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Full text of "Quarterly statement - Palestine Exploration Fund"

THE J. PAUL GETTY MUSEUM LIBRARY 



PALESTINE 
EXPLORATION FUND 



Patron— THE QUEEN. 

Quarterly Statement 

FOR 1885. 



LONDON: 
SOCIETY'S OFFICE, i, ADAM STREET, ADELPHI. 

AND BY 

RICHARD BENTLEY & SON, 8, NEW BURLINGTON STREET. 



LONDON : 

HARRISON AND SONS, PRINTERS IN ORDINARY' TO BtKB MAJESTY, 

ST. martin's LANE. 



THE 



PAUL GETTY CENTVR 
LIBRARY 



INDEX 



Ain Tabghah, 20. 

.Vrak el Emir, Hie inscription at, 133. 
Aramaic alphabet, The, 12. 
Assyrian annals, The Que of the, 111. 
Berothah or Eerothai, Suggested identifi- 
cation of, 108. 
Bethlehem, The name, 112. 
Beth Habbcchereh, or the Chosen House, 

29, 140, 184. 
Birch, Key. W. F., on The waters of 
Shiloah, 60. 
„ ,, ., ,, Zion, the City 

David, 61. 
„ „ The City of 
David, 100, 
208. 
Chester, Greville J., On some Phoenician 

gems, 129. 
City of David, The, 57, 100, 208. 
Conder, Capt., R.E., on A dolmen in the 
Talmud, 10. 
„ „ ,, The Aramaic 

alphabet, 12. 
„ ,, „ Inscriptions, 14. 

„ Sin and Sad, 18. 
„ ,, Districts in Pales- 

tine, 18. 
„ „ The Samaritan 

temple, 19. 
„ Lot's wife, 20. 
„ En Rogel, 20. 
„ Ain Tabghah, 20. 
„ ,, ,, Kadesh - Barnca, 

21. 
Notes by, 228. 
Coode, Sir John, Passage of the Israelites 

over the Red Sea, 97. 
David's census officers, The stations, 134. 
Dead Sea, The, 212. 

East of the Jordan, A short journey, 157. 
Eden and Golgotha, Notes on, 78. 
Egypt, Explorations in the Delta of, 114. 
Eminaus, Site of, 116, 156. 
En Rogel, 20, 184. 

Exodus, The route of the, I, 65 ; II, 67. 
Flora of Palestine, The, 6. 
General Committee, Annual Meeting of, 

153. 
Golgotha, Eden and, Notes on, 78, 138. 



Gordon, Gen. Charles, R.E., Notes on 

Eden and Golgotha, 78. 
Green, J. Baker, The route of the Exodus, 

67. 
Hanauer, Herr, The rock altar of Zorah, 

183, 230. 
Hart, H. G, A. naturalist's aourney, 231. 
Hull, Professor, The route of the Exodus. 

65. 
Hunt, Holman, The Dead Sea, 212. 
Inscriptions, 14. 
Jaulan, Notes on, 82. 
Jebata, Tomb opened at, Notes on, 94. 
Jerusalem, New discoveries in, 222. 
Judaea, A dolmen in, 181. 
Kadesh-Barnea, 21, 123. 
Kennion, Rev. A., Site of Emmaus, 156. 
Le Strange, Guy, A short journey east of 

the Jordan, 157. 
Lot's wife, 20. 

Luz, in the Land of the Hittites, 111. 
Mearns, Rev. P., Emmaus, 116. 
Merrill, Dr. Selah, on A relic of th* Tenth 
Legion, 132. 
„ ,, „ The inscription at 

Arak el Emir, 133. 
„ ., ,, The stations of 

David's census 
officers, 134. 
„ „ „ Discoveries in Jeru- 

salem, 222. 
Mount Carmel, Round, 25. 
Nablus, Monuments found at, 24. 
Notes by Captain Conder, 228. 
„ „ Rev. H. G. Tomkins, 229. 
„ „ Herr Schumacher, 230. 
,, „ Herr Hanauer, 230. 
Oliphant, Laurence, Round Mount 
Carmel, 25. 
„ „ Notes on Jaulan, 82. 

„ „ Notes on tomb 

opened at Jebata, 
94. 
,, ,, Monuments found 

at Nablus, 94. 
„ „ A dolmen in Judaea, 

181. 
,, ,, Sarcophagus at 

Zimmarizi, 182. 



^^n, 



IV 



INDEX. 



Palestine, Districts in, IS. 

Phoenician gems, On some, 129. 

Queries, 59. 

Keel Sea, Passage of the Israelites over the, 
97. 

Samaritan temple, The, 19, 39. 

Sluloah, The waters of, 60. 

Sin and Sad, 18. 

Socin, Professor, on the work of the Society. 

Talmud, A dolmen in the, 10. 

Tenth Legion, A relic of ihe, 132. 

Tenz, J. M., Zion and Ophel, 121. 

Tomkins, Eev. H. G., Suggested identifi- 
cation of Bero- 
thah or Berothai, 
108. 
The Que of Assy- 
rian Annals, 111. 
Luz in the Land of 
the Hittites, 111. 
,, ,, ,. The name Beth- 

lehem, 112. 



Tomkins, Eev. II. G., Zobah, Aram-Zo- 
bah, Hamath-Zo- 
hali, 113. 
,, ,, ,, Exploration in the 

Delta of Egypt, 
114.. 
Tristram, Bey. Canon, Flora of Palestine, 6. 
Trumbull, H. Clay, Kadesh-Barnea, 123. 
Vaux, Obituary notice of the late Mr. W. 

S. W., 157. 
-W., H. B. S., City of David, The, only part 
of Jerusalem, 57. 
„, ,, ,, ,, Queries, 59. 
,, ,, ,, ,, on The Samaritan temple, 39. 
Worrall Girdler, on Golgotha, 138. 
Yoma, or the Day of Atonement, 197, 287. 
Zimmarin, Sarcophagus at, 182. 
Zion and Ophel, 121. 
Zion, the City of David, 61. 
Zobah, Aram-Zobah, and Hamath-Zobali, 

113. 
Zorah, Eock altar of, 183, 230. 



Quarterly Statement, January, 1885.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND 



LAST YEAR AND THIS. 

When, in the autumn of the year 1883, the Committee resolved upon 
sending out a Geological Expedition, a list was opened for donations to 
be directed specially to this purpose. It was found, however, that very 
few donors and subscribers desired that their money should be set aside 
for a special purpose, and the general funds of the Society were, as had 
always been done in the Survey, employed for this work. The general 
instructions for the Expedition were drawn up for the Committee, after 
consultation with Professor Hull, by Sir Charles Wilson. Professor 
Hull, as has already been told in the Quarterly Statement, carried the 
Expedition to a successful termination. His scientific results are as 
yet only partly published ; in his forthcoming book (ready January 1st, 
1885), called " Mount Sen," he will give such of them as are capable of 
being presented in a popular form. They will be fully and completely set 
forth in the scientific memoirs which he is preparing for the Committee. 
The results of the Expedition are, it may be stated, extremely satisfactory 
from the geological point of view. Not less satisfactory are they from the 
geographical point of view. Major Kitchener, who accompanied the 
party, was able, with the assistance of Mr. George Armstrong, to execute 
for the first time a reconnaissance survey of the Wady Arabah, which has 
since been laid down upon sheets by Mr. Armstrong, and is now ready for 
publication. At the same time Mr. J. Chichester Hart, who accompanied 
the party as a volunteer, lias been doing good work in the natural history 
of this little known region. We have been so fortunate as to secure the 
publication of Mr. Hart's observations and discoveries in the Quarterly 
Statement. The first instalment will appear in April. 

Other important geographical work lias been done for Palestine during 
the last year— (1) in the publication by Colonel Sir Charles Wilson of the 
late Mr. F. W. Holland's notes of his last journey ; (2) of Sir Charles 
Wilson's paper on Recent Biblical Research ia Asia Minor and Syria ; (3) 
of Mr. Laurence Oliphant'a paper on the Kuurbsts of Carmel ; (4) of Mr. 
Oliphant'a Notes on the Jaulan ; and (5) of various papers by Captain 
Conder. 



2 LAST YEAR AND THIS. 

The topographical work of the year, which forms so large and impor- 
tant ;l feature' 1 the! Quarterly Statement, includes papers by Captain 
Gentler, Mr. II. Gh Tomkins, Mr. W. F. Birch, Mr. S. Flecker, Mr. Meams, 
Herr Conrad Schick, Dr. Clay Trumbull, Mr. Kennion, and Mr. Baker 
Greene. The archaeological work of the year includes four very remark- 
able papers by M. C. Clermont-Ganneau. 

We are thus able to look back upon the past year with considerable 
satisfaction. Though the Firman for continuing the Eastern Survey is 
still denied us, we have been able unexpectedly to secure the survey of 
a large and very important part of the Holy Land : we have cleared 
up many geological problems, and we have made a considerable addition 
to the archaeology and topography of the country. 

We have also, at length, completed the great work of the Society in 
publishing the last two volumes which finish the " Survey of Western 
Palestine." The work has been in hand for four years ; now that it is 
completed we can look upon it as the permanent record of the greatest 
geographical and descriptive enterprise ever undertaken for the elucidation 
of the Bible, and as a work which should form part of every great library. 

Since Mr. Armstrong's return he has remained in the service of the 
Committee, and has been occupied, first, in laying down the geographical 
work of the Expedition, which is now ready for publication, and next, in 
preparing a Map of the whole of Palestine, which will contain all our 
own survey work hitherto done, with the French and other work, as far 
north as Beyrout, and will be joined on to the Society's already published 
reduced Map of Western Palestine. It will be in sheets, so that any one 
sheet can be withdrawn and a new one substituted on the arrival of new 
matter. He is now engaged upon laying down on this map the Old and New 
Testament names, boundaries, &c. It is intended, in short, to produce a 
map, which can lie subsequently altered and improved, which shall cover 
both sides of the Jordan. This map will contain the modern names, with 
those of the Old and New Testaments. It will be published either as a 
Map < if Modern Palestine East and West of the Jordan, or as a map showing 
the Old Testament names with the modern names, or as showing the N'w 
Testament names with the modern, or as a map showing all three. It has 
already been announced that subscribers to the already issued Old and 
New Testament maps will be enabled to exchange simply on payment of 
the difference in price and the carriage. 

A great many photographs were taken in the Wady Arabah by 
Dr. Gordon Hull. Some of these have not, unfortunately, come out well. 
A selection, however, will he made of the best, and a descriptive catalogue 
written for them, and they will be issued as soon as possible. 

As regards the work for the year 1885. There is little hope that the 
Firman for the Survey of Eastern Palestine will he granted in the present 
posture of things. If it were granted it would for the moment he useless, 
because all the loyal Engineer officers who have worked for the Fund are 
now on aetive service — Colonel Sir Charles Wilson, Major Kitchener, and 
Captain Mantel! in Egypt ; General Sir Charles Warren and Captain 



LAST YEAR AND THIS. 3 

Conder in South Africa — and there would he little chance of getting any 
other officers services in this period of uncertainty. At the same time we 
have strong grounds for hoping to make from time to time very substan- 
tial additions to the geography of certain little known districts from other 
sources. 

We shall also perhaps be able to undertake certain investigations in- 
Jerusalem, and perhaps elsewhere, as occasion may offer. 

It has been suggested that this time of inaction from field work maybe 
utilised for a very important object included in our original prospectus, but 
as yet hardly touched, viz., the scientific collection of manners, customs, 
legends, traditions, superstitions, and religious and ritualistic survivals. 
The Committee are at present considering a scheme having this in view 
which has been submitted to them. 

As regards publishing next year, we have made the following important 
arrangements : — 

(1) "Mount Seir." 

This volume has been written for the Committee by Professor 
Hull. It is now (Christmas, 1884) on the point of publication. 
It contains a popular account of the journey, and especially of 
that country, now known as the Wady Arabah, which was the 
special scene of his labours. A geological map and a geographical 
map accompany the work, with many other illustrations. The 
published price will be 10s. 6d. 

(2) A new edition of Captain Conder's popular and delightful work, 

" Tent Work in Palestine," in crown 8vo., at 7 s. 6d. 

(3) A new and cheap edition of " Ileth and Moab," uniform with the 

above, at 7s. 6d. 

These two works will be ready by the end of January. 

(4) " Our Work in Palestine." This little book, which ended with 

the commencement of the Survey, has been out of print for some 
time. It is proposed, as soon as time can be found, to bring out a 
new edition, carrying on the popular history of the Society's 
work to the present date. 

(5) We propose to publish in the Quarterly Statement for 1885, the 

following important papers : — ■ 

(a) A Translation by Dr. Chaplin of a Hebrew Treatise by 
Maimonides upon the Temple. 

(/3) The Natural History Eesults of the Wady Arabah Expedi- 
tion, by J. Chichester Hart. 

(y) A Supplement by Canon Tristram to his " Flora and 
Fauna." 

(S) A Paper by Sir Charles Warren on the Arabs of the Sinai 
Desert. 

(e) Topographical papers by Eev. W. F. Birch, Captain Conder, 
Mr. Boscawen, and other writers. 

(t) Certain geographical papers now in preparation, the results 
of observations made by a private traveller. 

b 2 



4 LAST YEAR AND THIS. 

There remain in the hands of the Committee for publication : — 

I. The Geological Memoirs by Professor Hull, F.G.S. We shall be 
able to report upon these when they are completed. 

II. The Memoirs and Plans of the interrupted Survey of Eastern 

Palestine. 

The Memoirs of the 500 square miles executed by Captain Conder are 
much fuller than those of the country west of the Jordan, because they 
deal with a district much less known, and fuller, if possible, of interest. 
Thus, though the area surveyed occupies little more than that covered by 
a single sheet, on the scale of one inch to the mile, the Memoirs are copious 
enough to fill a whole volume equal in size to one of those published on 
the " Survey of Western Palestine," while there are 400 drawings and 
plans and illustrations, besides a series of photographs. 

The Committee have not yet decided on the form of publication of 
these Memoirs. They may possibly be published, as in the case of the 
"Survey of Western Palestine," by special subscription. 

III. The drawings made for M. Clermont-Canneau in the year 1874-5 

by M. Lecomte. 

Many causes have combined to prevent the publication of these most 
exquisite and valuable drawings. They were executed for the Committee 
by M. Lecomte, who accompanied M. Clermont-Ganneau to Palestine in 
the years 1874-5. They are between six and seven hundred in number, 
and are almost wholly of architectural and archaeological interest. Since 
they were placed in the hands of the Committee, nine years ago, M. Cler- 
mont-Ganneau has been engaged in Constantinople, in Palestine, and in 
Paris, for the French Foreign Office. He has also held the post of 
Professor of Semitic Archaeology at the Sorbonne. He is now, however, 
able to promise the necessary explanatory letterpress as soon as it is 
wanted. The cost of p\iblishing this work in a worthy form will be about 
.£1,500. Perhaps proposals will be issued for a subscription work in the 
spring. 

IV. The copies of the "Survey of Western Palestine" which remain have 
been placed in the hands of Mr. Alexander P. Watt, of 34, Paternoster Eow, 
who has been appointed by the Society their agent for the sale. They will 
be issued by him to libraries, &c, in order of application. Subscribers and 
those "■/m already possess the work are requested to note that no reduction will 
be made, either now or at any other time, in the price of this great work. 
On the other hand, the Committee reserve to themselves the right of 
raising the price of the last copies. 

In conclusion, the friends of the Society are earnestly requested to 
consider that the work is always actively going on ; that funds are always 
needed ; that the real and invaluable work which has been already done 
must be taken as an earnest of what will be done, and that their continued 
assistance is asked in support of an enterprise which gives results, solid, 
enduring, and for all time. 



NOTES. 



NOTES. 



The income of the Society, from September 2Gth to December 12th, 1881, 
inclusive, from all sources, was £656 9*. 3d. On December 16th the balance 
in the Hanks was £205 9s. 6d. 



It is suggested to subscribers that the safest and most convenient manner 
of paying subscriptions is through a Bank. Many subscribers have adopted tbi* 
method, which removes the danger of loss or miscarriage, and renders unneces- 
sary the acknowledgment by official receipt and letter. 



Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly Statement regularly, are asked 
to send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward each number 
to all who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes 
give rise occasionally to omissions. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood that 
by publishing them in the Quarterly Statement they neither sanction nor adopt 
them. 



The only authorised lecturers for the Society are — 

(1) The Eev. Henry Geary, Vicar of St. Thomas's, Portman Square. His 

lectures are on the following subjects :— 

The Survey of Western Palestine, as illustrating Bible History. 1 

Palestine East of the Jordan. 

The Jerusalem Excavations. 

A Restoration of Ancient Jerusalem. Illustrated by original photo- 
graphs shown as "dissolving views." 

(2) The Eev. James King, Vicar of St. Mary's, Berwick. His subjects are 

as follows : — 
The Survey of Western Palestine. 
Jerusalem. 
The Hiltites. 
The Moabite Stone and other monuments. 

(3) The Rev. James Niel, formerly Incumbent of Christ Church, Jerusalem. 



ADDENDA TO THE FLOEA OF PALESTINE. 



ADDENDA TO THE FLORA OF PALESTINE. 

I have just received, through the kindness of M. William Barbey, of 
Valleyres, Vaud, Switzerland, a copy of his splendid illustrated work, 
" Herborisations au Levant," 4to., Lausanne, 1882, containing the results 
of a botanical expedition to the East, made by himself and his brother in 
1880. I much regret that I had not the good fortune to see the volume 
I ief me the " Fauna and Flora of Palestine" went to press. MM. Barbey 
only give the results of their own and Dr. Lortet's expeditions, but even 
BO their catalogue comprises 38 species of phanerogamic plants, 13 of them 
grasses, which escaped my observation, and which must be added to the 
3,012 species in my volume. In order that our catalogue may be as 
complete as possible, I trust you will afford apace in the Quarterly 
Statement for these addenda. They are as follows : — 

Papaveraceoe. 1. Glaucium grandiflorwm. Boiss. Diagn., Ser. II, v, 
p. 15. — Valley of the Kedron. Not hitherto observed in Palestine 
or Syria. 
Crucifene. 2. Sinapis pubescens. L. Mant. 95. — Beersheba. 
U..<r,hi,;;r. Reseda decu rsira. Forsk., a-g. p. 67. Included by me as 

11. /'ropinqua, var. eremophila. F. and F., p. 231. 
3. Caylusea canescens. L. Syst. 368, var. fuliosa, Mull. — Marsaba ; 

between Jerusalem and Jericho. 
Violarice. 4. Viola occulta. Lehm., Ind. S. Hamb., 1829. — Near 

Samaria. 
Silenece. 5. Silene apetala. Willd., Sp. II, 307. — In cultivated ground, 
Valley of Achor. 

6. Silene canopica. Del., 111. Fl. P>g., No. 442. — Beersheba. 

7. Silene oxyodonta. Barbey, spec, nov., Herbor. au Levant, p. 121, 

PI. XL— Plain of Esdraelon. 

Alainea'. 8. Spergularia diandra. Guss., Prodr. Sic, I, p. 515. — 
Kedron Valley ; between Jerusalem and Jericho ; by Dead Sea ; 
Esdraelon. 

M'dfacece. 9. Malm a^rjy/ttia. L. Sp. 981. — Southern Desert. Acci- 
dentally omitted in F. and F. 

Leguminotce. 10. Trigonellaaleppica. Boiss., Flor. Or., 1 1, 7i>. Valley 
of the Kedron ; Jenin. 

11. Trifolium bullatum. Boiss., Flor. Or., II, 138. — Fields near 
Beyrout. 

12. Qlycyrrhiza glabra. L. Sp. 1048, ears. t>ii>;<;< and violacea. — Jordan 

Vallej ; wVnk Semakh. 

13. Astragalus trimestris. L. L073. — Philistia ; Beersheba. 



ADDENDA TO THE FLORA OF PALESTINE. 7 

14. Astragalus camelorum. Barbey, spec, nov., Herbor. au Levant, 

p. 131, PI. III.— Southern Desert. 

15. Lathyrus setifoHus. L. Sp. 1031. — Southern Philistia. 
Compositce. 16. Cynara sibthorpiana. Boiss. Diagm, Ser. I, x, p. 94. 

— Jericho. 
Convolvulacea. 17. Calystegia, soldanella. L. Sp. 2G6. — Sea-shore at 

Sidon. 
Scrophulariacece. 18. Celsia glandalosa Bouche., Linn., V, Lit. 12. — 

Valley of the Dog River. 
Labiatw. 19. Sideritis taurica. M. B., Taur. Cauc, II, 43. — On rocks 

in the Dog River Valley. 
Salsolacea>. 20. Salsola canescens. D. C, Prodr., p. 208. — Accidentally 

omitted in F. and F. Found by us on Lebanon. By MM. 

Barbey at Marsaba. 
Euphorbiacece. 21. Euphorbia parvula. Del., Eg., p. 290. — In the 

Southern Desert. 
Salicineai. 22. Salix triandra. L. Sp. 1442. — Achzib. Not bel'ore 

noticed in Syria. 
Iridacere. Iris lorteti. Barbey, spec, nov., Herbor. au Levant, p. 178, 

PI. VII. — This superb Iris, one of the two species mentioned by 

me (F. and F., p. 423) as found in the woods of Galilee, has been 

described and beautifully figured in a full-sized coloured plate 

by MM. Barbey. It was found by Dr. Lortet in the same place 

where I collected it, near Kulat Hunin, above the waters of 

Merom. 
Liliaceo'. 23. Bellevalia sessilijlora. Viv. FL, Lib. 21, t. vii, f. 5.— 

Southern Desert. 
24. Muscari holzmanni. Held., Att. Con. Fir., 228. — Achzib and 

Beyrout. 
MM. Barbey also mention two undescribed species of Leopoldia or 
Wuscari — one from the southern desert, the other from the northern 
joast. 

Orchidecp. 25. Serapias lingua. L. Sp. 1344. — Near the Dog River. 
Graminece. 26. Andropogon rubesceus. Vis., Reg. Bot. Zeit., L829, 

p. 3. — Near Ras en Nakurah. 

27. Alopecurus pratensis. L. Sp. 88. — On the coast. 

28. Cynosurus callitrichus. Barbey, spec, nov., Herbor. a.u Levant, 
p. 165, PI. X. — Near Hebron and Jerusalem. 

29. Erliinaria capitata. L. Sp. 1488. — General. 

30. Lepturus incurvatus. L. Sp. 1490. — Near Beyrout. 

31. Bromus rubens. L. Sp. 114. — Dry places, throughout Southern 
Palestine. 

32. Lolvum rigidum. Gaud. Helv., I, p. 355. — Various places on the 
coast. 

33. Sp/ienopus goimni. Trim, Fund. Agr., p. 135 = S. divaricatvs 

Rehb.— The Ghdr. 

34. Festucainterrupta. Desf. Atl. I, p. 89.— Waste places, Esdraelon. 



8 ADDENDA TO THE FLORA OF PALESTINE. 

35. Catapodium loliaceum (Huds. Angl., 43). — On the coast. 

36. Avena barbata. Brot., Flora Lus., I, 108. — In the desert and in 
waste places. This is the unidentified Avena of F. and F., p. 444, 
No. 56, from Moab. 

37. Trisetum parviflorum. Pei-s. Syn., 1,97. — Waste places in Judsea. 

38. Desehampsia media. Raeni. el Schultz., S. II, 687. — On the coast 

near Achzib. 
I may also here observe that I have identified the Phleum, No. 13, 
Fauna and Flora, as P. grcecum. Boiss. Flor. Or., V, p. 481. 

Also Pennisetum, No. 19, p. 442, F. and F. as P., ciliare (L. Mant. 302). 
Aristida, No. 35, p. 443, F. and F., as A. pumila. Decaisne, Ann. Sc. 

Nat., Ser. II, 85. 
Oastridium, No. 23, p. 442, F. and F., as G. scabrum. Presl., Cyp. Sic, 

p. 21. 
Polypogon, Nos. 50 and 51, p. 444, F. and F., as P. maritimum, Willd. 

Nov. Act., Ill, p. 443 ; and P. littorale, Smith, Comp. Brit., 13. 
Avena, No. 56, p. 444, F. and F., should be Gaudinia fragilis (L. Sp. 

119). 
Bromus, No. 110, p. 445, is B. fascicidatus. Presl., Cyp. Sic, 39. 
Dactylis, No. 93, p. 447, F. and F., is IK hispardca. Roth. ; cf. Flor. Or., 
V, p. 596. 
I wish also to correct the following identifications of grasses in the 
" Fauna and Flora :" — 

Phalaris canariensis, p. 441, No. 5, should be P. brachystackya, Link 
in Schrad. Journ. 1, 3, as pointed out by Boissier, Flor. (Jr., V, 
p. 471. 
For Milium si/riacum, Boiss. No. 119, p. 448, read M. vemale, M. B. 

Taur. Cauc, I, 53, var. montianvm, Cosson. 
For Melica boissieri, Reut, No. 83, p. 44(5, read M. ciliata (L. Sp. 97 J, 
and erase Nos. 75 and 80, Briza bipennata and Melica minwta. 
The former species is identical with No. 87, F. and F., Eragrostis 
cynosuroides. 
The long-expected completion of M. Boissier's most exhaustive and 
accurate work, "Flora Orientalis," of which the concluding part has ouly 
just reEfched me, enables me to revise my catalogue of grasses by the 
decision of the first living authority on the subject. And I am sure that 
all practical botanists will deal leniently with omissions and oversights, 
as wt'll as with the necessity for the corrections enumerated above ; well 
knowing the difficulties of deciding on the often unsatisfactory or muti- 
lated specimens before us, of this most perplexing of all botanical families. 
M. Boissier's work enables me to add one species to the Coniferce of 
Palestine, viz., Abies cilicica, Ant. and Ky., JLst. Woch., 18, 53, p. 409. 
It is the only Abies found in the country, and which 1 now well remember 
to have seen near Ehden on Lebanon, one of the localities given by Boissier. 
Ephedra fragilis, F. and F., p. 452, ought to stand as E. campyhpoda, 
( '. A. \bv. Eph., T.'i. The two species have been generally confounded. 
The distinctions are pointed out by Boissier, op. fit., pp. 714, 715. 



ADDENDA TO THE FLORA OF PALESTINE. !) 

I have but one fern to add to my catalogue, the common Adders' 
tongue, Ophioglossum vulgatum (L. Sp. 1518), found near Zebdany. But 
the number of grasses added to our list by M. Boissier amounts to no 
fewer than 47, bringing up the whole number of Palestinian O'raminece to 
216. I subjoin the names, with the localities given : — 

1. Panicum sanguinale. L. Sp. 14. — General. 

2. Panicum crm-galli. L. Sp. 83. — General in fields. 

3. Panicum colonum. L. Sp. 84. — Coast near Sidon. 

4. Panicum eruciforme. Sibth. Prodr., I, p. 40. — Ehden on Lebanon. 

5. Panicum numidianum. Lam. Enc, IV, 749. — Near Beyrout. 

6. Setaria verticillata. L. Sp. 82. — Near the coast. 

7. Andropogon ischcemum. L. Sp. 1483. — Lebanon. 

8. Hemarthria fasciculata. Desf. Atl., I, p. 110, t. 36. — Near Sidon 

and Beyrout. 

9. P/tularis nodosa. L. Syst., 38. — Coast and Lebanon. 

10. HeUochloa acutiglumis. Spec, nov., Boiss., Flor. Or., V, p. 476. — 

Hadith, Lebanon. 

11. Phleum alpinum. L. Sp. 88, var. commutatum, Gaud. — Snowdine 

of Lebanon. 

12. Phleum boshmeri. Wib., Fl. Wett., p. 123. — Hadith, Lebanon. 

13. Alopecurus gerardi. Vill. Dauph., II., 66. — Subalpine Lebanon. 

14. Aristida sieberiana. Trin. in Spring., N. Ent., II, 71. — Near 

Jerusalem. 

15. Aristida forskahlei. Tausch., p. 506. — Sands near Beyrout. 

16. Aristella bromoides. L. Mant, I, 30. — Lebanon above Sidon ; 

Antilebanon above Kascheya. 

17. Agrostis verticillata. Vill. Dauph., II, 74. — In wet places, general. 

18. Agrostis alba. L. Sp. 93, var. scabriglumis. — Brumman on Lebanon. 

19. (Jastridium lendigerum. L. Sp. 91. — Sidon. 

20. Corynephorus articulatus. Desf., Fl. Atl., I, 70, PI. XIII. — Sands, 

Gaza, Beyrout. 

21. Holcus lanatus. L. Sp. 1485. — Lebanon. 

22. Holcus annuus. Salz., Fl. Ting. exs. — Pine forests, Lebanon. 

23. Ventenata blanchei. Boiss., spec. nov. Flor. Or., V, p. 539. — Cedar 

grove, Lebanon. 

24. Dactyloctenium wgyptiacum. L. Sp. 106. — Coast near Sidon. 

25. Cynosurus elegans. Desf., Atl. I, 82, PI. XVII. — Hasrun, Lebanon. 

26. Eragrostis poa'oides. P. de B. Agr., 71. — Fields, general. 

27. Eragrostis megastachya. Link., Hort. Ber., I, 187. — Coast. 

28. Briza spicata. Sibth., Fl. Graac, I, 61. — Lebanon and Antilebanon. 

29. Poa diversifolia. Boiss., Bull. S. Fr., 1857, p. 306. — Dinias, 

Lebanon. 

30. Poa trivialis. L. Sp. 99. — The coast. 

31. Poa persica. Trin. in C. A. Mey, Enum., p. 18, var. alpina. — Top 

of Lebanon. 

32. Molinia cat-idea. L. Sp. 95. — Upper Lebanon. 

33. (Jlyccria plicata. Fries, Nov. Mant., Ill, 176. — In standing water. 



10 A DOLMEN IN THE TALMUD. 

34. Festuca ovina,~va,r. pinifolia. Hackel in litt., Flor. Or., V, 617. — 

Higher Lebanon. 

35. Scleropoa maritima. L. Sp. 128. — Coast near Sidon. 

36. Bromus flabellatus. Hack., Boiss., Flor. Or., V, 648. — Near Jeru- 

salem. 

37. Bromus alopecurus. Poir. Voy., II, 100. — Galilee and the coast. 

38. Bromus squarrosus. — L. Sp. 112. — Lebanon. 

39. Bromus brachystachys. Hornung. Fl., XVI, 2, p. 418. — By the 

Jordan. 

40. BracJiy podium pinnatum. L. Sp. 115. — Lower Lebanon. 

41. Agropyrum panormitanum. Pari. PI., var. Sic. II, p. 20. — Hermon. 

42. Agropyrum repens. L. Sp. 128. — Lebanon. 

43. Agropyrum elongatum. Hort., Gr. Austr., II, 15. — Near Beyrout. 

44. JEgilops bicorni-s. Forsk., Desci., 26. — Sandy places, coast. 

45. Psilurus nardoides. Trin. Fund., I, 73. — Coast and interior. 

46. Hordeum secalinum. Schreb. Spic, 148. — The Lejah. 

47. Elymus delileanus. Schultz. Mant., 2, 424. — Central Palestine. 

H. B. Tristram. 
Durham, 2ii>th Xovembcr, 1884. 



A DOLMEN IN THE TALMUD. 

" Rabbi Ishmael said, ' Three stones beside each other at the side of 
the image of Markulim are forbidden, but two are allowed. But the wise 
say when they are within his view they are forbidden, but when they are 
not within his view they are allowed.' " (Mishnah Aboda Zarah, iv, 1.) 

This passage from the tract treating of " Strange Worship " refers to 
the idolatry of the second and third centuries a.d., before the establish- 
ment of Christianity by Constantine. R. Ishmael was a contemporary of 
Akiba (circa 135 a.d.). From the Babylonian Talmud (Baba Metzia 2.") /, 
we learn that these three stones near the " Menhir of Mercury " (for 
M:n kiilim was Mercury or Hermes, the god of the pillar) were arranged 
two side by side and the third laid flat across. From another passage 
(T. B. Beracoth 57 b) we gather that such symbols, viz., an " image " 
(NTl!£) or Hermes with a tirlithon in front of it, were commonly to be 
found. 

From tin' Midrash on Proverbs xxvi, 8, we also gather that the cultus 
of Markulim (or Mercury) consisted in throwing a stone at his image, and 
it is well known t hat this practice was connected in Greece with the cultus 
of Hermes or Mercury. 

This trilithon was evidently a dolmen similar to the dolmen tables 
still erected by the Arabs in Moab, and its connection with a menhir 
recalls the "Sentinel Stones " which are found in Brittany, Scandinavia, 
and England, standing in front of a dolmen or trilithon. 



Maekulim on Mount Gilboa. 




Monument on Mount Gilboa discovered by Captain Conder in 1872. (" Mem', irs," Vol. II, p. 115.) 



Markulim in Sweden. 




The Dolmen and Sentinel Stone of Oronst. (Fergusson's " Eude Stone Monuments," p. 30G.) 



A DOLMEN IN THE TALMUD. 11 

I feel little doubt that the curious monument which we discovered on 
Mount Gilboa near the village of Deir Ghazaleh in 1872, is one of the 
Markulim of the Talmud. It was, I believe, the first rude stone monu- 
ment discovered west of Jordan (not including Phoenicia). The standing 
stone is 6 inches thick, 2 feet wide, 3^ feet high. I found it very firmly 
fixed. It was impossible to move it, and it is probably sunk to some 
considerable distance in the ground. The trilithon or dolmen has a table- 
stone 6 feet 9 inches long. The other stones form an enclosure such as 
often encircles dolmens in every land. The enclosure with a central stone 
is also a kind of monument found in Moab, as I have shown in my reports 
and memoirs. All these facts tell strongly in favour of the contention, 
which is supported by Lubbock, Forbes, Leslie, and other competent 
authorities, that rude stone monuments in all lands are intimately 
connected with the religious ideas of early tribes. This subject I have 
endeavoured to treat in " Heth and Moab," but a great many confirmatory 
facts have come to my knowledge since I completed that volume. 

Idolatry was of course the general practice in Syria when the Mishnah 
was written, and in the tract above quoted we find mention of the sun, 
moon, planets, mountains, Zodiacal signs, trees, and stones, as objects of 
idolatry ; also the sacred baths or springs of Venus, and the serpent or 
dragon. One other passage is of interest in connection with rude stone 
monuments. 

" In Zidon, at the tree where they worshipped, they found beneath it a 
heap) or cairn, 73), said R. Simon to them, examine the heap.' And they 
examined it, and found in it an image (NTEJ). He saicl to tnem > as the 
object of worship is the image, we shall allow the tree to you." (Mishna 
Aboda Zara, iii, 2.) 

In this case the menhir had been covered up in a cairn made of the 
stones thrown at it as an act of worship. The meaning of this custom has 
been made plain by archaeologists, and each stone thrown is witness of a 
visit paid to the spot. The larger therefore the cairn the greater the 
veneration shown. 

From another passage it appears (iv, 2) that offerings used to be placed 
on the head of Markulim or on the top of the menhir. In Brittany, and 
in Scotland and in India alike, menhirs may still be seen which form 
the nucleus of the cairn which surrounds them. This practice is probably 
also noticed in the Bible (Genesis xxxi, 45-48), but I have not met with 
any explanation of the cultus in the dictionaries and commentaries. 

The arrangement of the trilithon and menhir, especially when the 
latter is surrounded by an enclosure as is the case in the Gilboa example, 
may be considered to represent the prehistoric prototype of such temples 
as were afterwards erected in Phoenicia or Greece, with a rude stone 
instead of a statue, and a pair of pillars standing in front of the fane, and 
supporting only a single block of stone. The relative position of the pillar 
and the trilithon appears sometimes to have had a relation to the sunrise 
or sunset, but this though observed by the modern Arabs is not an 
invariable rule. 



12 THE ARAMAIC ALPHABET. 

In connection with this subject, a few words may be added as to 
hollows in dolmens and menhirs. The cup hollows have been described 
(see " Heth and Moab ") in Moabite monuments. In Finland such hollows 
are made in stones, and connected with a charm against diseases, which 
are conjured into them. In Scotland the same hollows were used for 
libations of milk. Milk was poured through a hole in a menhir in the 
western isles off the Scottish coast. Another menhir in Aberdeenshire 
had a hollow in the top in which rain water accumulates, which the 
ignorant suppose to spring from the stone, and a cross-shaped stone, called 
Water Cross, was said to bring down rain when placed upright. 

Visiting recently the well known Kits Coty House dolmen, near 
Maidstone, to see if there were any cup hollows in its table stone (which 
is slanted just like the table of a Moabite dolmen), I found the side stones 
pitted with deep hollows, some of which it is impossible to suppose to have 
been natural erosions. About a quarter of a mile south of Kits Coty House 
there is a ruined circle of fallen stones (sandstone from the neighbourhood, 
as is Kits Coty House also). The farm people believe that these stones 
cannot be counted, a legend which is I believe not peculiar to this circle 
alone. I found in some of the stones of this circle (which are 7 to 8 feet 
long) holes like those in the Cotty House, but still more plainly cut with 
the object of holding something. Perhaps, as in so many other cases, 
libations of blood or milk, honey, or water, were once poured on these 
holy stones, or small offerings placed in the stone itself, by those who 
regarded these monuments as sacred. The offering was placed on the top 
of the stone in the case of Markulim as above noted. One of the best 
examples of such holes in side stones is noticed by Fergusson, in the 
famous covered dolmen at Gavr Innis in Brittany. 

There is another circle at Addington Park, near Maidstone, which I 
have not yet been able to visit, which has a curious outlying cairn on the 
east or north-east. We may compare the circle and gigantic cairn of Wad v 
Jideid in Moab. 

C. R. C. 



THE ARAMAIC ALPHABET. 

In my paper on Hebrew inscriptions, published in the Quarterly Statement, 
October, 1883, I have mentioned the inscription at 'Arak el Emir. Tins 
we both copied and photographed, and my original copy made on the ppol 
differs in the tirst letter from that of previous writers. According to 
Levy, it has the form of a rude Tetlt open at the top. 

According to invcopv it is round like an 0, and could only read as an Am. 

~n^3 s o 



THE ARAMAIC ALPHABET. 13 

I did not when copying the text reflect on the importance of this difference, 
but the photograph, though taken rather at an angle, appears to support 
the copy, and de Vogiiu reads this letter as agreeing also with my view. 

The importance of this difference lies in the fact that the inscription 
appears as a whole to be Aramaic rather than Phoenician ; but that the 
first letter if it be an Ain cannot be Aramaic, but must belong to some 
alphabet allied to the Moabite Stone, according to the received views. 
The Aramaic alphabets, whence square Hebrew developed, are peculiarly 
marked by the open loops of the letters, especially of the Am. In order 
to satisfy the learned world, a squeeze (which would require a ladder), or a 
new photograph of very large size, may become necessary ; but it seems 
strange that such a difference of copy should occur in so very distinct and 
well preserved a text, and I incline to believe that my copy, made without 
any reference to the reading of the text, is correct. 

Now the inscriptions from Medeba seem to present us with exactly 
the same problem, and their genuineness is rendered the more probable, 
as some of their most suspicious forms have (as Dr. Taylor kindly points 
out to me) been found also in unquestionably genuine texts from Arabia. 
In No. 2 of the Medeba texts we find two letters almost identical with 
two in the Arak el Emir text, namely, 



The first of these is small, like the Ain of the South Semitic Alphabets, 
the second appears to be an Aramaic letter. 

Now almost the only great problem concerning the alphabet which 
) emains to be solved, is that of the connection of the South and North 
Semitic Alphabets. The link may perhaps exist, not in Arabia, but in 
Moab, and the Medeba texts may serve to point it out. It seems that, 
contrary to expectation, forms of the Aramaic may occur with Phoenician 
or South Semitic forms in the same inscription. The 'Arak el Emtr text 
in all probability dates as early as 176 B.C., and presents the same con- 
fusion of two alphabets, generally believed to be distinct. We have, it is 
true, not very much to guide us in drawing conclusions, but the Moabite 
texts here noticed may perhaps induce palatograph ical authorities to extend 
their researches in a new direction in treating the relations of the various 
branches of the earliest alphabet, that of the Phoenicians. I should note 
in conclusion that Mr. Doughty has brought home squeezes of some 
Sinaitic and Aramaic inscriptions from the neighbourhood of Mecca 
which may perhaps cast light on this question. 

C. P. c. 



14 INSCRIPTIONS. 



INSCRIPTIONS. 

It may be convenient to give a resumS of the epigraphic results of the 
Survey of Palestine, which have been more numerous and important than 
might perhaps be supposed, without collecting those scattered through the 
pages of the Memoirs. 

HEBKEW. 

1. The inscription on a tomb in the Jordan Valley, which appears to 
be perhaps as old as the Siloam text, was discovered by me in 1874. 
(Memoirs, vol. ii, p. 396.) It is here given for comparison. 



^ F oj ^cj 



2. The curious text from Umm ez Zeinat, which reads, perhaps, Eleazar 
Bar Azariah, was copied by me after being discovered by Sergeant 
Armstrong in 1873. (Memoirs, vol. ii, p. 71.) As regards this it might 
perhaps be suggested that we have here the tomb of Rabbi Eleazar ben 
Azariah, who died 83 a.d. He was one of the Tauaim (Mishnah 
Beracoth, iii, 7), a disciple of R. Jonathan ben Zaccai, who died 73 A.D. 
Both were priests. R. Eleazar appears to have succeeded Gamahil the 
younger at Jamnia. (Cf. Pirke, Aboth iii, 17.) The discovery of these 
ancient Hebrew texts during the Survey may be considered an important 
addition, especially as the zeal of M. Clermont-Ganneau has only added 
the ( rezer text and the yet unpublished Phoenician text from Silwan. 

:!. 'I'he square Hebrew inscription from a tomb at 'Ain Sinia was 
copied by C. F. T. Drake in 1872. (Memoirs, vol. ii, p. 302.) It appears 
to read, Moses bar Eleazar bar Zechariah the priest. This may be 
ascribed to the Herodian period with confidence. 

The well-known inscription at Kefr Birim is also noticed in the 
Memoirs, vol. i, p. 233, and that at Nebratim, vol. i, p. 244, and at el 
Jish, vol. i, p. 225. 

4. Some Jewish graffiti at Neby Samwil are of interest. They cannot 
be older than 1 L57 a.d., but they are not recent, because they have been 
plastered over, and the plaster is old and has fallen off. The most 
important is here given from the voussoir of a pointed arch with mediaeval 
mason's marks (the shield of David) and diagonal tooling. It appears to 
read, Moses Ben Nahum Levi . . . Ben Aloazer . . . Shemon. 
Tins may be of value for comparison with the graffiti on the osteophagi 
from (lie Mount of Olives described by M. Clermont-Ganneau. The form 
of tin- Shin is much Later than thai on some of these osteophagi. The 
same ma\ lie said of the Ain, Mim, and Lamed, but the Zain seems to have 
a peculiar early form, if lightly read, and the Aleph is also peculiar. 



INSCRIPTIONS. 




Among the Jerusalem inscriptions which I have collected together for 
the Jerusalem Volume of the Memoirs will be found mentioned the six 
well-known Hebrew texts, namely, the Beni Hezir Tomb, and the tomb 
found by De Vogue ; the sarcophagus of Queen Sara, and the stele found 
by De Saulcy with the letters copied at the Torph Gate by Sir Charles 
Wilson, and the Phoenician letters on the Temple wall ; as also the Siloam 
text, the fragment of a text from Kefr Silwan, and the two supposed 
letters on the so-called " Egyptian Tomb " in the Kedron Valley. These, 
with the three Phoenician texts of Urm el Amln (Memoirs, vol. i, p. 183), 
and the coffin of Eshmunazar, the Gezer Stones, and the Pillar of Amwas, 
make a total of nineteen Hebrew and Phoenician texts known in 
Palestine. The Moabite Stone and the Arak el Emir text East of 
Jordan must be added to these. The graffiti are not counted, nor the 
numerous Jewish tombstones at Taff'a. (Memoirs, vol. ii, p. 277.) 

GREEK. 

These are extremely numerous in Palestine, the majority being 
Christian, and subsequent to the fourth century. The most valuable is 
the stele of Herod's Temple found by M. Clennont-Ganneau. The follow- 
ing are the new ones found by the surveyors within the Survey. 

5. The inscription of the Cathedral of Tyre, mentioned, but not given, 
Memoirs, vol. i, p. 73. I copied it in 1881. 

PONTHN 

OnOMH 
O . . Ol . . N 
KPHTHZ 

See Appendix, vol. iii, p. 428. 

6. Greek text at Deir Dugheiya, which was found first by Renan, in 
honour of John the Baptist and St. George. (Memoirs, vol. i, p. 115.) 
It appears to have been rediscovered in 1877. 



16 INSCRIPTIONS. 

7. Greek Christian text of Siddikim. (Memoirs, vol. i, p. 138.) It 
contains the name of St. Procopius and the Deacon Eusebius. From the 
contraction of the word Deacon it might be thought — as also from the 
Jerusalem crosses above the text — to be of Crusading origin. 

8. Marble slab from Masub. A funerary text, probably not earlier than 
the 12th century. (Memoirs, vol. i ; p. 168.) 

9. Greek Christian text from Marun. (Memoirs, vol. i, p. 251.) On 
p. 260 is given another, which had been already copied by Renan. 

10. Inscription on an early Christian tomb at Shefa 'Amr. (Memoirs, 
vol. i, p. 341.) 

11. Inscription at 'Abful, also found by Sir C. W. Wilson in 1866. 
(Memoirs, vol. ii, p. 303.) "Memorial of the Holy ." 

12. Medieval text, "Memorial of George," at el Hats. (Memoirs, vol. 
ii, p 321.) 

13. Inscription on font at Khiirbet Kilkh. It was found by Sergeant 
Black, but had, I believe, been already copied by M. Clerniont-Ganneau. 
(Memoirs, vol. ii, p. 336.) 

14. Inscription almost illegible, copied by C. F. T. Drake at Akrabeh. 
(Memoirs, vol. ii, p. 388.) 

15. A few letters from another stone at the same place. 

16. Inscription at Mejdel Yaba, " The Church of St. Cerycus " (an 
early convent), or perhaps of the "Holy Herald" — that is, probably, of 
John the Baptist. (Memoirs, vol. ii, p. 361.) 

17. El Mujhar, a Greek Christian text. It was copied by M. Clermout- 
Ganneau in 1874, of which fact we were not aware. (Memoirs, vol. ii, p. 
427.) 

18. Dedication by Martin the Deacon. This also was copied by 
M. Clermont-Ganneau. (Memoirs, vol. ii, p. 134.) 

19. Deir el Kelt. Greek and Arabic text over the door, and a number 
of mediaeval Greek texts on the pictures. (Memoirs, vol. iii, pp. 193-197.) 
The texts at Koruntil and Kasr Hajlah were already known. (See Memoirs, 
vol. iii, pp. 203, 204, 215, 216.) The latter have since been entirely 
destroyed. 

20. A few letters at Ascalon. 

21. Deir el Belak, Greek Christian. (See Memoirs, vol. iii, p. 248). 
■J.-2. Another from the same place. (Memoirs, vol. iii.) 

23. Meidan ez Zeid. (Memoirs, vol. iii, p. 250.) A Greek funerary text. 

24. A second found in 1877 on the same race course near Gaza. It is 
not given in the Memoirs. It is Christian, beginning, " The earth is the 
Lord's and the fulness thereof," and records the facing of some building 
with stone by the Deacon Alexander. It, is probably not older than the 
fifth century. (See Quarterly Statement, 1878, p. 199.) 

25. Sheikh Bashed. (Memoirs, vol. iii, p. 253.) A mediaeval Greek 
( Ihrisl ian text in two lines. 

26. Greek text in the Hebron Haram (Memoirs, vol. iii, p. 340) ; this 
is additional to one already known. 

27. Khoreisa. Greek Christian text. "This is the gate of the Lord, 



* j \ ..I — p — : — 





OAOYKf 
€0HK£*l 



H^cer KB 



Fig 



/re0Y*P*cTH 

fiAipceTiwHo 



Fig 2. 






/UATAA 



F.g.4. 



Fig. 3. 






H«rnsoii I Sons.Iitli.Sl Martin. 




vMOMKiOY YAI6TOVC 

Fig. 5. 



A 



ohaictog 
Antunikte: ^ 



Fig. 6. 



1 



%G0YC 



\ 



Y^WW 



Fig. 7. 



MiN^YKAAYAlAA/ 
*>Y 



Fig 8. 



Harrison 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS. 17 

the righteous shall enter in thereat." It is probably of the Byzantine 
period. (Memoirs, vol. iii, p. 357.) 

28. Masada ; a painted text in a cave, the word Kuriokos, " of the 
Lord." (Memoirs, vol. iii, p. 421.) 

29. Umm el Buruk, East of Jordan ; a tablet with the name of Antonius 
Eufus in Greek. This has yet to be published. 

30. 'Amman. Greek text in the wall of the Cathedral, with the name 
of Gordiana. To be published in the Memoirs. 

31. Jerusalem. A Greek Christian text from the north wall, which 
has not been previously published, so far as I have been able to ascertain. 

32. A text from those of Jerash appears to be new (see the account of 
the Royal visit, Quarterly Statement, 1882, p. 219) ; but see also April, 
1883, p. 108, and September, 1870, p. 389, where Canon Girdleston gives 
a yet longer text in hexameter. 

EOMAN AND LATIN. 

33. Milestone north of Jerusalem. (Memoirs, vol. iii, p. 55.) 

34. Milestone at Fukeikis near Hebron. (Memoirs, vol. iii, p. 328.) 

35. Milestone near 'Amman. To be published in the new Memoir. 

36. A fine Gothic tombstone found near the Zion scarp by H. Maudslay. 
Noticed in the Jerusalem Volume of the Memoirs. 

NABATHEAN. 

36-37-38-39. Four texts from Medeba, found by Latin missionaries, 
and copied by me in " Jerusalem." As regards these texts, I find that 
Colonel Sir C. Warren has published another from Umm er Rasas in the 
Quarterly Statement, 1870, p. 327, which is very valuable for comparison. 

C. R. C. 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS. 



Those represented in the accompanying plate (figs. 1-8) were copied in 
1873 by Rev. W. Wright and myself, in the village and at the tomb of 
Suk Wady Brarda (the ancient Abila), on the Abana River. Though 
mentioned in the Memoirs (Special Papers, p. 113), they have not been 
published. They are in the collection made by Waddington. 

There is a fourth tablet uninscribed to the right. These are over a 
sunk tomb north of the river. 

Abila existed as a town in 60 B.C. The Roman inscriptions here date 
about 250 a.d. The forms of Greek letters are uncial ; but these forms 
are found at Jerash probably as early as the second century a.d. They 
became common in the fourth and fifth centuries ; all the inscriptions here 
are funerary. 

C. R. C. 



18 SIN AND SAD. — DISTRICT'S IN PALESTINE. 



SIN AND SAD. 

According to the students of literary Arabic the distinction of these two 
letters is most carefully preserved in speaking, and they are never confused. 
Nevertheless, even in the dictionaries, a few words may be found which 
are occasionally written with either. 

In our recent survey we found the native scribe, who was intelligent 
and well-instructed, sometimes unable to distinguish the two letters in 
the pronunciation by the Bedawin of local names : such as Wady Sir and 
the ruin of Sur, and it is commonly said in Syria that the nomadic tribes 
make no distinction between Sin and Sad. Even among the teachers of 
Nahu or correct speech there is a difficulty, for when hard pressed they 
are obliged to admit that a deeper vowel sound accompanies the Sad than 
that belonging to the Sin. Thus even to the present day we have a 
survival of the syllabary from which the distinction of some Semitic letters 
originates ; and this is but one example of the importance of studying the 
local peasant dialect of Syria, which is very different in many respects 
from the polite Arabic of literature, preserving as it does archaisms which 
are of the highest value for archaeological purposes. 

C. K. C. 



DISTRICTS IN PALESTINE. 

The hills north of Jerusalem are divided into various government districts, 
bearing ethnic names, viz. : — 

Beni 'Amir Sons of Omar. 

Beni Hdrith Sons of Aretas. 

Beni Murreh Sons of bitterness. 

Beni Salim Sons of peace. 

Beni Zeid Sons of increase. 

Beni Hamdr Sons of the ass. 

Beni Sab Sons of stubbornness. 

Beni Hasan Sons of beauty. 

Beni Malik Sons of royalty. 

These are not pastoral or nomadic, but agricultural districts, with 
a settled population of Fellahin. There are no Arabs in these districts, 
and historically the nomadic tribes seem never to have held them. I have 
never seen any explanation of these names, nor does their origin seem to 
be known in Palestine. M. Clermont-Ganneau has indicated the interest 
of the names, but has not explained their origin. Professor Palmer in 
revising my nomenclature has added the word Arabs to the title, ap- 
parently thinking that they applied to existing tribes in Palestine, but 
the districts are entirely free from nomadic tribes, nor are any existing 
Arab clans west of Jordan called by these names. 



THE SAMARITAN TEMPLE. 10 

If, however, we turn to the map of Arabia in the clays of Muhammed 
and of Omar, we find the following tribes represented : — 

Beai 'Amir, a tribe of the Nejed near Yemana, or again south-east of 
Medina. 

Beni Harith, a tribe of Yemen north-east of Sana. 

Beni Murreh, both east of Medina, and south of the Jauf Oasis. 

Beni Suleim, east of Medina. 

Beni Malik, a division of the Beni Temim, who lived near Yemana. 

It was with the aid of these and other tribes that the famous K haled 
defeated the Romans on the Hieroniax in 634 a.d. ; and under Omar they 
swept over Palestine soon after. 

It seems therefore probable that in these local names we have a trace 
of Omar's Conquest of Syria, and that the hills of Judea and Samaria were 
regularly portioned out among his followers. The noble families of 
Jerusalem still claim to have " come over with the conqueror " at this 
time. We have thus only another instance of the survival in Syria of 
early Moslem divisions, and the division of the Keis and Yemeni factions, 
which dates back to the early days of Islam, is still hardly extinct, and is 
well remembered in Southern Palestine. 

This identification of the tribes presents a curious and interesting 
historic parallel to the division of Canaan by Joshua among the trium- 
phant tribes who (as in Omar's time) entered Palestine from beyond 
Jordan. 

C. R C. 



THE SAMARITAN TEMPLE. 



Is there any satisfactory proof that the Samaritans ever erected a temple ? 
Josephus speaks of Sanballat's Temple (2 " Antiq.," viii, 2-7), but gives 
no account of it, and his Sanballat cannot be the Sanballat of the Bible if 
he lived in the days of Alexander the Great. In the New Testament 
only the mountain is noticed (John iv, 20); and Epiphanius in the fifth 
century speaks of the Samaritans as worshipping in a circle open to the 
air — such an enclosure as they still use. The Samaritan literature is all 
very late, and makes Joshua erect a temple which Sanballat only restored. 
The twelve (or ten) stones which the Samaritans point out as part of 
their temple are probably terraced walls of Justinian's fortress. On the 
whole it seems to me probable that they never had anything more than at 
present, viz., a sacred rock with a well-marked cup hollow in its surface — 
probably their altar, and enclosures with dry stone walls, where they 
congregated on the holy mountain. 

C. E. C. 



20 LOT'S WIFE. — EN EOGEL. — AIN TABGHAH. 



LOT'S WIFE. 

Irex^eus believed Lot's wife to be still visible in his own days near the 
Dead Sea, "still showing her feminine nature" and apparently not quite a 
stone. Antoninus Martyr in describing his visit to the locality is careful 
to controvert the idea that the statue had been diminished by being 
licked by animals. It must have been to some stone or rock (apparently 
west of the Dead Sea) that these writers refer. Sir John Maundeville 
still saw the statue "at the right side" of the Dead Sea. It seems 
possibly to the peculiar crag now called Kurnet Sahsul Hameid, "the 
peak whence Hameid (an Arab boy) slipped down," that they all refer. 
It is a crag somewhat like a human figure, jutting out of the cliffs near 
Kuiurdn, not far from the Hajr el Asbah. 

C. R. C. 



EN ROGEL. 

It is pretty generally allowed, I believe, that the real site of Eii Rogel is 
the present Virgin's Fountain opposite Zoheleth, and not, as the Crusaders 
thought, the Bir Eyub, which is too far south, and not a spring at all. 

The usual translation of En Rogel is " Fuller's Spring," but " Spring 
of the Foot " has recently been suggested. I would suggest that both are 
equally unsatisfactory. In Arabic Rijlah means a water channel (locvs 
ubi aqua Jluit, Freytag), perhaps derived from rijl "foot," because such 
channels are made with the foot by the peasantry. There is an 'Ain 
Rujeileh or modern En Rogel near the west margin of Sheet XVIII of 
the Survey. 

If En Rogel mean " Spring of the Channel," and if it be — as can be 
shown on quite independent considerations — the present Virgin's Fountain, 
the name is evidently derived from the famous rock-cut channel leading 
f "in the biick of the cave in which the spring rises. 

C. R. C. 



AIN TABGHAH. 



It seems to have escaped notice that this place is mentioned in the 
Talmud, which is important, as showing the name to be ancient, and thus 
perhaps presenting a strung argument against the idea that this spring 
is the one which Josephus intends in speaking of the Fountain of 
< apharnaum. 

The site, as is well known, is between Tell Hum and Miuieh, and fine 
nga are here dammed up in a reservoir, while several curious round 



KADESH BARNEA. 21 

water-towers (including 'Ain Eyub) exist immediately to the east. The 
name means the "Dyer's Spring." (See the notice in the "Princes' Tour 
in the Holy Land.") 

In the Talmud (Tal. Jer. Ekha, ii, 2, v Midrash) a certain Migdol 
Tzeboya is mentioned, and according to Neubauer was on the Sea of 
Galilee (Geog. Tal., p. 218), this name meaning "tower of the dyers." 

(N^Il^ THJ^) i s identical with the Arabic Tabjhah. Twenty -four 
weavers' shops stood at this place. Perhaps this may explain the curious 
water-towers found both at 'Ain Tabjhah and near Mejdel. They may 
have been used as wells in which to steep the stuffs while being dye!, 
and this explains the name "Tower of Dyers." They clearly were not 
connected with aqueducts, though a short mill lade led from the great 
reservoir on the spot, which is probably only about a century old, and 
built by the Zeidan family. 

C. E. C. 



KADESH BARNEA. 



A scholarly work by Dr. H. Clay Trumbull has just been published in 
America respecting the site of this city. I hope I shall not be considered 
contentious if I take exception to the conclusions of the author, though 
supported with much care and candour, and shared by many explorers 
and scholars who have preceded him. There is much that is most 
valuable in the book, but when we find that Seir and Mount Hor are 
moved to the west of the Arabah, and that 'Ain Kadis is shown much 
further east than on preceding plans, it seems that permanent harm 
might result from leaving it to be supposed that the question of Kadesh 
was finally settled. 

Taking the questions which I would wish to raise as they occur in the 
book, I would first note : — 

Page 93, Seir = Es Seer. This looks well in its English garb, but we 
must ask first what is the spelling of the Arabic. The Hebrew is "V^II?' 
of which the proper Arabic equivalent is Shar, a word in use with same 
meaning as the Hebrew, viz., "shaggy." In spite of the authorities 
quoted it seems that Seer, or Sir, or Sirr is the common Arabic 
geographical term found all over Palestine meaning a " route " or " high- 
way," unless it be spelt with Sad, in which case it means a sheepfold, or 
if it be really Sirr it means " gravelly." Until it be shown to contain the 
guttural of the Hebrew, it cannot be considered to represent Seir, 
especially as it should begin with Shin, not with Sin or Sad. The 
distinction made between a Country of Seir and Mount Seir (p. 85) does 
not seem to be well founded, though necessary to the theory which would 
find a Seir at Seer independent of Mount Seir, the rugged chain east < f 
the Arabah. Kasr es Sir (p. 94) would m >an probably "the sheepfold 
tower," and us is so often the case among the Bedawin, the region round 



22 KADESH BARNEA. 

may probably have been named from this ruin. (Compare Sheet XV of 
Survey of Palestine.) 

Pa^e 101, Edom. It is no doubt the case that Idumsea was a name 
applied to the country even as far north as Hebron about the Christian 
pra, but the name Edom or " red " must surely have applied to the red 
sandstone country, and not to the white chalk plateau of the Tih. 

Pace 124, Bel-em. I fail to find anything to support the view that 
there were two Bekems, one at Petra, one at 'Ain Kadts. All the 
authorities agree that Petra was called Eekem, and the Jews appear most 
clearly to have believed that Kadesh Barnea was at or near Petra, The 
second Eekem seems only necessary to the theory of 'Ain Kadis being 
Kadesh Barnea. 

Page 127, Hor ha Har. No reference is given in note, and it seems to 
me very clear that the references in Numbers xxxiv, 7, 8, are to a Mount 
Hor in the Lebanon, not to the mountain in Edom. I have tried to 
show elsewhere that we should probably read Hor ha Khar, " Mountain 
of the Phoenicians," the change of pj and J-f being very slight. 

Page 130, Hor. Dr. Trumbull says that Josephus does not suggest a 
particle of evidence in favour of his assertion that Mount Hor was near 
Petra. I would venture to suggest that he does not agree as to where 
Jerusalem was, or even as to Sinai. The Mount Hor now shown is that 
which Josephus believed in, and probably it was as well known as Sinai 
or any other famous mountain (Carmel, Tabor, Hermon, etc.) which are 
undoubted, though we have little but tradition in some case3 to rely on. 
Dr. Trumbull accepts the usual Sinai, but the site of that mountain does 
not rest on any more secure basis than does the traditional site of Mount 
Hor— both are too famous ever to have been lost. In the case of Mount 
Hor we have in fact that "consent of tradition" (Jewish, Christian, and 
Moslem) which, as I tried to show in " Tent Work," is generally indicative 
of continuous preservation of an ancient site. The position in the border 
of Edom is quite in accordance with the usual understanding of the 
desert geography, and the new proposed situation at Jebel Madurah 
seems far too arbitrary to upset the consensus of tradition and opinion in 
the matter. 

Dr. Truml mil supposes Madurah to be a form of Moseroth (HlDlto)' 
remarking that D and S are convertible in Eastern speech. I do not 
think this is the case. The soft T and the soft S (Te and Sin) are 
convertible, and so are the soft D or Dh and Z (Dhal, I)al,Zain), but I do 
not recall any instance where D and S are convertible. Dr. Trumbull is 
surprised (p. 228) that I should suggest Madurah to be the same as Adar, 
which he appears to consider (p. 280) to be spelt with the guttural 
Aim. In Joshua (xv, 3), however, it is spelt -fT^, which is di « tinct frum 
the Eder ("Hy) of another passage (xv, 21). The Mm, being a servile 
letter, Madurah if spelt JTfffti which one is led to su PP ose is the case 
from Robinson's transliteration, might well be the same as Adar. The 
site of Eder may perhaps be at the ruin 'Adar, near Gaza. 

"Kadessa" (p. 136). It would be worth while to examine this vicinity 



KADESH BARNEA. 23 

carefully, in order to find whether the name Kadessa, reported by Berton, 
really exists, or was only manufactured for his benefit. No effort seems 
lately to have been made to discover this. 

Page 170, et seq. Judging from the Arabic, the word Kekem would seem 
to mean " variegated," perhaps from the bright colours of the Petra sand- 
stones. (See Freytag, Lex.) The word Kerm (p. 174), spelt with the 
Kofh, generally means a tree stump. 

Page 211, "Zephath." The radical meaning of this name in Hebrew 
and Arabic is the same, "to be clear," " bright," "conspicuous," "shining." 
The identity of Zephath and Sufah can hardly be doubted by any who 
consider the roots whence the two words originate. The suggestion of 
Sebeita or Sebata for Zephath has always seemed to me to argue a want 
of scholarship on the part of Kowlands. The Arabic name seems to be 
from the root Sebt, " rest," which has not a single letter in common with 
the root whence Zephath originates. Philogically at least (and I think 
geographically as well) Eobinson's suggestion is preferable to that of 
Rowlands, because it is radically sound, and the other radically unsound. 
There was a Zephathah near Mareshab (2 Chron., xiv, 10), which as I hove 
before pointed out survives at the ruin Safieh, a word from the same root 
as Safah. 

Page 212, "Hagar's Well" at Moilahhi, depends on a tradition of the 
Beit Hajar. We ought to be informed how this latter name is spelt, 
whether with He or with the guttural. In the latter case it would simply 
mean "House of Stone," while Moilahhi is probably a vulgar Bedawi 
pronunciation like other words with a supernumerary Wait, and means 
" salt." If a tradition of Hagar does here exist, it is not free from suspicion 
of monkish origin, and the same may be said of 'Ain Kadis, for not only 
have Christian remains been found in this desert, with Arab traditions of 
Christian settlements, but we also know from Jerome and from Antoninus 
Martyr of hermitages and monasteries in various parts of the Tlh. 

"Hezron," page 228. Dr. Trumbull has omitted to notice what 
appears to me to be a strong argument, which, as far as I know, I was the 
first to suggest in the identification of Hezron. He does not himself find 
this name anywhere in the desert, yet all good maps show the Hadireh 
hill west of Wady el Yemen. The proper Arabic equivalent of Hazor 

-)^pf, is Hadireh (*_Jwas>-), which has the same meaning, "enclosure;" 

and the Arabic Dad is one of the two proper equivalents of the Hebrew 
Tzadi. It is strange that Dr. Trumbull should have been quite silent as 
to this suggestion, which if it be correct settles the Kadesh Barnea 
question for ever. As to the meaning of Hazor and Hazerim, we found in 
1881 that the word Mahder (radically the same) is applied by the Arabs 
beyond Jordan to the ancient stone circles in at least one case ; perhaps 
such circles exist at Jebel Hadireh. The thorn enclosures would be called 
Sir (see p. 281), and the Hazors seem probably to have been old cromlechs 
or circles, funereal or of religious use. 

Page 276. Hawy, usually rendered "winds," will be found to be 



24 KADESH BARNEA. 

derived from a word meaning a gorge or precipice, which fits well in the 
case of Kaukab el Hawa, and in other instances. 

Page 278. The opinion of Levy and other epigraphic authorities is 
generally supposed to have settled the date of the Sinaitic inscriptions as 
not earlier than the 4th century. 

Page 283. 'Am el Qadayrat appears to be spelt with a Dad by mistake. 
There is no such root in common Arabic, and the root meaning " omni- 
potence," is spelt with a Dal. 

Page 289. The suggestion of Ain Qasaymeh for Kaisam (QD^p) * s 
free from philological objection, but Dr. Trumbull should consider 
Neubauer's curious explanation of the Targum, reading Kaisam for Azmon. 
The suggestion Qadayrat for Adar is objectionable, because Adar is spelt 
with Aleph and Dal, while according to Dr. Trumbull Qadayrat is spelt 
with a Dad ; in which case the Hebrew would be not "11^, but "^p. All 
these suggestions seem to be far too vague to carry conviction ; and 
Qasaymeh probably meaus "division," or "halving," as the Arabs say. 
There seems no real reason for rejecting the Arab legend of a Christian 
boundary at this point (see p. 291), as the district once had a Christian 
population. The word Azmon is most likely to survive in Arabic in the 
form 'Atmek. 

As regards the Exodus route, there is little in Dr. Trumbull's careful 
paper which will be new to readers of Brugsch, Tomkins, &c. The questi. n 
of the wall Skur, and of the Yam Sup//, is treated with great clearness 
and force, and leads to conclusions which will intime be generally accepted. 
It is to be regretted, however, that sufficient notice has not been taken 
of the facts (both geological and engineering), which leave it indisputable 
that the level of the Bed Sea has been changing, and that the Isthmus of 
Suez has been gi'owing broader within historic times. The existence of a 
Nile branch down Wady Tameilub, which is important in this connection, 
is also not noticed. As to Brugsch's idea (p. 327 et seq.), that Khetam C^n 
and Etham DrVN are tlie same > I can onl y sav l a S ree witn Professor 
Robertson Smith in regarding this as very doubtful. It seems far more 
probable that the Atuma of the story of Saneha is Etham, and not as 
generally supposed Edom. The Egyptian sign ^ may be read as D, but 
is most often T. 

Page 331. "The fortress of Kanaan has not been identified. " This 
seems to be written before Dr. Trumbull had seen my paper on the subject, 
as my suggestion of Kana'an, a large ruin near Hebron, met with hearty 
acceptance from Mr. Tomkins. 

Special attention should be called to the deduction from Exod. x, 19, 
which Mr. Trumbull brings forward as showing the direction of the Yam 
Suph. The rationalistic explanation of the pillar of cloud and of lire 
which seems suggested on p. 397 is also very interesting. 

The map requires a word of notice, for it is not clear why 'Ain Kadis 
is there shown much further east in longitude than is the case on Palmer's 
map or Holland's map. The result of moving MountSeir and Mount Hor 
westwards, and Kadis east, is to bring them much nearer together, but 



KADESH BARNEA. 2o 

the site of 'Ain Kadis is still too far west to suit the requirements of the 
case. Generally speaking, one feels that the evidence has been rather 
twisted in favour of 'Ain Kadts, though Dr. Trumbull has striven to be 
impartial and candid. 

The omission of any notice of Hadireh, and several minor errors above 
pointed out, seems to spoil the completeness of the work. 

Robinson's site at 'Ain Weibeh is conjectural. Perhaps Kadesh may 
yet be found in the vicinity of Jebel Madurah, where Berton claims to 
have found the name. The name Wady Fikreh, or the " cloven valley," at 
this place might have some connection with the rock cloven at Kadesh. 
It has been established that an 'Ain Kadis does really exist further west, 
but it is not established that this is the site of En Mishpat. It may be 
either a monkish site, for the monks were not careful as to the biblical 
requirement of their sites ; or it may indicate that the name Kadesh 
applied to a large tract, but the Scrq:>ture narrative seems clearly to point 
to a site for Kadesh Barnea close to the Arabah. 

The excursus on Set, though interesting, is not novel, and it seems 
hardly worth while to have revived the suggestion that Set was connected 
with the Assyrian word Sed, and the Hebrew Shedim, meaning "powerful." 
Set is more probably connected with Thoth, as meaning a "pillar" or 
" stone," for both Set and Thoth were pillar gods and gods of darkness, 
night, and the moon, and the determinative accompanying the name Set 
in hieroglyphics is a stone. 

The route of the Exodus as laid down by Dr. Trumbull seems to be a 
mean between three views — those of Brugsch and the traditional, together 
with that resulting from the latest observations and discoveries. Surely 
however the wanderings are as meaningless as they well could be, extend- 
ing from Ism'ailieh to Tell Hir, and back again west of the Bitter Lakes, 
to cross the sea at Suez. The view which seems destined to survive is 
that which discards the old traditional Baal Zephon at Jebel Attakah, 
and makes the crossing to have occurred near Ism'ailieh. Bir Mejdel, 
East of El Jesr, is a relic of the name Migdol, and the name of Baal 
Zephon may perhaps survive in Birket Balah. The old sites near Suez 
rest on no sound basis, and the fact that the head of the Gulf of Suez was 
once much further north is now fairly well established. 

C. R. C. 

ROUND MOUNT CARMEL. 

Haifa, 29th November. 
Thk confusion which the Crusading nomenclature has introduced into the 
identification of sites, is nowhere, as Captain Conder has shown, more 
curiously illustrated than in Haifa and its neighbourhood. 

The tradition, first suggested by William of Tyre, that Porphyrion 
was identical with Haifa, is still firmly clung to by the monks of Carmel. 
and both Eeland and Sepp identify the ruins in the neighbourhood of 
that town with Porphyrion, basing their arguments, however, upon other 
than Crusading tradition : the latter admitting that while one PorpnyriOM 



26 ROUND MOUNT CARMEL. 

may be eight miles north of Sidon at Khan Yum's, there must have been 
another near the point of Carmel on the authority of the Onomasticon, 
which places here a town called Chilzon, which he maintains is the 
Hebrew name for Murex, the shell which produces the purple dye, and 
which is found here in considerable quantities. Hence the name Porjmyrion. 
But on analogous grounds the town might rather have occupied the site of 
the ruins of Haifa el Atikah, where the coast is strewn with such a pro- 
fusion of fragments of porphyry carvings as are not to be found elsewhere — 
an hypothesis scarcely sufficient in itself to warrant the identification of a 
site. The fact that there was a Bishop of Porphyrion who was under the 
Metropolitan of Csesarea, only adds to the difficulty, which is not elucidated 
by any of the itineraries of the pilgrims or ancient travellers, as none of 
these give the distances between Acre, Cassarea, and the intervening towns 
with sufficient accuracy to enable us to identify the places they mention. 
Thus it happens that there are the ruins of five towns within a short 
distance of one another on this coast, none of which have been identified 
with absolute certainty. These are, first, the ruins of Haifa el Atikah, 
distant a mile and a half from modern Haifa, which may itself be the 
site of an ancient city ; second, those at Tel el Semak, distant two miles 
from Haifa el Atikah : third, those of Kefr es Samir, distant two miles 
and a half from Tel el Semak ; fourth, those of Khurbet el Keniseh, 
distant two miles and a half from Kefr es Samir ; and fifth, those of 
Athlit, the Castra Peregrinorum of the Crusaders, distant three miles and 
a half from Khurbet el Keniseh. That one of these is Sycaminum, and 
another ( 'alamon, is pretty certain, and the conclusion generally arrived at 
is, that the ruin at Tel el Semak is the former, and that at Kefr es Samir 
the latter. It was in the hope that I might find something at Tel el 
Semak that might throw light on the subject, that I examined the neigh- 
bourhood somewhat minutely, and in the course of my explorations 
stumbled upon a ruin which turned out to be Khurbet Temmaneh, 1 which 
Guerion vaguely mentions as being somewhere in this vicinity. Attracted 
by a flight of rock-cut steps near which are some tombs to the left of the 
road, I scrambled up the steep hill-side through the bushes for about 
300 yards, where, at an elevation of 200 feet above the level of the sea, I 
came upon a comparatively level plateau, about 6 acres in extent, covered 
with the traces of an ancient town. Fragments of columns and capitals and 
pieces of carved marble were strewn about in profusion ; the rocks in the 
neighbourhood were honeycombed with tombs : two of the best of these 
contained sis loculi, each in a perfect state of preservation, the entrances to 
several others were closed ; there were traces of rock-cut chambers, two large 
millstones, ami the foundations of walls which may possibly have been 
those of a fort. This Khurbet lies due east of the mound of Tel el 
Semak, from which it is distant about 400 yards, and may have formed an 
upper town to the lower city of Sycamiimm. The ruin is bounded on the 
cat side by a wall running nearly due north and south, 112 yards in 
Length, from which at riidit angles runs a wall 40 yards long, terminating 
in an angle where it stands to a height of 4 feet from the ground. 
1 On the map Tinany. 



KH.TEMMANEH OR TiN'AN'Y. 



■P 



ombs 



mlMM 



NHPHH 



*S§FMillstoiie 



^ 



>.-\ 



Wk 






o 


« ; 




« i 


o 






eo 


■ o 




' o 


o ] 



4' High 



A rea of Ruins 
about 6 Acres . 



,S>////i III/// 



If 



Scale 

30 '," 



-T— -? " 



ROUND MOUNT CARMKL. 27 

Here it turns north for 12 yards. It is composed of rubble from which 
the ashlar has been removed, and is from 3 to 4 feet in thickness ; the wall 
bounding the ruin on the south is 65 yards long, commencing from the 
south corner of the east wall, and the south wall is 70 yards long, 
terminating apparently near a large cistern with four circular apertures. 
I had myself let down into this, and found it to be hewn out of the rock, 
70 feet in length, 20 feet in breadth, and 12 feet in height ; but the floor was 
covered with an unknown depth of debris. The sides had been cemented, 
the cement still remaining in parts in a very j>erfect state of preservation, 
and the roof was supported by three columns hewn from the living rock, 
4 feet square. The annexed plan will give some idea of the ruin. I 
could find no traces of a wall on the north side, but I think it probable 
that a little excavation would lay them bare. Near the east wall I 
picked up a fragment of marble on which had been carved the word 
" Allah," and two or three other letters indicated that it was the commence- 
ment of an old Arabic inscription, though the characters were not Cufic. 

I take this opportunity of adding a few notes of objects of interest which 
have come under my observation in the course of my rides in this neighbour- 
hood. At Kefr Lam (Sheet 7, I i) the fellahin have, since the visit of the 
olficers of the Palestine Survey, opened an ancient well, which furnishes 
them with a good supply of water. It is 35 feet deep, and approached by a 
flight of steps, partly hewn oift of the solid rock and partly artificial ; the 
sides of the well, the mouth of which is about 30 feet square, are also 
partly of masonry and partly of hewn rock. In the neighbourhood are two 
rock-hewn chambers, or they may possibly have been cisterns ; the largest 
was 15 feet square, and spanned in the centre by a single stone 15 feet long 
and 2 feet broad by 2 deep. Cut in the rock at intervals of about 8 inches 
were two rows of holes, which may have been used for supporting rafters. 
The fellahin also pointed out to me two stone vaults, 40 feet long by 12 feet 
broad and 7 feet high. The roofs consisted of massive blocks of stone, 
which were supported in the case of each vault by five arches, each arch 
hewn from a single block of stone 4 feet in breadth, thus leaving a 
comparatively narrow inteival between each arch, and forming a chamber 
of a very peculiar construction. At Zimmarin (Sheet 8, Kj) the Jews, who 
are settled there in a colony, have in the course of their operations also 
brought to light a curious chamber, 10 feet by 8 feet and 10 feet deep ; on 
three sides it is hewn out of the living rock ; on the longest side have been 
cut four rows of eighteen holes, each hole being 6 inches square and about 
6 inches deep at the base, but standing upwards ; on the shorter sides there 
are four rows of ten holes, each row being about 3 inches above the one 
below it. Whether these entered into the construction of the roof of the 
chamber or served some religious purpose for which the room may have 
been originally designed, I am unable to conjecture. 1 At El Makura, a 

1 The survey party came across a number of those rock-hewn chambers along 
the ridge running parallel to and near the coast line, having square pigeon- holes 
in rows of about the same dimensions; some chambers had steps leading down, 
others not. — G.A. 



28 ROUND MOUNT CAKMEL. 

Khurbet near Ijzim (Sheet 8, J j) I found the largest rock-hewn cistern 1 
which I have yet observed in this part of the country. It measured 98 
feet long by 40 feet in width. The bottom was so full of undergrowth that 
it is impossible to conjecture the real depth, but it was doubtless capable of 
containing an abundant supply of water. Should the country ever be re- 
populated, many of these ancient cisterns could be utilised. I was myself 
fortunate enough to discover a bell-shaped cistern at Dalieh, which only 
required cleaning out and re-cementing, in a position which has since 
enabled me to turn it to good account ; in excavating near it I came upon 
the foundations of an old house, apparently of Byzantine times, which have 
since served me for the foundations of a new one, and unearthed twelve 
large iron rings, 3 inches in diameter, with iron staples 4 inches long 
attached — probably used for fastening horses, some coins of the time of 
Constantine, some carved cornices and drafted stones, and a great quantity 
of fragments of glass, stems of vases, and rims of drinking goblets, and 
heaps of broken pottery, while the neighbouring field is abundantly strewn 
with tesserae, giving evidence that the former occupier must have been a 
man of means, and that more excavation may bring further evidences of it 
to light. In the course of my rides over Carmel I have observed erections 2 
which I do not see mentioned in the Survey. The most perfect of these 
lies about half-way between Dalieh and the Mahrakah, a little off the mad 
to the left, concealed in the thick brushwood. It is a pile of stones 14 feet 
square by 12 feet high, the stones averaging 3 feet in length by 2 feet in 
breadth and 1 foot in thickness. They have been carefully cut, and laid » i as 
zo form a perfect square, but without cement. I have since come upon five 
or six similar erections, generally in very remote and unfrequented spots, 
and the natives can give me no tradition in regard to them. 3 

At Khurbet Keramis, near Umm es Zeinat (Sheet 8, K/), I found two 
underground vaults, each 20 feet long by 10 feet broad and 5 feet high ; but 
they were much filled with rubbish, also foundations, and drafted stones. 
Standing in close proximity to each other were what at first appeared to be 
the base of four gigantic columns, as they stood 4 feet high from the 
ground and were about 6 feet in diameter ; from the square hole in the 
centre of each they appear to have been the lower halves of mills. 

A mile and a half, a little to the east of south, of Dalieh er Ruhah (Sheet 

8, K k) I found a Khurbet Umm Edd Foof ( ij^\ A where there were 

tombs, cisterns, millstones, and the usual foundations and heaps of stone. 

At Kushinia, which is situated on Mount Carmel, at an elevation 
of about 700 feet above the sea, distant an hour's ride from Haifa, 
and described in the Memoirs, I am engaged with a friend in making 

1 Marked on the map likt = Birket, 

-' Probably old watch lowers (vineyard?), which are found on many of the 
spurs of Carmel ; also in the wooded country to the south of Umm el Fahur. 
I hey vary in dimensions, but generally measure 12 to 15 feet square of dry 
slime masonry. Those in a fair state of preservation are usually found in the 
t ickets of copse wood. — G.A. See Mr. Drake's Reports, Quarterly Statement, 
1873, p. 31. 3 Usually called El Muntar (watch tower). 



BETH HARBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 20 

an excavation at the well of Elias, with a view of seeing whether 
the spring affords a sufficient amount of water to furnish a supply for 
the town of Haifa, in view of the change contemplated by the Government 
of moving the seat of the Mutessariflik from Acre to this place. The water 
enters the well through an apparently natural tunnel, but has no outlet 
from the well itself, which thus becomes a sort of backwater, the native 
tradition being that the spring is much further up, and is in fact the source 
of a small rivulet, which, after an underground course, reappears in the 
gardens below Haifa, and forms there a small lagoon. We first endeavoured 
to strike this stream about 20 yards below the well, down the wady, but, 
beyond finding some cut stones at a considerable depth, made no discovery. 
We then dug in the immediate neighbourhood of the well, and came upon 
the roof of an artificial tunnel ; on opening this we found it completely 
filled with the soil, which had silted into it, and at a depth of 7 feet from 
the surface came upon the stone floor in which a channel had been cut for 
the water. As the water in the well was, however, now 4 inches lower than 
this channel, we have had to take it up. We followed this tunnel for 
10 yards ; the roof was arched and the sides built of stone, both hewn and 
unhewn, but without cement. Altogether, we cleared a channel 30 yards 
long and 8 feet deep, into which we let the water ; but the operation 
of following up the channel, by which it reaches the well, and in which it 
somewhere loses a good deal of its volume, is not yet sufficiently completed 
to enable us to decide whether it will be worth conveying to Haifa, 
a distance of over three miles. 

Laurence Oliphant. 



BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 
CHAPTER I. 

1. It was an affirmative command 1 to make a house for the Lord 
suitable for offering in it the offerings, and celebrating the feasts thereat, 
three times in a year, as is said, " and let them make me a Sanctuary " 
(Exod. xxv, 8). The Tabernacle made by Moses our master has already 
been described in the Booh of the Law. It was temporary as is said 
" for ye are not as yet come," &c. (Leut. xii, 9). 

2. After the children of Israel entered the promised land, 2 they placed 
the tabernacle at Gilgal for fourteen years, whilst they subdued and 
divided the land. And thence they came to Shiloh and built there a house 
of stones, and spread the curtains of the Tabernacle over it, and it was not 
roofed there. The Tabernacle of Shiloh stood 369 years, and after the 
death of Eli it was destroyed, and they came to Nob, and there built a 
Sanctuary. After the death of Samuel this was destroyed, and they came 

1 H^'y ni^'O. The Rabbis enumerate 613 commandments, of which 24S are 
riE^y DI^'O, prcecepta affirmantia, and 365 HCyJl N? JTIVQ, prcecepta pro- 
hihentia. 

8 " Three commands were given to Israel on their entrance into the land : 
to set up a king over them ; to cut off the seed of Amalek ; and to build the 
chosen house." — Sanhederim 20 b. 



80 BETH HABBECHEEEH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

to Gideon and built there a Sanctuary, and from Gibeon they came to the 
eternal house, and the days of Nob and Gibeon were 57 years. 

,3. After the Sanctuary was built at Jerusalem, all the other places 
were unlawful for building in them a house for the Lord and offering in 
them offerings (Deut. xii, 11, 14). And no other was called a house for all 
generations, except that at Jerusalem only and on Mount Moriah,' of which 
it is said, " then David said, this is the house of the Lord God, and this 
is the altar of the burnt offering of Israel" (1 Chron. xxii, 1), and he said 
" this is my rest for ever." (Psalm cxxxii, 14.) 

4. The building which Solomon built has been already described in the 
book of Kings, and the building to be built in the future, although it is 
written in Ezekiel, is not fully described and explained. The men of the 
second house (which they built in the days of Ezra) built it like the 
building of Solomon, and after the appearance of the things 4 explained in 
EzekieL 

5. And these are the things which were fundamental in the building of 
the house. 5 They made in it a holy place, and a holy of holies, and there 
was in front of the holy place a certain place which was called the porch, 
and these three were called ^VTj hekhal, the Temple." And they made 

3 Zevachim xiv, 4. " Before the Tabernacle was erected the high places 
were permitted, and the priestly functions were performed by the first-born 
of families. After the erection of the Tabernacle the high places were 
forbidden, and the priestly functions were performed by the priests ; the most 
holy offerings were eaten within the hangings, the less holy in all the camp of 
Israel. 5. When they came to Gilgal and made the high places lawful ; the 
most holy offerings were eaten within the hangings, the less holy in any place. 
6. When they came to Shiloh high places were forbidden. There was no roof 
to the Tabernacle there, but a ho\ise of stones below and curtains above. And 
this was the ' rest.' (Deut. xii, 9.) The most holy offerings were eaten within 
the hangings, and the less holy and the second tithes in any place from which 
Shiloh could be seen. 7. When they came to Nob and Gibeon, they permitted 
the high places ; the most holy offerings were eaten within the hangings, and 
the less holy in all the cities of Israel. 8. And when they came to Jerusalem, 
high places were forbidden, and were never afterwards permitted, and this was 
the 'inheritance.' (Deut. xii, 9.) The most holy offerings were eaten within 
the hangings (i.e., the wall of the court), and the less holy and the second tithes 
within the wall" (of Jerusalem — Bashi). The Gamara adds (Zev. 118 b.) : 
" The Rabbis teach that the days of the Tabernacle of the congregation in the 
wilderness were forty years, less one; the days of the Tabernacle of the con- 
gregation at Gilgal fourteen; seven whilst they were subduing, and seven whilst 
tliev were dividing, the land, the days of the Tabernacle of the congregation at 
Nob and (Sibeon lifty-seven. It remained at Shiloh three hundred and seventy 
years less one." 

* Or " in some things like." 

5 Cf. Biiddoth ii, 5; hi, 1 ; ir, 2. 

6 72'n. Hekhal = vaos in its wider sense, as in Joseplms, B. J. V, v, 3. It 
were to he wished that the precision of nomenclature here aimed at by our 
author had always been observed. But this is far from being the case. The 



BETH IIABBECIIEREII, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 31 

another outer boundary surrounding the temple distant from it like the 
hangings of the court of the Tabernacle which was in the wilderness, and 
all that was surrounded by this boundary, 7 which corresponded 8 to the 
court of the Tabernacle of the congregation was what was called the court, 
and the whole was called the Sanctuary. 9 

6. And they made vessels 10 for the Sanctuary, an altar for burnt 
sacrifices and other offerings, and a sloping ascent by which they went up 
to the altar, and its place was in front of the porch, a little 11 to the south ; 
also a laver with its base, to sanctify 1 - from it the hands and feet of the 
priests for the service, and its place was between the porch and the altar, 
a little to the south, so that it was on the left of a person entering the 
Sanctuary ; also they made an altar for incense, and a candlestick and a 
table, which three were inside the holy place, in front of the holy of holies. 

7. The candlestick stood on the south, to the left of a person entering, 
and the table on which was the shewbread to the right, and both of them on 
the outer side of the Holy of Holies, and the altar of incense stood 
between them both a little to the outside. 13 And they made within 14 the 
court boundaries marking the limits of Israel and of the Priests 15 and they 
built there houses for the other requirements of the Sanctuary, and each 
of these houses was called a chamber. 16 

8. When they built the Temple and the court, they built of large 
stones, and if they did not find stones, they built of bricks. 17 And they 

Talmud repeatedly speaks of the porch and the temple PDTll D1?X (Yoma 12 a, 
Megillah 26 a), and Maimonides himself has elsewhere distinguished between 
the ^31,-1 and the Holy of Holies {infra, vii, 22). 

7 Exodus xxxviii, 9. 

8 fJD " like the appearance of." 

9 Cf. Middoth ii, 3 ; iv, v, for the contents of thi paragraph. The con- 
cluding sentence " and the whole was called the Sanctuary," KHpD, mikdash, is an 
inference from such passages as Middoth i, 1. 

10 Pots, pans, shovels, tongs, instruments of music, &c. The word Kelim, 
qi^3 has a very wide signification. Cf. Exodus xxvii, 19. 

11 Literally " drawn to the South." 

12 To wash. 

13 Literally " the altar of incense drawn from between them both towards the 
outside." In Yoma, 33 b, it is said " we are taught that the table was on the 
north two cubits and a half from the wall, and the candlestick on the south two 
cubits and a half from the wall. The altar was between and stood in the middle 
drawn towards the outside," i.e., towards the porch. 

14 Literally " in the midst or inside." 

15 Middoth ii, 6. 

16 n3^'7 liskah. Middoth i, 1, 5, 6; v, 4, and in very many other places in 
the Talmud. 

17 The opinion that bricks were employed in the construction of the Temple 
appears to be derived from a passage in Mechilta (nd*lX rQTD, page 74, Fried- 
mann's edition, Vienna 1870), where, commenting on Exodus xx, 25, it is 
argued " thou wilt make me an altar of stone " is a permission, not a duty ; and 
what but this does it teach ? that if it is desired to make an altar of stone, let it 



32 BETH IIABBECHEBEH, OB THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

did not cut the stones of the building in the mountain of the house, but 
they cut and fitted them outside, and afterwards brought them in for the 
building, as it is said "great stones, costly stones, and hewed stones, to 
lay the foundation of the house " (1 Kings v, 17) and, " neither hammer 
nor axe, nor any tool of iron was heard in the house while it was in 
building' 118 (1 Kings, vi, 7). 

be made of stone ; if of bricks, let it be made of bricks. And if this power of 
election was permitted in the case of the altar (which was peculiarly sacred), a 
fortiori it might be permitted in reference to everything else (Dv3n 73, every 
vessel) in the Sanctuary. Yet it is to be observed that the opinion here 
expressed in reference to the passage " thou will make me an altar of stone " was 
not regarded as authoritative. ( Vide infra, i, 13.) 

18 Meehilta, p. 74. The rabbinical writers appear always to assume that 
in the building of the second temple, as in the building of the first, the stones 
were not cut and dressed on the spot. The great pillar lying within the Russian 
compound at Jerusalem, which not improbably was intended for Herod's 
cloisters, has its upper surface partially dressed, and the discovery of a flaw 
appears to have caused it to be abandomed before completion. Another pillar 
of about the same size, smoothed on as much of the surface as could be reached 
before the stone was separated from the rock, was discovered a few years ago about 
200 yards south-w T est from the same spot, and it hence appears probable that 
the great stones of the later temple were dressed in the quarry. The pillar of 
smaller size which may be seen still joined to the rock on the north of the old 
road to Lifta, although cut into shape, has not been smoothed. 

In Sotah, 48 b, is the following passage bearing upon this subject : " After 
the Holy House was destroyed the worm Shamir ceased," <fcc. (Mishna ix, 12). 
The Rabbis teach that it was by means of the Shamir that Solomon built the 
Holy House, as is said, "and the house when it was in building was built of 
perfect stone from the quarry " (unbehauene Steine des Steinbruchs — Gesenius) 
(1 Kings vi, 7). The words are to be interpreted literally. The words of Rabbi 
Judah Rabbi Nehemiah said to him. Is it possible to say so, when it has 
been said, all these stones were " costly stones, &c, sawed with a saw ? " (1 Kings 
vii, 9), and if so, how are we taught to say that there " was not heard in the 
house the sound of hammer, &c, while it was in building?" (1 Kings vi, 7). 
Because they prepared the stones outside, and brought them in. (Cf. Meehilta, 

eh. riDiK mrD.) 

Rab said, " the words of R. Judah appear to refer to the stones of the 
Sanctuary, and the words of R. Nehemiah to the stones of his (Solomon's) 
house. And in reference to the opinion expressed by R. Nehemiah, for what 
purpose did the Shamir come ? It was required for this, as we are taught, that 
those stones {the stones of the breast-plate), were net written with ink, because it 
is said " like the engravings of a signet" (Exodus xxxix, 14). And they did not 
engrave them with a chisel, because it is said "in their fulness" (inclosings 
A. V.) (Exodus xxxix, 13), but they wrote upon them with ink and showed the 
worm to them from the outside, and they became opened by themselves just as a 
fig becomes opened in the hot days, and there was no loss of substance ; like a 
plain which becomes channeled in the days of the great rains without loss. The 
Rabbis teach thai the Shamir was a creature like a barley corn, and was created 
in the six days of the Creation, and there was no hard thing that could stand 
before it. How did they preserve it? They wrapped it in a mass (literally 



BETH IIABBECHEREII, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 33 

9. And they did not build in it any projection of wood, but either of 
stones, or of bricks and lime ; ami in all the court they made no porches 
(exhedne) of wood, but either of stones or of bricks. 19 

10. And they paved the whole court with costly stones, and if a stone 
was dislodged, notwithstanding that it remained in its place, it was 
profane so long as it moved, and it was unlawful for the officiating 
priest to stand upon it at the time of the service until it was fixed in the 
earth. 20 

11. And it was a command to strengthen in the best manner possible 

sponge) of wool, and put it into a leaden casket filled with barley bran." This 
worm is said by R. David to have been brought by an eagle from Paradise 
(Buxtorf. Lex. Talm. TW). 

19 This is founded upon Dent, xvi, 21, which by the Talmudists is held 
prohibit tbe placing any wooden erection near the altar (Tamid 28 b). Two 
difficulties arise out of this passage, namely, 1, that there was in the south side 
of the court a chamber of wood (Midd. v, 4), and 2, that there was, accord- 
ing to Middoth, our author, and other writers, a wooden balcony surrounding 
the inside of the court of the women. The first is met by supposing that the 
chamber in the court was not constructed of wood, but was for the storing of 
(picked) wood (Midd. ii, 5) for the altar ; and in reference to the second, it is 
suggested, 1, that the expression "near unto the altar of the Lord" was 
applicable only to that portion of the temple which was inside of the gate 
Nicanor, and 2, that the balconies for the women were only temporary, being 
put up for the rejoicings at the Feast of Tabernacles which took place in the beth 
hashshaavah which was in the court of the women. (Succah v, 1 ; Piske Tosepb. 
ad Midd.) The beams of cedar wood which passed between the front of the 
temple and the porch, and the cedar roofs of the little pillars by the slaughtering 
place, were not considered to be projections. For the exhedrm in the court see 
Tamid i, 3, where it is related that the priests and their overseer, when they 
passed out of Moked into the court early in the morning, divided into two 
companies, the one going by the exhedra towards the east, and the others going 
by the exhedra towards the west." The Gamara explains that these exhedra 
were of masonry. Once in seven years, on the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles 
a pulpit of wood was erected in the court of the women, from which the kin<* 
read portions of the law (Sotah vii, 8). 

- u Zevachim ii, 1, 24 a. A priest (whilst receiving the blood) might not sit 
nor stand upon any vessel, or upon a beast, or upon the foot of a fellow-priest. 
If he chose to stand upon one leg whilst performing his service he was at liberty 
to do so, but not when he had no service to perform. In connection with the 
stones of the pavement the student of the Mishnas will remember the story in 
Shekalim vi, 2 : "It happened that as a priest was engaged in his duties he 
noticed that one part of the pavement was changed in appearance from the rest. 
He came and told his companions, but before he could finish the account he died 
and they knew that there the ark was certainly hidden." This priest had a 
blemish, and was employed in picking wood for the altar (Midd. ii, 5), and it 
was in consequence of this tradition that the families of Gamaliel and Hananiah 
were accustomed to make obeisance towards the chamber of wood in the court of 
the women. 



34 BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

the building, and to raise it as high as the means of the congregation 
permitted, as is said (Ezra, ix, 9) "to set up the house of our God." 
And they adorned and beautified it according to their power, and if they 
were able to overlay it with gold 21 and to magnify the work of it, lo, that 
was a good deed ! 22 

12. They did not build the Sanctuary by night, as is said (Numb, 
ix, 15), "on the day that the tabernacle was reared up," by day they 
reared it up, not by night. 23 And they were employed in building from 
the rising of the morning until the stars came out. 24 And all were obliged 
to assist in the building, both by their own individual exertions and by their 
means, men and women, as in the Sanctuary in the wilderness. 25 They 
did not intermit the instruction of children in the schools for the building, 2 " 1 
nor did the building of the Sanctuary annul a feast day. 

13. They made the altar of stone 27 masonry only, and that which is 
said in the Law, "an altar of earth thou shalt make unto me " (Exod. xx, 
24), means that it should be joined to the earth, that they should not build 
it either upon arches, or over cavities, 28 and that which is said, " if thou 
wilt make me an altar of stone " (Exod. xx, 25), tradition teaches that this 
is not a permission but an obligation. 29 

21 Solomon overlaid the whole house, the altar, the doors, the cherubim, and 
the floor of the house with gold. (1 Kings vi, 22, 28, 30, 32.) 

22 ni^'D. Literally " a commandment, ," a good deed prescribed by the law. 
- 3 Shevuoth 15 b. 

-* Nehemiah iv, 21. 

25 Exodus xxxv, 22, 25 ; xxxvi, 8. 

26 Shabbath 119 b. " They did not intermit the instruction of children in 
the schools, even for the building of the Sanctuary." 

Shevuoth 15 b. The work of building the Sanctuary being of less import- 
ance than keeping a feast-day was intermitted until the feast-day was over. 
- 7 Some copies wrongly read here JT'TJ D'OnX, hewn stones. 

28 Mechilta 73 a. Rabbi Ishmael said, " an altar of earth thou shalt make 
unto me— an altar joined to the earth thou shalt make unto me, thou shalt not 
build it upon arches or upon pillars." The compilers of the Gamara adopted 
this opinion (Zevachim 58 a, and 61 b), and Maimonides has followed the Gamara. 

29 Mechilta 73 b. " Eabbi Ishmael said every ' if ' in the Law is a permission, 
not an obligation, except three : — 

1. Leviticus ii, 14. " And if thou offer an offering of thy first-fruits," this 
is an obligation. " If thou sayest is it obligation or only a permission ? " we are 
taught to say " thou shalt offer for the meat-offering of thy first-fruits" (Exod. 
ii, 14 J), which is an obligation, not a permission. 

2. Exodus xxii, 25. " If thou lend money to any of my people," &c, this 
is an obligation, and if thou sayest " is it an obligation or only a permission ? " 
we are taught to say "thou shalt surely lend him" (Dent, xv, 8), which 
is an obligation, not a permission. 

3. Exodus xx, 25. "If thou wilt make me an allar of stone;" this is 
an obligation, and if thou sayest "is it an obligation or only a permission P " 
we are taught to say " thou shalt build of whole stones " (Deut. xxvii, G), which 
is an obligation, not a permission. {Cf. note 1, page 29.) 



BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 3'o 

14. Every stone which had a flaw in it sufficient to arrest the finger 
nail, like the knife for slaughtering, 3 " lo, that was unlawful for the sloping 
ascent and for the altar, 31 as is said " thou shalt build the altar of the 
Lord thy God of whole stones " (Deut. xxvii, 6). And whence did 
they bring the stones of the altar ? From virgin earth, 32 they dug until 
they came to a place in which it was evident there had been no work or 
building, and they brought out thejstones from it, or from the great sea, 33 
and built with them. And the stones of the temple, and of the courts were 
also perfect stones. 34 

30 Few Jewish observances have been held to be of gi'eater importance than 
tbe use of a very sharp knife for slaughtering. Whoever slaughtered without 
first causing bis knife to be examined before a rabbi was liable to excommunica- 
tion (Cbolin 18 a). One of several methods of examining tbe knife is by 
drawing its edge over the finger nail {ibid. 17 b, where the subject is discussed 
at length). " And what constituted a flaw in tbe altar ? " As much unevenness 
of surface as arrested tbe finger-nail. They repeat, what constituted a flaw in 
the altar ? R. Simeon ben Jocbai said as much as a handbreadtb. R. Eleazer 
ben Jacob said as much as an olive. There is here no contradiction. This (the 
opinions of R. Simeon and R. Jacob) refers to tbe lime, and that (the opinion 
first expressed) to the stones (Cbolin 18 a). 

31 That the same rule applied to tbe sloping ascent as to tbe altar appears from 
Middotb hi, 4. 

32 " The virginity of the earth," J?p"lpn TO^TQ. |», Middotb. iii, 4. 

33 In the Tosefoth to Cbolin (18 a) it is enquired how they built the altar of 
smooth stones since they were not permitted to use an iron instrument for 
smoothing them, and the shamir could not make them so smooth that tbe 
finger-nail would not be arrested in passing over them, and says that tbe 
meaning of tbe passage in Zevacbim (54 a) is that they built of small stones in 
which was no flaw, like tbe stones of a torrent, ~>j"\y Tbe notion that stones 
were brought from " the great sea " appears to depend upon the interpretation 
of tbe word rilD^IBD (Zevacbim 54 a), which is from a root signifying fresh, 
moist. " Bohu, 1 !~ID. (A.V., void, Genesis i, 2), means those recent stones which 
were sunk in the abyss, and from winch the waters flowed" (Chagigah 12 a) ; and 
the gloss says, nitD^lDE (^ ue W01 'd in question), has the meaning of moist or 
recent, ni"?n^- , 

34 Maimonides does not mean here by the expression niQvt? D*33S "perfect 
stones," that the stones of the temple and courts were not hewn, but that they 
were highly finished. (Cf Tamid 26 b, and the gloss ; also Sotah 48 b, quoted 
above, and Mechilta 74.) 

" He that did not see the Sanctuary, with its buildings, never saw beautiful 
building. Which building was it ? Abai said, and some say that R. Khasdai 
said that was the building of Herod. Of what did he build it ? Rabba s.iid 
fcO»-|Dl K5W D'OnKn, of different kinds of marble. Some say KB»B> ^383 
X1D1D1 vni3 of coloured marble] andjwhite marble. One lip projected and one 
lip receded in order that it might receive the lime (plaster). He thought to 
overlay it with gold, but the Rabbis said to him let it be, it is very beautiful so, 
for its appearance is like the waves of the sea " (Succah 51 b ; Baba Bathra 4 a). 
The gloss of Rashi adds " iW&^sMsha, coloured marble, neither white nor 

D 2 



36 BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

15. Stones of the temple and courts which became broken or cut were 
unlawful, and they could not be redeemed, but where laid by and preserved. 35 
Every stone which iron had touched, even though it was not cut, became 
unlawful for the building of the altar, and the building of the sloping 
ascent, 36 as is said " for if thou lift up thy tool upon it thou hast polluted 
it" (Exod. xx, 25), and whoever should build a stone which iron had 
touched into the altar was beaten, as is said " thou shalt not build it of 
hewn stone " (Exod. xx, 25) ; and whoever built in a stone with a flaw 
transgressed an affirmative command. 37 

16. A stone which became broken or touched by iron after being built 
into the altar or the sloping ascent was unlawful, and the rest were lawful. 
They whitened the altar twice a year at Passover, and at the Feast of 
Tabernacles. And when they whitened it, they whitened it with a cloth, 
and not with an iron trowel, lest it should touch a stone and defile. 38 

17. They did not make stairs to the altar, as is said " neither shalt 
thou go up by steps unto mine altar " (Exod. xx, 26), but they built a kind 
of mound on the south of the altar diminishing and descending from the 
top of the altar to the ground, and this is what was called Kebesh, 39 and 
whoever ascended by steps to the altar was beaten. And whoever should 
pull down a stone from the altar or from any part of the temple, or from 
between the porch and the altar with the view of injuring it was beaten, 
as is said " Ye shall overthrow their altars," &c, and " ye shall not do so 
unto the Lord your God " 40 (Deut. xii, 3, 4) . 

black, but a kind of yellow, plT 1 , culled in the barbarian tongue bis. &O0~l0, 
mannora, white marble. N?ni3> Koch a la, marble coloured, as if stained. " One 
lip projected," one row of stones went in and one went out. " Like the waves of 
the sea," because the stones differed in appearance one from another, and the eye 
in contemplating them moved to and fro, and they appeared like those waves of 
the sea which are moved and agitated." 

35 That is, they could not be sold or used for any other purpose (Tosefta 
Megillah, ch. 2). 

36 Middoth iii, 4. 

37 Deuteronomy xxvii, 6. " Thou shalt build the altar of the Lordthy God 
of whole stones." 

38 Middoth iii, 4. It happened once at the Feast of Tabernacles that the 
officiating priest poured the water upon his leg, and the people pelted him with 
their lemons (" and with stones," gloss) and caused a flaw in the horn of the 
altar, which they stopped up with a mass of salt (Succah 48 b ; Zevach. 62 a). 

39 Middoth iii, 4 ; Zevachim 62 b. " The Kebesh was on the south of the 
altar." 

40 Sifre, page 87, Friedmann's edition, Vienna, 1864. Whence do we learn 
that to take away a stone from the Temple, or from the altar, or from the courts 
is a transgression of a negative commandment ? The doctrine is to say " ye 
shall overthrow their altars," and "ye shall not do so unto the Lord your God " 
(Deut. xii, 3, 4). Why Maimonides has here mentioned the space between 
the porch and the altar instead of the courts, does not appear. In the corres- 
ponding passage in his treatise, minn HID*, 6, 7, he bus "from the altar, or 
from the Temple, or from the rest of the court." 



BETH IIABBECHEREII, OB THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 37 

18. The candlestick and its vessels, the table of shewbread and its vessels, 
and the altar of incense and all the vessels of service, they made of metal 
only. And if they were made of wood, or bone, or stone, or of glass, they 
were unlawful. 41 

19. If the congregation ~>|-Jp was poor, they made them even of tin, 
and if they became rich, they made them of gold, even the basins, and 
the flesh hooks, and the shovels of the altar of burnt-offering. And if the 
community had the power, they made the measures of gold. Even the 
gates of the court they covered with gold if they were able. 42 

20. All the vessels of the Sanctuary were made expressly for sacred 
use, and such as were made for ordinary piu'poses could not be used for 
sacred purposes. Sacred vessels which had not yet been used for sacred 
purposes might be used for ordinary purposes, but after they had been 
used for sacred purposes, it was unlawful to use them for ordinary purposes. 
Stones and beams cut for a synagogue could not be employed for a building 
in the mountain of the house. 43 

CHAPTEE II. 

1. The position of the altar was determined with great care, 1 nor did 
they ever change it from its place, as is said, " this is the altar of the 
burnt offering for Israel " (1 Chron. xxii, 1). And in the sanctuary Isaak 
our father was bound, as is said, " and get thee into the land of Moriah " 
(Gen. xxii, 2), and it is said in the Chronicles (2 iii, 1), " then Solomon 
began to build the house of the Lord at Jerusalem in Mount Moriah, 
where the Lord appeared unto David his father, in the place that David 
had prepared in the threshing floor of Oman the Jebusite." 

2. And it is a constant tradition 2 that the place in which David and 
Solomon built the altar in the threshing-floor of Araunah is the place 
in which Abraham built the altar and bound upon it Isaac. And it 
is the place in which Noah built when he went out of the ark, and 

41 The question of what material it was lawful to make the candlestick is 
discussed in Menachoth 28 b. The prevailing opinion of the Eabbis was that 
if made of wood, or of bone, or of glass, it was unlawful. 

42 " Because they saw the Qesh-hooks were of iron they covered them with tin ; 
when they became rich they made them of silver ; and when they again became 
rich they made them of gold" (Menachoth 28 h ; Avodah Zarah 43 a ; Eosh 
Hashshanah 24 b). " Monbaz (Monobasus) the king made all the bandies of the 
vessels of the Day of Atonement of gold, and Helena, his mother, made the 
candlestick of gold which was at the door of the temple " (Yorna iii, 10). That 
tbe gates of the court were covered with gold is related in Middoth ii, 3. 

43 The authority for this paragraph is Tosefta Megillah c, 2. But in the 
Tosef fa there is no mention of stones, &c, prepared for a synagogue ; the passage 
runs, " stones and beams cut for an ordinary building" &c. 

1 " Three prophets came up with them from the captivity .... one 
testified to them respecting the place of the altar" (Zevachim 62 a). 
' ^GH T3 miDO- A tradition by the hand of all. 



38 BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

it is the altar upon which Cain and Abel offered, and there [cp] the first 
Adam offered an offering 3 after he was created, and from there he was 
created. The wise men have said that Adam was created from the place 
of his redemption. 4 

3. The measures of the altar were carefully studied and its form was 
known traditionally. And the altar which the sons of the captivity built 
they made like the appearance of the altar which is to be built in the 
future, and nothing is to be added to its measure nor diminished from 
it! 3 

4. And three prophets came up with them from the captivity ; one 
testified to them respecting the place of the altar, one testified to them 
respecting its measures, and one testified to them that they should 
offer upon that altar all the offerings, even though there was no house 
there. 6 

5. The altar which Moses made, and that which Solomon made, and 
that which the children of the captivity made, and that which is to 
be made in the future all are ten cubits high, each one of them, and that 
which is written in the Law, "and the height thereof shall be three 

3 Pirke R. Eliezer, eh. 31 ; Yalkut Simeon, )<t^ NTl. 101 - The latter does 
not mention Adam but only Cain, Abel, and Noah. 

4 " And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground " (G-enesis ii, 7). 
" Kabbi Judah ben Pazy said the Holy One, blessed be He, took one spoonful, 
^Pl^, «p<|^]-| xSo> from the place of the altar and created from it the first Adam " 
(Jems. Nazir 56 a, 2 (19 a)). TlllD has been used as synonymous with p^, the 
famous incorruptible bone from which the body is to be rehabilitated at the 
Resurrection (Buxtorf Lex. Talm. 2616). 

" The learned Rabbins of the Jews 
Write there's a bone, which they call leuz, 
I' th' rump of man, of such a virtue, 
No force in nature can do hurt to ; 
And therefore at tho last great day, 
All tli' other members shall, they say, 
Spring out of this, as from a seed 
All sorts of vegetals proceed ; 
From whence the learned sons of art 
Os sacrum justly stile that part." — Hudibras, iii, 2. 

5 Cf. Menachoth 97 and 98. 

r ' Zevachim 62 a. " Three prophets came up with them from the captivity ; 
one who testified to them respecting the altar, and one who testified to them 
respecting the place of the altar, and one who testified to them that they 
should offer offerings even though there was no house . . . Rabbi 
Eliezer ben Yacob said three prophets came up with them from the captivity, 
one who testified to them respecting the altar and the place of the altar, and one 
who testified to them that they should offer offerings, even though there was no 
house, and one who testified to them respecting the law, that it should be 
written in the Assyrian character [i.e. square Hebrew]." These prophets were 
Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi (Rashi). 



BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 39 

cubits" (Exod. xxvii, 1), refers to the place of the pile [fire] only. 7 
And the altar which the children of the captivity made, and also that 
which is to be built in the future, the measure of its length and of its 
breadth is two and thirty cubits by two and thirty cubits. 8 

6. Of the ten cubits in the height of the altar some were of five 
handbreadths and some of six handbreadths, and all the rest of the cubits 
of the building were of six handbreadths, and the height of the whole 
altar was fifty-eight handbreadths. 9 

7. And thus was its measure and its form. It rose five handbreadths 
and receded five ; this was the foundation. The breadth was now thirty 

7 Zevachim 59 b. The doctrine is that the words " and three cubits the 
height thereof " [Exod. xxxviii, 1], are to be taken literally. The words of Eabbi 
Judah. Eabbi Jose said " it is said here 'foursquare,' and it is said there 'four- 
square ' [Exod. xxxvii, 25, in reference to the altar of incense], as there its 
height was twice its length, so here twice its length." Eabbi Judah said to him, 
" and is it not said ' and the court an hundred cubits ' [Exod. xxvii, 18 ; xxxviii, 
9], and ' the height five cubits,' &c. [Exod. xxxviii, 18]. Possibly the priest 
standing upon the top of the altar performing his service all the people could see 
him from without." Eabbi Jose said to him, " and is it not said ' and the 
hangings of the court, and the curtain of the door of the court, which is by the 
tabernacle and by the altar ' [Numb, hi, 26], as the tabernacle was ten cubits 
[Exod. xxvi, 16], so also the altar was ten cubits, and it is said ' the hangings of 
one side fifteen cubits' (Exod. xxvii, 14), and what is the meaning of what we 
are taught to say ' five cubits ? ' from the border of the altar upward ; and 
what is the meaning of what we are taught to say ' and three cubits its height ? ' 
from the border of the circuit 221D upward." Eashi adds this comment, "from 
the border of the altar upward : upward from the altar its height was five cubits. 
From the border of the circuit upward : to the place of the horns [three cubits] 
and downward from it six cubits, and the height of the horn a cubit," which 
make up the ten. For the height of Solomon's " altar of brass " see 2 Chronicles 
iv, 1 ; for that of the altar to be built in the future, Ezekiel xliii, 14, 15. 

8 Middoth iii, 1. In Ezekiel xliii, 16, it is said " and the altar shall be twelve 
cubits long, twelve broad, square in the four squares thereof," and the Talmudists 
in reference to this passage say "it might be that it was only twelve by twelve, 
but when he said ' in the four squares thereof ' it is understood that from the 
middle he measured twelve cubits to each side." (Menachoth 97 b ; Zevachim 
59 b ; cf. Lightfoot 1131). This measurement refers to the upper part of the 
altar [^ijOK> Ariel], and if correct, the lower part, or foundation, would of course 
be of the dimensions given in the text, namely thirty-two cubits by thirty-two. 

9 Menachoth 97a. "It is taught there (Kelini xvii, 9), that Rabbi Meyer 
said all the cubits of the Sanctuary were medium cubits, except those of the 
golden altar, and the horn, and the circuit, and the foundation. Eabbi Judah 
said the cubit of the building was six handbreadths, and that of the vessels five." 
Eashi explains that the horn, circuit, and foundation are those of the altar of 
burnt-offering, and that the medium cubit was of six handbreadths. The question 
of the number of handbreadths in the various parts of the altar is then discussed 
at length. "The altar, how many handbreadths had it? Fifty-eight" (ibid. 
98 a). The handbreadth was four fingerbreadths. 



40 BETH HABBECHEEEH, OE THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

cubits and two handbreadths by thirty cubits and two handbreadths. It 
rose thirty handbreadths and receded five handbreadths, this was the 
circuit. It rose eighteen handbreadths, this was the place of the pile. Its 
breadth was now twenty-eight cubits and four handbreadths by twenty- 
eight cubits and four handbreadths. 10 It rose eighteen handbreadths, and 
there receded at the corner of the eighteen 11 handbreadths a square hollow 
structure at each of the four corners, 12 and the place of the horns was 
a cubit on this side and a cubit on that side all round, and also the place 
of the feet of the priests a cubit all round, so that the breadth of the 
place of the pile was twenty-four cubits and four handbreadths by twenty- 
four cubits and four handbreadths. 

8. The height of each horn was five handbreadths, and the square of 
each horn a cubit by a cubit, and the four horns were hollow within, 13 and 
the height of the place of the pile was eighteen handbreadths, so that 
half the height of the altar from the end WQ of the circuit downward 14 
was twenty-nine handbreadths. 15 

9. A red line encircled the middle of the altar (six handbreadths 
below the end of the circuit) to divide between the upper and the lower 
bloods, 16 and its height from the earth to the place of the pile was nine 
cubits less a handbreadth. 17 

10 Menachoth 97 b : cf. Midd. iii, 1. The difference between the measure- 
ments given in the Gemara of Menachoth and those given in Middoth arises 
from the difference in the length of the cubits. The compilers of the Garnara 
appear to have held that the measurements of Middoth were not intended to be 
minutely accurate. 

11 From the circuit upwards to the place of the pile being three cubits, and 
all the cubits of the height except those of the foundation and horn being cubits 
of six handbreadths, it follows that from the circuit to the place of the pile was 
eighteen handbreadths. 

12 Zevachim 54 b. 

13 Zevachim 54 b. 

14 The circuit seems to have been reckoned as being one cubit of five hand- 
breadths broad and one cubit of six handbreadths high, and hence the 
expression " from the end of the circuit downward." 

15 Menachoth 98 a. " The middle of the altar, how many handbreadths was 
it high ? Twenty -nine. From the horns to the circuit, how many handbreadths ? 
Twenty-three. How many less than to the middle of the altar ? Six. Hence 
in Zevachim 65 a, and Menachoth 97 b and 98 a it is said that if the priest 
standing upon the circuit sprinkled the (lower) blood one cubit below his feet 
it was lawful. 

16 Middoth iii, 1 ; Menachoth 97 b. " The blood of a sin offering of a bird 
was sprinkled below, and that of a sin offering of a beast above. The blood of 
a burnt offering of a bird was sprinkled above, and that of a bmmt offering of a 
beast below." (Kinim i, 1 ; cf. Zevach. ii, 1 ; vi, 2 ; and vii, 2.) In Zevachim 
10 b and 53 «, it is said " the upper blood was put above the red line, the lower 
blood below the red line." Rabbi Eleazer, son of Rabbi Simeon, held that the 
blood of a sin offering of a beast might be put only on the body of the horn or 
corner, ^ fy nD13 L,y. 

17 The height of the altar from the ground to the pile was eight cubits of six 



BETH HABBECHEKEH, OB THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 41 

10. The foundation of the altar did not surround its four sides like 
the circuit, hut the foundation extended along the whole of the north and 
west sides, and took up on the south one cubit, and on the east one cubit, 
and the south-eastern corner had no foundation. 18 

handbreadtks each, and one cubit (the lower) of five handbreadths, so that it fell 
one handbreadth short of nine medium cubits. The tenth cubit was the 
horn. 

18 "And the foundation extended all along on the north and all along on the 
west sides of the altar, and took up on the south one cubit and on the east one 
cubit" (Midd. iii, 1). "And there was no foundation to the south-eastern 
corner. What was the reason ? Rabbi Eleazer said because it was not in the 
portion of the ravener [i.e., Benjamin: "Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf," 
Gen. xlix, 27], as said Eab Samuel son of Eab Isaak, the altar took up of the 
portion of Judah a cubit. Rabbi Levi son of Khama said, Rabbi Khama son of 
Rabbi Khaninah said, a strip [yi^"l a strap] went out from the portion of 
Judah and entered the portion of Benjamin, and Benjamin the righteous was 
grieved thereat, every day desiring to take it, as is said " he fretted thereat every 
day " (Deut. xxxiii, 12 ; A.V. " the Lord shall cover him all the day long ") 
wherefore Benjamin the righteous was judged worthy to become the dwelling- 
place of the Holy One, blessed be He, as is said " and he shall dwell between his 
shoulders " (Deut. xxxiii, 12). (Zevach. 53 b, 118 b ; Yoma 12 a ; Megillah 26 a.) 
" What was in the portion of Judah ? The mountain of the house, the chambers, 
and the courts. What was in the portion of Benjamin ? The porch, the Temple, 
and the Holy of Holies, and a strip went out," &c. (Yoma and Megillah, loc. 
cit.) Rashi explains (Zevach. 53 b) that the eastern part of the mountain of the 
house, including the entrance, is here meant, that the chambers were those in 
the chel, and that all the court of the women, and the twenty-two cubits of the 
place for the tread of the priests and of Israel were called the courts. " Thus," 
he continues, " the portion of Judah was on the east of the altar and by its side, 
and the altar took up of his portion a cubit on the east. With the exception of 
the cubit of the north-eastern corner, all this side was in the portion of Judah, 
which cubit was distant from the corner a cubit. And the strip went out at the 
south of the altar and entered the portion of Benjamin, for from the place of 
the tread of the i^'iests and upward was the portion of Benjamin at the south 
of the altar, and the altar took up of it a cubit, and this was the cubit, JID'OS NTItJ', 
i"Q nVil? ""IKI TDS"1, in which would have been the receding of the founda- 
tion had there been a foundation there, as Mar said (Midd. iii, 1), 'it ascended 
a cubit and receded a cubit, this was the foundation.' " Some confusion has 
arisen in reference to this curious point in consequence of the passage in 
Middoth iii, 1, PIOX DTI 3 7D1N1, having been translated "but on the south it 
wanted one cubit, and on the east one cubit" (Lightfoot 1131), instead of "on 
the south it took up (or included) one cubit," &c. Rashi (Zevach. 54 a) says, 
" at the south-eastern corner it [i.e., the foundation] extended along the eastern 
side a cubit and no more," and again, in allusion to the projection of the sloping 
ascent towards the foundation on the south, "towards the place where the 
receding of the foundation was adapted to be, but it was not there." Another 
note of Rashi' s may be added here, " they made a kind of small projection 
opposite that (the south-easternl corner to receive the blood of the burnt 



42 BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

11. At the south-western corner were two apertures, like two small 
nostrils, and these are what were called sheteen, pj""p^) canals, and by 
them the bloods descended and became mixed at that corner in the 
cesspool, and went out to the Valley of Kedron. 19 

offerings of birds, that it might not fall upon the ground, and this was called 
PQTOn "Vp, the side of the altar (Levit. t, 9), but it was not called the founda- 
tion." Tbis side of the altar is mentioned in Menacboth 98 b and Zevaehim 
65 a {see the note of Bartenora on Kinini i, 1). The space between horn and 
born is called by the Talmudists 2^3"0, Ki/rJcoob. The Gemara, in Zevaehim 
62 a, enquires " wbat was the KirTcoob [A.V. "compass," Exod. xxvii, 5, 
xxxviii, 4] ? Rabbi said it was the ornamented band, "iVD. Rabbi Jose, son of 
Rabbi Judab, said it was the circuit, Q31D .... Wbat was tbe Kirkoob 1 
Between horn and horn, tbe place of the path for the feet of tbe priests a cubit, 
because the priests were accustomed to go between born and horn, therefore it is 
said the place of the path for the feet of the priests a cubit (Middoth hi, 1), 
and it is written " a brazen grate of network under the compass thereof beneath 
unto the midst of it" (Exod. xxxviii, 4). Rab Nachman bar Isaak said there 
were two, one for ornament, and one for the priests that they should not slip 
off." The gloss of Rashi explains that upon the top of the altar there was 
" a kind of deep channel, "pDJ? V1"in, between the place of the pile and the edge 
of the altar all round and surrounding the place of the pile, and the breadth of 
the channel was two cubits, one cubit that part which was between the horns, 
and one cubit that which formed the path for the priests," and a few lines 
above this passage he says " and there was a slight eminence aroiind it at the 
edge of the altar." In reference to the network of brass, the same commentator 
sajs " the grate of the network of brass which they put under the compass of the 
altar below as far as its middle surrounded the altar from its middle upward. 
It was clothed and as it were surrounded with a grating which was made 
with many holes, D"Op3 D^QpJ, like a sieve or fishing net, and it reached upward 
as far as to below the compass Kirkoob'''' There were two sur- 
roundings to the altar which Moses made, one for ornament, and one for the 
priests that they should not slip off. The latter extended round the side, *pp, 
from the point where it was six cubits high [i.e., the circuit] .... That 
for ornament was the " circuit," 321D, and the "ornamented band, " pV3, about 
which Rabbi and R. Jose bar Jehudah disputed, and below that circuit they 
put the grating, and its breadth reached downward to the middle of the altar, 
and it was a sign to distinguish between the upper and the lower bloods, as is 
said in Zevaehim 53 a ... . "And one for the priests that they should 
not slip off ; " " and above on the top of the altar the depression surrounded it like 
a kind of depressed channel, a slight thing the edge of which might form a little 
parapet so thai the priests should not slip." In reference to the statement that 
the priests could go between horn and horn be remarks, " the true path for the 
feet of the priests was inside the space between horn and horn, between the horn 
and the pile." 

u Middoth iii, 2; cf. Yoma v, 6, and Meilah iii, 3. These holes were 
distinct froni the two basins or funnels of silver or lime each with a perforated 
nozzle for the drink offerings. These latter appear to have been on the south- 
western part of the altar, since the priest went up by the sloping ascent and 



BETH HABBECHEEEH, Oli THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 43 

12. Below in the pavement at that corner was a place a cubit by a 
cubit, and a slab of marble with a ring fixed to it, by which they went 
down to the canal and cleansed it. 20 

13. And a sloping ascent 21 was built to the south of the altar, Its length 
thirty-two cubits by a breadth of sixteen cubits, and it took up upon the 
ground thirty cubits by the side of the altar, and there was an extension 
from it a cubit over the foundation, and a cubit over the circuit, 22 and a 
small space separated between the sloping ascent and the altar sufficient 
for the pieces of the sacrifices to be put upon the altar by throwing. 2 * 
And the height of the slojnng ascent was nine cubits less a sixth to 
opposite the pile. 24 

14. And two small inclines proceeded from it by which they went to 
the foundation and the circuit, and they were separated from the altar 

turned to the left to reach them. The western one was for the water, the 
eastern one for the wine, and the latter had a larger hole than the other 
because the wine being thicker than the water took longer to run through. It 
is uncertain whether they were of silver or of lime blackened to Jook like silver. 
The libamina poured into these vessels ran down iipon "the roof of the altar, 
and thence through a hole in the altar to the canals of the altar which were 
hollow and very deep " (Succah iv, 9, and 48 b ; cf. Bartenora in loc. ; and also 
Midd. hi, 2), where the hole in the altar is said to have been four cubits from 
its southern side, and the cavity beneath also to have extended thus far. 

20 Middoth hi, 3 ; cf Meilah iii, 3. pjVB', shitin, seems to have been the 
upper and smaller canal, or receptacle, and HON, amah, a larger and lower 
cavity, whence issued the sewer, a cubit square, through which the water of the 
court and the blood ran down to the Kidron valley {cf. E. Shemaiah in 
Middoth iii, 2). It does not appear they went into the !"|ft{<, or lower cavity, 
to cleanse it. This seems to have been always sufficiently flushed by the water 
of the court. 

81 "Thou shaft not go up by steps unto mine altar" (Exod. xx, 20) : hence 
they said let a sloping ascent be made to the altar (Mechilta, nCHX rQTD). For 
the measurements of the sloping ascent see Midd. iii, 3 ; Zevach. 62 b. 

22 Cf. Midd. v, 2, where it is said " the sloping ascent and the altar measured 
sixty-two " cubits (upon the ground) . The altar was thirty-two cubits in length, 
and the sloping ascent therefore only thirty at its base. The remaining two cubits 
were those of the part which projected forward towards the altar over the 
foundation and the circuit, and, a.s Rashi expresses it, " were swallowed up in the 
thirty-two cubits of the altar" (Zevach. 54 a, 62 b). 

23 It was required that the pieces of the burnt offerings should be thrown 
upon the altar, " as the blood was put upon the altar by throwing, np'HT, so also 
the flesh by throwing." (Zevach. 62 b ; cf. note on the signification of the word 
pit in "The Speaker's Commentary," introduction to Leviticus.) Hence a 
partition space was necessary between the ascent and the altar itself (Zevach. 
62 b), across which the priest standing upon the ascent might throw the pieces 
{cf Tamid vii, 3). 

24 Vide supra, 9. The sixth of a medium cubit was a handbreadth, and it was 
wanting in the height of the pile because the foundation was only a cubit of five 
handbreadths high. 



4-4 BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

by the thickness of a thread. 25 And there was a cavity, a cubitfby a cubit, 
on the west of the sloping ascent, and it was called rQ"Q*)> rebubah, and 
in it they [placed birds found unfit for the sin offering, 26 until they became 
decomposed, and were taken out to the place of burning. 27 

15. And there were two tables on the west of the sloping ascent, one 
of marble upon which they placed the pieces of the sacrifices, and one of 
silver, upon which they placed the vessels of service. 28 

16. When they built the altar they built it entirely solid, like a kind 
of pillar, and they made no cavity whatever in it, but brought perfect 
stones, large and small, and brought lime and pitch and lead, and 
moistened it, and poured it into a large frame of the measure of the altar, 
and built and raised it. And at the south-eastern corner they put a 
frame [W\%, body] of wood or stone, of the measure of the foundation, into 
the midst of the building, and likewise they put a frame into the middle 
of each horn until they finished the building, and the frames which were 
in the midst of the building took away so much as to leave the south- 
eastern corner without foundation, and the horns remained hollow. 29 

17. The four horns of the altar, and its foundation, and its square, 
were essential ; 30 and every altar which had not horn, foundation, sloping 
ascent, and square, lo, that was unlawful, because these four were 

25 Zevach. 62 b. One of these inclines was on the east and led to the circuit, 
and the other on the west leading to the foundation. " A burnt offering of 
birds, bow was it made? He went up by the sloping ascent, turned to the 
circuit and came to the south-eastern horn" (ib. vi, 5). Eashi upon this point 
says " that by which they went to the circuit proceeded from the eastern side of 
the sloping ascent to the right .... and that which led to the founda- 
tion proceeded from the west of the sloping ascent" {ib. 62 b). The slope of 
these small inclines was one in three, that of the large sloping ascent to the altar 
" one cubit in three cubits and a half and a fingerbreadth and a third of a 
fingerbreadth " (i b. 63 a, and the gloss). The large ascent was made with a 
gentler slope in order that the priests carrying the heavy pieces of the sacrifices 
might go up more easily. It was the custom to strew it with salt in rainy 
weather in order to render it less slippery (G-rubin x, 14, and 104 a). 

~ 6 Middoth iii, 3. 

27 " Rabbi Ishmael son of Eabbi Johanan ben Baruka said there was a hollow 
place there to the west of the sloping ascent, and it was called rDITI. rabtichah, 
and there they threw the defiled of the sin offerings of birds until they became 
decomposed and were carried out to the place of burning" (Tosefta Korbanoth 7). 
Some read PI3133j hollow, for ri212"l- The rabubah was in the ascent itself. 
The dimensions given were those of the opening ; the size of the cavity is not 
known, but it is believed to have been large (cf. Aruch and Bartenora, and 
Toscf. Yom Tov to Midd. iii, 3). 

2b Shekalim vi, 4. The vessels were those ninety-three of silver and gold 
which were brought out of the chamber of vessels at the commencement of the 
morning sacrifice (cf. Tamid iii, 4, and Bartenora on the passage in Shekalim). 

- ' Zen achim, 54 a, b. 

M p2HyO> delaying, because the altar could not be considered as complete 
until they were made. 



BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 45 

essential, but the measure of its length, and the measure of its breadth, 
and the measure of its height were not essential, and that which was not 
less than a cubit by a cubit and three cubits high, was like the measure 
of the place of the pile of the altar in the wilderness. 31 

18. An altar which had a flaw in its masonry, if the flaw in its 
masonry was a handbreadth, it was unlawful, if less than a handbreadth, 
lawful, provided that in the remainder there was no stone with a flaw in 
it. 3 - 

CHAPTER III. 

1. The form of the candlestick is explained in the Law. There were 
four bowls, and two knops, and two flowers in the shaft of the candlestick, 
as it is said (Exodus xxv, 34) "and in the candlestick four bowls, made 
like unto almonds with their knops and their flowers." And there was 
yet a third flower joined to the shaft of the candlestick, as it is said 
(Numbers viii, 4) " unto the shaft thereof, unto the flowers thereof." 

2. And it had three feet, and there were three other knops to the shaft 
of the candlestick, and from them the six branches issued, three on this 
side, and three on that side, and upon each of these branches were three 
bowls, and a knop and a flower, and all were shaped like almonds in their 
structure. 

3. Thus all the bowls were twenty-two, and the flowers nine, and the 
knops eleven. And all of these delayed the one the other, 1 and if even 
one of the forty-two was wanting it delayed the whole. 2 

4. To what do these words refer ? To the case in which they made the 
candlestick of gold ; but when it was of other kinds of metal they did not 
make for it bowls, knops, and flowers. And the candlestick which is to 
come will be all of gold one talent with its lamps ; and it will be all of 
beaten work from the mass. And of other metals they did not prescribe 
the weight. 3 And if it was hollow it was lawful. 

5. And they never made it of old materials whether it was of gold or 
of other kinds of metal. 4 

6. The tongs and the snuff dishes and oil vessels were not included in 
the talent, for lo, it is said of the candlestick "pure gold" (Exod. xxv, 31), 
and again it says, and the tongs thereof, and the snuff dishes thereof " pure 

31 " Eab Khama bar Gorcah said the p'VTJ pieces of wood which Moses made 
for the pile were a cubit long and a cubit broad," and this was regarded as the 

measure of the HDiyO pile, or fire (Zevach. 62 a, b). 

32 Cholin 18 a. " How much constitutes a flaw in the altar ? As much as 
will arrest the finger-nail. They repeat, how much constitutes a flaw in the 
altar ? Rabbi Simeon ben Yochai said a handbreadth. R. Eleazer ben Yacob 
said as much as an olive. There is no contradiction, the one refers to the lime, 
the other to the stones." 

1 Menachoth 28 a, b. 

2 Tosefta Menachoth 6. 

3 Menachoth 2S a, b. 

4 Menachoth 28 a. 



46 BETH HABBECHEKEH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

gold" (ib. 38) ; aud it is not said its lamps pure gold, because the lamps 
were fixed to the candlestick and were included in the talent. 5 

7. The seven branches of the candlestick hindered the one the other, 
and its seven lamps hindered the one the other, whether 6 they were of 
gold or of another kind of metal. And all the lamps were fixed to the 
branches. 7 

8. All the six lamps which were fixed to the six branches which issued 
from the candlestick had their faces towards the middle lamp, which vxis 
upon the shaft of the candlestick, and that middle lamp had its face 
towards ~\^2 the Holy of Holies, and it is that which was called the 
western lamp. 8 

9. The bowls resembled Alexandrian cups, of which the mouth is broad 
and the bottom narrow. And the knops were like apples of Kirjathaim, 9 
which are of little length, like an egg broad at its two ends ; 10 and the 
flowers, like the flowers of pillars, which are like a kind of saucer with the 
lips turned outwards. 11 

10. The height of the candlestick was eighteen handbreadths. The legs 
and the flower three handbreadths, and two handbreadths plain, and a 
handbreadth in which were a bowl, a knop, and a flower, and two hand- 
breadths plain, and a handbreadth a knop, and two branches issued from 
it one on each side and were extended upwards to opposite the summit of 
the candlestick, and a handbreadth plain, and a handbreadth a knop, and 
two branches issued from it one on each side and were extended upwards 
to opposite the summit of the candlestick, and a handbreadth plain, and a 
handbreadth a knop, and two branches issued from it one on each side 
and were extended upwards to opposite the summit of the candlestick, 
and two handbreadths plain. There remained three handbreadths, in 
which were three bowls, a knop, and a flower. 12 

11. And there was a stone in front of the candlestick and in it three 
steps, upon which the priest stood and trimmed the lamps, and he put 
upon it the vessel of oil and its tongs and the snuff dishes at the time of 
the trimming. 13 

5 Menachoth 88 b. E. Uehemiah was of opinion that the lamps were not 
included in the talent. 

15 Menachoth iii, 7. 

7 " At the top of each branch was a lamp like a cup and there they put the 
oil and the wicks" (Rashi in Menach. 28 a). 

' Menaduth 98 b, and the comment of Rashi. 

9 Joshua xiii, 19, &c. Cariathaini is mentioned by Eusebius as a village near 
Medoba and Baris. 

lu For the signification of the word jHD, rf. a passage in Avodah Sarah 40 a, 
and the note of Rashi ; also Aruch and Euxtorf, s.v. 

11 Menachoth 28 b, and the comment of Raahi. The remark that the 
flowers were Like little dishes or saucers seems to be Maimonides' own. 

'- Menachoth 28 6. 

1 Daiuid iii, 9. The Minima says that he left the oil vessel, T13, on this 
.-tune, but does not mention his patting the tongs and snail'-dishes upon it. 



BETH HABBECHEREII, OK THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 47 

12. The tabic of shewbread was twelve handbreadths long and six 
handbreadths broad. 14 It was placed with its length parallel to the length 
of the house, and its breadth to the breadth of the house, and so all the 
other " vessels " which were in the Sanctuary, their length was parallel 
to the length of the house, and their breadth to the breadth of the house, 
except the arc, the length of which was parallel to the breadth of the 
house. 15 And also the lamps of the candlestick were opposite to the breadth 
of the house between the north and the south. 1 ' 1 

13. There were for the table four golden rods cleft at their tops, 
against which rested the two piles of shewbread, two for each pile, and 
these are what are mentioned in the Law as "the covers thereof," Vmil^p- 

14. And it had twenty-eight golden reeds, each one of them like the 
half of a hollow reed, fourteen for the one pile and fourteen for the other 
pile, and these are what are called the " bowls thereof," "pjlVp-^- 

15. And the two censers in which they put the incense upon the 
table by the side of the piles are what were called " the spoons thereof," 
Vm^O- -^nd tne m0U1( -ls m which they made the shewbread are what 
were called " the dishes thereof," YTlY^j}" Tne fourteen reeds were 
thus arranged : the first cake was placed upon the table itself, and 
between the first and the second were put three reeds, and also between 
each two cakes three reeds, but between the sixth and fifth, two reeds 

14 Menach. xi, 5. " The table was ten handbreadths long and five broad. 

Rabbi Meyer said the table was twelve handbreadths long and six 

broad." In the first statement the cubit is taken to be a small one of five hand- 
breadths, in the second a medium cubit of six handbreadths. The decision 
appears to have been according to R. Meyer's opinion. 

15 Menach. xi, 6 and 98 a. 

16 The position of the candlestick is discussed at length in Menachoth, 98 b. 
Maimonides is of opinion that it stood across the house, three branches being 
towards the north and three towards the south, and this agrees with the state- 
ment that whilst the lamps which were upon the branches looked towards the 
central lamp, the latter looked towards the Holy of Holies, and hence was called 
the western lamp (vide supra). Rashi (in Menach. 9S b) says the candlestick 
"was always placed north and south, and therefore only one of its lamps looked 
towards the west, and that was the middle one, the mouth of whose wick was 
towards the west, and the rest had their wicks looking towards the middle lamp, 
the three on the northern side looking towards the south, and the three on the 
southern side looking towards the north." Yet a passage in Tamid hi, 9, 
which alludes to the " eastern lamps," gives support to the opinion held by some 
of the Rabbis that the candlestick stood east and west, and that the western 
lamp was the outer lamp on the western side, which position, moreover, is in 
accordance with the rule that the length of the " vessels " was parallel to the 
length of the house. 

J 7 Menach. xi, 6, gives the number of the rods and reeds. The Gcmara (97 a) 
adds '" the dishes thereof,' these were the moulds; 'the spoons thereof,' these 
were the censers ; ' the covers thereof,' these were the rods ; and ' the bowls 
thereof,' these were the reeds ' to cover withal,' because they covered the bread 



48 



BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 



only, because there was no other above the sixth. Thus there were four- 
teen reeds to each pile. 18 

16. And there were two tables within the porch at the door of the 
house. One of marble upon which they placed the shewbread when they 
took it in, and oue of gold upon which they placed the bread when they 
carried it out, because they rose higher and higher with holy things, and 
went not lower and lower. 19 

17. The altar of incense was a cubit square, 20 and it stood in the holy place 
(h^ipy), equidistant from the north and the south sides and drawn from 
between the table and the candlestick towards the outside 21 {i.e., towards 
the door), and the three were placed in the third part of the holy place 
and inward, opposite to the veil which divided between the holy place 
and the most holy. 22 

18. There were twelve spouts to the laver in order that all the priests 
occupied with the continual service might sanctify [i.e., wash] themselves 
at the same time. And they made a machine for it in which there might 
constantly be water. And it was profane [not hallowed] in order that 
the water that was in it might not become unlawful by remaining all 
night, because the laver was one of the sacred vessels and sanctified 
(i-lmtever was placed in it, and everything that became sanctified in a 
sacred vessel if it remained all night became unlawful. 23 



with them." 
of the table : 



The following are the names given to these several appurtenances 



Hebrew. 


A.V. 


Talmud. 


Signification 

of Talmud 

word. 


LXX. 


Vulgate. 


n-iyp 
rwp 


dish 
spoon 
cover 

bowl 


Tn { 
nap 


mould 

censer 
acerra 

furcula 
reed 


TpvfiklOV 
V &Vl(rKT) 
(TTTOvhlOV 

Kvados 


acetabulum 

phiala 

thuribulum 

cyathus 



ls Menachoth ( J8 a, where it is said that the lower cakes were placed, 
in?VJ' ?SJ> YVtiP b}fO, upon the middle of the table, or perhaps upon the clean 
surface of the table, the bare table (Lev. xxiv, 6). 

19 Menachoth Ni, 7. 

-° Exodus xxx, 2. 

21 Joma 33 b. " The table was on the north, drawn two cubits and a halfTrom 
the wall, and tlic candles! Lck on the south, drawn two cubits and a half from the 
wall. The altar was Let ween and stood in the middle drawn towards the 
outside," which Etashi explains to mean towards the east, where was the door of 
the temple. 

- Of. Tosefta Yoma, 2. 

i una iii, x, 37 a. "Ben Katin made twelve spouts to the laver, there 



BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 40 

having been only two before. And also lie made a machine for the laver in order 
that its water might not become unlawful by remaining all night." Ben Katin 
was a high priest. The Gemara explains the reasons why twelve spouts were 
required ; also that the " machine " was a wheel by means of which the laver [? ] 
was "immersed" in the cistern (cf. Rashi). The structure and use of this famous 
machine are not clearly understood. That by its means the laver itself could 
have been immersed in a HIpD gathering of waters or spring [Maim., Biath 
Hammikdash v, 14] and raised again by one unassisted priest [Tamid i, 4] will 
appear impossible, if we remember how large aud heavy the laver must have' 
been for twelve priests to wash at it at one time. Maimonides in his comment 
on the Mishna hazards the suggestion that the machine was a vessel surrounding 
the laver, and that the water remained constantly in it, and was removed into 
the laver as required. Not improbably it was a bucket attached to a rope or 
chain running over a wheel by means of which the water was raised, and which 
was let down into the "cistern or spring" at night, its water being thus 
"joined with the water of the cistern" (Rashi, Bartinora, Tosefoth Yom Tov). 
That it was a clumsy instrument appears from the fact that the noise it made 
could be heard at Jericho ! [Tamid hi, 8.] The chief interest which attaches 
to this curious question arises from the circumstance that all the Rabbinical 
commentators appear to assume that there was a cistern, pool, or fountain under 
the laver, a point not to be forgotten in any attempt to determine the site of 
the Sanctuary. 

It may be mentioned here that the Talmud teaches that there was a canal 
which brought water to the Sanctuary from the fountain of Etam (Jerus. Yoma 
perek iii, fol. 41, a 1 ; Maim., Biath Hammikdash v, 15). This water went in 
the second temple to the bathroom of the high priest on the Day of Atonement, 
which was over the water-gate [Yoma 31 a] ; in the first Temple it supplied the 
molten sea. Qtyy pjj, the fountain of Etam, is said to have been twenty-three 
cubits higher than the floor of the court, and hence it is inferred that the water 
might easily be forced to the top of the gate which was only twenty cubits high, 
[Yoma, loo. dt.~\ Rashi thinks Etam may have been the same as Nephtoah 
[Joshua xvi, 9.] The Talmudic doctors held a curious theory respecting the 
water of Etam, which may be best given in the words of Rashi, " The slopes of 
Babylon returned the waters which were poured upon them to the fountain of 
Etam, which was a high place in the land of Israel, and this fountain brought 
water to the bathroom of the high priest on the Day of Atonement, which was 
situated on the wall of the court over the water-gate. As is said in the order 
for the Day of Atonement (Yoma 31 a), 'the fountain of Etam was twenty- three 
cubits higher than the floor of the court.' And how did they return? There 
are by the Euphrates canals and stairs, niEOIDl nUl^D, below the surface (of 
the sea), and by the way of these stairs [probably there is here an error, mo'PID 
being put for ni3l7 1, Dj the waters returned to the land of Israel. And they 
returned and welled up in the fountains. And the fishes returned by way of 
those stairs, which were easier for their ascent than the way of the Euphrates 
itself" (Shabbath 143 b). The curious may follow this subject in the Gamara, 
Tosefoth and gloss of Rashi in Bechoroth 44 b and 55 a. " R. Judah said that 
Rab said all the rivers in the world are lower than the three rivers (Hiddekel, 
Bison, and Gihon), and the three rivers are lower than the Euphrates." 



50 BETH ITABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 



CHAPTER IV. 

1. There was in the Holy of Holies, on its western side, a stone upon 
which the ark was placed 1 and in it the pot of manna and Aaron's rod. 

1 Yoma v, 2. "After the ark was removed there was a stone there" (in the 
Holy of Holies) ,: from the days of the first prophets and it was called Sheteyah, 
'foundation.'' Its height from the earth was three fingerbreadths." The 
Gamara adds, "it is taught that from it the world was founded, which is as 
much a* to say from Zion the world was created. According to the Bareitha, 
R. Eleazer said the world was created from its middle, as is said "When the 
dust groweth into hardness, and the clods cleave fast together " (Job xxxviii, 38). 
It. Joshua said the world was created from the sides, as is said, " for he saith to 
the snow, be thou on the earth ; likewise to the small rain, and to the great rain 
of his strength " (Job xxxvii, 6). R. Isaak (Niphka) said the Holy One, blessed 
be He, threw a stone into the sea, and from it was the world created, as it is said 
" whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened, or who laid the corner stone 
thereof?" (Job xxxviii, fi), and the wise men said it was created from Zion, as 
it is said, " A psalm of Asaph. The Mighty God, even the Lord," and says 
"from Zion the perfection of beauty" (Psalm 1, 1) ; from it was perfected the 
beauty of the world. The Bareitha teaches that B. Eleazer the great said 
"these are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were 
created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens" 
(Gen. ii, 4). The generations of the heavens were created from the heavens; 
the generat'ons of the earth were created from the earth. And the wise men 
said both the one and the other were created from Zion, as it is said "A psalm 
of Asaph. The mighty God, even the Lord hath spoken, and called the earth 
from the rising of the sun unto the going down thereof," and it says " out of 
Zion, the perfection of beauty, God hath shined," from it was perfected the 
beauty of the world (Yoma 54 b). Such were the Rabbinical opinions 
respecting this famous stone, which, according to Eabbi Schwarz (das heilige 
Laud 216-7), is identical witli the Sakhrah or sacred rock at present venerated by 
Mahommedans under the Dome of the Rock. 

In the Toldoth Jesu the Aven Hashsheteyah, "stone of foundation," is 
affirmed to lie tin- stone which the patriarch Jacob anointed with oil. Upon it 
was Baid to be written the letters of the the nomen tetragrammaton, the ineffable 
name of God, and lest anyone should learn the letters of this name and become 
possessed of the wondrous powers which that knowledge conferred, two dogs 
were placed near the Sanctuary, which, if anyone had succeeded in learning the 
letters, barked so fiercely at him as he was passing out as to cause him imme- 
diately lo Eorgel them. It is said that Jesus having entered, learned the letters, 
wrote them upon parchment, and placed the parchment in an incision which lie 
male in his thigh, the skin closing over it on the name being pronounced, and 
having escaped the canine guardians of the place, thus became possessed of the 
supernatural powers which be afterwards manifested (Buxtorf Lex. Talmud, 
25 1 1 ). fn Wagenseil's edition of the Toldoth Jesu the stone is said to have been 

found by King David when digging the foundation of the temple (cf. Mai ill 

11 a) "over the mouth of the abyss," and that he brought it up and placed it 



BETH HABBECHEEEH, OK THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 51 

And when Solomon built the house, knowing that its end was to !»• 
destroyed, he built in it a place in which to hide the ark underneath in 
secret places, deep and tortuous. And Josiah the king commanded them 
t< i hide the ark in the place which Solomon built, as it is said " and he said 
unto the Levites that taught all Israel, which were holy unto the Lord, put 
the holy ark in the house which Solomon the son of David, king of Israel, 
did build ; it shall not be a burden upon your shoulders ; serve now the 
Lord your God," &c. (2 Chron. xxxv, 3). And there were hidden with it 
the rod of Aaron, and the pot of manna, and the anointing oil, and all 
these were not restored in the second house. 2 And also the Urim and 
Thummim, which were in the second house, did not respond by the Holy 
Spirit, nor did they enquire of them, as it is said, "till there stood uj> a 
priest with Urim and with Thummim " (Ezra ii, 63), and they only made 
them in order to complete the eight garments of the High Priest, in order 
that he might not be Q*H;q "^DTlEs wanting in the proper number of 
garments. 3 

in the Holy of Holies. The Targum of Jonathan represents the Name as being- 
engraved on the stone of foundation with which " the Lord of the world 
covered the mouth of the great abyss " (Exod. xxxviii, 30). When Jonah was 
in the belly of the fish lie was carried under the Temple of the Lord, and saw 
the stone of foundation fixed to the abysses, niEliinS PJHP (Tanchuma 
53,5 1). 

There is a tradition that the prophet Jeremiah took this stone with him to 
Ireland, that it was subsequently conveyed to Scotland by an Irish prince, and 
eventually removed by King Edward III to Westminster Abbey, since which 
time all the kings and queens of England down to Victoria have been crowned 
upon it. 

Nearly all modem Rabbis appear to hold the opinion of R. Schwarz 
respecting this stone of foundation. It seems strange that it should have been 
confounded with Zoheleth, yet in the Jewish manual arba' taauoth (tisha b'av) 
this identity is suggested. 

By the first prophets, Samuel, David, and Solomon are here intended (Raslii, 
Sotah 58 b). 

- In Yoma 52 b, Keritoth 5 b, Horioth 12 a, it is said "with the ark there 
were hidden the pot of manna, the vessel of anointing oil, the rod of Aaron, its 
almonds and blossoms, and the coffer which the Philistines sent as a gift to the 
Grod of Israel" (1 Sam. vi, 8). For the place in which the ark was hidden, see 
2 Chronicles xxxv, 3 ; Shekalim Yirushalmi, ch. vi, page 10, and Rashi on 
Keritoth, 5 b. All the Rabbinical writers held that there were chambers or 
hollow spaces under the whole Sanctuary, and it is doubtless some of the?e to 
which Maimonides here refers. The exact position of the hiding-place of the 
ark was supposed to be near the chamber of wood in the court of the women 
(Skekalim vi, 2). 

3 In Yoma, 21 b, it is said "in five things the second house differed from the 
first house, viz., there was in it neither ark, nor atonement, nor cherubim of 
fire, nor the Shekinah, nor Holy Spirit, nor Urim and Thummim." Raslii held 
that the ark, the atonement and the cherubim were one. The opinion that there 
were Urim and Thummim in the second house, in order that the number of the 

E 2 



52 BETH ILYBBECIIEREII, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

•1. In the first house there was a wall, a cubit thick, dividing between 
the holy place and the most holy, 4 and when they built the second house 
they doubted whether the thickness of the wall was taken from the 
measure of the holy place, or from the measure of the most holy, and 
therefore they made the length, VH^> °f ^ ie most holy place, exactly 
twenty cubits, and the holy place, exactly forty cubits, and they put an 
additional cubit between the holy place, and the most holy. 5 And they 
did not build a wall in the second house, but made two vails, one on the 
side of the most holy place, and one on the side of the holy place, and 
betweeen them was a cubit corresponding to the thickness of the Avail 
which was there in the first house. But in the first Sanctuary there was 
one" vail, as is said, " and the vail shall divide unto you," &c. (Exodus 
xx vi, 33). 

3. The temple 7 which the children of the captivity built, was a hundred 
cubits by a height of a hundred. And thus was the measure of its height. 
They built to a height of six cubits closed and solid, like a kind of founda- 
tion to it, s and the height of the wall of the house forty cubits, and the 
height of the ornamented beam, "^yV}, kioor or ceiling, which was by the 
roof, a cubit, and above it a height of two cubits vacant, in which the 

garments of the high priest might not be incomplete, but that they did not 
enquire of them, is derived from the Tosefoth Yoma, 21 b. Eabbi Abraham 
hen David questions whether Urim and Thiimmim could be numbered with the 
garments [note on Beth Habbeeh], nor does Mahnonides himself in his 
enumeration [in Kle Hammikdash viii, 2] of the high priest's garments mention 
the Urim and Thummim. 

4 Yoma 51 b, and the comment of Eashi ; cf. Baba Battira, 3 a. 

' Jems. Celaim, oh. viii. 

fl Yoma v, 1 ; cf. Gamara and Tosefoth 51 b. 

" PD'H. The whole of this section is from Middoth iv, 6. 

s Maimonides elsewhere ["Commentary on the Mishnas," Midd. in lor.'] says 
lli.it this foundation was built yp~lpn ^132, in the body of the earth, and that 
the walls were placed upon it. The " Tafaereth Isi-ael " ("Mishmaoth Rabbi, 
Lipsitz. Warsaw," L864) lias this passage, " it was the foundation, and was six 
cubits high, because the mountain rose and fell, and the temple and the porch 
were built upon the top of the mountain upon the level ground, and the walls 
stood near the place where the mountain began to descend, and thus in order to 
give to the house a firm foundation, DIO' 1 v3?, without tottering, they built a 
foundation of hewn stones around the above mentioned level ground six cubits 
high; and inasmuch as that foundation was joined [DIOX, closed] on the inner 
Bide with the ground, so that the inside of the porch and temple was not seen at 
all, it «as called Cu\x, closed,'" and this in accordance with the remark of Rabbi 
Shemaiah, that "the threshold of the bouse was raised six cubits above the 
ground by closed masonry, solid wall, and il is necessary to saj that there were 

Bteps al the porch by which they went up to the threshold, and for those going 
down from the temple to descend from the threshold. ' [Middoth, loc. cit j 
Had these sii cubits been " in the body of the earth," they could net have been 
reckoned to the height of the building. 



BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 53 

dropping might be collected, and this is what was called NE , "1 P\*1- 
domus stillicidii, place of dropping. And the thickness of the rafters 
above the place of dropping a cubit, and the plaster a cubit. 9 And an 
upper chamber was built above it, the wall of which was forty cubits 
high, and by its roof a cubit, the height of the ornamented beam, and 
two cubits the height of the place of dropping, and a cubit the rafter-, 
and a cubit the plaster, and the height of the battlement three cubits ; and 
a plate of iron like a sword, a cubit high, was above the battlement, all 
round in order that the birds should not rest upon it, and this is whal 
was called the scarecrow. Thus the whole was a hundred cubits. 

4. From the west to the east was a hundred cubits, and this was their 
arrangement : four walls, cue in front of the other, and between them 
three vacant places ; between the western wall, and the wall in front of it 
live cubits, and between the second and third wall six cubits, and between 
the third and fourth wall six cubits ; and these were the measurements of 
the thickness of the wall with the vacant place, which was between two 
walls. And the length of the Holy of Holies twenty cubits, and between 
the two veils, which divided between it and the holy place, a cubit, and 
the length of the holy place, forty cubits, and the thickness of the eastern 
wall in which was the gate six cubits, and the porch eleven cubits, and 

9 " Kioor is engraved work (2 Chron. ii, 13 ; Zach. hi, 9), and the engraved 
ornaments which architects make in lime or stone, and sometimes it is said 
Kioor v'tzioor, i.e., engraved and painted. pn-| dropping, is the dripping of 
water from the roof, and it was the custom to make for buildings two roofs, one 
above the other, and to leave a small place between the two, and to call this 
hollow space HS/Hn JV2, domus stillicidii, from the word *p~J, to drop, so 
that if the upper roof should drip, the water would remain in that space" 
[Maun. Comment on Mishnas, Midd. iv, 6]. " Kioor, the lower rafter of the 
roof .... and because it was covered with gold and painted with beautiful 
pictures it was called Kioor .... the upper rafters, winch re.-ted upon 
the lower rafter, was two cubits thick, and these were called i"IS?T JV— . domus 
stillicidii " [Bartenora on Midd., in loc.~] A modern gloss on this passage of 
the Beth Habbech says " it is a custom in Turkey in building princes' houses to 
make a roof of planks painted with beautiful pictures. It is called tavan, and 
above it the principal roof which is exposed to the sky, and a space between the 
tavan and that principal roof, and if at any time the principal roof should leak. 
the dropping would descend in that space upon the top of the tavan, and on this 
account it was called domus stillicidii." 

The structure of the present roof of the outer corridor of the Dome of the 
Rock at Jerusalem may illustrate that of the ancient Temple. 

"The i"^?^ (or plaster) was the lime and stones which were placed upon the 
roof" [Maim, on Midd., in loc.~] Sometimes reeds and bushes were placed over 
the rafters, and the cement laid on above. [Baba Metyia (as quoted by Aruch) 
117 a ; cf. ib. 116 b, in Mishma, and note of Rashi ; also Baba Batliri 20 b m 
Mishna.] It was the custom to roll this plaster with a cylindrical stone called 
mac/Hah, n?^JJ7D [Macoth ii, 1]. Such roofs are common in Palestine al the 
present day. 



54 BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

the thickness of the wall of the porch five cubits, altogether a hundred 
(•whits. 10 

5. From north to south a hundred cubits. The thickness of the wall 
of the porch five cubits, and from the wall of the porch to the wall of the 
holy place ten cubits, and the walls of the holy place six walls, one in 
front of the other, and between them five vacant places. Between the 
outer wall and the second five cubits, and between the second and third 
three cubits, and five between the third and fourth, and between the fourth 
and fifth, six, and between the fifth and the inner wall six, in all forty 
cubits on this side, and forty cubits on the side which was opposite to it, 
and the breadth of the house within, twenty cubits. Lo, there were a 
hundred cubits. 11 

6. The pishpacsh, I^Q^^S, is a little door. There were two little 
doors to the temple by the sides of the great gate, which was in the middle, 
<.ne on the north, and one on the south. By that on the south no man 
ever entered, and in reference to this it was explained by Ezekial (xliv, 2) 
'•this gate shall be shut, it shall not be opened." But by that on the 
north they entered, and going between the two walls until he reached the 
place where was the opening into the holy place on his left, he went into 

t he interior of the temple ~>^r"h aU( l proceeded as far as the great gate 
and opened it. 12 

7. The breadth of the great gate was ten cubits, and its height twenty 
cubits. And it had four doors, two within and two without, the outer 
• ■lies opened into the doorway to cover the thickness of the wall, and the 
inner ones opened into the house, to cover the space behind the doors. 13 

8. The doorway of the porch was forty cub'ts high, and twenty broad, 
and there were no gates to it. 14 And there were five carved oaken beams 
over the doorway above. The lower one extended beyond the doorway, 
;i cubit on each side, and each one of the five extended beyond that below 
it, a cubit on each side, so that the upper one measured thirty cubits, and 

here was a row of stones between every two beams. n 

10 These measurements are essentially the same as those given in Middoth iv, 
7, but by reckoning the thickness of the walls west of the Holy of Holies as 
spaces, and eu.ch face of a wall as a distinct wall, obscurity has been occasioned. 

11 Middoth iv, 7. See the last note. The account in Middoth gives only the 
breadth of the house behind the porch. According to Maimonidea the room 
tin- the slaughtering instruments measured ten cubits by eleven, internal 

jurement. 

'-' Middoth iv, 2 ; Tamid iii, 7. In the Mishna it is said that the priest, after 
opening the little door, entered the chamber and thence passed into the temple. 
Maimonidea doe* net agree with Rabbi Judah's opinion that the priest went in 
the thickness of the wall until he found himself standing between the two gates. 

u Middoth iv, 1. 

" Tosefoth Avodah Zarah 53 a. "The porch was open along its whole 
e letern side." 

'■' .Middoth iii, 7. 



BETH HABBECHEBEH, OK THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 55 

9. The temple ™rj^n> was built broad in front and narrow behind, like 
a lion. 16 And there were chambers surrounding the whole house round 
about, besides the wall of the gallery. The lower chamber was five cubits 
broad, and the roofing, "Q"n, above it six, and the middle chamber six, and 
the roofing above it seven, and the uppermost seven, as is said "the 
nethermost chamber" &c. (1 Kings vi, 6), and thus the three chambers 
surrounded the house on its three sides. 17 And also around the walls of 
the porch from below upwards there were thus : a space, p^J~f> °* one cubit, 
and a standing place, "72,1% three cubits, and a space of one cubit, and a 
standing place three cubits to the upper part. And the standing places, 
Q"Q"n, surrounded the walls, the breadth of each standing place was three 
cubits upwards, and between each two standing places a cubit, and the 
upper standing place was four cubits broad. 18 

16 Middoth iv, 7. 

17 Middoth iv, 3, 4. T21"l is a floor or pavement, and the word is used here 
because the roof of one chamber formed the flooring of the chamber above. 

18 Middoth iii, 6. The following is Lightfoot's rendering of this passage :— 
" Round about the walls of the porch from below upward they were thus : one 
cubit plain, and then a half pace of three cubits, one cubit plain (or an ordinary 
rising of steps) and then another half pace of three cubits, and so up, so that 
the half paces did go about the walls of the porch." 

Also by the Jewish commentators the passage in Middoth which Maimonidefi 
here paraphrases is taken to refer to the steps and standing places which led up 
to the porch. But Maimonides understood it to refer not to the steps, but to a 
kind of ornament of the wall itself consisting of a projection three cubits in 
perpendicular measurement repeated at intervals of a cubit, the uppermost 
projection measuring fotir cubits. In his comments upon the Mishnas (Midd. 
iii, 6) he says "the wall of the porch was built according to this arrangement, 
which was that one cubit in the height of the wall its whole length was plain and 
even like the rest of the walls, afterwards the building or masonry projected 
from the wall like a balcony, mX1X3, three cubits high, afterwards, at a distance 
of one cubit, it projected again, and this is what was called robad, "I21~l, and 
thus the structure of the whole was a cubit, and a robad three cubits," &c. 

If the steps of the porch are referred to there could not have been more than 
three cubits between the lowest step and the foundation of the altar. According 
to some opinions there was only one ; and it seems hardly possible that a 
bullock could have stood and been slaughtered by the priest in so small a space 
[Yoma iii, 8] without inconvenience. In the same narrow space, also, the whole 
company of officiating priests must have stood whilst one of their number 
sounded the mayrefah ; an instrument so large and powerful that people in the 
city could not hear one another speak for the noise it made, and whose " voice " 
could be heard at Jericho! 

The laver, moreover, was between the porch and the altar, and it must have 
been very small if the space between the altar and steps was only three cubits, 
unless, indeed, as has been suggested [" Tafaereth Israel Mishnas, 'H arsaw, 
1864"], it was placed upon the steps themselves. Objections to this latter view 
are, 1, that no mention is made of the priests going up the steps to reach the 
laver, and, 2, that the account of the manner in which the priests performing the 



5G BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

10. All these vacant places, which were between the walls, are what 
were called DNJ1> chambers (Ezekiel xl, 7, 10). The chambers surrounding 
the Sanctuary were five on the north, five on the south, and three on the 
west. And there were three stories, story above story, so that there were 
fifteen chambers on the south, five above five, and five above them, and 
also on the north fifteen. And on the west were eight chambers, three 
above three, and two above them, in one story. Altogether there were 
thirty-eight chambers. 19 

11. There were three openings to each chamber, one to the chamber 
on the right, and one to the chamber on the left, and one to the chamber 
above. And at the north-eastern corner in the chamber, which was in 
the middle story, were five openings, one to the chamber on the right, and one 
to the chamber which was above it, and one to the gallery, and one to the 
chamber in which was the little door, and one to the temple (73T0- 20 

12. And a gallery (or winding staircase), ni^Dfo ascended from the 
north-eastern corner to the north-western corner by which they went 
up to the roofs of the chambers. Going up by the gallery with his face 
to the west, he traversed the whole northern side until he reached the 
west ; having reached the west he turned his face to the south, and passed 
along the whole western side until he reached the south ; having reached 
the south, he turned his face to the east and went along on the south, till 
he reached the door of the upper chamber, for the door of the upper 
chamber opened on the south. 21 

13. And at the door of the upper chamber were two beams of cedar 
wood by which they went up to the roof of the upper chamber. And 
pointed pieces-- divided in the upper chamber between the roof the holy 
place, and the roof of the Holy of Holies. And there were in the upper 
chamber openings'- 3 into the Holy of Holies, by which they let down the 
workmen in boxes that they might not feast their eyes upon the Holy of 
Holies. And once a year, at every Passover, they whitened the temple 

favrn)- 24 im t . ^ 

(To be continued.) 
daily service ascended the steps to the porch (Tamid vi, 1) seems to imply that 
they had not before ascended any of them, D^IJ? vtlH, " they beyan to go up." 

19 Middoth iv, 3. 

- u Middoth iv, 3. Maimonidcs and some more modern commentators regard 
tlie lower chamber as having been below the level of the floor of the holy place, 
and bounded on the outer side by the foundation. 

21 Middoth iv, 5. It appears that the upper story did not extend farther 
west than the western wall of the Holy of Holies. The roofs of the western, as 
well as those of the northern chambers, were open to the sky. 

-- Middoth iv, i>. DL"DL"D ""EH were wooden projections from the northern 
and southern walls, of the upper story [</. Earfenora on Midd. i, 6, and Talaercth 
Israel to Midd. iv, 5], or as Mahnonides thought from the floor [t'ouiment. on 
Mishnas, Midd. iv, 5]. 

•-■:f pi-,^ = rTl2nX,/i?«e47ra [Barlenora, cf. Oholoth x, 1]. 

- 4 Middoth iii, -1. 



THE "CITY OF DAVID " ONLY A PART OF JERUSALEM. 57 



THE "CITY OF DAVID" ONLY A PART OF JERUSALEM. 

Sir, — Captain Conder has in several places argued against the identifica- 
tion of the modern Ophel with the old " City of David " on account of the 
inadequacy of its area for " a capital like Jerusalem" (Quarterly Statement, 
1884, p. 23), " the capital of Syria in David's time " (Quarterly Statement, 
1884, p. 22), &c, thus making it appear that the terms " City of David " and 
" Jerusalem " refer to the same area, and arc interchangeable. 

He himself, however, supplies the answer to this assumption, when, on 
p. 28, Quarterly Statement, 1884, he tells us that Solomon's palace was on 
Ophel, and " outside the City of David." It is true he says also (p. 28) that 
Ophel was " only afterwards occupied," it being, according top. 22, "in the 
time of Manasseh, when Ophel was included," &c, but this can scarcely be 
reconciled with the former statement, unless we are to understand that 
Solomon's palace was outside the walls of the " capital of Syria." 

The following passages from the Bible, however (some of which I have 
not yet seen cited in this controversy), prove clearly, I think, that the 
Scriptural " City of David " was not the whole, but only part, of the 
" capital of Syria," even in Solomon's time. 

From 2 Samuel vi, 12, we learn that David brought up the Ark of God 
from the house of Obed-Edom into the City of David with gladness. (See 
also 1 Chron. xv, 29.) 

Then after the Temple was built, we find from the almost identical 
language of 1 Kings viii, 1, and 2 Chronicles v, 6, that "Solomon 
assembled the elders of Israel ... to bring up the Ark of the 
Covenant of the Lord, out of the City of David which is Zion." 

It is quite clear, therefore, that the Temple was not in the " City of 
David." 

Again, we learn from 1 Kings iii, 1, that Solomon brought Pharaoh's 
daughter into the City of David temporarily. " until he had made an end of 
building his own house and the house of the Lord," &c. Upon the completion 
of these "she came up out of the City of David into her house that Solomon 
had built for her " (1 Kings ix, 24). This is corroborated by 2 Chronicles 
viii, 11, which gives us also the reason for her sojourn in the "house [city, 
Septuagint] of David, King of Israel," not being permanent. These latter 
show that the " house for Pharaoh's daughter " also was not in the " City 
of David." 

Clearly then the " City of David " was not the whole of Jerusalem. 

The above passages, I venture to think, give greater force to those cited 
by Rev. "W. F. Birch, on page 80, line 3, 1884, Quarterly Statement, 2 Kings 
xiv, 20, and page 198, "No. (2)," 2 Chronicles xxviii, 27, in the latter of which 
he interprets "in the city of Jerusalem " as meaning " in the City (of David) 
at Jerusalem." This is further borne out by 2 Kings viii, 24, which tells us 
that Joram was buried "in the City of David," while 2 Chronicles xxi, 20, 
informs us that "they buried him in the City of David, but not in the 
sepulchres of the kings ;" and the same is said of Joash, in 2 Chronicles xxiv, 



58 VERIFICATION OF REFERENCES. 

25. Are we to understand that there were three royal cemeteries ? This 
follows from the above passages, if the sepulchres in which David, Solomon, 
and Behoboam were interred, were not on Ophel, where Captain Conder 
allows it to be probable that the Garden of Uzza was situated, in which 
were buried the later kings who are not said to have been laid to rest " in 
the City of David." 

If there were only two royal sepulchres, then we have three passages 
certainly (and perhaps four, if we include the case of Asa, 2 Chron. xvi, 
13, 14), in which it is distinctly stated of monarchs who were not buried 
in the sepulchres of the kings, that they were buried in the City of David. 

How then can there be any room for doubt, that if the later kings were 
buried on Ophel, the former were so too 1 

Yours truly, 

H. B. S. W. 

B.S. — Begarding C. B. C's objection to the force of the extract from the 
Tosiphta ( ; 84, p. 197), may I point out that its bearing on this subject is 
not weakened by the supposition that Babbi Akiba was " constructing a 
theory merely 1 " Supposing this were the case, he would surely not have 
" invented " a passage, whose length would have made it clearly impossible 
of belief if the City of David lie knew had been where C. B. C. wishes to 
place it ! 

His mention in this connection, of the Brook Kidron, shows sufficiently 
that the Boyal Tomb of which he was speaking (and consequently the City 
of David, which enclosed it) was in close proximity to the Kidron, so that 
a passage from the tomb to the brook was neither incredible nor unlikely. 



VERIFICATION OF REFERENCES. 

City of David, Quarterly Statement, p. 173, 1884.— Where has Canon 
Birch written anything that will entitle us to say that he has been " suppos- 
ing that the City of David stretched across a deep valley 1" 

Dolmen in Bashan, Quarterly Statement, p. 241, 1884— Where is the 
passage to be found in which this is described as " a large example ? " 

I cannot find it so spoken of by Mr. Oliphant, and it is certainly 
desirable that the misleading passage should be pointed out, and the blame 
fur its error rightly attributed. 

H. B. S. W. 
December 10th t 1834. 



QUERIES. 59 

QUERIES. 

The Emek- of the dead bodies, &c, Quarterly Statement, 1883, p. 217. — 
The statement here made that "Jeremiah terms it " (i.e., the valley of the 
Tyropoeon) "the vale (Emek) of the dead bodies and of the ashes," makes 
me desirous of asking whether the use there of the word " Emek " does 
not imply that the " valley of the dead bodies," &c, was one of a different 
character, and, therefore, a different valley, from that of the Tyropoeon, 
respecting which another term, "gai," is used ? 

The Upper Gihon, Quarterly Statement, 1883,. p. 216. — Does the word 
" upper" in the original necessarily apply to Gihon? May it not be used, as 
in the A.V., so as to read " the upper outlet of Gihon," inasmuch as there is, 

1 believe, no direct mention anywhere in the Bible of any Lower Gihon ? 

Valley of Giants, Quarterly Statement, 1883, p. 22-2. — May I venture to 
ask that your readers may be afforded some explanation of the reasons 
which have caused the expression of the view that this valley was north 
of Jerusalem ; and is not the one which extends nearly to Bethlehem as 
Josephus says it was 1 

Uzziah's burial, Quarterly Statement, 1884, p. 242. — What are the 
difficulties "in reconciling the accounts in Kings and Chronicles ?" Does 
not the principal one arise from maintaining that " the City of David was 
another name for Jerusalem generally I " whereas there is no diffipulty at 
all if we regard them as analogous to Henry Yllth's Chapel and West- 
minster Abbey. 

The Siloam Tunnel, Quarterly Statement, 1884, p. 249. — May I ask 
whether the following is a correct translation of the Syriac version of 

2 Chronicles xxxii, 30, and if so whether it may not be considered as 
strongly corroborating the view that the Siloam Tunnel was made by 
Hezekiah 1 I am informed that the Syriac in this verse reads : — 

" And Hezekiah hid the spring (or outgoing) of the waters of the upper 
fountain and sent them into the western tank of the City of David." 

The Lower Gihon, Quarterly Statement, 1884, p. 249. — How can the 
Gihon mentioned in 2 Chronicles xxxiii, 14, be the Pool of Siloam, when the 
Gihon is distinctly said to be " Gihon in the Nachal 1 " I have always 
understood previously that this passage was the principal proof that the 
Virgin's Fountain was to be identified with Gihon, as there is no other 
spring in the Kidron than the Virgin's Fountain ; and no other Nachal in 
the environs of Jerusalem than that of the Kidixm. 

En Rogel and Gihon. — May it be an allowable explanation for the recon- 
cilement of the somewhat conflicting views respecting these two, to suppose 
that " Gihon " of Hezekiah is the Virgins Fountain, while the " Gihon" of 
Solomon's anointing is equivalent to the " En Rogel " of Joshua, and is 
the same as the Pool of Siloam ? Of course this necessarily supposes the 
correctness of the distinction made between an Upper and a Lower 
Gihon — a matter which I have made the subject of a previous query, for 
the sake of obtaining fuller information. 

December 10th, 1884. H. B. S. W. 



60 THE WATERS OF SHILOAH. 



THE WATERS OF SHILOAH. 

In Quarterly Stateme?it,l884, p. 75, 1 put forward the theory that these waters 
flowed along an aqueduct on the east side of Ophel from the Virgin's Foun- 
tain to the mouth of the Tyropceon. I am anxious for my theory to be 
tested (and (?) proved) by excavation. Meanwhile, it will be well to 
dispose of the objections raised against my aqueductin the lant two numbers. 
Captain Conder seems to object — + 

(1) That it has left no known ti'aces of its existence. As the same 
might have been said of the Moabite Stone before 1868, and the Siloam 
Inscription in 1879, the objection has obviously no weight. Only let traces 
be looked for where they may be supposed to exist, and then no doubt they 
will be found. 

(2) That it is so drawn on my plan that it apparently joins on to 
an existing channel, in which water runs the opposite way. This 
objection, I consider, was answered by anticipation in the three queries 
placed in my plan against this part of the aqueduct. 

Whether the aqueduct within the Tyropceon ran on the line marked, or 
on another line, or on no line at all, does not really affect my theory that 
there used to be an aqueduct on the east side of Ophel between the 
Virgin's Fount and Siloam. 

Professor Sayce offers a curious objection. He says, Sir Charles Warren 
failed to find any traces of it in his galleries (or shafts) on Ophel, but he 
does not add (as he rightly might have done) that all these shafts, except 
possibly two, were north of the point whence my supposed aqueduct ran 
southwards, and that the two exceptions were at least 40 feet higher in eleva- 
tion than the level of the supposed aqueduct. Under these circumstances 
it was impossible for Sir C. Warren to discover the aqueduct ; he wrote 
to me, however, in November, 1883, as follows : — " I think it quite possible 
that there was an aqueduct on the east side of Ophel, as you suggest." 

To sum up — 

Professor Sayce, in connecting the waters of Shiloah with the Siloam 
Tunnel, is driven to attribute the latter to Solomon, and not to Hezekiah 
whom ( laptain Conder and others (myself among the number) regard as its 
author. 

Captain Conder, by rejecting both Professor Sayce's tunnel and my 
aqueduct, has the waters of Shiloah left on his hands wit/tout any ivater 
a1 all. For water flowing down the Tyropceon could not be said to go 
softly, and waters flowing in a natural channel down the Kedron could not 
be the waters of Shiloah, as the meaning of this word shows that they ran 
through an aqueduct. 

Here my supposed aqueduct affords a happy way out of the dilemma. 
It is most probable that the mouth of the Tyropceon was turned into well- 
irrigated gardens by means of such an aqueduct, centuries before the 
gigantic undertaking of making the Siloam Tunnel was ever dreamt of. 

October 27th, 1884. W. F. BlRCH. 



ZION, TIIF CITY OF DAVID. 01 



ZION, THE CITY OF DAVID. 

Ox urging a Society that sends its maps over the world not to be afraid, 
but boldly to put the City of David where Nehemiah places it, i.e., south 
of the Temple, I was told in reply, " You have convinced nobody." This 
is an objection that has often, on other occasions, been urged against the 
truth. 

I have not claimed to have convinced any one, but still some have 
been convinced. Professor Robertson Smith says that the Ophel site 
alone " does justice to the language of the Old Testament." Professor 
Sayce says, " Mr. Birch seems to me indubitably right in holding that 
the City of David stood on the so-called hill of Ophel" {Quarterly 
Statement, 1884, p. 80). Sir Charles Warren has for thirteen years 
candidly owned that the Book of Nehemiah places the City of David 
on Ophel. Captain Conder, after five years' unyielding opposition, at 
length admits that " when Ophel came to be inhabited, the name (City 
of David) may be supposed to have included Ophel" {id. 242). 

My theory, then, ought not to be rejected off-hand on the plea that no 
one believes it. Yet what I undertook to do was not to convince my oppo- 
nents, but to confute their arguments. Two widely divergent objections 
are urged against me in the July and October numbers. Captain Conder 
credits me (p. 242) with " confining ancient Jerusalem to the insignificant 
space south of the Temple," while Professor Sayce thinks I endanger my 
views by supposing that the City of David stretched across a deep valley; — 
in other words, the former thinks that I make Jerusalem small, and the 
latter that I make the City of David large. Strange to say, the fact is, I 
make Jerusalem larger and the City of David smaller than does either of 
these writers. Want of due circumspection has caused the one to strike 
on Scylla, and the other to fall into Charybdis. Neither can point to a 
single passage of mine in these pages in support of the theories they thus 
attribute to me. 

Further, (1) in reply to Captain Conder I must remind him that I have 
already pointed out (1884, p. 81) that " the City of David was only part of 
Jerusalem," and that I jMace the former on Ophel, while I make my 
Jerusalem larger than hia(id. 81). Thus, "confining Jerusalem to Ophel" 
is just what I have not done. 

Again, why (2) does Professor Sayce sj)eak of my " supposing the City of 
David stretched across a deep valley?" Where have I supposed it ? So 
far from doing so, I have consistently for six years repudiated any theory 
that does not place Zion, the City of David, solely on Ophel (so-called). 

My Jerusalem theory is as follows : — 

1. The Tyropoeon Valley was part of the valley of Hinnom which ran 
from near the Jaffa Gate through the present city to the Kedron. 

2. Zion, the City of David, was entirely on the southern part of the 
eastern hill, i.e., on Ophel (so-called). 

3. The sepulchres of David were in this same part. 



G2 ZION, THE CITY OF DAVID. 

4. The " gutter " (2 Sam. v, 8) by which Joab gained access to Zion, 
was the secret passage (connected with the Virgin's Fount) discovered by 
Sir C. Warren. 

5. Araunah betrayed Zion to David either hy divulging the secret of 
the " gutter," or by assisting Joab in ascending it. 

1 have defied any one to upset No. 2, but I am willing to extend the 
challenge to the other points. Accordingly, when Professor Sayce conies 
boldly to the attack, I cannot run from my guns, but must ruthlessly mow 
down his objections to my (not Canon Birch's) theory by confuting them. 
I am glad, however, to say that Professor Sayce agrees with me, partially 
on No. 1, and all but entirely on Nos. 2 and .3, but he wholly rejects No. 4, 
and consequently No. 5, though, since he is " qiiite ready to believe what- 
ever Josephus may say provided it is not contradicted by external or 
internal evidence" (p. 172), I anticipate in the end his hearty acceptance of 
my last point. 

Professor Sayce's objections to No. 4 are practically three. 

(1) He urges that 2 Samuel v, 6-8, has to do with the capture of two 
places, and that therefore it was not Zion, the City of David, to which 
Joab gained access. 

(2) That Joab could not have got up the shaft found by Sir C. Warren, 
since in Professor Sayce's opinion it did not then exist, being of later date 
than the Siloam Tunnel. 

(3) That the Hebrew word for " gutter " means a waterfall, and there- 
fore could not be a rock-cut shaft or passage. 

To make the matter in dispute more intelligible, I give in full the 
passages in question : — 

2 Samuel v, 6. " And the king and his men went to Jerusalem unto 
the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land, which spake unto David, saying, 
Except thou take away the blind and the lame, thou shalt not come in 
hither : thinking, David cannot come in hither. 

7. " Nevertheless David took the stronghold of Zion : the same is the 
City of David. 

8. "And David said on that day, Whosoever getteth up to the gutter, 
and sniiteth the Jebusites, and the lame and the blind, that are hated of 
David's soul, //>• shall he chief and captain. Wherefore they said, The 
blind and the lame shall not come into the house." 

1 Chronicles xi, 6, states : "And David said, Whosoever smiteth the 
Jebusites first shall be chief and captain. So Joab the son of Zeruiah 
went first up and was chief." 

To prove his first point, Professor Sayce tries to make a short cut, by 
impressing into Ins service Hebrew grammar. He protests against my 
describing Ins interpretation of two places being taken as a "popular 
error" (perhaps my popular was ill-chosen), and asserts that "the Hebrew 
teuses admit of no other (interpretation) ; we have waw consecuticmu 
in each clause. The narrative sets before us a sequence of events. . . 
David captured the outpost of Zion, and after this — but on the same day — 
be promised rewards to ' whosoever getteth up to the gutter,' &c." 



ZrON, THE CITY OF DAVID. 63 

My contention (p. 72) was that in verse 8 the sense would be made 
clearer by translating- "And David said" by "For David said," &c, since 
tins verse explains how David succeeded in taking Zion, the capture of 
which was mentioned in the previous verse. 

The question is, Must the words translated "And David said" mean 
" And after this (the previously mentioned event) David said," or may they 
not mean " For David said," and, if so, does not this rendering agree better 
with the rest of the passage ? 

A disputed point of grammar must be dealt with by a competent 
Hebrew scholar. I extract the following from a full explanation of 
the question, kindly furnished to me by Professor Theodores : — 

" The verbal form called ' future ' (Hebrew "P]""^ by the older gram- 
marians), is variously named in the modern grammars as imperfect, aorist, 
hens, &c. . . . The letter ^ prefixed to the 'future,' generally provided 
with the vowel Pathach (-) and followed by a dot called ' strong Dagesh ' in 
the initial letter of the verb, has the property of changing the verb from 
the future to the past, whence the Hebrew grammarians named it 'the 
vaw conversive.' Modern grammarians have invented for it different 
names, consecutive, voluntative, relative, &c. The interpretation of the 
prefix *\ varies between and, novo, for, but, still, nevertheless, then, inasmu<'h 
as, namely, consequently, and probably still more particles, either temporal 
or logical. 

" It is not true that "1 before a verb in the future must be interpreted 
to mean 'afterwards' (Suyce, p. 174). Examples are numerous. . . . 
Thus in Genesis xxxvii, 5, w T e read (A.V.), 'And Josephus dreamed a 
dream, and he told it his brethren, and they hated him yet the more.' " 

Here follows verse 6 : " And he said [future with \\ unto them, Hear, I 
pray you, this dream which I have dreamed." Would it not be absurd to 
lender the beginning of verse 6, viz., "IftN'H (wayyomer), " Afterwards he 
said unto them ? " Joseph did not tell his dream in consequence of his 
brothers' hatred ; but his brethren hated Joseph in consequence of his 
communication about dreaming. In point of time, verse 6, commencing 
with " And he said," is anterior to the words "and they hated him yet the 
more" in verse 5. Again, in Exodus xl, 17, we are informed that on the 
first day of the first month in the second year the tabernacle was reared up. 

The next verse, the 18th, reads, "And Moses reared up [future with 1] the 
tabernacle, &c." Can ^ here mean "afterwards ?" What! after the rearing 

up of the tabernacle, Moses reared up the tabernacle ! 

Professor Theodores adds this translation : — (b*) " Then marched the king 
and his men towards Jerusalem against the Jebusite inhabiting the land, 
and he said to David thus, Thou wilt not enter here, except thou set aside 
the blind and the lame, meaning : David shall not enter here ! (7) 
Nevertheless, David conquered the fortification ' Zion,' which is ' the City 
of David. (8) For David proclaimed on that day, He that smites the 



G4 ZION, THE CITY OF DAYID. 

Jebusite, reaching so far as the aqueduct, along with the lame and along 
with the blind, those hated by the sold of David . . . [The Scripture 
is here elliptical, not stating what should be done to him, but the want is 
supplied in 1 Chronicles xi, 6], because the lame and the blind, even they 
say he shall not enter within. (9) Thus David settled in the fort and 
called it the City of David. And David built round about from Millo and 
inward." Professor Theodores further adds : — " In the Hebrew commentary, 
called Biur, on the translation called Mendelssohn's, the following opinions 
are stated : — Verse 7. ' And David conquered.' This ' And ' is adversative 
and means hut, nevertheless. Verse 8. 'And David said.' In the preceding 
verse (7) the text states in a general way that David overpowered the 
stronghold, but now in (8) the particulars are stated how the conquest was 
effected." 

Thus it is amply shown that the grammar does not prove that 
two places were taken in 2 Samuel v ; 1 Chronicles xi. If I may add 
a woi'd of my own, I would say there would be an unaccountable lacuna 
in the sacred narrative if two places had been taken, since no mention 
whatever is made of the second capture. The passages give a complete 
story of one place being taken, stating the fact of its capture, that a 
reward had been offered for its capture, and the name of the successful 
hero. 

The A.V. is right in the heading of 1 Chronicles xi : " He winneth the 
castle of Zion from the Jebusites by Joab's valour," and so far I was 
wrong in describing Professor Sayce's interpretation as a popular error. 
Thus I conclude that it was the fort (of) Zion to which Joab gained access. 

But, secondly, Professor Sayce says (175) : " The careful workmanship of 
these passages, the niches for lamps — a Grreco-Roman invention — the iron 
ring, and the fact that the lower conduit (discovered by Sir C. Warren) led 
into the winding Siloam Tunnel, all go to show that this lower conduit 
was later in age than the Siloam one." 

a. Niches for lamps. — In his account of the Siloam Tunnel (] 881, p. 1 42) 
Professor Sayce mentions a niche opposite the inscription, and admits the 
reasonable suggestion that it was for the lamp of the workman that cut 
the letters. Was the inscription therefore (and the tunnel as well) a 
( iniro-lionian invention? I will not, however, press the point. If 
Professor Sayce will refer to Colonel Warren's account of the passage, he 
will, I think, find no mention whatever of "niches for lamps," but only 
of piles of loose stones (Letters, p. 39 ; Memoirs, Jerusalem, p. 307), an 
invention dating as far back as Jegar — sahadutha. 

b. " 7'/"' iron ring." My initials and H.B. are smoked beyond the 
broad arrow in a low passage in the cave of Adullam, but the antiquity 
of the cave is not consequently reduced. The ring must have been added 
after the passage was made, but how Long after no one knows, and there- 
fore the iron age proves nothing. 

<■. The lower conduit, <&c. — It would, however, be quite as correct (more 
correel I believe) to say "the Siloam Tunnel led into the conduit." Colonel 
Warren's professional opinion (Letter?, p. 40) on discovering the passage, was 



THE ROUTE OF THE EXODUS. 65 

as follows :—" The fact of the newly found aqueduct being nearly in a 
line with the first 50 feet of the old one, gives the idea that this may 
originally have been the means of providing Ophel with water, and that 
the remainder of the duct to the present Pool of Siloam may have been 
an afterthought." 

He also holds to the same opinion in " Underground Jerusalem ,: 
(p. 333). Thus Professor Sayce's second objection fails. 

His third objection I propose, if time permit, to answer fully when I 
have exposed in detail the fallacies of the arguments urged for placing 
the City of David in any other position than on Ophel (so-called). It 
will suffice now to say that the evidence proving that the gutter was an 
aqueduct, and that Araunah betrayed Zion, is given in Quarterly Statement, 
1878, p. 184; 1879, p. 104. 

W. F.. Birch. 



THE ROUTE OP THE EXODUS. 



Permit me to reply to the views of Mr. Baker Greene, as given in the 
October number of the Quarterly Statement of the Palestine Exploration 
Fund, and which have been made the subject of a leading article in the 
Morning Post of the 22nd October, regarding the identity of Mount Hor 
with Mount SinaL I regret not having seen Mr. Greene's book, but as 
his views are very fully set forth in the Quarterly Statement I will deal 
with a few points on which he lays stress in that publication ; and I hope 
to be able to show, by the aid of a few crucial tests, that his views are 
altogether untenable. 

I may be allowed to point out that this is pre-eminently a question 
which requires some personal knowledge of the countries referred to ; and 
it does not appear from Mr. Baker Greene's statement that, like the 
venerable Dr. Beke, he has made a pilgrimage to the East in order 
to verify his views by personal observation. On the other hand, I 
may remind the reader that the identification of Mount Sinai (Jebel 
Musa) in the peninsula of Arabia Petrsea with the "Mount of the Law" 
has been maintained by eminent men who have personally examined the 
district, such as Dr. Robinson, Burkhardt, the late Professor Palrner, and 
Col. Sir Charles W. Wilson, formerly of the Ordnance Survey of Sinai. 
After this consensus of opinion it might have been supposed that nothing 
more was to be said. 

Mr. Baker Greene asserts that after the passage of the Red Sea 
the Israelites followed the old caravan road across the Tlh tableland 
to Akabah, which he identifies with Elim, where there were " twelve 
wells and threescore and ten palm-trees" (Exod. xv, 27). As Elim 
merely means "a grove of palms," the name might doubtless have 

F 



66 THE ROUTE OF THE EXODUS. 

been applied to Akabah, or to several other spots where groves of 
palms happened to grow ; so that little value can be attached to this 
point of identification. 

But taking the sacred narrative as it stands, let us see how it fits in 
with Mr. Greene's views. The Israelites are stated to have gone three 
days in the wilderness, and to have found no water (verse 22). Mr. Greene 
then draws the probable inference that on the fourth day they found 
water, and he identifies the spot where the water was found with Kala'at 
Nakhl, which is situated about half-way between Suez and Akabah on 
the caravan road, and is considered a fourth day's stage for caravans. 
Of this place Professor Palmer says : — " The country is nearly waterless, 
except a few springs, situated in the larger wadies ; but even here water 
can only be obtained by scraping small holes in the ground and baling it 
out with the hand. All that is obtained by the process is a yellowish 
.solution, which baffles all attempts at filtering" (" Desert of the Exodus," 
p. 287). Such was the water with which, according to Mr. Baker 
Greene's views, the thousands of Israel, with their flocks and herds, 
were fain to slake their thirst after a march of three days under a 
broiling sun, and over one of the most desolate and forbidding tracts 
in that part of the world ! 

But, even supposing the water to have been at that period more 
plentifid, another question remains to be answered : Has Mr. Baker 
Greene ascertained the distance from Suez to Nakhl, which was reached, 
as he supposes, on the fourth day ? If he will measure the distance on a 
good map he will find that it is about seventy English miles in a straight 
line, and in addition the march involves the ascent of the ridge of Jebel 
er Rah ah of about 2,000 feet. To suppose that the Israelitish host, 
consisting of men, women, and children, together with their flocks and 
herds, could have marched seventy miles and crossed a ridge of 2,000 feet 
in three days is a demand on our credulity which he can scarcely hope to 
be granted. That it can be done on camels or horses is doubtless true ; 
but to accomplish the journey on foot would tax the powers of a skilled 
pedestrian, and would be impossible for women and children. 

Having disposed of this point, which lies at the threshold of Mr. Baker 
Greene's argument, I will take up another. It is stated that the Israelites 
on reaching Elim found twelve wells, and that they "encamped there by 
the waters," evidently referring to the waters of the wells ; but surely, if 
Elim means Akabah, as Mr. Greene supposes, we might have expected to 
find some reference to the waters of the Red Sea (or Gulf of Akabah) as 
being in the vicinity of the camping ground. 

But another objection to Mr. Greene's views meets us at the 
commencement of Exodus xvi, where it is stated that on leaving Elim 
the Israelites "took their journey and came unto the wilderness of 
Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai." In his statement Mr. Greene 
seems t<> make a confusion between the "wilderness of Sin" and the 
"wilderness of Zin," which latter lay along the Arabah, and probal.ls 
included Elim ar ' Mcabah, The wilderness of Sin, according to the besi 



THE ROUTE OF THE EXODUS. 67 

authorities, lay to the west of the Sinaitic peninsula. In any case the 
two names refer to two different districts. That spelt with samech 
being referred to in Exodus xvi and xvii ; that spelt with tsade in 
Deuteronomy xxxii, 57; Numbers xiii, 21 ; xxvii, 14; and Joshua xv, 3, 
these being connected with Kadesh-Barnea. 1 

In reference to the statement of St. Paul, it is not difficult to 
understand why he places Mount Sinai in "Arabia." The term was 
doubtless used by the Apostle in a general sense to include the vast 
region of desert-land lying to the south and east of Judaea. Mr. Greene 
himself sees the difficulty of accounting for the fact that Mount Hor 
should be associated with the lesser event of the death of Aaron 
rather than with those stupendous manifestations of Divine power which 
were connected with the giving of the Law. 

Again, if Elim be Akabah, how can this be reconciled with the state- 
ment of Numbers xxxiii, 10, that the Israelites "removed from Elim and 
encamped by the Red Sea," inasmuch as Akabah is actually by the Red 
Sea ? Other difficulties might be cited, but the above are probably 
sufficient to show that Mr. Baker Greene's identification cannot be 
admitted. 

Nor can I admit that Kadesh-Barnea is Petra. From personal 
experience of the difficulties of the mountain pass leading from the 
Arabah Valley to Petra, I may safely affirm that it would have been 
impracticable for the Children of Israel when on their way to the 
Promised Land. 

Edward Hull. 
Dublin, November 18, 1884. 



II. 

Professor Hull having been good enough to place at my disposal a 
proof-sheet of his objections to my view of the Exodus, I gladly avail 
myself of the opportunity of replying to them forthwith. Negatively it 
is a source of satisfaction to me that, with this exception, no one of the 
many members of the Palestine Exploration Fund has challenged the 
soundness of my arguments. 

I must confess, however, that I find considerable difficulty in knowing 
how to deal with Professor Hull's criticisms. I have no right to complain 
that he has not read my book before entering the lists, but not having done 
so, I think I may justly complain that he should have assumed that I did 
not take the trouble of studying with ordinary attention the subject 
of which I treated. He tells me how to ascertain the distance from 
Suez to Nakhl ; quotes Professor Palmer as to the waterless character 
of the country around the last-named jdace f he attributes to me "a 

1 The Rev. Dr. Stubbs, of Trinity College, Dublin, has kindly verified the 
originals for me. 

2 Kalaat el Nakhl, with its fort and wells, has been frequently mentioned 
and described by travellers for centuries past. See Thevenot's account, quoted 

F 2 



68 THE ROUTE OF THE EXODUS. 

confusion " between the wildernesses of Sin and Zin ; he gravely informs 
the readers of the Quarterly Statement that the initial letters of these 
words are different, and with equal gravity adds in a footnote that my 
respected friend Dr. Stubbs has verified the fact by reference to those 
passages in the Hebrew version where the names occur. He somewhat 
authoritatively asserts that personal observation of the country is pre- 
eminently required for the settlement of the points in issue, and, with 
what most persons will be inclined to think singular infelicity, refers 
to the late Dr. Beke's pilgrimage in search of the true Mount Sinai. 
Finally, he refers to the authority of a number of persons as to the 
identity of Jebel Musa with Mount Sinai, 1 and airily adds that after 
this consensus of opinion it might have been supposed that nothing 
more remained to be said. To measure small things by great, I may 
remind the Professor that there was a still greater consensus of opinion 
against Galileo when he maintained that the earth moved, and against 
the first geologists who ventured to deny that the creation of the world 
was effected in six solar days. 

And now to deal with Professor Hull's objections in detail : — 
He says that little value can be attached to the identification of Elim 
with Akabah because of the presence of palm-trees at the last-named 
place. I would go farther, and say no value whatever could be attached 
to such a ground of identification taken per se. But if he will turn to my 
contribution to the last Quarterly Statement he will find that I wrote, " I 
cannot give here in detail the many reasons, Scriptural, philological, 
historical, and geographical, for my identification of the Elim of Exodus 
xv, 27, with the Elath of Deut. ii, 8, and 1 Kings ix, 26," and the modern 

by Bitter, Erdkunde, 14. He crossed the desert from Suez to Akabah in 
1658, the journey occupying six days, of which sixty-seven hours were spent in 
travelling, which closely corresponds with the estimated time in the "Tabula 
Peutingeriana" (sixty-eight hours). See also Dr. Shaw, " Travels in Barbary 
and the Levant," 1721, p. 477 ; Dr. Pococke, Bishop of Meath, " Description of 
the East," 1743, i, 265. Nakhl is the half-way house on what Captain Burton 
describes as the oldest route in the world, and it has never been surveyed. 

1 It is not of much consequence, but as a matter of fact Burckhardt identi- 
fied . rebel Serbal, a mountain thirty miles to the westward of Jebel Musa, with 
Sinai, an opinion shared by Lepsius and others. Captain Burton thus pithily 
sums up the respective claims of the various mountains in the peninsula to be 
"the true Sinai : " — "It is evident that Jebel Serbal dates only from the early 
days of Coptic Christianity; that Jebel Musa, its Greek rival, rose after the visions 
of Helena in the fourth century ; whilst the building of theconvent by Justinian 
belongs to a.d. 527. Baa Sufsaveh, its rival to the north, is an affair of yester- 
day, and may be called the invention of Robinson ; and Jebel Katcrina, to the 
south, i^ the property of Buppell." ("Midian Revisited," i, 237.) I have the 
best reason for knowing that 1'rofessor I'almer had accepted my views of the 
Route of the Exodus before lie left England in 18N2, and that he woidd 
probably have taken the first opportunity of avowing his change of opinion had 
he returned. 



THE ROUTE OF THE EXODUS. GO 

Akabah. I cannot be expected to summarise the contents of an octavo 
volume of nearly five hundred pages. 

Professor Hull urges the impossibility of the thousands of Israel, with 
their flocks and herds, finding a supply of water at Nakhl, and the im- 
probability of their making the journey from Suez to that place in three or 
four days. Unfortunately for his inference he proves too much. There 
is no place in the desert of the Tih, where they are said to have wandered 
for forty years, where water could have been obtained for such a multi- 
tude. It is generally supposed that the released captives, including old 
men, women, and children, numbered between two and three millions. 
If such was the case, and they had formed a column ten abreast, 
allowing only a yard depth for each rank, the caravan, exclusive of 
flocks and herds, would have reached from Suez to Akabah. I believe 
that the released captives were not in such excessive numbers as to 
preclude the possibility of their doing what is annually done by the 
Egyptian Haj, namely, crossing the desert to Akabah in about a week's 
time. Professor Hull says that from his personal experience of the 
difficulties of the mountain pass leading from the Arabah to Petra, he 
can safely affirm it would have been impracticable for the Children of 
Israel on their way to the Promised Land. This objection, like the 
preceding one, rests, I presume, on their supposed numbers. But let us 
glance at certain admitted historical facts. At some period of their 
journeyings the Israelites were beyond all question in the middle portion 
of the Wady Arabah. They desired to pass through Edom, which 
throughout is a very mountainous region, in order to reach Moab and 
the Trans-Jordanic country to the north. The Edomites refused per- 
mission, and " came out against Israel with much people and a strong 
hand " (Numb, xx, 20, 21), " wherefore Israel turned away from him." 
But where did Israel turn ? It is conceded on all hands that on 
quitting Mount Hor, the Israelites descended the Arabah " by the way 
of the Bed Sea," by which is here meant beyond all dispute the Gulf 
of Akabah (Deut. ii), and, passing Ezion Gaber and Elath, " compassed 
Mount Seir," that is, Edom, and following the east " coast " of that 
country pursued a northerly direction to Moab. About this portion 
of the route followed by the Israelites there never has been any 
question. But the reason they took this circuitous course was because 
they were not enabled to pass through Edom, and this inability de- 
pended not upon the physical characteristics of the country, but on the 
hostile attitude of the Edomites. But the difficulties of this particular 
pass by which Professor Hull proceeded from the Arabah to Petra 
would have been equalled if not exceeded by those of the other "wadies" 
debouching from the Idumean range into the Arabah. So that we must 
either reject as unhistorical the statement that the Israelites would have 
crossed Edom from the Arabah if they had been permitted to do so, or 
admit that those physical difficulties on which Professor Hull lays such 
stress would not have been insuperable. 

Professor Hull says it is not difficult to explain St. Paul's placing 



70 THE KOUTE OF THE EXODUS. 

Mount Sinai in Arabia. "The term was doubtless used by the Apostle 
in a general sense to include the vastj region of desert land lying to the 
south and east of Judaea." But this is begging the whole question. 
There is not a tittle of evidence that St. Paul ever thought or heard of 
the so-called Sinaitic peninsula. I affirm without fear of contradiction 
that no human being ever dreamt of extending Arabia west of the 
Arabah until Ptolemy, at the close of the second century, introduced 
what he called Arabia Petraea, an innovation which was never sanctioned 
or recognised by the Arabian geographers. It is not unreasonable to 
conclude that St. Paul, being a highly educated man, knew what he 
was writing about, and when he referred to Arabia meant the country 
which was so designated by his contemporaries. For the explanation of 
the curious fact that the association of Mount Hor with Aaron's death 
should have apparently survived those arising from the tradition of the 
law I must refer to the "Hebrew Migration." It should not be for- 
gotten that, wherever situated, Mount Sinai fell into oblivion among the 
Jews. No pilgrimages were made to it, and its exact site was certainly 
unknown to Josephus, or he would have fixed its locality by its proximity 
to some well-known place. 

The " confusion " which Professor Hull attributes to me respecting 
the wilderness of Sin and Zin supplies an opportunity, of which I may be 
permitted to avail myself, not oxdy of satisfying the Professor that he has 
done me an injustice, but of bringing under the notice of the readers of the 
Quarterly Statement some interesting facts respecting Sin and Zin which 
will, I believe, lead them to share my opinion that they were identical. 

The wilderness of Sin was between Elim and Sinai (Exod. xvi, 1), and in 
Exodus xvii we have mention made of two very remarkable incidents which 
must have happened in, or in the immediate neighbourhood of, that wilder 
ness, namely, the smiting of the rock with the production of water, and the 
battle with the Amalekites. Let us briefly consider all that is told us 
respecting these two incidents. 

According to the account in Exodus xvii, the Israelites murmured 
through want of water, and obtained the miraculous supply from the rock 
in Horeb, the place bearing the name " Massah and Meribah, because of 
the chiding of the children of Israel, and because they tempted the Lord." 
We have, however, another account of this miracle in Numbers xx. It is 
there stated that "then came the children of Israel, even the whole 
congregation, into the desert of Zin in the first month, and the people 
abode in Kadesh, and Miriam died there." Whilst in this place "there was 
n<> water for the congregation." The people rebelled, and Moses, by com- 
mand of the Lord, smote the rock, and the water came forth abundantly. 
"This is the wat.r of Meribah, because the children of Israel strove with 
tin Lord, and He was sanctified in them." 

Now no one will seriously contend thai there were two distinct miracles, 
performed under precisely similar circumstances, at an interval of nearly 
forty years, in places widely apart, and that the water produced bore in 
both cases the name " Meribah.'' But all doubt on the matter is removed 



THE KOUTE OF THE EXODUS. 71 

by referring to the language which was addressed by the discontented 
Israelites to their leaders. They demanded why they had been brought 
into the wilderness with their cattle to die, and asked " wherefore have ye 
made us to come out of Egypt to bring us into this evil place ? it is no 
place of seed, or of figs, or of vines, or of pomegranates, neither is there 
any water to drink." This language was appropriate if used by people 
who had only recently quitted Egypt, and who " in the first month " (Numb, 
xx, 1) after their departure had arrived in a region where they were 
forced to submit to great privations ; but it is hopelessly unintelligible as 
coming from people who had been thirty-nine years straying about in the 
wilderness, the generation which had quitted Egypt having by that 
time almost entirely died out. 

The second incident recorded in Exodus xvii is the battle with the 
Amalekites, and if the accepted view that the wilderness of Sin was in the 
south-west region of the Sinaitic peninsula, this must have been fought 
close to the Gulf of Suez. The negative and the positive evidence against 
such an assumption are, however, overwhelming. The inscriptions on the 
steles at Sarbut el Khadem, which is close to the route which must have 
been followed by the Israelites if they entered the peninsula, prove that 
the mines in that neighbourhood were worked by the Egyptians for 
centuries before the Exodus took place, and for long afterwards. 1 If, 
however, this particular region was occupied by Egyj^tians when Moses 
led the captives away, it is in the highest degree improbable that he would 
have entered a place occupied by his enemies, and still more so that the 
circumstance of having done so should have been unnoticed in the Biblical 
records. But by what possible train of reasoning can the presence there of 
the Amalekites be accounted for I Who were the Amalekites ? Amalek 
was the grandson of Esau, and one of the Dukes of Edom (Gen. xxxvi, 12). 
The Edomites and the Amalekites were frequently treated as identical. It 
was the Amalekites who barred the progress of the Israelites when on 
their way to the Land of Promise (Numb, xiii, 29), within a few months 
after this supposed battle in sight of the Gulf of Suez. But we have a 
specific account of a battle between the Israelites and the Amalekites, in 
which, however, the latter were victorious, and the scene of the engagement 
was in the wilderness of Zin near Kadesh (Numb, xiv), the same incident 
being referred to in Deuteronomy i, and it was this reverse which led to 
the return of the Israelites down the Arabah to Elath, and their subse- 
quent journey by the east of Edom to Moab. 

It is therefore simply inconceivable that the Amalekites, who beyond 
all question were Edomites, should have been found at the time of the 
Exodus in Egyptian territory, and then actually occupied by the Egyptians, 
and that they should, without any imaginable reason, have given battle 
there to the Israelites. In the battle recorded in Exodus xvii the Israelites 
were victorious, while in that mentioned in Numbers xiv and Deut. i 
they were vanquished. There can be no reason to doubt that these 

1 " Heb. Mig.," p. 174. 



72 THE ROUTE OF THE EXODUS. 

engagements were consequent on the efforts made by the Israelites to pass 
through Edom, and were fought in the same region 

It is worth while to ascertain what opinion a Jew living at the commence- 
ment of the Christian era entertained respecting the locality where the 
first battle with the Amalekites was fought. Josephus, in his pharaphrase 
of this portion of the Biblical narrative, states that a coalition was formed 
against the Hebrews, and that " those who induced the rest to do so were 
such as inhabited Gobolitis and Petra : they were called Amalekites " 
(" Ant.," iii, 2). It is perfectly clear, therefore, that, in the opinion of the 
great Jewish historian, this battle was fought in Edom, and that the 
Sinaitic peninsula was wholly absent from his mind. He certainly had 
no opportunity of consulting those great modern authorities which place 
Mount Sinai between the Gulfs of Suez and Akabah. 

Whilst the Israelites were still between Elim and Sinai they met with 
the Kenites and concluded a league with them (Exod. xviii). But the same 
insuperable objection to the transportation of the Amalekites to the 
Sinaitic peninsula, applies to placing the Kenites in the same region. 
This latter people, though distinct from the Amalekites, occupied with them 
the country on the east of the Arabah. They are positively referred to 
by Balaam (Numb, xxiv, 7) ; they aided Judahinthe invasion of Southern 
Palestine (Judg. i, 16) ; and on the occasion of Saul's campaign against the 
Amalekites (1 Sam. xv), which beyond all question was fought in the 
region to the south of the Dead Sea, the Kenites at the request of the king 
separata 1 themselves from the Amalekites. What imaginable reason could 
Jethro, who was the Sheikh of the tribe, have had for taking his people 
for a flying visit to the so-called Sinaitic mountains ] 

It will doubtless be urged that my identification of the wilderness of 
Sin with that of Zin is irreconcilable with the " Itinerary " (Numb, xxxiii), 
in which they are apparently distinguished from each other, and placed 
very far apart. My reply is, that the result of a critical collation of the 
Itinerary with the narrative of the principal events which marked the 
journeying of the Israelites from Egypt to the Promised Land shows that 
the former is a production of a more recent date, and was probably com- 
piled eitherduring or immediately subsequent to the Babylonian captivity. 
It is (ibserval)Ie that the Itinerary tells us no new facts, though it furnishes 
names of places of which there is no mention elsewhere. It would be 
impossible for me to give here an exhaustive analysis in support of the 
inference of the comparatively late date of this composition, but one or 
two points may l»e noticed pertinent to the present matter. In the 
Itinerary the [sraelites are said to have proceeded from Kibroth-hattaavah 
(which we know was in the wilderness of Sin, Exod. xvi) to Hazeroth, and 
thence to a number of places of which we have no mention elsewhere. 
But we learn from another source that on removing from Hazeroth the 
Israelites "pitched in the wilderness of l'aran '" (Numb, xii, L6), which is 
identified with that of Zin, from which the spies were sent forth. It is 
clear, therefore, that if according to the Itinerary the Israelites proceeded 

from BLibroth-hattaavah, in the wilderness of Sin, to Hazeroth which was 



THF ROUTE OF THE EXODUS. 73 

the next station to the wilderness of Paran, or of Zin, the deserts of Sin 
and Zin must have been contiguous, or were identical if the journey from 
Hazeroth to Zin marks the return to Elath at the head of the Gulf of 
Akabah. As, however, the spies "searched the land from the wilderness 
of Zin unto Kehob," the wilderness of Sin, which was close by, if not 
identical with, that of Zin, and which lay between Elim and Sinai, 
could not have been in the Sinaitic peninsula. I may add that one of 
the curious results of taking the statements in the Itinerary in their 
received sense is that, as the Israelites did not reach the wilderness of 
Zin until immediately before the death of Aaron, the spies who set out 
from thence could not have undertaken their mission until nearly forty 
years after the departure from Egypt. But the forty years' delay in the 
wilderness was declared to have been the punishment for the disobedienrc 
of the Israelites on the return of the spies (Numb. xiv). 

Thex'e are many who regard the Pentateuch as a continuous narrative 
from the beginning of Genesis to the end of Deuteronomy, and who make 
it an article of faith to ascribe the authorship to Moses. I cannot under- 
stand why they do so, or why they consider it as incompatible with 
inspiration to admit that it may be the work of many hands. The 
Gospels do not speak with diminished authority because they are the 
productions of four different evangelists. On the contrary, the confirmath >n 
they respectively afford of the facts they record furnishes more conclusive 
proof of the sacred narrative than if the story had been told by only a 
single witness. And so it is with the various distinct records which have 
been welded together in the Pentateuch. By their substantial agreement 
in the main, no less than by their differences in details, in forms of 
expression, and in dialect, they give us, by what are termed "undesigned 
coincidences," the most absolute proof of the historical accuracy of this 
great movement of liberated Hebrews from Egypt to Palestine which was 
destined to exercise so great an influence on the human race. Carefully 
preserved by the different nations of which Trans-Jordanic and Cis-Jordanic 
Israel and Judah were composed, they were subsequently collected and 
presented in the form in which we now see them. The Mount of God 
was to some known as Horeb, to others as Sinai, and probably to all as the 
Har-ha-har, the Mount of Mounts. The Elim of the records of one 
section is the Elath of another, as the Hazarim of the one is the Hazeroth 
of the other, and in like manner the wilderness which by some was kept 
in their memories as that of Sin, was referred to by others as that of Zin. 1 
These are, however, differences which, if viewed in a proper light, only 
serve the more conclusively to convince us of Jdie authenticity and the 
antiquity of these precious records. 

J. Baker Greexe. 



1 We have an illustration of the difference in the use of sibillants by the 
Cis-Jordanic and Trans-Jordanic sections of Israel in Judges xii, 6. The 
Sibboleth of the former was the .Shibboleth of the latter. 










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Quarterly Statement, April, 1885.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

It lias been fouud necessary to postpone the first instalment of Mr. J. Chichester 
Hart's papers on the "Natural History in the Desert " until July. The work 
will be completed in about four instalments. Each number will be illustrated 
by a large coloured plate. 



The two communications from the late General Gordon published in this 
number are merely, as will be seen, notes sent to the Secretary, and placed 
aside until they could be revised by the writer. Of late years he took a deep 
interest in the proceedings of the Society, though his own conclusions, as may 
be gathered from the papers here published, were based on other than purely 
scientific grounds. The theory put forward in the note on Golgotha has been 
further developed in Gordon's "Reflections in Palestine." 



The Committee have to thank Mr. Laurence Oliphant for two important 
communications which will be found on pages 82 and 94. The other papers 
promised to the Society by a recent traveller have not yet reached us, but we 
shall almost certainly be able to produce them in July. 

The following is the Balance Sheet for the year 1884 : — 



BALANCE SHEET. 



Subscriptions, Donations, 
and Lecture returns. . 

Loan 

Maps and Memoirs 

Books 

Photographs 

Balance {January 1st 
1884) 



£ 


s. 


d. 


3,709 


4 


6 


850. 








862 


1 





224 


3 


5 


9 


5 


3 


172 


5 


8 


£5,826 


19 


10 



December 31st 
Exploration 
Maps and Memoirs 
Salaries 
Eent 
Printers 

Office expenses . . 
Photographs, cost ol 
Postage and Parcels 
Balance 



1884. 



£ s. 

1,851 13 

2,592 13 

373 15 

121 

504 3 

48 12 

11 12 

74 5 

249 3 



£5,826 19 10 



Examined and found correct. 



(Signed) WALTER MORRISON. 

G 



70 NOTES AND NEWS. 

It will be seen that the expenditure includes the sum of £1,851 13s. Id. due 
to exploration. This makes the total cost of the Geological Expedition about 
£2,300, part of which was included in the balance sheet of the preceding year. 
The sum of £2,592 13*. Id. was expended on " Maps and Memoirs." Against 
this is the sum of £862 Is. received on that account, and the valuable 
property of the G-reat Map and the reduced modern map in the possession 
of the Society, besides the copies which remain of the "Survey of Western 
Palestine." Printing takes the large sum of £500, which includes the postage 
of the Quarterly Statements to subscribers. Management is an item which 
varies little from year to year. Including parcels and postage it amounted last 
year to £629 6s. 5d. The proportional table of expenditure is as follows : — 

Exploration, nearly . . . . 33 "21 per cent. 

Maps and Memoirs . . . . 46 "49 „ 

Printing 9 *04 

Management .. .. .. 11 26 „ 



100-00 



A considerable sum, about £750, still remains (March 25th) to be paid on 
account of the Maps and Memoirs, and the Society is further indebted in the 
amount of a loan of £850, the whole of which it is hoped to pay off before the 
end of the year. 



The Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society have issued their report for the last year, 
in which it appears that they have now seventy-one members, and have issued two 
pilgrims' texts, viz., those of Antoninus Martyr and Sancta Paula. That of the 
Bordeaux Pilgrim is already translated and printed, and only awaits Sir Charles 
Wilson's notes. The Society has received permission of Count Riant to use the 
publications of the Societe de V Orient Latin. Four more publications may be 
expected in the course of the year. 



The long-promised list of Old and New Testament names, with identifications, 
references, and notes, is nearly completed. It has been compiled by Mr. George 
Armstrong from the Bible Dictionary, the lists in Clarke's Bible Atlas, and 
Captain Conder's lists, and is especially prepared with a view to being a guide 
to the forthcoming "maps covering the east as well as the west of the Jordan. 



Professor Hull's book, called "Mount Seir," was issued on January 14th. 
Subscribers are allowed a reduction on the price, and can obtain it in the usual 
way, by application to the office, for 7*. 6d. post free. It contains, besides a popular 
account of the Expedition, which occupies twenty chapters out of twenty-two, a 
summary of Scientific Results, and a discussion on some of the more im- 
portant of the sites visited. There is also appended a Geological Map, and an 
Appendix containing Major Kitchener's Report, and a paper by Mr. George 
Armstrong on the Wady Arabah. There are twenty-three illustrations from 
drawings and photographs made by the ti'avellers during their work. 



Those who are interested in the welfare of the modern inhabitants of 
Palestine, will bo pleased to hear that the English Laugue of the venerable 
Order of St. John has now established an Ophthalmic Hospital just outside 



NOTES AND NEWS. 7 

.Jerusalem, where a duly qualified English surgeon, specially skilled in the 
treatment of the eye, is now resident. The local management is vested in a 
committee of British residents, Associates of the Order of St. John, under the 
presidency of the Consul, Mr. Noel Temple Moore, C.M.E. The English 
offices are at the Chancery, St. John's Grate, Clerkenwell. 



The income of the Society, from September 26th to December 12th, 1884, 
inclusive, was — from subscriptions and donations £556 5s. 4<d., from all sources 
£703 16s. -id. The expenditure during the same period was £728 6s. Id. On 
March 12th the balance in the Banks was £205 9s. 6d. 



It is suggested to subscribers that the safest and most convenient manner 
of paying subscriptions is through a Bank. Many subscribers have adopted this 
method, which removes the danger of Joss or miscarriage, and l'enders unneces- 
sai*y the acknowledgment by official receipt and letter. 



Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly Statement regularly, are asked 
to send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward each number 
to all who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes 
give rise occasionally to omissions. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood that 
by publishing them in the Quarterly Statement they neither sanction nor adopt 
them. 



The only authorised lecturers for the Society are — 

(1) The Kev. Henry Geary, Vicar of St. Thomas's, Portman Square. His 

lectures are on the following subjects : — 

The Survey of Western Palestine, as illustrating Bible History. 

Palestine East of the Jordan. 

The Jerusalem Excavations. 

A Restoration of Ancient Jerusalem. Illustrated by original photo- 
graphs shown as " dissolving views." 

(2) The Rev. James King, Vicar of St. Mary's, Berwick. His subjects are 

as follows : — 
The Survey of Western Palestine. 
Jerusalem. 
The Hittites. 
The Moabite Stone and other monuments. 

(3) The Rev. James Neil, formerly Incumbent of Christ Church, Jerusalem. 



G 2 



78 EDEN AND GOLGOTHA. 

EDEN AND GOLGOTHA. 
By General Charles Gordon, R.E. 



Position of Eden. 

I have formed a theory with respect to the position of Eden. I believe 
the Greek of the text respecting the parting of the main river of Eden 
into four other rivers can be read that four rivers united to form one great 
river. 

In Genesis we have one river Euphrates given us : on it was Babylon. 
We have the Hiddekel, on which was Nineveh {vide Daniel), and which is 
the Tigris ; these two unite and come down the Persian Gulf. "We need 
to identify the Pison and Gihon. The Pison is the Nile, its meaning is 
" overflowing," and it flowed into the Red Sea before the Flood ; it is 
connected with Egypt, which, like Nineveh and Babylon, oppressed 
Israel. The Blue Nile encompasses Havilah, where there is gold. 
Havilah was a grandson of Shem, his brothers were Ophir and Sheba, also 
connected with gold, and with Abyssinia ; they went forth by Mesha 
(? Mecca), they crossed the sea, for Solomon got his gold from Ophir by sea. 
Where is the Gihon ? There is the Brook Gihon south of Jerusalem, the 
Valley of Hinnom, where idolatrous practices went on ; it therefore is alsa 
a spot whence Israel was oppressed. On this brook is Jerusalem ; its flow, 
when it has any, is to the Dead Sea, its ravine is very deep, and could 
have been the bed of a river before the Flood. There is the difficulty of 
finding a ravine from the Dead Sea descending to the Gulf of Akabah 
through Wady Arabah, the "Valley of Salt. By report, the watershed or 
flow of the Valley of Salt is towards the Dead Sea, and not towards the 
Gulf of Akabah. Is there any other ravine from the Dead Sea to the 
Red Sea by which the Gihon could meet the Nile in that Red Sea ? 

Allowing for the moment that the Pison is the Nile, and Gihon is 
the Brook Gihon, that they flowed into the Red Sea, and through the 
Gate of the World, Bab el Mandeb, we find by taking off the soundings 
<>f the Indian Ocean, that there are two clefts of 1,000 fathoms deep, 
joining near Socotra, and then going south, gradually deepening till they 
teach 2,600 fathoms, some 100 or 200 miles west of Seychelles. 

Seychelles is granitic, all other isles are volcanic. 

Aden, query Eden. 

Mussulman tradition places Eden at Ceylon. 

I do not go into the question whether or not the Tree of Knowledge is 
not the Lodoicea seychellarium, and the Tree of Life the Artocarpus incisa, 
though for myself I do not doubt it. 

I was two years in the neighbourhood (if the sources of the Euphrates, 
A rax, Phasis, &c. ; no flood could connect these rivers ; — floods do not alter 
the features of a country with respect to high ranges. 




I N D I A N 



'MauritOLS 



OCEAN 



EDEN AND GOLGOTHA. 79 

II. 

GOLGOTHA. 




1. I last wrote to you giving the four rivers of Eden, oue of which 
was the Gihon ou which Jerusalem was. I do not know if I then 
mentioned it was the Tyropreon Valley, which conclusion I came to ere 
I came to Palestine. 

2. Golgotha. The morning after my arrival at Jerusalem I went to 
the Skull Hill, and felt convinced that it must be north of the Altar. 
Leviticus i, 11, says that the victims are to be slain on the side of the 
Altar northwards (literally to be slain slantwise or askew on the north of 
the Altar) ; if a particular direction was given by God about where the 
types were to be slain, it is a sure deduction that the prototype would be 
slain in some position as to the Altar : this the Skull Hill fulfils. With 
reference to the word " askew " or " aslant," we have the verse " all the day 
long have I stretched out my arms to a rebellious people " (Isa. lxv, 2). 
Draw a line from the centre of the Sakhra to the centre of the Skull ; 
draw a perpendicular to this line, at centre of skull ; a cross on that line 
will embrace all the city and Mount of Olives, and be askew to the Altar. 

The Latin Holy Sepulchre is west of the Altar, and therefore, unless the 
types are wrong, it should never have been taken as the site. 

I pass by the fact of the tradition of Beth hat Selzileh, of the 
precipice, of the tradition of its being the place Jeremiah wrote the 
Lamentations (which describes the scenes enacted there nearly 600 years 
afterwards, "Is it nothing to thee, all ye that pass by" (Lam. i, 12), &c., 
or the particularly suitable entourage of the place, for these things may 
be fanciful. I also will not hold to the fact that in the twelfth century 
St. Stephen's Church was at the Damascus Gate, outside, and St. Stephen 
was stoned nine months after our Lord's Crucifixion, and that it is unlikely 
that the Jews would have had two places of execution in nine months. 

2. And I will come to the more fanciful view, that the mention of the 
place of Skull in each four gospels is a call to attention. Wherever a 
mention of any particular is made frequently, we may rely there is 
something in it ; if the skull is mentioned four times, one naturally looks 



80 EDEN AND GOLGOTHA. 

for the body, and if you take Warren's or others' contours with the earth 
or rubbish removed showing the natural state of the land, you cannot help 
seeing that there is a body, that Schick's conduit is the oesophagus, that 
the quarries are the chest, and if you are venturesome you will carry out 
the analogy further. You find also the verse (Ps. xlviii), " Zion, on the 
sides of the north ;" the word " pleura," same as they pierced His pleura, 
and there came blood and water, God took a pleuron from the side of 
Adam, and made woman. Now the Church of Christ is made up of, or 
came from, His pleura, the stones of the Temple came from the quarries, 
from chest of figure, and so on ; so that fixed the figure of body to the- 

skull. 

3. Then by Josephus's account, as I read it, the Tower Psephinus was 
on the rocky point opposite the skull. Titus had his headquarters at the 
slaughter-house, 2 furlongs from the wall, viz., 300 to 400 yards, near the 
comer (note that corner, for it is alluded to in the 400 cubits broken down 
by Jehoash, king of Israel), and my placing of the walls and reading of 
Josephus would make his point of attack just where Schick's conduit 
enters the city east of Damascus Gate, or at the cisterns to east, where I 
think Agrippa's wall began. Mystically, the Eoman Eagle should have 
gone at the Lamb of Zion by the throat, viz., Schick's conduit. However, 
I will not continue this, for if you please you can get the papers and plans 
from my brother. I would do them for you if you wish ; I did them for 
Chaplin long ago. The camp of the Assyrians is the place where Nebu- 
chadnezzar camped a month after the fall of the city, when he came to 
bum the Temple; it is this day which the Jews keep as the fast, not the 
day of taking the city. 

3. Naturally, after discerning the figure, the question arose of Mount 
Zion, and of the boundaries ; by studying the latter with the Septuagint 
there seemed no reason by Scriptxtre to consider Ain Haud the Enshemesh. 
Septuagint has Beth Samos, and near Jebel el Tell is Kh. el Sama. Again,. 
Gihon (being the Tyropceon) is to gush forth, and as the skull is the Altar, 
it is thence the two rivers, one to the Dead Sea, the other to the 
Mediterranean, are to come. At last Moses's blessing to Benjamin came in, 
" he shall rest between His arms," not his shoulders ; so thus I brought 
the boundary up Gihon to Kh. el Sama. 

4. Other reasons came to back this view, — 

Nehemiah mentions town of Furnaces. 

He also mentions throne of Governor. 

Josephus mentions women's towers. 
The word " furnace " is derived from fomex, thence the connection. 
The tent Cozbi and Zimri went into was a furnace. Josiah broke down 
the high places built by Manasseh near the Gate of Governor, which 
were, no doubt, these same furnaces. Herodias lived at Jaffa Gate, and 
even to this day there are furnaces there I should think, for the troops 
are there. 

This led to looking up the history of the Levites, &c, in Judges, of 
Gibeon, of mouldy bread, Nob, Gibeali of Saul, &c, and the result is as- 



Sketch Map 

OF 

PART OFTHE JAULAN DISTRICT 



E.of Sea of Galilee 




/ Tell el j 

*- m^0^:r r: - .to 



ffafi 



G A L I L E E 






fr» r 



ffr 



Scale of Miles 



Q.A.,del. 



EWeller. 



EDEN AND GOLGOTHA. 81 

I have just noted, according to my ideas ; but it is a matter of perfect 
indifference to us all, for these sites are in each of us. 

During these studies, the potters' field comes up, and also the pool 
where Abner and Joab met, the field of the treacherous ones, and my idea 
is that round about the Serpent's Pool is the Tophet, Aceldama, Potters' 
field ; that down the Valley of Hinnom is the Perez of David. 

I will not bore you much longer than to say that, by my ideas, 

f Khjath-jearini 

I Ramatliaim-Zophini 

I Armathaim 
Kurvet el Eneb is-, Ramah, one of them 

I Place of Saul's anointing 

I Arimathsea 

[ Emmaus 
and that Samuel was sacrificing to the Ark when Saul came to him. 

Schick has been writing on these subjects for years, and he plaintively 
says, "but how am /possibly to advance other views now V In reality, in 
writing on these sites, no man ought to draw any cheques on his imagina- 
tion ; he ought to keep to the simple fact, and not prophesy or fill up gaps. 
If one wrote under cognomen a, and altered under cognomen /3 it would 
be all right ; as it is now, a man under his own name cannot go right 
about face all at once. The Ark was built at Abu Shusheh by Noah, and 
floated up to Baris ; only in a.d. 776 was it placed on Ararat, which is 
" holy land." God said, " Go to a mountain I will shew thee," a mountain 
already consecrated by the resting place of the Ark. Noah offered on the 
rock his sacrifice. Look at Genesis and you will see (Gen. xi, 1), after 
the Flood they journeyed eastward to Shinar ; you might go eastward 
from either Ararat or El Judi near Jesereb ebn Omar for ever before you 
reached Shinar. I will not bore you any longer, except to say that I 
think there are not many places Far apart of interest in the Scripture way, 
and that these few are— 

1. Nazareth and region of Tiberias. 

2. Plain of Esdraelon. 
.3. Shechem. 

4. Bethel. 

5. Jerusalem. 

6. Bethlehem 

7. Hebron. 

8. Kuryet el Eneb, Philistia. 

9. Jericho, Gilgal, Amnion and Moab, Dead Sea, Vallev of Arabah. 

C. G. 



82 EXPLORATIONS NORTH-EAST OF LAKE TIBERIAS, 

EXPLORATIONS NORTH-EAST OF LAKE TIBERIAS, 
AND IN JAULAN. 

By Laurence Oliphant. 

Haifa, 30th January. 
The examination of the country to the east of the Jordan is, under 
existing conditions, attended with so much difficulty that I was glad to 
seize an opportunity which offered a few weeks ago to pay a visit to the 
northern and eastern shores of the Lake of Tiberias, and penetrate a short 
distance into Jaulan, with the view of visiting certain localities, where I 
had reason to believe that some ruins existed which had hitherto escaped 
observation. I was unfortunately prevented by circumstances from de- 
voting to them the time and labour which they deserved, and was compelled, 
in more than one instance, to hurry past places where it would have been 
interesting to linger, with the mental reservation that I would endeavour 
to return, at some future time, for a more detailed examination. 

I commenced my investigations immediately on crossing the Jordan, at 
the point of its debouchure into the lake. Here, at a distance of half a mile 
east from its mouth, are situated the ruins of El Araj, which consists of 
foundations of old walls, and blocks of basaltic stone, cut and uncut, which 
have been used for building purposes. The ruins cover a limited area. A 
little over a mile north of El Araj there rises from the fertile plain of El 
Batihah a mound strewn with blocks of stone, and remains which cover 
a considerable area. This is Et Tell, a spot which it has been sought by 
more than one traveller to identify with Bethsaida Julias. I will not 
here enter into the much vexed question of whether there were two Beth- 
saidas, as insisted upon by Reland and many others, or only one ; or 
whether " the desert place apart," upon which was performed the miracle of 
the five loaves and the two fishes, was on a desolate spur of the range im- 
mediately to the north of this Tell, which would necessitate two Bethsaidas, 
or whether it was not, as Dr. Thomson supposes, at the north-east corner 
of the Lake on the shoulder overhanging Mesadiyeh, upon which assump- 
tion he constructs a theory which would involve only one ; or whether, as 
suggested by Captain Conder, the Sinaitic Manuscript is right in omitting 
the definition (Luke ix, 10) of the desert where the 5,000 were fed, as 
" belonging to the city called Bethsaida," in which case the necessity for a 
second city of that name ceases to exist, and the miracle may have been 
performed in the plain at the south-east of the Lake. It is possible 
that excavations at Et Tell might enable us to decide positively whether it 
is the site of Bethsaida Julias, which we know was in this vicinity. A 
small native village has been built among the ruins, which do not at 
present afford to the passing traveller any indications of former magnifi- 
cence ; but I was unable at the time to examine them, as I was desirous of 
poshing on without delay to a spot where I was informed by a Bedouin 
sheikh who accompanied me from Araj that the fellahtn, in the course 
of getting out stone for constructing a small village last summer, had laid 



AND IN JAUr.AN. 



83 




bare some stones on which were carvings and pictorial representations. 
After following the course of the Jordan, on its east bank, for another 
mile, we reached a spot on the barren slope of a hill a few hundred yards 
from the river, where some native huts had been recently built, and where- 
large cut stones, carved cornices, capitals, and fragments of columns were 
strewn in profusion, while from the midst of them rose the walls of what 
appears to have been a synagogue ; owing, however, to a later super- 
structure having evidently been reared upon the original foundation, I feel 
somewhat diffident in pronouncing upon this point decidedly. I will, how- 
ever, state my reasons for coming to this conclusion, while the accompany- 
ing sketches of the ornamentation I 
found here may enable others more 
competent to form an opinion than 
myself to judge of their origin. The 
dimensions and ground plan of the 
building with the columns still in situ 
■closely resembled those of the small 
synagogue at Kefr Birim. The 
length was 45 feet, the breadth 33 
feet. The building had an east and west orientation, and the door was 
in the centre of the wall on the western side. This does not, so far as I 
know, occur iu the case of any synagogue hitherto found, but it was 
doubtless due to the necessities of the case, as the site for the building 
was excavated from the hill-side, the floor at the east end being about 
9 feet below the surface of the earth at the back of the wall, while the 
slope of the hill would have made it inconvenient to place the door, as 
usual, on the south side. A more serious objection to this being a 
synagogue lies in the fact that the stones were set in mortar, which does 
not occur in the case of other synagogues ; but there were indications 
to show that these walls had been erected upon older foundations. They 
were now standing to a height of 8 feet. There were no door-posts 
or lintel to the entrance. The floor, which was thickly strewn with 
building stones, fragments of columns, and of carved cornices and capitals, 
was below the level of the ground, and was reached by a descent of two 
steps, while opposite, running along the whole length of the eastern side, 
were two benches or steps, the face of the upper one decorated with a thin 
scroll of ornamental tracery ; these may have served for seats. The de- 
pressed floor and 
stone benches are 
both features which 
occur in the syna- 
gogue at Irbid. 
Upon the upper 
bench stood the frag- 
ments of two columns 

about 4 feet in 

Fig. 4. 




34 



EXPLORATIONS NORTH-EAST OF LAKE TIBERIAS. 




height, and 1 foot 2 inches in 
diameter. They were evidently 
not in situ, being without ped- 
estals, and I can only account 
for their being in their present 
position by the supposition that 
they had been placed there 
recently. The other two ap- 
peared to be in situ, but their 
bases were much hidden by 
the blocks of stone heaped on 
the floor. These blocks averaged 2 feet 6 inches by 18 inches. The capitals 
of the columns were in Corinihian style, 2 feet 3 inches in height, and con- 
sisted of a double row of leaves, which differed somewhat from the usual 
acanthus, apparently of a later or more composite order. The ornamenta- 
tion and character of the niches (see figs. 4 and 5) so closely resembled those 
found at the synagogue at Kei-azeh and elsewhere, being of the same florid 
and somewhat debased type, that they seemed to me to set at rest the 
question of the original character of this building, though it may subse- 
quently have been diverted to other uses. Time did not allow me to do 
more than make rough drawings of the architecture, but I trust they are 

sufficient to enable a comparison 
to be made between them and 
the engravings in the " Me- 
moirs." If I am right in my 
conjecture, this synagogue would 
probably date from about the 
second century of the Christian 
era. I also found a stone which 
consisted of the upper portion of 
two small semi-attached fluted columns with Doric capitals, almost exactly 
similar to the one found at Irbid. Also one cut into a round arch, which 

may have been placed over the 
lintel on the plan of the arch on 
the lintel over the entrance to the 
great, synagogue at Kefr Birim. 
It measured 39 inches across the 
base of the arch (fig. 1). A most 
interesting object was a winged 
female figure, holding what was 
apparently a sheaf (fig. 2). The 
ornamentation of the cornice does 
not resemble any which I have 
observed either in the "Memoirs" 
or elsewhere, and is not unlike the 
so-called egg and dart pattern 
(fig. 3). Other specimens of the ornamentation are seen in fig. 7. T have 





AND IN JAULAN. 



Sa 




not been able to 
form any conjecture 
which should iden- 
tify this most inte- 
resting spot with 
any Biblical or his- 
torical locality. Its 
modern name is Ed- 
Dikkih, meaning 
platform, a name not 
inappropriate to its 
position. It is pos- 
sible that during the 
next dry season the 
natives may con- 
tinue their excava- 
tions, as stones are 
needed. I have FlG - 3 - 

urgently impressed upon them not to deface or destroy any remains that may 
be unearthed ; but they un- 
fortunately watched my pro- 
ceedings with an uneasiness 
and suspicion which I am 
afraid a gratuity failed alto- 
gether to dispel. 

We now pursued an almost 
easterly direction along the 
lower flank of the range which 
rose abruptly on our left, and in a mile and a half reached a spring and the 
remains of a small ruin called Umm el Araj. There seemed, however, to 
have been only two or three houses here, and finding nothing of interest 
we pushed on, and reached in half a mile more the ruins of Elahseniyeh. 
Here again I was fortunate in coming upon remains which have been 
exposed to view for the first time by the natives this year. 

The portion excavated was not so extensive, nor did it reveal so much 
that was interesting, as Ed-Dikkih, but the area covered with old ruin was 
greater, and it was in ancient times probably the centre of a larger popu- 
lation. The character of the remains now exposed to view is very difficult 
to determine, owing to the confusion which has been created by their 
representing two periods, the building of the later having apparently been 
placed diagonally on the one that preceded it. They were situated upon 
a terrace of solid masonry about 5 feet high, now strewn with building 
stones. The upper or more recent chamber measured 20 feet across 
one way, but there was nothing to determine its length, no walls having 
been left standing ; the dimension in one direction, however, could be 
gathered from the cement floor which still remained, a considerable 
portion of which was visible at a depth of 18 inches below the surface 




1-ig. 



86 EXPLORATIONS NORTH-EAST OF LAKE TIBERIAS, 

of the earth. There appeared, 18 inches below it, a floor of solid stone, and 
this was evidently a portion of a building of some size, to judge from the 
blocks of stone which apparently were the foundations for the pedestals of 
columns. These consisted of five cubes of stone, each 2 feet every way, and 
6 feet apart. As the stone floor on which they stood was 3 feet below the 
surface of the ground, the upper surface was 1 foot below it, and there 
may therefore have been more in continuation of the line in which they 
were, which the excavations of the villagers had not revealed. They ran 
north and south, and diagonally to the upper flooring of cement. There 
were some fragments of columns, pedestals, and carved cornices and capitals 
lying among the ruins of the vicinity, but they were much broken, and not 
sufficiently noteworthy to stop to sketch. 

I had, unfortunately, no time to carry out my original intention of 
following up the Wady Ed Dalieh, two miles higher to Elyahudiyeh, 
where ruins are reported to exist, but I was assured by the sheikh that 
they contained no remains such as I had seen at Ed-Dikkih and Elah- 
seniyeh, so I crossed the plain back to the coast where the ruins of 
Mesadiyeh still remain to suggest that the similarity of their name to that 
of Bethsaida may furnish a clue to the identification with them of that 
town. They contain nothing of interest however, without excavation ; but 
enough remains to show that the head of the Lake must in old times have 
been a great centre of population, since the towns near it are all from one 
to two miles apait, and I have heard of more ruins in the neighbourhood, 
which I hope at some future time to have an opportunity of examining. 

As some confusion exists in all the maps to which I have had any access 
in the nomenclature of the five wadies which intersect the country between 
the Jordan and the Wady es Samak, I have been very particular in ob- 
taining the names as accurately as I could from the best native sources. 
Of these the Wady Jeramaya is the most wild and inaccessible, and except 
for the sportsman — it affords excellent cover for the large game which are 
said to abound in it — would probably not repay examination ; the same 
cannot be said of the other wadies, in which, especially near their heads, 1 
have reason to believe some ruins are to be found. 

Following the Lake shore, we passed at the mouth of the Wady Ejgayif 
the ruins of Akib ; these consist of nothing but heaps of basaltic stones. 
There is near here a spot marked "ruins" in some maps, and called Dukah ; 
they are also mentioned by more than one traveller. I found on inquiry, 
however, that a projecting cliff near Akib was called the Dukah Kefr 
'Akib, or the precipice of Akib, and this has doubtless given rise to the 
confusion. A mile and a half beyond 'Akib we turned up the great wady 
of Es Samak. It is up this fertile valley, watered by a perennial stream, 
and which is in places two miles wide, and about seven miles in its greatest 
length, that it is proposed to carry the projected railway from Haifa to 
Damascus, as it affords an easy gradient from the depressed shores of Lake 
Tiberias to the elevated plateau of Jaulan ; the rise in that distance being 
a little over 2,000 feet. As we ascend, I observe that only quite the lower 
strata are of limestone ; all the rest is basaltic, and this formation is of vast 



AND IN JAULAN. H7 

thickness. The whole of Jaulan is indeed an immense volcanic field, con- 
sisting of irregular heaps of amorphous lava and disintegrating scoriae, with 
mounds of globular basalt. 

After ascending the wady for three miles we reached, a little below 
the margin of the plateau on the right side, the ruins of El 'Adeseh, but it 
happened to be so dark at the time that I could not distinguish more than 
heaps of stones, and I had no opportunity of returning to it. 

The country is very sparsely peopled in the district of Jaulan in which 
we now were, one of the largest villages being that of El 'Al, built on the 
site of an ancient ruin ; but the place has been so much built over that little 
can be seen, though in the walls and yards of the houses are many vestiges 
of antiquity. In the stable of the house in which I lodged was a column 
in situ standing to a height of 6 feet, and in the yard a draped female 
statue, life size, in three pieces. The feet, which as far as I could judge 
were on a pedestal in situ, were partially covered with earth ; the rest of 
the figure, which had been separated from them at the ancles, was lying 
on the ground ; the head had also been separated from the body ; but each 
of the pieces was in good preservation. The left arm clasped what ap- 
peared to be a quiver, from which I gathered that the statue was one to 
Diana. An inscription would probably be found on the pedestal settling 
this question, but circumstances prevented my excavating sufficiently to 
find out whether this was the case. 

My objective point was now Khisfin, a village lying five miles distant 
in a north-easterly direction, which has played so important a part in the 
history of the country that I was extremely anxious to investigate the 
ruins which exist there, and which have never been the subject of exami- 
nation. After riding for an hour we came to the ruins of Nab, situated 
on a small mound. They consist of blocks of basalt building stone, some 
traces of foundations, some fragments of columns and capitals, and a tank, 
dry at the time of my visit, but which evidently holds water for some 
portion of the year ; it had apparently been much deeper at a former 
period, only the two upper courses of masonry being now visible. It was 
oval in shape, and measured about 60 yards by 30. A little off the road to 
the right stands a large tree on a mound which is a conspicuous object on 
the vast plain, and is called Ez Zeitlmi, or the hill of the olive-tree. In 
half-an-hour more we reached Khisfin, which is a large village for this part 
of the country, the houses constructed entirely of the hewn stones which 
here cover a greater area than any ruins which I have hitherto visited in 
this neighbourhood. 

The earliest notice which I have been able to obtain of Khisfin is that 
of Yakubi, about 900 a.d. He mentions it as one of the chief towns of 
" the Province of the Jordan," Syria being divided in his day into three 
provinces, viz. : the Province of Damascus, the Province of the Jordan, 
and the Province of Palestine. Yakub in the thirteenth century mentions 
it as a town of the Hauran district below Nawa, on the Damascus road, be- 
tween Nawa and the Jordan. Khisfin was doubtless at one time a fortress 
of the Saracens, as it is further mentioned as the place to which Al Melek 



88 



EXPLORATIONS NORTH-EAST OF LAKE TIBERIAS, 



al Adil (Saladin's son and successor) fled after having been routed at the 
battle of Baisan by the Crusaders, who advanced upon him from Acre. As 
it is mentioned as being one of the chief towns of the province so long ago 
as 900 a.d., it is probable that its importance dates from a much older period, 
as indeed was indicated by some of the ornamentation which I found there. 
That it must also have been an important crusading stronghold is evident 
from the leading characteristics of the remains, as they now appear, and of 
the ornamentation, of which I give specimen sketches. 




The walls of the principal fort now standing measure 68 yards one way, 
by ~>4 the other. They are 9 feet in thickness, and are eight courses of 
stone in height, the stones from 1 foot to 1 foot 6 inches square, but some 
are much larger. Within the fort are the traces of a second or inner wall 
forming a sort of keep in the centre, but the whole area is so encumbered 
with ruin that it would require more time than I was able to give to it to 
make accurate measurements, or a plan of the building. The village had 
almost the appearance of a quarry, so thickly piled were the blocks of hewn 
atone which enclosed the courtyards and formed the walls of the houses, 
while fchey were strewn thickly or stacked in heaps over all the neigh- 



AND IN JAULAN. 89 

ouring fields. The lintels of the doors consisted frequently of large 
stones, some of which possibly had served the same purpose in old times, on 
which were tablets, rosettes, crosses, bosses, and other crusading devices. 

I now proceeded in a westerly direction, and in two miles reached the 
ruins of Esfera, a mound covered with the usual hewn basaltic stones, and 
with traces of foundations. Two miles fux-ther on was the conspicuous hill 
of Tell el Muntar, which is also strewn with ruins of the same character ; 
but at neither place were the remains of any marked interest ;— they all 
indicated, however, the presence in ancient times of a large population in 
this section of country. Just to the south of Tell el Muntar we came upon 
a dolmen field — I counted twenty grouped in a comparatively limited area, 
averaging perhaps a hundred yards apart. Some were composed of three 
side stones with a covering slab, and in most cases were " free standing.'" 
In others the superincumbent slab rested upon four uprights, and in others 
upon heaps of large blocks of stone. In no case did I observe the covering 
slabs to be so large as I have seen them elsewhere, probably owing to the 
weight of the basalt of which they were composed ; but circumstances 
prevented my giving these interesting monuments upon this occasion the 
attention they deserved, and I was compelled to be satisfied with having 
discovered their locality. In support of Captain Conder's theory it may 
be interesting to note that they were situated near water, as I shall pre- 
sently show, and upon the verge of the precipitous ledge of rock which here 
forms the eastern cliff of one of the branches of the Wady es Samak, from 
which a magnificent view is obtained. The plateau here forms a pro- 
montory which splits the wady, and at its southern extremity is situated 
the old stronghold of the Crusaders, called the Kasr Berdauif, or Baldwin's 
Castle. I saw the ruin from a distance, but was unable to visit it on this 
occasion. This I the less regretted as it has already been examined, and 
the small crumbling ruin which remains offers nothing of interest. On the 
other hand, I was impatient to reach a ruin hitherto unknown, and which 
was situated directly beneath the upper ledge of rocky cliff down which 
we were now leading our horses at no little peril to life and limb. After 
descending abruptly about 500 feet we came to a broad shelf, or small culti- 
vated plateau, beyond the edge of which there was another steep descent to 
the bottom of the wady. It was upon this shelf that the ruins of Umm el 
Kanatar, or the " Place of Arches," is situated. It may have derived its 
name from the first object which met our view, as, turning sharj) to the 
right under the impending cliff down which we had just descended, we 
came upon a most singidar and most picturesque spot. Here were two 
large arches, one partially ruined, but the traces of which were still plainly 
visible projecting from the rock against which it had been built, the other 
in a perfect state of preservation. This one measured 23 feet in breadth, 
6 feet 6 inches in depth, and 16 feet in height. The ruined one was pro- 
bably of the same dimensions, but as it was partially broken away there 
was no means of accurately judging of it. They had been built over a 
crystal spring, the waters of which still filled the small tank 23 feet long 
and 6 feet wide, w T ith a depth of 2 feet of water, under the perfect arch, and 



90 



EXPLORATIONS NORTH-EAST OF LAKE TIBERIAS, 




Fig. I. 



contained many small fish. It apparently escaped by an underground 
channel. Over the centre of the arch was a large slab of stone, upon 

which had been an in- 
i . b _> scnption now too effaced 

to be legible, and as it 
was 16 feet over head I 
had no means of exa- 
mining it closely. At 
a slab at the side of the 
spring was a stone on 
which was the carved 
figure of a lion (fig. 1), 
and in front the wide- 
spreading arms of a mag- 
nificent old tree offered 
a grateful shade. At 
the time of year at which 
I visited these springs, 
however, I was not in a position to appreciate its charms ; a bitterly cold 
wind, accompanied by sleet, was blowing, and I had just before arriving at 
the dolmen field undergone an experience which made the task of a minute 
examination of ruins or dolmens in an easterly gale of wind unpleasant in 

the highest degree. When allowing 
my horse to drink at what seemed a 
puddle on the plateau, he had made a 
step forward and plunged head fore- 
most down what turned out to be an 
overflowed well, with me on his back. 
We had some difficulty in extricating 
ourselves, but the severity of the cold 
wind was so much intensified by my 
drenched condition, that, not being in 
my good health otherwise at the time, 
I was compelled to hurry over these 
ruins. They are situated about fifty 
yards from the spring to the north, 
and consist of ruined walls enclosing 
an area apparently as nearly as pos- 
sible of the same dimensions as the 
synagogue at Ed-Dikkili, but the traces 
of the western wall were concealed by 
such piles of large blocks of building 
stones that it was impossible to deter- 
mine them. The southern wall was 
standing to a height of about 7 feet, 
and consisted of (luce courses of stone 
averaging a little over 2 feet each in 




Fig. 2. 



AND IS THE JAULAN. 



91 



height, by about 2 feet 6 inches in breadth. The door was situated 15 feet 
from the south-east angle of the wall, and was 4 feet 9 inches in width ; 
the stones forming the door-post were slightly carved into a plain mould- 
in" (fig. 2). On entering, the area presented a mass of stone d4bri$, and 
columns, and pieces of carving, tossed about in the wildest confusion ; six 
columns from 10 to 12 feet in height rose above the piles of stone at every 
angle, as though they had been partially overturned by an earthquake ; 
the shaken condition of one of the stones which formed the door-post, and 
which projected from the others, as well as the general aspect of such of 
the ruin as was still standing, confirmed my impression that the building 
had been destroyed by a convulsion of nature. It was difficult under the 
circumstances to determine the true position of the columns, or the exact 
plan of the building ; but the character of the fragments of ornamentation 
which still remained, the fact that the columns were all within the enclosure 
of the building, that the walls were without cement, the position of the 
door, and the moulding of the door-posts, all rather lead me to the same 
ci inclusion with respect to this building which I have arrived at in the case 
of Ed-Dikkih, and to regard it as 
having been formerlya synagogue. 
There was one stone on which 
was carved the representation of 
an eagle (fig. 3), a fragment of 
egg and dart cornice, closely re- 
sembling the one at Ed-Dikkih, 
a large triangular slab cut in the 
shape of an arch and highly or- 
namented, measuring 3 feet 6 
inches along the base line, and 
5 feet 8 inches between the two 
extremities, and which I assume 
to have been placed on the lintel of the main entrance (fig. 4) ; and there 
were fragments of Corinthian capitals. 

It is highly pro- 
bable that a care- 
ful investigation of 
these stones would 
reveal inscriptions 
which would throw 
more light on this 
interesting ruin 
than, during my 
hurried inspection I 

of them, I was in a position to obtain. I send these notes simply as a 
description of what I was able to observe, under circumstances by no 
means favourable to minute investigation ; but it is not impossible that I 
may be able to revisit this part of the country and supplement this 
paper with more details of the ruins v hich are noticed in it, as well as 





92 EXPLORATIONS NORTH-EAST OF LAKE TIBERIAS, 

to look for others of the position of which I have received some 
information. 

On my return to Tiberias, a Jew came to tell me that he knew a house 
which contained a stone upon which there was an inscription. I found it 
in the floor of a tumble-down dwelling inhabited by an old Jewish woman. 
As it was too begrimed with dirt to make anything of, I tempted the old. 
woman with a bribe to let me take it up and carry it off, promising to re- 
turn it. The inscription turned out to be in Greek characters, and as it 
may have escaped the attention of former travellers, a squeeze of it is 
forwarded herewith. I also annex the best copy I have been able to make, 
in case the squeeze does not arrive in good condition. 

Yn€P€YXAPICTIACAm§Ii 
|iliOYHMU)NCIPIKIOV f}>; 

NAnAICAMCNOIHMI 
OIGP€BOICOYANHriPAM0|i 

I was also taken by a Jew to look at a stone built into the back wall of 
the synagogue, on which was an inscription. He told me that he had seen 
some gentlemen take a squeeze of this, and I therefore only took a hasty 
copy, thinking it probable that it would be found in the "Memoirs." As 
however, this is not the case, I presume it must have attracted the notice 
of some more recent explorers. The following is my copy : — 

oYArmi 

TA€TH 'Oe 

?£IUMHNAA€N 

HgpNZHCACAN 
§f||||KBNYM<l>HN 

I am indebted to my companion, Mr. Guy Le Strange, for the list of the 
Arab names, which I append, of the places taken down from the natives 
on this trip, with their significations. 



AND IN JAULA.N. '-' : 3 

LIST OF NAMES OF PLACES. 

1. El-'Adesi, for El-'Adeseh, ^1, "the lentil." 

In Palestine, concrete of small pebbles used for floors, from its re- 
sembling lentils, is known as " El-Adesi." 

2. El-Ahsaninyeh, the vulgar form of El-hassaniyyeh, cUoL*^, ■> 
" Belonging to Hassan," p.n. 

3. 'Ain Esfera, probably for 'Ain Eso-Sfairah, 'i ,jJ^J.\ ..-^> 
whistling spring." 

4. El-'Akib, i_^jJu51, "the term." 

5. El'Al JU^," the high." 

6. El-'Araj, _ ~\}\, " the lame." 

7. El Batlhah, j^sOskj^, "the swamp." 

8. Ed-Dikkih, &d\, "the platform." 

9. Kasr Berdawil, Jj \j> ~i , " Baldwin's Castle.'' 

10. Kersa, _. <", (?) " the seat." 

11. Khisfin, ^j JUAg ^, p.n. 

12. Mes'adiyyeh, ij Sx^-c, "the place of ascending." 

13. Nab, i_j,{} , " the eye-tooth." 

14. Et-Tell, Jjjl, "the hill." 

15. Tell el Montar, W K ^\ Jj , "the hill of the watch-tower. 

16. Tell ez-Zeitunih & JL> ')\ J.: , " the hill of the olive-tree." 

17. Ummel'Ajaj, __t«x^ *U " the place of whirl-winds " or " battles." 

18. Umm el Kenatir, U. \,_Aji! ^ +\ , "the place of arches." 

19. Wadi ed Dalieh, ij^jj^ i_>jl« 5 "the gorge of the vine tendril." 

20. Wadi Ejgayif, for Wadi esh-Shakayyif, u-ejJLkM lS J^ , "the 
gorge of the little boulder." Shakayyif, or Shagayyif, for the Bedouins 
change the dotted K into G, is the diminutive of " Shakif," meaning a 
" fragment " or " boulder " in the colloquial dialect. 

21. Wadi Jermayya, <jj\,,. ~~ u£t)!»j P- n - 

22. Wadi es Saffah, ^\s^A\ i«£t>Uj " the gorge of the slayer." 

23. Wadi es Samak, <jX*-^ L_£jUi "the fish's valley." 

24. Wadi Shebib, i^ju^ iiA, p.n. 

25. El-Yahudiyyeh, fa >,- \]\ , " the place belonging to the Jews." 

ii 2 



94 



NOTES ON A TOMB OPENED AT JEBATA, AND ON 



NOTES ON A TOMB OPENED AT JEBATA, AND ON 
MONUMENTS FOUND AT NABLOUS. 

Br Laurence Olipiiant. 

Haifa, 21st January, 1885. 
Having received intelligence from a native that the villagers of Jebata 
(Sheet 5, M. i) while excavating for stone for their building operations, 
Lad unearthed what he termed a subterranean abode, but which I con- 
jectured to be a tomb, I proceeded to that place in order to examine it. 
The sheikh and most of the villagers accompanied me to the spot ; here 
they had laid bare a flight of nine stone steps leading down to an open 
court about 6 feet square— the niches formed of cemented masonry, the 
stones averaging 2 feet by 18 inches, but in some instances exceeding those 
dimensions. The height from the debris which had accumulated on the 
flour to the top of the masonry was about 11 feet, above which were 2 feet 
of" soil. From this open court a passage 3 feet long, 2 feet 6 inches wide, 
a ad 5 feet high, marked A in the plan (Section BC), led to a chamber 14 feet 




long, 8 feet broad, and 8 feet 6 inches high, the walls consisting of plain 

chiselled stones set with moi'tar in courses of from 2 feet to 2 feet 6 inches 

in height. This chamber differs from the very few hitherto discovered 

in Palestine, and which seem confined to Galilee, in that the stones are set 

in mortar. On the left of the chamber was a single koka, which had been 

a good deal destioyed by the recent excavations of the villagers, but the 

chamber itself was in perfect order, and in fact in such good condition 

that it was difficult to realise that it was an ancient construction. The 

roof was vaulted, and of solid masonry. In the centre of the east wall 

was an entrance, D, exactly corresponding to the one marked A, excepting 

that the passage was 7 feet 6 inches in length. It led into a chamber 

hewn out of the solid rock, 12 feet by 10 feet 6 inches and 6 feet 6 inches 

in height ; this contained three kokim and a loculus under an arcosolium, 

but the side of the loculus, as well as those of the kokim, had been much 

injured. The villagers told as that they had found bones in the loculus, and 

some fragments of pottery in this chamber. Not far from these tombs was 

another similar excavation, the entrance to which presented the appearance 

i that to an ordinary cave ; but on entering it we found ourselves in 



MONUMENTS FOUND AT NABLOUS. 95 

a small circular rock-hewn chamber, the floor so covered with rubble that 

it was not possible to stand upright. In the centre of the roof was an aperture 
18 inches square, carefully hewn, and from it led a passage of masonry, 
the stones, also set in mortar, 2 feet 6 inches broad, and about 5 feet to 
the point where it was completely choked with earth ; had we been able 
to spare the time to excavate we should have found probably that it led 
into a tomb. The entrance to this passage was almost completely block* ! 
by the handsome capital of an Ionic column, the column itself 18 inchc- 
diameter. On further examining the stones strewn in the vicinity, and 
some of which we were told by the natives they had unearthed, we found 
one on which was carved a seven-branched candlestick, one which may have 
served as a keystone, a sarcophagus, several fragments of columns, and a 
monolith standing 10 feet from the debris at its base, with grooves and 
lots similar to others which I have seen at Dubil on Carmel, but taller. 
I can only imagine it to have formed part of some olive-pressing machinery. 
In the neighbouring rocks were vats and winepresses. It is not unlikely 



that next summer the natives will undertake further quarrying opera- 
tions, when new discoveries may be brought to light, the more especially 
as all the existing indications go to show that Jebata, the ancient 
Gabatha, must formerly have been a place of some importance. 

I have been fortunate in obtaining a glimpse of some monuments 
recently discovered during some municipal improvements now in progress 
at Nablous, which are destined for the Museum at Constantinople, and of 
which I send you such hurried and imperfect sketches as I was able to 
take, with copies of inscriptions. They were in such positions that it was 
extremely difficult to take squeezes, nor were the conditions propitious 
for my doing so. The one which I forward was of an inscription much 
defaced, on which I can only make out the words TON TPH~IOA, 
but perhaps others may be more successful. Many of the letters in the 
other inscriptions were so much effaced as to be rendered doubtful, and I 
have left them imperfect ; but it will not be difficult, with more time than 
I have been able to give to them, to make the necessary corrections. Tlie 
monuments which I have seen consist of two statues, one of a draped male 



96 



NOTES ON A TOMB OPENED AT JEBATA, ETC. 



figure, life size ; the head, right arm, and feet were missing. The other was 
a smaller draped male figure, the head and feet of which were also missing. 
The most interesting object was a triangular pedestal, 40 inches high, with 
slightly curved sides 22 inches long, and squared angles 8 inches across. 
The three sides contained six tableaux in basso relievo, one of them a 
good deal mutilated, representing, amongst others, incidents in the life and 
labours of Hercules, in whose honour possibly the statue which once stood 
upon the pedestal was erected. The first tableau represents a figure in a 




i 70 




< hariot struggling apparently with a hydra. Above this, on the upper 
moulding of the cornice, was the inscription (marked A) — 

VlNIOZeHKENATGIAOZEK^ZAZ 
NEKENENTeYnOAEZZINAPlZgg|ZKENAnAZIN 

Below this (marked B) was the following : — 

KAAAEIKAIMEIFGTI- -KAIXAPIZINribCWEPON 

and below this (C) — 

TOYinr-KAIArONIFOI- -AIAMETAI KAI!i£IH0EN 

The lower section represented three draped figures standing : on their 
right a nude male figure standing ; at their feet a prostrate nude male 
figure ; above them was the inscription (D)— 

i§ii; ;:tonaxeai20n 



THE PASSAGE OF THE ISRAELITES ACROSS THE RED SEA. 97 

The upper section of the next side represented Leto Apollo and 
Artemis, with their names above them in the following order: — 

APTEMIZ AnOAAHN AHTH 

Nude to the waist. Nude right arm over Ar- Completely draped, 
temis's shoulder, with with a snake appa- 
a cloak hanging down rently on the left, 
his back and over his 
arm. 

The lower section of this side represented five figures, behind a group 
of four figures, of whom two were naked men wrestling, the other two 
were naked, one standing with outstretched arm, and one on a sort of 
stool ; above them the inscription, partly illegible, — 

TAiH PITONME 

and over some of the figures were the letters, NfXT TYPO 

On the third side, which I had no opportunity of sketching, on the 
upper section, under the words TPO<l>OI H PAKAHZ, was a nude 
infant struggling with a serpent between two draped female figures — 
evidently Hercules strangling the serpents sent against him by Hera. On 
the lower section of this side, and under the words 0HS! EYZ 
rNflPIZ MATA, w as a much defaced nude figure on the left, 
supporting what seemed to be a full sack, and on the right three draped 
figures. 

I understand that they are continuing to find objects of interest at 
Nablous, which I trust shortly to have an opportunity of going to examine. 



THE PASSAGE OP THE ISRAELITES ACROSS TFTE 

RED SEA. 

By Sir John Coode. 

The Quarterly Statement for April of last year contained an interesting 
article by Professor Hull, of Dublin, on " The Relations of Land and Sea 
in the Isthmus of Suez at the time of the Exodus," wherein he deals with 
the question of the actual position of the passage of the Red Sea by the 
Children of Israel. 

Professor Hull justly remarks that, according to the present position of 
land and water, there is a direct landway across into the " wilderness of 
Etham," and he asks whether, if at the time of the Exodus the physical 
conditions of the district north of Suez had been the same as they are now 
(of course he disregards for the moment the existence of the Suez Canal), 
there would have been cause for the cry of despair from the Israelites, or 



98 THE PASSAGE OF THE ISRAELITES ACROSS THE RED SEA. 

the necessity for a stupendous miracle of deliverance such as the Bible 
narrative relates ! 

He then proceeds to show that the beds of sand and gravel containing 
shells, corals, and other marine forms now existing in the waters of the 
Gulf of Suez (which beds are found on either side of that gulf up to at 
least 200 feet above the present sea-level) form complete evidence of the 
elevation of the whole land area of that particular region, but that this 
elevation must have taken place at a time long antecedent to that of the 
Exodus. He points out, what is true, that if at the time of the Exodus 
an elevation of not more than from 25 feet to 30 feet had remained to be 
effected, the land now forming the southern part of the Isthmus of Suez 
would have been submerged by the waters of the Eed Sea, and he regards 
it as in the highest degree probable that as far back as the time " when 
the Exodus took place the waters of the Eed Sea extended northwards up 
the valley at least as far as the Bitter Lakes, producing a channel 20 to 30 
feet in depth, and perhaps a mile in breadth ; a terrible barrier to the 
Israelites, and sufficient to induce a cry of despair from the whole mul- 
titude." 

Having quite recently traversed the whole Isthmus, making a special 
examination of the portion between Ismailiya and Suez, the following 
incident, which then occurred, appears to me to be worthy of notice, inas- 
much as it is eminently corroborative of Dr. Hull's view. 

Whilst engaged with other members of the International Commission 
upon the investigation of various matters connected with the question of 
improving the Suez Canal, some of our party landed from time to time, 
and on one occasion at a point between what is now the north end of the 
Gulf of Suez and the south of the Bitter Lakes, not, in fact, very far to the 
north of the bridge of boats by which the pilgrims to and from Mecca cross 
the Canal. 

Desiring to test for myself the character and hardness of the unbroken 
ground at this point, and at a height of about 12 or lb feet above sea-level, 
the first stroke of a pick turned up, from 3 inches below the surface, a 
thick cake of a dull white substance which at the moment appeared to be 
gypsum, and whilst stooping to take it up, I remarked accordingly ; but 
simultaneously, a colleague who was standing at my side exclaimed "Salt." 
On asking him how it came to pass that he so instantly arrived at this con- 
clusion, he replied that the whole district thereabouts was full of such salt. 

When it is explained that this gentleman had the engineering charge 
of a considerable length of this part of the Suez Canal at the time the work 
was in course of construction, and consequently had thus acquired an 
intimate knowledge of this district, and also that on testing the ground 
at other points thereabouts, I found salt existing below a thin covering of 
sand at heights considerably above the sea-level, there is ample warrant 
for saying, as I have done, that the extensive existence of salt in this form 
and at such a height cannot be regarded otherwise than as a proof that the 
waters of the Bed Sea did at one time extend as far north as the Bitter 
Lakes ; a specimen nearly an inch thick is before me as I write. 



THE PASSAGE OF THE ISRAELITES ACROSS THE RED SEA. 99 

Further evidence that, at some time antecedent to the formation of the 
Suez Canal, the sea extended as far up the Isthmus as the Bitter Lakes, is 
found in a remarkable sample of salt which was cut from the bottom of 
the Bitter Lakes by the engineers of the Suez Canal Company before the 
sea was let in to effect the completion of the water communication between 
the northern and southern sections of the work. This block of salt, to 
Which my attention was directed by M. de Lesseps, is preserved in the 
courtyard attached to the offices of the Canal Company at Ismailiya ; it 
is fully 7 feet in height, and, according to M. Voisin Bey, who at the 
time it was taken out acted as the Company's Chief Engineer in Egypt, 
salt certainly existed to a still greater depth, but to what precise extent is 
not known. 

I may here mention that whilst passing over the 1,500 (English 
statute) miles from the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb to Suez, the water of the 
Red Sea is so far changed by evaporation that samples taken from the 
surface at Suez have been proved to be nearly 2 parts in 1000 salter than 
those at Bab-el-Mandeb. It should be borne in mind, moreover, that an 
exceptionally great amount of evaporation would necessarily take place 
within such a comparatively shallow inland basin as that of the Bitter 
Lakes, having its surface swept by the hot dry air of the Arabian Desert, 
and shut in from the Mediterranean by the high land at Serapeum 
immediately to the north, or at any rate by the still higher ridge of 
country at El Guisr. These conditions would obviously contribute to the 
formation <>f such a remarkable deposit of salt as is found in the specimen 
above described. 

A peculiar feature in this specimen is the presence of an occasional 
thin layer of sand, most probably caused during the prevalence of violent 
southerly winds which from time to time raise the sea-level at Suez 
ii. -arly 3 feet above that of an ordinary spring tide in calm weather. The 
strong current to the northward on such occasions would be certain to carry 
a considerable quantity of sand into the Bitter Lakes, sufficient, it may be 
assumed, to account for the layers of sand in question. 

The facts to which I have here called attention appear to me unques- 
tionably to confirm the view entertained by Professor Hull. Feeling, with 
him, that according to this view the physical conditions at the time of the 
Exodus will be brought into harmony with the Bible narrative, and that 
the difficulty which has hitherto surrounded the subject of the passage of 
the Israelites through the Red Sea will thus have been to a great extent 
removed, I have ventured to send you the result of my own recent personal 
observations in the locality in question. 



100 THE CITY OF DAVID. 

THE CITY OF DAVID. 

By the Rev. W. F. Birch. 

"Nil tarn difficile est, quin quserendo investigari possiet." — Ter. H. T. 

So long as knowledge grows from more to more, will thoughtful writers on 
Jerusalem from time to time change, or at least qualify, their opinions. Mr. 
Fergusson in 1847 placed Acra west of the Temple, but in 1860 north of it. 
.Surely, until he reverts to his earlier opinion, no one can fairly quote the 
weight of his name as in favour of the western site, which he has delibe- 
rately abandoned for more than twenty years. But if a writer is always 
to be tied down to what he has once written, and afterwards distinctly 
repudiated, then I must ask Captain Conder to submit to his own ruling, 
and to allow me to quote the weight of his own name, in favour of the 
Ophel site for the City of David, and against his later statements, since in 
Quarterly Statement, 1877, p. 179, he said, "Thus the City of David, in this 
case, is Ophel." 

Another error into which Captain Conder has fallen may also be cor- 
rected, as it bears on the position of Zion, and most readers are weary of 
arguments pro and con, and so in accepting theories are guided solely by 
the names of their respective advocates. In the Memoirs ("Jerusalem," 
p. 93) he says that " Sion has been supposed by Lewin to be identical with 
the Upper City of Jerusalem." Many will learn with surprise that Lewin 
was a most determined opponent of the common opinion, that the Upper 
( 'ity was the site of Zion, and actually accentuated his aversion to such 
an identification bv dubbing the Upper City pseudo-Zion, i.e., the false or 
spurious Zion. "Afterwards, in 'Siege of Jerusalem, 1863,' Lewin holds 
that the names 'Zion' and the ' City of David' were originally applied to 
the whole city of Jerusalem ; that the latter was subsequently appropriated 
by popular belief to that portion of Ophel where he supposes ' David's 
palace to have stood.' Accordingly, throughout his book, lie speaks of 
the south-west quarter of the city as ' now called Zion,' thereby intimating 
that it had no ancient right to this special designation ; and yet, incon- 
sistently enough, the name of Sion is given to it in his plan.'' 

I am obliged to take this extract from "The Psalms of David" (by 
E. F.), as I cannot myself refer to " The Siege," since the Fund's copy has 
been indefinitely borrowed. Some reader of these pages perhaps will 
kindly correct me if I misrepresent Lewin's opinion, who, as it seems to 
me, never maintained that Zion was identical with the Upper City. 

Whoever assails my theory must inevitably catch a Tartar, for the 
simple reason that the site I advocate is the very one appropriated (as many 
admit) to Zion in the Book of Nehemiah ; and Nehemiah (be it remem- 
bered) himself was chief surveyor at Jerusalem and rebuilt its walls, and 
therefore must have known the position of Zion, the City of David, a 
thousand times better than either Joseph us or any other writer on 
Jerusalem from his day to this. 

As no one seems disposed to accept my challenge and grapple boldly 



THE CITY OF DAVID. 101 

•with my theory, I suppose it is time for me to make a sally and expose 
the utter hollowness of the arguments alleged in favour of the rival sites 
for Zion, positions well descrihed (to use Lewin's word) as pseudo-Zions. 

N..w the key to the whole question of the true site of Zion consists of 
two simple facts, viz. : 

(A) That the Hebrew version always describes the Valley of Hinnom 
as ge-Wmnom, and the Brook Kidron (on the east side of Jerusalem) as 
nachal-Kidron, never once interchanging the two words ge and nackal. 

(B) That in the historical books of the Bible, the City of David is six 
times called Zion, but never in a single instance Mount Zion, while in the 
Psalms and Prophets this term is often applied to the Temple. Consistently 
with this distinction, 1 Maccabees, omitting all mention of Zion simply, 
speaks of the City of David as one place and Mount Zion as another, iden- 
tifying it with the Temple or sanctuary. 

Through disregarding these reasonable distinctions, and taking geto be 
equivalent to nachal, and Zion (the City of David) to be the same as Mount 
Zion, writers have unconsciously produced such a confusion in Jerusalem 
topography, that with scores of books bearing on the subject, very few 
persons are aware of the true site of the City of David. 

This remarkable distinction between ge and nachal, I must add, is no 
invention of mine devised to prop up my theory. Gesenius long since 
observed it, Lewin approved of it, Williams " had misgivings " in disregard- 
ing it, Thrupp and Captain Conder and others have recognised it ; I merely 
insist on its rigid application, contident that it is the key to Jerusalem. 

Further, that the City of David is never historically called Mount Zion 
in the Bible is a point that any Bible reader may verify for himself. 
Having got possession of this invaluable key, let me now use it without 
fear against all the pseudo-Zions, and show how untenable and indefensible 
it makes every one of the various positions held by the opponents of my 

theory. 

First I will take the site west of the Temple originally proposed (though 
it resembles Lightfoot's) by Sir Charles Warren, since with his opinion on 
many kindred points I am in the closest agreement. 

I. Zion, South and not West of the Temple. 

In 1871 Sir C. Warren stated in the " Becovery of Jerusalem," that 
" in the Book of Nehemiah, the City of David, the House of David, and the 
Sepulchre of David, all appear to be on the south-eastern side of the hill 
of Ophel, near the Virgin's Fount, and yet such a position for Zion appears 
at first sight to be out of the question." 

Seven years passed over before I perceived that the apparently 
contrary evidence, which seemed to Sir C. Warren to make the Ophel 
position for Zion " out of the question," really was in strict agreement 
with the evidence of Nehemiah. Seven years more have rolled on since 
that time, yet I regret to have to add that the whole Biblical evidence, 
which I have from time to time shown to be consistent, and to point to but 



102 THE CITY OF DAVID. 

one conclusion, still appears to hini contradictory, and leads him still to 
place Zion, the City of David, on the western side of the Temple, and not 
on Ophel on its southern side. When I place Ziou on Ophel, he admits 
" it is the natural position to assign to it on reading the Book of Nehemiah, 
only it does not seem to me to accord with the other accounts." 

I am very desirous that Sir C. Warren from an opponent should become 
an ally of my theory, by being convinced that this natural position is also 
the true position. One important result, I believe, would be that a 
diligent and (I anticipate) a successful search would soon be made for the 
sepulchres of David, and of the Kings of Judah, and the discovery of 
these most interesting and magnificent relics of pre-exilic Jerusalem 
would, once and for ever, lay the restless ghost of controversy about the 
position of the City of David, and save me the trouble of demolishing the 
other pseudo-Zions. 

With this object I would point out two things— 

(1) That the weight of Nehemiah's evidence is simply overwhelming. 

(2) That his evidence is really in the strictest accord with all the 

other accounts except one or two palpably incorrect statements 
of Josephus. 

The Book of Nehemiah (as admitted by Sir C. Warren) places (1) the 
Sepulchres of David (iii, 16), (2) the House of David (xii, 37), and (3) and 
(4) the stairs of the City of David (iii, 15 ; xii, 37), between the Pool of 
Siloah and the Temple, i.e., on Ophel (so-called). It is also to be noted 
that in harmony with these indications " the House of the Mighty " (or 
Gibborim, the technical name of David's body-guard) is further (iii, 16) 
spoken of as being in this part, i.e., on Ophel. 

Here I must ask two questions. In the case of what sacred site does 
the identification rest upon fuller or better evidence than the Book of 
Nehemiah gives in the case of the City of David ? If these four or five 
consistent statements in Nehemiah can reasonably be discredited, what 
identifications can reasonably be believed ] Is it not far more probable 
that Nehemiah's statements are the truth, the whole truth, aud nothing 
but the truth, and that the other sacred writers have been misunderstood 
by Sir C. Warren, than that the Biblical statements about the City of 
David are inconsistent and contradictory ? 

Sir C. Warren (" Temple or Tomb," p. 41) thinks it " probable that from 
the first the site of the Holy Sepulchre was known among the Christians, 
and that it has never been for -gotten ." But is it not much more probable 
that the Jews, with far less difficulties to contend with, never forgot the 
site of the Sepulchre of David, and of the City of David I When Sir 0. 
Warren rejects the Ophel site for Zion, it seems to me that he has to 
suppose that the Jews, in the time of Nehemiah, had actually become 
misled about the true position of the Tomb and the House and the City 
of David, although there had been no break whatever in the continuity of 
their knowledge about these revered localities, for " many of the priests 
and Levites and chief of the fathers, who were ancient men, that had 
seen the first house," were present when "the foundation of this (second 



THE CITY OF DAVID. 103 

Temple i.e.) house was laid before their eyes " (Ezra iii, 12). Is it possible 
that all these had either forgotten the position of the chief sites in " the 
city of their fathers' sepulchres," or else agreed to transfer them to wrong 
positions ? Any such ignorance .or conspiracy is utterly inconceivable. 
If it is once admitted that the Book of Nehemiah places the Tomb and the 
House and the City of David all on Ophel, then, whatever be the con- 
sequences, I see no way of escape from a frank admission that these 
localities were actually on Ophel. 

The position, however, held by Sir C. "Warren I understand to be this, 
viz., that strong as is the evidence in Nehemiah in favour of Zion, the City 
of David, having been on Ophel, nevertheless the evidence requiring Zion 
to have been elsewhere seems to him still stronger and only to be satisfied 
by his site. As in the Athenaeum, 1881, he writes of "The Temple or the 
Tomb " thus, " I must state emphatically that this book is a very serious 
attempt to settle the topography of Jerusalem, and one that I have no 
doubt will be successful," I take that work as setting forth his reasons 
for placing Zion west of the Temple. 

Let me first, however, state certain points on which I agree with this 
most candid of opponents. He states in his book — 

(a) p. 21 : "They (the first book of Maccabees) call the sanctuary 

. . . Mount Zion." 

(b) 9 : " Zion, . . . the royal sepulchres were also there." 

(c) 9, 10 : " Zion formed part and was the fortress of Jerusalem. Zion 

was not synonymous or co-extensive with Jerusalem. We have 
not a single instance in the historical books of the term Zion, or 
the City of David, being used for the whole city. 

(d) 24, 25 : " His (i.e., Josephus') vagueness in speaking of the topo- 

graphy of the past . . . greatly in contrast with the precision 
throughout the historical books (of the Bible) and 1 Maccabees. 
. . . It does not appear in any case that he gives any help in 
the topography " {i.e., of the Jerusalem of the Old Testament). 

(e) 13 : " There can be little doubt that Zion the stronghold was in 

Benjamin." 

Having thus successfully threaded his way through what have proved 
great stumbling blocks to many, Sir C. Warren seems to me to have been 
completely beguiled into a wrong conclusion by three misconceptions : first 
as to (A) and (B) above, in reference to the distinction between ge and 
nachal, and between Zion and Mount Zion ; and next, (C), that the Acra 
of Josephus was west and not south of the Temple. 

Unconscious of his first misconception, Sir C. "Warren writes ("Temple 
or Tomb," p. 35) in support of his western site thus : " This position I have 
assigned to Zion is the only one which allows of accord in the several 
accounts, and is the only site yet proposed that will render intelligible 
the passage, ' Now after this, he (Manasseh) built a wall without the City 
of David, on the west side of Gihon in the valley' (2 Chron. xxxiii, 14)." 
One has only to point out that the word here rendered valley is in the 
Hebrew version nachal, and at once it will be apparent that this passage, 



104 THE CITY OF DAVID. 

instead of supporting Sir C. Warren's theory, is directly opposed to it, and 
confirms the evidence of Nehemiah. For a wall in the nachal or Kidron 
Valley, which is on the east side of Jerusalem, could not possibly be on 
the west side of Jerusalem. While, further, as Gihon literally means a 
spring, and not a pool, and as the only spring in the Kidron Valley is the 
Virgin's Fount, a lower wall on the east side of Ophel just west of that 
Fount (as required by this passage) would exactly suit the indications of 
Nehemiah which place the City of David on Ophel. 

Even if some sophist could succeed in persuading one that nachal does 
not always in regard to Jerusalem mean the Kidron, still it might fairly 
be urged that it was needless to make the Bible contradictory, by applying 
to the valley running westwards from the Temple a term which un- 
doubtedly often refers to the Kidron, especially when the usual application 
would leave Nehemiah and 2 Chronicles in perfect accord. So again, in 
like manner, 2 Chron. xxxii, 30, may be as well explained by the Ophel 
site for the City of David as by one west of the Temple, while it is 
probable that if Gihon means (as it must) the Virgin's Fount in xxxii i, 
14, it also means the same spring in xxxii, 30. 

One mistake often leads to and confirms another. Unaware that the 
nachal (Kidron) could not be the ge (Hinnom), Sir C. Warren drew the 
boundary between Judah and Benjamin which "went up by the valley of 
the son of Hinnom " (Josh, xv, 8) from " the Virgin's Fount, up the 
(Valley of Hinnom) Kedron, until nearly opposite the south-east angle 
of the Noble Sanctuary, where it crossed over the hill of Moriah at the 
southern side of the Temple, and thence up the Tyropceon Valley to the 
Jaffa Gate" ("Jerusalem Rec," p. 307). As this line quite excluded the 
Ophel site from Benjamin (see (e) above), Sir C. Warren appears to think 
it unnecessary to discuss the Ophel site in " The Temple or the Tomb," and 
accordingly he does not make any allusion to the evidence of Nehemiah, 
even while he takes the trouble of saying (p. 24), " Akra {i.e., Zion) could 
not have been south of the upper city as here fixed, and if further to the 
north than Et-Takiyeh, it would have been on the other side of the 
valley," &c. 

Had he only gone on to deal with the Ophel site, I believe Sir Charles 
Warren and not I would now be its most resolute defender. 

Further, unaware of his second misconception, Sir C. Warren writes 
("Temple or Tomb," p. 11): "It would hardly be necessary to point out 
that Mounts Zion and Moriah were distinct hills, were it not that of late 
years they have been pronounced by some writers to be identical. In the 
first place, for many years after King David captured Jerusalem, Zion 
was a royal city, while Moriah must have been beyond Jerusalem, and 
was the private property of a sheikh or chieftain of the Jebusites. Then, 
again, David had to go up to Mount Moriah, which he could not have 
•lone had the two been identical ; then we have the grand ceremony of 
bringing up the ark of God out of the City of David, which is Zion, up to 
Mount Moriah." 

Here misconception as to (B), or involuntary confusion between Zion 



THE CITY OF DAVID. 105 

and Mount Zion, makes a mountain of difficulty where everything is 
really smooth and plain. Only let it be borne in mind that Zion was the 
City of David, and that Mount Zion (the higher part of the ridge north of 
Zion) was the site of the Temple-- i.e., Mount Moriah— and these three 
points turn out to be genuine supporters of my theory. 

David lived in Zion, the City of David, while Mount Moriah was 
outside it. Therefore he could go up and the ark could be brought up 
"out of the City of David which is Zion" to Mount Moriah {alias Mount 
Zion). 

I have thus shown that the Biblical passages claimed by Sir C. Warren 
as requiring another site for Zion than that marked out in Nehemiah, are 
really in the strictest harmony with the evidence of that book. Instead 
of there being any "difficulty or discrepancy" about the Biblical state- 
ments, there is nothing but perfect concord among them, as to the position 
of the City of David. 

After this it would only be so much the worse for the credit of 
Josephus if the third misconception (C) that I have attributed to Sir 
C. Warren could be shown to be no misconception on his part. For what 
value, in opposition to the Bible, would belong to the opinion of a" vague " 
writer like Josephus, who " does not appear in any case to give any help " 
in the topography of pre-exilic Jerusalem, but has rather made of it a 
Gordian knot by a few rash conjectures and inaccurate statements of his 
own devising ? Bare justice, however, to the Jewish historian demands 
that I should point out that he nevertheless places his Acra south of the 
Temple, so that he also is thereby a witness in favour of the Ophelsite for 
Zion, inasmuch as he makes his Acra correspond with the fortress or 
Acra of the Maccabees, and this (1 Mace, i, 33) was identical with the City 
of David. (See Acra south of the Temple.) 

One or two other points still remain to be noticed. It is said (" Temple 
or Tomb," p. 12) that "in no single instance in the historical books is 
this (that it was a holy place) said of Zion after the building of the Temple." 
This, however, from 2 Chron. viii, 11, seems hardly to be correct, and 
curiously enough this verse is quoted on p. 6. Yet after the ark had been 
taken out of Zion, the City of David, one does not expect to read 
historically anything implying that it was still there. 

Sir C. Warren admits ("Temple or Tomb," p. 18) that no argument as 
to the position of Zion, the City of David, can be derived from the poetical 
books, yet afterwards he points out that Psalm xlviii may be an exception, 
and " if so we have direct proof that Zion, the City of David, stood on 
the north side of the city." 

Obviously he refers to the words, " Beautiful for situation, the joy of 
the whole earth, is Mount Zion on the sides of the north, the city of the 
great King." But, unhappily for his theory, even here it is Mount Zion 
(or the Temple), and not Zion the City of David, that is said to be towards 
the north. In Quarterly Statement, 1883, p. 154 (see also 1878, p. 183), I have 
pointed out that the Rabbis (though misunderstocd by Lightfoot and 
Fergusson) in several passages place Mount Zion (i.e., the Temple) on the 



106 THE CITY OF DAVID. 

north side of the city (i.e., of David), or Zion. Therefore Zion was south 
of the Temple. 

Lastly, if Sir C. Warren should urge ("Temple or Tomb," p. 21) that 
the foreign soldiers descended from the Acra (i.e., the City of David) to 
molest the Jews, and that they could not have descended from the Ophel 
site, then the answer is that it is either he himself or Josephus who makes 
them to descend, since 1 Maccabees, the reliable authority for these times 
(which Josephus was not), speaks rather of a going up from the Acra to 
the Temple (1 Mace, vii, 33). 

As, therefore, (1) Sir C.Warren admits that Nehemiah in four particulars 
places the City of David on Ophel, and (2) as it has been shown that 
2 Chron. xxxiii, 14, instead of requiring his western site, makes it 
impossible, and that there was no difficulty in going from Zion, the City of 
David, to Mount Zion, the site of the Temple, and that according to Psalm 
xlviii and the Rabbis, Mount Zion, or the Temple, was on the north side of 
(Zion) the City of David ; for it is admitted that 1 Maccabees gives the name 
of Mount Zion to the Temple, and identifies the City of David with its 
Acra ; and (3) as this Acra is identified by Josephus with his Acra, which he 
has been shown to place south of the Temple, I now invite Sir C. Warren 
either to find some fresh defence for his pseudo-Zion or to abandon it 
entirely and occupy what he has all along admitted is Nehemiah's site, 
viz., that on Ophel so-called. 

I await with keen pleasure Sir C. Warren's attention to these remarks, 
hoping that he will (if he can) overthrow my conceit or else become the 
latest and ablest advocate of the Ophel site for Zion. To his memorable 
excavations at Jerusalem I am deeply indebted for my interest in the 
Holy City. If his works have enabled me, as a dwarf on a giant's shoulders, 
on the one solitary point of the true site of Zion, to see at present some- 
what further than he has done, I cheerfully own my obligation to such 
an instructor. 

Most gladly, too, shall I turn chameleon and change from a hasty critic 
to a patient spectator, whenever an outburst of enthusiasm for discovering 
the hidden catacombs of David sends forth a treasure-laden band of 
explorers to resume his too long suspended work of discovery. In this 
case whom would the men of Silwan (" Jerusalem Rec," p. 243) more eagerly 
hail in their native tongue as a guide through the labyrinthine sepulchres 
of Ophel, than the well-known Monitor Xiloticus (Quarterly Statement, 
1871, p. 80) of the Philistian plain \ 

Meanwhile, if any one (in the absence of our gibborim in Africa) 
thinks that I go in for assertion rather than for argument, let him not 
fail at once ruthlessly (and if he likes anonymously) to expose the 
fallacies of my fancied reasoning. 

Perish my theory if it be false ; but if it is true, then the very next 
thine is to search for the sepulchres of David, so that some fortunate 
explorer may telegraph to Mr. Besant almost in the very words of Caesar, 
" Veni, vidi, vici." 

W. I. Bincn. 



THE CITY OF DAVID. 107 

P.S.— I see that at the Carlisle Church Congress,, Canon Tristram 
practically accepted my challenge and attacked the Ophel site for Zion is 
the following words : — 

" Still less does it seem to me possible to conceive that the City of 
David, the fortress, was on Ophel, dominated by the higher rock of 
Moriah behind, and with the commanding brow of the modern City of David 
to the west. To any one acquainted with the strategic sites of ancient 
fortresses, the hypothesis is simply impossible. What becomes of the 
wall of Ophel excavated by Sir C. "Warren, and which is referred to in 
Kings and Chronicles as the work of Manasseh 1 And again, there is no 
question as to the Jerusalem of the period of the return. "We read the 
minute details of Nehemiah, and no ingenuity can square his description 
of the circuit with the suggested position of the City of David." 

Now it is remarkable that not men of war, like Sir C. Warren and 
Captain Conder, but Canon Tristram, like myself, a man of peace, should 
be the first to urge that, from a military point of view, it is impossible 
that the City of David, a fortress, ever stood on Ophel. 

In "Jerusalem Eecovered,'' Sir C. Warren observes that there is a 
rocky knoll on the Ophel ridge higher than the ground immediately north 
of it. This knoll he marks at 2,290 feet (p. 298). If the ancient fortress 
of the Jebusites reached northward as far as this knoll, and was fortified 
here by a wall 50 feet high, then according to his plan of the rock levels 
it would not be dominated by any point on the Moriah ridge, or on the 
western hill (the modern Sion), within a distance of 400 feet. But at 
that distance, against walls built of mezzeh, what would even Arish's bow 
have availed, though it was reputed to have carried between 400 and 500 
miles ? 

If in the age of the twelve spies, the cities of Canaan were " walled up 
to heaven," why might not the castle of Zion, 400 years after, be fortified 
in its weakest point by a wall 50 feet high ? And how then, I would 
ask, does Canon Tristram propose with a sling and a stone, or even with a 
long bow, in the absence of catapults, to capture a fortress not dominated 
within a range of 400 feet ? Secondly, as the Ophel wall discovered by 
Sir C. Warren is at least 200 feet north of the knoll (the assumed 
northern point of the City of David), the date of its construction has 
nothing to do with David's Zion. 

Thirdly, "the minute details of Nehemiah " place (and are admitted 
by Sir C. Warren to appear to place) the City of David solely on Ophel. 

1 am glad to see every form of objection urged against Ophel (so called) 
being the site of the City of David, since, as the feebleness of each objec- 
tion is exposed, it will gradually dawn on one and another opponent that 
Nehemiah's site is both true and reasonable. One unique and invaluable 
advantage that this site possessed I may here name in passing, viz., that 
by means of a secret passage (Sir C. Warren's shaft, or the " Gutter," 

2 Sam. v, 8) the defenders of Zion had at their service an inexhaustible 
supply of water from the Virgin's Fount. 

If now the opponents of the eastern hill once more fall back from 

i 



108 SUGGESTED IDENTIFICATION OF BEROTIIAH OR BEROTHAI. 

arguments on names they will be worse off than ever, since General 
Gordon (" Reflections in Palestine," p. 14) observed, " The Hebrew ' tzion ' 
is always the eastern hill." It will take a few bushels of names to out- 
weigh that of the noble hero of Khartoum. 



NOTES BY THE REV. G. H. TOMKINS. 
I. 
SUGGESTED IDENTIFICATION OF BEROTHAH OR BEROTHAI. 

This place, so important on the northern frontier of Palestine, has never 
yet been fixed. The name B-rothah, nrTH3> i' s on h' gi yen by Ezekiel 
(xlvii, 16) in setting out the boundaries of the tribes. I do not doubt 
that it is the B-rotbai, or B-ruthi, ^ni"Q> or ^iTD' °f 2 Sam. viii, 8, a 
city of Hadadezer, King of Zobah, taken from him by David. I hope to 
show that this place may now be identified in a very interesting way, 
both by its name and by its probable position, and I will take the matter 
as it came to me, only premising that if I am wrong in separate points 
still my main jiosition may hold good. 

In the Karnak List of Northern Syrian towns made tributary by 
Thothmes III (Mariette, "Karnak," pi. 19, 20, 21) occurs Bur-su (141). 
In "Proc. Soc. Bib. Arch.," Jan. 9th, 1883, I made a guess at its being 
possibly the Bisuru of Assurnazirpal (now Tell Basher), but this did not 
satisfy me, and it occurred to my mind that the explanation might be 
found in the Semitic word for cypress, or perhaps pine-tree, viz., Assyr. 
burdshu; Heb. b-ros/i, ^"Hl '■> Aram. 6-rM, jTTfli Arab- (says Kitto) 
burasi and burati ; Syr. vers, berutha ; Chald. berath. 

Now the Bursit of Thothmes is very close to the Assyrian burdshu, 
allowing for the Syrian s instead of sh, which the Rutennu, lords of the 
land in the time of Thothmes, would use. Burasu and the Egyptain 
transcript Bur-su are one word, and this led me to the country of conifer- 
ous trees, and to the name B-rothah in the Bible. 

It has been supposed that the B-rothah of Ezekiel is Beirftt, but I think 
this quite inadmissible from the situation of Beirftt, and also from the 
name, which seems much more likely to be Heb. jTH^;}, we U s ! and 
here I think Egyptian records will help us. For we have a Beeroth in 
the Palestine List of Karnak, No. 19, Bartu, so recognised both by 
Mariette and by Maspero (Zt., 1881, p. 123). And again, we have Beirtit in 
theMohar's travels, Bartha (Brugsch, "Geog. Inschr.," vol. ii, 42 ; Pierret, 
"Voc," pp. 124, 126). And these names differ from Bur-su as Beeroth, 
m"lN3' from B-rosh or Burasu, Berutha in the Syriac, and B-rothah in 
Ezekiel, and B-rothi in 2 Sam. viii, 8, which might well be near Rihlali, 
but could not be Beirftt, a place of the Phoenicians who were friends and 
close allies of David. 



SUGGESTED IDENTIFICATION OF BEROTIIAH OR BEKOTHAI. 109 

But I am anticipating. In the very interesting letter of M. Clermont- 
Ganneau (Times, Dec. 29, 1883, Quarterly Statement, Jan. 1884), the name 
of Wady Brissa struck me in connection with the rock-inscriptions of 
Nebuchadnezzar found there by M. Pognon, who thinks " that these 
texts mark the site of a timber-yard where trees were cut to be sent 
to Babylon." Now this seems to me to cohere with all the evidence, as I 
will try to show. 

The name of the wady, " one of the wildest valleys on the eastern 
slope of Lebanon, about two hours from Hermel," appears also as the 
name of a place, Brisa, in the beautiful Carte du Liban of the French 
Imperial Government, at the mouth of the wady, down which a stream 
is marked as flowing to the Orontes. Brisa seems to declare the root 
B-R-S, which in various modifications signifies to cut (including B-R-TH), 
and this is the key to the names given above as designating the cypress, 
or pine, which was regarded as timber for hewing. 

Now in Syriac names habitually end in the vowel a, and (as we have 
said) take the sound of s rather than of sh. And I think Brisa may well 
be so called from the tree in question, which Mr. Carruthers, of the 
British Museum, takes to be the Pinus Halepensis ("Bible Educ," iv, 359) ; 
and it may well be this tree which the conquered people of the Lebanon 
are represented as felling for Seti I, that he might build a great ship, 
and rear their stately stems as masts for the bright streamers in front of 
his temples. 

We know that Thothmes III led his armies to the Lebanon, and 
thence drew the tribute that pleased him. The ships of Phoenicia were 
laden with sticks of timber and masts, together with long poles of wood 
for [the dwellings of] the king, who had founded in the country of 
Lebanon a fortress of unusual strength, named after himself, near the 
Pluenician cities of Aradus and Simyra at the foot of Lebanon (Brugsch, 
"Hist.," vol. i, pp. 334, 336). 

The great valley of Ccele-Syria, the course of the Orontes, the new 
walls and towers of Kadesh, were well known to this hardy warrior-king. 
And I know not why the name Bursu should not have marked the 
place in his time, where Nebuchadnezzar gathered his stores of pine- 
timber so long afterwards, and which is now known by the name of Brisa. 

Possibly another name, hard by Brisa, may illustrate this supposition. 
In the Carte du Liban I find on the other side of Hermel a place marked 
Erenieh. 

Now erinu is the Assyrian name for the cedar, as in Hebrew V^ 

occurs in Isaiah xliv, 14. May not Erenieh be named from grin, as Brisa 
from B-rosh ? 

I will now endeavour to prove that Brisa is a very likely site for 
Berothah, taking that place also as the B-rothi of Samuel. 

It was one of the cities of Hadadezer, King of Zobah, whom David 
defeated towards Hamath, where an intrusive Hittite king, Toil, was at 
war with Hadadezer (see Sayce, "Fresh Light from the Monuments," 
p. 163.) It is not surprising that Hadadezer, who had subjugated the 

i 2 



110 SUGGESTED IDENTIFICATION OF BEROTHAH OR BEROTHAI. 

minor "kings of Zobah" whom Saul had beaten, should hold lordship 
over the upper course of the Orontes. 

And, as far as we know, Brisa will suit Ezekiel's boundary right well. 
Unfortunately "the way of Khethlon" is not known. May Heit, west of 
Riblah, be Khethlon ? It is on the way from "the great sea" to Zedad, 
i.e., Sudud (Ezek. xlvii, 16). I think this description may be partly 
cleared as follows : " from the great sea the way of Khethlon towards the 
entrance to Zedad-Hamath [or Zedad of Hamath] ; Berothah, Sibrim 
(which is on the frontier of Damascus and Hamath) ; the middle Khatser 
(which is on the frontier of Khauran) ; and the frontier from the 
west Khatser- Ainun the frontier of Damascus, and Zephon [the Orontes, 
as Captain Conder suggests] northwards, and the frontier of Hamath." 
The Septuagint, which is very confused, seems to read Zedad-Hamath 
as one name transposed, viz., Hemaseldam. If we take it as meaning 
Zedad of Hamath the difficulty of getting Hamath into the frontier-list 
disappears ; and then all will go consistently. For we thus cut out the 
Phoenician territory, including the Lebanon, by a line following the 
opening of the Nahr el Keblr to a little south of the Bahr el Kades, then 
striking the Orontes near Hermel, and perhaps making its south-east 
comer at Sabura, west of Damascus (Sibrim 1 QV^p), an d then west- 
wards to the north of Hermon until it finds the sea again. This will 
not take the frontier to Zedad, but to the entrance (fc^O^X "as men go 
to Zedad" (A.V.), or, as the Vulgate puts it, "a mari magno via 
Hethalon, venientibus Sedada." 

Then Khatser-ainum, if it be at 'Ain el Asy, as Captain Conder suggests, 
would be quite in the line following the higher waters of the Orontes 
(Zephon), and he says that it is "close to the present north-west limit of 
the Damascus district." 

But the situation of Berothah seems to be nearly settled by one 
Biblical coincidence. The place called Berothai in 2 Sam. viii is designated 
Kon, p^, evidently the Conna of the Antonine Itinerary, in the parallel 

text of 1 Chron. xviii, 8. 

This lias been set by Porter and the Carte du Liban at Pas Ba'albek ; 
but the thirty-two Roman miles given from Heliopolis will overreach 
Pas Ba'albek, and accordingly Captain Conder suggests Kamu'a el Hirmil. 
But this distance will very nearly bring us to Brisa, which may surely 
well be B-rothah and K6n. 

If indeed the Brisa of the rock-inscriptions of Nebuchadnezzar were 
the Bursu of Thothmes, and the Biblical Berotha, it would be a wealthy 
place, and David might well have taken "exceeding much brass" thence. 
And this would bring David's northern limit very near to the land of the 
Hittitea and to Kadesh, as the record of his census shows in 2 Sam. 
xxiv, 6. 

P.S. — I think it a very interesting tiling that in the Karnak List of 
Northern Syria, No. 246, is found the name J.ehu, which must, I think, 
be Lebweh on the road half-way between Ba'albek and Brisa, which 



THE QUE OF THE ASSYRIAN ANNALS IN THE BIBLE, ETC. Ill 

"modern name is sometimes pronounced Lebu," says Captain Burton. "It 
is the Lybo or Lybon of the Antonine Itinerary." ("Unexpl. Syria," 
vol. i, 64) [? Libo]. 



II. 

THE QUE OF THE ASSYRIAN ANNALS IN THE BIBLE. 

The land of Que, mentioned by Assyrian kings in their records of 
conquest, was the plain of Cilicia. 

In the last work which, still incomplete, left the hand of the lamented 
Fr. Lenormant ("Les Origines de l'Histoire," vol. iii, p. 9), he has pointed 
out the interesting fact that this land is mentioned in 1 Kings x, 28, and 
2 Chron. i, 16, where the word translated in A.V. "linenyarn" has so 
perplexed the interpreters. Jerome has given the true sense : " And 
horses were brought to Solomon from Egypt and from Coa, for the king's 
merchants bought them from Coa, and brought them at a settled price ;" 
and similarly in the parallel passage. In the Hebrew it is j-pp, W1|2i 
and it is to be noticed that " all the kings of the Hittites " must include 
the King of Qu§, as indeed we know. 

In the Septuagint the name is given as ThSkoug, Qeicove, but I think 
this was caused by the Egyptian prefix Ta, meaning " the laud," which 
might be familiar to the Alexandrian Jewish scholars. 

This is an excellent instance of the light to be gained from Assyria 
for the explanation of the Bible. The name Que also occurs in Egyptian 
records in the composite personal name of Kaui-sar, a Hittite oificer in 
Egypt. 



III. 
LUZ IN THE LAND OF THE HITTITES. 

Captain Conder thinks that the Luz built by the man who betrayed 
Bethel (Lftz), as recorded in the Book of Judges (i, 22-26), may be the 
present Luweizeh, near Banias. 

But if a more remote and northerly part of the " land of the Hittites " 
is to be preferred, it may be worth notice that in Rey's map a place called 
Qalb Louze is marked between Aleppo and Antioch, in the middle of 
the Hittite region. 



112 THE NAME BETH-LEHEM. 

IV. 
THE NAME BETH-LEHEM. 

The ordinary meaning given to the name Beth-lekhem is " house of 
bread," the modern name being hardly different at bottom, viz., " house 
of flesh " in Arabic, since the root QHT 1 ) *° ea ^ * s on ^Y varied in applica- 
tion, as we now restrict the old general word " meat " to flesh-meat. 

But I have long suspected that Beth-lekhem was originally a sacred 
place of the Lakhniu of whom we read in the Chaldean cosmogony 
(G. Smith, " Chaldaean Genesis," by Sayce, 58, 60, &c). Lakhmu and his 
female counterpart Lakhamu seem to have been deities of fertility. 

There is another Bethlehem (of Zebulon), equally called Beit Lahm, 
an old city of the Canaanites (Josh, xix, 15), "in the midst of an oak 
forest," says Dr. Porter (Murray, 370), a better place for a sanctuary of 
Lakhmu than for a " house of bread." 

I think this Lakhmu will also account for the name of "Lakhmi, the 
brother of Goliath the Gittite, whose spear-staff was like a weaver's beam " 
(1 Chron. xx, 5), and vindicate the text of the passage in the Chronicles 
in preference to that in 2 Sam. xxi, 19, which is otherwise doubtful. This 
devotee of Lakhmu would well match the son of Anak devoted to Saph 
(Saphi) " of the sons of Kapha " in the verse before. (See my paper on 
"Biblical Proper Names," Trans. Vict. Inst., 1882.) 

Perhaps Lakhmam, or Lakhmas, may be similarly named. It is 
supposed to be the present El Lahm, very near Beit Jibrin. "The 
situation appears satisfactory. The site is ancient " (Quarterly Statement, 
1881, p. 53). This brings us to the very haunt of the sons of the giant, 
" the house of the giants." " We still find the neighbourhood of this town 
[Beit Jibrin] producing an exceptionally tall and line race of peasants, 
greater and more stalwart men than those to be found in any other part of 
the country." So wrote the late Professor E. H. Palmer (" Jewish Nation," 
]). 58). Captain Conder speaks of the "gigantic sheikh" of this place 
("Tent Life," vol. ii, p. 153). Indeed this Lahm might well be the home 
of "Lakhmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite," and Gath is only twelve 
miles off. That the old heathen significance of Lakhmu should resolve 
itself into "bread," and the proper name Lakhmi become unintelligible 
to the Jews, would be only characteristic of the purification that so 
.signally swept Western Palestine of the monuments of its pristine idolatry, 
of which, however, the quaint memorials linger in occult forms of names 
and old-world folk-lore of the fellahin, as M. Clermont-Ganneau and 
Captain Conder and others have disclosed. 



ZOBAH, AKAM-ZOBAH, HAMATH-ZOBAII. 113 

V 
ZOBATH, ARAM-ZOBATH, HAMATH-ZOBAH. 

Zobah has, I think, never yet been identified, unless, indeed, by the 
lamented George Smith in his last explorations from Aleppo. 

Dr. Friedrich Delitsch, in his work " Wo lag das Paradies ? " p. 266, 
gives most interesting extracts from George Smith's last pencil notes, m 
which he wrote : "(April) 6 (1876) : 2.30 p.m. to 6.30 p.m. on to Sfira. 
— 7 : 6.15 to 3.30. Kanassar, at corner of lake building of basalt, road 
through hills, large city by lake. Greek inscriptions and remains, 
remains of large camp near city— earth inclosure— 8 : 3 hours past end 
of hills to Zobat or Zibat 4 miles 'round extensive ruins. Many Greek 
inscriptions, nothing earlier, tombs on hills.— 9 : 8 hours to Meskeneh, 
(Tipsah.)" 

Now the name Zobat would agree with the Assyrian form of the 
name Zubitu, or Zubutu : and the place, more than a quarter of the way 
from Aleppo to Palmyra, would surely suit well enough for Zobah. 
Professor Sayce considers Pethor, at the outlet of the Sajur into the 
Euphrates, to have been in Aram-Zobah, and says: "The territory 
Zobah, which extended into the desert towards Palmyra, adjoined Aram- 
Rehob, and Arani-Maachah (2 Sam. x, 6). Aram-Maachah again bordered 
on Geshur "in Aram" (2 Sam. xv, 8 ; iii, 3) ; and both formed parts of 
the territory allotted to Manasseh (Josh, xiii, 11, 13). However, Rehob 
and part of Zobah alone are included under the name of Arumu or Aram 
in the Assyrian inscriptions, which place them on the west of the 
Euphrates, southward of Pethor and the R. Sajur" (Queen's Pr. Bible 
Supp., p. 69). 

Is it not possible that the Tob of 2 Sam. x, 6, whence the Ammonites 
hired Aramaeans against David (with the warriors of Zobah, Beth-rehob, 
and Maakah) may be found at Taiyibeh (marked Tyba in ancient maps), 
between Palmyra and Thapsacus, and that Rehob may be Ruheibeh, 
north-east of Damascus, on the old route to Palmyra by Geruda (Porter, 
" Syria, &c," p. 505). It does not seem necessary that this Rehob should 
be the same as the northern limit of the reconnaissance of Joshua's spies. 
The name is frequent. 

" Maachah," says Canon Tristram, "lay east of Argob (Dent, iii, 14), 
and east of Bashan (Josh, xii, 5)." 

As to Khamath-Zobah, may not this be explained as the warm baths 
near Kanasir in the land of Zobah (jHftrb the eame m Hebrew without 
points as Khammath, viz., the present Hammam (" Unexpl. Syria," 
vol. ii. 180), just as at Tiberias the Khammath of Josh, xix, 35, now 
Hammam Tabariya ? 

P.S.— Is it possible that the name Ma'akah may in altered shape 
survive in the Tell Umm Ma'azah, visited by Burton and Drake, north- 
east of the Lejah I ("Unexpl. Syria," vol. i, p. 231.) 



114 EXPLOEATION IN THE DELTA OF EGYPT. 

EXPLORATION IN THE DELTA OF EGYPT. 
Br the Rev. H. G. Tomkixs. 

In the Quarterly Statement for January, 1884, some account was given of 
the important work of M. Naville for the Egypt Exploration Fund in the 
Wady Tumilat, i.e., the valley of the Sweet- water Canal. Since the 
memorable discovery at Tell el Maskhutah much has been done at San 
by Mr. Flinders Petrie ; and just now the subscribers to the Egypt Fund 
have received M. Naville's Memoir on " The Store-City of Pithom, and 
the Route of the Exodus." Of this I will first write something, and hope 
in a later number of the Quarterly to give a short account of the last 
year's work, and of that now in hand. 

M. Naville's Memoir is handsomely got up, and contains thirteen 
plates and two maps. The plates are photographic, and represent the 
statue of the recorder and the sculptured hawk, both in the British 
Museum by the gift of H.H. the Khedive to the Committee, and of the 
Committee to the Museum. The plates give the inscriptions found by 
M. Naville. In these the name of the nome is given, that of the district, 

and that of the " store-citv." The nome is ^^ T, the 8th nome of Lower 

— T — 

Egypt. The district is|==^], fEE^ \ ^g^, -3^ g, the last 

form being truly equivalent to the Hebrew JII^Dj letter for letter. 

With regard to the equivalence of g s and Q the instances given by 
Brugsch in the Zeitschrift f. Aeg. >Spr. 1875, p. 8, are conclusive, and so 
says M. Naville, p. 6 : " The letter g •> which was pronounced th is often 
transcribed in Greek and Coptic by o-, and in Hebrew by p. The name 
of 2e/3«wuror, Sebennytus, Theb neter "^ g- > J © is a striking proof of 
this assertion, which is corroborated by the spelling of many common 
names. I need not dwell on this philological demonstration, which seems 
to me quite conclusive." 

Yet a writer in the Athenamm of February 14, 1885, has the hardihood 
to pronounce that "the philology that can identify the Oukut of the hiero- 
glyphics with the JTl3p of Exodus xii, 37, is worthless. 1 

The "store-city" is called by the name of its sanctuary, spelt both 
ideographic-ally and phonetically, rh, Pi-Turn, Hebrew Qj-©> ail( l 



1 x , Ha-neter Turn, which equally means the sanctuary of Turn ; 
and the tutelary god of the place is identified by various and conclusive 

1 1 am glad to find that M. Naville agrees with me in an interesting point : 
" Eev. H. G. Tonikins lias pointed out that we have the Assyrian transcription 
of Suecoth in the Iskhiit of Essarhaddon. Academy, March 3, 1883." Mem. p. 
6, note. 



EXPLOEATION IN THE DELTA OF EGYIT. 115 

proofs besides. In the Deutsche Revue, March 1884, p. 358, Brugsch gives 
his adherence to M. Naville's conclusion in most undoubting language. 

I have already pointed out in the Quarterly Statement for January, 
1884, how singularly the structures disclosed at Tell el Maskhutah, even 
in minute details, tell their own tale and bear out the precise and un- 
usual particulars of the story in the Book of Exodus with regard to bricks, 
and straw, and reed, and the short supply, and the " hard bondage in 
mortar." It will not be doubted, I believe, by those who weigh the 
manifold monumental evidence, that we have there the store-city Pitum, 
built by the enthralled children of Israel. 

It is in the large and important tablet of Ptolemy Philadelphus that 
we get some most interesting clues to further geographical discoveries. 

The most curious is the mention of a place, with a sanctuary of Osiris, 

called x < * f/ n © Pi-keheret, which seems, as M.Naville supposes, to 

have been " the second sanctuary of Heroopolis, at a short distance from 
Pi-Turn, but nearer the sea." He compares the name with the Pi-Ha- 
Khiroth (Exod. xiv, 2, 9 ; Numb, xxxiii, 7), rOTHl ^D > LXX (Numb.), 
Toarofxa Elpo>8 ; Vulg., Phihahiroth. In Numb, xxxiii, 8, we have merely 
Hakhiroth ; LXX, Elcbd. The name itself seems to be, therefore, 
Egyptian, expressed in Hebrew rTPJT Tllis woum \ I think, convey the 
sound of A \ "^ well enough. Considering the determinative (a 
serpent), may we not compare j( Si> ^ m , "serpent of the lower hemi- 
sphere " (Pierret. Vocab., p. 372) ? 

The ascertained position of Pi-tum and the indication of "Pihakhiroth" 
of Exodus put us on the sure line of inarch of the Israelites. I would 
recommend students of these questions to read the new edition (just out) 
of the very able and important work of the Abbe Vigouroux, " La Bible 
et les Decouvertes Modernes," 4 me - ed n - Paris. Berche et Tralin, Tome II. 

In a future Quarterly Statement I hope to return to some detailed 
points of geography of the eastern part of the Delta. Meanwhile it is 
most satisfactory to know that M. Naville has undertaken excavations at 
an important point near Fakus in the heart of the land of Goshen. 

In the great ruined and deserted capital of the Delta, Zoan, Tanis, San, 
Mr. Flinders Petrie has entered on a course of thorough examination in 
his methodical and j)erfect style. It must be remembered that he has 
done much valuable service, which scholars will appreciate, in pioneering ; 
having sifted the first tentative suggestions in very many places, and 
ascertained at what spots work will be worth the cost. All this is of very 
high practical importance, besides the actual results, of which I hope to 
speak in the next Quarterly Statement, with regard both to biblical and 
to classic antiquity. 

The Rev. W. C. Winslow, of Boston, the Hon. Treasurer for America, 
is doing most active and successful work ; and with regard to support at 
home it is especially to be noted with much pleasure that the Hellenic 
Society has given an earnest of approval and practical interest by a 



116 THE SITE OF EMMAUS. 

donation towards the cost of excavations at the spot where Mr. Flinders 
Petrie has, in all probability, hit upon the ancient Naucratis, the one 
Greek colony of later Pharaonic times. The Hellenists will revel in the 
spoils of this mine of early Greek art, while the Biblicists will await the 
certainly important tidings of further exploration in Goshen and the 
" Field of Zoan." 



THE SITE OF EMMAUS. 

By the Eev. P. Mearns. 

The interesting narrative of our Lord's journey to Emmaus, with two of 
His disciples, on the day of His resurrection, has caused much attention to 
be given to the question as to the site of the village ; but, until recently, 
nothing satisfactory had been suggested in the way of identifying the site. 
Mrs. Finn's identification of Emmaus with Urtas, in the valley of Etham, 
near Bethlehem, has been received with much approval, as it well deserves 
to be. But certain objections have been urged against this discovery 
by writers who have paid some attention to the subject, and such 
objections ought to be carefully weighed. One thing seems to me certain, 
however, that if Urtas be rejected the site is still entirely unknown. 

Two writers, who both held theories of their own, have stated objec- 
tions, in the Quarterly Statement for October last, to Mrs. Finn's discovery. 
It has been remarked by a shrewd observer of men and manners, that 
when a man has made a speech in favour of an opinion he is not likely to 
change it, even after he finds strong objections stated against it ; but, if 
he has written a book in its advocacy, there is no longer any hope of his 
abandoning it. Mrs. Finn's critics naturally wish credit for previously 
expressed views ; but others will be careful to weigh the evidence on both 
sides. The two objectors to Mrs. Finn are not themselves agreed ; and, 
whatever may be said of her discovery, I think we must throw their 
theories overboard ; for they do not seem to me to meet the requirements 
of the case. It appeared to me at first, as it does still, that none of the 
sites recently discovered in Palestine have been supported by evidence 
more conclusive than that produced by Mrs. Finn in favour of Urtas as 
the true Emmaus. 

Mr. Henderson says — " At the risk of being classed among cavillers 
I venture to give reasons for entirely dissenting from the proposed iden- 
tification." He refers to Lightfoot, " who proposed to identify Etham with 
Emmaus, not only anticipating Mrs. Finn's proposal, but giving another, 
and (as he thinks) more plausible support for it than she has done." 
This remark is curious, especially as following his strong dissent. It 
cannot mean, that because the learned Lightfoot went to the valley of 
Etham for the site of Emmaus, Mr. Henderson "entirely dissents from" 
the proposal of Mrs. Finn to go to the same valley for the same purpose. 



THE SITE OF EMMAUS. U7 

Perhaps he merely meant to refuse the credit of the discovery to Mrs. 
Finn because Lightfoot made a remark somewhat in the same direction. 
He thinks that Lightfoot anticipated Mrs. Finn's proposal, and gave more 
plausible support for it ; and we almost expect him to add, therefore 
I yield to Dr. Lightfoot rather than to Mrs. Finn. Any one who has 
read Lightfoot's remark will see that it is feeble compared with the 
conclusive evidence adduced by Mrs. Finn ; but we accept the identifica- 
tion with equal readiness, whether it is made by Lightfoot or Finn. 

Mr. Henderson begins his objections thus :— " There is no evidence to 
show that ' the bath ' Mrs. Finn writes of is of the age she assumes— 
that is, was old enough, not to say important enough, to give its name to 
a place known to Luke and Josephus." The reader is apt to suppose 
from this remark, that Mrs. Finn had incidentally found a bath among 
the ruins at Urtas, and at once inferred that it was old enough to have 
given the name of Emmaus to the place before the days of Luke and 
Josephus ; but, on turning to her paper in the Quarterly Statement for 
January, 1883, he will find that she has not said anything like this. 
After a personal examination of all the places, within "h miles of 
Jerusalem, that had been or might be proposed as the site of Emmaus, 
she fixed on Urtas as the only one that met the requirements of the 
narratives of Luke and Josephus. Her conclusion was not hasty, but was 
reached after a prolonged investigation of ten years. The ruined 
buildings had been concealed by 20 inches of soil ; but she said that 
diggings might bring the buildings and the baths to light. "Several 
years passed before funds for making excavations were forthcoming ; " 
but at length excavations were made, and both the buildings and the 
baths were found. Mrs. Finn thinks that there is reason to believe that 
baths had been used here in ancient times from the days of Solomon. It 
is a caricature of her remarkable discovery, to say that she found one bath, 
and concluded that it was old enough to have given name to the place. 

Mr. Henderson's second objection is, that " the existence of a bath, or 
baths, in a valley down which flows abundance of water is not, prima 
facie, a thing so special as to explain the distinctive name of a village." 
He does not say that the excavations carried out under the direction of 
Mr. Cyril Graham and Mrs. Finn brought several baths to light ; but 
he slips in the words " or baths " to cover the whole. The reader who 
fails to turn to Mrs. Finn's paper will form a very incorrect idea of her 
discovery from the representations of Mr. Henderson. The local name of 
Urtas is Hammam, which like Emmaus signifies baths ; and a rock there 
has the name Leet/et al Ilammdm, that is, " the promontory of the baths." 
Here was abundance of water, and baths, and the very name Emmaus in 
its local form. But Mr. Henderson thinks that "if every place is to be 
recognised as a possible Emmaus where the name 'Hammam ' is found, 
we shall have plenty to choose from." It is not a "possible Emmaus" 
that is wanted, but one 1\ miles from Jerusalem, with the other necessary 
requirements, and, if we give up Urtas, instead of many places to choose 
from, there is not one left. 



118 THE SITE OF EMMAUS. 

Mr. Henderson's other objections are equally trifling. Jerome looted 
away from Urtas, which was near Bethlehem, where he was living, to 
Nicopolis, which was far away, as the Emmaus of Luke. Mr. Henderson 
rejects Jerome's opinion, for this Christian Father favours Nicopolis ; but 
he tries to get an argument against Mrs. Finn from his very silence. He 
appeals also to the silence of Meshullam, who is now dead ; but how 
does he know what Meshullam had heard of Emmaus or Hammam ? As 
M. Meshullam and Mrs. Finn were joint-cultivators of the ground at 
Urtas, it is likely that she had told him all she knew about the name, and 
probably he knew of it before her, as he had lived for years on the spot. 
Mr. Henderson thinks that Urtas refers to the old gardens of Solomon ; 
and that it was an older name than Emmaus ; but he has not produced 
a particle of evidence for this opinion. Mrs. Finn's explanation is much 
preferable — that the Roman soldiers, who were settled there after the 
destruction of Jerusalem, changed the name from Emmaus to Hortus, the 
Latin name for garden ; and that the natives corrupted this name into 
Urtas. 

Mr. Henderson is favourable to the claims of Kubeibeh, for which 
place not much can be said, except that it is about the proper distance 
from Jerusalem, which might be said of many other places equi-distant 
with it. The Crusaders fixed on it ; but their opinion does not count for 
much. In publishing an account of my journey in Palestine in 1881, 
from Joppa to Jerusalem, I had occasion to remark — "It is a pity we can 
ask no more than probability for Kubeibeh " as the site of Emmaus. 
I could get no reliable information regarding the site. Since the 
publication of Mrs. Finn's discovery, in 1883, there is no longer a 
jjrobability in favour of Kubeibeh. Mrs. Finn was aware of its claims ; 
but, after a personal inspection, she concluded that neither there, nor 
anywhere else at the distance of lh miles from Jerusalem, is there a 
sufficient supply of water for the baths of Emmaus. Professor Robinson 
says, that it was only in the beginning of the fourteenth century, when 
traces began to appear of the " idea which fixed an Emmaus at Kubeibeh ; 
a transfer of which there is no earlier vestige, and for which there was 
no possible ground, except to find an Emmaus at about sixty stadia from 
the Holy City." 

Mr. Henderson is not strongly in favour of Kubeibeh — he gives his 
readers a choice of it, or Khamasa on the other side of Jerusalem : he is 
only strongly against Urtas, the true site. He was formerly an advocate 
of Khamasa, but the distance of ten miles from the city appears to have 
cooled him ; although he retains the name, in the face of this formidable 
objection, so far as to offer his readers a choice between Khamesa niid 
Kubeibeh. Lieutenant Conder's objection to Khamasa is unanswerable— 
"The distance of Khamasa is 8^ English miles (some seventy stadia) in 
a straight line, and 10 by road" {Quarterly Statement for 1881, p. 274). 
Mr. Henderson reserves a right to offer a choice of Khamasa after it has 
been given up by everybody else who has given attention to the subject 

The second letter is very incorrectly printed. I therefore avoid 



THE SITE OF EMMAUS. 119 

referring to what may be only typographical errors. But the letter is 

more distinguished by confidence than caution. Mr. Kennion begins by 

saying : " Mrs. Finn's case rests on a mistaken inference from the words 

of Josephus about the Galilee Emmaus." He ought to have been very 

sure of his ground before writing down so sweeping a condemnation of 

so esteemed a writer as Mrs. Finn. She is not likely to have rested her 

whole case " on a mistaken inference." On examination it will be found 

that Mr. Kennion is mistaken, and not Mrs. Finn. He says that Josephus 

interprets the name Emmaus " to mean pro hdc vice hot wells. But he 

certainly does not intend it to be understood that the name Emmaus 

always has that meaning." But Josephus, in fact, does not interpret the 

name Emmaus to mean, either for the occasion referred to or any other, 

" hot wells." The word he uses is 6epna, warm baths, referring to the 

gentle heat of baths. But if he had meant hot springs he would have 

used the feminine, depfiai. Josephus says, that the meaning of a warm 

bath was particularly applicable to the Tiberian Emmaus ; for in it was 

a spring of warm water, to supply the bath, and useful for healing. The 

historian distinctly says, that the name always points to a warm bath. 

The Hebrew Hammath also signifies "warm baths," rather than hot 

springs, as Dr. Tregelles remarks under the word in his edition of 

Gesenius. At Emmaus Nicopolis there was a healing fountain, and the 

baths supplied by it gave name to the place. Neither at Nicopolis nor 

Urtas is there a hot spring now, whatever there may have been in the 

days of the Bible ; but Mrs. Finn thinks that the name might be given 

to a place famous for its baths artificially heated. Mr. Kennion asserts 

that there is "no ground for the assumption with which Mrs. Finn 

sets out, that the interpretation given by Josephus to the Galilee 

Emmaus is to be extended, or has any application to any other Emmaus." 

But the truth is, that Josephus records the fact that the name was 

applied to three places — Tiberias, Nicopolis, and the village 7 J miles 

from Jerusalem ; and he intimates no limitation of the general meaning 

he assigns to the word. 

Mr. Kennion gives a much better account of Mrs. Finn's discovery 
than Mr. Henderson does. He says:— "The copious fountain in the 
Urtas valley attracted her attention, as being sufficient to supply baths. 
The recollection of once visible traces of baths still existed in the 
neighbourhood : search is made : remains of extensive and luxurious 
baths are brought to light, dating very probably from the days of 
Herod the Great : and Mrs. Finn concludes that she has found Emmaus." 
We almost expect him to add, as he might well have done, I agree 
with her, and accept this as a highly interesting and important 
discovery. It is therefore disappointing to find him adding, " I submit 
that, just as every Emmaus was not a Hamath, or hot spring, so every 
discovery of Hammam, or baths, is not the discovery of an Emmaus. 
That there were Hammam at Urtas Mrs. Finn has discovered as a 
veritable and interesting fact. But that the village itself, or the 
district, was ever known by the name of Emmaus, or even of Hammam) 



120 THE SITE OF EMMAUS. 

Mrs. Finn has not advanced a fragment of evidence." I have already 
shown that Emmaus is never a hot spring, but a hot bath, and that 
the three places to which, according to Josephus, the name was applied 
had all a spring for the supply of baths, and that Mrs. Finn found 
the local name for Emmaus at Urtas. We do not speak of " a fragment 
of evidence" merely, but we say that the chain of evidence in favour 
of Urtas is complete, not one link being wanting. 

Mrs. Finn remarked in her paper that Emmaus had been " chosen for 
a Eoman settlement of military colonists, 800 strong ; " and she added 
that " Caesar ordered the lands of Judaea to be put up for sale, all but 
one place, which he reserved for 800 men, whom he had dismissed 
from his army — which he gave them for habitation." She thought it 
"not likely" that Kolonieh would have been chosen for the Emmaus 
settlement ; " for it would have been altogether useless on the western 
side as a check on the eastern fortress of Masada, or on the mountain 
district in general, being too much off the upper plateau of Highlands." 
Mr. Reunion objects that "the colonisation referred to was in no 
sense what she calls it, military. It was a grant of land to 800 disbanded 
veterans, for their residence and possession." Unintentionally no doubt, 
but not the less really, does he here misrepresent Mrs. Finn. He does 
not quote her words, but he conveys the impression that, according to 
her, the 800 soldiers belonged still to the regular army, and that they 
were stationed at Emmaus solely for defensive purposes. But she 
called the company military only because it consisted of soldiers dismissed 
from the army ; and they would require some fortification to defend 
themselves from the sudden attacks of neighbours in those times of 
war and confusion. Their very presence would be a protection against 
incursions from the east side of the Jordan. Mr. Reunion puts emphasis 
on the words grant of land and disbanded, as if to intimate that Mrs. Finn 
had said something contrary ; but her words were confirmatory of both. 

Mr. Rennion tries to get some help from Jerome, who blunderingly 
fixed on Nicopolis as the Emmaus of Luke, and overlooked the true site ; 
but he admits the fact that the true site was not known in the days 
of Jerome, so that he can get no help from him. 

He mentions what he calls an improbability — that Josephus and Luke 
should have stated the distance from Jerusalem if the place was so near 
Bethlehem. He is -at a great loss for arguments when he resorts to such 
an improbability. Josephus was likely to state the distance from the 
o-reat city where the Romans completed their conquest of the Jews, 
when he was speaking of the destination of a portion of the disbanded 
army. And as for Luke, he was describing a journey, not from Bethlehem, 
but from Jerusalem to Emmaus, and probably the disciples only passed 
near, and not through, the City of David. His mistaken improbabilities 
lead him again to speak of " the fragile nature " of Mrs. Finn's arguments ;" 
but he is still dreaming ; when will he awake ? It is "as when a hungry 
man dreameth, and, behold, he eateth ; but he awaketh, and his soul is 
empty." 



ZION AND OPHEL. 121 

Mr. Kennion concludes by propounding his own theory, which is, that 
the district of Emmaus in Josephus "lay along the valley that has 
Kolonieh at its southern extremity," and that the village in Luke 
" was near the head of that valley, and reaching on to Kubeibeh." It 
is his old opinion, which he finds it hard to give up in favour of 
Mrs. Finn, whom, however, he thanks "for her valuable contribution 
to the discussion." 

I have already referred to the claims of Kubeibeh, which really have 
no weight in the presence of Mrs. Finn's discovery. As for the district 
beginning at Kolonieh, four miles from Jerusalem, it is impossible that 
Josephus, who knew the district well, could have said that it was 
?Jr miles from the city. The proposal of this site must therefore be 
regarded as utterly untenable. But no discovery of baths is mentioned 
at Kubeibeh ; and the reader now perceives why the writer was led 
into the error of asserting that Josephus explained Emmaus to mean 
hot springs, and that baths were not necessary to every Emmaus. He 
shuts his eyes against the flood of light which Mrs. Finn has thrown 
on the subject, and says : " One conclusion is indisputable, that no other 
location of St. Luke's Emmaus could by any possibility combine so 
many rays of light as converge upon the Wady Buwai." His conclusion 
is not only disputed, but we may pronounce it utterly impossible to 
accept the site he proposes. All was doubt and uncertainty about the site 
of Emmaus till the publication of Mrs. Finn's paper ; but now all appears 
clear and certain. 
Coldstream. 



ZION AND OPHEL. 
By J. M. Tenz. 



Mr. Birch and Dr. A. H. Sayce are confident that Mount Zion stood 
on the south side of the Temple mount which descends down to the lowest 
part of the valleys surrounding Jerusalem, and Dr. Sayce, in his "Topography 
of Prse-exilic Jerusalem," in the last Quarterly Statement, takes it for granted 
that it is no longer possible to deny it. Yet the valley which Dr. Sayce 
shows in his sketch map to divide Ophel from his little Mount Zion on 
the lowest hill of the city has no existence. 

We may also justify the remarks made by Captain Conder in reply to 
Mr. Birch on the same subject in the last Quarterly Statement. 

Josephus, the great historian of the Jews, who is so much blamed for 
his errors, and attributed errors, is yet the most reliable authority, as it has 
in many cases been proved by recent discoveries. 

Having for many years taken great interest in the history of Jerusalem, 
the Temple, and the discoveries made from time to time by exploring 



122 ZIOX AND OPHEL. 

parties, and having also carefully constructed a model of that city when in 
the time just before its destruction by Titus, I may be permitted to give 
my opinion on the topography of ancient Jerusalem. 

The "upper city" of Josephus answers to all requirements of Mount Zion, 
the City of David. " Walk about Zion, and go round about her, tell the 
towers thereof, mark ye well her bulwarks, and consider her palaces " 
means many towers, extensive walls, numbers and important palaces, 
which could not have all been placed on the lower slope of the Temple- 
hill, which by Josephus is called the suburb. 

In a military point of view we may naturally suppose that the upper- 
most hill was " Mount Zion, the stronghold of the Jebusites." History 
and recent discoveries support it. When the Israelites took possession of 
their promised land, Jerusalem fell to the lot of Benjamin (5 " Ant.," i, 22), 
" but the Jebnsites who inhabited it were not driven out until the time 
of David," " and the border went up by the valley of the son of Hinnom 
unto the south side of the Jebusite ; the same is Jerusalem " (Josh, xv, 8). 
This passage sufficiently indicates that the border went up by the south 
valley, which is now called valley of Hinnom. The Tomb of David may 
also be looked for at or near the traditional site, which is ovar against, or 
near "the pool that was made" (Neh. iii, 16), which may well be the so- 
called lower Pool of Gihon, once one of the largest pools at Jerusalem. 

The Dragon Well may be identified with the Virgin's Well. 

On the arrival of Nehemiah at Jerusalem, the Temple was partly 
rebuilt by Zerubbabel ; the king's high house (the site of which was in 
later years joined to the outer court of the Temple by Herod the Great) 
was probably restored, and the Nethinims had dwellings in Ophel ; 
Nehemiah would have taken up his residence there, as the other parts of 
the city were still in ruins. On his night journey he would have proceeded 
from Ophel to the valley gate before the Dragon Well (Virgin's Well), then 
went on to the dung gate, probably the same as the gate between two 
Avails near the Pool of Siloam, then to the fountain gate, a gate leading to 
the upper city. After he went up by the brook (Brook Gihon and Valley 
of Hinnom), then returned and entered by the valley gate (Neh. ii, 12-15). 

Further explorations may result in the discovery of the site of the 
east, or Shushan gate, which according to the Talmud stood over against 
the east front of the Temple. Thus we would obtain the exact line from 
east to west through the centre of the Altar, which, I believe, stood on the 
rock in the Great Mosque. It has also been remarked, in one of the 
( L )u/trt<Tl;i St'ttPiiH'ntx, that the sacred cubit, which is said to have been 
marked on the sides of the Shushan gate, may yet be found on the lower 
part, which must have been below the level of the court, witli steps to 
descend to a much lower level of the ground outside the wall, but which 
is now to a great extent filled up. The discovery of that gate would 
therefore be of great importance. 

It is still my impression that some remains of the second wall may yet 
be found on the cast side <>f tin' Chinch of the Holy Sepulchre. It is quite 
possible that that church may cover the site of Calvary and the garden of 



CAPTAIN CONDEK AND KADESH-BARNEA. L23 

Joseph of Arimathea. Although, according to the Talmud, the place of 
stoning, and the discoveries of the ruins of St. Stephen's Church outside the 
Damascus gate, may favour Captain Conder's views of his supposed 
Calvary on a hill just outside that gate, yet the traditional site, which 
dates at least back to the time of the Empress Helena, ought not to be 
disputed until further discoveries can be made. 

We sincerely hope that the Palestine Exploration Fund Society will be 
able to continue their work of exploration at Jerusalem, which is the only 
means to lead us to a satisfactory result. 
December lOt/i, 1883. 



CAPTAIN CONDER AND KADESH-BARNEA. 
By the Rev. H. Clay Trumbull. 

Inasmuch as Captain Conder has given special prominence, in the Quarterly 
Statement, to my volume on Kadesh-Barnea, as worthy of consideration in 
the settlement of a pivotal point in the lower boundary of Palestine, I 
venture to ask the privilege of calling attention to the main purpose of 
that volume — which he has not touched by his comments. 

In "Kadesh-Barnea," I have subjected every Biblical mention of that 
ancient site to an examination, and have compared them all with each 
other, showing, as I believe, that many of them absolutely require its 
location at or near the site of 'Ayn Qadees, and that every one of them is 
consistent with that location ; hence that there and there only its identi- 
fication is properly to be looked for. If I am right as to this consensus of 
Biblical evidence, it follows that even if a Kadesh-Barnea be actually 
discovered elsewhere, it cannot, by any possibility, be the Kadesh-Barnea 
of the Bible-text. 

This basal portion of my volume is, as I have said, left untouched by 
( laptain Conder's criticisms ; and if, indeed, he were found to be correct at 
every one of his more than twenty noted points of difference with my 
incidental suggestions of confirmatory evidence of the identification of 
'Ayn Qadees, my claim that there is the site of Kadesh-Barnea would 
remain as strong as before, in spite of such errors in my confirmatory 
collatings. 

But, lest Captain Conder's long list of apparent mistakes on my part 
should throw discredit on the really important portion of the volume, not 
dealt with by him, and so should deter from its examination those who 
know of it only from his criticisms, I desire to say, that after a careful re- 
examination of every point to which Captain Conder has taken exception, 
I am of the opinion that at no one of them has he shown an error in the 
work he criticises, while in a number of cases his own position is clearly 
untenable. Let me name a few illustrative instances. 

K 



124 CAPTAIN CONDER AND KADESH-BARNEA. 

1. I referred to the plain of "Es^Seer," or "Es-Sirr" — as noted by 
Rowlands and Wilson and Palmer — as a trace of the old name of " Seir," 
in the region south-eastward from Beersheba. Captain Conder says of this 
modern name : " Until it can be shown to contain the guttural of the 
Hebrew, it cannot be considered to represent Seir, especially as it should 
begin with Shin, nor with Sin or Sad." But Gesenius, Fiirst, and other 
lexicographers, are positive that the Hebrew guttural (^) is frequently 
interchanged with approximate sounds, and is sometimes dropped alto- 
gether. Captain Conder himself suggests this dropping, when he would 
find a trace of " Ba'al " in " Ballah." And Dr. John Wilson even cites 
this very word " Seir" (east of the Arabah) as an illustration of the ex- 
ceptional dropping of the 'Aj/n. "Yet we have," he says, ".t aU (Esh- 

Sherah), for *V^^ (Seir)." And in this view Wilson is sustained by 

Burckhardt, by Koehler in his notes on Abulfeda, and by others. 

Again, the lexicographers above-named give marked illustrations of the 
representing of the Hebrew Sin by the Arabic .Sin, instead of Shin. This 
would seem to make it possible, certainly, for the name " Es-Seer " to be 
a trace of the ancient " Seir," especially as the district where it is found 
did, as I think I have shown from the Bible-text, formerly bear that name 
— whether it be found there now or not. 

2. I have claimed that the early Old Testament sweep of Edom clearly 
included the region also known as " Seir," where Esau lived before he 
removed to " Mount Seir." Captain Conder thinks that " the name Edom, 
or ' red,' must surely have been applied to the red sandstone country, and 
not to the white chalk plateau of the Tih." But the Bible says that the 
name Edom likewise came from the '' red " pottage — which Esau ate on 
" the white chalk plateau " of his early home ; " therefore was his name 
called Edom," and therefore was his land likely to be known as the land 
of Edom. I still incline to the opinion that the Bible statement has some 
basis of truth in it. 

3. In explaining the causes of the long-prevalent error that there were 
two Kadeshes, I referred to the Rabbinical evidence that there were two 
Reqams, one of which was Petra, and the other was Kadesh. Captain 
Conder says, " I fail to find anything to support the view that there were two 
Rekems, one at Petra, one at 'Am Kadis ; " and he courteously suggests 
that " the second Rekem seems only necessary to the theory of Ain Kadis 
being Kadesh-Barnea." But I cited the assertion of a well-known Talmudic 
scholar of more than two centuries ago, that, according to the Talmud, 
" there were two noteworthy places named Rekam on the Hunts of the 
land [the Holy Land]." Then I showed from the Talmud itself that one 
of these Reqams was in the region of Petra (probably identical with it) 
while the other (sometimes called " Reqam Giah") was on the westerly 
side of the desert, toward Askelon. The identity of Ain Qadees with 
this second Rebam I left open for other proof. Does Captain Conder really 
think that the Talmud was written in the special interest of those who 
would identify Kadesh at Ain Qadees ? 



CAPTAIN CONDER AND KADESH-BARNEA. 125 

4. Concerning the " Mount Hor in the edge of the land of Edom," — 
which is not, however, an essential point in the locating of Kadesh-Bamea, — 
I claimed that the whole tenor of the references to it in the Bible-text 
forbid the possibility of its fixing at the traditional site, in a mountain 
stronghold of the Hebrew-tabooed Mount Seir ; while every requirement of 
the sacred text is met in the suggested location at Jebel Madurah. The 
evidence of the Bible-text Captain Conder does not discuss ; but he is 
sure as to " the consensus of tradition and opinion in the matter." I spoke 
of the possible vestige of the Hebrew name " Moseroth " (one of the names 
of the lower Mount Hor) in the Arabic " Madurah," " the consonants ' D ' and 
' S' having a constant tendency to interchange in Eastern speech." At this 
Captain Conder says : "I do not think this is the case. The soft T and 
the soft S (Te and Sin) are convertible, and so are the soft D or Dh and Z 
{Dhal, Dal, Zain), but I do not recall any instance where D and S are 
convertible." I did not say that D and S were " convertible," but that 
they had " a constant tendency to interchange ;" — if Captain Conder is not 
aware of that fact, I am surprised ; for the lexicons teem with illustrations 
of it, and Orientalists frequently refer to the fact. For example, from 
Freytag and Fiirst : Hebrew, HDH i^hasa) ; Arabic, ^^ (Badaa) ; 

both meaning " to flee." Hebrew, *rt q > {Nasalch) ; Arabic, -^a^ (Nodakha) 

and • (Nadaha), all three meaning " to pour out." Also in Arabic 

itself, such parallel forms as ^^ (yassasa), and ^^ {yaddada), " to 

open the eyes " (said of a young animal). 

5. Incidentally I referred to the correspondence of the names " Zephath " 
and " Sebayta," and to the lack of the formerly claimed identity between 
" Zephath " and " Sufah." Captain Conder says : " The radical meaning 
of this name [Zephath] in Hebrew and Arabic is the same, ' to be clear,' 
' bright,' ' conspicuous,' ' shining.' The identity of Zejmath and Sufah 
can hardly be doubted by any who consider the root whence the two words 
originate. The suggestion of Sebaita or Sebata for Zephath has always 
seemed to me to argue a want of scholarship on the part of Rowlands. The 
Arabic name seems to be from the root Sebt, ' rest,' which has not a single 
letter in common with the root whence Zephath originates." But it is 
Professor Palmer who says (" Desc. of Exod," ii, 375 /) : " The name Sebaita 
is etymologically identical with the Zephath of the Bible, Zephath signifies 
a watch-tower." As to the root of the two words, it would seem that 
Captain Conder has mistaken, as a root, the Hebrew J-Q^J (Tsabali), "to 
shine," for pfD!J (Tsaphah), " to look about." The idea that Professor 

X 

Palmer, having examined this word on the field and afterwards in his study, 
should have confounded the root of " Zephath " and " Sebayta " with so 
common a root as that of the "Sabbath,"— "which has not a single letter 
in common with the root " he was considering, — presupposes " a want of 
scholarship " on the part of that eminent Orientalist which English readers 
generally will not be ready to admit without some show of proof. 

K 2 



126 CAPTAIN CONDER AND KADESH-BAKNEA. 

6. One of the many Hazars, or Hezrons, or border-territory "en- 
closures," of Canaan, is mentioned in the sacred text as lying between 
Kadesh and Adar. I stated that I found traces of one or two enclosures 
between 'Ayn Qadees and 'Ayn Qadayrat, which would meet that de- 
scription. Thereupon Captain Conder says : " Dr. Trumbull has omitted 
to notice what appears to me to be a strong argument, which, as far as 
I know, I was the first to suggest, in the identification of Hezron." The 
site of Hezron which Captain Conder suggests is " the Hadireh hill west 
of Wady el Yemen " — quite out of the Bible possibilities of the case ; and 
he says : " It is strange that Dr. Trumbull should have been quite silent 
as to this suggestion, which if it be correct settles the Kadesh- Barnea 
question for ever ; " and Captain Conder even thinks that " the omission of 
any notice of Hadireh (in ' Kadesh-Barnea '), and several minor errors above 
pointed out, seems to spoil the completeness of the work." Yet the term 
Hazar, Hazor or Hezron, or the plural form, in simple or in compound, is 
so common as a descriptive one in the Bible story (see, e.g., Numb, xi, 
35 ; xxxiv, 4, 9 ; Deut. ii, 23 ; Josh, xv, 23, 25, 27, 28 ; xix, 5, 36, 37 ; 
1 Kings ix, 15 ; Ezek. xlvii, 16, 17), that if found by itself anywhere it 
would hardly be more determinative as a particular site than the term 
"camp." It is even shown by the Bible-text (Deut. ii, 23) that these 
Hazars or Hazarlm were all along the southern boundary of Canaan, and 
four or five of them are noted, as near each other in that region, in the 
description of that border (Josh, xv, 23-28). The idea that the finding a 
trace of one of those " enclosures " " settles the Kadesh-Barnea question 
for ever," seems to me so utterly chimerical that I should not have felt 
justified in an attempt to refute it if it were not forced into fresh promi- 
nence by Captain Conder's renewed claim of its importance. I certainly 
accord to him all the credit of being, as far as I know, "the first to 
suggest" it. 

7. I gave the Arabic name of " Qadayrat " precisely as it was written for 
me by my guide, who gave me also its English meaning as " the power of 
God." Captain Conder says that " it appears to be spelt with a Dad 
[instead of a Dal] by mistake." Yet the dialectic change of Dad for Dal 
is by no means uncommon in Arabic words, as the lexicons show. I simply 
gave the writing and the definition as given to me by a native Arab. 
Captain Conder has himself emphasized "the importance of studying the 
local peasant dialect of Syria," because of its throwing light on the inter- 
changing of letters — like Sin and Sad— supposed by scholars to be "never 
confused." Possibly another example of this is to be found in Dad and 
Dal. 

8. Quite outside of the question of the site of Kadesh-Barnea, but con- 
sidered at some length in my book, is the route of the Hebrew exodus. 
( laptain < londer says: " It is to be regretted, however, that sufficient notice 
has not been taken of the facts (both geological and engineering), which 
leave it indisputable that the level of the Red Sea lias been changing, and 
that the Isthmus of Suez has been growing broader within historic times.' 
In speaking of that which is "indisputable," Captain Condor probably 



CAPTAIN CONDEK AND KADESH-BARNEA. 127 

means that, in his opinion, the view he holds ought not to be disputed ; 
— although he is aware that it is. I have yet to see any claim by a geological 
authority that the Isthmus must have been materially narrower in the days 
of Moses. The mere opinion of a geologist that it might have been so at that 
date, because it had been so long earlier, can weigh but little against the 
evidence and indications from history, sacred and profane, to which I have 
pointed in my book, that then it was not so. 

9. My footnote remark, in passing, an incidental item of Egyptian 
history, that " the fortress of Kana'an has not been identified," prompts 
Captain Conder to say : " This seems to have been written before Dr. 
Trumbull had seen my paper on the subject, as my suggestion of Kana'an 
a large ruin near Hebron, met with hearty acceptance from Mr. Tomkins." 
In the English edition of my book (published by Hodder & Stoughton), 
I have mentioned Captain Conder's proposed identification ; but while 1 
recognise the exceptional value of the Rev. Henry George Tomkins's 
opinion in favour of one of Captain Conder's suggested identifications, I 
still venture to repeat what I have already said in my revised volume, 
that, in my opinion, Khurbet Kana'an " does not correspond with the 
pictured [Egyptian] representation of a fortress on a detached hill, with 
a lake near it." 

10. Captain Conder's mention of a " rationalistic explanation of the 
pillar of cloud and of fire, which seems suggested on p. 397 " of my book, I 
do not quite understand ; but I desire to relieve the text and the tone of 
my work from the imputation which " seems suggested " in that mention. 
Referring to the fact that " it was common for Eastern armies to be guided 
by a column of smoke moving on in their van by day, and by a streaming 
banner of name before them by night," I said that when Jehovah's host 
went out from Egypt, " the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of 
cloud to lead them the way ; and by night in a pillar of fire to give them 
light." And to make it clear to every mind that I looked upon the 
1 si aelites' guiding emblem as a supernatural and a miraculous display, I 
quoted approvingly the words of Kurtz, that the difference between the 
ordinary caravan-beacon and this one was, "that the one was a merely 
natural arrangement, which answered its purpose but imperfectly, and was 
exceedingly insignificant in its character, whilst the other was a super- 
natural phenomenon, beyond all comparison more splendid and magnificent 
i d its form, which was also made to answer far greater and more glorious 
ends." Possibly Captain Conder's term " rationalistic explanation " was 
a slip of the pen, or a misprint, for " rational explanation." 

11. While admitting that I have shown the existence of an 'Ayn Qadees 
at the site described, Captain Conder suggests that it may be " a monkish 
site;" since "the monks were not careful as to the Biblical requirements 
of their sites ;" and he also says that, "generally speaking, one feels that 
the evidence has been rather twisted in favour of 'Ain Kadis, though Dr. 
Trumbull has striven to be impartial and candid." It is quite a fresh 
thought to me, that the monks were in the habit of fixing, in Arabic equi- 
valents of ancient Hebrew, geographical sites of the Old Testament story, 



128 CAPTAIN CONDER AND KADESH-BARNEA. 

in the Holy Land or the desert ; although I knew that they located the 
homes, or the tombs, of Moses, and Aaron, and Samuel, and Elijah, and 
Jonah, and other Old Testament personages, without much regard to the 
Biblical requirements " — as in the case of Jebel Neby Haroon (called 
Mount Hor), for example. Their interest was, I supposed, in Bible bio- 
graphy rather than in Bible geography. Indeed in a work written since 
my re-discovery of 'Ayn Qadees, Captain Conder has said implicitly on 
this point (" Hetli and Moab," p. 18) : " There is, however, no better guide 
to identification than the discovery of an ancient name, and whatever may 
have been written concerning the migration of sites, we have not as yet 
any clearly proven case in which a Semitic indigenous title has wandered 
away from the original spot to which it was applied for geographical or 
religious reasons." Why Captain Conder would suggest an exception to his 
otherwise invariable rule, in this case of 'Ayn Qadees, is by no means 
obvious ; for I certainly would not suggest that, " generally speaking, one 
feels that the evidence, or the argument," " has been rather twisted "by 
him against Ayn Qadees ; for it must not be questioned that Captain 
Conder " has striven to be impartial and candid." 

12. It would seem unnecessary for me to follow up in detail all the 
minor points touched by Captain Conder in his extended critical comments 
on my work ; not one of which has any more force than those to which I 
have already replied. But there is a single other suggestion of his which 
I ought to note in closing. He says : " The map requires a word of notice, 
for it is not clear why Ain Kadis is there shown much further east in 
longitude than is the case in Palmer's map, or Holland's map." It is even in 
connection with this point that Captain Conder suggests the appearance 
of my twisting the evidence I would proffer. On the face of my map I 
said distinctly : "This map makes no claim to accuracy in the unsurveyed 
region of the Negeb. Any comparison of maps based on the researches of 
Robinson, Rowlands, Wilson, Palmer, Holland, Bartlett, and other recent 
explorers, will show irreconcilable differences in the contour of that region 
as portrayed by them. All that this map attempts is to indicate the out- 
line and salient points of that region in the light of present knowledge, 
and as explained by descriptions in the text of the volume which it accom- 
panies." I will now add, that on my return from the East I saw Professor- 
Palmer in London, and talked over my discovery with him. He told me 
that he did not visit Ayn Qadees ; hence he could not be sure of its location. 
We looked over his map together, and, in the light of all that I could tell 
him of my journeyings, he and I were agreed that Ayn Qadees must be 
farther east than he had supposed. Therefore it was that I entered it on 
my tentative sketch-map accordingly. As I understand it, Mr. Holland 
made no survey of the region, and the map which was prepared by General 
Sir Charles Wilson, to accompany Mr. Holland's posthumous notes of his 
journey, was also based on Palmer's (or Tyrwhitt Drake's) survey ; hence, 
again, the location of Ayn Qadees was there given as erroneously indicated 
by Professor Palmer. The difference in the location thus indicated affects in 
no degree, however, the question of identification — an identification which the 




.<i\< wnrr-h-j'ti. 



NOTES ON SOME PHOENICIAN GEMSv 120 

Bible record will admit of anywhere within the sweep of a dozen or fifteen 
miles or so in that region, and only within that sweep. There was, there- 
fore, no inducement for me to change the location for the sake of my 
argument, even if I were as liable to such swaying a* Captain Conder 
would suppose. 

Of one thing I am very sure, that the precise location of Ain Qadees — 
which is Kadesh-Barnea — can be known only through a careful survey of 
its region ; and I earnestly hope that that survey will soon be made under 
the eminently competent direction of Captain Claude Regnier Conder ; 
for whatever differences of opinion there may be as to his thousand and 
one identifications, with his often fanciful and his sometimes grotesque 
suggestions of resemblance, there is no question that he has laid the entire 
Bible-studying and truth-loving world under obligation to him, for his 
tireless, his intelligent, and his most skilful services- as an explorer and 
a surveyor in the lands of the Bible. And of that line of his work, I 

sincerely hope that the end is not yet. 

H.. Clay Trumbull. 

Philadelphia, JJ.Sui. 



NOTES ON SOME PHOENICIAN GEMS. 

By Grevillb J. Chester, B.A., 
Member of the Boyal Archaeological Institute. 

In the course of last winter, during visits of short duration to Smyrna 
and Beyrut, I obtained several antique gems and engraved stones of 
Phoenician and semi-Phcenician character, which seem to be of sufficient 
interest and importance to merit description in the Quarterly Statement of 
our Society. I should, however, mention at starting that, being altogether 
unlearned in ancient Oriental languages, I am indebted for the ensuing 
information concerning the different inscriptions to Professors A. H. Sayce 
of Oxford, and Robertson Smith of Cambridge, to whom my best thanks 
are due for the trouble they have taken, and the attention they have paid 
to the matter. 

No. 1. Bought at Bey r (It. (See plate.)— This gem is of pale blue 
chalcedony, approaching to the stone sometimes called " sapphirine," and 
is a fairly executed and beautiful specimen of semi-Phcenician work. The 
influence of both Egyptian and Assyrian art are here well displayed. The 
intaglio represents a winged sphinx treading upon a uranis. This sphinx, 
according to Professor Sayce, has the bearded human head of the Assyrian 
bull, surmounted by the plumes of the Egyptian god Bes. Each of the 
two wings ends in a horned head, of which one resembles that of a griffin, 
and the other that of some species of antelope. With regard to these 
heads, Professor Sayce remarks that they "suggest the origin of the 



130 NOTES ON SOME PHOENICIAN GEMS. 

Greek legend of the Chimaera. 1 ' Curiously enough, I this winter obtained 
in Lower Egypt a small bottle of brownish-green ware, being a grotesque 
human figure, in front of which is a seated lion, with the head and plumes 
of Bes. This variant was hitherto unknown to Professor R. V. Lanzone 
of Turin, the learned author of the " Mitologia Egizia," now in course of 
publication, and will be figured by him in the next forthcoming part of 
that work. On a Phcenico-Egyptian scarabaeus of burnt sard in my 
possession, found in Egypt, is depicted a hmck-headed, seated sphinx, with 
the disk upon his head, and a uraeus under his feet, and on a fragment of 
limestone sculptered on both sides, and of singularly fine work, now in the 
British Museum, but found in the Fayoum, and brought by me from 
Egypt in 1882, is a winged lion, passant, to the right, with the head and 
plumes of the same deity. Could this fragment have been identified as 
having been found in the Delta, it might have been supposed to have 
belonged to the period of the Shepherd Kings, and the combination 
ascribed to semi-Semitic influence, but I am not aware that the sway of the 
Hvksos extended to the isolated province of the Fayoum. Anyhow, it is 
interesting to compare the subject of the earthenware bottle, the gem, and 
the sculptured fragment, with that of the present stone. This gem has 
had a small hole drilled through it, close to the tail of the sphinx, by some 
possessor, who wished by that means to fit it for suspension. 

No. 2. From Nazareth. (See plate.) — This gem, cut in intaglio in dark 
sard, is set in a modern gold ring of Oriental workmanship, and is of even 
finer work than the stone last described, and a most beautiful example of 
Egypto-Phcenician art. On it is a winged sphinx, seated, whose human 
head wears the Egyptian head-dress. Below this is a scarabaeus, whose 
expanded wings stretch completely across the stone. Below this again, 
supported by ursei, is an ornamental cartouche, of which Professor Sayce 
remarks, " the hieroglyphics consist of the Egyptian Neb, i Lord,' turned 

upside down, followed by the Hittite \ \/\ ' country,' twice repeated, 

and turned upside down." It may have been the signet of a Phoenician 
I >rince. 

No. 3. Found at Ann-it (Marathus). (See plate.) — This scarabasoid of 
hard yellowish-brown limestone is pronounced by Professor Sayce to be a 
very interesting example of Egypto-Phnenician work. It was formerly 
in the possession of the late well-known M. Peretie of Beyrut, whose large 
collection of Egypto-Phcenician amulets, scarabs, and scarabseoids fell into 
my hands after the death of their proprietor. Most of these objects are 
formed from steatite, but some, like the present specimen, are of harder 
stone. Their large number, upwards of three hundred, testify to a school 
of craftsmen for ornaments of this description having existed in early 
times, at least as early as Thothmes III, of the eighteenth Egyptian dynasty 
{circa 1600 B.C.), at Unn it. 

The centre of this stone is occupied by the figure of a king, between 
two palm-branches, a characteristic and favourite emblem upon the 
Phoenician coast. The monarch, whose name seems to have been Ah-nub, 



NOTES ON SOME PHOENICIAN GEMS. 131 

or, according to another possible reading, Ah-men, wears the Pschent, or 
combined crown of Upper and Lower Egypt, copied from Egyptian 
monuments, and is in the act of adoring the lunar disk "Ah." On either 
side the king is a cartouche, "each of which," says Professor Sayce, "con- 
tains the lunar disk Ah, and the character Men, each twice repeated and 
turned upside down. The work of this stone is distinctly Phoenician, 
and though the dress and attributes are Egyptian, the figure evidently 
represents a king of Phoenicia. 

No. 4. Found at Beyrftt. (See plate.)— This lentoid gem of white 
crystal is the most remarkable stone in the collection, and has been found 
very difficult to interpret. It has for its device three stars, of which the 
upper one is winged. Below these, and divided from them by two lines, is an 

early Phoenician inscription, written from right to left -jC W -^.(N^ 1 ^), 

i.e., Yesha-a, from the root YSsha, to save. Professor Sayce considers the 
characters to be of the seventh or eighth century, B.C., and certainly not 
later ; in which case this gem is one of the earliest known, and he adds 
that "the two lines which divide the name from the stars and winged 
solar disk [for so he deciphers the winged star] explain the origin of the 
similar names which divide in half the inscriptions on early Hebrew seals." 
With regard to the translation of the inscription, I have permission to 
insert in this place two communications with which I have been favoured 
by Professor Robertson Smith. 

" The seal reads -fc W ^, fr^ttA The root ^)\ is not Aramaic, and 

so the ^ cannot be the Aramaic article. The explanation must be sought 
within the Hebrew-Phoenician language. 

u This being so, the analogies which naturally present themselves are 
those of such Phoenician proper names as fc»073, ^nHS iS"Q^> ^ n 
which the termination ^ apjaears to mark that the name has been shortened 
at the end. Thus Kalba is the same name as Kalbelim (Corp. Inscr. Sem. 
Fasc. i, No. 52), Hanno (with 6 for a as a later pronunciation) is the 
shortened form of Hannibal or some such longer name, Pathha corresponds 
to a heathen counterpart of Pethahia, and so on. 

" The Hebrews themselves have similar contractions of proper names, 

and had them at an early date, as appears from the form ^JV = Uzziah 
or Azariah in 2 Samuel vi, 3. Thus if the seal were Hebrew, the name on 
it would be the short form answering to ")rP^ , H?' , > Isaiah. The winged 
star seems, however, rather to point to a heathen owner, and in this case 
the last member lopped off will not be the name Jahveh, but some other 
divine name, as in the Phoenician instances already quoted, and the name 
means ' the victory or salvation of ' Baal, or whoever the god is. 

" Quite similar is the Philistine name Sidka, King of Ascalon, on the 
inscriptions of Sennacherib. ^\£^ without the fr$, appears as a proper 
name on a gem figured by Levy, I'ltonizische Studien, ii, No. 8a of the 
plate." 



132 A RELIC OF THE TENTH LEGION, CALLED " FBETENSIS." 

No. 5. Found at Konia, in Asia Minor. (See plate.) — This large 
scaraba?oid gem, perforated lengthways for suspension, is formed of 
beautifully iridescent rock crystal. Upon it is represented the four-winged 
Assyro-Babylonian god Merodach, who, although the stone is slightly 
damaged, Professor Sayce considers is strangling in either hand the bird- 
demons. " This device," the Professor adds, " passed through Phoenicia to 
early Greece. Below Merodach, from which it is divided by double 
horizontal lines, is a bird, perhaps an eagle, on either side, divided by two 
vertical lines, the Egyjrtian symbol Ankh, the sign of life. 

No. 7. Found at Beyrut. — A pierced scarabreoid. On it is a winged 
sphinx, with antelope's head, standing. Behind, a winged deity. This 
specimen is in poor preservation, but is remarkable on account of its 
material, which is malachite, a substance very rarely used by the 
ancients. Phoenician work. 

No. 8. Found near Beyrut. — Scarabreoid of opaque white chalcedony. 
On it a bull, in front an amulet, perhaps intended to represent the solar 
disk. Good Gra?co-Pho?nician work. 

No. 9. From Beyrut. — Small scarabreoid of pale blue opaque chalce- 
dony. On it a lotus flower ; on either side, and facing it, a vulture with 
expanded wings. Beneath these a striated band. Below this a star, 
upon either side of which is a winged urseus, and again below, a scarab 
with expanded wings. Phoenician work. 

No. 10. Coast of Syria. From the collection of M. Per6tie\ (See 
plate.) — This is a bead of white opaque gypsum. It bears an inscription 
of eight letters, the meaning of which has hitherto defied elucidation. 
Professors Wright, Eobertson Smith, and Sayce are alike unable to in- 
terpret it, but the latter thinks it may be of Gnostic origin. 



NOTES BY SELAH MERRILL, D.D., LL.D. 



A RELIC OF THE TENTH LEGION, CALLED " FBETENSIS." 

I notice in the list of antiquities in the possession of the Palestine Fund, 
that they have two imperfect specimens of tiles bearing the stamp of the 
Tenth Legion, and it may be of sufficient interest to state that I possess a 
perfect specimen, which I bought of some fellahin who had just dug it 
from its hiding place. The following are the dimensions of the tile ; 
Ih X 7| inches, and l£ inches thick. The oblong place for the letters is 
sunk into the tile, leaving the letters in relief, the surface of the letters 



THE INSCRIPTION AT ARAK EL EMIR. 



l: 



being of the same level as the surface of the tile. The oblong place 
itself is 4 inches long and If inches wide. The length of the letters is 
lj inches. 




II. 
THE INSCRIPTION AT AEAK EL EMIR 

Evert copyist, if he labours conscientiously, has reason to respect his own 
work until he is convinced that he is in error. I visited the place in 
question several times, and copied the inscription with care. My copy 
is quite unlike that which Captain Conder ascribes to Levy (Quarterly 
Statement, January, 1885, p. 12), and unlike that which Captain Conder 
gives as his own (ibid.), inasmuch as mine has a decided bar extending 
from the top towards the right as in the initial letter of the following 
inscription from Bozrah : — 

Or) A <r 



UsV 



134 THE STATIONS OF DAVID'S CENSUS OFFICEKS. 

In the first and second lines a letter occurs three times which is 
identical with the first letter in the Arak el Emir inscription. This 
letter I would read Aleph, and would transliterate the above inscription — 

This is one of a number of Nabathean inscriptions which I copied while 
at work in the Hauran, but I have never had time to classify them or to 
give them much study. 

I have for years felt that there were a larger number of Nabathean 
inscriptions to be gathered in the desert east of the Jordan than scholars 
imagined, and that when these have been collected, materials will exist 
for a better understanding and a fuller knowledge of that once powerful 
and interesting people. 

I make no attempt to translate the Arak el Emir inscription, but 
when I visit the place again I will take pains to re-copy it, or to take an 
impression of the letters. 



III. 
THE STATIONS OF DAVID'S CENSUS OFFICEES. 

The account of the numbering of the Israelites by David contains some 
interesting geographical notices, two of which, at least, have always been 
puzzles to scholars. It will be a help to remember that only Israel and 
Judah were to be numbered (see 2 Sam. xxiv, 1). The command was, " Go 
now through all the tribes of Israel, from Dan even to Beersheba," and leads us 
to suppose that aliens and subject peoples, whether within or without the 
limits of the kingdom, were not to be reckoned in the census of the Jewish 
people themselves. This is confirmed by verse 9, where the sum of the 
men of Israel and Judah only is given. 

King David's officers crossed the Jordan and pitched first in Aroer near 
Jazer. They went thence to Gilead. Their third camping place was " the 
land of Tahtini Hodshi," their fourth camping place was Dan Jaan, and 
their fifth was Sidon. They went thence to the " stronghold of Tyre," and 
thus southward to Beersheba, keeping within the limits of the territory as 
defined in verse 2. The Hebrew of verse 6 is as follows : — " And they came 

to Gilead, i^nn DTWin Y"W7N1> and the y came p* 1 POTl" The 
Septuagint renders verse 6 — " And they came to Galaad, and into the land 
of Thabason which is Adasi, and they came to Dan Idan and Udan, and com- 
passed Sidon." The Targuin on Samuel has after Gilead, V^-jJ-j fc^ym 



THE STATIONS OF DAVID'S CENSUS OFFICERS. 135 

NT^Sl' ^' ia * i g > " an< ^ ^o ^ ie district south of Hodshi." Eusebius lias, 
"A/xeiSSa -q 'ASacrat, and Jerome, " iEthon Adasai pro quo Symruachus posuit 
iuferioreni viam." 

Numerous suggestions have been made in explanation of the words 
Tahtim Hodshi. The Septuagint regarded them as two names belonging to 
one place. Zunz, whose high rank among Jewish scholars all admit, regards 
them as two distinct places. Boettcher resolves the word Tahtim, Q^nnrV 
into Ql nnn> below the sea. Fuerst is inclined, I judge, to favour this 
change, which is true of some other scholars. In that case Q1 would refer 
to the Sea of Galilee (compare Numb, xxxiv, 2 ; Josh, xii, 3; viii, 27), ami 
Hodshi would have some connection with Chinnereth. Besides these hints 
there should be mentioned an important Hebrew tradition, found in the 
Midrash on Samuel, chapters xxx and xxxii, which connects Tahtim 
Hodshi with Beth Yereh. 

There were two places, Tarichea and Sennabris, which Josephus locate 
at the southern end of the Lake of Tiberias, and both are extremely distant 
from the City of Tiberias, namely, thirty furlongs (" Life," xxxii ; " Wars," 
III, ix, 7). Josephus states that the great plain of the Jordan commenced 
at Ginnabrin [Sennabris] (" Wars," IV, viii, 2) ; while the Talmud states 
that the Jordan did not receive that name until after it left Beth Yereh 
(ITV i"VD,> Talniud Bab. Bechorot, 55«). It would seem that the point 
where the plain of the Jordan commenced (according to Josephus), and 
the point where the river Jordan began to receive that specific name 
(according to the Talmud) were practically identical. But, further, the 
Jerusalem Talmud mentions Beth Yereh and Sennabris together as the 
names of two towers, fnvtO^N "^l^ or fortified places on the Lake of 
Gennesareth (Megillah, i, 1, Gemara). This passage might be rendered, 
"The . . . was divided into two parts like Beth Yereh and Sennabri." 
The Aruch explains the words jlVT^H^-t^ (m vt£QN f° r m^t23N) 
as meaning " two castles in a place where there is a bridge for water, but 
there is no water between them." There can be little doubt, I think, that 
the Beth Yereh of the Talmud is the Tarichea of Josephus, of which the 
modern representative is Kerak. This place has long since been identified 
as Tarichea, and a knowledge of the nature of the ground comjDared with 
Josephus's detailed description of it makes such a conclusion almost if not 
absolutely certain. 

It is difficult to decide whether Tarichea, Beth Yereh, or Yereh was 
the original form of the name, or whether the place bore two names, as 
was not unfrequently the case. The Hebrew name might have been 
written rnWrVH or rTVD"^ an( l this would easily come to be written 
PH" 1 "]""^- The name Tarichea is also a good Greek word meaning 
salting-station, from rapixeva, which has reference to preserving bodies by 
artificial means, whether salting fish or embalming mummies. The name 
is thus supposed to be derived from the business of preserving fish which 
was carried on at this place (compare Strabo, xvi, 2, 45). 

The long bluff at the extreme south-west corner of the Lake of 
Tiberias, which is called at present Kerak, was originally connected with 



136 THE STATIONS OF DAVID'S CENSUS OFFICERS. 

the mainland by a dry bridge or causeway. On the mainland at or near 
the end of this bridge we suppose that the place called Sennabris should 
be located. These suggestions, if valid, would illustrate and confirm both 
Josephus and the Jewish writings. The statement of the Aruch, for 
instance, made probable without any knowledge on the part of the writer 
of the ground at the south end of the Lake, could not have been more 
accurate than it is, and Josephus also would be correct in stating the 
distance of Tarichea and Sennabris from Tiberias to be the same and in 
the same direction. 

I have several times had occasion to speak of the Jordan Valley on 
the east of the river, from the Lake of Tiberias as far south as the Zerka 
or Jabbok, as being exceedingly fertile because of the numerous mountain 
streams which water it. The first stream below the Lake is the Yarmuk, 
or Hieromax, called at present the Menadireh, It is an interesting fact 
that the region along this river, after it leaves the hills, is called Ard el 

'Adasiyeh, tj^ss. ■ T!ie Menadireh is, in that portion of it, called Wddy 
'Adasiyeh. At the point where the road approaches the river in order 
to enter the mountains there is a ruin of considerable size, which bears 
the common name of Ed Deir, and the portion of the valley of plain 
immediately north of it is called the Plain of Dueir. Still farther to the 
north, and but a short distance from the mountains, are the " hills of the 
foxes." On the shore of the Lake are the ruins of Semakh, and to the 
north-east is the place known as Khurbet es Sumrah. Down the valley to 
the south, a short distance from Ed Deir, and near the Menadireh, is a 
fountain and a ruin called Yagana (Yagana, Yag'na, or Yak'na, lilSuj or 
A lib ). Since the letter Heth readily interchanges with Ayin, may it not 
be possible that 'Adasiyeh represents the ancient Hodshi ? 

In my judgment there was a very natural reason why the census- 
takers should visit the broad and fertile valley which stretches to the 
south from the lower end of the Sea of Galilee. They had completed 
their work in Gilead, and were on their way northward towards Sidon 
and its vicinity. As only Israel and Judah were to be numbered the 
region of Damascus would not be visited, but that just below the Sea of 
Galilee would be on their direct route as they went north. This was the 
meeting place of two great thoroughfares between the country on the east 
and that on the west of the Jordan, even as it is to-day. The road from 
Beisan to Damascus, which crosses the Jordan by the Jisr Mejamia, and 
the road from Tiberias to the Hauran and Gilead (formerly a fine bridge 
supported on ten arches, led over the Jordan just below the Lake), 
intersect on this plain now called Ard el Adasiyeh. If any point on their 
route, as the officers were going from Gilead northward, was suitable for 
a place of public assembly, none more suitable than this could have been 
chosen. Their object was not to get into a large city, but to pitch their 
camp in the place that was most central and most easily accessible for the 
largest number of the inhabitants. 



THE STATIONS OF DAVID'S CENSUS OFFICERS. 137 

One of the truest remarks ever made in the long discussion as to the 
site of the Holy Sepulchre was that of Lieutenant Cornier, namely, that 
" Fortifications " (referring to the line of the walls) " follow the hills and 
not the valleys." Again, with regard to the site of Capernaum I have often 
urged, in opposition to those who advocate the claims of Tell Hum, the 
unreasonableness of supposing that a custom house would be located at a 
distance of 2£ miles from the main route of travel, which it was designed 
to accommodate. In like manner in endeavouring to trace the route of 
David's census-takers is it unfair to claim that the most natural sup- 
positions should receive the first consideration? It is on this principle 
that attention is now called to the district or Plain of 'Adasiyeh below 
the Sea of Galilee. Similarly the region about Aroer near Jazer (I locate 
Jazer at Khurbet Sar) has been the battle ground and the meeting place 
of the tribes living in that section of the country for generations, and why 
may it not always have been so 1 

If the census-takers chose for their work the most central and con- 
venient points, we should expect one near Lake Merom. Dan, if it were 
chosen, would accommodate all the people residing north of the Sea of 
Galilee, and south of Mount Hermon. The great road from Damascus to 
the sea coast divided at Dan into two branches, one following the present 
route by Shuklf to Sidon, and the other, that farther south, past Hunin 
to Tyre. 

If Dan stood alone in the text there would never have been a doubt 
that one of the census stations was near this ancient and well-known site. 
But having the word Jaan with Dan has seemed to make the matter of 
identification a difficult one. We must remember that we are dealing 
with a Hebrew record of a very early date, when Phoenician influence was 
especially strong in the north of Palestine. Banias, the modern name 
found in this region, is commonly thought to be a corruption of Panias 
or Paneas, which commemorated the worship of the god Pan in this 
once famous grotto. But Banias is probably a corruption of a much 
older name, Balinas, composed of two Phoenician words, Bal and Jaan, or 
Yaan. 

I notice in the " Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology," 
Vol. VII, Part 3, page 394, an attempt to identify Thatim Hodshi with 
Kadesh on the Orontes, which seems to me to be wholly without founda- 
tion. Why should the census-takers go more than 100 miles north of 
Palestine when they were directed to confine themselves to numbering 
the tribes of Israel within their several tribal territories ? 



138 GOLGOTHA. 



A NOTE ON GOLGOTHA. 

I have noticed latterly a good deal of discussion as to the site of 
Calvary, and that modern writers incline to place it north-west of Jerusalem. 
I have never been in Palestine, so can be no judge from the country of 
the fitness of their ideas. But I should like to make some suggestions 
arising from study of the Gospel narratives. 

We read that Joseph of Arimathsea went in boldly to Pilate and begged 
the body of Jesus. Evidently then it was not customary for the bodies 
of crucified criminals to be given up to their friends ; or Mary and His 
apostles would have taken His body as a matter of course. Joseph was 
an influential and rich man — he got it ; but even he had to go to head- 
quarters, and make special request for it. How about the bodies of the 
two thieves ? What would be done with them ? 

Two others were crucified with Him — on either side one, and Jesus in 
the midst. Plainly then it was an ordinary execution, and would take 
place at the ordinary spot. In the valley of the son of Hinnom was Tophet, 
where fires were kept always burning to consume the filth and refuse of 
the city ; dead animals and the " bodies of criminals " were thrown therein. 
This valley debouches into the Cedron valley, wherein Jews so desire to be 
buried. 

We read that many of the women who had followed Jesus and had 
ministered to Him, stood afar off beholding. They must have had some 
eminence on which to stand or they would not "from afar off" have been 
able to behold ; the crowd would have hidden Him. This coign of van- 
tage the Mount of Offence, or the Hill of Evil Council, would supply. As 
Antonia (and the Hall of Judgment) was at the north-west corner of the 
Temple hill, they would only have to bring Him down by the Temple 
precincts — always guarded — and a very short distance would bring them 
"without" the gates ; for we are very sure the accursed valley of the 
son of Hinnom would never be enclosed within the Holy City by any wall. 
Neither does it seem at all likely that the spot for the infliction of the 
accursed death of crucifixion should be chosen near the place where were 
the tombs of kings and prophets. Does it not then seem that the most 
likely spot to fulfil all the Scripture requirements for the crucifixion is 
near the junction of the valley of Hinnom with that of the Cedron ? There 
would be Tophet on the one hand, and the place of honourable burial close 
by on the other. 

It is plain that Jesus was laid in an open space ; for as the women 
came hurrying up, one is bidden by one angel to look in and see the place 
where the Lord lay ; does so, and sees a second angel seated on the right 
side ; whilst another woman standing on the outside stoops down to look 
in, and sees two angels within, sitting one at the head the other at the foot 
of the place where the body of Jesus had lain. There was space enough 
for Peter and John to walk in, and see where the grave-clothes lay, and 
the napkin which had bound the head lying apart. 



THE SAMARITAN TEMPLE. 139 

Then as for the " mound bearing some resemblance to a skull." When 
we consider the earthquakes, the battles, the sieges, which so changed and 
destroyed the ancient features of the land, we need not lay much stress 
upon this : such resemblances are common in rocky countries. Within 
half a mile of the spot where J write is a sharp cliff which from three 
different points bears a faithful likeness of three men known to me, and 
extremely unlike each other. Any very wet early winter, followed quickly 
by severe frost, might bring down a portion of this cliff' and utterly destroy 
all these faces. 

The last argument for the north-west site, viz., the shorter length of 
streets to be passed through, is entirely set aside by supposing our Lord to 
be led along the Temple precincts to the south side, and so to the valley of 
the son of Hinnom. 

GlRDLER WORRALL. 



THE SAMARITAN TEMPLE. 

Captain Conder seems to think that no dependence is to be placed upon 
the precise statement of Josephus that there was a Temple on Mount 
Gerizim, unless a corroboration of his assertion can be furnished from 
another source. 

I do not gather that he is prepared with any evidence actually con- 
tradicting Josephus, and until such is forthcoming may we not justifiably 
believe him, especially as he refers to the said Tenqffe, not merely in the 
long passage to which reference is given by C R. C. (" Ant.," XI, viii, 2-7), 
but also in " Ant.," XII, v, § 5, where he quotes a letter from the Samaritans 
to Antiochus asking permission for their Temple, which before had no 
name, to be called " the Temple of Jupiter Hellenius," and again in 
" Ant.," XIII, iii, § 4, in which he gives an account of the disputation befi »re 
Ptolemy respecting the two Temples, viz., at Gerizim and at Jerusalem ( 

If there was no Temple at Gerizim, he must have fabricated a good ileal 
more of his history than the assertion about its being built by Sanballat, 
of whom he records that "he was then in years" ("Ant.," XI, viii, § 2). 

H. B. S. W. 

March -23rd. 1885. 



140 BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE— 

continued. 



CHAPTER V. 

1. The mountain of the house, which was Mount Moriah, was five hundred 
cubits by five hundred cubits, and it was surrounded by a wall. 1 And 
arches were built upon arches beneath it, because of the tent of defilement. 2 
And it was all roofed over, cloister within cloister. 3 

2. And there were five gates to it ; one on the west, and one on the 
east, and one on the north, and two on the south. 4 The breadth of each gate 
was ten cubits and its height twenty. And there were doors to them. 5 

3. Inside of it, a reticulated wall [called soreg'] went all round. Its 
height was ten handbreadths, 6 and inside of the soreg the rampart 7 ten 

1 Middoth ii, 1, and i, 1. 

- Parah iii, 3. " The mountain of the house and the courts were hollow 
underneath because of Dinnn "Qp, the grave of the abyss," i.e., lest there 
should be a hidden grave beneath. 

a Pesachim i, 5. " Rabbi Judah said two cakes of a thank-offering which 
had become defiled were put upon the roof of the porch, NSLDVXH 2) ?J?," and 
Rashi remarks that this porch was a VOD = aroa, cloister, which was "in the 
mountain of the house where the people assembled and sat." The Gemara 
upon the same passage (Pesach. 13 b) says " Rabbi Judah said that the moun- 
tain of the house was a double cloister .... ■which was called JTOTIODX, 
a porch, a cloister within a cloister," and here Rashi adds that it was furnished 
with a roof to protect the people from the rain, and that the porch, X3DVX, 
went all round, ASpO T2D T2D, and had another inside it. In Pesach. 52 b, 
and Berachoth 33 b, this remark of Rabbi Judah is again noted, and in the 
former place Rashi explains that " double porches, mSn'O^X, were all round the 
mountain of the house one within the other." In Succah iv, 4, it is stated 
hat the elders arranged the palm-branches of the people at the Feast of 
Tabernacles " upon the top of the porch," and here again the gloss of Rashi 
adds that (he breadth, mm, of the mountain of the house was surrounded by 
covered cloisters." These cloisters and their roof are again mentioned in Succah 
44 I and 45 a. According to the Talmud, therefore, a roofed double cloister 
extended all round the mountain of the house, but for the statement of 
Maimonides that the whole enclosure was roofed over (if that be the meaning of 
riTlpE iTTI l^D) I find no authority in the Talmud. 
* Middoth i, 1, 3. 5 Middoth ii, 3. 

6 This reticulated wall (311D, sorey) is mentioned in Middoth ii, 3. The 
gloss of R. Shcniaiah says "it was made of carved pieces of wood, D^J? fllvpO, 
intertwined one upon the other obliquely as t hey weave bedsteads." Rashi in 
Voma 16 a says the soreg was "a partition made with many holes in it like a 
bedstead woven with cords, and was constructed of long and short pieces of 
wood called a lattice placed one upon another obliquely" (<:/'. Bartenora). I do 
not know thai it is anywhere stated in the text of I lie Talmud whether the soreg 
was of stone or of wood. 

7 L^p, chel. The word 0!"Q*2, its height) is placed between brackets, and is 
perhaps an interpolation of the transcribers. Thai the chel was a space and not 



BETH IIABBECHEUEII, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 141 

cubits (in height). It is this which is spoken of in the Lamentations 
(ii, b), "He made the rampart ami the wall to lament ;" that is the wall 
of the court. 

4. Within the chel was the court, and the whole court was one hundred 
and eighty-seven cubits long by one hundred and thirty-five broad. 8 And 
it had seven gates, three on the north, near to the west, and three on the 
south near to the west, and one on the east, 9 set opposite the Holy of 
Holies in the middle. 10 

5. Each of these gates was ten cubits broad, and twenty cubits high, 
and they had doors covered with gold, except the eastern gate, which was 

a wall is proved by several passages in the Talmud. In Sanhedrim 88 b, it is 
said "on sabbaths and feast days they (the members of the court) sat in the 
chel." Rashi adds " because the people were many and the place in the chamber 
too narrow for them." Pesachim 64 b, notes that " the first company (bringing 
their lambs at the Passover) remained in the mountain of the house, and the 
second in the chel," and here Rashi has the important note that it was " within 
the soreg, between the soreg and the wall of the court of the women, where the 
mountain began to rise." Baal Aruch says the chel was a place surrounding the 
wall between the mountain of the house and the court of the women, and that 
there was a great divinity school, ^-ft L""l"IO' m &• 

In Kelim 5 b, we read " the chel was more sacred than the mountain of the 
house, because idolaters and those defiled by the dead might not enter there." 
Not impi-obably there was a rampart, perhaps with an escarp at the inner side of 
the open space, and joined to the wall of the courts, and to this the door of the 
house Moked opened (Midd. i, 7). The remark of Baal Aruch "that the chel 
was a wall higher than the soreg" would in this case be intelligible, and it may 
have been such a wall which some have supposed to have been ten cubits in 
height. 

R. Lipsitz thinks that four cubits of the chel were level, and the remaining 
six on the rising ground, and that those six cubits were occupied by the steps up 
to the court, which steps he holds to have extended all round the house for the 
people to sit upon, and he founds this opinion upon the passages in Pesachim 
(13 b, 52 b) above quoted, and the gloss of Rashi. This learned Rabbi also 
holds that these steps and all the mountain of the house outside of the inner 
wall (the wall of the courts) were roofed over, and that probably seats were 
placed on the level ground outside the soreg (Mishnaoth, vol. v, 311 b, Warsaw 
1864). Rashi, in Yoma 16 a, remarks that the twelve steps leading from the 
chel to the court of the women were mOX' 1 fniX! "in those ten cubits" which 
formed the breadth of the chel, because the mountain rose from the Soreg to the 
court of the women six cubits, and he farther adds, in reference to these steps, 
that "in breadth each step was half a cubit, and in length extended, -y»ft> along 
the whole breadth of the mountain from north to south." Of the chel he says 
that it was " a vacant place of ten cubits." 

8 Middoth v, 1, 2, 6. 

9 Middoth i, 4 : cf. ib. ii, 6, and Shekalim vi, 3. 

10 Berachoth ix, 5. " A man may not raise his head lightly (i.e., indulge 
in levity) opposite the eastern gale, because that is set opposite the Holy of 
Ilolies." 

i. 2 



142 BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

covered with brass resembling gold, and that gate was what was called the 
upper gate, and it was the gate Nicanor." 

6. The court was not set in the middle of the mountain of the house, 
but its distance from the south of the mountain of the house was greater 
than that from all the other sides, and its nearness to the west greater than 
that to all the other sides. And the space between it and the north was 
greater than that between it and the west, and that between it and the east 
greater than that which was between it and the north. 12 

7. And before the court on the east was the court of the women, which 
was one hundred and thirty-five cubits long by one hundred and thirty- 
five cubits broad. And at its four corners were four chambers of forty 
cubits by forty, and they were not roofed, and thus they will be in the 
future. 

8. And what was their use ? The south-eastern chamber was the 
chamber of the Nazarites, because there they cooked their peace-offerings 
and shaved off their hair (Num. vi, 18) ; the north-eastern was the 
chamber for storing wood, and there the priest who had blemishes 
removed the worms upon the wood, because every piece of wood in 
which there was a worm was unlawful for the altar. 1 * The north-western 
was the chamber of the lepers. In the south-western they put oil and 
wine, and it was called the chamber of the house of oil. 15 

i). The court of the women was surrounded by a balcony, 16 in order 

11 Middoth ii, 3. In Succah v, 4, it is said "the two priests stood at the 
upper gate which led down from the court of Israel into the court of the 
women." That this was the gate Nicanor appears from Middoth i, 4, " the gate 
on the east of the court was the gate Nicanor" (cf. Yoma 19 a). Kashi in his 
note on Sotah i, 5, says " the gate of Nicanor was the upper gate, which was in 
the wall that was between the court of Israel and the court of the women." To 
this gate suspected women were brought to drink the bitter waters of jealousy 
(Num. v.), and lepers and women after childbirth were cleansed at it (Sotah i, 
5 ; Negaim xiv, 8) . E. Shemaiah also, on Kclim 5 b, says. " the gate Nicanor was 
the gate of the court of Israel." In Kle Hammikdash vii, 6, Maimonides 
remarks, " the upper gate was the gate Nicanor. And why was it called the 
upper gate ? Because it was above the court of the women." 

'-' Middoth ii, 1. The Tosefoth Yom Tob gives the following measurements 
of the several spaces : — 





Cubits. 




Cubits. 


Northern space 


. . 115 


Eastern space 


.. 213 


Southern ,, 


.. 250 


Western ,. 


. . 100 


Court.. 


.. 135 


Court 


.. 287 



500 600 

13 Middoth ii, 5. 

14 For the chamber of wood, see also Shekalim vi, 2. 
'"' Middoth ii, 5. 

lfi fiHDTITJ, tabulatum; in Middoth ii, 5, it is called iT1V*V3, tabula, cuter cut 
aliquid imponitur (Buxtorf). This balcony is said by R. Shemaiah and by 
Bar tenors to have been for the accommodation of the women during the rejoicings 



BETH HABBECHEttEH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 143 

that the women might see from above and the men from below, and 
so not be mixed. And there was a large house on the northern side 
of the court outside, between the court and the rampart {chel) ; it 
was arched and surrounded by stone benches, and it was called Beth 
Hammoked, the House Moked. There were two gates to it, one opening 
to the court and one opening to the chel. 11 

10. And there were four chambers in it, two holy and two profane, 
and pointed pieces of wood 18 distinguished between the holy and the 
profane. And for what did they serve? The south-western was the 
chamber of the lambs, 19 the south-eastern the chamber for making the 
shewbread, in the north-eastern the family of the Asmoneans laid up the 
stones of the altar which the Greek kings defiled, and in the north-western 
they went down to the bathing-room. 

11. A person descending to the bath-room 20 from this chamber went 
by the gallery which ran under the whole Sanctuary, 21 and the lamps 

at the Feast of Tabernacles, and they take this opinion from the Gamara (Succah 
51 b), which explains that the erection of this balcony was part of the " great 
preparations" which were made on that occasion. "At first the women were 
within and the men without, and when they began to indulge in levity it was 
arranged that the women should be outside, and the men inside, and seeing that 
the occasion of levity still arose they arrange:! for the women to be above and the 
men below" (Gamara, loc. cit.). Kashi upon this passage remarks that in the 
court of the women there were originally no beams, pTll, projecting from the walls, 
and that afterwards they placed beams jutting from the walls all round, and every 
year arranged these balconies of planks, upon which the women might stand and 
witness the rejoicings of the Beth Hashshavavah." Both Middoth and Maimo- 
nides speak of these balconies as if they were permanent. 
l ' Middoth i, 5, 7, 8. 

18 D^'i? ni3*J"in> pieces of wood (Bashi in Yoma 15 b). "Ends of beams 
projecting from the wall" Bartenora (cf. Middoth i, 6 ; ii, 6 ; iv, 5). They do 
not appear to have formed a partition, but only to have been a sign indicating 
the limits of the holy and profane parts of the house. 

19 Middoth i, 6, where it is called the chamber of the lambs for the offering. 
In Tamid iii, 3, the chamber of the lambs is said to have been at the south- 
western corner, which evidently refers to its position in relation to the altar and 
court of the priests, and shows the position of the house Moked itself without 
contradicting the statement of Middoth and our author. There can hardly be a 
doubt that it was, as here stated, at the south-western corner of Moked, though 
the gloss on Tamid says it was on the north-west of that house (cf. Yoma 15 b, 
and Tosefoth Yom Tov on Tamid iii, 3). 

20 n^TiOn JV3, domus lavaeri, house of bathing or clipping. The bathing 
here practised differed from baptism in the usual modern signification of the term, 
inasmuch as it was not an initiatory rite, and might be repeated. 

21 In Tamid i, 1, it is " under the Birah! " " What is Birah ? Eabbah, son 
of Bar Chanah, said that K. Johanan said there was a place in the mountain 
of the house, the name of which was Birah, and Raioh Lakish said all the house 
was called Birah," as is said (1 Chron. xxix, 19) "and to build the palace, birah, 
for which I have made provision" (Zevach. 1C1 b). Maimonides here uses the 



144 BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

burned on either side until he came to the bathing-room. And there 
was a large fire 22 there and an excellent 23 watercloset, and this was its 
excellence, that if he found it shut he knew there was some one 
inside. 

12. The length of the court from east to west teas a hundred and 
eighty-seven cubits, and these were the measurements, viz., from the 
western wall of the court to the wall of the temple (2Tf) eleven cubits, 
the length of the whole temple a hundred cubits, between the porch and 
the altar two and twenty, the altar two and thirty, the place of the tread 
of the feet of the priests, which was called the court of the priests, eleven 
cubits, the place of the tread of the feet of Israel, which was called the 
court of Israel, eleven cubits. 24 

13. The breadth of the court from north to south was a hundred and 
thirty-five cubits, and these were the measurements, 25 viz., from the north 
wall to the shambles eight cubits, the shambles twelve cubits and a half : 
and there on the side they hung up and skinned the holy sacrifices. 

14. The place of the tables was eight cubits, and in it were marble 
tables, upon which they laid the pieces of the offerings and washed the 
flesh to prepare it for being boiled. These were eight tables. And by 
the side of the place of the tables was the place of the rings, twenty-four 
cubits, and there they slaughtered the holy sacrifices. 

15. Between the place of the rings and the altar was eight cubits, and 
the altar two and thirty, and the sloping ascent to the altar (\T*^D) 
Kebesh) thirty, and between the sloping ascent and the south wall 
twelve cubits and a half. From the north wall of the court to the wall 
of the altar, which was the breadth, was sixty cubits and a half, and 
corresponding to it from the wall of the porch to the east wall of the court, 
which was the length seventy-six. 26 

term tJHpD, mikdash, as synonymous with birah. Bartenora, in Pesaehim vii, 8, 
and again in Tamid, remarks that " the whole of the Sanctuary was called Birah." 
The gallery here spoken of, !"ODD, ambitus, circuitus, was subterranean, Vp~^P^ 
nnn (Beth Habbec. viii, 7). It opened into the profane part of the enclosuie, 
and was consequently not holy. 

22 A wood fire, mHD. Of. Isaiah xxx, 33 ; Ezekiel xxiv, 9, 10. 

23 Lit. honourable, -j<Q2 £b>. The whole of this section is from Tamid i, 1. 
-' Middoth r, 1. 

* 5 Middoth v, 1. 

26 In Middoth v, 2, where the measurements of the court from north to south 
are given, a remainder of twenty-five cubits is said to have been " between the 
sloping ascent and the wall and the place of the pillars," and Maimonides has 
allotted one-half of this measurement to the former space, and one-half to the 
latter, the result of which is to place the central line of the altar nine cubits 
south of the central line of the door of the Temple and of the court. His 
authority for this is the Gamara of Yoma 16 b, for although R. Judali 
maintained (loc. cit. and Zevach. 58 b) that the altar " was placed in the middle 
of the court, and measured thirty-two cubits, ten cubits opposite the door of the 
Temple ^n, eleven cubits to the north and eleven cubits to the south," the 






BETH HAP.EEOIIEltEIl. OK Till- CHOSEN HOUSE. 



145 



16. All this quadrangle was called "north," and it was the place in 
which they slaughtered the most holy sacrifices. 27 

17. There were eight 28 chambers in the court of Israel, three on the 

other rabbis disputed that opinion, bringing forward the passage in Middoth v, 2, 
to prove that "the greatest part of the altar lays to the south." 

The following are the measurements given by the three chief authorities: — 



From north wall to place of the pillars 

Place of pillars 

From pillars to tables 

Place of tables 

From tables to rings 

Place of rings 

From rings to altar. . 

Altar 

Sloping ascent 

Between sloping ascent and south wall 



Middoth 

and 
fiamara 
ot Voma. 



8 
12* <P) 

4 



24 
4 
38 
32 
10J(?) 



135 



Maimo- 

nides. 



8 

12J 



24 
8 
32 
30 
12* 



135 



10* 

4 

4 

4 
24 

8 
32 
30 
10| 



135 



According to Maimonides, therefore, twenty-five cubits, and according to Eashi, 
twenty-seven cubits of the altar were south of the central line of the court. 
Eashi, in his elaborate note on this subject in Yoma 16 b, explains that the 
northern side of the altar extended just as far as the northern doorpost of the 
central gates, and that the receding of the foundation and circuit of the altar 
(Midd. iii, 1) left two cubits on the northern side of the top of the lower gate 
(that east of the court of the women) not obstructed, and that it was through 
this small space the priest standing on the Mount of Olives could see into the 
door of the Temple (Midd. ii, 3). It will be remembered that the summit of the 
altar was exactly twenty cubits above the floor of the court of the women, and 
that consequently the aperture of the lower gate was obstructed by it to the top, 
except on its northern side, if Easbi's supposition as to its position is correct, and 
on the south of the northern horn where one cubit would be left above the altar, 
through which a person could see into the Temple if his eye were placed in a line 
with the lintel or not more than one cubit below it. As to the priest on the 
summit of the Mount of Olives looking through the gateway, this will appear 
hardly possible when it is remembered how much higher the Mount of Olives is 
than the Temple Hill. He must have looked over the eastern wall and over the 
lower gate. 

-" Zevachim 20 a. 

28 Middoth v, 3 and i, 4, and Yoma 19 a. In Yoma the chambers on the north 
and south are placed as Maimonides here places them, but in Middoth the 
chambers of salt, of Parvah, and of the washings are placed on the north, and 
the other three on the south. 



146 BETH HABBECHEREH, OK THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

north and three on the south. Those on the south were the chamber 
of salt, the chamber of Parvah, 29 and the chamber of washing. In the 
chamber of salt they put salt to the offering, in the chamber Parvah they 
salted the skins of the holy sacrifices, and on its roof was the bathing-room 
for the High Priest, on the Day of Atonement. 30 In the chamber of 
washings they washed the inwards of the holy sacrifices, and from it a 
winding staircase (j-Q^Dft) ascended to the roof of the house of Parvah. 
And the three on the north were the chamber of hewn stone, 31 the chamber 
of the draw-well, and the chamber of wood. In the chamber of hewn 
stone the great Sanhedrim sat, and half of it was holy and half was profane ; 
and it had two dooi's, one to the holy and one to the profane part, and the 
Sanedrim sat in the profane half. In the chamber of the draw-well 82 

29 R. Shemaiah on Middoth (37 L) says that the name Parvah was derived 
from D'HS, parim, young bulls, because it was the skins of the oxen offered as 
sacrifices which were salted in it. Baal Aruch quotes from Yoma 35 a, " What 
is Parvah? R. Josef said Parvah was X^'IJDX, amqusah, a magician," and 
explains " Parvah was the name of a certain magus, and some of the wise men 
say that he dug a hollow place underground in the Sanctuary so that he might 
see the service of the High Priest on the Day of Atonement ; that the wise men 
became aware of the pit which he had dug in that place, and found him, and 
that the chamber was called after his name." Maimonides in his comment on 
Middoth says " Parvah was the name of a magician who dug in the wall of the 
court in this chamber until he could see the service ; and he was killed." Since 
the service of the Day of Atonement was chiefly performed on the northern side 
of the court, this story is a confirmation of the statement of Middoth that the 
chamber of Parvah was on the northern side. Bartenora, quoting Rashi (on 
Yoma iii, 6), remarks "a certain magician, ^'3D, named Parvah, built this 
chamber, and it was called after his name ; " and in his work on Middoth v, 3, 
the same writer intimates that the chamber was built by magic. Parvah was in 
the sacred part of the Temple enclosure (Yoma iii, 3, 6). 

31 Yoma iii, 3, G. 

31 j-|i|jp| ry3fc}^>. The chamber Gazith. The Gamara of Yoma (25 a) says 
" it was like a large basilica; the lots were on the east, the elders sat on the? 
west," so that its long diameter appears to have been east and west. That one 
half of it was holy and one half profane is stated on the same page. The reason 
why the Sanliedrim sat in the profane half is that only kings of the House of 
David might sit in the court (lot: cit.). The Tosefoth Yom Tov (Midd. v, 4) 
says the chamber of the draw-well was south, and the chamber of wood to the 
north of the chamber Gazith. 

A1 r6ljn rDL"^- Light foot calls it the room of the draw-well, because there 
was in it a wheel with which to draw water. Middoth (in some copies) speaks 
of the n'piJn 112' *he well of the captivity, being placed in it, and this well is 
suid to have been dug by those who came up from tin' captivity, and to have 
given its name to the chamber (Bartenora and Tosefoth Yom Tov). This well 
is mentioned in Erubinx, 14. "They were permitted to draw water from the well 
of the captivity and from the ^mit well on the Sabbath." R. Shemaiah, in 
Middoth, says it had Bweel water for drinking and a pipe or reservoir, riSX, of 
water for washing {of. Jer. Yoma 11 a, 1). The word n^lJ) or more accurately 



BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 147 

was a well from which they drew by means of a bucket/ 8 and thence 
supplied water to the whole court. The chamber of wood 34 was behind 
these two. It was the chamber of the High Priest, and is what was 
called the chamber Parhedrin. 35 And the roof of the three was even. 
And there were two other chambers in the court of Israel, one on the 
right of the eastern gate, which was the chamber of Phinehas the 
vestment keeper, and one on the left, which was the chamber of the 
pancake maker. 

il/J, means also a fountain or source of water (of. Jud. i, 15), and inasmuch as 
it is taught in both Talmuds ( Jerus. Yoma 41 a ; Bab Yoma 31 a ; Becbor 44 b : 
Sbabb. 145 ft, and the notes of Rashi, also Maim. Baitb Hammikdash v. 15), 
that the water of the fountain Etham, Dt3' , y, was brought to the Temple, it is not 
certain that n^Uil D3"'^ should not be translated "the chamber of the fountain.' - 
Solomon's molten sea is said to have been supplied from Etham, and the laver to 
have been filled from it. In Yoma 31 a it is said " the fountain of Etham was 
twenty-three cubits above the level of the court." 

33 H?J is also a jug or similar vessel, lecythus, or "a large round basin, ^jy 
7113 ^QD " (Tosefoth Yom Tov to Midd. v, 4). Some kind of bucket is here 
signified by Maimonides, but whether it was of wood, metal, or clay it is im- 
possible to determine. The suggestion of a modern commentator (Mishnaoth 
Schmid, Vienna, 1835) may here be noted "probably the n713n "112 was ;1 
common well with two buckets worked by a wheel, one descending into the 
water as the other was drawn up." 

34 The chamber of wood is said to have been for storing the wood fit for the 
altar (Tosefoth Yom Tov to Midd. v, 4 ; cf. Midd. ii, 5). 

:« « Seven days before the Day of Atonement they separated the High Priest 
from his house into the chamber Parhedrin" (Yoma i, 1). "And why the 
chamber Parhedrin ? Was it not the chamber of the councillors ? At first it 
was called the chamber of the councillors *>t211^2 rO^ , / =7ra(7 " ro< £ e P e ' '' TC0 '' 
BoXevroov, but because they began to purchase the priesthood with money and to 
change it every twelve months, as these assessors were changed every twelve 
months, therefore they called it p~nmD rDL'6' the chamber of the assessors'' 
(lb. 8 b, and the note of Rashi). " Rab Papa said there were two chambers for 
the High Priest ; one, the chamber Parhedrin, and one the chamber of the 
house of Abtinas ; one being on the north, and one on the south, of the court 

. . I do not know whether the chamber Parhedrin was on the north and 
the chamber of the house of Abtinas on the south ; or the chamber of the house 
of Abtinas on the north, and the chamber Parhedrin on the south, but we are of 
opinion that the chamber Parhedrin was on the south " (Yoma 19 a). 

(To he continued). 




COL. SIK CHARLES W. WILSON, K.C.M.G., C.B., LL.D., F.B.S., B.E. 



Quarterly Statement, July, 1885.] 

THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



We have received, too late for the Quarterly Statement, a most important 
packet from Herr Schumacher, a note concerning which appeared in the 
January and April numbers. It contains a map covering about 200 square 
miles of a part of the Jaulan, that little known and extremely interesting 
country lying east of the Lake of Galilee, formerly G-aulanitis after the hitherto 
undiscovered city of Golan (Josh, xxx, 8, and xxi, 27), one of the three cities 
of refuge in the East. It has been traversed by Burckhardt, Porter, and 
Welzstein, Mr. Cyril Graham, Mr. Laurence Oliphant, and Dr. Selah Merrill. 
Herr Schumacher, however, is the first who has surveyed any part of the 
country, and planned and sketched its ruins. The results of the work are 
very briefly summed up in the report of the Executive Committee below. He 
has discovered, almost beyond possibility of doubt, the Biblical Golan. He 
suggests a new identification for Argob. He has found a vast field containing 
something like 500 dolmens ; he has partially planned the most curious sub^ 
terranean city of Dera, and he has planned and described all the monuments 
and buildings in the places which he visited, including the very interesting place 
round which are gathered the traditions of Job. He has also given a most 
valuable general description of the country, and has gathered a good collection 
of Arabic names. It is sufficient commendation of the work to state that its 
places may be placed side by side with those of Captains Conder and Kitchener 
in the " Memoirs of the Survey of Western Palestine." 



The Committee have decided to produce this work separately and to present a 
copy of it, post free, to every subscriber of the Fund who may make application 
for it. A form of application is enclosed. The book will be set up uniform with 
the cheap editions of " Heth and Moab " and "Tent Work," and will form a 
volume about half the size of these books. It wdl be issued with the October 
Quarterly Statement. 



We are enabled by the courtesy of the Proprietors of the Pictorial World 
to present with this number a portrait of Sir Charles Wilson, who has now 
returned from Egypt. 

The interest attaching to Herr Schumacher's work will be increased by the 
paper presented to the Society, and published in this number, by Mr. Guy le 



M 



150 NOTES AND NEWS. 

Strange. It is an account of a short journey east of the Jordan, and of a visit 
to Pella, the Kalat el Eukud, which is outside the part surveyed by Captain 
Conder ; Jerash, the Wady Zerka, Yajuz, and Amman. Mr. le Strange 
carries with him in his Eastern travels a rare acquaintance with the works of 
Arabian and Persian travellers. He has undertaken to translate and to annotate 
for the Pilgrims' Text Society, the Travels of Mokaddasi. 



The notes by Mr. Laurence Oliphant and by Herr Hanauer are curious and 
interesting. The Rock Altar close to the site of Zorah strongly suggests the story 
of Judges xiii, 19, and the altar of Manoah. It seems to be, at any rate, of 
extreme antiquity. 



On Sunday evening, June 21st, died suddenly, at his residetu-e in Cheyne 
Walk, Mr. W. S. W. Vaux, F.R.S., formerly Keeper of Coins in the British 
Museum, and latterly Secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society. Mr. Vaux 
became a member of the Committee of this Society on its foundation, May 12, 
18G5, for the whole period of its existence he remained a member, and attended 
nearly every meeting of the Committee. His loss is one which will not be easily 
filled up. 

And on Tuesday, the 23rd, died, at his residence at Penzance, another of the 
Society's oldest friends and supporters, A. Lloyd Fox, a member of the General 
Committee, and the Society's Hon. Secretary for Falmouth. 



Professor null's work, " Mount Seir," is now ready. New editions have also 
been issued of " Tent Work " and " Heth and Moab " at six shillings each. 



Light upon the ancient customs of Palestine has been thrown from a very 
unexpected quarter, namely, Russian Central Asia. Dr. Lansdell (" Russian 
Central Asia," Sampson Low & Co.) has discovered as far to the east of 
Palestine as London is to the west, and among an Iranian population, many 
Semitic customs described in the Sacred Books, especially those written after the 
Captivity. These customs may have had a common origin, or, as Dr. Lansdell 
suggests, they may have been taken eastwards by the Ten Tribes. 



The income of the Society, from March 17th inclusive, was — from subscrip- 
tions and donations £260 9s. 6d., from all sources £481 18s. 5d. The expenditure 
during the same period was £382 1*. Gd. On June 24th the balance in the 
Banks was £351 12*. Id. 



It is suggested to subscribers that the safest and most convenient manner 
of paying subscriptions is through a Bank. Many subscribers have adopted this 
method, which removes the danger of loss or miscarriage, and renders unneces- 
sary the acknowledgment by official receipt and letter. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 151 

Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly Statement regularly, are asked 
to send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward each number 
to all who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes 
give rise occasionally to omissions. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood that 
by publishing them in the Quarterly Statement they neither sanction nor adopt 
them. 



The only authorised lecturers for the Society are — 

(1) The Eev. Henry Geary, Vicar of St. Thomas's, Portman Square. His 

lectures are on the following subjects : — 

The survey of Western Palestine, as illustrating Bible History. 

Palestine East of the Jordan. 

The Jerusalem Excavations. 

A Restoration of Ancient Jerusalem. Illustrated by original photo- 
graphs shown as " dissolving views." 

(2) The Rev. James Xing, Vicar of St. Mary's, Berwick. His subjects are 

as follows : — 
The Survey of Western Palestine. 
Jerusalem. 
The Hittites. 
The Moabite Stone and other monuments. 

(3) The Rev. James Neil, formerly Incumbent of Christ Church, Jerusalem. 
(-4) The Rev. George St. Clair, formerly Lecturer to the Society, is about to 

organise, by arrangement with the Committee, a course of lectures 
this winter on the work of the Society. 



152 



THE LATE MR. W. S. W. VAUX. 

We have to announce the sudden death, at the age of sixty-seven, of Mr. 
William Sandys Wright Vaux, M.A., F.E.S., the well-known numismatist 
and Oriental scholar. His long connection with the British Museum, the 
service of which he entered in 1841, the year after his graduation as B A. 
at Baliol College, Oxford, and from which he retired in 1870, culminated 
in his keepership of the Department of Coins and Medals, which he 
occupied for two or three months short of ten years. As an expert in 
this sphere of learning, he acted for some time as a joint editor of the 
Niimismatic Chronicle, arranged and described for the Society for the 
Publication of Oriental Text the series of fac-similes of the coins struck by 
the Atabeks of Syria and Persia, 1848, and, among other learned contribu- 
tions, communicated to the Numismatic Society of London in 18G3a paper 
" On the Coins reasonably presumed to be those of Carthage." He was 
employed from 1871 to 1876 in the compilation of a catalogue of the coins 
in the Bodleian Library for the University of Oxford. As a scholar of 
more general and literary activity, Mr. Vaux prepared, in 1851, a descrip- 
tive " Handbook to the Antiquities of Greek, Assyrian, Egyptian, and 
Etruscan Art in the British Museum." He was the author of " Nineveh 
and Persepolis, an historical sketch of Ancient Assyria and Persia, with an 
account of the recent researches in those countries," 1850, which reached 
its fourth edition in 1855, and of which a German translation by Dr. J. T. 
Zenker was published at Leipsic in 1852. To the series of the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge, generically entitled " Ancient History 
from the Monuments," Mr. Vaux contributed two several works — " Persia, 
from the Earliest Period to the Arab Conquest," 1875, and "Greek Cities 
and Islands of Asia Minor," 1877. These works, however, by no means 
exhaust the list of Mr. Vaux's productions, which embrace numerous 
contributions to the transactions of various learned societies, and especially 
to those of the Eoyal Society of Literature, of which Mr. Vaux was for 
some time secretary. On New Year's Day, 1876, he was appointed to the 
secretaryship of the Eoyal Asiatic Society, an office which he held until 
his death, at his residence in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, on Sunday evening 
last. Mi\ Vaux, who was the son of the late Prebendary Vaux, of 
Winchester, Vicar of Eomsey, Hants, was born in 1818, and was educated 
at Westminster and Baliol College, Oxford, where, as already mentioned, 
he took his B.A. degree in 1840. In the world of learning he was a man 
of very wide knowledge and of the most varied accomplishments, and he 
was much esteemed by a large circle of private friends. — From the Times. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 153 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The Annual Meeting of the General Committee was held at the Society's 
Offices, 1, Adam Street, Adelphi, on Wednesday, June 24th, 1885. 

The Chair was taken by Mr. James Glaisher. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. The 
Secretary then read the following Report of the Executive Committee : — 

"My Lords and Gentlemen, 

"Your Committee, elected at the last meeting of June 19th, 1884, 
have, on resigning office, to render an account of their administration 
during the past year. 

" I. The Committee have held nineteen meetings during the year. 

"II. The 'firman' necessary for the prosecution of the Survey of 
Eastern Palestine is still withheld by the Turkish authorities. 

" III. The work of exploration in the Holy Land has been carried on 
during the last twelve months by Mr. Laurence Oliphant, Herr Schumacher, 
and Mr. Guy le Strange. The best thanks of the Committee are due to 
these gentlemen for the valuable reports and papers given to the Society 
by them ; some of them, including Notes on the Jaulan and Notes on Carmel 
by Mr. Oliphant, have already been published in the Quarterly Statement. 
Other notes by the same gentleman will appear in July, together with an 
account of a journey east of Jordan by Mr. Guy le Strange. The Com- 
mittee have also just received, and have great pleasure in laying on the 
table, a really magnificent contribution to the Survey of the East, in a 
packet of memoirs, plans, and map, from Herr Schumacher. This work, 
certainly the most important examination, so far as it goes, of the Jaulan 
district, as yet made by any traveller, is put forward by the Committee 
with great satisfaction as the principal work of the year. It is proposed 
to issue this in a separate form apart from the Quarterly Statement, and to 
present it to all subscribers who may desire to possess a copy. The map will 
be incorporated with the map of the Society, and laid down on the sheets 
now being prepared by Mr. Armstrong. It covers about 200 square miles; 
the Memoirs contain a list of Arabic names, a general description of the 
country with its perennial streams, cascades, forests, villages, roads, and 
people, and an account with excellent plans and drawings of the villages 
and ruins in the district visited by Herr Schumacher. 

" Among the principal ruins described may be mentioned that called 
Kh. Arkub er Rahwah, which Herr Schumacher would identify with the 
Argob of the Bible, commonly placed at the Lejjah. He is supported in 
this view by the authority of Burckhardt, who maintained that Argob would 
be found somewhere in southern Jaulan. Important ruins were found in 
the Ain Dakhar and Beit Akkar. North of the former place is a field of 



154 ANNUAL MEETING OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

dolmens, in number not short of 500, called by the natives Kubur Beni 
Israil — graves of the children of Israel. Ancient stone bridges were 
found crossing the streams at Nahr el Allan and Nahr Bukkad ; a re- 
markable altar was found at Kefr el Ma, conjectured by Herr Schumacher 
to be the Maccabsean Alima. Here a remarkable statue of basalt was 
also found. In a village called Sahem el Jolan, Herr Schumacher thinks 
he has discovered the Biblical Golan, which has hitherto escaped identifi- 
cation. The situation, the name, the extensive ruins, and the traditions 
of the people, all seem to confirm Herr Schumacher's conjecture. The 
ruins of the remarkable underground city of Ed Dera were examined 
and planned for the first time, .together with the towns and monuments of 
El Mezeirib Tuffas and Nawar, identified by Mr. Oliphant with the land 
of Uz ; other subterranean buildings were found at Kh. Sumakh and at 
Sheik Saad. The rock tomb of Job was also photographed and planned. 
These Memoirs and Maps may be considered as followiug immediately 
on the notes furnished by Mr. Oliphant for the Quarterly Statement of 
April last. The recovery of two important Biblical places, the mass of 
light thrown upon ancient worships, the great number of ruins planned, 
and the care and intelligence bestowed upon the whole work, render it 
incumbent ujion the Committee to ask the General Committee for a special 
vote of thanks to this young explorer, as well as to Mr. Oliphant and 
Mr. Guy le Strange. It must also be mentioned that Mr. Oliphant has 
discovered a dolmen in Judaea, where hitherto none had been found. It 
lies in a desert and hilly part of the country, on sheet 115 of the great 
map. Another interesting discovery is one made by Herr Hanauer, close 
to the site of the ancient Zorah, of a rock altar which suggests the 
passage in Judges xiii, 19 and 20. 

"The publications of the year in the Quarterly Statement have also 
included Major Kitchener's important geographical report of the Arabah 
Valley. An archaeological paper by Clermont-Ganneau on Palestine 
Antiquities in London, and communications from Canon Tristram, Bev. 
H. Clay Trumbull, Rev. H. G. Tomkins, Dr. Selah Merrill, Dr. Chaplin, 
Bev. W. E. Birch, Brofessor Hull, Mr. Baker Greene, and others, to whom 
the best thanks of the Committee are due. The books published by the 
Committee since the last meeting of the General Committee are 'Mount 
Seir ' by Brofessor Hull, and cheap editions of Captain Conder's 'Tent 
Work ' and ' Heth and Moab.' The remaining copies of the ' Survey of 
Western Palestine ' have been placed in the hands of Mr. A. B. Watt, of 
Baternoster Bow, for disposal, subject to the condition that no reduction 
be made on the original price of the work. 

" The Committee have now in their hands the whole of Brofessor Hull's 
Geological Memoirs. This important work has been sent to the printers 
and will be issued as soon as possible. 

"An arrangement has been made with Mr. H. Chichester Hart, by 
means of which we shall be enabled to publish his Memoirs on the Natural 
History of the Arabah. Herr Schumacher will also, it is hoped, continue 
his researches as opportunity may offei. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 155 

"The Balance Sheet for the year 1884 was published in the April 
Quarterly Statement. The Society received during the year the sum of 
£5,654, including a loan of £850, and expended £1,851 in exploration, 
£2,592 on maps and memoirs, £504 in printing, and £618 in management. 
Since the beginning of the year the sum of £1,224 has been received ; 
exploration has cost £116, maps and memoirs £408, printers £200, and 
management £346. 

"As regards the maps showing both Eastern and Western Palestine 
with the Old and New Testament names on them, they are now ready for 
the engraver, but will not be handed to him until Herr Schumacher's 
work can be laid down on them. Mr. Armstrong has also completed a 
list of Old and New Testament names with their identifications. 

"The Committee have to express their best thanks to the Local 
Hon. Secretaries, and to all who have helped to spread a knowledge 
of their work, which, as will be seen from the preceding report, is actively 
going on, and will continue to do so, as long as any part of our original 
prospectus remains to be filled up. 

" The Committee have lastly to "deplore the sudden death on Sunday 
last, the 21st, of Mr. W. S. W. Vaux, F.R.S., formerly Chief of the 
Numismatic Department in the British Museum, and lately Secretary of 
the Royal Asiatic Society. Mr. Vaux has been a member of the Executive 
Committee since the formation of the Society on May 12th, 1865. There has 
hardly been a meeting from that date until the last meeting of June 2nd 
at which he was not present, and his interest in the Society and his watch- 
fulness over the advance of its work have never ceased from the beginning." 

The adoption of the Report was proposed by Dr. Chaplin, of Jerusalem, 
who spoke of the way in which the work of the Society was steadily 
growing in recognition, and seconded by Mr. Cyril Graham, who bore 
testimony, from his own experience in the country, to the beauty and 
excellence of Herr Schumacher's work. 

The Dean of Chester proposed the re-election of the Executive 
Committee. This was seconded by the Rev. Dr. Lowy. Both gentlemen 
took occasion to speak of the great loss the Society had sustained in the 
lamented death of Mr. Vaux. 

Mr. Henry Maudslay proposed, and Mr. Crace seconded, a vote of 
thanks to the Chairman. 



156 THE SITE OF E.MMAUS. 

THE SITE OF EMMAUS. 

(See Quarterly Statement, October 1884, April 1885.) 

In reply to Mr. Mearns, I only ask permission to prove my statement 
that Josephns (Bell. Jud. iv, 1) does interpret Emmaus to mean, in the 
particular place referred to, Hotwells. Mr. M. contends "The word he nses 
is 6epp.a, warm baths, referring to the gentle heat of Laths. But if he had 
meant hot springs he would have used the feminine, Beppai." Whatever 
the lexicon may say, Josephus leaves no doubt as to his own employment 
of Beppa in the passage before us. His words are : pedepp-qievopevr) 8e 
Appaovs, 6*ppa Aeyoir' av, ecm yap iv avrfj Trrjyi) deppcov vSdrcov 7rp6s aKtcrtv 
e7rtrr;Seto?. Mr. Mearns paraphrases this passage in the following some- 
what imaginative manner : — " Josephus says that the meaning of a warm 
bath was peculiarly applicable to the Tiberian Emmaus ; for in it was 
a spring of hot water to supply the bath, and useful for healing. The 
historian distinctly says that the name always points to a warm bath." 
(The italics are mine.) If Mr. Mearns reads his authors in this fashion, 
I think I may safely leave my argument to take care of itself on other 
points on which he animadverts. 

A. Kennion. 



ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 157 



ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE 
JORDAN. 

By Guy le Strange. 

The impediments which, at the present time, the Turkish Government 
almost invariably throw in the way of any one who attempts a journey 
into the country across the Jordan, and having heard of the large sums 
usually demanded of travellers by the Sheikhs of the Belka under plea of 
escort dues — emboldens me to offer this present account of a hurried 
trip through 'Ajlun and the Belka, successfully carried out during the 
month of November, 1884, without Government permission, tents, 
baggage-mules, or blackmail. We left Nazareth on the morning of 
Tuesday, the 11th of November, but, as is often the case on the first 
day of a journey, the start was delayed by reason of trifles forgotten till 
the last moment, and, in consequence, the sun was already two hours on 
its course before we lost sight of the white houses of Nazareth and 
threaded the ravines down into the plain of Esdraelon. Pella was to 
have been the end of the first stage, but the sky was clouding up and 
threatening a deluge ; hence even before we had passed the villages of 
Nain and Endor it seemed hopeless to attempt getting across the Jordan 
that day. The rain, however, held off till after lunch, which was discussed 
on the green bank of Goliath's river, the Nahr Jalud, which runs into the 
Jordan after watering Beisan, and then we walked our horses through 
the ruin of the beautiful Saracenic Caravanserai overhanging the stream 
which is known as the Khan el Ahmar, or " the Red." But an hour 
later, while passing through the squalid village of Beisan, and casting 
a hurried glance at the imposing and widespread ruins of the ancient 
Scythopolis of the Decapolis, down came the rain in torrents ; and the 
sky at the same time displayed such sure tokens of something more than 
a passing shower, that by 4 o'clock it was determined to seek shelter and 
a night's lodging in the hospitable tent of an Arab whom we found 
camped below in the valley of the Jordan. 

For about ten hours the rain continued with but little abatement, 
soaking through the hair walls, and dripping from the roof of our host's 
abode, and further causing the sheep and goats to be disagreeably anxious 
to participate with us in the comparative shelter which the same afforded. 
However, by a couple of hoars past midnight the sky was again clear, and 
I may add that during the remainder of the trip as far as Jerusalem, the 
state of the atmosphere was everything that could be desired. The late 
autumn in Palestine, as a season for journeying and exploration, has 
perhaps some advantages over the spring, if only the traveller be 
sufficiently fortunate to happen on the six weeks or two months which 
generally intervene between the early autumn showers and the steady 
rains of winter, which last do not, as a rule, begin much before Christmas. 

N 



158 ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 

In the autumn, the land, having been parched by the summer heats, is of 
course less green and beautiful than is the case in the early days of spring ; 
but, on the other hand, ruins are no longer concealed by any luxuriant 
vegetation, and since the coolness of the weather renders a shortened 
halt at noon a matter of no inconvenience, the traveller can devote to the 
business on hand all the hours of daylight, which even at this season can 
be counted upon as lasting from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. Bedouins in general 
are of course early risers, and we, their guests, had in consequence no 
difficulty in getting early into the saddle, so that before the sun had 
made its appearance above the mountains of Ajhm we were riding east- 
wards over the fertile lands of the Ghor, the Arab name for the mighty 
" cleft " through which the waters of the Jordan pour. At the present day 
the country all round Beisan, though partially cultivated, and fetching a 
certain price in the market, is not to compare with the description that has 
been left to us of its fertility in the century preceding the arrival of the 
Crusaders. Mokaddasi, 1 writing about the year 1000 a.d., describes 
Beisan at his time as being rich in palm trees, and informs us that all the 
rice used in the provinces of the Jordan, and of Palestine, was grown 
here. At the present day no rice is cultivated anywhere in this neigh- 
bourhood, nor for the matter of that, as far as I know, in any other part 
of Palestine, and the palm has long been gone from here as from the 
shores of the Sea of Tiberias, where, according to the geographer above 
quoted, there might be seen in his days " all around the Lake villages and 
date palms, while on the same sail boats coming and going continually." 2 

That the bygone prosperity might easily return to this country, should 
circumstances (i.e., the Government) again become propitious, was an 
idea that impressed itself on us, each moment the more, while riding over 
the rich soil, and fording at every hundred yards the streams which here 
intersect the Ghor. An abrupt descent brought us in an hour to the Jordan, 
at a ford where the water scarcely reached the bellies of our horses, and 
we had the luck to be guided to the right place by three of our hosts of 
the previous evening, who, mounted on their wirey, bald-tailed mares, 
and armed with the long Arab lance, had turned out to accompany us 
during the first few hours of the way. Across the Jordan we suddenly 
came upon an encampment of black tents, tenanted by kinsmen of our 
last night's host, and as a consequence were condemned to waste a precious 
hour while coffee was prepared and ceremoniously drunk, followed by 
a light repast of bread and sour milk ; and hence it was past nine before 
we reached the ruins of Pella, although these lie but an hour distant from 
the spot at which we forded the Jordan. As Mr. Selah Merrill very 
justly observes in the work which, unless I am misinformed, is as yet the 

1 Edited in Arabic by de Goeje (Leyden, 1877), p. 162. 

2 Op. cit., p. 161. A few stunted palms are, however, still to be seen at Kufr 
Argib and elsewhere on the shores of the Lake (see J. Macgregor, "Rob Roy 
on the Jordan," 1869, pp. 325, 329 ; also, "Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 367, in 
Capt. Wilson's article on the Sea of Galilee). 



ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 159 

sole fruit of the American Palestine Exploration Society, " Tabakat 
Fahl is a beautiful location for a city, and the wonder is that it should 
have been forsaken." Even after the long summer drought, the springs 
gushing out among the broken columns and ruins of former splendour, are 
abundant enough to make fertile all the neighbouring land, which, 
situated as it is on the upper level of the Ghor, and 250 feet below the 
sea, enjoys, perhaps, the finest climate, from an agricultural point of view, 
that can be found in Syria. 

That the Arab name of Tabakat Fahl, the Fahl Terraces, represents 
the ancient Greek Pella, there can be little doubt. Dr. Robinson, who was 
the first to make this identification, is no mean authority in such matters, 
and further, Mr. Merrill, who discusses the various objections which may 
be urged against this present site, winds up the argument by bringing 
together a mass of evidence in favour of this being the ancient Pella of 
the Decapolis, giving citations from the works of Josephus, Stephanus of 
Byzantium, Eusebius, and others, who treat of the early topography of 
Palestine. 1 It may be of some interest to add that though the site has, to 
all appearance, for centuries been abandoned by the Moslems, it is 
renowned in their early chronicles as being the field which witnessed 
the great " Battle of Fahl," which, six centuries after Christ, sealed the 
fate of Byzantine rule in Syria. 2 According to the annalist Tabari, this 
celebrated victory was gained in the year 13 a.h., 3 and the geographer 
Yakut asserts that the Greeks left 80,000 dead on the field. 

In the first decades of the Christian era, Pliny, describing Pella, notes 
its abundant water supply, and in the Talmud this city is mentioned under 
the name of " Phahil," as having hot springs. 4 At the present day, 
however, the springs, though abundant, are apparently not thermal. We 
found them icy cold, and perfectly sweet, and on this point it may be 
added that the Arab geographers never allude to them in their enume- 
ration of the numerous Hammams of the Jordan Valley. Neglecting the 
Greek name Pella, the Arabs, according to their wont, revived the older 
Semitic pronunciation of Phahil, which they wrote Fahil or Fihl. It is 
of interest here to note that Yakut, in his Geographical Encyclopaedia, 5 
after stating the correct pronunciation of the name to be "Fihl," continues, 
" I believe this name to be of foreign origin, since I do not recognise in it 
the form of any Arab word." And that this Pella was the place which 
witnessed the Moslem victory over the Greek forces, is placed beyond a 
doubt by the further statement that " the battle of Fihl, which took place 
within the year of the capitulation of Damascus, is likewise known under 
the appellation of the Day of Beisan," 6 and from Beisan, on the right bank 

1 "East of the Jordan," by S. Merrill (London, 1881), pp. 412-447. 

2 Weil,, " Gesch. der Chalifen," I, 40, et seq. 

3 Ed. Kosegarten, II, 158. 

4 Conder's "Handbook to the Bible," 3rd edition, p. 315. 

5 " Mo'jam-al-Buldau" (Leipzig), III, 853. 

6 Quoted also by the author of the " Marasid-el-Ittila," ed. Juynboll, II, 
33b', whose work is a critical abridgment of Yakut's Encyclopaedia. 

N 2 



160 ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 

of the Jordan, we had ridden in a couple of hours. Pella, or Fihl, must have 
fallen into ruin very shortly after the Moslem conquest, as is proved by 
the absence of all Saracenic remains among those of the Byzantine epoch 
which cover the ground in all the neighbourhood of the springs. A like 
fate also befell most of the great Greek cities over Jordan, such as Gerasa 
(.Terash) and Philadelphia (Amman), where we find little that is Moslem 
among much that recalls the Christian times. A few generations later, 
after the third century of the Hejra, the very name of Fihl ceases to be 
mentioned in the itineraries and town lists of the Arab geographers, and 
neither Istakhri, Ibn Haukal, nor Mokaddasi (himself a Syrian) take 
any notice of the place. Still, in a.h. 278, one of the earliest of their 
geographers, Yakubi, considered it a place of importance, for in his 
summary of the cities of the military province of the Jordan (Jond al 
C'rdunn), after describing such towns as Acre and Tyre, he mentions 1 
together Tibnin, Fihl, and Jerash, adding that " the population inhabiting 
these towns is of a mixed character, part Arab, part foreign " (al 'ajam), 
by which last term, if I am not mistaken, we are to understand the native 
Greek-speaking Christians who had not been displaced by the immigrant 
Arabs. Fihl, or Tabakat Fahl, as the place is now called, having thus 
been left undisturbed for nigh on a thousand years, would doubtless 
yield a rich archaeological harvest to any one who could spend some days 
among the ruins, and carefully examine the very large number of broken 
cornices and other carved stones which lie about on every hand. Con- 
siderable remains of buildings also, that were once adorned with columns, 
surround the spot where the springs gush out from the hill-side. 

Although the Jordan Valley is elsewhere parched after the summer 
droughts, the Fihl Gorge was a mass of waving green reeds, reaching 
higher than a horseman's head, and almost completely masking from 
view the ruined edifices which lay partially submerged in the running 
water. Near what must have been a bath — judging from the large piscina 
— stood a fine monolith in white marble, above 8 feet in height ; and 
among the reeds, a score of yards further down, and nearer the north bank, 
were two others, rising, each of them, over a dozen feet out of the pool in 
which they stood. But nowhere did we notice inscriptions. The great 
centre of population would seem to have been up on the hill-side on the 
right or northern bank of the stream. Here there are traces of a large 
necropolis with innumerable sarcophagi lying abovit on every hand. In 
most cases these last had been smashed up by iconoclastic treasure-seekers, 
but some remained almost intact, displaying the Christian emblems 
beautifully carved in the white stone. One in particular was noticeable 
from its high artistic merit. The lid of the sarcophagus was still 
perfect, adorned with three wreaths chiselled in high relief, and between 

them, in monogram, the yt , and the A. 10. but with no further 
1 " Kitib-al-Buldan," ed. Juynboll, p. 115. 



ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 16] 

inscription. Traces of buildings and half-buried columns lie in profusion 
to the south of the necropolis, on the slope overhanging the green gorge 
where the stream gushes out, while, doubtless, the precipitous hill which 
shuts in the left or southern bank of the wady, would repay a more 
detailed examination than any which has as yet been bestowed upon it. 
Digging would naturally be most desirable here, but much that is 
interesting might easily be brought to light by any one who would come 
armed with a crowbar, and give himself the trouble of turning over the 
drums and the cornices which, to all appearances, have lain in their 
present position since the days of the Arab invasion ; and greatly do I 
regret that, in our hurried visit, I had neither tools with me, nor leisure 
time, that would have allowed of a detailed examination of this little 
visited ruin. 

The road from Fahl to 'Ajlftn winds up the steep north bank of the 
"Wady Fahl, here running east-north-east into the plateau overhanging the 
eastern boundary of the Jordan Valley. For the first mile the wady is 
narrow and precipitous, and the road a mere path straggling about the 
cliffs, a hundred feet above the dry torrent bed ; but after passing a curious 
gap, where two giant boulders on projecting spurs have the appearance 
of watch towers, the gorge widens and bifurcates, the road taking the 
branch gulley leading in the direction east-south-east. Since Mr. Merrill 
has laid such stress on his discovery, in these parts, of the Eoman road 
running between Pella and Gerasa, 1 referred to by Eusebius, and which 
the American archaeologist regards as a final proof that Fahl is Pella, I was 
naturally on the look-out for traces of the same in the Wady Fahl. It is 
a disappointment for me to have to confess that though evident remains 
of a paved causeway are found in several places on the uplands above, yet 
here in the wady itself no traces could be discovered of cuttings in the 
cliff sides. I therefore conclude that the road must have approached Fahl 
(Pella) down some other gulley. 

Three-quarters of an hour after leaving Fahl we had reached the 
upland rolling plain, intersected in every direction by shallow ravines, and 
dotted with scrub oak. Before us, in a south-easterly direction, rose the 
mountains of Gilead ; to the right, less than a mile away, and due south, 
was the village of Kefr Abd ; while on the left, at a distance of a mile and 
a half, on a low spur, appeared Beit 'Adls. Skirting the heads of three 
small wadies which lead down to the Jordan Valley, our road took a 
southerly direction for a couple of miles over the barren upland, after 
which suddenly the path plunged down off this upland into the precipitous 
gorge, which I believe to be an upper arm of the Wady Y abis. On the 
height, with a path running up to it from the gorge, lies the village of 
Kefr Abll before mentioned, and before leaving the upland plateau, on 
the very brink of the wady, our road passed through remains of former 
habitations, rendered the more noticeable by the living rock having in 
many places been cut into to form large square tanks, measuring, roughly, 

1 Op. cit., 357, -445. 



162 ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 

in length 10 feet by 8 feet across. These were now filled up with mould 
so as to be flush with the surface, and have been constructed to serve as 
vats for oil or wine. The workmanship was assuredly ancient, and such as 
to do honour to the skill and perseverance of the stone-cutters of Palestine. 
The wady into which the road plunged turned off upwards into the hills 
in a north-easterly direction, while downwards, towards its outlet, it runs 
on for more than a mile due south with many smaller wadies coming into 
it from the east. In this part both the main wady and its tributaries 
were, at this season, conrpletely dry, though showing clear traces of the 
rush of spring freshets. The road ran down in the bed of the wady, and 
we followed it for about a mile before turning to the left into a green 
valley leading up in a south-easterly direction, where nestled the village of 
Jedaidah surrounded by olive trees and gardens. The natural beauties of 
this dell, the distant clatter of the two mills which were churning the 
waters of the brawling stream, the well-tilled fields, and the succulent 
grass that covered the slopes on every hand, to us invested Jedaidah 
with all the attributes of a rural paradise ; and it being now past midday 
we proceeded to recruit exhausted nature with certain of the contents of 
our saddle-bags, while the nags lunched, even more sumptuously than we, 
on the fresh grass of the brook side. 

Whether or not this be the main stream of the Wady Yabis I was 
unable to ascertain, for the maps of this district are all remarkably deficient 
and inexact, and a villager whom I questioned was ambiguous in his 
replies. But from Jedeidah, as far as we could see, the stream, making a 
bend at right angles about a mile down the wady going due south, turns 
west again, and forcing its way through the mountains would have every 
appearance of coming out into the Jordan Valley at the spot whei'e the 
Wady Yabis is marked on the maps. All this we noted while following the 
path which led away in the opposite direction, for scrambling up the high 
spur overhanging the left bank of the stream, we proceeded nearly due east 
into the mountains along and up the ridge, which forms the southern 
boundary of the little valley where we had made the noontide halt. The 
wadies here begin to be dotted with scrub oak, through which, after riding 
for a short hour, we came into the olive groves surrounding the hamlet of 
Urjan. There is collected in this village a population apparently too 
numerous for the accommodatiom provided by its houses. More than half 
its inhabitants have turned the caves, which honeycomb the rocks, into 
habitations, and thus manage to provide themselves with all the comforts 
of a home in the bowels of the ground. These caverns would seem to be 
mostly of artificial construction, having squared windows and doors, with 
properly situated smoke holes, but very awkward for riders, and into which, 
several times, it was difficult for me to prevent my horse from precipitating 
himself. These tenements would doubtless prove worthy of investigation 
by any one who, more fortunate than was the case with myself, shall have 
leisure to overcome the inhospitable shyness of their present occupants, and 
thus have the good fortune to gain admittance to these Troglodyte harems. 

Beyond Urjan may be said to begin the forest of Ajlun. At first the 



ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 163 

hill slopes, and later on both the torrent beds and the ridges, become covered 
by oak trees, with an average height of between 30 and 40 feet. In the 
spring time, doubtless, the ground would be covered with grass and weeds, 
but now, in the late autumn, nothing was to be seen under the trees but the 
bare rocks ; still from the thickness of the forest, and the low sweep of the 
branches, a horseman ten yards ahead was generallycompletely hidden from 
view. For a mile beyond Urjan the road keeps along the southern slope of 
the valley under the trees, leading steadily upward and crossing the entrances 
of many smaller dells, till finally it turns up one of these latter in a direction 
south-west by south, and round the upper end gains the summit of the ridge, 
whence a lovely view is obtained through the oak openings back over the 
Jordan Valley towards the Dead Sea. A little further on along the ridge, 
and about three-quarters of an hour after leaving Urjan, we passed a 
large circular hole in the ground, some 6 feet across, opening down into 
an immense cistern, now partly choked with rubbish, but the bottom of 
which was still 20 feet from the surface of the ground. It appeared to 
be bottle-shaped within, as are most of the cisterns in Palestine. In a 
southerly direction not far from its mouth, under the trees, were traces of 
ruined walls, but I was unable to obtain from the guide any information 
as to the name by which the place was, or had formerly been, known. 

Our road still lay along the ridge in a south-easterly direction, with 
the broad wady on the left hand down which behind us lay Urjan, while 
on the right we were continually crossing charming glades where the oaks 
ever and again give place to bay trees, and through them a rider obtains 
picturesque glimpses over the well-wooded hills to the south-west. It was 
up one of these glades, or rather forming the background of an upland plain 
closed in on either hand by dark green mountain slopes, that we first caught 
sight of the Castle of BabM crowning a hill- top about three miles away, 
bearing south-south-west. From this point, which is rather more than an 
hour distant from Urjan, a direct road, said to be very stony, leads to the 
Kusr er Rabud straight up this plain. It was, however, now past 3 o'clock, and 
the days being short we decided to push straight on to the town of Ajlftn, 
our night quarters, and put off visiting the castle till the morrow. "We 
therefore turned up the hill-side to the south-east, and on the brow first 
caught sight of the town far below us, at the junction of three valleys, em- 
bowered in its gardens, its minaret and walls already gilded by the rays of 
the setting sun. An hour's scramble, first round the shoulder of the hill and 
then over into the valley which comes down on Ajlrni from the north, 
brought us to our destination, and for the last two miles the road lay through 
a succession of vineyards among the rocks, where the vines, whose leaves the 
autumn had turned to ruddy gold, stood out against the darker shade of 
ancient olive trees. The distance we had travelled perhaps lent a false 
enchantment to the view, but whether or not this be the cause, Ajlun has 
a place in my memory as one of the most beautiful and fertile regions of 
Palestine that I visited, bearing comparison in this even with those far- 
famed villages that are watered by the rivers of Damascus. The little 
town is situated at the junction of three valleys, one coming from the north 



16-1 ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 

down which bad been our road ; another coming from tbe west, blocked a 
couple of miles distant by the spur, crowned with tbe Castle of Eabud ; 
while opposite is tbe valley leading up almost due east on tbe road to Suf 
and Jerash. The place contains a mosque with a tall square minaret, of 
fine workmanship in yellow stone ; and this last recalls so strikingly 
some campanile in the plains of Lombardy, that I am inclined to suppose 
that we have here the relics of a Christian church, perhaps of Crusader 
times. The town has an abundant supply of water from a spring which 
gushes out, not far from the mosque, under an archway of ancient masonry, 
which rises among ruins of columns and cornices. Modern Ajlun is, how- 
ever, but an unpicturesque collection of mud hovels, where the homestead 
generally consists of an agglomeration of windowless cabins surrounding a 
dung-heap. 

In one of these cabins, having accomplished the ejection of our host's 
family, we proceeded to take up our night's quarters, and made an excellent 
dinner off the mutton and rice that had been originally prepared for his 
own household. It then became a burning question to my two companions 
whether the hospitality which they in turn were forced to offer to the fleas 
would allow of their enjoying the solace of undisturbed repose. For myself 
I was happy in being above such considerations. For, during a late trip 
across the Hauran, sundry insects pervading the guest chambers of my 
Arab hosts, having kept me for three successive nights without closing an 
eye, and further observing myself to be rendered incapable of archa?ological 
research through the physical exhaustion brought on by ceaseless scratch- 
ing, I had, this journey, brought in my wallet a small string-hammock. 
Now the den in which we were quartered had, like most Arab cabins, square 
ventilation-holes, left under the rafters on either side below the ceiling. 
Through two of these holes, from without, I found I could manage to push 
the straight stems of a couple of long logs of firewood, in such a manner 
that the ends protruded very appropriately inside, like pegs standing out 
from the opposite wall of the room ; while tbe logs were jammed and 
prevented from being drawn completely through the holes by the gnarled 
and branched portion that remained without. Having thus got my pegs 
inside the room I pi'oceeded to sling the hammock from them about a yard 
and a half above my friends and the fleas, and enjoyed thereby un- 
disturbed repose during the night, having first been duly admired by the 
whole population of the village, who, during a couple of hours, were admitted 
in rotation to rejoice their eyes at the unaccustomed sight of a Frank in 
bed in a hammock. 

The next morning, the 13th of November, we were up betimes, and 
after a thimbleful of coffee rode up, going almost due west, to the Kul'at 
er Eabud, and reached it in a few minutes over the half-hour. From the 
Arab geographers quoted on a previous page, I have been unable to obtain 
any information as to the early history of this splendid fortress. 1 Baised on 

1 I find no mention of the place in the works of Yakubi, Ibn ITaukal, 
Istakhri, Mokaddasi, or Yakut, neither does the name occur in Ibn-el-Athir's 



ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 165 

foundations that would appear to date from Eoman days, its bastions and 
walls bear silent witness to the energy and skill of the Crusading Knights 
who, during their two century tenure of the Holy Land, erected this strong- 
hold beyond the Jordan to hold the country of Moab and Amnion in awe. 
The view from its battlements is grand beyond the power of pen to describe. 
Looking west, the long valley of the Jordan, from the Lake of Gennesareth 
to the Dead Sea, lay spread out at our feet, with the windings of the 
Jordan itself glittering among the green brushwood, its surface being 
already gilded by the beams of the rising sun. Beyond and for a back- 
ground were the mountains of Samaria, while on either hand lay the well- 
clothed hills of Ajlun, now bronzed by the late autumn, and giving back 
a sheen of almost metallic lustre under the level rays of sunlight that 
were pouring over them. Eastward at our feet rose up the town of A jlun 
nestling at the bifurcation of the valleys, in its gardens and vineyards ; 
and beyond, some three miles off, white in a green garland, was 'Ain 
J anna, a village on the road to Jerash. The castle itself crowns a height, 
and is surrounded by a deep moat dug out of the rock. Its vaults and 
halls are certainly some of the finest in Palestine, the masonry equalling 
that to be seen at 'Athllt, on the sea coast above Csesarea, which is always 
quoted as the most remarkable of the Crusading ruins. Kusr-er-Rabud 
amply deserves a more extended examination than any that has as yet 
been accorded to it by travellers. As I have noted above, the foundations 
of the building would appear to date from Roman days, for on many of 
the stones used in the lower walls eagles are carved, in low relief, which 
seemed to me of earlier workmanship than the tenth century. On the left 
of the gate-house high up in the wall is a tablet bearing an Arab inscription, 
which I was unable to come near enough to read. My readers will easily 
believe how about these old walls, thus perched on the mountain-top as a 
landmark to all the Jordan Valley, and concerning the men who first con- 
structed its dungeons and wells and dark passages, there was an amount 
of mystery that it would have been most fascinating to have made some 
attempt at penetrating, had the time permitted of a detailed exploration. 
But that night we were bound to sleep at, or beyond, Jerash, and therefore 

voluminous chronicle. However, although unnoticed among the Crusading 
Castles of Palestine by Or. Key, in his " Monuments de 1' Architecture Militaire 
des Croises en Syrie," an examination of the architecture and mode of construc- 
tion has led me to doubt that the building is of purely Saracenic origin. I must 
state, however, on the other hand, that Burckhardt, who visited the place in his 
travels and found it occupied by a garrison, writes (" Travels in Syria," pp. 266, 
267") that he saw Arabic inscriptions (presumably on the slab in the wall 
that I was unable to reach) which proclaimed that the castle was built by 
Saladin. Which too is further corroborated by Abu-1-Feda's Geography, a 
work of the fourteenth century of our era, where it is stated (p. 245 of the Arabic 
Text) that the Castle of Ajlun was built by 'Izz-ed-Din Osamah, one of Saladin's 
famous captains. Still, in spite of all this, after having examined the place, 
I must repeat that there is little doubt in my mind that parts of the building 
date from prior to the time of Saladin or even the first Crusade. 



166 ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 

after a hurried visit we reluctantly turned our backs on the castle, and 
returning through the town of Ajlun rode on, up the valley eastwards, 
towards 'Ain Janna. 

On the right bank of the bed of the brook up which lay our path, 
and five minutes after leaving the last houses of the town, is a low cavern, 
used by the natives as a stable for their cattle. As far as we could see it 
contained no inscriptions or sculptures, and though originally, doubtless, 
natural, it had been artificially enlarged for the convenience of the beasts, 
being in most places upwards of 6 feet in height, and running deep into 
the hill-side for a distance that we estimated at somewhat less than fifty 
yards, thus affording a large area under cover, that was at the present 
moment much encumbered with all sorts of refuse. The distance of about 
a mile and a half which separates 'Ajlfin from 'Ain Janna is almost 
entirely taken up with olive trees, from which the fruit had now 
(November) lately been shaken ; and in the market-place of the latter 
village we passed three huge caldrons filled with crushed berries set in a 
little water to simmer over a slow fire, this being one of the methods of 
extracting the oil. Beyond 'Ain Janna the road still continues straight 
up the valley almost due east, and, on the northern hill slope about 
half-a-mile from the village, passes beside a couple of rock-cut tombs 
overhanging the bed of the stream, the second of the two still containing 
a broken sarcophagus without ornament. A short distance beyond these 
we come on the source of the brook, where it wells up from a hole under a 
rock in the middle of the valley. The stream runs down from here through 
'Ain Janna, and even at this season suffices to water all the lands between 
this and 'Ajlun. Above this point, although no water was visible, oak 
groves of considerable extent lay on every hand, and the path, after 
traversing a rocky glen where the branches of the trees almost met 
above our heads, came to a more open space where at a couple of 
miles above 'Ain Janna the roads to Irbid and Suf bifurcate. Of these 
we followed the latter, bearing slightly towards the right and in a 
southerly direction, through park-like glades, and in half-au-hour reached 
the saddle which forms the watershed between the valleys of Ajlun and 
Suf. At this point a fine view was obtained over the way before us, 
running through the broad valley winding down towards Jerash in a 
direction a little south of east. The ground about here was dotted with 
oak trees and scrub, but the growth became smaller and the clumps more 
sparse the further we left Ajlun behind, till at last, near Suf, about 
three miles from the saddle, the trees had disappeared almost entirely. 
Before reaching this village the valley narrows to a gorge shut in by white 
chalk cliffs, and the track, after climbing among those which overhang 
the ravine to the south, leads suddenly down on the squalid cabins of the 
inhabit,! n is. 

The Sheikh of Suf has so evil a reputation among travellers for both 
cupidity and insolence that, it being yet an hour to lunch time, we 
decided on hurrying on without paying him a visit ; but that we did not 
make some acquaintance with the people of the village was a cause of 



ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 167 

subsequent regret to me, when I heard that they held in their hands many 
of the coins and antiquities which are brought to them for sale by the 
Circassians who are colonising Jerash. There were, in particular, 
rumours of a pot said to have been dug up in this neighbourhood, and 
reported to have contained countless gold coins of large size, which same 
had not all of them, as yet, been delivered over into the hands of the 
officials of the Ottoman Government, to whom all treasure -trove is lawfully 
due. The finding of hoards is of by no means rare occurrence in Palestine, 
where the people have at all times been their own bankers, and have ever 
preferred confiding their hard-earned gains back to the bosom of mother 
earth, rather than entrust them, for safe keeping, to friends in whom they 
could place no trust, knowing well that they themselves, in the like 
position, would, without a question, deem it imbecile to be fettered by any 
shackles of honesty or honour. The road from Suf to Jerash, which we 
travelled over during a ride of rather more than an hour and a half, has 
been so well described in guide books as to need no detailed notice. For 
the most part the path follows the hill-slopes on the southern side of the 
broad shallow wady which runs down in an easterly direction till it joins 
that wherein lies Jerash, which is a valley joining it from the south. 
Shortly after leaving Suf, far down to the left of the road and on the northern 
hill-slope, a ruin was pointed out to us by our guide which our time did 
not permit of our visiting, but as he assured us that it was the remains 
of some ancient, edifice it may perhaps repay the examination of some 
future traveller with leisure at command. Even before reaching Suf, as 
noticed above, the aspect of the country had changed. The thick oak 
forest, which is so characteristic of the Ajlfin hills, had been replaced by 
single stunted trees, pines and scrub oaks, dotted sparsely over the hill- 
sides ; beyond Suf the slopes became almost bare, and in all the country 
to the east and south of Jerash the land is for the most part treeless, and 
only an occasional pollarded oak cuts the sky line of the hill-top. 

Biding across the hills from SM, Jerash becomes visible from the 
village of Deir-el-Leyyeh, a couple of miles from the ruins, which are 
seen spread out below in the broad valley running north and south. 
From this upper point, where, at the bottom of a hole in the rock, there is 
a spring, all along the road lie fragments of sarcophagi and carved stones, 
showing how extensive must have been the suburbs and necropolis of the 
Eoman city. Jerash, or Gerasa, has been too often and too well described 
to require more than a passing notice in these pages. At the time of our 
visit the Circassians had possession of the place, but had fortunately taken 
up their abode on the left bank of the stream, where the ruins are com- 
paratively insignificant, and they had not as yet begun to meddle with 
the magnificent theatres, colonnades, and temples crowding the right 
bank, and which are, Palmyra perhaps excepted, the most extensive and 
marvellous remains of the Grseco-Bornan rule in Syria. The prosperity of 
the town, despite its fine situation and plentiful water supply, diminished 
considerably after the expulsion of the Byzantines. The locality, however, 
is mentioned by Yakubi, a couple of centuries after the Moslem conquest, 



168 ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 

as being in his time one of the towns of the Jordan province : and again 
the poet al-Mutanabbi, one of the most celebrated of those who nourished 
at the Court of Baghdad, in a panegyric, devotes some lines to the praise 
of the fertility of the Crown domains at Jerash. But, except for such 
incidental notices, if I mistake not, the city is rarely mentioned by the 
subsequent Arab geographers and historians ; though Yakut, in the thir- 
teenth century a.d., who had not himself visited the spot, writes that it was 
described to him by those who had seen it as "a great city, now a ruin, 
. through which runs a stream used for turning many mills ; 
. it lies among hills that are covered with villages and hamlets, 
the district being known under the name of the Jerash Mountain." 1 
Whatever may have been the original cause of its depopulation, it is very 
noticeable that the ruins of Jerash up to the present day have been but 
little disturbed. There has never been any great Moslem city in its 
neighbourhood, and hence its columns remain in situ or, thrown down by 
the earthquake, sprawling along the ground, while the stones of the Great 
Temple of the Sun and of the theatres are fortunate in having been, as yet, 
unpilfered for building material. Further, since there is in these regions 
no sand to drift over and veil the outlines, and the frequent drought 
preventing the ruins from becoming masked by vegetation, all that remains 
stands out, white and glaring, in noontide, having that same appearance 
of recent desolation which is so striking a characteristic of the freshly 
cleared streets of Pompeii. 

After lunching on the bank of the stream, among the gigantic oleanders 
that, still in November, were covered with delicate pink flowers, we 
passed the afternoon riding about, examining the ancient city, combining 
archaeological investigations with the keeping of a good look-out against 
prowling Circassians, and at sundown proceeded out of the southern gate, 
past the circus, now a meadow, and through the fine Triumphal Arch at 
the town limit. Here turning to the left, we crossed the stream at the 
mills and began to climb the conical hill on which stands the Moslem 
village and sanctuary of Neby Hud, where it was determined to claim 
for ourselves hospitality, and safe night quarters for our horses, against 
the thievish propensities of the Christian Circassians. 

The view from this high point is extremely fine, and embraces all the 
valley and ruins of Jerash looking north. While the guest-room was 
being swept out the elders came round and discoursed on their grievances, 
against the Government in general, and their new Circassian neighbours 
in particular. These last are a thorn to the Moslems in their agricultural 
operations, and further debar them from poking about for treasure 
among the vaults and cisterns of Jerash, a city built, as one of the sheikhs 
was good enough to inform me, by his own ancestors, the 'Adites, of the 
Days of Ignorance. After supper till near midnight had we to listen to 
and discuss politics with these worthy people, among whom the arrival of 
a traveller is a rare accident, and we three being Christians and they 

1 Op. cit, H, 61. 



ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 169 

Moslems, points of religion were often incidentally touched upon to the 
exceeding happiness of our Arab guide, who was a red hot Protestant and 
polemic. Despite religious differences, however, we remained excellent 
friends, and ultimately all slept together in the guest chamber, the party 
consisting of our three selves, the sheikhs, and the children. During the 
nio-ht an occasional dog chased goats over our prostrate forms, and the fleas 
hopped about merrily, which combined prevented our oversleeping ourselves. 
Hence by half-past six next morning (Nov. 14th) we had saddled our horses, 
and, breakfastless, were off for 'Amman, to which place it had been 
determined to proceed by the direct road across country, without going 
first south-west to Salt and thence back south-east to Amman, the route 
o-enerally followed by the caravans. This direct road is hilly, and there 
have to be crossed numberless valleys, which from the east intersect the 
tableland lying between Jerash and Amman ; it is but little used, and, as 
far as I could learn, has been seldom described by previous travellers. 
To us its being the less known was, of course, a recommendation ; besides, 
as we had no wish to excite the attention of the officials of the Belka, it 
was perhaps as well to avoid visiting Salt, the residence of the Governor 
of that province. 

Starting from Neby Hud in a south-easterly direction, after half -an - 
hour we crossed at right angles the Wady Riyashl, running south-west, 
and down which lies the direct road to Salt. At the point where we 
forded the brook is a ruined mill almost hidden in the mass of oleanders 
and fig trees bordering the bed of the stream, which, it is said, joins the 
Jerash river a short distance before this latter itself falls into the Zerka. 
We, however, turning towards the south, left the Eiyashi behind us, and 
making our way up the hill slopes above its left bank, here most 
refreshingly dotted with scrub oak, in rather more than half-an-hour had 
gained the summit of the watershed which divides the valley of Jerash 
from that of the Zerka. The saddle across which the road lay commanded 
a fine view on either hand, the summit being marked by a cairn of stones 
a dozen feet high, erected to mark the spot where a celebrated chief had 
been slain. From here to the right, westwards, there was visible the 
lower part of the valley of Jerash, separated from us by several ranges of 
bare hills. To the left, and in front towards the south, lay the hills of 
the Belka, cut off from us by a deep gorge, at the bottom of which, as yet 
unseen, ran the Zerka, the Biblical Jabbok, in ancient times the boundary 
between the territories of Og, the King of Bashan, and of Sihon, King of 
the Amorites, and still to-day the limit to the north of the Belka, 
n-ovince. The hills all round were barren and stony, here and there a 
pollarded oak struggled for existence against the drought and the loss of 
its branches, which the Bedouins cut off for fuel, and everything seemed 
lifeless and forlorn, until suddenly, as we were making our way down a 
steep spur to the bed of the Zerka, we came on an encampment of three 
black tents, hidden away in a delicious little dell, down which went 
brawling a tiny stream. The Bedouin men were all away with the flocks, 
but the women received us hospitably, started coffee-making, and the 



170 ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 

while were profuse in advice and directions as to the road we were to 
follow. They belonged, they said, to the Khaza 'Ali, a branch of the 
Beni Hasan, one of the great tribes of the Belka, and seemed in comfortable 
circumstances. Very pretty striped carpets of goat hair were spread for 
us to sit on in the shade of the goat-hair walls, and though our hostess was 
more remarkable for her perpetual chatter than for graces of person, she 
seemed extremely proud of the rings which adorned both thumb and 
little finger of her right hand and the two big toes of her feet. What 
between conversation, coffee-making, and the setting before us of bread 
and milk, it was fully an hour before we could tear ourselves away from 
our gossiping hostess, but at last we set off again up the hill spur, and then 
began once more zigzaging downwards. A final scramble brought us 
into a small amphitheatre debouching on to the river, the slopes of which 
were covered with the curious shrub called by the Arabs " Yenbut," its 
long fleshy green twigs or leaves, of the thickness of crotchet needles, 
brushing against our faces as we pushed our way through the tangle. 

The bed of the Zerka, at this season only some three yards broad, and 
barely a foot deep, is bordered with the " Daflah," or oleander, still 
showing an occasional pink flower among its dark green leaves. The sides 
of the gorge in which the river runs are here extremely steep, in places almost 
perpendicular, and while further to the west, down the river, the valley 
appears to open out, up eastward the mountains on either hand closed in 
more and more, till in the extreme distance the stream makes its 
way out of a gigantic cleft where high precipices would seem almost to 
meet a thousand feet above the water. At the spot where we now 
crossed, the Wady Zerka has a level pebbly bottom above two hundred 
yards across, which during the freshets must be almost totally submerged. 
Riding straight across this we proceeded to pick out a torrent bed among 
the many that cut through the cliffs overhanging the river on the south, 
and after half-an-hour's climb up a very steep wady, we were again on the 
high uplands, whence, looking back over the gorge, we could trace our 
late route among the hills of Jerash. Continuing on through a broad 
upland valley dotted with trees, before long there appeared a small village 
of mud cabins, — among which was a blacksmith's shop in full blast, — 
clustering together under the shade of a grove of oaks, many of them of 
no inconsiderable size. The place is called Aluk, and is situated about 
two miles distant from the Zerka, due south of the spot at which we came 
across the river. From Aluk the road towards 'Amman first runs due 
east for a couple of miles over the upland, crossing every now and again 
the head of some wady running down towards the left into the gorge of 
the Zerka ; and finally, bearing round towards the south, crosses a hill 
shoulder from which back over the gorge and the hills the white dome of 
Neby HCid can be made out in the far distance. The country over which 
we were now travelling may be described as a rolling upland cultivated in 
patches by the Bedouin, and in places overgrown by brushwood, scrub 
oak, and yanbut. Among these hollows and hills we frequently lost our 
way ami wandered about till set on the right path by chancing to stumble 



ACCOUNT OF A SHOKT JOUKNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 171 

on some small camp of black tents, occupied by the women who were 
herding the camels in the absence of their lords. 

Several times in this part of the country we passed " Arab circles " of 
small boulder stones, and on one occasion, under a hue Butin tree, came 
on what was evidently the tomb of a much respected sheikh, to judge 
from the corn measures and the plough which had been deposited within 
the circle of the shrine for safe keeping. About four miles from AMk, 
and roughly to the south-east of it, topping a low hill over which lies the 
road, are the ruius of a building that was originally constructed of squared 
stones, but of which nothing is now traceable except the general rectan- 
gular plan. The place is known by the name of Sarruj, and is used by 
the people as a storing place for grain. Some Arabs who were here, 
occupied in cleaning corn, invited us to go on to a large encampment of 
their tribe, the Beni Hasan, which they pointed out in a hollow a mile 
further off. Here the black tents, fifteen in number, and of the largest 
size, were pitched in two lines facing east. On stopping to inquire and 
aive the news, we were requested by the sheikh to administer relief to an 
unfortunate Arab who lay at the back of the tent suffering from failing 
breath, in what appeared the last stage of consumption, a disease that is 
said to be of no uncommon occurrence among the Bedouin. The case, 
however, as far as we could judge, was beyond the reach of medicine, and 
there was no physician among us, so with expressions of sympathy, and 
a few general directions as to the patient's comfort, we took leave and 
continued our way up over a hill to the south-east, from whence was 
overlooked a broad shallow valley, not unlike that in which is situated 
Jerash. This valley, the drainage of which is towards the north, runs up 
at a very slight gradient in a direction almost due south, for over six 
mdes. It is called by the Bedouin of the Beni Hasan, Wady Khalla, or 
Khalli, and affords good pasture to their herds, which find water at 
several shallow wells that occur in its bed. The sheep and goats that are 
here met with are of a remarkably fine breed, large in size and having 
heavy fleeces. The bell-weather of each flock is distinguished by a sort of 
crown of gaudily coloured feathers attached to the back of the neck just 
behind the ears, the wool in its neighbourhood being further dyed red 
with henna. As we proceeded up this valley, which is everywhere dotted 
with oak trees and thorn, there appeared a ruin on the right hand, high 
up the slope of the hills shutting in the valley from the west, where by 
our glasses we could perceive, as we thought, the remains of walls. It is 
known by the names of Khurbet-er-Rumaneh and Khurbet-el-Bireh, but 
being much pressed for time it was found impossible to visit the spot, 
which, further, our guide assured us, was at the present day but little 
more than a heap of stones. A short distance beyond, where we lost sight 
of the ruin, the valley takes a sharp turn to the right, and then back 
into a south-westerly direction, which following we soon after turned up 
into a branch wady coming in from the west, and happily came to the 
main encampment of the Beni Hasan, it being already two hours 
after midday. Here twenty-four long black tents, pitched in double row, 



172 ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 

took up the whole of the floor of the wady, and to that of the sheikh, 
conspicuous by its superior size, we proceeded to pick our way over the 
tent ropes, and made ourselves the recipients of Bedouin hospitality. 

First came the customary thimbleful of coffee — roasted, pounded, and 
boiled up in our presence ; then followed a more substantial repast of 
excellent new Arab bread — resembling thick pancakes — which was 
seasoned by being dipped bit by bit in a bowl of melted butter ; then 
coffee once more, and in an hour we were on our road again, haVing given 
our hosts the latest items of political news, and received from them in 
return minute directions as to the path. Returning back into the main wady, 
the track runs up it some little way, and then turning south-west crosses a 
low shoulder. From this point there is one road leading almost due west, 
up a wady, going direct to es Salt, while that towards Amman keeps on in 
a south-westerly direction over the rolling country, and cuts across many 
minor wadies that run down from the east. Near the point of bifurcation 
of these two roads there is a small clump of Butni or Terebinth trees, at 
the foot of which are lying the shafts of two broken columns. The larger 
of them is a monolith some 9 feet long, and is cut out of the piece in such 
a manner that the base, 4 feet high and about 2 feet in diameter, tapers 
down to the shaft of half this size, the whole being very neatly executed 
in white limestone. A mile further on again, where the road runs along 
the western slope of a shallow wady, we passed fragments of six more 
broken columns of about the same size as the above, but since no further 
trace of any temple or building was to be seen in the neighbourhood, one 
is lead to the supposition that these fragments have at some period been 
transported hither from the great centre of ruins at Yajuz. We were now 
travelling along a raised causeway, the remains of a Roman road, running 
over the undulating plain, which is covered here and there by patches of 
corn land, and after a couple of miles our horses began to stumble among 
stones of Yajuz ; but as the sun had already gone down, archaeology was 
out of the question, and it was necessary to discover, without further delay, 
the whereabouts of the Bedouin camp in which it was our intention to 
pass the night. Turning, therefore, off the road at right angles towards 
the west, a goatherd directed us to a slight depression in the plain where, 
after twenty minutes riding, we came suddenly on about a dozen tents of 
the Beni Adwan, and without unnecessary ceremony pressed ourselves on 
the hospitality of the somewhat surly sheikh. The night was bitterly cold, 
and, what between the wind and the fleas, and the extremely confiding 
nature of the ewes, who, for warmth's sake, were always trying to in- 
sinuate themselves beneath our blankets, sleep was fitful. Further, and 
as usual, till far into the night, our Arab friends discussed in strident tones 
politics and finance, for, as every traveller knows to his cost, these worthies 
have such a habit of sleeping at odd hours during the day, that at night 
being wakeful, they are sadly addicted to interminable discoursings. 
Discomfort only ceased with the dawn-chill, and, being up betimes, when 
the sun rose in splendour over the rolling uplands, here in most parts 
covered with the growth of a plant resembling heather, we were already on 



ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 173 

our way back to the road into Yajuz, out of which we had turned the night 
before. 

At the entrance of the ruins is a large clump of some of the finest Tere- 
binth trees that ever I came across. In their immediate neighbourhood is 
a large Arab cemetery, the most prominent tomb of which is that of Nimi 
ibn Gobelan, a sheikh of the Adwan, whose death, according to the inscrip- 
tion on tbe headstone, took place a.h. 1238, i.e., some sixty and odd years 
go. His memory is still held in awe among the Bedouin, as is proved by 
the numerous ploughs and other farm implements that lie round his tomb, 
left there for safe keeping, as in a sanctuary. One of the Adwan, our host 
of the previous night, who accompanied us a short distance on our journey, 
informed me that this spot is known under the name of A'deyl, and is 
considered distinct from Yajuz, the ruins of which extend from it east- 
wards for more than a mile. These ruins, now known by the Arabs und( r 
the above name, have been so fully described in their respective works by 
Mr. Oliphant and Dr. Merrill 1 that further details may be deemed super- 
fluous. It is noteworthy, however, that all attempts at identification seem 
to have failed, although the extensive remains of carved Byzantine capitals, 
squared blocks, and the foundations of numerous edifices which crowd both 
sides of this broad upland valley would lead us to conclude that there must 
have existed here a very populous town during the Grteco-Roman period. 
It may be worth noting that in the lists of the Arab geographers there is 
no mention of the name Yajuz ; nor was there in the days of the Caliphate, 
so far as I can discover, any considerable town that agrees in point of 
situation with the site of these ruins. The caves with which the hill slopes 
are honeycombed are still used by the Adwan as granaries, but apparently 
no settled inhabitants are found in the neighbourhood. 

After spending some time in riding in every direction over these 
interesting remains, and seeking in vain for anything in the way of an 
inscription or a date, we proceeded in a south-easterly direction, still over 
a rolling country that showed ever and anon patches of cultivation. The 
shallow wadies that the track crosses for the most part run down towards 
the east, presumably into the depressed plain of El Bukeia ; however, for 
some miles round the whole district here about is known under the name 
of Yajuz. Half-an-hour after leaving the ruins we passed a large nameless 
heap of disjointed but squared masonry, lying in the shade of some Butm 
trees growing on a hill slope facing the north. From here the path, 
turning up the wady towards the east, crosses some low hills, and finally 
surmounting the crest, leads down into a curiously long and narrow plain : 
apparently the bed of an ancient lake, as I should judge, analogous to that 
which once filled the depressed plain of El Bukeia, lying some miles over 
to the north-west of our present point. Wending down the slopes which, 
just before reaching the level, showed successive lines of pebbly beach and 
water- worn banks, we descended to the ancient lake bottom, here some 
400 yards broad, and as even as a billiard table. The Arabs of the 

1 " Land of Gileatl," p. 227, et seq. " East of the Jordan," p. 273, et seq. 





174 ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 

Adwan call this tract of land Hemel Belka, and cultivate the rich alluvial 
soil in patches, raising crops of wheat and maize (durra). From the point 
we struck it, the plain extends for the distance of about a couple of miles 
due south, having an average breadth that might be estimated at a quarter 
of a mile, and then bears off in a south-easterly direction, draining down 
in all probability into the Zerka Valley, which, according to the maps, 
curves round towards it. Where the angle occurred we came up out of 
the narrow plain, and striking over the hills to the south-south-west passed 
another nameless ruin, where confused heaps of masonry are crowned by a 
few small, but most elegant, oval arches, which passed, once again we 
found ourselves on the upland plain that trends down south towards 
Amman. 

The land here, after the early rains, was undergoing the process of 
being ploughed and sown by the Fellahin of the Beni Adwan. At one 
moment we could count above thirty yoke of oxen, and the wonted stillness 
was agreeably enlivened by the shouts of the ploughmen, who, in more 
than one case, were engaged in directing the capricious evolutions of 
camels that had been compelled to take the place of the more docile steers. 
Considering the ungainly size of the camels and the diminutive wooden 
plough to which they were so clumsily harnessed, it was assuredly a marvel 
of skill that the furrows ran in passably straight and parallel lines. The 
camels evidently loathed the business, and to judge by the objurgations of 
their drivers — who were continually calling heaven to witness that their 
(the camels') clumsiness was the natural consequence of a dissolute life and 
a disreputable ancestry, — the camel-men themselves were not enamoured 
of their job. For a considerable time we passed patch after patch being- 
ploughed in this fashion, and riding over a treeless plateau at length 
struck back into the high road running south-east from Yajuz to 'Amman, 
which we had left to our right in turning off to visit the ruins and the 
Hemel Belka. After this, very shortly came a rather steep wady in a 
cross direction, running due east, down which the path led, and in a few 
minutes more we found ourselves for the second time in the Valley of the 
Zerka, and the ruins of 'Amman were before us. 

In these notes, however, the ruins being fully described in all the 
guide books, it would be waste of time attempting to recall the wonders 
of Greek architecture that have hitherto lain peacefully entombed beyond 
the Jordan, but which are now given over by the Ottoman Government to be 
a habitation for Circassian colonists. At the house of one of these worthies, 
while being hospitably entertained with tea and new bread, I endeavoured, 
but in vain, to gain some information concerning the whereabouts of the 
curious subterranean city of Bahab that Mr. Oliphant, in "The Land of 
Gilead," reports having heard spoken of as existing in the country to the 
east of the Zerka. All we could learn was that some people had heard tell 
in stories of this place, but no one at 'Amman had seen the spot or knew 
of its exact position. As confirming these somewhat vague notices, it may 
be, perhaps, worth while to draw attention to the account which Mokaddasi. 
in the beginning of the eleventh century a.d., gives of a remarkable 



ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 175 

cavern in these parts. After describing 'Amman, where he notes "the 
( 'astle of Goliath on a hill overlooking the city, and also the tomb of 
Uriyya (Uriah ?), over which stands a mosque," 1 he continues : "About a 
farsakh (three miles) distant from Amman, on the border of the desert, is 
the village of ar-Rakim. Here is a cave with two gates, one small, one big, 
and they say that he who enters by the larger gate is unable to pass by 
the smaller. On the floor of the cavern are three tombs, concerning which 
Abul Fadl Muhammed ibn Mansur has related to me the following, on the 
authority of Abu Bekr ibn, &c," and after giving his chain of authorities, 
which reaches back to Abd Allah, the son of the Khalif Omar, he reports 
how the Prophet had said that these were the tombs of certain pious men, 
who, seeking shelter from the rain, had entered this cave and been shut in 
by the fall of a rock which blocked up completely the entrance. The 
impediment, however, was miraculously removed by the hand of the Most 
High, on their calling to Heaven for aid, and every man conjuring the 
Almighty, and resting his claim on the virtue of some especially pious 
act performed in past times. The legend is here not to the purpose, 
and is besides too long to quote in extenso, it being merely another version 
of the story of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, whose adventures form the 
subject of a portion of the eighteenth chapter of the Koran ; but as con- 
firming the reported existence of some large cavern or underground city 
in the neighbourhood of Amman, the account is curious, and it shows at 
how early a date such a report had obtained currency. 

From 'Amman it was our intention to get across to Jerusalem, vid 
Arak el Emir, but since the route is well described in the invaluable 
Baedeker, no detail of distances and directions need here be given. Riding 
up the bank along the now diminutive stream of the Zerka, we passed an 
abundant spring that forms one of its sources, and climbing the northern 
side of the wady gained the treeless upland plain stretching westward. 
Over this, a ride of two hours brought us to the cleft of the Wady Sir, a 
well-wooded ravine that drains into the Jordan Valley, and in which, but 
still some miles lower down, lie the remains known as Arak el Emir. At 
the spot, where we left the bare upland plain to plunge into the green 
wady, the ruins known as Khurbet Sar are but a short distance to the left, 
while across on the opposite side there were visible the mouths of several 
small caverns or chambers hollowed in the face of the cliff, and we 
noticed other specimens of these abodes of bygone anchorites in many 
places further down the gorge. Half-way down the steep path that leads 
into the dell there opens out a small plain, at present occupied by some 
Circassian families, who have built here a village of wattle and dab houses 
exactly similar to those that are met with in the neighbourhood of Tiflis. 
But we had to hurry on without visiting them, for the afternoon was 
waning. 

The whole gorge of the Sir is most beautifully wooded ; two mills are 
turned by the stream that flows through it, and while its sides are almost 

1 Mokaddasi, op df., p. 175. 

o 2 



176 ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 

everywhere hidden by the dark foliage of the oaks and other forest trees, 
the margin of the brook is masked by a broad fringe of oleanders that 
grow here to a height of over 14 feet. In a little meadow, where the cliff 
< >n the right bank recedes from the water's edge, and about two miles above 
Arak el Emir, there is a collection of Arab "circles," of a somewhat 
abnormal type. The stones are about a foot high, and form the perimeter 
of a circle that is roughly a couple of yards across. What is unusual, 
however, is that here the area surrounded by this low circular wall has been 
roofed over by laying branches rafter-wise, and filling in with straw, the 
whole being afterwards covered by a coat of clay. There was, as usual, a 
sort of doorway left in the circle of stones, and in the present instance it 
faced south. These little buildings have every appearance of being intended 
for habitations of some sort, only that while the extreme lowness of the 
roof and the small extent of the covered space would render the ingress 
of any human being an impossibility, the clean condition of the interiors 
showed that they were evidently not intended to serve as pens for lambs or 
other small quadrupeds. Further, our Arab guide immediately recognised 
them as marking the burial places of sheikhs, reminding us of the very 
similar, though unroofed circles which we had passed by in the hills on 
many previous occasions during our journey. 

After riding down the Wady Sir for nearly two hours, the path 
lying sometimes in the very bed of the jjebbly brook, sometimes along the 
meadows which skirted its banks, and at times again threading the copses 
that overhung its winding course, we came out suddenly into the magni- 
ficent amphitheatre of hill-cliffs where is situated 'Arak el Emir — said to 
be the remains of the palace which, according to Josephus, Hyrcanus built 
in 182 b.c, during the last days of his exile beyond the Jordan. In the 
main the description of the Jewish historian tallies well enough with what 
we find here of rock-cut caverns, and cyclopean masonry carved with 
forms of huge animals. It is, however, perhaps a point worth noting, and 
one that did not fail to strike me when I first came on the ruins of the 
Kusr-el-Abd, that while Josephus plainly states that Hyrcanus " built it 
entirely of white stone to the very roof, and had animals of a prodigious mag- 
nitude engraved thereupon," when we come to examine here the carved 
blocks, alongside of which the inquisitive traveller feels dwarfed to the 
dimensions of an insect, we find that they are all, without exception, cut 
out of stone most remarkably black. But as Josephus had himself never 
visited this place, the error is probably due to his having been misinformed 
by the hearsay report of contenqiorary tourists. The remains at 'Arak el 
Emir, whatever may be their date, cannot fail to strike the traveller with 
si line what of that same feeling of awe which he experiences on standing 
for the first time beside the huge stones at Baalbek, the platform of 
Persepolis, or the Egyptian Pyramids. Greek and Roman ruins are dwarfed 
into insignificance beside these, for they tell of an age when labour and time 
were held as of no account in the calculations of those who built for them- 
selves such temples, palaces, or tombs. It was with difficulty that we tore 
ourselves away from these wonderful relics of a bygone civilization. But 



ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOU11NEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 177 

already the sun was hiding behind the western hill, and while we were 
lingering in the artificial caverns high up in the cliff, they became shrouded 
in gloom, though the bold characters of the Hasmonean inscription on the 
rock above, — read " Aduiah," and said to mean " Delight,"— still stood out 
distinct in the blush that was already dying from the face of the black 
masonry in the meadow below. 

We had yet to beat up night quarters, and therefore scampering up the 
shoulder of the projecting spur shutting in the amphitheatre on the south, 
we crossed into a wady known as that of Umm el Madaris, and shortly 
coming across some homeward-bound cattle were directed by the neat-herd 
to the encampment of his tribe, the Beni Abbad, located in an ad- 
jacent dell. We were now among the wadies that lead down directly to 
the Jordan Valley, and just before coming to the tents, while riding over the 
crest of an intervening spur, suddenly there burst on us a most magnificent 
view of tlie Dead Sea, spread out apparently at our feet. From the height, 
its whole surface, as far as the eye could reach, appeared like a sheet of 
burnished gold about to become molten, under the rays of the setting sun, 
whose orb was fast vanishing behind the blue hills of the desert of Judaea ; 
and below, in the foreground, was the opening out of the Jordan Valley, 
here some ten miles across — Jericho, as a patch of black green foliage, 
shining out distinct on the further side. 

Although the Beni 'Abbad were hospitable, and their carpets were 
tolerably free from vermin, the coldness of the night, and the continuous 
groaning of one of the men who had lately received a spear thrust in his leg, 
rendered our sleep but fitful. Besides, as usual, our hosts took up the best 
part of the night detailing their grievances to us, and requested our advice 
on the important point of how ,£100 might be obtained on loan to rid them 
of their enemies. It appeared that certain lands belonging from time im- 
memorial to their tribe, for which, moreover, they held title deeds, had 
been by Government granted to, and were occupied by, the immigrant 
Circassians. We suggested that a petition forwarded with the title deeds 
to the Government would doubtless set matters right, but in reply we were 
assured that so doing, unless much bakhshish went with the papers, would 
only lead to the loss of the deeds without there being the smallest chance 
of the tribe obtaining any re-establishment in their rights. Cheaper than 
this, they said, it would be to bribe the Circassians to decamp and take up 
their quarters on somebody else's land, and for this purpose a hundred 
pounds were needed, which we, however, perforce, deeply regretted being 
unable to put them in the way of obtaining. 

Next morning we were up before the sun, for there was the long ride 
into Jerusalem before us. Distances in the East, even after long practice, 
appear most deceptive, especially when looking from a height down 
and across a plain. The Jordan seemed almost at our feet, but it was 
four hours' good riding before we reached the ford and crossed the swirling 
muddy stream, which, even at this season, in some places rose above the 
horses' girths. 

When leaving the mountains and riding between the last liill spurs out 



178 ACCOUNT OF A SHORT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 

into the Ghur, I judge we must have passed within a short distance of Tell 
esh Shaghur, which recent writers propose to identify with Segor, or Zoar, 
one of the Cities of the Plain. Dr. Merrill, who discusses the question of 
the site at some length, 1 concludes by stating that to his mind the arguments 
for placing the Zoar of Lot at the north end of the Dead Sea are convincing, 
adding, " We present here a few quotations from Arab writers which bear 
upon this question." But from these " quotations " I venture to think he 
deduces an erroneons conclusion, through not bearing in mind the fact that 
the narrow valley leading south from the Dead Sea towards the Gulf of 
Akabah was known to the Arabs as the Ghor, and hence bears the same 
name as that applied by them to the Jordan Valley itself running up north 
from that lake. 

Whatever may be concluded from the Bible as to the true position 
of the Zoar of the Pentateuch, a careful examination of the Arab 
geographers leads me to conclude that they, at least, stuck to the traditions 
preserved by Joseph us, and followed by Eusebiusand Jerome, which place 
Zoar or Segor to the south-east of the Dead Sea. This place, further, is 
identical with that frequently mentioned under the name Segor by the 
historians of the Crusades, and is found in many of the itineraries of the 
mediaeval travellers. To the Arab geographers Zughar, the city of Lot, 
was as well known a place as Jerusalem or Damascus, seeing that the 
Dead Sea, more generally called by them Al Buhairah-al Muntinah, 
" The Stinking Lake," has also the alternative name of the Sea of Zughar. 
Further, it is evident that there were not, for these mediaeval geographers, 
two Zughars, for in Yakut's Mushtarik, a Lexicon of Geographical 
Homonyms, which especially deals with cities of the same name but of 
different location, the name Zughar does not figure in the list. Turning 
now to Mokaddasi, who was himself a native of Palestine, and wrote 
during the century preceding the first Crusade, we find that Zughar (also 
spelt Sughar) is mentioned as being in his day the capital of the province 
of the Sharat 2 (which corresponds in general with the ancient Moab), 
and he cites it as the sole remaining city of Lot, " saved by reason that 
its inhabitants knew not of the abominations." As to its position, it is 
described as standing on (or near) the Dead Sea, with the mountains near 
about it ; 3 while that it is to be sought at the south-eastern end of the Lake 
is shown by the statement that it is one inarhalah (twenty-five miles — a 
day's march) distant from Maab, a town situated in the desert to the east 
of Kerak ; and four marhalahs from Wailah, 4 the port at the head of the 
Gulf of Akabah. Also Istakhri 5 and Ibn Haukal," geographers of the 
generation preceding Mokaddasi, state that between Jericho and Zughar 
lay " a day's march," and in one case other MSS. give the alternative but 

1 " East of the Jordan," 233, et seq. 

2 Mokaddasi, op. cit., p. 153. 

3 Op. cit., p. 178. 

4 Op. cit., p. 192, 249. 

5 Edit, de Goeje, p. b'6. 

fi Edit, de Goeje, p. 126. 



ACCOUNT OF A SHOUT JOUKNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN. 179 

probably erroneous reading, " two days' march." At this epoch, that is, 
during the eleventh century a.d., Zugliar was a place of considerable 
trade, famed for its indigo and dates, these last being of exquisite quality, 
and quoted as one among the eight kinds celebrated in all the countries of 
Islam. 1 On the other hand, the climate of Zughar was deadly, and its 
drinking water execrable, " hot even as though it were over hell fire,'' 2 and 
later, when characterising the drinking water of Palestine as generally 
so excellent, Mokaddasi exclaims, 3 " but we take refuge in Allah from that 
of Zughar, though the water of Bait-er-Ram is in truth bad enough." 

Turning now to the great Geographical Dictionary of Yakut, compiled 
in the early part of the thirteenth century a.d., we find two long articles, 
one under the heading Sughar, and another under the alternative pro- 
nunciation of Zughar. 4 After quoting the verse of a poet who sings of the 
" southern region of the Sharat from Maab to Zughar," Yakut proceeds 
to give various traditions which connect the town with the history of Lot, 
and says that its name came to it from one of Lot's daughters. Finally it is 
stated that Zughar is situated in the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea, in a 
wady ; it being three days' journey from Jerusalem, and lying near the 
frontiers of the Hejaz. 5 Lastly, and not further to multiply quotations, 
the author of the Meracid, writing about a century after Yakut, after 
quoting his words as to the position of Zughar on, or near, the Dead Sea, 
adds that it lies near Kerak. 6 

In conclusion, therefore, and in opposition to Dr. Merrill, I find no 
authority among such of the Arab geographers as I have read for 
locating the Zughar or Zoar of their day anywhere but to the south-east 
of the Dead Sea. For, to sum up their indications, the city stood near the 
Dead Sea ; one day's march from Maab, the same from Jericho, and four 
from the head of the Gulf of Akabah ; three days' march from Jerusalem, 
and near Kerak ; from all of which it would appear impossible that a town 
across the Jordan opposite Jericho should be intended ; while the assertion 
that the water at Sughar was execrable, of itself indicates that Tell esh 
Shagur, in the wady below Arak el Emir, where excellent springs abound, 
can hardly be a satisfactory identification. 

From the Jordan ford up to Jerusalem we rode along the beaten track 
that every Cook's tourist has followed. The ghastly barrenness of the 
country, and the glare from the chalky hills among which the road winds, 
renders this one of the most tedious bits of journeying in Palestine, and 
we were fortunate in being able to accomplish the ride from Jericho to 
Jerusalem in five hours. It is, however, worth while to come up this 

1 Mokaddasi, p. 470. 

2 Op. cit., p. 178. 

3 Op. cit., p. 1S4. 

4 Wustenfeld's Yakut, II, 933 ; III, 396. In the Arab geographers the 
name is found spelt i^, Sughar ; A . , Zughar ; and S,, Sukar. 

5 Op. cit., II, 934. 

6 "Meracid-el-Ittila," I, 514. 



180 ACCOUNT OF A SHOUT JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN". 

dreary road from the east to catch one's first sight of Jerusalem from the 
summit of the Mount of Olives. Arriving by the Jaffa road, the Holy 
City is hidden until you are almost within its gates, but from Bethany the 
pilgrim rides suddenly into view of this unique metropolis, which, in its 
entirety, lies spread out at his feet. The week's discomfort in Bedouin 
tents, and the monotonous ride of the last few hours, had, I think, attuned 
us all to a just pitch of appreciation, and although rather too hungry and 
weary for aesthetic raptures, it was some little time before we turned 
down through St. Stephen's Gate, and sought out our night quarters 
in the Damascus Hotel. 

In concluding these notes, and for the information of those who may 
have any intention of penetrating into the countries beyond the Jordan, 
I may be permitted to remind my readers that our journey had been 
accomplished without paying a piastre to Goblan, the famous (or rather 
infamous) chief of the 'Adwan, or even in any way gratifying the cupidity 
of the Sheikh of Suf — both worthies generally but too well known to those 
who have left Jerusalem for a trip into the Land of Gilead. And 
yet we had been able, in the course of six days, to visit the sites of 
Tabakat Fahl (Pella), Jerash, Amman, and 'Arak el Emir, taking the 
direct route across country from one site to another, and along roads 
seldom seen by the ordinary tourist. The secret of our successful raid — 
for so only can I venture to call it — lay in the fact that, taking neither 
tents nor servants, we were but three horsemen mounted on inelegant hacks, 
more useful as roadsters than in any way remarkable for breed, and that 
one of us was a native of the country, personally acquainted with the Arab 
sheikhs of the district which it was intended to visit. Lastly, as we took 
no more baggage than our horses could carry, we, in accordance with that 
ancient and convenient custom of the Arabs, imposed ourselves nightly as 
■_ nests in some nomad camp, coming down at the hair-tent of the sheikh, 
whose honour, forthwith, was engaged for our personal well-being and 
safety. By this proceeding we avoided the necessity of carrying with us 
provisions for the road, and dispensed with a baggage animal : and hence 
our appearance was in no way calculated to excite the cupidity of those 
whom we met in our journey. 

The presence of tents and baggage mules, with the attendant dragoman 
ami zaptieh, are plentiful reasons to explain the costliness of which 
travellers complain who cross the Jordan and go eastward from the Dead 
Sea. Any one who is lucky enough to get a native friend for companion, 
who can keep his own counsel, and wants no escort of zaptiehs, can 
almost always visit any part of the country beyond the Jordan at very 
little risk. Only his stay must be so little protracted that the authorities 
get no news of it, and fur this short time the traveller must be content 
with the nourishment of Arab fare, and such repose as is to be obtained 
on the hard earth under an Arab tent, where hospitality is alike provided 
fi >> \ eiinin and for men. 

46, Charles Street, Matfajr, 
London, JAt/y, 1885. 



NOTES BY MR. OLIPHANT. 181 

NOTES. 

I. A Dolmen in Jud.ea. 
Having had occasion recently to ride from Jericho to Nablus, I decided to 
try and take a short cut from Khurbet 'Aujah el Foka (Sheet 15, O r) to 
El Mugheir (Sheet 15, N q). It will be seen by a reference to the map 
that there is no path marked, and that the region to be traversed is a 
desolate tract, upon which no habitations are indicated. It occurred to 
me that I might chance to stumble across something of interest in this 
deserted district, and such in fact proved to be the case. A peasant whom 
I picked up, tilling his land in the Wady el Aujah, consented to serve as a 
guide, but said that he doubted whether the route would prove practicable 
on horseback. The ascent from the valley of the Jordan for the first 1,500 
or 1,800 feet was one which did indeed tax my horse's powers to the 
utmost, even without a rider, as it involved a climb by a scarcely percep- 
tible goat path, now up smooth steep inclines of limestone, now over jagged 
rocks. I then traversed for a distance of about five miles or more, taking 
the windings of our way into consideration, the wildest and most barren 
tract imaginable of rocky tableland, here and there intersected by deep 
wadies, offering from time to time views of considerable scenic grandeur, 
and in a north-easterly direction up the Jordan Valley, of great extent. 
Beyond this there was nothing to vary the monotony of ruggedness, and 
rarely an indication of a path, the guide simply selecting the line of country 
which seemed most practicable for my horse. It was while indulging in 
regrets at having ventured on an experiment which seemed likely to prove 
so uninteresting, that I made a discovery which afforded me some consola- 
tion. On the side of a bare hill I came upon four slabs of stone, which 
from their size and shape presented all the appearance of being the com- 
ponent slabs of an overturned dolmen — one, which was larger than the 
others, being about 9 feet by 5 feet, formed in all probability the covering 
slab. As I am not aware of any dolmen, or remains of one, having been 
found in Judaea, this would confirm the theory that they once existed 
there, but that the two Tribes were so scrupulous in their obedience to the 
order " to overturn the tables of stone," that traces of them have hitherto 
escaped observation. It is possible that a minute examination of this 
section of country would reveal interesting remains of early rude stone 
monuments. I roughly took the bearings of the spot by compass, but the 
whole place is such a wilderness of rocks that I doubt whether I could 
find it again. About half-a-mile distant from it I found another evidence 
of a most ancient period. This consisted of a square enclosure 24 yards 
each way, formed of huge unhewn blocks of stone, each of a ton weight or 
more, remaining in position to a height of three courses in some places, in 
others of two. Within this outer massive enclosure there was a circle 
formed of smaller stones, 12 feet in diameter, and in the centre of this 
circle was a single stone, but this consisted now of a large splintered frag- 
ment about 3 feet high, and it was difficult to form from it an idea of the 
original shape of the stone. There were also in the neighbourhood what 



182 NOTES BY MR. OLIPHANT. 

appeared to be alignments of stones, and numerous cairns. The spot, as 
nearly as I can judge, is about two miles to the south-east of El Mugheir. 
Near that place there is a very good Arab stone circle, with a miniature 
doorway about 2 feet high, and a horizontal club or lintel, facing west. 



II. A Sarcophagus at ZimmarIn. 



A few days ago the Jews of the colony of ZimmarIn, in excavating at the 
base of what appeared to be an artificial mound, suddenly struck a block 
of cement. Further investigation proved it to be a portion of a thick 
coating of that material, in which a leaden sarcophagus had been em- 
bedded. This was extracted and opened, and found to contain the bones 
of a human skeleton, and a quantity of dust, which was described to me 
by a colonist who had seen it as having the appearance of dust mixed with 
shining particles, which to his imagination resembled gold dust. I have 
had no opportunity of examining any of this dust, some of which is said 
still to have been preserved at Zimmarin, where more accurate information 
could be obtained as to what actually was found in the cofhn, about which 
there are conflicting accounts. On rumours of the discovery reaching the 
Caimakam here, he sent to have the sarcophagus brought to this place, 
where I have examined it. It weighs 250 pounds, is 6 feet 8 inches long, 
and 1 foot 8 inches in width. Down the whole length of the centre of the 
lid is an ornamental scroll 1\ inches wide, including the narrow bands 
which border the design. This is very beautifully executed, and consists 
of a representation of grape vines, with fruit and leaves and other floral 
devices. All round the upper edge of the sides of the coffin is a similar 
border, but it is nearly 3| inches wide. The artist has avoided repeating 
himself, and has varied the design, which is in a good state of preservation, 
so that no two sections of it are similar. The leaden bottom is in places 
much corroded. 

In accordance with the general order regulating the discovery of anti- 
quities, this sarcophagus will be sent to Constantinople. I have every 
reason to believe, however, that the mound in which it was found contains 
more, and I hope to be present in the event of further excavations in it 
taking place, when I shall also have an opportunity of examining the dust 
which has been already found. 

Laurence Oliphant. 



THE ROCK ALTAR OF ZORAIL 



183 



THE ROCK ALTAR OF ZORAH. 

About two years ago Herr Baurath Schick discovered at a deserted site 
called Marmeta, situated about a mile to the east of the Jewish Refugee 
Aid Society's settlement at 'Artuf, a remarkable monolith which he 
believed to be the remains of an old altar. 

Some days ago, whilst at 'Artuf, I happened, incidentally, to hear 
from one of the settlers that another such stone had been recently noticed 




ALTAK AS SEEN FROM N.W. 

on a hill-side to the west of 'Artuf, and during the afternoon of Friday, 
May 8th, 1885, I visited the place with Baron von Ustinoff. 

Our delight at discovering at the spot indicated a battered and 
weather-worn but otherwise well-preserved rock-altar with steps may be 
imagined. 

It has on the top hollows connected by grooves like Mr. Schick's 
Marmltah stone. The top is at present from four to five feet above 




ALTAR AS BEEN PBOM S.E. 



ground, but as some heavy blocks of stone which we could not move lie 
round its base it would not be safe to state any measurements till these 
and the earth at its base be cleared away. 



184 THE ORIGIN OF THE NAME EN ROOEL. 

Zorah, now called Surah, the home of Manoah and the birth-place of 
Samson, is in full view of the spot, at a distance (measuring on an air- 
line) of, say, a quarter of a mile. Whether or not this remarkable 
monument be the identical rock-altar of Manoah (Judges xiii, 19, 20), its 
existence in such a suggestive situation cannot, I think, fail to rouse the 
interest of Bible readers. 

I am, Sir, yours truly, 

J. E. Hanauer. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE NAME EN ROGEL. 

Sir, 

Without presuming to express any opinion on the probable correctness 
of C. R. C.'s suggestion that the name En Rogel means " the Spring of the 
( liannel," I wish to point out that in writing the last two lines of his 
note on the subject in Quarterly Statement, January, p. 20, Jove must have 
been nodding ; for in making the statement that " the name is evidently 
derived from the famous rock-cut channel leading from the back of the 
cave in which the spring rises," C. R. C. has evidently overlooked the 
fact that all the passages in which the name occurs relate to a time 
antecedent to the earliest date hitherto assigned to the rock-cut channel, 
and two of them mention the name En Rogel as existing in the time of 
Joshua. Or does C. R. C. really mean to imply that " the famous rock-cut 
channel " was in existence in Joshua's time ? 

If not, then the name cannot be derived from the underground 
channel. 

Perhaps it came from the surface channel whose prior existence is so 
earnestly contended for by the Rev. W. F. Birch ? 

H. B. S. W 



BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE — 
continued. 



CHAPTER VI. 



1. Tup: whole Sanctuary was not on level ground, but on the rising of the 
mountain. A person entering al the eastern gate 1 of the mountain of the 

' Rasbi commenting upon the passage ''no man might indulge in any levity 

opposite the eastern pate,'' remarks that tliis pate was "outside the mountain of 
the house, in the lew wall which was at the foot of the house, on the east, 
because all the gates were set one opposite the other, the eastern gate, the 



BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 185 

house went as far as the end of the rampart {chel) on a level, and ascended 
from thucliel to the court of the women by twelve steps, the height of each 
step being half a cubit and the breadth half a cubit. 

2. And he went along the whole court of the women on a level, and 
ascended from it to the court of Israel, which was the beginning of the 
" court," by fifteen steps, the height of each step being half a cubit, and the 
breadth half a cubit. 

3. And he went along the whole court of Israel on a level and ascended 
from it to the court of the priests by a step a cubit high, and upon this 
was the dochan [or desk], and in it three steps, the height of each step 
being half a cubit and the breadth half a cubit, so that the court of the 
priests was two and a half cubits higher than that of Israel. 

4. And he went across the whole court of the priests, and past the 
altar, and between the porch and the altar on a level, and ascended thence 
to the porch by twelve steps, the height of each step being half a cubit 
and the breadth half a cubit. And the porch and the Temple (~^n) 
were all on a level. 

5. The floor of the Temple was therefore twenty-two cubits higher than 
the floor of the eastern gate of the mountain of the house. And the height of 
the gate of the mountain of the house was twenty cubits, so that a person 
standing opposite the eastern gate could not see the door of the Temple, 
and on this account they made the wall which was above that gate low, in 
order that the priest standing on the Mount of Olives might see the door 
of the Temple when sprinkling the blood of the heifer towards the Temple. 

6. There were there chambers under the court of Israel opening to the 
court of the women, and there the Levites placed the harps, psalteries, 
cymbals, and all instruments of music. And upon the dochan [pulpit j, 
which went up from the court of Israel to the court of the priests, 
the Levites stood when they recited songs at the time of the offering. 2 

7. The chambers that were built in the holy part and opened into the 
profane, if their roofs were even with the floor of the court their interior 

gate of the court of the women, the gate of the court of Israel, the doorway of the 
porch and the temple ^3in> aQ d the Holy of Holies iu the days of the first 
Sanctuary, when there was betiveen the holy place and the most holy, pDp"1U> a 
partition wall of one cubit (Berachoth 54 a). The question whether there were 
steps up to the eastern gate from the outside or from the gate to the mountain 
of the house on the inside is not touched by this account of Maimonides. He 
supposes a person to start from the inner side of the eastern gate, being already 
on the paved floor of the mountain of the house. 

2 The contents of these paragraphs are from Middoth i, 3 ; ii, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 
iii, 6. The dochan, pH, suggestion, was a kind of bench with steps, upon which 
the Levites or priests stood to sing or read or pronounce the blessing {<•/. 
Nehein. viii, 4; Esdras i, 9, 42; Erucliin ii, 6; Sotah 38 b). In the modern 
synagogue the bench in front of the cupboard, where the rolls of the Law arc 
deposited, upon which the priest stands to say the blessing, is still called dochan. 
(See Rubric for the Lady Service and the Service of Rosh Hashshannah.) 



186 BETH HABBECHEKEH, OK THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

was profane and their roofs holy, and if not even with the court their roofs 
also were profane, because the roofs that were raised above the court were 
not hallowed, and hence they might not eat the most holy offerings nor 
slaughter the less holy upon those roofs. 

8. If built in the profane part and opening to the holy, their interior 
was holy for eating the most holy things, but they did not slaughter 
there the less holy, and the entering there when in a state of ceremonial 
impurity was permitted, and their roofs were profane for all purposes. 

9. Cavities [interiors] opening to the court were holy, and those 
opening to the mountain of the house profane. 3 The windows and 
the thickness [i.e., the top] of the wall were like the inside, 4 both 
with reference to eating the most holy offerings and with reference 
to impurity. 

10. If the consistory 5 desired to add to the city of Jerusalem, or to add 
to the court, they had power to do so. And they might extend the court 
as far as they chose within the mountain of the house, and extend the 
wall of Jerusalem to any place they chose. 

11. But they might not add to the city or to the court, except with 
the authority of the king, or of a prophet, or by Urim and Thurnmim, or 
with the authority of the Sanhedrim of seventy-one elders, as it is said 
(Exodus xxv, 9), " according to all that I show thee, . . . even so shall 
ye make it," for future generations, and Moses our master was a king. 8 

12. And how did they add to the city V The consistory made two 

3 The question of the holiness of the chambers, roofs, &c, is discussed in 
M'ansa Shene iii, 8; Pesachira vii, 12; the Ganiara of the latter (85 b, 86 «), 
and Zevachim 56 a. See also Yoma 25 a. 

4 This passage is from the Mishna of Pesachim vii, 12, where (according to 
Rnshi and others) it has reference to the wall of Jerusalem, but the Ganiara 
connects it with the cliel, and quotes Lam. ii, 8, " he made the rampart and the 
wall to lament." "The wall," says Maimonides, "was the wall of the court" 
{vide supra, v, 3). The Bar Sorah, Nllt^ ~)2, "son of a wall," is explained by 
Rashi to have been " a little wall inside the great wall, and on a level with the 
court." This little wall was doubtless that alluded to by R. Solomon, on 
Lam. ii, 8, as connected with the chel (Lightfoot 1089). The expression in the 
Gamara (Pesachim 86 a) is FITltJ' IT miC, " a wall, and the son of a wall," and 
lends support to the opinion expressed in a former note that the chel may have 
had a rampart and low wall outside the wall of the court. The subject has here 
reference to the rules forbidding the most holy sacrifices, the less holy sacrifices, 
and the Paschal Lamb to be eaten if carried beyond certain prescribed limits 
(vide infra, 15). "As anything which should be eaten in Jerusalem became 
unlawful if taken out of it, so anything which should be eaten in the court became 
unlawful if taken out of it " (Shcanoth 15 a). 

5 Beth Din, JH TTQ, "House of Judgment." 

r ' Sanhcdrin i, 5, and 16 /; ; Shevuoth ii, 2, and 16 b. 

"> Shevuoth ii, 2. " They added to the city in no other way than .... 
by two thank-offerings, and by music, and by the Beth Din going in procession, 
with the two thank-offerings behind them, and all Israel behind them (the thank- 
offerings). The inner thank-offering was eaten, the outer burned." The 



BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 187 

thank-offerings, and took the leavened bread which belonged to them 
(Lev. vii, 13), and walked in procession, the consistory being behind the 
two thank-offerings and the two thank-offerings one behind the other, 
and they stood with harps, and psalteries, and cymbals at every corner, 
and at every large stone which was in Jerusalem, and chanted "I will 
extol thee, O Lord ; for thou hast lifted me up " &c. 8 (Psalm xxx, 1), and 
thus they loent until they reached the end of the place which they conse- 
crated, where they stood and ate the bread of one of the two thank- 
offerings, and the other was burned. And by the mouth of a prophet 
they burned the one, and ate the other. 9 

13. Likewise if they added to the court, they hallowed it with the 
remains of the meat-offering. As the city of Jerusalem was hallowed by 
the thank-offering, which was eaten in it, so the court was hallowed by 
the remains of the meat-offerings, which could not be eaten elsewhere 
than in it, and they ate them at the end of the place which they hallowed. 10 

14. Every place in the dedication of which all these things and this 
order were not observed was not completely dedicated. And the two 
thank-offerings which Ezra made were merely a memorial, and the place 
did not become hallowed by what he did, because there was neither king 
nor TJrim and Thummim. And by what did it become hallowed ? By 
the first dedication which Solomon made, because he consecrated the 
court (1 Kings viii, 64) and Jerusalem both for that time and for the 
time to come. 11 

15. Therefore they offered all the offerings, even though there was 
no house built there, and they ate the most holy things in all the court, 
even though it was destroyed and not surrounded by a wall, and they ate 
the less holy things and the second tithes in all Jerusalem, even though 
there were no walls there, because the first consecration hallowed both 
for that time and for the time to come. 12 

16. And why do I say in reference to the Sanctuary and Jerusalem, 
that the first dedication hallowed for the time to come, and in reference 
to the hallowing of the rest of the land of Israel, for the purposes of the 

arrangement of the procession is discussed in the Gamai'a (15 b). It is doubted 
whether the thank-offerings went side by side, or one behind the other : if side by 
side, the inner one was that next the wall ; if one behind the other, the inner one 
was that next the consistory. 

8 In Shevuoth 15 b, from which this passage is taken, the word n?11J, large, 
occurs after stone, but is wanting in Maimonides, probably from an error of the 
transcribers. 

9 lb. 16 a. It. Judah said " by the mouth of a prophet owe was eaten, and by 
the mouth of a prophet one was burned." The meaning is that a prophet 
instructed them which to eat and which to burn. 

10 Shevuoth 15 a. Rashi notes that the remains of the meat-offering, iinJD, 
were the cakes which were to be eaten by the priests (Ley. ii, 3, 4, 10). 

11 Shevuoth 16 a. 

13 lb. Edioth 14 a ; Megillah 10 a ; Zevach. 107 b. The Eabbis disputed much 
as to the perpetuity of the first consecration. 



188 BETH HABBECHEEEH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

seventh years and tithes and things connected with them, it did not 
hallow for the time to come ? Because the hallowing of the Sanctuary, 
and of Jerusalem, was on account of the Shekinah, and the Shekinah did 
not cease. And lo, it says " I will bring your sanctuaries unto desolation " 
(Lev. xxvi, 31) ; and the wise men say that notwithstanding that they 
were desolated, yet in respect of their holiness they were yet standing.' 5 
But the obligations of the land in reference to the seventh years and the 
tithes were only because it had been subjugated, and after the land was 
taken from their hands the subjugation ceased, and it became free from 
the law of tithes and seventh years, for lo, it was no longer the land of 
Israel. And when Ezra came up and hallowed it, he did not hallow it 
by subjugation, but by the right of possession, which they had in it, 
and therefore every place of which those who came up from Babylon had 
possession, and which was hallowed by the second hallowing of Ezra, 
that remains hallowed to this day, and notwithstanding that the land has 
been taken from them, it is still liable in respect of seventh years and 
tithes, for the reasons which we have explained in the treatise " Terumah " 
(offering). 



CHAPTER VII. 

1. It is an affirmative command to reverence the Sanctuary, as it is 
said " ye shall reverence My Sanctuary " (Lev. xix, 30). And not the 
Sanctuary shalt thou reverence, but Him who gave commandment that it 
should be reverenced. 1 

2. And what was the reverence due to it ? A man might not enter 
the mountain of the house 2 with his staff, or with shoes upon his feet, or 
with his girdle, 3 or with dust upon his feet, or with money bound in his 

13 Megillah iii, 3, 28 a. 

1 Yevamoth, 6 a, b. 

- Tevam. 6 a, b • Berachoth 5 and 62 b ; Yeruschal Berach xiii, a, 1,1. 

3 tmJIDXa. The Mishna of Berachoth (ix, 5) and Yevamoth 6 b, have 
im^lSU. The fundah, iTUlS NI^IS or m312X, is frequently mentioned in the 
Talmud. In Shabbath 120 a it is enumerated amongst the eighteen garment? 
which it is lawful to put on or off on the Sabbath. In the gloss on Kelim 
xxix, 1 (rf. Bartenora), it is explained to be an under garment worn next the skin 
to guard the other garments against the perspiration; and Baal Aruch says 
m^lEtf was "an article of dress, a small shirt in which were sewn many places 
where they put anything they met with," and from Shabbath x, 2, it. appears to 
have been either a bag or some piece of clothing furnished with one or more 
pockets. Rashi thought it was "a hollow girdle in which they put money." 
The expression in the Jerusalem Talmud (Berachoth xiii, b 1), that a person might 
not enter the mountain of the house, SirDO vbv tmJIDN, " his fundah being 
on him outside," is surest ive of an outer garment of some kind. It may have 
been a jacket or spencer worn over the other clothing, or a girdle in which money 
and other articles were carried, like the kamar, J}, of the modern inhabitants of 



BETH HABBECHEREII, OK THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 189 

linen. And it is unnecessary to say, that it was unlawful to spit in all 
the mountain of the house, hut if one should be obliged to spit, he must 
do so in his garment. And one might not make the mountain of the 
house a thoroughfare,* entering at one gate, and going out at an opposite 
one in order to shorten the way, but go round on the outside, and not 
outer, except for religious purposes. 

3. All who entered the mountain of the house entered on the right 
hand, and went round and passed out on the left, except one to whom 
an accident happened, who turned to the left. Wherefore they asked him, 
" what ails thee that thou turnest to the left 1" " Because I am mourning." 
" May He who dwelleth in this house, comfort thee." " Because I am 
excommunicated." " May He who dwelleth in this house, put into thy 
heart, that thou mayest listen to the words of thy fellows, that may 
restore thee."* 

4. When a man had finished his service and was leaving, he did not 
go out with his back to the Temple, but walked backwards slowly and 
went gently sideways, 6 until he issued from the court, and so likewise the 
watchers and standing men, and Levites from their pulpit, 'p'H, went 

out from the Sanctuary like a person stepping backwards after prayers ; '• 
all which was to show reverence to the Sanctuary. 8 

5. One might not indulge in levity 9 opposite the eastern gate 10 of the 
court, which was the gate Nicanor, because it was set opposite the Holy 
of Holies. And every one who entered the court must walk gently in 
the place where it was lawful for him to enter, and demean himself 
reverently as became one standing before Jehovah, as is said " mine eyes 
and my heart shall be there perpetually "(1 Kings ix, 3), and he went with 

Palestine. The word has been supposed to be derived from entvbvn)* (John 
xxi, 7), translated in the A.V. a "fisher's coat." The meaning of the passage 
which Maimonides has here taken from Berachoth (Jerus. and Bab.) is that no 
worshipper might enter the mountain of the house either with his girdle or other 
garment in which be carried his money upon him, or with his money tied in a 
corner of his linen garments, a custom very common amongst the natives of the 
country at the present day. 

The word for "linen" is jHD, translated in the A.V. (Isaiah iii, 23) "fine 
linen." The English word "satin" is derived from it. 

4 Megillah iii, 3, and the Gamara 29 a, where it is said of a synagogue that a 
JOTUBp, a short way, may not be made through it. 

5 Middoth ii, 2. 

fi That is, he must walk differently from bis ordinary mode of walking (K. 
Abraham) . 

~> As the custom of the Jews now is. 

8 Yoma 53 a. 

9 Literally, might not raise his head in lightness. 

10 Berachoth ix, 5. " One might not raise his head lightly opposite the eastern 
gate, because it was set opposite the Holy of Holies." Rashi remarks that it was 
the eastern gate of the mountain of the house. See Note on vi, 1. 



190 BETH HABBECHEREH, OK THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

fear and reverence, and trembling, as is said, " we walked in the house of 
God in tumult " (A. V. in company, Psalm lv, 14). 

6. It was unlawful for anyone to sit in any part of the court. No one 
had the right of sitting in the court, except kings of the house of David 
only, 11 as it is said " and David the king came and sat before the Lord " 
(1 Chron. xvii, 16). And the Sanhedrim who sat in the chamber Gazith 
sat only in the profane half. 12 

7. And although the Sanctuary is now desolated, on account of our 
sins, one is still bound to reverence it, as was the custom when it was yet 
standing. One may not enter except where it was then lawful for him 
to enter, and may not sit in the court, nor raise his head lightly opposite 
the eastern gate, as is said, " ye shall keep my Sabbaths and reverence 
my Sanctuary" (Lev. xix, 30): as the keeping of the Sabbath is perpetual, 
so likewise the reverencing of the Sanctuary is perpetual, 13 and notwith- 
standing that it has been desolated, in respect of its holiness it is still 
standing. 

8. At the time when the Sanctuary was standing 14 it was unlawful 
for a man to raise his head lightly from the place called tsofim (which 
was outside of Jerusalem), and inwards, and whoever could see the 
Sanctuary with no wall intervening between him and it. 15 

9. It was unlawful for a man ever evacuate ahum, or to sleep between 

n Tamid27a; Sotah 41 b ; Yoma 25 a ; Kedushin 78 b ; SanhedrinlOl b. 
In the latter place it i8 " Kings of (he House of Judah." It was customary for 
the king to sit in a pulpit erected for him in the court of the women when 
reading a portion of the Law to the people towards the end of the first holy day 
of the Feast of Tabernacles at the termination of the seventh year. It is related 
(Sotah vii, 8) that King Agrippa " read standing, and the wise men praised him 
for so doing, and when he came to ' thou mayest not set a stranger over thee,' his 
eyes overflowed with tears (because he was not a true Israelite), and they said to 
hiin, ' fear not Agrippa ! thou art our brother ! thou art our brother ! ' " (because 
his mother was of the seed of Israel), cf. Sifri, D^QIL", 105 b. 

12 Yoma 25 a. The elders sat in the western half which opened into the chel } 
7*n, and was consequently profane. 

13 Yevamoth 6b; cf. Megillah hi, 3, and 28 b. 

14 ^2, built. 

15 " Tsofim was a place from which they could see the mountain of the house, 
and from beyond which they could not see it" (Tosefoth Berachoth 61 b ; cf. 
Pesachim iii, 8). "A person who went out of Jerusalem and remembered that 
he had with him holy flesh, if he had passed tsofim he burned it in the place 
where he was." Rashi on this passage remarks that tsofim was the "name of a 
village, ~|QD DC, from which one could see the Sanctuary." " What was tsofim ? 
Seeing with nothing intervening. Every place around Jerusalem from which 
one could see the Sanctuary " (Toscfoth Peaach. 49 «). The word is from the 
root, i"ID¥, to look around, to watch (whence HDVO, mizpah, a watch tower). 
The Greek a/canr) is its exact equivalent. Doubtless the hill called Scopus, north 
of Jerusalem, is one of the places here referred to. There was a place called 
Tsufim famous for its honey (Sotah ix, 12). 



BETH HABBECHEHEII, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 191 

east and west ; 16 and it is unnecessary to say that they did not erect a 
privy between east and west in any place, because the Temple was on the 
west. Therefore they did not ease nature with the face to the west, or to 
the east, because that is opposite the west, but they relieved nature and 
slept between north and south. And every one passing water from the 
tsofim and inwards, did not sit with his face towards the Temple, but to 
the north or to the south, or placed the Temple at his side. 17 

10. And it was unlawful for a man to make a house after the pattern 
of the Temple, an exhedra after the pattern of the porch, a court resembling 
the court, a table of the form of the table of shewbread or a candlestick of 
the form of the candlestick. But he might make a candlestick of five 
branches, or of eight branches, or a candlestick of seven branches, provided 
it was not of metal. 18 

11. There were three camps in the wilderness : the camp of Israel, 
which included four camps ; the camp of Levi, of whom it is said " they 
shall encamp round about the tabernacle" (Numbers i, 50), and the camp of 
the Divine Presence (Shekinah, |"13' 1 3\2? I )> which was from the door of the 
court of the tent of the congregation inwards. And corresponding to 
them from the gate of Jerusalem to the mountain of the house was like 
the camp of Israel ; from the gate of the mountain of the house to the 
gate of the court, which was the gate Nicanor, was like the camp of Levi ; 
and from the gate of the court and inwards was like the camp of the Divine 
Presence. And the rampart (chel) and the court of the women were an 
additional excellence of the eternal house. 19 

12. The whole of the land of Israel was more holy than all other 
lands. And what was its holiness ? That they brought from it the sheaf, 
and the two leaves, and the first fruits, which they did not bring from 
other lands. 20 

13. There are ten holinesses to the land of Israel, the one higher than 
the other. Cities in it surrounded by walls were more holy than the rest 
of the land, because they sent away the lepers out of them, and they did 
not bury the dead in them unless seven good men of the city, or all the 
men of the city, desired it. And if a corpse had been carried out of the 

16 That is, with his face to the east and bis back to tbe west, or the reverse. 

17 Berachoth 62 a; Berach.-Yerushal 13, a 2, and 61 (60 a). 

18 Avodab Zarab 43 a. It is doubtful whether it was lawful to mate a 
candlestick of seven branches, even though of wood. E. Jose bar Jehudah said 
it was not lawful, because tbe Asamoneans bad made one of tbat material for 
the Temple. Maimonides gives what be considers to be tbe decision. His words 

are D»3p njDP if? WW JTBK mnO h® n3W miJO nWty, literally, 

" a candlestick which was not of metal even though there were in it seven 
brandies." The Talmud allows a candlestick of six branches (loc. cit.). 

19 Zevaebim 116 b ; Tosefta Kelim 1 ; cf. R. Shimson in Kelim5 b. Also 
Maim, on the same passage; Rasbi in Sanhedrim -42 b. The meaning of the 
last sentence is, that there was nothing in the cam]3 in the wilderness corre- 
sponding to the rampart and court of the women in the Temple. 

20 Kelim i, 6 ; cf. Levit. xxiii, 10, 17. 

r 2 



192 BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

city they might not take it back again, even though all should desire to 
take it back. Should the inhabitants of the city desire to remove a tomb 
to without the city, they might remove it, and all tombs might be removed 
except the tomb of a prophet or a king. A tomb which the city 
surrounded, whether on four sides or two sides, one opposite to the other, 
if there was between it and the city more than fifty cubits on this side 
and rifty cubits on that side, they did not remove it unless all desired 
its removal ; if less than that they might remove it without the sanction of 
all. 21 

14. Jerusalem was more holy than other walled cities, because they ate 
the lesser holy offerings and the second tithes within its walls. 22 And 
these things are spoken of Jerusalem : they did not allow a dead body to 
remain all night in it, they did not carry human bones through it, and did not 
let out houses nor give a place to a sojourning proselyte in it. Also they 
did not erect tombs in it, except the tombs of the house of David, and 
the tomb of Huldah, which were there from the day of the former prophets. 
They did not plant gardens or orchards in it, nor was it sown or ploughed 
lest it should stink. They did not raise trees in it except the gardens of 
roses, which had been there from the times of the former prophets, and they 
did not place dunghills in it, on account of creeping things. They did not 
make beams or balconies projecting into the public streets on account of 
the tent of defilement, and did not make furnaces in it on account of the 
smoke. 23 They did not nourish cocks in it on account of the holy things, 

21 Kelim, i, 7, and the notes of R. Shimson and Maimonides ; Jerus. Nazir 
57, b 2 ; Tosefta Baba Bathia, 274 b. Rabbi Akibah maintained that the tombs 
of kings and prophets might be removed {vide infra). The Jerus. Talmud and 
the Tosefta allow tombs to be removed if surrounded on four, three, or two sides 
by the city, and the distance given in the former (Nazir, loc. cit.) is seventy 
cubits and two-thirds of a cubit (Abal Rabathy 14). R. Abraham raises an 
objection to the opinion of Maimonides that if seven good men of the city 
desired it, a dead body might be buried within the walls, and says that they did 
not bury in the cities, but might carry a corpse about the eity to do honour to it. 
and increase the mourning, and this latter opinion is supported by the Mishna 
(loc. cit,), riO pin 1 ? T23DO. 

22 Kelim i, 8, and the gloss of R. Shimson. 

23 Baba Kama 82 b ; Yoma 12 a • Negaim xii, 4 ; Tosefta Negaim, 6 ; 
Megillah 26 a. The reason why Jerusalem could not become unclean from 
leprosy is that it was not divided among the tribes, and was therefore like cities 
out of the land of Israel (Negaim, loc. cit.) ; but Rabbi Judah disputed this 

>pinion, urging the tradition that part of the mountain of the house was in the 
tribe of Judah and part in Benjamin. The tombs of the house of David and of 
Huldah the prophetess are spoken of in Jerush. -Nazir 57, b 2 ; Tosefta Negaim 6, 
Tosefta Baba Bathra 274, Avoth Rabbi Nathan 35. R. Akibah said that there 
was a hollow way or t unnel, p^inO> *° these tombs, by which the " uncleanness " 
was conducted out to the valley of Kcdron, and that because of the existence of 
this the tombs were allowed to remain in opposition to the general law, which, 
according to him, permitted or required the removal of the tombs of kings and 



BETH HABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. lOU 

and also in all the laud of Israel the priests might not nourish cocks on 
account of purity. 24 And there was in it no house for persons condemned 
as lepers, and it did not become unclean from leprosy. It did not become 
a city cursed for idolatry, and did not furnish a heifer to be beheaded 
because it was not divided among the tribes. 

15. The mountain of the house was more holy than it (Jerusalem), 
because men and women that had fluxes, and women at the time of their 
separation, and after childbirth, could not enter there. 25 It was permitted 
to take a dead body itself into the mountain of the house, and it is 
therefore unnecessary to say that a person defiled by contact with the 
dead might enter there. 26 

16. The rampart (chel) was more holy than the morintain of the House, 
because Gentiles and persons defiled by contact with the dead or to 
whom a certain impurity had happened 27 might not enter there. 28 

17. The court of the women was more holy than the rampart because 
Q^ 71D.t2i tibbul youm (a person who required washing and the sun 
going down to purify him from an uncleanness, and who had washed and 
was awaiting the going down of the sun), might not enter there. 29 And 
this prohibition is from the words of the wise men, but by the Law, PHI]"!!"! 
it was permitted to a tibbul youm to enter the camp of Levi. 30 And if n 
person defiled by contact with the dead entered the court of the women, 
he was not obliged to offer a sin offering. 

18. The court of Israel was more holy than the court of the women, 
because Q^"YlM ^HPn?^ a person whose atonement had not been made 
after his cleansing from an uncleanness might not enter there. 31 And an 

prophets out of the city. (Tosefta, loc cit., Magin Abraham appended to the 
Tosefta ; cf. Tosefoth Berachoth 19 b, middle of page JTOnN 311) The sum of 
the Jewish traditions in reference to these tombs appears to be — (1) that they 
remained and their locality was known up to the time of the destruction of 
Jerusalem by Titus (of. Acts ii, 29) ; (2) that they were within the city ; and 
(3) that they were so situated that a tunnel or gallery or pipe could pass from 
them to the valley of the Kedron. A garden of roses at Jerusalem is mentioned 
in Maaseroth ii, 5, the owner of which would allow no one to enter lest the 
roses should be spoiled (Tosefoth), and who also gathered and sold some figs 
which grew in the garden, three or four for an assar, without paying tithe or 
bringing an offering from them. 

24 Baba Kama vii, 7. 

25 Kelim i, 8. 

26 Pesachim 67 a ; Nazir 45 a ; Sotah 20 b ; Tosefta Kelim, 1. 

27 ma Sinn- 

28 Kelim i, 8 ; Tosefta Kelim, 1. 

29 Kelim i, 8. 

30 Cf. Yevamoth 7 b. 

31 Kelim i, 8. The Mishna enumerates four classes of persons who might be 
D'HIDS 'HDTO, wanting atonement, viz., men or women with fluxes, women after 
ohildbirth, and lepers. R. Eleazer ben Jacob added two others (Keritliotli 

M). 



194 BETH HABBECHEBEH, OK THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

unclean person who should enter there was liable to the penalty of cutting 
off. 32 

19. The court of the priests was more holy than that of Israel, because 
the laity might not euter there, except when it was necessary for them 
to do so to lay their hands on a sacrifice which was to be slain, or to make 
atonement, or to slay a sacrifice, or to wave a part of it. 33 

20. Between the porch and the altar was more holy than the court of the 
priests, because priests who had blemishes, or whose heads were bare, 31 or 
whose garments were torn might not enter there. 

21. The Temple, T^Ph was m ore holy than between the porch and the 
altar, because none might enter there who had not washed their hands 
and their feet. 35 

22. The Holy of Holies was more holy than the rest of the Temple, 
S^TTn-* because none might enter there except the high priest on the Day 

of Atonement at the time of his service. 36 

23. To the place in the ujiper chamber which was OA r er the Holy of 
Holies they did not enter except once in seven years to ascertain what 
repairs were required ! When the builders entered to build or make 
repairs in the Temple ^^pf, or to remove thence the uncleanness it was 
commanded that the persons entering should be perfect priests ; if perfect 
priests could not be found, priests with blemishes might enter, and if 
there were no priests there, Levites might enter ; if Levites could not 
be found, laymen might enter. The commandment is that they be 
ceremonially clean. If none in a state of puril y could be found, unclean 
might enter. If the choice lay between an unclean person and a person 
with a blemish, he with a blemish entered, and not he that was unclean, 
for uncleanness unfits for service in the congregation. 38 And all who 
entered the Temple, 7^H> to make repairs entered in boxes. If there 
were no boxes there, or if it was not possible for them to do the work in 
boxes, they entered by way of the doors. 3s 

32 Tosefta Kelim 1. There were thirty-six offences by which the penalty of 
cutting off was incurred (Keritlioth i, 1). 

33 Kelim i, 8. 

34 Kelim i, 9. 
85 Kelim i, 9. 

30 Kelim i, 9 ; Pesachim 86 a. 

37 Tosefta Kelim 1 ; Pesachim 8G a, where it is disputed whether these 
chambers were visited once in seven years (in the year of release, liashi), or 
twice in seven years, or once in thenar of Jubilee. 

38 Evubin 105 ; Tosefta Kelim 1 ; Yoma 6 b. 

33 Middoth hi, 5, where it is said that the workmen were let down from abovo 
into the Holy of Holies in boxes. In Tosefta Kelim 1, this rule appears to be 
applied to the holy place as well as the Holy of Holies (see note to the works of 
.Maimonidcs, in loc). "To make repairs," Jpfl, aptare, proparare, stabilire. 
The word sometimes corresponds to S^TI in Hebrew, and is used here in 
contradistinction to H32, to build. Perhaps it should be rendered to 
' ornament." 



BETH IIABBECHEREH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 1 9{ 



CHAPTER VIII. 

1. The guarding of the Sanctuary was an affirmative command, notwith- 
standing that there was no fear of enemies or robbers, for the guarding of 
it was only for its honour. A j:>alace over which there is placed a guard is 
not like a palace over which there is no guard. 

2. And this guarding was commanded for the whole night. And the 
watchers were the priests and Levites, as it is said " thou and thy sons with 
thee before the tabernacle of witness " (Num. xviii, 2), which is as if it 
were said " ye shall guard it," and lo, it is said " and ye shall keep the 
charge of the tabernacle of the congregation" (ib. xviii, 4) ; and it is said 
" but those that encamp before the tabernacle towards the east, even before 
the tabernacle of the congregation eastwards, shall be Moses, and Aaron, 
and his sons, keeping the charge of the Sanctuary " {ib. iii, 38). 

3. And if they ceased guarding, they transgressed a negative command, 
as it is said, " and they shall keep the charge of the Sanctuary." And the 
import of the word, JTVftlE?) guarding, is }""nnW> an admonition, so thou 
mayest learn that its guarding is au affirmative command, and the neglect 
of its guarding a negative command. 1 

4. The law of its guarding was that the priests should keep guard 
inside, and the Levites outside. And four and twenty guards watched it 
the whole night continually in four and twenty places ; the priests in 
three places, and the Levites in one and twenty places. 

5. And where did they watch ? The priests watched in the house 
Abtinas, and in the house Nitzus, and in the house Moked. The house 
Abtinas and the house Nitzus were upper chambers built at the side of 
gates of the court, and the boys 2 watched there. The house Moked was 
arched, and it was a large room surrounded by stone benches, and the 
elders of the family whose turn of service was on that day 3 slept there 
and the keys of the court were in their charge. 4 

6. The priests who watched did not sleep in the priestly garments, 
but folded them up and put them opposite their heads, and put on their 
own garments, and they slept upon the ground, like all watchers in the 
courts of kings, who do not sleep upon beds. 

7. If an accident happened to one of them, he went along the gallery 
which was under the surface of the court (because the hollow. places which 
opened to the mountain of the house were not sanctified), bathed and 
returned, and sat beside his brethren the priests, until the gates were 
opened in the morning, when he went out and departed. 

1 According to a rule of Talmudical interpretation. Cf. Menachoth 3G b, 
Makoth 13 b, &c, BHpDn JlTDCf hl^h fcOEP, not to intermit the guarding of 
the Sanctuary, is enumerated among the 365 negative precepts. 

- Sons of the priests not yet thirteen years of age. 

3 The guard was divided into seven houses of fathers (families) according to 
the days of the week, one for each day (Bartenora in Tamid i, 1). 

4 Literally, in then- hands. 



196 BETH HABBECHEBEH, OR THE CHOSEN HOUSE. 

8. And where did the Levites watch ? At five gates of the mountain of 
the house, and at its four corners within, and at the four corners of the 
court outside (because it was forbidden to sit in the court), and at five 
gates of the court outside of the court, for lo, the priests watched at the 
gate Moked, and at the gate Nitzus. Lo, these are eighteen places. 

9. And moreover they watched at the chamber of the offering, and at 
the chamber of the veil, and behind the house of atonement. 

10. And they placed a prefect over all the guards who watched. He 
was called the man of the mountain of the house, and went round all 
night to every guard in turn, with lighted torches before him, and to every 
guard who was not standing, the man of the mountain of the house said 
" peace be upon thee. - ' If it appeared that he slept, he beat him with his 
staff, and he had authority to burn his cloak, so that they said in Jerusalem 
" what is the voice in the court ? It is the voice of the Levite being beaten 
and his garments burned, because he slept in his watch." 

11. In the morning, shortly before daybreak, 3 the prefect of the 
Sanctuary came and knocked at the door of the house Moked, where the 
priests were, and they opened to him. He took the key and opened the 
little gate which was between the house Moked and the court, and entered 
from the house Moked to the court, and the priests entered behind him. 
There were two lighted torches in their hands, and they divided into two 
companies, one going towards the east, and one towards the west, and 
they searched, and traversed the whole of the court, until the two com- 
panies reached the place of the house of the pancake-maker. Having 
reached it, both companies said " Is it peace ?" and they placed the maker 
of the pancakes to make the pancakes. 

12. According to this order they did every night, except the night of 
the Sabbath, when they had no light in their hands, but searched by the 
light of the lanterns which were lighted here, on the eve of the Sabbath." 

5 \h "|1»D "inL'TI 11»J? nby'C Clip, before the pillar of the morning rose and 
near to it. Cf. Genesis xxxii, 26, which in the Jerusalem Targum has HlfW 
TlTOy p^D DHX for the column of the morning arises (Buxtorf.). 

6 For the contents of this chapter, consult Tamid i and Middoth i. 



YOMA, OR THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 10' 

YOMA, OR THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 

W t ith the Commentary of Rabbi Obadiah of Barttenoka. 



CHAPTER I. 

1. Seven days before the day of atonement, they separated the high 
priest 1 from his house, to the chamber Palhedrin. 2 And they appointed 
another priest in his stead, 3 in ease any defilement should happen to 
him. Rabbi Judah said " also they appointed for him another wife, in 
case his wife should die," 4 as is said (Levit. xvi. 17), 'and have made an 
atonement for himself and for his household:' his household, that is, his 
wife." They said to him, " if so, there would be no end to the matter." 

2. All the seven days, he sprinkled the blood, 5 and burned the incense, 
and dressed the lamps, 6 and offered the head and the leg. And on all 

1 Because all the services of the day of atonement were not lawful unless 
performed by him, as is said, in reference to the clay of atonement (Levit. xvi, 
32), " and the priest, whom ye shall anoint shall make an atonement." And this 
separation we infer from what is written (Levit. viii, 33), "the seven days of 
their consecration," and " ye shall not go out of the door of the tabernacle of the 
congregation in seven days," and what is written afterwards (v, 34) " as he hath 
done this day, so the Lord hath commanded to do, to make an atonement for 
you." And our rabbis have expounded " to do " as referring to the ceremonies 
connected with the red heifer (Numbers xix) : and " to make an atonement for 
you,'' as referring to the day of atonement, because the priest who burnt the 
red heifer, and the priest who officiated on the day of atonement, were both of 
them obliged to be separated from their houses seven days, as Aaron and his 
sons were obliged during the seven days of their consecration. 

2 The king's officers were called palhedrin, and because the high priests of the 
second Temple, after Simeon the Just, gave money to serve in the high priesthood, 
and because they were wicked men, they did not complete their years, but were 
changed every twelve months, like the officers of the king, whom the king 
changes every year, therefore they called this chamber, the chamber palhedrin. 

3 They prepared another priest to be high priest in his stead if 'Hp, or other 
uncleanness, happened to him. 

4 If thou takest the question of death into consideration, there is no end of 
the matter ; because this one also might die. But an uncleanness, which is of 
common occurence, we take into consideration, and therefore they appointed for 
him another priest : death, which is not of common occurrence (as death happen- 
ing suddenly and instantaneously) we do not take into consideration, and there- 
fore they did not appoint for him another wife. The decision was according to 
the wise men [not according to Babbi Judah]. 

5 Of the continual sacrifices, in order that he might be accustomed to the 
service. 

6 He cleansed them from the ashes of the wicks which were extinguished. 



198 YOMA, OR THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 

other days, 7 if he desired to make the offering, for the high priest had 
the preference with respect to the part he might wish to offer, 8 and the 
preference in taking a portion 9 of the sacrifices fur himself. 

3. They set apart for him elders of the elders of the house of judg- 
ment, who read before him 10 from the order of the day, 11 and they said to 
him, " my lord, 12 high priest, read thou for thyself, lest thou mays't have 
forgotten, or least thou hast not learned." 13 On the day preceding the day 
of atonement, at daybreak, they caused him to stand at the eastern gate, 
and caused to pass before him bulls, goats, and sheep, in order that he 
might become acquainted with and accustomed 14 to his service. 

4. All the seven days they did not restrain him from eating and 
drinking, but on the eve of the day of atonement at dusk, they did not 
let him eat much, 15 because eating induces sleep. 

5. The elders of the beth-din, 16 delivered him to the elders of the 
priesthood, 17 and they took him up to the upper chamber Beth Abtinas, 18 
and imposed an oath upon him, 19 and departed and went their way. And 

" If lie desired to make the offering, he offered every offering that he pleased ; 
nor had the men of the watch power to stay his hand. 

8 He had the right to offer any part that he chose. 

3 In the division of the holy things, he took the portion which he selected as 
the best. These words refer to the holy things of the altar (Sanctuary), but the 
holy things of the country, both the high priest and the ordinary priest 
divided equally. 

lu All the seven days. 

11 In the section achare moth (Levit. xvi). 

12 »BWK=*7Ht, my lord. 

13 In the second Temple this was necessary, because at the command of the 
kings they appointed high priests who were not fitted for the office ; but those of 
the first Temple did not appoint as high priest any one who was not dis- 
tinguished amongst the priests for wisdom, for beauty, for strength, and for 
riches ; and if he was not rich, his brethren the priests made him so from then- 
own means, as is said (Levit. xxi, 10) "the high priest among his brethren:" 
they made him great, from what belonged to his brethren. 

14 They caused him to observe the beasta which passed before him in order to 
impress upon him the rules of the service of the day. 

15 Even of such kinds of food as do not produce heat ; and they restrained him 
altogether from all food which might produce heat or defilement, **lp, such as 
milk, e^gs, meat, oil, old wine, and the like. 

16 Who had read before him from the order of the day. 

17 To teach him how to fill his hands with the incense, as is said (Levit. xvi, 12) 
" and his hands full of sweet incense," which was a difficult part of the service. 

18 It was they who made the incense, and pounded it and mixed the gums. 

19 That he should not be a Sadducee to put the incense on the censer outside 
of the Temple and then to enter. For they [the Sadducees] explain " I will 
appear in the cloud upon the mercy seat " (ib. 2) , that in a cloud of smoke of the 
incense he should come, and then appear upon the mercy seat. But the tiling 
\i not so, for the Scripture says (ib. 13) " and he shall put the incense upon the 
fire before the Lord." 



YOMA, OK THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 199 

they said to him, " my lord high priest, we are the delegates of the beth-din, 
and thou art our delegate, and the delegate of the beth-din, we adjure thee, by 
Him whose name dwelleth in this house, that thou change nothing of all that 
we have told thee." He retired and wept, 20 and they retired and wept. 21 

6. If he were a wise man, he expounded, 22 and if not, the disciples of 
the wise men expounded before him. If he were accustomed to read, he 
read ; and if not, they read before him. And in what did they read 
before him 1 In Job, or Ezra, 23 or Chronicles. Zachariah ben Kabutal 
said, " many times I read before him in Daniel." 

7. If he were inclined to fall asleep, the youths of the priesthood 21 
struck before him with the forefinger, 2 * and said to him, " my lord high 
priest, stand up, 20 and cool thyself a little upon the pavement," and they 
kept him occupied until the time for slaying the morning sacrifice arrived. 

8. Every day they cleansed the altar 27 at cock-crow, or near it, 28 either 
before or after. And on the day of atonement after midnight, 89 and at the 
feasts after the first watch. 30 And cock-crow did not happen until the 
court was filled with people [lit, Israel]. 31 

20 Because they had suspected him of being a Sadducee. 

21 Because they had suspected him, for Mar said, whoever suspects the 
righteous is to be beaten in his body. 

22 In things pertaining to the decisions of the law (!"irOi"l) ; all the night of 
the day of atonement, so that he shall not sleep and defilement happen to him, 
and if he were a disciple, and not a wise man, and knew to hear and under- 
stand the law, but not to expound, they expounded before him. 

23 Because these attract the attention so that sleep did not overcome him. 

24 ilJiriD 'mD young men, the hair of whose beards was beginning to grow, 
were called ^niD, pirchy = young shoots, buds. 

25 mix yiXKU, the finger nearest the thumb. The meaning of KT1X is 
mi nniS, '' near to it " [Yoma 19 &], that is to say, near to the thumb which 
adjoins it. They joined the thumb and the finger next to it, and struck the 
palm of his hand and produced a sound, in order that he should not sleep. 

26 Upon thy feet and cool thyself a little upon the pavement of marble to take 
away the heat, for cooling the feet takes away sleep, and 3211 has the signification 
of taking away, as }DJ?tO pJPDQ, " lessen or change its taste" (Pesachim 41 a). 

27 He took some of the ashes (HDIiri, cleansing, is the same as taking away), 
either more or less, in the censer, and put them on the east of the ascent to the 
altar, and they were swallowed up therein their place [DJ "]~n3, miraculously]. 
This was the beginning of the morning service. 

28 Near cock-crow, either before or after. 

29 On account of the weakness of the high priest. Because upon him alone 
was imposed the whole service of the day, it was necessary to rise very early. 

30 The multitude of Israel, and the multitudes of offerings, and the great 
amount of ashes in the place of the pile and the necessity of taking up the 
ashes from the pile to the place in the middle of the altar which was called 
tapuach [an apple] , in which place a great heap of ashes was collected and 
arranged like an apple, made it necessary to rise very early ; and they rose after 
the first watch, which was the third part of the night. 

al At the feasts, cock-crow did not come until the court was full of Israel 
bringing their offerings, to offer thorn immediately after the morning sacrifice. 



200 YOMA, OR THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 



CHAPTEE II. 

1. At first every priest who wished to remove the ashes from the altar, 1 
did so ; and when there were many, 2 they ran and ascended the incline, 3 
and he who got before 4 his fellows, to within four cubits of the top, obtained 
the right to perform the service. If two were equal, 5 the warden said to 
them, "extend the fingers." And how?" They extended one, or two. 6 
And in the Sanctuary they did not extend the thumb. 7 

2. It once happened, that two of them being equal, ran and ascended 
the incline, and one of them pushed the other, so that he fell, and his leg 
was broken. And the beth-dbi saw that they came into danger through 
this practice, they ordained that they should not remove the ashes from 

1 Every priest who was of that house of the fathers and who wished to 
remove the ashes in the morning did so, and there was no lot east in the 
matter. 

2 Of those who came to take away the ashes, this one said " I wish to take 
away the ashes," and the other said " I wish to take away the ashes." This was 
their custom. They ran and ascended the sloping ascent of the altar, which was 
thirty-two cubits long. 

3 He who was the first to get within the four upper cubits of the ascent, 
which were near the top of the altar, obtained the right to remove the ashes. 
This was their lot. 

4 In getting within [these four cubits] neither of them obtained the right, 
but now they all came and cast lots. And how was the lot cast ? The prefect 
said to them all, " hold up your fingers" [jnicate digitis~], that is to say, "put 
forth your fingers," and every one showed his finger. Because it was unlawful 
to count the men of Israel, therefore it was necessary for them to put forth the 
fingers, in order that the fingers, and not the men, might be counted. And how 
did they do it ? They stood round in a circle, and the prefect came and took 
the cap from the head of one of them, and from this one the lot began to count. 
Each one extended his finger, and the prefect mentioned a number — a hundred, 
or sixty, some number much higher than the number of the priests present — and 
said, "he at whom this number finishes shall have the right [to perform this 
service]." And he now began to count from him, from whose head he had 
removed the cap, going round again and again, and counting the fingers until he 
came to the end of the number, and he at whom the number terminated 
obtained the office. And this was the manner of all the lots in the Sanctuary. 

5 One finger if he were a healthy man, and two if he were sickly. Because a 
sick person is not able to restrain his fingers, and when he extends one, that next 
to it comes out with it. But only one of the two was counted. 

Because of deceivers. Eor when the number came near finishing, and they 
could tell at whom it would finish, he who stood before him might put out two 
fingers in order that ho might be counted as two persons, and thus the number 
might prematurely be completed at him. And the prefect might not perceive 
this, because a man c;\n stretch the thumb to a great distance from the finger, so 
that they might appear like the fingers of two men, which it is impossible to 
do with the other fingers. 



YOMA, OK THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 201 

the altar except by lot. 7 Four lots were there, 8 and this was the first 
lot. 

3. The second lot was, who should kill the sacrifice, 9 who should sprinkle 
the blood, who should take the ashes from the inner altar, who should 
take the ashes from the candlestick, who should take up the pieces of the 
sacrifice to the incline, the head and the leg, 10 and the two fore-legs, the end 
of the spine and the leg, the breast and the throat, and the two sides, and 
the inwards, and the fine flour, and the pancakes and the wine. Thirteen 
priests obtained it. The son of 'Azai said before Rabbi Akibah, in the 
name of Rabbi Joshua, " as the animal walked, 11 so it was offered." 

7 That [lot] which we have explained. 

8 Four times a day they were assembled to cast the lot. They did not cast 
the lots for all at one assembly, in order to make it heard four times that there 
were many people in the court. And this was for the honour of the king, as is 
said (Psalm It, 14), " we walked into the house of God, K>J"Q, in tumult " [the 
tumult of a large assembly]. 

9 Who should slay the daily sacrifice, who should sprinkle the blood, &c. 
All these offices were decided by one lot. He at whom the number terminated 
(as we have explained) obtained the right, and sprinkled the blood upon the 
altar after he had received it in the vessel for the purpose, for he who sprinkled 
the blood received the blood. The next priest to him killed the sacrifice, and 
this, notwithstanding that the slaying preceded the receiving of the blood, 
because the office of sprinkling was higher than that of slaying, for the slaying 
was lawful if done by a stranger, which was not the case with the sprinkling. 
For from the receiving of the blood and afterwards it is commanded that all the 
service be performed by priests. And hence he to whom the first lot fell 
obtained the office of sprinkling, and the next to him that of slaying, and the 
next to him who slew the lamb cleansed the altar from the ashes, and the next to 
him who cleansed the altar from the ashes, removed the ashes from the candle- 
stick, and so with all. 

10 The head and right [hind] leg by the first priest ; the two fore-legs by 
the second ; the end of the spine (which is the tail) and the left [hind] leg by 
the third ; the breast (that is the fat of the breast, the part looking towards the 
ground, which they divided on either side without the ends of the ribs) and the 
throat (the place where animals chew the cud, that is the neck, and joined to it 
the windpipe, with the liver and the heart) , the breast and the throat by the 
fourth priest; and the two sides by the fifth priest ; and the inwards by the 
sixth ; and the fine flour, a tenth deal for the meat and drink-offering of the 
continual sacrifice (Exod. xxix, 40) by the seventh ; and the pancakes, a half tenth 
deal for the meat-offering of tin; high priest, which he offered every day with the 
daily sacrifices, as is said (Levit. vi, 20) , " half of it in the morning, and half thereof 
at night," by the eighth ; and the wine, three logs for the drink-offering of the 
daily sacrifice, by the ninth. Thirteen priests obtained by this lot thirteen priestly 
functions, numbered to them according to the order stated in the Mishna. 

11 As it walked during its life the continual sacrifice was offered. The first 
doctor thought the good and comely parts were offered first, and Ben 'Azai 
thought it was offered as it walked ; the head and the hind-leg, the breast and 
the throat, and the two fore-legs, and the two sides, the end of the spine and the 
(other) hinddeg. The decision was not according to Ben 'Azai. 



202 YOMA, OR THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 

4. The third lot was " those who have never offered the incense, come 
and cast lots." 12 And the fourth was for those who had, and those who 
had not before performed the function 13 to decide who should take up the 
pieces of the sacrifice from the incline to the altar. 14 

5. The continual sacrifice was offered 13 by nine priests, by ten, by eleven, 
by twelve, no less and no more. How 1 The lamb itself by nine. 16 At the 
Feast of Tabernacles, 17 the vessel of water was brought by the hand of one, 
making ten. In the evening 18 by eleven ; the lamb itself by nine, and two 
with two pieces of wood in their hands. On a Sabbath by eleven ; the lamb 
itself by nine ; and two with two vessels of frankincense for the shew- 
bread in their hands. And on a Sabbath which occurred in the middle of 
the Feast of Tabernacles, a vessel of water, by the hand of one. 

6. A ram was offered by eleven priests ; the flesh by five, 19 the inwards, 
and the flour'-' and the wine by two and two. 

7. A young bullock was offered by twenty-four priests. The head and 
the leg : the head by one, and the leg by two. The end of the spine and 
the leg : the end of the spine by two, and the leg by two. The breast and 
the throat : the breast by one, and the throat by three. The two fore-legs 
by two. The two sides by two. The inwards, the fine flour, and the 

12 Thus they cried out in the court. That is to say, he who has never yet 
obtained the office of offering the incense come and cast lots. And they did not 
allow one who had once obtained that office to repeat it, because it made rich, 
for" it is written (Deut. xxxiii, 10, 11), "they shall put incense before thee" 
. . . . " bless, Lord, his substance," and because every priest who offered 
incense became rich and was blessed thereby, therefore they did not allow any 
one to do it a second time, in order thai all might become rich and be blessed 
by it, 

13 " New and old." He who had obtained this lot on other occasions, and he 
who had never obtained it, come and cast lots. 

14 When they took the pieces from the slaying place they did not take them 
to the altar, but put them on the middle of the incline below on the east, and 
cast another lot who should take them up from the place where they had been 
placed on the incline to the altar ; and they did so because " in the multitude of 
people is the king's honour" [Prov. xiv, 28]. 

15 jr e reckons from the time of taking the pieces of the sacrifice and onward. 

16 Six for the pieces and the inwards, as we have said above, and one for the 
flour, one for the pancakes, and one for the wine. 

17 Because two drink-offerings were required, one of wine and one of water. 
The vessel of water was brought by the hand of a priest. 

18 The daily evening sacrifice. Two carried in their hands two pieces of wood 
to add to the wood of the pile, for it is written (Levit. i, 7), "and they shall lay 
the wood in order upon the fire." This does not refer to the morning sacrifice, 
for it is written in Levit, vi, 12, "and the priests shall burn wood on it every 
morning," which teaches that it refers to the evening sacrifice when two pieces 
of wood were added. 

19 As the pieces of a lamb, so the pieces of a ram. 

20 Two tenth deals were offered by two priests. 



YOMA, OR THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 203 

wine, by three and three. To what do these words apply ? 21 To offerings 
of the congregation. But an offering of an individual if he wished to 
offer it 22 himself, he might offer it. The skinning and eating up 23 of both 
the one and the other were alike. 



CHAPTER III. 

1. The prefect 1 said to them "go out and see 2 whether the time for 
slaying 3 the sacrifice has arrived." If it had arrived, the priest who went out 
to see, said " it lightens." 4 Matathiah ben Samuel said " it is becoming 
light along the whole east." 5 "As far as Hebron ?" G and he said "yes." 

2. And why did they find this necessary ? Because it once happened 
that the light of the moon ascended, and they thought it was daybreak, 7 
and slew the sacrifice and took it out to the place of burning. They 
conducted the high priest down to the bathing room. 8 This was a general 
rule in the Sanctuary : whoever " covered his feet " 9 was required to bathe 
his whole body afterwards, and whoever made water, was required to 
wash [lit. sanctify] his hands and his feet. 

3. No man might enter the court for the service 10 even though clean, 

21 In reference to all these priests for one benst, and in reference to the lot. 

22 One priest might offer the whole and without casting a lot. 

23 The skinning and cutting up of the bullock offered by an individual, and 
that offered on behalf of the congregation were alike [pC, equal] in that both 
were lawful by a stranger, and did not require a priest. 

1 He was the sagan (or vicar of the high priest) . 

2 To a high place which they had in the Sanctuary. 

3 Because it was unlawful to slay the sacrifice by night, as it is said (Levit. 
xix, 6), " on the day ye offer it." 

4 It is becoming light and the morning breaks. 

5 This was after the lightening spoke of by the first doctor. The halachah 
was according to Matathiah ben Samuel. 

6 Those standing below asked him whether the light reached to Hebron, and 
lie replied yes. They mentioned Hebron in order to call to mind the merits of 
the fathers. 

" This is not said to have been on the day of atonement, for it is not possible 
for the light of the moon to ascend near the morning on the day of atonement, 
because that is at the third part of the month, but at the end of one of the 
months, when the moon rose near the rising of the morning, this mistake 
occurred ; and they were anxious lest on the day of atonement another mistake 
of the like kind might happen, and therefore considered all this necessary. 

8 This [that is said about the moon] is parenthetical, and now [the Mishna] 
returns to what we are taught above, " as far as Hebron ? " and he said " Yes." 
And after that the priest who went out to look said " yes," they conducted the 
high priest down to the bathing-room, because he was required to bathe before 
he slew the continual sacrifice. 

9 An euphemism for the excrementa majora seu crassa. 

10 Or for any other purpose. 



204 YO.MA, OK THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 

until he had bathed. 11 On this day the high priest underwent in it five 
immersions and ten washings [lit. sanctifying], and was sanctified, and all 
of them were in the holy part of the Temple upon the house Parvah, 1 -' 
except this one only. 13 

4. They spread a linen cloth 14 between him and the people. He 
stripped, descended and immersed himself ; came up and wiped himself. 15 
They brought to him golden garments. He dressed and sanctified his 
hands and his feet. 16 They brought to him the lamb for the sacrifice, 
which he partly slaughtered, 17 and another 18 pn'es? completed the slaughter- 
ing for him. 19 He received the blood and sprinkled it. He went in to 
offer the morning incense, and to dress the lamps, and to offer the head 
and the pieces, and the pancakes, and the wine. 

5. The incense of the morning was offered between the sprinkling of 
the blood, and the offering of the pieces of the sacrifice ;-° that of the evening 
between the offering of the pieces of the sacrifice, and the pouring out of the 

11 The matter is a fortiori ; for as the high priest changing from holy to holy, 
from service without [the Temple itself] to service -within, and from service within 
to service without, was obliged to bathe between one service and another, much 
more as he now came from his house, which was profane, to the holy place, he 
was obliged to bathe. 

12 Upon the chamber of the house Parvah. 

13 The first, which was in the profane part of the temple, over the water gate 
beside his chamber. 

14 To keep in mind that the service of the day was performed in linen 
garments, because the high priest was accustomed to serve all the year in golden 
garments. 

1 ' Wiped clean. 

16 At the laver, because at every change of the garments of the day it was 
necessary to sanctify at taking them off, and again at putting them on, and this 
first bathing, which was on taking off the profane garments, did not require 
sanctifying of the hands and feet at the taking off. 

17 He cut the greater part of the two " signs " [the gullet and windpipe], which 
alone makes the slaughtering lawful. 

18 Another priest completed the slaughtering, because the receiving of the blood 
was not lawful except by the high priest, and it was necessary to hasten to receive 
it. 

19 T h'J' " on l" s account," or, perhaps, by the hand of another near to 
him, as in Nehemiah iii, 8, p^iin IT b]}> " ncxt uuto mui re P a ' r ed," &c. 

20 Not exactly so. For we are taught above [i, 2] " he received the blood and 
sprinkled it, and entered to offer the incense, and to dress the lamps, and to offer 
Ihe head and the pieces," so that the incense was offered between the sprinkling 
of the blood and the dressing of the lamps, and not between the sprinkling of the 
blood and the offering of the pieces of the sacrifice. But the doctor is not now- 
speaking of the order of the offerings, that this one was after that, and so on, but 
lie only desires to say that the sprinkling of the blood and the offering of the 
pieces' did not immediately follow the one after the other, for the incense came 
between them, and also the dressing of the lamps was between tliem, after the 
incense, and before the offering of the pieces. 



YOMA, OR THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 205 

drink-offerings. If the high priest was old or weak, 21 they prepared for 
him hot water, 22 and put it 2i into the cold water, in order to take away 24 its 
coldness. 

6. They led him to the house of Parvah, 25 which was in the holy part 
of the Temple, 26 and spread a linen cloth between him and the people. He 
sanctified [washed] his hands and his feet, and stripped. Rabbi Meyer 
said he first stripped, and then sanctified his hands and his feet. 27 He went 
down into the bath and immersed himself, came up, and wiped. They 
brought to him white garments, 28 he dressed and sanctified his hands and 
his feet. 

7. In the morning he put on garments of Pelusium 29 manufacture, of 
the value of twelve manim, and in the evening Indian 30 garments, of the 
value of eight hundred zuzim. The words of Rabbi Meyer. And the 
wise men said " in the morning he put on garments worth eighteen manim, 
and in the evening 31 worth twelve manim ; 32 the whole of these thirty manim 
were the property of the community, and if he wished to add to them, he 
added from those belonging to himself. 33 

8. He came now to his bullock ; and his bullock stood between 
the porch and the altar, 31 its head to the south and its face to the 

21 So that his body was cold and frigid. 

22 On the eve of the day of atonement. 

23 On the day of atonement they put it into the pit built in his bathing-room. 

24 To take away its coldness somewhat. ^Snt^ is like JCWO pVSD, "they 
change or lose their taste " [Pesachim 41 a]. 

25 A certain magician, whose name was Parvah, built it, and it was called after 
his name. 

26 Because this second immersion, with all the other immersions, except the first, 
must be in a holy place, as it is written (Levit. xvi, 24), " and he shall wash his 
flesh with water in the holy place." 

27 R. Meyer said, he stripped first and afterwards sanctified. The decision was 
not according to Rabbi Meyer. 

28 The shirt, the breeches, the girdle, and the turban, which are mentioned in 
Leviticus xvi, 4, for all the serviced which were within were performed in them, 
but the services which were without (as the continual sacrifices and the additional 
sacrifices) were in golden garments, in which he ministered the whole year. And 
between each change of garments immersion and two sanctifyings of the bauds 
and feet at the laver were required. 

29 Fine and beautiful linen brought from the laud of Ramses. In the Targum 
Yerushalmy Ramses is Pelusa [Pelusium]. 

30 From the land Hodo [India]. 

31 Those which he put on to bring out the kaf and the censer. 

32 He here repeats the aggregate value, and teaches us to understand that 
thirty manim were the sum of the whole; to tell thee that it was of no conse- 
quence if he diminished from those of the morning, and added to those of the 
evening [provided the whole was thirty manim]. 

33 Only he must give those added as a gift to the Sanctuary. 

34 By law all the northern part of the court was fit for the bullock to stand in 
for it was all " before the Lord." And they did not place the bullock between 

Q 



206 yoma, on the day of atonement. 

west. 35 And the priest stood on the east, with his face to the west, 3(i and 
laid his two hands upon it and confessed. And thus he said : O God ! 
I have done wrong, I have transgressed, T have sinned before Thee, I 
and my house. Forgive now, O God, the wrong and the transgression 
and the sins which I have done, and transgressed and sinned before Thee, 
I and my house, according as it is written in the law of Moses, thy servant 
(Levit. xvi, 30), "for on that day shall the priest made an atonement for 
you," &c, and they repeated after him, " blessed be the glorious Name of 
His kingdom for ever and ever." 

9. He now came to the east of the court, 37 to the north of the altar, 
the sagan being on his right hand and the chief of the house of the 
f ithers on his left. And two goats were there, also a box, 38 in which were 
two lots of boxwood ; 39 Ben Gamla 40 made them of gold, and they were 
accustomed to commemorate him with praise. 

10. Ben Katin" made twelve cocks 42 to the laver, there having before 
been only two, iind also he made a machine 43 for the laver, that its water 
might not become defiled by remaining all night. Monbaz, the king, 
made all the handles of the vessels of the day of atonement of gold. 
Helena, his mother,, made a golden lantern 44 for the door of the Temple, also 
she made a golden tablet upon which was written the section of the law 

t'ie porch and the altar near to the Temple, but on account of the weakness of the 
high priest, that he should not be oppressed by the burden of carrying the vessel 
for sprinkling the blood to a distance. 

35 It was ordained by the law that its head should be towards the temple, 
which was on the west, and its hinder part towards the altar ; but lest it should 
drop its dung, and because it was a shame that its hinder part, "'JTin JVQ, should 
look to the side of the altar, its head was put towards the south and its tail 
towards the north, which was very suitable, and the middle of its borty between 
he porch and the altar, and its head was turned until its face was towards the 
west. 

38 And his back to the east. 

i7 Because they did not take the goats in to between the porch and the altar 
when it was wished to put the lots upon them, but they remained in the court 
till the time of slaying. 

38 A perforated vessel of wood. 

yj Buso [buxus] in Latin, a kind of wood. This is only a supposition. 

40 Joshua ben Gamla, when he was chosen to be high priest, made them of 
gold. 

41 He was a high priest. 

42 In order that the twelve priests to whom the lots had fallen to perform the 
continual sacrifice of the morning might sanctify all at one time, and notwith- 
standing that there were thirteen priests engaged in this service, as we have taid 
in Chapter II, no cock was made for the slayer of the sacrifice, because the slaying 
was lawful by a stranger. 

4:t A wheel to immerse it in the cistern [or well] that its waters might bo 
mingled in the cistern and not become defiled by remaining all night [in a sacred 
veisel |. 

44 Or candlestick [candelabrum^. 



YOMA, OR THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 207 

referring to a suspected wife 15 [Numbers v, 12]. To the doors of Nicanor 40 
there happened miracles. 47 And him they commemorated with praise. 

11. And these were commemorated with shame : the family of Garmu, 
who were unwilling to teach the way of making the shewbread ; 48 the 
family of Abtinas, who were unwilling to teach the manner of making 
the incense ; 49 Hagros ben Levi, who knew a portion of song 50 and would 
not teach it ; Ben Kamtsar who was unwilling to teach his method of 
writing. 51 In reference to the former, 52 it was said "the memory of the 
just is blessed," and in reference to the latter 53 '" the name of the wicked 
shall rot." 

45 That it might not be necessary to bring [the roll of] the law, to write from 
it the section referring to a suspected wife. 

46 The name of a man. 

47 He went to Alexandria of Egypt to bring the doors. On his return there 
arose a great storm at sea, which threatened to sink them. They took one of the 
doors and threw it into the sea, in order to lighten the ship, and when they 
sought to throw overboard the other, he said to them, "throw me with it," and 
immediately the sea ceased its raging. When they arrived at the portofAcoa 
the door which had been thrown overboard came out from under the side of the 
ship. 

4S The other workmen did not know how to take it from the oven without 
breaking it, because it was made like a kind of open box. 

49 They knew a certain herb whose name was " the ascending of smoke," and 
when they mixed it with the aromatics of which the incense was composed, the 
smoke of the incense formed a column and ascended in the form of a staff 
without bending to one side or the other. 

5n An agreeable modulation of the voice. 

51 He bound four pens to four of his fingers, and wrote the nonien ieiragram- 
meton as if it were of one letter. 

s2 Ben Ganda, Ben Katin, Monbaz, and Helena his mother, and Nicanor. 

53 The family of Garmu, and the family of Abtinas, Hagros ben Levi, and Ben 
Kamtsar. And although the family of Garmu and the family of Abtinas explained 
1 heir words, "that they did not wish to teach," to mean that they would not, 
teach a person who was not honest and might goandpractise idolatry thereby ; 
the wise men did not accept their words. 



208 THE CITY OF DAVID. 

THE CITY OF DAVID. 
{Continued.) 

I. Zion, South and not West of the Temple. 

In his Handbook Captain Conder places "Acra or Millo" and the "Tomb 
of David " further west than Sir Charles "Warren's site, and (p. 333) has 
" little hesitation in identifying that hill (Acra) with the knoll of the 
present Sepulchre Church." He concludes that the term, the City of 
David, was applied to this part because (as he urges) Millo was in the 
City of David, and Millo is rendered by A era in the LXX, and next 
because Josephus (p. 338) seems by Millo to understand the Lower City 
("Ant.," VII, iii, 2), which he identifies with Acra ("Wars," V, vi, 1) ; 
and, as already stated, Captain Conder takes Josephus to place his Acra 
west of the Temple. It will be seen that the argument is this : Where 
Acra was, there was also the City of David. But it has been proved 
above that Acra was south, not west, of the Temple. Therefore the City 
of David was not on Captain Conder's site, near the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre. 

Another point may be noticed. As Captain Conder is ready to 
identify the Acra of the LXX with the Acra of Josephus, and the Lower 
City in the " Antiquities " with the Acra in the " Wars," he cannot fairly 
refuse to identify the Lower City and the Acra of the " Antiquities " with 
the Lower City and Acra of the "Wars," while the expression in "Ant.," 
XII, v, 4, he "built the Acra in the Lower City," shows that sometimes 
the Acra only means a part of the latter. Now in " Ant.," VII, iii, 1, 
Josephus says that David tool- first the lower city and next the Acra, and so 
captured the whole of Jerusalem. Now it is obvious that the Upper 
City on the south-western hill could not be either the Lower City or the 
Acra within it. Therefore, according to the " Antiquities," the Upper 
City was not the City of David. 

Accordingly, when Captain Conder (" Handbook," 336) wants to show 
that the Upper City was Zion, or the City of David, he appeals to 
; Wars," V, iv, 1, where Josephus says that the Upper City was called 
rf>pnvpiov (the citadel) by David, evidently as equivalent to "the fort" 
(Heb. Metzad) of Zion, which was afterwards called the City of David 
(2 Sam. v, 7). 

Josephus wrote the "Antiquities" after the "Wars," and was of 
course at liberty to correct his own mistakes as far as he could. Since 
then, in his later and fuller account, Josephus speaks of David taking 
the Lower City and the Acra, and after the expulsion of the Jebusites 
from the Acra, of his rebuilding Jerusalem and calling it the City of 
David, it is obvious that the casual remark in the " Wars " is set aside 
as worthless by Josephus himself. After this exposure I hope no one will 
maintain that the abandoned statement of "Wars," V, iv, 1, proves that 
the Upper City was ever the stronghold of Zion, or the site of the City of 
J 'avid. For myself I decline to depend on the conjecture in the "Wars" 



THE CITY OF DAVID. 200 

or the paraphrase in the "Antiquities," as one can go directly to 2 Sam. v, 
where the Biblical account says nothing whatever about an Upper or 
Lower City, but simply mentions the fort of Zion. 

Thrupp (Jerusalem, 56) thinks that Acra in " Ant.," VII, iii, 1, may 
and does mean the Upper City because (1) the Acra in that passage 
is "not to be identified with the Lower City, the Acra of later times," and 
(2) because Josephus in " Ant.," XIT, x, 4, speaks of an Acra which 
Thrupp takes to have been in the Upper City. 

The answer to (1) is, that the later Acra fas already pointed out) some- 
times means only a part of the Lower City, and therefore, in "Ant.," VII, 
both the Acra and Lower City, without being identical, may be named, 
just as both are mentioned in " Ant.," XII, v, 4 ; and to (2) that the 
passage in Josephus is corrupt, and that a reference to the parallel account 
in 1 Mace, vii, 32, shows that the Acra named was not in the Upper 
City, but was the one commonly so called. 

Further, in attempting to prove that the Acra of Josephus was west of 
the Temple, Captain Conder shows but little respect for the statements of 
his great authority. 

In " "Wars," V, iv, 1, 2, Josephus says, " Over against this (Acra) there 
was a third hill (obviously the Temple hill), but naturally lower than Acra, 
and formerly parted from it by another broad valley. . . . The 
Hasmoneans filled up the valley, wishing to join the City to the Temple ; 
and they levelled the summit of Acra and reduced its elevation in order 
that the Temple might be seen above it in this direction, ... a 
fourth hill which is called Bezetha (i.e., the new city)." 

Compare with this Captain Conder's statements. He says (" Handbook," 
332, 3) the " third hill was covered by the new city," (!) or Bezetha. The 
third hill (Bezetha !) was separated from Acra by a deep valley afterwards 
filled up by the Hasmoneans. But if they had wished to join the city 
(Acra) to the Temple, why should they have filled up the valley between 
Acra and a different hill, Bezetha, north of the Temple (333) ? And, lastly, 
Captain Conder tells us that his Acra (contrary to the statement of 
Josephus) is still above (instead of lower than) the highest point on the 
Temple ridge. 

Sir Chai'les Warren's site at any rate satisfies this requirement, and so, 
of course, does the true site for Acra south of the Temple. 

It is one thing for Josephus to have made a mistake about a height 
being lowered and a valley filled up two hundred years before his day, 
when in his time neither existed to be seen ; and quite a different thing 
for him not to have known which of two hills was the higher, when he 
had probably observed both of them daily during the siege. It seems to 
me, however, that Josephus may have meant that the Upper City was 
joined to the Temple in the line of Wilson's Arch. 

Having thus cleared of all obstructions the ground north of the Upper 
City, the way is now open for me to attack the traditional site. 



210 THE CITY OF DAVID. 

II. ZlON NOT ON THE SOUTH-WESTERN HlLL. 

The defenders of the Upper City are many and mighty. They are 
further agreed that their site is the true one, but hopelessly at variance as 
to the way of proving it. Nehemiah ii, iii, and xii is to them a crucial 
test. 

One (Mr. Tenz) thinks that the words {supra 122) " from the dung gate 
to the fountain gate " give an order from east to west ; another (Captain 
Conder) from west to east ; another changes his mind within ten pages 
(" Murray's Handbook," 172, 181) ; another protests against thinking about 
it at all. He writes to me : "I won't consider it any longer, as I nearly 
went off my head a dozen years ago over it. Of all the subjects I know, 
there is none more bewildering. I cannot understand how Sion can be 
anywhere but on the western (i.e., S.W.) hill, and yet your arguments are 
very strong." 

Mr. Tenz, the constructor of a most interesting model of Jerusalem, 
objects to the Ophel site on page 121 above, and thus defends the 
traditional one : — 

1. He both says he " may justify the remarks made by Captain 
Conder against the Ophel site " (Quarterly Statement, 1883, p. 194), and adds 
that Josephus " is yet the most reliable authority." Captain Conder 
there asks, " If David and Solomon did not build a wall round the Upper 
City, why does Josephus say ('Wars,' V. iv, 1) that the old wall built by 
David and Solomon began on the north at Hippicus ? Is this another false 
statement, or is Hippicus on the Temple spur, and is the Upper City post 
Herodian. And if they did, why should the 'City of David ' be applied 
to a hill which was only walled in by later kings ?" I have no objection 
to the idea that David and Solomon had to do with the wall here spoken 
of. I would, however, point out that while Captain Conder says Ophel 
" was only walled in by the later kings," Josephus himself in this passage 
says that the old wall built by David and Solomon and the later kings 
not only began at Hippicus, but also " had a bend above Siloam, reached to 
Solomon's pool and Ophlas, and ended at the eastern cloister of the Temple." 
Thus, according to Josephus, David and Solomon had as much to do with 
the wall in Ophel as that on the hill of the Upper City, and so Captain 
Conder's notion about the later kings is wrong. Surely Mr. Tenz, as an 
admirer of Josephus, ought to have justified him and me and not deserted 
both of us for Captain Conder. 

2. Next, he thinks that the towers, bulwarks, palaces in Psalms xlviii 
were too many to have been on Ophel, and that therefore Zion must 
mean the Upper City. The question, however, is not what Zion or 
Mount Zion may mean in the Psalms (where they sometimes seem to be 
equivalent to Jerusalem), but what in historical passages is meant by Zion 
and the City of David. (Quarterly Statement, 1881, p. 94.) 

3. He thinks the Upper City must have been Zion, because the valley 
of Hinnom went up <>n the south side of it. I have shown, however, that 
the Tyropceon was the valley of Hinnom, and as it is not south of the 



THE CITY OF DAVID. 211 

Cpper City, this very argument shows that the Upper City was not the 
stronghold of Jebus, i.e., Zion. 

4. He thinks Neheruiah went out near the Virgin's Fount, by the 
valley (ge) gate leading to'the brook (nachal) Kidron, and that when he 
went up by the brook {nachal), he went up his (Mr. Tenz's) valley (ge) of 
Hinnom. Here once more ge and nachal (see 101 supra) are confused, 
ar.d so a hopeless chaos ensues, as will be seen in the next point. 

| 5. By placing the valley' gate near the Virgin's Fount, and David's 
tomb at or near the present traditional site, it will be seen on reference to 
Nehemiah iii, and xii, 31 -40, that Mr. Tenz sends one procession almost 
round Jerusalem, first south, then west, next north, afterwards east, and 
finally" south, until Ophel and the Horse Gate are passed in the wrong 
order, a distance of about 10,000 feet, and the other party only march a 
ridiculously short distance, about 500 feet, and into this short distance he 
has further to cram the sheep gate, the fish gate, the old gate, the 
Ephraim gate, and the valley gate — five gates in about five hundred feet, 
which is of course absurd, but inevitable with his theory. 

The argument from military considerations, too hastily supposed to 
show that Zion was the Upper City, really points to a contrary conclusion. 

It is said that as the south-western hill was by nature the strongest 
position, it must have been chosen for the site of the fort of Zion. But 
when Antiochus Epiphanes had the whole of Jerusalem in his possession, 
fortifying the Upper City is just what he did not do. He deliberately 
(1 Mace, i, 33) placed his garrison in the City of David, in the Acra, in 
the Lower City, where it held its own for twenty-six years, and was at 
last only reduced by famine. It is clear that what was taken to be the 
best position by Antiochus might well have been chosen by others before 
him. 

I have shown above how Captain Conder's defence of the Upper City 
fails, but I must also show how his attack on my Ophel site ends in 
smoke. He does not admit with Sir Charles "Warren that Nehemiah 
actually places the stairs of the City of David, and the Sepulchres of 
David, and the House of David, on Ophel, and so is put to great straits in 
order to avoid this concession. 

(a) He draws (" Handbook," p. 345) the stairs either on the side of the 
Upper City or up the Tyropceon, though the natural course for the 
procession at the dedication of the wall would be as at other points, along 
the wall, which confessedly was on Ophel. 

(b) He admits that the sepulchres of David are placed by Nehemiah 
on Ophel, but pleads that the expression means the sepulchres of (some of) 
the sons (or descendants) of David who were not buried in the City of 
David. 

(c) He also admits that " the House of David" is placed by Nehemiah 
(xii, 37) on Ophel, but contends that the expression means the sepulchre, 
&c, as in (6). 

This is certainly using the Incus a non lucendo principle with a 



212 THE DEAD SEA. 

vengeance. But a new idea ! Why not argue that the tomb was Saul's 
and that " the House of David" simply means " the tomb of the father-in- 
law (!) of David. For was not Said buried in Zelah ] and by some, I 
believe, "Zelah, Eleph" has been connected {Quarterly Statement, 1881, 
p. 147) with the eastern hill at Jerusalem. 

I now claim to have disposed of the myth that the Upper City was 
Zion. Jerome seems to have been the publisher of this greatest work of 
fiction ever produced, for it has had a run of fifteen centuries, and is 
still in demand. It has not only imposed too long on unsuspicious folk, 
like myself, of cramped imagination, but it has also bewitched the writer 
of an impossible story whom I used to think too shrewd ever to mistake 
such fiction for fact. A few perhaps will be thankful for the dispelling 
of this patriotic concoction ; most, however, will probably choose to 
believe an error rather than weary themselves in investigating the truth. 

If any one wishes to defend either of the pseudo-Zions that I claim to 
have annihilated, let him do so. 

" Yive, vale. Si quid novisti rectius istis 
Candidas imperii ; si uon his utere mecum." 

W. F. Birch. 



THE DEAD SEA. 
Some observations which seemed to point to one conclusion claiming my 
interest in the autumn of 1854, when I was twice at the southern end of 
the Dead Sea for the purposes of my Art, have since remained in my 
mind as indications of peculiar features in its geological formation, and as 
I have never met with references to them, I will now beg your permission 
to invite the attention of Mr. Hull, or of any future investigator of the 
district in order to have the truth on the point raised satisfactorily 
explained. 

I will tell the facts as they came to my notice. My first journey to 
the district was made from Jerusalem with Mr. W. Beamont, of 
Warrington, who wrote a very interesting diary of his visit to the Holy 
Land, entitled "Journey in the East." A third friend was his son, the 
Bev. W. J. Beamont, of Trinity College, Cambridge, since deceased. We 
arrived and pitched our tent on the plain amid the trees, which, as the 
lake widens two miles or so northward of Usdurn, are thick and about 
20 feet or more in height. As there was still enough daylight re- 
maining, we set off to the border of the sea for a bathe. On approaching 
the coast it was noticeable that the trees on the north-eastern curve of 
the bay stood closer to the margin of the water than they could have been 
•when first they emerged from the soil, and that into the water itself the 
whole of the once living forest of tamarisks, junipers, acacias, &c, 
descended, leafless, dead, and stark. But although the engulf men t had 



THE DEAD SEA. 213 

been gradual, and probably the work of some seasons, the trees furthest 
away from the shore were still with branches unbroken, and even with 
stems and upper twigs intact until the depth hid them. It was a sight 
with immediate caution to the swimmer, and we took the hint to go two 
or three hundred yards more to the north. None of us had bathed before 
in the waters. 

I think we were all good swimmers, but when I dashed in and threw 
myself forward to get out of my depth, there was enough to do without 
observing my friends. The unusual degree of buoyancy in the briny 
liquid threw me off my balance, the salt stung my eyes, ears, and every 
abrasion on my skin, and I could scarcely tell in what direction I was 
striking out until I found myself carried by a current into a mass of stiff 
boughs of trees far off from and still deeper engulfed than those visible 
from the land. 

Making allowance for decrease of height from the carrying away by 
the waters of the upper twigs, the depth here to the bottom on which the 
trees stood must have been about 25 feet. The land had therefore sunk 
thus much since the trees were nourishing. So far, the fact was not for 
the neighbourhood a startling one. It was an encroachment of the sea on 
the land by the sinking of the latter. 

Two months later I came to the same neighbourhood again to paint 
at the spot chosen for my landscajje, which was two miles more to the 
south than the point where we had bathed. This time, for considerations 
of health, and being without friends with independent interests, I 
encamped under the castle built on the high crag between the divided 
torrent bed in the Wady Zuarahtahta. Before sunrise each morning I 
started with one Arab, Suleiman, to cross the plain to the shore of the 
narrowest part of the sea. It was in a line drawn from the mouth of the 
wady to the north-eastern base of Usdvim, only deflected slightly at this 
spot to escape the irregularities near the foot of the mount as it passed on 
somewhat more southwardly to the margin of the lake. 

Varying our path to some degree one morning, my attention, about 
midway between the wady and the mount, was arrested by a circular 
opening in the earth, 7 or 8 feet in diameter. It was clearly not a well, 
its position forbade such idea ; but what would in any case have made 
this evident was that the aperture was not vertical, but oblique, sloping 
from north-west to south-east. The perforation was so clearly made that 
the layers of the alluvial soil, some of larger and some of smaller pebbles, 
were clearly defined in the sectional surface of the circumference. I 
asked Suleiman what this aperture was. He answered unhesitatingly that 
it had been caused by a falling star, and after the raw suspicion that he 
spoke thus with the ordinary love of the marvellous for matters beyond 
Arab ken, I saw that no other theory could amount for the conditions 
of the case. Time was too precious for me then to linger long, but on 
closer scrutiny on that occasion, and on subsequent mornings, I observed 
that the perforated earth was only a crust of upheaved sand of about 
10 feet or so in thickness, and that below in all directions was a hollow 



214 THE DEAD SEA. 

cave about 20 feet in depth without water at the bottom, where I could 
see the debris of the pierced alluvial crust. Unfortunately, my task was 
too difficult a one to allow me to spare the time for descending into the 
pit, and thus I could not investigate it except from above ; but what I 
saw of the cavity suggested that the whole plain, having been formed by 
alluvial washings, had been raised from the bed below by volcanic force ; 
that it remained thus while underwood and trees grew upon it ; that it 
probably was impervious to the water of the Salt Sea, but that the weight 
of this was gradually pressing it with its growth down, as I had found 
was already done at the spot where my friends and I bathed two miles or 
so further north. 

When I left the neighbourhood I had the intention of returning there 
to paint more of the extraordinary and grand scenery of the Dead Sea, 
but the Art world are slow to exhibit interest in what is not " stale as 
chimes to dwellers in the market place," and therefore I have never since 
found myself near enough to the beach of Usdum to make further 
investigations into the facts given above. It will be a great satisfaction 
to me now if some one competent to determine their true significance and 
value will direct his attention to them. 

London, dime 1st, 1885. 

Holman Hunt. 



Quarterly Statement, October, 1885.] 

THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



The packet of papers and plans mentioned in the July Quarterly Statement 
as baring been received from Herr Schumacher has been placed in the hands of 
the printers and engravers. The text has been carefully revised by Mr. Guy 
Le Strange, not in order to add anything to it or to subtract anything, but in 
order to anglicise a manuscript written in German-English. The volume is not 
yet quite ready, but may be expected in a few days. One copy will be forwarded 
to every subscriber who has already signified, or who will on the receipt of this 
Quarterly Statement signify his desire to possess it. It will be sent, post free, 
in order of application. A closer examination of Herr Schumacher's map and 
of his manuscript, together with an urgent request from the author, has made 
it necessary to change the title originally proposed. It will not be called " The 
Land of Jaxdan," because that title, it is now perceived, would convey an incorrect 
impression of its contents, but "Across the Jordan," with a sub-title explaining 
that it is a record of exploration in parts of the Hauran and the Jaulan. 



As regards the map, it should be mentioned that Herr Schumacher executed 
at the same time another survey of a district of equal extent to that done for us. 
This map, lying north of our portion, he has sent to the German Society for the 
Exploration of Palestine. 



These explorations were made possible to Herr Schumacher by a permission 
to survey for a proposed railway, the observations, notes, drawings, and memoirs 
being executed during the course of his work. The triangulation has been 
found by Mr. Armstrong to fit very well with that of our own Surveys, and 
there has been no difficulty in laying down the map upon our sheets. A reduced 
map will be issued with the volume. The number of plans and drawings which 
illustrate the volume amount to nearly a hundred and fifty. With the volume 
will be reprinted Mr. Oliphant's and Mr. Guy Le Strange's papers on the 
country east of Jordan. 



The Committee earnestly desire to draw attention to the very important 
Circular which has just been prepared and issued. It will be perceived that an 
opportunity is here presented for doing on a large and exhaustive scale what has 
hitherto hardly been attempted at all, namely, the collection of modern Syrian 
customs, usages, traditions, languages, legends, and manners. It is an inquiry 

R 



216 NOTES AND NEWS. 

which will without clouht prove fruitful in Biblical illustration ; the value of 
the results will depend entirely on the character of the question proposed ; and 
it is most earnestly hoped that every one interested in the subject, and able to 
assist, will help the Committee to make this inquiry thoroughly comprehensive, 
and, with that view, will forward suggestions for questions. These should embrace 
everything, however apparently trivial, which concerns daily life, religion, tradition, 
arts, industries, and customs. A sub-committee will receive and arrange them 
under their various headings, and a beginning will be made as soon as possible. 
The results, if the Committee receive the support which they anticipate in this 
most important undertaking, should be to pour light upon many points which 
are at present obscure. Th expense of the work will not, it is anticipated, be 
very great. On this branch of inquiry, as of the Survey, it may be most truly 
said that the old things are fast passing away, and that if they are not very soon 
collected and published they may be forgotten and hopelessly lost. The following 
is the Circular : — 



" The Committee have long had under consideration the collection of all that 
has to do with the manners and customs of the present inhabitants of Palestine 
and other parts of Syria. Attempts have been made from time to time, by 
residents of the country, to do this, especially by M. Clermont-Ganneau, the 
Rev. A. Klein, the Eev. James Niel, Mrs. Finn, Miss Rogers, and the officers of 
the Survey. These attempts have been necessarily incomplete, and have done 
little more than indicate the extent and depth of the treasures which lie hidden 
among the peasantry of these lands. 

" Before a serious attempt could be made to carry out this inquiry successfully, 
it was necessary first to find an organised machinery of agents, who should be 
directed by some competent persons in the country, under the Committee at 
home. It was next necessary that these agents should speak the language of 
the natives perfectly, so as to note differences and peculiarities of idiom ; that 
they shoxdd be able to command their confidence, so that the women would 
converse with them and answer their questions ; and that they should be persons 
of trained intelligence, who would know the questions that should be asked and 
the reasons for asking them. 

" This machinery, with a large body of agents highly educated and intelligent, 
has now been placed at the disposition of the Committee. 

" It remains, therefore, to draw up questions which these agents will be invited 
to ask. 

" It will be possible to extend the inquiry simultaneously over the whole of 
the land covered by the Bible. That is to say, we may carry on our inquiry at 
the same time over Syria, Egypt, Cyprus, Asia Minor, the Hauran, the Valley 
of the Euphrates, and Armenia. It is, therefore, desirable to draw up the 
questions with as much fulness and covering as wide an area as possible. 

"The subject divides itself into the following blanches : — 

1. Religion and Morals. 

2. Land Tenure, the Village Ccmmune, &c. 

3. Archaeology. 

4. Ethnology. 

5. Health and Disease. 
G. Superstitions. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 217 

7- Legends aud Traditions. 

8. Language. 

9. Agricultuie, including Botany, &c. 

10. The Daily Life. 

11. Industries. 

12. Arts and Architecture. 

13. Amusements and Sports. 

14. Birth and Marriage, Death and Burial Laws and Customs. 

15. Usages still surviving, which illustrate the Bible. 

16. Traces of the successive occupants of the Holy Land. 

17. Modern and ancient Literature. 

18. Proverbs. 

19. Science. 

20. Music. 

21. Natural History. 

22. Peculiar manners and customs not included under any of the above 

headings. 
" The Committee, in the work of drawing up these questions, have resolved 
upon asking the assistance of the following scholars and Societies : — 

1. The Companies of Revision of the Old and New Testament. 

2. The contributors to Smith's and Kitto's Bible Dictionaries. 

3. The British and Foreign Bible Society. 

4. The Scottish National Bible Society. 

5. The American Bible Society. 

6. The Trinitarian Bible Society. 

7. The Missionary Societies. 

8. Zion College. 

9. The Society of Biblical Archaeology. 

10. The Royal Geographical Society. 

11. The Society of Antiquaries. 

12. The Archaeological Institute and the Archaeological Association. 

13. The President of the late American Society for the Exploration of 

Palestine. 

14. The Universities of Great Britain and Ireland and the Colonies. 

15. The Heads of Departments in the British Museum. 

16. The Department of Science and Art, South Kensington. 

17. The Royal Institute of Architects. 

18. The Anthropological Institute. 

19. The College of Physicians and the College of Surgeons. 

20. The Folk Lore Society. 

21. The Cambridge Philological Society. 

22. The Royal Agricultural Society. 

23. The Royal Horticultural Society. 

"To these will be added the Archbishops and Bishops of the Church of 
England, those of the Episcopal Church in Scotland and Ireland, the Colonics 
and the United States, the Presidents of the Established Church of Scotland 
the Free Church, and the United Presbyterians, the Presidents of the Wesleyan, 
Congregational, Baptist, and other Nonconformist bodies in Great Britain, 
Ireland, the Colonies, and the United States, and the Chief Rabbi of Great 

R 2 



218 NOTES AND NEWS. 

Britain, and, lastly, all scholars, archaeologists, and Biblical students who may 
be willing and able to render assistance and advice, with other societies, colleges, 
and institutions not included in the above which may also be usefully approached. 
" We have, therefore, in communicating to you this preliminary announcement, 
to ask for your assistance and co-operation. We have also to call your attention 
to the magnitude of the enterprise, and to its great importance, whether con- 
sidered from a Biblical or from any other point of view. 

" We enclose a specimen page of questions. A form wdl be immediately 
prepared, and will be forwarded to you on application, and a sub-committee 
will be appointed for receiving, arranging, and finally preparing the questions. 

W. Ebor, President. 

James Glaisher, F.R.S., Chairman of the 'Executive Committee. 

Walter Morrison, Treasurer. 

Walter Besant, Secretary." 



Dr. Selah Merrill writes, on September 2nd : — 

" The open space in front of the Mediterranean Hotel and the Barracks, or 
Castle, has been dug over during the past summer for the purpose of repaving 
the street, and some very interesting remains have been brought to light. The 
most interesting of all, however, is what I consider to be the actual remains of 
the second wall found between Duisburg's Store (formerly Spittler's) and the 
Jaffa Gate, at a depth of 15 feet below the surface of the ground ; the stones 
are simdar to the large bevelled stones in the Castle opposite. I will send you 
a plan of these ruins in a few days, perhaps by the next mail." 



New editions of " Tent work in Palestine" and " Heth and Moab," Captain 
Conder's popular works, have been issued at 6s. each. Professor Hull's " Mount 
Seir" is also now ready at the same price. 



Professor Hull's scientific Memoir on the Geology of Palestine is now in the 
press, and will be shortly issued. It will be uniform with the " Survey of 
Western Palestine." 



Mr. H. Chichester Hart's Memoir on the Flora and Fauna of the Wady 
Arabah will also be issued as soon as possible in the same form and size. 



A paper by the Rev. W. F. Birch on Acra has been unavoidably kept back 
until January. 



As regards the copies which remain of the " Survey of Western Palestine," 
the friends of the Society arc urged to get them placed in public libraries. The 
work will not be reprinted, and will never be sold by the Committee at a lower 
price; and as it becomes known, for the only scientific account of Western 
Palestine, it will certainly acquire a yearly increasing value. Five hundred were 
printed, and the type is now distributed. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 219 

The Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society has now in hand — (1) A translation 
of Procopius, that is to say, such parts as concern the buildings of Justinian. 
This has been annotated by Professor Ilayter Lewis. It will also be illus- 
trated by numerous drawings. (2) The Bordeaux Pilgrim, which is receiving 
notes from Sir Charles Wilson. (3-) The Pilgrimage of the Abbot Daniel, which 
is translated and ready for the press. (4) The Travels of an early Persian 
Pilgrim, translated by Mr. Guy Le Strange. 



The income of the Society, from June 17th to September 21st inclusive, was 
— from subscriptions and donations £168 12*., from all sources £24-7 5s. 5cL, 
The expenditure during the same period was £498 12*. lOd. On October 1st the 
balance in the Banks was £167 16*. 7d. 



It is suggested to subscribers that the safest and most convenient manner 
of paying subscriptions is through a Bank. Many subscribers lnvve adopted this 
method, which removes the danger of loss or miscarriage, and renders unneces- 
sai - y the acknowledgment by official receipt and letter. 



Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly Statement regularly, are asked 
to send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward each number 
to all who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes 
give rise occasionally to omissions. 



"While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood' that 
by publishing them in the Quarterly Statement they neither sanction nor adopt 
them. 



The only authorised lecturers for the Society are — 

(1) The Rev. Henry Geary, Vicar of St. Thomas's, Portman Square. His 

lectures are on the following subjects : — 

The Survey of Western Palestine, as illustrating Bible History. 

Palestine East of the Jordan. 

The Jerusalem Excavations. 

A Restoration of Ancient Jerusalem. Illustrated by original photo- 
graphs shown as " dissolving views." 

(2) The Rev. James King, Vicar of St. Mary's, Berwick. His subjects are 

as follows : — 
The Survey of Western Palestine. 
Jerusalem. 
The Hittites. 
The Moabite Stone and other monuments. 

(3) The Rev. James Neil, formerly Incumbent of Christ Church, Jerusalem. 

(4) The Rev. George St. Clair, formerly Lecturer to the Society, is about to 

organise, by arrangement with the Committee, a course of lectures 
this winter on the work of the Society. 



220 PROFESSOR SOCIN ON THE SURVEY OF WESTERN FALESTINE. 

PROFESSOR SOCIN" OK THE SURVEY OF WESTERN 

PALESTINE. 
In the October number of the Expositor, Professor Socin, of Tubingen, 
contributes a paper called a " Critical Estimate of the "Work of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund." It is not customary with us to reply to 
criticisms on our work, and in this case we should have refrained from 
comment on Professor Socin's remarks, except for the fact that certain 
observations of his, made in the most excellent spirit and with the best 
intentions, will, if not noted and answered, mislead his readers and our 
supporters. Professor Socin begins and ends his paper with a most 
courteous and friendly acknowledgment of the importance of the Society's 
work. " The Memoirs," he says, " by reason of the new material which 
they afford, will continue for decades to be the standard work from which 
Palestine research must set out." 

Professor Socin's remarks deal first with the accuracy of the map ; 
next with the Name Lists ; thirdly, with Canon Tristram ; fourthly, with 
Captain Conder ; and lastly, with what he calls the Eesults of the Survey. 
He also touches on the discussions carried on in the Quarterly Statement. 

(1.) As regards the accuracy of the map. It does not appear, when 
Professor Socin compares our map with that of M. Guerin, as if he exactly 
understands the main difference between our map and all other maps of 
Palestine. Ours is surveyed by triangulation ; all others are constructed 
by some system of "dead reckoning." Now a triangulation is subject to 
an almost infallible test of accuracy. It is this. At the outset a base 
line is measured ; at any part of the triangulation it is possible to 
measure by chain any of the lines the lengths of which have been 
obtained by calculation. The actual measured length should correspond 
with the calculated length. This has been done by our surveyors, and with 
most satisfactory results. As a matter of fact M. Guerin's book, which 
contains a few details not noted by our officers, does not contain one-half 
the number of names and places ; while his map cannot pretend to 
scientific accuracy as to position, and as to watercourses, hills, and 
streams it is, and must be, practically useless. It is, in fact, impossible 
that one man working alone, and without scientific method, should produce 
a map in any way comparable to that surveyed by Royal Engineers. 

(2.) Next as to the Name Lists. Professor Socin states that the 
"members of the Survey, who manifestly were not Arabic scholars, repeated 
the names which they had gathered to the scribe Kassatly, instead of his 
collecting them from the lips of the guides and natives." This is not by 
any means a correct way of describing the method followed, which was as 
follows : — The surveyors, in the course of their day's work, collected and 
wrote down in their own way — the guide being present — the names which 
they got from the natives. In the evening, on their return, each of them 
handed in to Captain Conder the day's list, which was gone through by 
Kassatly, with the native guide, and written down by him, or by Captain 
' 'under at his dictation. The surveyors, therefore, had nothing to do 



PROFESSOR SOCIN ON THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 221 

with the spelling of the names, for which Kassatly and the guides are 
responsible. 

Next, as regards the list of the common place appellatives, which, 
according to Professor Socin, " must have been drawn up by one who had no 
knowledge of Arabic grammar." It was drawn up by Professor Palmer him- 
self. It must, however, be understood that he set down, as was done in the 
map, not the literary Arabic at all, which was not wanted, but the fellahin 
Arabic. Thus, to take in order each one of the cases mentioned by Pro- 
fessor Socin. It is true that the plural of " Bab " is not " buwab ;" it is 
"bawwab." But the natives of Palestine, like the English, are not good at 
the double consonant. They do not say " bawwab," but " buwab." So also 
of the plural of birkeh: they do not say burak, but birrul; and the popular 
plural of tell is, as stated in the list, tellul. The ending eh is also given on 
the map as it was pronounced, which accounts for an occasional varia- 
tion. And as regards the word Stialb, it is written, as nearly as possible, 
as pronounced. The literary way would have been to write it Shu'aib, 
but in common speech the vowels at the beginning of a word are generally 
slurred over. The surveyors, in fact, set down the names as the people 
pronounce them. Thus, to take the last of Professor Socin's instances, 
Khurbeh, or Khurbet, the literary name would be, e.g., Khurbetxi Ainab, 
which in the vulgar speech becomes Khurbet Ainab, and when the word 
is used by itself simply Khurbeh, and as a rough rule for travellers who 
are not Arabic scholars it is quite correct to say that Khurbeh in Palestine 
becomes Khurbet before a vowel. 

A corresponding example has been suggested to me. On the Ordnance 
Survey of Oxfordshire will be found a place called Shotover. It is so set 
down because the people call it Shotover. Its original name is supposed to 
have been Chateau vert. Yet surely the surveyors were right in setting 
down the popular name. Again, on Dartmoor is a mountain called on the 
Survey maps Hamilton Down. The people call it Hamildon, or Hamilton, 
and so misled the surveyors, because its real name is Hamil dun, i.e., I 
believe, the Black Down. 

As regards Professor Socin's strictures on the etymologies proposed by 
Professor Palmer, the identifications proposed by Captain Conder or M. 
Ganneau, the Hebrew and Arabic of Canon Tristram, or the Tribe 
boundaries laid down by Mr. Trelawney Saunders, Ave have nothing 
at all to say. These gentlemen are, with one exception, quite able to 
defend themselves against any attacks which may be made on them. As 
regards that one exception, Professor Painter's etymologies are on record, 
as his opinion, and will stand or fall as they are right or wrong, and as the 
common speech of the Syrian natives becomes better known. In his life- 
time there was no better authority on the modern Syrian dialects. Pro- 
fessor Socin, however, raises one other point which commands attention 
from us. It has been the custom of the Committee to open the pages 
of its Journal to the free discussion of all points connected with the 
topography of the Holy Land, routes, itineraries, &c, connected with its 
history. The Journal has become the recognised — almost the only— organ 



222 NEW DISCOVERIES IN JERUSALEM. 

for the discussion of these points. It therefore happens that a great many 
pages may be devoted to the site, say, of Emmaus. This practice, Pro- 
fessor Socin points out, may lead to the general adoption of a wrong theory, 
or at all events of sites and routes which do not commend themselves to 
many scholars and students. This may possibly happen. But the best 
way to prevent it from happening is for every opinion to be represented. 
The Quarterly Statement is read by Palestine students over the whole 
world. If this is borne in mind by Professor Socin, he may himself per- 
haps be minded to prevent the spread of what he considers error. 

The work of the Society, properly so-called — all that the Committee are 
called upon to defend — is the mass of facts which it has been able to 
amass and is still amassing. A practically impregnable map, for instance ; 
an immense Name List, which may be added to and even revised : great 
discoveries in Jerusalem and elsewhere : a Geological Survey, not yet pub- 
lished : thousands of ruins sketched and surveyed, — this constitutes the 
work that has been done. But theories, etymologies, illustrations, tribe 
boundaries, and speculation generally do not constitute the work of the 
Society, and must not be criticised under that name. W. B. 



NEW DISCOVERIES IN JERUSALEM. 
By Selah Merrill, D.D., LL.D. 

During the past two or three months some very interesting tombs have 
been discovered in the western slojue of the hill above Jeremiah's Grotto. 
As these appear to have direct connection with the church in that vicinity 
described by Captain Conder and Lieutenant Mantell in the Quarterly State- 
ment for April, 1882, pp. 116-120. and further described by myself in the 
Quarterly Statement for October, 1883, pp. 238-242, the reader is referred to 
those two articles for the previous history of excavations in this quarter. 

On page 241 (as above) I stated that the ruins appeared to extend under 
ground to the south-east and east of the point where the Mosaic floor 
(see page 239) was found, and spoke of the desirableness of the work of 
excavation being extended in those directions. During the past year 
(1884) this work has been done to a certain degree, and my supposition has 
been confirmed by the new facts disclosed. 

There was found a short distance south-east of the Mosaic floor, the 
threshold of a door. This was 8 feet long and 4 feet above the level of 
the Mosaic Hour, and may have belonged to a later structure, unless it was 
a window in the older structure, which does not seem possible. Its size 
and the work upon it give the impression that it foi-med an important part 
of some large building. 

The watercourse described on page 239 was found to extend much farther 
to the east, and in fact it disappears again in the mass of rubbish beyond 
the limit of the excavations in that direction. Before it disappears it turns 
by nearly a right angle to the south, and at the angle there is a large basin, 
or rather a small reservoir, still quite perfect. 



NEW DISCOVERIES IN JERUSALEM. 223 

Some 30 feet east of the Mosaic floor, and beyond a thick wall which 
belonged to the later structure, the base of a column, in position, was 
found, and this, I should judge, evidently formed a part of the older of the 
two churches which I have described. 

Just north of the point where this base of a column was found, the large 
roof of a later structure has fallen in, and above the centre of its arch, 
which in the collapse of the building was inverted, the debris is fully 10 
feet deep. This ruined building, whatever it was, now forms part of the 
mound which has yet to a large extent to be excavated. 

Twenty feet south-east of this base of a column a deep channel or passage 
was found to have been cut in the solid rock, apparently coming from the 
north, and turning a right angle towards the east, in both of which direc- 
tions it is covered by the great mound of debris just mentioned. This 
passage has been followed down 10 or more feet. The rock walls are 
vertical, and the passage, which is uniform in width, is 2 feet wide. The 
rubbish or mound above the surface of the rock is 10 to 15 feet in depth. 
It will be very interesting to learn the object of this deep channel, and 
where it leads to. It will be understood that as the bottom of the channel 
has not yet been reached, I report only the depth to which the clearing has 
already extended. Perhaps I ought to say that excavations in this particular 
part of the ruin were suspended nearly a year ago. 

Among other things brought to light is a section of a column 15 feet 
long, 33 inches in diameter, and of the same character as those described 
on page 241. 

The distance from the Mosaic floor to the place where the newly dis- 
covered tombs are found is about 60 yards in a south-east direction. They 
were really discovered by accident. To enclose this large plot of ground, 
and thus separate it from the road leading up the Jeremiah-Grotto Hill, a 
high wall was built, and in digging for a foundation for this the workmen 
dug into the tombs in question. In fact, where the wall passes over them 
they are very near the surface of the ground, although the debris on their 
west side was 10 feet deep. 

The five accompanying plans will give a pretty correct idea of the 
character of these tombs. 

Figure No. 1 is a ground plan of the tombs, of which there are two 
storeys. The lower storey was covered partly by a roof and partly by the 
side tombs being cut under the overlying rock. 

Figure No. 2 is a ground plan of the lower storey of tombs. 

Figure No. 3 shows the vertical wall at the west end of the lower storey 
of tombs, and how the roof was fitted into the rock. 

Figure No. 4 shows the form of the separate rooms, a side, the top, and 
the front of one of the rooms being removed for that purpose. 

Figure No. 5 shows a curious device found in one or more of the tombs 
(but not in all), namely, a kind of wreath in relief where the head would 
naturally be placed. Singularly enough, in tomb No. 7 they are found both 
at the head and the foot. The tombs being of such unusual size it is possible 
that two bodies were laid on one side, or bench. 



224 



NEW DISCOVERIES IN JERUSALEM. 



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NEW DISCOVERIES IN JERUSALEM. llo 

Eoom No. 1, Fig. I, seems to have been a large hall or chapel from which 
the rooms surrounding it led oil* in different directions. These are numbered 
from 1 to 9, Fig. I. Underneath these, or portions of them, are other rooms, 
represented by dotted lines, which are not numbered. The floors of the 
different rooms are all on a level with the floor of the chapel, with the 
exception of 2, which is not certain, and No. 8. A person would leave 
room No. 1, enter the door of room No. 7, and after a few feet ascend four 
steps and enter room No. 8, which is on a higher level than the others. 
Eoom No. 8 is the largest of all the rooms surrounding No. 1, or the chapel. 

Between rooms No. 3 and 4 there was a hole or passage, but it seems to 
have been caused by a subsequent breaking away of the rock rather than 
to have been a doorway in the original structure. 

Underneath a portion of the structure there was a vault for thirteen 
bodies or sarcophagi, represented in Fig. I, partly by solid and partly by 
dotted lines, and marked by the letters A, B, C, B, E, F, G, II, I, J, K. 
This vault was so constructed that the portion B, C, J, K, was roofed over 
(MM, Fig. 3), while the parts A, B, I, J, and C, B, G, H, were cut under 
the rock as seen on the right and left in Fig. 3. These thirteen graves were 
arranged in three rows, five in the western row and four in each of the two 
others. On the right hand side (see Fig. II and Fig. 3), only one tomb, 
C, B, G, II, was cut under the rock. The reason doubtless was that the 
designers did not wish to weaken the walls and floor of room No. 1, Fig. 1. 
The roof stones over B, C, J, K (Fig. i), were nicely fitted into the rock as 
seen in Fig. 3. 

At B there was a large door, 3 feet wide and 6 feet high, with steps 
leading from the outside down upon the roof (MM, Fig. 3) over the vault 

B, C, J, K, Fig. I: This roof was on a level with the floor of room No. 1, 
Fig. I. The door at B, and that of room No. 1, were nearly opposite to each 
other. The roof over the vault being now broken in, we cannot say how one 
descended to it. This roof was 6 feet or 6^ feet above the floor of the vault. 

In the vertical wall of the western end of the vault (Fig. 3), over the 
middle place or receptacle, there is a niche, and a corresponding niche in 
the eastern wall. These niches were directly opposite to each other, but 
there being only four receptacles in the eastern row, the niche in the 
eastern wall must of course have one receptable on one side of it and two 
receptacles on the other side. 

The south wall of room No. 2 has been broken away, but being so much 
above the level of the vault, neither the roof of that nor any portion of 

C, D, G, II were in any manner affected by it. 

The large space on the west, A, A, A, A, appears like the bed of a 
quarry, the general level of which being the same as that of the roof over 
the vault. This bed slopes considerably, however, towards the south-west. 
The debris over this portion was 10 feet deep, and sloped upwards towards 
the hill above Jeremiah's Grotto. These tombs were excavated in the 
western or north-western slope of the Jeremiah-Grotto Hill, and the road 
by which one ordinarily ascends this hill passes over rooms No. 6, 7, and 
8, Fig.I. 



226 NEW DISCO VEEIES IN JERUSALEM. 

Underneath rooms No. 4, 5, 6, 7, and 9, Fig. I, smaller rooms are shown 
by dotted lines. That under room No. 9 is different in shape from the 
rest, and not quite perfect. With this exception these rooms are 4 feet 
wide, 3 feet high, and of the same length as the rooms above them. They 
are in each case on the right hand of the person entering the rooms. They 
were entered by doors 2h feet high, and of nearly the same width, cut in the 
vertical walls of the benches above them (Fig. 4). In the benches above 
the small rooms there was in each case a large hole marked by a circle in 
rooms Nos. 4, 5, 6, and 7, Fig. I. The actual arrangement is best seen in 
Fig. 4, which shows the interior of one of these rooms, the top, one side, 
and the front being removed so that the three benches for bodies or sarco- 
phagi can be seen, also the passage into the room, the door in the vertical 
wall of the bench at the right hand leading to the small room and the hole 
in the bench above the small room. Room No. 7 has two such holes. (For 
what were these holes designed ? — for ventilation ? The Arabs say that 
they were made so that the dead could speak to each other.) 

The walls in all the rooms are vertical, and the ceilings horizontal. This 
remark is intended to imply that there are no arches lengthways of the 
looms, as are found in some tombs, over the benches where the bodies or 
sarcophagi were placed. 

Room No. 8, Fig. I, is noticeable by its size, being larger than any of 
the others surrounding the chapel. I have explained above that it is on a 
higher level than the others. Moreover, the places for bodies in front and 
on the right and left hand were not benches as in the case of the other 
rooms (see Fig. 4), but open boxes like very large sarcophagi. The lids 
had been removed, whether by the present workmen or in former times I 
cannot say. Sarcophagi with their own proper lids may have been placed 
in these stone boxes. 

It is reported that crosses have been found, but I saw none, and none 
were pointed out to me. Likewise, that inscriptions were found in connec- 
tion with the broken sarcophagi. These had been removed and taken out 
of the country (so I was told). It may be, however, that, if they really 
existed, they were simply concealed in Jerusalem, and jealously guarded 
by the Latins to whom the place now belongs. I may say in passing that 
my visits, I felt, were looked upon with suspicion, hence I made my observa- 
tions as quickly as possible and withdrew so as to avoid giving offence. 

Great quantities of boues were found and carefully preserved in boxes, 
They may hereafter serve some priestly or churchly purpose when the 
place and time have been prepared for their use. 

In the middle receptacle of the western row of graves, over which I 
have said that there existed a niche, there is a part, perhaps one-half, of a 
sarcophagus still remaining, and it may be that sarcophagi were placed in 
all these thirteen receptacles. Perhaps it will be understood without my 
.saying it that what I have called receptacles are sunk in the solid rock. 

Owing to a fact which I have alluded to above, my measurements were 
not minutely exact, but sufficiently so, I trust, for all practical purposes, and 
I will give some of them in detail. Room No. 1 , which I have called a chapel, 






NEW DISCOVERIES IN JERUSALEM. 227 

is 14 feet by 17 feet 6 inches, and 11 feet high. Eoom No. 2 is broken, and 
the same is true of room No. 3, but the latter was 7 feet 6 inches by 8 feet. 
There was here also, as in some of the other rooms, the small room under 
the right hand bench. This I have indicated by dotted lines because 
the room was not absolutely perfect. Its construction, however, was like 
the others. Rooms No. 4 and 5 were each 7 feet 6 inches by 8 feet, and 
6 feet high. Rooms No. 6 and 7 were a little larger, being 8 feet by 8 feet 
6 inches, and 8 feet high. Room No. 8 was 8 feet by 10 feet, and 9 feet 
high, being, as I have said, the most spacious of all those surrounding the 
chapel. The doors of these different rooms were 6 feet high and about 
3 feet wide. The width from wall to wall across the western row of 
receptacles (see Fig. 3) was 17 feet 6 inches. The entire length of the 
three rows of receptacles I did not get. The distance from the broken 
western wall of room No. 3 to the western side of the space marked 
JY, JV, N, N, is 24 feet, and that from the north to the south side of the 
same space is 48 feet. 

Since the 1st of July of the present year the work of clearing away the 
rubbish has ceased, and forty or fifty workmen have been busily employed 
in erecting some sort of a chapel or church over the entire space marked in 
the plan. My plan, however, is of the ruin as I saw it before the building- 
was commenced. Some parts will necessarily be walled in, but doubtless 
the idea is to preserve the tombs intact as far as possible. 

It may be that some of those who read this article will have seen the 
model of the Golgotha Hill prepared by General Gordon, and if so they 
will be interested to know that the tomb represented on the side of that 
model is only ten yards distant from room No. 8 in my plan. Otherwise 
the tombs have no apparent connection. 

These newly discovered tombs appear to be Christian and not Jewish. 
It is well known that after the reputed discovery of the body of St. Stephen 
a magnilicent church was erected to his memory by the Empress Eudocia, 
the wife of Theodosius the younger. The church was dedicated in a.d. 460, 
and the Empress herself was buried in it. This church was on the north 
of the city not far from the present Damascus Gate, which for ten centuries 
subsequent to this event bore the name of St. Peter's Gate. The church 
was built on the supposed place of the martyrdom of St. Stephen. 

Jerusalem, August 18th, 1885. 

Postscript. 

Since excavations in this particular quarter are assuming, as will be 
seen by the foregoing article, special importance, I would like to add a note 
to my description of the two churches which appeared in the Quarterly 
Statement for October, 1883 ; for the reason that on page 240 a singular 
mistake has somehow been made. It is in connection with the inscription 
which I found in the tomb near the Mosaic floor. As printed, two horizontal 
bars appear before, that is, on the left hand of the inscription, which I 
certainly did not place there. Two lines below the inscription I wrote : 
" extends from the ' X ' to the small character at the end : " and instead 



228 



NOTES BY CAPTAIN CONDER. 



of inserting the letter or character "A'," the printer has substituted the 
word " cross," which makes a bad mess with the sense I intended to convey. 
To set matters right it will be necessary to reproduce the inscription and 
the left hand bar of the cross as follows. It will be understood that the 
large cross was on the right hand of the inscription to one facing it. 



KXId t- 
3 



NOTES BY CAPTAIN CONDER. 

I have just got the Quarterly Statement for July, and though very busy 
with boundary and land questions here, I should like to send you a note or 
two. It is a valuable number, and I am only sorry not to have seen the 
two preceding. 

On page 154 I should like to say that though the proposed sites for Golan 
and Alema are possible, the suggestion of 'ArMb er Itahwah for Argob is 
inadmissible. It has only the B and the R in common, and Arkub is the 
common word for a " ridge." The Arabic for Argob would be Arjib or 
Rujib, and such places as Kefr Arjib and the northern Rujib are more 
suitable. Argob was, however, east of Golan to the best of my remem- 
brance. 

On page 159, I think the hot springs near Pella were probably some of 
those further north at Gadara. The whole of the paper by Mr. Guy le 
Strange is most interesting. Perhaps he may have noticed whether there 
are any mason's marks on the masonry at Kala't er Rubud, which would 
settle the Crusading origin which I always attributed to this castle, which 
I have only seen in the distance, but which Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake visited 
and considered Crusading. 

Page 183.— The so-called altar at Zorah resembles many rock cuttings 
familial' to explorers in Palestine, which result from the quarrying of stone. 
Manoah would hardly have used an altar of cut stone. 

Page 184. — The objection as to £n Eogel raises the question of the 
dates and authorship of Old Testament books, which is evidently not one 
to be discussed in the Quarterly Statement. 

Page 181. — Mr. Drake and I, in 1873, found what we took to be an 
overturned Dolmen in Judea, near the village of Jeb'a (Gibeah of 



NOTES. 229 

Benjamin), and I have noticed possible traces of others in " Heth and 
Moab." 

I find some difficulty in bridging the gap which seems to me to occur 
so often in Mr. Birch's arguments between the proposition and the 
" therefore." He says I am wrong in saying that later kings built a wall 
round Ophel, but I think the Bible mentions these kings by name. He 
says he has proved Hinnom to be the Kedron, but if he has done so to his 
own satisfaction, he has not convinced other writers. Mr. Birch seems to 
me to forget how often he has changed his own views when he is severe 
on others for inconsistency. He might, perhaps, not think it worth while 
to read what I have recently said on the controversies, in the Jerusalem 
volume, and in my Primer of Bible Geography. At any rate, Mr. Birch 
admits the impossibility of confining ancient Jerusalem to the small area 
on Ophel, and if he agrees that David and Solomon walled in the Upper 
City, his views as to the limitation of the words Zion and City of David 
are of secondary importance. I hold Zion to be the poetical name of 
Jerusalem, and the City of David to be the Jerusalem of David's time. 
All I am really interested in is the defeat of a new heresy winch seems to 
me mischievous and absurd, namely, that the Jerusalem of David and 
Ezra was confined to the narrow ridge south of the Temple. Such an idea 
cannot be reconciled with the Book of Ezra, or with earlier biblical books, 
and represents the reductio ad absurdam of Jerusalem controversy. 

C. B. Conder, Captain R.E. 
Taxings, Bechuanaland, 

August 18th, 1885. 



NOTES. 

I. Through the kindness of Professor Maspero I am able to correct one 
point in my note {Quarterly Statement, 1885, p. 108) on the identification 
of the important point Berothah or Berothai, on the northern frontier of 
David's kingdom. 

The name of the place No. 141 in the Karnak List, as given by M. 
Golenischeff in his corrected readings (Zeit. f. Aeg. Spr., 1882, p. 145 and 
plate) is imperfect in its first hieroglyphic sign, which appeared to me 
to be J = b. But M. Maspero has since read it on the pylon at Karnak 

as I i.e., ft so that the name is not Buresu, but Zuresu. This, however, 

does not affect my proposal to identify Berothah with Brisa in the wady 
where M. Pognon found the rock-inscriptions of Nebuchadrezzar. 

II. In my short article in the April Quarterly on Exploration in the Nile 
Delta there are a few insignificant misprints which every reader will 
correct for himself ; but one needs explicit notice. On page 115, for 

vjjj, j the last sign being the detei'minative, a serpent, 
Henry George Tomkins. 



read \ 



230 NOTES. 

I last week forwarded you tracings of plan of the recently discovered 
Zorah altar. That it is " strongly suggestive " of the passage Judges xiii, 
19, 20, is undeniable. 

I would now merely call attention to the fact that " the great stone of 
Abel," which appears to have marked the limit or boundary between the 
Beth Shemesh lands and the Philistine territory (1 Sam. vi, 12-19) could 
not have been far distant. The shrine of Abu Mesar at Ain Shems 
(Beth Shemesh) is boldly visible from the altar, and about three-quarters 
of an hour's walk distant (at the furthest) in a south-west direction. 

Standing on the hill-sides close to Zorah, with the altar and Ain 
Shems in full view, the two old narratives seem to assume new and living 
proportions, and blend and dovetail wonderfully at the spot where stands 
the lately found sacrificial monument. 

In conclusion, I would mention that the German Exploration Society 
have excavated the altar, the total height of which is 2 metres. I 
believe that excavations are still being carried on at Artouf for the same 
Society. J. E. Hanauer. 



A few weeks ago I had to survey a part of the interior of Tiberias, and 
found by chance a small column of white marble 1 foot 5 inches long 
and 9 inches in diameter, which was just dug out in the garden of the 
Greek convent in the extreme south of the town, and which bears the 
following Hebrew inscription: — 

print] n/uy b/mr 

namtajp3(wro 
nnp nuJT^ruin*? 

I am not a Hebrew scholar, but I was told that it bears the date 4148, 
and was a gravestone. 

I have also looked with interest into the large circular vaults which 
border Tiberias from the sea side, and are built close to the city wall of the 
east and south. They are not built very carefully, but are strong and 
very spacious. Their building area must be that of this last city wall and 
fortress. The city wall on the sea side is generally 10 feet 2 inches thick. 
The new Greek convent will now be built on top of its south-eastern 
corner, and the partly sunk round corner tower there will be restored. 
Haifa, July 'Zlst, 1885. G. Schumacher. 



A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, TETRA, AND PALESTINE. 231 

A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAT, PETRA, AND 
SOUTH PALESTINE. 
By H. Chichester Hart. 

CHAPTER I. 

Introductory. 

Early in the summer of 1883 my friend Professor Hull, Director of the 
Geological Survey of Ireland, proposed to me that I should accompany 
him as a volunteer on a geological and surveying expedition to Sinai and 
the Dead Sea, of which he was about to take the leadership under the 
auspices of the Palestine Exploration Society. 

With the main object of studying the botany of this region, and as far 
as possible also other branches of its natural history, I accepted this 
friendly offer. I was chiefly induced to do so by the assurance I received 
from Professor Oliver, of Kew, that, whatever our Continental brethren 
may have accomplished, few British botanists had as yet turned their 
attention to Sinai. He at the same time promised his valuable assistance 
in the determination of my specimens upon my return — a promise since 
fulfilled in a manner which entitles him to my sincerest thanks. Another 
welcome consideration which helped to determine me was that of a grant 
of money from the Scientific Fund of the Royal Irish Academy. 

I feel bound to take this earliest opportunity of expressing my 
grateful sense of the courtesy of the Rev. Canon Tristram, the well- 
known authority on the Natural History of Palestine, who has helped me 
with his advice before starting, and his scientific assistance since my 
return. To him the determination of my species of birds, as well as of 
land and freshwater molluscs, is almost entirely due, and his recent work 
on the " Fauna and Flora of Western Palestine " has been continually con- 
sulted in preparing the present account. 

To Dr. Gunther, F.R.S., and to Messrs. Waterhouse and Thomas, of 
the British Museum, my thanks are due for the naming of other smaller 
collections of mammals, reptiles, and beetles. Mr. Edgar Smith, of the 
Conchological Department, has also been good enough to render me as 
much assistance as his duties would permit in searching for information 
on the Mollusc-fauna of the Red Sea. 

To Mons. Edmond Boissier, the eminent Swiss botanist and author of 
the invaluable " Flora Orientalis," I desire to tender my warmest acknow- 
ledgments. He has very kindly determined for me some of the more 
intricate genera, which his unrivalled knowledge and extensive Oriental 
herbarium enable him to deal with satisfactorily. Of Mons. Boissier's 
" Flora Orientalis " I have constantly availed myself in dealing with the 
flora of Sinai. Botanists whose inclinations turn, as mine do, to the geo- 
graphical distribution of plants will find this work, which is now complete, 
a perfect storehouse of information. 

s 



232 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

.Reference must here be made to the Ordnance Survey of Sinai, 
published in 1869, where much valuable information on the physical 
features and natural history of the Peninsula will be found, especially in 
the appendices by Mr. Wyatt. An interesting paper by Mr. Lowne, on 
the Flora of Sinai, in the Journal of the Linnean Society for 1865, may 
also be referred to ; his nomenclature, however, differs widely from that 
at present adopted. There is little other botanical literature available ; 
Decaisne's Florida Sinaica, published in the "Annales des Sciences 
Naturelles" in 1836, in which many new species are described, is 
difficult to obtain separately ; it is, however, very valuable, but the 
collections of Schimper and others, distributed throughout the herbaria 
of Europe, and duly recorded in Boissier's " Flora Orientalis," have nearly 
doubled Decaisne's original total. 

I desire also to express my gratitude to Mr. A. G. More, the well- 
known naturalist in charge of the Natural History Department of the 
Museum of Science and Art in Dublin, who has been always most good- 
natured in rendering me advice and assistance as far as lay in his power. 

I must not omit to acknowledge the judicious and kindly guidance by 
which (with the assistance of our most efficient interpreter and conductor, 
Bernard Heilpern) Professor Hull brought our travels to a safe conclusion. 
In a volume recently published by the Society, Professor Hull has given 
the public an account of our experiences, and to it, and its Appendix by 
Major Kitchener, the reader may turn for fuller geological, geographical, 
and other information relative to our explorations. To the other members 
of our party, for their continual kindness in obtaining specimens for me, 
I shall feel for ever grateful. 

In these pages, which owe their appearance to the liberality of the 
same Society, I propose in the first place to give a running account of the 
collections made in the order in which they were gathered, with such 
extracts from my journal as may serve to illustrate them. Afterwards 
I will enumerate in detail the various species which I have identified, and 
conclude with an endeavour to give a full account and analysis of the 
Flora of Sinai, or rather of the Sinaitic peninsula of Arabia Petraea. 

For the systematic list of plants, with their localities, I refer my 
readers to the Transactions of the Eoyal Irish Academy, where descriptions 
of the new species with figures will be found. The specimens themselves 
are in the Herbaria of Kew and the British Museum. 



CHAPTER II. 

Ain Musa to Wady Lebweii. 
Having left Suez on Saturday, November 10th, 1883, we took up our 
quarters till Monday at Ain Musa, the usual starting place for Sinai. A 
description of the gardens here, with the introduced plants found about 
them, has been given by Mons. Barbey, in his recent volume "Herborisa- 
tions au Levant," wdio visited them at a more auspicious season. His tour 
did not elsewhere cover the.grouud we visited till reaching Bir es Seba. 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 233 

At Am Musa my hopes fell to a low ebb. With the exception of a 
couple of showy flowering shrubs (Lantana camera Linn., and Cassia bicap- 
sularis Linn.) in the gardens of date palm, bounded by prickly pear, there 
appeared to be hardly a vestige of unwithered vegetable life. Closer 
inspection, however, yielded dead flowers and ripe seed capsules of several 
species, all of which were carefully preserved for comparison with sub- 
sequent gatherings. One species, Ceratophyllum demersum L., found 
drifting in the gulf, and probably derived from the canal, was not met 
with again. A prostrate prickly grass in the sandy stony flat between 
the wells (Ain Musa) of Moses and the gulf has been named for me by 
Mons. Boissier, Sporobolus spicatus Vald. 

In these enclosures, and around their edges, were bushes of tamarisks 
and "ghurkud," Tamarix nilotica Ehr., T. articulata Vahl. (?), and Nitron',/ 
tridentata Desf. The latter is a prickly, fleshy-leaved shrub with small 
orange berries, greedily eaten by camels. It belongs to the " bean-caper " 
family (Zygophyllaceye), well represented in the desert. 

From one of the wells numerous univalves, all of one species, Melania 
tuberculata Midi., were obtained. The net produced nothing else except 
the larvre of a gnat. A chamaeleon (Chamceleo vulgaris Linn.) and a small 
very nimble brown lizard (Eremias gutto-lineata) were captured close by. 
The former was pointed out to me by a Bedouin on a stunted palm-tree, 
else I should assuredly have passed it by, so closely did it resemble the 
branch along which it clung. 

The chief attraction at this oasis was in the birds, of which several 
species were obtained. Amongst these were the white wagtail and the 
willow- wren (Motacilla alba Linn., and Phylloscopus- r-ufus Beclist). A buff- 
backed heron, Ardeola russata Wagl., was seen but not shot : this is the 
bird which does duty for the " white ibis " amongst visitors. A little cock- 
tailed warbler with a song and habit of a wren, Brymoeca inquieta Rvpp, 
as well as the blue-throated robin, Cyanecula c&ruleculus Pall, (the one 
with the entire blue throat), was shot here. 

Across the sand to the shores of the gulf many kinds of sea shell were 
gathered. A detailed account of these, as well as of those obtained at 
Akaba, will be given later on. Few specimens worth preserving were 
met with, but they were for the most part identifiable. At the water's 
edge a stork gave me a long shot, and several dunlins were flying, about. 

At evening the air was filled with the attractive notes of species of 
cicada, and the quaint call of an owl (Athene meridionalis.- Jtisso.), the 
"boomey" of the Arabs, was for the first time heard. 

Insect life was almost suspended, but a few small beetles {Adesmia, Acis), 
ants (Camponotus), and a spider or two, as well as a torpid scorpion, were 
captured about here, and between this and Wady Nusb. 

Excepting at wells, met with at rare intervals, life of all kinds was 
very scarce in this lower desert portion of Sinai. The appearance of a 
bird within a quarter of a mile in these wastes was a signal for a general 
call to arms amongst the gunners, and the gurgling sound of the 
Bedouin camel-driver summoned Mia obstinate beast to kneel and let 

s 2 



234 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

his rider dismount and stalk a distant Egyptian vulture or a raven. 
These two birds, Neophron percnopterus Linn, and Corvus umbrinus Iledenb., 
were frequently in sight, but rarely in range. 

After a day or two, when my Bedouin lad, Khalil, had discovered 
which of us two was master, I generally travelled on foot, letting my 
camel-driver keep me in view till wanted. For this interesting and 
faithful son of the desert I conceived a great liking. This feeling towards 
the Arabs is very frequently indulged in by inexperienced travellers in the 
East. 

As fast as I made gatherings, I was able to deposit them on the back 
of my admirable beast of burthen. For this purpose I had two sets of 
camel bags and drying boards, as well as multifarious swinging gear ; 
guns, spy-glass, water-bottle, shoulder-bag, spirit cylinder, portfolios, 
insect box, el hoc genus omne. 

The country traversed was of gravel and sand, with occasional outcrops 
of limestone. This limestone sand is sometimes finely and regularly 
granulated, as near Wady Sudr, a condition not observed by us in other 
parts of Sinai. The view of the Jebel Rahah mountains across the Gulf 
of Suez was superb. 

Our direction lay nearly parallel to this arm of the Red Sea, gradually 
widening the distance between us and the coast-line. The sky was of a 
brilliant blue, and the temperature rarely hot enough to make walking 
disagreeable. The following plants were observed in Wady Sudr : — Zilla 
myagroides Desf., Retama retam Forsk., Alhagi mauroritm D.C., Acacia 
Seyal Del., Deverra tortuosa Gozrtn., Anabasis articidata Forsk., Reaumuria 
vermicular is Linn. (R. palcestina Boiss.), Fagonia cretica Linn., var. 
glutinosa et vars., Erodium glaucophyllum Ait., Citrullus colocynthis Lehr., 
Artemisia judaica Linn., Odontospermum graveolens S. Bip., G ymnocarpus 
fruticosus Pers., Paronychia desertorum Boiss., JErua javanica Juss., 
IleUotropixim luteum Poir., Aristida obtusa Del. Most of these are strictly 
desert species of continual occurrence in the lower parts of the peninsula, 
and will seldom again be referred to. In Wady Sudr Farsetia cegyptiaca 
Turr. and A nabasis setifera Moq. were also obtained. 

The Citrullus bore its ripe fruit, orange-coloured and about the size of 
a billiard ball, trailing on the gravel and sand in many places. 1 The 
felted iErua was laden with tassels of wool, the remains of its withered 
inflorescence ; the variety, with narrower leaves and more rigid habit, 

1 The Arabs use this species (the colocynth) as a purgative. A fruit is split 
into halves, the seeds scooped out, and the two cavities filled with milk ; after 
allowing it to stand for some time, the liquid, which has absorbed some of the 
active principle of the plant, is drunk off. I refer my readers for further 
valuable information of this nature to an article in the British Medical Journal 
of April 11, 1885, by my friend and companion, Dr. Gordon Hull. I trust he 
will forgive me for correcting an error into which I unfortunately led him. The 
plant which he speaks of " with short succulent jointed segments " as being very 
common and used for sore eyes is not Zygophylluin but Anabasis (Salsola) 
articulata. 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 235 

occurred later on. Acacia Seyal was a revelation of spinousness who.se 
branches even the camel can only nibble with care. It is a low flat-topped 
bush, often only 4 or 5 feet high, but with a trunk of considerable 
thickness. 

A Matthiola, probably M. arabica Boiss., occurred, and a large cabbage- 
leaved sticky Hyoscyamus, //. muticus Linn., with showy yellow and 
purple veined flowers, was pointed out to me as the " Sekkaran " which 
the Arabs are said to inhale in their narghilis as an intoxicant. 

The pretty little woolly Reaumuria, with its densely imbricated leaves, 
was, after much searching, found in blow at last. A wiry, nearly leafless 
Deverra was in full flower and seed, with a strong but not unpleasant smell 
of fennel. 

The marked characteristics of these desert plants soon become familiar, 
They have usually a whitened appearance, which was perhaps somewhat 
heightened at the season of my visit. This is due to woolliness, or scaliness, 
or some other colouring integument, and is frequently accompanied by heavy 
odours, succulent or glaucous foliage. Spines, prickles, hooked or clinging 
hairs are also characteristic, and the whole plant is not unfrequently found 
to be steeped in a strong viscid exudation. Noteworthy instances of 
the above peculiarities will be given farther on. 

Of the Sinaitic mountains, no part was as yet visible ; we were however 
gradually rising above sea-level, and with the cooler atmosphere there was 
a steady increase also in the quantity of vegetation. A very fragrant 
bushy Artemisia, A. santolina Linn., had become frequent, and is sub- 
sequently one of the most characteristic plants of the flat wadies. 

In Wady Sudr Cleome arabica Linn., Pennisetuin dichotomun Del., and 
Elionurus hirsutus Vahl. were secured in good condition, except the latter 
grass, which is so closely eaten by camels that it is hard to obtain good 
specimens. 

Anabasis articulata Forsl; is a prevalent low-sized species ; its dried 
twigs are always topped by a few scales, the remains of the floral envelopes. 
These are occasionally a showy red or claret colour, and give a brilliant effect, 
sometimes equalling that of red heather at a distance. It is perhaps the 
commonest species throughout Sinai; Gymnocarpum fncticosus Forsk., how- 
ever, is nearly as abundant. The Anabasis, whose slenderer twigs are, I 
believe, all lost and withered at this season, accumulates round its roots 
blown hillocks of sand a couple of feet high, favourite hiding places for 
lizards, and burrowing ground for ants and the smaller rodents. The 
Bedouins called this plant " Erimth." 

The vegetation is scattered in tufts amongst the sand and gravel ; 
except in the occasionally moistened wady beds these tufts are usually 
isolated and often far apart. 

On the 13th, at about 350 feet above sea-level, we entered a bed of chalk 
intermixed with white maids strewed with chert, fossils, and selenite. 
We reached Ghurundel by moonlight. Tamarisks and palms (Tamcbriss 
nilotica Pall., Phoenix dactylifera Linn.) form here a pleasant grove ; Zilla, 
Nitraria, and most of the species above mentioned, are plentiful. 



236 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PKTEA, 

At Wady Ghurundel (" Elim") 1 I obtained some fresh species of birds. 
Of these Saxicola isabellina Rupp (Menetries' Wheatear) was several times 
seen and shot. The " Persian lark " (Certhilauda alatidipes Desf.) and the 
striolated bunting {Emberiza striolata Lieht.) were obtained, only single 
specimens being as yet seen and secured of each. Ravens and willow- 
wrens tenanted this wady. 

The first large quadruped's tracks were pointed out by the Arabs ; they 
exclaimed "dhaba" — that is to say, "hyaena." 

Another lizard, Agatna ruderata Riv., and a skink, Sphoenops eapistratus 
Wagl., were captured here. The latter I found on kicking to pieces an ant- 
hill, the home of a species of Camponotus, C. pubescens. This lizard was 
afterwards very common throughout Sinai to the Dead Sea. He was easy 
to catch, and his comical habit of standing at bay with his tail cocked and 
his disproportionately large jaws wide open was instructive ; no doubt it 
terrified troops of smaller foes. Like most true natives of the desert he 
was sand-coloured, though the tail has some dull blackish rings. Another 
lizard, Eremias guttata, was most difficult to catch ; by pelting him with 
handfuls of sand, which confuses and stops his movements for an instant, 
combined with a sudden rush, it may be done. 

The rock here is a white cretaceous limestone. The bed of the wady is 
cut deeply into marly deposits, leaving sheer mud-banks sometimes 8 feet 
high. The bed of this periodic stream was now perfectly dry. From the 
appearance of these deposits, and those in other places, Professor Hull 
considered there was evidence of a much greater rainfall in recent times. 

On the tamarisk branches a curious buff-coloured chrysalis-like appen- 
dage was frequently observed. It was about the consistency of tough 
paper half an inch long, but more brittle, and proved to be the egg case of a 
species of Mantis. A large black beetle, Prionotheca coronata Oliv., was the 
only large insect found in Wady Ghurundel. 

Several plants were here first met with ; the most conspicuous were 
a shrubby mignionette, Ochradenus baccatus Bel., thenceforward charac- 
teristic of the lower desert wadies, and sometimes, where protected by 
acacia trees from camels, 6 or 8 feet high. 

Here or nearer to Wady Useit I noticed for the first time a second species 
of acacia, A. tortilis Hayne, less spiny and usually larger and more 
upright than A. Seyal L. I met only these two acacias in the peninsula, 
but I found a third and much finer one (A. lata R. Br.) at the south end 
of the Dead Sea. A. nilotica Bel. also occurs in Sinai. A. tortilis is 
commoner in the Arabah than elsewhere. 

Other species were — Cucumis prophetarum Linn., Polycarpaa fragilis 
Bel., P. pustrata Bene., Zygophyllum album Linn., Fagonia cretica Linn., 

1 This wady must not be confounded with others of the same name in Sinai 
and Edom. A notable instance of confusion occurs in the ninth chapter of the 
English translation of Laborde's "Arabia Petrsea," 1836, where the translator 
quotes several pages of description of the present wady from Burckhardt, to 
illustrate Laborde's short and correct mention of Wady Ghurundel near Petra. 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 237 

vav. arabica, Lithospermum callosum Linn., Cressa crctica Linn., Euphorbia 
eomuta Pers., Juncus maritimus Linn., /3 arabicus, Typha angustata B. & 
C, Cynodon dactylon Pers., Phragmites communis Linn., var. gigantea. 
This latter species, which reaches a height of 10 or 12 feet with its erect 
plume of florescence, is a truly handsome grass. It appears to have 
frequently done duty for Arundo Donax L. in Sinai. 

Many withered Chenopods occurred here, the identifiable species being 
Suceda vermiculata Forsk., Atriplex leucoclada Boiss., A. halimus Linn., 
Anabasis selifera Moq., and A. (Salsola) articidata Forsk. At Wady Useit 
occurred a little grove of date palms, some of them at least 40 feet high. 
There is only one other species, the doum palm {Hyphoene thebaica Del.), in 
Sinai. It occurs near Akaba and at Tor. 

From about Wady Saal small burrows, from the size of a small rabbit- 
hole to the little perforation of a species of ant, Camponotus compressa 
Fab., become numerous. These belong chiefly to species of Acomys, Ger- 
billus and Psammomys, but it was some time before I succeeded in capturing 
any of these animals. On several occasions I saw individuals of the Gerbille 
genus of sand-rats. These animals usually burrowed in the sand-hills accu- 
mulated about the stumps of anabasis and tamarisk ; their abundance here 
was as nothing compared with their numbers in the Wady Arabah later on. 
Jerboas were not seen in Sinai. 

At night in the dinner tent our lights usually attract a few nocturnal 
insects, which I capture from time to time. 

A hornet, Vespa orientalis Linn., is the only insect frequently to be seen 
in the day-time. Nature rests herself in the desert almost as thoroughly 
as in an Arctic winter ; in the latter case she sleeps during an excessive 
cold, in the former she exhausts her strength during an extreme heat. 
Nevertheless many late flowering plants still occasionally hold their petals 
and it will not be many days ere we gather the first harbingers of spring 
Possibly these latter should be called hybernal. A few species, as Cleome 
arabica Linn., are in their ]5rime at present for examination, being in full 
flower and fruit. This Cleome is one of the most viscid plants met with, 
taking man} r weeks to dry, and never shaking off the adhering sand. It 
has small deep purple flowers and longish pods. 

A black snake, probably Zamenis atrovirens Shaw, var. carbonarius, was 
killed here, but I was informed it was last seen with the cook. Whether 
it subsequently passed under examination in the dinner tent I cannot say, 
but I never succeeded in identifying it. 

Desert larks representing three genera have been obtained ; one of 
these, Certhilauda, has been already mentioned. Other two, Ammomanes 
deserti Lieht., and Alauda isabelliiia Bonap., were also shot. The latter 
is one of the most frequently met with of the true inhabitants of the 
desert. The Persian lark {Certhilauda desertorum Rupt.), a bird about the 
size of our song-thrush, has a low sweet song, uttered while on the ground, 
and not much stronger than or unlike our robin's winter warble. A lai'ge 
and handsome black and white chat (Saxicola monaeha Temn.) was shot in 
Wady Humr. Tracks of gazelles were here first observed. 



238 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, TETRA, 

At Wady Humr we are crossing beds of a highly coloured red sandstone, 
which has replaced the white and black weathered limestone. The black 
and white chats are more conspicuous amongst these rocks ; when at rest 
on a chalky surface dotted with fragments of chert these birds are not 
quickly seen. The desert larks are, however, the most securely assimilated 
to the soil. The females of some chats {e.g., S. monacha) are more 
protectively coloured than the males. 

The sandstone which we are now traversing is the regular inscription 
rock of the desert, on which the Bedouins of all ages have delighted to air 
their calligraphy, and not unfrequently impose upon travellers with their 
rude tribe-marks. 

Our direction is mainly south-east, and steadily rising. At the head of 
Wady Humr, about 1,300 feet above the sea-level, we obtained our first 
view of the Sinaitic mountains. Jebel Serbal stood out, grand and rugged, 
straight ahead of us, looking about one-half of his real distance from us, so 
excessively clear was the atmosphere. 

Leyssera capillifvlia D.C. was gathered here for the first time, and the 
favourite camel grass, Elionurus (C'celorachis) hirsuta Vahl., was gathered in 
flower. 

Having left Wady Humr, and crossed Sarbut el Jemel at a height of 
about 1,700 feet above sea-level, we came out on a wide sandy plain, 
Debbet er Ramleh, lying about 1,700 to 1,850 feet above sea-level. This is 
the largest expanse of sand in Sinai, and covers about thirty square miles. 
Some very interesting species were gathered here. The two species of 
Polycarprea already mentioned, with the Cleome, abound. 

Seetzenia orientcdis Bene., Glinas lotoides Linn, (not in flower), Monsonia 
nivea Dene., Pancratium Sickembergeri A. & S., Danthonia Forskaldii Linn., 
Aristida plumosa Linn., and A. obtusa Del. These were all obtained in 
flower, and the white and perfect Pancratium was at its best. It is a lovely 
flower, and T secured many bulbs here and elsew 7 here. No leaves were yet 
in sight, but in some cases the petals had fallen, and the seed pod was filling, 
show ing that the leaves are certainly not synanthous, though appearing soon 
after the flowers. Plants of this species now growing with me do not exhibit 
the remarkable twisting described as characterising their leaves. On this 
Pancratium, which was first discovered by Sickemberger near Cairo, some 
interesting remarks will be found in Barbey's " Herborisations " already 
mentioned. 1 

The Aristidte, small glaucous grasses with long feathery awns, are 
amongst the prettiest of desert forms. 

At a lower level near this, Lycimn europceum Linn, was plentiful, and in 
full flower. Ft is visited by a small copper butterfly, the first of its family 
nut with, which is poorly represented in this dry region. Formicida) and 
Acridiidse (ants ami locusts) are perhaps the most abundant insects. 

In Wady Nusb several fresh species occurred. Unrecognisable frag- 
ments awoke my regrets at the season selected from time to time. 

1 " Ilerborisutions au Levant," par C. and W. Barbey (Lausanne, G. Bridal, 
1882). 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 2o0 

The following were determined : — Morettia canescens Boiss., Astragalus 
sieberii D.C., A. trigones? D.C., Vrotalaria cegyptiaca, Bth., and Convolvulus 
lanatus Va/il. 

These Astragals were quite withered, and simply well-rooted bunches of 
strong sharp spines, 2 to 3 inches long, set closely round a stumpy stem ; 
the spines being the hardened woody mid-rib of the pinnate leaves. The 
only evidence of their past condition lay in the slight cicatrices in the 
spines marking the points of attachment of the fallen leaf-pinna). Of the 
convolvulus, a handsome, erect, shrubby, felted species, with good-sized 
reddish-purple petals, I obtained a couple of flowers. 

Desert partridges were first heard here, but not yet obtained. Chats 
and larks appeared to be pairing. A shrike, Lanius fallax Finsch., was 
first seen and shot. Afterwards this becaiue a familiar species. The "desert 
blackstart," Cercomela melanura Teimi., another very characteristic and pre- 
valent bird of Sinai, was also first met with and obtained here. The chats 
were Saxicola leucopygia Brehm., and Menetries' vvheatear already men- 
tioned. The trumpeter bullfinch, Erythrospiza githaginea Licht., was shot 
here for me by Dr. Hull, who, as well as Mr. Reginald Laurence, brought 
me specimens from time to time. 

In Wady Nusb there is a well, and quite a goodly show of acacias, 
chiefly of the species A. tortilis Hayne, vvhich was in flower sometimes, and 
usually in leaf. The leaf segments of this species are larger and fewer in 
number than in A. Seyal L., the pods are twisted, and the tree attains a 
greater size. When old it is less and less spiny, while the reverse seems 
to be the case in A. Seyal. 

In this wady I gathered Malva rotundifolia Linn, and Amarantus 
sylvestris Desf. by the well, both probably of human origin. The former 
is cooked and eaten by the Bedouins. Lycittm europium has flowers either 
white or pinkish-purple. Other species met here first were — Lamia cordata 
Br., Echiochilon fruticosum Desf., Lavandula coronopifolia Poir., Crozo- 
phora obliqiia Vahl. (a perennial form of C. verbascifolia Juss. ?), and 
Zizyphus spina-christi W. The latter was not native, and occurred in a 
miserable little enclosure by a Bedouin's hut at the well. It was less thorny 
than the native species afterwards gathered, and the fruit somewhat larger, 
but Mr. Oliver refers it to the same plant, no doubt slightly altered and 
improved by a rough system of cultivation. 

As we are gradually increasing our elevation amongst the wadies derived 
from the precipitous escarpment of the Tih plateau (4,000 to 5,000 feet), 
so there are more remains of last summer's vegetation — later in flowering 
perhaps, and less scorched than the same species below. 

Soon after leaving Wady Nusb we entered on plutonic formations, a red 
porphyrinic granite, which was thenceforth to accompany us upwards over 
a large extent of country. The increased quantity of acacias since we left 
the limestone, and especially on the granite, is noteworthy. Perhaps its 
ferocious spines require an admixture of silicon. 

A locust and a cricket were taken in semi-torpid condition. Scorpions 
similarly harmless, have been caught from time to time. 



240 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

A larger species of lizard, with a handsome blue throat and pectoral, was 
captured, Agama sinaitica Heyden. The bright colour was all below, and 
was no reproach upon the perfect assimilation of its upper parts with the 
desert sandy hues. This lizard hid himself amongst stones, and it was 
with difficulty I dislodged him from a hole which he filled with his body 
and fortified with his distended and savage little jaws. 

Having crossed a high ridge of granite, Ras Suwig, at about 2,400 feet 
above sea-level, from whence Jebel Serbal looked magnificent, we descended 
into a wady which yielded several new plants. Pancratium Sickembergeri 
A. & C. was found in flower here also. A small bulb, apparently an 
Allium, was brought to me by some Bedouins, perhaps A. sinaiticum Boiss. 
It is growing now under Mr. Burbidge's care at the College Botanic Gar- 
dens, but has not yet flowered. These two bulbs and a Uropetalum ( U. 
erythrmum Debb.) are, I believe, the only ones which support life in this 
desert. A few others occur, but at sufficient heights, usually very con- 
siderable, to bring them into a different zone of plant life. 

At the height of 2,200 to 2,400 feet above sea-level the following species 
appeared : — Iphiona juniperifolia Coss., Sonc/ms spinosus Del., and a very 
fetid species, Iluta tuberculata Forsk., was here first obtained with its 
yellow flowers. 

Major Kitchener brought me branches here of the first Capparis I had 
seen, C. galeata Fresen. 

Lichens of two species at least occurred, one on the bark of acacia, and 
the other on sandstone. 

In Wady Khamileh desert partridges, Caccabis Heyi Temn., were 
frequent, and some were shot. Two desert plants occurred in some quantity, 
Lotouonis Leobordea Linn., and Pidicaria undidata D.C 



CHAPTER III. 

Wady Lebweh to Mount Sinai. 



Still ascending gradually, up Wady Lebweh, from 2,500 to 3,500 feet, 
many interesting Sinai plants were gathered. Most of these are true 
desert species, which reach about thus far, but they are mixed with others 
of an intermediate elevation about corresponding to the Mediterranean 
flora. From here come Glaxicium arabicum Fres., Caylusea canescens St. 
JUL, Cleome trinervia Fres., Fagonia myriacantha Boiss., Tribuhis terrestris 
Linn., Peganutn harmala Linn., Neurada procumbens Linn., Santolina 
fragrantissima Forsk., Artemisia herba-alba Asso., et var. laxiflora Sieb., 
Anarrhinum pubescens Fres., Trichodesma afrieana R. Br., Jleliotropium 
mid it fat inn YaJd., (Jomphocarpus sinaicits Boiss., Baffota undidata Fres., 
Teucrium polium Linn., /3. sinaicum, Stachys affinis Fres., Primula boveana 
Dene., Aca nthodium spicatum Def., Forskaldea tenacissima Linn., Andrachne 
aspcra Spr., Asphodefus Jistulosus Linn, and others, the specimens too bad 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 241 

to name. The labiates in the above group are characteristic of the middle 
and upper zones of Sinai. 

On the summit of Zibb el Baheir, at 3,890 feet, a point which all 
travellers should climb for the sake of the really splendid view, Oypsophil 
rokejeka Del., Helianthemum Lippii Pers., Iphiona montana, and a Poa, 
P. sinaica St. {?), were gathered. A Psoralea occurs here also, not found in 
a recognisable state. It may have been P. plicata Del. 

Of the plants just enumerated several are peculiar to Sinai. Others, 
believed endemic, I found later on Mount Hor in Edom. 

In addition to the above it is to be remembered that the majority of 
the earlier species met with occur throughout. The chief failures are 
Cleome arabica Linn, and Salsolaceee (except Anabasis), which are mostly 
confined to the lower plain. The variable but always pretty little Fagonia 
is continually arresting the attention by some new deviation. Sometimes 
it is glabrous, sometimes viscid, sometimes very leafy, at others a bunch 
of twigs or thorns, trailing or sub-erect, while the flowers vary much in 
size. In one form or another it is a very widespread desert form which 
has received a number of segregational names. The abnormal Neurada 
procumbens, with its curious flat prickly-edged capsule nearly an inch in 
diameter, was in good condition, but scarce. G omphocarpus was in full 
flower and fruit ; like Dcemia cordata, already gathered, and now common, 
it has a sticky, staining, milky juice, very poisonous according to the 
Bedouins. These two Asclepiads, and about five others occurring in Sinai, 
point to the tropical element in its flora. Artemisia herba-alba Asso., in 
several well-marked forms, is henceforth one of the most abundant and 
highly aromatic plants. 

From Zibb el Baheir, which I ascended with Dr. Hull on Sunday, the 
16th November, we had a grand view of the whole mass of Jebel Musa 
(Mount Sinai) and Jebel Catharine on the south-east, and of Serbal nearer 
us to the southward. Down Wady Berah the foregoing labiates and 
composites were prevalent in many places. A little further on is a con- 
tinuous grove of retem bushes, the first bit of almost luxuriant though 
limited vegetation I had seen except close to the wells. This wady, like 
most others, is flat, and about half a mile wide, with a slight channel 
wandering from side to side, and marked by a line of grey-green growth, 
no doubt fresh and delightful after the rain which is almost due. 

Hares have been seen once or twice. I saw one here first, a very long- 
eared and long-legged whitey-grey animal with a little body (Lepus 
sinaiticus Hemp, and Ehr.). He was a perfect fiend to travel ; nothing 
living except a bird ever got out of my sight so quickly. The little 
southern owl hovered around our camp one or two evenings. A splendid 
pair of griffon vultures afforded a nearer view here than elsewhere. 
The Egyptian species is more approachable. Crows and ravens (C. corax 
and C. umbrinus) are also tamer in this less frequently traversed route. 
Indeed the large birds generally seem fully aware of the harmless nature 
of Cairo powder. The lark, Alanda isabellina Bon., is the commonest of 
the smaller species. White wagtails, Motacilla alba Linn., are also very 



242 A naturalist's journey to sinat, petra, 

frequent, continually hopping about our tents and camels quite fearless of 
man. 

The two lizards of the Agama genus already mentioned, especially the 
smaller (A. ruderata), are common. I kept some of these alive as far as to 
Constantinople three months later, but the cold weather there killed the 
last of them. 

The mountains are of red porphyry intersected by numerous dykes 
of trap. This is surely the proper country for a geologist to come to ; no 
annoying mantles of soil or vegetation conceal the rock masses ; all is bare 
and clear, and a good view reveals as much as a shire full of well-borings 
and railway cuttings. 

The temperature has become much colder, falling to within five or six 
degrees of freezing point at night, and we find it difficult to keep warm 
enough in our tents. 

Acacia bushes become rare or absent at about 3,500 feet elevation. 
Acacias may be said to mark the vertical limits of the desert flora, as the 
date palm does its horizontal geographical distribution. The desert plants 
which exceed this range upwards will be found to be mostly Mesopotamian 
or Syrian species, and not confined to that belt which extends from the Cape 
Verdes to Scinde. 

In Wady es Sheikh some large tamarisk bushes (T. nilotica) occur, 
about 15 feet in height. This plant has about the same upward limit as 
that of the acacia. On these tamarisks were two butterflies, one of which, 
Pyrantels cardul Linn., was obtained ; the other appeared to be a fritillary 
(Argynnys). 

The Wady es Sheikh is of considerable length, upwards of twenty 
miles, running east at first, and then south to the base of the Jebel Mxisa 
group. It lies high, 3,000 to 4,000 feet, and the chief plants in it are 
Artemisia?, Santolina, and Zilla, except on the northern sides at the base 
of whatever shelter from the sun there may be. Here most of the plants 
lately enumerated occur still. Some appear which are less common, as 
Zygophyllum album Linn., Nltrarla trldentata Desf., Alhagl Maurorum 
D.C., Crozophora obllqua VaJd., Pancratium Slckembergerl A. and S., and 
the labiates and composites of Wadies Lebweh and Berah. Gomphocarpus 
sinaicus Bolss. often arrests attention, shedding its beautifully silky tufts 
of hair, ready to whisk the attached seeds about the peninsular plains with 
every breath that blows. Pliagnalon nltldum Fres., Anabasis setlf era Moq., 
and Atrlplex leucoclada Bolss., occurred in Wady Solaf, so that the Salso- 
laceas only require favourable circumstances to appear in the upper 
country. In Wady Solaf, a smaller arm of the Wady Sheikh, remarkable 
sections of marl deposits, many feet in thickness, were examined. These no 
doubt represent the bed of a large lake of the recent period cut through by 
streams which once contained a steady supply. Examination of evidence 
of this nature will form an interesting portion of Professor Hull's results. 

At Jebel Watayeh a fine granitic pass connects the eastern and southern 
prolongation of Wady Sheikh. The summit of this I estimated at 4,150 
feet above seadevel. On it I obtained Dlanthas Sinaicus Bolss., Buffonla 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 243 

multiceps Dene., Arenaria graveolens Schfeb., Crataegus sinaica Boiss., 
Cotyledon umbilicus ? Linn., Poa sinaica, 1 St.. and most of the species of 
Zibb el Baheir. The withered Psoralea (sp. ? ) occurred also. The first two 
of these are peculiar to Sinai. There was a well-marked difference here in 
the floras of the north and south side of the peak, the Cotyledon and grass 
occurring only on the north side, while the Artemishe, Anabasis, and other 
ubiquitous desert species prevailed on the other or southern face. 

Laurence caught for me on this crag a locust {Tryxalis unguiculata Linn.), 
resembling exactly the withered straw-coloured twigs and sand in which 
he lived. 

Further towards Wady Suweiriyeh grow Pyrethrum santal inoides D.C., 
Centanrea eryngoides Lam., Alkanna orientalis Boiss., Lithospermum tenui- 
florum Linn., Sua'damonoica Forsl:, Piptatherum midtiflorum Beauv, and of 
rarer kinds, Erhinopsglabcrrimus D.C, Iphionamontana Yald.,I.juniperifolia 
Coss. Anarrhinum pubescens Fres., Primula Boveana Dene., and Teucrium 
sinaicum Boiss. 

It was interesting to notice a form of Cotyledon umbilicus Linn., the 
only apparently native British dicotyledon I met with in Sinai. It has been 
gathered here previously by Bove, according to Decaisne, who recorded it 
under the present name. Unfortunately my specimens are in too bad a 
condition to determine, consisting only of young leaves and a withered 
stem. The root was tuberous. It is plentiful on Mount Hor, and is not 
unlikely to be identical with the new form Dr. Schweinfurth gathered 
on mountains between the Bed Sea and the Nile Valley. 1 

Retama Retem Forsk. is very common in these high-lying wadies. It 
quite takes the place of acacia, and was now laden with its one-seeded 
capsules. It is very pretty and sweet when in flower. The varieties of 
Anabasis articidata, whose bracts wither a showy red and rich claret colour, 
are common here. This species is quite abnormal at this season, having 
shed all its more slender twigs, and having more the habit of a Zygophyllum. 
It was not till I reached Wady Arabah that it occurred in its natural form. 

Lepidopterous insects were more numerous in these cooler stations, 
chiefly attracted by the tent lights at night. Of the earlier desert plants 
Reaumaria and Gymnocarpum are still abundant. 

Several grasses, Cucurbitacese and Zygophyllacea? belong to lower 
districts, but Fagonia ranges everywhere so far. Ruta tuberculata, with 
its disgusting smell, is still to be met with. 

At Ain Zuweireyeh, where we camped for the ascent of Mount Sinai, 
there is a poor little garden containing pomegranates, palms, and nubk 
(Zizyphus), apricots, and mallow. Gomphocarpus is abundant about this 
well. It is one of the most remarkable species in Sinai. 

I made the ascent of Jebel Musa and Jebel Catharine on the 20th 
November. On the way to the convent of Mount Sinai occurred Centanrea 
scoparia Sieb., Celsia parvifiora Dene., and Alkanna orientalis Boiss. At 
the convent garden, where we dismissed our camels, are cypress, orange, 

1 Barbey, op. cil., p. 134. 



244 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

figs, olives, dates, and vines in cultivation. These I only saw over the 
garden wall, for the delay in the convent was irksome since the whole 
thing was to be done in a day. On the garden gate were suspended 
several dead Egyptian vultures, which surprised me, as I thought the 
bird was too much valued as a scavenger to be destroyed. Gomphocarpus 
occurred again a little above the convent which stands at 5,024 feet 
above sea-level. The following were first met with here : — Asperula 
sinaica Dene., Pidicaria crispa Forsk., Verbascum sinaiticum Bth., Plantago 
arabiea Boiss., Phlomis aurea Dene., Nepeta septem-crenata Ehr., Mentha 
lavandulacea Boiss., Teucrium polium L., var. sinaicum., Origanum maru 
Linn., /3 sinaicum, Ficus pseudosycomorus Dene., and Adiantum capillus- 
veneris Linn. A single tree stands near the spring, but I unfortunately 
lost my leaves of it. It was, I believe, Salix safsaf Forsk. 

At this height, about 5,500 feet, a couple of palms (across the valley), 
Phoenix dactylifera Linn., and a tall cypress, Cupressus sempervirens Linn., 
var. pyramidally, occur. The latter, which is not native, occurs a little 
higher in a conspicuous place familiar to all travellers. 

CotyledonumbilicusLinn.,ArenariagraveolensSckreb.,Scirpusholoschoenus 
Linn., Peganum harmala Linn., Echinops glaberrimus B.C., Acanthodium 
spicatum Sieb., and several mosses were gathered on the ascent. On such 
occasions as these the Bedouins made wild gestures and howls as I escaped 
from them into gullies and up cliffs. One reason of this I found to be their 
horror of boots, which they think most dangerous to the climber. At the 
second pyramid, that of Cephren, at Cairo, where I stole a march and 
reached the summit alone, the Bedouins who pursued me made frantic 
efforts to deprive me of my boots ere the descent began. I need hardly 
say I valued the skin of my feet too highly to obey. 

In spite of the Bedouins I followed the bent of my own botanical 
inclinations. The mosses were the result of a detour from the beaten track 
to a less open gully looking north. On or close to the summit, 7,320 feet, 
were Crata'gus sinaica Boiss., Artemisia herba-alba Asso., Verbascum sinaiti- 
cum Bth., Ruta tuberculata Forsk., Peganum harmala Linn., Arenaria 
graveolens Schreb., Bufonia midticeps Dene., Poa sp. (P. sinaitica ?), and 
Ephedra alte C. A. Mey, and others not recognisable. The ascent to the 
summit from the convent occupied about two hours. 

The most striking feature in the aspect of the flora of the upper parts 
of Jebel Musa, from the convent upwards, is the prevalence of the Labiate 
and Scrophulariaceous families. Several fresh species had appeared, some 
of these peculiar to Sinai, and others met before were very abundant 
here. As these orders increase, the Compositse, abundant at intermediate 
heights, diminish towards the upper zone. The fern and the mosses 
illustrate the cooler atmosphere of the elevated region, though their 
immediate existence depends on the unfailing springs of water. Having 
left our party here I descended rapidly to the convent of Deir el Arbain, 
about 1,700 feet below, in the bottom of the gorge between Jebel Musa and 
Catharine. With a nimble Arab as guide we did this in half-an-hour. 
At the convent I was transferred to another native. There was barely 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 245 

daylight left in which to accomplish Jebel Catharine. I had arranged 
that my camel should be in readiness here to bring me back to camp 
at Ain Zuweiriyeh at night, A quarter of an hour after my arrival 
the faithful Khalil appeared, and 1 started at once, 1.30 p.m., for the 
summit. 

At the monastery, or near it, were Bapleurum linearifolium D.C., var. 
Schimperianum Boiss., Carum sp. ?, Pterocephalus sanctus Dene., Veronica 
syriaca J. tfc S. (introduced), and Celsia and Anarrhinum already mentioned. 
Salix safsaf Forsk. occurs here. During the ascent most of the labiates and 
the hawthorn of Mount Sinai, were met with ; but this mountain wore a far 
more wintry aspect than its lower neighbour. A lack of running water 
renders it at all seasons more barren. At the spring Mayan esh Shunnar, 
" fountain of the partridge," I made another little gathering of mosses, in 
all from the two mountains ten species, i.e.: Grimmia apocarpa Linn., 
G. leucophcea Grev., Gymnostomum rupestre Schwceg., G. verticillatum, Tortula 
inermis Mont., Eucalypta vulgaris Hedu:, Entosthodon templetoni Schwoeg., 
Bryum turbinatum Hedw., Hypnum velutinum Linn., H. ruscifolium Neck. 
These are all British species with the exception of Tortula inermis, which 
occurs also on the Morocco mountain at 8,000 to 10,000 feet, and no doubt 
elsewhere round the Mediterranean. One only in the list, Gymnostomum 
rupestre, is sub-alpine in Great Britain. There are two other mosses also 
common British species recorded from Mount Sinai by Decaisne. 

The remainder of the ascent was over barren and perfectly unvegetated 
rock. Nevertheless, within a few hundred feet of the summit I was 
rewarded by finding the exquisite little Colchicum Steveni ? Kth., of a 
delicate pale lilac colour, sometimes white. It had no leaves, and bore 
either one, two, or three flowers on the scape ; usually only one. It occurred 
again on the extreme summit, and I secured several bulbs. Colchicum 
Steveni was gathered afterwards on Mount Hor, where the flowers were 
very decidedly smaller. The Jebel Catharine plant may prove to be 
specifically distinct. This Colchicum has been recorded from the Palestine 
coast as far south as Joppa. 

On the summit there was hardly any life. I obtained Buffonia 
multiceps Dene., Armaria graveolens Sch,,Herniaria sp.? {H. hemistemon?), 
Gypsophila hirsuta Led., and G. alpina Boiss., and fragments of an Astragal, 
perhaps A. echinus D.C. On the ascent I gathered the root and leaves of a 
sedge looking like C. distans Linn. 

The summit of Jebel Catharine, 8,536 feet, the highest in the peninsula, 
was very cold, barely above freezing point. Its mean annual temperature 
would perhaps about correspond with that of Edinburgh, while Jebel 
Musa would be nearer that of London. It is a solid hump of syenite with 
a lower shoulder joining it to a similar prominence about half a mile 
away. The view was magnificent, including the whole coast-line of Sinai 
from Suez to Akaba, except the portion intercepted by the Umm Shaumer 
range to the south, whose summit almost equals that of Jebel Catharine. 
Jebel Musa looks a mere trifle, one of a fierce sea of red pointed and 
serrated peaks and ridges. 



246 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, TETRA, 

The summit was reached at 3.15, left at 4, and the convent of Deir el 
Arbain regained at 5. A long camel ride through a wild goi-ge by 
moonlight brought a memorable day to a close. 

In the gorge I heard a deep clear strange note which my Bedouin 
called " hoadoo." It seemed to proceed from an owl, and may have been 
Bubo ascalephus, the Egyptian eagle owl, but, much as my curiosity was 
aroused, there was no means of gratifying it. 

With the exception of a couple of chats (Sa.vicola leucopygia Br. and 
8. lugens Licht.), and the Egyptian vulture, no birds were seen. A single 
coney (Hyrax Syriacus H. £ Ehr.) showed himself for a few seconds on 
the summit of Jebel Musa. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Mount Sinai to Akaba. 



Our journeyings from Mount Sinai lay east of north to Akaba, skirting 
and occasionally crossing corners of the Tih plateau. 

Hares were occasionally seen of the little long-eared Sinaitic kind, and 
gazelle tracks were very numerous in Wady Zelegah (Zolakah). The 
lizards already mentioned are plentiful in this wady, and several geckos 
were captured, which proved to be of two species. A snake, Zamenu 
reiitrimaculatus, was safely lodged in my spirit cylinder. 

Wady Zelegah is a noble valley plain about half a mile wide for 
upwards of twenty miles, bounded by precipitous cliffs and mountains. 
Several detours were made into the Tih cliffs on the left of our line of 
march. The chief plants were — Glaucuim arabicum Fres., Capparis 
galeata Fres., Cleome arabica Linn., Ruta tuberculata Forsk., Odonto- 
spermum graveolens S. Bip., Artemisia herba-alba Asso., and vars., Sonchvs 
spinosus Forsk., Verbascum sinaiticum Bth., and for the first time 
Moricandia dumosa Boiss., Capparis spinosa Linn., Iphiona scabra Bel., and 
Inxperata cylindrica Beauv. 

Frequent bags of fossils were obtained in situ for the assistance of the 
Geological Survey. 

In birds, the white wagtail and the little cock-tailed wren-like warbler 
(Drymceca) are the most frequent. Desert larks and shrikes also occur at 
scattered intervals. A very small warbler, Sylvia nana, was shot amongst 
tamarisk bushes. The song of the Drymceca is quite wren-like, but less 
piercing. 

The flora is that of the western side ; Tamarix, Caylusea, Retama, 
Ochradenus, Zilla, Santolina, Artemisia, iErua, Ballota, Stachys, Lavandula, 
Anabasis, of species already mentioned, predominate. Several of the Mount 
Sinai groups of labiates are for the present missing, as also are two or 
three of the Iphiona group of composites. The larger Capparis is very 
frequent, growing on the most arid rocks above the wady flats, where 
nothing else, except perhaps Lavandula coronopifolia Poir., appears able to 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 247 

exist. Capparis galeata is sometimes an erect shrub 6 or 8 feet high, of 
a bright green, differing from the slender trailing blue-foliaged species, 
C. spinosa, which often grows with it. The former is now in fruit, the 
latter barren. 

Camels delight in the larger grasses, in Ochradenus, Zilla, Nitraria, 
Anabasis, and tamarisks. 

At the head of Wady Elain, a grove of tamarisks was plentifully 
indued with an excrescence or exudation of greyish-white pillules of a 
viscid substance, with a faint taste of nucatine. This is the so-called 
" manna of Sinai," which is, I believe, more plentifully obtained from 
Alhagi maurorum B.C. This gum is said to be due to the puncture of a 
small insect. 

Life became more plentiful. Three butterflies were observed : a pale 
blue, a sulphur-yellow with brown under wings, and an admiral. Hornets 
and a long-bodied insect darted about in a broiling sun. I obtained all 
these except the sulphur-yellow butterfly. 

In plants Sttceda monoica Fres., and for the first time the rare Linaria 
macilenta Dene. This spring species was in flower, but the fugaceous 
corolla falls at the slightest touch. Cleome droserifolia Del. was also 
here first obtained. A spring supported a stream that moistened the soil 
for about a mile ere it gradually died a natural death. It led us the way 
into an unexpected and magnificent fissure in the red granite, the Wady 
Elain. For five or six miles the gorge passes between sheer cliffs of this 
richly coloured rock, with a height varying from 500 to 800 feet, and from 
10 to 50 yards wide. It is in some ways the most impressive natural 
feature I have ever beheld. The floor is hard and level, and as the sun 
rarely hits the base of the cleft, many plants remained here in a fresher con- 
dition than elsewhere, and some new varieties were found. I will mention 
the less common species procured in this remarkable sik, or cleft, which 
has rarely been visited : Moricandia sinaica Boiss, M. dumosa Boiss, Cleome 
droserifolia Del., Capparis galeata Fres., Abutilon fruticosuoi G. & P., 
Zygophyllum coccineum Linn., Tephrosia purpurea Pers., Pulicaria 
(Francoeuria) crispa Forsk., Blumea {Erigeron) Bovei B.C., Iphiona scabra 
Bel., Sonckus {Microrhynchus) nudicaulis Linn., Scrophularia deserti Bel., 
Linaria macilenta Bene., Lycium arabicum Schw., Hyoscyamus aureus 
Linn., H. muticum Linn., Ballota Schimperiana Bth., Teucrium sinaicum 
Boiss., Origanum maru Linn., /3 Sinaicum Boiss., Atriplex leucoclada Boiss., 
Typha angustata B. & C, Cyperus lavigatus Linn., et var. junciformis 
Panicum turgidum Forsk., Pennisetum dichotomum Bel., Imperata cylindrica 
Beauv., and forms of Reseda pruinosa Bel., Fagonia cretica L., as well as 
other indeterminable remains. Several of the above are peculiar to Sinai, 
and some mentioned here and elsewhere are now first included in its 
flora. 

It was with misgivings we camped in this wady. Had a " seil " like 
the Rev. F. Holland's memorable one at Feiran visited us, we would have 
assuredly had a bad time. But the expected rain did not yet arrive. 

While we were encamped here we received notice of the arrival of 

T 



248 A NATUEALIST's JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETEA, 

visitors for whom our ever courteous chief prepared coffee. The party, 
consisting of engineers, Colonel Colvile, I believe, and others, passed us at 
speed on the opposite side of the narrow valley without a greeting. 
Suspecting that this impetuous haste, and absence of that courtesy for which 
Englishmen on their travels are so justly famous, arose from ulterior motives, 
Professor Hull summoned a council of war, which resulted in despatching 
our able conductor, Bernard Heilpern, with orders to secure our entitled 
priority to the Akaba Sheikh's camels and services. Bernard passed the 
fugitives in the night, and was entirely successful. 

It was long ere we got clear of this ever widening, slowly rising Wady 
el Tihyeh, which wound through granite hills and lifted us out of Wady 
Elain. Our height above sea-level varied between 2,500 and 3,000 feet. 
Acacias are numerous, chiefly A. seyal. This small tree, when not too flat- 
topped, as is commoidy the case, has at a little distance a close resemblance 
to our hawthorn, with its gnarled and twisted stem and rugged bark. 
The granite hills, usually capped with a stratum of sandstone, are barren 
in the extreme. Daemia cordata and Tephrosia purpurea are the only 
noteworthy species. 

Hey's sand partridges are frequent, and good to eat. All seen as yet 
are of the one species. They rarely fly until almost walked on, trusting 
for escape to their close resemblance in colour to the shingle and rocks 
they inhabit. Until they run, which they do with rapidity, they would 
be most difficult to observe. Nevertheless they often betray themselves 
by their sharp cry of alarm. The Bedouin then, swift, stealthy, and bare- 
footed, gets easily amongst them, for they seem more alarmed by a noise 
than by the human figure. The Bedouin flint lock is, however, slow and 
dignified in its performance, and usually affords abundant time for escape 
from its uncertain discharge. 

Rock-pigeons and martins (Columba Schimperi Bp., Cotyle rupestris 
Scop.) were seen in Wady Elain. 

All about the caper is frequent. The Arabs eat the ripe red fruit and 
seeds. I tasted it but did not continue to eat it. The skin is like mustard, 
and the seeds like black pepper. 

In a marshy place at the head of Wady Elain, amongst palms and 
tamarisks, Typha angustata was 12 to 14 feet high ; Erigeron Bovei 6 or 
7 feet high, well branched and with many flowers, and Phragmites gigantea 
was fully 15 feet high. 

The pricklier plants, Acacias, Acanthodium, Gymnocarpum, &c, are 
commoner in a general sense on the granite and sandstone than on the 
limestone. 

In a very dirty well, Bir es Sowrah, near the base of Jebel Aradeh, 
Chara hispida Linn, occurred, and with it Juncus maritimus Lam., fiarabictis, 
palms and capers. 

On the summit of Jebel Aradeh there was no vegetation, and in the 
limestone now lying above the sandstone numerous cretaceous fossils were 
obtained. A single white butterfly (Pieris sp.) was the only living thing. 
I estimated the height of this mountain 3,400 feet. It is about 1,300 feet 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 249 

above the plain, and forms a most conspicuous object. Like others, except 
those of granite, in this region, it is crumbling away and turning to dust 
on all sides. The beds of chalk and flints are much disintegrated, while 
all the outer surface of the lower limestone is on the move. 

The only plants were Gymnocarpum, Reaumuria, Capparis, Acantho- 
dium, and Lavandula of the usual kinds. 

We are here in a little known and unsurveyed region. Consequently 
there is abundant work for the engineering section of our party. Very 
few travellers have passed this way since Laborde's time, and I was sorely 
disappointed to find on the tableland we were now entering there was 
little living vegetation, although abundant withered evidence of a sparse 
but varied flora. 

This tableland is called here Jebel Hirteh, and is, properly speaking, a 
portion of the Tih plateau which becomes indefinite at its south-eastern 
border. A fine oval plain, Wady Hessih, about three to five miles broad, 
literally abounded in lizards, and here I killed another Zamenis, a sand- 
coloured snake about 4 feet long. A large-headed Arachnid (Sparacis sp.) 
is also very abundant, and seems to form food for some of the numerous 
chats and larks. Small flocks of sparrows, Passer hispaniohnsis Temn., 
occurred here, while there is usually a raven or a vulture in sight. 

This wady, now clad with withered scraps, is a favourite pasturing 
place later on for the Bedouins' flocks. I gathered here Tribidus a'atus 
D.C., Anastatica hierochuntina Linn., Zygophyllum dwmosum Boiss., Lotus 
lanuginosus Linn., Ifioga spicata Forsk., Filago prostrata Parlai., Linaria 
floribunda Boiss., Verbascum sinuatum Linn., Heliotropium undulatum 
Vahl., Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss., Plantago ovata Forsk., Panicum 
Teyierifce R. Br., and Aristida ccerulescens Desf. These had not been 
previously met with. Other interesting species not recently seen were 
Farsetia cegyptiaca Turr., Reseda pruinosa Turr., Polycarpcea prostrata 
Dene., Helianthemum Lippii Pers., Atractylis flava Desf., Zygophyllum 
album Linn., and others of commoner sorts. 

In these depressions of the plateau, where water and soil are of more 
frequent occurrence, there is an abundance of greyish scrub, short, thin 
and interrupted, and composed chiefly of Zygophyllum dumosum, Anabasis 
(Salsola), Articulata, Ephedra alte and Atriplices, Nitraria, Zilla, Eetem, 
and sometimes tamarisk. 

Sonchus nudicaulis Linn., Dcemia cordata Br., Gomphocarpus and 
Lindenbergia still occur. 

I endeavoured to obtain the Arabic names of the commoner species, 
and to confirm them from the mouths of two or more Bedouins. These 
names so obtained rarely agree with those I find quoted in Forskahl, 
Boissier, Tristram, and others. It is probable that every tribe has its own 
plant-names. 

An Arab informs me that " boothum," a tree growing on Jebel Serbal 
and nowhere else, with a stony fruit, is used, its leaves being boiled as a 
cure for rheumatism, an infirmity to which the Arabs are martyrs. I sus- 
pect the plant to be Crataegus a run ia. Also that saf saf (Salix safsaf Forsk. or 

t 2 



250 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

Populus euphratica Linn.) is the wood in demand for charcoal to colour their 
gunpowder. This they obtain in the valley between Jebel Musa and 
Jebel Catharine as well as on the latter mountain. The proportions of 
their gunpowder are — one part sulphur, four parts saltpetre, and a little 
charcoal to colour. 

Anastatica hierochuntina Linn., " Kaf Maryam," or Rose of Jericho, 
was first seen here, and becomes common to Akaba and northwards 
to the Ghor es Safieh. Ephedra alte is the most characteristic and 
abundant species. Acacias are almost absent. We are on a limestone 
tableland with occasional outcrops of sandstone. Once on 3uch an outcrop 
a single shrub of Acacia seyal occurred. In exposed situations these acacia 
bushes, formed like a table with its single leg much nearer one side than 
the middle, point with their overhanging part in the direction of the 
prevailing wind. On reaching the granite pass into Akaba the acacias 
again become abundant, but their absence above may be partly explained 
by the exposed situation. 

Camels eat even the milky asclepiads, as Daemia, which is said to be 
highly poisonous. Heliotropium arbainense Fres. was first met with by 
the Haj route from Cairo to Akaba, which we were now close to. 

Those two especially nauseous species, Peganum and Ruta, are very 
frequent. The smell of the former is like that of our hound's tongue, the 
latter reminded me of some kind of wood-bug, which I collected in an evil 
moment in the scaffolding of the Milan Cathedral. Cleome droserifolia 
Del. smells like a fox. Other species here are Malta rotundifolia Linn., 
Linaria macilenta Dene., Deverra tortuosa Gosrtn., and ^Eruajavanica Juss. 

On the 29th November we descended a magnificent gorge between 
granite and limestone by the Haj road to Akaba, which takes its name 
(Akaba, " steep descent ") from this entrance. The ever varying peeps of 
the gorgeously blue gulf of Akaba shining in an intense sunlight were a 
most refreshing change from the desert. The rich purple colouring of 
the lofty mountains of Midian formed a noble background. 



CHAPTER V. 

Akaba. 

At Akaba we remained from November 29th to December 8th. I in- 
creased my collection here considerably. The flora displayed several fresh 
species. Bird life was more plentiful, and a large collection of shells was 
made on the beach. These, consisting of upwards of 200 species, including 
those from Suez, I have had determined by Mr. G. B. Sowerby, and 
amongst them are many which do not appear to have been admitted as 
inhabitants of the Red Sea. 

Akaba, even at this season, was oppressively hot. A swim in the sea, 
or rather a crawl amongst the coral reefs, about 3 feet below the surface, 
was delightful. Farther out sharks abound. 

The straggling Arab village lies at the south-eastern corner of the 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 251 

plain which forms at once the head of the gulf and the southern end of 
the Wady Araba. This is the narrowest part of the wady, being not 
more than five or six miles across. 

A very fine tree of Acacia tortilis Haync stands close by. On the 
coast are many clumps of the date palm, interspersed with a very few trees 
of the doum palm (Hyphame thebaica Del.), already noticed here by Mr. 
Redhead. The doum palm, a native of tropical Africa, Nubia, and 
Abyssinia, finds its northern limit at Akaba. 

In the enclosures here I noticed nubk (Zizyphus), henna (Lawsonia), 
palms, tamarinds {Tamarindus indicaL.), pudding pipe (Cassia fistula?), 
figs, and several kinds of gourds. Most esculents were still invisible or in 
a seedling state. 

There is but one boat at Akaba. Laurence and I succeeded in hiring 
this with a native fisherman, with two Arabs, nets and lines. There were 
many flying fish (Exoccetus) about. We first rowed across the corner of 
the gulf and lauded on the sandy beach, where the two Arabs landed and 
with a circular casting net captured some small fish (" Akadi " and 
" Sahadan ") for bait. With these and some loose stones, about a pound 
weight each, we rowed out a few miles. The bait fish, broken in three, is 
affixed to the hook and one of these stones is hitched to the line a little 
above with a slip-knot. On reaching the bottom a couple of violent jerks 
dismiss the sinker and let the line swing free. We caught fish rapidly, 
" hedjib," at Suez called " jar," " gamar " (a species of Chaetodon ?), and one 
splendid red fish they called "bossiah," without scales, and very good 
to eat. We also hooked a shark, " Zitani," about 5 feet long, who amused 
us for a time and then carried off the line. 

Before dismissing our Towarah Bedouins I had endeavoured to pump 
them of what little information they j)Ossessed about the feral inhabitants 
of Sinai. They knew of leopards on Serbal andUmm Shaumer ; wolves in 
Wady Lebweh and neighbourhood ; hyaenas, ibexes, gazelles, hares, jerboas, 
rats, and mice made up their total. Their sheep they say were imported 
from Arabia ; they have a few donkeys and camels ; their goats are a 
distinct breed which they are especially proud of. Five kinds of snakes 
they admitted, all of which were poisonous ! The one I caught in Wady 
Zelegah, Zamenis ventrimaculatus, attains a full size of 5 or 6 feet. These 
remarks I set down to be taken for what they are worth. 

Dr. Hull captured a handsome little snake here, and handed it over 
to me ; it proved to be Zamenis elegantissimus, and is now in the British 
Museum. 

The birds obtained at Akaba were — Cercomela melanura Temn., 
Cyanecula ca>rulescens Pall., Argya squamiceps Rupp., Motacilla alba Linn., 
M. flava Linn., Pycnonotus xanthopygus Hemp. & Ehr., Lanius fallax 
Finsch., Passer hispaniolensis Temn., jEgialitis asiatica Pall., Tringoides 
hypoleucos Linn., and several larks and chats already mentioned. Ravens, 
crows, martins, rock-pigeons and the little gull, Larus minutus L., were also 
observed. Vultures and English swallows were frequently to be seen, the 
former usually of the Egyptian species. 



252 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

Not many identifiable plants occurred here which had not been pre- 
viously seen. These are — Cassia acutifolia B.C., C. obovata Coll., 
Onobrychis Ptolemaica Del., Tephrosia apollinea Del., Artemisia mono- 
sperma Del., Statice pruinosa Linn., Salvia deserti Dene., Boerhavia 
plumbagiiiea Cav., Calligonum comosum L'Her., Atriplex crystallina 
Ehr., and Andropogon foveolatus Del. A few other less common species 
may also be mentioned : — Lotononis Leobordea Linn., Tephrosia purpurea 
Pers., Sonehus spinosus D.C., Cucumis prophetarum Linn., Linaria macilenta 
Dene., Trichodesma africanum, R. Br., Ileliotr opium arbainense Fres. 
Forskahlea, Andrachne, Panicum, and others. .Along the shore in some 
places is a close growth of Nitrara, tridentata, Atriplex leucoclada Boiss., 
A. Iialimus Linn., Juncus maritimus Linn., var. arabica and others. 
Cressa cretica is a characteristic species along the shore on the saline flats. 

Gathering shells where such an abundance of, to me, novel forms 
occurred was enthusiastically pursued. I shall not here deal with this 
subject in any detail, but merely mention the principal genera met with. 
These were mostly univalves, bivalves being scarcer in species, and 
infinitely fewer in individuals. Great numbers of opercula of a Turbo, 
pretty polished little hemispherical bodies retaining the spiral lines of 
structure, pens of calamaries, and the delicate vitreous wingshells of 
pteropods occurred, as well as a large variety of fragments of coral. 
Conus, Cei'ithium, Strombus, Cypnea, Mitra, Triton amongst univalves ; 
Area, Pectunculus, Tridacna, Chama, and Venus amongst bivalves, were 
the best represented genera. Drift shells are rarely disturbed, the tide 
being ajjparently not above a foot in range at Akaba. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Akaba to Mount Hor. 

At Akaba we have left the Sinaitic peninsula ; from here we turned 
northwards up the Wady Arabah. Happily we had occasion henceforth 
to travel more slowly, in order to give the surveying party time to keep 
pace with us. I was thus enabled to make wide detours east and west out 
of the Arabah, but my inclination lay chiefly eastwards into the precipitous 
borderland of Edom. 

In the Wady Arabah I saw gazelles several times ; Wady Menaiyeh, 
on the west, maybe mentioned as a good hunting ground. These graceful 
animals seemed more at home on the west side, abounding on the Judtean 
wilderness, and all over the Tih plateau. Ibexes, on the other hand, 
appeared more frequently on the higher mountain declivities of Edom to 
the east. Hyaenas, judging from their tracks, must be plentiful ; once I 
had a good view of one, and quickened his lolloping pace with a fusilade 
from revolver and fowling-piece. At El Taba, on the east side, about 
twenty-five miles north of Akaba, a fruitful, marshy jjlaee with a deep 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 253 

spring, I saw perfectly fresh tracks of "ninir," or leopard, and subsequently, 
at Ain Abuweirideh, Laurence came on fresh remains of some beast 
which had served apparently a meal for these animals. A hare, the 
Sinaitic species, was killed a few miles north of Akaba. A much larger 
hare, L. cegyptiacus, was seen several times on the eastern declivity of the 
Till. My frequent failure in bringing down game and specimens I 
attributed partly to my having been unable to land English cartridges 
or powder in Egypt, and being dependent on very worthless and very 
expensive ones procured in Cairo. I would recommend all sporting 
travellers to run any risk in smuggling sooner than let this occur to them. 

The Wady Arabah abounds in rodents. These animals appear to be 
chiefly nocturnal in their habits, and are very seldom seen. The number 
of holes and the abundance of their tracks is truly astonishing. Their 
colours are usually in strict harmony with the desert, for the Wady Arabah 
is some ten to thirteen miles across, and more correctly called a desert than 
most parts of Sinai. Jerboas were seen a few times, and Gerbilles, of 
which I trapped one, appear to be most numerous. 

Birds have increased in numbers and variety. From El Taba 
northwards, about twenty-five miles from Akaba, a grove of acacias 
(chiefly A. tortilis Hayne), and a little Zizyphus, stretches about ten miles 
along the eastern edge of the Arabah. A smaller grove occurs nearer 
Akaba at the mouth of Wady el Ithm, where I first met with the 
" hopping-thrush." In the larger grove the handsome Loranthus acacice 
Zucc. abounds. 

Several times I endeavoured to get a shot at a small bird here which 
uttered a sharp little note, new to me, but I was unsuccessful. Mr. 
Armstrong, who was with me that day, and is well skilled in Palestine 
birds, recognised it, having also seen the bird, as the little Sunbird, 
Cinnyris Osece. Subsequently, when I reached the Ghor, I obtained 
several specimens and recognised the note at once. This species has not 
been detected south of the Ghor, where it was first made known, like the 
hopping-thrush, by Canon Tristram. 

The Sunbird probably follows the Loranthus, to whose flowers it 
appears attached. Its long bill reaches the base of the tubular flower, 
searching for honey, and it thus probably secures their cross-fertilization. 
One was shot in the Gh6r in the act of doing so, its bill being covered 
with the pollen of the Loranthus. 1 

The hopping-thrush (Argya Squamiceps) is a remarkably weak flier, 
hardly leaving the ground except in tremendous jumps, which cause his 
large fan-shaped tail to overbalance and almost overturn him as he makes 
a pause. He is a most grotesque bird ; nevertheless the mournful cries of 
one when I had shot his mate impressed me with a different feeling. 

Palestine bulbuls were occasionally seen here also. Hooded chats, 

1 Since writing the above I find that Burton has seen the Sunbird, almost 
certainly this species, about five degrees from this southwards, in Midian. " Laud 
of Midian," vol. ii. 



254 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETBA, 

Persian larks, and desert larks were frequent, and large flocks of sparrows 
assembled about us in several places. 

The floor of the wady is sometimes alive with geckos, lizards, and ants, 
as well as numbers of long-winged males of a Persian species of white 
ant, Hoeotermes vagans Sag., not yet able to fly, over which the hopping- 
thrushes fall into inconceivable excitement. 

The first bee I met with was captured here, and small beetles are often 
sacrificed to the good of science. I spare the reader the enumeration of 
their scientific names, which will be given fully at the close. 

At El Tabah occurred a greensward of Cynodon dactylon Linn. In or near 
the grove already spoken of were Cocculas Leceba, B.C.,Fagonia myriacantha 
Boiss., Scrophularia deserti Del., Loranthus acacice Ziccc, Salsola fostida 
Forsl:, Eragrostis cynosuroides Retz., and commoner sorts. In the open 
sandier wady, Glaucium arabicum Fres. Gypsophila Rokejeka Bel., 
Monsonia nivea Bene., Microrhynchus nudicaidis, Linn., Iphiona scabra 
Bel., Citridlus colocyntkis, Schr., Cleome droserifolia Bel., Cucumis, 
Pancratium, Danthonia, Trichodesma, Andrachne, Forskahlea, Anabasis, 
and Tamarisk form almost the whole vegetation. 

In some places the wady is spanned by rolling wastes of sand dunes 
10 to 12 feet high. These appear to have been formed around the bases 
of clumps of tamarisk and anabasis, which is here very tall, 6 to 8 feet high 
or more. 

Ochradenus baccatus is very abundant, often overtopping the acacias 
by whose protection from camels it thrives. Lycium europseum and one 
or two grasses escape being cropped in the same manner, and grow to an 
unwonted size. 

On the 7th December a long day's climbing with Laurence brought 
us to the head of Wady Ghurundel in Edom. This was at a height of 
about 1,800 feet above sea-level, six miles east from the Arabah. The 
scenery on the way was superb. Huge blocks of red sandstone, 800 to 
1,000 feet high, towered above us, sometimes sheer and tottering in broken 
masses from the main cliffs behind. We passed a spring with a few date- 
palms, and a little higher a large bulb with broad leaves ( Urginea scilla 
Steinh ?) first appeared and soon became abundant. It was not yet in 
flower. Bianthus multipunctatus Ser., Eryngium sp., Odontospermuiii 
pygmoeus Cav., Cotula cinerea Bel., Solanum nigrum Linn. (var. moscha- 
tuni), Satureia cuneifolia Ten., forma, Boerhavea verticillata Besf., Ficus 
sycamorus Linn., Traganum nudatum Bel., Aristida ciliata Besf., appeared 
for the first time. The Odontospermum (Astericus), which occurred at a 
considerable height, was a little woody button representing the hardened 
flower head, which was usually solitary and close to the ground. This 
plant, like Anastatica, has hygrometric properties, and has been put 
forward by Michon as the true Eose of Jericho of the travellers of the 
middle ages. Anastatka hierochuntina will not, however, be readily 
deprived of its claims. 

Besides the above, which were all gathered farther on, some plants 
of more limited range occurred : Moricandia dumosa Boiss., Abutilon 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 255 

fruticosum G. & P., Varthamia montana Vahl., Tphiona scabra Del., 
Centaurea scoparia Sieb., Iphiona juniperifolia Coss., Ballota undulata 
Fres., and others already met with. 

Judging from the abundance of its burdike carpels lying in the dry 
watercourses, Calligonum comosum is the most abundant shrub ; it is now 
in a withered condition. Several other bulbous species which occurred 
here are as yet undetermined. A stiff scramble brought me back to the 
Arabah by a more northern valley. Amongst land shells, helices of four 
species were gathered in Wady Ghurundel. 



CHAPTER VII. 



Petra and Mount Hor ; Wadies Haroun (Abou Kosheibeh), 
and Musa ; Jebel Abou Kosheibeh. 

The last valley has shown us some characteristic Sinaitic species extending 
their range north-eastwards across the great valley of the Arabah. Several 
more will appear in the group of localities now to be considered. Were I 
to hazard a suggestion here, it would be that these plants, formerly 
considered peculiar to Sinai, have had their origin more eastwards, and 
have spread, like many other Arabian plants, in a westerly direction. 

Owing to the greater moisture found in the upper part of some of the 
valleys of the Edomitic escarpment, there is a greater variety of species 
and a sprinkling of ferns, mosses, and lichens. These are mostly more 
northern forms, spreading southwards at high levels. 

We are now entering a district which Canon Tristram has somewhat 
liberally included in Palestine. The flora has its own peculiar plants as 
well as a large proportion of southern or Sinaitic species, and thus it adds 
many to the Palestine flora. I will first speak of the w T adies, and then of 
Mount Hor and Petra. The latter places, I think, have not been botanised 
previously to my visit, and are visited only with difficulty and expense, 
owing to the cupidity and lawlessness of tbe sturdy beggars or Bedouins 
who dwell there. 

Irby and Mangles, Commanders in the Royal Navy, travelling in 1816- 
1820, were the first Europeans who visited these regions in modern times. 
Further on I will quote a few remarks from their most interesting volume, 
since I find no other allusions to the vegetation of the ancient capital of 
the Nabatkseans. 

The following plants not previously seen were gathered in Wady Abou 
Kosheibeh (Wady Haroun), and on the Jebel or peaked mountain which 
stands in a commanding position across its head : — Fumaria micrantha 
Laq., Erodium hirtum Forsk., Poterium verrticosum ? JShr., Anvillcea 
Garcini B.C., Carthamus glauca M.B., C. lanatus Linn., G. aralnca, J. & S. 
Podonosma syriaca Lab., Nerium Oleander Linn., Pentatropus spiralis, 
Forsk., Boucerosia, sp. nov.?, Salvia agyptiaca Linn., Juniper us plwenicea, 



256 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

Linn., Bellevallia flexuosa Boiss., Asparagus aphyllus Linn., Asphodelus 
ramosus Linn., Pennisetum cenchroides Rich., Cheilanthes odora Sw., and 
JVotholcena lanuginsa, Desf. Of these, Globularia, Podonosma, Boucerosia, 
Juniperus, and the two ferns were obtained above the wady amongst the 
cliffs of Jebel Abou Kosheibeh, from about 3,000 to 3,500 feet above sea- 
level. 

The Globularia is a pretty compact little shrub, with blue heads of 
flowers and small entire leaves ; the species here is the Arabian form, 
G. arabica, perhaps hardly distinct from G. alypum L. of the Mediter- 
ranean. 

The two Asclepiads, Boucerosia and Pentatropis, are both frequent ; 
the latter is probably P. spiralis, but as it was not in flower, Mr. Oliver 
would not sj^eak positively. It occurred again at the Ghor, trailing over 
acacias. 

The Boucerosia may be B. aucheriana Dene., an insufficiently described 
plant from Muscat in South-East Arabia, which is also the nearest known 
habitat for the Pentratropis. 

On Jebel Abou Kosheibeh were also gathered — Moricandia dumosa 
Boiss., Oomphocarpus sinaiticus Boiss., Ilelianthenum Lippii Pers., 
Cotyledon umbilicus ? Linn., Linaria macilenta Dene., Verbascum sinuatum 
Linn., Phlomis aurea Dene., and Boerhavea verticillata, Poir. 

Many desert species of Reaumuria, Ochradenus, Zygophyllum, Morettia, 
Zilla, Acacia, Retama, Ruta, Ifloga, Lycium, Trichodesma, Forskahlea, 
Asphodelus, Anabasis, Ephedra, and grasses already mentioned, occur 
also in Wady Haroun, the name which the Bedouins invariably give this 
wady. 

It will thus be seen that there is no appreciable break as yet in the 
continuity of the Sinaitic flora as we travel up the Wady Arabah, but an 
increase of species from eastwards and northwards. 

The Wady Haroun is at first wide and arid, but after a few mile3 
vegetation rajndly increases with moister conditions. The flanks of the 
Edomitic limestone plateau are better supplied with moisture than the 
Sinaitic granite. Banks by the edge of this valley at a moderate elevation, 
1,000 to 1,500 feet above sea-level, had a sparse coating of mosses and 
other cryptogams. The mosses were chiefly of the Tortula genus, of 
which five species were collected. Side by side with these grow the 
desert species above mentioned in great luxuriance. Demia cordata, for 
instance, climbed to a height of 10 or 12 feet in retem bushes ; the 
support being as well developed as the climbing plant. In the open 
desert, Dsemia, as mentioned by Mr. Redhead, lies sprawling on the 
ground, its several stems sometimes closely twisted into a thong towards 
their extremity, so that all circulation is stopped, and the young shoots 
are strangled. This is probably due to changed conditions having de- 
prived it of its normal support, which it rarely finds in the desert, and 
eveu seems there to have lost the power of utilising. For I have seen it 
strangling itself side by side with bushes of the very sort which here gave 
it so much assistance. The desert plant was more plentifully milky, and 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 257 

we have here seen at work agencies which are giving rise to a modified 
form, in better harmony with its environment. 

From the summit of Jebel Abou Kosheibeh, which I climbed with 
Dr. Hull, an unusual sight was observed : a stream, small in size, but 
containing a good body of water, rushing down the cliff's about half a mile to 
the south-eastward. I could distinguish with my spy-glass the growth of 
arundos and oleanders that fringed its banks, but unfortunately there was 
no time to examine it more closely. Running water was once seen 
before on Jebel Musa. 

The juniper is a well-shaped bush or small tree, with a trunk some- 
times a foot in diameter. It gives a considerable area of shade with its 
dark close foliage. A large specimen occurs immediately below the 
summit, and I could see it on all the highlands around, even at the summit 
of Mount Hor, which looked but a little distance off. 

On the 10th of December we made the ascent of Mount Hor, returning 
to camp the same day by Petra. Our camp was fixed near the mouth of 
WMy Haroun. Although having made an early start (4 a.m.), the visit was 
necessarily a very hurried one. While waiting for a cloud to lift from the 
summit of Mount Hor for the benefit of the theodolite party, I had time, 
however, to make a good gathering of the bulbous plants, now just showing 
their leaves, with which the upper part of this mountain abounds. 

The view from Mount Hor, whose height I estimated by aneroid at 
4,400 feet, is a disappointing one, and bears no sort of comparison with 
those from the Sinai peaks. This defect is due to the adjoining high and 
monotonous tableland of Edom, which obscures one side of the horizon. 
This tableland averages perhaps 5,000 feet in height in the eastern 
neighbourhood of Mount Hor, and is composed of the unvarying and 
unpicturesque white cretaceous limestone. It lowers northwards, and 
I afterwards reached its outer edge. In some places it has quite a forest 
of vegetation. 

With regard to Mount Hor, Irby and Mangles write : "Much juniper 
grows on the mountain, almost to the very summit, and many flowering 
plants, which we had not observed elsewhere ; most of them are thorny 
and some are very beautiful." 

As Mount Sinai is a mountain of labiates, so Mount Hor is a mountain 
of bulbs. The number of species and individuals of these orders respec- 
tively vividly coloured my impression of the botanical features of each of 
these sacred peaks. At the same time many of the Mount Sinai plants, 
labiates included, occur on Mount Hor. On Mount Sinai I procured 
bulbs of a single species, a total of three perhaps occurring. On Mount 
Hor I gathered at least twenty sorts. 

In the upper 1,000 feet of Mount Hor a considerable accession of 
Mediterranean or more northern forms appear. A more interesting group 
is that of plants which have been considered absolutely peculiar to Sinai. 
Both these lists, which I here append, would no doubt be swelled by 
observations at a more seasonable visit. 



258 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

Northern species ranging south to Mount Hor : — 

Dianthua multipunctatus Ser. 
1 Geraniiun tuberosum Linn. 
Pistacia palaestina Boiss. 

Bhamnus punctata Boiss., var., barren (sp. nov. ?). 
Paronychia argentea Lam. 
Bryonia syriaca Boiss. 
Galium canum Beg. 
Scrophularia heterophylla Willd. 
Sternbergia macrantha Gay. 
Colchicum montanum Linn. 
C. Steveni Kunth. (also on Mount Sinai). 
Urginea scilla Steimih. 
Bellevalia flexuosa Boiss. 
Asphodelus fistulosa Linn. 
Asparagus aphyllus Linn. 
A. acutifolius Linn. 
Arum, sp. ? 
Carex stenophylla Vahl. 

No doubt many of these occur on the Edomitic plateau, whose botany 
is practically unknown. 

Sinaitic species discovered on Mount Hor : — 

Moricaudia dumosa Boiss. 
Pterocephalus sanctus Dene. 
Echinops glaberrinus D.C. 
Varthamia montana Vahl. 
Celsia parviflora Dene. 
Origanum maru Linn., /3 sinaicum. 
Phlomis aurea Dene. 
Teucrium sinaicum Boiss. 

These have been considered peculiar to Sinai. They may now be 
included in the flora of Palestine. 

A consideration of the latter group is especially interesting when 
considering the ancestral origin of the more local or endemic portion of the 
Sinai flora ; and it also gives us a slight clue to the probable nature of the 
flora of the little known region east and south-east of Mount Hor. Judg- 
ing from an appendix of species of plants collected by Burton's expedition 
to " The Land of Midian," the flora of the upper regions of Sinai is more 
nearly allied to that of Edom to the north of east, than to that of Midian 
in the south-east. The Gulf of Akaba has formed a barrier in the latter 
case. 

Of the bulbous species, here as elsewhere, I can only enumerate a 
portion. The bulk of those gathered were in leaf, and were brought 
home to Mr. Burbidge, of the College Botanic Gardens in Dublin, under 
whose care many are now growing, but have not flowered. 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 259 

The arboreal vegetation of Mount Hor was confined to the summit, 
and consisted of a bladder-senna, Colutea aleppica Lam., a turpentine tree, 
Pistacia palcestina Boiss., and a juniper, Juniperus phoenicea Linn. Each of 
these was about 10 or 12 feet high. The Ehamnus already mentioned 
was very much stunted. 

At Petra two new species were discovered, which will be described in 
another place. One was a Galium allied to O. jungermanniodes Boiss., 
and pronounced new by Mons. Boissier. It is a low straggling matted 
species, with the habit of our Asperula cynanchica. It occurred in the 
"Sik." The other new species was a Daphne, an erect shrub 6 or 7 feet 
high, with long linear leaves, reddish-brown berries, and small cream- 
coloured flowers. The fibre is remarkably stringy and tough. The 
Daphne is allied to D. acuminata and D. mucronata, but differs materially 
from both these species. It occurred, in flower and fruit, on the slopes 
of Mount Hor, about a mile from Petra, and again at intervals lower 
down. The Boucerosia, already mentioned as being perhaps an un- 
described species, was found on Mount Hor in flower in several places. 

Many unrecognisable fragments of Umbellifers, scrophulariaceous 
plants, grasses, and others were noticed at Petra, and the botany will yield 
a good harvest to any one arriving at a proper season, and with sufficient 
leisure. My time in Petra was somewhat under an hour ! 

The following plants not previously met with, were gathered at Petra 
and Mount Hor : — Biplotaxis pendula B.C. Ononis vaginalis Vahl., Rubia 
peregrina Linn., Inula viscosa Besf., Zollikoferia casinianm Jaub., Thymelcea 
hirsuta Linn., Salsola rigida Pall., S. inermis Forsk., Noma spinosissima 
Moq., Polygonum equisetiforme J. & S., Allium sinaiticum Boiss. Asplenium 
ceterach Linn., Andropogon hirtus Linn., in addition to those already 
mentioned as reaching here a southern limit, and the Abou Kosheibeh 
lants, which also, as a rule, occur on Mount Hor. 

The majority of these additions occurred from about 3,000 feet to the 
summit. I extract a few notes from my journal on this subject. 

At 3,000 feet Oleander and tamarisk cease, Scilla abundant ; at 3,450 feet 
Thymeloea (Passerina) first occurs ; at 3,750 feet numerous species occur, 
as Pterocephalus, Globularia, Onosma, Juniperus, Ceterach, Cheilanthes, 
Fagonia, Cotyledon, Capparis spinosa, Varthamia montana, Phlomis, 
Ononis, Deverra, Moricandia dumosa, Rhamnus as I ascend ; at or near 
the summit (4,400 feet about) are Geranium, Colutea, Pistacia, Pennisetum 
cenchroides, Hyoscyamus aureus, Nopea, Poterium spinosum, Scilla, Malva, 
Carex, Ephedra, Zollikoferia, Echinops, Verbascum sinuatum, Origanum 
Ajuga tridactylites, Arum sp., Bryonia, Sternbergia, and Colchicum, of 
species already mentioned. 

Of "Wady Musa, in which Petra is situated, Irby and Mangles write : 
"Following this defile farther down, the river reappears, flowing 
with considerable rapidity. Though the water is plentiful, it is with 
difficulty that its course can be followed from the luxuriance of the 
shrubs that surround it obstructing every track. Besides the oleander, 
which is common to all the watercourses in the country, one may 



260 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

recognise among the plants which choke this valley, some which are 
probably the descendants of those that adorned the gardens and supplied 
the market of the capital of Arabia : the carob, fig, mulberry, vine and 
pomegranate line the river side ; a very beautiful species of aloe also grows 
in this valley, bearing a flower of an orange hue shaded to scarlet ; in some 
instances it had upwards of one hundred blossoms in a bunch." Several of 
these were not observed by us. Of the aloe I can give no information. 

At Petra, 2,900 feet above sea-level by my aneroid, many of these and 
others occurred ; the most prominent were Phlomis, Ononis, Thymelsea, 
Rubia, Ehamnus, Pistacia, Inula, Sternbergia, Bellevallia, Eumex roseus, 
Verbascum sinaiticum, Ficus sycamorus, and a stunted pinnate-leaved 
shrub or small tree, perhaps a Fraxinus. The Ononis, very viscid, with 
pretty yellow and claret coloured veined flowers, was very abundant. So 
also was Thymekea. Sternbergia (Colchicum) macrantha was glorious 
with flowers of golden yellow, as large as a lemon. 

Few observations on animal life were obtained in this hurried visit, 
but these were all of interest. 

Ibexes and gazelles were seen on Mount Hor, and a hare of the 
Egyptian variety fled from Wady Haroun at our approach. Another, 
seen at Petra, much lighter in colour, may have been the Nubian form. 

When climbing Jebel Abou Kosheibeh, a clear loud flute-like whistle 
attracted my attention. The first few times I heard it I was fully 
persuaded it was a signal to warn those rascally Petra Bedouins that 
hated Christians were invading their domain. But I presently saw the 
whistle belonged to a bird, which proved to be Tristram's Grakle. This 
species, originally discovered by Tristram about the Dead Sea, has since 
been found in Sinai at Wady Feiran by Wyatt, who also met it at Petra. 
All the time we were on this mountain several of these birds kept flying 
around us, often displaying the orange spot on the wing as they hovered 
close by. Their flight is very graceful, sometimes hovering butterfly-like, 
sometimes swift and undulating in large curves like the chough. Grakles 
were seen afterwards a little above Petra, and a flock of a dozen or 
thereabouts circled round the summit of Mount Hor, disappearing and 
reappearing from the corners of the red sandstone cliffs, and giving notice 
of their presence with their melodious whistle. This is probably a 
favourite breeding place with these birds. It was not until I reached 
the Dead Sea that I obtained a specimen. 

At Petra also occurred the Palestine bulbul, and the rich musical cry of 
the fantail raven, Corvus affinis Hupp., was almost incessant while we were 
there. Nevertheless this bird hardly came nearer than two or three 
hundred yards, and would be difficult to obtain. By its note and by its 
size, and by its broad expanded tail seen on the wing, I was assured of the 
species on referring to Canon Tristram's work. This raven and the 
grakle are two of that author's characteristic birds of the Dead Sea basin. 
Hey's sand-partridge, shrikes, and desert larks are also not unfrequent, 
the latter lower down towards the Arabah. 

To Laurence's sharp sight I was indebted for two snakes, Zamenis 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 261 

clifordii Schleg. and Rhyncocalamus melanoeephalus Gitnt. The latter 
species was believed peculiar to the Jordan Valley, where it was found by 
Tristram, and forms as yet the single representative of the genus founded 
for it by Dr. Gunther. The former has not hitherto been found outside 
the African continent. 

A centipede (Scolopendra) and a black millipede (Spirostreptus) four 
or five inches long, but fortunately torpid, were captured here. The 
latter seemed to be very common. 

"Wells, which I often searched with a net, yield, as a rule, no life except 
small leeches and the larvae of gnats. Some handsome insects of the 
Grasshopper and cricket sorts were captured from time to time. 

Up to this very few mollusca have been collected. Helix seetzeni Koch 
and H. candidissima Drop, were found in one or two places in Sinai. The 
latter was again met with in Wady Ghurundel in Edom, where I found 
also H. prophetarum Bourg., II. filia Mouss., and the handsome species 
H. spiriplana Oliv. On Mount Hor this last was frequent, and another 
fine shell, Bidimus cameiis Pfr., was here first found. Most of these 
became commoner down to the Ghor. At Petra, and in the Arabah, I 
collected also Helix ccespitum Hrap., a rare species. This scarcity of land 
shells is paralleled on the eastern side of the Gulf of Akaba in the land 
of Midian, where Captain Burton speaks of them as very rare, and 
mentions that he only met with two species in four months. In its 
natural history this little known country appears to be (judging from 
Captain Burton's work) almost identical with Sinai. 



CHAPTEB VIII. 

Wady Haroun to the Dead Sea. 



The mouth of Wady Haroun into the Arabah is" somewhat more than 
halfway from Akaba to the Dead Sea. The watershed between the Dead 
Sea and the Gulf of Akaba is nearer to Akaba. We estimated its lowest 
point at 660 feet above sea-level. It lies on the west side of the Arabah. 
At the mouth of Wady Haroun the Arabah is at its widest, being about 
thirteen miles across. The total distance from Akaba to the Dead Sea is 
112 miles. 

My chief detour in this part of the Arabah was on the east side, up 
a long valley to the Edomitic plateau with Mr. Armstrong. On this 
occasion we returned to the Arabah by a more northern valley, Wady 
Ghuweir, which, from the numerous remains of encampments, tribe marks 
(" Wasum "), and the well-worn tracks, appeared to be a leading thorough- 
fare into the Shobek country. 

In this wady are several springs, appearing, as is frequently the case, 
at the union of the sandstone and limestone formations. One of these 
springs supported a jungle of reeds with palms and some interesting 



262 A NATUKALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETKA, 

composite species of luxuriant growth. Tamarisks, acacias, and nubk 
trees (Zizyphus) were in some profusion, and on each of these three trees 
the handsome parasite, Loranthus acacice Zucc, with its handsome red 
flowers, was a conspicuous ornament. It was seen only two or three 
times on the tamarisk, oftener on the nubk, but much more usually 
on the acacia. Clinging to the reeds was an Asclepiad, Cynanchum 
acutum Linn., whose range is more Mediterranean than the others met 
with. Amongst them was the stately Saecharum cegyptiacum W. and 
a shrubby composite, Pluchea dioscoridis B.C., reached a, height of 15 feet. 
Its flowers were insignificant. A red-barked osier, Scdix acmophylla Boiss., 
and a poplar, Populus euphratica Linn., which is perhaps the willow of 
Babylon, occurred along the margin of the short-lived stream. Other 
species collected were — Erucaria aleppica Linn., Tribidus terrestris Linn., 
Ficus carica Linn., Salsola tetragona Del., and others less noteworthy. 
A very fragrant savory, Satureia cuneifolia Ten., and our early acquaint- 
ance the " sekkaran," Hyoscyamus muticus Linn., occurred. 

At the head of this valley Juniperus phcenicea was found to be the 
tree visible from the Arabah on the white chalky plateau of Edom, and 
growing abundantly. Burton found this tree luxuriant and abundant at 
considerable heights in Midian three degrees farther south. 

In this wady I gathered maiden-hair fern, the first I had seen 
since leaving Jebel Musa. Caper (Capparis spinosa), Lycium arabicum, 
and Boerhavia verticillata also occurred. Bushes of nubk were sometimes 
canopied with this latter trailing plant, with its pretty panicles of blueish 
small flowers. 

The Bedouins told me that with the juniper trees on Edom occur also 
" balut," Quercus cocci/era Linn., and " arour," a thorn with a small sweet 
fruit. This was, I believe, Rhus oxyacanthoides Linn., which the above- 
mentioned traveller found abundantly in Midian. I met it subsequently 
in the Gh6r. 

In Wady Ghuweir I captured the first Batrachian I met with, Bufo 
viridis Linn. ; running water, the rarest and pleasantest of sights in these 
regions, was the source of this increased variety of life. 

At the Arabah, abreast of the above valley, I examined some large 
bushes of Calligonum comosum L. Her., a desolate, leafless, whitened; 
scrubby species which often grows in shifting sand. Its roots are 
beautifully adapted to secure its position. These are woody, springy, and 
tough, very different from the brittle branches, and about a quarter of 
an inch in diameter. Some of these are seven or eight yards in length, 
perhaps much more, and beset with knobs at intervals, which are 
serviceable in giving them a better grip. These excrescences may have 
been due to insects, for I afterwards noticed that this plant was much 
subject to galls ; but whatever their origin, they served the purpose of the 
flukes of an anchor to hold the bush in a sea of shifting sand. 

There appears to be a great variety of gall-producing insects in the 
desert. Almost every woody species is liable to knobs and swellings. 
One of the most curious of these appendages was that frequently attached 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 263 

to the common Salsola— a shapely little spurred and coloured excrescence 
like a solidified flower of one of our commoner wild orchids. 

A minute cruciferous annual, half an inch high, leafless and with a 
silicle which formed almost the entire plant, was so fragile that it failed 
to reach home. The silicle valves had separated, dehiscing from the base 
upwards, one at either side of the septum. 

In this part of the Arabah Pancratium Sickembergeri was frequently 
gathered. At the spring of Ain Abou Weirideh, a little south of Wady 
Ghuweir, I obtained many old friends. Populus euphratica attains here 
o-ood dimensions. No less than three running streams maintain a brief 
but productive existence across the sands. I gathered here Prosopis 
stephaniana Willd., Pulicaria arabica B.C., Statice pruinosa Linn., 
Artemisia monospermy Bel., Suceda asphaltica Bois., Salsola fetida Forsk., 
and many more. 

Several bulbous species were obtained here. One of these which has 
flowered since my return has been determined by Mr. Baker, Urginea 
undulata Besf. 

Further north, towards the Ghor, I collected Eremobium lineare Bel., 
Monsonia nivea Bene., Anastatica hierochuntina Linn. (" Eose of Jericho ''), 
Astragalus Forskahlii Boiss., A. aeinaciferus Boiss., Rhamnus sp. ?, 
Carthamus glaucus 31. B., Androcymbium palazstinum Baker, Allium 
Sinaiticum Boiss., Aristida ciliata Besf., A. plumosa Linn., Panicum 
trugidum Forsk., with the usual desert species. 

The most noticeable feature in the animal life in the northern half of 
the Arabah has been already mentioned. I allude to the extraordinary 
abundance of small holes and burrows in stone and gravelly sand. The 
riddled surface reminded me forcibly of the lemming haunts of Discovery 
Bay, in lat. 81° 45" north, where, however, all were due to one species 
with the exception of those of a larger rodent, the stoat, who preyed upon 
the lemmings. One would expect to find a carnivorous rodent subsisting on 
the abundant supplies here also, but none such has been as yet discovered. 
The holes in Wady Arabah vary from small ant-holes and lizard cache's to 
those of rabbit-holes, and one or two fox-holes (?) were also observed. 
Tracks of various sizes also abound. Jerboas, porcupine mice, gerbilles, 
and sand-rats (Psammomys) are the groups represented, of which it is very 
difficult to secure specimens during a hurried march like ours. Canon Tris- 
tram, however, enumerates a considerable variety. One which I trapped 
here, Oerbillus erythrurus Gr., was sand-coloured and the size of a large 
rat, and is now in the British Museum. It does not appear in Canon 
Tristram's work. This gerbille is a wide-spread desert form, from 
Candahar to Algiers. The holes of this species, and some others, are 
surrounded outside, besides being well supplied inside, with little heaps 
of chopped fragments of plants, leaves, seeds, and other remnants of 
vegetation. Ant-roads are also conspicuous, about an inch wide, and 
firmly and smoothly pressed down. 

Porcupine quills and decomposed remains of hedge-hogs were several 
times picked up in the north end of the Arabah. 

u 



264 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA 

At Ain Abou "Weirideh sub-fossil shells were obtained in marl deposits 
at about 1,400 feet above the level of the Dead Sea, or about 100 feet 
above sea-level. Two of these, Melanin tuberculata Mull., Melanopsis 
Saulcyi Bourg., have been figured by Professor Hull at page 100 in his 
work already referred to. I gathered besides these Melanpsis bucoinoidea 
Oliv. and M. eremita Trist. These are fluviatile or lacustrine species, and 
are all found still living round the Dead Sea in various streams and 
springs. The last-mentioned species is very rare, and I did not find 
it alive, but Canon Tristram discovered it at the south-western Ghor. 
These marls, in the opinion of geologists, are remaining deposits of an 
ancient lake or inland sea, of which the Dead Sea is all that now 
exists. From where we now stood to near the source of the Jordan, about 
225 miles northwards, must have been a continuous sheet of water in 
(geologically speaking) tolerably recent times. 

Lower marls are very characteristic at an average level of 600 feet 
above the present level of the Dead Sea. I searched these marls for 
similar remains in many places, but always found them absolutely barren 
in records of the past, and very rarely inhabited by any existing life, 
vegetable or animal. Trunks of palms, floated to, and then embedded 
in these marls at the base of Jebel Usdnm, form no exception ; since 
these may have been drifted thither in times which are as yesterday 
compared with the " middle marls." The upper marls are fairly vegetated 
with the existing flora. The natural conclusion would be that the 
ancient sea, at first harbouring fresh-water inhabitants, became reduced by 
a long process of evaporation, or some other cause, to about a mean height 
between its present and its earliest level, and that it was already so salt 
that it was almost if not quite uninhabitable. 

At this height, judging from the extent of the middle marls, the waters 
must have remained stationary for a very considerable period, while most 
of the upper marls became converted into the lower formation by a long 
process of denudation. From the latter elevation to the present the subsi- 
dence has no doubt been very recent, and is still continuing. The most 
recent deposits of the Dead Sea are of course perfectly barren, except of 
mixed drift, or where these have been converted into marshes or fertilised 
by the few small fresh-water streams. 

But I anticipate in my anxiety to get down to the fertile Ghor es Safieh. 
At Ain Abou Weirideh a small flock of pintail grouse circled round 
the wells, but I failed to obtain a specimen. Subsequently I recognised 
the note and obtained the bird, Pieroclcs sr,ie<j<tl<?n$is Linn., at Bir es 
Seba. Its call is very peculiar, recalling the strange utterance of the 
Manx Shearwater. 

On the night of the 14th we were visited with a thunderstorm and a 
tremendous downpour of rain. Rain had also fallen on the 3rd December, 
the day we left Akaba ; this was our total from Cairo to the Dead Sea. 
The thunder on the 14th was grand and continuous for about three- 
quarters of an hour. Lightning flashed at about every five seconds. 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 265 

CHAPTER IX. 

South end of the Dead Sea. 
On the 16th of December we obtained our first view of the Dead Sea and 
descended to the plain at its southern extremity. The whole depression 
in which the Dead Sea lies, 1,300 feet below sea-level at its surface, is called 
the " Ghor," or " Hollow." On the first night we camped in the Gh&r el 
Feifeh, and from the 17th to the 26th inclusive we were detained at the 
Ghor es Safieh while waiting for means of transport from Jerusalem. 

This enforced delay in so unique a locality was to me a most fortunate 
circumstance. Previous visitors do not appear to have obtained more than 
a hurried peep at the Ghor es Safieh. The difficulties arise from the hostile 
character of the adjoining tribes of Arabs, who are constantly engaged in 
predatory warfare, the Ghor es Safieh being very frequently the scene of 
their conflicts. Our imaginations were kept excited by continual reports 
and warnings of those terrible Kerak Sheikhs, Huwaytats, and others who 
were about to demolish us. I had also read and heard much of the im- 
possibility of doing any good exploring work where an escort is always 
necessary, and where the Bedouins were bent on plundering unwary 
strangers. However, day after day I followed the bent of my inclinations, 
frequently alone, climbing the eastern hills, searching the jungles and 
marshes, and collecting birds and plants without ever receiving the smallest 
annoyance. 

The Ghor es Safieh, where we spent ten days, lies at the south-eastern 
end of the Dead Sea, about 1,250 feet below the level of the Mediterranean. 
It is watered by the Garahi river as the Feifeh is by the Tufileh, both de- 
scending from the eastern highlands. Between these two oases there is a 
strip of desert. Both these streams were well supplied with water during 
our visit, and I understood from the Arabs that the Garahi at least was 
unfailing. The latter is called also El Ahsi, Hessi, and Safi, and the Nahr 
el Hussein. Smith's Ancient Atlas calls it the Brook Zered. It is distri- 
buted into numerous smaller watercourses for purposes of irrigation by 
the cultivating Ghawarniheh Arabs, by whose tented village we were 
encamped. There is another smaller village, called, I believe, El Feifeh, 
of which we obtained a passing view. 

The whole distance from the base of the sudden descent from the 
barren white marls into the plain is about ten miles to the Dead Sea. The 
Ghor es Safieh is about three to four miles wide. The upper Ghor of 
El Feifeh is, as I have said, cut off from the lower by a strip of desert, an 
unwatered patch of sand-dunes and Salsolacese. On the east the Ghor is 
bounded by the highlands of Moab, and on the west by the briny, muddy, 
barren bed of the Tufileh. Steep marl banks, a couple of hundred feet 
high, enclose it on the south, while northwards it gradually becomes Salter 
and swampier, with a diminishing vegetation to the lifeless margin of the 
Dead Sea. 

On the Moab cliffs, as also on the Judsean to the west, the lower 

u 2 



266 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

declivities are flanked in many places with saline white marls to an upper 
limit of 650 feet. These marls are absolutely barren in situ, but they are 
fast being washed down by aqueous denudation, and thus purified they 
are scattered by irrigation over the Ghor. A minute beetle, of the 
genus Galbella, was a slight exception to this barrenness, which is of course 
interrupted in the beds and by the margins of the occasional watercourses. 
This new species, whose description will subsequently be given, is most 
nearly allied to G. beccari Gest of Abyssinia. 

The upper Ghor is by no means so fertile as that watered by the larger 
and more northern stream. The latter issues with a south-westerly direction 
from a narrow cleft, or " sik," in the red sandstone by which I penetrated 
for a few miles into that desolate country. The river is here confined to 
the base of the sharply cut cleft, and confers no fertility on the unaltered 
marls above. This cleft is 50 to 150 feet in depth or more, and the period 
required for its formation must place the marls above at a high antiquity. 
It should be borne in mind, however, that the water supply is probably 
now at its minimum, and the means of erosion were formerly much greater. 
The bed of this stream was in places absolutely dangerous from a curious 
cause. The side being vertical there was no upward escape, and the bed 
of the stream was so deeply clogged with the soft moving mass of silted 
fine mud that, although there was not more than 18 inches of water, I was 
comj^elled, and with difficulty, to r-etrace my course. As usual when any- 
thing risky is attempted, my native deserted me. At its embouchure from 
the cleft this remarkable stream passes though the lower gravel and shingle 
deposits which form the basement of the marls. 

On this occasion, when crossing the marls above, I came suddenly 
upon three ibexes. They whistled or snorted like Highland sheep. I let 
fly ball cartridge from my fowling piece, but missed them. My shots at- 
tracted some wild and villainous-looking mountaineers, who followed me 
to camp that night, where I first became aware of their existence. They 
could not make themselves understood, but I fancy wished to know should 
they hunt the "beden." Almost immediately after I lost sight of the 
ibexes I came across some very interesting and rather extensive ruins of 
apparently great antiquity. I brought the whole of our party to the spot 
the following day. The ruins will be found planned and described in Pro- 
fessor Hull's work at page 121, and again in Major Kitchener's Appendix to 
the same at page 216. I leave it to future explorers to identify this site 
with the ancient Gomorrah. 

The following observations were obtained from Sheikh Seyd, of the 
Ghawarniheh, with regard to the Gh6r : — 

" Rain generally falls on about ten or twelve days of the year, usually 
during December and January. Some years there is none. Much more 
is seen on the highlands on either side, which does not reach the Ghfir. 

" They grow wheat, barley, oats, dhourra (Sorghum), indigo (one sort), 
tobacco, and Indian corn. 

" Wheat, barley, and dhourra are sown in January ; Indian corn in 
March. Tobacco is sown in January. Indigo is sown in March. They grow 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 267 

some white grapes on trellises. They do not know henna (Lawsoniaj 
Zukkum (Balanites) is common, but made no use of. Mallow is boiled 
and eaten. Osher (Calotropis) is given to women when barren, or to pro- 
cure milk, the milk of the bush being taken. Water-melons and cucumbers 
are cultivated. Of the fruit of the Salvadora (arak) they make a sort of 
treacle or sweet mixture. Never heard it called 'Khardal;' Khardal 
is mustard, but they have none. 

" They (the Ghawarniheh) mostly leave the Ghor and go up to the hill 
country in the hottest weather. Snakes and insects are very bad and very 
numerous in the Ghor at that season." 

My inquiries about Salvadora were made relative to its claims to being 
the tree of the mustard-seed parable. I could get no corroboration from 
these Bedouins of this view, first put forward by Irby and Mangles, who 
are not, however, responsible for the statement that it is called "Khardal" 
(mustard), nor do they say, as has been misquoted, that they found the 
" Ghorneys " using it as mustard. The theory has not, in fact, " a leg to 
stand on." 

Mr. Merrill, U.S. Consul at Jerusalem, has kindly made inquiries for 
me as to the origin of the seed sown by the Arabs. He informs me they 
save it from year to year, but if they should run short they obtain 
supplies from Jerusalem. It is to the Mediterranean sea-board west- 
wards, therefore, we must look for the home of amy suspicious weeds of 
cultivation in the Ghor ; and those which are not natives of this region 
may perhaps be held less open to question a3 to their being indigenous in 
the Ghor. 

No sooner has the river Hessi issued from its unfruitful ravine than 
the scene changes as if by magic. As it moistens the plain, an extensive 
growth of bushy, low-sized trees almost covers the district. 

In the upper Ghor these are densely tangled and matted, almost to 
the exclusion of other growth, and afford shelter for multitudes of birds. 
In the lower Ghor the trees are more scattered ; often no doubt in the 
more peopled district being consumed for firing, and thinned to admit of 
pasturage and cultivation. These trees are chiefly Acacias (three sorts), 
Salvadora, Zizyphus, and Balanites. There is also a Bhamnus not in- 
frequent, and Mr. Lowne mentions Moringa aptera. This latter writer 
misquotes the authors (Irby and Mangles), whom he criticizes, when he 
ascribes to them the remark that the oasis contained " an almost infinite 
variety of shrubs and bushes." Their words are : " the variety of bushes 
and wild plants became very great," a phrase which is well within the 
bounds of the reality. 1 

Of these trees the Salvadora is the most abundant, and usually occupies 
a slightly lower region than the Acacias. It grows in clumps, several 
stems arising together, branching at once, and all combining to form a 
single tree. It is very leafy above, with small entire leathery leaves ; 
below it displays a labyrinth of greyish branches. The flowers and fruit 

1 I quote from Murray's edition in the Colonial and Home Library, vol 
iv, p. 108, ed. 1884. 



268 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

are small and numerous. It attains a height of about 20 feet, a stray 
branch reaching to 25 or 30 feet. The Balanites (Zukkum) is usually a 
smaller tree, and is now in full fruit, Its fruit is green and wrinkled, 
somewhat like that of a walnut. Its leaves are few and small. The 
Zizyphus is the well-known sidr or tkom of the Arabs, the dom when 
reaching a large size. Its branches, strewed in lines along the ground, 
form the fences to protect the grain from cattle. 

As the plain slowly lowers to the Dead Sea, becoming at the same 
time gradually moister, the vegetation changes. The above species 
decrease in the number of individuals. Tamarisks, Osher, Salsolas, 
Prosopis, and Atriplices take their place in abundance. Of these, the 
Osher (Calotropis procera) is the most remarkable. It is somewhat like a 
gigantic small-leaved cabbage bush, with a strong infusion of cactus blood 
and the bark of a cork-tree — utterly strange-looking to European eyes. 
Its fruit, the size of a large apple, is full of silk and air, and is probably 
to be identified with the "apples of the Dead Sea." The drawing of these 
" trees that beren f ulle faire apples, and faire of colour to beholde," by 
Sir John Maundeville, is by no means unlike the Osher. If the early 
traveller's figure stands for any real thing it is probably for this bush, 
which here attains a remarkable size. Of it the writers already quoted 
say : " We were here (Ghor es Safieh) surprised to see for the first time 
the Osher plant, grown to the stature of a tree, its trunk measuring in 
many instances 2 feet or more in circumference, and the boughs at least 
15 feet in length, a size which far exceeded any we saw in Nubia ; the 
fruit also was larger and in greater quantity." This remark is interesting 
in connection with Captain Burton's, that the Osher in South Midian is 
" a tree, not a shrub " (" Land of Midian," ii, 206), as though the plant was 
more at home in the Eastern continent. Castor-oil (Bicinus communis) is 
also very conspicuous and large (20 to 25 feet), chiefly in the same localities 
as the Osher. Other bushes are the leafless Leptadenia pyrotechnica, and 
the poplar, Populus euphratica. All these were seen in the Ghor el Feifeh 
also. A tree of the latter, about 50 feet high, near the Dead Sea, is, I 
think, the largest tree in the whole Ghor. Oleanders and Osiers are 
confined to the embouchures of the stream from the mountains or farther 
up. 

As we approach the Dead Sea, occasional swamps produce jungles of 
various late grasses, chiefly Arundo Phragmites (P. gigantea J. Gay), 
F.rimitliiis Ravennce P. de B., and Imperata cylindrica P. de B., mixed 
with several Cyperacese, of which the most interesting were C. eleusinoides 
Kwnth., and sparingly, I believe, C. Papyrus Linn. Salter patches are given 
up to Juncus maritimus and Eragrostis cynosuroides Retz. The former (var. 
arabica) was from 4 to 7 feet high. Tamarisks, Susedas, Salsolas, 
Salicornia, and Atriplices are the last to fail. Tamarisk, Salicornia 
herbacea, and a Buppia not in flower, probably R. spiralis, L'ffer., were 
the very last ; the former all along the inner margin, the latter two 
where the mud of the sea is in union with that of the Tutileh estuary. 
The latter two encroach downwards upon the forbidden area here, from 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 2G9 

salt swamps to those which are too salt, as they do upwards in our own 
country, from salt swamps up fresher estuaries until they meet those which 
are too fresh. 

A brief space, fifty yards or more, varying with the slope and the 
fulness of the basin, is barren saline mud or sand. This foreshore is at 
other seasons under water, and all which is liable to be submerged is 
barren, except in the two instances above mentioned on the Tufileh mud. 

An interesting assemblage of sea plants is congregated around the 
Dead Sea. These are Sonchus maritimus Linn., Inula crithmoides Linn., 
Lotus tenuifolius, Rchb. (Lythrwm, kyssopifolium Linn.), Salicornia herbacea 
Linn., Salsolce, Sucedce, Atriplices, Scirpus maritimus Linn., Fimbristylis 
dickotoma, Rottb., Juncus maritimus Linn., and Ruppia sp. ? (R. spiralis 
fj'Her. ?). Some of these at first sight will hardly fail to impress the 
observer with the idea that the vegetation must recently have under- 
gone distinct maritime conditions ; but a little reflection will show that 
the visits of aquatic birds, and the present suitability of the circumstances, 
suffice to explain their presence. Moreover, the most conspicuous are of 
the easily diffused pappus-bearing compositee. 

Several of the most interesting species were obtained by penetrating 
into the jungles in all directions. In the very heart of these, Cynanchum 
acutum was abundant, trailing convolvulus-like about the reeds. These 
jungles, and along the banks of the stream, were my best hunting 
grounds. 

The luxuriance of some familiar British aquatic plants may be alluded 
to. The sea rush, as already mentioned, reaches 7 feet in height, Inula 
crithmoides 4 to 7 feet, and Lycopus europseus, 5 to 6 feet in height, while 
gigantic plants of Lythrum salicaria had reached a height of 14 feet ! 

One of my most interesting " finds " was that of a handsome acacia, 
A. lata Br., in the Ghor. This species has not been recorded north of 
Syene (Assouan) in Upper Egypt, seven degrees farther south. There 
were several trees of this very distinct species, which is much larger and 
better furnished than the other acacias met with. An Arab to whom I 
silently pointed out one of this species at once exclaimed "Sont," and 
proceeded to show me the difference in its leaves and fruit from that of a 
Seyal, its neighbour. At Akaba an Arab called a large A. tortilis " Sunt." 
It is an Egyptian name, but never applied to the " Seyal." 

A few other remarkable species not noticed by previous botanists in 
Palestine may be mentioned : — Cocculus Lwba D.C., Sclerocephalus arabicus 
Boiss., Zygoplvjllum simplex Linn., Indigofera pancifolia Del., Rhynchosia 
minima B.C., Trianthema pentandra Linn., Eclipta alba Linn., Pentatropis 
spiralis R. Br. Salsolacea 1 (several), Digera arvensis Forsk., Boerhavia 
verticillata Poir., B. repens Linn., Euphorbia cegyptiaca Boiss., Cyperus 
eleusinoides Kunth., and some others. Several of these are distinctly 
tropical, and add to that most interesting group of those plants already 
known to inhabit the " sultry Gh6r." 

I gathered altogether at the southern end of the Dead Sea about 
225 identifiable species of flowering plants. The total there may reach 300. 



270 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

Many annuals and Mediterranean spring plants, especially of the Legu- 
minous and Cruciferous orders, were still in a young condition. 

I defer a fuller analysis for the present, merely remarking that the 
flora of the Ghor, a unique locality, is even more interesting, and that in 
no mean degree, than it has hitherto been shown to be. 

The Ghor has been visited by two competent botanists, Messrs. B. T. 
Lowne in 1864, and "W. Amherst Hayne in 1872, both in Canon Tristram's 
company. These gentlemen have, however, hardly dealt with the oasis of 
Es Safieh. Mr. Hayne's essay, appended to Canon Tristram's " Land of 
Moab," is only enough to make a botanist wish for more of it, while 
Mr. Lowne's valuable paper, published by the Linnean Society, deals with 
the south-western extremity of the Ghor, two dry desert wadies whose 
flora is the northern wave from Sinai and the Arabah. 

Although devoid of life, the sandy beach of the Dead Sea mentioned 
above was full of interest. On it were strewed salted remnants of a 
variety of insects, beetles, spiders, locusts, and seeds which had been 
floated from the Ghor by the rivers and promptly killed and cast ashore. 
Several of these were identifiable, although of no value as specimens. A 
better collection in the same place was that of shells. In some places 
these were thickly strewn, and I went through these natural museums 
with the greatest care, obtaining thus several varieties not previously 
found in Palestine. Amongst these are Planorbis albus Mull., Limncea 
peregra Desf., Physa contorta Mich., Achatina (Cionella) brondeli Boitrg., 
Ferrusacia thamnophila Bourg., and a new species of Bulimus. 

The tamarisks near this were inhabited by a species of ant. These 
make their home, in parties of 20 or 30, in a sort of purse of vegetable 
matter, made out of scraps triturated together and worked into a smooth 
papery lining. The species is Polyrhachis semimger Mayr., belonging to a 
tropical, chiefly Indian, genus. Multitudes of little fishes, Cyprinodon 
dispar Rupp., as mentioned by Tristram, were seen in the salt pools close 

by. 

Although my visit was too early for many species of plants, yet on my 
first day in the Feifeh I found at once numerous kinds not seen in Sinai, 
of which a good many were both in flower and fruit. These must flower 
continuously, or with a very brief respite ; others, chiefly European and 
Mediterranean species, were rapidly advancing to the flowering stage 
during our sojourn in the Ghor. 

A good number of Sinai species occur in the Ghor. An effect of the 
moister climate on some of the woolly desert plants was noticeable. 
These became very perceptibly less so in the Ghor. Pulicaria undulata, 
P. arabica, Tribulus terrestris, Verbascum sinuatum, may be instanced. 
Possibly the salinity of the atmosphere assists in this ; the tendency of 
plants to become glabrous by the seaside is familiar. On the other hand, 
excessive dryness appears to provoke pubescence in plants, as well as other 
striking qualities of pungent odours, gummy exudations, and conversion 
of leaves to spines, all of which we may expect to find diminished if the 
species can accommodate itself to moister conditions. 






AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 271 

I have hitherto spoken almost entirely of the plants. The district is of 
as great interest in other branches of natural history. Canon Tristram's 
various works have made this fact familiar. My prolonged stay at an 
unusual season must indeed be my excuse for trespassing on a subject lie 
has made so peculiarly his own. 

The Ghor swarmed with birds. About forty species were observed, of 
which, with two or three exceptions, specimens were obtained. Some, 
especially doves of two species, and bulbuls of the sort already met, were 
extraordinarily abundant. The doves were the Indian collared turtle, 
Turtur risorius Linn., and a smaller beautifully bronzed species, T. senega- 
lensis Linn. 

On the Dead Sea mud, redshanks, lapwings, and sandpipers flitted 
and fed, but they were confined to those parts of the margin which were 
tempered by fresh water. Snipe, water-rails, and ducks of British sorts 
were frequently met with. Marsh sparrows in great flocks also kept near 
the shore. Buntings and larks of three sorts were in vast numbers 
throughout the stubbles of maize. The two desert partridges occurred 
on the margins of the Ghor, where also the thicknee was shot. Shrikes, 
"boomey" owls, marsh harriers, buzzards, sparrowhawks, and kestrels 
were all noted. The mellow, loud whistle of Tristram's grakle frequently 
caught the ear, as did also the excessively discordant craking note of the 
Smyrna kingfisher. The beautiful little sunbird and the gaudy blue- 
throated robin were about equally common, the former usually frequenting 
those acacias which gave support to the handsome Loranthus. Several 
other warblers were observed, but for most of these, as well as the swifts 
and others, the season was too early. On the upper ground at the edge of 
the Ghor several pairs of desert chats of two or three kinds might be always 
studied, and the impression the Ghor gave me was that many migratory 
species of Palestine who ought to travel south from the Jerusalem plateau 
in winter found here a conveniently close and sufficiently warm retreat 
which they utilise in vast numbers. 

Burrowing animals still give evidence of their abundance. Traps set 
for these were, I believe, appropriated by Bedouin lads, for I could never 
rediscover them. The traps were strong, and I trust they snapped on 
their meddlesome fingers. Jackals kept up their high-pitched scream 
throughout the night. Bedouins, bantams, jackals, and jackasses have all 
peculiarly high notes in the Ghor. They howl together in a shrill minor 
key chiefly when they ought to be asleep. 

Fresh boar tracks were always visible ; on one or two occasions I 
heard the animals crushing in the jungle close ahead of me. Ibexes were 
seen in the ravines close by. 

There are many cattle scattered through the Ghor. These are chiefly 
small pretty black animals with white faces, somewhat like the Highland 
breed, while goat-like sheep and sheep-like goats with ears hanging 
6 inches below their snouts, are herded evening and morning. Donkeys 
are more numerous than ponies ; there are very few of the latter in the 
possession of the much molested and peaceful Ghawarniheh. 



272 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

The Bedouins supplied us with poor milk and very small eggs. 

Insect life had as yet hardly awakened. About half-a-dozen species 
of butterflies were observed, of which some were Ethiopian forms. Scor- 
pions were still torpid. Molluscs, except fluviatile, were scarce, while 
Batrachians and Beptilia might have been almost non-existent with the 
exception of the Lacertidae. 

A very nimble fresh-water or rather marsh crab was very abundant. 
To this animal was due the multitude of burrows amongst the tufts of 
Juncus maritimus near the Dead Sea. Twice I saw them disappear with 
incredible swiftness into these holes, which were of various sizes, and of so 
great a depth or length I could not usually dig them out. Several that I 
did dig out were blind or empty, and at first these holes puzzled me 
beyond measure. The total absence of tracks or pads leading to them 
arrested my attention, while their widely different sizes, both in length 
and diameter, suggested something altogether new. Those crabs I 
obtained were by means of the Bedouin lads. The carapace of the biggest 
was about 5 inches by 3. They are grey in the young state, but attain a 
reddish tint when full grown. The species is Telphusa (Potamophilon) 
fluviatilis Savign. One was killed in our camp, showing that they ramble 
at night away from water or marshy places. This crab extends through 
Eoypt to Algiers, and occurs also, I believe, farther east than Palestine. 

At the time of our visit the mean diurnal temperature was about 50° 
Fahr. There is no universal check to vegetation in the Ghor. Acacias, 
Osher, castor-oil, Loranthus, Salvadora, species of Abutilon, Zizyphus, and 
Balanites were bearing fruit and flower now in the coldest season in true 
tropical fashion. 

Before we left, the sun was just beginning to " braird the lea," and 
there was a delicate hue of green perceptible across the ill-tilled soil. 

The river, Seil Garahi, alias Hessi, was well filled with water, and on 
several occasions we enjoyed a swim down the swift deep rushes at the 
inner edge of the plain. Irby and Mangles, I think, found this river 
dry on their return journey from Petra. 

Before bidding farewell to the Ghor I should mention one striking 
peculiarity in its flora. I allude to the great number of species compared 
with the number of individuals. If those few gregarious kinds (chiefly 
trees, grasses, and shrubs) already mentioned be eliminated, the remaining 
sorts would very often depend on a few plants for their claim to a place 
in the list. Hence a brief visit may give rise to many omissions. 






CHAPTER X. 

Ghor es Safieh to Gaza. 



On the 27th December we finally struck tents and left our camp in 
the GhOr es Safieh. As we passed westward near the south end of the 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 273 

Dead Sea some interesting features were observed. The waters vary in 
their surface level about 3 feet between the brief wet period and the 
minimum level. During our visit they stood at a low level, and the drift 
of timber and terrestrial shelis showed an upper margin at a uniform height 
in several places. Where the shore slopes very gradually, as in most places 
round the southern end, this variation in depth is sufficient to leave a wide 
space of foreshore uncovered. This Avas very noticeable during our 
journey along the base of Jebel Usdum, at the south-west corner of the 
Dead Sea. The water was there about 600 yards from the line of drift. 
Inside this was the usually traversed track along the base of -Jebel Usdum, 
and above, about 7 vertical feet higher than the present high-water drift, 
was an older well-marked margin looking very recent and pointing to a 
still continuing evaporation of its waters in excess of the supply. 

Logs of palm-trees frequently marked these margins, and these were 
seen embedded in a drifted position in the marls of Jebel Usdum as much 
as 27 feet above the highest level now attained by the waters of the sea. 
Palm-tree trunks were also seen along the river Tufileh in the Ghor el 
Feifeh and lower about its estuary. These were probably, from their 
appearance, torn out of its bed during a flood in a semi-fossilised condition. 
Thus the subsidence of this sea has continued and is continuing, and earlier 
deposits are being continually carried down to form more recent ones and 
to fill up the cavity. Most parts of the Dead Sea south of the Lisan are 
very shallow. In two places, when looking for a swim, abreast of Jebel 
Usdum and north from the Ghor es Safieh, I waded out several hundred 
yards without getting water above my knees, and the water, like that at 
the mouth of the Jordan at the other end, is usually turbid. The work 
of reclamation steadily proceeds, and as the sea is known to be of very 
considerable depth (200 fathoms) in other places there is abundant room 
for the inflowing sediment. 

Of Jebel Usdum I have given a description to Professor Hull which has 
appeared in his account of our expedition. It proved, as it looked, to be 
of little botanical interest, and I should not have climbed it had I not seen 
it stated in several places that it was inaccessible. The plants found on 
its upper portion, 650 feet above the Dead Sea, were very few, the whole 
being a bare flat with a slight central ridge of barren marl — the cap of 
the central core of rock-salt. A couple of solitary tamarisks occurred and 
several Salsolacese. The latter were Nocea spinosissima Moq., Atriplex 
alexandrina Boiss., Salsola rigida Pall., var. tenuifolia., S. letragona Del., 
S. fcetida Del., and S. inermis Forsk. The " mountain of salt " is, in fact, 
well characterised by this order. Several of the above are additions to the 
flora of Palestine. On the western slope a few desert species of the 
ordinary and familiar types were collected, and these gradually increased 
to the base at the Mahauwat Wady, whose flora has been already the 
subject of a special paper by Mr. Lowne. This writer gathered here, and 
in the neighbouring Wady of Zuweirah, eighty-two flowering species chiefly 
of the desert sorts. These are all, or almost all, either Sinai tic or occur 
in the Wady Arabah. 



274 a naturalist's journey to sixai, tetra, 

Leptadenia pyrotechnica Forsh., and Ochradenus baccatus Bel., grow to 
a large size here. The latter was about 15 feet high, close to the Dead 
Sea, at the confluence of these two wadies. Zilla myagroides Forsk. was 
here in flower, bearing a pretty little blossom like our Cakile maritinia. 

During the ascent of Wady Zuweirah to the plain of South Judaea 
the following fresh species were collected : — Xotoceras ccmariense R. Br., 
Enarthrocarpus lyratus B.C., Zollihoferia sp.? (Z. stenocephala Boiss.?), 
Lithospermum tenniflorum Linn., Hehotropium rotundifolium Sieb., Ballota 
undulata Fres., Arnebia linear if olia B.C., and Plantago Loefflingii bum, 
A large bulb, Urginea Scilla Stein.?, now only in leaf, marks well the 
transition stage from the Ghor flora to that of the Judsean wilderness. 
Desert species, as Fagonia, Zygophylla, Retama, Acacia?, Resedaceae, 
Cucumis, Microrhynchus, Dseniia, JErua, Forskahlea, and others were here 
for the most part taken leave of. These ascended perhaps a third part of 
the climb, several ceasing at about the old Saracenic Fort. Upwards, and 
on the Judasan plain, a great change takes place. We found ourselves 
ere long on rich land arousing itself to a spring growth, although the 
most inclement season was not yet reached. The need of water is of 
course everywhere apparent. Withered remains are scarcer than in the 
desert, and the ground is often bare for considerable spaces, or with a few 
early patches of species to be presently mentioned. It becomes difficult 
to recall the existence of the contiguous Ghor flora with its perennial 
luxuriance. Hardly a bush and no trees are observed to break the mono- 
tony. Travelling still westwards, evidences of cultivation, that is to say of 
the soil being "scratched" and sown, appear. Soon after Bir es Seba, 
two days from the Ghor, we find ourselves amongst softly swelling downs 
covered with sowers and plonghers, but otherwise monotonous in aspect, 
as the cretaceous limestone formation usually is. 

The species first observed at tbe head of Wady Zuweirah and upwards 
to Bir es Seba were numerous, many of them spring Mediterranean 
species just opening their flowers. The following were conspicuous : — 
Carrichtera Velio? B.C., Biscntella Columnce Ten., Enarthroearpas lyratus, 
Bel.?, Silene dichotoma Ehr., S. Hussoni Boiss., Helianthemum Kahiricum 
Bel., Astragahis sanctus Boiss., A. alexandrvims Boiss., Erodium cicutarium 
Linn., Senecio coronopif alius Bel., Scorzonera lanata M.B., Calendula 
arvensis Linn., Achillea santolina Linn.. Anchusa Mitteri Willd., Cyclamen 
latifolium Sibth., Ajuga Iva Schreb., Satureia cuneifolia Ten., Marrubium 
alysson Linn., Salvia verbenaca Linn., S. controversa Ten., S. cegyptiaca 
Linn., Eremostaehys laciniata Linn, (in leaf only), Paronychia argentea 
Lam., and Urginea wndulata Steinh. (?)• Several of these are pretty little 
bright-flowered yellow and blue annuals. 

We were now travelling on horseback, and I had no longer the same 
facilities for botanising. The pace was usually too fast. My method was 
to keep well ahead till I reached some inviting point, and then dismount 
and botanise, usually holding a rein across my arm. The result was 
that I was usually left far behind, or in hot pursuit of the party. Some- 
times I lost my way altogether. It would have needed a botanical circus 






AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 275 

l-ider to get on and off his horse with comfort as fast as new flowers 
occurred. 

Several mosses and lichens were gathered on this march. The mosses 
were Tortula rmiralis Linn., Bryum atropurpureum W. and M., and a 
Hepatica, Riccia lamellosa Raddi. The mosses are both British species. 

In animal life, gazelles, mole-rats, Spalax typhlus Pall., and sand-rats, 
Psammomys obesus Rupp., appeared to be the most abundant. I 
captured examples of the latter two, which are now in the British 
Museum. 

The mole-rat, the Asiatic representative of the English mole, though 
of a very different family, is a strangely ugly little animal with long 
protuberant teeth. Mr. Armstrong showed me a ready way of obtaining 
specimens, which at first sight appeared to be hopeless. His plan was to 
watch the freshly up -lifted heaps of sod which are raised in line at short 
intervals, and notice the direction the animal is burrowing in by the 
relative freshness of the heaps. Soon a slight movement will be observed 
in the freshest heap or beyond it, and on firing a charge into the ground 
at once, the gun about a foot from a point a few inches ahead of the 
moving place, the animal will be stunned and may be at once dug out, 
probably alive. I tried this plan twice successfully. 

A buff-coloured snake, about 3 feet long, Zamenis atrovirens Gray, 
was killed in the neighbourhood of Tel Abou Hereireh. Geckos and 
toads were also captured. A brown and grey fox (Vulpes nilotica ?) was 
seen near Bir es Seba. Laurence shot a fine wild cat (Felis maniculata 
Rupp.) in a gulley near Tel Abou Hereireh. It measured 2 feet 8 inches 
from the tip of the nose to the tip of the tail, the tail itself being 1 foot. 
It was of a greyish-brown colour, brindled with sandy brown across the 
back and down the sides. The tip of the tail was ringed with black. 
This is supposed to be the cat found embalmed in Egyptian monuments. 
It is found along the Nile, and as far south as Abyssinia. 

I spent as much time as I could in digging up bulbs. Of these there 
were several identifiable species, as Xiphion palasstiimm Baker, a dwarf 
sweet iris, with large flowers in tints of buff and French grey. Colchicum 
montanum Linn, occurred in the greatest abundance, white or pale 
mauve, and was very beautiful. Urginea Scilla Sternih. and Asphodelns 
ramosus Linn, were most abundant, increasing westwards to Gaza. 
Bellevallia flexuosa Boiss. and Ornithogalum umbellatum Linn, also 
frequently appeared. 

About Bir es Seba the birds observed were cranes, black and white 
storks, buzzards and kites, trumpeter bullfinches, pintail grouse, Greek 
partridge, black-headed gulls and lapwings, as well as several desert 
larks and chats. The technical names of these species will subsequently 
be enumerated. The trumpeting of the crane was heard frequently, 
usually at night. 

At Tel el Milh, in a swamp, a flock of teal was flushed, and a number 
of the black or Sardinian starlings came to roost in the rushes. Their 
note is different from that of our species. A snipe handsomely marked 



276 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

with white, as seen in flight, with a rich brown back, and showing vivid 
green tints also on the upper surface, was unfortunately missed. It 
uttered a peculiar quacking cry, and I had several good views of it, 
There were three or four birds in the marsh, and I have no doubt it was 
the painted snipe, Rhynchcea capensis Linn., which has not previously 
been known to inhabit Palestine. It is a widely spread species in Africa. 

The Cyclamen and the Colchicum are constantly exciting our admira- 
tion. In the marsh just mentioned Spergularia marginata Koch., Cyperus 
longus Linn., and C. Icevigatus Linn., var. junciformis, were collected. 

A feature noticed by all travellers is the abundance of snails on the 
small shrubs, chiefly on Anabasis articulata Boiss. The commonest of 
these was perhaps Helix Seetzeni Koch., but I also gathered H. joppensis 
Rottb., H. syriaca Ehr., H. protea Zagl., H. vestalis Pass., H. tuberculosa 
Conrad., H. candidissima Drap., H. Boissieri Charp., and If. cavata 
Mouse. H. cavata and H. Boissieri are the finest of these species in size, 
the latter being a heavy solid-shelled sort. H. tuberculosa is trochiform, 
or top-shaped. This species and his flattened brother, H. ledereri Pfr., 
gathered between Gaza and Jaffa, are both scarce. They are the prettiest, 
being delicately mitred and foliated at the whorls. 

The black-headed gulls, and no doubt others of the birds, subsist on 
these molluscs. 

Continual evidence of wild boars occurred, and some of our party had 
the good luck to obtain a sight of a " sounder," or family party. They 
seem to feed chiefly on the bulbs, of which some large kinds are mar- 
vellously plentiful. An Urginea (probably U. undulata) was sought 
after especially, so that it was with difficulty roots which they had not 
mashed were obtained to bring home. It has since flowered, and in the 
absence of leaves is doubtfully referred to this species by Mr. Baker. 
Urginea Scilla covers the ground for miles, and grows sometimes to the 
exclusion of everything else. It appears to be a scourge to the fellahin. 
Great heaps of its bulbs, the size of a melon, are often met with, and lines 
of its growth are commonly left to mark off each cultivator's allotted space. 
Asphodelus ramosus Linn, is nearly as common. The brilliant anemone 
{A. coronaria Linn.), the " lily of the field," was picked in flower on the 
last day of the year. The curious stringy Thymeiasa hirsuta, whose ac- 
quaintance I first made on the shores of Brindisi on the outward journey, 
is profusely common. Between Bir es Seba and Gaza the species now in 
growth are almost altogether of the Mediterranean type. A few desert 
species occur, but chiefly of a Syrian or Mesopotamian character, as 
Caylusea canescens, Deverra tortuosa, Alhagi maurorum, Peganum 
harmala, Citrullus colocynthis, Artemisia herba-alba, and Anabasis 
articulata. 

The universal " rimth " (Anabasis or Salsola) of the Sinai Bedouin 
is called by the Doheriyeh Arabs " Shegar." It may be that the Arabs 
put off inquiries from one whom they perceive to be unlearned in their 
language with trivial and unmeaning terms ; but the results of my short 
experience would tend to show that little importance can be attached to 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 277 

these local names. Different tribes and places yielded different terms, so 
that on comparing my collection of Arab plant-names with those given by 
several other writers, hardly two were identical, or even alike. In the 
Serbal district of Sinai, Wady Rimthi takes its name from the Anabasis. 

The soft note of the trumpeter bullfinch, rising and falling as if borne on 
the wind, while the bird is concealed on the ground somewhere close by, 
often arrested my attention. It was impossible to tell whether it was 
ten yards or ten times that distance away. 

Travelling west past Tel Abou Hereireh to Gaza, the following plants 
occurred in addition to those mentioned already about Bir es Seba : — 
Malcohnia pulchella Boiss, Malthiola humilis B.C., Alyssum Libyca Viv., 
Eruoaria microcarpa Boiss., Cupsella Byrsa-pastoris Linn., Polycarpon 
succulentum Bel., Bianthus multipunctatus Ser., Silene rigidida Sibth., 
Ononis serrata Forsk., Hypericum tetrapterum Fres., forma., Erodium 
hirtum F., Bupleurum linearifolium B.C. ?, Carthamus glaucus M.B., 
Thrincia tuberosa B.C., Tolpis altissima Pers., Scorzonera alexandrina 
Boiss., Mandragora officinarum Linn., Withania somnifera Linn., Echium 
plantagineum Linn., Lamium amplexicaule Linn., Euphorbia exigua Linn., 
Paronychia nivea B.C., Andropogon hirtus Linn., and Poa anuua Linn. 



CHAPTER XL 
Gaza to Jaffa. 



At Gaza we were kept a few days in quarantine by the Turkish autho- 
rities. This was not because we were deemed infectious (the idea was 
absurd), but to levy a tax on our purses. By the prompt interference 
of Lord Dufferin, British Ambassador at Constantinople, to whom we 
telegraphed, we were released in four days instead of being confined for 
a fortnight. 

This delay was to me most valuable, as it enabled me to sort my 
rapidly made collections of the last few days. 

On our last day, having liberty to leave quarantine ground, I gathered 
a good many species south of Gaza which I had not seen before. Many of 
these belong to well-known Mediterranean types, but there is still an 
important admixture of desert and Egyptian forms, belonging to a some- 
what more southern group. 

Gardens of fruit trees, olive groves, and enclosures hedged by the 
prickly pear (Opuntra vulgaris Linn.) reached our camj:> from the inland 
side. On the leeward we were hemmed in by high sandhills, the van- 
guard of an ever advancing column, driven westward by the prevailing 
winds, which is gradually swallowing up Gaza, old and new, as well as a 
long belt of coast north and south of it. 

Some laborious journeys across this belt of sand, often three or 
four miles broad, impress them vividly on my memory. They yielded 
exceedingly few species, being as a rule completely barren. 1 may 



278 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

mention Silene succulenta Forsk., Scrophularia xanthoglossa Boiss., 
Euphorbia terracina Linn., which grew well out on the dunes. 

These sands are effecting a steady and enormous change along the 
coast. It is difficult to reach what is left of Ascalon, which remains on an 
insulated patch of rocky ground by the sea completely cut off inland. 
Little of it is left unsmothered. Ashdod is undergoing the same fate. 
Gaza retreats inland in front of the arenaceous sea, and it is only at 
intervals, or by ascending some eminence which is rarely met with, that 
one obtains even a view of the Mediterranean. This was to me a keen 
disappointment, and I sighed for the reality for a cliff-girt coast like that 
of north-western Donegal. 

In and about the Gaza olive groves several birds familiar at home 
abounded. Others occurred on the plain hard by. It was refreshing to 
hear their well-known voices in this strange and inhospitable land. There 
were English sparrows, swallows, buntings, goldfinches, black redstarts, 
chaffinches, stonechats, willow-wrens, and chiffchaffs, blackbirds, and 
hooded crows. Other birds seen were Egyptian kites, buzzards (common 
species), " boomey " or little southern owl, red-breasted Cairo swallows, 
pelicans, dunlins, calandra and crested larks, bulbuls, pied chats, and 
Menetries' wheatear. 

At an estuary about four miles south of Gaza, and up a flat wady 
leading to it, I obtained several good plants. This would be capital 
ground to botanise at a later season. The following are the most in- 
teresting : — Brassica Tournefortii Gou., Crataegus azarolus Linn., Neurada 
procumbens Linn., Ceratonia siliqua Linn., Astragalus aleppicus Boiss., 
A. macrocarpus B.C. (not in fruit), Medicago laciniata All., Ononis natrix 
Linn., var. stenophylla, Anagyris Jastida Linn., Acacia albida Bel., Prosopis 
stephaniana Willd., Xanthium strumarium Linn., Artemisia monosperma 
Bel., Centaurea araneosa Boiss., C. pallescens Bel., Atractylis proltfera Boiss., 
Linaria Ucelava Forsk., Anchusa wgyptiaca Lehm., Prasium majus Linn., 
Andrachne aspera Linn., Ficus sycomorus Linn., Ricinus communis Liinn., 
Boerhavia verticillata Poir., Plantago albicans Linn., Euphorbia peploides 
Gou., Emex spinosus Camp., Salsola inermis Forsk., Cyperus schcenoides 
Griseb., C. rotundus Linn., Fimbristylis dichotoma Rott., and Pennisetum 
cenchroides Rich. Some of these, as the castor-oil, the little anomalous 
desert Neurada, and the tropical Boerhavia, point to the great heat of 
Gaza. 

The trees about Gaza are chiefly date-palms, olives, sycamore fig, 
caroub (Ceratonia) or locust-tree, and fig ; a very handsome tamarisk 
(T. articulata Vahl.) reaches a height of 30 or 40 feet, and has bright 
green foliage very refreshing ^and home-like after the dull grey or 
lifeless green of the desert. The olives are of enormous age. They 
usually have unbranched trunks, 2 or 3 feet in height, then perhaps 
divided, and at 7 or 8 feet the leafy canopy, browzed below to a level 
height by cattle, begins. The average height of the tree is 20 to 25 
or 30 feet. Old trees have often mere shells of their trunks remaining. 
I measured the two largest I saw, a few miles north of Gaza ; their right 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 279 

was 18 and 20 feet respectively at 2 feet from the ground, a size which 
was maintained, or very nearly so, till the trunk forked. 

At Ascalon, which Laurence and I visited at a gallop just before dark, 
I gathered Calycotome villosa Linn, in the sands, a pretty yellow shrubby 
pea-flower. Ascalon is a wilderness of shifting sands. The small space 
of remaining earth is inhabited by a few Arabs, from whom I got my first 
Jewish coins. Several pillars of marble and black granite lie about the 
ruins of the crusading fort, but none are in position. 

Frequently dogs with unmistakable traces of jackal parentage were 
seen along here. I was assured it is by no means uncommon for these 
animals to interbreed along this part of the Mediterranean seaboard. 

The chief crop showing is of lentils. I saw bean-stalks a foot and a 
half high in the first week of January. 

A few of the commonest British plants, as Capsella Bursapastoris, 
Silene inflata, Convolvulus arvensis, and Buruex obtusifolius, occur along 
here. 

A handsome tree introduced from the East is very common. It is the 
Melia azederach, or Pride of India. It is deciduous, and only bearing fruit, 
as I saw it, along the enclosures or by the villages. Lycium europceum 
Linn., Rubia olivieri A. Rich., Ephedra alata Dene., Asparagus aphyllus 
Linn., and A. acutifolius Linn., are the larger plants, which help to stop 
up the gaps in the prickly pear fences. 

At Yebdna, and thence to Jaffa, Narcissus Tazettce Linn, was in flower. 
Some damp low-lying patches were white with it. Other species were 
Ruta graveolens Linn., Erodium ap. ? (R bryonicrfolium?), Retama retam 
Forsk. (in flower), Lithospermum callosum Linn., Echiochilon fruticosum 
Desf., Thymus capitatus Linn., Lavandula stoechas Linn, and Rhamnus 
punctata Boiss. The Eetem broom was in flower, very pretty, white 
variegated with purple. I found it once previously in blow in the 
desert. 1 Lawsonia alba Linn, (henna) was seen several times, but usually 
here (as at Akaba) either in or on the verge of enclosures. No doubt it 
remains from ancient gardens at Engedi, where it is, I believe, abundant. 
It is native much farther east. 

In the gardens next the hotel at Jaffa were some very interesting 
plants. I did not learn their history, or who made the collection. 
Some of the Sinaitic and Dead Sea plants were there— the handsome 
trailing pea, Dolichos lablab, which 1 found in the Ghor, a widely culti- 
vated plant in hot countries, but perhaps originally introduced from 
India. The Sinaitic Gomphocarpos, a milky asclepiad with pods full of 
silk, one of the most remarkable species in the peninsula, was here also ; 
it differed, however, from the Sinaitic plant in being shrubby and about 

1 This is the Hebrew " roth em " or " rotem," translated juniper in the Old 
Testament. The same name (Retama) is applied to a species of a closely allied 
genus, the Spartocytisus nubigenus, of the middle zone of vegetation of the 
Peat of Teneriffe, as I learn from Mr. Moseley's " Notes by a Naturalist 
' Challenger,'" p. 5. 



280 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

6 feet high, while the desert plant averaged from a foot to a foot and a 
half. 

Pucinus communis (the castor-oil) ; Echaverias, Lavandula Slsechas (the 
handsome purple woolly lavender just mentioned), and quite a collection 
of Acacias and Mimosas, with oranges, bananas, indiarubber trees, fan- 
palms, Eucalyptus, Mesembryanthemums, and many others made up a 
tropical garden which will well repay the traveller's visit. I was 
peculiarly interested to see my Boucerosia from Mount Hor here, a cactus- 
like plant, which seems to be a new species. Can it be, like the 
Dolichos, an ancient weed of cultivation ? When we let the mind go 
back to times of ancient civilisation, to the traffic and merchandise of 
pilgrims, monks, and Bedouins, of Israelites and Phoenicians, Pharaohs 
and Ptolemys, Greeks and Eomans, Turks and Crusaders, caravans and 
ships laden with food, with gums, spices, fruits, and wares during the 
whole history of mankind, we must reflect that many plants we now 
view as inhabitants, especially those of any economic use, may have 
hailed originally from remote sources. Speculations of this kind, at 
once so uncertain and so unpalatable, had better perhaps not be indulged 
in. They can only lead to doubt and discussion. Granted that the 
" osher " is known by the Bedouin " Doctrine of Signatures ;; as a plant of 
domestic value, may we not theorise as to whether wandering tribes 
have not carried it from Midian or Nubia to Sinai ? from Sinai to its far 
northern home in the Ghor ? and so with many others. This line of 
thought, which these gardens naturally produced, may, I think, except in 
rare instances, be better dispensed with. 

The gardens at Jaffa were fully supplied with its own brand of 
most excellent oranges. 



CHAPTER XII. 

Jerusalem. 



Between Ramleh (a few miles from Jaffa) and Jerusalem, during an 
ascent of over 2,000 feet, many fresh species occurred. The chief change 
in plant life lay in the great increase of low shrubby vegetation on 
the limestone hills and terraces. I had little time to botanise, but with 
hard galloping to make up for delays, I secured several sorts in condition 
to be studied. An oak, Querent coccif em Litut., and a handsome large- 
leafed arlmtus in full flower, Arbutus andrachne Linn., are two conspicuous 
trees or bushes characteristic of the rocky regions above the plain of 
Ramleh. A large daisy, Bellis 87/lvestris Ci/r., similar except in size to 
our own liellis perennis, was in flower. The handsome locust-tree, 
usually hereof only the stature of a hush from being cut for firing like the 
others, is very frequent. Its rich dark green pinnate foliage is well 
known to travellers in Southern Europe, where its pods are much used to 
feed cattle. This is supposed to be the "locust" of St. John. AtKirjath- 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 281 

jearim a solitary date-palm occurs, and I was informed at Jerusalem that 
near this a clump of native pines, Pinus halepensis Linn., exists. 
Maiden-hair, ceterach, and the sweet Cheilanthes, were the ferns gathered, 
chiefly amongst the limestone clefts above Bab el Wad. A handsome sage, 
Salvia triloba I., was in flower, and several other labiates, as Phlomis spj, 
Micromeria barbata B. & K., M. myrtifolia Boiss., M. nervosa Desf., and 
Teucrium polium Linn, were collected. A bryony, B. syriaca Boiss., 
and a beautiful clematis with dull purple flowers, C. cirrhosa Linn., 
trailed along the roadside walls near the villages. The leafless Ephedra 
and Asparagus still help to increase the variety. The spiny-branched 
Calycotome villosa Linn., and Anagyris fcetida Linn., yellow pea-flowered 
shrubs, are not uncommon. Other less important plants are — Reseda 
alba Linn., Malcolmia crenulata Boiss., Thlaspi perfoliatus Linn., Erodium 
moschatum W., Thelygonum cynocrambe Linn., Ononis natrix Linn., Lnida 
viscosa Boiss., Sherkirdia arvensis Linn., Alhanna Tinctoria Tausch., and 
Onosma syriaca Lab. Most of these are common about Jerusalem and 
Bethlehem. 

The birds noted were almost entirely British species. Of these the 
wheatear had not been seen before. Saxicola lugens Licht., and I think 
S. finschii Ileugl., were eastern chats not seen since leaving the Ghor, 
but here not unfrequent. 

While at Jerusalem we came in for an unusually heavy fall of snow, 
lasting from 20th to 25th of January. There was therefore little to be 
done in botany around the Holy City. Fortunately we had accomplished 
our pilgrimage to Jericho before the snow set in, which gave me an 
opportunity of comparing the northern with the southern Ghor, or hollow 
of the Dead Sea. 

About Jerusalem, but especially along the tiny aqueduct between the 
Pools of Solomon and Bethlehem, some plants were in flower. Erodium 
malacoides Linn., E. gruinum Linn., Pistacia paloestina Boiss., Sediim 
sp. (S. altissinium Poir. ?), Tor dylitimbr achy carpa Boiss., Torilistrichosperma 
Spr., T. leptophylla Rich., Pimpinella cretica Poir., Galium judaicum 
Boiss., Pisum fulvum S. & L., Lathyrus blepharicarpus Boiss., Carduus 
argentatus Linn., Urospermum picroides Desf., Crepis senecioides Bel., 
Anchusa mulleri Willd., Onosma syriaca Lab., Hyoscyamus aureus Linn., 
Cyclamen latifolium Sibth., Plantago lagopus Linn., Viscum cruciatvm 
Linn., Euphorbia aidacosperma Boiss., Gagea reticulata R. & C, Agrostis 
verticillata Willd., and Avena sterilis Linn. ; as well as some common 
British plants, as Nasturtium officinale R. Br., Cerastium glomerat u m 
Thuill., Geranium molle Linn., Torilis nodosa Goert., Rubus discolor 
W. £ JY., Veronica anagallis Linn., fy V. Beccabunga Linn., will serve 
to give botanists an idea of the species occurring at this season. 

Jerusalem, 2,400 feet above sea-level, falls within Boissier's " Plateaux " 
subdivision of the Oriental region. His " Flora Orientalis " deals with the 
countries from Greece to India in a width of about twenty degrees of 
latitude north of the tropics ; and he divides these into (1) Mediterranean, 
(2) Middle Europe, (3) Oriental, and (4) Region du Dattier [or Desert]. 

x 2 



282 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

The Oriental is subdivided to Plateaux, Aralo-Caspian, and Mesopotamian. 
In the first of these subdivisions of the Oriental region, Jerusalem and 
Damascus and the districts around and above each of these cities are 
placed. 

The climate of Jerusalem is milder and more Mediterranean than 
most parts of this sub-region. The date-palm, though not native nor 
able to ripen its fruit, can exist, and grows to goodly dimensions, as 
evidenced by one well-known tree. Others occur a little lower towards 
Ramleh. Here and at Damascus, as I subsequently saw, the prickly pear 
is naturalised. A "pipi" tree, Ccesalpinia Gilliesii, a highland species 
from Buenos Ayres, was amongst the few cultivated species noticed in a 
recognisable condition. It was in flower beneath the windows of the 
Mediterranean Hotel. 

From an intelligent resident at Jerusalem I obtained some informa- 
tion of the vegetable products of its neighbourhood which may, I think, 
be deemed reliable, and gives an idea of the climate. 

" Frost, though occurring annually for some nights usually at the end 
of January, rarely lasts throughout the day, and hardly penetrates the 
soil [where there is any]. 

"The sycamore fig, orange, mandarin orange, and lemon, which ripen 
their fruit so well at Jaffa, will not do so at Jerusalem. 

"Apricots, tomatos, grapes, figs (?), thrive better at Jerusalem than 

Jaffa. Pomegranates and nectarines do fairly well at Jerusalem. 

"Bread melons [Artocarpus integrifolia ?] and water melons, which 
attain a weight of 20 to 30 pounds at .Jaffa, will not ripen at Jerusalem. 

"A small plum, like a greengage, succeeds better at the elevated 
station ; but strawberries, apples, and pears have all been unsuccessfully 
tried. 

"Olives bear well about Jerusalem, especially after a winter of snow 
and cold ; each tree generally gives a good crop every second year. Hail 
sometimes damages the fruit much. 

"Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is grown on the plains; its oil is used 
for cooking purposes [and I suppose for adulterating the olive oil]. The 
|iul]> is given to animals. Itisasummer crop like the dhourra [Sorghum] 
after wheat and barley." 

Ci'/n-essus sernpervirens Linn., var. pyramidalis, the funereal cypress, 
attains a greal size in the esplanade between the mosques of Omar ami 
El Ahksa, bul far finer trees were seen later at Smyrna. The " Prince of 
Wales tree," Pinus halepemis Mill., pointed out by this name as the tree 
the Prince camped under, is the finest tree near Jerusalem. It is about 
50 feel high, and well furnished. Smaller ones occur at the Armenian 
-nt. 

An interesting plan! of Jerusalem is the red-berried mistletoe, Viscum 
crudatv/m Linn., parasitic on olive-trees, and known elsewhere only in 
southern Spain. .Mi'. ALrmstrong, who was always willing ('when his duties 

permitted) t" give me a helping hand, brought me specimens from the 
Valley of Jehoshaphat. 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 283 

During the snow at Jerusalem a gazelle was shot within a mile or two 
of the city. This was, I believe, a very unusual occurrence. I saw the 
animal immediately after its death. 



CHAPTEE XIII. 

Jericho and Northern Ghor. 



On the 14th of January we went down to the Jordan Valley. Im- 
mediately after leaving Mount Olivet I found abundance of Androcyw- 
bium palcestinum Baker (Erythrostictus Boiss.), first seen in the Arabah 
above the Ghor. It is a stemless white-flowered plant, small but leafy, 
and with rather large flowers of no particular beauty. It belongs to the 
Colchicacese. I mention it specially because Mons. Barbey mentions 
that Both found this plant close to Jerusalem, but that after careful 
search he (Barbey) was unable to rediscover it. I am thus able to con- 
firm Both's record. Mons. Barbey's visit (April 3) was perhaps too late 
for the species. 

On descending even a slight distance to the east the climate at once 
improves. Bethlehem and the neighbourhood of Solomon's Pools are 
distinctly milder than Jerusalem. We gradually travel from mid-winter 
into spring. Several plants met with before as we climbed out of the Ghor 
by Wady Zuweirah, are again in flower as we descend. Fumaria, Carrich- 
tera, Biscutella, Malcolmia, Erucaria, may be quoted. Fresh forms occur, as 
I h/pecoum procumbens Linn., Capsella pi-ocumbens Linn., Neslia paniculata 
Li int., Hippocrepis unisiliquosa Linn., Hymenocarpus circinnatus Linn., 
Astragalus callichrous Boiss., A. sanctus Boiss, var., Trigonella arabica 
Del., Matricaria aurea Boiss., Chrysanthemum coronarium Linn., Veronica 
syriaca R. & S., Arnebia comuta F. & N., Asperugo procumbens Linn., 
Emex spinosus Camp., Muscari racemosum Mull., Lamarchia aurea Maznch., 
and others. These are mostly small bright-coloured spring flowers. 
At about sea-level some desert species begin to occur, as Zygophylhua 
album Linn, (in flower), Prosopis Stephaniana Willd., Reseda pruinosa 
Del., Rcetama raitam Forsh, Ochradenus baccatus Del., Tamarix gallica 
Linn, var., and a few more of the southern Ghor plants. 

We are again amongst the marls, and before long those of the 600 feet 
level, so conspicuous round the Dead Sea, can, as Professor Hull con- 
eludes, be traced, but evidently far more completely denudated in this 
moister and more fluviatile district. Lower marl-terraces occur, but 
various searches failed to bring any more .sub-fossil shells to light. 
Canon Tristram has gathered at 250 feet in the marls near here shells 
identical with those obtained by us at Ain Buwerrideh. 

The flora of this part of the Jordan Valley is to a certain extent a 
repetition of that of the southern Ghor, but many of the interesting 
species are missing, and others of more familiar types take their place. 
Widespread European species are much more numerous. Common 



284 A NATURALIST'S JOURNEY TO SINAI, PETRA, 

British species of Draba, Capsella, Thlaspi, Nasturtium, Rubus, Heloscia- 
diuui, Malva, Galium, Veronica, Mentha, Solanum, Lythrum, Cichorium, 
Verbena, Euphorbia being all met with, in about the total of five species 
in the northern Ghor to one in the southern. Nor did the season at 
Jericho appear to be more advanced than that at Es Safieh. 

Jericho and its neighbourhood have been amply described by many 
able writers, and its botany has been well illustrated by Mons. Barbey 
in his work already referred to. This latter visitor has not, however, 
corrected one statement repeatedly made by various travellers, that of 
the ancient palm grove, extending for several miles around Jericho, there 
is no existing representative. There is one date-palm, 20 feet high, at 
Gilgal. 

Of the characteristic species of the southern Ghor growing here, I may 
mention Zizyphus spina-christi Linn., Balanites wgyptiaca Del., Loranthnz 
acacioe Zucc, Calotropis procera Willd., and Populus eupliratica Oliv., the 
latter being abundant along the Jordan. This poplar is remarkable for 
the extraordinary variety of shapes in its leaves, especially in young trees 
and saplings. In full-grown trees, like the one described at the Ghor es 
Safieh, they become more uniform ; ovate and slightly incised sometimes 
at the base, or faintly lobed in a wavy fashion. No trees were seen near 
Jericho in a mature condition. Tamarisk and the "zukkum," or false 
balm of Gilead (Balanites), are very abundant here. An acacia near 
Ain es Sultan was, I believe, A. albida Del., gathered previously at Gaza. 
It was a stunted bush, and our old friends the acacias of Sinai and Es 
Safieh have all disappeared except the Prosopis Stephania, a small ragged 
little shrub. This little ill-favoured acacia, which thrives best on saline 
wet places, bears a very peculiar pod, swollen, solid, and irregular, and so 
like a gall or deformity of some kind that it was not until opening it and 
obtaining its seeds I could believe it to be a natural growth. 

Bananas, oranges, and a few sugar-canes are cultivated in the Aral) 
gardens at Gilgal, the modern Jericho. 

The ornithology of the Jericho district runs in parallel lines with the 
botany. The European sorts are much commoner than in the Ghor es 
Safieh, and the tropical and Asiatic forms generally less so. Only one 
couple of sunbirds, and but a few of the " hoppiiig-thrusb.es" (Argya 
Bquamiceps) were seen. Shrikes were few. The palm-dove and the 
collared turtle were not scarce, but they were not as one to twenty 
here compared with those of the more southern oasis. A few bulbuls 
PycnonotvA xanthopygwa II. & Ehr.), pied chats, Saxicola luge/M Licht., 
and desert blackstarts, Cercomela melcmura Temn., occurred. 

On the other band, English robins, jays, chaffinches and wheatears 
were seen here, though not at the Ghor es Safieh. Blackbirds, wagtails, 
and stonechate were commoner, and an unexpected northern visitant, a 
redwing, Tv/rdvsiliacus Linn., was shot at Ain es Sultan. This bird has 
nut previously been obtained in Palestine, but it is likely that the wave 
of unusually severe went her, about to be felt by us at Jerusalem, drove 
many of its companions into the country. 



AND SOUTH PALESTINE. 285 

The river Jordan was considerably swollen, and so muddy that a 
plunge in its waters did not look inviting. However, Laurence and I 
swam it and set foot on the other side of Jordan. It was about thirty 
yards across, with a strong current, about enough to give equal drift and 
headway to a swimmer. The water was too turbid for me to learn much 
about its inhabitants ; however I picked up two molluscs, a bivalve and a 
univalve (Corbicula Saidcyi Bourg. and Melanopsis costata Oliv.) on the 
muddy edge of the stream. 

We returned to Jerusalem by Marsaba, where we camped on the 
night of the 16th — unhappily our last experience of "tenting," the most 
enjoyable kind of Eastern life. Our intended expedition by Tiberias and 
Merom through northern Palestine ending in Beyrout was put a stop to 
by heavy snow. Before dismissing Jericho I have to mention the species 
gathered which were not previously met with : — Ranunculus asiaticus Linn., 
Matthiola oxyccras B.C., Saponaria vaccaria Linn., Silene palcestina Boiss., 
Arenaria picta Sibth., Rhus oxyacanthoides Bum., Ammi majus Linn., 
Aizoon hispanicum Linn., Ononis antiquorum Linn., Evax contracta Boiss., 
Auiherboa Lippii B.C., Hedypaois cretica Boiss., Hagioseris sp.? (H.galilcea 
Boiss. ? Picris sp. ?, Orobanche cegyptiaca Pers., Linaria albifrons Sibth., L. 
micrantha Cav., Cuscuta sp. ? (C. palcestina Boiss. ?), Convolvulus siculus Linn., 
Vitex agnus-castus Linn., Phalaris ninor Retz., Schismus marginatus P. de B., 
Bromus madritensis Linn., Ea>leria phleoides Pers. Of these the Orobanche 
was a lovely bright blue species, and the Rhus a pretty red-berried thorn 
very like the hawthorn, but with flattened berries and minute flowers. 
This thorn has been found as far south as latitude 26° in Midian at about 
4,000 feet above sea-level by Captain Burton. The Ononis was an erect 
shrub, about 5 or 6 feet high, with a few slender long spiny branches and 
some scattered flowers like those of our own restharrow. The Ranunculus 
is so like Anemone coronaria (which occurred) that it was not at first 
1 1 istinguished from it. Both are of a gorgeous scarlet. The Vitex was one 
of the very few northern representatives of the tropical Verbenacese. It 
is a straggling shrub, with dull blue flowers of no beauty, and, like many 
other Jericho plants, found all round the Mediterranean. 

Young fragments, chiefly of Crucifene, Legutuinosse, and Umbelliferse, 
were often picked, but for these orders the season was too little advanced. 

Grasses and bulbous plants were also often too young. 

On the way to Marsaba, a rough ride across many deep ravines, an 
interesting effect of aspect was noticeable. A slight greenish hue showed 
plainly on the hillsides with a northern aspect, while the others were as 
yet completely barren. In those places where the heavy dews of night 
are less rapidly dried up by the noonday sun, vegetation is no doubt 
always more abundant, the effect of shade also being to assist the early 
growth. An analogous effect was still more sharply defined in a different 
way on steep slopes looking southwards. These presented the usual 
monotonous barren chalky white appearance on riding upwards, where 
tln> eye only caught the outstanding bosses and prominences of rock and 
soil in the wady bed. It was difficult to recall this on looking back from 



286 YOMA, OR THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 

above in a commanding position. The numerous little depressions and 
shaded hollows with the first symptoms of incipient vegetation gave a 
faint green tint to the whole. The one rested the sight, the other was a 
painful glare. It was about the difference between tinted and plain glass 
spectacles. 

At Marsaba there is a date-palm tied up and supported in the court- 
yard of the convent, which the monks relate was planted by St. Saba 
(a.d. 490). "Without vouching for the truth of this statement, I was 
interested to learn that it always bears a stoneless fruit. Of the truth of 
the latter information I believe there is no doubt. This convent is 
interesting to ornithologists as the place of the discovery of Tristram's 
Grakle, whose acquaintance I had first made at Mount Hor. There were 
several about the convent during our visit. 

On the 17th we reached Jerusalem. A week later we left for Beyrout, 
where our party divided itself, Professor Hull and his son returning 
homewards. Laurence and I, however, faced the snow and succeeded in 
crossing Lebanon and Hermon by the admirable French road to Damascus, 
visiting Baalbeck on the way. As I am not writing a volume of travels I 
will bring this part of my subject to a close. The snow lay many feet 
deep on these mountains reaching to Damascus and Baalbeck, so that 1 
was unable to make any collections or observations of consequence on the 
natural history of this country, which is, moreover, fairly well made known 
by the researches of several eminent naturalists. 






YOMA, OR THE DAT OF ATONEMENT, 

With the Commentary of Rabbi Obadiah of Bartenora. 



CHAPTER IV. 



1. He shook 1 the box 2 violently and took out the lots. 3 Upon one was 
written " for the Name." And on the other was written "for Azazel.'' 
The sagan was on his right and the chief of the house of the fathers (in 

1 He seized, snatched, the box and took the lots suddenly with violence. 

2 (As we learn above " and a box was there." And why was it opened with 
violence and haste ?) In order that he might not endeavour to find out by 
delay which was the lot for the Name, and to take it out in his right hand, for it 
was a happy sign when it came up in his right hand. 

3 One in Ins right hand, and one in his left. And the goats were standing 
one on his right hand and one on his left, and lie put the lot which came up in 
his right hand upon the goat on his right hand, and the lot which came up in 
his left hand upon the goat on his left hand. 



YOMA, OR THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 2S7 

his left. If the lot for the Name came up in his right hand, the sagan 
said to him, " my lord high priest, lift up thy right hand," and if the lot 
for the Name came up in his left hand, the chief of the house of the fathers 
said to him, "my lord high priest, lift up thy left hand." He put them 
upon the two goats, and said, "a sin-offering to the Lord." 4 R. Ishmael 
said "it was not necessary to say 'a sin-offering' 5 but only 'to the Lord.' 
And they repeated after him, 6 'blessed be the glorious name of His 
kingdom for ever and ever.' " 

2. He tied a crimson band 7 upon the head of the goat which was to be 
sent away, and caused it to stand opposite the place whence it was to be 
sent away, 8 and the goat which was to be slain 9 opposite the place of its 
slaying. He now came to his bullock the second time, and laid his two 
hands upon it and confessed. And thus he said, "O God, I have done iniquity, 
I have transgressed, I have sinned 10 before Thee, I and my house, and the 
sons of Aaron, the people of Thy holiness. O God, forgive the iniquities 
and the transgressions, and the sins which I have done, and transgressed, 
and sinned before Thee, I and my house and the sons of Aaron the people 
of Thy holiness, as is written in the Law of Moses Thy servant (Levit. 
xvi, 30), for on that day shall the priest make an atonement for you, to 
cleanse you that ye may be clean from all your sins before the Lord," and 
they said after him, "blessed be the glorious name of His kingdom/for 
ever and ever." 

3. He slew the goat, received the blood in the sprinkling-basin, and 

4 The Shem Hamphoresh (which was the name spelt with yod he) was 
pronounced as it is written. 

5 The decision was not according to Kabbi Ishmael. 

6 When he pronounced the Name. 

7 Wool dyed red. 

8 Opposite the gate by which they caused it to go out. 

9 The band of crimson was tied opposite the place of its slaying, that is to say 
its neck ; so that it might not be changed for the goat which was to be sent 
away, for this had the' band tied to its head and that to its neck ; and neither of 
them were likely to be changed for another goat, for these had a crimson band 
tied to them, and other goats had not a crimson band tied to them. 

10 The Mishna is that of Eabbi Meyer which he learns from the Scripture, as 
it is written (Levit. xvi, 21), "and confess over him all the iniquities of the 
children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins." But the wise 
men disputed about it, and said " iniquities," they are sins of pride; "trans- 
gressions," they are rebellions; "sins," they are unintentional faults. That 
after confessing sins of pride and of rebellion, he should return and confess 
unintentional faults would be astonishing ; but he said, " I have sinned, I have 
done iniquity, I have transgressed ; " and so with David, who said, " we have 
sinned with our fathers, we have committed iniquity, we have done wickedly " 
(Ps. cvi, 6) ; the decision was according to the opinion of the wise men. And 
what was that which Moses spake (Exod. xxxiv, 7) ; "forgiving iniquity and 
transgression and sin ? " Moses said thus before the holy place at the time when 
Israel sinned and repented, and he made their sins of pride like unintentional 
faults. 



288 YOMA, OR THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 

gave it to him who stirred it 11 (upon the fourth row of stones in the 
pavement 12 of the Temple) in order that it might not coagulate. He took 
the censer, went up to the top of the altar, turned the coals this way and 
that way, and took 13 from the inner consumed portions and descended and 
put it upon the fourth row of stones in the pavement of the court. 

4. On all other days 14 he took the coals in a censer of silver, and emptied 
them into one of gold, 15 and on this day he took them in a censer of gold, 16 
and entered with it. On all other days he took them in a censer holding 
four cabs, and emptied them into one of three cabs, and on this day he 
took the coals in a censer of three cabs and entered with it. Rabbi Jose 
said " on every other day he took the coals in a censer containing a seah, 
and emptied them into one containing three cabs, and on this day he took 
them in a censer containing three cabs and entered with it." On every 
other day the censer was heavy 17 and on this day light. 18 On every other day 
its handle was short, and on this day long. 19 On every other day the gold 
of which it was made was yellow (p")"^) and on this day red. 20 The words 
of Rabbi Menahem. On every other day a paras 21 was offered in the 
morning, and a paras in the evening, and on this day he added his hands 
full of incense. On every other day the incense was finely powdered, and 
on this day as finely as possible. 22 

11 He blew, and shook, and mixed it in order that it might not be coagulated 
if he left it until he [the high priest] had performed the service of the incense. 

12 Each row of the stones of the pavement was called rohad, "721 "I. And it is 
not possible to explain "the fourth row in the Temple" as the fourth row in the 
interior of the Temple (from the door of the Temple inwards), for it is written 
(Levit. xvi, 17) "and there shall be no man in the tabernacle of the congrega- 
tion," &c. But the teaching " the fourth robad of the Temple " is the same as to 
say the fourth row in the court as one goes out of the Temple into the court. 
He counted the rows, and left it upon the fourth row, and there he who stirred 
it stood. It is not possible that those in the interior of the Temple are meant. 

13 He took the coals and left the censer until he had taken a handful of 
incense and put it into the leaf (cf. Levit. xvi, 12), and afterwards he took the 
leaf and the censer into the Temple. 

14 When he took coals from the second pile [on the altar, which was the pile] 
for the incense, to carry in to the inner altar for the morning and evening 
incense. 

18 They did not take them with the golden one, because taking the coals 
bruises the instrument and wastes it, and the law is sparing of the riches of 
Israel. 

16 In order that the high priest might not be fatigued by having to empty 
from one vessel to another. 

17 Because its sides were thick. 

18 Because its sides were thin. 

19 In order that the arm of the high priest might be helped by it. 

20 It was of that kind of gold called zahab parvim, DM1D 2HT, because it 
resembled [in colour] the blood of bulls parim, D'HD. 

21 Half a maneh. 

--' As it is written (Levit. xvi, 12), "and his hands full of sweet incenso 



YOMA, OR THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 289 

5. On every other day the priest went up on the east of the ascent 23 to 
the altar, and went down on the west, and on this day the high priest 24 
went up in the middle and down in the middle. Rabbi Judah said " the 
high priest always went up in the middle and went down in the middle." 
On every other day, the high priest sanctified [washed] his hands and 
his feet from the laver, and on this day from the golden pitcher. Rabbi 
Judah said " the high priest always sanctified his hands and feet from the 
golden pitcher." 

6. On every other day there were four piles there, 25 and on this day 
five : the words of Rabbi Meyer. Rabbi Jose said " on every other day 
three, 26 and on this day four." Rabbi Judah said on every other day two, 27 
and on this day three. 

beaten small." And what does this teach us ? That it is said before (Exod. 
xxx, 3R) "and thou shalt beat some of it very small," only to tell thee that the 
incense of the day of atonement should be as fine as possible. 

23 As Mar said, " every turn that thou makest must be only to the right 
hand," which is the east (Yoma 17 b), for the ascent to the altar was on the 
south, and therefore they went up on the east of it, in order to turn to the right. 

24 On account of his honour, to show his dignity, that he was as a son of the 
house and might go in whatever place he wished, which the other priests had 
not the right to do. 

25 On the outer altar were four fliaiyO (arrangements — piles) of wood upon 
which they lighted the fires ; one large pile, on which they offered the continual 
sacrifice : a second pile from which they took fire for the altar of incense ; and 
one pile for keeping up the fire, that fire should never fail there ; and one pile 
for the members and fat of the continual sacrifice of the evening which had not 
been consumed in the evening, and were not burned during the night, which they 
burned upon this pile. And on the day of atonement they added another pde 
from which to take coals for the incense before and within the vail. 

26 For three passages are written (Levit. vi, 9), "because of the burning upon 
the altar all night until the morning," this was the great pile : and the fire of 
the altar shall be burning in it : " this was the second pile for the incense ; and 
(v, 12) "and the fire upon the altar shall be burning in it, it shall not be put 
out : " this was the third pile for keeping up the fire. And Eabbi Jose did not 
hold that there was a fourth fire for the members and fat which had not been 
consumed, but thought that the members and fat which had not been consumed 
were burned by the side of the great pile. 

27 Kabbi Jehudah did not hold that there was a third pile for keeping up the 
fire ; and the third scripture, " and the fire shall be burning upon it, it shall not 
be put out," he explained to mean that he who set on fire little fragments of 
wood in order to light the great pile did not set fire to them upon the pavement, 
and go up to the altar with them burning, but lighted them upon the top of the 
altar. The decision was according to Rabbi Jose. 



290 YOMA, OR THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 



CHAPTER V. 

1. They brought out 1 to him the leaf [spoon, A.V.] and the censer, and 
he took his hands full of incense and put it into the kaf. If his hand 
was large, the handful was large, if small, the handful was small, and thus 
was its measure. 2 He took the censer in his right hand, 3 and the kaf in 
his left hand, and went in the holy place 4 [^Tl] until he came to the 
space between the two vails which divided between the holy place and 
the most holy. The space between them was a cubit. Rabbi Jose said 
" there was only one vail there, as is said (Exodus xxvi, 33), ' and the 
vail shall divide unto you between the holy place and the most holy.' " 
The outer one was hooked up 5 from the south 6 side, and the inner one from 
the north 7 side. He went between them until he came to the north 6 side, 
he turned his face to the south, and went to his left with the vail 9 until 
he came to the ark. 10 When he came to the ark he put the censer between 
the two staves, heaped up the incense upon the coals, and the whole 
house became filled with smoke. He went out in the same way and 

1 From the chamber of the vessels. 

2 As was the mode of measurement without the most holy places, so was the 
mode of measurement within. As without he took it by hanclfuls and not by a 
vessel, so also within, when he emptied the incense from the kaf into his hand, 
he did not empty by means of a vessel made according to the measure of his 
hand, but into his hand itself. 

3 Because it was heavy and hot, and the kaf of incense lighter than it, he 
took the censer in his right h»nd and the kaf in his left. 

4 He entered and wont in the interior of the Temple towards the west to 
between the two vails. Because they doubted in the second house whether the 
wall which divided between the holy place and the most holy, which was in the 
first house and was a cubit thick, was holy, as within the veil or as without the 
vail, therefore they made two vails, an outer and an inner, and between them a 
space of a cubit to receive between them the space of the partition wall. 

5 The Rabbis who say this dispute with R. Jose about it, and say that, "and 
the vail shall divide unto you" refers to the tabernacle only [not to the Temple]. 

6 The end was folded towards the outer side and held by a golden clasp, so 
as to be open on the south. 

" lie entered where it was hooked up on the south, and went between them 
until lie came to where it was hooked up on the north. 

* When lie entered into the most holy place he turned his face towards the 
south, in order to go as far as the space between the staves, which was in the 
middle of the chamber. For the staves were long, and reached as far as the vail, 
one end being towards the west, and the other towards the east, and one was at 
the northern end of the ark, and the other at its southern end. 

" As he was going from north to south his left side was towards the east, and 
the vail being on the east, his left side was " with the vail." 

10 To the place of the ark and not the ark itself, for in the second house there 
was no ark. 



YOMA, OR THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 291 

place 11 as he entered, and prayed a short prayer 12 in the outer house. :j 
He did not prolong his prayer lest the people should be anxious about 
him." 

2. After the ark was removed a stone was there from the time of the 
former prophets, and it was called shetei/a/i, 15 foundation. It was three 
fingerbreadths high above the ground, and upon it he put the censer. 

3. He took the blood from him who had been stirring it, entered to the 
place where he had before entered, 10 and stood in the place where he had 
before stood, 17 and sprinkled from it once above and seven times below. 
He did not intentionally sprinkle either above or below, 18 but sprinkled 
like a person striking. 19 And thus he counted :— one ; one and one ; 20 one 
and two ; one and three ; one and four ; one and five ; one and six ; one 
and seven. He went out and put it upon a golden stand which was in the 
Temple. 

4. They brought to him the goat. He slaughtered it and received its 
blood in the sprinkling-basin. He entered to the place where he had 
before entered, and stood in the place where he had before stood, and 
sprinkled from it once above and seven times below. And he did 
not intentionally sprinkle either above or below, but sprinkled like 
a person striking. And thus he counted : — one ; one and one ; one 
and two, &c. He went out and put it upon the second stand that 

11 He did not turn his face to go out, but went out backwards with his face 
towards the ark. 

12 This was the prayer, " May it be Thy will, O Lord God, that if this year 
be hot, it may be rainy ; and let not the exercise of dominion pass from the 
house of Judab ; and let it not be necessary for Thy people Israel to be fed the 
one by the other {i.e., by charity], or by another people ; and let not the prayer 
of travellers enter before Thee." (Gloss, because they pray that rain may not 
fall.) 

13 In the holy place, "5!"P3- 

14 Lest they should say, " ho is dead." 

15 Because from it the world was founded, Jin^'J ; from it the Holy One, 
blessed be He, founded the world. HTl^', sheteyah, is " foundation." 

16 The holy of holies. 

17 Between the staves. 

18 That there should be one sprinkling above on the upper border of the mercy 
seat, and the seven below upon the body of the ark ; for the blood did not 1 ouch 
the mercy seat, but fell ujjon the ground. 

19 He sprinkled like a person inflicting blows [upon the back], who begins 
between the shoulders and goes downwards. Thus he endeavoured that these 
eight sprinklings should be upon the ground in order, one under the other. 

20 In order that he might not count the first sprinkling which was above by 
itself with all the seven which were below. Sometimes lie might make a mistake 
and count the first sprinkling with the seven, and at the first sprinkling below 
count two. And it docs not say that he should count the sprinkling which was 
above with the seven which were below, and reckon ;is tar as eight. It is 
intended to say that the command is to finish the sprinklings which were below 
within seven, and not within eight. 



292 YOMA, OR THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 

was in the Temple. Rabbi Judah said, "there was only one stand 
there." He took the blood of the bullock and put the blood of the 
goat 21 where it had stood, and sprinkled from it upon the vail, 22 which 
was opposite to the ark on the outer side, once above and seven times 
below. And he did not intentionally, &c. And thus he counted, &c. 
He took the blood of the goat and put the blood of the bullock 23 
where it had stood, and sprinkled from it upon the vail which was 
opposite to the ark on the outer side, once above and seven times 
below, &c. He poured the blood of the bullock into the blood of the 
goat, and put the full vessel into the empty one. 2 * 

5. He now went out to the altar which was before the Lord, that is, 
the golden altar, and began to purify it from above downwards. 25 From 
where did he begin ? From the north-eastern corner, the north-western, 
the south-western, the south-eastern : the place where he began with a 
sin-offering on the outer altar was that where he finished with the inner 
altar. Rabbi Eliezer said, " he stood in his place and purified, and upon 
all the corners he put the blood from below upwards, excejst that one 
which was before him, upon which he put the blood from above 
downwards.'' 

6. He sprinkled upon the clean surface of the altar seven times, 26 and 

21 He agrees with the words of R. Judah, who said that there was only one 
stand there, and it was necessary to take away the blood of the bullock first in 
order to put the blood of the goat upon the stand upon which the blood of the 
bullock had been. The decision was not according to Eabbi Judah. 

22 As it is written (Leyit. xyi, 16), "and so shall he do for the tabernacle of 
the congregation." 

23 As it is written in reference to putting the blood upon the altar (Leyit. x\ i, 
18), "and shall take of the blood of the bullock, and of the blood of the goat ; " 
of the blood of both of them together. 

24 Again he poured the full sprinkling-basin into the empty one, in order that 
the bloods might be thoroughly mixed. 

25 This doctor thought that the priest walked to each corner in succession, and 
that each sprinkling was upon the corner which was before him, and near to him, 
and therefore took "TIV1 NDi"IO, " he purified from aboye downwards," to mean 
that he made the sprinkling from aboye to below ; for if he should sprinkle from 
below upwards at the corner which was before him, the blood might flow down 
into the middle of his hand, and soil his clothes. And Rabbi Eliezer thought that 
the priest stood at one corner, and from there made the sprinklings upon all the 
corners: for the whole altar was only a cubit square, and since three of the 
corners were not near to him, he could put the blood upon them from below 
upwards without soiling his clothes, except flint corner near which he was 
standing, for he could not turn the tips of his fingers downwards but upwards ; 
for if lie should turn the tips of his fingers downwards and make the sprinkling 
from belovi upwards, the blood would flow down into the sleeve of his shirt. The 
.I cisioii was not according to Rabbi Eliezer. 

-' After he had completed all the sprinklings of the corners, he sprinkled upon 
it seven limes, as it is written (Levit. xvi, 19), "and he shall sprinkle of the blood 
upon it." lino, " the clean surface," was the uncovered space upon the altar, 



YOMA, OR THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. 293 

the remainder of the blood he poured upon the western foundation of 
the outer altar, 27 and the blood of the outer altar he poured upon the 
southern foundation. Both 28 became mingled in the canal and went 
out to the Kedron valley, and were sold to the gardeners 29 for manure. 
And they rendered themselves guilty of false dealing in reference to 
it. 30 

7. All the work of the day of atonement 31 which is prescribed in order, 32 
if he wrongly made one part to precede its fellow, it was as if he had not 
performed it at all [literally, as if he had done nothing]. For example : — 
if the blood of the goat preceded the blood of the bullock, he must return 
and sprinkle of the blood of the goat after the blood of the bullock : if the 
blood was poured out before he had completed the sjjrinklings which were 
within the holy of holies he must bring other blood and return and sprinkle 
afresh within the holy of holies, and likewise in the holy place, 33 and on the 
o-olden altar, because all the sprinklings made their own particular atone- 
ment. 34 Rabbi Eleazer and Rabbi Simeon said, " he began again from the 
place 35 where he had broken off." 

for he turned the ashes and coals to either side, and sprinkled upon the gold of 
the altar. 

27 The remainder of the blood of the outer sin-offerings was poured ujton the 
southern foundation. 

28 The outer and the inner bloods \_i.e., the blood sprinkled upon the outer 
altar, and that sprinkled upon the inner altar] which were poured upon the altar 
of burnt-offering flowed down and fell from the foundation [of the altar] to the 
pavement [of the court] and became mingled in the canal — the conduit in the 
court which went out to the Kedron valley. 

29 The owners of gardens. 

30 It was unlawful to make use of it before the price had been paid. 

31 All the services which he performed in the white garments in the holy of 
holies and in the holy place. 

32 jn our mishna. 

33 SsTQ 13V If he had made a part of the sprinklings upon the vail, and the 
blood was poured out, he must bring another bullock and begin again the 
sprinklings upon the vail, but it was not necessary to begin again within the holy 
of holies. 

34 Therefore the atonement that was completed was completed. 

35 And although that particular atonement was not complete, it was not 
necessary to return and do what he had already done. The decision was not 
according to Kabbi Eleazer and Rabbi Simeon. 



HARRISON AND SONS, PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY, ST. MARTIN S LANE, LONDON. 



PALESTINE 
EXPLORATION FUND 



Patron— THE QUEEN. 

Quarterly Statement 

FOR 1886. 



LONDON: 
SOCIETY'S OFFICE, i, ADAM STREET, ADELPHI, 

AND BY 

RICHARD BENTLEY & SON, 8, NEW BURLINGTON STREET. 



LONDON : 
HARRISON AND SONS, PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY, 
ST. martin's LANE. 



INDEX. 



Acra south of the temple, 26. 

Acre, Handles of pottery jars with Greek 

characters found, 12. 
"Across the Jordan," Notes on, 83-87, 

168. 
Adulkm, Cave of, 31, 32. 
'Ain Haud, 14. 

Aqueducts at Siloam, The, 88-91, 92, 197. 
Ar'ar'ahshsli, Alabaster saucers and tear 

bottles, 12. 
Athlit, 11. 

Bedawin in Syria, Customs, &c., 16. 
Bezetha, 27. 

Birch, Kev. W. F., on Acra south of the 
temple (see p. 105, 
1885), 26. 
n „ ,, Professor Socin's 

criticisms, 31. 
>) I, ,, Captain Conder's 

note on Jerusalem 
(city of David) , 
33. 
» ,i „ The approximate 

position of the 
castle of Zion, 33. 
,) j, „ Zion the city of 

David, 151. 
Black Sea, Inscriptions (Hittite or Phoe- 
nician) found near the shores of the, 
15. 
Bronze vase from Nablus, 165. 
Chester, B.A., Greville John, Notes on 
Phoenician gems and amulets, 43-50. 
Csesarea, 12. 

Conder, Captain, Notes on Flood stories in 
Palestine, 15. 
„ ,, Phoenician an- 

tiquities, 15. 
,, „ Phoenician 

tombs, 17. 
j, ,, Emmaus, 17. 

,, ,, Prof. Socin's 

paper, 17. 
,, ,, Bethsaida Ju- 

lias, 17. 
„ „ The Nablus al- 

tar, 18. 
,, „ The Chimcera, 

18. 
„ „ Bethlehem, 19. 

„ ,, Qnar/i rlt/Stali - 

ment, January, 
1886, 82, 83. 



Conder, Captain, Notes on "Across the Jor» 
dan," 83-87. 
,, „ „ Reply to Prof. 

Socin, 137. 
,, „ ,, Bronze vase 

from Nablus, 
165. 
„ „ „ " Twenty - one 

Years' Work," 
166. 
,, ,, „ Kokaba, 167. 

„ „ „ List of identi- 

fications in- 
serted in Bible 
Society's new 
maps, 167. 
Dalieh, Antiques found at, 11-13. 
David, City of, 33. 

„ Tower of, 23. 
Dead Sea water, Analysis of, 53. 
Deluge, Stories of the, 15. 
Dialect in Palestine, Fellah, 205. 
Discoveries, New, 73-81. 

,, Recent, at Jerusalem (the 

second wall), 21-24, 206. 
Donkey's Back (a ridge), in Moab, 15. 
Doors, Stone, 142. 
Druse oath, Form of the ; A catechism 

of the Druse religion, 35-43. 
Dubil, Antiques found, 10. 
Egypt and Syria and their physical 
features in relation to Bible history, 53, 
Emmaus and thermal springs, 17. 
Et Tabghah, Sea of Galilee, 15. 
Exploration, 1. 

Fergusson, The late Mr. James, 71. 
Finn, Mrs. E. A., The second wall of 

Jerusalem, 206. 
Flecker, Rev. E., The valley Zephathah at 

Mareshah, 50-52, 148. 
Ganneau, C. Clermont, on the identification 
of Segor, Gomorrah, and Sodom, 19. 
Gath and its worthies, 200. 
General Committee, Meeting of, 208. 
Ghor es Safiyeh, 32. 
Gomorrah, 19-21. 
Hanauer, J. E., Remarks on the Orma or 

Erma, 24-26. 
Herodian temple, The, according to the 
treatise Middoth and Josephus, 
92-111. 
Hull, Prof., The Jordan and the Gulf of 
Akabah, 145. 



IV 



INDEX. 



Inscriptions, on some newly found, 72, 73. 
Jerusalem, Notes from, 135. 
„ Lower city, 26. 

„ Temple, Wall of, Mason's 

marks, 16. 
Jordan and the Gulf of Akabah, On the, 

145. 
Judah and Benjamin, Boundary between, 

54. 
Kedron or Tyropoeon valleys (Yalley of 

Hinnom ?'), 33. 
Kefr Lam, Ornamented stone at, 12. 
Khurbet ed Dikkeh ? Bethsaida Julias, 

17, 18. 
Khurbet el Batta, 14. 

„ Wanseh, 13. 

Khurbet Erma or Orma as Kirjath-Jearim, 

24, 26. 
Khurbet Semmaka on Mount Carmel, 

7, 10. 
Khurbet Umm ed Derajeh, 9. 
Kokaba, 167. 
Kusr el Bashariyeh, 20. 
Lewis, Prof . Havter, Notes from Jerusalem, 

135. 
Menhirs, rude enclosures, and Phoenician 

temples, 17. 
Merrill, Selah, LL.D., on some newly 
found inscrip- 
tions, 72, 73. 
„ „ „ Becent disco- 

veries at Jeru- 
salem, 21. 
Middoth, or the measurements of the tem- 
ple, 224. 
Mount Carmel, Excavations on, 7. 
Noah's ark (Sefinet en Neby Nuh) near 

Kadeah, 15. 
Noah's chicken (Jaj Neby Nuh), 15. 
Noah's tomb in Syria, 15. 
Noah's wife, Spring of, 15. 
Notes and News, 5, 67, 131, 159. 
Notes on Quarterly Statement, Januarv, 

1886, 82, 83. 
Oliphant, Laurence, Excavations on Mount 
Carmel, 7. 
„ „ New discoveries, 73- 

81. 
Ophel and the city of David. 33. 
Palestine, Eesearches in Southern, 171. 
Phoenician gems and amulets, Notes on, 

43. 
Physical features of Egypt and Syria, in 

relation to Bible history, 53, 54. 
Rachel's tomb, Position of, 31. 
Ras el 'Ain and Tyre, Aqueduct between, 

16. 
Reply to Prof. Socin, Captain Conder's, 

137. 
Bock-cat tombs, Newly discovered, 155. 



Samaria, village near, Saucers, fragments, 

pottery jars found, 12. 
Sayce, Prof. A. H., Some newly found in- 
scriptions, 72, 73. 
Schick, O, The aqueducts at Siloam, 88-91. 
„ On the boundary between Ju- 
dah and Benjamin, 54-58. 
,, Newly discovered rock-cut 

tombs, 155. 
„ On second acqueduct to the 
Pool of Siloam, 197. 
Schumacher, G-., " Across the Jordan,'' a 
reply to C. R. C.'s notes 
theron, 168. 
„ Researches in Soiithern 

Palestine, 171. 
Shefr Amr, Pottery coffin found in a tomb 

at, 13. 
Simpson, William, (1) Stone doors, 142. 
Sodom, 19, 32. 
Stone balls, 22. 
Syrian Stone Lore, 164. 
Tamid, or the continual service, 119-130, 

213. 
Tammuz, Lakhmu, Ashera, Sutekh, 204. 
Tannur Eyub, 15. 
Tannur (Oven), several springs so-called, 

15. 
Tawahin es Soukhar (sugar mills), 20. 
Tombs, Rock-hewn, on Mount Carmel, 8. 
Tomkins, Rev. H. G\, Gath and its 
worthies, 200. 
„ „ „ Tammuz, Lakh- 

mu, 204. 
Tyre, Concrete mole in the Egyptian har- 
bour at, 16. 
Tyropceon valley, 26. 
" Twenty-one Years' Work," 166. 
Umm est Shukf,' Spring near, 11. 
Umm ez Zeinat, Pottery lamp found at, 12. 
Upper city, 26. 
Upper market-place, 26. 
W., C. W., Note by, 92. 
W., H. B. S., Zoar and the Doomed 

" Cities of the Plain," 113. 
W.uly Mugharah, Cavern in, 14. 
Wady Nmeira (Nimrin), 20. 
Weld, A. G., The stone doors of Tiberias, 

144. 
Yoma, or the day of atonement, 58-65, 

115-118. 
Zephathah, The valley, at Mareshah, 50, 

1 is. 
Zimmarin, Zinc coffins at, 12. 
Zion, The city of David, 151. 

,, The position of, 34. 
Zoar, 19, 32. 
Zoar and the Doomed "Cities of the 

Plain," 113, 114. 
Zorah, Rock altar of, 26. 



'QUARTERLY STATEMENT, JANUARY, 1886.] 



THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND 



LAST TEAR AND THIS. 



I. Exploration. 



The principal exploration work of the year 1885 has been that executed 
for the Committee by Herr Gottlieb Schumacher. The memoir accom- 
panying his map has been published under the title of " Across the 
Jordan," and a copy has been presented to every subscriber of the Fund 
who asked for it — the Committee considering that it was useless to send 
copies to those who had not sufficient interest in the subject to express their 
wish to possess a copy. The work is illustrated by 160 drawings, maps, and 
plans, executed in the same style as that of the " Memoirs," and is 
furnished with an index by Mr. Guy le Strange, who also superintended 
its production. It is the memoir of a part of the country covering 2C0 
square miles, and that in the least visited and least known district on 
the east of the river. The whole of the first edition has been taken up, 
and a second edition will be ready immediately. Those who have not 
yet received copies will do so very shortly. Meantime the lists are still 
open for the reception of new names. The book is uniform with the 
cheap edition of Captain Conder's popular works " Heth and Moab " 
and " Tent Work in Palestine." The work is enriched by the publication 
with it of the valuable papers by Mr. Laurence Oliphant and Mr. Guy le 
Strange, which had already appeared in the Quarterly Statement. These 
papers, together with notes of discovery by Dr. Selah Merrill, Herr 
Hanauer, Canon Tristram, and Mr. H. Chichester Hart, complete the 
exploration work of the year so far as it has been received. 

We have, however, the pleasure of announcing that Herr Schumacher 
has successfully carried out another survey for the Society, this time in 
northern Ajltin. The portion surveyed is five hundred miles in that piece 
of country bordered on the north by the Shari'at el Meinulireh, on the west 
by the Ghor or Jordan Valley, on the south by Tibni, and on the east by 
Irbid Beit Has and the Wady Semar, which joins the Shari'at el Menadireh 
near Arak el Heitaleyeh. A greater number of ancient and modern sites 
was collected here than in the previous survey. Special plans have been 

B 



2 LAST YEAR AND THIS. 

made of Mkeis (Gadara) and Beit Ras (believed by Herr Schumacher to 
be Capitolias). Another great field of dolmens was found near Irbid. 

Herr Schumacher also crossed the Jaulan and Hauran once more, and 
was able to add more names to the map. At Abdin he found a Greek 
inscription. 

The map and memoirs of the survey will arrive, it is expected, in 
February. The Committee have not decided upon the form and method 
of publication. 

The exploration work of 1886 will follow in the same lines, and, we 
hope, will show equally good results. Little by little we are rescuing the 
unknown parts of the country from obscurity, and bringing them, with 
their ruins, under the surveyor's hands, if not by the rapid methods by 
which the Survey of Western Palestine was accomplished, yet by safe and 
scientific methods, and at much less cost. 

II. Maps and Publications. 

The Maps spoken of in the January circular as in course of preparation 
by Mr. Armstrong are now executed, but it is desirable to keep them back 
until Herr Schumacher's work can be laid down on them. Mr. Armstrong 
has also prepared an Alphabetical List of Old and New Testament 
names, with their modern identifications according to the latest discoveries. 
This List is under revision by Sir C. Wilson. 

An Index has been prepared for the whole of the work called the 
" Survey of Western Palestine." It is in three parts, and consists of — 

(1) An Index of Scriptural References, prepared by Mr. Armstrong. 

(2) An Index of Hebrew Names and Words, prepared by the Rev. Dr. 

Ginsburg. 

(3) A general Index to the seven volumes which form the work, and 

to Professor Hull's Memoirs, prepared by Mr. J. E. Stewardson. 

The Geological Memoir by Professor Edward Hull, F.R.S., is now 
nearly ready. It is printed uniform with the "Survey of Western 
Palestine," to which it will form a complementary volume. Its price will 
be one guinea, but to subscribers twelve shillings and sixpence. It 
is illustrated with maps and sections. 

The Natural History Memoir by Mr. H. Chichester Hart will be 
sent to the Press as soon as Professor Hull's work is issued. The 
drawings for this work are already prepared. The price and particulars 
will be announced in April. 

There remain to be published Captain Conder's "Memoirs of the 
Survey of Eastern Palestine," so far as it has been accomplished. 
These are extremely copious and full of the most varied information. 
The whole part of the country covered is little more than a single sheet 
of the map in extent, and yet the Memoirs will fill a whole volume. 
There are over 400 drawings. 

It has now been decided to issue these Memoirs as volume the 1st 
of the " Survey of Eastern Palestine," uniform witli the " Survey of 
Western Palestine." A limited number of 500 only will be printed, and 



LAST YEAH AND THIS. o 

the volume will be issued at the price of two guineas, provided a sufficient 
number of names are entered. A circular is in preparation, which will 
be issued as soon as possible. Meantime names of subscribers will be 
received by the Secretary. 

As regards the drawings of M. Lecomte which are still unpublished, 
it is not expected that we shall be able to publish them this year. 

We have also the pleasure of announcing that Mr. Gut le Strange has 
undertaken to prepare for the Committee a work much wanted, namely, 
the Geography of Palestine, according to the earliest Persian and Arabic 
geographers. He hopes to get the work completed in about twelve 
months. 

Captain Conder, who has now returned to England, has promised to 
continue working for the Society as occasion may offer. 

The paper by Sir Charles Warren on the Arab tribes of the Desert, 
promised in last January's Quarterly Statement, has been placed in our 
hands by him since his return from South Africa and will be jjublished in 
April. 

Other papers have been received or promised by the Rev. Professor 
Satce, the Rev. Greville Chester, the Rev. W. F. Birch, Herr Conrad 
Schick, Herr Hanauer, and Mr. Laurence Oliphant. 

As regards the remaining copies of the " Survey of Western Palestine," 
they are in the hands of Mr. Alexander S. Watt, 34, Paternoster Row, who 
lias been appointed the agent for their sale. Subscribers and those who 
already possess the work are requested to note that no reduction will be made, 
either now or at any other time, in the price of this great work. On the other 
hand, the Committee reserve to themselves the right of raising the price of 
the last copies. 

III. The Committee of Inquiry. 

A Committee has been appointed for the purpose of making an Inquiry 
into the manners and customs of the various peoples and tribes In Syria 
and the East. We have now an opportunity of carrying this out by 
means of intelligent and educated agents over the whole of Syria, Asia 
Minor, Cyprus, Armenia, Egypt, and the country as far as the Euphrates. 
This most important investigation will be carried on during the whole 
year, and will perhaps last several years. The results as they come home, 
and can be classified, will be given to the world in the Society's Journal. 
The Committee now consists of Captain Conder, Rev. Dr. Ginsburg, 
Mr. James Glaisher, Professor Hayter Lewis, Mr. John MacGregor, 
Mr. Simpson, Sir Charles Warren, Sir Charles Wilson, Dr. Aldis 
Wright, and the Rev. Dr. William Wright — all members of the 
General or Executive Committee. Mr. Francis Galton, the President 
of the Anthropological Institute, has also joined the Committee, and Mr. 
Laurence Gomme, Secretary of the Folk-Lore Society. The Institute of 
Architects has promised assistance, and may be considered represented by 
Professor Hayter Lewis, while the Bible Society is represented by Dr. 
William Wright. It has been decided to take the "Anthropological 



4 LAST YEAK AND THIS. 

Notes," drawn uj) for the British Association eleven years ago, as the best 
basis of the questions, which will be modified and extensively supple- 
mented, in order to suit the requirements and peculiarities of the country 
and the people. This Committee will meet weekly. Meantime the friends 
of the Society are earnestly invited to assist in this enterprise, which 
promises to be the most important work, next to the Survey and the 
J erusalem researches, yet undertaken by the Society. 

IV. The Finances of the Society. 

It is necessary this year to find money (1) for exploration work 
proper, (2) for publication of results, which are not generally, it must be 
remembered, of a kind or in a shape to court or win popularity, and (3) for 
the prosecution of the new inquiry. 

As regards the first, the ordinary income of the Society has been 
smaller in 1885 than for many years past, owing, it is believed, to the 
general impression that because no party is in the field no money is 
wanted. This is erroneous, first because, as has been seen by the publica- 
tion of "Across the Jordan," and the announcement of Herr Schumacher's 
new work, there is always exploration going on, and money is called for on 
this account ; and secondly, because we must give to the world the results 
ivhich are sent home to us. Thus we have in the Society's safe at this 
moment waiting for publication — (1) Captain Conder's Memoirs of Eastern 
Palestine ; (2) M. Clermont-Ganneau's and M. Lecomte's exquisite draw- 
ings of monuments, nearly all absolutely new ; (3) Mr. Chichester Hart's 
Natural History Memoir ; and (4) we are daily expecting Herr Schu- 
macher's new work. 

As regards the work of the Committee of Inquiry it is impossible to 
say what this will cost. The printing and postage will be a very large 
item, and we shall have to pay some of the agents who will answer our 
< I ni'iies and furnish us with the desired information. We ought to have 
at least an additional £1,500 subscribed for this special purpose. 

In conclusion, the friends of the Society are earnestly requested to 
consider that the work is always actively going on ; that funds are always 
needed ; that the real and invaluable work which has been already done 
must be taken as an earnest of what will be done, and that their continued 
assistance is asked in support of an enterprise which gives results solid, 
unquestionable, of most vital importance to Biblical students, and for all 
time. 

By order of the Committee, 

WALTER BESANT, 

January 1st, 1886. Secretary. 



NOTES. 



NOTES. 

IIerr Gottlieb Schumacher has executed another survey for the Society, of 
about five hundred miles in northern Ajlun. The results of the survey are not 
as yet known except in general terms. He has sent word that he has collected 
a very large number of names, and that he has made a special plan of Mkeis, the 
ancient Gadara, and that of Beit Ras, which, he contends, is the site of Capitolia.*. 
Another great field of dolmens was found near Irbid. We expect to receive the 
map and the accompanying memoirs in February. Probably the Committee 
will have decided before April on the form of publication. 



His first memoir, called " Across the Jordan," is now published, and has run 
through the first edition. Subscribers for 1886 are allowed to have a copy, post 
free, on sending their names to the Secretary. This privilege remains in force, 
except for new subscribers, during the present quarter only. The book is an 
octavo, uniform in price and appearance with " Heth and Moab " and " Tent 
Work." It contains a chapter on the general physical characteristics of the 
country, followed by what is practically a Gazetteer of the country examined, 
each place being treated by itself. There are 150 drawings, all new, and made 
by Herr Schumacher expressly for this work. Among them are a great number 
of dolmens, plans of tombs, architectural details, and remains from the very 
remarkable underground city of Ed Der'aah. 



The Committee of Inquiry (see Circular " Last Year and This") is now fully 
constituted. Specimen questions will be forwarded to every subscriber who 
wishes for them. It is hoped that every student of the Bible will give his help 
for this great undertaking. The Committee ask for an additional sum of £1,500 
this year in order to carry out their plan. 

The " Catechism of the Druse Religion," published in thi9 number of the 
Quarterly Statement, is very kindly presented to the Society by the Rev. 
William Allan, of St. James's, Bermondsey. It was given to him by the Rev. 
Chalil Jamal, C.M.S., Native Pastor at Es Salt, in the Bclka, and was trans- 
lated by him from the Arabic original found in one of their Khalwehs during 
the sacking and pillage of the year 1860. 



It will be found from Dr. Selah Merrill's letter of September 18th that 
portions of what he believes to be the second wall have been found in Jerusalem. 
Two layers of stone, and at two or three points three layers of stone, have been 
found still in position. These were, he says, of the same size and character in 
every case as the largest of the stones in the so-called Tower of David opposite, 
About 30 yards of this wall were uncovered. The plate which accompanies Dr. 
Merrill's note will show the position of the wall. 



In the death of the Dean of Chester, the Society has lost a friend who from 
the beginning has followed its work with unflagging interest. One of the last 
letters he wrote was to the Secretary, expressing his hope that in the projected 
Inquiry the Proverbs of the people would not be forgotten. 



6 NOTES. 

We are happy to announce that Mr. George St. Clair, E.G.S., who was for 
many years a Lecturer to this Society, has undertaken to lecture again this 
winter, and may be addressed at the offices of the Society in Adam Street, Adelphi. 



Among the many hundreds of Palestine books which appear and are forgotten 
there is one which remains a continual favourite : Mr. John Macgregor's "Rob 
Roy in the Jordan " is now going into its seventh edition. 



The income of the Society, from September 21st to December 17th inclusive, 
from all sources, was £1,210 4*. Id. The expenditure during the same 
period was £1,153 lis. Id. The balance in the Banks on December 17th was 
£230 165. \\d. 



It is suggested to subscribers that the safest and most convenient manner 
of paying subscriptions is through a Bank. Many subscribers have adopted this 
method, which removes the danger of loss or miscarriage, and renders unneces- 
sary the acknowledgment by official receipt and letter. 



Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly Statement regularly, are asked 
to send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward each number 
to all who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes 
give rise occasionally to omissions. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood that 
by publishing them in the Quarterly Statement they neither sanction nor adopt 
t hem. 



The only authorised lecturers for the Society are — 

(1) The Rev. Henry Geary, Vicar of St. Thomas's, Portman Square. His 

lectures are on the following subjects : — 

The Survey of Western Palestine, as illustrating Bible History. 

Palestine East of the Jordan. 

The Jerusalem Excavations. 

A Restoration of Ancient Jerusalem. Illustrated by original photo- 
graphs shown as " dissolving views." 

(2) The Rev. James King, Vicar of St. Mary's, Berwick. His subjects are 

as follows : — 
The Survey of Western Palestine. 
Jerusalem. 
The inttites. 
The Moabite Stone and other monuments. 

(3) Mr. George St, Clair, F.G.S., Member of the Society of Biblical 

Archaeology, and of the Anthropological Institute (address, 127, 
Bristol Road, Birmingham). 
(1) The Rev. James Neil, formerly Incumbent of Christ Church, Jerusalem. 



EXCAVATIONS OX CAEMEL. 



EXCAVATIONS ON CARMEL. 

By Laurence Olipbant. 

Dal i eh, 1st November. 
As the most interesting Khurbet upon Mount Carmel is unquestionably 
Khurbet Semmaka (Sheet 5, K i), from the fact that it is the only one 
where Jewish remains can be distinctly traced, I determined to make an 
excavation, in the hope of coming upon a tomb which had never been 
opened. In this I was successful. The smooth cut face of a rock pro- 
jecting a little above the surface of the earth suggested a likely locality, 
and here, after digging down about 2 feet, we came upon an arch, which 
indicated that it spanned the doorway to a tomb. On clearing away the 
earth, I found that this differed from any entrance to a tomb which I 
have yet seen. Instead of being a huge slab pivoting in the living rock, 
or an immense circular stone, like a small millstone, running in a groove, 
as is more usual, it was a slab which pivoted in huge blocks of stone 
carefully hewn to receive it, and placed there for the purpose. The lintel 
was a square stone about 6 feet long and 18 inches wide, with a groove 
on the inside to receive the door, which opened inwards. In its lower 
surface, 2 feet from one end, was a circular hole 5 inches deep, and 
6 inches in diameter, to receive the upper stone pivot of the door. This 
lintel rested upon two upright blocks, hewn and squared, each 2 feet 
9 inches in height ; one of these, against which the door was shut, was 
grooved, and 18 inches from the bottom was a slot, about 8 inches long, 
2h inches wide, and the same in depth, in which worked a stone bolt, 
which slided into a square hole which was made to receive it, in the door. 
This door-post was also grooved, so that the door shut closely into it, and 
as the bolt was on the outside, it was possible after removing the dirt to 
push it back. The threshold also consisted of a hewn stone corresponding 
in its dimensions to the lintel, and in it, in the same relative position, was 
a circular hole 7 inches in diameter, and about 2£ inches deep, for the 
lower pivot to work in. After pushing back the bolt however, it was 
found impossible to open the door by any amount of pressure against it, 
This arose, as we afterwards discovered, from a huge pile of very fine- earth 
which, in the course of ages, had apparently sifted through between the 
lintel and the living rock against which it was placed ; we therefore had, 
to our regret, to remove the whole stone framework in which the door 
rested. The door itself was differently ornamented from any that I have 
hitherto seen. It was divided into two panels by a band 2 inches wide ; 
in the centre of which, separated by two semi-circular lines, back to back, 
were two circles. At the bottom of this band was a boss, and the remains 
of an apparently corresponding one at the top. In the right hand panel 
was a sitting figure 13 inches high, the hands resting on the lap, and the 
feet on two low pedestals. In the bank part of the head was a brass ring, 



EXCAVATIONS ON CA1JMEL. 




extremely corroded, which had been apparently used for pulling to the 
door. Above the figure were five bosses, and below it six ; a grooved 

arch enclosed the figure. The device on the 
other panel was very simple, and consisted 
of a long narrow parallelogram, framed by 
two others. Above were five bosses enclosed 
by an irregular tracery, winding between 
them, and below, a corresponding device. 
It may be possible that these bosses may be 
intended to represent pomegranates. There 
was a mark which might have represented a 
fold of cloth hanging from the waist of the 
figure, which, if I remember right, was in 
some ancient styles an insignia of rank ; but 
the stone was so much corroded that the 
carving was uncertain in places, especially in 
the features of the figure, which had largely 
to be supplied by the imagination. The 
dimensions of the door, of which the enclosed is a sketch, are as follows : — 
Height, 2 feet 9 inches ; width, 2 feet 5| inches ; thickness, (if inches. The 
lower pivot projects 3 inches, and the upper one 5 inches. The whole execu- 
tion was rude in the extreme, and represented a very primitive condition of 
art. The interior of the tomb, which measured about 10 feet square, con- 
tained six kokim, and each koka contained human bones ; from one of them 
I carried away a tolerably perfect skull ; but they were partially buried 
in a great accumulation of earth which had been forced in through the 
crevices above the made doorway. Above one of the kokim was a little 
niche in the rock, and in the rubbish below it was found an earthenware 
lamp, which was ornamented with a seven-branched candlestick, proving 

unmistakably that it was a Jewish 
tomb. Another open tomb which I 
found not far from this, on the entrance 
to which was also rudely carved a seven- 
branched candlestick, and the remains 
of the synagogue discovered by the 
Palestine Exploration Survey, clearly 
indicate that Senrmfika contained at 
one time a Jewish population ; but all 
the evidences go to show that it was 
inhabited from an early period, and 
this tomb in particular, with its wide, 
roughly hewn kokim, and rude orna- 
mentation, bore all the marks of a 
remote antiquity. I sent for this door, 
which formed a heavy camel-load, a fe'w 
days afterwards, and have got it now in 
the veranda of my house, but unfortunately not in time to save it from 




EXCAVATIONS ON CAR MEL. \) 

mutilation, for the brass ring had been broken off and carried away, 
probably by some shepherds. 

The fracture, indicated in the sketch by a black spot in the back of 
the head, shows its position. The features were so much corroded that it 
was almost impossible to trace their outline. As a rare instance of a 
Jewish carving of a human figure, the monument is most interesting. 

In the immediate vicinity of this tomb was a handsome sarcophagus, 
evidently of later date, with its lid by its side. I shall hope at some other 
time to prosecute further researches in this locality. 

On considering the question of the rollers, of which there is a greater 
collection at Semmaka than anywhere else probably in Palestine — for 
these singular blocks of stone seem peculiar to Carmel, where they abound, 
and have given rise to conjecture in the Memoirs (Vol. I, p. 318) — it seems 
most likely, as is there stated, that they were used for crushing olives ; 
there are usually four slots in a line, sometimes five ; by putting two levers 
in each slot, eight or ten men could easily turn them ; they were probably 
used before the later appliances, with the huge flat circular stones, which 
are employed up to the present day, were invented. At KhurbetUmm ed 
Darajeh (Sheet 8, K j) I discovered two of these rollers in which four 
deep longitudinal grooves, equidistant, and extending the whole length, 
were substituted for the rows of slots. They are the only two specimens 
I have seen out of at least a hundred of the rollers that have come under 
my observation. At Umm ed Darajeh there was a group of them lying 




near a large flat smooth surface of rock evidently artificially prepared ; 
and about 20 feet each way, and which had doubtless been used as the 
grinding floor ; on the edge of this were two circular holes 18 inches deep, 
and 1 5 inches in diameter, about 4 feet apart : from each of these was a 



10 EXCAVATIONS OX CARMEL. 

tunnel by which the contents could flow from the adjoining vat, which 
was 12 feet square and about the same in depth, with hewn steps 
leading to the bottom. On the opposite side the rock had been cut out so 
as to admit apparently of a millstone, which had since been removed, but 
there were the circular grooves which marked its former position, as well 
as the traces of the hole in the centre. The whole presented the appear- 
ance of having been an olive mill on a large scale. 

I have also opened two tombs at Pftbil, their entrances, like the one 
at Semmaka, being about 2 feet below the surface of the earth. On clear- 
ing it away we found the door of the first tomb in a perfect condition, 
with the exception of the loss of the handle, the trace of which was still to 
be seen. Unlike the one at Semmaka, it yielded to the touch, and swung 
gently back on its pivot, thus proving that we were not the first intruders., 
and that it had been broken into before, possibly by the Crusaders, of 
whose residence at Dubil there are many traces, or possibly at an earlier 
period. The bolt was on the inside, and the projection which contained 
it at the upper part of the back of the door still remained (see figure, 
which is a sketch taken from the inside of the tomb) ; but in forcing the 
door open, the rock inside had been splintered off at the place where the 
bolt entered it. From the position of the brass fragments of the handle 
still remaining on the door, it is evident that it communicated with the 
bolt inside — thus differing from the whole arrangement at Semmaka, 
and evidencing more mechanical skill. Otherwise, with the exception of 
being an inch thicker, the dimensions of the door were nearly the same. Its 
ornamentation consisted of four panels, each of which contained five bosses. 
The rounded base of the lower pivot was sheathed with a thin brass plate, 
and when it was thoroughly cleared of earth, turned as smoothly and 
easily in its socket as if it had been finished yesterday. Although such 
a heavy slab of stone, I could push it open with the pressure of one finger. 
Besides the door there was the large circular groove hewn from the rock, 
which formed the receptacle of the stone which was rolled in front of the 
door — a double precaution which did not exist at Semmaka. This stone 
had been removed. The tomb was entered by a deep step, and was 10 feet 

square ; it contained three kokim, and 
three loculi under arcosolia. Some of 
these contained a few human bones. The 
only objects I discovered were some frag- 
ments of a very thin delicate quality of 
glass, which I have almost succeeded in 
piecing together in their original shape, 
which must have been that of an elegant 
vase about 10 inches high ; the neck of 
a very large bottle ; a bronze handle 
working on a hinge through which 
passed a thin copper wire, 2 inches long; 
a small iron ring, probably part of a 
chain ; two flat bronze rings, each an inch in diameter ; a glass bell-shaped 




EXCAVATIONS ON CAUMEL. 



11 



tear bottle, 2 inches high, with the neck broken ; a small copper coin of 
the time of the Selucidae ; and two glass beads. 

This tomb was probably posterior to the one opened at Semmaka. 




I enclose a sketch of the same tomb from the outside. The other tomb, 
which was about the same size, and also contained three kokim, and three 
loculi under arcosolia, was probably of the same date, as they were in the 
same rock within a few yards of each other, and the ornamentation on the 
door was exactly similar. In that case the bolt had resisted the riflers, 
and in order to effect an entrance they had staved in the upper panel. It 
contained only a few bones. I opened two other tombs in Dubil, but in 
both cases found that I had been anticipated by the ancients, and dis- 
covered nothing but bones. 

It is clear to me that this was the largest centre of population on 
Carmel, forming with Dalieh, from which it is only separated by a narrow 
glen, a place of considerable importance. There is, in fact, no other part 
of the mountain so highly favoured in point of extent of arable land, 
salubrity of climate, and facility of access considering its elevation. It is 
only six miles by an easy descent to Athlit, whose relatively sheltered bay 
must have made it a port of some importance, while in the valley im- 
mediately below Dubil is the copious fountain of Umm esh Shukf. At 
Dalieh itself I have come across many traces of its former occupants, 
digging the foundations of a house which I have built 
there, I found a dozen large iron rings 2h inches in 
diameter, with staples attached ; a fragment of a carved 
cornice ; a coin of the time of Constantine ; a bell-shaped 
cistern, which I have had cleaned out and recemented 
for my own use. In the debris with which it was full 
to the brim, I found a great many glass fragments, 
among them a very curious double bottle, each bottle 
| inch in diameter, of which the base and 2 inches remained unbroken, 



In 




12 



EXCAVATIONS ON CARMEL. 



besides many stems, feet, and rims of goblets with folded edges apparently 
enclosing a layer of silver or of gold. I found on examination, however, 
that the effect was produced by iridescence, but they were evidently 
large and handsome vessels ; there was also an immense quantity of 
broken pottery. I have also unearthed in the garden a triangular frag- 
ment of tesselated pavement, about 2 feet each way, and found other 
small patches near, all indicating that the mansion of a person of wealth 
must once have stood upon this spot. In making a terrace, I came upon 
one of the huge rollers, while in the immediate neighbourhood I found a 
Crusading cross, thus proving that Dalieh must at different times have 
been the home (assuming the roller to be of Jewish origin) of Byzantine 
and of Crusading occupants. 

In the course of excursions from Dalieh and visits to the surrounding 
villages, I have collected twenty pottery lamps, with the devices and 
ornamentation of which, however, I am not sufficiently learned to de- 
termine their different periods. The most curious is one I obtained at 
Umm ez Zeinat, which is oblong in shape, the angles only slightly rounded, 
being 5 inches by 2i inches, of a different and much harder clay than any 
of the others, with a peculiar ornamentation, and with three holes for the 
wicks instead of one of two. At 'Ar'ar'ahshsli I got two alabaster saucers 
and an alabaster tear bottle, the saucers 5 inches in diameter, and the 
tear bottle 3^ inches high. I also collected at other villages four glass 
lachrymatories, from 3 to 5 inches high. At Cresarea — which, by the 
way, has been within the last month abandoned by all the Bosnian colonists 
on account of its deadly climate — I got a marble head, apparently of a 
youth, 4£ inches high, of fine execution. At a village near Samaria, where 
the inhabitants were making excavations for building purposes, I procured 
three glass saucers, the largest 5 inches in diameter, and 
nearly an inch deep, with a folded rim, and the smallest 
3 inches, besides some other fine fragments, but none of 
them perfect ; also two pottery jars, one ribbed, 8 inches 
high, and 4 inches in diameter at the base, tapering 
towards the mouth, the other 13 inches high. I also 
found, during some building operations which were going 
on at Acre, some handles of pottery jars with the maker's 
name stamped upon them in Gi - eek characters. I visited 
the Jewish colony of Zimmarin one day, in the hope of 
being able to unearth some more of the zinc coffins which 
I know are buried in a mound there, similar to the one 
I described in a former paper ; but there were still too 
many Arab workmen about to make it desirable, as I am 
anxious, if possible, to obtain quiet possession of one of 
them. This colony now consists of a street of eighty well- 
built houses, in which, after many sufferings, the colonists 
are comfortably established. On my way back, I visited 
Kefr Lam, where I heard an interesting stone had been found with 
inscriptions. I was disappointed in finding that the inscriptions con- 




KAIIfArpC 

XKIAAA'XPH 
XTHKAAAYrTF 



oof (° 




A)A3 ft ^5 



1121 



R 



^m&f 



x^m 



•IT 



I)H1« 



w 

^ 





EXCAVATIONS OX C ARM EL. 



1 o 



sisted of an elaborate ornamentation, which, however, seemed .sufficiently 
peculiar and beautiful to remove. It consists of a circular disk 15 inches 
in diameter, and raised an inch and a half above the slab, 3 feet by 
2 feet, on which it stands. A friend of mine has opened a tomb at 
Shefr Ainr, in which he found a pottery coffin, which, when a convenient 
opportunity occurs, he has promised to send me. The same gentleman 
has also opened a tomb near Sidon, the contents of which, together 
with some other objects, he has been good enough to send me. They 
consist of two pottery bottles 7 inches high ; three glass tear bottles ; one 
silver ring, much corroded and oxidised, with an inside diameter of an 
inch and a quarter, the ends united by a scaraba?us, on the under side of 
which is a single character, H ; two silver finger rings, in one of which is 
a small turquoise ; a gold pendant, which may have been the drop of an 
earring ; two pebbles, carved to resemble fishes' heads ; two copper mirrors ; 
some beads, and many other small objects of interest. He has also sent me 
the enclosed squeezes. The one marked A, in duplicate, is from a brass pot, 




4 inches high, by 2 inches in diameter, girdled by a snake, and will probabl v 
be easily deciphered by those learned in Phoenician character. The one 
marked B is from a stone seal. Both these he found at Tyre. The others 
he sent me from Sidon, merely stating that he found them on marble and 
pottery, without further particulars, but the objects from which they were 
made may be easily obtained. I also enclose an impression in wax of an 
inscription on a coin. On a pottery lamp is the following inscription : — 

nAPAMO 
NOY 



About half-a-mile north of Dalieh I have discovered another small 



Khurbet, called the Khurbet El Wanseh, *U 



dj 



It was probably 



14 EXCAVATIONS ON CAKMEL. 

nothing more than a farm, as there are scarcely any remains at the place 
itself ; but near it is an object which has been fertile of conjecture. It 
consists of a bench cut out of the solid rock, 24 feet long, 2 feet wide, 
2 feet high, and with a back of rock a foot high. It looks south, and 
faces what would seem to be the lower walk of a chamber, with rock-hewn 
sides 2 feet high, were it not for a rough unhewn mass of rock which 
projects into it at one corner. On the eastern side the hewn wall of rock 
rises to a height of 4 feet, and on the opposite side of it, half-way down, is 
carved out into a semi-circular seat facing east. On the right hand of this 
seat, and 2 feet above it, is a round hole 18 inches deep and 14 inches in 
diameter, rouud which, an inch from its edge, is a groove ; on the corre- 
sponding place, on the left hand side, is a circular cutting of similar 
dimensions, but no hole, as though the work was here left unfinished. 
In front of this seat is a rock-bound area about 20 yards each way, the 
sides averaging 4 feet in height, but cut in ledges as though it was a 
quarry, and in one of the faces is a niche as though for a lamp ; I made 
an excavation beneath it in the hope of finding a tomb, but without 
result. There are no building stones nearer than the Khurbet, where 
there are very few, some 200 yards distant. The only conclusion at 
which I have been able to arrive in regard to this singular spot, is that 
it may have been one of the high places of early worship, the more 
especially as it crowns the summit of a hill, and that it was afterwards 
turned into a quarry. Indeed, were it not for the bench, the semicircular 
seat, the round hole by its side, and the niche, there would be nothing to 
distinguish it from an ordinary quarry, for the rock walls bear evident 
marks of quarrying. 

I also discovered another Khurbet, Khurbet El Batta, <j^jj^ ^ -L, but 

beyond some building stones and foundations there is nothing of interest. 
It is situated on one of the lower spurs of the mountain about a mile north 
of A in Haud (Sheet 7, J i). 

Hearing that there was a cavern in the "Wady Mugharah, from which the 
valley takes its name, that was invested with great mystery in the minds 
of the natives, as according to tradition no one had ever reached its 
extremity, or indeed penetrated beyond the entrance, owing to the evil 
spirits which were said to infest it, I determined to explore it. The cave 
is situated at the base of a magnificent limestone cliff about 300 feet high, 
at the western extremity of the wady at the spot marked " Caves " in the 
map (Sheet 5, J i), two miles south of Ain Haud. I had with me a Druse, 
who did not seem to share the native superstition, for he did not shrink from 
accompanying me. There was a sort of antechamber to the cave, which 
was used by the goatherds for their flocks, which was about 30 feet high, 
and the same in width. It soon narrowed however, and we found 
ourselves in a lofty corridor about 20 feet high, and from 15 to 20 feet wide. 
We had not gone ui.iu \ yards when the reluctance of the natives to enter 
the cave was accounted for by a distant whirring sound, which increased 
in volume and intensity a.s we proceeded, and which I at once recognised 



NOTES BY CAPTAIN CONDER. 15 

as the noise of the wings of innumerable bats. As we flashed the light 
into their retreat, they charged it, as is usual in such cases, so that I 
had to proceed with my head down, and even then they dashed them- 
selves occasionally with such violence against my pith helmet, that they 
fell to the ground stunned ; had I not taken the precaution to carry a 
lantern, they would infallibly have put the light out— an experience 
which has happened to me under similar circumstances in Egypt. I 
confess I was more relieved than disappointed to find the cave terminate 
suddenly and unexpectedly in the midst of this turmoil. It had preserved 
about the same dimensions as regards height and breadth throughout, and 
now the rock closed in abruptly all round. The distance from here to the 
entrance was exactly 100 yards. 



NOTES. 
By Captain Conder, E.E. 

Flood Stories in Palestine.— -It is of course generally known that 
stories of a Deluge are found throughout Asia as well as in Europe and 
America (but not among the Negro races or in Egypt), localised in 
various places and at different historic periods. It might be expected 
that they would be numerous in Palestine, but as yet few traces have 
been found. We have Noah's tomb in Syria, and another shrine of Noah 
near Hebron, and a spring of Noah's wife (Bint) in Philistia. Near 
Kadesh is the great quadrangle, perhaps a fortress called " Noah's Ark " 
(Seflnet en Neby Nuh), and the grey crow is known as " Noah's chicken " 
(jaj Neby Nuh), evidently with reference to the raven sent from the Ark. 
In Moab is shown the mountain called " Donkey's Back," which alone was 
above water during the flood. There are also several springs called 
Tannur ("oven"), in connection with the Moslem legend that the flood 
issued from a cavern, and was swallowed again by the same. 

In addition to these slight indications of a Deluge story generally 
known, there are several curious legends of water springing up where a 
prophet has flung his spear, or stamped with his foot, as for instance at 
Et Tabghah (Migdol Tzeboia), on the Sea of Galilee, where is the Tannur 
Eyub connected with the Koran legend of the spring which rose when 
Job stamped with his foot. (The same story is told of Ishmael at Mecca.) 
These stories are interesting in connection with the Greek legend of the 
fountain Hippokrene, which sprang from the hoof mark of Pegasus. 
Pegasus, the winged horse, appears to be a creature of Semitic imagination. 
His name means " water steed " according to Hesiod. He is represented 
on Assyrian bas-reliefs and Phoenician coins, and the horseman who rode 
him, Bellerophon, was perhaps Baal-Raphaon. 

Phoenician Antiquities.— On suggesting the possibility that the so-called 
Hittite inscriptions might possibly in the end prove to be of Phoenician 
origin, objection was raised that these characters had been found near the 
shores of the Black Sea, far away from Phoenicia. It should therefore be 



16 NOTES BY CAPTAIN CONDEK. 

noted that close to this very district where the most northern of the new 
hieroglyphics have been found, there were at least three Sidonian colonies, 
namely, Pronestas, Sesamos, and Sinope. 

Phoenician antiquities are of great value for comparison with the 
Hebrew archaeology. The dress, arms, manufactures, temples, &c, of the 
Israelites, their musical instruments, ships, chariots, and architectural 
details, seem, like the Phoenician, to have been similar partly to those of 
Assyria, partly to those of Egypt. Solomon's throne and brazen laver 
have their counterpart in Phoenicia in existing antiquities, and the 
sepulture of the Hebrews may be illustrated by Phoenician customs. 
These parallelisms are yet far from being completely worked out, since 
our knowledge of Phoenicia has of late years so greatly increased. 

At the same time modern customs and dress throw an equally valuable 
lio-ht on the meaning of some Phoenician relics. The Bedawin in Syria, 
for instance, wear their hair plaited like the Phoenician nobles. The 
peasant women of Samaria wear a round tire like that of the Phoenician 
goddesses. The Lazzaroni of Naples, who have often a decidedly Semitic 
cast of countenance, wear in the Oscan cap (now going out of fashion 
among them) a head-dress much like that of the Phoenicians, and their 
boats have an eye painted on each side of the prow, just as it was painted 
on the prow of Phoenician galleys (and of Egyptian barks — the eye of 
Osiris). The cap worn by Greek priests in the East recalls the Cidaris 
head-dress worn in Phoenicia as well as by the Magi. 

The Rabbinical legend that no rain ever fell on the altar of the 
Temple at Jerusalem has also a parallel in Phoenicia. The mason's marks 
on the wall of the Jerusalem Temple have a close resemblance to those 
found on Phoenician walls in Sicily. The scorpion monsters described in 
the Revelation are represented on Phoenician bas-reliefs, and even the 
Merkabeh, or Chariot of Jehovah, is represented on more than one 
Phoenician gem. These slight notes may tend to direct attention to the 
importance of collecting all jjossible information concerning Phoenicia. 

The aqueduct from Ras el 'Am to Tyre has the appearance of Roman 
work, though we have early historic accounts of such a work. I have, 
however, noted that false arches occur in this aqueduct near its soui'ce. 
These false arches occur in Phoenician work at Eryx in Sicily, as well as 
in early Ionian work. Their occurrence may not suffice to show the 
aqueduct to be older than the time of Alexander, but they seem to 
prevent our supposing the Tyre aqueduct to be entirely due to the 
Romans. 

I have also noted at Tyre the use of concrete on the mole of the 
Egyptian harbour and elsewhere. It may be noted that the Tyrian 
colonists of Thapsus as well as at Carthage used concrete in their moles 
and cisterns. It has been found of a red colour at Utica, and tombs made 
of concrete occur near Tunis, recalling the concrete tomb on the south- 
west hill at Jerusalem, described in the Jerusalem volume of the 
(; Memoirs." It is curious that the concrete mole in the Egyptian harbour 
at Tyre (see Vol. Ill "Memoirs," Appendix) should seem to have escaped 



NOTES BY CAPTAIN CONDER. 17 

the notice of so many explorers who adopt the view that the port on this 
side was filled up by Alexander's mole. The mole has thus been supposed 
to be only a reef, but on swimming out from the shore I found it to have 
been once covered with artificial walls and pavement, and with an 
artificial entrance at the end. 

Phoenician temples appear to have been hypaithral, with the menhir or 
cone as a statue. Not only at Belat and elsewhere near Tyre do these 
occur (and on coins of Byblos), but on Hermon, and perhaps on the 
north side of the hill at Samaria. The great temple at Baalbek was 
probably hypsethral also, and, as I have suggested, the Samaritan shrine 
on Gerizim. We are thus carried back to the rude enclosures — Stonehenge 
like — which occur in Moab, and have as yet no example of a great roofed 
temple in Phoenicia like those of Egypt. 

Phoenician Tombs. — Avery peculiar feature of Phoenician tombs, which 
I do not remember ever finding in Palestine, is the existence of small shafts 
in the roofs leading to the upper air. These may, I think, be compared 
with the air shafts in the Great Pyramid, and with other such shafts in 
Egyptian tombs intended to give air, or free egress and ingress to the Ka, 
the spirit ghost or double supposed to haunt the statue of the dead man 
in the tomb. In late times in Egypt this statue became a little pottery 
figure or doll, and these pottery figures are found also in Plupnician 
tombs. The same idea of the air shaft is found in tumuli among the Celtic 
and other primitive people, and the same practice of burying small images 
in the tombs. 

Emmaus. — A difficulty arises as to the thermal springs which should, 
it is supposed, be found at a place so called, but which are unknown in 
Judrea. The word Hammam is used in Arabic of any bath whether hot or 
cold, though the root means "hot ;" but perhaps the origin of the name of 
the southern Emmaus maybe from the same Hebrew root whence Hamath 
is derived, a word which means a " defended place." In Arabic this root 
is Ildmi, and the name Ard el Hami applies, curiously enough, to the 
country above Hammath on the west side of the Sea of Galilee. 

Professor Socin's Paper. — Professor Socin's criticism has been well met 
by Mr. Besant. The survey of Palestine follows the Hakki, or vulgar 
Arabic of the peasantry — a dialect containing, as 1 have shown in former 
papers, most valuable survivals of Aramaic w r ords and forms. Any criticism 
based on the grammatical rules of the Nahu or schoolmasters' Arabic, rules 
dating not earlier than the ninth century a.d., and often not in accord 
with the vigorous language of the Koran, must be considered to miss the 
very spirit of the nomenclature of the survey, which aims at the preserva- 
tion of the peasant forms. Professor Socin's suggestion as to the method 
of obtaining the names shows clearly that he has not read my introductory 
paper in Vol. I of the " Memoirs." 

Bethsaida, Julias. — The ruin of Ed Dikkeh described by Mr. L. Oliphant 
(Quarterly Statement, April, 1885, p. 84) possesses peculiar interest. 
From the style of the fragments sketched one is led to suppose that it 
dates from about the Christian era. The grape bunches recall the style 

c 



IS NOTES BY CAPTAIN CONDER. 

of the monument of the kings of Adiabene at Jerusalem ; the debased 
imitation of classic style, recalling that of the synagogues of Galilee, 
might belong to this period, or be as late as the second century, but the 
style is not that of the later Byzantine period. The kind of bird-woman 
(Fig. 2) seems to indicate a pagan site ; the figure is very old in Egypt as 
a representation of the soul. To me it seems that these remains may 
mark the site of Bethsaida Julias, and the work of the Herodian beautitier 
of that town. It may be objected that the site is too far from the Sea of 
Galilee, since Josephus places Julias near the place where Jordan flows 
into the lake. On the other hand, we must remember that the land has 
been making here, and still is encroaching on the lake : just as at the 
Jordan Delta in the Dead Sea, in about 1,900 years the point where 
Jordan debouches into the Sea of Galilee must have moved considerably 
to the south, and in the time of Christ Ed Dikkeh may well be thought to 
have been at or close to the shore of the Sea of Galilee. It would be of 
great interest further to explore this site. If possible, excavations should 
be made, and inscriptions from such a ruin might prove of exceptional 
value. It is quite possible that the whole of the Batihah plain may have 
been formed in quite recent historical times. 

The JVublus Altar. — It should be noted that the altar described by 
Mr. Oliphant has been shown by M. Clermout-Ganneau to present the 
history of the hero Theseus. (Proceedings B.A.S., May 6, 1885.) 

The Chimoera, — In " Heth and Moab" I have described one of the 
panels of a Phoenician Bowl as representing the contest of the Hero and 
Lion. I followed Lenormant's sketch, but now find that the monster is 
more like a gryphon in the original, with a second head growing up on its 
back. Thus on a Phoenician bas-relief, we have a representation closely 
like that of the Cbimsera on classic bas-reliefs, which agrees with many 
other indications in giving a possibly Semitic origin to the whole story of 
Bellerophon. Perhaps the name of the Chimaera, for which no Aryan 
explanation has yet been found giving satisfaction, may be found to come 
from the root *V2)"] with the sense of " blackness." 

Bethlehem. — Among many very valuable notes by Mr. Tom kins, with 
all of which I heartily concur, that concerning the origin of the name 
Bethlehem is very striking, agreeing with my former suggestion as to the 
possible origin of Bethsaida, Sidon, &c. Lahamu and Lahami, the original 
creators from chaos, were, as Mr. Tomkins notes, gods of fertility, and we 
may note that the name Ephrata, which applies to Bethelehein also, 
means "fertility," being from the same root with Euphrates, and existing 
in the modern Arabic form Fcrth. We know that a good deal of the 
Semitic nomenclature in Palestine is pre-Israelite (as shown by the 
Karnak lists), and I think a careful summary would reveal other town 
names deriving from well-known Assyrian deities. Eethshemesh is a 
clear example, as is Ashtaroth Karnaim. Some of the Salems may be 
connected with the god of peace, the Rimmons with Rimmon (formerly 
read as Vul) the thunderer. M. C. Ganneau has connected Arsfif with 
I; jaeph. Anathoth and Beth Anath may be connected with the goddess 



SEGOR, GOMORRAH, AND SODOM. 19 

Anat. Beth Dagon is clearly pagan. Ophra may be derived, as well as 
Parah, from the " Calf," emblem of the sun. The Gilgals are named from 
sacred circles. Kirjath Arba has already been suggested by Mr. Tomkins 
as a name of polytheistic origin. Zarephath presents a name of the 
Syrian Venus. Rabbath might be connected with a title of Istar. 
Lebonah and Beth Laban with the name of the moon (" the milk white 
one"), as is without doubt Jericho. Hermon is the "great sanctuary." 
Hazor I have shown to be connected with sacred circles. Ai might be 
suspected of connection with Ea, the god of the abyss. Nebo is the 
Assyrian Mercury. Rehoboth and Rahab may be connected. Succoth is 
known to be connected with the worship of Venus. 

C. B. C. 



SEGOR, GOMORRAH, AND SODOM. 

By C. Clermontt-Ganneau. 

(From the Revue Critique.) 

Perhaps there is no question of Biblical topography which has been more 
hotly debated than that of the site of the Cities of the Plain. The con- 
troversialists are divirled into two principal groups— those who place the 
site on the north and those who place it on the south of the Dead Sea. 

Several years ago ("Revue Arcbeologique," 1877) I was led to take up 
a position among the latter. It was while I was engaged in combating, 
on philological grounds, the identification proposed by De Saulcy, of 
Gomorrah with the ruins of Goumran, not far from Jericho, on the north- 
west extremity of the Dead Sea. I had occasion then to touch incidentally 
on the question of Segor, making use of certain data, previously neglected, 
which are supplied by geographers. I insisted particularly on certain 
curious legends which appeared to connect the city of Segor with the 
country of Moab, and which tended in consequence to localise it in the 
region south-east of the Dead Sea. 

The Arab authors, drawing probably on Jewish sources, say that Lot, 
the ancestor of the Moabites, had two daughters, of whom the elder was 
named Reyya, Rasha, or Zaha, and the younger Ra'wa, Ra'usha, or Zoghar. 
MM. Goldziher and Derenbourg had clearly recognised the fact that 
these forms, apparently so difficult, were nothing but faulty variants, 
easily explained by mistakes in Arabic writing of the Aramaean words 
Rub'ieta, the "elder" or the "great," and Siyhirta the "younger" (Zoghara 
or Zoghar, literally, the " little "). I endeavoured for my own part to 
establish that the names were nothing but those of the two principal 
towns of Moab, Rabbat and Xegor (" the great " and " the little "), of which 
the fabulous daughters of Lot were only eponyms. I have since found 
in the Dictionary of Yakut the formal confirmation of my conjecture 
(.«.?'. Soghar). The Arab geographer says, apropos of the city of Seg< >r, that 
Zoghar was the name of a daughter of Lot, the younger (Soghara), who 

c 2 



20 SEGOE, GOMORRAH, AND SODOM. 

was buried near the fountain of Zoghar : that the elder sister, Reyya (read 
Rabbat), who died while Lot was on his way to Damascus, had been 
interred near a fountain called after the name Reyya (now Eabbat). The 
eponymous character of the two daughters is thus clearly avowed. 

Eecently Mr. Guy le Strange, speaking of a new theory of Dr. Selah 
Merrill, who wants to place Segor at Tell esh Shagur, north of the Dead 
Sea, rightly insists on the indications which go in favour of the southern 
site. Profiting by the Arab geographers, I should like to take advantage 
of the opportunity to state the case more distinctly. 

I will not enumerate the numerous evidences which from antiquity to 
the Arab epoch, and even to the Crusaders, invite us expressly to look for 
Segor at the south-eastern extremity of the Dead Sea. I will take two 
only. The Onomasticon of Eusebius and Jerome places the Moabite 
locality of Nimrin (Isa. xv, 6 ; Jer. xlviii, 34) to the north of Zoar, other- 
wise called Segor. This Nimrim is the Arab N'meira, situated at the 
opening of the Wady N'meira into the Dead Sea, in the region south-east 
of this lak Here, then, is a first solid bench-mark. Between this point 
and Jebel Usdum, the uncontested representative of Sodom, in the region 
south-west of the lake, and nearly opposite there is a distance of about ten 
Eoman miles. Now, the Talmud, in a passage which is not legendary, saws 
that there are nine miles between Sodom and Segor. It is then about 
half-way that we must look for Segor in the Ghor es Safi, where in fact 
certain speculative maps have actually set it down. It is astonishing that 
with indications so precise, none of the travellers who have been so 
fortunate as to visit this country have been able to find on the spot the 
name of Segor, which has certainly not disappeared from the Arab name 
lists. I believe for my own part that a careful examination will cause it 
to be discovered not far from Kusr el Bashariyeh (?), and the Tawahrn es 
Soukhar (ruins of Sugar Mills) marked beside it on the more recent maps. 
These mills are frequently, in Syria, the indication of an establishment of 
the Crusading period, and besides, we know that the Crusaders were in- 
stalled at Segor, which they called Palmer. One may hope, therefore, that 
the question will some day be settled without fear of future controversy. 
The authors of the Onomasticon and of the Notitia Dignitatum agree in 
Btating the existence at Segor of a Eoman garrison : it will perhaps be 
sufficient to settle the question if we find one of those inscriptions of 
which the Eoman soldiers were so prodigal. Meanwhile I think that the 
subject is narrowly limited, and I hope for the day when some traveller 
will proceed to make the verification, which ought not to be difficult, on 
the spot. 

I will finish by a suggestion on the possible site of Gomorrah. This 
city is literally called in Hebrew 'Amorah. The Septuagint transcription 
Topoppa proves that the first letter is in reality a gkain, and not an a in, 1 
with as much certainty as the word Gaza, confirmed by the Arab word 
(Ihuzzcli, proves that the J lei new form was ( lhazzah, and not 'Azzah. The 
southern banks of the Dead Sea do not furnish us with any topical name 
1 Hebrew writing docs not distinguish between these two distinct, articulations. 



PLAN SHEWING POSITION OF 
SECEMT DISCOVERIES IN JERUSALEM. 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION fUND 




Jrom, O.S.IZan of Jerusalem. G.A . 
K )0 SO 9 



Scale of Feet 



190 290 



3po 



I.Weller.Jah. 

490 spo 



Ik1t11.ts.11., (ialr /V* 




Thuuj Gate 



BECENT DISCOVERIES AT JERUSALEM. 21 

similar to this. On the other hand, ancient Arab geographers speak of a 
locality which from the onomatic point of view would answer perfectly. It 
is Ghamr. Mukadessi mentions it on the road from Ramleh in Palestine 
to the Desert of Arabia : " from Sukkariyeh 1 to Tuleil, two days' march ; 
from Tuleil to Ghamr, two days ; thence to Waila, 2 two days. At Ghamr, 
lie says elsewhere, bad water is procured by digging in the sand. I 
do not hesitate to identify the Ghamr with the Ain Ghamr of modern 
times, situated in the Arabah at the entrance of the Wady Ghamr, about 
twenty leagues south of the Dead Sea. 

If objection is taken to placing Gomorrah at so great a distance from 
the Dead Sea, it must not be forgotten that according to the way in which 
the Book of Genesis (x, 19) proceeds with its enumeration, Gomorrah, as 
well as Seboim and Adamah, seems to have been south of Sodom. In this 
case the cities would occupy the southern part of the basin of the Dead 
Sea — Sodom and Segor being to right and left the most northerly. This 
would very well conform with the Arabic tradition, which is not to be 
despised, and which places in this very region what it calls the " cities of 
the people of Lot," which also clearly results from the enumeration of 
Mukadessi, who thus describes the limit of the Arabian desert, going from 
south to north : " Waila (Elath on the Red Sea), the cities of the people of 
Lot, Moab, Ammin, Edra'at, Damascus, and Palmyra." 



RECENT DISCOVERIES AT JERUSALEM. 

By Selah Merrill, D.D., LL.D. 

The broad space between the castle, the buildings opposite, the barracks 
and the Mediterranean Hotel, also the street between the Jaffa gate and 
the entrance to the Mediterranean Hotel at the head of David Street, have 
during the past summer been torn to pieces, graded, and paved, and even 
side- walks have been built. When the workmen began in the middle of 
April last to tear up the rubble pavement, they said they were going to 
make streets and side- walks "like Europe." What they proposed to do 
could have been done in Europe in six weeks, but five months have elapsed 
since they commenced operations, and the work is not yet completed. 

In grading the streets some of the houses have been endangered, 
because they were built almost on the top of the ground, and it has been 
necessary to supply patchwork foundations ; consequently the walls near 
the ground are unsightly in the extreme. The pavement, however, so far 
as it goes, is certainly a great improvement upon the rough pavement 
which has been displaced. Unfortunately, the new pavement extends 
only about 110 yards from north to south, and about the same distance 
from east to west. 

1 About half-way between Gaz;i and Hebron. 

2 Which is Elath ut the head of the Gulf of Akabuh. 



22 RECENT DISCOVERIES AT JERUSALEM. 

What I wish to call attention to at present are the remains of old 
houses, cisterns, and other structures that have been brought to light by 
the workmen who are making these so-called "modern improvements." 
These are shown on the plan of this part of the city which accompanies 
these notes. Before the work of grading the streets began, these remains 
were not known to exist ; many of them were wholly or partially 
destroyed in the process of grading, and now that the streets have been 
re-paved no visible traces of their existence can be found. 

As these remains were exposed one after another, I marked them on 
the plan, and was about to forward the same to the Palestine Exploration 
Fund, but delayed doing so for some weeks ; meantime the Greeks began 
to clear the debris from the place marked " open field," and here dis- 
coveries have been made of more importance than any of the others. 
Nothing less has been brought to light than the actual foundations of the 
second wall described by Josephus as beginning at the gate Gennath and 
encircling the northern quarter of the town (" Wars," V, vi, 2). 

Before speaking further of these I will describe briefly the remains 
which were brought to light by the grading of the street. 

The places marked with the letter A represent old houses. Six or more 
feet of the tops of these were exposed, cut off, and levelled. All of these 
old houses or magazines were found to be nearly filled with earth and 
rubbish, and some of them showed excellent workmanship in their walls 
and roofs. 

The places marked with the letter B represent old cisterns. Some of 
them may have been vats, but the cement on the walls of all of them was 
very thick and strong. These were all filled and the ground levelled. 
The two marked with the letter C are still in use. 

At D there was a large pier or platform built of finely hewn stones. 

E represents a large bevelled stone, 5 feet by 3 feet, and 2 feet in 
thickness. This was broken up in order to move it the more easily. 

The broken line in front of the Mediterranean Hotel represents a 
continuous wall that was uncovered to a depth of 6 feet, since along this 
street they were digging a sewer. The wall was built of large hewn 
stones, and at intervals there were doorways. 

When nearly opposite Duisberg's store a wall running obliquely to the 
other was encountered, but of a much larger and stronger character. This 
was with difficulty broken through, which must be done in order to open 
the sewer further along towards the Jaffa gate. This wall is also repre- 
sented by a broken line. 

Another wall was met with opposite Frutiger's Bank, which is repre- 
sented on the plan in the same manner. Here the stones were larger than 
those already mentioned, and sonic of them were bevelled. Although 
they were displaced, one could not help thinking that they were on the 
line of an old wall of which they once formed a part. Nearly opposite 
Frutiger's Bank a stone ball, 11 inches in diameter, was found, the same 
as those used by the Romans in the siege of Jerusalem. 

All these remains are interesting as showing what exists below the 



RECENT DISCOVERIES AT JERUSALEM. 23 

surface of the ground. As the foregoing remarks close what may be 
rilled the first chapter in the history of these excavations, I will repeat 
what I have said, that all traces of them have now been obliterated. 

II. 

The Greeks, as I stated, began to clear the rubbish from the place 
marked "open held," with the design of surrounding this plot of ground 
on each of its four sides with commodious modern buildings, two storeys 
high, these to be surmounted in the course of two years by a third storey, 
which is to be used as a "Grand Hotel." This is the reported proposition. 

A little be'ow the surface a cistern p.nd two houses or extensive 
magazines were exposed. These are marked by a circle and by oblong 
squares on the " open field." I ought to say that, this held was 8 or 10 feet 
above the level of the street, and that the earth was supported by a wall. 

Near the western angle of this field, and 10 feeD be'ow the level of the 
street, a large structure was found apparently of Eoman work. Still 
lower, on the west side of this structure, there was a well-built canal, 
20 inches square, which descended from the north-west. The character of 
this buildiug I could not determine, nor could I ascertain where the canal 
led to. Somewhere near this point, however, there seems to have been a 
way of conveying water to the tower of Hipnicus ("Wars," V, vii, 3). 

The excavations all along the southern line of this field were carried 
down nearly 20 feet below the level of the street in order to secuie the 
foundations of the new buildhig. 

Just at the right, or east of the remains marked on the "open field," a 
massive wall was exposed not far below the level of the street, and followed 
down about 15 feet. The line of this would be nearly parallel with the 
line of the broken wall opposite Frut'ger's Bank. This wall was not 
vertical, but inclined like the wall of a deep trench around a castle, yet I 
should not judge that it had any such use. Near this, two smaller canals 
were found running in the same direction as the large one already 
mentioned. 

It was below the eastern boundary of this field that the most important 
remains were found. Here at a depth of 15 feet from the surface of the 
ground, or rather of the street, a portion of the ancient second wall was 
exposed. Two layers of stone, and at two or three points three layers, were 
found still in position. These were of the same size and character in every 
way as the largest of the stones in the so-called Tower of David opposite. 
About 30 yards of this wall was uncovered. The large displaced stones 
represented by the heavy broken line opposite Frutiger's Bank, which were 
found when grading the street, would be on the line of the old wall beneath 
them. 

These massive stones and all these old remains in this piece of ground 
have been worked into the foundations of the new buildings, and although 
tiny were not broken they are now covered and for ever lost from sight. 
It is a great satisfaction, however, to have seen these solid foundations of 
old Jerusalem uncovered after they had been buried for so many centuries. 



24 KIIURBET 'ORMA. 

It will be understood that I have not attempted to represent any of these 
more ancient ruins on the accompanying plan. 

Besides the stone ball, three relics of the tenth legion were found, 
consisting of broken bits of pottery with the stamp of this legion upon 
them. Great quantities of broken pottery were thrown up from the 
trenches, mostly Roman. 

Those who have made plans of Jerusalem now have an opportunity 
to verify their work. From what I have written above, the line of the 
second wall for a distance of 40 or 50 yards can be traced on any good 
map of the city, and as one result it seems to me more improbable than 
ever that the Holy Sepulchre should have been outside the second wall. 

Jerusalem, September 15M, 1885. 



KHURBET 'ORMA. 



The fact that during a residence of several months at 'Artouf I was in 
the immediate vicinity, and indeed within view, of a site which Captain 
Oonder has attempted to identify with that of Kirjath-jearim, induces me 
to ask consideration for a few remarks which will, I trust, not be deemed 
out of place, though they may throw only a negative light on the Kirjath 
Yearim controversy in which the well-known Imperial German Baurath, C. 
Schick, upholds the views of Robinson in favour of Abu Ghosh or Kuryel- 
el Anab, the Rev. W. F. Birch advocates the claims of Soba as the site of 
the City of Rocky Mountain-side Thickets, whilst, as above stated, Captain 
Conder suggests the ruined site, called (for want of knowledge of the real 
name) Khurbet 'Erma, or, more correctly, Khurbet 'Orma, by the fellahin. 
Captain Conder's reasons for making this suggestion are stated at length 
in the Quarterly Statement for April, 1879 (pp. 95-99), and he is seconded 
iu his views by the Rev. A. Henderson, whilst Herr Schick (pp. 181-187, 
Quarterly Statement for July, 1884) and the Rev. W. F. Birch (p. 61, 
Quarterly Statement for January, 1882) show, on topographical grounds, 
the serious objections to which this view is open. In the following I would 
deal with the statement of ( !aptain Conder that the word 'Erma " presen ea 
the principal letters of Jarim, which means ; thickets,' &c." 

At first sight this argument appears very plausible, but a closer 

examination at once reveals its speciousness. The word 'Orma ^ _ 
means nothing more or less than " heap." The root is _ =Q12, V » aw or '' 
not used in the Kal form, but cognate to the verbs D^"^, 0"}£ •> Q'H , 
□??"^, meaning to be high, elevated, &c. From this root tn}? — /»-- c 
comes the word pQ*"^ = £*-e> 'Orma, which is applied to "a 'heap' of 
wheat or grain on the threshing-floor," and which, used in this sense, occurs 
in Canticles vii, 3. In this passage the Hebrew word given is n<2"^' 



KHURBET OBMA. -•> 

which in the Arabic version (originally printed at Rome in 1671) is 
rendered by A,< -C 'Orma. The same word is also used for "a heap" of 
sheaves, vide Ruth iii, 7. In this passage the noble Arabic version of 
Dr8. Eli Smith and Van Dyck gives <Lc_c as the equivalent of I~|ft~l}?- 
Turning to Luther's German Bible we are struck with his rendering of the 
word as " eine Mandel." Every German scholar knows that this word, 
which is feminine in gender, means first, an almond (not an almond-tree, but 
the stone-fruit), and secondly, a quarter of a schock (a schook = 60, therefore 
a mandel = 15), or fifteen. Luther could not possibly have meant that 
Boaz went and lay down behind a single almond-fruit, and we are there- 
fore forced to the conclusion that he was under the impression that the 
p"lft"^y contained fifteen sheaves. In a pile containing that number we 
should have five in the lowest tier, four in the next above, then three, then 
two, and at the top one, thus — 



This arrangement produces a figure which in its outlines remarkably 
resembles those of Khurbet 'Orma as seen from a distance, and most 
especially from the spot where, through a cleft in the rock, one descends by 
a staircase cut in the face of the sheer precipice on the opposite side of the 
valley to the curious ancient laura and cavern in the 'Arak Ism'ain 
(possibly Samson's Etham, Judges x^ r , 8). 

The plural of n?2H27 hi D^ * s D^ft"^> 'Araymim, a word altogether 
different from 3^V% 'Yarim = Jearim, which, as every Biblical scholar 

is aware, is the plural of "^ W =-Ci meaning a rocky hill-side covered 
with thickets. n^ft*"^ may be looked up in Jeremiah 1, 26, which in 
the Authorised Version reads — 

"Come against her" — i.e., Babylon, — from the utmost border, open 
her store-houses, cast her up as heaps, = Q^ft"^, &c. Here Drs. Smith 

and Van Dyck give the word LJ ^ 'Erama (n.). 

We now come to the plural in J-^ = ]"Y11D"^3?> 'Armoth, and find it in 
the Hebrew in Nehemiah iii, 34, which corresponds with the second verse 
of Nehemiah iii in our English Bibles. In the Arabic versions the root 

*_c does not appear in this passage. 

The Niphal form of the Hebrew root Q"^ is used in Exodus xv, 8, 
where we read that the floods stood upright as a " heap," &c. 

I believe I have now said enough to show that the descriptive 
appellative Khurbet 'Orma means a " rain-heap," and that though in the 
latter part of the word Y'arim the letters y, -|, and ft do occur, yet that 

tlie word <Lc-c, which contains these same letters as radicals, has no 



26 ACRA SOUTH OF THE TEMPLE. 

connection therewith, and that, taking Baurath Schick's and the Rev. W. 
F. Birch's objectious into consideration, and calmly weighing all the 
evidence, one cannot help feeling that the gallant officer who so boldly 
maintains that thickets and a heap are one and the same thing, has dis- 
covered "a mare's nest " at Khnrbet 'Orma. 

My stay at 'Artouf came to an end early in August, a day or two 
after I forwarded tracings representing the Zorah altar. On the 23rd of 
October I rode down again in the company of Baurath Schick, who carefully 
examined my find, tested my measurements of the same, and inspected 
some minor discoveries I made in the same neighbourhood, especially 
a columbarium, and a large and massive but rude stone monument I had 
found on a hill-top. As Herr Schick intends publishing a description and 
plans of these I need not dwell upon them. 

J. E. Hanauer. 

Jerusalem. November 3rd, 18S5. 



NOTES BY REV. W. F. BIRCH. 

I. Acra South of the Temple. 

(See page 105, 1885). 

Josephus (" Wars," V, iv, 1) places his Acra on the site of the Maccabrean 
Acra, which (1 Mace, i, 33) was identical with the City of David. I pro- 
pose to show that Josephus places his Acra entirely south of the Temple, 
i.e., on Ophel (so called), and so without design supports the view that the 
City of David was on Ophel. 

1, 2. In the passage referred to, Josephus says : " The city of Jerusalem 
was fortified with three walls on such parts as were not encompassed with 
impassable valleys, for in such places it had but one wall. The city was 
built upon two hills, one called the Upper Market-place, the other Acra, 
or the Lower City. The Tyropceon "Valley which divided the two hills 
reached to Siloam. The first wall ended at the eastern cloister of the 
Temple," and therefore enclosed Ophel (so called). 

Xnw as the Tyropceon Valley reached to Siloam, it must have sepa- 
rated the Upper City from Ophel (so called). Therefore Ophel— i.e., the 
ridge south of the Temple— was a separate hill from the Upper City (or 
Market). 

Thus, first historically (according to Josephus) we have two hills, viz., 
the Upper City and Acra, within the first wall, and next topographically 
(according to modern excavations) two hills, viz., the same Upper City and 
Ophel (so called), also within what was the line of the first wall. 

But the third axiom of Euclid is, that " If equals be taken from equals 
the remainders are equal." Accordingly, from these two equals let 
us take the Upper City, and the remainders, Acra and Ophel (so called), 
must he equal. In other words, Acra was on Ophel south of the Temple. 



ACRA SOUTH OF THE TEMPLE. 27 

I claim, then, to have proved mathematically that Joseph us places his 
Acra south of the Temple, and thereby supports that site for the City of 
David. 

Further, if Acra is placed anywhere else than on Ophel, then, as it was 
a hill by itself, Jerusalem must have stood upon three hills, viz., the 
Upper kill and Ophel (because it was enclosed by the first wall), and 
lastly Acra. But Josephus says the city stood on two hills, and no one. I 
imagine, will be so sophistical and stupid as to maintain that by two he 
only meant at least two, and might mean more than two. 

Again, if the first wall is drawn (as I agree with Sir Charles Warren 
it ought to be drawn) from near the Jaffa gate direct to the Teniple, then 
his site for Acra, north of the Upper City, is only defended by two walls 
on the northern or weak side, while Josephus distinctly says that the 
city (which contained two hills) was fortified by three walls except on its 
unassailable sides. 

Does any one believe that even Josephus can have so jumbled up the 
topography of a city with which he was well acquainted, as to say Jeru- 
salem stood on two hills, if it stood on three, and that it was defended by 
three walls, if one part of it, viz., Acra, had been defended by two only ? 
"Credat Judams Apella, non ego." But the old device maybe tried 
again, and why should Josephus expect to fare better than Nehemiah 1 

It will be said, " Other passages in Josephus relating to Acra do not 
agree with its being on Ophel." 

Let us see, then, what else Josephus says about Acra. 

3. He directly gives to the part south of the Temple the name of 
Acra, or the low town. 

(a) "Wars," Vi, vii, 2. After the capture of the Temple "the 
Romans drove the Jews out of the Lower City and set all on fire as 
far as Siloam." This Lower City could not be the part just within the 
second wall, for out of that they had been driven weeks before. 

(b) " Wars," VI, vi, 3. Here the order was given to burn and plunder 
the city. Accordiugly the Romans set fire to Acra and the place called 
Ophlas. The fire reached to the palace of Helena in the middle of Acra. 
When Sir Charles Warren places Acra and the palace north of the Upper 
City, we have to suppose that for weeks this part had been left unplundered 
and the wood of the houses unremoved (for stones alone would not burn), 
although the country for 90 furlongs round was being scoured for wood 
for the military woi'ks. 

4. On the other hand, Josephus never gives to the part west of the 
Temple the title of the Lower City, or Acra. If any one thinks be does, 
let him kindly point out the passage. 

5. Lewin indeed says that "The part north of the Upper City (i.e., 
Sir C. Warren's position) did not belong to it, nor yet to Bezetha, therefore 
it belonged to Acra." This conclusion is quite wrong. For in truth that 
part belonged to none of the three, and is described by Josephus himself 
as " the suburbs." 

G. Some writers are pleased to assume that there must be topographical 



28 ACRA SOUTH OF THE TEMPLE. 

order in the enumeration of the gates on the western side of the Temple, 
i.e., that ("Ant.," XV, xi, 5) " rj /xei/ . . . al de 8uo . . . 17 Xoiwrj " 
imply strict local order. If so, surely there is much more reason to assert 
that there must have been a similar order observed in the desciiption 
of the towers in " Wars," IV, ix, 12, for there we have rbv fiev . . . 
tov 8e top Se rplrov . . . 6 8e Aoi7ro?. 

7. " Now of these towers, one was in the north-east corner of the 
Temple court, one above the Xystus, the third at another corner over against 
the Lower City, &c." As in local order this third comes after that near the 
Xystus, the corner must obviously have been the corner near Robinson's 
Arch, and it was "over against Acra." This south-west corner might 
indeed be said to be over against Ophel ; but surely not over against the 
part north of the Upper City. 

8. In "Ant.," XV, xi, 5, the first-named gate was one in the line of 
Wilson's Arch ; and the one leading to the other city by a great number 
of steps into the valley, and thence up again by the ascent, was one in the 
line of Robinson's Arch ; while the deep valley along the entire south 
quarter of the city is the valley south of the Upper City. Josephus, I 
believe, never calls the Tyropoeon a deep valley. 

9. If, as Colonel Warren supj^oses ("Temple or Tomb,'' p. 119), 
Robinson's Arch had to do with one of the suburban gates, what are we 
to think of the vapidity of Josephus in disposing of the stupendous work 
of that arch under the trifling observation that " two more (gates) led to the 
suburbs of the city I " 

10. Josephus says the two hills of Jerusalem had deep valleys on the 
outside. Acra on Ophel (so called) would have a deep valley on its eastern 
(or outer) side, but Acra west of the Temple would have no deep valley, 
nor any valley at all, on its western (or outer) side. 

Here, then, are ten points in which the southern site suits and the western 
site does not suit the Acra of Josephus. Is more evidence necessary ? 

But I imagine some one objecting, You have suppressed four or five 
awkward statements of Josephus, viz. : — 

(1) That the Acra used to be higher than the Temple. 

(2) That it was levelled by the Asmonceans. 

(3) That it was separated from the Temple by a broad valley which 

was afterwards tilled up. 

(4) That David called the Upper City by the name (ppovpiov, obviously 

corresponding to the Hebrew Metsudah, the same as the castle 
of Zion. 

(5) That David called Jerusalem the City of David ("Aut.," VII, 

iii, 2). 

Very awkard indeed, I readily admit ; yet not for my theory, but for 
Josephus and all confiding in his inventions. For in all these five points 
quoted against my theory Josephus is at variance with either the Bible, or 
1 Maccabees, or later statements of his own. 

As to (1), Josephus thought Acra was formerly higher than the Temple, 
and so when 1 Maccabees says (vii 33) Nicauor went up from the Acra to 



ACRA SOUTH OF THE TEMPLE. 29 

the Temple, Joseplms says he went down (" Ant.," XII, x, 5) from the 
citadel into the Temple. For whom is this change awkward 1 

As to (2), Joseplms says the hill of Acra was levelled — a three years' 
work by day and night. 1 Maccabees, however (an authority used by 
Josephus at other times), says nothing of the sort, and speaks of the Acra 
as in existence three years after its demolition according to Josephus 
(xiv, 37 ; xv, 28, 33-3 ). 

Is not this very awkward for those who blindly follow Josephus ? 

As to (3), 1 Maccabees says not one word about the filling up of the 
valley ; and when the advocates of local order make Josephus to describe 
as filled up the valley between the Temple and their Acra placed on its 
western side, they forget that Josephus must thus contradict himself ; for 
the last-named gate led to a descent by many steps into the valley which 
was no longer a valley, being already filled up according to their interpre- 
tation of Josephus. 

Again, as to (4), the Bible does not say that David called any place the 
citadel ((ppovptov). What it does say is that he called the castle (or 
citadel) the City of David (2 Sam. v, 9). 

Lastly, as to (5), the Bible does not say that David called Jerusalem the 
City of David. It says (as above) that he called it (i.e., the castle) the City 
of David." (See quarterly Statement, 1883, p. 154 ; 1884, pp. 79, 198.) 

The fact seems to be that Josephus (like Canon Tristram and others) 
failed to understand how the stronghold of Zion could ever have stood on 
a low hill, and therefore in the " "Wars " he put it on the site of the Upper 
City, and at the same time finding the name Acra attached to the Ophel 
spur, not apparently a good site for the Macedonian Acra, he concluded it 
must have been levelled. (See 1885, pp. 107, 211.) 

Afterwards, when he came to write his "Antiquities," using the LXX 
and 1 Maccabees, Josephus found that his Acra and not the Upper City 
was the original castle of the Jebusites, and therefore in " Ant," VII, iii, 1, 
he repeatedly applies to their stronghold the term Acra. 

By wresting the Acra from the enemy Simon would in Jewish phrase- 
ology become " a remover of mountains," and Josephus, who was quite 
capable of making much out of little, through taking the title literally 
may out of this soubriquet have developed his cock and bull story of the 
levelling of the Acra. 

It is hardly necessary, however, to find a groundwork for this fiction of 
Josephus, who, as pointed out by Whiston, seems to have used a mutilated 
copy of 1 Maccabees which came to an end at the 50th verse of the 13th 
chapter, just before the capture of the Acra. If only he had possessed a 
perfect MS. to copy from, probably we should never in the " Antiquities " 
have heard anything of the levelling of the Acra. 

Again, it has been urged that Josephus says the Maccabees filled up 
the valley between the Acra and the Temple, meaning to join the two. 

To this I reply that in the later and more detailed account in the 
"Antiquities" he says nothing about the filling up of the valley, and that 
the filling up of the intermediate valley before the Acra was taken is just 



30 ACRA SOUTH OF THE TEMPLE. 

what they would not have done. There would have been more sense in 
makino- the valley deeper. If this statement of Josephus is to be taken 
in the way it is usually understood, then obviously there is no more truth 
or reason in it than in the levelliag of the Acra. 

I do not, however, believe Josephus meant his words to be so understood. 
I take him to mean that the Maccabees tilled up the valley, in the line of 
Wilson's Arch (" Wars," V, iv, 1, compared with " Ant.," XV, xi, 5, the 
intermediate valley being cut off for a passage), wishing to join the " city " 
(this is his word), i.e., the Upper City, to the Temple. Here I think he 
had a confused recollection of 1 " Maccabees," xii, 36 (raising a great mount 
between the tower and the city, for to separate it from the city), and 
interpreted it to mean that they made a great ramp between the Temple 
(a continuation of the Acra hill) and the Upper City. 

Anyhow, as Josephus certainly believed that the Acra originally was 
on an eminence higher than the Temple, and on its southern side, then in 
his mistaken opinion thei*e must have been a valley between the two, and 
as it was certainly not visible in his day, he might after all mean that it 
was filled up somewhere on the line of Dr. Guthe's (misconceived) valley 
across Ophel. At the same time Josephus may also have believed that 
Ophel so called had been lowered. 

In conclusion, I would call attention to two things. First, on the ten 
points that fix Acra south of the Temple, Josephus is speaking from 
what he had seen. Next, on the five points alleged against this site for 
Acra, Josephus is speaking about what he had not seen, viz., a mountain 
levelled and a valley filled up, and instead of wisely following his 
authorities, the Bible and 1 Maccabees, he ventures to disregard and 
contradict them, and so has blindly fallen into a deep pit, leading after 
him eighteen centuries of followers. 

As, however, I have probed the question of the site of Zion, the City of 
David, as fixed by Josephus, only for his credit, and not for the safety of 
my theory, I may say once more that any adverse statement of Josephus 
on this point is worth nothing at all, being but as the dust in the balance 
compared with the clear and consistent evidence of the Scriptures, not to 
add of 1 Maccabees. 

One indication given by Josephus has been omitted above, because I 
have never seen it satisfactorily explained. He says ("Wars," V, iv, 1), 
The hill on which the Upper City stood was much higher, and "in length 
more direct" (Whiston), while the hill of the Lower City was d/jL^iKvpTos 
(of the shape of a moon when she is horned — Winston). When Captain 
Cornier (" Handbook," p. 332) says the upper hill was the largest, he is quite 
correct, but largest seems to me an inadequate rendering of Josephuss 
words. Again, when he says the Acra was " crescent-shaped," it must be 
objected that uficplKVfiTos does not mean crescent-shaped, but means gibbous, 
curved on each side, like the moon in its third quarter. Accordingly his 
site for Acra cannot I > \ being crescent-shaped fairly claim to satisfy the 
description of Josephus. 1 

1 1 am glad to find thai in the "Memoirs" (Jerusalem, 291) Captain Condor 



P1J0FESS0K SOCIK'S CRITICISMS. 31 

The following explanation has lately occurred to me. Josephus 
probably means to describe the city as seen from the south. 7he appear- 
ance, before the Tyropceon was tilled up, would be something like this — 




A (the upper hill) is thus higher, and in length (from a to b) somewhat 
in a straight line. On the other hand, B (the lower hill), instead of being 
straight or having a flat surface, would (before Q, the Tyropceon Valley, 
was filled up) appear as a humped hill, having sloping sides on the east 
and west. "Humped" seems to me a bur meaning for dpcpUvpTos, from 
Kvpros, curved, arched, like a camel's back. 

II. Professor Socin's Criticisms. 

Professor Socix, of Tubingen, in his " Critical Estimate of the "Work of 
the Palestine Exploration Fund " (Expositor, October), takes exception to 
some of my remarks in the Quarterly Statement. Of this I am glad as 
it is good for one's errors to be pointed out. 

(1) Inquiry (1884, p. 6J) satisfied me that the famous cave of Adullam 
was really the cave of Khureitun, and was not near the city of Adullam. 
To explain the title "Adullam," I proposed as a solution that vau had been 
changed into duleth — i.e., that the original reading was Maarath Olam 
( = " the old cave "), which some copyist, aware that A.dullaru was not far 
from Gath, somehow made into Maarath Adullam. Exegesis like this, 
Professor Socin describes as " too bad." Let us then see what he considers 
good. 

On page 255, Professor Socin, referring to " the opinion that the tomb 
of Rachel cannot originally have been shown south of Jerusalem," adds " as 
is indeed manifest of itself from 1 Samuel x, 2, and -Jeremiah xxxi 15." 

But according to Genesis xxxv, 16 ; xlviii, 7, Rachel's tomb was " but 
a little way" (Rev. Ver., still some way) from Bethlehem, yet, if it was 
not south of Jerusalem, it inu&t have been at least four miles from 
Bethlehem. Surely Professor Sociu will not maintain that Gehari, in 
waiting until Naaman had gone "some way," must really have given him 
four miles start ; while further, the acceptation of Mr. Schick's tomb of 
Rachel at Abd-el-Aziz transforms in Genesis the four miles into quite 
eight. If my exegesis is "too bad" in turning vau into daleth, what is 
to be said of Professor Sociu's iu twice turning out of the sacred text the 
statement "but a little way to Ephrath." Be, without apology, ejects 
four Hebrew words at least, and yet objects to my altering a single letter. 
Is not this "extraordinary partiality V 

accepts gibbous as the right translation of dp(p'iKvpTos. As, however, he at the 
same time adheres to his former site for Acra, it would seem thai his site, which 
was ci-escent-shaped in 1879, can do double duty by being gibbous iu 1884. 



32 ritOFESSOR socin's criticisms. 

(2) As to the identification of Ald-el-Ma with Adullam, Professor 
Socin (p. 256) says : " We are glad to see that recently {Quarterly Statement, 
1884, p. (il ff.) opposition to it has again appeared." As the paper referred 
to is mine, I may say this approval is undeserved, as it will be seen that 
from first to last I do not say one word against the identification. 
What I objected to was stated in the title, " The Cave of Adullam not 
near the City of Adullam." 

(3) I am also concerned in the question of Zoar and Sodom having 
been at the northern end of the Dead Sea. Such a location, however, 
Professor Socin describes as "one of the gravest errors." He adds : "The 
reasons for placing Zoar in the Ghor es Safiyeh (i.e., towards the southern 
end) are quite incontrovertible. Only false interpretations of passages 
like Genesis xiii, 10, &c, can have led to this extraordinary hypothesis." 
Let us test the value of this criticism. 

Lot, from the hill east of Bethel, "beheld (Gen. xiii, 10) all the plain 
(Heb. ciccar) of Jordan, that it was well watered everythere, . . . and 
(11) chose him all the plain (ciccar) of Jordan, . . . and (12) Lot 
dwelled in the cities of the plain (ciccar), and pitched his tent toward 
Sodom." Scientific exegesis requires one to admit that the Dead Sea must 
have existed at that time, and that the Jordan flowed into it. Now — 

(a) Lot could see that the plain at the northern end of the Dead Sea 
was well watered ; for it was in sight, and but fifteen or twenty miles 
off, whilst the Ghor es Safiyeh is some sixty miles distant. 

(b) Lot chose the plain of the Jordan. This must mean the plain at 
the northern end of the Dead Sea, since no valley at the southern end 
coxild possibly be called the valley of the Jordan, as the nearest point of 
that river would be forty miles distant at the opposite end of the sea. 

(c) Nor will sound exegesis allow any one to maintain that while Lot 
chose the plain at the northern end of the sea, he dwelt in that at the 
southern end, some forty miles distant. The plain in xiii, 12, near Sodom, 
is obviously the plain of Jordan, which in 11 was confessedly at the north 
end of the Dead Sea. Therefore it is the arguments for this northern site 
that are incontrovertible, and the southern site is one of the gravest errors. 

Even the Biblical use of the word ciccar would by itself settle the 
question. Professor Socin was evidently unaware how sound are the 
arguments of the northerners, and so has let himself be carried away by 
the extraordinary hypothesis of the southerners. 

It seems, then, that the errors needing correction belong to Professor 
Socin, and not to me, still less to the Fund which, as a Society, makes no 
identifications. 



CAPTAIN CONDER S NOTE ON JERUSALEM. 



III. Captain Conder's Note on Jerusalem. 

Now that Sir Charles Warren has returned in triumph from South Africr. 
I hope he will find time to reply to my attack upon his Zion theory. In 
the last Quarterly Statement Captain Conder, from under the Southern Cross, 
aimed two arrows against my theory, but so inaccurately that one comes 
down upon his own head, and the other hits Sir C. Warren's theory, while 
mine continues unscathed. 

As I hope by sound reasoning to convince the opponents of Zion on 
( >phel that the latter hill was the site of the City of David, I must at once 
remove the misapprehensions expressed by Captain Conder on page 229. 
I do not object to his saying that "later kings built a wall round Ophel." 
but I objected to his statement that Ophel " was only walled in by later 
kings." Similarly I cheerfully admit that Captain Conder visited Jerusa- 
lem, but I should strenuously deny that Jerusalem " was only visited by 
( !aptain Conder." Many went there before he did. The fact that both 
Jotham "on the wall of Ophel built much," and Manasseh "built a wall 
without the City of David on the west side of Gihon in the nachal " 
(== Kidron), says nothing against Ophel having been built upon before 
their time, and even in the time of David. 

Captain Conder is also in error in saying I claim to prove " Hinnom to 
be the Kidron." This is Sir C. Warren's theory. On reference to page 211 
he will see that, on the contrary, I said that the confusing of ge Hinnom, 
with nachal Kidron, produced a hopeless chaos, and that I had shown that 
the Tyropceon was the valley of Hinnom. Captain Conder can hardly mean 
that the Tyropceon was the same as the Kidron. 

Further, he misunderstands Professor Sayce's theory. The latter 
(mainly agreeing with Professor Eobertson Smith) confines Jerusalem to 
the eastern hill, but not (as Captain Conder thinks) to the narrow ridge 
south of the Temple. Professor Sayce corrected this misapprehension in 
Quarterly Statement, 18.84, p. 230. 

To me the old delusion that the Jerusalem of David did not extend to 
the eastern hill seems worse, because more plausible, than the new notion 
that it did not reach to the western side of the Tyropceon. 

The second delusion, that the City of David was identical with the* 
.1 erusalem of David's time I deal with elsewhere. 

IV. The Approximate Position of the Castle of Zion. 

I endeavour on the annexed plan to show the probable position on Ophel 
occupied by the City of David. 

It seems to me that its western wall would almost certainly stand close 
to the water-parting of the ridge. As the point marked 2,270 feet (Sir 
O Warren's knoll, I believe) seems the strongest point on the ridge, having 
a, hollow on its northern side, I have drawn the northern wall thence to at 
least 30 feet east of the rock-cut chamber on Ophel, because in " Jerusalem 
Records," p. 254, it is stated that the rock was bared for 30 feet, but 

o 



34 THE APPROXIMATE POSITION OF THE CASTLE OF ZION T . 

apparently without reaching the line of the eastern wall. At the same 
time the further the eastern wall was up the side of the hill, the stronger 
would be its position. 

Therefore I have drawn it as little to the east as possible, though it is 
a fact that further north the Ophel wall of later date certainly was some 
distance down the hill. 

How far the City of David may have extended southwards is open to 
question. I have extended it so far as to make the area of Zion at least 
three acres- — sufficient, I believe, for the castle which David took from 
the Jebusites, and named the City of David. 

It may be that in trying to make Zion as strong as possible on its 
western and eastern sides, I have drawn it too narrow. As shown on the 
plan, I think that with walls of no great height it would not be dominated 
from any point within 500 feet. I must confess, however, that such a 
distance seems to me more than necessary, but I concede it to satisfy 
Canon Tristram's objection (1885, p. 107). 

The approximate position of the sepulchres of David is a still more 
difficult question ; but the course of the wall in Nehemiah appears to me 
to show that they certainly were not on the western side of Ophel ; for the 
wall (Nell, iii, 16) was built over against, i.e., in sight of, the sepulchres. 

Again, as the eastern side, being steeper, would more easily than the 
southern side be cut into a perpendicular face for the entrance to the tomb, 
I have marked Y as its probable position, within the wall of the City of 
David, on the eastern side of Ophel. At the same time I think that the 
wall built by Nehemiah may not in any part of it have been necessarily on 
the line of the old wall of the City of David, but on the line of the wall 
outside it (2 Chron. xxxiii, 14), with an unknown space between the two. 
When the Jews say that the tomb of David was within Jerusalem, I 
believe that they are right ; but it might have been within the ovter wall 
named above, and yet outside the City of David : for the frequent ex- 
pression " in the City of David " may mean simply near it, and not 
necessarily within it. 

If Sir Charles Warren accepts the Ophel site for Zion, I hope he will 
add his opinion on the probable position of David's tomb. 

It is high time that a question like this passed from the region of 
conjecture into that of excavation. Some who reject my Zion theory would 
like to see the matter without further delay referred to (he spade for a 
decision to which all would cheerfully bow. England is a Bible-reading 
country, and rich withal. How long for the lack of a few hundred pounds 
is Zion still to be to us an unknown city? 



i< rare ji . .></ 




^ Y marks 

° ihe probable^ 

*jjj position ot^-fhe 

"^ Sepulchres of 

^ David . 



The 
ITV OF DAVID. 



Rock Con Lours 

by 

C . Warr'en .RE. 



Harrison Sc Sons. Iith. S': Martins Lane W. C 



A CATECHISM OF THE DRUSE RELIGION. oO 

A CATECHISM OF THE DRUSE RELIGION. 

{Literal Translation.) 
The Form of the Druse Oath. 

I, A. B., swear by our Lord who governs by his own order (will), the 
highest, the righteous, the Lord worshipped in. every direction in the form 
of the creature, the created Astitanil, who is the point of the compass, 
with the four limits of unity, and by the manhood of the form, and by 
the hidden wisdom, and the lord of the limit and victory, and by his 
Hedger (?) and its builder, and by the wisdom of the Ancient of Lays, and by 
what could be measured, and by the calling of my lord Baha Eddeen and 
the termination, together with the live and four, which are the boundaries 
and storms, and by the honour of the one hundred threescore and four 
shepherds, and by every article read in our Khilvvat and places of council, 
of the books of Hamzi, the son of Ali-Hadi, the answei'er (of prayer), and 
who revenges himself on the polytheists with the sword of our Lord, 
the sole governor, whose remembrance be glorified ; or else I shall be 
clear of him, and a denier of the lord of the sent ones, the first ones, and 
the last ones, and I shall be also a discloser of the secrets of religion, and 
of the secrets of the sublime boundaries or limits, and a denier of the 
conquering lords, and I shall be alienated from the company of the 
Unitarians 1 (of both sexes),, if I have but taken such and such a sum from 
such and such a person, and that I owe him not a single derhim 
(farthing) more, and that I never intended to do him any harm by the 
form of this claim against him. If I swear falsely, or mean to pervert my 
sayings, or if my oath be in any way whatever contrary to my religion, or 
if I did not swear to the truthj whether it be out of any intention to take 
unlawfully the money of any of the polytheists who are without our 
unity-law, or for the purpose of doing him any harm, or for any advantage 
to myself, or out of any covetous intention, or if I have only repeated 
this form of oath, then I shall be clear of my worshipped Lord, the sole 
governor, and of the advantage of the limits, or I shall be excluded from 
the congregations of Hajuj, and Majiij (Gog and. Magog), and my soul 
shall be clear of them, and I shall be a denier of my Lord, who rules by his 
own command, and of Ismael and Hamzeh and Satanaiel and the Migdaad, 
together with the five, and a denier of my own law and the ten shrines, 
and the law of the Karamita, and be excluded from their articles (of 
religion), and a denier of the appearance of the Highest, who has appeared 
ten times in the form of mankind, and also a denier of the transmigration 
and the transfer of the spirits, and a denier of my own belief, which is 
denied by every other denomination, and I shall be considered as dis- 
honouring Karfln and Ashfilosh, and all the Greek philosophers, and the 
inhabitants of China, together with the one hundred threescore and four 
shepherds, and the godly conquerors, and have denied myself of all that 
which is lawful to me according to my religion, and of all that I confess 
as regards fasting and prayer and pilgrimage and religious tithes, and the 

1 The word Unitarian is used throughout for Druse. 

D 2 



86 A CATECHISM OF THE DRUSE RELIGION. 

rest of the seven obligations which were abolished by our Lord the sole 
governor, and I shall be considered as honouring and kissing the Black 
Stone found at El Kibleh (south), which is honoured by the polytheists. 
Amen. 

This form of oath should be read or repeated in the presence of the 
learned and godly men of the Druse. 

The Epistle of Warning. 

I trust in the Lord, the righteous, the all-knowing, the highest, the most 
high, the king of kings, who could never be conceived by the mind or 
imagination, who is above the description of all describers, and the under- 
standing of all men ; in the name of our Lord the most glorious, the most 
high, the shepherd of the Imaams, from the servant of our Lord the sole 
governor, who professes the unity openly and in secret, the leader to unity 
and faith, and from Hamzitter the purchased one of our Lord, praised be he 
whose glory has no end, who is the son of the leader of the answered ones 
whose prayers are answered, and the revenger of the polytheists, by the 
sword of our Lord, and the power of his own dominion. I have written to 
the company of Unitarians, that they may understand how to walk 
according to religion. 

We command the company of the Unitarian shepherds to observe the 
mystery of religion in their deeds, and not to let airy of the Kafirs who 
do not believe in the governor and his prophets, who were mentioned in 
the Form of Oath, to understand the religion of our Lord, of whatever 
religion they may be — no, not even those of your own religion, who are of 
the Ja-hi-leen (i.e., not true believers) or the apostate ones. Take care ! 
Take care ! not to let any one understand your religion or your belief, or 
even take notice of it. Be careful ! Be careful ! and if after your being 
careful you know of any of the polytheists who have acquired any 
knnAvledge of the truth of your religion, you must destroy him, and if you 
cannot destroy him, then poison him secretly, and whatever you do 
secretly is lawful to you. 

If any one come and tell you that he be of the Unitarians, do not 
acquaint him with the truths of your religion, because there be many who 
may come in a subtle way merely to know the trnih of your religion, and 
the mode of your worship. 

I have therefore prepared this Epistle to make you understand how fco 
walk. Cling to it and depend upon it. I. have arranged it in the way of 
questions and answers. 

Q. What is required of a man when ho is admitted to the religion of 
our lord ) 

A. It is required of him to be under the yoke of our lord. 

(J. Who admits him ? 

.1. The Emaam. 

Q, In what way is he to be admitted I 

A. By earnestly entreating the Unitarians for the term of two full 
years, that he Baaj be accepted amongst them, and he accounted one of 



A CATECHISM OF THE DRUSE RELIGION. 37 

them. When he is accepted, then the Iinaam admits him, and he is 
accounted one of them, and his conduct shall be according to their 
conduct. 

Q. What is the form of admittance ? 

A. He is to be brought before the Imaam by the company of the 
Unitarians, and the Imaam is to give him the orders, and to admonish 
him to keep the secret, and then he will explain to him the truth of 
religion and its rites, and he will give him one dry fig to eat, and will 
address him saying, Man ! do you believe that you can obtain the religion 
through this fig, and become a member of the Unitarians ? and he shall 
answer, I believe. Then the Imaam will give him the, arm of help, and 
shall announce him as one of them. 

Q. How ought he to behave after his admittance ? 

A. He ought to make a show of modesty and civility, and to be genteel 
and patient, aud to put on a becoming raiment, and to smile gently when 
speaking or saluting others, and to resemble his brethren, the Unitarians. 

Q. What ought he to do in order to be a thorough Unitarian ? 

A. He ought to sign a document of covenant and hand it to the 
Imaam. 

Q. What is the covenant which he ought to sign ? 

A. This is its form verbally. In the name of the Imaam, our greatest 
Lord, the one, the unique, the single, who is in need of nothing whatever, 
and who is without a son, the mighty, who is neither created nor begetteth, 
and there is not any one like unto him. I, a b, the son of c d and ef, have 
intended and decided to lay my soul and body, and state, and wealth, and 
wives and children, and property, and all that my right hand and my left 
hand possess, under the yoke of obedience to my lord and sire, the sole 
governor, the high, the highest, the king of kings, the Imaam, the king of 
all might, the all-mighty, over all' beings and created things — yea, I have 
resigned myself to him, and promise to rely upon him. I here confess 
the perfect confession, and declare before my brethren and my lord the 
Imaam, that I deny every other religion that exists, or that shall be here- 
after, and that I neither desire anything that may contradict, nor cling to 
what is averse to the unity, and that I confess that there is neither in 
heaven any worshipped God, nor on earth any existing Imaam but my 
Lord and sire, the highest governor, who is great in management, and who 
is the sole governor, and is my helper and defender, and to him I commit 
all my affairs ; and I hate and deny and despise, and shall waste all that 
may interfere with and contradict his worship and service and obedience. I 
have written this document against myself out of my own free will, while 
possessing soundness of mind and body, neither being forced to it, nor 
compelled to draw it. I also acknowledge the existence of the sheplierds, 
and the authorised ones, and the limits, and the owners of truth who 
believe in our Lord, the sole governor, the faithful. Written in such and 
such a month, and in such and such a year from the year of our Lord, and 
his possessed Hamzi, the son of the Kadi of the answering ones, who 
revenges himself of the polytheista by the sword of our sire and the might 



38 A CATECHISM OF THE DRUSE RELIGION. 

of his revenge, and his sole dominion, and there be none worshipped 
besides him. 

Q. And how is he to appear and converse with men ? 

A. Patiently, and with Nah-na-ha (i.e., Hem, the noise made by sudden 
expiration of the breath), for the nah-na-ha when addressed to a believer 
indicates a blessing, and when addressed to an unbeliever it indicates a 
curse. A nah-na-ha when addressed to a Mohammedan means forty curses, 
and when addressed to a Metawileh it indicates fifty curses, and when to a 
Christian it indicates thirty only, and when to a Jew it indicates only 
twenty curses, and when speaking to any of the polytheists one can use as 
many nah-na-has as he pleases. When women have to speak to any of the 
above-mentioned they all use the word, Bech, Bech, and add to it Walnabel 
Kazan {i.e., Capital by the gracious prophet !), for it is not becoming that 
women should use the nah-na-ha, and also our secret will be disclosed to 
unbelievers, and then they will conclude that it is an agreement between 
us. 

Q. And if we talk about religion how shall our answer be ? 

A. Our Lord has commanded that we should cloak ourselves with the 
prevailing religion, whether it be Christianity or Islamism, for our Lord 
the governor has said, " Whatever religion prevails, follow it openly, but 
keep me in yo\ir hearts." 

Q. How is it possible to us to agree with the Christians or Moslems in 
their religion while we have signed a bond against ourselves, that we 
worship none other but our Lord? 

A. We do this outwardly and not inwardly, as our Lord has said, " Keep 
me in your hearts," and he has given us an example of a man who puts on 
a garment, whether it be white, or black, or red, or green ; the colour of 
the garment has no effect upon his body, whether the body be sound or 
diseased it remains the same, and likewise the several religions resemble 
the garment. Your religion resembles the body, therefore put on what- 
ever garment you please, and embrace openly and outwardly any religion 
you please, provided you be at ease. 

Q. But if we be required to perform the prayers of that religion (we 
embrace outwardly), are we to comply with that? 

A. Agree with them, for there is no objection to any outward religious 
performances. 

Q. But how can we agree with the Mohammedans by confessing that 
Mohammed is a prophet, and that he is the noblest of all prophets, and of 
ail creatures 1 And is he a prophet 1 

A. No, he is not a prophet ; but our prophet is the governor, who has 
neither a son nor is begotten, but is destitute of everything that is 
attributed to man, but this Mohammed is descended from the Arab tribe 
of Korishc-h, and his father's name is Abdallah, and he had a daughter 
whose name was Fatiiua, which was given in marriage to Ali, the son of 
Abi T»Iib. Outwardly we confess that he is our prophet, merely to be at 
peace with his people only ; but inwardly we believe him to be a monkey, 
and a devil, and one not born in wedlock, and that he has allowed what is 



A CATECHISM OF THE DRUSE RELIGION. 39 

not lawful, and has committed all kinds of shameful deeds. He has done 
all the evil he could, and has considered all women to be lawful to him ; 
and therefore our Lord the governor has cursed him in every age and 
time. But a Druse believer can confess that he is a prophet without 
committing a sin, as has been mentioned above. 

Q. Since he is a monkey and a devil, and not born in wedlock, why do 
we therefore chant his name ? 

A. By the name of Mohammed, which we chant, we mean our Lord, 
Mohammed Baha-ed-Deen (Brightness of Religion), surnamed our Lord 
the faithful. 

Q. And what shall be the condition of his followers in the day when 
our Lord, the highest, the governor of governors, cometh I 

A. He will dye the breast of the choicest of them violently, and their 
condition shall be very mean, and they shall serve instead of dogs, and he 
will pay the wages to each of them twenty dinars annually, and they are 
those whom the Book calls Ya-hud (Jews), the helpers of the followers of 
Mohammed. 

Q. Are we to believe Esa (Jesus) to be either a God or a Prophet ? 

A. Esa is neither a God nor a Prophet, but he was an eloquent man, 
and a teacher by signs ; and through his knowledge he made himself a 
nation, and has attributed to himself what belongs to our Lord, and he 
pretended to be the one of whom Matthew and Mark and Luke and John 
spoke of ; they spoke of our Lord, but he (Esa) through his skill and good 
management has made to himself a nation ; he was a friend to Mohammed. 

Q. Who are these four whom you have mentioned by the name of 
Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John ? 

A. These four are those who were employed by our Lord as his secre- 
taries, writing down by our Lord's dictation all the events of their days, 
and Jesus has taken their writing to be his, and said that they were his 
missionaries to proclaim his signs, and all that is said of Esa (Jesus) in 
their writings, is to be attributed in reality to our Lord, and not as the 
Christians say, for they have altered some words and omitted some other 
words. 

Q. What would become of his people when our lord puts them under 
examination ? 

A. They shall be in a piteous state, for he shall cover the hem of their 
left sleeves with lead, and they shall be naked all through, and barefoot ; 
they shall carry on their backs fuel to the ovens and baths, and in the ear 
of each of them a ring of black glass, which shall be caustic in summer and 
.snow-pinching in the winter, and the value of each of them shall be forty 
dinars. 

Q. And the Metawileh, the followers of Ali, what do you say about 
their prophet — is he a prophet or not ? 

A. Ali is a cuckold fellow, and an accursed one, even by his own religion ; 
far be it from him to be a prophet. 

Q. What shall be the condition of his followers at the day of 
account ? 



40 A CATECHISM OF THE DRUSE RELIGION. 

A. They shall be used as donkeys by our lord. The secretaries of out 
lord shall ride them. Their prophet is from the followers of Mohammed. 

Q. And what are we to believe about Musa (Moses), the son of Amram — 
is he a true prophet or not ? 

A. He was a man of deep and genuine understanding — he led his people 
by his wisdom, for he used to ascend up the mountain and write down all 
that he wanted to write ; and when he came down he pretended to have 
seen the Creator, who, as he said, had dictated to him all his writings, and 
by that he had followers, who obeyed his commands ; but he is neither a 
prophet nor is in any way connected with us. Esa and Mohammed speak 
very highly of him ; they recommend him as a man of sound understanding. 
The number of the curses to his followers ought to be less than any other 
denomination. 

0. What would be the condition of his followers the day they see our 
Lord l. 

A. Their condition shall be more tolerable than others, because our 
Lord, who is great in majesty, will make them keepers of his accounts and 
his secretaries, without any advantage to themselves ; and they shall be 
naked all through, but he will supply them with food only, because our 
prophet and governor has appeared to him on Mount Sinai, in the form of 
a miikari (i.e., a camel-driver), under whose command was 1,000 camels. 
And he was also called a Jew, after the name of the followers of Moses ; 
and he has since then allowed us to eat camels' flesh. And as the followers 
of Moses have been honoured with seeing him in a visible form he was 
therefore pleased to raise them a little higher than others. 

Q. And, as regards other religions, such as sun-worshippers and the like, 
how are we to agree with theni ? 

A. The sun-worshippers and the like are as the grass, that has no 
strength or has no power ; when its day comes it fades away, and then their 
spirits or souls depart with the wind and shall be mentioned no more. 

Q. You have already explained to us all religions and the worshipped 
ones, but you have neither explained to us to the form of (worshipping) our 
Lord the sole governor, nor anything about ourselves. 

A. A war has taken place between our Lord and the Being who has 
created the universe. And our Lord has ordered the winds to tear him, and 
the winds did tear him to pieces. And David the prophet has described 
t liis by saying, " Did fly, yea, did fly upon the wings of the wind. He made 
darkness His secret place, His pavilion round about Him, and there is nothing 
dim in the clouds of the air." And their own lord has taken the dominion 
from him, ami he has neither an equal, nor the like, nor is he comprehended 
by the mind nor is measured by any measure. And we, whoever of us 
performs his duties, as he is bound by the seventy-two covenants, is bound 
to obey our most high Lord in every age. And whoever be found corrupt 
in any age, all his ages shall be corrupt ; and whoever shall be found 
standing according to his covenants, he shall be of the choicest of our Lord, 
and shall have a vote in the council of our Lord. 

Q. And where are these bonds written against each of us to be found ? 



A CATECHISM OF THE DEUSE RELIGION. 41 

A. Our Lord has kept them under custody in the Pyramids of Egypt. 

Q. What has our Lord made lawful to us, and what has he forbidden 
us from ? 

A. As our Lord is mystery he has therefore enjoined upon us to keep our 
religion as a secret. And on this condition, whatever is done secretly and 
privately is lawful to us, and whatever be revealed or made known to 
others is unlawful to us. Therefore we admonish the company of the 
brethren to observe the secret. Warning ! Warning ! from any infringe 
ment of the secret of our Lord. 

Q. How are we to distinguish our believing brethren from the 
unbelievers ? For it may be that an unbeliever may disguise himself in 
order to examine our religion. 

A. We are not to accept him before conversing with him. 

Q. How are we to converse with him ? 

A. By saying— Man ! do they grow the Thlilij (Myrobalan tree) in 
your country 1 If his answer be, Yes, it is planted in the hearts of the 
believers, he is therefore one of us. Then we are to present to him two 
earthen water-bottles, the one full and the other empty. If he pours the 
water from the full one into the empty bottle then he is certainly one of 
us, because by this he acknowledges the transmigration of souls, as the 
water is poured out from one vessel into another. Then we will willingly 
admit him and disclose to him all that we have, and are not to deny him 
anything, either of our property or of our fame, or of our influence. 
For the rule of generosity is, that brethren must be of great advantage to 
each other in the time of distress. And we are also to have confidence in 
him as regards our houses, and wealth, and wives, and children, because he 
is a brother and an equal believer with us, and is not like any Christian 
priest, who could not be trusted with a salad leaf. But if he could not 
answer the above questions, then he is an intruder and a deceiver, desiring 
to acquire the knowledge of our religion. Therefore he must be destroyed 
at once, either by murder or by poison, or by any possible means. 

Q. Where does our Lord reside now, and when will he manifest himself 
to us ? 

A. He now resides in China. He appeared or manifested himself five 
times. The first time he appeared in Persia, and was known by the name 
of Selman el Farisi, and he was a geometrician. The second time he 
appeared in Egypt, and was called El Hakim Biamrihi (the Sole Governor), 
and his occupation was the civil government. The third time he appeared 
in Algeria, and was known by the name of Baha-ud-Deen (Brightness 
of Religion), and his occupation was a silversmith. The fourth time 
he appeared in Andalusia, and was known by the name of El-hikmet 
(Wisdom), and was a physician. The fifth time he appeared in El Hijaz,or 
Hedjaz(on the eastern shore of the Red Sea), and was known by the name 
of Mewla El Akil (Lord of Reason or Understanding), and his occupation 
was camel-driver, and he had under his command 1,000 camels, and thence 
he disappeared. He foretold his disappearance for a time and hath com- 
manded us to abide by his obedience until he comes 1 



42 A CATECHISM OF THE DRUSE RELIGION. 

Q. When will he come ? 

A. When the cycle of time turns over, and the ages be completed, and 
the Da-i-rah (circle) turns to the point of the compass, and the wolf walks 
together with the sheep, and the tiger with the ass, and when he is seen 
by the eyes and the understanding, and when the secrets are disclosed, 
then cometh the mighty and powerful one, with howling and thundering, 
gloi'y and numberless army. 

Q. Will his advent be as it was the first time, or with power and 
might ? 

A. He will came with power, and blessed is he who confesses and 
worships one God, and who truly lives to fulfil and obey what he orders 
him to obey, and not ouly this, but also who rejects mean things, such a 
man has got the desired object and is worthy of such a calL 

Q. In what manner does he come, and whereto does he go, and in what 
place will he reside.? 

A. He will come in a time when all foreign nations and Frank troops 
shall attack these countries and war and sedition will take place, and the 
sword be used, when but little peace is found, and when Franks shall 
conquer the troops of Khorasan and take possession of Baalbeck — at that 
time news shall arrive, and war shall cease, and the strength of the two 
quarrelling parties shall faint, because they shall be sure of the approaching 
army from the East, and that they are to stop the raging war, and therefore 
they shall become more fierce in dashing and lashing against each other — 
each party aims at winning the day. Seven days before they approach 
him the sun shall be veiled above their heads, and they shall hear what 
terrifies them, because the neighing of the horses of our Lord shall be 
heard from the distance of seven days, and the lances of their spears shall 
hide the light of the sun from the earth for seven days, and they shall be 
in great confusion until they come near to him in the land of Hauran, 
where they shall meet the foremost of his army, which is divided into 
regiments, and each regiment numbers one hundred thousand soldiers. 
The first day they shall walk towards the east by the side of the army of 
El-hikmet (Wisdom) ; at evening they will see El-hikmet ; and when they 
inquire of him whether he be the judge, his answer will be, I am not, I 
am but a minister and a secretary. The second day they shall march by 
the side of the army of my Lord Baha-ed-Deen (Brightness of Iieligion), and 
at the evening they shall draw near to him, and when they ask him 
whether he be the judge, he will answer, 1 am not, I am but a minister 
and a secretary. The third day they shall walk in a very mean way by 
'the side of the army of the Imaam, even my lord Understanding, and at 
evening they shall see him, and when they shall ask him whether he be 
the judge, his answer shall be like the preceding answers. The fourth 
day they shall walk by the side of the army of El Hakim (the governor), 
aa they have walked previous to this. And the fifth day they shall walk 
by the side of the army of my lord Selman El Faiisi, likewise. The sixth 
i iav they shall reach what they are aspiring after, and then all theirfatigue 
shall pass away ; for they shall see the noble and illustrious Lord walking 



MORE NOTES ON PHlENJCIAN GEMS AND AMULETS. 43 

by the side of the beasts and animals, and a banner of clouds above his 
head in the sky ; and when he shall see them he will smile in their faces 
to refresh them, and to strengthen them thereby to walk with him and be 
in his service. Then he shall continue in his course until he reaches El 
lledjaz and arrive at Mecca, and then he shall pull down the house (i.e., 
Temple of Mecca), and shall scatter its stones through all the world. 
Then he shall proceed towards Egypt and shall open the pyramids, and 
then he will deliver to each of the believers seventy and two documents, 
in which they confess to be of the company of the believers, and whoever 
be found thus shall be worthy of his being ©f his own : and whoever be 
found corrupt at one time shall be corrupt for ever ; and then he shall 
order (assign) to every one, both of the Unitarians and the polytheists, 
of Mohammedans and Christians, of the Metawileh and of the Jews, as has 
been already mentioned. And our Lord will make his residence in Egypt 
(Cairo). 

Q. How do you say sthey (two) shall walk by the side of the army of 
Baha-ed-Deen (Brightness of Beligion), and Salman El Farisi (Salman the 
Persian), and El-hikmet (Wisdom), and El-akil (Understanding), and Al 
Hakim (the governor), and that each of these two walk separately, and 
they are one — how is he divided ] 

A. Our Lord manifested himself in every cycle of his manifestations 
in a quite different form, and the form in which he once appeared will be 
a sign by which he himself shall be known afterwards, and none of the 
forms shall be forgotten, and when he comes again he will reveal himself 
in all these forms, for our high and supreme Lord had five manifestations, 
and five opposers. 

This Epistle has been written to .all the males and females of the 
Unitarians, that may converse thereof in their assemblies, and councils, 
that they may be sure of the order of our Lord the sole governor. May his 
remembrance be great ! 

Written in the month of Jamadil A-Kher, in the second year of the 
era of our Lord and his servant ('equal to the year of the Hedge-reh 402, 
equal to the year of our Lord and Saviour 1012). 

This copy, the Arabic copy, was taken on the 14th day of March, 1878. 

(Translated into English in August and September, 1885.) 



MORE NOTES ON PHOENICIAN GEMS AND AMULETS. 

By Greville John Chester, B.A., 
Member of the Royal Archaeological Institute. 

The Phoenicians have been well termed the " middle-men" of the ancient 
world, for just at the time when the peoples dwelling on the banks of the 
Nile and of the Euphrates had arrived at a point when their respective 

1 This, and the other parentheses, are introduced by the Native Translator. 



44 MORE NOTES ON PHOENICIAN GEMS AND AMULETS. 

forms of civilization were ripe for expansion beyond their own borders, 
the Phoenicians appeared ready and willing to perform this service for 
the world at large, and to carry the arts and culture of Egypt and 
Mesopotamia to the nations inhabiting the shores of the Mediterranean, 
and even beyond the Pillars of Hercules. 1 

The ancient Phoenicians appear to differ from the Egyptians in not 
having evolved a style of art which can be called essentially their own, 
but, as is proper to a trading and maritime people, they showed from the 
first a great facility for the adoption of the styles of other nations with 
whom, in their commercial transactions, they came in contact, and for 
centuries they continued to reproduce foreign peculiarities in their works 
of art, with the addition, as it were, of a trade-mark of their own. The 
extremely limited extent of the Phoenician territory — even at its largest 
a mere strip of plain, shut in between the mountains and the sea — was 
manifestly unfavourable for the production of original artistic design, and 
had the Phoenicians remained an isolated people like the Jews, there is 
little doubt that, like that inartistic people, they would have had little or 
no art of their own at all, and, like the Jews, would have had to depend 
on foreigners for their architecture, the better sort of fictile ware, for 
textile fabrics, for jewellery, and for all, in fact, except the commonest 
appliances of daily life. 

The Phoenicians, however, did not remain an isolated people, but 
sprang at once into the position of being the carriers of the ancient world, 
and so it came to pass that, in order to facilitate their trade with other 
nations, they adopted and adapted so much as seemed to suit them of 
their religions, many of their manners and customs, and a large propor- 
tion of their art. This fact it is which explains the peculiar style which 
is the invariable characteristic of Phoenician art in general, and of the 
seals, cylinders, intaglios, scarabs, amulets, and other small monuments 
which are discovered from time to time upon that "lonely coast which 
once echoed with the world's debate." The art displayed is Phoenician, it 
is true, that is to say, it bears the trade-mark of the Phoenician artist who 
wrought it, but it is not solely Phoenician. The device, or the motive of 
the design, may be Hittite, or Egyptian, or Chaldean, or Assyrian, or 
Babylonian, or, maybe, it is a mixture of some or all of these styles. 
Thus the scarab was a favourite sacred device of the ancient Egyptians, 
and scarcely an individual was so poor that he did not possess a scarab, 
even if the ring which secured it upon his fingers was only a ring of 
string or twine, and accordingly the Phoenicians not only imported 
scarabs made by Egyptian craftsmen on the banks of the Nile, but made 
them themselves in imitation of those that were purely Egyptian, and 
this often, as is proved by blundered inscriptions, without any knowledge 
of the hieroglyphs which they ignorantly copied by way of ornament. 
The names, indeed, of several Egyptian kings are frequently found on 
these objects, such as those of Men-ka-ra, of the fourth dynasty, Thothmes 

1 Cf. Ferrot and Chipiez, "History of Art in Phoenicia," English edition, 
vol. i, p. 3. 
















fc^ 







MORE NOTES ON PHOENICIAN GEMS AND AMULETS. 45 

and Ranieses of the eighteenth and nineteenth, and in one instance of 
Aahmes or Amasis II, of the twenty-sixth (b.C. 564-526). All these 
scarabs, however, are probably of the same date, and the period of the 
latest king is that probably of the small monuments which bear royal 
names of such widely different epochs. In other instances the Phoenicians 
seem to have placed the names of their own princes upon scarabs, within 
cartouches copied from those of the Egyptians. 

A school of these imitative artists was established at an early period 
upon the coast of Syria. One of these schools was apparently seated at 
Arvad (cf. Gen. x, 18), the Aradus of the Greeks, now called Euad, or 
more probably at the neighbouring Marash (Marathus, now Unirit), where 
large numbers of Egypto- Phoenician objects have been found ; and others 
perhaps at Sidon, Tyre, and at Ascalon, beyond the boundary of Phoenicia 
proper. Not less than between two and three hundred objects from Umrit 
alone were formerly in the collection of M. Peretie of Beirut, and after his 
decease passed into my hands, and I have likewise obtained a considerable 
number of amulets in the Egyptian style from Ascalon, to which city, it is 
evident, were also imported many objects of pure Egyptian work from 
Egypt itself, which were thus dispersed along the whole coast. 

The Assyrians, again, were essentially a seal-bearing people, and it so 
happened that to facilitate their commercial relations with Assyria the 
Phoenician artists fabricated seals with more or less of Assyrian design in 
the devices upon them. 

So far as I have been able to form a judgment from the relics which 
have fallen under my notice, ©r have been acquired by me in Syria, three 
styles of work can be plainly distinguished, which may be thus enu- 
merated : — 

1. The Egypto-Phcenician style. In this the objects are commonly 
made of white steatite, and with certain slight but at the same time 
marked differences, the scarabs, amulets, and deities of Egypt were 
reproduced. The chief seat of this manufacture was probably at Marath 
(Umrlt). I was for some time puzzled by the discovery on the Phoenician 
coast of small idols, amulets, and scarabs, formed of a soft blue pasta, 
Egyptian in style, but yet differing from similar objects of true Egyptian 
work, while at the same time they are identical in material and character 
with others found at Camirus, in Rhodes, in Sardinia, and even at Cuma, 
in southern Italy. It is worthy of note that mingled with the Egyptian- 
looking amulets of this manufacture are others of an exclusively 
Phoenician character, which were made, no doubt, for the Phoenician 
market alone ; such are phalli, hands with one linger extended, and 
models of fire-altars. 

The admirable researches of Mr. W. Flinders Petrie, the explorer of 
Tel-en-Nabireh, his newly-discovered site of the long-lost Greek Colony 
and Emporium of Naucratis in the Delta, go to show that these pasta ob- 
jects, wheresoever found, were manufactured at Naucratis itself, and were 
thence exported as articles of commerce to Phoenicia and other countries. 

•2. In the second style, the use of steatite was given up, and the 



4G MORE NOTES ON PHOENICIAN GEMS AND AMULETS. 

favourite material was a hard brown or black limestone. The scarab was 
still a favourite symbol or ornament, but the figures and devices engraved 
thereon are native rather than foreign. Egyptian deities no longer, or at 
any rate rarely occur, but in their place ai-e found the effigies and 
symbols of Phoenician gods and goddesses, such as Baal and Astoreth. 
Cylinders of limestone now appear with devices of Assyrian and Kypriote 
character, and it is, in fact, often difficult to distinguish whether a cylinder 
is from Cyprus or the opposite coast of the mainland. The similarity of 
these works of art is indeed so great, that the conviction is forced upon 
the mind that there was a great and brisk exchange of productions for 
purposes of luxury and of daily life between the islanders and their kins- 
men on the neighbouring continent. To this epoch also belong a number 
of seals and scarabs of very Kypriote character, and many which were 
engraved with the antelope, crescent, star, moon, fruitful tree, and other 
attributes of Astoreth. Circular seals, with handles pierced for suspension, 
and other seals of square and oblong form, belong to this period, and I 
once possessed a unique specimen of triangular shape of red jaspar, upon 
which was engraved a horse and its rider. 

3. In this style again the scarab form is still in vogue, but the material 
is no longer limestone, but of a nobler material. Chalcedony, agate, 
i arnelian, and red and green jasper are employed ; l and although a 
modification of the Egyptian winged disk and certain other Egyptian 
symbols and devices are retained, the work and feeling are no longer 
Egyptian. The lions, antelopes, and bulls so often found in Assyrian 
sculptures now become the favourite subjects of representation, and some- 
times, although rarely, seals occur in the cone form so common in Persia. 
The Phoenician prince now appears like the Assyrian king, struggling 
with monsters, or contending with a lion ; but as a rule, unlike the more 
civilised and dignified Assyrian, he is naked above the waist. It was 
during the prevalence of this style of art that Phoenician inscriptions 
were cut, and spite of the introduction of foreign devices the Phoenician 
individuality is more strongly marked in this than in either of the other 
styles already alluded to. The work itself, moreover, is less conventional 
and more free, and the devices cut upon the stones are often executed 
with great spirit and vigour. Towards the close of this style, and when I 
suppose Greek influence was beginning largely to exert itself, the fond- 
ness for the use of hard and precious stones becomes remarkable, not only 
for seals and scarabs, but for beads, ear-drops, pendants, brooches, and 
other personal ornaments, which were executed in earnelian and beautiful 
banded agates of various colours. The chief seat of this beautiful 
manufacture was, I am inclined to think, at Antaradus, now Tartus, the 
Tortosa of the < Irusaders, or at the neighbouring Marath (Umrit). 

Willi these brief preliminary remarks, I proceed to describe some of 
the amulets and scarabs which I have collected on the Syrian coast, and 

1 It is a question which deserves investigation, whether the green jasper 
scarabs of Sardinia were fabricated in that island, or imported from Phoenicia. 












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MOKE NOTES ON PHOENICIAN GEMS AND AMULETS. 47 

which seem to illustrate the various styles of art practised in Phoenicia, 
or which from peculiarity of form, or some other reason, appear to be 
particularly worthy of notice. 

1. Perforated amulet of white steatite, formerly glazed. On it a 
goddess, probably Isis or Astoreth (Venus), in the form of the Egyptian 
deity, crowned with the pschent, and seated on a throne. In front of her 
head is a small tablet with hieroglyphs ; behind and before the throne are 
uraei. The background behind the figure is filled up with the stalks ami 
buds of the papyrus rush, the whole device being within a hatched square 
border. 1 

fit. The reverse side of this amulet is divided into two compartments, 
in the uppermost of which are three seated figures turned to the right, in 
the lower a scarab between two ursei. This amulet is of very fine work r 
and is Egyptian in its style of ornamentation, but Egyptian with a 
difference. The openwork, zigzag ornament at the two sides of the 
tablet is wholly unlike anything Egyptian, and is rather suggestive of the 
conventional Phoenician manner of representing the waves of the sea. It 
was found at Jerusalem, but is probably the work of the school of Marath, 
(See Plate. Fig. 1.) 

2. Perforated amulet of yellowish steatite, with remains of green 
glaze. On it a goddess, probably Astoreth, Astarte, or Venus, crowned 
with the horns of the moon, and seated on a throne. A small tablet with 
illegible hieroglyphs in front of the head. The field behind the figure is 
filled up with palm branches, emblematic of Phoenicia, or of Astoreth, as 
" a Fruitful Tree." 

$. A cross formed by interlacing lines, with a ura?us at each angle, 
within a square border. This beautiful amulet, like the last, is of very 
fine work, and its style of art is very Egyptian. It was found at Umrlt. 

3. Small oblong amulet of whitish steatite. On it the Symbolic Eye, 
supported on the legs and tail of a vulture or hawk. 

I}. The name Ra-men-lca twice repeated, with other hieroglyphs 
between them. Found at Umrlt. (See Plate. Fig. 2.) 

4. Oblong, perforated amulet of whitish steatite. On it a cynocephalus T 
emblem in the Egyptian mythology of the lunar gods- Thoth and Khons 
seated on a basket with a feather in front. On the right a cartouche with 
the royal name Ra-men-ka-neb. 

B>. A hawk-headed, winged, seated sphynx, in front of which is the 
cartamche of Ita-men-kheper, perhaps Thothmes III. Egyptian style. 
Found at Umrit. (See Plate. Fig. 3.) This amulet and the last have 
three holes drilled through them, and are manifestly parts of an orna- 
mental collar. 

5. Brown limestone seal, the upper part in the form of a hedgehog. 
On it, human-headed sphinx standing, with ankh in front ; above, a vulture 

1 The papyrus, which lias disappeared from Egypt, still exists, it will be 
remembered, in Syria, at the Lake of Huleb, and at Ain-et-tin on the Sea of 
Grab lee. 



48 MORE NOTES ON PHOENICIAN GEMS AND AMULETS. 

and illegible hieroglyphs ; below, symbol neb, signifying lord. Egyptian 
style. Found at Ascalon. 

6. Conical seal of yellowish steatite. On it, floral cross with lotuses (?) 
of Egyptian form at the angles, within a circular Phoenician border. 

On two sides of the cone is the same device repeated, viz., a scorpion, 
a line of four dots, and two Egyptian symbols of men. On the third side 
is a male figure on horseback, and on the fourth two standing figures in 
Egyptian tunics. This seal, so far as I know, is unique in form and 
execution, and deserves close study, as combining in a remarkable degree 
the characteristics of Egyptian and Phoenician art. It was found at 
Ilamleh, near Jaffa. (See Plate. Fig. 4.) 

7. Amulet of hard, close-grained, black stone. It is in the form of two 
male figures wearing conical head-dresses, seated in front of each other, 
kissing, and grasping each other's hands. It may be conjectured that this 
subject may represent the making of an agreement or the confirming of 
an oath. Found at Beirut. (See Plate. Fig. 5.) 

A somewhat similar device occurs,. as a hieroglyph upon an inscribed 
Hittite monument, found at Jerabis (Carchemish). 1 

8. Amulet of the same black stone as the last. It is perforated for 
suspension. This curious object represents a male bearded head of Phoe- 
nician type, and behind it on the other side of the central orifice is a well- 
made scarahaeus. It is so arranged that the profile of the face and half the 
scarab are seen upon either side. Found at Beirut. (See Plate. Fig. 6.) 

9. Seal of black limestone. The handle is in the form of a bird, pro- 
bably an eagle. The intaglio represents a lion with a cruciform ornament 
under his four paws. An inscription on one of the quadrangular sides of 
the base seems to be Cufic or early Arabic, and consequently of later date 
than the seal, which is believed to be of unique form. Found in the 
Ilauran. (See Plate. Fig. 10.) 

10. Amulet of haematite in the form of a bull's head. The eyes were 
probably originally inlaid with some other substance. The bull was a 
favourite Phoenician device, and a bull's head is a Hittite hieroglyph or 
emblem. This relic, which was found at Jerusalem, is of very archaic 
wi >rk, and seems also to have served as a weight, for, allowance made for 
the portion broken off, Mr. W. Flinders Petrie finds that it weighs five 
shekels. (See Plate. .Fig. 7.) 

11. Haematite scarabseus, of archaic work. On it, a lion attacking a bull ; 
behind, a serpent ; under the bull a bull's head. Professor Sayce, writing 
on this scarab, says : " It is most interesting ; the device reminds one of the 
lentoid gems, but underneath one of the animals is a Hittite hieroglyph, the 
ox-head ; Hie appearance of the serpent is also most curious and new." It 
is of very spirited execution. From Beirut. (See Plate. Fig. !).) 

12. Scarabseoid of a hard, pale green stone, perhaps jasper. On it, a 
lion passant to the right; above, a bird resembling a duck. In front, a 
solar disk (?) and another symbol, winch, with one behind the tail, a kind 

1 "Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch ," Vol. VII, Part 3. 



MORE NOTES ON PHOENICIAN GEMS AND AM ['LETS. 4'.) 

of double chevron, appear to be Egyptian in character. The work seems 
to be very archaic. Found at Beirut. (See Plate. Fig. 8.) 

13. Imperforate scarabseoid of red carnelian. On it the symbol ank/t, 
on either side of which is a urseus. Below, winged disk and scarab with 
expanded wings. The body of the scarab is enclosed within an oval, and 
is surmouuted by a symbolic eye. Pure Phoenician work. Found at 
Beirftt. (See Plate. Fig. 13.) 

14. Black limestone scarab. On it, an ornament composed of seven 
dots, forming a six-pointed star, and perhaps representing the seven stars 
often found engraved on cylinders, on either side of which, but divided off 
from it by double lines, a urseus. Below, the cone-altar of Astoreth, sur- 
mounted by a solar disk, to which is attached two wings, between two 
winged animals, whose character it is difficult to determine. Beneath, 
again, what is perhaps meant for a row of five stones, possibly represent- 
ing a circle which stood around the altar (cf. Herodotus III, 8). At the 
base of the subject is the conventional Phoenician representation of water 
by a kind of chevron, intended for the waves of the sea. Ci pro-Phoenician 
work, but found on the coast of Syria. (See Plate. Fig. 11.) 

15. Pierced scaraba?oid of dark, reddish chalcedony or sard. On it a 
winged deity, crowned with conical Assyrian head-dress, but nude above 
the waist, holding a lion by the hind legs. Assyro-Phcenician work. 
Found near Konia, in Asia Minor. (See Plate. Fig. 12.) 

16. Scarabseus of light brown, semi-transparent chalcedony. On it the 
favourite late Egyptian device of Horus (Harpocrates), crowned with disk 
and urseus and holding a flail, sitting upon a lotus flower. On either side 
is a female deity with expanded wings, at the ends of which are curved 
objects difficult to explain. Above, disk with wings. Below, Egyptian 
symbol nub, gold. Very fine late Phoenician work. Found in the Lebanon 
uear Beirut. (See Plate. Fig. 16.) 

17. Scarabseus of green jade. On it a spotted vulture preying on a 
serpent ; above, partly broken, a winged and draped figure, naked to the 
waist, holding the bird with the left hand. Very curious ; archaic work 
Assyro-Phcenician work. Found at Beirut. (See Plate. Fig. 15.) 

18. Scarab of red carnelian. On it, double meander or spiral pattern. 
Found at Beirut. I possess a scarab with a similar device found at Safed. 
Precisely the same pattern occurs upon an altar found in the Phoenician 
Temple of Hagiar Kim in Malta, and now preserved in the Public Library 
of Valletta. It is engraved by Perrot and Chipiez in "History of Art in 
Phoenicia," Vol. I, p.. 314. (See Plate. Fig. .19.) 

19. Chalcedony cone seal of Persian form. On it the horned moon, a 
star or planet, and a palm branch or fruitful tree, all emblems of Astoreth 
or Venus. As/doroth-Kamaim, i.e., Astoroth of the two h on is, is spoken of 
in Gen. xiv, 5. From Beiiut. 

20. Pierced scarabaeoid of burnt cornelian (?). On it, at the top an 
arrow-headed character, with, apparently, a rude animal upon cither side. 
Below, successively, a line, a row of arrow-headed letters, another line, 
two rows of similar characters, a third line, and a fourth row of letters. 

E 



50 :THE VALLEY ZEPHATHAH AT MARESHAH. 

The characters are well formed, but the inscription is illegible and perhaps 
cabalistic. This rare and curious gem was found at Samaria. (See 
Plate. Fig. 14.) 

21. Seal of white opaque .stone, with pierced handle. On it a seated 
antelope, emblem of Astoreth ; above, a lion passant; in front, a palm 
branch, emblem of Phoenicia or Astoreth. This form of seal is highly 
characteristic of Phoenicia, and so far as I know is confined to that country. 
I had formerly several seals of this form found at various parts of the 
coast, in a collection of Phoenician antiquities, which, being rejected by the 
authorities of the British Museum, is now unfortunately dispersed. The 
present specimen was found at Tartus (Antaradus). (See Plate. Fig. 17.) 

22. Carnelian gem, cut down. On it a uraeus, crowned with disk and 
perhaps horns, with four expanded wings, and an inscription of three 
Phoenician letters, another probably being cut away. The letters are 
L "to" or "belonging to ;" B ; then a lost letter, and finally N. It is 
probably a personal name. The letters are blundered in the plate. Fine 
Phoenician work. (See Plate. Fig. 18.) 

23. Spindle whorl of brown limestone, resembling some of those found 
at Hissarlik by Dr. Schlieman. Upon its concave side are engraved four 
Phcenician letters, and an object resembling a serpent. Professor Sayce 
considers this whorl to belong to the seventh century B.C., and, as it was 
found at Jerusalem, thinks it may be Israelitish rather than Phcenician. 
The letters read n2pttf> l> -> SH-Q-TS-KH. 

Mr. F. Flinders Petrie, after observing that the characters 



#K? 



w 



closely resemble those on the Moabite Stone, remarks : "The words suggest 
a connection with p^j, hair-cloth, and pf!£> white and shining, perhaps 
showing that it belonged to a spindle for fine white goats' hair or wool. 
The wavy line on it may represent a thread and not a serpent. as seems at 
tirst sight." Found at Jerusalem. Weight, 39 grs. 

The illustration (See Plate. Fig. 20) is unfortunately so blundered 
that little idea can be obtained of the inscription. 

24. Imperforate scarabseoid of brown opaque stone. On it, male figure 
with his hands raised in supplication between two ursei. Phcenician work. 
From Damascus, 



THE VALLEY ZEPHATHAH AT MARESHAH. 

(2Chron. xiv, 10.) 

Tfik satisfaction and pleasure which we derive from the identification of 
names of Scripture places is often enhanced when a text or a passage in 
which the name occurs, becomes thereby more clear and intelligible. 



THE VALLEY ZEPHATIIAII AT MARESHAH. 5] 

Yet these results can and must in some cases be obtained by other means 
than identification. Proper names are sometimes found in the English 
Bible which are only transliterations of common words in the original ; 
whilst terms which are intended in the original to be names, are trans- 
lated as common words. Instances of the hrst kind of these mistakes 
are Isaiah xv, 2, "Bajith" (the temple), and Genesis x, 11, "the city 
Rehoboth " (the streets of the city). As for the instances of the second 
kind, readers of the Revised Version will remember Genesis vi, 4, "giants" 
having, rightly or wrongly, become Nephilim ; Leviticus xvi, 8, "scape- 
goat " being turned into Azazel ; besides several passages in which 
" destruction " gives place to Abaddon, and u groves " to Asherim or 
Asheroth, &c. By such corrections, especially if they are also better 
translations of old mistakes, difficulties may be cleared up, or passages be 
made s