill side, and finds himself at the top of the white precipice, the 
whole of the Judoean desert suddenly unfolds before and beneath him. On 
the south the Tower of Mat Saba and the peaks called Kurdn el Hayr 
(" horns of stone "). Beyond these the desert of Engedi, and far away 
south-east of Beersheba, the peaks of Safi-a Lawandi. On the east, the 
Bukeia or white plateau above the cliff's, west of the Dead Sea. On tlie 
north-east the Jordan valley, the black line of the Jordan jungle, the dark 
thorn groves of Jericho, the white and modern Russian hotel at Erlha 
(one of the many Russian hospices built within the last five years in 
Palestine). Far away north the mysterious cone of Sartaba, and beyond 
all the dark slopes of Gilead and Moab, the high plateau which extends (in 
view) almost at an unbroken level from the Jabbok southwards, the great 
gorge of the Zerka M'alr, and the dark blue waters of the Dead Sea, with 
the yellow sand spit at the Jordan mouth, and the long yellow line of the 
Lisan. 4 

The constrast of the glaring white desert, and the dark eastern hills, 
between the countless knolls and ridges on the west, and the great gorges 
on the east, was very striking ; and there is, perhaps, no view on the earth 
which is so weird and strange, as this panorama of the Judjean desert from 
the mountain of the scape goat. 

Claude R. Conder, Lt., R.E, 



A VISIT TO 'AIN QADIS : THE SUPPOSED SITE OF 

KADESH-BARNEA. 

Among the unsettled sites of the Desert of the Exodus, none is entitled 
to more prominence than Kadesh-barnea. Dean Stanley says : " There 
can be no question that next to Sinai, the most important resting place 
of the Children of Israel is Kadesh." Professor Palmer adds : " This is 
perhaps the most important site in the whole region, as it forms the key 
to the movements of the Children of Israel during the forty years 
wanderings." And Dr. William Smith declares : " To determine the 
position of Kadesh itself is the great problem of the whole route." 



A VISIT TO 'ain qadis. 209 

Yet there is a remarkable barrenness of material for the settlement of 
this important question, supplied by the notes of travellers in the 
Desert ; and any fresh contribution to that material is likel-y to be 
heartily welcomed by Biblical scholars everywhere. 

In 1842 the Rev. J. Rowlands, of Queen's College, Cambridge, dis- 
covered a fountain bearing the name Kades, or Qadis, a name having 
the same meaning as the Hebrew " Kadesh," and was confident that 
this was the site of Kadesh-barnea. His account of his discovery was 
published in the Appendix to Williams's " Holy City," with his reasons 
for deeming it the disclosure of the long-desired site. At the same 
time, he made mention of two other wells, neither of which, however, had 
been visited by him, bearing "the names of Adeirat and Aseimeh, some- 
times called Kadeirat and Kaseimeh," which in his opinion represented 
Adar and Azmou of the southern boundary of Judah. This reported 
discovery by Mr. Rowlands has been a fruitful source of discussion for 
now nearly forty years. The probable correctness of his conclusions 
has been recognized by such scholars as Ritter, Kalisch, Keil, Kurtz, 
Schultz, Winer, Professor Palmer, President Bartlett, and others well 
known in Germany, Great Britain, and America. On the other hand, it 
has been opposed by Robinson, Stanley, Porter, Espin in the " Speaker's 
Commentary," Hayman in " Smith's Bible Dictionary," and many others. 

It is a singular fact that in all these years the site thus discovered 
by Mr. Rowlands has never been revisited. Indeed, it has been 
questioned if he did not confuse the names and the wells, Kades and 
Kadeirat. Dr. Robinson distinctly declares that he did so. Espin 
follows Robinson in this error, and on the topography of " el Ain," the 
location of Kadeirat, builds up an argument against the identification of 
Kades or Gadis with Kadesh-barnea. Even Professor Palmer, who 
agrees with Rowlands in his main conclusion, and confirms his reasoning 
with cogent arguments, thinks that Rowlands wrongly applied the name 
'Ain Qadis " to 'Ain el Quiderdt, some miles farther northward, and 
seems not to have visited this spot [the true 'Ain Qadis] at all." 
President Bartlett, of Dartmouth College, in his " From Egypt to 
Palestine," while favouring Rowlands's identification, is confident, after a 
visit to the region in question, that there is no such fountain as 'Ain 
Qadeirdt, and that Rowlands was mistaken in both the location and the 
distinctive peculiarities of 'Ain Qadis. 

Apart, therefore, from the discussion over the identification of 'Ain 
Qadis with Kadesh-barnea, there has been no little confusion as to the 
facts of the location and surroundings of the well itself. No traveller, 
except Mr. Rowlands, has ever reported a visit to 'Ain Qadis, until 
President Bartlett found a well in that region which he supposed to be 
the one seen by Rowlands, although it did not meet the published 
description of it. 'Ain Kadeirdt has never been reported as visited ; and 
its existence has been squarely denied. The question is therefore still an 
open one. Are there three wells, or two ; or is there only one in the region 
of this supposed site of Kadesh ? 

p 2 



210 A VISIT TO 'AIN QADIS. 

A scholar so familiar with both the Land and the Book as Dr. Thomson, 
says on this subject, in his latest work, " Southern Palestine and 
Jerusalem : " " When I was at Mr. Rowlands's Muweilih, I made diligent 
enquiries about Kadesh ; but both our own Arabs and other Bedawin we 
met in the neighbourhood were either absolutely ignorant of such a place, 
under any possible pronounciation of the name, or they purposely concealed 
their knowledge of it." Eeferring to the " singularly brief and unsatisfac- 
tory " descriptions of it already given to the public, Dr. Thomson very 
naturally adds : " One sadly wants a little more information in regard to 
several points ; " " for if ' Ain Qadls be in reality the Kadesh-barnea in 
the wilderness of Paran, ... it is one of the most interesting sites in the 
entire history of the Hebrew Wanderings." 

In view of this state of the case, I am sure that a report I am now 
enabled to make of a personal visit to each of the three wells in question 
will be a matter of interest to all who are familiar with Bible geogi'aphy. 

About the 1st of April of tbi.'* year, while crossing the Desert from 
Kala'at Nakhl to Hebron, I determined to satisfy myself concerning the 
existence and relative position of these three wells. Turning eastward 
from Wadi Jerur, at about latitude 30° 28' N., and longitude 34° 20' E., 
I went on for three hours, to Jebel el Hawadeh, over which I passed into 
Wadi Qadts. Following up this Wadi, in a direction a little north of east, 
for three hours more, I came to the place so glowingly described by Mr. 
Rowlands, and found it all that he had pictured. It was an oasis 
unapproached by any I had seen in the desert since leaving Feu'an, and not 
surpassed, within its limits, by that. It was carpeted with grass and 
flowers. Fig-trees laden with fruit were against its limestone hill-sides. 
Slu'ubs in richness and variety abounded. Standing out from the 
mountain range at the northward of the beautiful oasis-amphitheatre, 
was the " large single mass or small hill of solid rock " which Rowlands 
looked at as the cliff (sela) smitten by Moses to cause it to " give forth its 
water " when its flowing had ceased. From beneath this cliff came the 
abundant stream. A well, walled up with time-worn limestone blocks, 
was the first receptacle ^f the water. Not far from this was a second 
well similarly walled, supplied from the same source. Around both 
these wells were ancient watering troughs of limestone. Several pools, 
not walled up, were also supplied from the stream. On from the line of 
these pools, a gurgling stream flowed musically for several hundred 
yards, and then lost itself in the verdure-covered desei't. The water was 
clear and sweet and abundjint. Two of the pools were ample for bathing. 
Before the cliff, and around its neighbouring wells, camel and goat dung 
was trodden down as if by the accumulations of centuries, showing that 
the place was much frequented for watering purposes. 

Mr. Rowlands was certainly correct as to tiie name, the general 

location, and the description of this remarkable place. It is Qadts (^j^j AJi)- 

There is a Jebel Qadis, a Wadi Qadis, and an 'Ain Qadis. Is is quite as 
far to the eastward as he put it, fully twelve to fifteen miles E.S.E. of hi^ 



A VISIT TO 'AIX QADIS. 211 

Moilahhi, or 'Ain Muweilih. TlieWadi at the bead of which it is situated 
is an extensive and fertile plain, larger by far than er Rahah before Jebel 
Mtisa, where the Children of Israel received the Law. Remains of rude 
stone buildings and other ruins abound in the vicinity, showing that i"t 
was once a well peopled region. 

From 'Ain Qadls I went to 'Ain Qadeirat. Coming out of the oasis 
above described into the main valley of Qadis, and following that west- 
ward for twenty minutes, I turned to the north-west, and went over a 
lofty mountain pass, Nakb Hawa, descending into Wadi Umm 'Ashtn 
(or Haslitn), where Sinaitic inscriptions were numerous. In two and a 
(juarter hours after leaving 'Ain Qadts I reached the upper end of Wadi 
el 'Ain. Going down this, westerly, for half-an-hour, I came to one of 
the several branches with which that Wadi is spurred, and turned up this 
in a north-easterly direction. At the entrance to this branch stands a 
noteworthy ruin, built of huge blocks of hammered stone laid in courses. 
It is a rectangular quadrangle, some seventy feet by seventy-five, with 
double walls about six feet high. Along this branch of Wadi el 'Ain 
I foimd vegetation increasing in fulness and beauty. Trees and shrubs 
and grass were in luxuriance. One tree, called by our Arabs a seyal, 
but differing from the seyal of the lower desert, surpassed anything I 
had seen elsewhere. The reach of its branches had a circumference of 
nearly 250 feet. It had a double trunk, one arm haA'ing a girth of six 
feet, and the other of four and a half. Soon I heard the sound of running 
water. A channel of forty to sixty feet wide, bordered with flags, was the 
shallow bed of a running stream. At the head of this was the fountain 
itself, pouring a rich stream of pui-e and sweet waters out of the hill side, 
with a fall of about seven feet, into a basin of some twenty feet .sweep, and 
from twelve to fourteen feet deep. It was such a fountain as one would 
expect to find in the mountains of Lebanon, rather than in the Desert. 
There is no wonder that the Wadi containing it is called WMi el 'Ain 
the Wadi of the Well. This fountain is the 'Ain KadeirAt, or Qadeirat 

^i^-»ii), mentioned by Rowlands and Robinson, but not before visited 
by any traveller who has reported his visit. 

After finding these two wells I visited, on the day following, the third 

well named by Rowlands 'Ain Kaseimeh, or Qasemeh (cUJ^wJ). It 
is several hours west and south of Qadeirdt, and but little more than an 
hour from Moilahhi, or by 'Ain Muweilih, thought by many to be Hagar's 
fountain. This place is by no means so noteworthy as either of the other 
two. It has been visited and described by several travellers. Professor 
Palmer mentions the place in " The Desert of the Exodus," vol. ii, p. 357. 
President Bartlett was evidently deceived by the wily Sheikh Suleiman 
into thinking that this Qnsimeh was Qadis, hence his description of it is 
fuller and more enthusiastic than Professor Palmer's. It is found in 
" Through Egypt to Palestine," pp. 358-362 ; and I can vouch for its 
substantial accuracy, except as to name. 

It is therefore now clear that Mr. Rowlands was correct in his i-eference 



212 Jacob's wkll. 

to the three wells ; that he did not confouud 'Aiii Qadeirat with 'Aiu 
Qadis ; that he did find a well bearing the name Qadis, the Arabic equi- 
valent of Kadesh ; and that any argument based by Robinson or Espin 
or their followers on his supposed confusion of names and localities in- 
evitably falls to the ground. Yet it by no means follows that the site of 
Kadesh-barnea is settled by this new contribution of facts bearing on that 
question. 

Among the reasons why 'Ain Qadis and 'Ain Qadeirat have not been 
found before daring all these years of discussion over them, it may be 
said that they are in the territory of the 'Azazimeh Arabs, while the guides 
of travellers from Nakhl to Gaza or Hebron are of the Teyahah Arabs, 
who are not on good terms with the 'Azazimeh. Moreover the superstitious 
fears of the Bedawin make them unwilling to disclose to Christians what 
they deem the riches of their more sacred wells. Again, there are com- 
pai-atively few who travel over this route all all. Peculiar circumstances, 
which it is not necessary to detail here, enabled me to accomplish my 
desire of finding the much-disputed wells. In reportijig of them now, 
I hope to call fresh attention to the exceeding desirableness and importance 
of a careful survey of the Negeb and Desert of et Tih, with similar 
thoroughness to that already secured for Vv^'estern Palestine and the lower 

Sinaitic Peninsula. 

H. Clay Trumbull. 

Philadelphia, U.S.A., 
June 8, 1881. 



JACOB'S WELL. 

Damascus, 

May 17th, 1881. 
Very probably some short account of a recent visit that I paid to 
Nablous may be of some interest to the many readers of the Quartedy 
Statement. The state of Jacob's Well is doubtless well known to the 
majority of your subscribers, even to those who have not themselves 
visited .the Holj Land. It has again and again been described by the 
many writers on Palestine, and all have mentioned their disappointment 
fthat instead of finding any semblance to a well, or anything which could 
recall the interview of our Lord with the woman of Samaria, they have 
merely found a dark irregular hole amid a mass of ruins in a vaulted 
chamber beneath the surface of the ground. I have shared this disap- 
pointment on many previous visits to Nablous, and again, as a fortnight 
ago, I stood with my wife beside the spot, it was with great reg)-et 
that we were so utterly unable to picture before us the scene so graphi- 
cally described by the Evangelist. We had clambered down into the 
vault, and were vainly attempting to peer into the dark hole amid the 
hea{>s of stones and rubbish, when we chanced to notice, a few feet from 
the opening, a dark crack between the stones. Fancying that possibly it 



JACOB S WELL. 



213 



might be another opeuing of the well, we removed some stones and 
earth, and soon were able to trace part of a carved aperture in a laige 
slab of stone. Deeply interested at finding this, we cleared away more 
earth and stones, and soon distinguished the circular mouth of the well, 
though it was blocked by an immense mass of stone. Calling to aid two 
men who were looking on, with considerable labour we at length 
managed to remove it, and the opening of the well was clear. It is 
impossible to describe our feelings as we gazed down the open well, and 
sat on that ledge on which doubtless the Saviour rested, and felt with our 
fingers the gi-ooves in the stone caused by the lopes by which the water- 
pots were drawn up. The following day we devoted to completely 
excavating round the opening of the well, and laying bare the massive 
stone which forms its mouth. This consists of the hard white limestone 
of the country, and is in fair preservation, though parts are broken 
away here and there. The annexed rude sketch gives some idea of its 
appearance. 




The exact measurements I also give : — 

Length 

Breadth 

Thickness 

Height above the pavement... 

Breadth of apei'ture of the well 

Depth of the well 

Width 

We let a boy down to the bottom, but found nothing of any intere.st, 



ft. 


in 


3 


9 


2 


7 


1 


H 


1 


1 


1 


H 


.... 67 





.... / 


6 



214 THE COLLECTION OF M. P^.RETI^. 

but evidently there is a large accnmulation of rubbish. I trust that a 
stone of such intense interest may long remain uninjured now that it has 
been exposed to liglit- I am, yoiirs faithfully, 

Charles Wright Barclay. 

The Kev. John Mill in his "Three Months' Residence at Nablus," 
})ublislied in 1864, at p. 45, states in reference to Jacob's Well, that " in 
1855, when we first visited this place, we measured it as carefully as we 
could, and found it to be 9 feet in diameter, and a little more than 70 
deep. But older travellers found it much deeper. ... On my second 
visit in 1860, the mouth of the well was completely filled up, so that it was 
with difficulty I could identify the spot where it was. Nor could I learn 
how this had occurred. Some of my friends at Nablus thought that the 
torrents during the rains of the previous winter were the cause ; but 
others believed that it was done by the inhabitants of the little village 
close by, on account of the well being bought by the Greek Church. The 
well, however, was completely hid from sight, to the great disappointment 
of many travellers beside myself." 

" On further inquiry I learnt from the Greek priest that tlieir Church 

had actually bought the well from the Turkish Government, including a 

■ plot of ground surrounding it, of 229 feet by 180 feet. For this they had 

paid, he told me, 70,000 piastres ; but another friend, belonging to the 

same community, told me it was at least 100,000." i 

Mr. Mill also mentions that the Christians call it Beer Samariyeh. the 
" Samaritan Well," while the Samaritans themselves call it Beer Jacub, or 
" Jacob's Well." He also points out that it is not an Ain (*|'i^), a well of 
living water, but a her (-^J^l), a cistern to hold rain water. 



THE COLLECTION OF M. PERETIE. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Dickson, the British Vice-Consul at Beyrout, 
I obtained an introduction to M. Peretie, whose collection of antiques is 
probably the finest in Syria. Among the most interesting objects are 
two Phffiuician mirrors with figures, which have, as M. Peretie himself 
lemarked, a strong affinity in style to Indian representations, both in 
feature and in attitude. Egjptian bronzes, and a fine amethyst scara- 
bseus from Byblos ; Egyptian bas-reliefs representing Typhon and Isis 
from Palmyra ; cuneiform bricks and Assyrian sculptures ; Palmyrene 
figures with inscriptions in Palmyrene characters ; bronzes with negro 
features dug up on the Syrian coast ; a fine collection of coins of the 
Seleucidje, including a god, one of Tryphon, which is almost unique ; 
medifeval signet rings in the same pale gold which is found in the 
Crusadiu"' coinage ; a collection of Venuses, and other classic figures, some 
of the goddesses having bracelets, armlets, and necklaces of gold — in one 
case with a pearl let into the necklet ; gold rings, chains, and earrings ; 



THE COLLECTION OF M. I'ERETIE. 



215 



a rud*^ idol of ivory ; a pair of French pistols, 200 3'ears old, beantifully 
inlaid with silver masks and scroll work, and found at Diarbekr ; Cypriote 
})ottery, and grotesque figures like those found l)y Dr. Schliemann at Troy, 
such are some of the objects which M. Pei'etie has collected during a 
long residence in Syria. He told us that two-handed swords of the 



\h 






iSW 



\(t 



u\mii\t^ 



flUlllilI"i! 



QOQO 



•^m 










Crusades were still in the possession of the Arabs east of Jordan, and that 
some of these had been purchased by Europeans. Some of the objects are 
of great interest to students of native worship, and the mixture of 
Egyptian, Negro, and Indian ty])es in antiquities collected on the Syrian 
shores, while fully in accord with the views of antiquaries as to the early 
history of the Phcenicians, is not the l6ss interesting and instructive. 



216 THE COLLECTION OF M. P^RETIE. 

The gem of the collection is, however, the small bronze tablet, of which 
a sketch traced from a photograph is enclosed, and which has already l^een 
described by M.' Clermont Ganneau in the "Revue Archeologiqne," 
December, 1879. It measures 4| inches in height, by 3|- inches in width, 
and has an eye at each top corner, whereby it was suspended. It is 
eagi-aved on Ijoth sides, and was intended apparently to be so hung that 
both sides might be seen. On the back is a kind of demon-cherub, with 
four wings, a lion's body, eagle's claws, a short tail, and a serpent in 
front. The front paws rest on the tablet, and are visible on the other 
side the head, which resembles a tiger's, is boldly moulded, and/projects 
over the tablet in front. It is not unlike that of the Indian infernal 
goddess Kali, or Durga. It is also worthy of notice that similar heads 
were picked u)) by Layard during his Assyrian explorations, and thought 
to be the tops of sceptres, or the ornaments of thrones, whereas they 
appear, as M. Peretie pointed out, more probably to have belonged to 
tablets similar to that under consideration. 

The design on tlie tablet rejjresents the fate of the soul according to 
Assyrian or Phoenician belief. The tablet is divided into four compart- 
ments horizontally, the lowest being the largest, and highest the most 
narrow. In the top compartment, various astronomical symbols occur, 
many of which, as M. Ganneau points out, occur on other Assyrian monu- 
ments. On the extreme right are the seven stars, next to these the 
crescent, next the winged solar disc, then an eight-rayed star in a circle. 
The remaining symbols are less easily explained, but the last is called by 
M. Ganneau a " cidaris" or Persian tiara, while another appears to me to 
ap])roach most nearly to the Trisul, or symbol of " fire," the emblem of 
the Indian Siva. 

Below these symbols stand seven deities facing to the right, with 
long robes, and the heads of various animals. The first to the left 
resembles a lion, the second a wolf or hound, the fourth a ram, the 
sixth a bird, the seventh a serpent, while the third and fifth are less 
easily recognized.* In the third compartment a body lies on a bier, 
Avith a deity at the head, and another at the feet. These deities 

* As a tentative suggestion, I may, perhaps, be allowed to propose that these 
seven deities are the planets, and that the symbols above belong to them as 
follows, commencing on the right : — 

I'lanet. Assyrian Name. Head of Deity. 

Serpent 
Bird 
Boar ? 
Ram 
? 

Wolf ? 
Lion 

A. The serpent is often the emblem of Saturn, wlio, as the eldest of the seveu, 
('• the great serpent father of the gods") naturally comes first, and there- 
fore on the right, and has seven stars for Ins symbol. 



1. 


Saturn 


Chiun 


2. 


Moon 


Nannar 


3. 


Sun 


Shamash 


4. 


Mars 


Marduk 


5. 


Mercury . 


Nebo 


6. 


Venus 


Islitar 


7. 


Jupiter 


Ishu 



Symbol. 


Remarks. 


Seven Stars 


.. A. 


Crescent 


.. B. 


Winged disc 


.. C. 


Rayed disc 


.. D. 


Two Columns 


.. i\ 


Trisul 


.. F. 


Cidaris ? 


.. G. 



THE COLLECTION OF M. PERETIE. 217 

liave the right haud held up, and the left down (a common feature of 
Indian symbolism also observable in the attitude of the Mttlawiyeh 
derwishes), and the figure to the left appears to hold a branch, or three 
ears of corn. Both are robed in the peculiar fish-headed costume, with 
a scaly body and fish tail, which is supposed to be symbolical of the 
mythical Oannes, who, according to Berosus, issued from the Persian 
Gulf, and taught laws and arts to the early dwellers on the Euphrates. 
Behind the left-hand fish-god is a tripod stand, on which is an indefinite 
object; to the right of the other fisli-god are two lion-headed human 
figures with eagle's claws, apparently contending with one another, the right 
arms being raised, the left holding hand by hand. To the right of these 
is another figure of Assyrian type, with a domed head-dress and beard. 

In tlie lowest compartment the infernal river fringed with rushes, and 
full of fish, is represented. A fearful lion-headed goddess with eagle's 
claws, kneels on one knee on a horse (the emblem of death), which is 
carried in a kneeling attitude on a boat with bird-headeJ prow. The 
goddess crushes a serpent in either hand, and two lion cubs are represented 
suckiug her breasts. To the left is a demon bearing a close resemblance 
to the one which supports the tablet itself, and who appears to urge on 
the boat from the bank ; to the right are vaiious objects, mostly of an 
indefinite character, among which M. Ganneau recognises a vase, and a 
bottle, a horse's leg with hoof, etc., possibly ofierings to appease the infernal 
deities. The above explanation is mainly derived from M. Ganneau's 
paper ; but I would venture to draw attention to the extremely Indian 
character of the demons represented — a i:)oiut which M. Ganneau does not 
mention. The lion-headed goddess might well be taken for the terrible 
infernal deity Kali, or Durga, the worship of whose consort Yama wa.s 
the original source of that of the later Serapis, whose dog was the ancestor 
of Cerberus.* There is also a general resemblance between this design 

S. The moon, according to Lenormant, was always an older divinity than tlie 
sun. 

C. The boar is often an emblem of the sun in its strength. 

D. The disc {lUti) was the weapon employed by Marduk, the warrior-god, as 

mentioned by Lenormant. 
in. The two pillars of Hermes are the proper emblem of the ancient Set or 
Tlioth, the planet Mercury. 

F. The trisul belongs properly to tlie Asherah, god or goddess of fertility — the 

planet Venus. 

G. The Cidaris occurs in the Bavian sculptures, in connection with a similar 

emblem. In the Chaldean s}stem, Jupiter and Venus occur together as the 

youngest of the planets. 

It should also be noted that the position of the arms, and the long robe 

covering the feet, resemble tlie attitudes and dress of the Malawiyeh derwishes in 

their sacred dance, symbolic of the seven planets revolving (according to the 

Ptolemaic system) round the earth. — C. R. C 

* Possibly the two so called lion cubs may I'epresent the two infernal dogs, 
which accompany Yama, in Indian mythology. 



218 T}IE SACTED CAPITAL OF THE HITTITES. 

and the well-known Egyptian picture representing the wicked soul 
conveyed to hell in the form of a pig. The Cannes figures take the place 
of the two goddesses, who in Egyptian designs stand at either end of the 
mninniy, and who form the prototypes of the two angels for whom the 
])ious Moslem provides seats at the head and foot of his tombstone 
Perha]>s the miserable horse who stumbles under the weight of the 
gigantic lion go<ldess, may represent the unhappy sonl itself, while the 
three ears of com (if I am correct in so calling them), remind us of the 
grains of corn which have been found in skulls dug up in Syria by 
C!aptain Burton. Corn is intimately connected with Dagon, the Syrian fish- 
god. 

This curious tablet is, I believe, unique, and affords strong evidence of 
the similarity of Egyptian and Assyrian beliefs. The Egyptians are now 
generally acknowledged to have belonged to an Asiatic Aryan race, and 
the fact that the mythology of Africa, of Greece, and of Kome, had its 
origin in the far East is too well known to require notice ; but the Assyrian 
mythology is as yet but imj^erfectly known, and the present monument, 
which was brought from Palmyra by a peasant, who sold it at Hamath, 
comes from a district directly on the line of the Phoenician march from 
their first settlements near the head of the Persian Gulf, to their home on 
the borders of the Mediterranean. I understand that M. Ganneau is 
anxious to study the original tablet, which I have been fortunate enough 
to see, in order to decipher some of the more obscure details, and intends, 
for that purpose, so soon as his health permits, to visit Beyront, and to 
examine this interesting relic. 

Claudk R C'onder, REv 



THE HITTITES. 

I. 

Their Sacred Capitau 
The announcement that Lieutenant Conder had discovered the Sacred 
capital of tlie Hittites on the shore of Lake Kades, cannot fail to interest 
Oriental scholars ; and it may lead to more important discoveries in the 
history of that very ancient and remarkable peojile. It will be remem- 
bered that the Hittites are mentioned in Genesis among those nations 
who inhabited Canaan during the patriarchial period, and that it was 
from one of their Princes Abraham bought his burying place, the cave of 
Machpelah. Joshua incidentally describes the position of their country : — 
*' From the wilderness and this Lebanon, even unto the river Euphrates, 
all the land of the Hittites.'' They are not often mentioned in sacred 
history, but we have a few suggestive notices of their jiower, wealth, and 
warlike character. 

Many years ago I visited that remote region in the valley of the 
Orontes where the Hittites had their chief stronghold and settlement, 



THE SACKED CAPITAL OF THE HITTITES. 210 

and I examined with considerable care its topography and ruins. I made 
full notes on the spot, and perhaj^s if I now give, in a condensed form, 
the substance of those notes, it may help to stimuhite furtlier inquiry, and 
in some measure to direct more thorough rese;\rch. 

Leaving tlie site of the Bibhcal Riblah, I foixled the Orontes, and rode 
to Tell Neby Mindow, six miles distant. It is a large artificial mound 
on the left bank of the river, with a village and a Muslem tomb on its 
top ; from the latter it gets its modern name. Around it lie extensive 
I'uins, the remains doubtless of Laodiceia ad Lihanmn mentioned by 
St)-abo and Ptolemy, and placed by the Itinerary of Antoniue 18 Roman 
miles f]-om Emesa. Polybius says it lay near a lake. Some of the ruins, 
and the large mound, indicate a much earlier origin for the town which 
first occu2:)ied the site. 

About a mile farther I came to a smaU village called Um el- Adam, 
where there are also ancient remains. On the right bank of the river, about 
half-a-mile distant, is a large rectangular enclosure sunounded by an 
earthern dyke, with mounds at the corners as if for defence. It seems to 
have been an intrenched camp ; and it may jierhaps mark the site 
occupied by the army of Nebuchadnezzer, while one of his generals was 
engaged in the siege of Jerusalem. 

I rode on to another mound on the right bank of the i-iver, from which 
I had a good view of the southern section of Lake Kades, and of the place 
where the Orontes falls into it. Thence I followed the wiiiding shore, 
passing the village of Kefr Ady. Here my attention was ari'ested by an 
island some distance out in the lake, with a large artificial mound upon it ; 
examining it carefully with my glass I thought I could discern traces of 
ruins on the mound, and I was sorry I had no means of reaching it, for it 
would most probably repay close iuspection. 

Continuing along the shore northwards, I passed in succession two 
villages, one of them on a mound, and at length reached a lofty artificial 
movmd near the end of the lake. Ascending it I obtained a commanding 
view, not only of the entire lake, but of the whole suri-oundiug country ; 
and I here observed that across the northern end of the lake is a dam of 
solid masonry, about a quarter of a mile long, built to raise the water to 
such an elevation as would serve to irrigate tlie plain and vale beyond, and 
also to supply the town of Emesa. Leaving my horse, I walked along the 
top of the dam to a square tower at its western end, so that I might 
examine it moi-e carefully, and, if possible, form some idea of its age and 
object. It is evidently veiy ancient, and is one of the most remarkable 
engineering works in Syria, The centre is about 14 feet high, but it 
decreases toward the ends. It has often been broken and repaired ; and 
I thought I could detect in it specimens of the masonry of the ancient 
Syrians, as well as of the Greeks, Romans, and Turks. There can be no 
doubt that the dam greatly increases the size of the lake, and perhaps 
the statement of Abulfeda, the Arab historian, is correct, that " if the 
embankment were destroyed the water would fiow ofi', the lake would 
cease to exist, and would become a river." The length of the lake is now 



220 THE SACKED CAPITAL OF THE HITTITES. 

about six miles, and its greatest breadth two. Traces of the ancient 
canals which led the water off at a high elevation are seen, and some of 
them are still vised for purposes of irrigation. The plain around the lake, 
and on both sides of the Orontes, southward as far as Riblah, and north- 
ward to Emesa, is studded with artificial mounds, each of which was 
doubtless the site of a primeval city, village or castle. Some of them 
are very large, and are covered or encompassed with ruins. Here is an 
ample and most inviting field for research and excavation. 

Such, in substance, are my notes, written twenty-five years ago. I may 
observe that an account of my first journey to Lake Kades and Etnesa was 
given in the first edition of my " Five Years in Damascus," published by 
Ml'. Murray in 1855. I afterwai'ds ti'avelled through the same region 
several times. 

If Lake Kades be artificial it would be interesting to know when and 
by whom the embankment was first built. It must have been before the 
days of Polybius, for he mentions the lake as I have already stated. 
There can be no doubt that its name is derived from Kades, the })rimeval 
capital and stronghold of the Hittites, and that city is often mentioned in 
the account of the wars of Thothmes I {circa B.C. 1630), given on one of the 
Egyptian tombs (see Brugsch's " Egypt," 1, 291) ; and, still more frequently, 
in the stirring history of Thothmes III {Id. pp. 334 seq.). Kades was 
captured by Seti I, king of Egypt {circa B.C. 1366) ; but the greatest battle 
fought there was that between the Hittites and the Egyptians under 
Eameses II, most probably the Pharaoh in whose reign Moses was born. 
The story of the battle is contained in a contemporary papyrus still extant, 
and there are also pictorial representations of it on the walls of Karnac 
and Luxor. The latter are most interesting, as they show that the field of 
battle was ow the hanks of a river or lake (see Brugsch, II, p. 48). In an 
Egyptian poem composed by a certain Pentaur, a Theban, about two years 
after the battle, a translation of which is given in " Eecords of the Past," 
II, 65, et. seq., I find the following words used to define the position of 
the Hittite army : — " They were at the lake of the land of the Amorites," 
and, from what follows, it is clear that the lake was close to the city of 
Kades. Another inscription of the same age, on the wall of Karnac, gives 
the full text of a treaty of peace drawn up between Rameses and the Hittites 
after the battle (" Records of the Past," IV, 25). The Hittites were them- 
selves a literary people, and it is quite possible that among the ruins of 
their old capital some most interesting records of those early struggles 
might be found. I have now little doubt that those singular mounds 
which stud the plain on the banks of the Orontes, and the more ancient 
ruins near them, are all relics of the Hittites. The Hittites also seem to 
have been the original founders of that great embankment which dams u}> 
the waters of the Orontes, and forms the lake Kades. The discovery of 
the exact site of their ancient sacred capital Kades " the Holy," and the 
excavation of its primeval remains, would rank among the most valuable 
results of Palestine Exploration. 
Queen's College, Belfast, 16 May, 1881. J. L. Porter. 



HITTITE INSCRIPTIONS. 221 

II. 

Their Inscriptions. 

In the Quarterly Statements of October, 1880, and April, 1881, there 
appear some notices of the Hittite inscriptions from the pen of Mr. Dunbar 
Heath. As during the last two years I have devoted considerable study 
to the inscriptions and the history of the Hittite tribes, I would venture to 
ask you to allow me space to say a few words in rej^ly to some of the 
statements and the translations put forward by Mr. Heath. It may 
be well for me to state at the commencement of my remarks upon the 
subject, that I do not profess to be a profound student of the Newtonian 
Pliilosophy, nor do I possess a deep understanding of the doctrine of 
probabilities by which Mr. Heath is enabled to toy so freely with his 
figures ; making letters, roots, formatives, to vibrate in harmony with 
each other and producing a " musical result." I most certainly must say 
that I cannot understand the system upon which Mi'. Heath claims to have 
deciphered these inscriptions. The translations which he has pro- 
posed seem to me to be the most curious readings of inscriptions 
which I have ever as yet seen. I am willing to admit that the Aramaic 
commercial language or dialects of Syria have a somewhat mixed vocabulary, 
but they certainly never afforded such strange examples of ungrammatical 
and base writing as Mr. Heath would make the Hamathites use. In the 
latest contrast tablets of the Babylonian Empire of the time of Nabonidus 
(B.C. 556), Cyrus (b.c. 538), Darius (b.c. 521), or even as late as the Seleu- 
cidse (b.c. 312), where the language is vernacular and therefore liable to 
decay and to exhibit a mixed vocabulary, there is not an approach to any 
such linguistic confusion as Mr. Heath would wish us to believe was current 
at Hamath in the time when the Hittite inscriptions were written. In 
Babylonia, with its polyglot population and its assemblage of " all nations, 
people and tongues," such a mixed vernacular might have existed, but the 
inscriptiotis prove did not. I am therefore, on the theory of probabilities, 
loath to suppose that it existed at Hamath or Carchemish. 

Thus far perhaps Mr. Heath may think that I am only theorising, and 
not producing sound evidence to the contradiction of his theory ; I will 
now pass to a stronger argument. If the Hittites spoke a quasi-Semitic 
language, and wrote their inscriptions in that dialect, how is it that their 
kings and their towns have non-Semitic names ? Here we may call in the 
aid of contemporaneous inscriptions from Assyria and Egypt, and we 
shall see that certainly they were not Semitic. Such royal names as 
Mauthanar, Maurosar, Sapalil, Kitasar, which appear in the Egyptiaji 
inscriptions, with the pei^sonal names of Thargathazaz, Zauzaz.* Marza- 
rima are not, as Brugsch Bey states, capable of explanation by Semitic 
lanoruao"es. Nor are the names in the Assyrian inscriptions, such as San- 
gara, Irkhuleni, Lubarna, who were kings of Carchemish, Hamath, and 

* All these naTties are of conlemporaries of Raraeses I and II, B.C. 1300. 



2l!2 HITTITE IXSCEIPTIONSi 

Azaz in the ninth century before the Christian era. I may also mention 
Sapahilme, king of the Patinai, Buranate, king of the Yazbukians. In 
the eighth century we meet with the same class of names, such as Pisiris 
of Carcheniish, Tarkliulara, king of Sambuni or Zeugama, the site of whicli 
is marked by the village of Balkis, a little north of Beredjik, Tarkhunazi, 
king of Milid, and others. 

In the geographical inscriptions and in the tribute lists and historical 
records we meet with many names peculiar to the land of the Hittites. 

Among these are a number ending in as, az, and zaz. Mairkhnas, 
Magnas, Ziras, Tainiras, Thukamras, Zarnas, which appear as Hittite 
towns in the lists of Thotlimes. In the Assyrian inscriptions we have 
Khazaz and Alzi and Puruluz, which are cities of the Hittites. 

Having quoted these somewhat strange names, both geographical and 
personal, I will say a few words with regard to tlijem. In the case of the 
geographical names I would point out that of those ending in az, as, or zaz, 
there are yet traces in the localities where these cities were. Both by 
geographical and historical details, the city of Khazaz, whose king, Lu- 
barna, opposed Shalmanesar II (b.c. 858), is to be identified with the town 
of Azaz, situated north-west of Aleppo, a city which has been important 
under Hittites, Assyrians, Greeks, Romans, and Saracens. I visited the 
place last year, and its lofty tell and ruined castle show that it is the 
same city as is represented on the bronze gates from Balawat. During 
my stay at Aleppo my attention was called to a number of village names 
in the regions of North Syria, wdiich appear to be neither Ai-abic or 
Turkish, such ae Anaz, north of Azaz, Armenaz, Keftenaz, Teftanaz, Eminaz, 
Kowrnaz^ towns in the Jebel Ala and the valleys of the Orontes and the 
Khoweik. I am inclined to think that in these names we have a survival 
of the Hittite names in az and -zaz. I will now pass to the personal 
names, as they aid us in effecting the Hittite alliance, which Mr. 
Heath would break up. 

The name Thargathazaz, which Dr. Brugsch gives, is close akin to the 
names of Tarrik-nazi and Tarrik-lara, and the name of the king on the 
silver boss, Tar-rik-dimmi-dimmi. Mr. Heath denies that the boss is 
Hittite, yet on it are six characters, all of which appear at Carchemish, on 
the lintel ( V) which Mr. Heath has read. In the list of names given by 
Dr. Brugsch of Hittite towns is Talekh or Tarekh, a name verj' close to 
that of Tarrik, and the name would appear to survive in the Hittite land 
for a little north of Carchemish or Jerablons on the Euphrates in the 
village of Tai-kuis. 

Mr. Heath denies that the inscriptions at Karabel, on the rocks at 
Boghaz Keui or Eyuk, are Hittite ; how then does he account for their 
being written in characters every one of which are found on his texts at 
(Jarchemish and Hamath, or how is it that the jaeople from the lands 
where these inscribed monuments were erected appear in alliance with 
Hittites at the battle of Kadesh ? Such inscriptions as these from Hamath 
and Carcheminh, cut in hai'd black granite and basalt, are in every pro- 
bability the records of royal personages, either dedications to the gods or 



HITTITE INSCRIPTIONS. 223 

records of victories, and when tliey are read, as they will he, bnt are not 
T/ef, they will furnish ns with names akin to those of the kings mentioned 
by the contemporaneous kings of Assyria and Egypt. 

The only monument in this country which has been read does furnish 
a name such as is akin with other Hittite names, and so must the inscrip- 
tions from sites such as Carchemish and Hamath if they are correctly 
translated. Mr. Heath talks very glibly of an " emphatic looking aleph," 
and of expressions of causation, command, and possession ; surely the kings 
who ordered the stones to be carved at Hamath or the lintel at Carchemish 
would not trouble to cut hard black granite to record such a thing as the 
charming of a sick man, and he one, by Mr. Heath's own showing, having 
no title of royalty or office. 

Our knowledge of the Hittite inscriptions is not in an advanced state, 
being at present confined to four syllabic characters a-ud two ideographs 
which axe derived from the bilingual inscriiations on the boss. I may say, 
in reply to those who call this boss a forgery, let them prove the need or 
call for a Smyrna silversmith to forge an inscription in one little known 
and one quite unknown language, and I will believe in the spurious 
character of the disc. Had the inscription been in Egyptian and Cuneiform 
then it may have been a forgery, or had the name of the king been less 
like a Hittite name then the possibility of its forged character might have 
been admited, but it cannot be now. 

We cannot read the Hittite inscriptions, but still we can gather many 
facts relating to the kings and people which are of interest, and with none 
of which do Mr. Heath's theories agree. When more inscriptions have 
been recovered, and when explorations have been made on sites where 
Inlingmal inscriptions are likely to be found, then we can speak of reading, 
the inscriptions. 

Until that time it is premature to put forward readings such as Mr., 
Heath has attempted. I am certain that when the inscriptions are de- 
ciphered they will not contradict the historic records of the nations in 
contact with the Hittites as they now do. The question of the relation of 
the Hittites to the Aramean tribes is one which I will ask you at some- 
future time to give me space to say a few words upon. 

W. St. C. BOSCAWEN. 



III. 

Note on Above. 



Knowing the great value of your space, I will answer Mr. Boscawen as 
briefly as possible. 

Mr. Boscawen says he does not profess to be a ])rofound student of the 
Newtonian philosophy. It is not necessary that he should be so ; but 
nevertheless all knowledge comes to us through the methods of that 
philosophy, and nothing in Mr. Boscawen's paper shows me that I have 

Q 



224 THE ASSYMANS IN EASTERN PALESTINE 

erred in the applicatiou of it. Mr. Boscawen considers that my results 
are very unlikely, in consequence of the fact that they result in a " mixed 
vocabulary." Now my dictionary contains about 40 words, and in order 
to understand the charge, I should be glad of a few instances in which 
this property of tnixliwe appears. Take the first three words, asukh an oil- 
jar, ashteka to contemplate, and ashibna we restored. I really know not 
what the accusation means. 

Mr. Boscawen says that the names of Hittite kings and towns are non- 
Semitic. Very likely. But then the names of Oxford and Cambridge 
Rhyd-Uchain and Caer-Grawnt are not English, and Laban the Syi'ian 
appears to have spoken Aramiean. It is also to be remarked that in the 
select Egyptian Hieratic Papyri, the Semitic words seem to be Arama^'an, 
and that the Greek alphabet also was Aramaean. 

As to the Cilician Boss, and other small finds, any one interested should 
give us an enlarged lithographic copy. It is a question of eyesight, and 
I <lo not at present see them to be Hittite. Fifty times more important 
than the Boss question is that of the name Jerablus. I read it in three 
places without the ^, and I should be very much puzzled indeed if there 
be an I. Professor Wright has gone carefully into the subject, and says 
the I is due wholly to European travellers. 

Dunbar Isidore Heath. 
Esher, Surrey. 



THE ASSYRIANS IN" EASTERN PALESTINE AND 
SYRIA DESERTA. 

The existence of an Aramsean or Arab Semitic population as a trading- 
element in Babylonia, together with the non-Semitic Sumero- Akkadian 
population, at a jieriod as early as the eighteenth or nineteenth century 
before the Christian Era, is proved by the occurrence of Semitic names 
of a mai-ked Arab character in the contract tanets of the time of the 
Kassite or Cossea dynasty founded by Khammuragas. Such names 
as Abbu, Abikhibu Libet, Kainuv (Hebrew Cain), Abbu (Abel), 
Mukhatu Pirkhu, and the many comi^ouud names formed with the 
gods Sin (Moon), and Shamas (Sun), both Arab deities as elements, seem 
to indicate the origin of the population who at this early period appear 
in the marts of Ur and Erech. It may not be a mere accident that the 
inscriptions of a bilingual class which were compiled by the scribes of 
Babylonia at an early period, and afterwards copied and re-edited by 
the scribes of Assurbanipal, are all of a commercial character, the non- 
Semitic jjhrases in one column being translated into Semitic Babylonian 
or Assyrian in the other. This would seem to show that the exigencies 
of trade produced these primitive editions of Clifton and OUendorf. 

Even earlier than the use of the Kassite dynasty, which is to be 
identified with the Median dynasty of Berosus, a Semitic population tp 



AND SYRIA DESERTA, 225 

the north-west of Babylonia was known, and its character is clearly 
indicated by tlie generic name given to the people by the wi'iters of the 
iuscriptit)ny. The name Suhhi (>--<Y«y ^ S^) appended to these tribes at 
a very early period is evidently like the Egyptian name Shasu, derived 
from their wandering life and marauding character, and we may connect 
it with the Hebrew root l^'^?. '^^^ ''^^^'^ ^^ Assyrian has the 
sense of " to rebel, to revolt, to create rebellion," and the noun, Sikhu, a 
revolt, occurs several times, notably in the Eponym Canon (W. A. I., 
11, 52, lines 9, 10, 11, 25). We may conclude, therefore, that this name 

Suhhi, like the Egyptian Shasu, from the root nD'C? which signified 
the " plunderers," " spoilers," as the Arab Bedouin, was a characteristic 
name. The two curious inscriptions of Sargon I, King of Agane, give 
accounts of expeditions into Syria, but, as only general terms, such as the 
west, and Elam are employed, together with the " Great Sea," no his- 
torical argument can be based on these inscriptions. We may conclude 
that the Semitic population of Assyria was the outcome of these 
Semitic nomads who had been tempted to come into Chaldea, and be 
civilised by the learning and wisdom of the Chaldeans. And Abram, 
the ancestor of the Hebrew race, may be taken as one of the descendants 
of these primitive /e^^a/uH, who had settled round Ur. 

It has been thus far necessary to sketch the early contact between 
Babylonia and the tribes of the desert and the West, in order to gain a 
knowledge of their character, and the name given to them shows the 
land to have been occupied by a nomadic people given to making 
razzias across the Eiver Euphrates. That this was the case, is shown 
by the oft-recurring passages in the astronomical tablets, " The cattle of 
Akkad safely in the desert lie," " The foe plunders, and the corn of the 
land devours and seizes." 

In about the thirteenth century before the Christian Era, this 
population became settled, and petty kingdoms were established on 
the west of the Euphrates. All along the Euphrates, both on the east 
and west bank, colonies of Arameans sprang up, and in the time of 
Tiglath-paliser I, b.c. 1120, they had obtained considerable jaower, and 
w-ere largely connected with trade. The campaign of Tiglath-paliser I 
in Aram Zobah and the border of the Hittite land, is found recorded on 
his cylinder. (W. A. I.. 1, p. 13, col. v, 44-63.) "In the service of Assur 
my lord, my chariots, and warriors, I gathered a divination (mut-bara),* 

I took the land of the Armaya (Arameans) opponents of 

Assur my lord, then I marched from the frontiers of the land of the Sukhi 
(Bedouins), as far as the city of Kar-Gamish (Carchemish), of the land 
of the Hittites. . . In one day I swept (akhbudh),t their soldiers I slew, 
their spoil, their wealth, and property innumerable. . . I recovered, t The 

* Eoot "I5v!. 

t Hebrew O ■?'^' ^^^*' ^^^'' thrash out, devastate. 

X Returned to myself. 

Q 2 



226 THE ASSYRIANS IX EASTERN PALESTINE 

remainder of their host, who from before the arrows of Assur my loiil 
had fled away, and the river Euphrates they had crossed. After them in 
boats of inflated skins, the river Euphrates then I crossed. Six of then- 
cities which are situated at the foot of the mountains of Bisri. . . I captured 
and with fire I burned . . threw down and dug up ; and their wealth 
to my city of Assur I brought." During this raid the Assyrian king 
captured the city of Pitru or Pethor, the birth-place of Balaam. From 
the Km-kh inscription of Shalmanesar we have the following passage 
referring to that city : " At that time also (b.c. 854) to the city Assui'- 
utir-azbat, which the men of the Hittites the city of Pethor call, 
Avhich is above the river Sagura (Sajur), on the far bank (west) of the 
river Euphrates, and the city of Mutkin, which is on the near bank 
(east) of the Euphrates, which Tiglath-paliser I, the ancestor, the prince 
my predecessor had united to my country from Assur-rab,— Amar, King 
of Assyria, the King of the Arameans (Arumu), by force had spoiled. 
These cities to their place I restored." This passage shows that 
during the period of weakness which followed the death of Tiglath- 
paliser I (B.C. 1100), the Arameans had recovered the city of Pethor, an 
important Aramean city, and one which they appear to have regarded as 
one of the sacred cities. The above passages give us clearly the northern 
boundary of the Arameans. The city of Carchemish, the stronghold of the 
Hittites, was one day's forced march from the frontier of the Sukhi ; and 
Pethor lay in the direct line, and above the river Sagura of the text, which 
we must identify with the modern Sadjur. The Sadjur is at the point 
where the old caravan road following the Euphrates crosses it three 
hours from Jerablus, the ruins of Carchemish, therefore from 10 to 
11 miles at the pace my horses went. Above this river, and on the road to 
Carchemish, was the city of Pethor, and, apparently, with a city or fort 
on the ojjposite side of the river. The site of Pethor I feel certain 
Avill be found at Tokari-Tash-atan, a name which to this day retains an 
echo of the old name. There is a small stream flowing down from the 
limestone hills which form the watershed between the Sadjur and the 
Euphrates, and on this stream at the point where the caravan road 
crosses it, is the village of Tokari-Tash-atan. The natives say that the 
village derives its name from an old stone in the bed of the stream which 
was thrown there by an ancient Moslem Sheik, Tash-atan, meaning "he 
threw the stone." The stone in question proved, when I examined it, to be 
an old Roman milestone, very much defaced, but still with letters such as 
MCC, etc., remaining on it to prove its oi'iginal use. We know that 
the Greco-Roman colonists called Carchemish Hierapolis, which the Ai-ab 
conquerors corrujited into .Jerablus, and the Turks into Jeral)is.* It nouki 
therefore seem that they confounded Pethor or Pitru with one of the 
numerous Petra or Petrre. The Turks translated the confused name 
by the Tashatan, " the village of (he who) threw the Stone," thus the 

* The iiaiu-^ of t' is village is Yorablus among the Arabs, (^_^wl^ v): ^^'^^ 
mound being Kalaat Yerallus. Jerabis is the Turkish corruption. 



AND SYRIA DESERTA. 227 

name may be traced. The proof of my argument will be found in the 
exploration of the hirge mound a little to the south-east of the village, 
between it and the Eupln'ates, and I feel certain, from a hasty inspection 
of the site, that it will re-j^ay exi^loration, as well if not better than 
Jerablus. There are fewer Greek and Roman remains about than at 
Jerablus, and so more of an earlier date may be expected. 

The Arameans, as I pointed out before, had colonies all along the 
Euphrates, and when I come to speak of the wars of Assur-nazir-pal, and 
Shalmanesar II, in Aram Zobah and Damascus, the Hauran, &c., I 
shall have occasion to mention them more particularly. This explains the 
statement made in Numbers xxii, 5 : " He (Balak) sent messengers, there- 
fore, to Balaam, the son of Beor, to Pethor "IIH^ which is by the river of 
the land of the children of his jx'ojjle" {i.e., the Euphrates) ; and again, in 
chapter xxiii, " the King of Moab hath brought me ant of Aram, out of the 
mountains of the East." These passages from the inscription, and from the 
Scriptures, would connect the Arameans of the Euphrates Valley and 
Eastern Syria with the Moabites, and would account for Carchemish, once 
an Aramean city, but, taken by the Hittites, having a Semitic name. 

During the period from B.C. 1100, until the accession of Assur-nazir-pal 
in B.C. 885, the Aramean or Syrian confederation had made great progress. 
In this interval the Jewish kingdom under Saul, David, and Solomon, 
had grown up, and the kingdom of Damascus, and of Aram Zobah, with 
those of Ammon, Moab, Edom, and Saba, or the Arabs, were all formed 
out of the mass of partially nomadic tribes of colonies of fellahin settled 
round strongholds or commercial stations on the Eui)hrates, oi- in various 
parts of Syria Deserta and the regions east of Jordan. In the time 
of David we have Hadadezer king of Aram, Zobah, and Hanun king of 
Ammon. During^ the reign of Solomon, we have the names of Hadad and 
Genubath as kings of Edom and Eesin in Damascus. The fmindation of 
Tadmor by Solomon, was intended to divert the Syro-Babylonian caravan 
route which, from time immemorial, had passed along the Euphrates, and 
through Carchemish into a more direct channel across the Syrian desert. 
It connected the Aramean tribes on the Euphrates and about the mouth 
of the Khabour, with Damascus and Syria direct. In the month Sivan,* 
B.C. 879, the Assyrian king Assur-nazir-pal started from Kalah (JVimroud), 
and, after crossing the Tigris and the river Kharrais, the modern Sinjar, 

Asa.*; the classical Hermus,t he reached the Khabur, and followed its 
course as far as the city of Sadi-kanni, now Araban. Following the course 
of the river as far as its junction with the Euphrates, he received tribute 
of the city of Sirki, the classical circesium, the modern Karkesi 
(l-ww*-J J )• The towns in these regions all bore names of strongly 
Aramean type, such as Dur-kuvlimi, Bit-khalupi, Tsupri, Nagara-bani, 
Khindani. These towns and districts were situated between the mouth of 

* The tliird month, May. 

t The upper part of the Sinjar, called N-al Huali. 



228 THE ASSYEIANS IN EASTERN PALESTINE, ETC. 

the Khabour and the Wady el Seba. In his inscription the king thus 
speaks of the march through this district : " From the city of Khindani 
I departed in the mountains over against the Euphrates ; I established a 
camp." These mountains must be the limestone ranges on tlie east bank, 
north of the Wady el Saba. The inscription states further, "I then 
departed from the mountains, and in Bit Sabaya (Wady el Saba), I 
encamped in the approach to the city of Kharidi " (Erzi). Departing from 
here the king next halted at the commencement of the city of Anat 
(Annah)* Anat was situated on the opposite side of the Euphrates. 
Starting from hei-e, the Assyrian king marched against the stronghold of 
the Sukhi (Bedouins), the city of Suru, the modern Sura or Soiera, 
a little south of Annah. The king of the Sukhi was Sadudu or Sadad 
(the invader). This opponent of the King of A ssyria was aided by the 
Arameans or Chaldeans from Babylonia, commanded by the brother of 
Nabu-bal-iddinn, King of Babjdon, Zabdanu by name. The allies were 
defeated, and Sadad threw himself into the Euphrates, and swam across to 
save his life. The capture of these cities, and the whole of the Arameau 
colonies from the city of Ittu or Hit, as far as the mouth of the Sadjur, and 
the land of the Hittites, quite destroyed the commercial caravan route which 
had been established across the 'desert from Damascus vklTudmov^ and the 
old line vid Carchemish was once more used. The existence of these 
colonies of Arameans on the banks of the Euphrates, the Khabour and the 
Singar or Hermias, in the ninth century B.C., shows very clearly where we 
are to place Aram-Nahraim. In this region it exactly corresponds with 
the Nairi of the Assyrians and the Naharian of the Egyptians. 
The principal kingdoms of the Eastern Arameans were : — 
East. Bit Adini, from the Khabour as far north as Kalaat Nedjinj 
or Tul Barsip, the Barsamsi of Ptolemy. This was the Eden of Ezekel 
xxvii, 23. " Haran, Kalneh and the merchants of Sheba, Assur and 

Chilmad were thy merchants." The Sheba (^^^'') here is not the 
Arabian Sheba, but the Sabaya of the inscriptions of Assur-nazir-pal, now 
the Wady el Seba. 

West. The S'ukhi or semi-nomadic population corresponding to the 
fellahin Arab of the present. 

Laka. North of the Sukhi, extending along the present caravan route ti> 
Aleppo, The name is perhaps preserved in Lachadur and Lachadamie 
stations on that route. 

The Arumu or Arameans, about the Sadjur and the country round 
Aleppo southward as far as Damascus. In the northern portion of this 
district, round Carchemish and Khilbun (Aleppo) the population was 
Aramean, but the Hittite conquerors were the dominant class, and ruled 
in these cities. 

Up to the end of the reign of Assur-nazri-pal, b.c. 869, the Assyrian 
armies had only penetrated to the extreme west, the" shores of the sea 

* This expression is interesting, as Annah is a town extending a long waj 
upon the river bank. 



EGYPTIAN VIEW OF THE EXODUS. 229 

of the setting sun," by tlie route through Carchemish, the iilain of 
North Syria, and the valleys of the Afrin and Orontes. In the reign of 
Shalmanesar II (b.c. 860-824), we shall find them in Eastern Palestine, 
Aram Zobah, and the regions of Bashan, Moab, and the Hauran. 

It has been necessary to sketch thus, in as brief a manner as possible, 
the connection between the Arameans of the Euphrates Valley and 
Assyrians, in order the better to imderstand the connection which these 
tribes had with those of the lands of Moab and Ammon. This above 
resume of the growth of the Syrian tribes enables us very clearly to see 
the nature of the kingdom of Solomon, King of Israel, the Alexander of 
the Arameans and Syrians, which reached from the river unto the land of 
the Philistines. 

W. St. Chad Boscawen. 

{To he continued.) 



EGYPTIAN VIEW OF THE EXODUS 

From the " Sixth Anastasi Papyrus." 

Within tte last two or three years the history of the Exodus has aroused 
a much larger amount of interest than usual. Witness, among other signs, 
the publication of Brugsch — that of the anonymous author of the " Hebrew 
Migration from Egypt," — and last, not least, the trans-Jordan expedition. 
As there is a great deal to say on the subject from Egyptian sources I will 
begin the collation of it at once. 

The sixth Anastasi Papyrus was written by a very famous man, named 
Enna, who stood in close relation as a correspondent to another famous 
man, the scribe of the Treasury or Finance, named Kek-Kebu. The 
"Papyrus" contains six large pages, of which I notice at present only two 
and a half. 

The first page is filled up by a splendid superscription in large letters, 
which may be condensed into the words " Under the reign of Seti II," 
viz., " Set-Emenephtah." I omit the usual long titles, but note that Seti is 
called a Ra-Horus, and son of a Ea-PIorus, viz., not a mere Eegent as his 
brother Bai-n-Ea Meneptah was, but a reigning king and son of a reigning 
king. His coffin is in the British Museum, with the word " Set " chipped 
out. Manetho would thvis naturally read him as Emenophis, and his 
grandson Rameses III shows us in the gi^eat Harris papyrus how this 
Seti was unable to hold the Delta. In fact, after the deaths of his father 
Eameses II and his Brother Bai-n-Ea, he executed a strategic movement 
towai'ds Ethiopia. This papyrus is, however, sufficient to show us that 
his civil and military officers were not obliged to leave their posts in the 
Delta, and in mitigation of the charge of cowardice, it is stated that when 
Seti ascended the throne he Avas upwards of 60 years old, infirm, blind, and 
helpless. Here follows the first letter : — 

" The scribe Enna, for the satisfaction of his lord, viz., for the scribe of 



o 



230 EGYPTIAN VIFAV OF THE EXODUS. 

the treasury Kek-Kebii in the pahxce. This comes to give uu account to 
my lord. Whenever I am to give a full reckoning, to leave to those that 
shall come after me, perfectly safe will be the goods and chattels. I shall 
have caused no deficiency to my lord since I have come to his property.'' 

This is the ordinary common opening between the ofticial at home and 
the scribe on an expedition. Going on with the letter, he says, " I brought 
up the fleet, which gave me its protection. This it gave to me as far as 
up to the men of the magazine, in the fortress of Tabnet, which fortress 
the military scribe, the commissary of cattle, had dug, who was posted at 
the fortress of Tabuet. The work was completed iu 23 days, but its 
watch fell off, and the head astrologer took e\'ery step that was wrong. 
He forced my three serving men whom he took before the General Huee, 
with whom was the scribe Ptah-m-heb." 

Here we see the political position coming already into view. A strong 
hostility is evident between our well known Eiiua the scribe par excellence 
of Seti II, and directed against the rei)resentative of the astrological 
party. In other words, between the civil and military officers who 
remained in the Delta when deserted by Seti II. The programme of the 
military was the digging of fortifications to i)rotect every little village in 
the Delta. This points to the state of things explained in the great 
Harris Papyrus, when Emenoiahis had retired leaving the Delta open 
to Siptah Thuoris and the strong Mediterranean maritime Powers. 

All through this Papyius the party whicli opposed the military 
party in the Delta was specially the Finance or Treasury department. I 
cannot at present lay my hand upon the evidence, but I stated 2.'i 
years ago in my " Exodus Papyri,"' that the head of the Treasury Avas 
Phiuehas, second son of the Great Eegent Bai-n-Ea Meneptah Hotep-hi- 
ma. Bai-n-Ea, who saved his country for a time at the great battle of 
Prosoi3is, was a loyal friend of the Hebrews ; and the very name of his 
second son Phinehas shows his close relations with the Semites. The 
letter proceeds. " Now it came to pass that while I numbered the Sem people 
on the list, he " (the head astrologer) " carried off the Sem people in the 
fortress. Then it came to jiass that he made me number them on the list 
in the Temple of Eameses. When the people forced him in the fortress, 
he could not stand against the collected leaders. He made me carry the 
Sem people to the Temple of Nebt-hotep. He brought also two women to 
me, who said, ' Let the head of the Treasury end the matter.' " 

If must be remembered that the papyrus from which I take this is not 
in a very good condition, but I cannot doubt that I am substantially right 
in my translations hitherto. It results, then, on Egyptian evidence, that 
a certain Sem people, supported by the civil authorities, managed to get 
together to the Temple of Nebt-hotep ; notwithstanding the opposition of 
the military party. There is now a gap of half a line, after which we 
read : — 

" I pacified (?) the Sem jieople, who brought up people by my side to say, 
let the slaves of the Sem ])eoi)le go with it, for there is favour for the 
slaves of the Sem j:eople before ^the Head of Finance. So they were 



EGYPTIAN VIEW OF THE EXODUS. 231 

allowed to jyeiforiu the Service in the mouth Paoui theii' 

begiuniiig of months." 

I hesitate in presence of two words which I have here passed over. 
The fact is that, after the i^ublication of my " Exodus Papyri " I left oft' 
Egyptology, and have ouly lately resumed it. The sentence, however, 
seems to identify the Egyptian beginning of their month Paoni with the 
new year's day among the Sem j^eople at the time these events were 
taking place. The calculations are all made in my " Exodus Papyi'i," the 
result being that in b.c. 1291, which Miss Corbaux holds as the date of 
the Exodus, the first new moon after the vernal equinox was visible on 
what we call April 6, which the Egyptians at that time call the beginning 
of Paoni. 

The statement here made, viz., that the Sem peojjle (probably the 
Semites) had themselves slaves under them, may modify our view on the 
miseries endured by the Hebrews. Leave, however, having at last been 
given to these slaves of slaves, they " took the robes which had been 
brought up before the Head of Finance, to give an account to my lord. 
The robes were brought and the Head of Finance caused them to be 
looked to." 

" Eoyal Ptobes 87 

Other Ptobes 64 

Other Eobes 27 

In all 178." 

This i^art of the papyi'us is in good condition, and I apprehend there 
can be no dispute about the translation. It is sui-prizing that this spoiling 
of the Egyptians has been for 25 years pointed out and no notice taken of 
it. From the Egyptian point of view, it appears that the great Exodus 
consisted of many small movements, each of them being of manageable 
size. If every 50th person collected at the Temple of Nebt-hotep con- 
sidered himself or herself entitled to a splendid robe, there would 
have been about 8,000 desirous of attending the national annual 
ceremonies. 

" When the numbering was over, I disposed the peojale before the 
leaders. The leaders, said to it, ' Let the people be complete in everything 
that is arranged for it.' There was put down for me four days for the 
journey which the leaders made. The second military scribe gave it the 
start. He also brought aid of carriers. He brought also two woiuen at 
the waters of who said, ' Let each child go.' He did not allow it. 

He was after the cattle of the head commissary Moses." 

Thus, from the Egyptian point of view, Moses superintended herds of 
cattle, and this presence of a Moses makes it probable that Enna is here 
describing the chief among the many small movements for keeping the 
new year's day. A military scribe seems to have been obliged to 
accompany the four days' expedition, showing, however, his annoyance by 
refusing a request about the children. It is also very curious to observe 
that up to the time when the sacred robes were given -out the account has 



232 MEGIDDO. 

related to the Sem people, but after the slaves of the Sem people had 
leave to accompany the expedition, the " people" alone are named, and the 
name of Sem is dropped. 

Thus have I done my best with one and a half pages out of five, 
exclusive of the title page. There is more in this papyi'us of the very 
highest interest. Among other things, I feel called upon with great regret 
to say that Dr. Brugsch has done harm by circulating his account from 
this papyrus of the Shasu people passing from Edom into Egypt. My 
translation of the passage [is now 25 years old, and will be found in my 
"Exodus Papyri," p. 183. Dr. Brugsch begins with '=we have carried 
into effect." There is possibly a " we," but nothing about " carrying into 
effect." In fact the papyrus is a confession throughout of the weakness of 
the Egj'ptians before the Shasu. Dr. Brugsch goes on " from the land of 
Edom." There is no word signifying " from." " Through the fortress." 
There is no word signifying "through." "To the city Pithom, etc., 
situated in the land of Thuku." Dr. Brugsch in his own book of 
" Foreign Geography," plate xvi, gives us his own map of Palestine show- 
ing that Thuku was in Edom. How, then, could the Shasu pass from Edom 
to Thuku, which is in Edom 1 

Dunbar J. Heath. 

Esher, Surrey. 



MEGIDDO. 

Megiddo has thrice to do with horses and chariots, in the case of Sisera, 
Ahaziah, and Josiah, but its connection with Mujedda, tlu-ee miles south- 
west of Bethshean, is merely a mare's-nest. 

This identification put forward in QuurterJy Statement, 1877, p. 13, 
repeated in " Tent Work," but apparently abandoned in his " Handbook," 
is once more revived (1881, p. 87) by Lieutenant Conder, when, on return- 
ing from the slaughter of Abu Gheith, with the head of Beth Aphrah in his 
hand (my overlooking of the li in Beth li Aphrah I can only explain on 
the principle "humanum est errare"), he finds a Jonathan ready to 
embrace his theory (1880, p. 224). 

It is best to repel this advance at once, and without delay fight out the 
topographical battle of Megiddo, before more allies come up. 

We propose to show (1) that Megiddo was near Taanach (now Taanuk), 
and (2) that the only feature near Taanach answering to the waters of 
Megiddo are the streams near Lejjun. If these points be proved, then it 
is certain that Megiddo was situated at or dose to Lejjun (as jiroposed 
by D . Robinson), and not at Mujedda. 

(1). That Megiddo was near Taanach is somewhat probable from Joshua 
xii, 21 ; xvii, 11 ; 1 Kings iv, 12 ; 1 Chron. vii, 29 ; where the two names 
occur in juxtaposition. As however Judges i, 27, is against us, we tvu'u 
for certainty to Judges v, 19-21 : "The kings came and fought in ( = near) 



MEGIDDO. 233 

Taanach, by ( = neai-) the waters of Megiddo." These words evidently 
describe a battle, and not a campaign. Therefore, as tlie kings fought near 
both these places, it is obvious that they must have been near one another. 
Thus (it seems to me) our first point is already fully made out. 

But suppose for a moment that Megiddo was not near Taanach, but at 
Mujedda. Then we have to believe that Barak and his ten thousand, 
armed with staves and ox-goads, or at the best with bows and slings, 
fought along a line of nearly sixteen miles, while most of the Canaanites 
must have galloped up the valley of Jezreel, before they could be swept 
away by the Kishon. The whole suiapositiou is supremely ridiculous. 
The known site of Taanach so afflicts Lieutenant Conder's theory, that he 
has to put a gloss on this reference to it, oft'ering these alternatives (1877, 
p. 15). " The words ' in Taanach ' must either be taken to be a distiict 
name applying to all the plain, of which Taanach was the capital, or it 
must be translated to its meaning ' sandy soil.' " No doubt " in Taanach " 
does describe that part of the plain which was near Taanach, but certainly 
not the ivhole breadth of the plain as far as the northern hills, under which 
Lieutenant Couder thinks the battle took place ; |While, again, as Taanach 
is five times (above, and Judges i, 27), connected with Megiddo, it is an inad- 
missible throwing of dust to take the word diflferently in the sixth 
instance. The vagueness too of describing the plain near Tabor as hy or 
(Lieutenant Conder) above the waters of Mujedda is certainly not like the 
precision of topographical notices in the Bible ; but on this point Lieu- 
tenant Conder offers no comment. Barak's battle, however, would not be 
more real than that of the Titans if its site were just at the foot of Tabor, 
thii'teen miles from Taanach, and sixteen from Megiddo, if placed at 
Mujedda ; while, again, the last place is fifteen miles from Taanuk. The 
italicized positions are obviously at variance with Judges v, 19 — 21 ; indeed, 
they are quite impossible, and the theory arises from an initial error as to 
the right position of the Kishon in Judges iv, 7, 13 ; v, 21. 

This Lieutenant Conder fixes at " a place called el IfvjaJiU/ch, where 
there is an extensive chain of pools and springs about three miles west of 
the foot of Mount Tabor." He thinks also that the above passages require 
this position ; that Josephus confirms it in " Ant.," v, 5, 3 ; " Barak camped 
at Mount Tabor . . . Sisera met them, and pitched not far from the 
enemy." (In Josej^hus, however, not far may mean anything); that "the 
advantage obtained by Barak in his impetuous descent from the mountain 
on the enemy in the plain is evident ;" that had the battle taken place at 
Taanach, he " would have had to come the whole width of the great plain, 
and would have attacked from low ground the enemy on the spurs of the 
hills, far away from the main bed of the Kishon." He also adds (1881, p. 
88), " It is an assumption which contradicts Scripture that the stream 
from Lejjun is the ancient Kishon." 

Here are sevei-al errors, one of which must be pointed out. 

As to the position of the Kishon. Since Sisera's army was gathered 
to the river Kishon, and the battle was fought near Taanach, it is clear 
that the main watercourse in the plain below Taanuk must be the brook 



234 MEGIDDO. 

Kishon in Judges iv, v. For if Sisera had encamped at el Mujahiyeli, 
he must have turned southwards, and Barak must have passed him, to 
fight near Taanach ; a thing utterly absurd, as Barak was on Tabor. 
Thus, " tlie assumption which contradicts Scripture" is really Lieu- 
tenant Conder's own. 

My notion of the battle is this : — • 

From Tabor, Barak descended on foot (as is empliatically stated) 
to the valley {Emek) between Tabor and Endor. The watchmen of 
Sisera in Taanach (or in Megiddo) must have spied afar off " the 
advance of the ten thousand" rustics over the great plain {Bikath 
Megiddo). The little army, without shield and spear, seemed marching 
to sure destruction ; meanwhile Sisera was not slow to seize the oppor- 
tunity, little thinking that he was about to fall into his own trap. 
Leaving his encampment at the foot of the hills, he hastily crossed the 
Kishon with his nine hundred chariots and vast host, marshalled in 
Hamitic array (like the Egyptians and Zulus), in an extended line, 
and soon the long wings of the dragon had enclosed Barak's little flock 
of kids. Escape now seemed impossible, yet not to faith. The battle 
began ; but suddenly the clouds poured out water, "the rain descended, 
and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon the house " of 
Canaan, "and it fell, and great was the fall of it." At once the 
horses and chariots moved heavily in the viscous mud ; soon the whole 
plain was a quagmire ; before long the recently dry watercourse became 
a foaming torrent, sweeping away the terrified Canaauites that tried to 
ford it ; while the rest of the enemy, fleeing in a north easterly direc- 
tion, were pursued by the fleet hinds of Naphtali (Gen. xlix, 21 ; Judges 
iv, 6), and overtaken and scattered near Endor, whereupon Sisera 
alighted down off his chariot and fled away on his feet. 

The passages in Judges and Psalm Ixxxiii, relating to tlie brook 
Kishon, thus seem to be in perfect agreement with the natural meaning 
of the words, "then fought the kings of Canaan in Taanach by the 
waters of Megiddo," and we conclude that our first point is proved 
viz., Megiddo teas near Taanach. 

(2). The waters of Megiddo were the streams near Lejjun. On 
reference to the Great Map we find four miles N.N.W. of Taanak 
abundant perennial streams flowing from the hills near Lejjun. 

These are the nearest to Taanuk, and to find the next we must 
go five miles further, to Wady el Kiisab, which is nine miles from 
Taanuk. As Sisera would hardly need so extended an encampment, 
we have at once to admit that the waters of Megiddo were the copious 
streams rising in the neighbourhood of Lejjun, which or near whicli 
was the famous city of Megiddo. I well remember how six years ago 
here, in the high luxuriant grass, revelled our mules and Selim's 
ill-starred ass, destined on the morrow to be half buried in Bikath- 
Megiddo's mud, and how the spiteful miller spoilt his morning meal. 
Worse things, however, than these happened, not far off, to Sisera thirty 
centuries aw. 



HIDING PLACES IN CANAAN. 235 

III support of Mujedd.'i, Lieutenant Conder quotes Aliaziali's flight. 

Without giving an opinion on the position of " Beth-hag-gan," 
"Maaleh Gur," and Ibleam, I would point out that even if Ahaziah 
fled northwards towards en N'aArah, lie might afterwards, under cover 
of night, reach Megiddo (near Lejjun) as easily as Mujedda. 

His object seems to have been, not to get to Jerusalem, but to the 
neai-est place of refuge, and afterwards (as we learn from 2 Chron. 
xxii, 9) " they caught him (for he was hid in Samaria) and brought 
him to Jehu." Thus it is probable that the words " he died thcre,^^ 
(2 Kings ix, 27), ought to be translated " he died then," i.e., at that time, 
when Jehu cut off the house of Ahab. 

The Bible does not state by what road Neclio ap]3roached Megiddo. 
I am not sure, however, that to marcli up the Jordan valley would 
not be more exhausting than " to toil over the hostile mountains of 
Ejahraim," hostile only by an oversight, as Josiah's jiower reached even 
unto Naphtali (2 Clu-on. xxxiv, 6). 

It is very satisfactory to find that the great jjlain near Taanuk is 
after aU " the valley {Bikah) of Megiddo," as the uniform meaning of 
the word Bikah is hereby preserved. The next step is to admit that 
"Baalgad in the valley (Bikah) of Lebanon" (Josh, xi, 17; xii, 7) 
must be Ba'albek in el Bukd'a. 

The Jordan valley east of Mujedda seems to me hardly woi-thy to 
be called a Bikah, and if it were, it ought to be called the Bikah of 
Bethshean and not of Mujedda. 

If one had to point out on the map where Barak fought, I should 
say eVAfMeh or the Birket el FMeh, just west of it, which is marked 
as " marsh in winter." Here Sisera's host would be shut in between 
the confluents of the Kishon. This spot is six miles from Taanach, 
and four from the waters of ]SIegiddo, which distances I hope are not 
too great to be covered by the Hebrew li ; but if they are, then the battle 
must be placed still nearer to Taanuk. 

Until it is agreed what is the correct translation of the Mohar's adven- 
tures, it seems premature to attach any weight to them in this matter. 

AV. F. Birch. 



HIDING PLACES IN CANAAN. 

II. Gideon's Wink-peess at Ophrah. 

Ophrah of the Abi-ezrites was certainly in western Manasseh (Josh, xvii, 
1-6), although Josephus speaks of Gideon's preparing to cross the Jordan 
(" Ant.," V, vi, 3) in order to attack the Midianites in the valley of Jezreel. 
Lieutenant Conder in his " Handbook " states that this 02:)lirali is 
"probably the present village Ferata, near Shechem, the old name of 
which was Ophrah (Samaritan Chronicle)." Happily the identification 
of Gideon's famous city need not rest on this insufficient evidence, as 



"J36 IIIDIXa PLACES IN CANAAN. 

the details of the Bible stoiy will, I believe, be found to fix the exact 
spot beyond all doubt. 

We have to find in vvestei-n Manasseh, which reached apparent!}' from 
Issachar to a little south of Shechem, a place satisfying the following- 
conditions :— • 

(1.) It ought to be suitable for vines, and perhaps to contain some old 
wine-presses ; as Gideon was heating wheat in the wine-press. This 
would probably be in a vineyard on the southern slope of a hill. 

(2.) There ought to be cliff near, since close to the wine-press was a 
Selah (A. V. rock, Jud. vi, 20), i.e., a precipitous rock. Welcome again 
to this old friend, who has helped us before ! On this sela Gideon 
apparently built the altar called " Jehovah Shalom." 

(3.) There ought also to be a strong place, or fortress (A. V. rock, Hebr. 
maoz, Jud. vi, 26), to which, I imagine, the inhabitants used to escape 
with their cattle in times of danger. 

On it stood the altar and grave of Baal, which Gideon destroyed ; here 
too he built an altar unto the Lord (vi, 26). If (which seems xmcertain) 
the two altars were identical, then the fortress must have stood upon the 
cliff. 

(4.) Thei-e ought to be at least one ancient tomb, as Gideon was buried 
in the sepulchre of his father at Ophrah. 

(5.) It ought probably to be not far from l^hcchem, as Gideon's concu- 
bine lived at the latter city. 

(6.) It ought probably to be on the south side of Shechem, as Jothani 
took his stand on the southern Gerizim, and not on the noithern Ebal. 

Guided by conditions 1 to 4, I had in v^ain searched the country north 
of Samaria ; when however we turn to the Survey Map, to find some spot 
to which all the indicating lines 1-6 converge, we meet with comj^lete 
success. 

One and three quai'ter miles (5) south-west of Shechem, (6) is an elevated 
(2,508 feet) village named el Arak (2), i.e., the cliff. It is ajjparently 
marked as an isolated place jierched on the precipitous extremity (3) of 
a narrow ridge running Avestwards from Mount Gerizim. As this spot 
most remarkably satisfies the conditions 2, 3, as well as 5 and 6, I do not 
hesitate to recosnize it as the maoz or fortress, if not also as the sela or 
cliff mentioned in ,Tud. vi, 20, 26. I venture to predict that when search 
is made on the s])ot, tombs will be found to satisfy (4), and possibly an old 
wine-pi'ess to suit (1), as vineyards seem in the map to be marked on the 
southern side of the hill. 

In regard to Arabic, as I have not even the little knowledge which is 
proverbially dangerous, I abstain from discussing whether the name of 
Ophrah does, or does not survive in the ruin called Khurbet Aufdr, on the 
opposite hill, three-quarters of a mile south-east of el Arak. The memoirs 
will probably give some interesting particulars bearing on this identifi- 
cation. 

The tower of Shechem, the hold of the House of the god Baal Beritli and 
Mount Zalmon. The tower though not in was obviously near Shechem, so 



EMMArs. 237 

that Jebel Suleiniau (" Handbook," p. 210), four miles off, cannot be Mount 
Zalmon, as Abimelech though willing once iu a way to be a liciccr of ivood, 
would naturally demur to carrying his load further than was necessary. 
It seems to me that Zalmon (" Sinai and Palestine," p. 239) must be some 
part of Ebal. Tlie curioiTs ruin on whose summit ("Tent Woi-k," i, p. 67) 
may well be the hold (a kind of tower) mentioned in Jud. ix, 46. An altar 
of Baal might as suitably have stood on the top of Ebal as of Carmel. 

I propose iu the next number to give the arguments for placing the 
cave of Adullam at Khureitun, and the rock Etam near it in Wady 
Urtas. W. F. Birch. 



EMMAUS. 

First of all, Khamesa, which has of late secured some votes as the 
probable site of Emmaus, is at least 8^^ miles, as the crow flies, from 
Jerusalem, and by any possible road cannot ^be less than 9i miles from 
that city. The distance is therefore too great to tally with St. Luke or 
Josephus. 

Now among the cities of Benjamin, Joshua (xviii, 26) speaks of Musah, 
as we read it, but in Hebrew j^'^^^n Hammosah, "The Mosah." Fiirst 

gives Musah the meaning " place of reeds," but it seems more probable 
that it is equivalent to ^^"i^, a spring. Be this as it may, the Talmud 

T 

says that this Musah, or Maftza, is the jjlace whence willows were brought 
to adorn the Altar at the Feast of Tabernacles, and this suggests a valley ; 
and elsewhere again the Talmud says that it was made a colony. (*S'ee 
Caspari § 242.) 

But Josephus tells us in the well known passage that his Amraaus was 
colonised by the assignment of the place by Titus to 800 discharged 
veterans. 

We have thus side by side these statements from totally different 
sources : first, that a place called by Joshua Hammusah became a Eoman 
colony ; secondly, that Ammaus became a Roman colony. Hammusah is 
therefore in all probability identical with Ammaus. 

We now turn to the map. We find a well known place on the main 
road from Jerusalem to the west, called Kolonieh, manifestly from 
Colonia, and about a mile to the north of this, looking down on a valley 
which trends at that point south and west toward Kolonieh, a ruin called 
Brit Muzza. 

Here we have another linking of these two, Hammusah, the fountain, 
and a Roman colony, and we must be near tlie place we are looking for. 

But now let us pass up from Kolonieh along the valley, under Bril 
Muzza, and pursue our way along the whole length of the valley (Wady 
Biiwai) up to its head. We are then some three miles from Kolonieh, and 



238 EMMAUS. 

about a mile further, on tlie hill, in Kubeibet, which it is said the 
Crusaders were informed was the site of Emmaus. 

Now the head of this valley is as near as may be 60 stadia from 
Jerusalem. And it would seem probable that the original Emmaus, or 
the principal part of its population, originally laid around the head of the 
valley, giving its name, however, more or less exactly, to the whole : that 
this valley, and especially its upper part, was originally the Colonia of the 
discharged soldiers of Titus, but that as time went on the chief part of the 
population gravitated down to the Eoman road, not at the nearest point to 
Jerusalem, but at the junction of the valley with that road. 

Travellers from Jerusalem to the u])}3er valley of Emmaus would not 
pass through Kolonieh, but would leave the main road aliout two miles 
from that place, and descend into the Wady Btiwai just where the roads 
from Kolonieh on the left, and from Lifta on the right, converge upon it. 
At such a ijoint as this we may well imagine that the two disciples 
encountered their veiled and risen Lord, and as they went along that 
upland path towards what was then che chief part at least of Emmaus, 
the fountains of a new life were opened out to them. 

Joshua and the Talmud, St. Luke and Josephus, the traditions heard 
by the Crusaders, and the stern requirements of a modern survey fixing 
distances beyond possibility of mistake, seem all harmonised liy the 
identification thus proposed. 



Quarterly S'iatement, October, 1881.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



We hare great pleasure in announcing that all the instruments having arrived 
and been examined, and all preparations having been made, Lieutenants Conder 
and Mantell have crossed the Jordan and takeu up tlieir quarters for the 
present at Ain Hesban, where they have been joined by the Surveyors, Messrs. 



Black and Armstrong. 



The Survey of Eastern Palestine has therefore been commenced in the south 
instead of the north, as was originally proposed. The change has been necessi- 
tated by recent disturbances in the Hauran. The second theodolite did not 
arrive in Jei'usalem until June, and the Arabs were then fighting, so that it was 
then impossible to cross the river. Now, however, peace is re-estabUshed. This 
delay at starting shows that the difSculties of the Eastern Survey may prove 
to be greater than those of the west. Fortunately, the officer in command is 
experienced, and may be trusted to exercise prudence and tact. 



A base-Hne has been successfully measured, and eight trigonometrical stations 
have been set up. The work has been conducted under great difficulties arising 
from the heat, the thermometer in the Jordan valley standing at 118° F. in the 
shade. Lieutenant Conder's first report from the eastern side, and his notes on the 
commencement of the work, with his proposed identification of Balak's Altar, 
will be found in their place, in Eef)ort VIII. 



Among the topics touched upon in the other Reports will be found a very 
remarkable attempt at identifying Ku-jath Jearim with a place called Khurbet 
Erma. The suggestion had already been made by Lieutenant Conder, and is 
now followed up by a more careful examination of this ground. The name will 
be found on the great Map on Sheet XVII. Its reference in the Name Lists is 
(Kt). but it seems as if it should rather be (Jt) . The ruin does not appear to have 

II 



240 NOTES AXD NEWS. 

been visited bj anybody before the Surrey — it is not, for instance, on Guerin's 
map or on Vandevelde's, or Murray's. The arguments advanced by Lieutenant 
Conder will be read with the greatest interest. Perhaps we have here a solution 
of one of the greatest topographical difficulties connected with the sacred 
narrative. His observations on Ai, Hebron, Gibeon, etc., may be advantageously 
followed by the light of the new map. 



Lieutenant Conder has made a copy of the inscription of the Pool of Siloam, on 
which Professor Sayce sends a paper, which will be found in its place (p. 282) . 
The copy was taken after Herr Guthe had cleared the letters by means of nitric 
acid. A cast has also been taken by Herr Paules, and is on its way to England. 
As regards the last, Lieutenant Conder writes, " I have been over it with my 
copy, which agrees very well indeed with it. I see one u^ore letter, but do not 
see anything to change my copy." M. Clermont Ganneau is reported to be 
working at the inscription. Another aqueduct has been discovei'ed, running west 
from the Pool of Siloam, on the same level as the one previously known. 
This new aqueduct, when traced, may lead to important discoveries. It was 
found by some fellahin. 



Since the publication of the last Quarterly Statement, the General Com- 
mittee has been strengthened by the addition of two new members, namely, Sir 
Albert Sassoon, C.S.I., and Mr. Edward Thomas, F.E.S. They have also to 
lament the loss of four of their oldest and most valuable members, a notice of 
whom will be found on pp. 243-246. 



The Eeduced Map of Modern Palestine is now completed, having received the 
final corrections. The first edition will be issued on October 17th, after which 
date subscribers may expect to have their copies in order of application. They 
are reminded that the price to them is 6*. Gd. a copy, carriage free. To the 
general piiblic it will be 12s., through all booksellers, or the agent, Mr. Stanford, 
55, Charing Cross. It will be issued in six sheets, including the title page in 
a paper cover. There is in preparation a list of Biblical names and their 
identifications, a copy of which, when ready, will be given with the map. B\it 
the first subscribers will probably hare to wait a little for this list. It will also 
be given to every subscriber of the large map who wishes for it. 

As regards the two ancient maps, Mr. Saunders reports that the outline is 
engraved, and that they are proceeding with the names. We hojie to have them 
ready very shortly. 

For convenience of travellers and fov library purposes, an arrangement has 
been made with the agent, Mr. Edward Stanford, for mounting the map. He 
undertakes to mount the map on strong cloth, and to place it in a case for the 
bookshelf or for travelling. The map in this form will be charged \\s. <irf. a 
copy, carriage paid, 1o subscribers, and 18.?. 6f/. to non-subscribers. For hanging 
purposes, he will supply the map on mahogany rollers at 16-s. Qd. for subscribers, 
and 24*. for the general public. And he wdl make sjweial arrangements if 
desired for a more expensive mode of mounting. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 241 

Two more volumes of the Memoirs, viz., the "Name Lists" and tlie 
" Special Papers," have been issued. The next is far advanced and mil be 
ready in November. The remaining two will, it is hoped, be issued in January. 



Enquiries have been made as to the price of the memoirs in separate parts. It 
must be remembered that only a small number of copies remain ; arrangements 
have been made for offering these copies to libraries in Great Britain, America, 
Germany, etc. Should any remain when these have been supplied, they may be 
had in separate parts, as follows : — 





£ 


s. 


d. 


The Great Map 


..3 


3 





The Memoir in 3 vols. 


.. 9 


9 





The Name Lists 


..3 


3 





The Special Papers 


.. 2 


2 





The Jerusalem work, with 


a portfolio 






of drawings . . 


5 


5 






Mr. Saunders has completed his delineation of the water basins on the map 
of Western Palestine, and has given it to Mr. Stanford, the engraver and agent 
of the maps, to be laid down on the reduced map, which can then be used to 
illustrate and explain his " Introduction." 



It can also be laid down on the great map, but as the wort wiU bave to be 
done by hand, the cost of doing so wiU be no less than £5. On the reduced 
map it can be done by a double printing at a very small cost. In fact a shilling 
will cover it. It is hoped that any one who wants Mr. Saunders' " Introduction " 
(uow in the binder's hands) wiU have the water basin edition of the reduced 
map. 



A general Index to the Quarterly/ Statement from its commencement to the 
issue of this immber inclusive, has been prepared, and is now in the printer's 
hands. It will be ready some time in November. 



The Committee will be greatly obliged if subscribers will forward their 
subscriptions for the current year as early as possible. Arrangements for 
lectures on the Biblical Eesults of the Survey by the Rev. Henry Geary and 
the Rev. James King should be made as early as possible. 



The income of the Society from all sources from June 21st, 1881, to 
September 22nd, was 1,253?. 5.s. Irf. The amount in the Banks on Tuesday, 
September 13th, was 451Z. As. 9c?. About 1,000Z. will be required before the end 
of the year. 

R 2 



242 NOTES AND NEWS. 

A Cheap Edition of " Tent Work in Palestine," has been published by Messrs. 
Bentley and Son. All the small illustrations which were in the Library 
Edition, and two of the fiUl-page drawings, will be found in the new Edition, 
which has been carefully revised by the author. An additional chapter has 
also been added on the " Future of Palestine." The work will be read with 
greater interest now that the progress of the Survey may be followed on the Map. 



It is suggested to subscribers that the safest and the most convenient manner 
of paying subscriptions is tlu-ough a bank. Many subscribers have adopted tliis 
method, wliich removes the danger of loss or miscarriage, and renders unneces- 
sary the acknowledgment by ofScial receipt and letter. 



Subscribers who do not receive the (Quarterly Statement regularly, are asked 
to send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward each number 
to all who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes 
give rise occasionally to omissions. 



Wliile desiring to give every pubhcity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
(Quarterly Statement, the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood that 
by publishing them in the Quarterly Statement they neither sanction nor 
adopt them. 



243 



OBITUARY NOTICE. 



The Society has experienced a very heavy blow in the deaths, during the last 
quarter, of four of its oldest and most valuable friends. The first of these. Dean 
Stanley, was one of the Founders of the Society. He gave the use of the 
Jerusalem Chamber for the meeting, at which he was present, on May 12th, 
1865, when the Palestine Ex]Dloration Fund was founded. At this meeting he was 
appointed one of a Sub-Committee, afterwards expanded into the Executive 
Committee, appointed " to draw up a statement of the general objects of the 
Association." The other two members were the Archbishop of York, and 
Professor Owen. The Honorary Secretary was Mr. George Grove. It was this 
Committee who drew up that very careful document, the original Prospectus 
of this Society. Dean Stanley frequently addressed meetings in behalf of the 
work, and never failed in his interest in the scientific examination of the 
country for which he had himseK done so much in his great work " Sinai and 
Palestine." The last occasion on which he showed his sympathy and gave his 
assistance was exactly similar to the first. He lent the Jerusalem Chamber 
for the very important meeting, presided over by himself, at which the Survey 
of Eastern Palestine was resolved upon. At the moment of his death our 
party were just beginning their work across the Jordan. His words at the 
meeting were : — " When the Palestine Exploration Fund was first set on foot 
by my friend Mr. Grove, though I sympathised heartily with the proposal, I felt 
what Mr. Freshfield has expressed as his feeling also, that the point at which 
every effort ought to be directed, was the exploration of Eastern Palestine. 
Beautiful as the new map of Western Palestine is, and great as has been the 
light which has been cast upon the country by the explorations, that light is as 
nothing compared with the light that can be thrown upon the eastern district 
of Palestine. Of all the features of interest that struck me when I first went to 
Palestine — a feature altogether undescribed, and of which I had not the least 



244 OBITUARY NOTICE. 

idea till I went tliere, of which no book of trayel had given the slightest 
information — the most interesting was the constant view of the mountains of 
Moab, and the great waU of the east of Jordan. Wherever we went, that wall, 
rising up from the purple chasm which separated us from it, was a beautiful 
source of mystery and of tantalization, filling us with a sense of ignorance, and 
with a desire to know what there was beyond it, I feel pleased and delighted 
beyond measure that that desire is now about to be satisfied." 

Among the bequests of the Dean is one to the Palestine Exploration Fund of 
a small collection of books on the Holy Land and Egypt. These are now on the 
shelves of our office. 



We have also to record the death of the Eev. E. W. Holland, Yicar of 
Evesham, one of our Honorary Secretaries. 

He joined the Committee, being then one of the Curates at Quebec Chapel, in 
November, 1866, and was associated with Mr. Grove as Honorary Secretary. In 
1868 he raised the Sinai Survey Fund and joined the party, which was com- 
manded by Captain (now Colonel Sir Charles) Wilson, which accomplished 
that valuable piece of work. On being appointed Vicar of Evesham he offered 
to resign his post as Honorary Secretary, but was requested by the Committee to 
continue a connection which was never, in spite of his absence from London, 
nominal. His death was sudden, and happened on a mountain side in Switzer- 
land on August the 27th last. 



Again, on the 11th of September, died Major Samuel Anderson, C.M.Gr., R.E., 
one of the Executive Committee, formerly one of our officers in Palestine, general 
editor of our maps, and always the constant friend, adviser, and upholder of this 
Society. The Ust of his public services is thus detailed iu the Times of 
September 16th, and will help to show how great a loss our work has 
sustained : — 

Major Samuel Anderson, C.M.Gr., of the Royal Engineers, who filled the 
office of Inspector of Submarine Mining Defences vinder the War Department, 
died at Dalhousie Grange, Bonnyrigg, N.B., on the 11th of September. He was 
in his 42nd year. Having received his professional education at the Royal Military 
Academy, Woolwich, he entered the corps of Royal Engineers as Lieutenant in 
December, 1858, and in September, 1859, was appointed surveying officer to the 



OBITUARY NOTICE. 245 

North American Boundary Land Commission, under Colonel (now General Sir 

John S.) Hawkins, who had the duty of marking out the boundary between Her 

Majesty's possessions in North America and the territory of the United States. 

From this duty Major Anderson returned to England in July, 1862, but was 

employed in London in completing the maps of the Commission till February, 

1864. After various professional engagements, in June, 1872, in which year 

he was promoted to Captain, another Commission was formed, under Major 

Donald R. Cameron, R.A., who was deputed to mark out, in conjunction with a 

Commissioner on the part of tlie United States of America, the line of boundary 

between British and American territory from the Lake of the Woods to the 

Rocky Mountains, and to this Commission Major Anderson was appointed Chief 

Astronomer. In September, 1876, he was appointed Assistant Inspector of 

Submarine Mimng Defences under the War OiBce, and in May, 1877, he was 

created a Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George, in recognition 

of his official services in North America. In 1879 he was employed for a few 

months as Her Majesty's Commissioner for the demarcation of the frontier of 

Serria, and attained the rank of Major in the Royal Engineers in September of 

the same year. A short time ago he succeeded Lieutenant -Colonel Grossman, 

C.M.G., as Inspector of Mining Defences, which office becomes vacant by his 

death. 

The following letter appeared in the " Times " of September 21st. 

Sir, — Among jour obituary notices on Friday last, September 16, occurred 
that of the late distinguished officer. Major Samuel Anderson, R.E., C.M.G. 
Will you allow me to supplement the list of his public services, there detailed, 
by the addition of those which he rendered to this Society during a pex-iod of 
16 years ? Major (then Lieutenant) Anderson was one of the two officers, the 
other being Captain (now Colonel Sir Charles) Wilson, who made a preliminary 
expedition through Western Palestine, with the view of ascertaining the best 
way to conduct the scientific and systematic examination of the coimtry which 
this Society has since been carrying on. The survey of Western Palestme, now 
completed, and justly acknowledged to be the greatest contribution to Biblical 
illustration ever accompUshed, is the outcome of that expedition, and will ever 
be associated with the names of the two officers who led it. When, again, ten 
years ago, the committee thought themselves justified in beginning this great 
and costly enterprise, it was Major Anderson who sought among the younger 
men of his corps for one possessing the ability, knowledge, and enthusiasm neces- 
sary for the work, and found him in the officer who executed the greater part of 
the survey. 

He has since that time always been ready to give, not only advice, but also 
time and active work, to the furtherance of the undertaking, and at the time of 



246 OBITUARY NOTICE. 

his death was the editor of the New Maps of Western Palestine, which will 
henceforth form the basis of all writings and discussions on Biblical geography 
and topography. His latest work for us was the outfit and despatch of the new 
expedition, with which we hope to do for the East of Palestine what we have 
already done for the West. 

I remain, Sir, your obedient servant, 

JAMES GLAISHEE, Chairman, Executive Committee. 

Palestine Exploration Fund, 1, Adam Street, 
Adelphi, W.C. 



Lastly, we have to record the death of the Rev. Samuel Manning, LL.D., 
one of the members of the Greneral Committee, and better known as Secretary of 
the Religious Society. His own work prevented him from actively aiding this 
Society, except when he was able to do so by speaking in its behalf. No one 
who heard his address at the Royal Institution some six years ago can fail to 
remember the eloquence and fulness of knowledge with which he explained the 
value of scientific exploration. 



247 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 



The Land of Benjamin. 

GiBEON, Is^ July, 1881. 

Taking advantage of the delay occasioned by circumstances already 
referred to, we have revisited one of the first districts surveyed by 
the party employed in 1872, while under care of Mr. Tyi-whitt Drake, 
before my arrival in Palestine. 

The chief points of interest inchide the questions of Eimmon and Ai ; 
the vicinity of Gibeon and the battle of Ajalon ; and the ruins of Tellilia, 
and Deii' esh Shebab, with some traditions connected with Tell 'Asfir, and 
el Jtb, &c. The general result of our re-examination is satisfactory, 
insomuch as the nomenclature of the Map has been tested in many places, 
and found correct ; while scarcely any ruins of even the least importance 
are found to be omitted ; all the really ancient sites and buildings having 
been plotted and described. This is specially satisfactory, inasmuch as 
the district is one of the most difficult to survey, on account of the rugged- 
ness of the hills and the great depth of the valleys, while it was also one 
which was undertaken while the party were still new to the work, and 
unfamiliar with the archaeology of the country. 

The Rock Rimmon.—\] ntil the year 1879, it was generally agreed that 
this site, in the wilderness (Judg. xx, 47) where the six hundred Ben- 
jamites lived for four months after their defeat at Geba of Benjamin 
(Judg. XX, 10 and 33) was to be recognised at the ancient village of 
Rumm6n, on the edge of the cultivated hill-country, overlooking the 
desert ranges, above the Jordan valley. It has now, however, been 
proposed to recognise a connection between this Eimmon rock (which may 
most properly be rendered " high rock " on the authority of Gesenius, and 
on other authorities) with the " pomegranate tree which is by Migron " 
(1 Sam. xiv, 2), Ha Eimmon asher bi Migron in the Hebrew, a site which 
it is unnecessary to say cannot be expected still to exist if the rendering 
" pomegranate tree " be correct, but which is to be sought in the vicinity 
of Wady Suweinit (the valley of Michmash), to the cliffs of which the 
term Migron " precipice " appears from another passage to apply 
(Isaiah x, 28). 

Those who support this view point to the large cave in W^dy 
Suweinit called Mugharet el Jat as the possible refuge of the Benjamites, 
and consequently to the precipice in which it occurs as the true Eock 
Eimmon. Having now revisited and carefully examined both this cave 
and the village of Eumm6n, I send you the following results. 

Before describing the sites, however, it is necessary to take note of the 
word SeVa, rendered " rock " in the English version. It is a term of 



248 LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 

frequent occurrence in the Bible, and is rendered almost invariably rock. 
The Eev. W. F. Birch, in writing on Eimmon {Quarterly Statement), 1879, 
p. 127) states that the term "always means a jirecipitous rock, i.e., a 
cliflf," and this has been urged as an objection to the identification of 
Eummdn with Sela Eimmon. The quotations which he gives (p. 129) 
are, however, scarcely sufficient to prove that SeVa should be rendered 
precipice. Gesenius gives its radical meaning as signifying " High place 
or i^Iace of refuge," and the Sejjtuagint translators, who may be supposed 
to have known the contemporary use of the word, render it by the Greek 
Tverpa a stone or rock. 

Tiiere are also passages in Scripture where the term can scarcely be 
understood as meaning a precipice, as in Psalm xvii, 2, "The Lord is my 
rock " or Psalm xl, 2, " Set my feet upon a rock," for David cannot be 
supposed to mean " set my feet vipon a precipice " — a position hardly to be 
considered as one of safety and comfort. 

The arguments in favour of the site proposed by Mr. Birch (Mugharet 
el Jat and the south cliff of the Michmash valley) are the following : 1st, 
the identity with the pomegranate tree, supposed to have existed at or 
near this spot, but no longer to be found ; while the name Eimmon no 
longer occurs in the vicinity ; 2nd, the existence of a cave reputed to hold 
600 men, which cave, however, is not mentioned in the Bible ; 3rd, the 
existence of precipices, which may represent the Eock, or Sel'a, although, 
as shown above, the Hebrew word has not the meaning of precipice. 

The present village Rumm6n stands in a conspicuous position, at the 
end of a high narrow ridge which runs out south from tlie village of 
Taiyibeh. The houses stand on a rounded knoll of hard rock, very 
similar to that on which Beit 'Atab (the Eock Etam according to my view) 
is built. On the west the rock is specially steep, with low cliffs or steps, 
some 10 feet high in places. On the south are several rude caves used as 
cattle stables, and called ShukS,f Jiljal ; there are other small caves under 
the houses on the east. The village consists of straggling cottages of stone, 
supplied by ancient cisterns. There is a ruined tank on the flat top of 
the knoll. On the north is a small plateau with olive groves, on the west 
are some caves and rock-cut tombs. The site is evidently ancient, and is 
of great strength, as deep, narrow valleys occur on three sides, so that it 
is only easily reached from the north. On the east are the gorges and inac- 
cessible precipices of the great ravine which runs from Taiyibeh to the 
Jordan valley. From the rocky hill top a fine view is obtained south- 
wards, extending to Jebel Fureidis, south of Jerusalem, and including 
Tell el F<il, Jeba'" (Geba of Benjamin) and er Earn, and on the north 
Taiyibeh and Tell 'Aslir are visible. This site I afterwards induced 
Di-. Chaplin to visit, and he agreed wnth me that it could not be more cor- 
rectly described than by the term SeVa, a rock, a high place, a stronghold, 
or place of refuge. Here, then, on a rock close to the edge of the Midbar 
or pastoral desert which extended east of Bethel (Josh, xviii, 12) we find 
the name Eimmon jireserved unchanged, in a form which has no meaniug 
iu Arabic, but which in Hebrew properly describes the site as " high." 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S EEPORTS. 249 

■ We must now turn to the question whether tlie cave called Jai, is 
likely to have any connection with the rock called Eimmon. The 
position and character of the cave have been very carefully described 
in a former paper by Mr. H. B. Eawnsley, and I can only add the 
results of a careful survey of the interior (see Quarterly SUxtement, 
1879, pp. 118-129 and 170-171). Mr. Eawnsley's plan, though rough, 
agrees fairly with the Survey now made, which was executed on main 
lines laid down with magnetic directions, with numerous offsets. This 
Sui'vey enables us to calculate very closely the area of the cave. 

Mugharet el Jai is excavated in a precipice some 40 feet high, on 
the south bank of Wady Suweinlt, east of Jeba' (Sheet XVII) and about 
a quarter of a mile east of the small hidden spring (Ain Suweinlt) 
which is on the top of the precipices, but accessible by a path down 
a steep slope, which occurs west of the two bluffs, one called el Mek^aur 
(" the place of holes ") in which is the cave, the other el Koha' (apparently 
" the helmet ") immediately west of the former. The cavern is entered 
from the north-east, and is hidden from the west by the projecting bluffs. 
Beyond it is a second cave, to which I obtained the name Abu Jemdl, the 
entrance to which, partly closed by a rude wall, is quite inaccessible, 
beino- some 20 feet from the foot of the cliff. This second cave faces north- 
west, a recess occurring in the precipice between the two caverns. 

The rocky slope at the foot of the cliffs is polished by the bare feet of 
shepherds and the hoofs of goats, and an explorer shod with boots is in 
great danger of sliding down towards the stiff slope which falls perhaps 
300 feet to the rocky bed of the ravine. On the north rise cliffs and bluffs 
equally barren, and also biu-rowed with caves. 

The gorge is as solitary and desolate as the well known kelt valley, 
which it joins further east ; and is inhabited by the black grackles, the rock- 
doves, and desert partridges ; while the sage-bushes, the thorny belldn, Sknd 
a few scattered Kharrttbah trees form the only vegetation. The guide who 
accompanied us seemed much impressed by the awful silence and desolation 
of the great valley. He muttered constant prayers to the Moslem saints for 
aid, and sat in the gieat entiance-hall of the cave, and refused to come 
further. He became much alarmed when we disappeared in the dark ; and 
afterwards, when the light of a magnesium torch shone in the distance, we 
could hear him calling to us as we penetrated yet further into the dark- 
ness, and he gravely stated that the great jjassage led to J erusalem, and 
that if we walked from dawai till eve we should not come to the end. 

But although the site is impressive, the cave itself was disappointing. 
It is not like the famous Khureittln cavern, a network of halls and passages, 
but simply a large cavern, with a narrower gallery leading upwards and 
returning with a stiff' descent to a second entrance visible in the cliff, west 
of that now accessible. Why the advocates of a Rock Eimmon in this 
vicinity should have pitched on this particular cave it would be difficult 
to understand, seeing that there are many other caves along both sides of 
the valley, were it not that they appear to rely on the statement of the 
fellahin that this cave will contain 600 men, and that 16 flocks of 100 



250 LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 

sheep have been folded at one time in its main chamber. The Survey 
shows tliat the total area of the cave and its branches does not exceed 970 
square yards, while the main chamber is about 500 square yards. Thus if 
1,600 sheep were ever crowded into this chamber they must have stood 
half of them on the backs of the rest, as more than 3 sheep could scarcely 
be packed into 2 square yards. 

In the same way, allowing 6 feet by 3 feet for a man, if the 600 
Benjamites lived and slept in this cave (even including the branches which 
are low and pitch dark) 120 of them must have lain above the rest (which 
is improbable). I am therefore unable to agree with Mr. Eawnsley that 
"three hundred could perhaps find amjsle accommodation," as even this 
smaller number would necessitate the supposition that for four months 
they were packed twice as thick in this dark cavern (without ventilation) 
as soldiers in barrack rooms, which, however carefully ventilated, are 
still unpleasantly crowded at night. 

Thus the only remaining argument in favour of this site — that it is a 
cave capable of containing 600 men, vanishes before the results of careful 
survey, and we are left to choose between a rock where the name Eimmon 
still exists, and a cave in a clifl" which will not hold the number of fugitives 
mentioned in the story, and has not any connection by name with the 
topography of the episode, and is not mentioned in the Bible. 

The cave appears to be mainly natural, formed probably by the action 
of water, and possibly enlarged by man. The floor is covered with the 
dung of sheep and bats, a few of the latter being encountered, while a 
goat's skull lay at the end of the passage which once communicated with 
the second entrance. The roof of the main chamber is blackened with 
smoke. The branches have lower roofs and are quite dark. There is nothing 
remarkable in this cavern, which resembles many others visited by the 
Survey-party, some being much larger. Both sides of the valley have 
many similar caves of various dimensions, mostly inaccessible. In almost 
every case they appear to be traditionally connected with the Christians, 
and a comparison with similar caves near Mar Saba, in Wady Kelt, and on 
Jebel Kiiriintul, seems to show that whether or no they were originally 
natirral, they have been enlai'ged by the hermits who, in the 5th and 12th 
centuries, retired to these fastnesses and lived and died in the caves. 

In searching for the name Rimmon at this spot, Mr. Rawnsley collected 
many titles applied to surrounding features, some of which were new. 
These local names are specially numerous in the desert districts, where the 
Arabs have no landmarks other than those formed by natural features, and 
we recovered no less than thirty similar names in one valley near Taiyi- 
beh.* They do not, however, as a rule, appear to be very ancient or of 

* The same peculiarity of the much greater number of names applied to 
natural objects in pastoral districts, as compared with those in the settled or 
agriciiltairal districts, is obsci'vable in the British Ordnance Survey. The 
surveyors, 1 am told, in the highlands find among the G-aeUe shepherds that 
every feature has a well known name, and the number thus collected is much 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 251 

any special value, but can easily be recognised as describing the peculiarities 
of the features to which they apply in the present case ; while some of the 
names are evidently genuine and well known, others ai-e differently given 
by different guides and are extremely doubtful. The following are the 
names collected in a length of about Ih miles along the coui-se of Wady 
Suweinlt. 

I. — North side of Valley going East. 

1. EVAleiliydt, "the upper chambers," hermits' caves. See Sheet 

XVII. 

2. El Hosn, "the fortress," hermits' caves with windows in cliff. 

3. El Horn, " the fortress," another group in same cliff ^ mile E. It 

seems that the name must apply to the whole cliff. 

4. 'Ardi- esh Shinndr, " Partridges' Cave," above No. 1. 

5. El Merjdmeh, " place of the Cairn," above No. 3. 

6. SKah el tMti " the walled spur," a narrow spur of rock like a 
wall with ravine behind. 

7. Khallet er Edkib, " monks' dell," above this ravine. 

8. Kurnet el Falkeint, " peak of two clefts," a cliff. 

9. 'Ardk el Tfa?-, " cave of rough rocks," above No. 8. 

10. 'Arak (or Shakif) el AUideish, "Cliff of the Scratch." 

ll.—South side of Valley going East. 

11. RaVat Abu DdmUs, " Castle of Damns," a large cave opposite No. 1. 

See Survey, Sheet XVII. 

12. Khallet el Haiyeh, " dell of the snake," from a ruin of same name 

south-east of it. 

13. ''Ain Suweintt, " spring of the little Acacia." 

larger than in the Lowlands, where the country is divided into fields, and the 
roads, villages, and buildings form landmarks wliicli do not exist in the moors. 
I believe that the same rule applies in Palestine, as we have always collected 
more names (though fewer of value) among the Bedawin than among the 
Fellahin. In the vicinity of Shechem, Jerusalem, and Hebron, there are, however, 
unquestionably a great number of names, applying to hills and valleys, although 
for the most part they appear to be of little value to the archseologist, and are 
often indisputably modern. 

In connection with this question I may mention a very interesting conversation 
with Mr. S. Bergheim, of Abu Shusheh. He quoted to me several instances in 
which, within the last ten years, the peasantry in the above village had changed 
the names of various plots of ground, and small valleys, in consequence of 
local events. Thus a hill formerly known by another name is now called by 
that of an Arab found murdered on the spot. This fully accords with the 
survey experience, and it appears necessary to distinguish between the true 
nomenclature attaching to villages, ruins, springs, and spring wells, and the 
secondary local nomenclature of small natural features which appears to be of 
modern and varying character. 



252 LIEUTENANT CONDEE'S REPORTS. 

14. El Koh'a, from a root meaning " domed," a cliff. 

15. LI Ifek'aAr, " the place of holes," cliff with caves. 

16. Mughdret el Jdi. The meaning is unknown to the Fellahtn. 

17. Mughdret Abu Jemdl, " Cave of Camels." 

The only names of any interest in this long list seem to be Nos. 1, 2, 7, 
]], 13, 16, of which only 7 and 13 are omitted on the Survey, Sheet XVII. 

The name Jai (16) appears io come from the same root as the Hebrew 
Gai, and the Arabic Jeiyeh, has the same meaning as the Hebrew Gai, 
viz., " a place where water collects." It has been suggested above that it 
was by the action of water that the cavern was originally formed, but it is 
perhaps more probable that it should simply be rendered " cave of the 
ravine," in allusion to the side ravine which runs into the gorge imme- 
diately east of the cave or to the main valley itself. 

In consequence of the assumption that the 600 Benjamites lived in a 
cave, and that this cave was Mujharet el Jai, the cavern has been awarded 
an undue amount of importance, for there are many other caves of greater 
interest in Wady Suweinit (especially Nos. 1, 2, and 11), though unfortu- 
nately they are for the most part inaccessible. 

In these, perhaps, the mysterious Essenes dwelt long before the Christian 
hermits, and probably among them we may recognise the " Caves and 
rocks, and high places ('Alali) and pits" (i Sam. xiii. 6) in which the 
Israelites hid from the Philistine garrison of Geba. 

The most important in appearance of these is the cave in the great 
cliff called el Hosn, " the stronghold," which cliff appears to be the Biblical 
Bozez as mentioned in "Tent- Work in Palestine." After visiting the 
Mugharet el Jai I attempted, in company with Mr. Armstrong, to reach 
this^'other cave, climbing down about 600 feet and ascending some 200 
feet on the north side of the gorge. Here we found ourselves at the foot of 
a cliff at least 100 feet high and seemingly inaccessible. Near the top 
were the little windows which seem to belong to a chapel, but the caves 
at the foot of the cliff which we had hoped to find connected with this 
upper story proved to be only shallow excavations blackened by smoke. 

We now attempted to reach the windows by climbing the precipice, and 
for this purpose I took off my boots and clambered over a high ledge 
slippery from the naked feet of former climbers, and found myself on a 
broad platform extending to the Aleiliyat caves on the west. Above this 
was another cliff some 20 feet high, which I was able to climb without 
great difficulty, reaching a second narrower ten-ace. The next cliff was 
apparently quite inaccessible, but I found in it a fissure half filled by a 
bush, and using my shoulders against the sides of the crevice I succeeded 
in gaining a yet higher and narrower ledge. Walking eastwards along 
this I endeavoured to reach the windows, which were hidden by an inter- 
vening buttress of rock. I found, however, that the ledge terminated in a 
vertical cliff, and that I was now higher. than the windows, although not 
yet at the very top of the cliff. Descending again to the next terrace, I 
joined my companion, and we again tried to reach the cave, but found that 
there was no foot-hold on the cliff. We were thus obliged to abandon tlie 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 253 

attempt when within a few yards of our object, and after a very fatiguing 
cUmb. We marked the spot which we reached with a sheet of white 
paper, and descending to the bottom of the ravine climbed up the south 
side, visiting another small cave in a cHff. On gaining the top of the 
southern precipice, much exhausted by our efforts, we looked back at the 
white sheet of paper, and I was surprised to find that I had climbed the 
whole cliff with exception of the highest ledge, which did not appear to be 
more difficult than those surmounted. 

The interest of this escalade lies in the fact that the cliff of el Hosn is 
probably the rock Bozez, up which Jonathan climbed " upon his hands, and 
upon his feet, and his armour-bearer after him" (1 Sam. xiv, 1.3). 

The position of the Philistine camp near Michmash is carefully described 
by JosepKus, in a manner which strikingly recalls the cliff of el Hosn, 
and it seems possible that in the name Hosn, or " Stronghold," may linger 
some reminiscence of the ancient history of the spot. The descent of the 
cliff Seneh is not mentioned as specially difficult in the history of Jonathan's 
adventure, and the fact that the Survey party once brought their horses 
down this side of the gorge shows that though apparently impassable, a com- 
paratively easy descent can be found. I had always, however, supposed 
that it would be impossible to climb up the northern precipice, and 
Mr. Rawnsley has recently suggested that Jonathan reached the top by 
the Shdh et HMi, a steep but quite practicable ascent. 

The objections to this view seem to be that this approach would no 
doubt have been specially guarded by the Philistines, and, moreover, that 
Jonathan would not have been obliged to climb on his hands and feet, as 
stated in the Biblical account. It was no doubt the audacity of the 
attempt, and the appearance of the enemy at an apparently impregnable 
point, that spread such panic among the Philistines, and in searching for 
an entrance to the hermits' caves, I unconsciously proved the possibility 
of scaling the cliffs, perhaps at the very point where Jonathan himself 
ascended. Above the precipices a stiff slope of perhaps 2G0 feet or more 
leads to the flatter ground near the summit, and if the Hebrew champion 
at all approached the modern Arab in his powers of endurance, there 
appears to be nothing impossible in his being fit to fight when he reached 
the top of the mountain. 

In riding from our camp at el Jtb to the valley of Michmash, we passed 
through Jeb'a. and as questions have at various times arisen respecting 
the view from this village, I cai-efuUy recorded the places visible. There 
is high ground immediately north of the houses, almost level with the top 
of the central tower, and the view is here the same obtained by Dr. Chaplin 
when standing on the tower itself, but as the position of the village is not 
high compai-ed with the surrounding ridges, the panorama is much less 
extensive than seems to have been supposed. From Jeb'a (2,220 above 
the sea) are seen on the north, Rummfm, Mukhmas (Taiyibeh being 
hidden), Tell 'Asfir (3,300), et Tell, Deir Diwan (2,57o), Burkah and Kefr 
'Akab : both Beitln and Bireh are hidden by intervening hills, though the 
gardens of the latter can be seen. 



254 LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 

On the west, er E^m is comiiletely shut out by the crest of its own hill, 
although 400 feet higher than Jeb'a, on the south-west Tell el Ftil (2,754) 
stands up against the sky-line, and the ridge near it entirely conceals every 
part of the Jerusalem j^lateau ; as a section along this line would show to 
be necessarily the case. Hizmeh (2,020), and 'Anata (2,225) are visible, 
but the ridge of Ras el Mesharif (2,900) conceals the buildings on Olwet 
(2,700). A portion of the Dead Sea is visible on the east, but the view 
from er Ram is much more extensive than that from Jeb'a. 

At — From our Taiyibeh camp in company with Dr. Chaplin and Lieu- 
tenant Mantell, I made a thorough investigation of the vicinity of Bethel and 
Michmash. It has been advanced by other writers in the Quarterly/ Statement 
that the term beside (Josh.xii, 9), intimates that At was close to Betliel, while 
the same may be deduced from the description of Abraham's altar, "having 
Bethel on the west, and Hai on the east" (Gen. xii, 8). For this reason the 
site proposed by Lieutenant Kitchener (Khiirbet el Hai, south-east of 
Michmash) appears unsuitable, being at a distance of six miles south-east 
of Bethel, and therefore not likely to be mentioned as defining the situation 
of the mountain east of Bethel, and not properly describable as " beside " 
that city. 

It is curious to note how many places there are in this district to which 
the name Haiyeh (" living animal " or " serpent," according to the termina- 
tion) is applied ; 1st, Khiirbet el Haiyeh, south of Wady Suweinlt ; 
2nd, Khiirbet el Hfii, north of the same ; 3rd, Kliiirbet Halyan ; 4th, 
Khiirbet, DS,r, Haiyeh, fui'ther north ; 5th, Wady Abu Haiyat, east of 
the latter. None of these have, however, the exact form of the Hebrew 
Ai ("^Vn)? though the He may perhaps take the place of the Hebrew 
guttural Ain. 

Khiirbet H§,i is an insignificant ruin, apparently a shepherd's hamlet, 
with caves and foundations of ruined cottages. It has a large cistern on 
the hill above it, and enclosures walled in with large rude blocks, which 
are often found round the village threshing floors. The natives of Mukh- 
mas say that this was formerly a village belonging to them, and inhabited 
by Moslems. 

The site which appears most probably to represent At, is the important 
ruin of Haiyan, immediately south of the curious hillock called et TeU. 
The vicinity has long been recognized as the approximate locality, but the 
ruins were first described by the Survey party. 

The mound of et Tell with its terrace walls of rude stones, and its 
conspicuous group of olives, is a natural feature modified by the con- 
struction of the terraces. It does not appear to have been the site of 
a city, and only a single cistern has been found there. It is, how- 
ever, only half-a-mile distant from Khiii'bet Haiyan, and the argu- 
ments which were brought forward by Vandevelde, Colonel Wilson, and 
others, apply with even greater force to the site at Haiyan. There is a 
deep valley to the north (Josh, viii, 11), such as would be called Qai ; 
there is an open plateau on the east, which may perhaps be intended 
by the "plain" ('Arabah, Josh, xii, 14) ; and there is a valley on the 



LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 255 

west (Wady el Medhiet), wliich may have afforded concealment to the 
ambush sent by Joshua from Gilgal (Josh, viii, 3) before he marched 
up to Ai himself (verse 10), supposing that this force of 30,000 men 
advanced by the oidy really practicable route, which leads from Jericho 
to the vicinity of Michmash, and reaches Haiyiin on the south-east. 

The ruins of Haiy§,n will be found fully described in the memoir to 
Sheet XVII ; they include several large tombs on the south, three fine 
rock-cut tanks (the largest in the district), and a number of rock-cut 
tombs on the north. The site is now covered with olive gardens, but 
tlie name is well known to the villagers of Deir Diwan, a Moslem village 
immediately north of the site. 

From Haiyan we followed the old road westwards to Bethel. On 
this road there is a curious construction of rude stones on the ridge 
some 300 yards west of et Tell ; it resembles one or two other similar 
foundations to be found near Bethel, being apparently solid, about 10 
feet square, of rude unshaped blocks 2 to 4 feet in length. There are 
three courses standing, and the building might be taken for an altar 
(which would be of the highest interest in such a situation) ; but its 
position by the roadside more proliably indicates that it is a small 
watch-tower, such as are frequently found on Roman roads. 

We paid three visits to the vicinity of Bethel with the view of 
examining the supposed circle of stones said to exist near it. We were, 
however, unable to arrive at any other conclusion than that the curious 
rocks photogi'aphed by Colonel Wilson are natural features ; and although 
Dr. Sepp speaks (I believe) of a rude stone circle, I was unable to find 
any such monument after searching the entire vicinity. The rocks called 
el Kuldh are very remarkable features, and might at a distance easily 
be mistaken for remains of an ancient monument, but they are not 
detached from the mass of the mountain, and are not arranged in any 
particular form. , 

It is worthy of notice in this connection that the plains of Jordan 
and the north end of the Dead Sea are clearly visible from the ridge 
between Beittn and Haiyan, where Abraham's altar would probably have 
stood (Gen. xiii, 10). Thus the crusading monastery of Burj Beitln, 
and the neighbouring chapel of el Mukatir, no doubt represent the 
traditional sites of this famous altar in the 12th and 5th centuries 
respectively. 

Giheon. — Our camp has been fixed at this famous city for ten days, 
and we have carefully examined the site of the ancient town. El Jib, 
the modern village, occupies the north end of a detached hill some 200 feet 
high, surrounded by broad flat corn valleys on every side. The inhabi- 
tants state that the old city stood on the south part of the hill, and 
here in the sides of the natural scarps which fortify the site we have 
visited and explored some 20 rock-cut tombs. There are eight springs 
on the hill, the largest, on the last, being one of the finest supplies of 
water in this part of Palestine. One of the springs is called el Birkeh, 
and flows out into a rock-cut tank measuring 11 feet by 7 feet, the 

s 



256 



LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 



water issuing fx-om a small cave. This place is south-west of the village, 
and close to the main east and west road through Gibeon. The pool is 
cut in the face of a cliff, and has a wall of rock about 3| feet high on 
the west. Above it grows a pomegranate tree, and near it are ancient 
tombs in the cliff. 




THE POOL IN GIBEON. 



The reader will remember the dramatic account of the meeting between 
Joab with David's followers, and Abuer with the clansmen of the house 
of Saul (2 Sam. ii, 13) ; how they sat one on one side, the other on the 
other at " the pool in Gibeon," and arranged the fatal duel between the young 
men who were bid to "arise, and play before us." The Hebrew word 
describing the pool is the same as the modern Arabic Birkeh, and the 
apparent antiquity of the ancient tank fed partly by rain water, partly 
by the little spring in the cave, seems to countenance the idea that we 
here find preserved one of the lesser sites of the Biblical narrative, the 
recovery of which lends so much force and reality to the ancient narration. 

It is possible, however, that the great spring ('Ain el Belled) is the 
place intended .in this episode, as it wells up in a chamber some 30 feet 
long and 7 feet wide, reached by a descent of several steps. This cave 
resembles very closely that of the Gibeon spring (Virgin's Fountain) at 
Jerusalem, for there is said to be a passage with steps leading up from 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 257 

the back of the cave to the surface above. As the water is some 5 feet 
deep, and the passage is uow stopped up, we did not attempt to enter 
it. It is, however, clear that a door of some kind once existed at the 
present entrance to the cave, and it would appear that the inhabitants 
of Gibeon were thus able to close their spring below, and to obtain 
access to it from above within the city. 

The spring in question, like many of the famous fountains in Palestine, 
is held sacred by the Fellahin. An earthenware lamp is occasionally 
lighted in the chamber, but at other times the peasantry say that supei'- 
natural lights and smoke are seen within, and that a Nehi/ or Prophet 
inhabits the cave. Close by is a little rock chamber with a rude masonry wall. 
It is plastered inside, and in one of the niches of its rock sides we found 
some sardine tins containing offerings of jjomegranate flowers and young- 
figs, while pottery lamps are placed in others. This Mukam is called 
Jamia' el Burldeh, and near it above the spring is a small platform' for 
prayer. The villagers may often be seen praying here, and gi-eat con- 
sternation fell upon the women who drew water when they found the 
sacred grotto of the spring full of dense white smoke some few days 
since. It was not, however, in this instance the action of the presiding 
genius, descending to punish the peasants for allowing Franks to entei- 
the sacred cave, for the smoke was the result of burning a magnesium 
torch for the better investigation of the dark interior. 

It is worthy of remark that the older the site of a village in Palestine, 
the more numerous and venei^able are the sacred places now recognized 
by the Fellahin of the spot. At Gibeon we have but one instance of that 
reverence for living water, which is so marked and so natural a feature of 
the ancient Asiatic religions, from the Ganges to the Nile. The niches 
which once held perhaps statues of the genii of the springs, are still to be 
found at Banias, Jericho, Shechem, YasHf, and in other places where five 
fountains occur. Springs, trees, stones, and mountain tops, form the 
central objects of the Fellah cultus not less than of that of the ancient 
Canaanites. 

From Gibeon we visited among other places the Nether Beth Horou, 
where a treiisure trove was reported some little time since, which proved, 
however, as in so many other cases, to be an exaggerated version of the 
discovery of a small rock tomb. We ascertained the correctness of the 
position of Khui'bet Dariah, which I have proposed to identify with 
Ataroth Adar (Josh, xviii, 13), and although scarcely a trace of a ruin 
exists we found the name to be well known among the peasantry. 

In returning I was reminded of the eloquent description given by 
Dean Stanley of the defeat of the Canaanites by Joshua, and the pursuit 
from Gibeon to Ajalon. If, however, we are to apply strictly the 
words of the book, we must seek a place north of Gibeon, and in sight 
of the Valley of Ajalon (Josh, x, 12). In such a position we should 
imagine Joshua to have stood when he spoke the words, " sun staud thou 
still on Gibeon, and thou moon in the valley of Ajalon." If the sun stood 
still " in the midst of heaven," it was of necessity visible in the south, 

s 2 



258 LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 

while the moon cannot have been (as picturesquely described by Dean 
Stanley) a crescent, but must have been in the third quarter on account of 
its relative position to the sun. 

It may be noted that there is a position on the ancient road from 
Gibeon to Bcthoron, which fulfils these requisites, for on the hill east of 
Khurbet el Lattatin, a view is obtained down the ravine of Wady Selman, 
while Gibeon and the high place of Gibeon (if at Neby Samwil) are 
visible on the south. 

Within the village of el Jib, Lieutenant Mantell has recently dis- 
covered the remains of a "small crusading church. The place is called el 
Keniseh by the natives, but the building is now converted into a house, 
and the plan is scarcely traceable. The nave appears to have been 22 feet 
wide by 40 feet long. No apse is now visible, but the west wall, with 
an orial window, exactly resembles that of the crusading church at 
Taiyibeh. 

Ebenezer. — We have also taken this opportunity to visit Khui'bet 
Samwtl, which Mr. Birch proposes to identify with the stone erected by 
Samuel (1 Sam. vii, 12). Some foundations, caves, and rock-cut cisterns 
exist here, and near it on a high knoll is the ruined fort called el Burj, 
which seems to be not earlier than crusading times, even if as early. No 
monument of the kind required now exists on this spot, and it appears 
probable that the name is derived from the proximity of Neby SamvAl. 
The identity of the latter with Mizpeh, as proposed by Dr. Robinson, has 
been disputed mainly on account of a passage which appears to place 
Mizpeh on the road from Shiloh to Jerusalem (Jer. xli, 5-7). The topo- 
graphical notices of this important place are otherwise so vague, that it 
seems impossible to decide between the two high places of Nob and 
Gibeon, to one of which the name Mizj^eh appears to have applied. The 
identification of Shen with Deir Yasin was mentioned to me in 1874, by 
Dr. Chaplin. As regards Ebenezer, the only point which is clear is that 
the early Christians believed Deir Aban to mark the site. This I found 
in 1876 in reading the " Onomasticon." It appears to have been also in- 
dependently recognised by M. Clermont Ganneau, although I have been 
unable to find any publication earlier than 1877, in which he announces 
his discovery. No doubt other readers of Jerome's works must have 
formed the same conclusion, although Robinson ajDpears to have over- 
looked it. 

Roman Camp at TellUia. — The hill east of Wady Beit Hannina, which 
is a spur of the Neby Samwil ridge, terminates in a rather steep slope, 
and on the end of the spur is seen what appears to be a gigantic cairn of 
stones ; a careful examination, however, proves that this is a quadran- 
gular enclosure built of unhewn stones without mortar. 

The area measures 190 feet north and south, by 13(t feet east and west, 
and the labour entailed in its construction must have been enormous. 
The interior is subdivided into three by two walls, running north and 
south, while cross walls form side chambers about 37 feet by 40 feet along 
the sides of the enclosure. On the outside is a slope formed of loose stones, 



LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 259 

which though partly due, perhaps, to the falling down of the walls, seems 
to have been intended to strengthen the fortification with an outer scarji. 
No well or cistern is visible inside, but there is a large cistern on the hill 
200 or 300 yards to the west. The walls are still standing some 
15 feet above the ground outside the structure, and 6 or 8 feet above the 
interior. 

Such rude stone buildings are generally considered among the oldest 
remains to be found in Palestine. The stones used are, indeed, not much 
larger than those employed in building terrace walls, but the work seems 
too important to have been executed by the Fellahin for a cattle fold, and 
the position commands the junction of two important roads, both ."showing 
signs of antiquity. That on the west comes down from Neby Samwil, 
and that on the east follows the valley from el Jib ; the two join on the 
south and ascend thence to Jerusalem. 

The conclusion which seems most natural is that TelUlia (" the little 
Tell ") represents a camp constructed by one of the Roman armies (either 
of Titus or Severus) in advancing on Jerusalem. The whole structure 
resembles the Roman Camps which exist almost untouched at Masada ; 
and in a mountain district where earth was not to be found in sufficient 
quantity it seems that the Romans were obliged to use stone. 

This discovery at Tellilia serves to confirm a conjecture which has 
often occurred to me, that the great stone heaps north of Jerusalem, 
and west of the N^blus road, represent the remains of the camp which 
Titus constructed on Scopus. The plan of a camp can in this case no 
longer be traced, but the long line of stone-heaps called Rtijm el Eehaktr 
has an appearance very similar to the rude scarp at Tellilia — a work 
which must have entailed the labour of a large body of men, and the 
collection of materials from a considerable area. 

\ildli el Bendt ("the towers of the maidens"), east of Ktlia (Sheet XV), 
in the great gorge of Wady Samieh. Mr. Black has recently explored 
a curious hermits' cave with three cisterns. It is reached by a narrow 
stair of rock in the face of the precipice, and it presents the same 
peculiai-ity foimd in several of the caves of Wady Suweinlt, &c., namely 
a little gallery leading to a window in the rock at a higher level than 
the cave-mouth, from which the anchorites were able to reconnoitre any- 
one approaching their abode. 

Deir esh Shehab. — Although this site, representing a mediaeval monastery 
north of Bethel, has been more than once visited, it is curious that the 
fi'ont has never been noticed. It is hewn out of a single block, and is 
of the usual form, — a cylinder hollowed within, in form of a cross com- 
posed of four semicircles on four sides of a central square. Other 
examples occur at Jufna, Tekoa, Khurbet, Zakariya, and near Beit Jebrin. 

Deir esh JShebdb, " Monastery of youths," possibly represents a tradi- 
tional site of the " School of the Prophets " near Bethel. The ruins are 
described in full in the memoir. 

Tell 'Asih: — This mountain (which is generally called el 'Asdr or el 
Aser by the natives) has been identified in an apparently satisfactory 



260 LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 

luauner with the ancient Baal Hazor, or Baal of the " Enclosure ;" and 
it now appears that the mountain is still a sacred place. There is no 
building on the summit, but a fine gi'oup of oaks ; the remains perhaps 
of a sacred grove, such as is still to be found venerated among the 
Nuseireh Pagans. During our recent visit to the cairn constructed on 
this hill (one of the highest points in Palestine) in 1872, and which we 
found still standing, Dr. Chaplin, who accompanied the party, was informed 
that there was a cave, sacred to Sheikh Haderah, at the place. This 
name preserves the Hebrew Hazor in the usual Arabic form with the Dad. 
I am also informed that the Moslems of the vicinity are in the habit of 
making vows to the Rijal el 'Asawlr, or " Men of 'AsAr," whom they 
now call Companions of the Prophet. Tt seems, therefore, that, although 
no modern shrine or ancient stone temple now exists (the vineyards 
having crept to the very top of the hill), yet traces of the old Canaanite 
worship are still recognisable on the spot among the modern Fellahin. 

Fellah traditions. — The collector of such traditions has to contend with 
many difficulties. In 1874 a good many stories, which were rude imi- 
tations of the Biblical narrative, were collected at Siir'ah, in connection 
with the tomb of Neby Saniit, who is variously represented as having been 
identical with, or brother of Shemshitn el Jebbdr. We have only just 
I'eturned from a three days' visit to this village. We were told the stories 
of the defeat of infidels by this hero, armed with a camel's jaw-bone 
instead of a sword, of his death under a great building, of his being 
betrayed by a woman, but we also found that the village for many years 
has been owned by a Christian fi-om Beit Jala, and the peasants at once 
confessed that they knew nothing of Neby Samit before the new owner 
told them who he was. In the same way at Taiyibeh, we were told 
that the old name was 'Afra, and that it was the city of Gideon. This 
tradition is derived from the Latin priest, who has thus instilled erroneous 
ideas into the Fellah mind, as, even if it were certain that Taiyibeh repre- 
sents Ophrah of Benjamin, it certainly could not represent Gideon's city 
Ophrah of Abiezer, which belonged to Manasseh (Judg. vi, 11-15), and 
was probably the Samaritan Ophrah, now called Fer'ata, not far from 
Shechem. 

It is, moreover, another cause of difliculty that the traditions of the 
peasantry are rapidly being forgotten, as are those of the Samaritans. 
The young men do not know the stories which can occasionally be ex- 
tracted from an old man or woman. At Abu Shftsheh, Mr. Bergheim, 
in the winter's evenings, has had many such stories related to him by 
an old Sheikh, now dead, including the plot of the " Merchant of Venice," 
and that of " Pericles, Prince of Tyre," both slightly altered and orien- 
talised. In the first story it was a father-in-law, who exacted the 
pound of flesh in case of the husband quarrelling with his wife, and 
the wife who invented the limitation that no blood should be drawn. 
This tale the Sheikh had heard from his father. Possibly it may have 
come down from the twelfth century, but when we consider how modern 
research has traced the fairy tales of Europe to the East, and found 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 2(jl 

Cinderella's glass slipper in India, there seems no very gi'eat improba- 
bility in thus recovering in Syria the stories — much older than the time 
of Shakespeare, on which he founded the plots of two of his plays. 



VI. 

'AiN Karim, I4th July, 1881. 
Kirjath Jearim. — We have just returned from a long ride to Khui'bet 
'Erma, which, in 1878, I indicated as possibly representing the important 
town of Kirjath Jearim, and our observations at this spot, which I had 
not previously visited in person, seem so materially to confirm the identi- 
fication, that it may be of interest to recapitiilate the arguments published 
on various occasions in the Quarterly Statement, and to describe in full 
the existing remains. 

Kirjath Jearim is first mentioned in the Book of Joshua as identical 
with Kirjath Baal, a town of Judali (Josh, xv, 60). It was on the 
boundary between the tribes of Judah and Benjamin (verse 9), and from 
the peculiar expressions used in the description of the border line (Josh, 
xviii, 15 ; xv, 10), it appears that the town must have stood at an angle, 
from which the line ran in two directions, one being eastwards towards 
Nephtoah, the other northwards towards Kesla, which is Chesalon, on the 
north side. 

The next appearance of the city is in the Book of Judges, when the 
men of Dan, who had no inheritance (Judges xviii, 1), went up to the 
Mahaneh Dan, which was "behind" (or more correctly west of) Kirjath 
Jearim. Of the position of this Mahaneh Dan, or " Camp of Dan," we 
have a further indication in the history of Samson, in which it is mentioned 
as " between Zorah (Sur'ah) and Eshtaol " (Eshtl'a) (Judges xiii, 25). The 
term Mahaneh is identical with Mukhnah, " camp," a title now applied to 
the plain east of Shechem, and it seems to be properly indicative of a 
plain fit for camping ground. We can tlierefore have little hesitation in 
placing the Mahaneh Dan in the broad Wady Sur4r, near the recognized 
sites of Zorah and Eshtaol ; and the site of Kirjath Jearim should thus 
apparently be sought east of this natural camping ground. 

Kirjath Jearim is again mentioned as the place where the Ark 
remained for twenty years after the destruction of the men of Beth 
Shemesh (1 Sam. vi, 19 ; vii, 1). From this passage it appears that Kirjath 
Jearim was in the mountains above Beth Shemesh ; yet Josephus, who 
may be supposed to have known the real site» states that the two cities 
were near one another (6 " Ant.," i, 4). 

At a late period David went down to Baale (or Kirjath Jearim) to 
bring up the Ark to Jerusalem. It was found in the house of Abinadab 
" in Gibeah" (the hill or knoll), but this place would appear to have been 
in or part of the city of Baalah. This is the last mention of the city 



4. 
1 



262 LIEUTENANT CONDER'S EEPORTS. 

except its enumeration in the lists of Ezra, where the name appears under 
the abbreviated form Kirjath Arim (Ezra ii, 25). 

From these various notices we may sum up the apparent requisites 
which should be satisfied in any site proposed as identical with this 
important town. 

1. The name Arim or Jearim (" thickets ") should be recovered, and 
the site should present such thickets. 

2. It must be east of the Mahaneh Dan, which lay between Zorah and 
Eshtaol. 

3. It must be south of Chesalon, identified with the modern Kesla. 

4. It must be near Beth Shemesh (now 'Ain Shems), which agrees with 
the second indication. 

5. It must be in the mountains above the last-mentioned site. 

6. It must be at the south-west angle of the border line of Benjamin. 

7. Its position must agree with that of Nephtoah and Rachel's tomb 
(cf. Josh. XV, 9 ; and, 1 Sam. x, 2), so as to allow of an intelligible line being 
drawn for the south border of Benjamin. 

8. The name Baalah indicates either that a high place of Baal existed 
at the city, or else that the position was elevated (taking Baal in a wider 
geographical sense, as some authorities are inclined to do). 

9. A rounded hillock or humped knoll of some kind seems indicated by 
the term Gil)eah, occurring in connection with the site of the city. 

The usual site shewn as representing Kirjath Jearim is the village of 

Tiuryet el ' Anab (" Town of Grapes "), better known as Abu Ghosh, on the 

road from Jatia to Jerusalem. This town is called simply el Kuryeh by 

the Fellahin, and appears to be the ancient Kirjath of Benjamin (Josh. 

xviii, 28), a place apparently distinct from Kirjath Jearim, and situated in 

the Lot of Benjamin, whereas the latter belonged to Judah. There is 

no doubt that in the fifth century Abu Ghosh was believed to be 

Kirjath Jearim, and the only argument which .Dr. Robinson has adduced 

in favour of this identification appears to be founded on the early 

Christian tradition, which he too often quotes in favour of his own views, 

even against his own canon of criticism condemning such traditions as of 

no value. The site thus commonly pointed out to travellers does not, 

however, fulfil the requisites enumerated. The name Arim is not found at 

Abu Ghosh, the site of which lies 9 miles north-west of 'Ain Shems, and 

^ miles north-west of Chesalon. The border line of Benjamin cannot be 

drawn through Abu Ghosh and al^o through Rachel's tomb, without being 

so twisted as to be practically improbable, while no special features occur 

which would serve to explain the names Gibeah and Baalah, connected 

with that of Kirjath Jearim. 

These objections have been so far recognized by various writers as to 
induce some archaeologists to prefer the conspicuous village of Soba, as 
proposed by Dr. Chaplin, a site answering better to the requirements of 
the name Baalah or Gibeah. Soba is the Bel Mont of the Crusaders, and 
is undoubtedly an ancient Jewish site. In the Septuagint of Josh, xv 
(verse inserted after 60) it seems to be mentioned, according to some 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S EEPORTS. 263 

MSS., under the form Thobes. It lies, however, 4 miles east of Chesalon, 
and is separated by 10 miles of rugged mountains from Beth Sheraesh. 
No trace of the name Kirjath Jearim has been found in its vicinity, and 
the difficulties with regard to the boundary of Judah and Benjamin are 
not removed by the choice of this site. 

The ruin discovered by the Survey Party in 1873, seems in every 
respect to answer better than any previously proposed to the nine require- 
ments enumerated above. 

1st. The thi-ee principal letters (Q1^) of the name Jearim, or of the 
later abbreviated form Arim, occur in the proper order in the modern 
Arabic 'Erma (spelt with the guttural Ain) ; the site is moreover sur- 
rounded and concealed by the thickets of lentisk, oak, hawthorn, and other 
slirubs, which properly represent the Hebrew word tarim (□"^/^) from a 
root signifying to be " tangled" or confvised. 

2nd. The ruin is due east of the open plain formed by the junction of 
Wady Ismain with Wady el Mutluk, extending from Beth Shemesh on 
the south-west, to Eshtaol on the north-east, and to the hill of Zorah on 
the north-west, representing the ancient Mahaneh Dan. 

3rd. It is 2j miles south of Chesalon or Kesla. 

4th. It is only 4 miles from Beth Shemesh, and an ancient road des- 
cends north of the ruin into Wady Ismain, and thus leads to Beth Shemesh 
direct along the valley banks. 

5th. The site of 'Erma is nevertheless in the mountain proper, and 
about 1,000 feet higher than that of Beth Shemesh. 

6th. The identification of the sites of Ataroth Adar (ed Darieh), 
Gibeah (Jebia), and Kirjath (Kurj^et el 'Anab), belonging to Benjamin ; 
of Jethlah (Beit Tul) and Eltekeh (Beit Likia) belonging to Dan, as pro- 
posed by the svirvey party, aU agi-ee with the supposition that the west 
border of Benjamin ran south, from near the Nether Beth-horon, along 
the crests of the spurs which sink so suddenly from the level of the 
mountains proper (Har) to the distinct region of the Shei^helah. This 
natural boundary, excluding on the west the Vale of Ajalon, which 
belonged to Dan, cannot be reconciled with the proposed identifications of 
Kirjath Jearim at Abu Ghosh or at Soba, but agrees perfectly with the 
wording of the biblical description : " The border was drawn thence, and 
compassed the western side southwards, and the goings out thereof were 
at Kirjath Baal which is Kirjath Jearim, a city of the children of Judah. 
This was the west quarter. And the south quarter was from the end of 
Kirjath Jearim (i.e., the end of the spur on which the city stood), and the 
boi'der went out on the west {i.e., west side), and went out (eastwards) to 
the Springs of Nesshtoah" (Josh, xviii, 14-15). 

Again, it agrees also with the other description, " And the border 
compassed from Baalah on the west (or looking west) unto Mount Seir, 
and passed along unto the shoulder of Mount Jearim, which is Chesalon, on 
the north side, and went down unto Beth Shemesh" (Josh, xv, 10). 

If the reader will compare this paper with Sheet XVII of the Survey, he 
will at once see the line which appears to be indicated. 'Erma is on the 



264 LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 

south or Judah side of the great valley, with a spur (perhaps " the end of 
Kirjath Jearim ") running out northwards. Here, on the north side, are 
the precipices of a remarkably rocky hill burrowed with hermits' caves, to 
which the word seir (" rough ") might very well apply. 

On the same northern ridge, moreover, the name Saghir, which is 
radically the same as seir, may be found marked rather further east. The 
line running due north along Mount Jearim (which appears from the 
text to have been on the opposite side of the valley to Kirjath Jearim, as 
the expression '~Sy^ rendered " passed along," means strictly " crossed 
over," as of a river or valley) arrives at Kesla or Chesalon, and thence 
follows the important valley called Wady Ghurab, which joins Wady 
Ismain and flows past Beth Shemesh. The position of 'Erma is thus 
naturally placed at the south-west angle of the border of Benjamin. 

7th. The common boundary of Judah and Benjamin may be drawn 
from the new site of Kirjath Jearim in a direction which agrees with 
various other indications. It would follow the crest of a long spur to the 
watershed at 'Ain 'Atan (near Solomon's pools), the en Etam which, 
according to the Talmudists, was the same as Nephtoah (Tal. Bab Yoma, 
31, a). Thence it would pass along a watershed northwards by Eachel's 
Tomb (1 Sam. x, 2) to the Eraek Eephaim, which, according to Josephus, 
extended from Jerusalem towards Bethlehem (7 " Ant.," xii, 4). 

Lifta is thus left to be identified with Eleph of Benjamin (Josh, xviii, 
28) rather than with Nephtoah. The identification of Lifta and Nephtoah 
has always seemed unsatisfactory, not only on account of the difiiculties 
which result in drawing the boundary line, but also because no great 
spring or group of springs such as seems to be implied by the expression 
l^VQ' M'ain occurs at the spot. The modern Arabic name is moreover 

deficient in the guttural of the Hebrew. 

8th. The expression Baalah would refer very properly to the situation 
of 'Erma, overlooking the great valley, while, as will be explained imme- 
diately, the traces of what may have been an ancient " high place " 
(Bamah) still remain. 

9th. A central knoll such as would account for the name Gibeah occurs 
at the ruin of 'Erma. 

Although the indications of identity thus appear very strong, they 
could not be considered as conclusive if the site proved to be insignificant, 
with modern ruins in an inconspicuous situation. I was therefore anxious 
to revisit the spot, and was much pleased to find that an evidently ancient 
and important ruin exists still in this position. Eiding down the great 
gorge which, under various names, runs down from near Gibeon to Beth 
Shemesh, we gradually ascended the southern sIo^jCS in the vicinity of the 
little ruined village of Deir esh Sheikh. Before us was the notable peaked 
knoll of Khiirbet Sammtinieh, a conspicuous feature of the view up the 
valley from Surah, and leaving this on the right we followed an ancient 
road along the slope of the mountain. Here and there remains of side 
walls are visible, and there can be little doubt that this is a branch of 



LIEUTENANT CONDER's KEPORTS. 265 

the Roman road from the vicinity of Bethlehem leading to Beth 
Shemesh. 

In front of us, far beneath, we saw the white bed of the torrent 
twisting in bold bends between the steep slopes which rise fully 1,000 
feet to the hill tops. Both slopes were rocky and rugged, both, but 
especially that to the south, were clothed with a dense brushwood of 
lentisk, arbutus, oak, hawthorn, cornel, khart\l), and other shrubs, while 
in the open glades the thyme, sage, citus, and bcMii carpetted the ledges 
with a thick fragrant undergrowth. 

A bold spur running northwards from the southern ridge was character- 
ised by a small natural turret or platform of rock, rising from a knoll which 
stood covered with fallen masonry above a group of olives, beneath which 
again the thickets clothed the mountain. This knoll represented the ruin 
of 'Erma, which on closer inspection proved to be a site undoubtedly 
ancient, and presenting the aspect of an old ruined town. Some of the 
walls, rudely built in mortar, may belong to the Arab period, but the rude 
blocks built up against scarps natural or artificial which occur in various 
directions, resemble the old masonry of the vineyard towers, which date 
back to a very early period. 

On the east is a fine rock-cut wine press ; on the south a great cistern 
covered by a huge hollowed stone, which forms the well-mouth, and which 
from its size and its weather-beaten appearance, must evidently be very 
ancient. 

Rude caves also occur, and the ground is strewn with fragments of 
ancient pottery. But the most curious feature of the site is the platform 
of rock, which has all the appearance of an ancient high-place or central 
shrine. The area is about 50 feet north and south by 30 feet east and 
west, the surface, which appears to be artificially levelled, being some 10 
feet above the ground outside. The scarping of the sides seems mainly 
natural, but a foundation has been sunk on three sides, in which rudely 
squared blocks of stone have been fitted as the base of a wall. On the 
east this wall consisted of rock to a height of Zh feet with a thickness of 
7 feet. There is an outer platform, about 10 feet wide, traceable on the 
south and south-east, and a flight of steps 3 feet wide, each step being 
1 foot high and 1 foot broad, leads up to this lower level at the south-east 
angles. There is a small cave under the platform, and the ruined houses 
extend along the spur principally north and south of this remarkable 
rocky tower. 

The view from the ruin on the west is also worthy of notice. The 
valley is seen winding 600 or 700 feet beneath, and the cliffs and caves of 
the northern ridge form unusually accentuated featui-es. Beyond these 
the broad corn vale of Sorek (the Mahaneh Dan) is seen extending beneath 
the rounded hill on which gleams the white dome of Neby Samit, close 
to Zoreah. The actual site of Beth Shemesh is hidden by the southern 
ridge, but the valley-bed north of the ruin is visible. 

On the hill to the south stand the houses of Deir el Hawa, and to 
the east the peak of Sammtlnieh hides the further course of the valley. 



266 LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 

Standing on the rocky tower we saw clearly how well the Mahaneh 
Dan might be described as "west" of Kirjath Jearim. How naturally 
the Ark might have been sent from the lowlands of Beth Sheraesh to this 
neighbouring city, so strongly posted in the rude hills of Judah. 

In the central platform we might perhajjs recognize the high place of 
Baal, whence the city took its name, or the Gibeah where the Ark was kept; 
for Kirjath Jearim is not the only sacred city of Palestine in which the 
altars of Jehovah and of Baal once stood side by side. The instances of 
Carmel and of Bethel will recur to the reader's mind, with other indica- 
tions of a similar kind. 

Here then at 'Erma we seem to find in a remarkable manner the 
numerous requisites of the site of Kirjath Jearim fulfilled. The name, the 
position, the character of the ruin, the view thence, the surrounding 
thickets which half cover the site, the situation close to the edge of the 
higher hills and to the mouth of the great gorge, the proximity to Beth 
Shemesh, and the relative positions of Chesalon and the Mahaneh Dan, all 
seem to agree in fixing ''Erma as the true site of the important boundary 
town where the Ark was kept for twenty years. 

Having studied the question carefully on the spot, and having ascer- 
tained the importance and antiquity of the site, I cannot but look vipon 
this identification as one of the most valuable which has yet resulted from 
the Survey of Western Palestine. 



VII. 

Hebron, .31s« July^ 1881. 
Since last report the camp has been moved to Hebron, with a view 
of clearing up various questions of minor interest in connection with the 
nomenclature of the vicinity. This is almost the only piece of revision 
which remains to be done in connection with the Survey west of .Jordan. 
The great change which has occurred in Palestine since Hebron was sur- 
veyed, has enabled us to examine even the vicinity of the Haram, without 
any danger of insults such as I had to endure on the occasion of our 
previous visit, during the gr§at storm of the spring of 1875, which drove 
us to take shelter in the Jews' quarter of the town. 

The Haram. — As regards the Haram we were able to make one 
interesting observation. The great stones of the outer wall are, as 
we have now ascertained, dressed in a precisely similar manner to those of 
the .Jerusalem Haram. The drafts vary from 2 to 4 inches in width, and 
are about f inch deep. The draft and the margin of the boss for a width 
of about 2 inches, have been dressed with a toothed instrument — an adze 
like that now used by native masons, but more carefully employed, 
— thus giving the peculiar crisscross appearance observable in the Jeru- 
salem stones. The rest of the boss has been dressed with a point, as at 
Jerusalem. The interest of this observation lies in its bearing on the 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 207 

probable date of the masonry. It would appear that the Hebron Haram is 
of the same date as that at Jerusalem, which it resembles so closely not only 
a* regards the size, the dressing, and the drafting of the stones, but also in 
the existence of piers projecting from the wall, of which there are 54 at 
Hebron, while their former existence at Jerusalem seems to be shown by 
the discovery I was fortunate enough to make, in 1873, of two such piers 
still in situ at the north-west angle of the Haram wall. 

We visited the eastern side of the enclosure, and found ourselves on the 
housetops almost level with the cornice of the old wall. We here found a 
mosque, called el JS-waliyeh, with a large dome. There is also a third 
entrance to the enclosure on this side, and the old wall appears to be 
almost as high here as on the west, although the mountain called el Jfi'a- 
bu-eh rises very suddenly behind the Haram on the east. It would appear 
therefore that the rock beneath the Haram platform, in which the great 
cave is said to exist, must be a detached knoll : since on all sides there is 
lower ground, and a retaining wall some 40 feet in height. 

As a religious centre Hebron may be said to rival Shechem, and far sur- 
passes Jerusalem. The old name, Kirjath Arba, " City of Four," was said 
by the Talmudists to refer to the four prophets, Adam, Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob. It is curious that the Moslems still invoke four prophets 
in their prayers at Hebron, but instead of Adam they repeat the name of 
Joseph, whose tomb is shown just outside the Haram at the north-west 
angle. The tomb of Joseph at Hebron is mentioned also by Josephus. 
According, however, to the Book of Joshua, the name Kirjath Arba was 
derived from one of the Anakim (xiv, 1.5 ; xv, 13). 

In addition to the sepulchres of tliese four patriarchs and their four 
wives, we find the curious rock-cut tomb west of the town, known to the 
natives as Kabr Habrtin, " the Grave of Hebron," possibly, however, a 
corruption of the name Ephron ; by the Jews this is known as the tomb of 
Othniel, and Lhey show the gi'aves of Jesse and Ruth higher on the same 
hill, at the mediaeval monastery of el Arb'atn. The tradition of the cave in 
which Adam and Eve lived for 100 years near Hebron is now unknown, 
though the probable site — as described by mediaeval writers — is the 
present subterranean spring called 'Ain el Jedideh. The site of the 
sacrifice of Cain and Abel, wdiich used to be shown south-west of the town, 
has now been removed to Neby YukJn (the Cain of Josh, xv, 57), about 
3 miles south-east of Hebron. In addition to these traditions we have tlie 
tomb of Noah, west of Hebron ; of Lot, on the east ; of Esau, on the north- 
east (at Si'air, which must at one time have been identified with Seii'), 
and of Jonah, Qn the north ; the early Christian tomb of Gad the Seer. 
The tomb of Abner is shown in Hebron, north-west of the Haram, but it 
is a modern cenotaph in a Moslem house, and of no particular interest. 
Abraham's well and Jacob's well are shown also, towards the north, but 
no weU of Isaac appears to exist, and the inhabitants say that his wells are 
to be found at Beersheba and Tell el Milh. 

Another very curious tradition we found during our recent revision 
work. There is on the north-west of the town — south of the present site 



268 LIEUTENANT CONDER S REPORTS. 

of Abraham's Oak — a hill called Kuff en Neby, " the prophet's palm " (of 
the hands), and below this is a cave called MughS.ret edh Dhukka'ah, with a 
narrow entrance. There is a bench of large stones running round the walls, 
and this was found covered with the usual rude offerings of pottery, 
lamps, &c. The cave is a veiy sacred place, where the prophets Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob are said to appear every Friday. Mr. Black entered it, 
however, on that day, without reporting any appearance of either of the 
Patriarchs, but his guide did not enter, and was roundly abused by the 
inhabitants of the place, who warned him that the local divinities would be 
sure to take vengeance on him for bringing a Christian into their 
sanctuary. 

This is not the only instance we have heard in which prophets are said 
to relieve the monotony of residing in one sanctuary by paying occasional 
visits to other places. 

There are several interesting problems in connection with Hebron which 
may be considered more important than the traditions above noticed. 
Where was the plain (or oak) of Mamre ? where was Kirjath Arba ? where 
Eshcol ? where the place in which Abraham " stood before Jehovah " ? 
(Gen. xix, 27). To each of these questions I have now been able to devote 
some attention. 

In respect to Mamre, we may be allowed to lay aside the traditions 
which have placed Abraham's oak in various sites, ranging from Eamet el 
Khulil on the north to Sebta on the north-west, and to the JDrus Ogyges of 
Josephus ("Ant.," I, ix, 4), apparently yet nearer to Hebron. 

Mamre, we learn from the Bible, was in or by Hebron (Gen. xiii, 18), 
and Machpelah was before or in face of Mamre (Gen. xxiii, 17, 19), "the 
same is Hebron." It seems, therefore, most natural to identify the plain 
of Mamre with the flat open vale facing Machpelah (or the Haram of 
Hebron) on the west. In this vale, the threshing-floors and the chief 
Moslem cemetery of Hebron are now to be found. It does not, however, 
appear quite clearly whether the original Kirjath Arba was on the 
western or the eastern hill, as the expressions used are somewhat ambiguous. 
We examined the western hill carefully, but found no traces of any ancient 
town, although a Jewish cemetery of considerable antiquity exists there, 
near the four rock-cut Jewish tombs, of which the largest is called Kabr 
Habrdn. It might not be uni^easonable to identify the Cave of Machpelah 
with this double tomb, or with the newly-discovered sacred cave above 
noticed ; but the consent of Jewish, Moslem, and Christian evidence in 
favour of the traditional site of the Haram, is too strong an argument in 
its favour to b& lightly set aside. 

As regards Eshcol, which is mentioned in connection with Hebron 
(Num. xiii, 23), and took its name from one of the Anakim of the same 
place (Gen. xiv, 13-24), the identification proposed by Vandevelde with 
'Ain Keshkaleh appears somewhat doubtful, as the Hebrew Caph is 
supposed to be represented by the Arabic Quaf instead of Kaf. It is, 
however, noticeable, that the first K is always dropped in ordinary 
sjjeaking, and the word is pronounced Ashkali. We have not found 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S EEPORTS. 260 

any nearer equivalent to Eshcol ; and the position of this fine spring 
among the vineyards, is well adapted for that of the famous " brook," 
whence the grapes of Hebron were brought down by the spies. 

The Biblical passage just quoted includes the curious topographical 
note, "Now Hebron was built seven years before Zoan in Egypt." 
The site of Zoan (Srin) has produced monuments attributed to the 6th 
Egyptian dyuiusty (a thousand years before Abraham), but the real 
building of the city is attributed to Rameses II, the famous conqueror 
of the Hittites (circa 1365 b.c.) If it be to this building that the Scripture 
refers, the translation of the name Hebron, " friendship," might be thought 
to refer to Abraham's friendship with the Hittites, and the name may 
have superseded the earlier title of Kirjath Arba at the later period 
of the conquest of Palestine by Joshua. This is one of the few instances 
in tlie Holy Land where the meaning of an old name is preserved instead 
of the sound : cl K/nd/l, " the friend," having superseded Hebron, "friend- 
ship," in the mouths of the modern inhabitants. 

The traditional site of the place where Abraham " stood before 
Jehovah," and whence he is said to have perceived, after the destruction 
of the Cities of the Plain, that " the smoke of the country went up as 
a furnace " (Gen. xix, 28), has been placed at the village of Eeni N'aim, 
three miles east of Hebron, where the Tomb of Lot is now shown. 

It has often, however, been suggested by recent travellers that the 
site should be sought nearer to the Plain of Mamre, and we therefore 
visited all the highest points immediately east of Hebron, to observe the 
view towards the Dead Sea. We found that the long spurs which run out 
above the Desert of Judah are so high as to shvit out entirely all the 
eastern view, except the very highest portion of the Moabite ridge. At 
Beni Nairn, on the other hand, the traveller stands on the vei-y edge of 
the desert, which is spread out beneath him. The cliffs of Engedi are 
clearly seen, and the eastern slopes from Kerak to Nebo, although the 
waters of the Dead Sea and the Valley of the Jordan are hidden by 
the western precipices. 

Beni N'aim is mentioned by St. Jerome and other early Christian 
authorities, under the name Caphar Bareca, "the village of blessing," 
and I was much interested to find, on recently visiting the village (where 
are remains of a basilica, now a mosque), that this name was still known 
to the Sheikh. Without any prompting he asked me if I knew the old 
name of the place in the time of the Beni Israil. On my professing 
ignorance, he said it was Kefr Bareka, and volunteered the information 
that Suckhtm was east of it by the Dead Sea — pointing towards Engedi. 
This name, " village of blessing," is no doubt ancient and genuine, 
and must have had its origin in the original sanctity of the spot, which is 
a natural site for a high-place on account of its magnificent view. It is to 
be noted that the three angels are said to have " looked towards Sodom," 
and Abraham went with them to bring them on the way (Gen. xviii, 16). 
The destruction of the cities is said to have taken place after sunrise 
(Gen, xix, 23), but Abraham " gat up early in the morning to the place 



270 LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 

where he stood before the Lord " (verse 27). These details do not seem to 
require that the place in question shovild have been very close to Hebron, 
and it seems quite comprehensible that the site intended should have been 
the ancient " Village of Blessing," now called Beni N'aim. 

It cannot, however, be said that this throws any very clear light on the 
position of the Cities of the Plain, as the north and south ends of the sea 
are about equidistant and equally invisible ; and we are forced to rely on 
other argiunents in discussing the situation of Sodom, wliich Josephus, 
no less than the modern Moslem, believed to lie beneath the waters of the 
" Vale of Siddim, which is the Salt Sea" (Gen. xiv, 2). 

In the year 1856, Dr. G. Rosen devoted some time to the investigation 
of the vicinity of Hebron, and made various interesting discoveries. 
I have now been able to compare his map, embracing an area of about 
25 square miles, with our own, and the result is curious, as showing the 
difficulties of collecting names in Palestine. 

Dr. Rosen collected, in all, 116 names within the area of five miles 
either way, the town of Hebron being near the south-east corner of his 
map. Out of these, 34 are to be found on our map, and six are merely re- 
duplications of names on the map with slight variations, giving 40 as the 
total collected by ourselves against 116 collected by Dr. Rosen. By 
devoting a week to the vicinity of the city we have collected 90 new 
names, giving 124 in all. Of these, no less than 26 are not noticed by 
Dr. Rosen, and these include the important sites of Mugharet edh 
Dhukka'ah, Ain Ibrahim, and 'Ain esli Shems. We found 80 names 
given by Dr. Rosen to be correct, and 12 to be given with very serious 
errors ; while 18 names which he shows on his map or notices in the text 
were entirely unknown to any of the natives. Out of these 18, five are 
unimportant, but the rest are for the most part unlike Arabic in form. 
One deserves special notice, namely, Jebel Ehtni, which Dr. Rosen renders 
" Mount Helena." The name is certainly not now known in Hebron, and 
is applied by Dr. Rosen to the vicinity of Ramet el KhulU — the early 
traditional site of Mamre. It seems therefore to be probably a corruption 
of the Hebrew Elon ("oak" or "plain"), and may have been obtained 
from the Jewish inhabitants of the city. 

With exception of the sacred cavern of edh Dhukka'ah we have not 
found any important site omitted from the 1-inch map. Of the 124 names 
now recorded, only two, namely Kashkaleh (Eshkol) and ^Ain Sara 
(en Sirali) are of Biblical interest, but the examination seems to show 
that the nomenclature of the district is gradually changing, and that names 
which may have existed in Dr. Rosen's time are now forgotten. 

This agrees with some facts as to nomenclature which I have noted 
in a previous report, and with othei'S which I observed at Hebron. 
Thus 'Ain MezrAk (which Dr. Rosen calls MeCTfi'a, but which is clearly 
spelt with a Quaf) is known to others as 'Ain Merz(ik. The valley 
east of Hebron is called Wady el Besatin by some, and el Mesatin by 
others, and I overheard a group of ladies sitting by a tombstone, who 
were holding a lively dispute as to whether a certain place west of the 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S KEPORTS. 271 

town should be called Zerzir or Shelshir. This was unusually interesting, 
as they were quite unawai'e of my presence or of my interest in nomen- 
clature. 

The more carefully we study the nomenclature, the more do we seem 
forced to the conclusion that the only really permanent and ancient 
names are those of villages, ruins, and springs, and that the Secondary 
Nomenclature, as it may be called, applying to small natural features, 
is of fleeting and modern character, while the ancient names of hills 
and valleys have, as a rule, been utterly lost. 

Aceldama. — While speaking of names I may mention a curious sur- 
vival of a Latin name near Jerusalem. Aceldama, south of the city 
(the possible site of Tophet), was known in the 12th century as Carnarium, 
" The Charnel," being indeed used for that purpose. This name is still 
known to the inhabitants (according to Mr. P. Berghein) under the cor- 
rupted form, Shernei, attached to this rock-cut cemetery. Among 
Christians the place is also sometimes called Hakk ed Dumm — a trans- 
literation of Aceldama, the Aramaic name rendered "field of blood'' 
in English. 

Beth ffaccerem. — From Hebron we have returned — while awaiting a 
final decision as to our Firman — to 'Ain Yals in the Valley of Roses, 
south-west of Jerusalem. We are here close to the curious cairns above 
Malhah. The object of their construction is not clear, but they may have 
been used as ancient beacons, and in connection with them we may 
recall the passage in which the prophet exclaims, " Blow the trumpet in 
Tekoa and set up a sign of fire in Beth Haccerem " (Jer. vi, 1). Chi-istian 
tradition fixes on the so-called Frank Mountain as representing the site of 
this beacon ; but the name Beth Haccerem (" house of the vineyard ") has 
not been recovered in that direction, while, on the other hand, we find the 
present 'Ain Karim (" spring of vineyards ") close under the slope of the 
ridge on which the great cairns in question are now found. This identifi- 
cation would not clash with the very probable supposition that 'Ain 
K&rim is Beth Car (1 Sam. vii, 11). Beth Haccerem may have been the 
later form, intermediate between the old Beth Car and the modern 
'Ain Karim, and the name occurs again in the lists of Nehemiah (iii, 14), 
in connection with that of other places near Jerusalem. So far as 
I am aware, this identification has not previously been indicated as 
probable. 

The cairns above noted are among the most interesting remains 
in Western Palestine, and seem more probably to belong to pre-historic 
times than any monuments as yet discovered. The largest is that nearest 
'Ain Karim, known as Rujm et Tarvld, which is 40 feet high and 130 feet 
in diameter, with a flat top about 40 feet across. It is composed entirely 
of stones some 4 to 6 inches long, quite unshaped, and the sides, which 
slope at an angle of about 45°, are covered with a thin layer of earth. 
The next largest is Eujm 'Afaneh, more than 30 feet high and 96 feet in 
diameter. The smallest is Rvjm Wteiyeh, some 9 feet high and 40 feet 
in diameter. The cairns are seven in number, without counting one very 

T 



272 LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 

small heap, and another which seems of different character. Eujm et 
Tilrtid stands highest on the ridge, the others are irregularly disposed on 
the spurs, and one is in a hollow at the head of a ravine. They seem too 
numerous and too irregularly-disposed to have been originally intended 
for beacons, though the Tartid cairn is well suited for such a purpose. 
It seems highly probable that they may have been originally seven high- 
places, consecrated to the seven planetary deities. As is usTTal with such 
high-places, they command an extensive view from the Mediterranean on 
the west to the Moab Mountains on the east ; Neby Samwll (the high- 
place of Gibeon), Tell 'Asur (Baal Hazor), the Summit of Olivet (the old 
high-place of Chemosh), Abu Thor (father of the Bull, possibly the old 
sanctuary of Moloch), and Neby Samat (poJ^sibly Samson's Tomb), are all 
in sight from one or other, as well as Soba, Kustul, Ras Sherifeh, &c. 
Excavations have been attempted but apparently abandoned before any 
result of interest was obtained. It is possible that a Kist or tomb of 
some kind may exist under the centre of each cairn. 

The only similar monuments are the Jordan Valley Tells, and we are 
thus led to conjecture whether these latter may not have been originally 
" high-places " of the Canaanites. They occur generally close to springs, 
which wovild agree with such an hypothesis, and in many cases they are 
still consecrated by a Mukam standing on the Tell. The idea seems 
worthy of some consideration. 

Jenisalem. — On receipt of Professor Sayce'a pamphlet I compared his 
copy of the Siloam Inscription with ours. I see various difterences of 
importance, especially in the form of some of the letters, and we shall 
consequently revisit the tunnel, and endeavour to make sure as to the 
doubtful points. 

I have also received from Herr Konrad Schick a copy of an inscribed 
slab, which was found some time ago lying inside the tomb described in 
the last Q^larterly Statement. It measured 3 feet 11 inches by 2 feet 
1h inches, and near the top was an inscription with a cross, the letters 
being about 2i inches high, and 6 inches below the top edge of the slab. 
The text reads— 

-l' eHKHAIA(|)epbC. 

This inscription, 6r)Kr) Aiacjitpovi, has been found in several other 
instances in early Christian tombs near Jerusalem. The occurrence 
of the slab cannot, however, be considered conclusive evidence of late 
date in the tomb, because the arrangement of the loculi, as previously 
explained, is exactly that found in the so-called " Tombs of the Kings," 
and other monuments near Jerusalem, dating from a period earlier than 
the Byzantine. The tomb may have been re-used, or the slab may have 
been originally placed in the neighbouring Church of St. Stephen. 

While speaking of inscriptions, I may also note that the inscription 
from the town-walls contains the name John laavvov in the third and 
fourth lines, and that there are several misprints in the text (page 197). 



LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 273 

I believe the word BenroKov may be read iu the third line, but it is very 
indistinct. 

About 100 yards south of the tomb above noticed is another sepulchre, 
which was excavated in 1875, and described in the Quarterh/ Statement 
(p. 190, and 1876, p. 9). I have now obtained a plan and a detailed 
account of this tomb from Herr Schick. 

In digging for a cistern, the proprietor of the ground hit upon two flat 
slabs covering shafts which led to the tomb. The depth of rubbish 
was 10 feet 6 inches, and the tomb was entirely cut in rock. The shaft 
was about 4 feet deep, and the chamber beneath 6^ feet high and 8^ feet 
square, with three loculi on north, south, and west, and an entrance on the 
east from the face of the rock. The loculi are sunk beneath the level 
of the tomb floor, and were covered originally with flat slabs. A narrow 
opening in the north-west angle led into a second chamber about 10 feet 
square and 9| feet high, but of trapezoid form. 

This second chamber had also three loculi and an eastern entrance with 
six steps. The loculi in this case were, however, under arcosolia, and with 
the bottom of the coffin level with the chamber floor. The entrance now 
built up is well formed, as in the better specimens of loculi tomhs. It was 
in this chamber that the gi-eat stone sarcophagus was found which has 
been conjectured to have held the coflan of the Empress Eudoxia. The 
sarcophagus measured nearly 8 feet in length and 3 feet 3 inches in height, 
including the four legs ; the width was about 3 feet, and the stone sides 
were only about 3 inches thick and the bottom 5 inches. It had a cover 
with rudely-arched cross section, and its size was such that it could 
evidently not have been brought in through the door. It was found 
indeed that a shaft, carefully blocked up with masonry, existed in the 
roof of the chamber, through which it appears to have been lowered. 
The sarcophagus was broken in trying to raise it tlirough this same 
shaft. 

A third chamber was found to exist beneath the first described, and 
it was only to be reached by removing slabs which pave the northern 
loculus of the first chamber. Three loculi covered with slabs, and placed 
side by side with their length direction east and west, were here found. 
They were sunk 9 feet below the floor of the upper chamber, the loculi 
themselves being 2 feet deep. 

The tomb thus described is very curious and puzzling. It seems 
probably to have been enlarged and altered at various periods, and has, 
it will be observed, two methods of access, namely, from doors in the 
face of the clifi", and by shafts from above. The use of the loculus tomb 
by the early Christians is proved by the examples at Shefa 'Arar 
(Sheet V), and other instances ; the use of tombs reached by shafts and of 
loc2oli sunk in the chamber-floor is also observable in Christian tombs. It 
appears on the whole probable that an early Christian tomb was here 
found at a later period, and re-used at the time when the great sar- 
cophagus was lowered into it. The arrangement of the loculi would seem 
to show that the sepulchre is later than the northern tomb, which 

T 2 



274 LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPOETS. 

was described iu the last Quarterly Statement, and it may perhajxs be best 
ascribed to the early Byzantine period, although the larger chamber 
may belong to the Jewish times. 

Bmtnaus. — The suggestion that llatn Motzah may represent Emmaus is 
very interesting, and from a philological point of view no objection can be 
raised to it. The distance does not appear, however, to agree, as Kolonia 
is only Ah English miles from Jerusalem, and Beit Mizzeh not much 
more, which is under 40 furlongs, whereas the distance given by the third 
Gospel and by Josephus is 50 furlongs. The distance of Khamesa 
is 8^ English miles (some 70 stadia) in a straight line, and 10 by road. 

The fact that a Motzah mentioned in the Talmud was called " Colonia " 
is in favour of Mr. Birch's view. Kolonia has often before been pi'oposed 
as the site of Emmaus, by Canon Williams and others. The identification 
of the Motzah of the Bible with the ruin called Beit Mizzeh (not Muzza as 
spelt in the Quarterly Statement) was proposed by Mr. Tyrwhitt Di-ake, 
nine years ago, and T have accepted it in my " Bible Handbook," although 
there is an objection that the Arabic Zain rarely takes the place of the 
Hebrew Tzadi. Mr. Birch does not appear to have been aware of this 
previous identification of Motzah. 

Kolonia was — and still is — a place to which the inhabitants of Jeru- 
salem went out for recreation (cf. Mishna Yoma and TaJ. Jer. Succah, 
IV, 5) ; possibly the expression "went into the country" (e'ls aypov, 
Mark xvi, 12) may be taken in the sense of a similar retreat for rest and 
refreshment from the city, and, in spite of the distance, Mr. Birch's 
proposal may be considered considerably to strengthen the case in favour 
of Kolonia. 

Muristam—Tha eastern half of the great enclosure which once belonged 
to the Knights Hospitallers of Jerusalem is now German property, and 
excavations have been carried on in these precincts since 1872. 

The Hospital proper and the Church of St. John still lie buried 
beneath at least 30 feet of rubbish, but the Church of St. Marie la Grande 
and the monastic establishment south of it have been cleared out, and a 
complete plan has been made for me by Herr K. Schick. The rock, 
varying in level from 2,445 to 2,425 feet, and forming the bottom of the 
Tyropoeon Valley, has been traced throughout, and it appears that the 
medifeval buildings were founded on debris varying from 20 to 50 feet in 
depth. The only structures which rise from the rock are the walls of two 
magnificent reservoirs, which I visited in 1872, beneath the monastery. 
Here, at a depth of 50 feet below ground, we were able to walk along the 
very bed of the Tyropoeon, treading on rock for a distance of ] 00 feet 
or more. 

The buildings, though all attributable to the Crusaders, are of various 
dates, as shown by the straight joints and the varying finish of the 
masonry. Even the narrow street to the east (the old Malcuisiriat) 
appears to belong to the 12th century, as mentioned in a recent 
report. 

Part of the old masonry has been destroyed in opening a new street 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 275 

on the west of the property, but the buildings are shown on the plan 
just obtained, wliich I am sending home to Colonel Warren for his 
volume of the "Memoirs." 



VIII. 

Mount Nebo. 

'AiN Hesban, 2bth August, 1881. 
It is with great satisfaction that I pen the first report from beyond Jordan, 
more especially as some points of interest have ali'eady rewarded our 
exploration of the country round this camp. 

I seized the first favourable opportunity which has presented itself since 
we landed in Palestine, to push across the river. When we took the field 
in May, the country was in a very excited state, the Druzes were almost in 
open rebellion : the French seizure of Tunis, the non-settlement of the Greek 
affair, and the visit of various princes and political agents to Palestine, 
raised a very general feeling that some sort of crisis was approaching. The 
great tribes of the i^dwan and the Beni Sakhr were at war, and the 
governor of the Belka had proceeded from Nablus to es Salt and was 
travelling over the whole country which we intended first to survey. 

It appeared, therefore, prudent to await a more favourable oppor- 
tunity, while employing the party in the south of Palestine as detailed 
in preceding reports. We were thus able to watch for the proper moment 
for commencing our real work, and found that our presence was tolerated 
by the government so long as we avoided asking for any official assistance 
or protection. 

On the 16th August Lieutenant Mantell and I left our camp at 'Ain 
Yfi,lo with six of the native staff, and marched down to Jericho, where we 
had arranged to meet Sheikh Goblan en Nimr of the Ad wan Ai'abs. My 
principal object was to secure a satisfactory agreement with the Adwan 
Arabs before committing the whole of our heavy expedition and of 
our valuable property beyond the river. On the 17th Goblan appeared 
with two speaiunen and two swordsmen, and we marched over the 
valley, crossing the river at the Ghoranlyeh ford, and camping in Goblan's 
own property at Kefrein. The stream of Jordan was easily fordable, 
being only up to the horses' shoulders, and thus before we had time almost 
to realise it we crossed the barrier beyond which I had for nearly 
three months so much longed to penetrate. The heat in the valley 
was very great, rising to 100° F. in the shade by day, and remaining 
at about 90° all night. On the 18th we reached the beautiful stieam 
of 'Ain Hesban, wliich flows rapidly down the steep mountain sides 
to the Jordan valley, rising about 2 miles N.W. of the ruins of Heshbon. 
Here on the 19th we made our arrangements with Sheikh Goblan ; and on 
the 20th, having arranged these preliminaries, we despatched mules to 
Jerusalem to bring over the rest of the party. 



276 LIEUTENANT CONDER's EEPORTS, 

During the week we have been employed in visiting the country 
surrounding the camp, arranging the trigonometrical stations, and collecting 
the names of the principal ruins. It becomes necessary, in consequence of 
our change of plan, to measure a new base-line between Heshbon and 
Madeba, on the flat plateau called the Mishor in the Bible. The site for 
this base has been chosen, and I hope soon to report that it has been 
measured and the triangulation extended thence for about 100 square 
miles. 

Our operations have been considerably facilitated by the work of 
preceding explorers, for the Arabs are accustometl to see cairns erected, and 
lines measured, theodolites set up and aneroids consulted, and we ai'e, more- 
over, able to make use of the cairns built by Lieut. Steever's party iu 1873. 
On the other hand, the liberality of our predecessors has raised the market 
so that it is not possible for us — unrecognised by the government, and thus 
dependent entirely on the Bedawin — to work as cheaply as we were able to 
do in other Arab districts — notably in the Judsean desert and the Jordan 
valley. It is, however, very satisfactory to feel some sense of security due 
to our present agreement, instead of having night and day the anxiety of 
exjiecting constant attemjits to steal horses or other valuable belongings. 
The Adwan impress me very favourably, and among all Arabs an agree- 
ment may be considered as binding as it would be among men of honour 
in Europe. 

Our first ride was along tbe western slopes of the great plateau, to visit 
the famous site of Jebel Neba, supposed to represent the Biblical Nebo oi- 
Pisgah, whence Moses surveyed the Land of Premise, and where Balaam is 
recorded to have been brought by Balak to curse the children of Israel 
Crossing Wady Hesban we rode south to the beautiful 'Ay<\n M<\sa, where 
two streams issue from the clifis and flow in a succession of cascades down 
the mountain sides. This is one of the most picturesque spots I have yet 
seen in Syria (excepting in Lebanon), and the magnificent water supply of 
the district we are now exploring — every gorge having its stream even as 
late as the autumn — contrasts with the scantier and more diffused character 
of the water supply west of Jordan in a remarkable manner. The 
northern spring at 'Ayfm Mtisa falls over a cliff 40 or 50 feet high, the 
southern wells out at the base of a precipice forming a beautiful clear pool 
flanked by two aged wild figs ; and here in the face of the cliff' a rude 
cottage is built up and inhabited by a family of Christians of the Greek 
Church from Taiyibeh, north of Jerusalem. 

From these spriirgs we climbed up 700 feet to the spur which runs out 
west from the summit of Nebo, and which takes the name Siaghah from 
a ruin so called on the crest. We examined the site, and found remains 
of a small Byzantine village with a church, fallen columns, rude capitals 
of the 5th century style, and vaults supported on round ar-ches, such as 
are common in early Christian ruins throughout Palestine. The name 
Siaghah has already beerr collected by the American Survey party, but 
I am not aware whether its identity with the Aramaic Seath (J^V'^O) '^''^ 
been pointed out. Seath, " the burial place of Moses," is the paraphrase 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 277 

for Nebo given by the Targum of Onkelos in Num. xxxii, 3, and the name 
forms therefore a link in the identification of Nebo with the ridge of Jebel 
Nebo wliere Sidgftuh still exists. 

So far jxs I can judge by the map, it is to this ruin that Canon Tristram 
gives the name ZHara, and which he identifies with Zoar. No other ruin 
appears to exist on the way from 'AyHn Musa to the ridge south of these 
springs, and with great deference to so experienced an explorer I cannot but 
think that an error has arisen, due to the great similarity in sound (to an 
European ear) between the Re and the Ghein in Arabic. The name Zi'ara 
was quite unknown to Sheikh Goblan, although he has shown himself 
thoroughly acquainted with the nomenclature of the district, which has as 
vet been imperfectly collected. Whoever is responsible for the Arabic 
spelling of the name Zi'ara as given in Dr. Tristram's '* Land of Moab," I 
feel convinced that the form Siaghah given by the American party is the 
correct one, and it is evident that this form has no connection with the 
Hebrew Zoai-, which in Arabic would appear most probably as S'areh or 
Saghir. 

Other objections to Canon Tristram's proposal have been pointed out by 
various writers, the main difficulty being that Siaghah is situated almost 
on the level of the great plateau 3,000 feet above the Jordan valley, which 
appears hardly to agree with the plea put forth by Lot in asking permis- 
sion to flee to Zoar, that the mountains were too far from him. We shall 
have, I hope, further opportunities of searching for Zoar near the foot of 
the mountains, where Tell Shaghtlr has been pointed out by the Kev. W. 
F. Birch as a possible site ; but if Zoar should be sought higher up the 
slopes we may perhaps have an indication in the names Eujm S'atir and 
Tal'at S'aih', which we discovered yesterday north of our present camp. 

The hot haze rising from the Jordan valley rendered it impossible to 
obtain a very accurate idea of the extreme limits of the view commanded 
by the Siaghah ridge, but the Ai-abs assured us that in clear weather 
Kaukab el Hawa, Tabor, and Neby Duhy could be seen on the north-west, 
and Beni N'aim and Yekin (the city Cain of the Kenites) on the south- 
west. Bethlehem, Beit Jala, Jebel Fureidis, Olivet, Taiyibel^, Tell Asur, 
Gerizim, Ebal, Neby Belan, Jebel Hazkin, and Gilboa can be seen, and the 
Jordan valley from Jericho to Kaukab ; the Km-n Sartaba, the northern 
part of the Dead Sea, Jebel Osha above es Salt, Heshbon, and Elealah ai'e 
also in view. The most striking peculiarity of the scene seems, however, 
to be that the valley east of the river is plainly seen, Kefrein, Nimriu, 
Eameh, and other places close to the foot of the Moab hills being in view. 
Thus the prospect seems to agi'ee well with the account in the book of 
Deuteronomy (xxxiv, 1-3), although Dan (if Banias be intended) and the 
" utmost sea " cannot, I think, be seen, as high mountains appear to 
intervene. Perhaps we should read " all Judah towards the utmost sea." 
GUead with its oak woods, the land of Ephraim and Manasseh west of 
Jordan, Naphthali (in the vicinity of Tabor, which formed, as the survey of 
Western Palestine shows, the border between that tribe and Issachar), the 
hills of Judah, and the Negeb, or country south of Hebron, are all seen as 



278 LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 

(described in the Bible narrative ; while no description covild be more 
exact than that of the " plain of Jericho unto Zoar," if Zoar is to be sought 
at the edge of the Ghor es Seiseban, near Kefrein or Eameh. 

The name Ncba appears to apply to the highest part of the ridge at the 
very edge of the gi-eat plateau. The name Siaghah applies to the spur 
further west near the ruin of that name ; but as is usual with natural 
features these titles are not very strictly applied, and the whole ridge 
appears occasionally to be called Dhalu-et Neba. 

A very startling discovery awaited us at'Neba, which, while making 
every deduction which prudence suggests, seems more likely to give a 
direct connection with the Bible narrative than anything we have yet 
come across. Immediately north-west of the highest summit, near the 
ancient road which here descends from the plateau, we found a distinct 
and well preserved specimen of those rude stone monuments, called by 
some " cromlechs," and by others (though, according to Max Muller in- 
correctly) " dolmens." Their existence in this district has ah^eady been 
noticed by Canon Tristram, though, so far as I know, he has not described 
the specimen in question. It is distinct and well preserved, consisting of 
one large covering stone sujjported by two othei-s. 

The monument stands on the bare rock, and cannot apparently have 
been erected over a grave. Large scattered blocks near it appear to have 
belonged to other monuments of the same kind, and, as in Galilee, they 
seem more j^robably to have been ancient altars than anything else — an 
explanation which has, I believe, been accepted by many archaeologists, 
as best accounting for the purpose for which similar cromlechs were 
erected in our own country, and in other parts of the world. 

There is nothing to give a date to the cromlechs on Nebo, unless it be 
found in the Bible, where we are informed that Balak erected seven altars 
— one no doubt to each of the great planetary divinities — at this spot. 
The position of these altars was evidently not on the extreme summit of 
the hill, as Balaam went aside to the high place leaving the king standing 
by his saci'ifices. It may, perhaps, be considered a bold suggestion, but 
there appears nothing extravagant in the idea that one of those ancient 
altars, so hastily erected to summon the deities of Moab to war against 
Israel, my yet be standing, unharmed by more tlian 3,000 winters, on 
the bleak slo])es of Nebo, beneath the summit where, according to the 
dramatic story of the Book of Numbers, the prophet from Euphrates went 
up to meet with Jehovah. 

That similar monuments are alluded to in the Bible in the opinion of 
many modern authorities, who recognize in the " gilgal " or " circle " of 
the book of Joshua, where the twelve stones taken from Jordan were 
set up, a cii-cular monument not unlike Stonehenge. Such a gilgal still 
exists east of Dhiban, as recently described by Herr Schick, consisting of 
stones of great size, and of this as weU as of all the most perfect crom- 
lechs. Lieutenant Mantell will now endeavour to obtain photographs. 
Caution is, however', very necessary, as some of the supposed monuments 
may turn out to be merely natural features, for the hill-sides here, as in 



LIEUTENANT CONDEK's EEPOKTS. 279 

Western Palestine, are strew n with fallen blocks. In two instances west 
of Jordan we came aci'oss groups of stones, which may have belonged 
respectively to a cromlech, and to a stone circle ; but we were unable to 
make sure that they were not natural features, and they are consequently 
not marked on the map. 

It is striking to find that the unmistakable cromlechs exist only 
beyond Jordan and in Upper Galilee, at a distance from the influence of 
Jewish faith in Jerusalem, and this serves to strengthen the conjecture 
that the ancient Baal worshippers made use of rude cromlechs, similar to 
those of the Druids of a later period, for altars. 

In connection with this subject the form of the Makdms, or places now 
held sacred by the Arabs, is very interesting. 

During the present week we have visited some six or eight of these 
shrines, consisting of circles some 20 feet in diameter, built up of stones 
about a foot long. In each case there was a sort of doorway or smaE 
cromlech on the west, formed by two stones — generally well hewn and 
taken from a neighbouring ruin, supporting a third stone or lintel. The 
jambs were generally about 2 feet high, and the width of the entrance 
about the same. The remainder of the circle was composed of unhewn 
blocks about a foot long piled up into a wall some 2 feet in height. 
The lintel stone of the cromlech or western entrance serves as an altai' 
on which are laid oflFerings, consisting of biue beads, fragments of pottery 
or of purple basalt, bits of china, the locks of guns, rags, etc. The 
ploughs of the Arabs are left inside the charmed circle for protection, and 
a rude gi'ave of stones occupies the centre, while in three cases sacred trees 
grow close by. The names of some of these Mdkams are modern, others 
are said to date from " ancient times," but whatever be the age of the 
existing structures, it is probable tliat the custom of thus constructing 
" gilgals " has been derived by the Arabs from their forefathers, from a 
remote period, while many of the sites (especially that of Neby Bal'ath), 
may be supposed to preserve ancient centres of Baal worship on the high 
places of Moab. 

The field we have at length entered promises to be one of gi'eat 
interest. It may be said to stand to Western Palestine something in the 
relation of the highlands to the lowlands of Scotland — a wilder region ; 
inhabited by clans of pastoral habits ; distinguished by its gushing springs, 
its uncultivated moors, and its more ancient archaeological remains. 

The ruins appear to be more important, though less numerous than 
west of the river, but with the exception of cromlechs all those we have as 
yet visited appear to belong to the Byzantine period. The ruin of 
S'A^mieh in Witdy Hesban has not apparently been previously noted, and 
its position seems to fit well with that of the Biblical Sibmah of Moab. 
The great tower of SS,mik may prove to be the Samega of Josephiis, and 
S<\fa may have some connection with the field of Zophin, but without 
books of reference it is impossible to follow up these indications very 
closely. 

Most of the sites which we have visited are marked on the excellent 



280 LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 

maps of Buedeker's Handbook, though the names are often incorrectly 

spelt. 

At Umm el Burak we found a mutilated Greek inscription, which 
appears to record the erection of a building by a certain Antonius Rufus, 
and is evidently not older than the Byzantine period. Three other in- 
scriptions from Madeba have been removed to Jerusalem, where I hope 
to see tliem in the winter, and no doubt many others as yet uncopied 
remain to be found, but the Adwan say that they know of no other stone 
like the Moabite stone anywhere in their country. 

It may be interesting here to note the present condition of the more 
important tribes east of Jordan. The Adwan are at present perhaps the 
strongest, being allied with one section of the Beni Sakhr. Their country 
is bounded by Jordan and the Zerka Ma'ln, Jebel 'AjWn, and Jerash, 
'Amman and the ridge on which stands the ruin of Samik, embracing 
some 1,000 square miles of very good country, including the best part 
of the Ghor, and the hill slopes and part of the Heshbon plateau. 

On the south-east is the country of the Beni Sakhr, or " sons of the 
rock," including the plateau east of Madeba and Samik, as far as the 
country of the 'Anezeh. The famous Sheikh Fendi el Faiz has died 
within the last few years, and his sons quarelled among themselves. Ibn 
el Fiaz and Zutum allied themselves with their old enemies the 'Anezeh, 
while another section made peace with the Adwan, who during the present 
year (about the middle of May) slew Zutum in fair fight. Peace has since 
been made, and blood money paid, but the Beni Sakhr have lost much 
of their power, and the Hameidi tribes who inhabit the district south of 
the Zerka M'aln as far as Kerak are now their own masters. The estab- 
lishment of a colony of fifty Christian families in the caves of Madeba, 
under protection of Padre Paulo, the priest appointed by the Latin 
Patriarch of Jerusalem, has also made a great change in the condition of 
the country. On the 22nd we paid a visit to this worthy priest in his 
cave, and I had a long conversation with him in Italian, which served to 
throw much light on the best method of proceeding. He offered us all 
the assistance in his power, and will send our letters for us to J erusalem. 
His assistance ought to be a great help to us in making arrangements with 
the Hameidi, who have a wholesome fear of him, as he has caused some of 
their number to be imprisoned. So far, indeed, as the country south of the 
Jabbok is concerned, our way is now clear, with the exception of possible 
interference ; and as the district has the reputation of being healthy, 
we may hope to reap a good harvest before the winter sets in. 

From day to day our store of notes increases rapidly. Every evening 
Sheikh Goblan comes to our tent for a cup of tea, and over this 
our conversation is often considerably prolonged. The Arabs being a 
freer and nobler people than the peasantry, are less suspicious of Euro- 
peans, and more willing to give information. They are also much less 
fanatical and, indeed, have very little religion. We have not yet seen 
Sheikh Goblan at his prayers, and his foresight politically seems to be 
shown by his having sent his yoimger sons to the English School in Jeru- 



LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 281 

salem. Yet, although in constant communication with travellers, although 
he has even been on board an English man-of-war, and has acquired a 
truly civilised love of money, he has not lost the native dignity of the 
Ai'ab, nor acquired the detestably familiar and impertinent manner of the 
Dragomans of Western Palestine, whose treatment of travellers seems to 
become more insufferably contemptuous every year. It is impossible in a 
short report to give any account of the fund of traditions, notes of customs 
and manners, of scenery and archaeology, which we are now gathering day 
by day, while the more intelligent among the natives, including oui- new 
Protestant scribe, and our old major domo (Habtb el Jemail), appear to 
enter thoroughly into the spii'it of the work, and fill their note books with 
traditions and other scraps of information diligently collected from the 
Arabs. 

My present plan is to proceed southwards by Dibon to the Arnon, and 
thence north-east by Ziza to 'Amman, visiting the palace of Mashitta, and 
completing the survey of the mountains, if possible, from the Arnon to the 
vicinity of es Salt. For however interesting the district round Kerak may 
be, it is properly speaking no part of the Holy Land, and this, together 
with the south end of the Dead Sea, the Harrah, and the Negeb, south of 
Beersheba, might with advantage be undertaken at one time, with an 
expedition rather differently organised, and by a more rapid method of 
work. The region to the north, including mount Gilead and the Hauran, 
appears, however, to present more immediate interest, and we may pei-haps 
hope if all goes well to complete the survey of the Ghor to the Sea of 
Galilee next spring, and before autumn to extend the work as far as the 
river Hieromax on the north, and eastwai-ds to Eemtheh and the Haj 
road. 

The country south of Heshbon is absolutely bare of trees, and we axe 
therefore liable to suffer from extremes of temperature. On the day of 
writing this report the thermometer stands at 108° F. in the shade of the 
tent, the wind from the east being hotter and stronger than I have almost 
ever experienced it in Palestine. 

A few days ago the mists covered the hills in the morning, and the 
temperature at night was quite chilly. North of our present camp there 
are, however, hills covered with oaks, and here we shall hope to find refuge 
before the equinoctial gales commence. The attached sketch-map will 
serve to show the proposed fieki of our immediate operations, and I hope 
that before the January Qiiarterly is issued we may be able to send 
further interesting particulars of our work in Moab. 

Mr. Black and Mi-. Armstrong, with the remainder of the expedition, 
arrived here on August 26th, after three days' march. They encountered 
a fearful scii'occo in the Jordan valley, the thermometer reading 118° F. in 
the shade by day and over 90° F. by night. Fortunately all members of the 
party arrived safely, except oui' trusty watch-dog BarCid (" gunpowder "), 
who succumbed to the heat near Jericho. 

Claude K. Conder, Lieut. R.E. 



282 

THE ANCIENT HEBREW INSCRIPTION IN THE POOL 

OF SILOAM. 



Since the publication of the last Quarterly Statement much new light has 
been thrown upon the ancient Hebrew inscription in the tunnel of Siloam. 
Dr. Guthe — who has succeeded in discovering remains of the old city wall 
which defended the entrance of the Tyropoeon valley — has not only taken a 
gypsum cast of the inscription, but has also removed the deposit of lime which 
filled the characters, and has thus made their exact forms visible. He kindly 
allowed Lieutenants Conder and Mantell to take a squeeze of the inscrip- 
tion after the process of cleaning it had been completed, and Lieutenant 
Conder has forwarded to the Palestine Exploration Fund two tracings of 
the squeeze corrected by a careful comparison with the original text. I 
communicated a revised translation of the inscription based upon these 
tracings to the Athenceum of August 13th, and pointed out at the same time 
that the recovery of the exact forms of the letters obliges me to bring it 
down to a later period than the age of Solomon. Unfortunately the appli- 
cation of the acid, by means of which the lime was removed, seems to have 
injured some of the characters ; at all events several of those which were 
clearly visible when I copied the text do not appear in the squeeze at all, 
and Mr. Filter informs me that " Dr. Guthe's repeated washings " have 
made others of them more indistinct than they were last February.* 

Since the appearance of my letter in the Athenceum, I have carefully 
examined Dr. Guthe's cast at Berlin. An article on the inscription has 
also been published by Prof. Kautsch, in the last number of the " Zeitsclirift 
des deutschen Palaestina-Vereins, " containing statements which it is matter 
of astonishment should have been permitted tu appear in the responsible 
organ of a scientific Society. In his perhaps not unnatural annoyance at 
the appropriation by an Englishman of an important inscription which he 
had regarded as the special pi'operty of the German Association, he has 
forgotten the courtesy due to a sister Society which has been in the field 
for years before the German Palestine Association was founded, as well as 
the candour and fairness we might expect from a scholar. Personal con- 
troversy and international jealousies are always undesirable, more especially 
when they involve two societies which are working for a common end, and 
I should have taken no notice of Dr. Kautsch's remarks were it not for two 
or three assertions which concern the credit of the Palestine Exploration 
Fund. 

Dr. Kautsch seems particularly indignant at my having charged him 
with being in too great hurry to vindicate the German Palestine Asso- 
ciation. But I must again bring the same charge against him. At any 
rate, in no other way can I explain, for instance, his interpretation of my 
statement as regards the money sent by the English Palestine Exploration 
Fund for lowering the water in the pool of Siloam. As the Secretary of 
* Lieut. Gender's interesting letter pubhshed in this Statement makes the 
fact quite plain. 



THE INSCRIPTION IN THE TOOL OF SILOAM. 283 

the Fund ia prepared to prove, Dr. Chaplin was authorised to draw ^25 for 
the purpose, that being the sum estimated as necessary to complete the 
work. Similarly Dr. Kautsch more than once sneers at me for finding a 
hirdh or " castle " in the inscription. If he had taken the trouble to read 
my article, he would have seen that I put a query after the translation, 
that I regarded it in my notes as more than doubtful, and that I finally 
withdrew it in the postscript in favour of Dr. Neubauer's conjecture ! 
Dr. Kautsch further discovers that my copy of the inscription added next to 
nothing to his knowledge of it, and was but a very slight improvement 
upon the copy he had published in the preceding number of the German 
Journal. Other Semitic scholars will not be disposed to agree with him, as 
scarcely any Phoenician letters or Hebrew words can be recognised in his 
facsimile, and the only complete sentence Dr. Kautsch was able to give 
was derived from my letters in the Athenaeum, of February. 

I need say no more on this distasteful subject, but will turn to the 
disputed readings as to which Dr. Kautsch and myself still differ. In line 

5 he follows Mr. Shapii-a in reading ^'^ , DTli^^^ . ^part, how- 
ever, from the grammatical difficulty already urged by Dr. Neubauer 
against Mr. Shapira {Athenceum, August 6th, p. 176), neither Lieut. Gender's 
squeeze nor the Berlin cast show any trace either of Q or '^. On the 
contrary both have a point in the place where Dr. Kautsch puts his 
mim. This was very evident on the Berlin cast, as M. Halevy and others 
agreed with me in seeing. Consequently we must read "ijni*^^? for which 
I can find no other possible rendering than that which I have already 

suggested. There is certainly room fora waw before W^^ in the break in 

the rock which occurs here, supposing this to have been subsequent to the 
engraving of the inscription, but I satisfied myself when on the spot that 
such was not the case, the break having existed before the letters were cut. 
The actual length of the tunnel, however, precludes Dr. Kautsch's reading, 
which would make it much longer than it really is. 

In line 2, Dr. Kautsch reads ]^Qi^ instead of J^^i^, and takes credit 
to himself for having doubted the philological "monster" |~f^^. But 
Lieut. Gonder's tracings, as well as the cast, again testify against him. 
I see no sign of a tait in them, whereas they both have what looks like the 
lower part of a he. At the time I copied the inscription, however, the 
whole he was distinct, and in a matter of this kind, one, a large 
part of whose life has been passed in copying inscriptions in comparison 
with which the inscription of Siloam is as clear as daylight, may be 
allowed to speak with some confidence. Dr. Kautsch further disputes the 
pi I have read in the following word, and puts a doubtful nAn in its place. 
The pi, nevertheless, was perfectly evident last February. Dr. Kautsch 
will not admit of any ^Jf at the beginning of the inscription, apparently 

because it was copied by Mi*. Filter. I can assure him, however, that at 
least two letters exist here, though I was not able to make out their exact 
forms myself. His Q^ for Q")^ " day " is ingenious, but not probable. 



284 THE INSCEIPTION IN THE POOL OF SILOAM. 

The translatiou which follows I have already given in the Atheimum 
of August 13th (p. 208) before the appearance of Dr. Kautsch's article. 
It has been obtained by a comparison of Lieut. Conder's squeezes with my 
own copy of the inscription. 

'hv^r^ . D)n(!inn) 

p ir^ . Sp . «n 
. t^(?) (i)Dp . pn .^!Ji . ryim . n^n . ^3 .li^i . ^« . «n 3 

. h^ . ]n:i . "liT-i . rrsph . u^« . Diijnn . i^n . nip3 4 

w"--! . pci) 

•••1 . rv^\^ . n^« . Ti^r^i . riDnin . b« . !J^n . pn . Q-'^n ^ 

(1) " Behold the excavation ! Now this is the history of the tunnel. 
While the excavators were lifting up 

(2) the pick, each towards the other ; and while there were yet three, 
cubits to be broken through ... the voice of the one called 

(3) to his neighbour, for there was an excess (?) in the rock on the 
rio'ht. They rose up ... . they struck on the west of the 

(4) excavation, the excavators struck, each to meet the other, pick to 
pick. And there flowed 

(5) the waters from their outlet to the Pool for a distance of a thousand 
cubits ; and (three-fourths T) 

(6) of a cubic was the height of the rock over the head of the 
excavation here." 

The word pfit ^^ ^^^^^ "^ seems to be connected with ^^y^, y^, p-yf, the 
radical meaning of which is rather " excess " than " boiling over." Lieut. 
Conder's tracings, however, give pJlt instead of nit> which may be 
related to ^TJ "to flow." We must notice the spelling f^ipi for 
nriTl- The defective .p'l^ for p^i^ is parallel to -^^^ for ^^i^ ; 
Dr. Kautsch's Q*^ for QV is far from likely, and no point occurs after the 
mSm. In line 2, Qn7 ™"^* ^^ ^ hiphil infinitive, perhaps from t^lQ, 
though the meaning of the latter does not suit the context very well. 

The squeeze shows that my copy was substantially correct, except in 
line 5, where I read J^i^l^ instead of ^^IT^; ^^^ in line 6. Here, 
however, I find that my first copy gave the right reading, which T corrected 
erroneously in my second and third. 

But as regards the/o?-wis of the letters, the removal of the line proves 



SILOAM INSCRimON. 285 

that I had gone far astray. My coj)y represents them as they appeared 
when bhirred and hidden by the deposit which had formed over them, and, 
as is now clear, had wholly metamorphosed their true shapes. It now 
possesses only an historic interest, as showing faithfully what the inscription 
looked like when it was first discovered. As I stated in the Atkenceum 
(August 13th), it is no longer possible to assign it to so early a date as the 
age of Solomon. The looped zai/in disappears, though the origin of the 
loop formed by the line is evident. The letter has two small tags at the 
light hand ends of its horizontal lines ( 27), which, by the way, are omitted 
in the facsimile published by Dr. Kautsch, and the calcareous deposit over- 
flowed from the upper of these into the lower. 

But while I must surrender the Solomonic date of the inscription, I 
find myself unable to accept Dr. Isaac Taylor's counter-hypothesis (see, 
however, his letter in the Athenceum of September 24th). "We all 
agi-ee that the age of an inscription must be determined by that of the 
inost recent forms of the characters which it contains. But the question 
is what this age precisely is. Dr. Taylor's arguments, if strictly pressed, 
would make the inscription as late as the post-exilic period. We must 
remember, however, that the age of the shekels to which he appeals is 
doubtful, and furthermore that they are the product of an antiquarian 
revival which endeavoured to imitate faithfully an older style of writing. 
It is safer, therefore, to compare the inscribed seals. Nor can I admit that 
the three-barred k/tetk is later than the two-barred one, although the latter 
is found on the Moabite Stone. But I believe that the inscriptions of 
Mesha and of Siloam represent two different forms of the Phoenician 
alphabet, the one being north Canaanite, and the other south Canaanite. 
A comparison of the characters of the Siloam inscription, as they now lie 
before us, with the alphabets given by Euting, proves that the inscription 
must fall between the eighth and sixth centuries B.C. This being so, I see 
no reason for rejecting Dr. Neubauer's ingenious suggestion mentioned in 
my previous article {Quarterly Statemeyit for July, p. 153), which would 
lefer the excavation of the tunnel to the reign of Ahaz. The force of my 
argument from the fact that, while the Pool of Siloam is given specific 
names in the book of Nehemiah, it is called simply " the pool " in the 
Siloam inscription, remains undiminished. 

A. H. Satce. 



II. 

'AiN Karim, July I6th, 1881, 
On the 15th instant, Lieutenant Mantell and I again spent three hours in 
the narrow passage leading to the Pool of Siloam, endeavouring to render 
more certain the decipherment of the interesting text which has lately 
been made so much more legible by the use of hydrochloric acid in remov- 



286 SILOAM INSCRIPTION. 

ing the lime deposit from the rock. We are indebted to the courtesy of 
Dr. Gutlie for exceptional facilities, and I hope that our joint production 
may be of some vahie in the determination of the true translation. 

Our method was to produce a facsimile founded on a careful squeeze, 
and distinguishing the sculptured strokes from natural cracks or dents, by 
pencilling the former on the squeeze itself. We then compared the whole 
again with the text, reading letter by letter, and throwing the light on 
each letter in turn from every side. I have had no opportunity of comparing 
the result with Dr. Guthe's copy ; and Professor Sayce's pamphlet on the 
subject has not reached me. There may, however, be advantages in thus 
forming an entirely independent copy, and I should be glad to have my 
attention directed to any points in our tracing (of which I enclose two 
copies) which may appear doubtful or incorrect. If Professor Sayce would 
kindly indicate any portions of the inscription which require re-examina- 
tion, we will take a further opportunity of visiting the spot. Meantime, 
although the plaster cast has been ordered, and will be sent to England as 
soon as possible, it seems to me that in many instances it will be only 
possible to distinguish intentional and natural lines and strokes by 
examination of the text itself. 

The following remarks occurred to me in the course of our work, and 
are here noted as being possibly of some use to those who have not seen 
the inscription. 

The text consists of six lines, occupying a space of 23 inches by 7^ inches, 
on the lower half of the tablet. The letters are from half-an-inch to 
thr-ee-quarters of an inch in height. The first and second lines are injured 
on the right, and a large deep crack extends all down the tablet near the 
left hand extremity, breaking the three upper lines, and partly mutilating 
the fourth. The first line is illegible to the left of this fissure, the surface 
being rough and covered with cracks. The fifth line does not extend the 
whole length of the longer lines, occupying only about 16 inches. 

There appear to have been originally about 180 letters, of which 130 
are now more or less clearly recoverable. The text is thus not quite as 
closely written as the famous Marseilles tablet. The letters are carefully 
formed, and some of the minor peculiarities, such as the small hooks at 
the right hand extremities of the two horizontal strokes of the Zain, are 
repeated in each repetition of the letter. The size of each letter is also 
much the same on each repetition ; the vertical lines are broad, but not 
deep, the horizontal strokes are narrow, but very sharply cut. The facsimile 
first published gives quite a false impression of the regularity and finish 
of the execution of the inscription. 

All the letters of the Aramaic alphabet are represented with exception 
apparently of the Teth and the Samech, and perhaps also of the Gimel. 
The Aleph seems to appi'oach much more closely to the form found on the 
early Jewish coins than to that on the Moabite Stone. The Vau also 
appears to have three short strokes as on the coins. The peculiar form of 
the Zain is very carefiUly reproduced on each repetition. Tlie Cheth, which 
occurs at least twice, seems to have a form intermediate between that on 



SILOAM INJ 

TRACING FROM A SQUEEZI 
BY LIEUTS. CONDER 







^A &.<, 



-71 ''V T/ 



^<k 






^^Tlf ^^ 



/yi ^y-^ 



<ff^,.-C"^i\ i? 



(^(S', »,>^ < 



'1 




H-RRISOU i SONS.LITH. s: MA 



■^ 
^ 



RIPTION, 



TAKEN 15th JULY, 1881, 
MD MANTELL, R.E. 



• • • • • « 



• " • • 



• •- " 



• . ••• 



• . ..*•:; *. ; 



-! 1 



'■-■X c. 



Xsr 



N^^^;^^ 



- ''^^ 



0(6.^ \^^\^ ^s 



^(T i>^ 



-^ -|3 fc^fc^ 



1 






*^ ^, 



S^ 6 ^_.<@ 







"7>=: 




T T 



^ ^• 



V 

^ 



o M 



f 



~F ^ 



THE SILOAM INSCrvIPTION. 287 

the coins and that on tlie Moabite Stone. The Mem and the Nun are 
drawn with square strokes, and long tails. The Ain has invariably a 
pointed ending towards the right. The form of the Tzadi is very peculiar, 
and quite different to that on the Moabite Stone, as is also appai'ently the 
shape of tlie Koph. 

The letters are quite sufficiently well formed to make these differences 
apparent, and they may, I should suppose, serve as indications of the 
date of the text. 

I enclose what I hope may be found to be the correct tiansliteration of 
the letters most clearly recove)-able, into square Hebrew forms. It seemed 
very doubtful whether any letter ever preceded the Nun in the first word 
nnp^- 1^1 *'i6 second line the reading n^2i»^ seems jarobably correct, on 

account of the space between this word and the next, but the last letter is 
unfortunately partly destroyed. The word following seems quite clearly 

to read pj^. The last words of the third line appeared to us to read 
HTZJ^'^D, ^ii*i ^<^^ rr^^l- The top of the letter is, however, damaged, so 
that it was difficult to determine between ^ and 2, though the tail was 
too distinct to allow of its being easily read as *^. 

The fifth line is the most perfect and most easily decipherable of the 
whole text, but we were unable to determine the existence of a Yod, 
shown in Professor Sayce's fii^st published letter, the word apparently 
reading ^^^Q as in the Bible (2 Chron. xxxii, 30). The Tau in the word 
■^n^^^ is not easily seen, though traces appear to exist. In the sixth 
line the two last letters of the first word, which has, I believe, been read 
nn^5n> ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^l indistinct. We have recovered twenty letters in this 
line. I am not as yet aware whether any of these form additions to 
those copied by Professor Sayce. 

A point on which a learned opinion seems necessary is the form of the 
Vau and the Caph. The word which occurs three times in lines Nos. 2, 3, 4 
respectively, has for its last letter a form somewhat resembling the 
Vau of the coins. In the word TOlU occurring in the fiftli line, the form 
of the Caph is different from that above noticed, as the letter has a tail 
below the line. The same form occurs twice in the fourth line, and 
seems closely to approach the Caph of the Moabite Stone. The straighter 
form which I have supposed to be the Vau occurs eleven times at least in 
the text, and in one case (j^^'l?:^ ^^ the fifth line) is rendered Vau by 
Professor Sayce, while the form which I have taken to be Caph occurs only 

four times, and is so rendered by Professor Sayce in the word 13°)^ in the 
fourth line. If the distinction is a correct one, the word thrice occurring 
should read 1^-^. The difference was, however, probably not visible before 
the inscription had been cleaned. The occurrence of the Vau would 
naturally be more frequent than that of Caph, and the letters thus noticed 
are in most instances very clearly cut. 

Claude R. Conder, Lieut. R.E. 



288 THE SILOAM INSCRIPTION. 



III. 



bth Angtist, 1881. 



Having received on 1st instant, the Quarterly Statement, containing 
Professor Sayce's pamphlet on the inscription, and the notes of Dr. Isaac 
Taylor on the same, we revisited on the 4th instant the rock-cut channel, 
and again spent three hours in examinirig the text. 

The result is that after sevei'al independent readings, we do not feel 
alile to make any alteration in the copy which I sent home on the I9th ult., 
with the exception of one doubtful letter in the first line. It seems to us 
that this copy may be taken as representing all the letters clearly traceable 
in the present condition of the inscription ; and although, when guided 
by Professor Sayce's copy, we were able in some cases to distinguish 
traces of other letters, we were not always able to make these agree 
entirely with the forms which he has given. 

We are able only to add one letter to those given by Professor Sayce, 
namely a Koph, which appears pretty distinctly at the end of the second line. 
We still are obliged to omit 12 letters which are no longer traceable (to our 
eyes), and our copy differs in 18 letters from that of Professor Sayce, notably 
in two passages which occur in the third and the sixth lines. It must be 
remembered that I speak of the jiresent condition of the text, as we had 
no opportunity of examining it very minutely before it was cleaned wdth 
acid, Dr. Guthe's copy, taken before this operation was performed, may 
however show letters not now traceable, although, as far as we can judge, 
the inscription has not been in any way damaged by the removal of the 
lime deposit. 

In our recent visit we were obliged to stand each for an hour and a- 
half knee-deep in water ; and we could not but admire the accuracy of 
Professor Sayce's results, obtained under conditions even more unfavourable 
than those of our last visit. The published copy is however not a facsimile, 
the spaces between the letters not being always the same as those given by 
the squeeze, and the form of many of the characters not being exactly that 
given by the text. The inscription occupies a space 26 inches long by 
8 inches in height, the top being 14 inches from the vipper surface of the 
tablet, and the bottom of the sixth line 5 inches above the lower border of 
the tablet, which is 27 inches square. 

As regards the forms of the letters, I may add a few notes to those in 
my former communication. 

The Aleph is written throughout in an uniform manner, 
and the shape does not appear to us to be exactly that 
given by Professor Sayce, which resembles the Aleph of 
the Moabite Stone, but rather the form of an inverted F 
with a spur — such as is found on Jewish coins. 



T 




THE SILOAM INSCRIPTION'. 289 

The Van appeai-s also to bo written tliroiighout with a head ^ 
formed by three strokes. We are unable to find a single in- ^f^ 
stance in which the head of tlie letter remains, and in which 
only two strokes occur. In all the best preserved specimens 
the central stroke has at the end a cross stroke or shoe, which 
makes it specially conspicuous. ^ 

The Zain — as now seen very clearly, has also an uniform character, and 
is not formed as shown on Professor Sayce's copy, no 
curved line occurring to join the horizontal bars. \ ^ 

The hooks at the right hand end of these latter I 
have already noticed in a former letter. 

The Tzadi also does not seem to be formed as shown in Professor Saj'ce's 
copy. The letter is only found tive times on the 
inscription, and in three cases it is imperfect. In 
the two perfect instances there is no loop joining 
the bars, but the latter resembles a W inverted 

with shoes. 

These peculiarities have no doubt become clearer since the inscription 
was cleaned. The length of the stroke of the Lamed, and its inclined 
position, are also details which seem worthy of notice. 

The form of the Mem is also an important consideration. I am not 
sure whether ray copy sent home does not show the second 
Mem of the fifth line to have the zigzag form, I have 
however now carefully inspected this letter, which is well 
cut, and feel convinced that there is not a single instance 
of the zigzag form on the inscription. The cross strokes 
are very sharply cut, and although at a fii-st glance the 
letters seem to have a W form for the head, yet when 
minutely examined they all prove to be cut with a bar 
and cross strokes. The Nun is also formed in a similar 
manner throughout. 

We may now proceed to consider the differences which appear in the 
copy made from a squeeze by Lieutenant Mantell and myself, as compared 
with Professor Sayce's copy. The results, which are given below, are 
derived from four independent readings of the inscription, two taken by 
me, and two by Lieutenant Mantell. The position of the letters in our 
tracing recently sent home is obtained by means of the squeeze, and this 
serves in one or two instances to check the readings, and to determine 
the number of letters missing with tolerable certitude. 

First Line. — At the commencement of the inscription the original 
surface of the rock is still pi'eserved, though somewhat cracked. The first 
Nun is very imperfect, and we were quite unable to trace any distinct 
letters preceding it, though indications of what may have been a He 
might be conjectured to exist. 

It is very doubtful whether one or two dots follow the word n^pl- 

u 2 




290 THE SILO AM mSCKIPTIOl^T. 

There are so many small holes in the stone that the dots between the 
words are in a great many cases very doubtful. 

The Daleth in the word '^^"T i^ ^^ot very clear, but its form and size 
resemble those of the Daleth immediately beneath it in the second line, the 
horizontal stroke being very slightly curved. 

The reading "f^J^n given l)y Professor Sayce appears to us to be still 
legible, but the thud letter only is distinct, being a large and well formed 
Vati. The first and fourth letters seem to be unusually small. 

The Van at the end of the line has no head, and never apparently had 
one, the rock being quite smooth. We thought that we could distinguish 
traces of Lamed and Ain preceding it, as read by Professor Sayce, but 
their existence seems extremely problematical. There is room for two such 
letters, but to the right of them is a hole, and we were unable to trace tl e 
Beth shown by Professor Sayce immediately to the left of the great 
crack. 

With these exceptions, the reading of the text in this line is remarkably 
clear, and (save as to the form of the letters) is the same as given by Professor 
Sayce. Our copy, however, supports Mr. Pilter's reading n3.pD> ^^^ 
after carefully re-examining the first letter of this word, we felt sure that it 
could never have been a Mem. 

Second Line. — The traces of a He will be found in our copy at the 
beginning of this line, and after minute examination, we were able to find 
the remains of a Oimel following it, and to distinguish a Resh, well 
formed, but much worn, to the left — thns conirmiug the reading T|'J'^^n- 
The last two letters, and the dot are quite clear. 

After the word l^"), there is a dot and a very clear Vau. Between 
this and the Daleth there is room for two large or for three smaller 
letters — as shown by Professor Sayce. The letters which he shows we 
were however unable to recognise, and tlie first two seemed to us most 
to approach ^^, thouj;h so iudistuict and confused by cracks as to be 
very doubtful. There would also seem to be the tail of a letter Mem, 
Nun, Caph, or Pe to the left of those two. 

The He in the word Amah is, as I have previouhly noted, almost 
indistinguishable, from a crack in the rock. The next two letters are clear, 
but beyond these, where Pr-ofessor Sayce shows |~]P, we are only able to 
trace what looks like the head of a Vau, and the loop of either a Beth or 
a Resli following it. 

Beyond the great crack in this line, there is a KojJi as shown by 
Professor Sayce, and to the right of this three strokes which seem most 
probably to have belonged to an Aleph. The Lamed after the Koph 
saems to us quite clear, as well as the Shin and the second Koph with a 
dot after it (this last letter is not given by Professor Sayce). 

In all the distinct and several of the doubtful letters of this line, we 
are therefore able to confirm the readings of Professor Sayce, 

Third Line. — The first Aleph should be preceded by a Beth, but there is 
now a small deep hole in the ro(';k where this letter (marked as doubtful 
by Professor Sayce) would have occurred, and no trace of it is visible. 



THE SILO AM INSCRIPTION. 291 

After the distiuct word "j^"^ we make a great difference from previous 
copies. It is to be hoped that our reading may render the translation of 
this puzzling passage easier. The words, according to us, .should stand 
j-j"^^ ♦ ]-^ip7 , 1j , "1^^. The Caph and the Yod seem very clear. The 
double stop after the Tau is not however very certain. Lieutenant 
Mantell was inclined to think that au Ain might have existed here, 
which Professor Sayce also shows with a query. The Daleth in the last 
word of the group is also not quite certain. There is a horizontal stroke 
beneath it, but the rock is .smooth and well preserved, and no trace of a 
A'ertical stroke exists. Nor would the shape of the Beth thu.s formed, 
if it existed, be the same as that of other Beths in the inscription. 

Professor Sayce has divided the letters yy^'(2 further on in this line 
into two words by a dot, but we were unable to make certain of this 
division. The two letters which follow are much defaced, and the rock is 
covered with a network of small cracks in this part, which would imike the 
cast almost entirely unintelligible. I was inclined to think that I could 
trace the Koph shown by Professor Sayce, and that it may have been 
followed by a Beth. Lieutenant Mantell would however give a Resh with 
part of the tail of another letter. 

It will be for others to decide which reading suits the text best, 
and whether the words nip!3 . Q''?2 ca^ have originally been written here. 
Beyond the great crack on the left, we read with Mr. Pilter n^"'!11 '■> 
and after a very close examination we could clearly determine that the last 
letter but one is not a Nun, but certainly a Mem, with the horizontal 
stroke and cross-bars. The only letter which we are unable to distinguish 
to the right of this word looks like the remains of an Aleph. There may 
have been a Lamed between this and the Vcm, but we regard both these 
letters as highly problematical. There is room for a third letter before the 
Vau. 

Fourth Zi'nc.— The second word is read "^^H Kt Professor Sayce ; but 
the first letter of the word seems to us clearly to be a He and not a Chetlt. 
There is a deep crack in the stone at this point, which, before the deposit 
was removed, would have given the left stroke of the Cheth, but as now 
seen, it appears to be clearly a natural and not a sculjrtured line. The 
surface of the stone being uninjured, we could ascertain that there had 
never been any " horn " on the left at the end of the bars of the He. 

By the aid of the copy we are able to distinguish the ^m preceding 

the Lamed in the sentence n-^;} . ^^ . n-^;). The first Zain is however 

imperfect, and the second Oimel cannot be distinguished. The Vaic 
succeeding these words is fairly clear, but only the middle stroke of the 
head can be seen, with its characteristic shoe on the end of the stroke. 
The final Vau at the end of the line we could not see clearly, but a trace 
of its vertical stroke may perhaps be recognised. 

Fifth Line. — The second Mem has the same form as all the others in the 
text. We are quite unable to find any remains of the Yod given by 
Professor Sayce in i^^^T^, nor does there seem to be any space for it 



292 THE SILO AM INSCRIPTION. 

between the Tzadi and the Aleph. The Tau in Tlt^Dl seems to us to be 
very doubtful, though strokes exist which may have belonged to such a 
letter. It should be noted that between this word and the next there is 
more space than is shown in Professor Sayce's copy. The dot is at some 
distance from the Yod, but even then there is fully room for another letter 
before the Aleph. The surface of the rock is however injured in this 
place. The last two lettei-s of this line appear to us to read ^"j, though 
the last may be a Mem, as it is very imperfect and indistinct. 

Sixth Line. — The third letter read Cheth by Professor Sayce is very 
indistinct, and may have been a He. The letters n^H appear to us to be 
now quite distinct, and unmistakable, although Professor Sayce reads 
quite differently. The letters pf^J ^^^^ seem to us to be distinct, and 
the letter which follows seems more probably a He than a Cheth. The 
Tzadi which follows is imperfect, and the Resh or Beth next in order can- 
not be read as now seen. The final letter of the inscription should 
apparently be Beth, but the surface of the rock is here so damaged as to 
make it impossible to distinguish any of the three letters which 
Professor Sayce places after the last Tzadi, for there is a hole in the 
stone at this point. 

Such is a summary of our observations, which have been pursued 
entirely without consideration of anything beyond the present appear- 
ance of the • text. The main results which seem likely to be of some 
service are those which concern the forms of the letters, and the 
difficult readings of the third and sixth lines. 

Claude E. Conder, Lieut. E.E. 



IV. 

I HA'VE been favoured with a tracing of the squeeze of the Siloam 
inscription. In the last Quarterly Statement of the Palestine Exploration 
Fund I argued, in reply to Professor Sayce, that the Solomonic age 
of the inscription was on palieographic grounds quite vintenable, 
and that it must be placed at least two centuries and a half 
later. In the Athenceum of August 13th, Professor Sayce surrenders his 
former opinion, and asks whether I still venture to uphold my own. In 
reply to this challenge I am bound to acknowledge that a date so early as 
the middle of the eighth century can no longer be maintained. 

I argued for the earlier date on the ground that Professor Sayce's copy 
exhibited transitional forms of certain letters, notably of aleph and mim. In 
some instances the Moabite or ninth century forms were used, in others 
the sixth century or Eshmunazar forms. In the tracing all these earlier 
forms vanish. Both aleph and mim appear as we find them in the 
seventh century Phoenician inscription at Abu Simbel, while other letters, 
notably koph and tsade, approximate to sixth century forms. I cannot, 
therefore, now maintain that the inscription is earlier than the seventh 
century, nor do I think it can be later than the sixth. The closing years of the 



THE SILOAM INSCRIPTION. 293 

J ewish monarchy might suit very well all the conditions of the problem, and 
it does not seem improbable that the conduit may have been constructed in 
preparation for one or other of the closing sieges, or actually during the last 
siege, after the aqueduct from Gihon had been cut. This would give 587 
B.C. as the date of the inscription. See, however, Ecclesiasticus xlviii, 17 ; 

and 2 Clu'on. xxxii, 30. 

Isaac Taylor. 



The discovery of this inscription has excited no more attention and 
critical curiosity than it deserves. It speaks to us in the primitive 
Hebrew, the language of the past, and narrates a matter of the highest 
topogi-aphical interest, in the simplest foims of ancient orthogi'aphy then 
in use. It wiU be our duty to interpret these forms, with all their defects, 
so as to have a correct conception of that little morsel of topographical 
history which the engraver of this inscription intended posterity should 
know and place on record. The following is the inscription :— 

TRANSLATION. 

Behold the boring (tunnel). This is the history of the tunnel. "While 
the excavators lifted the pick, each toward his neighbour, and while there 
were 3 cubits to the mouth (height of tunnel at the spot here described;, 
the excavators came together ("Tin'' = y^dido, coming together) each 
unto his neighbour. They then measured (ni?:j) and discovered (nii^"') 
■-= ya-arah, discovered, became obvious) in the rock, that there was a 
clearly-defined (7^2) - manah in its ancient uncontracted form, meaning to 

point out, clearly define, and count out by reckoning up the measurements) 
crookedness (T^OTl^p = kumetoo, wrinkled, crooked, corrugated, not gouig 

straight) in the direction {TH^I = harah, direction, leading ; beth is a 
preposition in this word) of the boring {iiakavaK). The excavators then 
eagerly worked, and each inet (likrath) his neighbour, pick to pick. The 
waters then advanced {wy-yalachoo) and flowed from the outlet towards 
the pool, from a distance of 1000 cubits from the described boundary {TV^T^ 
= taah, boundary pointed out and described) of the tunnel they excavated 
at the head of the excavation here. 

I. Inference. — Two branches. 

We infer, as a radical conclusion, that two gangs of men were employed 
in the excavation, and that they started from two opposite ends of the 
tunnel, and met somewhere in the length. Now the question we are 
about to raise is one that has never yet been assumed, nor has it ever 
been suggested in any publications on the subject. It has always been 



294 THE SILUAM INSCRIPTION. 

assumed that the entire aqueduct from Virgin's Fount to the Pool of 
Siloam was one continuous construction by two gangs of men. We hold 
that the two gangs of men were not employed on the whole, but only on 
the Siloam branch which runs south. And that the two gangs formed one 
whilst constructing the branch running west from the Fountain. We 
hold the theory that the Siloam branch alone is the excavation referred to 
in this inscription, and that the upper or head branch of the Fountain 
limning west is not iucluded in this narrative. A careful reading of its 
clauses, and the general context also, confirm this theory, The last clause 
especially cannot be interpreted otherwise. 

Then, again, the word Hlli^n' ^^ ^"i® 6' i^ ^^^ applied to the lower end 
of the tunnel, or to the Siloam Pool, it is applied to the other end of the 
tunnel where the excavators becfa7i ; and this end the narrative calls the 
raish, 1^'i^'y = "head of the excavation here." The "head" of the 
Siloam branch is therefore meant by this word. Cei'taiuly the " lower end " 
must mean the tail end, and not the head of a tunnel or stream. If, 
therefore, the word be admitted, it nuist refer to the head of the Siloam 
branch of the aqueduct. This much then is certain without further 
discussion. In fact. Professor Sayce has himself noticed this inherent 
difticulty. He says : "I must confess that the meaning of ' lower part ' 
would be more suitable to the Siloam end of the tunnel than to the other, 
to which it refers." 

Now a careful reading of the last clause will prove, beyond a doubt, 
that the double gangs of excavators worked together first as one body, 
and as one gang, in excavating jointly the Virgin's Fount first, giving it a 
wider more open, and spacial appearance as an entrance. And this was 
the first excavation of these men, and was regarded as the head of the 
tunnel. This was carried directly west about 231 feet, with a roof of 
6 feet, roughly estimated by Captain Warren. This was the first excava- 
tion to which the narrator refers, when he says : 

" The waters advanced and flowed from the outlet towards the pool, 
from a distance of 1,000 cubits from the boundary of the tunnel the^/ exca- 
vated at the head of the excavation here." 

The inference is fairly drawn, that a tunnel had previously been made 
at the head or beginning of the Siloam branch, by these same men ; and 
that this tunnel had a given limit or boundary. Now this first tunnel 
could be none other than the Virgin's Fount branch, which runs almost 
due west 231 feet, and 6 feet high. And the boundary referred to would 
be this limit of 231 feet. The Siloam branch must, therefore, begin from 
'this limit, and the 1,000 cubits must be counted from this boundary of the 
first tunnel. After cutting this first branch at the head of the excavation 
in Siloam, the gang of men divided themselves into two independent gangs 
for the greater convenience of carrying out the debris of the cutting. It 
being intended that the two gangs should meet at some intermediate 
point. Thus we have fairly established the fact, that the last clause of 
this inscription conclusively proves that the tunnel referred to is that 
Siloam branch of the aqueduct on which tlie two gangs of men only were 



THE SILO AM INSCRIPTION. 295 

thus engaged to meet each other ; the inscription cannot refer to any 
other but the tunnel made by these men meeting together. 

II. Inference. — Tlie Cubit. 

Metrologically the inscription seems to fix the length of the Hebrew 
cubit, or avimah. The tunnel is 1,708 feet in length, according to Captain 
Warren. If this be the length of 1,000 cubits intended by the narrator, 
then the cubit will be equal to 20-496 inches. But the place where these 
two gangs of men met was 3 cubits high = .5-124 feet, and there is no such 
place in the whole length of the tunnel, except at the long vault in the 
Virgin's Fount branch. Hence the cubit cannot be 20-496 inches. 

Then, again, we have seen that the two gangs met in the Siloam branch 
somewhere. The heights have lieen given by Captain Warren. For the 
first 350 feet the height sloped down from 16 feet at the entrance to 4 feet 
4 inches, witlth 2 feet. At 450 feet the height fell to 3 feet 9 inches. At 
600 feet the height was 2 feet 6 inches. At 850 feet it was only 1 foot 
10 inches, and at 900 feet it was reduced to 1 foot 4 inches high. Just at 
this point of the narrowest cutting the height suddenly rises to 4 feet 
6 inches, which height continues for a length of 150 feet, when at a dis- 
tance of 1,050 feet, the height is again reduced to 2 feet 6 inches, and at 
1,100 feet it was again only 1 foot 10 inches. At 1,150 feet tlie height 
averaged 2 feet to 2 feet 6 inches ; at 1,450 feet the Siloam branch begins 
to turn towards the Virgin's Fount branch ; and at 1,477 to 1,480 feet, 
the height suddenly rises in the open vault of the Fount branch to 
6 feet. 

Thus it will be seen the highest point in this Siloam branch is a space 
of 150 feet in length, where it averages 4 feet 6 inches. Now, if there be 
any likely spot where the two gangs met it will be at this high cutting. At 
850 to 900 feet the height sinks down from 1 foot 10 inches to 1 foot 
4 inches, then suddenly rises into a cutting of 4 feet 6 inches. In like 
manner at the other end of this same Siloam branch, from this central 
space of 150 feet with a height of 4 feet 6 inches, the other end also tapers 
oif and lowers down to 1 foot 10 inches. Now, does it not seem reason- 
able to suppose that when the men got to a point where they expected to 
meet each other, they would widen their tunnel in order that the chances 
of meeting each other would be greater 1 And that where we find this 
space of enlargement at the middle of an aqueduct, there is the spot where 
they endeavoured to meet '? We think it reasonable to make this inference. 
Professionally, as a civil engineer,, we think this a very reasonable suppo- 
sition, especially where the engineers were not supposed to be equal to the 
sappers and miners of modern times. 

Let us summarize a little. If the Virgin's Fount branch be almost 
due west for about 230 feet, to the end of the passage with 6 feet in height, 
the Siloam branch will be 1,708-230 = 1,478 feet in length. But in this 
case the 1,000 cubits will be = 1,478 feet, or 1-478 feet to a cubit, which 
is equal to 17-736 inches per cubit. Let us test this value also. The 



296 THE CUBIT. 

narrator of tlie inscription says the gangs were working, when they met, 
with a tunnel equal to 3 cubits ; but the greatest height of this Siloam 
branch is near the middle, and equal to 4 feet 6 inches =18 inches to a 
cubit. 

Now, in an article on the " Sacred Cubit — Test Cases," October, 1879, 
Quarterly Statonent, we then suggested that the ancient cubit was 1770 
inches, or ^3-14159X10 = 17-7245 ; or the full cubit rod of what Ezekiel 
calls "a cubit and a handbreadth" (ch. x. 5), consisting of 7 handbreadths 
= 20-6786 inches. And it would now appear that this Siloam branch of 
1,000 cubits was = 1477 feet in length, or 17-724 inches per cubit ; whilst 
the height of the place of meeting of the excavators was 4 feet 6 inches 
= 3 cubits of this length, as the narrator declares in the inscription. 
Hence the cubit used by the engineer and workmen was 17-724 inches in 
length. When the prophet Ezekiel said : 

" A cubit is a cubit and a handbreadth." — Ezek. xhii, 13. 
" In his hand a measuring reed of 6 cubits, by the cubit and a 
handbreadth.'" — Ezek. xl, 5. 

The extra handbreadth was simply a handle by which to hold the 
cubit rod whilst measuring : the cubit was 6 handbreadths only, but the 
cubit-rod was 7 haii'breadths. Hence almost every cubit rod found has 
measured 20-6786 inches with its extra handbreadths, and this simple fact 
has led to the conception that a cubit was 7 handbreadths = 20-6786 inches. 
The Egyptian cubit-rods were constructed similarly ; they were a cubit 
and a handbreadth in length = 20-6786 inches, or 17-724 inches to the 

cubit. 

S. Beswick. 

Strathroy, Ontario, Canada. 



VI. 

I HAVE been much interested in the paper contained in the Q^iarterlij 
Statement upon " the ancient Hebrew inscription discovered at the pool 
of Siloam," and particularly so in the idea that the discovery may 
define the length of the Hebrew cubit. My object in writing to you 
is to point out that further examination of the tunnel may possibly 
lead to the discovery of exact and definite data from which the exact 
length of the cubit measure used in its construction may be mathemati- 
cally demonstrated. In addition to the tablet (or smoothed portion of 
rock) upon which the inscription is cut, Mr. Sayce says he " came across 
small portions which had apparently been smoothed, as well as hollows 
or niches in the face of them all." I suppose these niches are of 
triangular shape like the one said to be opposite the tablet. If so, I am 
inclined to form a different theory as to the formation of the triangular 
nich opposite the tablet than that which Mr. Schick suggests A theory 



LIFE, HABITS, AND CUSTOMS, ETC. 297 

which will also account for the existence of the other niches which are 
found at intervals in the walls of the tunnel. 

To construct a tunnel from both ends, the starting point must be 
definitely marked somewhere, and careful measurement must be made 
along the course of the tunnel as the excavation proceeds. Now if the 
niches occur at regular intervals along the tunnel, it is more reasonable to 
suppose they each mark off a measured length, so that instead of remeasur- 
ing the whole distance whenever the amount of work done is required to be 
known, a measurement from the last mark would be sutticient. If the 
niches are large enough to hold a lamp, a double purpose may have 
been served in their construction. The triangular point would serve to 
indicate distance, and the light would serve to light the tunnel at 
intervals, by which facility in the removal of materials would be gained. 
Now suppose this theory be correct, what more natural thing than to 
inscribe upon the wall of the tunnel tlie length thereof near the last 
nich ? Probably the ornamental finish described by Mr. Sayce as found 
under the middle of the bottom line may be a mark intended to direct atten- 
tion to the marks on the opjiosite side of the tunnel. The character of the 
finish is a remarkable one, however, being composed of three figures, two 
like the triangular niches in shape, and one just like a surveyor's mark. 
It is even possible that the inscription and the finish are 
intended to mark the exact spot from which the thousand 
cubits are measured. If another inscription is discovered 
at the other end of the tunnel much uncertainty will be 
removed, but without such an inscription a careful measure- 
ment of the distance between the niches may lead to re- 
markable results. As to the upper jjart of the tablet ujion 
which the inscription is found being without lettering, this may 
arise from an intention to engrave upon it the name of the king who ordered 
the tunnel to be cut, or some other record, an intention never carried 
out. Or it may have been so left to draw attention to the other tablet 
formations which Mr. Sayce describes. 

H. SULLKT. 




LIFE, HABITS, AND CUSTOMS OF THE FELLAHIN OF 
PALESTINE. Bj Rev. F. A. Klein. 

{From the '•^ Zeitschrift " of the German Palestine Exploration Society.) 

Continuation.* 

The clothing of the Fellahin is extremely simple, but at the same time 
comfortable and suited to the climate. Their hair is worn quite short 

* The first part appeared in the Quarterly Statement, April, 1881. 



298 LIFE, HABITS, AND CUSTOMS OF 

except a tuft at the crown, and the first portion of the head covering 
consists of a white cotton skull cap. With peoj)le who have any tendency to 
cleanliness, this cap (Taklyeh) is washed every week, and for boys it is 
generally the only head gear. Over this they wear one or two felt skull 
caps, and then the Tarbftsh or Turkish fez, round which is wound the 
piece of stuff which completes the turban ; this varies in colour and quality 
according to the religion, rank or taste of the wearer. Sometimes it is of 
uubleached cotton fringed and striped with red or a red and yellow silk 
Kufeiyeh. The richer Christians use black cashmere, the Bethemites and 
upper class Mussulmen a strip of white muslin, whilst a descendant of the 
Prophet may be always known by his large green turban.. In many neigh- 
bourhoods red cloth is worn, and the whole head covering is called a Lefe, 
from {laf to wind round). The more important sheikhs wear paiticularly 
large and cumbersome Lefes. I knew one Christian sheikh in Nazareth 
who, whenever he changed an old turban for a new one, took the greatest 
care not only to have it the same size, but of exactly the same weight ; if 
he found it lighter than his old one he added folds of cloth or extra felt 
caps, for he maintained that any change in the weight to which he was 
accustomed, gave him pains in his head. These weighty head dresses are 
rapidly giving place to the Turkish mode, and many of the upper classes 
who formerly took great pride in their ponderous Leffes, now wear what is 
called a keshf, a tarbMi with a light mendil round it, or even only a 
tarblish stambuti. 

The thick head coverings were certainly a great protection against the 
scorching rays of the sun, and in case of necessity they formed a very good 
pillow ; I have often seen the Fellahin stretch themselves under the shade 
of an olive tree, and enjioy the most peaceful slumbers with nothing but a 
stone under their head. It was strangely suggestive of Jacob. The Leffe 
with its many folds served also as a receptacle in which important 
documents or lettei-s could be safely bestowed. Another head-dress which 
Fellahin who are in the habit of mixing with the Bedawin often adopt, is 
the silk Kufeiyeh or a bright coloured mendil, which is bound to the 
head with a woollen cord and falls over the neck and shoulders. 

The body is covered with a coarse blue or white cotton garment down to 
the ankles, with wide sleeves reaching to the knees. This answers the 
purpose of shirt and coat combined, and is drawn in at the waist by a 
broad leathern belt fastened above the hip. For hai'd work or travelling 
the skirt is turned up, and the awkward sleeves are tied back between the 
shoulders. To wear the clothes almost trailing on the ground is a sign of 
opulence or else of arrogance and affectation. In speaking of the men of 
one or other of the principal Mahometan families people often make the 
remark that " they go ungirded in their houses." 

A cloak called an 'Abba completes the Fellahin costume. It is a black or 
brown woollen garment Cif the most primitive and clumsy construction, it 
must have been in vogue as early as the days, of the early Canaanites, for 
certainly it is no product of modern civilization. Some of the people spin 
their own 'abbas ; they are made of a very thick piece of stuff of an oblong 



THE FELLAHIN OF PALESTINE. 299 

shape, and sewn so that the front part and two holes for the arms are left 
open. It forms a garment as useful as it is inelegant. It protects them 
from rain and cold ; at night it serves as covering and bed, for the Fellah 
retires to rest on a mat or on the bare ground, where wrapped in his 'abba 
he sleeps as soundly as we should on the softest mattress. Often in the 
inns I have seen rows of mummy-like figures lying close to each other on 
the ground fast asleep, and upon waking up they shook their coverings 
and put them on again as cloaks. If the Fellah has to fetch food for the 
cattle, or to carry anything to market, he uses his 'abba as a sack ; if the 
Mussulman has to say his prayers whilst journeying, he spreads his 'abba 
cm the ground and performs his devotions in the orthodox manner ; if 
there is no available manger or nose-bag for his camel, he lays his 'abba on 
the ground and shakes the fodder upon it ; finally he can make a little 
tent of it under which to take shelter when out in the fields. Only youths 
or beggars can do without this indispensable garment ; for a respectable 
Fellah to appear minus his 'abba would be almost equivalent to going out 
naked. In winter many of them weai- a sheepskin jacket with short 
sleeves, the woolly side turned inwards, and the outside smeared with 
raddle. Stockings and socks are unknown luxuries ; they either go bare- 
footed or wear comfortable but queer looking shoes ; sandals are only met 
with on the other side of Jordan. But in the time of harvest, every one wears 
shoes on account of walking over the stubble, and at this period the shoe- 
makers do a very good trade. Amougst people who are fairly well off the 
ordinary costume is of course often modified, and gives place to more of a 
town style, including shirts and the Kumbag, a striped silk or cotton gown, 
also a short cloth jacket called a Jubbeh, and finely embroidered 'abbas, 
ornamental girdles and town-made shoes. 

The women wear a blue or white robe with wide sleeves, and for fete 
days a silk gown striped in many colours with piece« of red or yellow cloth 
let in to the breast and sleeves. Their 'abba is shorter and narrower than 
the men's, and sometimes they wear a short jacket richly embroidered in 
gold ; the 'abba is generally dark red. 

The shape of the cap varies according to the different districts. In 
Bethlehem they wear a sort of cloth coif ornament across the forehead 
with gold or silver coins according to the wealth of the wearer, and in 
Nazareth and the surrounding district, a padded head-dress coming down 
the sides of the face, and decorated with a number of silver coins (five 
piastre jjieces), often as many as six or seven pounds' worth. These 
foolishly heavy decorations cause them to suffer a great deal from pains 
in the head and diseases of the eye, though once they have become 
accustomed to them, leaving them off has always a bad effect. I had an 
opportunity of assuring myself of this fact in Nazareth ; a woman there 
had exchanged the smadi for the light sooki which is worn in the towns 
(it consists of a small tarbtish with a golden clasp, a meiidil and only a 
few coins at the back), she got ophthalmia ; some others had sacrificed 
their coins through want of money, so that only their cloth coif remained ; 
and all of them suffered with pains in the head. 



300 LIFE, TTABITS, AND CUSTOMS OF 

If a woman is in want of money, she cuts off a few coins, if she earns 
anything she stitches some more on, thus her head-dress forms a portable 
bank on which her capital is stitched. During a night attack the first 
thouo-ht of the women is to hide their smade. The Bedawin will often 
attack them and rob them of their head-pieces, and in some villages they 
have even been murdered on their way home from fetching water, only on 
account of their coins. 

Amongst the Christians, a woman will often leave her smade or a 
portion of it to be expended in masses for the repose of her soul. A 
small chain or band fastens this ponderous head-covering under the chin, 
and sometimes from this hangs a second chain on which is suspended a 
lai'ge gold or silver coin as a neck ornament. The mendil or veil is worn 
over the smad, covering the head and neck, though not the face, but if 
any stranger appears the women at once cover their mouth and nose ; a well 
behaved woman never appears in public without her mendil. Often 
riding through a village and passing near the huts, I have noticed the 
women without their veils, having taken them off, perhaps on account of 
the heat, or whilst combing their hair, but directly they became aware 
of my approach, the veils were on in a second. The mendil in some 
districts is white, and is often ornamented with a bright fringe and 
border as in Jerusalem and Bethlehem. In the N^blus district it is red, 
and round about Nazareth black with yellow stripes. The beauty or 
ugliness of the women is alike hid by the veil, only just the top part of the 
face remaining visible. They all use kohel, which not only enhances the 
beauty of their eyes, but is also supposed to strengthen them. On very 
joyful occasions, and for weddings, they stain their fingers and feet with 
henna, and the old women also dye their hair with it when it is turning 
grey. Bracelets made of inferior silver, brass or silver rings and bangles 
for the ankles are the principal ornaments. In some parts the women 
dress better, wearing underclothes as weU as the orthodox costume. The 
girls can be easily distinguished from the married women by their much 
simpler and lighter head-dress. The S7nade is only adopted after marriage. 

Like all Orientals, the Fellah's chief wish is to have a number of male 
descendants. As a rule, the sons remain in their father's house, or at all 
events in the same village, and a father who is surrounded by his sons and 
his grandsons not only secures help and protection for his declining years, 
but also gains greatly in honour and influence. A clan (hama'il) numbering 
two hundred men, under the present state of government, can get any- 
thing they want much more easily than one mustering only fifty. The 
fathers are very proud of their sons, and the sisters take the greatest 
delight in hearing their brotliers well spoken of. Such being the case, it 
may be imagined that there is great rejoicing over the birth of a son. All 
the relations and friends visit the father to offer their congratulations, 
adding the usual formula, " May that which has come to you be blessed," 
to which he joyfully makes answer, " May God also bless you." A cup of 
coffee is then offered to each guest, or among the Christians, wine and 
sweetmeats. The birth of a daughter creates no excitement, nor do the 



THE FELLAHIN OF PALESTINE. 301 

friends offer congratulations ; nevertheless it has its bright side, for if 
every son adds to the family strength and influence, so each daughter is an 
addition to their capital, for on reaching a marriageable age, she is worth 
several thousand piastres. For instance, if a poor man has four daughters, 
they represent a capital of twelve thousand piastres, and should he be a poor 
man, the traders will give him credit on their account. 

Immediately after birth, the children are rubbed with finely powdered 
salt. This process which is supposed to have the effect of hardening them 
is repeated for some weeks ; sometimes it does the child a great deal of 
harm. In Bethlehem, I remember seeing a fine boy who had nearly lost his 
sight through this senseless custom, the salt having got into his eyes. On 
the whole though, the experiment cannot do the children any real injury, 
for in spite of dirt, neglect, and exposure, they grow up hardy, and soon 
get accustomed to the rough life which lies before them. As infants they 
are certainly not fussed over ; even when onlj- a few days old they are left 
swaddled and tied into a very primitive wooden cradle, where they have 
to remain whilst the mother goes about her household duties. If she has 
tried to protect the poor little creature from the flies and mosquitoes by 
throwing a niendil over his face, he is almost suffocated for want of air, 
but if left without, dozens of flies swarm round him and settle in clusters 
on his mouth and eyes ; at first he screams and struggles as much as his 
narrow quarters will allow, but escape being impossible, he submits to the 
inevitable. It has often surprised me tf> see the bigger children playing 
in the streets or sitting on the rubbish heaps without making the slightest 
attempt to brush the flies from their faces, so early do they become 
accustomed to the plague of the land. Still, in spite of their being 
brought up with so little comfort, there is no lack of maternal affection. 
In their own fashion, the women are dotingly fond of their children, and 
will endure the greatest privation, and make almost any sacrifice to 
further their welfare. Whilst caressing them they make use of the 
tenderest terms of endearment, apostrophising the child with such ex- 
pressions as " My soul ! my Lord ! my Life ! Oh light of my eye ! " and 
they sing them the softest cradle songs. They have a great love for all 
children, and would not willingly do one of them any harm. This is 
especially noticeable when they go out as nurses ; nothing can exceed their 
devotion and the patience with which they work or sit up at night if 
necessary. If anything, they carry their affection for their sons too far. 
Many a mother works hard or denies herself every comfort until her 
latest years, in order to enable her son to marry, and then to aid him in 
supporting his wife and children. The women suckle their children for 
three or four years. They consider that long nursing strengthens the 
child, and have several saying to that effect, whilst they often give as the 
reason of a weak constitution, the fact of the sufferer having been 
weaned too soon. In such a climate this belief is perhaps not without 
foundation. If a mother dies, a neighbour will take the child until a 
nurse can be found, and only very rarely are they brought up on goat's 
milk. The children are early accustomed to eat bread, and are often 



302 LIFE, HABITS, AND CUSTOMS OF 

stuffed with the most unwholesome food. There is great joy on the 
appearance of the first teeth, for then, armed with a piece of bread, the 
child is left to crawl about in front of the door. If the mother has any- 
thing to do in the town or the field, she carries her child in a sort of sack 
on her back ; and during the harvest, the cradle is often dragged into 
the fields. The children are spared much doctoi-ing, a great deal being left 
to nature. For wounds, finely sifted red earth is mixed with water and 
applied in the form of a paste, or sometimes a bright red powder called 
zerakon. In bad cases of fever, they let blood by scraping the skin with a 
razor, and for inflammation of the gums whilst teething, they burn the 
under part of the tongue with a red hot needle. If these remedies fail, 
their power to help is at an end, and Allah alone can save. Many bad 
diseases of the eye might be prevented in the first instance by the simple 
use of a little clean water, but, unluckily, except for drinking purposes, the 
Fellah has the greatest dislike to making use of it. 

A child having made his first effort at speech by acquiring the words 
father and mother, he next accomplishes the " abuk " or cursing of his 
father, and when he can seize hold of his father's beard and cry abuk, his 
parent greatly rejoices, and everyone predicts his future worth. 

The children have literally no games, they tumble about the streets and 
squares, and in their way seem quite merry and contented. Directly they 
are old enough they begin to make themselves useful by taking the goats 
and donkeys to the pastures, and watcliing to prevent them straying into 
the vineyards or cultivated fields, and there the boys lie under the shade 
of an olive or fig tree quietly looking out, or sometimes whiliug away the 
time by playing on a very primitive .sort of pipe made of reed. When 
the fruit begins to ripen, they are set to watch the vineyards and fig- 
gardens in order to frighten away chance intruders by screaming and 
throwing stones. During the harvest they help to load and drive home 
the camels. The girls balancing a water pot on their heads, soon learn 
to fetch water from the well. They have also to collect fuel and dry it in 
the sun ready for the oven, to help their mother fetch wood, to tend the 
younger children, and dii-ectly they are strong enough, they learn to grind 
the grain, knead the dough, and help with the baking. In the neighbour- 
hood of a large town, many children, both boys and girls, are employed 
by the builders, some come from a considerable distance, and remaining 
in the town all the week, only return home on Saturdays. They live 
chiefly on bread, eating with it onions, fruit, cheese, olives, or some 
such relish ; meat they very seldom taste. 

Until about fifty years ago, when foreign missions and societies began 
to take an interest in the welfare of the children, there were literally no 
elementary schools ; but now, in all the towns, and in the larger villages, 
we find several of various denominations — Greek, Roman, Protestant, or 
Armenian — as well as the Government schools for Mahometans. Many of 
the Fellahin, convinced of the necessity of education, send their children 
regulai'ly to one or other of these schools. Previously, only people who 
were well ofi' sent their children to either a Christian or a Mahometan 



THE FELLAHIN OF PALESTINE. 303 

school, where they were taught to read Arabic and perhaps to write 
a little. The Mussulman learnt to drone out the Koran, the Christians 
the Psalms ; even now the Koran and the Psalms are respectively the first 
reading books. The salary of tlie schoolmaster was paid in kind, namely 
in bread and eggs, which the pupils brought with them every day, and to 
whicli they added a few piastres at the end of the month. Sometimes, 
when the children had reached a certain part of their text books, a 
backsheesh would be presented to the teacher, in acknowledgment of their 
progress. I have met old men who could repeat the whole of the Psalms 
or long portions of the Koran by heart, having learnt them in this way. 
The writing was done on a wooden tablet, but they seldom made as much 
progress in caligraphy as in reading or learning by heart ; even now there 
are some villages (generally Mahometan) where not a creature excepting 
the katib or preacher could read or write, and occasionally not even he, so 
that if a letter comes which has to be read, or if anything has to be 
written, they are obliged to send to the next village, where the katib will 
just manage to spell out the contents, or to scrawl a few characters on 
paper. The Arabian schoolmaster's only method was to frighten his 
pupils into attention and a small amount of industry ; to this end he used 
the rod and the "falak," a wooden thing to whicli the delinquent's feet 
were tied by a cord, whilst he lay on the ground to be belaboured by his 
teacher. Now and then I have seen this much-hated instrument hung up 
on the wall, in order to intimidate the children. In very exceptional oases 
a father would let his daughters learn to read, bi;t this never happened in 
Mahometan families. Some of the Fellahin are very sharp-witted and 
teachable. A good supply of capable schoolmasters and careful school 
inspectors would soon be able to improve the state of the village schools, 
and to introduce a more progressive system. The children seldom remain 
at school later than their thirteenth year, by which time they are very 
often engaged, and sometimes even married, whereu])on they assume the 
manly Icjfe, and commence their calling in life. The majority of them 
take to agriculture, and find full occupation in tending the vineyards and 
fig-gardens, or in looking after the crops and the cattle. Others follow 
trades, but beyond becoming shoemakers, weavers, builders, or joiners, 
there is but little choice, and even in these they find scanty employment. 
In some villages there is not a single artisan. The weaver uses a very 
primitive loom, and makes the thick cotton material used for the tob ; 
although a great quantity of European cotton is sold in Syria, the Fellah 
does not find it strung enough for this strange garment ; in the same 
manner they weave the thick stuflP for the 'abbas, though the finer ones 
come from Damascus. A weaver who begins his work in good time, can 
easily make enough stuff for a garment during the day, and earn a fair 
profit for his work. The joiners make the wooden parts of the \ery simple 
ploughs and farm implements, and those who have advanced a little in 
their trade are able to put up the rough doors and window frames, 
but more difficult work would be beyond them. The iron portions of the 
plough and the various tools, are made either by the smith of the nearest 

X 



304 THE INSCRIBED JAR HANDLES. 

town or by gipsies (Naury), who travel about the country making nails, 
axe-heads, etc., and dwelling in black Bedawin tents. Only on the other 
side of Jordan do we find smiths in the smaller villages, and there the 
surname Haddad (smitli or forger) is of frequent occurrence. For things 
which they can neither obtain in their own village nor in the neighbouring 
town, the Fellahin are dependent on journeymen mechanics — copper- 
smiths, silversmiths, gun-makers, pedlars, and coverlet makers, who travel 
from place to place accordingly as they find work. The pedlars and 
mattress-makers are generally Jews. Quack doctors and inoculators are 
also to be found travelling through the villages. 

In Bethlehem there is a considerable industry in rosaries and orna- 
ments made of mother-o'-pearl and the black Nebeg musa stone, through 
which trade many families earn a living, and some even become wealthy. 

Again, in villages like Ram Allah and Lifta, many gain their living by 
keeping donkeys and carrying produce into the towns. Every morning 
one sees groups of these animals being driven to the market at Jerusalem, 
laden according to the season, sometimes with wood, fruit, or grain, 
at others with oil or water. In the evening they trot merrily home 
with much joking on the part of the drivers. Lifta is the gi-eat centre of 
the donkey drivers and water-carriers, and in Saris and Kubebe there are 
a great many camel-drivers, who are chiefly employed in carrying wares 
between Jaffa, Jerusalem, and Nabulus. 

{To he continued.) 



SOME REMARKS ON THE INTERPRETATION OF THE 
IMPRESSIONS ON THE VASE HANDLES FOUND AT 
THE FOOT OF THE TEMPLE WALL. 

By J. Baker Greene, LL.B. 

Amongst the many objects contained in the Museum of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund, perhaps none are marked with a greater interest, both 
in their historical and their religious associations, than some fragments of 
pottery, easily identified as vase handles, which were discovered some years 
since in the vicinity of the Temple wall at Jerusalem. Two or three of 
these fragments contain inscriptions, or rather im])ressions made in the 
clay when in process of manufacture, but although the Phaaiician 
characters have been deciphered, I am not aware that up to the present 
any explanation of their meaning has been given which has recommended 
itself to the acceptance of Biblical archaeologists. The object of the jDresent 
paper is to throw, if possible, some light upon this obscure but most 
interesting subject. 

The characters found on these vase handles are Phoenician, and similar to 



THE INSCRIBED JAK HANDLES. 305 

tliose ou tlie Moabite Stone, the date of which is as nearly as possible 
900 B.C. Judging of the px'obable date of this pottery, which was found at tlie 
south-eastern corner of Solomon's palace, and adjoining the foot of the 
Temple wall, and which must have been subsequent to the building of the 
Temple, and prior to the Babylonian captivity, we should expect that 
the words, like those in the Moabite inscription, would be similar to those 
found in the Old Testament records, and if so we are not likely to err in 
intrepi-etiug them in the same way. 

The characters found on one of the vase handles transcribed into 

Hebrew, are as follows:— L H, M ^, L h. Oh ^, Ts ^, P Q 

H. J~f, or in their entirety, L M L Ch Ts P H. To these letters we 
must now supply the vowel points. The subdivision of the words into 
L : M L Ch : and Ts P H is doubtless correct. Let us for the present 
postpone the consideration of the first word or letter L. 

M L Ch may be read, following the Hebrew text of the Scriptures, as 
Moloch, Molech, or Melech. This word, however spelt, was the name 
given to one of the deities worshipped in Canaan, and is supposed to have 
been the sun-god regarded in his scoi-ching or destruction aspect, and as 
such he was propitiated with human sacrifices by fire. Molech was also, 
especially by the Carthagenians, identified with the planet Saturn, which 
may explain the myth of Saturn devouring his children. The word when 
translated, is " king," as Baal means " lord," but in the Hebrew texi 
the word Molech is generally sujjposed to be used to exjji-ess the deity, 
Melech to express the title of king. The word Moloch occurs very rarely. 
Molech is, like Baal, almost invariably preceded by the definite article. 
There are several passages in the Old Testament where this word is 
translated king, in which there can be no doubt the deity was alluded to. 
For example, in Is. xxx, 33, " For Tophet is ordained of old. Yea for tlie 
king it is jarepared, etc." The Hebrew text is Molech, but we know from 
other sources that it was in Toj^het that the fearful rites of Molech 
worship were chiefly celebrated. 2 Kings xxiii, 10 ; Jer. vii, 31, etc. 

The letters in this inscription may therefore be read Molech or Melech , 
and in the absence of anything else to guide us, might, with equal plausi- 
bility, be construed as the name of a deity or the title of an earthly 
monarch. Let us now proceed to consider the next word. 

Ts P H is supposed to be Zepha, and this is further presumed to be a 
proper name. I question very much the accuracy of this conclusion. There 
is no record in history of a king so named, ruling either in the northex'u 
or southern kingdom, into which the Jewish Monarchy was split up by 
the revolt of the ten tribes, or in any of the adjacent States. I also think 
it very improbable that any king in those times, or indeed in any other, 
would have stamped his name and title on pottery intrinsically valueless. 
If he desired to mark it as royal property, it seems in the highest degree 
unlikelj'^ that he would adojit such a device or such an idiom. Let us cast 
about for a more probable solution of the mystery. 

The Hebrew verb Zapha (Ts P H with the necessary vowel points 

X 2 



306 THE INSCRIBED JAR HANDLES. 

means " to look out, to view," and also " to shine," at least in the Arabic. 
It would be needless to cite passages in which it is used in the former 
sense, but we must refer to one because it is very much in point. At the 
parting between Laban and Jacob on Mount Gilead, they raised a heap of 
stones, and set up a pillar, and made a covenant to respect each other's 
possessions. Laban called the pillar "the Mizpah, for he said, the Lord 
watch (Jehovali itzeph) between me and thee when we are absent one from 
another." Gen. xxxi, 49. The verb is here employed to indicate the unceasing 
watchfulness of God, and a paranomasia is used to connect it with Mizpah, 
which comes from the same root, and signifies not only a pillar, but a 
watch tower. In the absence therefore of any indication that Ts P H 
is a proper name, it seems only reasonable to treat it as an ordinary 
translatable word, and all the more if we find that it is such a word as 
would in all probability be associated with the name given to the deity, and 
be expressive of one of his attributes. Molech was not an idol ; though 
if we trust tradition, he was represented by a brazen image in the valley 
of Ben Ilinnom, in whose outstretched arms the children were placed 
which were sacrificed to the terrible god. The early religion of the 
inhabitants of Palestine was simply nature worship. But the forces of 
nature were various. The luiF.een power whose efforts alone were mani- 
fest, might be exercised in a beneficial or in a destructive manner. The 
sun might by its genial warmth bring forth in abundance the fruits 
of the earth, or by its scorching heat utterly consume them. The 
generative power in natui'e needed the productive power as a counter- 
part, and if there was a king or lord of heaven, there was a queen or 
lady. The consort of Baal, or perhaps more correctly speaking the com • 
plement, was Baaltis. The Ashera (in the authorised version rendered 
" the grove ") which was the symbol of the queen of heaven, invariably 
stood beside the altar which was raised to the king, and as we know, stood 
in the temple of Jerusalem at the time of King Josiah, by whom it was 
cut down. The Baalim and the Ashtaroth were numerous, but it is 
doubtful whether they were regarded as distinct deities or only as 
indicative of different manifestations of divine power. But however this 
may be, " the Molech," Kar' f^oxw " the king," was believed to view, i.e., to 
look out of heaven constantly, and if it was desired to refer to this 
attribute, some form of the verb Tsapha would unquestionably have been 
used by an Israelite living at the era to which the pottery found in under- 
ground Jerusalem unquestionably must be referred. 

It may perhaps be suggested that Molech Z P H is simply an illustration 
of a practice which was very common amongst the various races inhabiting 
the region which, for convenience sake, we will call Palestine. We mean 
that of calling themselves by names compounded of the name of the deity 
they desired to honour. A great number of Israelitish names were thus 
formed, and a very curious light they seem to tlu'ow on the religion of 
Israel prior to the Babylonian captivity. For example Joash (a compound 
of Jehovah) has a son named Jerubbaal (a compound of Baal), who becomes 
Judge over Israel, and is succeeded by his son Abimelech (a compound of 



THE INSCRIBED JAR HANDLES. 307 

Molech). Saul called one of his sons Jonathan (a compound of Jehovah), 
and another Eshbaal ; and Jonathan in his turn called his son Meribbaal. 
Saul's High Priest is in one place called Ahiah (a compound of Jehovah), 
(1 Sam. xiv),and in a subsequent one is called Ahimelech (1 Sam. xxii), which 
would almost lead to the notion that Jehovah and " the Molech " were at 
one time considered convertible terms. David called one of his sons 
Beeliadali (1 Chr. xiv, 7), but elsewhere (2 Sam. v, 16) his name appears 
as Eliada (a compound of El, Elohim or God). Hezekiah, Jeremiah, 
Isaiah, and many other names might be cited as compounds of Jehovah. 
The Carthagenians, it is needless to remind the reader, preserved the usage 
of their Phoenician ancestors, as illustrated in such names as Hannibal, 
Asdrubal, &c., names compounded of Baal. 

May we not have hei-e stamped on this jar handle a name compounded 
of Molech, and may not this stamp be that of the potter who made the jar 
or of the owner ? The latter supposition may, I think, be summarily 
rejected. The modern usage of having crests or cyphers stamped on dinner 
plates when in the course of manufacture, or if in trade, of having the name 
and calling of the makers stamped on bottles and jars, was, so far as I am 
aware, unknown to the ancients. The possibility that it may be the potter's 
name demands, however, careful consideration, because if we have here 
simply the manufacturer's stamp, the discovery of these jar handles throws 
no light on the religion of Israel. 

We have in the Old Testament one name which has an apparent if not 
a real analogy to Melech Z P H considered as a compound name. It is 
Zephaniah ; the last syllable indicates a compound of Jehovah, but it is not 
so easy to speak with certainty regarding the first portion of the word. 
St. Jerome was of opinion that it was derived from the veib we have just 
been considering, Zapha, and accordingly interpreted the entire name 
as " speculator Domini," the watcher of Jehovah. This would have been 
a very fitting name for the prophet, of whose name St. Jerome supplied the 
etymology, but as he was named when he was a child, and as others who 
were not pro^jhets held the name before him, we must examine his 
name irrespective of the qualifications of its possessor. Gesenius with more 
probability derives the name from Zaphau, " to hide," the true interpre- 
tation of the entire name being " whom Jehovah hides," that is " defends." 

Those who accept the patristic etymology will see in Zephaniah the 
precise counterpart of Molech Zepha. The only difference being that one 
name is compounded of Jehovah, and the other of Molech. Those who 
prefer placing their reliance on Gesenius, must however still admit that there 
is no valid reason why a compound name should not have been formed 
with the verb Zapha as with the verb Zaphan. 

Curiously enough there was a Zephaniah who was second priest in the 
Temple at the time of its destruction by order of Nebuchadnezzar 
(2 Kings XXV, 18), and the temptation is very great to identify his name with 
the inscription, and to conclude tha,t as Ahiah (1 Sam. xiv) became 
Ahimelech (1 Sam. xxii), so the Molech ZPH or Melchizeph of the inscription 
became converted by the sacred historian into Zephaniah. But irrespective 



308 THE INSCRIBED JAE HANDLES. 

of etymological objections to this solution, it seems to me in the highest 
degree improbable that vessels used in the service of the Temple were 
stamped with the names of any of the priests. 

Thus far therefore our inquiry carries us no farther than this — Molech 
Z P H may be a compound name, and in that case the vase handle tells us 
no more than probably the name of the maker ; or else Molech Z P H is a 
])hrase which must be constrned according to the meaning of the words 
comprising it. Let us however now proceed to consider that apparently 
insignificant portion of the inscription, the notice of which is purposely 
postponed. 

The first letter is L ^. This is simply the preposition "to," which is 
invariably used in the Old Testament writings. In 1 Kings xi, 7, which 
states that Solomon raised a high place to Molech, the precise letters are 
found in the Hebrew text as in this inscription, L M L Ch ; and equally so in 
2 Kings xxiii, 10, where an account is given of the defilement of Tophet by 
king Josiah in order " that no man might make his son or daughter to 
pass through the fire to Molech." 

Does not, however, the employment of the preposition " to " furnish 
the key to the right interpretation of the following words, and completely 
dispel any doubts whether, after all, we had only acquired possession of an 
old Hebrew trade mai'k ? If Molech Z P H meant king Zepha, or if the two 
words together formed a proper name similar to Zephaniah, the employment 
of the preposition is unintelligible. But if the words be understood in 
their ordinary meaning, the employment of the preposition becomes at 
once obvious. If the vases or jars were employed in the service of Molech, 
what more natural than that they should have im]>ressed on them at the 
time of their manufacture a stamp declaring that they were dedicated to 
the service of the deity, and at the same time conveying a warning that 
the ever watchful deity would take notice if they were stolen or appro- 
priated to any profane use ? 

And this construction seems to find corroboration in the writings of St. 
Paul. He appears to have been familiar with the practice of " dedicating " 
vessels and the way of signifying their dedications by means of a seal. In 
his Epistle to the Romans (ix, 21) he asks, " Has not the potter power over 
the clay of the same lump to make one vessel to honour and another unto 
dishonour ? What if God, willing to show His wrath, and to make His power 
known, endured with much long suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to 
destruction, and that He might make known the riches of His glory on the 
vessels of mercy which he had afore prepared unto glory." Pursuing the 
same train of thought in his Second Epistle to Timothy (ii, 19, 20), and 
using the same metaphor, he wi-ites, " The foundation of God standeth 
sure having this seal, 'The Lord knoweth them that are His ;'" and then 
follows the allusion to the " Great house," where were " not only vessels of 
gold and of silver, but also of wood and earth, and some to honour and 
.some to dishonour." The Apostle thus continues " If a man therefore purge 
himself from these, he shall be a vessel unto honour sanctified and meet for 
the master's use, and prepared unto every good work." The practice of 



THE INSCRIBED JAR HANDLES. 309 

dedicating, nay of sanctifying vessels for the Temple, would seem to have 
survived down to the time of St. Paul, and it would also appear that in the 
case of earthenware vessels which, being intrinsically valueless, might in 
the service of the Temple be inadvertently used both for sacred or profane 
uses, it was the pi-actice of the potter to impress upon those which were 
to be exclusively employed for sacred purposes a seal denoting their 
sanctification. 

There are in the Museum two other handles, the impressions on which 
are not so legible. In both, however, it would seem that the introductory 
word is L . MLK ; and consequently according to this construction dedicated 
" To Molech." 

The presumption that the impressions on the vase handles indicated the 
dedication of the vessels to a sacred use, is of course considerably 
strengthened if the inference be well founded that the figure resembling a 
dove with outstretched wings, which forms part of the impression, was the 
emblem of the sun-god. 

How then must we read this inscription, and what light, if any, does it 
throw on the religion of Israel prior to the Babylonian captivity ? What 
were these vases and this pottery, of which the relics were found in such 
quantities as to give rise to an idea on the part of Mr. Fergusson and 
others that they were the remains of a museum of crockery which had 
been collected by one of the kings of Judah ] The conclusion appears to 
me irresistible that these vases were used in the service of the Temple, and 
that this is shown by the place where they were found, and the stamp 
which declares that they were dedicated " to Molech who views," " the All 
Seeing " or " Ever Watchful." That Molech worship, which was simply a 
worship of Baal, existed side by side even in the Temple at Jerusalem 
with the worship of Jehovah, is placed beyond all doubt by the records of the 
Books of Kings, and by the protests of the Prophets of the seventh and eighth 
centuries B.C. Tophet, in the valley of the sou of Hinnom, was just outside 
the walls of Jerusalem, and there the sacrifice of children to Molech was 
perhaps only too common down to the very eve of the captivity. We are 
told that Manasseh, Josiah's immediate predecessor on the throne of Judah, 
sacrificed his son to Molech. But under Josiah, a great reformation was 
effected. The book of the Law was found in the Temple by Hilkiah the 
priest, and Josiah proceeded to carry out the instructions which he found 
therein. " And the king commanded Hilkiah the High Priest, and the 
priests of the second order, and the keepers of the door, to bring forth out of 
the Temple of the Lord all the vessels that were made for Baal and for the 
Grove " (the Ashera, the symbol of Ashtoreth, the consort or female side 
of Baal), " and for all the host of heaven, and he burned them without 
Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron, and carried the ashes of them unto 
Bethel " (2 Kings, xxiii, 4). Is it very improbable that in this broken 
pottery found at the foot of the Temple wall, we may have some of " the 
A'essels of Baal " (as they would be termed by the historian) which were 
cast out of the Temple by order of Josiah, but which, from their fragile 
nature, intrinsic worthlessness and incombustibility, were not removed to 



310 THE INSCRIBED JAR HANDLES. 

Kidron to be destroyed by fire ? Nay, do not all the circumstances seem 
to indicate that these vessels were cast in Josiah's time on the spot where 
they have now been discovered ? So long as the kingdom of Jvidah lasted, 
so long it is reasonable to assume that comparatively little alteration took 
place in immediate proximity to the Temple walls. But when the 
monarchy was overthrown, and the Temjile was rifled and destroyed, the 
first layer would be formed of the debris, through which, after the lapse of 
two thousand four hundred years, deep shafts must now be sunk to reach 
the ground on which Josiah's contemporaries stood. 

It is not however necessary to suppose that the fragments now found 
are those of the vessels which were destroyed by order of Josiah. The 
pottery used in the service of the Temple was, like all other pottery, fragile, 
and when broken was doubtless thrown out as useless. Those who accept 
the rendering given by Grotius of Zech. ii, 13, will perhaps recognize in 
the place where these fragments were found, "the jDottery in the House of 
the Lord " that is in the precincts of, or adjoining the Temj^le where refuse 
was cast, and which was therefore an appropriate place for the thirty pieces 
of silver of which the prophet sjieaks. 

The material point is that the fragments to which I have dii'ected 
attention were parts of vessels used in the Temple in the service of " the 
Molech," and that they dated in all probability from the concluding years 
of the Jewish monarchy. Josiah survived his great attempt at reformation 
only a few years. Assyi'ia having been threatened by Egypt, he was so ill 
advised as to interfere, and endeavoured to arrest the advance of the 
Egyptian army. A battle was fought at Meggido, where the Israelites 
were routed and Josiah slain< The bent of Hebrew religious thought, both 
among believers and unbelievers, invariably connected temporal prosperity 
or adversity as the case might be, with divine pleasure or divine resentment,* 
and it was therefore not surprising that the teriible disaster at Megiddo and 
its consequences were attributed by the discontented people to their 
abandonment of the worship of the Baalim and the Ashtaroth. The 
kingdom of Judah was laid under tribute ; many of the Israelites were 
carried into captivity beyond the Nile. Hence the bitter reproaches 
addressed to Jeremiah by the exiles in Egypt : " Since we left off to 
burn incense to the queen of heaven (ML Ch Th) and to pour out 
drink offerings to her " as "■ we and our fathers, our kings and our princes 
have done in the cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem, we 
have wanted all things, and have been consumed by the sword and by 
famine." (Jer. xliv, 17, 18.) At all events, on the death of Josiah, the 
Jews and their rulers appear to have acted on the assumption that the 
deceased monarch had committed a blunder. The former religion was 
re-established, so far as we can judge from the little that is told vis by 
the sacred historian of Josiah's sons and grandsons, who in turn filled 
the throne of Judah. It is conveyed in the familiar refrain, " they did 

* This Bcntimenl is very clearly exhibited in the inscription on the Moabite 
Stone. 



JANNES AND JAMBHES. 311 

evil in the sight of the Lord according to all that their father's had 
done." Then came the crowning disaster. The siege and capture of 
Jerusalem by the Babylonian monarch. The spoliation of the Temple. 
The removal of all its treasures, and the carrying away into captivity of 
the bulk of the population. To the Jews the night seemed at its 
blackest, but still it was the harbinger of the dawn. When they returned 
from tlie Chebar to the Jordan, and proceeded to rear the walls of the 
second Temple, a new era was commencing ; Baal, and Molech, and 
Ashtoreth had vanished never to return. The overthrow of the Baby- 
lonian empire by Cyrus gave the Israelites their liberty, and when 
Ezi-a proceeded to Jerusalem, " with the Book of the Law in his hands," 
his companions, like himself, were the staunch maintainers of that pure 
monotheism which was then firmly established in Judea, and has con- 
tinued amongst the Children of Israel uncorrupted to the present day. 



BIBLICAL RESEARCH. 

Jannes and Jambres withstanding Moses. 
I HAVE received with great pleasure the statement of your Committee that 
" they desire that their Journal should become as much as possible a 
record of all discoveries connected with Biblical Research." Few Biblical 
names are more interesting than those of Jaunes and Jambres, or Kamr(es) 
as the Select Papyri seem to call him. The two are named by St. Paul to 
Timothy as agents, in a general way, who " withstood Moses ; " and if we 
find their names connected with that of Moses in pure Egyptian papyri, in 
other words, if the epoch of Moses is the epoch of Jannes, and the epoch 
of Jannes is the epoch of Seti II and Bai-n-Pta, then many an old stop-gap 
theory of a merely Egyptian chronology wiU have to make way for the 
chronology of tlie epoch of Moses, in which the Bible and the papyri are 
very closely intertwined. 

Most unfortunately, the fifth Anastasi Papyrus, which I shall chiefly 
make use of, has been injured at the name of Kamr(es), and the name 
only occurs once ; but we shall find him engaged with a Jaunea in a very 
important military business ; a business the very object of which was to 
" withstand " a person named Moses. With respect to the reading of the 
name of Kamr(es) or Kamr, the authority of my lamented friend and 
former pupil, Charles Goodwin, is so great, that I am much pleased to see 
that he follows me so far as he goes, and differs from me only in saying 
nothing about the letter r. In the " Cambridge Essays," p. 262, he reads : 
" Ka Kam (Black Bull)." He agrees that Ka is a title ; and therefore 
that the true name begins with Kam. 

The passage to which I would first call your attention is in the fifth 
Anastasi Papyrus, beginning from plate 18, line 6. It contains a sequence 
of military orders from this Kamr(es) or Jambres. Happily we can here 
learn in a few lines a good deal about the man, and, to begin with, it is a 
great thing to know which side he was fighting for, in the anarchy around 



312 BIBLICAL RESEARCH. 

him. On every occasion the scribes connected with him parade the gi-and 
titles of Seti II, and, with Jannes and Bek-n-Ptah, the three profess they 
will sing for Seti eternal songs ; and " Oh," say they, " may he make for 
us myriads of festivals." Now in presence of Jambres who (as we shall 
soon see) could initiate the moving of troops in Edom, we have of course 
to ask ourselves was he a lieutenant of the Regent, Bai-n-Ra, or was 
Bai-n-Ra dead 1 Unless the latter was the case, I cannot in any degree 
pictiu-e the situation. Mr. Goodwin (" Society of Biblical Archeeology," 
vol. ii, part 2, p. 359) is astonished at the frantic loyalty shown to Bai-n- 
Ra (2nd Anastasi, p. 5). An explanation which merely supposes him to 
have been a king does not sufficiently account for the fact. This was in 
Goodwin's day the general opinion, which not only leads to nothing, 
but JNIiss Corbeaux had already forcibly pointed out the weakness of such a 
supposition. In fact it rests upon the moral impossibility that the great 
Rameses II should have dismembered the empire in his own lifetime. 
Seti II also and his children would not have dedicated royal statues to 
Bai-n-Ra had there been even a suspicion of treason resting on such a 
Bai-n-Ra as the conqueror at Prosopis. The fact that Seti and his 
children allowed these statues to be erected has doubtless been the chief 
reason why he has been thought to have been a king. But to this the 
answer is sufficient that, in gTatitude for his great services, the statues 
were erected during the lifetime of Rameses II himself. In fact at 
Medinet Abou the statue of Bai-n-Ra was actually placed before that of 
his own father. This I should say instead of proving, clearly disproves 
that he can have been then considered as anything more than a regent. 
To sum up then, it seems most probable that Bai-n-Ra exercised royal 
functions for about five years, and that his death took place about this 
time, which event, coupled with the absence of his half-brother Seti II, 
in Ethiopia, brought forward Jambres, and was the principal cause of 
the rising of the Semites, which eventuated the Exodus. While alive, 
his mere name, and the tribute in corn which he wisely gave the 
Khita, would suffice to keej) things tolerably quiet, but " apres lui le 
deluge." The key of the situation seems to have been at Edom, and a 
regent friendly to the Semites, and pretending to be so to the Hittites, 
might do much from Edom which could not be done from Ethiopia. 

Again, Jambres and his companions have made it quite clear in 
these papyri that they worshipped Amen-Ra, the great Theban god, but 
then it is equally clear that Bai-n-Ra, acting for his father Rameses, 
built a strong place, avowedly to connect Egypt with the foreign men 
of Jaha (2nd Anastasi, p. 1). Four deities are mentioned as patrons 
of the four sides of it. Amen could not of course be well left out, but 
the other three were Semitic, viz., Sutech, Ashteroth, and Sati. In the 
face of this solid fact, how can ^Egyptologists have been so blinded by 
the early military successes of Rameses II as to forget what his glories 
led to, viz., tribute to the Khita in his own lifetime, and a general 
preparation for the Exodus soon after his death. Wonderful discoveries 
in this very month of August show us that the mummy of the great 



JANNES AND JAMBRES. 313 

Earaeses, at some time not yet known, was inclosed in a plain sycamore 
ease, and dropped into a ditch to hide it from foreigners* 

After Bai-n-Ea's death the unity of Egypt depended upon the 
powerful and prosperous Khita, and the strategy of Jambres, so far as 
we know it, was equal to the occasion. The difficulty was first, to re- 
inforce Zoar, the key of the position for defence against the Nor- 
theners ; secondly, not to offend the Khita ; and, thirdly, to keep a 
hold on his own Semitic troops. The device by which he secured the 
first and third desideratum was ingenious. He ordered a corps of loyal 
Midianites to Thuku or Edom, and kept in his own hands, as a pledge, the 
books containing the genealogies or roll call of the soldiers. This fact 
neither Goodwin nor Brugsch have perceived. It rests upon the following 
first part of the order I have been mentioning. (Anastasi 5, xvii, 6.) 
" Communication. "When my letter gets to you, you are to bring the 
Midianites of the captivity to the plain in face of Tasak(arta), with an 
intimation given thus, viz., ' Ye (the Midianites) are not to carry away 
the genealogies of the people.' I will keep them in my hand in a written 
document. Then do you (viz., my officers) take notes, while you cause 
the people to pass along before their signalizing officers, for the object 
of arriving at Thuku. I give you command to carry them across (viz., 
the genealogies) for the people ; I who am Captain of Archers, Bull 
Kamr(es) of Thuku, to Captain of Archers Ani and Captain of Archers 
Bek-n-Ptah in the Palace." 

This traiislation (in a primitive form) I gave in my Exodus Papyri, 
A.D. 1855. In 1858, Goodwin, reviewing me, did not see his way to 
o'iving his own version, as he would have been brought face to face 
with the problem of Jambres the Bull of Thuku. Brugsch too, in 1879, 
passes it over in silence. It is, in my opinion, the very key-note which 
harmonizes aU around it. 

In passing on to the next part of the paragraph we come to the 
sign of a stop. In such a case it is not certain that the coming para- 
graph must be connected with what we have just read. Nevertheless, 
the context seems to give us a connection, and if it were not for the 
tantalising gaps at the most important points, we should all probably 
agree that we have before us what seems to be an order to close in on 
the south, given to another officer, Amen-mesu, son of Bek-n-Ptah. 
Even if this part of the papyri were not otherwise interesting, it has 
achieved such notoriety that I ought not to pass it by without notice. 
Dr. Brugsch (Vol. II, "History," p. 358) has attributed its preservation 
to Divine Providence, and calls it the most precious memorial of the 
epoch. He follows Goodwin in considering that it refers to two 
runaway slaves. Now considering that a singular pronoun cannot 
agree with a plural noun, I consider that there was only one slave, 
who was a slave to two people, viz., Bek-n-Ptah and Amen-mesu, 
father and son, and that he was not running away, but carrying 

* September. They now say that the above mummy was that of Eameses XII. 



314 BIBLICAL RESEARCH. 

messages ; and that the order refers to the movement of a large body 
of ti'oops. The reason Goodwin must have liad for wliat he must have 
considered an improvement upon my version, was doubtless that the 
preposition m-sa may mean behind. No doubt it may ; but then, on the 
other hand, it no less frequently means % the side of. An instance of 
this may be found at Plate 13, line 1, of this papyrus — "While I hold 
thy heart near me." I am astonished to find in Piei'ret's dictionary that 
the sense of behind is given exclusively. " Communication. Seeing that 
I have given orders in the halls of the Palace on the 9th of Epiphi at 
time of night by the side of the servant for two, and considering that I am 
about to start for Zoar of Thuku on the 12th, to tell them to pass to the 
south, and to give orders for the passage on the Epiphi, I arrived at the 
fortress. They told me they had taken the field to pass Ta-Anab, north of 
the Migdol of Seti I like Baal. My order is for you to go. I have 
arranged for everything that could happen." Surely the running away of 
a couple of servants (even if they were Moses and Aaron) cannot have 
necessitated the movements of large bodies of troops like this. Tlie order 
then proceeds, " Dispatch with them the bearer of the roll-call : dispatch 
ever so many men with them. I have taken care for everything that could 
happen, and do yon give signals for great numbers of people beside them." 

The English of all this seems to be that the commander-in-chief, 
Jambres, having received information that a body of Semites were 
escaping, ordered Bek-n-Ptah, who was somewhere south, to allow them 
to cross his front (just as Marius did with the Teutons), but to take care- 
ful notes from his corps in observation. 

As had been expected, they were found to be marching north, and 
Amen-Mesu, son of Bek-n-Ptah, was then consequently ordered to close 
up south. The " Servant for two " carried the necessary orders to the 
two corps, while Jambres took one more night's rest, and next day drove 
on towards Edom. 

The next portion of the papyrus is a very curious, and very natural 
letter from the young Amen-mesu, whom we have seen to be in active 
service in the field, to his elderly father Bek-n-Ptah, at the depot appar- 
ently of the troops employed. Instead of describing what he heard, and 
saw about him, he most dutifully, but most annoyingly says, " Prithee, 
send me word of thy condition." " Yea, not a man of those whom thou 
hast sent to visit me has told me concerning thy condition." " Moreover, 
send thou me some good loaves, and 50 small cakes ; the messenger brought 
20 of them," etc. This translation is Goodwin's. 

We next (Plate 21, line 8) have a letter which according to all rules 
ought to be of most particular importance, as it is from a royal scribe. 
Royal scribes were very great personages indeed, especially serving as 
generals, which this one did. His name was Barneses. He writes to one 
Avari, whom he orders to proceed to Bubastis, where he is to put the 
signals to wor'k, and to report himself at the place agreed upon. He was 
not to go and stand at this place, and that place ; he was to go under 
command of the priest Rameses, where the military and royal Barneses 



JANNES AND JAMBRES. 315 

would join him at the breakage of the waters. " I am angry with you," 
he says, " beyond speech, your throwing away your business. I apjaoint 
you to work at the breakage, wiiatever state it is in." 

Neither Goodwin nor Brugsch have said a word to this. This breakage 
of waters, however, cannot have been a small matter, so excited was the 
royal scribe. Whatever it was, it is probable he would seek to diminish 
its importance in his letters home. Bubastis was a central position 
between the fields of Zoan, the city of Rameses, and Tabnet, where so 
nvuch was taking place, as shown in my last paper. My own view is that 
there must have been partial concentrations of the Helirews with the mixed 
multitudes, previous to the grand march ; and that the Egyptian scribes 
in these papyri give their account of the partial events here and there. 

We must remember that the Nile would be at about its lowest on the 
first day of Abib, on and about b.c. 1291. A body in marching order 
might, I suppose, cut a dyke so as to cross over safely, while the down- 
ward water rushed out in the form of a wall on to the surroundinir 
country. The gap would then tend to get filled up, and the royal scribe 
may have done no better than our own Duke of York at Walcheren. 

In giving this description, the candid reader will remember that I am 
not professing to describe what did happen, but what the Egyptians said 
happened. The same caution applies to the name and deeds of Jannes. 
Six times is he named in these papyri, and the religious public has a right 
to ask of Egyptologists is this so ? 

Twenty-five years ago I showed the fact, and not one step of investi- 
gation into his history has been made ; and now Professor Brugsch gives 
lis the astounding transmodification of the letter i into z, and calls h im 
Zani ! This necessitates some examination into his individuality. 

The honest Goodwin, as quoted above, names a Captain of Archers as 
" Ani." I confess there is a difficulty about this name, for facts are 
stubborn things. So in the days of Queen Elizabeth, there was a mighty 
Keltic man, named Shan, and to have called him John, without any 
explanation, might doubtless have led to some difficulty. Now the name 
in the papyri is written in four ways. 



pp. 113 and 119. 1. 

pp. 117 and 140. 2. 

p. 119. 3. 

p. 78 (back). 4. 



[? [? iTj 2 
PPiii 22 



To beoin with, I consider that the double mark in 1 and 3 is a sijrn of 
reduplication, so that the name which Goodwin wrote above as " Ani," is 
really " Anni." Another thing to remark is that in page 117, the name 



316 BIBLICAL RESEAECH. 

spelt as No. 2 is ordered to escort some obelisks, and in page 119 progress 
is reported by No. 3. Surely, therefore, the names 2 and 3 were meant to 
be identical. Which then of these names is nearest to the spoken name 
of the famous Jannes 1 Of course it will be said that I am prejudiced, 
but then St. Paul shows that there really was a man named as in No. 3. 
I retain then the opinion that I was right in my Exodus Papyri, twenty-five 
years ago. Di-. Brugsch's present opinion is absolutely incomjarehensible. 
He reads No. 4 as Zani {see Vol. II, p. 127). If this wei-e so, Jordan and 
Joppa should be read Zordan and Zoppa. I may as well mention here 
that the discoveries here attributed by Dr. Brugsch (II, 127) to Chabas 
were mine ; as also was that of Baal-Zephon, in the 8th Anastasi, line 6. 
attributed here to Goodwin. The letter concerning the obelisks is valuable, 
in stating that Jannes and others were " of the king's children," brought 
up probably as Moses himself was, and I strongly suspect that the obelisks 
had been made for Rameses II, and were being appropriated by Seti II. 
Their transportation seems to be dated in the 13th year, and I know of no 
king but Seti II who could have had a 13th year at this time. If this is 
correct, it would be the very year of the return of Seti II from ^^thiopia, 
when probably the mummy of Rameses II was lying in the ditch. 

The next letter is very curious. It opens with a negotiation between 
Jannes and " the great man." I am aware that Pi-oer, which means 
" the great man," was also a proper name, but the real name appears at 
the end of the negotiation. The great man had demanded a census, which 
had evidently been agreed to (by Jambres, I suppose). The real fight 
was on a point of detail, which was clung to earnestly by each jiarty for 
reasons which we may guess at, but cannot well know. The question was 
whether the names were to be called out and answered vied voce, or 
written on tickets. An answer was expected that those in the actual 
custody of Jambres might use tickets, while those who had escaj^ed over to 
the great man might use their voices. I may as well say at once that the great 
man was Moses himself. This compromise was to be nominally rejected, 
but this was to be on the plea that Jannes knew nothing about the foreign 
names and signals. Moses however was to be considered as on an 
equality with the nobles (i.e., the Egy|3tian nobles), and if a few more 
objections could be slipped in while the enemy listened, it would be held 
that he (viz., Jannes) had done his best. Thus fruitlessly did Jannes 
and Jambres withstand Moses. 

Here is the letter (plate XXV), " Communication. To wit. Seeing 
that I have sent the Captain of Archers, Jannes, captain of captains, to 
consult with the great man, it is because he had said to us, I demand a 
census of the people ; and because (on his statement) we were to call out 
loud the name of each person who owned the name. Now let it be known 
to them I am not for the plan of calling out, 

" I wish and JVTai of Thuku* to give them tickets in writing. 

* Mai lield the highly important post of head of those Midianites who 
remained loyal to Egypt on the defection of the mixed multitudes under Moses. 



THE PLACE OF STONING. 317 

It is between himself and God if they do not give tickets in due f((rin. 
I.'ikewise if an answer should arrive to say, ' Let it be that the names 
should be called out for those in your custody, for you brought them 
there, then you are not to make a question of the con-espondence of the 
name called out to the ticket written, and brought there. You are to say I 
am not capable of reckoning with you the signals of the Midianites, with 
their signal officers. Thou canst repeat them, for thou are among them 
of a verity. Lo thou art Moses of the Semites. Art thou not a noble 1 
Thou wast brought from another place (viz., Midian, I suppose), to set 
thyself on an equality with the nobles. Thou hast learnt their words of 

command, the answering to their names. I give orders that should 

be brought, their langviage with the language of those who live in 

Egypt, for thou art of the race of the Midianites. 

" In giving our instructions again, a few words. While you listen, do 
what you can. Yea, are not these things to be reckoned to you. Your 
kind Excellency will bear the bui'den." 

Dunbar J. Heath. 
EsHER, Surrey, September, 5, 



THE PLACE OF STONING. 
{Reprinted from the " Athenceum," by permission of the Proprietors.) 

I. 

Jerusalem, Augiost 17, 188L 
The discovery of an interesting tomb of the Herodian period in the 
rocky knoll to the west of Jeremiah's Grotto was recently announced in 
the columns of the Athenceum. Lieut. Conder suggests that this tomb may 
possibly be the " Sepulchre in the Garden " of the Gosjael narrative. 
Whether or not the distinguished explorer is right in his conjecture will 
probably always remain an open question. I desire simply to call attention 
to one or two facts which will, I think, throw some light on the name 
''Place of Stoning," mentioned by Lieut. Couder in connection with the 
lately discovered " sepulchre." 

It is well known that when Jerusalem was in the possession of the Cru- 
saders the northern gate of the city (a predecessor of the present Damascus 
Gate) was known as the Gate of St. Estiene — St. Etienne — St. Stej^hen, from 
its proximity to a church of that name, situated outside the walls on the spot 
where, according to the ti'aditious of that age, the proto-martyr had been 
stoned. From the account given in "La Citez de Jherusalem" {vide 
Appendix ii to vol. ii of Eobinsou's " Biblical Researches ") it appears 
that the church of St. Stephen was built on the opjjosite side of the road to 
that on which stood the " donkey-house of the Knights Hosj^itallers," the 
ruins of which building were discovered by Col. Warren some years ago. 
Saewulf (p. 43, " Early Travels in Palestine," " Bohn's Antiquarian 



318 THE PLACE OF STONING. 

Library ") tells us that " the stoning of St. Stephen took place about two or 
three arbalist shots without the wall to the north, where a very handsome 
church was built, which has been entirely destroyed by the pagans." 
These notices evidently point to the " Place of Stoning," that is, the rocky 
knoll above mentioned, as the site of the mediseval church of St. Stephen, 
and it seems probable that one or other of the two or three rock-tombs on 
the spot may have been the last restiug-place of Eudoxia, the empress of 
Theodosius II. A French "guide-book for the use of Latin pilgrims to 
Palestine (" Guide Indicateur des Sanctuaires et Lieux Historiques de la 
Terre Sainte ") states (p. 252), on the authority of William of Tyre and 
Albert Aquensis, that Eudoxia was buried in the church of St. Stephen, 
which she built. 

It is remarkable how, during the lapse of centuries, the monkish 
traditions as to the place where Stephen was stoned varied. Arculf 
(a.d. 700) was shown the site of Stephen's martyrdom on Mount Zion 
(" Early Travels in Palestine," p. 5), Bernard the "Wise (a.d. 867) mentions 
the place as on Mount Zion (p. 28), Saewulf (a.d. 1102), and the author of 
" La Citez de Jherusaleni " (a.d. 1187) place it north of the city, and Sir 
John Mandeville (a.d. 1322) on the east, over against the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat. The spot now shown to pilgrims as that where Stephen 
suffered is on the way from the St. Stephen's Gate of our days (during the 
Middle Ages it was the Gate of Jehoshaphat) to Gethsemane. 

IT. 

Jerusalem, August ^bth, 1881. 
Having in my letter of the 17th called attention to a few historical 
notices concerning the mediseval church of St. Stephen, which is alleged to 
have been built by, and to have contained the tomb of, Eudoxia, and 
havino' also made some remarks on the vacillating character of the monkish 
traditions, I would now say a few words about the Jewish opinions respect- 
iuCT the " Place of Stoning." From various passages in the Talmud, 
especially Sanhedriu, fol. 23, 1, Bab. Sanhedr., ful. 42, 2, in explanation of 

Leviticus xxiv, 14, we learn that the H , |^Pu D j, Beth Hasekeelah, 
was without the camp, or more correctly, "without three camps," 
r\12n?3 "^^7 l^'IH' *^^^ ^^'^^ r\1W2i^ ^^ camp, being the place of the 

Shechinah, i.e., the Temple, the second the camp of the Levites, and the 
third, Jerusalem, the camp of Israel. In other words, the Place of 
Stoning was situated outside the city, always supposing the tribunal 
which condemned the malefactor to have been held within the city. 

Maimonides, Sanhedr. xii, 3, p. 96, is of opinion that if the trial took 
place outside the city, then the place of execution was situated at a distance 

of 'i*'^*^?^ n'C^S'127) ^^^^^ ^^' three times the distance a person resident in 
the city was allowed to walk on the Sabbath from the place where the 



SITE OF MEGIDDO. 319 

tribunal sat. We are not, however, told in what direction from the city 
the place of execution lay. One local Jewish tradition considers the 
Convent of the Cross (el MAsallabeh) to be situated on the site of the 

riT^'^u'Dn rr^D.) <^^^*^^ another points to the ground above Jeremiah's 
Grotto with the precipice ;xs the Place of Stoning. This is, perhaps, the 
Place of Stoning alluded to in tlie notice in tlie "Athenaeum" mentioned 
in my letter of last week. The general opinion amongst those Jews of 
whom I made enquii'ies on the subject of the location of the Beth 
Hasekeelah, who did not seem to know anything of, and to whom I took 
care not to mention, the traditional sites I have just referred to, is that the 
Place of Stoning was situated outside the city and not far from the 
Damascus Gate, or rather the place now occupied by that gate. 

The chief arguments in favour of the supposition that the place above 
Jeremiali's Grotto really was the Jewish Place of Stoning seem to be (1) 
the tradition ; (2) its position outside the city ; and (3) the adjacent 
precipice, though the last does not appear to have been an absolutely 
necessary adjunct to the Beth Hasekeelah, which, it seems, was a sort of 
scaffold C' ein Geriist," Babbinowicz, ' Einleitung in die Gesetzgebung und 
die Medicin des Thalmuds, aus dem Franzosischen Ubersetzt,' Trier, 1881) 
from ten to twelve feet high {see Lightfoot on Acts vii, 58), or twice a 
man's height. 

If, therefore, we are able to identify the place above Jeremiah's Grotto 
with the ancient Jewish Place of Stoning, where after death the bodies of 
executed criminals were hung up by the hands (a proceeding suggestive of 
crucifixion), the question very natui^ally suggests itself as to whether this 
spot may not have been the Golgotha of the New Testament, conspicuous 
" afar off") Mark xv, 40, Luke xxiii, 49), near a great high road leading 
up " from the country " (Mark xv, 21, Luke xxxiii, 26), and " nigh to " 
but " without " the city gate. Compare John xix, 20, with Hebrews 
xiii, 12. 

This theory seems to have great probabilities in its favour, though, as I 
remarked in my former letter, it will probably always remain an open 
question as to whether the recently discovered Herodian tomb be the 
actual " Sepulchre in the Garden " or not. 

J. E. Hananer. 



SITE OF MEGIDDO. 



Aberdeen, ZOth March, 1881. 

Robinson identifies Megiddo with Lejjun, and Conder with Mujedda in. 
the Jordan valley. 

There is one important notice of Megiddo that seems not to have been 
taken into account in determining the site, 2 Kings ix, 27, " But when 
Ahaziah, the king of Judah, saw this, he fled by the way of the garden 

T 



320 SITE OF MEGIDDO. 

house. And Jehn followed after him, and said, Smite him also in the 
chariot. And they did so at the going up to Gur, which is by Ibleam. 
And he fled to Megiddo, and died there." This seems to me absolutely to 
exclude Mujedda from identification with the Megiddo here mentioned. 
Jehu would come from the direction of Mujedda. It is not likely that 
Ahaziah would flee in that direction, but rather towards Jerusalem. This 
a'^-rees with one of the places mentioned in the same verse — Ibleam. 
According to Conder's " Handbook," this is to be identified with Wady 
Bel'ameh, south of Jenin. This is exactly the course that Ahaziah would 
likely take, but it is irreconcilable with Megiddo being either Lejjun or 
Mujedda. 

There are three passages in the Bible which give definite indications 
regarding the site of Meggido. 

1. Judges V, 19, " Then fought the kings of Canaan in Taanach by the 
waters of Megiddo." The obvious meaning of this is that the battle was 
fought in Taanach, and that Taanach was by or over the waters of 
Megiddo. Whether Taanach be a town or district, if the battle was 
fought south of Tabor, the only waters in which it could be fought are 
some of the sources of the Kishon. It is a question, however, whether 
the words may not be rendered " The kings of Canaan, in Taanach, by the 
waters of Meggido, fought." The Targum of Jonathan paraphrases the 
text thus, " then the kings of Canaan began war ; in Taanach did they 
dwell, and extended even to the waters of Megiddo." Jonathan was 
probably well acquainted with Palestine, and felt the difficulty of con- 
necting Taanach either with the battle between Barak and Sisera, or with 
the waters of Megiddo. The only other of the ancient versions whose 
author we may suppose to have known Palestine, the Syriac version, 
indicates a consciousness of the same difticnlty. It drops Taanach altogether, 
and translates "The kings came and fought by the waters of Megiddo.' 
Thus the passage, in the light cast on it by these two translations, rather 
opposes than favours the idea of any close connection between Taanach and 
Megiddo. 

2. 2 Kings ix, 27. The flight of Ahaziah. The localities indicated here 
are the garden-house, or Beth Gur, the ascent of Gur near Ibleam, Megiddo. 
If the situation of Megiddo were once determined, it would determine 
the direction of the other places ; or if the position of the other places 
were determined, it would determine the direction of Megiddo. Lieu- 
tenant Conder, in his " Handbook," where there is no theory to sup])ort, 
identific Ibleam with Bel'umuh, near Jenin, in which case Jenin might 
indicate the site of Beth Gur. In the last number of the Quarterly State- 
ment he identifies it with Yebla. It is thus evident that mere similarity 
of name is not a sufficient guide. We must turn to other considerations 
to find out the direction of Ahaziah's flight. Jehu approached Jezreel 
from the direction of Mujedda. It is not likely that Ahaziah would 
flee in that direction, or that he would flee in a direction that would cut 
liim off" from his own kingdom, Judah. It is most probable that he would 
take the road for Jerusalem, and the natural road would be through 



SITE OF MEDIGGO. 321 

Samaria. The account in Chronicles says that he was hid in Samaria. 
Jehu, when he was on the way to Samaria, met the brethren of Ahaziah. 
It seems to have been then the i-ecognized route for the princes of Judah 
to take in visiting their kinsmen in Jezreel. The whole connection of the 
passage would indicate Jenin as the road which Ahaziah took rather than 
Beit Jenn. It would be absurd to suppose that he went thence to Lajjun, 
but it is as difficult to see how he would go thence to Mujedda. 

3. 2 Kinffs xxiii, 29. The battle between Josiah and Nechoh could 
hardly have taken place at Lajjun. Lieutenant Conder's objections to this 
seem unanswerable. But the corresponding passage in Chronicles speaks 
of the battle as taking place in the valley of Megiddo. Mujedda would be 
a good situation from which to attack an army wishing to cross the Jordan, 
as Lieutenant Conder points out. But to a non-military reader it appears 
not to be secure against an enemy coming up from Egypt, unless the 
heights to the west were also occupied, and if they were occupied, it is 
more likely that the battle would take place towards Jenin. 

With regard to the two sites, Lajjun and Mujedda, the former seems 
to have nothing to support it, the latter has its name. Biblical indications 
do not point to either, but rather to some point on the road, or near the 
road, from Jezreel to Samaria, where an army approaching from Egypt by 
the coast might be encountered. 

4. The battle of Megiddo. We read in 2 Kings xxiii, 29, that Nechoh 
slew Josiah at Megiddo when he had seen him. And his servants carried 
him in a chariot dead fx'om Megiddo, and brought him to Jerusalem." In 
2 Chron. xxxv, 22, we read that he came to fight in the valley of Megiddo. 
There seems also to be little doubt that the reference, Zech. xii, 11, "the 
mourning of Hadad Eimmon in the valley of Megiddon " — is to the same 
event. 

These are all the references we have to this battle in Scripture. If 
Nechoh's army followed the usual route by the plains, the only possible 
part of the plain of Erdraclou, in which the battle could have been fought 
would have been about the head, somewhere near Jenin. To a non-military 
reader Mujedda would not seem a very safe position unless the heights to 
tlie west were occupied, and if they were occupied, the battle would more 
likely be on the western side towards Jenin. It is diflicult, too, to conceive 
why Josiah should have allowed Nechoh to march all the way up the 
coast without attacking him. 

But it is highly probable that this was not the route which Nechoh 
took. Herodotus (II, 159) informs us that he constructed a powerful 
fleet in the Mediterranean, which he used as he had opportunity ; that he 
invaded Syria, and defeated the Syrians at Migdol. The natural inference 
is that he invaded Syria by sea. He was obviously anxious to avoid all 
quarrel with the king of Judah, and to strike a blow at the Assyrian 
power. The point from which he could most effectively do this with a 
fleet at his command was obviously Accha, and it is probable that this was 
the base of his operations. He would consider the kingdom of the ten 
tribes as part of the possessions of Assyria while Jenin laid claim to it. 



322 REMARKS ON THE "JAM SUPH. ' 

Hence the conflict between the two. Migdol has been considered a cor- 
ruption of Megiddo, but on the map there is a place marked el Mejdil, 
south of Accho, which an army advancing from the latter place would 
naturally occupy in going to encounter an army coming from Jerusalem. It 
may have been the head-quarters of the Egyptian army, and Hadad 
Rimmon that of the Jewish army, while the battle would probably take 
place between the two. 

While the Bible does not supply data to enable us to determine with 
absolute certainty the site of Megiddo, all indications point to the plain 
of Erdraclon as being the vaUey of Megiddo. 



REMARKS ON THE " JAM SUPH." 

In the Quarterly Statement for April, p. 107, the writer of the " Notes on 
the Topography of Exodus" says, " It is remarkable that throughout the 
direct narrative there is no mention of a Jam Suph. Let us look at Exodus 
xiii, V. 17, there we are told that God led them (the Israelites) not by way 
of the land of the Philistines, although it was near .... but God 
led the people about (the original implies a circuitous route) the way of 
the wilderness, literally Jam Suph (there is no of) ; and verse 20 says God led 
them to the edge of the wilderness (clearly still the same as before. Jam 
Sujih) ; there we find them encamped. The narrative then is continiied in 
Chap. xiv. And God spake to Moses, ' Speak .... that they turn 
and encamp before Pihahiroth between Migdol and the sea.'" Here we find 
the direction of their march altered, they are to turn. Now let me remark 
that the writer having stated that they had encamped on the edge of the 
wilderness, defined by Jam Suph, must in his continuation of the narrative 
when he speaks of the sea of necessity refer to that particular sea described 
as Jam Suph, and so I would say throughout the narrative, and this is 
confirmed by the repetition of Jam Suph in the song in chap, xv, and 
in V. 22 we have it stated that Moses brought Israel from Jam Suph. 

Further, in Deut. xi, 4, we have these words of Moses in his exhortation 
to the people, " What He did unto the army of Egypt, and how He made the 
water of the Jam Suph to overflow them as they pursued after you." 
Other passages in the Old Testament clearly state that it was Jam Suph 
that was dried up (see Joshua ii, 10, iv, 23). Joshua xxiv, 6, relates 
Joshua's speech before his death. He was an eye-witness, and says it was 
the Jam Suph. Surely these places are rather too numerous to be 
accounted for, as Mr. Greville Chester does, by saying that the Jam Suph 
has crept into the text ; can any one doubt with these passages before them 
that the Jam Suph was the sea where the miraculous j^reservation of the 
Israelites and destruction of their enemies took place ] In the New 
Testament, Acts vii, 36, St. Stephen mentions ipv6pa daXdacrr], the Red Sea. 
This alone would prove little ; but on turning over the same passage 



HIDING PLACES. 323 

in the Syrian version I find this translated as in the Old Testament 
"Jam Suph." Some will perhaps say this is a mere tradition, but 
anyhow we have Scripture traditions stating that it was the Jam Suph. 
The Jam Suph is first mentiontJ in Exodus x, 19, in connection with 
the plague of locusts. An east wind brought the locusts, a west wind 
took them away and carried them into the Jam Suph. Surely the 
description here given seems well to answer to the position of the sea east 
of Egy[)l. called the Red Sea. 

G. F. S. Stooke Vaughan., 



HIDING PLACES IN CANAAN. 
III. Samson and the Eock Etam, 

Distance was nothing to the roaming lion of Dan. Eager to prey on the 
Philistines, he went down to Ashkelon, though both Ekron aud Ashdod 
were nearer to Timnath ; at another time he carried away the gates of 
Gaza to within sight of Hebron. When therefore he wanted to be quiet, 
Samson might easily have sauntered quite as far from home in going down 
to the top (lit. fissure) of the rock Etam. 

In seeking then for this hiding place of the famous Danite, we must 
not groundlessly assume that it was in the vicinity of his native Zorah, but 
be guided solely by the following conditions required in the Bible : — 

A. The rock Etam is in Hebrew called a sela ; therefore it was a 
fyrecipitous rock or crag. 

B. It was in the tribe of Judah, as also was Lehi. 

C. It was probably near to Lehi, where the Philistines having gone up 
spread themselves, and also to an eminemce called Ramath-Lehi, close to 
which was a spring called En-liakkore. 

D. Its position was such, that it is said (1) that Samson went dovm. 
(from Timnath or Zorah V) aud dwelt in the top of the rock Etam, and 
(2) that the men of Judah went down to the same j^lace and brought him 
up from the rock to Lehi. 

In " Tent Work," the rock Etam is placed at Beit ' At§,b, and the identifi- 
cation is there thought satisfactory. It must however be rejected, as it 
fails to satisfy A ; for though it may be said to be pre-eminently a rock — a 
knoll of hard limestone, without a handful of arable soU, standing above 
deep ravines, still it has no claim whatever to be considered a sda or crag^ 
if we compare it with known instances, viz., Petra and the precipices of the 
passage of Michmash. Further, it is not clear how the springs to the 
north-west of Zorah could represent En-hakkore in Lehi, for they are 
situated far helow Beit 'Atab, in Dan, while Lehi was in Judah, and the 
men of Judah brought Samson up and not doicn from the rock to Lehi. 

Any candidate for the honour of being the rock Etam, must pass the 
preliminary examination required by sela, 

Y 2 



324 HIDING PLACES. 

Accordingly it is unnecessary to sift the suggestions that Samson's 
retreat was in one of the caves near Deir Dubban or Beit Jibrln, until a 
genuine sela reveals itself in that neighbourhood. 

No position for the rock Etam seems to me more likely or suitable than 
one in Wady Urtas. This valley becomes a romantic gorge as we descend 
eastwards to the great cave of Khureittin. Here, if not nearer to Solomon's 
pools, are found magnificent crags, fully deserving the title of sela. As this 
part is in the desert of Judah, conditions A and B are already satisfied. 

The Eamah of Samuel was certainly (as it seems to me) just to the 
west of Solomon's pools. We have then a Ramah (with a spring adjacent) 
not far distant from a sela in Wddy Urtas to answer to the Ramah in Lehi. 
This latter name appears to me to have been that of the valley extending 
north-east towards Rachel's sepulchre. 

With Lehi in this position, the Philistines would naturally be said to 
go up to it in search of Samson, probably intending also, at the expense of 
Judah, to recoup themselves for their burnt corn with the rich harvest in 
Lehi or (else) in the valley of Rephaim. With the same precision of 
language, the men of Judah woidd be said to go down towards KhureitUn, 
and to bring Samson iip to Lehi. 

This position for the rock Etam is not really at variance with the 
statement that Samson went down (from Tiranath \) to the top of the rock, 
though the long ascent preceding the descent is not alluded to. David 
(1 Chron. xiii, 6) went up to Kirjath-jearim (from Jerusalem) to bring up 
thence the Ark of God (to Jerusalem). Why may not an ascent be passed 
over in silence in Samson's case, just as well as a descent in David's 1 Thus 
a sela in Wady Urtas further satisfies C and D. 

The name Etam still survives in 'Ain 'Atan, near Solomon's pools, and 
a city Etam at one time apparently existed in this district (2 Chron. xi, 6); 
though " the rock Etam " does not seem to me necessarily to mean that the 
rock was near a city of this name. 

An Etam also occurs in 1 Chron. iv, 2, immediately after the mention 
of Zorathites, while the Zareathites {i.e., the people of Zorah) and 
Eshtaulites seem in II, 50-54 to be connected with Bethlehem. This 
contact of the tribe of Judah with Dan at Zorah may have influenced 
Samson (even if he were not by descent connected with the immigrants 
from Bethlehem) to take refuge in their country when it was expedient 
for him to leave his own. 

Not improbably then, through information given by Judah, the secret 
fissure in the crag Etam became the celebrated hermitage of the great 
Nazarite. But whether this could possibly be identical with the still 
more famous cave of Adullam of after time, must depend upon the precise 
kind of hole or fissure really described by the Hebrew word rendered 

" top " in the A. V. 

W. F. B. 



325 



THE NATIVES OP PALESTINE. 

We have from time to time been able to give papers on the manners and 
customs of the natives of Palestine, which have been received with great 
interest. The Eev. .Tames Niel, formerly incumbent of Christ Church, 
Jerusalem, has just produced a work on the same subject, in which he 
embodies his own observations while resident in the country. Many of 
them are extremely interesting and valuable as illustrations of the Bible. 
We are permitted to quote one or two passages from this book. The first 
extract is on the measuring of corn. 

One of the characteristic sights of Palestine, shortly after the harvest has 
been gathered in, is the measuring out of wheat and barley, which sometimes 
takes place in the corn-market, but more frequently in the courtyard of the 
purchaser's house. All families at this time, that is, during July and August, 
lay up in store the wheat which will be required to provide bread for the use of 
the household throughout the ensuing year, and also barley sufficient for 
their horses, mules, and asses dm-ing the same period. Samples are procured 
either from the farmer or merchant, and when approved the whole quantity 
ordered is delivered to the purchaser bound vip in sacks. A professional 
measurer is always present on these occasions, and in the presence of 
the seller and buyer, or their representatives, duly proceeds to ascertain the 
contents of each sack. This is done by meting out the grain in a circular 
wooden measure in the shape of our own bushel, but less deep, called in Arabic 
a timneh. The measurer seats himself crossdegged on the ground, and proceeds 
to shovel the wheat or barley, as the case may be, into the timneh with both his 
hands until it is partly full. Next he seizes the measure, and shakes it strongly 
from side to side, by means of two or three rapid half turns, without raising it from 
the ground, in order that the grain may settle into a smaller space. This quick 
shaking together of the corn is a striking part of tlie process, and is very 
effective in forcing it to occupy less room. He then fills it further, and repeats 
the shaking from side to side, going over the same thing again and again imtil it 
is full up to the brim. As soon as this is the case, he gently but firmly presses 
upon it with his hands, so as to di-ive it into a yet smaller space. Finally, 
having first made a sliglit hollow on the top, he takes some more handfuls of 
grain, and very skilfully constructs a cone of corn upon the flat surface of the 
timneh, which he has now filled. He continues carefully to biiild up this cone 
until no more grain can posssibly be held, and that which he adds begins to flow 
over and run down. Upon this the measure is considered to be of full weight, 
and is emptied into the purchaser's sack. This is the universal method by 
which grain is now meted oiit, and the price is always quoted at so much per 
timneh. 

These professional measurers are often dishonest, taking bribes from seller or 
buyer, and in this case are very skilful in cheating either party as it suits their 
purpose. If it is to their interest to do so, whde apparently going through the 
ordinary process, they can so contrive as to bring the contents of tlie measure 
to half a rottle, or three pounds less than the proper quantity, involving a loss 



826 THE NATIVES OF PALESTINE. 

to the purchaser of over 6 per cent. On the other hand, their dishonesty more 
commonly favours the merchants and townspeople, who buy from the poor 
fellaheen, the peasants. The cunning of the measurers in this way is said to 
be brought to the highest degree at Nablous, the ancient Shechem, If one of 
them in that town is bribed by the buyer of wheat, not only does he bring his 
measure to take up the largest possible quantity, but in raising it after it is 
flowing over, he secretly lifts up with the hand supporting the bottom of the 
measure a considerable quantity of grain, which is so swiftly and adroitly done 
as to escape the observation of the fellah who is selling it. 

I have taken means carefully to ascertain the capacity of the Palestine 
timneh. It is true, different kinds of wheat differ in weight. The following 
measures give the contents in the case of the best quahty. A timneh filled up 
to the brim, without being shaken or pressed, weighs six rottles and one-sixth, 
or just thirty-seven pounds. The same timneh, not only filled to the top but 
running over, that is, piled up above in the shape of a cone, also without being 
pressed and shaken, weighs seven rottles and one-third, or forty-four pounds. 
When, however, the measure in question is not only filled till it flows over, but 
is, at the same time, shaken together and pressed down, it holds just eight 
rottles, or forty-eight pounds. 

No doubt it is to this simple and familiar custom that our Blessed Lord 
alludes, when He speaks under an allegory of the recompense of those liberal 
souls who shall assuredly themselves be made fat. " Give, and it shall be given 
unto you ; good measure, pressed down, shaken together, running over, shall 
they give into your bosom [that is into the capacious natural pocket formed by 
that part of the loose Eastern shirt which is above the girdle]. For with what 
measure ye mete it shall be measured to you again" (Luke vi, 38; Matthew 
vii, 2; Mark iv, 24). The above facts lend far more power and definiteness to 
our Saviour's graphic illustration than we should at first sight have supposed it 
to contain. There is no less than eleven pounds' difference in weight between a 
" measure" filled to the brim, as we should fill it here, and one such as I have 
described filled according to the bountiful method of Bible lands, when it ia 
"pressed down, shaken together, running over." In this latter case no less 
than about 30 per cent, is added to its worth ! 

The next extract illustrates a remarkable passage in Ezekiel (xxiv, 7, 8) 
with other passages. 

A practice to be constantly noticed throughout Syria is that of hiding any 
blood, which may happen to be spilled on the ground, by covering it over with 
the sm-rounding soil or dust. If while you are on a jommey a Bedaween of your 
escort only so much as cuts his hand, or suffers from bleeding at the nose, he is 
very careful to let the blood fall upon the earth, without leaving any stain upon 
his clothing or person, and he then and there buries it out of sight by scraping 
over it the sand or dust of the desert before he proceeds on his way. The 
reason wliich they give for this observance I have not been able to discover. 
Most probably it comes from the thought in Numbers that blood pollutes the 
land if left to lie upon it (Numbers xxxv, 3) and from the plain direction in the 
case of the huntsman who caught any beast or fowl, to " pour out the blood 
thereof, and cover it with dust " (Leviticus xvii, 13). It is reasonable to 



CITY OP DAVID. 327 

suppose that this diroction, like naany other matters contained in the Law, 
embodied and sanctioned an already well-know and universal practice. Very 
likely it arose from anxiety lest any blood appearing upon the ground might by 
any possibility be construed to represent some act of violence, and thus, in the 
language of Scripture, " cause fury to come up to take vengeance." This, in a 
land where the law of blood-revenge causing endless sangmnary family feuds is 
so stringent, may well be no imaginary fear. Tn any case, it is deeply interest- 
ing to mark its observance at the present day. It would seem to be referred to 
in the strong figurative language of several passages, notably that where Job in 
the bitterness of his soul cries (Job xvi, 18) , 

" Earth, cover not thou my blood." 
A very striking Scripture in connection with this Eastern usage is that in 
Ezekiel, where God fortells the judgments coming upon Jerusalem at the hands 
of the Chaldeans. These judgments are declared to be a retribution for the 
reckless violence and cruelty that had openly stalked through her streets. "For 
her blood is in the midst of her ; she set it upon the bare rock ; she hath not 
pov/red it upon the ground to cover it loith dust. That it may cause fury to 
come up to take vengeance, I have set her blood upon the bare rock, that it 
should not be covered" (Ezekiel xxiv, 7, 8). There is here a force of meaning 
that might at fii'st sight be overlooked. Jerusalem, as I shall have occasion 
elsewhere to explain at length, is essentially a rock city. The rock crops up to 
the surface in every part of it. In ancient times, before the rugged slopes and 
precipices of limestone and indurated chalk were choked up and covered over, as 
they are now, by mountains of debris, it appeared, as at the fortress of Jehus, 
with its walls resting on rock scarps in some places fifty feet high. Hence one of 
its proud titles was " The Tableland Eock." 



CITY OF DAVID. 

Plymouth, March 2Aik, 1881. 
The Editor, " Quarterly/ Statement " of the Palestine Exploration Fund. 

Sir Will you allow me to point out in reference to the question whether 

the "City of David " was on Opliel, as contended by the Eev. W. F. Birch ; 
that on page 229 of the number for October 1880, Lieutenant Conder 
maintains, that " these royal sepulchres on Ophel are identical with the 
"field of burial of the kings" (2 Chron. xxvi, 23), where Uzziah was 
buried," and are a "place distinct from the Koyal Cemetery in the City of 

David." 

Now if the two passages in which account is given of the burial of 
Uzziah, be compared together, it will be seen that the place where 
Uzziah was interred, was in tlie City of David. They are as follow : — 

2 Chron. xxvi, 23. 
" So Uzziah slept with his fathers, 
and they buried him with his fathers 
in the field of the burial which be- 
longed to the Kings ; for they said, he 



2 Kings xv, 7. 

"So Azariah (Uzziah) slept with 

liis fathers ; and they buried liim with 

his fathers in the City of David : and 

Jotham his son reigned in his stead." 



is a leper : and Jotham his son reigned 
in his stead. 



328 



CITY OF DAVID. 



Two other passages (one of which shows the distinctness of the two 
places of sepulture) confirm the view that both were "mi the City of 
DamdP They are — 



2 Kings xvi, 20. 

" And Ahaz slept with his fathers, 
and was buried with his fatliers in the 
City of David : and Hezekiah his sou 
reigned in his stead." 



2 Chron. xxviii, 27. 
" And Aha?; slept with his fathers, 
and they buried him in the city, even 
in Jerusalem : but they brought him 
not into the sepulchres of the Kings of 
Israel ; and Hezekiah his son reigned 
in his stead." 



In this latter passage the " sepulchres of the Kings of Israel " are 
evidently equivalent to the "sepulchres of David," whose existence on 
Ophel Mr. Conder says on same page (229, lines 6 and 7), cannot be denied. 

It follows therefore, I venture to think, that the " City of David" 
wherein these kings were buried, must have been on Ophel. 

Yours truly, 

H. B. S .W. 



PALESTINE 
EXPLORATION FUND. 



Patron— THE QUEEN. 



Q^tarterly Statement 



FOR 1882. 



LONDON: 
SOCIETY'S OFFICE, i, ADAM STREET, ADELPHI, 

AND BY 

RICHARD BENTLEY & SON, 8, NEW BURLINGTON STREET. 



LONDON : 
HAEHISON AND SONS, PRINTERS liST OEDINAET TO HEE MAJESTY, 

ST. martin's lane. 



INDEX. 



Abraham, Shrine of, 204. 
Address by Captain Conder, 249. 
Ain Hashbey, 231. 
Amman, 113, 217, 

„ and Arak El Emir, 99. 

„ Building at, 100, 113. 

„ Citadel at, 107. 

„ Inscriptions foiind at, 108. 

„ Menhirs at, 71, 107. 

„ Mosque at, 104, 115. 

„ Roman cemetery at, 108. 

„ Tank at, 109. 

,, Tombs at, 107. 
Amwas, Church at, 32. 

„ Expedition to, 22. 

„ Inscriptions at, 16, 24, 34, 35. 

„ "Vase at, 35. 
Aneroid heights, 150. 
Annual meeting of the general com- 
mittee, 183. 
Antiquities lately discovered, List of, 

19. 
Arab folk-lore, 90. 
Arak El Emir, 216. 

„ House at, 109. 

,. Palace at, 110. 

„ Causeway at, 110. 

„ Blocks at, 112. 

Assyrian discoveries near Bagdad, 132. 
Baal Peor, 87, 88. 

Bagdad, Assyrian discoveries near, 132. 
Bakoosh Hill, Tomb at, 165. 
Balance sheet, 67, 188. 
Bamoth Baal, 85, 88. 
Banias, 225. 

Base line. Measurement of, 7. 
Beit Dejan, Tomb at, 20. 
Blessing of the moon, The, 145. 
Bodies of the Patriarchs, The, 177, 

257. 
British Association, Mr. Glaisher's re- 
port at, 246. 
Cairns, Possible origin of, 84. 
Camjmign in Eastern Palestine, Result 

of, 137. 
Capernaum, 222. 



Cave at Hebron Haram, 200. 
Cenotaphs at Hebron Haram, 202. 
Chiu'ch at Hebron Haram, Details of, 

203. 
Church d'scovered at Jerusalem, Fresco 

in, 116. 
Church discovered at Jerusalem, 

Passage in, 117. 
Church discovered at Jerusalem, In- 
scription in, 119. 
Coabis, 150. 

Conder, Captain, Address by, 249. 
„ ,, Reports of, 7, 69. 

„ ,, Toixr with the Princes 

137. 
Constantinople, Museum at, 146. 
„ Notes from, 146. 

Cromlechs, 10, 77, 134. 

„ Centres of, 10. 

„ Disposition of, 12, 69, 77. 

,, Identification of, 65, 85. 

„ Numbers of, 10, 69. 

„ of Cornwall and Moab, 270. 

,, Rock-cut chambers near, 

13, 78. 
Cubical Stoues of Moab, 271. 
Dajun, near Sitt Nefiseh, 164. 
Dalton, Rev. J. N., Letter from, 193. 
Dates of the Buildings at Hebron 

Haram, 212. 
Dead Sea Shores, The, 151. 
Discoveries at the Hebron Haram, 207. 
Disk Stones, 74. 
Dolmens, Disposition of, 75, 77. 

,, Floor stones of, 75. 

„ Hollows in, 76. 

,, Inclination of, 76. 
Dung gate. The, 60. 
Easter ceremonies of washing ihe 

feet, 158. 
Eastern Palestine, Map of, 137. 
Ebenezer, 262. 
Emmaus, 59. 
Entrance to cave at Hebron Haram, 

200. 
Esau, Tomb of, 215. 



IV 



INDEX. 



Es Salt, 217. 

Excavations at Jerusalem, 3. 

„ in the Haram, 18. 

Executive committee, Eeport of, 184. 
Expedition to BeitDcjan andSaferiyeli, 

19. 
Few thoughts upon the route of the 

Exodus, A, 235. 
Field of Zoan, The, 236. 
Figure found in the Haram wall, 171. 
Firman, Withdrawal of the, 3, 65. 
Ganneau, M. Clermont, Notes by 

(Nos. II, III, IV), 16, 19, 37. 
Gate discovered in the Haram wall, 2, 4, 

169. 
Gaza Jupiter, The, 147. 
General committee, Anniial meeting 

of, 183. 
General committee, New members of, 

189. 
Geographical section at the British 

Association, 246. 
Geology of Western Palestine, Notes 

on, 13, 150. 
Gerizim, 3. 
Gibeah, 59. 

HaifFa Temple Colony, 3. 
Hajaret en Nesara, 221. 
Haram area, New gate discovered in 
wall of, 2, 3, 169. 
,, Excavations in the, 18. 

Hebron Haram, Cave at, 200. 

„ Cenotaphs at, 202. 

Church at, 199. 
„ Dates of buildings at, 

212. 
„ Discoveries at, 207. 

„ Historical notices of, 

208. 
„ Outer walls ef, 197. 

Heshbon, Ruins of, 8. 
Hiding places in Canaan, 264. 
High mountain, The, 151. 
High place at Gibeon, The, 264. 
Hinnom and Zion, Valley of, 55. 
Hinnoni, Position of the valley of, 56. 
Historical notices of the Hebron 

Haram, 208. 
Holy anointing oil. The, 269. 
Identifications, 8, 154 

„ Notes on Mr. Saunders's, 

15. 
Itinerary of the royal party, 234. 
Jacob and Leah, Shrines of, 205. 
Jazer, 9. 
Jerash, 218. 

Jeremiah xxxi, 38-40, Note on, 58. 
Jerusalem, 165, 169, 215. 

„ German excavations at, 3. 



Jerusalem, Jewish traditions in, 142. 
„ Newly discovered church 

at, 116. 
Jett, near Beit Jebrtn, Supposed 

village of, 164. 
Jewish traditions in Jerusalem, 142. 

,, Superstitions, 145. 
Joseph, Shrine of, 206. 
Joseph's tomb, 197. 
Kadesh on Orontcs, 47, 132, 155, 253. 
Kaukab el Hawa, 150. 
Kasr Hajlah, 216. 
Khiirbet 'Adaseh, Cuttings at, 167. 
„ Cisterns at, 168. 

Ivirjath Jearim, 61, 63, 157. 
Length of a cubit, Test cases of, 181. 
Letter from the Rev. J. N. Dalton, 

193. 
List of photographs (taken by Lieut. 

Mantell), 172. 
Luhith, Ascent of, 9. 
Maiumas Ascalon, 150. 
Map of Eastern Palestine, 137. 
Maslubiyeh, 82. 
Megiddo, 151. 
Minnith, 10. 
Mizpoh, 260. 

Moon, The blessing of, 145. 
Mountain of the Scapegoat, 135. 
Museum at Constantinople, 146. 
Nahr Rubin, 150. 
Nail-paring, 145. 
Names collected by Col. Warren, 152. 

„ ,, ,, M. Guerin, 153. 

Nebo, 87, 88. 

New buildings at Jerusalem, 3. 
New identifications, 154. 
New members of the general com- 
mittee, 189. 
Nob, 60. 

Note by Sir Charles Wilson, 213. 
Note on Jeremiah xxxi , 38-40, 58. 
Notes, 155. 

Notes and news, 1, 65, 137, 191. 
Notes by M. Clermont Ganneau ; (Nos. 

11,111, IV), 16, 19, 37. 
Notes from Constantinople, 146. 
Notes on points of antiquarian 

interest, 214. 
Notes on Mr. Saunders's introduction, 

149. 
Ossuary with inscriptions, 16. 
Outer walls of the Hebron Haram, 

197. 
Palmyra, Seals from, 231. 
Phoenician funeral tablet, 38, 155. 
Photographs, List of, 172. 
Prehistoric remains in Western Pales- 
tine, 121. 



INDEX. 



Princes' tour in Palestine, The, 185, 

214, 252. 
Prophets' footprints. The, 206. 
Publications, Progress of, 66, 186, 

192. 
Quarterlii Statements wanted, 68. 
Eabbah, 61. 
Recall of officers, 191. 
Report of Princes' visit to the Hebron 

Haram, 197. 
Rock Rimmon, The, 50, 156, 177. 
Rude stone monuments, 255. 
Saferiyeh and Beit Dejan, Expedition 

to, 19. 
St. John of Acre, Inscription at, 37. 
Samaria, 3. 

Saunders's introduction. Notes on, 149. 
Scapegoat, The mountain of the, 135. 
Shechem, 221. 
Schick's rock levels, 4. 
Seals from Palmyra, 231. 
Shrine of Abraham, 204. 

„ Jacob and Leah, 205. 
„ Joseph, 206. 
Sarah, 204. 
Sibmah, 9. 
SUoam tunnel. The, 122, 178. 

„ Aqueduct near, 130. 
„ Direction of, 128. 
„ Excavation of, 125. 
„ ,, Inscription in, 1, 17, 

59, 62, 123, 179. 
„ „ Length of, 127, 178. 

,, ,, Measurement of, 122. 

Siloam tunnel. Table of distances in, 

131. 
Sela, Meaning of tlie word, 50. 
Simon the Just, Tomb of, 143. 



>» 



Sion, 156. 
Sta Sophia, 148. 
Stone circles, 73. 

Stone monuments at Ain Minyeh and 
Kefrein, 71,73. 
of the Bible, 139. 
Stone pillars, 74. 
Stones, Worship of, 79. 
Summary of 1st survey campaign, 14. 
Survey of Eastern Palestine, 1, 184. 
Table Land rock, 59. 
Tablet-makers' cubit. The, 180. 
Throne of Og, The, 13. 
Tomb of Esau, 215. 

„ Joseph. 197. 
Tomb at Kahf , 109. 
Tomb of Simon the Just, 143. 

„ the Judges, 144. 
Tombs of the Kings, 18, 144, 266. 
Treasurer's statement. The, 66. 
Triangidation, 7. 
Tribe marks, 97. 
Tyropoeon, 156. 
Valley names, 152. 
Valley of Hinnom and Zion, 55. 
Varieties, 59, 265. 
Washing the feet, Easter ceremonies 

of, 158. 
Water-basin map. The 66. 
Wilson, Sir (Charles, Letter from, 2. 

Note by, 213. 
Worship of stones, 79. 
Yerka, Inscription at, 37. 
Zeboin, 60. 

Zikr ceremony. A, 160. 
Zion, Possible positions of, 55. 
Zoan, Field of, 235. 
Zophim, Field of, 9. 



:• . 



THE SHORES ( 

We&tPrTf<yhXrrf\'i ' fff^i'r'^ *lht} Tale^rtine Uncploratiarv TimcL Sxa-vey WeMM-n Shore 



•••••• • 

• • • 







LAKE TIBERIAS. 



Jla.ite^'ii ShoTe,^ as- at pre/ient TaioyvTV. 




Stanfo^djs Ge</p'- Sst/jh'^ 



Quarterly Statement, January, 1882.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



The first years' cnmpaign in Eastern Palestine is completed — Lieutenant 
Conder has returned to Jerusalem, bringing with him the survey of 500 miles, 
with plans, drawings, and photographs. This may be considered an excellent 
beginning. Puring the winter Mr. Armstrong will lay down the 500 square 
miles of survey on a sheet while Lieutenants Conder and Mantell draw the hill 
shading and the special plans and prepare the Heports for the future Memoirs. 
There has been difficulty about the validity of the old Firman with the 
Turkish authorities, but it is hoped that this will be speedily removed. The 
Reports which are published in this number prove sufficiently how rich a 
harvest remains to be reaped in this part of the country, even though our party 
followed in the steps of Canon Tristram and others who have recently visited 
Moab. The expedition has unfortunately lost the seiTices of Mr. Black, who 
has been invalided home. 



Lieutenant Conder, after twice passing four hours in the passage between the 
Yirgin's Fount and the Pool of Siloam, succeeded in discovering the place 
where the workmen met. He found no other inscriptions. M. Clermont 
Ganneau has in preparation a treatise on the inscription, on which Dr. Giusburg 
has also been working. Certain questions have been raised in the last number of 
the Transactions of the German Palestine Exploration Society, as to the 
correctness of Professor Sayce's statement of the expense borne by this Society 
in the preliminary lowering of the water and other things. It seems, therefore, 
desirable to stat« exactly what was the action of the Committee in the matter. 
It was on August the 3rd, 1880, that the Committee first heard of the inscription. 
They immediately resolved that the sum of 25/., which was estimated to be 
sufficient for the purpose, should be voted for such expenses as might be 
incurred ; and Dr. Chaplin, the Honoraiy Secretary for Jerusalem, was autlio- 

B 



2 NOTES AND NEWS. 

rised to draw upon the Treasurer for that amoiint if necessary. The sum 
actually drawn by Dr. Chaplin and given to Herr Schick for the purpose was 
fire pounds. 



The portion of the work already completed includes special surveys of 
Heshbon, Elealah, Madeba, Baal-Meon, Nebo, Pisgah, the hot springs of 
CalirrhocE, and Eabboth Ammon. Over 600 names have been found and 200 
ruins examined : some 400 cromlechs have been discovered and sketched, with 
many menhirs and stone circles : search was made, but without result, for 
remains of the Cities of the Plain : 36 photographs have been taken : a building 
has been found at Ammon, which Lieutenant Conder thinks is of Sassanian origin : 
a number of Arab traditions have been collected : and identifications have been 
proposed for the Field of Zophim, the Ascent of Luhith, Jazer, Sihmah, and 
Mintieth. 



A second rock-hewn channel in connection with the Virgin's Fount has been 
discovered by Herr Schick, who has made a plan of it, but no copy has yet been 
received in England ; it is reported to have carried water direct to the lower 
Pool of Siloam. A new Crusading Church has also been discovered near 
Jeremiah's Grotto ; Lieutenant Conder has made a plan of it. 



It is with the greatest pleasure that we publish three " Notes " from the pen 
of M. Clermont Ganneau, containing an account of the recent archaeo- 
logical work. He hopes to be able to continue these notes from time to time. 
The first is called Note II, because there was an earlier note, which seems to 
have miscarried. The discovery of the capital wiih the inscription in Greek 
and PhcBuician characters opens many new and interesting questions in the 
archffiological history of the country. M. Ganneau has now quite recovered 
from his late severe illness. 



During the repairs in the Haram Area another gate has been discovered in 
the eastern wall. It does not appear, however, to be of great antiquity, and is 
reported to be built in the later masonry. It has been measured and sketched 
by Sir Charles Wilson, and by Lieutenant Conder. 



Colonel Sir Charles Wilson, writing of his recent visit to Palestine, makes the 
following observations, which will be read with great interest : — 

"In fifteen years there have necessarily been many changes, and some of the 
points which struck me most may interest you. 



NOTES AND NEWS. d 

"The population of the Lebanon and the area under euUivation hare 
gi'eatly increased, and it was quite a novelty to see all the people going about 
unarmed. Beirut has grown almost out of my remembrance, and the number of 
large good houses built during the last few years is quite remarkable. Damascus 
has hardly changed at all. 

" The HaifPa Temple Colony was quite a new feature, but the members of it 
are, in one sense, doing great harm, for they are rapidly disforesting Carmel. 
Our man uses the wood as fuel for his factory or mill, I forget whiith, and a 
great quantity goes in this way. Charcoal burners also are hard at work. The 
clearance of trees in some parts was most painfully visible. 

" It is hard to trust the memory after fifteen years, but it certainly seemed 
to me that in the country between Jerin and Jerusalem there had been much 
planting of olive and fig trees since my day. I used to be struck with the bare 
aspect of the hills ; I was now struck by the amount of cultivation; perhaps, 
however, this may have been due to my late sojourn on the treeless plateau of 
Anatolia. The smallness of the country, and its natural features, were more 
than ever striking, after living in a country where all the features are on a large 
scale, and a journey of nine or ten days is an ordinary incident of Anatolian life. 

"At Samaria I found all my excavations filled in, and those made by 
Anderson on Mount Gerizim were partially filled. It was most extraordinary 
to notice the fresh appearance of the rubbish thrown out round Justinian's 
Church on Grerizim, and almost impossible to beUeve fifteen years had elapsed ; 
the heaps of rubbish looked but a month old. 

" I went from Jaffa to Jerusalem by the carriage road, which I had not seen. 
The people complain of its roughness, but it is the best road I have seen in 
Turkey, save the French Beirut-Damascus road, and is the only mountain road 
I know of made by the Turks except that from Trebizonde to Erzrum. 

" The approach to Jerusalem was to me a painful one. When I left in 
1866, the only buildings outside the town were the Eussian convent, and two 
or three small houses ; now new Jerusalem is almost as large as the old one. I 
had always liked to think of Jerusalem as the walled city, with its gates closed 
at nightfall, surrounded by ohve gardens, which I had learned to know so well 
during the survey, and it was anything but pleasant to ride over a hard metalled 
road, through a long suburb, such as one sees round a third class Italian town. 
However, it seemed to remind one of the villas and gardens which spread 
outside the second wall at the time of the Crucifixion, 

" Within the city there has been little change, except the erection or com- 
pletion of some of the large religious establishments, and after the first half- 
hour I felt myself qiiite at home in the winding street and blind alleys. One 
great change is, however, in progress ; all the rubbish is now being shot into the 
Pool of Bethesda, which is to be filled up and planted as a public garden ; a 
large portion at the east end had already been levelled up. 

" I paid a hurried visit to the site of the German excavations, and was 
astonished at the work they had managed to do for the small sum ot £300, 
I think. I beUeve they have found much of interest, but as many of the pits 
were half filled in, I could not examine all the places, nor would any descrip- 

B 2 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



tion be easily followed without reference to plans. The excavations seemed to 
me not to have been exhaustive in any one place, rather a series of small excava- 
tions, in hope of making a lucky find. One of the most intei'es1;ing points is 
the discovery of a second rock-hewn channel, in connection with the Fountain of 
the Virgin, of which Mr. Schick showed me a plan, and of which I believe he 
was the discoverer ; it apparently carried water direct to the lower pool of 
Siloam, and is perhaps older than the other, which starts oif from a corner 
shown in Warren's plan of the conduit. It may throw some light on the cubit 
question in the inscription. I also saw the supposed city wall uncovered, near 
Siloam ; it is in the position one might expect to find such a wall, but the 
masonry did not appear to me such as is usually found in city walls ; it wa^ 
more like a retaining wall. The publication of the resxilts obtained by the 
Germans will be looked for with great interest. 

" I was glad to find Mr. Schick had still in his possession the original plan 
of Jerusalem, which I gave him in 1866 to keep as a record of rock lurls. He has 
entered on this the exact points at which rock has been found since Colonel 
Warren left Jerusalem, and I have arranged with him to make a facsimile copy, 
which I hope may some day be published. 

" There are many other minor points, but my letter is already too long ; I 
must mention, however, that I examined and made a plan of the door in the 
East Haram wall, found by M. Ganneaii ; it is comparatively modern, but of 
interest from its position. You have no doubt received full information about 
tliis already." 



The support given to the new enterprise during the last twelve months may 
be considered fairly encouraging. The amount received in all from subscriptions 
and donations reached, up to December 20th, the total of £2,432 Is. 9d. This is 
only a little more than enough to cover the cost of the party while in the field. 
The printing and distribution of the Quarterly Statement, and the management 
expenses, call for another 800Z. The Committee, however, find on all sides a 
renewal of the old interest which had naturally diminished while the pre- 
paration of the memoirs and maps for publication was the only occupation of 
their officers, and expect a much larger support next year. 



Will every siibscrlber remember that about one-third more than was 
subscribed this year is absolutely necessary 1 It is too much to ask every one 
to increase his subscription by one-third, but if every one would only persuade 
one other to subscribe with him, there would be no difficulty. The circular 
enclosed may be useful for this purpose. It may also be pointed out that the 
splendid maps already issued, and those which will be published in the spring, 
together with the Memoirs and the Quarterly Statements, have thrown such a 
flood of light on Biblical topography, as to render all previous piiblications on 
the subject comparatively valueless. What has been done for Westi-rn Palestine 
will now be done for the East, with results equally valuable. It is not a great 



NOTES AND NEWS. 5 

thing to ask our 4,000 subscribers, to whom the (Quarterly Statement is sent, 
to make up between them the sum of £3,500. And the Committee's hands are 
greatly strengthened by payment being made early in the year. 



Diirinw the last twelve months the Committee hare issued three volumes of 
their Memoirs, besides their reduced map of Modern Palestine. The Water Basin 
Edition of the reduced map with Mr. Saunders's " Introduction " will be ready for 
the new year. The next volume of Memoirs will also be ready in January : 
the other volumes will follow as rapidly as possible ; and the ancient maps will 
be completed, it is hoped, in the spring. In addition to these a General Index 
to the Quarterly Statement, 1869-1881, has been prepared and will be issued 
immediately ; the pamphlet "Some of the Biblical Grains from the Survey" is 
under revision, and a new edition will be published as soon as possible ; lastly an 
Index of Bible names with proposed identifications will be printed for and with 
the new maps already issued. 



The Committee have resolved that Branch Associations of the Bible Society 
(up to March the 1st), all Sunday Schools in union with the Sunday School 
Institute, the Sunday School Union, and the Wesleyan Sunday School Institute, 
shall be treated as subscribers and be allowed to purchase the map (by appli- 
cation only to the Secretary) at reduced price. 



The Committee have to regret the loss of one of their most valuable members 
during the last quarter. The Bishop of Jerusalem, Dr. Joseph Barclay, died in 
the Holy City on Saturday, October 22ud, after a very short illness, and was 
buried the same afternoon in the Protestant Cemetery on the southern slopes of 
Mount Zion. Dr. Barclay was a Missionary in Constantinople from 1858 to 
1861, and was then for some years Incumbent of Christ Church, Jerusalem. He 
returned to England in 1873 and became Rector of Stapleford, Herts. He was 
appointed to tlie Bishopric of Jerusalem in the autumn of 1879. His diocese 
extended from the Euphrates to the Levant in Asia, and in Africa from the 
west to the south of Abyssinia and Galla Land. Dr. Barclay was an accom- 
plished linguist as well as a profound Hebrew scholar : he was able to preach in 
German, Spanish, Turkish, and Arabic. 



The income of the Society from all sources from September 22nd to December 
16th, 1881, was £969 17*. \ld. The amount in the Banks on Tuesday, 
December 20th, was £270 12*. Qd. 



It is suggested to subscribers that the safest and most convenient manner 
of paying subscriptions is through a bank. Many subscribers have adopted this 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



method, which removes the danger of loss or miscarriage, and renders unneces- 
sary the acknowledgment by official receipt and letcer. 



Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly Statement regularly, are asked 
to send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward each number 
to all who are entitled to receive it, but clianges of address and other causes 
give rise occasionally to omissions. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterli/ Statement, the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood that 
by puKhshing them in the Quarterly Statement they neither sanction nor 
adopt them. 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORT. 

No. IX. 

Heshbon and its Cromlechs. 

Ain Faneili, 17 th September, 1881. 
Since my last report the Survey has been advancing steadily in spite of a 
week of most intense heat — 112° F. in the shade with a difference of 
about 40° between the wet and dry bulbs and with a hot dry ozone — less 
east wind. 

Jiase. — Two cool days were selected, and on these the base line was 
measured. The north end is directly connected with the highest point in 
the ruins of Heshbon, tlie south end is on a knoll at the ruin of Kufeir. 
The total length is about 3'8 miles, and the two measiu-emeuts (taken with a 
light chain compared with a standard chain before and after use) agree 
within two links (TS feet). 

Tliis cannot but be considered a highly satisfactory result, and could 
only be obtained by such careful and exjjerienced surveyors as Messrs. 
Black and Armstrong are well known to have proved themselves. The 
ground was hardly as good as could be wished, and much inferior to that 
on which the two former bases were measui'ed. The Eamleh base gave a 
ditierence of only 4 inches between its two measurements in 1871, in a 
distance of about four miles. The Esdraelon base had a difference of 
three links or 1 foot 10 inches in about four and a half miles. The 
character of the new base is thus quite equal to that of the previous work 
west of Jordan. The new base is prolonged, as it is termed, at its north 
end by a line measured at an angle of 6i)°, forming one side of an 
equilateral triangle, and thus exactly equal in length to the distance not 
measured on the main line ; which construction was necessitated by the 
rough ground in the ruins of Heshbon. The prolonged portion (about 
a quarter of a mile long) was twice measured by Lieutenant Mantell and 
myself with a steel tape, and the results agreed within 2 inclies, the 
giound being good. 

Triaiig Illation. — Twenty theodolite stations, including the sites of 
Heshbon, Nebo, Elealah, &c., have been selected, and observations have 
been taken from eidit of these with the excellent 8-inch theodolites 
furnished by the Committee. We were fortunate in obtaining clear 
weather in which to observe our old stations west of Jordan, and we were 
even able to obtain a good line from Si^ghah to Neby Samwil, whence 
Jaffa — the original longitude station — can be seen. We also observed 
Rujon el Bahr in the Dead Sea, Jebel Kiiiuntal above Jericho, Kasr el 
Yehad near Jordan, and Kurn Sartabeh east of Shechem, and were thus 
able to fix om- new triangulation in its proper position respecting longitude 



8 LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 

and latitude. The junction is not yet as complete as it will be made 
finally, but our rough calculations show that the results derived from the 
new base are likely to agree in a most satisfactory manner with the 
calculations depending on the western bases. The new Survey may thus, 
I think, be considered to rest on a firm basis, and our subsequent work 
will constantly be checked by observations to the stations on the western 
watershed, where cairns exist which we rebuilt in the earlier summer 
months of the present year. 

The American Survey cairns are well built, and the stations skilfully 
selected. The use of these stations has saved vis several days of labour, in 
addition to which the Arabs have a most fortunate propensity towards the 
construction of cairns on every high top — a reminiscence perhaps of 
the worship of Nebo or Mercury — and we' are thus often able to make 
use of structures which are not likely to be disturbed because custom has 
made them familiar to the wild shepherds of these mountains. 

The survey of detail has commenced, and the examination of the ruins 
liy Lieutenant Mantell and myself, in a few days some 100 square miles of 
the new Survey will be completed all round Heshbon. 

Heshbon. — The ruinsof therapital of Sihon are at first sight disappointing. 
Shapeless mounds of hewn stones, rude pillars and cornices of Byzantine 
origin, a great pool on the -east, a ruined fort on the south, numerous caves 
and cisterns with remains of a colonnaded building on the highest part of the 
hill, are all that we have found. The details have been measured with the 
same amount of accuracy observed in the important ruins west of Jordan ; 
but no inscription has yet rewarded our search, and although the site is 
vjry extensive, its buildings are evidently all of late origin (4th to 6th 
century probably). One curious illustration of Scripture appears, however, 
to be presented by the site. The eyes of the Shulamites (Cant, vii, 4) are 
likened to the " fishpools of Heshbon by the gate of Bath Eabbim," and 
Canon Tristram points out that the bright pools in the stream which runs 
beneath Heshbon on the west, are probably intended. The i>lateau on the 
edge of which the city stands is reached, from this stream, by an ancient 
road which, at the top of the ascent, passes through a sort of passage cut in 
the recks about 8 or 10 feet high and 3 or 4 yards wide. This entry to the 
s'te of Heshbon from the north-west is known as the Btieib or " gates," and 
these gates looking down on the fishpools of Heshbon may perhaps be those 
noticed by the author of the Song of Songs under the name Bath Rabbim 
" Daughter of great ones." From Heshbon a good view is obtained to the 
south over the great Belka plateau, and from the high top west of the ruins 
the Jordan valley becomes visible, with the mountains beyond, the thorn 
groves of Ramen being seen through the gap caused by the deep gorge of 
W&dy Hesban. 

Of this hilltop (el Kerdmlyeh) there is more to be said later, for here 
we first came across one of the great centres of rude stone monuments which 
form one of the most interesting features of the new country, and present 
the oldest remains as yet found in Syria. 

Identifications. —Several names of Biblical interest we have already 



LIEUTENANT CONDEIl'S EErOKTS, 9 

collected, among which the most important are apimrently the five 
following : — 

The Field of Zophim (Q'»r3!^ JllU? Numbers xxiii, 14) was at or iden- 
tical with Pisgah or Nebo. The word signifying " views " comes from a root 
identical with the Arabic Safi, " clear " or " shining." My Arab guide 
volunteered the information that the ascent leading up from the 'Ay(in 
M<isan to the top of Jehel Neba is called TaVat es Safa. Thus on the side 
of Nebo we still find the name Zophim preserved unchanged, and this 
discovery, which is I believe entirely new, serves to confirm the ordinary 
identification of Nebo with Jebel Neba. We can have little hesitation in 
identifying the " Field of Zophim " with the plateau of arable land, a rich 
red field at the top of Tal'at Safa, from which the knoU of limestone called 
Eas Neba rises some 50 feet on the west. In connection with this question 
I may mention that I have taken careful notes on the spot of the view from 
Nebo, as former travellers have given difi'erent accounts of the prospect. 
It must be confessed that in many respects the panorama is disappointing, 
especially as it seems to be an impossibility that the utmost (or western) 
sea can be seen either from Nebo or from any other mountain in the 
district. 

2. The Ascent of LiiJiith (Isaiah xv, 5 ; Jeremiah xlviii, 5) is mentioned 
in connection with Zoar and Horonaim. The valley leading up to the 
plateau west of Neba, on the south side of the ridge, seems still to 
preserve this name in the form TaCat el Heith, which is well known. This 
tala'h or " ascent " communicates between two of the main roads leading 
towards Madeba from the plains of Shittim. 

3. Ja'zer ("^tV^)' ^'^ important boundary town of Reuben and Gad 
(Joshua xiii, 25), would seem to answer to the large ruin of Beit Zar^a. 
The Ai-abic and Hebrew contain exactly the same radicals, but the 
guttural would seem to have been displaced, in a manner not unnatural, 
and of which other well known instances will be recalled. The situation 
of the site north-east of Heshbon where the plateau, called Mishor in the 
Bible, begins to rise into the wooded uplands of Gad, seems to suit well 
with the idea that the old tribe boundaries were as the modern still are, 
marked by natural features. Beit Zar'a is also possibly the Zai'a of 
Josephus east of Jordan. 

4. Sibmah, mentioned (Numbers xxxii, 3-38 ; Joshua xiii, 19) with 
Pisgah, Beth Peor, Beth Jeshimoh {Sueimeh), Nebo, Heshbon, Elealah, 
&c., would possibly be the present important site SOmia, where are ancient 
tombs, and a curious tablet close to the stream measuring 7 feet 3 inches in 
height by 8 feet in width, but entirely without inscription or sculpture. 
The " Vine of Sibmah " is mentioned (Jeremiah xlviii. 32), and it is 
interesting therefore to remark that the hill above S(imia presents remains 
of several large wine-presses, and ruined vineyard towers. The Ono- 
masticon places Sibmah 500 paces from Heshbon, which might perhaps be 
intended to represent the site of Sflmia. Eemains of a Byzantine town 
exist here, and of a monastery, the masonry of which was used by 
Makbil in Nimr about a century ago in the construction of a little fort. 



10 LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 

On one of the lintel stones in this building I found carved the cross 
potent or Jerusalem cross, which I have never before found in any other 
building in the country. 

5. Minnith (Judges xi, 33) might be conjectured to be the present 
Minieh south of Nebo. The Onomasticon, however, places it four Roman 
miles from Heshbon. The mention in connection with Aroer would seem 
to sufifsest a southern situation like that of Minieh. 

I tind on careful enumeration that we have only some 40 Biblical sites 
to discover between the Arnon and Hermon, and besides those already 
given I have several to propose wliich await confirmation by further 
enquiry. 

Ileshhon Cromlechs. — My time and attention for several days have been 
wholly devoted to the wonderful rude stone monuments with which this 
district abounds. The contrast in this respect with the west of Jordan 
is very striking, and is perhaps accounted for by the supposition that 
the Jews deliberately destroyed all traces of these structures — connected 
as they must clearly have been with the barbarous religion of the early 
aborigines. In Galilee, where Jewish influence was probably never pre- 
dominant until a late period, a few cromlechs still exist. In Moab and 
the Jordan valley they are marvellously numerous. On one hill I have 
gathered 26 examples, and in three days nearly 50 cromlechs have been 
planned, sketched, and photographed. At Jebel Neba and el MaslAbiyeh 
other groups occur, and we are informed that they are even more plentiful 
in the Ghor. 

Time wiU not allow of a detailed account of the various specimens, 
but some of the general results ai-e of sufficient interest to be summarised. 
In the first place it seems to me that these monuments are not sown broad- 
cast over the country, but that they are referable to certain centres which 
represent the old sacred places of the primitive inhabitants. One of 
these centres appears to be the rounded summit west of Heshbon, already 
noticed and called el Kerumlyeh. There is a flat plateau west of the 
summit some 200 feet lower than the highest top. This runs out west- 
wards about 300 yards, and terminates in a knoll commanding a view down 
Wady Hesban. The lower knoll was once apparently crowned by a cairn, 
of wliich the foundations remain, and a circle of stones of moderate size 
surrounded the cairn, the circle being about 40 feet in diameter. Lower 
down the hill on the west are remains of a second circle of about 200 
yards diameter, consisting of two rows of stones with a path or interval 
of 8 feet between them. Outside this circle, on north, south, and west, 
are groups of cromlechs of every size and form. At least 26 were clearly 
recovered, and others fallen, or of less distinct character, were noticed. 
The best specimen is on the north near the fort of the spire which rises 
some 800 feet above the valley. This specimen, found and photographed 
by Lieutnant Man tell, has a table stone measuring 9 feet by 8 feet, supported 
by two very square, standing stones, and measures 5 feet 6 inches in the 
clear under the table stone. On the plateau north-east of the central 
Cciii-n aiid circle is another fine cromlech of equal dimensious. These 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 11 

two are the largest and most lofty, the average height of the standing 
stones being about 3 feet, with a table stone 5 feet square. 



There is a second group of cromlechs on the north side of Wady 
Hesban, more than a mile west of the KerHmtyeh hill, and it is remark- 
able that these, numbering at least 16 in all, are placed so as in every case 
to obtain a view of the Kerftmlyeh hill east of them. They all occur on 
the east slopes of the hill, and none are found on the west. Other speci- 
mens occur on the south slope of the hill north of el KerHmtyeh. From this 
circumstance it seems likely that the Kertimtyeh hill— the highest near 
Heshbon— with its cairn and circles, was a sacred mountain, and that the 
cromlechs were built facing it, just as the modern Arab builds his little 
stone piles— degenerate offspring of the mighty works of former times — 
in positions whence the sacred centre might be seen with the sun rising 
behind it. 

It is remarkable that the mountains thus covered with cromlechs are 
also those where the modern Arabs pile their stone heaps or kehaktr, 
which they are accustomed to place in sacred spots or along roads, at points 
where shrines first come into view. They explain these piles to have 
reference to Neby M(isa west of Jordan, but they ai-e more probably 



12 LIEUTENANT CONDER's REPORTS. 

intended to propitiate the Ghouls, for the cromlech obtains the name Beit el 
GMl or '' Ghoul's House " from the Bedawin. 

In a former report I have noticed the stone circles still erected by the 
Arabs. We had an opportunity the other day of observing the cultus of 
these sacred circles, which consists in placing a small offering on the lintel 
or cromlech, which in most cases occurs on the west side of the circle. 
The worshipper then touches the lintel with his forehead and mutters an 
invocation to the local divinity. We have found a single example in 
which the lintel was on the east of the circle, but this was in the vicinity 
of a very sacred place, Kabr ' Abdallah, towards which the worshipper at the 
lintel thus faces. 

The theory that the cromlechs were graves seems to me to be contra- 
dicted by the fact that the three stones stand in most cases on the live 
rock. In many cases circular holes are found in the top stones of the 
Heshbon groups ; these are sometimes 8 or 9 inches in diameter and 2 or 3 
inches deep. Possibly they may be connected with the use of the crom- 
lechs as altars, either as receptacles for blood or for fire. 

The cromlechs have no special orientation. They occur generally on 
the hill slopes, not on the summit, and are found where fallen blocks were 
abundant and wliere open ground sufficient for a few worshippers exists. 
They are raised high enough to command a view of the sacred centre, 
but the labour of climbing to the top of the hill, or perhaps the yet more 
serious difficulty of transporting large blocks to the heights, seems to have 
induced their builders to choose comparatively accessible positions. The 
two standing stones do not appear to be essential, but the top table stone 
may be supported in any convenient manner, so long as it is propped in a 
fairly horizontal position. Large flat blocks with a single small stone 
inserted beneath, occur among the cromlechs, and seem to have been less 
ambitious attempts at constructing a rude altar. Strata of rock in other 
cases have been prized up, and supported by a stone on the lower side, 
while in some instances three flat stones stand one on the other. Circular 
holes are often excavated in the live rock close to the cromlech. 

The existence of cromlechs surrounding a large cairn on Nebo is of 
great interest. The mountain where Balak's altars were built took its 
name apparently from Nebo — the planet Mercury, and for this reason is 
said to have been changed by the Reubenites — possibly to Pisgah ; (cf. 
Numbers xxxii, 38), and Nebo like Baal Peor and Baal Meon was no doubt 
a centre of Pagan worship. 

Mercury or Hermes was one of the earliest of the Semitic gods, and 
under the names Set and Thoth was worshipped by the Egyptians, the 
Hittite^, and the Phoenicians. He was essentially a stone-god. The 
Talmud records the practice of throwing stones on to a heap in honour 
of Marculim, and the Latin proverb recalls the same curious species of 
worship. Not only Nebo but possibly Jebel 'Attar<\s, with its great cairn, 
may be connected with this ancient cultus, the name of the latter being 
very close to the Arabic 'AttarM, the name of the planet Mercury. 

Should the fact of the relation of the cromlechs to these mountain 



LIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 13 

centres be established by further observation, we may peihaps obtain a 
clue for the discovery of Baal Peor, and Bamoth Baal, both of which are 
as yet doubtful. 

Some curious rock-cut chambers are found in connection with the crom- 
lechs. They are generally 3 to 5 feet long, 3 feet broad and high. In 
other cases they are 6 or 7 feet long, and were evidently once tombs, but 
the shorter ones, which are the more numerous, seem hardly to have been 
intended as sepulchres. They are almost always excavated in detached 
cubes of rock 10 to 15 feet wide, and in many cases these blocks have been 
subsequently overthrown by earthquakes or landslips. There is as yet 
no evidence whether these excavations are as old as the cromlechs, nor 
indeed do we know how old the latter themselves may be. The cromlechs 
appear to occur in connection with ancient towns, and this may account 
for the association with the rock chamber. "We have not found any flint 
instruments or chips near the cromlechs, though several specimens of rude 
flint instruments occur at 'Atn Hesban on the flat ground near the 
stream. 

North of 'Atn Hesb<1,n we have as yet seen no cromlechs, but specimens 
are known to exist in Mount Gilead. It might perhaps be suggested that 
the "throne" of King Og ('C?")^ Deut. iii, 11), rendered "bedstead" in 
the English version, and usually supposed to have been a sarcophagus, may 
really have l)een a cromlech. The dimensions (12 feet by 9 feet), are 
rather larger than those of the cromlechs as yet measured. This throne 
was to be seen at Eabbath Ammon, and cromlechs still exist at Amman, 
which we shall measure with unusual interest. 

Oeology. — The observations as yet are not sufficiently numerous to allow 
of important deductions, but the general succession of the strata is 
unmistakable. The Nubian sandstone attains to a thickness of some 
2,000 feet above the Ghor as seen in Wady Hesban, and is of all colours 
from slate and mauve to light buff" or white. Above this follows the hard 
dolomitic limestone, found west of Jordan, forming a second step in the 
hills, and a third step is made by the soft chalk, with flint bands, which 
forms the substratum of the Belka plateau. The water sinks through this 
formation, and there are consequently no springs on the plateau, but only 
a few wells, while on the sides of the great slope of 4,000 feet leading 
to the Ghor, beautiful streams burst forth at the base of the chalk, above 
the impervious limestone. Every valley at this level, some 2,000 feet above 
the Mediterranean, has its springs and streams, fringed with oleanders 
and canes, which flow murmuring down the gorges falling in cascades 
over the rocks. The contrast of this rich water-supply with the scantiness 
of streams west of Jordan is striking. So far as has yet been observed 
the dip of the strata downwards towards the west is much less marked 
than on the west side of the Ghor, thus seeming to confirm the conclusion 
of Lartet that the valley was neither more nor less than a gigantic fault. 
Traces of volcanic action, and a hot spring, were noticed near Kefrein, but 
no basalt occurs in the district at present surveyed. 

Claude E. Conder, Lieut. R.E, 



14 IIEUTENANT CONDER'S REPORTS. 



Summary of the First Survey Campaign-. 

1st JVovemher, 1881. 
The work was commenced on the 17th Atigiist, and carried on until the 
29th October, when the party returned to Jerusalem ; during this period 
of eleven weeks a total of 500 sqiaare miles was surveyed, but a great part 
of the time was taken up in preliminary reconnaissance, necessary before 
establishing the triangulation, and in measuring the base line. The actual 
rate of progress, after these preliminaries had been completed, was about 
2.50 square miles per month, which is an average higher than any reached 
during the former survey, except during the campaigns which I conducted 
in 1875, when, however, the European Staff included three surveyors, 
whereas during the last fortnight of the present campaign only one sur- 
veyor has been working, in addition to the two officers. 

The cost of the work, in spite of the heavy payments to the Arab 
escort, has been less than at any previous time, principally on account of the 
cheapness of food and forage. The collection of the names has given com- 
paratively little trouble, as the Arabs knew the nomenclature well, and 
imparted information readily. Over 600 names were collected, and more 
than 200 ruins were examined. Some 400 cromlechs were found, and 
careful })lans, sketches, and photographs of the best specimens were made. 
The idea put forward in a former report that these cromlechs are referable 
to certain centres was fully established, seven such centres being explored 
where the cromlechs occur in numbers, whereas in the other parts of the 
country not a single cromlech is found. In addition to cromlechs some 
very interesting Menhirs or standing stones were also found, and 
ancient stone circles occur in connection with both classes of these 
monuments. 

Among the sites explored are Heshbon, Elealah, Madeba, Baal-Meon, 
Nebo, and Pisgah, the hot springs of Calirrhoce, Eabboth Ammon — where 
the party remained fifteen days among the ruins, and of which site a 
special survey has been very carefully made. In the Jordan valley search 
was made for the Cities of the Plain, but without any very conclusive 
results. 

I think that we have also fixed with great probability the sites of Baal- 
Peor and of Bamoth Baal, in positions entirely unsuspected before, and 
we have some interesting suggestions to make in connection with the 
" bedstead " (or more correctly " throne ") of Og in Eabboth Ammon, as 
well as respecting the history of Balaam and Balak. 

At 'Arak el Emir we made an interesting discovery of the probable 
method by which the enormous stones were brought from the quarries to 
the palace of Hyrcanus, and we explored carefully the existing ruins and 
copied the inscriptions and details of architecture. 

The number of photographs taken by Lieutenant Mantell is 36 in all. 
A short account of these is attached, and copies will be sent as soon as possible 



LIEUTENANT CONDEIi's REPORTS. 15 

to England. The large majority of subjects have, I think, certainly never 
been photographed previously. 

The discoveries of inscriptions have been few and of no great value. 
Two Greek inscriptions wei'e found fairly preserved, and fragments of 
others were also discovered. A Roman milestone with a Latin inscription 
was also found by Lieutenant Mantell, and there are remains of a Greek 
inscription in the great Temple of 'Amman. The Arabs, however, state that 
no stone like that of Dibon has ever been since found by them, although 
during the last twelve years they have been constantly searching for such 
relics. 

A building explored at 'Amman is likely to prove of great interest to 
architects. It has been previously described as a Byzantine church and 
as a mosque, but there can be little doubt that it is of Sassanian origin, 
probably about the same age as the Mashita palace discovered by Dr. Tris- 
tram. Its architecture, together with that of an early moslem Mosque in 
'Amm&n, seem likely to illustrate in an interesting manner the question of 
the style of the Dome of the Rock at Jerusalem. Plans, sketches, and 
photograj^hs of these and all the other buildings of 'Amman have been 
obtained. 

A number of interesting Arab traditions have been collected, some of 
which have a considerable mythological value. Statistics respecting the 
names, numbers, and property of the eastern tribes have also been obtained, 
although with some difficulty. 

Full reports on the heads above enumerated will be forwarded as soon 
as possible, but the great press of work at the present moment renders it 
impossible to give more than a rude summary of the most interesting of 
our discoveries. 

Claude R. Conder, R.E. 



ll) 



NOTES BY M. CLERMONT GANNEAU. 

Note II.* 

Jaffa, Sth October, 1881. 
Besides short expeditions to different places in the neighbourhood of 
Jaffa, I spent nearly five weeks in Jerusalem and its immediate envii-ons. 
I started the 2nd August and did not return until the 7th September. 
Upon reaching Latrun I mounted one of the carriage horses and made my 
way to Amwas. There I obtained three fragments of ancient insci-iptions, 
one Greek and two Roman ; one of the latter is an imperial protocol. The 
Greek inscription consists of two lines ; in the first line one can still 
distinguish the characters FIOA which are possibly part of the word 
NIKOnOAlX; if so this gives us the ancient name Emmaus 
Nicopolis. On the second line we find [Y] FIAT I A either signifying 
Hypatia, a feminine name, or else the word vnarela, consulship. 

Amongst the fresh inscriptions which I have collected at Jerusalem, and 
of which I have brought back either copies or photographs, I must mention 
the following : 

A fragment of a Roman inscription containing the name of a certain 

' Rufiis " (with the addition of the word '■'■ patronus '), who may be identical 

with the governor of that name at the time of the revolt of the celebrated 

Barkochebas, which ended in the transformation of Jerusalem into a Roman 

pro^'ince under the name of ^lia Capitolina. 

Another fragment from the neighbourhood of Jericho. 

A fresh Jewish ossuary with Greek and Hebrew inscriptions. Amongst 
the number are references to the following names, aU of some interest : — 

MAeiOYTOY KACTOY BEPOYTAPIOY KA 

NIKANAPOY TP<MlNOC HPECBYTEPOY- 



MATTAeiOY BEPOYTAPIOY NEHTEPAC, &c. 

One of these ossuaries has an epigraph written in cursive Greek 
characters which are not easy to decijiher, and which are too ndistinct to 
photograph. I have taken a careful sketch of it. Another has a Hebrew 
inscription (written in the early square characters) in which the name of 
Jesus is twice repeated, followed by some patronymic which I have not 
yet succeeded in reading. 

Three fragments (Greek and Roman) from Colonia, a village near 
Jerusalem, one of which contains the letters NIA — *^^^ ^"^ perhaps of the 
ancient name of this place which was apparently a Roman settlement.)! 

* Note I appears to have been mislaid or not to have arrived. 

t This locality is worth careful exploration. They told me of the existence 
of some long inscription, but 1 searched for it in vain ; but I do not despair of 
finding it at some future time. 



NOTES BY M. CLERMONT GANNEAU. 17 

There are also a number of mediseval inscriptions of tlie period of the 
Crusades and of the later Jews. I especially noticed one at the base of 
one of the columns of the galleries in the interior of the Haram esh Sherif, 
and belonging apparently to the epitaph of some Templar. (Characters of 
the 12th century.) 

[hie ja] cet D [ominus] Ogo (or Odo) de Bus. 

Two shields of the loth century, painted on paper and found glued to 
the interior wall of the Coenaculum, the present Neby Daoud, under an 
old plastering. One is dated 1414, and has on it the name of a certain 
Kiinz (Conrad) the Gender von Noremberg — the other with the name of 
Sigmund Laber would be of about the same period. Ancient writers, 
especially Faber, tell us that the pilgrims to Palestine were in the habit of 
affixing their names and arms on the walls of the sacred buildings which 
they visited. I have taken photographs of these shields, and send the one 
of Sigmund Laber as a specimen. 

There are also a number of Greek inscriptions, for the greater part 
Christian ; amongst them I found the epitaph of the Abbess of a convent 
on the Mount of Olives, of Armenian origin. I must also mention another 
Armenian inscription from Kerak on the other side of Jordan, which seems 
to be very ancient and of historical value. 

I find that the making of false inscriptions is still carried on in Jerusa- 
lem. I revealed the existence of this species of imposture in 1874, and 
some of my discoveries regarding it are not wanting in interest. 

I have paid particular attention to the Hebrew inscription (in Phoeni- 
cian characters) discovered a year ago on the rock in the subterranean 
canal which connects the Pool of Siloam with the Fountain of the Virgin. 
I have spent a good deal of time in very uncomfortable positions in the 
aqueduct during my endeavoiu-s to decipher it, for the inscription has 
naturally attracted much attention ; even now it is not fully understood. 
I think I have arrived at the correct reading of all those parts which are 
not completely destroyed, and I have some very good squeezes of it. I 
hope soon to write a paper on the subject, in which I shall endeavour to 
point out its exact meaning, and try to decide upon the origin of this 
channel. At present I will merely call attention to two facts : 

Firstly. — Every one makes a mistake in considering this to be the 
first inscription in Phoenician characters yet discovered at Jerusalem. 
They seem to have forgotten that twelve years ago I discovered two in 
identically the same characters engraved in like manner on the rock which 
forms the outer wall of a cave near Siloam. 

Seco'tidly. — I think that with regard to the history of the source in 
question we must take into consideration three epochs ; the first, during 
which the water took its natural course into the valley of Jehoshaphat, 
then much deeper than at present ; a second period, when the inhabitants 
wishing to gain access to the pool without exposing themselves to the blows 
of a besieging enemy, bored an inclined subterranean passage through the 
rock, which enabled them to draw water fi^om a well pierced vertically be- 
low the source ; the third epoch being when the inhabitants, not content 

c 



18 NOTES BY M. CLERMONT GANNEAU. 

with this defensive precaution, and wishing to deprive the enemy of the 
water which still continued to run into the valley, determined to alter its 
course, and caused it to run into a new bed which they formed for it under 
the hill, and thence into a large reservoir which they made in the valley of 
Tyropceon, and which was protected by the neighbouring walls. And it is 
to this latter work, I think, that the inscri^jtion refers ; the previous work 
being represented by the subterranean system discovered in 1867 bj 
Colonel Warren under the hill of Ophel. 

With respect to my own archaeological researches I have two matters 
of importance to relate, leaving aside all secondary points. 

Firstly. — I have succeeded in inducing the Turks to make some exca- 
vations in the interior of the Haram, such excavations being strictly for- 
bidden to the Christians. I attained this result by referring to a certain 
Arabic inscription which I discovered years ago in the wall of the Haram, 
and which says that at that point there are stones buried for the use of the 
Haram. 

As at this moment the Turks are proposing to make some repairs, 
thanks to this inscription, I was able to persuade them to make an opening 
in the wall, about fifty yards from the inscription where from certain indi- 
cations I expected we might find a door which had been walled up and 
has hitherto remained undiscovered. Myprediction was realized. The door 
was there, and gave access to the open ground in the interior of the Haram. 
They were continuing their excavations when I left, and it is not unlikely 
that they will make some very unexpected discoveries. I hope to return 
and verify the results. 

Secondly. — I have been on the spot and paid a good deal of attention 
to the vexed question of the origin of the vast mausoleum called the Tomb 
of the Kings. And I think I am in a position to produce new and im- 
portant, if not decisive elements of information on the subject. One result 
of which is, that I believe the sarcophagus which M. Sauly took to the 
Louvre, and which he and other authorities considered to be that of a 
Queen of Judah, is really the sarcophagus of Queen Helena of Adiabene with 
Jier national name 'Written in Adiabenian and in Hebrew. My return 
ourney to Jaffa was not without result. I went to Gezer and commenced 
some explorations which I hope will result in discoveries. My speedy 
return there obliges me to shorten this report. From Eamleh I have 
brought back fragments of a Greek inscription and a pair of capitals from 
Niane, a neighbouring village, on one of which is the same inscription that 
we found on the capital at Amwas— GIG eeOG engraved in a semi 
circle. I have also a bronze seal with the name Cucius ^lius Optatus. A 
short visit to Lydda had no result. But in passing Sarf end I obtained two 
more fragments of inscriptions, one Greek, the other Arabic. I noticed, 
whilst there, indications of important ancient remains, to which I hope to 
return. 

From the 19th to the 21st September I made a hasty visit to Haifa, 
Carmel, and St. John of Acre, in order to prepare for the reseai'ches which 
I hope to make a Little later on. 



NOTES BY M. CLERMONT GANNEAU. 19 

Amongst my various expeditions in the neighbourhood of Jaffa, I must 
mention my rambles to the south of the town, a region very little known, 
and which even the map of Palestine leaves unnoticed. I have discovered 
some very interesting points, ancient cities rich in remains of buildings, 
pottery, glass, mos«'ucs, etc., especially Tell Dalbeh, Hajar Gadam, and above 
all Tell Younes. AU these points are situated between Jaffa and Yabneh. 

Amongst the objects with which I have lately enriched my collection of 
antiquities, I must mention : — 

The handle of a dagger in enamelled copper of the time of the 
Crusades. 

A Jewish ossuary with ornamentation in relief (very rare). 

A beautiful fragment of a sculptm-ed marble vase. 

A Greek inscription from Moughar. 

A fresh brick of the 10th Jjegionfretensis (Beit Jala). 

A fragment of a Greek inscrij^tion from the Necropolis of Jaffa. 

A radiated head of Helios (bronze statue from Tripoli). 

A winged Cupid (bronze statuette from Gaza). 

Four fragments of Greek insci"iptions, and one Hebrew from Gaza and 
Ascalon. 

A. little bottle of crinkled glass. 

A cylinder vrith Egyptian hie