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'WKi 



T, ■ I > " rr 







THE J. PAUL GETTY MUSEUM LIBRARY 



PALESTINE 
EXPLORATION FUND. 



Patron— THE KING. 



Oua rte rly St a te inent 



FOR 1901 



3^ 




LONDON: 

PUBLISHED AT THE POUND'S OFFICE, 
38, CONDUIT STREET, W. 



• •• • •» • • • 



lOKDON : 

TIARhrsON Ayr* POXS. PHTXXEnS TX ORDTNAHT TO niS MAJESTY, 

ST. MAKTIX'S LANE. 



-^HF J PAUL GETTY CENTER 
LIBRARY 



INDEX 

TO 

NAMES OF THE AUTHORS AND OF THE PAPEfiS 
CONTRIBUTED BY THEM. 



Baldensperger, P. J., Esq. — PAaE 

Woman in the East .. 66,167,252 

Bliss, F. J.— 

"Notes oil t\w Jammrj Quarterly iitatemeHt .. .. .. 307 

Cady, Et'v. Putnam — 

Exploration of tlio VVady Mdjib from the Dead Sea .. .. 44 

Note on the same by Sir Charles Wilson, K.C.B. . . . . 49 

Conder, Colonel C. R., R.E.— 

Note on Greek Inscriptions from Sandahaunah . . . . 59 

Jar-handle Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 

Note on Dolmens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 

The Site of Calvary 409 

Cre, Pere Leon — 

Discovery at the Pool Bethesda . . . . . . . . . . 163 

Dickson, John, Esq., H.B.M. Consul — 

A Eecently-diseovered Mosaic at Jerusalem .. .. .. 233 

Gunneau, Professor Clermont-, LL.D. — 

Greek Inscriptions from Tell Sandahannah .. ,. .. 54 
Archteological and Epigraphic Notes : — 

1. Seal of the Leper Hospital of St. Lazarus, Jerusalem .. 109 

2. Ehodian, not Jewish Amphora-handles .. .. .. 114 

3. Inscription from the Columbarian es-Siik . . . . . . 116 

4. B Oman Inscriptions on a Jerusalem Aqueduct .. .. 118 

5. Greek Inscriptions from Beersheba. . .. .. •. 1-2 

6. The Land of Promise, Mapped in Mosaic at Madeba .. 235 

7. The Cufic Inscription in the Basilica of Constantiiie and 

the Destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre by 

the Caliph Ilakem . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 

8. Betomarsea-Maioumas, and " the matter of Peor " . . 369 

9. Hebrew Inscription in Mosaic at Ivefr Keuna . . . . 251, 374 



40519 



IV 



GeU, Rev. Canon — 

The Site of the Holy Sepulchre 

Excui-jiiifi on tlie Resurrection on the Hy])othesis that it took 
place from a Tomb similar in construction to the '' Tombs 
of the Kinps," and in that A'^icinity 

Ilanaucr, Rev. T. E. — 

The Ruin at Khurbet Beit Sawir . . 



PAGE 

299 



413 



305 



Hill, Gray, Esq.— 

The Ruin at Khiirbet Beit Sawir . . 

Macalister, R. A. Stewart, M.A.— 

Es-Suk : Tell Sandiihannah 

Notes on M. Clermont-Ganneau's " Archseolofrical Researches 

in Palestine " . . 
Mosaics from the Mount of Olives 

Aiiipliora-haiidk's with Greek Stamp.s from Tell Sandaliannali 
The Rock-cut Tombs in Wady er-Rababi, Jerusalem . . 1 

The Rock Cuttings of KhTirbct el-'Ain . . 
Tlie Rock-cut Chapel at Beit Leyi 

Tomb-Kohl 

The es-Suk Inscription 

On a Sepulchral Cist nt ar Tell Sandahannah 

On Certain Antiquities in the neiglibourhood of Beit Jibrin 

The Birak esh-Sliinanir 

A Note on West Palestinian Dolmens 

Addenda to tlie List of Rliodian Stamped Jar-handles from 

Tell Sandahannah 
The Nicophorieh Tomb 

MacColl, Rev. Canon — 

The Site of Golgotha and the Holy Sepulchre . . 

Masterman, Dr. E. W. Gurney — 

The Ruin at Khurbet Beit Sawir . . 

Murray, Rev. A. S., LL.D. 

Note on Greek Inscriptions from Sandahannah . . . . . . 59 

Nies, Rev. James B., Pli.l).- 

Notes on a Cros? Jordan Trip made October 23rd to November 

7th, 1899 362 

Offord, Joseph, M.S.B.A.— 

Note on the Winged Figures upon the Jar-handles discovered 

by Dr. Bliss 64 

Rouse, W. H. D., Esq.— 

Note on Greek Inscriptions from Sandahannah .. .. .. 60 

Schick, Dr. Conrad — 

Ancient CJiurches in the Muristan .. .. .. .. •'^1 

Kubeibeli (Emmaus) .. .. •• •• •■ . 165 

A Recently Discovered Mosaic at Jerusalem . . . . . . 233 

Hill of " Jeremiah's Grotto," called by General Gordon 

"Skull Hill" .. * 402 



407 

11 

19 
24 

25, 121. 

45, 215 
159 
226 
280 
230 
231 
390 
391 
394 

394 
397 

273 
305 



Segnll, Ilov. Joseph — * page 

A Druze Talisman .. .. .. .. .. .. ., 4.0G 

Smith, Profossor Goorge Adam — 

Notes of a Joiirnev throiigli Haiiran, witli Inscriptions Found 

by the Way 310 

Vincent, Father — 

The Tombs of (lie Prophets at Jerusalem .. .. ., SOO 

Wallis, W. Clarlson, E.-q.— 

Note on the lligli Place at Petra 65 

Watson, Colonel C. M., C.M.G.— 

The Measurement of Eggs .. ,. .. .. .. ,, 203 

Wilson, Major-General Sir Charles, K.C.E., F.R.S., E.E.— 

Notices of Foreign Publications . . . . . , 91, 205, 308, 419 

Wright, Professor Theodore F., Ph.D.— 

Jar-handle Inscriptions ., .. .. .. .. .. GO 

Jar-hiindle Stamp at Cambridge, U.S.A. . . . . . . . . 250 

A Crusading Ir.scription ,. .. ,, .. ., .. 407 

Zeller, Rev. John — 

The Bcdawm 185 



a 2 



VI 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIOXS. 



To.\er of David, with the New Carriage Entrance beside the Jaffa Gate 

and the Recently-ereetod Drinking Fountain 
Plan of es-Suk, 'iell Sandlmnnali . . 
Sections of cs-Siik, Tell Sanduliunnah 
Inscriptions, Greek, _&c. . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 

Cross . . 

Mosaics from the Mount of Olives . . 

Callirrhoe River (Wady Zerka Ma'ahi) entering the Dead Sea, showiu 

Trees Growing in the Sea 
Mouth of the Eiver Arnon (Wady MOjib) 
Boat and Baggagi^ on Camel 
Eastern Shore of the Dead Sea 
Plan of Church of Sta. Maria Major in Muristan 
Section of Church of Sta. Maria Major in Muristan 
Inscriptions (Greek), to Illustrate M. Ganneau's Paper 
Greek Stamps on Jsir-handles 
Coin with Figure of Six Wings 
Seal of the Leper Hospital . . 
Plan Showing Postern in North Wall of Jerusale.n, and Position of 

Ilaret el-Birket . . 
Ehodiau Jar-iiandlfS. . .. ,. .. .. 

Greek Inscriptions from the Columbarium es-Suk 
Tell Saiidalranr.ah Excavations : Seals from Greek Amphora-handles 
Khodian Stamped Amphora . . 

Plms of Ruck-cut Tombs in Wady er-Rababi 
Discovery of the Pool Bethesda 
Plan of Churcli at Kubeibch 
Plan of Kubeibeh and Neighbourhood 
Plans and Sections of Tombs iu Wady cr-Rababi 
Rock-cut Chapel at Beit Lcyi 
Sepulchral Cist near Tell Sandahauiiah . . 
Mosaic Recently Discovered at Jerusalem. . 
Plan .Showing Position of Same 
Hebrew Inscription iu Mosaic at Kefr Keuna 
I)r. Schick's Plan of Ancient Jerusalem 

Dr. Rosen's Plan Showing Limits of Debris North of Jerusalcui 
Ruin at Kh. Beit Sawir 
Tombs of the Propliets 
Sections of the Same . . 



19, 



PAGE 

1 
10 

13 
20 
21 
24 



44 
44 
47 
47 
50 
53 
54,56 
62 
64 
109 



14 



113 
115 
116 
125 
144 
157 
164 
165 
166 
210-225 
227 
232 
233 
234 
251 
294 
300 
306 
311 
314 



vu 



Tlie late Sir WaltLT r.i'saiit 

Falls at. Tell osh-ShiiiaU 

Mouuineut of Sety 1 at Toll osli-Sliiliab .. 

luiljrussion of Cylinder Soul 

Greek Inseriptioii in Wall al 'tell el-'Ash'ary 

Altar at Tell el-'Aslrary 

Remains of Walls on Toll el-'Ash'ary . . 

Lower Line of Rouglily-lievvn Banall. Stones on 

G-reek Inseription at Sheikh Miskin 

Inseription on Roman Milestone near Yajuz 

Grailiti in Caves under " a Tell " . . 

Plan of Ancient Chureli at Kefr Keiina . . 

Stono in Wall near Tell Sandahaniiah 

" Standard or Flag of the Partridges " 

Plan and Section of Tomb on Nicophorieh 

Sarcophagi in Tomb on Nicophorieh 

Section of Groiuul between the City Wall an 

Grotto" 

A Druze Talisman . . 
Crusading Inscription 
Plan of " Tombs of the Kings " , . 



Tell el- 



Ash'a 



Hill 



of "Ju 



■emiul 



PAGE 
31'J 
315 

317 
350 
3.J3 
351 
356 
357 
3G1 
3G5 
367 
387 
391 
394 
100 
401 

405 
406 
408 
414 



Vlll 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Abu Ghosh, Benedictines at, 210. 

Anicrii-an School of Research, 5. 

Amphora Handles with Greek Stamps, 
25-43, 125-143. 395. 

Ancient Churches in the Muristan, 
51. 

Annual Meetin-;, ;J24. 

Antiquities near Beit Jibi'ln, 39U. 

Aqueduct from the Virgin's Fountain, 
321. 

Aqueduct near the Nablus Road, 3. 

Aqueduct, Solomon's Pools to Jerusa- 
lem, Repair of, 319. 

Archteolotrical and Epigraphic Notes 
on Palestine.— 1. Seal of the 
Crusading Period, from the Leper 
Hospital, 109 ; 2. Rhodian, and 
not Jewish, Amphora Handles, 11-4 ; 
3. Inscri]Mion from the Colum- 
barium at es-Suk, 110 ; 4. Roman 
Inscriptions on a Jerusalem Aque- 
duct, 118 ; 5. A Greek Inscription 
from Beershebit, 122 ; 6. The Land 
of Promise mapped in Mosaic at 
Madeba, 235 ; 7. The CuQc Inscrip- 
tion in the Basilica of Constantine. 
24fi ; 8. Betomarsca-Maioumas, and 
" the Matter of Peor," 369 ; 9. Tht' 
Hebrew Mosaic of Kefr Kenna, 
374. 
Armenian Convent, Antiquities in, 2. 

Baalbec, Excavations at, 4. 

Balance Sheet and Treasurer's State- 
ment, lOfi. 

Bedawin, The. — Bedawni illustrating; 
the Bible, closely connected with 
the Jews, Antiquity of their Lan- 
guage, 185 ; Probably came from 
Mesopotamia, 186 ; Antiquity of 
Nomad Life, its Privations, 187 ; 
The Camel, their Old Fame as 
"Warrior and Poets, 188 ; The 
Desert, its Character and Influence, 



190; Samoom,191; Principal Plants 
of the Desert, 192 ; Principal Tribes 
in Sviia, Manner of Travelling and 
F.ucamping, 193; The Tent, 194; 
Tent Life, Diet, 195 ; Religion, 
196 ; Fatalism, Morals, 197 ; War- 
fare, Stealing Expeditions, 198 ; 
How the Bedawin Cheat their 
Creditors, 199 ; Samples of Honesty, 
202. 

Beersheba, Government Building at, 4. 

Betlilehem, Crvpt under tjie Basilica, 
100. 

Birak esh-Shinanir, 391. 

Carriage Road, Jerusalem to Nilblus, 2. 
Casts of the Objects found in the 

Excavations, 98. 
Caves near Beit Jibrin, 162. 
Census of the Ottoman Empire, 99. 
Chapel, Rock-cut, at Beit Leyi, 226. 
Clock Towers in Galilee, 99. 
Crusading Inscription, 407. 

Dead Sea, Currents in, 102. 

Dead Sea Observations, 4. 

Deir el-Arb'ain, 100. 

Dcir ez-Zeitun, Vault near, 100. 

Dolmens in Western Palestine, 394, 

409. 
Dominican Grounds, Tombs in, 21. 
Druze Talisman, 406. 
Dyeing Business, 101. 

Erloserkirche, 51. 

Errata, 142. 

Es-Suk. -The Cave, 11; Details of 

Galleries, &c , 12-19. 
Excursus on the Resurrection, 413. 

Firman, Application for a New, 98. 

Firman, ICxpiration of, 4. 

Foi-m of Bequest, 9, 106, 318, 323. 



IX 



G-ormiin Post Office in Joru?iiloin, 2. 
German Scliool of Arcli.ToIoKy, C>. 
Golgodin and Mie iloly Sepulelire, 

Tlie Sile of, 273-290, 319. 
Graffili in tlic Staircase to llie Clinpel 

of lleleiKi, v.). 
Greek Inscriptions from 'J'oll Sandn- 

hannnli, 54, 59. 



Haifa, Eiot a(, 2. 

Haxiran and Syrian Expedition, 102. 

lTe1)rew Inscription in Mosaic at Kefr 

Kennii, 251. 
High Place at Petra. Note on, 65. 
Holy Sepiilclire and Golgotha, Tlie 

Site of, 273-299. 
Holj Sepnichre, Site of, 299-305. 



Inscription at es-Rnk, 230. 

In.script ion, Hebrew, at Kefr Kennn. 

251. 
Inscri])tions on Jar-lnindles, 60-64. 



Jaffa Gate, New Entrance, 1. 
Jeremiah's Grotto, 402. 
Jerusalem, Fountain at, 1. 
Jerusalem, Scarcity of Water at^, 319. 



Kli. el-"'Ain, Passages at, 11. 
Kii. el-'Ain, Eock-cuttings at, 159. 
Kii. Beit Sawir, 305, 407. 
Kubeilieli (Kmmaiis), IfJS, 210. 



Magic Lead Figures, 58. 
Mar Hanna, 52. 
Maria Latina Major, 51. 
Maria Latinn Minor, 51. 
Measurement of Eggs, 203. 
Mosaic at Jerusalem, Recently Dis- 
covered, 233. 
Mosaic at Kefr Kenna, 6. 
Mosaics from the Mounts of Olives, 24. 
Mugliaret Abu Haggein, 159. 
Muristan, Alterations in, 3. 
Museum in Jerusalem, 209. 



Nicophorieh Tomb, 397. 

Notes and News. — New Entrance near 
the Jaffa Gate, 1 ; Antiquities and 
Ancient Church in the Armenian 
Convent, Carriage Road Jerusalem 
to Nablus, German Post Office in 



Jerusalem, Riot at Haifa, 2 ; Altera- 
tions in the Muristan, Ancient 
Aqueduct, near the Nftblus Road, 3 ; 
Now Government Building at Beer- 
sheha. Excavations at Baalbec, 
Expiration of tlie Tell es-Safi 
Firman, Observation of Head Sea 
Levels, 4 ; American School for 
Research, &c., 5 ; German School 
of Archaeology, Di.scovery of Mosaic 
at Kefr Kenna, 6 ; Arrival of 
Duplicates of the Objects Found, 
A]iplication for a New Firman, 9S ; 
Observation of Sea of Tiberias 
Levels, Clock Towers in Galilee, 
Small-pox in Tiberias, Visit of 
Russian Pilgrims, Census of the 
Ottoman Empire, Rainfall at Jeru- 
salem, 99 ; Vault near Heir cz- 
Zeitun, Crypt beneath the Basilica 
at Bethlehem, Imperial Ottoman 
Post at Jericho, Deir cl-Ai-b'ain, 
100; Kh. Beit Sawir, Rainfall in 
Palestine, 319 ; Water Supply for 
Jerusalem, 101, 211; Dyeing busi- 
ness, 101 ; Currents in the Dead 
Sea, Expedition through Syria and 
the Hauran, 102 ; Room set 
apart in Jerusalem for the Objects 
Found in the Excavations, 209 ; 
Rebuilding of a Church at Ku- 
beibeh, 210 ; Benedictines at Abu 
Ghosh, 210 ; Golgotha and the 
Holy Sepulchre, Scarcity of Water 
in Jerusalem, 319 ; the Well Sirah, 
Large Lemons at Tannur, New 
School at Christ Church, 320. 

Notes on a Cross-Jordan Trip in 1899. 
— Haifa to Beisan, Beisan to Umm 
Keis (Gadara), 362; Bella, Jirm 
el-Moz, Roman Road, Milestones, 
Kul'at Rabadh, 363; Ajlun, Ain 
Jenneh, Jerash, Reimiin, es-Salt, 
364 ; Roman Milestones, Yajuz, 
Amman, Hebi'ow Inscription, 365 ; 
Kasr es-Sahel, Gazelles, Kh. Luban, 
a Tell, 366 ; Inscriptions in a Cave, 
367 ; Mashita, 368. 

Notes on a Journey through the 
Hauran. — Gadara to Tell esh- 
Shihilb, 340; Tell esh-Shihab, Dis- 
covery of Monument of Sety 1, 344 ; 
El-Miizeirib. 350 ; Tell el-'Ash'ary, 
351 ; Tell 'Ashtarah, 359. 

Notes on M. Clermont-Ganneau's 
" Archaeological Researches," vol. i, 
19. 

Notes on the January Quarterli/ 
Statement, 307. 



Noticos of Foreifjn Publications. — 
•' Roviw Hihlique," vol. ix, 1900, 
91 ; vol. X, jmrt 1. 1901, 205; 
part 2, 309 ; part 3, 422 ; " Zcit- 
schrift dos Deutsclion Paliistina 
Vereins," vol. xxii, 1899, 92 ; vol. 
xxiii. parts 3 and 4. 205 ; vol. x::iv, 
part 1, 1901; " Mittlunliingen und 
Xadiriolitcn des Deiitschoii Pal. 
Verein?," 1S99-1900. 93 ; " Rccuoil 
d'Archeologic Oricntale," vol. iv, 
1900, 93; vol. iv, parts 9 and 10, 
205; 11-16, 308; parts 17-21, 
422 ; " Excavations at the Sanctuary 
of Nazareth," 94 ; " Le Mont 
Thabor," 20fi; '• Antour de la Mer 
Morte," 206 ; " Flavins Josephus', 
Jiidischer Krieg," 308; "La Mon- 
tague de la Galilee," 308 ; " Palas- 
tinischer Diwan," 419 ; " (Euvres 
Completes de Fl. Joseplie," 421 ; 
" A Byzantine Mosaic at Jeru- 
salem," 423. 



Obiluary.— Death of Her :Majesty 
Qneen Victoria, 96; Mr. H. A. 
Harper, 1 ; Mr. Basil Woodd 
Smith, Rev. H. Falschecr, 98; 
Sir Walter Besant, 207. 



Pool, Bethesda, Discovery at, 163. 



Rainfall at Jernsaleni, 99,211. 

Rainfall at Tiberias, 211. 

Rainfall in Palestine and the new 

Water Supply for Jerusalem, 101, 

319. 
Roman Remains, 159. 
Russian Pilgrims. "N'isit of, 99. 



School at Christ Church, 321. 
Sepulchral Cist. 231. 
Sirah, The Well, 320. 
Site of Calvary, 409. 
Swastika, IGl." 

Taunur, Large Lemons at, 321. 
Tiberias, Observations at, 99. 
Tiberias, Small-pox in, 99. 
Tomb-Kohl, 230. 
Tombs of the Prophets, Inscriptions 

iu, 22, 309. 
Turkisli Post at Jericho, 100. 

Wady 'Arrub, 101, 211. 

Wady M6jib, Exploration of. — Jordan 
to th(! Zerka Ma'ain, 44 ; Pure 
Sulphur, Lumps of Bitumen, 
Streams of Hot Water, Callirrhoe, 
Tlie Arnon, 45 ; Tlie Ascent of the 
Arnon, 46-47 ; Various Experi- 
ences, 48 ; Strong Currents, The 
Oil, Breakers, Barometric Pressure, 
Disappearance of Rujm el-Balir, 49. 

Wady er-Rababi, Rock-cut Tombs 
in, 21, 145-158, 215-226. 

Water Supply for Jerusalem, 101, 211, 
319. 

Woman in the East. — Every-day Life, 
66 ; Training the Children, 75 ; 
Sickness and Death, 79 ; Religion 
and Practice, 84; Concluding Rc- 
markB, 88 ; The Bedawhi Woman, 
167; The Household, 169; The 
Women, 172 ; Marriage, 173 ; 
Legend of Abu Zaid, 177; Every- 
day Life, 252 ; Loading Women, 
256; The Egypt ian Woman, 258; 
General Life, 262 ; The Oip.iji/ .- 
General Description, 268 ; The 
Women, 269; Origin, 272. 



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QUARTKKLY StATKM KN T, JaNI:aI!Y, 1901.] 



THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

We regret to record the death of ^[r. H. A. Harper, who had 
for many years been a member of the Executive Committee 
of the Fund. Mr. Harper was well known by his pictures of 
scenes in the Holy Land, and numerous illustrations to articles 
for books and magazines. His " Illustrated Letters to My 
Children from the Holy Land," " Walks in Palestine," and '' The 
Bible and Modern Discoveries," have had a large circulation. 
The latter is included in the publications of the Fund. 



Dr. Schick has sent the following notes : — 

1. The 1st of September, 1900, was the twenty-fifth annivei'sary 
of the Sultan's accession to the thi'one,and the event was celebrated 
thi'oughout the empire by flags and other decorations, and illumi- 
nations in the evening. Several of the chief towns also erected 
some monument in honour of His j\lajesty and as a remembrance 
of the day. I hear that in Nablus they have put up a clock which 
strikes the hours, and in .laff'a a fountain at the harbour. In 
Jerusalem a fountain has been placed on the space of ground 
created at the Jaffa Gate by filling up the castle ditch, to make a 
wide entrance for the German Emperor two years ago. This 
fimntain is to be supplied with water from cisterns, which will 
be made close by in the ditch. In the meantime, water from Bii- 
Eyub is brought up by the people of Selwan. Coming towards 
the city from the west, one sees this fountain or drinking jdace 
(Sabil) in front of him as a new domed building glittering in gold 
and leaning against the grey walls of the castle. It is round in 

A 



•_J NOTES AND NEWS. 

*y\ptif but belii'i.l a S'igceut is cut off to give room bt'twecn it and 
the cattle 'val- for sv man to fill it with water. Outside are four 
piojocting pillarE of red stone with mouldings, and over them 
the dome '.with' t-tie never-failing gilded crescent. The basin 
containing the water is fujniished with about a dozen taps, and to 
each tap a drinking cup is fixed by a chain. The diameter of the 
buihling is about 8 or 9 feet, and the whole height about 25 feet. 
It is built of red and white stones alternately. 

On the same day the Greek Convent opened their new fountain 
in the Muristan, and the Armenian Convent a movable (me in 
the place before the entrance to their large Convent, which in the 
evening was illuminated with electric light. 

2. "When invited to see some antiquities in the Armenian 
Convent, I made use of the opportunity to see also their library, 
which, to my astonishment, is in an old church, similar to those I 
reported upon in the Quarterly Statement, 1895, p. :^21, and else- 
where. 

3. The carriage road from Jerusalem to Nablus, for such a 
long time designed, is now being actually made. The work began 
about four weeks ago, under the superintendence of an Armenian, 
who has come from Constantinople for the purpose. Some Jerusalem 
Effendis had tried to have the road carried over 'Ain Sinia, but in 
vain, as this village is situated in a deep valley, and the line of the 
new road is to be kept as much as possible on the high ground, 
and as nearly as may be on a level. The work is already done 
between Jerusalem and liireli, whence a branch will be made 
to Ramallah. 

4. In one of my reports I mentioned that a German post-office 
had been established in Jerusalem, and this, as it seems, gave 
occasion for a French office also to be opened, and people speak 
already also of a Russian and an English one. 

5. At Haifa there was recently a dangerous riot. At the 
landing stage made two years ago, near the German colony, for 
the landing of the German Emperor, people are accustomed to 
take sea baths, as the spot is convenient for the purpose. Certain 
hours are appointed for females, and as it happened that young 
men from Haifa assembled there at this time, the Mudir (or 
Governor) of Haifa stationed a sentinel there to send them off. 
But, instead of obeying, they began to beat the soldier, and as he 



IS-QTES AND NEWS. 3 

hiul no eai'tridc^cs for liis guu, and could not dufcml himself, ho 
ran to the nei,<,'hbouriug German Hotel. The mob followed and 
broke the windows with stones, on seeing- which the Germans of 
the colony came out well armed and the mob fled. At the time 
there were in the hotel, as guests, some high Turkish officers, and 
they telegraphed to 'Akka for soldiers, who came after a few 
hours and made many prisoners. An investigation is now being 
made, and it is spread abroad that the Christians are about to kill 
the Moslems ! Others say the affair is owing to the jealousy of 
the French against the Gei^mans. 

6. The Armenian Convent have bought a piece of ground 
north of the north-east corner of the city, or Burj Laklak, and 
intend to make some excavations there. They asked me what 
they would be likely to find. This I could not say, but advised 
them to begin and they would certainly find something. 

7. The Greeks are making great alterations in their part of the 
Muristan, and many ancient remains will be destroyed or buried 
deep under the new buildings. The new plan is east of the 
" CroAvn Prince Frederick Street," already made, from which three 
broad streets will run in a westward direction and be crossed by 
two diagonal streets, the whole forming at the point of intersec- 
tion an open space or square from which the new streets will 
radiate. In the centre of this open space is the recently-made 
fountain alluded to above. 

In disrgfinof for foundations north of the Church of Mar 
Hanna a narrow street, or lane, with steps, was found leading 
past the lower church and further eastward, how far I cannot say. 

8. In making the carriage road to Nablus an ancient aqueduct 
has been discovered, cut in rock 10 feet deep, 2 feet wide at the top, 
and a little narroAver at the bottom. It is roughly worked. The 
lowest part contains fine sand-like earth, over which is common 
red earth without stones, and above this stones of all sorts. It is 
covered by strong flat stones, and was cleared on the top for 
about 30 feet in a direction south and north. It is north of 
Wady al-Joz, at the level 2,555'8 on the Ordnance Survey plan 
iTTooo- It would be interesting to clear it out to some depth and 
ascertain where it comes fi^om. The late Geneial Gordon had 
always the idea that the water of the spring at Birch had once 
been brought to Jerusalem, bringing it iu connection with the 

A 2 



4 NOTES AND NEWS. 

aqueduct from the north, excavated by me some years ago, aud 
laid down in the new edition of the Ordnance Survey map tt-s^o 
aud in Sir C. Warren's Portfolio, Nos. IV and XXXVII, and the 
recently issued reduced Plan of Jerusalem, showing in red recent 
discoveries. On the northern slope of Wad}- al- Joz is to be seen 
on the surface a rock-cutting as if the aqueduct had come out hei'e. 
It is in the line of some cuttings on the southern slope opposite, 
as if these were the continuation of it. If this were so a bridge or 
elevated aqueduct about 70 to 80 feet above the ground would 
have been needed to cross the valley. 



Dr. Bliss writes that a new Kaimakamiyeh (Lieutenant- 
(Jovernorship) has been established at Beersheba. An architect 
proceeded there from Gaza in a carriage, sending men ahead to 
smooth certain rough places on the road. The drive back he 
accomplished in four hours. In building the new Government 
House material from tlie ruins is being utilised. The cai-riage 
road to Xablus is progressing. 



Excavations at Baalbec, under a two years' permit granted to 
the German Emperor, have been going on for three months. At 
present the work is confined to clearing out the debris, which 
stands to a considerable height above the original ground levels 
of the temples. A series of Arab houses has been excavated, 
showing that at one period the walls of the great enclosure Avere 
used to protect a small settlement. 



The Firman for excavations at Tell es-Safi and its neighbour- 
hood having expired at the end of October, Dr. Bliss has prepared 
a general snmuiary of the two years' work, which will be 
published subsequently, and Mr. Macalister has returned to 
England, bringing with him numerous plans and drawings oi 
the objects found. 

Observation of Dead Sea L'cels. — ^fr. Macalister reports as 
follows: — 

" In accordance with the request of the Committee I visited 
Jericho on October 8th, 1900, and on the following day proceeded 
to 'Ain Feshkah. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 5 

"After ii short searcli 1 .succeeded in liiidin*^' a rock which 
combines all the requisite characteristics for selection. It is ji 
boulder standing sheer out of the water to a height of about 
tiU feet, with a smaller rock in front of it that affords convenient 
standing ground for taking ob.servations, but is so situated that 
it does not preyent a plummet or tape-measure being dropped 
perpendicularly to the surface of the water from the mai-k which 
1 caused a stonenuison to make on the face of the rock. 

" This mark is a horizontal line, 8 or 9 inches long, with the 
initials PEF beneath it. The line at the time when it Avas cut 
was exactly 14 feet above the surface of the sea (determined by a 
common tape-measure). Time, 10 a.m., October 9th, 1900. This 
may be taken as the first observation of the contemplated series. 

"The rock in question has the additional advantage of being 
easily found. Southward from 'Ain Feshkah stretches a rank 
growth of reeds along the margin of the sea. This row of reeds 
is interrupted near its southern end by the rock, wliich is the only 
break in the growth. To reach the mark it is necessary to 
scramble round the south end of the rock. 

"Dr. Mastermau, of Jerusalem, accompanied me, and he is 
therefore acquainted with the spot." 



With reference to the projected American School for Oriental 
Study and Research in Palestine, Professor Theodore F. Wright 
sends the following information : — 

" The American School at Jerusalem is foixnded on the same 
basis as the American schools in Athens and Rome. All are 
fostered by the American Institute of Arclia^ology, wliich is a 
large organisation with branches in the larger cities. The 
students Avill be graduates of colleges, and probably also of 
theological seminaries, which have a three-years' course in 
addition to the four years of collegiate instruction. About 
twenty of these seminaries have united in a small annual con- 
tribution, which gives them the privilege of sending a student 
who will receive instruction free. Of course, special students 
will also be admitted. The director will be selected from tlie 
contributing institutions, and will be changed yearly for the 
present. A modest beginning in hired quarters will be made 
as soon as a Firman is obtained, and to this the first director is 
giving his attention. What the school ma}' become by growth 



6 NOTES AND NEWS. 

it is impossible to say. but it is not unlikely that excavation 
Avill be attempted in due time, Americans having been very 
successful in Greece. The prime object is study of the languages 
of the Bible lands, their fauna and flora, and the life of their 
inhabitants, iu order to gain the Oriental point of view foi- 
future studies. If excavation is attempted it will be thorough, 
examining the whole length, breadth, and depth of a Tell, as is 
now being done by Americans in Babylonia with the best results." 



It is understood that also a German School of Archasology 
is about to be established in Jerusalem. 



We understand that the German Palestine Society has 
obtained, through the German Embassy at Constantinople, the 
sanction of the Porte to the completion of the survey of the 
country east of Jordan by Dr. Schumacher, and that the German 
Government have given the Society a grant of 2.5,000 marks 
(£1,250). We congratulate the German Society on their good 
fortune, and wish Dr. Schumacher every success in carrying out 
this important work. 

The Committee are glad to learn from Dr. Bliss that the state 
of his health has very materially improved during the last few 
months, and that he is now better and stronger than at any time 
since the excavations which are just completed were begun. 



M. Clermont-Ganneau has kindly promised to contribute to 
the Quarterly Statement notes on the important discovery of a 
Hebrew inscription in Mosaic at Kefr Kenna, reported in the 
" Comptes rendus des Seances de I'Academie des Inscriptions 
et Belles-lettres," and on the Roman inscription which has been 
found on the " high level " aqueduct near Jerusalem. 



The concluding volume of Professor Ganneau's "Archjeo- 
logical Researches in Jerusalem and its Neighbourhood" has 
been published and issued to subscribers. This completes the set 
of four vols, as advertised under the title " Survey of Palestine." 
There are only six sets left of the first 250 copies of this valuable 
work. Those Avho wish to secure a set at £7 7s. before the 



NOTES AND NEWS. 7 

price is raised should fill up the form and send it to the Secretary 
of the Fund. 

Li order to make up complete sets of the " Quarterly Statement;' 
the Committee tvill he very glad to receive any of the hack numbers. 



Dr. Bliss's detailed account of his three years' work at 
Jerusalem, published as a separate volume, with the title 
" Excavations at Jerusalem, 1894-1897," and copiously illustrated 
with maps and plans, may be procured at the office of the Fund. 
Price to subscribers to the work of the Fund, 8s. Qd., post free. 

The "Flora of Syria, Palestine, and Sinai," by the Rev. 
George E. Post, M.D., Beirut, Syria, containing descriptions of 
all the Phaenogams and Acrogens of the region, and illustrated 
by 441 woodcuts, may be had at the office of the Fund, price 21s. 



The income of the Society from September 2r)th, 1900, to 
IJecember 22nd, 1900, was— from Annual Subscriptions and 
Donations, including Local Societies, £880 9s. Id. ; from 
Lectures, £1 Os. Od. ; from sales of publications, &c., 
£160 Os. 6d. ; total, £1,041 9s. Id. The expenditure during the 
same period was £772 10s. lOd. On December 22nd the balance 
in the Bank was £248 14s. llc^. 



Subscribers in U.S.A. to the work of the Fund will please 
note that they can procure copies of any of the publications from 
the Rev. Professor Theo. F. Wright, Honorary General Secretary 
to the Fund, 42, Quincy Street, Cambridge, Mass. 



J, Sparke Auicry, Esq., has kindly consented to act as Honorary Local 
Secretary for Asliburton in place of the Rev. H. J. Barton Lee, resigned. 

The price of a complete set of the translations published by the Palestine 
Pilgrims' Text Society, in 13 volumes, with general index, bound in cloth, 
is £10 10*. A catalogue describing tlie contents of each volume can be had 
on application to the Secretary, 38 Conduit Street. 

The Museum at the office of the Fund, 38 Conduit Street (a few doors 
from Bond Street), is open to visitors every week-day from 10 o'clock till 5, 
except Satui'days, when it is closed at 2 p.m. 



,S NOTES AND NEWS, 

It may be well to mention that plans and photographs alluded to in the 
reports from Jerusalem and elsewhere cannot all be published, but all are 
preserved in the office of the Fund, where they may be seen by subscribers. 



"Wliile desiring to gire publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement^ the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood that by 
publishing them in the Quarterly Statement they neither sanction nor adopt 
them. 

Tourists are cordially invited to visit the Loan Collection of "Antiques" 
in the Jeeusalem: Association Room of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 
opposite the Tower of David, Jerusalem. Hours : 8 to 12, and 2 to 6. 
Maps of Palestine and Palestine Exploration Fund publications are kept for 
sale. 



Photographs of Dr. Schick's models (1) of the Temple of Solomon, (2) of 
the Herodian Temple, (3) of the Haram Area during the Christian occupation 
of Jerusalem, and (4) of the Haram Area as it is at present, have been received 
at the office of the Fund. Sets of these photographs, with an explanation by 
Dr. Sclxick, can be purchased by applying to the Secretary, 38 Conduit 
Street, W. 

Branch Associations of the Bible Society, all Sunday Schools within 
the Sunday School Institute, the Sunday School Union, and the Wesleyan 
Sunday School Institute, will please observe that by a special Eesolution of the 
Committee they will henceforth be treated as subscribers and be allowed to pur- 
chase the books and maps (by application only to the Secretary) at reduced 
price. 

The Committee will be glad to receive donations of Books to the Library 
of the Fund, which already contains many works of great value relating to 
Palestine and other Bible Lands. A catalogue of Books in the Library will 
be found in the July QuarterU/ Statement, 1893. 



The Coaunittee acknowledge with thanks the following : — 

"Le Mont Thabor, Notices Historiques et Descriptivcs by P. Barnabe, 

O.F.M." From Dr. Conrad Schick. 
" Autour de La Mer Morte." From the Author, Lucien Gautier. 
" Moriali." From the Author, Andrew J. Gregg, A.B., T.C.D. 
" Census of Cuba, 1899." From the War Department, U.S.A. 



For list of authorised lecturers and their subjects write to the Secretary. 



Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly Statement regularly are asked 
to send a note to the Acting Secretary. Great care is taken to forward each 



NOTKS AM.) NKWS. 



number lo those who are entitled to receive it, but changes of addi'ess and 
other causes occasionally give rise to omissions. 



Form ok Bkqukst to thi-; Palkstixk Exploijation Fim-. 
I give to the Palestine Exploration Fund, London, the sum of 



to be applied towards the General Work of the Fund ; and I direct that the 
said sum be paid, free of Legacy Duty, and that the Keceij)t of the Treasurer 
of the Palestine Exploration Fund shall be a sufficient discharge to my 
Executors. 



f Signature_ 

I 
M^itnesses ■{ 



I 



Note. — Three Wifne.^se-t are necessarq in the Uniied States of America , 
Ttvo suffice in Great Britain. 



Platk I. 




11 



REPORTS BY R. A. STEWART MACALISTER, M.A. 



l._"Es-SOh," Tkli. Sandahannah. 

Tm: cave known :is ^'Es-Suk" — the market — has already been 
described in the volumes of the Survey and in Condor's "Tent 
Work " (p. 275 of the smaller edition) ; but hitherto no complete 
set of measured i)lans and elevations of this singular excavation 
has been prepared. 

This columbarium is in character entirely different from the 
other caves of the district. It is true that associated with it 
is a group of chambers of the usual roughly circular type ; but 
there seems to be every probability that this association is 
accidental, and that the cave is to be treated as an independent 
excavation. A reduced plan of these associated chambers is given 
on Plate I, Fig. a. 

The present entrance is through a square hole, about 5 feet 
across and 6 feet deep, which opens into the top of a large 
irregular chamber much blocked with debris. This is about 80 feet 
across. At one side there are ti'aces of rows of niches, showing 
that the chamber has been used as a columbarium. Immediately 
opposite to these niches is the entrance to a narrow creep- 
passage. Though creep-passages are common elswhere in the 
neighbourhood — notably at Khurbet el-'Ain — this is the only' 
existing specimen in the 50 or 60 labyrinthine excavations on 
the slopes of Tell Sandahannah. The passage is o feet acro.ss, 
2 feet 8 inches high, and 33 feet long. A drop of 4 feet leads 
to the level of the floor of a lobby, from which two circular 
chambers open. These are to the left of the end of the passage ; 
to the right there seems to have been an exit, now blocked. 
Of these chambers, the diameter of one is about 19 feet, that 
of the other 15 feet. The latter, which is sunk below the level of 
the floor of the lobby, is appi-oached by a staircase with a parapet, 
now ruined. A shalloAV pit, 7 feet i) inches by 3 feet 7 inches, 
is sunk in the floor, opposite the door. Between these two 
chambers an irregular hole now gives access to the " Sdk " 
itself. 

If oue trifling example be excoplcd, connecting two' chambers ou tlie 
north-ca$t slope. 



12 RErOKTS BY E. A. .STEWAItT MACALISTEl!. 

Tlu' excavation is a long tunnel, with two transepts crossing 
it at regular intervals, the whole being covered with a flat roof. 
The workmanship and accurate setting-out of the entire colum- 
barium are admirable. The walls are in three stages, recessed 
each behind that below it. The lowest stage is a plain plinth ; 
the two upper stages ai'e divided by pilasters into sunk panels, 
each containing rows of loculi for cinerary urns. 

The axis of the tunnel lies practically X.N.W. and S.S.E.; 
the entrances, ancient and nindern, are all at the southern end. 

The original entrance seems to have been at the south end of 
the western wall of the main gallery. It runs inwards for a little 
over 7 feet, bending regularly from a western to a southern direc- 
tion. There are bolt holes in the jambs of the doorway into the 
columbarium. Inward, 7 feet from this doorway, is another, 2 feet 
S inches across and 3 feet 6 inches high, behind which the passage 
runs, always trending upwards, for 6 feet 4 inches, at the end of 
which length it is blocked. There is a small cell, 3 feet 3 inches 
deep, -i feet 3 inches across, and 3 feet 7 inches high, on the east 
side of the passage close to the block. In addition to these 
entrances there is a hole in the ceiling in each of the crossings, 
and one at the southern end, outside the limits of the columbarium, 
and communicating with it by a break in the south wall. 

The loculi are semicircular headed, neatly formed, and carefully 
spaced out. In the northern end panels on each side, middle 
stage, the surface of the panel shows marks of red lines, blocking- 
it into squares to secure correct setting out ; the loculi are cut in 
alternate squares in every second row. Apparently this blocking 
was drawn to obtain a guiding rule in measurement rather than 
foi- mere mechanical assistance, as it does not occur in any other 
panel whose original surface remains unweathered. One of the 
plain squares has a circle marked upon it with a compass : a 
similar circle reappears in two other places in the excavation, as 
though the squai-e in question had been selected as a standard 
and referred to occasionally. Internally the loculi expand slightly 
in width, and their inner end slopes forward. 

Dktails. — A. Main' Gallkrv. — The plinth or bottom stage of 
the walls is almost everywhere covered by debrii^, and is not 
noticed in the section given in the Survey volume. It is 
7 feet G inches in height. The passage, at the plinth stage, is 
4 feet 8^ inches broad. The middle stage is set back 



KEroKTs i;y i;. a. stkwaut .macalistei:. 

Platk II. 



13 




''.I 




KEPOltTS BY i;. A. STEWAKT MACALISTER. 



I foot :) inches behind the plinth, and is 7 feet 4 inches high; 
the top stage is set back 1 foot beliind the middle stnge, and 
is about 7 feet 2 inches high, but the roof is not of uniform 
height tliroughout. The ccM'ling has, almost throughout its 
length, been badly fractured. Throughout the walls have been 
carefully smoothed, apparently Avith wooden combs. 

Length of section of gallei-y north of north transept 

Breadth of north transept 

Length of section of gahory between transepts 

Breadth of south transept 

Length of section of gallery south of south transept 



ft. 


in. 


. 26 


2 


3 


11 


. 24 


11 


. 13 


10 


. 24 


3^ 


. 93 


U 



Total length of main gallery 
There is but one inscrii3tion in the whole columbarium, which 
was found by Dr. Masterman, of Jerusalem, and myself. Under 
almost every one of the loculi, when the original surface of the 
rock survives there are scratches and weather-marks, some of 
which have a tantalisingly graffito-like appearance, but, after 
protracted and careful examinations of these, I was forced to 
abandon the idea that they had any significance. The inscription 
referred to is in the upper right-hand corner of the middle panel 
at the northern end, and runs as follows : — 

Fig. 1. 




A'isl IKAT E 



//^^ / -? J 




^"•" kaAtj coKci Luoi, 

A 



-'/"/ 



\/ 



karct 



m 



IlEPOKTS JIV i;. A. STKWAKT MACALISTEU. 



in 



"I, 1). [or L.] Nikateides think this a beautiful cave." This 
rt'calls tlio " Eg'o Tanuarins vidi et niii-avi " scrawled all over- flio 
Tombs of the Kiii^^s at Luxor. The use as a substantive of 
the feminine of the adjective a-^io'v, in its secondary sense of 
" hollow, concave " (see Liddell and Scott, ed. maj. suh voce) is 
noteworthy. The use of an initial seems also curious ; I am not 
certain whether the point following it be accidental or intentional. 
The loculi are arranged on the following scheme. Throughout, 
the middle stage contains 5 rows in each panel, and the upper 
stage from .3 to 5. The divisions between the panels are 
vertically above one another. In the following scheme the 
inner row of figures represents the panels of the middle, the 
outer row those of the upper stage. The formula " •") of 4 " 
means " 5 rows of 4 loculi " : — 



O O 

^5 >0 



4 of 4 

5 of 3 


4 of 4 4 of 4 

5 of 4 5 of 4 


5 of 4 
5 of 5 


SECTIOX OF GALLERY 
NORTH OF KOBTU TRANSEPT 




?. JO 9 

f JO f 


f JO cj t JO t' 
t JO t t JO t 


9 JO g 
f JO S 



Total 334 



f JO 
8 JO 



f JO S 
f JO C 



t JO s 

t JO S 



8 JO 

f JO 



5 of 4 
5 of 5 


5 of 4 5 of 4 
5 of 4 5 of 4 


5 of 4 
5 of 3 




SECTION OF GALLEtil 
BETWEEN TKAN3E1>TS. 





Total 310 



5 of 4 
r, of 3 


5 of 4 

.5 of 4 


5 of 4 
5 of 4 


[5 of 4] 
5 of 3 


SECTION OF GALLERY 
SOUTU OF SOUTH TRANSEPT. 


8 JO S 

f JO S 


f JO fj 
t JO 2 


f JO S 
f JO 9 


8 JO S 

Lf JO s] 



C< ti 



s,s. 



Total 347 

o, 05 (originally) 

991 



The panels in brackets are those which, owing to the presence 
of entrances, are imperfect. In the end panel the first two loculi 
of the three upper rows are removed ; on the east side the end 
loculi only are left. These lost loculi are included in the total 



IG 



REPOIITS BY IJ. A. STEWAllT MACALISTER. 



•riven above, but not the absent two in each of the upper foui 
rows of the west side, as they probably never had any existence, 
tliis beinp; the position of the original entrance. 

The following' alterations and mutilations have at some time 
been made iu this gallery: — 

(1) Norflwni Section. — Corner pier between gallery and 
ti'ansept, on west side, hacked away. End loculus of second 
row, middle stage, broken into the wall of tran-sept. Square 
hole cut through the space between the first loculi in the third 
and fourth row in the same panel. 

(2) Middle Section. — (An error in setting out, whereby the 
numbers of the loculi in opposite panels do not correspond, will 
be noticed). Deep holes cut between the tirst loculi of rows 4 and 
5, and between the second loculi of the same rows, in the northern 
panel, top row, east side. Top panels on east side much decayed. 
Pier between the first two northern panels on the west side cut 
away along with part of the adjacent loculi of the second panel. 
A long rectangular slot cut away in the top of the southern panel 
in the middle stage on each side, carrying away the tirst two loculi 
in the top row aiid part of the adjoining pier (on the west side 
extending beyond the pier and carrying away the last loculus 
of the next panel). These slots are obviously intended for some 
sort of barrier, but there is no evidence of its purpose. 

(8) Southern Section. — A hole cat through the first loculus, top 
row, eastern side. Set-off below middle stage partly cut away at 
northern end. 

B. Xoiri'H Tr.vnskpt. — The western half is laid out as in the 
main gallery, on the following scheme : — 





5 of 4 


5 of 4 


5 of 4 


5 of 4 




.-) of :i 


.", of 4 


." ol' 4 


.") oi .") 


— "* 










•-r ■— 










I'S 1- 











5: i" 9 

t JO i.' 



i' .l-J C 
!■ .10 S 



1- .1" 
f J" 



V JO s 



Total, 370. 



No othe)' portion of the transepts is similarly laid out. On the 
northern side the second and third loculus of the third row, middle 
stage, outside panel, have been partly run together by the destruc- 
tion of the intermediate block, and a hole is cut through tlie 
western pilaster of the same i)anel. There is a similar hole in tlie 



EEPORTS BY E. A. STEWART MACALISTER. 



17 



opposite piei' to the west. In the face of tlic next pilaster there is 
a shallow depression as though for a barrier, near its top ; there is a 
similar de])rt'ssion in the opposite pilaster. In the end panel, middle 
row, a cupboard has been formed by knocking together the second 
and third loculi of the two upper rows. There is a liolo broken 
through the top of the fourth loculus in the second row. Giaflito- 
like scratching is visible throughout this part of the transept. 

The hole in the ceiling at the crossing is rectangular, not quite 
centered. It was covered with long stones, one of which remains. 

The eastern half has no middle stage except in its end wall ; 
in the middle of the set-off is a step, and there are two rude foot- 
holes below it. The upper stage is corbelled out, not set back, in 
the sides of the transept. On the corbel at the eastern end are 
five marks as though loculi had been blocked out, but never com- 
pleted ; the same feature is to be noticed at the northern side of 
the lower end panel. There is a circle between the second and 
third loculi of the fifth row, third panel, on the north side. On 
the back of the south-west corner pier, lower stage, are more 
marks like loculi blocked out. 

In the plain surface that occupies the place of the two lowest 
stages on the south side are two niches, one round headed and 
8 feet high, with a little round liole in the wall above it; the 
other, west of it, has a pointed top, and is 6 feet in height. ^ The 
only features on the north side are a rough round hole, 10 inches 
in diameter, and a small bridged niche (i.e., a niche with an uncut 
bar of rock running across it) at the piesent level of the ground. 
The breadth of this portion of the transept, behind the corner- 
piers, is 11 feet 1^ inches. Length of western half, 26 feet 1 inch ; 
breadth of main gallery, 4 feet 8^ inches ; length of eastern half, 
27 feet 0| inch. Total length of transept, 57 feet 10 inches. 

The loculi are arranged in the eastern half of this transept on 
the following scheme : — 



5 of 4 


5 of 4 


5 of i 


5 of 4 


o o 


■ 




Total, 210 


t JO 2 


f io 9 


f JO Q 


f P 9 


Total in trausept, 580 



' Tlie heiglits are inferred from the relation between the tops of these 
niches to the set-off between the two lower stoges. But possibly they do not 
extend to the floor of the excavation. 



B 



18 



REPORTS BY R. A. STEWART MACALISTER. 



C. SoCTii Tkansept. — The western half has loculi in the 
upper st;ige of the sides and both stages of the end. In the 
lower portion, north side, six bridged niches have been cut, as 
well as a small niche with a triangular head, 1 foot 4 inches 
across, 2 feet 3 inches high. The bridges of the bridged niche 
are all horizontal. The Avestern panel on the sides is not enclosed 
between pilasters, as the frieze is returned up the pier between 
it and the next panel. Between the two middle panels the 
ceiling drops by a step, on the vertical face of which is a row 
of seven loculi. Under the lower end panel, but not centered, 
is a square niche ; at the right-hand corner is a large niche 
1 foot 9^ inches high, 2 feet 2 inches across, 1 foot deep, with 
a small horizontal bi-idged niche beside it. On the south side 
are four niches irregularly disposed over the surface. There are 
other tool-marks here, but none of any importance. The scheme 
of loculi is : — 



4 of 4 



4 of 4 



5 of 4 



5 of 4 



o o 



Total, 189. 



t JO t 



f JO f 



f- JO S i 



t JO S 



The upper part of the hole through the roof at the crossing 
is built round with large stones. There are no corner piers in 
this transept. 

In the eastern half the loculi are again confined to the upper 
stage. The inner section of this part of the south transept is 
screened off by two large piers ; on the left (northern) pier, 
outer face, is a large square niche, partly broken through ; on 
the face is a small niche for a light (?), and through the inner 
edge a hole is drilled. There are four marks like blocked-out 
loculi on the inner surface. In the opposite pier is a drilled hole 
con*esponding to that just noticed, and above are deep grooves 
appaiently connected with a fastening. 

Length of western half of south transept, 26 feet 8^ inches 
(average) ; width of main gallery, 4 feet 8^ inches ; length of 
eastern half, 20 feet 5 inches to the piers + 8 feet 3 inches 
(average) between the piers and the wall. Total length of south 
transept, 60 feet I inch. This transept is not set out so regularly 
as the rest of the excavation. 



iiKPoirrs i;y i;. a. stewaut macalister. 



19 



TI18 loculi fall into the following scheme : — 



1 5 of 4 


4 of 4 


4 of 4 :J of 4 




f J" 5 




f JO f 


f, JO f, f P 2 



eo 







Total, 146 


Oi 


Total iu transept, 335 



Total number of loculi : 991 + 580 + 335 = 1,906. 



II. — Notes on M. Clermoxt-Ganneau's " Archj;ological 
Reseakciies in Palestine," Vol. I. 

In the course of studying M. Clermont-Ganneau's volume in 
Jeiusalem I have from time to time put together the following 
notes : — 

P. 90, line 15. (?) For " Qi^-OOOS " read " O-^-OOS." 
P. 103. Facsimiles of the graffiti on the south wall of the 
staircase to the Chapel of Helena, prepared from rubbings, are 
here given. The first (Fig. 2) is read by M. Clerraont-Ganneau 

Fig. 2. 





Fig. 3. 



i- 







^' Justinus Veronensis.*' The length of the principal line is 
1 foot 7 inches. The second (Fig. 3) reads Fra. Cristofonis ili 

B 2 



20 



REPORTS BY R. A. STEWART MACALISTER. 



Liica, 1600, with an incomplete inscription and five crosse"? 
above. The length of the principal line is 2 feet 5^ inches. 
On the opposite wall of the staircase, on one of many stones 
diapered over with crosses (near the foot of the stairs), are a 
few Armenian letters. I know nothing of Armenian, but give 
a facsimile (Fig. 4) for what it may be worth. I searched in 

Fig. 4. 




r- O 



_ » 



vain for the graffito reported on tho column of the Virgin's 
Vaults. 

P. 151, line 14. For " bases " real "capitals." The bases of 
these columns are Byzantine capitals derived from those of the 
Corinthian order. The stems are ugly modern (?) twisted shafts, 
without any sort of merit. 

P. 271. The small "doorway cither built of stone or hewn 
out of the rock, with mouldings," is the door of an ordinary rock 
tomb with arcosolia, on the west side of the road leading to the 
" Tombs of the Judges." It is entirely hewn from the rock. 
There is a large and conspicuous cross in the tympanum over 
the door. 

With regard to the tomb figured on this page, I have to 
observe that it is Avell known to me, and that I have often 
visited it. It is the last of the series of tombs immediately by 
the east side of the road lerxdinj; from Jerusalem to the " Tombs 



llErORTS BY IJ. A. STEWART MACALISTKK. 



21 



of the Jud^'CR." I cannot persuade myself that the scarped rock- 
\valls in which tlie present entrance-door is cut, ever enclosed 
fi covered chamber, or that the north and west walls of such a 
< hamber ever had any existence. There are no fractures in the 
existing' rock surfaces denotini;- the positions of former walls or 
roof. It is merely a vestibule, such as is found in so many other 
tombs of this necropolis, formed to give a sufficient surface for 
the formation of the enti-ance-door. Nor can T follow M. Clcrmont- 
Oanneau in calling the trough in the south wall of this vestibule 
;i converted arcosolium. It is only 5 feet long, and thei-efore 
could not have contained a body. It is simply the receiving vat 
of a small olive-press, the pressing vat of which is cut in the top 
of the rock-scarp. The long vertical channel joining the two is a 
curious and, so far as I know, unique feature. The tomb itself 
consisted of two chambers, the outer being a small porch ; but 
the partition has been quarried away, and the whole obscured by 
plaster, nhich has been spread thickly on the wall in order to 
turn the cutting into a cistern. The tomb-chamber contains two 
kokira and two arcosolia. On the right-hand (south) side of the 
doorway, just under the level of the lintel, is a small cross of this 
pattern (Fig. 5). 



Fio. 



y. 




P. 291. Dr. Bliss and I visited this cave, but we found that 
exploration is no longer possible. It has been annexed by tanners, 
and is filled with their apparatus and refuse from their work. 

P. 423. The tombs in the Dominican Grounds, and also one 
or two in the Wady er-Rababi, show a place for ihe head and 
.shoulders of the coipse. A downward step at the end of a kok- 



22 REPORTS BY R. A. STEWART MACALISTER. 

grave, such as tbat figured on p. 424, is also found in the Wady 
er-Rababi. 

P. 508. The " little cones of hard stone " are no doubt 
spindle-whorls. Many of these were found in the e.vcavations. 

P, 511. A miniature lamp, such as that figui'ed on this page, 
exists in the Museum at Jerusalem. There is another in Jerusalem 
in private possession. 

Pp. 345-380. This section, devoted to the " Tombs of the 
Prophets," was to me the most interesting in the whole book, and 
1 compared it carefully with my own observations on the site. 
Unfortunately the plan adopted by the author is not correct ; the 
two galleries ai-e not concentric, but intersecting at the position of 
the second subsidiary chamber. The plan in Murray's Guide 
shows this with sufficient accuracy. The " change of direction," 
of which M. Clermont-Ganneau gives a special diagram (p. 361), is 
in reality the point of intersection between the two galleries. It 
is thus evident that the extra gallery, A, cannot be a completion 
of the circle, as suggested on p. 348. 

The Russians, into whose hands the souterrain lias fallen, have 
renewed tlie plaster and covered it with a hard brown varnish of 
some sort. This has the desired effect of preventing the addition 
of new graffiti, but it also obscures and renders partly illegible the 
delicate ancient inscriptions. No fragments of pottery are now 
to be found in the plaster ; from the description the sherds 
collected by M. Clermont-Ganneau seem to be Roman. 

There are 27 kokim in the main galleries : 16 in the east part 
of the first gallery, five between the snbsidiai'y chambers, one 
between the second chamber and the intersection of the galleries, 
and five in the west part of the second gallery. There is no 
evidence for any additional kokim. The kokim in the second 
subsidiary chamber are correctly given in the plan reproduced 
in the " Archgeological Researches,"' but there is an extra kok 
in the first chamber — wrongly developed in the plan given in 
Murray's Guide into an additional chamber. 

The following are tlie inscriptions as they now exist : — 

1. Cross — not seen. 

2. APR AnC— identified: no cross. 

Between 2 and 3. Illegible inscrijition — not seen. 
3 ANTIOXOC I BOCTPHNOC— identified. 

4, 5. NotliinL'- visible. 



REPORTS BY It. A. STEWART .MACALISTER. 23 

G. ONHCI[ alono visible. Traces of second line effaced by 
varnish. 

7. 1A[ fdono visible. Plastcf restored. No cross. 

8. <|>AU)PIANOC ACT ATOC— identified. I read flie 
antepenultimate letter T, as the horizontal bar is carried behind 
the uprig-ht. 

9. A lars^e A, which looks old, at some height ahove the 
o-vave, alone visible. No cross. 

10. Illegible remains of inscri])tion traceable. 

11. Nothing now visible. Plaster restored, and a graffito 
(to me unintelligible) deeply cut upon it. 

12. Two lines of writing above this grave badly scratched 
i.ud illegible. Probably that read BEI0Y | NIKH, though T 
cannot follow the reading. No inscription between 11 and 12. 

13. Nothing. 

14. A bewildering mass of graffiti, none legible. 

15. 16. Nothing. The "Fl above 15 or 16" not found with 
certainty ; there is something like it above 16. 

(Here is the first subsidiary chamber) 
17-21. Nothing. Crosses scratched here and there. 
(Here is the second subsidiary chamber) 

22. r€AAC I OY— identified. The C is now broken. The 
marks intei-fering with the A have disappeared. 

(Here the passages intersect. The remaining holcim are in the 

second, passage) 

Between 22 and 23. Al A A— identified. The cross-bar in 
the first letter is too faint to be part of the inscription. 

23. (a) AIA<l)OPI— uot seen. (j3) ENGAAE KITE alone 
ti'aceable ; the rtMnainder effaced by varnish. 

24. 0APCI EYGHPI | OYA€IC A0ANATOC— 

identified. 

25. The inscription read 6IPINH identified. To my e^ e it 
looks more like ]HPTYC, but perhaps no two people would 
ngree on any reading. 

26. Nothing. 

27. Large incised cross — identified. 

The inscription ]AU)POC, &c., I could not find. 

There is a peculiar arched recess which I have not seen alluded 
to in any description of the souterrain that I have read. It is on 
the south wall of the second gallery, between the long central 



24 



EEPOUTS BY E. A, STEAVAKT MACALISTER. 



gallery nnd the continuation of the first gallery. An aceurale 
plan of the " Tombs of the Prophets " is still a desideratum. 

It is convenient here to mention the following small points : — 

The mason's mai'k 23-14 occurs on a stone in the upper part 
of the staircase in David's tower. It shows diagonal dressing. 

One step in the staircase of David's tower is formed of the base 
of a small pair of Gothic engaged columns, and shows characteristic 
moulding at the corner. 



HI. — Mosaics from the Mount of Olives. 

The accompanying sketch shows the design of two small 
fragments of mosaic recently found on the top of the Mount 
of dives, or rather of the col connecting it with the summit 







1§1=^^ 



I 




w^ 



Mosaic on (he Mount of OLms ,TirLU5al£tn 



AMl'IIORA HANDLES FROM TKLL SANDAITANNAII. 25 

of Jebel Batn el-Hatva. The fragments are about a foot or so 
uiiclerfroiuul, and are just above the enclosure in Avhicli lies the 
entrance to the " Tombs of the Prophets." 

The first fragment is coloured black on white. The second 
has the following scheme : — Ground, and portions of triangles and 
lozenges not shaded in the diagram, white ; shaded portions of 
triangles and lozenges, blue and purple alternately; dots, also 
border, purple. 



AMPHORA HANDLES, WITH GREEK STAMPS, FROM 
TELL SANDAHANNAH. 

By R. A. Stewart Macalistek, M.A. 

The following tabular list contains the material necessary for a 
discussion of the jar-handles with Greek stamps, recently found at 
Tell Sandahannnh, together with a few (indioated in the catalogue 
by II) from Tell ej-Judeideh. Some were found in the excava- 
tions, but the large majority were picked up on the surface of the 
Tell. The only examples of this type of handles known to me to 
have previously been found in Palestine are two reported in Pro- 
fessor Clermout-Ganneau's " Archaeological Researches," vol. ii, 
and one or two found in the excavations at Jerusalem. 

Without access to catalogues of similar collections from other 
places, it would be impossible to enter into a complete analysis of 
these inscriptions. Indeed, it may be questioned whether such an 
investigation Avould be germane to the purposes of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund, as the connection of these jar-handles with 
Palestine is accidental only. They belonged to jai^s containing 
wine exported from Rhodes to the city now represented by Tell 
Sandahannah, and might just as well have been despatched to, 
and discovered in, any other country with which the Rhodian 
merchants had dealings. A few words therefore are alone 
necessary to explain the principles followed in the catalogue. 

Ou Plate P is shown an almost perfect amphora bearing peals 
on its handles, which fortunately was found in the Tell Sanda- 
hannah excavation. This may be taken as a type of the vessels 
distinguished by these stamps. Plate 11^ gives a selection of the 
most representative seals, showing varieties of devices, types of 

^ See (Quarterly Slatement, April, 1901. 



2G AMPHORA HANDLES, AVITII GREEK STAMPS, 

lettoriiiLj', &c. At the t(-p of the same plate is a scrii s of 
iilpbabets, by aid of which mi approximate representation oF the 
seal can be reconstructed when no drawing has been fuinished; 
the last column in the catalogue gives the necessary reference to the 
alphabet to be selected. It should be noticed that Alphabet VTI 
has no real existence as an alphabet, being composed of abnormal 
forms that occur once or twice only ; and that when alternative 
forms are given for a letter in any alphabet, the first is always to 
be selected unless the second be specified (in this form — tv VII-). 

The following svmbols are affixed to the current numbers : 
*, to denote that the seal indicated was found in duplicate; 
J, Avhen two seals are similar, but not impressed from the same 
stamp — the difference usually lying in varying width of interspaces 
of letters, or such minor points, but no seals have been suppressed 
from the catalogue as being duplicates unless complete identity 
was demonstrated ; t, when an illustration of the seal is given on 
Plate II (reference to the illustration will be found in the last 
column) ; ||, when the seal comes from Tell ej-Judeideh. 

The particulars given of the shape and size of seals will 
enable investigators to identify duplicates in other collections, 
and thereby point conclusions as to the range of the trade of 
Rhodes at different periods. The seals are generally either 
rectangular or oval (sometimes circular^. One (241) is lozenge- 
shaped. The device in the majority of cases is either the rose 
or the Helios-head, both emblematic of Rhodes. When the 
inscription surrounds the device on an oval seal the bottoms of 
the letters are almost always turned towards the device ; when the 
contrary happens to he the case, the words " reading outAvards " 
are added in the sixth column of the catalogue. 

I^o pains have been spared to secure accuracy in the transcripts 
of the inscriptions. The entire series has been examined micro- 
scopically three times over, each letter being considered separately 
in cases of doubt. Restored letters are added in brackets ; when 
a doubt exists as to the reading a query is added. When, by 
measurement or otherwise, the number of letters lost from a lacuna 
can be approximately estimated, the absent characters are indicated 
by a like number of asterisks. Refei'ence to the column headed 
" Condition of Seal " will always determine the reason for the 
existence of a lacuna. Tiie inscriptions are arranged, so far as 
possible, in the aljihibetical order of the proper names they 
contain (1-226). A small class of three, which seem to bear 



Fi;OM TKLL .SANDA1IAN>,'AH. 27 

the names of montlis onlj, followsi (227-229). Of the remaindoi', 
230-293 consist of those which, from the loss of initial ki ters, 
cannot be reduced io alphabetical order; they are given in the 
diminishing^ onU'r of the number of letters remaining or to be 
restored with eortaintj in the inscription; and 291-306 contain 
those added to the hst since the catalogue was drawn up. 

The inscriptions consist invariably of a proper name in the 
genitive case, preceded or not by tW, and usually followed by 
the name of a month. The precise significance of this formula 
is still a matter of contention among specialists. The inscriptions 
an> printed in lines exactly as they appear in the originals ; the 
only alteration I have introduced being the division into words. 

A few special jioints may be noted in individual handles, 
such as the back-to-back arrangement of the letters in 6, 130, 
21-4, the boustrophedon inscription 58, and the inversion of the 
A in 254 : the inversion of the formula (month preceding name) 
in 16, 110, 154, the addition of the word MHXOS in o3 : the 
spelling HATPOMIOY in 60: the specification of the names in 
63, 135, 195, 238, 257, 258 (possibly also 248), as being those 
of " priests " (El I' lEI'EOS, sic, never EHI lEPEQS or E<I)' lEFEOv). 
Epigraphically, perhaps the most interesting detail is the ©-shaped 
theta in 93. Also of interest is the gradual degradation of a blazing 
torch into a <I>-like figure in the seals inscribed 2nKPATE\ i; (see 
Figs. 38, 39, 40, in Plate 11) ; in fact I believe it has actually bten 
read as <|i in the publication of an example of the type of Fig. 40 
found elsewhere, 

A few handles have subsidiary .seals beai'ing a symbol, possibly 
referring to the quality of the wine — this is merely a guess. 
These are shown in Plate II, Figs, 55, 56, 57. These belong 
respectively to Nos. 17, 197, and 217, Fig. 53 is of similar type, 
but is not accompanied by an inscription, and has therefore no 
place in the catalogue. 

' These examples are vatlier doubtful. From the stamps inscribed 
riANAMOT a second line seems to have been intentionally erased — in one, 
faint traces appear in the seal suggesting this. The seal here read 
EIII APTAMITIOT is very badly executed and possibly is to be read thus — 

^ APTAMI 
Tl()\ 

a name being lost in the upper line. On the other hand, it is possible to read 
No. 162 " 2MIN0IOY," the inscription running continuously on an endless 
band, but, as the interspace before the M is longer than the others, I have 
preferred tlie reading given in the catalogue. 



29, 



A:^IPIIOnA HANDLES, WITH GREEK STAMPS, 

* Found in duplicate. 



t Illustrated. 



Ko. Shape of Seal. 



Size of Seal, 

in 
centimetres. 



Condition of Seal. 



Derice. 



I 



1 Rectangular . 



3 
4 

5 
6 

7t 



10 
lit 

12 
13 
14 

15 
16 



xl-5 



Eadly stamped, end broken 
cff. 

End broken off 



X 1 -6 I Cliipped, mucli worn, end 
broken off. 
3-2x1 I Much worn 



3 -9 xl-5 



Perfect 



3 -25 X 1 -5 Badlj stamped 



Oval . . . . 3 -2 X 2 -8 

Kectangular.. 3 -1x1 -4 



Perfect . . 



3 -05 X 1-G5 1 Faint 



X 1 'Go 
3 -5x1 -4 



Badly stamped 
Indistinct 



X 1 -9 End broken off 



Eose 
Ilelios head 

Dotted square 



• • • « 



Cornucopia 



Oval . . 

Eectangular . . 



17 Circular 

18 Rectangular, 



4 -G X 1 -45 
3-25X 

2 -85x2 -6 
4Gxl-3 

2 "75 diam. 
xl-3 



Second line flaked 
Bottom flaked off 



• • * • 



Worn 



Sliglitly disintegrated 

Beginning broken off, middle 
smeared. 



Rose 



Rose 



> A se.il bearing this name has been found at Pergamon. 



FROM TET.L SAND All ANN AIL 



29 



I From similar, but not idonticnl, stamps. 1| From Tell (-j-JiKloidcli. 



Position of Iii'^crip- 

tion relntivoly to 

Device. 



Surrounding 
To right . . 

Inside 



To left 



Surrounding 



Surrounding 



Inscription. 



Elni Af 
] in[P ? 

Eni A[ 
KAP[NEIOT 

AFA * N0E[ 

[AFAGITOA ?]0P02 
nANAMOT 

ArA0OKAET2 ' 

JLOI0N[iWS"I 
ArA0OKAET2 

ArHMONOS 

Eni AFAOT 
MBPOTOT 

ArOPANAKTO 
KAPNEIOT 

aen;;t?]ei[e? 

A0ANO 
AOTOT 

Eni ATf 
2MIC[2' 

Eni A12XINA 
TAK]IN0IOT 

AKTAPn 
N02 

[ ] 

AAANIKOT 

AAAIOT 
AAEHANAPOT 

Eni AAEHIMAXOY AVTAMTOY (sic) 

[E]ni [AA*?] ... 02 

[T]AKIN[0IOT] 



Alpliiibot and 

other l<;pii;;raphic 

Nutes. 



II. 



III. 



Doubtful ; 


read- 


ing utifprt 


ain. 


I, minute 


letter 


ing. 




I ; 0, IV. 




IV. 




See Fig. 1. 




See Fig. 2. 





IV. 



I, large letters. 

N reversed. 
See Fig. 3. 



Ill ; a, i-i, s VII. 

V. 

I, lettering croolied. 

I ; 0, lY. 

T. 

VI. 
I. 



2 Probably 2MIN0IOV : but the letter after I, which is fracture 1, is curved like C, and, 
if N, must have been of peculiar form. 



30 



AMPHORA HANDLES, WITH GREEK STAMPS, 

* roiuul in (liiplitvite. 



t Illustrated. 



No. I Shape of Seal. 



21 



22 



23 



2i 



19 Rectangular 

20t 



Oval 



25 ! Rectangular 

I 

26t Oval .. 

27 1 Rectangular 

28 

29 : 

30 

I 

31t 
32 

33 Oval .. 

34 Uectangular 

35 



Size of Seal, 

in 
centimetres. 



Condition of Seal. 



X 1 '2 I End broken off 
3 "o X 1 '5 Beginning badly stanii^ed 



3 -3 X 1 -2 



3-9x2 

3 -3x2 -7 
3 -6x1 -8 



2-3x 



4 -ex 1-55 



2 -65x1 -8 



3 -4 X 1-2 



Worn and faint 



o'l X 1 -5 Chipped 



Top smeared slightly , 

Smeared and worn 
Badly stamped. . 



2 •9x2-45 Worn .. 
3-2x2 Top line battered 



Bottom badly stamped 



X 1 -5 Begiiming broken off 



End smeared and worn 



Perfect 



Much worn 



Badly stamped 



3 -0x1-55 i Worn 



Device. 



Wreath 



Rose 



Rose 



Helios head 
Rose . . 

• • • • 

t • • • 



FROM TELL SANDAIIANNAH. 



31 



X From siiiiilar, but not idiMitical, stiiinpa. || Fi-din Tr]] ej-Jiidcidcli 



Position of Inscrip- 
tion reliitively to 
Device. 


Inscription. 


Alj)liabet and 

Otlier Epigrapli c 

Notes. 


. . 


AMTN[ 


I ; a II. 


Device in a dovetail 
tag at right, end 
of seal. 


[A]MTNTA 

Eni AN**IAA 
DANAMOT 


See Fig. 4. 
I? 




Eni ANAHANAPOT 

nANAMofr] 

AET[TEPOTJ 


I; SIII, oIV. 


A stroke under MI 
in second line. 


Eni ANAPIA 
APTAMITIOT 


IV; aVlI, £ VI. 


Surrounding 


Eni ANAPONIKOT AAAIOT 


I ; 5 III. 


• • 


[AN© '12 

OAnMor 

2MIN0IOT 


VI ; I. 


Surrounding 


ANTirONOT 


See Plate I. 





[ANTX ?]AP02 
AFPIANIOT 


I; oil. 





AnOAAO 

[ ] 


IV. 




[En] I APATO*A 
NEY2' 


I ; IV. 




EHI APH** 
TIAA * * * 


VI reversed and 
cai-elessly written. 




Em API 

ET*PO 


See Fig. 5. 


To rig lit 


Em API 

MN[A y * * 


I? 


Surrounding 


API2 ###■*#* ivjoT 


I reversed. 





Em API2T* »*** 
[ ] 


I. 




API2T * * 02 
0E2MO<1>OP;OT 


I. 



' A seal with this name has been found in Cjprus. 



32 



AMniORA HANDLES, WITH GREEK STAMPS, 

* Found in duplicate. 



t Illustraled. 



No. 



' Siz3 of Seal, 
Shape of Seal. ' in 

centimetres. 



Condition of Seal. 



36 
37 
33 



Rectangular 



Circular 



39*t Rectangular 



40 



41 



42J 



43: 

44J 

45*1 

46: 

47: 

48t 
•10 



Oval .. 

Reetanfjular 



Oval .. 
Rectansular 



5D:i| Oval .. 

5i: I „ .. 

I 

52 R;>etangular 

53: i Oval .. 

5 1 Roctan^ular 



xl-2 



2 S (Ham. 



Badly stamped . . 

Top and end chipped . . 
Worn and slightly flaked 



3 8 X 1 '5 Worn 

X 1 --lo Worn ; end broken off 



3 1 X 2 -9 
3-5xl-5 
2-7x1 -2 
xl-3 
3 -3x1 -4 
2Sjx 1G 
3-8xlG5 
x31 
4-65x2 

3x2-8 
3x2-8 

4-5x1 -45 

2-55x2-3 

3-8 xl-0 



Much worn 

Perfect . . . . . . 

Worn . . 
End broken off 
Perfect . . 

,, • • . • 

Slightly fractured 
Badly stamped and scaled 
Badly stamped and smeared 

Perfect . . 
Slightly flaked . . 

Badly stamped and worn 

Slightly smeared 
Perfect 



Device. 



Rose 



Stars . . 



Rose 



n 



li.s head 



Rose 



. Star 



FIJOM TKl.I. SAN'nAHANNAir. 

From «\mil«r. but not id?ntir«l. (^tjinijM*. 11 From ToJl ei-.Ti;do;«loli, 






Position of Inforip- 

tion roUtivoly to 

Device. 



Surrounding (resid- 
ing outwards). 



»tK<»r< in t no corners 
of the sc;»l. 



sSurrv^undinj 



Siirroundiug 



Surrounding 



Surrounding 



Insi'ription. 

apict;;a 

APICTA^ 
En j .\ PISTAKOT APTAMITIOT 

A 
AP12TAPXOT ' 

ArPlANTOT 
API2TE£ 

Eni .\P1ST1 * * * * l.i\-»T 2M JNaiOT 

APirTir.Nos 
.\pimr.N'02 

•■VPISTir.NOS 

APimr.NOS 
APimnNos 

.\PI2TinN-02 

Eni [AP12 TOrENEVS HAN AMCT: 

Eni APl^TOj 

TEXEYi 

nANAMOT 

AP12TOK.\Er5 

APirT0K.VET5 

rMBH 



Eni APinx^' 



lNKP 



u: 



llAA nANAMrOTl 



[Em API CT04>ANEVC mhnoc aptamjtiov 



Eni API 

2Tr.N02 
K.\PNE10V 



Alpli.Hhct nn \ 

other Kpicniphio 

Xot<»ji. 



IV reversed. 

IV. 

\ : oU. 

>>,' Ki^ fi. 

IV 

I? 

1. 

1, luinulo letter- 
ing. 
VI. 

I: oTV. 

I. nuiiute letter- 
ing. 
1: olV. 

•NVitf Fig. 8. 

VT esiTvlesslv- exc- 
cuteil. 

T. 
1. 

I; IV, but l*rger. 

^>e Fig. 9. 
II with fini.H's. 



• I do njt understand the A— :^ above and beloir the name. 



31 



AMPHOKA HA^^DLES. WITH CKKKK STAMPS, 

* FouB(l in duplicate. 



t Illustrated. 



No. 


Shape of (Seal. 


Size of Seal, 

in 
centimetres. 


Condition of Seal. ' 


D( 


;vice. 


55 


Oval .. 


2 -Ox 2 -7 


Much v\orn and chipped 


• • 


Rose 


• • • > 


56 


Rectangular. . 


3 45 X 1 -3 


Perfect 


•• 


.. 


. . 


57 


>> 


3 -4x1 -25 





■• 




.. 


58t 


)» * ■ 


3-9,xl-5 


Toji badly stamped 
chipped. 


and 


■ • 


. . 


59 


Oval .. 


3 -35 X 2 -9 


Chipped and llaked 


, . 


Rose 




60 


Rectangular. . 


3 65x1-55 


Worn . . 


•• 






61t 


Oral .. 


3 -25x2 -9 


Perfect 


, , 


Rose 


• • • • 


62 


Rectangular. . 


3-9x1 -5 


Slightly vom . . 


• • 


•• 


• • • • 


63t 


Oval .. 


2-55x2 -25 


Perfect 


* • 


Rose 


• • • • 


64t 


Circular 


2-7 diaoi. 


Fractured and chipped 


•• 


j> 


• • • • 


65 


Rectangular. . 


3-9x1 15 


Perfect . . 


•• 


•• 


.. 


66 


Circular 


2 -8 diam. 


Slightly smeared 


< 


Rose 


• • • • 


67 


)) 


2-5 „ 


Lettering scratched . . 


• • 


Helios 


head 


68t 


Oval .. 


•• 


Badly stamped — fragment 


only 


(?) 


• ♦ • • 


69 


Rectangular. . 


2x1 


Badly stami)ed at end 


•• 


• • 


• • • • 


70t 


» • ■ 


3-7x1 


l""ractured and battered 


• • 


Wreath . . 


7it: 


» 


3 -55 x 1 1 


Worn . . 


• • 


>i 


• • • • 


72J 


») ■ • 


X 1 -55 


Worn, end broken off 


• • 




• • • • 


73 


Oval .. 


3-6x2 -85 


Worn . . 


* • 


Rose 


.. 


74 


}} • • • . 


3 X 2 4 


Much worn, top daked 


•• 


>> 


• • • • 



FUO.M TELI. SANDAIIANNAH. 35 

X From similar, but not identical, stamps. || From Toll cj-Judeidch. 



Position of Inscrip- 




Alphabet and 


tion relatively to 
Device. 


Inscn'ipiion. 


other Kpigraphic 

Notes. 


Surrounding 


["Eni AP]M02IA[A' 


I. 





Eni APM02IAA 


IV with finials ; 




AFPIANIOY 


a V, s I. 




Eni APM02IAA 


IV with finials 




nANAMOT 


a V, s I. 


.. 


Eni A!'PT?]I 

MOT 

YOIAAA 


See Fig. 10. 


Surrounding (read- 


Em AP[XE]MBP *** nANAMOT 


I. 


ing outwards). 






. . 


En[l APlXIAA 


Ill carelessly 




MOT 


written. 




BATPOMIOT 




Surrounding 


Eni APXIAAIAA AIO20TOT 


/See Fig. 12. 





EHI APXIAAIAA 


I; ttIII. 




TAKIN0IOT 




Surrounding 


En' IEPEn2 [A]PXOKPATET2 


See Fig. 18. 


» 


AC^ * * lAA AIO[C]©TOT 


See Fig. 13; note 




<p-\ike d. 





ATTAAOT 


I ; « VII, 11 
[very small in 
comparison with 
other letters]. 


Surrounding 


Eni ATTOKPATET2 0E2M[O*OPIO]T 


VI; evil. 


>> • • 


A<I>02 


I. 


ft • • 


BION (anchor following) 


S'eeFig. 11. • 




Binc 


IV reversed ; t I, 


To left .. 


BPOMIOT 


a. VII. 
I? 


,, 


BPOMIOT 


-See Fig 14. 





BPOMl[OT] 


I. 


Surrounding 


Eni roprnNGS takinoiot 


II. 


)j • • 


AA[MO]K[A]ET2 


I. 



' A seal with this name has been found in Telos. 



G 2 



r.G 



AMl'IIORA HANDLES, Willi CKEEK STAMPS, 

* Found in duplicate. 



;.3fo. I Shape of Seal. 



Size of Seal, 

in 
centimetres. 



"~* 

71': 

M 



x2-8 

2 -85 X 2 -5 

2'8x2-t3 

2 -Ox 2 -8 



Condition of Seal. 



0\:il . . . . ! X 2 -8 AVorn, partly fractured 

Badly stamped. . 
Worn . . 
Badly stamped 
Half broken away 

Rectangular.. 4 7x2 05 1 End worn 



2 -7 X 1 (35 Perfect . 



,v2 Oval .. 

^;; Ili'ftanguiar 

M 
«5t 

■s(; 



ss 

'.•i»t: 
02: 

yat 

94 Ov:il 



3 ax 2 -95 

4 5 X 1 •io 
4-2 X 1-8 

X lo 

xl-3 



Much worn 
Sliglitly iibrudid 
Worn and flaked 
Beginning broken off 

End broken off 



3-2x0 9 Perfect 



3 -7 xl-3 
3 'bo x 

4 -05x1 -7 
5 1 xll5 
3 -8 X 1 • G 

x2-7 



Worn . . 
j Bottom badly stamped 

Sliglitly worn . . 
Worn and battered '. . 
Worn . . 
Perfect 

Half broken nwaj 



+ Illustrated. 



Device. 



Rose 



Rose 



. . Square frame 



Uncertain 

Helios head 
Anchor . . 



Rose 



rUD.M TKI.L SAMtAIIANNAlI. 






X From similar, but not ideiitioal, stamps. '' From Tell cj-JiHli'.i'rli. 



I'ositioii of Iiiscrip- 

tidii relatively to 

l)e\ivc. 



Surronndiii'i 



Siirroiiiuliug (read- 
ing outward). 



Inside 



To right 

To lel'l 
Above 



Sunounding 



luscription. 

[Eni] AAMOKAETS APTAMJTIOT] 

AAMOKPATET2 

AAMOKPATEr2 

AAMOKPATET2 

A[AMOKPATE]T5 

Eni AAMOKPA 

TET2 

2MIN0I[OT] 

Eni AA 
NM0N02 

AA20*IAOT 

AIOAOTOT 

AIOKA[H2j 

AIOKAH2 

APTAMI 

AIOK[AH2l 
2iMINL0IOTj 

AIOT 



AIO*ANTOT 

AI2KOT 

[ J 

AI2KOT 

APAKONTIAA 

APAKONTIAA 

AP-POOEOT 



AA r- 

EN ANf 



Alpliabi'L and 

Other Kpigraplii-e 

^Notes. 



I. 

I; TV. 

I. 

T ; o 1 V. 

I. 

VlJl. 



V; /istraigld.st.lcd, 
horizontal bur.-ot 
s diverjring. , 

III; si. 

IV; 5 VII.. , . 
V. 

See Fig. 15. 

Similar to ?^C^. . 

I ; right b:ir of 5 
projects as in 
A'li, but M 
straight ami 

finialled. 

[carelessly written. 

IV; sIV-'. 

See Fig. r>j. 

See Fig. Hi. 

Similar to JU . 

See Fiir. 17 : note 
<^-shaped 9. 

VI. 



:J8 



AMPHORA HANDLES, WITH GREEK STAMPS, 



* Found in duplicate. 



t Illustrated. 



No. 



I Size of Seal, 
Shape of Seal, i in 

I centimetres. 



95 j Rectangular . 
56 i „ , 

07 



9s*n 

100 



»- 



101 Oval .. 



102t Circular 



103 1 Oval .. 

104 I Rectangular 



Oral ., 



105t 
106tl 
407 
108 

109 



not 

111 Oval 
112 



Rectangular 



Condition of Seal. 



1 7 X 7 Perfect . . 

2 G X 12 Badlj stamped. 

4 "1 X 1 oo Perfect . . 



3 8x1 -75 i 



4-4xl-7 



2 -7x2 -5 



2 'So diam. 



2-75x1 -7 

3 -05x2 -6 

3 -4 X 2 -9 

3x2-7 

3x1-7 

x2-5 

xl-65 
3-2x2-9 
x2-55 



Very badly stamped 



3 15x1 -3 Stamp slipped 



Badly stamped and disin- 
tegrated. 
Rather worn . . 



iluch -worn 
Slightly worn . 
Chipped 
>> 

End broken off 

)) I) 

Much worn 



Device. 



Helios head on 
stand. 



Caduceus 
Caduceus 



Stamp slipped slightly . . Rose 



Lettering slightly chipped . . Rosette 



Rose 



Helios head 



)> ?5 



Rose 



Rose 



Centre and most of edge i (?) 
flaked away. I 



FKOM TKLL SANDATIANNAII. 
X From similar, but not itlontii-iil, stiuiips. || From Tell cj-Jtidoidoh. 



89 



Position of Iiisorip- 

fion roliitively to 

Device. 



To right 



A bore 



Above 



Surrounding 



Surrounding 



Above 

Surrounding 



Inscription. 



EPMO 

[E2 * » A] ? 
2TAAMO 

Eni ETAA 

MOT 

APTAMITIOY 

ETKAEI 
TOT 

e;t1k[ae]it[ot] 



Eni ETKAET2 
Eni ETKAET2 2MINOIOT (-tic) 

n 

Eni ETM ATIAA 
*P 

Eni ET*PA **«**#* 

Em ET* 
PANOP 

ET-I>[PAN0]P02 

ET<I'PAN0P02 

ZHNl**0?]2[A?] 

pj * # * » * K: 

KAA * * m 



HP[ 

[ 



] 



0A[PrHAIOT] 

hpakaeito[t] 

En[l 0ANO ?]A0T0T TAKIN0IOT 
Eni 0AP2 »#******»*****f 



Alphabet and 

other Epignipliic 

Notes. 



Similar to 58. 

V; t vir. 

See Fig. 10. 



Similar to Fig. 19; 
the writing ia 
one line, and 
the caduceus 
smaller. 

VI, horizontal 
linos of (T slightly 
expanding. 

I: tr 11. 



See Fig. 2X 

I? 
■ VII T, )■ V, vir. 

, VI? 
See Fig. 51. 
I. 

I I? 

I 

T, a VII. e VIP. 



See Fig. 21. 

I, minute letter- 
ing. 
VI. 



40 AMPIIOKA HANDLES, WITH GKEKK STAMPS, 

* Found in duplicate. 



t Illustrated. 



No. 


Shape of Seal. 


Size of Seal, 

in 
cent. metres. 


Condition of Seal. 


Device. 


net 


Eetkmgulur . . 


3-5 X 1-5 


Slightly chipped 




iu*t 


)> • • 


3-6 X 1 -5 


Stamp slightly slipped 


. • 



115 



IIG 



117 



3 -15 X 1 -05 Chipped and worn 



4 oo X 1 G Slightly rubbed 



118* 




?» • * 


119t 




.. 


120 




M 


121tli , 




1 


122* 

i 




1 


123 




»> • ' 


124: 


Oi 


al . . 


i25*:ii 


Cirrular 


12G 


E 


ectangular .. 


127 




>) • • 



X 1 -J End broken oEf 

4*75 xl'o End worn 

3 -8 X 1 '4 Worn . . 

3 G X 1 •? End fractured . 



Square frame 
Star 



X 1 oo Badly stamped and fractured Bull's head 

4 X 1 05 ' Slightly worn Ciiduceus 

X 1 •.") Viry faint, and fractured .. .. 



x3 

2 -8 diani. 
4-5x1 -3 



Worn, ilaked. and fnic lured . . Rose 

Slightly smeared on edge . . ; „ 

Slightly worn ^*prig of plant 



128 Circular 



Badly stamped, end broken 

off. 



2 '55 d!am. Flaked 



Rose 



li;oM IKI.I. SANDAIIANNAir. 



4r 



From siiuiliir, but not identical, Mtii'ii)>-i. i| Fri-in Tell oj-.Iudcidc 



'of<itio)i of Inscrip- 
tion relatively to 
Device. 



Jnscvipfion. 



Alphabet unil 

oilier Kpigraphic? 

Notes. 



Inside 
To left 



Device in centre of 
lower line. 

Above 



Surrounding 



To left 



Eni 0AP2inOAIO2 
KAPNEIOT 

Kni «AP2inOAI02 
HANAMOT 
AETTEPOT 

EK?]A* *NAP02 
[ArP]lANIOT 

Eni 0EP2AN 

APOT 

2MIN01OT 



Eni [0?]E2Tr 

lKaJpneio^tJ 

IA20N02 

KAPNEIOr 
lEPOKAH 

Eni IEPONO[2] 

AA^AIOTJ 

+ IAAN0Er[ 
MOP — [ON ^ 

IMA' 

INT[ 
nANAM[OT] 

innoKPATET[2] 

innOKPATETS 

I2IAnP0Y 

i2Nr 

AINl A? 



See Fig. 7. 



See Fig. 22. 



YI. 



V, earelesslv 

written ; iiori- 
zontal of a. 
straight and n])- 
rights of ju ver- 
tical. 

I; the "e" a blind 
point, jjossibly j^ 
mere word-sepa- 
rator. 

I. 

See Fig. 50. 



II. 

See Fig. 51. 

See Fig. 24. 
II ? reverseJ. 

I, small letters. 

I, large letters. 

I. 

YI reversed. 



Surrounding 



K 



# j(i #*##### # 



AAI 



» » * 



' A seal bearing t!;i* name Las been found at Pcrgamon. 



42 



AMlilORA HANT)I.E>, WVTU (MtEEK RTAMPS, 

* Foimd in diiplicafce. 



t rilustrated. 



Shape of Seal. 



Rot'tangulap , 



Oval .. 

Circular 

Rectangular 



Oval ., 



Rectangular 



Size of Seal, 
in 

cputimetres." 



2f; X 



3-2x1 



2 -Ox 1 -2 



Coiuliticn of Seal. 



1x0 -05 P.- r feet 

3 1x 1-3 Worn 

3 -8x1 -7 '.„ 

4 X 1 "65 Stamp slipped . . 

1 -Sox 0-9 Perfect 

2-8x17 „ 

2-9x2-5 Worn 

2 -7 (Hum. Fractured and flaked . 

X 1 -6 End broken off 

3 '25 X 1 4 Worn, end broken 06. 

2 -65 X 2 -4 Worn 

4x1-6 Worn and flaked 



Bottom flaked . . 



Bottom badlj stamped 



Perfect 



X 1 -2 Badly stamped. . 



2-4x1 -2.3 AVorn 



Dev'ce. 



Stars . . 

Helio.s head 
Rose 



Helios lifad 



Rose 



(To be 



FKOM TKT.L SANPATIAXNAH. 
From sinular, Imt not. idoiitical, stiuup-!. !' From Tell cj-JiKloidfli. 



4:'. 



asifion of Inscrip- 
tion relatively to 
Device. 


lii«crij)tiion. 


Alpliabet and 
other Kpigraphic 
Notes. 




KA 


I \' reversed. 




VVIXVd [no room for the E of EFIl ' 
niKAAAIK 


.SVf Fig. 23. 




Eni KAAAIKPATIAA 
nANAMOT 


Ill, verjr minute 
lettering. 


stars in corners of 

Feal. as in Fig. 6 

• • • • 


KAAAIOT2 

KAEAN 
AKTOT 


III. 

See Fig. 25. 


Co right ; all in- 
side square frame. 


Eni KAE 
APXOT 


See Fig. 48. 


Surrounding 


En' lEPEnS KAEAPXOT 


VIII reversed. 


»» • ■ 


[k]aeitomaxot 


IV ; 6, VI. 





Eni KA[EIT] 

OMAXO T] 

BAAPOMlb[T] 


VI, TT VII. 


?o right . . 


Eni KAE 

nNTMO[r] 


VIII. 


Surrounding 


2A 


See Fig. 26. 


• • ■ * • • 


Em KPATIAA 
AAAIOT 


I. 




KPEON 
TO[2] 


IV ; » I ; large 
coarse letters. 




KPE0NT02 
TAKIN0IOT 


IV ; I. 


• • < • • • 


KPE0NT02 
TAKIN0IOT 


IV; ol. 


. 


[En]l KTAOT 
ATPIANI 


See Fig. 27. 





AE* * * * 

or 

AP[T ?] * # * 


VI. 



mti lined.) 



44 



EXPLORATIOX OF THE AVADY MOJTB FR0:M THE 

DEAD SEA. 

Uy the Rev. Plixam Cady. 

Ix an article on 'Tlie Dead Sea," publislied in the Qnarterli/ 
Sfntenient of July last, the author, Gray Hill, Esq., say.s that a 
careful examination and good photographs of the east coast would 
be interesting. He warns against the attempt, however, until the 
Dead Sea is provided with a suitable steamer or a properly 
equipped sailing vessel. 

In Februaiy. 1898, I made this voyage in Avhat I believe to be. 
the smallest boat that ever sailed those waters. I also secured 
photographs of this east shore and of the Wady Mojib (Arnoii). 
I have inquired and read diligt ntly, and cannot find that tlu^ 
Arnon has been explci'ed since Lieutenant Ljnch's expedition in 
1848. Neither is there record that Lynch or anyone else has ever 
followed the river up as far as it is possible to go from the Dead 
Sea. The fact that I did this and secured the only photographs 
that have ever been taken there or along the east coast, is my 
excuse for this article and the accompanying illustrations. 

My boat w^as 12 feet long, with a flat bottom and square stern^ 
a mere skiff made of thin wood and poorly constructed. I engaged 
two men to accompany me, and when we settled into our places 
there was little room for provisions and the tin of water. Our 
small tent was left behind. 

We started from the moutli of the Jordan on tlie morning of 
February 9tli. As the boat was not built for spcfnl our progress 
was slow, and we kept close to the shore for .safety's sake. 
Lieutenant Lynch gives no detailed account of the coast from the 
Jordan to the Zerka Ma'aiii (Callirrhoe). A short description, 
especially with i-eference to landing })laces, may be of some value 
to future expliirei's. 

Leaving the Jordan at 6.50, we followed the north shore 
toward the ^loab mountains. Landing is ea.sy anywhere along 
the broad beach. Wu passed many trees of considerable size 
standing out in the water GO feet from the shore. They were 
encrusted with salt and looked ghastly in the early light. At 
8.30 we passed the first of the sei-ies of headlands on the ^Ioal> 



{To face ;>. 44. 




Calltrrttok Eiver (W. Zerka M'aain) entering the Dead Sea, 
SHOWING treb;s growing in the sea and concealing the 
entrance of the river. 




Mouth ok the River Arnon (Wady Mujib). 

(From Photographs by Rev. Putnam Cadi/.) 



' • » • 

, , ' t 
c * c < 



KXPLORATION OF TIIF; \\'\\>\' MO.lin FliOM THK DEAD SEA. 45 

slioro. They extend out several Iiundi-etl yanl.s and iire about 
lialf ii mile apart. Between are beautiful coves with clean gravel 
beaches alnn<i^ which we towed our boat. At 9.15 we passed a 
<,'ood stream of sweet water. Along the shore we found pieces of 
pure sulphur as large as one's fist, and lumps of bitumen as large 
;is a man's head. They burned like tar when thrown into our fire 
:ii niglit. At 10 we tirst noticed a strong current setting toward 
I lie north. This we observed all the way down the coast. At 
10. ;W we passed a deep and wild wady, in which were many palm 
trees. From this point to the Anion the cliffs come close to the 
water's edge, and there are few landing places. At 11 we came 
to a large wady with a long and broad beach. A stream flows 
into the sea. The water tasted slightly of sulphur, but we readily 
drank it. In half an hour we passed a gorge in which were palm 
trees clinging to the rocks at different inaccessible heights. The 
c-liffs now appeared in most beautiful and brilliant colours — red, 
white, yellow, green, and black. AVe saw many streams of hot 
water flowing down the mountains. From several the steam arose 
in clouds so that we could trace their course far up the cliffs. Oil 
poured out from the j-ocks and covered considerable areas of the 
•sea. Instead of falling from the oars in drops, the water fell in 
iilmy sheets as if it were pure oil. At 1.15 we passed a good 
landing, and at 2.80 reached the Callirrhoe. From this point to 
the Arnon the coast has been sufficiently described by Lynch. 
Between these streams I noted but four landing places. Of 
course if the sea were smooth, one could climb out upon the rocks 
at many points. But I am speaking of places where it is po.ssible 
to pull the boat out of the reach of breakers and to camp. 

We reached the Arnon at noon on the second day. This river 
enters the sea through a chasm whose cliffs tower up to a great 
height. My photograph will give a better idea of its beauty and 
grandeur than words can picture. The I'ock is of rich red sand- 
.stone, and is worn into fantastic shapes. We spent some time in 
looking at the relief figures of eagles, wolves, elephants, &c., that 
were so distinct and accurate that we could scarcely persuade 
ourselves they were not the work of man. An immense delta 
extends out into the sea several hundred feet, and trees and bushes 
grow beyond this where the water is more than 5 feet deep. The 
chasm is about 100 feet wide, and runs east for 450 feet. Then t 
turns sharply to the south. We found the stream 40 feet wide 



40 KXl'LOKATION OF THE WADV MO.IIB FKOM THE DEAD SEA. 

and \ foot deep. It follows the north whH closely, so that it is 
impossible to ascend on that side; but there is a wide margin 
alono- the soiath side, although one must force his way through 
thick bushes and small trees. Just before reacliing the sharp 
turn spoken oE above, we had to climb and crawl over immense 
masses of rock. We hoped to be able to look around the angle, 
but when -within a few feet of it were stopped by the precipitous 
shelvino- ott" of the rock into a deep pool that extends around the 
turn. From our position 30 feet above the surface we could look 
down into the clear depths and see many fishes, from 8 inches to 
10 inches long, swimming about. 

As I was wondering how I might be able to get around that 
tin-ii and explore tlie unknown territory beyond, it occui'red to 
me that my small boat might be made available. I returned to 
the shore and brought the craft to the mouth of the chasm. Just 
above this is a swift rapid, with the water tumbling over the 
rocks. Then comes the pool extending around the turn. We 
stripped ourselves for wading, and by much hard work succeeded 
in getting the boat into the pool. This was a somewhat dangerous 
til ill"- to attempt, as the swift current pounded her against the 
rocks. If anything should happen to one's boat between the 
Ai'non and Callirrhoe. it would be impossible to proceed along the 
coast. I think it would also be impracticable to climb the cliffs 
to the ^Nloab tablelands. If there are passes, they are known only 
to the Bedouin. 

My excitement was intense as I paddled around the turn and 
looked beyond. I discovei'ed that the chasm immediately narrows 
to 14 feet, with the water rushing down furiously ; 15 yards more 
ami the wild rushing stream compelled us to get out of the boat 
and wade. Here the chasm was only 4 feet wide and the sky a 
strip of blue far above. For a long time we had heard the sound 
of falling water, and now the roar was deafening. We could 
scarcely carry on a conversation. Being confined to a narrow 
channel and coming down a steep descent, the water nearly 
knocked us off our feet, and the stones were sharp and unfriendly. 
We went on foot perhaps "JO yards when a wilder rush of the 
stream brought us to a stop. Leaning around an angle a glimpse 
was caught of falling water. No idea could be gained of its 
height, but from the sound it must be great. In summer it might 
be possible to reach the foot of this fall, but I doubt it. Then, 



(ro<fae^ pt 47.)c , 



C k 




Boat and Baggage on Camel. 




Eastern Shore of the JJead Sea. 

{FroM Photograplu by Rev. Putnam Cody.) 



KXPLOKATION OF TllK WAKV MOJIIi FIJO.M TIIK DEAD SEA. -^7 

too who would risk a voyage on this Sea of Death uihUt tlie 
biu-ning rays of a niidsuniraer snn ? 

By the facts I discovered J am led to ei rreet several statements 
made by Lieutenant Lynch. Jle says that he " walked and waded 
up some distance and found the passage of the same uniform width, 
turning every L50 or 200 yards gradually to the south-east" 
("Expedition to the Dead Sea and the .Torrl an," sixth edition, 
revised, p. o<)8). This statement proves that he never went up 
the river 150 yards. As I liave shown, at that point it makes a 
sharp turn to the south and immediately narrows to 14 feet. 
Within 15 yards beyond this turn it narrows to 4 feet, and 
gradually turns again to the east. Twenty yards n^ore and 
progress is stopped. These last measurements are only approxi- 
mate, but they are not far out of the way. One may be pardoned 
for not being accurate in his observations when he has to light 
every moment to maintain a foothold. 

The fact that Lynch never went up the chasm far enough to 
look around the sharp turn is made certain also by his statement 
that he " walked and waded." The deep pool that extends away 
around the turn is hollowed out of the rock and must have been 
there 50 years ago. In some places it is so deep that my oar, 
supplemented with the length of my arm, could not touch bottom. 
The pool must have been even deeper when he explored the river, 
for his figures give a volume of water more than as large again 
than I found it. He tells us that he reached the Arnon at 
5.25 p.m. and explored it that evening. From this also it is 
evident that his examination was superficial. Of course the 
supposition that it is impossible to descend the Arnon to the shore 
is correct. 

A phenomenon on the Dead Sea that intei'ested me may not 
be out of place here. On three successive nights at about 7.30, 
when no air was stirring, a heavy breaker would suddenly come 
pounding on the beach. After an interval another would come, 
and then a perfect bombardment would follow for an hour. Uj) 
to this time the sea would be perfectly quiet, and during and after 
it no air stirred. At the Callirrhoe I was lying on the beach 
asleep Avhen the first breaker came in. At first I thought it was 
some wild beast crashing through the jungle. Daring the other 
nights we spent on the sea, the wind was blowing a gale, so that 
we could not tell whether it was a regular occurrence or not. 



48 EXPLORATION OF THE WADY MOJIB FROM THE DEAD SEA. 

On the return journey we experienced the same dangers tliat 
liave been met by all wlio liave tried to explore the Dead Sea. 
In his article Mr. Hill says that, he sailed durin^f the night, as then 
the sea was calmer. I was driven to the same thing and rowed 
"between the hours of one and four in the morning. Even then the 
«ea was rough and we had to meet each wave just right to keep 
onr boat afloat. Our faces and hands were sore from the watei", 
■our clothing stiff and greasy, and our shoes cracked and open. 
'♦Safety compelled us to keep out from the shore to escape the 
•counter-seas. Often the wind increased when no landing place 
■was near, and we had narrow escapes. When we finally reached a 
beach the men jumped overboard just before we struck and kept 
■the boat from dashing against the rocks, while 1 threw the 
provisions ashore and then leaped with the tin of water. 

One morning I was aroused by a severe cliill. Remembering 
that every expedition had suffered through sickness or death, I 
awoke the men and we started, hoping to reach the Jordan and 
■escape from the Sea of Death. The wind increased, and at four 
o'clock the waves literally threw us upon the north shore. In an 
hour it commenced to rain, and great banks of cloud poured down 
■over the Judean hills. The men went in search of a Bedouin 
camp and returned in an hour with a camel. Loading our 
ljas:2:as:e and boat on his back off we went through rain and mud 
to the tents. My experiences with Sheikh Kuftan of the Beni 
Sakhr tribe during the two days and nights that the storm kept 
•me in his tent, and my journey overland opposite Jericho, ending 
in the loss of my boat before the camel carried it to the Jordan, 
would form a separate nai'rative. 

If this little contribution to a better knowledge of the topo- 
graphy of the Moab shore and of the Wady Mojib is of an}' value, 
I shall feel repaid for my work. My devout wish is that the Sea 
of Death may be kinder to future exjilorers than it has been to my 
j)redecessors and to me. 

Amsterdam, N.Y., U.S.A., 

September, 1900. 



EXI'LORATIOX OF THE WADY .MO.Iin FIJOM TIIK DFAI) SEA. 49 

Note hy Ma.iou-Gkxeral Sir Chakles Wilson. 

The Rev. Putnam Cary, in liis interesting account of a boat journey to 
Wruly MGjib, mentions three points iu connection with the Dead Sea 
which show liow desirable it is that there should be a moio complete 
study of tliat remarkable lake than we have at present. 

(1) The strong current setting towards the north which was 
" observed all the way down the coast." It would be interesting to 
ascertain whether this is a constant oirrent due to subterranean attluents ; 
to unequal barometric pressure ; or to wind action. In the first case the 
salinity of the water llowing north would probably be less than that of 
the water outside the current. (2) The oil which "])oure(l out from the 
rocks and covered considerable areas of the sea," before reaching Callinhoe. 
The nature of the oil, its exact source, and the conditions under which it 
exutles from the rock, deserve examination. Inflammable oil floating on 
the surface, if accidentally lighted, would produce the phenomena noticed 
by Mr. Gray Hill iu 1899 {Quarterly Statement, 1900, ]). 27G). (3) The 
breaking of waves on the shore for about one hour, fi'om 7.30 ]).m., on 
three successive nights when no air was stirring. This may perhai)s have 
been something in the nature of the seiches, or disturbances of level, to 
which the Lake of Geneva is subject. These disturbances are attributed, 
])rincii)ally, to difl'erences of barometric pressure in different parts of the 
lake. Unfortunately we do not know what the barometric pressure is at 
different points on the shore of the lake. That it is not the same at the 
two ends of the Dead Sea is probable, and the great uprush of heated 
air, said to be of daily occurrence, which I noticed at Tufileh, in Edom, 
seems to indicate that great changes of pressure take place after sunset. 
How far the sluggish water of the Dead Sea responds to differences of 
pressure and the influence of such differences on the less dense water 
on the surface at the north end of the lake are interesting subjects 
for inquiry. It may be long before a systematic examination of the 
lake can be undertaken, but meantime I hope we may have many more 
papers of such interest as that forwarded by Mr. Cary. 

M. Clermont-Ganneau has drawn my attention to the remarks on 
the level of the Dead Sea in the early editions of Frere Lievin's " Guide 
to the Holy Land," and in the account of the Due de Luynes's exploration 
of the lake in 1864. It appears that Frere Liuvin walked to the island 
twice in 1860, that in 1861 the water was up to his horse's knees, and 
that after 1863 he was obliged to swim out to it. This indicates a slow, 
continuous rise of level, and seems to exclude the hyj)othesis of sudden 
volcanic action. M. Louis Lartet, the distinguished geologist who 
accompanied the Due de Luynes, amongst other interesting remarks 
on recent variations of level, points out that very slight causes would 
produce great changes in the form and superficial extent of the lake. 
Amongst those causes he includes a succession of exceptionally dry 
or rainy seasons, the silt brought down by the Jordan and other affluents, 
and slight earth movements which escape detection. 

D 



50 




CROWN PRifJCE FHIDL 



RICK STREET (NEW) 







THE ANCIENT CHURCHK8 IN THE MURISTAN.i 
By Ur. Conrad ScrnrK. 

1 x •' Notes ami News " I have reported changes wliich are being 
made in the western part of the Maristan, which belongs to the 
Greek Convent. The buildings which are to be erected will 
liopclossly cover up whatever remains of ancient structures may 
exist beneath the present surface, and I send lierewith a plan of a 
large churcii, restored ffom discoveries I'ecently made, which once 
stood over the large cistern discovered by Sir Charles Warren 
in 1867. 

The place contained three churches, two of which have been 
known for a long time, and the third, or I'cmains of it, were found 
l)y the excavations of the Greeks a few years ago. The eastern 
church, the latest built of the three, has now been rebuilt as the 
German " Erlliserkirche," and it is not necessary to describe it 
here. It was the Mai-ia Latina minor, not major, as it has 
been hitherto considered. 

The second or, as it is now proved, the Maria Latina major, was 
found 25 metres distant south-west of it, and just over the tanks 
Sir Charles Warren discovered in the year 1867, and described in 
" The Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 272. Of the southern (smaller) 
apse, as well as of the large or middle one, two courses of masonry- 
had been preserved, whereas the northern apse had disappeared, 
and in its place a cistern mouth was found. There were also ;i 
few basements of the former piers still in situ, as also some parts 
of the walls, so that the plan of the church could be restored {see 
Plan). Several very fine large carved capitals were also found, 
not of pillars but of piers, aud the best preserved of these may b.,- 
still seen. Small marble pillai-s were on the edges of the apses in. 
situ. The workmanship of all this was better than on the first 
mentioned chui'ch. In plan and size both churches were very 
nearly the s;uiie. Some other carved stones were also found, 
similar to those at the northern entrance of the Erloserkirche, and 
at a spot indicating that also this church had an entrance at its 
north side. Under the northern side aisle cisterns wei-e found, 

' Tliis is p;irt of a larger essay hy Dr. Seliick on tlie Muristan and it^ 
liistorj, which it i.s intended to publish subsequently. 

D 2 



,»_ 



^ THE ANCIENT CHURCHES IN THE MURISTAN. 



bat it was not so under the southern aisle, where there seems to 
have been a crypt in two stories, one above the other. A stair 
leading down into this crypt has not yet been found. As south of 
it new foundations were being dug, the workmen came upon a 
stone sarcophagus, the lid of which is gone, proving that also this 
part had been a crypt. As the Erloserkirche and its predecessor 
had in the soath-west corner a bell-tower, so it probably w-as here, 
as th9 very strong piers and the great masonry below (Sir C. 
Warren's southern little cistern) show. 

The third church is the well known Mar Hanna (John the 
Baptist) in the south-west corner of the place, consisting of a 
church underground, and over it another church above ground. 
So it was even in ancient times ; it is one of the oldest churches 
ill Jerusalem, much older than the two others mentioned. In the 
Qiiarterhj Statement, 1899, p. 43, is a plan and some sections of the 
lower church, by Mr. A. C. Dickie, A.R.T.B. A., showing that under 
its flooring is a kind of crypt. It is clear that once the under- 
ground church stood free round about, perhaps with a prolon- 
gation towards the west, as the chief entrance door was on the 
south side. On the side of the present stair at the southern end 
of the narthex is a triangular-shaped mass of masonry which may 
have been made by the Crusaders to get a basement for a bell- 
tower. The church itself was Byzantine, even the upper one, 
which at a later period was destroyed and again rebuilt. That 
there were three churches on the place, each with a bell-tower 
(hence also Mar Hanna had one) is proved by a drawing made about 
1150, and published in the " Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palastina- 
Vereins," 1891, p. 137, showing in one line, beside the hospital, 
the three churches — Ecclesia St. John, Ecclesia Maria ad Latinam 
major, and Ecclesia Maria ad Latinam minor, each with a bell- 
tower. 



'IIIK ANCIENT CHURCHES IN THE MUKISTAX. 



53 




O 

a 
o 
< 

o 

o 

w 
w 



oi 



ROYAL PTOLEMAIC GREEK INSCRIPTIOXS AND MACIC 
LEAD FIGURES FROM TELL SANDAHANIS^AH. 

By Professor Clekmont-Ganneal'. 

{Translated by permission from the " Comptes Rendus des Seances 
de VAcade'mie des Inscriptions ef Belles-Lettres." Seance da 
19 Octohre, 1900.) 

In the course of the excavations carried out for the Palestine 
Exploration Fund at Tell Sandahannah, Dr. Bliss discovered, 
among other objects of interest, a fragment of Greek inscription, 
of which he gives a sketch, ^ accompanied by some explanations, 
but the true historic value of which he seems to me not to have 
suspected. 

This fragment consists of three lines engraved on a quarter of 
a " column " having a radius of about 14^ inches. The text is 
mutilated on the left and. incomplete below. 




" The inscription," Dr. Bliss says, " mentions a king and a 
queen, probably the local sovereigns ; the name of the queen is 
missing; the name of the king is an indeclinable word; if this 
followed the Semitic triliteral law, it was 'I't'ji'c/, in which case 
the preceding three letters represent the termination of some 
Gieek word, such as x"V^") "^i which the genitive depended. A 
thorough but unsuccessful search was made for the rest of the 
inscription." 

After having examined the sketch published in the report of 
Dr. Bliss, I believe it is possible to prove that we have, in reality, 

1 Quarterly Statement, 1900, p. 334. 



GREEK INSrifllTlONS Fl'.OM TELL .SAXDAIIANNAH. 'in 

a fragment of a cylindrie base, wliich served as the pedestal of a 
>tatae of a queen of E-rjpt, answering to tlie name of Arsiuue. 

Avsinoe, sister and wife of Ptolemy II Philadelpliiis, seems 
excluded, tl priori, by tlie surname which appears in part at the 
commencement of line 2, and which can hardly be, as we shall see, 
other tliaji [0(,\o7rf<T]()/)« or [0(\o;t))T]o/u(. There remain Ar&inoe, 
sister and wife of Ptolemy IV Philopafor, and Arsinoe, daughter 
of Ptolemy XI Auletes and sister of the famous Cleopatra. Under 
reserve of the paleographic indications, upon which I have not 
ventured to form an opinion fi-om a simple view of the sketch of 
]Jv. Bliss, I am inclined to regard this Arsinoe as identical with 
the wife of Ptolemy IV. The historical circumstances' are in 
favour of this conjecture. In effect, it must not be forgotten that 
this queen of Egypt was present- with her bi"other and husband 
at the celebrated battle of Raphia, where Antiochus the Great 
was defeated in 217. Raphia, now Refah, south of Gaza, v/as 
at the southei^n frontier of Judea, consequently in a region 
near Eleutheropolis and Marissa — the ancient Maresha, Moreshat 
— which is believed to have been situated at Tell Sandahannah. 
In any case, this last point is situated on the way to Jerusalem, 
where Ptolemy went after this victory, which gave Syria to him 
for a time, and where he even desired to offer, if we may believe 
the Third Book of Maccabees, thank-ofi'erings in the Jewish Temple. 

Would it be on this occasion that the statue of Tell Sanda- 
hannah was raised in honour of the queen ? In this case one 
might, under the paleographic reservation indicated above, propose 
the following restoration of the fragment in question : — 

^B(iai\i(T(rfti' 'ApcFJii'oiji', fi(-/(t\>]i' 
[Qcitu ? <I>(Xo7r«7j(o)/>«, Tiji' ('( (iaai\6W9 
\_YlTo\c/^iat'ov K(nj /SafTiXiacrijv [Bc/)c)'/-J 
[[v/y9, Oeti'i' tl ci>'jtTwi' J 

[ ] 

[The queen Arsinlne great [goddess Philopat'\or, daughter of the king 
[Ptolemy and'\ of the queen [Berenice the gods Euergetes . . . .] 

' Cf. Maccabees, Book III, cli. 1. It is needless to remark that this find, 
thus interpreted, imparts an clement not to be despised into the question so 
much debated of tlae fiistorical credibility wliicli it is right to accord to the 
lliird Book of Jlaccabees. 

- It is said by tlie Book of Maccabees tliat Arsinoe even per-onally played 
a sufficiently energetic part in tlie affair of Raphia, which at one moniciit 
threatened to turn out very badly for the Egyptians. 



53 



(;1;KKIC IXSCiaiTlOXd FK.M tell SA-XDAUAXNAn. 



Ill supporf of tliis conjecture I deduce an argument from tlie 
fact that in the same excavation there was exhumed a small 
fragment of nnother description in wliich one recognises without 
difficulty tlie name of R(7><'/'/[v. . . ]. 




T suppose that this second fraorment ' helongs to the similar 
dt'dicatiou of a statue of Ptolemy IV Philopator, which formed tlie 
felloe to that of his si^ter and wife, the Queen Arsinoe. The two 
heroes of the day of Raphia would have been represented side by 
side. This second (dedication, althongh almost totally destroyed, 
could then be restored entirely, thanks to that of the statue 
of Arsinoe, attempted above, almost as follows : — 

[BAZfAEA HTOAEMAION MEfAN 0€ON <t>IAOnATOPA] 
[TON Er BAZIAEHZ HTOAEMAIOY KAI BAZIAIZZHZ] 
BEPENI KHZ eEHN EYEPrETUN ]- 

[The kivg Flolemy the <jrcat, god Fhilopalor, son of the king Ptolemy 
and of the queen'] BEItENI[ce the gods Euergetes. 

This is not all. Besides these two fragments Dr. Bliss has 
exhumed a third woi'ded thus : — 






rxp 




' Tt would be very importoiit to know if tluse few Icttcri were cnj;r^vod on 
ft ftoiie vitli a cuived or a (lur surfiu'C. 

• Tl.c original text was iierhajis arranged in four line?. 



(.IKKEK INSUKU'TloNS li;i'M TKLL SAXDAIIANNAH. o7 

Followint,^ the development of my liypothesis I would incline 
to restore : — 

[SvoVf/Jv Kix'nwi'O'i 
['A7ro'\A](t'i'( (v^(>'jl' 

" [Scopa]s, son of Cratoi\, to Apollo [addresses his] prayer." 

The name of Scopus would afford just the number of letters — 
five — required by the extent of the gap which results from tlio 
obvious restoration on line 2. Tf one admits this reading : 
Scojjan, this personage would be no other than the famous 
general of Ptolemy IV, afterwards of Ptolemy V Epiphanes, who, 
after having conquered Judea and even a part of Coelesyria for 
bis masters, ended by being defeated by Antiochus the Great at 
Paneas, the sources of the Joi'dan. He invokes Apollo. Wliy 
Apollo y Because this was the god jjar excellence of the Seleu- 
cids, even the ancestor of the dynasty. The act was quite in 
accordance Avith the idea, so deeply rooted and so generally 
spread among the ancients that, to obtain victory, it was 
necessary above all to gain for one's cause or at least to 
conciliate the (jod of the enemy. The formula cvx^v seems to 
imply rather a prayer addressed to the divinity than thanks for 
a prayer already granted.' 

This conjecture, risky as it may appear, for it only rests on a 
very precarious epigraphical basis — the sujma which terminates 
thousands of Greek names — agrees well enough with the interpre- 
tation which I proposed for the two other fragments found besido 
this one. The principal difficulty which runs counter to it is that 
the historians, who nevertheless tell us at sufficient length about 
the General Scopas, have not preserved for us, so far as I know, 
the name of his father. Could this unknown name have been 
Kraion f Until the contrary is proved, there is no reason why 
we should not suppose it ; some later find may perhaps one day- 
permit us to affirm it. 

I take this opportunity to add a few observations upon a 
whole group of objects of a very different kind, which, coming 

' One dttaii to be noted wliich is not unimportaut is tliiit tliis fragnieht of 
insc-iiption is cut upon tlie base of a statue whicli should reprt'sent a colossal 
eatjh, of wbich there remains only one of the claws. This eagle— the eagle of the 
Ptolemies ('/. their coins) ? — was it not there as a symbol of victory, of tlic 
victoiy jjraycd for, perhaps even of the victory obtained, if one does not insist 
too much on the absolute value of tb.c word ii'X'l'' ? 



58 GKEEK INSCRIPTIONS IKOM TELL SANDAHANNA.IL 

out of the same excavations at Sandahaunab, have remained an 
archjeological enigma. These are 16 little figures of men and 
women in lead, 2 to 3 inches in height, very rougiily execute(1.' 
and of a most bizarre aspect. Tliey are mere strips ol" lead cut 
into shape, as silhouettes. The personages, all nude, with one 
exception, are represented in strange and distorted positions, as if 
they were writhing in suffering and torture. They have all, 
without exception, the peculiarity of having the hands and feet 
laden with bonds and fetters designedly complicated. Sometimes 
the hands are bound in front on the breast, sometimes behind 
tlie back. The bonds which tie them are formed of thick wire 
of lead, of iron, or of bronze. 

Dr. Bliss see.s here simply the representation of " captives." 
This explanation is not very satisfactory, and raises all sorts of 
objections. I propose quite a different one ; it was suggested to 
me by another find of Dr. Bliss — a find which seems to me to 
have an intimate connection with these figures uuperceived until 
now. 

It is this. Dr. Bliss has also e.'^humed, at the same jdace, 
50 tablets in soft stone bearing Gi*eek inscriptions.^ These 
tablets are not yet published. Only Professor Sayce has been 
able to glance at them, and he limits himself to saying briefly 
that thev contain mao^ical charms and incantations^ If this is 
so, would it not be permissible to suppose that these little lead 
figures represent the persons against whom the incantations were 
directed ? We know that lead was in ancient times the chosen 
metal of tho.se who were addicted to sorcery. We know, above 
all, that witchcraft consisted essentially in the act of hindini 
magically by supernatural means the victim of it ; the verb 
ica-Ta?,e7v is the verb consecrated to the forms of defixiones. We 
would have here, then, in our little figures, so carefully and com- 
placently bound, a very curious plastic repi-esentation of this 
fundamental conception of ancient black art, and the first 
example of a practice which recalls in more than one respect 
that of the spells of the Middle Ages.^ 

' See Plate, p. 332, op. cit. 

" Four of tlieni bear, it is said, inscrij^tions in Hebraic characters. 

•' Oj). cit., p. 37(5. 

■* It is possible that lead was chosen as material for the figures because of 
its fusibility ; these figures were pjrhaps destined, like the wax images of the 
t-pell-bouud, to be finally melted iu some magic ceremony. 



NOTES ON GREF.K INSCRIPTIONS FROiM 
SAN D AH ANNA H. 

I.— By A. Stuart Muruav, LL.D. 

Arsinoc. the Gnat. 

In the October Qjiartcrhj Statement, p. 33-L, there is a Greek 
inscription whirli 1 would read coiijecturally thus: — 

KItlj /3afTl\lfTfTlj<f 

" Arsinoe the Great. Gift of tlio King and Queen." 

The piUar on which the inscription occurs was apparently the 
base of a statue of Arsinoe, who is here styled " the Great," a 
title not unfrequently applied to the Ptolemaic kings. The 
inscription accordingly belongs to the Seleucid ruins, and is of 
great importance. A paper impression of it is highly desirable. 

Inscription No. 2, on p. 335, records an offering, not by Crato, 
but bv a son of Crato. 



II —By Colonel C. R. Conder, R.E. 

Berenice. 

The dedication to Apollo connected with the name of Queen 
Berenice — found at Tell Sandahannah — is in characters which may 
isily be supposed as late as the Herodian period. I do not 
know on what grounds it is attributed to the Seleucid age. 
" Queen Berenice " was the sister of Agrippa II, before whom 
St. Paul appeared at Csesarea. There is nothing strange in her 
being connected with a pagan text, since the Herodians erected 
temples to pagan gods. Sandahannah, I believe, really means 
"St. John" and not "St. Anne," for it is close to Beit Jibrin, 
which, ill the twelfth century, belonged to the Knights of 
St. John. 



(' 



GO JAll-IIANDLE INSCRIPTIONS. 

Ill._r;y W. H. D. Rouse, Esq. 

The word Kfja-ioi>ov iu the inscription on p. 335 of tlie Quarterly 
Statement for 1900 is not the name of the dedicator, which must 
be in the nominative. The last letter of it (v) appears just before 
K/ja'-a-j/o?, "son of Craton." 

RuGiiv, October Ulh, 1900. 



JAR-HANDLE INSCRIPTIOXS. 

I. — By Professor Theouokh F. Wkk.ht, Ph.D. 

The inscribed jar-haudies which have been found iu excavating 
Tell es-Safi and neighbouring sites could not i-eceive adequate 
attention in the field while the work was going on, and should 
now come befoie students at their homes, especially if they have 
access to other handles of like character. I offer a few remarks 
on the subject, and hope that others will contribute what they 
know : — • 

1. This is not a new subject or a recent one. The Qnarterhj 
Statement, No. 7, 1S69-1S70, has on p. 372 an unsigned note 
■which speaks of jar-handles found by (then) Captain Warren, "all 
of which Avere stamped with the same mark — apparently an eagle, 
rudely designed." They bore letters "similar to those of the 
Moabite Stone." Three of these handles were read by Dr. Birch, 
of the British Museum, and are given in English as " Le Me LeK 
ZePHa — LeK Shat— LeK," showing that they were similar to those 
found by Dr. Bliss as regards the first -svord. No doubt the 
author of " Underffround Jerusalem" referred to this when he 
wrote on p. 422 of that woik : — 

" At this angle [the south-east corner of the wall, near bottom 
of the 80 fei.-t shaft] were found those pottery jar-handles on 
■which is impressed a winged sun or disc, probably the emblems 
of the Sun-Crod; around this are chai-acters which denote that 
this pottery was made for royal use. Now this is the south-east 
corner of Solomon's Palace, and what more natural than that 
some of the pottery from the palace should here accumulate? " 



JAK-llANIiI.H INSCIMI'TIONS. 01. 

The hanilles seem to have received little further study until jin 
article of seven pacfes Avas printed by .T. Baker (ireene in Quarfrrhj 
Statement, October, 1881, p. 304, with a very) thoi'ough study of 
the " vase-handles discovered some years since in the vicinity of 
the Temple wall at Jerusalem." Mr. Greene says that no satis- 
factory explanation lias fo far been given. He finds the characters 
" Phoenician and similar to those on the Moabite Stone." Taking 
np the most legible one he confirms the readinr^ of 1870 as 
L M L Ch (K) Zs P H. He then considers M li Cli to mean 
Moloch, " the Sun-God/' or Melccli, king. He does not think 
that Zs P H refers to a person or place, but at length argues 
that Moloch Z P H means the w^atcbfulness of the god, from 
HD!?- The initial 7 means " dedicated to," and he notes that in 
1 Kings xi, 7, and in 2 Kings xxiii, 10, the same letters are used, 
meaning an altar " to Moloch." He concludes that tlie vases or 
jars were dedicated to !Molochtho watchful. 

Mr. Greene then considers " the dove with outstretched wing's." 
Was tliii the emblem of the San-God? He does not show this, 
but argues that the prevalence of Baal worship before the exile 
justifies liis inference. 

2. The question of the exact meaning is not yet settled. The 
writers to Avhom reference has been made were working toward a 
conclusion, but presented only suggestions. To one the symbol 
Avas a dove, to another an eagle, to another a Avinged sun or disc, 
to Dr. Sayce it is a beetle, and he seems to regard it as the winged 
scarab (Quarterly Statement, April, 1900, p. 170). In the cut on 
]i. 13 of Quarterly Statement, January, 1900, the beetle is clearly 
seen " with pronounced articulations," although Mr. Macalister 
registers a doubt on one point of the identification with the flying 
scarabajus beetle, namelj^, the curvature of the Aving-case. It 
now seems to me that Dr. Bliss was not on the right course in 
seeking at first the names of individual owners in these inscrip- 
tions, and I feel with i\Ir. Greene that they were votive inscrip- 
tions to Moloch or Baal. That the final word is the name of a 
place, Hebron, Ziph, and the like, seems plain, as Dr. Bliss 
believes; but the symbol needs further stud}-. 

We know that these places were on the Philistine border and 
not fur from Ekron, where the worship of Beelzebub flourished. 
The first chapter of 2 Kings shows Ahaziah looking to this god. 
The word l"\2"f is very lit'le used, but the word "27^ is more 



(52 JAR-HANDLE INSCRIPTIONS. 

common, and is regarded by some scholars as meaning the dog-fly 
(so the LXX), and by others as meaning a beetle (authorities in 
" Speaker's Commentary on Exodus," viii, 21, and appended 
essay on Egyptian words, p. 490 of vol. i). There is a sugges- 
tion here of the " Lord of Flies," which may merit further 
investigation. 

3. It would be useful to make as complete a study as possible 
of other jar-handles. The thickest part of the pottery, they have 
been well preserved when the rest was broken up, and have much 
to tell of early times. I have not been able to find so far in 
America any handles as old as those recently found by the Fund, 
but it appears from the first extract that the Fund had already 
in its possession a number- as old, and others may have obtained 
them while in Palestine. Two have lately come under my eye, 
both orio-inally procured by Dr. Selah Merrill, and both having 
Greek inscriptions. 

A is in the Semitic Museum of Harvard University, Massa- 
chusetts, and has a circular stamp one inch in diameter. 

The stamp overran the space at the lower 
side so that three or four letters are lacking. 
It seems easy to read O MEPAZ I EPEHZ, 
the common designation of the high priest of 
the Jews, as in Hebrews x, 21. The remain- 
ing letters may give the last half of the name 
of the high priest, but the first part is want- 
ing. Possibly the Ishmael who preceded 
Annas may be meant. The symbol is either the bundle of palm, 
myrtle, and willow (Leviticus xxiii, 40), or the three ears of 
barley of the Passover. 

B is in the museum of the Theological Seminary at Andover, 
Massachusetts, the home of Dr. Merrill. It is rectangular and, 
except for the break at the right lower corner, where the handle 
was bruised, is in excellent condition. 

ETTI 
MOP'. 

I read this EHI KAAAIZTOY MOPOY, for the sake 





.TAK-IIANDLK INSCi;il'T[OxNS. ()'.] 

of (ho most fortunate destiii}'." Tiic symbol seems to indicate the 
Avorsliip of tlie bull or calf "vvliicli began for Israel with Aaron's 
iipostasy and was established in the northern kinn;dom l)y 
.ler()l)oani. 

The votive character of this inscription is evident. The other 
inscription bearing the title "high priest" is not remote from 
the idea of a gift to the Temple. It may be that the handles 
latel}' found by Dr. Bliss will prove also to have votive inscrip- 
tions, and to connect themselves with the idolatrous days of 
Israel. 

II.— By Colonel C. R. Condei;, R.E. 

The new inscription JlU^uJ^ *7v?37 appears to nic to open up 
ihe question of translating the texts on the Hebrew jar-handles, 
discovered by Dr. Bliss, once more. The previous names, Hebi-ou, 
Ziph, and Shochoh, were those of towns ; but there is no town or 
ruin in Palestine now known bearing the name Mamshafh. No 
such name of a place occurs in the Bible, or in any of the various 
lists, ancient and medii^val, that ai'e known. 

The word evidently comes from the root HU^TD " to draw 
forth," as Moses was drawn from the Nile. It seems to me that, 
if the words 'Tt'^T' are explained " To Moloch," the meaning 
becomes clear, viz., " Dedicated to the Moloch v^dio presides over 
the water that will be drawn by means of this jar." The other 
texts would be dedications to the local Molochs of Hebron, Ziph, 
and Shochoh, intended to preserve the jars fi-om injury. The 
interest attaching to these texts — which otherwise only admit of 
rather forced explanations, since either the property of various 
local kings occurs in towns not belonging to them, or else the 
King of Jerusalem is mentioned on jars of a very ordinary 
description — will then consist in the late survival of Moloch 
worship (pei'haps to 500 jj.C.) in the country towns of Judea. 



64 



notp: on the winged figures upon the jar- 
handles DISCOVERED BY DR. BLISS. 

By JosEPU Offord, M.S.B.A. 

In reference to the remarks and engraving publlsLed in the 
October Quarterly Statement, p. 379, Mr. E. J. Pilcher has kindly 
lent me for publication this coin, which presents a figure with 
f-ix wings closely allied to the personage upon the Baalnathan 
seal. It is a bronze coin of Gebal (Byblos), bearing on tlie 
reverse a full-length representation of Kronus (El) with six 




wino-s as described by Sanchoniathon. Above and beneath tli3 
deity is the Phoenician inscription, nil^lp Tl^7- "Of Gebal 
the Holy." Whilst around, in Greek, BA2IAE0S ANTIOXOY, 
s-.hows it was of the era of the Antiochoi ; Mr. Pilcher suggesting 
A. Sidetes (137-125 B.C.). The lamed of the left-hand Phoenician 
text has united with the staff in the deity's hand. On his head 
is the crown of Lower Egypt, with a peculiar crest. 

In the " Comptes Rendus " of the French Academy, 1900, 
p. 181, M. Gauckler describes some metallic bands discovered at 
Carthage, of which he furnishes photographs. In No. 98, for the 
last figure but one, Fig. 18 of the upper register of personages, 
lie describes a '' Monstei" with human limbs, female breasts, and 
a horned liead ; with six wings." It is, however, difficult to see 
this repre.sentation upon the photograph ; no doubt it is more 
visible upon the original. He terms it a Moloch. The figure of 
Cyrus at Pasargadae given by Dieulafoy has si.\ wings and a head- 
dress, which may be the origin of the symbolic die upon the 
Gebal coin. 



G.") 



NOTE ON THE HIGH PLACE AT PETRA. 

By W. Clarksox Wallis, Esq. 

I VKXTLiKK to make a sngg-estion as to the object of the sunken 
area of the Hij^h Place at Petva, of which an interesting- desciip- 
tion is given in the October Quarterly Statement by Dr. Curtis.s. 
I notice that Mr. Macalistcr sujrgests that it was a place " set 
;ipart foi" worshippers." This may very likely have brcn the case, 
though one scarcely sees why it shoahl have been apparently 
carefully levelled and sank to a depth of 15 to 18 inches in the 
rock only for this purpose. May it not also have been intended 
ns a means for collecting water ? The suggestion comes to mo 
from having noticed a somewhat similar device iu more than one 
place. I remember an old castle in Sicily, for instance, -where 
a Dortion of the courtyard is carefully cemented, and the levels so 
ari-ano-ed that rain-water should be drained into a cistern. It 
seems to me that in the case of the High Place at Petra water 
might be required for ablutions and other ceremonial purposes, 
and the depressed area in question might have been intended to 
collect it. 

The plan shows a " drain," though it is not indicated where it 
leads to. There is also a rock-hewn " vat," but I do not notice 
that there is any connection between it and the " area." If there 
should be any receptacle to receive the water from the " drain," 
or if there should be a drain between the area and the " vat," 
I think that my theory as to the purpose of the depression would 
be a very probable one. 

Pei'haps those who have visited the place can say if any light 
can be thrown on these points, and whether the levels admit of 
the suggestion being valid. It is even possible a movable receptacle 
might have collected the water from the "drain." 

In the article "Tanks Inside the Sanctuar}^" p. 217 of the 
Jerusalem "Memoirs," several of the tanks under the Haram 
area are described as having "surface conduits" for collecting 
water from the rock surface or pavement. This seems to be 
a somewhat analogous case if the theory as applied to the High 
Place at Petra is correct. 

Brighton. 



OG 



AVOMAN IN THE EAST. 

By Phii.ii> J. Baldexsperger, Esq. 
{Continued from '■'• Quarterly Statement,'' 1900, (). 190.) 



Chapter VII. — Every-day Life. 

The newly-married couple are the talk of the village for 
several days, the wedding criticised or praised till everyone 
is acquainted with the details. The woman's duty now begins ; 
she has a family responsibility. Most of her doings have 
already been stated in Chapters IT and III. The water is 
always brought in by the woman carrying the s-kin water- 
bottle on her back, or else the earthenware jar on her head ; a 
large jar is placed in a corner of the room, and the skin bottle 
is emptied into this. If the husband possesses a flock or cattle, 
the milking business is generally the work of the woman, aided 
by the shepherds ; she dexterously holds the milk jug and one leg 
of the goat or sheep between her knees and draws the milk from 
both teats alternatively. If the village is near a town the woman 
carries the milk to clients, or for sale on the market, and, alas ! 
here, as all the Avorld over, this market milk is often doubled in 
(|uantity by watei- and often whitened by an ingredient. Those 
villagei's who frequent the towns are more corrupt and foul- 
raouthed than their more secluded country sisters ; they are ready 
to swear " God and the prophets ! " for the purity and freshness 
of their article.'^, no matter how far away from truth it may be. 
My father, who generall}- bought or received the milk from the 
railkwoman, said one day to her: "Now, look here, be careful 
another time at least to put in clean and sv:eet water." The milk- 
woman swore that they " always take it from Job's well." Job's 
well is a deep well near Jerusalem. AVhen Jerusalem Avants 
water — which happens as often as rains are rare during the winter 
— the people of Siloam near by take the water from it in skin 
bottles on their donkeys' backs to the Jerusalem market for sale. 
'IMiis is trie only sweet water then to be had in abundance. Siloam 
has another fountain with brackish water, which is utilised only 
when none from Job's well can be had in years of drought. The 
milkwoinan was ever fiftcr ashamed of her unheeded confession. 



WOMAN IN THE. EAST. 67 

Wheie tliey have plenty of milk, the "woinan's cliicf work is to 
carry it daily into tlio market in small jugs. As the Arabs are 
very fond of sour milk, tliis is sold in every Arabic town. 
iJalf-a-dozen or more of such small jugs are put together in the 
wicker-work basket and carried to the market on the head. 
The Avomen are veiy dexterous in carrying loads on their heads 
iinil keeping them in equilibrium. Everything, except the 
l)abics and the skin water-bottle, is carried on their heads. If 
the milk is not sold in the town, on account of the distance, 
it is made into butter or cheese. The milk is put in a skin 
bottle, which is blown up with the liqnid in it and tied up 
fast ; this is to give an empty space to facilitate the churning. 
The bottle is now suspended to three sticks attached together 
and forming a coverless tent ; the bottle is held by the womaa 
sitting down and rocked to and fro for an hour or so till the 
batter is made. When a sufficient quantity of butter is made it 
is either sold fresh in the market by the woman, who takes everv 
saleable thing, as hens, pigeons, eggs, milk, vegetables, to form 
a load worth the journey, or else it is stored away, eitlier for 
home use or to be sold as cooking butter. Sainn is indis- 
pensable to the townspeople and always fetches a good price. 
This is the butter cooked till no watery part remains, saffron 
being added to give it a yellow colour. It is liked best thus and 
keeps for months. If there is any very large quantity of sa-znu 
it is put into skin bottles and sold in the bazaars by the men ; 
women always sell small quantities. When the butter is taken 
out, the skimmed milk is used as food by the members of the 
family. The skimmed milk is put into a sack, and after the 
\<-ater has dropped, the remaining substance is made into small 
cakes, well salted, and put to dry in the sun. These small 
white cakes are sold when dry, and when no fresh sour milk 
can be had, or are used in the famih^ They resemble pebbles, 
and when wanted for food are put into a wooden basin with 
water and rubbed till they ax-e dissolved. In this way the water 
dried out by the sun is again added, and the sour milk is eaten 
with almost the same relish as when it was fresh. 

The fig trees which belong to the family are put in charge of 
the women as soon as the first fruits begin to ripen. A hut is 
built in the fig garden, and the whole family remove to this hut 
during the summer months, not only from the villages but also 
from many minor towns, as Hebron, Gaza, Ramleh, Lydda, and 
others. The women daily gather the figs and put them to dry 

E 2 



08 WOMAN IN THE EAST. 

on red emtli in tlie snn, in a sliut-up space, to in-eveiit tlie dogs, 
chickens, or children walking over or eating the fruit by day, and 
to keep away the jackals and foxes by night. This is certainly 
the happiest time in the year for the women and girls. With 
their loud rolling notes they sing from moi-ning to night. Very 
often one girl sings a line, and another in the next garden one, 
or even across the valley on the .^lope of the opposite mountain, 
a firl continues the second line and so on. The dried figs 
are stored away for winter food. In some places where they 
have too many for the family use, they sell them in the markets 
cf Jerusalem and Jaffa. Long garlands of dried figs are put on 
a string, weighing together seven or eight pounds. This is a 
speciality of some villages north of Jerusalem, as Bethel, Gibeon, 
Ram-Allah, Nazareth, and its villages. Es Salt is renowned for 
its fifjs and raisins. 

About November the olives begin to ripen, and though the 
men have here the more difficult task of taking or beating down 
the fruit an active part is reserved to the women, who whilst 
gathering the fruit from the ground, say or sing verses or 
repetitions of two lines, always repeated by one part of the 
workers whilst the other part take breath. " Oh, olives, become 
citrons," i.e., as big as citrons, is repeated a dozen or more times, 
then another sentence is raid till one of the party has hit a better 
idea; all the while the berries are gathered in the baskets, and 
thence into the goat's-hair sack, never without calling on the 
" name of the Lord " to prevent the Jan eating part of the 
olives. The olives are taken to the oil mill by the men, as the 
village itself often has no mill. The first olives falling prema- 
turely to the ground are gathered by the women alone, and ar<J 
crushed on a flat rock with a stone and then put in water to 
extract the oil ; this is the finest oil that can be had. This mode 
of beating the fruit is most primitive and ancient. Such oil 
Moses commanded the children of Lsrael, in Exodus xxvii, 20, to 
bring for the use of the light in the tabernacle; it is said there 
'• beaten oil," which answers well. 

From time to time the women and girls go together to bring 
home Avood or whatever fuel tihey can find. This is considered 
by most as a kind of picnic; they go singing up and down 
between the rocks and bushes, and every one is busy gathering as 
big a bundle as she feels she can well carry home on her head, 
often many miles, for Palestine, and e.«pecially Judea, is now quite 
denuded of forests— thorn, thyme, or sage bushes often being the 



■WOMAN IX THE EAST, GO 

only " wood " tiicy Lrin^' lioiuc. Whilst on their way iiouie (lie 
mountains re-echo a<,'-ain and again with their meri-y voices, 
though to the Occidental's unaccustomed ears it sccins like 
wailing, still it is full ol" joy and life. They are quite free on 
these err.in Is, as being almost the only time when they are 
(expected to he) quite abandoTied to themselves and unol)servcd 
by any man. 

The songs liere al.so ai^e often improvised on the existing tunes, 
comet imes they may be in connection with what is done, some- 
times romantic adventures, princely honours; the load of wood is 
turned into costly presents, they themselves are tui'ned into 
fairies, and so forth. The beloved comes forth to meet her 
(though he never dovs, in fact), and has a camel and slave to 
serve her. These all show how the present population have 
thoroughly changed in gallantry towards their women, which 
lives 071 only in their pootrj.^ 

The bundles, according to tlie nature of the material, are often 
liigher than the women themselves. Large circular bundles, 
sometimes not thicker than two feet, nicely arranged, are cai-ried 
home by long files of women. In the plains, where wood, bn.shes, 
and even straw is wanting, the fuel consists of cattle manure. 

Charcoal is seldom used by tlie Fellahin. If they are char- 
coal burners themselves the coals are taken to the towns for 
sale whei'e alone charcoal is burned. In the country thoy burn 
exclusively w^ood oi' thorns for cooking, and manure iov the oven ; 
whilst in the towns wood or thorns are burned in ovens, and 
charcoal in the k-itchen.- 

As in the fig gardens, so also tliose possessing vineyards go to 
live there from tlie moment the gi-ape berries begin to look like 

* The Hon. Mr. Justice Ameer Ali, in an nrticle in " The Nineteenth 
Century " for M<iy, 1899, shows tljnt the degradation of the Moslem woman 
is of comparatively recent date. He states that: " Ahnost to tlie end of 
the twelfth century women mixed with men with dignity and self-respect, 
lield reunions, gave concerts, and received visitors." Of the lady Sukaina, 
wlio was a grand-daughter of Fatima, he says: "Slie gave the tone to the 
cultured society of licr age. Tlie reunions in her house of the poets, scholars, 
jurists, and other distinguished people of both sexes, became the mode! for 
similar social gitl.erings at tlie residences of other ladies of fashion." 
Mr. Justice Ali states that Kadlr the Abbasside promulgated the edict 
forbidding wonum to appear in public without the hiirka, and adds significantly, 
" and with tint commenced tlie decadence of Islam." 

• Chavcoal is also used in the towiis in tlie iii niHI, or chafing-d:y'i, for 
wanning rooms. 



70 WO^FAN IN THE EAST. 

grapes, for the Arabs in general almost prefer the green unripe 
grapes to the rips ones. Green grapes always find a ready 
market, being used either for dyeing wool, together with the 
necessai'y colour (the acid of the grapes fixes the colour), or else 
they are sold for flavouring the food or eaten raw. 

Hebron, a Mohammedan town, is all surrounded by vineyards, 
and the best Palestine grapes grow there. Here the townspeople 
become Fellahiu during the summer, living in the vineyards, and 
are occupied all the time. Where the grapes are not sold to Jews 
or Christians of Jerusalem (in Hebron itself only Jews live 
besides the Mohammedans), the grapes when ripe ai'e cooked in 
laro-e kettles after having been crushed in rock-cut reservoirs, from 

C^ CD 7 

which the sweet juice flows into a second reservoir, reminding us of 
the "brooks of honey" mentioned by Job xx, 17. The juice 
gathered is boiled during several hours, and these molasses are 
very much in request amongst all classes of the population. Tlie 
women's part in this work does not go beyond bringing the 
grapes and preparing the jars to receive the molasses and grape 
conserve. The merchants of Hebron go about from village to 
villyge selling this grape treacle to the Fellahiu, who put it awa^^ 
for the winter months. 

Life in the vineyards in the summer months is certainly a time 
when a good deal of care is done away with. It is pleasant 
living, fruits to eat, no house sweeping, and all kinds of house- 
work reduced to the least. The second chapter of the Song of 
Solomon is, perhaps, the best example. It is like living amongst 
the Fellahiu, feeling with them, to read it, and remark the 
details. The vines vvith the tender (unripe) grape give a good 
.smell. "Take heed of the foxes that destroy the vine .... a roe 
on the mountains of Bother." 

Solomon had certainly passed days and nights in the vineyards 
of Bether, where I never remember to have passed without seeing 
gazelles roaming about on the mountains. 

Where they keep bees, the women take an active part in 
harvesting the honey. A man is usually the bee-master for the 
Avhole district, having all the paraphernalia appertaining to bee- 
culture, consisting of a jar-bee-smoker, a mask, leather gloves and 
boots, and a large knife to cut out the comb. The cut out combs are 
handed over to the women, who press out the honey between their 
hands in a dark room, and with heaps of manuie burning before 
the door to keep away the bees, which still may try to enter. The 
pressed out comb-balls, dripping with honey, are washed as clean 



WOMAN IX TIIR EAST. 71 

as possible, the comb reduced t(j wax, wliilsl the rsweefc water of 
the wasliings is boih-d, flour being- added all the time, till the 
whole is almost as thick as honey. It is now poured on laid-ont 
sheets, and left to dry for a day or two. Pine-seeds are strewn 
on the paste as long as it is still Avarm and soft. This sweet, 
known as " nialban," when dry has the appearance of very light- 
coloui-ed loatlier. It can easily be torn, and is either sold or 
stored away for winter food. Usually it is eaten in winter-evening 
assemblies, after a game or story-telling. It is saleaale only 
where the women are experts in manufacturing it. Small bee- 
keepers keep it generally for family use. The crushed and pressed 
combs are put into sacks and boiled in water. The Avax always 
finds a ready market. Pure wax candles are sold by the thou.sand 
in Jerusalem, about the Church of tlie Holy Sepulchre and the 
Mosque. Those sold to Christians are ornamented with scenes 
of the passion, death, and resurrection of Christ ; whilst Moham- 
medan pilgrims only buy such as have no images whatever. The 
Christian candles are many-coloured, and. the Mohammedans' 
usually dirty white, and offered in the sanctuaries as a vow for 
the recovery from sickness, deliverance from accidents, safe arrival 
home again after a long journey. 

The vow in the fashion of Samuel's mother's vow is not so 
usual — at least, not among the Mohammedans. Christians dedicate 
their children to such-and-such a saint. For example, a child 
may be dedicated to Saint Francis for a year or two — the boy 
then wears a monk's hood for the time ; whilst Mohammedans and 
Christians vow to saints or prophets in case of help, a quantity 
of wax candles, olive oil to bui'n in the sanctuary, or a sacrifice 
of a kid or lamb. Thus the person vowing may say : " O ever- 
green Green One" (St. George of the Cliristians), "I offer you 
a lamb and two pounds of pure Avax candles if thou savest me 
from this water," if in danger of being disowned. Or: " If thou 
savest my boy from the small-pox, Prophet Reuben, I offer thee 
a lamb and three pounds of oil." These vows are made by both 
.sexes alike, and are often fulfilled months or years afterwards ; as 
long as the person has the intention of holding his promise, there 
is no harm in putting it off till a favourable occasion. As they 
are very expensive, as many as possible of the friends and relations 
ai'e invited. 

Having received one day from the mother of a boy who had 
recovered from the small-pox an invitation to assist, we started 
to the Greek Chui-ch of St. George, though the vowcr was a 



72 WOMAN IN THE EAST. 

^lohammcclaii. The men v/itli firearms were firing all tlio w:iy ; 
the women, in their best cluthes — excepting the mother, who, as a. 
-widow, never put on any g:iudy apparel — were sinking all the 
while. AVhen we arrived at the chnrch and convent, which is also 
an asylum for lunatics, the abbot, as the custom is, gave the kettles 
and wood to prepare the sacrifice. The men killed tlie lamb in 
the courtyard of the convent, and cooked it, except the head, 
feet, liver, lungs, and skin, which belong to the convent as 
tax. A kettle of rice is now boiled, and all is served in the 
large wooden dishes (hatie). Before the food is ready tlie men 
and women all touch the huge iron chain which is fixed in the 
wall of the church, and to which lunatics are chained, and are 
supposed to be healed, after a stay of several days or weeks, by 
the influence of St. George. The chapel is opened, and everybody 
visits the sanctuary. Now the women dance nnd sing in front of 
the chapel during several hours. The abbot receives a small sum 
of money for his services, lending the kettle and the wood, besides 
the meat already mentioned. Tlie abbot was about seventy years ' 
of age, and, like all Greek abbots in Palestine, talked only broken 
Arabic. Notwithstanding his nge, he calmly stood the shouting 
and shooting within the walls of the convent as quietly as the 
thousands of pigeons nestling all along the old convent walls iu 
crevices and holes, old jars and boxes hung up for tlie purpose. 
Everybody seemed impassive and accustomed to these cei-emonies, 
and went on with their duties as if nobody was there. Tlie abbot 
took us up to his reception-room, put a table and plates at our 
disposal, and bade us partake of the sacrifice in liis rooms. 
Coffee was served afterwards, and, the vow thus having been 
performed, the whole company Avent home singing and shooting, 
as they came. 

Vows are sometimes either forgotten or neglected, and the 
folio iving fable illustrates this class : — " A fox was roaming about 
the mountains, looking for a lizard liei-e and a bird there, when all 
of a sudden two hounds were on his track. He ran hard for hi.s 
life, but, being almost overtaken, he said : ' O Prophet Saleh, if 
thou rescuest me from these dogs, I will give thee a measure of 
lentils and a wax candle for thy sanctuary.' At once the hound.s 
lost his track, and the fox drew breath. After trotting awhile he 
said to himself: 'I'm a good runner anyhow, and have escaped 
those dogs. It is true T vowed ; but then .1 aa\ no farmer, and 
produce no lentils, nor do I own any b?cs to give the prophet wax 
candles.' He had hardly finished this soliloquy, when suddenly 



t— .> 



WOMAN IX THE EAST. t-> 

the liouuds veappeai-etl. The fox again ran as fast as ho couhl, 
and said : ' prophet, lake your measure and follow me ; I'll give 
you the lentils at once.' So he was again saved." 

During tlic liarvest the women pick out the best sti-aws they 
can linil. and l)ind them into bundles; in their leisui-e hours they 
make baskets, trays, and the like for the household furniture, 
Some of the straws are coloured green or red, and symmetrically 
woven into the work, designed generally in curves or broken lines. 
Some are very dexterous in nniking these trays, and produce a 
certain quantity for sale, for they always find a ready market. 

Almost every woman or girl gleans wheat or barley for her 
own benefit, if her time is not wholly taken up by her husband, or 
brother, or father. The gleaned bundles are nicely arranged, and 
put in a heap beside the other corn ; on account of their being 
particularly fixed up and fast tied together, these bundles are 
easily recognised and respected by everyone. The women in their 
spare time knock out the grain with a stone, and store it away 
or sell it at once jn the neighbourhood of the threshing-tioor 
to travelling grain-merchants. If, as in many cases, the family 
be short of flour, she is supposed to lend them this gi-ain 
for the time being for family use ; but seldom, if ever, -will she 
receive it back again if she doe-^ not take it by force. If she sells 
it, the money is put on her head-dress, or, if a widow, lent out on 
intei-est or used for her own wants. As already remarked, the 
wonnxn's purse is quite separate from that of the whole family. 
In some cases, also, she Avill invest her money in live stock — 
sheep, goats, cows, or the like, which are a continual source of 
])rofit, as on no account will she pay anything for stable rent 
or shepherd, unless the whole herd be her own. In this last case 
the husband henctits by the milk, cheese, butter, and a sacrifice 
from time to time. This arrangement is tolerated by the husband, 
to a certain degree, as it discharges him of many obligations, such 
as paying the tax, for sheep and goats have to ]>ay a Government 
tax of about 15 cents, a head ; besides, the husband is considered 
poor, and unable to contribute to municipal wants, though he 
])ersonally benefits to a great extent. 

Sacks of goats' hair and carpets of wool, saddle-bags, baby- 
sacks (in which the women carry the babies on their backs when 
going on errands), and the like are all woven by the women ; they 
are not all experts in this, but generally such as either possess 
herds themselves, or whose husbands or next-of-kin are shepherds. 
The woman works at a fixed price per yard, and is generally fed 



74 WOMAN IX THE EAST. 

by the parfy to -wlinm the carpet belongs as long as the work 
lasts. The apparatus is of the most primitive kind. Most 
women and girls can spin, and they may be seen all about the 
towns spinning as they walk. A bundle of wool, or wool 
and hair, is rolled round the right arm, and the little distaff is 
spun continually on an uplifted knee as they walk along, thus 
spinning tlie threads for the future carpet or sack. The carpet 
manufacture itself is also very simple. Four pegs are driven into 
the ground at the proper distance, according to the quantit}- of 
tbread ready, but seldom over a yard, and a third in breadth, 
whilst the length may be many yards. Two thick sticks form the 
beginning ond the end, fastened against the pegs mentioned. The 
threads Hre now drawn across fi'ora end to end and one touching 
the other, necessarily in an upper and a lower row. A flat piece 
of wood several inches wide and well polished, usually of oak, 
is passed between the throa,ds, dividing them or changing the 
position, pushing the upper down and the lower up. This shuttle 
is not always used; the ball of thread is simply rolled in an oval 
shape, and thus passes to and fro. To fasten the cross-threads, 
the woman has a gazelle-horn, the point of wdiich is slightly 
filed to form a hook, and thus pulls each thread backwards into 
position. The operation takes less time to do than to describe in 
words, although, as the whole work is very long, it may take 
some weeks to make a cai'pet. As the work is always done in the 
open air, and. must rtmain in position, a man generally sleeps 
by it at night, to watch against mischief or thieves, The woman 
is only responsible by day ; she is never expected to watch by 
night. 

All the woman's earnings are liei" private property. Though 
in some cases her husband furnishes her witli necessary clothing, 
in most cases she buys it herself. She has also to furnish 
the oil fcr lighting the house from her own money, and she 
knows well how^ to calculate what may belong to her husband 
and what to her. On returning from market the women sit 
down with their empty baskets and square up the accounts 
before going to their homes. In her spare time the woman 
mends and also makes the clothes for herself, husband, and 
children. It is true it does not require very much skill, as 
the whole consists in a kind of very large shirt with very wide 
sleeves; thus a few inche;? more or less does not matter, and the 
merchant of whom the sheeting and shirting are bought knows 
exactly how many yards are wanted for a suit. The men are all 



WOMAN IX THE EAS'I". 75 

clot lied in :i white shirt or gown, which is lor the most part oF 
the year the only elothiug they wecar; towards winter a second 
gown, either yellow or red-sti-iped, is worn. Women are Jilways 
(dotheil iu blue — a long blue shirt or gown of coarse sheeting, 
hanging down to the feet, and witli vei-y wide sleeves form her 
every-day clothing. Dirty clothes are generally carried to the 
nearest running water; sometimes this is far from the village, 
and where there are only wells, watei- must bo drawn; but 
seldom are things washed with warm water. In houses where 
they have cows or camels a second hand-mill for breaking the 
vetches is to be found, and the woman also prepares these, which, 
after being broken, are slightly wetted so as to render tliem soft, 
and when the camels or cows come homo in the evening after a 
day's labour they tind their supper awaiting them. 

The woman is called by her name and the name of her father; 
never does the name of the husband api)ly to the wife. Thus, if 
the woman's name be Fatme and her father's name 'Ali, she will 
be called Fatme 'Aii as long as she is watliout children ; as soon as 
she has a child she will be called after the name of her eldest son 
or daughter if she has no son. If her son. be Eh'mad, she will 
be called Im Eh'mad, that is " mother of Eh'mad." This is 
the politest way of calling a woman; if she has no children she 
can even be called " Mother of 'Ali," her father's name. 

CnAPTER Yill. — Training the Children. 

This is a most neglected matter, at least in my opinion. It 
is more of a let-it-alone sj'stem than anything else. Boys are 
more left to their own free will than girls, and they are even 
taught to curse and to swear when they can only just pronounce 
the first words. As a matter of course, when only one boy is iu 
the family he is the tyrant, and his will dominates over all. 
When there are more than one, and perhaps some girls, then 
necessarily the parents are more severe, and sometimes administer 
brutal correction; there is nothing like a kind, systematic 
bringing up. As with all illiterate people, amusement of some 
sort mast be had, and the children natui ally form one source of 
general amusement. They are considered mosb clever when they 
can abuse the bystanders or the squatters in the circle of 
visitors. No wonder, then, if the stran^-er ridinar throucrh a 
village finds himself assailed by the younger generation, cursing, 
and even throwing stones for nothing more than their own 



76 WOMAN IN THE EAST. 

childish amusement. This is rarely done to Arab strangers. l)ut 
is reserved for Occidentals, as these are considered in all 
Mohammedan countries, and more so in out-of-the-way phices, 
to be mortal enemies. The boys and girls of six to ten years 
old keep the kids and lambs round about the village. ^V'he^ 
the girls are older, but not after puberty, they may also be 
shepherdesses, if the family have no boy. But after puberty a boy 
is taken, who may at the same time serve as shepherd for seven 
ye.irs and receive a girl for his wages, as Jacob did witli Laban. 
Thus in a family where thei-e are more boys than necessary for the 
wants of the familv, one or two mav be sent to serve outside, and 
villages which are near towns send their boys to work in the stone 
quarries or at mason's yards. Mohammedan girls are kept at 
home till they niaii-y, but some villages near Jerusalem have 
begun to send their daughters as servant girls to the town. 
Amongst the Christian population of Bethleliem, llaniallah, and 
some other places, girls are regularly found in the houses of 
Occidentals as cook.'?, or the like. 

A servant girl from Bethlehem, staying as cook in a I'rench 
hotel at Jaffa (illiterate, as they generally are), one day received a 
letter from her i.iother, and though fully acquainted with the 
contents several days before receiving it, as the letter was written 
in p'j.blic, the girl brought the letter to me and asked me to read 
it. She told me her mother wanisd two wooden bowls and a 
trunk. The letter was worded thus : — 

" From Bethleliem io Jaffa. 

''3rd Kovemher, 1891. 

" Eastern calendar. 

"To the most honoured and excellent lady the respected C'atliei'ina, 
God liveth and endureth for ever. Amen ! 
"After having settled on the principal question, that is, your 
dear health and security, which is with us the essential cause of 
writing, and the occasion of our prayers ; firstly, if your question 
about us be admitted, we are, God be praised, in perfc ct happiness, 
and do nothing but ask about you and the security (d' your health 
which is with us the essential cause of writing, and the occasion 
of prayer. Secondly, that you send to ask us why we never 
answer, seeing 'by the Almighty God' we have sent you four 
answers, two by the post and two by the camel drivers, nor do we 
know what is the matter that they never arrived. After that we 
assure you that we are continually pleased with you, and ask the 



WOMAN' IN THE EAST. 77 

Vir.^iii the motlior of tbo beloved, tliat you imxy soon be unikd 
with us, by the help of the Lord Ciir'st. Then your brothers, 
EHas and Jirius, salute you with many salutations, and your 
sisters, Sultany and Maria, are in perfect health and salute 
you. You havo sent to ask about the health of ,!osoph, your 
brother's son; he is, to God bo praise, in all lieaith and 
KPeurity, so you must not be troubled at all. Also we ask of you, 
onr beloved and honoured daughter, to send us two wooden bowls, 
without mistake, by the kind camel driver, my contentment rest 
on you. I alt^o announce to you that we have let tlie house to 
Aziz, the son of 'Otallah Ody, and he sends you salutations, and 
cv^'n Khaleel 'Otallah salutes yon, and your brother, P]lias, salutes 
you, and begs yon to send him a Hungarian trunk, like the trunk 
of Tufaha, the daughter of your uncle, Jirius. For its price is 
from us, and when you will face us wo will repay you its price. 
"What we now want wo have told you, and if you want anything 
tell us. God liveth and endureth ! 

" Praying for you. In the honoured, holy and blessed N^ativity 
Chui'ch, Helwy. 

" The writer of these words, your uncle's son, Salamy, salutes 
you with many salutations, may you live and endure. 

" To be addressed to the esteemed and honoured Mister Based, 
whose presence may it live. Jirius and Khaleel. 

" 'Otallah salute him, and from his baud to be rendered to the 
excellent lady the respected Catherina." 

On account of their going to European mission schools many 
Christian villagers are brighter, cleaner, and more up to the times, 
though despised by the more austere Mohammedans, who either 
never go to aiiy schools at all, or else go to the village schools, 
which have been instituted of late, and are intended to be obligatory 
under penaltj' of paying a certain sum for those who do not attend; 
this last object is never missed by the greedy officials, ever ready 
to take advantage of the slightest money-making occasion. A 
teacher is appointed to every village by the Government to oppose 
the Christian mission schools. j\Ionths and months may pass ere 
this unfortunate schoolmaster receives his pay, but as the school 
children have to furnish him with a certain quantity of bread and 
whatever they may happen to possess, he is at least kept from 
starving. 

In and about the house the countrywoman is more of a 
personality than her sister of the town. She has all the h'. use- 



78 WOMAN IN THE EAST. 

hold affairs necessarily under her control, as the husband is of lea 
absent for days and even Aveeks. Beinj^ never veiled, like the 
townswoman, slie can step in and out freely, look aft-^r the 
animals, and to some extent give information to her husband, and 
at least stronjifly influence him in regard to his business witli 
strangers. 

When visitors come the elder girls and wife are to keep aside, 
bringing only the food ; but they never entertain male visitors. 
Female visitors are very rare, except on solemn occasions — as 
births, deaths, marriages, and in these cases they are received 
only by the w^omen. The younger children, boys or girls, of 
course, come to sit down in their father's lap and listen to what is 
said, or partake of the food with the strangers. Women come 
and congratulate when a child is born, as has already been 
mentioned. When the children grow older, a boy of twelve or 
more is utterly out of his mother's control. Girls are influenced 
a few years longer, but obedience is next to unknown ; yet there 
exists a natural reciprocal dependence which makes the families 
very intimate, especially as regards the family interests. Thus 
a child of seven or eight will defend the family rights like a 
grown-up person among Occidentals. Their living in one room 
and assisting in all conversations explains how they are so soon 
versed in all family incidents, and can even keep secrets ; for 
necessarily their bloody feuds often oblige them to have secrets. 
Even before a boy arrives at the age of puberty he may receive 
a turban, which he gets either when he marries or even before, 
on a feast day. If the proud father, anxious to show off his 
offspring, hands him a turban, it is wonderful, if not amusing, 
to see the little man of ten or twelve years old squatting down 
gravely for the first time, seemingly conscious of the new era 
of life now dawning upon him. 

Then, also, the sexes separate in their play, which up to this 
first growing out of childhood had been in common. 

Still, brothers and sisters protect each other for the causes 
already mentioned, tlie family circle is holy, and every inmate 
is considered of one flesh. Thei'efore, also, the mother, though 
very much esteemed by her children, still, in family matters, 
may be wholly sacrificed for the sake of her family, who are 
perhaps on bad terms. 



WOMAN IX TIIK EAST. TO 



Chapter IX. — Sicknkss and Ukatii. 

When a j)rrsou is reported to be seriously ill, tlio iodui is 
soon filled witli noisy visitors — men, women, and children; if it 
is winter, a fire is made, fillint,' the room Avith dense smoke, 
whilst all kinds of remedies are discussed by all and every one 
at a time, so that the person interested may hear a portion of 
this remark and another of that. Fresh visitors pour in, the 
others leave, and, in fact, such a sick room is easily recognised 
by its beehive appearance, where continually some are going 
and some are coming. They are not in the least sympathetic 
with the sick; they talk of his malady in the harshest way, or 
draw him into their conversation, however disagreeable this 
may be, and coffee-drinking and pipe-smoking are continually 
indulged in. 

No matter how contagious the sickness, none refrain from 
visiting. They have sometimes doctors of their own, but gene- 
rally this is the priest, who writes a few mysterious nonsensical 
words, and may give this to the patient to swallow, or put under 
his pillow, and so forth. Barbers are the doctors in more serious 
cases, and they either give purgatives or bleed the patient. Yet, 
again, the national remedy is fire applied to any part of the body 
and in very difFerent ways — either simply with burning lint, 
or with a red-hot iron or nail applied to the crown of the head, 
to the arm, temple, and so forth. Efficacious as the fire remedy 
may be in some cases — as, for instance, a venomous bite — yet they 
do not apply it then, as they believe the bite is burning already, 
and fire would make matters worse. European doctors are called 
for in extreme cases, and are also paid highly ; but doctors' 
prescriptions are never followed fully, they follow them partially, 
and should the remedy not produce immediate benefit it is at once 
discarded, and the doctor called a humbug. Hygienic rules are 
still more difficult to be enforced, thus rendering the doctor's 
task difficult, if not impossible. Nature, as everywhere else, helps 
more surely and rapidly. Strained nerves are unknown, and so is 
punctuality. 

They are subject to the same ills as are foreigners, with this 
difference — that the foreigner more surely gets the intermittent 
fever and is harassed by it, whilst the indigenous inhabitants 
may sometimes escape from it, according to the position of the 
village and the occupation, whether they stay at home or are 
obliged to go to the low lands during the summer months. The 



80 WOMAN IX THE EAST. 

plains of Sharon, Jtzreel, and tlie Jordan Valley are terrible 
centres, especially the last-named. In the year 1874 I passed two 
months there with several hundi-ed Fellahin of the Judean 
mountains ; I do not think that a single person escaped the 
fever, and more than fifty per cent, lost their lives. Though 
more than twenty years have jiassed I still feel the effects. 

Thev live, however, to an old age too, as in northern climes. 
It has often been supposed that, as they really begin life so very 
much earlier than Occidentals, they die earlier too. But though 
ihey do not count their age, and if asked will reply : "God alone 
can know " ; still tlie age can be discovered by periods which 
they point out. I have known many very old ])eople of eighty 
or ninety, and above. Thus it inay be safe to say that the average 
is the .same as everywhere else. Great events in Palestine history, 
which impressed themselves on the minds of the people, are: 
— Buonaparte's war in I79S ; the first Jerusalem revolt, 1820; 
Grecian war.*, 1820-30: Egyptian invasion and government, 
1830-40; Crimean War, 1855-58; Christian massacre in the 
Lebanon, 1860; Locusts in 18C6-G7; and so forth. 

A moslem of either sex when dying is turned with the face 
towards the Kibleh, i.e., where the religious feelings are concen- 
Trated at Mecca, and if any strength or presence of mind be left, 
the dviiig person says: "I witness, that there is but one God, 
and that Mohammed is the prophet of God." Everybody present 
witnesses the same. As soon as he or she is dead, the moUah 
is called for a man, and the midwife for a woman. The corpse 
is wholly washed by one of the abovenamed persons, with soap 
and water, the performer chaunting slow and melancholy chaunts 
all the time : " Tliere is but one God, and ^lohammed is God's 
prophet. God! Prayer be to Him and salatation." As at the 
burial of Jesus, new shirting is bought, and when all the issues 
have been stopped with cotton, the corpse is wrapped in this 
shroud and wholly sewed up. No woman may look at the face 
of a man after his burial ablution, except such as could never have 
expected to marry him, that is, his mother, sister, or daughter. 
His own wife is divorced, either because he pronounced a divorce 
himself, or else by the fact of his death ; in consequence, a look 
from her, who is now a marriageable woman, would be considered 
as adultery. The same applies to a man in the case of a deceased 
woman. When the body is washed it is clean and ready to enter 
into judgment. 

The body is always carried by men on a litter or in a 



WOMAN IX TlIK EAST. 81 

carpet towards tlic mosque, where it is pnt down for awhile, the 
men chauntinix all the time in two parties: "There is but one 
<i()d," Ae. ; whilst one parly chaunts, the other takes breath. 
When the body is put down, the whole assembly of men sit 
down round about in front, (he women further off. The priest 
reads chapters of the Koran, and when this is done they take up the 
body, and jn-oceed chaunting to the cemetery. The women follow 
behind, crying and shouting and singing; the next of kin and 
friends with dishevelled hair and no head-cloth on; the clothes 
are rent from top to almost bottom (but for decency's sake, as 
they have only this one on, they sew it up in large stitches, to show 
that it was rent). They put earth on the head, and sometimes their 
faces are blnekened with soot. Though they are reproved occa- 
sionally by the men, and bade to be quiet, as it is sinful to mourn, 
jet this goes on, the warnings or threatenings being unheeded. 

The grave is very shallow, the body is placed between two 
rows of larce stones, and covered with flat stones above, thus 
orming a space in which the dead may move, if asked to do so 
after the burial is over. It is believed by Mohammedans that 
when the body is alone in the grave he or she awakes, and 
sits up, and says : " God ! have I died ? " Then they see two 
•executors of justice — Nakir and Nekeer — armed with clubs, 
fiercely looking at the person. In front is Roman, the examining 
ivngel. He interrogates about the good and bad deeds done 
<luring lifetime; of course, here is no denial, and for the good, 
Roman shows the most shining face nnd widens the grave, whilst 
for the wicked he shows an ugly face, and the grave becomes 
so narrow as to make the bones crack in crossing each other. 
For every bad deed, moreover, the executoi'S give two stripes 
with all their might. Good deeds are almsgiving during lifetime, 
und all other virtues. After this examination the person lies 
<lown to die again, and the soul of the ]\Iohammedan goes to the 
Well of Souls at Jerusalem, whilst the Christians or Jews at 
once go to the devil, all awaiting the judgment dny, which is to 
take place on the platform of Mount Moriah before the Temple. 

Whilst the grave is being prepared the priest and all the 
people sit down, the priest chaunting all the while. The men are 
solemn, but the women now and then give vent to a shout, and 
are energetically called on to be quiet. " May God curse them," the 
men will say; nevertheless, this has no effect whatever on the 
svoraen. As soon as the grave is covered all men embrace each 
other as a token of reconciliation for all wrongs they may have 

F 



82 WOMAN IN THE EAST. 

done each other. All male iclatives are iuvited to a supper b}- 
oue of the relatives of the departed, no matter whether the 
departed be man, woman, or child. The supper differs in nothing 
from a wedding supper, except that the women do not sing or 
dance ; yet it is not true that the}' are glad when a person dies, as 
has been represented by some writer.s. Some have pretended the 
joy to be on account of the supper to follow, yet again many are 
under the impression that the ^lohammedans are glad when they 
have dead friends because they know them to be in Pai-adise. They 
I'eally do believe that all true believers are admitted into etei*nal 
joy and luxury of all kinds, uianufacturirig their happiness as they 
expected it to have been on earth if Avcalth could have given it, 
but from this belief to joy for the departure of a dear person is a 
great way off, in spite of all their stoicism. An Arab proverl) 
says: "A day on earth is worth more than oue thousand below." 
This says more than heaps of commentaries. They ah-^o believe 
in purgatory. The pious go directly to Paradise, and generally 
sucli as die on Friday, but those that have done any deed 
needing expiation must suffer in the most cruel way for a time. 
A h'gend about a woman gives an idea of what this purgatory 
is like: — "A Avoman had a sou verj dangerously ill, and she 
vowed that if he should recover she would leave the world for 
seven day.s. When the son actually recovered she did not know 
how to fulfil her vow, so she went to one well-versed in law and 
I'eligion, and asked him how she could perform her vow. He told 
her that she must be buried seven days ; so she was buried, but 
had food and air to support her. As soon as the burial was over, a 
round opening was seen in her grave, by which celestial air entered. 
She ventured out and saw people in torture. Some were hanged 
by their eyelashes, others by the ears, others upside down, and they 
were receiving flogging.-;. She also saw a woman of her own 
village hanged by her hair-plaits. The tormented woman smelt 
the earthly smell, and asked her if she would go back. When she 
had told her how she was only temporarily buried she begged her to 
tell her husband, who was still living, that she had stolen money 
from him and hid it in a certain place, and that he should look for 
the money and forgive her, as without his forgiveness she would 
continually be tortured. Accordingly when the :seven days were 
over, the buried woman was disinterred and came back, but nobody 
would acknowledge her, as purgatory air had wholly blackened her. 
When at length they were induced to believe it was herself, and 
liad been told what sufferings await the wicked beyond the tomb, 
and especially when she told the man about his wife's message, they 



WOMAN IN THE EAST. 83 

li(;li(>vi;(l in ilit'.se (liiiigs, and also now know what it is to be dead 
and buried." 

The day after burial the women a.spemble early in the morniriir 
arid go to the grave, where they wail, now quietly weeping for th(; 
dead, now with dishevelled hair jumping and dancing in a circle, 
holding each other's hands. From time to time they loose the hands, 
and while hop})iiig strike themselves in the face with both hands at a 
time, three or four times in succession. Having wailed for the space 
of an hoar they go home, to begin again the next morning, till tiie 
following Thursday. On this day oil-cakes are made and. ei^te^l 
at the cemetery by everyone present.^ Men never join in these 
wailings. Thus the wailing goes on seven consecutive Thursdays, or 
until the great Thursday of the dead, which is in Spring, about the 
(rreek Easter. This duty-day is obligatory to everybody. Food 
of all kinds is carried to the tombs and eaten by everyone. This 
practice is common to Christians and Mohammedans, townspeople 
and villagers. They carry the food according to wealth in greater 
or lesser quantities to be given to all present. The food is called 
" Mercy," and nobody is expected to refu.se. When I was a small 
boy I remember the quantities of food the Jerusalem people had at 
tiie entrance of the cemetery. Usually there was cooked wheat, 
well sweetened with honey, which the won^en distributed, giving the 
passers a big spoonful, or throwing it into the pails of the beggars 
who flock around the cemeteries on Thursdays. This food dis- 
tributing, as its name implies, is made to implore mercy for the 
repose of the departed. 

The women go about with rent garments for months, or even 
year^, according to the degree of affliction. Some do not wash 
the white head-cloth as long as they are afflicted, others do not 
even wash their own faces. This last practice is the more striking 
amongst the Christians of Bethlehem, because they are particularlv 
careful about the cleanliness of theii clothes, and the whiteness of 
the head-cloth. 

Mohammedan men never show by any outward and visible 
sign the real affliction caused by a death ; all show is considered 
sinful, though some are as sorry as they can be. A young man 
had two wives, one very ugly, who had sons and daughters, but 
wa3 not loved in spite of this. His second wife was beautiful, ami 

^ Eating at Graves. — This is also an ancient and widespread custom.. Jt 
appears to originate in the idea of feeding the spirits of the deacl,'wl\o can be 

nourished, as it were, on the ghostly part of the food eaten by tlir livinir 

C. R. C. 



8-1: WOMAN IN THE EAST. 

liad ail only tlauglitor. Being very pretty, this child was the pet 
<if the family, at least the half of the family which was on the 
side of the beautiful wife. Wiien the girl was about three years 
aid she got the whooping cough and died. The disconsolate father 
was angry with Providence, and. thus expressed himself : " God left 
me my stupid, ugly son, but my good and wise daughter was too 
good for this world. I think the world is only made for the foolish 
to live on, the clever are taken away prematurely." 

Another case of a man who lost his wife, and whom I assisted, 
shows the deep sorrow which men feel, and even show, on some 
occasions. When the corpse was brought and laid down in front 
(tf the tomb, a kind of ossuary, the husband objected for fear of 
t!ie rains entering in and wetting her. He told the assembly that 
he had lost his own self; though he had many grown up sons and 
married daughters, he considered them all not even worth i-epeating 
their names. 

Several men tried to console him in some way or other, but to 
no effect. 

Now Ibrahim, the husband of the deceased, said: "Carefully 
put her alone ; don't mingle the bones of the other dead with 
hers." 

One of the assembly said : "At the resui-rection all creation 
will be gathered, and there will be no fear about the indi- 
vidualities ; every bone will go to its owner, no matter how 
dispersed they may be." 

Says Ibrahim : " Don't talk nonsense ; this is the priest's 
invention. 1 think that all flesh is as grass : it withers, decays, 
and will never be i^estored to its primitive form." 

One of the assembly: "This is blasphemy; we all know that 
the resurrection of the body is true, and you will meet her again." 

Ibrahim answered : " Good people, then I am an unbeliever, 
and if God had anything to do with it, or power to do so, he would 
have spared my Avife. For myself I see and know she is dead for 
ever and ever." 

Chapter X, — Keligion a\d Practice. 

Whether among Christians or Mohammedans, religious life does 
not extend beyond keeping the feasts and fasts, and in very rai'e 
cases also saying prayers. Application in practical life of any 
precept is almost unknown. And especially women, who consider 
themselves inferior to men, are convinced that as long as the men 
do not show by their deeds what a pure and holy life represents, 



WOMAN IN 11 IK KAST. 



85 



women are exempt from every religions practice, or nitlicr they 
do not think at all about it. 

Crimes, such as murder, theft oP the burj-'larious order, ..r 
incest, are really considered sinful, ])ut outside this the everyday 
incidents— minor thefts, lying:, !ni(l slandering— are not considered 
such crime^i as can throw a shadow on a person's character. 

In the liiblc women are mentioned veiy often, and their 
religious feelings must have been very much the same as those of 
the^modern FallAha if we except a few here and there. We can 
very well follow their lives iuul classify them as now into towns- 
Avomen, Fellahin, and Bedawin. 

As already mentioned the feasts and fasts of Ramadan are 
kept by the women as Avell as by the men. Prayers are also said 
by a few. Two principal feasts are observed— the Thursday of 
the dead may be excepted, for this is considered a duty day. 

The feast of Bairam lasts for three days after the thirty days' 
fasting, when clothes are renewed. To the prayer everybody then 
comes in his best clothes. At this feast every head of a family kills 
a goat or sheep and eats it with his friends and relatives. The 
greeting on the feast days is : "May you be in peace (or present 
Avithout infirmity) every year " ; and the answer : " And you, too, 
in peace " ; this is exchanged by everybody. The women do not 
stretch out the bare hand, but cover it with tbeir long sleeves, 
and bow down to kiss the hand of tlie mar. 

The second feast is held sixty^five days later. According to 
Mohammedan tradition, this is the feast held in commemoration 
of Abraham's sacrifice of his son Ishmael on Moriah. The centre 
of the feasting is on Mount 'Arafat, near Mecca, whither thousands 
and thousands of sacrifices are brought by the pilgrims, and as 
every pilgrim brings a sacrifice, it is evident that a very small 
quantity of the meat can be eaten. Immeasurable heaps of meat 
aie left to putrify and poison the whole neighbourhood. Though the 
Government employs men to bury the remaining meat, and though 
a certain class of pilgrims from Central Africa and the Soudan 
remain there and dry the meat and live ou it for a year, still 
it is not possible to destroy all the blood and skins and so fortli, 
or to prevent the whole region being filled with a pestiferous odour, 
and diseases of all kinds are carried home into all countries 
inhabited by Islam. During this great feast everyone at home 
also sacrifices, and portions of meat are sent to the relatives, 
usually to a daughter or sister married in another village. Olive 
twigs are stuck around the door-posts as a sign of peace, and the 
blood of the sacrifice is sprinkled on the posts and the lintel. 



SC WOMAN IX THE KAST. 

The niollah, wlio is the only literate person in tlie village, reads 
chapters of the Koran before tbe whole assembly attar bavinw- 
■said prayers. Most of tbe features of this feast bave evidently been 
banded down from generation to generation. Ibe blood sprinkling 
dates as far back as tbe departure from Egypt. Tbe sending of 
portions is found in Nebemiab, together with the reading of the 
law : Ezra then opened tbe book and tbe people listened atten- 
tively, lifted up their bands and bowed tbeir beads. Just as, after 
the prayer, Nebemiab commanded the people to bring portions 
to tbera for whom nothing is prepared, tbe Fellabin carry tbe 
portions to all relatives and friends. Years ago, wben I lived in 
tbe village of certain Mobammedans, almost every family sent me 
portions, tbougb not a Mohammedan ; and we all were considered 
as wortby of receiving the sanctified food. Thougb it is meant only 
for believers in their faith, tbe people never considered us as 
thorongb infidels, as we always respected tbeir feelings and 
assisted at sucb of tbeir religious ceremonies as allowed of our 
being present. Tbe native Cbristians are called Nazarenes by 
tbe Mobammedans, wbilst Europeans in general are called Franks. 
Tbose wbo have more to do witb European and native Cbristians 
make tbis a marked difference, but in out-of-tbe-way places, sucb 
as bave no contact witb strangers, call all non-Mobammedans 
liufar or infidels. Tbeir law leaves a margin for tbe Cbristian as 
long as be lives, t".*^., be is not accursed by law, for be may convert 
bimself on bis death-bed, wbilst tbe dead Christian is accursed, 
as baving departed tbis life without passing into Islam. A Jew 
is accursed Avbile alive, for a Jew can only become Mohammedan 
after baving previously become a Cbristian, and tben turning 
Mobaniniedatl. Wherefore the Koran says : " Cursed be tbe dead 
of tbe Christians, and cursed be the Jews." The aversion Islam 
has towards images and pictures, witb wbicb most Christian 
chu robes are decorated, and to tbe cross surmounting religious 
edifices is a great obstacle against conversion to Christianity. 
But tbe most serious obstacle, besides the mystery of tbe Holy 
Trinity — as against tbeir one God — and a single wife in marriage, 
is tbe rivalry of tbe different churches, and the manifold pitiful 
quarrels iu wbicb they are often engaged. 

Be it (said, to tbe shame of many Christian churches, that they 
even buy their converts with money and promises, and, what is 
yet more sad to confess, that the churches buy their adherents 
from each other — that is, take them away from one church into 
anotben jMohammedans are rarely converted in Palestine. The 
few who bave been made Christians are such ^s have been 



WOMAN IX TIIK EAST. 87 

brought np as orphans in CMiristiiin schools. As an instance of 
such reherious traffic I knew a fiill-i'rown man with wife and 
children receive money one day from a priest of another chnrch 
to become one of his flock. Accordingly Christian A for a trifle 
of about 20 dollars become.-? Christian B. After a lapse of nine 
months he returned to his old ci-eed, and on beinp^ questioned why 
he no more assisted at Divine service he said: "I think it hns 
been long enough to assist at your services for nine months for 
20 dollars, but if it please you I will continue another month, and 
1 hope you will have nothing to claim after that." This traffic, 
which is carried on very largely in all Christian centres in 
Palestine, has lamed the efforts of the real Christian, who tries to 
show by his works and example what an honest Christian life is 
expected to be. Piiests are considered by the natives as sly 
persons, be they Mohammedans or Christians. The legend goes 
that a Christian priest on his way to town met the devil, and as 
they walked together the priest proposed that they should cany 
each other by turns, that as long as the rider could say fara-lavi, 
he was to continue to ride ; the devil, being the more polite, 
offered his shoulders to the priest, who readily accepted. As they 
proceeded the priest went on saying tara-lam till they neared the 
town. The devil then said: " Please excommunicate me," but the 
priest refused for some time ; on the devil's insisting, he finally 
granted it and excommunicated him, but as to the cause the 
devil said : " If ever I carry a priest again, then let me be excom- 
municated." This is to show how they believe the priest slyer 
and more mischievous than the devil himself. Such anecdotes or 
legends abound among the people. 

The Fellahin have the same belief about the underground 
dwellers as the townspeople. The Jinn lurk everywhere and 
take advantage of the forgetful housekeeper. In general the 
same ghosts and ogres are thought to exist as those in which 
townspeople believe. 

Shrines or tombs of prophets and saints are visited either ''n 
special feast days for the said saint or to accomplish a vow as 
jibove described. The tomb of the prophet Moses,^ near the Dead 
Sea, and that of the prophet Reuben near the Mediterranean, 

' The Grave of Mosp.s. — This shrine {Nehy Musa) is a great place ».£ 
Moslem pilgrimage in .'spring. The peculiar bituminous shwlc close by burns 
like coal. The legend of the transference of the shrine, no doubt, is intended 
to meet objections that Moses really died and was buried on the opposite side 
of the Jordon Yalley in Moab.— C. R. C. 

F 3 



83 "WOMAN IX THE EAST. 

soiitli of Jaffa, are visited — tlic first in Passion week and the 
second in September. 

It is said : — When Moses "tvas old, Ozrain, the Angel of Death, 
appeared to him and announced to him his deatli, but Moses 
entreated of him to allow hiin at least to say bis prayers before 
death ; Ozi-ain consented, and ]\[oses asked bim to wait awhile 
till he had performed his ablution. Having gone out, Moses went 
into the wilderness, and the Angel of Death lost sight of him. 
Six years went by and Moses Avas still wandering away in a 
straight line from Jerusalem, Then he saw two men making 
a grave (they were Ozrain and an angel), so Moses greeted them : 
'' Peace be with you," and they answered : " And to you peace." 
" What are you about ? " said Moses. " Well," answered the 
Angel of Death, " we are digging a grave for a man exactly of 
your stature, and as we lost his measure Avill you kindly descend 
and see if it is right Y " Moses consented, and lay down. Ozrain 
asked him : " Are you comfortable on all sides '? Is the grave 
wide enough?" Moses answered in the affirmative. "Well 
then, please remain in, for you are the man." Moses begged for 
time to say a prayer, and gave his word of honour not to escape, 
and it was granted him. Moses now earnestly prayed to God and 
said : " Why am I to die so far away from Jerusalem in a 
wilderness, seeing this place is six years' distant from Jerusalem, 
and there is neither sanctuary nor are there inhabitants ? " God 
said: "That is my business, henceforth nobody shall go to Mecca 
on pilgrimage, but shall visit thy tomb; the yeai's' distance I will 
change into hours, and the very stones I will cause to become 
fuel." In fact God himself transported the tomb to a spot six 
hours' distant from Jerusalem, and as the region is desert the 
stones were turned into bitumen. Thus pilgrims can pcrforui 
their pilgrimage and can burn this material. 

CnAPTi:[: XI. — Coxcj.UDiXG IIi:.marks. 

When a man comes back fi'om Mecca, or from some other 
journey, or has done his four or five years of military service, 
obligatory to all able-bodied men, the Avomen meet him singing, 
and though the man gives his hand to shake hands a woman mnst> 
always cover hers with the big sleeve and kiss the man's hand. 
In busy places, as at Siloam, near Jerusalem, the man, woman, and 
children lead something of a family life, as being absorbed in 
business on the one hand, and often secluded from obligatory 
causes, distance of houses, and so forth. The covering of 



WOMAN IN TIIK KAST. 80 

(lie li!ind is l)ucan,so a wom.'ui is over ('insidcjicd :is uiiclcaii, 
and the bowing and kissing as a sign oF inrerioi-ity- Amongst 
villiigers no pi-efixes to names or titles ;ii-o used, except for m. 
mollali, dervish, or mayor of the viUage. who i.s invariably called 
.Sheikh, whilst politeness bids the ase of many terms. For elder 
men or women, uncle or aunt is used before tlie name, and foi- 
young persons of the same age '' brother " or " sister" is prefixed, 
whilst for children or persons very much younger, " my son " or 
■■ my daughter " is prefixed. When they address townspeople or 
powerful liedawin Sheikhs, they will address the men fis " my 
lord " or the women as " my lad}'," as Abigail in her distress, 
when she saw David, lighted ott' her ass, and said : " Upon 
me, my Lord, u|ion me let this iniquity be." Never may a 
woman respecting herself and the man she meets j^emain on the 
ass, but like Abigail must alight from any animal she is riding, 
liebekah also when seeing Isaac from afar came down from the 
camel and walked. 

Before slavery was alxjlishod in Turkey, late in the seventies, 
wealthy Pellahlu often possessed slaves whoin they bought 
from slave dealers who had brought them from the Soudan. 
In 187J I saw such a string of slaves driven past the village 
of Urtas ; a Fellah bought one of the slaves for £T20 (about 
b5 dollars), but the slave lied a few days afterwards aiul 
was never heard of again. Another who had been bought in 
Urtas more than forty years before had stayed with his master, 
and they grew so attached to each other that when I knew him 
he had been married by his mastei-, and on the death ef his 
master had inherited one-fifth of the property, receiving an equal 
share with the four sons. He had married a black girl, and their 
children again married black men and women of the same origin, 
that is, liberated slaves. The old man and his children talketl 
Arabic very Avell, but the woman had been brought to Palestine 
by American settlers, who died, and she married in Urtas; though 
she knew no other language, she never leaimed to talk Arabic 
jiroperly, always confounding tlie genders and the numbers. 

On afternoons, when the principal work is done about the house 
and yard, the women of the quarter assemble together to chat about 
one thing or another, and more is often said than is necessary. 

The Fallaha is very inquisitive. The story goes : — One day a 
Fellah, whilst killing a man, was asked by the man wdio was being 
murdered to stop a moment ; the murderer listened, when the dying 
man said : " My murder will be known." The murderer said : " But 
111 bury you belosv this huge heap of stones, and it will not even be 



90 AVOMAN ]X THE EAST. 

fouiul out tliat you arc murdei-ed at all, seeing we are far away from 
any human being.' " But," said the dying man, showing a thorn- 
bush flying past, carried by the wind : " The thorn-bush will repeat 
the news." He was killed and buried. In the villngo he could 
not be traced, and was forgotten. Years passed by, and the 
murderer one day looking out of his window saw a fhorn-busli 
flying past, carried b}- the wind. He smiled ; his wife asked him 
what he was smiling at, but he would not say, till, finally, he said 
he had remembered something that happened on a day like that, 
when a thorn-bush was carried by tlie wind, and that made him 
smile: but the daughter of Eve insisted on knowing all about it. 
At length he told her, but begged her to keep it secret, and 
both laughed at such foolishness. One day the man and woman 
had a dispute, and from harsh words they began fighting, till the 
woman shrieked out so that everybody could hear: " He is going 
to murder me as he did X, under the heap of stones, in such 
and such a place, and of course a thorn-bush will reveal every- 
thing." Quick as lightning the news spread, and the murderer 
was punished for his crime by being killed. Therefore the 
proverb : " Dirt, son of dirt, who tells a secret to a woman." 

Living in the country where no artisans live, we had alway.s 
tools of all kinds to repair or make many articles, especially Avood- 
work. The women of the villa"e alwavs had this and that to 
jueud. Though I never refused to do anything that I thought 
myself capable of doing, and without ever asking the least 
remuneration, but, on the contrary, even furnishing nails and 
pieces of board into the bargain, they would be greatly astonislied 
if by chance I declared a Avork impossible for me to accomplish, 
and even show a certain annoyance if all was not punctually done 
at a given time. We had even to be doctors and dispensers — of 
course in light matters. Jiut many a time we had to cure fevers, 
sore eyes, and the like; and when an animal had a broken leg 
1 was supposed to be enough of a surgeon to put things into order 
again. In many cases I had ver^' good success, and just these 
successes made them believe that where I failed it was through 
Ijad will. 

I am now far away, but am sure my return amongst these 
villagers would be greeted by feasts and songs, as was the case 
when, after an absence of live years, I returned once before. 
Certainly the women showed their gi-eatest joy — dancing and 
singing in honour of my return througli whole nights. 

{To he continued.) 



91 



NOTICES OV FOREIGN PUBLICATIONS. 

Revue Uibli(p'e,\o\. ix, 1000 ; published by the Practical School of Bihlical 

Studies at the Uoniiiiicau Monastery of St. Stephen, .Jerusalem. 

PfeiiK L.\ORANGE, the Superior of the Monastery, discusses the route of 

the Israelites from Goshen to the Jordan. The passage of the Red Sea 

is placed at the Sei-apeuni, and the pvo])osed route, after leaving Wadi 

(iliarandel, runs by the Ihhhct cr-Ramle (Wilderness of Sinj to Jebel ilUsd 

(Sinai). 'J'hence by ^Ain Jludhera (Hazeroth) and the Nagh el-Mimd 

to 'Ain Kadis (Kadesli), and thence across the et-Tih desert to Eziongeber, 

near the Gidf of 'Akaba. From this point the route runs uj) the ^Araba to 

'Ain el-Weibe (Oboth), and thence by KImrbet ^A'i (fje-Abarim), between 

W. el-Hesi and Kerak, to Dhiban (Dibon) and the Jordan. Portions of 

the et-Tih desert have not been sufficiently explored to enable anyone to 

express a definite o])inion upon the route. But it seems to me that Pere 

Lagrange has not succeeded in solving the many difficulties connected 

with it, and that he has not given sufficient weight to the argument that 

the Israelites, with their wheeled transjiort, would have followed the 

easiest road through the country, especially from Eziongeber to Dibon. 

Pere Lagrange also contributes an article on Deborah {\\ ^lOOf), in which 

he adopts the view that the Kedesh of Barak was at Tell Abu Kadeis, 

between Lejjnn and Ta^annuk. The campaign of Sisera against Barak is 

further discussed by M. Marmier (p. 594 /), who identifies Hazor with 

Teiasir, and Harosheth with Khurbet Yerzeh, makes Tell Abti Kadeis the 

.•site of Sisera's death, and places Kedesh near Mount Tabor. These 

identifications seem somewhat hazardous. 

Pere H. Vincent, who closely watches all discoveries at Jerusalem, 
notices a small church of which the Armenians have found remains 
between the Sion Gate and the so-called " House of Caiaphas" (p, 118). 
He also gives a description, with plan, sections, and sketches (p. 451/, 603), 
of the Ydknbieh, a mosque close to, and immediately east of, Christ 
Church, wiiich was formerly the Church of St. James-the-Less. Mr. Schick's 
plan {Quarterly Statement, October, 1895) is corrected, and it is main- 
tained that no part of the church is older than the time of the Crusades. 
He also describes the tomb oa Mount Scopus, and the ossuaries with Greek 
and Hebrew graffiti which were found in it (p. 106, and comments by 
M. Clermont-Ganneau, p. 308), and gives a plan and sections of the tomb, 
and ])hotographs of " scpieezes " of the ornament and graffiti on the 
ossuaries. A short notice of this tomb by Mr. Ilornstein is given in 
Quarterly Statement, 1900, p. 75. There are also notices of the remains of 
a church found in the Muristan in the position assigned to the Church of 
>St. Mary Latin-the-Less (]). 117); and of four Greco-Roman sarcophagi 
found in a tomb in the grounds of the Alliance Israelite, north-west of 
the city (p. 603, plan, sections, and sketches). 

There are also papers by M. Sehlumberger (]i. 427) on a variety of the 
-seal of the old Abbey of St. Ma)T La'. in, which is compared with that 



92 NOTICES OF FOREIGN I'UBLICATIONS. 



• 



attached to a document dated 29th October, 1267, in the Archives of 
Malta ; by Pore Sejonrnu (p. 119), on a curious mosaic found at Hum, in 
the Haurdn, wliich he believes represents a mathematical division of the 
circle, but is consideied by M. Coguat to be foi- a game of hop-scotch ; 
by M. van Berchem (p. 288), on an Arab epitaph, dated 14th November, 
1£08, found in the grounds of the Dominican Monastery ; by M. Michon 
(p. 9')/), on the inscription copied by Mr. Hornstciu at Ba'albek 
{(Quarterly Statement, 1900, p. 74) ; and on two fragments of tiles stamped 
with the emblems, a galley and wild Iwar, of Legion X Fretensis, from 
the collection of Baron Ustinov (see M. Clermont-Ganneau's comments, 
]). 307) ; by P. Germer Durand, on inscriptions fi'om Damascus, Gerasa, &c. 
Each number of the " Revue " contains an appreciative notice of the 
excavations carried out for tlie Fund by Dr. Bliss and Mr. Macalister ; 
and there is a very favourable review (p. 463) of M. Clermont-Ganneau's 
" Aichseological Kesearches" lately published by the Fund. 



Zeitschrift des Beutschen Paliistiaa Vereins, vol. xxii, 1899. 

TuE volume opens Avith a memoir, by Professor Kautzsch, on tiie life 
and work of the late Dr. Socin, who was one of the founders of the 
German Palestine Society. Professor Socin was perhaps best known in 
this country by the excellent handbook to Syria and Palestine which he 
wrote for Baedeker's .series, and by his articles, Palestine, Syria, &c., in 
the ninth edition of the "Encyclopaedia Britannica." He was a sound 
scholar, a man of engaging personality, and an ideal scientific traveller. 
Almost his last work was the revision of his valuable list of Arabic 
place-names in Palestine, and of his reading of the Siloam inscription 
for the present volume (p. 18 /f). 

Amongst other ijajiers are Professor Hartmann's geogiaphical and 
historical notes on that part of the Syrian Desert which lies between 
Damascus, Aleppo, Palmjra, and er-Eakka. The notes, based in part on 
])ersonal observatio)], are an important addition to our knowledge of the 
district. Dr. Schumacher's description (p. 178 f, and map) of the 
changes in the Jauhin and Hauran since his survey in 1884-86. 
Interesting details are given with I'egard to the Jewish colonies on 
the Upper Jordan, and the Rothschild colonies in Jaulan, and to the 
rapid, widespread destruction of the ruins of Gadara by the fellahin. 
Dr. C. Mommert's paper (j). 105) on the orientation of Arculfs plan 
of the Zion Church in the seventh century. The writer holds that, 
according to early tradition, the place where the Virgin died 
was south-east of the Coenaculum, and not north-west of it, in the 
ground presented by the Sultan to the German Emperor. Dr. Fries's 
paper (p. 118) on the most recent investigations into the origin of the 
Phoenician alphabet, in which it is maintained that the Phoenician 
characters were derived from the Mykenean, and were imported into 
Palestine B.C. 1500-1000, and that their names were taken from those 
of the early cuneiform symbols. Dr. Sobeinheim's account of his journey 



NOTICES OF FOREIGN PUBLICATIONS. 9:1 

fiuiii Palmyra to Seleiniyeh with the phice-names in Arabic characters, 
and a table of altitudes. Dr. Christ's article (p. 65) on the lily of the 
Bible ; aud two papers by Dr. Schick— one suppoiting the view that 
'Ain Kdn7n, aud not Vutta, was the birthplace of St. John the Baptist, 
and the other niaintainiug that Christ entered Jerusalem on Palm 
Sunday by the "Golden Gate," and not, as Dr. Sepp holds, by the 
" Double Gate." 

Vol. xxiii, parts 1, 2, 1900.— Professor Ilartniann continues his 
valuable notes on the Syrian Desert, and gives a sketch-map of the 
countrv showing the Roman and early Arab roads and towns. Dr. Chri.st 
contributes a review of Dr. Post's standard work on the " Flora of Syria, 
Palestine, and Sinai." 

Mittheilungen und Nachrichten des Beutschcn Pal. Vereins, 1899-1900. 
The volume contains a series of interesting letters written by Dr. 
Schumacher during his survey of part of 'Ajlan in 1898, with view^s of 
))laces not hitherto photographed ; a short account by Baron Briinnow 
of his journey east of Jordan, with copies of the inscrijjtions which he 
collected, and photographs— one of a tomb he discovered at el-Kahf, 
south of 'Amman ; a note on Beersheba, where there are now two sakiehs, 
ei'ected by a sheikh of the 'Azazime Bedawin, for raising water from the 
wells, and a khan. 

1900-01, No. 1.— Dr. Sellin continues the account of a journey in 
Palestine made in 1899, aud discusses various sites, amongst others Ai, 
which he places at et-Tell, and Bethaven, identified with Khnrhet el-Jir. 
Dr. Schumacher publishes inscriptions from J crash and its vicinity. 



liemeil d" Arche'ologie Orientale, par C. Clekmont-Gankeau, M.L, &c., 

vol. iv, parts 1-8, 1900. 

A NOTICE of the contents of each part of M. Ganneau's valuabK- 
'• Recueil " is published, on its issue, in the Quarterly Statemcit, and 
attention is drawn here only to articles which are directly connected 
with Palestine. In his first two papers the author discusses the .stamped 
Jewish jar handles, and inscribed Jewish weights, nearly all of which 
liave been found during the excavations of the Fund. In form ;;nd 
dimensions the jars, probably, were not unlike the large Phoenician ami 
( !arthaginian jars, and they were distinguished from the amphoras <>f 
Hellenic make by their short thick handles, which probably served as 
rings for the passage of ro])es. The handles are divided into two groups 
— those stamped with the four-winged solar disc, and those with the four- 
winged scarabaeu.s. The inscriptions may be translated : (for the service 
--equivalent to our O.H.M.S.), of the King, Hebron, &c., and, perhap.s^ 
were intended to indicate that the jars had a certain capacity. The form 
of the lettei-s seems to show that they are earlier than the Exile, but mueh 
later than the. time of Rehoboam. They may have been made at royal 
IMjtteries, the existence of which seems probable from 1 Chron. iv, 23. 



04 NOTICES OF FOREIGN rUBLICATIOXS. 

( )f the five knowu iTiscribed weights, th^t ohia.ined from Samaria by Dr. 
Chaplin is the oldest, and dates from a period when Assyrian influence 
was strong in Palestine. The others are later and Egyptian in form. 

The Levitical town, Mepltaath (v). 57), known to Euscbius, and 
probably the Mesa (MefaV) of the Notitia, appears to be Meifa'a, a 
village in the Belka mentioned in the Mardsid (a.d. 1300). This name 
may still linger as Kluirbet Meifa'a. In Lcs trots Karak de Syne, a 
correction of Mr. le Strange's translation of a passage in the Marasid 
("Palestine under the Moslems," p. 480) is proposed, and some interesting 
information is given with regard to Kerak of Moab. In discussing 
(p. 66) the original Greek of the Latin version of the story of the fielding 
of the rp.Iics of St. Stephen, M. Ganneau takes the exopyla of the Greek to 
be one of the heaps of refuse outside Jerusalem upon which Stei^hen's 
body was thrown, and " the Kedar," which indicates the position of the 
heap, to be the mutilated name of an unknown place near the city. 
Another view, that of Pure Lagrange, is that exopyla simply means out- 
side the gate, and that the gate was the one leading to Kedar, near 
J^amascns. The Cedar of the Latin version was probably the origin of 
the transference of the scene of Stephen's martyrdom to the Cedron valley, 
with which the word has nothing to do. Recently discovered inscriptions 
in Palestine and Syria are also discussed. 



At the Congress of Christian Archa;oloqy in Rome last spring an 
interesting discussion arose with regard to the celebrated fourth century 
mosaic in the Church of St. Pudentiana, which is figured in Di Rossi's 
great work, in Spithovers Roman mosaics, and in Mr. Jetfery's pamphlet 
on the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. A suggestion of Ptjre Grisar that 
the Roman edifices in the background were the great churches erected by 
Constantine at Jerusalem appears to have found general acceptance. 



A Report of the Recent Excavations atid Explorations conducted at the 
Sanctuary of Nazareth, by Br. Vlaminck, O.F.M., Jerusalem. 

The excavations showed that tlie " Holy House," before it was trans- 
ported to Loretto, stood upon the rock in front of the " Grotto of the 
Annunciation " ; that that gi'otto had three apses ; and that the altai", now 
standing in front of the north apse, was originally in the east aj)se, which 
was decorated with mosaic. Amongst the discoveries were the opening 
by which alone the grotto received light, and was reached from the " Holy 
House"; a chamber, 10 feet squai-e, to the west of the "Chapel of the 
Angel," with a floor of mosaic, on which appears the name of Deacon 
Kononos, of Jerusalem, in Greek characters ; a tomb with an .ante- 
chamber floored with mosaic ; an ancient rock-hewn staircase leading to 
the "House of St. Joseph" ; and a pier of the old basilica on which an 
Armenian pilgrim, called James, had scratched his name. The report is 
accompanied by plans of the church, the grotto, and the mosaics. 

c. w. w. 



Qdarterly Statement, April, 1901.] 



THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



In 

HER MAJESTY 

BORN 

OF THE PALESTINE EXPLORAT 

DEPARTED THIS 


ifttrmoriiim. 


VICTORIA 

FOUNDATION IN ISe.'i. 

V 22, 1901. 


' QUEEN 

MAY 24, 1819. 
PATRON 

ION FUND FROM ITS 

LIFE JANUAR^ 



Her Most Gracious Majesty, of liappj and blessed memory, 
was among the first who started the work of exploration and 
excavation in Palestine bj contributing one hundred pounds 
towards the Fund at its inception, and has continued from that 
day to this our Patron. For the Queen always recognised that 
the primary object of the Fund was to aid in making the Bible 
better known and understood by a systematic study of the 
archaeology, natural history, and physical geography of the 
Holy Land, and of the manners, customs, and arts of its inhabi- 
tants. And it was because anything that directly or indirectly 
serves to throw light upon the sacred page is thus earnestly 
and perseveringly sought for and fearlessly welcomed by the 
Palestine Exploration Fund, come it from what source it may, 
that Her Majesty was pleased to evince her continued interest 
in its operations. Even before the inception of these, the present 
King, by Her Majesty's desire, visited the Holy Land in the 
spring of 1862, under the guidance of Dean Stanley, who was 

G 



96 NOTES AND NE^YS. 

afterwards one of the founders of our association. And the 
subsequent visits to Palestine of so many members of the Royal 
Family, in order that they might thus be afforded an opportunity 
for the better appreciation of the history and records of our 
relio-ion, were due to Her Majesty's initiative. At her corona- 
tion the Queen received, as her ancestors had done for six 
generations, from off the altar at "Westminster Abbey, by the 
bands of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bible " as the most 
valuable thing that this world affords," and with the charge 
from his lips : " Here is Wisdom, tliis is the Royal Law ; these 
are the lively oracles of God. Blessed is he that readeth and 
they that hear the words of this book, that keep and do the 
thing's contained in it. For these are the words of eternal life, 
able to make you -wise and happy in this world, nay wise unto 
salvation, and so happy for evermore, through faith which is in 
Christ Jesus, to whom be glory for ever." And when his 
successor in the See of Canterbury in 18S5 presented in the 
name of Convocation a copy of the revised version to the Queen, 
she wrote that " she must congratulate those who had laboured 
so anxiously and so successfully, and assured the Archbishop 
and Convocation of the deep interest with which she would 
read these sacred volumes." These were no empty words. The 
effect of the study thus referz^ed to was daily and practically 
manifested in Her Majesty's exemplary life. Instances, too, 
of the Queen's happ}" application of Scripture are before the 
public in the choice of the texts that are quoted on the monu- 
ments she erected to her relatives and personal friends. Under 
the medallion of Dean Stanley that faced Her Majesty in the 
private chapel at Windsor Castle is engraved, " Now abideth 
faith, hope, charity, these three ; but the greatest of these is 
charit}'^ " (1 Cor. xiii, 13). On the brass erected in the same 
place to Sir John Cowell's memory, Ps. xv, i, 2 — " Lord 
who shall abide in Thy Tabernacle, who shall dwell in Thy 
holy hill. He that walketh uprightly and worketh righteousness, 
and speaketh the truth in his heart." On that to Sir Charles 
Grey, Ps. xxxvii, .37 — "Mark the perfect man, and behold the 
upright, for the end of that man is peace," and Rev. xiv, 13. 
On that to Sir Thomas Biddulph, St. Matt, xxv, 23. On that 
to Sir Charles Phipps, Pro v. x, 7 — " The memory of the just 
is blessed." On that to Sir Henry Ponsonby, 1 St. Peter, ii, 17; 



NOTES AND NEWS. 97 

and en Dean Wellesley's, 2 Tim. ii, 19. But perliups the most 
impressive and aptly chosen of all is that on the monument 
in the nave of St. George's Chapel, to the blind and exiled King : 
"Here rests iji peace among his kindred, the Royal family of 
England, Geoi'go the Fifth, King of Hanover. Horn at Berlin, 
27th May, 1819; died at Paris, 12th June, 1878." " Keceiving 
a kingdom which cannot he moved." " In Thy light shall lie 
see light." 

The following resolution, passed at a meeting of the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Fund, was signed by the Archbishop of 
CanteJ'bury, as President, and transmitted by His Grace to the 
Home Secretary : — 

" That the Pi-esident, Committee, and Members of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund, of which Society the late venerated 
Queen and Empress was, from its foundation in 1865, the 
Patron, desire to express their profound sense of the loss 
sustained by the nation in the death of its beloved Sovereign 
Queen Victoria ; and, at the same time, beg most respect- 
fully to tender their heartfelt sympathy to their Majesties 
the King and Queen, and other members of the Royal 
Family, in this heavy bereavement. Furthermore, they 
respectfully desire to offer the expression of their sincere 
loyalty to his Most Gracious Majesty upon his accession to 
the Throne of his ancestors, and to express their hope that 
the reign of His Majesty King Edward VII may be long, 
happy, and prosperous." 

Signed on behalf of the Committee -> 

and Members of the Palestine > F. Cantuar, President. 
Exploration Fund J 

By the death of Mr. Basil Woodd Smith the Executive Com- 
mittee loses a zealous and kind fellow-worker, and the Fund 
a good friend. Mr. Woodd Smith was for some thirty years 
Chairman of the Hampstead Bench of Magistrates, and actively 
interested himself in the welfare of that neighbourhood. For 
many years he served on the Committee of the Bible Society, 
as he did also on the Boai'd of Managers of the Royal Institution. 
It Avas, indeed, mainly due to him that the use of their lecture 
tb.eatre was granted to the Palestine Exploration Fund for its 

G 2 



98 NOTES AND NEWS. 

Aunual General Meetings on several occasions. Mr. Basil Woodd 
Smith, with his many and wide interests, his useful activity, 
his scholarly instincts, and his genuinely kind simplicity, was 
a good type of the cultured, unaffected, English gentleman to 
Avhose voluntary effort this country owes so much. He died at 
St. Leonards on January 27th, after an illness of some months* 
duration, in his 70th year. 

It is with deep regret that we have to announce the death 
of the Rev. H. Falscheer, of the Church Missionaiy Societ}-, at 
Nablus, on February 12th last. Mr. Falscheer, whose missionary 
labours at Nablus are well known, was always ready to place his 
intimate knowledge of the district and the people at the disposal 
of the officers employed by the Fund. In 1866 he cordially 
assisted Sir C. Wilson and the late Major Anderson during their 
excavations on Mount Gerizim ; and his tact and inflaence enabled 
them to secure pliotographs of part of the Samaritan Pentateuch 
and its case. He also gave ready assistance to Sir C. Warren 
and Colonel Conder. During his 40 years' residence amongst the 
most unruly people in Palestine he won the respect and esteem 
of every one, whether Christian, Moslem, or Samaritan. 



Through the courtesy of His Excellency Hamdy Bey, the 
director of the Imperial Museum at Constantinople, the Com- 
mittee have received duplicates of some of the objects found 
during the recent excavations of the Fund. The duplicates 
include Jewish and Rhodian stamped jar-handles, some of the 
curious little figures in lead which M. Clermont-Ganneau supposes 
Avere intended to represent persons against whom incantations 
were directed {Quarterly Statement, 1901, p. 58), lamps, and 
pottery of various ages. All are being placed in the Museum 
of the Fund, at 38, Conduit Street. 



The Committee have applied for a firman to enable the Fund 
to continue its excavations in Palestine, and they hope to be in 
a position to publish full details with regard to further operations 
in the July Quarterly Statement. 



The Committee have pleasure in announcing that M. Clermont- 
Ganneau, whose valuable contributions to the work of the Fund 



NOTES AND NEWS. 99 

are woU known, has kindly promised to supply a series of 
archa'ological and epig'rapliic notes to the Quarterhj Statement. 
The lirdt notes of the series, which will he found in this number, 
include two of great interest — one on the hitherto unknown seal 
of the Leper Hospital of St. Lazai'us, the other on inscriptions 
found on the " high level aqueduct " at Jerusalem. 



Dr. Torrance, in forwarding the "meteorological observations 
taken at Tiberias during the year 1900, informs us that a mark 
has been made on the sea wall, and that the level of the lake 
is noted every month. Already the lake has risen 32 inches. 

An easterly gale of unprecedented velocity occui'red on 
January 25th and 2Gth of this year, and destroyed several por- 
tions of the ancient wall on the lake shore, as well as some 
houses built near the shore. The inhabitants do not remember 
having experienced such a storm before. 

In commemoration of the Sultan's semi-jubilee, clock towers 
have been erected in most of the towns in Galilee, but as yet lao 
clocks have been placed in them. 

Small-pox has been raging in Tiberias and in many other 
towns in Palestine for some months past. Most of the people in 
Tiberias have been vaccinated. 

On February 17th Tiberias was visited by 430 Russian 
pilgrims, male and female, who came on foot from Jerusalem. 



Dr. Schick has sent the following notes : — 

Quarantine against Egypt has been removed, and travellei's 
are beginning to arrive in Palestine. 

By order of the Porte there is to be a census this year through- 
out the Ottoman Empire. 

Thei'e has thus far been a deficiency in the rainfall at Jerusalem 
this winter. Great anxiety is felt for the crops. The water in 
the cisterns is low, and it is feared that all building operations 
will have to be stopped, and many labourers thrown out of work. 
Towards the end of January there Avas a heavy fall of snow, 
which lay on the ground for two days. 

In the Armenian quarter of Jerusalem, not far from the Zion 
Gate (Bab en-Neby Daiid), is the Armenian convent, Deir ez- 
Zeitun, with a church which is regarded as the house of Annas, 



100 NOTES AND NEWS. 

the father-in-law of Caiaphas. Near this place the Armenians 
have shown me a lon*^ tunnel-like vault in which a number of 
Franciscan monks took refuge in 124-1 when the Kharezmians 
took the city b}- storm and destroyed the church and monastery 
of Ziou. 

About 30 years ago I had to make a model of the Church of 
the Nativity at Bethlehem, on a scale of yV, for the Armenian 
Patriarch. Whilst doing this I found that, besides the caves 
usually shown to travellers and noticed in guide books, there was 
a crjpt, with square pillars and low arches, beneath the basilica. 
It Avas so full of bones and mould that I was obliged to creep 
on my hands and knees, and did not go very far. But I could 
see by the light of my candle that the crypt was of great size, 
and it seemed to me to extend the whole length of the church. 
The crypt must have been used as a Christian place of burial for 
many centuries. 1 think I should mention this fact lest it be 
overlooked. 

The Imperial Ottoman Post has opened a branch office at 
Jericho. 

Bir es-Seb'a, Beersheba, has been made the headquarters of a 
kaza, under a Kaimakam ; barracks and other buildings have 
been erected near the wells, and a small garrison has been 
quartered in the place to control the Bedawin. 

The Rev. J. E. Hanauer writes that on December 5th last he 
visited the ruin near Hebron, known as Deir el-ArVatn, with 
Dr. Masterman and Professor Torrey, the Director of the 
American School of Archaeology at Jerusalem. On entering 
the south-east court of the ruin they found that part of the 
apse of a chapel or small church had been recently uncovered. 
The south wall of the Deir is built across the apse, and several 
stones cut into a curve and apparently belonging to the apse 
are built into the wall. Outside the Deir, within which is the 
reputed tomb of Jesse, and a little distance from its south-west 
angle, are tAvo or three courses of cyclopeau masonry which 
possibly foi'med part of a tower. These remains do not seem to 
be specially mentioned in any description of the place. ^ 

' In Baedeker's " Handbooli " the Deir is said to consist of " old cvclopean 
walls and modern buildings."- — Ed, 



NOTES AND NEWS. 101 

On February ]r)tli ]\lr. llanancr and I^r. ^[asterman visited 
the ruin described in l^alestine Exploration Fund "Memoirs," 
vol. iii, p. 351, as Ijiug- about half a mile to the south of Khurbet 
Beit Sawir. It is about 350 paces west of the twentieth kilometre 
stone on the road from Jerusalem to Hebron, and consists of the 
west and south walls of a square building with 14-metre sides. 
The west wall, of wliich portions of six courses remain, lies due 
north and south. The south wall, which also had six courses, is 
almost entirely overthrown — " the great slabs of which it was 
Imilt standing on edge in parallel lines in the ground." There 
are no traces of a north wall, and bat slight indications of an east 
wall. The building commands an extensive view in all direc- 
tions. Mr. Hanauer and Dr. Masterman suggest that the two 
walls may have supported an earth platform, and that the 
building was a " high place " for sacrifice which was intentionally 
destroyed. Four photographs of the ruin were forwarded with 
Mr. Hanauer's letter. 



From a correspondent : — 

The rainfall in Palestine is much below the average this 
season, less than 15 inches having fallen up to March 10th 
inclusive. In Jerusalem drinking water is already running short, 
and there are serious apprehensions that, unless the last rairi.s 
of the season are copious, the crops will greatly suffer. 

It is reported that the municipality of Jerusalem have 
received from the Ottoman Government permission to bring 
water to the city from Wady 'Arrub and its neighbour- 
hood, and that steps have alieady been taken to interest 
European capitalists in the undertaking, and to raise the 
requisite funds. 

The dyeing business in Jerusalem has long been in the hands 
of Moslems, although, according to Benjamin of Tudela, the 
exclusive privilege of carrying on this trade, at the time of his 
visit, was purchased from the King of Jerusalem for a yearly 
rent by Jews, who lived under the Tower of David. A recent 
visitor to the Holy City notes that on a wall exactly opposite 
to the gate of the Castle, which includes the " Tower of David," 
there is now a board announcing in the Hebi'ew, Arabic, German, 



102 NOTES AND NEWS, 

Frencli, and Russian languages that the djeing establishment of 
a Jew is close by. 

The Rev. Putnam Cady writes with reference to the current in 
the Dead Sea : — 

"Major-General Sir Charles Wilson, in his note on my article 
on the Dead Sea published in the Januai-y Quarterly, says that it 
would be interesting to ascertain the cause of the strong current 
that sets toward the north. It occurred to me that the millions 
of tons of water rushing daily down the Jordan and going with 
such terrific force out into the sea might make a strong ciirrent 
down the centre of the lake. Striking El-Lisan and the southern 
shore this misrht be turned back asfain to follow the east and west 
shores northward. Lieutenant Lynch's ' Expedition to the Dead 
Sea and the Jordan' (6th edition, revised) calls attention to the 
fact that he observed this northward current while at Ain Jidy. 
P. 291 : ' Observed some branches of trees floating about a mile 
from the shore towai-d the north, confirming our impression of an 
eddy current." Again on p. 295, observing from the same point : 
' We again noticed a current setting to the northwai'd along the 
shore, and one farther out setting to the southward. The last 
was no doubt the impetus given by the Jordan, and the former its 
eddy deflected by Usdum and the southern shore of the sea.' " 



The Rev. Professor Theo. F. Wright (Hon. General Secretary, 
U.S.A.) writes : — 

" A quiet but very important expedition has been made through 
Syria and the Hauran at the expense of four gentlemen of New 
York. The I'oute was mainly that traversed by De Vogiie in 
1861-1862, but some places not visited by him were included. 
Although German archaeologists have done something in this 
field, it has lain for the most part neglected oa account of law- 
lessness and the scarcity of water. The expedition carefully 
attended to correcting the map, to the collection of inscriptions, 
and to the study of architectural remains. 

" Entering Syria at Alexandretta in Octobei", 1899, the expedi- 
tion went northward and eastward for eight weeks, visiting all 
the towns seen by De Vogiie and 30 others. Many new inscrip- 
tions were found. Many churches were found, and these in 



NOTES AND NEWS. 103 

sonio uninliabited towns were in excellent condition. Going on 
throni^li Aleppo to the Euphrates the expedition continued its 
work until compelled by wintry weatlier to return and rest two 
inonlhs at Beirut. 

" In ^larcli, 1900, the expedition started again, being joined by 
Dr. George E. Post, and going southward of its previous field, 
keeping on to Palmyra and then back through the Hauran. 
Inscriptions were collected in ' Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Syrian, 
Palmyrean, Nabata)an, Safaitic, and Kufic,' to the number of 
some 400 in all, half of these altogether new. Seven new 
inscriptions were found in Palmyra. The inscriptions in some 
cases seemed to the explorers to have been erroneously taken by 
Waddington. 

" The work was completed in June, 1000, but one of the party 
remained to prosecute anthropological studies. The others, 
having returned to America, are at work at Princeton University 
in preparing a full report, which will jDrobably be ready next 
year. The expedicion was authorised by His Excellency Hamdy 
Bey, and was helpful to the Imperial Museum at Constantinople, 
as it certainly will be to scholars." 



A subscriber offers for sale a complete set of the " Memoirs " 
of the Survey of Western Palestine in 8 vols., comprising: — 
"Memoirs" (3 vols.), "Name Lists," "Jerusalem," "Special 
Papei-s," "Fauna and Flora," "Index"; also one Great Map in 
Portfolio (1 inch), one Old Testament Map, one New Testament 
Map, one Water Drainage Map, one Portfolio of Jerusalem Plates. 
"All in a very good condition." 



The concluding volume of Professor Ganneau's " Archa30- 
logieal Researches in Jerusalem and its Neighbourhood" has 
been published and issued to subscriber's. This completes the set 
of four vols, as advertised under the title " Survey of Palestine." 
There are only three sets left of the first 250 copies of this 
valuable work. Those who wish to secure a set at £7 7s. 
before the price is raised should write to the Secretary of the 
Fund. 



The " Flora of Syria, Palestine, and Sinai," by the Rev. 
George E. Post, M.D., Beirut, Syria, containing descriptions of 



104 NOTES AND NEWS. 

all the Phaenogams and Acrogens of the region, and illustrated 
by 441 -woodcuts, luay be had at the office of the Fund, pvice 2\s. 



In order to make up complete sets of the " Quarterly Statement,'' 
the Committee tviU he very glad to receive any of the back numbers. 



The income of the Society from December 22nd, 1900, 
to March 22nd, 1901. was — from Annual Subscriptions and 
Donations, including Local Societies, £582 85. l\d. ; from 
Lectures, £10 bs. 4cZ. ; from sales of publications, ttc, 
£143 9s. lOrZ. ; total, £736 4s. \d. The expenditure during the 
same period was £445 19s. od. On March 22nd the balance in 
the Bank was £538 19s. Id. 



Subscribers in U.S.A. to the Avork of the Fund will please 
note that they can procure copies of any of the publications from 
the Rev. Professor Theo. F. Wright, Honorary General Secretary 
to the Fund, 42, Quincy Street, Cambridge, Mass. 



The price of a complete set of the translations published bj the Palestine 
Pilgrims' Text Society, in 13 volumes, with general index, bound in clotli, 
is £10 10*. A catalogue describing the contents of eacli volume can be had 
on application to the Secretary, 38 Conduit Street. 



Tlie Museum at the office of the Fund, 3S Conduit Street (a few doors 
from Bond Street), is open to visitors every week-day from 10 o'clock till 5, 
except Saturdays, when it is closed at 2 p.m. 



It may be well to mention that plans and photographs alluded to in the 
reports from Jerusalem and elsewhere cannot all be published, but all are 
preserved in the office of the Fund, where they may be seen by subscribers. 



While desiring to give publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to tlie pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee wisli it to be distinctly understood that by 
publishing them in the Quarterli/ Statement they neither sanction nor adopt 
them. 



ToUEiSTS are cordially invited to visit tlie Loan Collection of "Antiques" 
in the Jerusalem Association Room of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 
opposite the Tower of David, Jerusalem. Hours : 8 to 12, and 2 to 6. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 105 

Maps of Palestine and ralostine Exploration Fund publications are kept for 
sale. 



Photographs of Dr. Schick's models (1) of the Temple of Solomon, (2) of 
the Herodian Teni]ilo, (3) of the Ilarani Area during tlie Cliristian occupation 
of Jerusalem, and (4) of the llaram Area as it is at present, have been received 
at the office of the Fund. Sets of these photographs, witli an explanation by 
Dr. Schick, can be purchased by applying to the Secretary, 38 Conduit 
Street, W. 



Branch Associations of the Bible Society, all Sunday Schools witliin 
the Sunday School Institute, the Simday School Union, and the Wesleyan 
Sunday School Institute, will please observe that by a special Resolution of the 
Committee they will henceforth be treated as subscribers and be allowed to pur- 
chase the books and maps (by application only to the Secretary) at reduced 
price. 



The Committee will be glad to receive donations of Books to the Library 
of the Fund, whicli already contains many works of great value relating to 
Palestine and other Bible Lands. A catalogue of Books in the Library will 
be found in the July Quarterly Statement, 1893. 



The Committee acknowledge with thanks the following : — 

" Eecueil d'Archeologie Orientale." Tome IV, Livraison 9, July. 
Sotniiiaire : — § 19. Les inscriptions dii tombcau de Diogene a 
el-IIas. § 20. Les inscriptions Nos. 2197 et 2491 Waddington. 
§ 21. Le martyre dc Saint Leonee de Tiipoli. § 22. Heron 
d'Alexandrio et Poseidonios le Stoicien. § 23. Inscriptions de la 
necropole juive de Joppe. Livraison 10, September to December, 
1900. Sommaire : — § 23. Inscriptions de la necropole juive de 
Joppe. § 24. La reine Arsinoe et Ptolemee IV Philopater en 
Palestine. § 25. L'envoiitement dans I'antiquite et les figurines 
de plomb de Tell Saudahauna. § 26. Sccau phenicien au r.om do 
Gaddai. § 27. Inscriptions grecques de Syrie. From the Author, 
Ch. Clermont-Ganneau. 

" The G-reat Mosque of the Omeiyadcs, Damascus." From the Author, 
E.. Phene Spiers. 

"Flavins Josephus Judischer Kricg." By Dr. Philipp Kohout, Professor 
in Linz. From the publisher, Quirin llaslinger, Linz. 

From Dr. Kingston Fox : — 

'• Memorable Remarks upon the Jewish Nation." 1786. 

"A Religious Journey in the East in 1850 and 1851." By the Abbe de 

St. Michon. 
" Melanges dc Littcraturc Orientale." Par M. Cardonne. 1788. 
• Journal of a Tour in the Holy Land." 18il. By Lady Francis 

Egerton. 



106 NOTES AND NEWS. 

" Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt." By Vivant Deuon. In 2 vols. 

1802. 
" Letters on Egypt." By Savary. In 2 vols. 1786. 
" Two Discourses and a Sermon." By Dr. Claudius Buchanan. ISll. 
'■ Damas et le Liban, 1861, Journal d'un voyage a." 

'• Eastern Europe and Western Asia in 1861-3." By H. A. Tilley. 1864. 
'■ The ilassacres in Syria." By J. L. Farley. 2nd edit. 1861. 
•' A Journey due East." By Chr. Cooke. 1876. 

" Visit to Holy Land, Egypt, and Italy." By Ida Pfeiffer. 2nd edit. 1853. 
" Correspondance d'Orient." In 6 vols. 1830-31. Par M. Michaud et 

M. Poujoulat. 1835. 
*•' Bocharti Opera." In 2 vols. 1682. 

" Neale's Syria, Palestine, and Asia Minor." In 2 vols. 2nd edit. 1852. 
" Carlisle's Diary in Turkish and Greek Waters." 4th edit. 1854. 
" Farley's Two Years in Syria." 1858. 
" Hamer L. Dupuis on the Holy Places." 1856. 
" A Field Officer of Cavalry's Diary of a Tour through South India, Egypt, 

and Palestine." 1823. 
" Countess Hahn-hahu's Travels and Letters from the Orient." 2nd edit. 

1845. 
" Morison — Voyage en Italic, Egypte, Ai-abie, Syrie, et Greee." 1704. 4to. 



For list of authorised lecturers and their subjects write to the Secretary. 



Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly/ Statement regularly are asked 
to send a note to the Acting Secretary. Great care is taken to forward each 
number to those who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and 
other causes occasionally give rise to omissions. 



Form of Bequkst to the Pale.stixe Exploration Fuxd. 
I give to the Palestine Exploration Fund, London, the sum of 



to be applied towards the General Work of the Fund; and I direct that the 
said sum be paid, free of Legacy Duty, and that the Eeceipt of the Treasurer 
of the Palestine Exploration Fund sliall be a sufficient discharge to my 
Executors. 

Signature 

r 



Witnesses ■{ 

I 

I 

Note. — Three Witnesses are necessary in the United States of America ; 
Two suffice in Great Britain. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



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NOTES AND NEWS. 



THE TREASURER'S STATEMENT. 

The income of tlie Fund during the rear 1900 amounted to £2,529 6s. lid., 
which was contributed under the following headings : — 

From Donations and Subscriptions, £1,999 7s. 5id.; from Lectures, 
£11 OS. 6d.; from sales of publications, £518 13s. ll^d. At the end of 1899 
there was a balance in the bank of £211 5s. 4c?., which included £41 lis. 6d. 
paid in advance for 1900, making the total available balance £2,770 12s. 3d. 

On comparing these sums with those of 1899 it will be seen that the 
subscriptions are less by £82 10s. Od., and sales of publications by £91 5s. Od., 
nearly. 

The expenditure during the same period was : — 

On exploration, mainly carried on at Tells Safi, Judeideh, andSandalmnnali, 
descriptions of which appeared in the Quarterly Statement, £1,063 9s. Od. 

On printing, binding, including the Quarterly Statement, £391 Os. 3d. 

On maps, lithographs, illustrations, photographs, &c., £209 7s. 0\d., 
which included a reprint of the 12 and 20-sheet Old and Xew Testament maps, 
collotype print, &c. 

Against these two sums (£600 7s. Z\d.), the Fund received £518 13s. llirf. 

On advertising, insurance, stationery, &c., £fe9 12s. 0|rf. 

On postage of the Quarterly Statement, books, maps, &c., £131 12s Id. 

On the management, which includes salaries, wages, office rent, gas, coals, 
&c., £594 3s. lid. 

The balance in the Bank on December 31st, 1900, was £291 7s. lid. 



Assets. 

Balance in Bank, Decem- 
ber 31st, 1900.. 

Stock of Publications in 
hand, Surveying In- 
struments, Show Cases, 
Furniture, &c. 

In addition there is the 
valuable library and 
the unique collection of 
antiques, models, &c. 



291 



11 



Liabilities. 

£ s. d. 
Printers' Bills and Current 

Expenses . . . . 605 10 4 



Waltee Mokeisox, Treasurer. 



109 



AECII.EOLOGICAL AND EPIGPiArHIC XOTES 

TALESTIXE. 



ON 



]}y Professor Cler.mont-Gaxneau, ]\I.I. 

1. Seal of the Crusading Period, from the. Leper Ilospited of 
St. Lazarus at Jerusa/cui. — Father Paul de S. Aiu;naii, of the 
Jerusalem provinco of the Franciscan order, has lately acquired 
from a felhlh a very curious hid/a of lead of tlie Crusading- 
period. He has been good enough to send me casts and photo- 
graphs of it. He believes, and with good reason, that it is the 
hitherto unknown seal of the Leper Hospital at Jerusalem, 
placed under the invocation of S. Lazarus. 





(B) (A) 

On one of the sides (b) is engraved the figure of a bishop or 
ndtred abbot, holding a crosier in his left hand and giving his 
blessing with his right. On the other side (a) is a leper, his 
head encowled in a sort of bonnet with hanging ear-pieces ; 
his face bears the marks of his terrible disease, and in his riglit 
hand he brandishes the triple clapper or rattle ^ with which he 
was bound by the sanitary rules of the period to give warning 
of his approach, and put people on their guard against a 
dangerous contact. His left hand is placed against his breast. 

The legend, which is partly defaced, seems as if it ought to 

read : — 

A. + Sigillum [? d(oniii-':i) lepro^sorvin. 

B. + S{ancti) Lazari \J dc Ihc\rusalcm. 

' Compare, for example, the " Custom " of Ilainault (revised in 1183), 
" Coutumier General," vol. ii, p. 36. This document speaks also of a " hat," 
probably of special shape. 



no AP.CH.IIOLOGICAL AND EPIGRAPHIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 

For the restoration of the word domns I rely upon the 
official (jualifications of the establishment, as they are given in 
contemporary documents, of which I shall speak hereafter. 
Considering the small extent of the lacuna, I suppose that the 
word was in the contracted form 1)'. Father Paul de S. Aignan, 
who has the advantage of having the original before him, is 
inclined rather to read \^H]{os'pitii). I am unwilling to accept 
this reading, because the term liospitium does not appear in the 
official documents. On the other side he proposes to read 
Lazari [ G'\ivitatis\_S'\anctae Jerusalem . 

The convent of lepers of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem must not 
lie confounded with the abbey of St. Lazarus of Bethany, which 
was a convent for nuns founded under this invocation Ijy Queen 
Melisenda, sister to Fulke I. We know the seal of this latter 
establishment by a copy of moderate merit made by I'auli ; ^ 
it is altogether different : on one side there is a representation 
of the Piaising of Lazarus, with the legend Besuscitatio Lazari ; 
on the other is the portrait of the Abbess Judith (Joette, sister 
to Melisenda ?) with the legend Ahatissa Juditta. 

We know^ from the Assises de Jerusalem (p. 417) that the 
House of the Lepers at Jerusalem was managed by a magister, 
" le maistre de Saint Ladre des Mesiaux," who was a suflrasfan 
of the patriarch of the Holy City. We must suppose that he 
was a dignitary invested with an ecclesiastical character, like 
the archbishop of the Ermins (Armenians) and the archbishop 
of the Jacobins (Syrians), in company with whom his name 
appears, and who are also reckoned as suffragans of the 
patriarch. Perhaps it is he whom we ought to recognise in the 
figure with the mitre and the crozier who appears on our hidla,^ 
unless he be the capcllaiuis of the order, who is mentioned, as 
well as the raagister, in the documents which I am aliout to 
quote. Or is it the patriarch himself ? 

It should be noted that the tnagistcr of St. Lazarus is men- 
tioned in the very last line of the Assises dc Jer%isalem, after even 
the spiritual representatives of the native religious communities, 

' Pauli, " Codice diplomatico," PI. II, No. 20. I owe this reference to my 
learned colleague, M. Scliluinberger. 



ARCILIiOLOGICAL AND EPIGHAPIIIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 1 ] 1 

as though lie liimsolf were in some sort put in quarantine like 
the poor wretches of whom he was in charge. Nevertheless, 
the establishment over which he presided was of great im- 
portance, as is proved by a fragment of the Cartulary of the 
Order, dating from the thirteenth century, which is preserved 
among the archives of the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus 
at Turin.' This document confirms the passage in the Assises cle 
Jencsalcjn, and also gives us valuable hints as to the organisation 
and resources of the institution. I quote the following para- 
graphs, wOiich may throw some light on the legends on uur 
bulla : — 

"Domus leprosorum Sancti Lazari (No. 1); ecclesia S. 
Lazari et conventus infirmorum (|ui miselli vocantur (No. 2) ; 
infirmi S. Lazari secus muros Jerusalem (No. 5) ; donius beati 
Lazari Jerosolimis — ecclesie S. Lazari capellanus (No. 6) ; 
fratres S. Lazari extra muros Jerusalem leprosi (No. 7) ; leprosi 
de S. Lazaro (No. 8) ; leprosi S. Lazari (No. 9) ; S. Lazari 
leprosi fratres (No. 10) ; conventus S. Lazari infirmorum de 
Jerusalem, Bartholomeo ipsorum existente magistro (No. 11) 
fraternitas leprosorum domus S. Lazari in Jerusalem (No. 30) ; 
leprosi qui manent extra portam civitatis sancte Jerusalem 
(No. 32) ; domus leprosorum S. Lazari Jerosolimitani (No. 33) ; 
frater Gualterus de Novo Castello magister domus S. Lazari in 
Jerusalem et conventus ejusdem donius (No. 34)." '•^ 

We know already from a passage in "La Citez de Iherusalem" 
(§ xv), that the House of Lepers of St. Lazarus was situated 

' Published by M. de Marsy in tlie " Archives de I'Orient Latin," toI. ii, B, 
p. 121, sqq. It contains some forty charters and letters, ranging from 1130 
to 1248. 

- We see by No. 13 that there was also at Tiberias a " liouse of lepers," 
organised on the jjlan of that at Jerusalem : " ecclesia beati Lazari de Tiberiade 
et fratribus ibidem commorantibus " ; the document, which is dated 1154, is 
signed, ' Fratre et magistro pauperum S. Lazari existente." 

I take this opportunity of remarking incidentally that the editor, M. de 
Marsy, has misunderstood the expression "octo cereos nil rotularum," which 
occurs in iS'os. 37 and 38. He translates this by " eight wax candles of four 
rolls of wax." Rotula in this case is not the Latin word which he imagines it 
to be, but a transcript of the Arabic word rotol, the name of a weight; it should 



be " eight candles weighing four rotols." 



H 



112 ARCH^OLOGICAL AND EPIGRAPHIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 

outside and close against the wall enclosing the city, between 
the Kasr JCdud and the Damascus Gate, near a postern which 
was named after the establishment : " A main destre de la 
porte Saint Estene estoit la maladrerie de Iherusalem tenant as 
murs. Tenant a la maladrerie avoit une posterne, c'on apeloit 
la poterne Saint Lasdre." 

This notice agrees, as the reader will see, with the state- 
ments in the Cartulary, and likewise with the remarks of 
Theoderich,^ although the latter does not, perhaps, speak with 
the same degree of accuracy. 

Another allusion, from a far less commonly known source, 
is given us in the Estoirc iT Evades,, p. 82.- It is in the account 
of the investment of Jerusalem by Saladin ; the line of invest- 
ment reached from the Tower of David up to the Gate of St. 
Stephen : " De lez la maladrerie des femes et par devant la 
maladrerie des homes." We gather from an important 
difference of reading in the MSS. that the w^omen's hospital 
stood beside the Tower of David (the Kal'a), while the men's 
was beside St. Stephen's Gate, that is, the Damascus Gate. 
This is the only evidence which we have as to the existence of 
a special establishment for leprous women, distinct from that 
for men and at a considerable distance from it, although, 
perhaps, connected with it in the sense of being imder the 
same management. This fact is worth notice. It is, however, 
tlie men's lazar house in wdiich we are specially interested, and 
the more so because it raises a topographical question of much 
importance : the position of the postern of St. Ladre, otherwise 
called St. Lazarus. 

This question of topography has been frequently discussed 
by Tobler'' and subsequent writers, and has been solved in 
various ways. Of late it has been proposed ■* to fix the site of 

1 Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, vol. v (p. 43, § xxvi). According to 
Theoderich's account, one must regard the establishment of the lepers as 
extending to a considerable distance to the south-west, seeing tliat he places it 
at the -western angle of the city. 

2 Bee also p. 97, " porte de joste Saint Ladre." 

^ Tobler, " Top. von Jerusalem," vol. i, p. 172 ; " Dentblattcr," p. 414. 
■• Palestine Exploration Fund, Quarterly Statement, 1880, p. 64; 1895, 
p. 30. See the plans of mediffival Jerusalem in ♦^.he various volumes of the 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND EriGRArHlC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 



113 



this postern, wliieli seems to correspond, not, as has heen some- 
times said, to the gate Bdh er-Hahheh of Mujir ed-Din, hut 
rather to the gate Dei?' cs-Serh (?) of the same author, at a point 
in the city wall ahout 540 feet from tlie Damascus Gate, in a 
south-westerly direction. 




This is not the opinion of Fatlier St. Aignan, who proposes 
to place this postern some 560 feet further to the south-west. 
He is in a peculiarly favourable position for the examination 
of tliis topographical question, for the Franciscans some years 
ago purchased the land to the north of their monastery up to 
and beyond the city wall. The result of excavations under- 
taken l»y them along the angle which the wall forms at this 
point, looking to the north-east, has been to establish the 

Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, and tlic new Plan of Jerusalem, on the scale 
of Wro. published in October, 1900. 

H 2 



il4 ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND EPIGRAPHIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 

existence, at a depth of two metres below the surface of the 
ground, of an arch leading through the wall. This arch is 
built of stones bearing the diagonal tool- marks which I long 
ago proved to be characteristic of the work of Crusaders. 
The upper part of this arch has hitherto alone been disinterred, 
the space where the door once stood having been made use 
of at some uncertain epoch for the passage of a sewer which 
drains this quarter of the town. This would be the true 
Postern of St. Lazarus of the Crusaders. 

In a charter of the year 1177^ mention is made of the 
high road which leads from the House of the Lepers of 
St. Lazarus towards the " lake " of Legerius, from which 
another road branched off to St. Stephen's Church. The 
position of this pool, on the north side of Jerusalem, has not 
hitherto been fixed. Its memory, however, is possil)ly preserved 
by tradition, in the form of a curious survival which has been 
opportunely noted by Father Paul de St. Aignan. Ancient 
legal Arabic documents, or hvchans, give the singularly sugges- 
tive name of Hdret el-Birlxh, " the street " or " quarter of the 
pool," to a piece of ground situated about 1,000 feet due north 
of the supposed site of the postern of St. Lazarus. Here, 
indeed, is a piece of evidence which may perhaps lead to the 
solution of this little topographical problem. 

I nmst add that I have sometimes been tempted to ask 
whether the Lacus Legcrii may not really be identical with the 
" great cistern of the Hospitallers," mentioned by Theoderich 
(§ xxvi), which lay just Ijetween the hospital for lepers on 
one side and St. Stephen's Church on the other, before one 
came to the north (Damascus ?) Gate. 

2. Rhodian, and not Jewish Amphora-handles. — The two 
stamped amphora-handles, which Professor Wriglit has brought 
to notice,^ althougli they undoubtedly came from Palestine 
have no connection with tlio liistory and religion of the Jews. 
They are simply Rhodian jar-handles, like those that I obtained 

1 De Eoziere, "Cartulairc del'Eglisc du St. Sepulcre," No. 168 : "Stratum 
regiiim que ducit a domo leprosorum S. Lazari versus lacum Legerii." 

2 quarterly Statement, 1901, p. 62. 



ARCIL-EOLOGICAL AND EPIGUAl'HIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 115 

years ago at Jerusalem and Jaffa,' and those which have been 
found in sncli niunUers during the excavations of ])r. Bhss at 
Sandahannah and Tell cj-Judeideh. The first lias in its centre 
the flower emblematic of Kliodes (the 
rose, or rather the flower of tlie wild 
pomegranate, ^oKaixniov). The legend 
should reallv read 





[EH' or E<1>'] lEPEHZ A{P)MOZIAA 

"Under the priest Haruiosilas." 

It may be remarked that the name Harmosilas, with the 
letters complete and the same emblematic flower, occurs on 
three of the Sandahannah series of lihodian handles." We 
have here, then, a simple Ehodian priest acting as magistrate, 
and not a high priest of the Jews, Ishmael, or another. 

The legend of the second 
handle is not a wish-for-good- 
luck, but another name of a 
lihodian magistrate, in this case 
a civilian. It should read 

Eni KAAAIZTOY MOP[MIOZ] 

" Under Kallistos son of Mormis." 

The name of this magistrate, qualified by the same patro- 
nymic, had already been noticed on handles notoriously 
lihodian,^ associated with the same symbol — the bull's head 
— which has consequently nothing to do with the calves of 
Aaron and Jeroboam.* 

- Clermont-Ganneau, " Archajol. Researches in Palestine," ii, 148, 149. 

- Quarterli/ Statement, 1901, pp. 34, 35 ; Nos. 55, 56, 57. 

^ Dnniont, " Inscriptions CV-ramiqucs de Grece," p. 292 ; Nos. 127, 128. 
Perhaps the same patronymic M0P[MI02] should be restored on the Rliodian 
handle from Tell ej-Judeideh (No. 121, pp. 40, 41, of the List of the Quarterli/ 
Statemenl), vvliich has also the same device, " the bull's head." 

* Similar criticisms on Professor Wright's paper have been received by the 
Secretary of the Fund from Pere Hugues Vincent, of St. Stephen's Biblical 
School at Jerusalem, and one of the most constant contributors to the '" lievue 
Biblique"; and from Mr. Macalister. — [Ed.] 



IIG ARCH.EOLOGICAL AND EPIGRAPHIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 

3. Thi: Inscription from the Colurnhariuni cs-Suk at Tell 
Sandahannah. — The Greek inscription^ discovered b}'' Mr. 
Macalister on one of the walls of this remarkable cave is of 
great interest. To judge by the character of the writing, it may 
belong to a period before the Christian era, and this would give 
us a piece of chronological evidence to determine the date both 
of this cave and of the similar caves of this district ; but with 
regard to this matter we must bear in mind certain counter- 
indications which I shall mention presently. 




A-M ;KAt 



Ifi <y / 2 3 




Mr. Macalister proposes to read and translate it as follows : — 



" I, D. [or L.] Nikateides think this a beautiful cave.' 



^If^U] KuXl] COKEl eflOt, . }itKC 

A 



According to him, it is a sort of visiting-card, in the style of 
" Ego Januarius vidi et miravi," which is scrawled all over the 
Tombs of the Kings at Luxor. I do not think that this 
interpretation is tenal^le. Tlie Greek word 2tyu,r; never has the 
meaning of " cave '' which 'Mv. Macalister attributes to it. 



' For /■/. in the scale in the cut read in. 



AllCILEOLOGICAL AND EPIORAPIIIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. -117 

Si/z?; is a female propcv name, well known from other sonrces, 
and meanino- etymologically," snnb-nose." Tlie true translation 
of this little inscription is " Sim(N seems pretty to me, &c." Ft 
is nothino- more than a lover's greeting, written according to a 
form of which Greek epigraphy furnishes numerous examples : 

Setva KaX6^ ; // Selva Ka\i], KoXi] SoKel, &c. I even find ou a 
painted vase in the Campana collection (Corpus Inscr. Graec. 
No. 8035) a greeting in exactly the same fashion, and actually 
in honour of a namesake of our Simd (the letters and spelling 
are archaic): ^IME KAV E, S//i>; koX-v- 

The personage who felt himself thus impelled to write the 
name of his sweetheart on the subterranean cavern which he 
visited, and to proclaim his passion in a place which does not seem 
very suitable for such a purpose, was perhaps some soldier on his 
travels, or it may be in a garrison in the country. The simple 
sentimentality of "Tommy" belongs to all ages alike. The 
name borne by our man offers certain difficulties, A. NIKA- 
TElAyi 

We have liere oljviously a name of patronymic form, as 
shown by the termination eihr]<; = L8r]<i. Nt/caretS?/? (derived 
from Nt/cj?Ta9) seems, certainly, a very plausible reading ; only, 

1 doubt whether it would be written Nt«:aTeiS[(6)t] in the 
dative, as Mr. jMacalister, not indeed without hesitation, reads 
it. I should prefer to read either 'NiKarelSlrj'], regarding the 
final I as the right hand limb of an H ; or even NiKaTei8[r]]i, 
with the iota ascri])t. This latter reading would imply a 
sufficiently remote date, but still one which, on the whole, would 
not be out of harmony with the period to which the writing 
apparently belongs (compare, for instance, the archaic form of 
the Z and the Ms), 

A more important matter, 1)ecause of the chronological 
inferences which it may imply, is the question raised by the 
group A., which precedes NIKATEIA^I. If the actual 
reading were certain, one coukl only interpret this sigluin as 
an abbreviation for some Pioman 2Jra'7ionicn such as Aou/cio?. 
This would tend considerably to bring down the date of the 
inscription, and might perhaps disagree with the pakeographic 
evidence which it contains ; but, on the otJier liand, it might 



118 ARCILEOLOGICAL AND EPIGRAPIIIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 

suit the archcieological view of the matter better, for the internal 
arrangement of the cave strongly reminds one of the Eoman 
colnmharia. We may, however, remark that the reading A. is 
anything bnt sure. Mr. MacaHster himself does not seem 
certain as to whether the dot is intentional or accidental, and, 
as to the letter, he hesitates as to whether it be A or A . Under 
these circumstances it is permissiljle to enquire M'hether 
ANIKATEIA|^|:I might not be the proper reading, regarding 
the A as an integral part of the proper name ; 'Avt/c-aretST?? 
( = 'AviK7]TiS'ri<;) would 1)0 derived c|uite regularly from the 
proper name ^AviKriTo<; { = KviKaro<;), which actually exists. 
The question evidently is not without importance, and it is 
greatly to be wished that one could have a good squeeze which 
would enable it to l)e decided. 

If it were decided according to my second hypothesis, that is, 
if we are to read 'AvLKarelSiji; without any prcenomen after the 
Roman fashion, and if we can get over the objection, which 
I admit is a serious one, of the Roman origin of the columbaria, 
one would be led, considering the palaiographic character of the 
text, which might easily go as far back as the end of the third 
century B.C., to admit that Anikatides may have belonged to one 
of the armies which met at the battle of Raphia in 217 B.C., who 
are 'proved to have visited Sandahanna by the official Ptolemaic 
inscriptions whose true date and meaning I have lately been 
endeavouring to establish (cf. Quarterly Statement, 1901, 
p. 54/). 

4. Roriian Inscriptions on a Jerusalem Aqucdnct. — Father 
Germer-Durand, of the convent of Augustin monks of the 
Assumption of our Lady of France, at Jerusalem, who has 
already rendered such great services to the epigraphy of tlie 
Holy Land, has just discovered a series of Roman inscriptions, 
carved along an ancient Jerusalem aqueduct, whose construction 
has been successively attributed to Solomon, Pontius Pilate, and 
Herod. It follows from these inscriptions that this aqueduct, 
which is remarkable from an engineering point of view as 
containing a siphon, was really, at any rate for a certain 
portion of its extent, constructed in 195 A.D., in the reign of 



AliCH/KOLOGlCAL AND I'.l'Ti Il.'Al'HK ' NOTES ON TALESTINE. 119 

Soptiiuius Severus, by the luiliLiuy engineers of the Tenth 
Legion, at that time quartered in Jerusalem. I can do no 
better than reproduce the interesting; letter which he has been 
good enough to write to me upon this suliject: — 

Jerusalem, December Zrd, 1900. 

.... We have just discovered a series of Latin iMScriptioiis on a 
conduit which in former times brought spring water to Jerusalem. Tliis 
conduit appeal's in the English maj) under the name of the " high level 
aqueduct," to distinguish it from another on a lower level, which has 
been frequently restored in times more nearly apjiroaching our own. 

In one part of its course' this aqueduct formed a siphon, and 
consisted of a series of p)erforated blocks of stone, firmly fitted together 
so as to form a tube with an interior diameter of no less than 0"40 metre 
(15i inches). This fine work, which has long ago been allowed to fall 
into ruin, has been broken at sevei-al j)oints, and many of the per- 
forated stones have been utilised as cistern mouths.- Such as have been 
broken have either been left where they lay or built into dry stone walls. 

It was in one of these walls that we found by chance our first inscrip- 
tion. Its interpretation ottered some difficulties. I have, not without 
hesitation, published a version of it in the Echos dJOrient for October, 
1900,-' of whicli I send you a copy. I should be glad to have this version 
approved or corrected by com])etent scholars. Convinced by this dis- 
covery that the Titianus inscription was not the only one, we examined 
the v.'hole length of the conduit, and found more than we had venturetl 
to hope for. 

Our most precious discovery is that which gives the date of the work, 
which we can find from the consulate. This inscription runs thus — its 
style is cursive rather than lapidary : — 

C05. ICLEMENT?i5 

Co;^n)sule I(ulio) Ciement(e). 

It was in 195, in the reign of Septimius Severus, that Julius Tineius 
Clemens held the post of consul, together with Scapula Tertullus. The 
cursHS honorum of this personage is known to us from an inscription 
carved on the Memnon colossus. The aqueduct with the siphon, then, 
was built about 80 years after the founding of Aelia Capitolina, and this 

' In the viciuity of Rachel's so-called Tomb, whicli perliaps only represents, 
as I have tried to show ("Recucil d'Archool. Orient.," vol. ii, p. 13-i ^.) the 
tomb of Archelaus mentioned by St. Jerome. — [Cl.-G.] 

• That is for drawiiig water. — [Ed.] 

^ On p. y Father Germer-Durand proposes to read STITIANIP 
>:{umpti bus) or s{umptu) Tifiatii pr((efecii). A photogra]ih of this inscription 
accompanies liis letter. Comparison witli other inscriptions of the same 
character sub:-cquently discovered suggest a different reading to him now — 
c{e»turio)iis) Titiani pirapositi ?). — [CI.-Ct.] 



120 AKCH.IilOLOGlCAL AND EPIGRAPHIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 

fine work must not be attributed either to the kings of Judah, or Herod, 
or Pontius Pilate, but to the engineers of the Tenth Legion (Fretensis), 
who were in charge of the public works of the colony. 

As a subsidiary proof, here are three other inscrijitions, discovered 
at various i)oints along the conduit. Each of them bears the name of 
a centurion, who, no doubt, was the gang-master in charge of a body 
of workmen. The first inscription is carefully carved, and, although 
mutilated, confims the date given by the consulate by the shape of 
its letters. It runs thus : — 

7 CLO-SAT?^^ 

C(enturionis) Clo(dii) Sat(urnini). 

The two other names are carved with less care : the shape of the 
letters reminds one of the inscription which mentions the consulate. 
One need not be surprised at this, for all these inscriptions were intended 
to be buried in a thick mass of rubble masonry. None of them were 
originally visible, and their discovery is due to the partial destruction of 
the conduit. Here is a copy of them : — 

7 SEVERI 

C(enturionis) Severi. 

The third name had been so badly written that it was repeated lower 
down, in a more coi-rect fashion. 

7 vEr"n 

VERI 

C(enturionis) Veri.' 

It looks as if the stonecutter had at first made use of Greek letters, 
as did some stonecutters in the catacombs at Eome. 

It has been impossible to obtain the originals of these two last 
inscri]:>tions, but the first three have been placed in the Museum of 
Notre-Dame de France, which already contains a number of valuable 
pieces of evidence which throw light upon both historic and prehistoric 
times in Palestine. 

Father Germer-Durand's important discovery reminds me 
of certain facts which seem to have an interesting connection 
with it. 

I will remark, in the first place, that in 1850 M. de Saulcy,^ 
when examining the ruins of this same aqueduct, which is 

' Perhaps we ought to emend this, as in the preceding inscription, into 
(Severi) ?— [Cl.-G.] 

- De Saulcy, "Voyage autoMr de la nier morte," vol. i, p. 136, and Athis, 
PI. XLII, No. 6. 



ARCH.EOLOGICAL ANH KI'ICKAI'IIIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 121 

called l)y the Arabs Kaiiat el-Chullar/ " the Aqueduct of the 
Infidels," discovered in tliis same region, close to Rachel's 
so-called Tomb, on one of the blocks forming the casing of 
the conduit, the solitary word STROSI, cut in Latin letters 
10 centimetres high (o-9 inches). The shape of the letters 
seemed to him to point to the twelfth century, und he was 
disposed to see in it the name of some Italian Crusader, 
belonging perhaps to the illustrious Strozzi family. To-day 
it is permissible to ask whether this Inief inscription, which 
is susceptible of quite a different interpretation, may not be 
one of the group discovereil by Father Germer-Durand, whose 
cursive writing is capable at first sight of deceiving one as to 
their real age. 

In any case, it is to this group without doubt that we must 
refer another inscription, on the sul)ject of which I have found 
in one of my old note books the following note : — 

Bethleheni— on a fragment of atone from the aquednct. From a 
rough copy sent in 1877 to M. Arsene Darmesteter, which he sent on 
to me in that year : some letters out of which I think I can make — 

7 QVART . • • {centuria) quarta ? 
One might also read c{enturionis) Quart{ini) ? 



Moreover, it may be that the fragments of hewn stone ^ seen 
by Berggren on the road from Bethlehem to Jerusalem, in 
the vicinity of Rachel's Tomli, that is to say, on the line of 
this same aqueduct, on which he traced the words TITI, and 
EL • • • AVREL, belong to this same epigraphic group. 

With regard to the very elaborate system of aqueducts of 
\-arious periods, which brought water to Jerusalem from the 
plenteous springs which lie to the south of the Holy City 
(Wady el-'Arrub and Wady el-Biar), and especially with regard 
to the aqueduct which has just given us this series of Roman 
inscriptions, the reader is referred to tlie plans and technical 

* \iSl\ i " ;Iaj. witli the countrified proiumciation ^ = ch. 

- Berggren, " Guide fram;;iis-;irabo vuli^niro," vol. 4(56. Conipiire A. Seholz, 
" Reise," &e., 1822, p. 1{)2 : 7 EL • AVREL • "'"^ " Auttariuni additiuiienl. ad 
C.I.L.," vol. iii, No. 1328. The passage from Scliolz, quoted in the " Auctarium," 
iiad been pointed out by me to I'rof. Aiomniscn, and also tl)nf from Berggren. 



122 Ai;CH.?-:OLOGICAL AND EPIGRAPHIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 

observations of Sir Charles Wilson, " Ordnance Survey," 1865, 
pp. 80 et seq., Plates VII and XXVIII, and to Schick, in 
the " Zeitschrift des deutschen Palaestina-Vereins," vol. i, 
pp. 132-170, with plan. 

As I pointed out some time ago,^ it is this truly remarkable 
system of waterworks, extending as far as Teku'a — the ancient 
Tekoa — .some 15 kilometres south of Jerusalem, that Belia 
ed-I)in, in his account of the council of war held by the 
Crusaders under Eichard, Carar de Lion, speaks of under the 
name, at first sight rather surpri!>ing, of " the river (nahr) of 
TekCi'a." 

5. A Greek Inscription from Bcerslieha and the Gcrar Question. 
— During a recent journey in Palestine, M. Sellin - obtained a 
short Greek inscription which seems to deserve special atten- 
tion from the certainty of its 'provenance. It came, in fact, from 
excavations made at the famous Beersheba in tlie extreme 
south of Palestine, by natives in search of building material 
for the steam mill, Ijarrack, hotel,'' &c., which are being erected 
on the patriarchal site. It is a small fragment of a fine quadran- 
gular slab of white alabaster. ]\I. Sellin copied the following 
characters, Ijut only gives them typographically: — 

On the small side : 

KAI H 

On the large side : 

ZEWCLIA^YANy 

HIV 

I propose to read 

Kat 7] [? virep dva7rxv^(a)eco'i ^L\(o)vavov 

. . . . rjL ^ 

The one point certain is tlie name 1i\ovau6<;, which is not 
without interest, for it at once reminds us of the celebrated 
Silvauus, " the father of the monks," who founded an important 
monastery at Gerar, " in the torrent." Xow, as I tried to show * 

1 " fitudes d'archc'ologie orientale," ii, pp. i;5.j, KJf). 
'' " Mitth. und Nachr. des D. Pal. Verems,' 1S99, p. 9. 
» " ]\Iitth. und Nadir, des 1). P.il. Yereins," 1899, p. 30. 
^ " Rec. d'arch. or.," iii, pp. 237-2J0. 



ARCII/EOLOGICAL AND EPIGKAPHIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 123 

.sniuL' lime ago, Genu- should be looked for, not as is usually done 
iu the vicinity of Gaza, at Unnu -Jerar, hut in Lhc (Urection of, 
and, perhaps, close to, Bir es-Seba'. Without going so far as 
to idenlil'v the Silouanos of the inscription with the founder of 
the niduastery, whose epitaph we should tlicu have, we may 
ask whether we have not here a namesake, either one of his 
successors or a simple monk Ijelonging to the community. 
Possibly we shovdd restore the tirst line: koI 7][r^ov^evov]. Tn 
any case, the numerous remains, columns, slabs of marble, &c., 
turned up with this fragment, during the recent excavations to 
the north of the Bir es-Seba' wells, might well be explained 
l>y the hypothesis that they are the ruins of the Monastery of 
Silvanus. That would have an important bearing on the obscure 
question of the site of Gerar. To make the matter certain 
it would be necessary, as I have pointed out, to find in that 
district a name representing Aplda, a village near the Monastery 
of Silvanus, and consequently of Gerar. I recommend this 
desideratum to the attention of future explorers in that region. 



124 



a:\iphora handles, with greei^ 

J3y R. A. Stewar' 
{Co7iti7iued 



Fouud iu duplicate. 



t Illustratec 



No. Shape of Seal. 



146 Rectangular 

147 



148 
149 

150* 

151*t 

152 

153t 

154 

155 
156 

157 

158 

159+ 



Circular 
Rectangular 



Oval 



Rectangular. 



Size of Seal, 

in 
centimetres. 



Condition of Seal. 



3-4xl-5 



xl-3 

3x1-5 

2-8x 1 -4 

3 -2x1 -5 
2 -ex 2 -3 



Device. 



Badly stamped, end broken (?) Small cornei 

off. only appearing 

X 1 '7 Nearly all flaked away 



2 '6 diam. Slightly worn . 
3-I5xl-5 



3 "4 X 1 '5 Badly stamped 



Slightly worn 



4 "2 X 1 -6 Badly stamped 



3 -1x1 -9 Worn 



Worn ; end broken off 



Perfect 



Smeared 



Rose 



Dotted square 
frame. 



4 '4 X '9 I Badly stamped and abraded . . 



Rose 



125 



STAMPS, FROM TELL SANDAHANNAH. 

Macalistee, M.A. . . 

from p. 43.) 

From similiir, but not identiriil, stjimji-i. 1' From Tell ej-Judfidcli. 



(sition of Inscrip- 
ion relatively to 
Device. 



ibove 



lurroundin'T 



nside 



Surrounding 



Inscription. 



AT2inN[ 

M[ 
A[ 

MArNHPOS nANAMOY 

MAP2TA 
nANAMO 

MAP5TA 
2MIN0IOY 

MAP2TA 
TAKIN0IOY 

TAKIN0IOT 
MAP2TA 

MAP2TA2 
nANAMOT 

0E2[MO<i'OPIOYj 

MEN[ 

MENEKPATET2 
MENI 

nno2 

MENT0P02 
AAAIOT 

MENnN02 [nANA]MOr 



MIAA[2] 



Alphabet and 

other Epigraphic 

]S'otes. 



I. 
III. 

I reversed. 
Similar to 157. 

Similar to 155. 

See Fig. 29. 

Similar to 155. 

See Fig. 28. 

VI. 

I. 

V; i, tYII. 

IV. 



IV, with sliglit 
tendency to- 

wards character- 
istics of VIII. 
Reversed. 

IV large lettering. 



126 



AMPHORA HANDLES, AVITH GREEK STAMPS, 

* Foiiiul ill dui)lioate. 



No. Shape of Seal. 



160+ Rectangular 

i<3i: 



162 
163 

164 

165t 

166 

167 

168* 

169 

170t 

171 

172 

173t 

174 

175 

1761 

177 

178t 



Oral 



Eectangular 



Size of Seal, 

in 
centimetres. 



•4x 
4-1x1 -15 

2 -7x2 -5 



2 -65 X 1 -7 

3-15x 1-2 

3 -ex 1-3 
4-3x1 -2 
4 -5 X 1-5 

2-5x1 

4-1 xl-7 

2-4x1-2 

3-5x1-5 



3 -5 X 1 -6 
3 -9 X 1-4 
3-9x1-5 
3-6x1 -5 



Condition of Seal. 



Badly stamped and abraded 



Slightly worn . . 



X 1 -6 End broken off. 



3-4x1-1 Bottom line smeared . , 



Slightly worn . . 

Broken in f wo . . 

Chipped 

Worn . . 

Badly stamped and chipped 

Top smeared . . 

Perfect . . 



t Illustrated 



Device. 



Acorn ? 



Rose 



Helios liead 



Anchor ? 



,, (stamp slipped slightly) 



4x1-5 Worn and slightly flaked 



Per/ect . . 
Slightly Worn 
Perfect . . 
Worn . . 



. Blazing torch 
(cf. Fig. 38). 



. . Rose 



* A seal bearing this name 



FROM TELL SANDAHANNAII. 
I From similar, but not identical, stamps. || t'rora Tell cj.Judeifleli. 



127 



Position of Inscrij)- 

tiou i-elativoly to 

Device. 



To left : a line 
drawn under in- 
serijJtion. 

Sux*roundiu2 



To right : a dotted 
square round all. 



Above 



To left 



Abo 



ve 



Inscrijjtion. 



MIAA[2] 
MIA[A2] 

MIN0IOT2 

MIP[ 

Z[ 
*[ 

nANAMO 

[MOA?]T 

En I MT 
TmN02 

Eni MTTinN 

oc 

[MO?]KAET2 

NANI02 

NE[MI?]OT 
AFPIANIOr 

Eni NH 

cinoTor 

Eni NIKA2ArOPA 
APTAMITIOT 

NIKO 
2TPATOT 

Eni HENO<I>ANEY2 1 
METAFEITNTOT 

Em HENO 

*nNT02 

ArPIA[NIO]T 

OAYMnor 

ONA2IOIKOT 
ONA2IOIKOT 
nA[T2A]NIA 



Alphabet and 

other Epigraphic 

Notes. 



IV large lettering. 



IV; :Vir,M with 
uprights curved 
inward. 

VI. 



See Fig. 31. 
IV ; a> VII-. 

viir. 

I. 

V; fj. with straight 
vertical. 

See Fig. 30. 
II. 



IV. 


<r VI. 


See Fig. 33. 


Ill 


; a, 0, I. 


11 


first large 


I. 




I. 




ir. 





has been found at Pergamon, 



128 AMPHOEA HANDLES, "WITH GREEK STAMPS, 

* Found in duplicate. 



t Illustrate.!. 



Xo. 


Shape 


of Seal. 


Size of Seal, 

in 
centimetres. 


Condi 


179: 


Eectangulai- . . 


3 -2x1 -55 


^Yol•n . . 


ISO 




J' • • 


2-8xl-5 


■ Perfect . . 


181 




ji * • 


3 -35 X 1 -4 


End flaked 


182 




., ■ . 


2 5 X 1 -5 


Perfect . . 



183 



184 Oval .. 

185 j Kectangulav . 

186 ! 
187 

188*t Circular 
189 i 



190 Rectangular 



lOJt 
192 

193 



104* 
195 



x3 

xl-45 

3x1-7 



3 "2 diani. 
2 -7 diam. 
2-9x1 -65 

4-3x 1-6 
4-1x2-2 



Device. 



Rose 



4-4x1-4 Beginning siueaved 



Badly stamped and Avorn 



Much worn, beginning broken 
off. 



Rose 



Bottom slightly smeared 
4x1-5 Top smeared . . 



Bottom smeared 
Perfect . . 

Worn . . 



3 o X 1 -4 ' Worn and chipped 



4 -5x1 -8 Worn 

3 -2 X 1 '3 I Stamp slipped, and reading 
] verv difficult. 



Helios heai 
Rose 

Sword . . 



Stars 



' A seal bearing this name 



FKO.M TELL SANDAHANNAir. 
J From similar, but not identical, stamps. || From Tell oj-Judoideli. 



129 



Position of Inscrip- 
tion relatively to 
Device. 



Above 



Surroimdiug 



Inscription. 

nAT2ANIA' 
nATSANIA 

nATSANIA 

En I HAT 
2ANIA 

En I nAYSANLA 
0E2MO*OPIOT 



[EniH n]AT2AN[lA 2MI]N[0]IOT 

E[ni nE[* 00?] EOT 
BAAPOMIOT 



Em nEi 

0IAAA 



Al pi label and 
otlier Epigraphic 

Js'otes. 



II. 

II, minute letter- 
ing. 
V. 

II without finials ; 
V VII. 

I, second a VII. 
The 6th of the 
first line shows 
traces of having 
been corrected 
from something 
else. 

I ; II. 



(?)• 



VI. 



Surrounding 


Em [nEl]2I 

2TPATOT 

AAAIOT 

Em nOATAPATOT AP[TAMITIO 


T] 


VIII, second verti- 
cal of IT slightly 
sliorter than 
first. 

^'ee Fig. 35. 


., . . 


Em nOATKPA° 2MIN0IOT 

nOATX 

APM02 




Ill ; (T, 1 ; 0, 6 

small. 
V; TT as in II, 

without finials. 


Above 


P0AnN02 




See Fig. 34. 


Below 


P0AnN02 




Similar to 194. 


, , , , , , 


Em 2***Va 


* 


I; oil. 




[ ] 

0E2MO*OPIOT 






Stars in corners of 
seal, as in Fig.fi. 


2APAnmN02 

En" IEPEn2 [2IMYAEINOT?] 
AAAIOT 




I. 

II, very minute. 



las been found at Pergamon. 



130 AMPHORA HANDLES, WITH GREEK STAMPS, 

* Found in duplicate. t Illustrated. 



No. 

193t 

197 

198 

199 

200 

201t 

202 
303t 

204 

205t 

206t 

207 

208»t 

209 

210t 

211 
212t 
213t 
214 



Shape of Seal 



Rectangular 



Circular 
Rectangular 



Oval 



Rectangular 



Size of Seal, 

in 
centimetres. 



3 -1x1 -2 



3-25xl-4 



xO-8 



xl-0 
4 -8x2 15 



Condition of Seal. 



Device. 



Slightly worn 



Worn 



End broken off 



Toji and bottom flaked off, 
end broken. 

B:idlv stamped, end broken 
off". 

Badly stamped. . 



Helios head on 
stand. 



Line and dot 
under X as 
shown. 

Helios head on 
stand. 



Human figure 
on pedestal. 



2 -7 diam. Worn Rose . . 

Badly stamped and smeared . . , Bunch of grapes 



X 1 -5 Beginning broken off . . 

3 -85x1 -4 Perfect 

X 1 -Q Beginning broken off . . 

3 -8 X 1 G Worn 

X 1 --l Worn ; beginning broken off 

4 65 X 1 • 9 Badly stamped and broken 

3 -6 X 1 -5 Worn 

2 -5 X 2 -2 Slightly broken 

2 •4x2-1 Slightly worn .. 

7x1-1 End badly stamped . . 

4x1-4 Worn . . . . ' 



Blazing torcl; 



Caduceus 

Rose 
Bird flying 



' Seals bearing this name have been found at Telos and ^'^isyro8. 



FKOM TELL SANDAIIANNAII. 



i;3i 



From siniihtr, hut not identical, stamps. 



From Tell cj-Jiidcidcli 



Position of Inscrip- 
tion relativclj' to 
Device. 



To right 



To right 



To left . . 

Surrounding 
To ri<rht . . 



Device iiiider end 

of name. 
To left . . 

Device above end 

of inscription. 
To left 

Above 



Surrounding 



In.scription. 



Eni 2IMY 
AEINOT 

Em 2I[MTAEI]N0T 
TAKIN0IOT 

2INX[I? 

Eni 2n[ 

XA[P ? 

Eni 2TA2[ 
<I>OTTl[ 

2TINOMOT 

HMIOTTOT 

[2MIN0IO ?]T 

2TPATONIKOT 

2n*** 

BOT 

Eni 2nAAMOT' 
JAArEITNTOT 

2nKPATET2 ^ 
[2nKPATET]2 

2nKPATET2 
[2nKPATjET2 

2n2IK.\ET2 

Em 2n2nAT0T 

TAKIN0IOY 
2nTHPIAA 
2nTHPIX02 
2nTHPIX02 
XOI0NIMVX 

Em TEinN 



Alphabet and 

otlier I'lpigraphio 

Notes. 



-See Fig. 32. 
IV. 



I ; Intersection of 
X high up. 

IT. 



IV; <ri\'. 
See Fig. 36. 



See Fig. 37. 

Similar to Fig. 33, 
N reversed. 

See Fig. 38. 

See Fig. 39, 

I. 

See Fig. 40. 

VIII. 

See Fig. 49. 

I. 

See Fig. 41. 
See Fig. 42. 
VIII : V reversed. 



A seal bearing this name (associated with 2w5auoii) has been found at Telos. 



132 



AMPHORA HANDLES, WITH GREEK STA:\IPS, 

* Found in duplicate. 



No. 


Shape of Seal. 


215 


Rectangular . . 


216 


>j • • 


217 


Circular 


218 


Rectangular . . 


219 


Circular 


220 


Rectangular . . 


221 


» 


222t 


j> 


223 


)j 


224 


)) 


225 


)i 



Rectangular 



Rectangular. 



Size of Seal, 

in 
centimetres. 



Condition of Seal. 



Rectangular . . ; 3 • 5 x 1 G Badlv stamped and worn 

i 

4-4 X 1-9 Worn 

2 "7 dium. Fractured 

4 X 2 •! 1 Top slightly smeared . . 

2 -9 diam. Much battered. . 
3'lxl*45 Perfect.. 
3-1 X 1 -G Much worn 

3-lx 1'4 Perfect 

4x1-7 Slightly worn . . 

2-6 X 1-7 Perfect 



2x0-3 
2-9x2 -3 



Worn 



t Illustrated. 



Device. 



Rose 



Rose . . 

Helios head 
Wreath . . 



Rose 



Seals hearing names of months 



4-3x1-2 Worn 



3 -6 X 1-1 

3 • G X 1 3 Slightly chipped 



Seals ivhich cannot be 



X 4 "9 Worn and flaked," beginning 
broken off. 



(?) 



' Seals bearino; this name have been found at Rhodes and at Pergamon. 



FROM TELL SANDAHANNAII. 



isn 



I From siinihir, but not idoiitical, stamps. || From Tell ej-Jiuleklcli. 



Position of Inscrip- , 
tion relatively to 
Device. ] 



Inscription. 



Alplmbct and 

otlier Epigraphic 

Notes. 



SurroundinK 



Surrounding 



To right ; all in a 
square. 

To left ; lettering 
in square com- 
partment. 



Surrounding 



TIMA <* * OT 



Eni TIMOAIKOT 
.^rPIANIOY 

TIMO[0E]OT 

Eni TIMO 

0EOT 

AAAIOT 

[T?]I20T * KAEn2 

TOXO 

Eni * 

[ei?]aa 

AAAIOT ' 
*IAA1N10Y 

Eni *IAOAAMOY 
AAAIOT 

Em •i'l 

AnNIAA 

XPH 
XP[T2H]MOT 



VI, with tendency 
lo characters of 
VIII. 

VI ; a, VII. 



I. 
VIII. 

I. 

IV. 

IV. 

See Fig. 43. 

11. 

VI. 

IV reversed. 
I. 



only (see introductory remarks). 



Em APTAMI 
TIOT 

nANAMOT 

HANAMOT - 



VIII carelessly 
written. 

IV. 

IV. 



reduced to alphabetic order. 
To left . . 



]AETIH2 

]aeottot 

]MHNI02 

]AnoMriP * * * 



IV ; <T VI with 
curved horizon- 
tal bai's ; w VII". 



Thei-e has been a second line, which has been intentionally effaced from the stamp. 



134 AMPHORA HANDLES, ^VITH GREEK STAMPS, 

* Found in dujilicate. t Illustrated. 



Xo. 



231 

232 

233 
234 

235 

236 
237 

238t 
239 

240 

241t 
242 

243 

244 

245 



Size of Seal, 
Shape of Seal. I in 

! centimetres. 



Kectangular . . 4 '4 x 1 '45 



Condition of Seal. 



Top smeared . . 



„ .. 2 -75x1 -4 Cliippcd 

Oval . . . . 2 -8 X 2 -6 | Worn and flaked 

j 

Eectangular . . x 1 "60 Top smeared, end broken off. . 



OtuI .. 



Rectangular . , 



4 -8x1 -75 



x2-2 



Fractured and ^rorn . . 



Worn and defaced 



4 X 2 "2 Badly stamped and worn 



Oval .. .. Six i Fractured and scaled . . 

Rectangular. . | 2 75 x 1 -45 ' Badly stamped and flaked 



Beginning lost, bottom badly 
stamped. 



Device. 



Rose 



Rose 



Rose 



Lozenge- 
shaped. 

Rectangular . 



5 X Worn and defaced 



Top cliii^ped, end fractured . . 



X 1 '6 Both ends broken off 



X 1 9 Badly stamped and indefinite 



Oval 



2 -9 X 2 -5 



Sprig of plant 



Badly stamped and worn .. Rose 



FROM TELL SA^'DA1IANNAH. 



13i 



; From similar, but 


not identical, 8tani]>s. || From Tell ej-Judcidt'l 


. 


Position of Inscrip- 
tion rclatiToiy to 
Device. 


Inscription. 


Aliiliabet and 

other Epigrapliic 

Notes. 





E[ni ] 
0IOT TA 
KIN0IOT 


VIII. 





* * NA.aNIAA 
Ar[PIA]NIOT 


Ill ; II. 


Surrounding 


]0P02A[2 ? AP]TAMI[TI0T] 


I. 


.. 


Ef ] 
0EAIAH[ ] 
2MIN0IO[T] 


I ; e IY\ 





# # » # « if; * jyj^ 

NIOT 
TAKIN0IOT 


VIII. 


Surrounding 


]nN02 0E2M[O*OPIOr] 

C A?] 
[ ]AAIM 
AMAPyiTOT 


V reversed; ^uwith 
straight verti- 
cals. 

VI; oIV. The -J. 
may be a tri- 
dent. 


Surrounding 


[En' IE]PEn[2 * *]MNArOP[ 


See Plate I. 





E[ni ******]T2 
BAAP[OMIOTj 


VI. 


. . 


]** nATTON 
]TET2 

* 2A * * * IN * * 


I. 





]npoT 

APTA[MITIOY] 


See Fig. 44. 


. . 


AlNn[N ? ] 
OY AAA[IOT] 


I. 




]nANA[ 

lOT 
AAAI[0Y 


I. 


To left . . 


[— TTNOKOTNT] 

[TIOT] ? 
[ ] 


(?) 


Surrounding 


Eni [ 

T[AKIN0IOT 

X 


I. 



loG AMPHOIIA HANDLES, WITH GREEK STAMPS, 

* Found in duplicatt\ 



t lUustratciI. 



Size of Seal, 
No. I Shape of Seal. in 

' centimetres. 



Condition of Seal. 



Device. 



2-46 


Oval . . 


247 


Rectangular . . 


248 


Oval . . 


249 


J. 


250 


Rectangular. . 


251 


„ 


252 


n ' ' 


253 


)> 


254 


)i • • 


255 


»> 


256 


>j 


257 


Circular 



2-Sx Half broken off 



Rose 



x2-9 Badly stampeci. . .. .. Helios head 

Badly stamped, half broken off Rose 
Badly stamped, top broken . . 



x2-7 



xl-6 



xl-6 



xl 



Stamp slipped, beginning 
broken off. 



Beginning broken off 



Worn, beginning broken off . 



3'7xl-7 Chipped 



X 1 -2 ' Worn 



Helios head on 
stand. 



Badly stamped 



257 


Circular 


2 '5 diam. 


Worn . . 


Rose 




258 


Rectangular., 




End and bottom broken off . . 




.. 


259 


)) 


X 1 -35 


Worn 


Sprig 


of plant . 


260 


11 




Bottom badly stamped, begin- 
ning broken off. 


•• 




261t 


>t 


xl-G 


Beginning broken off . . 


•• 




262 


>) • • 


•• 


Badly stamped. . 







FUO.M TELL SANDAIIANXAir. 



1 .".7 



From similar, hut not itleutical, stainps 



From Toll oj-JiidoiiU'li. 



Position of Inscrip- 
tion ri'latively to 
Device. 



Surrounding, read- 
iuij outwards. 



Surrounding 



To rijiht . , 



Surrouudins; 



To left 



Inseripl ion. 



]ETAKOT AA[AIOY 

]EIMA 
AAAIOY 

[Eni ##***•£ ?]prn2[ * # * * * ys ?] 



E[ ] TAP[M?]A[P -0]T 

]0I«* 
2M[IN0IOT 

]KAETP 
]TEY2 

]N 

2M[IN0I 
] EIAA 



]APXO 
]HPET 



H 

1 + 



AVAIOT 

Eni * * * * 

Em [** 

KAEIAA[ 
A?]BOTA[n? 

[ ] 

En' iEPEn2 ***** 

En' iEPEn2 

[ ] 

Eni [ 

MHAOT 

M 
1lE2 EIOT 

[ J 

{reading uncertain). 

[ ] 

2MIN0IOY 



Alpliabct and 

otlier Epi|irui)Lic 

Notes. 



I. 

vm. 

Kerersed. 

I. 

I ; 0, II. 

VI. 



YI ; oblique lines 
ofoand A. curving 
outwards. 

VI; 0, IV. 



I See Fig. 45. 
Similar to 177. 



III. 



I reversed. 

Similar to 5S, re- 
versed. 

II; bar of H ob- 
lique sliglitly. 

VIII 



See Fig. 46. 

IV; T, VI, o 
Asbaped. 



oS 



AMPHORA HANDLES, WITH GREEK STAMPS, 

* Found in dniilicate. 



t Illustrated. 



Xo. Shape of Seal. 



Size of Seal, 

in 
centimetres. 



203 I Kectanfirular. , 



264 
265 
266 

267 

268 

269 

270 
271 

272 
273 

274 

275 
276 
277 

278 
279 

280 
281 



Oval .. 

Rectangular . . 



Oval . . 
Circular 
Rectangular . 

Oval .. 
Rectangular. 



xl-7 



X 1*45 



Condition of Seal. 



Beginning broken off . . 



Fragment only. . 

Worn, beginning broken off . . 

Badly stamped, beginning 
broken off. 



Device. 



Rose 



4-7x1 



xl-3 



Top line effaced 



Beginning and top broken off 



Beginning broken off; much 
worn. 



X 1 '15 , Beginning broken off 
Badlv stamped. . 



xl-65 
5 -5x1 -45 



Beginning broken off . . 
Mucli ■svorn 



xl-3 • Worn, end broken off. 



2-8 diam. 
xl-5 

x2-4 
xl-4 

4 X 1 o 
xl-3 



Chipped and fractured . , (?) 

Fractured and flaked . . . . Rose 

Beginning broken off . . 

I 
Fragment only. . . . . . Rose 

Much worn 

Much abraded . . 

Worn, beginning broken off . . 



FltOM TKLL SANDAHANNAII. 



1 39 



From similar, but not identical, stamps. 



From Tell ej-Judcideh. 



Position of Inscrip- 
tion I'clatiroly to 
Device. 



Surroundins 



Surroundins; 



Surroundinn; 



Inscription. 



]2n0Ai 

]BOT 


] ANAPOY A[ 


r 

]_PAMIOT 


]KPATET2 

[ ] 


[ ] 
nANAMOT 


]2 
]TAPATO 


JIAT 
]0T2 


]AANIOT 


ap:'']hnia[ 


]ni2TOT 


£###t^«i»### 




[I?]^T0N[ 


]KPATH[ 


****** NIKOY 


]N02 

[ ] 
JOT 


]«***2A2MO[ 


] * • * Tr.N02 


^PO— 
* A 


BPO?]MIOT 



Al pi) abet and 

other Kpigraphii 

Notes. 



I; 0,0 IV. 

I. 

I. 

VI. 

V. 

VI. 

III. 

IV. 

I. 

VI; TT VII. 

I. 



IV; III. Large 
letters. 

I. 

I; oil. 
I; II. 



I reverse.l : 2ud <r 

VII. 
IV. 



(?) 
IV. 



140 



283 



AMPHOEA HANDLES, WITH GREEK STAMPS, 

* Found in duplicate. 



Size of Seal, 
Xo. Shape of Seal. in 

centimetres. 



282 Rcetanjjulav . . 2 -85 x 



xl-1 



284 


)) * • 


X 1 -0 


285 


J) 


•• 


286 


(?) .. .. 


•• 


287 


Kectangulai-. . 


xl 


288 


)) 


X 1 65 


289 


Oral .. 




230 


,, . . 


•• 


291 


Rectangular . . 


xl-7 


2921 


» 


2-9xl-l 


293 


j> 


xl-65 



Condition of Seal. 



t Illustrated. 



Device. 



Top hadlv stamped . . 



Beginning badly stamped and . . 
disintegrated. 

Beginning broken off . . . . Small fragment 

only remaining. 
Flaked, end broken off 

Yery badly stamped . . 

Beginning broken off . . 



Badly stamped and flaked 
Badly stamped 
Beginning broken off . . 
Perfect . . 
Badly stamped and worn 



Eose 



Acorn 



AonENDA. 



29 i 


Rectangular . . 


x2-4 


Badly stamped, end broken 
off. 


* • ■ ■ 


295 


jj 


5 -1 X 1 -2 


Badly stamped 


.. 


296 


» 


x2-l 


,1 )) 


.. 


297 


Oval.. 


2 -56 X 


i> )> 


Rose 


298 


Rectangular . . 


xl-3 


End broken off 


• « • • 


299 


Circular 


2 ■'} diam. 


Badly stamped one side 


Cornucopi 


.300 


Rectangular. . 


xl-6 


End broken off 


.. 



TTJni TELL SAM)A1L\.\.\A1L 



141 



From similar, but nob identical, stamps. 1| From Tell ej-Judeidch. 



.'osition of Inscrip- 
tion rolafively to 
Device. 



Below 



Surrounding (read 

ing outwards). 
Siirrounding 



To right . , 



Inscription. 


Alphabet and 

other Epigrupbic 

Notes. 


[ ] 
MNOT 


V. 


»«*°P02 
A 


IV; oIII. 


A?Jn[A? 


I. 


* * * IAA[ 


III. 


]OAN[ 


III. 


]I2 


VI. 


]0T 


V VIT. 



r ] 
[ ] 

]nE[ 

]T2 

illegible 
illegible (two lines) 



Reversed. 

I reversed ; large 
letters. 

See Fig. 47. 



Surrouudin<r 



Surroundinsf 



Addenda. 
Eni APi[ 

KOT 
AFPIANIOT 

ATCAn 

*H2I 
KAET2 

]ANOr 

KErT[ 

AIONY2IOT 

Eni HEN0*ANET5 
APTAMITIOV 



VI ; a V ; care« 
lessly written. 



; s C-shaped ; 
large bold letters. 
; large bold 
letters. 



; large letters. 



Similar to 173. 



142 AMPHORA HANDLES, WITH GREEK STAMPS, 

* Found in duplicate. t Illustrated 







Size of Seal, 






No. 


Shape of Seal. 


in 


Condition of Seal. 


Device. 






centimetres. 






301 


Eectangular . . 




Badly stamped 




302 


)i • • 


3 -15x1 -3 


Worn . . 




303 


- 


4-3xl-7 


Top smeared . . 





304 




4 -8 V 1-65 


Chipped 


Bunch of grapea 


305 


)5 • ' 


X 1 '5 


End broken off 





306 


n ' ■ 




Worn 




3&7 


)) • ' 


2-3x1 -8 


Much worn 


Cadueeus ? anc 
rose ? 



Ebrata. 

January " Quarterly Statement." 

In Fig. 1, p. 14 ante, for " ft." in the scale," read " in." 

P. 27, line 29, for " 55, 56, 57," read " 56, 57, 58." 

P. 39, last column. No. 106, for " 51," read " 52." 

P. 49, for " Eev. Putnam Carv," read " Rev. Putnam Cady." 



FROM TELL SAND All ANN AH. 143 

X From similar, Init not idontieal, stamps. |l From Tell cj-Jiuloidoh. 



Position of Inscrip- 
tion reliitivcly to 
Di'vice. 


Inscription. 


Alpliabet and 
other Epigraphic 
Notes. 





AIONT2l[OT] 

[ArP]lAN[lOT] 


III. 





2AKPATH 
0E2MO*OP 


Similar to Fig. 27. 


• • 


En[l API]2 

TOMAXOT 

APTAMITIOT 


TIL 


To right . . 


AIONT2I02 


IIL 





[M]AP2TA 
[ArPjIANIOT 


Similar to Fig. 29. 




Eni AFE 

2TPATOT 

TAKIN0IOT 


I. 


(?).. 


inscription not traceable 


See Fig. 5-1. 



144 



AMPHORA HANDLES, WITH GKEEK STAMPS. 



Plate I (see January ' Quarterly Statement" p. 25) 

TELL 5ANDAHANNAH EXCAVATION ttf (— f t-f tJ 'IS 
RHODIAN 5TAMPED AMPHORA ' 








145 



THE ROCK-CUT TO:\IBS IX WADY 

JERUSALEM. 



ER-RABABI, 



By R, A. Stewart Macalistek, M.A. 

(Coniinncd from the ''Quarterly Statement," July, 1900, p. 248.) 

27. Tlie angle of a tomb-chamber of which tlie rest has been 
quarried away. Portions of two sides, respeclively 8 feet and 
() feet 4 inches, remain together wiHi fi-ngments of the roof. The 
bottoms of the walls have been qnairied ouf, and with them tAvo 
loculi in the longer side. In this side are red marks resembling a 
painted inscription: two strokes, much like the uprights of an H, 
are especially conspicuous. These are, however, mere red veiuings 
in the stone. 

The five following tombs are on or near the top of the hill, 
above the level of the preceding series, but to the east of it : — 

28. (Plan X). — A single chamber tomb: two steps lead down 
from the door to the floor of the chamber. Round two sides of 
the chamber is a raised bench, 2 feet high, and on a level Avith the 




k2 



140 



THE ROCK-CUT TOMBS IN WADY ER-EABABI. 



upper surface of this beucli is an arcosolium in each of the sides 
not occupied by the door. These arcosolia have depressions for 
the head, like the benches in No. 28 already described. On the 
face of the bench, at its southern end, is inscription No. 9. 

29. (Plan XI). — A very roughly executed tomb. It consists of 
a four-sided vestibule open to the north, in the centre of whose 
floor is a block of stone 2 feet 4^ inches by 3 feet 6 inches by 
2 feet, most pi'obably the stone that blocked the door of the tomb- 
chamber. The floor of the latter is at a level of 2 feet 8 inches 
below that of the vestibule. There are three large deep irregular 
kokim. Part of the east side has been repaired by building, the 
rock being rotten ; this part is blackened in in the plan. 

30. (Plan XII). — An irregularly cut group of two chambers. 
The door is coarsely moulded. Both chambers, as may be seen 
from the plan, are crooked, and in their floors are four-sided 
depressions, 1 foot 2 inches deep in the outer, 2 feet in the 
inner chamber. The roof of the outer chamber is 6 feet above 
its floor, that of the inner 5 feet 2 inches. The rock in the west 
side of the outer chamber is fractured ; on the south side is a 
niche, 2 feet G inches high. There are no graves of any kind in 
the excavation. 




SCALE 

in o I i i ^ s ^ ■^ 9 

hrrt i— I I— I M M \ for)(.-y.lll 



31. (Plan XIII). — A ruined tomb, fallen in, and in winter full 
of water. The chamber is 11 feet long, 9 feet broad. There is a 
raised bench, 3 feet broad, on the south side of the chamber. 
There are three kokim, two pointing south, one pointing Avest ; 



THE ROCK-CUT TOMBS IN WADY ER-RABABI. 147 

the latter is very Avide, and, no doubt, was intended for tlie 
reception of more than one body. 

32. Just over the monastery, a large natural cave, 30 feet deej) 
and 25 feet across. It has been artificially enlarged : there are 
traces of working at the inner end. In the roof is a cylindrical 
shaft, noAv blocked np. 

The following series of tombs are at the level of the row 
ending with No. 27, and immediately below N"os. 29-32 : — 

33. A small opening in the rock, the top of which alone is 
visible. It is certainly artificial, but may be a mere quarry. 

ok (Plan XIV^). — A large cave, with two openings, but so much 
destroyed by quarrying that an exact plan would be useless. The 
chief feature remaining is a shaft 3 feet 7 inches diameter, cut 
vertically through the pier separating the two doors. 

35. A small hole, perhaps merely a quarry. 

36. A larger hole of similar character. The tooling visible here 
and there seems better than would be expected in a mere quarry. 

37. An irregular hole, 9 feet across, 7 feet deep. At both the 
east and the west sides are openings reduced by the accumulation 
of debris to mere slits, through which chambers are visible. 

38. (Plan XV; Tobler, 13; Baedeker, 13a).— The elaborate 
cave known as Ferdus er-Rum. The vestibule is quarried away : 
in the east side is the spring of an arch like the vault of an 
arcosoliura, but this could scarcely have been sepulchral, as the 
bench under the arch must always have been in the open air. 
The door is small, but as it is remarkably irregular for a system 
of tomb-chambers otherwise carefully finished, it must originally 
have been even smaller and subsequently rotighly enlarged. To 
the east of the doorway the wall of the vestibule is covered with a 
diaper of little crosses, the work of pilgrims to the " Aceldama." 

The first chamber is a quadrangular room with domed roof. 
Doorways, the design of which is shov.'n in the cut, lead into 
subordinate chambers, each with two sunk bench graves. (The 
letters in the cut refer to corresponding letters on the plan and 
indicate the position of each door.) The doorway on the east side 
has been half quarried away, and the chamber into which it leads 
bx^eaks into an irregular natural cavity in the rock. There is also 
a deep kok-grave to the south of the Avestern subsidiary chamber, 

Not published. 



148 



THE ROCK-CUT TOMBS IN' WAUY ER-RABABI. 



and opposite it the door of what may be described as a " false 
kok." 




■■/}y 



This "false kok" forms a 
portion of the elaborate system 
of defence by which it was hoped 
the inner chambei' would be pro- 
tected from spoliation. It is 
evident that a rolling stone ran 
in front of the entrance to the 
inner chamber, and that it was 
held in position by a block which 
could be manipulated in the little 
secret chamber to which the false 
kok gives access. The rolling 
stone itself was concealed by a 
long slab of stone, now dis- 
appeared, which no doubt was 
ornamented Avith a completion 
of the panelling of the blank 
doorway shown on the plate. 
When this slab was in position 




iiSiiW 



a XV 




by.y 




c)^y 



THE ROCK-CUT TOMBS IX WADV ER-IIAIIABI. ] 40 

the sepulchre wouhl present the uppearance of a single main 
chamber, with two side tomb-chambers and two kokim ; and 
having a mock door in the back wnU, imitating the " prac- 
ticable " side doors, and completing a uniform scheme of 
ornamentation. "Whether thieves were ever put '• off the scent " 
by these elaborate devices we cannot saj- ; rolling stone and 
cover slab have disappeared, and the door now stands open to 
give admission to the second chamber. This 13 similar to the 
first, but on a slightly smaller scale; there are two side tomb- 
chambers, as in the first room, and the doors are of the same 
•character as those already met with. There is, however, no 
attempt at concealing the entrance to the inner members of the 
sepulchre. The ceiling of the second chamber is domed like that 
ot the first 

A long passage leads downwards to the third and last chamber. 
The first half of this passage is higher and wider than the second, 
and contains a sunk bench tomb on each side. The innermost 
chamber is qnite plain, and contains three arcosolia. The floor is 
covered with rubbish. Except the dimensions, which are figured 
■on the plate, there is nothing to be said about this room. 

39. (Plan XVI,^ mentioned in Tobler under 18). — Fragment of 
a tomb, destroyed by quarrying. One arcosolium is left, 2 feet 
10 inches high. The ceiling of the chamber is 1 foot 10 inches 
above the top of the arcosolium. 

40. (Plan XVII; Tobler, 13b, c ?).— A complicated system 
■arranged in three storeys. The outer chamber, or pair of 
chambers, have been laid open by quarrying. The large, open 
outer chamber to the east has six shalloAV kokim (the centi-al 
kok on the south side remarkably wide), probably very much 
shortened by cutting back the walls. In the north-east corner 
is a hole, as though for tying horses, drilled through the pro- 
jecting angle of rock. The western open chamber has seven 
kokim, one of which is converted into a passage to the inner 
chambers. This is another method of deceiving Avould-be thieves. 
The chamber at the end of the passage is four-sided, having on 
the north one kok, on the west an arcosolium, and on the south 
a kok and an entrance to another chamber. The entrance to the 
chamber itself is on its eastern wall. The southern door leads 
to a room having on its floor a sunk grave rebated for cover-slabs, 

' Not published. 



150 



THE ROCK-CUT TOMBS IN WADY ER-RABABI. 



and additional graves in the south and east. The northern kok 
breaks into the roof of a chamber with an independent entrance, 
now blocked ; it was probably made for convenience in clearing 
away the loose debris resulting fi-om the woi-k of cutting out the 
chambers. (But was it found open by Tobler? His descrip- 
tions seem to imply this, but they are rather confused.) This 
separate entrance is directed eastward ; there is a kok to the north 
and another to the south, and westward a passage and two kokim. 







vZlj ^ ^t ^^ 



DvjmScr 01 X.Pua-. ^5ectfln 



The passage has a bench-grave on each side ; it leads into a fine 
chamber with a step surrounding it. There are two arcosolia, 
and in the west one kok. A door to the west connects this 
chamber with another, similar to it and with arcosolia similarly 
disposed, but without kokim. Another door near the north end 
of the eastern side of the first of these two chambers communi- 
cates by two steps downward with a small chamber having one 
arcosolium. 

41. (Plan XVIII). — This is a large cave which has been much 
injured by quarrying. One kok alone remains uninjured. At its 
end is a square hole which communicates downward with a small 
chamber having three sunk bench-graves. Its floor is 4 feet 
10 inches below the level of the kok serving as an approach, and 
the height of its roof above the floor is 5 feet 7 inches. Here, 
again, we see an example of a secret room hidden in an unlikely 
place ; Professor Clermont- Ganneau reports similar examples 
from Wady Yasul. There are remains of two other kokim : a 
curious window-opening beside the door, 2 feet 3 inches above 



TIIK ]{OCK-CUT TOMBS IN AVADY ElMUBAW. 



151 



the present level of the floor of the chamber, and a commnnica- 
tion with the well-known charnel-house called "Aceldama," next 



1« P I 2 .1 4 / « 7 B « >o 



wti i-i i- r-p=r 




to be described. The floor of the latter is 9 feet 4 inches below 
the level of the tomb under discussion. 

42. (Plan XIX). — This is the gi'oup of tombs which in the 
Crusaders' period was united under one roof to form a cemetery 
or charnel-house for the bones of pilgrims who died at Jerusalem. 
It consists of a passage, scarped through the rock, running east 
and west, and having tomb-chambers excavated on the south side. 
A good description, with plan, was communicated by Dr. Schick 
to the Quarterly Statement some years ago, and it is necessary 
for me only to refer to this article, and to indicate a few supple- 
mentary details. The plan deduced from my measurements is 
less regular than that prepared by Dr. Schick, and we restore the 
tomb-chambers (which have suffered severely from quarrying) 
rather differently. This will easily be understood by anvone 
familiar with the site, as tlie indications that remain are meagre, 
and not very distinctive. There is, however, no doubt that there 
was a door at «, as its top still i-emains {see the separate sketch). 
This seems to me to require the restoration of the passage behind 
it, as indicated on the plan by a broken line. The elevation, h, 
shows the grounds for restoring the small chamber with arcosolia 



152 



THE ROCK-CUT TOMBS IX WADY ER-RA.BABI. 



and kokim. At c are five well-cut crosses of differeat sizes, with 
expanding ends to the arms, but the Armenian inscription reported 
by Tobler is no longer to be seen. In the south-west corner is the 
entrance to tomb Xo. 41. 

In the plan masonry is hlacJiened in, rock is hatched, features of 
the vault (holes, &c.) are dotted, restorations are indicated by a 
broken line. The reverse direction of the hatching at the corner 

THE CH.\H,N EL- HOUSE 




doorway indicates that the kok there shown, as well as the kokim 
associated with it, are at a lower level than the doorway itself. 

43. A little north of the charnel-house ; a rectangular chamber, 
of which the back wall alone remains perfect. It is 10 feet 8 inches 
long. This is nearly full of rubbish. 

44. East of the above ; a chamber, much choked with debris, 
7 feet 8 inches by 7 feet G inches, having two kokim running east 
and west, close to the back wall. These are respectively G feet 



THE ROCK-CUT TOMBS IX WADV EH-RABABI. 153 

iind 7 feet 3 inches long. The longer of these kokim is 2 feet 
9 inches broad and '2 feet 8 inches high, and is covered with 
■a vaulted roof. 

Tobler describes an elaborate system about 20 paces north of 
Aceldama. Strange to say, I searched in viiin for this. 

45. (Plan XX^). — This tomb is at the side of the new road 
leading up to the monastery of the Aceldama. It consists of 
■one chamber, irregular in shape. 6 feet 6 inches high, with ;i 
bench of maximum heiyht 1 foot 6 inches round two sides. An 
irregular fracture inteiTupts the bench on the east side, and 
behind it is a crooked cavity 6 feet deep and 5 feet maximum 
width. This may be a natural hole. In the middle of the west 
side is a sunk grave 2 feet deep, 6 feet 6 inches long, and 2 feet 
across ; and at the north end of the same side is a small chamber 
■5 feet long, 3 feet broad, and 2 feet 7 inches high. The entrance 
door is raised about 2 feet above the floor. Over it, on the exterior 
iace of the rock, is inscription No. 10. 

46. A chamber 10 feet long, 6 feet bi'oad, recessed behind 
a vestibule nearly full of stones. It is much destroyed by 
•quarrying. 

47. This tomb has been turned into a cess-pit, and the 
•entrance is blocked Avith stones. Above the door is inscription 
No. 11. 

The nine tomb systems following (48-56) are contained within 
the precincts of the modern Greek naonasteiy of Aceldama, and 
are adapted for various purposes in connection with it : — 

48. A small chamber, nearly full of rubbish ; all that is left of 
a system that, in addition, possessed at least one kok. It has 
nearly all been removed, in order to make room for a pathway. 

49. (Plan XXI^). — This excavation is now the wine cellar of 
the monastery. Its members are: — (1) A vestibule, 10 feet 
7 inches across ; over the doorway leading into the chambei" 
beyond it is a single red spot, probably the sole relic of an 
inscription. (2) A chamber, 10 feet 2 inches by 9 feet 11 inches, 
^vith three arcosolia and one kok. (8) A chamber, 6 feet by 
7 feet 6 inches, at a lower level, approached by a short flight of 
steps. In this chamber are two kokim beside the entrance to the 
staircase, two arcosolia (one on each of the side walls), and, on 
the back wall, a niche and a passage that communicates with some 

^ Not published. 



154 



THE ROCK-CUT TOMBS IX "WADY EK-UABABI. 



place outside the monastery — perhaps tomb Xo. 47. This 
passage is therefore securely closed with fixed iron bars. 

50. (Plan XXII; Tobler, 10; Baedeker, 9).— An elaborate 
but much-injured excavation, part of -wbicli is now the monastexy 
chapel. The doorway has been restored in modern masonry ; 




~Ti/- 



-LTS- 



-U-J- 



-jv- 



-xj— 



-irj- 



-J-JT 



JJL 



l l ill I I L 



CXX/^ 



above it is a frieze divided by diglyphs into eight metopes (Fig. c), 
containing wreatbs and rosettes. The vestibule has been covered 
with modern painting, which destroys nearly all traces of the 
ancient decoration. The only visible remains of the latter are a 
red line with black spots in the cornice, and the letters A — U) 
in the spandrels of the inner doorway. 

The east wall of the first chamber has been cut away, and an 
extension has been made so as to give space for the chapel. Of 
the ancient wall paintings that once covered the plastered rock- 
surface, very little remains ; time, the vandalism of former Fellah 
inhabitants, and modern restoration, have all had their share in 
obliteratinerthem. The few relics consist of a border round the 
ceiling in red and green (Fig. h), which enclosed five almost full-size 

_, fio-ures (these have been completely 

repainted), and the tops of square 
I panels that no doubt once also con- 
bxxi/ taiued figures, which, owing to the 
destruction of the plaster, have disappeared. The broken east 
wall shows the top of an arcosolium. 

To the right of the entrance is the name of a saint, which 
formerly explained a now destroyed figui'e, and tliere was a 
similar inscription on the north wall ; but both are now too much 
battered to be legible. On the east face of the remaining 
fragment of the east wall are also traces of painting. 

Behind the present chapel is a long irregular chamber, that 
has apparently been considerably interfered with ; it is difficult 
to believe that the present is the original plan, though the lai^er 



^^r^-^^^^ 



THE ROCK-CUT TOMBS IN WADY ER-IIABABI. 



loo 



cannot be restored with certainty. On the western side an 
arcosoliura has been broken away to form a recess for a row of 
stalls ; further south is a recess with a now blocked shaft running 
upwards from its ceiling. In the centre of the floor is the 
entrance to a cistern, now used as one of the water stores of the 
monastery. On the east side is a quadrangular space partly 
recessed in the wall, and sunk about I foot below the level of the 
floor; on its eastern side are two kokirn, blocked up, and on the 
south side a door communicating with a small chamber containing 
two arcosolia and three kokim — two which are rather shallow 




SCALE 
1ILC S iO If 

HHHhHHHHI-t HTtm for XX.II -Ti^^l'l 



recesses, under, one behind the arcosolium in the southern wall. 
From this chamber a curved passage gives access to another, now 
much broken, and used as a store and lumber room. There are 
traces of painting on the walls of the quadrangular space (figures 
in outline, indefinite fragments only left), and in the small tomb- 
chamber (a few red and black lines, apparently part of a figure in 
outline, on the eastern arcosolium ; some plain red crosses on the 
southern). 

Returning to the first chamber, and proceeding southward, we 
enter by an arched doorway into a chamber 7 feet b}- 6 feet 
9 inches, containing two ai'cosolia — one on the east, one on the 
south — with two kokim under each. In the wall behind the 
"arcosolium on the eastern side are two niches. 



156 



THE KOCK-CUT TOMBS IX WADY ER-RABABI. 



51. (Plan XXIII). — A flight of steps downward gives access 
to a chamber 3 feet across, 8 feet 7 inches long. On each side is 
a sunk tomb in an arcosolium. Behind is a square chamber, 
havins- a raised bench all round, doubled on the north side. This 
has four kokim on the west wall with a double arcosolium above 
them ; the latter detail is new to me. On the cast side are two- 
kokim ; on the south two kokim and a passage with an arcosolium 
on each side. 

52. (Plan XXIV).— Two | 
rooms at least, broken to- 
gether to form a bedroom : 
in one side is a niche with a 
plain moulding. Behind is 
a chamber, intact, 7 feet 5 
inches square. It contains 
on the west side an arco- 
solium with a niche behind 
it ; on the south, two kokim ; 
on the east an arcosolium, 
having a kok below it, two 
at riffht angles to the wall 
behind it, and one running 
parallel to the wall south- 
ward from it ; on the east 
of the latter is a grave-recess, and at the south end a niche. 
Thei-e are fragments of one or two handsome ossuaries (the 
principal design on which is shown on 
Fig. a) lying in this chamber. 

53. A large square room, much 
injured by quarrying. It is 18 feet by 




.<,©' 









15 feet 8 inches. At the end is an "^^.'Ol 
arcosolium. A bench runs round the '®'' 
wall, and underneath is a cistern. Over 
the entrance is inscription No. 12. 

5-i. The entrance portion of this tomb has been greatly 
modified to form the kitchen of the monastery. A chamber 
remains intact at the back, and contains two arcosolia and four 
kokim. 

55. This tomb, now the wood store of the monastery, is 
peculiar among those of this grolip in possessing kokim only. 
There are three on the south, three on the west side. 



THE KOCK-CUT TOMBS IN AVADY ER-RABABI. 



1.- 



oi 



56. (Plan XXV ; Tobler, 8 ; Baedeker, 8).— This is by far the 
most elaborate tomb system in Wacly er-Rababi. It is at a lower 
level than the others, and its porch has been inpi-eniously ada])ted 
in the substructures of the monastery. The graves have been 
filled with skulls and other bones taken from tlie charnel-house 
and the other tombs in the neig'libourhood. 



O . S : ■■' /O /6 /t 

EHHHHHHED fir^ia^ 

M M M l-rn fira.i, 










a. 






y 




i 


' / 1 





't 


1 


1 


.-■J 



sti^Tfe^i^^r 'i 



Before the entrance is a distyle portico, such as exists in a few 
of the most costly of the tombs near Jerusalem. The other 
examples known to me are: — (1) The tomb of Queen Helena; 
(2) the tomb of the Beni Hazer ; (3) a little-knowu tri-cameral 
tomb of unknown appropriation, south of the " Tombs of the 
Judges " ; (4) a tomb, conspicuous in a valley north-east of the 



158 THE ROCK-CUT TOMBS IX W.VDY ER-RABABI. 

" Tombs of the Judges," where the pillars have long been removed, 
though the portico remains. In this tomb the walls of tlie portico 
are blocked in imitation of drafted masonry'. 

A doorway of peculiar design, Fig. h, witli a lofty 
triangular pediment and two side pilasters, gives access to a 
chamber between 10 and 11 feet square, with a domed roof 
such as we already met with in Ferdus er-Riim (No. 38). 
To the west are two side chambers, each with two arcosolia ; these 
have round-headed doorways, with a half-column between them. 
Fig. a shows the elevation of this side of the chamber. The 
eastern side is similar, but the northern of the two chambers 
leads to a complicated system consisting of five rooms wdth kokim 
and arcosolia. The south side of the first chamber also shows two 
doorways. That on the east leads to a room, G feet 9 inches by 
7 feet 2 inches, with a sunk grave in the centre of the floor — 
the only grave in the cemetery that in shape follows the general 
outlines of a human body — an arcosolium eastward, and another 
northward, with above it the entrance to a smaller chamber havinsr 
two arcosolia. The western side door leads to a chamber, 7 feet 
4 inches by 8 feet 8 inches, the ceiling of which is covered with 
crosses smoked by pilgrims. This has three arcosolia, one in each 
of the walls not containing the doorway, and in the floor an 
opening giving admission by steps downward to another chamber, 
7 feet 2 inches square, having subsidiary chambers eastward and 
westw^ard, with two arcosolia in each. 

There are tw^o ossuaries in the entrance chamber. One of 
these has an inscription scratched upon its cover; it is in square 
Hebrew letters, but so defaced that I could make nothing^ of it. 

In front of the enti'ance portico is a rock-hcAvn court, with 
two recesses on the eastern side, and in the south-west ang-le 
the entrance to another tomb svstem. This consists of a vesti- 
bule with a staircase leading downward into a four-sided chamber 
having subsidiary chambers with arcosolia, one in each of the 
sides not containing the doorway. The chamber on the side 
opposite the doorway leads to a further chamber (unfinished), 
4 feet 10 inches by 5 feet 9 inches, presenting no feature of 
.interest. 

I cannot recognise Tobler's No. 9. 



'JD' 



(To he continued.') 



ir,o 



THE ROCK-CUTTINGS OF KHURBET EL-'AIK 

By R. A. Stewart Macalister, M.A. 

Khurbet el-'Ain is the name given to a hill by the side of Wady 
ej-Judeideh, immediately opposite to the Tell of the same name. 
Between it and the next hill (Khurbet Medawwir) runs the road 
from Wady ej-Judeideh to Dcir en-Nakhkhas. Near the side of 
this road, at its junction with the Wady, there ai'e certain frag- 
inents of pillars and other architectural remains of the Roman 
period, which tradition asserts to be the remains of a fountain 
('at')?) that once existed here, and from which the liill derives 
its name. The building, whatever it was, has become completely 
disintegrated, most of its stones having been removed for 
boundary marks and other purposes ; it is now quite impossible 
to recover its plan or design. 

Among some half-dozen pits of the common bell-shape, a few 
columbaria, rock-cut graves, and tomb-chambers with kokim, is a 
number of rock-cuttings which yield to none in interest or variety. 
I have foun^ no group more worthy of careful study and richer in 
promise of instruction ; and, therefore, have thought it Avorth 
while to prepare a short preliminary account of the three most 
important. Full details and measurements, with plans (precluded 
by their necessary size from appearing in the Quarterly Statement) 
will be given in the section on rock-cuttings in the forthcoming 
memoir on the recent excavations. 

I. — The first of the three that I have selected tor present 
notice is situated on the summit of the col connecting Khurbet el- 
'Ain with the next hill to the south. It is called Mughdret Abu 
Haggein ( .^~w) by the natives: a nnme which seems to mean 
" Cave of the Father of two truths," though its application is 
beyond my comprehension. There ai-e two types of labyrinth 
among the Shephelah caves. In tlie first, of which the Great 
Souterrain at Tell Zakariya is an excellent example, the chambers 
communicate one with another either' directly or less frequently by 
intervening passages. In the second a long creep-passage is the 
backbone of the system, and subsidiary passages and chambers 
radiate fi'om it on each side. 

L 



IGO THE nOCK-CUTTINGS OF KHURBET EL-'AIX. 

!Mugliaret Abu Hao-geha is an admirable .spcciiiieii of tl-e 
second, which is much the rarer type. 

CHAMBEli A 

* 



KVI L'AXiE * CHAMBKR B 



CHAIJBEK C 
PASSAGE A * CHAMBKU. 1) * PASSAGE B 

As a temporary substitute for a plan, which cannot be reduced 
satisfactorily to the size of tlie Quarterly Statement, the above 
diagram (based on a system adapted from Tobler's plans of rock- 
tombs) is offered iu elucidation of the description. The entrance 
is a downward sloping passage, open to the sky. At its lower 
■end are three doorways (represented by stars), each leading into 
;a chamber. These chambers communicate internally as well : 
indeed, the external entrances to A and B are now blocked. 
Beyond Chamber C is Chamber D, which has four little sub- 
sidiary cells opening off from it (not indicated in the diagram) 
and two passages. Passage A is 69 feet long; four small cells 
open off it in its course, as well as a subsidiary passage, com- 
municating by a further subordinated passage with a tifth cell. 
The main passage terminates in a chamber of considerable size, 
having four small cells opening off it. Passage B is open for 
95 feet of its length, after which it is blocked. Eight cells open 
from it. A sudden drop downwards in its floor seems to be meant 
to put an obstacle in the way of invaders. 

The cave, therefore, consists of three large main chambers 
(B, C, D) and one smaller (A) ; of main lines of passage open 
for a total length of 161) feet ; of one large chamber and 21 small 
cells subordinated to the main chambers and passages ; as well as 
of certain subsidiary galleries. Besides the open entrance, nine 
doorways, apparently ancient entrances, are visible at various 
places inside, blocked up ; these were probably merely holes made 
f(jr convenience in removing waste material. 

II. — This is a bell-shaped pit of the ordinary pattern ; but it 
is distinguished by its great size, and by the complicated history 



TIIK i:OCK-CUTTINGS OK KFIUUBET Et.-'AIN. 101 

written (Hi iis walls, IVoiu otlioi's of the ty|)e. The di'|>th is 
60 feet, the diameter at the bottom 40 feet. The bottom is 
accessible by a staircase. 

The most reraai-kable featiii'e of the cave is a great cross 
2}attee, cut neatly on the wall at jx height of about 30 feet from 
the on'ound. This must either have been made when the cave 
was being made, or else have been cut with the aid of a ladder or 
scaffolding. The former view would, of course, date the cave in 
post-Christian times, and therefore, bj analogy, all like it as 
well — a conclusion which to me seems all but inconceivable. 
Five other crosses are scattered over the wall in more accessible 
situations. 

In any case, whatever the date of the cave may be, the.'<o 
crosses attest a Christian occupation ; and a subsequent non- 
Christian occupation as a columbarium is indicated by the fact 
that t'.vo of these crosses are interfered with by the encroachment 
of loculi. In all there are 4-i5 holes for urns cut in the walls of 
the cave. 

There are two characters scratched high up on the wall, near 
the enti'ance, which merit attention. The first of these resembles 
a character in the West Asiatic hieroglyphs ; it is the letter like 
the handle of a bucket, which occurs three times in line 1 of the 
tirst three Hamath inscriptions as figured in Wright's " Empire of 
the Hittites." The difference between this character and the 
Khurbet el-'Ain symbol lies in the loops, which ai-e open in the 
latter, closed in the former.^ The other syinboi is more interesting. 
It is a Swastika, witii the lower arm developed into a spiral 
surroundinj? the fio-ure. This, I believe, is the first Swastika vet 
found in the Phoenician arch.'^ological area; it is common in 
districts under Mycenoean and Greek influence, but has hitherto 
been regarded as foreign to Phoenician and native Egyptian art or 
symbolism. 

It is only fair to mention that the credit of first noticing this 
very interesting pair of symbols belongs to a promising youthful 
archaeologist, Master J. Palmer (son of my friend Mr. R. G. 
Palmer, late of Jerusalem), who, during a visit to the explora- 

' In column D, line 2, of the first; Jorabis inscription (op. cif.), a form 
of this letter appears more nearly resembling the eliaraeter in question. But 
I do not suggest that we have a specimen of the West Asiatic liieroglypln- 
at Khurbet el-'Ain, whicli is probably too fur sontJi for such a discovery. The 
comparisons are merely intended to be descriptive, not explanatory. 

l2 



162 THE ROCK-CUTTINGS OF KHURBET EL-'AIX. 

lion camp, gave me mucb useful assistance in measuring these 
caves. 

III. — Of all tlie 120 or 130 caves, large and small, which I 
examined in the district round Beit Jibrin, none appeared to me 
more interesting than the third of those selected for the present 

notice. 

It consisis of a long hall, 47 feet in length, and maintaining 
a fairly uniform breadth of IS or 19 feet, approached by a 
vestibule, or rather open passage, sloping downwards. Round 
the hall is arranged a series of rooms — mostly .small cells — 
opening off its sides by well-made square doorways, which have 
been prepared for wooden frames ; there are in all 14 of these cells 
connected with the main hall, beside a large number of shallow 
niches. One of these chambers, on the west side, is connected 
by a short tunnel (now blocked with stones) with a series of four 
chambers, one of them a great room of bell shape, about 40 feet 
in depth. 

In the south-west corner of the principal hall is a passage, 
raised 3 feet 7 inches above the surface of the ground, which, 
after passing through a very low and narrow doorway, ends at 
the foot of a straight, steep, narrow staircase, of a form quite 
unique in these caves. There are 20 steps, ranging in tread from 
5^ to 8 inches, and in rise from 13 to 20 inches. The top of the 
.staircase is blocked up ; but two passages open off the left-hand 
side wall, near the top ; the upper passage is short, and leads 
to a small system of three cells; the lower winds for about 
50 feet, after which it suddenly comes to an end in a block. Not 
impossibly it would end in a raised doorway, inaccessible Avithout 
:i lono- ladder, to be seen in the Avail of the large bell-chamber 
already described. 

One more interesting feature of tlie main hall deserves careful 
consideration. This is a cupboard above a kind of apse in the 
centre of the east wall. It is a receptacle of small size — 
1 foot 3 inches to 1 foot 5 inches in all dimensions, and therefore 
could not have held many or large objects, but these must have 
been of considerable intrinsic value, as the cupboard was closed 
with a board, carefully secured in position by a heavy beam. 
The sockets for all these are visible in the rock ; and it is 
interesting to notice that for extra security the board must have 
been slightly warped, so as to fit more tightly. 



DISCOVEKY AT THE POOL BETIIESDA. IG.'J 

111 my opinion the caves at Khurbet ol-'Aiu are of much 
o-i'cator interest, than even the colossal excavations of Beit Jibriii ; 
and of the series on this liill none can compete in imjiortance with 
that now described. 

Close by it is another, oE A'ery similar type, but not nearly 
so extensive. 



DISCOVERY AT THE POOL BETHESUA. 

By Pi:i;E Li':ox Crk. 

Ix the Quarterly Statement for 1888 (pp. 115-134) there is a 
description, with plan and sections, by Dr. Schick, of the twin 
pools near the Charch of St. Anne, which are called by the earlier 
historians of the Crusades Piscina Probatica or Bethesda. Ihe 
pools, then recently discovered, were only partially examined ; 
and, as more than half of them lie beneath private Moslem 
houses, complete exploration is still impo.ssible. It was thought, 
however, that something more might be done, and in 1899 the 
Committee of the Fund placed a small sum at the disposal of the 
"White Fathers" wlio had conducted the previous excavations. 
The result has been the discovery of the outlet of the western pool, 
and of the drain connected with it. 

Pere Leon Cre, to whose initiative the work of exploration is 
due, writes that when the south part of the western pool was 
cleared of rubbish they noticed, against the south wall, two 
masses of rock which resembled the piers that support the sluice- 
gates of European reservoirs. Digging between these, they found 
a channel 2 feet 11^ inches wide and deep, and then a rock-hewn 
opening, 3 feet 3;^ inches high, in the south wall, at a depth of 
G2 feet 4 inches below the present level of the ground. Beneath 
this opening was another, 1 foot 7^ inches square, which allowed 
the pool to be emptied for cleansing purposes. Passing through 
the opening, they found themselves in a high passage with rock 
sides, which was roofed with large flag-stones, and at the bottom 
of the shaft by which men jmssed up and down, by means of 
small foot-holes cut in the rock, to open or shut the sluice-gate. 
Beyond the shaft the passage was covered with stalactites, which 
wainscoted its rocky sides or hung in rows, like petrified snakes. 



1G4 



DISCOVERY AT THE POOL BETHESDA. 



from tlie joints between the covering flag-stones. When the 
hardened mud, which covered the floor to a depth of about 
o feet 3^ inches, was cleared away, they found two rock-hewn 
steps of 1 foot 3| inches, then a third 5 feet 3 inches high, and 
a fourth, all leading down to a di-ain, of which only the crown of 
the semi-circular covering arch was visible. The vault is well 
preserved, and is formed by five parallel lines of voussoirs, each 
7-87 inches wide, but varying in length, the maximum being 
a dimension, 3 feet 6h inches, met wnth in previous excavations in 
the pool. The bottom and sides of this fine di-ain, which was 
followed for 182 feet from north to south, are of rock. Father 



Subsoil of modern houses 



- .; Unexplored^ 




Cre estimates that the Birket Israil was only 131 feet distant 
from the point at which they were obliged to stop. Here the 
channel was filled up, apparently from another source, and a 
larger drain ran east towards the Valley of Jehoshaphat. 

Dr. Schick writes that the western pool, which at the time 
of his previous report was full of soil, has been cleared, and that 
the level of its floor is about 54 feet below the level of the street 
leading to St. Stephen's Gate. The pool is a little wider than it 
is shown on liis 1888 plan, and, like that to the east, from which 
it is separated by a rock wall 27 feet high, has rock-hewn sides on 
the south and west, and masonry on its north side. Dr. Schick 
believes that both pools extend 100 feet further to the north, and 



KUBEIBEII (EMMAUS). 



10;' 



that the hii'go passage and drain wi'vc made wlicn the pools 
were excavated. He says that the outlet of tho pool is undo- the 
point where there is a drain (mai-ked 13 on ilie Fection, Plate 2, 
Quarterly Sfatewent, 1888, p. 118), and that its floor is on the 
same level as the overfln-\v duct of the Birket Tsrail shown on 
Sir C. "Warren's section (Plate XVI, '' Jerusalem Portfolio of 
Plans, &c."). 



KUBEIBEH (EMMAUS). 

Abridged from a Paper by Dk. C. Schick. 

Ix vol. iii of the "Memoirs" of Western Palestine, p. 130, there 
is a description of Knbeibeh, and of the remains near it of an 
earlier village and church. Since the publication of the "Memoirs" 
the church has been rebuilt, and much else has been done. I am 




Scale. 



I£^ 



now able to forward copies of complete plans of the church, and 
of the ancient site. The original church contained a hnilding 
Avhich was apparently older than itself, and this has been restored, 
and is called the house of Cleopas (Luke xxiv, 29, 30). The walls 
of the church, curiously enough, are not in line with those of 
the house. This building gives the church a peculiar appearance, 
and I have seen nothing like it except the Coenaculum whicii, 
as the house in which the Last Supper of the Lord was eaten, 
was included in the Byzantine Church of Zion. Whether, as in 



1G6 



KUI3KICEH (EMMAUS). 



that case, the house of Cleopas originally' had two storujs is 
unkr.owii. The rnediceval house had onh- one storey, and a single 
chamber 17 feet wide and 46 feet long, wliich, I think, consisted 
oriffinallv of two rooms that were thrown into one when the 
Bj'zantine Clmrch was restored b}' the Crusaders. It \vas sup- 
posed that the church was built by the Crusaders, as thei'e is 
no notice of an eai'lier church or of the identification of Kubcibeh 
with the Emmaus of Luke in Byzantine times. But the discovery 
of part of a Byzantine mosaic pavement, and other details, 
seems to indicate that the Crusaders only restored an earlier 
Church. 

West of the church is the new Franciscan Monastery of 
Italian monks, which includes a hospice and a boarding school. 




1. Monastery. 



2. CnrECH. 



3. EoMAN Villas. 



4. Pool. 



This place and the church Avere bought by a French lady and 
given to the Franciscans in 1862 in the hope and belief that it 
Avas Emmaus. Thei-e was much opposition to this view at the 
time, and in 1863 I was asked to measure the distance from the 
gate of Jerusalem to the ruins of the monastery by three routes — 
via Nebi Samwil, Beit Iksa, and Beit ITlma. I found tlie average 
distance to be 37,600 feet, or, at 606 feet to the furlong, 62 fur- 
longs. As John states (xi, 18) that Bethanj^ " was nigh unto 
Jerusalem, about 15 furlongs off," I measured the distance from 
St. Stephen's Gate to the fii'st house in Bethany along the 
(carriage) road to Jericho, and found it to be 9,300 feet, or 
15i furlongs. Four times this distance being 62 furlongs, I felt 



WOMAN IN TIIK KAST. 1G7 

certain that, so far as distance was concerned, Kubeibeli miglit be 
rcg-avded as Emmaus. 

The plan of the site sliows that the ancient road from Jaffa to 
Jei'iisaU'iii passes behind the monastery and ahjn^ tlie nortli sideuf 
the cliurch, where it is paved. Eastwards, towards Jernsaletn, the 
remains of three Roman vilhis have been found, anil further east 
there are I'uins in an olive grove adjoining the village. From 
tliis ancient site a road descends northward to the valley and 
a spting, called 'Ain el-Ajab (the wonderful, or where wonders 
happened), which is 5^ furlongs distant. I have also measured 
the road to the plain as far as el-Burj, and of this I will write 
another time. West of the monastery, in ground jmrchased a 
few years ago by German Roman Catholics, are also ruins ; and 
south of the church is a pool, 80 feet Avide and 120 feet long, of 
which the depth is not known. Towards the south and east the 
view is limited, hut to the north and west it is extensive, Jaffa 
and the sea being seen. The air is ver}' good, and the place fit 
for recreation or a chaiiye of air. 



AVOMAN IN THE EAST. 

By Pill 1.1 r J. Baldensperger, Esq. 
(Continued from '''■ Quarterly Statement," 1901,^;. 90.) 



PART III.— THE BEFJAWIX WOMAX. 

Ch-'vpteu 1. — General Description. 

Tin: third type of Eastern woman is represented by the 
modern Bedawin woman, very probably unchanged through 
thousands of years. Just as Sarah, Abraham's wife, lived in 
tents about two thousand years before Christ, we meet tiie 
same way of living amongst the nomads — a continual I'oaming 
about from the north to the south, from the east to the west. 
The tent is pitched where there is plenty of pasturage for the 
herds and camels, and where Avater is to be had. As Abraham 
and Lot had manj' tlocks and herds and tents, the laud was not 
able to support them all, and they parted. The ti-ibcs also of the 
Bedawin live in definite districts, else there would be eternal 



168 WOMAN ]X THE EAST. 

strife among the berLlsuien. Owing to tliis class being alwa^'s 
either in the sun or in the black tents, they are always dark. 

A Bedawin settlement is composed of three or more tents, 
generally placed in a line or a square, according to number. 
When there are enough tents, to form a square, a large space is 
left in the centre; the ropes of the tents cross each other, and 
close the camp all around, leaving only one entrance. 

The women are clothed in huge gowns or shirts of a very dark 
bine colour ; the sleeves ai"e very long and wide, and the dresses 
are a good deal too long, so that the women trail their skirts far 
behind or gather half of the length in front, hanging it down 
from above the girdle. The head-cloth is all of the same stuff and 
colour, wrapped round the head anrl hanging down on both sides. 
As if darkness would not be made complete by the dark clothes, 
sunburnt faces, and black tents, they are revy often tattooed in 
dark blue round the mouth, and often the lips are deeply tinged 
with blue. 

Certainly this class is the most purely original race, into 
which no foreign blood has been admitted, as among the towns- 
people and Fellahin ; for they are, in spite of their roaming life, 
most scrupulous about their pedigree. Intermarriage with Fellahin 
is rare, and if in some tribes strangers are admitted, still they are 
partially discarded, or the next marriage is again concluded with 
a stranger. 

The tent is always long, in most cases the Avhole front 
side open, and usually towards the east. They call the tents 
" hair-houses," as they are made of goats' hair, spun and woven 
by the women themselves in long strips not over a yard in 
breadth, and Avhen sufficient pieces are ready they are sewn 
together with thick hair-threads. The tent is pitched on one 
central pole, the two side poles north and south — the fore and the 
hind foot. For the common Bedawin there is a single tent, in 
which all live together ; but the more wealthy have the tent 
divided by a separation of the same stuff, marking off what is 

called the mc/hram, ^_:^s,<, or women's apartment, into which men 

are not allowed to go. The separation itself is called raenad, 

Sj<x.<- When guests are announced, they go to separate guests' 

tents if the encampment is considerable enough to have such ; 
but if only a few tents form the whole encampment, the guests 
are received in the tent proper, whilst the women go into the 
secluded part, just as Sarah also hid herself when the angel came 



WOMAN IN THE EAST. 1 GO 

to visit Abraham and Corctold tlu' liirtli of Isaaf. Loii<,^ i-oitcs 
;ne I>()iintl to all pole-tops except tlie central one, ;ind pe^^s are 
driven info the gronud at some distance in ])i'(iper piopoi-tion. 
r)\ving- to the eternal moving, the narrow space, and the lew 
wnnts, tlie "house of hnir" is never over-filled with useless 
articles. 

Ch.^pter II. — I'm; Household. 

Necessarily the household fuinitnre is reduced to such articles 
as are strictly wanted. Mats or carpets are to be found in every 
tent, as these are of jirime necessity, forming the bedding (for 
they cannot sleep on mother earth, though they are not very far 
above it), and a few cushions and covers complete the bedroom 
articles. As with the townspeople and peasants, these articles 
are rolled up and put away during day-time, being spread out 
only in case visitors of importance come to the tents. The skin 
water-bottle is one of the most precious articles to be found in 
the house. As the regions in which they encamp are generally 
devoid of trees and bushes, the liottest part of the country is 
chosen in winter, away from water, and in summer a slight 
elevation, but always in desolate places, or at least where there are 
no villages. The water is very often miles away, and the women 
can be seen toiling- home carrying the water either on their own 
backs or on the backs of their donkeys. In Palestine the Beilawin 
women wear a heavy black veil covering the nose and month 
and hanging down in front, so that only the eyes can be seen 
sparkling, black, and piercing with their disdainful looks. Next 
in importance to the bottle is the wooden bowl to make the 
dough ; the tanned goat or kid skin, sewed up sack fashion, to 
hold the Hour ; and the inevitable hand-mill to grind the corn. 
A few kitchen utensils, a s;nall pot or two and a Avooden ladle, 
or sometimes an iron pan, complete the household furniture. 
Everj'thing appertaining to cotfee-making is owned by the whole 
settlement. It is usually in the house of the Sheikh, or else 
in the guests' tent, and goes round according as this one or that 
one may want the whole set. The grain stored away which 
some half-agricultural tribes may possess is put in pits in some 
isolated, out-of-the-way spot where no stranger will ever venture, 
as the whole region is considered something like the private 
[)roperty of the tribe, and loafers ai-e not admitted. Thus thefts 
are very rare. Small quantities of grain, flour, cheese, and butter 
are always in the house under the absolute control of the woman. 



170 WOMAN IX THE EAST. 

Tlie baby is generally in a home- made Lammock hanging across 
tlie tent from the front to the back pole, and "svhen the mother 
moves or goes on an errand the baby is carried in its hammock 
on her back. A circulai- concave pan, without handles, is used 
to bake the bread on, the hollow side turned to the fire, which is 
built up in front of the tent between two stones, usually in such 
a place as is out of the Avay of the pi'evailing ^Yinds, to prevent 
the smoke fillinof the tent. During: I'ains or bad weather the whole 
family huddle ai'ound a central fire, and this is tlie most uncom- 
fortable time in the Bedawin life. As most Bedawin live iii the 
deserts, they retire as far south as possible, to avoid rigorous 
winters or to have the least possible rain. Those of the moun- 
tainous districts of Jerusalem — that is, those in the desei't of 
Judea — go towards the Dead Sea district after having ploughed 
and sowed their lands. The women always have their poultry- 
yards, and when they are about to start they bind the chickens' 
feet the night befoi'e leaving, and on the journey these are either 
simply laid across the loads on donkeys or camels, or else the 
women carry them in a Avickerwork basket on the head. Arrived 
at their new settlement, the fowls are set loose at once, and, like 
their mistresses, seem accustomed to this roaming life, for no 
sooner are their legs untied than they run round about the half- 
tinished settlement as if they had never known another spot. 
A small chicken-house, so low that a child must creep in to fetch 
the eggs, is soon built, and into it the fowls I'etreat as soon as 
it is evening, to avoid being eaten by the ever-ready foxes and 
jackals, who seem to be acquainted with the camping grounds. 
When the tent is pitched, a small furrow is dug all round, to 
prevent the rain running in. 

The donkeys, cows, and dogs are almost always left to the 
women to look after, and when the donkeys and cows are driven 
out to pasture they are kept by the smaller girls and boys. The 
dogs always remain by their mistresses, who never forget to feed 
them with Avhatever they may have themselves, either dry bi'ead 
or a bit of bread and butter, or the remains of some milk. After 
iSupper to strangers the bones are preserved for the dogs, who 
have always names, such as " Lion of the Night," " Young Pigeon," 
" Peacock," " Tiger," and so on. 

The further away from towns the fewer wants, and the less 
to do. When they live near towns, as in the plain of Sharon, 
where Jaffa and Gaza can be reached very easily, and where 
minor towns also require many requisites which they themselves 



"WOMAN IN TlllO EAST. 171 

do not jH'oduce, they find ready sale foi' those products tlioy msiv 
liave. sncli as milk, cheese, butter, chickens, and efi^gs, oi-, in 
liarvest-tinie, grain. As with the Fcllaliin, so also with tin; 
Hedawhi, it is the women who cany the articles to market, and 
hrinof hack sweets or cloth foi- their dress. In all the Arab 
towns tliere are dyers wlio dye the shirting blue, and long 
strips may be seen hanging around the streets from the tops 
of the houses. This dyeing Ijusincss is now carried on by the 
Moliammedan and Christian townspeople. In centuries gone by it 
seems to have been mostly in the hands of the Jews. Benjamin of 
Tudela, who visited Palestine whilst it was in the hands of the 
Crusaders, enumerates the names of the Jews, and he states 
tliat Tuany were dyers, especially in Judea, or Southern Palestine. 
In every small town and in iTiany villages he met Jewish dyers. 

In the far away desert the Bedawin seldom, if ever, allow their 
women to come to towns : most of those of the southern tribes 
Iiave never so much as seen villagers or strangers, except chance 
travellers as they passed along the road. ]Many years ago when 
T lived in the Jordan Valley, on ground rented from the Bedawin 
(if the Tiger tribe of the 'Adwan, one day as I Avas hunting 
in the thicket, four women, when they caught sight of me, 
shrieked and fled, calling out lor help. I tried to get near 
them, and explained to them that I was a European settler living 
for the time with their tribe, and that I was out pigeon-shooting 
and would do them no harm, but, on the contrary, would Iir glad 
enough to be left in peace by them and their people. Thickly 
veiled, and with throbbing hearts, they approached and wondered 
what was the matter with me, why I had such a white skin, and 
timidly a damsel stretched out her hand to feel if I was really 
flesh and blood. Having talked intelligibly in Arabic to them 
they were reassured, but owned that on having first caught sight 
of me they thought they saw a spectre, as I was wholly dressed in 
white, with a white head-cloth, and had besides white hands and 
face, though a little sunburnt, which was not distinguishable at a 
distance, and in the first moment of their terror. For a very 
short time the women of the tribe remained in the plains, but 
as soon as the summer heat began they retired into the cooler 
districts of the mountains of ]\loab. The Bedawin woman who 
remained with us was tattooed all over her face, and having 
married a Fellah, she had done away with the veil, which is very 
troublesome for women, but as Bedawin women have only half or 
not even so much work to do, they are quite accustomed to the 
veil and take life very easy. 



17U WOMAN IN THE EAST. 

Chapter III.— The AVomex. 

The Bedavvijeh, as Avell as tlie townswoniau and the Fallaha, 
has her duties, though on a smaller scale than the two others. Still 
she has to look to ever3'thing concerning the househohl, and as 
a niothei' to bring up her children, no matter how small this duty 
may be, for in early life, when the children can run, they are 
either almost or quite naked by day, so that the mother has 
neither mending nor sewing to do. Of course this is not the case 
in the winter months, neither can it be applied to all children, for 
the babies all have diapers and all kinds of rags, and as long as 
they cannot run and warm themselves have to be kept Avarm br 
some kind of clothing, w^hilst the grown-up children must be 
decently clothed, be they boys or girls. Here also the girls are 
sent out as shepherdesses, but never out of the family. The 
clothing of the women is not adapted to very active work, like the 
clothes of the towuswomen; the Bedawiyeh loses herself in cumber- 
some Avrappings and windings. In the first place, the whole dress 
is very wide, a girdle holds it in position round the waist, but the 
rest comes out and dangles about on all sides. The sleeves cau 
be turned round the body several times, the head-cloth hangs 
down to a considerable distance after having been twisted round 
the head. The thick black veil, as already mentioned, is orna- 
mented with coins hanging all round the edge, at the same time 
holding the lower part of the veil in position, as it is otherwise 
loose at its lower part.^ The top is fixed in the middle by u thread 
or bead-row going up between the eyes and tied to the plaits of 
the hair behind, and also to the right and left behind the ears like 
spectacles ; and is fastened behind the head. Enormous earrings 
of silver, Avhich are in reality attached to the head-gear, and in 
nowise touch the ear, encircle the eai'S and hang down almost to 
the shoulders. iN'ose-rings, bracelets, finger I'ings, as well as rows 
of coins, hang on the head. Such cumbersome every-day clothing 
is not fitted for Avork, like that of the Fallaha, who can tuck 
up her clothes to the knees and, with bare legs, go to work. The 
Bedawy woman is hardly ever in a hurry, sweeping the way as 
she moves slowly, or is seen sti'etching about the floor of her 
tent in search of one or other of the house articles which she may 
want, all these being very close together, so that she has hardly 

' Dress. — Tlie Eedawin women in the eastern deserts are much less accus- 
tomed to wear veils than those in the Jordan Valley, or in the west of 
Palestine.— C. E. C. 



-WOMAN- IX THE EAST. 17;-; 

ever t(i ^et up to fetch them. Her duty depends on tlie woi-k 
i>r her husband; if Ihey are half agricultural Bedawin, naturally 
eiioiii^li a good deal more of work falls also to the woman, and 
iu many things her general duty does not differ from that of her 
l^'i'llah sister. But where the Bedawin are of the robber or 
lierdsmen tribes the woman has hardly anything to do out of the 
tent, except fetching the water, or washing; which last is verv 
much simplified on account of the colour of the clothes, and also 
because the clothes are veiy little soiled when there is little 
work to perform. The women as they advance in ago generallv 
smoke and drink coffee, and try to emancipate themselves ; this 
is very true of widows. Bedawin women are very fond of the 
soot adhering to the inside of tobacco-pipe stems, they push in 
a long straw and suck off the soot, using it veiy much as tobacco 
is used in chesving.' Also thpy practice chewing gum. The 
Bedawin of some northern districts use no veils, but have their 
faces simply framed round about with the dark head-cloth. 

Chapter IV. — Marriage. 

The marriage customs of the Bedawin very much resemble 
thase of the Fellahin, but there are some differences. The girl 
among them also is never consulted about the man she is to take, 
but she has simply to obey the head of the family, whilst a 
widow may either accept or refuse the proposed husband. 

The men do not, as with the townspeople and villagers, 
accompany the bride in procession ; the Avomen only accompany 
lier to the tent of her bridegroom. As the Bedawin generally 
have no priests of their own, the religious part is wholly omitted. 
Having agreed as to the price and received the greatest part, on 
the day of the wedding the father of the bride and the bride- 
groom perch on stones, and the father, presenting a straw to 
the bridegroom, says : " Did you accept my daughter ? " The 
bridegroom, holding the straw, says : " I did." Again the father 
presents the straw and says : " By God's and his proj^het's year ? " 
The bridegroom, holding the straw, representing the season, 
^answers : " Yes, may she be blessed," and he takes the straw, and 
sticking it into his head-dress, the marriage knot is lied.- 

' Si/io/iiiir/. — It is also romartable tliat the pure Bedawin do not smoke as a 
rule — probably because it is dillleult to get tobacco. — C. K. 0. 

- Marriage. — The custom among the Terabcen, and others, for the bride 
iiiul her companions to run away from camp and to assault the bridegroom with 



174 WOMAN IX THE EAST. 

Second marriages and divorces are just as easily managed as 
with othei'S. And the same style of songs are sung; it is very 
likely even that most of the songs are of Bedawin origin. The 
women also sing in the name of the bridegroom : — 

O charmer ! a precious girdle is always around you, 

Wind me, too, about you, my charinincj one, seven or eight turns. 

Good people, should I die, in the liouse let me be buried, 

Beside her I'll rest as a martyr, and be saved from the fire (of hell). 

girl ! with the big earrings. 

With the long, trailing clothes, 

Tate away your girdle and sleep quietly, 

1 am watching the enemy, for you there is no fear 

The eves are also blackened with hold, as with the others, and 
the feast and sonars and firing are carried on. The bride remains 
seven days hid in the tent, and she may not pass over running- 
water, which would carry away her progeny, if ever she has any. 

Though the Bedawin themselves will not admit that love- 
making or flirtation is easy to be carried on in the wide open 
plain, seeing that every movement can be observed by the whole 
camp, yet I am inclined to think that they find ways and times to 
manifest their preference. Lovemaking like that of Occidentals, 
is prohibited, still, as has been repeatedly mentioned, cases of 
real love are met with, and especially among the Bedawin, whose 
open-air life and contemplation of Nature give them more 
poetic feelings than those of the ever shut-up Madaniyeh, expecting 
to be surprised with the veil off at the turning of any corner, 
or of the ever-busy Fallaha, too much occupied with her continual 
duties. The Bedawiyeh has a far better hiding place than the 
others, it is just the endless space open to all sides which is free 
to her as well as to her lover, if she have one, and the shadows 
of night kindly draw a veil all round and shut out indisci-eet 
eyes, and the darker the night the easier the excuse. B'or the 
tovvnswoman has nothing to seek out of her house, and cannot 
without suspicion go out into the street ; and the Fallaha, though 
less watched than the townswoman, is known all about the village, 
and as the smallest village has streets she or her lover may 
be met, even though it be night. But not so with the Bedawiyeh ; 
outside the camp is the endless plain, without streets, and 
consequently with a good deal less chance of being surprised. 

stones when lie follows, is also one of those taking its rise in ideas of proper 
modesty. Nor is sucii conduct peculiar to Bedawin, as it may be found 
sometimes even among townspeople. — C. K. C. 



WOMAN IN THE -EAST. 175 

If family prejudices or otliei- causes hinder an alliance, 
and the couple be too deeply attaclicd to each other, they plan 
iiu escape. The elopement happens either in the evening or 
before daylight, the lover leading the way, but usually a mile or 
so ahead for safety. For if tiie pair were caught together 
one or both might be killed before even having been given 
time for justification, but if they are separate, they can deny 
having anything to do with one another, and, .should Bedawin 
justice be appealed to, no punishment can be inflicted on eithcj- 
of the two if they have not been taken in a very intimate 
moment, and this has to be witnessed by at least two trust- 
worthy witnesses. An elopement, therefore, is a very risky 
act. Should they succeed in their plans, they pass by the 
next tribe or go round, hiding, if possible, by daylighi, ami 
proceeding only by night, as the pursuers are sure to be on 
the road, and before they have settled in some tribe thej- may 
lie overtaken and mishandled. But when they have journeyed 
during two or three nights they come into a camp,and declare 
themselves man and wife, and beg hospitality. The Bedawin 
always accept new settlers, especially full-grown men, as they are 
an increase of strength for war, though war may not be projected, 
nor even probable for years to come. The Bedawin live 
continually ready for an emei-gency, and no able men of the 
tribe, or stranger that is within the gates, will shrink if the least 
danger is threatening. The number of armed men in a camp 
or tribe is alwavs considered, and the more the armed men the 
surer the prospect of peace, unless by increase they become 
themselves the aggressors. When a year or more has passed 
since the elopement, and the parents have found out the retreat 
of the enamoured couple, they may send messengers to try and 
bring them back again, after consenting to the marriage and 
declaring it lawful. The parents of the man pay a certain 
sum, generally less than the price would have been — somewheie 
between 80 and 100 dollars— a number of silk gowns are given 
to the male relatives, and an atonement sacrifice is eaten, both 
parties swearing they are contented. Thus the coujtle may 
timidly return.' Yet, in most cases they will not accept any 
reconciliation. Neither the deeply humiliated family of the 
woman, who will swear not to rest till blood has washed away 
the family stain, nor the man himself, who, though they mny 
swear forgiveness to him and make brotherhood with him, is 
never sure of his life, as the family may be very great, and one 

M 



176 WOMAN IX THE EAST. 

or other of the relatives may not have been present at the 
reconciliation, and consequently be free not to recognise the 
foro-iveness. It is wiser never to come back ! 

Just as with tlie Fellahin, the Bedawin woman is not allowed 
illegitimate friendship with any man, under penalty of death. 
Although Bedawin law does not allow a man to be killed for 
simple suspicion, yet if a woman should denounce a simple 
attempt on the part of any man the consequences are terrible. 
A woman of the Tarabeen Bedawin was attacked by Tayaha 
Bedawin, the consequence was a conflagration among all the tribes, 
inanv vears' war and numberless dead, and the Government 
had to interfere to separate the belligerents. If I am correct, 
the enmity began in the beginning of the last decade, and no 
Bedawy to this date ventures into the district of the opposite 
party for fear of being killed — " they have blood between 
them." 1 

On October 20th, 1888, a girl of the Ta'amry Bedawin went 
out into the fields gathering wood ; two young men of the village 
of Bethfajar, in whose neighljourhood the camp was set up, met 
her in the field and tried to abuse her. The girl, shrieking at 
the top of her voice, rushed into the camp, shouting: " To arms ! 
Your honour is soiled ; in daytime your girls are violated ! " 
Without losing a moment all the men sprang to their arms, and 
after rapid examination, in a body went against the village, 
carrying off everything that belonged to the whole family, of 
whom four men were severely wounded in their precipitate retreat. 
Herds, flocks, camels, aud donkeys were driven away, every 
portable object carried off; others were destroyed, and the 
.Bedawin reti-eated in triumph, living for the next few weeks 
on the stolen herds. The quai'rel was not arranged till the 
Government had sent out soldiers, and after having made the 
Bedawin surrender what was left of their booty, took the two 
young men to Jerusalem to be imprisoned, and in course of time 
to be judged guilty or set free. The almighty Majidi (in lieu of 
the dollar) arranges most differences with the Government officials, 
and the accused, often enough innocent, are imprisoned ; twenty 
times for one the real culprits escape any punishment at all. 

' Ta'amry. — While the Terabeen and Tajahji are true Bedawin, as are the 
Jahalin, the Ta'amry appear to have been Fellahin who liave taken to the 
desert life. They are said to have ooine from Beit Ta'amir, near Bethlehem, 
and they wear turbans, vrhile all other Bedawin tribes wear the Kufeya or 
head shawl — C. R. C. 



WOMAN IN THE 'EAST. 177 

CiiAi'Tf:R V. — Legend of Ahu 7^a\d.^ 

A Bedawiii chief in Niij'd, in Arabia, had a wife, Khadra, who 
had l)orne a daughter, Shiha, and then ceased to have children, 
This chief, Risk, was very sorry, but would not divorce his wife. 
Khadra one dny went to a fountain to wash, wlien slie saw a 
black bird pounce on other birds, killing some and scattering 
many. She prnyed to Grod : "Oh, my Lord, hear my petition, 
make me conceive and bear a sou, who shall drive the knichts 
before him as does this bird the other birds, and thouah he be 
;is black as this bird." Her prayer was heard, and she bad 
a black son. 

Ser'han, the father of the Bedawin Sultan Hassan, then came 
to visit Kisk, and sang : — 

Brino; forth the new-born, let us give him gifts. 
May we be ever increasing for a day of need. 

The happy father presents the cliikl, but Ghanem, the father of 
Zohrab, says : — 

Say, Risk ! this child is not from our stock, 

But from the stock of vile slaves, 

I swear by my conscience, O Risk, this is a stranger, 

And he even resembles our negro, Nirjan. 

The exasperated father says : — • 

Witness, all ye present, liis mother is divorced, 

Divorced, though all judges and learned men be against me. 

And turning to his wife he continues : — 

Break down thy tent, O Khadra, load it, and be quick, 

Take with thee tliy maids and all tliy goods, 

May the entrance to thy tent be forbidden to me, 

Though thou be decorated with pearls as thick as my thumb. 

^ Alu Zaid. — Tliis story is well known in Palestine, not only as printed in 
books, but also localised in various places, as, for instance, at the " Dish of 
Abu Zaid," in the plain of Siiittim, east of Jordan — a huge .stone eviiiidi-r. 
The e]nc poem, liowever, cannot be older than 700 .\.D., as it notices the Beiii 
Hilal, or " sons of the crescent," in Tunis. As regards Queen Martlia, she 
miglit possibly be Martina, the widow of the Emperor lleraclius, wlro ruled 
the Greek Empire in 611 A.D., after liis dei'eat by Omar and Ins de«itli. Slie 
was deposed and mutilated in the same year. But she was the onlv ruliu" 
queen likely to be known to Arabs, for there was no Latin queen of Jerusalem. 
The epic appears to belong to the age of the great Moslem conquest of Svria in 
Omar's time, 632-638 a.X)., and Abu Zaid may be connected with the famous 
Moslem general, Zaid, of that age. The route of the Beni Hilal was that 
taken by Omar's general, Abu 'Obeidah. — C. R. C. 

m2 



178 WO-MAN IN THE EAST. 

Sorrowful Khadra leaves the camp and goes toward Mecca to 
her relatives, but on the way she changes her mind, and goes to 
Zah'lan, the fierce enemy of the Beni Hilal, the tribe she had just 
left, and thus reasons to herself: "If I go to my relatives, and say 
t am offended, they Avill perliaps blame me, and if I say my 
husband has beaten me, it is not true ; I will go to Zali'lan 
and bring up my child as a warrior," She is received by Zah'lan, 
and the young Barakat (blessing, so called for the blessing) grows 
up in the art of war. One day, while at war with his father's tribe, 
he shows his prowess by killing forty warriors in single combat. 
His own father now goes to war A\4th him, and in the wars the 
hero always has a beautiful girl behind him to attract the eye of 
the opponent. Risk took his daughter Shiha. When the two 
warriors meet, every time that Barakat lifts the sword to strike 
his father something supernatural holds it back. Suddenly Shiha 
calls out to her brother : " Hold ; this is your father ; cursed 
l;e the Sheikh w-ho brought you up." But Risk scolds her, 
saying: "Are you becoming like your mother? And will you 
flirt with our enemies ? " But Shiha insists, and says : " This 
is my brother, who has been sent away and was brought up by 
Zah'lan." And she continues : " Try his dexterity ; if he be able 
to catch three apples on horseback, you will find out that it is 
my brother by father and mother." Having consented, Risk 
gets three apples, and throws the first, which Barakat catches 
at the point of the spear, the second he catches in his stirrup, 
and the third in his hand. 

Shiha now utters a cry of joy, with ululations. Barakat 
comes nearer to know the cause, and she tells him : " This is your 
father whom you are fighting " ; so Barakat throws himself down, 
and having rubbed his nose with dog's grass feigns being dead, 
the nose bleeding, but he runs home and lalls before his mother, 
and expects to hear whose son he is, in her w\ailing. Khadra at 
once assembles the women and maidens, and they wail after 
Khadra : — 

Say after me, ye maidens, the tale of Barakat. 

liarakat died, he was the progeny of the wealthy, 

1'liy kiudrcd, O Barakat, rejected thee, and left thee to me, 

But Zah'lan brought thee up, thou son of honour, 

For your father is Risk, and your uncle Ser'han ! 

Barakat having heard these words, sits up, and says : " Is it 
true, mother? Is Risk really my father?" As she answei's in 
the affirmative, he is astonished to be with the enemies. She 



WOMAN IX THE EAST. 170 

4 

tolls liiiu how all came about, and entreats Iiim to <^o and capture 
his father. Havinp^ done so, Risk is brousfht before his wife, but 
at first sight of her he advances bareheaded and barefoot, 
repenting for wlmt hv had done. When the news had spread 
Zah'Ian falls down dead, and Kisk j-etutns to his tribe, with 
Khadra and his black son and slaves, and having inci-cased the 
ti'ibe, the name of Barakat is changed into that of Abu Zaid, "the 
Father of Increase," ' and also Salanu'. Famine had now spread 
amongst the tribe, and they decided to send out spies to discover 
a new country, where they might find food for their herds and 
water for all. 

Abu Zaid is chosen to accompany the sons of his sister Shiha. 
Shiha sings a farewell song to the travellers, something like this: — 

Shiha bids yoii farewell, Shiha tells you, 

Go in peace, ye nobles of the Arabs. 

I warn you make no fire in the open field, 

For fire is visible and attracts from afar ; 

I warn you not to sit among the people, 

For in the assembly the Evil Eye may be ; 

I warn you not to sit behind high walls, 

For the mason builds, but foundations may fail ; 

I warn you not to go before an unjust ruler, 

Though Abu Zaid has always sly answers ; 

I warn you if you pass any market 

Send Yunis to buy, he is quick to come back. 

Having sbarted on their journey, as they pass the Plain of 
Jezreel, in Palestine, and are invited by an Arab chief, the people 
wonder why the strangers honour the negro most of all, but they 
explain to them that he is no real negro, and is oidy born black 
by accident, and not being able to convince them, an old chief, 
Mansour (the Victorious), comes and tells them in rhymes all 
he knows about this man and his family, and sings : 

I knew your mother, O Salame, 

Before your father took her to his house, 

And seven years your mother was barren, 

But going to wash at a fountain one day, 

With plenty of slaves and maidens around her, 

High up in the heavens a bird slie espied, 

Who drove before him all other birds; 

Though the bird was black, she prayed for the like 

And the Lord of tlie Throne, O Salame, 

Did not reject her desire. 

' This part has been published bj' me in the Quarterli/ Stulement of 
the Palestine Exploration Fund for October, 189-i. 



ISO AVOMAN IN THE EAST. 

They now continue theii' way, and Laving arrived at Tunis, 
in North Africa, they find the land very good. Yunis, the 
youngest son, had his mother's necklace of pearls to sell when 
they should be in need. But being very costly it was reported 
to the Eegent's daughter; when she saw Yunis she fell in love 
with him, and having bidden him enter the palace, she shut him 
up, and Avould no more let him go. 

Abu Zaid has to go back alone to Arabia, abandoning the 
three prisoners.^ Having told the tribe of the goodness of the 
land, they start on a Thursday, having given notice to all such 
women as are not of the tribe to remain in their native land if 
they choose to do so. 

As in the wanderings of the Israelites through the wilderness, 
so the Beni Hilal fight their way through at times, or pass in 
peace at times. Having come into the Jordan Valley, with their 
clothes all tattered and torn, they water their flocks at the River 
Jabbok. Klele, a Bedawin girl, having seen Jazie, the sister of 
Sultan Hassan, and she being very fair, is jealous, and says : — 

Don't drink from our waters, our tribe will be defiled, 

If you don't draw back, my brother Slibeeb, the kniglit, will smite you. 

But the beautif q1 Jazie answers : — 

We will drink from your waters and will wallow in your blood, 
Till the waters be turned as red as lienua. 

Again Klele answers : — 

By God ! I'll go to Shbeeb, my brother, and tell him the insult you offer, 
By God ! I'll tell him that you are enemies of the Keis. 

But Jazie again says : — 

Don't exult, O Klele, for we are guests for one night, 
To-morrow we are going, and will camp far away. 

But Klele runs and tells her brother, who is fiirions, and 
comes on horseback. Havinar challensred the tribe to war, the 
first duel is to be fought with Sultan Hassan ; and his sister Jazie 
is the attraction-woman accompanying him. Having taken his 
lands, the wanderers now pass the Jordan, and come to Khafaye, 
a chief in the Plain of Jezreel. As soon as he sees Jazie he falls 
in love with her, and bids all the tribe remain his guests for two 
long months. When the two months were over the Beni Hilal 

' Only the particulars coaceming more especially the women are here told, 
to show how the women are treated and accounted of in their songs and in 
by -gone tales. 



WOMAN IN THE EAST. 181 

wanted to proceed, but did not know what to do with Jazie, for 
neither do they want to leave he^• to Khafaye nor do they know 
how to refuse him her luiiid. Salanie Abu Zaid, always ready 
at tricks, says : "We will move, and during the day the Sultan 
Hassan and Khafaye will he out a hunting, and coming homi; 
late in the evening and tired, he will onlv look for the entrance of 
his tent, where is a great mullein plant." This plant they put 
in a wooden bowl and carry it with them, putting it down before 
his tent every night; so during twelve days they deceive him, 
and have now journeyed far south and nenrly to tho pjgyptian 
frontier. Now .they again consult each other, and Fay: "We 
mnst get rid of Khafaye now, either kill him directly or else ask 
him to fight for his life." But Jazie, who had reciprocated 
his love, wishing to save his life, sings to him :- 

If thou listen to me. Shukur, go buck to thy country, 

For whoever goes back to his country shall live. 

A ■watermelon ripens only on its stock, 

And without its mother no cat is brought up. 

They broiigiit you here, but they have sworn 

That sliould you venture further south than Arisli 

Your flesh would surely be given to the birds. 

My heart aches in me, O Shareef Hashem, my heart aches in me, I may not live. 

I made you a house in every camp, and in everj- camp I have left some food,' 

One only camp, oh Prince, have I forgotten, 

O, my heart aches in me, may I not live. 

Shukur understands and journeys backwards, living on the 
bread he finds in every camp. The}^ now besiege Jerusalem, for 
they remember the sanctuary, and ask the Christian Queen 
^Eartha to let them pray and go on. But Queen Martha refuses, 
her father having been killed in battle by them, and she has power 
over seven species of Jinn. Yet, having lost sevei-al knights, she 
is desolate, and offers herself in marriage to a victorious knight, 
thus : — 

When she had heard the singing. And filled tiie wine-cup to the briiu, 

She turns her face to him, And says, " Take, drink this, O Barandi. 

Drink Mie gift from the hand of a maiden, Prink it and bo it whulcsunie to thee, 

And if tliou be angry, turn round, With my own hands will I give thee drink, 

And wilt thou kill the one named Zohrab, And Hassan the chief of the tribes ? 

And also young B'dair of age to fight. This is my wish, O Dikias, 

I am not angry after all, And pray forgive me altogether, 

And if thou preferrest, before war. We will marry at once." 

' She had left a loaf of bread in every camp they passed, and buried it under 
the ashes. 



182 WOMAN IN THK EAST. 

This kniorht now goes to war, and is also overcome, but 
Jerusalem still does not surrender; so Abii Zaid has to find out 
by I'use how he can enter the city. Disguised as a monk he comes 
before the Queen, who is a geomancer, and finds out that this 
monk is none other than Abu Zaid himself, and when he is con- 
fronted she tells him : — 
O Abu Zaid, how great is thy activity, Carrying a saddle-bag, and acting your 

ass I 
You put on a monk's hood, O Salame, Beni Hilal will be troubled without you, 
But I will make a show of your deatli, and torture you before dying, 
AVliilst your tribe will be in consternation, the Christian maids will be drinking 

wine. 

Having imprisoned Abu Zaid ho finds a way to escape, and 
kills the Queen, and carries the new's to his tribe. They now 
visit Jerusalem, and then go on to Tunis, where they find tribes of 
their country in possession before them ; after fighting for a long 
time uselessly they are allowed to remain in the environs. The 
Regent's daughter looks out of her palace, and seeing the knights 
discouraged, says: — 

Strip off your beards and hand the spears to women, 

Give us your turbans and take our veils, If we overcome them, we'll torture the 

women. 
But shoidd we be overcome, oin- excuse is, we are women. 

Of course the offer is rejected with disdain, and the fighting 
of duels goes on. A knight, 'Akel, who has been victorious in 
many duels, is continually on the battle-field, and does not leave it 
even by night. A Tunisian girl, daughter of the Knight Imtawe', 
begs of her father to be taken as the eoticer in the fight against 
'Akel, but in reality she is in love with him, because of his 
renown as a warrior, so when they arrive on the battle-field 
Imtawe' calls his adversary, and 'Akel answers : — 

Here I am, thou who hast called me, I am Kola's son ! 
To-day in the battle-field thou wilt leave me thy spoil. 

The daughter of Imtawe' now lifts up her veil, but 'Akel 
goes on : — 

girl, cover your lips, though beautiful, I have plenty of beauties, 
Had I desired any, I could have married one of our own girls. 

1 have the " Perfume of Pockets," Abu Ali's daughter. 
Her beauty makes one forget to fast in Ramadan. 

So saying, he pounces on his adversary and says : — 

Go for them : be the dust their doom. 
The Angel of Death is floating above them. 



WOMAN IN THE KAST. 18.'^ 

'Akel having killed Imtawe', tlu- girl says : " I am free now, 
take Tiie for tliy legitimate wife." But 'Akel says : " Not before I 
reign over all the West." So she gathers the girls of Tunis to 
mourn her father, and says before them : — 

Say with me, ye daughters of God, say Anieu ! 

May Tunis to-inorrow suiti'ikIim' to Ilola'.s sou ! 
May ye all by to-morrow be nmrried to 'Akel, 
May ye all have the desire to be in his lap. 
Ye girls ! if only you ooiild catch sigh*; of 'Akel, 
His beautiful plaits,' as tliey touch his costly bed. 
Ye girls ! if only you could have a glimpse of 'Akel, 
His right hand adorned with a ring of gold. 
Ye girls of Tunis ! should you only see 'Akel, 
His dainty plait hangs at his right side I 

In spite of the mourning due to her father, she has no words 
but for 'Akel. 'Akel continues to fight till he is also finally killed 
and crushed by the feet of the horses, and is onl}' known by the 
ring on his finger. 

As the siege of Tunis is always carried on, the besieged are 
anxious what will be the issue. The Khalife's daughter, Sa'ada, 
who still retains the three princes as prisoners, looks out of her 
palace on the battle-field lying before her, and seeing one of the 
mighty knights, she calls to him : — 

Good morning to you ! O father of Moses, 
O Lion, brought up in a chosen place. 

Zohrab, father of Mqses, the terrible knight, says : — 

Good morning, you fair, may this dawn be only upon us, 

For your friends no pleasure is coming. 

Go, maiden ! go, tell your father. Let him meet the -warrior at once. 

Sa'ada goes quickly and tells her father : — 

My father ! come quickly, the flower of chivalry, 
A knight is calling this morning for you, 
The blade of his spear is a terrible beauty. 
He rolls as a mountain detached from the earth. 

Zennti, the Khalife, tells his daughter : — 

O Sa'ada ! I hate the meeting of Zohrab, son of Ghaneni. 
Just as a young camel refuses the load. 
O Sa'ada ! I know the terrible spear of this knight, 
Three days' journey oflf I have seen its light ! 

After many duels finally Zenati is killed, and Ben Glianem is 
Regent and marries Sa'ada, but the Beni Hiliil conspire against 

' The plaited locks of his hair. 



18-i WOMAN IX THE EAST. 

him. and in an invitation to feast after his victory they decide 
his death. Xofalich, the sister of Zohrab Ben Ghanem, is married 
to one of them, and knowing all about the conspiracy, she writes 
this letter to her brother : — 

I tell you, mr biotlier, don't answer the invitation 

To the Wad-el-Doli ; I tell you, my brother, don't come, 

Though your loads encumber you, I pray you don't come ! 

Abu Zaid has woven a web of deceit ! 

The weaver himself is confused at it. 

But Zohrab did not listen to this warning, and at the supper 
he narrowly escaped death, yet took his revenge later on. 

When Zohrab stuns Abu Zaid, this latter dying, calls for Jazie 
the beautiful, witli tlie black eyes, and says: — - 

I liave two sons and Sultan Hassan has one. 

Jazie, take the orphans and return to the East, 
Go far from the Zughby, the false swearer Zohrab, 
His oath he has broken, he'll always be false ! 

Jazie takes the children -eastwards, without any worldly goods, 
in her love for them and the slain heroes. Having always taught 
them the art of war, riding, and fighting, when they are grown 
up she returns to Tunis. Zohrab, though very old, is challenged 
to come down that they may avenge their father's death. Zohrab 
.sends his son Grhanam, but he dares not go, and Zohi-ab says, 
alluding to Breke', the son of Sultan Hassan and Jazie : — 

Even if thou livest, O Grhanam, tliy life is no gain ! 
Thy mother has borne thee without any pain. 
Hadst thou spent thy time hunting, as Breke' had done, 
Hadst thou ridden on horses, with lance and with sword, 
Thou wouldst have been worthy of thy father's fame. 
See these adversaries, how well tliey are trained, 

1 overcame Jazie, the mother of Mohammed, 

I made her wear wool, after she had worn silk ! 

Zohrab now conies down, and is captured and tortured by 
Jazie ; before dying, he says : — 

Hold your uncouth tongue, O Jazie, 
All these wars liave been for you. 
All knights killed, and the beardless left. 
Shame for ever be on you. 

Zohiab is killed, and there is peace. 

{To he continued.) 



185 

THE BEDAWiN. 

{A Lecture delivered at Jerusalem.') 
By the Rev. John Zkller. 

TiiK subject of my lecture this evening concerns ;i poojile liy whom we 
ai'e more or less surrounded liere in Jerusalem, and whom we have 6ften 
occasion to meet on our journeys, namely, the Bedawin. 

BedavAn illustrating the Bible.— They are particularly interesting to 
us, for Abraham was a nomad like them, and so were the Israelites in 
tlie desert and for some time after the conquest of Canaan. Abraham 
is, moreover, the recognised ancestor of the tribe of Koreish, and of 
Mohammed, tlirougli Islimael, and of many of the Bedawin tribes existing 
to the present day. The life and manners of the Bedawin are therefore 
calculated to illustrate the most ancient part of our Bible, which other- 
wise would be most incomprehensible, for tlu- life of the nomad patriarchs 
and the wanderings of Israel in the desert present the greatest contrast 
with our European customs, and we cannot wonder that Colenso found 
in the book of Genesis so many statements which seemed to hiin incom- 
))atible with his own ideas. Though closely connected and related to the 
Jews, the Bedawin still present in many respects the greatest contrasts 
with them. 

Bedatotn are closely connected loith the Jews but their destinies are 
widely dijfereyit. — Whilst the Jews were dispersed among all nations 
and countries of the world, and had to adopt all possible languages and 
to accommodate themselves to the nations among whom they lived, the 
Bedawin to the greater jjart remained in their ancient habitation, the 
tlesert, which nobody envies them. The language of the Bedawin has 
but little changed since 3,000 years, and their customs have remained 
much the same. It is a most remarkable circumstance, clearlv showiiiij 
the wonderful providence of God, that these two peoples, Jews and 
Arabs, under such widely different circumstances have been preserved 
for thousands of years to be the witnesses to the truth of revelation, 
whilst other ancient peoples like the Egyptians, the As.syi-ians, the 
Pluenicians, and even Greeks and Romans have vanished from the 
face of the earth. And yet in sjiite of the difference there are ])eculiar 
points of similarity between Israelites and Arabs. First of all with 
regard to religion, for both are the representatives of monotheism. 
Secondly with regard to langziage. 

Antiqriity oj their Language. — A comparison between the different 
Semitic languages, the Hebrew, the Aramaic, the Syriac, the Assyrian, 
and the Arabic, has led to the conviction that the Arabs have preserved 
most of the original tyjje of the Shemites in language and manners. 
If a Bedawy buried 2,000 years ago, could rise from his tomb anil 
visit the tents of his ti-ibe in the desert at the present day, he would 



18G THE BEDAWix. 

not fiiiil much change in their customs, and might even converse with 
them iu his own tongue. 

In the poetry and the life of the Bedawin in tlie sixtli century after 
Christ we have still a faithful reflection of Bedawin life 2,000 years 
before Christ, and the more we study these old poems, the more we 
see that these Arabs, more than any other people, reflect the life of 
the time of the patriarchs, notwithstanding the 2,600 years which lie 
between them. There can be no doubt that the different Semitic 
races whose language is reduced to words formed by three radicals 
are all belonging to the .same origin. In all Semitic languages 
'■'^assaza' means to be strong; " abada," to apprehend; " asam" to 
bind ; " dammun" blood ; " mautun" death ; '■'• jamehm^'' camel ; 
'''■bassahin" onion ; " duhabun" gold. 

The conservative element which is expressed in the religion and in 
the customs of all Shemites naturally exists also in their language and 
explains wh.y the backbone of the language, the three radicals, have 
been preserved intact from the oldest time to the present. This strongly 
conservative element rests on the character of the desert country in 
which the Bedawin live, for the peninsula of Arabia has for thousands 
of years been barred from contact with other nations, on the north by 
the desert, and on the three other sides by the sea. 

They jjrobably came from Mempotamia to Arabia. — A great Oriental 
scholar, " Schrader," makes the suggestion that Arabia was the original 
habitation of all Shemites, but this idea is opposed to the old tradition, 
according to which the Arabs immigrated from Mesopotamia, and their 
language shows that Arabia could not have been the cradle of the 
Shemites. Certain names of animals which are common in Mesopotamia, 
and in more northern countries (but not in Arabia) have become obsolete 
or have changed their meaning in Arabic, for instance, the old Semitic 
word " Dibbun," bear ; " rimun," wild ox ; " nimnm" panther. Other 
animals which are only to be found in Arabia bear names which are 
unknown in the other Semitic languages, for instance, " iVaam" ostrich ; 
''^jerboa" ; and similar evidence can be adduced from the names of 
trees, for instance, " tamrun " or " diHa," date tree. Thus it is clear 
that animals and plants peculiar to Arabia could not bear the same 
appellation in all Semitic languages, but generally the Arabs borrowed 
the name of an animal similai' to the same in the north, for instance, the 
stag they call Baker el walishy. 

The conservative character of the Bedawhi is, in the third place, 
clearly shown by their genealogy. Aral) historians (Abd ul Feda and 
Ebn Chaldun) divide their nation in three classes : — Arab Badkh, or 
extinct Arab.s, as the tribes of Aad, Thamfid, Sohar, Tasem, Wabar, 
Dessem, Jedis. Secondly, the Arab el Arabak, or original Arabs, who 
derive their origin from Kahtan, who is the Joktan of our Bible the 
son of Shem. (Kalitan was the son of Eber, the son of Salah, the son 
of Arjjhaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah.) Thirdly, Arab Musta- 
arabeth, the descendants of Ishmail, who is the ancestor of the tribe of 



TIIK HKDAWIN, 187 

Koielsli and M<>liaiiiim'(|. Isliiiiail iiianicd tlie daugliter of Kl .Modad, 
a descendant of Kahtan. From Isliiuad to Ednfm the Arabs reckon 
fii,dit generations, from Ednan to "Malek the Koreishy there are also 
i'iij;lit _i,'ent'rations, and from them to Moliammed we liave ten <:(t'nerations. 
Not less than tifty kiiij;s of Yemen are said to l»e the descx-ndants and 
successors of Kahtan, and many of the present Bedawiu tribes belong 
to the Arab el Arabah. Some of the Arab nations mentioned in the 
Bible' may siill be recognised iu existing tribes ; in fact, there is nothing 
clearer than the purity of their descent from Kahtan and Ishmad. 

Antiquity of Nomad Life. — No doulit nomad life was a very ancient 
form of existence ; involuntai'ily we think of Abel, who was a keeper of 
sheep. As long as this occupation was carried on in fruitful and rich 
territoiies, as in Mesopotamia, it may have had great charms and attrac- 
tions ; but now the Bedawin is the inliabitant of the desert, and we can 
liardly have an idea of the hardships, the dangers, and the monotony of 
desei't life. Arabia, though four times as large as Germany, does not 
contain a single river, and could therefore never obtain the cultivation of 
other countries. But why does tlu- Bedawy reject all temptation to 
settle or try to obtain a more comfortable existence / Why does he 
stick to the desert though he is endowed with superior intellectual 
(pialities and is by no means a savage 1 Have not his ancestors, at the 
spi'ead of Islam, conquered the richest countries of the world from 
India to Spain, and obtained riches .such as no other conquerors enjoyed ? 
The following story may serve to answer these questions : — 

Its Privations. — A traveller once lost his way in the desert and came 
at last to a Bedawtn tent where he asked for some food from an old 
woman whom he found there. She immediately went and caught some 
serpents which she baked and presented to him, and driven by hunger he 
ate them. Being extremely thirsty he asked for water antl she went 
with him to a ditch the water of which was bitter ; yet he could not help 
drinking of it on account of the violence of his thirst. When he 
expressed his astonishment tiiat she and her people were living in such 
extreme circumstances the woman asked him : "Tell me, have you a 
Sultan who rules over you and oppresses you, and who takes your 
wealth and destroys the offender ; a ruler who, if he desires, turns you 
out of your house and eradicates you utterly?" When the traveller 
answered that might sometimes liappen the old womau rejoined : "If so, 
by Allah, your dainty food and elegant life and all your comforts united 
to oppression and tyranny are a penetrating poison, whilst our poor food 
with liberty is health and strength. Hast thou not heard that the 
greatest blessings are liberty and health I " and the Arab ])oet says : 
"There is no hand but God's hand is above it, and no oppressor that shall 
not meet with an oppressor." 

1 Gren. XXV, 12. These are the names of the sons of Islimael :— Nebajolh, 
Kcdar, Adbeel, Mibsam, Mishma, Duinah, Massa, Iladad, Tenia, Jetur, Naphish, 
Kedemah. 



188 THE BEDAWIX. 

The Camel. — Another reason why the Bedawy clings to the desert is 
the peculiar nature of the animal, which alone makes a life in the desert 
possible, namely, the camel, from which the Bedawy derives his principal, 
sometimes his whole, subsistence, and which is his constant companion. 
However necessary other domestic animals may be for ?<s, certaiiilv the 
camel is for the Bedawy everything, and we cannot be astonished that it 
possesses in his eyes beauties which we cannot discover in it. It is, 
indeed, wonderful in how short a time imme;ise distances can be traversed 
by a good camel. But a principal reason for keej)ing to the desert is 
contained in the words about Ishmael which fully characterise all 
Bedawin : " His hand shall l)e against everyone and everyone's hand 
against him," for the ingrained propensity of robbing and \'engeance has 
no doubt ever been the greatest curse of Bedawin life. 

An important question now forces itself upon us, namely this : What 
has preserved the Bedawin amidst their incessant strife against mi.sery 
and want, and amidst their bloodshed and wars from sinking into the 
state of a .savage and utterly barbarous people ? 

It seems that two imjjortant circumstances prevented this. First we 
find anions them up to the present day the patriarchal system of govern- 
ment, and connected with it a great love for their ancestors and an 
excessive pride about the purity of their race. 

Their old fame as Warriors and Poets. — Secondly, and perhaps 
principally, it is the gift of poetry which elevates their character and 
preserves their better C(ualities even under the most adverse circum- 
stances. This gift they brought with them (like the Hebrews) as a flower 
from Paradise, and such care they took of it that it continued to blossom 
eveu in the arid sands of the desert. The retentive memory of the 
Oriental has served to bring down to our days the ancient poem.s of tlie 
Arabs, though the art of writing them did not originate before the 
tifth century after Christ. In the oldest collection of poems, called the 
'•' Muallakat," we have the poems of Amr el Keis, Tarafa, Zoheir, Lebid, 
Antar, tShanfary, Amer ebn Koltum, Xabra, and Harith. The grandeur 
and wildness of the desert have impressed these poems with such a fii-e of 
jjassion and a depth of sentiment that the scholars who ai-e best able to 
judge (as, for instance, Noeldeke and Riikert) do not hesitate to class 
them with the greatest poets, with Homer and Virgil. For as we feel in 
Homer's songs the fresh air of pristine life of man, as we can penetrate 
through the song of the Niebelungen into the spirit of old German 
life, so we realise, through the old Arab poets, Bedawin life in its close 
connection with nature, its narrowness and grandeur, its stern manliness, 
and its romance. These poems show us warriors of iron character, men of 
undaunted courage, whose only law is their own will and their honour, 
stern wild men, who endure the greatest privations and know how to 
meet death bravely ; and yet they love justice and truth, they are ever 
ready to assist the weak and needy, they are hospitable and liberal to a 
fault. The Arab poet says : " I will wipe off with the sword the insult, 
and may the decree of God bring upon me whatever it will." Another 



Till-: bedawIn ■ 189 

poet says: "He is no inun who sIumIh no lij^'ht around and leaves no 
tnace on earth behind liini.' Aiiotlier collection is that of Urwa b. 
• Ahvard ami tlie Dlwrui of Aim Talib and the J)t\van of Abu I'Aswad 
Abd Allah. 

The Haniasa of Abu Tanimani is another coUeetion of moie than a 
thousand poems from many hundred poets, and about 45 female poets. 
A somewhat later collection is the Kitab el Aghani and other poetical 
works. These Bedawtn w'ei'e comnionly unable to read or write, but the 
purity of their language is such that they easily make poems, whicli if 
written down by others are found to be grammatically correct ; and so 
jjowerful was the memory of these Bedawin that one of them could bet with 
his guests that he would recite to them Kasidas fiom 100 different poets, 
all of them bearing the name of Annu, which was a common name then. 

As the ancient Hellenes had their yearly poetical and gymnastic 
contests at Olympia, so the Arabs gathered together at the yearly fair 
of Ukaz (a town south of Mecca) from all ]jarts of Arabia to hear the 
recitations of their poets, and the Aiab warrior knew of no greater 
honour than to have his valour and liberality extolled in verses v/hich 
were known and repeated all over the desert. 

It is related that when Kaab ebn Zoheir recited one of his poems in 
the presence of the pro[)liet Mohannufd the latter was so pleased that he 
took off his mantle and put it on Kaab's shoulder. Moawyia, the 
Calif, afterwards offered Kaab 10,000 dirhems of silver foi- it, but he 
would not part with it, and he got it at last after Kaab's death for 
20,000 dirhems. This is the green mantle which at first the califs of the 
Omayiads, and then the Abassides, inherited as their greatest ti'easure, 
and which was burned at the capture of Bagdad by the Tartars in the 
year 653 of the Hedjira. 

The stern character of the Arab warrior, whereby he bears privation 
and misforttine with stoic resignation if he can only revenge himself or 
his friends, has its opposite j)ole in tender and passionate feelings for his 
relatives and companions. Judging from Arab poems, tears seem to flow 
in Arabia in gi'eater abundance than elsewhere in the world. It is 
related of the celebrated poet Mutammini, when reciting a poem on the 
death of his noble brother Malik, that he could not speak from weejiing, 
and afterwards got blind in consequence of his grief. Who shovdil think 
that constant wax-fare and shedding of blood could leave room for softer 
feelings ! And yet it is a fact that most of the poems in honour of the 
dead begin with expres.sing a most touching regret at .seeing the old, 
well-known site of the Arab encampment forsaken. We should not 
expect this from a nomad with whom the constant change of locality 
has become as it were a second nature. 

I cainiot omit to mention here that at the time of Mohannued many 
tribes of Jewish oiigin lived in Arabia who had adojjted the Arabic 
language and Arabic customs (as far as they did not interfere with their 
religion). One of the most respected warriors and poets at that time 
was the Jew, Samuel Ebn Adyia, who lived in the strong castle El Ablag, 



190 THE BEDAWiX. 

near Teiina. This foitress was the refuge of the persecuted and needy, 
and his name was a proverb among the Arabs foi' faithfuhiess and 
trutb. Tliey used to say : I swear you fidelity and love as that of Savitiel^ 

i\j^A^\ ^^4^ fli«. Ami-a el Kais, the poet, had deposited with him 

his ti'easures (namely, five celebrated suits of armour inherited from the 
Kings of Hymiar), and Samuel sacrified the life of his son (who fell into 
the enemy's hands) i-ather than betray his trust. 

We Ciinnot fail to acknowledge that the heroism of the old Arab 
is the heroism of a noble race, not content with sordid motives or 
viUgar impulse. Whatever glory may be attached to the blow sti'uck 
by a vigorous arm, this material superiority is far from suppressing or 
destroying the superiority derived from intelligence. The accomjjlished 
Arab warrior combines both in his person, and is almost always a poet (as, 
for instance, Antar). The Ai'ab chieftain is not only the leader in battle, 
but also the ruler and judge of his tribe, and will never be able to obtain 
much influence if he is not wise in council and clever in speech. To 
speak well is an essential pait of the chivalrous and ideal perfection of 
an Arab chief, because the best means of leading the stubborn and 
proud Bedawin is by persuasion. 

It is striking what close similaritv exists between the state of Arab 
life 1,000 years ago and the feudal system and the life of English and 
Continental barons and knights during the same period. We must 
acknowledge that these Arabs were at that time by no means inferior to 
Germans or English, or it would have been impossible for them to 
conquer half the Christian world or to overcome the innumerable hosts 
of the Crusaders. But the immense difference between European society 
as it is now and the wretched, degraded condition to which the Bedawin 
have sunk, shows with undeniable evidence what we owe to Christianity, 
and that Christ alone is able ta elevate, to change, and to regenerate the 
natural man. But it is time for us to leave the condition of Bedawin 
life as it ap])ears from old poems and traditions, and describe the modern 
Bedawin. 

The Desert. — We, living in Palestine, are on the south and the east 
suriounded l\y deserts nearly as vast in extent as the Mediterranean, 
but few of us have seen these countries. Let me, tlierefoi'e, give you 
an idea of what the desert is. 

Its Cliara'cter and Influence. — We will accompany Mr. Palgrave on his 
journey from Maan, south of Kerak, to the Jowf, wliich is a five days' 
journey to the east, in which not a drop of water is to be found. He 
says : — 

"On either side extended one weary plain in a black monotony of 
hopelessness. Only on all sides lakes of mirage lay, mocking the eye 
with their clear, dece])tive outline, whilst here and there some basaltic 
rocks, cropping up at random througl) the level, were maguified by the 
refraction of the heated atmosphere into the semblance of a fantastic 
crag or overhanging mountain. Dreary land of death, in whicli even 



THE BEDAVVIN. 191 

the face of an enemy was almost a relief amid such utter solitude. But 
for five whole days the little, dried-up lizaid of the plain, that looks Jis if 
he never had a drop of moisture in liis ugly body, and the jerboa.4, 
or field rat of Arabia, were the oidy liviiiff creatures to console our 
view. 

"And now began a march, during whicli we might almost have 
repented of our enterprise, had sucii a sentiment been any longer possible 
or availing. Day after day found us urging our camels to their utmost 
pace, for 15 or 16 hours together out of the 24, under a well-nigh vertical 
sun, with nothing either in the landscape around or in the companions 
of our way, to relieve for a moment the eye or the mind. Then an 
insufiicient halt for rest or sleep, at most of two or three hours, soon 
interrupted by the oft-repeated admonition, 'If we linger here we all die 
of thirst,' sounding in our ears, and then to remount our jaded beasts 
and piish them on through the dark night, with the constant probability 
of attack or plunder from roving marauders. 

"Our order of march was thus : — Long before dawn we were on our 
way, and paced on till the sun, having attained about half-way between the 
horizon and the zenith, assigned the moment of alighting for our morniufr's 
meal. This being ended, we had again, without loss of time, to resume 
our way from mirage to mirage, till, flaming over all, from heat to heat, 
the day decreased, and about an hour before sunset we would stagger off 
our camels as best we might, to prepare an evening feast of precisely the 
same description as that of the forenoon, or more often, lest the smoke of 
our fire should give notice to some distant rover, to content ourselves 
with dry dates and half an hour's rest on the sand." 

Samoom. — Then comes the shelook, or sirocco, of the Syrian waste : — 
" It was about noon, and such a noon as a summer solstice can offer in 
the unclouded Arabian sky, over a scorched desert, when abrupt and 
burning gusts of wind began to blow by fits from tiie soutii, wliile the 
oppressiveness of the air increased every moment, till my comj>anion and 
myself mutually asked each other what this could mean and what was to 
be the result. We turned to enquire of Salem (the Bedawin chief), but 
he had already wrapped up his face in his mantle, and, bowed and 
crouching on the neck of his camel, replied not a word. His comrades, 
the two Sherarat Bedawin, had adopted a similar position and were 
equally silent. At last, after i-epeated interrogations, Salem, instead of 
replying directly to our questioning, pointed to a small black tent, provi- 
dentially at no great distance in front, and said, 'Try to reach that ; if 
jou can get there we are saved.' He added, ' Take care that your camels 
do not stop and lie down ' ; and then, giving his own several vigorous 
blows, relapsed into muflled silence. 

" "We looked anxiously towards the tent ; it was yet 100 yards off or 
more. Meanwhile, the gusts blew hotter and more violent, and it w:is 
only by repeated efforts that we could urge our beasts forward. The 
horizon rapidly darkened to a deep violet hue, and seemed to draw in 

N 



192 THE ]5EDAWiX. 

like a curtain on every side, while at the same time a stiHing Llast, as 
though from some enormous oven opening right on our ])ath, blew steadily 
uiuler the gloom : our camels, too, began, in spite of all we could do, to 
turn round and round, and bend their knees, preparing to lie down. 
The samoom was fairly upon us. Of course we had followed our Arabs' 
example by mutflingour faces, and now with blows and kicks we forced 
the staggering animals forward to the only asylum within reach. So 
dark was the atmosphere and so burning the heat that it seemed that 
hell had risen from the earth or descended from above. But we were 
yet in time, and at the moment when the worst of the concentrated 
poison blast was coming round, we were already prostrated one and all 
within the tent, with our heads well wrapped up— almost suffocated, 
indeed— Init safe, while our camels lay without like dead, their long 
necks stretched out in the sand, awaiting the jjassing of the gale.'' 

Were it not for the oases which are found in the midst of the most 
extensive deserts, it would be impossible even for the boldest Bedawin to 
traverse these regions. During the winter many jmrts of the desert are 
covered with some vegetation, and the rain-water gathers in certain 
hollow localities, so that not only the herds of camels find pasturage and 
water, but also the Bedawin can obtain some subsistence beside their 
camels' milk. 

Principal Plants of the Desert.— There are several plants growing in 
the Wady Sirrhan, north of the Jowf, which yield food to the Bedawin. 
There is the sarnah, a small tufted jjlant with juicy stalks, and a little 
oval yellow-tinted leaf. The flowers are of a brighter yellow, with luany 
stamens and pistils. When the blossoms fall off there remains in the 
place of each a four-leaved capsule, about the size of an ordinary pea, and 
this when ripe opens, to show a mass of minute reddish seed of the size 
of poppy seeds, resembling reddish sand in feel and appearance, but 
farinaceous in substance. These seeds are collected and used instead of 
rice or flour. Another plant is the misaA bush, which attains 2 or 3 feet 
in height, is woody, with small and pointed leaves of a lively green, and 
a little red, star-like flower. This in June gives place to a berry, 
resembling in size, colour, and taste our own red currant, though 
inferior to it in flavour, while its sweetness predominates too much over 
its acidity. With the poorer Bedawin sanidh and misad, and a mush- 
room, called kemma or kemmage, are considered luxuries, but the richer 
tribes always have a supply of wheat and dates. The camels' favourite 
food is a shrub called ghada., which covers some parts of the desert. 

No domesticated animals, beside the camel, find their sustenance in 
the desert, and most Bedawin tribes keep their flocks of goats and sheep 
in the neighbourhood of cultivated ground where they can find pasture. 
Only their horses accomj^any them, and are fed with camels' milk. 
Naturally the bai-renness of the territory stands in perfect analogy with 
the more or less degraded condition of the Bedawin inhabiting it ; and 
the same is the case with regard to the variety of domesticated animals 



IIIH HEDAWiN. in:; 

possessed Ity tlie Tk'dawin. Fur the trilies who li;ive tlic l)cst and tlie 
greatest number of liorses are far superior to those having only camels.' 

Principal Tribes in Syria. — Let me now give you, in a condensed 
form, an idea of the principal Bedawtn tribes. 

We can divide the dwellers in tents into two classes, namely, such as 
are settled within a certain closely circumscribed territory, and the large 
wandering tribes. I must confine myself to the countries in our neigh- 
bourhood, and shall, therefore, not mention the Bedawtn south of Jebel 
Shomar, or north of the Euphrates. 

Let us begin with the country north-east of Palestine. The large 
Syrian desert between the Jordan and the Euphrates is the home of the 
great wandering tribes of the Anese. In winter they live in the desert, 
and come in the summer to Palmyra and Damascus. They are the 
descendants of VVayl, and according to their tradition they have wonder- 
fully multiplied in consequence of a peculiar blessing given to their 
ancestor. They comprise the Wald Ali, the Hessenne,the Beshr, and the 
Eualla and Shalan, who, however, live south of the Hauran. These rich 
tribes comprise about 10,000 horsemen and about 100,000 camels. 

Another powerful tribe, at present the principal lords of the Belka, 
which is considered the paradise of the Bedawtn, on account of its 
l)eautiful pastures, are the Beni Sahher, said to descend from the Beni 
Abs. They are the enemies of the Anese, and wander between the 
Belka and the Jowf. They muster about 700 horsemen and 20,000 camels. 
These large wandering tribes, also called Ahl el Shemal, which spend the 
winter in the desert, look down with contempt on the smaller ti-ibes 
which live within a certain circumscribed territory near cultivated land, 
and under the control of the Turkish Government. They even refuse 
them the name of Aral) or Bedawin. 

This second class contains a great many tribes. The Syrian Bedawin 
are : — El Mawaly, el Hadadeyne, el Turkoman, Arab Baalbek, Arab el 
Bekaa Esaleib, Abl el Jebeil. In the Hauran there are the Fuheily, the 
Arab el Ledja, Arab Jolan, el Adwan in Moab, and el Sirhrm to the 
south of Hauran. South of the Belka are the Ahl el Kebly, to whom 
belong the Sherrarat, the Hawayetat, and the Beni Atyieh ; these live 
between Wadi Sirhan on the east, and Wadi Moosa on the west. Farther 
south in the Peninsula of Sinai, or Jebel Tor, are the Towara Arabs, and 
in our own neighbourhood, betAveen Hebron and Gaza, the Tayaha, the 
Azazme, the Heteymah. The Ta§.mera are, as we all know, the princii»al 
tribe south of Jerusalem, alread}' showing a transition state between 
Bedawtn and Fellahtn. 

Manner of Travelling and Encamping. — Let me now describe to you 
the manner in which the wandering Bedawtn travel and encamp. 

' We find among some of the Bedawhi tribes opulence, and among other? 
tlie greatest possible poverty. The Arabs of Wady Moosa are so poor that they, 
from utter want of clothing, are obliged to cover themselves at night with sand, 
while many a sheikh from the Anese possesses 200 to 500 camels. 

N 2 



194 THE BEDAWIN. 

It was in the year 1863 that I met a large detachment of the Anese, 
the Sbii, in the 'desert east of the Ledja. Their order of march was this : 
A party of five or six well-mounted horsemen, armed with lances adorned 
with tufts of black ostrich feathers, preceded the tribe about four miles as 
a reconnoitring party ; the main body occ:u]>ied a line of at least three 
miles in front ; first came some armed horsemen and camel-riders with 
long muskets, spears, and swords, at 100 or 150 paces from each other, 
extending along the whole front ; then followed the she-camels with their 
young ones, grazing in wide ranks during their march upon the wild 
herbat^e. Behind them walked the camels loaded with the tents and 
provisions, and last came the women and children mounted on camels, 
having saddles made in form of a cradle, or nest, with curtains to screen 
them from the sun. The men indiscriminately rode alongside and amidst 
the whole body, but most of them in front of the line, and some, riding 
on camels, led horses by the halters. Occasionally we met an Arab with a 
falcon on his hand covered with its leather cap. 

The Tent.— The tent is called " beit," it is made of black goats' hair ; 

the pieces, each not quite a yard in breadth, are joined together to make 

.a sufficient breadth for the tent. The length varies from 20 to 80 feet. 

Each single tent has nine poles, called " 'amood," the highest of which 

scarcely ever exceeds 10 feet. At the middle pole is the partition for the 

women, the men's apartment being on the left side on entering the tent, 

and the women's on the right. In the men's apartment the ground is 

generally covered with a Persian or Bagdad carpet, and the wheat sacks 

and camel bags are piled up round the middle pole. The waterskin and 

the wooden cotfee mortar are never wanting in this part. The women's 

apartment is the receptacle for all the rubbish of the tent, the cooking 

utensils, butter, and waterskins, &c. All these things are laid down near 

the pole, called " hadera," where the slave sits and the dog sleeps during 

the day. No man of good reputation would sit there. On the forepost 

of the men's apartment hangs a corner of the tent covering, called 

"roffe," which serves for wiping hands before or after dinnei'. The 

furniture of the tent consists, first of all, of the women's saddle in the 

form of two inmiense wings attached to the middle part, having the form 

of a nest. Each of these two wings is formed of two poles covered with 

red tanned camel skins, and adorned with tassels, and large enough to 

afford space for a person sleeping in it at full length, whilst the middle 

part serves as a receptacle for the little children. When riding, the 

sheikh's ladies hang strings of various colours and cloth cuttings round the 

saddle from one wing to the other, which gives to the marching camel a 

most wonderful a})pearance. The whole looks like a canoe put across the 

■camel's back, or like an immense bird with outstretched wings. It is 

clear that such extensive saddles can only be used in the desert ; it 

would be impossible to travel with them in narrow, mountainous, and 

rocky countries, or to pass with them through a forest. The pack-saddle 

is called "hodaju," the men's saddle "shadad." 

When the place of encampment is reached the sheikh puts his spear in 



THE BEDAWi^r. 105 

the ground, and at once tlie tonts are pitched according to old-establislicd 
rules, witliout disorder or dispute. 

In the year 1870 the Rualla Arabs, a tribe of tlie Anese, were forced 
to come to the j)lain of Esdraelon on account of the drouglit in tlie 
Hauran. It was most magnificent to see, from the top of Mount Kafsy, 
this rich plain literally covered with thousands of camels and with thu 
black tents of these wild people, and to hear the peculiar shouts of the 
shepherds whereby they directed the march of the camels, and the songs 
or zagharit of the women. But after they had left, not a blade of grass 
or a bit of straw was left in the whole plain. 

Tent Life. — Let us examine the inmates of the tent., their occupation 
and character. The salutation of the Bedawln is simply saldm 'aleik 
or marhaba, and then follow the usual questions : keif el hot. The 
clothing of the poor is simply a long shirt with long sleeves ; the same is 
white with the men, and of green or bluish colour with the women, who 
wear it so long that it trails on the ground, and the sleeves also reach 
down to their ankles. Over the shiit the men wear the brown and 
white striped ''ahai, or in winter a sheepskin jacket. On the head they 
wear the heffijieh and a cord of camel's hair called the akdl. Often in 
travelling they cover their faces with the keffyieh so that only the eyes 
are visible. Men and women, when coming to towns, wear big boot^of 
red leather. 

The Anese are distinguished by their long tresses of hair, which they 
rarely cut ; they call them kervan. All the women tattoo their lips, 
chin, arms, hands, and feet with blue dye, and generally wear glass 
bracelets of various colours. The ladies of some Anese tribes wear silver 
rings in their ears and noses, and carry silver bracelets and silver 
chains round the neck. Bedawln are rarely over 5 feet 2 or 3 inches in 
height, their features are good, their noses often aquiline, and finely 
chiselled, their deep-set and dark eyes sparkle from under their l)ushy 
black eyebrows with a fire unknown in northern climes, their beard is 
short and thin, but the black hair of the head is abundantly thick, and 
their teeth are always white as pearls. The women of the northern 
Bedawln, especially the Anese, are handsome and graceful, but those of 
the south are very ugly. Their complexion varies from yellow to nearly 
black. Cleanliness is, of course, not to be expected in the Arabs, with 
whom water is too expensive an article to be wasted for the unnecessary 
purpose of washing ; if need be, they use sand, or rub themselves all 
over with butter, and the women use even a stranger kind of pomade, 
which I certainly would not recommend. 

Diet— Their diet consists of milk and lehen of camels or goats, and 
unleavened bread, either baked very thin on a round sheet of iron, called 
sdj, or in cakes baked on stones. Only when guests appear a goat or a 
young camel is killed and served with rice or Imryhul. A luxury with 
them are dates with butter, or a heap of thin cakes of bread jnletl upon 
one another like pancakes and swinmiing in melted butter. This dish is 
called fateeta. Coffee is, of course, the favourite beverage, and is most 



1^6 Tin: BEDAWix. 

carefully roasted and prepared iu the manner well known to you. They 
serve their dishes always so very hot tliat it requires much practice to 
avoid burning one's lingers, for even spoons are quite unknown. 

The only art known among Bedawin is spinning and M-eaving of 
camel and goat's hair for preparing tents, Itags, and halters, and the 
tanning and dying of camel skins, either with pomegranate peels or with 
the roots of a desert herb called verk. These skins are used for girdles 
and to cover the saddles. In the Belka the Bedawlu gather the soap 
(kali) plant, and prepare from it, by burning, the potash, or kali, which 
tliey sell to the soap manufacturei's at Damascus, Naljlus, and 
Jerusalem. 

Beside some copper pans and trays they only have wooden bowls and 
wooden trays or baties. The rest of their furniture consists of their tent- 
pegs and a large wooden hammer, called matraka, all of which are easily 
cariied in a bag. 

In his tent the Bedawy is a most indolent and lazy creature. His 
only occupation is feeding the horses or milking the camels iu the 
evening, and now and then he goes out with his hawk. A man, hii-ed 
for the purpose, takes care of the herds and flocks, while wife and 
daughters peiform all domestic business. The women grind the corn in 
a handmill, or pound it in a mortar, and prepare butter from the milk 
by shaking it in a skin. Occasionally they work at the loom, but their 
principal business is to fetch water, which they sometimes have to carry 
long distances on their back. On them also falls all the work connected 
with the pitching and striking of the tents. 

You may easily imagine that scientific pursuits are incomjiatible with 
Bedawln life. Books are unknown with them. Among 1,000 Arabs 
only one can read, and still fewer know how to write. These accom- 
plishments are considered unworthy of a good warrior. When I spoke 
to a Rualla chief about the great advantage of relieving the monotony of 
desert life by reading, he said he would be glad to receive a schoolmaster 
for his boys if I would guarantee that they would be able to read the 
Koran within the space of one month ; and when I thought this impos- 
sible he would not hear any more of my suggestion. Yet they are as 
enthusiastic admirers of poetry as their ancestors were, and there is 
scarcely an Arab sheikh who does not know some poems by heart. 
When Saleh el Jerwan, from the Beui Sahher, was mortally wounded in 
the Valley of the Jordan he made, just before expiring, a poem expres- 
sing exactly the same sentiments of submission to the divine decree, of 
love to his family, and of eternal hatred against his enemies, as one 
finds expressed in the old poems. After his funeral the food for the 
guests was cooked over a fire kindled upon 1(5 skulls of his enemies. 
Fendi el Fai.s, the sheikh of the Beni Sahher, Mho died in 18T9, was 
buried in Saleh's grave at llama, in the Ghor ojiposite to Jericho. 

Rdujion. — In matters of religion Bedawln are very indifferent Moham 
medans. During the course of 12 centuries Mohammedanism seems to 
have made little or no impression on them, either for good or evil. That 



THE UEHAWIN. 197 

it was e(|ually inetl'ectual in tliis regard at tlu; period of its very first 
estal)lishnient we learii from the KorAii itself, and from early tradition 
of an authentic character. 

We read:— "Amir El>ii Tufeil, shcikli of the mi;,dity trilu- of flie 
Beni Anitr, resolved with two of his friends to travel to Medina in order 
to make the acquaintance of the prophet Molianimed. After liaving saluted 
him Amir asked the jnophet : ' Will you be my friend ? ' ' No,' answered 
Mohammed, 'unless you believe in the unity of God, who lias no com- 
panion.' Then Amir asked : ' But will you make me your successor if J 
become a Moslem ? ' Mohammed answered : ' The W(jrld is the Lord's 
and He gives power to rule to whom He pleases.' ' Then,' rejoined Amir, 
' I receive the Islam if you take the government over the inhabitants <jf 
towns and leave me to be ruler over all Bedawlu.' The projthet refu.sed 
this also, and Amir said: 'What benefit shall 1 tlien derive from 
becoming a Moslem i" Mohammed said : 'It gives you the community 
of all true believers.' But Amir answered : ' I stand not in need of this,' 
and left him, threatening him with war." 

The Bedawin of the present day do not show any aversion against 
the doctrine of the unity of God or to the prophet Mohammed, but they 
seem incapable of receiving or retaining any serious religious intlueuces 
or definite forms of thought and practice. " Unstable as water, thou 
shalt not excel," seems to be the character of most of the Bedawin. 
They know little of Moliammedan worship with its prostrations and 
rehearsals, its ablutions and rites ; usually they say : " Our sheikh prays 
for us all." They care nothing for the pilgrimage to Mecca, except in 
the way of demanding their share of the zurra paid by Government, or 
in the way of plundering the pilgrims ; they are indifferent to the fast 
of Eamadan, but they devoutly slaughter a lamb or a camel on the toml) 
of their kinsmen. The desert, like the vast expan.se of the sea, is cal- 
culated to impress on the mind the unity and power of God, anil 
therefore we find with the Arabs the stereotype exclamation, " Allah 
Akbar:" God is great. Involuntarily one feels in the desert the 
•presence of God, for it teaches more than anything else what it is to be 
alone— alone with God. Therefore in the first centuries of our era many 
thousands of Christians became Eremites in the deserts of Egyi)t and 
Syria. Such asceticism is based on the great and undeniable truth, that 
we are only able to realise the invisible and eternal things of God in 
proportion as we ai-e weaned from the material things and cares of this 
visible world. 

Fatalism.— '^wi one doctrine of Islam exercises a great and con- 
stant influence on a Bedawy's life, and this is the doctrine of fatalism. 
This doctrine stands in singular affinity with the dangers encountered 
in the desert and with the uncertainty of an Arab's life. Necessarily 
it must produce great recklessness and indifference regarding the changes 
of fortune and precautions against death. 

J/omZs.— Bedawin morals are equally lax. "Dogs are l)etter than 
we are," is a common expression of theirs ; and Palyrave gives them 



198 THE BEDAWix. 

credit for having in this regard spoken the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth. But I believe that with regard to morals there 
is among the different Bedawln tribes as wide a difference as there is 
among other classes of Oriental society, and any infringement on the 
sanctity of the harem would at once be revenged by them. 

Warfare. — The general character of Bedawtu cannt)t be better 
described than in the words of the angel to Ishmael's mother : " And 
he will be a wild man ; his hand will be against every one, and every 
man's hand against him, and he shall dwell in the presence of all his 
brethi-en." It is remarkable how, even to this day, every Bedawy 
sustains these characteristics of his ancestor Ishmael. They are at war 
with all agriculturists within their reach, and they are constantly at 
war among themselves. The Arabs say : — " Our father Adam had three 
sons — one was a hunter, the other a farmer, and the third a Bedawy, 
who received from Adam the camel to live by. However, the camel 
died, and the Bedawy came to father Adam and said : ' My camel died, 
what .shall I do now, on what shall I live ? ' ' Go, answered father Adam, 
and live by what you can get from your brethren.' " Another Bedawy 
said to me when I exjalained to him the great advantages of a peaceful 
life, " How shall a Bedawy get his livelihood without his spear and 
sword ? We have old enemies among other tribes ; if they have taken 
away our camels, we must somehow or other regain them or die 
from hunger." 

Disputes among different Bedawln tribes generally arise about the 
water and pasture. They T)egin with the .shephei-ds and end with the 
death of some sheikh, which must of course be revenged. But even 
in a fight among the larger tribe-s, in which thousands on each side are 
engaged, the loss of life is insignificant. In October, 1878, the Beni 
Sahher had a battle with the Rualla in the Hauran, in Avhich a large 
number of horsemen and camel-riders was engaged. As usual, one of 
the best mounted chiefs in full armour gallops into the empty space 
between the two parties and challenges the sheikhs of the enemies till 
one of them accepts the duel and is thrown from his horse. Then some 
of his friends come to his assistance and an irregular combat begins, 
which, however, is generally restricted to the horsemen. In this battle 
the Beni Sahher were victorious, killed 70 of the opposite ])arty and 
gained 18 mares, but they were not able to take any camels or tents. 
It is affirmed that the old law of blood-revenge (thdr) gives to these 
battles a much milder character, as tlie Bedawln do not like to bring 
upon themselves personally the avengers, even in the case of victory. 

Stealing Expeditions. — The most fiequent form of warfare is the 
ghazUy with the object of surprising the enemy and taking their tents 
and camels. But if such an expedition on a larger scale is not practicable 
there is always a number of jjoorer Bedawin thirsting after renown and 
gain of ]}lunder. Then the expedition proceeds in the following systematic 
manner. The hardmy, or robber, who is never on horseback, selects two 
trustworthy comjianions ; besides their weapons, in which the club plays 



TIIK ]i ED A WIN. 191) 

the principal part, they take some provisions, consisting,' of salt and floni- 
in a l)af^ Towards niidnit^lit tliev roacli the tent wliicli they intend to 
attack. One of them <foes first behind the tent, and w lien attacked by 
the dogs, he flees in order to remove them from the scene of action. At 
the same time the second cuts the ropes fiom the camels' knees, and 
drives them away, whilst the third, standing at the oj)ening of the tent, 
is prepared to strike anyone on the head who should venture out. I f 
the attack is discovered and one of the robbers made a prisoner, he is 
asked what he came for ; and after having confessed, he is obliged 
foniially to renounce the right of the dakheel (suppliant). Then he is 
fettered with a horse-chain and i)ut at full length, in a hole dug in the 
middle of the tent with tied up arms and his locks pinned to the ground, 
lu this position, as one buried alive, he remains till he is able to jtay 
the ransom for his life, which generally costs him all his jtroperty. 
Often a friend guarantees for him, and it is considered an unpardonable 
diso-race if the robber cheats this fi'iend who became his suretv. From 
ancient times it has been considered the greatest honour and distinction 
among all Bedawln to obtain the name of being a daring and successful 
robber. 

Not many Bedawtn sheikhs die a natural death ; at least, most of 
those I knew personally were killed — for instance, Mohammed el Duhy, 
Sheikh of the Wald Ali ; Gendsh, Sheikh of the Mowally ; Feisal, Sheikh 
of the Shaian; Eubbah, Sheikh of the Sakker, killed in 1858 by 
the Adwan ; and Moutlak, his brother, killed by the same in 1870; 
Mohammed el Moosa, Sheikh of the Sbeh, killed by the Koords in 
1868— and if one of them dies a natural death from lingering illnes.s 
[or suddenly] they ascribe it to poison given by the Turks [or some 
other enemies], as in the case of Akyle Agah, and of Fendi el Fais, 
Sheikh of the Beni Sahher. 

How the Bedmohi Cheat their Creditors. — Dulaiim ben Murra 
Aljuhani : — " God permitted me to succeed in a good purchase at a 
time when money was most scarce. He (the merchant) bent the 
fingers of his hand to reckon (on his fingers, of course) his amount of 
profit, without, however, reckoning how long I should make him wait 
for the payment. He may be glad if instead of the gain he expects, 
he receives a small part." 

Suhaib ben Nibras :—" Often have I for days and days jmt off" a 
creditor whose eyes grew yellow from vexation, whose face wa.s in 
constant sweat from desire after payment. For it is the lot of every 
creditor who is stingy or too hard in his demands, to have everything 
denied by the debtor.' 

Hanif ben Qu'air Alabsi :— " My enemies rejoice at my debts, as if 
none of them had ever got into debt l)efore me. But by making more 
debts I will continue to enrage them so that they almost perish. 

Atirga ben Mihrag Alhilah :— " I brought the stufi" away with me, so 
nice, black and white, whilst the coins which I ought to have iKiid for 
it remained hid in mv sleeve. And he took u]) a piece of paper, looked 



200 THE BEDAWIN. 

at the witnesses, and countetl with botli hands how mueh money I shoid 
have to pay him after the hipse of a certain time. But I believe that we 
shall never see each other again 1 And Abaid put a seal and names 
of witnesses and wrote a title deed about it, which will cause him nuuh 
lamentation. This is how 1 treat those wretches, for I see in them 
nothing but a help for the time of need." 

Tarif ben Manzur Alasadl : — " After we had the money from Yahya 
ben Yabir in our hands, I said one morning to my friend Hisu — for he 
told me all his secrets, as I told him mine — ' Does Yahya demand that 
we keep our conditions, thovigh he raged like a madman against our 
money when we bargained ? ' This merchant of Alkufa must not suppose 
that we are not clever enough to undei-stand the reckoning he made on 
his slate. But I promised enormous profit, and then he turned away not 
suspecting that he would lose all. Let Yahya, therefore, not hope that 
anything will be restored, for the madman has thrown his things into 
the depth of a raging sea." 

Awaif Alquwafi Alfazari : — " I told you to guess, O sons of Lahta, 
where I should be in the turmoil of trouble. Now seek me if you can ! 
Fie upon you and upon the understanding between youi- libs (according 
to Bedawin ideas the understanding has its seat in the heart), how could 
you depend upon me and my religion i For with regard to religion and 
good reputation I am the poorest of men," 

Abdallah ben Alabras Alasadi : — " I am gentle as long as my creditor 
is gentle, but I keep my debts so long that my miu-derer will still find 
them. Day and night I put the creditor oti" till he at last gets tired of 
me and is glad if he gets back any part of the debt without profit." 

Wabr ben Mu'awiya Alasadt : — " I have alw'ays in readiness for my 
creditors a shaip sword and a splendid club of Arsan wood ; a thick club 
with a great knob jjrepaied for the merchants of Almadin. Yes, by thy 
grandfathei", when the time for payment comes, and my liver feels not 
inclined to pay, I will rejiay him with a stick of Arsan wood, so heavy 
that it hurts the arm to lift it." 

Abu 'muabbes Aluquaili : — "Little I cai'ed for Saiyar and his shouting, 
when on my flight I had the well Sirar between him and me. He had 
followed me with great diligence, and spread his ])aper in the market 
jilace before a number of old men who had left their business to 
investigate my ati'air, as if I had done them injury. They swoi*e by 
God that I should not get away as long as I owed him one piece of gold. 
In their foolishness they Avanted to hold me, but I invented a trick and 
.said : — ' To-morrow I expect some goods, and I therefore invite you to 
meet me at the house of Ibn Habbar.' But I only fixed this meeting 
to cheat them, so that my ijromise and the not keeping of the same n)ight 
save me. When my feet at length found oppoi'tunity foi- flight 1 did 
not stop running and galloping. When they saw that T was escajiing 
at the utmost .speed, so that not even a bird could have caught me, they 
said to their comrade : — ' Leave him alone, thou canst not oveitake him ; 
come Ijack with us and may all Bedawin go to hell !' Yes, Saiyar, truly 



TiiK i;i;i>A\vix. 201 

some tiiiio will elapse before I pay you, ami so you luul licttt-r fold \c,iii- 
papei' aiul keep it well from the mice ! " 

Swearing. — "For some time I refused when they asked me to swear 
an oath, so that the fools might sup}jose I was to be ti'usted. When 
they heard my refusal they imagiiu'd that the idea of swearing was 
cutting my veiy heart, and they did not know that my oath was 
prepared long ago to free my neck from the burden of del)ts." 

Musannin ben Uwaimir Alasadt : — "They asked me: 'Will you 
swear 't ' and I said in haste : ' God jjreserve me from swearing an oath.' 
When T saw that the peojjle believed that I would not swear out of deep 
con\'iction and fear of God, and realised that if I swore, witnesses, ])apei', 
and seals would all be vain, I swore an oath that the mountains burst as 
stones which warriors throw from their slings." 

" God saved my young camel from the hand of the Emir by a false oath 
which thou happily foundest out, without its bringing thee to hell fire." 

" .Swear a false oath, and if thou aftei'wards feai'est misfortune, repent 
and turn again to the merciful Forgiver of sins." 

However, we must leave this, the darkest part of Arab life, and turn 
to the brighter side of the picture. 

If you meet a true son of the desert in the streets of Jerusalem, you 
will at once recognise him, not only by his dark features, his piercing 
eyes, and his plaited locks of hair, but also by his long strides and 
dignified motions. You see, however, that he feels ill at ejuse within 
a walled city, and you would not like to fall into his hands in the open 
country when he is mounted on his mare and carries his spear in his 
hand. But at the sight of his black tent you may be sure of perfect 
safety, whoever you are. There he is the best and most generous of 
hosts, and will spare no pains or expenses to make you as comfortable as 
possible. 

It is related of Amir Ebn Tufeil, of the Beui Amir, that his herald 
used to call out at the great fair of Ukat : " Anyone needing a beast of 
burden may find it with Amir. Anyone hungry may come to him. 
Anyone needing protection wall find safety with him." I do not think 
that the mightiest in Europe would dare to make in real earnest such 
invitations and promises. It is told that a king once sent his vizier to 
a Bedawy, who possessed the fleetest nuire of the desert, in order to ask 
him for it. But when the vizier arrived at the Arab's tent, he found him 
in most reduced circumstances. As he had no food to give, and as no 
animal remained with which he could treat his guests, the Bedawy killed 
his mare for them. After dinner the vizier spoke to him of the request 
of the king, upon which the Bedawy told him that he and his retinue 
had just eaten the mare, and in proof of it he produced its fresh skin. 

From the oldest times to the present all Arab poets extol the virtue 
of hospitality and liberality, and even the dimensions of the mansaf, or 
tray on which the meat is served, is not forgotten in their songs. The 
prophet Mohammed, returning from the Battle of Bedr, is said to have 
rested in the shade of the mansaf of an Arab, and at present the mama] 



202 THE BEDAWiN. 

of Mohammed Ebn Esmeir, Sheikh of the Wald Ali, is considered the 
biggest, and its owner the most liberal and honoured of men. In the 
year 1863 I travelled with some friends to the Hanrrin, and met the Beni 
Sahher east of Um Keis, encamped in a beautiful oak forest. Our caravan 
contained 40 mules and horses and 20 men, but the Arabs nevertheless 
declared that we were their guests ; no provisions were to be unpacked 
and no fire to be lighted by us. We were at once invited to Abdullah 
Ahmed's tent, and, after having partaken of his hosjutality, we wished 
to retire. But he declared that we had only got our breakfast, and we 
had to remain till we had had luncheon and dinner, and thus we were 
obliged in the course of two hours to go through three meals. 

Samples of Honesty. — Let me now give you some instances of honesty, 
which is not unfrequently found among the Arabs. 

A merchant from Nazareth, who had bought sheep from the Sherrarat, 
paid by mistake four piastres too much ; but after he had gone a distance 
of 10 miles he observed a Bedawy following and calling him. "When he 
asked his desire, the Bedawy said : " You have paid me four piastres too 
much, and I only came to return what is yours." 

Another instance : — -Two merchants went to the SherrarS,t to buy 
goats. After they had bought a number from this tribe, one of the 
merchants went to another party of Bedawin to buy more. The Sherrar&t 
meanwhile struck their tents and travelled towards the south, but the 
host of the merchants remained with his guest on the spot waiting for 
the return of the other man, and when the same at last arrived he showed 
no signs of vexation, but treated him with the greatest attention. Mean- 
while the Sherrarat had gone so far south that the Bedawy could no 
more ovei'take them, and had to remain for a whole year in that country 
waiting for the return of his tribe. 

Again : — A man lost a lamb, which a Bedawy found and exchanged 
for an ewe, which in the course of a few years had several joung ones. 
When he at last met with the owner of the lamb, he returned to him the 
sheep he had gained, and excused himself that he had occasionally drunk 
of their milk, 

Palgrave, who does not flatter the Bedawin, says that he did not lose 
two pounds' worth during his whole journey through Arabia. 

But though there is no doubt a good deal of honesty i)i the desert, 
yet it is certain that the Bedawin who come in contact with townspeople 
often use all their cunning in order to cheat them. We have quite 
a number of old poems written by Arabs, who with delight describe the 
manner in which they cheated their creditors. 

I am afraid my time is alieady too far spent to describe more of 
the peculiarities and strange customs of the Bedawin, of their stern 
demeanour, and reluctance to smile or laugh, or to speak of their quaint 
and original way of speech. 

In reviewing what has been said about the character of the Bedawin, 
we are oVjliged to acknowledge that it contains great contrasts. As we 
find in the middle of the desolate desert the oasis, with all the riches 



THE MKASURE.MEXT QF EGGS. 20:> 

of a liixiiiiant vegetation, so we fiud with the Arab uiiboiUKleil libertv 
and t-ruel despotism ; great instability and inconsistency and great tenacity 
in ])reserving their old ways and customs ; a clear intellect and reasoning 
power, with wild fancies and deep sentiment ; lasting love and lasting 
hatred ; egotism of the worst kind and trne devotion ; robbery and 
liberality; honesty and treachery; childlike simplicity and deep cunnin<f. 
But one thing is certain : if the Bedawy remains what he now is, he 
will be a great hindrance to cultivation and to progress in the f^ast ; for 
where the Bedawln wander no tree grows and no corn can be raised, 
and their ravages are as fatal to agriculture as those of the locusts. But 
should it not be possible to reclaim these restless wanderers, drifting to 
and fro in the desert without higher object, without home, and without 
the hope of a better life after death ? Are not the sons of Ishmael also 
the sons of Abraham ? Do not their traditions constantly remind them 
of the holy example of Him who by faith obtained the promise ? Did 
not the Apostle Paul first preach the Gospel in Arabia, and were not the 
Arab tribes of Lai, Taghleb, Tennooh, and Bedr once Christians !■ It is 
the Apostle Paul who also, with regard to the Arabs, pronounced the 
memorable words: "God has concluded all in unbelief, that He mi"ht 
have mercy on all." And we have the sure promises of God that the 
Arabs also will come to the light which arose on Mount Zion : for " th« 
dromedaries of Midian and all the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered unto 
the Lord ; and even the desert shall be changed, and shall blossom like 
the rose." 



THE MEASUREMENT OF EGGS. 

By Colonel C. M. Watson, C.M.G., R.E. 

It is stated in the Talmud that a log contained six eggs {see 
Zackerraann's " Jiidische Maass-System," who quotes Peah 1,6, 
Terumot 43, 3, Erubin 83, a). Colonel Conder, in " The Handbook 
to the Bible," p. 01, states that the mean capacity of an egg is 
4 cubic inches, and hence makes the log 24 cubic inches, but he 
does not say how he measured the eggs, or whether thej were 
English or Syrian eggs. 

In order to check Colonel Conder's measui'ement I have 
Tueasured a considerable number of English egg?, and the result 
is not in accord with his statement. I found that the most 
accurate way was to measure carefully the volume of the amount 
•of water displaced by an egg. This is more convenient than 
measuring the volume of the content of the egg, and gives 
almost exactly the same result. Here, for example, is one experi- 



204 



THE MEASUREMENT OF EGGS. 



meut of the measurement of eight eggs taken at random. Each 
es-cr was measured tAvo or three times. They are arranged in 
order of size : — 



Egg No 


1 .. 




2 




3 .. 




4 .. 




5 . . 




6 .. 




7 .. 




8 .. 


\lean , . 





4-04 


cubic 


inches 


3-78 


)» 


5> 


3-62 


,. 


?> 


3-40 


)i 


5> 


3-33 


■>■> 


'? 


3-22 


)5 


5) 


3-07 


^. 


>) 


2-88 


5? 


>> 



'-*-43 

I found that an egg measuring above 4 cubic inches is large 
even for an English egg, and as Syrian eggs are smaller, Colonel 
Conder's measurement cannot be accepted as correct. It appears 
therefore very improbable that the log was equal to the total 
contents of six eggs, and it is more likely that the statement 
was intended to mean that the log was a vessel which Avould 
hold six unhrolcen eggs. An English pint vessel holds con- 
veniently six unbroken English eggs, so that if this was intended 
the log should be somewhat smaller than an English pint. This 
is confirmed by the statement in Maimonides that the log was 
a measure equal to 4 x 4 x 2^ digits — the digit being the 
longer digit. The longer digit was the twenty-fourth part of 
the Babylonian cubit of about 21 inches, and therefore equal to 
•875 inch. This would give a log of 28"9 inches, which is probably 
much nearer the truth than 24 inches as given by Colonel Conder. 
An English pint = 34'66 cubic inches. 

Zuckermann gives the log as = the Xestes = 27"694 French 
cubic inches = 33'548 English cubic inches {see p. 10). But this 
is based on the proposition that the log was exactly equal to the 
Xestes and that the volume of the latter is accurately known. 
He gives no proof of either, so that the assertion cannot be regarded 
as definite. On the whole, it would seem that until it is proved 
what sized eggs are referred to by Maimonide.s, and whether they 
were broken or unbroken, the value of " 6 eggs = 1 log " is not 
of much lielp in determining the volume of the latter measure. 



20i 



NOTICP]S OP FOREIGN" PUBLIC ATIOXS. 

liecueil d'Archmlogie Orientale, vol. i\, parts !J and 10. — M. (lamieau 
coinraents more fully on the inscriptions from the Jewi.sli necropoli.s 
at Jaffa, in the collection of nanm Ustint>w, wliicii were cO()ie(l 
1)y Rev. J. E. Hanauei' and publislu'd in Quarterhf SOttement, IDOO, 
pp. 110-123. The author is inclined to think that in.scription No. 8 is 
of Jewish origin and connected with the I'estoration of a syna<(ogue, and 
finds in it tlie name Jacob as well as Lazarus. The Barbabi of No. 10 is 
conipai'ed with the Talmudic name, Ben Babi, and the name Bafius in an 
inscription from ArsM. In No. 18 Upea^vrepos is not a title, but is used in 
the sense of " elder," as opposed to " younger," and the inscription may be 
translated : "Here lies Isaac the elder, of Tarsus of Cappadocia, linen 
merchant." 

Zeitsckrift des Deutschen PaJilstina Vereins, vol. xxiii, parts 3 and 4. — 
Professor Dr. M. Hartniann completes his valuable contributions to our 
knowledge of the Syrian desert, and gives a very useful index f)f place- 
names. There is also an interesting paper by Dr. Graf von Miilinen on 
the registration of land in Turkey, which explains the classification of 
lands as laid down by the law of April 2ist, 1858, the technical terms in 
use, and the method of dealing with landed jDroperty under the various 
regulations that have been issued. The steps which have to be taken to 
purchase and register a plot of land in Turkey are illustrated by a com- 
plete statement of a case vvhich occurred near Jatta. Amongst other 
matters the purchaser had to make a declaration before a notary that he 
Would allow no Jews, whose residence in Palestine is forbidden, to live on 
tlie land, and that he would build no church, school, hospital, or dis- 
jjensary without previous permission. 

Remie Bihliiiue^ 1901, part 1. — Father Hugues Vincent gives the 
results of his exhaustive examination of the Tombs of the Prophets on 
the Mount of Olives, with a plan and sections. It is proposed to publish 
a full notice of his article in the July Statement. Father Vincent agrees 
with M. Clermont-Ganueau in considering that the tomb is of Christian 
origin, and not a readaptation of a Jewish tomb. 

A fragment of an inscribed Roman milestone, No. Ill on the Jerusaleni- 
Neapolis Road, has been found near Sh'afftt. The stone bears two 
texts : — 
Imp{erator) Nervlci] aug{ustus), po)it{ifc.v) m[ax(imHs)] trihua[iciae) 

po^t^cstatis) . . . . , and 
[^ImpY.erator) Caesar [Trajlanus aup{mtns) .... 

Both the inscribed milestones previously discovered on this road, V 
and probably XXV, bear the names of Marcus Auvelius and Verus, who 
apparently lepaired the road made by Trajan, and perhaps commenced 
by Nerva. Nos. Ill and V, being exactly two Roman miles apart, are 



206 NOTICES OF FOKEIGN PUBLICATIONS. 

probably iu their original position, and a measurement of three miles 
back from the former places the point of origin south of the Church 
of the Holy Sepulchre, near the centre of Jerusalem. 

A plan, section, sketch, and details are given of the remains of the 
Church of St. Mary Latin-the-Less which have been recently destroyed 
during the building operations of the authorities of the Greek Church 
in the°western half of the Muristan. The three apses, well preserved when 
uncovered, and recalling the fine masonry of the Church of the Samaritan 
woman at Nablus, have been pulled down to make room for the founda- 
tions of new shops ; and of the lateral walls seen during the excavations 
there is no longer a trace. This lamentable and needless destruction of 
the remains of historic buildings, hitherto preserved by accumulations of 
rubbish, is greatly to be regretted. (A brief notice of this Church by 
Dr. Schick will be found, ante p. 51.) 

Le Mont Thahor, notices historiques et descriptives, by Father Barnabe, 
of Alsace, O.F.M. Paris, 1900, 8vo, pp. 176.— A monograph on Mount 
Tabor, in four parts. Part I deals with the history of the mountain 
from the earliest period to its fortification by Josephus, a portion 
•of whose walls is said to have been discovered. Part II is a strong 
plea iu favour of the tradition that Mount Tabor was the scene of 
the Transfiguration. The author contests the view that the summit 
-was occupied by a tow^n before the time of Christ. Part III gives a 
pretty complete history of Tabor from its occupation by Tancred, 
in 1099, to the present day. Part IV contains a description of the 
mountain, of the view from it, and of the ruins recently found on its 
summit. The interesting remains of the great Church with three aisles, a 
■rock-hewn crypt, a baptistery and two chapels, and of the other buildings 
imcovered by the Franciscans are fully treated. But the account of 
the ruins in the possession of the Greek Church is less satisfactory. 
'The book is illustrated with photographs of Mount Tabor and of the 
xuins on its summit ; and there are a plan showing the results of the 
.excavations, and a map of the surrounding country. 

Autour de la Mer Morte, by Ldcien Gautier. Geneva, 1901, 8vo.— 

A pleasantly written account of a journey round the Dead Sea in 

March, 1899. M. Gautier travelled via Hebron, Engedi, and the Ghor 

^s-Safieh to Kerak, and returned to Jerusalem by Lejj(in, er-Rabba, 

Medeba, Meshetta, and Jericho. The notices of the country and people 

.are good, and there is an interesting description of a freshet, after heavy 

rain, in the Wady Mojib — a great, dusky-brown wave coming down the 

valley and carrying everything before it. In an Appendix M. Gautier 

gives the original of his article on the Dead Sea in the " Encyclopedia 

Biblica." The book is illustrated with photo- lithographs, and one of 

these shows the " white line " of foam stretching from N. to S. on the 

-surface of the lake which was first noticed by ^Jolyneux in 1847. 

c. w. w. 



Quarterly Statement, July, 1901.] 



THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

The Kixg has graciously conveyed to the Arclibishop 
of Canterbury, the President of the Fund, His 
Majesty's consent to ]:)ecome Patron of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund in succession to Her Late Majesty 
Queen Victoria. 



With deep regret we record the death, at the age of 
64 years, of Sir Walter Besakt, Knt., Honorary Secretary 
of the Fund, which took place at his residence, Frognal End, 
Hampstead, on Sunday, June 9th, 1901. 



The Treasui^er of the Fund communicates the following : — 

" Many of our subscribers, when they read of the death of Sir 
Walter Besant, must have felt that they had lost a personal 
friend. He was a man of Avide culture, of wide knowledge, and 
of con.siderable administrative ability, and he had the gift of 
sympathy. Those who formed an acquaintance with him soon 
found themselves treating him, and being treated by him, as if 
they were old friends. This natural gift of inducing others to 
speak without reserve must have greatly helped him in planning 
his many novels, for we know from his own evidence that the 
characters in them were modelled on men and women whom he 
had met. And this gift of sympathy, of securing friends, was 





208 NOTES AND NEWS. 

one of the faculties "wliicli made liim so valuable an official of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund. He was of a generous temper, ever 
ready to give thought and time, when time meant money to so 
active a writer, to help others, to give sound advice, or to further 
useful work. It is suffi^cient to mention the People's Palace and 
the Authox's' Society as examples of his unselfish activity on 
behalf of the interests of other men. 

" But it is as the Secretary of the Palestine Exploration Fund 
that we have in this place to deplore his death. 

" In the early days of the Fund the Acting, as well as 
Honorary, Secretary was Mr. George Grove, afterwards Sir 
George Grove. Mr. Grove was a man of great ability, of many- 
sided knowledge, of untiring energy, and strong self-reliance ; 
indeed, his fault lay in this latter quality, for he was always ready 
to take up any subject which appealed to his feelings without 
resrard to the other calls on his time. The work of the Fund 
suif ered ; it became necessary to engage a paid secretary, and in 
a fortunate hour for the Fund, Mr. William Lethbridge, who was 
then a reader, and afterwards a partner, in the firm of W. H. 
Smith and Son, recommended Mr. Besant for the post. 

" Mr. Besant, after taking a high degree at Cambridge, had 
gone as a professor to the college in the Mauritius. His health 
broke down, and he returned to England. On becoming connected 
with the Fund, he showed his administrative ability at once. 
Order was introduced into the office, work proceeded smoothly. 
He soon substituted a Quarterly Statement in the place of 
occasional papers. 

" It was i^artly his work that the Fund began to publish 
books, and it was certainly due to his tact and knowledge, and 
to the tact and knowledge of Mr. Hepworth Dixon, who was long 
the Chairman of the Executive Committee, that almost every book 
I^ublished by the Fund has been a commercial success, as well as 
an important contribution to our knowledge of the Holy Land. 

" His genial, simple manners and quiet humour charmed 
visitors to the office, and he was possessed of no ordinary 
amount of common sense. All members of the Executive 
Committee recognised the value of his suggestions and counsel. 

" Of late years increasing literary work, and his many other 
engagements, took up most of his time, but he was always ready 
to help as with his counsel when any complication arose. 

" The successful working of the Fund has been in no small 



:n'Otes and xi.;\vs. joO 

degree due to him, and has led to the systematic examination hy 
other societies and explorers of countries famous in the (31d 
World. And thus, while Ave in particular can best appreciate 
the value of his work, his influence has had a fai-ther reachin"- 
effect than the special work of our Fund." 

Colonel C. R. Conder writes : — 

" Sir Walter Besant was so well known that it is only because 
lie was one of my earliest and kindest friends that I ask space 
for a few words. I believe that the success of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund was mainly due to his appreciation of all 
that is best in England, and to his knowledge of English 
character, and sympathy with the love of the Bible in England. 
I knew him well since 1872, and not only admired his energy and 
ability, but most highly appi-eciated his kindness, patience, and 
tolerance of differences of opinion. His work was invaluable to 
the Society, and he was one able fully to understand both the 
truth and the beauty of the Bible, and practically to carry out in 
London the lessons he learned from the Gospel." 



The Annual Meeting of the General Committee will be held 
at the Office of the Fund, 38 Conduit Street, on Tuesday, 
July 16th, at 4 p.m. 

Dr. F. J. Bliss writes : — 

" It will interest the readers of the Quarterly Statement to 
hear that the majority of the objects found in our excavfitions 
are now arranged in a small museum. A large room in the 
Government School, just inside Herod's Gate, has been set apart 
for the purpose by Ismail Bey, the local Dii-ector of Public 
Instruction. Last autumn I numbered the objects selected for 
exhibition and made a catalogue, but owing to the lack of proper 
cases no arrangement could then be made. On my return last 
month I was gratified to find that Ismail Bey had obtained 
a grant from Constantinople which had enabled him to secure 
four large cases with glass on the four sides. These, with the 
two cases already in the I'oom, have now provided ample room for 
the objects. Case 'No. 1 contains 101 examples of pre-Israelite 
pottery, including specimens from Tell el-Hesy. It was a grati- 
fication to find that these had been preserved by the authorities 
for over 10 years. In case No. 2 we have 116 examples of Jewish 

.J 2 



210 NOTES AND NEWS. 

pottery, includiiio- a series of the stamped jar-liaiidles. Case 
No. 3 coutains 184 specimens of Seleucidaii wai'e. In the lower 
shelf of each case may be found the duplicates (unnumhered), 
which in the case of the Seleucidan period are very numerous. 
Case No. 4 is marked ' Miscellaneous,' and besides examples of 
pottery figurines, human and animal, contains various objects in 
bronze, iron, bone, and stone. In Cases 5 and G are exhibited 
the scarabs, gems, tablets, coins, and glass objects. The majorit}- 
of the coins, as well as the gi'eater proportion of the objects in the 
beautiful glass collection, were placed in the museum by Ismail 
Bey. For the classification of the coins the museum is indebted 
to Dr. Selah Merrill, U.S. Consul. 

'' The unique character of this small museum is obvious. It 
contains the only full collection from which the history of 
Palestinian pottery may be studied from pre-Israelite to Roman 
times. Ismail Bey hopes that he will soon receive authorit}- to 
appoint a guardian, print the catalogue, and throw open the 
museum to the public for a small fee. The position will be 
convenient for travellers, as the museum can be visited after 
the inspection of the Church of St. Anne and the Pool of 
Bethesda by making a very small detour from the main road 
going north from St. Stephen's Grate." 



In the Api'il number of the Quarterly Statement, p. 165, it is 
stated that the church at Kubeibeh has been rebuilt since the 
publication of the " Memoirs." Dr. Schick writes that this is not 
quite coi'rect, as the rebuilding of the church, which was begun 
about three years ago, was stopped owing to questions respecting 
the building in its interior (called " House of Cleopas "), which 
have never yet been settled. 



Dr. Schick reports that the Benedictines, who are now in 
possession of the church at Abu Ghosh, are about to restore it 
for a sanctuar}' and station for pilgrims. 



He also mentions that " until now (April 29th) we look to 
heaven in vain for rain. Very often there have been Avinds and 
clouds, as if rain would come, but they have passed without rain. 
I am told that the railway has already begun to bring water to 



NOTES AND NEWS. 211 

the station, and that people may •^•o there and buy it at a very 
reasonable price." Dr. Masterman, writing on ]\Iay 20th, stated 
that tliree qaai-ters of an inch had fallen within thi-ee or foui- 
days with great benefit to the country. 

On April 1st Dr. Torrance reported that only 12G7 inches oi 
rain had fallen at Tiberias, and that fears were entertained of 
great distress throughout the coimtiy. l.ocusts also had appeared 
at Tiberias and on the coast. 



In connection with the Imperial concession to the raunici})ality 
of Jerusalem to bring water from Wady 'Arrub to that city. 
Dr. Schick reports that there is also on foot a scheme to construct 
an aqueduct fi'om the Euphrates across the Syrian desert to 
Medina and Mecca, and that he had been asked to report on the 
feasibility of this being done. The result of his investigations, 
so far as the maps at his disposal afforded information, was that, 
in his opinion, the thing is impossible. The projectors of this 
scheme assert that Alexander the Great had an idea of carrying 
out such a work. 



The Committee have applied for a firman to enable the Fund 
to continue its excavations in Palestine, and they hope soon to 
be in a position to publish in the Quarterly Statement full details 
with regard to further operations. 



The Committee have pleasui*e in announcing that M. Clcrnumt- 
Ganneau, whose valuable contributions to the work of the Fund 
are Avell known, has kindly promised to supply a series of 
archa3ological and epigraphic notes to the Quartcrhj Statemeni. 
Tlie first notes of the series appeared in the April numbei-. 



A subscriber offers for sale a complete set of the •' Memoirs "' 
of the Survey of Western Palestine in 8 vols., comprising: — 
"Memoirs" (3 vols.), "Name Lists," "Jerusalem," "Special 
Papers," "Fauna and Flora," "Index"; also one Great !Map in 
Poi'tfolio (1 inch), one Old Testament Map, one New Testament 
Map, one Water Drainage ^lap, one Portfolio of Jerusalem Plates. 
"All in a very good condition." 



212 NOTES AND NEWS. 

The concluding volume of Professor Ganneau's "Archaeo- 
logical Researches in Jerusalem and its Neighbourhood" has 
been published and issued to subscribers. This completes the set 
of four vols, as advertised under the title " Survey of Palestine." 
There are only two sets left of the first 250 copies of this 
valuable work. Those who wish to secure a set at £7 7s. 
before the price is raised should write to the Secretary of the 
Fund. 

The "Flora of Syria, Palestine, and Sinai," by the Rev. 
George E. Post, M.D., Beirut, Sj'ria, containing descriptions of 
all the Phaenogams and Acrogens of the region, and illustrated 
by 441 woodcuts, may be had at the office of the Fund, price 21s. 



In order to mahe up complete sets of the " Quarterly Statement,'' 
the Committee will be very glad to receive any of the back numbers. 



The income of the Society from March 22nd to June 20th, 
1901, was — from Annual Subscriptions and Donations, including 
Local Societies, £175 5s. 2d. ; from Lectures, nil; from sales of 
publications, &c., £132 6s. Id. ; total, £307 lis. 9d. The expen- 
diture during the same period was £482 lis. 1^. On June 20th 
the balance in the Bank was £364 Os. od. 



Subscribers in U.S.A. to the Avork of the Fund will please 
note that they can procure copies of any of the publications from 
the Rev. Professor Theo. F. Wright, Honorary General Secretary 
to the Fund, 42, Quincy Street, Cambridge, Mass. 



Rev. Wm. Ronaldson, 390, Castle Street, Dunedin, Otago, has 
kindly consented to act as Honorary Local Secretary, in place of 
Mr. Herbert Webb, resigned. 



•»* 



The Committee will be glad to communicate with ladies and 
■entlemen willing to help the Fund as Honorary Secretaries. 



The price of a complete set of the translations published by the Palestine 
Pilgrims' Tc-xt Society, in 13 volumes, with general index, bound in cloth, 
is £10 10*. A catalogue describing the contents of each volume can be had 
on application to the Secretary, 38 Conduit Street. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 213 

Tlio Museum at the office of the Fund, 33 Conduit Street (si fi-w door* 
from Eond Street), is open to visitors every week-day from 10 o'clock till 5, 
except Saturdays, when it is closed at 2 ytMi. 



It may be well to mention that plans and pliotograplis alluded to in the 
reports from Jerusalem and elsewhere cannot all be published, but all are 
preserved in the office of the Fund, where they may be seen by subscribers. 



While desiring to give publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to tlie pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood that by 
publishing them in the Quarterly Statement they neither sanction nor adopt 
them. 



Tourists are cordially invited to visit the Loan Collection of "Antiques" 
in the Jekusalem Association Room of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 
opposite the Tower of David, Jerusalem. Hours : 8 to 12, and 2 to 6. 
Maps of Palestine and Palestine Exploration Fund publications are kept for 
sale. 



Photographs of Dr. Scliick's models (1) of the Temple of Solomon, (2) of 
the Herodian Temple, (3) of the Haram Area during the Christian occupation 
of Jerusalem, and (4) of the Haram Area as it is at present, have been received 
at the office of the Fund. Sets of these photographs, with an explanation by 
Dr. Schick, can be purchased by applying to the Secretary, 38 Conduit 
Street, W. 



Branch Associations of the Bible Society, all Sunday Schools within 
the Sunday School Institute, the Sunday School Union, and the Wesleyan 
Sunday School Institute, will please observe that by a special Resolution of the 
Committee they will henceforth be treated as subscribers and be allowed to pur- 
chase the books and maps (by application only to the Secretary) at reduced 
price. 

The Committee will be glad to receive donations of Books to the Library 
of the Fund, which already contains many works of great value relating to 
Palestine and other Bible Lands. A catalogue of Books in the Library will 
be found in the July Quarterly Statement, 1893. 



The Committee acknowledge with thanks the following : — 
" Jerusalem : a Practical Guide to Jerusalem and its Environs." From 

the Author, E. A. Reynolds-Ball, B.A. 
" Voyage Archeologique au Safa et dans le Djebel cd-Druz." Par Rene 
Dussaud ct Frederic Macler. Avec 1 Itineniire, 17 Planches ot 12 
Figures. From the Editor, Ernest Leroux, 28, Rue Bonaparte, Paris. 



•214 NOTES AND NEWS. 

"Among the Mountains, in tlie Sinaitic Peninsula, Waldensia, and 
Maharaslitra." From tlie Author, the Kev. Canon Gell, M.A. 

"A Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, a.b. 1697." By Herr Maundrell, 
M.A., late Fellow of Exeter College and Chaplain to the Factory at 
Aleppo. From Aubrey Stewart, Esq., ^M.A. 

" My Tour in Palestine and Syria." Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1899. From 
the Author, F, H. Deverell. 

" La Montague de la Galilee." From the Author, Rer. P. Earnabc, 
d' Alsace, O.F.M. 

" Eecueil d'Archeologie Orientale." Tome IV, Livraisons 11, 12, 13, 
January to March. Sommaire : — § 27. Inscriptions grecques de 
Syrie (suite et fin). § 28. Le Zeus Madbachos et le Zeus Bomos 
des Semites. § 29. Le dieu Monimos. § 30. Les uoms nabateens 
Thomsache et Abdadousares. § 31. Nouvelles inscriptions uabateeunes. 
§ 32. L'inscription sinaitique des trois Augustes. § 33. L'annee 
sabbatique des Nabateens et I'origine des inscriptions sinai'tiques et 
safaitiques. § 34. Sceaux et poids a legendes semitiqucs du Ashmolean 
Museum. § 35. L'insci-iption pheuicienne de Tortose. § 36. Sur 
quelques inscriptions puniques du Musee Lavigerie. § 37. Un neocore 
palmyrenien du dieu 'Azizou. § 38. Les inscriptions I'omaines 
de I'aqueduc de Jerusalem (a suivre). Livraisons 14, 15, April. 
Sommaire : — § 38. Les inscriptions romaines de I'aqueduc de 
Jerusalem (suite et fin). § 39. Sur quelques noms propres puniques. 
§ 40. Le mot punique Mu chez Plaute. § 41. Le nom pbenicien 
Banobal et l'inscription de Memphis. § 42. Epitaphe d'un archer 
palmyrenien. § 43. Sur quelques noms propres juifs. § 44. ApoUon 
Mageirios et le Cadmus pbenicien. § 45. Le Pbenicien Theosebios 
et son Toyage a Pouzzoles. § 46. La belle Sime d'Eleutlieropolis. 
§47. Les poteries rhodienues de Palestine (a suivre). Livraison 16, 
May. Sommaire : — § 47. Les poteries rhodienues en Palestine (suite 
et fin). § 48. Un sceau des Croisades appartenant a la Leproserie de 
Saint-Lazare de Jerusalem (pi. I, D, E). § 49. Le ti-oue et I'autel 
chez les Semites. § 50. Le peuple des Zakkari. § 51. Sur quelques 
cachets israelites archai'ques (a suivre). 



For list of authorised lecturers and their subjects write to the Secretary. 



Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly Statement regularly are asked 
to send a note to the Acting Secretary. Great care is taken to forward each 
number to those who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and 
other causes occasionally give rise to omissions. 



Erratum. 

Quarterly Statement, 1900— p. 343, six lines up, for "penholder" read 

" pan handle." 



215 



REPORTS BY K. A. STKWART ^IACALIST1<]U, M.A. 



1. The Rock -Cut Tombs in Wady er-Rababi, Jerusalem. 

(Concluded from the " Qnarterhj Statement" 
April, 1901, p. 158.) 

Thk ten tombs which lollow, aucl complete the series of tombs in 
the valley, are east of the monastery. They are arranged in three 
rows : six are on the edge of the precipice above the valley, three 
on the rocky platform behind the top of the precipice, and one 
remaining in the back wall of rock behind the platform. We 
shall take these in I'everse order : — 

57. The back wall of rock, behind the platform on which the 
monastery is now built, is tunnelled with several caves which 
appear natural, and it seems also to have had more than one 
system of tombs in it. Only one of these remains, and even this 
is much injured by the quairying pi'ocesses that have completely 
destroyed the others. Two chambers are left, one of large size, 
having one kok on the west, two on the south, and two remaining 
■on the east ; the entrance, Avhich is broken open and of which no 
original features are left, was to the north. There is a small 
dooi- to the south giving admission to a small chamber, perfect 
but much clogged up Avith stones and rubbish, measuring 9 feet 
4 inches by 9 feet () inches. There are nine kokim in this 
chamber — three in each side not occupied by the door. 

58. This and ' the following tomb are under the walls of 
the monastery. It is a single-chambered tomb with kokim, 
seven in number. One of these is of the extraordinary length 
of 12 feet 4 inches: Another has a depression in its floor, 
filled with rubbish, i)ossibly a secret entrance to some subsidiary 
ch ambei". 

59. This tomb is beside the last. It consists of four chambers. 
The entrance chamber has but one kok, on the south side ; beside 
this is the dooi-way of a chamber at the back, containing three 
kokim on the east, two on the south, and a blocked doorway (?) 
on the west. There is a shallow niche over the central kok on 



216 



EEPORTS P.V i;. A. STEWART MACALISTER. 



the eastern side. To the west of the entrance chamber is a room 
with two kokim on the south and two on the west ; this chamber 
has an iivdependent entrance from without. To the east of the 
entrance chamber is an extension leading downwards to a small 
chamber having three arcosolia, one on each of the sides not 
occupied by the door. 

60. (Plan XXYI; Tobler, 8 ; Baedeker, 3).— Architecturally 
this is the most interesting of the excavations of the Wady er- 
Rababi. It consists of two principal chambers, and. one lower 
chamber, with the usual square vestibule at the entrance. 



A--- 




XXV) 




The first detail that calls for attention is the pair of remark- 
able apses at the west end of the rock wall in which the entrance 



REPORTS i;V l;. A. STKWART MACALISTKI;. 



217 



is cut. The purpose of those is quite obscure to me, and T have 
never seen anything like them anywhere else. Pero Vincent has 
informed me that notliing* similar is to bo found nearer than 
Petra. 

The vestibalc is much broken and badly repaired by rougii 
stone walling, which has been erected in order to make this 
beautiful tomb serve the ignoble purpose of a cow-house. 
Remains of an ornamental alcove over the door show that the 
entrance had considerable pretensions to architectural effect. 
Half the vestibule roof is now broken away and i-eplaced by built 
stoue. The walls are blackened with smoke, but the outlines of 
some painted ornaments are just traceable under the dirt on the 
western wall. 

A step downward leads into the principal chamber. This has 
evidently served some other purpose besides that of a tomb ; I 
have no doubt that Tobler is right in regarding it as a chapel 
with tomb accessories. There is an apse at the eastein end, 
lighted by a (now blocked) shaft. In the western wall are three 
kokim, two of which were concealed by a movable slal) which 
bore a completion of the false door that encloses the central kok ; 
compare the similar device for concealment that we have found 
at Ferdus er-Rum, already described. 




0.i^}j^ i^f UrUrar.^c 



^>£^7/V..^<:'''' 



The roof is domed and shows a rosette, deeply sculptured,- 
occupying its whole surface. 



218 



REPORTS BY R. A. STEWART MACALISTER. 



A sunk passage to the -west of tlie entrance leads to a small 
cliamber under the vestibule having two arcosolia. There is a 
kok in the corresponding position on the other side, also extending- 
under the vestibule. 

The south wall of the principal chamber was ornamented with 
panelling, but it is much broken and so smoke-blackened that the 
details are very difficult to make out. A large doorway in the 
middle of this wall gives admission to the inner chamber which 
contains two arcosolia, having kokim extending inwards from 
their northern ends, and Avitli slightly ornamented faces (.*ee the 
section), and two kokim in the south wall, one of which expands 
into a small square chamber. 

It is not impossible that the adaptation of this catting as a 
chapel may belong to a later period than its use as a tomb. This 
might be indicated by what appears to be an imperfect kok in 
the centre of the apse at the east; but this is doubtful, as it is 
not at the same level as the adjoining kokim, and therefore may 
be an aumbry. 

Except the meagj-e remains in the vestibule, every trace of the 
frescoes mentioned by Tobler has disappeared. 

The remaining tombs are on the edge of the rocky precipice 
east of the monastery. 

61. (Plan XXVII; Tobler, 7; Baedeker, 7).— Close to the 
monastery wall an open landing or vestibule has been quarried 
in the edge of the pi-ecipice, with doors on the three sides. That 
to the east opens into a square chamber with the usual three 
arcosolia: there is a kok running under the southward bench. 
Over tlie door to this chamber is a large round-headed niche, and 




at its side are two others of smaller size. The central door 
admits to a square chamber, approached by steps, being sunk 
below the level of the vestibule. This chamber has a bench or 



EEPOKTS T?V ];. A. STE"\VAftT MACALI.STKU. 



210 



step running- round tlic walls ami six kokiin, disposed in tlu- 
manner shown on the plan. The low level of this chamber seems 




to corroborate Professor Clcrmout-G.mueau's sugg-ested inter- 
pretation of the inscription (No. 13) wliicli is painted over the 



220 KEPOKTS BY E. A. STEWAIIT MACALISTER. 

door. This of course involves the abandoning of the reading 
a'-ia-tpov at the end of the second line, though it is consistent with 
all the traces.^ There is a raised kok or similar shaft to the right 
of the doorway leading to this chamber. On the west side is 
a roaghlj-quari'ied chamber with one arcosolium and one kok. 
Over the arcosolium are two holes broken through the rock- wall, 
which are either windows to the chamber, or else attempts at 
kokim that were started here owing to a miscalculation of the 
thickness of wall. The latter suggestion is barely credible ; and 
as we have already found a window in the 41st tomb of this 
series, and will find a well-made one in N'o. 62, there is nothing 
incredible in the fornier hypothesis. Windows are very rare in 
rock-cut tombs. One well-known example is in the so-called 
" Garden tomb" under the so-called "Gordon's Calvary." 

Beside the door of the last-mentioned chamber is inscription 
No. 14. 

62. (Plan XXVIIl ; Query, Tobler, 6 ; Baedeker, 6. Tobler's 
description seems very inexact). — A deep vestibule, no less than 
20 feet long on the western side, gives access by a fine high, 
moulded doorway to a chamber that has suffered considerably 
from quarrying. Its most noticeable features are the peculiar 
window (at B on the plan) already referred to. This has been 
closed at some time by a movable board, turning on a horn, and 
secured by bars, the sockets for which remain. There is a round- 
headed drip-mould over the opening. In this first chamber are 
two arcosolia, singularly shallow and low ; though of the proper 
length, their smallness in other dimensions, and their exposed 
situation, makes it doubtful Avhether they were ever intended for 
the reception of bodies : but it is difficult to assign any other 
explanation of their existence. To the left of this chamber is 
a smaller cell, with kokim, so blocked with rubbish that it is 
next to impossible to enter and measure it. Behind is a square 
chamber, absolutely without features, except one blocked kok in 
the south wall ; and a sunk passage, opening below the south wall 
and communicating with a chamber that has been adapted as 
a cistern : the walls are jjlastered, and a water groove has been 
cut running along the side of the plain square chamber already 

^ I see that Tobler noticed tliis iuscription in liis account of the tombs, but 
be recovered a few letters only, just suflicient to identify it — 

ro.. 1 €P... N .. . r I vn ... 



UEPORTS BY i;. A. STEWAirr MACALISTER. 







o-;o 



KEPORTS BY 1!. A. STEWAUT MACALISTEi:. 



described. This chamber cannot therefore be entered except in 
summer. It will be found to contain three arcosolia. 

63. (Plan XXIX; Tobler, 5; Baedeker, 5).— This is another 
tomb of the type exemplified by No. r>l : a central open vestibule 




with a number of independent single chambers opening off it. 
The vestibule is irregular in the present case, and possibly has 
been added to from time to time as occasion required. As in the 
case of No. 61, the north side of the vestibule is the edge of the 



REPORTS BY R. A. STEWAItT MACALISTEK. 22'A 

precipice. Commencinfr on the east and workintr round, wo find, 
first, an irregular cl)aml)er, with an arcosolium on the norlli and 
on the south ; there was also another on the east, the cmls (jf 
Avhich i-emaiu ; but a passage has at some time been cut tlirough 
it, interrupting it. There is a kok under the arcosolium to tlie 
north of this passage, and possibly this passage is an adaptation of 
another. Unfortunately the suggestion did not occur to me till 
after I had left Jerusalem, so that I was unable to test it by 
examining the pick mai"ks. Next to this chamber comes a flight 
of steps, four or five in number, overgrown with earth and grass ; 
these formed the original approach to the vestibule. Next comes 
a small square chamber, containing no features that I could 
observe ; as it was full of rubbish and the door was almost quite 
blocked up at the time of my visit, I was unable to measure it. 
We then come to a fine moulded doorway, behind which is a 
smaller door opening into a room Avith arcosolium and two kokim 
under it on the south side, and on the north the blocked sunk 
entrance to another chamber that must extend under the vesti- 
bule. After this we reach an irregular extension of the vestibule 
westward, perhaps a late addition to the system, whicli has on the 
south a niche, and on the west a chamber, having two kokim in 
each of the sides not occupied by the door, and in addition an 
ai'cosolium on the west and south sides over the kokim. Last 
comes another chamber, also too full of rubbish at the time of my 
visit to be measured, but containing arcosolia, one on each of 
three sides ; under that to the west are three kokim. Over the 
door of the latter chamber is inscription No. 14. This has been 
cleaned since I saw and described it first, and it now appears (as 
Tobler noticed) that the incised letters were picked out in red. 

64. (Plan XXX; Tobler, 2; Baedeker, 2).— This is a single 
chamber with four kokim and a niche, disposed as shown on tho 
plan on next page. In the north-west corner is a rectangular 
sunk depression. 

65. Remains of a moulded door, all that is left of a chamber 
that has fallen in ; the ruins have become full of earth, and are 
concealed by grass. The chamber measured about 11 feet "> inches 
by 9 feet. This may be Tobler's No. 4, described by him as a 
buried chamber with 10 kokim towai-ds the east. 

66. (Plan XXXI; Tobler,!; Baedeker, 1).— A tomb consist- 
ing of three chambers one behind another. The first, which has a 
fine moulded door, is of the nature of a vestibule, and has no 

r 



224 



KEPOETS BY 11. A. STEWAUT MACALISTER. 



features ; the second has six kokim, three on each of the sides 
not occupied by doorways ; the thiid is of the common type, with 
three arcosolia. 

This completes the series of tombs existing in the Wady er- 
Rababi. It is probable that they belong to widely different dates, 
thouo-h there is little to help us in assigning a period to any of 
them. The very late date that has been fixed upon this cemetery 
— ninth or tenth century — rests mainly on the false reading that 



"T- 




connects the Abbess Thecla of inscription 14 with the Princess 
Tbecla Augusta; this identification cannot be maintained. Some 
of the tombs, like Ferdus er-Rum and the elaborate excavations 
now inside the Aceldama Monastery, I believe to date from before 
the destruction of Jerusalem ; relying on a com])arison between 
them and a small but similar tomb north of the city, which, 
having a Hebrew inscription upon it, is presumably older than 
70a.d. The tombs which show Christian inscriptions or symbols 
must naturally be of later date, but it is remarkable that none of 



KEPORTS BY K. A. STEWAUT MACALISTER. 



225 



these more ornate tombs display any such marks. Tho diaper c.f 
crosses outside the door of Ferdus cr-Rum has, of course, nothing 
to do with its original purpose. 

The signs of reappropriation (in the " cliipel," No. GO) and 
of extension and alteration (in No. (J3) seem to nhow that we 




cannot place all this series of mouunieuts in tlic latest period of 
tomb-cutting. The date on the tomb of Pachoniios would be more 
valuable if we knew for certain to what era it is calculated. 

But one thing is clear: that no ileductions can be drawn 
respecting the date of a rock-tomb from its plan or from the 

r 2 



226 



REPORTS BY R. A. STEAVART iMACALISTER. 



nature of the graves it contains. Kokim and arcosolia seem to 
have been used quite indifferently at the same periods. 

As an appendix to this paper T give revised measurements 
(for Avhich I have been requested) of the rock-tomb north of 
Jerusalem that I described some time ago in the Quarterly 

Statement : — 





Kokim. 


Xorth. 


Soutli. 


East. 


West. 




ft. ins. 


ft. ins. 


ft. ins. 


ft. ins. 


ft. ins. 


Vestibule . . 


— 


10 7* 


11 2 


17 Oh 


IG 9^ 


Chamber II 


— 


(broken) 


13 9 


13 3 


12 9 


» III 


6 51 


7 8 


7 lU 


7 9 


7 9k 


„ IV 


6 5i 


7 9 


8 3 


7 10 


7 11 


„ V 


6 7 


8 Oh 


7 Hi 


8 2h 


8 2 


Passage 


■ • 


7 feet U h 


iclies long. 






Chamber VI 


■ 


7 43 


7 6 


7 10 


7 7 



I have attempted to draw no nietrological inferences from 
these or other measurements. Before such speculations arv^ 
entered upon, it is necessary to assure ourselves that these rough 
excavations were not cut more or less by " rule of thumb " ; 
and in the majority of cases I cannot feel convinced that this was 
not the method employed. 



2. On a Rock-cut Chapel at Beit Levi. 

In examining the literature of the rock-cuttings of the 
Shephelah, my attention was arrested by the following passage 
in M. Clermont-Ganneau's " Archaeological Researches," vol. ii, 
p. 444 : — 

" At E'rak Abu 'l-'Amed .... thei'e are some graffiti and 
curious symbols on one of the inner walls, which would be worth 
copying. We had no time to do this." 

Desirous of examining these symbols, I asked one of our 
workmen, who had a considerable acquaintance with the local 
topography, if he was acquainted with the cave in question. 
He assured me that he knew it well. T put myself under his 
guidance, and he brought me to a cave under the mound bearing 
the uninteresting ruins of Beit Leyi, which he assured me was the 
cave I wanted ; but I could find nothing on its walls except some 



REPORTS BY i;. A. STEWAU'r MACALISTEK. 



227 



BET LEYI : ROCK- CUT CHAPEL 




//A' 



Ism I ' 1 






V 1 /' 'A 




iMmm 






Lid 






/'o/i' > 

Nidu atJI 



*-^ft-** ■»■•-» 



! +1+1 



J ■ ■• • « ■ > 
Croiics ■itD 



Icy — 



.i^ 



/T^^ alE 



<^ 



<^'^ 



K.:^^^^^ 



228 REPOItTS BY li. A. STEWAUT MACALISTER, 

crosses with bifid, and others with crosslet, ends to the arms — the 
former a common type in this neighbourhood, T examined 
sevei'al other caves that I saw close by, in the hope that in one 
of these the marks which I was seeking might be found, but 
without result, and was forced to give up the search. Some days 
afterwards my guide came to me and placidly informed me that 
none of the caves we had visited was the genuine 'Arak Abu 
'l-'Amed,^ and that he was in a position to show the right cave to 
me. Unfortunately our stay at Sandahannah was at the time 
rapidly drawing to a close, and no other opportunity jiresented 
itself. 

I am therefore unable to say anything of the graffiti found 
by M. Clermont-Ganneau ; but my journey was not altogether 
fruitless, for one of the caves turned out to be a remarkably 
interesting little rock-cut chapel, which seemed to me well worth 
measuring and describing. 

The plan and details are shown in the accompanying plate. 
It consists of a four-sided nave, no doubt meant to be rectangular, 
with an aisle-like extension northward, and a shallow apse at the 
eastern end. The entrance is at the Avest. The excavation has 
long been used as a sheepfold, and the floor is covered to within 
5 feet of the roof with rubbish and dirt. The tooling of the walls 
is rather different from that commonly found in the rock-cuttings ; 
on the south side it resembles that of the Romanesque chamber in 
'Arak el-Khel, but on the north the surface is not so smooth. 
The west wall is broken away, and its place is supplied by loose 
stones. The apse is shallow and wide ; the sweep of the curve is 
not regular. 

On the south wall, at A on the plan, is a niche, apparently for 
a statue, with a plug-hole to secure it at the back. There are 
attempts at moulding on the sides of the niche. At the side of 
the niche a cross was cut, now partly hacked away ; and at the 
top there seems to have been another, which has been entirely 
destroyed. At B is a plain niche, apparently for a light ; it has a 
semi-circular top, and measures 1 foot 5 inches by 1 foot 5 inches 
by 7 inches in depth. At C is a similar niche or light-hole. 

On the north wall, at D, arc two crosses with l)ilid ends to 
the arms. 

In the centre of the apse a figure subject has been cut, in a 

' From the map 1 see that the care is quite close to Beit Leyi, but I 
somehow miseed it. 



KEPOHTS by II. A. STRWAKT MACALISTEK. 2*J9 

sunk paiu'l, but it has boon nearly destroyed l)y Fellah iconoclasts. 
On the plate is given a copy of what reniaius, with dimensions 
figured ; this is a facsimile of a drawing made on scale paper on 
iho spot. It is, perhaps, hazardous to offer a suggestion on the 
subject of this engraving. The lower portion seems evidently 
intended for drapei'y, and the few fragments that remain are, 
perhaps, not wholly inconsistent with a figure of the Virgin and 
Ohild. In making this suggestion 1 am possibly influenced by 
the fact that there are persistent rumours of the existence some- 
where among the caves of Beit Jibrin and its neighbourhood of an 
engraving of a woman and her child — no one could say where, 
though I made particular enquiries. All attempts at localising 
stories of figures engraved on the walls of caves filtered down to 
the well-known oranies in 'Ai^ak el-lNIa, which were the only such 
graffiti to which any natives I interrogated were able to point. 
Appai'ently they were not aware of two similar figures which I 
found for myself in the Sandahannah caves. The veoman and 
child stoiy (immensely exaggerated beyond anything I heard) 
was told to M. Clermont-Gannoau by one Ya'kiib BanayOt, and 
by him localised in a certain Mugharet esJi-Shsms. I made several 
enquiries after this cave of the sun, but got so many different 
answers about it that I gave up the search for it in despair. 
Everyone knew it well, of course, but no two agreed as to whether 
it was close beside Beit Jibrin, or two hours' journey from it, 
west or south from it ; or whether it was a small ruined hole filled 
up with its own tVibris, or an immense excavation of the Beit 
Jibrin type. 

Returning to the Beit Leyi chapel, it should be mentioned 
that the panel containing the figure is I foot G inches below 
the roof, and 3| inches above the present surface of the ground. 
Thei'e is a small plain cross scratched on the wall to the left 
of it. 

The other caves visited by me at Beit Leyi are as follows : — 

(1) Large cave with five chambers of the ordinary type; three 

crosses and some niches on the walls. 
(2, 3) Uninteresting caves, one adapted as an olive or wine 

press. 
(4) Irregular four-sided chamber, 16 paces by 11 aci'oss, with 

a number of shallow cells (like wide, short kokim) all 

round. 



230 liEPOUTS BY It. A. ste\vai;t :macalistek. 

(5) Two irregular chambers, of common type, united by a 
passage. 

(G) Large excavation supported by three pillars ; several grain 
pits sunk in its floor. There is a doorway raised some 
height above the ground, approached by a dangerous 
series of foot-and-hand holes ; this no doubt leads to an 
extension of the cave, which, however, I did not explore. 



3. Tomb-Kohl. 



Among the objects found in the tombs briefly referred to in the 

Quarterly Statement for October, 1900, p. 337, and to be more 

fully described in the forthcoming memoir, was a minute fragment 

of a glass vase, containing a small quantity of black powder, 

apparently Kohl. An analysis of this powder, and of the scrap 

of glass enclosing it, was kindly undertaken b}- Mr. J. E. Purvis, 

assistant to the Professor of Chemistry in Cambridge University. 

He reports as follows : — " The glass vessel I found to be an 

ordinary silicate, which had become devitrified and coloured by 

oxide of iron, the iron being probably in the sand (silica) used 

in the manufacture of the glass. The contents were principally 

finely divided lead along with some dirt." There was no trace of 

antimony in the composition, which thus appears to have been a 

cheap imitation of the cosmetic prepared for purposes of sepulture. 

Further, Mr. Purvis reports : — " Between the contents and the 

glass, and forming a thin coating to the glass, was a greenish 

layer of a copper compound, probably a basic carbonate of 

copper." As no copper appears either in the glass or its contents 

this must have been independent of both, and it seems most 

probable that there was originally a thin sheet of copper foil in 

which the Kohl was wrapped up for sale or storage. The packet, 

foil and all, was deposited in the glass vessel ; but the foil has 

disappeared, and its existence can be demonstrated by chemical 

tests only. 

4. The es-Suk Insceiption. 

I must thank Professor Clei-mont-Ganneau for his valuable 
comments on my reading of this inscription (Qiiarterhj Statement, 
1901, ]). llGj. I did not leave it without considering the trans- 
lation which he proposes ; had I known of the existence of Sime 



|;KIu1;ts 1;V K. a. STKW'Airr MACAMSTKlt. 2oi 

as ;i proper uaiuu I iiii^^lit probably not havu I'ojecLtnl it so easily, 
but I am obliged to confess tliat I was either niiawai-c of or liacl 
forgotten tlie fact that such a name is to be found. Taking om^ 
as an adjective, tlic inscription "the snub-nosed girl seems i)rctty 
to me," appeared a much less likely sentiment to bo found 
scribbled in a burial-place than an expression of appreciation of 
the obvious symmetry and beauty of the cave itself. I knew, 
of course, that in taking m^iij as a noun = cava, 1 was assuming 
a (iTTd^ Xef'/of.iei'oi', and that this was a weak point in my rendering; 
though ("iT'ti^ \€'^(n/[tcifn are not unknown in readings generally 
accepted without question. 

As to the use of (tijuov in the sense of "hollow," Liddell and 
Scott give two apposite quotations : y '•(a(ni)/t twv iicniTrvwv ff//*'/ 
from Xenophon's Cyropa'deia and x"i' '^'/'V from Athenieus. 
However, taking i^^/oy as a proper name, I have no difliculty in. 
accepting Professor Clcrmout-Ganneau's interpretation. 

I think, however, that the name of Sime's admirer cannot be 
'AfiKurcic/js, as I carefully examined the first letter in order to see 
if it could unite with the following characters to make anything 
articulate. In my opinion, we are restricted to \//.y/t(<c*/v, witli 
a preceding initial. 

There is a squeeze of the inscription, which 1 took and 
forwarded to the Fund office some time ago. 



5. On a Sepulchral Clst jseau Tell Saxdahannah. 

Tn the Quarterly Statement for July, 1900, p. 222, I dcscribctl 
a dolmen which I found in the neighbourhood of Bet Jibrin, and 
which was then the first example of a mcgalithic sepulchral monu- 
ment discovered in Western Palestine. 1 have since had the gooil 
fortune to find another, of a different type and in many respects 
even more interesting, which lies in a valley about a quarter of au 
hour's walk south of Tell Sandahannah. 

It lies by the side of a road, which has been levelled uj) to the 
top surface of its eastern end ; the whole of the western end is 
above ground. It consists of a chamber, GO centimetres (2 feet) 
high, 1"9H metres (G feet G inches) north to south, 1G7 mt^tres 
(5 feet G inches) east to west,' built up of snrall boulders; the 
three at the western end of the chamber are of larger size than 

' The orientatiou is sliglitly south of cast. 



232 



KEPOitTs i;y k. a. stewakt macalistek. 



the others. Upon these, and on the sides of tlie cliamber, rest 
two threat stones, about 2"15 metres (sh'ghtly over 7 feet) 
long, 91 centimetres (3 feet) broad, and 32 centimetres 
(1 foot 7 inclies) deep. There is a space between them 
oO centimetres (1 foot 8 inches) wide. In this space, about 
the middle, is intercepted an irregular stone which apparently 
has accidentally fallen or been thrown into its present position ; 
and, at the eastern end, a stone 91 centimetres (3 feet long), 
50 centimetres (1 foot 8 inches) broad, and of the same depth as 
the cover stones, which certainly is part of the original design of 




Top 




Sec/ ion /?3 



the monument. The outline of the chamber is represented by 
dotted lines in the cut. 

Most interesting of all, in the centre of the upper surface of 
the latter stone is a small cap-mark, 1"78 centimetres (7 inches) 
broad, and 1"52 centimetres (G inches) deep. It seems quite 
reasonable to assume that this cup is a receptacle for offerings 
to the shade of the deceased, as has been assumed by Professor 
Montelius and other .archaeologists of univer.sal reputation, in the 
case of similar markings found in association with similar monu- 
ments in other parts of the world. 



■•• '• ••• 



•« • •• • •••• • » « 



• • • • • ■, 

• • • • . 

• ••• • • 



• • » « • 



•••••■ • 



» c t < 



(T<k Tai ;5/253o 




;:>&>5?s?&;:^»se<i^j'S^^ 



Mosaic recently discovered at Jerusalem. 

(From a Coloured DroAciiig riio.de by Fathers Vincent, Belan, and Savigxac, of the 

Dominican Convent at Ji^rv.sahm.) 



23:3 



A RECENTLY-DISCOVERED MOSAIC AT JERUSALEM ^ 

By Dr. Coni;ad ScnicK and John Dickson, Esq., H.B.M. Consul, 

Jerusalem. 

Tn 1894 a fine mosaic was found in digging foundations for a new 
house north of the city, and Dr. Bliss and I reported on it in the 
Qnart.erhj Statement, 1894, p. 257. Towards the end of ^larch 
last a similar one was discovered nearer to the town, in the 
ground of the Jewish Colony, generally called Nissim Ruck's 
Colony. The proprietor of the ground, wishing to dig in order to 
build a cistern for his hou^se close by, came, scarcely 3 feet under 
the surface, to this fine mosaic pavement. He did not destroy it, 
but told others about it, and so people came to see it, and a 
negotiation for buying it, or to find means to get part possession 
in it, arose, and in consequence it became more and more difficult 
for others to see it. However, copies and photographs were 
taken, and of the latter I forward herewith a print. The mosaic 
is laid out in various colours, aiid represents Orpheus, and below 
him Pan and a centaur, surrounded with a fine frame, around 
which is a kind of twisted ornament of branches of plants 
enclosing various figures with their faces directed to Orpheus; 
then comes again an outer frame. Beneath are three other 
frames, one in the middle containing two women, with an 
inscription in Greek letters around them, " Theodosia " and 
" Georgia." The frames to the right and left contain simply a 
plain, flat surface. The whole is between 10 and 12 feet long, 
and seems to have been the flooring of a music room. The two 
women were once most likely celebrated singers. The design is 
pagan, still the work itself may be Christian of the second or 
third century, as in the Early Church such symbols were often 
used. The Dominican brethren made a coloured copy of the 
mosaic on a large scale, so that even each little square of stone 
can be recognised. They showed it to me, and 1 found it exceed- 
ingly nice, and advised them to multiply it by lithography, but 
they said it would be too expensive, so I do not know wliat they 
will do. 

' A fuller account of tliis mosaic will appear in a future number of V\e 
Quarlerly Statement, 



2U 



A KECENTLY-DISCOVERED MOSAIC AT JERUSALE.\r. 



The site is GUO feet uorth of tlie present city wall, west of the 
Damascus Gate. I cacloso a tracing of part of the Plan of 
Jerusalem recently edited by the Fund, showing the position of 
these mosaics. The newly-found one is about 500 feet south-west 
of that discovered in 1891;, which had an Armenian inscription. 




Plan showing Position of Mosaics. 



Mv. Consul Dickson writes that this mosaic " represents 
Orpheus, life size, playing upon his harp, surrounded by several 
animals, all in beautiful colours and gi-aceCul attitudes. It seems 
to be a work of art of high order. There is also a head of 
Jupiter and. of Minerva at the corners of the square containing 
Orpheus. Below these figures there are two other figures of 
women with an inscription in Greek around them, an exact copy 
of which I enclose. It is easily road, and I think the mosaic 
must be Christian." 

The mosaic is now covered up with earth. 



235 



AlICIIyEOmCJirAL AND KI'KJIJAI'irn' XOTKS ox 

PALEST INK. 

By Professor Cleiimont-Gaxnkau, M.I. 

G. I'he Land of Promise, majyj^ed in Musaic nt M(l,h:h((. It will 

be remembered that S(jme years ago the sensational discovery 
was made at ]\iAdel)a,' in the land of Moal), of an e.xtraoi'dinary 
monument, which nntil now is unique of its kind lli.it of ;i 
large mosaic pavement, which had l)eIonged to an ancient 
basilica, and which represented on a large scale a veritalilc 
map of Palestine ns it was in the P.yzantinc period. This 
is acknowledged by all to b(» an invaluable document from a 
geograpliical and archaeological point of view. 

It has already been the object of numerous works desi<rned 

to elucidate its interpretation, which is often (h'lliruU this vast 

mosaic having suffered much, and many parts of it lieing ov(mi 
entirely destroyed. 

M, A. Schulten has just issued a study in a njumuir,- which, 
to judge by its size, would seem to be exhaustive of the matter. 
Unfortunately, it is far from being so, and, after iia\ ing read 
it, one experiences a certain feeling of disaj)pointment. One 
may say that apart from certain rectifications of details, and 
notwithstanding a great display of erudition on ccrhiin other 
points — already lirought to light elsewluu'i^ — the essential 
([uestions raised by the mosaic have not liccn advanced a 
step further. 

M. Schulten endeavours to demonstrate at length that the 
map of Madeba depends closely for its topography on the 
Onomasticon of Eusebius. This is ]iot a new fact; Pere 
Lagrange, in his excellent little memoir, had from the (jutset, 
in this respect, made the necessary and sullicient remaiks. 
AVith regard to this, M. Sclndten discusses the (piestion 
whether, outside the text of the Onomasticon, thei-e would not 

' Quarterly Statement, 1897, pp. 167, 213-225 (Clerinont-Gannoau) ; p. 239 
(Sir Cliarles Wilson). 

-"Die Mosaikkarfce von IMadaba," &e. (Alihaiull. di-r K. Gesellscli. dcr 
Wiesensch. zu Gccttingen), Berlin, IWO; ILII pj). Uu, 3 tut'. 



236 AECH.EOLOGICAL AND EPIGRAPIIIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 

have been, accom}>aii}-ing the cuuiplutc work of Euscbius, a 
figure map whicli miglit liave served as a model to the maker 
of the mosaic of INIudeba, and he decided in the negative. He 
refused to see in tlie Karaypacj^T], of wliich Eusebius speaks 
in his introduction, a map of Palestine in the geographical 
sense of the word ; for liim this word means the simple 
enumerative list of localities to the exclusion of all topo- 
graphical resemblance, either made by Eusebius or borrowed 
liy him from some anterior source. This is far from being 
demonstrated. St. Jerome, who would naturally have had 
before him a complete copy of the Onomasticon, which he 
translated into Latin, speaks expressly of a clwrographirt and 
of a piditra. It is easy to say, with M. Scliulten, that 
St. Jerome is mistaken as to the exact value of the terms 
employed l)y Eusebius. M. Kubitschek' has raised serious 
objections against this conclusion. For my part, until more 
fully informed, I consider that the hypothesis of the existence 
of an Eusebian map and, consequently, of a possible connec- 
tion between this map and that of the mosaic, is not ausgc- 
schlosseii, as they say in German. ]\I. Scliulten applies himself, 
on the other hand, to proving, by a minute discussion, that 
there is no direct connection between the map of Madeba and 
the more ancient mediieval maps of the Holy Land which have 
come down to us. No one that I know of has liad such an idea, 
and it is, perhaps, wasting much time and trouble to refute it 
at such length. One would have preferred to see the author 
occupy himself more with the topographical and other questions 
raised by the examination of the map itself. Although he declines 
on principle to treat these problems, abandoning them, a little 
disdainfully, to those whom he calls " theologians," he is led to 
do it several times, but not always in a very happy or very 

' " Die Mosaikkarte Palastinas" (Mitth. d. K. K. Gcogr. Gescllsch. in Wicn, 
1900, pp. 335-380). Althougli of more modest diuieusions than M. Sehulten's 
large memoir, Professor Kubitseliek's dissertation is superior to it in many 
respects, notably from the point of view of bibliographical inl'ormation con- 
cerning previous works ; it has, besides, the advantage of being accompanied by 
an excellent index to the topographical names of the map — an index the absence 
of which makes itself keenly felt in M. Schultcu's work, which is full to the 
extent of being rather diffuse. 



ARCII^'ROLOGICAL AND El'IGKArHIC N*OTES ON PALESTINE. 2.'i7 

iKncl w;iy. It appc.us to iiic tlmt \u'. is (.'Diiiplctely i^^iioriiut 
of the little work wliich I once inildished hero and ol.sewhcre ' 
on tlu; map of Mildcba. I regret this, because the perusal of it 
ini^ht have saved him from some errors, omissions, or repetitions. 
I will permit myself to bring to notice some of them rapidly, 
reproducing for convenience sake the numlx'rs which he has 
given to the localities, and adding on occasion some new 
observations. 

No. IG. ['Xv]x<^p V v^v • • • XX^P"" ^^ ^^^^ restores either 
[Sf]%%w/3a or [Ao-]%;\;&)/?a, \^i\(xv\)Q(o)P"'' ^^^^ second name of 
Sychar, one must compare for the vowelling the Samaritan 
form 1"i;:Di^ n'^'lp, Kariat 'AsKUi;, employed concurrently witli 
the form '\2'DV, 'Askar." 

No. 23. The identity of 'AXwi/ 'ATad(=\eah) with the 
" area Atad " of St. Jerome (Genesis 1, 10), the equivalent of 
whicli is wanting in our manuscripts of Eusebius, as well as 
the singular localisation at Beth Hoglah, had been already 
pointed out and estaljlished by me (Quarterly Statement, 
1897, p. 220). 

No. 29. It is by no means demonstrated that Vocj)vd figures 
on the map as representing NaJicl Eakol. Eusebius himself 

' " Recucil d'Arclicologie Orientalc," vol. ii, pp. 161-175. Tlie omission 
appears so much the more singular that M. Scliulten refers, for the kleinere 
Lilteratur on the question, to the " Comptcs-Rendus de rAcadeniie," 1802, 
p. 141. It is to be presumed that this is only a quotation from second hand, 
made to acquit his conscience ; it is materially erroneous — the date 1892 should 
be changed to 1897. And, besides, the references contained in tlie note to 
which it points — and which are mine — concern only the arclia-ological discoveries 
made at Madeba before that of the mosaic. 

^ " Chronique Samaritainc," ed. Neubauer, "Journal Asiatique," 1860, 
Nov., pp. 463, 464; cf. p. 462, and also pp. 431, 436. I will remark in this 

connection that the Arabic gloss (p. 462), J'jtll jLwr!! = n3r'?yn«n:nO. 

compared with the other gloss (p. 434), IDD^^JL**.^, tends to confirm tlio 

etymological resemblance wliich I made formerly for the name of this pliu;e 
(" ArehsDolog. Researches in Pal.," vol. ii, p. 335). Moreover, this form 
"13D'' may serve to explain how there is introduced in the counso of time the 
prosthetic 'Ain in this name of a place. It would not be impossible that the 

modern S-jmJ:- was a contraction of a scries of successive forms, such as 

"IDD \^V ' "13D'' py. "the spring of Sycliar," being given considering the 
importance of the spring which exists in this place. 



238 ARCH/EOLOGICAL AND EriGRAPIIIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 

makes the most express roscivation ^ ics])i'cUiig the tradition 
related hy him. Besides, the map inscribes many localities to 
which one does not attach any Biblical connection. 

No. 43. ]\I. Schulten transcribes here and elsewhere TiStOpa, 
although the original has clearly TiBipda, a form much more 
probable in itself. I do not think that this is a printer's error, 
because (p. 93) he transcribes expressly Gidithra} 

Nos. 48, 49. On the possible identifications of 0epao-7rt? 
and B€To/ieXjT]^t<; (correct BerofjieX'ye^i'i), .S'.v; my observations 
(I.e., p. 218, 219). 

'No. 51. The identification of Ka epovra with Kaptad 

Tapeta is most arbitrary. Krfr Rut, which I had proposed {I.e., 
\). 220), would agree as well for the position, and much better 
for the name. 

No. 56. Ez/eTa/3a = ni5 p of the Talmud {I.e., p. 221). 

No. 58. \^a(^'\ap€a, between Lydda and [Betjodegana, 
could not correspond in position to the Sar<ifia of Antonin of 
Plaisance, near Ascalon, which is very far from there. I 
propose to identify it with Sajiriych (Silfriyeh), which is 
precisely between Lydda and Beit Dejan. 

No. 65. (Ascalon.) It is necessary to restore as I have 
shown {I.e., pp. 221, 222)^: \tmv rpitov '^. fiapTvpo)\v AlyvTrricov, 
and to recognise there the mention of the sanctuary of the three 
famous Egyptian martyrs of Ascalon, whoso history Eusebius'* 
himself has related. 

No. 66. AKKa[po)v] ?} vvv AK[apQ)v'Q. It is hardly probable 
that the autlior of the mosaic would have given the modern 
form to the name if it had differed from the ancient form only, 
as M. Schulten admits, by the absence of a simple Kaj^pa ; I 
would rather believe the difference should be in the termination, 
Mv, which was perhaps already dropped iu the vulgar tongue, 

^ ZrjTUTat St fi aAr]0i)s 6 \uyos (s.T. 4>dpayK Biirpvoj). 

- M. Kubitsclick, op. c, index, has also ailopted tliis form, FiSiflpa, whic-h 
nothing justifies. 

•' Preceded, perhaps, by the article, to, wliich, followed by the genitive, 
generally designates sanctuaries on the map. 

•* " History of the Martyrs in Palestine," od. Cureton, p. ?,h Cf. Antonin 
de Plaisance (Greyer, " Itinera Ilieros.," p. 180) : " ibi (Ascalon) requiescunt 
tres fratres martyres Aegyptii viilgariU'r Aegyptii voeantur." 



ARCH^OLOGICAL AND EPIGRAPHIC NOTKS OX PALESTINK. 230 

thus forming a prelude to the present Aral)ic f.jrm •A/cer. 
Perhaps AK[Kapa], AK[apa], or even A[Kap]. witln.iit flreek 
terniination.^ 

No. 70. T have shown (i.e., p. 221) that Sa(f)Lea was no 
other than Tell es-Safi^, and I have discussed, iu this con- 
nection, the origin of this termination ida = Uha Aramean 
= Xch Arabic, which is found in MwSt^a (Modin, No, 52) 
= ]\Iodiith(a) = El-Mcdieh} 

No. 80. M. Schulten rejects, with reason, the restoration 
TO Tov djLov A[cot] ; but that which he has sul)stituted 
(\4)[apMv'] (this would be Mount Hor), has against it the 
distance and the orientation in comparison with Segor, without 
considering that the first letter of the name seems to be A 
rather than A. 

No. 84. BrjTOfiapaea 17 koI Maiov/j.a<;. This enigmatical 
locality, situated to the east of the Dead Sea, has nothing in 
common with Mappiaaa, as Pere Lagrange supposed, nor with 
MatouSo?, as M. Schulten supposes. 

M. Biichler^ has just demonstrated by combining in the 
happiest fashion the teachings of the classic authors willi those 
of the Bible, the Talmud, and the Midrashim, that Byjrop.apaea 
is no other than the transcription of nn^D rV2, Beit Marzcaji 
{cf. Jeremiah xvi, 5); that Marzeah, or Marzeiha, means, like 
Maioumas, a great Syrian feast of licentious nature, and that 
this double denomination must apply in this case on the map 
to the place where popular tradition located the famous scene 
of the fornication of Israel, when they allowed tliemselves to 
be initiated by the beautiful daughters of Moalj into the 
impure rites of Baal Peor.* 

No. 86. The explanation of Yipaaihiv by I\pa{L)(Tlh{L)ov, 

' Like Bsr^axap (No. 69). 

- Cf. Susifclia (Talmud) = Susieb = Hippos (of the Decapolis). 

=' " Revue des Etudes Juives," 1901, p. 125. 

■* I propose to return elsewhere more in detail to this very interesting 
question. I will limit myself for the present to recalling that I had already 
established (" Eecueil d'Arcb. Orient.," iii, pp. 28, 20; rf. ii, j). 390, n. 2). 
the existence amongst the Phoenicians of a great religious ceremony, called also 
Marzeah, in the Tarif des Sacrifices of Marseilles, and in the Decret Phenicien 
of the Pireus. 

Q 



2-iO ARCH.^OLOGICAL AXD EPIGRAPHIC NOTES OX PALESTINE. 

Prcesidiurn, had already been given Ly nie (I.e., p. 222). As for 
the identification of this locahty with Aila, on the Eed Sea, 
proposed by ]\I. Sehnlten, it is topographically inadmissible. 

No. 90 (pp. 25 and 102). The author does not seem to 
have perceived that the Bersahe of the mediaeval maps repre- 
sents, in reality, Beit Djihrin, in consequence of an identifica- 
tion arbitrary but current amongst the Crusaders. 

I would merely call attention to the localities in the region 
of Gaza, which M. Schulten registers without comment, and 
respecting which he might have found in my notice useful 
observations : No. 93, OpBa ; No. 94, ^wrt? (too often altered 
into PwTt?); No. 103, fiya: No. 104, l.eava; No. Ill, EBpacv, 
&c. The identity of ^avaOa (No. 113) with the (datada of 
Sozomenos (III, 24) had been established by me^ even long 
before the cUscovery of the mosaic, which has come to fully 
confirm ray hypothesis, as Father Lagrange has already proved 

(p. 15). 

I will conclude these observations here and leave on one 
side that part of the map which comprises Lower Egypt, 
wishing to limit myself to Palestine, properly so-called. I will 
only recur to some important points which have been in- 
sufficiently treated, or even totally neglected by M. Schulten. 

He has omitted, one does not know why, to represent in 
his study a small detached fragment of the mosaic, belonging to 
the northern region, and bearing the legend AFBAP.- Father 
Lagrange had proposed to recognise in this localit}' the irerpa, 
Wxa^apcov or 'A;^a?a/37;, which Josephus^ places in Upper Galilee. 
The names do not appear to me to agree well, and I would 
prefer to see in the 'Ay^ap of the mosaic the town of Tdtapa or 
Vatapwd, of which the same Josephus speaks several times,* 
and which should be found also in Galilee ; the Alpha would 
Ije prosthetic, and would imply an original form ; Gahdr ( G'hdr, 
Afjhdr). 

• " Etudes d'Archeologie Orientale," vol. ii, p. 9, and following. 

- Fragment A, near the second northern pillar in the plan accompanying tlie 
memoir of Father Lagrange, p. 3. 

3 " Bellum Jud.," ii, 20, 6 ; of. " Vita Jos.," § 37. This is probably the 
'Akbarah of the Talmud. 

■* " A'ita Jos.," § 10, 25, 45, 17. The ethnic is ra^aprjvoL 



AUCH/EOLOGICAL AND EPIfiKAPHIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 241 

Some years before the discovery of the great mosaic ma]) 
Father Germer-Durand^ noticed an isolated fragment of it, 
which did not allow one to divine its purely geographical 
character, or to suspect the imposing Mdiole to which it 
belonged ; it contained the name of Zatovkdiv, and the remains 
of the benediction of Zebulun by Jacob (Genesis xlix, 13) : 
" Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea, and his border 
shall be unto Zidon." 

I was the first to show {I.e., p. 215) that this enigmatical 
fragment made an integral part of the map, and tliis has been 
confirmed by Father Lagrange.- M. Schulten speaks of it very 
incidentally (p. 48), and without (pioting his predecessors, as 
is his custom ; but he appears to completely ignore the existence 
of another fragment, the connection of which with the map I 
had at the same time pointed out, and which is at least as 
important, for it remains until now the most northerly point on 
this map. This fragment had likewise been published with the 
preceding one by Father Germer-Durand {l.c.),^ who, for the 
rest, was quite mistaken as to its signification. It is composed 
of these three lines : — 

CAP€<l>0A . MAKPAKtO 

OrC!T€KH 

HHM€PA€K€INH 

Father Germer-Durand saw there a woman's name Sarcpldha 
Macraco (diminutive of Macrina), followed by 6'yaneKr], for 
d^vT6KT] {o^vroKo^;), adjective making allusion to a " happy 
deliverance," and perhaps by a date. Already, when nothing 
was yet known of the existence of the mosaic map, I had 

' " Revue Bibliquc," 1895, p. 588. Ho sliould Imve published this frugnient 
as early as 1890 (?) in the " Cosmos" (number of the 11th October), according 
to a reference made by Father Lagrange, which I have not been able to verify. 

^ Fragment B of his plan {I.e., cf. p. 13). At times this fragment had itself 
been much mutilated, and reduced to the commencements of lines : ZA . . . 
and KHC. 

•* This fragment , and the preceding one, have been published by Father 
Germer-Durand, not from notes made by him on tiic spot, but from more 
or less exact copies taken by the missionaries of the Latin Patriarchate. 

Q2 



242 AllCII^OLOGICAL AND EPIGRAPHIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 

proposed, on the contrary, to recognise^ in this fragment the 
name of tlie town of Sarephtlia, and, not without some hesita- 
tion, to restore ^laKpd KOi[jiri\ " long village," in comparing a 
passage from the " Life of Peter the Iberian " (Syriac document 
of the fifth century), a passage in which I had shown that the 
locality called «n2n« «nnp, "long village/' could only, 
according to the context, represent the town of Sarephtha. 
This last conclusion has been fully verified by the discovery of 
the mosaic map, as I immediately pointed out {I.e., p. 216, n. 1),- 
remarking that, since then, one might maintain the reading of 
the Syriac text without making the correction wdiich I had 
proposed, the "long village" being really the new name or 
surname of Sarephtha. I would propose to-day to restore thus 
all the reading of the map : — 

lapecfiOa [17] Ma/cpa Kco[fiT)] 
6{7rov) TeK{v)[ov rjyepOrjf iv t-] 
y rjfjLepa eKelvrj. 

*' Sarephtha, or Long Village, where (a) child has been resuscitated (?) 

in that day." 

The legend, thus re-established, would recall the famous 
miracle of Elijah at Sarephtha (1 Kings x\di, 9-24). It is 
quite in the style of those scattered in profusion over the rest 
of the map. The corrections, of an entirely paleographical 
order,^ are authorised by the uncertainty of the only copy that 
we possess. 

And now a word on a last question, a capital question 
which dominates all the others, and which all those who have 
occupied themselves with the map of Madeba have asked 
without being able to answer it. What is, then, the origin 
of this extraordinary work ? What is its object ? To what 

' " Etudes d'Archeologie Orieubile," vol. ii (December, 1895), p. 18, n. 4. 

- Cf. " Coniptes-Rendus de rAcadeinie des Inseriptious," seance of the 12th 
March, 1897, pp. 144-145. 

^ OrCI = OnOY, T€KH = T€KN . The mosdiste employs the 
relative adverb ottov as well as the absolute adverb €v9a; compare, for 
example, €pr]fji,o<i l^lv ottov KaTe7r€fJi(j>6r) to fidvva, " the desert of Siual, 
where the manna was sent." 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND EPIGKAPIIIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 24:? 

need or to what preconceived notion does it respond ? Wliat 
was the idea in fixing thus upon tlie pavement of the basilica 
of Madeba a representation of tlie Holy Land as faithful and 
as detailed as the means of the period permitted ? This is 
a veritable enigma, the solution of which is still to be found. 

M. Schulten is not embarrassed by so little. It is prol)- 
ably, he says, the votive offering of some pilgrim, in gratitu<lo 
for the happy accomplishment of his journey in the Holy Land. 
It will be confessed that the answer is a little crude. One can 
hardly explain, on this' hypothesis, why, among so many other 
basilicas where he might have had the work executed — to com- 
mence with those of Jerusalem — the pilgrim, if pilgrim there 
was, should have chosen just the church of a remote town at 
the bottom of the land of Moah. Votive offering of a pilgrim — 

or of some quite other personage — the thing is possible 

But why Madeba ? The whole thing lies there, in my opinion, 
and, as it is said that a question well put is half answered, 
cannot the solution be the following ? It is, of course, a pure 
conjecture that I am about to risk, but one is obliged to have 
recourse to imagination when all information fails. 

What it is necessary to consider before all is the position of 
Madeba. I am struck by one fact — it is that Madeba is 
situated close to Mount Nebo ; it was in the Byzantine period 
the most important town which stood in those regions where 
the great memory of Moses still lingered. It was in the 
immediate neighbourhood that the leader of Israel received 
from Jehovah the order to climb the summit of Pisgah, where 
he was to die, and to contemplate in one supreme vision in 
all its extent this land of Canaan, the Land of Promise, which 
was to belong to his people, but where he was not himself 
allowed to enter (Genesis xxxii, 41-52 ; xxxiv, 1-8 ; cf. iii, 
27, 28; Numbers xxvii, 12, 13). 

Might it not be, perhaps, this geographical picture, which 
was virtually unrolled under the eyes of Moses, that it was 
intended to reproduce in the mosaic of the V)asilica of Madeba, 
that is to say, in the neighbouring town to this memorable 
scene ? 

It is certain that this episode Avas familiar to the Byzantine 



244 ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND EPIGUAPHIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 

artists. I cannot just now completely verify the matter, not 
having at hand the precious Guide to the Pictures of Mount 
Athos ' ; 1 mt I notice in the mosaics of the basilica of Ste. Maria 
Majeure (Garucci, pi. ccxx, 3) the significant mention of the 
following scene : — " Moses sees the Promised Land from the 
mountain." Why should they not have had the idea of showing 
in a realistic way the thing itself that Moses saw, quite close 
to, if not at the place itself, where he saw it ? Xothing was at 
the time more tempting or more logical. 

One could, at all events, on this hypothesis explain the 
care with which the author of the mosaic indicates the distri- 
bution of the territory according to the tribes of Israel and 
the mention of the various benedictions, not only of Jacob 
(Genesis xlix) but also of Moses - (Genesis xxxiii), concerning 
the said tribes. It is true, one may say that on this point 
the mosdiste only followed the indications of the Onomasticon, 
which has visibly served him as a guide for the whole ; but it 
is necessary to recognise that the affair must have had a par- 
ticular interest for him, as he has not thought proper to suppress 
those long Biblical quotations which are written all over the 
map, and which singularly complicated his already so arduous 
task. 

One could thus explain equally well why this map 
comprises not only the Promised Land properly so-called, but 
also Lower Egypt ; tliat is to say, the scene of the high deeds 
of Moses and the events preceding the Exodus, which took 
place in this region. 

* I have just made the verification. It is negative. 

' This is the case on the map for the benediction of Benjamin (Deuteronomy 
xxxiii, 12) ; for that of Ephruim (Joseph) the passage in Deuteronomy 
(xxxiii, 13) accompanies the passage in Genesis (xUx, 26). For Dan, the 
mosdiste quotes the Song of Deborah (Judges v, 17), but the legend is 
incomplete and it admitted, perhaps, also the benediction of Moses. For Judah 
and Simeon the legends are unfortunately destroyed. As for tlie names of the 
other tribes, they are totally missing in consequence of the ravages which the 
mosaic has undergone. 

It is necessary to remark, on the one hand, that tlie benedictions of Moses 
immediately precede in the Biblical account the scene of the vision of the 
Promised Land, and, on the other hand, that it is the symmetrical counterpart 
of the benedictions of Jacob. 



AUCH-TIOLOGICAL AND EPIGUAPHIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 245 

T (In not hide from myself that more tlian one ohjection 
may be made to this way of lo(jking at it. It is not, it 
will be said, for example, Palestine such as Moses could have 
contemplated it from the suuimit of Nel)o which is repre- 
sented on the map ; it is a Palestine relatively quite modern, 
the Christian and Byzantine Palestine contemporaneous wilh 
the author of the mosaic. Granted ; Itut it is necessary to 
take into account the constant endeavour of the mosdute t<> 
recall for each locality the principal recollections of the Old 
Testament. Above all, it must not be forgotten that the vision 
of Moses is a veritable vision in the ideal sense of the word — 
a supernatural vision, not subject to the material conditions of 
time and space. It is certain that it is humanly impossible to 
the ordinary eye to perceive from the height of Xebo all the 
extent of country that Moses is reputed to have viewed. 
Jehovah had removed for him the limits of space. Why, in 
tlie mind of the Christian anthor of the mosaic, should He 
not have also removed those of time, and unveiled to the 
Hebrew law-giver the Palestine of the future at the same 
time as that of the present ? There is, after all, nothing 
inadmissible in this naive conception of the reality. 

Another objection, more specious : — The map is orientated 
to the east ; that is to say, that Palestine unrolled itself to the 
eyes of a spectator who turned his back on the Mediterranean. 
The point of view is, then, the inverse of that which Moses 
must have had from his point of oljservation on Nebo. To this 
it may be replied that in such matters the ancients did not 
allow themselves to be impeded by the logical ideas which 
prevail in our time ; that formerly the general custom was 
to orientate to the east, and that tiie author of the mosaic 
conformed to this custom even when it disagreed with the 
particular object he had in view ; that probably, besides, 
he was not the real designer of the map executed by him- 
self ; that he only had to fix on the ground of the basilica 
of Madeba a pre-existing map — that of Eusebius or of some 
other — constructed according to the ordinary principles of his 
time ; that he judged it useless to modify the orientation of it 
in order to adapt it to his personal point of view, a delicate 



246 ARCH.EOLOGICAL AND EPIGRAPHIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 

operation which ^YOukl have singularly complicated his task, 
which perhaps surpassed his topographical capacity, and of 
which he possibly did not, moreover, perceive the necessity. 
It sufficed him to have reproduced at his best a map current 
at his period, and the essential elements of which are- visibly 
borrowed from the Onomasticon of Eusebius. What would 
properly belong to him, if the hypothesis which I have just 
sketched has any foundation, is simply the fact of his having 
chosen this special subject to connect it with the local 
remembrance of the vision of Moses. 

7. The Cafic InscriiJtion in the Basilica of Constantinc and 
the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre hj the 
Ccdiph Hdkem. — Some years ago there was discovered at 
Jerusalem, at the east of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre,. 
a fine Cufic inscription engraved on one of the blocks in situ of 
a wall which made part of the famous Martyrion, constructed 
by Constantine. I then devoted to this document an extensive 
study,^ in which, after having deciphered and interpreted the- 
text, I tried to show that it must have been connected with a 
certain Mosque of Omar, of which Eutychius tells us, and 
which the Moslems had erected, to the great displeasure of the 
Christians, in the very vestibule of the basilica of Constantine,. 
at the place where Omar, having entered as a conqueror into 
Jerusalem, and conducted by the patriarch Sophronios in person, 
had desired to make his prayer. I showed the important 
consequences which resulted from this datum in connection 
with the archaeological and topographical problem so much 
discussed of the buildings raised by Constantine on the reputed 
site of the Passion. 

•"Recueil d'Archeologie Orientalc," vol. ii, pp. 330-362, § 70; "La 
basilique de Constatitin e(, la mosque d'Omar a Jerusalem " ; cf. ibid., p. 406, and 
Tol. ii, p. 88. M. Tan Berchem, with whom I had communicated, and who had' 
adopted the historical arguments brought forward by me, has published an. 
interesting notice on the question, which, after having appeared in the- 
"Mitiheil. und Nachr. des deutschen Pakvstina-Vereins " (1897, pp. 70-78), 
has been reproduced in the Quarterly Statement (1898, pp. 86-93) ; cf. ibid., 
1897, p. 302, a short note by P. Golubowich, who was quite mistaken as to the- 
date and the value of the inscription. 



ArvCH^OLOGICAL AXD EPIGKAnilC NOTES ON I•ALESTIN^:. L'47 

Nevertheless, more than one point still remained undecided, 
amongst others, an essential point, that of knowing from what 
autliority really emanated this rescript, rigorously forbidding to 
the Christians access to the Mussulman sanctuary, formerly 
taken from their own sanctuary. What could have been this 
authority designated by the inscription as El Jladlirat d-Mutah- 
hara, literally " The Pure Majesty " ? Does it refer to a Caliph, 
and, if so, to a Caliph Abasside or I'atimite ? To what period 
could we trace this official text, the formulas of which were, to 
us, without precedent or analogy ? 

I have just, by the merest chance, come across a documents 
which, in a very unforeseen manner, brings us tlie answer to 
these questions. 

I was lately looking over the translation which is being 
given us by M. Bouriant ^ of the great work of Makrizi on the 
topographical and historical description of Egypt, when I 
happened upon a passage which struck me vividly, and which 
I reproduce below as given by the translator. It is borrowed 
by Makrizi from an earlier chronicle, that of El-Mesihi. It 
refers to an incident, otherwise without interest for the solution 
of the question,^ which took place in Cairo during the course 
of the month of Eab'i I, in the year 415 of the Hegira (]May- 
June, 1024) : — 

In consequence, these merchants went to complain to His Purity, that 
is to say to the Emir of the Believers El Taher li 'azaz din allah Aboii 
-1 Hassan Aly ben Hakem bi 'amr allab, who gave to the lieutenant of 
the kingdom .... instructions, according to which the merchants were 
required to pay the customary rent of each year. 

It is this expression, His Purity, which arrested my attention. 
I asked myself immediately whether this title, thus rendered 
by tlie translator and given to the Caliph, son and successor 

' Bouriant, " Memoircs .... de la Mission Archuologiquc Fran<;ai*e an 
Caire," vol. xvii, fasc. 2 (1900), p. filO. This meritorious work, wlien it is 
tinislied, will render real service. It is only to be regretted that it should be 
spoiled by sufficiently serious or inadvertent errors — above ail, in that ■which 
concerns names of places (I speak principally of those of Syria, which are too 
often badly transcribed). 

" It is in connection with a kind of popular procession which seems to have 
taken place annually at the place called " Prison of Joseph." 



248 AECILEOLOGICAL AND EPIGRAPHIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 

to the celebrated Hakem, might not correspond, perchance, to 
an oricrinal form i" i-^^ i'..£i>!^ El-Hadhrat el-Mv.tahhara, 
that is to say, to the title of enigmatical authority figuring in 
our Cufic inscription. 

Unfortunately I do not possess the Arabic text of the work 
of Makrizi, printed in Cairo, and as it was during the Easter 
vacation, the libraries where I could consult it were shut. 
I thought then of having recourse to the kindness of my 
learned confrere and friend, M. van Berchem, of Geneva, and 
I wrote him a line asking him to be so good as to verify the 
matter by his copy. 

The reply was not long in coming, and I had the very 
lively satisfaction of seeing that it fully confirmed my pre- 
vision. 

Here are, in effect, according to the extract that M. van 
Berchem sends me, the identical terms of which the Arabic 
author makes use ^: — 



o- 



This is categorical. We have then, henceforth, the certainty 
that this title of El-Hadhrat el-Mutahhara, which figures in our 
inscription, was a specific title of the Fatimite Caliphs, a title 
which we did not know until now. It is very probable that it 
was not invented for the particular use of the son of Hakem, 
and that Dhalier had inherited this designation from his father. 
Did Hakem himself get it from his father or from his father's 
predecessors, or did he create and grant it to himself under 
the influence of the mystical madness which caused him to 
commit so many extravagances ? Hilkem has been accused, 
we know, by his contemporaries even of having laid claim 
to being God, or at least an emanation from the Divinity. 
Assuredly such a title, if he really bore it, was well qualified to 
give rise to the equivocation,- and to contribute to accredit and 

• Makrizi, " Khitat," i, p. 207, 1. 23. 

- I will return on another occasion to tliis delicate theological question with 
regard to certain rerj curious texts, where the expression El-Hadhrat 



AUCILEOLOGICAL AND EPIGRAPHIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 249 

to propagate accusations of this kiinl. The (luestioii, (:r)ii- 
sidered from tliis particular point of view, is not wantin«,' in 
interest, but until more fully informed we have no means of 
solving it. Tt is already much to Ije ahle to .say, now, that 
Dhaher, and, in all probability, his father, Hakem, ]>ore this 
unusual title. 

It is a veritable ray of light which is shed on this point - 
until now so obscure, of our inscription. We can now .say that 
the title El-Hadhrat cl-Mutahhara there designates a Caliph, 
and a Fatimite Caliph, to the exclusion of an Aba.sside. I had 
formerly discussed the pros and cons, and, without rejecting 
the first hypothesis, I rather inclined towards the second. 1 ' 
is on the side of the first that the balance now seems to incline. 
I will not repeat all the various arguments which I had my.self 
indicated^ as capal)le of being invoked in favour of it. It will 
suffice to say that they assume a new and singular force. 

Not only are we compelled henceforth to admit that the 
rescript aimed at by the inscription has for its author a 
Fatimite Caliph, strictly speaking, the son of Hakem, at least ; 
but, if one takes into account the political circumstances, 
the chances are that this Caliph may be no other than 
Hakem himself, the destroyer of the Holy Sepulchre, who Ijy 
this act of vandalism stirred the indignation of Western 
Cliristianity, and in the end provoked the first Crusade. 
Already so interesting in other respects, as I have shown, our 
inscription, whether it is placed a little before or a little after 
the destruction, with which it must have an intimate connec- 
tion, would thus become a historical document of the first 
order, since it would belong in some measure to the prologue 

■el-Mufahhara appears to designate au entity of Divine nature, notably in a 
passage in a treatise of religious controversy by Elias, of Nisibis, wliieli has 
been pointed out to me by Father Eonzevalle, and where it seems to be applied 
to God. I will limit myself for the moment to quoting this topical passage 
from the " History of the Doctrine of tiie Druses," by De Sacy (i, p. 224) : 
" The Lord, the God Hilkem, the Hoh' One, will show himself in all the purity 
of his greatness exempt from attributes." Cf. ibid., p. 22G, note, the expressions 

Ll^K^i^Jl J<sj-<» y^wjjJill J«civ-C5 i.^-iaJ^ U^-^1 applied to Hikem in 
the Druse documents. 

I See, notably. I.e., pp. 509, 310, u. 2, 311, 325, 332-333, 33G. 



250 JAR-HANDLE STAMP AT CAMBEIDGE, U.S. 

of the great drama of the struggle carried on for centuries 
between the Cross and the Crescent in the very land in which 
the beliefs which they symbolised had their common root. 



JAR-HANDLE STAMP AT CAMBRIDGE, U.S. 

By Professor T. F. Wright. 

Facsimile of insci'iption on a jar-handle at Cambridge, 
Mass. The last letter but one may be a combination 
of O and N, but all the others are plain — • 

M€NTOPOS YAKIN0IOS i |nOS. 



MGNT 
OPOSYA 
KIN0IOS 



The second word in Quarterly Statement January lists 
is always genitive. 



The inscription on the Cambridge jar-bandle contains the 
name of the eponymous governor Mentor, also found in No. 157 
of the Tell Sandahannab series. The circumstance that the name 
of the month is in the nominative and not in the genitive is a 
deviation from the ordinary formula which does not affect its 
meaning, and is interesting chiefly for its great rarity. I have 
examined all the lists of Rhodian jar inscriptions accessible to me, 
and find, out of about a thousand or more, but one to compare 
Avitb it. This is an item in the great Perg'amon series 
(No. 912 in Frankel's " Inschriften von Pergamon ") and reads : 

€n l€P€n(Z) I APIZTO(AA)MOY | HANAMOZ. 

The reading on the Cambridge seal must be YAKIN0IOZ. 

not -INOZ. 

R. A. S. M. 



r^u 



m 



251 






"<>«( 



m 



^rf'""«.«.^«; 



i>k'»nrTli^?!3-' 



HEBREW INSCRIPTIOX IX 
MOSAIC AT KEFR KEXXA. 

Professor Cu;rmoxt - Gax.veau has 
communicated to the Academy of 
Jnacriptions, accompanied by some 
explanations, an exceedingly carious 
mosaic discovered last year at Kcfr 
Kenna, in Galilee, containing a long 
inscription in the square Hebrew 
chai-acter. In anticipation of the 
detailed memoir which M. Ganneau 
is about to write on this subject 
specially for the October Quarterly 
Statement, we publish now the repro- 
duction of this monument, which is 
unique of its kind. 



252 



WOMAN IX THE EAST. 

By Philip J. Baldensperger, Esq. 

{Concluded from " Quarterly Statement,'' 1901, p. 184.) 



Chapter VI. — Every-iuy Life. 

As already mentioned, when they are near towns the Bedawin 
women flock to the market and sell their products — especially milk, 
for such as have great droves of cows, goats, &c.^ ; hut when they 
are further away — and this is generally the rule — the women turn 
the milk into butter, make the butter into samn, that is, cook 
the butter till the watery parts are evaporated. And they look 
after home affairs generally, the children forming, of course, 
their chief care. When the baby is quite young it is exposed 
during forty days to sunshine, with its eyes heavenwards, which 
is said to fortify eyesight for ever. If it cannot stand this treat- 
ment it is not fit for this hard life, though they do not add this 
last sentence ; yet there is a kind of selected breeding, on the 
principles of the Spartan laws and the natural laws of the 
" survival of the fittest." Where the tribe is of an agricultural 
turn of mind, the boys at an early age are shepherds or help the 
parents in tilling the ground, whilst, where they are not agricul- 
tural, hunting and robbing are learnt. The BedaAvin disdain the 
" dirty Fellah " and the " pale townsmen " as profoundly as one 
creature can disdain another. They are exceedingly proud, and 
the women are as shy towards strangers as those of the towns. 

Badawy means " desert man " ; and of this name they are as 
proud as Baron or Count in Europe of his descent.^ Being always 
out in the open air, or under the light tent, they fear buildings 
as if they were ever on the eve of falling. They dread towns 
and government, being independent ; though laws of their own 
regulate the discipline of the tribe, as good a discipline as can be 

1 Coics. The pure desert tribes, such as the Beni-Sakhr and 'Anazeli, have 

usually no cattle, but only horses, donkeys, and camels. — C. K. C. 

- Bedaioin. — This -word is a Tulgar plural of Bedawi — a " man of the 
desert." My experience is that it is only used by the settled population, and 
much disliked by the nomadic Arabs. I was once reproached by one of these 
for calling him a Bedawi. Thoy call themselves 'Arab, and are proud of pure 
descent from the tribes of Arabia. — C. R. C. 



WOMAN I.N TJIE EAST. or,;> 



soo 



imagined in any place. Of course this applies to them in their 
tribes — their liand being against every man and every man's 
hand against tliem, jast as was i)romised to their forefather 
Tshmael ; so it is natural that they should avoid buildings, or 
even sleeping in unknown places. 

Though filthy in many ways, still I think them clean in 
their customs if compared with the Fellahin, who have genei-ally 
water at their dis})osal, which is very often miles away from the 
Bedawin camp. The camp is moved when it has become full of 
fleas ; sometimes they move away not more than a mile, in many 
cases they move many miles, except in regions where they have 
not much space and Avhere the tribe is very small. For around 
all sea-coast towns of Palestine and Syxna — from Gaza in the south, 
by Jaffa, Ramleh, Lydda, Cajsarea, Caifa, and Acre, in the Carmel 
^ay ; Tyre, Sidon, and to Beyrout, in the north— there are small 
tribes of minor importance who call themselves Bedawin, havino- 
mostly Bedawin customs, living in tents, because this exempts 
them from military life. They do not wear the turban, but the 
flying head-cloth, held to the head by a double cord so charac- 
teristic of the Bedawin. Yet they have lands which they cultivate 
either in shares with some proprietor of the town or some saint, 
and they have droves of coavs and buffaloes, which wallow in the 
swamps of the rivers, and are almost as savage as their Bedawin 
lords. 

The greater tribes arc generally very little under Government 
control, and roam about the plain of Jezreel in the centre of 
Palestine, retreating towards Gilead and Bashan in case of need ; 
others have all the northern Syrian desert from Damascus to 
Bagdad ; some occupy the east of Jordan plains and mountains 
of Moab and Ammon, and are the terror of all southern Palestine. 
The Tayaha and the Terabeeu of the Sinaitic peninsula would 
never have been under the Turkish rule, few as thev are, had 
they :iot disagreed amongst themselves, and carried on petty 
wars for a, number of years. 

Some of the women of these tribes, especially in the north, 
who flock to the markets, have more gaudy dresses, and many 
have done away with the veil, so strictly bidden by their primitive 
laws. High red boots may also be seen amongst some. Especially 
among the Bedawin women are tattoo marks yet to be seen on the 
face, though, as already remarked, other classes also have this 
custom. The face is marked with divert figures, lines, itc, tattooed 
in blue. These markings are as old as human history, for in 



254 WOMAN IX THE EAST. 

Leviticus xix, 28, we read : " Ye shall not make any cuttings in 
your flesli for the dead, nor pi'int any marks upon you." Pro- 
hibited to the Jews, the practice was carried on by the nations 
all around. Judaism could not crush those old customs. On the 
other hand, as they are allowed by the more tolerant Islam, their 
minutest details have been maintained side by side with the three 
-great religions of Palestine proper — Judaism, Christianity, and 
Islam. Illiterate generally, the Bedawin probably followed more 
or less indiliei*ently the prevailing religion, as it benefited their 
commerce or simply suited their convenience. And none of these 
creeds have ever really influenced them in the least. They were 
friends and foes -with the Cauaanites, had several wives like 
Abraham, when they could afford it, kept herds, and were hunters 
or robbers. During the heroic age of the Maccabees they became 
as Jews but continued to talk Arabic, sometimes became Christians 
in the latter years of the Byzantine empire, and subsequently 
fervent defenders of Islam during several centuries. The exploits 
of the wild crusader, Renaud de Chatillon, made them change the 
name only. As Christians they still went on robbing and killing, 
■wearing ever the same style of dress ; always fond of horses and 
arms, while the coat-of-mail of the Crusaders was very attractive 
to them, and when Islam was lord again they again became 
Mohammedans. They pray and even fast sometimes, like other 
Mohammedans, but the further away from towns the less they 
observe any religious rites at all. Superstitious as all others, they 
believe more in signs and traditions than in actual religious laws 
and ordinances. In fact, they care very little even for the Moham- 
medan religion, to which most of them now claim to belong, a 
very few beyond the Jordan excepted, who belong to the Greek 
Church. They have their saints and prophets, and it is usually 
round the tombs of these that they have their cemeteries.^ 

Rachel's tomb near Bethlehem, for example, is the burial 
ground of the Ta'amry Bedawin of the wilderness of Judea, and 
Avhen a person dies, no matter how far away, sometimes near the 
Dead Sea, a distance of more than twenty miles, the dead person 
is transported on camelback, hanging in a carpet on one side, 

' Religion. — One tribe is known (in the desert of Judah) as Jahalin or 
"ignorant," a term which strictly means Arabs before Islam was preached. 
The Eedawin have very little knowledge of Moslem beliefs, but Islam originated 
among them. Before the time of Mohammed most of them were Pagans, but 
some had become Christians and some Jews by religion, even in Arabia, while 
others were " encjuircrs " of no fixed creed.— C. K. C. 



WuMA.N IN TIIK KAST. 2'*^^ 

\\\\\\st eavtli in a sack forms the counter-balancf on the oth«'r. 
'I'lic Bcdawinof the plains of Phih'stia trans|)ori tlicirdcad to near 
the shrine of the pro])het Saloh, near Raniloh. The l)nrial and 
nioiirniug do not differ from those of the other chasses ; but on 
account of distance they cannot visit the tombs on Thursdays, 
and instead visit them occasionally, when they pass noai- by 
cliiuice, and if possible on the Thursday of the dead. In sonn- 
tribes it is customary for the women to cut a tress of their hair 
and fix it on the tomb, as a token of love for the departed. 
The tombs are not tended with the same care as those of the 
townspeople, who sometimes have inscriptions cut and plant 
trees or flowers in their cemeteries ; but neither the Fellahin 
nor the Bedawin plant flowers on theii- graves, excepting those 
wild frequently mix with the towns]icople. 

.\. woman of the Bedawin had lost her only son, about ten 
years of age. After the usual compliments of condolence, I 
told her God can give her another son, a compliment often used 
in such circumstances. "No," says the desolate mother, "if God 
"wished to give me another, he would not have taken this one." 
Having no more hopes to get any others, some mollah told her 
that she should go with her husband and hand in hand dip 
themselves seven times in the ^Mediterranean Sea, repeating 
tlie Fattiha. She took her husband and she dipped seven times, 
but the husband afterwards confessed to me secretly, that he so 
much dreaded dipping, that he only feigned doing so, making his 
wife dip and he looking on, like the clown in the circus, feigning 
to stand on his head and looking only at his companion, who 
expects all the time his comrade to do the same. Very generally 
speaking the Bedawin women are the liveliest and quickest of the 
three classes of native women. The townswoman with her slow 
aristocratic walk, as they call it, looks with disdain on the 
European or American lady walking quickly, " like a servant iu 
a hurry." 

"Wild and rude as they may be, it is but fair to say that 
w omankind, even among the sands and thorn-bushes of the Jordan 
valley, have a kinder feeling than men. I have lain sick and 
wanting nursing in towns, in villages, and in the Bedawin tent, 
and they all did their utmost to make me forget the seclusion, 
each one as much as could be expected from them, and according 
to the degree of their knowledge. 

In the plain of Jericho, more than twenty years ago, I had 
grown quite friendly with a Bedawin woman, and one day when 



256 WOMAN IX THE EAST. 

the cai'avan from Jerusalem ;in ived and brought us neither news 
nor victuals from home, my Bedawin friend took an okl rag and 
blackened it with soot, and said: " This is the letter I shall send 
to Jerusalem, the}- will know -well enough that we are in the most 
miserable state that can be imagined." And wlien at length the 
long expected victuals and ammunition an-ived, this wild 
Bedawiyeh divided them into equal parts on the banks of the 
Jordan, giving me a part, as if we had gained booty from some 
passing traveller. 

Chapter VIT. — Leading Women. 

That when women choose to rule, they well knew how, is trae 
of the Bedawin woman as well as of any other, and perhaps to some 
degree she is more imperious than any other woman in Islam. 

My old Bedawin friend in the plain of Jericho was a widow 
and had an only son, aged about 22. We had rented their lands 
to sow wheat and barley, with a family of Fellahin. Although 
the young man, ^iohammed-et-Talak, had to ai'range the contracts 
and so on in Jerusalem, yet at home his mother wholly commanded 
him. And even in my pi'esence she beat him and scolded him till 
he simply cried, and contrary to the habits of the Fellahin, said : 
" She is my mother, and I have to obey her, and receive her 
chastisement." Im-Mohammed, the old v/oman, would sit down, 
without a veil, smoking her big pipe, and giving orders, at the 
same time emphaticallj^ striking the ground with her pipe, as much 
as to say : " So will I have it." And when the young man one 
day showed impatience, she told him : '" Sure, you chickeri, I shall 
retreat to the mountains, and see what will become of you." On 
such occasions he again became quite tame, and promised to 
follow her instructions. 

Another Bedawin widow, in the plain of Philistia, was very 
wealthy, possessing 300 or 400 cows ; this fact alone gave her 
superiority, and everything regarding the community was 
discussed with her and even to a certain degree bad to be 
ratified by her. I was very much surprised that she should 
not have gone to the expense of erecting a stable of some kind 
for her cattle, to protect them against thieves or rain or the heat of 
the sun. Of thieves she was not afraid, as for the rain she thought 
this was God's will, and besides, building expenses were too great,, 
no matter how primitive the building might be. Very soon 
after my interview with her, a heavy rain swept over the canqv 



WOMAN IN I UK KAST. 257 

and the whole region, and in that very night she is said to have 
lost three-fourtlis of her cattle. Stoically she bore this loss, and 
like the Bedawin Job, hearing of his losses, she also said: "The 
Lord gave, and the Lord hatli taken away, blessed be the name 
of the Lord." 

A legend of an old Bedawin woman su independent that she 
even braved the seasons is told of Febrnaiy 24th. 

Having had much rain during February, the old Bedavviyeh, 
to spite the month, put herself and tents in a mountain pass in 
the wilderness of Jnda^a, and said : " February, tlie roarer, is past ; 
I'll kick him a hundred times, for I and mv coats are saved from 
his waters " ; but February, whose reputation is known, and of 
whom it is said : " February, the roarer, climbs and kicks, but 
summer's odour is iTi him," was furious at the woman who had 
thus abused him, and said to his cousin, March : " Please give me 
three days, I have only four left ; we can make the waters flow- 
once more." Februarv and March thus agreed, and during seven 
days there was unceasing rain. When the weather was fine again 
and the sun shone on the camp of the old Bedawij-eh, not even a 
trace of it was left. The terrible waters had washed her away with 
her tents and goats and all appurtenances, and the dead bodies 
alone were found floating about the Dead Sea. These three 
days are therefore called the borrowed days, as February had 
borrowed them from March. 

Some Bedawin women also enter holy orders, but this does 
in nowise exclude marriage, as for the nuns in monasteries. A 
woman may be born holy, and in this case she is believed to woi-k 
miracles. A Bedaw}^ in Philistia, very badly sick with the 
malarial fever, and whom I could not help any more than I coukl 
help myself, being badly taken with it too, told me the only 
remedy for this was to go to the Darwishy of the Hrari family. 
"God's party — ya Hrari,"' is an exclamation ahvaj-s used when 
the name of any holy person is pronounced. She was expecteil 
to heal the sick by a mixture of herbs, a secret of her own. 

' d^iW ,11:=^, I.' c'-ll\ J.Jw — Skael Illah i/arijcil Allah— is fiu oxL'Uma- 

Hon used by every Moliammedan when the name of any holy man is pro* 

nouneed. .iLi — to lift up; to take away from tlic place. The Bedawin .-juy 

lljlj — iShdl — to move camp. The Uedawin decamped — , . »J\ aJLi) — 

Shalat el'Aralj. Thus it means "from the (same) camp," or ''Hfted up by 
the same movement of departure," i.e., " tlie party " ; and '' Shael Illah ya 
rijal Allah" would be " (Respect before) God's compauioue (ye) men of Cod." 

p 9 



258 WOMAN IN THE EAST. 

Another woman of holj orders, known under the name of the 
•• prophet's foal," walked about for years, begging or asking alms 
without pronouncing a single word, but neighing like a young foal. 
This is, of course, understood by all believers. Dr. Chaplin, for 
many yeai-s a physician in Jerusalem, says : " This is a peculiar 
nervous affection, not very uncommon among girls born in 
Palestine, which seems to compel those labouring under it to 
o-o about imitating the sounds made by animals." 

A holy woman of renown, said to have lived somewhere about 
the fourteenth centui-y of our era, only known by the name of 
"Daughter of Bari," and wdio had drunk of the jug of Paradise 
water, which entitles everybody to become holy, was so ambitious 
that she tried to drink the Avhole, leaving nothing for some of 
her companions, who were already holy too. She was so beautiful 
that she had to wear seven veils, laid on each other tile-fashion, 
the lowest being shortest. It is known that no Derwish may 
look at a woman lest he lose his holiness, unless he be so well 
proved in virtue as to withstand all evil thoughts. As she had 
taken the sacred jug, three of the leaders of holy orders went to 
take back the jug, but at her beauty had to withdraw. The 
fourth one, by the name of Bedawy, now came iu old ragged 
clothes, with vermin all about him ; of course she, being a 
Derwdsha, at once could read bis thoughts. He now came and 
asked for the jug, but would not be moved by her beauty, so she 
uplifted one veil, which discovered a part of her neck, without 
effect ; a second veil was lifted, discovering her chin ; still it was 
useless. Finally, she asked him to marry her, but not only 
would he hear nothing about it, but even ordered the earth to 
swallow her deeper and deeper, till on the fourth summons she 
ordered a servant to get the holy jug and give it to the Bedawy. 



PART IV.— THE EGYPTIAN WOMAN. 
Chapter I. 

As regards the Egyptian woman it must be understood that I 
attempt only a general description of her as she lives in Palestine. 
Though Palestine really borders on Egypt, still the great sandy 
desert lying between has, in many instances, given another 
character to their respective peoples. The Egyptians in Palestine 



AVOMAN IN TUK: EAST. 209 

have .sc;tt-led in the; fouiitry succcssivol}' ; tlie l"]<i) ])li;ui ritalias 
trying- from time to time to colonise; Palestine wilii their own 
subjects, as beint;' <>F a more submissive character than the 
independent Palestine mountaineer, ever ready to I'evolt. Tin; 
last great attempt was made by Mohammed Ali, founder of 
the present d^-nasty of the Khedives of Kgypt, who sent a 
force to invade Palestine in 18.")1 under the command of his 
son, Ibrahim Pasha. Duinng- the nine years following/, while 
the Viceroy Avas absolute master, he established colonies all 
about the plains of Philistia, Sharon, and Jezreel. Their descen- 
dants still remain, having kept their own customs to a certain 
degree, as well as their laniiiiage, or rather dialect, wliieh, 
however, is now fast becoming merged in the Palestinian. 

The Egyptian is a separate type, resembling the flat-nosed and 
thick-lipped Afi-ican to a certain degree, but not black as most 
African nations are. He is a real link between the Caucasian 
and the Negro.* 

Naturally those transplanted to Palestine, either by order 
of the Viceroy or voluntarily, are mostly of the agriculturist class, 
as commercial men have much better chances in Egypt than in 
Palestine. The blue dress worn by the women is less wide than 
that of the Bedawin, and a little wider than the Fallaha's. It is 
covered with a white or dark head-dress, with a heavy black face- 
veil attached to the head like that of the Bedawin, but instead of 
being short, like the Bedawin, so as to cover only the lips and 
chin with dangling- coins, the Egyptian veil hangs down to the 
breast, and coins are sewn at the bottom to hold it in place.- The 
genei-al character of the Egyptian woman is softer than that of the 
three other classes of women already described ; she is more polite, 
and will more readily answer even a stranger. The tounswoman 
is scandalised, or fears the appearance of her husband or of some 

' Type. — The Egyptian tjpe is i-ather that of the ancient Egjjitians before 
2000 B.C.— a race distantly connected with the Semitic peoples. Tl)e Copts 
alone pi-esei-ve the old language. 'J'he Arabic which is spoken bv E^iyptian 
Moslems is, iu some respects, nearer to tliat of Arabia tlian to that of Svria. 
Syrian is considered the more elegant dialect, but the Egyptian Arabic descends 
tVom the time of the Moslem conquest. — C. R. C. 

- Egyptiutis. — In Ashdod especially the Egyptian dre.-s may be observed, 
but the colonies of 1831-1840 spread even to Galilee, and the name Kefr Musr, 
or "Egyptian hamlet," still applies to a village in the Valley of Jezreel, near 
Beisan. The Egyptian veil is distinguished, not only by its length, but by Ihc 
peculiar fastening of metal (usually brass) which connects it to the head-dress 
in the middle, between the eyes. — C. K. C. 



260 WOMAN IX THE EAST. 

indiscreet visitor, and will therefore be rather unpolite with yon. 
The Fallaha, thinking that yoa are mocking her language and 
costume, will thei-efore remind you of your business ; the Bedawiyeh 
will indignantly point to the men as if to say : " If you have any- 
iliing to say go there and leave me in peace." The Egyptian may 
even answer you with expressions like " my eye," " my heart," 
and " my life," though the Egyptian husband may be as jealous as 
any other in the East. Perhaps the simple fact that they are 
stran2:ers in the land makes a difference in their behaviour. 
They are not masters. Whether they live in the towns or in 
the country they are more or less given to occupations connected 
with agriculture. Round about Jaffa they are dairy Avomen, 
and in the villages they are Fellahin, but do not call them- 
selves by this name in Palestine, and do not easily intermarry 
with natives. The Palestine Fellah is as proud of his pedigree 
as the Bedawin, and if you ask him or her whether they are 
related to so and so he will say : " N'o, they are Egyptians, 
whilst we are Fellahin." Genei'ally speaking, they also say in 
talking of an Egyptian : " With my respects to yourself, she (or 
he) is an Egyptian." This same contempt is almost as old as 
history. In Numbers xii, I, we read: "And Miriam and Aaron 
spake against Moses because of the Etltiopiau u-oman whom he had 
married: forhe had married Sin Ethiopiau ivoman." After showing 
why they spoke against Moses, the w)-iter seems to excuse them in 
the last sentence, which means as much as " it is true he did take 
such a woman." This sentence shows us that already in those 
remote times it was considered degrading for the Israelites to 
enter into unions with the Africans. At a later period many 
Israelites took Canaanite wives, though it was against their laws, 
pjven men like Samson took daughters of the Philistines. 

The plain of the Philistines being the highway to Egypt, with 
Gaza as the last city, it is, as might be expected, very much 
peopled by Egyptians. And even whole villages of Egyptians 
exist in the same plain, the people of which do not mingle with 
the Fellahin save now and then, and always with repugnance. 
In the towns of Gaza, Jaffa, Ramlch, and Lydda there are very 
important Egyptian settlements, for the most part such as were 
fixed in the country by the great soldier, Ibrahim Pasha, from 
I8ol-40. An Egyptian woman living in Lydda is blessed with 
worldly goods, and with the honourable name of Sit Ikhwetha, 
that is, " Lady of her brothers." For many years this important 
lady not only ruled amongst her own family, but even had 



WOMAN IX 'IIIK .KAST. 2GI 

iiillucMioc on the wliole town. Slic used to go to the Government 
Hall, wlicnce women are excluded, imprison this one and loose 
that one, and the Governors of Lydda and Jaila trembled when 
she wanted anything-. But in most eases she had no need of help 
from anyhody. She simply enforeed her will on those witii whom 
tshe had to do. Her sons and relatives had no wish or will of their 
own, for she arranged everything. In marriage affairs she would 
prescribe this woman to that man, as respected her relatives. But 
as everything has an end in this woi-ld, the riches which, it is 
said, had been unjustly accumulated in the Egyptian wars of 
ISoO— R) gave out: process after process was lost, and in her old 
age she even had to endure arrest and imprisonment. Although 
the old Turkish law forbade imprisonment of women, the husbands 
having to undergo that penalty, the new law allows money to be 
claimed from women, and in serious cases imprisonment of women 
in the house of some honourable citizen of the town. Women 
generally are talked of with contempt as inferiors, and many will 
not even admit that they have an immortal soul like the men. 
But though they be beaten by husbands or brothers, on the other 
hand the women aie considered holy, and the title Walie may 
be interpreted " Saint," as woman has the holiest of duties to 
peiform, such as bearing and rearing children, and making 
the bread. Then again another expression for woman is " the 
weaker rib," and this prevents any stranger who respects himself 
from lifting his hand against women, even if lie should be 
attacked. Women are to be avoided in all cases ; and, as Abimelech 
was half killed by a woman at the siege of Thebez, and asked his 
armour-bearer to slay him " lest they say a woman slew him," 
Avith the same feeling such a fate is avoided nowadays. I remember 
i\, man killed by a stone from the hand of a woman in a general 
skirmish in the village of Abu Ghosh ; and his name was ever 
iifterwards mentioned with contempt : " Ah ! such an one who 
was killed by a woman." A young man who had beaten his 
mother was repi-oved by his uncle for the deed, and she left her 
son to live with that uncle, but needing her very much in the 
house, and to save his honour, the son came and asked me if 
I Avould be arbitrator to bring her back. W^e went together, 
and, having drunk coffee, explained our mission. The uncle 
reproved the nephew somewhat in these terms: " Your mother 
who bore you and brought you up when your father died 
remained a widow to help you to succeed in life; how dare your 
criminal hand touch not only the Saint but :i per.son. who, though 



262 WOMAN IX THE EAST. 

old, is not abandoned bj everybody. By the most raiglity God, 
by the mercifal God, oh Ethman, this same Amrie that you see 
wrinkled and ragged, if you do not respect her and obey her I 
will foi'bid to go back to you. She is happy in my house : 
may she be on my eyes and on my head, and if I have nothing 
to feed her with, let her sit on iny right shoulder and eat my 
flesh, and when there is nothing h;ft, let her change shoulders 
and begin eating my left." Of course, the son promised every- 
thing, and they both went home and lived again as happy as 
before, without a:oing: to the extravagance of shoulder eatinar. 

Chapter II. — General Life. 

Religion and superstition, as may well be expected, are in the 
same degree of development in Egypt as in Palestine. In Egypt 
the people are Mohammedans and Copts ; these last have been 
Christians from the remotest ages, before the invasion of Egypt 
by the Arab Moslems. A small colony of Copts live in Jerusalem, 
and have their own church and khan, a kind of hostelry in 
which the pilgrims of their church live when visiting the Holy 
City at Easter. 

Egypt is supposed to be full of holy men of all kinds, and of 
evil spirits, whilst Palestine is the home of the pi'ophets, not to 
be confounded with simple saints of historical reputation only. 
Among EgyjDtian women, more even than amongst the others, the 
most extra vasrant beliefs as to o-hosts are found. 

The ceremonies of birth, marriage, divoi-ce. burial, and 
mourning are not very different from those ah-eady descril}ed 
and need not be repeated. Cradle songs are customary among' 
them all to lull the baby to sleep, often, of course, improvised, as 
was this one to a little girl : — 

Helwe died, Helwe is dead. No 1 by Allali, slie livotli still. 

She'll grow up and eat her bread, tliiit might stick right in her tliroat. 

In naming the child the Egyptians make a small difference ; 
instead of naming immediately after birth they follow the .ludaic 
custom, and give its name on the seventh chiy. The child is washed 
and salted, as among others, and then a copper basin is put above 
its head, which the midwife knocks with a stick to test whether 
the child is fearless. If it gets frightened it Avill always be a 
coward ; if, on the conti-ary, it is not afraid, the midwife asks the 
father: "How will you name it?'' The father gives the name 



AVO.MAN IN TlIK 1,:a.sT. liG.". 

■ ^loliamined " or " Aish}'," oi- wliati'ver lie miiy choose ; then tliu 
)jiid\vife, giving u knock again on llic cojiimt basin, sajs : "Do 
you hear? Your name is Mohanimed," or •' Aisiiy/" as Ihc lather 
has named tlie ehild. If it is a l)(.y it is cii-eujiicised weeks, 
months, or yeai's afterward; no particular age is fixed for this 
ceremony. In general it is very expensive, as they have to invito 
all friends and relatives to the feast, so it is put off to some 
favourable date when they may have money to spare, or iov 
some procession which they care to attend, thus increasing the 
solemnity. Before they are married the women go about without 
the veil, or simply throw it back, especially when out to fetch 
water in the big jar. 

Like the others an Egyptian woman may have to live with two 
or more other women as the wives of one husband. Thev call them- 
selves diirra, that is " rival," a name which exists only among the 
Orientals. My " rival " is not here, is equivalent to •' the wife of 
my husband is not here." The rivals almost always hate each 
other, as is very natural. When they are too poor to have 
separate houses they live in one and the same room. I have even 
known an old man who lived in a house with his two wives and 
his son. and his son's two wives. Of course it wonld be verv 
hazardous to state that they lived in perfect unity, yet it is hard 
even for an Egyptian Fellah to be harsh always to his wives, and 
these two families lived on side by side for many yeai-s, stoically 
bearing the burden of their laws ; and though this one was now a 
little more favoured, ov now that one, according to the mood and 
temper of one or the other, it is still remarkable how few quarrels 
they had. Four different women in one household, and almost 
eveiy instant tliey might be wanting the same article I My 
brother and I rode up to these Egyptians in the phiiu of 
Sharon, where they were gai-deners, and as it was very late in the 
evening my brother proposed to stop there for the night. Being 
summer it was too warm to be indoors, so the women brouo-ht 
carpets and we were seated below the huge mulberry trees. To 
begin with we asked for a jug and basin to wash ourselves. The 
whole family were sitting or lying around. We received the 
philosophical answer that the water always flowed at the well. 
thus rendering jug and basin superfluous — evidently it was less 
troublesome. Next we asked for a box to put some barley in for 
the horses, but this seemed as su})ertluous as the jug. They 
never bought any barley, their animals had the plain to feed on. ajul 
though grass is not as nourishing as barley, their mules, though veiy 



1>64 WOMAN IX TllK EAST. 

thill, still lived, and in consequence a box was altogether a luxury 
to keep. AVhen I read the late news of the Italo-Abyssinian 
campaio-u it was hoped that Menelek would be soon reduced 
through want of food and of porters for his considerable army. 
After the terrible battle of Abba-Garima on February 29th, 1S9G, 
and the following days, in which the Italians lost nearly 10,000 
men, the prisoners, or such as could escape, reported wonderful 
facts; for whilst the Italian army had to carry food for them- 
selves and for their animals, and still went into the battle in 
despair, almost dying of hunger, the Abyssinians carried nothing 
with them and still were better off, and the numerous mulea of 
the Choan army lived on the fields and came into action more 
vio-orouslv than their fellow mules in the Italian army, accus- 
tomed to better food, but for the time deprived of any at all. As 
it became dark sitting under the mulberry trees we asked for a 
light by which to unpack our saddlebags and partake of our 
victuals. This was more than our host expected to hear. What 
in the wide world did he, living most of the time in the open air, 
want a light for ? The moon was quite light enough for him and 
his families, and when there was no moon they went to bed 
earlier and by turns they watched, being much exposed to thieves 
and robbers. We left off asking for anything, but soon felt 
enough of one of the Egyptian plagues still extant in these 
countries ; Heas innumerable invaded our bodies and I'est was 
impossible. I have been out very often and had to share the 
bedding of the Fellahin, and still I am inclined to give some 
credit to the inhabitants of the " Vale of Yearning," as the place 
is called in the immediate neighbourhood of the Vale of Sorek, 
from their belief that the Snltait of the fleas has taken his abode 
there. At all events if he himself is absent his hosts are there, 
and remind you of a visit to their court for a long time 
afterwards. 

Two of the women, one a wife of the father and one a wife 
of the son, were almost of the same age; the elder woman was 
very old, being the mother of the only son. The old father 
married the second wife in order to have more children, and so 
did the son. His first wife had sons and daughters, but they died, 
so he married a second woman to have children. These four 
women had to help their husb.'iiuls in the gardens, watering and 
tilling, but they never had much work to do, and led a very idle 
life, dreaming away existence. In a village near, altogether 
inhabited by Egyptians, settled there for half a century or more, 



WOMAN IX TIIK KAST. L'Ik) 

lilu \v;is vi'iy iniu-li tli« i-iniie. As to tiic morality of tlio women 
in general, their reputation wus as bad as could be. Delilah's 
home has also sjiread Delilah's eharaeter broadcast amongst these 
Kyvptians. 

These women shriek and scream at the funerals, waving their 
handkerchiefs ; and, though ]\rohammed forbids mourning alto- 
gether, it is curious to see how women have stamped this law 
under their feet, not at all minding the swearing, cursing, or 
begging of the husbands to leave off because it is very sinful. 
Why men have accepted the command of Mohammed, and why 
women have not, is perhaps to be explained by a kind of egotism. 
Death of any member of the family is a grief to anj-one, and 
perhaps the woman — who, after all, is the echo of the family — is 
silently allowed to let the sorrow, which is hidden by the man, be 
expressed loudly and vehemently — oftenest at the burial, or after 
the virtues of the departed have been loudly recited in presence of 
the assembly of women. That the departed was " the camel of the 
house " is a A'ery general expression. In their extravagance in 
telling the praise of the departed the most curious pet names are 
invented, and at the same time the dulness, stupidity, and all bad 
qualities of those remaining are given in contrast to the bright- 
ness, cleverness, and virtues of the departed. All this is said in 
a half-singing, half-wailing tone, intermingled with individual 
shrieks on the highest notes. Some are real mourners, some are 
simply feigning as friends, or are i)aid waiters. The hair is torn, 
and the black veil in many cases is changed for a white one 
during mournino-. 

•J O 

There are different kinds of mourning songrs for men or fc>r 
women ; riches or love form the principal subject : — 

O seller of corals, come down with your articles, Here is a fair one about to 

•O seller of corals, bring the bowl and come down.' Fatuu', the beautiful, is 
■waiting for vou. 

All such singing is thought fine, and is gay to their ears, yet 
always has a wailing tone to ours ; and even as to the words, 
.some sorrowful event is always mingled with the more joyous 
ones. 

In years gone l)y, when the agriculturists were not yet 
accustomed to serve in the army, and were pressed to be soldiers, 
the departure of the recruits was always a very sad event. They 

' Feigning the dead i)erson to be waiting only. 



2CG ■ WOMAN ]N THE EAST. 

were generally bound together by fours, and led by soldiers as 
prisoners of war to their barracks, and thence sent to remote 
provinces. Such columns of young men were usually accompanied 
by nearly as many women, shrieking and tearing their hair, very 
much like the behaviour at a funeral. In modern times the 
military life, as in all Eui-opean .States, has become obligatory for 
all, and, as they well know that enlisting does not of necessity 
mean being killed in battle, the fuss about the departure is less. 

An Egyptian soldier's song, full of all kinds of episodes from 
a soldier's life, still shows how woman is foremost in his mind, 
and though really a Mussulman soldier can only imagine kissino: 
his bride oi' wife publicly, in the song it is mentioned as though 
it were really done : — 

Born in Galiub, since my bn-th, sixteen times liave I so'T'n tlie Nile's waters 

overflow our fields, 
And I had a neiglibour, Sheikli Abdelhei, whose daughter's face was known 

only to nie : 
Nothing could be compared to tlie beauty and tenderness of Fatme, 
Her eyes were as big as coffee cups, and lier body was firm witli the vigour of 

youth. 
We had one heart, and were free from jealousies, ready to bo united, 
But Allah curse the military inspector who bound my two hands, 
For, together with many more, we were marched off to the camp. 
I wa.s poor, and thus had to serve, nothing could soften the inspector's heart, 
Tlie drums and the trum]3ets daily soon made me forget my cottage and the 

wheel-well on the Nile, 
But notliing could make me forget the bright 8un and tlie life of my eyes, ni}^ 

poor abandoned Fatme. 
They gave me new clothes, a gun and a cartridge box. 

They made me turn to the riglit, then to the left, and kejit my foot in suspense : 
I soon learned the di.fcront salutations with my gun, and was finely drilled. 
I was sent off with my regiment to Mecca, where I saw the sacred Kaabu. 
We fought many a battle with the enemies of our propliet, to him be praise. 
After roaming about the rocks and mountains I was sanctified by my visit to 

Mecca, and am now a pilgrim, rejoicing in the name of Haji. 
One day I was promoted corporal, and after three years' wars we were 

Re-shipped to Egypt, and 1 deliglited to see my sacred river. 
In tlie camp, near Galiub, liow my heart beat to be so near Fatme, 
Yea, yet afraid of going there, for fear of finding a change. 
Then I got tlie fever, and was taken into the hospital to European doctors. 
They were worse than tlie ague — for tliey foi'bade me my accustomed food. 
And very likely they sold my rations — may Allah curse them ! 
Dying from hunger and sorrow, I was given a horrible medicine, 
The smell alone inspired fear, and made me more sick. 
I had the cup at my lips, when a j^iercing cry penetrated my soul, 
And I distinctly heard her voice, crying, " Hassan ! my eye ! "' 



WOMAN IN Till': EAST. 207 

1 lluiiK my cup at the mirsc, and new strength (lew into uiy veiim. 

I WHS healed, and those idiot -i think it was their drng that did it. 

T asked at once to leave the hospital, and it was granted to me. 

I Hew into Fatme's arms, who awaiteil nie inipatientiv, 

And after many caresses she told nie how she had fouud jue. 

She had many diflleidties in entering the cam]!, and heard strange words. 

At the gate the sentinel told her " Dour," and as she continued he stopped her, 

Till !in officer came and (|ue8tioned her, 
And she said : " Give me my love Hassan, absent these three rears." 
But the officer turned round, and thought she had lost her senses. 
She liad to retire, and happily met the sister of my sergeant. 
Who knew I was in the hospital, and that T was seriously ill. 
Eut, swifter than the gazelle, the light of my life came near the hospital 
And called in at the window : " Hassan ! my eye ! my heart I " 
And full of joy I carried her about the camp, and presented her to all my 

superiors, leaving out none, from the colonel down to the sergeant. 
I received my dismissal, to return to Galiub and to marry. 
Old Abdelhei was awaiting us, to bless us. God be praised ! 

The Arabs' poetry i.s mostly fiction, but, as may be seen by the 
above verses, what they tliink, whom they love, what they feel, 
can best be given in long-drawn-out notes. Sadly the singer puts 
her hand to one side of the head, bent as if she were wailino', and 
with heartrending tones will sing of love or war. 

The Egyptians are called " Masarwy " in Palestine — that is, 
inhabitants of the land of Masr, the native name of Egypt. The 
Christians of Egypt — that is, the old Egyptians — are known by 
the name of Copt. These Copts are the real transmitters of old 
Egyptian traditions. One example will suflBce to show how they 
have transmitted old customs, or rather kept them alive : — 
Herodotus says that whosoever killed a cat, even involuntarily, 
was put to death. It is strictly believed amongst the modern 
Moslems and Copts in P^gypt that a cat is holy, and she cannot be 
killed, or vengeance will sooner or later fall on the person who 
has committed the deed. Therefore the proverb says : " The 
crime committed on a cat will never be pardoned"; and by 
dozens will they tell stories about persons who have killed cats 
becoming blind or ending their lives in misery. 



2G8 AVO.MAN IN THE EAST. 

PART v.— THE GIPSy. 
Chaptek I. — Gexkral Desckiptkix. 

This class of inhabitants, known under the name of " Nowar,"" 
is certainly the most despised by every one. They are the real 
pariahs of society. To call a person a " Nury " for a man oi^ 
"Nurie"' for a woman, expresses at once the meanest title and 
the greatest contempt for any person that a Palestinian or 
Syrian can imagine. 

They have a language of their own, of Central Asiatic 
origin, and though they all talk the Arabic, yet they have a letter 
" k " which they pronounce very sti-ongly, and by Avhich the 
gipsy is immediately recognised. Probably they have always 
had very little attachment to any country, for they live in tents- 
like the Bedawtn, but are always found round about towns or 
wealthy villages, where they can easily earn a living. They are 
generally blacksmiths, and as the villages have no others, they 
are Avelcome guests. The ii'onwork is always put away for the 
" Xowar's " arrival. 

In Palestine they profess Mohammedanism, though in reality 
they have very little religion at all. They keep the feasts 
and fasts if the occasion suits them, and bury their dead in 
the cemetei-y nearest to the place where they are temporarily 
living. 

They are mostly darker than the Bedawin, ahvays black- 
haired, and, like all the tent-living people, are very thin as they 
gi'ow older. The young bu^^s and girls are fatter, and the young 
women are often even good-looking. 

They are under the jurisdiction of a Sheikh of their own 
election, ruling in or about Gaza, and the Government makes him 
responsible for crimes, for paying of tithes, and so forth. 

The gipsies living in tents are considered as Bedawin, and 
never serve in the army. Generally speaking, they are great 
cowards, and have no arms, though they are almost always out 
of doors. They pitch their tents next to the most important 
approaches of the towns, and whilst the men put up the anvil, 
light the charcoal fire, and put the belloAvs in motion, and by 
forging .some old iron advertise their arrival, the women go about 
from house to house begging for bread or whatever they can get, 
occasionally stealing, if they find unguarded homes. 



WijMAN IN 'I'lIK KAST. l!(.i!> 



C]iAiTi;i: ]1.— Thi: Wm.mkx. 



The women are geiierally dressed in bine like the Soutlic-ru 
Palestine Fellahin, but have soiuewhsit aiu])ler clothes. '^IMiey 
have braeeU'ts, earrings, and uoseriiif^s, and have the licad 
tied I'ound with a kind of turban of blue, this being the veil. 
They more readily than any othei- class wear niiy <-lotlung that 
they may receive. 

Besides the guttural " k " already mentioned as peculiar in 
their speech, they all have a particular movement of the hips 
in walking, so that this kind of throwing the hips right and left 
whilst walking is called the gipsy walk. Whilst the Palestinian 
generally carries her child of two or thi'ee years on the shoulder 
as before stated, the Nurie carries her child on the hip, distorting 
her body, or, rather, forming a kind of obtuse angle with her 
own body to afford a seat to the heavy baby.' The dowry in 
7narriage is generally made np of a certain number of donkeys, 
which the bridegroom has to give to the bride's family, and the 
ceremonies are as short as possible. Then again, they are very 
cautious towards sti-angers, and seem to surround themselves 
with as much mystery as possible, being ever on their guard 
for fear of being known, as they generally have either done 
something they ought not, or are ready to plunder and steal, and 
thus had better conceal themselves. 

The women are tattooed on the face, arms, legs, and often on 
the whole body ; this tattooing very much serves their purpose, 
as they are often supposed to possess .supernatural qualities 
as sorcerers and geomancers. As they wander about the country 
and see all classes of people, they ai-e naturally physiognomists, 
and can tell by the looks of a person either what he wishes, 
or to some degree guess at the ti'oubles he has. 

An old geomancer, tattooed literally from head to foot, was 
sitting down at the roadside near Jaffa, and had diawn squares 
and angles in the sand befoi'e her. I had lost my brother a short 
time before and was about to leave Palestine, but was not quite 
sure what I should do ; thus a woman like that old geomancer 
could probably read in my face that I had troubles of different 
kinds, besides knowing that Europeans generally go back to their 

' Carrying Children. — The Gipsies came iVoni Scinde, in Lulia, and tlioir 
language is the Scinde dialect, from the original Sanskrit. It is remarkal>le 
that they preserve the Indian custom of carrying the cliild on tlic hip. wliih' 
Arabs carry it on the back or shoulder. — C. K. C. 



L'70 ^vf)MA^■ ix 'I'iik kast. 

country sooner or later. It is no wonder that slie told me many 
things which, to the more simple-minded, appear wonderful if 
not supernatural. 1 had often seen her sitting there, and 
wondered what kind of prediction she might have in store for 
persons with Avhom she certainly did not very often come in 
contact. I rode up to her and, without dismounting from ray- 
horse, threw her a coin, and asked her "My lot" for some time 
to coiue. She had half a dozen shells of diffei-eut shapes, and 
threw them into the figures drawn on the sand. Then picking 
them up, she said : " You have a great sorrow just past you, and, 
like a black star, it has fixed itself on your foi-ehead, and only 
time and patience can take this away. A letter is coming to you 
from over the seas calling you to leave this country and cross 
home in a steamer, for which you will be glad temporarily only, 
for you will not receive what yoa are awaiting, but the struggle 
for life will be heavy upon you for some years to come ; and 
vou will not be satisfied until at least ten years are passed." 
I now prepared to ride away, when she opened her clothes in 
front and showed me all her upper bod}- absolutely tattooed, and 
taking out a bag, she went on : "I have here a very precious 
stone which I brought from Mecca, this is to be rubbed in oil, and 
by some other formulas that I w'ill tell you about, // yon give me 
one dollar, it will almost wipe away the black star from between 
your eyes." Of course in this they are quite the same as all people 
of the clairvoyant family, in whatever part of the world they 
may exercise their tricks ; the soothsaying and prophesying is 
always a vague expression of some things you like to hear or are 
likely to undergo, in some way or other, and after having excited 
the curiosity of the credulous, they easily find scores of people 
who readily pay a relatively small sum for " some more know- 
ledge." Nor is it the exclusive peculiarity- of Orientals, or of 
these pariahs of Palestine humanity — for a statistician has found 
that in Paris, one of the most progressive cities in Europe, not 
less than 250,000 persons are said to consult the '' modern Avitches 
of Endor " yc^arly, and such witches make a good living, be they 
in the East or in the West. 

The feminine congress held in Paris in 1895-96 is supposed 
to be an outcome of nineteenth century Occidental civilisation. 
But Avoman in these loAvest conditions of humanity is certainly 
more of an individual, having her own say and sway in her 
humble tattered tent, being more a helpmate and companion to 
her husband than in many supposed civilised societies. 



"WOMAN rX THE EAST. 271 

As with the Bedawiu, the woman must answer for licr 
husband, and often keep the tent wlien lie is away, or go out 
on errands when he is busy repairing some plough or hatchet, 
so naturally she is forced to represent the man in his absence. 
Again, as they are usually very poor and never remain more than 
a few days in one place, they cannot afford to have more than one 
tent for the whole family, consisting of ten or twelve persons. 
Consequently, no place is reserved for this or that member. 
No privileges are allowed ; it is simply, perhaps, the right of 
migiit, and as might sometimes means finding the easiest way of 
enabling a family to live, the woman has her great share by 
begging and bringing home the necessaries. I have also 
observed elder women, especially, forging in lieu of the men on 
an emergency. 

Besides being georaancers, soothsayers, or house (tent) wives, 
they are often dancers, for in this they are very dexterous. When 
they dance in public they put on a coloured petticoat, and with 
the castanets at the tips of their fingers, perform very much 
in the style of Occidental ballet dancers, though not with the 
same agility, but they could probably be trained to do so, if they 
had a series of lessons. Very often the dancer has a tambourine, 
with cymbals all round it, thus timing herself by the sound. 
They have often two names, one for the Arabic population, taken 
from the favourite names of Islam, as Fatmey, Aishy, Hamdy ; 
and also names of animals, as " She- wolf " ; or even of fruits, as 
"Peach," and so on. 

They never intermarry with any other class of people, probably 
because of mutual repulsion. jMohammedan law forbids inter- 
marriages with them, for they are " forty times " unclean. This 
probably points to the fact that in centuries past they were not 
Mohammedans. Islam leaves many such questions without an 
answer. For all Mohammedans ai'e equal — no matter in what 
condition or of what nation. But the same case presents itself 
as an enigma in another question. Mohammed has promised a 
number of huris in Paradise, and it is not difficult for God to 
create such, out of nothing. But what becomes of the soul of 
the woman who was a believer on earth ? Some believe her 
soul immortal, some not. If immortal, where is her place in 
Paradise ? If not, why does she pray and fast when on earth ? 
And why is she to be buried like every other believer ? 



272 WOMAN IN THE EAST. 



Chapter III. — Origin. 

The name of Nowjir is said to have been given tliem when 
they were building the Kaaba, in Mecca — which is called the 
" Imnowara," that is, "the enlightened," whence they received 
the name of " Lighters." ^ They say they came away from the 
Xajd, in Arabia, Avith the Beni Hilal (the story of which exodas 
has been partly related in Part III), and when in Palestine they 
fought against their own tribe. As two leaders, Zeer and Jassas, 
being cousins, were each striving to be the head of the tribe, the 
Gipsies of to-day held with their leader Jassas, and therefore they 
also call themselves " Arabs of Jassas " ; but they were overcome 
by the mightier Zeer, who, after a decisive victory, laid a curse 
on them to ride donkeys perpetually, wherefore they always use 
donkeys, but say : " Cursed be the father of the Zeer, who 
condemned us to ride donkeys," But Jassas said he had the 
victoiy, and condemned the party of the Zeer to plough and 
hold the handle all their lives; wherefore the Fellahin, condemned 
by Jassas to hold the handle, say : " Cursed be the father of 
Jassas, who made us guide the handle." 

It is traditional to say : " You arrive like the Gipsies," when 
you arrive in the middle of the day. The Gipsies have their 
excuse in this — that they have no arms, are consequently very timid, 
almost cowards, so they always leave a place only in the morning 
or at noon, to arrive at the next station again at noon, or, at least, 
long before sunset, as they have to look out in the new locality 
for a good camping place, and for the most necessary supplies. 

They believe themselves to come from Egypt, and they 
resemble the present Egyptian population a good deal, but their 
language is not Egyptian. The inhabitants of Palestine call 
them Zoot, or Nowar, but they call themselves Dome, and also 
Nowar, as above-mentioned. They believe in good and evil spirits, 
like others ; especially do they fear the " horned owl," who is a 
disguised witch, and very fond of the children.'- A white flag is 

' Nowch:— This is the plural of Nuri. I have always hetird it explained as- 
connected with AVir, " fire," rather than with Xur, "light," as meaning persons 
who worked with fire, that is to say, " smiths." — C. R. C. 

- The Horned Owl.— This is a remarkable superstition, because in Hebrew 
Liliih is the horned owl, and is also the name of the female demon who steals 
children. Why this should be found among gipsies rather than natives, it is 
dillieult to understand. The small owl {Biimeh) is sacred to the Fellahin in. 
Palestine.— C. K. C. 



THE SITE OF CIOLGOTIIA AND THF. IIO[,V SErULCIIRE. 273 

hoisted on the tent where the visit ot" tlie owl is mostly feared, to 
prevent her coming. They have the liveliest children that can be 
imagined. In tlie big camps in the plain of Philistia, round 
Ramleh and Lydda, I have often seen groups of boys and girls 
of four to ten yeai'S run, jump, and dance, stripped naked, and 
as soon as strangers passed by, swift as lightning wi-a]) them- 
selves in a rag or old cloak, run after the passers by, and ask 
for alms. No sooner were the strangers gone than they would 
fling off their rags and continue their interrupted play. 

Thei'e are other settlers and inhabitants of Palestine and 
Syria, but in describing these five very different populations and 
distinct classes a fair view of manners and customs has been 
given, and in many cases these very much resemble those of 
Bible-times. 

On the market place inside the walls of Jerusalem can be seen 
the daily life of that town : the Fellaha women selling their 
cauliflowers and other vegetables ; men with camels loaded with 
roots for fuel ; townspeople, Bedawin, Jews with their long 
gowns and slippers, Europeans, and at the gate of the citadel 
the Turkish soldiers — a gathering of many nations. 



THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND THE HOLY 

SEPULCHRE. 

By the Rev. Canon MacColl. 

I HAVE said elsewhere that the case of the traditional site of Golgotha 
as against the new claimant "is not a case of strong evidence against 
weak, but a case of overwhelming evidence against none." In tlie 
following pages I shall endeavour to make good that assertion ; and I 
begin with a few preliminary observations. 

Til'-' advocates of the new site disdain the superfluous task, as they 
deem it, of disproving the authenticity of the traditional site. They 
assume, and some of them have declared publicly, that no ]iersoii of 
common sense and competent knowledge can for a moment believe in 
the authenticity of the traditional site. Tlie number and cla.ss of persons 
who are thus proved destitute of common sense and adequate knowledge 
are somewhat remarkable. The "Speaker's Commentary " was edited 
and writen by eminent scholars, and it ileclares : " The evidence in 
supi)ort of the traditional site is strong, and appears conclusive." The 
most recent authoritative American ijronouncement on the subject wa.s 

S 2 



274 THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

published in 1896. Its title is "The People's Bible History, prepared in 
the Light of Eecent Investigations, by some of the foremost thinkers in 
Europe and America. Edited by Rev. Geo. C. Loriuier, LL.D., -svith 
an Introduction by the Eight Hon. William Ewart Gladstone, M.P." 
There ai'e 18 contributors, belonging to various religious denominations, 
including from England, besides Mr. Gladstone, such names as Profe.ssor 
Sayce, Eev. Dr. Moore, editor of " The Christian Commonwealth," the 
Dean of Canterbury, Professor Agar Beet, D.D., of the Wesleyan College, 
Eichmond. According to this authority, " the evidence available jjoints 
to the acceptance of the ordinary tradition, and to the belief that this 
church does mark the 2)lace where the Lord's body was laid " (p. 683). 
To i^ass from collective authorities to individual writers, it is necessary 
to take samples out of a multitude. The late Eev. George Williams's 
" Holy City " (two vols., published in 1845) disposed entirely of the 
elaborate guess-work and slip-shod reasoning of Dr. Robinson as well as 
of the fantastic jjaradox of Mr. Fergusson. Mr. Williams's masterly 
monograph is the result of some years' careful researches on the spot. 
The publication of the first edition of his book made a sensation. 
Those who had accepted without inquiry Dr. Robinson's confident dog- 
matism, especially in Germany, acknowledged themselves converted by 
Mr. Williams's book. Dr. Schultz, who devoted the leisure of three 
years as Prussian Consul in Jerusalem to the study of its topography 
and archaeology, came to the same conclusion as Mr. Williams, to whom 
he owned some obligations in a volume on the subject. German scholars 
then took the matter up with the thoroughness which is characteristic of 
them, and decided by a preponderance which amounts to moral vmanimity 
in favour of the traditional site. Let one example suffice. In a learned 
work published five years after Williams's "Holy City" (Berggren, Leipzig, 
1854) I read :— 

" Overlooking the fact that tradition is often worthy of attention, there is 
every possible positive reason why we should seek Golgotha at once, and only 
there, where the tradition places it. Neither the Old World nor the New 
has any good ground for doubting the common opinion regarding the Holy 
Sepulchre." 

He goes on to argue (what subsequent explorations have demonstrated) 
that the city extended considerably from the south to the north and north- 
west, while the third wall, built some ten years after the Crucifixion, 
enclosed in this quarter a considerable piece of ground, very sparsely 
peopled westward, which bore henceforward, or at least after Hadrian's 
change of Jerusalem into an Italic colony under the name of x*Elia 
Capitolina, the name of the " New Jerusalem." 

Dx-. Alfoi'd, a man of keen and practised critical faculty, says 
(Greek Test., vol. i, 270), after examining the arguments on both sides : 
— " As regards the situation, Williams has made a very strong case for the 
commonhj -received site of Calvary and the Sepulchre." The italics are 
Dean Alford's. 



THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 275 

Fiulav, the illustrious historian of the Greek Revolution and tlie 
Byzantine Empire, arrived at the authenticity of the traditional site by a 
new process of reasoning', to which I sliall refer |)resently, and which he 
considers so conclusive as to dispense altogether with arclueological 
arguments. His conclusion is : — 

" If history can prove any facts by collateral evidence, it must be admitted 
that it has proved that Constantine could not possibly have been mistaken in 
identifying the site of the Holy Sepulchre, and that the Christians cannot 
have transferred the site [as Fcrgusson imagined] from the spot fixed on by 
him in his time. We may consequently rest perfectly satisfied that, when we 
view the marble tomb now standing in the Church of the Restirrection at 
Jerusalem, wc really look on the site of the Sepulchre that was hewn in the 
rock in the place where Jesus was crucified." > 

Dr. Stapfer, ])rofessor in the Protestant Theological Faculty of Paris, 
writes : — 

" We accept as authentic the traditional site assigned to Calvary and 
the Holy Sepulchre. This opinion is general to-day among the learned." 
(" Palestine in the Time of Christ," p. 50, Engl. Transl., London, 1886.) 

The bibliography apjjended to Dr. Stapfer's volume shows that lie 
has mastered the modern literature on this subject, including the 
publications of the Palestine Exploration Fund. 

Another Protestant, a Swiss savant, who went to Jerusalem in 1875 
on purpose to investigate the question on the spot, having previously 
compared the arguments for the old site and the new respectively, says 
that, while sentiment and prejudice inclined his mind to the latter, 
historical and topographical evidence forced him to accept the traditional 
site. (" Voyage en Terre Sainte," par Felix Bovet, pp. 127-230, Paris, 
1876.) 

My next appeal is to the distinguished archaeologists of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund. My first witness is General Sir Charles Warren, 
G.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.P.S., R.E. There is no one to whom we are more 
indebted for the light thrown on the topography of ancient Jerusalem. 
He was formerly in charge of the exploration at Jei'usalem, and exhibited, 
as the publications of the Palestine Exploration Fund show abundantly, 
extraordinary diligence, perseverance, and intuitive insight, w/iich 
resulted in some valuable discoveries. He has at ditlerent times jMiblished 
his reasons for believing on archieological and historical grounds in the 

' Mr. Finlay's argument, in brief, is tluit the Eoman Ordnance Survey, 
especially about the time of Constantine, was so perfect that, if there had 
been the smallest doiibt about the site of Golgotha and the Holy Sepulchre, a 
reference to the map would settle the matter. Fields, trees, prominent objects 
were clearly marked on these maps, copies of which were kept in the Imperial 
archives in Eome, in the provincial capitals, and for local use. Joseph's villa 
and garden would luxve beeu on the map, and certainly so famous a place as 
Golgotha. (Finlay's " Hist, of Greece," i, App. III.) 



276 THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

authenticity of tlie traditional site. It will suffice to refer here to his 
convincin.fj refutation of Mr. Fergussou in his masterly volume, "The 
Temple or the Tomb, giving further Evidence in favour of the Authen- 
ticity of the Present Site of the Holy Sepulchre," &c. (London : Bentley, 
1880). 

M}' next witness is Dr. Schick, who knows more about the topo- 
graphy of Jerusalem than any man living. He has himself related 
in a former Quarterly Statement (for April, 1893) how, after many years' 
unbelief iu the traditional site, he was converted by evidence, which he 
considers decisive, into a believer. But he is far too modest to parade 
his own special qualifications as an expert on the topography of Jerusalem. 
A German Protestant by birth, and by profession an architect, he went 
to Jerusalem 55 years ago, and has been constantly exercising his pro- 
fession in the Holy City, generalh' in the employment of the Turkish 
Government, and also of the Society for the Conversion of the Jews. 
More recently he has done a good deal of excavation for the Russian 
Government ; and it is this which has led him to the discovery, as he 
believes, of remains of the second wall, just within the traditional site 
of Golgotha and the Holy Sepulchre. He has lived in Jerusalem con- 
tinuously for 55 years, and has made the archaeology of the city, and 
latterly of the holy places in particular, a matter of special study. He 
has thus had unique opportunities for verifying his osvn and others' 
theories ; for the altering and pulling down of old houses and the 
building of new ones have greatly changed the exterior aspect of 
Jerusalem during the last 55 years. So that an architect whose vision 
covers that interval, and who himself superintended most of the changes, 
has obviously an unrivalled advantage in that respect over all competitors. 
Colonel Conder refers to him in the following terms : — 

" Not only has this careful and patient workman erected many houses 
in the city, but, his professional ability being fully recognised by the Turks, 
he has been constantly consulted by the Government, and has had oppor- 
tunities of examining buildings in every part of Jerusalem. All this valuable 
information remained stiil unapplied to the use of antiquarians. I gave 
Mr. Schick the Ordnance Survey map on which Major [now Major-General Sir 
Charles] "Wilson, K.E., has shown all the present levels in the city, and he 
kindly undertook to mark accurately every spot where, from digging founda- 
tions and examining levels, &c., he was able to give the depths below the 
surface at which the native rock was reached." 

He goes on to acknowledge his own obligations to Dr. Schick, es])ecially 
in finding levels and contours in Jerusalem {see Conder's " Tent "Work in 
Palestine," vol. i, p. 349). 

It is evident, therefore, that Dr. Schick's unique knowledge of 
modern Jerusalem, extending over more than half a century, enables 
him tr. detect topographical indications and suggestions where the most 
accomplished arclneologist, who did not possess Dr. Schick's prolonged 
experience, would see nothing. This was forcibly impressed on myself 



THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND THE HOLY SEI'l'LCHlIE. 277 

■during my last visit to Jerusalem. Jtr. Schick was good enough to 
conduct me along the course which he believes the second wall to have 
taken. We started from the point where all authorities place tlic 
l)eginning of the second wall, and made our way to the Russian 
excavations, which Dr. Schick superintended, in the vicinity of tlu- 
Holy Sepulchre. Every door was open to so well-known and respected 
n man, and an official of the Government in addition, and the inmates 
gladly removed pieces of furniture to let my guide show me portions 
of ancient Jewish masonry embedded in tlie walls of the houses. He 
believed — and his belief seemed to me well founded — that these pieces 
of ancient Jewish masonry were parts of the second wall. The course 
was irregular, curving in and out, thus corresponding to the form of the 
second wall as we learn from other sources. Dr. Schick told me, with 
.some ])athos, that if his quiescent prejudice against the traditional site 
had not dominated his mind for the lirst 37 years of his lesidence in 
Jerusalem, he believed he could prove to other minds the coui-se of the 
second wall as plainly as it is now present to his own mind. Much of 
the evidence which his memory recalled was now obscured or obliterated. 
On the whole, the undoubting belief in the traditional site of a convert 
iind an expert of Dr. Schick's long experience must be admitted to be 
<i very w-eighty piece of evidence. 

Another of the experts of the Palestine Exploration Fund is ^I. Cler- 
mont-Ganneau, for many years attached to the French Consulate in 
Jerusalem, and now Professor of Sinaitic Archaeology at the Sorboune. 
Uis rei)Utation is world-wide, and his contributions to the archaeology of 
Palestine are voluminous and valuable. His opinion will be found at the 
•end of this article. 

Another eminent authority is Sir Charles "Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., 
F.R.S., R.E., at one time Ordnance Surveyor of Jerusalem and the 
Peninsula of Sinai. He is of opinion " that no certain trace of the 
second wall has been found." As far as visible evidence goes, "that 
wall may have included or excluded the site of the Church. Either is 
quite possible, but nothing certain is known." This leaves the histoi'ical 
t;vidence, to which I shall presently appeal, untouched. But although 
Sir Charles Wilson is unable to prove that the second wall passed inside 
the traditional site, he feels equally unable to prove the contrary, and he 
sees strong arguments in favour of the traditional site. '' To my mind," 
he says, " one of the strongest arguments in its favour is that it was 
never disputed, so far as I know, in the early days either by Jews or 
heathen. Surely when Julian w^as rebuilding the Temple, and Cyril 
was boldly denouncing tiic attemi)t in the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre, the Emjjeror would have indulged in one of his sneering 
remarks if there had been any doubt with regard to the authenticity 
of the sites." 

That is an argument hard to upset. Sir (liarles Wilson's own candid 
conclusion is :— " I am satisfied to think when I am in tlie Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre that I am standing near the spots which were believed 



278 THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

in the fourth centuiy to be the scenes of the Crucifixion and Burial." 
I am quoting from a letter to myself. 

One eminent authority connected with the Palestine Exploration 
Fund, and one only, can be quoted against the authenticity of the 
traditional site. Colonel Conder, unless he has changed his mind within 
the last seven years, is a convert to Dr. Robinson's " pious fraud " theory. 
He has evidently not gone deep into the historical evidence, and his own 
contribution to the theory crumbles to pieces on close scrutiny, as I shall 
endeavour to prove. 

So much then as to the jaunty allegation of the literary advocates of 
the new Golgotha and Sepulchre, that no one dowered with common 
sense and moderate knowledge can believe in the authenticity of the 
traditional site ! Ignorance of one's own ignorance, said Plato, is the 
worst of all, for it bars the way to knowledge. He who thinks he 
knows all has no motive for further inquir}'. " I have not been able,'' 
says Mr. Hugh Price Hughes in the " Westminster Gazette " of May 4th 
last, " to discover any evidence whatever of the traditional site except a 
foolish dream of the Empress Helena in a.d. 326." That gives us the 
measure at once of Mr. Hugh Price Hughes's reading on the subject, and 
an explanation of his scorn for those who still believe in the traditional 
site. But the great protagonist of the new site is Mr. Haskett Smith. 
He was allowed unfortunately to use the authority of Murray's " Hand- 
book for Syria and Palestine " for disseminating all over the woild his 
romance on this subject. Every traveller reads Murray's " Handbooks," 
and it is a just tribute to their general accuracy that their statements 
are commonly accepted without question. But for the respectable 
sponsorship of Murray's " Handbook " the egi'egious ab-surdities of the 
spurious site would have killed it at the birth. All the evidence for it 
is given in Murray's "Handbook." Mr. Hugh Price Hughes, indeed, 
has told us that he " was at Jerusalem last year, and studied the whole 
question minutely on the spot. The nature and result of my investiga- 
tions, he adds, " were published in a careful article in the ' Methodist 
Times' of March 28th last" ("Westminster Gazette," May 4th, 1901). 
I sent for that article, and fomid that it was nothing more than an 
epitome of Mr. Haskett Smith's article in Murray's "Handbook." I 
prefer, therefore, to go to the original soiirce of this myth and examine 
Mr. Haskett Smith's arguments seriatim. He begins in the high 
pontifical tone to which the impugners of the traditional site have 
accustomed us : — 

" There is little to prove its claim beyond the ecclesiastical tradition of 
centuries, besides the miraculous vision which Helena, the mother of the 
Emperor Constantine, is supposed to have had .... On the other hand, the 
whole locality has been shown bj the best authorities to have been unsuitable."' 

I have already given the reader some specimens of the opinions of 
"the best authorities"; and as for "the miraculous vision of Helena," 
which Mr. Hugh Price Huglies calls " a foolish dream," let it suffice to. 



THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND THE HOLY SErULCHRE. 279 

say here that authentic history knows imtliing of it. Having tlm.s 
magisterially dismissed the evidence for tlie traditional site into tlie 
shadowy realm of dreams and fable, ^Ir. TTaskett Smith proceeds to give 
the readers of Murray's "Haudl)Ook'' the evidence for the spuriinis site, 
which he prefaces, suo more, with the observation that " it is sufhcient to 
say that the arguments in favour of this site ai"e so strong as to be 
practically convincing to the unprejudiced mind." Let the reader judge. 
Here are the arguments : — 

(1) " The tomb has never been finished, and yet has been occupied." 
I have examined the tomb several times in the company of experts, 
including Dr. Schick, and I assert that the tomb was bevoud all 
question finished. Dr. Schick was present at the opening of the tomb 
34 years ago, and found then i/i situ the stone slabs, the absence of which 
now Mr. Haskett Smith alleges in proof that the tomb was never finished. 
And even if it could be proved that tlie tomb never had lieen finished, 
what then ? The original narrative does not say tliat Joseph's tomb had 
never been finished ; it implies the contrary. 

(2) "It has been occupied for one burial, and one burial only." 
Mr. Haskett Smith is a genial gentleman. I met him in Egypt, and 
afterwards in Syria, and I asked him how he knew that the tomb had 
been occupied for "one burial only." He was told so by "an eminent 
chemist," who assured him that the fact was capable of chemical 
demonstration. I wished to get the name and address of that chemist, 
but Mr. Haskett Smith was in a great hurry, being in charge of a party 
of ladies whom he was conducting on a pilgrimage to the tomb. 
Mr. Hugh Price Hughes savs ditto, ditto to Mr. Haskett Smith : — " It 
is evident that it was originally intended to contain loculi for several 
bodies, but only one of these was ever completed and used. The rest, for 
some reason (I think an obvious one), were never finished and never 
occupied " {see Mr. Hugh Price Hughes's " Careful Article," in " Methodist 
Times" of March 28th, 1901). As a matter of fact, when the tomb wa.^ 
opened it was full of human bones and the mould of decomposed bodies. 
So Dr. Schick, who was present, told me, and Colonel Conder has borne 
similar testimony in a letter to the "Times" dated "September 24th, 
1892." "The tomb was excavated," he .«ays, "in 1873, and I then 
explox-ed it, and fomul in it the remains of the bones of a large number 
of persons, and two red painted crosses on the walls, which had the form 
of a Latin cross, and could not be earlier than the twelfth century. The 
tomb was close to a large Crusading hospice, and I have no iloubt that it 
was used for the burial of pilgrims." 

(3) " It was constructed about the time of Christ, being Herodiau in 
character." Again Mr. Hugh Price Hughes echoes ditto: — "The con- 
struction " satisfied him that the tomb " was the projierty of a ' rich man,' 
who was a Jew of the "time of Christ, as its character is Herodian." Let 
Mr. Hugh Price Hughes settle that with his own infallible authority — 
when he hapi)ens to be on his side — Colonel Conder. 

(4) " Though built for a Jew, it has been an object of sacred reverence 



280 THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

to the early Christians, for it has been used as a place of Christian 
worship, and is surrounded by Christian tombs." The proximity of 
Christian tombs is just as applicable to any other tomb in the neighbour- 
hood, and there is not a scrap of evidence that it was used as a place of 
Christian worshij). 

(5) " It occupies a position with regard to the hill beside it which 
accords with the Gospel narratives." Just as applicable to several other 
tombs. 

(G) " The frescoed cross, with the sacred monograms, still faintly to 
be traced on the east wall, and evidently of an age about, if not quite 
coeval with, the first century, connects the tomb most intimately with 
Clirist." On the contrary. Colonel Conder is unquestionably right in 
saying that the cross is Latin and mediaeval. Any tyro in ecclesiology 
could tell Mr. Smith that no example of this cross is found within many 
centuries of Christ's death. The alleged copy of the cross which 
Mr. Haskett Smith gives in his pamphlet is quite incorrect and most 
misleading. 

(7) Mr. Smith next advances " one of the most remarkable corrobora- 
tions of the truth of the Gospel which has perhaps been ever exhibited." 
In St. John xx, 5, we read that St. John, " stooping down and looking in, 
saw the linen clothes lying." In this spurious tomb there is a small 
window opposite the loculus in which Mr. Smith alleges the body of 
Christ to have lain. He ))roceeds : — 

" In no ordinary tomb would it have been possible to see from the outside 
to the bottom of the locv.lus. But iu this tomb, by leaning forward and 
peering through this opening, one can see quite clearly to the very bottom 
of this receptacle." 

Mr. Haskett Smith assumes here that our Lord's tomb had a window 
in the rock opposite the loculus where his body lay. The fact is that this 
window is exceptional, and did not exist originally in this tomb. Next, 
in the authentic Holy Sepulchre, as in other rock tombs of the kind, the 
door leading from the outer chamber to the burial cave is so low that one 
must stoop down to enter, and by thus stooping down it would be quite 
easy to see whatever was laid on the depression, generally a few inches, 
which formed the loculus. But the most astounding part of Mr. Smith's 
argument is his assertion that the apostle, stooping down and looking 
through this very window, saw the linen clothes lying at the bottom of 
the trough— some 3 feet in depth., and therefore intended for more than 
one body, as Dr. Schick has rightly observed — which forms the loculus. 
But Mr. Haskett Smith cannot be accurate even in trivial details. It is 
7wt possible to see to the bottom of the loculus by any amount of peering 
through the window. I made the experiment with a gentleman — an 
English architect who had been in Jerusalem six months before I met 
him studying its archaeology. AVe laid a white handkerchief in the 
loculus, and peered in succession through the window Avithout being able 
to see the handkerchief till it was raised about 18 inches from the 



THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND TII'R HOLY SEPULCHRE. 281 

bottom. And so far fnun Iteiii^ir oblige«l to "stoop ilowii," 1 was obli;,'LMl 
to i)lace a stone belnw tlie window before I coidd bring my eyes to a level 
with it, while my coni])anion, who is over G feet, was obliged to siand erect 
before be could sec tliiduoh. But tlie most incomprehonsible jiart of 
Mr. Smith's argument remains. There is, or was tlien, a lieap of rul)bisli 
underneath the window on which the looker stood. Eemove that rubbi.sh, 
which of course was not there originally, and the sill of the window is 
quite 10 feet from the ground ! " How could St. John," I asked Dr. 
.Schick, " stoop down to look through that window l " " How, indeed," 
he answered, "unless he brought a ladder with him?" Here, too, 
Mr. Hugh Price Hughes, in his "Careful Article," has caught the 
infection of Mr, Haskett Smith's wonder-working imagination, and has 
drawn the same inference from the same figment. 

(8) The knoll which we are asked to accept in place of the traditional 
Golgotha " is," Mr. Haskett Smith tells us, "held as an accursed spot ; and 
Jews, when they im.ss it, spit and throw stones in its direction, uttering at 
the same time the following imprecation : ' Cursed be he that destroyed 
our nation liy aspiring to be the King thereof.' " " An ancient Jew " told 
Mr. Smith that " this is the formula generally employed " by Jews when 
they pass the place. I tried hard, but in vain, to find any trace of tiiis 
" ancient J ew," or, indeed, of any Jew in Jerusalem who ever heartl of 
this formula and custom. I applied for information, among others, to 
the Eev. J. E. Hanauer (himself a Jew by race), wdio has spent all Ids 
life in Palestine except during the period of his education aljroad. He 
has worked for years as a missionary among the Jews, and is a learned 
man withal, and thoroughly acquainted with the customs and traditions 
of the Jews in Palestine. Here is his answer : — 

"Jerusalem, 3faif 5///, 1893. 
" Dear Sir, — I bee; to state that ujy inquiries, both amongst Jews and 
Hebrew Christians, have utterly failed in eliciting any informatiou confirmatory 
of tlie statement of Mr. Haskett Smith, that the Jew spits in the direction 
El Heidemiyeli as he passes near it, and mutters to himself the accustomed 
curse, ' Cursed be he who destroyed our nation by aspiring to be the King 
thereof.' I am myself almost certain that the ' ancient Jew,' from whom 
Mr. Haskett Smith derived his information, shaped his story so as to suit (he 
wishes of liis questioner. That the Jews identify El Heideuuyeh with the 
Beit Ha Sckelah [place of stoning] is certain. My recent inquiries have 
afforded me fresh opiJortunity for verifying this. 

" Yours respectfully, 

" J. E. HiNArBR." 

(9) Mr. Haskett Smith has one more argument " which almost settles 

the que.stion," namely, " two memorial stone.s," on one of which is 

inscribed, "Buried near his Lord"; on the other, "To Xouus and 

Oiu'simus, deacons of the Church of the Witness of the Resurrection of 

•Christ." Mr. Smith's inference is that there was an early Christian 

>Church close to " Gordon's tomb " bearing the title which he quotes, and 



282 THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

that Nonus and Onesinius were deacons of it. But the only Church in 
Jerusalem which ever bore the title of " the Martyry of the Eesurrection " 
is that which occupies the traditional site. Mr. Smith's last argument 
does therefore " settle the question " against him. " Near his Lord " is, 
of course, a relative term, meaning any part of Jerusalem or its environs. 
Such are the ai'guments on which Mr. Haskett Smith bases his 
astounding assertion that "there is actually not a link missing in the 
chain of evidence which connects this tomb with the sepulchre of Christ." 
Mr. Hugh Price Hughes thinks the evidence so overwhelming that he 
does not hesitate to write : — 

" I was so conTinced that this was indeed ' the place where the Lord lay/ 
that if an angel had suddenly appeared I should not have been at all surprised, 
but should have turned to him with eager confidence and exclaimed, ' That 
is wliere my Lord's body rested from Friday to the first day of the week, 
was it not ? ' I coiild not resist the desire to place my poor body on the 
very spot on which the Sacred Body once rested. For a space T lay there flat 
on my back." 

I respect and honour the sentiment which prompted Mr. Hughes's 
action. Let the reader, who has now all the so-called evidence before 
him, judge whether Mr. Hughes's fervent faith rested on a single scrap of 
tangible proof. Nor is this all. Not only is there no evidence for the 
spurious site, but there is demonstrative evidence against it. There is a 
general agreement among the defenders and impugners of the traditional 
site that the rocky mound which the believers in the spurious site have 
selected for their Golgotha was the Jews' place of public execution. 
This is enshrined in the eai-ly tradition which caused a church dedicated 
to St. Stephen to be erected there, and which gave the name of 
St. Stephen's Gate to that now known as the Damascus Gate. Indeed, 
Mr. Haskett Smith and his disciples, including Mr. Hugh Price Hughes, 
make a point of their " skull-hill " being the ancient i)lace of stoning. 
The fact is the corner-stone of their case. But a little reflection would 
have shown them that to prove that the " skull-hill " was the Jews' place 
of stoning is in fact to prove that it could not have been Golgotha. 
" Now in " — not near — " the place where He was crucified there was a 
garden, and in the gaixlen a new sepulchre wherein was never man yet 
laid. There they laid Jesus" (St. John xix, 41-2). Now it is simply 
inconceivable that " a rich man of Arimathtea," who was also " a councillor 
of honourable estate," "a good man and a righteous," and a member of 
the Sanhedrin as well (St. Luke xxiii, 51), should have had his villa and 
garden abutting on the accursed place of public execution. The fact that 
" in the place where He was crucified there was a garden " belonging to 
a member of the Sanhedrin is alone a decisive proof that it was not a 
place of public execution ; therefore not the so-called " skull-hill." 

Whence then the name ? St. Matthew calls it " a place called Golgotha, 
that is to say, a place of a skull." St. Mark says that " they brought 
Him to Golgotha, a place which by interpretation means a place of a 



TlIK SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND TlIK HOLY .SEl'ULCIIKK. 283 

skull." St. John says that " Jesus went forth into a place called that of 
a skull." St. Luke says elliptically that " thev came to the place called 
ii skull." 

It is plain, then, that for some reason not mentioned in any of the 
Gospels Golgotha was a marked feature in the topograi)hy of Jerusalem. 
The Jewish Evangelists, Matthew, Mark, and John, naturally gave their 
Greek readers the meaning of the word — " the place of a skull." Plainlv 
therefore the name was not deriveil from any [teculiarit}- in the place 
itself. The genitive case precludes that suggestion. The three Evangelists 
clearly imi)ly in their explanation some story of a skull distinct from 
the place itself. On the other hand, St. Luke, a Gentile by birth, an 
educated traveller' and man of the world, and writing for Gentiles, did 
not think it necessary to encumber his narrative with explanations of 
Jewish words, and therefore simjily translated the Hebrew Golgotha into 
its Greek equivalent. 

We may dismiss at once then two explanations of Golgotha. It did 
not derive its name from being a place of public execution." No skulls, 
few or many, could have been lying about; for, in the first jdace, the 
Jews put criminals to death by stoning, not by decapitation ; in the 
next, all bodies had to be buried before sundown. Nor did it derive its 
name from its likeness to a human skull. Cyril of Jerusalem iloes mention 
that suggestion, but only to dismiss it. "There is no evidence," as Sir 
Charles Wilson says, " that 'the place called Golgotha' was a hill, or 
that it derived its name from a topographical feature " ; " and artists, 
unmindful of truth-telling photographs, have supplied the 'skull' of the 
nineteenth century Golgotha with eyes, nose, and mouth." (Letter from 
Sir C. Wilson, in " Times" of October 2nd, 1893.) In a letter to myself a 
few weeks ago Sir Charles Wilson says : — - 

"As regards the spurious site, I came to the conclusion that the tomb 
belonged to the series of tombs in the Dominican grounds, which are only 
separated from it by a few yards, and that it was probably (.'hristian. It 
also seemed to me^that the cliff" below what is called 'skull-hill' did 
not exist at the time of the Crucifixion, and that the so-called ' eye- 
sockets ' were not then in existence," l^eing, in fact, the etiect of quarrying 
*' after the Great Siege." 

' Mr. Smith, of Jordanhill, in his very interesting monograph on " The 
Voyage and Shipwreck of St. Paul," argues with great plausibiUty that 
St. Luke was a ship's surgeon by profession. 

- It must be remembered that our Lord was put to u Konian death by 
a Roman governor with a guard of Roman soldiers under a Roman centurion. 
The Romans had no place of execution in Jerusalem. Crucifixion was a 
punishment which they often inflicted on the Jews, sometimes in the streets 
-of the city. Pilate would have paid no heed to the Je\vi#ii law forbidding 
to execute inside the wall, for he and others violated it. That he was over- 
ruled to fulfil the type here we know from Ileb. xiii, 12. But he chose 
Golgotha for the crucifixion for the purpose of insulting them, not in order 
to fulfil their law. 



284 THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

I have myself walked' over and round the " sknll-hill " several times,, 
and saw no more resemblance to a skull than is to be seen in any number 
of mounds in a rocky country. I have, however, seen pictures and 
photographs considerably touched uj), so as to give some likeness to 
a skull. But if the cavities in which prejudiced eyes see a likeness to 
eye-sockets did not exist at the time of the Crucifixion, the misnomer 
loses even the shadow of i)lausibility. 

The real truth, however, is that Golgotha derived its name from au 
old Jewish tradition, which said that a skull was found there in ancient 
days which was identified by Solomon's wisdom as the skull of Adam, 
whose body was believed to be buried there. For this tradition there is 
a cloud of witnesses whose testimony must be regarded as conclusive. 
Here are some specimen quotations. Origen says : — 

" The Hebrews have a tradition about the Place of the Skull, viz., that the 
body of Adam was bm-ied there : that as in Adam all die, in Christ should all 
agrain be made alive." 

Epiphanius : — 

" Since the skiiU of the first man was found there, there also his remains- 
were buried, and for this reason the place where our Lord Jesus Christ was 
crucified received the surname of the Place of a Skull." 

Athanasius : — 

" Nowhere else did He suffer, nowhere else was He crucified, but at the 
Place of a Skull, which the doctors of the Hebrews say was Adam's Sepulchre."' 

Basil : — 

"According to the traditions of the Jews ihe skull of Adam was found 
there, and they also say that Solomon recognised it by his surpassing wisdom. 
For this reason they also say that place is called the Place of a Skull." 

Ambrose : — 

" There [Golgotha] is Adam's sepulchre ; that He [Christ] might raise up 
that dead man through His cross. Where, therefore, is the death of all in 
Adam, there is the resurrection of all in Christ." 

In his exposition of St. Matthew (Lib. x) he refers to the tradition of 
the Jews on this point. 
Jerome : — 

" Tradition has it that in this city [Jerusalem], nay, more, on this very 
spot, Adam lived and died. Tiic place where Our Lord was crucified is called 
Calvai-y because the skull of the primitive man was buried there. So it came 
to pass that the Second Adam, that is the blood of Christ, as it dropped from 
the cross, washed away the sin of the buried protoplast,^ the first Adam; and 
thus the words of the Apostle were fulfilled : ' Awake thou that sleepest and 

' See "Book of "Wisdom," vii, 1, wlierc mortal man is described as aTz6yo\'os 
irpu)TOir\affTov. 



THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 2S'5 

oriso from the dead, and Christ sliaH pive tlieo liij;ht.' " (Paula and Kustocli, 
" Ad. Marccll.," Ep. 46.) ' 

Let it be venietnbered tliat some of tlie writers wlmiii 1 liave fpKjted 
{e.g., Origeu in the East, ami Tertulliaii in tiie West), wrote lung before 
Constantine's recovery of the Holy Sepulchre, and their words imply tliat 
({olgotha was then a place well known to both Jews and Christians. 
There is not a hint or suspicion of the site being lost, not a doubt as* 
to its locality and the origin of the name. Origen, moreover, was- 
perfectly familiar with the topography of Palestine and Jerusalem, anci 
thoroughly vei'sed in Hebrew lore. We may take it then as absolutely 
certain that Golgotha was so called because Adam's skidl was believed to 
have been found there, and to lie buried with his body. The passage 
from St. Paul (Eph. v, 14) referred to above by St. Jerome is a quotation ; 
but the Apostle does not indicate its source. It is poetical in structure 
and the reference to Christ indicates a Christian origin. It is doubtless 
H ((notation from one of the "hymns and spiritual songs," of which the 
Apostle makes mention elsewhere, and it embalms an amalgamation of 
Jewish and Christian tradition, namely, that some of the second Adam's 
blood percolated thi'ough the ground, or through the fissure in the rock, 
and touched the body of the first Adam, who was thus one of those who 
r(«e from the dead, as related in St. Matthew xxvii, 52, h'i. 

Golgotha was, therefore, to Jew and Christian alike one of the holiest 
spots on earth. The Jew believed it to be the burial place of the first 
man, and the spot predestined to be the scene of the victory over the 
Evil One promised to the Woman's Seed. He believed it also to be the 
scene of the arrested sacrifice of his son by the Father of the Faithful.- 
Here then we have a clue to the triple crucifixion oji Golgotha. The 
Jews forced Pilate, against his conscience and his wife's warning, to 
crucify a man whom he had publicly pronounced innocent, and whose 
mysterious words bewildered and awed the superstitious and pusillani- 
mous Procurator. The threat to denounce him to Csesar as a fautor of 
sedition cowed the wretched man into obedience to the frenzied cries of 
" Crucify Him ! " But the iron of humiliation entered into the proud 
Roman's soul, and he determined on revenge. And what revenge so 
triumphant as to crucify his tormentors' Victim, with a I'obber right and. 
left of Him, on sacred Golgotha, with the mock trilingual title, which 
infuriated them, over His head ? Hence the emphasis with which the 
Evangelists tell that the Crucifixion was on Golgotha, where, according 
to the hymn quoted by St. Paul, the New Man met the Old and revived 

^ Cf. also Tcrtullian, "Adv. Marc," ii, p. 883. I liavc given the above 
quotations in the original, with references, in an article on " The Site of 
Golgotha " in the " Contemporary Review " of February, 1893. 

- The nan-ative in Gen. xxii does not say that the sacrifice of Isaac was 
to take place on Mount Moriah, but "'on one of the mountains" in "the 
Land of Moriah." Moriah thus appears at that time to have embraced the 
whole amphitheatre of hills which surrounded Jerusalem. 



286 THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

him by His life-giviug blood. To the iniuds of the early Hebrew Chris- 
tians, therefore, Golgotha presented no picture of executed criminals or 
hideous fisjure of death with its eyeless skull, but a place sacrosanct in 
their national traditions which the malice of the Jews and the vindictive- 
ness of Pilate had unknowingly conspired to fulfil. Golgotha was thus 
a place of which the vicinity would naturally be coveted by rich Jews of 
distinction and piety for their villas and gardens and family tombs. 

It is, therefore, evident that Golgotha was a place which would not 
easily pass out of the memories either of the Jews or Hebrew Christians. 

Let us now consider the principal objections against the traditional 
site. A learned supporter of the spurious site writes as follows : — 

" As to the tradition of ' more than fifteen centuries,' what is it worth 
in the face of the fact that at and after the Siege of Jerusalem by Titus 
the Christians fled from the city, and the Jewish population were either slain 
or carried captive; so that for perhaps a century or more tradition was 
absolutely broken, while the whole interior of the city was reduced to ruins 
and most of the old landmarks were erased ? " ^ 

"The Jewish population either slain or carried captive," forsooth ! 
when within about 60 years they reconquered their metropolis and most 
of the strongholds of Palestine, and held their own for two years against 
the might of the Roman Empire. And as to the Christians' flight to 
Pella beyond the Jordan, the exile lasted only about two years. After 
the fall of Jerusalem many of them returned to the city, and their 
ecclesiastical organisation then, as is evident from Eusebius, continued 
without interruption. Moreover, even those who abode at Pella till the 
reign of Trajan "enjoyed," as Gibbon (i, p. 461) says, "the comfort of 
making frequent visits to the Holy City," including, doubtless, pilgrim- 
ages to the sacred shrines of Golgotha and the Holy Sepulchre. Yet we 
are assured by objectors to the traditional site, from Robinson dow^nwards, 
that both Jews and Christians were excluded from the Holy City from 
the capture of Jerusalem by Titus to the reign of Constantine ! After 
the insurrection under Bar-Cochebas the Jews were forbidden and 
forcibly prevented from approaching the city within a distance of seven 
miles. That prohibition lasted for some centuries, though Constantine 
relaxed it so far as to allow the Jews, oli certain conditions, to behold the 
Holy City from the neighbouring bills. But the Christians of Palestine 
were exempted from the edict of proscription. "They elected Marcus 

for their bishop, a prelate of the race of the Gentiles At his 

persuasion the most considerable part of the congregation renounced the 
Mosaic law, in the practice of which they had persevered for a centuiy. 
By this sacrifice of their habits and prejudices they purchased a free 
admission to the colony of Hadrian " (Gibbon, i, 461). 

But " the city was reduced to ruins and most of the old landmarks 
were erased." How curious that able men should make random assertions 
without taking the trouble to verify them, and that, too, in a matter 

1 Letter to the " G-uardian " in December, 1892, from Professor Hull. 



TliK SIT1>: OF COLGOTIIA AND •IIIK IIOLV SKITLCIIIIK. 'JST 

where so much (lei)eii(ls on e.xaet accuracy. The clestiuctioii uf .Icnisali'iii 
was jiot nearly so tliorouufli as many iniii<^ine. .Joaephiis tells ns that 
Titus ^ave orders to spare the ])rincipal towejs whichdefeuded Jerusalem, 
as a lasting proof of the strength of the fortitications which rost him so 
much labour and blood to mastci'. Titus, niort'over, left the whole nf tin- 
Hdrth-western part nf the cit}' ccjuiparatively uninjured, ami repaired the 
Ijreaches in the wall to protect the garrison wliich remained to guard his 
conquest. That quarter of the city, therefore, underwent no material 
change, and it is there that the traditional site lies. The garrison left by 
Titus consisted of the tenth legion, s(Mne squadrons of cavaliy,an(l several 
cohorts of infantry. A quarter of the city where such a body of troops 
could be lodged cannot have been seriously demolished, and there is no 
reason to suppose that either Golgotha or the Holy Sepulchre under- 
went any change at all. 

Nor was the traditional site affected by the subsequent rebellion of the 
Jews and tlie reca])ture and more complete destruction of the Holy City. 
Some 10 years after our Lord's crucifixion Agrippa built the third wall, 
leaving a wide and thinly-peopled space between it and the second wall 
on the north-western side. This we may infer from the fact that Titus 
had during the siege a large Itody of troops encamped in this space 
between the two walls. To blot out the rebellious city from the page of 
history, and to disgust the Jews with it for ever, the Roman authorities 
did two things : they demolished the inliabited part of the old city — the 
city within the second wall ; transformed what remained into an Italic 
colony, and gave it a Roman name, which, however, never took root, and 
the city outside the second wall was commonly called " New Jerusalem " 
— an important link in the chain of evidence, as we shall see presently. 
The second thing that the Roman authorities did was to erect a temple 
to Jupiter, with two idol statues, on the site of the temple of Jehovah, 
and a temple with statue to Venus (the Hebrew Astarte) over Golgotha, 
the second sacred shrine of the Jews. The statues of Jupiter were still 
standing {71 situ while Constantine's Basilica over the Holy Sepulchre was 
in building, and Roman coins, with inscription and picture, attest the 
existence of the temple of Astarte over Golgotha and the Holy Sepulchre. 
That temple remained till it was removed by Constantine's oider. So 
that, in matter of fact, there never has been any hiatus in the evidence 
for the traditional site. Except during the two years' siege by Titus, 
Jerusalem has never been without a Christian community. The huge 
mound of earth which was piled over Golgotha and the Holy Sepulchre 
as a foundation for the idol temple did indeed conceal Golgotha and the 
Sepulchre ; but it also marked the site in<Uxbitably. We have thus two 
pieces of evidence, each of them sufficient to attest the site — a resident 
('hristian community without break, and a conspicuous lieathen temjile 
over the traditional site. 

This is the state of facts on which we are assured that all knowledge 
of the genuine site of the Holy Sepvdchre w;is lost between a.d. 70 and 
A.D. 18G7, when it was discovered and verified by a chain of evidence in 

T 



288 THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

wliicli " there is uctually not a link missing.'' That evidence is in its 
integrity before the reader. And the propoimders and supporters of this 
amazing assertion wave aside, as persons either grossly ignorant or 
incapable of weighing evidence, all who believe in the traditional site. 
They are assumed to be, like Constantine and the Christians of Palestine 
in A.D. 326, the victims of " a j^ious fraud," practised by Bishop Macarius 
of Jerusalem and some clerical confedei'ates at that date. A gentleman 
writing against myself on this subject eight years ago declared that " the 
age of Constantine and Helena was one in which religious credulity ran 
mad." And Mr. Hugh Price Hughes has recently infoi-med the readers 
of the "Westminster Gazette" (in a letter dated May 13th) that "the 
fourth century " was " a very ignorant and superstitious century." One 
is obliged to say, with all courtesy, that assertions like these prove the 
writers to have no real knowledge of the literature or intellectual history 
of the age which they thus characterise. If we take the period embraced 
by the united ages of Helena and Constantine, it contains such a galaxy 
of illustrious names in almost every depaitment of learning and intel- 
lectual eifort as no period of Christian history within the same limits of 
time can show. It embraces names like Origen and Tertullian at the 
one end, with the towering names of Augustin and Jerome at the 
other, and in the list are Athanasius, the two Cj^rils, Basil, Gregor\' 
of Nyssa and Gregory of Naziauzus, Chrysostom, the two Eusebiuses, 
Ambrose, and a host of others. It was an age also remarkable, not for 
credulity, but for critical inquiry. Arian and his followers — a brilliant 
band intellectually— aided by all the intellectual forces of Paganism, were 
finally marshalled by the Emperor Julian against Christianity. Never 
in the history of Christianity has there been such a trial of strength, 
exhibiting such varied skill and resource in offence and defence, as there 
was then between the assailants and defenders of Christianity. " Pious 
fraud," indeed ! when there was a legion of keen critics — Pagan, Jew, 
and heretic — to pounce on any weak spot in the armour of Christianity. 
Was the sneering and agile-minded Julian — who took Jews as well as 
Pagans under his patronage in his fanatical campaign against Christianity 
— likely to endure in silence Cyril's denunciations, delivered in the 
Chui'ch of the Holy Sepulchre, against the Emperor's attempt to rebuild 
the Temple, if he could have pointed to the Holy Sepulchre, 400 yards 
distant, as " a pious fraud " ? For if fraud there had been it was then 
too fresh to escape detection. The silence of Julian and his malevolent 
allies in Palestine is the best proof that there was no case against the 
traditional site. 

The one authentic account of the recovery — not " discovery," for it 
was never lost — of the Holy Sepulchre is that of Eusebius, Bishop of 
Ctesarea, in Palestine, who was an eye-witness of what he relates. He 
was one of the most distinguished writers of that or of any age, and one 
of the least credulous of mankind. He possessed the historical faculty in 
an eminent degree, and was of a cauti(nis and critical, not to say sceptical, 
temper ; so cautious, indeeti, was he that he accepted the Nicene definition 



THE SITH OK GOLGOTHA AND TIIK HOLY SKPULCHItK. 2.SII 

of t'hiist's Divinity with iciiutanco, .iiid \v;i.s .siispccti'd of luaiiin«( 

towanls semi-Arianism. Ami his reputation for critical sa^'acity and 

historical accuracy lias risen with our fuller knowled;,'e of those times. 

The joint editors of the Apocryphal (iospel and Kevelation of St. Peter 

(Canon Annitagc Robinson and Mr. James) pay a well-deseived tribute 

to his accuracy and critical acumen, and refer to him as " the Father of 

Church History," " who seems so well to have divined what would be of 

interest to readers who lived 1& centuries later than his own time'' 

(p. 15). Eusebius gives the ])articulars of the recovery of the Ilolv 

SepuIcJire in his "Life of Constantine " (eJiaps. xxvi-xlvi), which I 

have summarised as follows in my article in the " Contemiiorarv 
Eeview"' : — 

"The statement of Eusebius is that, in tlie year after the Nicene 
Council, Constantine, moved by a Divine impulse, after establishing 
peace throughout his empire, determined to do honour to the site of otn- 
Lord's resurrection, and accordingly commanded a churcli (fVKTTjpiou) to 
be built there. Neither here nor elsewhere in tlie liistorian's narrative 
is there the slightest indication that thei'e was any doubt as to the piecise 
locality. Eusebius proceeds : — 

"'This cave of salvation (Vo aMTqpiov iivrpov) certain impious and godless 
persons had thought to remove entirely from the eyes of men, supposing in 
their folly that they should bo able effectually to obscure tlie truth. 
Accordingly, with immense labour they brought a quantity of earth from 
a distance {iiaBtv) and covered up the whole place. Then, having raised 
this to a moderate height, they paved it with stone, concealing the divine cave 
(jb Qilov (h'Tpov) beneath this huge moimd.' 

"On this mound, he goes on to say, they erected a shrine for an 
iilolatrous statue of Venus, 'and offered detestable oblations there on 
profane and accursed altars.' ' These devices of impious and wicked men 
against the truth had prevailed for a long time, nor had any of the 
governors, or military commanders, or even any of the Emperors them- 
selves, ever yet appeared who had courage to abolish these daring 
impieties, except our Prince, befriended by God.' Here we have a proof 
that the site of Golgotha And the Holy Sepulchre and the purpose of the 
mound were known all along to the llomau authorities. By Constant ine's 
order the temple and statue were dostioyed. But ' the Empei'or's zeal 
did not end there.' He ordered 'the materials, stones and timber, to be 
carted as far as possible from that quarter.' He also ordered ' that the 
ground itself should be dug up to a considerable depth,' so that the soil 
brought thither might be removed ' to a far distant place.' ' And when 
another level appeared instead of the former— viz., the ground which lay 
l)elow — there at length appeared, beyond all hope, the solemn and all- 
holy witness (/xapTvpiov) of the Saviour's resurrection ; and thus the cave, 
a holy of holies, imaged the Saviour's revival, and, after being sunk in 
darkness, came to light again, and to those who witnessed the sight 
presented a numifest history of the wonders which had then been done, 

T 2 



290 THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

witnessing by facts more eloquentl> than by any voict- the i\'suiTectiou 
of the Saviour.' " 

Not a word does Eusebius say about any discovery of the Holy 
Sepulchre by means of miracle or Divine interposition. His narrative 
implies throughout that the site was known to everybody. ,He does 
say that the I'ecovery was Ijeyond all hope (nap' fXirlda Traa-av) ; and Con- 
stantine's letter to Macarius (given by Ensebius) speaks of the recovery 
of the Sepulchre as " this marvel " (toC $avfj.uTos tovtov). But the meaning 
is plain. The object of Hadrian having been to desecrate and efface a 
sacred Jewish shrine, it might well seem a " marvel " " beyond all ho])e " 
that, when the temple and artificial mound were removed, the Sepulchre 
was found intact. Not a word or hint does Eusebius drop of any miracle 
connected with the recovery of the Sepulchre. He does not say a word 
about Helena in this connection, though he says that she built a church 
at Bethlehem and another on the Mount of Olives. He is equally silent 
about the discovery of the crosses. Authentic history says nothing about 
the discovery of the site of the Sepulclu'e by Helena. Eusebius declares 
repeatedly and emphatically, and Constantine's own letter confirms him, 
that the desire to recover the Sepulchre originated, from a Divine 
impulse, in the Emperor's own mind long before he cairied out his wish- 
Three histoiians (Socrates, Theodoret, and Sozomen), writing a century- 
later, relate, with substantial agreement, that Helena, " divinely moved 
in her dreams" (Socr., Lib. J, c. xiii), made a journey to Jerusalem in 
her old age (about 80), and became thus the bearer of Constantine's (her 
son's) letter to the Bishop of Jerusalem, commissioning him to erect a 
splendid chuix-h over tlie Sepulchre regardless of cost. Helena does not 
appear to have known accurately the details of Hadrian's endeavour to 
efface all trace of Golgotha, and Socrates relates that on her arrival in 
Jerusalem she eagerly inquired where the Sepulchre was. " But when 
she was informed of the facts " she had the idol removed and the mound 
cleared away, when three crosses were found in the Sepulchre, with the 
titulus over the Saviour's cross lying detached. Helena "• was not a little 
distressed " by the uncertainty as to which was the true cross. " Not 
long afterwards " the doubt was resolved by the applicatioii of the three 
crosses to the body of a woman in Jerusalem who was seriously ill. Two 
crosses touched her in vain ; but the touch of the third cross cured hei'. 
Theodoret (Lib. i, c. xviii) and Sozonieu (Lib. ii, c. 1) agree with Socrates. 
In no single account is there the slightest reference to any dream, vision^ 
or miracle ancillary to the recovery of the Sepulchre. They all agree 
that the site was well known, though there was fear that the Sepulchre 
might have been destroyed in the construction of the superincumbent 
mound and temple. The oidy miracle mentioned is the cure of the sick 
woman by the touch of the cross, and to that Eusebius makes no allusion. 
And to dismiss that miracle contemptuously is hardly philosophical when 
men, who do not believe in Christianity, accept the e\idence for the 
miracles of Port Eoyal and the stigmata of Louise Latour. I shoulil 
have thought, too, that the recollection of a passage in Holy Writ 



TIIK SITE OF MOLCOTIIA AND Till.: IIULV SKl'llj IIKK. 2(jl 

(Acts xix, 11, 1-2) would have rostiaiiieil Mr. nu<,'li Piici' Jfuglios from 
■til iusimiation and a sneer wliieli others nii^ht turn ajjainst wliat he 
leveres. I am, liere, however, concerned only to sliow that the solitary 
miracle related in (his rouncit ion has nntliinir to do with the recovery 
of the Holy Sepulchre, and is not even nieutioiu'd by the eminent ami 
cautious historian who was an eye-witness of what he relates. 

And now I proceed to another link in the chain of evidence for the 
traditional site which of itself goes far to settle the question. In his 
"Life of Constantine" (Lih. iii, c. :^2), Eusebius .says that "on the very 
spt)t whicli witnessed tlie Saviour's suH'erings a new Jeru.salem was built 
over against the olil {di/TnTpiiaanos rf] TidXai), so celebrated, which, .since 
the foul stain of guilt brought on it by the murder of the Lord, had 
experienced the last extremity of desolation, the etl'ect of <livine 
judgment on its impious peoj)le. It was opposite this city that the 
Emperor now began to rear a ti'ophy of the Saviour's victory over death." 
This alone seems to me decisive of the controversy. The " New 
Jerusalem "" was the city outside the second wall. Constantine's churcli 
was in the " New Jerusalem," "over again.st the old," which crucified the 
Lord " without the gate." 

It seems that the revolt under Hadrian resulted in the entire destruc- 
tion of the city inside the second wall. The passage just quoted from 
Eusebius implies this, and it remained in ruins still later. For Jerome 
speaks of that part of Jerusalem in his day as reduced to cinders and 
ashe.s.i 

Those who repeat iiobiuson's coarse and absurd imputation of "pious 

' Eefen-iiig to the gates of Sion, whicli David " loved above all tlie 
tabernacles of Jacob," Jerome says: " Nou eas portas quas hodic ceriii\nus 
in favillam et einerem dissolutas " (" Ep. Ad. Eustocli. Epitaph. Pauhu " — 
Erasmus's Basle folio edition of 1565, torn, i, p. 172). I give these particulars 
because an editorial note calls attention to the fact that Hadrian so eidarged 
^'Elia Capitolina (" New Jerusalem ") towards the north that the places of 
the Resurrection and Crucifixion, '' which had formerly been outside the 
walls," were in the time of Jerome surrounded by a wall, i.e., the third wall 
{ut loca Eesin-rectionis ct inventa> erucis, qua prius cntra moenia fuerant 
;etate divi Hierouynii, septentrionali uiiu'o circumdarentur, ut ij)se testatur 
alibi). From his use of the plural (loca) Jerome evidently believed that 
the Cross was not found in tlu^ Se})ulchre, hut in some cave at Golgotha, 
which is more probable. The luiclean instruments of death had of course to 
be hurriedly hidden away before sundowu, and there is nothing improbable 
in their recovery during the excavation of A.u. 326. The course of the second 
wall, we thus know, was visible in Jerome's time, and his testimony as an eye- 
witness to its being then inside the traditional site is surely conclusive. 
Eucherius visited Jerusalem about a.d. 430, and describes it minutely, and 
especially Golgotha and the Holy Sepulchre. He, too, says plainly: "These 
places are seen outside Mount Siou, where a knoll of scanty size stands on 
the north" {see "Survey of Western Palestine: Jerusalem," p. 18). 15ut 
outside Mount Sion means outside the second wall, which enclosed Sion. 



292 THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AXP THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

fraud ■' fail to see tlie extraordinary inversion of reasoiuut;- wliicli their 
accusation involves. Persons who wish to palm oft" a pious fraud try to 
impart verisimilitude to their invention. They choose what is piobable 
and plausible, not what is violently ini])robable. If Macarius and liis 
supposed confederates— assuming for argument's sake the site to have 
been lost^had wished to gain credence for their alleged fraud, would 
they not have fixed it outside what was then the exterior wall ? They 
knew that Golgotha was outside the wall at the time of the Crucifixion : 
why did they select a site inside the wall ? Only one answer is j)0ssible : 
the genuine site was known to everybody. "We may confidently apply 
Tertulliau's axiomatic paradox to their choice : credo qina impossibile. 
The choice was an imjiossible one except on a basis of absohite certainty. 

I must hurry over some further pieces of evidence. Cyril, Bishop of 
Jerusalem, delivered his Catechetical Lectures in Constantine's Basilica. 
He testifies that in his time "there was a garden where Christ wa< 
crucified," " for though it was much adorned by the gifts of the Emperor, 
yet it was formerly a garden, and the evidence and remains of this 
continue (crv^jSoXa tovtov ^evei Koi X€i(f)ava).'' ' This is a most important 
fact. For by Jewish law no gardens were allowed inside the walls of the 
old city, with one exception — a rose gaiden, which dated from the tin)e 
of the i^rojihets.- 

There is evidence that Joseph's garden remained as Cyril describes it 
for centuries afterwards. Saint Williliald was in Jerusalem about .\.D. 
722. He visited Golgotha and Constantine's Church, and reports that 
" they were formerly outside of Jerusalem." " And near at hand is the 

garden in which was the sepulchre of our Saviour cut in the rock 

The bed on which our Lord's body rested stands within the rock on the 
north side, to the right of a man entering the Sepulchre to pray." ^ 

A Moslem traveller, 'Ali of Herat, describing the Holy Places in a.d. 
1173, says that the Church of the Resurrection " of old lay outside the 

city The Christians have in this ])Iace the rock which they say 

was split,' and from beneath which Adam rose up, because it stood under 
the place of the Crucifixion, as they relate. They have also here the 
garden of Joseph, surnamed As Siddik (the Truthful), which is much 
visited by pilgrims." ^ "We must distinguish here between what this 
Moslem writer reports as the belief of the resident Christians iUid his 
own observation. The church-enclosed tomb, he asserts on the evidenc 
of his own eyes, was in " the garden of Josejih '" ; which proves that it 
was then outside the second wall, since no gardens were allowed inside. 

' " Catecb.," xir, 5. 

- Stapfer, pp. 53, 62. See also Babjloiiian Talniud, Bnha Kammn, c. vii. 

•' "Survey of Weitern Palestine: Jerusalem," p. 2it. 

'' A natural rent right down the rock of Golgotliu from the spot where- 
tradition puts the Cross i§ plainly visible. If any rocks wore i-ent in syrapatliy 
•with that great tragedy — as Christians will find no difficulty in believing — 
certainly the rock of Golgotha must have been one of them. 

^ " Palestine under the Moslems," p. 208. 



Tin: SITK OF GOLUOTIIA AND Till; HOLY SEPULCHIii:. 2i)3 

Til the year 122"), after tlie recovery of Jerusalem by Saladiii, aiiDtlnT 
Moslem traveller of the name of Yakut gives an account of the Holy 
Seiailchre : — 

"It stands," be says, "in the middle of (lie city, and a wall surrounds il. 
There is here the tomb which the Christiiuis cull Al KayAmali (the Anastasis) 
because of their belief that the Resurrection of the Messiah took place here." 
It " stood anciently without the town .... There is here a rock which 
they say was split, and Adam arose from it; for the Crucifixion took place 
on the summit of the same. The Christians have also in this sjjot the (iardcii 
of Josepli the Trutld'ul, and visitation is made thereto."' 

Ilei'e, again, we have the independent testimony of a Moslem eye- 
witness to the existence of the garden in the thirteenth century, and, 
Iherefore, to the site being then clearly outside the second wall. 

Colonel Conder has thrown much valual)]e light on the archaeology of 
Palestine, especially eastward of the Joidan, and I gratefully acknow- 
ledge my own obligations to him. But the exploration of Jerusalem has 
been mainly the work of Sir Charles Warren and Sir Charles Wilson, 
and Colonel Conder's strictures on the traditional site lack the evidence of 
research and care which are apparent in his work generally. He appears 
to have relied chiefly on Eobinson, a most untrustworthy guide, and he is 
led astray, like so many others, by assuming that Golgotha was the Jews' 
place of public execution. It is probably on Robinson that he relies when 
he tells ns that " Eusebius gives a long description of the growth of New 
Jerusalem, to account for the position of Constautine's site almost in the 
heart of the town."- What Eusebius describes is not the growth of New 
Jerusalem, but the building of Constantine's Church in the New Jerusalem, 
and as to its length, it occupies 15 lines of Greek. He says expressly that 
the Church was iv fieaa of the cit}', at the dividing line between the new 
city outside the second vvall, and the old which lay in ruins within. 

But Colonel Conder otiers two arguments of his own against the 
traditional site which I must now briefly examine. The first is that 
Josephus says that the second wall " encireled the north quarter of the 
city," whereas the exclusion of the Holy Sepulchre would require the 
wall to be serpentine. His second objection, which he regards as decisive 
of the controversy, is that the exclusion of the traditional site would 
require the second wall to run in part through a valley ; and : — 

" No military man will suppose for a moment that the wall of a fortress 
could have been constructed in a deep valley and commanded from without 
by high ground immediately near. Fortresses stand on hills, not in deep 
valleys."^ 

But Colonel Conder strangely forgot that this is not a question of a 
fortress wall but of a city wall. The citiidel of Jerusalem had a wall 

' " Palestine under the Moslems," pp. 208-9. 
- " Tent Work in Palestine," p. 302. 
•' " Tent Work," p. lOi. 



294 THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

of its own, ami on its rocky height defied all the efforts of the Israelites 
to take it from its Jebusite inhabitants till the reign of David.' But the 
Israelites ot<upied the rest of the city, and surrounded it with a fortified 
wall. If Colonel Conder had looked at his Bible he would have found a 
complete answer to both his objections (2 Chron. xxvi, 9). The Septua- 
gint describes exactly the coui-se of the second wall as given in the 




ii; Siloam 



^ /J 



I — S .Towers qC Huijq Uzzi^Ux^ 



Scale 



accompanying map showing the line of which Dr. Schick believes he 
has discovered tiaces : — 

"And Ozias built towers in Jerusalem, and fortified them at the gate 
of the corner, and at the gate of the valley, and at the angles."- Here 



' 1 Chron. xi, 4-6. 

- Kot wKoSonTjaiv 'O'iias irvpyos ir 'UpovffaKi'iiJL, Ka'i iirl ri/v ■KvKt]v rtji ywvias 
Kai liri ri)v ■Kv\r)v t>)s (papayy/xos , kuI tiri tHjv yuiinuj}', Ka'i Kariffx^ot. 



TUK SITK OK GOLCOTIIA AND TIIK IIOTA' SKI'Cr.CHHK. 29r» 

we liave des. ribed exactly tlu' angular i-our.si- of Dr. Schick's maj), witli 
tlif abni]>t bend eastwanl at " tlie corner," where the traditional site is. 
•Of this Biblical descrii)tion Tacitus gives us a remarkable conliiination in 
Ills account. <if the siege by Titu.s. 1 had bettfr ([uote the passage in the 
original : — 

" Sod urbem arduam situ opera niolesqiie firinaveraiit quis rcl j'^'tn't xcilis 
mnnlrciliif ; nam duos coUes (i.e., Akra and Sioii) i in men sum cditos claudebanl 
.iiiii-i per arlrm. uhUqui ant retrovsus simiali, ui latera oppugnantium ad ictus 
pafescpreiit ; e.vfrema rupi.i abrup/a : el lurres, vhi mons jurisset, in sexaginta 
pedes, infer dere.ra in centenos vicenosqiie attollebantiir, mil a specie, ac procul 
iutuentibws pares : alia intus moenia, regiie ' circumjecta, conspicuoque I'astigio 
I arris Antonia."- 

Here we have specific and denionsti-ative evidence that the very con- 
ditions and pecub"anties in the course of tlie second wall, which, according- 
to Colonel Conder, tlie traditional site requires, and which he think.s .so 
impossible as to disprove absolutely the truth of tlie tradition, did, in 
fact, characterise the second wall. Never did objection more completely 
establish the position it assailed and destroy the cause which it was 
.summoned to support. The wall, says the historian, was made to run 
/'.igzag for a military reason, namely, to enable the defenders to take 
assailants, who attacked at close (juarters, in flank and rear as well as 
ill front. Tacitus says distinctly that even the low grounds were 
■efliciently protected by a fortified wall. I wonder, moreover, that it 
did not occur to Colonel Conder that wherever the course of the second 
wall may be fixed it must cross the valley of the Tyropoeon, which was 
much deeper at the time of the Crucifixion than now. There is nothino- 
in Colonel Conder's argument from Josephus's use of the word " encircle." 
The verb tyKVKkia is constantly used, like its English equivalent, in 
the sense of enclosing. Sir Charles Warren's explorations convinced 
him, as his convinced Dr. Schick, that ''in the time of Pilate" ''there 
was an indented wall bounding the northern portion ; the site of the 
Holy Sepulchre being in the re-entering angle irithout the wall, past 
which ran the main thoroughfare from Jerusalem to Jafla and Ciesarea.'"' 
Following this quotation is a bit of criticism so important that I must 
give it in Sir Charles Warren's own words :— 

'■ It is Avortliy of mention tiiat the walls of the present Church of the Holv 
Sepulchre, vvhicli, in all probability, stand on the lines of the former walls, are 
built square with the west wall of the Haram area [the site of the old Temjde], 
that old wall ascribed to the time of Herod. It is fuitlicr to be remarked tliat 
a lino, drawn tVuiu a point u few fool iiortli of the Holy Sepulchre, perpendicular 
to the old west wall of tiio Hiiraui area, passes tln-oiigh tjio remains of the 
portico (ascribed to ConstaiUine) »tiU existing in the market street, and runs 
straight down one of the principal thoroughfares, the AkabAt at Takijeli, to I lie 

' i.e., the Asmoncan dynasty, and afterwards the Herodean. 
- " Hist.," Lib. V, c. 1*1. 

^ "The Temple mid tlie Tonili." p. ;!7. 



206 THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AND TIIF, HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

catf of tlic Inspector in the Harain area. It luaj be naturallj inferred from 
this that this street existed when the site of the Holy Sepulchre was first built 
ever by Coustantine, and that advantage of the position was taken to give his 
portico one of the finest prospects that could be desired, a view iipoii and over 
tlie Temple area, and up to the Mount of Olives." 

This tallies exactly with the passage i)i Eusebiu.s describing Constan- 
tine's Church as built in the New Jerusalem " right over against the old." 
Sir Charles Warren continues : — 

*' This street is, in many parts, cut in the rock and appears to be one of the 
old streets of Jerusalem. If so, it would, from its position, have been the 
]n-incipal thoroughfare from the Antonia, Temple, and market of the Lower 
Citv to Jaffa and Csesarea. The city gate wonld have stood where Constantiue's 
])ortico was afterwards built, and now remains, and the thoroughfare beyond the 
wall would have passed close to the present [traditional] site of the Crucifixion." 

This harmonises in all particulars with the Gospel narrative : the 
procession along the "Via Dolorosa" to Golgotha ; the seizure of Simon 
of Cyrene coming in from the country along the principal thoroughfare 
to the market i^lace ; the passers-by railing at Jesus from the highway, 
a few paces from Golgotha ; and the jeering priests and scribes and 
elders, not mingling with the rabble outside the wall for fear of defile- 
ment (St. John xviii, 28), but flinging their insidts at Him from tlie w-alt 
across the road. 

To this may be added a corroborative piece of evidence furnished by 
Eusebius in his "Theophany'" (book iii, Sec. 61, English translation of 
Syriac version, j). 199) : — - 

" The grave itself was a cave which had recently been hewn out ; a cave 
that had now been cut out in a rock, and which had experienced (the reception 
of) no other body. For it was necessary that it, which was itself a wonder, 
should have the care of that Corpse only. For it is astonishing to se* even this 
rock, standing out erect and alone in a level land, and having only one caveni 
within it; lest, had there been many, the miracle of Him who overcame death 
sliould have been obscured." 

It is plain from this that the Holy Sepidchre was outside the .second 
wall in the time of Eusebius. Coustantine levelled the slope of the 
garden round about the Sepulclire to enable him to enclose it witliin his. 
Basilica. 

Arculfus, Bishop of (4aul, vi.sited Jerusalem about a.d. 68(i, and he 
gives a most interesting account of Golg(jtha and the Sepulchre. He 
describes the tomb as '' hewn out of the rock, 7 feet in length, and rising 
[i.e., the loculus] 3 i^alms above the floor." It was "broad enough to 
hold one man lying on his back." " Internally the stone of the rock 
remains in the original state, and still exhibits the mark of the work- 
man's tools. Its colour is not uniform, but a]ipears to be a mixture of 
white and red." "The exterior is covered with choice marble to the very 
roof, which is adorned with gold.'' 



THE sitp: ok (ioujotii.v and Tin: holy sEi'iii.ciii;i;. i'!)7 

I may add that while St. Mark xvi, 5, confirms the gemiiiieness of the 
traditional toiib, it is fatal to the s)niiious one, where the loculus is nri 
the left of a person enterinjf. 

One more little item of evidence may be jL,'iven before I conclude. 
On a piece of stone which Dr. Schick found among the rlehris wliich 
he unearthed near the Holy Sepulchre aie the letter.s IMP . . . 
PART . . . This Dr. Schick considers, with great probability, to be 
part of the w-ords Imperator Parthicus. Hadrian was one of the few 
Roman Emperors who bore that title, and the mutilated words are pro- 
bably a portion of the dedicatory inscription on the temple which he 
built to Vemis over the traditional site. 

I have by no means exhausted the evidence; but I have exhan.sted 
my sjjace, and I leave the reader to judge whether I have made good my 
thesis that this is not a case of strong evidence ajrainst weak, but of 
overwhelming evidence against none. Not a scrap of evidence which a 
lawyer or logician would look at is adducible in favour of the sjjurious 
.site, and not a single arch;eological or historical authority can be cited 
in its favour. All the experts of the Palestine Plxploration Fund — e.g.. 
Sir Charles Warren, Sir Charles Wilson, Dr. Chaplin, Colonel Conder, 
M. Clermont-Ganneau — think it iindeserviuj; of serious arccument. I 
have heard from several of them on the subject. 

I wrote to ask M. Clermont-Canneau's o]jiuion on the controversy as 
to the authenticity of the traditional site and its modern rival, telling him 
that I was going to write on the subject. I received a courteous reply, 
in which he said, inte)' alia, that iu his view " two questions dominate 
the situation : — (1) The second wall ought to be east of the Sepukhre ; 
(2) there were genuine Jewish sepulchres on the traditional site of an 
age not later than the time of Christ." On these two points M. Clermont- 
(ranneau is supported by all the experts. The existence of these ancient 
tombs is another piece of hardly disputable evidence that the traditional 
site is outside the second wall, since burials were not allowed within. 
I asked M. Clermont-Ganneau's permission to publish his letter, and, at 
the same time coi-rccting an obvious slip of the pen — " I'ouest " for " Test." 
I received the following reply. In his previous letter, M. Clermont- 
Ganneau expressed his surprise at " the infatuation " which induced so 
many of the British public to believe in " Gordon's tomb," adding that 
Gordon was no authority on topography or archaeology. The readers of 
the Quarterhf Statements will not need to be told that M. Clermont- 
Ganneaa is one of the first living authoiities on the topography and 
archfpology of Palestine. He is now Professor of Palestinian Arcluvology 
at the Sorbonne : — 

"1, AVENI"E DE l'AlMA, 

" Paris, 15 Jkui, 1901. 

" Clier Monsieur, — C'onime tous I'arcz justement suppose, c'est par suite 

d'un lapsus calami que j'ai mis ' oiiest ' pour 'est' dans la petite note en 

reponse a votrc question. Eicn (ju'elle contienne en gros ma fa^on de voir 

sur la question, je ne crois pas qu'elle soit sufllsante pour meritcr I'lionnour 



298 THE SITE OF GOLGOTHA AXD THE HOLY SEl'ULCHItE. 

d'etre citoe iextueUement dans votre article. A'ous pourriez tout simplemcnt 

dire en deux mots que je me suis toujours range dans le camp de ccux auxquels 

vous apportoz I'appui de vos conclusions personnclles. J'ai toujours ete d'avis 

que le Hammam-el-Batrak represcnte une partic du fosse qui courrait a I'ouest 

le second mur ; c'est aussi, si je iie me trompe, I'opiuion que Schick a formulee 

lui-meu:c plus tard, en I'otayant d'iui porta utes constatations faites sur le 

terrain mcnic. J'espere que votre article paraitra dans le prochain Statement, 

et \e mc propose de le lire avcc tout I'interet qui merite cette importante 

question. 

" Veuillez agreer, clier Monsieur, I'assurauce reiteree de mes meilleurs 

sentiments, 

" Clermont-GtAnneau." 

All who have really exaruiued the evidence will share M. Clermont- 
Ganneau's wonder at " the infatuation " M-hich has accepted, in lieu 
of the tra<litional site, a site for which no rational argument can 
be produced. And this fact has an aspect more serious tluin an 
arclutolo^'ical blunder. Here we find a number of excellent persons, 
all good and pions, and some of them able, intelligent, well-read, 
allowing their emotions or their jirejudices to reject what must at least be 
considered as exceedingly strong evidence in favour of the traditional 
site, and believing in the authenticity of a site on behalf of which they 
genuinely believe that they possess irrefragable evidence, whereas, in 
matter of fact, they possess none. This is a serious injury to the cause 
of our holy religion. There are those who will say — who, in fact, have 
said — " Behold an illustration of the evidence on which the Eesurrec- 
tion of Christ was believed under the influence of unreasoning and 
emotional enthusiasm ! " I implore, therefore, those who have encouraged 
and still support this extraordinary illusion, to examine the facts in the 
dry light of reason and evidence before they proceed further. I learn, 
to my amazement, that they have already given £2,000 for a plot of 
ground which is intrinsically not worth £20, and that they are now 
asking for £3,000 more to keep this " site " in order and give a salary of 
£70 a year to a caretaker I If this is persevered in one thing is 
inevitable. The believers in "Gordon's tomb " will never again be able 
to accuse the Eoman Church of " pious frauds." For neither Lourdes, 
nor La Salette, nor the Holy House of Loretto rests on a more complete 
absence of evidence for and a more complete mass of evidence against 
it than does the mound Ijeyond Jeremiah's Grotto which is pointed out 
by credulous enthusiasts as the site of the Crucifixion and Eesurrection. 

One more illustration of the carelessness with which the suppoi'tei-s 
of the spurious site have jumped to their conclusion must be noted here, 
because 1 have only just received authentic confirmation of my own 
recollection. Mr. Price Hughes says, in his "Cai-eful Article," that " the 
trough or groove in which the circular stone [that closed the tomb] 
revolved has been laid bare. That rolling stone was at least 5 feet 
in diameter. ' I felt convinced on reading this that Mr. Price Hughes 
had made a mistake. But wishing to be (|uite sure, I wrote to Jerusalem 



TIIK SITE OF Till", lloLV SKm/'IIIiE. 2'.)0 

to Dr. Schick for inforiuation. I liave just icct-ivetl his answer, in 
whicli he says : — "It was not with a ruuml or niillstone-like slune, Imt 
with a reguhir door, witli lock antl Iiinges, tliat this tomb was (.lused, as 
can l)i> clearly seen." The"troiig]i or groove" that Mr. Price Hughes 
has mistaken for the receptacle of a circular stone dooi' is, in fact, one of 
the grooves in which the slabs were fixed for the recej)tacie of other 
bodies. The absence of these slabs is Mr. Hughes's proof (following 
Mr. Haskett Smith) that the tomb was never finished. But the slabs 
were in situ, and the tomb was full of bones and mould when it was 
first insi^ected by Dr. Schick, showing not (jnly that the tnmb was 
finished, but that it was full of human remains. As the tomb stands, 
it is not Jewish at all, but indubitably Christiaii, and long subscipient 
to the time of Christ. 



OX THE SITE OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

By Eev. Francis Gell, M.A., Hector of Ripple, Hon. Canon of Worcester 
Cathedral, and Chaplain to tlie Loid Bishop of Worcester. 

We are witnessing a recrudescence of the old controversy as to the real 
site of Golgotha, and we shall, perhaps, be told that it is a sign of the 
tlecay of faith. It has been remarked that, as true faith in the Divine 
person of the Lord Jesus ebbed and flowed, the ebb has always been 
marked by an almost feverish desire to find, what will probably never be 
f(jund in our time, the exact spot Avhere the greatest ciime man ever 
committed was perpetrated, and the greatest deliverance man ever 
experienced was accomplished. 

Of late years the saintly eminence of Gordon, backed by the topical 
knowledge of Conder, has given currency to a theory which has a certain 
sort of plausibility. On the other hand, the revived ecclesiasticism of 
the day has contended against it with some ingenuity, and polished uj) 
the Old arguments for the traditional site, which has at least the 
advantage of ancient prescription in its favour, if it has nothing else. 

Otto Thenius, in 1849, was, I believe, the first to suggest that the 
striking mound just outside the Damascus Gate was the true place of the 
Crucifixion ; and Gordon, holiest of soldiers, who was, unfortunately, 
neither an Orientalist nor a topograj)her, adopted this theory. Like the 
sweet singer who composed those tripping verses, sung by every English 
child the world over, "There is a green hill far away, outside a city 
wall," he fell into the venerable blunder of suppo.sing that Calvary was a 
hill ; and the children who .sang that simple ditty grew up to belie\e 
that it must be a hill just outside the existing city wall ; and have thus 
been prepared to accept witli acclamation from a Christian hero and a 
diligent and learned explorer, what 1 venture to call the Gordnu myth. 



300 



THE SITE OF THE IIOLV SEPULCHKE. 



W'c liear of large subscrii^tious paid down to keep the favoured spot from 
desecration, and of fervent believers who are pi-epared to pa}' three or 
four times its value to become its possessors. If those ladies and gentle- 
men have actually parted with their money, I can scarcely liope to 
convince them of the improbability of their theory ; but having given 
nearly two months to the careful study of the site of Calvary on the spot, 
and some years of reading and reflection upon it since, I may beg the 
many reasonable persons who are interested in the topography of 
Jerusalem to entertain, at least with patience, a few consideiations from 
one who is not swept away by prepossessions, and who does not feel sure 
even of the site which he believes has most to say for itself. 




COOrBET 



One of the earliest and soundest archaeologists in Jerusalem, when I 
resided there, was Dr. Rosen, the Prussian Consul. He entered with 
kindly zest into my investigations, and suggested a line of ai-gument 
wliich was quite new to me, but which my Indian experience at once 
accepted as sound. He had noticed that wherever ground has been 
thickly covered by buildings the soil itself testifies unmistakably to the 
fact. Applying this test to the suburbs of Jerusalem, he constructed a 
chart, a copy of which accompanies this paper, showing that the northern 
suburb of the city extended considerably beyond and all round the knoll, 
el-Heidliemiyeh — now generally christened " Gordon's Calvary." As far 
as it goes this argument proves that the place was at the time of the 



THK SITE OF THE HOLY SEPLLCHKE. :j01 

t'rucitixion iu tlie middle of a large and populous suburb. We kuow 
that every ve<tige of buildin<,' there v,-a» afterwards razed t<. tlie inc'ind ; 
but the tell-tale soil still testifies to the fact that a considerable portion of 
the ground within the thinl wall built by Agrippa 11 or 12 years after- 
wards to protect it, was then covered by buildings to accommodate the 
vast crowds who assembled at the Passover. 

There is i«ome conflict of testimony as tu the numbers usually present 
at that time in and near Jerusalem. Josephus has been, perliaps, too 
much discredited by reason of his patrioti'j exa<.'gei-ation ; but careful 
calculations have estimated the normal jjopulation of Jerusalem in the 
time of Christ at 70,000, which would certainly be doubled or treble<l 
<lnring the Feast days ; so that however largely we may discount the 
two or three millions of the Jewish historian, there remains a popidation 
far Ijeyond the capacities of the old city, unless the i>eople stood upon each 
others heads. 97,000 are said to have been made captive Ijy Titus, and 
40,000 more were set at liberty, and yet that was at a time when every 
soul who could escape out of the doomed city had fled. Such multitudes 
could never have been crammed into that part of the city behind 
the second wall, wherever it was, especially when the great northern 
plateau presented unlimited means for expansion. I think any unpre- 
judiced person reading the history of the siege woidd gather that a large 
s|jace intervened between tlie tliiid and second walls, and as Dr. Rosen's 
Terrainkai-te shows, a good deal of the eastern part of it was not built 
upon. T'jbler, no mean authority, believed the third wall reached north- 
ward nearly to the tomb of Helena of ,^diabene, to give room for the 
90 tower.'-, 2(Ki cubits apart, which stood upon it; alnwst all traces of which 
appear to have been swept away. Is it in the least degree probable that 
the place of execution selected by Pilate, or his centurions, for the three 
cros-ses, would liave been in the very middle of a thickly po]iulated suburb 
of fanatical Jews i Even supposing that the knoll had not been utilised 
for some shrine (and we know tliat subsequently a Byzantine church 
>tood upon it), would it have been in the least likely that such a place 
would have been desecrated by the disgraceful punishment of criminals 
condemned by Roman law ? We forget how terribly disgraceful, and 
even obscene, that punishment was, because to us, " the shameful cross " 
now symbolises the highest point of Divine self-sacrifice. Moreover, we 
have it from Dr. Chaplin that the knoU was a place of Jewish execution 
by stoning, and in the Talmud is called Beth-ha-sekela, But our L<jrd 
suffered at the hands of Roman executioners ; and the place of Jewish 
executions, even if it could be proved that it was .so then, would have 
been the last place where the Roman law would have been carried out. 
This consideration should give the advocates of this locality pause. But 
the final and, to my mind, conclusive argument against it, is the univers.'il 
and scriptural conviction that the Crucifixion fulfilled the type to which 
the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews refers (xiii, 11, 12), and that the 
direction, " without the camp," in Leviticus iv, 11, 12, 21, meant without 
the city which represented it. Thus independently of all arguments 



;]02 THE SITE OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

drawn from the direction of the walls (which lead, as we knew, to an 
interminable wrangle), but merely on the showing of Dr. Rosen's ma]) 
there can be no doubt that the inhabited city did extend, in our Lord's 
time, to the northward of the j^iesent wall, and we are driven to the 
conclusion tliat we must look for the jjlace of Crucifixion, and of the 
sepulchre outside the city somewhere on that northern plateau. 

In 1865 I ]iointed out to Dr. Oobat, the then Bishop of Jerusalem, 
and to Dr. Barclay, that the Levitieal ritual required' that the carcase of 
the burnt offering, represented in antitype by the Crucifixion, should be 
consumed north of tlie :dtar. The Bishop at once adopted the inference, 
and told me that when he first knew the city, there were considei'able 
remains of tombs on the north side, near the slope into the Kedron 
Valley, which, Avhen he returned as bishop, had been broken open or lost 
sight of. I am glad to see that such an authority as Sir Charles Wilson, 
in the new edition of the " Dictionary of tlie Bible," adojits the opinion 
that the northern plateau is the most probable site for the sepulchre. 

Of course, if these alignments are sound they dispose of what is called 
the "traditional" site. In full view of all that has been so ably said in 
defence of that site, the fatal oljjections of Dr. Robinson are unanswered. 
The facility with which the transference of holy sites was made, in very 
early times, is known to all students of history (see a valuable article by 
Mr. Simpson in the Quarterly Statement for January, 1879), the total lack 
of the " topographical instinct," as proved by many instances, in days when 
few could read oi' write — and the absolute subjection of reason to faith 
in those who could — incline all who have no prepossession to think 
St. Willibald was not far wrong when he said that Helena had "arranged" 
that the place which was formerly outside should be inside th- city : (see 
"Hodceporicou," XVIII, Pilgrims' Text Society, p. 19), and in that age who 
could possibly object to it \ Similar "arrangements," for the sake of con- 
venience, are met with everywhere. What but convenience ruled the 
" invention " of the ci'oss, together with the tablet which Pilate wrote to 
affix ujjon it, and " arranged " the stone of unction and the ]>illai- of the 
fiagellation, and all the rest of it ? And when the pious custodians had, 
without any idea of fraud, " arranged " objects and places of interest to 
their liking, a wealth of legendary association clustei-ed round them, and 
it became worth no one's while to dispute them. Why sliould any one 
do so % The facts were the really important things. The exact places 
where they wei'e enacted was a very small matter. So we get venerable 
churches, built in impossible places, yet purporting to be on the very 
spots ; and venerable " fathers " by the score proving that they had seen 
the localities two or three hundred years afterwards, and had no doubt 
whatever about it ; till now it becomes difficult to plead for strict 
adherence to the only reliable documentary evidence we have, and to 
insist on squaring our topography with fair inferences from history and 
the Holy Scriptiu-es. 

Let me enumei'ate some of tlie essentials for the iilentific;>tinn of the 

» Lev. i, 10-11 ; iv, 21. 



TiiK siTK nv rm; ]\o\A\ sivrri.riii;K. 30:] 

true sepulchre ; and I do not tliiiik those who have clo^elv stiulie.l the 
matter will demur to any one of them : — 

1. It must he ill a lianh'ii. St. .loliii xix, 41. 

2. It must be Iiewn out of tlie lock. St. Mattliew xxvii, (i(3. 

3. It must be the tomb of a rich Jew of tlie Jlerodian period 

St. Matthew xxvii, 57, &<•. 

4. It must be close to the place of the Crucitixion. St. John xix, 41. 

5. It must be near a high road. St. Matthew xxvii, 3!>, 41 '; St. 

Mark xv, 29 ; St. Luke xxiii, 26. 
<>. It must have been quite new, and therefore would have had then 
no loculi or kokim. St. John xix, 41 ; St. Luke xxiii, 53. 

7. The place of the Crucifixion, which was close to it, must be where 

it could be .seen " afar off." St. Matthew xxvii, 55. 

8. It must be clearly outside all the inhabited jiarfs r.f the city. 

Hebrews xiii, 11. 
!). The tomb must be a chamber in which at least five people at ojie 
time could move about and converse. St. Luke xxiv, 4, ]o. 

10. It must be closed by a great rolling stone. St. Matthew xxviii, 

2, 4 ; St. Mark xvi, 4, &c. 

1 1. It must be " nigh unto the city " (St. John xix, 20), but far enough 

for persons coming to it and going from it, to miss each other 
on the way (compare the various visits to the tomb). 

12. The tomb must be so constructeil that a person close to it must 

stoop down in order to look into it. ,See St. John xx, 11 ; 
St. Luke xxiv, 12. 
J 3. And yet so that persons sitting "over against it," ie., at some 
distance, could see into it, and oltserve "how the body of Jesus 
was laid" in it. St, Matthew xxvii, 61 ; St. Luke xxiii, 55 ; 
St. Mark xv, 47. 

These are a few of the indications given us iu Scrijjture to guide us 
as to the kind <.f sepulchre which received the dead body of our Lord 
and from which he was raised on the third day. There "may be more ; 
but these are enough to give a high probability to any tomb which' 
combines them all. Over 500 rock tombs have lieen carefully examined bv 
the agents of the Fund in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem. They need 
not be compaied, because Sir Charles Wilson says in his pajier (Qiiarterlif 
Statement for 1869, p. 67), with which I concur, that the most complete of 
all yet discovered is the Kubur es-Saladeen. This tomb has gone through 
many vicissitudes and been called by different names. In "Joseph us "it 
is called the Monument of Helena, Queen of Adiabene, a Jewish proselyte 
who adopted it, and whose sarcophagus was " appropriated •' by De Saulcv 
in 1803, and is now in the Louvre. The tomb is now called the Tombs 
of the Kings, probably because there is no evidence that any king was 
ever buried in it. As a typical Jewish tomb of the time of Herod, 
however, it has a special value for us, containing, iu a condition of more 
or less preservation, all tlie foiu- members of a ri'.h man's tomb of that 

U 



• > 



04 THE SITE OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 



period. i.<?., first, a garden ; secondly, a vestibule or ante-cluiiuber ; thirdly, 
ail embahuino- chamber ; and fourthly, loculi, arcosolia, or kokim, exca- 
vated as they were required by deaths in the family or friends of the 
owner — the whole called the sepulchre. As that in which our Lonl 
was buried was just dug, " wherein never before man was laid," it would, 
at that time, have had no additional chamber or loculi. 

Armed with these tests, my very first object on reaching Jerusalem 
was to applv them to Tombs of the Kings, which I need not describe, as 
thev have been carefully described by our agents. Leaving the Bab 
el-Aumd by the great north road, I easily found the excavated gai'den 
near the road side, approached by 25 steps down to a doorway through a 
wall of rock. There was the vesti1>ule with the tank for water required 
for the ablution — there the 3-foot square entrance below the level of the 
floor of the vestibule — there the greater part of the rolling stone by which 
the entrance was closed ; and there, on the ai^chitrave, not only the 
triglyphs and patene of the Debased Doric of the Herodian period, Ijut 
the grapes in the central meto])e, indicating that the tomb originally 
belonged to a rich Jew. Entering the chamber, I found it 19 feet square, 
surrounded by a stone ledge or seat, except wliere the rock wall has been 
since pierced by doorways to other chambers. 

These observations disposed of Xos. 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 14. 
There remained 12 and 13. As to 12, it was clear after trial that a 
person near the entrance or in the vestibule, must stoop to see into the 
tomb chaudjer. But the women " sat over against the sepulchre," and 
from that point " beheld how the body was laid." Leaving the excavated 
garden I ascended on to tlie plateau, and seating myself on the north- 
western side of the excavation I found I could see through the 3-foot 
squar-e opening into the embalming chamber, in the middle of which 
I desired my servant to lie down ; but it was too dark to see much 
of him till I called to him to take off his dark 1)lue embroidered 
jacket, and as soon as he did so, and lay in his white shirt, I could 
distinctly see "how his body was laid." The tomb being new, the 
paving slab, which was ultimately to conceal the entire entrance, had 
not been laid over the opening in tlie floor of the vestibule. It was 
therefore possible for the Jews to see the Governor's seal aflixed to the 
rolling stone. This disposed of tests Nos. 12 and 13, and the facts were 
so striking in their undesigned coincidence with the New Testament 
narrative, that at that time I had no doubt I was looking on the spot 
where the bc)dy of Jesus bad lain. T do not feel sure of it now, but ever 
since I have felt assured that if that tomb is not the tomb, it must have 
been one in that neighbourhood, and similar to it. It is not above seven 
minutes' walk from the place where, according to Eosen, Josephus, 
Tobler, &c., the city suburb extended in our Lord's time. It is near a high 
road, and, though I altogether repudiate the cockaureiiess of some of our 
friends, it has a stronger claim than any other existing sepulchre to the 
honour of having been the mortuary chamber in which our Lord's body 
was temporarily laid. But certainty is forbidden us ; good reasons for 



TIIK i;riN AT Kin'f.-KET. RKIT SAAVIl;. 'SO') 

wliicii .lie not far to seek. Meaiitiiiic we inav well utilise Hit- Iii-ljt 
it affords us in realisinj;' tlic most iin|)nit.int eve ul that ever took j»lace 
in the wurld. 

God forbid that in tins faitliiess ai;e I shoulil speak scornfully even 
of erroneous beliefs. I can never fori^et how, on one occasion, 1 climhed 
to the top of that canopy (is it a baldachino ?) covering the traditional 
tonil), and lay there for an hour or more nnobsei-ved ; j^'aziu'^- down 
through the open work I saw ^n-ouj) after <fi-oup of frowsy pilgrims from 
the farthest corners of Russia, pressing as near as they could get to the 
tond) slab to pour out their sorrows, while streaming tears poured down 
l)rown cheeks — not of women only, but of hardy men, whose passionate 
devotion shamed my own cold heart, because they believed, what I knew 
was a fable, that their dear Lord and mine had been buried in that tiny 
marble cabinet, which monks pei'suaded Constantine and Helena had 
been the sepulchre of Christ. 



THE RUIN AT KHUliBK'i' BEIT SAWIK. 

By Rev. J. E. Hanauer and Dr. E. W. Gurney Mastermax. 

Wr are sending some photographs taken by us when on a visit to 
a ruin north of the nevr carriage road to Hebron, just before the 
said road turns south to El Arrub, and situated some 350 paces 
from the road itself, near the 20th kilometre stone from Jerusalem. 

The photographs ai-e not a great success, as the day was a bad 
one, and a fine rain was actually falling when they were being 
taken, but they show in a general view the megalithic nature of 
the remains to which we wish to call attention. 

In the "Memoirs," vol. iii, p. 351, under the heading " Khfirbet 
Beit Sawir," the ruin is thus referred to : — " About half a mile to 
the south " (i.e., of Kliurbet Beit Sawir) " is an ancient tower, 
visible from the Hebron Road ; it is 22 paces square, and consists 
of large, roughly-squared stones 8 or 9 feet long, 5 feet wide, and 
1 fooi 4 inches thick. The stone is much worn, and there is no 
trace of mortar. The tower has fallen over to the south, and on 
that side is a large cistern, the mouth partly closed by a slab like 
those in the tower. This tower has an appearance of great 
antiquity. Some three or four cour.ses" (there are still, as the 
photographs show, six in the westei-n wall) " remain in the walls," 
which, according to our measurements of January 9th, 1901, form 
two sides of a squai'e of 14 metres outside and 12"50 inside. 

U 2 



306 



THE KUIN AT KHURBET BEIT SAWIlt. 



With the general description given in the " ^Memoirs " wc are 
in agreement, but it seems to us tliat the ruin is worthy of a more 
detailed study. 

In the first place, the orientation of the building is interesting, 
inasmuch as it is exactly to the points of the compass ; or, to be 
more accurate, the only wall standing, viz., the west one, shown 
in the photographs, runs exactly north and south. The south 
wall is ahnost entirely thrown down, the great slabs of which it 
was built standing on edge in parallel lines on the ground, but it 
is evident that it was bailt at right augles to the west wall. This 




south wall shows clear traces of having been of six courses, all of 
which, except the lowest, having been shot out one beyond the 
other down the slight declivity, and looking at first sight like the 
broken ends of a sei'ies of limestone strata. Of the north wall 
not a trace remains, and of the east wall only the slightest 
indications. Indeed, according to the very massive way the other 
sides have been built, it is hard to believe that there ever had 
been walls on these two sides. It is, however, possible that such 
was the case, as the building is on a hill-slojie, the lowest part 
being the south-west corner, and the highest where the north-east 



NOTES ON Tin; " QrAi(TEi;;.v statkment." .".07 

coiner was. and so it is possible that (lie two wall.-- supported an 
earth platform. 'I'lie huildino- is hii;h up on a hill-side, aiul 
<;ommands au extensive view in all directions, as well as over- 
lookinsi' the valley below. Tt is doubtless e.vtreniely ancient and 
primitive, and we would su}4'<>;e8t that it may have been a " hi<^li 
place" or "hill sanctuary" for sacrifice, and, furthermore, that 
the way the south side has been thrown down wf)uld make us 
think that this " IJamiih " had been intentionally destroyed. 



NOTES ON THE JANUARY "QUARTERLY STATKMENT." 

P. 54. — M. Clermont-Ganneau's conjectural identification of the 
inscription found at Tell Sandahannah in three incomplete lines, 
with a dedication to Queen Arsinoe, is very interesting. It should 
be observed, however, that in my brief account (October Quarterhj 
Statement, p. 339) I noted that the letters NO (in the incomplete 
word read Arsinoe by M. Ganneau) " are interpolations made 
after the stone was defaced, as they are thinner in character than 
the rest of the inscription, and are sharply cut over traces of 
other letters." The nature of these letters may be seen in the 
two squeezes I now send, though their palimpsest character does 
not clearly appear. It is possible I may be wrong in the latter 
conjecture, bat as I expect to be in Jerusalem in May, I shall 
study the original afresh and try to obtain better squeezes. 

P. 58. — M. Ganneau's suggestion that the small lead figures, 
bound with coils of iron, bronze, or lead, were intended to repre- 
sent the victims of incantation, was not new to us. Our report 
was written under great pressure immediately after the excava- 
tions were closed, and we were obliged to confine ourselves mainly 
to description. 1 called these figures "captives," from tlu- 
alternative theory that they i-epresented votive offerings after 
a battle. The view adopted by M. Ganneau appears to nie on 
the whole to be the more probable. 

K. J. B. 



:JOS 



NOTICES OF FOREIGN PUBLICATIONS. 

Flavins Josephus\ Jiidischer Krieg, by Professor Doctor Philipp Kohodt, 
Linz, 1901. — A German translation of the " History of the Jewish War," 
l>y Josephiis, from the most recent text. The most notable feature of tlie 
book is tlie space, one-third of the whole wcn'k, devoted to arch:eological, 
historical, and topographical notes and comments. There is also a very 
useful index. The translator has made much use of German publications, 
especially of Dr. Schick's monograph on the Temple, and of his papers in 
the " Zeitschrift des Deutsehen Paliistina Vereius. ' 

La 2Iontagne d<; la Galilee, oil le Seigneur appanU aux A/jotres 
(Matthew xxviii, 16) est le Mont Thabor, by Father Barnab6, d' Alsace, 
O.F.M., Jei'usalem, 1901. — This is an attempt to prove that Mount 
Tabor is the mountain in Galilee upon which, according to Matthew 
xxviii, 16, Christ ajjpeared to the eleven disciples after his resurrection. 
The proposed identification first appeal's in the record of the pilgrimage 
of Theodosius (525 a.d.), but tlie tradition that the mountain of the 
Apparition was the same as that of the Transfiguration was ))robably 
earlier. Although the conclusions cannot always be accepted. Father 
Barnabe has done good service by bringing together passages from early 
writers which bear upon the subject. He also shows clearly the untrust- 
worthy nature of the traditions that have gathered round the spot on 
the ridge of Olivet which is now called Viri Galilei or Mans Galilea. 
The book is a companion to the author's " Mount Tabor," previously 
noticed. 

Recueil <X Archeologie Orientale, vol. iv, parts 11-16, by M. Clermont- 
Ganneau, M.I., Paris, 1901. — Translations of four of the articles have 
already appeax'ed in the Quarterly Statement: "The Eonian Inscriptions 
of the Jerusalem Aqueduct " ; " The beautiful Sime of Eleutheropolis " ; 
" Rhodian Pottery in Palestine "' ; and " The Seal of the Leper House of 
St. Lazarus at Jerusalem." In " Le Zeus Madbachos et le Zeus B6mos 
des Semites," p. 164, M. Ganneau points out that the Amei'ican expedi- 
tion to Noi'thern Syria has confirmed a previous suggestion of his, that 
the word Madbachos is connected with the Aramaean Madhah, " altar " ; 
and that Zeus Madbachos is equivalent to Zeus Bomos. In " Le trone 
et I'autel chez les Semites," p. 247, the author, whilst favouralily noticing 
a paper by Father Lagrange in the "Ilevue Biblique," pp. 216-251, 1901, 
examines the meaning of the motah of the great Nabatiean God, in the 
expression " Dusares and his motab." He suggests that the }/(oto& may 
have been the black square stone of Petra, upon which sacrifices were 
offered and libations were poured, and which i)assed in anticjuity as a 
personification of the deity who was in some sense incorporated with it. 
M. Ganneau asks whether this stone was not at once the altar, and throne 
— the niotab — of Dusai'es, perfectly distinct, at least at first, from his 



NOTICES OK FOltElON iri;i,|( ATlU.NS. I'.Ol) 

personality. Following upon this it is not impossible that popular 
superstition fuded by admitting the real presence of the god, and by 
identifying him with his own motid). hi " Le periple d.-s Zakkari," 
p. 250, M. Ganneau discusses the origin of the Zakkari, mentioned in the 
"Papyrus Golcnischeff," who formed part of the in-e-Israelite jiopulation 
of Palestine, and apparently lived on the coast near ( 'armel, possibly at 
Dor. It is proposed to connect them with the Dacharenoi, mentioned by 
Stejjhen of Byzantium, and to consider thera as forming part of the 
ethnic grou]), known later as Nabatii-an. They have po.ssibly left a 
trace of their jjresence in Palestine in the common jilace-name Bhihriu, 
and perhaps, also, in Zakarfya. M. Ganneau throw.s out an ingenious 
suggestion that the Shalmn, Shalamu, or Shalimu (C.T.S., ii, 197), may 
have belonged to the Nabattean grouj), and have once lived near Jeru- 
.salem, which perhaps bears a trace of their name. 

Revue Bihllque, vol. x, part 2, li)OI. — The number contains a learned 
])aper on sacred stones and enclosures, " Enceintes et pierres sacrees," 
by Father Lagrange, the Superior of the Dominican -Monastery of St. 
Stephen, at Jerusalem. The paper forms part 2 of the writei-'s " Etudes 
sur les religions Somitiques," and deserves perusal by students of the 
Bible. Justice cannot be done to it in a brief notice. Father Vincent, 
in his article on " Piude Stone Monuments in Western Palestine,"' shows 
that Colonel Conder's broad generalisation that no dolmens, menhirs, or 
ancient circles have been discovered in Judiiea needs modification. He 
describes a number of dolmens and ruile tombs that have been found on 
tlie eastern slope of the ridge of Palestine, between Tekoa on the south 
and Bethel on the north. The paper is well illustrated by plans, 
sections, and sketches, and is a valuable addition to our knowledge of 
primitive remains in Palestine. 

Zeitschrift des Deutschen PalHstiua \''(>reins, vol. xxiv, part 1, 1901. — 
Pi'ofessor Doctor Rohricht jMiblishes a lecord of the journey of Duke 
Henry of Saxony to Jerusalem in 1498. , There is little that is new in 
the diary, but the information respecting the ownership of the Holy 
Places at that period is not without interest. Dr. Littmann gives an 
Arabic list of the Bedawi tribes east of Jordan, with transliteration and 
notes ; and Herr Bauer gives an interesting and useful list of the vax'ious 
articles of clothing and ornament which are iji use amongst the Arabs of 
Palestine. 

C. AV. \\'. 

The Tombs of the Prophets, "■ Kabilr el-^Anbid," at Jerusalem, by 
Father Vincent "(from the " Revue Biblique," x, p. 72 f, 1901).— The sill 
of the enti'ance must be about 3o0 metres' below the surface of the 
ground. As the rock falls away very rapidly at this ))oint three or four 

^ The measurements are given in metres. On tlie plan and sections there 
are scales of feet and mf'tres. 



olO NOTICES OI' FOlfEK.X rUBLlC.VTIONS. 

steps were apparently sufficient to rearh the interior. The eight steps 
restored in M. Schick's plan' lepresent neither the original condition nor 
the few rude steps in the rubbisli -which now obstructs the passage. On 
the outside no truce can be seen of any arrangement for closing the 
entrance. The doorway exca.vated in the solid rock is continued in the 
form of a passage which has a mean length of ^"65 meti-es, and an 
internal width of 1"60 metres. This passage was closed, at two-thirds of 
its length, by a swing door, too large, jirobably, to have been of stone ; 
the positions of the hinges and bolts can still l)e seen. Judging from the 
marks they have left on the rock, the latter were of iron. After 
traversing the passage one enters an almost circular chamber which has 
a mean diameter of 7 metres. Here the attention is at once arrested by 
the character of the ceiling which, instead of being horizontal, slopes 
upward, following the natui'al lie of the rock, and at one point approaches 
tlic surface .so closelv that the thin roof has fallen in. The ceilins: is 
pierced also by an artificial aperture, roughly circular, which has a major 
axis of riO metres, and has no symmetrical connection with the rotunda 
to which it now gives light. The walls of the vestibule have preserved 
large fragments of that coating of ]jounded brick and broken pottery 
which is still used in Palestine, under the name hamra, to make cisterns 
watertight. The depth of the chamber cannot be ascertained at 
jiresent on account of the earth which has come in through the roof and 
entrance. But a precious detail has been supplied by a sn)all excavation 
recently made by the guardian — an opening of the transverse galleries, 
of which one only saw the arched head, has really a 'minimum height of 
2'50 metres. Without having the complete regularity which has been 
u'iven to them in tlie plans, these galleiies form, as it were, three radii, 
perpendicular to each othei-, of a large arc which should liaAC its centre 
at the point where the two major axes of the rotunda cut each other at 
right angles. The opening, A,- which faces the entrance is only from 
2'O.j metres to 2*10 metres wide, but as it lengthens its width increases, 
and at a depth of 9*10 metres, where it abuts on a wall of rock, it is 
3-15 metres wide. The passage B has a width of 2-32 metres at its 
mouth, and of 2'25 metres where it ends in a rock-w^all at a depth of 
8'32 metres. C, of whicli the opening is 2'20 metres witle, has a depth of 
9'35 metres, and a terminal width of nearly 2'80 metres. A semi-circular 
gallery, of which the width varies from r70 metres to TSo metres, 
connects the ends of the three radii. But its course, fairly regular 
between A' and C, is abruptly broken nearly midway between A' and B'. 
Tobler's jjlan attempted to show this deviation which had been correctly 
observed by De Saulcy and represented on his plan. JTrom the middle 
of A' the gallery i)reserves its normal course for 9%30 metres ; the curve 
then suddenly straightens for 2-7.") metres, to commence afresh, almost 

' Qp.arferh/ Statement, 1883, p. 128^". 

- Tlie plan and sections made by Fntlier Vincent are reproduced by 
permission from the '■ Revue Biblique." 



NOTICES OF FOHKICiX Cnuic ATIONs. 



:;ii 



;it a light angle, .-iiul, after a distance of some .") metres, to become neajly 
circular again until, fj-?') metres further on, it meets \V. The total lu-ight 
of the great gallery in nearly uniform, and 2-r>r, metres fiom the present 
tldc.r lint-. \vlii(h ruunot lie nnnli .ilxtve the rock. A lining, less laatinrr 
th.iii the /(a//(/-«, covers tiie walls au<l the clli|.ti<-al arch. It is applied 




C 2 •* 6 a .'O 

I — t — I — 1 — 1 — 1 1 . . 1 I 



-J 1 



Z3 Metres 



in coats more or less thick so as to correct the inequalities of the roULihly 
dressed walls. 

A second gallery, concentric with the outer one, connects and almost 
bisects the large radii. Its width varies from TCJO metres to 1"80 mCtrea. 
It has a similar lining, and opens directly into the outer gallery in the 



312 NOTICES OV rOKElGX PUBLICATIOXS. 

sector, A> B', whilst in the other sector the two galleries are connected by 
another very short laclius (1-60 metres long and I'SO metres wide). 

In front of the point at which the inner gallery meets the radius, 
(" (■', there is another passage, E, which runs olF almost at a right 
angle, and is 1-85 metres wide and 4-20 mitres long. Here all symmetry, 
such as it is, ends. M. de Saulcy's plan gives least erroneously the 
curious, complicated arrangement of this part of the sepulchral vault. 
The drawing in the Quarterly Statement is wrong. A passage, very 
irregularly cut, with a mean height of 070 metre, a width of 0-60 metre, 
and a length of 6-20 metres, turns away to a chamber which opens out at 
a level much above that of the passage itself. The chamber, which 
contains tombs, gives access to a second room that looks as if it had never 
been finished. A fracture, probably recent, in one of the walls of the 
latter places it in communication with a cistern that opens into the 
]jassage, E, through another opening. Opposite these chambers the 
jjassage is much higher, and runs on in zigzags, difficult of explanati<ju, 
through rock that becomes more and more friable. Along the walls are 
traces of " trough " graves. The over-thin roof has fallen in at two 
points, and it seems clear that tombs hewn in the surface of the rock 
were broken into when this long tunnel was cut. After several changes 
of direction the gallery ends at the boundarj'- wall of the Paissian 
property, by the side of the road. The stone was evidently too soft for 
a continuation of the work. Eobinson' had already noticed this, and 
remarked that the air in the gallery was pure. Beyond the entrance to 
E there is no lining of hamra, not even in the two chambers, the walls 
of which are dressed with perhaps more care than those of the principal 
]jart of the tomb. 

The irregular orientatiim of the tomb was necessitated by the lie of 
the rock — if, indeed, those who excavated it cared about orientation. But 
before inquiring into the origin of the tomb we must complete the state- 
ment of facts tliat throw light upon it. These are of two kinds — the 
technical details connected with its construction, and the inscriptions 
found in it. Let us return to the entrance. 

The situation of the outer door with refei'ence to the vestibule, and 
the form of the latter, seem to indicate a later adaptation of tliat 
chamber to a purpose not originally intended. One cannot well explain, 
as an entrance to a subterranean tomb, that opening, tacked on, a.s it 
were, to a wall, and necessitating an inconvenient flight of several steps. 
Why was not the floor lowered by continuing the outer passage to the 
slope of the hill ? or, if it was thought necessary to lower the level of the 
vestibule so as to reach a better bed of rock, why was the useless task 
undertaken of raising the roof in accordance with the lie of the rock to 
such an extent as to compromise its stability i The opening at one end of 
the roof is too much out of harmony with the other details to have been 
placed there for lighting purposes. All becomes clear if the hypothesis 

^ " liibl. Res.," Lonilon, Murray, 1856, vul. iii, p. 254. 



NOTiCKs OF 1'\)1;kI(;n ri'ni.KATiiiNs. :;i:; 

(if M. ( 'It-nnont-Gainioau be adoijtt'd, tliat tlie n^Lunda was an old ciHteni 
sek'cU'd as the starting jxiint for a lar^^e burial phui-. Tli,. ori<,'inal 
mouth, being rendered useless by tlie construction <»f an entrance, was 
enlarged so as to give light. The ciicnlar form is comparatively comiiK.n 
in cisterns, and there is no need to attiiliute to it a Canaanite oi'igin. 

No tomb has been found in the vestibule, nor in the perpendicular 
])assages, and the great gallery must be reached to find the io/li„i, or 
tombs cut ])erpendicularly into the face of the rock. Let us enter bv 
jKissage 1>, which is the most obstructed, for earth has fallen in through a 
fracture in the roof. At B' (d) in the north wall, M. (ianneau has 
l)oiuted out the commencement of a gallery which might complete 
" the symnjetry of the circular plan " (" Archl. Ees.," p. 348), and 
contain undisturbed tombs. No clearance has been made since ; tin- 
rubbish must, on the contrary, have increased, for we could not confirm 
the existence of the supposed gallery. One would have to presume that 
it was at a much lower level than the other galleries, for, about two 
metres l)elow their roofs, its o])eniug is not visible. Moreover, the com- 
pletion of the circular plan would be ditKcult <m account of the raj)id fall 
of the rock, and, in any case, it would have been irregular in the o])posite 
section towards the passage H In the absence of ])roofs, which could be 
easily supplied by excavation, it would be simpler to admit the existence 
of one or moi'e kokim. The series of visible tombs commences near this 
point. The mouths of the loculi are on a level w'ith the floor and very 
low, the mean being 0'45 metre, and they have a nearly uniform width 
of ()'65 metre. Their heads are slightly curved, but they show no traces 
of i-abbets to receive flat closing stones. I only noticed one case, the 
western loculus of chamber F, in which that mode of closure could have 
existed. The " ovens" {L-oktm) iim into the rock at right angles. They aie 
excavated with little care, and, apparently, widen or contract, accoiding 
to the greater or less resistance which the rock offered to the miner. 
They have never had a coating of hamra. Their mean length is about 
1-95 metres, and they are usually slightly rounded at the end. A detail, 
hitherto not pointed out and perhaj^s of some importance, is their unusual 
<lei)th, and their division into three floors by insets in the rock that 
appear to have carried slabs of stone. The sketches published in the 
great Avork of the English engineers (" Ordnance Survey of Jeru.salen)," 
Plate XXIV, Nos. 6, 7) only give this arrangement aiiproximately. It 
is not always apparent in the present state of the necropolis, l)ut nearly 
everywhere traces of it can be seen, and in some tombs it is quite clear. 
It reminds one of the Koman catacombs with their loculi, each containim,' 
a body, arranged in tiers one above the other. Admitting the existence 
of some means of closing the loculus when filled, one might readily 
suppose that each grave of the Kabtir el-'-Aiihid received several bodies 
one above the other — two at least and perhaps three. This detail, quite 
probable, is of value for the later discussion on the origin of the toml). 
It is urther the only instance known to me in Palestine of a tomb si> 
arranged. At most one might comjiare ir. with that known at .Terusalem 



:314 



NOTICES OF FOKEIGX TUBLICATIONS. 



.'IS the " tomb of St. Simon," aiui in the Gi'eek Orthodox Church as 
Kutamun. Yet the analogy would be imperfect, for there is here only 
a single inset to carry a slab on which, perhaps, rubble masonry was 
piled to protect the body. One might cite the Xabatiiean tombs at 
Ft'tra which have in some cases been closed by three slabs, one above the 
other, but the intervals between them were filled with masonry. It was 
a pi'ecautionary measure, added to many others to mislead treasure- 
hunters, and preserve the inviolability of the tomb. If this had been 
done in the Tombs of the Prophets some traces of the masonry would 
have been left. In any case the precaution would have been useless, as 
the position of the tomb was in no way concealed on the outside. 



lOMCTREi 




The openings of tlie kCikhn are as a rule 0"6") metre wide, but in 
some rare exceptions they are oniy 0"55 metre. Their distribution 
along the wall is very vinequal, especially from B' to D. Beyond this 
they are 0"8() metre, 0"75 metre, and ()"70 metre apart. Intervals of 
0'65 metre and of 1 metre ai'e very rare. At o, where the gallery makes 
.such an abrupt turn, one expected to find a kol\ but nothing can be seen 
except a shallow cutting in the rock. Perhaps the work was abandoned 
when it was found that there was scmie risk of l)reaking into the 
adjoining tomb in the main gallery. Had the chambei', which opens 
at D, any bearing on the deviation in the course of the semi-circulai* 
pas.sage which, up to this point, is regular ? Schick thought so. He 
considers this chamber to be "of Jewish origin and jirobably older than 
other portions of the tomb." ' The {)lan which he gives would prove the 

' Quarterly Statemeni, 1893, p. 131. He had, bowcvcr, previously 
remarked that the round form is Canaanite, and the square Jewish. The 
chamber should thus be later than tlie gallery. 



MniCKS OF rollHlGN I'l.lilJUATlUNS. 'MT, 

contrary, for it shows that the Ivtliti wviv arrai)j,'e<l with I lie 'rieatt-st 
care, so that they .sliouUl not break thiouj^li thi,- lower tonil) or tlie wall 
oi the passage, which, liowever, w:is afterwards broken. 'J'heie is, 
however, no eontradiction between tlie text and the plan, for the ]>\:in at 
this point is inaccurate. M. de Saulcy, struck by this peculiarity of the 
sepulchre, found a reason for it which would liave Ix-eii siiftiriciit if it 
had been real. "At this point,-" he wrote, "the rock-wall, thanks to the 
presence of beds of flint,' were so difficult to cut that tiie ^'eneral idea 
was abandoned. Foui- rude irregular steps were cut in the rock, and led 
to a small s([uare chamber with 2-30-mutre sides. The walls of the latter 
are pierced by five 'oven' tombs" ("Voyage Autour <le la Mer Mortc," 
p. 284). Whether tlie rude steps are cut in the rock is doubtful— a few 
blows with a jiick would sliow ; 1)ut I could not see the beds of Hint. 
The soft, fine-grained wliite limestone was visible everywhere. After a 
clo.se examination, it seemed to me most probable that the chamber was 
excavated at the same time as the remainder of the tomb. Its pre- 
existence, which would account for the cliange in tlie direction of the 
gallery, raises serious difficulties, of which the princi])al one arises from 
the arrangement of the l:6l-lm. The rock-wall on the side of the "allerv 
being only a metre thick, the "oven" tondi on that side, already shorter 
than usual, enters the wall at an angle so as not to break throufdi it. 
The two tombs on the east are regular, whilst that to the south, which is 
blocked up, may be the door of another chambei-, or the exit. The 
rudimentary excavation on the west can only be an abandoned attempt 
to make a tomb. Was the rock too bad or did some circumstance iirevent 
the completion of the operation I I think it was .stojjped through fear of 
breaking into the adjoining tomb at a lower level. The form of the 
chamber is another objection to its prior existence. Its laro-e sides are 
2"15 metres and 2'33 metres, but it is not regular. Its heirrht rarelv 
exceeds 1 metre, and its original entrance would have to be jjlaced at the 
opening on the south, which, considering its position on the hill, would 
have been a bad arrangement. Let us ho[)e that a small excavation mav 
some day throw light on the subject. Meantime we ma)', if we like, 
imagine an alteration of the chamber to coiniect it with the new Iiurial 
place of which it had so inconveniently deranged the pl.ui. This hvixi- 
thesis would account foi- the apiiearance of the locidi <m the north and 
west. 

On the other hand, the view that the chamber and the galleries have 
the same origin meets the difficulties to wdiich allusion has been niatle. 
Others doubtless exist. It is necessary to find a reason for the turn in 
the gallery or say that it was the result of accident. It is also necessary 
to justify the inconvenient access to the chamber, and its position at this 
point rather than at another. Without sjiending more time on a question 
which may be .solved to-morrow by research, let us lay stres>, upon the 

' Gunneau (•' Arclil. Eci.,' p. 332), meutious tliosc llintsi, or toinctliinjj 
like tlicm, to explain tlie elbow matle by tlie gallery, but ho puts forward 
no hypothesis. 



316 NOTICES 01'' foi:ei<;n I'UIJlicatioxs. 

fact that the Q;raves are as niuneious a.s pussiibk', ami that little care was 
taken in making them. 

The chamber, which opens at the end of the passage A A', has the 
same cliaracteristics. The ))as.sage, 2"10 metres long, which leads to it, 
looks like a lengthened " oven " tomb. At the bottom of the passage, 
which was closed by a large door 0'62 metre wide, there is a rectangnlar 
chamber 3"10 metres by 2*75 metres. Its height is not uniform, and it 
is ditiiciilt to give it accurately on account of the fractures in the i-oof 
and the dtbris which covers the tloor. The walls are imjjerfectly dressed, 
even if one attributes to later deterioi'atiou the large hollows which 
exist in places. Thei-e are two loculi — one opposite the entrance 
which has a depth of 1"70 metres, and one, which is larger and a 
little less irregulai', in the west wall. M. de Saulcy's plan gives onh' 
the lirst, and M. Schick's only the second. The latter, who has 
written " Jewish tomb '' in the other chamber, marks this simply as 
'' untinished." 

No tomb is visible in the rock-masses isolated by the intersection of 
the galleries. There may, however, be some which are still concealed 
by the rubbish. Towards the middle of the inner gallery a kind of 
high, wide niche has been cut in the Avail. The Arabs, from its form, 
call it lu.'ihid, " apse," and the bench of rock which it surmounts mastabah. 
It is curious that this unexplained recess has not received the more 
appropriate title raihrdh. Is it to be regarded as an indication of some 
religious cult I The group of tombs rf)iuid the chamber F might well 
be earlier than the semi-circular sejDulchre. Evidence of this might be 
found in the sudden break in the passage E, and its change of character 
to pass round known tombs, which had to be spared if it were only for 
fresh interments. The form of the tombs also j^resents some peculiari- 
ties. I have already mentioned the mode of closing the western loculus 
of the first chamber. One might add the slightly better dressing, the 
stone bench in front of the walls, and the " tiough " grave of the inner 
chamber. It is true that this last feature, combined with the somewhat 
oval form of the room, might be opposed to the indications of an eai'lier 
date. The plan shows the relations of this chamber to the entrance to 
the ne<ro])olis. If the kuklm were I'eplaced by " trough " graves and 
the wall of the chamber was not straightened, was not this from fear of 
injuring the entrance'^ Every theory has its difficulties. Perhaps some 
new fact might be obtained if the small eastern opening of F were 
cleared out. It has not the usual appearance of an " oven " grave, and 
it may give access to a smaller sepulchral chamber, or to a better con- 
cealed tomb. The I'emains of burials \'isible in the long passage have 
been noticed already, and do not forward the solution of the prolilem 
connected with the necropolis. There is nothing to lie gathered from 
some small fragments of glass and ])ottery which I collected in the 

M. Clermont-Ganneau was the first to collect and interpret the 
inscriptions. Attention had been called to them l)y Waddington and 



XOTICK.S 01' I'dltKIcX l'i;iil.lC.VTIoNS. ;;,[- 

Di- Vogiiu,' who, in 1862, discovered a (rreek ^-/-a/tVo, ;t II, I ,,i.c in i.ttlnM- 
old Helnvw. M. (Janneaii, In spite of his eHorts, coidd only read jiait of 
llie graffiti. After an interval of 25 years, the dilK<iilty has 1),-,mi 
increased l)y the injury which the necropolis lias suffered. An luifi.r- 
tiinate circumstance has now niadi- it aliii..>i inipossil.lr ti> read them. 
When the Russians bought the tonih, the dews jih-aded the inscriptions 
in their huiguage on the walls as a jirescriptive title in their favour, and 
it was decided to cut these claims short. A new coating was fiven to 
the lining of Immra, and this effaced the Hebrew, Greek, and other 
(iraffiti. The old texts, which are lightly cut, suffered much, but they 
have not been destroyed. By degrees the new coat of plaster has beeii 
covered with other names, and as it falls in dust the large slender letters 
reappear. By a discreet use of brushes one is able to clear them. 

Father Vincent gives each loculus a number, lieginning at C. Xos. 1 
to 16 are between C'-A' ; 17 to 21 between the two chandjers, 22 just 
beyond chamber D, and 23 to 27 in the last branch of the gallery.- The 
author gives M. Ganneau's readings (" Archl. Res.," i, pp. 342 #'), with 
notes upon those which have not lieen destroyed.* He states that his 
examination of the tomb, and the corrections he has been able to )iiake 
in its plan, confirm M. Ganneau's theory. The KahiXr pJ-^Anhid is not an 
ancient Jewish sepulchre, appropriated and developed l)y Christians, but 
a tomb excavated in the fourtli or fifth century of our era bv some 
foreign association at Jerusalem, for those of its members who died in 
the Holy City. An abandoned cistern was probably selected as the place 
for commencing the excavation, and a semi-circular form was given to it 
so as to obtain a larger number of graves. The same idea led to the 
adoption of the koMm characteristic of Jewish tombs in preference to 
the usual Christian arcosolia. There is no proof that the pohiandnum 
was originally used by a Jewish institution, and that it oidy became 
Christian property at a later period. 

C. W. W. 

> "Le Temple de Jerusalem," p. 132 and PI. 37, No. 2, and " Inscriptions 
Gr. et Lat. do Syrie," No. 1'J03a. Tlie prior notice of M. de Saulcy, who 
writes of very ancient Hebrew texts mixed with Egyptian demotic, cannot be 
taken seriously. 

- Counting only the JcoJcini in the senii-circular galiei-y ami neglecting tliose 
ill the chambers, the number visible is 27. 

^ See Mr. Maealister's note on the present state oC the inscriptions in 
Qcarlerli/ Statemenf, 1901, p. 22. 



o 



18 



Form ok Bequest to the Palestine Exploration Fund. 
I give to the Palestine Exploration Fund, London, the sum of 



to be applied towards the General Work of the Fund ; and I direct that the 
said sum be paid, free of Legacy Duty, and that the Receipt of the Treasurer 
of the Palestine Exploration Fund sliall be a sufficient discharge to my 
Executors. 



Si g nature _ 



r- 
I 

Witnessex -j _ 
I 

l- 



'SOTY..— Three Witne.ises are necessary in the United States of America; 
Tito suffice in Great Britain. 



> > » > 1 > * 



t t c c < 

C I 

< C I 

C 1 

c c c < 



t c t 



[Froi\t(Sfiicce. 




(Froiii 11 jilii'tn bti M'Ssrs. Alfred Ellis end Wafer;; 

Siu Wai/ikk Bksant, Knt. 



QUAKTLKLY Sj ATKMKNT, 0(T( i|!i;i;, 1901.*] 



THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

The next Quarterh/ Sfatoaent will contain the opening portion 
of a paper on " Golgotha and the Holy Sepulchre," by Sir 
C. Wilson. The paper will include translations from early 
writers who have noticed the two Holy Places, and an examina- 
tion of the various theories which have been advanced with 
resrai'd to them. 



The following- information respecting the water supply of 
Jerusalem, extracted from private correspondence, may be of 
interest to the subscribers to the Fund : — 

The deficiency in the rainfall in Palestine last winter led to 
suck a serious scarcity of water at Jerusalem, that the municipality 
of the city appealed to the Sultan for assistance. His Imperial 
Majesty at once ordered that £TG,000 should be set apart from 
the revenues of the "Evkaf " to meet the cost of brimrinsr water 
in iron pipes to Jerusalem from the " Sealed Founttiin," near 
Solomon's Pools. The work has been placed in the hands of 
M. Franghia, a Greek engineer, who has ordered, througli a 
German merchant in the city, 20,000 metres of pipe from Belgium. 
It is impossible to say when the work will be completed, but in 
any case the water will only be brought to the Haram esli-Sherif. 
and the lower pai't of the town, and, though good in (juality, it will 
be insufficient in quantity. 

Meantime, to alleviate the distress amongst the ]>o()r, the 
municipality, at the suggestion, we believe, of Mr. John Dickson, 
H.B.M.'s Consul at Jerusalem, have made a contract with tlie 
Railway Company to bring water in tanks from " Philip's 
Fountain," or froni the spring at Welejeh. Instead, however, of 

X 



J20 NOTES AND NEWS. 

building a reservoir close to the station and fittinj^ it with half a 
dozen brass taps, ihey have bnilt a small cistern by the side of the 
road near the lowei- ])Ool, Birket es-Sultan. The water is con- 
ducted i"rom the tank wagons at the station to the cistern by a 
('arden hose and is thou pumped up again and sold to the poor for 
one-third piastre the skin. This has been a great boon to the 
poor. 

Notes by Dr. C. Schick :— 

1. Owing to the scarcity of water in the city, the fellahin have 
bef>un to brintr water in skins laid on donkeys from the various 
springs at some distance round, as from Lifta, 'Ain Karim, 'Ain 
Yalo, and 'Ain Haniyeh on the one side, and from 'Ain Fara 
and El Bireh on the otlier ; also carriages bring water from 
El Bireh 1 in largo boxes, tinned inside and properly covered. 
The two following works have been undertaken by the local 
authorities : — 

(a) In the south-western corner of the lower ]>ool or Birket 
es-Sultan, in the upper ])art of the "Valley of Hinnom," west of 
the city, a cistern, about 40 feet long and 13 feet wide inside, 
has been l)uilt. By means of pipes or waterproof hose water 
from the spring of Walejch, near liittir, which is higher than 
the railway, is conveyed to large vessels on railway trucks and 
brought to the station at Jerusalem, whence it is allowed to run 
through similar pipes or hose into this new-made cistern, and an 
oflico has been opened for the sale of this water at a cheap and 
fixed price. 

(b) The old, woiai-out earthen pii)es of the aqueduct from 
Solomon's Pools are to be removed, and replaced by iron ones of 
about 4 inches (or more) in diameter, but tliis will not be of any 
service this year. 

2. My son-in-law made recently a tour with his family to 
Hebron and stayed a few days there. He told me the springs 
there are veiy scanty and some even dry, but, to his astonishment, 
he found water in the so-called house of Abraham at " Uaniet el- 
Khalil." Some people are now living there, and the ground round- 
about is laid out for gardens and cultivated. It seems that at 
the bottom or on the sides of the tine round well there there is 

' As tlie earrliigc road to this place has been lluislied about four weeks. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 321 

a spring, wliicli must be perennial, as it is not dried np in suih 
a dry season as the present. I think it may be Bor Ha.ssirah 
(" the well of Sirah," 2 Samuel iii, 26), as 'Ain Sara is too near 
Hebron. 

3. Some friends made recently a tour to Beit Atab and its 
neigbbourliood, and they told me that in the gardens at 'Ain 
el-Tanniir thei-e are such large and fine lemons as scarcely will 
be found elsewhere .south of Jaffa. 

4. On the premises of Christ Church they are now digging 
foundations for a new school building, and have found the rock 
in the narrow laue north of the church, about 40 feet below the 
surface of the ground, or somewhat lower than it was found l)y 
me at the minister's house, which is attached to the north side of 
the church. Hence it appears that the original surface of the 
rock sloped northwards. Hitherto nothing of importance has been 
found. 



A notice, by Dr. ^fasterman, of an interesting discovery 
recently made by the villagers of Siloam has come to hand as we 
were going to press. Our readers may remember that Dr. Schick, 
ft few 3'ears ago, traced, for some distance, the course of an 
aqueduct in the valley of the Kidron, which, he believed, carried 
the water of the Fountain of the Virgin to Siloam before the 
rock-hewn tunnel that now connects the spring with the pool 
was made. The villagers, working under one of the men, Jum'aa, 
trained by Dr. Bliss, have found the upper part of an aqueduct, 
apparently connected with that discovered by Dr. Schick, near 
the spring, and Dr. Masterman and Mr. Hornstein have followed 
its coui"se downward for 176 feet. Excavations are beiusr con- 
tinued, and it is expected that further discoveries will be made. 
Dr. Masterraan's notice, with, it is hoped, additional information, 
will be published in the next Quarterly Statement. 



The " Flora of Sp-ia, Palestine, and Sinai," by the Rev. 
George E. Post, M.D., Beirut, Syria, containing descriptions of 
all the Phaenogams and Acrogens of the region, and illustrated 
by 441 woodcuts, may be had at the office of the Fund, price 21.<. 



In order to make up complete sets of the " Quarterly Statement,^' 
the Committee tcill be very glad to receive any of the back numbers. 

.\ '2 



322 NOTES AND NEWS. 

The income of the Society from June 20th to September 21st, 
1901, was — from Annual Subscriptions and Donations, including- 
Local Societies, £157 O.s. Id. ; f i-om Lectures, nil ; from sales of 
publications, &c., £9G 95. \(l. ; total, £253 9s. 8(^ The expen- 
diture during the same period was £381 9i'. 8rf. On September 
21st the balance in the Bank was £236 Os. 3(Z. 



Subscribers in U.S.A. to the work of the Fund will please 
note that they can procure copies of any of the publications from 
the Rev. Professor Theo. F. Wright, Honorary General Secretary 
to the Fund, 42, Quincy Street, Cambridge, Mass. 



The Committee will be glad to communicate with ladies and 
gentlemen willing to hel}^ the Fund as Honorary Secretaries. 



The price of a complete set of the translations published by the Palestine 
Pilgrims' Text Society, in 13 volumes, with general index, bound in cloth, 
is £10 lO.s. A catalogue describing the contents of each volume can be had 
on application to the Seci-etary, 38 Conduit Street. 



The Museum at the ofSce of the Fund, 38 Conduit Street (a few doors 
from Bond Street), is open to visitors every week-day from 10 o'clock till 5, 
except Saturdays, when it is closed at 2 p.m. 



It may be well to mention that plans and photographs alluded to in the 
reports from Jerusalem and elsewhere cannot all be published, but all are 
preserved in the office of the Fund, where they may be seen by subscribers. 



While desiring to give publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood that by 
publishing them in the Quarterly Statement they neither sanction nor adopt 
them. 



ToUKiSTS are cordially invited to visit the Loan Collection of "Antiques"' 
in the Jeeusalem Association Room of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 
opposite the Tower of David, Jerusalem. Hours : 8 to 12, and 2 to 6. 
Maps of Palestine and Palestine Exploration Fund publications are kept for 
sale. 

Photographs of Dr. Schick's models (1) of the Temple of Solomon, (2) of 
the Herodian Temple, (3) of the Haram Area during the Christian occupation 
of Jerusalem, and (4) of the Haram Area as it is at present, have been received 
at the office of the Fund. Sets of these photographs, with an explanation by 



NOTES AN'I) N1<:W.S. .'joy 

Dr. Schiflf, can bo punliago.l hy applviiii,' lo tlie Sec-rotary, 38 Conduit 
Street, W. 



Branch Associations of tlio Bible Society, all Sunday Schoole witJiin 
the Sunday School Institute, the Sunday School Union, and the Weslcyan 
Sunday School Institute, will please observe that by a special Resolution of the 
Committee they will lienceforth be treated as subscribers and be allowed to pur- 
chase the books and maps (by application only to the Secretary) at reduced 
price. 



The Committee will be glad to receive donations of Books to tlie Library 
of the Fund, which already contains many works of great value relating to 
Palestine and other Bible Lands. A catalogue of Books in the Library will 
be found in the July Quarterit/ Statement, 1893. 



The Committee acknowledge with thanks the following : — 
"Recueil d'Archt'ologie Orientale." Tome IV, Livraisons 17, 18, 19, 20, 
21, June to August. Sommaire :— § 51. Sur quelques cachets 
israclites archaiques (suite et fin). § 52. Dolmens et monuments de 
picrres brutes en Palestine. § 53. Bostra et son mur d'enceinte 
nabateen. § 54. Sur quelques uoms de vetements chez les Arabes de 
Palestine. § 55. Urne punique avec inscription a I'encre. § 56. La 
carte de la Terre Promise d'apres la mosaique de Madeba. § 57. La 
destruction du Saint-Sepulcrc par le calife Hakem et inscription 
coufique de la basilique de Constautin. § 58. Inscription romaine de 
Niha. § 59. Le droit des pauvres et le cycle pentaeterique chez les 
Nabateens. § 60. Les ccrfs mangeurs de serpents. § Gl. Xotes 
de mythologie semitique. § 02. La stele phenicienne d'Amrith 
(a suivre). From the Author, Ch. Clermont-Ganneau. 



Form ov Bequkst to the Palestine Exploration Fund. 

I give to the Palestine Exploration Fund, London, the sum of 



to be applied towards the General Work of the Fund ; and I direct that the 
said sum be paid, free of Legacy Duty, and that the Receipt of the Treasurer 
of the Palestine Exploration Fund shall be a 8ufficient discharge to my 
Executors, 

Signature 

r 

Witnesses \ 

I 

L 



Note. — Three Witnesses are neiessari/ in the United States of America i 
Two suffice in Qreat Britain. 



324 



ANNUAL MEETING. 

The Annual Meeting of the Fund was held at No. 38 Conduit 
Street, W., on Tuesday, July 16th, 1901, Mr. Walter Morrison in 
the chair. There were present : — Yiscount Sidmouth, Dr. Chaplin, 
Rev. "\Vm. Henry Rogers, D.D., Professor Hull, Mr. J. D. Crace,. 
Mr. W. H. Rylands, Mr, H. C. Kay, Mr. Herbert Bentwich, and 
others. 

The Secretary having read the notice convening the meeting. 
The Chairmax announced that lettei'S had been received from 
the following gentlemen regretting their inability to attend : — 
Mr. James Glaisher, Major-General Sir Charles W. Wilson, the 
Dean of Westminster, Canon Tristram, Professor George Adam 
Smith, Mr. James Melrose, Mr. D. MacDonald, Rev. W. F. Bii-cb^ 
Mr. F. D. Mocatta, and the Rev. Thomas Harrison. 
The Chairman read the Annual Report : — 

Gentlemen, 

In resigning the office to which they were elected at the last 
Annual Meeting, your Executive Committee have the honour to 
present the following Report : — 

They have held twenty-one meetings for the transaction of 
business. 

Since our last Annual Meeting the Fund has had to deplore 
the death of Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria, who had 
been Patron of the Society from its origin, and was one of the 
earliest contributors to its funds. The late Queen recognised that 
the primary object of the Fund was to aid in making the Bible 
better understood by a systematic study of the archa3ology, natural 
history, and physical geogi'aphy of the Holy Land, as well as the 
manners and customs of its inhabitants, and it was because the 
Palestine Exploi'ation Fund sought to carry on such investigations 
that Her Majesty gave it her patronage and support. 

It is with much satisfaction that the Executive Committee are 
enabled to announce that the King has been graciously pleased to 
accede to the request, submitted to His Majesty by the President, 
that he would become Patron of the Fund in succession to Her 
late Majesty. 



ANNUAL MKKXIXG. :j2r» 

Tho Committee liave also fo lament (lie In.s.s by deatli of 
the following' members of the General Committee, namely — -the 
Marquessof Bute, K.T., the Bishop of liondon ( Di. ('reighton), Sir 
H. W. Acland, K.C.B., Mr. Arthur H. ileywood; and the follow- 
ing members of the Executive Committee, namely — Sir Walter 
Besant, Mr. Henry A. Harper, and ]\Ir. Basil Woodd Smith. 

The death of Sir Walter Besant is esiioeially lamented, on 
account of his long connection with the Fund as Secretary and 
Honorary Secretary, his intimate acquaintance with all the detail.s 
of its management, his sincere and deep interest in its work, and 
the cheerful readiness with which he always gave his advice and 
help when appealed to. 

The excavations at Tell Sandahannah wci e brought to a close 
on August 31st. The Firman having expired shortly afterwards, 
Dr. Bliss had the surface of the Tell restored to its original 
condition, and then proceeded to Beyrout, whilst Mr. Macalister 
returned to England. 

Portions of their reports and plans have aj)peared from time 
to time in the Quarterly Statements of the Fund, and they are at 
present engaged in preparing a full account of the excavations at 
Tell Zakariyji, Tell es-Safi, Tell ej-Judeideh, and Tell Sandahannah 
under the recent Firman. The woi'k will, it is hoped, be published 
early next year. It will form a companion volume to the 
"Memoirs," and will contain over 100 full-sized ])lates of plans, 
pottery, &c., besides woodcuts. The specimens of pottery have 
been dravv^n to scale by Mr. Macalister, and will form a guide to 
the classification of future finds of pottery in Palestine. 

At Tell Sandahannah the foundations of a small walled 
Seleucidan town were laid bare and planned, with its gates, 
streets, houses, reservoirs, &c. During the progress of the works 
some fine specimens of lamps, vases, and jars, three important 
fragments of Seleucidan inscriptions, 50 stones with in.sciiptions 
in Hebrew and Greek, and a group of small figures in lead were 
found. Casts of the stones have been placed in the hands of 
Professor Wiiusch, of Breslau, who, in a preliminary report 
respecting them, writes : — 

" In spite of all lacunar, these stones furnish us with sufficient 
information to enable us to declare their general meaning. It 
was an ancient Greek practice for a man wlio conceived himself 



326 ANNUAL MEETING. 

to have suffered wroiii>' to tleposit ;i statement of the facts of the 
case in some sauctuaiy, tlius making a sort of appeal to the god 
from whose inexorable justice he hoped to receive satisfaction. 
The existence of this custom is proved by numberless documents, 
the earliest of which is the papyrus of Artemisia, dating, perhaps, 
from the third century n.C. (see Thompson's ' Handbook of 
PaliBography,' p. 119), Avhich has at last been printed in the 
' Corpus Tnscr. Attic.,' App., p. xxxi. In this papyrus, which she 
deposited in the Temple of Serapis, Artemisia informs the god 
that the father of her children refused to see about the burial of 
their little daughter. ' When he has done justice to nie and to 
his children in tbis matter, then all shall be well ; but should ho 
do injustice to me and his children in this matter, then may 
Serapis and the other gods forbid that either his children shall 
bury him or that he shall bury his parents.' And as in this case 
the appeal to Heaven works out into a curse on the sinner, so also 
in the Bruttian lead tablet (' C.I. A.,' App., p. ix), on which a 
woman informs the goddess (probably Hecate) that she has been 
robbed, and the thief shall never have a quiet moment until she 
restores to the goddess what she has stolen. 

" A whole collection of such lead tablets has been brought to 
light of late by the excavations in Cnidus, They were first pub- 
li.shed by Newton, in 'A History of Discoveries at Halicarnassus, 
Cnidus, and Branchidic,' vol. ii, part 2, p. 719, and lately in the 
' C.I. A.,' App., p. X. The first of these tablets runs thus : — 

"'A vow of Antigone to Demeter, Kore, Pluto, and to all the 
gods and goddesses of Demeter's court. If I have given poison to 
Asclepiades, or have the thought of doing him any evil, or if I 
have given oue of the temple women a mina and a half to send 
him out of the world, then may Antigone be consumed with 
inward fire until she comes to Demeter and confesses her sin, and 
may Demeter not be gracious unto her, but rack her with grievous 
torments.' 

" The inscribed stones from Tell Sandahannah belonsf to the 
same categor}-. The exact formula of the curse we do not know ; 
but we do know well the matters wherein the Avriters were 
injured." 

An application for a new Finnnn to examine a well-known 
site was sent through the Foreign Office on February 26th. The 



ANNUAL MKKTINC. 327 

Committee liave reason to liope llial slioitly a f.-ivoiirahlu replj will 
be received. Mr. Macjilister, who lias already i-endered ji^ood 
service to the Fund, will lie in oliarp^e. 

Some interesting observations by Gray Hill, Ks(j., on tlie i-iso 
and fall of the waters of the Dead Sea, which were recoi-ded in 
the July Quarterly Statement of last year, have jy^iven rise to 
considerable curiosity with rej^ard to the oiMgin and nature of 
th(i fluctuations of level in the surface oP the Deail .Sea. The 
Committee, at the suggestion of Sir C. Wilson, instructed 
Mr. Macalister to cut a mark on a rock, washed by the waters of 
the lake, from which the level of the surface could be measured 
and its monthly fluctuations ascertained. On October 9th, 1900, 
Mr. Macalister cut a horizontal mark on a rock near 'Ain Feshkah, 
at a height of 14 feet above the surface of the lake on that day. 
Monthly observations liave been taken since, and the results will 
be published when the observations for a year have been received 
and compared with those taken at Tiberias and with the rainfall. 

Dr. Torrance has made a similar mark at Tiberias, and has 
made arrangements for monthly observations of the rise and fall 
of the sui'face of the Sea of Galilee. 

Apart from reports of the systematic researches of the Officers 
of the Fund, the Quarterly Statements contain valuable reports 
and articles by well-known scholars and explorers. 

Mr. F. B. Welch has contributed a paper on " The Influence 
of the ^gean Civilisation on South Palestine "; Dr. Samuel Ives 
Curtiss, a. description of a " High Place and Altar at Petra," 
which was rediscovered by Professor G. L. Robinson, Ph.D., of 
Chicago ; the Rev. J. E. Hanauer, an account of the discovery of 
ancient " Rock-hewn Vats near Bir Eyiib," and other papers ; 
Mr. Jeunings-Bramley, a descriptioTi of " Sport among the 
Bedawin"; the Rev. Putnam Cady, a valuable account of an 
"Exploration of the Wady Mojib from the Dead Sea"'; the 
Rev. John Zeller, a " Lecture on the Bedawin." 

Mr. P. Baldensperger's interesting papers on "Woman in the 
East" have been concluded, and Dr. Schick has contributed 
articles on " The Ancient Churches in the Muristan," '' Kubeibeh," 
by some supposed to be the ancient Emmaus, and many para- 
graphs for " Notes and News." 



o 



28 ANNUAL MEETING. 



M. Clermont- Ganneau has coraraenced his series of Archaeo- 
logical and p]pigraphic Notes, and the following have already been 
published : — 

]. Seal of the Leper Hospital of .St. Lazarus, Jerusalem. 
2. Rhodian not Jewish Amphora Handles. 3. Inscription from 
the Columbarium es-Siik. 4. Roman Inscriptions on a Jerusalem 
Aqueduct. 5. Greek Inscription from Beersheba. G. The Land 
of Promise, mapped in mosaic at Madeba. 7. The Cufic Inscrip- 
tion in the Basilica of Constantine and the Destruction of the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre by the Caliph Hakcm. 

During the regrettable illness of the Chairnum, Mr. Glaisher^ 
Sir Chai'les AVilsou has acted as Vice-Chairman. He has also 
contributed notices on foreign publications and other matters to 
the Quarterlij Statement. 

Through the courtesy of His Excellency Hamdi Bey, the 
Director of the Imperial Museum at Constantinople, the Com- 
mittee have received duplicates of some of the objects found 
during the recent excavations of the Fund. The duplicates 
include Jewish and Rhodian stamped jar-handles, some of the 
curious little figures in lead which M. Clermont-Ganneau supposes 
wore intended to repi'esent persons against whom incantations 
were directed {Quarterly Statement, 1901, p. 58), lamps, and 
pottery of various ages. All have been placed in the Museum of 
the Fund at 38 Conduit Street. 

The small Library and Museum of the Fund at Jerusalem has 
recently been moved to a lai'go room in St. George's College, 
which has most kindly been placed at the disposal of the Fund 
by the Right Rev. G. Popbam Bl^th, D.D., Anglican Bishop i» 
Jerusalem, acting for the Anglican College Council. 

Since the last Annual Meeting 59 names have been added to 
the list of subscribers, and 118 have been lost through death and 
other causes. 

Our warmest thanks are due to the honorary local secretaries 
for their generous help in collecting and forwarding subscriptions 
to the office of the Fund. 

The following is the Treasurer's Statement, Avhich was pub- 
lished with the Balance Sheet in the April number of the 
Quarterly Statement : — 



ANNUAL MKETINO. 



320 



THP: TREASURER'S STATEMENT. 

Tlic iiicoiiic (if tlic Fund during tlic year 1900 amounted to £2,521) 6*. llr/., 

uliich \v;is (■(iiiliubulcd under tlic t'ldlowiiii; hciulings : — 

From Doiiiitious and Subscrijitions, ,Cl,!t'.tO 7«. 5i(/. ; from Li'i^turc", 
£11 5a-. ChL; I'rom sales of publieations, £518 V.ix. \li<L At the end of IHtCJ 
tlicre was a balance in the bank of £241 5*. -id., wliicli included £tl 11*. M. 
|)nid in advance for 1900, making the fcolal available balance £2,770 ]2.». M. 

On eoniparing these sums with those of 189'J it will be seen that the 
subscriptions arc less by £82 10*. Od., and sales of publieations by £91 5s. Od., 
nearly. 

The expenditure during the same period was: — 

On exploration, mainly carried on at Tells Safi, Judeiileli, and Sanilabaunah, 
descriptions of which appeared in the Quarfcrlj/ kStatemcnl, £1,063 9.v. Od. 

On printing, binding, including the Quarterly/ Statement, £301 0*. 3rf. 

On nuips, lithographs, illustrations, photographs, &e., £200 l-i. Old., 
which included a reprint of the 12 and 20-sheet Old and IS'cw Testament maps, 
collotyi)e print, &e. 

Against these two suma (£600 7*. S^d.). the Fund received £518 13*. lljrf. 

On advei-tising, insurance, stationery, &c., £?9 12.y. Oirf. 

On postage of the Quart crli/ Statement, books, maps, &c., £131 12.*. Id. 

On the management, which includes salaries, wages, ofRcc rent, gas, coaU, 
cS!c., £594 3.9. lid. 

The balance in the Bank on December 31st, 1900, was £291 7*. Wd. 



Assets. 

Balance in Bank, Decem- 
ber 31st, 1900. . 

Stock of Publications in 
hand, Surveying In- 
struments, Show Cases, 
Furniture, &c. 

In addition there is tlie 
valuable library and 
the unique collection of 
antiques, models, &c. 



£ .V. d. 

291 7 11 



Liabilities. 

£ *. d. 

Printers' Billsand Current 

Expenses . . . . 605 10 4 



Waltee Moruison, Treasurer. 



The amount received from America through the Ilev. I'rofcssor 
Theodore F. Wright, Honorary Geuenil Secretary, was from — 

Z .S-. d. 
Subscriptions . . . . . . • • • • '-l*^ ^ ^' 

Sales of publications . . 



31 15 4 



Total 



'J 11 !•■ 



330 ANNUAL MEETING. 

The Chaih.man. — The first business which we have is to con- 
sider the Report, and T have to ask the gentlemen present to be 
good enough to adopt it. It is with great regret tliat I find 
I have to take the chair to-day. You are probably aware that 
]\Ir. Glaishei- is getting well on in years, and we are very sorry 
that illness prevents his being present heie with us to-day. All 
the members of the Executive Committee recognise the very 
great services which he has rendered to the Fund. He has 
been a most admirable Chairman from every point of view, very 
attentive and constant in his attendance on the Committees, and 
doing a great deal of work outside the Committee meetings. He 
is a man well known in the scientific world, known all over 
Europe, and we of the Executive Committee recognise fully 
his administrative ability, and the manner in which he was able 
to make things go well. From the tone of his letter we hope 
that he will be again able to attend our meetings. 

Sir Charles Wilson is away in Wales, and so my colleagues on 
the Executive Committee have been good enough to ask me to 
take the chair to-day as being the oldest member present on the 
Committee and also as Treasurer of the Fund. I am sure you 
will agree with us in deploring the loss of Sir Walter Bcsant. 
When this Fund was first established Mr. George Grove was our 
honorary secretary. Some of you will recollect Mr. Grove as 
a man of very great ability, with a large amount of energy and 
activity. The chief defect which he felt in the constitution of 
the universe was that there were only 24 hours in the day. 
Mr. Grove had that unbounded energy which led him to be 
always ready to take up any work in which he felt an interest. 
He was secretary of the Crystal Palace Company, which was 
quite a big undertaking, and as it was in difficulties it gave him 
a great deal of harassing work, and at that time he had a number 
of other interests. Also the remainder of us who were on the 
Executive Committee were all men who Avere, and are, busy in 
different ways, and it became necessary to appoint some one, on a 
salary, who would be able to give continuous attention to the work. 
I remembei-, and T mention it as an illustration of Mr. George 
Grove's willingness to undertake work, that when the book called 
" The Recovery of Jerusalem " was being written he gaily agreed 
to edit it, and as an editor of tlie " Dictionary of the Bible " he 
was about the best man to fulfil that task. The time passed on 



ANNUAL MEKT1N(;. 3:51 

and on, and wc were under cuntnicl. to deliver tluiL Ijook hy 
a certain date to the pnblisliei-. At the hist moment Mr. Grove 
said it was utterl^y impossihlc tor him lo do it. As there was 
nobody else on the Committee <i» do it af (lu- time, it was tlirown 
upon me, and in 10 days I had to edit that book, and conse- 
quently was compelled to work at it 10 or 12 hour.s a day. 
First of all, I had to cut down the papers to about one-third 
of their bulk in order to reduce them to the limited space to be 
occupied. I also had to reduce all the transliteration of tiio 
Arabic names to the common denominator, thereby, of course, 
offending every one of the writers. 

About this time Mr. Besant came home from Mauritius, where 
he had been Professor of Mathematics in the Koyal Collej,''c, and 
was appointed Secretary to the Fund. His {lerfect knowledj^e of 
French was of much service to us. He Avas a man of much 
ability, and soon brought the affairs of the Fund into order. 
He established a regular system of accounts, and started the 
Quarterly Statement. He had the literary gift which enabled 
him with ease to throw off a number of papers and prefaces, 
and other literary work, in the most satisfactory way to us 
and to the members of the Society. And then also we had 
great advantages from his nature ; his was a strong and simple 
character, and he had the gift of sympathy ; everybody got 
on well with him. He had a great knowledge of men, which 
must have stood him in good case in his profession of novelist, 
and he seemed to have the gift of extracting information 
in a quiet way, so that one found oneself almost insensibly 
obliged to give up everything one knew of the matter in hand. 
Owing to his other avocations Sir Walter was not, in his later 
years, regular in his attendance here in the Committee Room ; 
but Ave could always rely upon him whenever we Avere in 
difficulties and Avhenever we Avanted tlie advice of a sensible, 
intelligent, and capable man. His loss is very great. It was 
not until he had satisfied himself that Mr. George Armstrong 
was capable of taking his place that he discontinued attending 
our meetings. 

I ouffht to mention that Canon Dalton is one of the most 
regular attendants and valuable members of the Committee. He 
is unable to be present to-day because he is accompanying his old 
pupil, Prince George, on his visit to the Colonies; but wc hope 



332 ANNUAL MEETING. 

that when he comes back agaiu he will show as much energy and 
zeal ill the work of the Fund as he has done in the past. 

With regard to the General Report, you will see that we have 
been still engaged in excavating the different .sites in the Holy 
Land. We have been urged from time to time to continue our 
excavations at Jerusalem, but there seems to be more prospect of 
useful work being done in the very numerous Tells which are 
fouTid scattered over tlie surface of the country. The difficulty, 
of course, is to select sites, but we are gradually getting together 
the materials for greatly increasing our knowledge of the land 
and of the habits of the people in ancient times. Profes.sor 
Wiinsch is, I understand, about the highest authority on the 
subject of the ancient Greek inscriptions which have been found, 
and you will agi*ee that the extracts from his letter which I have 
read are very interesting indeed. We have applied for a ncAV 
Firman, but our experience of the Turkish Government is very 
similar to the experience which some of us have had of other 
Governments as well. It takes a long time to e;et their decision 
upon any subject whatever. We have a good friend at Constan- 
tinople, His Excellency Hamdi Bey, who takes a very deep and 
intelligent interest in archaeological work, and I can only express a 
hope, as the Committee have also done, that we shall receive shortly 
a favourable reply. As soon as we get the Firman we shall trust 
our w'ork to Mr. Macalister, who has already done good service 
to the Fund under the leadership of Dr. Bliss. Mr. Macalister 
has learned Arabic, and has a good working knowledge of 
archfBology. You will observe that we state our hope that when 
the new volume of " Memoirs " on the excavations at these sites is 
published, it will form a standard guide for the classification of 
future finds of pottery in Palestine. 

I think we owe to Professor Flinders Petrie the systematic 
ari'angement of pottery in such a way as to indicate date. Of 
course, other people besides Professor Flinders Petrie have seen 
that there are differences in pottery, and that there are different 
kinds belonging to different ages ; but Professor Flinders Petrie 
was the first to carry on the study of this pottery in a systematic 
way. Dr. Bliss was Professor Flinders Petrie's pupil, and was 
sent to Egypt for six months to study under him the methods of 
excavation, and especially the way of identifying the age of 
pottery. No doubt our new book will be of great value to 



ANNUAL MEETING. 33.") 

scliolars iu all countries. I do not know that T have any otlier 
remarks to make, bat I shall be very happy to luiir :iuy obser- 
vations on the Report. 

Viscount SiDMOUTH. — 1 should like to ask whetlier the powei'.s 
of the late Firman ai'C exhausted. 

The Chairman'. — Yes. The powers of the Firman wero 
exhausted at the end of October last. 

Viscount SiOMoDTTT. — I suppose no further excavations ran be 
made without a further Firman ? 

The Chairman. I think not. It has always been our 
experience that it takes several months to get a Firman. 

Viscount SiDMOUTH. — I shall be very happy to move the 
adoption of the Report. 

Professor Hull. — I shall be pleased to second it. 
The Report was carried unanimously. 

The Chairman. — It is proposed by the Executive Committee to 
place on the General Committee Professor Macalistcr and Mr. 
Charles Francis Fellowes. 

Mr. J. D. Crace.— I will move that. 

Mr. Rylands. — I shall be glad to second it. — Carried. 

The Chairman. — We ask you to elect as members of the 
Executive Committee the following gentlemen : — Dr. Thomas 
Chaplin, Colonel C. R. Conder, J. D. Crace, Canon Dalton, 
Dr. Ginsbnrg, James Glaisher, Professor A. JMacalistei-, Walter 
Morri.son, Professor Flinders Petrie, Joseph Pollard, W. H. 
Rylands, Professor Sayce, Canon Tristram, Lieut. -General Sir 
Charles Warren, Colonel Watson, Major-General Sir Charles W. 
Wilson, Dr. W. Aldis Wright, with power to add to their 
number. We should very much have liked to put upon the 
Executive Committee some younger men. We are all of us 
getting on in years, and would be very glad to find some 3'ounger 
men who are more or less in touch with modern Palestine — 
gentlemen who speak Arabic, who know Hebrew, and who have 
travelled in Palestine preferably. It is rather a burden to some of 
us to come up and attend the meetings. For instance, I have to 
come all the way from Yoi'kshire. 

Professor Hull. — I have great pleasure in moving that these 
gentlemen bo invited to form the Executive Comtniltee. 



334 ANNUAL MEETING. 

Mr. Bextwich. I .sbcall have much pleasure in seconding that. 
It seems to me it is an advantage to get new men into the 
Executive Committee from time to time, especially when we find, 
according to the Report which you read, Sir, that the number oi: 
subscribers has decreased by death or otiier unavoidable causes, 
and the numbei'S have not been made up by new comers. The 
introduction of new interests into the Executive Committee may 
be a means of interesting others, and of increasing the income of 
the Fund. 

The CuAiK-MAN. — I think all societies ai'e sufferino- iu the 
same way. It is due to the great number of Funds which are 
asking for subscriptions. For instance, the Queen Victoria Fund, 
and the Fund which has been got up for our countrymen in South 
Africa. 

The proposition Avas cari-ied unanimously. 

The Chairman. — We must fill up the vacancy caused by the 
death of Sir Walter Besant. I intended to ask ^-ou if you 
would appoint our friend Mr. J. D. Crace as Honorary Secretary 
for the next year. He has been iu Palestine, and knows a 
great deal about the subject. He is an enei-getic man, and 
one of our most regular attendants on the Committee. I do not 
think we could find a better man. Mr. Crace says he would be 
willing to act as Honorary Secretary, at all events for a year, if 
you were to appoint him ; and he hopes that during the year 
some younger man can be found who will be willing to take an 
energetic interest in the work. Mr. Crace has got his work to do 
in the world as Avell as most of us. I have pleasure in proposing 
Mr. Crace as Honorary Secretary. 

Dr. Chaplin. — I shall be glad to second that. 

The resolution was carried unanimously. 

Mr. J. D. Crace. — I have to thank the General Committee for 
putting so much confidence in me. What you have heard of 
Sir Walter Besant is enough to make any man backward in under- 
taking the duties of Honoi'ary Secretary even for a year. In 
mentioning the term a year, I feel strongly it is most essential 
that we .should get in young blood, not only on the General (com- 
mittee, but that the general interest of younger men should be 
enlisted in the objects of the Fund. I think we i-equire to make 
considerable effort to get into closer touch with the Universities 



ANNUAL MEETIIJfG. 335 

for one thing. There are a ^reat many men coming oat of the 
Universities now Avho are greatly interested in things archaeo- 
logical, and who are full of enthusiasm and energy. And I cannot 
help thinking that we might get into touch with some of these 
men and induce thnm to make the work of the Palestine Exploration 
Fund an object of interest. 

The Chairman.— That is a good idea, and if anybody can 
suggest any names we shall be very happy to consider them. I 
suppose we have power to add to our numbers. Certainly if we 
could get the right sort of men it would be an advantage. But 
we want to get people who can and will attend. 

I have now to move that a cordial vote of thanks be given to 
Dr. Bliss, Mr. Macalister, and Dr. Schick, to Mr. Armstrong, our 
Acting Secretary, and to the Editor of the Quarterly Statement, for 
the work they have done for the Fund in the past year. We have 
just had a letter from Professor George Adam Smith, describing 
the great respect and affection in which Dr. Bliss was held bv 
the woi'kpeople he employed. 

Mr. Bentwich.— I should like to be allowed to second that. I 
have personally had the privilege of benefiting by the assistance 
which Dr. Bliss was always ready to give to visitors to the Holy 
City. Although I and my party were perfect strangers to him, he 
showed the greatest interest in evoking interest from us, and that 
interest which he did evoke has remained with all the party who 
were with me, several of whom became subscribers to the Fund. 
I think Dr. Bliss has had the interest of the Fund at heart, and 
has induced a living interest in many people who previously had 
no knowledge of the marvellous work which is being done by the 
representatives of the Fund on the spot. I am glad also that that 
feature is being continued in a niaz'ked degree by his successor, 
Mr. Macalister, who not only does the work of the Fund, but 
who is always glad — I speak from experience — to follow up the 
smaller interests of individuals who have inquiries to make on 
the spot, and to interest others in the work which the Fund 
is carrying ou. I am sure that this vote will be unanimously 
accorded, and I think it a high privilege to be able to bear 
testimony to the valuable work Avhich is being done, and to the 
intei est which at the same time is being drawn to it. 

The resolution was carried. 

Y 



336 ANNUAL MEETING. 

The Chairman. I hope Mr. Macalister will be able to say a 
few words. 

;Mr. Macalister read the following notes which he had 
prepared : — 

" I may, perhaps, be permitted to make a few remarks upon 
the site that has been selected for examination, and to attempt to 
forecast what we may expect to find there. It has several times 
been impressed upon the Society that, as compared with the 
neighbouring countries, Palestine may be described as archaeo- 
logically poverty-stricken. The almost total absence of inscrip- 
tions older than the Ptolemaic period is especially disappointing. 
This may be ascribed partly to the alleged indifference of the 
Jewish nation to historical records, partly to climatic causes. But 
it is to me inconceivable that the meagre Siloam inscriptions 
should be the solitary record of the monarchy remaining to our 
time in the country. I feel convinced that somewhere steles of 
great importance remain to be found, and they are at least as 
likely to lie buried in the ruins of the selected site as anywhere 
else. One such historical document would pi'obably be the 
greatest prize that could fall to the Palestinian explorer. 

" But exen if we were unable to expect so important a discovery, 
there are many problems whose solution would be a reward nearly 
as ample. Such is the question of the disposal of the dead in 
Pre-Israelite and early Israelite times, upon which all light has 
so far been obstinately withheld. A careful special search will, it 
is hoped, be made for the cemetery of the Pre-Israelite town ou 
the selected site. This question is of great importance, and on its 
solution hangs the solution of other problems relating to the 
ethnological affinities of the Pre-Israelite tribes of Palestine. 

"Among the other questions that call for solution, upon which 
the excavation of such a place as the selected site might be 
expected to throw light, may be mentioned : the nature and 
extent of the influence exerted by Mycena?an and also by Egyptian 
culture on the art of Palestine ; the period of the introduction of 
iron, a metal seemingly unknown in the earliest periods of Pre- 
Israelite occupation ; and the development of various implements 
— knives, arrow-heads, &c. — which it may be found possible to 
trace out in detail, much as the development of pottery has been 
systematised by Drs. Petrie and Bliss. At the selected site, also, 



ANNUAL MEETING. . 337 

wc are so far west that we may possibly hope to advance one 
or two steps in itadinL,^ tlie riddle of the Philistines — their 
ethnolof^ical position, and their historical connexion with the 
country. 

" Unless the surface indications are misleading, or have been 
wrongly intcrpi-eted by me, I should say that there, if anywhere, 
light on Biblical, arclueological, ethnological, perhaps I may add 
philological, questions may be expected ; and if the two years' 
exploration permitted by the Ottoman Government pass without 
material additions to our knowledge, I for my ^lart will be 
grievously disappointed. 

" I may, in conclusion, mention one or two departments ot 
work other than excavation which, as they do not require a 
Firman, can be prosecuted at any time, and may be regarded 
conveniently as ' lioliday tasks,' to be undertaken when the time 
of year does not permit active excavation. One very important 
work is the testing of the identification of sites. Many identifica- 
tions, resting for the most part on similarity between ancient and 
modern names, have been propounded and universally accepted, 
which will probably have to be reconsidered. Since these identi- 
fications were suggested a new criterion of accuracy has been 
developed : this is the chronological scale deducible from the 
knowledge we have gained of the histoi-y of pottery in Palestine, 
a knowledge to which our excavations recently closed have con- 
tributed a very large proportion. An identification can now no 
longer be maintained if it involve an epoch different from the 
period of the potsherds found strewed on the site which happens 
to be under discussion. 

" I may, perhaps, be pardoned if I refer also to a branch of 
field work in which I have taken special interest : ] refer to the 
comparative study of rock-cut tombs. During the last year of 
the recent Firman I explored and made a report, as exhaustive as 
I could, on the tombs in the so-called Valley of Hinnom. There 
are otiier groups of tombs near Jerusalem and elsewhere as 
interesting as these, and possibly the study of them may lead to 
a better knowledge of the history of this branch of architecture 
(if I may so term it) than we can claim to possess already. I may 
also remind you that one result of the systematic study which 
I gave to the Valley of Hinnom tombs was the re-discovery of 
two inscriptions which had been eadly misread, and for some 

Y 2 



338 ANNUAL MEETING. 

30 or 40 years completely lost sight of, notwithstanding the 
special searches that had been made for them. I would not risk 
the charge of egotism by referring to this, were it not that I wish 
to illustrate the possibility that epigraphic novelties may still be 
hoped for even in so w^ell ransacked a district as Jerusalem and 
its neighbourhood. My only fear is lest by over-riding this hobby 
of my own I weary the readers of the Quarterly Statement. 

"I have onl}' to add my sincere thanks for your kind words 
about myself, and to express the hope that when the coming 
season is over I may claim to have deserved them." 

The Chairman'. — There are a number of casts and photographs 
in the room of things which have been discovered, which, perhaps, 
gentlemen would like to have explained to them. 

Mr. Guy le Strange. — I hope, before we part, you will allow 
me to submit a vote of thanks to Mr. Morrison for presiding 
to-day, and for all that he has done as Honorary Treasurer 
during the past year. We have, I suppose, had a rather bad year, 
like every other society, and if we are in a favourable financial 
position, I am sure that is greatly due to Mr. Morrison's care. 

Viscount SiDMOUTH. — I would like to second that. I am very 
glad of the opportunity of meeting Mr. Morrison again after the 
many years since we first came into contact. I am sure we are 
much indebted to him for taking the chair on this occasion, and 
I hope that he will continue the office of Treasurer. 

I also wanted to ask a question. Three or four years ago 
some very interesting remarks were made here about availing 
ourselves of whatever information could be had from the few who 
are now left of the Samaritan race ; I think I saw it stated that 
not more than 140 or 150 of them were left. The susre'estion 
was made here that no time should be lost in obtaininsr whatever 
information could be had from the manuscripts, or at any rate 
from the traditions which still remain amonsr them. 

Mr. H. W. Rylands.— I think the Chief of the Tribe was over 
here five or six years ago, when I met him. He sent four or five 
sons over here at different times to be educated. I met him at 
the house of the Jewish Rabbi, and there the Jews did have 
communication with the Samaritans. He was a fine, bijr tall 
man, six feet two in height. 



ANNUAL MEETING 339 

Viscount SiDMOuTH.— I tliink it was suf^gested at the time I 
speak of that we should put oursi'lvcs into communication with a 
native medical man, who would have fri'cater opportunities of con- 
versation with the females, so that he could obtain from them 
information not to be had from tlie men. It was supposed that 
the native medical men were the only persons who could get into 
conversation with them. I do not know whether any report has 
been founded upon that. 

Mr. J. D. Ckace. — I think the articles which have been comin" 
out in the Quarterly Statement are partially due to communications 
of that kind. I think a good deal of that information has been 
obtained through the native doctors. 

Dr. CiiAi'Lix. — I have been accjuainted with the Samaritans 
for nearly 40 years, and quite recently I saw the son of their Chief 
Rabbi. From him I learned what is a very curious fact : that, 
although the Samaritans had dwindled in number to about 150 
some time ago, yet within the last few years they have increased 
slightly, so that there are now nearly 200 of them. They are 
very poor. The member of their community who came over 
here some years ago is no longer living. The Chief Rabbi 
is an intelligent man, very amiable, and of course thoroughly 
acquainted with the Samaritan litei^ature and the traditions 
of his people. I do not think there is very much in the 
traditions of the Samaritans that differs from the traditions 
of the people around them, at all events as regards the social 
and family life. They themselves maintain and believe that they 
are really of Israelite origin, although I think I am not wrong in 
saying that, on the whole, the Jews do not regard the Samaritans 
as their brothers, and that is rather in accordance with the 
Scriptural account. There is an English medical missionary 
residing at Xablus, who no doubt could tell us much about their 
traditions. 

The meeting then terminated. 



340 



NOTES OP A JOURXEY THROUGH HAURAX, WITH 
INSCRIPTIONS FOUND BY THE WAY. 

By Professor George Adaji Smith, D.D., LL.D. 

In May last, with a compau}" of friends, I made a journey from 
Tiberias through Hauran to Damascus. My chief objects were to 
revisit Gadara, to see Ibdar and Abila of the Decapolis, and to 
examine the supposed sites of 'Ashteroth Karnaim, on Tell 
el-'Ash'ary and Tell 'Ashtarah. The following are my notes by 
the way. They are partly a record of the changes apparent since 
my last journey in 1891, partly an account of some ne-vv inscrip- 
tions which we had the good fortune to find, including an impor- 
tant monument of Sety I of Egypt, in Tell esh-Shihab, and partly 
some evidence as to 'Ashteroth Karnaim. 

I. — From Gadara to Tell esh-Shihab. 

On May 1st we struck our tents at Semak, at the south end 
of the Lake of Galilee, and after a visit to the neifrhbourinsr ruins 
of Kerak (Taricheae r), on the west bank of the Jordan, we rode 
to the hot baths of Hammi, in the gorge of the Yarmuk below 
Mukes (Gadara). We reached these, not by the usual road up 
the course of the Yarmuk, but across the spurs of the Jaulan 
plateau to the north. The spurs hold one or two clusters of 
ruins — of small villages and a tower. They are bare and water- 
less, but in a few of the depressions on their surface are small, 
poor fields, cultivated to-day b}- the inhabitants of Fik. The 
view down the Jordan valley is magnificent: the eye follows the 
course of the Yarmuk from its issue from the hills to its junction 
with the Jordan. 

We reached the Hammi at 12.40. It was the end of June 
when I visited these famous baths in 1891, and then they were 
being used by only a few Arabs. But on this visit, in the season 
for the baths, the peninsula on whioh they lie was alive with 
patients and their attendants, chiefly Jews, with some Turkish 
officials from Irbid, and one army colonel. Teats and booths of 
branches clustered round the hotter springs. We had to wait 
our turn for entering the large pool on the north-west; in this 



NOTES OF A JOUKNKV TIIUOUCH HAUISAN. I'Al 

the temperature of tlie water is 103° ; tliut of the air at 2 p.m. 
was 89° in the shade. 

We climbed up to Mukes in the afternoon. Tlie slopes are 
much more cultivated than in If^'Jl. Thi.s chanf,'e somewhat 
prepared us for alterations on the plateau above ; but no one who 
knew the latter in past years can visit it now without disappoint- 
ment. Mukes has greatly inci-eased, but at tlie expense of the 
remains of Gadara. I need not e^o into particulars. Schumacher 
has described, in the " Zeitschrift " of the German Palestine 
Society for 1900, the complex of dwellings and barns which the 
village Sheikh has built on the top of the plateau. Content, till 
a few years ago, to live in the tombs to the east of the ancient 
city, the villagers have now the ambition to build houses for 
themselves, and have iTsed, and are using, the ruins of the latter, 
and especially the .ctones of the two arapliitheatres, for that 
purpose. It is one of the many proofs with which our journey 
provided us, that if the ancient sites of Palestine are to be 
explored and the civilisations they contained brought to light, 
this must be done as soon as possible. Every year means irre- 
coverable loss. May the fact impress itself upon all subscribers to 
our Fund ! 

On the 2nd of ilay (temperature at 6 a.m. 65°) Ave struck 
east, at 8.45, along the ridge, upon the old Roman road. The 
basalt pipes of the conduit, which I saw in great numbers in 1891, 
have nearlj all disappeared. The soil, though still cultivated, is 
very shallow. Every year the fine oak woods are being thinned. 
At 10 we left the Irbid road whei-e it begins to descend to the 
south-east (temperature 75° with slight breeze) and, striking 
E.N.E., passed at 10.10 the large oak which stands conspicuous 
in the wood. At 10.25 the wood was behind us, and in front a 
long bare plateau sloping up slowly to the east. Hatim lay below 
us to the south, and beyond it Irbid, which, with Beit Ras, had 
stood out, from the earlier stages of our march, clear against the 
south-east sky, but was now sunk almost invisible against the 
dark backofround of the Jebel Kafkafa. We reached the top of 
the slope at 10.45 : hewn stones, a sarcophagus, and much 
pottery, a clear view of the Jaulfiu Hills and Hermou, with 
Samar in the near north. From the top the ground slopes gently 
down towards Ibdar, which I visited in order to see if there is 
any evidence for my proposal to identify it with the Lidebir of 



342 NOTES OF A JOUKNEY THROUGH HAUKAX. 

Joshua xiii, 26, the I,o-debar of Griitz's emendation of Amos vi, 13. 
Ibdar, though slightly under the level of the neighbouring 
plateaus, lies on the edge of a plateau of its own. The present 
village clusters upon the top of the precipitous side of a deep 
"Wady (300 to 400 feet deep) at the junction of the latter with the 
Wady Saniar. There are a few ancient hewn stones, and a 
number of caves. It is a strong and commanding position. 
To the south, from the other side of the Wady el-'Arab (in its 
upper portion Wady el-Ghafr), Gilead slopes up to the distant 
horizon. To the south-east Beit Ras is conspicuou.", commanding 
the head and southern end of a rido-e runningr south from the 
main plateau on which tlie road eastward from Mukes runs. To 
the north Hermon is clear and the country between. Altogether 
the place is suitable for such a frontier-fortress between Gilead 
and the Aramean territory, as Lo-debar was. It lies near the 
road from Hauran to Gadara — which I still tliink may have been 
Ramoth-Gilead — and the Jordan. 

At 11.40 we descended into the Wady 'Ain et-Turab, close 
beside the 'Ain and a rich grove of oleanders. Striking up the 
Wady E.N.E. we reached the watershed at 12, and in five minutes 
more we began to descend, almost due north, the Wady el-Kueilby, 
reaching the 'Ain el-Hrebi at 12.45. Schumacher has sufficiently 
described this, the most important spring in the district, in the 
" Zeitschrift " of the German Society, vol. xx (1897), p. 184, 
where he makes the valuable suggestion that the aqueduct 
running from the east into Gadara was supplied from el-Hrebi, 
and was not connected, as is usually supposed, with the Kauatir 
Fira'un at Edre'i. 

We left the 'Ain at 2.30 (temperature 82°) and following the 
Wady, on the sides of which are many ancient tombs, we arrived 
at the col on which the ruins of Tell Abil lie, before 3. These 
display all the importance which Schumacher assigns to them 
(" Abilaof the Decapolis," published by the Palestine Exploration 
Fund in 1889), and nothing need be :idded to liis descriptions. 
The sti'ong and well-watered site, the architectui'al remains on the 
two hills on either side of the col, the colo.ssal wall of solid 
masonry on the east face of the northern hill, the heavy dam 
across the Wady Kueilby,' with its vaulted sluice, and the 

' The ridge composed of the two hills with the col between them runs 
north and eoutli, parallel to tlie Wady. 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY THKOUCII HAUUAN. 343 

neighbouring cemeteries assure one (even (Mi a liuriied visit like 
ours) of the fact that we have here a great Greek site, similar 
in its situation, atid in (he remains wliicli occupy it, to the other 
niembors of the Decaj)olis. 

Leaving Tell Abil at 3.40, we entered at 4 a small Wady 
running north into the Wady esh-Shellale, just opposite to 
ed-Dnebe. The Wady esh-Sliellale is one of the most imposing 
among even the gorges of Syria. Where we broke upon it, 
it lies over 1,000 feet deep, and at the top (according to 
Schumacher) is about two kilometres broad. The lofty, steep 
sides had all their yellow colour brought out by the still high 
afternoon sun. At the bottom, also in sunshine, lay in brilliant 
contrast a long, pink ribbon of oleanders masking the bed of 
the stream. On the southern side the path is very rugged 
and steep ; one cannot ride, and can hardl}' lead a hoi-se either 
up or down. Our pack mules crossed the Wady much higher 
up. It is a permanent frontier, impassable in winter, and in 
summer impregnable against a vigilant defence. Its waters 
descend to the Yarmuk by a series of catai-acts — hence its 
name. Along with the Yarmuk, and curving as its upper course 
does to the south, it cuts off the district of 'Ajlun from that 
of Hauran, and in ancient times must have formed the usual 
frontier between Gilead and Bashan, Israel and Aram. 

We reached the bottom of the Wady at 4'. 30, and, leaving it 
a few minutes before 5, arrived on the plateau on the opjiosite 
side about 5.25. Striking east across the extremely fertile plain, 
very different from the barren hills to the south of the Wady, 
we passed 'Amrawa at 5.40, crossed the Wadies esh-Shomfir and 
el-Meddan, and reached our tents by Tel! esh-Shihab at 6.30. 

The route we had followed all day is the most direct between 
Mukes and Tell esh-Shihab, both of them important towns in 
ancient times, and it passes Tell Abil or Abila of the Decapolis. 
Yet it can hardly have ever been a main line of traffic between 
Gadara (with the Jordan Valley) and Hauran. The depth and 
ruggeduess of the Wady esh-Shelhlle forbid this, and after 
striking off the Gadara-Irbid road (see above) we were mainly 
on local paths. The only traces of a highway were between Tell 
Abil and the Wady esh-Shellale; the only ancient remains were 
in the short Wady leading to the latter. We must, therefore, 
believe that the great Roman roads between Gadara and Hauran 



344 NOTES OF A JOURNEY THROUGH HAURAN. 

did not pass Abila but swung round raoi'e to the south and east. 
The significance of the district about Abil and immediately 
south of the Wady esh-Shelh'ile was rather military. Wetzstein 
(" Reisehericht," 149) relates how in 1858 a Bedawin tribe, 
retreating from the north, made a stand here: their pursuers 
being checked by the Wady Shelhile and gorges of the Yarmuk, 
and retiring after two days had convinced them of the impregnable- 
ness of the position of their enemies. Which incident illustrates 
the ancient contests on this ground between Aram and Israel. 

II. — Tell esh-Shihab and the Discovery of a Second Egyptian 

Monument in Hauran. 

Tell esh-Shihab, one hour E.S.E. of Mnzeirib, occupies 
a strong and picturesque position on a promontory formed 
by the junction of the Wady el-Meddan with the Wady Tell 
esh-Shihab (or Wady et-Tell)', just opposite the high cataract by 
which the waters of the Wady el-Bajjeh pour into the Wad}' 
et-Tell. The village is said to be the lowest in Haui'an, standing 
a little over 1,000 feet above the sea ; the neighbourhood forms a 
gathering place of waters. In deep, rapidly-falling beds five or 
six Wadies concentrate to form in the Wady et-Tell the upper 
course of the Yarmuk ; the Wady esh-Shellale draining the 
Eastern 'Ajliin from as far south as the Jebel Kafkafa ; the 
almost parallel Wady esh-Shomar, springing from the Zumal 
range of hills, passing Er-Ramtheh and entering the Wady 
et-Tell near 'Amrawa ; the Wady el-Meddan, or lower course of 
the Wady ez-Zedi, whose tributaries rise on the south-west slopes 
of the Jebel ed-Druz and flow united past Edre'i ; the Wady 
edh-Dhahab (formed of winter brooks draining the west face of 
the Jebel ed-Druz), which runs into the Wady el-Meddan above 
Tell esh-Shihab ; the Wady Ziguani (P) ; and the Wady el-Bajjeh 
draininiif the lake at Muzeirib.- 

From all this it is obvious that Tell esh-Shihab must always 
have been a site of great importance. The cataract gives water- 
power for a large number of mills, to which grain is brought from 

' Ihe name Wady Ziguani was gi^eu (o me for tlie portion of this Wady 
above and east of Tell esh-Shihab. 

^ The courses of tliese Wadies have for tlie first time been accurately 
determined by Mr. Schumacher {see the " Zeitschrift des Deutscb. Paliistin 
Vereins," xx, 91 Jf, with map; xxii; map of Golan and West Hauran). 



NOTKS OF A .lOUllXKV TlllvOrclI IIAIIIAN'. 



34.". 



a o-reat distance,' and these, along with rich f,'arden8 by tlie watcr- 
conrscs and a stretch of fertile wheiit-fields, secure for <he largo 
village a considenililc jMosperitj. Its sheikhs to-day belong to a 
i)o\verful house, and are reputed vrry lich ; nearly all the villagers 
look happy and eoinforrable. Tlie Wadies et-Tell and el-Meddan 
protect the village by their cliffs and steep banks on all sides 
except the east, where the level approach is crossed by ancient 
fortifications, still well preserved.'- One may believe that a strong 




Falls at Tell esh-Shihab. 



and well-stocked fortress always existed here. At the same time 
Tell esh-Shihab does not now lie, and cannot ever Lave lain, on a 
main line of road. There are too many deep gorges about it. 
The traffic from Gadara to Damascus must have swung round to 
the south and east. Any visitor to tlie district can see why the 

' Scluuiiaclior speaks of a iiuu-li used raad to the mills from Dcr'fit (i.e , 
Edre'i) down the Wady oz-Zc li (" Z. 1). P. V,"' xx, 12<t). 

2 See Schumachers "Across tlie Jordan" (published hv the Palestiue 
Exploration Fund), p. 200, with a section of the wall. 



346 NOTES OF A JOURNEY THEOUCxH HAURAX. 

great roads from Damascus, Xawa and el-Merkez, Der'at (i.e. 
the ancient Edre'i), tlie Jebel 'Ajlun, and Gadara concentrate 
rather upon the less healthy and less fertile site of Muzeirib, one 
hour east of Tell esh-Shihab, for round Mazeii^b the Wadies are 
shallow, and the country almost flat. 

The name, Tell esh-Shihab, " Mound of the "Warrior," is 
purely Arabic, and gives no clue to its ancient designation. One 
naturally seeks for a stronghold so important among the towns 
taken in this I'egion by Judas Maccabeus on his march to relieve 
the Jews who were settled east of Jordan (1 Mace. v). Bnhl 
(" Geog. des Alt. Pal.," 250) identifies it with the Raphon of 
1 Mace. V, 37, and Josephus, " Antt." xii, 8, 4 (= Raphana of 
the Decapolis, Pliny, " Hist. Xat." v, 16). There is something 
to be said for this identification. Timothens, having been defeated 
by Judas, presumably to the south-east of Tell esh-Shihub in the 
latitude of Bosra, fled north and gathered another army "beyond 
the brook" (1 Mace, v, 37), Gr. x^i^appov^. If the latter be 
taken in its strict designation of "winter-stream" it cannot be 
the perennial stream flowing from Muzeirib, and descending the 
cataract at Tell esh-Shihab, but one of the other Wadies 
menlioned above which are dry in summer. It is not necessary, 
however, to take the terra so strictly, and the other points given 
in connection with Raphon suit Tell esh-Shihab. For when 
Judas crossed " the brook," from the side on which Raphon was 
and defeated Tiraotheus, the soldiers of the latter fled to Karnaim, 
i.e., 'Ashteroth Karnaim, sites for which have been sought at 
Tell el-'Ash'ary, about six miles north of Tell esh-Shihab, and Tell 
'Ashtarah, four miles further on. Raphana has been identified 
with Kapitolias, on the ground that Pliny's list of the Decapolis 
contains the former but omits the latter, while Ptolemy's omits 
the former but contains the latter. According to the Itinerarium 
Antonini Kapitolias lay on the direct road from Gadara to 
Damascus ; according to Ptolemy, norih-cast of Gadara on the 
same latitude as Hippos ; and according to the Peutinger Table, 
on the road from Gadara to Edre'i, 16 Roman miles from either 
of them. Now Tell esh-Shihab fulfils only some of these 
conditions. It is 19 Roman miles from Gadara, and less than 
12 from Der'at {i.e., Edre'i) ; and, as we have seen, it can hardly 
have lain on any of the direct military and commercial roads 
through Hauran. Buhrs identification, therefore, remains insecure. 



NOTES 01' A JOUKNKV Tlli;(*I( III IIAKlIAN. 



347 



Nor is there another much hotter. One is indeed tempted to 
snsfgest Karnaim or Karnion itself. Thi.s vva.s ditticult to approach 

Clil TIjlf TTUl'TWr riCl> TOTTlOl' rTTfJ'f>7//Trt (2 IMaCC. xll, 21) ", wlljlo if it 

bo identical, as is probable, with one of the Aslitoreths of tlie 
" Onomasticon," it lay nine Hdumn niile.s frt'iii the other, wliich is 



^^:^\ 




MOXUMENT OF SeTY I AT TeLI. KSU-ShIHAB. 

approximately the distance between Tell 'Ashtarah and Tell esh- 
Shihab; and, besides, lay between Abila of the Deeapolis and Edre'i, 
which Tell esh-Shihfib may roughly be described to do. But 
there are other data for Karnaim which do not suit Tell esh- 
Shihab, and on the whole we must confess ourselves at fault 
with regard to the ancient equivalent of the latter. Yet see 
below, p. 360. 



348 



NOTES OF A JOUKXEY TUliOUGH HAUKAX. 



Mr. Schumaclier " could discover neither inscriptions nor carved 
stones " at Tell esh-Shiliab,^ and I do not know of any mentioned 
by other travellers. We made a strict inquiry, and were at first 
met with the usual denials. Then we were led to a faded and 
fragmentary Greek inscription on tlie north-west of the village, 
on wliicli we could only make out the following letters: — 

<I) A B 

\ E () T 

A A T K 

E T K E 

But we called afterwards on the Sheikh, and in answer to our 
questions after " written stones " lie led us to the courtyard of 
a liouse, w'here, let into the mud wall, we saw a black basalt slab 
with Egyptian carving upon it. We took a photograph, a repro- 
duction of which is given on p. 347. 

The lower portion of the slab has been broken off. What 
remains is about 3 feet from top to bottom, and a little over that 
from one side to the other. All I was able to make out from 
a list of Egyptian cartouches was that it contained the cartouche 
of Sety I. On my arrival in London the photograph was 
examined by Mr. Percy Newberry and Mr. Herbert Thompson. 
The latter wrote me as follows : — 

" It is undoubtedly of Sety I, his cartouche being written 



O 
■ """ 



, e.g., at Karnak, as well as 



name is given in the usual form 




Besides, his other 



= Sety, beloved of Ptah. 



Above the names are the titles ' Loi'd of the two lands' and ' Lord 
of glories (?) ' (the last word is applied to the rising of the sun 

its exact meaning: in the 



and to the king ascending the throne 



Across Jordan," p. 203. 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY TIIKOUGII IIAUKAN. :U9 

title is iincertain). Below are tlio words ' Giving life like Ra.' 
The king (on the right) is holding up two libation vessels before 
Amen, whose name Avith some titles is inscribed before hitn. 
Behind staiuls the goddess Mut, with her name." 

The stone is of no little importance in connection with the 
oonqnests of the Pharaohs on the east of Jordan. Only one other 
Egyptian monument has been discovered in Hauran — the so-called 
Job's stone in Sheikh Sa'd (about 1,000 yards north of el-Merkez, 
the seat of the Hauran Government) with a figure of Ramses II, 
son of Sety I {see Erman in " Z. D. P. V.," xiv, 142/, xv, 205/). 
But long before both Sety and Ramses, Thothraes III had 
marched through Hauran. Not only does the list of liis con- 
quests contain, in No. 13, Damascus (as well as some places on 
the Lebanon), but in Nos. 28 to 31 we find the succession 
A-s-ti-iM-tu (" Records of the Past," second series, v, 45 ; 
cf. Ashtarti, Bezold and Budge. " The Tell el-Amarna Tablets 
in the British Museum," 43, 64), Anau-Refaa, Makata, and Luisa. 
Astiratu is usually taken for 'Ashteroth Karnaim, Refjui for 
Raphon, and Luisa for Laish or Dan. May not Maketa be the 
Maked of the campaign of Judas Maccabeus (1 Mace, v, 26, 36) ? 

Unfortunately the Sety stone at Tell esh-Shihab has had the 
lower end broken off: on which some record of Sety's conquests 
may have been inscribed. I made inquiries about it, but none 
of the Tell esh-Shihab people could tell me anything about it. 
There is no reason to suppose, however, that the monument has 
been far removed from its original site. The villagers said to 
me that it had been found at Tell esh-Shihab ; it is of the stone 
of the district, and it is so heavy that it could not easily have 
been carried for any distance. 

In " Asien u. Europa " W. Max Miiller says that " Sety waged 
war upon a much more limited territory [in Syria] than is usually 
supposed" (p. 199, cf. p. 55); that "the names of the towns 
conquered by Sety are, without exception, those of the plain 
of the Kishon and Western Galilee to the foot of Lebanon " 
(p. 200) ; and that Sety " succeeded only in a modest expan.sion 
[of Egyptian conquest] on the coast of Southern Phoenicia" 
(p. 276). But if this stone in Tell esh-Shihfib belongs to the 
east of Jordan, and, from what is said above, it is hardly possible 
to think otherwise, Sety, like Thothmes and Ramses, mu.st have 
ci'ossed the Jordan and made some conquests in Hauran. 



350 NOTES OF A JOURNEY THROUGH HAURAN. 

At Tell esli-Shihab I also obtained a cylinder seal and a coin. 
The seal produces an impression Ij inches long by about f inch 
broad. It is of rough workmanship, hardly (I am told by those 
who know) Babylonian, but more probably an early Palestinian 
imitation of Babylonian work. There are three human figures, 
from the head (with some kind of headdress) to the hips — one 
figure to the one side and two to the other, of an object like an 
artificial tree ; thus : — 










The coin is silver (perhaps only plated), on the one side a lion 
rampant, with the legend round the rim : confidens • Dxo • NON • 
iiOVETUR • 16-86 ; and on the other a coat of arms, a small lion 
rampant at the foot, and the legend: ??? bel • campen — MO' 
ARGCivi ? — A hole bored in the top shows this to have formed 
part of a woman's headdress. At Banias I purchased a silver coin 
like this one, i.e., identical on one side, except for the date, 1696, 
and on the other with the legend: foe • belg • west — mo • AEG • 
PRO • COi ?. 

III.— El-Muzeirib. 

From Tell esh-Shihab we rode over in something less thau an 
hour to Muzeirib. The railway has come here since my last visit 
in 1891, and Muzeirib is the terminus of the narrow gauge line 
which runs south from Damascus more or less parallel to the 
great Hajj road. There is little change in the village itself, but 
the sight of a railway station and of engines on a landscape which 
was hitherto associated only with Arab markets and the gathering 
of the Meccan pilgrimage is sufficiently strange. The lake was 
much shrunk, partly from the clearing of the Wady el-Bajjeh, 
mentioned by Schumacher ('" Z. D. P. V.," xx, 167), and partly 
because of the drought of last spring. ]^o moi'e ancient remains 
were discovered in the construction of the railway; the Greek 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY THROUGH HAURAN. 351 

inscriptions in the castle are less deciplierable than ever. Tho 
long Arab use of the place in connection with the Hajj has 
destroyed all chance of discovering its ancient name. Yet tlio 
abundance of good water (not in the lake, which is brackish, but 
in the stream, which feeds the latter from the Rus el-'Ain), tho 
concentration of several ancient lines of road across the level 
neighbourhood, and the large basalt blocks on the island, as if 
from some pre-Mohanimedan fortifications, prove that the site 
must always have been one of importance. Buhl (" Geog.," 249) 
has proposed Mnzeirib for the first Ashtaroth of Ensebius 
(" Ouomasticon," 'A«tt«/W'^) ; and it suits so far the data for tlie 
latter: six Roman miles from Edre'i, and nine (it is actually eight) 
from Tell 'Ashtarah, if this be the other Ashtaroth {'AtnuftwO 
Knpvaeifi) of the " Onomasticon." But it does not suit the descrip- 
tion of Karnion or Karnaim (presumably one of the Ashtaroths) 
given in 2 Mace, xii, 21, for it is not " difficult to get at by reason 
of the narrowness of all the places"; nor does 2 Mace, xii, 21, make 
any mention in connection with Karnion of the lake — the most 
prominent feature of Muzeirib. But 2 Mace, xii, 13, speaks of a 
lake two stadia broad near Caspis, or Caspin (the Casphor or 
Casphon of 1 Mace, v, 36 : /taff0o of Jos., " Antt." xii, 8, 3) ; and 
till further evidence is found we cannot but identify el- Muzeirib 
with this town captured by Judas before he advanced (from the 
south) upon Karnaim. 

IV. — Tell el-'Ash'art. 

From Muzeirib we rode N.N.W. by the main road for 
el-Merkez and Nawa. About a mile and a half before it reaches 
the bridge across the Wady el-'Ehreir we struck west from it over 
fields to Tell el-'Ash'ary, which had been visible for a long time 
across the plain. The ride from Muzeirib took rather less than 
an hour. 

Tell el-'Ash'ary is a long mound, running from north-east to 
south-west upon the edge of the deep gorge of the Wady el-'Ehreir 
(which is here called the Wady Tell el-'Ash'ary). The east face 
of the mound rises about 90 feet above the plain ; the west sinks 
precipitously for at least double that depth into the gorge.' Tho 
summit is broad, for the most part flat, but with an appreciable 

1 Oliphimt, " Land of Gilead," 88, savs the gorge is 500 feet deep. This is 
certainly exaggerated, lie gives a sketch. 

Z 



352 NOTES OF A JOURNEY THROUGH HAURAN. 

decline from norfcli to south. Schumacher gives the height as 
1,551 feet above the sea.' The view is magnificent. Looking west 
and south the foreground is occupied by tlie precipitous gorge, 
with the stream brawling down its rocky bed, and dividing round 
a long islet just below the mound. Beyond are the green orchards 
and vineyards, the red-tiled offices and arboricultural school of 
the Jewish colony of Jillin. The summit of Tabor is visible in 
the extreme south-west over the east hills of Galilee. Jebel 
'Ajlun fills all the south, and Jebel ed-Druz the south-east, from 
which the eye is carried northward on the clea^r line of the Leja to 
the hills south of Damascus. There was a haze in the north, but 
above it, like the edge of a cloud, lay the long silver line of 
Hermon's snows. Nearer were the volcanic peaks of northern 
Hauran and Jaulan. The mound Tell 'Ashtarah stood up from 
the plain about five miles to the north, and beyond it the govern- 
ment buildings at el-Merkez. 

The water supply of Tell el-'Ash'ary is good. Besides the 
perennial stream at the bottom of the Wady el-'Ehreir, a good 
spring rises near the south-east corner of the mound. The water 
flows past the south end on a shallow bed with oleanders, and 
over a small cascade into the great gorge. There is also here a 
hollow, said to be a marsh in winter, which is called the Bahret 
el-'Ash'ary ; it is surrounded by ruins. 

The most superficial review of the mound reveals the remains 
of architecture of different styles and ages. To begin with the 
present inhabitants — Schumacher in 1884 found about 150 
inhabitants in about 50 dwellings on the north of the mound.- 
They were diminished in numbers and had removed to the west 
slope when he made his second visit.^ We found but two or 
three poor negro families in huts constructed from the old ruins. 
The whole of the ancient basalt buildings on the plateau have 
been abandoned, except the few still used as folds and stables. A 
. good deal of the building dates from Arab times, as is proved 
from the way in which carved Greek stones stand in it upside 
down ; compare also the Arabic inscription given by Schumacher,* 
and the native legends (quoted by him) of the former greatness 
of the place. 

1 " Across Jordan," p. 208. On the map, " Z. D. P. V.," xxii, p. 179, 
472 metres. ^ " Across Jordan," p. 203. 

3 " Z. D. P. v.," XX, p. 167. " Across Jordan," p. 206. 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY THROUGH HAUUAX. 



353 



Goiiif^ behind the Ai-ab period we Kiid several fine spocitncns 
of the domestic architecture characteristic of Hanraii duritiL,' 
Roman and Byzantine epochs, and in especial one building com- 
posed of the usual parallel arches with cross-beams of stone. We 
saw tlie Tonic capital, sketched by Sithumacher.' Hut there ai-e 
many other hewn stones of the same age, and similar to those 
one meets with in the cities of the Decapolis. I turned over 
several carv^ed with a broad lip, exactly like those forming the 
seats of the Amphitheatx-e in Gadara, and there are two or thi-ee 




Q-HEEK IxVSCKiPTioN IN Wall AT Tell el-'Ash'ary. (In the Mull the 
inscription lies upside down. In this reproduction it lias been reversed.) 

of the upright stone water-pipes for raising water, with their 
conical stone stoppers (?). Schumacher mentions no Greek 
inscriptions. We came upon four, two very fragmentary — 

ANNIANAY- ^^^^^ EY<l>ANOY 
0PAKIAA """' NCYNTAILT 

and two larger ones, which we both copied and photogi-aphed. 
Reproductions are here given of the photographs. 

1 " Across Jordan," p. 204, - The name occurs also in Wadd., 1959. 

z 2 



354 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY THROUGH HAURAX. 



The fii'st of them (see p. 353), built upside down into a wall, 
appears to I'ead : 

GCTIToYCpAADYl 
T^HPIACAnDAAi^L^j N 
UjC^^IIMEn^lCpTUJ 
ONPlu/v 




Altak at Tell el-'Asii'aey. 



It will be noticed that the slab (of basalt) was not perfectly 
planed wlien the letters Avere carved upon it; some faults in it 
disturb the regularity of the latter. I do not think there is any 
letter between the initial T of the second line and the following H. 
The Omega of the second line also appears to be divided into two 
parts by the intervening roughness. 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY TIIllOUCII HAUUAN. 355 

If we take the first two lettoi-.s of tho first line to be the last 
of the word AUTOKPATOPOZ, we liuve an inscription of 
the reign of Titus, and ore of tho earliest of Greek inscriptions 
in Hauran. in 18I>1 1 discovered, a few miles away at Taffas, an 
inscription from tlie brief reign of Otho. This one, from the time 
of Titus, records the erection of an altar (see the fragmentary 
lower line, where we may read tot liwfiou), and the deity is Apollo. 

The other inscription, also of a dedication of an altar, is on 
the altar, which lies on its side in a court of one of the liouses on 
the top of the plateau (p. 354). I copied what was legible of it 
under the glaring sun, and have made out the rest from tho 
photograph by aid of a glass. The letters are smaller and much 
ruder than those of the other : — 

YHEPCtOTHPIACKAIAIAMONHZ 
TIToYAIAIoYAAPIANOY 
^NTtON€INOYCEBACToY6YCE 
BOYCKAITOYCYNnANToCAY 
TOYOIKoY 

nAM4-IAOCEY??NIOY 
BOYAOYTHZAETEXIANH 
KYPIATONBWMONEKTCON 
IAIWNKAT€Y?HNANHrEI 

PEN 

Line 1. — The Omega of awrij/xav is defective ; cp. with first 
four lines an inscinption from the same reign at Kebran in the 
Quarterly Statement for 1895, p. 353 ; Waddington, '2'2S6. 

Line 4. — (tui^ — not avfi-Trui/ro^ ; cp. Waddington, 2212. 

Line 7. — liov\ovrfj<i (sic). AET may be All. There ia a mark 
after what I read as X. It may be a letter, and with the X may 
have originally made M. 

Line 9. — The x ^^ ^J^X'/" ^^ illegible. 

Translation — " For the siifety and duration 
of Titus Aelius lladriauus 
Antuuiuus Augustus Pi- 
us and all lii- 
8 house 
Pamplulos (son of) ??? 

a councillor in the 4th year 

to ibe Mistress tlie tilt.ir at liis own 
expense, in fullilnienl of a vow, erect- 

el." 



356 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY TIIUOUCIII IIAURAN. 



Here, then, from the reign of Antoninns Pius we have another 
altar, and to a goddess. The last word of the seventh line, which 
reads EXIANH (= viper) as I trace it, may be the name of the 
town or of the goddess. 

These inscriptions prove that in the first and second Christian 
centuries there was on Tell el-'Ash'ary a town and sanctuary. 




Eemains of Walls ox Tell EL-'Asu'AKr. (The latest wall is that 

on the skj-liiif.) 

The ruins round the pool may be (as Schumacher suggests) those 
of a Naumachy such as we find in the remains of some of the 
Decapolis ; while from the north of the mound, as fai- as the 
bridge over the Wady el-'Ehreir, there runs an ancient (Roman ?) 
causeway. Schumacher also traced the ruins of mills and canals 



NOTES OF A JOURXKY TIIKOrcH IIALKAN. 



357 



"nearly as far as el-'Ajam}', one and a quarter miles away to tlie 
soatli-west." ^ 

There are also remains scattered over the plain to the east. 
All these probably date from a large and prosperous city in the 
time of the Antonines. 

But the human history of Tell el-'Ash'ary must have stretched 
much further back. The eastern face of the mound once carried 
a great wall of unhewn and very roughly hewn basalt blocks, 
mostly large, with a kind of tower thrown forward on the slope. 




Lower Line of Koughly-hewn Basalt Stokes ox Tell EL-'Asn'ART. 

Above this line, on the south-eastern corner of the mound, a 
curving wall of hewn stones runs up towards the plateau. We 
thought also that we detected the traces of a third wall mentioned 
by Schumacher ,2 but would limit his statement that all three 
walls "have the appearance of great antiquity" to the lowest nnd 
heaviest line of rough basalt blocks. The second line running 
up towards the plateau seemed to me of the same age as the bulk 



1 « 



Across Jordan," p. 207. 



- Ihid., p. liO-i. 



358 NOTES OF A JOURNEY THROUGH HAURAN. 

of the architecture on the latter. About it and lower down the 
slope were scattered a great number of stones, similar to what 
are found in the ruins of the Decapolis, i.e., with a planed face, 
but behind it rough and diminishing in size. 

The lower line, on the other hand, appears older, and, as if it 
belonged to a ruder civilisation. The stones are larger, and as I 
have said, unhewn or roughly hewn. They resemble walls found 
on old Canaanite sites in other parts of Palestine, and sometimes 
vaguely described as " Amorite." Whether they be really so, it 
is impossible to determine ; but they form an interesting proof 
(observable elsewhere in Hauran) that while Porter's claim for 
considering the basalt architecture of Hanran to belong to the 
earliest times, is unjustified — because this is obviously of the 
Roman period — the architecture in question is often founded on 
the remains of older civilisations. Some photographs of the 
walls on the east and south face of the mound are reproduced on 
pp. 356, 357. 

It remains now to consider whether there are any grounds for 
the theory of Laurence Oliphant^ and Schumacher,^ that Tell 
el-'Ash'ary is one of the two Ashtaroths of Eusebius and the 
'Ashteroth Karnaim of the Old Testament. The two explorers 
found their identification (1) on the fact that the place was held 
sacred in Mohammedan times, and was a Greek sanctuary and 
fortress; (2) on the name; and (3) on the statement that "the 
double peak of the southern mount of the hill, formed by the 
depression running from north to south, would make the appella- 
tion of ' Karnaim ' or ' double-horned ' extremely appropriate, and 
this feature must have been still more distinct before the depres- 
sion was tilled in by the rubbish and detritus."^ G. F. Moore 
("J. B. L.," 1897, 156_^') also explains \\(TrapwO Ka/jfaei/j. as the 
" Astarte of the two-peaked mountain." In a Talmudic discussion 
as to the constructions for the Feast of Booths, it is said that 
'Ashteroth Karnaim was situated between two mountains which 
gave much shade (" Succa," 2a ; cf. Neubauer, " Geog. du 
Talmud," 246). 

To take the third of these reasons first — it is hard to say what 
shape the southern end of Tell el-'Ash'ary might assume, if it 

' " Land of Gilead," 88^. 
2 "Across Jordan," p. 2u7. 



3 i( 



Ibid., p. 208. 



NOTES OF A JOURNKY THROUGH HAURAN. 359 

were thoroughly excavated to its original levels. But at present 
there is neither proof, nor promise, of the discovery of two 
such promontories or peaks as would suggest the name two-horned 
for a town on this site. Indeed, tlie whole suggestion that the 
two horns refer to the geographical features of the position of 
'Ashteroth Karnaim is very doubtful. Much more probably tlie 
title was originally that of the goddess herself, derived not from 
the horned moon, but from some head-dress which her image wore 
(" Encycl. Biblica," i, 338). Nor can any ground for identifica- 
tion be found in the name Tell el-'Ash'ary (^ .jtSJ]^ This has, 
it is true, three of the letters of the goddess's name, JL^j;, but 
they lie in a different order, and they omit the medial t, which is 
found in all other instances of her name. As to the first reason, 
that Tell el-'Ash'ary is the site of a Mohammedan sacred place 
and Greek sanctuary, that is, as we have seen, certain, but it is 
equally true of countless other sites in Hauran. We may, 
therefore, conclude that there is nothing to prove that Tell 
el-'Ash'ary was once 'Ashteroth Karnaim. If the name which I 
cannot understand on the seventh line of the longest inscription 
be that of the goddess to whom the altar was raised, it does not 
at all look like a Greek equivalent of 'Ashtoreth. 

We left Tell 'Ash'ary at 2.50, and, by the line of ancient cause- 
way running north-east, reached the bridge over Wady 'Ehreir, 
here a broad shallow stream, at 3.15. We left the bridge at 3.27. 
Just beyond it lies the base apparently of a Roman milestone. 
At 3.43 we were crossing a very shallow and green Wady, with a 
still and muddy puddle surrounded by rushes. To this our guide 
(from el-Muzeirib) gave the name of 'Ain el-mit — "dead spring." 
At 4.3 we crossed Wady 'Abu Yabis (according to our guide ; 
Schumacher, Wady el-Yabis— " the dry Wady"), a mere trickle of 
water; and at 4.10, Schumacher's Wady el-Lebwa, or " Wady of 
Lions " (according to our guide, Wady Umm Tireh, or Imtireh). 
By 4.35 we were at Tell 'Ashtarah. 

V. — Tell 'Ashtak.\h. 

This is a lower mound than Tell el-'Ash'ary. It lies on the 
plain, with a spring on the east end— Riis el-'Ain— and a small 
stream flowing round the south, not mentioned by Schumacher in 



o 



60 NOTES OF A JOUKNEY THROUGH HAURAN. 



"Across Jordan" (209), nor given on his map (" Zeitscli. des 
Deutsch. Paliist. Vereins," xxii, 179). A little distance to the west 
is the larger stream, Moyet en Neby 'Ayjub. On Tell 'Ashtarah 
there is no trace of the Hauran architecture of the Roman and 
Byzantine epochs. The stones of the ruins are all mnch worn 
and resemble those of the older remains on Tell el-'Ash'ary {see 
above, p. 358). On the top of the Tell they have been gathered ta 
make slieepfolds. But on the southern edge the line of a large 
square building is still plain above the grass, which covers the 
plateau, and from which the old stones and some potsherds (grey 
and bevelled) peep out. There are remains of a surrounding wall 
not only (as Schumacher points out) " along the southern and 
south-western foot of the hill," but also on the eastern slope. The 
stones are large and coarsely hewn. 

We have here, then, a site deserted in Roman times, but 
occupied by a town in earlier ages. The name Tell 'Ashtarah 
(if-LiLc.) at once suggests 'Ashtaroth. What else could it have 
come from ? The town need not have been so insignificant as 
some have supposed.^ If it was confined to the mound it would 
still be as large as many famous fortresses of the earliest times. 
By the Roman times the inhabitants may have removed to Sheikh 
Sa'd, two miles distant, where undoubtedly Eusebius- and 
Jerome^ place one of their Ashtaroths. But the name, though 
repeated there, may easily have clung also to its original position 
and so continued to the present day. 

The balance of the evidence for the site of 'Ashteroth Karnaim 
is thus in favour of Tell 'Ashtarah. Tell el-'Ash'ary is excluded, 
and if there was a second Ashtaroth, as Eusebius and Jerome say, 
nine Roman miles from Sheikh Sa'd, it must be sought for about, 
or in, Tell esh-Shihab. 

We left Tell 'Ashtarah at 4.55, and reached in half an hour 
el-Merkez, where the government of Hauran is still located, the 
purpose of moving it to Sheikh Miskin (mentioned by Schumacher) 
having not yet been fulfilled. Leaving this at 5.50 we passed the 
'Ain el-Lebwa at G.'20, with a ruin, and pool with reeds. Tempera- 
ture at sunset 69°. At 7.10 we passed the Wady with a strong 
stream, on which stands Tell esh-Sheikh Hamad, but it was 
already too dark to examine the great walls which rise on this 

' Cf. Wetzstein, " Reisebericht," p. 109. 
^ Onomasticon. 
3 Vita St. Paul®. 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY TIIROUOII IIAUKAN. 



3G1 



mound. Forty minutes atterwards wo rode into our camp at 
Sheikh ;^^iskul. 

Sheikh ^liskin (pronounced usually 'k ^li.skin) appears to have 
grown much since I was here in 1891. There was a good deal of 
goods traffic — grain going out, timber and cloth coming in at the 
railway station, whichj'is the station not only for el-^Ierkez and 
Sheikh Sa'd, but forj most of the villages between the railway 
and the Lejfi. Temperature at 1.30 p.m. 83° in shade. 




Gebek Insceiption at Sheikh Miskin, 

I append a photograph of an inscription in the Sheikh's house. 
It is not given in Waddington's collection. Tiie letters are in 

relief : — 

OYMEXPICTPATIA^flpJC€U)CAn€ 

NIMENOYAniANu'forCPACOBACC 

EICAAAATO0AYMACTONOTIOYA6N 

OrOCHeiAXAPICAAAArPAMMATU) 

In conclusion I desire to express the obligations of travellers 
in this region to the accurate surveys of Mr. Schumacher. The 
photographs given above are by two of my students : Messrs. 
Hartzell and Paterson. 



362 



NOTES OX A CROSS JORDAN TRIP MADE OCTOBER 
23rd to NOVEMBER 7th, 1899. 

By the Rev. James B. Nies, Ph.D. 

Starting from Haifa with the Rev. M. Linton Smith, Mr. Robert 
Hensman, and two mukaris as companions we reached Beisan at 
the end of the first day. We passed the night at the railroad 
house, and early next morning, provided by the Mudir of Beisan 
with a soldier and a letter to the Sheikh of Umm Keis, we rode 
toward the Yarmuk via the Jisr el-Mujamia, and reached the hot 
springs el-Hammeh about noon. A pariah dog who had attached 
himself to our party, on seeing the crystalline pool, plunged in 
befoi-e we could prevent him. The rapidity with which he 
emerged from the bath was laughable. He evidently did not 
enjoy ablutions at 119° Fahr. In spite of this warning, however, 
we followed his example, and found that, with a little care, we 
could endure the heat. After luncheon and an inspection of the 
ruins, which are those of an important bathing establishment of 
Roman times, we ascended the steep mountain to the south. We 
arrived at Umm Keis about one hour after leaving the baths. On 
the way up we had several charming views of the Lake of Galilee, 
at one point being able to see its whole extent. 

As the purpose of this paper is to call attention to a few 
things which seem to have been overlooked by former travellers, 
I will not detain the reader with any description of this place, and 
will only say that the evil appearance of its people caused us to be 
glad that we had both a soldier and a letter from the Mudir. 
We were given rice, milk, and some bedding, and, after passing 
several hours in the vermin-infested den which is called the guest 
house, we had breakfast and were ready to start at 3 a.m. 

As our soldier had taken no barley for his horse, we were 
delayed by his attempt to awaken the Sheikh. At 3.30 we were 
on our way to Pella, descending into the Wady el-Arab, and then 
took our course along the Jordan Valley, which we reached in 
two hours — two dark and dismal hours, during which we 
walked, leading our horses through fields and over many rough 
places. 



NOTES ON A CROSS JUl:UAN Ti;ll'. 363 

Nothing could excoed the dclif^htfiil coolness of the Jordan 
Valley at the dawn of this day, but these pleasant impressions 
were soon to be dissipated, for as the sun rose higher and higher 
the heat eventually became so oppi-essive that we hailed with 
uncommon pleasure the turn toward the east, which was to 
bring' us to Fahil or Pella. A view of the ruins, a bath in the 
delicious waters of the Jirm el-Moz, luncheon, and we were again 
on our way, for it was our purpose, if possible, to reach Ajlun 
that day. As the Jordan Valley was intolerably hot, we asked 
our soldier whether he knew a road over the mountain by which 
we could reach our destination. He answered, " Yes," and wo 
determined to take that instead of the one recommended by 
Dr. Schumacher, who had kindly given us the benefit of his 
experience in the East Jordan country. 

We first proceeded westward from the springs at Pella along 
the Jirra el-Moz about a quarter of a mile. Then we rounded 
the hill along the side of which we were riding, and, proceeding 
in a south-east direction, entered a valley from Avhich we could 
not see Fahil. In a few minutes we came upon a number of 
i-ock-hewn tombs, some with stone doors still in place. I am 
thus particular in order that future explorers may not miss the 
way which will undoubtedly lead them to the old Roman road 
from Pella to Jerash. We soon found undoubted proofs of this 
road. Within the next two hours we passed no less than six 
Roman milestones, together with considerable patches of ancient 
pavement. Merrill speaks of this road, but he does not mention 
having seen the milestones. Guy le Strange was unable to find 
it, because he went up the wrong Wady. We first travelled 
north-east then east, Halaweh lay on our right at some disttince, 
and we passed through Ba'aun, reaching Ajlun at 6 p.m., having 
been 14^ hours under way from Umm Keis. 

Next day, October 26th, we made a hasty trip to Kul'at 
Rabadh, which lies to the west of Ajlun, overlooking the valley. 
We had hardly left the town when a drenching rain overtook us, 
and caused us to lose all hope of seeing the sun rise from this 
commanding point. We pressed on, however, in the hope of 
findine: somethinsf at the castle which would rciiav us, and we 
were not disappointed in this. Like Kaukab el-Hawa and the 
castle at Salt, this impressive ruin deserves a much more careful 
examination than it has yet received. We found sculptuivd on 



364 NOTES ON A CROSS JORDAN TRIP. 

one of its arches the figures of fighting cocks, and a little beyond 
this other ornamentation never seen on Arab buildings. , In 
addition to this, the outer face of the rock-hewn moat is greatly 
weather worn, differing in this respect from the sharp, clean cut 
stonework of the castle. The moat is undoubtedly much older 
than the castle. 

We left Ajlun at 10 under the guidance of one of our mukaris, 
Mohamed Silwani, who had been over the road before, as we had 
dismissed the soldier. We were bound for Jerash, and took the 
road through 'Ain Jenneh. In about an hour and a half we came 
upon three Roman milestones, two of which were insci'ibed, but 
we did not stop to copy them, as this is a frequented road, and we 
felt certain it had already been done. An hour later we passed 
through Suf, and, following the valley, we reached Jerash in 
another hour. Tbe rest of this day and the morning of the 
following were consumed in looking over the ruins. I would 
like to call attention to the tier of seats on the right hand near 
the stage as one faces the auditorium of the large theatre. The 
seats are all numbered with Greek letters, and a complete copy 
should be made. 

On the afternoon of the 27th we rode along the crest of the 
mountain in full view of the Jabbok, to pay a visit to Reimun, 
and settle for ourselves the possibility of finding there the site of 
Ramoth Gilead. We inquired and examined carefully, but found 
all the usual signs of the site of a great city, such as ruins, 
tombs, and pottery, wanting. 

Early next morning we took the road over the Jabbok for 
Salt, where we were hospitably entertained by the Rev. Mr. 
Wilson, of the C.M.S. On the 30th we set out for Amman, 
intending to see Yajuz on the way, and in four hours, at 
10.40 a.m., reached that place. In the Arab cemetery, under 
the huge and ancient terebinth trees, we found not only interesting 
Roman ruins, but modern cromlechs and dolmens, together with 
altar stones for sacrifices. One of these contained five cup holes 
connected by channels for the flow of blood. One of the terebinths 
I measured, and afterwards found that Selah Merrill, in 1875, had 
measured the same tree. Merrill found it to measure, at a height 
of 4 feet above the ground, 16 feet 6 inches. My measure at the 
same place was 16 feet 9 inches. It has thus increased its 
circumference 3 inches in 25 years. If such measurements may 



NOTES ON A CROSS JORDAN TRIP. 365 

4 

safely be used for chronological purposes, we could venture to 
say, without any other evidence, that this place was a ruin in the 
tenth century, for the tree we both measured has a largo hewn 
block belonging to ruins incorporated in its trunk. 

Leaving Yajuz, we took a southerly direction, and in 20 minutes 
came upon five pieces of Roman milestones with inscriptions. As 
three of these were in a field some 60 feet from the road partially 
buried and used as boundary stones by the native farmers, we felt 
certain they had not been copied. Two of these needed excava- 
tion, so that we obtained only one good copy, made by the 
Rev. M. Linton Smith. I called the attention of the Dominicans 
to these stones last year, and hope by this time they have been 
copied. 

6 1 MPCaesSM ARC 
AVRELlVS^j^i^i^l^TON I NVS 

p I V s Feci mmmB^ H I c V s /v 

B R I T A N N I C^^:^ O N T I F 
MAX TRI B^^l^^AP 

COS III T 

OF FVRNI 

The copies we obtained of the other two in the field were not 
satisfactory. One of them seems to contain a place-name and 
may lead to the identification of the Roman name of Yajuz, 

We reached Amman at 2 p.m., and proceeded at once to inspect 
the citadel and other ruins. In the evening we arranged with an 
Arab Christian of Fuhes, named Salim Suleiman, for the trip to 
Medaba via Mashita. He proved an excellent guide, thoroughly 
familiar with the country, perfectly honest, and on good terms 
with the Beni Sakr Arabs. 

On October 28th, at 5.30 a.m., we left Amman for Mashita, 
riding in a southerly direction. At 6.45 we passed a large under- 
ground, rock-hewn cavern, with a num.ber of kokim large enough to 
accommodate sarcophagi. At 7 o'clock we passed Umm el-Kheran. 
Our guide here told us he knew of a fine ruin four hours to 
the east, named Wukka. Seven minutes later, on a hill to 
the riffht, is a town, the name of which was given to us as 
Abasiyeh. We were now going S. by E. Here Salim told us of 
a place named Juadie,' where there is a long Hebrew inscription. 
1 Possibly the el-Yadudeh of the Palestine Exiilonition Fund map. 



366 NOTES ON A CEOSS JORDAN TRIP. 

We unfortunately failed to ask him how he knew the characters 
to be Hebrew, as he had told ns no travellers had yet visited 
the place. At 7.30 our road led us past Kasr es-Sahel, J..s>^!l^^ . 
At 8 o'clock we rode into a village of Beni Sakr Arabs. Our 
guide had a talk with the Sheikh Suelmi, and borrowed from 
him a rifle. He was a small, thin individual, with parched skin 
and black, bead-like eyes. Uninvited he accompanied us on a 
very lean mare, which he rode bareback, wearing a single spur 
attached to one of his naked heels. "We had reason to feel 
thankful for his company, as he and Salim varied the monotony 
of this part of our journey by an Arab tournament, and by chasing 
the frequent herds of gazelle. "Within two hours we must have 
seen 200 of these graceful animals, in bunches varying from 10 to 
40. Our Arabs had an exciting time, though they did not 
capture a single prize. 

At 8.18 o'clock we passed Kb. Luban on the right, and at 10 
the Hajj road, a few minutes later coming to a sudden drop in 
the plain. Below us in the desert to the south, at a distance of 
15 or 20 minutes, lay the ruins of Mashita. Before descending, 
our guide pointed toward the east, along the elevation on which 
we were standing, to a small hill. He called it " a Tell," and said 
that it contained a number of large caves. "We determined to see 
them, and in 15 minutes reached the place, which we found 
deserted, but with the ruins of former rude dwellings on top. 
Around the sides Avere a number of large caves which seemed for 
the most part natural, though the limestone here is very friable 
and may have corroded. These caves had been turned into 
sheepfolds by building round their mouths low, dry walls of stone, 
many of the blocks of which were hewn and evidently brought 
from neighbouring ruins. Upon some of these I found the 
following graffiti : — 



LI C 




:iJ7 



o. 



No. 3 sesm? to l)j a L:-X'n3 ; ■!• in 15 1 thoiij^lit wa-.m, but both 
the Sheikh and t'le g lidj a-i-surel nio thej at-j no', :i:i(], as tlies' 
had no hosit uicy in telling- ni) later th:i vai'ioas t.ib^s to whiuli 
the many was:n at Mishita belono^, I have no doubt they niea:it 
what thev said. Tliev thoa^rht tliem ancient words or letter.s. 
As there has thus fir been found absolutely no evidence rej^Hvdin<r 
the mysterious ruin of ths des:»rt, I g^ive them in t\\r hope tliat 
they may lead to so;n • clu'% though I coafess I am able to make 
nothing' out of ai'y oF ilicm. 

As we stood on tlu; suuunit of the " Te'l " an 1 lo ik d toward 
the ruins in the plain 1 reuiarked to the Sh'jikh : '• Hunak 
Mashita " ('■ You ler is Ma-iliita '"). He"ans\vered at one .• : •' Iju. 
la, hunak mush ]M ishita, hunak Khan. Hatha Tell ^lasliita " 
(" No, no, yonder is not .Mashita, yo ider is tlu- Khiii. This is 
Tell Mashita ";. I then iMjuircd elosoly froru both the Sht-ikli 
and the guide whether this distin-jtiou is aUv:iys made by the 
Arabs, and was answered in the atlijunative. 

]\riy we not veuturo to hope tint this gives us a clue to tlie 
origin of those puz/ding ruins "r* ICspeei.dly when we take iiit.> 
consideration that, iu additiuu to the caves, therj is at least im • 
very large roek-hewu cistern in "-TJl M is'iita." Tuis hill, full 
of large caves ami cist.-nis, is close to the llijj r.);id. It ileriv«'d 
its name from the fact that it ailbr led s'.;elier not ouly to the 
Arabs but to the Mecca pilgrim^. lb was pr/oably at one time a 
station of the Hajj. Its cistern (the one I saw) is Lirge ennug'.i 

■2 A 



368 NOTES ON A CKOSS JORDAN TKIP. 

to supply all the water needeJ by tlie pilgrims, and Amman is 
near enough to have supplied other necessities. What more 
natural, therefore, than that this place should be selected b\' one 
of the Oraei3-ad or 'Abba>ide Khalifs for a m:ignilicent khan to 
accommodate the Hnjj ? AYe know it was considered a pious 
duty by the early Khalifs to accompany the annual pilgfim 
caravan, and that some of these did much to alleviate the 
sufferings of the pilgrims. 

Leaving the Tell we rode rather rapidly toward the ruins, as I 
recollect it, in a S.E. by S. direction, and entered the building 
from the north side. The place has been so thoroughly described 
by Tristram, who supposes it to be a palace built by Chosroes II, 
and by Selah Merrill, who claims it is a Byzantine monastery or 
church, that practically nothing remains to be said of its archi- 
tecture and wonderful carvings. More recently a writer in 
^' Harper's Magazine " fancifully ascribes it to the love of Ferhad 
and Shirin. If, after sucli masterl}- discussion, I may venture a 
suggestion or two which seems to favour a dlft'erent view, I wish 
first to say that the basket capitals, the arches, and the carvings 
seem to be in favour of Bjzmtine or Persian work, and this would 
be not only possible but probable, it the place was constructed by 
the oi'der of ona of the early Khalifs; for it is well known 
that these depended on Greek and Persian artists. The 20 towers 
of the ruin seemed to me merely ornamental, and there is nothing 
to show that the place was intended for a fortress. Neither is 
there anything to show that it was intended as a monastery. Its 
ornate and costly architeoturj precludes the theory that it was 
erected as a mere hunting lodge. On the otJier hand its great 
courtyard, its cisterns, and, above all, its vicinity to the Hiijj 
r.jjid seem !o favour the explanation of the Beiii Sakr Sheikh, 
that it was built for a khan but never finished, poss'.bly because 
of the death of the Khalif who had conceived it.' 



' Dr. Nies' notice of Tell Masbila is of miicli interest, iiiid iucrjases the 
probability that the celebrated mini are these of a klian, which I have else- 
where ascribed to the eelebrateJ .'Seljuk Sultan ilelik Sha'i, — C.W.W. 



:!G') 



AKCILEOLOGICAL AX!) EI'KIKAI'II K ' X( )TKs ox 

i'ALK.STIXK. 

Dy Piofessor Clei!.mont-Ganneau, M.I. 

8. Bctomarsca-Maioumcis, and "the matter of I'eor" (Xumbers 
XXV, 18).— As T have already explained (p. 2:39), M. Biiehler 
seems to liave successfully proved that the lucality which 
a])pears iu the mosaic map of Madeba under tlie puzzling name 
of Br]To/j,apaea i) koI Matof/ia<? represents the site whereon the 
tradition of the period placed the famous scene of the whoredom 
of Israel with the daughters of Moab. 

We may henceforth take the following facts as certain : — 
(1) BrjTCfiapaea is the exact trapscription of nn!2! IV2, L'cif 
Marzeah," the house of the Marzeah"; (2) the Marzeah was a great 
popular Syrian festival, of a more or less licentious character ; 
(3) the Talmudic-Midrashic texts use this very expression 
{Marzihhn m tlu" plural) to designate the impure rites of Baal 
Peor, into which the children of Israel, when encamped at 
Shittim, allowed tliemselves to be initiated ; (4) finally, the 
word Maionmas, which is given on the map as equivalent 
{-q Koi) to Bdomarsea, is nothing more than the Greek term for 
the orgiastic Marzeah, beloved by the Syrians, a term which 
the Midrash and the Talmud knew very well iu its Greek 
foini (D':^'!'^;^) aud used tliemselves as the proper equivalent of 
Marzeah. 

Although the question appears to me to be thus solved, and 
very ingeniously solved, as touching the main i>()int, there are 
still some matters which require to be cleared uj) or completed. 

In the first place, to begin witli, there is a topographical 
difficult}', wliich I\I. Biiehler has perhaps passed over too 
lightly. He thinks that the position assigned to lietomarsea 
in the mosaic map agrees well enougli with that given to 
]jaal Peor by the current tradition, and especially l»y 
Eusebius's Onomasticon (opposite to Jericlio, 10 miles ab,)ve 
Livias). 

2 A 2 



370 AKCn.-EOLOGICAL AND EPIGRAPIIIC NOTES ON PALESTINE 

"We may be permitted to hold a different opinion on this 
point. Even takinj]; into account the liberties, sometimes 
considerable, which the mosaic map takes with regard to the 
relative position of various places, one must admit that 
Betomarsea, on the contrary, does not appear at all in the 
district in which one would look for it, assuming what it is 
supposed to stand for. It is undeniable that it is brought, 
I think puT-posely, very close to Kerak ([Xapjax M(y/3a), at a 
comparatively enormous distance from Jericho, and also very 
far from the region of the map, now destroyed, wliere Mount 
Nebo and its environs, including Madeba itself, should figure. 

How are we to explain such an anomaly as this, which 
accordinjT to the strict rules of criticism might form a grave 
objection to the conjecture, an excellent one in my opinion, of 
]\I. Biichler ? I incline to believe that in this matter the maker 
of the mosaic map merely followed an intentional 'S'ariant of 
the local legend of Madeba, which was careful to put away, 
by transporting it to a distance, a memory which was injurious 
to the good fame of the country, and clashed with the other 
glorious memories of which it was proud. The country quite 
simply got rid of this place of ill fame, to the benefit or 
the detriment of its neighbours further to the south, folklore 
usually employs these rough and ready methods, and in the 
present case we must not forget that the reputation of the 
town itself was in a manner at stake, where this grandiose 
map was constructed, intending, perhaps, as I have endeavoured 
to prove, to illustrate the vision of the Holy Land as seen by 
Moses from the top of Mount Xebo. 

Be this as it may, I sliall point out a curious enougli fact, 
although belonging to a relatively late period, in which one 
may perhaps find some evidence of the topographical variation 
of the legend. An ancient Jewish writer, who knew Palestine 
well, having sojourned and travelled there i'or many years, 
Esthori ha-Parchi, a contemporary of Abu'l Feda, when 
descriljing the land of ]\loab from nortli to south, expresses 
himself thus, after mentioning Dilion, the Anion, and Babbat : 
" From Argob (corr. Arnon) you proceed to the liill point of 
Pisrjah, i.e., ]\Ioab, called El Kcralc ; two days south from 



ARCIL-l'OLOGICAL AND Kri(;i;AlilIc NOTES ON PALESTINK. 371 

ris;;;ili is Mount Seir, culled El Siiauliek." ' Here then we find 
Pist^'ah identified with Keiak itself. This is as <:ood cvidcMice 

as the loc.disatinn of Vcnv hy our iiia]i in the neij^hlKjurhood of 
that town ; one may even .say that it is veiy nearly the same 
fact stated in dil'lerent terms. 

Here is another observation. 'I'he Sifre and the parallel 
passages quoted by M. Ihiehler say that at llic, time of the 
ibrniealion of Israel ihc Aninionites and (he ]\Ioabites set up 
tents and booths, ki>])l liy their loose young women, finni 
r>eth ha-Yeshimoth to the Mountain of Snoiv. The Moiinialii of 

Snoiv i'^'J'^rs "111^) is the nanu^ ordinarily given by the Talmud 
ami the Targunis to ^Mount Hermon. As ]\I. iWichler justly 
points out, it is inadmissibh;- that an agadist in the second 
eenturv a.d. should have made such a senseless statement as 
that this kind of fair, with its various attractions, sliculd have 
extended as far as Mount Hermon. Assuredly he did not mean 
that nuiuntain. Ibil, in that case, what aie we to understand 
by this ( ]M. JUlehler has made no answer to this question, 
which, nevertheless, has an interest of its own. I am disposed 

to think that the reading i^j'rn, t(i^ga, " snow," is the result of 
a copyist's error, and I wonder whether the original reading may 
not have been t^^CD = nJlL^^, J'is[/ali ; the emendation would be 
sufficiently in accordance with the rules of pakeography (il = Z, 
7 = D [triangular]), and even the great fame of ]\Iount Hermon 
^vould have sen.sibly helped to alter the original word. We thus 
find ourselves exactly in the place which we want, and, wliat- 
ever fantastic variations there may be in details, the Talmudic 
tradition, a different one from that local tradition which grew 
u]) in the course of succeeding centuries at jMadeha IVom the 
interested motives which I have conjectured, agrees well with 
the topographic data which appear in tlu^ IJilile narrative, and 
the conclusions at which modern criticism has in general 
arrived : IJeth ha-Yeshimoth = .Sueimeh ; Neho and Pi.^gah = 
Neba and Sia'dia. 



o" 



' Zur.z, in "The Itinciary of Etiblji Boiijamiu of Tiuldii," l>v Aslur, vol. ii, 
|). 405. 

- HoAvcver, if. Xcuuaiar (" Gcograpliie du Tahmul," p. 39) ha? pasfed 
-over tliis diflirultv. 



372 AP.CII.EOLOGICAL AND EPIGRAI HIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 

As for Poor, one is ^a-eatly tempted to follow Colonel Conder 
in placing it beside 'Ain ^[inyell. Anyhow, I see no necessity 
for separating, as lie would do, this place, the scene of the 
episode of Balaam, from the scene of the impure rites of Peor, 
by putting the latter at Shittim, that is to say, at the very 
camp of the Israelites, in the valley of the Jordan \: it is more 
natural to suppose that the guilty parties allowed themselves 
to be enticed 2 into the sanctuary of Baal Peor itself. If we 
admit this view of the matter, may we not make something 
out of the suggestive enough name in this connection of Tal'at 
el-Bcnut, " the ascent of the girls," which is borne at this day 
by the conspicuous knoll adjacent to 'Ain el-Minyeh and its 
ancient monuments of unhewn stone ? This spot, at which 
tradition perhaps fixed the memory of the loose conduct of 
the girls of ]\loab, is not more than seven miles from ]\Iadeba, 
to the south-west. 

Finally, there is one remaining point whicli T think that 
I ought to press. As I have before incidentally noted (Quarterly 
Statement, p. 239, note 4), I had already shown elsewhere that 
the Phoenician word nn^, which hitherto had remained 
uninterpreted, is closely connected with the identical Hebrew 
word, and in the two Phoenician inscriptions in which it 
occurs must bear the meaning of " sacred festival," " great 
religious feast." The appearance of the Moabite Marzeah 
gives this interpretation an unexpected confirmation, at the 
same time that it receives a certain amount of light from it 

itself. 

The great Punic Tariff of Sacrifices ("Corp. Inscr. Sem.," 
Xo. 165, 1. IG), after having settled the conditions of offerings 
made by individuals, begins to speak of those made in common 
by collective groups which it defines as curia, pViratria, and 
marzeah elim. This last group, I stated, must represent one 
of those associations, so common in classical antiquity, whose 

' Tlic dramatic inc-ident. of Zimri and the Midianite woman Cozbi, whom 
he brought into hi- own tent, and cons( quentlj into the c.imp at Sliittim, was 
nn isolated case and an exceptional one, as appears from the context itself. 
Compare Numbers xxt, 6 to 18. 

- Xuuibers xxv, 2. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND El'IdFUrillC NOTKS ON I'AI.KsTIXI.:. ijy.'-J 

members assembled for tbeir rclii^Moiis " ii,uapes " or love feasts, 
whicb, wlien we take into consideration the teniporanicnt ami 
the sensual rites of Eastern peoples, might easily (lorrcnerate 
into orgies ad mnjorcm dci (jlorinm. The runic Jfarzcah was 
a regular thiasos. Now, it is striking to observe that the 
Biblical expression ni")^ rS^^ (deremiah xvi, .".), which is 
accurately represented l)y the transcription l^rjTofiapaea on 
the mosaic map, is appositely rendered in' the LXX vmsion by 
diaao^^} Probably the Punic Marzcah resembled the ^^loabite 
Marzeah in its least commendable features. 

The second example of the Phoenician word Marzeah occurs 
at the beginning of the groat Decree of the Phoenician com- 
munity of Piraeus : p!i* Di^S 15 T\^^1 WTsrh -A 2^2, "the fourth 
day of Marzeah, in the fifteenth year of the people of Sidon."' 
It lias been generally believed that in this formula of date 
compared with those which we already know, Marziah could 
only be the name, hitherto unknown, of one of the months 
in the Phoenician calendar. I expressed some doubt as to this 
view, pointing out that in that case the name of the month, 
if it were really a month, ought to be preceded by the deter- 
minative word TTS^, " month," a word which is never absent 
from the ordinary formula3. On one hand, this omission is 
significant; on the other, the new meaning which I had been 
brought to attribute to the word nn'2! in ihe Punic Tariff of 
Sacrifices led me to the conclusion that the Marzeah of the 
Decree of the Piraeus was perhaps not the name of a month, 
but rather the name of some great Phoenician religious 
solemnity which lasted for at least four days, and, recurring 
at fixed periods, might consequently serve as well as the 
mention of a month to determine a date precisely : " the 4th 
clay of the Marzeah," and not " of i\f arzeah." 

With regard to this extremely important ([ucsti«>n of the 
great periodical festivals, either annual or ([uadrennial, 
celebrated by the ancient peoples of Syria, I shall confine 
myself to referring the reader to my special essay on this 

' Although from the Helrew context it seems rather to refer to son.e 
funeral ceremony. 
2 The year 96 b.c. 



:J74 arc'ii.cological and kpigkapiiic notes ox talestine. 

subject 1 ('-rcciieil d'Arelu'ologie Orientalc," vol. iv, pp. 289- 
:>19 : "Lo droit des p.iuvres et le cycle pentac'ti'rique cliez les 
Xabute'eus"). It will be enough for nie here to mention this 
fact, which Kinnects the Phoenician Marzcah yet more closely 
with the Moal)ite Marzeali, pointing out that they had really the 
character of a great religious institution of rxireme popularity 
among the Semitic races. 

In the special essay just quoted, I think that I have 
succeeded in })roving the existence among the Syrians of a 
great (puuhvnnial festival, regulated hy a pentaetcric cycle (= a 
period of four years), which, singularly enough, coincides 
chronologically with the Olympic cycle, year for year. I have 
endeavoured to give reasons for this coincidence. 1 may add 
that the year 15 of the Sidonian era in the Phoenician Decree 
of Piraeus, that is to say, the year DU v.r., agrees exactly with 
the first year of the ITlst Olympiad, and consequently with one 
(jf the I'estival years of the Syrian pentaeteric cycle. We may 
infer from this that the Phoenician Marzcah was perhaps not 
an annual least, hut that it too was a (piadrennial one. Can 
this also have been the case with the Moabite Marzcah, or at 
any rate with that alluded to in the Talmudic tradition and 
the tradition of the mosaic map '. 

0. The Ilehrctn Mosaic of Kefr Keniia.-—l\\ the cours3 of 
last year on extremely interesting archteological discovery w^as 
made at Kel'r Kenna, an xVrab Ailla.ge in Galilee, which an 
ancient and possibly true, though nnu'h disputed, tradition 
identities with the famous Cana of the CJospels."' It consists 

• See also ibid., pp. 226-237 : " Le Plijircien llieoscbios dc Sarepta et son 
TOjnge a Ponzzoles." 

- See tlic illuslratioii in llui Q"'ir/erfi/ Slalement, p. 251. 

^ Among tlie testimonies of !i date anterior to llie Crusades, that of 
Antoninus of PLicentia alone can be regarded as sulliciertly explicit to be 
able to sway tlie balance in favour of tliis identification. He distinctly places 
the Cana of the Gospels between Diocoesarea (Scplioris) and Nazareth, at a 
distance of three miles from the former town (Thcodosijs reclions it five) ; he 
states that he saw there two of the water pots wherein was wrought tlie miracle 
of the chan.'inj' the water into wine, and also that he carved his parents' name 

... 

in the sanctuary. It is a pity that we have not been able to find this com- 
memorative inscription, which would have settl-jd the question. I may remark 



AllCFLEOLOGICAL AND F.l'I IKMMIIC NOTES ON I-ALKSTINK. .''.7') 

of a lai<j;o iiu).saic pavement cuntaiiiiug a faiily lung inserip- 
lidii ill aiii'iciit siiuiirc- ircbvcw <'liai'act('rs. It is Uie first 
iiis('ii[)ii()U of this kind wliiili has Iteun I'oiiinl uj) Id the 
present day. There is, indeed, the great niosaie of Xaron/ 
iu Tunisia, which assiiretlly once adorned the llnor of an 
iineient Jewish syna^fogue, as is proved l)y the characteristic 
symbols- and inscriptions which it contains ■'' ; hut, all theses 
inscriptiiuis are in Latin, whereas that at Kcfr Kenna is in 
Hebrew. 

This niosaie was discovered by the Franciscans in the course 
of some researches made by them in the interior of a cha])ol, 
which -they bnilt some years ago at Kefr Kenna, on the ruins 
of an ancient basilica which is ]iarlly covered by their convent. 
Father rionzovalle. of Iknrut, has been good enough to send me 
a photograph lium which the engraving given above on p. 251 
has been made. Although the photograph is good enough in 
itself, the deciphering of the text is, nevertheless, an arduous 
task, owing to various circumstances. The letters, which are 
l)hotographed oblicpiely, are out of shape because of the per- 
.spective.-* Moreover, they have been somewhat carelessly 
executed by the maker of the mosaic, perhaps of Greek 
extraction, who may not have been very familiar with this 
sort of writing, and merely reproduced mechanically a model 
text which he could not read. Finally, the mosaic has suffered 
much from the injuries of time and the hand of man. In 
.spite of all these difliculties I think that I have, nevertheless, 

in tliis coniioction tliat, in 1835, in (lie ruin- of an anrient chnrcli of tlie 
Panagliia at Klutcii, in i'lioci:), a lar-e slab of grey marble was diseoverea 
bearing a Groc-k insci-ip'iou in sixtli-cenliiry lettering, wliieh rnns. thus:— "Ihis 
tfcjnc comes from Cana of Galilee, where Our l.ord Jesus Christ turned the 
water into wine." This stone must have been brought to Greece from the 
Holy Land by some pious pilgrim who was more or less contemporary with 

Antoninus. 

1 At Hanimara LIf, neir Tunis. See " Kevuo Archeologiquc," 18S3, 
pp. 157 and 234-; 1884, p. 273, Tl. VII-XI. 

- Seven-branched candlestick, lulab, &e. 

•' "Sand I tjinagoga Na:on .... areosinngogi," Ac. 

•= One can realise the extent of this distortion of the letters by the angle 
formed by the lines of the border and of the intercoUimnation?, which, of 
course, must be parallel in the original. 



oTG arcii.f.olooical and ErinRAniic notes ox Palestine. 

made out pretty satisfactorily all that is left of this precious 
text. In order to clear up the doubts which still remain 
about certain points it would be necessary to have access to 
an exact copy of it, but this I have not hitherto been aide to 
obtain. 

The inscription originally contained at least two columns, 
I and 11, separated by a vertical line, and set, perhaps, in a 
large frame with triangular lappets, of which I think I can 
still discover some traces at the right hand extremity. This is 
my reading: — 

II. 1 I. 

5 -^n ncv rj^ ir^i ^ 



•>•>•} 



(IT)'' 6 ^"1:11 ni^^n -^n ain:n ^ 

. ? ? - 



«?? ?????» 

In pious remembrance ; Yoseli (= Joseph) the son of Tanhfim, the 
son of Bitah (?), and liis sons, who have made (/) this TBLH ; which will 

be for a blessing for them This T[BLH ?].... blessing 

for ' (?) [tliem, or : for ever ?]. 

The wanting is the square Hebrew alphabet of the first 
centuries of our era : the language is the Hebrew with a 
tendency to tlie Aramaic, sometimes far from correct, which 
was also in use amongst the Jews at the same period. 

The initial formula is well known ; it is applicable to an 
ex fotu as well as to an epitaph, and if I am not mistaken we 
have here to deal with the former. Observe the Aramaicised 
form n^"*! — 1Z]f " remembrance " : the j/od is somewhat of 
a surprise; perhaps this spelling has been influenced by the 
vocalisation of the Hebrew form pl^T, and also by the wish 

to distinguisli this word from its double "^D"T ="^3) "male." 

The two first proper names, HDV and Qin-n, are certain, 
and they are common Jewish names of the period. The 
identity of the abridged popular form HD"!'', Yuseh, with f]DV, 
Joseph, has long l}een established beyond the reach of doubt, 

' Or perhaps better, (PDnSIS, " the blessing," as in line 4. 



ARCH/EOLOGICAL AND F:T'T^^^\|•|IIC NOTFIS ON I'ALESTINK. 



• > I / 



and we liiul many examples of it in tlii.s very disli-ict of 
GuliUr.' 

In the group of letters . . . 'a'12, wliidi I'oJluw tlic 
])atronymic Tanlium, one miglit at iir.st Ito tcmphMl to see 
the title of beribbi, or hcrlbi, which is often hfjrne by tlie 
Jewisli doctors. I have found many exam])lcs of it in the 
Jewish cemetery at Jopi^a.- Puit one would he inclined in 
that case to expect to find the usual spelling ''2"^1"';2. "'^'^''l : 
moreover, in this case one would not know what to make of 
the remaining letters. It appears to me, therefore, more 
natural that one should find in this a third proper name, 
preceded by the word "Xl, " son," and continuing the gene- 
alogy. This name, HtO"'!? ni^ll ?^ recalls that of r\'0''2, Vti''l, 
Bitali, Bi/o, which appears in the ancient Jewish catacomb 
at Venosa,* and seems to be nothing more than a trans- 
scription of the Latin word Vita (vulgarly spelt Bita)-' " life," 
which is itself the translation of a very common Jewish name 
^^''"'n,''' □*''^n, Haiya, Hiya, Hayim, &c. (same sense), and has 
also given rise to the barbarous proper names of Bit us or 
Bittus. One may be somewhat surprised, it is true, at meeting 
in the midst of Galilee with a name so deeply impressed with 
a western stamp. But this fact will seem less surprising after 

' See Renan's " Mission de Plienicio," y.p. 767, 76S, 770, 779. Sofiff, 87lfi. 
I am teinptcd to see a new instance of this name in a fragment of a monumental 
inscription from an ancient synagogue at El-Koka, copied by L. Olijihant 
(Pal. Exp. Fund Quarterly statement, 1886, p. 76). Unfortunately, t he copy 
is a very inadequate one. Still, I think that I can read in ir, alter an initial 
formula analogous to that of our mosaic, and ending like it with 1u7 (" in 
good . . . ."), the name of HDV, " Y6seh," followed by 13, " son of," and of a 

patronymic name beginning with • • • 7n, or perhaps • • • /H (=['?Pn, Ilillel ?). 

- CleiTBont-Ganneau, " Proceed, of the Soc. of Bibl. Arch.," March, 1884, 
and " Rocucil d'Archeologie Orientale," toI. iv, p. 141. Compare Bt]ptfii. 

'' The second letter seems a little long for a yod, and might possibly pass for 
a rav ; but this a;)pcarance, perhaps, is owing to an accidental dij^arrangcment 
of the mosaic cubes which ajipears to have happened at this place. 

* Ascoli, " Iscrizioni di antichi sepolcri giudaici del Napolitano," No. 21 ; 
cf. Nos. 15, 18, 19. 

^ Compare the name of BiVo, belonging to a woman, perhaps a Jewess, in 
an inscription at Gallipoli (" Corp. luscr. Grace," 2014). 

" Compare tlie name X""n, transliterated Ei'oy (pronounce loj) in a bilingual 
inscription in the Jewish cemetery at Joppn, which I have explained elsewl ere 
(" Recueii d'Arch. Orient.," vol. iv, p. 143). 



378 ARCII.EOLOGICAL AND EPIGRAnilC NOTES OX PALESTINE. 

a few moments' reflecti"ii on llie uninteriupted connection 
which existed between the Jewish comninnities disjiersed after 
the captivity, from one end to tlie other of the ancient world. 
It is, after all, quite witliin tlie bounds of possibility that our 
Joseph of Galilee should have had a grandfather born in a 
Latin-speaking country. 

Observe, at tlie end of line 2, the Aramaicised form, 
"^121 = Tll^Z, "his sons," mstead of llie classical Hebrew 
form, v:n. 

Line ."! must contain the essential part of the inscription, 
that is to say, the word, preceded by the feminine demonstra- 
tive article, HIH,^ which defines the actual work performed bv 
the author of the dedication, together with his children. 
Unfortunately, this word is indistinct ; the third letter is the 
most doubtful one, and its true value depends on the greater 
or less whiteness of one little cul^e of mosaic. Here is an 
important verification wldch must l«e made by examination of 
the original. It seems as though this word, whatever it may 
be, must be repeated under the same conditions, tliat is, 
preceded liy the same demonstrative pronoun, nin, in the 
second column (at the beginning of line 7). But this repetition 
does not give us the least assistance, for tlie word is entirely 
destroyed after the second letter. 

If the reading, Hv^l?, to wliicli I incline, be admitted, we 
have yet to decide the meaning of the word. There is, indeed, 
in Eabbinical Hebrew a substantive identical in form, ^7115, 
^^7I1I;3, which is the transcript of the Latin tabula," all of the 
meanings of which have been preserved in the Hebrew. The 
expression " this tah/ah," might therefore possiljly mean the 
mosaic itself, the whole of which formed a sort of tabula 

tesscllata. But it is also ]V)ssiblo tliat riTlt^ is derived from 
another Semitic root, 721:," to plunge into the water, to bathe." 
nb""!!:, ^^nS^rL:, h?^12^t2, &c, "bath," more especially the 

' For XTn, witli a Ileliraicised spelling of Ihe Aramaic foiin. "We find 
the same approach to the Hebrew lonn further on, in nnD13 for NflDI^. 

- The Hebrew transcript was not made directly from the Latin tabula, but 
indirectly from the HeUeniscd form ra^Ka.. 



AKCH/EOLOaiCAL AND EPIGRAPIIIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. :'>79 

lustnil Inith for clcansiiic; from ritual iinpuritios, and also tlio 
actual baptism to which Jcwisli neophytes were suhjected. In 
this case the expression would refer, not to the mosaic pave- 
ment itself but to some l)uildin;j; or hall connected with a 
synagogue, some Jewish baptistery/ of whicli our mosaic 
possil)ly adorned the iloor. I shall presently revert to this 
puzzling question, which gives rise to others yet more puzzling. 

In line 5, the reading and the translation A\hi<li I have 
given de])end upon letters which are partly conjectural, and 
indistinct in the photograph. The formula which 1 have thus 
obtained lias the advantage of agreeing with that vvliicli may be 
read without a shadow of doubt upon a column of an ancient 
Galilean synagogue at El Jish (Gischala).- The word nnDli 
seems also to reappear in our column II, 1. 8, in a new formula 
which, perhaps, marks the termination of the inscription, 
provided that it be not continued in one or more other colunms 
which have been altogether destroyed. 

Whatever our interpretation of the obscure word TBLH, 
the key-word of the inscription, may be, the first and most 
natural idea which occurs to us is assuredly that this mosaic, 
whicli anyhow has nothing of a funerary character, belongs to 
one of those ancient synagogues which have been proved to 

■ Nol-e that, in this respect, naturally on tlie hypotliesis that Kefr Kcnna 
Tvould 1)0 the authentic representative of the Cana of the Gospel?, St. John 
tells us that the six famous " waterpots " or hydria; of stone were actually used 
for " the purification of the Jews," Kara. KaQapifffjibv tGiv lovZa'uw (.St. John, ii, 6). 

2 Eenan, op. ciL, p. 777 (PL LXX, No. 3) '. nn3-l3 (or jin"??) rh nSH, " may 
blessing be upon him (or them ?)." According to Kenan, this inscription 
alluded to an "ark'' (JIN) ; in spite of his unwillingness to believe it, it may 
nevertheless be better to read and translate it pXH, " this." 

Now that I am dealing with this matter of Hebrew inscriptions in Galilean 
fvnagofues, I shall avail niy?elf of the oppjrtunity to say that the much- 
discussed ins.rriptiou at Kefr liir'im {op. cit., p. 764, PI. LXX, No. 2) should, 

perhaps, read simply :— p r "12 "lTyV^5 •• • " lil^azar son of Youdan." The name 
Youdan is well known in the Talmudic Onomastics, and T liave found several 
examples of it, in Hebrew and in Greek, in the Jewish cemetery at Joppa. As 
for tlie beginning of the inscription, which is so liard to make out, perhaps we 
sliould take the second letter for an ain. 

^Vith regard to tlie iiitcription at Safed {op. ciL, p. 7.?2, I'l. LXX, No. 4), 
it seems to me to begin with the words • ■ • Dr;n "in;3, " was buried on the 
.r;h day of the n ont'i of Elul, in the year ... It is only an epitaph, and, 
1 tliink, of very recent date. 



380 ARCH.EOLOGICAL AND EPIGRAPHIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 

exist in various places in Galilee.^ Tlieir construction dates 
from the earliest centuries of our era (probably the second or 
third). Here one might stop, and perliaps it would be wisest 
to say no more. 

However, on thinking the matter over, 1 have conceived 
some doubt on this point, and this doubt arises, in the first 
place, from the substantive and hitherto unique fact that our 
Hebrew inscription is executed in mosaic. In none of these 
ancient Galilean synagogues, relatively numerous though they 
are, has any trace of the existence of mosaic pavements been dis- 
covered ; all of them are paved with slabs of stone. Sir Charles 
Wilson, who has made valuable studies of these synagogues, 
remarks particularly (" Special Papers," p. 296) that " their floors 
are paved with slabs of white limestone." It appears that this 
w"as the general rule.^ One may say that in Syria mosaic pave- 
ments, with ornaments and inscriptions, are peculiar to Christian 
architecture of the Byzantine period. A 2^'>^iori, therefore, 
according to the rules of true criticism, we ought to refer our 
mosaic, with its Hebrew inscription, to this epoch. But then, 
on the other hand, if we connect it with a Jewish synagogue, 
we involve ourselves in serious historical difficulties. One can 
easily understand that under the Eoman emperors of the third 
century, who showed themselves tolerant, and in some cases 
decidedly favourable towards ths Jews,^ who recognised and 

^ At Kefr Bir'im, Kasjun, Nabartein, el-Jisb, Meiron, Tel Hum, Kerazeli, 
Irbid, Sufsaf, &c. For an account of these synagogues, see Eenau, o^. cit., 
p. 761. He iuulines to the third century of our era as their general date. See 
also the important researches of Wilson, Kitchener, Conder, &c., in the 
Palestine Exploration Fund " Memoirs," in 4to form, and the " Special 
Papers," pp. 29i-305; Qtiarterli/ Statement, 1878, p. 32 et seq., p. 123 si seq. ; 
1886, p. 75. 

- I sliall mention in this connection a curious enough passage in the work of 
the Jcwis'i geographer Estliori ha-Parchi (Asher, " The Itinerary of Kabbi 
Benjamin of Tudela," translated by Zunz, vol. ii, p. 432), who, speaking of the 
ancient synagogue of YA.kuk, says ; — " We also saw there a synagogue with an 
ancient pavement , . . ." Ifc would be interesting to see in the original Hebrew 
teit, which I have not at hand, what were the exact terms used. I shall point 
out incidentally tliat our Jewish writer {op. cit., p. 401) also saw at Eeisan tlie 
ruius of an ancient synagogue wliich doej not seem to have been noticed by 
juo-'ern exploi-ers (unless it be the building with three niches which is cursorily 
mentioned in the " Memoirs," vol. ii, p. 109). 

^ Especially AutoniuB Pius and Alexander Severus. 



AHCH.^OLOGICAL AXD EPIGIJAIMIIC NOTHS ON PALESTINE. oHl 

c6nHnii<nl the privileges uf tlie I'aLriuicliute of Tiberias whose 
spiritual and even tenipunil power, al least in financial matters, 

extended over all the Jewish counn unities of the West one 

can understand, I say, that in their days the Jews had ])erfect 
liherty to construct, in the chief towns of Galilee, the line 
synagogues whose ruins we admire and which were paid for by 
rich olierings brought from afar by the activity of the Apostoli. 
r>ut as sooii as Ciiristianity rose to the dignity of a State 
reli''ion, as soon as Constantine ascended the throne, things 
were entirely altered. Then througliout the whole extent of 
the Holy Land churches and basilicas blossomed forth. All 
that we know of this epoch and those which succeeded to it 
proves to us that Chiistian fanaticism would never have 
w illinulv thenceforth suffered the buildiuu' of new syna<TO<nies 
in Palestine, especially on a site connected with one of the 
most important events recorded in the Gospels, that is, if 
Kefr Ivenna does indeed represent Cana of Galilee, which 
witnessed the first miiucle performed by Jesus. We are thus 
led into a most embarrassing dilemma : on the one hand, 
our mosaic, with its Hebrew inscription, certainly seems to 
lia\'e belonged to a synagogue ; on the other, by the very fact 
of its being a mosaic, it should belong to a period at which it 
is hard to admit that Jews could have received permission to 
erect in the Holy Land a public ])uilding for the practice of the 
ceremonies of their religion. 

There would be but one way by wliich we could reconcile 
these opposites, and that is to suppose that the mosaic of Kefr 
Kenna may have been executed during the short period of respite 
from persecution, and even of reaction, against Christianity, 
represented by the reign of Julian. We know how much this 
eui[)eror favoured the Jews out of hatred to Christianity. If he 
entertained the plan of allowing them to rebuild the Temple at 
Jerusalem, much more would he have permitted them to build 
synagogues at other places in Lalestine, and the idea of seeing 
one erected, by way of an outrage to one of the most cherished 
of Christian traditions, on the very site of the Cana of the Gospel, 
could U'lt fail to please him. On this hypothesis it would be 
easy to explain how a Jewish building came to be constructed 



382 Ai;CILIi:OLOGICAL AND EPIGKAPHIC KOTES ON PALESTINE. 

ill the taste and according to the prevailing style of tlie period 
l)y adorning it with one of those mosaic pavements which were 
just then coming into fashion in Syria. But it is less easy to 
explain how it was that the Christians, who hecame absolutely 
masters of the situation after the disappearance of this final 
and short-lived official adversary of their faith, tliould not have 
utterly abolished tiie very last traces of the Jewish aljomination 
which defiled the ground of one of their chief sanctuaries. Xo 
doubt our mosaic has been damaged, but, on tlie whole, a 
considerable portion has been preserved, wliich could not have 
been the case on this hypothesis. 

These considerations, and others wliich it would be tedious* 
to enumerate, have led me to ask myself whether, in spite of 
appearances to the contrary, the author of the dedication may 
not possibly have been a converted Jew, and whether the mosaic 
may not have belonged to a Christian cliurcli. I will not 
conceal the paradoxical eflect which such an hypothesis may 
have, or the objections of all kinds to which it would give 
occasion. But, in face of all these difficulties, we are com- 
pelled to consider this theory and see whether it i.3 really so 
incompatible with probability. 

St. E])iphaniiis, who was, as we know, himself of Jewish^ 
origin, and who was an eye witness of the official triumph of 
Christianity on the accession of Constantine, tells ^ us in detail 
a story which is curious from every point of view. It is. 
that of a personage who was in two respects his co-religionist, 
liaving been, like him, born a Jew and converted to Christianity. 
This was one Joseph of Tiberias, who at the eml <>f his days 
fixed his abode at Bethshean-Scythopolis, where St. Epiphanius 
had ])ersonal relations with him. Joseph was considerably 
older than St. Epipliunius, seeing that he was 70 years of age 
at the time wlien tlie latter knew him, that is, in a.d. 1556. 
Consequently he must have b^'cn born about the year 280. 
The account which St. Epiphanius gives us of him offers, 
therefore, every guarantee of authenticity and exactitude. 

' Born i;bout A.D. .310, at a village in the iieigbbouiliooil of Eleutlie- 
ropolis. 

2 St. Eiiiplir.nius, '' Adv. lia-re?.," coUeclio:: lligne, tome 41, columns 110-127. 



ARCILi:OLO<;iCAI. ANh KIK IKAI'llIC NOTES ON I'ALKSTINK. ."iS:) 

This Joseph ori«>iuiilly, bef(jre his converRion, held u hi^h 
position at Tiberias under the Jewish patriarch Klh'l (HiUcl), 
who R'sidod in that town, which was tlie real capital of what 
remained of the Jewish nation. He was one of the Ap(>sf(i/i\ 
the assistants of the patriarch. Already secretly inclined 
towards Christianity in consequence of a train of circum- 
stances too long to enumerate, he was sent to (Jilicia by 
the patriarch Judas, Hillel's successor, to proceed, according.,' to 
custom, to the collection of (jlTerings from the dewish com- 
ninnities. in Cilicia his vocation for Christianity was confirmed 
under the influence of a certain Christian bishop, so much that 
his co-religionists were scandalised at his public apostasy, and 
oast him into the Cydnus to drown. He barely escaped with 
his life from the waters of the river ; this escape from drowning 
was for him a regular baptism. He definitively abjured the faith 
of his fathers, and embraced that of the Christians. Therein 
he also served his own interests from a temporal point of 
view. He was received with open arms by Constantine, who 
loaded him with honours and favours, and went so far as to 
bestow upon liim the dignity of Count, with all the advantages 
and powers appertaining to that position. Like all proselytes, 
our newly-made Count of Tiberias displayed the ardoui' of a 
neophyte ; he appears to have made it his special business to 
persecute his former co-religionists. With this object he asked 
and obtained from the Emperor authority and probably also 
pecuniary means to build churches in Galilee, in the very midst 
of this last focus of Judaism. Here it would be well to quote 
St. Epiphanius literally : — 

" He received authority to build a Christian church at 
Tiberias' itself, and also at Dioca^sarea, Capernaum, and other 
towns." (Col. 41 0, § iv.) 

"He asked nothing (of the Emperor, who wa.'i willing to give 
him whatever he chose) Ijcyond the great favour of being given 
authority by imperial edict to build churches for C'in-ist in the 

' St. Epiphanius deseribi'3 in detail tliecircumstauros wliidi took place durin'; 
tlie construction of tliis church at Tiberias, which was built by Count Joseph on 
the walls of an unfinished temple, tlie Adrianeion, in spite of the opposition of 
the Jews of the town, who wished fo make it into a public bath. 

1' ]J 



384 AUCILl-OLOGICAL AND EPIGltAPHIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 

Jewish towns and villages, where no one had previously been 
able to build, none, either Greek, Samaritan, or Christian^ 
bein<^ tolerated amonarst them. His chief churches were built 
at Tiberias, Diocpesarea, Sepphoris, Nazareth, and Capernaum, 
where the Jews used to keep careful watch against any 
foreigner whatever dwelling among them." (Col. 420, § xi.) 

"He also built churches at Dioctesarea antl other towns." 
(Col. 427, § xii.) 

From these passages arises a conjecture which temptingly 
presents itself to mind, though I state it, nevertheless, with 
the utmost reserve. Among all these churches of Galilee, built 
by the zeal of Count Joseph, to whom Constantino had given 
plenary power, may there not have been one at Kefr Kenna ? 
I do not wish to go so far as to say that the Yoseh of our 
inscription,* whose name is the same as that of our Joseph (jf 
Til>erias, is identical with him, although indeed this miglit be 
maintained, for we do not know the name of the latter 's father. 
But the example may have been contagious; others of his 
co-religionists, finding substantial advantages in it, may have 
imitated the conversion of the Jewish ex- Apostolus, and may 
have seconded him in his enterprise of multiplying churches 
throughout the land of Galilee. If the author of the mosaic 
at Kefr Kenna would be a converted Jew, this would explain 
well enough the singular fact that a Hebrew inscription should 
appear on a mosaic which one may call Christian, both by 
definition and by situation. If we grant the object aimed at 
by Count Josepli and his possible imitators— direct action 
against the local Jewish element, possibly with further purpose 
of making conversions— the use of the Hebrew language, the 
very language of those against whom this sort of crusade was 
undertaken in an architectural shape, would be quite justified ; 
iiothin«- could have Ijeeu more suitable to impress these stub- 
born champions of the Jewish zealotry in Galilee. 

The hypothesis, I adndt, is a fragile one. It woidd be 
somewhat strengthened if Cana figured in the list of the places 
where Count Joseph's activity was displayed. This town does 
not appear therein, but we must remark that St. Epiphanius's 



AL'Cil.lloLoCK.AI. AND KI'ICIIAI'IKC .NOTKS ON I'AI.KSTINK. ;'.S!."» 

list is not complete, and that Cana may perhaps he p<»tentiallv 
comprised in the plirase of which he twiee make.s use, "and 
other towns and vilhiges " {koI rah aX\ai<;}. If tliis wi-re thi- 
only (.hjection, one might answer it hy calling another witness, 
whose testimony, although indirect and of much later date, yet 
is of a kind which nevertheless could fill up the blank left hy 
►St. Epiphanius's silence, or rather by his regrettable brevity. 
This testimony is that of the JJyzantine historian Nicephorus 
Callistus.^ This fourteenth century compiler, echoing the 
legend which prevailed in his time, attributes to St. Helena 
the building of a series of churches whereof certainly many 
are not the personal work of the mother of Constantine : the 
Anastasis and the Cranion on the site of the Passion, at 
Jerusalem ; the church of the Nativity, at Bethleliem ; that 
of the Ascension, on the Mount of Olives ; that of the Virgin, 
at Gethsemane ; that of the Shepherds; that of Bethany; 
that of St. John the Baptist on the banks of the Jordan : that 
of Elijah the Tishbite, on the mount. Further, in (Talilee, on 
the shores of the Lake of Tiberias, it is always St. Helena who 
\vas the builder of the church of the Dodekathronon, on the 
place where Jesus fed the 4,000 men, and other churches on 
the principal places in the district of Capernaum which are 
connected with the Gospel narrative ; one at Tiberias itself, 
another on Mount Tabor, another at Nazareth, and lasth' 
another at Cana of Galilee.^ 

It will be observed that among these churches of Galilee, 
with the building of which St. Helena is credited, several are 
identical with those due to the initiative of Count Joseph, 
whose work was done at precisely the same period and in the 
same country. The list given by Nicephorus Callistus, when 
reduced to its real historical meaning, may be regarded as tiie 
complement of that given by St. Ejjiphanius, and if this he 
true, then the alleged building by St. Helena of the church 
at Cana ought really to be attributed to Count Joseph and 
virtually comprised among the " etc., etc.," of St. Epiphanius. 

' Nicepliorus Ciillisliis, iligiic's collection, vul. fxlvi, column 113. 
- Kora St TiiQ TaXiKaiai:, tv6a 6 Tou Karai'iTuu 5i';uai)ic ■ya/uor iyiviro, Kal t'S 
o5/;/\()i' ^orpvoiv olios iin]'y6.'^tTo, oIkov upov iStifiaro iripor. 

•2 I! -2 



;I8G ARCH.EOLOGICAL AND EPIGRAI'HIC NOTES ON PALESTINE. 

So theu we are brought again to the hypothesis, whoso 
strong and weak points I have ah'eady discussed. I cannot 
myself come to any certain decision ; I leave to others the task 
of weighing the pros and cons. 1 shall content myself with 
adding that on the supposition that our mosaic had a Christian 
origin, it maybe worth while, in order to explain the mysterious 
word TBLH, to bear in mind the existence in Christian Aramaic 
of a smiilar if not synonymous word, ^^H'^'^^t^, ichJita, meaning 
" altar " (strictly the table of the altar). The two other inter- 
pretations of which I have spoken, either fahida, alluding to 
the mosaic itself, or " baptistery," remain still possible ones ; 
the latter, indeed, would become exceedingly interesting in case 
we have to do with a church and not with a synagogue. 

To arrive at a satisfactory solution of the problem we need 
beforehand two pieces of evidence which we have not got. 
Does Kefr Kenna, or does it not, represent the Cana of the 
Gospel ? And, are the remains of the ancient building within 
which the mosaic was found sufficiently distinct to enable us 
to prove whether they belong to a synagogue or to a church ? 

As for the first question, the topographical one, I have 
nothing to add to the many contradictory essays of which it 
lias formed the subject up to the present time ; it is rather the 
solution of the problem which we are engaged with which will 
enable us to settle this question. 

As for the second question, the archaeological one, I have 
as yet only insufficient data. They are not, however, entirely 
valueless, and I think it is useful to set them forth here, while 
awaiting the result of the more exact investigations which, let 
us hope, will be eventually made on the spot. I owe them to 
an obliging communication from Father Paul de S. Aignan, 
which reached me after I had written the above pages. He 
has been good enough to send me a sketch of the place {ser 
next page), with some interesting explanations which I shall 
sum up as accurately as possible and comment upon. 

A first glance at this sketch seems to show the existence of 
three churches of different periods, regularly orientated, and, as 
it were, inscribed one within the other, being formed by succes- 
sive curtailments of the size of the original building. G is the 



AUCILKOLOGICAL AND El'IGlJArillC NOTES OX I'ALKSTINK. 387 




A— A', Street. B— B', Alley. C— C, Alley. D, Courtyard of tlie Franciscan 
Convent. E, Small convent. F, F', Schools. G, Chapel built by the 
Franciscans. H, Vestry. I, Back vestry, J, Kemains of an older 
church. K, K', K", Suggested plan of the original building successively 
reduced to J and Gr. L, L', L", Walls of old church. L— L'", Old 
colonnade. M — M', Eemains of a very thick wall with a side door. 
N — N', Thick wall with less carefully dressed masonry. O, Original 
entrance to the crypt under the altar of the existing chafiel. P, Lustnil 
basin or font (?). Q, Mosaic, with Hebrew inscription. K, S, Isolated 
fragments of mosaic pavements. 

Old church. 

Original and much larger building, according to Father Paul do 

St. Aignan. 



3SS AUClI-i:OLOGICAL AND EPIGKAl'IIIC XOTE.S OX l'Al.i:>^TINE. 

present chapel, Iniilt by tlie Franciscans, within a church of 
greater size, J, which, though it bears visible traces of having- 
been remodelled by the Crusaders, seems nevertheless to belong- 
to an earlier date than theirs. This church, again, is enclosed 
within the original one, whose dimensions were considerably 
u-reater, K, K', K". I desire to state here tliat the plan of this 
latter building is to a great extent conjectural,^ and is based 
upon the existence of scattered traces as to the meaning of 
which opinions may differ ; the apse, K, especially, is, I 
imagine, purely conjectural. If its existence, with the normal 
ijrientation to the east, should 1)6 confirmed, it would strongly 
sway the Ijalance in favour of the Christian origin of the 
mosaic. 

The presence of fragments of mosaics, which has been 
proved at the point E, within the circuit of J, and at the point 
S, beyond its circuit, and consequently within the conjectural 
circuit of K, is a very important fact, provided that we can 
ascertain that these fragments of mosaic belong to the same 
period as the central Hebrew mosaic. Observe also the bases 
of the ancient range of columns, L-L', which one is tempted to 
re«-ard as marking one of the (three ?) aisles into which the 
su])posed building, K, might have been divided. One of the 
capitals of these columns has been found; it appears that it 
is of the Corinthian order, and of good workmanship. 

I now come to the discovery of the Hebrew mosaic, which 
is situated at Q, that is to say, almost in the middle of all this 
entanglement of buildings, for the modern chapel, (r, and the 
intermediate building, J, seem on the whole to have been placed 
in what must have been the central aisle of the great conjectural 
churcli, K. The excavation which led to this discovery was 
begun as far up as the present altar, 0, at a spot where the 
remains of an ancient wall had previously been noticed. The 
remaining courses of this wall were cleared of earth, and at 
a de])th of about 5 feet there was found the threshold of a 
door which must have led into a sort of crypt extending toward 
the west. The explorers consequently dug in that direction, 

' It vpsts fhicfly on tlie (liscovfry of two fragments of thick Avails, j^ai-allel 
to one another, shown at M — il' and X — N'. 



AUCII.KOLOGICAL AND Eri(;i!.\I'lllc XOTES ON rALKSTINK. .".SO 

smd near the spot P tliey found, in llic middle ol" ;i kind uf 
diiiniber, " an nrn, or rather a fairly lar;j;(^ hasin," ))r(»l)ubly of 
stone, ""although the material is not spccilied. I need not 
enlarge on the importance of ll.is object as bearing upon the 
various questions which I have already discussed. At this 
]»oint the digging had to stop in consecpieuce of certain material 
dithculties. For the present they contented themselves witli 
sinking a shaft a little further to tla; west, near the point Q, 
and it was there that they had tlio good fortune to come just 
down upon the Hebrew mosaic which forms the subject of this 
<;ssay. 

Such is the present condition of these explorations from an 
<irch;eological point of view. It would be most desirable that 
they should be renewed at the earliest possible date, and that 
they should be conducted in a methodical manner. 

T may add that during some building operations undertaken 
some 20 years ago (I imagine in the region marked E) they 
found a sculptured lintel of a door, with vine leaves and grapes, 
which has unfortunately disappeared. This subject of decora- 
tion might equally well belong to a synagogue as to a church, 
so that as far as this goes the question still remains undecided. 
The same applies to the ornamentation of another sculptured 
lintel, whose existence on the same spot in the seventeenth 
century is attested by a document which has l)een pointed out 
to me by Father Paul de S. Aignan. Father Mariano Morone 
da Maleo,^ who, as I have already often had occasion to remark 
^Isewhere,^ was so singularly well-informed on the arcl neology 
of the Holy Land, says that he saw sculptured al)ove a door at 
the entrance to the ancient ruined church of Kefr Kenua three 
vases in which he wishes to see the waterpots of the marriage 
of Cana in Galilee.' It is needless to say that this subject of 
vases belongs as nmch to the symbolic decoration <if Jewish as 
of Christian art. 



' ''Tci'va Santa uuovamcntc illustrata," i, p. 362. 
- For instance, "Archaeological Researches in Palestine," vol. i, p. t>. 
•' "Come anche nell' intrare notai sopra una porta trc hidrie scolpite uella 
pictm viva in menioria clcl niiracolo qui operato." 



o 



90 



REPORTS AND NOTKS BY K. A. S. :\IACALISTER, Es^. 



I. — Ox Ckrtaix Antiquities in the Neighbourhood of Blit 

JiBKix. 

The moorland hills around Beit Jibrin are rich in antiquities of 
certain types, not perhaps in themselves of great interest, though 
testifpng to a much larger population and more extensive culti- 
vation than at present, and therefore of historical value. 

The majority of the structures to which this note refers are 
circular on plan, about 12 feet, more or less, in diameter ; they are 
built without cement, of stones measuring evei-y way about 2 feet. 
Inside is always a floor of small stone chips and pebbles. The 
majority are ruined to mere shapeless heaps of stone, or are dis- 
integrated to their lowest course. In the wall of one, part of the 
sill-stoue of a door was found, used as building material. 

They recall the mandtir, or watch-towers, still erected in 
vineyards, of Avhich many examples are to be seen near Bethlehem 
and elsewhere ; but I have seen no modern example built of such 
large stones as are the ancient specimens, nor is the circular form 
so exclusively selected by the modern builders. There is no 
trace of terracing or other evidence of cultivation to be detected 
about the majority of the structures to which attention is here 
called, and if they be actually vineyard towei-s they must be vei-y 
old. They exist in very considerable numbers, and often are 
found in small groups of six or seven. I trenched across one at 
Abu Haggen, but found nothing. Like the manatir they were 
doubtless roofed with boughs. It is possible that these structures 
may have been dry-stone hovels, like the bee-hive cells of 
Scotland and Ireland, or the natvdmis of the Sinai peninsula. 

I found two or three similar structures rectangular on jilan. 
The proportion of this type to the circular is ver^- small. 

On the top of a conspicuous hill to the south of Tell Sanda- 
liannali is the foundation of a building' of large dry-stone blocks. 
It seems to have been a watch-tower of some kind, but there is 

1 Plans of these structures liuve becu (li-iwvn, and are deposited iu the office 
of the Fund. 



HEPORT.S AND NOTES liY It. A. S. MACALISTKK. 



.".91 



iiothiiiy from which wo may dccluco its exact purpose or its at?e. 
There is a similar structure on a hill-top near Tell ej-Judeideh. 

Further, the hills in the district mentioned at the head of this 
note are intersected in all directions by walls which prol)ably 
mark old boundaries. They consist invariably of rows of large 
round stones laid side by side. To plan them would be an endless 
ami probably a profitless labour. 

There is one walP stretching over a long low hill southwaids 
from Tell Saudahannah. It stops abruptly at each end ; and it is 
difticult to guess the purpose for which it was built. Near the 




Stone in Wall neae Tell Sandahannah. 

northern end is iying the stone here sketched; it seems to be 
Roman, and prepared for an inscription which, unfortunately, 
was never cut on it. 



II. — The BiRAK esh-Shixanih. 

As a pendant to the paper on "' Sport among the Bedawin," 
contributed by Mr. Jeunings-Bramley to the Qnartcrly Statement 
of October, 1900, I present a plate of two photographie views 
of a sporting implement which I purchased from a native of 
Zakariya, and which I have not seen described elsewhere. 

It consists of a sheet of cloth, about 4 feet G inches I>y .S feet 
9 inches, stretched on two crossed sticks whose ends tit into little 
pockets formed by sewing over the edges at each corner of the 
cloth. The centre of the cloth is ingeniou.sly tied to the inter- 
section of the sticks by gathering it round a small pebble and 



■\q') 



REPORTS AND NOTES BV 1!. A. S. MACALISTEK. 



winding a string round the neck of the pocket enclosing the 
pebble ; the ends of the string are then secured round the sticks. 

The dried skin of a fox's head is sewn to the top of the cloth, 
and the surface of the cloth is ornamented with strokes and con- 
centric circles. The latter are printed on in ink by means of a 
die cut out of soft limestone clunch. The palm leaf is con- 
spicuous among the designs ; this is a favourite luck sign, painted 




over doors of houses and worked in tatu on women's faces. I 
cannot, howevei*, discover that the other signs, or the fox-head, 
have any other special meaning; the manufacturer's statement, 
that it is simply to make the object eccentric-looking, is as likely 
as any theoi'etical explanation to be correct. When the designs 
are diy on the cloth it is dipped in dirty water in order to stain it 
and prevent it being too conspicuous. * 



REPOltTS AND NOTKS liV 1!. A. S. M A( AI.lSIKi;. 



.).I.J 



Fin.ally, special attention must In; called to two sjnall holes 
cut about three-quarters of the way up in the cloth. 

The method of employment is as follows : — The sportsman, 
intent on parti-idge shooting, crouches hcliinil the widcspreiul 
cloth, which he shakes up and down slic^htly. I'Ih- partridge is 
alleged to be a bird so inquisitive that it approaches near <o find 
out what this poculi:ir object is. The sportsmaji can tlicn watch 




the birds with his eye through one hole, while with liis gun 
through the other he fires at them. 

The name of the implement is BlraJc esh-ShiiKDin: that is 
"' standard or flag of the partridges.'" 

' The " flBg of tlie partridges" was frequently used by Hassan, who went 
with nic and Mr. Hornstein to Moab in 1899. In my journal for April 5th of 
that year, I wrote :— " On the way up (the hills east of Jordan) Hassan shot 



394 IJEPORTS AND NOTES BY ll. A. S. MACALISTEK. 

III. — A Note ox West Palestinian Dolmens. 

In the Quarterly Statement of July, 1901, p. 231, I have spoken 
of the Beit Jibrin dolmen as " the first example of a megalithic 
sepulchral monument discovered in Western Palestine." I regret 
that Pere Vincent's excellent paper on the " Rude Stone 
Monuments of Western Palestine," published in the April 
" Revue Biblique," did not reach me till after my note had 
been printed, as I should not then have claimed for m^- own 
discoveiy the honour of priority, which properly belongs to the 
finds of the Dominican Fathers of Jerusalem. I was unaware 
till I read Pere Vincent's paper that the Abu Dis and other 
dolmens had been noticed so long before the Beit Jibrin monument 
was found, and I trust I Avill be forgiven the implied slight I 
have unintentionally cast on the discoveries of other investigators. 



IV. — Addenda to the List of Rhodian Sta.mi'ed Jar-Handli:s 

FROM Tell Sandahannah. 

The following handles were found after the list published in 
the Quarterlij Statement for January and April, 1901, had been 
despatched to the Fund office. The plate of alphabets, <tc., 
having been sent with the list, and not being available for refer- 
ence when the present appendix was drawn up, the paleographical 
details given in column 8 of the list could not be tabulated, and 
arc therefore here omitted : — 



a parti'idge with the aid of a stalking cloth — a rough representation of a bird 
of prey, something like a large shield, which he held in front of him as he 
advanced, and planted upright on the ground when within shot. The effect 
of the shield was to frighten the bird and keep it cowering on the ground 
whilst Hassan advanced and finally fired tliroiigh a hole in the cloth." When 
not in use the cloth and two sticks were carried separately. — ^C. W. W. 



IJErOlITS AM) NOTKS i;Y 



A. 



MACALISTEIJ. 



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KEI'OKTS AND NOTES BY I{. A. S. MACALISTER. 















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lIErCiKT.S AND NOTES IJV K. A. S. MACAMSTKl;. 397 

Tlicre was also n duplicate of No. 88, \vlii(;li, however, waft too 
worn to enable me to detenuine the nature of the device. It is 
curious to find the caduceus in 328 associated with AI'.AKON'I'IA \, 
which at Suudahannah and elsewhere, so far as I know, has 
always hitherto been connected with an anchor. 

The reviewer of the Quarterly Statement in the " Revue 
J^ibliqui' " has reminded me that I have overlooked Guthe's find 
oF jar-handles of this type in my list of previous discoveries in 
Palestine of antiquities of this class, I regret the oversight. 
A jar-liaudle from Tell es-Safi must also be included. It was 
published in the Quarterly Statement of October, 1899, as bearing 
a Samaritau inscription, and really the letters look more like 
Samaritan than anything else. I have carefully re-examined it 
in varying lights, and have had to confess myself beaten by it: 
no doubt it is a Rhodian handle, though the inscription is 
illegible. It shows a caduceus, the head of which appears in 
the cut. I have also seen a handle with an illegible stamp, 
picked up at Abu Shusheh. 



V. — The Nicophokieh Tomb. 

The following notes are designed to supplement, not to 
supersede, the valuable account of this monument contributed 
soon after its discovery by Dr. Schick to the Quarterly Statement 
(1892, pp. 115 et seq.) :— 

I. Kasr el- Asafir.— Tins small building is not described by 
Dr. .Schick, being, as he says, of no great interest. It is 
rectangular, standing almost exactly east and west (prismatic 
compass reading of the long axis 271°). The outcrop of rock 
on which it is built is about 7 to 8 feet in maximum height 
above the surrounding ground ; it is roughly scarped. The door- 
way of the building has been in the east side, but it is broken 
out, and is now merely an irregular hole. At the west end is a 
recess with a well-turned arch over it; the recess is 2 feet 6 inches 
across and 11^ inches deep. The floor is choked up with grass- 
grown earth and stones. The cores of the walls are composed 
of .small stones set in mud, and are faced with hammer-dressed 
roughly-squared stones, set iu cement with very wide joints 
between them. On the stones of the arch just referred to are 



398 IJEPOKTS AND NOTES BY E. A. S. MACALTSTER. 

marks of comb-dressing, but there is nowhere else any trace of 
finer di-essing in the bailding. There is nothing to show how 
the buikling was roofed ; the two long walls, especially that on 
the south side, ai'e ruined almost to their foundations. The 
gi-eatest height of wall remaining — at the east end — is 10 feet. 
The recess in the outside of the west wall is probably accidental. 

The dimensions ai-e : — Length, 17 feet 8 inches ; breadth, 
14 feet G inches (internally). Thickness of walls, from 2 feet 
5 inches to 8 feet 5 inches. 

The building, on the whole, bears considerable resemblance to 
the small seventh century oratories on the western islands of 
Ireland and Scotland — that is, in its present ruined state. It 
seems from Dr. Schick's plan to have been more perfect in 1892, 
and to have had a rather different appearance. The analogy 
suggested is, of course, raerely intended as an aid to description, 
and no connexion is drawn between the Kasr and the buildings 
cited. The specimen of masonry shown in the drawing^ is from 
the inside of the west wall. 

II. — On a projecting knob of rock, scarped all round, 16 feet 
east of the Kasr el-Asafir, is a cup-shaped mark 5J- inches deep, 
7^ inches acj'oss ; and across a neighbouring and similar knob is 
cut a channel. These may be the remains of an ancient cup-mark 
system destroyed when the rock was prepared for the reception of 
the building. 

III. The Rock Scarps oiorth of the Kasr el-Asafir (see plan 
facing p. 117 of the Quarterly Statement for 1892). — Dr. Schick's 
plan gives an excellent idea of this complicated system of cuttings. 
In the following points I venture respectfully to diflfer from him : — 

(1) The shading of the rock-scarp south and east of Kasr 
el-Asafir should be on the other side of the line. 

(2) I do not think there is sufficient evidence for the existence 
of steps at the south end of the isolated rectangular mass of I'ock. 

(3) In the extreme south-east corner of this mass of rock is 
a shallow trough, apparently a rock-cut olive press, partly hidden 
by earth. 

(4) In the corner of the higher portion of this mass of rock, 
just north of the north-west corner of the place marked " formerly 

' This drawing (wifcli a plan of the building) is deposited in the office of 
the Fund. 



REPORTS AND NOTES HY li. A. S. .MACAM8TEU. 399 

steps," is a small cistern, about W feet north to south by about 

8 feot east to Avest, witli barrel-vauUod lonf, lined with cement 
throughout. 

(5) The " water- channel " indicated west of the mass of rock 
is no longer to be traced with certainty, having become clogged 
and concealed with fallen stones. 

(0) The lines of scarping surrounding the isolated mass of 
rock are so irregular and lacking in design, that I cannot feel 
satisfied that they are anything more important than an ancient 
quarry. The rectangular sinking marked "grave" (6 feet 
10 inches long, 2 feet 4 inches across, 3 to 4 feet deep) seems 
to me merely the hole from which a block or blocks have been 
removed. The double scarp running westward from it consists 
of a low southern wall 1 foot high, a horizontril step 2 feet 
3 inches wide, and a deep drop, excavated to 7 feet 4 inches, 
but apparently going deeper. 

(7) Beside the scarped rocks indicated in the plan there is an 
irregular floor of limestone, 45 feet north-west from the north- 
west angle of Kasr el-Asafir. This shows traces of having been 
artificially smoothed, and is terminated eastward by a straight 
side, 10 feet long, apparently worked. The face of this side is 
not vertical, but bevelled. 

IV. The Cave under the Isolated Mass of Eoch. — To my eye this 
appears to be the artificial enlargement of a wide and shallow 
natural cavern. The eastern portion shows no sign of artificial 
working; it is \7 paces or about ilO feet wide at the entrance. 
The inner portion is a roughly rectangular chamber, 7 feet 

9 inches in height and 21 feet 4 inches across. The eastern side 
is quite open, and on the other three sides ars rectangular 
recesses, extending to 1 foot 3 inches of the roof. 

V. — The tomb-chambers, to which Dr. Schick seems to have 
had difficulty in obtaining access, have their long axis practically 
north and south, the entrance facing north. There is a modei-n 
iron gate at the door, which formerly was secured by a large 
rolling-stone about 6 feet in diameter and 18 inches thick. This 
still remains in the channel in which it ran. The entrance leads 
downward by a slope and two steps to a vestibule, 13 feet 3 inches 
by 13 feet (but not quite rectangular). A doorway 4 feet li inches 
long leads to a small room, covered with a barrel-vaulted roof. 
This room is about 7 feet 8 inches by 5 feet 8 inches. Tliere are 

2 C 



400 



REPORTS AND NOTES BY E. A. S. MACALISTER, 



two side chambers opening off this room, and another chamber 
behind it ; the latter is the most important tomb-chamber, and in 



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KHl'OUTS AND NOTES BV U. A. S. MACALISTER. 



4U1 



it stand the handsome fsarcophagi represented on tlic While. Tliere 
are two of these remaining: one is plain, with siinplo panelling 



r 



TOMB ON NICOPHORIEH JERUSALEM 



SARCOPHAGI 



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402 HILL OF "jeeemiah's gkotto." 

worked on the sides ; tlie other has a floral scroll and rosettes. The 
latter has lost its cover, and the loss lias been supplied with three 
fragments of other covers, not apparently intended to be associated 
with the sarcophagus on which they stand or with each other. 
The chamber is 2-i feet 8 inches long, 9 feet 8^ inches across. 
Beyond it are two rough chambers, apparently unfinished : the 
first has a bare rock surface on the walls, supplemented with 
inserted stones when irregular, and in the jamb of the door. 
The second was apparently an old entrance (perhaps for work- 
men), as its roof consists of movable blocks of stone, apparently 
supporting earth. 

The walls in all the principal chambers and passages are lined 
with marble slabs. The doors were closed by slabs cut to fit the 
reveals. These slabs are still lying about the tomb. 

A sufficient number of the fragments of carved stones lying 
about outside the tomb have already been published by Dr. 
Schick. To attempt to fit them into their places in a hypo- 
thetical surface structure would, I am convinced, prove a raiher 
more hopeless task than restoration of the Mausoleum of 
Halicarnassus. They are mostly fragments of egg-and-tongue- 
and other classical ornaments, volutes, acanthus leaves, and 
various mouldings — nearly all of a very debased or provincial 
type. 

I prefer to abstain from speculation as to the persons for 
whom this tomb was intended. In the absence of insci-iptions 
all such speculation is mere guesswork, impossible to disprove 
or to substantiate. 



HILL OF " JEREMIAH'S GROTTO," CALLED BY 
GENERAL GORDON "SKULL HILL." 

By Dr. Conrad Schick. 

1. In 1842, 0. Thenius suggested, on various topographical 
grounds, that this hill was Calvary, where Christ was cmcified. 
In 1883 the late General Gordon came to the same conclusion 
from quite other reasons. He founded his opinion on the contour 
line 2,549 feet above the sea (Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem, 
2-5V0 pla-n, 1864-65), which has roughly the form of a skull^ 



illLL OF '• JKlM'-MIAH's CUOTTO." 403 

although rather too broad, with the nose-bono turned towards the 
west.' He was confirmed in his opinion by the discovery of a 
rock-hewn tomb at the western foot of the hill, which he declared 
was that of Joseph, and in a garden.- The view that "skull" 
hill was Calvary was adopted by many persons, and more 
especially by English and Americans. It was also opposed by 
many other persons, wlm brought forward good arguments against 
it. This lessened but did not put an end to the enthusiasm for the 
liill. In the cliff on the south-west side of the hill there are two 
holes, running in about 10 feet, which from the shadows thrown 
by the roof and sides always look dark. These holes were thought 
to look like the eye-sockets of a skull, and hence this part of the 
hill was compared with a skull.^ This conclusion requires a 
great deal of imagination, for the two holes differ greatly in size 
and form. The Avestern and larger hole is part of an ancient 
rock-hewn cistern, which became useless when one side was cut 
away in quarrying stone. It is now a small cave, retaining the 
size and form of the old cistern. The almost horizontal bottom 
is about 14 feet wide, the sides converge as they rise, and, near 
the top, form as it were an arched roof. The other hole, about 
20 feet to the east, is on a lower level, as any good photograph 
will show. Drawings and pictures are "helped" so that the 
holes may appear more like the eye-sockets of a skull. Any 
argument based on them is rather useless, as the name " Kranion," 
Calvary, or skull, was probably derived, not from the form of a 
hill, but from the discovery of a human skull in the place. Tradi- 
tion and the early Christian writers say it was the skull of Adam. 
I suggest that it was Goliath's skull which David brought to 
Jerusalem (1 Samuel xvii, 54; xxi, 9) and buried somewhere 
close to and outside the city, as it could not be buried near the 
Tabernacle at Nob, where he deposited Goliath's sword. It may 
have been found when Nehemiah rebuilt the Avails, and the spot 
called "the skull "—that is, the place where the remarkable 
skull was found. 

1 See General Gordon's note in Quarterlj/ Statement, 1885, p. 79. 

2 St. Matt, xxvii, (50; St. John xix, 41. A full report on this tomb bj 
me is given in Quarterh/ Statement, 1892, pp. 120/; and 199. 

' This idea was repudiated by General Gordon. In a letter he writes:— 
" ' Skull with caves for eye-sockets,' that is all one would get if one was foolish 
enough to write. I eay it is the contour in a map of 1864."— C. ^\ . W • 



404 HILL OF " jekemiah's geotto." 

2. The tomb at the foot of the north -Avestern part of the hill 
— a Jewish rock-heAvn tomb re-used hj Christians — was pur- 
chased, with the field (the supposed garden of Joseph), by some 
English people, who were obliged to enclose the field with a 
boundary wall. When the wall was erected they were compelled, 
on the north side, to build it above the scarped rock in which the 
tomb is hewn. But on the east side they had to build it in front 
of the scarp, and to dig down some 10 feet for a foundation. 
Here, about the centre of the side, the entrance to a passage, 
about 3 feet wide and 7 feet high, running eastward into the 
rock, was discovered. It was full of earth, and, as it was not 
cleared, its object could not be ascertained. Probably it led to 
a cave, or grotto similar to that to the east, called " Jeremiah's " 
grotto. The passage could not be cleared at the time for fear of 
raising diflBculties with the Moslems, who closely watched the 
work. But an opening was left in front of it in the new wall, so 
that it could be opened and cleared when an opportunity arrived ; 
and its position was indicated by a mark on the wall above 
ground. On seeing this, and on examining the hill more closely, 
I came to the conclusion that the rock roof of a large cavern had 
fallen in and left the rock standing u.p for fx'om 8 to 10 feet, thus 
giving the curious outline of a human skull in profile, as seen in 
the contour line on the Ordnance Survey map. This hypothesis 
explains the openings by which the various small caves in the 
upper portion of the rock are entered from the west, and the 
absence of the ai'tificial entrances which they must have 
possessed originally. The fracture was most likely caused by 
an earthquake, perhaps that in the reign of Uzziah (Amos i, 1 ; 
Zechariah xiv, 5). 

3. It is generally believed, and the appearance of the rock on 
both sides justifies the belief, that " skull " hill was originally 
connected with the height (Bezetha) inside the town, and that 
the broad trench which now separates them is the result of 
quarrying for stone. Sir C. Warren ("Jerusalem Memoirs," 
Plate XII) gives the trench an almost level bed of rock, but the 
many portions of the bed which I have seen, wlien exposed by 
excavation, are very uneven and bear the marks of quarrying. 
In some places, especially near " skull " hill, the rock is much 
higher than in others. I am therefore convinced that the great 
trench was not made at one time, but is rather the result of 



HILL OF " ,ikim;miaii's gkotto." 40o 

quarrying operations spread over a long period,' including somo 
which have taken place during my own residence in Jerusalem. 
The accompanying diagram, based on Sir C. Warren's Plate XII, 

llO»tTM 
SOUTH ^/>U ^ , surf^e_accqr:d,n£.tc>y^rrfn_ - , V^mTf ^^-Mg), yM' - - ' 

tiner. n ^., „, schx* b>~('/-'.7T-/y». 



2400 . . , . . " . ^«» . 

SCALE 

100 so P 100 £00 FEET 
I ■ ■ ■ T ][ I 

Note. — In some places the rock rises to tliis height x . 

explains my views. I believe that, as in the case of other ridges 
near Jerusalem — the ridge of the Mount of Olives, for instanct) — 
there was originally a depression between the two heights, and 
not an elevation, as shown by the dotted line in the diagram. 
Thus the square cubits of stone removed were far less than they 
would have been if the rock had risen in accordance with the 
dotted line, and the bed of the trench had been as low as it is 
shown in the diagram. These remarks have some bearing on the 
topographical question. It is to be regretted that there is no 
proper plan of Jeremiah's grotto. English and German writers 
generally mention the grotto, and some of them notice its 
interesting cistern, but none have given a plan.^ 

Jebusalem, June 6th, 1901. 



' Tliis view, which I have long held, is confirmed by local details that I 
hope to explain in a forthcoming paper. — C. W. W. 

- Dr. Schick has since sent home a plan and description of Jeremiah's 
grotto, which will be published in the January Qtiarierli/ Statement.— 

c. w. w. 



406 



A. DRUZE TALISMAN. 

By the Rev. Joseph Segall. 

The bronze talisman, of which the following is a photograph, 
belonged to a Druze. It seems to have been a charm against the 
sting of a scorpion. The fortunate possessor of such a treasure 
would, for a " consideration," take an impression of it on a piece 
of paper with Arabic ink, as is generally done here with ordinary 
seals. Such an amulet would then be hung round the neck of the 










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person stung, or possibly the seal itself would be pressed against 
the wound, which would have the effect of pressing out the poison 
left by the sting. 

The following is a transcription and literal translation of the 
legend : — 



>•' 



\,:.\ .j^ I. u! 



.\ 



" O, thou Remover of pain, thou Possessor of cures, thou Discerner of remedies, 
thou tliat answerest prayer, hear us favourably, thou best of men." 



A CItUSADING INSCRIPTION. 407 

Of the four angelic names, J^jJ^-j^ find J>^\$Lx,< (probably 
another form for J.A.!l^^<) are well known in Mohammedan 
theology, while the other two, ^j^}^}^ and JolL«— ;i will probably 
be found in the angeology of the Druze religion. 

The numerical figures rovmd the scorpion may have somi' 
mystical signification, or may possibly be merely ornamental. 

Damascus. 



THE RUTN AT KHtlRBET BEIT 8AW1R. 
By Gray Hill, Esq. 

Remains like that depicted under this name in the last numljer of the 
Quarterly Statement are to be found on the east of the Jordan — one 
large one, and if I remember I'ight a second smaller, in the dejjre.ssed 
plain of El Bukeia, lying between Es Salt and Jerasli, and several on or 
near the Haj Road, between Umm Shettah (Mashita) and Er Reutheh. 
But in all these instances the four walls of the quadrangle stand in a 
more or less complete state. 



A CRUSADING INSCRIPTION. 

By Professor Theodore F. Wright, Ph.D. 

In the Semitic Museum here ray attention has been attracted to a block 
of marble measuring about one foot each way. It is fragmentary, and 
appears to have been broken off or cut out from a slab. I can learn 
nothing as to the history of it, except that it was a part of the collection 
made some years ago in Palestine by Dr. Selah Merrill. It does not 
appear that he has anywhere given a description of it. The letters, so far 
as they are unharmed, are large and clear. There are tive lines, of which 
not one is perfect, but it is not likely that much is broken off, becau.se 
the meaning, as I apprehend it, does not require more than a letter or 
two in lines three and four. 

The language appears to be old French, but on this and every other 
point I speak only tentatively, and am seeking information rather than 
giving it. The fourth Ime can scarcely be anything but a date appro.xi- 
mating a.d. 1250, or at least before 1290. Moreover, the whole appearance 
s that of an epitaph. Taking this view of it, I would suggest that the 
first line may have contained the word respasse, meaning to pass to the 
other life, to die. The second Hne may have been del in carite, or 



408 



A CRUSADING INSCRIPTION. 



something like that, meaning '' heaven in the love of." The third line 
lacks the first letter only of nosti'e seiguor, our Lord. In the next line we 
have (7m?, spelled without the "h,"as in carite for charite. The last 
line seems to say d denii JuU. In all the lines something is lacking at 



SZRQSQIGIK 




the end, and two of them are fractured at the beginning. What is thus 
lost can be supplied by conjecture only, but possibly the five lines vea 
thus when complete : — 

EST RESPASSE AU 

CI EL IN CARITE 

OSTRE SEIGNOR 

CRIST : M : CC : L^— 

A DEMI : JUL— 

There was in this view of it a line above — or several lines — now 

destroyed, and the meaning was " passed to heaven in the love of 

our Lord Christ [in the year] 125 — , in the middle of July." 

I submit this in the hope that more light can be thrown by others. 

Cambridge, U.S,A. 



Note by Professor Clermont-Ganneau. 
This fragment of a mediaeval inscription may be thus restored 



[+ ici gist- 



quit]respH[sa an I'an] 
[d]e l'incair[nacion n-] 
ostre Seigno[r iliu] 
Crist MCCLI . . . 
a demi iui[gnet I] 

Ici git (Sire ou Madame) . . . qui trepassa en I'an de I'incarnation 
(de) notre Seigneur Jesus Christ 1251 (ou 1254 ?) a la ml-Juillet 
( Juignet ?). 



THE SITE OF CALVARY. 409 

It is more than ])robable that it is the epitajili nf some jxthoii con- 
nected with the Crusades. I should not be Biuprisfd if the Ht<>ne 
came from St. Jean d'Acre. Paleographically and epigraphically tlie 
inscription closely resembles a tombstone from this city which I reported 
and i)ublislied in my " Eapport sur une Mission on Palestine et en 
Phenicie" (1881), i)landie X, ((. Tlic date is a little mon- recent, 1278. 
The epitaph — that of Sire Gautier Meynebreuf — is also in old French. 



NOTE ON DOLMENS. 



As regards dolmens in " Western Palestine," it seems to be over- 
looked that I have described one on Mount Gilboa, and a group 
west of Banias, and that others, such as the Hajr ed-Duvim, occur 
in Upper Galilee. I have given reasons for concluding that 
those in Moab were not tombs ; but I have also pointed out that 
the modern Arabs erect small trilithons in connection with the 
circles round their graves, and I believe the nomads west of 
Jordan do the same. It seems to be necessary to distinguish 
these monuments, and to make it clear that those recently dis- 
covered in the south, and said to be connected with such graves, 
are not merely quite modern Bedawin structures, such as would 
Bot have been considered worth special notice during the survey. 

C. R. COiNDER. 



THE SITE OF CALVARY. 
By Colonel C. R. Conder, LL.D., R.E. 

Canon MacColl is well known as a controversial writer; but in 
the present case he does not appear able to throw any new light 
on the question in dispute. He is pleased to suggest that within 
the last seven years I may have changed my mind, having 
apparently not read my article on Jerusalem in the new 
" Dictionary of the Bible" (Messrs. Clarke and Co.). He recom- 
mends me to read the Bible, which I had been in the habit of 
doing before I had the pleasure of making his acquaintance. He 
describes me as a " convert " to the views of Dr. Robinson, 
thouffh I am not aware of having ever changed my views on 



410 THE SITE OF CALVARY. 

this question. He consider.s that my writings lack evidence of 
research, and that I rely chiefly on Robinson, though he does 
not quote any evidence with which I have not been acquainted, 
from the original authors, foi- many years past. In spite of the 
strength of assertion which characterises his paper, I consider 
that it is an imperfect representation of the question in dispute, 
and that, in many respects, it is misleading. 1 do not think 
that much good is done by raising such controversies ; but if 
they are raised it should be in a tone of moderation and respect 
for the opinion of others. The views which I advocate are held 
by a large number of persons, who have examined the evidence 
with care and intelligence, and have reached a conclusion the 
reverse of that held by Canon MacColl. 

I will only refer briefly to points which seem to me likely to 
mislead. I deny that Canon Williams disposed of the arguments of 
Dr. Robinson, or that the opinion of a German wa-iter in 185-i has 
any particular value now. Canon MacColl mixes up two distinct 
questions : (1) whether the cliff at Jeremiah's Grotto be the true 
site of Calvary, as I believe ; (2) whether the tomb beneath be 
the true Holy SejDulchre, which I have always denied. He is 
apparently not aware that the Jews liad four different methods 
of execution, and that they crucified those whom they stoned. 
The Carthaginians, as well as the Romans, used also to crucify. 
He should make further study of the Talmud before committing 
himself to his assertions. 

Considering the uncleanne?s connected with death, I cannot 
believe that the " place of a skull " could ever have been sacred 
to Jews, and Origen must have referred to Jewish Christians. 
St. Paul does not allude to the legend of Adam's skull, nor do 
I know of any legend in Jewish writings connecting Adam with 
Golgotha — 1 consider it most improbable. Pilate delivered over 
Our Lord to the Jews to crucify, and they may naturally be 
supposed to have used the ordinary " place of stoning." But 
whatever Pilate may have thought as to Jewish customs, it is 
stated that Christ suffei"ed " without the gate " (Heb. xiii, 12). 

The Christian authorities quoted by Canon MacColl are all 
later than the conversion of Constantine, excepting Origen, who 
does not say that he knew the site of Calvary, and TertuUian, 
who is only cited. I have been carefully through the works 
of Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, and TertuUian, in the hope of finding 



THE SITE OF CALVARY. 411 

some light ou the subject, witli the result of being unable to 
discover a single passage showing that the site Avas known to 
them. Nor have I found such a passage quoted by others. Nor 
is there any contempoi-ary account of the return of the Christians 
to Jernsalera after 70 A.u. There are certainly no coins in exist- 
ence -which prove that a temple to Venus was erected " over 
Golgotha and the Holy Sepulchre." There is no contemporary 
account of Helena's visiting Calvary, and Eusebius (whether an 
eye-witness or not) does not explain how the conclusion was 
reached, that the site uncovered was the true one, recovered as he 
says, "beyond all hope." 

Whatever we may think of the fourth century — and such men 
as Jerome and Chrysostorn had a very bad opinion of the state of 
the Church in their days — it is certain that the views of Eusebius 
as to Bible sites are as often wrong as they are right, while the 
earliest pilgrim (from Bordeaux) makes many mistakes, as when 
he places the scene of the Transfiguration o]i Olivet. That 
Eusebius,^ Jerome, and others were wrong in saying that the 
New Jerusalem was opposite the old is shown by the extant 
remains of the second wall. Jerome does not refer to that wall, 
how^ever, but to the wall built by Hadrian. It is impossible to 
show that a garden still existed in the time of Cyril or Willibald, 
especially if we are to believe that a Pagan temple had been built 
on the sites. Nor do these authors mean us to understand this. 
[ am at a loss to understand how Canon MacColl can suppose this 
garden "in" the place of Crucifixion (" not near," he insists) to 
have existed still in the thirteenth century, when the whole space 
was covered by the Cathedral as now. El Yakiit could not 
desci'ibe what could not exist. Like the preceding authorities, 
he means that the site was believed to have been originally in 
a garden. There was, moreover, no " second wall " visible in the 
thirteenth century, and the Cathedral was inside the city. 

Canon MacColl seems to think that the Babylonian Mishnah 
differs from that of Jerusalem (the correct citation is, I believe, 
T.B. Baba Kama, 82a), but anyhow the evidence of a writer about 
800 A.D., as to a rose garden " in the time of the pro{)hets," has 
no value at all. 

The statement that the second wall " must cross the Tyropceon" 

' Eusebius does refer to New Jerusalem. According to the only note I have 
at hand, the passage is in his " Life of Constantino " (iii, 33). 



412 THE SITE OF CALVARY. 

shows, unfortunately, that Canon MacColl does not undex-stand 
the topograpliy of Jerusalem.' This is exactly the reason why 
I have always drawn the second wall jast -where its remains have 
subsequently been discovered to exist. The passage mentioned 
by the Canon (2 Chron. xxvi, 9) is one frequently quoted in 
my published works ; but it does not, in my opinion, bear the 
consti-uction which he gives, nor does it in the least conflict 
with the line I have always proposed for the wall, nor does the 
Greek text conflict Avith the Hebrew. The passage from Tacitus 
I have also had occasion to quote, but it throws no fresh light 
on the question. I consider that his description applies well to 
the walls as I propose to di^aw them.* 

There are many other points which seem to me to show that 
Canon MacCoU has not mastered the literature of his subject, or 
weighed the arguments on the other side. It is certain, from the 
rock levels of Jerusalem, that the present traditional site of 
Calvary was the summit of a rocky knoll rising high above the 
Tyropoeon. The line of wall as he draws it wonld leave this knoll 
just outside the wall, in a way which, in my opinion, no one 
acquainted with ancient fortified sites could for a moment think 
possible. But the city of Jerusalem, about 30 a.d., extended 
considerably beyond the second wall on this side. The old 
difiiculty remains, that the position is so central, as regards both 
the present and the ancient town, that even in the fourth century 
some explanation was felt to be necessary to account for its not 
being outside the city. That which Jerome gives, and which 
most later Christian writers repeat, seems to me to have been 
apologetic ; and it was certaitdy incorrect, as far as the evidence 
of Josephus and of the extant remains of the second wall are any 
indication. 

I do not, however, suppose that any argument will convince 
those who have taken another view, and I have no desire to enter 
further into controversy on the subject.^ 

Ennis, /mZ^/ 1-^^^ 1901. 

' I would uote that Josephus does not use the word given by Canon MacColl 
as meaning to " enclose." 

^ He does not, I think, refer to zigzags, but to the various directions of the 
walls, which gave flanking (ire — on the north, west, and south sides of the city. 

' For detailed argument on tlie subject, I beg to refer to the last chapters 
of my " Handbook to the Bible," and to my recent article on Jerusalem in 
Dr. Hastings's "Dictionary of the Bible." 



413 



EXCURSUS ON THE RESURRECTIOX ON THE HYPO- 
THESIS THAT IT TOOK PLACE FROM A TOM 15 
SIMILAR IN CONSTRUCTION TO THE TOMBS OF 
THE KINGS, AND IN THAT VICINITY. 

By Canon Gell. 

Attempts to realise the actual conditions uiuler which this, the supreme 
event of human history, was accomplished have often been confused by 
want of a clear idea of the particular kind of tomb in wliich the body of 
our Loi'd was laiil. The serious difficidty of harmonising the visits to 
the tomb, recorded by the Evangelists, together with prevailing miscon- 
ception as to the tomb itself, liave combined to produce a vague impres- 
sion as to what really took place detrimental to a firm belief in its 
historical vei-acity. 

It is easy to deprecate investigation, and to point to strong and even 
bitter divergencies of opinion, but when the angel, seated upon the 
stone he had rolled back, said to the affrighted women, " Come see the 
place where the Lord lay," he gave some sort of sanction to our topo 
graphical enquiries, while he struck the only note of localism in religion 
which remains in this dispensation. 

In a former paper I have enumerated thirteen indicating hints, 
gathered from Holy Scripture, pointing to the locality where we may 
expect to find the sepulchre, and suggesting the kind of sepulchre for 
which we should search. To my own mind these are fully sufficient to 
exclude from consideration both the traditional site within the present 
•city and the recently suggested site just outside of it ; but I have care- 
fully guarded myself from assuming that I have proved that the Kubur 
es-Saladeen was the actual tomb where, as in a mortuary chapel, the 
sacred body of the Lord lay. Indeed, if I felt as certain as some 
advocates of other sites profess themselves to be, I should not proclaim 
it, lest some modern disciples of Eusebius and Constantine should make 
it a place for pilgrimage. All for which I contend is this— that the 
indications about the burial in Scripture prove — not that this was the 
place, but that the jjlace was like this, and in this vicinity, and what I 
now desire to do is to show how the Eesiu'rection might have taken 
place, on the supposition that it took place there. 

In order to make the matter as plain as possible it is necessary to 
i-emind your readers of the peculiar construction of this ancient Jewish 
burial place, and to refer them to the plan which accomi)anies this i)aj)er. 
" In the place wliere He was crucilied there was a garden " (there is nothing 
about a "villa," which has been imported into the narrative without 
authority) ; " and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man 



-il4 



EXCURSUS ON THE ItESURRECTION. 



yet laid. There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews' prepara- 
tion day ; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand " (St. John xix, 41, 42). 

Thus the record runs, and supposing that the three crosses were set 
up near the side of the great north road, as seems not improbable, and 
in strict accordance with Roman custom, at a place near the cross roads 
called Golgotha (possibly Jis being on the traditional site of the tomb of 
Adam), the "garden " would be the excavated enclosure 10 or 15 yards 
from the crosses and about 20 yards from the roadside. In the western 
scarp of this recessed plot, which is about 30 yards square, the sepulchre 
was made. It consisted of a distyle portico leading to a vestibule about 
38 feet by 16 feet, in the southern end of which is a tank for the water 
required for lustration of the corpse, and below the level of the floor is 



tOFUt 






F F 




'References. 


A. 


The embalming chamber. E. 


B. 


The vestibule. F. 


C. 


The tank. (?■ 


D. 


The grooTe for the rolling stone at 




entrance. H- 



Probable place of stone of ucetion. 

The garden. 

The connected passage to back of 

the rolling stone. 
The stone bench. 

the peculiar arrangement for concealing the entrance which distinguishes 
this tomb from all others now extant at Jerusalem, as the only one in 
which the disc of stone closing the entrance, remains in place. The 
architrave above the portico is still to be seen ornamented with the 
same " ill-understood Roman Doric," as Ferguson calls it, which fixes the 
date of the tomb, as is allowed by all experts, to the time of Herod, 
but the pyramids, stelae, or cipi)i, mentioned by Josephus, are gone. 

Approximate figures of dimension only are given, because we 
learn from our Masonic friends that in all but one chamber the 
measure which appears to have been used was the Roman foot of 
116 inches. In one chamber the Jewish cubit of 25-2 inches seetns 
to have been adopted. The use of these measures is another proof 
of the date of the excavation, which it is generally supposed was 



EXCUKSUS OX THE RESUIIUECTIDX. 415 

used in suli^nnuMit j'eiir.s by IK-Ioiia, (^)iiceii of AduibL-uc. IVr^MiPrm 
iU'gues that Ilerod himself was buried here and iii)t at Ilerodium. if ho 
lie nnnt - on my hypolliosis — hav'e got the place from Jose.jli of 
Arimathea, the licli and honourable councillor, by whom it ha I been 
])rei)ared for his own use. The prophet Isaiah foretold tint the 
Messiah's grave would be nude " with the wicked and with the rii-li in 
liis death," ami certainly if our Lord was laid here Josej)h was rich 
enough and Jlerod wicked enough to fulfil the prophecy. At the time 
of the crucifixion the tomb had just been "hewu in s^tone," so thei-e 
would have been none of the additional chambers and loculi which we 
tiiid there now. The only chamber required at first was what I may 
call the embalming chamber, which in this tomb is about 1!) feet scpiare, 
and surrounded by a stone bench. There would probably have been 
also a stone of unction, or bier, on which the body lay, while the process 
of embalming was being ejected and the loculus dug. Convenience 
makes it ])robable that the body was not deposited on the floor of the 
chamber. Of course, the paving slab, which idtimately was to conceal 
tlie entrance, would not have been laid down till the whole process was 
finished. Tlius the women who sat " over against " the sepidchre could 
see into it, and there seems to have been no restriction to jirevent any 
friends entering the vestibule or even going inside the chamber where 
the body lay ; so whether the women were seated (the Jewish posture 
of mourning) on the opposite garden wall, as I thought at one time, or 
liad entered the vestibule for closer observation, and sat near the further 
or northern end of it, would make no difference to the fact that from 
outside the chamber they could see " how the body was laid." This we 
read they did l)efore they retired on the eve of the Sabbath. The method 
Iny which the enti'ance was closed has been often described, and I need 
not explain it, except to observe that the stone disc, the greater part 
of which is now remaining, is about 3 feet in diameter and 1 foot thick, 
and sufficiently heavy to justify the fears of the wo.aien that without 
lielp they could not move it away from the entrance where they had 
seen it rolled by Jose]jh's servants on the Friday evening. The concealed 
passage by which a man could get behind it to roll it with a lever across 
the entrance is itdicated by dotted lines in the plan. After a corp.se 
had been embalmed and the loculus dug it was sealed up, the entrance 
closed, and then the paving slabs forming the floor of the vestibule 
would have been laid over all, cemented in the reveal, and the entomb- 
ment was complete. The only other feature of this rcmarkal)le tondj 
Avhich needs niention is the means of access to the herb garden 
in which it was constructed. This was by a rock- cut staircase of 
twenty-five stejjs leading down from the level of the ground above to 
the archway, cut through a curtain of ro^k 7 feet thick, admitting to 
the garden. In my time tlic stairs and garden were encumbered with 
rubbish, which has now been cleared away, and portions of the ])illars 
■of the distyle and, as is conjectured, of the pyramids which Josephus 

2d 



416 EXCURSUS ON THE RESUKltECTIOX. 

meutions, have been found by the indefatigable Dr. Schick among the 
debris. 

Let me now sujipose that this was tlie new tomb of the Jewish 
Councillor who went to Pilate on that fateful afternoon and begged the 
body of Jesus, and try to realise the scene. The mysterious darkness 
had passed away. The westering sun is casting level beams across that 
wonderful landscajae, now comparatively tame and featureless, touching 
the gilded spikes along the roof of the great Temple, and reddening all 
the loftier buildings of the city with sunset glow, A few lingering 
women remain near the crosses, which the Centurion has just left, after 
handing over to Joseph legal possession of the body of Jesus. Joseph 
and Nicodemus, with four or five servants and slaves, j)roceed, as vapidly 
as possible, with their work of love. Not 10 yards from the cross — if, as 
I believe, it was a cross — is the recent excavation with its scarce finished 
tomb. Thither the whole party hurriedly go, lifting their precious burden 
down the steps, through that aiX'hway into the vestibule. At the cistern 
close to the entrance the lacerated frame is washed quickly and carefully, 
before being passed through tlie entrance and laid on the bier or slab 
near it, watched by the women, as the heavy jar of powdered spice is 
brought in by the slaves, and sufficient quantity used, by sprinkling it 
between the folds of the linen cloths and face napkin, to keep the body 
sweet and fragrant over the Sabbath. No doubt several servants were 
required to carry the spices, to fetch water for the lustration, and to 
perform the necessary services which neither Nicodemus nor Joseph 
could have peiformed, on such a da}', with their own hands. At least 
five or six persons must have been moving about, in the performance of 
these offices, within the chamber. But it is clear that whatever was 
done was onl}' jirovisional ; especially as the unguents required to be 
used with the powdered myrrh and aloes were not brought till Sunday 
morning, when the women came to complete the embalmment. 

It was now nearly six o'clock. The Sabl>ath was close at hand. Out 
they must all come at once, and one of the slaves must roll the heavy disc 
of stone across the entrance. In that dark subterraneous tomb, in the 
deep mystery of death, the body lay, till the yet deeper mystery of 
resurrection was accomplished, unseen by mortal eyes, in the first 
moments of the third day. 

It was Passover time in Jerusalem. The suburb — afterwards called 
the New Jerusalem — which covered a large part of the plateau north of 
the city, was crowded with many thousands of sojourners. Probably 
most of the housts there were small, and the naiTow lanes which led 
through the clustering tenements were dark and tortuous. The Galilean 
disciples would be lodged there. John and Peter would seem to have 
occupied a separate lodging. The mother of Jesus had gone, probably to 
Bethany, or to John's house, to recover from the shock she had sustained. 
Before the day dawned Mary of Magdala, with her friends, hastened to 
the sepulchre. If l/hey had not lodged in the suburb, tliey could not have 
done so, as the city gates were never opened till daybreak. They seem 



EXCUKSUS ON 'I'lIK IIJ'.SI KUKCTKjX, -117 

to have known nothing of what li;i<l li:i]i|i(!i<(| in (In- intefval. Even the 
"great eaith((u;ik('," wliich must have been limited to tlie immediate 
neighbourhood of the tomb, does not seem to liave been noticed. 

When they reached the entrance they see at once tliat it had lieen 
vit)hxted, and tly to tell the rest, bnt Mary qniekly returns, for we fin<l 
her again, alone, in the vestibule, gazing sadly into the dark ehai'dier. 
The entrance lieiiig below the level of the d( or, she had (o stoop down, 
perhaps to kneel, in order to look in. She sees, through her tear.s, two 
person.s, seated at the head and foot of the slab, where slie liad seen the 
body laid. In the early light, 20 feet or more below the level of tlie 
ground, it was too dark for hei' to see that they were angels. Supposing 
them servants of the owner, she replies to their que.stion : " Wliy 
Aveei)est thou ? " with her complaint that the body had been removed. 

Sufldenly she becomes aware that someone was standing in the 
portico behind her. She turns to speak to him, but his back being to 
the light, she does not recognise him ; and supposing him to be the 
caretaker, prefers to him the same conii)laint, ottering to take charge of 
the body, if he would tell her where it was. I need not point out how 
exactly all this agrees with the construction of the Kubur es-Saladeen, 
Mary of Magdala was a person of good means, and probabl\- feared, lest 
our Lord, who had died as a criminal, might be cast into the common 
pit in which criminals were usually buried. This she was most anxious 
to prevent. His voice pronouncing her name, undeceived her and con- 
vinced her that it was not the gardener, but the Master himself. 

Then follows the visit to the empty tomb made by John and Peter. 
How they missed the others on the way to or from the place, can only be 
explained by supposing there were narrow lanes through the gardens 
and suburb, as we see in many Oiiental cities. One party would go this 
way, and another that. The asseverations of so reputable a person as 
Mai-y seems to have stirred St. John and St. Peter out of their despon- 
dency. They ran — pi'obably it was only a very few minutes' run— to tlie 
place, eager to test the truth of Mary's story. J(jlin iirst, rushes to the 
open door, but hesitates to go in. Petei-, who never hesitated, enters, 
then John follows. What they saw is described by St. John without 
comment. His simple narrative leaves us to till in the details, and, as in 
so nuich recorded by the Evangelists, to draw the necessary inferences. 
In doing so the most scrupulous care is needed lest we over-run the 
record. When John reached the vestibule he sees the tomb is open, 
and, like Mary, he stoops down to look in, and sees the linen clothes, 
but not the napkin, till Peter enters and he follows. Then they both see 
what made John believe, not merely that the body was gone- that was 
obvious— but that it had been removed in some way that liad left the 
linen cloths undisturbed, and the face napkin folded uj) and laid ivside 
"in a place by itself.' In a very interesting attempt to throw .some 
light on the facts by Mr. Latham, the Master of Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge, the writer is hampered, if I may be permitted to .siy so, by 
an erroneous theory of the sort of tomb in which our I;ord lay. He 

2 P -2 



418 EXCURSUS ox THE KESUHRECTION. 

supposes the hudy laid in one of the arcosolia of a cave on a level with 
the grovuul, on which the sun is streaming in through a door 4 feet high, 
which would not have required a stooping posture to look intn it, but 
would have rf(|uired a stone of euomious diiueusion to close it. He 
thinks tlie napkin lay on a low step which had acte<l as a pillow for the 
head of the corpse, aud which, if it was like the representation of it in the 
illustration, would have dislocated the cervical vertebrte. On this raised 
step, where the head had lain, Mr. Latham supposes the napl i i lay in 
the form in which it had been bound round the head and face of Jesus. 
He bases this idea on the word 'evrervXiyiievov, which he interprets to 
mean " retaining the twisted form which had been given to it when 
it had been twined round the head of our Lord." One of the first Greek 
scholai's of that University of wdiich Mr. Latham is an ornament,' assures 
me that the word will not bear this meaning ; but simply means "folded" 
or "rolled up." Mr. Latham's object is to show that in the resurrection 
there was no touch of human hands, with which we entirely agree, but 
as angelic hands had rolled back the stone, so they doubtless removed the 
face napkin, rolled it up, and laid it " apart in a place by itself," which 
surely cannot mean that it w-as left in the same place and in the same 
form in which it had been before. And why the napkin should have 
been left, by Mr. Latham's theory, " standing up a little and retaining 
its rounded form," when the linen cloths were, as he says, " lying flat," 
he does not explain. Moreover, he supposes that the whole of the 
hundred pounds weight of powdered spice was enclosed in the cloths — 
a supposition both unnecessary and improbable, when we remember that 
the ointments were not brought till Sunday, and recollect, too, the purely 
])rovisio;;al nature of what was hastily done on Frida}' evening. Improli- 
abilities are not necessary to maintain Mr. Latham's position, that the 
appearance of the cloths was such as to suggest an evanescence 
of the body from out of them, rather than a disrobing or hasty casting 
them aside, which would have indicated removal of tlie body by human 
hands. We must stick as closely as we can to the record. The linen 
cloths w^ere lying "by themselves" (St. Luke xxiv, 12), probably on the 
slab fi"om which the Lord had risen. The napkin, for some reason not 
stated, was rolk^d up " apart in a place by itself," i:)robably this was the 
stone bench which runs round the chamber, that part of it near the door 
not being visible by St. John from outside. Gradually, very gradually, 
the stupendous fact dawned upon the minds of the Apostles as they went 
pondering and w^ondering home. The other visits to the tomb, so far as 
they throw any light upon it, are in accordance with my theor}', but I do 
not attempt the task of marshalling those visits in their order— a task 
which would be profitless in the ])resent state of our record. No doubt 
we are not in ptjssession of all the facts, and must wait for the solution 
of any difficulties in harmonising those we have. We have enough to 
indicate tlie quarter where the tomb may be looked for, and the kind 

' The Master of Corpus. 



NOTICES OF FOHEIGX- rUBLICATIOXS. 410 

of toiiil) it was ; and tlii'ie is l)ut little excuse for those travesties of the 
great event we often meet with in pictures and descriptions. 

NOTR. 

Among the indicia which I gave in a former paper for identifying the 
probable site of the sepulchre, was tiic hint, for it is no more, airnrdetl 
l)y the curious fact that the Jewish ritual rc([uired the buint sacrilice 
to be killed "on the side of the altar northward." Euaebius is blamed 
for not knowing that the type recpiired that the sacrifice should be 
without the camp, i.e., outside the city — but the indication of locality 
to which I have drawn attention has escaped all our topographei-s, 
except Sir Charles Wilson ; though there seems no reason why one type 
sliould be more topographically important than the other. Surely 
St. Paul applied the one that we might learn how to api)ly the other. 

F. G. 



NOTICES OF FOREIGN PUBLICATIONS. 

I'aldstiaischer Diican.^ — Dr. iJalnian, who was entrusted by Franz 
Delitzsch with the final revision of his Hebrew New Testament, has 
earned the esteem and gratitude of scholars b^'his " Grammatik des .Tudisih- 
Paliistinischen Aramaisch,'' " Die Worte Jesu," and other learned works. 
HfcX'e he enters a held where, in spite of all that has been written on 
Palestine, little of importance has hitherto been done. With a view to 
this undertaking he enjoyed the special tuition of Dr. Albert Sociu 
during the last winter of that scholar's life. The 15 months, from March, 
181)1), till June, 1900, he spent in the Orient, studying the various aspects 
of the people's life. The desire to lind illustrative mateiial in connection 
with the recently revived interpretation of the Song of Solomon, led 
him to make a collecti(m of Arabic folk songs. Their importance for his 
main purpose is oljvious. The life and thought of such peoples are faith- 
fully reflected in their jaroverbs, their tales, and especially tluir popular 
songs, passed on from mouth to mouth. A selection from his gathering 
is here laid before us, with only such notes as are needful to understand 
the songs and indicate the localities where they were found. A fuller 
treatment of these things is reserved for another publication. The book 
will be eagerly read by all who desire a thf)rough aci]>iaintan<-e with the 
life and thought of the Syrian peoples. Bible students will hnil welcome 
light ou many interesting problems. 

The wide field from which the materials are drawn lends this volume 
a peculiar value. From Jeru.salem to Alejjpo, from Nebo to Dama.scu3, 

' Paliistinisciicr Piwivn als Bell rag ziir Yolkskiuulo Poliistinn?. ccsanimelt 
luul mit Ubersetzung und ^lelodicn lu'rau.-i^egchcn voii Gu:>taf 11. Dalman. 
Lei23zig : J. C. Ilinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1901. 



■i20 NOTICES OF FOKEIGN PUBLICATIONS. 

from tlie sea-shore to the desert, Dr. Dalman found everywhere willing 
helpers. Ill tlie difficult work of interpretation skilful native assistance 
was happily furthc-oniing, so that his leuderings may be taken as fairly 
representing the popular sense. 

The Arab reckons " true song" (Shi'?- suhlh or shi'r mazhr'it) only such 
a.s conform to tlie 16 models of old Arab jioetry. All others he describes 
as "faulty" {inaijldut), or "corrupt" {JCisid). This condemns nearly all 
popular songs, and most of the contents of this collection. The people's 
poet allows himself great freedom in poetic foim, the number and 
measure of syllables, and iu manipulating the rhyme. Dr. Dalman gives 
a clear and careful account of the 18 forms of poetry exemplified in his 
collection, with notes as to the subjects for which they are suited, and the 
localities where they are used : e.g., No. 10, Hadi, is the battle march of 
the Bedawin ; it is also used at marriages by the peasants in North 
Palesti]ie. Tlie I'liythmic treatment of the songs would be possible only 
with a thorough linguistic commentary. It was not required by the main 
purpose of the work. The natives could give no help, being unused to 
.speak their songs, and knowing only the ihythm of the melodies. As to 
rhythm, the melodies go their own way, so complicating the problem. 
Its practical solution is to be desired ; it will set Old Testament metrics 
on firmer ground than is now occupied. 

An interesting account is given of Arab music, vocal and instrumental, 
with its peculiar characteristics. Striking features are the narrow 
compass and brevity of the melodies. One tune-phrase, repeated to every 
line, serves for a whole song, making for the Oriental a pleasing monotony 
of which he uev-er tires. Harmony is never attempted. None of 
Mr. Macalister's melodies {Quurterli/ Statement, April, 1900) appears 
among Dr. Dalman's, so there is evideuth' a wide field to be reaped, 

Pronunciation varies in diii'ereat district;?. Thus d; and ; are some- 
times spoken like CU and J and sometimes like tuj and ;. An exact 

phonetic ti-anscription would therefore be apt to mislead as to the 
underlying consonants, unless accomjianied b}' the text iu Arabic letters. 
Dr. Ddlman adopts, with two exceptions, a uniform svstem of equivalent 
signs with notes as to pronunciation in different localities. The mistaken 
dsch used for _ in so many German works is cori-ectly replaced by 

y = French/ "i is represented by Tc, g, and dsch. It is often spoken as 

a di-stinct Hamza, but to write ' would confuse J; with » and \. ^ is 

represented by k and tsch. It is well to remember, however, that even 
in a given locality the pronunciation is not always uniform. In 
Nazareth, e.g., • is ])ronounced both as fs\ and as ■.. On the east of 

the Jordan r^ is sometimes hardy as in Egy))t. J)<j would be a better 
efjuivalent for soft fji than ds:h ; the sch sound is certainly not usual. 
Tlie y pronunciation is indistinguishable from hai'd --. For ^, /•, and 

tsch are often used indifferently by the same sjjcaker, e.g., S. 206, in the 



NDTU'lvS OK FiilMCKiN IM UMCATloNS. UL 

same line (five from fout), \vc luive ikiittriiii//<c/( ;iii(l wajertiliii/.'. Tlie 
vocalisiitiou ivpreseiits as closely as possible the i»rnimiieiatioii of tliose to 
whose dictation the songs wt-re written. 

The songs are arranged in groui)3 according to the occasions when 
they are oftenest sung. A notable contribution is made to our know- 
led'-e. We can now hear the very woi'ds with which the motlu r sin'.,'rt 
her babe to sleep, or cheers the monotnny of domesiii- routine, in wlii.h 
joy is uttered at festive seasons, and grief in tin- hmir of sorrow and 
death ; the songs chanted by women at the well and reapers in the iicld ; 
that echo through the vineyards at the vintage, that entertain the guest 
in m-'dCif;/ or desert tent ; the songs of siiepherd, .sailor, camel-driver, 
and pilgrim ; the songs of tribesmen moving to liattle, and also those 
with which the drinkers spice their cart>use — for Moslem and Christian 
drinkers there are, despite contrary precept and sentiment. 

Patriotic songs, songs in jjraise of Nature, and travel songs there are 
none. Love songs serve for many occasions. The bulk of this collection 
deals with the exi)eriences and humours of lovers, i.i\, of young men and 
maidens ; very few directly concern the bride and bridegroom. .Songs 
which describe the physical charms of the loved one deserve consideration 
because of their alKnity with certain songs in tne Song of Solomon. 
These descriptive songs are sung at all times, not only at wedding:^, and 
can be referred to the bridal pair only when they are directly inilicated. 
The suggestion is that the Song of Solomon contains love songs, not 
weddinf songs. In this connection Dr. Dalman points out that the 
Autinnn, not the Spring, is the favourite marriage season in Palestine. 
The harvest produce provides tlie dowry for the bride, and leisure comes 
with the end of the threshing. 

It is a peculiaiity of Arab song to represent the beloved maiden as 
a male, and poets love to speak at times of " friends ' in the plural when 
only one "female friend" is meant. The Arab holds it seendy thus 
lightly to veil his love. This peculiarity the reader must bear in mind. 

For a work of sucli nicety and complexity this is singularly free 
from i)rinter's errors. In the song " Auf deni Wege zum Grab eines 
Briiutigams " (S. 2:5), line 4 of the Arabic has fallen out. 

It is to be hoped lliat the reception accorded to thi.s volume will be 
such as to encourage Dr. Dahnan in tlie prosecution of a task foi winch 
he is so admirably e(i nipped. 

(Etm- s CompUts de Fl. Josipka, traduites en Franvais sous la direction 
de Tii. ilEiNAcn— tome i, '' Anti(piit6.s Judaupu-s,^' liv. 1-5, traduction de 
J. Weill, Paris, 1901.— A notice of this important work will be given in 
a later Quarterly Statement. M. lieinach, whilst retaining the general 
revision of the woik, has entrusted the translation to several young 
scholars. Four volumes will be devoted to the " Anti^piities," two to the 
''Life" and " Wars," and one to " Against Apion," a general inde.x, and 
a critical studv of the life and w...k of Josephus. The fir.st volume, 

•1 1. ;'. 



422 NOTICES OF FOEEIGN PUBLICATIONS. 

translate 1 hy M. Weill, includes the first five books of the '"'Antiquities,'' 
and an introduction by M. Reinach. 

Rccueil d Archeologie Orientate, vol. iv, parts 17-21, bv ^I. Clkrmoxt- 
Ganneau, M.I., Paris, 1901. — Translations of two of the articles, "The 
Land of Promise Mapped in Mosaic at Madeba " and "The Cufic 
Inscrij^tion in the Basilica of Couslantine, &;c.," appeared in the last 
Statement. In other articles M. Ganneau deals with the sepulchral 
inscription of a prominent member of the lloiuan colony of Berytus. 
{lieiri'it), found at >siha, north-east of Zahle, in the Lebanon ; the old 
popular idea, mentioned by classical writers, that stags eat snakes ; a 
Phoenician stele from Amrtt, Marathus, on the Syrian coast north of 
Tripoli ; and makes several additions to Herr Bauer's list of articles of 
clothing worn bv the Arabs of Palestine. But the most iuterestinfj article 
is that on " Le droit des pauvres chez les Nabateens." The author shows. 
that before our era the Nabataeans had great quadrennial festivals ; certain 
laws for the benefit of the poor, which came into operation periodically, 
and wex-e not unlike those of the Sabbatic year of the Jews, were 
connected with these festivals ; the year 85 of the era of Bostra 
(March 22nd, 189, to March 21st, 190 a.d.) coincided with a Nabatseaii 
festival year ; this fixed date enables us to construct the Nabat;iean cycle, 
and this cycle corres])onds from end to end with that of the Olympiads. 
With less certainty it is stated that the Nabattean Acta Diisaria of the 
Roman epoch were quadrennial festivals under the patronage and name 
of Du.sares, the great national god of the Nabatoeans. These festivals 
apparently coincide with those of the Nabata?au cycle, and were, pei'haps, 
a continuation of them ; they characterised years Avhich may be called 
"Dusarian"' yeai's ; and these Lusarian years apparently coincided with 
the years of the Sebasmian festivals of Damascus and the Heracleaii 
festivals of T^'re, which are expressly qualified as Olympic. The article 
concludes with some very suggestive remarks and speculations on the 
origin of quadrennial festivals, whether Olympic or Nabatiean. 

Revue Bihliqu?, vol. x, pai-t 3, 1901. — Father Vincent describes a 
mosaic with a mutilated Greek inscription found at Beit SiirU; 2| hours 
noi-th-we.st of Jerusalem. The inscription, which was perfect when 
found, was broken up during a (juarrel l)etween the joint owners of the 
land before any one at Jerusalem was aware of its discovery. There is 
now oidy suflicient to show that there was Christian settlement at Beit 
Siirik in Bvzantine times. 

North of Jerusalem, at the foot of the hill on wiii.'h a colony of 
Bokhariot Jews is now settled, a large tomb was recently discovered. It 
contained three kinds of grave.s, the /W-, or " oven " grave, the trough 
grave covered by a horizontal slab, and the bench surmounted by the- 
arco.solium. The facade is decorated in that composite style in which 
ill-as.sorted elements of Greek architecture are grouped with conventional 
foliage and fruit. This interesting tomb has been partially destroyed, so 
that Father Vincent's plan and sections are of much value. 



NOTICES OF FOREICN puhlications. 423 

A Bi)zantine Mos lio at Jerus'dem,^ In Fiitlirr Vin'ckxt, of tlie 
Doniiiiirjui Convent of St. Steplien, Jerusalem.— On Marcli 30tli laj^t 
a member of tlie Jewish coIdhv,- settled north-weKt of the Damascus 
Gate, discovered a remarkable mosaic pavement whilst di;,'f,dng a 
trench in the courtyard of his house. Ismail Ellendi, el-Hus.seini, 
president of the moWref, wlieii informed of the discovery, at once 
took steps to preserve the mosaic, and reipiested the Dominiiaus of 
St. Stephen to examine and report upon it. As the mosaic was cleared, 
a copy of it was made under the direction of Father Lagrange. But at 
the end of the fii'st day all work was suspended pending the receipt of 
instructions from Constantinople, which had not arrived on Mav liOth. 
Soon afterwards the portion of the mosaic whicii had been exposed to 
view was covered with earth, and it has not since been accessible. 
Fortunately it was possible, from pliotograplis and drawings, to prepare 
a water-coloui' diavving on a sufficiently large scale to show everv detail. 
This copy, due to the collaboration of Fathers Delau, Savignac, and 
Vincent, has not been compared with the mosaic, and thus has not 
received the last touch. 

The mosaic is 235 yards W.N.W. of the Damascus Gate as the crow 
flies, almost at the bottom of the depression at the head of the Tyropfeon 
Valley. The excavation being incomjilete the full dimen.sions of the 
pavement could not be accurately determined. The length of the part 
exposed is 18 feet 8 inches, and the greatest width 10 feet 6 inches. The 
lattex", from the arrangement of the border and the presence of frag- 
ments of masonry, is apparently the actual width, but the length may 
be greater tlian is stated. From tlie fii'st tlie progress of the excavation 
was hampered by the two alleys that border tlie court, or by the necessity 
for leaving means of communication between two blocks of buildings. 
The room containing the mosaic was built south-west and north-east. 
The north wall, visible for its whole length, was altered at a recent 
period during the construction of a cistei'n ; the south wall was only 
seen at one point ; in the east wall, althougli it is in a \ery dilapidated 
condition, one could make out a narrow door, 1 font 1 1 inches, whicli it 
would be desirable to clear. 

In spite of the incompleteness of the investigation, it is possible to 
take a general view of the subject represented in the mosaic. At the first 
glance one notices two compartments which, although they form one 
picture, appear to have nothing in common in their nature anil design. 
The jirincipal scene of the first compartment, 6 feet 64 inches high 
and 4 feet wide, is set in a frame. Orpheus seated, full-face, and 
wearing tlie Phrygian cap, plays on an eleven-stringeil lyre which he 
holds in his hands. Below his feet the god Fan and a centaur, renting 
on the bottom of the frame, in very expressive postures, listen to tlie 

' By permission from the "Revue Biblique"; a photograph from thowuter- 
colour drawing was publi^lled in tlic last Qwir/er/j/ Sfafeiifiif. 

^ It consists of Jewish fa;iiilies from Baghda 1 an, I tlie Cau;.'asus, and is 
called £dte Nisiti Bey. 



424 NOTICES OF FOKEIGX rUBLlCATIOXS. 

melody. A Iimo is stjiiatted uiuler llie (nitstietLliod arm of Pan in a 
eomiciil attitude. Kound the mu.sieian various kinds of animals — a falcon, 
a bear, a pig, a serpent, a salamander, a jjartridge, a rat — artistically 
grouped in natural attitudes, are visibly charmed l\v the tones of the 
h're. A reproduction of the water-colour drawing would give a Letter 
idea of the charm of the thousand details and the happy eHeet of tlie 
picture. Fan squeezes under his aim his syrinx, Mhith lias become 
mute, and the centaur puts his hand to his mouth in a gesture of roguish 
naivete. The lat beneath the lyre raises itself as if it were trying to- 
hear better ; the paitridge turns its head coquettishly ; the salamander, 
held in by a stout red rope, was engaged in a fight Avith tlie snake whicli 
the charm of the music has interrupted abruptly. All the tints are 
bright. The carnations are rose-coloured, sliaded in bi'own, yellow, or 
led, and sjjaringly touched up with white lights or green points. The 
heads of hair are black, mixed with vellow and blue cubes wliich brine 
out the curls, and make them look wavy and ti'ansparent. Ori)heus 
weara a tunic of azure blue, with an embroidered border. A rose- 
coloured mantle, fastened over the right shoulder by a jirecious clasp, is 
tlu'own back over the left shoulder, and leavincr the right arm, wliich 
plays, free, falls in wide flexible folds, mai'ked by l)old red lines, over 
the knees of the musician. The feet are shod with black sandals. Tlie 
wood of the lyre is yellow, artistically shaded ; the keys are black, the 
strings red. The snake is yellow wath blue spots. The ]iig is (bil} 
green, outlined in black ; the muscles are white, the eve I'ed. The fur 
of the bear is yellow ochre and iron grey ; the muscles are e-trongly 
marked in dark red and ruddy brown, the claws are black. The coat of 
the salamander, those of the centaur and of Pan have the same tints 
without the red bands, and with flashes of bronze in addition. The 
pautliers skin which falls from the shoulder of tlie centaur is pale green 
with black spots. The pipes of Pan have tlie tints of wood and metal. 
The hare is ruddy bi'own, yellow, and white. The rat is nearly its 
natural colour. Lastly, the bii'ds have a brilliant yellow plumage, drab 
wings, and red feet ; tlie falcon wears round its neck a lacli necklace with 
gold locket ; two small crests adorn the head of the partridge. Green 
branches strewn on the white ground of the picture add to its freshness. 
A garland of lotus flowers,' strung on a yellow stiing, and elegantlv 
designed in four simple colours — blue, yellow, red, and white, on a dull 
ground — encloses the subject, and this is surrounded by a broad belt of 
complicated ornament. On a lich black ground large leaves, alteinately 
greeni.sh or red and orange, form a series of medallions in 'which, treated 
with much talent in a natural, life-like manner, liunian heads, domestic 
and wild animals, plants, and various objects^ stand out in many-tinted 
relief. At the four angles are heads which are piobably symliolical : 
the " river " head at the lower light-hand corner is I'emai'kable, but less 

' The number of flowers lias been doubled, inadvertently, in the water-colour. 

- The same motif has influenced Byzantine sculptovs, see the frieze of a 

bas-relief oit\\c fourth century at Salonica, in Bayet (" I'Art byzantir," p. 79). 



NOTICKS OF FOIIKION ITm.K'.VTIONS. 4'2o 

interesting than tliat of Mercury {'.), placed witli a cornuroifia in tlic 
<eutre of tlu' lower border, and, like all tlie otiierH, looking at OrplieiiH. 
Unfortunately, two of these heads wci-e only jiaitly seen. Amongst the 
animals in nine other medallions, all deserve attention, though Home 
are better than others : a wild horse at full gallop, whose Inilliant coat 
.•iind flowing mane throw it into relief, a 1)m11 running, a ram leaping, 
birds at rest — all appear to listen to the melodies of the divine artist. 
The inanimate objects are not wanting in originality and interest : a 
])umpkiu and a ripened bunch of pomegranates, and a Inusket overflowing 
with fruit (?). The warm, deep tones, and the well-sustained design of 
the bolder, give a strong relief to the central panel. The heads hive 
very brilliant complexions, and are of five or si.x colours— rose, red, 
green, blue, and browu. The colourisigof the fruit admits new elements. 
The (piadrujicds are yellow, red, green, and brown. The birds exhaust 
every shade of yellow, red, antl blue. Lastly, other borders, the classical 
twisted fringe, and scattered led and l)lack llowers on a wliite ground, 
complete the width as far as it was seen. It should be noted that the 
ornament of the outer border is not exactly the same on the two sides. 

Below Orpheus, but connected with him by the interlacement of tlie 
borders, is the second compai'tment of the mosaic. It consists of two 
sections, placed one above the other without nuich i-egard to symmetry 
in the disposition of the panels. There is first a rectangular panel, rather 
less than 2 feet 3 inches high, and 2 feet 2 inches wide, which contains 
two women, full length and full face, separated by a sort of column, or, 
perhaps, candlestick. Their names are written to the right and left of 
the head, as in the case of legends to miniatures on the reverse of 
Byzantine coins, or on other mosaics. The names are Greek, but defective 
in orthography and caligrapliy--0EU) AOCI A' a"*! PEtOPriA. 
The details of the costume and dress, up[iarently Byzantine, will lie 
e.xaniiued no doubt carefully bv specialists. The hair, treated like that 
of Orpheus, is sin)ply dressed and arranged in plaits which encii-cle the 
face. Theodosia weai's a white crown, some yellow touches set off the 
hair of Georgia. The complexion is a very delicate rose colour, edged 
with brown, hardly lighted up by occasional red and green cubes. Long 
clear yellow earrings fall beside the cheeks. The two women have 
biilliant ornaments in red, yellow-, and green enamel round their necks. 
(Georgia wears a brown, I'ed, and white mantle, fastened across tlie breast 
iind falling back over the shoulders below the knees. The open front 
•exposes a long robe ornamented with white and yellow embroidery on a 
Ijlack ground, and two bands, embididered with red and gieen flowers on 
a grey, mauve, and lilac tissue, fall like a stole from the girdle. The 
hands, crossed on the breast, support a green bird edged with black. The 
mantle of Theodosia is pale blue, furrowed by brown and red folds ; her 
robe is black, embroidered with clear yellow crosses,'- with a chestnut dot 

' Note the form of the y in Viwpyia — a new name, and the to in efoiSao-ia. 
- Tlirocgli an error iu drawing, the crossei are iniperfectlv represented ia 
the water-colour. 



42G :notices of foreign publications. 

as centre. The right hand, raised to the breast, holds a lotus flower, red, 
white, and black ; whilst the left, partly lowered, holds an undefined red 
and green object which is intermingled with the folds of the robe. Tlie 
shoes are red ' and yellow, edged with brown. The candlestick between 
the figures is black, very pale blue, and wliite ; the knot is blue and 
yellow ochre, and in the upper part there are red, yellow, and green 
ornaments. 

In spite of a certain stiffness of posture, and less elegance of design 
when compared with the Orpheus panel, one is sensible of an honest 
attempt to represent nature ; at least there is none of the coldness or 
rigid accuracy of compositions in which conventional types are used. 
Georgia and Theodosia have lived. The slightly emaciated oval face, and 
the pallid complexion of tlie former, her less ornately dressed hair, her 
bony, badly- shaped hands, and her less supple limbs, give her whole 
figure a certain appearance of age. In the latter, on the other hand, the 
fuller face, the warmer flesh tints, the more refined mouth, and the more 
delicate hands, give the impression of youth. One would take tliem to 
be mother and daughter. 

The heads have the nimbus, used in ancient art as an attribute of 
gods, emperors, and mythological persons, which was adojjted apparently 
not earlier than the fourth century- by Christian artists. In the follow- 
ing centuries, when its use began to be general, the signification of the 
nimbus underwent a change, and it sometimes became, especiall}- in the 
west, a simple ornamental device.' These facts must be taken into 
account when attempting to establish the character and date of the 
monument. According to Didron, " In the East the nimbus is emblematic 
of physical energy, as well as moral force, the civil or political power as 
well as religious authoritv.'"* Were Georgia and Theodosia two heroines, 
two saints, two members of the local aristocracy, possibly of the imperial 
family, two superiors of monasteries, or two deaconesses '? Each of these 
hypotheses has a certain possibility. 

To the right and left, in medallions 3 feet 3 inches long, and 1 foot 
10 inches wide, which have borders of varied design, two blocks of stone 
rise above the pavement. These stones, which are 1 foot 11 inches, and 
1 foot 10 inches, by 1 foot 1 inch at the base, are 7^ inches high, and 
diminish in size as they rise. They off'er a riddle wliich it would be 

' The fund amenta! tone is red, and, according to a remark on a sixth 
centm-y miniature by M. KondakofF (" llisfoire de I'Avfc byzantin," p. 126), red 
shoes forming " an integral part of tlie Imperial costume of Byzantium " at 
that period, " it was forbidden to wear shoes of tliat colour " : tliey were then 
adopted for the virgin, the angels, &c. 

- Didron, " Iconogr:ii)hie elircdenne," p. 75 ; Perafe " rArcheologie 
chretienne," p. 44; Kondakoff, " I'Arfc bjzantiii," p. GfJ. 

^ When in Byzantint; miniatui'es of a decadent period, the nimbus ornaments 
a pagan personage, it is a reminiscence or imitation of classical art (Kondakoff, 
op. clt., p. 77). 

■* Didron, nn. cIL, p. G7. 



NOTICES OF FOREIGN rUI'.LICATlOXS. 42? 

interesting to solve by raising one of them. In tlie side wall tlit-re i8 a 
blork a little larger than tlie stones, and in the same line. Il h.is a Kinall 
moulding, and its ol)ject is ohseiiro. As to the two stonrs, their sliajied 
tops, the plaster which still in jiart covers them, and their irregular form, 
seem to exclude the idea of a support for an altar, table, or arcade. One 
would preferably suppose them to 1)6 ossuaries, or funoraiy caskets. 
Tliere Mould then be two tombs ; the figures of the central medallion 
would be really portraits, and the lotus flower and bird miglit be 
regarded as emblems of tlie resurrection. 

Lower down a last compartment is divided into three medallions by 
a large circular liand in colours, shaded off like a rainbow, from deep 
blue to dark red. In the centre a lion runs from left to riglit, whilst on 
one side a leopard springs from right to left, and on the other a dancer, 
facing left witli balance pole in hand, and mantle flying in the wind, goes 
through his evolutions. The dancer is red and yellow, his shoes are 
black, and his mantle bright green, olive green, and yellow, with well- 
drawn folds. The lion is yellow, outlined in black and brown ; its mane 
is red and white, and the branches round him are green, yellow, and 
black. The leopard is pale green, outlined in black, with black and 
bright yellow spots. Beneath this compartment the border ends with a 
l)and of white against the debris of a wall. This is evidently the end of 
the room. 

The general appearance of the lower compartment is nmch more 
sober, and its colouring is much less vivid than that of the Orpheus panel. 
Otherwise there is in both pictures the same accuracy and elegance of 
form, the same firmness of drawing, the same taste and harmony in the 
selection of tints, and the same finish in the workmanship.' The stone 
of Palestine, with its rich tints, has supplied all the materials. In the 
whole mosaic there are only a few glass cubes in places where it was 
desirable to give the picture more transparency than could be obtained 
with stone. The fineness of the mosaic work favours the blending of the 
tints. The state of preservation is almost perfect, l)ut the pavement, 
either from a blow or from the yielding of the ground under pressure, 
has given way at two or three points. 

The principal subject of the mosaic is pagan and classical ; yet it 
would be difficult to avoid assigning a Christian origin to it. The 
frequent use of analogous subjects in the decoration of the Roman 
catacombs shows with what freedom the Christians of the first centuries 
utilised the ancient myths of which religious symbolism had changed the 
meaning ;* and of all the mytlis none was so transparent as that of 
Orpheus charming the animals with the melodious tones of his lyre. The 
fathers of the Church have frequently been inspired by that gracefid 

1 Tlicre ai-e, however, several instances of carelessness in this large subject : 
parts treated in an incomplete or disproportiouatc manner ; a (Icl.iil oinittod or 
improvable, — the rope of the salamander attached to nothing; Orpheus s.-h'mI 
vviLbout any visible trace of a seat, &c. 

2 Perati, "I'Arclieo'ogie chretienne," pp. 43, 53^. 



428 NOTICES ox FOREIGN PUBLICATIONS, 

nllegorv to celebrate the happy influence of Cliristian doL-tiine on 
huniaiiitv' ; and the painters of the cataconiba have told it many times 
in their frescoes."- The affinity of type between tlie frescoe of St. Callixtus 
and the mosaic of Jerusalem is very suggestive. If the presence of Pan 
and the centaur below tlie feet of the divine artist in the Jerusalem 
mosaic is not a part of the symbolism, it must be regarded as a survival 
of ancient art ; and this is not surprising when one remembers how, 
even as late as the fifth and sixth centuries, the best works of the great 
Italian artists in mosaic show the deep impression of tliese survivals.-' 

The complete absence of Christian emblems in the mosaic does not 
aifect its attribution to a comparatively late period. Perhaps it was 
expedient not to place very obvious religious symbols in a pavement that 
was to be trodden upon. Other pavements have been found at Jerusalem 
in a style quite as profane which could not be earlier than the fourth, 
and might be later than the seventh century.^ It is to that period, fifth to 
sixth century, that one would like to ascribe the mosaic— the character 
of the two figures, of the names Ijeside them, and of the ornament agrees 
with that idea. Byzantine culture was then more flourishing at 
Jerusalem than at any other time, and the town enjoyed the tranquil 
prosperity which the production of such a sumptuous work would imply. 
A comparison with works of that period shows points of contact. 
Classical training had given to the artists a style which is apparent in all 
their works from one end of the empire to the other. The mosaics 
especially form a perfectly harmonious group, for according to Kondakofi" 
{op. ci't., p. 24), "the mosaic arti.st neither invents new types nor new 
attitudes, nor new arrangement of draperies ; tlie forms which he adopts 
are, so to speak, immutable." The mosaic of Jerusalem has aflinities 
with those of Mount Sinai, Ravenna, Tyre, and Madaba, but it is Uiorc 
akin to the celebrated pavements of the Church of Kabr Hiram, near 
Tyre, and of the Church of the Virgin at Madaba. 

After all the new mosaic at Jerusalem is still not fully uncovered, and 

later researches may disclose unlocked for revelations of the date. It is 

to be hoped that they will indicate the nature of the building of which 

the floor was so well decorated. It was probably the burial place of a 

wealth}' man. 

C. W. W. 



' Some patristic remarks on this siihjccL will be found in Martigny, 
" Dictionnaire des antiqiiitSs chrefc.," p. 487. 

= Mar-icc'u, "Elements d'arcLoologie chret.," p. 2G9 ; '-0111110 des cata- 
«ombes," p. 152. 

3 Gerspach, " La mosaique," p. 4n f ; Perate, op. cif., p. 203 jf, rf. 
fig. 135.^; Kondakoff, "Hist, de I'Art byzantin," p. 103. 

•» See especially the Armenian mosaic on (he Mount of Olives in Clermont- 
Oanneau's " Archajol. Researches," vol. i, p. 329, and that to the north of the 
town (" Zeitschrift d. Deut. Pal. Yer.," xviii, plate 4). 



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