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Qxiebec 
Under Two Flags 



An edition of this ivork will' be published in French 
under the title : 

Quebec sous les Deux Drapeaux 



BY 



N. E. DIONNE, Litt. D., F.B..S.C. 

AND 

A. G. DOUGHTY, Litt. D. ( F.R.H.S. 
Orders should be addressed to The Quebec News Co. 



FIRST THOUSAND 



Q\iebec 
Under Two Flags 

A 

Brief history of the City 



From its foundation until the 
present time 



A^. O.^OUGHTY 

AND 

N. E. DIONNE 

Librarians of the Legislature 

Quebec 



With. Illustrations 

By the Rembrandt Portrait Studio, London 
and the Forbes Co. Boston 



QUEBEC 

THE QUEBEC NEWS COMPANY 

1903 




F 



7 



. Z 



Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the 
year JjJoS^ by A. G. Doughty and N. E. Dionne, at the 
Department of Agriculture* 



TO 
HIS EXCELLENCY 

THE EARL OF MINTO, G.C.M.G. 

GOVERNOR GENERAL 

AND TO 
HER EXCELLENCY 

THE COUNTESS OF MINTO 

THIS LITTLE WORK 
DEVOTED TO THE CITY FOUNDED BY 

THE FIRST GOVERNOR 
IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED 
BY PERMISSION 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 
Dedication to the Earl and Countess of Minto ----- viz 

Note ix 

Illustrations - --xi 

The Cradle of New France. i > 

A Quarter of a Century of Progress ----21 

Quebec after One Hundred Years -- 35 < 

PThe Last Years of the French Regime 49 

I The Siege of Quebec. 71* 

I The Fortifications of Quebec - - - 101 

LLe Chien d'Or - 147 

-Quebec under British Rule - 167 

Ecclesiastical Government. --.. 185 

Troublesome Times. 201 

After the Storm 211 

Modern Quebec ---- -- 227* 

Catholic Churches - 251 

The Church of England in Quebec, and the Protestant 

Churches. - 291 

Monuments of Quebec 347 

Hospitals and Institutions ---- 361 

Public Buildings and Places of Interest ------- 379 

Literature in Quebec- 411 

A JP P 1C >T D I X 

Documents re Chien d'Or i-xxiv 

' The New Park xxv 

The site of the Battle of the Plains xxvi 

VII 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

The Plains of Abraham xxvi 

The Cove Fields ..._ xxvm 

The St. George's Society. xxix 

Young Mens' Christian Association -.----- xxxi 

L' Auditorium de Quebec - xxxii 

The Fire Brigade xxxm 

Fire Ships xxxiv 

Brigadier Townshend xxxiv 

St. Patrick's Literary Institute -- xxxvi 

St. Andrew's Society ---- xxxix 

Literary and Historical Society --------- XL 

The Streets of Quebec XLI 

Index ------ ----- xl/v 



VIII 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

His Excellency, the Earl of Minto, Governor General of 

Canada, from a photograph - - - - To face Dedication. 
Quebec, from a photograph taken by Mr. Wurtele, from the 

centre tower of the parliament - - - To face chapter I. 

Samuel Champlain, from an old engraving - 8 

Church of Notre Dame des Victoires, from a photograph - 27 
Monseigneur de Laval, from a photograph of an old 

engraving ---------------- 39 

St. John Street, from a photograph taken before the removal 

of the old gate ---47 

The Basilica, in 1835, from an engraving by Sarony in the 

possession of \V. Molson Macpherson, Esq., Quebec. - 57 
General Wolfe, from the original painting in the National 

Gallery, London --- --..72 

The Marquis de Montcalm, from a photograph sent by the 

Marquis de Montcalm, Paris - - 84 

Quebec Volunteer Cavalry (coloured) raised by Capt. Bell, 

in 1812, from a lithograph in the possession of Major ' 

William Wood, Quebec. - - - - - - - - - - -101 

Abitation de Quebec, from an engraving in the works of 

Champlain published in 1613. - - - - - - - - -103 

The Citadel, from a photograph taken from the centre 

tower of the Parliament ------------ 141 

The Golden Dog, from a photograph by Mr. Wurtele. - - 147 . 
The Death of Montgomery, from the engraving in the 

British Museum - 174 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 
Prescott Gate, from a photograph 180 

Quebec Loyal Artificers, (coloured) from a lithograph in 

the possession of Major William Wood, Quebec - - - 184 
Bishop Mountain, from a photograph of a painting. - - - 197 
Laval University, from a photograph --------199 

Monument to Queen Victoria, from a photograph - - - - 207 

Sir Louis A. Jette, Lieutenant Governor of the Province of 

Quebec, from a photograph ---------- 227 

The City Hall, from a photograph 231 

The Hon. S. N. Parent, Mayor of Quebec, from a photograph. 235 

Kent Gate, from a photograph 246 

Her Excellency the Countess of Minto, with the Frontenac 

team, from a photograph 250 

The Ursuline Convent, from a photograph 264 

The English Cathedral, from a photograph 291 

The Monuments of Quebec, from a photograph - ... 346 
The General Hospital , from a photograph of an old engraving. 362 
The Hotel Dieu, from a photo of an old engraving - - - 364 
Parliament Buildings, from a photograph by W. Learmonth. 372 
The Chateau Frontenac from the Terrace, from a photograph. 398 
Souvenirs of the War, from a photograph of the Battery in 

the Grounds of H. M. Price, Esq., Montmorency - - 407 
The Hon. F. G. Marchand, late Prime Minister, from a 

photograph 422 

Plan of Quebec, specially engraved for this work - ... 



A Special Edition in 2 volumes, limited to 500 copies, 
with fifty photogravures and three coloured plates, is nozu 
ready. Price $6.00. Each copy is numbered and signed. 



NOTE 



The excellent photogravures in this edition, have been 
printed from plates prepared under the supervision of Mr. James 
Hyatt, of the Rembrandt Portrait studio, London. The coloured 
plates were made by the Forbes Company, of Boston, from 
lithographs in the possession of Major William Wood, of Quebec. 

Several scarce views have been copied from engravings in 
the possession of Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Molson Macpherson, of 
Quebec, to whom the authors are greatly indebted. The services 
of the gentlemen who have contributed to the pages of this 
work, have been duly acknowledged in the text. 

A. G. D. 

N. E. D. 



XI 



CHAPTER I 

16O8-1663 

THE CRADLE OF NEW FRANCE 

JACQUES CARTIER CHAMPLAIN PIONEERS OF 
NEW FRANCE FORT ST. LOUIS MONTMAGNY 
MADAME DE LA PELTRIE MADAME D'AIGUILLON 
LIFE IN THE FORT THE JESUITS THE 
SOVEREIGN COUNCIL THE DRAMA IN QUEBEC 

THERE is not another city on the continent of 
America that can surpass Quebec in the grandeur 
of its situation, in the natural beauty of its surround- 
ings, or in the glory of its past. In the history of the 
little city, the first pages of which were inscribed 
amidst much suffering and heroism at the foot of Cape 
Diamond, we find the foundation of the Canadian 
nationality. Centuries do not grow old in Quebec. 
Deeply graven upon the time worn rock is the record 
of those patriotic souls who toiled and suffered more 
than two hundred years ago. Bitter warfare has been 
waged, and many a momentous issue has been decided 
upon its heights, but each has been powerless to efface 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

the impress of Champlain. In most of the cities of the 
new world, the triumphant march of progress has been 
sufficient to obliterate every trace of their origin, but 
in the streets of Quebec, and in much of the life of 
to-day we may find the reflexion of all that has been. 

Quebec, however, is a progressive city, but the 
deep reverence of her people for the days that are no 
more, has taught them that the spirit of the age is not 
incompatible with the memory of those who have gone 
before. Within the compass of this small work we are 
unable to dwell upon the picturesque, and oft times 
tragic, details, which marked the progress and deve- 
lopment of New France, and we shall therefore rest 
content with broadly sketching its annals, giving pro- 
minence to those features which have given to Quebec 
its peculiar characteristics. 

The first European who beheld Quebec in its 
pristine grandeur was Jacques Cartier, the famous 
navigator, a native of St. Malo. It was on the i4th of 
September, 1535, that he entered a little river flowing 
into the St. Lawrence, to which he gave the name of 
St. Croix, a river now known to us as the St. Charles. 
Upon the slope of a hill rising from the shore of this 
winding stream, stood the village of Stadacona, presided 
over by its warrior-chief, Donnacona. At a short dis- 
tance, upon the heights, Cartier perceived other villages 
peopled by the Iroquois. These were the Ajoaste, 
Starnatam, Tailla ; and upon the border of the river 
stood the village of Stadin, with whose inhabitants he 
was afterwards to be on friendly terms. 



THE CRADLE OF NEW FRANCE 

After having visited Hochelaga, which is to-day 
known as Montreal, Cartier returned to Stadacone, 
where he resolved to spend the winter with his asso- 
ciates. In order to avoid a rupture with the Indians he 
adopted all the measures of defence that were possible. 
His ships found a shelter in the Lairet, a tributary of 
the St. Charles, on the left bank. At the confluence of 
the river he constructed a fort, mounted it with cannon, 
and encircled it with a palisade. These precautionary 
means had the effect of repressing the desire of the 
Indians to attack the French. From various indications, 
and from the conduct of the Indians in general, Cartier 
realized that any attempt to colonize the place at this 
time would be attended with extreme danger. He 
therefore resolved to return to France as soon as the 
navigation of the river was practicable. Before leaving 
the shores of this inhospitable country, which had 
robbed him of twenty-five of his companions, he desired 
to leave some evidence of his visit, which at the same 
time would establish for his sovereign the honour 
of the discovery of Canada. He accordingly set up the 
standard of the Cross at the place where he had spent 
the winter. By this sign future explorers would know 
that France had taken possession of the country, and 
had a valid title to it by the right of discovery. The 
means adopted by Cartier were in accordance with the 
provisions of international law, and disregard of this 
evidence would be considered as a cause for hostilities. 

It was on Thursday, the 3rd of May, 1536, that 
Jacques Cartier planted the symbol of the Christian 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

religion on the banks of the Lairet. The cross was 
thirty-five feet in height, and over the intersection of 
the arms was placed a shield, the field of which was 
charged with the lilies of France. And above the shield 
there was a scroll bearing this inscription : Frantiscus 
Primus Dei Gratia Francorum Rex Regnat. Three days 
later Cartier returned to France, taking with him the 
great chief, Donnacona, who was never more to behold 
his native land. 

In the year 1541, Cartier revisited Canada, and 
sought refuge at Charlesbourg Royal, (Cap Rouge) 
where the Marquis de Roberval had fortified himself 
with the intention of founding a colony. The emigrants 
he had brought over with him were, unfortunately, an 
ill-assorted class, taken from the prisons of France, 
from whom very little good could be expected. 

Jacques Cartier undertook a fourth voyage to 
America, for the purpose of rescuing the Marquis de 
Roberval, whose efforts to establish a settlement had 
proved fruitless. 

With the passing of Cartier and Roberval, there 
was an end to the misfortunes which France had to 
experience in her attempts to obtain a foot-hold in 
Canada ; and for a period of over half a century a deep 
silence fell over the whole region comprised between 
Stadacone and Hochelaga. Even the Indians them- 
selves had abandoned their villages, for when Samuel 
Champlain sighted Cape Diamond, sixty years later, 
he found naught but solitude and the ruins of the 
wooden fort constructed by Jacques-Cartier. 



THE CRADLE OF NEW FRANCE 

Samuel Champlain was born at Brouage, in Saint- 
onge, about the year 1567. Before he came to Canada 
he had explored the Gulf of Mexico, and obtained 
fame as a navigator. He had also knowledge of the 
isthmus of Panama, and in the narrative of his voyages 
he suggests the possibility of a canal that would connect 
the waters of the Gulf with the ocean. This project, 
after three hundred years, is still unrealised. 

It was in the year 1603 that Champlain first came 
to our shores as the lieutenant of Aymar de Chastes, 
viceroy of Canada, under Henry IV. After having 
studied the site of Tadoussac, which Chauvin de Tontuit 
had considered suitable for a permanent settlement, 
Champlain proceeded up the river, and cast anchor at 
the foot of Cape Diamond on the 22nd of June. 

The elevated position of this immense rock, 
fortified nature, and the river so easily accessible, even 
for the largest vessels, filled Champlain with admiration. 
It is Quebec ! the Indians told him ; that is, the place 
where the river is blocked, or, at least, where it is so 
narrow that in the distance it has the appearance of 
being completely closed. 

Five years later, as lieutenant of the viceroy, Cham- 
plain landed at Quebec, and on the 3rd of July, 1608, 
laid the foundation of the city, within a short distance 
of the Church of Notre Dame des Vidloires, in the 
lower town. 

Soon after this act a modest building arose, styled 
the Abitation de Quebec. This structure was enlarged 
by the addition of a storehouse for the merchandise of 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

France, and for the furs of Canada. In the meantime 
there were no settlers. Champlain, alone, was likely 
to remain, for his assistants and the sailors would 
return to their native land upon the first opportunity. 
This state of affairs was to last until some father of a 
family could be induced to cross the ocean to seek his 
fortune upon the banks of the St. Lawrence. In the 
course of time the first settlers arrived. These were 
Nicholas Pivert, Abraham Martin, Pierre Desportes, 
and their families, and a little later L,ouis Hebert, and 
.his family landed at Quebec. These were the pioneers 
of New France. 

Encouraged by Champlain, but often impeded by 
the mercantile companies which soon after appeared, 
they set about with zeal to found homes, and year by 
year they became more and more attached to the land 
of their adoption. Soon they had the pleasure of 
seeing their children given in marriage to men of good 
morals and to women of irreproachable character. The 
Recollects in 1615, and the Jesuits in 1625, blessed 
these marriages, the numerous offspring from which 
became proverbial. 

Champlain lived in the midst of this little colony, 
assisted the people in their labours ; urged them to 
cultivate the soil so as to derive subsistence therefrom ; 
protected them from the exactions of the merchants 
or their agents, and was regarded by all as a father 
and friend as the saviour of the country. 

Fearing the approach of a powerful enemy, Cham- 
plain fortified himself to the best of his ability upon 

6 



THE CRADLE OF NEW FRANCE 

the heights of Cape Diamond, but nevertheless, he was 
forced to capitulate to the brothers Kertk, in 1629. 
After four years, when Quebec was restored to the 
French, Champlain returned to the city and lived for 
two years in the midst of his people and the friendly 
Indians. 

From the heights of Fort St. Louis, which he now 
inhabited, he beheld with legitimate pride the develop- 
ment of the colony. Near the Fort could be seen the 
steeple of the Church of Notre Dame de la Recou- 
vrance, which bore testimony to the fact that the 
Governor had fulfilled his vow to build a church under 
that name, should Quebec be restored to the French. 
Along the Beauport shore picturesque hamlets were 
grouped around the seigneury of surgeon Robert 
Giffard, and on the borders of the L,airet, the Jesuits 
had commenced the construction of a modest building 
which was to serve as a residence for the community, 
and as a seminary for young Indian children. Agri- 
culture commenced to prosper under the exertions of 
Robert Giffard who had brought over a number of 
settlers from Perche and Normandy, to add to the 
population which remained in Quebec after the capitul- 
ation of 1629. The colony was entering upon an era 
of prosperity, so that Champlain, who had bravely 
struggled in the face of the disappointments and hard- 
ships attending a new settlement, felt that he was about 
to reap the reward of his anxious labours. Providence, 
however, willed it otherwise, for he was called to his 
rest on Christmas day, 1635. 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

At the time of the death of the first Governor of 
New France, Quebec was only a small village, consisting 
of a few houses on the Cape and in the vicinity of Cote 
St. Genevieve, with five or six unpretentious public 
buildings. The most important of these were the Parish 
Church and residence of the Jesuits, the Fort St. Louis, 
and the storehouse of the Hundred Associates. Eighty 
persons, including the religious orders, were the entire 
population of the city founded by Champlain. 

Although the colony was numerically weak, its 
future was not without promise, on account of the 
sterling qualities and industry of the inhabitants. To 
further the cause of education, the Jesuits opened a 
college where boys were instructed in arts, science 
and letters. In the course of time, as a result of the 
' ' Relations of the Jesuits ' ' becoming known in France, 
a serious effort was made to colonize Canada. The 
first fruit of the movement was the establishment of 
the Ursuline convent in Quebec in 1639, and the 
foundation of the Hospital under the direction of the 
Hospitalieres. These two institutions which have exer- 
cised a beneficent influence, were founded by the zeal of 
two noble women, Madame de la Peltrie, and Madame 
d'Aiguillon, whose names are forever consecrated in 
the pages of Canadian history. 

Until the year 1634 few settlers could be induced 
to leave France to try their fortune in the New World. 
The work of Robert Giffard in the direction of coloni- 
zation was, therefore, remarkable. The people of 
Perche, amongst whom he sought for settlers, were 

8 




Qutitc (Ja/uiak du My.rck GttuultL 



THE CRADLE OF NEW FRANCE 

devoted to the soil, and not given to seek adventure in 
foreign lands. Moreover, the prospect of crossing the 
ocean was not at that time inviting. However, he 
induced forty persons to leave their homes and strike 
out afresh in the New World, without knowing what 
would be the result of their enterprise. Emigrants 
continued to arrive from Perche, until within the space 
of thirty years one hundred and fifty families had 
settled upon the shores of New France. 

Normandy also contributed its share to the popu- 
lation of Quebec, and sent over many of its sons, 
amongst whom were the coureurs de bois, and the 
interpreters. The Bretons were less adventurous, 
although one of the hardy settlers, Guillaume Couil- 
lard, the father of a large family, was a native of 
St-Malo. With the exception of a few isolated cases 
of drunkenness and profanity, which were immediately 
punished, the first settlers of Quebec appear to have 
led exemplary lives under the watchful eyes of Cham- 
plain and the spiritual directors. According to the 
evidence of Father L,e Jeune, ' ' The Fort St. L/ouis 
appeared to be a well regulated Academy. ' ' Ljfe there 
was much the same as in a monastery. Bach person 
regularly approached the sacraments, joined in the 
common prayers, and during meals they listened to 
the reading of some edifying work. Champlain also 
established the custom, which is still continued, of 
ringing the Angelus three times a day. This mode of 
living had a salutary effect upon the whole population, 
and the good words spoken by the Jesuits of the people 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

at this time, do not appear to have been exaggerated. 
The immediate successors of Champlain endeavoured 
to continue the work of the founder of Quebec, and in 
a measure they were successful. The Company of a 
Hundred Associates, never very powerful on account 
of its slender resources and the frequent resignation of 
its most influential members, still sent colonists to 
Quebec from time to time. In the arrivals from 1635 
to 1641 we can trace nearly four hundred heads of 
families from Normandy, Perche and Poitou. These 
were men of rare courage and activity. They soon 
cleared the valley of the St. Lawrence, and laid the 
foundation of the parishes nearest to our cities. Quebec 
was the most favoured in this respect, since it was the 
most securely defended, and naturally regarded as the 
stronghold of the colony. 

Montmagny succeeded Champlain, and under his 
regime material progress was made. The Grande Alice 
and other streets, were laid out under his direction. 
He improved the defences of the town, erected a 
Chateau within the fort, repaired defective buildings, 
and provided against attacks from the Indians. 

The citizens also began to take pride in the 
appearance of their dwellings as the population in- 
creased, so that Quebec rapidly assumed the aspect of 
a thriving settlement. Great progress had been made 
since the foundation of Quebec forty years before. 
The presence of the soldiers in the Fort gave an air of 
importance to the place, and the Governor was always 
attended by a military escort. Father Lejeune refer- 

10 



THE CRADLE OF NEW FRANCE 

ring to Quebec at this time, says in effect : ' ' We have 
a number of good resolute soldiers. It is a pleasure to 
see them go through their military exercises in time of 
peace, and to hear the noise of the musketry and can- 
non called forth by occasions of joy while our immense 
forests and mountains answer these salutes with echoes 
like rolling thunders, which have neither thunder bolt 
nor lightning. The bugle awakens us every morning, 
we see the sentinels take their post, and the guard is 
always well armed, and each squad has its day of duty. 
In a word, Quebec is guarded in time of peace as a well 
regulated post in time of war. ' ' 

Governor Montmagny, who was a Knight of Malta, 
lived twelve years in Quebec. Under his administration 
the inhabitants, after repeated requests, obtained per- 
mission to trade in furs. This privilege had hitherto 
been reserved for the Company of a Hundred Associates, 
under letters patent. Montreal was founded during his 
regime ; a fort was built at Richelieu, and the Indians 
were appeased. The annalist of the Hotel Dieu thus 
describes the Governor: " He was very brave, very 
conciliatory, full of sympathy with the poor, zealous 
for religion, and fit to inspire the love of Christianity 
by the piety of his example. " Encouraged by Mont- 
magny, the inhabitants determined to build a church 
upon the site of the former edifice dedicated to Notre 
Dame de la Recouvrance. This church had been des- 
troyed by fire on the i4th of June, 1640, together with 
the residence of the Jesuits and Champlain's Chapel, 
where the remains of the founder were laid. In one 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

of the walls of the Chateau St. Louis, there had been 
inserted a stone bearing the arms of Malta. This 
historic stone is still preserved over the gateway of the 
courtyard of the Chateau Frontenac. 

D'Ailleboust replaced Montmagny as Governor. 
Under a new commission from the King he created a 
Council composed of the Governor, the ex-Governor, 
the Superior of the Jesuits, until such time as there 
should be a Bishop, and two residents of the colony, to 
be elected every three years. 

The first Council was composed of the Governor 
D'Ailleboust, Father Jerome L,alemant, and the Sieurs 
Chauvigny, Godefroy and Giffard. The Council was 
empowered to enact local laws, to regulate questions 
concerning commerce, to decide the advisability of 
peace or war between the Indians, and to arbitrate the 
differences between private individuals. 

One ordonnance passed by the Council, naming 
Jacques Boisdon, hotel keeper, to the exclusion of all 
others, is still of interest. It is dated the igth of 
September, 1648 : " The said Boisdon is to settle in 
the square in front of the Church so that all may go to 
this house to warm themselves. He is to keep no one 
in this house during High Mass, or during the sermon, 
catechism or vespers. ' ' 

In 1651, the administration of justice was confided 
to special officers, the chief of whom was named grand 
stntchal, and those under him were the lieutenant- 
gtneral, the lieutenant particulier, and the procureur 
fiscal. Jean de Lauzon, the eldest son of the Governor, 



THE CRADLE OF NEW FRANCE 

was the first grand sentchal of the country, Nicolas le 
Vieux, sieur de Hauteville, the first lieutenant-general, 
and Louis Theandre Chartier de Lotbiniere, the first 
procureur fiscal . 

Jean de L/auzon was chosen to succeed D' Ailleboust, 
in 1 65 r , at a period of danger to the colony. The Iroquois 
were in a restless state, and after the departure of 
Montmagny, they threatened to destroy the French 
habitations. Too old to place himself at the head of 
the troops, and too much involved in the affairs of the 
Hundred Associates, to whom he had become indis- 
pensable, de L/auzon was manifestly displeasing to the 
people, and in consequence he resigned his office, and 
returned to France before the completion of his second 
term. Pierre Voyer, Viscount d'Argenson, assumed 
the reins of the Government of New France after the 
departure of de Lauzon. 

His arrival in Quebec was the occasion of great 
public rejoicing. The Jesuits, especially, strove to 
make the reception a noteworthy event, by inviting the 
Governor to witness a drama, composed by one of the 
Fathers, and presented on the stage by the pupils of 
the College. This, however, is not the first record of 
a dramatic entertainment in the colony. On the 3ist 
of December, 1646, in the presence of the Governor 
and the Jesuit Fathers, Corneille's masterpiece, Le Cid, 
was successfully presented in a room belonging to the 
Company of the Hundred Associates, situated in Ste. 
Anne street, and a second representation of this piece 
was given on the i6th of April, 1652, 

13 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Between the years 1645 and 1670 many other plays 
were presented by amateurs. Thus, on the i4th of 
September, 1651, we find a notice of a performance of 
Corneille's great work, fieraclius, and in 1659 a drama 
was produced in the Chapel of the Jesuits in honour of 
the arrival of Monseigneur de Petree. On the 2ist of 
May, 1660, the pupils of the College performed a Latin 
piece composed by Father Pierson, representing the 
Passion. Under the regime of Frontenac, the Nicocfeme 
by Corneille, and the Mithridate, by Racine, were played 
in Quebec ; but when the question of the production of 
Tartufe was discussed in the days of Frontenac, Bishop 
St. Vallier manifested his opposition, and paid the sum 
of one hundred pistoles to the Governor who agreed 
that it should not be presented. The Intendant Jacques 
Raudot gave an elaborate representation of the Les 
Quatre Saisons, at the Palace, with a change of scene 
and costume for each act. 

At the time of d' Argenson's arrival in 1658, tragedy 
had attained a high standard in France under Corneille, 
and it is not surprising that representations of his works 
were received with enthusiasm in Quebec. 

The first performance before the new Governor was 
a Huron-Algonquin Drama, presented by the pupils 
of the College. 

This dramatic representation was particularly 
striking on account of the strangeness of the costumes, 
and the diversity of the language. The young Governor 
and his attendants expressed themselves as deeply 
interested in the performance. 



THE CRADLE OF NEW FRANCE 

Pierre de Voyer was named Governor of New 
France on the 25th of January, 1657, i n the place of 
Jean de Lauzon, who had intrusted the Government 
to his son, Charles de Lauzon-Charny. As the Gov- 
ernor was to have come to Canada during the year 
of his nomination, de Lauzon resigned the command 
to d'Ailleboust. D'Argenson did not land in Quebec 
until the nth of July, 1658, owing to the fact that 
during the previous 3^ear his vessel had run ashore on 
the coast of Ireland, on two occasions, and he -was 
compelled to return to France. The new Governor 
was only thirty-two years of age, "but nevertheless," 
wrote Aubert de la Chesnaye, ' ' The nobleness of his 
race, and the strictness of his conduct had won for him 
the confidence of M. de Lamoignon, the first President, 
and the influence of this high official secured for him 
the appointment." 

The young Governor w r as charitably disposed 
towards all those placed under his command, but very 
severe in his own course of living. He was however, 
the slave of etiquette, in common with men of his 
station at that time, and we find that he was soon at 
variance with the Bishop on the question of the use 
of incense in the church, and also concerning the 
excommunication of a heretic prisoner. He also 
manifested a desire to interfere in other matters of 
purely ecclesiastical jurisdiction. 

The Baron du Bois d'Avaugour succeeded d'Ar- 
genson, in August, 1661. He was brave, but obstinate, 
and soon became involved in a quarrel with the Bishop, 

15 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

particularly regarding the sale of intoxicants to the 
Indians. It was during his regime, in 1663, that those 
terrible earthquakes occurred in Canada, the description 
of which, after a lapse of two hundred and fifty years, 
cannot be read without a feeling of awe. 

These disturbances of the earth at that time were 
regarded as the direct chastisement of heaven, and 
many who had remained callous to the teachings of 
the missionaries now turned an attentive ear to their 
ministrations. 

D'Avaugour desired to extend the domination of 
the French in America. Thus he wrote : ' ' And finally 
to plant the fleur de lys there, I see nothing better 
than to fortify Quebec by erecting a fort on the right 
on the other side of the river, and another on the left, 
near the River St. Charles, and support them with 
three thousand men. Quebec thus fortified may be 
regarded as the foundation stone of ten provinces, 
which, if fortified in the same manner as Quebec might 
be regarded as the assurance of one hundred others. 
In a word, if the King thinks of these ten provinces he 
may become the master of America. ' ' 

The King paid no attention to the demands of 
D'Avaugour, and instead of sending three thousand 
men to New France, he sent a few families, and at the 
same time ordered the recall of the Governor. 

At the instigation of Mgr. de Laval, M. de Mesy 
was nominated as the successor to D'Avaugour. The 
Bishop looked forward with confidence to the regime 
of de Mesy, but he was destined to be sadly dis- 

16 



THE CRADLE OF NEW FRANCE 

appointed. As soon as the Governor was installed in 
office, he began to quarrel with the Bishop upon the 
question of the sale of intoxicating liquor. The mind 
of the Governor was unevenly balanced, and he sowed 
discord on every side. He would probably have 
wrought great mischief in the colony, had he remained 
in his position. Before his death in 1665, he acknow- 
ledged his errors, and became reconciled with the 
Bishop. 

The Company of a Hundred Associates had dis- 
appeared at the time of de Mesy's arrival, and by this 
fact New France fell under the direct authority of the 
King. This change, ardently desired by the people, 
produced excellent results. 

The Government was now vested in the Sovereign 
Council, through which the laws of France were 
established on Canadian soil. The King granted to 
the Council ample powers, constituting it a final court 
of appeal. Public expenditure, the control of the fur 
trade, and traffic in general were under its jurisdiction, 
as well as the administration of criminal law, generally, 
and municipal affairs. In the exercise of its authority, 
the Council named a corporation for the city of Quebec, 
whose business had been conducted until this date by 
trustees. The citizens elected a mayor and two alder- 
men, but the Council perceiving that the working of 
this body was too costly and too complicated for the 
needs of a community of five hundred people, abolished 
the municipal council after it had been in existence 
five weeks. 

2 17 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Monseigneur de Montmorency-Laval, Bishop of 
Petree in partibus, came to Quebec in 1659, in the 
quality of Vicar Apostolic. Since the foundation of 
the city, fifty years before, the Jesuits alone had 
ministered to the spiritual needs of the colony. They 
realised that this state of affairs could not continue, 
and therefore they earnestly desired the presence of a 
Bishop in their midst. Mgr. de Petree immediately 
began to organize the diocese. In 1663 he opened the 
grand Seminary for the education of his clergy, and 
five years later he founded the Petit Seminary as a 
preparatory school for ecclesiastics. 

Though the sphere of action was undoubtedly 
large, there were in reality not more than 2,500 
Christians in the whole of New France. There were, 
however, the Indians, to whom the Church had a 
mission. Continuing in their work, the Jesuits sought 
every opportunity to civilize and christianize these 
people. Not all these missionaries were destined to 
gain the crown of martyrdom, as the fathers Lalemant, 
Brebeuf, Jogues and Daniel had done, but they were 
qually zealous in the cause they had espoused. 

The College of the Jesuits situated in the upper 
town was supported by the generosity of the Marquis 
de Gamache, and provided a liberal education for the 
youth of the colony. 

In 1663 New France had become a Province, and 
Quebec was its principal town or city. And yet at that 
time there were only about twenty houses, and not 
more than five hundred inhabitants in Quebec. To 

18 



THE CRADLE OF NEW FRANCE 

this number the religious communities contributed one 
hundred and fifty The Seminary 12, the Jesuits 58, 
the Ursulines 47, and the Hotel Dieu 41. 

The Sovereign Council held its first Session on the 
1 8th of September, 1663. Its members were composed 
of the Bishop of Petree, the Governor Mesy, Gaudais- 
Dupont, a Commissioner sent by the King to take 
possession of New France, Rouer de Villeray , Juchereau 
de la Ferte", Ruette d'Auteuil, Le Gardeur de Tilly, 
d' Amours, Jean Bourdon, Procureur General, and Jean 
Baptiste Peuvret du Mesnu, clerk. 

Among the other important personages in Quebec 
at that time were surgeon Jean Madry, Claude Charron, 
d'Angoville, major of the garrison at Fort St. Louis, 
de Maze, de la Tesserie, Denys, Chattier de Lotbiniere, 
la Mere de 1' Incarnation and Madame de la Peltrie. 

Many families at that time bore names with 
which we are familiar in Quebec to day, for example : 
Couillard, Maheu, Fontaine, Lemieux, Roger, Lemelin, 
Levasseur, Dion, Lefebvre, Amiot, Hebert, Gaudin, 
Derome, Fillion, Lambert, Norman, Ratte. All these 
families we encounter as the history of Quebec pro- 
ceeds, but greatly increased in numbers and vitality. 



CHAPTER II 
1663-169O 

A QUARTER OF A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

TRACY TALON CARIGNAN REGIMENT FRONTENAC 
AND THE INTENDANT POPULATION OF QUEBEC 
CLERGY CONVENTS SIEGE OF QUEBEC BY 
PHIPS CHATEAU ST. LOUIS NOTABLE FAMILIES 
IN QUEBEC 

THE year 1665 opened auspiciously in Quebec. 
First, there was the arrival of four companies 
of the Carignan Regiment, comprising between twelve 
and thirteen hundred men. Then came the Governor 
de Courcelles, and the Intendant Talon, with eight 
companies of soldiers in their train, and, later, two 
hundred and twelve persons of title or fortune. In a 
single year the population of New France had doubled, 
and it was evident that the mother country was begin- 
ning to manifest a deeper interest in her possessions. 
The character and ability of the men in authority at 
this time were of a high standard. The Governor and 
the Intendant were each unusually gifted men, and 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

competent to administer the aff airs of the colony, while 
the Marquis de Tracy, who had been named Lieutenant 
General of the King in America, was an able adminis- 
trator, a brave soldier, and a scholar. The annalist of 
the Hotel Dieu, in describing the character of these 
three men, says : " They were of prepossessing 
appearance, of great intelligence and prudence, and 
were eminently fitted to convey a proper idea of royal 
power and majesty." It is not surprising, therefore, 
to find that under the guidance of these three men, 
the government of the country was established upon a 
sound basis, and that Quebec entered upon an era of 
prosperity. 

Talon undoubtedly contributed more than any 
other Intendant towards the progress of New France. 
He honestly endeavoured to promote the welfare of 
the people. He placed himself at the head of every 
movement in the direction of the public good ; caused 
the land to be cleared ; encouraged the cultivation of 
flax ; built a tannery and a brewery ; and endeavoured 
to maintain friendly relations with the West Indies. 
He was particularly zealous in promoting the cause of 
education, and nothing afforded him greater pleasure 
than to be present at the public examinations of the 
pupils of the Jesuits, and to take part in philosophical 
discussions. Talon served his country as Intendant for 
five years from 1665 to 1668, and from 1670 to 1672. 
At the time of his arrival in Quebec the population of 
the colony was 3215, and in 1672, it was almost twice 
that number. In the year 1670, nearly seven hundred 

22 



A QUARTER OF A CENTURY OF PROGRESS' 

births were registered, and the people were becoming 
more and more attached to their new homes. Great 
regret was shown when the Intendant left the shores 
of New France. " M. Talon is leaving ", wrote Mere 
Marie de 1' Incarnation, " and returns to France, to the 
sorrow and loss of all Canada, for since he has been 
here in his capacity of Intendant the country has 
prospered more than at any time since the French have 
inhabited it." 

Jacques Duchesneau was appointed to succeed 
Talon. His commission invested him with the title of 
President of the Sovereign Council, an office which had 
hitherto been filled by the Governor. I,ouis de Buade, 
Comte de Frontenac, a man of dominant spirit, was 
the Governor of New France at this time, and in the 
natural progress of events interminable disputes arose 
between the Governor and the Intendant touching 
questions of precedence, which disturbed the harmony 
of the government. For a long time there had been 
a difference of opinion between Frontenac and Mon- 
seigneur de Laval, regarding the sale of intoxicants to 
the Indians, and as Duchesneau supported the action 
of the Bishop, the relations between the Governor and 
the Intendant became even more strained. Frontenac 
seized every opportunity to show his resentment until, 
for the sake of preserving internal peace, the Govern- 
ment of France ordered the recall of both the Governor 
and the Intendant in the year 1682. This adl was most 
unfortunate for the colony, for at the time the Iroquois 
were assuming a war like attitude towards the inhab- 

23 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

itants, and no one was more able to suppress these 
savage tribes than Frontenac. 

Lefebvre de la Barre was named Governor of New 
France, and de Meulle succeeded Duchesneau as 
Intendant. The Governor was old, and utterly unfit 
to lead an army against such wily foes as the Iroquois. 
Nevertheless, he made hasty preparations and led his 
men to the attack, but neither he nor his troops won 
glory in the campaign. At the end of the year, de la 
Barre was replaced by the Marquis de Denonville, a 
man of great courage, His intentions towards the 
colony were good, but in carrying out the instructions 
of the King, he adopted a severe policy in dealing with 
the Indians. The horrible massacre of L,achine was 
one of the unforeseen consequences of Denonville 's 
administration. 

The residence of the Governor and his family 
was at the Chateau St. Louis, but apartments were set 
aside therein for the deliberations of the Sovereign 
Council. The affairs of the colony had now assumed 
sufficient importance to demand a separate building 
for the use of the Council. To facilitate the public 
service de Meulle proposed to purchase the old brewery 
erected by Talon, and convert it into a palace for the 
Intendant, with accommodation for the Sovereign 
Council. The situation of this building was advanta- 
geous. It was near the shores of the St. Charles and 
the St. Lawrence and only a short distance from the 
Upper Town, and there were suitable grounds ad joining 
for gardens which could be purchased from Talon. 

24 



A QUARTER OF A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

It is more than two hundred years ago since the 
brewery was converted into a palace. The palace in 
its turn has long since disappeared, and the building 
is again occupied as a brewery. About this time de 
Meulle returned to France and was replaced by Jean 
Bochard de Champigny. 

On the fifth of August, 1682, nearly all the L,ower 
Town was destroyed by fire. According to a chronicle 
of the day ' ' more riches were destroyed during that 
sad night, than the whole of Canada possessed eight 
years later." 

On the 1 5th of October, 1689, the boom of cannon 
and the fire of musketry announced the arrival of the 
Count de Frontenac, who for the second time had been 
appointed Governor of New France. At eight o'clock 
in the evening a torchlight procession was formed 
headed by members of the Sovereign Council and 
prominent citizens, to conduct the Governor to his 
residence. The city was illuminated and all the religious 
and civil corporations assembled to give an enthusiastic 
welcome to Frontenac. At this time the lower town 
had recovered from the disastrous effects of the fire ; 
the houses had been rebuilt, and a notable addition 
was the little church afterwards called Notre-Dame de 
la Victoire, which was now complete. 

Twelve months passed under Frontenac 's regime 
without the occurence of any noteworthy event. The 
Governor was still vigorous, his orders were obeyed, his 
word was respected, and he enjoyed the confidence of 
the people. 

25 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

But New France was not yet to enjoy the blessings 
of a lasting peace. Early in the month of October 
disquieting rumors reached Quebec. An Abenakis 
Indian arrived in the city with the intelligence that an 
English fleet had laid waste the habitations of Port- 
Royal in Acadia, and was now sailing towards the St. 
Lawrence to besiege Quebec. The intelligence was 
confirmed on the yth of October by Simon Soumande, 
sieur de Cananville. Days of despair and anxiety 
followed the reception of this news, but on the 1 6th of 
the month the suspense was relieved by the appearance 
of the British ships, under Admiral Phips off the Island 
of Orleans. 

Frontenac, bold, fearless as ever, preserved a war 
like attitude, and sent a defiant answer to the British 
officer who demanded his surrender. Phips commenced 
the siege in earnest, but Frontenac, with a show of 
strength which he did not really possess, was able to 
overawe the enemy, and soon he had the satisfaction 
of seeing the British ships retreat, leaving a few pieces 
of artillery upon the Beauport shore. In two weeks 
the city had regained its normal condition, and the 
voice of weeping gave place to a song of praise. The 
Te Deum was sung in the Cathedral, and an image of 
the Blessed Virgin was carried in procession to the 
four churches in the Upper Town. At night a fire was 
lit upon the heights of Quebec which could be seen 
from Charlesbourg and from Beauport, as a sign of 
public rejoicing. In commemoration of the victory 
over Phips, the little church in the Lower Town was 

26 



A QUARTER OF A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

dedicated to Notre-Dame de la Victoire, and the ladies 
fulfilled their vows by making a pilgrimage to its 
sanctuary. 

Wonderful progress had been made in the city 
since the death of Champlain. Martin, Couillard, 
Nicolet, Marsolet, Bourdon, Morin, were no more, but 
their families were still represented. The offspring of 
these hardy settlers could already count their grand- 
children. 

The population had also been increased by a steady 
tide of immigration, which commenced in the days of 
Talon. From the regiment of Carignan many officers 
and soldiers of worth had chosen New France as their 
home. Some of the officers were of noble families, and 
by forming alliances with the middle classes had given 
an elegance of manner to Quebec society, besides 
having had the effect of preserving the purity of the 
French language. Father Charlevoix during his visit 
to the capital of New France in 1720, wrote that the 
French spoken by the Canadians was remarkably pure 
and that no accent was noticeable. 

It is reasonable to suppose that similar conditions 
prevailed in Quebec during the second regime of Fron- 
tenac, since the leading families were still living in 
the days of Charlevoix, and there had been little 
immigration since the death of Frontenac, to counteract 
the tendency of the times. A glance at the parish 
registers shows that the number of births was sufficient 
to account for the increase in the population, and it 
is a fact worthy of note at this time, that one may 

27 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

turn over page after page, recording the entries for 
several months without finding the notice of a single 
burial. 

The population of Quebec at this time was 1,500, 
while that of the whole of the colony was about 10,000. 
The peculiar advantages offered by the country to 
those who were tempted to seek adventure or fortune, 
probably accounted for the small number who settled 
down to a quiet life in Quebec. Under the vigorous 
policy of Talon, commerce had received an impetus 
which was steadily developed by his successors. Regular 
intercourse had been established between New France 
and the West Indies, Madeira, and several countries of 
America. An association of Fur Traders had been 
formed by Quebec merchants, the most prominent of 
whom were Pachot, Hazeur and Macart. Cod fishing 
was another industry which proved remunerative, and 
the fisheries of the St. Lawrence yielded a substantial 
revenue. One of the most wealthy merchants was 
d' Amours, who owned large fisheries at Matane. The 
land, too, was well adapted for agricultural purposes, 
and the forests abounded in valuable timber. Canada, 
with its numerous and varied resources, was beginning 
to be known as a land worthy of possession, and already 
England was looking towards it with covetous eyes. 
The British had endeavoured to capture the prize in 
1690, and again in 1711, when Walker's powerful fleet 
was destroyed before it entered the channel, but the 
time for separation from France had not yet come. 

Quebec was the seat of Government for the 

28 



A QUARTER OF A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

colony, and also the residence of the Governor, the 
Intendant and the officers of state, of the members of 
the Sovereign Council, and the petty officers of the 
courts. The two other courts in Quebec were the 
Court of Prevote and the Admiralty Court. The 
professions were well represented by Doctors, Notaries 
and Architects. 

The Sovereign Council which was charged with 
the administration of the affairs of the colony, was 
composed of the Governor, the Bishop, the Intendant 
and several councillors, all residing in Quebec. The 
dean, or first councillor, in 1690, was Louis Rouer de 
Villeray, a man highly regarded, especially by the 
Bishop, to whom he was devoted. " He was one of 
those," wrote Frontenac, " who without wearing the 
garb of the Jesuits, had nevertheless taken their vows. ' ' 
Among the other councillors of note we find the name 
of Nicolas Dupont, sieur de Neuville and Mathieu 
d' Amours, sieur de Chauffeurs, the father of a large 
family all of whom married well. 

It is interesting to note that of the five councillors 
present at the first meeting of the Sovereign Council 
held in the 3 7 ear 1663, four were still members in the 
year 1690, namely Villeray, d' Amours and Ruette 
d'Auteuil. The fourth member was le Gardeur de 
Tilly, the father of the illustrious family bearing the 
titles of Repentigny, de Beauvais, de 1'Isle, and de 
Courtemanche. Charles Denis de Vitre, a fifth coun- 
cillor, was one of the children of Simon Denis, sieur 

29 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

de la Trinite. Paul Denis, sieur de Saint-Simon, 
was provost Marshal, an office which had been estab- 
lished in 1667. The court presided over by Denis was 
under the jurisdiction of the Marshal of France, and 
was really a military court. The rank of " Prevost " 
was equal to that of sheriff in the present day. 

The notable families in Quebec at this time in- 
cluded Ruette d' Auteuil, solicitor general to the King ; 
Claude de Bermen, judge and civil lieutenant ; Charles 
de Monseignat, secretary to Frontenac, to whom we 
are indebted for a detailed account of the military 
operations of 1690 ; Pierre Becart, sieur de Grand ville, 
who was taken prisoner by the English whilst engaging 
the fleet under Phips, George Regnard du Plessis, 
Treasurer of the Marine ; Paul Dupuis, seigneur of 
Goose Island, and King's procureur for the Prevote : 
Michel L,e Neuf , sieur de la Valliere et de Beaubassin ; 
Jean-Baptiste Couillard de 1'Espinay, lieutenant of 
the Admiralty ; Charles- Gaspard Piot de 1' Angloiserie, 
King's lieutenant and chevalier de St. Louis ; Rene 
Chartier de Lotbiniere, lieutenant of the Prevote ; 
Francois Prevost, major and commanding officer of 
the Chateau St. Louis ; Gervais Beaudoin, physician 
of the Ursulines ; Timothe Roussel, physician of the 
Hotel-Dieu, etc., etc. The merchant class was re- 
presented by Charles Perthuis, Charles Aubert de la 
Chesnaye, Francois Hazeur, Denis Riverin, Francois 
Viennay-Pachot, Guillaume Bouthier, Jean Sebille, 
Nicolas Volant, Jean Gobin, Pierre Tetu du Tilly, 
Raymond du Bosc, Simon Soumande, Charles Macart 

30 



A QUERTER OF A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

and Denis Roberge. The parish registers of 1690 
contain many important entries. On the 2ist of 
November the marriage is recorded of Philippe Rigaud 
de Vaudreuil to L,ouise Elizabeth de Joybert, daughter 
of Pierre de Joybert, sieur de Marsan. Mademoiselle 
de Joybert was born in Fort Gemsek, on the River 
St. John, New Brunswick, where her father was in 
command. After her removal to Quebec she entered 
the Ursuline Convent as a pupil, at the same time as 
Mile de Brisay, the daughter of the Marquis Denonville. 
The Marquise de Vaudreuil was a lady of remarkable 
beauty, and greatly beloved by the people of Quebec 
for her many acts of kindness. In later years she had 
the honor of instructing the grand children of the King 
of France. Mile de Brisay de Denonville, also a pupil 
of the Ursulines, became a Carmelite nun after the 
return of her family to France. 

The clergy of Quebec were composed of religious 
and secular priests. Of the sixty who remained in 
Quebec, only two were Canadians. The priests attached 
to the Seminary exercised, for the most part, the duties 
of cures in the country. 

The College of the Jesuits had been established for 
over half a century. The faculty was composed of 
fifteen members, and a course of study was prescribed 
which gave prominence to mathematics and physical 
science. The young Canadian, therefore, received a 
practical education which specially qualified him for 
the duties of his station. 

The second body of teachers was the Recollet 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Fathers, who resided at the convent of Notre Dame 
des Anges, upon the shores of the St. Charles. 

In the Ursuline Convent many changes had taken 
place. None of the first members were living in 1690. 
The Community was composed at this time of twenty- 
four professed nuns and six novices, all of w r hom were 
of the best families. 

In the Hotel Dieu, one of the nuns who had seen 
the foundation of the Hospital, in 1639, was still 
living. Her name was Mere Marie Forestier de St. 
Bonaventure, and at this time she had been a nun for 
sixty-six years. Her death occurred eight years later. 
There w r ere twetny- three professed nuns and one novice 
in the H6tel Dieu in 1690. 

The little Hospital of the Poor, in charge of the 
Sisters of the Congregation, was situated in the Upper 
Town. Its affairs were managed by a committee of 
laymen. The General Hospital founded in 1693 by 
Monseigneur de Saint Vallier, continued the work of 
the Sisters of the Congregation. 

At the time of the arrival of Frontenac the Chateau 
St. Louis and the walls of the fort were in a ruinous 
condition. In 1693 the Governor rebuilt the fort, and 
constructed a redoubt, which he named Cape Diamond 
Redoubt. In 1694 the Chateau was demolished and a 
new building with a second story was erected upon the 
old foundations, with the addition of a wing. The 
large wing which is shown upon some of the plans 
was not constructed until 1723. From this date until 
the cession of the country to England, only slight 

32 



A QUARTER OF A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

repairs were made to the Chateau, but much money 
had been expended upon the walls, as will be seen in 
the chapter devoted to the fortifications. 

The first Fort St. Louis was constructed by Cham- 
plain in 1620, and inhabited by him from 1628 to 1629, 
and from 1633 to 1635. The first Chateau St. Louis 
was built by Montmagny and afterwards inhabited 
by the Governors D'Ailleboust, Lauzon, D'Argenson, 
D'Avaugour, de Mesy, de Courcelles, Frontenac, de la 
Barre, Denonville, and was demolished by Frontenac 
during his second term of office. The second Chateau 
was inhabited by Frontenac, Callieres, Vaudreuil, 
Beauharnois, la Galissonniere, Jonquiere, Duquesne, 
and Vaudreuil-Cavagnal. 

The first Marquis de Vaudreuil, Callieres, Fron- 
tenac, and Jonquiere died in the Chateau, and were 
buried in the Recollet Church. 

After the fire in 1796 the remains of the former 
Governors were translated to the Cathedral. The 
remains of Governor de Me"sy, who also died in the 
Chateau were deposited in the cemetery of the poor, 
belonging to the Hotel-Dieu, in accordance with the 
wish expressed by him shortly before he died. 



33 



CHAPTER III 

1690-1725 

QUEBEC AFTER ONE HUNDRED YEARS 

VAUDREUIL WRECK OF BRITISH FLEET BISHOP 
LAVAL AND HIS SUCCESSOR THE SEMINARY OF 
QUEBEC THE RECOLLETS AND THE JESUITS 
DESCRIPTIONS OF QUEBEC CHARLEVOIX KALM 
POPULATION OF QUEBEC ITS STREETS AND 
INHABITANTS 

FRONTENAC lived eight years after the siege of 
Quebec by Phips. His two most formidable 
adversaries, the English and the Iroquois, continued 
hostilities, although repulsed on every side. During 
these years the French, who were ever on the alert, 
had frequent opportunities to display their valour. 
L,e Moine de Bienville, Vuault de Varennes, fought 
bravely and checked the progress of the invaders. 
The expeditions of the sieurs de Mantet, de Courte- 
manche and de la Noue against the Agniers inspired 
the English with a salutary dread. But when Frontenac 

35 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

died he had not wholly succeeded in taming the 
ferocious Iroquois. 

Hector de Callieres, Frontenac's successor, was at 
the head of affairs for only four years from 1699 to 
1703, and there is nothing of particular interest to 
record. The historian Ferland says that he left behind 
him the reputation of having been an excellent general, 
an honest man and a true friend of the country in which 
he had spent the greater portion of his life. 

In 1705 the Marquis Philippe de Vaudreuil assumed 
the Government of the country in the presence of three 
Intendants : Beauharnois, who was leaving office, 
and the joint Intendants, Jacques Raudot, and his son 
Antoine, who were entering upon their duties. It was 
during Vaudreuil' s administration, in the year 1711, 
that the fleet under Admiral Walker was wrecked off 
Egg Island, on its way to besiege Quebec. This terrible 
disaster, so unfortunate for the enemy, had the effect of 
arousing the inhabitants to consider their unprotected 
position. During the following year a subscription 
of fifty thousand ecus was raised by the people to 
surround the town with a wall. The inhabitants had 
suggested a similar course some time before, but M. de 
Beaucourt pretended that it would be far better for the 
citizens to sharpen their swords. 

Like all his predecessors, Vaudreuil had constantly 
to make provisions to withstand the assaults of the 
Indians. In this difficult task he displayed much zeal. 
He was a man of valour and was respected by the 
Indians, and his irreproachable conduct and untiring 

36 



QUEBEC AFTER ONE HUNDRED YEARS 

energy made his name dear to the Canadians. There 
were few events of an unfortunate nature during his 
adminisiration. Vaudreuil died in the Chateau St. 
Louis on the loth of October, 1725. 

The death of Monseigneur de Laval in 1706, 
deprived New France of one of her most illustrious 
figures. For many years the noble and saintly prelate 
had been unable to fulfill the active duties of his office 
which he had resigned to Monseigneur de Saint Vallier, 
but he had never ceased to take a deep interest in the 
spiritual welfare of the colony, so that his life was a 
useful one until its close. We have seen that, shortly 
after his arrival in Quebec, Monseigneur de Laval had 
undertaken the construction of two seminaries, but it 
was not until 1 698 that the stone building was complete 
which served as a residence for the ecclesiastics and the 
pupils under their charge. On the 6th of October, 
1688, the doors of the Little Seminary were thrown 
open to the youth of the colony. There were sixty 
pupils admitted during the first year. The boys of the 
Seminary wore a costume similar to that worn to-day, 
namely, a blue coat with a sash. The pupils who were 
destined for the priest-hood, served in the choir of the 
Cathedral. They wore under their surplice a red cas- 
sock, with a camail of the same material. On the 25th 
of November, 1701, the Little Seminary, which had 
cost the Bishop so much labour, was destroyed by fire. 
It was rebuilt without delay, but within the space of 
four years it was again consumed by the flames. This 
time, however, the citizens came to the assistance of 

37 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

the Bishop, and at the time of his death he had the 
consolation of seeing the completion of a new building 
which was to last for many years. 

It would require many chapters to recount all the 
good deeds of Monseigneur de Laval, or to give a just 
estimate of his noble work. When he first undertook 
the direction of the spiritual affairs of the colony, the 
Church in Canada was in its infancy and without any 
form of organization. It was an exceedingly difficult 
task, but he brought to the work he had undertaken 
both energy and ability. It required a firm hand to 
establish authority in a new country where discipline 
was unknown, and where extraordinary powers were 
perforce given to individuals that would not even have 
been suggested under more settled conditions. In the 
pursuance of his policy Mgr. de Laval naturally came 
into conflict with various elements of opposition, and 
in consequence, even to this day, there are those who 
have not hesitated to censure the line of action which 
the Bishop followed. However, the impartial historian, 
with the light which is now thrown upon the history 
of the times, a light which has compelled even the most 
conservative to revise their judgment both of men and 
of events, must admit that Mgr. de Laval was the one 
man who could successfully establish the Church in 
Canada, and the perfection of the organization which 
he left at his death, is sufficient justification of his 
numerous acts. 

The Recollets resumed their labors in 1670 and 
took up their abode in their former convent of Notre 

38 



QUEBEC AFTER ONE HUNDRED YEARS 

Dame des Anges, which had been entirely rebuilt. The 
Jesuits College was still the great centre of education 
and many priests and laymen of distinction had been 
trained within its walls. When the Abbe" de Saint Vallier 
came to Quebec in 1686 he found the organization of 
the various institutions highly satisfactory, and he said 
that if he could continue the good work carried on by 
the Bishop he would deem himself happy. 

Monseigneur de Saint Vallier presided over the 
building of the church in the Lower Town in 1688, 
and founded the General Hospital at his own cost. 
The Bishop's Palace at the top of Mountain Hill was 
built during his residence in Quebec. Several of the 
mandements which he composed are read in our churches 
even to this day. Four synods were held during his 
term of office. The first in Quebec, on the gth of 
November, 1690 ; the second at Montreal, on the loth 
and nth of March, 1694 ; the third in Quebec, on the 
27th of February, 1698 ; and the fourth in Quebec, on 
the 8th of October, 1 700. 

Mgr. de Saint- Vallier was an able administrator, 
and his episcopacy exceeded in duration the terms 
of any of his successors. He died at the General 
Hospital on the evening of the 25th of December, 
1728, surrounded by his beloved nuns, to whom he 
left this recommendation, worthy of his noble heart : 
" My daughters, forget me after my death, but do not 
forget my poor. ' ' The last wish of the dying prelate 
was only half fulfilled, because the Hospitaliers could 
not forget their generous founder. As to the poor, it 

39 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

is the mission of their lives to care for them, and the 
entire population of Quebec ever since the days of the 
good Bishop have always been willing to bear witness 
to their devotion to the cause they have espoused. 

On his first arrival at Quebec, in 1672, the Count 
de Frontenac wrote to the Minister in France : 

' ' Nothing seemed so beautiful and magnificent to 
me as the site of the town of Quebec, which could not 
be better placed even were it some day to become the 
capital of a great empire. But it seems to me that 
hitherto a great error has been committed in allowing 
the houses to be built according to the whim of indivi- 
duals and without any order, because in establishments 
such as this which may some day become very con- 
siderable, one should, it seems to me, think not only of 
the present condition in which one lives but also of 
that which may come." 

Frontenac therefore insisted that the streets should 
follow regular lines, especially in the Upper Town 
where the lack of symmetry was most noticeable. 
He gave his own name to Buade street, and when 
Charlevoix came to Quebec fifty years later, he found 
the streets following regular lines, and the names 
which they then bore have been scrupulously handed 
down to our own times. Charlevoix was not less 
impressed than Frontenac by the magnificent situation 
of Quebec. He wrote : 

"I am going to say something about Quebec. 
All the descriptions that I have read are so imperfect, 
that I am sure you will be pleased to receive a true 
picture of the Capital of New France. It deserves to 
be better known, if only for the singularity of its 

40 



QUEBEC AFTER ONE HUNDRED YEARS 

situation. It is the only town in the world that can 
boast of a harbour in fresh water at one hundred and 
twenty leagues from the sea, and capable of containing 
one hundred ships, and it is situated near the most 
navigable river in the world." 

Peter Kalm, in his "Travels," gives this inter- 
esting description of the city : 

' ' The shores of the river become more sloping as 
' ' you come nearer to Quebec. To the northward 
" appears a high ridge of mountains. About two 
" French miles and a half from Quebec the river 
"becomes very narrow, the shores being within the 
' ' reach of a musket shot from each other. The country 
" on both sides was sloping, hilly, covered with trees, 
' ' and had many small rocks ; the shore was stony. 
" About 4 o'clock in the afternoon we happily arrived 
" at Quebec. The city does not appear till one is 
" close to it, the prospect being intercepted by a high 
" mountain on the south side. However, part of 
"the fortifications appear at a good distance, being 
" situated on the same mountain. As soon as the 
" soldiers who were with us saw Quebec, they called 
' ' out, that all those who had not been there before 
" should be ducked, if they did not pay something to 
1 ' release themselves. This custom even the Governor 
" General of Canada is obliged to submit to, on his 
"first journey to Montreal. We did not care when 
' ' we came in sight of this town to be exempted from 
" this old custom, which is very advantageous to the 
" rowers as it enables them to spend a very merry 
' ' evening on their arrival at Quebec, after their trou- 
' ' blesome labour. 

' ' Quebec, the chief city of Canada, lies on the 
"western shore of the St. Lawrence, close to the 
" water's edge, on a neck of land, bounded by that 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

" river on the east side, and by the St. Charles on the 
"north side; the mountain, on which the town is 
" built, rises still higher on the south side, and behind 

' ' it begin great pastures The upper city lies 

" above the other, on a high hill, and takes up five or 
' ' six times the space of the lower though it is not 
" quite so populous. The mountain, on which the 
"upper city is situated, reaches above the houses of 
' ' the lower city. Notwithstanding the latter are three 
" or four stories high, and the view, from the palace, 
" of the lower city, (part of which is immediately 
" under it) is enough to cause a swimming of the 
"head." 

Charlevoix was a keen observer, and as he lived 
among the people for many years, his opinion deserves 
weight. We therefore quote another passage from one 
of his letters. 

" But we find here a little chosen World, which 
' ' wants nothing to make an agreeable Society. A 
" Governor- General with his Attendants, Nobility, 
"Officers of the Army, and Troops: An Intendant 
" with an upper Council, and the inferior Jurisdictions : 
' ' A Commissary of the Marine : A Grand Provost : 
' ' A Grand Surveyor of Highways, and a Grand Master 
" of the Waters and Forests whose Jurisdiction is 
" certainly the most extensive in the world : Rich 
" Merchants, or who live as if they were such : A 
" Bishop and a numerous Seminary : Recollets and 
" Jesuits : Three Societies of Maidens, well composed : 
" Circles as brilliant as in any other place, at the 
" Governor's, and the Intendant's Ladies. Here seems 
' ' to me to be every thing for all Sorts of People to pass 
" their Time very agreeably. And so they do in reality, 
" and every one endeavours to contribute what they 

42 



QUEBEC AFTER ONE HUNDRED YEARS 

'can towards it. They play, they make Parties of 
' Pleasure, in Summer, in Chariots, or Canoes ; in 
' Winter, in Sledges on the Snow, or skating on the ice. 
' Shooting is much followed ; Gentlemen find this 
' their only Resource to live plentifully. The News 
' current is but little, because the Country furnishes 
' scarce any, and the News from Europe comes all 
' together ; but this affords Conversation for a great 
' Part of the Year ; They make Political Remarks on 
' things past, and raise Conjectures 011 future Events : 
' The Sciences and the fine Arts have their Turn, and 
' Conversation never grows dull. The Canadians, that 
' is to say, the Creoles of Canada, breathe at the Birth 
' an Air of Liberty, which makes them very agreeable 
' in the Commerce of Life ; and our Language is 
' nowhere spoken with greater Purity. 

" There is nobody rich here, and 'tis a Pity, for 
' they love to live generously, and no one thinks of 
' laying up Riches. They keep good Tables, if their 
' Fortune will afford it, as well as dress handsomely ; 
' if not, they retrench the Expense of their Table to 
' bestow it on Dress, and indeed we must allow that 
' our Creoles become their Dress. They are all of good 
' Stature, and have the best Complexion in the World 
' in both Sexes. A pleasant Humour, and agreeable 
and polite Manners are common to all ; and Clown- 
' ishness, either in Language or Behaviour, is not 
' known among them." 

In the time of Charlevoix the population of Quebec 
was less than three thousand souls, including the mem- 
bers of all the religious orders. 

The following table shows the population of 
Quebec and of the whole of Canada at the dates here 
given. 

43 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Quebec Canada 

1666 547 3,800 

1681 1,381 9,677 

1698 1,988 15,355 

1716 2,500 20,531 

At this time the town contained only eighteen 
streets, the chief, and most populous ones being called : 
Sault au Matelot ; de Meulles and Champlain ; St. 
Louis ; Sous le Fort ; de la Montagne ; Notre Dame ; 
du Palais, or St. Nicholas ; Couillard. There were 
only ten streets in the Upper Town : St. Louis ; St. 
Joseph ; St. Jean ; Ste. Anne ; du Fort ; des Pauvres ; 
des Jardins ; Buade ; Couillard ; du Jardin, and du Fort. 
St. Louis street commenced at the Chateau and ended 
at the residence of Louis Roeur d'Artigny, the special 
lieutenant of Prevote. Amongst the most prominent 
persons residing on St. Louis street were Dr. Michel 
Sarrazin, Councillor of the Superior Council, Eustache 
Chartier de Lotbiniere, Councillor, and the demoiselles 
des Meloizes, his sisters in law ; Hilaire Bernard de la 
Riviere, usher of the Council, and Surveyor ; Canon 
Thierry Hazeur ; Noel Levasseur, sculptor ; Marie 
Catherine Ruette d'Auteuil, widow of M. de Celles. 
There were fifty one dwellings on the street and two 
hundred and fifty inhabitants. 

Buade Street was the fashionable street, par 
excellence. Amongst its principal residents were Claude 
de Bermen, sieur de la Martiniere, first councillor of 
the Superior Council ; Charles de Monseignat, controller 

44 



QUEBEC AFTER ONE HUNDRED YEARS 

of the Marine and receiver of the Domaine ; Henri 
Hiche, merchant ; Madame Denis, widow of M. de la 
Valliere ; Jean Vergeant, dit Prenoveau, sergeant of 
the troops. Couillard Street extended from the house 
of the sietir de Belleville, probably situated at the foot 
of the present St. Famille Street, to the cemetery 
of the Hotel Dieu. This quarter was inhabited by 
eighteen families, ship carpenters, coopers, soldiers and 
labourers. Des Pauvres Street commenced at the 
Cathedral, corresponding with the present Fabrique 
Street and extending to part of St. John Street. 
Chaussegros de Lery, the engineer, lived in this street 
near the Parish Church. Jean Chandelier, an inn- 
keeper ; Jean Baptiste Brassard, the beadle ; a mason, 
a shoemaker, and an armourer also resided there. In 
that part of St. Jean Street which commenced at the 
Hotel Dieu, there were two English residents, Thomas 
le Golden, a labourer, and John Willy, a shoemaker. 
Paul Denis de St. Simon, a councillor, a merchant, and 
a blacksmith, resided in the same quarter. 

The St. Nicolas suburb, or Palais quarter, was 
inhabited by carters, roofers, masons, blacksmiths and 
port wardens. 

The streets in the Lower town, six in number, 
were called, de la Montagne ; de Meulles and Cham- 
plain ; Cul-de-sac ; Notre Dame ; Sault au Matelot, and 
Sous le P A ort. 

In Sault au Matelot lived Charles Denis de St. 
Simon, grand Provost of the Marshals of France ; Jean 
Maillou, architect ; Vital Caron, mariner and merchant ; 

45 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Anne Macart, widow of Pierre Bcart de Granville ; 
the widow [of M. de Soulanges ; Franyois Aubert, 
councillor. 

De la Montagne (Mountain Hill) extended from 
the gate of the Bishop's palace to the garden of M. de 
Lino, at the foot of the hill. The principal residents 
were Gaspard Emeri, surgeon ; Jacques Barbel, Notary 
and secretary of the Intendant ; Foucault, Merchant ; 
Richard Testu de la Richardiere, mariner. There were 
also blacksmiths, shoemakers, watchmakers, lock- 
smiths, barbers and nailers. 

Notre Dame Street was the commercial street. 
The leading merchants were Charles Perthuis, Nicolas 
Pinault, Charles Goutard, Pierre Normandin, Etienne 
de Grandmenil, Jean Fournel and Joseph Fleury de la 
Gorgendiere. There were also several notaries, amongst 
others Florent de la Citiere, Pierre Rivet Cavelier ; 
four councillors Martin Cheron, Francois Mathieu 
Martin de Lino, Charles Macart and Francois Hazeur. 

De Meulles and Champlaiii Street, leading from 
the flight of steps to Cape Diamond, was the most 
populous. In it lived two physicians, Jourdain La jus 
and Pierre du Verger. The remainder of the population 
in that quarter was composed of mariners, ship car- 
penters, labourers and an old fortune teller named 
Heli, seventy-six years of age. 

Cul-de-Sac was the quarter of the inn-keepers, 
butchers and mariners. Dr. Soupiran also had his 
residence there. Sous-le-Fort Street contained mer- 
chants and navigators. Amongst the former were 

46 



QUEBEC AFTER ONE HUNDRED YEARS 

Francois Perrot, Etienne Mirabeau, Etienne Thibierge, 
Gabriel Greyssac, Pierre Haimard, Pierre Perreault dit 
Dresil, Pierre Baraguet and Louis Gosselin. The notary 
Rageot, M. de Lino, the King's procurator, Jean 
Baptiste Couillard 1'Espinay, lieutenant of the troops, 
resided in this quarter. 

The Parish, at this time comprised both the Upper 
and Lower Towns and the Suburbs, la Canardiere, 
St. Jean Suburb, la Petite Riviere and Saint-Michel. 
The latter place was the favourite promenade of the 
directors and pupils of the seminary. Seven families 
only were grouped along the St. Charles river forming 
a population of forty four. 

The names of several families of that period are 
still borne by citizens of Quebec to-day. Then as now, 
we find the names of Alary, Amiot, Aubert, Baby, 
Beaudoin, Bergeron, Bernier, Blondeau, Bonneau, 
Bouchard, Boucher, Bourget, Brousseau, Bruneau, 
Brunet, Bureau, Caron, Casgrain, Charest, Charland, 
Chaussegros de Lery, Constantin, Cote, Couillard, 
Dassilva, Deguise, Desjardins, Deslauriers, Dion, 
Drouin, Ducharme, Dufresne, Dumontier, Fontaine, 
Gagnon, Gosselin, Gourdeau, Guillot, Hamel, Huot, 
Jolicoeur, Laberge, L,acasse, Lafrance, Languedoc, 
Langevin, Lemieux, Lemoine, L,esage, Lessard, Levas- 
seur, Lortie, Malouin, Marois, Montambault, Moreau, 
Morin, Martineau, Pampalon, Parent, Pelletier Per- 
rault, Proulx, Racine, Renaud, Robitaille, Rousseau, 
Routier, Samson, Sasseville, Tourangeau, Vallee, 
Valliere, Vermette, Voyer. 

47 



CHAPTER IV 
1725-1759 

THE LAST YEARS OF THE FRENCH REGIME 

THE INTENDANTS AND THEIR WORK RAUDOT HOC- 
QUART LA GALISSONNIERE LIFE IN QUEBEC 
THE LAST FRENCH GOVERNOR OFFICIAL 
CORRUPTION BIGOT AND HIS ASSOCIATES 

THE Marquis de Vaudreuil was succeeded by the 
Marquis de Beauharnois as Governor, on the nth 
of June, 1726. He came to Quebec at the same time 
as Dupuy, who replaced Michel Bgon as Intendant. 
Since the days of Talon there had been seven 
Intendants, and in the work of each we find some 
achievement in the interest of the people. The office 
of Intendant was a peculiar one, and diplomacy was 
often necessary to preserve harmony in the government. 
Hitherto, although there had been friction occasion- 
ally, the Intendants appear to have had the welfare 
of the colony at heart. Quebec was soon to realise 
how shamefully the office could be abused, and the 
darkest days of New France, which brought about her 

4 49 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

downfall, may be traced directly to the exercise for 
evil, of the power vested in the last of her Intendants. 
The only instance of a joint appointment was when 
Antoine and Jacques Raudot were named Intendants. 
These two men were particularly successful in con- 
dueling the affairs entrusted to them. The elder 
Raudot reserved for himself the administration of 
justice, the police and general business, while his son 
undertook the control of marine and commerce. The 
firm stand taken by Antoine Raudot in simplifying 
the procedure in the courts ; in diminishing the juris- 
dictions and in putting an end to the vexatious pro- 
ceedings of pettifoggers, earned for him the gratitude 
of the inhabitants. Raudot, the younger, improved the 
financial condition of the colony and aided commerce 
by consolidating the military and commercial establish- 
ments. With a desire to curb the mania for trading 
with the Indians he encouraged the people to follow 
agricultural pursuits. 

In the history of the Hotel Dieu we find this 
passage referring to the elder Raudot : 

' ' He was a very witty old man , fluent and agreeable 
in conversation and he spoke well on every subject. 
He knew the history of every country, and chatted 
familiarly with everybody. He was of a kind dispo- 
sition and inclined to render service to all with great 
uprightness. Both the Intendants gave us proof of 
their esteem while in Canada, and after they returned 
to France they have written us kind letters and have 
made themselves useful to us whenever they had an 
opportunity. ' ' 

50 



THE LAST YEARS OP THE FRENCH REGIME 

Raudot, the elder, died in 1728, and his son in 

1737- 

Their successor, Michel Begon, appointed in 1712, 
was singularly unfortunate. In the fire which des- 
troyed the Intendant's Palace, he lost all his worldly 
goods, but what he most regretted was the destruction 
of a fine collection of books, which at that particular 
time was an irreparable loss. Personally he had a 
very narrow escape from the flames, and both he and 
his wife took up their abode at the Bishop's Palace, 
The members of the Superior Council also accepted 
the hospitality of the prelate. Begon was a patron 
of the industrial arts, and did his best to promote 
home manufactures. 

"The excessive cost of merchandise," he wrote 
to the Minister, ' ' has made the inhabitants industrious ; 
they make coarse cloth with thread and the wool 
obtained in the country ; they likewise make a great 
deal of linen. The Sisters of the Congregation showed 
me some light woollen cloth they made for their own 
clothing which is as good as that made in France, and 
black stuff is made here for priests' cassocks, and blue 
material for their scholars. Necessity has given rise 
to this." 

Dupuy, who succeeded Begon, was not successful 
in his administration. He quarrelled constantly with 
the Governor and with the religious authorities, and 
in consequence he was soon recalled. 

Hocquart was chosen as the successor of Dupuy, 
and his administration was marked by many public 
improvements 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

He caused a breakwater to be constructed in the 
river St. Charles for the protection of the shipping. 
This breakwater, which was still visible in 1830, was 
built of large stones taken from the river. It now 
forms a part of the Palais Wharf. Hocquart encouraged 
ship building in Quebec, and between 1732 and 1733, 
twenty vessels were built ranging from forty to fifty 
tons burden, which were used principally in the coasting 
trade between Quebec and Montreal. 

The mining industry was developed under his 
regime, and discoveries of copper, lead and iron were 
made. In Talon's time some prospecting had been 
done, but at this period no one seemed to consider the 
working of the mines practicable. 

The St. Maurice Forges were opened at this time. 
They were in operation for many years, and to-day 
they are still very active. 

Hocquart was probably the most remarkable Inten- 
dant after Talon. He took a deep interest in everything 
that he thought would benefit the colony. He was 
zealous in aiding the cause of education, and at his 
request Leverrier gave public lectures on law. He soon 
discovered, however, that this method of instruction 
was not in harmony with the tastes of the people. 
The Canadian youth as a rule, was not inclined to 
study. The free and open life of the forest made him 
brook restraint, and he was often tempted either to 
seek adventure in travel, or fortune in trade, rather 
than endure the drudgery necessary to fit him for a 
professional career. In 1744 the census showed that 

52 



THE LAST YEARS OP THE FRENCH REGIME 

there were nearly a thousand men engaged in trading 
with the Indians. 

Charles de Beauharnois was Governor of the colony 
for over twenty years. His many and noble qualities 
won for him the esteem of the Canadians, a striking 
manifestation of which was given on his departure for 
France in 1747. 

His successor, the Count de la Galissonniere, who 
occupied the office for two years was distinguished for 
his wisdom and ability as an administrator. His first 
act on arriving in Quebec was to study the needs of the 
country and its resources. He saw at a glance the 
moral value of the people, and realized their aptitude 
for war and navigation. 

" If other colonies, he said, produce more wealth, 
this one produces men, a far more desirable wealth for 
a king than sugar or indigo, or even than all the gold 
of the Antilles. ' ' The Count de la Galissonniere strove 
to increase the power of France in Acadia by inducing 
the Acadians to settle on the debated ground which was 
claimed by England, between the peninsula of Nova 
Scotia and the river St. John. 

He wished to establish definitely the extent of the 
possessions of France in the new world, and had already 
begun to determine the western boundaries. He claimed 
for his country the Ohio valley which would facilitate 
communication with Louisiana, and he limited the 
English possessions to the chain of the Alleghanies. 
Had Galissonniere remained in Canada, it is probable 

53 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

that new France would have escaped much of the 
misery of the next ten years of her existence. 

Galissonniere was devoted to natural science, and 
placing himself at the head of a number of highly 
cultured men, he formed an Academy of Science, 
which was not unworthy of being compared with the 
Academic des Sciences in Paris, at that time rendered 
illustrious through the membership of such men as 
Re'aurnur, Tournefort, Halley, Newton, the two Jussieu 
and Mariotte. " Never," wrote Kalm, " has natural 
history had a greater protector in this country and it 
is doubtful whether it will ever see his equal." It 
should be observed that since the days of Galissonniere 
the natural sciences have not received official recog- 
nition in Canada to the same extent. 

Canon Gosselin assisted the Governor in preparing 
a herbarium of Canadian plants for a museum in Paris. 
Dr. L,acroix sent to France a box of our most valuable 
plants ; acorns, walnut seeds ; samples of copper from 
Lake Superior, and specimens of lead from Baie St. 
Paul. The Jesuit Father L,afitau, who was well versed 
in botany, discovered in Canada the ginseng, that his 
colleague, Father Jartoux, had seen in Tartary, and 
the shipments of which were to exceed a half million 
francs annually. Dr. Gaulthier gave his name to the 
plant at present known to naturalists as the Gaultheria 
procumbens, or winter green. Dr. Sarrazin made known 
to European savants the curative properties of a plant 
called saracenia, in cases of small-pox. He also sent 
to the Academic des Sciences valuable notes on the 

54 



THE LAST YEARS OF THE FRENCH REGIME 

anatomy of the beaver, wolverine, musk rat, seal and 
porcupine, and on the habits of the denizens of our 
forests. 

While these savants vied with each other in 
extending the field of their knowledge, the Intendants 
strove to make the resources of the country known 
abroad. The ecclesiastical authorities sent forth mis- 
sionaries to the Mississippi and to the Arkansas posts, 
and the Hospitalier Brothers developed a taste for 
education wherever they set foot. The affairs of the 
colony appeared to be exceedingly prosperous when 
the Count de la Galissonniere handed over the admin- 
istration to his successor, the Marquis de la Jonquiere. 

The new Governor soon won public favour by his 
affable manners. His arrival in Quebec on the evening 
of the 1 5th of August, 1749, was the occasion of a 
splendid demonstration. Kalm, the Swedish savant, 
has left a circumstantial account of it in his ' ' Travels 
into North America ' ' : 

' ' The new Governor- general of all Canada, the 
marquis de la Jonquiere, arrived last night in the 
river.before Quebec ; but it being late, he reserved 
his public entrance for to-day. He had left France 
on the second of June, but could not reach Quebec 
before this time, on account of the difficulty which 
great ships find in passing the sands in the river St. 
Lawrence. The ships cannot venture to go up, 
without fair wind, being forced to run in many 
bendings, and frequently in a very narrow channel. 
To-day was another great feast, on account of the 
Ascension of the Virgin Mary, which is very highly 

55 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

celebrated in Roman Catholic countries. This day 
was accordingly doubly remarkable, both on account 
of the holiday, and of the arrival of the new Governor 
general, who is always received with great pomp, as 
he represents a vice-roy here. 

" About eight o'clock the chief people in town 
assembled at the house of Mr. de Vaudreuil, who had 
lately been nominated Governor of Trois Rivieres, 
and lived in the L,ower Town, and whose father had 
likewise been governor-general of Canada. Thither 
came likewise the Marquis de la Galissonniere, who 
had till now been governor- general, and was to 
sail for France with the first opportunity. He was 
accompanied by all the people belonging to the 
government. I was likewise invited to see this 
festivity. At half an hour after eight the new 
governor- general went from the ship into a barge, 
covered with red cloth, upon which a signal with 
cannons was given from the ramparts, for all the 
bells in the town to be set a-ringing. All the people 
of distinction went down to the shore to salute the 
governor, who, after alighting from the barge, was 
received by the marquis de la Galissonniere. After 
they had saluted each other, the commandant of the 
town addressed the new governor-general in a very 
elegant speech, which he answered very concisely ; 
after which all the cannons on the ramparts gave a 
general salute. The whole street, up to the Cathe- 
dral, was lined with men in arms, chiefly drawn out 
from the burghesses. The governor-general then 
walked towards the cathedral, dressed in a suit of 
red, with abundance of gold lace. His servants went 
before him in green, carrying fire arms on their 
shoulders. On his arrival at the cathedral he was 
received by the bishop of Canada, and the whole 
clergy assembled. The bishop was arrayed in his 

56 



THE LAST YEARS OF THE FRENCH REGIME 

pontifical robes, and had a long gilt tiara on his 
head, and a great crozier of massy silver in his hand. 
After the bishop had addressed a short speech to the 
governor-general, a priest brought a silver crucifix 
on a long stick (two priests with lighted tapers in 
their hands going on each side of it) to be kissed 
by the governor. The bishop and the priests then 
went through the long walk up to the choir. The 
servants of the governor-general followed with their 
hats on, and arms on their shoulders. At last came 
the governor- general and his suite, and after them 
a crowd of people. At the beginning of the choii 
the governor-general, and the general de la Galis- 
sonniere, stopped before a chair covered with red 
cloth, and stood there during the whole of the cele- 
bration of the mass, which was celebrated by the 
bishop himself. From the church he went to the 
palace, where the gentlemen of note in the town, 
afterwards went to pay their respects to him. The 
religious of the different orders, with their respective 
superiors, likewise came to him, to testify their joy 
on account of his happy arrival. Among the numbers 
that came to visit him, none staid to dine, but those 
that were invited beforehand, among which I had 
the honour to be. The entertainment lasted very 
long, and was as elegant as the occasion required." 

When Jonquiere arrived, Quebec had undergone 
many improvements since the adlive regime of Fron- 
tenac, but very little alteration in the town had been 
made after 1720. The Jesuits had built a new college, 
and the Intendants palace, destroyed by fire in 1726, 
had been rebuilt, but with these exceptions the public 
buildings remained the same. A very detailed account 
of the city about the year 1750 is to be found in Kalm's 

57 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

travels, and from this work we make a further 
extract : 

" The Palace (Chateau St. Louis), is situated on 
" the west or steepest side of the mountain, just above 
' the lower city. It is not properly a palace, but a 
' large building of stone, two stories high, extending 
' north and south. On the west side of it is a court 
' yard, surrounded partly with houses. On the east 
' side, or towards the river, is a gallery as long as the 
' whole building, and about two fathom broad, paved 
' with smooth flags, and included on the outsides by 
' iron rails, from whence the city and the river exhibit 
' a charming prospect. This gallery serves as a very 
' agreeable walk after dinner, and those who come to 
' speak with the Governor-general wait here till he is 
' at leisure. The Palace is the lodging of the Governor- 
' general of Canada, and a number of soldiers mount 
' the guard before it, both at the gate and in the court 
' yard ; and when the Governor, or the Bishop, comes 
' in or goes out, they must all appear in arms, and 
' beat the drum. The Governor-General has his own 
' chapel where he hears prayers ; however, he often 
' goes to mass at the church of the Recollets, which 
' is very near the palace. 

" The house of the Intendant is a public building, 
' whose size makes it fit for a palace. It is covered 
' with tin, and stands in a second lower town, situated 
' south-ward upon the river St. Charles. It has a 
' large and fine garden on its north side. In this 
' house all the deliberations concerning this province 
' are held ; and the gentlemen who have the manage- 
' ment of the police and the civil power meet here, and 
' the Intendant generally presides. In affairs of great 
' consequence the Governor General is likewise here. 

58 



THE LAST YEARS OF THE FRENCH REGIME 

" On one side of this house is the storehouse of the 
<( Crown, and on the other the prison." 

"The Cathedral Church is on the right hand, 
" coming from the lower to the upper city, somewhat 
" beyond the Bishop's house. On the west side is a 
" round steeple, with two divisions, in the lower of 
" which are some bells. The pulpit, and some other 
' ' parts within the church, are gilt. The seats are very 
" fine. 

' ' The Jesuits Church is built in the form of a 
" cross and has a round steeple. This is the only 

' ' church that has a clock 1 attended divine service 

<l in their church, which is a part of their house. It is 
" very fine within, though it has no seats; for every 
<( one is obliged to kneel down during the service. 
" The building the Jesuits live in is magnificently 
" built, and looks exceedingly fine, both within and 
' ' without, which gives it a similarity to a fine palace. 
<( It consists of stone, is three stories high, exclusive 
" of the garret, covered with slates, and built in a 
" square form, like the new palace at Stockholm, 
" including a large court. Its size is such, that three 
' ' hundred families would find room enough in it ; 
' ' though at present there were not above twenty Jesuits 
" in it. Sometimes there is a much greater number of 
" them, especially when those return, who have been 
" as missionaries into the country. There is a long 
" walk all along the sides of the square, in every story, 
" on both sides of which are either cells, halls, or 
' ' other appartments for the friars, and likewise their 
" library, apothecary shop, &c. Everything is very 
' ' well regulated and the Jesuits are very well accomo- 
' ' dated here. On the outside is their college, which 
" is on two sides surrounded with great orchards and 
" kitchen gardens, in which they have fine walks. 

59 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

' A part of the trees here, are the remains of the forest 
' which stood here when the French began to build 
' the town. They have planted a number of fruit 
' trees, and the garden is stocked with all sorts of 

' plants for the use of the kitchen The Jesuits 

' are commonly very learned, studious, and very civil 
' and agreeable in company. Their conversation is 
' very entertaining and learned, so that one cannot be 
' tired of their company. 

' ' The Recollets Church is opposite the gate of the 
' palace, on the west side, and looks well, and has a 
' pretty high pointed steeple, with a division below 
' for the bells. They have a fine large dwelling 
' house. Near it is a large and fine garden which they 
' cultivate with great application. 

' ' The church of the Ursulines has a round spire. 
" The Hotel Dieu, where the sick are taken care 
' of, shall be described in the sequel .... We first saw 
1 the hospital which I shall presently describe, and 
then entered the convent which forms a part of the 
hospital. It is a great building of stone, three stories 
high, divided in the inside into long galleries, on 
both sides of which are cells, halls, and rooms. The 
cells of the nuns are in the highest story, on both 
sides of the gallery ; they are but small ;not painted 
inside but hung with paper pictures of saints and of 
the Saviour on the cross... In the middle story is a 
balcony where the nuns are allowed to take air. 
The prospect from the convent is very fine on every 
side ; the river, the fields, and the meadows out of 
town, appear to a great advantage. On one side of 
the convent is a large garden, in which the nuns are 
at liberty to walk about ; it belongs to the convent, 
and is surrounded with a high wall." 

" The house of the clergy is a large building, on 

60 



THE LAST YEARS OF THE FRENCH REGIME 

" the north east side of the cathedral. Here is on one 
" side a spacious court, and on the other, towards the 
<( river, a great orchard and kitchen garden. 

" The civility of the inhabitants here is more 
" refined than that of the Dutch and English, in the 
"settlements belonging to great Britain; but the 
" latter on the other hand, do not idle their time away 
' ' in dressing as the French do here. 

" The ladies, especially dress and powder their 
" hair every day, and put their locks in papers every 
" night ; which idle custom was not introduced into 
' ' the English settlements. The gentlemen wear gen- 
' ' erally their own hair, but some have wigs. 

The government of the Marquis de la Jonquiere 
was not beneficial to the people in general, although he 
and several of his followers are credited with having 
derived profit from it. The governor was accused of 
carrying on trade with the western countries, and 
consequently his departure was not regretted. 

The Marquis Duquesne de Menneville was named 
governor in 1752, after an interval filled by Charles 
L,emoyne, first Baron de L,ongueuil. The new governor 
was harsh in his measures and out of sympathy with 
the Canadians. They therefore rejoiced when one of 
their own people, Vaudreuil-Cavaignal, was named 
governor. The Canadians have always been loyal to 
their traditions, nor can we blame them over much for 
upholding, as long as possible, their faith in this poor, 
weak individual. 

The Canadians, however, owe no debt of gratitude 
to their last governor. It was under his administration 

61 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

that their life became one of slavery and bodily suf- 
fering, and while he may not personally have received 
any profit from the wholesale plunder of the times, it 
must be remembered that he refused to allow the 
mother country to relieve them from their misery, by 
assuring the Minister in France that the affairs of the 
colony were being administered honestly. Whereas, 
when at last enquiry could be stifled no longer, and 
France sent out a man to investigate the accounts of 
her officials, it was proved immediately that a gigantic 
system of fraud had been carried out in almost every 
department of the public service, at the expense of the 
bodily suffering, and oftentimes at the sacrifice of the 
lives of the poor Canadians. 

The career of Vaudreuil is almost inexplicable, 
and the only solution possible is that in some way he 
became involved in the intrigues of Bigot, which pur- 
chased his silence. 

On his arrival Vaudreuil was received with open 
arms, and so implicit was the confidence reposed in 
him, that in the change which was slowly creeping 
over new France, a change which gradually sapped 
its energy, the people bowed to what appeared to them 
inevitable, instead of rising in revolt against a regime 
of tyranny and oppression. 

The name of Bigot is associated with one of the 
most melancholy pages of the history of France. The 
record of his transactions in Quebec is one of heartless 
peculation and fraud. The result of recent research 
shows that for several years he systematically and 

62 



THE L,AST YEARS OF THE FRENCH REGIME 

successfully endeavoured to create a condition of famine 
and distress in the colony in order to render possible 
his scandalous course of action. Examples are not 
wanting in history, of men holding important public 
positions who have turned their office into profit, even 
on a larger scale than Bigot ; but it is very doubtful 
whether the history of any other dishonest official 
furnishes a parallel to the last of the Intendants. In 
his nefarious schemes he had the hearty co-operation 
of one, Joseph Cadet, the son of a Quebec butcher 
who, after having been condemned to the Bastile, and 
ordered to restore six millions of his fraudulent gains, 
had still the means, in 1778, to purchase the time 
honoured Barony de la Touche d'Avrigny ; and who, 
through the assistance of the Marquis de Vaudreuil, 
became a noble of Old France. 

Gigantic schemes have been invented from time to 
time to defraud the public, and the list of sufferers has 
often been large, but in the majority of instances the 
schemes have been accomplished by playing upon the 
credulity of the victims. In Bigot's case it was far 
different. The petty savings of the inhabitants were 
of small account, although in the course of time they 
were gathered in to swell his coffers. The Treasury 
of France would alone satisfy his ambition, and in 
order to enable him to draw freely from this inexhaus- 
tible fund, it was necessary to accustom thousands of 
the people to a long regime of abject misery and 
suffering. So skilfully were his plans carried out, that 
many of the leading authorities and some even of his 

63 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

associates were in ignorance of the means that he had 
adopted ; and at his trial, though some of his methods 
were exposed, and the miserable condition of the 
people was made evident, Bigot was not charged nor 
even suspected of having been directly responsible for 
that deplorable condition. 

Legend and romance have invested Bigot with a 
peculiar interest which has no foundation in fact, and 
it is quite safe to say that the Intendant never resided 
in, or had any connection with, the famous Chateau 
with which his name is associated in the pages of 
fiction. When the history of this remarkable individual 
is written, it will be found that actual facts are far 
more startling than any of the most interesting pages 
of the novelists who have woven stories around his 
name. 

Francois Bigot, who had acted as Commissary at 
Louisbourg in 1744 and 1745, when that place was 
taken by Pepperell, became Intendant in 1748, in 
succession to Hocquart. His record at L,ouisbourg had 
not been a good one, and he was suspected of corrupt 
practices, which, however, were only preliminary to 
those which he was about to undertake in his larger 
field. His powers as Intendant were extraordinary. 
He had the control of the finances of the colony, the 
purchase and distribution of supplies for the troops 
and for the various military posts, and the importation 
from France of such merchandize as was required for 
the public stores, which included all articles which the 
colony could not supply. 

64 



THE LAST YEARS OF THE FRENCH REGIME 

Bigot soon discovered that the Province was very 
fertile ; that there was an abundance of grain and 
cattle ; and, moreover, that the Canadians were a hardy 
race and could subsist without complaint upon a meagre 
fare. His first tactics, therefore, were to remove these 
two most important articles of consumption beyond the 
reach of the people. Bigot consequently made large 
levies upon the inhabitants under the pretence that 
the grain was required for the service of the King, 
paying whatever price he liked for it. When these 
levies had been repeated in every part of the Province, 
and all the available grain had been collected, it was 
shipped to France by his agents, to be repurchased 
from his associates for the use, and for the purpose 
of maintaining the very people from whom it had been 
taken. The grain remaining in the villages was then 
gathered in and sold to the people at exhorbitant 
prices, until the Intendant had received authority for 
the purchase of the grain in France, which had actually 
been sent out of the Province. 

Bigot's next move was to create a scarcity of cattle. 
This was done by gradually requiring all the animals 
to be sent to Quebec for the use of the troops, and they 
were then placed beyond the reach of the inhabitants. 
Under the pretext of a lack of provisions, horses were 
killed indiscriminately for food, and thus the habitants 
were deprived of a ready means of communicating with 
the capital. During the siege of Quebec, women and 
children were compelled to draw loads of provisions in 
carts, over rough roads, because there were no horses 

5 65 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

for the purpose. And yet, when the British took 
possession they found cattle in abundance, sufficient 
for the commander in chief to affirm that there was 
no occasion for a single horse to have been slain, 
notwithstanding that the army had lived upon the 
country for nearly two years, except as a cloak for the 
knavery of the Intendant. 

But Bigot's methods were not to be satisfied with 
the gradual starvation of the people. He found it 
expedient to attempt to destroy their manhood by 
imposing tasks upon them by which he could obtain a 
large revenue, and at the same time prevent them from 
cultivating their land or providing for their families. 
Horses had been reduced to a minimum, but never- 
theless large quantities of provisions must be conveyed 
to the numerous and distant military posts. 

Under the pretext of conferring a benefit upon 
these wretched people, Cadet exempted large numbers 
of men from military service, upon the condition that 
they would convey the provisions to the different posts 
as ordered, and give him a receipt for the amount which 
the Intendant collected from the King for the purpose. 
By this means, an enormous revenue was accumulated, 
while the condition of the people was the worst kind 
of slavery. While these, and many other similar 
methods, were been carried out, Bigot was posing as 
the real deliverer of the people, and, indeed, without 
his assistance hundreds of the inhabitants would have 
perished ; but, he had first created this condition, and 
relieved them only as a part of the detestable plan that 

66 



THE LAST YEARS OF THE FRENCH REGIME 

he was persistently carrying out. The misery and 
suffering of the poorer class was not the only means by 
which the Intendant enriched himself and his asso- 
ciates. Amongst the members of the army, and the 
public officials, there were men of means, and these 
were made to contribute to the common fund of this 
carnival of corruption presided over by Bigot. The 
gambling and vice practiced at the Intendant's palace 
gradually debauched the army till even Bigot was 
astounded at its depths and seriously thought of calling 
a halt. It is not our purpose in this small work to 
attempt to write the biography of the last of the 
Intendants, although much material is now available ; 
but we have given a sufficient indication of his character 
to show that in his actions, and in the result of his 
administration we must look for the real cause of the 
downfall of New France. 

The fact that Bigot was a scoundrel should not 
close our eyes to the fact that he was a man of extra- 
ordinary executive ability, and had he chosen to direct 
his talents and energy towards the development of New 
France he might have become her dictator. In a recent 
work it has been claimed that the downfall of New 
France was owing solely to the indifference of the 
mother country. This statement is misleading. If 
France is to be blamed at all, it is in the selection of 
the men she appointed to administer the affairs of the 
colony, rather than in any indifference to the demands 
of her chosen representatives, in whom she placed 
implicit confidence. When serious charges were made 

67 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

against the administration of Bigot, charges upon 
which he was subsequently convicted, the Marquis de 
Vaudreuil, the Governor of New France, denied, in 
the strongest terms, the accusations which were made 
against the Intendant. 

France cannot surely be condemned for accepting 
the guarantee of her highest official against the evidence 
offered by those who might be considered as interested 
parties. When she discovered that the word of her 
Governor in this respect was worthless, it was too late 
to remedy the evil, and the only course open to her was 
to recover as much as possible of the money out of 
which she had been defrauded. But no measure of 
human justice could compensate the thousands of 
Canadians who had been starved into submission to 
the tyrant^ of Bigot, and who had sacrificed their 
lives and their all to maintain his shameless prodigality. 

The conduct of the inhabitants during all this 
terrible ordeal is a striking proof of the deep rooted 
loyalty of the Canadian nature. Strangers, even to 
the meaning of political liberty, reduced to an indis- 
cribable condition of misery and starvation, leading 
almost the life of serfs, they steadfastly refused every 
bribe that was offered to them by the enemies of their 
country during the siege of Quebec. And these bribes 
were not offered to them to purchase their cooperation 
against France, but simply to obtain their neutrality. 
And, at last, when seductive arguments had proved 
unavailing, and the torch of the destroyer was the 
signal for whole villages and parishes to be consumed 

68 



THE I,AST YEARS OP THE FRENCH REGIME 

in flames, these devoted children of New France wept 
tears of regret as every vestige of their homes dis- 
appeared ; but, even then, since their hands were 
powerless to stay the work of the avenger, so should 
their tongues refuse to utter the word which would 
purchase all that they held most dear, at the cost of 
disloyalty to their ungrateful country. 

For over a century the French arms had succeeded 
in keeping in check the Iroquois tribes and the English 
colonists of New England, whose reigning passion, as 
Bancroft expresses it, was to take possession of Canada. 
The final blow was at last to be struck. England set 
her fleets in motion and armed her militia for a supreme 
effort. New France, under her boastful Governor, had 
neglected proper means of defence, except those which 
were hurriedly undertaken when the enemy was almost 
at the door. The mother country had previously sent 
out some of her best and most skilful officers, amongst 
whom was the illustrious and ever gallant Montcalm, 
whose loyalty and devotion to the cause of France 
were without an equal in these degenerate days. 

The first military operations were encouraging to 
the French arms. Montcalm had laid siege to Fort 
Chouagouen in 1756, and taken possession of it. In 
the following spring he hastened to Fort George, and 
effected its surrender after a week's siege. To these 
two important acquisitions was added the vidlory of 
Carillon where Montcalm defeated the English army 
and covered himself with glory. L,ess fortunate in 
Cape Breton, in Acadia, and in Detroit, where the 

69 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

genius of Montcalm was lacking, France saw that her 
star was waning and that of England was in the 
ascendant. Then Wolfe came before Quebec with a 
powerful fleet and army, and the end was not far off. 



70 



CHAPTER V 
1759-1760 

THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC 0) 

PREPARATIONS THE FORCES UNDER WOLFE- 
DUPLICITY OF VAUDREUIL MONTCALM IN COM- 
MAND THE FRENCH POSITION FIASCO OF 
THE FIRE SHIPS WOLFE AT MONTMORENCY 
DEFEAT OF THE BRITISH WOLFE'S PLAN 
BOUGAINVILLE OUTGENERALED THE HEIGHTS 
OF ABRAHAM THE BATTLE OF THE PLAINS 
DEATH OF WOLFE AND MONTCALM CAPITULA- 
TION WINTER IN QUEBEC DEFEAT OF MURRAY 
BY LEVIS. 

IN the spring of 1759, preparations were made in 
England and in Canada for tue last great drama 
destined to determine the fate of France in the New 
World. 

The military operations of the previous year, 
resulting in the reduction of L/ouisbourg and of Fort 



(i) For a full account of the campaign in 1^59, see " The 
Siege of Quebec and the Battle of the Plains of Abraham." 

71 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Duquesne, had encouraged Great Britain to pursue her 
advantages in America and, if possible, to establish 
her supremacy by a decisive victory. Quebec, the 
stronghold of Canada, was to be the object of attack, 
either by the forces under General Wolfe, or in con- 
jundlion with those under General Amherst. 

On the 6th of February the secret instructions of 
the King relating to the plan of campaign were delivered 
to General Wolfe, and on the i4th day of the month 
sixty transports, six sail of the line, and nine frigates, 
sailed from Portsmouth for America. Three days 
after, Admiral Saunders, General Wolfe, Brigadier 
Townshend, and other officers selected to serve in the 
expedition, sailed from the same port, on board the 
Neptune. 

L,ouisbourg was appointed as the place of rendez- 
vous, but owing to the quantities of ice in the harbour, 
the Admiral was obliged to proceed to Halifax, where 
he arrived after a very stormy passage, on the first of 
May. The fleet began immediately to refit, and on 
the 3rd of May, Admiral Durell was dispatched to the 
Lower St. Lawrence to cut off the approach of French 
vessels which were expected to convey provisions to 
the distressed colony. In the meantime, Brigadiers 
Monckton and Murray were actively engaged in pur- 
chasing supplies for the army, so that by the last day 
of May, Wolfe's forces, consisting of 8,535 men, were 
ready to proceed on their fateful expedition. 

While all was activity along the coast of Acadia, 
the French upon the banks of the St. Lawrence were 

72 



THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC 

eagerly awaiting the opening of navigation for news 
from France. Montcalm, the commander of the French 
forces, had witnessed with dismay the baneful influence 
of the regime of Bigot and Vaudreuil, and the increasing 
misery of the people, and it appeared to him that the 
only hope for New France was in a powerful army 
of French regulars. The troops of the colony were 
brave enough, but the unfortunate conflict of authority, 
fostered by the Governor, created a division in the 
interests of the common cause of the country. Bougain- 
ville had been dispatched to France to urge upon the 
mother country the necessity of sending reinforcements. 
His mission would probably have proved successful if 
it had not been for the duplicity of Vaudreuil who, 
while professing to endorse the mission of Bougainville, 
warned the Minister to take no notice of his repre- 
sentations. Thus the afflicted colony was deprived of 
the assistance it had a right to expect, by the very man 
who was pledged to safeguard its interests. Bougain- 
ville returned to Quebec, on the loth of May, with the 
intelligence that France found it impossible to send 
further aid, and the suggestion was made to Montcalm, 
that he should retire from his outposts and concentrate 
his power in order to preserve a foothold in America. 
This news was no doubt gratifying to Vaudreuil, 
whose inordinate vanity led him to pose as the saviour 
of Canada, while his actions contributed largely to the 
loss of the country. 

Montcalm immediately proceeded to Quebec and 
assumed the direction of the campaign. Five bat- 

73 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

talions were brought from Montreal, and a body of 
cavalry was raised and placed under the command of 
de la Roche Beaucour. The Beauport side of the river 
was fortified with extensive earth works from the 
river St. Charles to the Falls of Montmorency. A 
bridge of boats was built across the St. Charles, and 
an entrenchment was made in the meadow of Monsieur 
Hiche, and carried from St. Roch's to the bridge. 
The entrance to the river St. Charles was secured by 
a boom defended by two hulks, mounted with cannon. 
Several boats were put upon the stocks and mounted 
with 12 and 14 pounders. A floating battery was 
designed by Captain Duclos, of the Chezine,with twelve 
embrasures for 12, 18, and 24 pounders. Batteries were 
constructed, communications were opened, and the 
breaches in the walls were repaired. These various 
works were executed with remarkable promptitude, 
but they were scarcely completed when the French 
received intelligence of the approach of the British fleet. 
The navigation of the river St. Lawrence had always 
been regarded as difficult, and in portions exceedingly 
dangerous, but at the present time it was considered 
quite impracticable, since all the buoys and directions 
for sailing had been removed. Great alarm was there- 
fore felt when the British fleet came to anchor off the 
Island of Orleans, on the eve of the 26th of June. 

The view that met the gaze of the invaders was 
one of unusual beauty, and drew forth expressions of 
delight from several chroniclers. "It is a beautiful 
island," said one, and well cultivated and produces all 

74 



THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC 

kinds of grain, pasture and vegetables." Another, a 
British officer, said : ' ' Here we are entertained with 
a most agreeable prospect of a delightful country on 
every side : windmills, watermills, churches, chapels, 
compadl farm houses, all built with stone, and covered, 
some with wood and some with straw. ' ' The church 
near them was the parish church of St. Laurent, from 
which the city could not be seen. From the western 
point of the island, a few miles distant, the city of 
Quebec, with its cathedral, its colleges, its public and 
private buildings, rose against the horizon, in reality, 
a city set upon a hill. The walls were guarded with 
batteries, which swept the river, and which in them- 
selves were so high as to be beyond the elevation of 
cannon upon the vessels in the river below. 

The appearance of the fleet in the St. Lawrence 
so near the city was a serious menace to the inhab- 
itants, it was also a reproach to the governor. A short 
time before Vaudreuil had boasted " There is no ruse, 
no resource, no means which my zeal does not suggest 
to lay snares for them, and finally, when the exigency 
demands it, to fight them with an ardour, and even 
a fury, which exceed the range of their ambitious 
schemes." 

The pilot of the port upon being questioned as to 
how it was possible for the fleet to pass the traverse 
in safety, replied, that he had not taken soundings for 
twenty-five years, and that when he had proposed to 
do so, he had been refused the necessary expenses. 

75 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Vaudreuil's zeal was confined to an unceasing reiter- 
ation of his devotion to the colony, and to a scrupulous 
avoidance of its dangers. 

Although the prospect spread out ^before the 
British was pleasing to the eye, Wolfe must have been 
considerably perplexed with the situation as he found 
it. He had written to his uncle a few weeks previously 
that ' ' to invest Quebec and shut off all communication 
with the colony, it will be necessary to encamp with 
our right to the river St. Lawrence, and our left to 
the river St. Charles. From the river St. Charles to 
Beauport the communications must be kept open by 
strong intrenched posts and redoubts. ' ' 

This plan was very good, but Wolfe now saw that 
it was impossible for him to occupy his chosen ground, 
and he was soon to realize the difficulties presented by 
the shore line" above the city. The lower town was a 
narrow strip upon the water's edge, bounded by the 
cliff, which rose abruptly to a height of 300 feet. 

As the youthful commander viewed this naturally 
fortified city, it seemed to stand upon an immense 
plateau, which disappeared towards the southern side. 
Could he have looked beyond, he would have seen the 
same high, forbidding cliffs, inclining towards the west 
from the city, and continuing for miles to form a barrier 
to the plateau above, a barrier he could hardly pass if 
unmolested, and which he could not hope to pass at 
all if opposed. 

Between him, and the city on his right, was a broad 
sweeping bay whose muddy banks were bared by the 

76 



THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC 

receding tide. Here landing from shallow boats would 
at all times be laborous and slow, and in the face of a 
fair defence impossible. But, now, earth works had 
been thrown up extending from the river Montmorency 
to the St. Charles, almost opposite the British vessels ; 
and encamped within the protection thus afforded, was 
the French army under the command of a skilful, 
experienced, and frequently victorious general, whose 
reputation was greater than that of the commander of 
the British forces. 

Montcalm's position was exceedingly strong. The 
centre of his camp was at Beauport church, his right 
extended to the river St. Charles, his left to the Falls 
of Montmorency, and his whole camp was protected 
by strong lines crowning the gradually sloping shore. 
With the great distance he had to protect and the 
number of men at his disposal, it is evident that he 
made the best possible disposition of the forces under 
his command. Indeed, until the hour of his death, 
his actions were characterized by coolness and excel- 
lent generalship. 

When Wolfe found that his chosen ground was 
already occupied by the French, he immediately pro- 
ceeded to land upon the Island of Orleans, which two 
days before had been abandoned by the orders of the 
Marquis de Vaudreuil. 

Why this strong position should have been left 
open appears inconceivable, but it furnishes another 
instance of the incapacity of the Governor. Perhaps 
Vaudreuil had unbounded faith in the success of the 

77 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

fire ships which he ordered to be put in operation on 
the next day. Four of Cadet's vessels had been pur- 
chased by Bigot, with four others, at a total cost of 
640,000 livres, (*) payable in bills of exchange falling 
due one year from date. Montcalm, however, had little 
faith in their utility. It was the intention of the 
French to float these vessels down with the tide and 
current into midst of the British vessels, now riding at 
anchor, and unable to move freely, and thus to fire the 
whole fleet as it lay helpless. 

A meeting was held for the purpose of devising a 
suitable plan for conducting the adventure : A man of 
rare courage and coolness was required as commander 
of the little squadron of fire ships. One, Captain 
Delouche, a young man of zeal, enthusiasm and confi- 
dence, was convinced that he could succeed. He had 
under his command Grandmont, Leseau, Berthelot, 
Sabourin, Desormeau, Marchand and Dubois de la 
Multiers. His own opinion of himself was accepted, 
and Vaudreuil gave him directions. The plan adopted 
was simple, but there was a lack of definite organiza- 
tion. The only detail agreed upon was that the Cap- 
tain of the foremost ship should ignite his vessel, and 
by firing, give the signal to the others. The seven 
rafts approached at some distance from each other 
until the first had passed Point Levis and was still a 
long way from the British vessels when, through fear 



(1) For the usual cost of Fire ships, see note on Fire Ships by 
Major Wood 

78 



THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC 

it would be charitable to say through an error of 
judgment the commanding officer ignited his vessel 
and deserted it. This was accepted as a signal by five 
others from whose ships projectiles were soon flying 
in every direction. The panic did not strike Captain 
de la Multiers, a hero whose name should be preserved 
from oblivion. He continued on his way for half an 
hour hoping to come within reasonable distance of the 
vessels before igniting his ship. Finally, he found 
himself beset in front and rear by the burning ships, 
and being unable to escape he, his second officer and a 
sailor, perished. The French had gathered to watch 
this unusual method of attack ; Montcalm and his 
officers having stationed themselves upon a command- 
ing height near Beauport Church. They were much 
disappointed at the failure of this costly enterprise and 
roundly denounced Delouche and his associates. How- 
ever, the French citizens were not less disappointed 
than the officers. They assembled at the Chateau St. 
Ivouis in a great state of indignation, and demanded 
the punishment of the officers concerned in the in- 
glorious attempt. They even insulted the officers who 
had charge of the boats, greeting them with cries of 
' ' treason ' ' and ' ' treachery. ' ' 

Vaudreuil promised to examine their complaints, 
but as usual in such cases, no one could be found 
blamable. 

Wolfe now ordered a detachment under Monckton 
to proceed to L,evis and establish a camp there. The 
inhabitants endeavoured to resist this move on the 

79 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

part of the British, but found that their numbers were 
insufficient, and Mr. Charest undertook to present a 
demand for reinforcements to the Governor. 

Vaudreuil listened to his request for six hundred 
men, and seemed at first inclined to grant it. How- 
ever, he decided to examine a British prisoner as to 
the probable movements of the enemy. The prisoner 
informed the Governor that an attack was meditated 
at Beauport that night. Vaudreuil refused the demand 
and hastened to the camp at Beauport, which was 
perfectly secure and not in need of his assistance. On 
the following day Mr. Charest renewed his demand 
and brought several articles from the British camp in 
support of his claim that it was unprotected. Vaud- 
reuil was still undecided, and again questioned the 
prisoner who informed him that an attack would 
surely be made at Beauport. Mr. Charest's request 
was refused for the second time, and Vaudreuil spent 
the night at Beauport vainly awaiting the arrival of 
the British. On the third morning the Governor was 
willing to grant the assistance necessary, but it was 
found that Levis had been strongly fortified in the 
meantime. Vaudreuil's actions throughout this cam- 
paign are inexplicable, but the British profited thereby, 
and in consequence, they were allowed to occupy the 
Island of Orleans and Point Levis without opposition. 
On the 2nd of July Montcalm had urged Vaudreuil to 
fortify Point Levis, but no notice was taken of his 
demand. 

Wolfe being now in the undisputed possession of 

80 



THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC 

two camps made preparations to take the offensive. 
He had issued a proclamation on the 28th of June 
assuring the inhabitants that if they remained neutral 
their property would be protected, but if on the other 
hand they took up arms, they would be severely dealt 
with and their possessions would be destroyed. 

His appeal to the people was useless. With all 
the faults of the administration they were strongly 
attached to France, and they resorted to arms when- 
ever an opportunity occurred. 

Several batteries were erected at Point des Peres 
to destroy the town, and while the work was in pro- 
gress Wolfe sent a message to the Governor under 
cover of a flag of truce, setting forth the objects of the 
campaign. On the ninth of July, after the batteries 
were completed and in operation, Wolfe crossed over 
to the Montmorency shore where he established a 
third camp. The movement of the troops and their 
equipment was conducted without loss, and it was here 
that the excellent generalship of Wolfe's second Brig- 
adier, George Townshend, was manifested. When 
Townshend landed at Montmorency he found that no 
guard had been left to point out the route taken by 
the first Brigade, although the night was dark. The 
baggage too, of the Grenadiers and Light Infantry, 
had been left in a meadow with no officer in charge, 
so that a few savages might have plundered the whole. 
Townshend immediately collected the baggage and 
left a guard in charge. He then pressed on to the 
higher ground and as soon as his regiment had 

6 81 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

ascended the hill he called a halt, and sent a detach- 
ment to haul up the guns. Upon arriving in camp 
after daybreak he received a mild reprimand from 
Wolfe in the form of a hint that he had been dilatory, 
while in fact he had only halted to place a proper 
guard over the baggage, and to haul up the guns, 
which Wolfe had neglected to do. In the morning a 
detachment of Canadians and Indians that had been 
sent across the ford to annoy the British advance, 
rushed upon the rear of Wolfe's lines, and drove a 
few Rangers down to Townshend's quarters for refuge. 
Here the Savages scalped 14 men and wounded two 
officers before they could be driven off. (*) 

In this situation Townshend remained until dusk, 
when, although he had no orders to entrench, he 
thought it necessary to provide against a night attack. 
In less than three hours he ran up a parapet with 
retiring angles to cover the face of the two battalions 
facing the accessible part of the country. During the 
night there were no attacks owing to the precautions 
taken. Wolfe retired early that night, and in the 
morning visited Townshend's camp and received his 
report of the means he had taken to protect the camp. 
Wolfe disapproved of the method of defence which he 
considered of far greater strength than necessary, but 
it is evident that the General was not in a mood to 
favour any independent action on the part of his 
Brigadiers. In a short time the British position at 



( i ) See note on Oecrge Townshend in the appendix. 
82 



THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC 

Montmorency was secure, and they had three distinct 
camps in the presence of the enemy. The left of the 
French camp was threatened by this new position, 
although there was a strong barrier between the two 
armies presented by the Falls. 

Vaudreuil suggested attacking the British in force, 
but the only man who supported this course was Bigot 
who, it is said desired to diminish the number of rations 
he had to supply. While various expeditions were 
proposed, nothing of importance was accomplished on 
either side. Montcalm realised the strength of his 
position, and Wolfe the difficulty of an attack. In the 
meantime the batteries from the town maintained a 
heavy fire against the works at Point des Peres ; and 
on the fifteenth of the month no less than ninety-six 
shells and seven cascades were thrown into the town, 
which resulted in the loss of many houses in the lower 
town, and great damage to the Cathedral, and to the 
houses in its vicinity. 

The appearance of the fleet in the Basin had been 
a surprise to the French, but on the iSth of July they 
were seriously alarmed when several vessels passed the 
town in safety under a heavy fire from the batteries. 
By this means they recognized that communication 
with Montreal by water could be cut off and famine 
threatened ; moreover, an attack by land and water 
might be made along the unprotected shore, which 
would involve a division of the forces. The drum was 
beaten calling all to arms, and five hundred men under 
Dumas, marched to the Foulon, but although Wolfe 

83 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

appears to have considered the possibility of an attack 
at this place, the time was not yet ripe. 

The month of July was drawing to a close, nearly 
half the summer was over, and the eager, restless 
British commander found himself no nearer victory 
than when he landed upon the Island of Orleans, 
nearly five weeks before. 

Montcalm, who was usually eager to fight, refused 
to be tempted to a decisive action. On the 2Qth of 
July Wolfe evolved a plan which he intended to put 
into operation on the next day, but the preparations 
being incomplete it was deferred until the 3ist. His 
general plan was to bring Monckton's brigade over 
from Levis to Orleans, and thence to a point about 
three-quarters of a mile west of the Montmorency 
river, where the troops were to land upon the shore near 
a French redoubt. The landing of this brigade was to 
be protected by three vessels which were to run in as 
far as possible in advance of the transports, and even 
to ground if necessary. Townshend and Murray were 
to ford the river below the Falls, and march along the 
bank to join Monckton's brigade, and support it. In 
order to prevent Montcalm from massing his troops at 
the left of the line where the attack was intended, a 
regiment was to march up the bank of the Montmo- 
rency river on the east shore in view of the enemy, as 
if with the intention of crossing above the Falls to 
attack the rear. They were then to return by another 
route to join Townshend's brigade. Another body 
was to march westward along the banks of the St. 

84 




6y permission of 



THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC 

Lawrence to occupy the attention of the right of the 
French army. The plan seemed good, but a series of 
mishaps attended its execution, resulting in the loss to 
the British of 427 men and 30 officers killed and 
wounded ; while the French loss was only 66 killed 
and wounded. This was the first serious attempt to 
attack the stronghold of the French, and its termina- 
tion was disastrous to the hopes of Wolfe. 

The month of August opened inauspiciously for 
the besieger and the besieged. On the French side 
there had been little loss of life, but many of the inha- 
bitants were ruined and homeless ; moreover, they 
were experiencing the horrors of famine. The British 
were in an unenviable position. The severe repulse at 
Montmoreiicy had thinned the ranks and damped the 
ardour of the soldiers. Again, the inclemency of the 
weather, and the exposure of the camps during a 
summer of excessive rain had threatened the health of 
the army. In order to relieve suffering as much as 
possible, the sick in the British camp were removed to 
the Island of Orleans. 

Wolfe adopted another method at this time to try 
to draw Montcalm from his intrenchments. Murray was 
sent with a strong detachment to Deschambault to try 
to effect a landing, and if possible force his way towards 
the city from that quarter. Great preparations were 
made for this expedition from the fact that Descham- 
bault was the base of stores for the French. For two 
days the British had caused their boats to ply to and 
fro along the north shore in order to allay suspicion. 

85 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

On the eighteenth of August the signal was given to 
embark, and at midnight the expedition started. At 
day break on the igih the boats drew near the shore, 
and an hour later a landing was effected two miles below 
St. Joseph's Church. The French were surprised, and 
believing that a much larger force had landed, retired 
to the shelter of a wood. Near the Church, in a house 
occupied by Madame Cadet, wife of the army contractor, 
the British found clothing ammunition and arms, valued 
at ninety thousand pounds, which they destro3 r ed by 
fire. About this time it became known that Wolfe 
was suffering from a slow fever, and the soldiers were 
disheartened at the news, for there had been little 
progress made, and the prospects looked dark. The 
destruction of property threatened by Wolfe was now 
put into terrible effect. Parties were sent out daily to 
lay waste the villages and farms, but still the Canadians 
would not remain neutral. On the 29th of August 
Wolfe found himself too ill to direct the campaign, and 
he requested the general officers to consult for the good 
of the service, enclosing to them a plan of campaign. 
The Brigadiers rejected the suggestions of Wolfe and 
stated in writing their reasons for so doing. In conse- 
quence, a plan was drawn up by the brigadiers in 
which Wolfe acq uiesced. By this plan it was proposed 
to make a descent either at Pointe aux Trembles or at 
St. Augustin. 

In the early days of September, after the camp at 
Montmorency had been broken up, active preparations 
were made for putting the Brigadier's plan into opera- 

86 



THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC 

tion. This plan has been the cause of much confusion, 
and the Brigadiers have been given credit thereby for 
the plan by which Quebec was eventually taken. On 
the eight of September Wolfe was so far recovered as 
to be able to resume command, and he then appears to 
have considered the plan of his officers impraticable. 

On the loth of September he abandoned their 
scheme and selected the Foulon as the place of attack. 

It soon became known that a change was proposed, 
but the Brigadiers were in ignorance of Wolfe's inten- 
tions. On the 1 2th, orders were given for embarkation, 
and the three Brigadiers Monckton, Townshend and 
Murray, addressed a letter to Wolfe in which they 
requested information both as to the nature and the 
place of the attack. Wolfe replied to this communica- 
tion two hours before the boats containing the troops 
were put in motion, stating that he had chosen the 
place where he thought he was most likely to succeed, 
and that it was not the duty of officers to enquire when 
not particularly charged with the task of conducting 
an expedition. He further stated that the place was the 
Foulon, and gave all the directions which he thought 
necessary. These two important letters which forever 
set at rest the disputed question as to the authorship 
of the plan by which Quebec was taken, have only 
recently been brought to light ; but their publication 
has proved that the Brigadiers had no desire to claim 
any share in the plan. 

Shortly after these letters had been written, the 
troops embarked in the flat bottomed boats from the 

87 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

ships off Cape Rouge, and awaited the order to proceed. 
For two or three days the ships had been in the vicinity 
of Cape Rouge, and during the day the men had been 
put ashore at St. Nicholas ; and returned to the vessels 
towards evening. The ships would then make various 
movements which were followed by de Bougainville. 
Towards dusk on this evening the troops as usual had 
rejoined their ships, but as soon as it was dark, the 
men were lowered into the boats and sent over to the 
south shore. When this had been accomplished the 
vessels began to move slowly towards St. Augustin, as 
they had done before, except the Sutherland, which 
remained anchored in mid stream. 

Bougainville immediately set his troops in motion 
to follow them in accordance with his instructions, not 
knowing that the men had been removed. 

At midnight the small boats formed in line between 
the Sutherland and the south shore, and at a given 
signal fell down with the tide towards the town. 
Bougainville by this time was far way, and so long as 
silence was preserved there was little fear of detection. 
The boats passed on their way, but when w r ithin about 
a mile of the place of landing an incident occurred 
which threatened not only to cut short the career of 
the youthful commander, but also to destroy all his 
carefully laid plans for the reduction of Quebec. ( l ) 
The landing place was reached at length, and soon 



(i ) See the Siege of Quebec and the Battle of the Plains of 
Abraham. 

88 



THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC 

the twenty four men selected as pioneers were scaling 
the naked rock, about two hundred yards to the east 
of the foot of the winding path. As soon as these men 
had gained the height they attacked and overpowered 
the posts which defended the path, and cleared the 
way for the ascent of the remainder of the troops. 
The men formed as early as possible and marched 
straight across the plateau until they came to the St. 
Foy road, led by the General. They were then ordered 
to face to the right and march along the St. Foy road 
until they came to the house of M. Borgia, situated 
near the corner of Maple Avenue. This house was 
taken possession of by the British, and Wolfe imme- 
diately formed a line of battle across the plateau, with 
the hill upon which the Gaol now stands, at his rear. 
Here he awaited the arrival of the troops which were 
crossing over from L,evis under the direction of Carleton. 
Brigadier Townshend attended to the disembarkation, 
and by eight o'clock the whole of Wolfe's forces were 
in battle array on the heights of Quebec. 

In the meantime the French had learned that the 
enemy had landed, and were making preparations to 
oppose them, but long before any of Montcalm's men 
had crossed the river St. Charles all Wolfe's arrange- 
ments had been completed, and he was beginning to 
entrench his position. At a quarter to seven the Mar- 
quis de Vaudreuil, who was at Beauport, had addressed 
a letter to de Bougainville in which he informed 
him of the landing of the enemy ; but Vaudreuil was 
under the impression that he was at Cape Rouge, 

89 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

while he was actually at this time at least fifteen miles 
from the city. 

When the French at last arrived upon the heights 
in the vicinity of the Drill Hall, they found that the 
British were in a strong position. Wolfe had been in 
almost undisputed possession of the field for over three 
hours, and he had wisely made choice of the most 
advantageous position. Montcalm took in the situation 
at a glance, and recognized as a prudent general, that 
immediate action was necessary. The action of the 
French General has been severely criticised by those 
unfamiliar with the true state of affairs at this moment. 
It has been contended that Montcalm should have 
waited the arrival of de Bougainville who it is claimed 
was at Cape Rouge. Bougainville, however was not at 
Cape Rouge, but many miles distant, where he had 
been drawn by the clever ta<flics of Wolfe. 

Had Montcalm waited two hours longer his chances 
of defeating Wolfe would have been much less than 
they were at this time, for every hour Wolfe was 
strengthening his position and he would soon have 
been able to defy a very powerful army. General 
Murray's statement made during the following year 
when the French were in a similar position to the 
English at this time, is a testimony of the soundness 
of Montcalm' s judgment in immediately attacking the 
enemy. 

The peculiar position chosen by Wolfe made it 
imperative for the attacking army to abandon the 
advantages afforded by the rising ground upon which 

90 



THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC 

the Martello Towers are situated and to descend into 
the hollow, where a much larger army might have 
been liable to defeat. To have left the British alone 
would have been to court disaster, for the navy was 
already preparing to bring up a quantity of field pieces, 
and in a short time Wolfe would have been able to 
fortify his position which was so favoured by nature. 
Montcalm, therefore, decided to bring on the action 
while there was a fighting chance. His men came on 
briskly to the attack, but when they were within about 
forty yards of the British, near de Salaberry street, 
Wolfe gave the order to fire, and the whole of his line 
fired as one man. The effect of this volley at so short 
a range practically decided the fate of the day. By the 
time the smoke had cleared away, not more than six 
minutes, it was discovered that nearly the whole of 
the front rank of the French army had been mown 
down, and that the remainder of the troops were dis- 
organized thereby. At that instant Wolfe gave the 
order to advance, and before Montcalm could rally his 
men, the British were in pursuit. 

Wolfe had scarcely given the order to advance 
when he received his_Jhird and mortal w^tild, and he 
was conveyed to the rear where he died shortly after. 
Within those few moments the flower of the French 
army was cut down, the British General was dying, 
and the heroic Montcalm had received his mortal wound. 
With his face to the foe, he manfully endeavoured to 
rally his men for a second attack, but the havoc 
wrought amongst his men was too great, and he was 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

forced by the retreating army towards the city and 
sorrowfully conducted within its walls, where he 
expired early on the following morning. 

The pursuit soon became general, and Townshend 
who had assumed command, owing to the fact that 
Monckton was disabled at the same time as Wolfe, was 
obliged to recall his troops to prepare for the return 
of Bougainville, who was expected at any moment. 
By this judicious movement he was removed from the 
dangers of the batteries of the town, and he was also 
prepared for any attack in the rear. Townshend chose 
the same place as Wolfe had first selected, to meet 
Bougainville, which was a tribute to the generalship of 
the dead commander. Townshend had scarcely com- 
pleted his dispositions when de Bougainville appeared 
on the St. Foy road in the rear, and came on to attack. 
He soon realised that his position was untenable for 
Townshend occupied the high ground, while he was 
on the edge of the cliff. However he made an attempt 
and a brief engagement ensued in which he lost thirty 
men. He thereupon retired in the hope of rejoining the 
main army. When he reached the camp at Beauport 
he found that the army had abandoned their camp and 
retired to Jacques Carder. 

After the battle Townshend formed his camp upon 
the battle field, and fortified himself against further 
attack. 

Early on the morning of the i4th, Montcalm 
breathed his last. A few hours before his death he 
had written to Townshend informing him that the 

92 



THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC 

French were obliged to capitulate, and desired him to 
execute the cartel of exchange. Montcalm realised 
from the first that the cause was lost, particularly since 
the city had been abandoned by the army. Vaudreuil 
who had boasted so much of the plans he had taken, 
and would take to save the city, had been tried and 
found wanting, and in the hour of the city's greatest 
need he sought personal safety in flight. From his 
place of security he began to urge upon the helpless 
citizens the necessity of resisting to the last, whilst he 
had withdrawn from them the only means by which 
they could hope to make resistance effective. 

At day-break on the i4th of September the Heights 
of Abraham presented a dismal sight. Far and wide 
over the field of battle, the blue and white uniforms of 
the heroic dead bore mute testimony to the havoc that 
followed in the wake of victory. The British had 
buried their own dead and those of the French who 
were within their own lines. At noon a flag of truce 
came from the city, and hostilities were suspended 
while the remainder of the victims of the battle were 
consigned to the grave. Within the walls of the city 
were scenes of distress and excitement. From the 
batteries the terrified people saw that the British had 
thirty pieces of canon directed against the feeble forti- 
fications, and were hourly making a closer investment. 
The army in the rear had been withdrawn, so that the 
people were entirely abandoned to their own resources. 
All hopes of succour failed the citizens, and general 
discouragement pervaded the whole population. The 

93 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

women and children suffering with hunger, cried for 
bread. The merchants, impoverished by the bom- 
bardment which had destroyed their shops, their homes, 
and their merchandize, viewed with anxiety the 
preparations which were made for a general assault by 
land and by water, and begged de Ramezay to capitulate 
while yet there was time ; but he still bravely held out. 
At length, after a council of War, de Ramezay signed 
and gave out the following decision : 

" Considering the instructions I have received 
from the Marquis de Vaudreuil, and the scarcity of 
provisions proved by the returns to me furnished, and 
the searches I have made, I conclude to endeavour to 
obtain from the enemy the most honourable capitu- 
lation." 

On the eighteenth the city formally capitulated, 
and the British took possession. 

Monseigneur Pontbriand, writing to the Minister 
in France two months after, said : 

" Quebec has been bombarded and cannonaded 
for the space of two months ; a hundred and eighty 
houses have been burned by cascades, all the others 
riddled by cannon and bombs. Walls six feet thick 
have not withstood ; vaults in which private persons 
had placed their effects, have been burned, broken 
down and pillaged during the siege and after it. 
The Cathedral has been entirely consumed. In the 
Seminary, there is no part habitable, except the kitchen, 
where the cure of Quebec and his vicar have retired. 
The church in the Lower Town is entirely destroyed ; 
those of the Recollets, the Jesuits and of the Seminary 
are not in a state to be used without very extensive 

94 



THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC 

repairs. There is only the Ursuline Church in which 
services can be held with any decency, although the 
English make use of it for some special ceremonies. 
This community and that of the Hospitaliers have 
also been much damaged. However, the nuns have 
found a means of living there through good and bad, 
after remaining the whole time of the siege in the 
General Hospital. The Hotel- Dieu is exceedingly 
confined because the English sick are there. Four 
years ago this community was entirely burned out. 
The Bishop's Palace is almost destroyed and has not 
a single habitable appartment ; the vaults have been 
pillaged. The establishments of the Recollets and the 
Jesuits are in about the same condition ; the English 
have however made some repairs to them to lodge 
troops there. They have taken possession of the least 
damaged houses in the city. They drive out from 
their own homes even those citizens who at their own 
expense have had some appartment repaired, or so 
limit them by the number of soldiers billited upon 
them, that almost all are obliged to abandon this 
unfortunate city ; and they do this all the more willingly 
because the English are not willing to sell anything 
except for coined money, and it is known that paper 
is the money of the country. The Seminary priests, 
the canons, the Jesuits, are scattered in the small 
portion of the country that is not yet under English 
rule. Private people in the city are without wood for 
the winter, without bread, without flour, and without 
meat, and live only upon the portion of biscuit and 
pork which the English soldiers sell them out of their 
own rations. Such is the extremity to which the best 
citizens are reduced." 

The Prelate who wrote these despairing lines died 
on the 8th of June in the following ) T ear. He had 

95 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

retired to Montreal in October, 1759, almost broken 
hearted at the sight of the misery and suffering caused 
by the war. 

The British were totally unaccustomed to such 
winters as they experienced in Quebec, and they found 
it impossible to walk with safety. Captain Knox 
reports that having been ordered to mount guard in 
the lyower Town, he found that the men could not 
descend Mountain Hill on account of the ice, and 
they were obliged to seat themselves on the ground 
and slide one after the other to the foot of the hill. 
The record of the devices they made to assist them in 
walking, and to keep from freezing, appear strange to 
one accustomed to a Canadian winter, and with every 
article of comfort at hand. Nevertheless, the sufferings 
of these poor men were not exaggerated ; and, more- 
over, hundreds of them perished from scurvy. 

The French had not abandoned all hopes of regain- 
ing Quebec. From time to time news was received 
that they were gathering their forces for an attack, 
and the British were therefore kept continually in a 
state of suspense. 

On the 1 7th of April the Chevalier de Levis left 
Montreal with 4,500 regular troops and a few days 
after a large train of supplies was embarked on board 
a fleet of boats which proceeded to Jacques Cartier, 
Deschambault and Pointe aux Trembles. The forces 
of LeVis when he reached the latter place amounted to 
nearly ten thousand men. On the 26th the army 
landed at St. Augustin and after crossing the river 

96 



THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC 

Cap Rouge came upon the English, who immediately 
fell back to Ste. Foy. 

On the twenty-seventh, Murray was apprised of 
the approach of L,evis in a singular manner. Early in 
the morning, the watch on board the Race Horse had 
been alarmed by a cry of distress which seemed to 
proceed from the river. A boat was put out and pre- 
sently a man was discovered on a floating piece of ice. 
He was conveyed to the ship and revived, when he 
told the officer that L,evis was marching towards the 
town with a large army. The man was afterwards 
taken to General Murray, to whom he repeated his 
story, and he also described his perilous descent amidst 
the floating ice. 

The troops were called to arms, and early in the 
morning, Murray led his little army consisting of three 
thousand one hundred men, with a number of pieces 
of cannon to the attack. One column issued from St. 
IvOuis Gate, and one from St. John Gate, while the 
French came by the way of Ste. Foy and Suede roads. 

There appears to have been a great deal of confusion 
in the past, both as to the number of the British at the 
Battle of Ste. Foy, and also as to the method of attack. 
The question of the number of men, and the details of 
the battle are satisfactorily settled by the discovery, in 
the month of November last, of the original plan of the 
battle, with its detailed description, signed by Patrick 
Mackellar, the chief engineer of the British army 
under Murray ; and also by the discovery of General 
Murray's report made on the day after the battle. 

7 97 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

We quote at some length from Mackellars' Plan 
and Report, because they have not hitherto been made 
use of by any previous writer. 

' ' The action which lasted full three hours was 
chiefly upon the flanks. There the enemy made all 
their efforts without making any attempt towards the 
centre, tho' their numbers were sufficient to make a 
push there likewise. But even upon the flanks we 
for some time gained considerable advantage. Upon 
the right our infantry beat back their grenadiers from 
the house and windmill, but they unluckily pursued 
too far to be sustained, and suffered accordingly. They 
were beat back in their turn and with such a loss as to 
appear no more in the action . Upon our left we gained 
a great deal of ground, the volunteers and grenadiers 
of the 29th drove the enemy out of the two redoubts y 
and z. ( l ) They kept possession of them for some 
time, but being at length surrounded they were obliged 
to force their way back. 

' ' The enemy had now overpowered our flanks 
with such superior numbers as left us no more hopes 
of success. A retreat began of its own accord in which 
it must be observed that the redoubt w was of great 
service ( 2 ) and kept the enemy at bay for about ten 
minutes, which saved our rear and many of our 
wounded from being cut off from the town. This was 
raised only a few facines high on account of the frosts, 
but there being two pickets left there during the action 
it deceived the enemy as a complete work. We brought 
off only two pieces of artillery, it was impracticable to 






1 i ) The Redoubts y and z were situated on the high ground 
near the Marchmont property. 

(2) The Redoubt w was situated on the site of the gaol. It 
was afterwards called Wolfe's Redoubt. 

98 



THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC 

bring off the rest on account of the snow. X.Y.Z. are 
redoubts raised by us during the Siege of 1759, but 
were not thought of consequence enough to be demol- 
ished when the other works were . . . 

' ' The first forming of the British troops was two 
deep, and the French army was at first drawn up four 
deep. ' ' 

A study of the plan proves that Murray, who 
occupied at first a position similar to Montcalm, in 
the previous September, had a very advantageous 
ground, but he hoped to be able to defeat Levis before 
he had time to form properly, just as Montcalm had 
tried to prevent Wolfe. Murray was encumbered by 
his cannon, and but for these Mackellar says he would 
have attacked the French earlier. LeVis made a clever 
movement which deceived Murray into the belief that 
he was about to fall back upon another position, and 
after he had descended into the hollow there was 
nothing to do but to fight as best he could. In this 
three hours fight Murray lost nearly one thousand 
men, while the loss of the French was nearly seven 
hundred and fifty. The Siege was by no means at an 
end. Murray had now only a miserable discouraged 
garrison, while the French under the victorious Levis 
had renewed courage. On the same evening Levis 
commenced to construct a parallel about eight hundred 
yards from the walls, upon the foundations which 
Murray had commenced in the autumn before. He 
also erected a battery of four guns, one of six guns, 
and one of three guns and two mortars which were 

99 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

opened between the loth and i3th of May. Six 
mortars were also set up to prevent the shipping from 
flanking their camp, and a provision magazine was 
established at the Foulon. For six days the enemy 
kept up their fire against the town ; but the temporary 
works which Murray had creeled in front of the walls 
in October 1759, and the superiority of his artillery 
prevented the fire of the French from doing much 
damage. On the i6th, three British ships arrived, and 
ran some of the French vessels aground. This caused 
1,6 vis to raise the siege, and he retired on the night 
of the 1 6th and iyth of May, leaving his baggage and 
artillery. 

Thus ended the Siege of Quebec in 1759 and 1760, 
in which so many gallant soldiers found that ' ' the 
paths of glory lead but to the grave." 



100 




QUEBEC VOLUNTEER CAVALRY 



CHAPTER VI 

1608-1903 

THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

DEFENCE UNDER CHAMPLAIN THE FIRST STONE 

FORT CHATEAU ST. LOUIS WORKS UNDER 
FRONTENAC LE VASSEUR'S PLAN DE LERY'S 
REPORT MACKELEAR'S PLAN THE VOLUN- 
TEERS OF 1728 HAWKINS ON THE FORTIFICA- 
TIONS MEETING OF CITIZENS ENORMOUS 
COST OF WORKS DEFECTIVE WORKMANSHIP 
CARLETON ON THE DEFENCES OF QUEBEC 
BRITISH WORKS THE GATES OF QUEBEC. 

THE fortifications of Quebec have always been in an 
intermittent state of development from the time 
when Champlain put up his first palisade under the cliff 
down to our own day, when the very idea of defending 
the city by a stone-faced citadel and surrounding wall 
has become as obsolete as the walls themselves. But, 
though this three centuries of development was in a 
sense continuous ; yet its history falls naturally into 
six periods, each of which embodied its own idea, 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

either in the form of regular new works, or merely in 
temporary shifts and expedients to meet the most 
pressing necessities of the moment. 

I. From 1608 to 1689 there was nothing more than 
an isolated fort into which the people could withdraw 
in case of an Indian raid, or a stray attack from the 
sea. 

II. But from 1689 to 1759 there was a constantly 
developing scheme of defence, mainly concerned 
with the protection of the key of New France against 
regular British attacks in force. 

III. From 1759 to 1778 there was continual tinker- 
ing at the defences in time of danger ; but though the 
old French works were useless, no new British scheme 
was attempted. 

IV. After five years' work the first comprehensive 
scheme took form in 1783 ; but even then the works 
were not really of a permanent nature. 

V. After another forty years a new, and much 
more complete, scheme was undertaken in 1823, on a 
far greater scale. The result was the Citadel and walls 
as they stand to-day, except for the demolition of a 
few of the gates and minor buildings. 

VI. Finally, when modern conditions had made it 
impossible to rely on the present Citadel and walls, a 
new scheme of distant detached defences was taken in 
hand about 1865-1870 ; but never carried out beyond 
the erection of the present forts on the heights of 
Levis. 

102 




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dslai^em^ue. fur Ic boi: Curie borta.-la no.erc. 

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bltation. 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

The extremely interesting history of all these 
successive schemes has never been fully known until 
the present year, 1903, when the original plans and 
documents have been collected and studied in their 
entirety for the first time. 

I. The tiny settlement which Champlain founded 
in 1608 was defended by a sort of compromise between 
a mediaeval castle and a backwoods stockade. An 
illustration of it, copied from the ' ' Voyages de Cham- 
plain," published in 1613, is given in this work. 
There was a drawbridge, a ditch and a court yard, 
with platforms for the cannons and loop-holes for 
musketry all complete ; but the whole edifice was 
built of wood and earth only. The "Habitation," 
with additions and improvements, served the needs of 
the colony until 1620, when Champlain commenced 
on the crest of the rock, a more important structure, 
afterwards to be distinguished as the Fort St. Louis. 

The work in connection with this fort was necess- 
arily tedious on account of the scarcity of workmen 
and the lack of material. On the eve of his departure 
for France, in 1624, Champlain urged the inhabitants 
to continue the building of the fort during his absence 
to the best of their ability, but upon his return, in 1626, 
he found that no progress had been made. He there- 
fore caused the walls to be levelled to their foundations, 
and commenced the construction of a more spacious 
fortress. The new building was at length completed 
and it served as a residence for the invader, Kertk, 
from 1629 to 1632. Champlain took up his abode in 

103 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

the fort in 1633, and resided there until his death, in 

1635- 

Montmagny succeeded Champlain, and it was 
under his regime that the first stone fort was built. 
In the year 1646, a contract was passed between the 
Company of New France and certain contractors, for 
the construction of more extensive works of defence. 
In the following year, 1647, the foundation of the first 
Chateau Saint Louis (logic) was laid. The Chateau 
was erected within the boundaries of the Fort, and a 
distinction between the Fort and the Chateau has not 
always been preserved. 

In the course of time it became apparent to those 
in authority, that if France desired to retain a foot- 
hold in the new world, the position of Quebec must be 
strengthened. 

On the 4th of August, 1663, the Baron D'Avau- 
gour wrote : 

" And finally, in order to plant effectually the 
' fleur de lys there, I see nothing better than to fortify 
' Quebec ; erect one fort at its right, on the opposite 
' of the river, and another on its left, at the river St. 
' Charles, and support these with reinforcements of 
' three thousand men, as I have already communicated 
' to the Baron du Cochet ; thus this post would be 
' thoroughly secured, and thereby a very important 
' work commenced. To effect this, two things are 
1 necessary : First, one hundred thousand /cus, for 
' the fortifications, and one hundred thousand francs, 
' for munitions of war and provisions. Secondly, it 
' will be necessary for the three thousand men to be 
' selected not only for war but also for labour. ' ' 

104 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

From this letter it is evident that the French, at 
an early date, recognized the importance of Quebec as 
a strategic point. 

Four years passed, and no effect was given to the 
suggestions made by D'Avaugour. In 1667, the great 
Colbert wrote : 

" It is of the greatest importance for the security 
of the colony to devise practicable means to place the 
fort of Quebec in a state of defence, by constructing 
a regular fortification there, stocking it with an 
efficient artillery and all sorts of munitions of war, so 
that it might not only not be insulted, but be capable 
of a vigorous defence, even though the most exper- 
ienced nations of Europe laid a regular siege to it." 

During the next ten years representations were 
repeatedly made to the King setting forth the advis- 
ability of making provision to withstand an assault, 
but no aid was forthcoming. In 1681, Frontenac com- 
plained that the Chateau was in a deplorable condition, 
and that the walls of the Fort were in ruins. A plan 
was prepared by the Engineer Villeneuve for extending 
the boundaries of the Fort, and for providing suitable 
walls and buildings, but this plan, in its entirety, was 
not carried out. 

II. During the seventy years between 1689 and 
J 759> Quebec was the constant objective of all British 
schemes in America. New England was always 
watching the opportunity of putting into practice 
' ' The Glorious Enterprise ' ' for the final conquest of 
New France. This statesmanlike proposal, first form- 
ulated by Peter Schuyler, Mayor of Albany, in 1689, 

105 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

was substantially the same plan as that ultimately 
adopted by Pitt for the campaign of 1759. The few 
men of true strategic foresight on both sides had always 
foreseen that New France could only be struck down 
for ever by a simultaneous attack along three lines of 
advance. One column was to cut the French commu- 
nications with the West along the line of the great 
lakes. Another, and much larger force, was to move 
on Montreal by way of L,ake Champlain. And whilst 
the French were being seriously attacked in these two 
places, a great combined naval and military force was 
to strike directly at the strategic_centre of both sea 
and land power at Quebec. 

Colbert had been anxious for the safety of Quebec 
more than twenty-five years before this ; and Fron- 
teuac was even more alarmed during his first adminis- 
tration of New France, from 1672-1682. Things came 
to such a pass that the inhabitants at last proposed to 
erect fortifications on their own account. The paternal 
French Government immediately seized this excellent 
chance of overworking the willing horse ; as we can 
see from the letter authorized by the King in 1690 : 

" His Majesty having learned that the inhabit- 
ants of Quebec have made preparations to enclose 
that town with palisades, they must be obliged to 
lose no time in proceeding therewith, and if they 
should not be absolutely able to complete the work 
without some help, the Sieurs de Frontenac and 
Champigny will examine the means of making pro- 
vision for that purpose." 

106 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

Frontenac entered upon the work with character- 
istic energy, and in the space of two years, fortifications 
of an apparently solid nature, and upon an extensive 
scale, were well advanced. These works, however, 
like all those executed under the French regime, were 
constructed more with an idea of profit than of dura- 
bility. 

Indeed, from this time on, when the scheme of 
fortifications began to become so important and there 
was plenty of money to be made out of contracts, there 
is one long unvarying tale of shameless corruption, in 
nearly every department of the public service connected 
with the defences of Quebec. The military chiefs like 
Frontenac and Montcalm, and the later engineers like 
Franquet and Pontleroy did their duty honestly. But 
the civil functionaries and contractors were utterly and 
shamelessly corrupt and incompetent. 

On the 23rd of September, 1692, five men who 
had escaped from Quebec, concurred in the following 
statement made before Governor Fletcher, of New York : 

" Saith, that nine ships arrived at Quebec from 
France on the i2th of August last with pork, flour, 
wine, and salt and fish, and all sorts of merchand- 
izes, with a supply of all military stores for Count 
Frontenac, and that they saw thirty great guns 
landed, twenty pettarioes, one mortar and 300 bombs 
but no men. That a new stone fort is a building at 
Quebec, and a stone wall about the town, of which 
three hundred paces already made, ten paces high, 
and seven bastions, all of stone, for which the King 
hath sent forty thousand livres." 

107 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

All operations had to cease during the winter, but 
as soon as the snow disappeared Frontenac, or ' ' the 
Capitaine reforme*,' staked out the work for the re- 
mainder of the season. Towards the end of the year 
Frontenac sent to France an account of the work 
which he had accomplished. 

" The Court will see by the plans transmitted, on 
which the whole of the enceinte is laid down what 
are the works we have constructed, and it is true 
that including masonry, terraces and carpentry 
work, 500 men have not been employed over 50 or 
60 days, the whole at a very reasonable cost to 
Canada. ' ' 

A copy of Frontenac 's plan which is in our pos- 
session, shows that the walls were of a uniform height 
all round the city, following the level of the ground. 
The area embraced was not as large as that enclosed 
by De L,ery, nearly thirty years later. 

Frontenac 's walls, the first ever made round 
Quebec, crowned the water front for three quarters of 
a mile ; starting from the present Chateau Frontenac 
Hotel, running north for a quarter of a mile, along the 
present terrace, across the top of Mountain Hill and 
round the front of the old Parliament grounds. Then 
they turned westward, following the line of the present 
Rampart Street till they stopped at Palace Hill, where 
they protected the road to the fords of the St. Charles. 
On the landward side, starting again from the present 
Chateau Frontenac Hotel, they ran westward between 
Mount Carmel and St. Louis Streets, across Haldimand 

1 08 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

Hill, and then curved into St. L,ouis Street on reaching 
the corner of Ste. Ursule Street. Thence running north 
westward inside the line of Ste. Ursule Street and 
trending slightly more and more in a northerly direc- 
tion, they ran nearly through the intersections of Ste. 
Anne and Ste. Angele Streets and then to the lower 
end of St. Stanislas Street, whence they curved north 
to Palace Hill. The total circuit was about a mile and 
a half, and the area enclosed about half that contained 
by the present walls, exclusive of the Citadel. The 
landward faces were particularly weak, little danger 
being feared from any force coming from that direc- 
tion. 

Frontenac, no doubt, took every precaution to 
safeguard his designs, but, nevertheless, a full descrip- 
tion of the nature and the strength of the defences of 
Quebec was transmitted to the British authorities 
through the treachery of one, de Nelson. This man 
had succeeded in gaining the friendship of Frontenac 
in order to betray him, and he finally confessed, after 
imprisonment in the Bastile, the methods he had em- 
ployed to secure the information. 

During the summer of 1693, Peter Schuyler wrote 
from Albany : 

" Jurian tells me that the messenger at Oneyde 
' ' braggs much of his strength ; of their fortifications 
' at Quebec ; number of men firing mortar pieces, and 
' ' such like stratagems. ' ' 

And in the month of August, Governor Fletcher, 
wrote : 

109 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

" Count Frontenac is busy with his fortifications 
" at Quebec, and if left alone a year or two more, it 
' ' will require an experienced officer and considerable 
' ' force to turn him out. ' ' 

The British evidently emplo3*ed every means at 
their disposal to keep in touch with the progress of 
events at Quebec. Amongst the papers referring to 
Quebec in the Public Record Office, London, there is 
a report of the affairs in 1694, obtained from two men, 
examined before the Governor of New York, from 
which this extract is made : 

' ' Q. How is Quebec fortified ? 

"A. By the waterside there is platform. A stone 
' breast work, very low, which will give shelter to 
' their men. The greatest has twelve guns which 
' will throw a ball of 30 pounds. The fort stands 
' very high in the upper town, which is fortified to 
' the landside by a wall of 16 foot thickness, of brush 
' faggots and earth palisades, fronting outwards, to 
' prevent running over the walls ; this wall is not yet 
' finished, but they have two engineers who have come 
' over this summer, and we hear that they intend to 
' build a stonewall round the town. In the town and 
' fort of Quebec there are 140 guns, and not above 
' 300 inhabitants who can bear arms." 

The contractors entrusted with the construction 
of the works under Frontenac, appear to have paid 
more attention to the price they derived for their work 
than to its value. The official correspondence at this 
time reveals many scandalous facts. 

In October, 1698, M. de Champigny demanded 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

the sum of forty thousand livres to complete the works 
absolutely neccessary for the safety of Quebec, but 
two years later the sum of one hundred thousand livres 
was demanded. 

A few months before his death in 1698, Frontenac 
wrote that the Sieur LeVasseur de Nere had been 
instructed to prepare new plans. Copies of these plans, 
and of the reports accompanying them, are before us. 
The first report, which is very long, bears the 
date Oct. 6th, 1700. It commences as follows : 

" L,' enceinte fut tracee en 1693 par un capitaine 
' reforme qui estoit en Canada, il jetta la fortification 
' au hazard sans avoir egard aux hauteurs dont elle 
' pouvait estre commandee aussy la plus part des bas- 
' tions si trouvent-ils enfillez et vous deriver a m'en 
' pouvoir approcher." 

After pointing out numerous other defects, and 
estimating the cost of placing the fortifications in good 
order at one hundred thousand livres, de Nere states 
that three or four years will be required to execute the 
work. 

LeVasseur transmitted to the King apian showing 
the progress made on the new works in October, 1701, 
and he also suggested that the inhabitants should be 
compelled to contribute their labour towards the 
defence of Quebec. 

Early in the year 1 702 , the British were informed 
that the stone wall which encircled Quebec was com- 
plete, and that 56 guns and 82 mortars were set up 
around the city. This report was confirmed by the 
Governor of New York, who in June, 1702, wrote : 
in 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

" We also informed ourselves of the state of 
' ' Quebec. We understand that the place is well forti- 
" fied with a stone wall round it, and there is a bridge 
" over the creek, at which place the Bostoners stopped 
" when they attacked it." 

The several improvements executed under L,e 
Vasseur's first plan were completed in 1703, but soon 
after a lengthy correspondence commenced between 
the Minister in France, and the Engineer and the 
contractors, regarding the faulty nature of the work. 
Jealousy, and an unfortunate system of patronage, 
seem to have been at the root of the interminable 
disputes revealed by the official correspondence. 

In 1704, LeVasseur prepared another plan, and 
certain new works were commenced which were com- 
pleted in 1707. 

Under LeVasseur' s plan there were three gates, 
but he appears to have intended to construct several 
others to the land side, as the walls were never closed 
in certain places, except by temporary barriers. 

The King of France had certainly every excuse 
for exercising caution in supplying the constant de- 
mands for money for the fortifications of Quebec, which 
seemed to require perpetual alteration. Vast sums 
had been expended upon Quebec during the space of 
one hundred years, and as soon as the appropriation 
granted was exhausted, an entirely different plan was 
proposed as being absolutely essential for the safety of 
the colony. 

For eight years there seems to have been a period 

112 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

of comparative quiet, but in the year 1715, in response 
to pressing demands, the King ordered certain works 
to be carried out. Chaussegros de Ivry, the Engineer, 
was instructed to prepare a plan, and a report of the 
works considered necessary. 

A preliminary plan was made in 1716, and a full 
report, was sent to France during the same year. In 
1717, de L,ery went to France and discussed the pro- 
ject with the Court, and obtained the sanction for the 
works which he proposed. 

A copy of this report is published herewith, and 
it is somewhat singular to note, that de L,ery con- 
demned the plans of his predecessors for some of the 
faults for which his own plans were subsequently 
condemned. The report is as follows : 

" The situation of the place is favourable on the 
' side of the St. I^awrence, and unfavourable on that 
' of the land, as the locality is difficult of fortification, 
' there being a great pitch from the summit at Cape 
' Diamond to Coteau de la Potasse, and as the works 
' will be partially commanded by the hill at Artigny's 
' mill, and by another hill imdermarked 17 ; the 
' ground rising according as it recedes from the place, 
' it is favourable, inasmuch as nearly two-thirds 
' of its circuit does not require to be fortified. All the 
' portion from the Coteau de la Potasse, marked S, 
' which fronts the river St. Charles around to the 
' redoubt marked H, or top of Cape Diamond, and 
' beyond that height, in front of the river St. Law- 
' rence, has no need of any other fortifications than 
' that of the batteries already there, as it is percipi- 
' tous, and there are three good batteaux in the lower 

8 113 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

" town, at high water-mark, marked F, D, E. Those 
" on the escarpment, in the upper town, are not so 
" well situated, being too high, especially that of the 
' ' Chateau. The works on the land side, between the 
" Cape Diamond redoubt H, and Coteau de la Potasse 
" S, do not amount to much, being open in several 
' ' places, through which the town is entered ; some of 
"these were left as entrances to the town, they have 
" no gates, not even a miserable barrier ; the space 
"between Cape Diamond redoubt H, and the edge of 
" the escarpment 2, is open, so that thirty men could 
" enter the town abreast, that point having never been 
" closed. This redoubt, though badly turned, having 
" its left face undefended, is fit for use, being in good 
' ' repair ; and though it were well turned, flank 3 is 
' ' situated too low to defend this left face. 

" Curtain R, and flank 3, and face 4, are cotn- 
" manded by the hill 5 of Cape Diamond, or more 
" strictly speaking, concealed by that height in con- 
' ' sequence of its proximity ; the Curtain is raised only 
" four, five, or six feet above ground, and at one place 
as far as the cordon, as appears by the draft of the 
actual works, having a large breach towards its 
centre, some earth has been thrown up behind, which 
does not touch the wall ; the flanks and faces of the 
teuail have open embrassures ; to make use of them, 
it would be necessary to put some earth there for a 
platform and to construct the merlons. These works 
are without a ditch. 

" The mill battery, marked G, is fit for service, 
and though it forms a dead angle, it is no less 
effectual, being greatly elevated. All the fortifica- 
tions. 6, 7, 8, to complete the inclosing of the town, 
consist merely of an elevation without a ditch in 
front, open and crumbling in many places, having 
in one part a bad upright pallisade at the foot, which 

114 



THK FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

" can be scaled without any difficulty, there being 
" nothing to prevent it. Royal Redoubt, marked I. 
" The barracks are good. This redoubt is not com- 
" pleted, as some earth still remains to be put up on 
" the terreplain, and the merlons are to be constructed, 
' ' some doors and windows are to be inserted and the 
" flanks of the barracks to be finished. The Dauphin 
' ' Redoubt is incomplete, much being still to be done to 
"it. Its location is bad, being on the slope of a rising 
" ground. The plans, profiles, elevations and drafts 
" which I have drawn exhibit the actual condition of 
' ' these two redoubts. Saint Ursula' s Redoubt, marked 
" L, for the reception of cannon, consists merely of 
' ' one double faced platform with embrasure of gabions, 
" without a ditch, being enclosed by a miserable pal- 
' ' lisade stuck upright ; it has no communication with 
" the place and is open at its gorge ; the guns that 
' ' might be put there in time of need \vould be soon 
" captured ; as this redoubt is at a distance from the 
" place, without communication, and without a ditch, 
" and surrounded by a wretched pallisade, it would be 
" cannon and people lost. 

" The fortification to enclose the palace is not 
" advanced, having only the ditch which is marked ; 
" it is excavated some 2 and 3 feet ; the rampart is 
" not begun, the earth which has been removed from 
' ' the ditch having been used to repair the gardens and 
" fill up a pond, so that there is only this excavation 
" of two and three feet. 

" St. Roch Redoubt, marked M, is surrounded by 
" a small ditch ; the parapet, almost entirely in ruins, 
<( is made of gabions. 

" The Potasse tenail, marked ff, is badly turned, 
" not being defended at any point. 

" The fortification raised on Coteaude la Potasse, 
" which occupies the border of the escarpment, is too 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

44 low, being in some places only 6 feet high above the 
' ' escarpment, which can be made use of at this point. 
" The fortification, Q. O. P., is imperfect ; Jou- 
" belt's demi-bastion, Q., has neither its rampart nor 
44 parapets completed ; it forms, on its left, a dead 
" angle towards the escarpment, marked, 9, 10, n, 
' ' where there is a gate ; the approach to this angle is 
" by a covert way along the escarpment, and there is 
" a passage of 7 and 8 feet between the end of the 
44 wall, which goes down to this escarpment, and the 
" edge of the escarpment, 12, behind this wall, 10, u ; 
"it is difficult to construct a rampart there, and at 
" present there is no chemin des tondes from which we 
' ' could fire over its parapet ; there are some loop holes, 
" beside the gate, but they are situated too low, so 
44 that the fire would be completely traversed from 
" without ; the curtain, 13, is raised six feet over the 
" ground ; in bastion O, the ramparts are not built ; 
" the curtain, 14, is not formed, except by aretrench- 
" ment the same as that of the Palace ; the bastion F, 
44 is not finished ; it is raised over the ground, as shown 
44 in the sketch. This bastion is entirely opposed to 
" the hill at Artigny's mill, being raised above the 
' ' ground, like all the fortification, but without a ditch, 
" it being impossible to make any at the right face of 
" the Bastion O, which is situate on the brow of the 
' ' hill which is very percipitous ; from the height at 
" Artigny's mill, the faces of Bastion O could be easily 
' destroyed. All the front from 15 to 16, is exposed 
" to this hill, the fortification not being covered by 
4 ' any ditch ; and if it were desirable to construct one 
" to Bastion F, it would be necessary to lower the 
" faces of said bastion, or to raise the counterscarp 
44 which would be built, and the covert way of about 
4 ' twenty feet above the level of the ground on which 
44 the faces of this bastion stand ; this would cause a 

116 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

great expense, it being necessary to prolong the 
glacis of the covert way, which would not prevent 
the revetment of this bastion being always exposed 
at the heights ; as the bastion is situated in a low 
locality, I doubt if earth be found in the neighbor- 
hood within two hundred toises to construct its 
ramparts, which will be thirty feet high, for the 
vicinity of the place is nothing but rock covered with 
a little soil. I have remarked that there is neither 
cistern nor well within the fort, and the Marquis de 
Vaudreuil is badly lodged there." 

The scheme of defence prepared by de Lery met 
with the approval of the Court, and the work was 
commenced in June, 1720, a large appropriation having 
been made for the purpose. 

There appears to have been much confusion as to 
the nature and the extent of the fortifications con- 
structed by de Lery. His own plan settles the question. 

It has been claimed that the walls of 1720 extend- 
ed only a little beyond St. Ursule street. This is an 
imperfect description. From St. John's Gate to St. 
Louis Road, the walls ran in this direction, but be- 
tween St. Louis Road and Cap Diamond, Joubert's 
Bastion, Glaciere Bastion, and St. Louis Bastion, 
formed a continuous line in the direction of the present 
road to the Citadel. This position is also shown 
on the plan made by Nicolas Bellin, in 1740, and also 
shown on the enlargement of this plan made by Patrick 
Mackellar, Chief Engineer, for the use of Wolfe dur- 
ing the Siege of Quebec. 

117 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

A word concerning this plan which was no doubt 
often in the hands of Wolfe, may prove of interest. 

Before Wolfe came to Quebec, Mackellar had 
secured a copy of the plan made by the French Engi- 
neer, which he enlarged, and supplied with many 
references obtained from personal investigation and 
from various other sources. To this plan he attached 
a report, the original of which was shown to the writer 
by Colonel Townshend during his visit to Quebec. 
Three days after the Battle of the Plains, Brigadier 
General Townshend addressed a letter to Brigadier 
Monckton, requesting him to send to him the plan 
made by Mackellar, if it were amongst the papers of 
the late General Wolfe. Monckton answered that he 
had not found the plan, but possibly it might be in the 
hands of the Engineer. After much research this plan 
is now available to the student through the efforts of 
His Excellency, the Earl of Minto, and a copy is in 
our possession. 

The plans prepared by de Lery provided for the 
most elaborate works constructed under the French 
regime, although they did not include any buildings 
of importance upon Cape Diamond, as we have been 
led to suppose. With the exception of a small redoubt 
on the Cape, called Citadel Redoubt, the works in this 
direction remained the same as under the plan of Le 
Vasseur. It was in the extent of the outer walls, and 
in the addition of certain redoubts and batteries, in 
other parts of the city, that de L,ery's work consisted. 
The walls themselves, however, contained many of the 

118 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

defects of the other plans, and the workmanship was 
very faulty. 

While this work was in progress, the inhabitants 
were trained in the exercise of defence, as we find by 
the following : 

' ' ESTAT contenant les noms des Bourgeois et habitants 
de la ville de Quebec qui se sont pr6sente pour 
faire apprentissage de 1'exercicedu canon pendant 
les annees 1725, 1726 et 1727. 

SCAVOIR : 
Premiere Brigade : 

Girardin, forgeron ; 

L,eGris, do 

Carpentier, macon-entrepreneur ; 

Corbin, charpentier du Roy et contradleur ; 

Corbin, fils, charpentier de navire ; 

Maillon, architecte du Roy ; 

Maillon, forgeron ; 

Marchand, charpentier du Roy pour...et maisons ; 

Langlois, marchand-bourgeois ; 

L,allemant, bourgeois. 

Seconde Brigade : 

Prieur, bourgeois et perruquier ; 

Coton, orfevre ; 

Saleur, aubergiste ; 

Charles L,eVasseur, chartier ; 

Camane, macon-entrepreneur ; 

Caron, bourgeois et marchand ; 

L/Ense, menuisier ; 

Corbin, forgeron ; 

L,ouis Nadeau, charpentier de navire ; 

Jean-Baptiste Normand, chartier. 

119 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

' ' Je certifie le present R61e veritable et tons les 
" hommes presens qui ont servi pendant les trois 
" annees ci-dessus dite, a Quebec, le 10 8bre 1728. 

" (Signe} LENTARD." 

In " A New Picture of Quebec," the author, Mr. 
Hawkins, asserts, " That from the period of their 
renovation by descry (1720) the fortifications were 
maintained by the French Governors with great care, 
until the capture of Quebec in 1759." 

This statement, like many others made by Mr. 
Hawkins, is directly opposed to the facts. In 1728, 
the condition of the fortifications was so defective, 
that an urgent demand was made by the Marquis de 
Beauharnais and M. Dupuy for an enormous sum of 
money to place them in a proper state of defence. The 
King refused this demand, and at the same time said : 

" MM. Beauharnais and Dupuy must examine the 
" project maturely in conjunction with the engineers ; 
" draw up a plan of fortification which will not be 
" susceptible to alteration, like previous ones, and 
" transmit it to His Majesty." 

Again in 1734, the Marquis de Beauharnais and 
M. Hocquart wrote to France requesting aid to make 
such works and repairs as were absolutely necessary, 
and stated that as their demands of the previous year 
had been denied, they would place the batteries in 
good order, and construct others where necessary. In 
the year 1740, Nicolas Belin made several improve- 
ments, and altered the position of the batteries near 
the palace. 

120 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

Notwithstanding the assurance given to the King 
in 1720, that the works then commenced would meet 
all requirements, we find that deLery himself found 
that they were defective, and on the 5th of June, 1745 
he wrote : " Vous verrez, Monseigneur, dans le me- 
' ' moire que la face droite du Bastion St-Louis est mal 
41 tournee, je propose de la placer autrement." 

A lengthy correspondence ensued concerning the 
proposed changes in the plans, and at last both the 
inhabitants and the King grew weary of the ceaseless 
burden. Early in the year 1746 the King gave an 
order for all the work to be discontinued, which seems 
to have pleased the majority of the inhabitants. Those 
in authority, however, viewed this action with alarm, 
and even the Bishop wrote to the King setting forth 
the gravity of the situation, and suggesting that if the 
work were continued the expense to the King might 
be lightened by the imposition of a tax upon wine and 
silk. 

On the 26th and 3Oth of July, a meeting was held 
in the Chateau St. Louis to discuss the question of the 
fortifications of Quebec, at which the principal officers 
of the colony, and the chief inhabitants of Quebec 
were present. At this meeting the majority were in 
favour of carrying out the instruction of the King, and 
they declined to be further taxed. 

It was proposed that if the works were continued 
to raise the money upon a tax on wine, but this was 
not carried, and an arrangement was made for the 
payment of the work already completed by the con- 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

tractors. The existing work, however, was so defective, 
that urgent repairs were completed in the following 
year, and extra expense was incurred in 1748 and 
1749. 

At the request of the Court of France, the Intendant 
caused a statement of the expenses of the fortifications 
between 1745 and 1749 to be prepared by de Lery. 

The statement made is as follows : 

1745-6 189,257- 6-1 

1747 54,064-12-0 

1748 292,952-15-1 

1749 232,900-11-5 

In 1750, de Lery made another estimate of the 
cost of the fortifications for 1750, placing the sum at 
147,726-16-4. 

Franquet, a French Engineer, was sent out from 
France to make a report upon the different works, 
which he did some time after. In his first letter to the 
Minister, before his final report, he stated that the 
walls constructed by de Lery were evidently erected 
without regard to the requirements of the place or the 
laws of construction. He then points out the various 
defects, and the remedy which can be applied under 
the circumstances. In his examination of the work, 
he discovered that the builders were working without 
plans, and he communicated this intelligence to the 
Intendaut, who, we find, instructed de Lery in the 
future to consult with Franquet, and to comply with 
the suggestions he had made. 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

This letter is a very lengthy one, and its sugges- 
tions seem to have been acted upon. 

When de Lery made another report, in 1757, as 
to the urgent necessity of further works, the Court 
determined to have the operations in future conducted 
under the direction of Franquet, who was instructed 
to draw up a plan of the work necessary. At the time 
that Franquet made his report, in 1752, as we find by 
another letter, in 1753, the work under de L,ery was 
too far advanced to make much improvement, as the 
walls were already up nearly the height intended, and 
the new plan would entail the demolition of these walls. 
These walls were therefore left standing in the mean- 
time, and Franquet's project was postponed. Vaud- 
reuil, in 1757, transmitted to France a list of works 
proposed, which he could not execute for want of 
means. The Court, however, entrusted the charge of 
the fortifications of Quebec to Montbeillard,and ordered 
the Engineer Franquet to prepare a plan for restoring 
the defences. 

Franquet's plan was sent to France, and received 
the approval of the King. In November 1757, the 
Marquis de Vaudreuil wrote to France requesting the 
return of Franquet's plan, as it would be of great 
service to the Engineer Pontleroy, in carrying out the 
instructions of His Majesty. 

In 1758, Pontleroy was actively engaged in repair- 
ing the most defective part of the walls, but in many 
places they were so bad, that works were erected in 
front of them. 

123 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Towards the end of the year Montcalm wrote : 

' ' Les fortifications sont si ridicules et mauvaises 
" qu'elle seroit prise aussitot qu'assiegee." 

In 1759, before any assault had been made upon 
Quebec, the breaches in the walls could be seen at a 
distance of five hundred yards ; and Mackellar reported 
to Wolfe that the works would offer very little resist- 
ance. 

After the Battle of the Plains, when the British 
took possession of the city, they found that it was 
impossible to repair the walls because they were so 
badly constructed. 

Whether de Lery was personally to blame for the 
defective work, or whether it was solely due to the 
contractor, we do not know, but Bigot and La Galis- 
sonniere complained to the Minister in France that 
de Lery would not render accounts, and Bigot advised 
him that the earth required at Quebec would in future 
be paid for by the toise, and not by half loads contain- 
ing only a handful of earth. Vaudreuil also stated 
after the battle, that the walls were badly constructed. 
Montcalm, too, wrote : But how can you expect that 
M. de Pontleroy, or any other man in his place can 
with honesty remain in the country. He must rob or be 
ruined, for his pay and allowances amount to only 100 
Louis d'or : "You will object to me that these are the 
" emoluments allowed to his office since the time of 
" M. de Lery, senior, a great ignoramus in his pro- 
" fession it is only necessary to look at his works 
" who robbed the King like the rest. 

124 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

III. From 1759 to 1778, the British Commandants 
had to make the best of a very bad state of things 
indeed. The old French works were worthless and 
the home authorities refused to carry out any new 
scheme at all. The only thing to do was to throw up 
temporary works in front of the French walls. 

In 1760, the Marquis de I/evis evidently thought 
he could batter down the then existing works with 
ease if he had anything like a proper siege train. 
He says : 

" II fut decide, apres avoir reconnu la place, 
qu'on couronnoit par une parallele les hauteurs qui 
sont devant le front des bastions St. L,ouis, de la 
Glaciere et du Cap au Diamant, et qu'on y etablirot 
des batteries, d'ou on esperait, malgre 1'eloignement 
et la faiblesse du calibre denos pieces, qu'elles pour- 
roient faire breche, le revetement etant mauvais 
dans cette partie." 

On the 6th of June, 1762, General Murray 
transmitted to the King a report of the state of the 
fortifications of Quebec at that time, from which the 
following is quoted, as it does not appear to have been 
published hitherto : 

' ' Cape Diamond is nearest the river St. Lawrence 
and is likewise the highest ground, from whence there 
is a continued slope, sometimes very quick, towards 
the river St. Charles, in consequence of which the 
walls not being built upon a level, but humouring the 
nature of the ground, the flanks of the Bastions cannot 
defend their opposite faces in a proper manner, for the 
flanks of the lower ones must throw theirs above it. 
To remedy this defect, the French built two Counter 

125 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

guards or Faussebrays with Casemated fiankes, before 
the right face and flankes of la Glaciere Bastion, and 
the left face and flank of Bastion St. Louis ; this how- 
ever introduced another inconvenience, of which they 
appeared sensible when Monsieur de Levis besieged 
the Town in 1760, as he directed his fire to this place, 
which had such an effect, the rubbish of the Wall 
filling the Counter guard, and that from the lower 
the ditch, that an easy ascent might have been very 
soon made to the breach. 

" The high grounds before Cape Diamond and 
Laglaciere Bastions command all the lower fortifica- 
tions toward the river St. Charles, and batteries for 
battering in breach may be erected at any distance, as 
the walls are high and seen in many places to the 
bottom of the Ditch, there being no covered way or 
outworks and even the counterscarp wall not well 
finished, neither can a covered way be constructed, 
but at a great expense, on account of the scarcity of 
earth and irregularity of the ground, besides that it 
must be crowded with traverses to prevent its being 
enfiladed. 

' ' To make up in some measure the want of out- 
works, in the winter 1759, I erected a line of Block- 
houses within musquet shot of the capital wall to 
secure the body of the place against surprises, such 
outworks are proof against musquetry only. 

" The walls are built of an irregular unwrought 
stone and in many places the work is very badly exe- 
cuted as was sufficiently visible from the effect of the 
fire from the French batteries in 1760. 

' ' The Gates are illplaced and not defended. St. 
Louis Gate is so near the right face of the Bastion of 
the same name, that it is beneath its fire, and the 
opposite flank can have but very little fire on it, that 

126 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

of St. Johns has the same fault, being too near the 
left flank of St. Johns Bastion. 

' ' The Palace Gate is not much better constructed, 
and in general this whole front of the place, which 
indeed is the only fortified one, is enfiladed from the 
other side of the river St. Charles. 

' ' The Wall from Bastion Lapotasse to Palace gate, 
is pierced with loop holes, and is good in its kind. The 
Barracks which are built against it being also provided 
with loop holes serve as a second fire. This wall is 
continued to K and is built upon a Rock. 

' ' From K to L is a very bad stockade on the top 
of an accessible rock, with one small stockaded place 
of arms. This is the part of the Town most exposed 
to a coup de main. 

' ' From L to T there is a high Wall with a wooden 
gallery behind it, to serve as a banquette, and beneath 
it is a sally port to communicate with the lower Town. 

' ' From T to the sault au Matelot is a wall begun 
but carried no higher than a man is able to step upon it, 
there are here some plat-forms for Cannon and Mortars. 
From M to M (sic) is the Royal Battery commanding 
the River St. Lawrence and built upon an inaccessible 
rock adjoining to the Bishop's palace, part of which 
was taken in during the late siege to defend the com- 
munication from the lower to the higher Town, which 
was also defended by some Cannon planted at O. 

" From O to P takes in Fort St. Louis and a nine 
gun battery ; it is by nature inaccessible except two 
small paths shewn in the plan. Fort St. Louis is of 
no defence being the remains of the earliest fortifica- 
tions erected there. 

' ' From P to Q the Citadel or Redoubt of Cape 
Diamond, is a quick or rather steep ascent, defended 
by a stockade only. Betwixt this Redoubt and the 
Bastions of La Glaciere and Cape Diamond is a com- 

127 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

manding ground overlooking the whole Town and 
Fortifications. This ground I judge very proper for 
the construction of a Citadel. 

' ' From Q to R the same sort of stockade is con- 
tinued, and from R to Cape Diamond there is a Wall 
with loop-holes, defended by two small flanks with 
Cannon. 

" The rocky hill under these parts is very high, 
but accessible and in many places covered with brush, 
by the help of which small parties might advance to 
the very stockades. 

" The lower Town is only cover 'd by a Stockade 
and some batteries. The Batteries marked q are to 
defend the road and annoy the shipping in passing the 
Town. The Batteries /, are for the same purpose. 
They serve likewise to flank the lower Town and the 
other Batteries. 

" From the above report and annexed Plan it 
appears that the Enceinte of Quebec is very large and 
would require a very strong Garrison to defend it tho 
properly fortified. That at present it is open on two 
sides, has no out works not even a cover' d way nor 
hardly a ditch, for the foot of rotten walls is to be seen 
from the most of the Environs at the distance of 500 
yards. That the whole Rampart is enfiladed from the 
other side of the River St Charles, and that in its 
present situation, with a Garrison of 3000 men it is not 
proof against a well conducted Coup de main. Any 
temporary works that can be added, would be of little 
signification, as matters now stand ; and to fortify the 
place upon the old plans is by no means advisable, the 
situation never can be render'd strong, and the attempt 
must cost an immense sum. I therefore am of opinion 
that if His Majesty shall think proper to be at the 
expense of strengthening Quebec, the most effectual 
method will be to eredl upon the rising ground of Cape 

128 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

Diamond, a Citadel which will answer every purpose 
of the Towns being strongly fortified, may be defended 
4 mouths at least by a small garrison, awe the Inhabit- 
ants, whose fidelity in case of an attack we cannot for 
some years rely on, and secure our Magazines. The 
ground I propose for this Citadel commands the whole 
Town and is commanded no where from the Country ; 
in short it possesses every advantage to be wished for, 
and at a small expense maybe fortified, as the Inhabit- 
ants of the Country and the Troops in the time of 
peace may contribute their labor towards it gratis ; to 
this the former can have no objection as they were on 
all occasions formerly liable to Military services and 
were all allow' d only provisions. 

" I order' d Captain Holland to take an accurate 
survey of the ground and have the honor herewith to 
transmit (a) the several plans he has drawn in con- 
sequence." 

We have seen that under the French regime, 
representations which were not always complied with, 
were frequently made to France for aid towards the 
construction of fortifications at Quebec. Under the 
British regime, similar conditions prevailed. 

The official correspondence of the Governors from 
1764 until 1811, is burdened with suggestions and 
demands in this direction. On the 2Qth of May, 1769, 
Guy Carleton wrote to Lord Hillsborough concerning 
the fortifications, in these words : 

"It is now long since I transmitted to Lord 
Shelburue, accompanying my letter No. 20, the plan 
of a citadel for Quebec ; at that time, I expected the 
Engineer, Captain Gordon, who made but a short stay 
here in 1767, agreeable to my orders, and his promise, 

9 129 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

would have drawn up an estimate of the expense ; as 
he has never done this, at least that has come to my 
knowledge, I again transmit said plan with an estimate 
annexed, made out by Engineer Marr, who arrived 
here last fall from Halifax ; I have already said so 
much of the expediency and utility of such an under- 
taking, that I have now little to add, I am however, 
to observe to Your Lordship, I have found it the 
general opinion of the Canadians that if Admiral 
Durell had pushed up in May, 1759, with only a small 
part of the army, the town might have been taken 
before the Governor in Chief could have sent there 
any assistance from Montreal, where and in the upper 
Country all the troops were collected to defend the 
entrance by the Lakes ; that after the defeat of their 
army upon the Plains of Abraham, the i3th of Sep- 
tember, altho' they had eight Battalions and forty 
companies of regular troops, with fifteen or sixteen 
thousand warlike tnilitia in the field, after having had 
four months time to strengthen the tow r n, they appre- 
hended the same so indefensible that it surrendered 
immediately, before one single battery could be opened 
against it ; and that if in the succeeding year the 
remains of ten brave Battalions were enabled to hold 
out until the arrival of our fleet, it was in a great 
degree owing to Monsieur de Levis' army being in 
want of artillery and ammunition. 

" For the foregoing reasons therefore as well as 
the many others before alledged, I must humbly re- 
commend that essential and salutary work to be set 
about as soon as possible. ' ' 

For twenty years after the Siege of Quebec no 
repairs were made to the French w T alls, although 
temporary works to defend them were constructed. 
During Arnold's expedition against Quebec the situa- 

130 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

tion of the city was indeed perilous, and on the 6th 
of December, 1775. Montgomery wrote to"Carleton 
stating that he was aware of its defenceless condition. 

The only fortifications which Montgomery and 
Arnold attacked were the two barricades in Lower 
Town, thrown up for temporary defence of Quebec in 
1775, although Arnold had erected works in the vici- 
nity of the present Parliament for the purpose of 
attacking the walls. On the night of the 3ist of Dec- 
ember in that year, Arnold carried the Satilt-au-Mat- 
elot barricade, which faced the north east and ran from 
the cliff to the river along the line of the present St. 
James street. Montgomery's simultaneous attack 
failed before the Pres-de-Ville barricade, which faced 
south and ran across the present Champlain street from 
the cliff to the river, just under the present Citadel. 
There was also a one gun battery on a ledge about 
fifty or sixty feet below the present Citadel. This gun 
should have supported the defence of the barricade ; 
but the officer in charge failed to do his duty properly. 

IV. In 1778, the Home authorities at last began 
to listen to reason ; but their action was dangerously 
slow for those stirring years. And none of the works 
then made were really permanent. 

During the earlier correspondence of the Governors 
we come in contact with a familiar figure during the 
Siege of Quebec, George Townshend, which proves 
that his interest in Canadian affairs did not cease with 
the capitulation of Quebec. The serious consideration 
of building a citadel at Quebec, under British rule, 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

dates from 1778. In the month of October, in that 
year, the Governor wrote : 

" In obedience to the commands given to me by 
' your lordship, I shall not fail to take the proper steps 
' for erecting a citadel at Quebec in such situation as 
' assisted by the Engineers I shall be able to judge it 
' most advantageous, the plans and estimates of which 
' shall be transmitted as soon as they can be made and 
' considered." 

In a letter dated the i8th of June, 1779, addressed 
to Lord Townshend, Governor Haldimand clearly sets 
forth the condition of affairs in Quebec, and his require- 
ments at this time. The letter is therefore quoted at 
length : 

" Very soon after my arrival in this Province I 
was convinced that the resources I was master of 
were by no means adequate to begin the construction 
of a formidable Citadel at Quebec, so as to afford 
any reasonable hopes that it could assist us during 
the present Rebellion, and therefore I immediately 
resolved to content myself with making such neces- 
sary preparations as can be done without interfering 
with our present Defences, and yet such as may 
induce and enable the Government to push forward 
with vigour, when the situation of public affairs 
make it expedient so to do by adopting this plan 
there will be sufficient time to obtain and compare 
different ideas, so as at last to determine upon some 
thing which may be adapted to the ground, the 
climate and the Government, and your Lordship is 
so well acquainted with these particulars that I must 
request your assistance, in this difficult task." 

" Major Holland, who arrived here a few days 
" ago from Halifax, informs me that in 1762, or there- 

132 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

' ' abouts, he gave General Murray Plans, sections and 
" estimates of a Citadel, all of which were forwarded 
" to England, and are now in the drawing room of 
" the Tower, and as Major Holland has no copy, I beg 
" Your Lordship to indulge we with exact copies of 
" the whole by the first opportunity, as your lordship 
" must be sufficiently acquainted with the merit and 
" ability of this officer, to know that some attention 
" may be paid to his opinion. Captain Marr, who is at 
" present the Senior Engineer in the Province, I found 
" stationed at Quebec by General Carleton, and the 
" entire direction of all other forts, etc., put under the 
" direction of Captain Twiss I continued this regula- 
' ' tion both because I thought it for the good of the 
" service, and as far as I could learn, that it was also 
" your lordship's intention that it should be so a 
" more thorough knowledge of these gentlemen has 
" convinced me that I was right, and as Captain Marr 
" is now old and infirm I have this summer consented 
" to the request he made last fall (though late") of 
" returning to England, and I shall order him to lay 
" before your I^ordship his remarks upon Cape Dia- 
" mond, together with his proposals for a Citadel, and 
" I do earnestly request that your Lordship will apply 
" to His Majesty to have Lieut. Twiss appointed Chief 
" Engineer of this Province, as I have found his zeal, 
" activity and ability equal to the important trust, and 
" although he has the misfortune to be low in rank, I 
" am informed that he has been 19 years in the service, 
' ' and very actively employed during the whole of that 
" time." 

By a letter of the i8th of June, 1779, the Gov- 
ernor informed Lord Townshend that plans were being 
prepared by Captain Twiss and Mr. Hunter, but that 
he hesitated to send them to England, ' ' fearful lest 

133 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

" they should fall into improper hands, and for this 
" reason, and in consequence of his private affairs, I 
" have consented to give L,ieut. Slack leave to go to 
" England." 

Very little work could be accomplished on account 
of the lack of materials and of tools, besides the scar- 
city of workmen. In order to carry out the projected 
works the Governor organized a company of artificers, 
but lyord Townshend objected to its formation, and 
instructed the Governor to employ loyalists in the 
construction of any works undertaken. 

The failure of the ' ' True Britain ' ' to reach 
Quebec, deprived the Governor of a valuable cargo of 
military supplies, and consequently the proposed im- 
provements had to be postponed. 

The plans prepared by Captain Twiss at this time, 
provided for the construction of those walls which 
were subsequently built beyond the line of the present 
fortifications. 

The remains of these British works are still plainly 
visible on the western side of Cape Diamond. This 
was the first and only time that any fortifications were 
thrown up on this spot. There were none at all at 
the time of the French ; and they were discarded in 
the British scheme of 1823. Their whole military 
existence therefore is bounded by the limits of the 
period which we are now discussing, viz, from 1778 
to 1823. 

The progress towards building the long discussed 
citadel was very slow. By a letter addressed to Haldi- 

134 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

mand on the 3Oth of November, 1779, Lord Towns- 
hend does not appear to have been satisfied with the 
manner in which his suggestions regarding Quebec 
were received. He writes : 

' ' I hope my former letter was received respecting 
' ' the corps of artificers which you have determined as 
" necessary upon Captain Twiss's recommendation ; 
"all I can say is, that whenever the Secretary of 
' ' State for the Department refers to me for my opinion 
" upon the subject of Canada, I shall give my opinion 
" as explicitly and frankly as I did some years ago 
" upon a Citadel for Quebec, which I lament to say 
" has never been done, and of which I have never 
" heard anything after." 



Townshend refers to the subject again in a 
letter dated the i5th of December, 1779 : 

" With regard to the Citadel proposed at Quebec, 
" I am happy to find that a Post of such importance 
" is not laid aside. My opinion was asked upon this 
" subject some time ago, and I should have been sorry 
" to have been so ignorant of the place and of the 
" Province, to have hesitated giving my opinion in the 
" fullest manner." 

A year later, in October, 1780, no progress had 
been made. General Haldimand wrote to L,ord Towns- 
hend as follows : 

' ' In our present situation your L,ordship must be 
" sensible that we could not begin the construction of 
" a regular Citadel, but we have endeavoured to take 
" every possible advantage of the ground, and have 
" occupied the Cape with several detached redoubts, 
" which I hope will soon be capable of some defence. 

135 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

' ' Captain Twiss has applied for permission to send to 
' ' your Lordship plans of the works now constructing. ' ' 

The plan prepared by Captain Twiss, a copy of 
which is before us, shows : 

' ' i . The condition of the ground upon which it 
is proposed to construct certain works extend- 
ing beyond the walls (that is, those works 
which have been regarded as of French 
origin.) 

"2. The nature of the proposed works as sug- 
gested by Captain Marr, distinguished by 
yellow lines, and those proposed by Captain 
Twiss, coloured red." 

The only building within the area of the present 
citadel at this time, of any importance, was the Citadel 
Redoubt. The Hangman's Redoubt, on Cape Diamond 
and the Powder Magazine, were only temporary 
affairs, constructed between the years 1760 and 1769. 
Amongst the eighty manuscript plans of Quebec 
made by British officers, which have recently been 
collected through the exertions of His Excellency, 
IvOrd Minto, is a remarkably fine plan in colours, bear- 
ing this title : 

" Plan of the Town and Suburbs of Quebec, show- 
ing the Fortifications as they were nearly completed 
in October, 1783. The Fortifications of this Town 
were not in any degree finished by the French, and 
the English never repaired any part of them previous 
to October, 1779, when His Excellency, General 
Haldimand gave his instructions to Captain Twiss, 
Commanding Engineer in Canada, for the construc- 
tion of a temporary Citadel on Cape Diamond." 

136 



THR FORTIFICATIONS OF QUF,BEC 

This statement which is on the plan made by 
Captain Twiss, the Commanding Engineer, and bear- 
ing his signature, is in direct opposition to all the local 
historians, but the student, no doubt, will attach more 
importance to the writing of the Engineer and the 
official correspondence of the time, than to the state- 
ments of those who wrote over a hundred years after 
the events, and were not in possession of the material 
now available. This temporary citadel embraced near- 
ly the same area as that enclosed by the present walls, 
which was at first suggested by Major Holland, and it 
also extended nearly to the steps leading to the river, 
including those works which have been regarded as 
belonging to the French regime. 

These plans show what works there were upon 
the Cape during the old regime, and also the com- 
mencement and progress, and final abandonment of 
these old walls. 

On the plan made by Captain Twiss in 1783, these 
famous walls are shown as being nearly complete, and 
they are referred to as follows : 

(aa~) " New works whose Terre Plein are mostly 
" excavated in the solid rock, they together form a 
" temporary Citadel." 

The buildings executed within these walls, which 
extended beyond the present line, were : 

() " New roads of communication for artillery." 
(The entrance to these extended fortifications was 
behind the King's Field, a plot of ground having a 
frontage of 550 feet on the south of the Grande Allee, 
opposite the Parliament ) 

137 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

(<?) ' ' Reservoirs for water which is tolerably good, 
" though rather hard, however they are at all times 
" tolerably supplied." 

{mm} " Counter mines formed of cedar pickets 
" under the Glaciere bastion." 

These were the works constructed by the British 
in 1779, and completed in 1783, the remains of which 
have been regarded as the ruins of the French works. 

The works erected by the British at this time 
within the main walls, that is, within the area of the 
citadel proper, were : 

"(<?) Temporary bomb proofs made of timber, 
" and will lodge : 



c. i, 62 men 
c. 4, 36 men 
c. 7, 205 men 
c. 10, 230 men 


c. 2 82 men 
c. 5 230 men 
c. 8 234 men 
c. ii 86 men 


c. 3 16 men 
c. 6 125 men 
c.. 9 230 men 
c. 12 50 men 



533 men 632 men 421 men 

" (//) Sheds for carriages. 

" (") Workshops for all branches. 

" (hfi) Three counterguards to cover the detached 
redoubts with curtains to cover the communication 
from one redoubt to another, were not finished, and 
are almost the only part of the new works which 
are not." 



" i. Port St. Louis Gate from thence towards the 
new Citadel, the ditches and glacis are levelled the 
parapets and ramparts are likewise completed. 

" (k} St. John's Gate, from hence to port St. 
Louis Gate there is no glacis and the ditches are in 

138 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

' ' so rude a state by the French having excavated the 
' ' earth from between the rocks that they are impas- 
" sable not only for carriages, but also on horseback. 
" The parapets and ramparts for this part are finished, 
' ' and a very extensive Esplanade with proper ramps 
" is almost completed behind these works. 

' ' (/) Barrack Bastion whose parapet and rampart 
" etc. are finished, but the parapet and rampart be- 
" tween it and St. John's Gate as well as the ditches 
' ' and glacis in front of this extent remain in the rude 
' ' state in which the French left them, and are not 
' ' capable of any proper defence. 

" (w) Ground purchased by the Government for 
" a wharf not yet commenced." 

The Citadel constructed under Captain Twiss was 
never intended for a permanent structure, and the 
correspondence between the Governors shows that they 
were repeatedly making demands for substantial means 
of defence. When they realized that the necessary aid 
was not forthcoming, and that repairs were urgently 
needed, the Governor ordered a complete survey to 
be made with a view of again placing the various 
works in a state of temporary efficiency. This survey 
was completed in 1790, and certain works were at once 
commenced. 

By a plan made in 1804, we find that there were 
very slight alterations effected between the year 1783 
and 1804, the most notable was a battery on the sum- 
mit of the extended walls overlooking the path to the 
river. In the citadel proper, we find and ordonance 
store, constructed in 1800, and a powder magazine 
built in 1 80 1. 

139 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

In 1804 another plan was drawn up for the con- 
struction of three Martello Towers. Towers No. i and 
3 were commenced in 1805, and finished in 1810. 
Tower No. 2 was commenced on the i ith of May, 1809, 
but it was not completed until 1818. Tower No. 4 
was not completed until 1823. 

The Commanding Engineer in Canada, Captain 
Nicolls, prepared an excellent plan of the city, its 
environs, and the whole of its defensive works. The 
colours of this plan are remarkably bright, and the 
lettering is a fine specimen of the penman's art. It 
bears the title, ' ' Plan of Quebec, showing the present 
state of the works of Defence, distinguishing those 
which are complete and what are in progress, with the 
military works and buildings that have been ordered, 
1 8th March, 1816." 

On this plan we find that the works beyond the 
present line, which have been hitherto regarded as of 
French origin, were partly dismantled. The reservoirs 
were removed, and the only building was the advanced 
blockhouse. 

Within the Citadel proper, the following works 
are described : 

i. Telegraph (on Cape Diamond) ; 2. Stone Pow- 
der Magazine ; 3. Fire Proof Ordnance Stores ; 4. Cape 
Diamond Bastion ; 5. Glaciere Bastion and Barracks ; 
6. Shot Yard ; 7. Wooden Ordnance Sheds ; 8. Tem- 
porary Officers' Barracks (of wood) ; 9. Casemated 
Barracks and Cavalier ; 10. Temporary Barracks ; 1 1. 
King's Cavalier; 12. Another Powder Magazine ; 13. 

140 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

St. Louis Bastion with Bomb Proof Barracks, Guard 
House and Cook House ; 14. Wooden Ordnance Stores 
and Sheds ,-15. Wheeler's Shop ; 16. Provision Stores ; 
17. Large Temporary Powder Magazine ; 18. Tele- 
graph and Flag Staff ; 19. Powder Magazine. 

The large temporary Powder Magazine occupied 
the site of the Governor- General's Quarters. This plan 
is very detailed, and the names of all Public Buildings 
in every part of the city are given. Amongst the 
works described on this plan are the Powder Magazine 
and the Cistern on the Esplanade, and a Powder 
Magazine at St. John's Gate. Two Guard Houses, 
and a Cooking House are shown in the course of 
construction near the Jesuit's Barracks. 

These works served until the construction of the 
magnificent Citadel, in 1823, carried out on the basis 
of the plans of Holland and Twiss, by Lieut. -Col. 
Durnford, with additions by Colonel Mann, the main 
parts of which are to be seen to-day, and require no 
further description. 

V. In 1823 the first and last great permanent 
scheme was taken in hand and carried out during the 
next nine years to what was considered a satisfactory 
conclusion. The total cost was $35,000,000.00. All 
the existing fortifications date from these years and 
nothing material has been added since. The chief 
changes have taken place in the gates, most of which 
have disappeared altogether, and others have been 
rebuilt in ornamental forms. Hope Gate was first 
built in 1786. It was altered in 1823-32, and strength- 
Hi 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

ened outward in 1840. It was finally demolished in 
1874. 

St. John's Gate was first built under Frontenac ; 
removed by de Lery in 1720 ; rebuilt in 1791 and again 
in 1867 ; and demolished in 1898. 

St. Louis Gate was built under Frontenac, appear- 
ing first in his plan of 1693. It was rebuilt in 1721 ; 
altered in 1783 ; again rebuilt in the scheme of 1823-32, 
and replaced by the present arch in 1873. 

Fresco tt Gate was built in 1797, rebuilt in 1823 ; 
and demolished in 1871. 

Palace Gate, first built under Frontenac, was 
restored in 1720 and again in 1790. It was rebuilt in 
1823-32 in imitation of the Nola and Herculaneum 
Gates of Pompeii. It was demolished in 1864. 

Kent Gate was built in 1879, Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria contributing to the cost, in memory of Her 
father, the Duke of Kent after whom it was named. 

Chain Gate, forms a part of the works undertaken 
in 1823-32, and protects the road to the citadel, known 
as Citadel Hill. 

Dalhousie Gate, which forms the entrance to the 
Citadel, was erected in 1827, during the administration 
of Lord Dalhousie. 

VI. When the progress of military science had 
shown that distant and detached fortifications would be 
required, a new scheme was formulated for the defence 
of Quebec and three forts on the Levis heights were 
erected between 1865 and 1871. The scheme never 
resulted in anything further. These forts have never 

142 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

been manned nor armed ; but they are still in fairly 
good order and capable of service in case of necessity. 

Since then there have been various other schemes 
mooted ; but, as none of them have ever resulted in 
any tangible form, our survey of the fortifications of 
Quebec must close here. 

We must once more remind the reader that there 
are no old French works of any kind now in existence, 
and that the works on the west face of Cape Diamond 
were of purely British origin ; appearing first in the 
temporary scheme of 1783 and disappearing again in 
the permanent plan of 1823. 

It is impossible either to look back on this long 
and stirring history, or to look forward to the heritage 
of Quebec in future generations, without entering a 
strong protest against any scheme for throwing down 
the walls, or any portion of them. 

It is true that they are not so very old and that 
they lack the historic charm of containing at least some 
remains of the old French works. But, on the other 
hand, they are most interesting in themselves, and 
doubly so because they still mark the lines followed by 
those w r hich existed in the days of Wolfe and Mont- 
calm. Moreover, they have the priceless advantage of 
making Quebec absolutely unique among all the cities 
of America. It may be that if Quebec were to lose all 
claim to being the one walled city of the western 
world, she might still remain a queen among her 
sister cities. For her superb, unchallengeable throne 
was founded in strength and set here in beauty by 

143 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Nature ages long ago. But it was Man who came and 
crowned her. And where the works of Nature and of 
Man have so perfectly combined in one befitting glory, 
it would surely be an abject desecration to discrown 
her now. For let it be clearly understood that the 
true disgrace of any such schemes lies in their very 
wantonness. Of course necessity knows no law ; and 
of course everything must accommodate itself to its 
surroundings in the struggle for existence, or die out. 
We all know that. And of course if war should ever 
require the destruction of the present walls ; then they 
must be destroyed. And, equally of course, if peace- 
ful traffic should ever really require it, then they must 
disappear just the same. But, as a matter of certain 
fact, neither war nor peace require any such sacrifice 
at all. Modern defences would be far away from the 
city ; and the walls around it could not do any harm, 
and might conceivably do good. And, as for peaceful 
every day traffic, it already has all the natural outlets 
that it requires, and can pass freely to and fro at will, 
without let or hinderance, inwards or out. Indeed it 
may be truly said, that the walls are now no more of 
a material barrier to traffic to-day than their memory 
would be should they be wantonly thrown down to- 
morrow. But the greatest plea in their favour is that 
they are the living symbol of a glorious past, in which 
the honours of war were equally divided between 
French and English, and for the living monument of 
which, therefore, French and English alike should 
stand united. The waterfront is the same from which 

144 



THE FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC 

Frontenac hurled steadfast defiance at the discomfited 
fleet and army of England ; and the landward face 
follows the same line of defence which stood there 
when the two greatest masters of the art of war ever 
seen in Canada fought for the dominion of a continent 
the profound and aspiring Wolfe, and the equally 
great, though unfortunate, Montcalm. 

And so these present walls really stand as a link 
between the twin honours of two gallant races, as well 
as what should be a perpetual link between present, 
past and future. 

And their own mute appeal is more eloquent of all 
living honour than all the vain words that might record 
them after they had disappeared for ever. 



CHAPTER VII 
1735 

L,E CHIEN D'OR 

HISTORY AND ROMANCE LOCAL HISTORIANS 
HAWKINS AND LEMOINE KIRBY'S "GOLDEN 
D O G " DEATH OF PHILIBERT BY THE HAND OF 
REPENTIGNY NOT IN THE DAYS OF THE 
INTENDANT BIGOT THE TRUE STORY OF THE 
DEATH OF PHILIBERT JUDGMENT AGAINST 
PHILIBERT EXECUTION IN EFFIGY 

NEARLY every visitor to Quebec desires to see the 
old stone inserted in the walls of the Post Office, 
bearing this inscription : 

JE SVIS VN CHIEN QVI BONGE L'OS 
EN LE RONGEANT JE PREND MON REPOS 
VN TEMS VIENDRA QVI N 5 EST PAS VENV 
QVE JE MORDERAY QVI M'AVRA MORDV 

The dog, the bone, the inscription and the house, 
have given rise to many conjectures. In the absence 
of any satisfactory solution, the imagination has been 
pressed into service, and as the result, we have in the 
pages of history and of fiction, more than one interesting 
story founded thereupon. 

147 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

The stone, we may reasonably suppose, was first 
placed in position in the year 1735, over the entrance 
of the house built and owned by Nicolas Jacquin 
Philibert, a merchant of Quebec. A tragedy occurred 
in connection with the house, resulting in the death 
of Philibert by the hand of Pierre L,e Gardeur de 
Repentigny. 

Twenty- three years after the stone was placed in 
its position, the people of Quebec do not appear to 
have been able to invent a romance concerning the 
house, or to recall any facts relating to the golden dog. 
Captain Knox, who lived in Quebec for some time 
after the battle of the Plains of Abraham, in 1759, in 
referring to the inscription over the entrance to the 
house built by Philibert, sa3 r s : 

" The true meaning of this devise I never could 
" learn, though I made all possible inquiries, without 
' ' being gratified with the least information respecting 
" its allusion." 

Distance lends enchantment, and in the course of 
time picturesque details were forthcoming in abund- 
ance. 

It became necessary to link the facts with the 
name of some important individual, in order to give 
colour to the stories that were invented. The early 
writers were content with the modest name of Michel 
Be"gon, Intendantof New France from 1 7 1 2 to 1726. 

Hawkins, nearly always inaccurate both as to 
circumstances and dates, says in " Picture of Quebec," 
page 258, published in 1834 : 

148 



LE CHIEN D OR 

' ' Freemason's Hall. This building is immediately 
' opposite to the General Post Office, situated in Buade 
' Street, near the steps leading through Prescott Gate, 
' to the Lower Town. The house formerly had an 
' uninterrupted view in front as far as the wall of the 
' Seminary, the buildings which now intervene being 
' of modern date. It is remarkable in the local history 
' of the city, for a representation in stone over the 
' entrance from Buade street, of a dog gnawing a bone, 
' with an inscription in French. This having been 
' always gilt, has acquired the name of Le Chien 
' d'Or ; and the folio wing explanation has been handed 
' down to the present day : Mr. Philibert, who resided 
' in the house, was a merchant of high distinction 
' during the time when Mr. Begon, whom we have 
' mentioned above, was Intendant of New France. 
' The latter had formerly been a merchant of Bordeaux, 
' and came to Quebec in 1712. Differences occurred 
' between him and Mr. Philibert, over whom superior 
' interest and power gave Mr. Begon every advantage. 
' Unable to obtain redress for his injuries, real or 
' supposed, Mr. Philibert bitterly, although covertly, 
' expressed his sentiments under the image of the 
' Chien d'Or, to which he added the following inscrip- 
' tion in old French : 

JE SUIS UN CHIEN', ETC. 

" Begon determined on revenge, and M. Philibert 
descending the Lower Town Hill, received the sword 

of M. de R a French officer of the garrison, 

through his body. The perpetrator of this murder 
made his escape and left the Province ; but the crime 
was too atrocious to be forgiven. The brother of 
M. Philibert came to Quebec to settle the estate, 
with a full determination of taking vengance on 
the assassin. So determined was he to execute this 

149 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

part of his mission, that having ascertained that M.de 

R had gone to the East Indies, he pursued 

him thither. They met in a street of Pondicherry, 
engaged on the spot and the assassin fell mortally 
wounded under the sword of the avenger. The 
Chieu d'Or remains to perpetuate this tale of blood- 
shed and retribution." 

Twenty-fours years after the appearance of Mr. 
Hawkins' work another version of the story was given 
in ' ' Reminiscences of Quebec derived from reliable 
sources" published in Quebec in 1859. The author 
discards Mr. Begon, and transfers the scene to the 
days of the Intendaut Bigot. 

" Passing towards the Lower Town, a large 
' ' building, occupied as a Post Office, will be observed ; 
" over one of the windows, formerly the main entrance, 
" is a Gold Dog ; the following curious history attaches 
' ' to this Dog ; 

" The house was built by Mr. Philibert, a mer- 
" chant residing in Quebec, in the time of Mr. Bigot, 
" the last Intendant under the French Government, 
' ' and whose drafts upon the Treasury, for the expenses 
" of this country were so enormous that one of the 
' ' queens of that kingdom archly enquired ' ' whether 
" the walls of Quebec were built of gold." But to 
" return to the chien d'or, M. Philibert and the 
" Intendant were on bad terms, but under the system 
" then existing, the merchant knew that it was in 
" vain for him to seek redress in the colony, and 
' ' determining at some future period to prefer his com- 
" plaint in France, he contented himself with placing 
" the figure of a sleeping dog in front of his house, 
" with the following lines beneath it, in allusion to his 
" situation with his powerful enemy ; 

150 



I<E CHIEN D'OR 

JB SVIS VN CHIEX QVI RONGE L'OS 
EN LE RONGEANT JE PREND MON REPOS 
VN TEMS VIENDRA QVI N'EST PAS VENV 
QVE JE MORDRAI QVI M J AVRA MORDV 

' ' This allegorical language was however too plain 
for Mr. Bigot to misunderstand it. A man so power- 
ful easily found an instrument to avenge insult, and 
Mr. Philibert received, as a reward for his verse, the 
sword of an officer of the garrison through his 
back, when descending the Lower Town hill. The 
murderer was permitted to leave the colony un- 
molested, and was transferred to a regiment stationed 
in the East Indies. Thither he was pursued by the 
brother of the deceased, who had first sought him 
in Canada, when he arrived here to settle his brothers 
affairs. The parties, it is related, met in the public 
street of Pondicherry, drew their swords, and after 
a severe conflict, the assassin met with a more 
honourable fate than his crime deserved, and died 
by the hand of his antagonist." 

Sir James LeMoine gives us several versions. The 
first that we notice is in " Maple Leaves," published in 
1863. In this volume Sir James condenses the account 
of Soulard, and incorporates the critism of Mr. Viger. 

In " Maple Leaves," published in 1873, Sir James 
gives many particulars about the house owned by 
Philibert, concerning which we need not write, as the 
deeds of the property are published herewith. On 
page 91 we find this passage : 

" The romance, as composed by Auguste Soulard, 
" esquire, and published in the Repertoire National, 
" was a graceful and fanciful effusion. This witty 
' ' Barrister cut off so prematurely in the heyday of his 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

' success, especially as a litterateur, still lives agree- 
' ably in the memory of his confreres. There are 
' few unacquainted with his novelette, whilst his 
' critic, Mr. Jacques Viger, has exhibited remarkable 
' acumen and a deep acquaintance with dates : the only 
' point worthy of remark, is that the grave critic 
' appears to have taken the novel for history and criti- 
' cised it accordingly. We shall merely give the 
' conclusion : 

' ' Nicolas Jacquin Philibert was a Quebec mer- 
' chant, somehow or other he had incurred the dis- 
' pleasure of the Intendant Bigot, perhaps for refusing 
' to aid him in his peculations and extortions. The 
' Intendant, in order to annoy Philibert, had billeted 
' troops on him, and ordered a French Lieutenant by 
' name Pierre Legardeur, Sieur de Repentigny, to 
' quarter on the Quebec merchant. This incensed 
' Mr. Philibert very much, and when the Lieutenant 
' attempted to enter the house with the order, Phili- 
' bert objected, saying that he would have the order 
'recalled, to which de Repentigny replied: "You 
' are a fool." A blow from a walking stick was the 
' answer. The officer then drew his sword, and 
' inflicted on his opponent a wound of which he died 
' on the 2ist January, 1748. The deadly thrust is 
' supposed to have been given on the very steps of 
' the Chien d'Or building, which he occupied. De 
' Repentigny, in order to elude a criminal prosecution 
' escaped from Quebec, and retired to Nova Scotia, 
' then called Acadie, where he applied to Louis XV 
' for his pardon. Letters of reprieve and pardon were 
' sent out from Paris, and de Repentigny returned to 
' Quebec with these letters, in order to meet any oppo- 
' sition which the widow Philibert might urge, when 
' he should apply to the Superior Council of the colony 
' to have them registered. Mrs. Philibert having been 

152 



LE CHIEN D'OR 

' ' indemnified by pecuniary compensation for the loss 
" of her husband did not oppose de Repentigny's let- 
" tersof indemnity. The French Lieutenant remained 
' ' in the colony, and had been promoted to a captaincy 
<( in 1760, at the time when he was serving under the 
' ' Chevalier de Levis. Everything seemed to presage 
<l to de Repentigny's forgetfulness of the past, and a 
' ' promising future ; everyone seemed to have forgot- 
" ten Philibert's untimely end, and how the family's 
' ' respected chief had been cut off in the prime of man- 
" hood, and its prospects blighted forever by the 
" dastardly act of one of the Intendant's minions. 
" All seemed to have forgotten these facts ; all, save 
" one person, and this was a young man who had just 
' ' seen twenty three summers ; his name was Pierre 
" Nicholas Philibert. Severe in his demeanour, studi- 
" ous and reserved in his habits, young Philibert had 
' grown up to manhood, the chief support and con- 
' ' solation of his widowed mother. At times several 
" had remarked on his austere but beautiful face, a 
" sombre expression, which would immediately melt 
' into a subdued sadness, the real cause of which few 
" seemed to suspect. Beloved, as he certainly was by 
" all who knew him, it was a mournful day for the 
' forlorn widow, when followed by some friends she 
' ' escorted her eldest son to the lower town wharf, on 
" his way to France to obtain a commission in the 
" army. Whether he succeeded or not does not appear. 

" Ten months after his departure, Madame Phili- 
' ' bert one morning, received a letter ; it came from 
' ' Europe. On breaking the seal, the first words which 
" met her eye were as follows : 

' ' ' My dearest mother, We are avenged; my father's 
" ' murderer is no more.' The two had met at Pon- 
" dicherry, in the East Indies. De Repeutigny had 

153 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

fallen under the sword wound which young Philibert 
had inflicted upon him in a duel." 

To this, Sir James adds : 

"In Hawkin's 'Historical Pidlure of Quebec,' 
published in 1834, occurs a plausible explanation of 
the egnimatical verses inscribed on the basso-relievo 
of the Chien d'Or. Mr. Begon, Intendant in New 
France, formerly a merchant in Bordeaux, had 
arrived in Quebec in 1712. ( J ) Philibert quarrelled 
with him touching some claims he had preferred 
against the Government. Failing to make them 
good, Philibert caused the following words to be 
engraved over the front of his residence, beneath the 

likeness of a dog gnawing a bone It seems 

impossible to unearth the truth, from under these 
old traditions. Here rests a store most ample of 
materials for the novelist. Time lends to legendary 
lore, a most fragrant aroma, spreads flowers over 
tombs and gleams of poetry over common place 
things long since forgotten. Alexandre Dumas, 
who weaved a beautiful romance about the Tower of 
Nesle, could have found here the ground work for 
an exciting tale, wherein that war-like period the 
eighteenth century with its dark deeds of blood 
and revenge, would have stood out in bold relief. 
If, on one hand, Philibert is a victim which moves 
us to pity ; on the other, it seems incomprehensible 
that de Repentigny should have drawn his sword 
about such an insignificant quarrel. Was it merely 
an ordinary instance of soldier-like brutality ? Was 
it a deed of personal revenge, or else, was de Repen- 



( i ) It may be mentioned here that at the time of the arrival 
of Begon, Philibert was only 1 1 years of age, so that he must have 
commenced business in infancy ! 

154 



LE CHIEN D'OR 

" tigny merely the instrument, the sycophant of a 
" mightier man ? Whatever we choose to suppose, 
" that drop of blood lights up with sinster glare, the 
' ' gloom of years which overshadows the old structure. 
' ' So much for romance. ' ' 

The answers to the questions raised by Sir James 
in this quotation, concerning the death of Philibert, 
may be found in the official records, published in the 
appendix. 

We will now briefly examine the work which has 
made the old house so familiar to the public. " The 
Golden Dog," by Mr. Kirby. This book contains a 
very interesting romance, and if Mr. Kirby had pres- 
ented it to his readers simply as a work of fiction, we 
should not feel called upon to pass any remarks upon it. 
Mr. Kirby, however, makes other claims for his work. 
In the preface to the last revised edition, 1897, ne savs : 

" The result is the present edition, which I have 
corrected and revised in the light of the latest develop- 
ments in the history of Quebec." 

This statement is very misleading, because the 
main features of the work have no foundation in fact. 

Before producing the proof in support of our 
assertion, it is necessary to briefly describe the manner 
in which Mr. Kirby links the names of Philibert and 
Repentigny with Bigot and the golden dog. 

We have already seen that the earlier writers on 
this subject found it convenient to represent this miser- 
able, hungry looking dog as a cause of offence to 
someone, but they appeared to be unable to determine 

155 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

with any certainty, who the offended person should 
be. One suggested Begon, and another Bigot. Mr. 
Kirby, however, as he desired to be accurate, seized 
upon Bigot, as a man with whose character the ima- 
gination could safely run riot. It mattered not whether 
Bigot was Intendant of New France at the time, or 
whether his victim had been dead and buried long 
before the appointment of the last Intendant of New 
France. Bigot was the man, and at any sacrifice he 
must be made to take offence at this rude simulacrum 
of an ill-fed dog. The dog, moreover, was an offensive, 
vindictive dog, who could afford to wait for a time 
" qui n'est pas venu." 

According to the story, Bigot looked at the dog, 
and that look was sufficient to bring on the stage a 
series of extraordinary complications, very interesting 
as fiction, but very disappointing when compared with 
the more sombre facts of history. 

On page 157 of " The Golden Dog " we find this 
passage : 

" I trembled at Bigot in the old land ! I tremble 
at him here, where he is more powerful than before. 
I saw him passing one day. He stopped to read the 
inscription of the Golden Dog. His face was the 
face of a fiend, as he rode hastily away. He knew 
well how to interpret it. ' ' 

From that moment, the fate of Philibert was 
sealed. It is not necessary for our purpose, to follow 
step by step the intrigue and debauchery by which, in 
the story, Bigot accomplished his end, and caused the 
death of Philibert. 

156 






LE CHIEN D'OR 

On a certain St. Martin's Day, Nov. n, the 
honest Philibert, as Mr. Kirby describes him, dressed 
himself with great care to attend the market, and paid 
no heed to his faithful servant, who warned him that 
evil would overtake him. Philibert was determined, 
and taking his sword with him he proceeded to the 
market. While there, Le Gardeur de Repentigny was 
seen ' ' very drunk and wild with anger, in the act of 
' ' leaping off his horse with oaths of vengance against 

' ' someone " " Le Gardeur and De Lantagnac 

" rode furiously through the market, heedless of 
" what they encountered or whom they ran over, and 
" were followed by a yell of indignation from the 
" people, who recognized them as gentlemen of the 
' ' Grand Company. It chanced that at the moment a 
' ' poor almsman of the Bourgeois Philibert was humbly 
" and quietly leaning on his crutches, listening with 
" bowing head and smiling lips to the kind inquiries 
' ' of his benefactor as he received his accustomed alms 

" " " The Bourgeois saw them approach, and 

" motioned them to stop, but in vain. The horse of 
" De L,antagnac just swerved in its course, and without 
" checking his speed ran over the crippled man, who 
" instantly rolled in the dust, his face streaming with 
" blood, from a sharp stroke of the horse's shoe upon 
" his forehead." Then followed L,e Gardeur " yelling 
" like a demon," and the attempts of the Bourgeois to 
protect the poor cripple. " L,e Gardeur spurred his 
" horse madly over the wounded man who lay upon 
" the ground ; but he did not hear him, he did not see 
' ' him. L,et this be said for L,e Gardeur, if aught can 
" be said in his defence, he did not see him." 

The Bourgeois checked L,e Gardeur in his mad 
course, while those who were around watched eagerly 
for the fight which they were sure would follow. L,e 
Gardeur jumped from his horse and attacked the 

157 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Bourgeois, but was prevented from doing much mis- 
chief by some of Philibert's friends. At this moment 
Angelique appeared. ' ' With a plunge of her horse 
" she forced her way close to Le Gardeur, and, leaning 
' over him, laid her hand upon his shoulder and 
' ' exclaimed in a voice choking with passion ' ' What, 
' ' L,e Gardeur, you allow a ruffian like that to load you 
" with blows, and you wear a sword! " 

" It was enough. That look, that word, would 
" have made LeGardeur slaughter his father at that 
" moment. 

" Astonished at the sight of Angelique, and mad- 
" dened by her words, as much as by the blow he had 
" received, L,eGardeur swore he would be revenged 
" upon the spot. With a wild cry, and with the 
' ' strength and agility of the panther he twisted him- 
" self out of the grasp of the habitants, and drawing 
" his sword, before any man could stop him, thrust it 
" to the hilt through the body of the Bourgeois, who 
" not expecting this sudden assault, had not put him- 
" self in an attitude of defense to meet it. The 
' ' Bourgeois fell dying by the side of the bleeding man 
" who had just received his alms, and in whose pro- 
" tection he had thus risked and lost his own life." 

So much for the death of Philibert. Mr. Kirby 
then deals with Repentigny, representing him as asking 
some one to bind him, but no one would undertake 
the task. Then we find that the court decided to send 
him to France by the Fleur-de-lys in order that the 
King might judge his offence, and later we learn that 
he was a prisoner in the Bastile. ' ' L,eGardeur, after a 
long confinement in the Bastile, where he incessantly 
demanded trial and punishment for his rank offence of 

158 



LE CHIEN D'OR 

murder, as he ever called it, was at last liberated by 
express command of the King, without trial, and 
against his own wishes. ' ' 

It would require more space than is at our disposal 
at the present to examine in detail the work of Mr. 
Kirby, but the passages which we have quoted are a 
sufficient illustration of the circumstances concerning 
three individuals mentioned in the book, which Mr. 
Kirby asks his readers to accept as being in accordance 
with the history of Quebec. 

We now produce proof of the contrary. Unfor- 
tunately, for our purpose, the documents relating to 
Philibert, Repentigny, Bigot, and the Chien d'Or, are 
very voluminous, and in the present w r ork we can 
only publish a selection, which, however, will be found 
quite sufficient to support our assertion, that the romance 
w r oven around the names of Bigot, Repentigny and 
Philibert, by Mr. Kirby, is entirely without foundation 
in fact. 

Philibert was wounded by Repentigny in the house 
of a woman named La Palme, on the 2oth of January, 
1748, and he died from the effect of this wound, in his 
own house, at about ten o'clock on the evening of the 
2ist of January. Repentigny was tried, condemned, 
and his sentence was executed on the 2oth day of March, 
1748, in the Lower Town. Bigot was not appointed 
Intendant of New France until the 2nd of September, 
1748, and therefore all Mr. Kirby 's interesting events 
which are coupled with the name of the Intendaut, are 
without foundation. 

159 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

The death of Philibert occurred at the time that 
Hocquart was Intendant of New France, and Philibert, 
instead of being an independent merchant, as Mr. 
Kirby claims, was an army contractor, filling the rdle 
in a smaller capacity, that was filled by the notorious 
Cadet, under the regime of Bigot. 

Hocquart, according to the testimony of Montcalm 
and others, was a very honest man, who made no profit 
out of his position as Intendant, while the integrity of 
Philibert was, perhaps, questionable. The circum- 
stances of the death of Philibert, gathered from the 
evidence of the six witnesses at the trial, Bouchard ; 
Demeulle, a cooper ; Pierre Voyer ; Joseph Delorme ; 
Dumont ; Mrs. Dumont, and the evidence of the sur- 
geons, are, briefly, these : 

On the i Qth or 2oth of January, 1748, Pierre L,e 
Gardeur Repentiguj^, who for some time had lived in 
the house of a Miss or Mrs. LaPalme, paying her six 
francs per month for his room, (*) received an order 
to take up his lodging with Nicolas Jacquin Philibert, 
merchant and army contractor. On receiving notice 
of this order, Philibert proceeded to the house of L,a 
Palme, and endeavoured to persuade her to continue 
to give lodging to Repentigny ; but being unable to 
agree with her as to the price which she asked for such 
lodging, ten francs per month, Philibert declared that 
he would have the order changed. This remark was 

(1) From the records in civil cases it would appear that La 
Palme's was a boarding house. Repentigny was living there in 



1 60 






LE CHIEN D OR 

made within the hearing of Repentigny, who thereupon 
told Philibert that he was a simpleton to try to have 
the order changed as he would not be inconvenienced 
by the lodging which he was required to give. Phili- 
bert, naturally of a hasty temper, became violent and 
used very gross and insulting language, and finally 
struck Repeutigny with a stick, This was more than 
the officer could stand, and without premeditation, he 
drew his sword and infiidled a wound upon Philibert, 
from which he died on the evening of the 2ist. 

On the 2oth, Philibert took a criminal adlion 
against Repentigny, who in the meantime had been 
advised to proceed to Montreal. On the 2ist of Janu- 
ary Philibert died, after having forgiven his assailant. 
A warrant was immediately issued for the arrest of 
Repentigny. Early on the morning of the 22nd the 
Comptroller of Marine, Foucault, made a report to the 
Intendant Hocquart, requesting that the goods of 
Philibert should be seized and placed under seal, until 
such time as his indebtedness to the Government was 
ascertained. This order was granted and Philibert' s 
goods were seized, and an inventary made. 

On the 2 2nd of January, at the request of the 
widow, and of the Procurer, an order was given for an 
autopsy to be performed on the body of Philibert, to 
ascertain the nature of the wound. The autopsy was 
made in the presence of the surgeon Beaudoin, by the 
surgeon Briant. Philibert was buried on the 25th of 
January in the parish Church in the presence of a 
large number of people. 

ii 161 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Repentigny did not appear in answer to the war- 
rant within the prescribed delays, and on the twenty 
first day of February the trial proceeded, and a copy 
of the proceedings, wherein the widow claimed the sum 
of thirty thousand livres damages, was ordered to be 
served upon Repentigny at his last domicile, in Quebec. 

Final judgment was rendered on the 2oth day of 
March, 1748. By this judgment Repentigny was 
declared guilty of causing the death of Philibert, and 
he was condemned to pay 8,000 livres damages with 
interest, to the widow Philibert, and the cost of the 
proceedings, 2,000 livres, while the balance of his prop- 
erty was declared confiscated. And, in reparation, in 
view of his quality as a gentleman, he was condemned 
to have his head cut off on a scaffold to be erected for 
the purpose in the public square of the Lower Town. 

This sentence is, at first sight, startling, but its 
terror is considerably modified by the concluding words 
of the judgment, " And the present sentence shall be 
' ' executed in effigy on a picture to be placed for the 
' ' purpose on a pole in the public square. ' ' 

The King's Procurer demanded the execution of 
the judgment, and there is a certificate attached to the 
original document setting forth that it was duly exe- 
cuted on the same day. While all these proceedings 
were going on, Repentigny was at Fort Frederic, and 
in the course of time various persons began to intercede 
for his pardon, as they considered him more unfor- 
tunate than culpable. 

162 



I,E CHIEN D'OR 

On the i yth of August, 1748, La Galissonniere, 
the Governor, and Hocquart, the Intendant, trans- 
mitted a copy of all the proceedings to the Minister in 
France, and recommended a pardon for Repentigny. 

On the ist of September, Repentigny himself sent 
a petition to the King asking for letters of grace, and 
his petition was supported by a letter from the Bishop 
of Quebec, dated the sixth of September. 

In the month of April, 1749, the King signed 
letters of grace, pardon and remission, which were sent 
to Quebec. On the eighth day of September, Repen- 
tigny gave himself up to justice, and was imprisoned 
in the common gaol of Quebec. 

Notice of the letters was served upon the widow 
Philibert, and on the second day of October, Repen- 
tigny, bareheaded and upon his knees, witnessed the 
registration of the letters of grace in the records of the 
Superior Council, to which Mrs. Philibert offered no 
objection. After the registration of these letters, 
Jonquiere wrote to the Minister to the effect that the 
widow and children had represented to him that if 
Repentigny remained in the colony, they would have 
the unpleasantness of seeing the author of the death of 
the merchant. The Governor suggested that Repen- 
tigny could serve in Martinique or in Louisbourg, 
but, pending the decision of the King, he would be 
stationed at Montreal. Repentigny served for some 
time in Montreal, and, in 1759, he was promoted. At 
length, Repentigny returned to France and gradually 
rose in rank until he became a Brigadier General. In 

163 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

the course of time he was appointed Governor of 
Mahe", where he died of natural causes in the year 
1776, twenty-eight years after the death of Philibert. 

Sir James L,eMoine, and other writers have claimed 
that Repentigny was at the siege of Quebec, but this is 
not correct. The numerous documents in the possession 
of Mr. Pierre Georges Roy, of L,e"vis, which have been 
placed at our disposal, and the correspondence of 
descendants of the family, prove that it was a member 
of another branch who served in the campaigns of 
1756-1760. 

It will be seen from this short sketch, and from the 
documents published in the appendix, that Mr. Kirby's 
story is completely at variance with facts, and that as 
a historical novel, which he claims it to be, it is abso- 
lutely unreliable. The Colonel Philibert, who plays 
such an important part in the story was, at the death 
of his father, aged just 10 years and eight months. In 
a future publication regarding the Chien d'Or and the 
Chateau Bigot, we will be able to show other instances 
of pure fiction which are presented to us as history. 

The meaning of the inscription is still unsolved. 
The miserable, hungry-looking dog is content to gnaw 
his bone, and is still waiting for the time " qui n'est 
pas venu." Some of the fiction, however, has been 
swept away, which we were invited to accept as truth, 
and perhaps in the future, when the time of the dog is 
ripe, some one may find an explanation of the dog, 
the bone and the inscription, which have given rise to 
so many interesting stories. 

164 



LE CHIEN D'OR 

The documents numbered 2, 3, 14, 15, published 
in the appendix, have kindly been placed at our dis- 
posal by Mr. Phile"as Gagnon, whose services we have 
so often had occasion to acknowledge. The other 
papers, numbered i, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 13 are to 
be found in the archives of the Province and in Ottawa. 

We are indebted to Major Crawford I,indsay, 
official translator of the Province of Quebec, for the 
translation of the documents, published at the end of 
this book. 



165 



CHAPTER VIII 



1 76O-1812 



QUEBEC UNDER BRITISH RULE 

GENERAL MURRAY THE TREATY OP PARIS THE 
COUNCIL SIR GUY CARLETON ATTITUDE OF 
THE CANADIANS MONTGOMERY HIS ATTACK 
AND UNFORTUNATE END HALDIMAND A 
TEMPORARY CITADEL LORD DORCHESTER 
ELECTION OF SPEAKER A QUESTION OF LAN- 
GUAGE NEWSPAPER WARFARE BEDARD AND 
TASCHEREAU CRAIG'S ADMINISTRATION. ' 

Immediately after the capitulation in 1759, milit- 
ary rule was established in Quebec, pending the result 
of the negociations between England and France. 
The first two years appear to have been comparatively 
happy ones for the people of the city, under the regime 
of General Murray ; but in the course of time discord 
arose between the old and the new inhabitants, and 
for the next quarter of a century the official corres- 
pondence is burdened with complaints, and with 
suggestions for improving the condition of affairs, 

I6 7 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

The Treaty of Paris, signed on the loth day of 
February, 1763, gave to Kngland supremacy in Canada. 
Under this agreement the inhabitants were allowed 
the freedom of their religion, <( in so far as the laws of 
Great Britain can permit." This clause has been 
interpreted by eminent English statesmen to concede 
to the colonies the free exercise of the Catholic religion. 
The spirit of toleration manifested by the British 
Government at this time, was far in advance of the age, 
for it is only within recent years that Catholics in 
England have enjoyed the same privileges as Canadians. 
The Protestants of Quebec viewed with alarm the 
concessions made to their one-time foes, and there is 
no doubt that the triumph of the Catholic Church in 
Canada, gave rise to much of the ill will which prevailed 
for a long time between the two races. In this age, 
when there is no question of religious freedom to disturb 
the minds of the people, it is difficult to understand 
how deep was the gulf which separated the Catholic 
from the Protestant more than a hundred years ago. 

General Murray, the third Brigadier under General 
Wolfe in 1759, was appointed Governor in 1764. He 
had played an important part at the Battle of the 
Plains, and he it was who led the British troops when 
they suffered defeat in 1760. 

Murray remained in the country, and had become 
thoroughly acquainted with the people and with the 
needs of the colony. In his report to the King, made 
in June, 1762, he gave the general and staff officers of 
Quebec at that time, as follows : 

168 



QUEBEC UNDER BRITISH RULE 

The Honourable James Murray, Esq., Governor. 
The Honourable Lieut.-Col. Maitland, D.A.C. 
Governor Murray's leave to the Southern Colonies. 
Ivieut.-Col. Irving, Quarter- Master General. 
Hector Theo. Cramahe, Secretary to the Governor. 
Lieut. Mills, Town Adjutant. 
Captain Malone, Barrack Master. 
Captain Cosnan, Town Major. 
Governor Murray's leave to England for the recov- 
ery of his health. 

Zachariah Thompson, Captain of Ports. 

Engineers: 
Captain Lieut. Spry, 



T .,,,../ r Established. 

Lieut. Montresor, j 

Captain Holland, Assistant. 

Officers of His Majesty' s Hospital: 
Mr. Francis Russell, Chief Surgeon. 
Mr. Field, 



Mr. Mabane, J Mates> 
Mr. Zachariah Filtner, Provost Marshal. 
Benjamin Gable, Hangman. 

In speaking of the first winter in Quebec under 
British rule, Murray said : 

" I can with the greatest truth, assert, that the 
" troops have lived with the inhabitants in a harmony 
" unexampled even at home. I must here, in justice 
" to those under my command in this Government, 
' ' observe to your Lordship, that in the winter which 
' ' immediately followed the reduction of this Province, 
" when from the calamities of war, and a bad harvest, 

169 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

the inhabitants of these lower parts were exposed to 
the horrors of a famine, the officers of every rank, 
even in the lowest, generously contributed towards 
alleviating the distress of the unfortunate Canadians, 
by a large subscription ; the British merchants, and 
traders readily and cheerfully assisted in this good 
work, even the poor soldiers threw in their mite, 
and gave a day's provisions, or a day's pay in the 
month, toward's the fund ; by this means a quantity 
of provisions was purchased and distributed with 
great care and assiduity to numbers of poor families 
who without this charitable support, must have 
inevitably perished. Such an instance of uncommon 
generosity towards the conquered did the highest 
honour to their conquerors and convinced these poor 
deluded people, how grossly they had been imposed 
upon." 

Murray's first important act as Governor, was to 
choose a Council in whom the executive, legislative 
and judicial powers could be vested. The Council was 
composed of the I/ieutenant-Governors of Montreal 
and Three Rivers, the Chief Justice and the Inspector 
of Customs, and of eight of the most prominent inhabi- 
tants. 

The Governor was judicious in his dealings with 
the French-Canadians, and he endeavoured to make 
them feel that under the new regime they would enjoy a 
measure of liberty greater than under the old. Murray 
appears to have been supported in this policy by many of 
the English, but there were some who bitterly resented 
the tolerance of the Governor, and at length their com- 
plaints were carried to England. The British Govern- 

170 



QUEBEC UNDER BRITISH RULE 

ment, if it realised the situation, found it difficult to 
apply a remedy that would reconcile the two opposing 
classes. New laws were proposed and enacted, but 
little relief was derived therefrom. The process of 
reconciliation was to be worked out slowly, with very 
little aid from legislation. 

A new Council was authorized, to be composed of 
not less than eight, and not more than twenty members, 
and a tax was imposed to provide for the administration 
of the colony. Murray had great faith in the future ~\ 
of Quebec and always worked for its development. 
During his term of office, the buildings were restored 
which had been ruined by the British batteries in 1759.. 

Sir Guy Carleton, who had been knighted for his 
services under Wolfe, succeeded Murray in 1 766. Like 
his predecessor, he was favourably disposed towards 
the French population, and persistently defended their 
rights in the face of opposition, both at home and 
abroad. The correspondence of Carleton is worthy of 
a careful study. He appears to have been almost alone 
in understanding the real position of the people. 
England had conceded certain rights to the Canadians, 
and had admitted them to her family. They were in 
the majority, and consequently to a certain extent the 
English, under the Constitution, were subject to what 
they considered a foreign yoke. This condition was 
irritating to the dominant spirit of the English who, 
not unnaturally, regarded the country as theirs by the 
right of acquisition. 

The position was a peculiar one, but much of the 

171 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

trouble which for so many years retarded the real 
progress of the country, might have been avoided at 
the commencement, by a determination on both sides 
to assert their rights in a friendly manner. Each side, 
however, was in a measure aggressive. So much of 
what is best in the lives of individuals and of nations, is 
the outcome of corrected mistakes. Here and there we 
find an individual who has sounded a note of warning 
which we ultimately acknowledge to have been just 
and true, but at the moment it was disregarded. 
Carleton, in upholding the rights of the Canadians, 
was simply upholding the honour of England, whose 
Ministers had yet to realise the import of the conces- 
sions which had been made to the people of New 
France. The Canadians were impatient, and did not 
understand that the absolute freedom which they were 
one day to enjoy, could not be accomplished in a 
moment, and their eagerness for emancipation oft times 
injured the cause which they desired to help fonvard. 

It was through Carleton 's efforts that the Test 
Oath was abolished in 1774. The manly stand taken 
by the Governor on this question endeared him to the 
Canadians, and his memory is cherished in Quebec 
even to this day. 

The administrative ability of a Governor in those 
days was often severely tested, and a false step, at any 
moment, might produce serious consequence. At this 
time there was evidence of an approaching crisis./ The 
inhabitants of New England had resolved to free them- 
selves from the mother country, and in order to insure 

172 



QUEBEC UNDER BRITISH RULE 

success they desired the co-operation of the Canadians. 
An opportunity was offered to the French to unite 
with the revolters to obtain their independence of a 
government which they regarded as nothing less than 
despotic. Whatever might have been the outcome of 
such an alliance, it is perhaps difficult to estimate, but 
the Canadians steadily refused to entertain any of the 
overtures made to them by the Americans. In their 
resolution they were supported by the Bishop and the 
clergy, who urged them to remain submissive to con- 
stituted authority. The Americans reiterated and 
enlarged their promises, but the Canadians, as ever, 
remained loyal to the Crown of Great Britain. 

The Bostonnais, as they were then called, determ- 
ined to take Canada by force, since their efforts to 
enlist the sympathy of the Canadians had proved of no 
avail. In the autumn of 1775, the New England forces 
under generals Arnold and Montgomery, appeared 
before Quebec, near the site of the monument on the 
Ste. Foy road. 

The city was in a defenceless state, and unless the 
Governor could rely absolutely upon the loyalty of the 
people, there was little hope of withstanding an assault. 
The fortifications which had been constructed under 
the French regime at such an enormous expense, could 
be reduced without effort, for they were built more 
with the idea of profit than of service. The British, 
too, notwithstanding the urgent demands made by 
Murray and Carleton, had refused the means necessary 
to place Quebec in a state of security. Carleton had 

173 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

made what preparations were possible to resist an 
attack by constructing temporary outworks, but the 
walls were in too dilapidated a condition to admit of 
repairs. 

On the 6th of December, Montgomery wrote to 
Carleton, warning him of the folly of resistance, and 
threatening vengeance if any of the works were des- 
troyed. In order to alarm the British, Arnold advanced 
his men to the summit of the hill at Claire Fontaine 
street, near the Franciscan Church, and commenced 
to construct batteries to demolish the walls. Arnold 
was favoured in his design by the shelter afforded by 
the brush wood between the Grande Allee and Ste. 
Foy road, which extended from Claire Fontaine street 
to St. Augustin street, and entirely concealed his 
movements from the British. Captain Marr had 
pointed out to the authorities the danger of the place, 
but no notice was taken of his warning until 1779, 
when the ground was finally cleared. On the 3Oth of 
December, Arnold made a movement as if he intended 
to effect an entry near St. L,ouis Gate. His purpose, 
however, was rather to detract attention from the 
operations of Montgomery, who had conceived the 
daring project of taking the town by carrying the Gate 
at Mountain Hill. Following the tactics of Wolfe, 
Montgomery hoped to obtain a footing at a place 
where the enemy would not expect an attack, and, if 
successful, the forces under Arnold were to support 
him in the rear, and thus place the enemy between two 
fires. On the 3ist of December, at day-break, Mont- 

174 



QUEBEC UNDER BRITISH RULE 

gomery commenced to carry out his plan, and for a 
moment it appeared that the fate of Quebec for a 
second time would be decided by a stroke equally as 
bold as that of the immortal Wolfe. Proceeding along 
the road at the base of the cliff, the forces under 
Montgomery approached the city until they stood at 
the foot of Cape Diamond. Fortune had favoured them 
so far, and there seemed to be naught save the frown- 
ing cliff between them and victory. In a moment the 
stillness of the early morn was broken by the roar of 
murderous cannon, mingled with the cries of the 
wounded, and in that moment, the dauntless leader 
was numbered with the dead. With the fall of 
Montgomery and his brave followers the hopes of the 
expedition were crushed, and the flag of England still 
waved over the heights of Cape Diamond. 

The body of the unfortunate general was conveyed 
to a house on St. Louis street, the site of which is 
still pointed out to the visitor as " Montgomery's 
House." The General and several of his soldiers, 
were buried near the walls of the city, on Citadel Hill. 

Frederick Haldimand came to Quebec to replace 
Carleton as Governor, in 1778. The new appointment 
was not popular, and, indeed, it would have been very 
difficult to find a man who could replace Carleton in 
the hearts of the people. The Governor was regarded 
by many as a despot, but a study of his correspondence 
and of his public acts, leads one to believe that he has 
been misrepresented. Haldimand had a difficult path 
to tread. The Canadians, however well disposed, 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

could not have forgotten the turn of events in 1759- 
1760, and only the most judicious treatment could 
reconcile them to the change of Government. The 
Home authorities did not understand the responsibili- 
ties imposed upon them by their new possessions, and 
they had yet to learn the lesson of prudence in dealing 
with the colonies. Haldimand was upright in his 
dealings, but he was not adapted to the administration 
of a colony where such extraordinary conditions pre- 
vailed. " He has been charged with permitting officials 
to live by extortion, but his greatest fault appears to 
have been, that he relied too much upon the honesty 
of those under him, who distorted facts to serve their 
own ends. Haldimand was very zealous in his endea- 
vours to place the city of Quebec in a proper state of 
defence, and it was under his regime that the first 
Citadel of Quebec was constructed. Being unable to 
preserve harmony, the Governor at length retired. 

When Sir Guy Carleton returned to Canada as 
Governor, under the title of L,ord Dorchester, he was 
welcomed on every hand, for he thoroughly understood 
the people and enjoyed their confidence. The social 
life of Quebec had never been so brilliant as under his 
regime. The frequent entertainments given at the 
Chateau were spoken of long after as great events. 
During the summer of 1787, Quebec was honoured by 
the presence of a royal visitor, Prince William Henry. 
Great preparations were made to receive the prince, 
and on the 27th of August a sham battle was arranged 
on the Plains of Abraham. At eleven o'clock the 

176 



QUEBRC UNDER BRITISH RULE 

procession issued from the Chateau and proceeded up 
St. Louis Street, amidst the cheers of the people, to 
the open ground beyond St. L,ouis Gate. The royal 
party included the Governor, and the escort was com- 
posed of the 2oth and 34th Regiments, under the 
command of Brigadiers Hope and Skene. 

(The Canadians at this time were not satisfied with 
their condition. They desired greater political freedom 
than they obtained under the Act of 1774, and they 
looked to the Governor for redress. Self government 
would have satisfied the people, but this Great Britain 
was not prepared to grant. Certain measures were 
proposed, and L,ord Dorchester deemed it advisable to 
proceed to England to urge the cause of the colony. 
In i_2i, an Act was passed which gave to the people 
greater liberty, and to the Governor increased prestige 
amongst the French. To many of the English, 
however, it caused great dissatisfaction. Although the 
demands of the French at this time appear now to 
have been just, we must bear in mind that during 
the French regime the Canadians scarcely knew the 
meaning of the word liberty. Under the iron rule of 
the last of the Intendants the farmers were not even 
allowed to sell the produce of their land at such prices 
as they were offered for it, if these prices were not 
provided for by regulation. It is true that the people 
had sworn allegiance to the British Crown, and were 
entitled to its protection, but the Government may be 
excused for hesitating to entrust to them any great 

12 177 



QUEBEC UNDKR TWO FLAGS 

measure of political freedom, until it was satisfied that 
they would not abuse it. 

The 1 7th of December, 1792, marked the opening 
of the first session of the first Parliament of Quebec. 
There were thirty five French and fifteen English 
members elected by the voice of the people. Amongst 
the most prominent were Joseph Papineau, Pierre 
Bedard. James McGill, P. A. de Bonne, J. Frobisher, 
J. A. Panet, J. Young, de Salaberry, Hertel de Rou- 
ville and Charles de I^otbiniere. 

The House sat on this occasion in the old episcopal 
palace built by Monseigneur de Saint Vallier. It was 
a fine stone building situated at the top of Mountain 
Hill, facing the river, and had proved an easy mark 
for the British shells during the siege of Quebec in 
1759. The Chapel, sixty feet in length, by thirty 
feet in breadth, was converted into a chamber for the 
legislative assembly. It was upon the site of the Palace 
that the Parliament House stood until it was destroyed 
by fire in 1883. The ground has been laid out as a 
public garden and is now a very attractive spot. 

There was an animated debate over the election 
of the first speaker, and the French carried the vote 
by a majority of 10 in favour of Antoine Paiiet, a 
prominent citizen of the Upper Town, and a man of 
great legal ability. The English candidates for the 
office were McGill and Jordan. 

The members of the first assembly were of course 
little accustomed to parliamentary usage, and there 

178 



QUEBEC UNDER BRITISH RULE 

was much confusion as to procedure, but many of the 
members possessed a knowledge of both languages 
which facilitated intercourse. 

One of the most important subjects under discus- 
sion during the first session was the question of the 
official language of the Province. The French natur- 
ally desired to retain their own language, while the 
English fought strenuously for the English tongue as 
being the language of the reigning country. Only one 
French member supported the English side of the 
question, and consequently the French carried their 
point. A lengthy debate ensued regarding the disposal 
of the revenues derived from the Jesuits' estates. The 
Catholic members of the House were in favour of 
the fund being devoted to educational purposes, but 
their was a stormy opposition, and the measure was 
defeated. The House was opened by Sir Alured Clark, 
the Lieutenant Governor, in the absence of Lord 
Dorchester. In the Speech from the Throne, the 
organization of the militia was suggested, and reference 
was made to the administration of Justice, and to the 
means to be adopted to increase the public revenue. 

The Duke of Kent, father of Queen Victoria, had 
arrived in Quebec on the i2th of August, 1791, and 
the House adopted an address of welcome to the 
the illustrious visitor. 

The Duke remained in Canada until the 5th of 
January, 1794, and many brilliant entertainments were 
given in his honour by the civil and military author- 
ities. Quebec had made great progress under Lord 

179 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Dorchester's regime, and when he departed for Eng- 
land on the 9th of July, 1796, universal regret was 
expressed. 

To the French Canadians, Lord Dorchester had 
been a warm friend. He was a lover of justice, and 
strove on every occasion to bring about a better 
understanding amongst the people for their mutual 
good, and the progress of the country. 

Sir Robert Prescott succeeded Lord Dorchester in 
1797, but his term of office only lasted two years. The 
late Governor had made himself so popular, that it 
was difficult for any one to replace him. One of the 
Gates in Quebec was named after this Governor. 
Lady Prescott, a very distinguished woman, was a 
great favourite in Quebec and a welcome visitor at the 
Ursuline Convent. 

Sir Robert Shore Milnes was appointed adminis- 
trator of the Province after the departure of Prescott. 
The Royal Society for the promotion of Science was 
founded under his auspices. Criticism was directed 
against him for his distribution of Crown Lands in the 
Eastern Townships, which it is claimed were alloted 
to his friends. 

The session of 1805 was a stormy one. Money 
was necessary for building gaols, but whether to 
provide the sum required by the taxation of landed 
propert)'-, or by a tax upon goods imported for con- 
sumption, became the question of the hour. The mer- 
chants were unanimous in opposing the measure, 
although it appears to have been a rational method. 

1 80 



QUEBEC UNDER BRITISH RULE 

The House finally imposed a tax upon the merchants, 
exempting the agricultural classes, and the measure 
was sanctioned by the Governor in the face of vigorous 
opposition. As most of the merchants at this time 
were English, they became very bitter against the 
French. 

The Mercury, a newly established paper, espoused 
the cause of the merchants : 

" This Province," it said, " is already too French 
' ' for a British colony. Whether we be at peace or at 
" war, it is essential that we should make every effort, 
' ' by all avowable means, to oppose ourselves to the 
' ' growth of the French and of their influences. After 
" forty-seven years of possession, it is but right that 
" this Province should become British." 

To counteract the influence of the Mercury, the 
French established the Canadien. It had no regular 
editors, but its chief contributors were Pierre Bedard, 
Borgia and Taschereau. Bedard was a talented advo- 
cate, who had made a careful study of British consti- 
tutional history. As a debater in the House, he had 
the advantage over the majority of the members on 
this account, and he soon became recognized by the 
French as the champion of political liberty. The 
numbers of the Canadien published between 1806 and 
1810, contain an outline of the policy which he advo- 
cated. Fiat justitia ruat caelum, was the motto chosen 
by Bedard for the Canadien, and in carrying out his 
purpose, as expressed in these words, he soon became 
involved in the most serious difficulties with his oppo- 

181 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

nents. The Mercury continued its programme, and 
the Canadien supported its own side of the question, 
although neither paper was devoted exclusively to this 
warfare. 

Be"dard wrote powerful articles on constitutional 
questions with which he was familiar, and he pointed 
out the benefits to be derived from the British Consti- 
tution if properly applied to this Province. The Cana- 
dien only lived for three years. Under the authority 
of Governor Craig, it was suppressed as being dangerous 
in its tendencies. The Mercury, on the contrary, con- 
tinued to flourish, and is in active circulation to-day. 

This paper warfare was only the beginning of the 
trouble. The Americans had not forgotten the check 
they received in 1775, although they began to despair 
of ever taking possession of Canada, and the press along 
the borders commenced to insinuate that the Canadians 
were disloyal and were anxious to throw off the yoke 
of Great Britain. The English papers in Canada were 
for the most part neutral, but some were only too eager 
to widen the breach, and at last open violence was 
resorted to. The printing offices of Lafrancois were 
wrecked, and Bedard, Taschereau and Blauchet, were 
arrested and cast into prison on the charge of plotting 
treason. 

Craig's action, which was taken at the instance of 
his councillors, was the subject of bitter criticism, and 
he issued a manifesto defending his course. Monsei- 
gneur Plessis, the Bishop of Quebec, read this mandate 
from the pulpit of the Cathedral, and enjoined obedience 
182 



QUEBEC UNDER BRITISH RULE 

to constituted authority. The prudent advice of the 
Bishop, no doubt, prevented serious consequences at 
this time. 

Taschereau and Blanchet were set at liberty, and 
Bedard would have enjoyed his freedom had he not 
demanded a trial, which the Governor refused. 

The general elections were held a week after the 
incarceration of Bedard, and he was elected for the 
county of Surrey. When the House opened in 
December, the Governor informed the Assembly that 
Bedard had been arrested during the recess and 
committed for trial for treasonable practices. 

Instead of striking his name from the list of mem- 
bers the House declared that he was qualified to sit, 
and drew up a memorandum to this effect. 

During the session of 181 1 the Governor presented 
to the House a full statement concerning Bedard' s 
arrest, and concluded by saying that the time had 
come to put an end to this unfortunate affair. Bedard 
was discharged from custody, but his gaoler was 
obliged to use force to compel him to leave the pris6n. 
He had been denied a trial, but public opinion seemed 
to consider that Pierre Bedard was not the real criminal. 
He appears to have been an upright man, and the 
Governor was ill advised in causing his arrest. 

Craig has been looked upon as a tyrant, but we 
are inclined to think that his advisers were to blame, 
and, indeed, his own remarks seem to point to this 
fact. 

183 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

M. de Gaspe in his " Memoirs " says, " I have 
it upon authority beyond suspicion, that of my uncle, 
Charles de Lanaudiere, a member of the Legislative 
Council, a strong tory if ever there was one, and 
who approved of nearly all the arbitrary acts of the 
oligarchy ; I have it I say from that undeniable 
source, that Sir James Craig told him before his 
departure for Europe, that he had been shamefully 
deceived, and that if he had to begin the adminis- 
tration of the Colony over again he would act 
differently ' ' . 

Craig's administration had been unfortunate in 
some respects, but nevertheless he had carried out 
many useful public works in spite of internal discord. 
After his departure it was discovered that the high 
officials who remained were more to be feared than 
the late Governor. 

The conflict between the two Houses continued. 
Administrative abuses increased ; malversation in office 
was discovered, and it became apparent that a crisis 
was at hand. The caveant consules resounded within 
the parliamentary precindls, but there was no one 
found to heed the warning. 



184 




QUEBEC LOYAL ARTIFICERS 
or Faugh a Ballagh 



CHAPTER IX 



ECCLESIASTICAL GOVERNMENT 



THE CHAPTER OP QUEBEC MONSEIGNEUR PLESSIS 

PROTESTANTS IN QUEBEC BISHOP MOUNTAIN 

EDUCATIONAL MATTERS THE SEMINARY 
M. DEMERS THE FIRST PRINTING PRESS IN 
QUEBEC. 

THE action of the Chapter of Quebec in appointing 
permanent cures in several parishes during the 
absence of Monseigneur de Mornay, the Bishop, caused 
much comment in ecclesiastical circles. Monseigneur 
Dosquet, the fourth Bishop of the Diocese, called upon 
all the cures appointed by the Chapter, to resign, and, 
although they complied with his demand, there was a 
season of discontent. The Minister in France addressed 
the Bishop on the sub j eel:, but his lordship proved by 
his answer that the course he had adopted had been in 
the best interests of the Church. He said : " Out of 
" one hundred parishes comprising the diocese of 
" Quebec, twenty, only, have titular cures, and these 
' ' are in the vicinity of Quebec. This course of action 

185 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

" has always been followed in nascent churches, and 
' ' cannot be otherwise in Canada, for there are missions 
" extending over twelve and fifteen leagues. It is 
' ' necessary, for the honour of the clergy, for the good 
' ' of souls, and for the good government of the diocese, 
' ' that a Bishop should dispose of his priests according 
" to the views with which Providence inspires him." 

After the death of Monseigneur de Pontbriand, the 
sixth Bishop of Quebec, in 1760, the See remained 
vacant until 1766, when Monseigneur Briand received 
the mitre, upon the recommendation of General Murray. 
Under the Treaty, the British Government had a voice 
in the election of a Bishop, and when the name of 
Monseigneur Montgolfier was suggested, the Govern- 
ment strongly opposed his candidature. 

General Murray had conferred a great benefit 
upon the Church in Canada by recommending the 
nomination of the seventh bishop of Quebec. In the 
year 1784, the health of Monseigneur Briand gave way, 
and he transferred the responsibilities of the diocese, 
as well as his title, to his coadjutor, Monseigneur 
d'Esglis. The latter, in accordance with a custom 
that had long prevailed, appointed Monseigneur 
Hubert as his coadjutor, in 1785. On the death of 
Monseigneur d'Esglis, in 1788, Monseigneur Hubert 
appointed as his coadjutor Monseigneur Bailly de 
Messein, who died in 1794, leaving the office of coad- 
jutor vacant. His successor had already been named, 
viz. Joseph Octave Plessis, who for five years had filled 

1 86 



ECCLESIASTICAL GOVERNMENT 

the office of cure of Quebec, and on the death of Mon- 
seigneur Denaut, the tenth Bishop, he became the 
titular Bishop of the diocese. 

Monseigneur Plessis is by far the most prominent 
figure in Catholic ecclesiastical life from the year 1760 
until 1840. Although he disappeared from the scene of 
active labour fifteen years before the Union, it may be 
confidently asserted that the influence of his life and 
labours was felt long after his death. Even before he 
was consecrated Bishop he was recognised as a power 
in the Church, and as a director by his countrymen. 
In 1783 he was named Secretary of the Diocese of 
Quebec. While he occupied this office he enjoyed the 
confidence and esteem of his superiors and also of his 
inferiors. As Monseigneur Briand was in ill health, 
and lived in retirement at St. Pierre, on the Island of 
Orleans, many of the responsibilities of the diocese, 
extending as far as New Orleans, devolved upon him. 
The first official act of Monseigneur Plessis was to 
appoint as his coadjutor, Monseigneur Bernard Claude 
Panet, cure of Riviere Ouelle, his former professor. 
As the latter was ten years older than the Bishop, 
there did not appear to be any probability of his wearing 
the mitre as Bishop of Quebec. Monseigneur Plessis 
was thoroughly conversant with the situation of affairs 
in Quebec. He was acquainted with all the men, from 
the Governor to his secretary, and when he accepted 
the responsibilities of the office he was quite prepared 
to meet with opposition in England and in Canada, 
and to labour faithfully for the glory of the church, 
187 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

and for the good of his countrymen. In the field of 
politics he exercised an ennobling influence. 

Amongst the charitable works of the Bishop, we 
may mention the foundation of a fund for the benefit 
of the sick clergy ; his aid towards the building of the 
Ursuline Convent at Three Rivers, and a college at 
Halifax, and his contributions towards the colleges at 
Nicolet and St. Hyacinthe. 

At the cession of Canada to England the French 
Canadians numbered about sixty thousand, the greater 
number of whom were very poor. General Murray in 
his report made in 1762, six months before the Treaty 
was signed, said, " Convinced that the free exercise of 
' ' their religion will be continued to them once Canada 
" is irrevocably ceded by a Peace, the people will soon 

" become faithful subjects of His Majesty They 

" are a strong healthy race, plain in their dress, 
" virtuous in their morals, and temperate in their 
" living." 

It will thus be seen that before the Treaty was 
signed, and when Quebec enjoyed its happy military 
rule, the people were promised and assured that they 
would enjoy religious freedom ; and yet for many years 
after 1763, this question was not understood either by 
the representatives of the Crown, or by many of the 
residents of the country. 

In the year 1764, eighteen months after the formal 
cession of Canada to England, there were only one 
hundred and forty-four protestant house keepers in 

1 81 



ECCLESIASTICAL GOVERNMENT 



Quebec, and out of these there were less than ten free- 
holders, as we find by the certificate of General Murray, 
dated the 26th of October, 1764. 

List of Protestant House Keepers in Quebec 



Thomas Dunn -\ ^ = 

Francis Mounier I- f ~ 

Benjamin Price J' 3 

Thos. Ainslie 
5. John Grant 35. 

Samuel Gridley 

Joseph Walker 

Hugh Finlay 

Peter Traverse 
10. Rich'd Murray <g 40. 

John Martell 

Fran's L,eveck 

John Collins 

John Row 
15. Thomas Story 45. 

John Gray 

James Potts 

John Elliot 

Peter Funnel 
20. James Jeffereys 50. 

John McCord 

Will. Govett 

Gustian Franks 

Joseph Mather 
25. John Gustineau 55. 

John Lymburner 

John L,ee 

Alex. Simpson 

George Fulton 
30. Simon Frazer 60. 

189 



John Barnard 
Alex. Dumas 
William Mackenzie 
Robert McPhee 
Robert Hunter 
Isaac Warden 
Henry Mounier 
David Algie 
Edward Watts 
John Beack 
Charles Grant 
John Patterson 
Thomas Winter 
Samuel Merch 
Alex. McKenzie 
John Bondfield 
Acklorn Bondfield 
John Wasmoor 
John Philips 
Jeremiah C. Russel 
Benj. L,acount 
Stephen Moor 
John Dancer 
James Brookes 
James Aitkins 
Thomas Leamy 
Samuel Sills 
Will. Grant 
Calvin Gage 
George Alsop 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 





James Shepard 


George Hipps 




James Johnston 


James Rutherford 




John Purse 


Robert Jackson 




Stephen Wadsley 


100. Robert Wilcocks 


65. 


Peter Napier 


Sam' 11 Askwith 




John Malcolm 


John Williams 




George Jenkins 


Charles Minnet 




Christopher Spring 


James Isbister 




George Milner 


105. James Laying 


70. 


Jacob Deseau 


Ralph Gray 




George McAdam 


Will. Douglass 




James St. Clair 


Will. Webb 




John Taylor 


Will. McGrabb 




Will. Abbott 


no. Jacob Trader 


75- 


Sam. Duncan 


Joseph Thompson 




John Billar 


Richard Dee 




Zach. McAuley 


John Holman 




Gilbert McRandell 


James Britton 




Peter Leakin 


115. Philip Bayne 


80. 


Miles Prentice 


Will. Wright 




John Campbell 


James MacDonald 




John Black 


Henry Goldup 




John Fisher 


John Vallance 




Lachlan Smith 


1 20. Donald McDonald 


85- 


Michael Smith 


John Fraser 




John Deleau 


John Clark 




John Watts 


Will. Osburn 




John Engelke 


Alex. McArther 




John Ord 


125. John Lee 


90. 


Jacob Row 


John Callahan 




John Hay 


Benjamin Walmer 




Edw. Harrison 


John May 




Murdock Stewart 


Frans. Sickel 




James Hanna 


/~\ 'i 


1 30* vjlIlilOOl 


95- 


Daniel Bayne 


Will. Brown 




Will Brymer 


John Saulcs 



190 



ECCLESIASTICAL GOVERNMENT 

Jacob Stegman 140. John Platt 

John Sitly Richard Gray 

135. Peter Mike James Young 

John Miller William Gunn 

William Graham Thomas Aylwin 
John Smith 

William Brown 144 in all. 

" I do certify that every Protestant housekeeper 
<( in the District of Quebec is included in this List, 
*' and that, to the best of my knowledge there are 
" not ten Protestant freeholders in the Province, 
" consequently not ten Protestants qualified by the 
" Laws of England to be jurors. 

JAS. MURRAY." 

The English residents were so small in number 
that it is apparent their position must have been 
keenly felt. They viewed with alarm the growth of 
the Church, and the spread of Catholic education, 
and fought hard against the determination of the 
ecclesiastical authorities to retain control of every form 
of instruction. The proposal of the English to found 
an University from the revenues derived from the 
Jesuits' Estates gave rise to heated discussions. The 
Catholics feared that if the institution were established 
it would be a simple matter to impose conditions 
which would eventually give the balance of power to 
the Protestants. Monseigneur Hubert strongly opposed 
the project, and it fell through. The English, however, 
were not to be discouraged, and they formed a Royal 
Institution for the Promotion of Primary Education. 

191 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

The majority of the directors were Protestants, but 
as the Catholics refused to avail themselves of the 
instruction offered, the institution became a dead letter. 
The Protestants made another effort to bring education 
under the control of the Government, by demanding 
that the Bishop should draw up a list of the vacant 
cures each year in order that his recommendations 
might be submitted to the Crown. The appointment of 
a Bishop need the approval of the Crown, in the same 
manner as nominations have been submitted to the 
Government of France since 1802. 

The English and the Protestants of Quebec from 
the conquest to the present time have always had the 
special educational difficulties which minorities must 
expect. Yet it would not be hard to prove that a 
century ago efforts were put forth in an organized way 
to procure education, that would bear comparison, all 
things considered, with the efforts of to-day. 

From the time of 'the conquest private schools 
were provided, educational societies were formed, and 
schools were supported by the Church ( 1 ) . The want 
of superior education, however, was keenly felt. A 
part of the English boys attended the Seminary, while 
others were sent away to colleges in the United States. 
In 1799 Bishop Mountain drew the attention of the 
Lieutenant- Governor, Sir R. S. Milnes, to the danger 



(i) The National School Hall on d'Auteuil Street, although 
no longer used as a school, perpetuates the name of the National 
and Free School Society, whose work has long been carried on 
under our public school system. 

192 



ECCLESIASTICAL, GOVERNMENT 

to which the political principles and the loyalty of 
British subjects would be exposed if urgency compelled 
the sending of children to the colleges of the republic. 
He recommended that zi least one good grammar school 
be founded in this Province and be officered by capable 
masters from England. It was soon determined to carry 
out his suggestion, but dissensions in the Province, 
the distradlion of the war in Europe, and later the war 
of 1812, delayed the execution of the project It was 
not till 1816 that three Royal Grammar Schools were 
opened, one in Quebec, one in Montreal, and one in 
Kingston. The Reverend R. Burrage was the master 
in Quebec at a salary of ^200 a year with an extra 
allowance for rent and similar expenses. This school 
was continued till 1839 when Lord Sydenham, for 
reasons which are unknown, suppressed it by with- 
drawing the grant and pensioning Mr. Burrage. 

Four years later the Quebec High School was 
opened by the conversion of Dr. Daniel Wilke^s private 
classical and commercial school into a public school. 
In 1846 it secured recognition as the legitimate successor 
of the Royal Grammar School and a grant from the 
public chest. This grant, now $1288. per annum, it 
has continued to receive to the present time. In return 
it educates, free, twenty pupils a year who are nominated 
by the Lieutenant-Governor of the Province. Although 
the attendance at the school is naturally not large a 
competent staff is employed and good work is done. 
The traditions of the school are elevating. Most of 
the prominent and successful English speaking men of 

13 193 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Quebec have been trained within its walls, and the 
Redtors from Mr. Burrage to Mr. T. Ainslie Young, 
M.A., the present able incumbent, have as a rule been 
superior men, instructors who have given a character 
to the school and have left an impress upon their pupils. 
Recently it has been amalgamated with Morrin College, 
an institution which was founded in 1859 by a liberal 
citizen whose name it bears. In its earlier days, under 
the Principalship of the late Reverend Dr. Cook, 
Morrin College did good work as an arts college in 
affiliation with McGill University, and as a divinity 
school. Its financial limitations have latterly prevented 
the progress that was necessary to keep pace with 
McGill and to compete with her for pupils. As a 
consequence the arts work has been dropped, the 
divinity school closed, and an amalgamation effected 
in such a way as to respect the intentions of the late 
Dr. Morrin. 

Morrin College itself, the old Quebec Jail, will 
soon be razed to the ground and replaced by a modern 
building for the High School, in which rooms will be 
reserved for the Literary and Historical Society. 

The School Commissioners provide for primary 
education in a building which cannot be a source of 
pride to them or of satisfaction to the citizens, and for 
the superior education of girls in the Girl's High 
School, situate on St. Augustin St. 

For twenty-nine years after the Treaty, the Pro- 
testant Church in Canada was without a Bishop, but 
in 1793 the Government decided to erect a Canadian 

194 



ECCLESIASTICAL GOVERNMENT 

See, and appointed Doctor Mountain as the first Bishop. 
The account of the Bishop here given is taken from a 
" Memoir by the Rev. Armine W. Mountain, M.A., 
Incumbent of St. Michael's Chapel, Quebec," published 
in 1866 : 

1 ' Dr. Mountain had himself been known to Mr. 
Pitt at Cambridge, where he had been a fellow of Caius 
College, and the Bishop's recommendation was will- 
ingly adopted. Neither of the persons more directly 
concerned in this measure appears to have had reason 
to regret it, for we find it mentioned in Tomline's life 
of Pitt, as a testimony to the wisdom of the statesman's 
measures, that the first Bishop of Quebec had presided 
over the Canadian Church with ' great honour to him- 
self and advantage to the concerns of his extensive 
diocese,' while Dr. Tomline's own biographer, in his 
turn, brings forward this appointment as a proof of 
the Bishop's good judgment, displayed in his recom- 
mendation of Dr. Mountain. Dr. Mountain having 
been consecrated on the yth July, 1793, embarked 
almost immediately for Quebec, accompanied by his 
wife, (Elizabeth Mildred Wale Kentish, co-heiress, 
with two sisters, of L,ittle Bardfield Hall in Essex) and 
four children, of whom George was second. A residence 
in Canada in the eighteenth century involved so com- 
plete a separation from English friends, that all the 
members of the Bishop's family, and one of his sisters, 
the future Bishop's godmother, resolved to share his 
exile. His elder brother, Dr. Jehosaphat Mountain, 
Rector of Peldon, in Essex, with his wife and two 
daughters, as well as his own two sisters, accordingly 
accompanied him, and after a voyage of thirteen weeks, 
the thirteen Mountains landed at Quebec on All Saint's 
Day. The Bishop proceeded immediately to Woodfield , 

195 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

nearly three miles from Quebec, which had been secured 

as his private residence The grounds of Powell 

Place (now Spencer Wood) immediately ad joined those 
of Woodfield, being separated by a small brook called 
Belle Borne, across which it is related in a work recently 
published on the environs of Quebec, that the sons of 
Sir R. Milnes themselves built a bridge, which they 
named Pont Bonvoison, for the purpose of establishing 
a ready communication between the two houses, and in 
this work we may presume that their companions from 

Woodfield lent their aid A happier home than 

that of Woodfield (during the Bishop's occupation of 
which three young children were born) has seldom 
been seen. The parents were regarded with unbounded 
and tender affection, mingled with veneration. Feelings 
such as these the characters of both were eminently 
calculated to inspire, and they produced their effect in 
unwonted brotherly love amongst the children, which 
continued, in a most remarkable degree, while they 
remained on earth, notwithstanding separation of great 
length both in time and distance." 

The growth of the Anglican Church, which was 
first entrusted to Dr. Mountain, may be traced in the 
chapter devoted to " The Church of England in 
Quebec," which has been prepared for this work by 
Mr. Wiirtele. 

An attempt was made in the days of Monseigueur 
Plessis to unite the two Canadas. " To unite the 
two Provinces," exclaimed the Bishop, " with a Par- 
liament in common to attack the religion of the country, 
to take steps to cause the courage of the majority to 
disappear ; all these are measures which one may sup- 
pose the Imperial Parliament would never have taken 

196 



ECCLESIASTICAL GOVERNMENT 

up had they not been suggested from here by someone 
who, under the new order of things, hoped once more 
to concentrate authority, and take away the control 
of affairs from those most interested in the welfare of 
the country." 

This paragraph reveals the situation at this time 
as viewed by the French Canadians, and the indigna- 
tion of the Bishop, as expressed in this quotation is 
only natural. 

We have already seen that the Seminary of Quebec 
had at first opened its doors to young men desirous of 
entering the priesthood. Monseigneur de L,aval soon 
added a boarding school to it for little children and 
Indians ; the latter attended the classes in the Jesuits 
College. During the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies the young men received their education in the 
Seminary and the Jesuits College. The list of those 
who were instructed in these institutions is a long one. 
About 1775, the Jesuits were obliged to discontinue 
their instruction, because the Government had taken 
possession of their estates, and converted their college 
into a barracks for the use of the soldiers. The Sem- 
inary was therefore compelled to provide a classical 
course for its pupils, since it was necessary to fill the 
vacancies occurring in the ranks of the clergy. The 
French Revolution was not without benefit to Canada. 
Forty four priests who had fled from France took up 
their abode in Quebec, at a time when there was a 
dearth of instructors. These men were zealous workers, 
renowned preachers, and they devoted themselves to 

197 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

every good work which was open to them. Whether 
as chaplains of religious institutions, or as directors, or 
superiors of educational establishments, they nobly 
fulfilled their mission, and names like Raimbault, 
Desjardins, Calonne or Vilade, hold a high place in 
the religious history of Canada. 

After the events of 1759-1760, the Canadians for 
a time found it difficult to provide a suitable course 
for the young men in order to fit them to take their 
place in professional life. Separated forever, from the 
mother house in Paris, the Seminary of Quebec was 
still able to supply its staff from among its own pupils. 
The last representative of the SSminaire des Missions 
Strangles had disappeared, and the vacancies were 
filled by Canadians, thus imparting a purely national 
character to the old institution of Monseigneur de 
Laval. Amongst the ecclesiastics who gave an impetus 
to superior education at this time, we may mention, 
M. Jerome Demers, whose life is an epitome of fifty 
years of the history of the Seminary. Monseigneur 
Plessis was undoubtedly the greatest French Canadian 
of his time, and to M. Demers must be given the second 
place. 

During the wars of the Empire it was always 
difficult, and frequently impossible, to obtain classical 
books, or instruments indispensable for the classes in 
Physics. It is true that there was a printing office in 
Canada at this time, but from the date of its establish- 
ment in 1764, until 1820, the only instruction books 
issued from its press were Bouthilliers' arithmetic, a 

198 



ECCLESIASTICAL GOVERNMENT 

geography compiled expressly for the use of the pupils 
of the Minor Seminary of Quebec, and a short cate- 
chism, a reprint of that in use in the diocese of Sens. 

In Montreal a French grammar had been printed 
as an introduction to the L,atin grammar in use, and a 
small geography and an arithmetic compiled by Bibaud. 
These were the only instruction books that could be 
purchased in the country. 

To provide for the needs of the teachers as far 
as possible, M. Demers wrote several works suitable 
for the pupils of the Seminary and for the students of 
the colleges at St. Anne's and Nicolet, where they 
were sadly in need of books. His principal work was 
a treatise on philosophy in Latin. He further compiled 
manuals on physics, astronomy, and architecture. M. 
Demers had a taste for decorative art, and promoted 
the study of painting and sculpture amongst the French 
Canadians. Many of the earliest artists of Quebec 
were indebted to him for their success in a field hitherto 
unexplored in Canada. M. Demers also contributed 
most of the money towards the purchase of a valuable 
collection of paintings which was sent to Canada at a 
low price by the Abbe Desjardins, a former Chaplain of 
the Ursuline Convent. Under M. Demers the Seminary 
of Quebec extended its sphere of usefulness, and as a 
result of the impetus given to education thereby, the 
University of I^aval was founded in 1852. 

The establishment of the first printing press in 
Quebec in 1764, was an event of great importance. 
Although the Marquis de I/a Galissonniere had, in 

199 



QEEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

1749, expressed the desire to have a printing office in 
Canada, there does not appear to have been one, or at 
least one worthy of the name, before the foundation of 
the Quebec Gazette by William Brown. 

There is no doubt that some printing was done in 
Canada previous to that date. In 1759 two Mandements 
were printed and distributed to the clergy of the 
Diocese, dated respectively May and October. As the 
former relates to the impending siege, and the latter 
to the battle which occurred on the 1 3th of September, 
it is evident that Monseigneur de Pontbriand could not 
have had them printed in France. 

The first publication from Brown's press was a 
pamphlet of thirty-six pages in English and in French, 
concerning the duties of Grand Jurors. The Catechisme 
du diocese de Sens, was published several months after- 
wards. Of the former three hundred copies, and of 
the latter two thousand copies were printed. 



200 



CHAPTER X 



1816-1838 



TROUBLESOME TIMES 

ADMINISTRATION OF SHERBROOKE FAMINE 
THREATENED LORD BATHURST MONUMENT 

TO WOLFE AND MONTCALM DALHOUSIE 

PAPINEAU AND BEDARD LORD GOSFORD 
REBELLION SHIP BUILDING HONNEUR A 
MONTCALM. 

THE successor of Sir George Prevost was Sir John 
Coape Sherbrooke. He arrived in Quebec on the 
1 2th of July, 1816. The new Governor inaugurated his 
administration by an act of generosity which gained 
for him the immediate sympathy and good will of the 
people of the Province. An early frost had destroyed 
the crops in the region below Quebec, in the autumn 
of 1816, and famine was threatened. The Governor 
therefore ordered a distribution of food to be made 
from the King's stores, and purchased large supplies 
for the people with his own means. Although he only 
occupied the office for two years, he was instrumental 

201 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

in securing several benefits for Canada. It was through 
his efforts that apostolic vicariates were established in 
Upper Canada, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. 

Towards the close of the year 1816, Monseigneur 
Plessis received from Rome the Papal Bull constituting 
Quebec into an archiepiscopal See. L,ord Bathurst, the 
Secretary for the Colonies, was strongly opposed to the 
decision of the Pope, and the Bishop was compelled 
to appeal to British justice. He prepared several 
memorials which were approved by Sir John Sherbrooke 
before they were submitted to I/ord Bathurst, and 
finally opposition was withdrawn. 

Sherbrooke' s departure was deeply regretted by 
the Clergy, who had found in him a generous protector. 
Monseigneur Plessis retained friendly relations with 
the Governor after he had departed from our shores, 
and visited him in his home in England. 

The Duke of Richmond replaced Sherbrooke ; but 
he died at Richmond, in the Eastern Townships, after 
having been in office for one year. He was buried in 
the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Quebec. The Earl 
of Dalhousie, the tenth Governor of Canada, arrived 
in Quebec on the gth of June, 1820. There was great 
activity in the city during his regime, for the elaborate 
works of defence, which were to convert Quebec into 
one of the most strongly fortified cities of the world, 
were commenced soon after his arrival, although 
they were not completed until after his departure. 

Through the activity of the Earl of Dalhousie, 
and owing very largely to his generosity, Quebec 

202 



TROUBLESOME TIMES 

possesses her unique monument which perpetuates the 
memory of the victor and the vanquished the monu- 
ment to Wolfe and Montcalm. The members of the 
Committee appointed to carry out this noble project 
were named by the Governor : 

The Honourable, The Chief Justice, Chairman. 

Mr. Justice Taschereau. 

Major General Darling. 

Lieutenant Col. Cockburn, R. A. 

Captain Young, jgth Highlanders. 

Captain Melhuish, R. E. 

Mr. George Pemberton. 

The first stone of the monument was laid on the 
1 5th of November, 1827, and it was completed in the 
following year. The Governor's name is preserved in 
Dalhousie Gate, which forms the entrance to the 
Citadel, and also in a street in the Lower Town. The 
Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, which has 
done so much to add to our storehouse of knowledge, 
was founded in Lord Dalhousie' s time. The Governor 
was not as favourably disposed towards the French 
population as some of his predecessors, although there 
is no doubt that he administered the affairs of the 
colony strictly in accordance with his ideas of justice. 

Matthew Went worth, Baron Aylmer, assumed the 
duties of Governor in 1830, at a time when Quebec 
was on the eve of a crisis, which only the genius of a 
Dorchester could have averted. The Canadians had for 
a long time demanded a change in the constitution, 

203 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

which the Home authorities did not appear willing to 
grant. Fox had foreseen what was about to happen, 
when he made his speech in reference to the Consti- 
tutional Act of 1791 : 

"If we give every power to the Governor, the 
Councillors will not enjoy the respect which is necessary 
to establish their independence, and they will never be 
anything more than the instruments of the Governor, 
in the same manner as the Governors themselves are 
the instruments of the King. ' ' 

The reforms so often agitated had been ignored. 
After deliberating in the House upon this important 
question, it was resolved to appeal to the King to make 
the Council elective. An address was prepared and 
submitted to His Majesty, but no immediate action was 
taken. Papineau, one of the leading spirits amongst 
the French Canadians, then resolved to come to an 
understanding with the leading members of the House 
regarding the representations to be made to the Sover- 
eign. After many discussions in the house of Elzear 
Bedard on D'Auteuil Street, a number of resolutions 
were drawn up by A. N. Morin, the member for Belle- 
chasse, which set forth the grievances of the people. 
After various alterations, ninety-two resolutions were 
submitted to the House and adopted. Morin was 
instructed to transmit the resolutions to D. B. Viger, 
the official agent of the French Canadians in London. 
The general elections took place in the autmn of 1834, 
and each candidate was called upon to declare whether 
or not he was in favour of making the Council elective. 

204 



TROUBLESOME TIMES 

Seventy-nine members favourable to the change were 
elected, while the opposition returned nine members. 
There were 480,000 votes cast in favour of an elective 
Council, and 32,000 against it. 

The House opened on the 2ist of February, 1835. 
For about a year previous to this date there had been 
a want of harmony between the members, which soon 
developed into a marked division in the ranks of the 
party. In the press, and on the hustings, these dissen- 
sions were manifest, and quarrels arose frequently 
over mere trifles. Many of the members gave only a 
lukewarm support to Papineau, whose zeal for the 
cause he had espoused led him to give utterance to 
expressions which exceeded the bounds of prudence 
and good taste. Papineau never missed an opportunity 
of attacking Lord Aylmer in the House, and he was 
particularly bitter against his Councillors. His fol- 
lowers remonstrated with him, but in vain ; until many 
of his strongest supporters fell away. The affairs of 
the Province, which were centered in Quebec, were 
growing worse, when Lord Gosford, more in the 
capacity of a Royal Commissioner, than of a Governor 
General, came to Canada. He was diredled to investi- 
gate the complaints of the Canadians, and to report to 
England. 

His presence in Quebec relieved for a moment the 
strain of the situation. He honestly endeavoured to 
appease the minds of the people, and pointed out to 
them the desirability of submitting unconditionally 
to Royal authority. On the feast of Ste. Catherine, 

205 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Lord Gosford gave a magnificent ball at the Castle of 
St. Louis, hoping thereby to promote friendly relations 
between the people and the representatives of the 
Crown ; but since he was powerless to redress the 
grievances of the majority, his good offices were fruit- 
less. The Legislative Council constantly threw out 
measures passed by the Assembly, and in retaliation 
the Assembly refused to vote the supplies for over six 
months, which caused great hardship. 

Heated discussions became the order of the day. 
The questions of religion and language were drawn 
into the debates, and a spirit of excitement prevailed 
throughout the Province. The clergy of Quebec and 
other cities did their best to calm the troublesome 
times by urging patience and submission, but the 
inflamatory speeches of the agitators, and the attitude 
of a certain section of the press, fostered the spirit of 
rebellion. The real agitation which led to open viol- 
ence, may be traced to a meeting held at St. Ours on 
the yth of May, 1835, Resolutions were passed, some 
of which were clothed in very undignified language, 
and only injured the cause of their promoters. The 
Canadien, the organ of the French Canadians, prot- 
ested against the methods adopted by the agitators, 
which incited the people to rebel. Demonstrations, 
and counter demonstrations, were held in various 
parts. In Quebec, an assembly of 8,000 people unanim- 
ously adopted resolutions condemning the action taken 
at St. Ours, but the crisis came when news was 
received that the Imperial Government had rejected 

206 



TROUBLESOME TIMES 

the ninety two resolutions. The details of these 
stormy days in Montreal which resulted in the death 
of Lieutenant Weir ; the issue of warrants for the 
arrest of Papineau, Morin, Nelson, O'Callaghan ; the 
defeat of the rebels at St. John's, St. Charles and St. 
Denis, and the proclamation of martial law, are mat- 
ters which do not belong to the history of the city, 
only in so far as Quebec was the seat of -the Govern- 
ment at the time. 

The rebellion, incited by a few rash individuals, 
was a regrettable affair, but no people were more 
strongly opposed to its methods, or more deplored its 
immediate consequences, than the French-Canadians 
as a body. 

Attention was called by the uprising to the needs 
of the people. Abuses were corrected, and Quebec 
entered upon an era of peace which was sympathetically 
encouraged under the beneficent reign of QueenVictoria. 

Under the French regime, notwithstanding the 
bonus of two hundred francs offered by the Minister 
of Marine for every vessel of two hundred tons burthen 
built in Quebec and sold in France, the trade did not 
prosper. Ships of more than two hundred tons burthen 
were not built in Quebec under French rule, owing to 
the mistaken idea that vessels of a greater tonnage 
could not ascend the river. It is a most remarkable 
fact that the French were in ignorance all these years 
of the depth of the channel, and yet it was their want 
of knowledge of the navigation of the St. Lawrence 
that facilitated the movements of the British in 1759, 

207 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

which brought about the loss of the colony. When 
the British ships passed the Traverse in 1759, the 
French were greatly astonished, for the reliance which 
they placed upon the dangers of navigation had caused 
them to neglect to fortify the Island of Orleans and 
Pointe Le vis, and consequently Wolfe found no obstacle 
in establishing a camp opposite the city. In the month 
of April, 1759, Vaudreuil had written to the minister, 
" If the English attack Quebec, I shall always hold 
myself free to go thither myself with most of the troops 
and all the militia and Indians I can assemble. On 
arriving I shall give battle to the enemy, and I shall 
do so again and again, till I have forced him to retire, 
or till he has entirely crushed me by excessive super- 
iority of numbers. My obstinacy in opposing his landing 
will be the more a propos, as I have not the means of 
sustaining a siege .... You see Monseigneur, that the 
slightest change in my arrangements would have the 
most unfortunate consequences. ' ' The English General 
was no doubt devoutly thankful that Quebec was 
favoured with such an accomodating Governor, for 
however sanguine he may have been of ultimate success, 
he scarcely could have imagined that he would be 
allowed to approach right up to the face of the enemy 
without any opposition being offered. When Vaudreuil 
returned to France a few months later, he professed 
to be very much pained on receiving a letter from the 
Colonial Minister containing these words " Though 
His Majesty was perfectly aware of the state of Canada, 
nevertheless, after the assurances you had given him 

208 



TROUBLESOME TIMES 

to make the utmost efforts to sustain the honour of 
his arms, he did not expect to hear so soon of the sur- 
render of Montreal and the whole of the colony. But 
granting that capitulation was a necessity, His Majesty 
was not less surprised and ill pleased at the conditions, 
so little honourable to which you submitted, especially 
after the representations made you by the Chevalier 
de Levis." 

We see therefore, that the shipping industry had 
been retarded, and the approach of the enemy facilitated 
by the incompetency of the Governor. 

In 1787, vessels of every dimension, from the 
humble schooner, to large ships of 1,500 to 1,800 tons, 
were built at Quebec. In 1823, at Anse du Fort, on 
the Island of Orleans, the Columbus, of 3,690 tons was 
built, and in the following year the Baron de Renfrew, 
of 5,294 tons, was launched from the same place. 
Both ot these vessels were unfortunately lost at sea. 
The Baron de Renfrew was the largest vessel built in 
Quebec. During a period of one hundred years, from 
1797 to 1897, 2642 sailing vessels were built on the 
banks of the St. Charles and in the vicinity of Quebec. 
This industry gave employment to thousands of fami- 
lies, but its disappearance does not seem to have 
impoverished the labouring classes, who have found a 
means of living in other branches of trade. 

It was under Lord Aylmer that the first monu- 
ment was eredled to mark the spot where General 
Wolfe died. His lordship also gave to the Ursuline 

14 209 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Convent the simple marble tablet in memory of Mont- 
calm, bearing this inscription : ' ' Honneur & Montcalm ! 
le destin en lui dtrobant la vidoire I' a rScompensS par 
une mart glorieusc. " 



210 



CHAPTER XI 

1838-1867 

AFTER THE STORM 

THE IMPERIAL GOVERNMENT LORD DURHAM HIS 
OPINION OF THE PEOPLE LORD GOSFORD'S 
SPEECH THE UNION OF THE CANADAS 
IMPERIAL TROOPS SIR JOHN COLBORNE LORD 
ELGIN THE SOCIETY OF SAINT JEAN BAPTISTE 
CONFEDERATION. 

THE unfortunate affairs of 1837 had aroused the 
Imperial authorities to take decisive steps con- 
cerning the government of Canada. L,ord Durham 
received a commission as Governor and High Commis- 
sioner, to inquire into the causes of the late rebellion, 
and to apply a remedy. The task imposed upon the 
Governor was an exceedingly difficult one, and it is 
not surprising to find that the course he adopted met 
with severe criticism. Lord Durham arrived in Quebec 
on the 29th of May, 1838, and immediately after taking 
the oath, he issued a proclamation suspending the 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

constitution ; and for the meantime the supreme power 
was vested in the Governor. 

His Lordship, in the space of a few months, 
gathered information from every quarter of the Do- 
minion regarding the situation, and embodied this 
information in a report which was published in London 
in the following year. The report gives a clear expo- 
sition of the case, and upon the whole it is an exceed- 
ingly just one. The extract, which we quote, gives 
the Governor's idea of the basis of the disagreement 
between the two races. 

' ' The grounds of the quarrel which are commonly 
alleged, appear, on investigation, to have little to do 
with its real cause ; and the inquirer, who has 
imagined that the public demonstrations or profes- 
sions of the parties have put him in possession of 
their real motives and designs, is surprised to find, 
upon nearer observation, how much he has been 
deceived by the false colours under which they have 
been in the habit of fighting. It is not, indeed, in 
this instance surprising, that each party should have 
practised more than the usual frauds of language, 
by which factions, in every country, seek to secure 

the sympathy of other communities The 

French- Canadians have attempted to shroud their 
hostility to the influence of English emigration, and 
the introduction of British institutions, under the 
guise of warfare against the government and its 
supporters, whom they represented to be a small 
knot of corrupt and insolent dependents ; being a 
majority, they have evoked the principles of popular 
control and democracy, and appealed with no little 
effect to the sympathy of liberal politicians in every 
quarter of the world. 

212 



AFTER THE STORM 

' The English finding their opponents in collision 
with the Government, have raised the cry of loyalty 
and attachment to British connection, and denounced 

the republican designs of the French The 

English complained of the Assembly's refusal to 
establish Registry Offices, and to commute the feudal 
tenures ; and yet it was amongst the ablest and 
most influential leaders of the English that I found 
some of the opponents to both proposed reforms. 
The leaders of the French were anxious to disclaim 

any hostility to these reforms themselves 

There is every reason to believe that a great number 
of the peasants who fought at St. Denis and St. 
Charles, imagined that the principal result of success 
would be the overthrow of tithes and feudal bur- 
thens ; and in the declaration of independence which 
Dr. Robert Nelson issued, two of the objects of the 
insurrection were stated to be the abolition of the 
feudal tenures and the establishment of Registry 
Offices. When I observe these inconsistencies of 
conduct among the opponents and supporters of 
these reforms ; when I consider that their attainment 
was prevented by means of the censitaires, the very 
persons most interested in their success, and that they 
were not more eagerly demanded by the wealthier 
of the English, than by the artisans and labourers 
of that race whose individual interests would hardly 
have derived much direct benefit from their success, 
I cannot but think that many both of the opponents 
and of the supporters, cared less for the measures 
themselves, than for the handle which the agitation 
of them gave to their national hostility ; that the 
Assembly resisted these changes chiefly because the 
English desired them ; and that the eagerness with 
which many of the English urged them was stimulated 
by finding them opposed by the French." 

213 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

I/ord Durham accurately describes the situation 
at that time ; but we must remember that the people 
had just emerged from a crisis which nothing but 
bloodshed could satisfy, and that each race in the 
course of time deplored the events of those unfortunate 
days. 

The action of the majority of the insurgents was 
condoned ; but eight men were banished to Bermuda. 
The troubles, however, were not at an end. On the 
eve of Lord Durham's departure for England, Novem- 
ber the 3rd, 1838, there was evidence of a further 
uprising, which led to serious results, and finally, 
eighty persons from Upper Canada, and fifty eight 
from Lower Canada were sent to New South Wales. 
The latter departed from Quebec on the 28th of Sep- 
tember, 1839, and did not return to the city until the 
1 8th of January, 1845, after five years and a half of 
banishment. 

Towards the close of his Report he remarked : 

' ' I admit that the system which I propose would 
in fact, place the internal government of this colony 
in the hands of the colonists themselves ; and that 
we should thus leave to them the execution of the 
laws, of which we have long entrusted the making 
solely to them. Perfectly aware of the value of our 
colonial possessions, and strongly impressed with 
the necessity of maintaining them, I know not in 
what respect it can be desirable that we should 
interfere with their internal legislation in matters 
which do not affect their relations with the mother 
country." 

214 



AFTER THE STORM 

Lord Durham proposed as a means of avoiding the 
difficulties between the two races, to unite the Prov- 
ince of Quebec to Upper Canada. The report caused 
wide discussion, and brought out the talents of many 
men who were afterwards distinguished in the political 
life of the country, 

The Act of Union was adopted by the Imperial 
Parliament after a long discussion. There were two 
members in the House of Commons who strongly 
opposed the measure, and Lord Gosford, a former 
Governor, advocated the cause of the French Cana- 
dians in the House of Lords. The extract which we 
give here is from Lord Gosford 's speech on the occasion 
of the discussion in the Upper House, and it shows 
how warmly he supported the views of the people of 
the lower Province : 

" Convinced as I am of the exact verity of all 
that I have advanced, I cannot but regard the medit- 
ated union of the Canadas as a most unjust and tyran- 
nical measure, proposed in view of depriving the lower 
Province of its Constitution, under the pretext, as a 
sufficing cause, that a handful of ill-intentioned men 
committed culpable acts ; the sure effect of the project 
being, to deliver into the hands of a section of the 
community, the great majority of their fellow colonists, 
the former being bitterly inimical to the latter. You 
propose to give, in a word, to three or four hundred 
thousand inhabitants, the same amount of parliament- 
ary representation, to a population of French descent 
of at least 700,000 souls abiding in Lower Canada ; 
and concurrently with this unequal distribution of 
franchise rights, you are about to impose on the same 

215 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Province, which has no public debt, or something next 
to none, payment of the interest of the pecuniary 
obligations of the Upper Canadians, the capital of 
which, is is said, reaches one million. Can there be 
anything imagined more arbitrary or less reasonable 
than this ? In truth, the mere legality of such a pro- 
ceeding, setting all consideration of equitable dealing 
aside, may be very fairly called in question ; for, I 
understand, no part of the debt contracted in Upper 
Canada has been sanctioned by the Government of this 
country, I ought to declare once again my conviction 
that the unjust financial arrangement I now denounce, 
is due to a mercantile intrigue. As I have already 
remarked, the French-derived population of the lower 
Province wishes to live under British protection, and 
in alliance with us ; yet a great majority of the inhabi- 
tants of the two Canadas is opposed to an union .... 
I can never give my assent, therefore, to the unjust 
measure, as I conscientiously believe this to be, now 
submitted for the consideration of your lordships. I 
repeat, too, that I have called your attention to the 
real facts of the case ; and in all I have said, I am 
sure I shall be confirmed by the testimony of every 
impartial resident in either province of Canada." 

The Act was sanctioned by the Queen on the 23rd 
of July, 1840, and it gave to Canada a Legislative 
Council, the members of which were appointed for life. 
The Legislative Assembly was composed of eighty- 
four members, forty-two from Upper Canada, and the 
same number from Lower Canada. The French 
Canadians were dissatisfied with the divisions of the 
counties under the act, and there claims were strongly 
advocated by three remarkable men, LaFontaine, 

216 



AFTER THE STORM 

Morin, and Cartier. Papineau, it is true, still continued 
to exert his energies, but he had lost much of his 
influence since the stormy times of 1837, when he 
controlled the people at his will. 

After the Union of the two Canadas was effected, 
and its government was in working order, LaFontaine 
realized that responsible government, as advocated by 
Lord Durham, might prove the safeguard, instead of 
the ruin of the province, if properly applied. 

Bound to Robert Baldwin by ties of friendship, 
LaFontaine came to an understanding with him, which 
resulted in the formation of the Baldwin-LaFontaine 
ministry. Under this administration the affairs of the 
Province appeared to be progressing satisfactorily, 
but unfortunately a difference arose between the Gov- 
ernor and his Ministers, which compelled them to 
resign. We have gone briefly into the political history 
of the time, because without so doing it would be im- 
possible to understand the differences which existed 
at Quebec, the political centre of the Province, but we 
must now return to the history of the city proper. 

We have seen that in the year 1823, Great Britain 
determined to make Quebec one of the most strongly 
fortified cities of the world, and from that date Quebec 
assumed the aspect of an important military centre. 
In the year 1838 the remainder of the Coldstream 
Guards marched into the Citadel Barracks, to form 
the escort for the newly appointed Governor. On the 
27th of May Lord Durham and his staff arrived in 
Quebec. An immense gathering of citizens awaited 

217 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

his landing, but on account of the weather, the ceremony 
intended was postponed for two days. Lord Durham, 
writing from the Castle of St. Louis, 31 May, 1838, 
says, " I have the honour to inform your Lordship 
that I arrived here on the 27th. The weather being 
very unfavourable, I could not land until the 29th, on 
which day I proceeded to the council and took the 
prescribed oaths which were duly administered to me 
in the presence of Sir John Colborne. The streets 
through which I passsed were extremely crowded, and 
I could not but be highly gratified with the cordial 
greeting which I received, and with the more than 
friendly feelings which seemed to animate the assembled 
multitude." 

As the old Chateau was not Efficiently spacious to 
receive the household of the Governor, appartments 
were prepared for the Viceregal party in the Parliament 
Buildings. The receptions given during the residence 
of the Governor were very brilliant, and his generosity 
became proverbial. In more tranquil times, no doubt 
he would have enjoyed a popularity quite equal to that 
of any of the illustrious representatives of the Crown 
in Canada. Lord Durham would not accept any 
remuneration for his services in Canada, but he desired 
that the money should be applied to the repairs which 
were necessary at the Chateau. The ruins of the old 
Chateau were levelled and converted into a promenade 
at this time, which was given the name of Durham 
Terrace. 

Sir John Colborne assumed the reins of Govern- 

218 



AFTER THE STORM 

dent in December, 1838, but lie only remained in 
office nine months. These were difficult times, and a 
Governor who was a stranger to the country could not 
be expected to immediately grasp the situation, or to 
apply a remedy that in an instant would satisfactorily 
dispose of grievances which had been nursed for many 
years. The Governor adopted a policy which was 
considered extremely harsh, and it was not received 
with favour, either here, or in England. C. E. Pou- 
lett Thompson, afterwards Lord Sydenham, entered 
upon the duties of Governor in October, 1839, and 
remained in office until his death, in 1841. He was 
the first to introduce responsible government, but the 
exact nature of this form of government was not very 
well understood, and there was constant disagreement. 
The outbreak, in 1837, na d called the attention of the 
authorities to the want of volunteer corps, and, in the 
year 1839, the several regiments in Quebec were well 
organized. 

Sir Charles Bagot succeeded L,ord Sydenham in 
1842, but a year later he was obliged to retire on 
account of ill health. Short as his career was, he had 
commenced to act as an intermediary between the two 
factions. Lord Metcalfe succeeded Bagot and occupied 
the office from 1843 to 1845. The latter year was 
long remembered on account of the disastrous fire 
which consumed the whole of the suburbs of St. Rochs. 
One month later, St. John's suburb, near the Upper 
Town, was destroyed by fire, the loss to the people 
being estimated at over $3,000,000. England and the 

219 



QUEBEC UNDER TO FLAGS 

United States generously responded to the call for 
help, and soon a fund of $500,000 was placed at the 
disposal of the committee, and much of the town was 
rebuilt in a more substantial manner. Quebec was to 
pass through another ordeal of fire. In the month of 
June, 1846, a fire was discovered in a theatre near 
Durham Terrace, and over forty persons lost their lives 
thereby. Lord Metcalfe when leaving Quebec gave the 
sum of $2,000 towards the sufferers from the Quebec 
fires. Lord Cathcart was the next Governor. Under 
his regime the Militia Act was passed which gave 
great satisfaction to the majority. I/ord Elgin, who 
succeeded Cathcart in 1847, was one of the most 
popular governors of Canada.' He had already a good 
reputation as an able administrator, and was familiar 
with the administrative machinery necessary for the 
government of a colony. In reply to an address which 
was presented to him in the city of Montreal, he said : 

" You are pleased to observe, that the knowledge 
of public affairs acquired by me in the Imperial 
Parliament, and in other situations of high trust, 
justifies the hope that I shall be guided in the 
exercise of my functions by the great Constitutional 
principles familiar to the British statesman. It will 
be my study and anxious endeavour to verify these 
favourable expectations. The powers of self-govern- 
ment, to which your constitution allows such free 
scope, are given for wise purposes, to enable the 
people to exercise a salutary influence on the action 
of government and to render government itself a 
more powerful instrument for good, by securing 
for it confidence and support : if ever these supports 

220 



AFTER THE STORM 

should unhappily, be perverted to objects of faction 
or personal ambition, the best efforts of a Governor 
General to promote the welfare of the province must 
be unavailing and his high and honourable office can 
become, under such circumstances, only a source of 
bitter regret and disappointment." 

The session of 1847 was a stormy one. Baldwin 
was very severe against the Government, and La Fon- 
taine was very bitter against its French Canadian 
supporters. ' ' You have been merely tools in the hands 
of your colleagues," he said : " one of your members 
has been expelled from the Council, and the other will 
soon be. ' ' Viger and Papineau were the members 
referred to. Lord Elgin determined to bring matters 
to a crisis, and he dissolved the Parliament. The 
elections were held, and the Government was defeated. 
Baldwin and La Fontaine were called upon to form a 
new ministry, in which four French Canadians were 
given portfolios. This new Government for a time 
promoted harmony in the province, and particularly 
satisfied the people of Quebec. 

Lord Elgin was animated by a desire to give full 
scope to the wishes of the people for self government, 
and it is worthy of note that the Governor when he 
called La Fontaine to the head of affairs, did not, as his 
predecessors had done, select his advisers, but left this 
to the Prime Minister. During Lord Elgin's adminis- 
tration the seignorial tenure was abolished, decimal 
currency was adopted, and many reforms were carried 
out in the different departments of the public service. 

221 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Sir Edmund Head, succeeded Lord Elgin. 

On the 5th of June, 1854, there was a very impres- 
sive ceremony in Quebec, which for a moment recalled 
the struggle between Murray and L,evis, when the 
fate of Quebec again trembled in the balance, and 
seemed almost within the grasp of the victorious French 
General. 

From time to time the share of the ploughman, or 
the spade of the workman had turned up the grim 
remains of those gallant sons of France and of England 
who fell at the battle of Ste. Foy while maintaining 
the honour of their respective countries. The Society 
of Saint Jean Baptiste, with sentiments of deep respect 
for the heroic dead gathered the scattered remains, and 
caused them to be interred in a common grave, which 
was afterwards marked by a column to perpetuate the 
French victory of April 28th, 1760. 

The remains were conveyed to the Basilica, where 
a requiem mass was sung, and then the procession 
returned to the spot where the interment was made. 

Three years later, in 1859, Quebec was thrown 
into mourning by the awful fate which overtook 200 
emigrants who had left their native land to find a home 
in Canada. At four o'clock on the 26th of June, the 
steamer ' ' Montreal ' ' left her wharf intending to pro- 
ceed to the city of Montreal, with about four hundred 
passengers on board. Everything went well until Cape 
Rouge was passed, when it was discovered that the 
vessel was on fire. In the excitement which followed, 
the panic-stricken passengers jumped into the river, 



AFTER THE STORM 

and notwithstanding the short distance from the shore, 
over two hundred of them were drowned. 

In order to show the progress made by the people 
of Quebec, it is again necessary to refer briefly to the 
political history of the Province. At this time, the 
man most prominently before the public in Quebec, 
was Augustin Norbert Morin, whose political career 
dates from 1830. He represented the County of Belle- 
chasse until the Union, and was returned for various 
counties until 1854, when he was elected for Chicoutimi. 
In the latter year he formed an alliance with Sir Allan 
McNab, with whose views he was in sympathy. The 
Liberal - Conservative party, which was composed of 
moderate Liberals from Lower Canada, and moderate 
Conservatives from Upper Canada, dates from 1854. 
Morin had a chequered career. At an early age we 
find him engaged in literary work, and the founder of 
La Minerve, which for a long time held a prominent 
place. A few years later, his efforts in the cause of 
Reform brought him under suspicion, and he was 
obliged to seek shelter in the woods. Five years after 
he was appointed to the Bench, and during the next 
year he resigned to accept a portfolio in the Baldwin- 
La Fontaine Ministry, and, in 1867, he was appointed 
a Judge of the Supreme Court. During his long and 
eventful life, Morin's energies were directed towards 
building up the Canadian nationality, and by his death 
Quebec lost one of her most zealous advocates. 

Another remarkable character was Sir George 
Etienne Cartier. He was a patriot, and for his share 

223 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

in the affair at St. Benoit he had to leave the country. 
Upon his return to Canada he became a follower of 
La Fontaine, and upon four occasions was returned 
for Vercheres. Cartier's career covers the period from 
1848 to 1872. His opponents, as well as his friends, 
recognized his many sterling qualities, and his noble 
patriotism. To him the Province of Quebec is indebted 
for much real progress. In 1857, Cartier was invited 
to form a cabinet with Sir John A. Macdonald, in 
succession to Dr. Tache, whose health had given way 
under the strain of constant application to the duties 
of public life. A few years after, however, Tache was 
able to return to active politics, and he played a bril- 
liant part in the history of the country. Cartier's great 
work was in connection with the Act of Confederation. 
A change of such importance as Confederation 
was naturally the subject of lengthy negociations. In 
the month of October, 1864, a conference was held in 
the Parliament buildings on Mountain Hill. Amongst 
the thirty-three delegates assembled on that occasion, we 
believe that the only one living to-day in Quebec, is Sir 
Hector Ivangevin,K.C.M.G.; C.B. " They were all men 
" of large experience in the work of administration 
' ' or legislation in their respective provinces ' ' writes 
Bourinot. " Not a few of them were noted lawyers 
' ' who had thoroughly studied the systems of Govern- 
' ' ment in other countries. Some were gifted with rare 
" power and eloquence. At no time before, or since 
' ' has Quebec been visited by an assemblage of notables 
" with so many high qualifications for the foundation 

224 



AFTER THE STORM 

' ' of a nation. The chairman was Sir Etienne Pascal 
" Tache, who had proved in his youth his fidelity to 
" England on the famous battlefield of Chateauguay, 
' ' and had won the respecT: of all classes and parties by 
" the display of many admirable qualities, and he it 
" was w T ho gave utterance to the oft-quoted words : 
' ' That the last gun that would be fired for British 
" supremacy in America would be fired by a French 
" Canadian." 

This session lasted for 16 days, and notwith- 
standing that representatives of the Press from the 
United States and England were present in the city, 
the deliberations were kept secret. In the resolutions 
framed at Quebec were embodied the principles on 
which the Canadian Federation rests : "A federation, 
with a central government having jurisdiction over 
matters of interest to the whole country comprised in 
the Union and a number of provincial governments 
having the control and management of certain local 
matters naturally and conveniently belonging to them, 
each government being administered in accordance 
with the well understood principles of the British 
system, of parliamentary institutions. ' ' 

In the course of time it was found that the basis of 
dividing the revenues of the country was not equitable 
and that the Province did not receive a just share. 
In the year 1887, the Prime Minister of Quebec con- 
vened an Interprovincial conference which met in 
Quebec from the 2oth to the 28th of October, when 

15 225 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

various matters affecting the autonomy of the Province 
were discussed and resolutions were passed. This con- 
ference was presided over by the late Sir Oliver Mowat, 
the secretaries being Mr. Bvanturel and Mr. Gustave 
Grenier. 

In 1902, another Interprovincial conference was 
convened by the Hon. S. N. Parent, when many 
subjects of vital interest to the Province were again 
considered. 



226 



CHAPTER XII 
1867-19O3 
MODERN QUEBEC 

CONFEDERATION THE LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS 
SPENCER WOOD PRIME MINISTERS OF QUEBEC 
FELIX GABRIEL MARCHAND ADMINISTRATION 
OF THE HON. S. N. PARENT LORD DUFFERIN 
FIRES IN QUEBEC EPIDEMICS FESTIVITIES 
ROYAL VISITORS 

THE year 1867 marks an epoch in our history. On 
the 22nd of May, a Royal Proclamation was issued, 
setting forth that " on and after the first day of July, 
" 1867, the Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia and 
" New Brunswick shall form, and be one Dominion, 
" under the name of Canada." 

In the draft of the Act of Confederation, it was 
proposed to give the name of the ' ' Kingdom of Canada ' ' 
to the four great Provinces, which together comprise 
an area greater than the whole of Europe. 

Under this act each Province was granted a form 
of local government. Quebec was chosen as the capital 
of the French Canadian Province. 

227 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

The members of the Legislative Assembly are 
elected for the term of Parliament which is five 
years, and the members of the Legislative Council are 
appointed for life. The government is administered 
by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. 

Sir Narcisse Belleau was named Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernorof the Province at Confederation, and he called 
the Honourable Mr. Chauveau to form the first Pro- 
vincial Ministry. 

The Lieutenant- Governors, since Confederation, 
have been French-Canadians, and their term of office 
is given in the following table. Sir Louis Jette was 
appointed in 1903 for a second term of five years : 

Belleau, Sir N. F 1867-1873 

Caron, the Hon. R. E 1873-1876 

Letellier, the Hon. St. Just.. 1876-1879 

Robitaille, the Hon. W. T. . . 1879-1884 

Masson, the Hon. L. R 1884-1887 

Angers, the Hon. A. R 1887-1892 

Chapleau, Sir J. A 1892-1899 

Jette Sir Louis A 1898-1903 

" " " 1903 

Spencer Wood is the official residence of the 
Lieutenant Governor, and a brief history of this build- 
ing is here made : 

The name of Spencer Wood was given to the 
property by Michael Henry Percival, collector of cus- 
toms, when he purchased the estate on the 3rd of 
April, 1811, from Francois Le Houillier. It had 

228 



MODERN QUEBEC 

formerly borne the name of Powell Place. By chang- 
ing the name, Percival desired to recall the memory 
of his relative and patron the Hon. Spencer Percival, 
Chancellor of the Exchequer and Prime Minister of 
England. 

Spencer Wood was acquired by the Canadian 
government in 1852-54, and it passed into the hands 
of the province of Quebec on the 2gth of April, 1870. 

Lord Elgin and Sir Edmund Head had occupied 
the building previous to Confederation, but it was con- 
siderably enlarged and improved between the years 
1851 and 1856. 

On the day of the opening of Parliament in 
Quebec, on the 2oth of February 1860, the building 
was completely destroyed by fire. Lady Head and her 
daughter escaped from the burning house and took 
refuge at Samos, the residence of Bishop Mountain. 
Sir Edmund Head accepted the hospitality of Mr. Price 
of Wolfesfield for some time, until the government 
rented the property known as Cataraqui, as a tem- 
porary residence for the Governor. 

The present building was eredled between 1862 
and 1863, at a cost of $28,000. The first occupant 
was Lord Monck, who had previously resided in the 
houses now occupied by Judges Bosse and Routhier, 
at the corner of D'Auteuil street. 

From Confederation until the present day Spencer 
Wood has been occupied as the official residence by 
the Lieutenant Governors of the Province of Quebec, 
with the exception of Sir N. F. Belleau who preferred 

229 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

his own dwelling in St. Louis street, and only occasion- 
ally visited Spencer Wood. 

Lieutenant Governor Caron died during his term 
of office and his body was exposed in the drawing room, 
the scene of so many brilliant entertainments. His 
funeral took place on the i8th of December 1876 and was 
attended by all the members of both Houses then in 
session. 

On the occasion of the visit of Their Royal High- 
nesses the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York as 
the guests of Sir Louis and Lady Jette, in 1901, the old 
portico was replaced by a more modern structure. The 
building and the grounds are particularly suitable for an 
official residence for the representative of the Province. 

From the year 1867 until the present year, 1903, 
there have been fourteen Ministries : 

1. The Chauveau, Ministry 1867-1873 

2. Ouimet " 1873-1874 

3. De Boucherville " 1874-1878 

4. Joly " 1878-1879 

5. Chapleau " 1879-1882 

6. Mousseau " ....1882-1884 

7. Ross " 1884-1887 

8. Taillon " 1887-1887 

9. Mercier " ....1887-1891 

10. De Boucherville " ....1891-1892 

11. Taillon " 1892-1896 

12. Flynn " ....1896-1897 

13. Marchand " ....1897-1900 

14. Parent " ....1900-1903 

230 



MODERN QUEBEC 

The first Ministry under the Hon. Mr. Taillon 
was in power for four days only. 

Many distinguished men since the Hon. Mr. 
Chauveau have been prominently before the public for 
many years, but is doubtful whether there has been 
any more truly interesting figure in the political history 
of Quebec since Confederation, amongst those who 
have passed away, than that of the late Honourable 
Felix Gabriel Marchand, the Premier of Quebec, who 
died on the 25th of September, 1900, and of whom we 
have given a short note in the second part of this work. 

We have briefly referred to the administration of 
the Province because Quebec is the seat of Govern- 
ment. We will now give a sketch of the work of the 
City Council. 

Under the French regime the municipal affairs of 
Quebec were for a time entrusted to syndics, but after 
a fair trial the old system was found to be preferable, 
and it was revived. Under British rule the same custom 
was observed until progress had made a change 
imperative. The population had increased ; the insti- 
tutions were growing more important ; there were a 
greater number of ships sailing into port ; and the 
development of commerce required more effective 
administrative machinery. 

It was not until the year 1818, that the citizens 
sought to obtain from the Legislature an elective 
corporation, with clearly defined powers ; but the relief 
asked for was not at this time granted. A fresh attempt 
to secure the incorporation of the city was made in 

231 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

1821, but without success. In 1827, a meeting was 
held in the Court House, presided over by Vallieres de 
St-Real. A committee of eleven persons was chosen 
to draft a Bill for the incorporaton of the city. This 
measure was submitted to the Legislature in 1831, and 
reserved for the significance of His Majesty's pleasure, 
which was given to it in 1833. Under this Act the 
city was divided into ten wards : St. Louis, St. John, 
The Seminary, The Palace, St. Lawrence, St. Charles, 
St. Roch's, Dorchester, Ste. Genevieve and des Car- 
rie res. 

The Council was composed of twenty members, 
with power to elect a mayor annually, with a salary not 
exceeding one hundred pounds. The first municipal 
election was held on the 25th of April, 1833, and the 
councillors assembled on the ist of May to elect a 
mayor, the choice falling on Elzear Bedard. In the 
following year Bedard was defeated by two votes, and 
Edward Rene Caron was declared duly elected. Those 
who withdrew their support from Bedard, declared 
that it would create a bad precedent to elect a mayor 
for more than one term, but it would appear that the 
excuse offered was only a pretext, as Caron was returned 
eleven times without intermission. Caron proved an 
excellent mayor, and his repeated election proved that 
there was no danger in the precedent. There have 
been twenty-six mayors of Quebec since 1833, an d six 
only have held office for a single term. These were 
Messrs. Bedard, Tessier, Alleyn, Robitaille, Leme- 
surier, and Hossack. The Honourable Mr. Langevin 

232 



MODERN QUEBEC 

served four terms, and the Hon. Mr. Parent has already 
been elected four times in succession. 

The following is a chronological list of the mayors 
of Quebec : 

Elzear Bedard, 1833-1834, elected by the Council. 

R. E. Caron, 1834-1845, 

G. O. Stuart, 1846-1849, 

N. F. Belleau 1850-1852, " " 

U. J. Tessier 1853 

C. Alleyn 1854 

Jos. Morrin 1855 " 

Dr. O. Robitaille..i856 

H. L. lyangevin . . . 1858-1860, " the People. 

T. Pope 1861-1863, 

A. Tourangeau. . . . 1864-1865, 

Jos. Cauchon 1866-1867. " 

J. Lemesurier 1868-1869, 

\V. Hossack 1869-1870, " the Council. 

A. G. Tourangeau.. 1 870 " the People. 

P. Garneau 1870-1873, " the Council. 

O. Murphy 1874-1877, " 

R. Chambers 1878-1879, " 

D. Brousseau 1880-1881, " " 

F. Langelier 1882-1890, " " 

Jos. Fremont 1890-1894, " 

S. N. Parent 1894-1903, " " 

For particulars concerning the administration of 
civic affairs in the past, we cannot do better than to 
quote from a speech made by the Hon. S. N. Parent, 
the present mayor : 

233 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

" At the commencement let us greet the first 
titular mayor of Quebec, Bedard, elected in 1833. He 
was a great patriot and the staunch defender of our 
rights. At the risk of being dismissed from the bench 
he gave to the prisoners of 1837, the benefit of the 
Habeas Corpus Act, and afterwards had the satisfac- 
tion of having his decision confirmed in England ; 
when he resumed his seat on the bench amidst the 
acclamation of the people. 

" The next in order is Caron, who remained at 
the head of civic affairs for twelve years, and by his 
tact, urbanity and conciliatory spirit, secured and 
retained popular favour for over half century, and died 
at Spencer Wood full of honours, and occupying the 
highest public office in the Province. 

" Then came Sir N. F. Belleau, under whom the 
waterworks were constructed and the first efforts were 
made towards building the North Shore Railway and 
a bridge over the St. Lawrence. 

' ' Then follows the brilliant and laborious adminis- 
tration of the Hon. Ulric Tessier, afterwards a minister, 
a senator, and a judge of the Court of Appeals ; of Dr 
Robitaille, one of the chief organizers of our national 
festivals at that period ; of Messrs. Tourangeau and 
I/emesurier who knew how to win the popular vote ; 
of Hon. Jos. Cauchon who came into the municipal 
arena, with all the impetuosity of his bellicose tem- 
perament ; of Sir Hector L,angevin who, after making 
his mark as an able administrator of our civic affairs, 
entered upon a wider field of duty and filled important 
offices as minister at Ottawa for many years. 

' ' Amidst all these French figures and as evidence 
of the cordial good feeling that unites all races and 
religious creeds in Quebec, I am happy to mention 
some English and Irish mayors : Okill Stuart, who 
was afterwards judge of the Admiralty ; Alley n, a 

234 



MODERN QUEBEC 

distinguished man who played an important part in 
the great debates on Confederation and afterwards 
became a member of the Privy Council of Canada and 
sheriff of Quebec ; Morrin who endowed the city with 
Morrin College ; Thomas Pope, the type of the affable 
gentleman of the old school ; Wm. Hossack who pas- 
sed like a meteor through our civic annals ; Robert 
Chambers whose kind and peaceful nature received a 
rough shock in the difficult times through which he 
passed ; Owen Murphy who so brillantly did the 
honours of our good city of Quebec. 

' ' I cheerfully do homage to the administration of 
Mr. Brousseau and to that of Mr. Fremont, who or- 
ganized our public health department on a modern 
basis. Now I reserve special mention for the works 
of Hon. P. Garneau and Hon. Francois Langelier, 
which constitute an era in our civic annals. Hon. P. 
Garneau, as Mayor of Quebec, was what he has been 
for thirty years and what I hope he will continue to 
be for many years, foremost in the ranks of workers. 
Truly, it is an admirable spectacle for us to see that 
man, though old in years, as energetic as any young 
man, ever ardent and giving us an example worthy of 
imitation by his unswerving faith in the future of 
Quebec. 

" To Hon. F. L,angelier belongs the honour of 
having inaugurated the era of great improvements in 
our city. It may be said that during the eight years 
of his administration, the citizens had a foretaste of 
the improvements that have transformed Quebec and 
made it a modern city, while respecting the historical 
character that forms a halo around it which no wanton 
hand will ever try to remove. ' ' 

Quebec has, indeed, undergone many changes 
since the establishment of the first municipal Council 

235 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

in 1833. Each occupant of the civic chair appears to 
have laboured in the interest of the city, but the 
improvements most apparent are those which has been 
effected under the administration of the present mayor. 

Year by year the work of beautifying the city has 
gone on under the regime of the Hon. Mr. Parent. 
The unsightly waste places have been converted into 
picturesque spots ; our rough and almost impassable 
streets have been well paved, and are well kept. On 
every side there is the evidence of constant watchfulness 
on the part of the civic authorities which is particularly 
noticed by the numerous visitors to our city. 

The city corporation seal represents a female 
figure in a sitting position, leaning upon a shield, on 
which is a lion passant, holding a key. Above is a 
Cornucopia, and on the side a bee-hive. At the feet of 
the figure is seen a beaver. The figure points to the 
river, where there is a ship at anchor. In the back 
ground is a representation of Cape Diamond. The 
following are the legends on the seal : above, Natura 
for,tis, industria crescit; below, Condi ta Quebecense, A.D. 
MDCVIII Civitatis Regimine Donata, A.D. MDCCC- 
XXXIII. 

In addition to the works carried out by the civic 
authorities, we must not omit the services rendered to 
Quebec by Lord Dufferin. The increase in traffic had 
rendered necessary the demolition of the old gates, and 
it appeared at one time that the city would lose many 
of its most attractive features. Lord Dufferin, how- 
ever, interfered and proposed not only to meet all the 

236 



MODERN QUEBEC 

requirements of progress but to give to Quebec a more 
attractive interest. The scheme proposed under the 
direction of the Earl included an official residence for 
the Governors, new gates and extended walls, orna- 
mental grounds and iron bridges. The cost of these 
improvements would have involved an outlay of nearly 
one hundred thousand dollars, and therefore the plans 
were greatly modified. However, as a result, we have 
at least preserved the walls and have the St. Louis and 
Kent Gates, and the magnificent Terrace. 

Nearly all the mayors of Quebec have been called 
upon to represent the city at great public receptions, 
such as the visits of members of the Royal Family, or 
the representatives of the sovereign on their arrival in 
the country. Others have had less pleasing tasks to 
fulfill, and their energies have been devoted to the 
relief of the distressed on the occasion of epidemics, 
and fires which have from time to time ravaged the 
city and its suburbs. 

With the exception of the fires already recorded, 
there was only the conflagration in the Lower Town, 
in 1682, during the French regime. The destruction of 
the Chateau was an isolated incident. During the 
siege of Quebec, in 1759, 532 houses were destroyed 
by fire, mostly as the result of shells or cascades. 

After 1845 we enter upon a very destructive period, 
the details of which have been given already. Besides 
these great fires there were numerous others. On the 
26th of June, 1861, fifty houses were destroyed in St. 
Louis Ward. On the yth of June, 1862, over one 

237 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

hundred houses were consumed by fire in St. John's 
Ward, and on the loth of the same month one hundred 
dwellings were destroyed in St. Sauveur. On the 2 2nd 
of June, 1865, nearly one hundred and fifty houses 
were burnt to the ground in Champlain street, and two 
months later, on the lyth of August, seventy-five 
dwellings were destroyed in St. Roch's. In 1866, on 
the 1 4th of October, another fire broke out in St. 
Roch's and destroyed two hundred houses. On the 
24th of May, 1870, four hundred and twenty-five 
houses were burnt in the same suburb. The next fire 
was in Montcalm Ward, in May, 1876, when four 
hundred and eleven houses were burnt. 

Twelve hundred houses were consumed in St. 
John's suburb on the 8th of June, 1881 , and on the i6th 
May, 1889 four hundred dwellings suffered a similar 
fate. In 1889 there was another great fire in St. Rochs. 

This table of disasters shows that the greater 
portion of Quebec has been swept away by the ravages 
of fire upon more than one occasion. Within recent 
years the regulations have been enforced against the 
construction of wooden buildings, which has minimized 
the danger of a repetition of such wholesale destruction. 
The establishment and equipment of a good fire brigade 
with a plentiful supply of water has rendered these 
unfortunate occurrences less frequent of late years ; 
the last great fire having caused the destruction of the 
Victoria Hotel, which claimed two victims. 

On the 1 8th of August 1903, the Great Northern 
Workshops were destroyed. 

238 



MODERN QUEBEC 

It will be of interest to many to trace the growth 
of the population of Quebec since the time when 
Champlain arrived with his little band of followers. 

The census shows the population to have been as 
follows : 

In 1665 547 

1685 1,205 

i76 x .549 

1716 1,771 

1739 4,603 

1765 8 >967 

1790 14,000 

1845 46,000 

1851 42,000 

1861 50,000 

1871 60,000 

1881 62,000 

1891 63,000 

1901 68,000 

From the figures we have given, it will be seen 
that the fires of 1845 interfered materially with the 
progress of Quebec. Many families finding their homes 
destroyed commenced life afresh in other cities. Thus, 
in 1851, we find the population given as 42,000, while 
in 1845 it had been 46,000. 

In consequence of the fire in the Chateau St. Louis 
in 1834 the Governor leased the building at the corner 
of St. Anne and Fort Sts. for the use of the Government 
officials. 

239 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

The Castle, or Chateau St. Louis had always been 
the residence of the Governors under the French regime, 
and it was occupied by the English Governors for a 
long time. In the course of years it was found to be 
too small for the accommodation of the Governor and 
the numerous officials. In Lord Haldimand's time a 
building was erected for public receptions and social 
functions, which was afterwards known as the Old 
Chateau. Between 1809 and 1811 a second story was 
added to the original Chateau, and it was then called 
the New Chateau. After the fire in 1834, the name of 
the Chateau St. Louis was given to the other building. 

The walls of the Chateau were levelled during 
Lord Durhams' term, and a terrace was commenced, 
1 60 feet in length, named Durham Terrace. 

The terrace was extended to the length of 270 
feet in 1854, and in 1879 it was continued to the foot 
of Cape Diamond Redoubt, giving it a total length of 
1,400 feet. This splendid promenade is the favourite 
resort of the citizens and visitors during the summer 
evenings. The Chateau Frontenac Hotel has replaced 
Haldimand house, and nothing now remains of the 
old castle St. Louis and its dependencies. The Earl of 
Dufferin proposed to restore the Chateau as an official 
residence for the Governors, and magnificent plans 
were prepared for the purpose. 

Quebec, as we have shown, has had its share of 
disastrous fires. It has also suffered severely from 
other causes. In the early days of the colony the 
inhabitants constructed temporary dwellings in the 

240 



MODERN QUEBEC 

lower town on the narrow strip of ground situated at 
the foot of Cape Diamond, and notwithstanding the 
fact that large portions of the overhanging rock have 
from time to time fallen, and demolished many of the 
houses in the district, the people seem to have no 
desire to abandon the spot. On the iyth of May, 1841, 
an enormous piece of rock fell, burying eight houses 
and killing thirty people. 

In 1852, another piece of rock gave way, and seven 
persons were killed. Twenty years later, in 1872, a 
house containing eight persons was crushed beneath 
the weight of an avalanche of snow, and none of the 
unfortunate inmates escaped. 

At 8.15 P. M., on the igth of September, 1899, a 
portion of the rock at the southern end of Dufferin 
Terrace, which had been undermined by excessive rain, 
suddenly gave away. Forty-eight people were killed 
and over thirty were wounded, and seven houses were 
buried beneath the ruins. 

Quebec has been depopulated by many epidemic 
diseases. These may be grouped in three classes : 

1 . Epidemic diseases commonly known as summer 
complaints, grippe, eruptive fevers, scurvy, whooping 
cough, diptheria, erysipelas. 

2. Pestilential diseases such as Asiatic cholera. 

3. Accidental diseases such as epidemic cerebro- 
spinal meningitis. Those that caused the greatest 
ravages were Asiatic cholera, small-pox, scarlet fever, 
and diptheria. The presence of scurvy in the country 
dates from its discovery and the foundation of Quebec. 

16 241 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Wherever the European set foot the scurvy broke out 
and claimed many victims. Jacques Cartier lost nearly 
one fourth of his crew from this disease, in the winter 
f T 535- Twenty-five of his men died, and those who 
survived owed their recovery to the Indians, who told 
them of a sovereign remedy. During the first winter 
after the foundation of Quebec, eighteen, out of the 
twenty inhabitants, were attacked by this dread disease, 
and ten of them succumbed, while six died soon after 
from dysentery. Small-pox claimed many victims, 
in 1703, 1732, 1733, and 1755. In the igth century 
this malignant disease became general in Canada, 
Quebec suffering as much as the other cities. The 
epidemic of 1703 was particularly severe. The registers 
show that there were over two thousand deaths. ' ' Never 
has such misery been seen," exclaims the historian of 
the Hotel Dieu. " Everyone was deploring the loss 
of a relation ; one his wife, the other her husband ; 
one his brother, the other his children. Orphans wept 
for their parents ; all were in tears, and there were no 
gatherings except for funerals." The Hotel Dieu lost 
five nuns, the General Hospital two, and members of 
the clergy also fell victims. In 1732, small-pox was 
brought to Quebec by an Indian, and in a few days it 
became general until it spread all over Canada. At 
one time there were two thousand sick. M. Boullard, 
the curl of Quebec, was one of the many victims at 
this time. In the years 1711, 1718 and 1740, Quebec 
was visited by a plague, the exact nature of which it is 
difficult to determine. The historian of the Hotel Dieu 

242 



MODERN QUEBEC 

describes it as the disease of Siam. It was brought to 
Quebec by a ship, in 1711, hailing from the Islands. 
All who were attacked by it perished. Six nuns of 
the Hotel Dieu died from it, and twelve priests, 
including M. Pocquet, the curt of Quebec. In the 
year 1718, one- third of the inmates of the Hotel Dieu 
died within the space of one month. 

The ship bringing Monsegneur de 1,'Aube-Riviere 
arrived in Quebec in August, 1740, with one hundred 
and sixty persons suffering from this disease. Nearly 
all of them were taken to the Hotel Dieu. " I have 
never seen so many sick in the hospital," wrote Mere 
Ste. Helene ; ' ' the wards, garrets and outer parlours 
all were filled, and we can hardly pass between the 
beds. All became as black as negroes as soon as they 
were dead." It was thought at the time that the 
disease was pupura, and the death of Monseigneur 
I/ Aube-Riviere was attributed to that malignant fever. 
Besides diseases of an erruptive nature, there were 
those termed pestilential fevers, which broke out in 
Quebec in 1709, 1746, 1750, 1757 and 1758. On all 
these occasions the hospitals of the town were over- 
crowded, and the devoted sisters paid a large tribute 
to the mortality of the times. In 1750 the General 
Hospital lost the confessor of the community in the 
person of Father Durand. In 1 756 six hundred plague 
stricken patients were admitted to the General Hospital. 
The ship that brought the fever was burned in the 
harbour. Six hundred persons died in the General 
Hospital in 1757, and three hundred in 1758. 

243 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Since the year 1832 there have been six outbreaks 
of Asiatic cholera. The first visitation in 1832 was the 
most terrible. Notwithstanding all the precautions 
which were taken to prevent the eruption of the plague 
which had been raging all over Europe for some y ears, 
cholera made itself manifest in Quebec on the gth of 
June. By the i5th of the month it had become general, 
and in the space of one month over four thousand people 
died in Quebec and Montreal from this terrible disease. 
Subsequent epidemics occurred in 1834, 1849, 1852, 
1854, but with less fatal results. 

But, we have seen enough of this sorrowful history 
of Quebec. Let us turn to some of the occasions of 
rejoicing in the city. 

The union of the Provinces had the effedl of 
developing the literature of the country, and also of 
promoting fraternal organizations. For the preserva- 
tion of their individuality, the French Canadians had 
formed an organization under the name of Saint-Jean- 
Baptiste, and the first celebration of the society was 
held upon the feast of the Saint in 1842. In the year 
1843 the members wore a token of mourning in mem- 
ory of Sir Charles Bagot. In 1845, the year of the 
disastrous fire, the celebration was omitted, but from 
1846 there has been an annual gathering. The cele- 
brations of 1880, 1889, 1898 and 1902, were the most 
elaborate. The celebration of 1880 was rendered more 
impressive on account of the session of the Catholic 
Congress. Mass was celebrated in the open air at 
Claire Fontaine street. Patriotic speeches were deliv- 

244 



MODERN QUEBEC 

ered by Mgr. Lafleche, Judge Routhier, Mr. now Sir 
Wilfrid Laurier, and Judge L,andry. The celebration 
in 1889 was marked by the inauguration of the monu- 
ment to Jacques-Cartier, and the heroic work of the 
first missionaries. It was a brilliant affair participated 
in by 50,000 Canadians. In 1898, under the auspices 
of the Society, the Earl of Aberdeen unveiled the 
monument to the founder of Quebec, Samuel Cham- 
plain. Representatives attended 'from all parts of 
Canada, and the presence of the officers and men of 
the ships of war that were in port at the time gave 
additional significance to the event. The memorable 
speeches that were delivered on that day deserve to be 
preserved. The speakers were : The Earl of Aberdeen, 
Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Sir Louis Jette, Monsieur Klecz- 
kowski, the Honourable Mr. Marchand, Judge Rou- 
thier, and the Hon. H. T. Duffy : Judge Chauveau 
also read an address. 

A double celebration occurred in 1902 on the occa- 
sion of the commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of 
the foundation of Laval University. Mass was sung in 
the presence of an immense concourse of people on 
Dufferin Terrace, close to the monument to the Founder. 
Many splendid celebrations have taken place in Quebec 
from earliest times. The arrival of the Marquis de 
Tracy was made the occasion of great public rejoicing, 
which for the time and the condition of the city, was 
remarkable. 

The visits of members of the Royal Family to 
Quebec have always been specially marked. 

245 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

On the i4th of August, 1787, the Pegasus arrived 
in port, having on board Prince William Henry, Duke 
of Clarence, the third son of the reigning sovereign. 
The Prince was the first royal visitor to Quebec since 
its foundation. 

On the 7th of August, 1791, two ships of the 
Royal Navy under the command of Prince Edward, 
Duke of Kent, anchored in the St. Lawrence before 
Quebec. The Prince was the fourth son of the King, 
and at that time was twenty-five years of age. Two- 
days after the Prince received the homage of the clergy, 
the civil and military authorities and the inhabitants, 
in the castle of St. I^ouis. A grand ball was given 
on the 2nd of November, the birthday of the Duke, 
and the city was illuminated at night ; a drama was 
performed in 1792 in his honour. The Duke remained 
in Quebec until 1794. 

A long interval elapsed before the arrival of another 
member of the Royal House. It was on the iSth of 
August, 1860, that His Royal Highness the Prince of 
Wales, now His Majesty, King Edward the Seventh Y 
landed in Quebec. 

As the Hero rounded the point of Orleans the 
cannons from the Citadel, the Ramparts and the men 
of war, boomed out a royal welcome. The firing con- 
tinued until the vessel appeared opposite the city, so 
that Quebec seemed in a state of siege. The volumes 
of smoke almost obscured the buildings for some time. 
The people in the streets were so densely packed that 
it was difficult to obtain standing room. The Hero 

246 



MODERN QUEBEC 

was moored at the Queen's Wharf, where all the 
eminent people were assembled to welcome His Royal 
Highness. The mayor of the city, Sir Hector L,an- 
gevin, presented an address of welcome, after which 
the Royal guests drove to the residence of the Governor 
Sir Edmund Head. In the evening, the city of Quebec, 
the town of Levis, and the village of Beauport, were 
illuminated. 

On the following days there were many demons- 
trations not less flattering to the Prince. A reception 
was held at Laval University on the 2ist of August in 
honour of the Prince at which nine Bishops were 
present. The Prince visited theUrsuline convent and 
other communities during his sojourn in Quebec. 

The festivities which attended the visit of their 
Royal Highnesses, the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall 
and York, on the iyth of September, 1901, were not 
less brilliant. As the Orphit appeared before Quebec 
a royal salute was fired from the Citadel and from the 
ships in port. His Excellency, the Earl of Minto, 
received the royal guests at the landing place, accom- 
panied by the members of the Cabinet. The passage 
of their Royal Highnesses from the wharf to the 
Parliament was one of triumph At the entrance to 
the grounds a beautiful arch had been creeled under 
the direction, and from the designs of Mr. Eugene 
Tache, I. S. O. In the centre of the arch a floral 
bell was hung to which silken strings were attached, 
held by little girls clothed in white. As the royal 
visitors passed under the arch, the bell was set in 

247 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

motion, and flowers fell upon them. A platform was 
erected in the grounds for a choir of thousands of 
children, and at a given signal a chorus was sung as 
the Duke and Duchess proceeded to the main entrance 
of the Parliament. An address was presented to His 
Royal Highness by the Hon. S. N. Parent. In the 
afternoon a reception was held in Laval University, at 
which the professors and doctors of the University 
were presented to the royal guests. On the following 
day a review was held on the Race Course, after which 
the Duke and Duchess were the guests of Sir Louis 
and Lady Jette at Spencer Wood. The illumination 
of the city during the evening was a memorable sight. 

His Royal Highness Prince Alfred was a guest of 
the city in 1861, and Prince Arthur in 1869. Her 
Royal Highness the Princess Louise was of ten a visitor 
to Quebec, during the time that her husband the 
Marquess of Lome, was Governor General of Canada. 
The Grand Duke Alexis of Russia paid a visit to 
Quebec in 1871, and Dom Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, 
came in 1876. The Marquis de Levis, the Marquis de 
Charette, the Prince de Joinville, Prince Napoleon 
Bonaparte, the Count de Paris, the Duke of Orleans, 
and many other distinguished visitors have paid short 
visits to the city at different times. 

Quebec has frequently recalled the memory of 
important historical events with befitting celebrations, 
and it is interesting to note that the two races which 
preserve their individuality, are one on occasions such 
as this. 

248 



MODERN QUEBEC 

Thus in the year 1875, the Quebec literary and 
Historical Society assembled to celebrate the victory 
obtained over Arnold' s troops in 1775. The same event 
was also celebrated by the French Canadians under 
the auspices of the Institut Canadien. A ledture was 
delivered by the late Mr. Turcotte, and the proceedings 
were afterwards published in pamphlet form. The 
fourth centenary of the discovery of America was 
recalled by an entertainment given by the Institut. 
High mass was celebrated in the Basilica, and in the 
evening speeches were delivered in the Academy of 
Music by Messrs. Routhier and Chapais. 

The Seminary of Quebec and L,aval University 
have held several notable festivals. On the i6th of 
June, 1859, the Seminary celebrated the bi-centenary 
of the arrival of its founder Monseigneur de Laval, and 
again on the 3oth of June, 1863, the two hundredth 
anniversary of its foundation was suitably honoured. 

A very brilliant festival was held in Quebec on 
the 2oth June, 1886, to commemorate the installation 
of the first Canadian Cardinal, Monseigneur E. A. 
Taschereau, who for fifteen years had been Archbishop 
of Quebec. His talents, his eminent virtue, and his 
prudent administration of the diocese, had won for 
him the highest honour which the Church confers upon 
her servants. Twenty-one archbishops and Bishops 
were present at the ceremony in the Basilica, and 
tributes from all over the Dominion were laid at the 
feet of the new Cardinal. In the evening a meeting 
was held at the Skating Rink, when Judge Routhier 

249 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

made a remarkable speech. Monseigneur O'Brien, the 
Papal Ablegate, remarked : "I have never heard a 
more eloquent, a more Catholic or a more theological 
speech." 

Scarcely a year passes in Quebec without a special 
celebration. Sometimes it is on the occasion of the 
visits of His Excellency the Governor- General, or of 
distinguished visitors from abroad ; or when any of the 
vessels of the Royal navy or of foreign countries are 
in port, but whenever a suitable opportunity is offered 
the citizens are always eager to maintain their reput- 
ation for hospitality. 

In the second part of this work, we have given a 
more detailed account of many of the public buildings, 
and places of interest in the city. 



250 




3 I 



M 



CHAPTER XIII 
1633-19O3 

CATHOLIC CHURCHES 

THE BASILICA NOTRE DAME DE LA PAIX THE FIRST 
MASS THE CURES OF QUEBEC THE PARISH 
CHURCHES CHAPELS OF COMMUNITIES. 

QUEBEC has nine parish churches, four others in 
charge of chaplains, and thirteen chapels attached 
to religious communities but open to the public. 

The first of the parish churches, both as regards 
antiquity and rank, is the Cathedral, erected as a minor 
basilica in 1874. Until 1829, it was the only parish 
church, but since then seven parishes have been formed 
in the territory formerly occupied by all the parishioners 
of the city. These parishes are : St. Roch, St. Patrick, 
St. Sauveur, St. Jean Baptiste, Notre Dame de la 
Garde, Stadacona, L,imoilou, St. Malo and Jacques 
Cartier. 

The four churches in charge of chaplains, and not 
connected with religious communities, are those of 

251 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Notre Dame des Victoires, Notre Dame de Lourdes, 
Notre Dame du Chemin, and the church of the Congre- 
gation in the Upper Town. 

Finally, the chapels of communities are those of 
the Ursulines, the Hotel Dieu, the Seminary, the 
General Hospital, the Good Shepherd, the Sisters of 
Charity, the Patronage, the Toadies of the Congrega- 
tion of St. Roch, St. I/mis Asylum, the Franciscan 
nuns, the Franciscan monks, the St. Antoine Asylum, 
the Christian Brothers' Academy. Several other in- 
terior chapels of smaller dimensions also have their 
particular history. But we have been compelled to 
leave it aside and refer only to the more important 
ones. 

THE BASILICA OF QUEBEC 

The first parish church of Quebec was that of 
Notre Dame de la Recouvrance erected by Champlain 
in 1633. The sudden increase of the population in 
1634 and 1635 compelled the Jesuits to enlarge it to 
the extent of one half and they took advantage of this 
enlargement to have it dedicated again. It was placed 
under the patronage of the Immaculate Conception on 
the 8th December, 1636, and destroyed by the fire of 
the 1 4th June 1640. The disaster was complete ; the 
bell and chalices were melted by the heat ; the registers 
of the parish were burned with all the contents of the 
church. The poverty of the inhabitants was so great 
that many years elapsed before the building of another 
church was thought of. In fact, it was only on the 

252 



CATHOLIC CHURCHES 

8th October, 1645, that any steps were taken in this 
direction. At a special meeting presided over by Father 
Vimont, Robert Giffard and Noel Juchereau des Cha- 
telets, the churchwardens in office, with the consent of 
Pierre Delaunay and Olivier C. Tardif, ex-church- 
wardens, who had succeeded the first church-warden 
Francois Gand, sieur de R6, it was resolved to build 
without delay and to erect the future church under 
the name of Notre Dame de la Paix ; there were to be 
two chapels : one dedicated to St. Joseph, the patron 
of the country, and the other to St. Ignatius and St. 
Francis Xavier. 

NOTRE DAME DE LA PAIX 

Such was the original title of the parish church of 
Quebec. Why was this name chosen in preference to 
any other ? In the previous month of September at a 
meeting held in Three Rivers, peace was concluded 
with the Iroquois, and it was probably with a view of 
perpetuating the memory of that alliance that the new 
dedication took place. 

Two years elapsed before the work was begun. 
Nevertheless, during the summer of 1646, six men had 
been engaged in setting out stones and clearing the site 
which was about the same as that on which the church 
of Notre Dame de la Recouvrance had been built. 

The foundation stone was laid on the 23rd of 
September, 1647. The following is the text of the 
document giving the date and setting forth the facts 
connected with the ceremony. 

253 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

" On the 23rd September, 1640. Rev. Father 
Hierosme Lallemant, superior of the mission and M. 
de Montmagny, the governor, laid the corner stone of 
the church of Notre Dame de la Conception in Quebec 
under the name of Notre Dame de la Paix. The said 
stone is at the angle of the window frame on the left 
hand side as one enters the church, on the side and in 
the corner nearest the main altar. The names of Jesus 
and Mary are carved on the stone with a lead plate. 

B. VIMONT." 

Work was begun in earnest only in the spring of 
1648, and was continued in the following years. Mass 
was celebrated in it on Christmas day, 1650. The same 
Father blessed it and celebrated the first mass. 

From 1650 to 1657 the work went slowly and the 
new church was finally opened on the 3ist March, 1657. 
The building was one hundred feet by thirty-three. 

The parish church was canonically erected by 
Monseigneur de L/aval in 1664 and united to the 
Seminary. It was consecrated on the nth July 1666. 

In 1677 some work was done on the entrance side. 
The steeple was begun in 1684 ; one of the towers 
remained unfinished. 

In 1687 the church was lengthened by 50 feet ; 
this work was finished in 1689 ; it had been entrusted 
to a Parisian architect, Hilaire Bernard. 

In 1745, it was again lengthened by 40 feet and 
the two side-aisles that still exist were then added. 

All these works were finished in 1748 that is a 
hundred years after the corner stone was laid. 

254 



CATHOLIC CHURCHES 

To resume, we may say that the pillars of the 
nave date from 1647, the towers from 1684 and the 
remainder of the church from 1745. 

During the siege of Quebec in 1759, all the wooden 
part was burned with the exception of the base of the 
steeple. The walls were considerably damaged by the 
cannon balls and shells. In 1767 it was decided to 
repair it but work was begun only in 1769. It was 
then lengthened by 22 feet on the side of the sanctuary, 
so that its length was 216 feet and its width 94 feet, 
including the walls. The building as repaired was fit 
for occupation in 1771. 

Since then the only changes on the outside were 
made to the front in 1843, the door was built around 
with cut stone from Pointe-aux-Trembles and in 1849,. 
the famous tower on the north side was commenced 
which is still incomplete. Governor Carleton in 1775 
gave a clock with 3 chimes for the steeple. In 1823 
Mr. Wells replaced it with a wooden clock. 

The interior of the Basilica excites the admiration 
of strangers, not so much on account of its architectural 
proportions as by its rich paintings, baldachin, pulpit, 
and side-chapels, and the pious souvenirs connected 
with it. In the sanctuary of this cathedral lie the 
remains of nearly all the bishops of Quebec ; of the 
cures and canons of the French regime ; of the last two 
representatives of the Jesuits and Recollets, and of seven 
to eight hundred laymen and women belonging to the 
first families of Quebec. 

255 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

The cure of Quebec, the only irremoveable one 
in Canada, is deserving of special study, not only 
because it has been filled by eminent men, but also 
on account of the high rank that has always been 
attributed to it. Three priests have left it to fill the 
episcopal See of Quebec ; others have filled it while 
occupying the position of Superior of the Seminary ; 
all have been distinguished for their talents or their 
virtues. Henri de Bernieres, Ango des Maizerets, 
Bertrand de la Tour, Plessis, Signay, Baillargeon, 
Proulx, were model cure's of whom the sanctuary 
retains precious souvenirs. 

The first titular curS was Gabriel de Queylus, 
abbe of L,oc-Dieu. Some time after his arrival in the 
country he received the keys of the parish church from 
Father Poncet, Jesuit (1657). We find in the archives 
of Notre- Dame de Quebec a note in which it is stated 
that M. 1' Abbe de Queylus, having no presbytery, 
brought a suit against the Jesuits to make them hand 
over to him the new building they had erected, or repay 
the six hundred livres they had accepted in 1645 for 
the purpose of erecting a presbytery on the church 
grounds. 

Abbe Jean Torcapel succeeded M. de Queylus in 
1659. He was a priest whom the Bishop of Petrea 
had brought with him from France. His health did 
not allow him to retain the cure beyond a year. He 
left for France on the i8th of October, 1660, leaving in 
charge M. Henri de Bernieres, who had been ordained 
on the 1 3th of March previous. The new curS enjoyed 

256 



CATHOUC CHURCHES 

the Bishop's full confidence. He was the nephew of 
M. de Bernieres Louvigny of the Hermitage of Caen, 
where Monseigneur de Laval had spent many pleasant 
days. He had been trained in the same school of virtue, 
beside M. Ango de Maizerets, M. Jean Du Douyt, and 
M. Thomas Morel, who became powerful assistants of 
the venerable prelate on Canadian soil. 

M. de Bernieres became titular cure only in 1664 
and continued in office until 1672 while retaining the 
position of superior of the Seminary. M. Ango des 
Maizerets replaced him from 1672 to 1673 when M. 
de Bernieres resumed his duties as cur of Quebec, for 
fourteen years longer, that is until 1687. 

He was succeeded by abbe J. Dupre who remained 
in office for twenty years (1687-1707). Like his two 
immediate predecessors and some of those who came 
after him until 1768, M. Dupre was a member of the 
SSminaire des Missions Etrangeres. The latter were 
Pierre Pocquet (1707-11), Thomas Thiboult (1711-24), 
Etienne Boullard (1724-33), Bertrand de la Tour 
(1734-44), Lyon Saint-Ferreol (1734-37), Jacques 
Dartigues (1738-39) Charles Plante (1739-44), M. 
Delbois (1744-49), Jean Francois Recher (1749-68). 
During the siege of Quebec 1759 the cm 6 of Quebec 
had to lodge at the Ursulines until the 24th December 
1764 and celebrated parochial offices in the Seminary 
chapel. 

Bernard'Sylvestre Dosque took charge of the cure 
in 1769 and at his death in 1774, was replaced by 
Auguste David Hubert, ordained the previous year. 

17 257 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

He was drowned in 1792 near the Island of Orleans. 
He was succeeded by Joseph Octave Plessis. This 
young priest soon made himself conspicuous by his 
eloquence, and his cool judgment amidst the turmoil of 
spiritual and temporal matters. Devoted to his ministry 
he neglected no means to retain his flock within the 
fold and bring back those that wandered from it. 
He taught catechism, and visited the sick like the 
humblest of his vicars. He was very earnest in the 
cause of education that had been greatly neglected. 
After his consecration as bishop Monseigneur Plessis 
continued to perform the duties of cure and he relin- 
quished them to M. Andre Doucet only in 1806, five 
years after his appointment as coadjutor. M. Boucet 
was appointed in 1806, and remained in office until 
1814. when he was succeeded b}^ M. Joseph Siguay 
who had until then been a missionary on L,ake Chani- 
plain. This worthy priest became coadjutor when 
Monseigneur Panet succeeded Monseigneur Flessis. 

M. Charles Francois Baillargeon was appointed 
curl of Quebec in 1831. A model of piety and of every 
virtue, the new pastor displayed in the cure the quali- 
ties that were later on to distinguish him as Bishop. 

M. Louis Proulx occupied the office only for a 
very short time. His temperament and tastes led him 
to labor far from cities ; and yet his qualities would 
have made him appear to advantage on any scene. He 
possessed knowledge, prudence and a calm judgment ; 
all precious gifts which would have caused him to be 
as highly appreciated in the town and in the country. 

258 



CATHOLIC CHURCHES 

In 1851, M. Joseph Auclair exchanged curls with 
M. Proulx. All who knew M. Auclair praised his 
zeal for the church, his proverbial cheerfulness and 
the care he took in preparing his sermons. He was a 
poet at times ; his short heroic-comic poem, Le Congrts 
de la Bale St. Paul, is well and favourably known. 

M. Auclair died at the end of November, 1887, 
and was succeeded by M. F. X. Faguy, whose official 
appointment dates from January, 1888. His adminis- 
tration during fourteen years has been judicious. Few 
airSs have done as much as he for the ornamentation 
of the Basilica of Notre Dame or have given a more 
imposing character to the great festivals of the church. 
Through his efforts the monumental tablets of the four 
Governors of New France ; to the Jesuits and Recollets 
whose ashes lie in the vaults of the parish church, 
have been erected. 

THE; CHURCH OF ST. ROCH 

On the 1 8th April 1811, Mr. John Munn gave 
Monseigneur Plessis, Bishop of Quebec, a lot of land 
conceded by Mr. Joseph Frenette for the erection of a 
church. On the i6th May following, the citizens of 
Quebec met and passed a vote of thanks to the generous 
donor and elected trustees for the construction of the 
church. Amongst these trustees was Brother Louis, a 
Recollet, and Mr. Louis Claude Gauvreau, an ancestor 
of the present cure of St. Roch. 

The first stone of the new church was blessed on 
the 28th August 1811 by Vicar-General Descheneaux. 

259 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

The fire of the iSth December, 1816, destroyed the 
building with the exception of the sacrist} 7 . The work 
of rebuilding began at once, and on the 8th of October, 
1818, Monseigneur Plessis opened this second chapel 
for public worship. Until then the banlieue of St. 
Roch was only a branch of the parish of Notre Dame 
de Quebec. Nevertheless Monseigneur Plessis took 
great interest in this group of well disposed faithful 
and on the iyth June, 1821, he had the pleasure of 
consecrating there, Monseigneur McEachern, the first 
Bishop of Charlpttetown. This was the occasion of a 
general celebration. 

On the 1 5th September, 1829, Abbe C. F. Cazeau, 
under-secretary of the bishop of Quebec, presided at a 
meeting held by the citizens of St. Roch suburbs, 
hitherto a dependency of the upper town parish, for 
the purpose of erecting their suburb into a parish. 
Their resolution was carried unanimously and on the 
26th of September of the same year, Monseigneur 
Bernard Claude Panet issued the decree erecting the 
parish. 

On the 28th May, 1845, the church of St. Roch 
was destroyed by fire ; the convent and the catechism 
chapel (^the present mortuary chapel) were saved ; 
the latter was destroyed in the fire of the 24th May, 
1870, but was rebuilt the same year. For a long while 
it was used in connection with funerals, and in 1882 it 
was finally closed as a place of divine worship. 

The parish of St. Roch has increased since its 
foundation to such an extent that the religious author- 

260 



CATHOUC CHURCHES 

ities have been obliged, at various intervals, to make 
new parishes out of it ; these are St. Sauveur, Limoilou, 
Stadacona and Jacques-Cartier. 

St. Sauveur was erected into a parish on the ist of 
May, 1867. The name was given in remembrance of 
Abbe Jean L,eSueur de St. Sauveur, the first secular 
priest who came to Canada (1634) and who had 
charge of the small chapel of St. John at Coteau Ste. 
Genevieve. 

The parish of Limoilou dates from the 24th of 
May, 1893. The name is that of the residence of 
Jacques Cartier, the discoverer of Canada, a few miles 
from St. Malo in Brittany. Stadacona was creeled 
into a parish on the same day. 

Jacques-Cartier was erected as a parish on the 
25th September, 1901. 

These four new parishes, detached from St. Roch, 
are very flourishing, especially St. Sauveur, which has 
become the parent of another parish called St. Malo. 

Before the erection of St. Roch suburbs into a 
parish, it was in charge of chaplains. This period 
covers eleven years, from 1818 to 1829. The chaplains 
were Messrs. Hyaciuthe Hudon, Claude Gauvreau, 
Jos. F. Aubry, C. F. Baillargeon, Hugh Paisley, 
Alexis Mailloux, Jean Naud, L,ouis Desfosses and 
Benjamin Desrochers. 

The first curt was M. A. Mailloux, from 1829 to 
1831, then followed in succession, M. David Henri 
Ttu, from 1833 to 1839 ; Zephyrin Charest, from 1839 
to 1876 ; F. X. Gosselin, from 1876 to 1885 ; T. H. 

261 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

B61anger, from 1885 to 1895. The present curl, Abb6 
Antoine Gauvreau, has with rare disinterestedness 
effected the dismembering of his parish and has also 
succeeded in founding an asylum which is of great 
service to the poorer classes of St. Roch. 

The church of St. Roch is sufficiently spacious, 
178 feet by 91. In 1871, the chapel dedicated to the 
Sacred Heart of Jesus was built on St. Francis street, 
after a retreat preached by Reverend Father Resther, 
S. J. The chapel was blessed in June, 1873. 

In the sanctuary is the heart of Monseigneur 
Plessis, which was transferred from the General Hos- 
pital on the 3<Dth September, 1847, and ^ so tne bod y 
of Abbe Desfosses, one of the chaplains of St. Roch. 

The three bells were placed in the steeple in July 
1847, and blessed on the 3rd of the same month. 

In front of the church is a gilt statue of St. Roch 
with his dog. 

THE CHURCH OF ST. JEAN BAPTISTE 

The first church of St. Jean Baptiste suburbs was 
begun in 1847 and blessed on the 25th June, 1849. 
Its dimensions were 180 feet by 80. From 1849 to 
1886 the church was a branch of the cathedral and 
was in charge of a chaplain. On the 8th of June, 1881, 
it was destroyed by the disastrous fire that swept away 
one half the suburbs. A new and much larger church, 
234 feet by 87 which was blessed on the 27th of July, 
1884, has replaced it. 

262 



CATHOUC CHURCHES 

The parish of St. Jean Baptiste was canonically 
erected on the 24th May, 1886, by a decree of Cardinal 
Taschereau, and the civil erection was sanctioned by 
an act of the Legislature, dated the 2ist of June in 
the same year. 

The present population of the parish is 12,000 souls. 

The interior of this church is very pretty, but the 
exterior is especially remarkable for its elegant propor- 
tions and the beauty of its fa?ade. 

THE CHURCH OF NOTRE DAME DE LA GARDE 

The decree authorizing the construction of this 
church is dated gth of April, 1877. Work was begun 
at once on the building which is of cut stone 100 feet 
by 50. The style is Roman. 

Notre Dame de la Garde was erected into a parish 
on the 23rd of July 1885, and detached from the 
cathedral of which it had been a branch until then. 

CHURCH OF ST. MALO 

The parish of St. Malo was founded on the ist of 
July, 1898. The church was blessed on the 4th of 
February 1899 by His Grace Archbishop Begin. The 
dimensions are imposing, 175 feet by 64 with a transept 
of 95 feet. The style is Roman. 

The first cure of St. Malo was abbe Henri Defoy, 
now a religious of the order of the Fathers of the 
Blessed Sacrament. His successor abM H. Bouffard is 
the present incumbent. 

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QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Close by the church stands the convent in charge 
of the Sisters of Notre Dame. The corner-stone of this 
pretty building was blessed on the i8th of August, 
1901 ; its dimensions are 80 feet by 45, and it is four 
stories high. 

The college, near by, was built in 1899. The 
classes opened on the i ith September of the same year 
under the direction of the Petits Freres de Marie. It 
is attended by over 400 pupils. 

The parish of St. Malo has a house of Providence. 
This work of charity was begun on the loth of Novem- 
ber, 1902, in the old girls' school. It comprises an 
infant school for both sexes and a patronage for the 
older girls, the latter being under the direction of the 
Franciscan Nuns. 

MONASTERY AND CHURCH OP THE URSULINES 

On their arrival in the beginning of August 1639, 
the Ursuline nuns lodged in a poor dwelling in the 
lower town at the place now occupied by Blanchard's 
Hotel facing the church of Notre Dame des Vicloires. 
It was not until the spring of 1641 that they were in 
a position to begin building in the upper town, on 
grounds conceded to them by the Company of the 
Hundred Associates. On the 2ist November 1642 they 
took possession of their new monastery which was 
ninety-two feet long and twenty-eight deep. " It is 
the largest and the finest house in Canada ' ' writes 
Mire Marie de r Incarnation. 



CATHOLIC CHURCHES 

On the 29th of May 1652, the nuns had the conso- 
lation of opening a second monastery of larger propor- 
tions. This new building was one hundred and eight 
feet long and was much more comfortable and spacious 
than the first building which was destroyed by fire on 
the 30th of December, 1650. On the 2oth of October, 
1686 a second conflagration destroyed the monastery. 
The nuns set to work at once and resolved to rebuild 
on the same foundation with the addition of a wing 
called after the Holy Family which was already begun. 
The boarders were re-admitted on the gth of November, 
1687. 

From 1712 to 1715 the monastery was again 
enlarged, but the nuns concentrated their efforts chiefly 
on the building of a more suitable chapel. 

The inside chapel of the Ursulines is of quite 
recent construction. The contract for building it was 
signed on the i6th of May, 1901. It is a splendid 
structure of majestic proportions with a superb and 
richly decorated vault. 

The outside chapel which it was at first intended 
to preserve as it was built in 1720, had also to be 
demolished because the roof and walls were in bad 
order and it would have been imprudent to rest the 
new inside chapel on such a ruin. The plan was made 
by Mr. David Ouellet, architect, who retained the style, 
ornaments, altars, pulpit, columns and carving of the 
old building. 

On the 28th of August, 1901, the corner-stone was 
blessed by Monseigneur Begin, Archbishop of Quebec, 

265 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

assisted by Monseigneur A. Vacher, P. S. S., Canon of 
the Basilica of Lorettoand Procurator of the Canadian 
College in Rome. 

The solemn benediction of both chapels took place 
on the 2ist of November, 1902, the 26oth anniversary 
of the installation of the foundresses in their first 
monastery in the Upper Town, on the 2ist of Novem- 
ber, 1642. Monseigneur Begin officiated at this 
ceremony, which was followed by a pontifical mass at 
which the Lieutenant-Governor Sir L,. A. Jette, and 
Lady and Mademoiselle Jette were present, with many 
members of the clergy. 

In his sermon, the Abbe Lindsay, a former chaplain 
of the monastery, related the history of the new chapel 
and compared actual events with those that had occurred 
on the same day in 1642. 

This chapel is the third that has been built since 
the foundation of the first monastery. The first, called 
Madame de la Peltrie's chapel, was begun in 1656. M. 
de Lauzon, then Governor of New France, laid the 
corner-stone. 

In 1667, M. the Marquis de Tracy caused a chapel 
dedicated to St. Anne to be added to the Ursulines' 
church. He himself laid the corner-stone, which was 
blessed by Mgr. de Laval. This church was destroyed 
by fire on the 2oth of October, 1686. 

The second church, begun in 1720, was inau- 
gurated on the vigil of the Assumption, the i4th of 
August, 1722, by Mgr. de Saint Valier. During the 
recent work of demolition.the corner-stone laid in 1720 

266 



CATHOLIC CHURCHES 

was found. It is a fine arch like stone closed with a 
leaden plate bearing the inscription : ' ' The first stone 
was laid by a poor boy representing St. Joseph to obtain 
the protection of that great saint, i6th May, 1720." 
A copper medal lying in the hollow of the stone bears 
the image of Jesus, of Mary and of Joseph. 

The Ursuline monastery possesses riches of all 
kinds : paintings, engravings, books, and church 
ornaments. Most of the paintings in the chapel were 
bought in France about 1815, by Abbe Desjardins, 
Vicar-General of the Archbishop of Paris. 

These pictures are : 

THE LARGE Oil, PAINTINGS 

1. (Over the main altar.} The Birth of the Saviour : 

Shepherds adoring LeBrun. 

2. (At the side altar.} Our L,ord revealing His Heart 

to nuns of the Visitation Order. 

3. (Along the nave, on the left-hand. ) The Parable. 

of the Wise and the Foolish 

Virgins Pietro da Cortona. 

4. The Miraculous Draught of 

fishes Ant. de Dieu. 

5. The Visitation of the Blessed 

Virgin Collin de Vermont. 

6. Christian Captives in Algers, 

ransomed by the Trinitarian 

Fathers Claude Guy Halle. 

7. (Over the Door-way.} Jesus at the Supper Table 

of Simon the Pharisee P. de Champagne. 

8. St. Nonnus, bishop, receiving to a penitential life the 

converted comedian, Pelagia..P. P. Prud'hon. 

267 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

9. An Anchoret, pleading for a penitent's admission 
into a monastery 

(The subject of this painting not yet fully identified) 

SMALLER PAINTINGS 

1 . ( Within the Sanctuary. ) The mystic Espousals of 

St. Catherine Pietro da Cartona. 

2. The Holy Face of Our Lord. 

3. {Over the pulpit.) The Madonna and Child. 

4. Our Lord falling under the Cross. 

5. St. Jerome receiving his Last Communion. {Sup- 

posed copy of Domenichini. ) 

6. Holy Family, visited by the Baptist. {Legendary.) 

HISTORICAL MONUMENTS 

1. To The Marquis, General Montcalm, buried in 1759. 

Monument erected in 1859 ; Epitaph composed 
by the French Academy in 1763. 

2. A marble slab, erected by the English Governor, 

I/ord Aylmer, in 1831. 

3. In memory of the Jesuits Fathers, de Quen and 

Duperron, who had labored for the conversion of 
the Huron tribes ; they died, 1659, 1655. Also 
the lay brother Liegeois, who died in Quebec, 1655. 
Their mortal remains were removed from Sillery 
to the church of the Ursulines, 1891. 

MEMORIAL TABLETS 

1. Father Thomas Maguire, worthy chaplain of the 

Ursulines during 18 years. Deceased, July rgth, 
1854, at the age of 82. 

2. Father Patrick Doherty. (See his epitaph.) 

268 



CATHOLIC CHURCHES 

3. Father George L,eMoine, devoted chaplain of the 

Ursulines, from 1854 to 1890. Died, aged 73, 

in the 5oth year of his ordination to the priesthood. 

Other memorial tablets, along the walls, are inscribed 

with the names and age of those whose bodies 

likewise repose beneath the church, awaiting the 

resurrection. 

The monastery also owns old engravings from 
the establishments of Basset le jeune, Andran and F. 
Landry, Paris. 

The archives contain the annals of the community, 
the papers, and title-deeds, bearing the signature of 
several French governors ; the orignal of the letters 
patent for the erection of a monastery of Ursulines 
in New France with the signature and royal seal of 
Louis XV. 

The religious library contains 3,000 volumes ; the 
scientific, literary and pedagogical library contains 
7,200. Until the year 1868, there was an old ash tree 
standing near the entrance to the Convent under the 
shade of which the Venerable Foundress instructed 
the Indian children. The wood of this tree forms the 
pedestal of an old French cross formerly on the spire 
of the first convent, and now set up in the garden. 

The destruction of the first monastery by fire 
despoiled the Ursuline nuns of the gifts offered to the 
foundresses by several important personages in France. 
Nevertheless they still possess a monstrance, a censer, 
a reliquary with a relic of the true Cross, and a massive 
silver crucifix given by Madame de la Peltrie ; two 

269 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

altar cloths made out of silk damask curtains which, 
according to the traditions of the monastery, belonged 
to Louis XVI. The church ornaments and vestments 
were worked by the first nuns and are still in a perfect 
state of preservation. 

The monastery contains portraits in oil of the 
Venerable Mother Mary of the Incarnation, of Mother 
St. Joseph, of Madame de la Peltrie, of the Venerable 
Mgr. de Laval, dating from the iyth century, the 
portrait of the Duchesse de Senecy, first lady of honor 
of Anne of Austria and governess of Louis XIV ; of 
abbe Desjardins, of Lord and Lady Aylmer, of Lady 
Prevost, of Madame Lebrun painted by herself. Bottini, 
an Italian painter, painted from imagination the portrait 
of Mere Marie de 1' Incarnation, in 1877. 

The number of professed nuns is 58 

' ' novices 9 

professed lay sisters .... 22 

novice " .... 4 

pupil boarders 201 

" pupil half-boarders 160 

day pupils 128 

" normal school pupils. ... 73 

At Merici, a branch of the convent, formerly 
known as Marchmont, there are 5 nuns, 2 lay sisters, 
19 boarders, 3 half-boarders and 10 day-pupils. 

In the Ursuline chapel is a marble slab placed by 
Lord Aylmer in 1831 to commemorate the glory of 
Montcalm whose ashes repose in the vaults of the chapel. 

270 



CATHOLIC CHURCHES 
The marble slab bears the following inscription : 

HONNEUR A MONTCALM ! 

LE DESTIN EN LUI DEROBANT LA VICTOIRE, 
L'A RECOMPENSE FAR UNE MORT GLORIEUSE. 

HONOUR TO MONTCALM 

DESTIMY, WHJLE ROBBING HIM OF VICTORY, 
REWARDED HIM WITH A GLORIOUS DEATH. 

The Chapel of the Saints contains a precious 
souvenir of bygone da} 7 s in the form of a votive 
lamp, the flame of which was first kindled by Marie 
Madeleine de Repentigny in the year 1717. During 
the stormy days of the siege of Quebec when shells 
from the British batteries wrought havoc amongst the 
buildings in the upper town, the Convent did not escape. 
In the corridors may still be seen the grim remains of 
those destructive messengers, which were powerless to 
deter the good nuns from keeping faithful vigil in the 
Chapel of the Saints. Ten of the nuns remained at 
their post, and thus throughout those days of alternate 
hope and despair, the lamp was kept steadfastlv burn- 
ing. Recently a descendant of a branch of the family, 
Miss Madeleine Anthon, presented to the Convent a 
solid silver lamp to replace it. The design was executed 
by the celebrated house of Armand Calliat, of Lyons, 
and it is described as follows by the Rev. L,. St. G. 
Ivindsay, a former chaplain of the Convent. 

" Cette lampe, qui est entierement d'argent xer 
titre, avec dorure ors et couleurs, et emaux au feu, aussi 
bien que les chaines et le pavilion, pese 1398 grammes. 
En voici le poeme dans les details : Un large bandeau, 

271 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

cisele" en relief, supporte quinze roses emaillees, cinq 
blanches, cinq rouges et cinq jaunes, couleurs emble- 
matiques des mysteres du Rosaire. Trois volutes 
auxquelles les chaines sont attachees supportent cette 
lampe qui se termine par un pendentif cisele en relief et 
par une croix emaillee. Trois chapelets aux grains 
de lapis bleu du Tyrol sont suspendus au-dessus du 
bandeau de la lampe. Des lys au naturel timbrent le 
bandeau du pavilion et s'accrochent aux volutes." 

The lamp bears this inscription composed by the 
Abbe L,indsay : 

VETERI LVCERN.S: 
LVCENTI SEMPER ET ARDENTI 

QVAM VIRGO PRVDENS 
MAODALENA DE REPKNTIGNY 

SPONSALI DIE 

DVOBVS ABHINC S^CVLIS 

IN DEIPAR-E HONOREM L^ETA ACCENDIT 

MARIA MAGDALENA ANTHON 

EJVSDEM COGNATA 

IN SIGNVM FIDEI 1TERVM ACCENSJE 
AVREAM HASO LAMPADEM 

MIRA ARTE C^ELATAM 

JJOSISQVE LILIISQVE GEMMATAM 

A D. MCMIII 

SVBST1TVIT 

Marie-Madeleine de Repentigny entered the Ursu- 
line Convent as a pupil at the age of ten years. Her 
future career is very well described in ' ' Scenes from 
the history of the Ursulines of Quebec," published by 
a member of the community in the year 1897. The 
extract here given is from that work : 

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CATHOLIC CHURCHKS 

" After leaving the convent, she, like many others, 
had not formed to herself any fixed plan of life, and 
soon found herself surrounded with those temptations 
which often beset the pathway of a young girl on her 
entry into the world. Gay parties of pleasure, frivol- 
ous amusements, idle conversation, filled up the precious 
hours from day to day, leaving her little time for 
reflection, serious reading or prayer. The prestige of 
wit, rank and beauty on the one side, that of merit, 
politeness and noble demeanour on the other, soon 
resulted in the preliminaries of an alliance which 
appeared advantageous in the eyes of the world, and 
which met with the approval of Marie- Madeleine's 
parents, as well as those of the young officer, her 
intended, who was a relative of the family. On such 
occasions when all seems so bright for the future, who 
thinks of seriously consulting to know the will of God ? ' ' 

" Suddenly the young officer is called away on 
duty. Alas, for the fallacious promises of earthly hap- 
piness ! The first report brings tidings of his death. 
To the violent grief and mourning of the first months, 
succeeds an attempt to dissipate this irksome gloom of 
mind by plunging anew into the whirl of worldly 
pleasures. But the kind hand of Providence was still 
extended, waiting the moment to reclaim this prodigal 
child and lead her to an abode of peace and security. 
At one of the churches of the city, an eloquent and 
zealous Jesuit was giving the exercises of a retreat for 
young ladies. Marie- Madeleine went with the rest, 
but soon found that the sacred orator was preaching 
so it seemed to be for her alone. ' ' What will it avail 
a man to gain the whole world, and yet lose his own 
soul, or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul ? ' ' 

" After due consultation, she seeks admission 

into the novitiate of the Ursulines. The nuns remem- 
bering her many good qualities, without hesitation, 

18 273 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

accepted her. But no sooner had she reached Quebec, 
than she began to experience the torments of doubt 

and perplexity. Was she truly called ? On 

entering the novitiate the trial disappears, but it soon 
returns with such violence that the convent seems to 
be as irksome as it had at first appeared delightful. 
But Marie-Madeleine, now Sister Sainte Agathe, had 
learned the force of prayer. She takes refuge at the 
feet of Mary. She calls upon her as the Mother of 
Mercy, the Virgin most Potent, and is heard. The 
clouds have rolled back from her soul, that now basks 
in the effulgence of joy. 

" Confirmed, henceforth, in her vocation ; grateful 
for the protection of Heaven, she begs permission to 
found a perpetual memento of the grace, the invisible 
light she has received. Her own life, cheerful, cour- 
ageous, mortified, during the twenty years she had yet 
to spend in the monastery, was another light, rejoicing 
her companions more than the Votive Lamp which she 
daily trimmed with sentiments ever fresh of piety and 
gratitude. ' ' 

These are the facts regarding the Votive Lamp in 
the Ursuline Convent. In the " Golden Dog," Mr. 
Kirby has represented a Mademoiselle Amelie Repen- 
tigny as seeking admission to the convent at the time 
of the death of Nicolas Jacquin Philibert by the hand 
of her brother, and connects her name with a gallant 
Colonel, Pierre Philibert. We have shown, however, 
in a previous chapter, that this ' ' brave officer ' ' was 
of the ripe age of ten years and eight months at the 
death of his father. 

Marie-Madeleine de Repentiguy de St. Agathe 
was called to her rest on the 25th of February, 1739. 

274 



CATHOLIC CHURCHES 
ST. PATRICK'S CHURCH 

For many years after the Treaty of Paris, which 
gave to the Catholics of Canada " the free exercise of 
the Catholic religion, in so far as the laws of Great 
Britain can permit ' ' , the Irish Catholics, or those 
speaking the English language in the city of Quebec, 
had no special church set apart for them ; and conse- 
quently the Parish Church, now the Basilica, served 
for Catholics of whatever race. Efforts were put forth 
from time to time to establish an independent Church ; 
but the necessary means were not forthcoming. At a 
meeting of Irish citizens held in Quebec in the year 
1819, it was resolved to honour the Feast of the Patron 
Saint by the celebration of High Mass in the Church 
of the Congregation in the Upper Town. A sermon 
was preached on this occasion, and this is the first 
record that we have of the observance of the day in the 
city. Three years later, at an hour before the regular 
service in the Parish Church, the Irish and English 
speaking Catholics attended as a congregation, when 
the Reverend Father L,awlor officiated. Very soon after 
the Reverend Father McMahon, who for many years was 
closely identified with the development of Irish Catholic 
institutions in the city, was appointed to the charge 
of this congregation. The Parish Church appears to 
have been used regularly for some years, but in 1828, 
the services were held in the historic Church of Notre 
Dame des Victoires, in the Lower Town. The accom- 
modation offered by this Church was totally inadequate 

275 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

for the requirements of the Irish and English Catholic 
population, which now numbered over 6,000. Subs- 
criptions were therefore taken to form a fund for the 
construction of an independent Church. The sum of 
about $10,000 was collected for the purpose, to which 
many Protestants generously subscribed, and the land 
was purchased upon which the Church now stands. 
This ground was sold and conveyed by Archange 
Baby, wife of John Cannon, Architect, of Quebec, to 
the Reverend Patrick McMahon, J. Cannon, Wm. 
Burke, Wm. Stillings, J. Coote, Wm. O'Brien, Michael 
Quigley and J. Byrne, under a deed passed before W. 
F. Scott, N. P., on the third of November, 1831. 
The ground is thus described in the deed : ' ' All that 
" certain lot, tract or parcel of ground, situated, lying 
" and being in the Upper Town of the city of Quebec, 
" bounded in front, on the south west, by St. Stanislas 
" street, extending along the same fifty nine feet three 
" inches, French measure ; in the rear, to the north 
" east, by a lot of ground belonging to Peter Burnett, 
" extending along the same, fifty-nine feet, three 
" inches, on the north west, partly by a lot of ground 
' ' belonging to John Greaves, and partly by the said 
" lot of ground belonging to Peter Burnett, extending 
' ' along the last mentioned lots of ground one hundred 
" and nine feet six inches ; and in the south east side, 
' partly by a lot of ground belonging to one John 
" Phillips, and partly by the Circus ground extending 
" along the said last mentioned lots of ground one 
" hundred and ninety feet six inches." By another 

276 



CATHOLIC CHURCHES 

deed passed on the same day, a parcel of ground was 
sold and conveyed to the same persons by David 
Brunet. This land was bounded on the front, to the 
north west, by St. Helen Street, and on the south, by 
the property of Dr. Montgomery. 

Father McMahon organized a committee of citizens 
to undertake the building of a Church, and in the 
month of October, 1831, the foundations of a building 
146 feet by 65 feet were commenced. The corner stone 
was to have been laid on the nth of June, 1832, but 
between the date of the announcement and this day, 
-cholera made itself manifest in Quebec, and all public 
gatherings were prohibited by the authorities. The 
columns of the Mercury and of the Quebec Gazette, 
reveal the distressing condition of affairs in the city 
during this year. The corner stone was laid later in 
the season, without the usual ceremony. The building 
was sufficiently advanced in the summer of 1833 to 
admit of services being held, and on the yth of July, the 
first Mass was sung in the new Church, by the Reverend 
Father Baillargeon. The sermon was preached on 
this occasion by the Reverend Father McMahon, and 
the Church was dedicated to St. Patrick by the 
Reverend Jerome Demers, in the absence of the Bishop. 
Three years after the galleries were added, and the 
interior decoration was completed. 

In 1845 it was found that the Church was not 
sufficiently large for the increasing population, and 
more land was required for the purpose of the proposed 
enlargement and for other buildings in connection with 

2 77 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

the work of the Parish. The church was at this time 
lengthened by about 50 feet. A few years previous to 
this the Trustees had experienced some difficulty with 
the Corporation of the city regarding the proposed 
widening of certain streets, which, if carried out, 
would necessitate the expropriation of a certain portion 
of the Church property. The scheme was finally 
abandoned. The land required for the enlargement of 
the Church and for the other buildings, was sold and 
conveyed by Dame Henrietta Smith, widow of the late 
Honourable Jonathan Sewell, Chief Justice of Lower 
Canada, to the Reverend Patrick McMahon, Chaplain 
of the Catholics of Quebec speaking the English 
language, and to John Patrick O'Meara and Joseph 
Power Bradley. The deed was passed before Wilbrod 
Larue, N.P., and the ground is thus described : 

"A lot of ground of seventy feet in breadth by 
" ninety-seven feet or thereabouts, more or less, as it 
" may be found in depth the whole English measure, 
" situate in the Upper Town of the city of Quebec, in 
" the rear of the emplacement and house belonging to 
' ' the late Francois Nicholas Mailhiot or his represent- 
' ' atives, in St. John street : the said lot of ground 
" bounded towards the South by the rear line of the 
' ' emplacement of the said Francois Nicholas Mailhiot 
" or his representatives, towards the North by the 
" rear or depth line of an emplacement which Peter 
" Burnett, esquire, or his representatives possess on the 
" Rue des Pauvres, towards the East by the heirs 
" Eckhart or their representatives, and towards the 
' ' West by the remaining ground belonging to Mr. John 
" Phillips or his representatives, such as the ground 

278 



CATHOLIC CHURCHES 

now is lies and tends in all its parts, with a stone 
building thereon erected commonly called the Royal 
Circus or Theatre, together with a strip of ground 
on the Western side thereof of a triangular shape, 
five feet wide at the north west corner of the pro- 
perty above described, and from the outer extremity 
of the five feet running in a straight line, and ter- 
minating in a point within fifteen feet from the 
south-west corner." 

Until the year 1855, St. Patrick's was considered as 
a branch of the Parish Church, and not as an independ- 
ent parish : but in that year a petition was addressed 
to the Legislature for an Act to incorporate " The 
Congregation of the Catholics of Quebec speaking the 
English language ' ' . The petition set for that certain 
difficulties had arisen in connection with the adminis- 
tration of the Church property, and that incorporation 
was desirable. It was therefore enacted that : 

' ' The holders of pews in St. Patricks Church in 
the said city of Quebec, and those who shall hereafter 
be holders of Pews therein, together with such other 
persons as may under the by laws of the corporation 
hereby created, hereafter become members thereof, 
shall be and are hereby constituted a body corporate 
under the name of the Congregation of the Catholics 
of Quebec speaking the English language ' ' . 

The petitioners were, W. Downes, J. P. O'Meara, 
Michael Connolly, T. Murphy, H. Murray, W. Power, 
J. L,ane, E. G. Cannon, J. Sharpies, C. McDonald, E. 
Ryan, Owen McNally, R. McGillis, Chas. Alleyu, J. 
J. Nesbitt, W. Quinn, J. Maguire, J. Doran, J. Archer, 
C. Sharpies, H. O'Connor, Patrick McMahon, M. 

279 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

O'Leary, L. Stafford, M. Enrigtit, M. Kelly, S. Bennett, 
E. Quinn, P. Shea, Wm. Mackay, J. Murray, J. Ellis, 
M. Mernagh, E. J. Charlton and J. O'Leary. 

Authority was also given under the Act for the 
Congregation to hold land not exceeding twenty acres, 
for Burial grounds. 

Father McGauran continued as Rector until 1874, 
since which date the Church has been under the charge 
of the Redemptorist Fathers. On the 2gth of September, 
1874, the Reverend Fathers Burke, Gates, Wynn and 
O'Connor, accompanied by the Very Reverend Father 
Provincial Helmpraecht, arrived in Quebec, and were 
" lodged in a truly generous and princely manner 
in the Archbishop's Palace." Four days after, on 
Saturday, the 3rd of October, the Redemptorist Fathers 
took up their abode in St. Patrick's Presbytery. On 
the evening of the 2ist of October, 1874, the private 
Chapel and the Presbytery were blessed in the presence 
of several members of the Church Committee, including 
Messrs. Behan, Golfer and McDonald. The Superior, 
the Reverend Father Burke, C. SS. R., was the cele- 
brant, assisted by the Reverend Fathers Gates, Wynn 
and O'Connor ; and on the 25th of the same month, the 
first mission was given by the Redemptorist Fathers. 
Since the advent of this order in Quebec the Rectors 
have been. i. The Reverend Father Burke ; 2. The 
Reverend Father Henning ; 3. The Reverend Father 
Burke ; 4. The Reverend Father Hayden ; 5. The 
Reverend Father Gates; 6. The Reverend Father 
Rosbach ; 7. The Reverend Father Henning. The 

280 



CATHOLIC CHURCHES 

following members of the Order, are also attached to 
this- Parish : The Reverend Father McCarthy ; The 
Reverend Father Rein ; The Reverend Father Delargy ; 
The Reverend Father Hickey ; The Reverend Father 
Gannon and The Reverend Father Gunning. 

The interior decoration of the church has recently 
been restored in a very chaste manner, and in the dome 
of the Sanctuary there is an excellent painting by Mr. 
Charles Huot, representing the Coronation of the 
Blessed Virgin. There are also a few good examples 
of stained glass in the windows. The Church is capable 
of seating about i , 600 people. In the presbytery are 
paintings of Father McMahon and Father Nelligan. 
Father McMahon died on the 3rd of October, 1851, 
and on the first anniversary of his death a marble tablet 
was uncovered on a pillar facing the pulpit. It bears 
this inscription : 

D. o, M. 
Hie JACET 

REV. PATRITIUS MCMAHON 
HUJUS ECCLESL^E CONDITOK 

ET XXV FERME ANNIS 

CATHOLICOKUM HIBERNICORUM 
QUEBECI DEGENTITTM 

DILECTISSIMUS PASTOR. 

SlNGULARI ORATIONIS PRjEDlTUS 

RELIGIONIS HONORI SEMPER STUDENS 

COMMISSI GREG IS SALUTI 
ETIAM ADVKRSA VALETUD1NE 

CONSTANS INCUBUIT 
OBIT DIE TERTIA OCTOBBIS A.D. MDCCCLI 

LV ANNOS NATUS 
REQUIESCAT IN PACE. 

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QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

" Reverend Patrick McMahon, born at Abbeylix, 
Ireland, on the 24th of August, 1796 : he completed 
his classical course of studies in the Carlow College. 

" In 1818 he arrived in Canada and was appointed 
one of the professors of the college at St. Hyacinthe, 
where he prosecuted his theological studies until his 
ordination as a priest by Mgr. Plessis, on the 6th of 
October, 1822, when he was attached as vicar to the 
cure of the parish of Notre Dame de Quebec. 

" In 1825, he became missionary at St. John, New 
Brunswick. 

" In 1828, he was recalled to resume the exercise 
of his ministry amongst the Irish people of the city of 
Quebec. 

" In 1832, he presided over the construction of 
St. Patrick's Church, which was the principal work of 
his life. 

" He died at St. Patrick's parsonage on the 3rd 
of October, 1851, aged 56 years. 

" He was laid to rest in St. Patrick's Church 
where a tablet has been placed to commemorate his 
good work." 

(Note by LOCIEN LEMIEUX.) 

CHURCH OP NOTRE DAME DBS VICTOIRES. 

Amongst the churches in Quebec there is one of 
very modest appearance, situate in a somewhat retired 
spot, but the history of which recalls a multitude of 
glorious recollections for French Canadian arms. This 
is the Church of Notre Dame des Victories, founded 
two hundred and fifteen years ago. 

On the first day of May, 1688, the corner stone 
was laid. The Governor was present at the ceremony 

282 



CATHOLIC CHURCHES 

at which Mgr. de Laval officiated. When Mgr. de St. 
Vallier arrived in Quebec on the first of August little 
progress had been made, and it was finished only in 
the following year. The Bishop had dedicated it to 
the Infant Jesus, and the small chapel seen on the left 
of the entrance was named the chapel of St. Genevieve. 

When Phips besieged Quebec in 1690, the ladies 
of Quebec promised by a solemn vow to make a 
pilgrimage to the church in the Lower Town, if the 
Blessed Virgin obtained their deliverance. When the 
invader was compelled to withdraw without obtaining 
his object, the Bishop decided to change the name of 
the Church, and dedicated it to Notre Dame de la 
Victoire ; and ordained that a feast should be observed 
and a procession held in honour of the Virgin on the 
fourth Sunday of October in each year. 

Twenty-one years later the title was changed after 
a fresh intervention of Providence, when the town was 
saved from another siege. In 1711 the English fleet 
commanded by Admiral Walker sailed to attack 
Quebec. A heavy fog covered the waters of the St. 
Lawrence, defying the skill of the pilot, and eight 
vessels were wrecked off Egg Island. The news of this 
disaster reached Quebec only at the beginning of 
October. It was received with great joy. The entire 
population proceeded to the Lower Town Church to pay 
their devotion to Our Lady of Victory for the delivery 
of the colony from ruin on a second occasion. The 
citizens raised a subscription to build a portal to the 
church and the religious authorities decided that 
283 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

' ' Notre Dame de la Victoire ' ' should give place to 
that of ' ' Notre Dame des Victoires ' ' to recall to 
future generations the favors of the Mother of God 
towards the French-Canadians. 

The first pilgrimage to the church of Notre Dame 
des Victoires dates, therefore, from the year 1711. 
History is silent as to whether these pilgrimages were 
continued every year. Nevertheless, in 1855, Mgr. 
Baillargeon, administrator of the diocese of Quebec, 
formally established a pilgrimage to the church. 

But a fresh misfortune was to fall on the colony. 
During the siege of 1759, the little church in the L,ower 
Town shared the fate of a great many public and private 
buildings. On the 8th of August the whole of the Lower 
Town was in flames. Wolfe's shells spared nothing, 
and the church of Notre Dame des Victoires was com- 
pletely destroyed. The walls of the venerable edifice 
alone remained ; and an appeal to public generosity was 
made to restore the church. Work was begun, and in 
1765, divine service was celebrated in the new church 
as before. The annual festival in the month of October 
was regularly observed, as well as the festival of St. 
Genevieve. 

In 1817, the citizens resolved to finish the interior. 
Mass was discontinued from the i3th of June, but 
service was resumed with the greatest punctuality after 
the repairs were completed. From time immemorial the 
devotion to St. Genevieve has attracted the faithful to 
the feet of that dear saint. Her feast is celebrated on 
the first Sunday following the 3rd of January. After 

284 



CATHOLIC CHURCHES 

the Gloria has been chanted, the chaplain blesses small 
loaves of unleavened bread, destined for those who dread 
the pains of child birth. This custom is very ancient 
and has not fallen into disuse. 

On the 23rd of May, 1888, the bi-centenary of the 
foundation of the church of Notre Dame des Victoires, 
His Eminence Cardinal Taschereau officiated at the 
ceremony in the presence of a large number of the 
clergy, and many distinguished citizens. A few months 
previously painters had decorated the interior with the 
most delicate taste. In the frieze of the wall on the 
Gospel side are the arms of His Eminence Cardinal 
Taschereau and of Jacques Cartier ; on the epistle side 
are the arms of Mgr. de Laval and of Champlain. On 
the panels are representations of the trophies taken 
from the English in the battle of Beauport in 1690, 
and of the wreckage of Walker's fleet. In the choir 
above the altar are the words Kebeka Liberata. 

The city of Quebec, symbolized by a woman 
wearing a crown, is sitting on a rock at the foot of 
which the Indian spirit of the St. Lawrence empties 
his urn. A beaver is seen near the figure. At her 
feet are shields, cuirasses and standards bearing the 
arms of England. The subject is taken from a com- 
memorative medal struck in the time of Louis XIV to 
perpetuate the memory of the French victories. At 
the back of the church, on the wall, letters in varied 
colours set forth the most striking facts that have 
illustrated the history of the church during the different 
stages of its existence. 

285 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

The reliquary on the Gospel side contains the 
bones of St. Lawrence, St. Bonifatius and of St. Victor, 
while the reliquary on the epistle side contains the bones 
of St. Aurelia, of St. Vincentius, St. Ireneus and of 
St. Probus. In the small towers on the main altar are 
relics of St. Charles Borromee and of St. Theophilus. 

In this church are preserved two other relics for 
the veneration of the faithful : one of Ste. Genevieve 
and one of the true Cross. The latter is publicly 
venerated on good Friday and on All Souls' Day. 

FRANCISCAN CONVENT 

The Order of the Soeurs Franciscaines Mission- 
naries de Marie was founded in 1878. The Quebec 
convent is situated at the corner of Claire Fontaine 
street, close to the site of Abraham Martin's property 
after whom the Plains were named. 

The French army was drawn upon this ground on 
the 1 3th of September, 1759, and it is therefore one of 
the most historic spots in the city. 

The inception of this institution is due to the 
noble idea of the rehabilitation of infidel woman by 
the means of the Christian woman. United to the 
Order of St. Francis, from which it derives its spiritual 
direction, the ordinary field of its labours is to be 
found in foreign missions. 

The mother house is in Rome, and there is the 
Superior Council which directs the eighty establish- 
ments belonging to this congregation, scattered in. 
almost every part of the world. 

286 



CATHOLIC CHURCHES 

The number of its nuns now reaches over four 
thousand. 

The foundation of the Quebec Convent dates from 
1893, and the Church and adjoining buildings were 
erected in 1897-98. 

The interior of the church is exceedingly attractive. 
A new altar of Carrara marble and Mexican onyx has 
been completed lately. 

The Quebec house is chiefly a novitiate where 
missionary nuns are trained for distant countries. 
In all the churches and chapels of the Franciscans, 
whenever it is possible, the Blessed Sacrament is 
exposed throughout the day. In Quebec, to comply 
with the wishes of the diocesan authority, the nuns 
adore the Blessed Sacrament day and night. The 
church, which is specially adapted for this, has become 
a centre of attraction for the catholics of the city and 
a place of pilgrimage for the faithful of the diocese, 
and of the whole province. The Quebec house has 
within a short time assumed considerable proportions, 
and a great future seems to be in store for it. 

Recently there was and exhibition in the Convent 
of beautiful specimens of work executed by the nuns 
in different parts of the world. 

The Rev. Abbe Paquet is the chaplain of the 
Convent. 

THE MONASTERY AND CHURCH OF THE RECOLLETS 

When Mgr. de Saint-Vallier founded the General 
Hospital in 1693 on the banks of the river St. Charles, 

287 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

the Recollets transferred their establishment to the nuns 
of the General Hospital, who installed themselves there 
while the friars lodged in the Convent of the Castle 
which they had built in 1681. On the i4th of July, 
1693, they began to build their church, which Charle- 
voix says was worthy of Versailles. This church 
covered a space, the eastern and western boundaries of 
which would be about the centre of the upper portion of 
the Place d'Armes, and the south eastern extremity of 
the ground occupied by the Court House. The windows 
were filled with stained glass, and in the church were 
pictures painted by Brother L,uke. The lines of the 
steeple were of remarkable purity. Both the monastery 
and the church were destroyed by fire on the 6th of 
September, 1796. The remains of four French Gover- 
nors and of a great many of the most noted personages 
of the colony reposed in the church. At the cession 
the English government took possession of the monas- 
tery and church and used the latter for the services of 
the Anglican church. After the death of Father Felix 
de Berey, the last representative of the Order, on the 
1 8th May, 1800, the estates of the Recollets were 
escheated and the government took possession of the 
convent grounds to erect thereon the court house and 
offices for the district of Quebec. This building was 
finished in 1804. 

JACQUES CARTIER CHURCH 

The building of this church was begun in the 
month of August, 1851. The new edifice was inaugur- 

288 



CATHOLIC CHURCHES 

ated as a chapel for members of the congregation of St. 
Roch on the nth of September, 1853. Its dimensions 
were 1 1 6 feet by 60 feet. In 1865 the chapel was opened 
to the public and parochial services were celebrated 
therein on Sunday, for the benefit of those who could 
not find accommodation in the church of St. Roch. In 
1875 the original chapel was enlarged to its present size. 
In the month of August, 1901, the Congregation 
gave its chapel to the Archbishop of Quebec, who 
named it as the parochial church of Notre Dame de 
Jacques Cartier. The decree erecting this new parish 
is dated the 25th of September, 1901. The new cur6 
took possession on the first Sunday of the same month. 
The parish is under the patronage of the Immaculate 
Conception and bears the name of Notre Dame de 
Jacques Cartier. 

THE CHURCH OF NOTRE DAME DU CHEMIN 

This church is situated on Ste. Foy road, about 
fifty yards from the turnpike, beside the Villa Manrese, 
occupied by the Jesuit Fathers in charge of the church. 
Its erection is due to the liberality of Chevalier Louis 
de Gonzague Baillarge and to the religious zeal of 
many citizens of Quebec. The Interior is very pretty : 
it contains several remarkable paintings and ten stained 
glass windows, representing ten saints of the Society 
of Jesus. 

This church was inaugurated in the spring of 1895 
amidst a great concourse of citizens and members of 
the clergy. 

19 289 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 
ST. SAUVEUR CHURCH 

The foundation of this church dates back to over 
50 years ago, but it was not erected into a Parish until 
the first of May, 1867, when its present name was given 
to it in memory of the first secular priest who arrived 
in Quebec in 1634, and became incumbent of St. Jean's 
Chapel on Saint Sauveur Hill. 

The first church was 170 feet long and 60 feet in 
width, and was destroyed by fire in October 1866. 
The construction of the present church was commenced 
early in the following year. Its interior decoration 
was entrusted to Mr. Charles Huot, artist of Quebec. 
The steeple which is one hundred feet in height, con- 
tains a fine peal of bells. A presbytery is attached to 
the church in which the Oblat fathers reside who have 
charge of the church. 

CHURCH OP NOTRE DAME DB GOURDES 

This church, or chapel, was constructed by the 
Oblat fathers in 1870. It was consecrated on the 8th 
of December, 1880. 

In 1882 His Eminence, Cardinal Taschereau, re- 
cognized Notre Dame de Lourdes as the chapel of the 
third order of the Franciscains. 



290 



CHAPTER XIV 
1804-1903 
THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN QUEBEC 

(By F. C. 



CATHEDRAL OF THE HOLY TRINITY THE CHAPELRIES 
ST. MATHEW'S TRINITY CHURCH ST. PETER'S 
CHURCH ST. PAUL'S CHURCH ST. MICHEL,' S 
CHURCH THE CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS THE 
FEMALE ORPHAN ASYLUM THE MALE ORPHAN 
ASYLUM THE FINLAY ASYLUM THE PROTESTANT 
BURIAL GROUND LADIES' PROTESTANT HOME 

IN order to make a sketch of the Cathedral of the Holy 
Trinity at Quebec complete, a few words must be 
said about those Franciscan Friars called " Recollets," 
who were the former proprietors of the land 011 which 
the sacred edifice was built. 

At the invitation of Samuel Champlain, Governor 
of Canada, the Recollets arrived at Tadoussac, from 
France on the 25th of May, 1615, reaching Quebec a 
few days later. L,and was granted them on the banks 

291 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

of the river St. Charles, where they built a convent 
called "Notre Dame des Anges," sufficiently strong 
to resist the attacks of the Iroquois Indians. On the 
1 9th June, 1629, Quebec was captured by the brothers 
Kirke, and both Jesuits and Recollets were shipped 
back to France. At the restoration of Canada to 
France in 1632, the Jesuits returned, but the Recollets 
were not accorded that permission until 1670, when 
they arrived at Quebec on the i8th of August with 
M. Talon, the Intendant. They found their property 
in a most dilapidated condition, and at once set about 
rebuilding what is now the General Hospital. As 
Bishop St. Valier wished to institute this hospital, he 
purchased in 1692, the Recollet property on certain 
conditions, giving them in exchange a tract of land in 
the Upper Town of Quebec facing the Parade, at present 
called the Place D'Armes, comprising the whole square 
on which the Court House, Cathedral and other build- 
ings now stand. There they erected their church 
and convent which, on the capitulation of Canada, 
September, 8, 1760, became a possession of the British 
Crown, but the few Friars that remained were permitted 
the use of their properties until the death of Pere 
DeBerey, the last superior of the order in Canada. 

The Friars generously allowed the Church of 
England to use their church, as is shown by the follow- 
ing notice in the Quebec Gazette of May 21, 1767 : 
" On Sunday next, Divine service, according to the 
use of the Church of England, will be at the Recollets' 
church and continue for the summer season, beginning 

292 



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN QUEBEC 

soon after eleven. The drum will beat each Sunday 
soon after half an hour past ten, and the Recollets' 
bell will ring to give notice of the English service the 
instant their own is ended." The Bishop of Nova 
Scotia, Dr. Charles Inglis, held his primary visitation 
at Quebec on August 5, 1789, in the Recollets' church, 
and on his leaving for Halifax the clergy of the Church 
of England in Canada, presented him an address. The 
convent and church were burnt on September 6, 1796, 
and the ruins were razed by order of the government ; 
the chancel of the Cathedral stands on a portion of 
these ruins which extended under the roadway near 
the Court House. The Jesuit church was then used 
for divine service. 

The first Lord Bishop of the Diocese of Quebec, 
Dr. Jacob Mountain, arrived from England November 
ist, 1793, with his family, and accompanied by his 
brother, Rev. Jehoshaphat, and his son, Rev. Salter 
Jehoshaphat Mountain, who became at the death of 
the Rev. Philip Toosey in 1797, Rector of Quebec. 
At the solicitation of the Bishop, His Majesty George 
III, decided to build the Cathedral, and set apart a 
portion of the Recollet property for that purpose. On 
November nth, 1799, he appointed a commission to 
carry out the undertaking, composed of the Lord 
Bishop, William Osgoode, Chief-Justice of Lower 
Canada, Sir George Pownall, Rev. Salter Jehoshaphat 
Mountain, and Jonathan Sewell the Attorney-General, 
with Matthew Bell Esq. , as treasurer. 

The corner-stone was laid by His Excellency, the 

293 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FI^AGS 

Lieut. Governor, on November 3, 1800. At the con- 
secration, August 28, 1804, the Bishop was presented 
with the Letters Patent of the whole property as it 
now stands, surrounded by a low stone wall, which is 
surmounted by an iron railing and closed with iron 
gates. The organ was imported from England in 1801, 
and its cost defrayed by a public subscription. 

The Governor- General, his Grace the Duke of 
Richmond, died on the 28th August, 1819, and lies 
buried under the chancel of the Cathedral ; a brass 
plate in the floor marks the spot where his Excellency 
is interred, and a marble tablet erected in the north 
gallery to his memory is the finest piece of workman- 
ship of all the monuments on the walls of the church. 

Letters Patent were issued by His Majesty George 
IV, on the 8th of September, 1821, erecting the 
Parish of Quebec, constituting the Cathedral the Parish 
Church till a Parish church would be built, but likewise 
maintaining intact its cathedral rights, and appointing 
the Bishop's son, Rev. George Jehoshaphat Mountain, 
D. D., Rector, and granting a piece of ground adjacent 
to the Cathedral ' ' Close " , on which are built the rec- 
tory " All Saints " chapel, and the " Church Hall." 
Bishop Mountain died June i8th, 1825, aged 76 years, 
and lies buried within the chancel at the north side of 
the altar, were a mural monument is erected to his 
memory. The Honorable The Rev. Charles -James 
Stewart, brother of the Earl of Galloway, and one of 
the clergy of the diocese, was consecrated Bishop of 

294 



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN QUEBEC 

Quebec, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, at Lambeth, 
on January ist, 1826. 

The Cathedral up to this time had no bells, but a 
subscription was raised and a chime of eight bells 
ordered ; the tenor weighs 1852 pounds and their total 
weight is 8,023 pounds. The chime arrived in the 
summer of 1830 and rang the first peal on the 2oth 
of October, when Lord Aylmer was sworn in as 
Administrator of the Goverment of Lower Canada. 

On the i4th of February, 1836, the venerable 
Archdeacon George Jehoshaphat Mountain was conse- 
crated, at Lambeth, Bishop of Montreal without any 
see or jurisdiction, but simply to assist Bishop Stewart, 
who appointed him Coadjutor. Bishop Stewart died 
in London in July 1837, an( l a fi ne marble tablet was 
erected to his memory by the congregation and placed 
on the south wall of the chancel inside the communion 
rails. Bishop Mountain took charge of the diocese, 
retaining the Rectorship of the parish, and appointed 
the Rev. George Mackie his " Official" and Curate 
of the Cathedral. In October 1846, a new organ was 
imported from England and the old one sold to the 
Roman Catholic church at Lotbiniere, where it is still 
in use. 

The Diocese was on July i8th, 1850, divided into 
that of Montreal and Quebec, and Rev. Dr. Fulford 
was consecrated at Westminster Abbey, Lord Bishop 
of Montreal, when new Letters Patent were issued, 
appointing Bishop Mountain to the see of Quebec. In 
1858 the Rev. Dr. Mackie retired and was succeeded by 

295 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Rev. George Vernon Houseman. Bishop Mountain 
died on January 6, 1863, and the churchmen of the 
diocese placed to his memory the beautiful memorial 
window in the chancel of the Cathedral. It is in 
three parts, the centre representing the Ascension, 
and the two side portions the Baptism and Transfigur- 
ation of our L,ord, at the base is inscribed : " To the 
glory of God and in grateful remembrance of George 
Jehoshaphat Mountain, D.D., some time Bishop of 
this diocese, whom the Grace of Christ enabled to fulfil 
the duties of a long ministry to the advancement of his 
Church and the lasting benefit of many souls. O.B. 
MDCCCLXIII. ^ET. LXXIII." The Rev. G. V. 
Houseman was then appointed Rector of Quebec. A 
special meeting of the Diocesan Synod was called for 
the 4th of March, 1863, at which the Rev. James 
William Williams, M.A., Professor of Belles-Lettres 
in the University of Bishops' College, Lennoxville, 
was elected Bishop. Her Majesty Queen Victoria's 
mandate arrived on the i6th of June, and he was con- 
secrated by the Metropolitan, Bishop of Quebec, on 
the 2ist of that month in the Cathedral. 

When Her Majesty's Sixty-ninth regiment returned 
from repelling the Fenian Invasion on the Huntingdon 
county frontier, His Royal Highness Prince Arthur 
presented a new stand of colors to the regiment on June 
21 , 1870, and the old colors were the next day deposited 
in the Cathedral with the usual ceremonies. A new 
organ costing $5,000 was presented to the church in 
1 88 1 by the late Hon. R. R. Dobell and T. Beckett, Esq. 

296 



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN QUEBEC 

The Rev. G. V. Houseman, M. A., died Septem- 
ber 26, 1887, and the Rev. R. W. Norman, D. D., 
Canon of Montreal, was appointed Rector of Quebec, 
and inducted in the Cathedral on March 18, 1888. In 
June, 1888, the Synod created the capitular body of 
the Cathedral. 

Bishop Williams died April 20, 1892. The Rev. 
Andrew Hunter Dunn, M. A., Vicar of All Saints, 
South Acton, in London, England, was chosen to 
succeed him. He was consecrated at Montreal Bishop 
of Quebec, and on September 23th, 1892, was installed 
with the usual impressive ceremony. 

The authorised clergymen of the Parish of Quebec, 
were the : Rev. J. Brooke in 1760. Rev. David 
Francis DeMontmollin in 1768. Rev. Philip Toosey 
in 1785, who was appointed Rector by Bishop Inglis 
in 1789. Rev. Salter Jehoshaphat Mountain constituted 
Rector by Letters Patent of 8th September, 1797, who 
was succeeded in 1816 by Rev. George Jehoshaphat 
Mountain, by Letters Patent of 8th September, 1821, 
and retained the Rectorship after being consecrated 
Bishop of Quebec. Rev, George Vernon Houseman 
in 1863. Very Rev. R. W. Norman, D.D. Dean of 
the Diocese in 1887, and the present Rector Very Rev. 
Dean Lennox W. Williams, D.D. in 1899. 

The exterior of the Cathedral is much the same 
as it always was, a substantial, plain, rectangular stone 
edifice, standing in the centre of a well kept " Close," 
surrounded by those fine old trees which add beauty 
to the environment and remind Englishmen of the 

297 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

sacred buildings in Britain. The interior was some- 
what altered in 1857, when the building was repaired, 
and the old-fashioned, uncomfortably high pews were 
lowered ; these face the chancel in six rows, divided by 
a broad centre aisle, and are made of oak, as are also 
the front of the galleries and floors. The high arched 
ceiling, so beautifully tesselated, is made not as many 
suppose of plaster, but entirely of wood, and is sup- 
ported by eight massive pillars of the lonic-Palladic 
order of architecture, made of pitch pine with an outer 
white pine casing. 

The ceiling is painted a light cream, and the walls 
light yellow sandstone color, while the pillars and 
pilasters are dark brick red with their bases olive green. 
The divisional lines of the ceiling and edgings of the 
arches are of gold colored cable pattern, and are gilt 
in the chancel. 

On the chancel wall to the south of the altar are 
the Ten Commandments written on two large tablets 
with broad gilt cable borders reaching to the base of 
the cornice, on a level with the top of the window 
frame. On the north side are two similar tablets, one 
containing the Apostles' Creed and the other the Lord's 
Prayer. 

Outside the railing, on the south side, is the 
Bishop's throne of oak emblazoned above with the 
arms of the diocese, and opposite to it stands the pulpit. 
On each side of the chancel are the stalls for the Dean 
and Chapter and other clergy, also the choir seats. 
The vestry is in the south east end of the building, 

298 



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN QUEBEC 

and the organ in the western gallery over the main 
entrance. The brass eagle lectern, a memento to the 
late Bishop Williams, is in the centre of the chancel, 
and facing it at the main door stands the font, a 
memento to the late R. H. Smith, Esq., sometime a 
prominent member of the congregation and Vestry. 

There are twenty-seven marble monuments and 
eight brass plates on the walls of the church, with 
fourteen fine memorial windows, all of which add to 
the historic interest of the edifice. 

The Governor- General's pew surmounted by a 
brass railing with the Royal arms at the front, is in 
the north gallery. 

The communion plate was the special gift of King 
George III in 1804, and consists of ten massive pieces 
of solid silver exquisitely engraved and embossed with 
the Royal arms and those of the Diocese. 

The large alms dish is a particularly beautiful 
work of art, the bottom being a representation, in 
relief, of the Lord's Supper. The remaining pieces 
consist of a large credence paten, two tall flagons and 
two heavy chalices of frosted silver, two massive candle- 
sticks all with the Royal Arms and those of the Diocese 
on them, and two plain patens engraved with the 
donor's inscription in latin. This service, which is a 
masterpiece of silversmith's workmanship, was made 
in lyondon and attracted considerable attention before 
being despatched to Quebec, where it arrived in a man- 
of-war in 1809. 

299 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

On the 2ytli June, 1766, General James Murray, 
the Governor of Canada, gave, in the King's name, 
a communion service, consisting of a large silver paten 
and chalice engraved with the King's Arms, to the 
Episcopal Parish, of Quebec, whenever it would be 
established, and it is still in use in the Cathedral. 

A prominent event in the annals of the diocese 
was the celebration of its centenary on the ist June, 
1893, in the Cathedral. This was participated in by 
the Metropolitan, the Bishop of Ontario, the Bishops 
of New York, Nova Scotia, Niagara and Quebec and a 
large number of the clergy. An eloquent sermon by 
the Rt. Rev. Dr. Potter, Bishop of New York, and 
impressive music by an augmented choir (the surpliced 
choir then reestablished after forty years disuetude,) 
were noteworthy features of the service. 

Many historic services have been celebrated in this 
Cathedral, prominent among which were the church 
parades of the 2nd battalion of the Royal Canadian 
Infantry on Sunday, 2gih October, 1899, and that of 
the Mounted Rifles and Field Artillery on i4th Jan- 
uary, 1900, before they severally embarked for the war 
in South Africa, where they manfully upheld the 
honor of the British Empire and good name of Canada. 

On the 2nd February, 1901, an official memorial 
service was held in the Cathedral at the hour of the 
burial of Her late Majesty Queen Victoria, at which 
were present the Mayor and Aldermen, the Judges and 
Bar of Quebec, members of the Provincial Govern- 

300 



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN QUEBEC 

ment, the Military, and representatives of His Honor 
the Lieutenant- Governor. 

On the 2oth June, 1902, the day on which His 
Majesty King Edward VII was to have been crowned, 
an intercessory service for his recovery from serious 
illness, was held in the church, and on the 9th August 
his coronation was celebrated by an official service in 
the Cathedral attended by the whole Garrison of 
Quebec, His Excellency Lord Minto, the Governor- 
General, and His Honor Sir Louis Jett, the Lieutenant - 
Governor of the Province, with their staffs, all in full 
uniform. The only church decorations were the Royal 
standard and other British flags draped round the altar. 
The Rt. Rev. Bishop Dumoulin, of Niagara, officiated 
at the communion service, and in place of a sermon, 
read from the chancel the King's Proclamation. 

The centenary of the Cathedral will doubtless be 
celebrated with all due ceremony on the 28th August, 
1904. 

THE CHAPELRIES 

The church of England had rapidly increased in 
Quebec and its members were scattered all over the 
city, moreover the Cathedral began to be inconveniently 
crowded, so much so that it was found desirable to 
establish chapels in different parts of the Parish accord- 
ing as locations could be obtained ; these chapels were 
appendages of the Cathedral and under the control of 
its Rector and Church-wardens, except that of the 
Holy Trinity which was an independent one. 

301 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

The chapels of St. Matthew, St. Peter and St. 
Michael in 1875, and that of St. Paul 1888, were by 
Canon of the Synod of the Diocese of Quebec constituted 
Churches, their districts Parishes and their incumbents 
Rectors. But Trinity being a proprietary church came 
under a separate Canon. 

ST. MATTHEW'S 

St. Matthew's Church in its present form is of 
recent date, but its existence dates back to 1822 when 
the Archdeacon, Dr. George Jehoshaphat Mountain, 
instituted Sunday evening services in a large room in 
the house of Mr. Rickaby, the Sexton of the Protestant 
Burying Ground, St. John Street ; the congregation 
grew so rapidly that the sexton's domain was invaded 
and other quarters were obtained for him. 

In 1827 the building was given an ecclesiastical 
appearance by arching the windows, erecting a belfry 
with a small bell therein and fitting out the whole 
interior for divine service, and in 1830 it was further 
enlarged by the addition of a transept. 

On the 28th June, 1845, St. John's suburbs was 
destroyed by fire and the Chapel fell a prey to the 
flames ; but funds were raised and on the 25th July, 
1848, the corner stone was laid by Bishop Mountain, 
of a neat stone building, which was opened for service 
on 29th April, 1849. Hitherto St. Matthew's was a 
chapel of the Cathedral and was served by the clergy 
of the Parish of Quebec under the particular care of 
its curate the Rev. Armine W. Mountain, but in 1855, 

302 



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN QUEBEC 

after he became the incumbent of St. Michael's, it 
became a separate chapel with the present district 
attached ; and on the ist February it was placed in the 
sole charge of the Rev. Henry Roe, now Archdeacon 
of the Diocese, who in January, 1868, was succeeded 
by the Rev. Charles Hamilton, M.A., who had been 
his assistant since 1865, under whose pastoral care it 
continued for seventeen years when he was on the ist 
May, 1885, consecrated Bishop of Niagara, and subse- 
quently translated Bishop of Ottawa. The next Redlor 
was the Rev. F. J. B. Alnatt, D.D., and in 1887 
he was succeeded by the Rev. Lennox W. Williams, 
M.A., who resigned the charge on being installed at 
the Cathedral, on 26th May, 1899, Dean and Redlor of 
Quebec, when the present Redlor the Rev. F. G. Scott 
was appointed. 

A special plan for enlarging and embellishing the 
church had been drawn out, the work to be carried on 
as the funds permitted. The building as it now stands 
was commenced in 1870, by the erection of the chancel 
and transepts, the corner stone of which was laid on 
the 2nd June, in which were placed the mementos of 
that of 1848, including a piece of the original bell found 
among tne debris after the fire. 

In 1875 the old portion of the church was pulled 
down, and the nave, south aisle and vestries eredled ; 
the spire which completed the specification was finished 
in 1882 and received its chime of eight bells in 1888, 
but the old bell of 1849 still does duty on the roof at 
the western gable. 

303 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

In 1875, by a canon of the Diocesan Synod, St. 
Matthew's Chapel was constituted a Church and its 
district a Parish. 

A debt of $3,000 had to be incurred by the build- 
ing, of what may be called, the new church, which 
was paid off in 1892, and the edifice was consecrated 
by the Bishop of Quebec on the ist March of that year. 
A new and enlarged chancel was creeled in 1901 by 
the Hamilton family and the new organ chamber by 
the congregation, as a memorial of the late Robert 
Hamilton, D.C.L,., and were consecrated by the Bishop 
of Quebec on Sunday i3th October of that year, when 
the Rev. Harold F. Hamilton, M.A., son of the Bishop 
of Ottawa was ordained priest ; which double ceremony 
was rendered most interesting, because the occasion 
offered to gather together all the rectors of St. Matthew's 
from the beginning, who each took some part in the 
services. 

The church is now one of the handsomest buildings 
exteriorally and interiorally in the country : it contains 
many beautiful memorials of deceased members of the 
congregation, such as the marble pulpit, a splendid 
work of sculpture, erected by the late Robert Hamilton 
in memory of his son the Rev. George Hamilton, M. A. ; 
the marble altar was erected to the memory of Judge 
Irvine, and the reredos is a gift in memory of William 
Evans Price of Wolfesfield, and among the many 
exquisite stained glass windows .is one erected by the 
congregation in 1866 in the old church, to its founder 
Bishop George Jehoshaphat Mountain. 

304 



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN QUEBEC 

The font and baptistry were erected near the 
western entrance, by the congregation, in memory of 
the Right Reverend James William Williams, fourth 
Bishop of Quebec, and were consecrated on the 2ist 
February, 1895. 

Among the mural tablets are two fine brasses to 
the memory of brave Canadian soldiers, members of St. 
Matthew's, who gave their lives in defence of the 
Empire on the battle-fields of South Africa, Private 
Hector MacQueen, who was killed at Paardeberg on 
the i8th February, 1900, and Major J. H. C. Ogilvy, 
D. S. O., who died on the igih December, 1901, from, 
wounds received the previous day at Klipgat. 

In 1872 the Parish building was eredled at the 
corner of St. Augustin and D' Aiguillon streets, within 
a stone's throw of the Church, and is used by the 
several parish organizations and the Sunday School. 
The Burial ground, part of which forms the site of the 
church, is the property of Trustees, but by agreement 
is cared for by St. Matthew's Parish. The building 
thereon erected, the first St. Matthew's Chapel, was 
secured to the Church of England, and in 1868, the 
Provincial Government granted to the authorities of 
St. Matthew's the right of appropriating so much of 
the ground as might be needed for enlarging the 
edifice. 

TRINITY CHURCH 

Trinity Church in St. Stanislas street in the Upper 
Town, was built as a " Chapel of Ease," to the Cathe- 

20 305 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

dral by Chief Justice Jonathon Sewell, at a cost of 
$16,000, and the corner stone was privately laid in the 
north east angle on the i6th September, 1824. The 
edifice is built of cut stone and is of Doric architecture, 
and with the galleries will seat 600 persons. On the 
walls of the church are five marble monuments, one of 
which is an especially fine work of art to the memory 
of its founder Chief Justice Sewell, and a beautiful 
stained glass window has recently been erected in the 
east end of the chancel to his son the Rev. E. W. 
Sewell. The large marble font was originally imported 
from England in 1831 for the Cathedral where it was 
in use until 1902, when it was presented to Trinity 
Church by the Vestry on the erection of one to the 
memory of the late R. H. Smith, Esq. 

At the death of the Chief Justice in 1839, Trinity 
became the property of his son the Rev. E. W. Sewell, 
who had been admitted to the diaconate on nth May, 
1824, by Bishop Jacob Mountain, and on the chapel 
being opened for service on the 2yth November, 1825, 
became its pastor who, on 2yth December, 1827, was 
ordained priest by Bishop Stewart. For forty-three 
years he had faithfully ministered to his congregation, 
until advancing years compelled a rest from active 
service, and to his death on 24th October, 1890, at the 
advanced age of 91 years, always took a lively interest 
in the affairs of the Church. 

The Rev. Mr. Sewell generally had an assistant 
styled the " Evening Lecturer, " and from 1846 to 1855 
the position was held by a German clergyman of the 

306 



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN QUEBEC 

Church Missionary Society the Rev. C. L,. F. Haensel, 
who came to Quebec in 1840, having served several 
years at Sierra L,eone on the West coast of Africa, 
where he opened the Christian institution at Fourah 
Bay. In 1822 H. M. S. Myrmidon rescued from a 
Portuguese slaver among others, a negro boy called 
Adjai, who was placed by Capt. Sir Henry I^eeke in 
charge of the Missionary at Sierra Leone, later he was 
baptised Samuel Adjai Crowther, and when Mr. 
Haensel opened the Christian Institution in 1827 he 
became its first student, eventually becoming the Rev. 
S. A. Crowther, D.D., and in 1864 was consecrated 
Bishop of the Niger Territory. 

Mr. Haensel left Quebec in 1855 for Ontario, and 
in 1869 went to reside in St. John, New Brunswick, 
where he died on i3th January, 1876, aged 80 years. 

In 1868 the chapel was leased for ten years to the 
British Government for a " Garrison Chapel," and at 
the withdrawal of the Imperial troops in 1872, the 
building virtually was closed to the expiration of the 
lease. But during that period it was permitted to be 
used by the Port-Chaplain, the Rev. J. S. Sykes, who 
in a measure succeeded in gathering together many of 
the former congregation which had become scattered 
over the Parish ; at the expiration of the lease in 1878, 
his successor was the Rev. R. W. B. Webster and on 
his retiring, the Rev. E. W. Sewell nominated the Rev. 
Robert Kerr, who was licensed as curate by the Bishop. 

On the 3oth June, 1881, the congregation was 
incorporated by the Provincial Government as ' ' The 

307 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Congregation of Trinity Church, Quebec," (Vic. 44- 
45., chap. 47.) and the next year purchased the 
property. 

The Rev. R. Kerr remained in charge until 1885, 
when he was succeeded by the Rev. A. Bareham, and 
on his resigning, the Rev. W. T. Noble took charge 
until 1896, when he was succeeded by the Rev. E. 
J. Etherington, who at faster 1903, was called to 
Hamilton, Ontario, and the Rev. B. Watkin's M. A., 
was appointed Rector. 

ST. PETER'S CHURCH 

The origin of St. Peter's Church dates back to 
the year 1833. In December of that year the Rector 
and Church- Wardens of the Cathedral purchased from 
Mr. George Pozer a two story stone building on Church 
street, and converted the upper story into a temporary 
chapel for the use of the members of the Church of 
England residing in St. Rochs ; the lower story being 
used as a Male Orphan Asylum. 

The first curate was the Rev. W. Anderson, who, 
whilst honorary Canon of the Cathedral in Montreal, 
died at the age of 90 years on 3rd March 1891. This 
building being found no longer serviceable or suitable, 
was abandoned in 1842, and steps were taken to erect 
a building worthier of its sacred purpose. A site (the 
present one) on St. Valier street, at the foot of the St. 
Augustine street steps, was purchased from Mr. Isaac 
Dorion by two members of the congregation, Messrs. 

308 



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN QUEBEC 

William Brown and Robert Ward, who also contracted 
for the erection of the proposed building. The corner 
stone was laid on 25th July 1842, and the new building 
consecrated on the 2oth October of the same year by 
Bishop G. J. Mountain. The Rev. W. Chaderton, who 
had succeeded Mr. Anderson in 1836, was curate at 
this date. The terrible fire of 28th May 1845, which 
devastated the whole of St. Rochs, left St. Peter's 
Chapel a charred ruin, and many of the members 
thereof homeless. Undaunted by this heavy blow the 
little congregation took immediate steps to repair the 
House of God, and their brave efforts found many 
and generous friends ready to help them ; the Society 
for Promoting Christian knowledge donating ^"100 stg. 
towards the object. The new building was consecrated 
on Sunday 2oth September 1846. The following year 
is memorable as the year of the ship- fever, when vast 
numbers of immigrants, for the most part Irish, fell 
victims to the disease both at the Quarantine Station 
and in the Marine Hospital at Quebec. Bishop Moun- 
tain and the clergy of the city, notably Mr. Chaderton, 
were unremitting in their attendance upon the afflicted. 
St. Peter's Parish register for that year contains the 
record of 373 interments ; the burial service in no less 
than 48 cases having been taken by the Lord Bishop 
in person. Mr. Chaderton, a man of marked devoutness 
and self-abnegation, whilst in the discharge of his 
sacred office contracted the disease and died therefrom 
on the 1 5th July. A mural tablet on the chancel wall 
of St. Peter's bears witness to the love in which he 

309 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

was held by his congregation. The Reverend R. G. 
Plees succeeded Mr. Chaderton as curate : and, on his 
appointment to the incumbency of St. Paul's in 1851, 
was followed by the Rev. Gilbert Percy D. D. who 
remained in charge for five years. In 1856 the Rev. 
Septimus Jones was appointed curate, but served only 
until 1858 when he was succeeded by the Rev. Charles 
Hamilton, the present Bishop of Ottawa. For the 
first four years of his curacy Mr. Hamilton had as a 
co-worker, the Rev. H. J. Petry. The English residents 
of St. Rochs, Hedleyville and other suburban points 
were far more numerous at that date than at present. 
In 1864 Mr. Hamilton resigned to assume charge of 
St. Matthew's and was succeeded at St. Peter's by the 
Rev. M. M. Fothergill. Prior to 1875 St. Peter's was 
a chapel in connection with the Cathedral, but in that 
year a Canon of the Diocesan Synod constituted it a 
Church and its district the Parish of St. Peter's. After 
a service of twenty-five years Mr. Fothergill resigned 
and removed from the Diocese, and was succeeded in 
1888, by the Rev. Canon A. J. Balfour, M. A., the 
present Rector. 

A memorial, in the shape of a reredos, has been 
erected in St. Peter's commemorative of the services 
of Mr. Fothergill, who died at Toronto on the 29th 
of October 1902. 

ST. PAUL'S CHURCH 

Many members of the Church of England resided 
in Champlain Street, commonly known as the ' ' Coves, ' ' 

310 



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN QUEBEC 

and a number of Protestants were found among the 
seamen on the numerous vessels arriving in the Port 
of Quebec, so the Archdeacon held services in the 
moulder's loft of Mr. Black's shipyard and later in 
Mr. Munn's store ; hence he and the Cathedral author- 
ities applied for and obtained from the Government 
a site under Cape Diamond where they erected the 
Mariner's Chapel, which was consecrated by Bishop 
Stewart on the 3rd June, 1832, naming it St. Paul's. 

In 1888 by a Canon of the Diocesan Synod the 
Chapel was constituted a church and its district a 
parish. 

The church is a neat wooden building with stone 
foundations, and can seat 200 persons. It contains 
several mementos of bygone times ; the font is the 
original one placed in the Cathedral in 1804, and the 
Royal Arms over the door formerly graced the front 
of the Governor- General's pew, and the pulpit was 
one of the old reading desks of the Cathedral. 

But the marble top of the Communion Table is 
peculiarly interesting, as it formerly belonged to the 
old Jesuit Church ; after the destruction of the Recollet 
Church by fire in 1796, this church was used by the 
Church of England, and before its demolition in 1807, 
the Government it appears gave this slab to the Bishop r 
but in what capacity it had been originally used is not 
on record. However, in 1818, there was some corres- 
pondence over it between the Archdeacon and the Rev. 
N. Dufresne, S.J., which satisfied the latter as to the 
Bishop's right to the slab. 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

The Archdeacon and Cathedral clergy conducted 
the services of St. Paul's until 1833, when the Rev. 
Joseph Brown was appointed the first incumbent and 
was succeeded in 1841 by the Rev. R. R. Burrage, and 
the next year the Rev. W. W. Wait took charge to 
1843, after whom the duties were performed by the 
Rev. S. Bancroft, Woolryche, Torrance and E. C. 
Parkin, till the Rev. J. F. L. Simpson was appointed 
in 1844, and remained till 1849, when he was succeeded 
Toy the Rev. Gilbert Percy, and in 1851 the Rev. R. 
G. Plees was the incumbent and ministered to St. Paul's 
until his death on igth June, 1872. 

The Rev. Mr. Mitchell was then appointed Rector 
and was succeeded in May, 1877, by the Rev. Thomas 
Richardson, who in 1888, was created a Canon of the 
Cathedral ; failing health and advancing years com- 
pelled Canon Richardson to retire in 1894, when he was 
presented by the congregation with an address and a 
substantial token of their appreciation of his seventeen 
years ministration at St. Paul's. He died on 28th of 
April 1903, and the funeral cortege proceeded to the 
Cathedral from the Bishop's residence. 

The curate the Rev. E. A. Dunn was left in charge, 
and on the loth November, 1895, was inducted Rector, 
which position he filled till his appointment to the 
chair of Pastoral theology at Bishop's College, L/ennox- 
ville, in August 1901, when he was succeeded by the 
present Rector, the Rev. H. R. Bigg. 



312 



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN QUEBEC 
ST. MICHAEL'S CHURCH 

The increasing number of Church of England folk 
on the St. Louis, St. Foy and Sillery Roads caused the 
erection of St. Michael's Chapel. 

Mrs. Mary Orkney, wife of Dr. Joseph Morrin, 
M.D., had inherited from her former husband Frost 
Ralph Gray, Esq., a large tract of land in the Fief St. 
Michael, and gave to the Bishop a site on the St. Louis 
Road on which to build a chapel ; hence a subscription 
was raised and building operations begun in 1854, and 
the chapel was consecrated on the i6th September, 
1856, by Bishop Mountain and named St. Michael's. 

It is a picturesque edifice of Gothic architecture, 
resembling the country churches of old England, built 
of Cap Rouge stone and situated on the north side of 
the road opposite to the main gate of Mount Hermon 
Cemetery. 

The interior is very neat and pretty with its high 
pitched roof, and arches of varnished oak, of which 
material all the pews and wood-work are made. The 
chancel was built by Bishop Mountain and his family 
as a memorial of his son, Lieutenant Jacob George 
Mountain, of H.M. 26th Regiment, and all the appurt- 
enances of the church are memorial gifts : The marble 
font was erected by the Rev. George Mackie, D.D., in 
memory of his brother Major W. C. M. Mackie ; the 
pulpit is a memorial of Lady Elizabeth Boxer, and the 
brass eagle lectern of Charles E. Levey, Esq. The 
Hon. E. J. Price gave the bell and chancel screen as 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

memorials to his brothers Hon. David and William. 
The reredos was erected by the Misses Price in memory 
of their brother, the late Senator Hon. Evan J. Price. 
The windows are all memorials to members of the 
families Mountain, Price, Boxer, Fisher and others. 
A fine brass plate on the wall in the chancel is inscribed 
to the memory of the Rev. Armine Wale Mountain, 
the first Rector of St. Michael's and a brass plate 
records the death of his father, the Reverned George 
Jehoshaphat Mountain, third Bishop of Quebec. 

The organ was purchased from subscriptions raised 
in England by the late Charles E. I^evey, Esq. 

This Chapel was opened for Divine service on the 
24th December, 1 854, by the Rev. Armine W. Mountain, 
who for fifteen years ministered to the congregation of 
St. Michael's, when he resigned, in 1869, to reside in 
England. 

In 1875, the Chapel was, by a Canon of the Dio- 
cesan Synod, constituted a Church, and the district 
attached to it the Parish of St. Michael's. 

The Present Rector, the Rev. A. A. Von Iffland, 
M. A., D. C. Iy., was the immediate successor of Mr. 
Mountain, and, in 1888, was created a Canon of the 
Cathedral Church of Quebec. 

The Rectory is a substantial stone house, built in 
1860, upon land given by the late Bishop George 
Jehoshaphat Mountain, and is the property of the 
Church. 

3H 



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN QUEBEC 

A short distance .from the church is St. Michael's 
School-house, erected in 1865, by the Rev. A. W. 
Mountain and his sisters, in memory of the late Bishop, 
their father. 

THE CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS 

The Charitable Institutions connected with the 
Church of England in Quebec are the Male and Female 
Orphan, and the Finlay Asylums, also the National 
Schools when they existed. 

The National Schools were started by the old 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge when it 
established a branch at Quebec, and opened their 
schools in the Hope Gate Guard House in November 
1819 ; subsequently a site was obtained from the 
Government on D' Auteuil street hill where the present 
building was erected in 1823. The schools were carried 
on until 1883, when their conduct was by agreement 
undertaken by the Protestant Board of School Com- 
missioners, but the building remained the property 
of the Church, and was used by the Cathedral and St. 
Matthew's Sunday schools until the Church Hall, and 
St. Matthew's Parish Room were built ; at present it 
is occupied by the offices of the Inspector of Superior 
Education, and several Fraternal Associations. 

The Quebec Asylum was instituted in 1821, in a 
house on the Little River Road known as La Maison 
Rouge, which was found to be inconveniently situated, 
being too far from town ; so the house was sold in 1826 
and the children placed in charge of Mr. Rickaby the 

315 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Sexton of the Protestant Burying ground St. John 
street, and the adults were lodged with sundry persons 
and given pensions. This disorganization continued 
for two years, till in 1828, the Ladies' Committee of the 
female department of the National Schools organized 
the Female Orphan Asylum, and established it in the 
upper story of the National School building in March 
1829. 

THE FEMALE ORPHAN ASYLUM 

The Female Orphan Asylum was incorporated on 
the 1 8th May 1861 (24 Victoria Cap. 113) under the 
name of " The Church of England Female Orphan 
Asylum of the City of Quebec," and on the opening of 
the Fiulay Asylum in 1862, the inmates were removed 
to that building, occupying the western end until their 
present building was purchased. 

Surgeon Blatherwick and the officers of the Im- 
perial troops then garrisoning Quebec, established the 
Military Asylum for soldier's widows and orphans, 
and erected for their comfort that substantial stone 
building on the south side of Grande Allee near the 
Martello tower. 

The Imperial garrison was removed from Quebec 
in 1871, and in 1873, the property was purchased by 
the L,adies of the Female Orphan Asylum who also 
undertook the care of its military occupants. 

The Institution is in charge of a matron, and is 
admirably managed by a committee of twelve ladies, 
who in rotation supervise each month its interior 



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN QUEBEC 

economy, and are assisted by an advisory committee 
of four gentlemen. The present officers are Mrs. 
Dunn, president, Mrs. Colin Sewell, secretary and Mrs. 
Edward L,. Sewell the treasurer. 

THE MAIvE ORPHAN ASYLUM 

The Quebec Male Orphan Asylum was founded 
in 1832, when cholera was epidemic in the City and 
Provinces, and to alleviate distress, the Rector and 
Church-wardens of the Cathedral called a meeting by 
advertisement in the Quebec Gazette of 6th July of 
that year, for : " The purpose of taking into con- 
sideration the cases of some forty orphans, and also a 
number of distressed subjects actually thrown upon 
the charge of the Church by the effect of the visitation 
from the hand of God which has been upon the City." 

The original records of the meeting are not extant, 
but immediate action was taken, and a house rented for 
the purpose, till in 1834 a stone house was purchased 
in Rue de 1'Eglise St. Rochs, whose second story was 
fitted up for divine worship and the lower one for the 
male orphans. In 1842 the building was condemned 
and the bo"ys were installed in the National School, a 
part of which house had been fitted up for them. 

On the 27th May, 1857, the Institution was incor- 
porated under the name of " The Managers of the 
Church of England Male Orphan Asylum of Quebec, ' ' 
the corporation being the Rector and Chnrch-wardens 
of the Parish of Quebec. 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

In 1862 the Finlay Asylum was opened in that 
commodious building on the St. Foy Road and the 
eastern wing was leased to the Male Orphan Asylum, 
and the children removed thither. 

The interior affairs of the M. O. Asylum are 
supervised by a committe of twelve ladies, approved 
by the corporation ; each lady takes in rotation the 
duty of visitor for the month, and the retiring visitor 
presides at the meetings of the succeeding month. 

THE FINLAY ASYLUM 

After the sale of L/a Maison Rouge in 1826 and 
the old men pensioned off and scattered all over the 
Parish in lodgings, the Quebec Asylum became extinct. 
This sad state of affairs continued for many years, and 
although some efforts were made to improve the condi- 
tion of these old people, nothing of a permanent nature 
was accomplished till 1854, when one of the church- 
wardens of the Cathedral, William G. Wurtele, Esq., 
rented a house in L/achevrotiere street and gathered 
the Parish pensioners of both sexes therein with a 
matron in charge. This establishment was removed 
to Sutherland street and subsequently the house was 
purchased with money bequeathed by Miss Margaret 
Finlay, which legacy was supplemented by a further 
sum, and on the loth May, 1857, the Institution was 
incorporated by the Rector and Churchwardens of the 
Cathedral, the Rt. Rev. George Jehoshaphat Mountain, 
and Messrs. W. G. Wurtele and Edward Poston, under 
the name of " The Finlay Asylum of Quebec." 



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN QUEBEC 

The following year the Bishop received several 
large donations which enabled the corporation to pur- 
chase a lot of ground on the north side of the St. Foy 
Road about three hundred yards outside the city limits, 
from the heirs Tourangeau, and to erect thereon that 
fine building, the corner stone of which was laid by 
the late Mrs. Robert Hamilton on the loth May, 1860. 
The formal opening of the building took place on the 
2nd August, 1862, that being the 5oth anniversary of 
the Bishop's ministration in the Diocese of Quebec, 
and was celebrated in the Asylum by a special sendee 
prepared by his Lordship. 

The asylum is of Gothic architecture, built of Cap 
Rouge stone dressing and plinths, with variegated 
arches over each aperture ; it is about no feet long by 
55 feet wide, two stories high with basement and attic. 
The system adopted in the Finlay is that of small wards 
containing from three to six persons, and every possible 
liberty is given to these old people. The chapel is in 
the centre of the building with four rooms opening off 
from it, so that very infirm persons and those confined 
to bed can, without leaving their rooms, join in the 
service which is held every morning. 

The management is under the control of the war- 
dens of the Cathedral assisted by a committee of twelve 
ladies chosen throughout the parishes of the city. 

All these Institutions are maintained by revenues 
from endowments, anual subscriptions, donations and 
small Government grants ; the late Quebec ' Provident 
and Savings Bank annually divided some of its profits 

319 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

among all the charities of Quebec, and on transferring 
its business to the Union Bank of Canada in March 
1872, likewise divided the balance giving $ 10,000 each, 
to the Finlay and Male Orphan Asylums, and $3,800 
to the Female Orphans, which was a great assistance 
to them all, but the revenues are still inadequate. 

THE PROTESTANT BURIAI. GROUND 
ST. JOHN STREET 

According to the obituary notices in the Quebec 
Gazette, the mortal remains of Protestants were interred 
in divers places in Quebec ; some in the St. Joseph 
Cemetery, situated between the Seminary and the 
French Cathedral ; others on the south side of that 
edifice, as proved by the memorial on the western wall 
of the Presbytery, removed to that position when the 
wall on Buade street was lowered : 

IN MEMORY OF 

MARY, 

WIFE OF THOMAS AINSLIE, ESQ., 

COLLECTOR OF HIS MAJESTY'S CUSTOMS OF QUEBEC 

WHO PIED MARCH 14TH, 1767 

AGED 25 YEARS. 

If virtue's charms had power to save 
Her faithful vot'ries from the grave 

With beauty's e'vry form supplied 
The lovely Ainslie ne'er had died. 

The gorge of the St. Louis Bastion was also used 
as a burial ground, where among others, the Continental 
General Richard Montgomery, who was killed when 

320 



THE CHURCH OF ENGI^AND IN QUEBEC 

assaulting the Pres-de-Ville barricade on the early 
morning of the 3ist December, 1775, was there interred 
on the 4th January, 1776, the military chaplain Rev. 
F. De Montmollin reading the burial service. The 
General's remains were exhumed in 1818 by permis- 
sion of the Governor General and interred in New 
York with great ceremony. 

On the i Qth December, 1771, Demoiselle An gelique 
Denis de St. Denis and her family, (heirs of the late 
M. St. Simon) sold a lot of land on St. John Street 
M. St. Simon had purchased from the nuns of the Hotel 
Dieu, to Thomas Dunn, who on 2Qth March, 1778 sold 
it to the Government, which also purchased another 
portion of the property from the heirs St. Simon on 
22nd August, 1778, and the balance on 4th July, 1780. 

These lots were bounded on the north by St. John 
Street, on the south by St. Gabriel Street, on the east 
by St. Augustin Street, and on the west by the garden 
of Justice Kerr, representing the heirs St. Simon, the 
whole surrounded by a stone wall, and appears to have 
been used for a cemetery ; to secure which in perpetuity, 
the Protestant Community petitioned the Government, 
and on igth August, 1833, His Majesty George IV, 
issued letters patent granting the property to the 
Trustees of the Protestant Burying ground : Dr. G. 
J. Mountain the Archdeacon and Rector of Quebec, 
Messrs Francis Coulson and William Morrison, Church- 
Wardens of the Parish of Quebec, and Andrew William 
Cochrane, and his successors to be nominated by the 
Rector. The Rev. Dr. Mills Chaplain of the Forces, 

21 321 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Rev. J. Archbold assistant minister of the Cathedral 
and Rev. James Harkness minister and John Neilson, 
Andrew Patterson, James Ross and Thomas White 
Trustees of the Church of Scotland 

There was a building on it used for the Burial 
services of both Churches and sexton's residence, but 
the Church of England had the paramount right in 
the building and appointment of the sexton, but the 
Church of Scotland might put up another bnilding on 
the grounds and appoint a sexton to it should they 
deem it necessary. 

On the 1 6th December, 1844, the Rector, with the 
Rev. John Cook, L,.L,.D., Messrs. H. Jessop, Thomas 
Gary, A. Simpson and A. Patterson purchased from Dr. 
Nault, whose wife was a Miss Durette, the additional 
ground outside the stone wall, (which was removed,) 
and added it to the burying ground, so that the pro- 
perty extended to St. Genevieve street on the west, 
but did not include the corner lot and stone house on 
St. John street, now owned by D. S. Rickaby, Esq. 

After the fire, in 1 845, St. John street was widened, 
the city paying ^423 iys. 6d. for the ground and ,420 
to rebuild the stone wall on the line of the street. 

For sanitary reasons, the Government, at the peti- 
tion of the City Council, by Act of Parliament on the 
1 9th May, 1860, closed the burial ground and pro- 
hibited, under penalty, all further interment ; hence 
the place was neglected and became a disgrace to the 
city, there being so many parties concerned it seemed 
to be nobody's business to keep the grounds in order ; 

322 



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN QUEBEC 

but in 1875 St. Matthew's Congregation appointed a 
committee to take what steps would be advisable to 
put the burial ground in order ; but the appeal made 
to friends and relatives of those interred there did not 
meet with much success, so the small amount received 
was expended to the best advantage. 

For thirteen years nothing further was done and 
the place lapsed into delapidation and became over- 
grown with weeds and rubbish till in 1888, when St. 
Matthew's Congregation undertook to care for the 
grounds provided the Trustees put them in proper 
order. An appeal was made to the Protestant public 
and sufficient means were raised to accomplish the 
work so the burying ground is now well kept and worth 
a visit to recall the names of Quebec's respedted citizens 
as written on the old tombstones. 

It may here be interesting to relate some of the 
inscriptions : 

At the western end of the church, near the gate, 
rest the mortal remains of a brother of Sir Walter 
Scott, the celebrated novelist : 

SACRED TO THE MEMORY OF 

THOMAS SCOTT ESQUIRE 
LATE PAYMASTER OF THE 70th REGIMENT 

WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE 4TH FEBRUARY 1823. 

AND HIS DAUGHTER BARBARA SCOTT 

WHO DIED ON THE 5TH OCTOBER 1821 

IN THE EIGHTH \KAR OF HER AGE. 



323 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

SACRED TO THE MEMORY OF 
THOS. GARY, SENIOR, 
FIRST FDITOR OF THE 

QUEBEC MERCURY 

WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE 

29TH JANUARY 1832. 



SACRED TO THE MKMORY OF 
REV. WM. CHADERTON 

AN EXEMPLARY PASTOR 

AND A DEVOTED SERVANT OF CHRIST, 

WHO DIED 

OF TYPHUS FEVER CONTRACTED 

IN THE ZEALOUS DISCHARGE 

OF HIS SACRED CALLING, 15TH AUGUST 1857. 

HlS BEREAVED WIDOW ERECTS THIS STONE 

AS A FEEBLE TESTIMONY 

OF HER DEEP VENERATION 

FOR THE DEPARTED. 



SACRED TO THE MEMORY OF 

THE LATE HON. H. W. RYT.AND 

A MEMBER OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL. 

WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE 

20TH JULY 1838 IN HIS 79TH YEAR. 



Here is a double inscription on a stone erected by 
veterans of the campaign of 1759 to a brother officer. 

" CI-GIT LE CORPS D'ALEXANDRE CAMERON, OFFICIER DE 

DlEN GALLON EN ECOSSE QUI MOURUT DE LA FlEVRE EN 

CET ENDROIT AU MOIS D'AOUT 1759, SERVANT ALORS SON 
ROI ET SA PATRIE. LiES LIEUTENANT COLONELS NAIRN 
KT MALCOLM FRASER ONT LEVE CE MONUMENT A LA MEMOIRE DE 
LEUR AMI ET DE LEUR FRERE " 

324 



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN QUEBEC 

" THIS STONE IS PUT HERE BY LIKUT. CoLONEL NAIRN 

AND LIEUT. COL. ERASER IN MEMORY OF THEIR DEAR FRIEND 

AND MUCH RESPECTED BROTHER OFFICER ALEX. CAMERON, ESQUIRE 

OF DlENGALLON IN SCOTLAND, WHO DIRD OF A FEVER IN AUGUST 1759. 

WHEN IN SERVICE OF HIS KING AND COUNTRY, AND is HERE INTERRED. 

In Col. Malcolm Fraser's journal of the siege of 
Quebec 1759, it is stated that on the 3rd of September 
his detachment was camped at Point Levy and ' ' this 
day died my worthy Captain, Alexander Cameron " 
and " was interred on the 4th, in front of our colors ". 

It may therefore be safely inferred that after the 
capitulation of the City Captain, Cameron's remains 
were transferred to Quebec and the stone placed over 
them in its present position. 

FRED. C. WURTELE. 

LADIES' PROTESTANT HOME OP QUEBEC 

Amongst the many noble works undertaken by the 
ladies of Quebec, the Protestant Home is a monument. 
This institution has accomplished much real work, and 
it deserves all the support necessary for its efficient 
maintenance. 

The act of incorporation was assented to on the 
4th of May, 1859. 

The preamble of the adl reads as follows : 

" Whereas an association has existed for several 
" years in the City of Quebec, in this Province, under 
" the name of the Quebec Ladies' Protestant Relief 
" Society, for the purpose of affording relief and sup- 
" port to the destitute poor in the said city; whereas, 

325 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

' the said association is composed of the several persons 
' hereinafter mentioned, who have by their Petition 
' represented that their success in carrying out their 
' benevolent prospects aforesaid, as well as providing 
' a ' Home ' for the friendless and unprotected, would 
' be greatly augmented by their legal incorporation, 
' and have prayed to be incorporated under certain 
' regulations and provisions hereinafter mentioned : 
' Therefore, Her Majesty, by and with the advice and 
' consent of the Legislative Council and Assembly of 
' Canada, enacts as follows : 

" Eliza, Stewart, Caroline Newton, Mary Ann 
' Bankier, Harriet Newton, Margaret Newton, Louisa 
' Stewart, Ann Sheppard, Jane White, Caroline 
' Gilmour, Mary Chaderton, Sarah Walker Veasey, 
' Myerka Austin, Lavinia Sewell, Henrietta Blather- 
' wick, Mary Powis, Mary Richardson, Francis 
' Tremain, Gertrude Sewell, Sophy Griffin, Jane 
' Durnford, Matilda Ward, Elizabeth Drum, and Jessy 
' Cradock, and such other persons as shall under the 
' provisions of this statute become members of the 
' said association, shall be, and are hereby declared to 
' be a body politic and corporate in deed and in name, 
' by the name of the Ladies' Protestant Home of 
' Quebec." 

The President is Mrs. Gregor, and Miss Anderson 
is the Secretary. 

ST. ANDREW'S CHURCH 
THE REV. A. T. LOVE, B.A., PASTOR 

St. Andrew's Church (Presbyterian) is one of the 
oldest churches in Canada. Divine services may be 
said to date from the year of the Siege, being conducted 

326 



ST. ANDREW'S CHURCH 

by the Reverend Robert Macpherson, the brave chaplain 
of Fraser's Highlanders, the regiment so highly distin- 
guished at the battle of Louisbourg, as well as the 
capture of Quebec under General Wolfe in 1759. In 
the Highland regiment we come across the names 
Campbell, Cameron, Fraser, McLeod, Macpherson, 
Thomson, Blackwood, Munro, Paterson, McL,ean, 
McDonald members of the Church of Scotland, so that 
very soon after the taking of Quebec a Presbyterian 
Church was organized. The Reverend George Henry, 
an ex-military chaplain, and said to have been present 
at the capture of Quebec, was the first regular pastor 
of the Scottish Church, beginning his duties as such 
in 1765. An apartment which was fitted up for a 
chapel was set apart by the King's representative in 
the Jesuit's College for the use of the members of the 
Scottish Church, this being occupied until 1807, when 
the building was appropriated for the use of the troops 
quartered in the city. Mr. Henry died on the 6th of 
July, 1795, in the 86th year of his age. The following 
notice appeared at the time in the Quebec Gazette : 
' ' To the character of an able divine he united that 
benevolence of heart and practical goodness which 
made his life a constant example of the virtues he 
recommended to others, and rendered him both a useful 
teacher of Christianity, and an ornament of Society." 
Mr. Henry was succeeded by the Reverend Dr. Spark, 
a native of Marykirk, Scotland, and a graduate of the 
University of Aberdeen. After arriving in Quebec and 
before undertaking the pastorate of the church, Mr. 

327 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Spark was for several years tutor in the family of Sir 
John Caldwell, at Belmont. His ministry continued 
for thirty-four years from the death of his predecessor. 
In 1802 a petition was addressed to King George III 
desiring that a lot of ground be granted to the congre- 
gation upon which to erect a place of worship. This 
memorial was signed by 148 persons. A copy of the 
petition and of the names attached to it is given in 
an interesting address on ' ' The Scot in New France ' ' 
by Sir James Macpherson L,emoine. One of these 
petitioners was Sergeant James Thomson, of Fraser's 
Highlanders, who had also served under Wolfe at the 
Siege of Quebec ; who, 68 years afterwards, assisted 
Lord Dalhousie in laying the corner-stone of the Wolfe 
and Montcalm monument, and who died, in 1830, aged 
98 years. Among other names on the petition were 
Mrs. Jane Sewell, wife of Solicitor-General Sewell, 
Mrs. Hamilton Sewell, wife of Chief Justice Sewell, 
and daughter of Chief Justice Smith. Chief Justice 
Smith was one of the office-bearers and a strong sup- 
porter of the Scottish Church. He was born in New 
York in 1728, and became Chief Justice of New York ; 
afterwards, in reward for his loyalty, being made Chief 
Justice of Lower Canada, to which he came in 1786. 
In 1802, letters patent were issued granting as a place 
for the erection of a church, a lot of ground on St. Ann 
Street to the Reverend Alexander Spark, John Black- 
wood, John Mure, David Munro and John Paterson, 
and their successors in trust for ever. The building 
was completed and opened for public worship on No- 

328 



ST. ANDREW'S CHURCH 

vember 3oth, 1810, and was named St. Andrew's 
Church. Previous to this the congregation was called 
the Scotch Church. From this time the congregation 
rapidly grew and became strong and influential. Dr. 
Spark died in 1819. The Quebec Mercuty said of him : 
" We may say beyond the reach of contradiction, that 
he was not only skilled in letters ; that in life and 
manners he showed a simplicity and innocence beyond 
what are seen in most men, and that few here died 
more universally and more sincerely lamented. " 

The Reverend Dr. Harkness, a native of Sanquhar, 
Scotland, succeeded Dr. Spark in 1820. He is spoken 
of as a warm hearted and generous man, and a fearless 
defender of the rights of his church. He was a great 
favourite with L,ord Dalhousie, and was a frequent 
guest at the Castle. He died in 1835 in the 46th year 
of his age and the 1 5th of his ministry. The Reverend 
John Cook D. D. followed in 1836. He like his pre- 
decessor, was a native of Sanquhar, Scotland, and was 
educated at Glasgow University. He was born in 
1805, and died on the 3ist of March, 1892. Dr. Cook 
was in many respects a remarkable man. For well 
nigh half a century he was a leader in his Church 
and used his best influence to bring about the union 
of all the branches of the Presbyterian Church in 
Canada in 1875. He was honoured by being the 
first Moderator of the general assembly of the United 
Church. Dr. Cook whilst being an able preacher, took 
a lively interest in all matters affecting education, 
and was a trustee of Queen's College, Kingston, a 

329 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

member of the corporation of McGill University, 
Montreal, and a member of the Council of Public 
Instruction for the Province of Quebec, and Principal 
of Morrin College, Quebec, from 1862 till death. A 
beautiful tablet was placed behind the pulpit by the 
members of the congregation to the memory of one 
who had been their devoted pastor for forty eight 
years. The Reverend Andrew Tannahill Love, B. A. 
a native of Dunlop, Ayrshire Scotland, succeeded Dr. 
Cook, and was inducted to the pastorate on the i8th 
of December 1884. Mr. I,ove is a graduate in Arts 
of Queen's College, Kingston, and took his divinity 
course at Glasgow University. His pastorate has 
been highly successful, and he continues to gather 
around him a large and influential congregation, a 
people contributing not merely for their own local 
church, but giving largely of their means for the mis- 
sionarj- educational and benevolent work of the church 
throughout Canada. Mr. I^ove is a member of the 
Provincial Council of Public Instruction, and is much 
interested in educational work generally. 

The old church presents a very antique appearance 
with its odd looking sky-light windows, and stair ways 
going up inside the building. There are a number of 
very handsome and costly windows erected to the 
memory of departed office bearers, there are also several 
fine old tablets, one on the east wall bearing this 
inscription : 



330 



ST. ANDREW'S CHURCH 

LXXIX 

CAMERON HIGHLANDERS 

To THE MEMORY OF THKIR COMRADES, WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE 

WHILST SERVING IN CANADA 

AD. 1848-1851 

CCTMHTTE 
NAN SONN NACH MAIR EANN. 

Then follows the names and rank of thirty-six 
officers and men. 

The following gentlemen are the present office 
bearers of the Church : 

Kirk Session 

The Rev. A. T. Love, B.A. Minister 
Elders 

Mr. J. C. Thomson, Mr. W. R. Dean, 

Mr. J. H. Clint, Mr. Jas. Reid, 

Mr. A. J. Elliot, Mr. Robert Stewart, 

Mr. John Strang, Mr. John Jack. 

Trustees 

Rev. A. T. L,ove, Mr. John Breakey, 

Mr. Andrew Thomson, Mr. F. L,ampson. 
Mr. Wm. Cook, 

THE METHODIST CHURCH 
BY REV. W. H. SPARLING, B. A. 

The first Methodist preacher in Quebec was a Mr. 
Tuffey, a commissary of the 44th regiment, which was- 
quartered in the city in the year 1780. This pious and 

331 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

devoted man, being a Local preacher, preached to the 
soldiers, and such of the Protestant immigrants of the 
city as were disposed to attend, and continued to do 
so until his regiment was disbanded and he returned 
home. 

The first Methodist Itinerant to visit the city was 
the famous, but somewhat eccentric, Lorenzo Dow. 
Being sent, in the year 1799, by Bishop Asbury, of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States, 
to form a Circuit in Lower Canada, he travelled through 
Sutton and Dunham Townships to Montreal. Believing 
himself called of God to visit Ireland he sailed down 
the river to Quebec and, while waiting for a vessel 
to cross the ocean, preached as he had opportunity. 
Under his ministry some twenty persons were seriously 
impressed but, so far as known, no Class was formed 
and no effort made to establish a permanent organ- 
ization. 

The City was not again visited by a Methodist 
preacher till the year 1803 when the Rev. Samuel 
Merwin, who was them stationed in Montreal, came to 
Quebec with the view of forming a Class and estab- 
lishing a Church in the city, but not meeting with 
much encouragement he returned to Montreal, after 
staying about a month, and continued his labors there. 

In the year 1806, the Rev. Nathan Bangs, subse- 
quently famous as a Methodist historian, came to 
Quebec. Arriving on a Saturday morning, with letters 
of introduction to some persons in the city, he at once 
presented them and set about securing a place in which 

332 



THE METHODIST CHURCH 

to hold service and succeeded in renting a room over the 
Free Masons Hall, where the Post Office now stands. 
Here on the following day he preached to a fairly 
good congregation and at once set earnestly to work to 
establish Methodisim in the city. Calling on the Rev. 
Mr. Dick pastor of St. John's (nowChalmer's Church) 
he was most cordially received and treated with much 
affection and respect. For a while his congregation 
was quite good, but soon the interest in the services 
began to grow less and the hearers few, while only 
three or four seemed to be under serious impressions. 
He persevered, however, and succeeded in forming a 
class and from that time to the present Methodisim 
has taken a firm stand in the city. 

The next year, 1807, the Reverend Samuel Coate 
was sent, whose ministry was greatly appreciated, re- 
sulting in a marked increase in the congregation and 
membership. Mr. Coate' s immediate successors were 
Thomas Madden, Samuel Cochrane, George McCracken, 
James Mitchell and Joseph Scull. Those were days of a 
short pastoral term, it being seldom more and sometimes 
even less than one year. The Society in Quebec had 
thus far been supplied by ministers from the Genesee 
Conference, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in 
the United States ; but now, owing to the breaking 
out of the war of 1812, the supply was interrupted 
and for a considerable time the society was without 
any regular pastor. During this period services were 
maintained by a sergeant named Webster, of the 103 
Regiment, then quartered in Quebec, who preached 

333 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

regularly to the Methodists of the city, with great 
acceptability, until his regiment was removed to Upper 
Canada in the summer of 1813. For the next eight 
months the care of the Society, and the maintenance of 
its services devolved on a local Preacher named Peter 
L,anglois. This pious and zealous man regularly con- 
ducted service, and kept the Society together, until the 
Rev. John B. Strong was sent out from England by 
the Weslyan Methodist Conference in June, 1814. 
Upon his arrival Mr. Strong found a Society of about 
35 members closely united in the bonds of Christian 
affection, and entered upon his work with great zeal 
and earnestness. So steadily and quickly did the Society 
grow under his wise and faithful administration, that 
the place in which they had hitherto worshipped became 
too strait for them, and it was found necessary to pro- 
vide a larger and more commodious place of worship 
for the rapidly increasing congregation. Accordingly 
a subscription of four hundred pounds was taken and 
a lot purchased on Ann street, where Tara Hall now 
stands. In the Autumn of 1815, Mr. Strong was 
removed to Montreal, and the Rev. Richard Williams 
appointed to Quebec. In the summer of 1815 the 
building of the church was begun and completed the 
following Spring, at a cost of about fifteen hundred 
pounds. On the ijih day of April, 1817, this first 
Methodist Church in the city of Quebec was dedicated 
by the Rev. John Hick, and the Rev. Richard Williams 
preaching the sermons of the day. In the years follow- 
ing the opening of the Church, the Society steadily 

334 



THE METHODIST CHURCH 

grew in numbers without any very marked increase in 
any one year ; but in the year 1832, under the adminis- 
tration of the Rev. Matthew Lang, a most gracious 
revival of religion took place, which resulted in the 
addition of 155 members in one year, greatly strength- 
ening the church and increasing its influence in the 
community. 

In 1815, the first Sunday School was organized, by 
a young man named Walker, which rapidly grew in 
numbers and efficiency after the opening of the church 
provided suitable accommodation for it. 

In 1831, a second Methodist Church was erected 
on Chatnplain street which was used until the threat- 
ening character of the overhanging cliff made it dan- 
gerous as a place of assembly. It stood almost directly 
underneath the place from which the rock fell in 1841 
and 1889. The people being afraid to worship in it 
after the fall of rock in 1841, it was soon abandoned 
as a place of worship, and sold. 

In 1839, a third Methodist Church was opened in 
St. Louis suburbs, where a Sunday School was organ- 
ized, and public service regularly held, until it was 
destroyed by fire in one of the great conflagrations 
with which the city was visited. 

The steady growth of the membership of the 
Society, together with the misfortunes attending the 
smaller churches just referred to, rendered the church 
in Ann street too small for the Methodism of the city, 
and led to the erection of the present substantial and 
commodious edifice which was dedicated on the yth 

335 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO 

day of October, 1849, the Rev. Matthew Richey, D.D., 
preaching the opening sermon. 

The Church had now become firmly established, 
and an important factor in the religious life of the city, 
a position which it has continued to maintain down to 
the present time. The order of its pastorate being 
that of the itinerancy, a large number of ministers have 
served in its pulpit during its history. Prominent 
among these, and still well remembered, are such names 
as William Squire, Matthew Lang, William Harvard, 
Jas. Brock, William Pollard, John Gemley, John Bor- 
land, E. Botterell, George Young, D.D., Geo. H. Davis, 
James Elliott, D.D., Henry F. Bland, LeRoy Hooker, 
Andrew B. Chambers, B.C.L., J. W. Sparling, D.D., 
W. J. Jolliff, B.C.L. , Thos. J. Mansell, William Spar- 
ling, B.A.,B.D., and Thos. Griffith, Ph.D. Under the 
judicious and faithful administration of these ministers 
seconded by " those whose hearts God had touched," 
it has been a power making for righteousness through- 
out all the years of its history. 

The following are the present Office Bearers in 
the church : 

Rev. W. H. Sparling, B.A., minister. 

Official Board : 

John Shaw, W. G. L. Paxman, 

Raymond Lindsay, T. Andrews, 

J. J. Dunlop, Chas. F. Thorne, 

Lome C. Webster, Alex. Forrest. 
Richard Ackerman, 

336 



CHALMERS' CHURCH 

Trustees : 

Gordon C. Renfrew, T. A. Piddington, 

Walter Ray, J. J. Dunlop, 

Wm. McWilliam, Frank Glass, 

John Shaw, Wm. Shaw, 

A. Dunlop Webster, T. S. Hethrington, 

John H. Holt, Joseph Whitehead, 
Geo. Alford. 

CHALMERS' CHURCH. (PRESBYTERIAN) 

On Sunday March the 8th 1903, Chalmers' Church 
celebrated its fiftieth anniversary, the preacher being 
the Rev. Dr. Mowatt of Montreal. In the report of 
the service published in the press of the gih of March, 
there is an excellent sketch of the church, which we 
here quote in part, after revision by the pastor : 

" Although the present church building was 
opened for worship only fifty years ago, the congre- 
gation has been in existence for about a hundred years, 
having been organized about the beginning of last 
century. The Congregation assumed the name of 
" Chalmers' " Church at the time of the opening of 
the present building ; previously it was known as " St. 
John's." For a number of years after its organization 
the congregation met for public worship in a rented 
house. It was not till June 2oth, 1816, that the 
foundation stone of St. John's Church was laid. The 
record states that on the 2oth of June, 1816, the 
foundation stone was laid by the Freemasons amidst 
a great concourse of spectators and was called " St. 
John's ", in occasion to the day, and on yth of April, 
1817, being Easter Monday, the building was opened 
for public worship." 

22 337 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

The first minister of the congregation was the 
Rev. Clark Bentom, who was sent out to Quebec by 
the London Missionary Society in response to a petition 
sent home by a number of persons who desired a 
minister of Evangelical sentiments. On the arrival of 
Mr. Bentom in Quebec in 1800 a room was rented and 
he commenced his ministry with much acceptance. 
Mr. Bentom returned to England in 1807, and was 
succeeded by Rev. Francis Dick, of whom is said he 
was a plain preacher, a sound divine and a good 
English Biblical scholar, but owing to ill-health he 
returned to Scotland in 1812, although he did not 
sever his connection with the congregation till 1814, 
when the Rev. George Spratt was called to the pas- 
torate. It was during the ministry of Mr. Spratt that 
St. John's Church was built. 

Mr. Spratt continued to labor till April, 1821. 
During 1822-23 the pulpit was supplied by Rev. Isaac 
Purkiss. In 1824 the congregation extended a call to 
Rev. Geo. Bourne, of the Presbytery of New York, 
and he remained minister till 29th of September, 1829. 
Up till this time, although some of the ministers and 
many of the members were Presbyterian, the church 
was ' not formaly connected with the Presbyterian 
Church, but was a Union or Congregational Church. 

In 1830 the congregation became formallv con- 
ne6ted with the Presbyterian Church in Canada in 
connection with the Church of Scotland, and the Rev. 
John Clugston became minister and continued pastor 
till 1848. During the ministry of Mr. Clugston in 

338 



CHALMERS' CHURCH 

1844 the " Disruption" took place and the congre- 
gation severed its connection with the established 
Church of Scotland and became connected with the 
Canada Presbyterian Church. Mr Clugston returned 
to Scotland in 1848. The congregation was without 
a settled minister from 1848 till 1853, but had very 
excellent pulpit supply during this long vacancy. 
Among those who supplied the pulpit at this time were 
the Rev. Mr. Walker, of Newton Stewart, Scotland, and 
the Rev. George Paxton Young, afterwards Professor 
of Mental and Moral Philosophy in the University of 
Toronto, and one of the greatest teachers our country 
has ever had. 

In 1853 the Rev. W. B. Clark, of Dumfries 
Scotland, became minister and continued his faithful 
labors for twenty years. In the same year, on the 6th 
of March, 1853, the present church was opened with 
appropriate services conducted by the Rev. Dr. Donald 
Fraser, then of Montreal, and by Rev. W. B. Clark, 
the newly elected minister. The Rev. Peter Wright 
(now Dr. Wright was minister during the years 1875-77. 
Dr. Wright is now minister in Nelson, B. C. Dr. Wright 
was succeeded by Rev. Dr. Matthews, who was called 
to the pastorate in 1879 and continued the faithful 
and successful minister of the congregation till 1888, 
when he was appointed General Secretary of the Pan- 
Presbyterian Alliance, and now resides in London, 
England. 

The present minister, Rev. Donald Tait, B. A., 
was inducted on 5th September, 1889. 

339 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

The first Trustees were Messrs. James Gibb, O. 
L. Richardson, J. G. Ross, John Ross, James Hossack, 
John R. Young and H. McBlain. 

The Session at the time of the opening of the 
church consisted of the following members : Rev. 
W. B. Clark, minister ; Alexander Haddan, O. L. 
Richardson, James Gibb, John Munn, John Young. 

The present Session consists of the following mem- 
bers : The Minister, Rev. D. Tait ; Robert Brodie, 
Session Clerk ; W. C. Young, Peter Johnston, James 
Muir, J. B. Logic. 

Board of Management. William Brodie Chair- 
man ; R. F. Cream, Secreta^ ; Gavin Moir, Treasurer ; 
C. H. Geggie, John T. Ross, F. W. Ross, Herman 
Young, D. Waiters. 

Trustees. William Brodie, Frank Ross, D. H. 
Geggie, John T. Ross, Peter Johnston, A. Miller, 
Herman Young. 

Chalmers' Church has always taken a deep interest 
in missionary and benevolent work and contributes 
liberally to these objects. There are few congregations 
in the Presbyterian Church in which the average 
givings are higher than in this congregation. 

At the time of the opening of Chalmers' Church, 
and for many years after, John Munn, one of its mem- 
bers, was the largest employer of labor in Quebec. 
His shipyards furnished for many winters almost the 
only work the laboring population of St. Roch's had, 
and the relations of employer and employed were so 
cordial that he was universally esteemed as the special 

340 



CHALMERS' CHURCH 

friend of the laboring masses. He did yeoman service 
to the city's interests in his persistent efforts to establish 
a line of first-class passenger boats to Montreal, and 
built and ran for years on that route the steamer John 
Mumv, at that time the finest passenger boat on the 
St. Lawrence. 

During his career two other members, John and 
James Ross, were laying the foundations of the largest 
wholesale grocery business in Canada, which, in the 
early fifties, had assumed immense proportions. In 
addition to their headquarters in Quebec they had 
depots of goods in Montreal, Kingston, Toronto, 
Hamilton, and in the States, Boston, New York, New 
Orleans, St. Louis, Chicago, Cincinnati and Cleveland, 
wherever goods could be sold to advantage. 

The shipbuilding industry in Quebec was carried 
by them to the highest success it ever attained in the 
Province. They sailed their ships when they could 
not sell them, and were the first owners of seagoing 
craft to employ French- Canadian sailors and ship's 
officers, whose only training had been the coasting 
trade of the St. Lawrence . They soon became the 
equal of the best sailors in British or foreign fleets and 
usually surpassed them in sobriety and economy. 

Their services to the railway interests of the 
Province were no less signal and important than those 
devoted to shipping. They were the first to take up 
the scheme of Mr. Hulbert, an American contractor, 
for a wooden railway from Quebec to Gosford, and 
advanced over a hundred thousand dollars, which, 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

augmented by large subscriptions from F. B. Renaud 
and Wm. Withall, secured the testing of the scheme, 
and resulted in the loss of the money, but that loss to 
them developed into the building of the Lake St. John 
Railway, and became to the city and district the most 
valuable service rendered them by private capital since 
the city's foundation. 

The Quebec Central also, during the severe strug- 
gles of its earlier history, was liberally aided from the 
same source, and kept on the road to success, which 
crowned it at last. 

Their uncle, James Gibb, who died suddenly in 
October, 1858, founder of their house and their partner 
until his death, was also a member of Chalmers' 
Church. He had retired from active business for some 
years ; was President of the Quebec Bank at the time 
of his death, owner of valuable properties, wharves and 
warehouses, having established himself, by his just, 
upright business methods in the esteem of all, French 
and English alike. He left the great commercial 
interests he had inaugurated in a most healthy and 
progressive state. There are other names connected 
with Chalmers' Church that will not soon be forgotten 
in the Ancient Capital. Their contributions to their 
Church's and city's prosperity having established for 
them a worthy record." 



342 



THE BAPTIST CHURCH 

QUEBEC BAPTIST CHURCH 

BY THE REV. DONALD GRANT, B. A. 

The Quebec Baptist Church was organized in the 
year 1845, the constituent members numbering fifteen. 
At this date and for some years previous to it the con- 
gregation worshipped in an upper room of the old Post 
Office on Buade street. Among those who supplied 
their pulpit mention is made of Dr. Benjamin Davies, 
and Dr. J. M. Cramp, men who figured prominently 
in Baptist Educational work. In the fifty-eight years 
of its history the church has had nine pastors, the 
Revs. David Marsh, H. F. Adams, E. J. Stobo, W. B. 
Hutchinson, A. T. Dykeman, C. H. Day, John Alex- 
ander, G. J. Cliff and Donald Grant. The first pastor, 
the Rev. David Marsh, arrived from England, in 1845. 
His pastorate extended over thirty-nine years, and 
forms a remarkable record of devoted service. On the 
tablet placed to his memory in the audience room of 
the church occur these words : ' ' This tablet was erected 
in loving remembrance of him to whose instrumentality 
under God this Church chiefly owes its existence, and 
whose earnest labours and consistent walk during his 
long pastorate won the respect and esteem of all classes 
of the community." 

The building on McMahon street in which the 
congregation now worships was erected in 1853. In 
the Deed of Sale recording the Church's acquisition of 
this property, the names of Rev. David Marsh, James 

343 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Bowen, James Woodley, Joseph Woodley, William 
Wright and Charles McKenzie appear as trustees. In 
1877 the Sunday-school Hall was added. 

The membership of the Church has never been 
large; in 1882 it numbered fifty-one, at present it 
numbers one hundred and five. The congregation is 
composed mainly of families that have long been con- 
nected with the Church. The members in general 
give cheerfully for its support, and there have always 
been connected with it those who have been able and 
willing to respond liberally to special demands. About 
twenty-five of its members are French-Canadians who 
are under the pastoral care of Rev. Iy. R. Dutaud of 
the Grande L4gne Mission. They meet for worship in 
a chapel on St. Margaret street, St. Roch. 

Individual members of the Quebec Baptist Church 
have taken a deep interest in the undenominational 
enterprises of the city, as the Young Men's Christian 
Association, the Women's Christian Association, the 
I/adies' Protestant Home, the Jeffery Hale's Hospital 
and the Bible Society. 

In 1889 the Church entered the Eastern Associa- 
tion comprising the Baptist Churches of Montreal and 
the Eastern Townships, and was thus brought into 
closer touch with Baptist denominational life. 

The organizations connected with the Church are 
the Sunday-School, of which Mr. W. A. Marsh, son 
of the Rev. Uavid Marsh, is Superintendent ; the 
Young People's Society of Christian Endeavour, the 
Women's Mission Circle, the Ladies' Aid Society and 

344 



THE BAPTIST CHURCH 

the Mission Band. The Deacons for the current year 
are Messrs. W. A. Marsh, Robert Stanley, H. Wood- 
side, and H. H. Distin ; the Trustees, Messrs. W. A. 
Marsh, R. Stanley, W. Vincent, H. A. Calvin, E. C. 
Fry, H. Woodside, William L,ee, Edson Fitch and 
John Darlington. 

The Eastern Association held its annual meeting 
with this church in 1893, and in June of this year, 
1903, it met with it again. At the same time the 
church celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of the open- 
ing of its house of worship. 

FRENCH PROTESTANT CHURCH 

This building is situated on St. John street, near 
St. Matthew's Church. It was built about 25 years 
ago. The present pastor is the Rev. M. Boudreault. 

THE SALVATION ARMY 

In Quebec, as in many other cities, there is a 
Salvation Army. In the first years of its existence 
opposition was manifested and a series of riots attended 
its establishment, like those though on a smaller scale, 
which attended the establishment of the army in certain 
districts in I^ondon. The meetings were commenced 
in the month of August, 1886, and addresses were 
delivered in French by Mrs. Simcoe. 

In January, 1887, two female members of the army 
named I/ong and Staples conducted meetings in the old 
Congregational church situated at the corner of Palace 
and MacMahon streets. 

345 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

On the 25th of August, 1887, the Army celebrated 
the first anniversary of its foundation. A band from 
Montreal was engaged for the procession, but a crowd 
of idlers and ill-advised young men followed the pro- 
cession, yelling, and throwing stones at the members 
of the army who were in full uniform. These disturb- 
ances occurred whenever the army paraded in the 
streets, and on several occasions the public and the 
civic authorities had to interfere to maintain order. 

Since 1888, the army has discontinued its proces- 
sions, and confined its operations to meetings and to 
relieving the distressed. 

The army has a refuge where unfortunates can 
obtain food and temporary shelter. The charitable 
work of the army is maintained by voluntary sub- 
scriptions, and a large number daily receive aid under 
the auspices of the Army. 



346 



CHAPTER XV 
1827-1903 
MONUMENTS OF QUEBEC 

WOLFE'S MONUMENT WOLFE AND MONTCALM STE 
FOY MONUMENT JACQUES-C ARTIER MONUMENT 
CHAMPLAIN MONUMENT FATHER MASSE 
SHORT- WALUCK MONUMENT QUEEN VICTORIA 
MONUMENT 

AT a short distance from the Quebec Gaol, to the 
north west, stands a simple monument to the 
immortal Wolfe. It is a plain round column sur- 
mounted by a sword and a helmet. 

On one side of the pedastal are these words : 

HERE DIED 

WOLFE 

VICTORIOUS 

SEPT. 13 

1759 

cut in relief on a plate attached to the base of the 
column. 

347 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

On the other side : 

THIS PILLAR 

WAS EKECTED BY THE 

BBITISH ARMY 

IN CANADA 1849 

His EXCELLENCY 

LIEUTENANT GENERAL 

SIR BENJAMIN D'URBAN 

G. C. B., K. C. H, K. C. T. S-, ETC. 

COMMANDER OF THE FORCES 

TO REPLACE THAT ERECTED BY 

GOVERNOR-GENERAL LORD AYLMER, G C. B. 
IN 1832 

WHICH WAS BROKEN AND DEFACED 
AND IS DEPOSITED BENEATH. 

When Wolfe fell mortally wounded on the i3th 
of September, 1759, he was carried to the rear of his 
line, and died on this spot shortly after. For seventy- 
three years after this event, no monument in Quebec 
marked either the scene of his victory or of his death ; 
although fifty-seven years before, the British officers 
had erected an oblelisk in his honour in the city of 
New York. In 1832, Lord Aylmer erected at his own 
expense a simple monument, and this was replaced in 
1849, through the generosity of the British officers 
forming the garrison of Quebec. 

THE WOLFE-MONTCALM MONUMENT 

Under the administration of Lord Dalhousie, the 
Wolfe-Montcalm monument was erected, which is 
situated at the entrance to the Governor's Garden, 

348 



MONUMENTS OF QUEBEC 

facing the river. The first meeting of citizens was 
held on the ist November, 1827, under the presidency 
of the governor. On the i5th of the same month, 
Lord Dalhousie laid the corner stone in the presence 
of the official, religious, military and civil world of 
Quebec. On this stone is engraved the following 
inscription : 

HUJUSCE 

MOKtTMENTI IX MEMORIAM 

VIRORUM ILLUSTBIUM 

WOLFE ET MONTCALM 

FCNDAMENTUM 

P. C. 

GEORGIUS COMES DE DALHOCSIE 

IN SEPTENTRIONALIS AMERICA PARTIBUS 

AD BRITANNOS PERTINENTIBUS 

SUMMAM RERUM AUMINISTRANS ; 

OPUS PER MULTOS ANNOS PRJKTERMISSUM 

(Quio Duci EGREGIO CONVENIENTIDS ? ) 

AUCTORITATE PfiOMOVENS, EXEMPLO SlIMULANS 
MUNfFICENTIA FovENS 

DIE NOVEMBRIS XVa 

A. I). MDCCOXXVII 

GEORGIO IV BRITANNIARUM REGE. 

The ceremony concluded with the firing of a salute 
from the Citadel and the singing of the national an- 
them " God save the King." 

The work of building the monument was begun 
in 1828 and completed on the 8th September, the day 
fixed for L,ord Dalhousie' s departure. Capt. Fox Maule, 
of the ygth Highlanders, had undertaken at the Gov- 
ernor's request to lay the crowning stone of the 

349 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

monument. The ceremony, less solemn than the first, 
possessed a certain element of sadness for amongst 
those present were a great many who were very sympa- 
thetic to the noble lord and were really grieved at his 
final departure from Canada. Sir James Kempt, the 
new administrator, was present at this demonstration. 
At the beginning, the committee appointed for the 
eredlion of the monument, had opened a competition 
and offered a medal to the person who would compose 
the best inscription. It was won by J. Charlton Fisher, 
L,L,.D., with a very^short, very simple but very suitable 
Latin inscription. It is engraved on the cenotaph of 
the monument and reads as follows : 

MORTEM VIRTUS COMMUNKM 
FAMAM HISTORIA 

MOKUMENTUM POSTERITAS 

DEDIT. 

(Translation) 
VALOUR GAVE THEM A COMMON DEATH 

HISTORY A COMMON FAME 
AND POSTERITY A COMMON MONUMENT. 

THE STE. FOY MONUMENT 

This monument was made after a design by the 
Chevalier Charles Baillarge of Quebec. It consists of 
a column of fluted bronze standing on a pedestal, the 
four corners whereof support four mortars also of 
bronze. The front of the pedestal facing Ste. Foy 
road bears the following inscription : " Aux braves 
de 1760 Erig6 par la Socie"te St. Jean Baptiste de 

350 



MONUMENTS OF QUEBEC 

Quebec, 1860." On the side towards the city, the 
name of MURRAY stands out in relief above the arms 
of Great Britain, on the side of Ste. Foy, the name of 
IvEvis stands above the emblems of Old France. In 
the rear a bas-relief represents the famous wind-mill of 
Dumont, which was held in turn by the English and 
the French, and finally carried by the Grenadiers de 
la Reine under M. d'Aiguebelles, after a furious battle 
with the Scotch Highlanders, under Colonel Fraser. 

A statute of Bellona ten feet high, the gift of 
Prince Jer6me Napoleon, cousin ofc Napoleon III, 
crowns the monument which is itself sixty-five feet high. 

The human bones found on the site of Dumont's 
mill in 1854 were transported with much pomp to the 
Quebec Cathedral and before being buried at the spot 
where the commemorative monument now stands, 
Archbishop Turgeon, in a very solemn ceremony, 
pronounced over the remains of the rival warriors, 
the words of hope and faith in the resurrection. 

In the following year, on the i8th of July, 1855, 
General Rowan, the administrator and acting governor 
of Canada, laid the corner stone of this monument in 
the presence of M. de Belveze, commander of the 
corvette " La Caprfa'euse," the first French man of war 
that had sailed up the St. Lawrence since 1759 ; in the 
presence also of the i6th regiment of British infantry 
with colours, of a detachment of artillery, a detach- 
ment of sailors from the French corvette under arms, 
of a group of Hurons from Lorette in war costume 
and an immense crowd of spectators. 

351 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 
JACQUES-CARTIER MONUMENT 

The idea of this monument originated in the midst 
of the Cercle Catholique of Quebec about the year 
1885. In the following year it purchased from the 
Parke family the ground on which it was intended to 
rect a monument to the memory of the Discoverer of 
Canada and to the Jesuit Fathers de Brebeuf , Masse and 
Lalemant. It was decided also to erect a fac-simile of 
the cross planted by Cartier on the 3rd May 1536 at 
the confluence of the river St. Charles and the river 
Lairet. 

In 1887 the Literary and Historical committee of 
the Cercle issued a warm appeal for subscriptions. 
The public who had favorably received the project, 
responded, and generously subscribed the $4,500 which 
was the cost of the ground, the monument and cross. 
Amongst the most eminent .subscribers may be men- 
tioned His Excellency the Marquess of Lansdowne, 
Governor-General of Canada, Hon. L,. R. Masson, 
Lieutenant- Governor of the Province of Quebec, H. 
H. the Ccmte de Paris, the Due d'Aumale, the Mar- 
quis de Bassano, His Eminence Cardinal Taschereau, 
His Excellency Lord Stanley of Preston, Governor- 
General, Prince Roland Bonaparte, and the city of St. 
Malo. 

The shape of the Jacques- Cartier monument 
greatly resembles that of an antique cippus. Its height 
is about 25 feet including the tumulus upon which it 
stands . The pedestal is of Laurentian gneiss nine feet 

352 



MONUMENTS OF QUEBEC 

square and consists of three courses with projections 
of eight inches on each face. The base, of Descham- 
bault limestone, is ornamented on each side with a 
cartouch carved in high relief. The die resting on 
that base is a single block magnificently polished 
resembling lapis lazuli. It bears the following inscrip- 
tions, engraved and gilt. 

At the entrance : 

JACQUES CARTIER 
ET SES HABDIS COMPAGNONS 

LES MARINS 

DE LA GRANDE HERMINE 

DE LA PETITE HERMINE ET DE L'EMERILLON 

PASSERENT ICI L 5 HIVER 

DE 1535-36 
(Translation) 
JACQUES CARTIEU 

AND HIS BRAVE COMRADES 

THE MARINES 

OF LA GRANDE HKHMINE 

OF LA PETITE HERMINE AND L'EMERILLON 

PASSED THE WINTER HERE 

OF 1535-36 

Facing the city : 

On the 3rd May 1536 Jacques Cartier creeled at 
the spot where he had spent the winter, a cross 35 
feet high, bearing a shield with fleurs-de-lys, and the 
inscription : 

FRANCISCUS PRIMUS 

DEI GRACIA FRANCORUM 

REX REGNAT. 

2 3 353 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

On the East side : 

On the 23rd September 1625, Fathers Jean de 
Brebeuf, Ennemond Masse and Charles Lalemant 
solemnly took possession of the ground known as Fort 
Jacques Cartier at the confluence of the rivers St. 
Charles and Lairet to erect thereon the first residence 
of the Jesuit missionaries in Quebec. 

On the side facing the river L,airet, above the 
cypher of the Society of Jesus, in the middle of a large 
palm, appear the names of the principal martyrs of 
the Society of Jesus in Canada : Brebeuf, Lalemant, 
Jogues, Gamier, Buteux, Masse, Daniel and de Noue. 

The principal mouldings of the cornice and the 
frieze with carved rosettes, contain, (facing the en- 
trance,) the arms of the cit}' of St. Malo ; on the other 
side those of the Cercle Catholique de Quebec. 

The whole is surmounted by a naval crown resting 
on a small cylindrical base. This crown has the usual 
masts, sails, poops of vessels and crenellated tops. 

The honour of executing the plan of this monument 
is due to Mr. E. E. Tache and it was executed by 
M. J. A. Belanger, marble-cutter of St. Roch, Quebec. 

The inauguration of the Jacques Cartier monu- 
ment took place on the 24th of June 1889 amidst an 
immense concourse of people. His Eminence Cardinal 
Taschereau celebrated mass on the monument grounds. 
After the service the Hon. P. J. O. Chauveau delivered 
a very eloquent speech worthy of figuring beside that 
which he had delivered in 1855 at the inauguration of 
the Ste Foy monument. 

354 



MONUMENTS OF QUEBEC 

Hon. Mr. Angers, then Lieutenant-Governor of 
the Province of Quebec, had opened a literary compe- 
tition in connection with Jacques Cartier. The medals 
were distributed at the same place. Messrs. J. Pope, 
N. E. Dionne, H. B. Stephens and Joiion des Longrais 
were proclaimed laureates amidst the applause of the 
assembly. 

CHAMPI<AIN MONUMENT 

The idea of erecting a monument to the Founder 
of Quebec has been discussed on various occasions 
during the last fifty years. In 1890 the St. Jean 
Baptiste Society resolved to carry out the project in 
earnest. A meeting of citizens was called to under- 
take the work, and a committee was appointed with 
the Hon. Judge Chauvean as chairman. Subscription 
lists were opened, and in less than two years the sum 
of $i 7 ,000 had been obtained. The committee decided, 
however, that at least $30,000 would be required for a 
monument worthy of Quebec and of its Founder. 

On the 2oth of February, 1895, the site of the 
future monument was chosen, and the committee, 
through the newspapers, called for plans and specifica- 
tions and for tenders for the monument. Fourteen 
plaster, casts and eleven drawings were examined by 
a jury, who chose the design submitted by Messrs. 
Chevre and L,eCardonnel, the former a sculptor, and 
the latter an architect, of Paris. The contract was 
signed on the 23rd of May, 1896. 

355 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Work on the foundation was begun about the 1 5th 
of June, 1898. All the materials were brought from 
France. The steps are of granite from the Vosges, 
and the pedestal of stone from Chateau L,andon. 
Cham plain stands on the summit, hat in hand, saluting 
the soil of Canada. The statue is 14 feet 9 inches high 
and weighs 6927 Ibs. On the pedestal is a bas-relief 
in bronze of superb appearance : a woman representing 
the city, enters on a tablet the works of the founder ; 
on her right the genius of navigation, in the form of a 
child, recalls the fact that Cham plain was a sailor 
before he was a governor ; above this group P'ame, with 
outspread wings and a trumpet, proclaims the glory of 
the great Frenchman and seems to call upon young 
French Canadians to follow in his footsteps. 

In the distance may be seen the outline of the 
cathedral of Quebec, surmounted by a cross. Several 
cartouches with the arms of Canada, of Quebec, and 
of Brouage, Champlain's native city, complete the 
monument. 

The inscription is as follows : 

SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN 
NE A BKOCAGE EN SAINTONGE, VERS 1567 ; 

SERVIT A L'ARMEE sous HENRI IV 

-^N QUAL1TK DE MARECHAL DES LoGIS ; 

EXPLORA LES INDES OCCIDENTALES DE 

1569 A 1601, 

L'ACADIE PE 1604 A 1607 ; 
FONDA QUEBEC EN 1608 ; 



356 



MONUMENTS OF QUEBEC 

DECOUVRIT LE PAYS DKS GRANDS LACS ; 
COMMANDA PLUSIEURS EXPEDITIONS 

CONTRE LES IROQUOIS 

DE 1609 A 1615 ; 
FUT S0CCESSIVEMENT LlEUTENANT-GoUVERNEUR 

ET GOUVERNEUR DE LA NoCVKLLE FRANCE, 
ET MODRUT A QUEBEC, LE 25 DECEMBRE, 1635. 

The bronze statue was placed on its pedestal on 
the ist August, 1898, but the installation was com- 
pleted only on the 2oth September, the day before the 
inauguration. The statue was unveiled by His Excel- 
lency, Lord Aberdeen, Governor- General of Canada, 
in the presence of 50,000 persons. Amongst the most 
notable personages were : Admiral Sir John Fisher, 
General Lord Seymour, Lieutenant-Governor Jett6, 
Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Lord Herschell, Sir R. Cartwright, 
Sir L. Davis, Mgr. Marois, M. Kleczkowski, Consul- 
General of France, Hon. Mr. Marchand, Prime Minister 
of the Province of Quebec and the members of the 
Cabinet, Honourable Judge Routhier, and all the 
members of the Monument Committee, including Mgr. 
Laflamme, Mgr. Gagnon, Hon. P. Garneau, Mr. S. 
Le Sage, Mr. H. M. Price, Mr. F. X. Berlinguet, Mr. 
Ernest Gagnon, Hon. Mr. Chapais, Dr. N. E. Dionne, 
Mr. A. Evanturel, Mr. G. E. Tanguay, Mr. L. Brunet 
and Mr. A. Talbot. 

The St. Jean Baptiste Society took this opport- 
unity to celebrate the national festival of the French- 
Canadians. The celebration began with a solemn High 
Mass in the Basilica. A magnificent procession defiled 

357 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

through the principal streets of the city, with banners 
and bands. A grand banquet crowned all and gave our 
best orators an opportunity of making patriotic speeches 
in which Champlain's name was repeated more than 
once and was always received with applause. 

Its work over, the Committee handed to the city 
a sum of $500.00, which remained in its hands after 
paying all expenses, and requested the Mayor and citi- 
zens to take possession of the monument and assume 
its maintenance. On the loth February, 1899, the city 
passed a resolution to that effect, and the city of Quebec 
now owns the monument and is bound to preserve it. 

THE MONUMENT TO FATHER MASSE 

This monument is erected at Sillery on the very 
spot where stood the first chapel built by the Com- 
mandeur de Sillery, in memory of Father Ennemond 
Masse, the first Jesuit missionary who labored in that 
mission, called the St. Joseph Mission. It was inaugur- 
ated on the 26th of June, 1870, in the presence of the 
parishioners of Sillery and of several notable personages 
of Quebec. Speeches were made by Vicar-General 
Cazeau, Hon. P. J. O. Chauveau, and Mr. R. R. 
Dobell. 

The monument occupies a very pretty site. It 
consists of a column in the shape of an obelisk of cut 
stone, twenty feet high and surmounted by a white 
marble cross. The column stands on a white brick 
vault containing the remains of Father Masse. It is 

358 



MONUMENTS OF QUEBEC 

surrounded by a palisade with a black walnut gate. 
Inside the palisade, stone posts with chains indicate 
the outline of the main nave and sanctuary of St. 
Michael's church. On two faces of the monument are 
two inscriptions in French which are repeated in 
English on the two other faces, as follows : 

THE INHABITANTS OF SILLERY 
HAVE ERECTED THIS MONUMENT 

TO THE MEMORY OF 

PIERRE ENNEMOND MASSE, S J. 

FIRST MISSIONARY IN CANADA 

BURIED IN 1646 

IN THE CHURCH OF ST. MlCHEL 

ON THE DOMAIN OF 
SAINT-JOSEPH OF SILLERY 



THE CHURCH OF SAINT MICHEL 
WHICH FORMERLY STOOD ON THIS SPOT 

WAS BUILT BY 

THE COMMANDER OF SILLERY, 

FOUNDER IN 1637, OF THE 

SAINT JOSEPH DOMAIN. 

THE SHORT-WALUCK MONUMENT 

On the 1 6th May, 1889, St. Sauveur suburbs were 
devastated by fire which threatened to destroy the 
entire ward. Several hundred houses, mostly of wood, 
had already been burned, when the soldiers thought 
that the only way to arrest the progress of the destroying 
element would be to blow up some buildings. Barrels 
of gun-powder were prepared for the purpose, and 
Major Short of the Royal Canadian Artillery, with a 

359 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

sergeant of the same corps, approached the flames too 
closely with the dangerous burden, and became the 
victims of their bravery. It is supposed that a spark 
must have set fire to one of the barrels. In any case 
a terrible explosion suddenly occurred and the bodies 
of both were blown into space. When found they were 
nothing but disfigured corpses. 

Moved by this double death and desirous also of 
expressing their gratitude to these two heroes of charity, 
the citizens of Quebec contributed to the erection of a 
monument to their memory. When it became necessary 
to choose a site, some wished to place it on the spot 
where the tragedy had occurred, but after mature con- 
sideration, the committee of citizens decided to place 
it where it now stands on the grounds of the Drill Hall, 
close to the Grande Alice. 

THE MONUMENT TO QUEEN VICTORIA 

This excellent bronze, which surmounts a stone 
pedestal designed by Mr. Tache, I. S. O., is placed 
towards the centre of Victoria Park, on the banks of 
the river St. Charles. The statue is the work of 
Marshall Wood, who offered it to the government for 
the sum of $20,000. 

For some years the statue was lying in Dufferin 
Avenue, but finally the Hon. Mr. Parent purchased it 
for the sum of $1,700, and placed it in its present 
position. The statue was unveiled by L,ord Aberdeen 
in the year 1897. 

360 



CHAPTER XVI 

1639-1903 

HOSPITALS AND INSTITUTIONS 

GENERAL HOSPITAL HOTEL-DIEUDU PRECIEUX SANG 
HOTEL- DIEU DU SACRE-CCEUR JEFFREY HALE 
HOSPITAL GOOD SHEPHERD ASYLUM SISTERS 
OF CHARITY ST. ANTOINE ASYLUM ST. BRID- 
GET'S ASYLUM 

ON the 1 3th of September, 1692, Mgr. de Saint Vallier 
bought the convent of the Recollets on the bank 
of the River St. Charles and a little later gave it to 
some nuns of the Hotel Dieu who were chosen to found 
a General Hospital. By the terms of the contract the 
Recollets conveyed to the bishop one hundred and six 
arpents of land, their church and convent of Notre 
Dame des Anges, consisting of a cloister of seven or 
eight arcades on each side ; of a dormitory containing 
twenty-four cells, beneath which were the pantry, 
kitchen, refectory, and a vestibule, with cellars and 
garrets. 

361 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

On the 30th of October of the same year, the poor 
people who had hitherto been kept in the house of 
Providence in the upper town, were transferred to this 
building, which was to be the refuge of the homeless 
and friendless poor. On the ist of April, 1693, four 
hospitalieres nuns took possession of the new hospital, 
which soon had forty-two inmates. 

In 1710 and 1711 two wings were added to the 
former buildings, thanks always to the care of Mgr. 
de Saint Vallier, who spared no expense in connection 
with a work in which he took a deep interest. Some 
years afterwards, Father Charlevoix wrote : ' ' The 
General Hospital is the finest house in Canada, and 
would be no discredit to our largest cities in France. 

In 1736 the nuns decided to receive in the hospital 
discharged soldiers unfit for service, and built a wing 
one hundred and twenty feet long. The foundations 
were commenced in the following spring, and the 
corner stone was solemnly laid on the 6th of June. 

In 1743, a new building, one hundred and fifty feet 
long, by forty-four in width was begun to the west of 
the building commenced in 1736. The hospital having 
become too small, the nuns were compelled to open 
a ward, on the spot where the former dormitory of the 
Recollets stood. The narrow cells of the Recollet 
Fathers disappeared, and with them the antique char- 
acter of the monastery of Notre Dame des Anges, 
which until then could be considered the oldest religious 
monument of New France. 

362 



HOSPITALS AND INSTITUTIONS 

In 1850, a considerable amount of work was done 
towards embellishing the building. Nine years later 
the Hospitalieres nuns had a wing built on the site of 
the old asylum for the insane. Until the Beauport 
Asylum was opened on the i2th of September, 1845, 
the General Hospital took charge of the insane. 

The General Hospital is one of the most interesting 
convents, historically speaking. Whenever it became 
necessary to succour the unfortunate, of whatever 
nationality, either in times of epidemic or in time of 
war, the Hospital opened its doors to all in need of 
medical care. After the siege of Quebec, in 1759, the 
wounded of the English army were received with the 
same charity as the French. The wounded soldiers of 
Arnold and Montgomery were also as carefully attended 
to as if they had been in a Boston hospital. 

Four bishops and more than sixty priests have been- 
taken there to die, as the surest retreat, feeling nearer 
to God and heaven there than anywhere else. 

At present the staff of the Hospital consists of 50 
nuns, 2 novices, 19 lay sisters, 4 postulant nuns and 4 
postulant lay sisters. The number of poor inmates 
varies from 200 to 230. There are also six priests and 
six old lady boarders. 

The sacristy of the chapel contains an Ecce Homo 
which is admitted by connoisseurs to be a master-piece. 
Unfortunately the name of the painter is not known. 
The greater portion of the treasures of the church date 
from the time of Mgr. de Saint Vallier and consist of 
a chalice, altar-cruets, censer and candle-sticks of silver, 

363 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

the gifts of Madame de Maintenon to Mgr. de Saint 
Vallier, the value of which is estimated at 3,000 
francs. 

L,' HOTEL DIEU DU PRECIEUX SANG 

The Hotel Dieu, like the Ursuline convent, is the 
oldest monastery in Canada. Its foundation dates from 
the year 1637. Two years after, Mere Marie Guenet de 
Saint Ignace, and two other hospitalieres,who had been 
sent by the Duchesse d'Aiguillon, niece of Cardinal 
Richelieu, arrived in Quebec. In the early days of the 
country's history, the nuns had to lodge temporarily 
at Sillery, and afterwards in a house in Quebec. The 
corner stone of the present convent was laid in 1654. 
The building, which contained a chapel and a hospital, 
was finished in 1658; it was consecrated by M. de 
Queylus, on the loth of August. Another building 
was added to it in 1672. In 1696 considerable additions 
were made to the main building. Two centuries later 
a very large wing was built in the modern style, 
intended chiefly for private patients. 

The Hospitalieres nuns, as their name indicates, 
take care of the sick of all classes. The poor are 
admitted as well as the rich. All receive, either in 
private rooms, or in the public wards, medical care 
and assiduous attention from the nuns. A splendid 
operating room is connected with the building which 
contains everything calculated to give the patient the 
best possible chance of being cured. 

364 



HOSPITALS AND INSTITUTIONS 

The medical service is irreprochable and is per- 
formed by a certain number of professors of Laval 
University. 

The convent chapel, the entrance to which is on 
Charlevoix street, is old, and contains several mural 
tablets, and master-pieces by artists such as L,esueur, 
the French Raphael, Coypel and Stella. 

In the Hotel Dieu there are several souvenirs of a 
by-gone age which are carefully preserved ; besides 
relics of the first Canadian martyrs. Amongst other 
treasures may be mentioned a silver gilt chalice, richly 
chiseled, and of older date than the foundation of the 
hospital ; a ciborium, two silver- gilt altar cruets with 
stand, and a silver censer given by M. Dannemarche, 
cousin of Mother Jeanne Suppli de Sainte Marie, who 
died in 1641 in the monastery of Sillery ; a silver lamp 
suspended in front of the main altar, given to the Hotel 
Dieu by M. de Courcelles, Governor of New France, 
and bearing his arms. There is also a silver bust 
representing Father de Brebeuf who suffered martyr- 
dom at the hands of the Iroquois, but the origin of the 
bust is unknown. The bust stands upon an ebony 
pedestal containing the skull of Father de Brebeuf. 
This relic was brought to the Hotel Dieu by the 
Hurons, when the tribe came to Quebec. Another reli- 
quary contains the two thigh-bones of Father Gabriel 
Lalemant, a Jesuit, who was Father de Brebeuf 's com- 
panion in martyrdom ; a very rich reliquary containing 
the skull and bones of Mother Catherine de L,ongprey 
of St. Augustin, an Augustine nun who died in the 

365 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

odour of sanctity at the Hotel Dieu on the 8th of May, 
1668, at the age of 36, after having edified Canada for 
twenty years by the nobility of her virtuous life. 
Two reliquaries containing bones of the martyrs of 
Montmartre sent from France in 1640 by Madame de 
Beauvilliers, abbess of the Benedictine nuns, whose 
monastery stood on the very spot where now stands 
the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, on the butte Mont- 
martre, in Paris. 

Amongst several remarkable and very rare pictures, 
some of which date back to 1640, preserved in the Hotel 
Dieu, are a Crucifixion, by Van Dyke ; a Christmas night 
by Stella, given by Mgr. Dosquet ; a Presentation of 
Mary in the Temple, by Lebrun; a Visitation, by Rubens. 
on copper, given by the Duchesse d'Aiguillon ; a St. 
Francis of Assist, by Zurbaran ; the Martyrs of the Society 
of Jesus in Canada ; a very fine tapestry in two pieces 
one of which is the Adoration of the Shepherds, and the 
other, the Adoration of the Magi, given by Mr. Dan- 
nemarche ; portraits of Louis XIV, the Intendant 
Talon, Louis XV, Marie Leckzinska ; Fathers Rague- 
neau and Charlevoix ; Mother Benigne Therese de 
Jesus, a carmelite, daughter of M. de Denonville, 
Governor of New France.; Mother St. Augustin ; 
Mother St. Ignace, annalist of the Hotel Dieu and the 
first Canadian superioress of the institution. 

Amongst the engravings are those of Father Le 

Jeune, Cardinal Richelieu and theDuchesse d'Aiguillon. 

The archives of the Hotel Dieu are very precious. 

They contain a number of old plans and other manu- 

366 



HOSPITALS AND INSTITUTIONS 

script documents, such as deeds of purchase, of sale, of 
exchange, of immoveables, several of which bear the 
signature of a governor or intendant with his arms on 
the seal ; deeds of gift, inventories, wills and even con- 
tracts of marriage of various persons interested in the 
affairs of the Hotel Dieu ; very old letters, amongst 
others one from St. Francis de Sales, another from St. 
Vincent de Paul, from Talon, Montcalm, Mgr. de 
Pontbriand ; Vaudreuil, Bigot, Maisonneuve, Madame 
D' Ailleboust ; Father F. X. Duplessis ; the registers of 
the entry, discharge or death, of all the patients admit- 
ted to the Hotel Dieu since 1689, with the place of 
their birth ; the registers of the patients who died in 
the hospital and were buried in the Cemetery of the 
Poor from 1723 to 1867 ; the manuscript Annals of the 
Hotel Dieu by Mother Marie Andree Duplessis de Ste 
Helene, under the direction of Mother Jeanne Francoise 
Juchereau de St. Ignace ; six volumes of the sermons 
of M. Joseph de la Colombiere, brother of the celebrated 
Jesuit Father Claude de la Colombiere. 

Many of the original documents, especially of those 
relating to the Siege of Quebec in 1759, were kindly 
lent by Mother Saint Andre in 1902, for an exhibition 
in the Franciscan Convent. 

Three hundred and eight nuns and 85 lay sisters 
have lived in the Hotel Dieu du Precieux Sang since 
its foundation. Of this number, 17 nuns were supplied 
from 1639 to 1670, both by the house in Dieppe and by 
the French communities which issued from it. Three 
nuns returned to France, being unable to stand the 

367 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

rigours of hospital life in Canada ; four sisters died in 
the General Hospital, two of whom were foundresses 
and two auxiliaries. Three nuns and a lay-sister are 
now in the Hotel Dieu of L,evis, which they founded 
in 1892 ; 64 nuns and 19 lay-sisters are now living in 
the Hotel Dieu. 

HOTEL-DIEU DU SACRE CCEUR 

As the General Hospital was an off-shoot from 
the Hotel-Dieu du Precieux Sang, so is the Hotel 
Dieu an off-shoot of the General Hospital. Its foun- 
dation in the j'ear 1873, is due to the efforts of the 
Archbishop of Quebec, nobly assisted by Chevalier 
Falardeau, notary, who was its temporal founder. 

The objedl of this institution is wholly charitable, 
and is devoted to the care of foundlings and of infirm 
old people. 

The staff of the monastery at present, is as follows : 

Professed Nuns 38 

Novices ii 

Lay Sisters 19 

Patients 146 

Children 40 

Boarders 17 

The community, being still a young one, has not 
accumulated many paintings, engravings or books. 
Nevertheless it possesses a memento of the old Jesuit 

368 



HOSPITALS AND INSTITUTIONS 

church under the French regime, consisting of sixteen 
statues of wood, painted a bronze colour, representing 
the twelve Apostles, St. John the Baptist, St. Paul, 
St. Ignatius of Loyola and St. Francis Xavier. They 
are said to have been carved by a lay brother of the 
Society of Jesus. 

The Hotel-Dieu also has a picture in relief of the 
crucifixion of Our Lord between two thieves. This 
picture was found in the attic of the Basilica by Mr. 
Regali, a statuary of Quebec. There is also a picture 
of the birth of Our Lord, that came from the gallery 
of Lord Metcalfe, a former governor of Canada. 

The principal business carried on by the community 
is the cultivation of plants and flowers, the manufacture 
of mass-wine and wafers ; and laundrying for outside 
persons, and sewing. 

THE JEFFREY HALE HOSPITAL 

This hospital was founded in 1865 through the 
liberality of Mr. Jeffrey Hale, who gave a portion of 
the money required to purchase a ground and hospital 
for the Protestant sick. In the month of December, 
1865, a property was bought situated on the edge of 
the cliff overlooking St. Roch suburbs, at the corner of 
Richelieu and Glacis streets. This hospital was opened 
in 1867 and remained open until 1901. Shortly before 
that date the authorities of the Jeffrey Hale Hospital 
had found that they had not sufficient room for their 
patients, and had purchased from the nuns of the Hotel 
Dieu an extensive piece of ground between Claire 

24 369 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Fontaine and deSalaberry streets, on which they ere<5led 
a new building on the most modern plan, with a special 
department for contagious diseases. A generous legacy 
of $150,000 from the Hon. James Gibb Ross was of 
great assistance in enabling the governors to attain 
their object. 

The present Jeffrey Hale Hospital is a splendid 
brick building whose shape greatly resembles a Maltese 
cross. Its dimensions are 142 feet by 34. The arms 
of the cross are 66 feet by 45. The building is four 
stories high, with a basement. It can easily accom- 
modate 60 patients apart from the paying patients. 

The administration is in the hands of six governors 
elected yearly. The actual president is Mr. J. Theodore 
Ross. 

Jeffrey Hale whose name is given to the hospital, 
was born in Quebec in 1 803 and died in England in 1 864. 
He was a man of high character and great liberality. 
He founded the Quebec Provident Savings Bank, which 
on several occasions gave sums of money to the religious 
institutions in Quebec, both Catholic and Protestant. 

ASYLUM OF THE GOOD SHEPHERD 

This asylum dates from the i ith of January, 1850. 
The first Asylum, on Richelieu street, was only of a 
temporary nature, for in the month of October of the 
same year, the St. Vincent de Paul Society assisted by 
the Chevalier Muir and Mr. Cazeau purchased a house 
on Lachevrotiere street, which, for four years served 
the purpose of the foundress, Madame Roy. 

370 



HOSPITALS AND INSTITUTIONS 

In 1854, the Asylum of the Good Shepherd was 
built on the same street, the house being 72 feet by 55. 
Six years later the building on St. Amable street, called 
after the Holy Family, was added to the others. The 
corner-stone of the chapel was laid on the 2nd of July, 

1867, and it was opened for worship on the 28th of May, 

1868. The St. Magdalen building, on L,achevrotiere 
street, was erected in 1876. The building dedicated 
to Notre Dame de Toutes Graces, on the corner of 
Berthelot and St. Amable streets, and the St. Joseph 
Building on Berthelot street, date from 1899. 

The St. lyouis Academy was opened in 1892. The 
St. Jean Berchman's School, purchased in 1890, in 
which at first only little girls were taught, was opened 
as a school for little boys in 1 90 1 . The school belonging 
to the School Board dates from 1900. 

The St. Louis Academy was inaugurated with the 
view of obtaining additional resources for the main 
work of the Good Shepherd convent ; providing a 
home for young women of dissolute life. This Aca- 
demy is under the exclusive control of the community 
and the course of study laid down by the Council of 
Public Instruction is followed. At the present time 
140 pupils attend the Academy. 

The Good Shepherd school dates from the 7th of 
January, 1851. As soon as it was opened, it received 
the support of a friend of education, Mr. Jacques Cre- 
mazie, who spared no sacrifice for it. He may justly 
be considered as the founder of this school. 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

In 1880, the Council of Public Instruction con- 
ferred the title of Academy on the Good Shepherd 
school. 

The Good Shepherd community has charge of the 
St. Charles Asylum and the Lying-in Hospital. The 
former is a reformatory and industrial school for girls. 
It occupies the old Marine Hospital, which the nuns 
purchased from the Federal Government in 1891 . The 
staff consists of a chaplain, and 16 nuns, and there are 
221 children under their charge. 

Thirteen nuns have charge of the Lying-in Hos- 
pital, on Couillard street. The Asylum of the Holy 
Angels is an annex to the latter. 

The staff of the Good Shepherd community is as 
follows : 

Nuns 221 

Lay-Sisters 58 

Novices 56 

Total 335 

The number of penitents at the present time is 
150, but the number varies, and is generally greater, 
than less. 

ASYLUM OF THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 

The asylum of the Sisters of Charity was founded 
in 1848, by Mgr. C. F. Turgeon, Archbishop of Quebec, 
by means of collections and subscriptions throughout 
the diocese. 

37 2 



HOSPITALS AND INSTITUTIONS 

Poor as it has always been, the community of the 
Sisters of Charity, or Grey Nuns, has, by the exercise 
of perseverance, succeeded in carrying out and deve- 
loping its work, morally and materially, in amarVelous 
manner. Twenty-five years ago the convent staff con- 
sisted of 65 nuns and 24 novices ; at present that number 
has doubled, without including those sent to the country 



The number of inmates at present is : 

Nuns 1 30 

Novices 67 

Lay nuns 137 

Orphans of both sexes 397 

L^ady boarders 2 

Infirm old women 84 

Children in the asylum rooms. ... 152 

Out-door pupils i , 579 

At the asylum of St. Louis de Gonzague there are 
5 priests, 172 boy boarders and half-boarders, and 25 
old men. 

The Sisters of Charity have charge of the Asylum 
of St. Michael the Archangel, at la Canardiere, on the 
Beauport road. The inmates are : 4 physicians, 36 
nuns, 54 lay-sisters, 12 female keepers, 37 male keepers 
and porters, 31 mechanics, tradesmen and others ; 570 
male patients, 10 boarders ; 485 female patients and 13 
boarders. 

373 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Moreover, the Sisters of Charity have charge of 
the St. Antoine Asylum of St. Roch, and St. Bridget's 
Asylum on Grande Alice. 

The archives of the convent, since its foundation, 
are contained in two enormous volumes, besides ten 
volumes of Annals, or the History of the Institute. 

The library contains 6,121 well selected volumes. 

ST. ANTOINE ASYLUM 

On the 28th of October, 1897, the Cercle Catkolique 
of Quebec handed over to the archiepiscopal corporation 
the handsome building owned by it on St. Francis 
street. On the 25th of March, 1898, that corporation 
transferred the property to the pastor of St. Roch, who 
had obtained an act of incorporation from the Legis- 
lature on the 1 5th of January previous. The object of 
this foundation is to care for the old people of the 
parish. On the very day the asylum was opened 8 old 
men and 16 old women were comfortably installed 
in suitable apartments. Soon afterwards the building 
became too small to accommodate the number of appli- 
cants. The parish priest at once resolved to add a 
wing to the old building. This was begun on the 
26th of July, 1900, and finished in 1901, the cost being 
$26,950, which was collected by means of subscriptions. 
On the 9th of May, 1901, Archbishop Begin blessed the 
building and presided at a banquet at which many 
priests and citizens were present, as well as the aged 
inmates of the asylum. 

374 



HOSPITAL AND INSTITUTIONS 

Eleven Sisters of the Grey nuns are in charge of 
this asylum, which at present has a hundred and four 
inmates. It has no private revenues and relies on public 
charity for its support ; so far the latter has not failed it. 

ST. BRIDGET'S ASYLUM ASSOCIATION 

This Association which perpetuates the name of 
the famous Abbess of Kildare, may be considered to 
date from the spring of 1856, when a few of the non- 
commissioned officers of the regiments of the line 
stationed in the garrison, collected the sum of seventeen 
pounds, which they handed to the Reverend Father 
Nelligan, V. G. , for the relief of the poor. This modest 
sum formed the nucleus of a fund for the establishment 
of a home for destitute children and orphans. Father 
McGauran continued the work commenced by Father 
Nelligan, and in December, 1856, a house was obtained 
nearly opposite the church, which for two years served 
as a home for children and an asylum for the aged and 
infirm. In 185-8 this building was found to be too 
small for the growing needs of the parish, and a property 
was purchased on the St. L,ouis Road upon which the 
present building now stands. There was a stone build- 
ing upon the grounds 60 feet by 40 which was fitted 
up to meet the requirements of the Association. Two 
years later the members of the Congregation of St. 
Patrick's who had carried out this charitable work, 
sought incorporation, and on the iQth of May,, 1860, 
Sir Edmund Head assented to an Act, the preamble of 
which read as follows : 

375 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

" Whereas an Association has been formed in the 
city of Quebec for the purpose of providing for the 
maintenance of aged and infirm persons ; 

' ' And whereas the said Association has established 
an Asylum for destitute orphans and immigrants, and 
has also in contemplation the establishing of an hospital 
where medical aid and attendance may be offered to 
the indigent ; 

' ' And whereas certain members of the said Asso- 
ciation and others interested in its welfare, have, by 
their petition, represented that the said Association 
would be more efficient by giving to it the character 
of a corporation ; 

" Therefore, Her Majesty, &c., enacts as follows : 
1 ' The Reverend Bernard McGauran, Henry O'Con- 
nor, Thomas J. Murphy, Maurice O'Leary, John Lane, 
jr., John Baxter, Patrick Shee, Wm. Quinn, E. 
O'Doherty, M. J. O'Doherty, J. C. Nolan, Jas. Mur- 
phy, J. Lilly, J. Magee, J. Flanagan. J. Thomas, J. 
Lane, sr., T. Morgan, P. Lawlor, J. Teaffe, T. M. 
-Quigley, Hon. C. Alleyn, M. Kelly, T. McGreevy, 
W. Kirwin, E. Quinn, J. Quinn, M. Cavanagh, M. 
Cullen, M. A. Hearn, R. McGreevy, M. F. Walsh, 
H. Martin, G. Smith, J. O'Leary, Sergeant Walsh, 
R. W. Behan, G. W. Golfer, D. Carey, E. G. Cannon, 
M. Enright, J. Archer, G. Neilan, J. M. Jordan, M. 
Connolly, A. McDonnell, H. Devlin, M. Dunn, J. 
Ryan, J. Kindelin, J. O'Kane, T. Malone, J. B. 
O'Doherty, P. O. O'Doherty, J. O'Reilly, G. McGlynn, 
J. Enright, P. Hanning, J. O'Brien, P. Teaffe, J. 
Cook, J. Sharpies, J. P. O'Meara, N. Lee, W. Nolan, 
D. O' Sullivan, P. McMahon, P. Wlash. W. Scanlan, 
M. Lynch, J. O' Donovan, W. Haunon, C. Gilbride, 
D. Malone, L. Stafford, J. Reid, R. Alleyn, E. Teaffe 
and the chaplain for the time being of the Catholics of 

376 



HOSPITAL AND INSTITUTIONS 

Quebec speaking the English language, and all others 
who may be from time to time, elected members of the 
said Association, and who shall continue to be members 
by the observance of the Rules and By-laws which may 
be framed in that behalf, shall be, and are hereby con- 
stituted and made a body politic and corporate by the 
name of St. Bridget's Asylum Association." 

In 1866, a new wing was commenced at a cost of 
$26,000, which was completed in 1873, and various 
additions have since been made. 

In the year 1870, the Act of Incorporation was 
amended, by which the property, real or personal, then 
held by the Association, was transferred and vested in 
five trustees, four of whom were to be laymen residing 
in the district of Quebec, and the fifth, the Chaplain, 
for the time being. The first trustees were to be elected 
by the Chaplain for a term of five years, and afterwards 
the trustees were to be elected by the members of the 
Association. 

St. Bridget's Asylum Association has accomplished 
much good work, and it heartily deserves all the en- 
couragement necessary to enable it to extend, to the 
utmost, its sphere of usefulness. The Grey Nuns 
attend to the Asylum, and at present there are 9 pro- 
fessed nuns and 8 lay sisters attached to the Asylum. 
In August, 1903, there were twenty-five old men and 
fifty-six old women provided for in the Asylum, and 
there were thirty-nine boys and fifty girls in the or- 
phans branch. 

Mr. Edward Foley is the Secretary of the Asso- 
ciation. 

377 



CHAPTER XVII 
17OO-19O3 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND PLACES OF 
INTEREST 

THE LEGISLATIVE BUILDINGS ( ) THE HOTEL DE VILLE 

THE PRISON THE INTENDANT'S PALACE 
THE SENECHAL'S COURT THE COURT HOUSE 

LAVAL NORMAL SCHOOL QUEBEC GARRISON CLUB 

THE CHATEAU FRONTENAC THE ARCH- 
BISHOP'S PALACE THE QUEBEC SEMINARY 
LAVAL UNIVERSITY BEAUVOIR MANOR 
SPENCER GRANGE MONTMORENCY 

THE grounds on which the Parliament Buildings 
are erected, formed a part of the old Fief St. 
Francois, which was conceded to Jean Bourdon by the 
company of New France on the r6th of March, 1646. 
The area of the ground occupied by the Legislative 
and Departmental buildings is 251,763 square feet, and 
that of Fountain Avenue, 18,000 square feet, making 
a total of 269,763 square feet. 

( i ) The data for these notes is taken from " Le Palais Legis- 
latif" by Ernest Oagnon, F.R.S.C., Secretary of the Department of 
Public Works. 

379 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

The green sandstone used in the basement was 
taken from the Levis quarries. The stone of the facing 
of the outer walls from Deschainbault, and the stone 
used for the facing of the Court yard came from Murray 
Bay and Terrebonne. 

The total cost of the buildings, including the 
purchase of the ground, the statues and the embellish- 
ment of the surrounding grounds, was $1,669,249.16. 
Two accidents increased the cost of construction . First , 
the destruction of the old Parliament Building, near 
the Archbishop's Palace in April, 1883, which rendered 
it necessary to construct a temporary chamber, within 
the building in progress, for the use of the approaching 
session of the Legislature, and the double dynamite 
explosion caused by wanton hands in October, 1884, 
which necessitated the rebuilding of a portion of the 
edifice. 

The building is of quadrangular form with an 
inner court yard. The face of each building is 300 
feet in length. The building facing Dufferin Avenue 
is occupied by the Legislative Council and by the 
Legislative Assembly, the minimum width of this por- 
tion is 60 feet, and the maximum 107 y 2 feet. The 
height of the walls from the soil to the cornice is 60 
feet, the roof rising 17 feet above. 

The tower of the campanile is 153 feet in height, 
but the crest surmounted by an iron crown is 19 feet 
above, making the total height from the ground to the 
summit, 172 feet. 



PUBLIC BUIIJDINGS, &C. 

The three sides of the building occupied by the 
Public Departments have a minimum depth of 47^ feet 
and a maximum width of 57^ feet. The outer walls to 
the cornice have the same height as those of the main 
front, 60 feet and 103 feet to the top of the rdof. 

The whole building has a basement, a ground floor 
of rustic quoins, and two other stories separated by a 
continuous belt-course and surmounted by a large 
Ionic entablature. 

A mansard roof, covered with galvanized iron, 
with ornaments in zinc, completes the exterior of the 
building. 

The main front is remarkable for the fine propor- 
tions of its central tower, dedicated to Jacques Cartier ; 
by the purity of the lines of the fore parts added to this 
tower dedicated, one, to Champlain, and the other to 
Maisonneuve ; by the elegance of the pavilions at the 
angles, and by the ornamentation in its entirety. 

The niches in the masonry of the front of the 
Campanile are to contain statues of Jacques Cartier, 
the discoverer of Canada ; of Champlain, the founder 
of Quebec ; of Maisonneuve, the founder of Montreal ; 
of L,aviolette, the founder of Three Rivers ; of Pierre 
Boucher, Governor of Three Rivers ; of Father Brebeuf, 
Jesuit ; of Father Viel, Recollet ; of Mgr. de Montmo- 
rency-L,aval ; of M. Olier, founder of the Society of St. 
Sulpitius. The niches already filled contain the statues 
of Wolfe, Montcalni,Frontenac, L,evis, Lord Elgin, and 
de Salaberry, the hero of Chateauguay. 

381 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

On the piers of each story, trophies, surrounded 
by oak leaves, cartouches, panoplies and floating drap- 
eries, bear, carved in relief, the arms of the Governors 
and Royal Lieutenants : Montmagny, d'Ailleboust, 
d'Argenson, Tracy, Callieres, Vaudreuil, Murray, Dor- 
chester, PreVost, Bagot ; of the discoverers : Marquette, 
Jolliet, L,a Verendrye, I/a Salle ; of the intendant 
Talon ; of the warriors : Daulac, Beaujeu, Hertel, 
d'Iberville. 

The pediment of the fore-front dedicated to Cham- 
plain is surmounted by a fine group in bronze, by P. 
Hebert : Poetry and Histoty ; another group in bronze, 
by the same : Religion and Patria, crowns the pedi- 
ment of the fore-front dedicated to Maisonneuve. 

In front of the main entrance, at the foot of the 
campanile, is a monumental fountain dedicated to the 
aboriginal races of Canada. The portico, of the Tuscan 
order, is surmounted by a bronze group representing 
an Indian family. Below, at the back of the sheet 
of water formed by an elliptical shaped basin, 45 feet 
long and 28 wide, another bronze representing an 
Indian with a fish-spear spearing a fish in a cascade, 
completes the ornamentation of this graceful out- work. 

The interior decorations are as numerous as elo- 
quent. In the vestibule appears, on the right, the 
arms of the Marquess of Lome, and on the left those of 
the Marquess of Lansdowne, both Governors-General 
of Canada, the former from 1877 to 1883, and the latter 
from 1883 to 1888. 

382 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS, &C. 

Close by, on the left, are the arms of Hon. Mr. 
Robitaille and, as a pendant, on the right, those of 
Hon. Mr. Masson, both Lieutenant- Governors of the 
Province of Quebec, the former from 1879 to 1884 and 
the latter from 1884 to 1887. 

The black walnut wainscoting of the vestibule, 
ground floor and first and second stories, is ornamented 
with arabesques, with arms and inscriptions carved and 
gilt with remarkable taste and skill. They tell the 
history of Canada in heraldic language. On the ground 
floor are the arms and names of personages belonging 
to the first period of the historical annals of North 
America and Canada : Verazzani, Sebastian Cabot, 
De la Roche, De Caen, Roberval, Pontgrave 1 , Poutrin- 
court, de Monts, de Lry, de Chastes, Pontchartrain, 
Chateaufort, the Marquise de Guercheville, Lauzon, 
Courcelles, Hocquart, Denonville, Begon, Duquesne, 
the Duchesse d' Aiguillon, Madame de la Peltrie, Marie 
Guyart de 1' Incarnation. 

In a cartouche at the foot of the grand staircase 
of the vestibule, traced in gold, is a sun lighting the 
world with the motto Nee pluribus impar, and the 
inscription ' ' Louis XIV. ' ' Opposite in another car- 
touche are carved the arms and name of Colbert. 

In the upper story, in a similar position, are the 
arms of George III and of his minister William Pitt. 

The visitor has ascended a flight of stairs and 
history has advanced a century. 

With consummate art the gilt arabesques and 
lines run along the panels of the staircase ascending to 

383 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

the first and then to the second story multiplying their 
vaired and graceful designs and surrounding the arms 
of personages chiefly belonging to a more recent period : 
Saint Vallier, Pontbriand, Beauharnois, L,a Galis- 
soniere, L,a Jonquiere, Longueuil, Coulon de Villiers, 
Ramezay, Townshend, Amherst, Quesnel, Vallieres, 
Sewell, Stuart, Panet, Baby, Taschereau, Bedard, de 
L,ery, Lot biniere, Parent, Nelson, Lanaudiere, Boucher- 
ville, Viger, Cuvillier, St. Ours, Bourdages, Plessis, 
Mountain, Blauchet, Laforce, Lartigue, Bourget, 
Rollette, Dambourges, Duchesnay, De Gaspe, etc. 

At the back of the top most flight of the main 
staircase, surrounded by abundant palms encrusted 
with gold on the wainscoting shine forth the mono- 
gramme of the Society of Jesus and the names of some 
of the Jesuit missionaries whose blood moistened and 
rendered fruitful the thenceforth Christian soil of 
Canada and North America ; Jogues, Lalemant, Rasle, 
Buteux, Gamier. 

To the right are the names of the first historians of 
New France : Sagard, Lescarbot, Ducreux,Charlevoix ; 
to the left those of modern historians and historiogra- 
phers : Garneau, Ferland, Christie, Bouchette. 

The chamber of the Legislative Council and that 
of the Legislative Assembly are of the same dimen- 
sions : 67 feet long 50 wide and 33 high. 

Each of the four angle pavilions has an entrance 
of smaller proportions with Ionic pilaster, consoles, 
cornices and cartouches on which are carved the arms 
of the province. 

384 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS, &C. 

Work was begun in 1877 and the various public 
departments were installed at the end of the year 1880. 

The architect of the building was Mr. Eugene 
Tache, I. S. O., and the work was carried out by Mr. 
P. Gauvreati and Mr. J. B. Derorae, Government 
Engineers. 

The foundations of the main building were laid 
in 1 88 1. The corner stone which was laid on the i7th 
June, 1884, by His Honour, Lieutenant Governor 
Robitaille, is at the foot of one of the side pillars of 
the main entrance, on the left side. 

The grounds have been very tastefully laid out 
under the direction of Mr. Chollet, the gardener of 
Spencer Wood, and during the summer months they 
are very attractive. 

In the ground, adjoining the walls of the city, 
specimens of various kinds of Canadian trees have 
been planted, which in the course of time, when they 
come to maturity, will prove both ornamental and 
instructive. 

THE HOTEL DE VILLE 

The present City Hall stands on the grounds of 
the old Jesuit College. The college was afterwards 
occupied as a Barracks, and for many years it was 
known as the Jesuits Barracks. In the month of 
November 1889, a portion of the ground was purchased 
for civic buildings, the old city Hall being then on St. 
lyOuis St. The corner stone of the new building was 
laid on the i3th of August, 1895, all( i the opening 

25 385 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

ceremony took place on the igih of September 1896, 
His^ Worship Mayor Parent, presiding. The total cost 
of the new city Hall was about $150,000. 

The building is of an imposing and substantial 
character, and the surrounding grounds are well laid 
out. There is a fine chamber for the meetings of the 
council, and large reception rooms and spacious offices 
for all the requirements of the civic administration. 

THE PRISON 

The oldest prison of Quebec stood on the grounds 
belonging to the family of de Becancour, near Fort St. 
Louis, on the corner of St. Louis and des Carrieres 
streets, nearly opposite the main entrance to the court- 
yard of the Chateau Frontenac. 

In the latter years of the French regime the public 
prison was situated in rear of the Palace of the Inten- 
dant, near the river St. Charles, at the place commonly 
called " the fuel-yard." 

In 1784 vacant rooms in the Recollets convent 
served as a temporary prison. When the convent was 
burned, the prisoners were kept in buildings adjoining 
the" Artillery Barracks, near Palace Hill. 

In 1810 the building of a prison was begun on the 
piece of ground between St. Stanislas, Dauphine and 
Ste. Angele streets : this prison was inaugurated in 
1814 and was used until 1867." It is now Morrin College. 

The main door on St. Stanislas street was removed, 
and replaced by a new one. Above it was the follow- 
ing inscription : 

386 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS, &C. 

A. D 
MDUCCX 

L. A. REO. GEOKGIO Til 

PBOV. GUB. D. D. J. H CKAIG, Bi. EQT. 

CARCER ISTE BONOS A PRAVIS 

VINDICARE POSSIT. 

The ceremony of laying the corner-stone of the 
present prison, near Grande Allee, took place on the 
4th September, 1861. Hon. Joseph Cauchon, then 
Commissioner of Public Works, officiated in the pre- 
sence of Mr. J. H. Pope, mayor of Quebec, of Hon. 
U. J. Tessier, Legislative Councillor, and Mr. Hector 
Langevin, member of the Legislative Assembly, by 
whom speeches were made at the banquet after the 
ceremony. 

Work was begun in the same year and resumed 
in 1864, but it was not completed until 1867. The 
edifice consists of a main building 88 feet by 50, three 
stories high, with a basement ; of a wing at right 
angles to the latter, in which are the cells, being two 
stories high with a basement 108 feet long by 47 deep ; 
of a wing on the east side of the latter, two stories high 
21 feet by 26 ; of a south wing, in rear of the central 
part 66 feet by 40 in which is the prisoners' chapel. 

The sheriff took possession of the building on the 
ist June, 1867, in accordance with a proclamation 
dated the i2th May previous. 

THE INTENDANT'S PALACE 

When Talon filled the office of Intendant, he had 
a brewery built at the Palais, which was finished in 

387 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

1671. This industry, quite a new one in the country, 
did not prove as profitable as expected. Thereupon 
the Intendant made it his residence, and the Superior 
Council held its sittings there. The council, when 
first established, held its sittings in a house called the 
" Palais " at the corner of the Place d'Armes and St. 
Louis street, on the very spot, in fact, where the pre- 
sent court house stands. 

Talon's brewery was destroyed by fire in the night 
of the 5th and 6th January, 1713. On its ruin was 
erected the splendid building of the Intendant's Palace, 
of which Kalm and Charlevoix speak in terms of 
admiration. In this palace justice was administered 
in Quebec during the last years of the French domina- 
tion. It was almost entirely demolished during the 
siege of 1759. At the present day a large brewery 
stands on the ruins of the Intendant's Palace, which 
has restored to the building its former use. 

THE SENECHAL'S COURT 

The first building in which the Senechal's court 
sat, was at the foot of Mont Carmel street, near the north 
east end of the present governor's garden. The court 
was afterwards transferred to a building erected on the 
site where the court house now stands. The ground now 
occupied by the court house and the Anglican Cathe- 
dral was given by Louis XIV to the Recollets in 1681, 
for the purpose of erecting an asylum . The missionaries 
established there a branch of their monastery of Notre 

388 



PUBUC BUILDINGS, &C. 

Dame des Anges and it was called " The convent of 
the Castle. ' ' This convent stood a short distance away, 
on the north east portion of the grounds now occupied 
by the Anglican Cathedral. 

THE COURT HOUSE 

This splendid building, on the corner of St. Louis 
street and the Place d'Armes, was opened for the pur- 
poses of the administration of justice, by proclamation 
bearing date the nth November, 1887, and inaugur- 
ated on the 2ist December of the same year. The 
total superficies of the grounds is 46,777 feet. 

The old Court House was destroyed by fire on the 
ist February, 1873. In the interval the courts had 
sat in the old military hospital, in the rear of St. Louis 
street, where they continued to hold sessions for nearly 
fourteen years. The first Court House had been built, 
in 1804, on the site occupied by the dependencies of 
the old Recollet convent. Previous to that date, from 
the cession of the country, the courts were held in the 
Jesuits' College. 

The new Court House is fire-proof ; its exterior, 
in the style of the renaissance, recalls the old chateaux 
built under Francis I. The main entrance, with the 
heraldic ornaments, is worthy of careful examination. 
The total cost of the building was $940,759.00. It is 
beyond contradiction one of the finest and most solid 
buildings in Quebec. Nothing has been spared to 
make a durable monument of it. The specifications 

389 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

were drawn up by M. J. B. Drome, then chief engineer 
of the Department of Public Works, from general plans 
drawn up by himself, and from plans of the exterior 
made by Mr. Eugene Tache. 

LAVAL NORMAL SCHOOL 

I/aval Normal School was inaugurated on the 1 2th 
May, 1857, in tne Old Castle, or " Haldimand Castle." 

The seat of Government at that time was not fixed : 
sometimes it was in Kingston, or Toronto, at others, 
in Montreal or Quebec. From 1860 to 1865, the Normal 
School was required for the use of the Public Depart- 
ments. The classes were then held in the building 
now occupied by the Jesuits on Dauphine street. The 
school returned to the Old Castle in 1 866 and remained 
there until 1892, when the old building was sold to the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company, and demolished, 
giving place to the Chateau Frontenac. 

The Normal School was then transferred to the 
boarding house of Laval University, in the spring of 
1892, and remained there until 1900. It now occupies 
the property purchased from Mr. J. Theodore Ross on 
the St. Foye road, just outside the city limits. The 
Government paid $9,000 for the property and has since 
added a wing for a chapel, and for the use of the pupils. 

QUEBEC GARRISON CLUB 

We had occasion to remark in the first chapter of 
this book, that Quebec has been able to keep pace with 

390 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS, &C. 

the spirit of the times without finding it necessary to 
obliterate all traces of her past. The walls and the 
gates are no longer necessary for the purposes of defence 
but they serve to adorn the city, and in no way impede 
its traffic. Another instance is furnished in the Quebec 
Garrison Club. In an old engraving of Quebec, published 
in 1820, a long, dingy looking structure is shown on 
St. Louis Street, described as " Engineer's Office." 
It requires the exercise of the imagination to realise 
that this building formed a part of the attractive Club 
established in 1879. Such, however, is the case. At 
the time of the Dufferin improvements it was proposed 
to build the Club in the form of a Norman Chateau, 
and it is a matter of regret that the work was not 
carried out entirely in accordance with the plans pre- 
pared by Mr. E. E. Tache, I.S.O., Deputy Minister 
of Crown L,ands. The building would then have 
formed one of the most pleasing features of the city. 
The modified plan is not without interest, but we prefer 
to give an engraving of the building as it would have 
appeared under Mr. Tache 's plan, rather than of the 
building of to day. 

The club was originally intended for the officers 
only, but in the course of time civilians were admitted 
to membership, and it is now the only club in the city. 

The officers at the foundation in 1879, were : 

Patron : The Marquess of L,orne, K.T., Governor 
General. 

President: Lieut. -Col. Duchesnay, D.A.G. 

391 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Honorary Vice -Pre si dent .-Lieut. -Col. T. Bland 
Strange, R.A. 

Vice-President: Lieut. -Col. J. Bell Forsyth, Q. 
O.C.H. 

Treasurer: Lt. Col. Turnbull, Q.O.C.H. 

Secretary : Capt. Crawford Lindsay, Q.F.B. 

Committee : Lieut. -Col. Lamontagne ; Lieut. -Col. 
Montizambert, B. Batt, C.A. ; Lieut.-Col. F. Wood 
Gray, Q.O.C.H. ; Lt.-Col. J. B. Amyot, Qth Batt. ; 
Lieut.-Col. Baby, Q.F.B. ; Lieut.-Col. L. P. Vohl, 
9th Batt. ; Lieut.-Col. R. Alley n, 8th Batt. ; Lieut.- 
Col. W. H. Forest, D.P.M. ; Surgeon H. Neilsou ; 
Capt. LeSueur, 8th Batt.. 

The Quebec Morning Chronicle of December 26th , 
1 88 1, gives this description of the building, but the 
writer was not, probably, acquainted with the fate of 
the " interesting records." 

' ' The early history of the Royal Engineers' office 
' in Quebec is interwoven not a little with our old 
' system previous to responsible Government, when 
' the commanding officer of Royal Engineers was a 
' most important personage and second only in author- 
' ity to the Governor- General himself who was also 
' a military officer and commander-in-chief. In those 
' days before the Crown Lands were vested in the 
' Provincial Government, the C.R.E. sat at the land 
' board in order to retain reserves for the Crown, or 
' for military purposes, and in other ways to advise 
' the Governor-General in such matters ; but unfor- 
' Innately all the old and interesting records of that 
' period were removed with the headquarters under 

392 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS, &C. 

" Sir John Oldfield, R.E., to Montreal in 1839 and 
" destroyed in the great fire of 1852." 

" At a very early date after the conquest the R.E. 
' ' office was located in a wing of the Parliament House, 
" near Prescott Gate, and also in the old Chateau St. 
' ' Louis ; but upon the purchase of the present building 
" with the laud attached at the foot of Citadel hill 
" from Archibald Ferguson, Esq., on the fifth of July, 
" 1819, removed thither and there remained as the 
" C.R.E. quarters until the withdrawal of the troops 
" a few years ago, in accordance with the change of 
' ' policy in England in regard to the Colonies, requiring 
" Colonel Hamilton, R.E., the last Imperial Com- 
" mandant of the garrison in 1871, to hand over to the 
" care of the Canadian Militia, whose pride it ever will 
" be to preserve and perpetuate the memories of the 
" army of worthies and statesmen who have sat and 
" worked within its walls." 

All the records of the -Engineers' Office were not 
destroyed by fire, as stated in this article. It was 
the custom of the Engineers, from the date of their 
first residence in Canada, to send most of the original 
documents to the War Office, and to retain copies in 
their office at Quebec. These copies were often made 
and signed by the makers of the originals. Through 
the kind assistance of the distinguished patron of the 
Garrison Club, His Excellency, the Earl of Minto, we 
recently had the privilege of examining hundreds of 
the plans and records made in the- Engineers' Office in 
Quebec, and those that were preserved therein. Amongst 
these priceless records are the reports of the Governors, 

393 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

and of Engineers and Officers, such as Murray, Car- 
leton, Haldimand, Mackellar, Mann, Nicols, Twiss, 
Marr, By, Frome, and others. Although there is a 
very large collection of plans and records relating to 
every military post in Canada, the unrivalled collection 
of plans relating to Quebec is, of course, the most 
interesting to this city. The list of the plans and docu- 
ments which we have seen and examined on several 
occasions during the past few months, is far too long 
to give in a work of this kind, but we may mention a 
number of special value : The original plan of the 
Battle of the Plains of Abraham, bearing the signa- 
ture of Mackellar ; the original plan of the Battle of 
St. Foy, bearing the signature of the same officer ; 
the original report of the condition of the fortifications 
of Quebec, in the handwriting of Mackellar, together 
with the plan of the city, which he prepared and signed, 
for the use of General Wolfe during the siege of Quebec. 
There is also a complete series of plans in manuscript, 
bearing the signatures of different engineers, showing 
all the works that were undertaken in Quebec from the 
year 1760 to about 1864, including the sections and 
elevations of the present works : the Martello Towers, 
the Forts at I^evis, and plans and reports of all the 
Ordnance properties in Quebec and elsewhere. 

It will be seen from these notes that a new interest 
is given to the Quebec Garrison Club, and that through 
the efforts of its Patron, students may still consult the 
work that was done within its walls in the days that 
are no more. It was real work that was accomplished 

394 



PUBIvIC BUILDINGS, &C. 

in those days, work which enables one to place much 
of the history of this city on a more enduring founda- 
tion than mere conjecture. 

The staff of the Club in 1903 is as follows : 

Patron : His Excellency, the Earl of Minto, Gov- 
ernor-General. 

Honorary President : Lieutenant - Colonel T. J. 
Duchesnay. 

President : Lieutenant - Colonel Oscar Pelletier, 
D. O. C. 

Vice-President: Mr. A. H. Cook, K. C. 

Secretary- Treasurer : Captain Wm. H. Petry, 8th 
Regiment Royal Rifles. 

Committee : Lieutenant-Colonel J. F. Turnbull, 
R.O., Lieutenant-Colonel Benson, R.C.A., Lieutenant- 
Colonel R. E. W. Turner, V.C., D.S.O., Commanding 
Q.O.C.H. ; Major F. M.Gaudet.R.C.A., Major Walter 
J. Ray, 8th Regiment Royal Rifles, Captain J. Geo. 
Garneau, R.O., Captain A. L. Panet, A.S.C., Hon. 
Chas. Langelier, K.C., Messrs. J. K. Boswell, Har- 
court Smith, A. E. Doucet, H. E. Price and Murray 
Kennedy. 

Library - Committee : Major Ernest Wurtele, i8th 
Regt. Saguenay, Capt. R. J. Davidson, 8th Rgt. R. R. 

THE CHATEAU FRONTENAC 

Many circumstances combine to give to the Cha- 
teau Frontenac a peculiar charm. Its imposing situation 

395 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

appeals to every lover of the beautiful with fresh force 
and interest as the seasons come and go. Within its 
precincts stood the Fort of the Founder of la Nouvelle 
France, and the residence of a long line of illustrious 
governors under the old regime and under the new. 

For more than two centuries this site has been 
identified closely with the development of Canada, and 
the deeds thereon enacted furnish many of the brightest 
as well as many of the most sombre pages of our history. 

The present structure which is an enduring 
monument to its architect, the late Bruce Price, serves 
admirably to mark the progress which has been made 
in our midst during the space of three hundred years. 

Here on this spot where the pioneers of New 
France fortified themselves against the attacks of the 
ferocious Iroquois, stands a building whose luxury and 
refinement are unsurpassed even in countries which 
were old at the time of the birth of Canada. Within 
the past few years the interior decoration of the Chateau 
has undergone a transformation beneath the touch of 
artist hands. Mr. and Mrs. Hayter Reed are respon- 
sible for this change, and to-day the Chateau is without 
a rival. Many descriptions have been written of the 
rooms within this building, but they do not convey 
an adequate idea of their beauty. A glance in passing 
through the corridors will leave a more lasting and 
pleasing impression than can be obtained from the best 
written page. The decoration of .the Chateau is an 
example of what can be accomplished by the intelligent 
exercise of artistic skill. 

396 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS, &C. 
THE ARCHBISHOP'S PALACE 

On the 25th of August, 1844, the corner stone of 
this building was laid. It is situated at the top of 
Mountain Hill, in a commanding position. Monseigneur 
Turgeon, Bishop of Quebec, devoted much of his energy 
towards this work, and succeeded in carrying out the 
undertaking at a cost of $65,800.00, by means of col- 
lections throughout the diocese, and the aid of generous 
gifts. As its name implies, this palace is the residence 
of His Grace, the Archbishop of Quebec, Monseigneur 
Begin, and also of the Vicar General, Monseigneur 
Marois, and the staff of the Archbishop. 

The building contains a chapel, a sacristy and a 
fine throne room. In the sacristy there are rich vest- 
ments of cloth of gold valued at $3,600. They are 
probably the richest in America. In the throne room 
their are paintings of all the Bishops of Quebec, of 
Pope Pius VI, Gregorgy XVI, Leo XIII, His Eminence 
Cardinal Taschereau, and Monseigneur Marois. There 
are also many treasures received from Rome. 

The archives comprise the registers of the arch- 
bishopric from the time of Mgr de Laval ; old title 
deeds concerning the abbeys of Meaubec and Letree, 
the Bulls appointing the Bishops of Quebec, and others ; 
the correspondence with Rome, with the bishoprics of 
Canada, with the religious communities and parish 
priests ; the correspondence of the vicars-general of 
Canada, of the missionaries scattered throughout the 
vast diocese of Quebec previous to its dismemberment, 

397 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

and several manuscripts in the Micmac, Abenakis, 
Algonquin, Montagnais, Esquimaux and Outaouais 
languages. 

Old souvenirs co'nnected with personages of former 
days are preserved there, amongst others two pectoral 
crosses from Mgr de Laval, a gold watch of Mgr Plessis, 
another of Mgr Signay, a golden pectoral cross a 
souvenir of H. E. Cardinal Franchi. 

THE QUEBEC SEMINARY 

The Quebec Seminary was opened, in 1608, in a 
house belonging to the widow of Guillaume Cotiillard , 
at the entrance to the garden. In 1678, the corner- 
stone was laid of the wing that faces the garden and 
the junior pupils' play-ground. It was only one story 
high, with attics. After the first fire, in 1701 , a second 
story was added. When the building was restored 
after the conflagration, in 1866, that destroyed nearly 
one-half of this wing, a third story was added. 

After 1701, the Seminary was enlarged so that at 
about the year 1714 the total length of the building 
was 350 feet. 

At present, the minor Seminary proper, is nearly 
700 feet in length. 

The Greater Seminary, of recent construction, is 
a splendid wing, and gives hospitality to a hundred 
ecclesiastics or theological students, recruited in many 
dioceses. The priests of the institution also have their 
rooms there. A fine staircase of iron and stone, which 

398 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS, &C. 

seems all of one piece, leads from the basement to the 
top of the building, and is much admired. The building 
is fire-proof and faces the garden and the rampart. 

The personnel of the Seminary last year consisted 
of over 700 persons, as follows : 

Priests 38 

Ecclesiastics 125 

Pupil boarders 275 

" outside 272 

' ' half-boarders 1 6 

726 

In 1800, the number barely reached no; in 1870 
it was only 430. 

LAVAL UNIVERSITY 

Founded in 1852 by the Seminary of Quebec at 
the request of the Bishops of the Province. The royal 
charter granted to it by Her Majesty Queen Victoria, 
was signed at Westminster on the 8th of December, 
1852. Under this charter the Visitor of the University 
is the Archbishop of Quebec, and the Rector is the 
superior of the Seminary. The Council of the University 
consists of the Directors of the Seminary and of three 
senior professors of each faculty. 

There are four faculties : Theology, L,aw, Medi- 
cine and Arts. The university degrees are those of 
Doctor, Licentiate or Master, and Bachelor. 

399 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

By a Bull of Pius IX dated the i^th of April 1876, 
L,aval University received its canonical erection from 
Rome, with extensive privileges. Under this very 
important document, the University has for its protector 
at Rome, the Cardinal Prefect of the Propaganda. 
Supervision and discipline, as regards faith and morals, 
are vested in a superior council, consisting of the 
Bishops of the Province with the Archbishop of Quebec 
as President. The Archbishop is the Chancellor of the 
University. 

The museums of Laval University are very valu- 
able and complete especially in the department of 
Physics, which contains over 1,000 instruments, in- 
cluding those connected with the most recent dis- 
coveries. 

The mineralogical collection contains over 4,000 
specimens ; the geological 2,000. The herborium con- 
tains over 10,000 plants ; the ornithological collection 
consists of over 600 species collected in various parts 
of the world. 

The entomological collection contains over 14,000 
named species of insects ; the conchological collection 
over 950 species of Canadian and foreign molluscs, 
nearly all of which are named. 

The ethnological museum, which is very inter- 
esting, consists of three divisions : i . The Indian 
museum ; 2. the Chinese and Japanese museum, and 3. 
the General museum. 

In the picture gallery there are several pictures 
by great masters, such as Teniers,Van Dyck, Lanfranc, 

400 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS, &C. 

LeSueur, Salvator Rosa, Joseph Vernet, , Tintoretto, 
Poussin, Albane, Puget, Lebrun. 

The gallery proper contains 137 pictures but there 
is in the Hall of the Literary Course another splendid 
collection that belonged to Mgr Marois, V. G. Moreover 
the university and seminary contain a good many pic- 
tures and remarkable engravings, distributed through 
the rooms and corridors. 

The numismatic museum contains over 3,000 coins 
and medals. 

The library has 120,000 volumes; it is open to 
visitors on certain days fixed by the regulations. 

The staff of the University consists of the fol- 
lowing : 

Directors 15 

Faculty of Theology 7 

Faculty of Law 1 1 

Faculty of Medicine 14 

Faculty of Arts 21 

Students in Theology 1 24 

' ' at Law 90 

' ' in Medicine 109 

' ' in Pharmacy 6 

" in Arts 22 

Pupils of the Seminary following the Arts 

course 76 

17 under seminaries and colleges are affiliated to 
the University ; one only is associated ; two senior 
seminaries are also affiliated to it. 

26 401 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

The academical year consists of nine months, 
divided into three terms : 

BEAUVOIR MANOR 

' Along the Sillery road, beyond the village, there 
are several fine country seats, some of which no longer 
possess the attractions which once distinguished them. 
Amongst the most picturesque dwellings which are still 
maintained, is Beauvoir Manor, the seat of the late 
Honourable R. R. Dobell. This substantial house, 
situated within extensive grounds overlooking the St. 
Lawrence, is an ideal country residence. The grounds 
appeal to the lover of the beatiful in nature, and within 
its walls are collected many treasures from foreign 
lands which prove equally delightful to the lover of art. 

SPENCER GRANGE 

" Retirement, rural quiet, friendship, books." 

" When Spencer Wood became the gubernatorial 
residence, its owner reserved the smaller half, Spencer 
Grange, some forty acres divided off by a high brick 
wall and fence, terminating to the east in a river 
frontage of one acre. A small latticed bower facing 
the St. Lawrence overhanging the cliff, close to where 
the Belle Borne rill nearly dry during the summer 
months, rushes down the bank to Spencer Cove, in 
spring and autumn, a ribbon of fleecy whiteness. To 
the south it is bounded by Woodfield and reaches the 
north at a point opposite the road called Stuart's road, 

402 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS, &C. 

which intersects Hollands' farm leading from the St. 
Lewis to the Ste. Foye highway. The English landscape 
style was adopted in laying out the flower garden and 
grounds ; some majestic old trees were left here and 
there through the lawns ; three clumps of maple and 
red oak in the centre of the meadows to the west of the 
house grouped for effect ; fences carefully hidden away 
in the surrounding copses ; hedges, buildings, walks 
and trees brought in here and there to harmonize with 
the eye and to furnish on a few acres a perfect epitome 
of a woodland scene. The whole place is girt round 
with a zone of tall pine, beech, maple and red oaks, 
whose deep green foliage, when lit up by the rays of 
the setting or rising sun, assume tints of most dazzling 
brightness. ' ' 

This delightful residence has, fpr many years, been 
the abode of Sir James Macpherson L/eMoine, whose 
numerous contributions to local history have familiar- 
ised the public with much of the past of Quebec which 
would otherwise have been lost sight of. Spencer 
Grange has been honoured by visits from members of 
the Royal Family and the most notable people who 
have from time to time been the guests of the 
city. 

In the summer months the lawns of Spencer Grange 
present a charming scene, and there are hundreds of 
tourists who recall with pleasure an agreeable hour 
spent under the shadows of the maples, when they were 
permitted to enjoy the hospitality of Sir James and 
Lady LeMoine. 

403 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

MILITARY ORGANIZATION OF QUEBEC 

SEPTEMBER, 1903 

The Fortress of Quebec, under the command of 
Colonel Wilson, comprises the Citadel, the town lines 
and fortifications, and the forts at Levis. The Fortress 
is garrisoned by artillery and infantry. 

Dish id Staff 

Lieutenant-Colonel Oscar C. Pelletier, R. C. A. , 
D.O.C., yth Military District. 

Lieutenant- Colonel J. S. Dunbar, District Staff 
Adjutant. 

Colonel C. C. Sewell, M.D., Principal Medical 
Officer. 

Permanent Force 

Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery (In the Citadel) 
Colonel J. F. Wilson, Commanding Officer. 

No. 5 Regimental Depot, Royal Canadian Regi- 
ment (In Barracks, d'Auteuil street) Major Fages, 
Commanding Officer. 

Volunteer Force 



loth Regiment Queen's Own Canadian Hussars 
Lieutenant-Colonel R. E. W. Turner, V.C., D.S.O., 
Commanding Officer. 

404 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS, &C. 
ARTII,I,ERY 

First Quebec Field Artillery Major E. Laliberte, 
Commanding Officer. 

6th Regiment Quebec and Levis Garrison Artillery 
lieutenant-Colonel Vien, Commanding Officer. 



8th Regiment Royal Rifles Lieutenant-Colonel 
Ray, Commanding Officer. 

9th Regiment Voltigeurs Lieutenant-Colonel A. 
Evanturel, Commanding Officer. 

ARMY MEDICAL SERVICE, S.C., No. 8. 

Principal Medical Officer Colonel C. C. Sewell, 
M.D. 

No. 5 Bearer Company Major G. H. Parke, M.D. 
No. 5 Field Hospital Major Lome Drum, M. D. 

MONTMORENCY 

From the earliest times visitors have recorded 
their impressions of the beautiful Fall at Montmoreucy. 
Peter Kalm, under the date of September, 1749, gives 
this description : 

" The waterfall near Montmorency is one of the 
' ' highest I ever saw. It is in a river whose breadth 
" is not very considerable, and falls over the steep side 
" of a hill, consisting entirely of black lime slate. 

' ' The fall is now at the bottom of a little creek 
" of the river. Both sides of the creek consist merely 
" of black lime slate, which is much cracked and 

405 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

tumbled down. The hill of lime slate under the 
waterfall is quite perpendicular, and one cannot look 
at it without astonishment. The rain of the pro- 
ceeding day had increased the water in the river, 
which gave the fall a grander appearance. The 
breadth of the fall is not above ten or twelve yards. 
Its perpendicular height I guessed to be between one 
hundred and ten and one hundred and twenty feet, 
and on our return to Quebec, we found our guess 
to be confirmed by several gentlemen, one who had 
actually measured the fall, and found it to be as we 
conjectured. The people who live in the neigh- 
bourhood exaggerate in their account of it, actually 
declaring it is 300 feet high. At the bottom of the 
fall there is always a thick fog of vapours spreading 
about, the waters, being resolved into them by its 
violent fall. This fog occasions almost perpetual 
rain here, which is more or less heavy in proportion 
to its distance from the fall. Mr. Gaulthier and 
myself, together with the man who showed us the 
way, were willing to come nearer to the falling 
water, in order to examine more accurately how it 
came down from such a height, and how the stone 
behind the water looked. But being about 12 yards 
off the fall, a sudden gust of wind blew a thick fog 
upon us, which in less than a minute had wet us as 
thoroughly as if we had walked for half an hour in a 
heavy shower. We therefore hurried away as fast 
as we could and were glad to get off. The noise of 
the fall is sometimes heard at Quebec, which is two 
French miles off to the southward, and this is a sign 
of north east wind." 

Ten years after the visit of Peter Kalm, General 
Wolfe took up his abode in a cottage just beyond the 
old suspension bridge. The house is still standing. 

406 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS, &C. 

In the summer of 1902, Colonel Townshend, of the 
Royal Fusiliers, was enabled to identify the spot, 
from measurements on a large manuscript plan of 
Wolfe's camp at Montmorency, whereon this building 
is described as " Wolfe's headquarters ". The little 
chamber is still pointed out where Wolfe was confined 
to his bed during the month of August. The walls of 
the house are very thick, and may have been built a 
great many years before 1759. 

The engraving given herewith is from a photograph 
taken for this work by permission of the owner of the 
building. At a short distance from this house, Town- 
shend 's Camp may be traced with the aid of a plan, 
and at the ford, above the river, may be seen the 
remains of Repentigny's camp. In the beautiful 
grounds of ' ' Montmorency Cottage ' ' the residence 
of H. M. Price, Esquire, there are several souvenirs 
of warlike times. 

The grounds are, of course private, but these old 
guns may be seen from a certain portion of the road. 

There is a history attached to each gun, the sub- 
stance of which is embodied in these notes, which have 
been kindly prepared by Mr. Price. 

1. L,arge cannon, belonged to French Admiral's 
ship " lye Prudent " captured and burned by the 
English at L,ouisbourg, 1758. See Vol. i, page 120 of 
" Siege of Quebec, &c. ". 

2 . English cannon found at English Bay, Anticosti. 

3. Carronade found in remains of oaken vessel 
at Burstall's Cove, Sillery, about 1890. 

407 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

4. Cannon from wreck of Sir Hovenden Walker's 
Fleet in 1711. Found at Egg Islands in 1900 by Mr. 
Comeau, of Godbout River. 

5. Small cannon same as No. 10, from L,ouisbourg. 

6. Cannon from wreck of French Frigate " L,' Ele- 
phant," lost at Cap Brule, opposite Crane Island, 
1729. 

7. Cannon found about 1896 in bed of St. Charles 
River where Bridge of boats was in 1759. Evidently 
French. 

The guns are placed as numbered above, the last 
gun, No. 7, is the one nearest Mr. Price's house. 

During the months of July, August and September, 
when the grounds of " The Cottage " have donned 
their brightest garb, there are few places more desirable 
than this picturesque spot. 

The field adjoining Mr. Price's house is leased by 
the Quebec Cricket Club, and matches are generally 
arranged for each Saturday during the Cricket season. 

At some distance in the rear of ' ' The Cottage ' ' 
are the " Natural Steps " which most visitors desire to 
see. 

Since the advent of the Quebec Electric Railway, 
Montmorency has become a popular resort. " Kent 
Lodge " formerly the residence of H.R.H. the Duke 
of Kent, offers every accommodation to the public, 
and music, and various kinds of entertainment are 
provided. Within these grounds may also be seen the 
fur bearing animals, Buffalo, Bears, and other species, 
owned by Holt, Renfrew & Co. , Furriers of Quebec. 

408 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS, &C. 

The elevator which is close to the track of the electric 
railway, is a great boon to the numerous visitors to 
Montmorency. Within a few miles from Quebec, on the 
line of road to Montmorency, is the village of Beauport. 
During the siege of Quebec, in 1759, the French camp 
extended from the River St. Charles to Montmorency 
Falls, and the old house, which is still pointed out near 
Beauport Church,"was occupied by Montcalm as his 
headquarters. 



409 



CHAPTER XVIII 

1764-1903 
LITERATURE IN QUEBEC 

THE FIRST PRINTING PRESS THE NEWSPAPERS OF 
QUEBEC EARLY WRITERS BOURNE HAWKINS 
THE SUFFOLK SEAL QUEBEC IN DURHAM 
COUNTY GARNEAU CREMAZIE FERLAND 
THE ROYAL SOCIETY FELIX GABRIEL MARCHAND 

MANY newspapers have been published in Quebec 
since the establishment of the first printing 
press, but few of them deserve any special mention, 
as the majority had a very brief career. The Quebec 
Gazette was the earliest newspaper. Its first issue 
appeared on the 2ist of June, 1764, and its last number 
bore the date of October 3oth, 1874, an existence of 
over one hundred and ten years. 

The Quebec Mercury, which is one of the leading 
papers of to-day, as well as the oldest in existence, 
was founded on the 5th of January, 1805, and will 
soon celebrate its one hundredth anniversary. Mr. E. 
T. D. Chambers, the proprietor of Chambers' Guide, 
is the present editor. 

411 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

The Canadien was established, in 1806, to combat 
the influence of the Metcury. After three years its career 
was interrupted, for reasons given in another chapter. 
It resumed publication in 1831, and continued in Quebec 
until 1891, when the office was removed to Montreal. 

In the year 1842, Le Journal de Quebec was founded 
by Messrs Joseph Cauchon and Augustin C6te, and 
ceased publication on the ist of October, 1889. Fora 
time the paper was prosperous, but during its later 
years it was published at a sacrifice to Mr. Cote. 

The Morning Chronicle was first issued in the year 
1847. Although there have been many changes in its 
management, it has always been considered as one of 
the best English papers. Its present editor is Mr. J. 
J. Proctor. 

The Courrier du Canada was founded in 1857 an d 
continued until the year 1901. Its first editors were 
Sir Hector I^angevin, C.B., and Dr. J. C. Tache. The 
Hon. T. Chapais was the editor at the time it ceased 
publication. 

L'EvSnement was founded in 1867, by Mr. Hector 
Fabre, and for a time it was regarded as the Figaro of 
Quebec. It is still the very active organ of the conser- 
vative party. Its proprietors are the Honourable Messrs 
I/andry and Pelletier. The editor is Mr. Dumont. 

The Daily Telegraph was established in the month 
of May, 1874, by the late James Carrel. His son, 
Mr. Frank Carrel, proprietor of Carrel's Guide to 
Quebec, has greatly improved the circulation and 
appearance of the paper. In addition to the daily 

412 



LITERATURE IN QUEBEC 

issue there is a weekly edition called the Family 
Budget. This is a popular family paper. Mr. Jordan 
is the editor. 

Le Soleil, one of the most popular papers, owes its 
existence to Mr. Ernest Pacaud. In 1896 Le Soleil 
replaced L 1 Electeur, which has been founded in 1880. 
Le Soleil is a progressive paper, and the organ of the 
Liberal party. 

La Vhite was established by its present owner, 
Mr. Tardivel in 1881, and it appears to be based upon 
a solid foundation. 

L Enseignement Primaire dates from 1880. It is 
a monthly review and the recognized organ of the 
Catholic Teachers of the Province. Under the direction 
of Professor J. C. Magnan, of Laval Normal School, 
the review has made great progress. 

La Nouvelle- France, a monthly review, was founded 
in January 1902. It is edited by writers at home and 
abroad. 

The Director is the Rev. Abbe Lindsay, and the 
Secretary, M. Dumontier. 

North American Notes and Queries, was founded 
by Raoul Renault in June, 1900. It ceased publication 
after the issue of the ninth number, in March, 1901. 

Amongst the other publications issued in Quebec 
at present, we may mention La Semaine Commercial, 
L 1 Echo de Quebec, Le Bulletin du Travail, La Semaine 
Religieuse de Quebec, Le Bulletin du Parler Fran$ais, 
Le Bulletin des Recherches Historiqites, Les Fleurs de la 
Charite, La Reviie Eucharistique . 

413 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

From 1764 to 1792, four newspapers were founded 
in Quebec, but from 1792 to 1840, there were thirty- 
six ; thirteen in French and ten in 'English, and three 
in both languages. From 1844 to 1867, the increase 
was remarkable. There were forty-eight in French, 
thirty- three in English, and two in both languages. 
Since 1867 the increase has still been greater ; no less 
than one hundred and twenty having been published 
in French, twenty-six in English, and two in both 
languages. 

During the period of one hundred and thirty-six 
years, two hundred and sixty newspapers and period- 
icals and reviews have been established, of all sizes 
and of every political shade ; but only fourteen now 
remain, if we exclude the weekly issues of the daily 
papers. Several publications were prosperous for a 
time and made their mark in politics or in letters. 
Amongt others we may mention La JFantasque, Le 
Nouvelliste, L Abeille du Seminaire, Le Matin, L Elec- 
teur, Le Canada Frangais, Le Courrier du Livre. Pre- 
vious to the union of the Provinces there is very little 
literary or historical work to record in Quebec. We 
may mention the valuable letters of Dr. J. Mountain, 
various contributions of Chief Justice Sewell and 
Bourne, the work of the Quebec Historical Society, 
which is referred to at length elsewhere, the writings 
of Dr. Fisher, the volume of verse published by Bibaud, 
and fugitive pieces from the pen of Morin, Chauveau, 
B6dard, Garneau, Angers, Chauveau and Soulard. 

In 1834, " Hawkins' Picture of Quebec with 

414 



LITERATURE IN QUEBEC 

Historical Recollections ' ' , was issued from the press 
of Neilson and Cowan. The material was gathered 
by Mr. Hawkins, and the matter arranged by Dr. 
Fisher, a very graceful writer. This work is the most 
important of the early historical works in English 
relating to Quebec, published in the city. 

Unfortunately, Mr. Hawkins was not very careful 
about his facts, and as his pages have been copied 
extensively, many curious errors have been widely 
circulated. An instance may be cited, which shows 
that one very interesting chapter which is given as 
being closely connected with Quebec, has not the 
remotest connection with the city ; namely, the portion 
of the book relating to the Suffolk Seal, and to the 
Suffolk family. On page 119 there is an engraving 
of a mutilated seal with a L,atin inscription. The seal, 
we are informed, belonged to William de la Pole, Earl 
of Suffolk and Lord of Hambury and of Quebec, in 
the reign of Henry V. 

Quebec at that time " was a place of sufficient 
importance to give one of his titles to a distinguished 
statesman and warrior, so early as the seventh year 
of the reign of Henry V. of England, the hero of 
Agincourt. . . .and proves that Quebec was a Town, 
Castle, Barony or Domain, which the powerful 
Earl of Suffolk either held in his own right, or as 
Governor &c." 

After correspondence with His Grace the Duke 
of Norfolk, the Countess of Suffolk, and the Herald's 
College, we are informed by the Norroy King of 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Arms, on the authority of the Rolls of Normandy, 
that ' ' William de la Pole was created Lord of Hambye 
" and Briqaebec, in Normandy, 12 March, 1417 ". 

Mr. Hawkins concludes his lengthy remarks on 
the family of the Karl of Suffolk by saying " there 
are strong grounds for believing that the name Quebec, 
per se, is in fact a Norman word. That some Indian 
name which ressembled it in sound was heard by 
Champlain, and considered to be that of the place 
where he settled ; that this Indian word was most 
probably the latter division of their name for the 
River St. Charles, Cabir-Coubat ; and that from this 
word it probably acquired its present appelation ' ' . 

This is only one instance of the pitfalls which 
beset the student in endeavouring to ascertain the 
truth, but it supports the statement made by the late 
Lord Acton, Professor of History in Cambridge Uni- 
versity, ' ' that the student is constantly misled by the 
classics of history, and cannot accept without reserve 
and secondary authority ' ' . 

In pursuing our enquiries regarding the Suffolk 
seal, we endeavoured to ascertain at what date the 
name Quebec was given to a place in Durham County, 
which although small, boasts of a Post Office. Lord 
Durham, the grandson of a former Governor of Quebec, 
has kindly sent a letter from the Vicar of Lanchester 
in Durham, from which we extract the following. 
' ' There was a small farm of 55 acres known as Quebec, 
" which on the division of Hamsteels Common in 
" 1775 or 1776, was awarded to Mr. Anthony Wil- 

416 



LITERATURE IN QUEBEC 

" kinson, one of the Streaton family. It continued in 
' the family until it was sold to a Mr. Wiggen in 
" 1845. It never belonged to the L,ambton's, but 
" adjoined a farm of theirs known as " Greenland ". 
" Probably the name Quebec was given after the 
" victory of Wolfe, when public feeling was running 
" high." 

Since 1840 writers have been more numerous, and 
from this date we may trace the commencement of a 
distinctive Canadian literature. Amongst the French 
we may mention Etienne Parent, E. I/Ecuyer, Huot, 
Chauveau, Morin and Plamondon, who have written 
good prose on various subjects. In 1845, the first 
volume of Garneau's History of Canada was published. 
This work was so far in advance of anything that had 
been previously written that it may be considered as 
marking an epoch in Canadian literature. The pub- 
lication of the second, third and fourth volume, only 
added to the reputation of the author, whose works 
have ever since been regarded as classics. 

After Garneau came Octave Cremazie, the poet, 
whose verse has a universal reputation. With the 
publication of Les Soirees Canadiennes and Le Foyer 
Canadien, in i86i,and 1863, arose a host of litterateurs 
who only needed a favourable opportunity to make 
themselves known. 

In 1 86 1, the Abbe Ferland published the first 
volume of an excellent work, entitled Cours d" Histoire 
du Canada, 

27 417 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

At the time of Confederation, great progress had 
been made in literature in the city. A glance at the 
bibliographical list for the thirty-five years preceeding 
1867 shows that in the field of letters every branch was 
ably represented. Of the living writers we do not 
propose to speak, their name is legion ; and the list of 
their works would properly find a place only in a biblio- 
graphy. Of the Quebec authors living to-day, seven- 
teen are members of the Royal Society, and we give 
their names simply on that account. There are many 
able writers, however, who are not members of the 
Society, each section of which is limited to twenty-five 
members for the whole of Canada. The members are : 
Monseigneur Begin, Monseigneur L,aflamme, Sir James 
LeMoine, Judge Routhier, Chevalier Baillairge, Abb6 
Casgrain, Abbe Gosselin, L. P. L,emay, N. L,egendre, 
Paul de Cazes, Dr. George Stewart, J. E. Roy, Hon. 
T. Chapais, Ernest Gagnon, Rev. F. G. Scott, Mgr. 
Iy. A. Paquet and Dr. N. E. Dionne. 

Since 1760 a number of Literary and Historical 
Societies, clubs, organizations composed of citizens of 
all nationalities, have existed in Quebec. A brief 
description of some of the literary and historical socie- 
ties may be given. 

The first public library was opened in 1779. At 
that time probably all the books in Canada could be 
stored in a moderately large room. In 1793 the second 
story of the Quebec Insurance Company was utilized 
as a library. The Parliamentary Library in Quebec 
dates from the first Parliament in 1792. It was a very 

418 



LITERATURE IN QUEBEC 

small collection, and indeed, at this time the system of 
government was novel, and the needs of the people 
were not great. The members of the Legislature, as a 
body, were not a highly cultured class ; the few who 
had a taste for literature were content with the odd 
volumes which reached our shores. Amongst the 
books that we know were in Quebec at this time, were 
the works of Voltaire, The Arabian Nights, and the 
Mille et un jours. 

There was no regular librarian of the Legislature 
at this time. The Clerk of the House had charge of 
the books for the first forty years. In 1817 there were 
1000 books in the library, and in 1832 the number is 
given as 4921. In 1833 Btienne Parent, the French 
translator and law clerk, was appointed librarian with 
a salary of two hundred pounds. He resigned in 1885, 
and his successor, Jasper Brewer, found 5,500 volumes 
in the library when he commenced his duties. In 1841 
the library contained 7,000 volumes. 

At the Union of the Provinces in 1841, the poli- 
tical leaders agreed to place the library of United 
Canada under the charge of two officials, who since 
1836 had adled as librarians of Upper Canada, namely, 
Dr. Winder, librarian, and Alpheus Todd, assistant 
librarian. 

After the Union, the Parliament sat alternately in 
the four principal cities of Canada, Quebec, Montreal, 
Toronto, Kingston. As there was only one library, 
and it could not be divided, the books were transferred 
every four years to the temporary capital. In 1849 

419 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO PI.A.GS 

the library in Montreal, after having been four years 
in Kingston, contained 8,232 books, and there were 
4,000 volumes in Quebec which had not been removed. 

On the 25th of April, 1849, a fire broke out in the 
Parliament building during a riot in connection with 
the Indemnity Bill, a measure in favour of those who 
had been exiled in 1839. The library valued at twenty- 
iive thousand pounds was almost destroyed. The 
Government at once commenced to repair the loss by 
purchasing books from abroad. Five years later, 
17,000 well chosen volumes were collected, and Quebec 
possessed the best library in Canada. When the Par- 
liament" Buildings and their contents were threatened 
by fire, the soldiers and the pupils of the Seminary 
succeeded in saving 9,313 volumes. New books were 
purchased, and in 1834, 30,000 books were found in the 
library. In 1865 most of the books were transferred to 
Ottawa. The official library contained 65,000 volumes 
at this time. It then became necessary to purchase a 
new Library for Quebec. Between 1867 and 1883, thirty 
thousand volumes were collected. In the spring of 
1883 the Parliament House was destroyed by fire, and 
witlv.it 25,000 volumes. The library at present con- 
tains 63,000 volumes. 

The first literary association formed in Quebec, 
probably dates from the year 1809. To encourage 
English and French literature, the society offered two 
medals for an ode on the anniversary of the birth of 
the King. 

The lyiterary and Historical Society of Quebec 

420 



LITERATURE IN QUEBEC 

was founded in 1824. It is the senior Institution of 
the kind, and has at present seventy-nine members. 
In its early days it accomplished a great deal of per- 
manent work, and it possesses a fine library. Mr. F. 
C. Wurtele is the librarian, and one of its most active 
members. Under the auspices of the Society eleven 
volumes of transactions, and five volumes of Memoirs 
have been published, which are highly valued by 
students of history. 

The Canadian Scientific Society, established in 
1840, was the forerunner of the Institut Canadien, 
founded in 1847. Its meetings were held in a room in 
the old Parliament Buildings until 1850. From 1850 
until 1863, its quarters were in the house of Mr. Simard 
on the corner of Buade and Port Dauphin Streets. 
After 1863 the Institute removed to rooms in the 
Building of the Caisse <T Economic, and later it occu- 
pied a building on Fabrique Street, which has since 
disappeared. Its present quarters are in the City Hall. 
The Institute and the Literary and Historical Society 
have rendered great service to the history of Canada. 
We find in the publications of the societies a faithful 
echo of the past a past which we recall with pride. 

A Natural History Society was formed in Quebec, 
but as it was not well supported, it soon closed its doors. 
Lord Durham founded an Agricultural Society in 1789, 
with a branch in Montreal. The Cercle Catholique 
was founded in 1876. During the first years of its 
existence it played a prominent part. One of the most 
recent societies, is the Societe du Parler Francais, the 

421 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

object of which is to preserve the purity of the French 
language. The Canadian Press Association founded 
in 1882, has been the means of making French Canada 
known abroad. The Medical Society, amongst the 
good work to its credit, was the first to organize a 
French Medical Congress in North America. 

FELIX GABRIEL MARCHAND 

The late Honourable Felix-Gabriel Marchand, 
Prime Minister of Quebec, who died on the 25th of 
September, 1900, is one of the most interesting figures 
in the political history of this Province since confe- 
deration. Other men have risen to prominence in 
political life whose brilliant oratory, whose personal 
magnetism, or whose undoubted scholarship kept them 
steadily before the public gaze. They were men of 
the day. They served their time, many of them faith- 
fully, but the record of their achievement is seldom 
now recalled. The memory of Felix Gabriel Marchand, 
however, will not pass away, although he had not, in 
any specially marked degree, those qualifications which 
distinguished some of his confreres. 

For the secret of his influence upon his fellow 
men during his life time, and for those characteristics 
which have left their impress upon the people of this 
Province, we must look beneath the surface. It is 
not as a statesman, nor yet as a leader, nor even as a 
scholar, that we recall his memory, although he had a 
claim to each distinction ; it is rather as Felix Gabriel 
Marchand, the man. 

422 



d 




LITERATURE IN QUEBEC 

His Eminence, the late Cardinal Newman, once 
said, that if we were to search the English language 
for the most appropriate terms to express the highest 
tribute to a man, we could find none which would 
compose a grander epitaph than is formed by these 
three simple words " An honest heart," and these 
three words sum up, as no other words could do, the 
character of the late Premier. 

Three days before his death he wrote to his con- 
stituents, who for over thirty years had chosen him as 
their representative in the Legislature : 

" Soyez stirs, mes chers et fideles amis, que si 
j'ai manque en quelque chose dans 1' accomplissement 
de mon devoir, cela n'a pas dependu de ma volonte. 
J'ai tou jours desire servir mon pays dans toute la me- 
sure de mes forces. ' ' 

The key note of his life was an unswerving devo- 
tion to duty, whether as a citizen, a soldier, or a states- 
man, and the world is better because he lived. He 
gave to his country a whole hearted service, and 
throughout his long career his honour remained in- 
violate. He was seen more clearly in death than in 
life. In life he was esteemed, in death he was revered. 

The Archbishop of Montreal, in the course of the 
funeral sermon, said : 

" Vous permettez, messieurs, a ma franchise d'e- 
veque, de dire ici que, relativement a certaines mesures 
pour lesquelles il a combattu, j'aurais differe de senti- 
ment avec lui, mais cela n'empeche pas que ses inten- 
tions aient ete droites, qu'il ait eu la conviction de ne 

423 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

travailler que pour le bien, qu'il n'ait eu recours qu'a 
des moyens honorables, qu'il ait aitne sincerement son 
pays, qu'il ait eu le desir ardent de son progres intel- 
lectuel et materiel. Sur tous ces points, il n'y a qu'une 
voix pour lui rendre hommage ; je le repete : il a te 
le citoyen integre qui n'a pas failli a 1'honneur." 

The ideal of lofty, inflexible character, and true 
manliness which the simple story of his life presents, 
is the reflex of one 

" who bore without abuse, 

" The grand old name of gentleman." 



424 



No. 1 

DOCUMENTS 7?#LE CHIEN D'OR 
WARRANT OF ARREST AGAINST THE SIEUR DE REPENTIGNY 

Seeing the information laid by us, Francois Daine, this 
day on the petition of Sieur Nicolas Jacquin Philibert, plaintiff 
and complainant. 

The King's procurator being associated herein, against the 
Sieur de Repentigny, an officer of the troops of the Marine 
detachment in garrison in this town, defendant, accused, and 
the conclusion of the representative of the King's Procurator in 
the Prevoste, dated this day : We order that the said Sieur de 
Repentigny be arrested and taken to the royal prison in this 
said town to be heard and interrogated on the fac"ls resulting 
from the charges contained in the said information and others 
on which the said representative may wish to have him heard ; 
if not and after search has been made for his person, he shall 
be summoned to appear within a delay of fifteen days with 
another summons by a single public cry, giving a delay of eight 
days; his property shall be seized and inventoried and a guardian 
appointed thereto, which shall be done notwithstanding any 
opposition or appeal whatsoever and without prejudice thereto. 

Done at Quebec, the 2ist of January, 1748. 

(Signed) DAINE. 



Ill 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 
No. 2 

22ND JANUARY, 1748. 
To Monsieur the Intendant, 

The Comptroller of the Marine has the honour to represent 
to you that for many years the Sieur Philibert, merchant, of 
this town, had the contract for supplying bread to the troops 
and for the other requirements of the service ; that in the course 
of such contract several amounts were paid on account to the 
said Philibert by the Treasurer of the Marine which may. amount 
to a much greater amount than that represented by the goods 
supplied by him and for which he has not yet accounted to the 
said Treasurer ; that, moreover, the said Philibert received from 
the King's stores during the past month 150 barrels of flour to 
be made into bread for the subsistence of the troops and that he 
is further indebted to the King's domain according to his note 
of the 2nd September last, in a sum of two thousand six hundred 
and forty-four livres ten sols for entrance duties. And whereas 
the said Philibert died last night, it is the duty of the said 
Comptroller to take every precaution for the preservation of His 
Majesty's moneys. 

Considering the above you are requested to be pleased to 
order that seals be affixed on all the moveables and effects in 
the house of the said Philibert in order that the proper orders 
may be given after his widow shall have settled accounts with 
the Treasurer of the Marine respecting the supplies furnished 
by the deceased and the sums to him paid as well as the 150 
barrels of flour. 

FOUCAULT. 



Gilles Hocquart, Intendant of New France. 

Seeing the petition submitted to us, w r e have appointed 
and do appoint Sieur Daine, Lieutenant General in the Prevoste 
to affix seals upon the effects of Sieur Philibert as requested 
sub-delegating him for the purpose and he shall be accom- 
pained by the clerk of Prevoste. 

Ordered, etc., Quebec, 22nd January, 1748. 

HOCQUART. 
IV 



APPENEIX 

No. 3 

In the year one thousand seven hundred and forty eight, 
on the twenty second January at ten of the clock in the morning, 
we, Francois Daine, King's Councillor, Lieutenant Governor in 
civic and criminal matters at the seat of the Prevoste of Quebec, 
sub-delegate of Monsieur the Intendant in this matter, in virtue 
of his commission dated this day, witness at the foot of a petition 
of the Comptroller of the Marine in this country, proceeded, 
accompanied by the clerk of the Prevoste and with the Commis- 
sion of the said Monsieur the Intendant, to the house situate on 
Mountain street belonging to the late Sieur Nicolas Jacquin 
Philibert where he died yesterday, at about the hour of ten in 
the evening, for the purpose of affixing seals upon all the move- 
ables and effects in the said house, where we took the oath of 
Demoiselle Marie Anne Guerin, wife of the said late Sieur Phili- 
bert, whom we found ill in bed as well as of Jean Baptiste Pinault, 
Jacques Clement Lesueur, Mathurin Buron and Pierre and Louis 
Robert, negro servants of the said house, that they had not 
taken any of the moveables and effects belonging to the succes- 
sion of the said late Sieur Philibert, nor had any knowledge of 
any being taken by anybody whomsoever, either directly or 
indirectly, of which oath we gave acte, and afterwards proceeded 
to affix seals as follows: 

Firstly: We affixed a slip of paper, upon the two ends 
whereof is impressed the seal of our arms, upon the door of the 
store wjiich is on the ground floor of the house; we affixed none 
on the windows as the latter have iron gratings; 

We affixed a slip of paper as aforesaid upon the opening of 
the lock of the vault of the said house; 

Idem. , upon the door of the biscuit store, having no other 
entrance, but the door on the second story; 

Idem. , upon the door of the flour store on the same story, 
having no other entrance than the said door; 

On the door and lock of a large room attached to the house 
looking upon the back of the same on the first story in which 
room are the papers, money and linen of the said late Sieur 
Philibert; 

Idem., on the entrance door of the cellar of the said house 
having its entrance in the dining room of the same; 

Idem. , on the opening of the lock of a closet in the dining 
room of the said house, as one enters, on the side of the cellar ; 

A slip of paper as aforesaid on another closet beside that 
above mentioned; 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

These are all the seals that had to be affixed in the said 
house. After this we proceeded to take a list of the effects in 
the said house, as follows, to wit: In the kitchen of the said 
house : 

Twelve earthenware plates, 

Six small China dishes, idem, 

Seven pewter plates, 

Six China plates, 

Three China dishes, idem, 

One large pewter dish, 

Two medium do 

One set of China casters, 

Two do salt cellars, 

One large China soup dish, 

One earthenware dish, 

One pewter porringer, 

Five pewter spoons, 

Three copper stew-pans, 

One small do pie dish, 

One copper sauce pan, 

One fish kettle with cover, idem, 

Four frying pans, 

One iron pot, 

One brass kettle, 

One copper do 

Three iron do 

One iron pepper mill, 

Another copper kettle, 

Three brickets with iron^hoops, 

One table with folding leaf, 

Two steel axes, 

One iron soup ladle, 

One iron shovel, 

One pair of andirons. 

In the dining room : 

One iron stove with pipe, 

One wooden cup board, 

Eight straw seat chairs, 

Two curtains of green serge, 

A short curtain on the door of this room, 

One wooden sideboard. 

In the bed-room of the late Sieur Philibert were : 

A bed made of pine wood with curtains, feather-bed, pail- 
lasse, mattress, bolster, blanket, trimmed with green serge; 

An arm chair covered with green plush, 

VI 



APPENDIX 

A glass mirror with gilt frame, nine pieces of blue and 
white China, two curtains of green serge with poles, two dam- 
aged andirons, 

One birch wood table with turned legs, eight wooden 
chairs with turned legs and covered with heavy green plush, 

A picture of St. Peter, 

A crucifix on velvet with gilt border, 

Two large glass tumblers. 

Four small glass carafes, 

Six porcelain cups and saucers and a porcelain tea pot 
with cover. 

A large China jug, 

A silver watch with do case. 

We afterwards proceeded to the bakery of the said house 
where we found only the implements necessary for the same all 
of which were sealed, as well as all the effects found in the said 
house, which we left in the care of the said Demoiselle Marie 
Anne Guerin, widow of the late Sieur Philibert, who voluntarily 
undertook to be the guardian thereof, promising to produce the 
same whenever called upon to do so. Of all which we have 
drawn up a proces-verbal on the day and in the year aforesaid 
and the said Pinault, Lesueur, Buron as well as Pierre and Louis 
Robert, negroes, have declared that they are unable to sign 
their names as being thereunto required according to the ordin- 
ance. 

DAINE, 
BOISSEAU. 
GUERIN-PHILIBERT. 



In the year one thousand seven hundred and forty eight, 
the twenty third January at five o'clock in the afternoon, we, 
Francois Daine, hereunto sub-delegate of Monsieur the Intend- 
ant, proceeded, accompanied by the clerk of the Prevoste in 
obedience to the order given us this day, written at the foot of a 
petition and preceded by Demoiselle Marie Anne Guerin, widow 
of the late Sieur Philibert to the house, sixteen Mountain street, 
belonging to the succession of the said late Sieur Philibert, for 
the purpose of verifying the seals affixed by us, at the request 
of the Comptroller of the Marine in this country on the goods 
and effects left by the said late Sieur Philibert, as appears by 
our proces-verbal of yesterday, where being and in the presence 
of Sieur Louis Robin, King's writer and of the widow Philibert, 
constituted guardian of the effects so sealed as well as of the 

VII 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

other effects in the house, we, the Lieutenant General aforesaid, 
found the seals affixed in the house according to our proces- 
verbal, unbroken and handed over the same to Maitre Panet, 
Royal Notary in the Prevoste of this town, with the consent of 
Maitre Foucault, Comptroller and Commissioner of the Marine, 
to be by him removed as the inventory of the effects so sealed 
is proceeded with. Whereof, we have drawn up the present 
proces-verbal on the day and in the year aforesaid. 

And the said widow Philibert, as well as the said L. Robin 
and Maitre Panet have signed with us. 

ROBIN, GUERIN-PHIUBERT, 

DAINE, PANET, BOISSEATJ. 



No. 4 

23RD JANUARY, 1748. 

To Monsieur the Lieutenant-General for civil and criminal mat- 
ters of the Prevote of Quebec and Commissioner herein. 

Marie Anne Guerin, widow of Sieur Nicolas Jacquin Phili- 
bert, in his lifetime merchant of this town humbly prays : That 
seeing the proces-verbal of the affixing of seals on the petition 
of the Comptroller of the Marine, you will be pleased to fix a 
day for proceeding to remove the same, the said Sieur Comp- 
troller being present or duly summoned, in order that an inven- 
tory may afterwards be made of the furnitures, moneys, letters 
and papers under the said seals, in the presence of Monsieur the 
Comptroller of the Marine or of any other person whom Monsieur 
the Intendant may be pleased to appoint and you will do us 
justice. 

GUERIN PHIUBERT. 

Seeing the present petition we order that we shall proceed 
this day at four o'clock in the afternoon with the clerk of the 
commission to the house in which the Sieur Philibert, merchant 
of this town, died, for the purpose of removing the seals by us 
affixed on the moveables and effects belonging to the community 
of property between him and Marie Anne Guerin his wife, after 
having verified the same in the presence of Monsieur Foucault, 

VIII 



APPENDIX 

Comptroller of the Marine, hereto duly summoned and in his 
default of the person he may appoint, the seals having been 
verified and handed over to Maitre Panet, Royal notary, that he 
may proceed to make the inventory of the effects found under 
the said seals in the presence of the said Comptroller or other 
person appointed by him. 
We order, etc. 

Done at Quebec, the 23rd January, 1748. 

DAINE. 



No. 5 

On this day the twenty third February, one thousand seven 
hundred and forty-eight, in the afternoon in the office of the 
Prevote of this town and of the clerk thereof, came and appeared : 
Joseph Demeule and Andre Bouchaud, traders along the shores, 
who declared to us as follows, to wit : the said Demeule that he 
trades at la Valtrie near Montreal and has a store at that place 
for carrying on his trade on the neighbouring shores ; and the 
said Bouchaud that he likewise trades at Berthier near Montreal 
where he also has his store and that they were summoned on 
behalf of the late sieur Philibert to depose the truth on the inquiry 
made on his petition against the Sieur de Repentigny, an officer 
in the troops of the Marine detachment ; that Dame widow 
Philibert had summoned them to remain in this town until re- 
examined and confrontation on their depositions which would 
cause them considerable damage owing to their having aban- 
doned their stores at the places aforesaid ; to obviate which the 
the said Sieurs Demeule and Bouchaud, bind themselves to be 
present in this town on the eighteenth day of the month of 
March next to answer any summons that may be made upon 
them, hereby electing domicile in this town in the house of 
Sieur Bouchaud, the elder, situate in Sous le Fort street, pro- 
testing as regards all their expenses for travelling, remaining in 
and returning to this said towTi and other places and of all things 
which the said summons may cause to them and of all things 
respecting which they may protest in such cases. 

Whereof they have required acte, to them granted to serve 
as the same reasonably may and have signed. 

(Signed) DEMEULE, 

BOUCHAUD. 
N. BOISSEAU. 
IX 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

No. 6 

On this day, the twenty-fourth of January, one thousand 
seven hundred and forty-eight in the afternoon, in the office of 
the Prevoste, before us, the clerk thereof, came and appeared 
Maitre Jean Claude Panet, royal notary in this provoste, on 
behalf and as attorney of Mademoiselle Marie Anne Guerin, 
widow of Nicolas Jacquin Philibert, in his lifetime merchant of 
this town under the deed passed before Maitre Dulaurent and 
his colleague this day ; who, on the said behalf, declared to us 
that he will start from this town to-morrow to proceed by relays 
to that of Montreal for the purpose of following up, on behalf 
of the said dame Philibert, the execution of the warrant of arrest 
issued against the Sieur de Repentigny, an officer in the troops 
of the Marine detachment, and to prosecute the inventory of all 
his moveable effects ; to that end protesting on behalf of the said 
widow for all his travelling expenses for his stay in the town of 
Montreal and other places and in returning to this town of 
Quebec and for all costs, damages and interest suffered and to 
be suffered and everything which she has the right to protest in 
such cases ; of which appearance, declaration and protests the 
said Maitre Panet, on the said behalf, has demanded acte, the 
same being granted him and both signed. 

PANET, 
BOISSEAU. 



No. 7 

Performing the duties of King's Procurator from the said 
twenty first January, on which day it was ordered that the said 
Repentigny be arrested and taken to the royal prison there to 
be interrogated as to the facts resulting from the said charge 
and information and others respecting which the said King's 
Procurator may wish to have him heard ; the warrant of arrest 
issued by us on the said twenty first day of January against the 
said Sieur de Repentigny ; the return of the seach for the said 
accused by the bailiffs Valet and Cantin on the twenty first of 
the said month ; the summons with a delay of fifteen days 
given to the said Sieur de Repentigny on the twenty second of 
the same month to appear on seventh February following; the 
petition presented by the said Marie Anne Guerin, widow of the 
said Sieur Philibert, the prosecutrix and civil party ; our ordin- 



APPENDIX 

ance that communication be given to the King's Procurator, of 
the said twenty second day of the same month ; the requisition 
of the said King's Procurator of the same day; our ordinance at * 
the foot thereof by which we permitted the body of the said late | 
Philibert to be opened by the said Briant in the presence of the { 
said Sieur Beaudoin, to assertain the wound he had received / 
from the said Sieur de Repentigny ; the report drawn up by the ; 
said Sieurs Briant and Beaudoin on the said twenty second day; ;. 
another summons with a delay of eight days, given to the said ' 
Sieur de Repentigny on the eighth of the said month of Feb- 
ruary, to appear on the seventeenth of the same month; the 
requisition of the said King's Procurator of the twentieth of the 
said month of February for the re-examination of the witnesses 
heard on the said information and that their re-examination will 
be equivalent to confrontation with the said Sieur de Repentigny. 
Our judgment of the twenty fourth of the said month of Feb- 
ruary whereby it is ordered that the witnesses heard on the said 
information shall be re-examined on their requisition and the 
re-examination shall be equivalent to confrontation with the 
said Sieur de Repentigny, the accused ; our ordinance of the 
twentieth of the said month of February for summoning the 
said witnesses; the writ of summons to them given on the twen- 
tieth of the same month ; the re-examination of the said wit- 
nesses dated the twenty first of the said month; the petition 
presented by the said Marie Anne Guerin, widow of the said 
Philibert, that the said Sieur de Repentigny be duly declared 
attainted and convicted of having murdered the said Philibert 
and other cases mentioned in the said suit, for reparation where 
of he be condemned to thirty thousand livres for damages with 
civil interest in favour of the said widow Philibert and the costs 
of suit, saving the right of the King's Procurator to conclude as 
he may deem advisable and we grant her acte for having pro- 
duced the exhibits of the suit in support of the facts alleged in 
the said petition; our ordinance at the foot of the petition that 
it be served upon the said Sieur de Repentigny at his last 
domicile... 



XI 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

No. 8 
COPY OF JUDGMENT 

Considering the criminal prosecution instituted and pro- 
ceeded with by us, Francois Daine, King's Counsel, Lieutenant- 
General for civil and criminal jurisdiction at the seat of the 
PreVote of Quebec, originally on the petition of Nicolas Jacquin 
Philibert, merchant of this town, plaintiff and prosecutor and 
since his death on the petition of Marie Anne Guerin, widow of 
the said Philibert, plaintiff and prosecutrix the King's Procurator 
acting therein against the Sieur de Repentigny, an officer of the 
troops of the Marine detachment in this country, defendant, 
accused of having killed the said Sieur Philibert : the petition 



il 



of complaint presented to us by the said Philibert on the 2oth * 
January last, replied to by us on the same day, by which he asks j 
permission to lay a complaint and our ordinance of the same 






y ' 

day, the twentieth January, granting permission to lay an infor- 
mation as to the facts therein contained and to be examined by 
the said Beaudoin, surgeon ; A petition presented to us on the 
said day for le'ave to receive the oath of the said Sieur Beaudoin, 
replied to on the same day : the certificate of the taking of the 
oath on the said twentieth January, the report of the said Sieur 
Beaudoin of the same date ; our ordinance of the said twentieth 
day of the month of January to summon the witnesses to be 
heard on the said information, the summons to one Bouchard, 
Jils, Demeule, cooper, Pierre Voyer, Joseph Delorme, Dumont 
and the wife of the said Dumont, by writ of the said twentieth day 
of January issued on the petition of the said Philibert against 
the Sieur de Repentigny containing the examination of six 
witnesses ; our ordinance communicated to the said King's 
Procurator, duly received ; the discontinuance of the said 
King's Procurator of the same date inasmuch as he cannot take 
cognizance of the matter owing to relationship within the pre- 
scribed degrees, afterwards an ordinance of the twenty-first of 
the same month appointing Maitre Dulaurent, notary, in the 
said Prevote, in the place and stead of the said King's Pro- 
curator; Another discontinuance on behalf of Maitre Dulaurent, 
notary, of the said twenty-first of the same month, our ordin- 
ance at the foot thereof of the same date by which we appointed 
M. Barolet, notary, in the place and stead of the said M. Dulau- 
rent to perform the duty of King's Procurator ; Conclusion of 
the said Maitre Barolet dated the first of this month, the said 
petition served upon the said de Repentigny at his last domicile 

XII 



APPENDIX 

in the house of one la Palme ; Conclusions of the said Maitre 
Barolet, acting as King's Procurator, dated the 5th of the said 
month. And, having on the whole deliberated and having 
obtained the opinion of Maitre Gilbert Boucaut de Godefus, 
Provost judge of the Seigniory of Beaupre and of Maitre Charles 
Turpin, practitioner in this Prevote, taken as assessor with us ; 
We have declared the coutumacy of the said de Repentigny, the 
accused, to be fully proved ; and, adjudicating upon his designs, 
declaring him duly attainted and convicted of having killed the 
said Philibert ; in reparation whereof, condemning the said 
Repentigny, in view of his quality of gentleman, to have his 
head cut off on a scaffold to be erected for the purpose on the 
public square of the Lower Town of Quebec, condemning him 
moreover to pay 8000 livres for damages with interest to Marie 
Anne Guerin, widow of the said Philibert and to the costs of 
the suits ; We have declared the remainder of his property con- 
fiscated to whomsoever it may appertain, after the sum of 105 
livres shall have first been taken therefrom, in case confiscation 
affect His Majesty's property ; And the present sentence shall 
be executed in effigy on a picture to be placed on a post fixed for 
the purpose on the public square. 

Done at Quebec the 2oth March, 1748. 

And the said Sieur Millon and the said Maitres Boucaut 
and Turpin have signed with us in the presence of Maitre Millon- 
carde, Major. 

Signed BOUCAUT DE GODEFUS, 

" TURPIN, 

MlU/)N, 

" N. BOISSEAU. 

On behalf of the King, I demand the execution of the 
above Judgment. 

Done at Quebec the 2oth March, 1748. 

Signed, C. BAROLET, 

Procurator. 

The above judgment was executed on the said 2oth day of 
March, one thousand seven hundred and forty-eight. 

Signed, N. BOISSEAU. 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

No. 9 
MM. DE I,A GALISSONNIERE AND HOCQUART. 

1 7th AUGUST, 1748. 
Monseigneur, 

Last winter an unfortunate affair happened here 

to Sieur de Repentigny, the elder, who, having had a quarrel 
with the Sieur Philibert, wounded him by a sword thrust where 
of that merchant died. That officer seemed to us more unfort- 
unate than guilty and we trust than you will so decide after 
reading the information we shall send you when we ask you to 
obtain his pardon from His Majesty. 

We have the honour, etc., etc., 

LA GALUSSONNIERE, HOCQUART. 

Quebec, i7th August, 1748. 



No, 10 

ist SEPTEMBER, 1748. 

I,E GARDEUR M. DE REPENTIGNY. 

Asks for letters of pardon in connection with the death of one 
Philibert, merchant of Quebec. 

Monseigneur, 

The misfortune that happened to me to give a sword thrust 
in the just defence of my honour and even of my life, to the 
Sieur Philibert, merchant of Quebec, compels me to have 
recourse to your Grace's kindness and most respectfully beg that 
you will be pleased to obtain for me letters of pardon for that 
murder. In the annexed petition I set forth the unfortunate 
circumstances that compelled me, on the first impulse, to pro- 
ceed to that extremity. I hope that, in the investigation that 
was made, the witnesses have related the facts as they occurred, 
your Grace will find me more unfortunate than guilty, I never- 

XIV 



APPENDIX 

theless deeply regret having contributed to the death of a 
citizen. I have been condemned in the Prevoste to have my 
head cut off and to a fine of eight thousand livres besides two 
thousand livres for costs. I venture to hope, my Lord, that 
your Grace will be pleased to obtain for me the remission of a 
fine which completely prevents me from remaining in the service 
where I will endeavour more and more to make myself worthy 
of your kindness. I flatter myself, my Lord, that your Grace 
will be pleased that I should have the honour of submitting my 
report on a campaign I carried on this summer at the head of a 
party which my brother, who accompanied me as second in 
command, had brought here ; and whereof M. de Sabrevois, the 
Commandant of this fort, gave me the command. In obedience 
to his orders I started on the 24 July with 25 Frenchmen, about 
one hundred Savages from the upper country and others settled 
here, to strike a blow on the shores of Carlogne, distant 40 
leagues from this fort. On the 2gth of the same month about 5 
o'clock in the morning we arrived at a spot three quarters of a 
league from the fort and at the large village of Carlogne where 
the scouts came upon three men whom they attacked. One of 
the three was killed, another was made prisoner and the third 
escaped. Thereupon the savages, alanned at the proximity of 
the enemy and following their constant custom to be content 
with one scalp rather than run the risk of a second attack, 
were very well satisfied with what they had done and thought 
only of returning home. Such a design disturbed me very 
much and I set to work at once to induce them to change their 
mind. To that end I gave them a collar to show that Monsieur 
the Marquis de la Galissonniere would have a bad opinion of the 
repentance they would feel for their faults, whereof they would 
be accused were they to relax their efforts at sight of the 
enemy; that they could not take such a step without obliging 
me to bring them to account myself. And I urged them by 
that collar to second me in the resolution I had taken to keep 
the dead body and await those who might come to remove it. 
After much deliberation, the chiefs sent me word that they 
accepted the collar and we at once placed ourselves about two 
arpents from the body where the enemy appeared only at three 
o'clock in the afternoon to the number of a hundred and ten 
men. We attacked them as soon as they came near us and after 
a short resistance on their part, we compelled them to retreat 
from the battlefield leaving 21 dead. The proximity of their 
fort and of their village did not prevent our pursuing them and 
we made 13 prisoners notwithstanding the advantage of a very 
thick wood which greatly favoured their retreat. We learned 

XV 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

from the captives that a great many of their people had escaped 
wounded. A Canadian and six of our Savages were wounded 
and one Outooua killed. 

I venture to hope, Monseigneur, that your Grace will be 
pleased to take my conduct during that campaign into consid- 
eration. 

I remain with respect, etc., e}c., 

LE GARDEUR REPENTIGNY. 
Fort St. Fre*de"ric, ist September, 1748. 



No. 11 

You have been informed, monsieur, of the unfortunate 
affair that has happened to Monsieur de Repentigny and of the 
judgment against him. Permit me to unite with those who 
crave pardon for him. It costs him too much in every way for 
his example to have dangerous consequences 

t L. M., Bishop of Quebec. 



No. 12 

REGISTRATION OF SUPERIOR COUNCIL 

The Council having seen : 

The letters of grace, pardon and remission obtained by 
Pierre Legardeur, esquire, Sieur de Repentigny, lieutenant of 
a company of the marine troops maintained for His Majesty's 
service in this country, the said letters dated in the month of 
April last, signed "Louis" and on the back " By the King, 
Phelippeaux," and on the side " Visa-Daguesseau, " and sealed 
with the great seal in green wax with red and green ribbons, 
in connection with the homicide by him committed on the per- 
son of Nicolas Jaquin Philibert, merchant of this town ; 

The informations and other criminal proceedings in connec- 
tion therewith by the Lieutenant-general for civil and criminal 

XVI 



APPENDIX 

matters of the PreVost of this town, on the petition both of the 
said Philibert in his life-time and of Marie Anne Guerin, his 
widow, the representative of the King's Procurator-General in 
the said PreVoste", being associated with him ; 

The entry of the voluntary imprisonment of the said Sieur 
de Repentigny in the prison of this town, of the twenty-eighth 
September last ; 

The judgment of the Council of the twenty-ninth of the 
said month on the presentation and reading of the said letters 
in the Council Chamber, in open sitting, in the presence of the 
of the said Sieur de Repentigny who was bareheaded and on his 
knees, and after making oath to speak the truth, he stated 
that he had given instructions to obtain them, that they con- 
tain the truth and that he wishes to make use thereof ; by which 
judgment the Council ordered that the said letters and informa- 
tions be communicated to the King's Procurator-General, and 
copies thereof be given to the civil party to enable the same to 
show cause within the delay fixed by the ordinance ; the said 
Sieur de Repentigny to be heard and interrogated by Maitre 
Jacques Lafontaine, Councillor, appointed by the Council as 
Commissioner in the case to report on the facts resulting from 
the said letters and information, so that, after the examination 
is held and also communicated to the said King's Procurator- 
general, such order may be given as may be deemed proper ; 

His examination on the same day, the twenty-ninth of the 
same month of September, by the said Maitre Lafontaine, the 
Reporting Commissioner, his answers, confession and denials ; 

The notice served on the same day on the petition of the 
said Sieur de Repentigny, upon the said widow Philibert, of his 
said entry in the prison register, of the said Letters of Pardon 
and of the said judgment with summons to show cause, if any 
she has, against the same within the delay fixed by the ordinance; 

The return of service of a notice effected on the thirtieth 
of the said month of September on the petition of the said widow 
Philibert upon the said Sieur de Repentigny by the bailiff Thi- 
bault and signed by her and by the said bailiff, by which notice 
she declared that she had no cause to show against the ratifica- 
tion of the said letters served upon her, as she had been paid 
the civil damages and interest awarded her by the court, that 
moreover, she left the matter in the hands of the court as regards 
what is set forth in the said Letters notwithstanding the delays 
allowed her by the ordinance ; 

The conclusions of the King's Procurator General of the 
first of this month. 

B XVII 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Having heard and examined the said Sieur de Repentigny 
on the matters referring to him and contained in the said letters, 
the tenor whereof is as follows : 

LOUIS, by the Grace of God, King of France and of Navarre, to 
all present and to come: Greeting. 

We have received the humble petition of Sieur de Repen- 
tigny, lieutenant of the troops maintained for Our service in 
Canada, professing the Roman Catholic Apostolic religion, set- 
ting forth : That on the twentieth January, 1748, having a billet 
quartering him, in his said capacity, on one Nicolas Jacquin 
Philibert, merchant of Quebec, the latter w r ent to a woman 
named Lapalme, with whom the petitioner there lodged to 
induce her to continue to give hrm lodging, but that, being un- 
able to agree with the woman as to the price, the said Philibert 
said he would have the billet changed . 

That the petitioner, who was then within hearing of this 
conversation, addressed himself to Philibert and in a tone cal- 
culated to give him to understand that he would not be inconv- 
enienced by the lodging he had to give him, he told him that it 
was silly on his part to try and effec"l the change. That Phili- 
bert, instead of taking this speech as a notice that the petitioner 
intended to give him in order to appease the anxiety such lodg- 
ing seemed to cause him, allowed himself to be carried away by 
his naturally violent anger and not content with insulting the 
petitioner in a gross and vile manner, he struck him with a stick; 
that the petitioner on being so struck had, under the first 
impulse which he could not control, drawn his sword and struck 
the said Philibert who died some time afterwards, to the great 
regret of the petitioner ; 

That although this misfortune happened without preme- 
ditated design and at a moment when the petitioner was no 
longer at liberty to stand without defending himself, the judges 
in Quebec had instituted proceedings in consequence whereof 
he deemed it advisable to absent himself and would not venture 
to present himself without first obtaining Our Letters of Grace, 
pardon and remission which he humbly begs us to be pleased to 
grant him ; 

Wherefore, preferring mercy to the rigour of the Law, 
with the advice of Our Council and of Our special grace, full 
power and Royal authority we have granted and by these pres- 
ents signed with Our hand, We do grant the Sieur de Reptn- 
tigny grace, pardon and remission of the acts and charges as 
hereinabove set forth together with all penalties, fines, corporal, 
civil and criminal punishments he may have incurred towards 

XVIII 



APPENDIX 

us and towards justice in consequence of the same, We set aside 
all decrees, all sentences of cbutumacy for default, sentences, 
judgments and orders that may have been pronounced against 
the petitioner. 

We restore him his good name and fame as well as his 
property not otherwise confiscated, after satisfaction to the civil 
party if this be not already done and if any be due. 

We impose silence upon our Procurators General and their 
representatives, present and future and upon all others. 

We also command our beloved and faithful members of Our 
Superior Council established in Quebec within whose jurisdiction 
the facts aforesaid have occurred, to ratify these presents, Our 
Letters of grace, pardon and remission and to cause the peti- 
tioner to fully, peacefully and perpetually enjoy what is set 
forth therein, ceasing and causing all troubles and hindrances 
thereto to cease. On condition that he shall present himself 
for the confirmation of these presents within six months, on 
pain of nullity. 

For such is Our pleasure. 

And in order that the same may endure for ever, We have 
caused Our seal to be affixed to these presents. 

Given at Versailles, in the month of April in the year of 
Grace one thousand seven hundred and forty nine and of Our 
Reign the thirty fourth. 

Signed: " Louis," and on the back: "By the King Phelip- 
peaux," Visa-Dagtiesseau to be remitted to Darpentigny , " and 
sealed with the great seal in green wax with red and green silk 
ribbons. 

Having heard the report of Maitre Jacques Lafontaine, 
Councillor, and upon the whole deliberated, the Council has 
ratified the said Letters of Remission that the said Sieur de 
Repentigny may enjoy the effects and contents thereof accord- 
ing to their form and tenor. 
(Signed) 

DEIvAFONTAINE, BIGOT 



No. 13 

QUEBEC, nth October, 1749. 
Monseigneur, 

I have the honour to report that the letters of pardon 
granted by the King to the Sieur de Repentigny have been 
ratified in the Superior Council and that officer has acdordingly 
resumed his rank in the service. 

XIX 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

The widow and children of Philibert have just represented 
to me that if the said Sieur de Repentigny remains in this 
colonie they would have the unpleasantness of seeing the author 
of the death of the said Philibert ; this would be more disagree- 
able that the widow and children still feel the full weight of 
sorrow for so great a loss. 

Moreover it is to be feared that the resentment on both 
sides may give rise to some regrettable occurrence. 

I think therefore, Monseigneur, that it would be advisable 
to send the said Sieur de Repentigny to the Islands and to 
request you to give him some employment at St. Domingo or 
Martinique. That officer possesses very good qualities and in 
the event of its being impossible to give him a place in the 
islands, he would be well qualified for service at Louisbourg in 
the capacity of Captain. Pending the receipt of your orders he 
will serve in the Montreal garrison. 

I remain with most profound respect, etc., etc. 

I/A JONQUIIJRE. 



NO. 14 

Before the undersigned Royal notary in the Prevoste' of Quebec, 
residing there and the witnesses heinafter mentioned, came 
and appeared : 

Demoiselle Marie Renee Roussel, widow of Mr. Louis 
Chambalon, in his lifetime Royal notary in the said Prevot 
and Magdeleine Roussel, all residing in this town, who of their 
own free will have by these presents acknowledged to have sold, 
assigned, ceded, made over, transferred and abandoned hence- 
forth and for ever, each with warranty on her own behalf 
against all disturbance, debts, hypothecs and other encumbrances 
generally whatsoever, to Sieur Nicolas Jacquin dit Philibert, 
merchant and Burgess, residing in this town, present and 
accepting, the purchaser, for himself, his heirs an assigns in 
future, to wit, a lot of land situate and being in this upper town 
in Buade street, containing eighty feet in front on the said street 
and sixty-three feet in depth and more if there be, bounded on 
one side by a road or lane leading from the Chateau St. Louis 
to the Lower Town and on the other side on the West by the 
land and lot of Sieur Baune, in front by the said Buade street 

XX 



APPENDIX 

and in rear by the land and lot of the Representatives of 
Monsieur Dauteuil with the two story stone house built thereon 
as the whole now is and stands closed and fenced in with upright 
stakes, without the said Demoiselles, the vendors, reserving or 
retaining anything, the said purchaser, declaring that he knows 
the said lot and the house built thereon through having visited 
and examined the same. The said property belongs to the said 
Demoiselles; the vendors, through having been adjudged to 
them by decree at the seat of the Prevost^ in this town, dated 
the thirtieth of April, one thousand seven hundred and twenty 
as a property forming part of the succession of the late Sieur 
Thimothe Roussel, in his lifetime Master Surgeon of this town 
and of the late Demoiselle Magdeleine Dumortier Deleur, his 
w r ife, the father and mother of the Demoiselles, the vendors ; to 
which said Sieur Roussel the said lot belonged to wit : forty-six 
feet in front on the said street and thirty-six feet in depth 
through a concession to him granted by the fabrique of this 
parish and by contract passed before the late Maitre Becquet in 
his lifetime Royal notary in the said Prevoste dated the third of 
September one thousand six hundred and seventy-three ; thirty- 
four other feet in front by a like depth of thirty-six feet through 
a gift to him made by Monsieur Chambly by deed before Mathieu 
Bonneau in his lifetime Royal notary in the Island of Martinique, 
dated the tenth of February one thousand six hundred and 
ninety-three registered at the seat of the Prevoste" in this town 
on the twelfth of October of the said year after the expiration of 
the delay of ten months granted by the said Sieur Chambly for 
such registration mentioned in the said deed owing to the distance 
of the said place ; the said quantity of land belonged to the said 
Sieur Chambly through the concession to him granted by the 
fabrique of this parish by contract before the said late Maitre 
Becquet, dated third of'September one thousand six hundred 
and sixty-three, the said two concessions being dependencies of 
thef'ibrique and the remainder of the said lot which is a depend- 
ency of the King's Domain having been conceded to the late 
Sieur Roussel by Monsieur the Comte de Frontenac, in his life- 
time Governor and Lieutenant-general of the King in this 
country, as is established by the procfa verbal of Jean Le Rouge 
in his lifetime sworn land-surveyor in this country, dated the 
sixteenth day of June in the year one thousand six hundred 
and seventy-seven, which states that by order of Monseigneur 
the Comte de Frontenac he measured a lot for the benefit of 
Thimothe Roussel, Master Surgeon, containing eighty feet in 
front on the side of the Place d'Armei and twenty-eight feet 
in depth on the side of the hill and thirty-two feet in depth on 

XXI 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

the side of the unconceded lot, which said titles of concession 
and proces-vrrbal , together with the said gift and decree of adju- 
dication, besides the copy of a contract constituting a rent of 
the sum of thirty livres, one fourth deducted, consented by the 
said late Sieur Roussel in favour of the said fabrique with the 
acquittance for the said Rent and the principal thereof passed 
before Maitre Boisseau, Royal notary in the said Prevoste, dated 
the twenty-eight August, one thousand seven hundred and thirty- 
one, have been presently delivered by the said Demoiselles, the 
vendors, into the hands of the said purchaser who has received 
them and relieves the said Demoiselles and all others from them. 

This sale, assignment and transfer is so made on condition 
that the said purchaser shall pay in future every year from the 
first October next two sols as cens for which a portion of the said 
lot is liable towards the said fabrique of this town with forty sols 
of ground rent also annual, perpetual and unredeemable in favour 
of the same fabrique, besides the cens for which the other portion 
of the said lot is liable to the King's Domain, the amount of 
which cens the said Demoiselles, the vendors, on being thereunto 
required, could not state as to the present free and clear never- 
theless of all arrears of the said cens el rentes for the past to the 
said first day of October next, on which day the payment of the 
said cens et rentes is to be effected every year. Also for the price 
and sum of eight thousand livres, which said sum of eight thous- 
and livres, the said purchaser promises and binds himself to pay 
to the said Demoiselles, the vendors, or order, six years from 
now at the latest and until then to pay the rent and interest every 
year at five per cent. Nevertheless in the event of the said 
purchaser paying any sums on account and in reduction of the 
aforesaid sum during the said six years, then and in such case 
the interest on the sums paid by him shall be deducted propor- 
tionately to the payments made by him on account of the prin- 
cipal, on which said principal of eight thousand livres the said 
Demoiselles Genevidve and Magdeleine Roussel have stated and 
declared that they are interested to the extent of three-fourths, 
namely, the sum of six thousand livres, owing to the sale of one 
fourth of the said lot and house to them by the late Sieur Jean 
Baptiste Demeule and Demoiselle Marie Louise Roussel, their 
brotheir-in-law and sister by contract before Maitre Hiche, 
Royal notary in the said Prevoste' dated the . 

The copy of which deed the said Demoiselles Genevieve 
and Magdeleine Roussel promise to hand over immediately to 
the said purchaser, and, in consequence thereof, the said pur- 
chaser promises and binds himself to pay to the said Demoi- 
selles Genevieve and Magdeleine Roussel, and to each of them 

XXII 



APPENDIX 

the sum of three thousand livres for their share of the price of 
the aforesaid sale and interest until the expiration of the term 
allowed, and to the said Demoiselle Marie Rene'e Roussel, the 
other two thousand livres, being the one-fourth and the share 
she claims to have in the aforesaid lot with interest as aforesaid. 
And for the purposes of all the above, the said Sieur Philibert, 
the purchaser, has hypothecated all his property generally 
whatsoever present and future, and in particular the said lot and 
house presently sold without the general and special obligations 
derogating one from the other. Accordingly the said Demoiselles, 
the vendors, have assigned and transferred and do assign and 
transfer all rights of ownership and all other rights whatsoever 
which they may have or claim to have in and to the property 
now by them sold and whereof they did seize and divert them- 
selves in favour of the said purchaser, his heirs and assigns, to 
enjoy and dispose of the same as his own property, in virtue of 
these presents, willing and consenting that he be placed in full 
possession and seizein thereof by whomsoever and as the same 
may appertain, constituting as attorney, etc., for thus, etc., 
promising and binding, etc., renouncing, etc. 

Done and passed at Quebec in the office of the said notary 
on the seventh June, one thousand seven hundred and thirty 
four in the afternoon, in the presence of Sieurs Louis Burgevin 
and Alexis Brunet, witnesses residing in Quebec aforesaid, who, 
with the said Demoiselles, the vendors, the said purchaser and 
the undersigned notary, have signed these presents first duly 
read according to the ordinance. 

(Signed) 

ROUSSEL, VEUVE LAMBER. " G. ROUSSEL, VEUVE. 
MADELEINE ROUSSEL. CHAMBALON. 

BURGEVIN. PHILIBERT. 

BRUNET. 
(JACQUES PINQUET, R. N. ) 



No. 15 

Before the aforesaid and undersigned notary came and 
appeared, Demoiselle Louise Roussel, widow of Sieur Jacques 
Page\ who in her own name and as common as to property with 
the said late Sieur Page\ acknowledged to have received from 
the said Sieur Nicolas Philibert, the Sieur Charles Turpin, prac- 
titioner in this town the sum of five thousand one hundred and 

XXIII 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

sixty livres, to wit : four thousand six hundred and fifteen livres, 
seventeen sols and four deniers in acquittances and five hundred 
and forty livres, two sols, eight deniers in money, which said two 
sums together make up the first aforesaid sum of five thousand 
one hundred and sixty livres, besides that of forty-one livres, one 
sol, six deniers for interest due from the fifth March, 1745, to 
this date ; also that of one hundred and sixty-seven livres, 
seventeen sols, six deniers, for costs to which he has been con- 
demned by judgment of the Council dated the twenty-ninth of 
August last and executory on the ninth of this month. The 
whole on account of the rights which the said widow may claim 
to have in the sale mentioned in the. above deed, the said Sieur 
Philibert making all reservations as regards the sum of 269 livres 
mentioned in a note of the, 3oth of October, 1 741 , initialled by 
Monsieur the Lieutenant-general of the Prevoste of this town on 
the 5th of April last and being one of the items of the account 
served by the widow Lambert on the eight of June, 1741, together 
with interest and the costs to which he was condemned by the 
aforesaid judgment for re-payment of the said sum of 269 /ivres 
together with the interest and costs. The said Sieur Philibert 
reserves the right to proceed against whomsoever and as it may 
appertain. The said Sieur Philibert also acknowledges having 
received from the said widow Page* the documents in the proceed- 
ings. 

For thus, etc., Promising, etc,, etc., etc. 

Done and passed at Quebec aforesaid in the office of the 
said notary in the forenoon of the twelfth of September, 1746, 
in the presence of the Sieurs Nicolas Bellevue and Alexis Brunet, 
witnesses residing in Quebec aforesaid who with the said Widow 
Page, the said Sieur Turpin and the undersigned notary have 
signed these presents first duly read. 

VEUVE PAGE, 
BELLEVUE-BRUNET. C. TURPIN, 

PINQUET, 



PHILIBERT. From 20th January 1757, Buade Street. 

The widow Philibert who showed us a deed of sale in her 
favour by the widow and heirs Lambert by contract before 
Pinquet, notary, the 7th June 1734, in virtue whereof she pos- 
sesses in the censive of His Majesty a lot and house situate in de 

XXIV 



APPENDIX 

Buade street, 80 feet in front by 32 in depth and whereas she 
has been unable to find the original title to ascertain the cens 
et rentes, we have fixed them at five sola six denier* per annum. 



THE NEW PARK 

In September, 1901, the Dominion Government purchased 
from the Community* of the Ursulines the ground commonly 
called ' ' The Race Course ' ' , and transferred it to the Corporation 
of the City of Quebec for the purposes of a public park. 

Under the administration of the Honourable S. N. Parent, 
the Mayor, plans were prepared for beautifying the western 
part of the city, and in the course of time this hitherto vacant 
piece of land will be converted into a picturesque resort. 

For many years the Race Course has been regarded by the 
tourist, and even by many of the inhabitants, as forming not only 
part of the property once owned by Abraham Martin, after whom 
the Plains, or Heights, were named, but also as the site of the 
famous contest between Wolfe and Montcalm. 

This ground, however, was never in the possession of 
Abraham Martin, and it had no connection with the British 
victory in 1759, or with the British defeat in 1760. 

The land comprised within the area of the new park was 
ceded by the French crown in five divisions to the following 
inhabitants of Quebec. The Sieurde Maur, Denis Duquet, Guil. 
Gaultier, Antoine Brassard, and Pierre and Gervais Normand. 
The first concession was dated November I4th, 1647, and the 
last on the 8th of May, 1651 ; and the whole property was trans- 
ferred to the Ursulines a few years after. The date of the last 
transfer was November 2oth, 1678. The whole of the property 
thus transferred by the original owners to the community of the 
Ursulines, has remained in their possession until it was sold to 
the Dominion Government in 1901. 

With the expansion of the city westward, the enclosure 
was used as a military parade ground, and many brilliant reviews 
were held there, the last being in the presence of His Royal 
Highness the Duke of Cornwall and York, in September, 1901. 

During the first half century of British rule the military 
displays were held nearer to the city, as may be seen by the 
plans made at the time. 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

THE SITE OF THE BATTLE OF THE PIAINS OF 
ABRAHAM 

Much misconception has existed within comparatively 
modern times as to the site of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham ; 
and for many years past the Race Course, now converted into a 
Park, has been pointed out as the exact place. 

The error arose through the statement made by a writer 
about sixty years ago, who placed the battle upon this ground, 
and his ipse dixit has been accepted and copied over and over 
again by writers ever since, until the statement has been accepted 
as a fact. 

To an ordinary observer the Race Course would no doubt 
be hailed as an ideal battle field. Wolfe, however, was not an 
ordinary observer, and he chose the place, as he told his Briga- 
diers shortly before the battle, where he thought he could best 
succeed. He could scarcely hope to have been successful if he 
had chosen the ground of the Race Course. 

The place chosen by Wolfe, as we find by the plans made 
by his Officers, and by the documents which they prepared for 
the express purpose of showing the site of the Battle, was nearer 
the city. This ground afforded Wolfe the advantage of a rising 
ground on his right, and the protection of several houses on his 
left. Wolfe's line of battle extended almost from the cliff near 
the river St. Lawrence to the St. Foy Road, in a line with de 
Salaberry Street ; and Montcalm's army met in a parallel line 
separated by only a distance of 40 yards. The exact position of 
both armies is shown on the plan accompanying this work, 
and a more detailed description is to be found in ' ' The Siege of 
Qnebec and the Battle of the Plains of Abraham ". 



THE PLAINS OF ABRAHAM 

The history of the Plains or Heights of Abraham commences 
in the days of the Founder of Quebec, 1635, one hundred and 
fourteen years before the decisive battle in which both Wolfe 
and Montcalm found a soldier's grave. In the archives of the 
Ursuline Convent may still be seen the deed of concession by 
which the land, now so widely known, was ceded to Abraham 
Martin. This document is dated the 4th of December, 1635, and 
it is of special interest because it contains a reference to the 



APPENDIX 

illness of Champlain, who died twenty-one days after its comple- 
tion. Thirteen years later, on the loth of October, 1648, Abraham 
Martin acquired the adjoining property, making a total of thirty- 
two acres. These two parcels of land were bounded on the north 
by Cote Ste. Genevieve, on the south by a line parallel with St. 
Louis road, two hundred yards north, on the east by Ste. Gene- 
vieve street, and on the west by Claire Fontaine street, officially 
described as the Fontaine d' Abraham. 

This ground appears to have been used for pasturage in 
Martin's time, and as very little of the land in tlje immediate 
vicinity w y as under cultivation, Abraham's cattle wandered at 
pleasure over the adjoining fields, and thus the name of The 
Plains or Heights of Abraham was given to a far larger tract of 
land than that confined by the boundaries of the concession. 

A reference to the plan of the battle shows that on the I3th 
of September, 1759, the right wnng of Montcalm's army occupied 
a part of the original ground owned by Martin, and thus this 
land was closely associated with the commencement and termi- 
nation of the French Regime. In the course of time this property 
was sold for building purposes, and for many years it has been 
thickly studded with dwellings. 

Abraham Martin was a Pilot, and in the early days of the 
Colony was a man of importance , but in his later years he appears 
to have forfeited much of the good opinion of his fellow-citizens. 
He was the father of a large family, and all his children were 
highly respected, and some of them rose to eminence. For 
many years after the close of the campaign of 1759, the Plains 
of Abraham were the scene of grand military displays. The 
first of importance took place on the 2gth of August, 1787, in 
the presence of His Royal Highness, Prince William Henry, and 
the Governor. An excellent description of this sham battle is 
found in a manuscript plan of the time, now in Washington : 

" ORDER OP BATTLE." 
" OX THE PLAINS OF ABRAHAM" (1787) 

Brigadier General Hope. 

Brigade Major Skene. 

Grenadiers, Major Ancram 34th Regt. 

Light Infantry Major Duff, 26th Regt 

Commanding Lt. Col. Hastings 34th Regt. 

Royal Artillery Major Goll. 

ist Brigade. 5th Regt. Major Smith. 

4th Regt. Major Campbell. 

Commanding Major Campbell. 

XXVII 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Reserve. 34th Regiment Major Ross. 

2nd Brigade. 3ist Regt. Major Cotton. 

2th Regt. Captain Burrows. 
Commanding Major Cotton. 

Various movements of the troops are shown on the plan. 
In one position the 5th, 29th, 34th, 3ist and 26th Regiments are 
formed in a line facing north along the Grand Alice, between 
the Drill Hall and Claire Fontaine Street, near which, on the 
south side of the street, is shown the gallows. Another position 
shows the troops on the St. Foy road near Scott street and a 
third position places the men on the St. Foy road near the 
monument, with a movement towards Sillery. On the St. Foy 
road a farm house was supposed to be fortified. The Cove Fields, 
the Gaol hill, the Race Course and nearly all the ground was 
included in the movements, but the principal operations were 
on the St. Foy road, nearer to the city. 

With the expansion of the city the space available for 
military operations was gradually restricted, until the Race 
Course, commonly called the Plains or heights of Abraham, was 
the only place left suitable for a parade ground. 



THE COVE FIELDS 

The Cove Fields, the property of the Federal Government, 
are bounded on the north by the rear of the houses on the Grand 
All^e, on the south by the River St. Lawrence, on the east by 
the walls of the city, and on the west by the Martello Tower, 
No. 2. On the old plans of Quebec, a large portion of these 
fields is enclosed under the name of " The King's Field," and 
near the handsome stone building known as the " Drill Hall," 
there was a windmill, and beyond this, westward, the town 
gallows. 

On the rising ground in the vicinity of the targets may be 
seen the ruins of old fortifications. These ruins are erroneously 
described by local historians, and on map Baedeker's (1900) as 
the remains of ' ' French Fort. ' ' 

These works are of British origin, and were commenced 
on the gth of October, 1/79, under an order signed by General 
Haldimand, and the original plans and the progress plans of the 
work, may be seen by the student in the splendid collection of 
plans which has been rendered available His Excellency, the 
Earl of Minto. 

XXVIII 



APPENDIX 

From time to time, portions of the fields have been occupied 
by the Government for factories, such as the Cartridge factory ; 
and recently a large area has been acquired by Sir Charles Ross 
for a small arms factory. This building obstructs the magnifi- 
cent view which was obtained in a westerly direction, and it 
also considerably limits the recreation ground. 

For many years the links of the Quebec Golf Chib have 
been on the Cove Fields, and at one time there were none better 
in Canada. The erection of so many buildings, however, has 
considerably interfered with the location of the holes, and con- 
sequently the round has been shortened. The Royal Victoria 
Curling Club is at present erecting a building adjoining the 
Skating Rink, and quarters are to be alloted to the Golf Club in 
this club house. The Cove Fields appeal equally to the citizens 
of Quebec whether of French or English origin, and it is a 
matter of regret that intelligent interest was not devoted to the 
preservation of this unrivalled recreation ground at an opportune 
time. 

ST. GEORGE'S SOCIETY OF QUEBEC 

On the 1 3th of October, 1835, an advertisement appeared., 
in the''Quebec Gazette, and in the Mercury, inviting all persons of 
English origin who were interested in the formation of a St. 
George's Society, to attend a meeting to be held at the Albion 
Hotel on the i6th of October. 

This meeting was numerously attended, and a Committee 
was chosen by ballot, composed of the following gentlemen. 
Messrs. C. F. Alywin, LeMessurier, H. H. Kerr, W. Kemble, 
John Bonner, J. C. Fisher and J. Dyde. 

The meeting was adjourned until the I3th of November, 
but on that day the Rules and Regulations were not completed, 
and therefore the meeting was further adjourned until the 2oth 
of November. The articles were agreed to at this meeting, and 
from that date St. George's Society has continued its good work. 

Mr. H. T. Machin, the President of the St. George's Society 
in 1902, in the course of his remarks at the Dinner of a sister 
society, ably set forth the aims of the founders of St. George's 
Society and the work accomplished by its members ; we there- 
fore make an extract from his speech on that occasion. 

' ' Our national Friendly Societies owe their origin to the 
disposition of Scotchmen, Irishmen and Englishmen in foreign 
Countries and in Colonies of the Empire, to help such of their 
fellow countrymen and countrywomen as owing to misfortune 
or sickness are in need of aid. 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

' ' On this continent these Societies existed in the old colo- 
nies prior to the American Revolution, and they are numerous 
and prosperous in Canada and the United States at the present 
time. The St. George's Society of Quebec is, I believe, of the 
same age as the St. Andrew's Society, having been established 
in 1835, and among its first members will be found the names 
of many whose descendants are occupying leading positions in 
Quebec to-day. 

The objects of the Society, at the time of its formation, were 
stated to be to aid English and Welsh immigrants and their 
descendants w 7 hen in need ; to comfort and relieve the sick, aged 
and infirm; to assist orphans and destitute children, and generally 
to do all that a Benevolent Society ought of right to do. 

It was also declared to be the duty of its members to cherish 
amongst themselves and their descendants, veneration for, and 
attachment to, the Institutions of the Mother country. I think, 
Mr. President, that the records of the St. George's Society of 
Quebec will show that its members have carried out the objects 
for which the Society was formed and that, while the principal 
part of its revenues and the efforts of its members have been 
devoted to the relief of those of English or Welsh descent, a 
liberal portion of its income has been distributed among charit- 
able institutions that are attached to no particular nationality. 

I think that I may also say that the members of the St. 
George's Society of Quebec while proud of their race and devoted 
to the upholding of English institutions in this country, and to 
the maintenance of its connection with the Empire, are not in 
favour of perpetuating national divisions amongst our popula- 
tion : divisions which are gradually being obliterated by the inter- 
marriages between those of English, Scotch, Irish and French 
descent but are desirous of hastening the time when all the 
people of Canada, irrespective of origin, will be imbued with a 
common Canadian patriotism worthy of our great and beautiful 
country a patriotism that is necessary to develop strengthen 
and advance us as a people, and make this Dominion of Canada 
the most powerful and valuable unit of the British Empire 
beyond the seas." 

According to the last report, there were 280 members on 
the books of the Society. 

The Hon. Treasurer of the St. George's Society is Mr. E. 
J. Hale. 



XXX 



APPENDIX 
YOUNG HENS' CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 

On the ist January, 1870, a meeting was held in Jeffery 
Hale's Sunday School, to consider what steps were necessary for 
the organization of a Young Mens' Christian Association for the 
city of Quebec. The Rev. David Marsh presided, and Mr. W. 
Ahearn acted as chairman. At an adjourned meeting held on 
the 25th of January, the late Henry Fry was elected President of 
the Association, the late D. Wilkie, ist Vice-President, C. P. 
Champion, 2nd Vice-President, W. Ahearn, Secretary, and J. C. 
Thompson, Treasurer, and the Committee was formed of the 
following gentlemen : James Hamilton , Geo. Lamb, W. A. 
Marsh, H. W. Powis, D. McPhie, W. Brodie, S. H. Robertson. 

The first meetings were held in the Jeffery Hale School 
Room, but in March, 1870, rooms were leased in a building for- 
merly occupied by Belanger & Co. Three years later more 
extensive accommodation was required, and rooms were leased 
over McLeod's Drug Store, in Fabrique Street, which served for 
the needs of association until 1880. In 1879, steps were taken 
to raise a fund for the erection of the main part of the present 
substantial building, which was opened on the 2oth of April, 
1880. 

In the year 1894 steps were taken to secure the funds neces- 
sary for the building of a gymnasium. In the course of two 
years a sufficient sum had been secured to commence the work, 
and in 1897 the contracts were given out. 

The building is well arranged, and is provided with a class 
room, a library, reading-room, and reception rooms. 

In the season the gymnasium is much frequented. 

There is provision made for all kinds of physical exercise, 
and the members of the permanent force both Artillery and 
Infantry, are admitted to membership at a reduced rate. There 
is also an excellent swimming bath. A regular course of instruc- 
tion in commercial subjects is provided in the winter season. 

The following gentlemen have filled the office of President : 
Henry Fry, 1870-8 ; John C. Thompson, 1878-89 ; Robert Stanley, 
1890 ; W. C. Scott ; 1891-94 ; W. A. Marsh, 1895-99 ', G. W. 
Parmelee, 1899-0 ; W. W. Wiggs, 1900-1 ; I,. C. Webster, 1901 ; 
John Thompson, 1903. 

The Secretary of the Association is W. H. Distin. 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 
L' AUDITORIUM DE QUEBEC 

Note by MR. BARTHE, Secretary of the Auditorium Co. 

Such is the legal name of a local company incorporated in 
April 1902 with a capital stock of |ioo.ooo to provide the city 
with a first class theatre. The City authorities made for that 
purpose a free gift of a vacant lot situate close to St. John's Gate, 
which had been conceded to them by the Dominion Govern- 
ment. 

The Auditorium buildings, the inauguration of which took 
place on the thirty-first of August 1903, comprise : i. A capa- 
cious theatre Hall, 90 feet long, 75 feet wide and 45 feet high, 
besides the stage space, which is 35 feet deep, 70 feet wide and 
70 feet high, along side of which are the artists' dressing rooms 
in a four story wing ; 2. A four story building fronting on St. 
John Street, 85 x 50 feet, the ground and second floors to be used 
as a fashionable Cafe and Restaurant with grille rooms, ladies 
and gentlemen's drawing and cafe" rooms, the upper stories 
designed to be rented as lodge or club-rooms, for a conservatory 
of music, and other like purposes ; 3. An arched promenade 
connecting the cafe with the Theatre. 

The street facade is designed in a curve, so as to be visible 
from the western end of St. John street, and its elaborate French 
Renaissance style makes it an ornament for the city. The grille- 
room on the first floor is finished in the style of the old English 
inns, with beam ceiling, high wainscoting and fire places. 

The approach to the theatre is through and arched pro- 
menade after the order of an arcade, with booths for the sale of 
flowers, confectionery &c., and a terrace on the side which is 
used in conjunction with the Cafe during the summer months, 
modelled after the outdoor cafes' of Paris. At the end of the 
promenade is a large lobby, where tickets are sold for the per- 
formances, with entrances to the carriage porch and galleries. 

The entrance to the theatre proper is a large foyer, 16 by 
34 feet, with wide stairways to the balcony and smoking rooms, 
and entrances to the Auditorium, ladies parlors and cloak rooms, 

The seating capacity of the Auditorium is 1800, with 
standing room for 200. The hall, with its sweeping balconies, 
boxes and galleries, is finished in French Renaissance style, 
with roomy aisles and wide seats. 

Few theatre buildings are more immure against fire than 
the Quebec Auditorium, which is completely isolated on all sides, 



APPENDIX 

and provided with ample fire escapes making the number of 
exits twenty-three in all. The boiler room is an outside fire 
proof vault, the whole building being heated by steam and 
lighted by electricity ; and a special 4 inch supply pipe runs 
from the street to the back of the stage board, providing ample 
sprinkling in case of fire. The galleries on one side have a direc~l 
landing on the fortification wall, which may be used in the 
summer months as a promenade between the acts : a feature 
which is probably unique in the history of theatres. 



FIRE BRIGADE 

The Quebec Fire Brigade was inaugurated on the i6th of 
September, 1866, with Mr. James Ferguson as chief, Mr. Le"on 
Lemieux, as deputy and about fifteen men. Six or seven years 
afterwards Mr. Felix St. Michel succeeded Mr. Ferguson as 
chief, and Mr. Le"on Lemieux became deputy. In 1875 Mr. 
Le"on Lemieux replaced Chief St. Michel and Mr. Matthew 
Coleman was named deputy. On the i6th February, 1877, Mr. 
Philippe Dorval was appointed chief, and Mr. Matthew Coleman, 
assistant. 

On the 1 2th of February, 1896, Deputy-chief Coleman died, 
and a few weeks afterwards was replaced by Mr. John Walsh 
and Mr. Edward Martinette. The brigade consists at present 
of a chief, two deputies, 8 captains and 52 firemen. A new station 
has recently been established at St. Amable Street, Montcalm 
Ward, with 10 men and 7 horses. There are at present. 

Nine stations 
36 horses 

3 steam engines 
10 hose-reels 

2 large fire escape adders (75 feet long) 

4 ladder-waggons 
i chemical engine 

3 vehicles for the chief and his two deputies. 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

FIRE SHIPS 
(Note by MAJOR WOOD) 

As fire ships and radeaux-a-feu played a conspicuous part 
in the siege of Quebec in 1 759 it is interesting to note the regular 
way of preparing them in those days. What is still more per- 
tinent to the present work is to notice that Vaudreuil's fire 
ships and rafts were many times more expensive than the proper 
ones, and yet they were just as many times less effective. A fire 
ship cost, roughly, about five dollars per ton to prepare. Five- 
inch timbers were hollowed into troughs and laid in two tracks 
a couple of feet apart round the deck ; these were connected by 
cross troughs, and all communicated with each other and with 
the stopped port-holes, which were designed to blow open and 
let out the fire when it had gained headway, and also with the 
pitch-barrels which spread the fire into the masts and rigging. 
The deck and troughs were all well laid with melted rosin. 
Funnels were arranged to create a strong updraught from bet- 
ween decks towards the rigging. A communicating trough to 
a sally-port in the ship's side, laid with quick match, enabled 
the crew to fire the ship all over in a minute or two. The spread 
and fierceness of the fire was much helped by the priming com- 
position, each barrel of which contained one hundred pounds of 
gunpowder, fifty pounds of saltpetre, forty pounds of sulphur, 
six pounds of rosin and three pints of oil, a truly infernal 
mixture ! 



BRIGADIER GENERAL GEORGE TOWNSHEND 

It is somewhat remarkable that writers on the Seven Years' 
War, and more particularly on the Campaign of 1 759, have failed 
to do justice to that great silent arm of the Service, the Navy, or 
to recognize the brilliant services of Wolfe's second Brigadier, 
George Townshend. And yet without the hearty and effective 
co-operation of the navy, the execution of all Wolfe's carefully 
laid plans for the reduction of Quebec would have been impos- 
sible, and without the assistance of Townshend, his vidtory 
would have been incomplete. It is true that it is only within 
the last few months that the papers upon which his fame must 
ultimately rest, have been brought to light ; but they might have 
been discovered long ago by persistent research. Historians, 
however, have been content to cast a stone at him, without 
apparently caring whether there was any truth in their remarks 



APPENDIX 

or not. Townshend was a remarkable character, and while 
abuse was directed against him from all quarters, he remained 
silent, and would not even give those who were willing to defend 
him, the weapons with which to do so. His friends constantly 
injured his memory, while the production of his own writings, 
and official documents, would, in every case have furnished a 
complete refutation of the numerous charges which were made 
against him. It is singular also that even till this day, it is 
his own people who have injured him the most. In the year 
1901, Colonel Townshend, a descendant of the family, published 
" The Military Life of George, First Marquess Townshend," 
and although he could have had access to all the papers that 
would have placed his ancestor in a true light, he failed to 
make use of them, and went out of the way to drag in secondary 
.evidence to establish claims for the Marquess, which he himself 
had expressly denied. 

To Wolfe alone must be given the merit of the plan by 
which Quebec was taken ; but to George Townshend belongs 
the honour of setting the seal to that victory which Wolfe's 
brilliant tactics had made possible. 

Townshend had the misfortune in life to suffer from the 

misdirected efforts of his friends, who for political purposes 

claimed for him the honour of the victory of Quebec. Town- 

shend's own official letters, which have now been brought to 

light, prove beyond question that he never even claimed his 

proper share in that victory. His remarkable career after the 

Siege of Quebec, and his deep interest in Canadian affairs, are 

all matters of which historians have told us nothing. These 

papers are shortly to be published, and they will show to us the 

Brigadier in a character which we little suspect, and one which is 

entirely at variance with anything which we now possess of him. 

Lord Chesterfield appears to have held Townshend in high 

esteem. Writing a few years before his death he says : " It 

has been observed long ago that to be reproached and defamed 

is a tax that every man must pay, for being eminent ; eminence 

of whatever kind naturally produces envy ; and envy without 

any opposition of interest, without any prospect of advantage, 

except the gratification of its own malignity, is always busy 

in the prosecution of its object. But the same merit that 

excites envy to defamation, naturally renders it difficult, by 

securing the testimony of truth in its favour, envy therefore of 

necessity must have recourse to falsehood , and before she can 

impute faults must make them 

" The expediency of Government, like that of medicine, 
" arises from the imperfection of human nature, and it may as 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

' reasonably be expected that medicine should be pleasant, as 

' that government should be administered without offence 

' No chief governor ever appeared to have the welfare of this 
' country more at heart by the general tenor of his conduct, nor 
' can any administration be remembered in which so many acts 
' passed for the support of the constitution, the defence of the 
' country, and the security of the public money from waste and 
' dissipation." 

Speaking of Quebec, he says : " To be called in a moment 
to the command of troops in such a situation, to stand in the place 
and perform the duty of two such persons as Wolfe and Monckton 
who had within a very short time been stricken upon the field, 
was a severe test both of courage and ability, to which, however 
Lord Townshend shewed himself equal." 



ST. PATRICK'S LITERARY INSTITUTE 

(Notes by MB. M. F. WALSH, oj Ottawa, and MR. T. J. WALSH, 
of Quebec.} 

This Institute was founded on the 28th of December, 1852, 
by the Reverend Father James Nelligan, for the benefit of the 
members of St. Patrick's Congregation. The first President 
was the late Honourable Mr. Sharpies, father of the Honourable 
John Sharpies, M. L. C. The Council was composed of the 
following gentlemen : 

President, Mr. John Sharpies, 

ist Vice- President, " Michael Connolly. 

2nd Vice-President, " John Doran. 

Treasurer, " J. P. O'Meara. 

Recording-Secretary, " Charles J. Golfer. 

Assistant Recording-Secretary, " Mr. J. C. Nolan. 

Corresponding-Secrecary, " Matthew Ryan. 

Assist. Corresponding-Secy., " Moore A. Higgins. 

Council : William Quinn, William Mackay, John O'Leary, 
Lawrence Stafford, Michael Mernagh, James Mackay, Phillip 
Whitty, Thomas J. Murphy, Maurice O'Leary, James Foley. 

XXXVI 



APPENDIX 

Of the sixty-nine founders only six are now living, viz 
Messrs. Arthur H. Murphy, 

James A. Green, 

Matthew W. Clark, 

James Connolly, 

Jeremiah C. Nolan; 

John Giblin. 

None of the above gentlemen are now residents of the city. 
The numbers given indicate the names as they appear on the 
Treasurer's book. 

The institute was opened by a lecture from the late Rev. 
Father Kerrigan, a man of brilliant talents. Amongst other 
notable ledlurers the following will give an idea of the scope and 
aims of the Institute. 

Rev. Henry Giles, who was a Unitarian Minister. His 
fame as a lecturer was world-wide. 

Mr. Ives. This gentlemen was at one time Protestant 
Bishop of North or South Carolina, and author of the celebrated 
work, ' The Trials of a Mind," in which he gives his reasons 
for his change of Faith, by stepping down from being a Bishop 
with its big salary, to become a layman and a school master. 

Thomas d'Arcy McGee. Of this gentlemen his name, being 
of later date, is quite sufficient ; suffice it to say that unlike the 
others he appeared several times before the Institute as a lecturer. 

The Rev. Dr. Cahill, gave a series of six lectures. 

The Institute gave its first Soiree on the iyth March, 1857, 
in their Hall, in rear of St. PatrickChurch. The Soiree was 
suggested and organized by the Rev, Father Golfer, yet living. 
The programme is still in existence. 

The 25th anniversary was celebrated by a grand concert. 
Strictly speaking the Institute was not an Irish Society. While 
all its members were Irish and Catholic, of course, it was insti- 
tuted for the purpose of advancing in a social and literary point 
of view, the interests of Catholics speaking the English language. 

In the year 1876, the Institute bought the present hall, 
Tara Hall, paying therefor the sum of five thousand five hund- 
red dollars. There was some little trouble in perfecting the 
titles to the property for the reason" that the late Jefferey Hale, 
who owned the house at one time, stipulated in the deed of gift 
to a Protestant sect, that the hall should never be loaned or 
leased for anything Catholic not even for a Catholic charity. 
At the time the Institute bought the Hall, it was then being 
used as a theatre, and owned by Mr. Thomas H. Grant. 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Thirty five years after the foundation of the Institute to a 
day, namely 28th December 1887, the Hall was totally destroyed 
by fire. The Institute rebuilt on the same ground. 

In the life of the ever to be lamented Lord Edward Fitz- 
gerald, who died in Ireland's cause in 1798, (the author is Moore 
the Poet), we find that the deceased nobleman was a visitor in 
Quebec and spent a St. Patrick's Day there in 1789. Lord 
Edward was then an Officer in the British army, and his regi- 
ment was in that year stationed in New Brunswick, as on the 
2nd September, 1788, he writes from Frederick's Town (sic) to 
his ' ' dearest, dearest mother, ' ' telling her of a trip he and some 
friends intended making in canoes some two hundred and fifty 
miles up the river St. John to Grand Falls, which he says ' ' are 
by all accounts beautiful. ' ' Again, on aist November, in a letter, 
he says that he means to go to Quebec " in snowshoes." 
On the I4th March, 1789, he writes to his " dearest mother " 
that he had arrived in Quebec on the previous day. His party 
consisted of a brother officer, his own servant and ' ' two wood- 
men." They were thirty days on the march, "twenty-six of 
which were in the woods, and never saw a soul but our own 
party. ' ' Mentioning his arival in Quebec, he says : 

" When we got here, you may guess what figures we were: 
we had not shaved or washed during the journey; our blanket 
coats and trousers all worn out and pieced; in short we went to 
two or three houses and they would not let us in. There was 
one old lady, exactly the hbtesse, in Gil Bias, die me fait la mesure 
dupiedjusqu'd la tfce, and told me there was one room, without 
a stove or bed, next a billiard room, which I might have if I 
pleased; and when I told her we were gentlemen, she very 
quietly said: " I dare say you are, "and off she went. However, 
at last we got lodgings in an ale-house, and you may guess, eat 
well and slept well, and went next day, well dressed, with one 
of Lord Dorchester's aides-de-camp, to triumph over the old 
lady ; in short, exactly the story in Gil Bias On the 1 2th April 
he was still in Quebec, as on that date he writes to his step-father, 
Mr. Ogilvie, (over whom, by the way, he shows great affection), 
saying that he did not expect to get away for some time, but 
would fill up the interval visiting the outposts. A letter from 
Mr. Hamilton Moore, to the Duke of Richmond, dated Quebec, 
22nd May, 1789, mentions Lord Edward's arrival after a journey 
of 175 miles by the route he had taken, instead of the 375 miles, 
involved in the route usually taken, via the rivers St. John, 
Madawaska and Katnouraska. On the 4th May, he writes to 
his "dearest mother" from Montreal where he had then been 



APPENDIX 

for a week, intending to "set off in a few hours for his long 
journey" down the Mississipi. In this letter he writes :' " I have 
nothing new to tell you, for at Quebec, and here I have done 
nothing but feast, and I am horribly tired of it. ... The Can- 
adians are a good people, very like the French, and of course 
I like them. There was one family at Quebec very pleasant and 
very good to me, a mother and two pretty daughters. Don't 
be afraid, I was not in love. We were very sorry to part." 

Now there are a couple interesting points one particularly 
interesting that possibly some old records or family traditions 
may solve : Who was the ' ' old lady ' ' who opined that Lord 
Edward and his friend might possibly be gentlemen ? And, more 
important still, who were the " mother and two pretty daugh- 
ters ' ' of whom Lord Edward writes in such kindly terms ? ' ' 

St. Patrick's Day is fittingly honoured in Quebec every 
year, and a concert or dramatic representation usually takes 
place in the evening, preceded by a speech from a leading Irish 
orator. At the gathering, in 1901, a memorable address was 
delivered by the Honourable Charles Fitzpatrick, LL. D., the 
present Minister of Justice. 



ST. ANDREW'S SOCIETY 

In the short sketch of St. Andrew's Church it will be seen 
that from the earliest days of British rule in Canada services 
were provided for the natives of Scotland who had settled in 
Quebec. The work of relieving Scottish emigrants, or those in 
distress, was therefore undertaken by the members of the con- 
gregation, as occasion required. As early as the year 1836 there 
appears to have been some definite organization in this respecl; 
under the direction of Dr. Cook and Dr. Douglas, and the char- 
itable work was carried on for a long time by a Society known 
as St. Andrew's Society of Quebec. 

After man)' years the Society sought incorporation under 
an Act which was assented to on the ist of February, 1870. The 
preamble of this Act reads as follows : 

Whereas the president and members of the association, 
which hath for many years existed in Quebec under the name 
of the St. Andrew's Society of Quebec, have, by their petition 
to the Legislature, represented that the said association has been 
formed for the benevolent purpose of affording pecuniary, me- 
dical, and other relief, to such natives of Scotland and their 
descendants, as may from sickness or other causes have fallen 

XXXIX 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

into distress, and of aiding, directing and relieving the neces- 
sities of "Scottish immigrants on their arrival in Canada, and 
hath prayed for the better attainment of the objects of the said 
association, it may be invested with corporated powers ; and by 
reason of the good effected by the said association, it is expedient 
to grant the prayer of the said petition, 

Therefore, Her Majesty, by and with the advice and con- 
sent of the Legislature of Quebec, enacts as follows : 

John Cook Thomson, D. McPherson, John Laird, P. Mc- 
Naughton, A. Nicoll, A. Robertson, jr., J. W. Cook, J. Fraser, 
C. Wilkie, T. G. Hunter, J. Cook, D. D., W. B. Clark. W. Brodie, 
W. D. Campbell, James Dean, J. Gilmour, J. Gibb, W. Hossack, 
G. Irvine, L. T. McPherson, J. McNaughton, D. McGie, P. 
Paterson, J. G. Ross, J. Ross, McLean Stuart, R. Shaw. R. Cas- 
sels, A. Stuart, H. S. Scott, M. Stevenson, J. Thomson, D. Wilkie, 
W. Walker, D. A. Ross, and such other persons as are now mem- 
bers of the said association, or shall hereafter become members 
of the same, shall be, and are hereby constituted a body politic 
and corporate, by the name of the ' ' St. Andrew's Society of 
Quebec." 



THE LITERARY AND HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Reference is made on page 194 of this work, to the con- 
templated demolition of Morrin College, in which the Literary 
and Historical Society has quarters. 

Arrangements have been made, however, by which the 
College will undergo considerable alteration, and more space is 
to be allotted to the Society. Through the generosity of Dr. 
James Douglas, a sum of $500 is to be paid annually to the 
Society for the purchase of new books, and this amount is to be 
augmented by a liberal grant on the part of the governors of 
Morrin College. With this substantial assistance the Society 
will be able to resume the publication of valuable documents, 
and with an increase of membership it should be in a position 
to regain its former reputation. 



XI, 



APPENDIX 
SOME OF THE STREETS OF QUEBEC 

SOUVENIRS CONNECTED WITH THEIR ORIGIN 



BUADE In remembrance of Louis de Buade, Count de Palluau 
et de Frontenac, Governor of New France in 1672. 

BURTON Sir F. N. Lieutenant-Governor of Canada, in 1808. 

CARIU,ON The famous battle in which Montcalm greatly dis- 
tinguished himself. 

CARI,ETON Sir Guy Carleton, Governor of Canada in 1768. 

CARON The Hon. R. E. Caron, Lieutenant-Go vernor of the 
Province of Quebec in 1873. 

CHAMPI,AIN Samuel Champlain, Founder of Quebec in 1608. 

CHARLEVOIX A Jesuit, Historian of New France. 

CHENIER Instigator of the rebellion in St. Eustache. 

CHRISTIE Robert Christie, a Canadian historian. 

CLAIRE FONTAINE Named after the spring on Abraham Mar- 
tin's property. 

CoivUNS A land surveyor of Quebec towards the end of the 
i8th century. 

CONROY Mgr Conroy, Bishop of Ardagh in Ireland, apostolic 
delegate to Canada. 

COOK Named after Dr. Cook, of St. Andrew's Curch. 

CoTE D' ABRAHAM Named after Abraham Martin, a Pilot, and 
one of the first inhabitants of Quebec. 

DAMBOURGES A French Canadian Colonel who contributed to 
the defeat of Arnold in 1775. 

D'AIGUII^ON The Duchesse d'Aiguillon, Foundress of the 
Hotel Dieu. 

D'ARGENSON Pierre Voyer, Vicomte d'Argenson, governor of 
New France in 1658. 

DE JUMONVH,I,E A French officer assassinated under Wash- 
ington. 

D'ARTIGNY A French bibliophile and savant who died in 1847. 

D'AuTEUiiv A Quebec family, of note, formerly very numerous. 

DE COURCELI.ES Governor of New France, in 1665. 

XU 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

DAUI.AC Adam Daulac (or Bollard) des Ormeaux, the hero of 

the Long Sault, May 2ist, 1660. 
DOI^ARD Same as above. 
DE SALABERRY The hero of Chateauguay. 
DE TRACY Lieutenant of the King in New France. 
DE VlijjERS A brother of Jumonville. 
D'lBERVUiE Third son of M. de Longueuil, a most valorous 

soldier. 
DONNACONA Chief of the Indian village of Stadacona, in the 

time of Jacques Cartier. 

DORCHESTER A Governor-General of Canada. (See Carleton). 
DUQUESNE Governor of New France, in 1752. 
D'YouviLLE The foundress of the Grey Nuns in Montreal. 
Du FORT The road that formerly led to the Chateau of St. 

Louis. 
Du PALAIS (Palace) The street ending at the palace of the 

Intendant. 
Du PARI/HR The street adjacent to the parlour of the Ursuline 

convent. 

Du TRESOR The Treasurer of the Marine lived in the vicinity. 
DUFFERIN Governor General of Canada in 1872. 
BIGGIN Governor General of Canada in 1846. 
FERI.AND A priest and historian of Canada. 
FRONTENAC Governor of New France. (See Buade St. ) 
GARNEAU A historian of Canada. 
GRANDE Ai^EE A street that dates from the time of Mont- 

magny, the second Governor of New France. 
GOSFORD Governor General in 1835. 
GUY ART The family name of Mother Mary of the Incarnation, 

the foundress of the Ursuline Convent. 

HAIJHMAND Sir F. Haldimand, Governor of Canada in 1777. 
HAMEL Abraham Hamel, merchant. 
HEBERT Louis Hebert, the first inhabitant. 
HENDERSON William Henderson the owner of the adjoining 

land. 

JACQUES CARTIER The discoverer of Canada. 
JOLIETTE Louis Jolliet, the explorer. 
LALEMANT A Jesuit martyr. 

XUI 



APPENDIX 

LANGEUER Hon. Mr. F. Langelier, a former mayor of Quebec. 
LANGEVIN Sir Hector Langevin, a former mayor, and minister 

of the Crown. 

LANSDOWNE Governor-General of Canada in 1885. 
LA SAI,I,E An explorer and discoverer. 
LETELLIER Lieutenant-governor of the Province. 
LEVIS The Marquis de LeVis. 
MARCHAND A Prime Minister of the Province. 
McMAHON The first pastor of St. Patrick's Church. 
MONTCALM The French general. 
MONTMAGNY Governor of New France in 1636. 
MORIN Hon. A. N. Morin, a judge. 
PLESSIS Mgr. Plessis, Bishop of Quebec. 
PREVOST Governor-General of Canada in 1811. 
PRINCE EDWARD Edward, Duke of Kent, father of Her Majesty 

Queen Victoria. 
RACINE Mgr. Racine, Bishop of Sherbrooke, once pastor of the 

church of St. Jean-Baptiste. 
RAMEAU E. Rameau de St. Pere, a French writer, friendly to 

the Canadians and Acadians. 
SAINT-CYRILLE Named in honour of Monseigneur Marois, 

Vicar General of Quebec. 
SAUI/T-AU-MATELOT A sailor is reported to have jumped from 

the cliff at this spot. 
SOUS-LE-CAP A lane, under the cliff parallel to St. Paul and 

Sault-au-Matelot streets. 
Sous-LE- FORT Under the old Fort St. Louis which stood over 

this spot. 

SIGNAY The archbishop of that name. 
ST. VAUER The second bishop of Quebec. 
VAUBAN The celebrated French Engineer. 
VICTORIA Her Majesty Queen Victoria. 
Voi/TiGEURS The gth Battalion of Militia bears that name. 
WOLFE Named after the English General. 

There is also a certain group of names of streets whose 
origin it is unnecessary to recall, such as : Arago, Bayard, 
Colomb, Colbert, Talon, Vaudreuil, Franklin, J6r6me, Napoleon, 
Nelson, O'Connell, Richelieu, etc. 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 

Many streets bear the names of the places or institutions 
near which they pass, such as : (Des Jardins), Garden, (Des 
Carrires) Quarries, (de 1'Eglise), Church, (De la Montagne), 
Mountain Hill, etc. 



XUV 



INDEX 



ABERDEEN, Earl of, 245 

Abitation de Quebec, 103 

Abraham Martin, 6 

Act of 1774, 177 ; of 1791, 177 

AFTER THE STORM, Chapter 
on, 211 

Alexis, Grand Duke, 248 

Alnott, Rev. F., 303 

Americans, action of the, 182 

Angers, Hon. A. R., 228 

Anthon, Miss, 271 

Apostolic Vicariates estab- 
lished, 202 

Asylum of the good Shepherd, 
sketch of, 370 

Asylum of the Holy Angels, 372 

Asylum of St. Michael the 
Archangel, 373 

Asylum of the Sisters of Cha- 
rity, 372 

Archbishop's Palace, the, 397 ; 
rich vestments in sacristy 
f > 397 ; souvenirs of Mgr de 
Laval, 398 

Arnold, Gen., forces under, 174 

Aubry, J. F., 261 

Auclair, J., 259 

Auditorium, the, Ap. XXXII 

Aylmer, Lord, 203 

BAGOT, Sir Chas., 219 
Baillairge, Le Chevalier, 289 
Baillargeon, M., 256 
Baldwin, Robert, 217 



Balfour, Rev. A. J., 309 

Baptist Church, 343 ; officers 
of, 345 

Barre, Lefebvre de la, Gov., 24 

Basilica, the, 252 

Bastion St. Louis, 121 

Battle of the Plains, site 'of, 
Ap. XXVI 

Battle of the Plains, the, 90 

Battle of Ste. Foy, the, 96 

Beaucour, de la Roche, 74 

Eeauharnois, Marquis de, Gov- 
ernor, 49 ; good work of, 53 ; 
on the fortifications, 120 

Beauport church, 79 ; 409 

Beauvoir Manor, 402 

Beckett, T.,296 

Bddard, Pierre, 178 ; imprison- 
ment and release of, 183 

Be"gin, Mgr., Archbishop of 
Quebec, 266 

Be'gon, Michel, Intendant, 49 ; 
149 

Be"langer, T. H., 262 

Belin, Nicolas, 120 

Bell, Mathew, 293 

Belleau, Sir N. F., 228 

Bernieres, H. de, 256 

Bienville, LeMoine de, 35 

Bigg, Rev. R. H., 312 

Bigot, Frs. Intendant, 62 ; 
career of 63 ; power of, 64 ; 
peculations of 65 

Bishop's Palace, building of, 39 



XLV 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 



Boisdon. J., innkeeper, 12 
Books, the first printed in Que- 

bec, 200 

Bonaparte, Prince, 248 
Borgia, M., 181 ; house of, 

occupied by the British, 89 
Bostonnais, the, 173 
Bouffard, Abbe", 263 
Bosse\ Judge, 229. 
Bougainville, Gen., follows the 

British ships, 88 ; attacks 

British army, 92 
Boullard, M. 242 
Bourinot, Sir John, quoted, 224 
Blanchet, M. 182 
Brewery, bought for Intend- 

ant's Palace, 24 ; situation 

of, 24 

Briand, Mgr., 186 
Brigadiers, the, address letter 

to Wolfe, 87 

British army,on the heights, 89 
British Fleet, the, in St. Law- 

rence, 74 

Brown, William, 200 
Burial Ground, Protestant, 320 



, Joseph, 66 ; accom- 

plice of Bigot, 67 
Calonne, Father, 198 
Callieres, Hector, 36 
Cameron, Capt, 325; High- 

landers, 331 
Canadians, characteristics of, 

52 ; loyalty of, 68 
Canadian Press Association, 

the, 422. 
Canadian Scientific Society, 

421 

Canadien, the 181 
Cape Rouge, ships at, 88 
Capitulation, the, 94 
Carignan Regiment, arrival of, 

21 ; officers of settle in Que- 

bec, 27 



Carleton, Sir Guy, 129 ; admin- 
istration of, 171 

Caron, the Hon. R. E., 228 

Carrel, F., 412. 

Cartier, Sir G. E., career of, 
223 ; 217 

Cataraqui, 229 

Cathedral, the, described by 
Kalm, 59 

Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, 
291 

CATHOWC CnuRCHES.Chapter 
on, XIII, 251 

Cazeau, Abbe", 260 

Census, the, from 1666, to 
1716,44 ; from 1665-1901, 239 

Cercle Catholique, the, 421 

Citadel at Cape Diamond; 133 ; 
cost of, 141 

City Council, under French 
regime, 17 

City Hall, 385 

Clarke, Sir A., 179 

Cockburn, L,ieut.-Col., 200 

Cochet, Baron du, 104 

Colbert, his scheme of defence, 
105 

Colborne, Sir John, 218 

Coldstream Guards, 217 

Colony, prosperity of, 7 

Confederation, Act of, 227 

Conference, Inter-Provincial, 
225 

Cook, Dr., 194 > 

Councillors, names of in 1663, 1 9 

Coxtrrier du Canada, 412 

Courcelle, see DeCourcelle, 

Court House, the, 389 

Cove Fields, Ap. XXVIII )C 

Chain Gate, 142 

Chalmers' Church, 337 ; Offi- 
cers of, 340 

Chambers, E. T. D., 411 

Champigny, Bochard de, 
Intendant, 25 ; 106 



XLVI 



INDEX 



Champlain, Samuel, birth of, 
5 ; Visits Canada, 5 ; found- 
ation of Quebec, by, 5 ; builds 
a fort on Cape Diamond, 6 ; 
Capitulates to Kertk, 7 ; as 
a navigator, 7 ; Death of, 7 ; 
Condition of Quebec, at time 
of, 8 ; first Palisade of, 101 ; 
chapel of, 1 1 ; Monument, 

355 

Chapel of the Saints, 271 

Chapleau, Sir J. A., 228; 
Ministry of, 230 

Charette, Marquis de, 248 

Charest, M. , 80 

Charest, Z., 261 

Charitable Institutions, Pro- 
testant, 315 

Charlevoix, Father, his des- 
cription of Quebec in 1720, 
27 : 40 ; his opinion pf the 
inhabitants, 43 

Chateau (Bigot), 164 

Chateau Frontenac, 395 

Chateau St. Louis, residence 
of governor, 24 ; described 
by Kalm, 58 ; ruinous con- 
dition of, 32 ; meeting of 
citizens at, re fortifications, 
121 ; Ball at, 206 ; 240 

Chauveau Ministry, the, 230 ; 
judge, 245 

Chesnaye, Aubert de la, 15 

Chesterfield, Lord, quoted, Ap. 
XXXV 

Chien d'Or, documents re, Ap. 
Ill to XXIV 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN 
QUEBEC, Chapter XIV, 291. 

Craig, Sir James, Governor, 
182 ; administration of, 183 

Cre"mazie, J., 371 

Cricket Club, the, 408 

Crowther, Bishop, 307 



D'Am,EBOUST, governor, 12 
Daily Telegraph, the, 412 
Dalhousie, Lord, 203 ; work of, 

203 ; Gate, 142 
D' Amours, M., 29 
D'Argenson, Pierre Voyer ; 

governor, 13 ; character of, 

15. 

Darling, Major-Gen. , 203 

Dartigues, I. 257 

D'Avaugour, Baron du Bois, 
governor, 15 ; character of, 
16 

De Berey, Father, 288 

De Bonneville, H., 178 

De Bonne, P. A., 178 

De Boucherville, Ministry, the, 
230 

De Courcelles, Governor, 21 

Defoy, Abbe", 260 

De Lery, Chaussegros, engi- 
neer, his scheme of defence, 
US 

Delouche, Captain, 79 

Demers, Rev. Jerome, work of, 
198 

De Meulle, IntendBnt, 24 

Denaut, Mgr., 187 

Denonville, Marquis de, Gov- 
ernor, 24 

Denonville, Mile, de, 31 

De Pontbriand, Mgr., 186 

De Salaberry, 178 

Desfosse"s, L., 261 

Descheneaux, M., 259 

D'Esglis Mgr., 186 

Desjardins, Father, 198 

Desportes, P., 6 

Desrochers, B., 261 

Dobell, Hon. R.R. 296 

Doherty, Father, 268 

Dom Pedro, Emperor, 248 

Donnacona, chief, 2, sent to 
France, 4 



XLVII 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO 



Dorchester, Lord, administra- 


Fire Ships, Ap. XXXIV ; cost 


tion of, 176 


and failure of, 78 


Dosquet, Mgr., 185 


First missionaries; the, 18 


Doucet, A., 258 


Fisher. Dr., 414 


Duchesneau, Jacques, "Inten- 


Fletcher, Governor, 107 


dant, 23 


Flynn, Ministry, the, 230 


Ducking, curious custom of, 


FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC, 


in Quebec, 41 


chapter VI, 101 ; condition 


Du Douyt, M., 257 


of, 36 ; cost of in 1745, 50 ; 


Dufferin, Lord, work of, 236 


nature of under Champlain, 


Duffy, Hon. H. T', 245 


103 ; at Levis, 102 ; under 


Dumont, M., 412 


D'Avaugour, 104; under 


Dumontier, M., 413 


Montmagny, 104 ; action of 


Dumoulin, Bishop, 301 


citizens, 106 ; defective state 


Dunn, Right, Rev. Bishop, 297 


of, 124 


Dupre", Abbe", 257 


Fort St. Louis, 7 ; condition 


Dupuy, M., Intendant, 49 


of 9, 10 


Durand, Father, 243 


Fort and Chateau St. Louis, 


Durham, Lord, arrival of , 211 ; 


104 


report of, 212 ; Terrace, 220 


Foley, Edward, 377 


Durnford, Lieut. Col., Plans of, 


Foulon, the, 87 


141 


Fox, C. J., 204 


Drama, the, in Quebec, 13 


French arms, success of, 69 




French army the, abandon 


EARLY writers in Quebec, 414 


Quebec, 92 


Evanturel, M., 226 


French Camp, position of 74 


E CLC ESI AS TIC AL GOVERN- 


French Medical Congress, the 


MENT, chapter IX, 185 


first, 422 


Electric Railway to Montmo- 


French Protestant Church, 345 


rency, the, 408 


French Revolution, the, 197 


Elgin, Lord, 220 ; administra- 


Franquet, engineer, 107 ; re- 


tion of, 221 


port of fortifications, 122 


Epidemics in Quebec, 241 


Franciscan Convent, Sketch 


Etherington, Rev. E. J., 308 


of, 286 


Executive Council, the, in 


Fraser, Colonel, 325 


1763, 170 


Frobisher, J., 178 




Frontenac, character of, 23 ; 


PAGUY, F. X.,Cure of Quebec, 


welcome to in 1689, 25 ; his 


2 59 


description of Quebec, 40 ; 


Female Orphan Asylum, 316 


bold attitude of towards 


Ferland, Abbe", 417 


Phips, 26 ; Walls, extent of, 


Field Artillery, the 300 


1 08 ; recall of 23 


Finlay, Asylum, 318 


Fulford, Dr., 295 


Fires in Quebec, 219 ; 237 
Fire Brigade, the, Ap. XXXIII 


Fur Traders, association of, 28 



XLVIII 



INDEX 



QAGNON, Ernest," F. R. S. C. , 

work of, 379 
Gagnon, Philias, 165 
Galissonniere Count de La, 

governor, 53 ; his adminis- 

tration, 54; progress under, 54 
Gamache, Marquis de, 18 
Garneau's, History- 417 
Gaspe, M. de, 184 
Gaulthier, Dr., 54 
Gauvreau, Claude, 259 
General and Staff officers in 

1762, 169 
General Hospital, sketch of, 

361 ; 243 
George III, 293 
Giffard, R., Seigneurie of, 7 ; 

remarkable work of, 8 
Girls High School, 194 
Golden Dog, the, 147 
Gordon, Capt, 129 
Gosford, Lord, capacity of, 205 ; 

speech of, 215 
Gosselin, Canon, 54 
Gosselin, F. X.. 261 
Government offices, temporary, 

239 

Grand Seminary, opening of, 18 
Grant, Rev. D., 343 
Grenier, Gustave, 226 
Grey Nuns, the, 373 

HAENSEL, Rev. C., 307 
Haldimand, replaces Carleton, 

175 ; administration of, 176 ; 

on fortifications, 132 ; House, 



' Hamilton, Rev. C., 303 
v Hamilton, Rev. H. F., 304 
J Hamilton, Robert, 304 
Hawkin's description of forti- 
fications, 120 ; Picture of 
Quebec, 414 
Head, Sir E., 229 
Hubert, L., 6 



Heights of Abraham, appear- 
ance of after battle, 93 

Hero, the, 246 

Hillsborough, Lord, 129 

Hocquart, M., Intendant, 51 ; 
work of, 52 ; on the fortifi- 
cations, 1 20 

Holland, Capt., 129 ; his plans 
for citadel, 132 

Holt Renfrew & Co., 408 

Hope, Brigadier, 177 ; Gate, 141 

HOSPITALS AND INSTITU- 
TIONS, Chapter on, 361 

Hospital of the Poor, 32 

Hotel Dieu, sketch of, 364 ; 32 ; 
Archives of, 367 

Hotel Dieu du Sacr Coeur, 
sketch of, 368 

Hotel de Ville, 385 

Houillier, F. Le, 228 

Houseman, Rev. G. V. 297 

Hubert, A. D., 257 

Hubert, Mgr., 186 ; 

Hudon, H., 261 

Hundred Associates, Company 
of, 10 ; rooms of, 13 ; dis- 
appearance of, 17 

Hunter, M., Engineer, 133 

INDIAN village, near Quebec, 2 

Indians, character of, 3 

Inglis, Dr., 293 

Institut Canadien, 421 

Intendant, office of, 49 ; Palace, 
description of, 386 ; rebuilt, 
57; description of by Kalm,58 

Iroquois, the, action of, 13 

Irvine, Mr. G. , memorial of, 304 

JACQUES CARTIER, arrival in 
the St. Lawrence, 2 ; at 
Hochelaga, 2 ; builds a fort, 
3 ; sufferings of, 3 ; sets up a 
cross, 4 ; Monument, 352 ; 
Church, sketch of, 288 



xux 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 



U Jeffrey Hale, birth and death 
of, 370 ; Hospital, foundation 
of, 369 

Jesuits' College, situation of, 
. 1 8, faculty of, 31 ; Drama in, 
!: 13 ; Church, described by 

Kalm, 59 

Jette, Sir Louis A., 228 ; Lady, 
t> 248 ; Mademoiselle, 266 
Joinville, Prince de, 248 
Joly, Ministry, the, 230 
Jonquiere, Marquis de la, 
I Governor, 55 ; Ceremony at 
; arrival of, 56 ; Government 
' of, 61 

Jordan, J., 413 ; M., 178 
Joybert, Mademoiselle de, 31 
Justice, administration of, 12 



, Peter, his description 

of Quebec, 41 

Kent, Duke of, 179; Gate, 142 
Kent House, 408 
Kingdom of Canada, 227 
King, Edward VII, H. M., 

246 

King's Field, the, 137 
Kirby, W. author of " Golden 

Dog", 150 ; quoted, 157 
Kleczkowski, M., 245 
Knox Capt., 148 

L.ACROIX, Dr., 54 

Ladies of Quebec, the, des- 

cribed by Kalm, 61 ; Pro- 

testant Home, 325 
Laflamme, Mgr., 357 
Lafleche, Mgr., 245 
LaFontaine, 216 
Lalemant, Father, 12 
La Maison Rouge, 315 
La Minerve, 223 
Landry, Judge, 245 
Langevin, Sir H., 224 ; 247 
La Palme, Mde, 159 T^ 



La Revue Eucharistique, 413 

L'Aube-Riviere, Mgr., 243 

Laurier, Sir \V. , 245 

Lauzon-Charnay, Chs. de, 15 ; 
Jean de, 12 

Laval, Mgr. de, Bishop, 16 ; 
arrival of, 18 ; death of, 37 ; 
his life and work, 38 ; Nor- 
mal School, 390 

Laval University, foundation 
OI i 399 I 2 47 I Museums of, 
400 ; Library of, 401 

La Verite", 413 

Lawlor, Father, 275 

LE CHIEN D'OR, Chapter on, 
147 

Legislative Assembly, 228 

Legislative Buildings, descrip- 
tion of, 379 

Legislative Council, 228 ; ac- 
tion of, 206 

Le Jeune, Father, describes 
Quebec, 9 

Le Journal de Quebec, 411 

Lemieux, Lucien, note by, 282 

Le Moine, Father, 269 ; Sir 
James, quoted, 151 

L'Enseignement Primaire, 413 

Le Soleil, 413 

Letellier, St. Just, 228 

LeVasseur, Sieurde Ne"re\ in ; 
his plans of defence, in 

L'Evenement, 412 

Levis, Chevalier de, 96 ; forces 
under, 96 ; marches on Que- 
bec, 97 ; defeats Murray, 98 ; 
248 

Library, first public, in Que- 
bec, 418 ; portable library 
of Parliament, 419 ; Parlia- 
mentary library destroyed 
by fire, 420 

Limoilou, Parish of, 261 

Lindsay, Abbe", 272 ; 413 ; 

Lindsay, Major Crawford, 165 



Literary association, the first 
in Quebec, 420 

Literary and Historical So- 
ciety, 420, 421 ; note re, Ap- 
peudix XL 

LITERATURE IN QUEBEC, 
Chapter on, 411 

Little Seminary, opening of, 
37 ; destruction of, 37 ; re- 
building of, 38 

Lotbiniere, C. de, 178 

Louis, Brother, 259 

Louvigny, M. de, 257 

Lower Town, fire in, 25 

Love, Rev. A. T., 330 

McEACHERN, Mgr., 260 
McGauran, Father, 280 
McGill, Jas., 178 
McMahon, Father, work of, 275 
McNab, Sir A., 223 
Macdonald, Sir J. A., 224 
Mackie, Rev. George, 295 
MacQueen, Private, tablet to 

memory of, 305 
Mackellar, Major, his account 

of battle of Ste. Foy. 98 
Magnan, J. C., 413 
Maguire, Father, 268 
Mailloux, A., 261 
Maizerets, Ango de, 256 
Male Orphan Asylum, 317 
Mann, Col., 141 
Mantet, Sieur de, 35 
Marchand, Hon. F. X., note re, 

422 ; Ministry of, 230 
Marquess of Lome, the, 248 
Marr, Capt, 133 
Martello Towers, construction 

of, 140 ; 93 
Martin, Abraham, 6 
Masse Monument, 358 
Masson, Hon. A. R., 228 
Mayors of Quebec, list of, 233 



Mayor of Quebec, first elected, 
under French regime, 17 

Melhuish, Capt., 203 

Menneville, Marquis de, gov- 
ernor, 61 

Mercier, Ministry, the, 230 

Mercury, the, 181 

Mere Marie de 1'Incarnation, 
264 ; sketch of, 265 ; 23 

Merici Convent, the, 270 

Mesy, de, Governor, 16 

Metcalf, Lord, 220 

Methodist, Church, 331 ; offi- 
cers of, 336 

Militia, Act, the, 220 

Militia, of Quebec in 1725, 119 

Military, rule in Quebec, 167 

Military, organization of Que- 
bec, 404 

Milnes Sir R., 180 

Minto, Lord, 118; 247 

Minto, Her Excellency the 
Countess of. See engraving. 

Monckton, general, at Levis, 79 

Montbeillard, Engineer, 123 

Montcalm, Marquis de, defeats 
the British, 69 ; hears of the 
landing of the British, 89 ; 
strong position of, 77 ; good 
generalship of, 90 ; mortally 
wounded, 91 ; death of, 92 

Montgolfier, Mgr., 186 

Montgomery, Gen., attempts 
to take Quebec, 174; death 
of, 175 ; House, the, 175 

Montmagny, succeeds Cham- 
plain, 10 ; Knight of Malta, 
1 1 ; work of, 1 1 

Montmorency, 405 ; Wolfe's 
headquarters at, 407 ; Town- 
shend's Camp at, 407 ; resi- 
dence of Mr. Price, 407"; 
souvenirs of warlike times, 
407 



LI 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 



Montmorency Falls, 84 ; Bri- 
tish camp at, 84; Battle at, 84 

Montmorency Cottage, 407 ; 
gardens of, 408 

Mornay, Mgr. de, 185 

Morning Chronicle, the, 412 

MONUMENTS OF QUEBEC, 
Chapter on, 347 

Morel, M., 257 

Morrin, Dr., 194; career of, 
223 ; 204 

Morrin, College, 194 

Mountain, Bishop, 192 ; sketch 
of, 195 ; 229 

Mountain, Archdeacon, 295 

Mountain, Rev. Salter J., 293 

Mountain, Rev., A., 195 

Mounted, Rifles, the, 300 

Mousseau, Ministry, the, 230 

Mowat, Sir O., 226 

Mulders, Captain de la, heroic 
conduct of, 79 

Municipal Government, 231 

Municipal Wards, 232 

Munn, John, 259 

Murray, General, 87 ; tactics 
of, 99 ; report on fortifica- 
tions, 125 

NAUD, J., 261 
Nelligan, Father, 281 
Nelson, Dr. Robert, 213 
New, Park, the, Ap. XXV 
Ninety-two resolutions, the, 204 
Norman, Rev. R., 297 
Normandy, coureurs de bois, 

from, 9 
North American Notes and 

Queries, 413 

Notre-Dame des Anges, Con- 
vent of, 32 
Notre-Datne du Chemin, sketch 

of, 289 

Notre-Dame de la Garde, 263 
Notre-Dame de Lourdes, 290 



Notre-Dame de la Paix, 252 
Notre-Dame de'\ la Recou- 

vrance, 7 ; destruction of 

church of, 1 1 
Notre-Dame de la Victoire, 

dedication of, 27 ; sketch of. 

282 

O'BRIEN, Mgr., 250 

Ogilvy, Major, tablet to me- 
mory of, 305 

Old Ash Tree, 269 

Old French Works, error con- 
cerning, 140 

Orleans, Duke of, 248 

Orleans, Island of, 80 

Orleans, British camp at, 85 

Orphir, the, 247 

Osgoode, Chief Justice, 293 

Ouimet, Ministry, the, 230 

PACAUD, E., 413 

Paintings in Ursuline Convent, 
267 

Paisley, H. 261 

Palace Gate, 142 

Panet, Antoine, 178 

Panet, Mgr., 187 

Panet, J., 178 

Papineau, Jos., 178; zeal of, 205 

Paquet, Abbe, 287 

Parent, sketch of the mayors 
of Quebec, by, 234 

Parent, Ministry, the, 230 

Paris, Count de, 248 

Parliament, first under British 
rule, 178 ; subjects under 
discussion, 179 

Parliament Buildings, descrip- 
tion of, 379 ; interior decor- 
ation of, 382 ; monumental 
fountain, 382 ; heraldic de- 
signs, 383 

Pelletier, the Hon. L. P., 412 

Peltrie, Madame de la, 269 



INDEX 



Pe"tre*e, Mgr., arrival of, 14 , 

Pemberton, George, 203 *r 

Perche, emigration from, 9 

Percival, M. H., 228 

Philibert, Nicolas, Jacquin, 
149 ; facts concerning death 
of, 159 

Philibert, Colonel, 164 

Phips, Admiral, besieges Que- 
bec, 26 

Pioneers of New France, 6 

Pitt, plan of, 1 06 

Pivert, N., 6 

Plan of Quebec in 1783, 136 

Plan of Quebec in 1804, 139 

Plains of Abraham, Ap. XXVI 

Plessis, Mgr. , administration 
of, 187 ; advice of, 183 

Pocquet, M., 243 

Pointe aux Trembles, 86 

Point des Peres, batteries at, 81 

Pontbriand, Mgr., 94 ; his des- 
cription of Quebec, 95 

Pontleroy, engineer, 107 ; 
repairs walls, 123 

Potter, Dr., 300 

Price, H. M., note by, 407 ^. 

Price, M., Wolfesfield, 229 

Price, W. E., 304 

Prince of Wales, H. R. H., 
the, 246 

Prince William Henry, 176 

Princess Louise, H. R. H., 248 

Printing Press, the first in 
Quebec, 198 

Prison, The, 386 / 

Proctor, J. J., 412 

Prominent families in Quebec, 
under the French regime, 
3; 44 

Protestant Burial ground, 320 

Protestants of Quebec, diffi- 
culties of, 192 

Protestant Housekeepers in 
Quebec in 1764, 189 



Proulx, M., 256 

Prescott, Sir R., Governor, 180 

Prescott, Lady, 180 

Prescott, Gate, 142 

Prevote", Court of, 29 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND 
PLACES OF INTEREST, chap- 
ter on, 379 

QUEBEC, Corporation seal, 

236 
Quebec, Garrison Club, 389; 

officers at foundation of, 391 ; 

present officers, 395 
Quebec Gazette, foundation of, 

200; 411 
Quebec in Durham County, 

England, 416 

Buebec Mercury, the, 411 
uebec, names of principal 
inhabitants of in 1663, 19 
Quebec, population of, in 

1663, 18 
QUEBEC UNDER BRITISH 

RULE, Chapter on, 167 
Queylus, Abbe de, 256 

RAIMBAULT, Father, 198 
Ramezay, de, desides to capi- 
tulate, 94 
Raudot, Jacques and Antoine, 

Intendants, 36 ; work of, 50 
Richer, J. F., 257 
Recollets, Church described by 

Kalm, 60 ; 287 ; resume their 

labours, 38, 31 

Redemptorist Fathers, the, 280 
Reed, Mr. and Mrs. Hayter, 

396 

Renault, R., 413 
Repentigny, Pierre le Gardeur 

de, 148 ; judgment against, 

162 ; death of, 164 
Repentigny, Amelie de, 274 
Repentigny, Madeleine de, 271 



UII 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 



Resther, Father, 262 
Richmond, Duke of, 202 
Roberval, Marquis de, 41 
Robitaille, Hon. W. T., 228 
Roe, archdeacon, 303 
Ross, J. G., 370 
Ross, Ministry, the, 230 
Ross, J. Theo., 370 
Routhier, Judge, 245, 229 
Royal Canadian Infantry, 300 
Royal Grammar School, 193 
Royal Institution, the, 191 
Royal Society, members of, in 

Quebec, 418 
Roy, P. G., 164 

SAINT ANDRE, Mere, 367 

Saint Ferre"ol. M., 257 

St. Andrew's Church, 326 ; 

Officers of, 331 
ST. ANDREW'S SOCIETY, Ap. 

XXXIX 

St. Antoine Asylum, 374 
St. Augustin, 86 
St. Bridget's Asylum Associa- 
tion, 373 

St. Charles River, 2 
St. Croix River, 2 
Ste. Foy Monument, 350 
St. George's Society, the, Ap. 

XXIX 

St. John's Gate, 142 
St. Joseph's Church, 86 
St. Jean Baptiste, parish of, 263 
Saint Jean Baptiste Society, 244 
St. Louis Academy, 371 
St. Louis Gate, 142 
St. Malo, 2 ; parish of, 263 
St. Matthew's Church, 302 
St. Michael's Church, 314 
St. Ours, meeting at, 206 
St. Patrick's Church, sketch 

of, 275 

St. Patrick's Literary Insti- 
tute, Ap. XXXVI 



St. Paul's Church, 310 
St. Peter's Church, 308 
St. Roch, parish of, 260 
St. Sauveur, Abbe* J. L. de, 
261 ; Church, 290 ; parish 
of, 261 

Salvation Army, 345 
Sarrazin, Dr., 54 
Scott, Sir Walter, 323 
Schulyler, Peter, on the works 

of Quebec, 105 
Seminary of Quebec, the, 197, 

398 

Senechal's Court, the, 388 
Sewell, Chief Justice, 306 
Sewell, Hon. J., 293 
Sewell, Rev. E. W., 306 
Shelburne, Lord, 129 
Ships, British, pass the town, 83 
Shipping in Quebec, 207 
Sherbrooke, Sir, J. C., admi- 
nistration of, 201 
Short- Wallick Monument, 359 
SIEGE OF QUEBEC, chap, on, 71 
Signay, M., 256 
Sisters of Congregation, work 

of, 51 

Smith, H. R., 299 
Skene, Brigadier, 177 
Soumande, Simon, 26 
Sovereign Council, the; powers 

of, 17 ; first session of, 18 
Sparling, Rev. W. H., 336 
Spencer Grange, 402; residence 
of Sir James Lemoine, 403 ; 
garden of, 403 
Spencer Wood, 228 
Speaker, election of first, 178 
Stewart, Hon. the Rev., 294 
STREETS OP QUEBEC, souve- 
nirs connected with their 
origin, Ap. XLI 
Streets of Quebec, and inhabi- 
tants of, about 1720, 44. 
Sydenham, Lord, 190 



LIV 



TACHE, SirE. P., 225 

Tache", E. E., 247 

Taillon, Ministry, the, 230 

Talon, Intendant, 21 

Talon, Character of, 22 ; policy 
of, 28 

Tait, Rev. D., 340 

Tardivel, M., 413 

Taschereau, H. E. , Cardinal, 249 

Taschereau, M., 181 

Taschereau, Judge, 203 

Terrace, the, 240 

Tetu, D. H., 261 

The Canadien, 411 

The Golden Dog, 147 

The Suffolk Seal, error con- 
cerning, 415 

The Union of 1822, 202 

The Votive Lamp, 271 

Thibault, T., 257 

Thompson, Sir C. E. P., 219 

Toosey, Rev. P., 293 

Tilly, le Gardeur de, 29 

Tor, Bernard de la, 256 

Torcapel, A.bbe, 256 

Townshend, Lt. Col., Ap. 
XXXV 

Townshend, Brigadier General, 
note re,. Ap. XXXIV 

Townshend, Gen., 81 ; good 
generalship, Si ; letters of, 

135 

Townshend, Lord, 132 

Tracy, Marquis de, character 
of, 22 

Tragedy in Quebec, 14 

Treaty of Paris, the, 168 

Trinity Church, 305 

TROUBLESOME TIMES, Chap- 
ter on, 201 

Twiss, Capt., engineer in 
charge of works, 133 ; his 
plan of Quebec, 136 

True Britain, the loss of, 134 

Turcotte, M., 249 



URSULINES, Monastery of, 
264 ; described by Kalm, 60 

VAUDREUIL, Philippe Rigaud 
de, 31 ; Marriage of, 31 ; 
Governor, 36 ; character and 
death of, 37 

Vaudreuil, Marquis de, last 
French Governor, 61 ; pro- 
tects Bigot, 62 ; letters of, 208 

Vallier, Mgr., de Saint, 39; 
character and death of, 39 

Varennes, Vuault de, 35 

Victoria Monument, 360 

Vieux, N. le, 13 

Viger, D. B., 204 

Vilade, Father, 198 

Villeneuve, engineer, plans of, 
105 

Villeray, Louis R. de, 29 

Vimont, Father, 254 

Von Iffland, Rev. A. A., 314 

WALKER'S FLEET, destruc- 
tion, 36, 283 

Walls of Quebec, plea for re- 
taining, 143 

Walsh, M. L. and J. T., note 
by, Ap. XXXVI 

Watkin, Rev. B., 308 

Webster, Rev. W. D., 307 

Weir, Lieut., 207 

Wilkie, Dr., 193 

Williams, Bishop, 305 

Williams, Rev. Jas., 296 

Williams, Very Rev. Dean, 
297 

Winter in Quebec, 96 

Wolfe, General, 70 ; before 
Quebec, 76 ; selects advanta- 
geous ground, 90 ; his plan 
of attack, 87; his appeal to 
the Canadians, 81 ; illness of 
86; mortally wounded, 91 ; 
death of, 91 



LV 



QUEBEC UNDER TWO FLAGS 



Wolfe's Monument, 347 

Wolfe - Montcalm Monument, 
200, 348 

Wood, Major, note by, Ap. 
-XXXIV 

Wurtele, F.C., author of "The 
Church of England in Que- 
bec," 196 ; librarian of the 
Literary and Historical So- 
ciety, 421 



YOUNG, Capt., 203 

Young, J., 178 

Young, T. A., M. A., 194 

Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation. Ap. XXXI 

York.Their Royal Highnesses, 
the Duke and Duchess of, 
230 



CORRECTIONS 



Page Line Instead of Read 

2 24 Stadacona Stadacone 

28 16 Add : Aubert de la Chesnaye. 

32 13 Twetny Twenty 

44 15 Roeur Rouer 

150 8 Fours Four 

155 3 Sinster Sinister 

182 22 L,afrangois I^efranjois 

186 14 Monseigneur M. Pabbe" 

193 19 Wilke's Wilkie's 

232 Last Langevin Langelier 

243 17 Pupura Purpura 

245 21 Add : and of the sixtieth anniversary 

of the foundation of the St. Jean- 
Baptiste Society. 

253 3 C. Tardif Le Tardif 

257 21 1734-44 1734-34 

290 6 St. Sauveur Ste. Genevieve 

411 Since the printing of this book, the 

Mercury has ceased to exist, the last 
number having been issued on the 
1 7th of October, 1903. 

412 25 Add : and five others. 

413 i Family Saturday 

418 14 Add Mgr. T. E. Hamel. 



- ?c// 



Works of N. E. Dionne, M.D., Litt. D. 

LIBRARIAN OF PARLIAMENT 



1. JACQUES-CARTIER. Sa vie $2 oo 

2. I/A NOUVEU,E-FRANCE r>E CARTIER a CHAMPI,AIN . i oo 

3. SAMUEI, CHAMPI<AIN. Fondateur de Quebec, Vol. i. . i 50 

4. VIE DE M. I/ABBE C. F. PAINCHAUD. Fondateur du 

College de Sainte-Anne de la Pocatiere I 25 

5. MGR DE FORBIN-JANSON. Sa vie et son ceuvre en 

Canada o 50 



IN THE PRESS 



THE CITADEL 

The Fortifications of Qxiebec 

BY 

ARTHUR O. DOUGHTY 
With Naval and Military Notes by Major William Wood 



With photographic reproduction of the original M.S. plan of the 
battle of the Plains of Abraham bearing the signature of Major Mac- 
kellar Engineer in Chief under Wolfe, (not previously published). 

M.S. plan of Quebec used by Wolfe. Plan of the old British works, 
showing their commencement. These works have hitherto been referred 
to as " old French works." Plan of the first temporary citadel, views of 
the citadel, old gates &c. 

Beautifully printed with coloured initials on hand made paper, rough 
edges. Only 40 copies remain unsubscribed for. Small quarto, paper 
boards, price $6.00, subject to advance without notice. 

N. B. This work will not be placed on sale, and can only be obtained 
from the author. 



THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC 

AND THE 

Battle of the Plains of Abraham 

BY 
A. DOUGHTY, LITT. D. (Laval,) F. R. Hist. S., England 

AND 

G. W. PAR VIE LEE, D.C.L. 

In six volumes, with 63 plates by Gjnpil & Cie., Paris, The 

Rembrandt Portrait Studio, London, and the Forbes 

Co., Boston, and 10 plai.s- 

Only 20 sets remain for sale of the first edition Cloth uncut, 
PRICE S45.OO. 

'IN CANADA.) 



Opinions of the Press. 

The story of the taking of Quebec has been told a hundred times. 
It is told again in these volumes with circumstance and lucidity. 

The Spectator. 

" A.nd yet we are almost inclined to condone the fault when the 
immediate outcome of it is the magnificent series of volumes whose 
title stands at the head of this article ..... but to speak of him (\V~olfci 



as Mr. Doughty does frequently, of him, the victor in one petty skirmish, 
as one who can only fittingly be compared with Nelson, ihe man of a 
hundred fights and of the battles of giani s, is carrying hero worship into 
the region of the grotesque, The Edinburgh Review. 

J,he procoss of the siege unfolds itself with a fulne> 
nde 



which the scale of Parkman's work rende ed impossible, and with a 
precision which he did not always attain. The Times, London. 

Students desiring to know the true inwardness of this far-reaching 
event in American History, must inevitably hereafter turn first to Dr. 
"ity's scholarly and well-considered volumes -American Historical 



An Imperial work which it would be impossible to overestimate. 
Sir Gilbert Parker, M. P. 



The most extensive and important monograph on any episode in the 
country's annals ..... the interest of the subject outstrips all bounds 
that ara merely local. New York Evening Post. 

I shall always value it not only on account of its historical value. 
Field Marshal, Lord Roberts, V. C. 

Merits the thanks of all those interested in probably the most famous 
incident of our history. 3ir John G. Bourinot, K.C.M.G., LLD., Litt. D. 

Indispensable to every future historian of the Seven Years' War in 
America. The Nation. 

That there should be signs of haste here and there are not to be 
wondered at in an undertaking of such scope and extent. The Gaeettc. 

A memorable achievement. The Daily Chronicle, London. 

It will be many years before the true value of these volumes is 
appreciated. Ifew York Times. 

Throws an entirely new light upon the contentions of historians. 

The Independent. 

" Les six volumes du Siege de Quebec torment comme une encyclo- 
pe'die, resumant tout ce qui se rapporte a la derniere phase de la guerre 
de Sept Ans." La Nouvelle France. 

A few other minor errors very slightly impair the value of this 
unique undertaking which calls for hearty recognition from historical 
scholars. Review of Historical Publications. 

La publication de cet ouvrage n'aurait-elle eu pour effet quo de 
corriger certaines erreurs historiques. Revue Canadienne. 

On the whole it is a work we must have and are glad to have 
James Bain, Toronto Public Library. 

But it ought to be remembered that, with the exception of a certain 
number of varying value, the documents in question have been men- 
tioned and utilized by previous historians." Old and New. 



" By far the best and ablest work ever written on the subject, and I 
think every library in Europe should possess it. Lieut. Col. C. V. F. 
Townshend, C. B., D. 3. O. 

" Molti fatti, e specialmente quelli ove pifi prevalgono come cause 
le passion! umane, vanno accertati in una storia con i document! origi- 
nal!, Cosi non poche e non lievi correzioni h-t potu'.o fare il Doughty." 
...... " Le correzioni pari a questo sono nutnerose, e si pud affermare 

che veramente 1'aurore con Topera sua ha reso un servigio alia storia 
della sua patria." Riv, Intern. Scienze Soc. e Discipl Ausiliarie Roma 



The ARTHUR H CLARK COMPANY, Cleveland, Ohio, Sole agents for 
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Orders for Canada should be addressed to THE QUEBEC NEWS Co- 
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