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, , _ , Hufirimut— LtUir 
ti i*t ekritltning tf Sduard Uu Sixth— Smdn Kith 
^Hvndth^ icitJi Amu b/ Ckra ; leith KmOmiiu Etvard i 
with KaUttrmi FarrSatartd t» t*r rifkt »f ntHMmt—fiitilt tutrUru fir 
iir mmrrimft tnU PkUip af Spam. 

gHE illnrtrioiii Hint- (berfraikdMMinbled lord*, kuiriiti, and 
eentbmen, in great nnmbtn. Thewillt 
between Onenwich PiUee tud the Cm- 
Tent of the Gnjr Frian ware hong with 
tapeitrj, end the war itrcwn with Rteen 
ruihea ; the Frian' ^tuch, of wfaica not 
a rali^ now remaiiu, waa alio biane 
with nch lapcBtn'. The fotmt vaa of 
■ilTer ; it was placed in the middle of 
the church, raiacd three itepa high, the 
■tep* being coTcred with fine cloth, lur- 
monnted bj a tqoare canopjr of ciimaoit 
utia, frin^ with ffold, encloud bj ■ 
rail coTered with red rajr, and guarded 
by aereral gentlemen vtdi aprom snd 
towcla about their necka. Between tha 
qnire and bodj of tlie chnrch a closet 
waa erected, with a pan of fire in it, tbat 
<u diimantlcd for the 
taking cold. When 
alt theae' tbinga were ready, the child 
waa brought into the ball of the palace, 
and tha proccinou ^oweded to tlu 

the aAcinoon, at the roral palace of 
Gnenwicb. Althoagh the Sing had 
(amotly hoped that the babe would 
eroTC ■ aon. he itifled hia diiappoint- 
BCDt T» Otum waa tnng, and bonSrci 
Hazed, in honour oF her birth ; and pre- 
panuiona were made for herchriilening, 
which, on the tenth of September, wai 
Cdehrated with eitraordinarr pomp and 
^tlendonr. On that day, the lord mayor, 
With the aldermcD and <:auncil of thecity 
of London, in their robei and chaini, 
took to theii bama at one in the afler- 
Moo, ud nwed to Onanwich, where 



Grey Friars' church. The citizens led 
tho way, two and two; then followed 

Sntlemcn esquires, chaplains. After 
em the aldermen, then the mayor hy 
himself, then the privy council in robes, 
then the gentlemen or the King's chapel 
in copes, then barons, bishops, earls, 
then the Earl of Essex, bearing the gilt 
coTcred basin ; after him the Marquis of 
£xeter, with a taper of virgin wax, fol- 
lowed by the Earl of Dorset, bearing the 
nit, ana the Lady Mary of Norfolk, bear, 
ing the chrism, which was very rich with 
pearls and precious stones ; lastly, came 
the Dowager Duchess of Norfolk, bear- 
ing in her arms the roval infant, wrap- 
ped in a mantle of purple velvet, having 
a long train furred with ermine, which 
was lK>me by the Countess of Kent, as. 
listed by the Earls of Wiltshire and 
Derby. The Dnchess was supported on 
the right side bv the Duke of Norfolk, 
with his marshal's rod, and on the left 
by the Duke of Suffolk — the only dukes 
then existing in the peerage of England 
•—and a rich canopy was borne over the 
babe by the Lords Bochford, Huisey, 
and William and Thomas Howard. At 
the church door the child was received 
hf the Bishop of London, who performed 
the ceremony, and a grand cavalcade of 
bithops and mitred abbots. The sponsors 
were Archbishop Cranmer, the Dowager 
Duchess of Norfolk, and the Marchioness 
of Dorset. The future Queen was car- 
ried to the fount, and, with the ceremony 
of the Catholic church, christened Eliza- 
beth, after her grandmother, Elizabeth 
of York ; and that done. Garter Eing- 
at-Arms cried aloud, '* God, of his infinite 
goodness, send pnraperous life, and long, 
to the hi^h and mighty Princess of Eng^ 
liisd, Elizabeth f* then the trumpeb 
■ounded, the Frincen was carried up to 
the altar, the Gospel read over her, and 
■he was confirmea by Archbishop Cran- 
Ber, and presented with the fdlowing 
gifts : — A standing cup of eold by Cran- 
mer ; a similar cup, frettea ?rith pearls, 
by the Dnchess of Norfolk ; three gilt 
bowls, pounoed, with covers, by the 
Marchioness of Donet ; and three stan- 
dard bowls, grayen and gUt, with covers. 
In' the Marchionesi of Exeter. Then, 
tmr mbn, oooiiti^ and ipociaa had 

been served in abundance, the proces- 
sion returned to the palace, in the same 
, order as it had set out, excepting that the 
' Earl of Worcester, Lord Tbonjas How- 
ard, the Lord Fitzwaltcr, and Sir John 
! Dudley, preceded by trumpeters, carried 
'the gifts of the Sponsors before the 
Princess. Five hundred staff torches, 
carried by the yeomen of the guard and 
I the Eing s servants, lit up the way home- 
ward ; and twenty gentlemen, bearing 
large wax flambeaux, walked on each 
side of the Princess, who was carried to 
the Queen's chamber door, when a flou- 
rish of trumpets sounded, and the pro- 
cession dispersed. 

Elizabeth passed the first six weeks of 
her existence at Greenwich ; the Lady 
Margaret Bryan was appointed gover- 
ness to her ; in December she was re- 
BMved to Hatfield, where she resided till 
the subsequent April, when she was con- 
veyed to the Bishop of Winchester's 
palace at Chelsea. She was created 
Princess of Wales when three months 
old, and weaned in her thirteenth month 
with extraordinary ceremony. About 
this time a futile attempt was made to 
betroth her to the Duke D'Angoul^e, 
the third son of Francis the rirst of 
France. In compliance with the act 
of Parliament, passed in March, 1534, 
which pronounced the marriage between 
Henry the Eighth and Eatherine of 
Arragon unlawful and null, and that 
between him and Anno Boleyn lawful 
and valid, Elizabeth was honoured as 
heiress presumptive, and the Princess 
Mary forced to yield precedence to her, 
and to dwell under the same roof irith her, 
more like a bondmaid than a sister and a 
princess. But this unjust elevation was 
of short continuance. The divorce and 
tragic death of Anne Boleyn rendered 
Elizabeth motherless in her third year, 
and placed her in a situation at once 

Srecarious and embarrassing. On the 
ay immediately succeeding the Queen's 
death, the King, with the most unblush- 
ing effrontery, was publicly married to 
Jane Sejmour ; ana shortly afterwards 
an act or Parliament was passed, illegi- 
timatizing Elizabeth, ana settling the 
succession to the throne on the offspring 
ol Heniy YXIL by his present Queen. 


TTke foUowiDff interesting letter fnm 
the troTcmess of Eliiabeth, Lsdy Brran, 
to Mr. Secretuy Cromwell, wul aiford 
mo idea of the neglect and contempt to 
which ehe wai for a period eipoaca:— 

** Mt Lord, 

** When jonr Lordship was 
kit here, it pleased yoa to say that I 
ahoold not miatrost the King's Grace 
nor Yonr Lordship, which word was more 
eomfort to me than I can write, as God 
knoweCh. And now it holdeth me to 
shew yon my poor mind. ]dyLord,wh«i 
the Lady Jlaiys Grace was horn, it 
pleased the King's Grace to appoint me 
ladr mistress, and make me a Itoroness ; 
ana so 1 haye heen, and am so s^, to 
the children his Grace have had since. 
Now it is so, my Lady EUiaheth is pat 
from that decree she was before, and 
what degree she is at now I know not, 
bat by hearsay ; therefore, I know not 
how to order her, nor mysdl^ nor none 
of hers that I haye the rale of, that is, 
her woman and her groomes: beseeching 
yoa to be good Lord to my Lady, ana 
to all hers, and that she may haye some 
raiment, for she hath neither gown, nor 
kirtel, nor petticoat, nor no manner of 
linen for smocks, nor •kerchiefs, nor 
sleeyes, nor rails, nor hody^tchet, nor 
handkerchief, nor mnfferien, nor big- 
sens. All this her Grace most take, I 
haye driyen off as loo^ as I can, that, by 
my troth, I cannot dnye it no longer ; 
beseeching yon, my Lord, that ye will 
that ner Giaoe may haye that is 

needfbl for her, as my trust is ye will 
do ; beseeching yon, my own good Lord, 
that I may know from your writing how 
I shall order myselfj and what is tJbe 
Singes Grace's pleasure and yours that I 
shall do, in eyerything and whatsoeyer 
it shall please the King^s Grace or your 
Lordship to command me at all times, I 
shall fnlfill it to the best of my power. 

*' My Lord, Mr. Shelion tayes, he is 
master of this house ; what fSeMhion that 
shall be, I cannot tell, for I haye not 
seen it before. My Lord, ye be so ho- 
nourable yourself, and eyery man re- 
porteth your Lordship loyeth honour, 
that I trost your Lordshin will see this 
house honombly ordarwi, howsomeyer 

it hath been aforetime; and, if it please 
you, that I may know what yoor order 
IS, and if it be not performed, I shall 
certify to your Lordship of it, for I fear 
me it will be hardly now performed; for 
if the head of ... . uiew what ho- 
nour mcaneth, it would be the better or- 
dered, if not, it will be hard to bring it 
to pass. My Lord, Master Shdton 
would haye the Lady Elisabeth to dine 
and sup eyery day at the board ^ estate. 
Alas! my Lord, it is not meet for a 
child of her age to keep such a rule yet. 
I promise you, my Lord, I dare not 
take it upon me to keep her Grace in 
health if she keep that rule, for there 
she shall see diyers meat, and fruits, and 
wine, which would be hard for me to 
refrain her Grace from it. Te know, my 
Lord, there is no place of correction 
there, and die ii yet too youn^ to cor- 
rect greatly. I know well, if she he 
there, I shall not bring her up to the 
Kmg^s Grace's honour, nor hers, nor 
to her health, nor my poor honesty; 
wherefore, I shew your Iiordship this 
my dischsrge, beseeching you, my Lord, 
that my Jmj may haye a mess of meat 
to her own longing, with a good dish or 
two that is meet for her Grace to eat of, 
and the reyersion of the mess shall satisfr 
aU her women, a gentleman usher, and 
a groom, which being cleyen j^ersons on 
her side, sure I am it will be (into right 
little) as great profit to the Kinpi^s Grace 
this way as the other way, for if all this 
should be set abroad, they must haye 
three or four messes of meat, where this 
one mess shall suffice them all, with 
bread and drink. According as my 
Lady Mary's Grace had before, and to 
be ordered in aU things as her Grace 
was before; God knoweth my Lady 
hath great pain with her great teetlL 
and they come yery slowly forth, and 
causeth me to suffer her Grace to haye 
her will more than I would, I trust to 
God her teeth were well graftc to hare 
her Grace after another fashion than she is 
yet, BO as, I trust, the King's Grace shall 
naye great comfort in her Gmce, for she 
is as toward a child, and as gentle of 
conditions ss eyer I knew one in my lifo, 
Jesu preserye her Grace. And as for 
a day or two at a time^ or whensoeyerift 



fhall pleiie tbe Kingf a Grace to baTc her 
■0t abroad, I tmst so to endeaTour mc 
^at she shall so do as shall be to the 
Xinj^s honour and hers, and then after 
to tue her ease again. 

<« I think Master Shelton will not be 
content with this ; he may not know it is 
Biy desire, bat that it is the King's plea- 
tore and jonrs it should be so. Good, 
mj Lord, have my Lady's Grace and ns, 
ker poor serrants, in your remembrance, 
and your Lordship shall have our hearty 
prayers by the srace of Jesu. 0, ever 
presenre your Lordship with long life, 
and as much honour as your noble heart 
can desire ! From Hunsdon, with the 
•▼il hand of her that is your daily bed- 
woman, Habost Bbtan." 

** I beseech yoo, my own good Lord, 
be not miscontent that I am so bold to 
write thus to your Lordship ; but, I take 
God to my iudge, I do it of true heart, 
and for my discharffe ; beseeching yon ac- 
cept my rood mino." 

** To toe right noble and my singular 
good Ix>rd. my Lord ravy Seal, 
be this deliTered." 

This letter, an etidence of the minute 
details on which the first minister of the 
itate was expected in those days to 
bestow hia attention, rendered it ap- 
parent that the Ladr Bryan and Mr. 
Shelton, the chief officers at Hunsdon, 
where Elizabeth then resided, each 
desired to bring np the Princess after 
their own notion. HowcTer, we may 
presume that the reasonable request of 
Lady Bryan was granted, for we hear 
BO more of the Tczatious dispute, and 
are assured that much of the greatness 
of Elizabeth, as a Qneen, was due to 
Lady Bryan's judieioos training and 
•dncation, combined with the adversity 
which at once bastardized her, and de- 
prifed her of the injurious magnificence 
and adulation which, ere she could lira, 
had been showered upon her as the 
heiress to the throne. 

The first pnblic ceremony in. which 
Elizabeth took part, was the christening 
of Edward the Sixth. She was just 
ftmr yean old when, borne in the arms of 
te End of Hertlbrdy brother to the 

Queen, Jane Seymour, she carried the 
chrism for her new-born half-brother, 
and on returning, walked with infant 
dignity in the procession, the Princess 
Mary leading her b^ the hand, and the 
Lady Herbert bearing her train. For 
some time after Prince Edward's birth, 
Elizabeth was permitted to reside under 
the same roof with him. Between the 
brother and sister a sincere afiection 
sprang up, and the day Edward was 
two years old the Princess made him 
a birth-day present of **a shyrte of 
cam' yke other otcne woorkfnge.** Shehad 
then just entered the sefenth year of her 
age, and was remarkably attractive and 
precocious. Wriothesley says, "when 
be yisited her in December, 1639, she 
enquired after the King's welfare with as 
gr^ gravity as if she had been forty 
years old ;" and he adds, '* if she m 
no worse educated than she then ap- 
peared to mc, she will prove an honour 
and a blessing to her lather, whom the 
Lord long preserve." 

With Henry the Ei^^hth's fourth 
wife, Anne of Cleves, Elizabeth formed 
an ardent friendship. The first letter, 
said to have been written bv the Prin- 
cess, was a compliment to tnat august 
lady on her marriage. The origimu is 
lost, but the following is a copy, moder- 
nized in phraseologv as well as ortho- 
graphy :- 

** Madam, 

" I am anxiously desirous to see 
your Majesty, but as the King, my 
lather, has commanded me not to leave 
my house for the present, I cannot as 
yet gratify my wish. In the meantime 
I b<^ of your Grace to accept this my 
written devotion and respects to you as 
my Queen and my mother. My youth 
prevents me from doing more than 
heartily felicitating you on your mar- 
riage, and sincerely wishing that your 
good will for me equals my zeal for your 

By one of the terms of her divorce, 
Anne of Cleves was muted permission 
to see Elizabeth as often as sne wished, 
provided that the Princess did not ad- 
dreoi her as Qneen. Katherine Howard, .^ 



wbo was rincerely attached to the 
Touthfiil Elixabeth, anziotulj desired 
to lYMnove from her the hnmd of il- 
Ic^timncT. After that unhappy Queen 
hul Ruffe'red on the block, Klizaboth 
midcd for some time with her sister 
Mary at Havering itowcr. Soon after 
the 'birth of the nnfortonatc Mary, 
Queen of Scots, Henry formed the 
pntject of uniting the whole island 
under one crown, by the marriage of 
that infant Queen w'ith his son iMnce 
Eilward. As a furthtT means of secur- 
ing this important object, he, in the 
autumn of 1543, offered the hand of 
Kltzabcth to the Earl of Arran, who 
then laid claim to the regency of Scot- 
land. Thus early were blended the 
interests and happiness of two princesses, 
whose celebrated rivalry and illustrious 
character were destined to endure, until 
the life of one was sacrificed to the 
jralousy and hatred of the other. The 
ikingt 'of France and England eagerly 
contended for the hand of the youthful 
Bfary: while that of Uizabeth'was of- 
fetfd to a Scottish Earl, of equivocal 
birth and indiffi-rent reputation. Yet 
so little was the Scottish Earl flattered 
by the offer, that he actually declined 
tSe honour, and the future Queen of 
England remained unbetrothed ! 

Katherine I'tarr, the last and one of 
the best of Henry the Eighth's wives, 
was a great admirer of EIizabc>th. She 
caused her to be present at her royal 
marriage, and when the Princess, in her 
twelfth year, deeply offended hrr father 
by eommitting an offence, the nature of 
which baa not been handed down to us, 
she interceded in her behalf with the 
royal tmnt ; an act of motheriy kind- 
nets, wLich evidently proved suoccessful,* 
and which Klixabeth acknowledged in the 
subjoined epiatle. 

" Inimical fortone, envious of all good 
and ever revolring human affairs, has 

* llenrr tha Eighth, la his letter to 
KathfirlM of 8«ipleinber the eighth, U711: 
** W« pimj rou In glTs In otir niune, one 
hearty hiraelnic to all our chlldran." Eliaa- 
heth, ve therefore mar presume, va^ forgiven 
hj her father helbre be went 10 France. Bee 
flMOMlia of Katharine Parr, page 446. 

deprived me for a whole year of your 
moat illustrious presence ; and not thus 
content, has yet robbed me of the barae 
good, which thing would be intolerable 
to mc, did I not hope to enjoy it vrry 
soon. And in this my wilt I wtU 
know that the clemency of your High- 
ness has had as much caro and solicitude 
for my health as the King's Miycsty 
himself, by which thing I am not 
only turned to serve you, but abo 
to revere vou with filial IdVe ; since I 
understana that your most illustrious 
Highness has not forgotten me every 
time you have written to the King's 
Majesty, which, indeed, it was my duty 
to hare rcquestiHl from you ; for, hereto- 
fore, I have not dared to write to him. 
A\Tien'forc, I now humbly pray your 
excellent Highness, that wheayou write 
to his Majivty, you will condescend to 
recommend me to him, praying ever for 
his sweet benediction, and similarly 
entreating our liOrd God to send him 
best success, and the obtaining victory 
over liis enemies ; so that your Highness 
and I may, as soon as possible, rejoice in 
his happy return. No leas, I pray God 
that he will preser\-e your must illustri- 
ous Highness, to whose Grace, humbly, 
kissing your hands, I offer and recom- 
mend me, 
** Your most obedient daughter, 
And most faithful servant, 
** Kluabbth." 
« From St. James's, this thirty-first 
of July." ' 

This year, 1644, Henry the Eighth 
restored Elirjibeth to her right of suc- 
cession; and, although the act which 
pronounced her illegitimate remained 
for ever unrepealedj she was, never- 
theless, universally recognised as a Prin- 
cess Royal of England ; and so com- 
pletely was the divorce forgotten, that in 
1546, when France, Spain, and EiigUind, 
had concluded a treaty of peace, propo- 
sals were made for the marriage of 
l-Uizabeth with Philip, Prince of Spain* 
that same Philip, afterwards her brother- 
in-law, her friend and protector in ad- 
versity ; then a second time her suitor, 
and afterwards her bitterest enemy. 

BJUBn^ nooMs quxkr laoirAirr. 


JlMi tf Sony ti* BthOt—Ltri Btymettr marria tit Quetn Jkuctgtr—^ 
impnprittia teith SaaiflA — Hf efrri Jur marriagi oh Mr deati sftht (^mm 
Daicastr—Bt it mrruted—BamMK it plaad imdrr ralraint—Thrir amd^ 
httttUsmttd—Omfemm 0/ Mr: AMey and PBrry—EUcabilk't ieiavvur—Hir 
UtUr ta On Pntedtr. autrtimg itr nutomn— Seymour attaiHttdr—BiMtiilA 
tppmU m behalf of Sin. Ai/ti^ ami Parry— Stymotir Ufitadtd—StTTrnftoiei 
■Huut to kit mtmorf^Baabtlh'i ItBTniag—CorTtipiimlint* tcilA Edward Ut 
Bixth—Sffoni la royal fmotir—Fiaib ig»U (0 marrj Aw (0 M* Aw* ^ 
Sttmark—QMrrtU with Sbrthvmitrland—Kiiif Edward wiUt th* Own* (• 
Jant Oray—Eitraeltfrtm SUiaitlh'i BmaihaU Book. 



•f Pariuunent were empowered to regu- 1 too 

hte the I 

loTer of the Qneen Domger KktheriM; 
■ad a few TceLi sftcnrardi, their nar- 
riaige vu priratclf solemuiicd. TW 
improprietj and huie of thii nurriu* 
•0 offended [he Princea Hbit, thit ■£• 
wrote U Elizabeth, reqnectuig her to 
leaie the home of Eathenne Parr, w lni » 
■he at that time Bbode, and come add 
dwell with heri bat Eliubeth being 
too wiw Id put a public affnnit on tha 
the couDlrj Kin^i adored ODcle, vho was then 

Edward the Siith, and to anang« tha 
grder of racceasian lo the crown. The 
Act of Pailiameat wai conflnncd, by 
which hi* two daughten, Marj and 
Kizabeth, were restored to Iheir rig-hts. 
In bia will, Hencj be<)ueathed to each 
of them ■ penrion of tbiee tboiuand 
ponndi, with a mairiage pnrtion of ten 
thoiuand pooDda, on condition of their 
■ot Burrying wttfaoat the cooacitt of 
Mch of hia eiecuton at abonld Chtn be 
•life. Biiteen persona were appointed, 
wbo were to exerdae, in common, the 
tojil fonetiDna, until the Tonng King 
riioald reach the age of mgntaen. The 
Sail of Hertford, tha brother of Ladj 
Juw SermaDr, who mw aaaomed the 
thle of Duke of Sometaet, waa declared 
Frotedor of the realn, andGoTemorof 
Om Ein^a penon. Hia brother, Lord 
SernioBr, M Sodelej, waa created Lord 
High AdoinL ImmediatelT after the 
death of Henir, the Adniral proSered 
Htnbeth U* hand in marriage. B> 
dM adTiee of Katherine Parr, the 
nrineea, than id ber fonrtcenth jrear, 
dedined the offer. But, to hcf an- 
aojanee, Mdr flre daja after thia re- 

aojanee, onlr an d 

Titation, on the plea that abe conid not 
withdraw heiaelf from the Qaeen, who 
had ihown her >o mitcb kiudnesa, vith> 
ont appearing ODgrateful. 

The fouthM Eliubeth had been, 
preTioiLS to the death of her father, 
entmeted to the care and protection of 
the Qneen Dowa^r, with whom ahe 
mided, either at Chelaea, or the more 
BjlTan retreat of Hanworth. It thm 
happened, that after the Qoecn'a mar- 
riage with Seymour, the Prinoeaa fonnd 
herself domeaticated nnder the roof of 
the Lord High Admiral, aitd oodk- 
qaentlyihe uon became an object of hii 
marled attention. Neither rrapect for 

of euaidian. with which the c 
of hii marriaoie *tth the Qneen Dowa- 
ger ioTcated him, were (officicnt to re- 
itrain him from a certain freedom of 
behaTionr towards EUiabeth, which no 
limit! of propriety ooald jnati^. On 
tome occaaiona the PrinccM eDdeaTuotd 
to repel hia mdeneat by anch eipedi«Bta 




orer and intimidAted, were guiltj of a 
treacherons neglect of their duty, and 
eren the Queen Dowager henelf was 
deficient in delicacy a&d dne caution, 
until the iinproprietics detailed in the 
memoirs of Katherine Parr excited her 
jeilousy, when a quaiTel ensued between 
the royal step-motner and step-daughter; 
which, although it did not destroy the 
firiendship subsisting between them, ter- 
minated in their immediate and final 

About a week before Whitsuntide, in 
1648, Elixabeth removed with her go- 
▼emesB, Mrs. Katherine Ashley, who 
was related by marriage to Anne colcyn, 
and with the rest of her ladies and 
ofllcen of state, from the home and 
guardianship 'of Katherine Parr to 
uheston, and subsequently to Hatfield 
and Ashridge. In Septemoer the Queen 
Dowager £ed in child-bed, and very 
soon afterwards the Lord Admiral as- 
pired to the hand of Elizabeth herself, 
who, after the death of her step- 
mother, was left, at the critical age of 
fifteen, without a paternal adviser to 
follow the dictates of her own maidenly 
will, and the pernicious counsels of her 
wilv govomem and of her intriguing 
cotferer, Thomas Parry, in both of whom 
her confidence was unlimited. Seymour 
having gained over these notable agents, 
and through them opened a direct 
correspondence with Elizabeth, his ini- 
quitous designs prospered for some time 
according to his desires. Although he 
was twenty years her senior, Elizabeth 
loved him ; and, as she afterwards ac- 
knowledged, would have married him, 
if the consent of the royal executors, 
required by law, could be obtained. But 
this being impossible whilst Somerset 
was at the brad of affairs, he plotted 
a^nst the government, and on the 
sixteenth ot Unmuj was arrested and 
committed to the Tower on a charge of 
high treason, and a few days afterwards 
Elizabeth was placed under restraint. 

The confessions of Mrs. Ashley and of 
the man Parry before the Privy Council, 
contain all that is known of the conduct 
of the Lord Iligh Admiral towards the 
Princfxs Elizabeth, during the life-time 
of tho Qnecn Dowager. Tnese authentic 

documents have been fortunately pre- 
served, and famish some very singuUr 
traits of the early character of weir royal 
mistress. They cast upon Mrs. Ashley 
the double imputation, of having per- 
mitted such behaviour to pass Defore 
her eyes as she certainly ought not to 
have endured for a moment, and of hav- 
inff disclosed particulars to Parry, which 
reflected the utmost disgrace on herself, 
the Lord High Adminu, and the Prin- 
cess Elizabeth. And so far was the 
Princess from resenting anything that 
Mrs. Ashley had either aone or confessed, 
that she continued to patronize her in 
the highest degree, ana after her acces- 
sion to tho throne promoted her husband 
to a high and lucrative office : — a cir- 
cumstance which certainly affords strong 
suspicion, that there were some import- 
ant secrets in her possession, respecting 
later transactions oetween the Princess 
and Seymour, which she had but too 
fiuthfully kept.^ It may, however, be 
uiged, in palluition of the liberties which 
she accused the Admiral of taking, and 
the Princess of tolerating, that Eliziabeth 
had barely completed her fourteenth 
year, at the period when this intercourse 
took place. Experience, nevertheless, 
proves, that, even at that early a^ 
young ladies, educated in all the learning 
and accomplishments of the ^[xeat, are 
not to be trusted with impunity in the 
society of the vicious and profligate. 

Hizabeth refused the Lord ffigh Ad- 
miral permission to visit her after he 
became a widower, on aoooimt of the 
general belief that she was likely to be- 
come his wife ; and no trace was at thia 
period fcnnd of any correspondence be- 
tween them ; yet Iiarrington afterwardf 
suffered an imprisonment, for having 
delivered to her a letter from Seymour. 
The partiality of the Princess betrayed 
itselr, by many involuntary tokens, in 
presence of her attendants, who were 
thus encouraged to entertain her with 
accounts of the attachment of the Lord 
High Admiral, and to enquire whether, 
if the consent of tho council could be 
obtained, she would consent to admit his 
addresses. The Admiral proceeded with 
caution equal to that of Elizabeth. 

The Protector, with the hope of eri- 


■itiifttiiig bk InroCher, nther thtn of 
deariii|f the FrineeM, lent Sir Bobert 
Tyrwliitt to her rendence at Hatfield, 
•mpowered to examine her on the whole 
matter; and hii papers inform ns of 
■ome interesting focts. When, by means 
of a sporioos letter, he had lea her to 
beliere that both Mrs. Ashley and her 
eoffercr, Paary, were committed to the 
tower, " her Grace was," he says, ** mar- 
Telloosly abashed, and did weep very 
tenderly a long time, demanding whe- 
ther they had oonfesiMd any thing or 
Bot" Sending for Sir Bobert soon after, 
the Princess rdated sereral ciroumstances 
which she had fomtten to mention, 
when the master oi the household and 
master Denny came from the Protector 
to examine her. ** After all this," con. 
linnes Sir Bobert, ** I did require of the 
Lady Elizabeth to consider her honour, 
■nd the peril that mij^ht ensue, for she 
was as vet but a subject ; and I frolher 
declared what a woman Mrs. Ashley 
was, with a strong assurance, that if she 
would open or reveal every thing her- 
■elf, all the evil and shame should be 
Mcribed to her and her associates, and 
her Touth considered, both with the 
Kinrs Majesty, your Grace's, and the 
whue oounciL But in no way would 
■he, by Mn. Ashley, or the cofferer, 
■onjfess any practice concemin|^ my Lord 
Admiral ; and yet I do see m her face 
that she is guuty, and plainly perceive 
that she vriU yet abide more storms ere 
■he accuse Mrs. Ashley. Upon sudden 
sews, that the master of the household 
■nd Master Denny were arrived at the 
gate, the cofferer went hastily to his 
dbamber, and said to his wife — * I 
would I had never been bom, for I am 
midone,' and wrung his hands, and cast 
away his chain from his neck, and his 
finn frtMn his fingers. This is confessed 
hjr his own servant, and there are divers 
witaeasea of the same." 

Acain, on the following day. Sir Bo- 
bert Tyrwhitt writes to the Duke of So- 
■MTset, that all he has yet gotten from 
tiie P rin ee>» was by gentle j^emasioii, 
whereby he began to grow with her in 
■redit; ** for I do asrare your Grace she 
hath a good wit, and notmng is obtained 
from bar baft by giaitpoUey*" Heal^ 

terwarda statea to the Dnke Ida opimoa 
that there had been some secret piomiss 
between the Princess, Mrs. Ashley, and 
the cofferer, never to confess till death ; 
** and if this be so," he remarks, ** it will 
never be got out of her but cither by tht 
King^s Majesty or else by your Grace.** 
On another occasion. Sir kobcrt tried 
her with feigned intelligence of Paries 
having confessed ; on which she calked 
him *' False wretch," and said '* it was a 
serious matter for him to make aoch a 
promise and to break it" Sir Bobert, 
with all his pains, was unable to elicit 
a single fact of decisive importance, as 
to the alleged illicit intercourse of Lord 
Seymour with the Princess Elittbeth; 
but that there was in the conneetioo be- 
tween them a great deal more than met 
the public eje, there can be no auestioB. 
In a letter from Elizabeth hersm to the 
Duke of Somerset, she admita ** that she 
did indeed send her cofferer to speik 
with the Lord High Admiral, but on no 
other business than to recommend to hia 
one of her chaplains, and to request him 
to use his interest that she might have 
Durham Palace for her London house ; 
that Parrr, on his return, informed her, 
that the Admiral said she could not have 
Durham Palace, which was wanted for 
a mint, but offered her his own house 
for the time of her being in London ; 
and that Parry then inquired of her, 
whether, if the council would consent to 
her marrying the Admiral, she would 
herself be wiuing ? That she refused to 
answer this t^uestionf demanding, who 
bade him ask it ? Heaaid, no one ; but 
from the Admiral's inquiries, as to what 
she spent in her house, and whether she 
had got her natents for certain lands 
signed, and otner questions of a like na- 
ture, ho thought ne was rather gives 
that way than otherwise." She iMoica 
that her governess ever advised her to 
marry the Admiral without the consent 
of the council; but relates the hints 
which Mrs. Ashley had thrown out, of 
his attachment to her, and the artful at> 
tempts made by her to discover how she 
stood affected towards such a oonneetioa 
with that personage. In conclnsio% 
Elizabeth remarks, with great spiii^— 
*« Master Xjrrwhitt and others have toU 



me, thit tlierc gooth rumoan abroad 
which gTcatlv affect both my honour and 
honuty (which above all things I cs- 
toom) ;' amongst tbcso, that I am in tlie 
Tower, and with child by my Lord Ad- 
miral. My Lord, these ani shameful 
alanilers, for which, besides the divirc 1 
have to see the King's Majesty, I shall 
most humbly desire your Lordsliip, that 
I may come to the court after your first 
determination, that I may shew myself 
there as I am.'* 

In Parr}'*8 confession, he relates what 
pasted botwcen himselif and the Lord 
lligh Adminil, when he waited upon 
him by command of tho rrinci.-fi8, and 
alludes to tho earnest manner in which 
the Admiral had urged ** her endeavour- 
ing to procure, by wa^r of exchange, cer- 
tain crown laiub which had been the 
Queen's, and which were adjacent to his 
own ; from which ho inferred, that he 
wanted to bare both them and the Prin- 
cess for himself. That the Admiral said 
he wished the Princess to go to the I)u- 
chess of Somerset, and by her means 
make suit to the Protector lor the lands, 
and for a town house, and to entertain 
her Grace for tho furtherance thereof. 
That when he repeatt'd this to tho Prin- 
cess, she would not at first believe tliat 
he had ever uttcnMl such words, or could 
wish her so to do ; but on his declaring 
that it was true, she seemed to bo anjrrv 
that she should U> driven to make such 
suits, and said, ' In faith I will not go 
there, nor bt-gin to flattw now.' " That 
Parry liad repeated his visits to the I/ord 
High Admiral oftener than was at first 
acknowledged, either by Elizabeth or 
himself, is clearly indicated by a confes- 
sion afterwards addressed to the I'rotector 
by the Princess ; but even with this con- 
fession, Sir Robert Tyrwhitt deckres 
himself unsatisfied as to the real nature 
of this mysterious connection. Parry 
was afterwards rewarded for his fidelity 
to Elizabeth, who made him comptroller 
of Uie Toval household, an office whicli 
he held till his death. 

Mrs. Ashley, in consequence of the 
part she playeH in this aifair of the Ad- 
miral, was removed from her situation 
of govemesa to tho Princess, and Lady 
'tjrwluXb, tke wife of Sir Bobert, suc- 

ceeded in her place. On this occasion, 
the behaviour of KIizub«>th i» thus d<«- 
seribed in a letter from Sir Kobirt Tyr- 
whitt to the I*roteetor : — 

"lleaseth yourCiraee to be informed, 
that after my wife's repjiir hitlnr, vhe 
decbured to the I^ady >UizulH;th, that sho 
was called before your Grace and the 
council, and had a rebuke ; that sho had 
not taken upon herself the otfii^ Ut Kce 
her well governed, in the li< u of Mrs. 
Ashley. The answer of the I<ady Kliza- 
beth was, that Mrs. Ashley was her mis- 
tress, and that she had not so demeaned 
herself, that the council should now need 
to put any other mistress in her place. 
Wncreunto my wife replied, seeing she 
did allow Mrs. Ashler to be her mistress, 
she need not be ashamed to have any 
honest woman in her stead. She took 
the matter so heavily to heart, that she 
wept all that night, and sighed all the 
next day, till she reci-ived your letter ; 
and then she sent for mo, and asked me 
whether it was best for her to writt; to 
you again or not : I siiid, if she would 
make answer that she. would follow the 
advice of your letter, I tlioii^ht she had 
bi'tter write ; but in the end I perceiviKi 
that slio was very loth U) havu a gover- 
ness ; nnd to avoid the same, she said, 
the world would note her to be a great 
otTcniler, having so hastily a governess 
appointed her. And afti-r all, she fully 
hopes to recover her old mistress again. 
Tlie love sho yet beareth her is greatly 
to be wondered at. I told her, if she 
would but consider her honour, and tlie 
sequel thereof, she would, considering 
her years, make suit to your Grace to 
have one sent, rather than delay being 
without one for an hour. She cannot 
digest such advice in any way ; but if I 
should speak my min(i, it were more 
meet she should have two than one. She 
would in any wise write to your Grace, 
wherein I offered har mv auvicc, which 
she would in no wise follow, but writa 
her own will and pleasure. She begia- 
neth now a little to droop, b^* reason she 
beareth that my Lord Admiral's Iiouset 
are all diKiMirscd. And my wife tclleth 
me that she cannot hear hira discom* 
mcndadf but sho is ready to make answer 
therein ; and bo ahe hath not been ao- 


emtomed to do, vnleflB Mrs. Aahlej were 
touched, whereimto she was rery readj 
to make answer Tehementlj." 

Instead of addressing to Somerset the 
aentiments desired br the crafty Tyr- 
whitt, Elizabeth, in the subjoined can- 
tioiii epistle, urged the Protector and 
tile conndl to endearoor to stop the 
•eandalons reports in circnlation against 


" Haring receiTed yonr Lord- 
■hip's letters, I perceiTe in them yonr 
good will towards me, becanse you de- 
dare to me plainly yonr mind in this 
thing, and again, for that yon wonld not 
wish that I should do anything that 
■hould not seem eood unto the conndl, 
for which thing I give yon most hearty 
thanks. And whereas, I do understand 
that you do take in eril part the letters 
tiiat I did write unto yonr Lordship, I 
m Tery sorry that yon should take them 
■o, for my nund was to declare unto ^on 
plainly as I thought in that thing, which 
1 did also the more willingly, because 
(as I write to you) you desirea me to be 
plain with yon in all things ; and^ as 
eonceming that point that yon write, 
tiiat I seem to stand in my own wit, in 
bdng so well assured of my own self, I 
did assure me of myself no more than I 
trust the truth shall try ; and to say that 
which I knew of myself, I did not think 
diould have displeased the council or 
yonr Grace. And surely, the cause why 
that I was sorry that there should be 
any such abont me, was because that I 
tibonght the people will say that I de- 
warrea throughout my lewa demeanour 
to hare such a one, and not that I mis- 
lake anything that yonr Lordship or the 
eoondl shall think good, for 1 know 
that yon and the conndl are charged 
with me ; or that I take upon me to mle 
mptAtf for I know they are most de- 
eeiTed that trmteth most in themedre^ 
wherefore I trust you shall nerer find 
that fiudt in me, to the which thing I 
do not see that yonr Grace has made any 
direct answer at this time, and seeing 
fter make so eril reports already, •hall 
be ont a ineieasing of their evil toongea. 
Howbdt yw did write, thai if I wmU 

bring forth any that had reported i!, 
you and the council would see it redresC, 
which thing, though I can easily do it^ 
I would be loath to do it, for becanse it 
is my own cause, and again that should 
be but a alnridging of an eril name ef 
me, that am glad to ponease [panish] 
them, and so ret the eril will of the 
people, which thing I wonld be loath t» 
naTe ; but if it must seem good nnta 
your Lordship, and the rest ofthe eooa* 
cil, to send fortii a proclamation into the 
countries, that they refrain their tou^cs, 
declaring how the tales be but lies, it 
should make both the people think that 
yon and the conndl have great regard 
that no such mmours should be qlread 
of any of the King's majesty's sisteis as 
I am, though unworthy; and also I 
should think myself to recdTe sodi 
friendship at your hands as yon hate 
promised me, although your Lordship 
bath shewed me great already ; howbeit 
I am ashamed to ask it any more, be* 
cause I see you are not so well-minded 
thereunto, ^d as concerning that jca 
say, that I gire folks occasion to thmk, 
in refusing the good to uphold the eril, 
I am not of so simple understanding, 
nor would I that your Grace shouSi 
hare so eril opinion of me, that I have 
so little respect to my own honesty that 
I would maintain it if I had sumetent 
promise of the same, and so your Grace 
shall proTc me when it comes to the 
point ; and thus I bid yon fiurewell, de- 
siring God always to assist yon in dl 
your affaires. 

<< Written in haste from Hatfeild, this 
21st February. 

'* Tour assured Friend, to my little 

** power, 
« — 

''To my rery good Lord, my Locd 

The bin of attainder against Lord 
Seymour, of Sndeler, passed the Lords on 
the 4th of March, 1549 : the chuidestiiie 
oourtship of Elizabeth formed one of the 
artidcs aaainst him ; and as the Princess 
feared uat the imprisoned goreraeas, 
Mrs. Ashley, and her husband, would be 
hmhadiahii fhll,die addraaad Ikt 

eluabeth, seoond quben uiimaiit. 


falnoined appeal to Somerset in their 

** I hare a request to make unto jour 
Grace, which fear has made me omit till 
this time for two causes, the one hecause 
I saw that mj request fbr the rumours 
which were spread abroad of me took so 
little place, which thing when I con- 
siderea I thought I should little profit 
in any other suit ; howbeit now I undcr- 
stind that there is a proclamation for 
them, (for the which I ^tc your Grace 
and the rest of the council most humble 
thanks) I am bolder to speake fbr another 
thing, and the other was because perad- 
Tentnre your Lordship and the rest of 
Uie council will think that I fitrour her 
rril doinp for whom I shall speake for, 
rhich is Katharine Ashley, that it would 
please your Grace and the rest of the 
Donncil to be good nnto her, which thing 
I do not to nrour her in any evil, (for 
that I would be sorry to do), but for this 
:onsideration which follow, the which 
tiope doth teach me in saying that I 
ought not to doubt but that your Grace 
md the mst of the council will think 
that I do it for the other considerations. 
First, because she hath been with me a 
long time and many years, and hath 
taken ereat labour and pain in bringing 
oe up in learning and honest, and there- 
fore 1 ought of very duty speak for her, 
for Saint Gregory sayetn that we are 
more bound to them that bringeth us up 
irell than to our parents, for our parents 
lo that which is natural for them, that 
is. bringing us into this world, but our 
Inringers-up is to cause us to live well in 
t ; uie second is, because I think that 
irbatsocTcr she hath done in my Lord 
idmiraTs matter, as concerning the mar- 
riage of me, she did it because knowing 
i\m to be one of the council, she thought 
lie would not go about any such thing 
vithout he had the councU's consent 
thereunto, for I haTe heard her many 
times say that she would not have me 
narrr in any place without your Grace's 
md the council's consent : the third cause 
a because that it sbaU and doth make 
■en Uiinke that I am not clear of the 
laed mfKlf, but that it is pardoned in me 

because of mr youth, because that she I 
loTed so well is in such a plaee, thus 
hope prerailing more with me than fear, 
hath won the battel, and I haye at this 
time gone forth ?rith it, which I praj 
God he taken no other ways than it is 

« Written in haste from Hatadd, this 
7Ui day of March. Also, if I may be 
so bolo, not offending, I besMch your 
Grace and the rest of the council, to be 
good to Master Ashley, her husband, 
which because he is my kinsman I would 
be glad he should do weU. 

'* Your assured Friend, to my 
''little power, 


"To my yery good Lord, my Lord 

When £lizabeth was informed by one 
of Somerset's creatures of the decapita- 
tion of Seymour, which took place on 
the twentieth of March, she had the pre- 
sence of mind to conceal her emotion, 
and with apparent sang firoid remarked. 
'* this day died a man with much wit and 
little ju^ent" This was the first of 
those fortunate escapes with which the 
singular and eventful life of Eliaabcth so 
remarkably abounds. Her attachment 
to Seymour was the earliest and strong- 
est impression of a tender nature which 
her heart was destined to recdye, and 
although her characteristic caution would 
doubtless hare restrained her from form- 
ing an irreyocable engagement, it might 
not have been in her power much loneer 
to recede with honour, or eyen with 
safety, had the design of Seymour preyed 

Another faithfhl adherent of the youth- 
ful Elizabeth, at this period, was a gen- 
tleman in the sendee of the Lord Ad- 
miral, of the name of Harrington. He 
was repeatedly examined by the council 
respecting his master's intercourse with 
the Princess; but he revealed no se- 
cret of importance. He was subse- 
quently taken by £lixa)>eth into her own 
household, and treated with distinguished 
fayour. Indeed, so convinced was this 

gentleman, who was a man of talents, of 
er tenderness for the memory of a lover, 
that aeyeral yean after her aocesnoD tv 



the throne, he Tentnred to present hU 
lojal mifltrGu with a portrait of the Ad- 
miral, under which was inscribed the fol- 
lowing sonnet to his memory : 

"Of person rare, strong limb, end msnly 

By nature firamed to aerre on sea or land ; 
In fHendahip firm, in goud state or ill bap. 
In peace head-wise, in war-skill great, bold 

On hone or foot, in peril or in play, 
None could excel, though many did essay. 
A subject true to King, a servaut great 
Friend to God's truth, and foe to Kome's de- 
Sumptuous abroad, for hononr of the land, 
Temp'raie at home^ yet kept great state with 

And noble hoose, that fed more months with 

Then soon advaneed on higher steps to stand. 
Yet agaimt nature, reason, and Just laws. 
His blood was spilt, guiltless, without just 


The unhappy fate of the Lord High 
Admiral Seymour, and the disgrace and 
danger in which Elizabeth had herself 
been inTohed, in conseancnce of her in* 
teroourse with that nooleman, afforded 
the young Princess a seTcre but useful 
lesson ; and during the remainder of her 
brother's reign, she conducted herself 
with that extreme caution becoming her 
oudted station. Her time was now more 
agreeably spent in prosecuting her youth- 
fu studies, under the able superintend- 
ence of her learned preceptor, the cele- 
brated Roger Ascham. The letters of 
this distinguished scholar, addressed to 
the rector of the UniTersitT of Stras- 
hurgh, in 1550, abound with anecdotes 
of ms royal pnpil, of whose proficiency 
he was justly proud. We select the fol- 
lo?ring interesting passages :^ 

'* l<^Ter was the nobuity of England 
more learned than at present. Our il- 
lustrious King Edwurd, in talent, indus- 
try, penerezanoeand erudition, surpasses 
both his own Tears and the behef of 
men. Numberless honourable ladies of 
the present time sorp«n the daughters 
of Sir Thomas More in erery kind of 
learning. Bnt amongst them all, my 
iUustrioua mistress, the lady Elisabeth, 
shines like a star, excelling them more 
by the splendour of her rirtnes and her 
learning, than by the glory of her birth. 
la the nutietj of fiv eommendable 

qualities, I am less perplexed to tak 

matter for the highest panegpic, than 
to circumscribe that panegync within 
just bounds. Yet I shall mention no- 
thing respecting her but what has oome 
under my own obsenration. 

*' For two years she pursued thestody 
of Greek and Latin under my tuition ; 
but the foundations of her knowkd^ in 
both Languages were laid by the diligcai 
instructions of WiUiam Grindal, my late 
bcloTcd friend, and seren years my pupil 
in classical learning at Cambridge. After 
some years, when through her natifo 
genius, aided by the efforts of so exoel- 
knt a master, she had made a great pro- 
gress in learning, and Grimul, by his 
merit and the favour of his mistress 
might have aspired to high dignities, ha 
was snatched away by a sudden illness, 
leaving a greater blank of himself in the 
court than I remember any other to 
haye done these many years. — I was ap- 
pointed to succeed him in his office, and 
the work which he had so happily begun, 
without my assistance indeed, but not 
without some counsels of mine, I dili« 
f^ently laboured to oomplete. Now, 
however, released from the throng of a 
court, and restored to the felicity of mt 
former learned leisure, I enjoy, thronga 
the bounty uf the Kin^, an hononrabk 
appointment in this university. 

*'' The lady Elizabeth hath aoeooi- 
plishcd her sixteenth year; and so much 
solidity of understand mg, such oourtesy 
united with dignity, have never been o^ 
served at so early an age. She has tho 
most ardent love of true religion, and of 
the best kind of literature. The oonsfi- 
tution of her mind is exempt from fe- 
male weakness, and she is endued with 
a masculine power of application. No 
apprehension can be quicker than hers— > 
no memory more retentive. French and 
Italian she speaks like English ; Latin 
with fluency, propriety, and judgment; 
she also spoke Greek with me, nreouently, 
willingly, and moderately well. Nothing 
can Mmore elegant than her han£' 
writing, whether m the Greek or Bo* 
man character. In music sho is very 
skilful, but does not greatly delight. 
With respect to personal decoration, sho 
greatly pnfeia nmple doganoo to ihow 


•nd splendour, so despismg the ontwtrd 
adorning; of plaiting the hair, and of 
wearing of ^id, that in the whole man- 
ner of her hfe she rather resembles llip* 
polita than Phcedra. 

" She read with me almost the whole 
of Cicero, and a great part of Iatj: 
from these two authors, indeed, her 
knowledge of the Latin language has 
been almost exclusiTely derived. The 
beginning of the day was alwars de- 
voted by her to the JS^ew Testament, in 
Greek, after which, riie read select por- 
tions of Isocratcs, and the tragedies of 
Sophocles, which I judged best adapted 
to supply her tongiie with the purest 
diction, her mind with the most excel- 
lent precepts, and her exalted station 
with a defence against the utmost power 
of fortune. For her religious instruc- 
tion, she drew first from the fountains of 
Scripture, and afterwards from St. Cy- 
prian, the * Common Places' of Melanc- 
thon, and similar works, which convey 
pure doctrine in elegant language. In 
every kind of writing, she easily detected 
any ill-adapted or far-fetched expression. 
Sho could not bear those feeble imita- 
tors of Erasmus, who bind tho Latin 
language in the fetters of miserable pro- 
verbs ; on the other hand, she approved 
a style chaste in its propriety, and bcau- 
tiful by perspicuity; and she greatly 
admirea metaphors^ when not too vio- 
lent, and antitneses, when just and hap- 
pily opposed. By a diligent attention 
to these particulars, her ears became so 
practisea and so nice, that there was no- 
thing in Greek, Latin, or English, prose 
or verse, which, according to its merits 
or defects, she did not eitner reject with 
disgust, or receive with the highest de- 

Fox sayi, "that one of her school- 
masters informed a friend of his, that he 
learned every day more of her than sho 
of him. *I teach her words,' quoth 
he, ' and she me things. I think she is 
the best-disposed lady in all Europe: 
she has a singular wit, and a marveUous 
meek stomach.' " 

Elizabeth, on aoeoimt of her impro- 
prieties with the Admiral, had fallen into 
disgrace, and was not permitted to enter 
the royal presence; out Edward, al- 

thongh held in thrall by tho Proteetor, 
lonfl^ to behold his offending sister, 
ana Elisabeth, aware of tho met, ad- 
dressed to him the foUowinr interesting 
letter, preserved in the royal archives : — 

" Like as a shipman in stormy 
ther plucks down Um sails, tanving for 
better wind, so did I, most noble Sing, 
in my unfortunate chance, on Thursday, 
pluck down the high sails of my joy and 
•omfort, and do trust one day that, as 
troublesome waves have repulsed me 
backward, so a gentle wind will bring 
me forwajrd to my haven. Two chic? 
occasions moved me much, and grieved 
me greatly ; the one, for that I £>ubted 
your Majesty's health ; the others, be* 
cause, for aU my lone tarrying, I went 
without that I came for. Of the first, I 
am relieved in part, both that I under- 
stood of your health, and also that your 
Majesty's lodging is far from my Lord 
Marquis's chamber. Of my other grirf 
I am not eased ; but the ooBt is, that 
whatsoever other folks will suspect, I 
intend not to fear your Grace's good- 
will, which, as 1 know that I never de- 
served to forfeit, so I trust it will stick 
by me ; for if your Grace's advice that I 
should return, whose will is a command- 
ment, had not been, I would not have 
made the half of my way tho end of my 
journey. And thus, as one desirous to 
bear of your Majesty's health, though 
unfortunate to see it, I shall pray God 
for ever to preserve you. From Hat- 
field, this present Saturday. 

<* Your Majesty's humble sister to 

" To the King^s most excellent Majesty." 

In reply, Edward sent to Elizabeth 
for her portrait, which she forwarded 
him, with the following pedantic epistle : 

*' like as the rich man that daily ga» 
thereth riches to riches, and to one bag 
of money layeth a great store till it come 
to infinite ; so methinks your Majesty, 
not being sufficed with so many benefits 
and genUeness shewed to me afore this 
time, doth now increase them, in askinc 
and desiring, where yoi mij bid ana 

•Mnnuoid: nqidriiiaa thing notworthv 
the denriuK far itaeO; but ifiade worth)- 
for yonr Hjghoeii'i reqaot — mj pic- 
tnn, I mean ; in which, if the iitwaril 
good mind towtrda jronr Giace might a, 
well be declared ai the oatward face and 

)e shall be leeii. I i 

Duld I 

hare tarried the commandment, bntpre- 
Tented it; nor have been the laat tu 
frmt, hot the fint to offer il. For the 
nee, I grant, I might well blush tc 
offer, but the mind I ihall nent be 
••hamed to preaeut. But though froni 
the nac» of the picture, the coloun maj 
(ade bj time, maj gin by weather, maj 
be ipotted bj chance ; yet the other, nor 
time with ber awilt winga ihall OTer- 
take, nor the miiity douda with theii 
lowering mar daiken, nor chance witb 
her ttimwiy fool may oTecthcow. 

"Of thii alio — yet the proof could 
net be great, beeauH the oeeaiiana haTi- 
been w> amall ; notwithitanding, a* i 
dog hath iCi day, n ma; I perthanct 
have time to declare it in deciU, wbtcb 
now I do write them bnt in word*. And 
fbrther, I ihall hnmblj beseech jaoi 
Kajaty, that when yoa ihall look ou 
my picture, you will louchiafe tn think, 
that ai you bare but the outward iba- 
dow of the body before you, eo my in- 
ward mind wiabelh that the body ilwU 
were oftener in your prcecuce. Howbeit. 
Wauie both my eo beine, I think, oould 
do yonr Majaiy lillle pleasore, though 
myielf great good ; and again, becauae 

* .ot ai Tct the time agreeing there- 

I ihall lean to fdlow thia laying 

And thna I will ([troubling yDurMajeaty 
I lear) end, with my moat humble 
thank*, bcacecbing God long to preaerrc 
yon to hi* honour, to your eoinfort, to 
the realm'* praflt, and to mr Jot. 

" Tonr MajeiCy'i moit bumble aiiler 

"Tttrn Hatfield, thi* flfteenth da; of 

It eridently »ot lon^ in 
nflnanoe with the Kiug ; 
1 Stiyps'r " '-'- 


' itrQung instaooo of [he high coniider*- 
tion which ahe enjoyed at the court ot 
her brother, aa well aa the Mate which 
*be at (hit period Haaomed in her appear- 
ance before the public : — 

" Lcmloii, Harcb irih, IHl. 

"Tbe Lady Klizabcth, the King** 
atater, rode ihia day throngh Lentil 
unto 8t. James'a, the Sing** police, 
with a great company of lord*, knighta, 
and gentlemen ; and after her, a great 
company of ladie* and gentlemen on 
boneback— about two hundred. On the 
:teenth. ihe come &om St. Janiei'*, 
i the war 
park-gate nnto the court ipread 
with fine sand. She wai attended with 
a very honourable conBuenee of noUe 
and wonhiprul penona of both aele*, 
and rccciTcd with much ceremony at the 
court gate." 

The tolenta of the young Frineeaa, het 
Tiracity, her profideucy in all tiiese 
claaaical atlainmeota to which the young 
King wai himaelf deToted, endeared her 
eiceedinglr to her brother, who was 
wont to call her— in alluaiou to the so- 
briety of dresa and manners by which 
she was then diatii]gui*hed — hla " Sweet 
lister Temperance.* On the part of Eli- 
ubeth, his afTcction was responded to 
by eicry mark of sisterly affection, joined 
Lo those delicate attentiona, and that 
re«pcctful deraeanoor, which hia rank en- 
titled him to receire. 

With respect to her learning, ofttr 
the ascended the throne, Koger .^bam 
roundly asserts that there were not foBI 
men in England, distinguished either ia 
ihe church or tbe state, who nndcntood 
more Greek than her Majesty. And, aa 
in instance of her proficiency in othex 
tongue*, ha mention* (hit be was once 
present at court when ihe gave 

.it then 

e inlerriew, to Ihree ambMsa- 

nd all tbj* flnendy, 
and to the purpoac. 

ii wBi now ueemed expedient tot the 
King to *cek an alliascc with the King 
iif Denmark- Chriatian the Third^as 
.lUe and enlightened prince, who had 
DMeallj acqaind Ihe re«|)ect of tlM 



irhole Protestant bodj, by establishing 
the Refonnation in his dominions. An 
agent was accordingly dispatched to the 
court of Copenhagen, to solicit a mar- 
riage between the Prince Royal of Den- 
mark and the Princess Elizabeth. Bnt 
this negotiation prorod fruitless, in con- 
sequence of the reluctance to the con- 
nection manifested by Elizabeth herself. 

The Princess nerer could be prorailed 
upon to ffiTcthe sliehtest encouragement 
to the addresses of any foreign prince, 
whilst she herself was still in the light 
of a subject : she was too well conTinced 
that, to accept such an alliance, would 
be the means of sending her out of the 
kingdom, and thus hazard the right of 
her succession to the throne of England. 
£<lward the Siith, tiiuf diMppointed in 
his TiewB, lost no time in offering his 
own hand in marriage to the infant 
daughter of Ilenry the Second of France 
— a contract, howcTer, which he did not 
iJTe to carry into effect. 

Elizabeth was too discreet to take part 
in the stnij^le between the Somerset 
and Warwick factions; and when So- 
merset, a condemned prisoner in the 
Tower, supplicated her to urge the King 
to spare his life, she, in answer, coolly 
assured him that she had no power to do 
anything in his behalf, as the ruling fac- 
tion prevented her from entering the 
royal presence. Tet her credit with 
Edward must then have been consider- 
able, since she openly asserted her claims 
to Durham House, which Somerset had 
justly deprived her of, and which 
Warwick, who had just been created 
Duke of Northumberland, had the pre- 
sumption to retain. She even appealed 
to the Lord Chancellor — a step she was 
too politic to take, without being first 
assured of the friendship of her royal 

Immediately, Northumberland, to bol- 
ster up his own power, conceired the 
traitorous design oi causing the claims 
of the Princess Mary and Kfizabeth to be 
set aside in favour of his daughter-in- 
law, the unfortunate Lady Jane Gray, 
who had been married to his son, Lord 
Guildford Dudley. He endeavoured to 
estrange, by every means, the love of 
the death-Bick young Edward the Sixth 

from his sisters; and he succeeded in 
completely excluding ElizabeUi from the 
presence of the dying King. Latimer 
and Ridley furthered his dangerous pro- 
ject by preaching in favour of passing 
over tne daughters of Henry the Eighth, 
on the ground that they might enduiger 
the Protestant institutions of the realm, 
by marrying Popish princes, although it 
was welT kiiown that Elizabeth, who was 
sincerely attached to the reformed reli- 

S'on, had rejected a foreign alliance, 
ut at this momentous period the voice 
of Elizabeth's friends at court was si- 
lenced, and, indeed, if the assertions ot 
some writers are to be believed, she had 
but one sincere friend there, and that 
was the crafty Cecil. 

Elizabeth resided at Hatfield during 
thekst month of Edward the Sixth's 
reign. Her household book for the first 
of October, of the fifth of Edward the 
Sixth, to the last of September, in the 
sixth year of that Monarch, is still ex- 
tant, in the possession of Lord Strangford. 
»* It is entitled," says Mr. Ellis,* "The 
Accompte of Thomas Parry, esquyer, 
Conferor, [cofferer] to the nghto excel- 
lent Princessc, theLadie Elizabeth, her 
Grace, the King's Majc-stie's most hon- 
orable Sister." Eveij page is signed at 
the bottom in the Princess's own hand. 
The sum total of receipts, including 
the "remayne of the preceding year, 
amounts to five thousand seven hundred 
and ninety one pounds one shilling and 
three-pence farthing, with the third 
part of a farthing. The payments are 
entered under the heads or ** Bakehouse 
and Pantry, Butrey and CeUar, Spicery 
and Chaundrey, Aitchcn and Larder, 
the Acatryes, Pultry, Squillerie, Saw- 
cerye, Wood-yard, Stable, Wages, Ly- 
venes and Almes, Chamber ana Robes, 
and Reparacions." The total of pay- 
ments within the time of the account, 
amounted to three thousand six hundred 
and twenty-nine pounds eighteen shil- 
hing[S and eightpence three farthings; 
leaving for the wants of the next year, 
one thousand five hundred and seven 
pounds, one half-penny, a half-farthing, 
and a third part of a farthing; which 
sum is stated to have been *' delivered 
* Beyal Letters, toI. li. p. Iia 


into ber 6nice*s hands, upon the deter- 
mination of tbia account The expenses 
of the house amounted to three thousand 
nine hundred and thirty-eight pounds 
eighteen shillings and sefen-pence. But 
draucttons lor the ^ hides, feUes, and in- 
trails of Uie cattle supplied, two hundred 
and aercn pounds three shillings and 
dght^nce naif-penny." The entries in 
ti&e Bakehouse and Fantry are chiefly 
for wheat Under the Butrey and Cel- 
lar great quantities of beer are entered, 
with ** swete wine, Raynish wine, and 
Oasooieiie wine." In the Spicenr and 
Chaunaery, nothing occurs worthy of 
note. In the Edtcben and Larder, 
fresh-water fish are frequently entered. 
Board wages for senrants are conti- 
noally mentioned. Lamprey-pies are 
once entered as a present John 
Taylor was paid for making the 
** Tome-broches' [turnspits] coats, nine 
■hillings and two-pence. In the 
Wood-yard rushes occur, in the Stable 
** horsbrede." The wages of house- 
hold sefrants for a quarter of a year 
■mounted to eightj-two pounds seven- 
teen shillings ana eight-pence.^ The 
lireries of Tclret coats for thirteen, 
gentlemen, at forty shillings the coat 
■mounted to twenty-six pounds. The 
Ureries of the yeomen to serenty-eight 
pounds eighteen shilling ; given in alms, 
■eren pounds fifteen shillings and eight- 
pence at ** sondrie times to poore men 
■nd womene." Amongst the entries of 
the chamber and robes, are the follow- 
ing. **Paid to John Spithonius, the 
■erenteenth of May, for oooks, and to 
Mr. AIUa for • bible, twenty-eoTen ihil- 

lines and four-pence* Paid to Edmid 
Alun for a bible, twenty shillings. Pdd 
the third of Norember, to the keeper of 
Hertford jail, for fees of John Wiugfteld. 
being in ward, thirteen shillings and 
fourpence. Paid the foorteenth of De- 
cember to Blanch Parry, for her hidf 
year's annuity, one hundred shiUinjp; 
and to Blanche Courtnaye for the l&e. 
sixty-six shillings and eigfatpenoe. ¥m 
the fourteenth of I>eoember, at ths 
christening of Mistress Pendred's dM, 
as hj warrant doth Appear, one shiUiBg. 
Paid in rewards unto snndrY pertoos at 
St James, her Grace then oeing thcTB, 
viz., the King^s footman, forty shilUags ; 
the under^Leepcr of Sit Jameirs tea 
shillings, the gardener five shiUhigs; to 
one Russell, groom of the King'a grml 
chamber, ten shillings ; John Fcnnni, 
ten shillings; to the wardrobe, forty 
shillings ; tae violins, forty shiUuifi ; ■ 
Frenchman, that gave a book to W 
Grace, ten shillings ; the keeper of tkt 
park gate of St James's, ten ihiffibKi; 
Mr. Standford*s servant, twenty awl* 
lings ; the Lord Russell's minaizeli, toi 
shillings. In the whole, as by waimt 
appeareth, nine pounds fifteen ■liniii«. 
Paid in rewards, to sundrypenoa^ &• 
tenth of August, viz., to Farmor, that 
played' on the lute, thirty shiUings ; t» 
Mr. Ashfeild's servant, with two priM 
oxen, and ten muttons, twenty shilfiiigs; 
More, the harper, thirty ahilUncs; t» 
him that made her Grace a tiuiAe oi 
walnut tree, forty-four abillings and aiae 
pence ; and to Mrs. Cock's servant, who 
tHTought her Grace ■ stingaony ax aai 

■uubub, bbcoud weem seosakt. 

>■ aj JtaiySiittM't 


Dialh d/ Eiieard l/U Sixlk—Lady Jam Ortf—Aea 

hifpoeritietl pro/i—iaii of lit l^pith fti(* — Tata pari ut Jisry i i^rnuaiiOH — 
Ii Kl vp at a rical to Uit Cmm—Bnatk btfimn her and Hary, iddntd bg 
Iht ritol facliaiu—Sr/ion to marly IIU Friittt of Itedmont—Impticiilat ia tkt 
WijaUStieltian—SentjBrto Court— Impritomd in tii ToKtr—Smrtln Ircatid 
~GardiiHi'» attfmpt to tak* ktr li/i—Jirmortd to Riclmvmd—Tht DtAt 0/ 
Satay oftr*i Iter in marri»gt—Srmoni to n'ooitteck-SHa trtatfd vilh rigour— 
Sent far to Court— I, ftrfivtH, and ralorrH to Xeyal faniar-ritili^i rforU 
to marry Mrr la tht Jhiko of SaaoySpendt CkrittrnM at Court— Irotttdt tt 
HatJuU—Stneietd offir of marriafi—Mofni/laHl eHltrtaiHrntiila—Prvpoialt of 
Erit of Sictdtn — Utr ditlUt of marriage — Mary fafvMlAj Ika Crown to Iter — 
Hit iyinf rtfneat to her — Sht Mtcu titt iA« u a (Mltelio — Jffteta airprim 
VJIM iiformad af Mtr^t dtmiet. 

>-,HE Icmjr-knticipiM 
I dealh of EdwanI the 
1 Sixlh took ptace at 
\ Greenwiob, on tbn 
|| nilb of July, 1S53. 

j It WU hHtCDod bj 

f tba niukilful tnst- 
ment of a female 
anpiric, to whoae core the . rojal pa- 
tient had been impmperlj confided ; 
■nd eomin)^, u it did, upon Northum- 
berland aomcvhat bj mprus, compelled 
him to let «itb ■ decree of prvcipita- 
tion, iiijarioai to ha citSlj detigm. 
SorenJ preporstoTj raeaiarc* were jct 
to be idnplHl, pnrticnlailf tbe important 
one of iccuriai; the penoni of tho two 
priDoeaK«, Muy and liJizBbeth. Ac- 
cordiDgly be ordered tliD dntb of tbe 
King to be earefiUlf coneesled, whilit 
he vrrola letten in the name of Edward 
the Siith, rrquiring the immediate at- 
tendance ofhi* sittcn atcoait. Uowfar 
tbe itrataErim lucceeded with Morr, and 

be more waiTEIuabcth, 
■apposed by Cecil, of tbi 

The Duke of Korthnubnland aoon 
after dopatebed tnevengelt to Eliiabcth, 

Kpriiing bet of tbe •eteoian of Lodj 
ne Orej to tbe thnme, and proposing 
to her tbe altenuitiTe of leugnin; her 
own title, in eonndention of t lum of 
■oner and cvrtain lan'da to be aaufpied 

and Otatj tsplied, that her eldcat liitcr, 
Uarj, wai tbe fint to bo treated witb, 
dniiug whoM lifetime abe, fur hcrpart, 
had no right or title te renounce. Whilit 

by a lickncu, moat probably feigned, 
merely SToided taking part in the atrog- 
gle for the crown. She did not, aa 
aome biitoriana itute, niK troapa in aid 
of UaiT. Dut althongh, during thi* 
vrentfol criai*, >he .no more lupport^ 
Uary than Lady Jane, the moment 
tbe contcit waa at an cad. and tbe newi 
of ber liater's lictory bad reached her, 
■he forgot her indiipuaition, and baatoncd 
in ■lata, to meet and court the favour of 
tbe eonquerur. At the head of one 
tboniana penona, on boncbauk, many 
of whom wore ladits, ibe met her aiilrr 
Mary at Wanitcad. where ■he Brat paid 
bonugo to her oi Queen. When Maiy 
made ner triumphal entry into London, 
ihe rode by bci aide. In pcraonal ap- 
pearance and manncra, ahe bad the 
adnuilagD of Mary. She waa but twenty, 
about half tbe age of tbe Queen, and 
without pteteniioni to extraordinary 
beauty, the could boait of a tall, partly, 
fraeeful figure, evenly chitellcd featuna, 
urge blue eyca, a fine but rather lallow 
complexion, and delicalo bandi, the 
d^ont apniaetry of which the waa proud 
to diaplay on every poaaible MCaaian. 
She alao eondeaconded 10 contt popnlarit) 
by all tboaearta of which hct afler-con- 
diwt pioTed hec Ui b« ap«r(M(miitn>K 


But ft fiBW weeks ftfter Mftiy had been 
pfocUimed Queen, the partisans of the 
opposin)^ reli^ons succeeded in exciting 
her jealous ill-will against her sister 
Elizabeth. When Marj made known 
her intention of restoring the mass and 
oUier Catholic rituals, &e Protestants 
took the alarm; fixed their hopes on 
the constancy of Elizabeth, who had al- 
raidy won for herself the good will of 
the people generally, and openly de- 
elared toat she might be placed upon 
the throne with as little difficulty as 
Mary had been. On this account Mary 
was adrised to pbce her sister under 
arrest. Rut this unjust, unpopular 
measure, she refused to consent to ; and to 
at once gratify her own religious preju- 
dices, and weaken the power of the 
reformers, she endesToui^, by entrea* 
ties, promises, threats, to withdraw her 
royal sister from the Protestant to the 
Catholic Church. Elizabeth firmly re- 
sisted eTery attempt, till she found that 
her repugnance was attributed not to 
motiTes of conscience, but to the per- 
suasions of factions ; when, demanoing 
an audience with the Queen, she, on 
her knees, and with tearful eyes, ex- 
cused her past obstinacy, on the plea 
tiiat she had ncTer practised, nor been 
taught, any other than the reformed reli- 
gion, and employed Mary to fumiBh her 
with proper books and instructors, that 
she mi|^ht learn her error, and embrace 
the religion of her fathers. In a week 
her defection from the Protestant Church 
was effected; policy induced her to 
make a hypocritical profession of the 
Catholic faith, and, as a show of sin- 
cerity, to attend mass on the eighth of 
September, and to shortly afterwards 
wnte to the Emperor, for permission to 
purchase in Flanders a chalice, cross, 
and other ecclesiastical ornaments for a 
Catholic chapel, she was about to open 
in her own house. By this and other 
disrimulation. Elizabeth succeeded for a 
time in retaining her influence at court 
Mary, eridently believing in her since- 
rity, treated her, in pubuc and private, 
with extraordinary xindness. In the 
nlendid proeession of her Majesty from 
tne Tower to Whitehall, previously to 
kor eoraottkm, in October, 1663, th« 

royal carriage, sumptaooily eoveni 
with cloth of tissue, and drawn by at 
horses with similar trappings, was m* 
mediately followed by another, likewiM 
drawn hy six horses, and oorend with 
doth of silver, in which sat the Prineai 
Elizabeth and the Lady Anne of CSemi^ 
the former of whom assisted in this eers- 
mony as the Queen's sister, andthelatta 
not as the widow, bat as tht adoptad 
sbter of Henry the Eighth. 

At the coronation buu^uety 
dined at the same table wi^ tka 
— an honour conferred on none else hit 
Anne of Cleves. She was pnyiad kthf 
Dr. Harpfield, as the Queen's aiatw^aM 
generally recognized as heireaa pramf- 
tive to the t^ne. She, however, ca* 
joyed this state of felicitj forlittieaan 
than a month. The act paseed 1^ Man's 
first Parliament, legitimizing the Tjim. 
in effect, though not in word^ __ 
dized Elizabeth, and so wouided 
pride, that she requested 'perwamiam ts 
remove from court — a request which «M 
refused, and followed by a twpnfyy 
estrangement between the royal aistani 
Intrigue was now rife at court, indrpinad 
ent of the religious partisans. The JEhf 
of France, in the hope of obtaining tka 
whole sovereignty of the Britannic iilfl 
for his daughtcr-in-law, Mary Queen d 
Scots, resolved to ruin Queen Mary hf 
setting up Elizabeth as her rival, aM 
afterwards to destroy the Prineess h«> 
self. With this riew, the unpi im inJni 
French ambassador, Noailles, devissd. 
and supported with supplies of arms ni 
money, an attempt to depose Mary it 
favour of Elizabeth, who waa to be mar* 
ried to Courtney, Earl of Deronshimi 
Whilst this conspiracy waa ^***^"f| 
Elizabeth, who, in all probdbilitT, tacit^ 
countenanced it, again requesteapenuL 
sion to retire to one of her seats in thi 
country. Leave waa granted, aad tiw 
day fixed for her departure, whea dw 
representations of Benaud, the Spaaidi 
ambassador, that she was deeply lafip 
cated in the plots against the goven- 
ment, so incensed the Queen and dw 
privy council against her, that she was 
ordered not to leave the palaee, and, m 
the end, confined to her own chsMbifc 
and imoiuidad hy tfkB, vho asfoilH 



htr emy moTenient to tiie priTT coon- 
riL The peril of her poiitioii iailj in- 
oeBacd. Mary deeply mortified her by 
permitting the Omnten of Lennox and 
the liochen of Soffolk. the rcpreeenta- 
tirei of her muntB, the Scottish and 
French Qaeens. to take precedence of 
her; and, at length, Routnd openly 
diarged Noailles with paying her noc- 
tnmal Tints, with treasonahfo designs ; 
hat, fortunately for Uizabeth, she ex- 
pUinod away the charges against her, 
ind 3f arr, despite the opposition of Re- 
nand ana others, forgave her, granted 
her p ci mi ssion to depart, and, on the 
sixth of December, dismissed her with 
tokens of affection, and a present of a 
double set of large and raloaUe pearls. 
She retired to her mansion at Ashridge, 
in Backs, where she had scarcelr arriTcd 
when she was annoyed by an offer of the 
hand of the Prince of Piedmont in mar- 
riage, and a renewal of the matrimonial 
propooals in faTOur of the King of Den- 
mark** son; both of these offers she 
OdlT negatived ; and she also reftised 
er rcqaest, that she would unite 
heiedf openly with the conspirators, 
whose plot was scarcely arranged, when 
the fears or simplicity of Courtney in- 
doeed him to impart die whole secret to 
Gardiner, whilst the pnTy council inter- 
cepted letters to Elizabeth, in ciphers ; 
from the French King, <^ering her 
money, and urging her to seek an asylum 
m France; f^a toe French ambassador, 
advising ber to throw off the mask, and 
enenly espouse their cause, and from 
Wyatt, Sir Janes Crofts, and other of 
the conspir at ors, informing her that they 
had been betrayed by Courtney, and ex- 
horting her to reture from Ashridge, 
which, beinff near the metropolis and 
onfortified, left her at the mercy of the 
Qneen and the eouncil, to the strong 
eastle of Doonington, which was near 
to the head-oaarters tk the rebels. 

The dav after the breaking-out of the 
Wyatt rebellion was known to the coun- 
cil, Mary sent a letter to Elixabeth, en- 
joining ner to return immediately to 
eonrt, and assuring her that she should 
be hosrtiW welcomed ; but as Elizabeth 
pnt no iaith in these assurances, she 
took to harbedt lent woid totheQueen 

that she was too ill to travel, and imme- 
diately afterwards fortified and garri- 
soned her house. This illness, whether 
real or feigned, in all probability saved 
her from a violent death. Mary al- 
lowed her a fortnight's respite, and dur- 
ing this eventful fortnight, Wyatt, at 
the head of a formidable army of insur- 
gents, had unsuccessfully attacked the 
Queen in her palace at Westminster, and 
been conveyeo, with the other leading 
rebeb, to captivity in the Tower, when 
he and his fellowrebcls, to screen them, 
selves, named Elizabeth and Courtney 
as the instigators of the uprising. 

Mary, whose throne haabeen made to 
totter, signed the death-warrant of the 
unfortunate Lady Jane Grey and her 
husband, and as she now more than ever 
distrusted the loyalty of Elizabeth, she 
sent that Princess's maternal kinsman, 
Lord William Howard, together with 
Sir Edward lisstings and Sir Thomas 
Comwallis, to bring her to the court at 
London. When they arrived, the Queen's 
physicians, Dr. Wendy and Dr. Owen— 
whom, it appears, by an original letter 
in Tytlei^s «' Edward and Mary," which 
we have not space to insert, the Queen 
had kindly sent to tend her, and see that 
she was sufficiently recovered to bear the 
removal — decided that she might at once 
commence the journey without endan* 
gerin^ her life. But, her object being 
to gain time, she refused to see the three 
commissioners; and when, after waiting 
half the day, they, at the late hour of 
ten at night, entered her chamber, she 
had retired to rest, and with affectal 
amazement, exclaimed. "Is the haste 
such that it might not have pleased you 
to come to-morrow in the morning i" 

They made answer Uiat they were 
right sorry to see her in such a case. 

" And 1," quoth she, ** am not glad 
to see you here at this time of night." 

Her Grace was then informed that 
the Queen had sent her own litter for 
her accommodation, and that the next 
morning she would be removed. Her 
departure, which took place at about 
eleven in the morning, on Monday, the 
twelfth of February, excited the tears 
and lamentations of her afflicted house- 
hold, who naturally gave way to tha 



most painful forebodinn. She reached 
Bedbum, in a rery feeble condition, the 
first night ; on the second, she rested at 
Sir Itaiph Rowlet*s house, at St Alban's ; 
on the tnird, at Mr. Dod's, at Mimmes ; on 
the fourth, at Ilighffate, where she stayed 
at Mr. Chobnoley'shousefora night and a 
day, till her drooping spirits had reviYcd, 
and her health somewhat recovered. 

At iiighgatc, a number of gentlemen 
rode out to meet her, in testimony of 
their sympathy and attachment ; and as 
she proceeded the general feeling was 
further dispUiyed, by crowds of people 
lining the pathways, who flocked anxi- 
ously around her Utter, weeping and be- 
wailing her unhappy fate. Her passo^ 
througn Smithflela and Fleet Street, m 
a litter open at both sides, was followed 
by a hundred men, attired in ooats of 
Telvct, and a hundred others succeeded, 
in coats of flne red, trimmed with TeWet ; 
with this imposing train did Elizabeth 
pass through the Queen's garden to the 
court of the palace. This open support 
of the Princess by a formidubLe party in 
the capital, greatly disconcerted the plans 
of her enemies. They contented tnom- 
selves, for the present, with detaining 
her in a kind of honourable custody at 
Whitehall. She demanded an inter- 
view with the Queen, but Mary refused 
to see her ; and when the privy council 
examined her, she protested her inno- 
cence, and ii^norance of the tn^asonable 
designs of Wyatt and )iis confederates. 
Lords Arundel and Paget, and the Em- 
peror's ambassador, Benaud, urged that 
she should be immediately brought to 
the block as a traitress ; but Marv ab- 
horred the idea of shedding her Uood ; 
and at last, when all the lords of the 
council had individually refused to take 
charge of her, the Queen, for the secu- 
rity of her own person, resolved to send 
her to the Tower. This determination 
was announced to her bv the Earl of 
Sussex, on the sixteenth ot March. 

Bishop Gardiner and two others came 
ioon afterwards, and, dismissing her at- 
tendants, supplied their pkoe with some 
of the Queen's servants, and set a guard 
round the palace for that night In the 
mominff, a bajge was in readiness to 
eoliveyniarto theTower: she entreated 

first to be permitted to write to tbi 
Queen, and the Earl of Sussex assentiBg, 
in spite of the oppooition of aaothsr 
lord, and undertaking himself to be tin 
bearer of her letter, she took the oppor- 
tunity of repeating her protestatioM el 
innocence and loyalty, adding with mock 
vehemence of manner : — '* As for thst 
traitor, Wyatt, he might peradTcnton 
write me a letter; but, on my faith,! 
never received any from him. And si 
for the Gopv of my letter to tiio Fraob 
King, which is laid to my c1uu|pe, I|m 
to God confound me eternally, if ever I 
sent him word, message, token, orlettKi 
by any means." 

Her letter failed to procure m iBieF> 
view with the Queen ; and the nextdqr» 
being Palm Sunday, strict orders was 
issuM for all the people to attend thi 
churches, and csarj their palms, whilst, 
in the meantime, Elizabeth was privately 
removed to the Tower, attended by thi 
Earl of Sussex, the Lord Treasurer, iktm 
of her own ladies, three of the Qnesn's 
attendants, and some of her oifioeia. Oi 
reaching the place of hw destinatioik 
she for a long time refused to hind st 
Traitor's Gate; and when one of tin 
lords declared ** that she should Ml 
choose," and, at the same time, ofleni 
her his cloak to protect Imm- from tlii 
rain, she retained enough of her high 
spirit to throw it from her with a good 
dash ; and as she set her foot on the iU> 
omened stairs, she exclaimed: **fisn 
landeth as true a subject being a pci* 
soner, as ever landed at these stam; sai 
before thee, O God ! I speak it, having 
no other friend but thee alone." 

On seeing a number of warden «d 
other attendants drawn out in oidar,ika 
asked, ** What meaneth this?" fikNM 
one answered, that it was oastomaiy m 
receiving a state prisoner. 

" If it be," said Elizabeth, «< I 

you that, for my cause, they may bedia< 

Immediately the poor men kncckd 
down and prayed God to preserfe her; 
for which action they all were severs^ 
reprimanded the next day. Going A 
little further, she sat down on a stone t9 
rest herself; the lieutenant ar«d her !• 
riae and come in ontof theooia and «i^ 



but Alt aiuwercd, ** Better sitting here 
Umb in a worse place ; for Godknoweth 
whither jou bring me." 

On bearing thcee wordi, her gentle- 
■an-ofher wept, for which ihe rcproTod 
him, eajing, *' You onriit rather to be 
mj comforter, eepeciallT nnoe I know 
my own truth to be nicii, that no man 
ihall hare cause to weep for me." Then 
lising, she entered the prison, and its 
gloomy doors were locked and bolted on 
her. Shocked and dismayed, she col- 
lected her serrants around her, called for 
her prayer-book, and devoutly prayed 
that she might " build her house upon 
the ro^" Uer conductors then re- 
tired ; and her firm firiend, the £arl of 
SoBsei, took the opportunity of remind- 
ing all whom it might ooncm, that the 
Pkueeaa was to be treated in no other 
nunner than thej misht be able to jus- 
tify, whaterer should nappen hereafter; 
tad that they were to take heed to do 
nothing bat what their commission would 
bear out. To this the attendants cordially 
assented ; and, having performed their 
offlce, the two lords took their departure. 

A few daTS after her oommittal, 
Gardiner, and other prify councillors, 
eame lo eiamine her, respecting the 
conremticm she had heU with Sir 
James Ooft on her remoral to Don- 
ningtoit Castle. Elisabeth said, after 
soma reeoUection, that she had in truth 
sach a ff'^j ^^ ^^^ >^ ^^ nerer oe- 
cttpsed It in her life, and she did not 
xvmember that any one had moved her 
00 to do. Then, to enforce the matter, 
they brou gh t forth Sir James Croft ; and 
Gardiner demanded what she had to say 
to that man. She answered, that she 
had tittle to say to him, or to the rest 
that were in the Tower. ^'But, my 
Lorda," said the Prineen, " you do ex- 
amine evcvy mean prisoner respecting 
me, wherein you do me great injury, u 
thcj have done eril and offended the 
Queen's Majerty, let them answer for it 
accorditt^y. I beseech you, my Lords, 
join not me in this sort with any of these 
offenders ; and, oonoeming my going to 
Donninsiion Castle, I do remeinber that 
Master Mobbyy nnd my officers, and yon. 
Sir James Croft, had such talk. But 
what is that to the puiposey my Lords, 

but that I may go to mine own houses 
at all times?" Then the Eail of Arundd, 
kneeling down, said, **Your Grace 
sayeth true, and certainly we are very 
sorry that we hare trouUed you about 
so rain a matter. £lizabeth replied, 
*' My Lords, you do sift mo very nar- 
rowly ; but I am well assured you Will 
not do more to me than God hath ap- 
pointed ; and so God forgive you all.' 

Wyatt was at length, on the eleventh o( 
April, condemned to death ; when he con- 
founded all the hopes and expectations 
of the enemies of Uisabeth, by strenu- 
oudy and publicly dedaring her entire 
innocence of any participation in tiie 
treasonable designs. 

One only resource now remained to 
the Court, in their endeavours to ruin 
Elixabeth. They thought, that a long- 
continued absence, whiut it miffat gra- 
dually weaken the affections of the peo- 
ple, would afford them many oppcMrtu- 
nities for injuring or suppkmting her, 
and it was therefore resolved to provide 
for her a kind of honourable oanish- 
ment. Her confinement had been ren- 
dered as uncomfortable as it could well 
be. After a month's dose imprisonment 
in the Tower, by which the health of the 
Princess had severely suffered, she ob- 
tained, with great difficulty, permission 
to iralk in the state apartments, nndor 
the close superintendence of the con- 
stable of the Tower and the Lord 
Chamberlain, with the attendance of 
three of the Queen's servants ; the win- 
dows being shut, and the Princess not 
allowed to look out. Afterwards she 
had the liberty of walking in a small 
garden, the gates and doors being care- 
fully dosed ; and the prisoners, whose 
rooms looked into the garden, being at 
such^ times dosely watched, to prevent 
the interchange of anr word or sign. 
Even a little child of five years of a^ 
who was wont to cheer her by his daily 
visits, and to bring her flowers, was 
suspected of being employed as a mes- 
senger between the Princess and the 
£an of Devonshire,* and in spite of 

* Coartaey, Earl of Devonslilfey was tlien 
A priiraner in the Tower; he hsd been appre- 
hended on the twelfth of the preceding Fe* 
I bruaiy, at the boose of the Ead ef Bnssaz. 



the innoeent nmplicitjr of hii answen, 
he was ordered to Tunt her no more ! 
The next day, the poor ehild peeped in 
through a hole in the door, as sne walked 
in the garden, and cried out — " Madam, 
I can hringyou no more flowers!"— for 
which innocent remark, his father, one 
of the inferior officers of the Tower, 
was scYerely lectured, and ordered to 
keep his boy entirely away from the 

From the commencement of her in- 
carceration in the Tower, orders had 
been gifen by the Queen and her Court 
that mass should be regularly performed 
before the Princess and her attendants, 
in her apartment, l.liaabeth did not 
lieel any great repugnance to this rite — 
and thus depriTed the council of all pre- 
text for persecuting her on the score of 
religion; but some of her attendants 
were not so submissive, and she had the 
pain of seeing Mrs. Sands, one of her 
ladies, forcibly carried away, under a 
charge of heresy, and her pbce supplied 
by another, whose religious sentiments 
were more in unison with the court. 
All these scYerities, however, failed in 
their intended purpose ; neither suffer- 
ing nor menaces could induce the 
Pnnoess to acknowledge herself guilty 
of any offence aj^nst her sister. Queen 
Mary, about this time, was attacked with 
a severe indisposition, and Gardiner 
taking advanta^, it is supposed, of the 
circumstance, sent a privy council 
warrant to Bridges, the Lieutenant of 
the Tower, for tne instant decapitation 
of Elisabeth. Bridges, perceiving that 
ihe Queen's signature was not attached 
to the warrant, made a personal applica- 
tion on the subject to Mary, who, on 
hearing of the murderous plot, and pro- 
Tidential escape of the Princess, again 
called her sister; and to preserve her 
from the future machinations of her 
enemiee, ordered Sir Henry Bedingfield, 
a Norfolk knight, on whose courage 
and honour she could rely, to convey her 
to Woodstock, and there strictly guard 
her from the base designs of her foes, 
and frvHBi Joining in the intri^^ues of 
her diMi^ected friends. Ehxabeth, 
howevci^ derived bat little momentary 

benefit from Hiii appvoocbiw ^hmi^ 
as she still remainea a doa^ gvowi 

Sir Henry Bedinrfidd entcRd Ot 
Tower, at the bead m a himdicd ef kii 
men ; and £lixabeth. atmck with 
at Uie unexpected sight, 
whether the scaffdd w£ch bad 
for the execution of Lad3r Jaaa Gny. 
had been removed } On being iaferii 
that it was, she was aoaewhat 
forted; but soon a frightfal 
reached her, that she waa aboid te to 
carried away by Sir Henry sad Ui 
soldiers, no one knew where. She ha- 
mediately sent for Lord Chandns^ csa> 
stable or the Tower, wkoae haiaaaifj 
and courtesy had induced him to aoftn, 
as much as possible, the hardsli^ af 
her lot, and closely qoestioniar him, hi 
at length plainly tokl her, &at that 
was no hdp for it; oideia had \mm 
given, and she must be consigned to the 
care of Bedingfidd, to be co a veyed Is 
Woodstock. Anxious and slaiaad at 
this intelligence, she inquired of hv 
attendants, what kind of man this Bsi* 
ingfield was ; and whether, in the eveat 
of her mnrder being detenmaed oa, Ui 
conscience would allow him to ass it 
perpetrated? None of her atteadorti 
could satisfy her on this point ; att thif 
could do was, to implore her to not hir 
trust in God, as her only zefi^ la thi 
hour of danger. 

After suffering a dose i m p ri aoaawBl 
of three months, in the Tower, dMWai 
at length, on the nineteenth o(F May, 
escorted out of that gloomy fbrtrai: 
and, nnder the charge tt BedingfitM 
and his troop of a hunted honemo^ 
oondncted to Bichmond palace, what 
the court was then hdd. Sba was ilfl 
treated as a ci^ve. The BaaMB af 
Bedingfield she deemed aevcva; m/t 
such terror did she eoncdve iam dw 
appearancea around her, that, l aadi ai 
for her gentleman nsher, she dsani 
him, and the rest of heroflkeia, topny 
for her: '* For this night," added thi 
unhappy Princess, <'l think to die f* 
The gentleman, greatly affected, €■- 
oouraged her as well as ha was ahla; 
then going to Lord Williaaii^ who wm 



valkiii^ with Bedmfffield, he called him 
Midet and impbrea him to tell him, 
•inocrelT, whether any michief were 
dcngned acniiist his mistress that night 
or do; adoingr, *'That I and my men 
might taJce such part as God shall please 
to appoint. For, certainly, we will 
rtthtr die than she ihoold secretly and 
innocently suffer." To which Lord 
WiUiams replied, ** God forhid that any 
such wicked purpoae should be wroaght ; 
and rather than it should he so, I also 
am ready to die at the feet of the Frin- 

Amidft theae gloomy apprehensions, 
Elisabeth was surprised by a message 
from the Queen, ottering her immediate 
libertT, on condition of her accepting 
the nand of the reigning Duke of 
SsToy in marriage. But the firm mind 
of Fliiabeth was not thus to be shaken, 
Dor her penetration deoeiTcd. She bo- 
iiered tnat it waa banishment which 
was intended in the ffuise of marriage ; 
that she was required to exchange the 
soeoeasion to an independent J^glish 
crown, for the matrimonial alliance of 
a foreign prince ; and she had the mag- 
unimity to firmly negatiTe the offer, 
which was no sooner declared, than or- 
ders were issued for her immediate re- 
DMTal to Woodstock, in Oxfordshire. 
While crossing the riTcr, at Bichmond, 
on Uiis melancholy journey, Elixabcth 
perceiTcd, on the opposite side, ** certain 
of her poor servants," who had been 
prerented giring their attendance during 
her imprisonment in the Tower, and 
who were now anxiously waiting to see 
her again. '' Go to them," said she to 
one of her men, *' and say these words 
from me : * I am driven like a sheep to 
the alftughter.'"— Travelling leisurely 
on horsehuk, the journey occupied four 
dars; and the slowness of her progress 
afforded an opportunity for some strik- 
ing marks of popular feeling. Various 
little gifts were presented by the people 
on the way-side; for which Bedingfield 
was enraged, calling them traitors and 
rebels. As she passed through the ril- 
lages, the bcUs of the churches were 
rug in token of joy for her supposed 
liberation ; but the populace were soon 
undeoeiTed, and informed aha was still a 

prisoner and in disgrace ; and Beding- 
field ordered the unhappy ringers to be 
put in the stocks, as a reward for their 
labours! On the third evening, the 
Princess arrived at Ricot, the seat of 
Lord Williams, where its owner intro- 
duced her to a large circle of nobility 
and gentry, whom lie had invited to 
welcome her. The suspicious mind of 
Bedingfield was aroused at the sight of 
such an assembly: the soldiers were 
ordered to keep strict watch ; he insisted 
that none of the guests should be per- 
mitted to pass the night in the house, 
and demanded of Lora Williams, if he 
were aware of the consequences of thus 
entertaining the Queen's prisoner ? To 
which the noble host/eplied, ** I know 
well enough what I am about, and am 
resolved that her Grace may, and shall, 
be merry in my house this night." In 
the morning she departed for Wood- 
stock, where, under the severe inspection 
of Bedingfield, she found herself once 
more a prisoner. No visitor was allowed 
to i^proach her dwelling: the doors 
were closed upon her ; and a military 
guard kept watch, day and night, 
around the walls of her prison. Indeed, 
her residence at Woodstock, Uiou^h less 
painful than her imprisonment in the 
Tower, was yet a state of rigorous con- 
finement, in which she was haunted 
with cores and anxieties, which deprived 
her youth of all its bloom and vivacity, 
and seriously affected her constitution. 
On the eighth of June her health was 
BO much impaired, that two physicians 
were sent from the Court to attend upon 
her. On returning to the Queen, tkey 
made a favourable report of her beha- 
riour, and of the dutiful humility she 
evinced towards her Majesty. She was 
soon after advised to make all due sub- 
mission to the Queen, but, with her 
wonted constancy, she declined ; though 
this was the only condition in which 
she could hope for deliverance. Her 
situation, therefore, was painful in the 
extreme. Hearing, one day, out of her 
garden at Woodstock, the voice of a 
milk-maid, singing joyously, she ex- 
claimed, with emotion : ** that 1 too 
were a milk-maid ! for her situation is 
happier and hx merrier than mine ! " 



Sir Henry Bediogfield continued his 
•erere Tigilance over the Princess : his 
task was a difficult and ungracious one. 
On one occasioUf observing him lock the 
rate of the garden while she was walking 
in it, Elizabeth reproached him, and 
called him her gaoler ; when he, on his 
knees, entreated her Grace not to give 
him that ugl j name in future, for he was 
appointed to be one of her officers and 
protectors. Her correspondence was 
watchftilly restricted. When, after ur- 
gent application to the council, she was 
at length permitted to write to the 
Queen, Beoingfield looked over her 
shoulder as she wrote, took the IMPer 
into his own keeping when she laid it 
down to rest herself, and again brought 
it back to her, when she resumed her 
pen. With his utmost precaution, how- 
erer, he was unable entirely to cut off 
■11 communications with tier firiends. 
Through the agency of a Tisitor to one 
of her ladies, Elizabeth reoeiTed the 
tatisfsctory assurance, that none of the 
prisoners in the rebellion of Wyatt had 
Deen induced to utter buj thing against 
her. In allusion to this intelli^nce, 
whe wrote with a diamond, on a window 
in her apartment, this homely, but ex- 
presuve distich : — 

" Mnch iraspected, of me 
Notblnff proved eao be, 
Quoth Elisabeth priHoner.** 

^ The plots," says Sir John Harrington, 
''laid to entrap the Lady Elizabeth by 
Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, and his 
terrible hard usage of all her followers, 
I cannot scarce think of with charity, 
Bor write of with patience. Mr £EUher, 
lor only carrying a letter to the Lady 
Elizabeth, and professing to wish her 
well, he fent to the Tower for tweWe 
months, and caused him to expend a 
thousand pounds, ere he could be free of 
that trouble. My mother, who then 
lerred the Lady Elizabeth, he caused 
to be remoTed from her, as a heretic, in- 
somuch that her own father durst not 
take her into his house. So I may in 
some sort say, this Bishop persecuted 
me before I was bora." 

The marria^ of Mary to Philip of 
SptiBy the amyal of Cardinal Pole, and 
toe zo-«staUishmsit of Popedom, so in- 

creased Elizabeth's fears, that her pru- 
dence prompted her to frt^uently near 
mass and attend the confessional. It wai 
at this trying period that, when sskid 
by Gardiner what it was she coneeifcd 
she received in the blessed sacrameat, 
she made the celebrated response — 

" Christ wan the word that spake It ; 
He blessed the bread tmd brake It. 
And what the word did make it. 
That I revere and take it." 

About the close of this year, Sir Ni- 
cholas Throgmorton, Dudley, and all the 
other prisoners, who participated in the 
usurpation of Lady Jane Grey, or the 
rebellion of Wyatt, were liberated from 
the Tower, at the intercession, it is said, 
of King Philip, who soon afterwank, 
and, according to the assertions of some 
historians, with a riew to exclude Mary, 
Queen of Soots, from the throne of Eng- 
land, in the event of the Queen dring 
without issue, employed his good oinoes 
in the cause of the Princess and Uie Esrl 
of Devonshire — two personages still 
more interesting to the feelings of the 

It is well known, however, thatElizt- 
beth's enemies were still powerfuL Lord 
Paget, notwithstanding his having waited 
on the Princess at table, was heard to 
declare, *' that the Queen would never 
have peace in the country till her 
head was smitten off ;*' and the Bishop 
of Winchester never ceased rmrding 
her with an evil eye. Lord Williams 
begged that he might be permitted to 
take her frt>m Woodstock to his own 
house, offering larre iMdl for her ssfe 
keeping, but this indulgence was refused. 
Philip was now more uian ever hmt on 
her deliverance. The moment was &- 
vourable for his purpose. Mary, hmj 
in her hope of giving an heir to the 
crown, no longer opposed the wishes of 
her husband ; and the privy council, be* 
lieving the Queen pregnant, viewed the 
Princess with less bitterness. Aoeord- 
ingly, in December, 1554, Elizabeth took 
her final departure frt>m Woodstock, and 
proceeded, under the escort of Beding- 
neld and his men, to Hampton Court 
She was met at Colnebrook oj her ova 




gentlemen and veomen, to the number 
of sixty : ** much to all their comforts," 
■ays Fox, in his Martjrology, " notwith- 
standing they were immcMliately com- 
manded, in the Queen's name, to depart 
to town, and she was not even suffered 
once to speuk to them." 

On the following day she reached 
Hampton Court; but the doors were 
clowa upon her, and she was guarded, 
as at Woodstock, for a whole fortnight, 
without any one having access to her, 
save her own immediate attendants. At 
the end of this period, she was visited 
by Lord William Howard, son of the 
Duke of Norfolk, " who very honour- 
ably nsed her," and through whom she 
lefjuested to speak to some of the privy 
coondL In consequence, several mcm- 
beis, headed by the Bishop of Winches- 
ter, waited upon her, and <* humbled 
themselves before her with all humility/' 
Nevertheless, they seized the onportu- 
nity, to urge her once more to maKe sub- 
mission to the Queen, as a necessary 
preliminary to obtaining the royal favour. 
But Klizalbeth, with marked firmness, 
declared, that rather than do so, she 
would lie in prison all the days of her 
life ; adding, that she begged no mercy 
at her Majesty's hand, but rather the 
law, if ever she had offended her in 
^oQght, word, or deed. ** And besides 
thia,' added the Prinoesi. *' in yielding, 
I should n>eak against myself, and con- 
fass myself an offender, by occasion of 
which the King and Queen might ever 
after eonoeive of me an ill opinion ; and 
it were better for me to lie m prison for 
the tnith, than to be abroad and sus- 

The eooncillors then departed, pro- 
misiag to deliver her message to the 
Queen. The following day, the Bishop 
of Winchester again waited upon her, 
and told her, that *' her Majesty mar- 
velled she should so stoutly carry herself, 
denying to have offended; so that it 
should teem the Queen had wrongfidly 
imprisoned her ; and that she must tcU 
another tale ere she recovered her liber- 
ty.** To which Elizabeth replied, ** I 
will atand to my former resolution ; for 
I will never belie myself." 

•^ThflB," aid the Bidiop, <<yonr 

Grace hath the 'vantage of me and the 
other council}ors, for your long and 
wrong imprisonments." 

"I take God to witness," rejoined 
Elizabeth, "that I seek no 'vantage 
against them for their so dealing wiui 


Gardiner and the rest then kneeled, 
and took their departure — the Princess 
being again locked up. 

A week after this interview, Eliza- 
beth received an unoipected summons 
from the Queen, when she was con- 
ducted by torch-light to the royal apart- 
ments. Mary received her in lier cham- 
ber, to which she now secluded herself, 
in expectation of that joyful event, which 
was aestined never to take place. The 
Princess, on entering, knelt down, " as 
became a true and loyal subject ;" add- 
ing, *' I do not doubt your Majesty will 
one day find me to lie such, whatever 
reports may have stated to thecontrary." 
The Queen expressed at first some dis- 
satisfaction at her still persisting so 
strongly in her assertions of innocence ; 
but on Elizabeth's replying, in a sub- 
missive tone, that it was her business to 
endure what her Majesty was pleased to 
infiict, and that she snould make no 
complaints ; Mary, somewhat appeased, 
put a ring on her finger, of the value of 
seven hundred crowns, and dismissed her 
with kindness. Sir Thomas Pope was 
again appointed to reside with her, with 
the hope of adding to her comforts. 

Philip still persisted in his intention 
of marrying Elizabeth to the Duke of 
Savoy ; but as severity had already been 
resorted to in vain, to induce the Prin- 
cess to comply with his vrishes, he now 
resolved to try more lenient measures. 
The Duke, who had attended Philip to 
England, was still in town ; and as he 
was a Prince of merit and talents, and 
in the prime of life, it was thought that 
a personal interview might incline Eliza- 
beth to lend a more favourable ear to 
his proposal. She was accordingly in- 
ritea to share at the ensuing Christmas 
festirities, celebrated by Philip and Mary, 
at Hampton Court. On the eve of that 
festival, the groat hall of the palace 
heingilluminated with a thousand mmps, 
the hxBLg and Queen nipped th«c«ia>« 



the PrinceM beixig^ seated at the same 
table, next to the cloth of state. After 

Er, Lord Paget senred her with a 
ned napkin, and a plate of preservcKl 
; but she retired to her ladies 
before the revels and masqueradi-s Ix'gan. 
On St Stephen's day, she heard matins 
in the Queen's closet, adjoining the 
ehapel, when she was attired in a robe 
of white satin, strung all over with 
larffe pearls ; and, on the twenty-ninth 
of December, she accompanied their Ma- 
jestics and the nobility to witness a 
grand tournament, at which two hundred 
spears were broken by the combatants. 

That she was treated at this period 
with the greatest respect by the highest 
nobles in the realm, is fully corroborated 
by the following anecdote, related by 
Holinshed : — ** A servant of the Princess 
had summoned a person before the ma- 
gistrates for having ascribiHl to Eliza- 
beth the opprobrious epithet of jiity and 
fbr having made use of other disparaging 
langua^ respecting his royal mistress. 
* Was It to be endured,' asked the prose, 
cutor, * that a low fellow, like this, 
should speak of her Highness [Eliza- 
beth] thus insolently, when the highest 
personages of the hmd treated her with 
every mark of respect ? I saw yester- 
day, added he, * at court, that my Lord 
Cardinal Pole, meeting her in the pre- 
sence-chamber, knelt before her. and 
kissed her hand; whilst King Philip 
made such obeisance to her, that his 
knee touched the ^ound.' " 

After the reconciliation with her sister, 
Elizabeth removed to one of the royal 
residences in the vicinity of the metro- 
polis, and subsequently established her- 
self permanently at the palace of Hat- 
field, in Hertfordshire. In the be^n- 
nine of September, 1555, King Philip, 
the hnsbana of Mary, mortified by the 
Parliament refusing nim the ceremonial 
of a coronation, disappointed in the hopes 
of an heir, and disgusted by the over- 
fondness of a wife destitute of every 
personal attraction, ouitted England 
for the continent, and did not revisit 
it for a year and a half. However 
Elizabeth might regrec his absence, as 
depriving her of a powerful protector, 
the was now so firmly established as 

next heir to the crown, that she felt psr> 
fectly secure against any attempt to de- 
grade her from her royal station ; sad 
her reconciliation with' the Queen pro- 
cured for her frequent admission to court 

In Strype's Memorials, it is stated, 
that *■*■ a few days after the King's de- 
parture, the Queen, the Lady Elizabeth, 
and uU the court did fast from flesh, to 
qualify them to take the Pope's jubiks 
and pardon, granted to all, out of his 
abunoant clemency." A few weekssab- 
sequently, the deiUh of Elizabeth's ea^ 
my, the Bishop of Winchester, restortd 
her to a degree of happiness and comfort 
of which she had long been estranged. 
Nevertheless, as she deemed it wise te 
retire from the public gaze, she agaia 
tamed her attention to uie peacefdl pur. 
suits of literature ; and, under the abk 
tutorship of the celebrated Roger Aschsn. 
resumed the study of the Greek and 
Latin classics. 

The disappointment of the Queen ii 
her hope of giving an heir to the tlurons, 
her subsequent ill state of hodUi, and 
the refhsal of the Parliament to allow 
the coronation of her husband, eonfened 
a groiK-ing importance on Elizabeth. Ii 
November, 1556, she came in state te 
Somerset Place, to take up her abode Ibr 
the winter, when a court was immedi- 
ately formed around her. She was ii* 
vited to London, for the purpose of ro- 
ceiving a second, and more formal offer, 
of the hand of the Duke of Savoy, whose 
suit was enforced by the King with the 
whole weight of his influence. This sL 
liance had been the subject of earnest 
correspondence between Philip and the 
council of Mary ; the imperial ambasn- 
dors were waiting in England for her 
answer ; and the disappointment of the 
hopes of the ro^al party, whenQisabetk 
reiterated a decidea refusal of the prof- 
fered marriagt>, terminated by her Quit- 
ting London in the month of December, 
somewhat in disgrace. Indignant at the 
resistance so repeatedly offered by the 
Princess to his views on this subjeet, 
Philip urged the Queen to interpose Vk 
such a manner as to compel obedieset; 
but Mary took part with her sister, aadi 
having resolved to protect her flrom tte 
violence of the King, wrote to hdm, tint 



''tmleas the ParliamGnt first gare its 
consent, the aecomplishmrnt of the mar- 
riage would fail to procure the adTan- 
tagos he anticipatiKl from the union; 
but that, however this might be, hfr eon- 
teient^ irouid not allow her to pre*$ the 
matter furtfitr.'* Philip, nevcrthelcsg, 
was so far from giving up his favourite 
topic, that he soon aflcrwards sent to 
England the Duchesses of Parma and 
Lorraine, for the purpose of condacting 
the Princess Elizabeth into l* landers: 
but again he was frustrated in his ob- 
ject, Mary would not permit these ladies 
to pay the Princess a single risit at Hat- 
field ; and her reception of them was 
luch, that they speedily returned to their 
own country. 

A cordiality of feeling, and frequency 
of intercourse, now took place between 
Mary and Elizabeth, which even the 
insurrection attemptedin the spring and 
summer of 1656, in the Princen*sname, 
had in nowise interrupted. In February, 
1657, the Princess arrived at Somerset 
Place, attended by a numerous retinae, 
whence she waited on the Queen at 
Whitehall ; and in the ensuing spring, 
her Majesty honoured her by returning 
her visit at Hatfield. The royal guest 
was entertained with every species of 
courtly splendour. On the morning after 
her arrival, the Queen and the Princess, 
after attending mass, assisted at a grand 
exhibition of bear^iting^ • *• with which 
their Highnesses were right well con- 
tent" In those days, this barbarous 
species of combat was accounted genteel 
" sport for ladies !" 

in the evening, the rooms were adorned 
with a splendia suit of tapestry, repre- 
senting " the hangings at Antioch." 
After snpper, a play was got up by the 
choristers of St. Paul's, then the most 
renowned actors in London ; and after 
it was over, the Princess performed on 
the virginals, accompanied by the Toice 
of one of the choristers. 

Elizabeth was afterwards gratified by 
another entertainment, suited to the 

* The exhibition of bear-baiting always d€h 
lighted Elisabeth. Mary, it is believed, never 
but 00 this OGoasion, witnessed this emelt 

temper of the age. She was invited br 
Sir Thomas Pope to repair to Knfield 
Chase, to enjoy the favourite diversion 
of hunting the hart. TwcItc ladies, at- 
tired in white satin, attended her oa 
their ** ambling palfreys," together with 
twenty yeomen, clad in greon. At the 
entrance of the forest she was met by 
fifty archers, in scarlet boots and yellow 
caps, armed with gilded bows ; one of 
whom presented to her a silver-headed 
arrow, winged with peacocks* feathers. 
At the conclu<iion of this f6te, the Prin- 
cess was presented by theprincipal sports* 
man, agreeablv to the established laws of 
the chase, with a knife, and, as first lady 
on the field, she cut the buck's throat 
with her own fiiir and roral hand. 

In the course of the following sum- 
mer, the Queen inrited her sister to a 
grand entertainment at Richmond. The 
Princess was brought from Somerset 
Place in the Queen's barge, which was 
richly hung with garlands of artificial 
fiowers, and covered with a canopy of 
green sarcenet, wrought with branches 
of eglantine in embroidery, and sprinkled 
with blossoms of gold. In the royal 
barge she was accompanied by Sir Tho- 
mas Pope, and four ladies of her cham- 
ber. Six boats followed, filled with her 
retinue, habited in russet damask and 
blue embroidered satin, tasselled and 
spangli'd with silver ; their bonnets of 
Cloth of silver, adorned with green fea- 
thers. The Queen received her in a 
sumptuous pavilion in the labjrrinths of 
the garden. This pavilion was of cloth 
of gold and purple velvet, made in the 
form of a castle ; its sides were divided 
into compartments, bearing alternately 
ihejleur-de-lig in silver and the pome- 
granate, the bearing of Granada, in gold. 
A sumptuous banquet was here served 
up to tne royal kdies, in which there was 
introduced a pomegranate tree, in confec- 
tionery work, bearing the arms of Spain. 
Thcro was no masking or dancing, but 
numerous minstrels performed. The 
same evening, the Princess returned to 
Somerset Place, and the following day 
to Hatfield. 

A new suitor now entered the fields 
as ft candidate for tke hand of Elizftbeth. 

N N 2 



This was Prince Eric, the eldest son of 
the Kiufi^ of Sweden. The affair was 
entrusted to the Swedish ambassador, 
who, bv the direction of his soTorci^f 
made his application to the Princess 
herselff without previously consulting 
the Queen and her council. Elizabeth 
made this circumstance a pretext for rc- 
jeetinff a proposal which she felt no in> 
clination to encourage, and she declared 
that she could ncTcr listen to any over- 
tures of this nature, without receiring 
the previous sanction of her Majesty. 
The ambassador pleaded in answer, that 
his master, in the character of a lover, 
had judged it becoming that his first 
application should be made to herself; 
but that, should he obtain her consent, 
he would then make his demand in form 
to the Queen. The Princess replied, 
'* If it were to depend on myself, a 
single life would ever be my cnoice ;** 
and then finally dismissed tne ambu- 

Having learned from Sir Thomas 
Pope all the particulars of this affair, 
the Queen directed him to express to 
her sister her high approbation of her 
dutiful conduct on this occasion ; and 
she also desired him to ascertain the 
sentiments of Elizabeth on the subject 
of matrimony. Thb he did, and com- 
municated the same to his sovereign in 
the following letter : — 

"Hatfield, April 26th, 165a 
** Sm Thomas Pope to Queen Marv. 

" First after I had declared to 
her Grace, how well your Majesty liked 
her prudent and honourable answer to 
the King of Sweden's messenger, I then 
opened to her the purport of the said 
messenger's mission; which, after her 
Grace had heard, I said your Majesty 
had sent me, not only to declare the 
same, but also to understand how her 
Grace liked the said motion. Where- 
nnto, after a little pause, she answered ; 
—'Master Pope, I require you, after 
my most humble commendations to her 
Majesty, to render unto the same like 
thanks, that it pleased her Majesty of 
her own goodness, to conceive so well 
of my answer to the said messenger ; 
Mnd here wHhali of her prinoeij oom* 

mendation, with such speed to commtaA 
you to signify the same unto me : whs 
before remained wonderfully perpkied, 
fearing that her Majesty might mistaks 
the same: for which goocmeas I as* 
knowledge myself bound to honour, 
serve, love, and obey her Highness d«- 
ring my life. Requiring you also to 
say unto her Majesty, that m the King 
my brother's time there was offered ms 
a very honourable marriage, or two; 
and ambassadors sent to treat with ns 
touching the same ; whereupon 1 made 
my humble suit unto hu Majesty, as 
some yet living can testify, that be 
would give me leave, with his giaee*s 
favour, to remain in that estate I wa% 
which of all others best amed with bm, 
or pleased me most Ana in ^ood £uth, 
I pray you say unto her Majesty, I am 
even at this present moment of the mmt 
mind, and so intend to continue, with 
her Majesty's favuor : assuring her Ma- 
jesty I so well like this estate, as I per- 
suaae myself there is not any kind of 
life comparable to it. And as ooneen- 
ing my liking the said motion made by 
the said messenger, I beseech yoa say 
unto her Majesty, that in my remen- 
brance I never heard of his master 
before this time ; and that I so well like 
both the message and the messenger, ss 
I shall most humbly pray God on ny 
knees, that from hencetortn I never hesr 
of the one nor the other. I assure yoo, 
that if he should afterwards repair unto 
me, I would forbear to speak to hioL 
And were there nothing else to move nc 
to dislike the motion, other than thst 
his master would attempt the same 
without making her Majesty priyy there* 
to, it were cause sufficient' 

**And when her Grace had tha 
ended, I was so bold as of myself to ssv 
unto her Grace, her pardon fibrat reQnirul, 
that I thought few or none woiud be- 
lieve, but that her Grace covdd be right 
well content to marry ; so that then 
were some honourable marriage oAnd 
her by your Majesty, or by yoor Ma- 
jesty's consent. Whereunto her Graee 
answered : — * What I shall do hevette 
I know not ; but 1 assure yon, vfim wj 

truth and fidelity, and as God ia 

ful unto me, I am not ai tlui til 


vile Bdndad (ban I 1ut« decliRd unto 
jvBi Ao, though I wets offered the 
nnlcat priore in ill Knrow.'" "-- 
Thomas Pope tbea iItIt nnutki : " 

t pochuce TOUT 
i*e thi* rau«r I 

At the period when Mary laj on her 
death-bed, EUubeth was on friendly 
tens* both with her and with Philip. 
The Spuiih King (then oa the ronti- 
■ent), on heating oi Hut*! dugemiu 
aitoation, leitt OMmt Fetia with a letter 
to her, nrging her to name Eliubeth ai 
ha taeamoi. Thii Mary had already 
done ; but Feria waited on the I'rincea 
on the tenth of NoTember, ind proffered 
her the gmd-will ol hi* nuuler, with 
wbora he aftfnlly anurcd her that the 
dedantion of the Qaceo in her fmour 
had originated. She gare the arohaua- 
dor a cordial reception, receiTed Philip'a 
pnfvT of ftieadabip with courteaj, but 
Inoijr proteated that it wa» neither to 
hin, to her niter Mary, or to the conn. 
dl that >he was indebted for her poaition 
b the aacecMioD, bat to her own birth, 
■«l,abafe all, to the hearty p»d-will of 

lemiie, which took 

Eaee on the Mrenteeath of Koiember, 
i58, aent the CounteH of Feria to de- 
liver to Eliiaboth the cmtody oF the 
crown jewels. To Iheae, PhiUp. to 
claim to hintsdf the merit of acnding 
them, caused to be added a present of 
hia owD, a valoahle casket of nins which 
he had left at Whitehall, end which ha 
h RTcally a<' 

1 Mary's req . ... 

eontinne the ehorch of 
Borne. " She prayed Ood," aayi the 
Connleu of Feria, " that tbe earth aiigbt 
open and swallow her alire if ihe were 
not a true Roman Catholic ;" doubtless, 
a most awful periury, Fliiabetb, ac> 
cording to all eTidencca, being at Uie 
time a Protestant at heart. Daring 
tbe Uit week of Mary's life the tiffle- 
■erring courtiera Qocked to Hatfield to 
pay their adulations to Elizabeth, who, 
when informed by a deputation of the 
eoancil, that Maij had expired, nlthongh 
fully prepared lot the announcement, 
affected great amazoment, deeply si^^hed, 
and sinking: on her knees, eiclauneil 
with a solemn Toice : — " It is the Lord's 
doin^l it isnaneilouaiii our ejear 

a 0/ Nuateti—Her Privy OmHcii—JMty in 
Iter ion»Mtie»—SfUttdid anttmu—Fncmioit from Watmintter tatht Town-— 
Btr f»af* tknusk lit CUy—FagemHtSt-aiabiuba llu FrUetlmt Churth 0/ 
EafUitd — Hit repfy (a tit Speairr't tddrtu aluirtittg her to many — Propomlt 
of mMTTift from PAilip of Spurn— Tlu Arch-Dviu Ckarle—Tkt King, 0/ 
Stcedtn mud Dtumark—PBpi^rilg of Eliiabctk — Hrr raidtna at Grtmaieh — 
Btr htmi »f ff^iimtH fouioMTt^Her rot/al progruif — TluDuehttt ofSHfclk 
— .Biyf f ntl mi a f an afaiutt luxny in drut—Act of Tkrliaounl egaiiut tpitei- 

HE death of Mary 
was annoanced to 
both honiM of Par- 
liament then sitting, 
by the Lord Chan- 
cellor Heath. After 
* short pause, tho 

thonta of " God save Queen Eliiabcth ! 
long and happily may she reign !" The 
new soTcreign was immediately after- 
wards proclaimed before the palace in 
Weitminster, and also at the Cross in 
Cheipside. Tbe bells of the chnrchea 
were set ringing ; bonfires were kindled, 
tables were spread in the streets agre^ 
aUy to the hospitality of the timw, vtA. 



fhere was ''plentiful eating, drinking, 
and making merry.'* On the following 
Sunday, Te Deum was sung in the 
churches, and the general joy among all 
classes waa unbounded. 

Elizabeth held her first priry council 
at Uatfield. Sir Thomas Parry was 
declared Comptroller of her Household ; 
Sir Edward Rosrers, Captain of the 
Guard ; and Sir William Cecil, Principal 
Secretary of State. The first of these 
personages had filled, for many years, 
the office of cofferer to the Princess, and 
was completely in the secret of her con- 
fidential mtercourse with Lord Seymour, 
the Lord High Admiral, and whose fide- 
lity in that delicate affair had withstood 
all the threats and artifices of the Pro- 
tector. Cecil was already known to the 
public, and his nomination to such an 
important office was a happy omen for 
the Protestant cause, of which he was 
the adherent. He maintained a secret 
and intimate correspondence with Eli- 
sabeth during the wnolc period of her 
adversity, and assisted her on many 
trying occasions with his salutary ad- 
vice. On appointing him a member of 
her privy council, Elizabeth addressed 
him in the following terms: — '*I give 
you this charge, that you shall be ofmy 
secret council, and content yours<.4f to 
take pains for me and my realm. This 
opinion I have of ]^ou, that you will 
not be corrupted with any gift; and 
that you will be faithful to the state; 
that without respect to my private will, 
yon will give me that counsel that you 
think best, and that if you shall know 
any thing necessary to be declared to 
me of secrecy, you will show it to my- 
self only; and be assured I will not 
fiiil to keep taciturnity therein." 

On the twenty-third of November, 
the Queen repaired to her capital, at- 
tended by a train of a thousand nobles, 
knights, gentlemen and ladies ; and 
took up her temporary residence at the 
monastery of Cliartrcux, or Charter 
House, then the abode of Lord North. 
It was a splendid building, and afforded 
ample accommodation for a royal retinue. 
Her next removal, agreeably to ancient 
custom, was to the Tower, and on this 
iatflreatiDg oeeaaion, all the streets from 

the Charter noose were laid with iflt 
gravel ; musicians and singen wen 
stationed by the way : and a vaat as- 
semblage of people freely tendered their 
joyful and aamiring acclamations. Tht 
Queen passed along, splendidly attired 
in purple robes, and monntca on her 
palfrey, richly caparisoned. She was 
preceded by her heralds and great offi- 
cers of state, and returned the salu- 
tations of her loving subjects with the 
most graceful affalnlity. 

Immediately on entering the roval 
apartments in the Tower, she, on her 
knees, returned humble and fervent 
thanks to that Providence which Jud 
hitherto protected her. How different 
must have been her sensations now frosi 
what they were when she had been led 
a prisoner under these walla I She htd 
formerly entered that fortress by tht 
traitors' gate, as a terrified and deienoe- 
less Princess, without hope of deliver- 
ance, and apprehensive of a violent 
death. She now returned to take legal 
possession of it, surrounded in all Um 
pomp of royalty, by her ministers of 
state, and welcomed by the applanse of 
the people. She was attended on her 
visit to the Tower by Lord Bohert 
Dudley, one who, like herself, had beei 
aprisoner there. He was now appointed 
Master of the Ordnance, and was re- 
garded by his royal mistress with pecu- 
liar favour. His personal graces and 
elegant accomplishments were sufficiently 
striking to dazzle the eyes and charm 
the heart of a youthful Queen, possessed 
of a lively fancy, and now absolute mis- 
tress of her own actions. The circom- 
stance of his being already married, 
blinded her, no doubt« as to the real 
nature of her sentiments towards him ; 
or it was regarded by her as a sulBcicBt 
sanction, in the eyes of the nation, for 
all those marks of favour and esteem 
with which she was pleased to honoor 

The illustrious family of the Howaids 
came in for a large share of the Queen's 
bounty; the Duke of Norfolk, her s^ 
cond cousin, was invested with the 
order ot the Garter. Her great oncle, 
Lord William Howard, created BaroQ 
of Effingham by Marj, was ^''^■^I'Tntii 



Vt Binbeth in the hiffh office of Lord 
Ciiunberlaiiu Lord Thomas Howard, 
who had treated her with disting^hed 
re«poet on her arriyal at Woodstock from 
Hampton Conrt, now received the title 
of Yiscoont Bindon, and continued much 
in fiiTour to the end of his life. Sir 
Francis Knolles, whose wife was one 
of Elizabeth's nearest kinswomen, was 
sworn in a member of the pri^ council, 
together with Sir Bichard Sackrille. 
Bnt of all her relations, Henry Carej, 
son of Mary Bolejn, the Queen's aunt, 
was the most desenring of her gratitude. 
He had expended thousands of his patri- 
monj in her serrioe, during the period 
of her imprisonment, and die liberally 
requited nis friendship, by conferring 
on him the title of &aron Hunsdon; 
together with the royal residence of that 
name, its surrounding pork, and scTcral 
beneficial leases of crown lands. Lord 
Hunsdon, howerer, was as little skilled 
in that sentimental gallantry which £U- 
xabeth required from her courtiers, as 
in the circumspect and tortuous policy 
which she anprored in her statesmen. 
*' As he liTea in a ruffling time," says 
Naunton, '* so he loTcd sword and bucK- 
ler men ; and such as our fathers were 
wont to call msn of their hands; of 
which sort he had many braye gentle- 
men that followed him ; yet he was not 
taken for a popular or dangerous per- 
son." It was said of him, that " his 
Latin and his divimulation were both 
alike, and his custom in swearing and 
obsccnitT in speech, made him appear a 
worse Christian than he really was." 

The following characteristic anecdote 
of this worthy u related by Fuller ; — 
*< On one occasion, his neighbour, Mr. 
Colt, chanced to meet him coming from 
Hunsdon to London, in the equipage of 
a nobleman of thooe days. The baron, 
on calling to mind some former grudge, 
nTo him a sound box on the ear ; Colt 
immediately returned the principal with 
interest; and thereupon his serrants, 
drewinff their swords, swarmed around 
him. 'You rogues f said mv lord, * may 
not I and my neighbour exchange a blow 
but you must interfere ?' HiB scnrants 
withdrew, and thus the quarrel was be- 
gun and oaded in the same minute." 

The Queen's attachment to her relations 
was so remarkable, that cTen Leicester, 
in the height of his fiitour, felt that he 
must hold sacred their claims to her re- 
gard. Accordingly he used to remark, 
in allusion to SackTille and Hunsdon — 
** Those were of the tribe of Dan, and 
wereiVo/f me tangeresi** (Touch me 

After spending a few days in the 
Tower, Elizabeth passed by water to 
Somerset Place, whence she removed to 
the palace of Westminster, where she 
kept her Christmas. Great preparations 
were now making for her coronation at 
Westminster Abbey. The people were 
resolved, on that festive occasion, to la- 
vish, in honour of their new sovereign, 
every demonstration of loyalty and affec- 
tion. ^ The costume of that age was 
magnificent. Gowns of velvet or satin, 
richly trimmed with silk, furs, or gold 
lace; costly gold chains; and caps or 
hoods of rich materials, adorned with 
feathers, decorated on all occasions of 
ceremony the persons, not only of nobles 
and courtiers, but of their retainers, and 
even of the substantial citizens. The 
attire of the ladies wos proportionally 
splendid. Hangings of clotn, of silk, 
and of velvet, cloth of gold and cloth of 
silver, or " needlework siujlime," adorned, 
on days of family festivity, the principal 
chamoer of every house of respectable 
appearance ; and those on public festi- 
vals were suspended from the balconies, 
and combinea with the banners and pen- 
nons fioating overhead, gave to the 
streets an appearance resembling a suite 
of long and gaily dressed saloons. Every 
circumstance tended to render the puhi- 
lic entry of Queen Elizabeth the most 
^rgcous, and at the same time the most 
im]H)sing, spectacle ever exhibited in the 
capital of liritain. 

On the twelfth of January, 1559, her 
Majesty was conducted from her palace 
in Westminster to the royal apartments 
in the Tower ; and a splendid water 
procession was appointed fur the pur- 
pose. At this period, the streets of Lon- 
don were narrow and ill-paved, the roads 
bad, and the luxury of a carriage un. 
known. The Thames, therefore, was 
the great thoroughfare of the metropolis. 



The old palace of Westminster, as well 
■8 the palaces of Richmond and Green- 
wich, the fayourite summer residences 
of the royal family, stood on its banks : 
tho court, therefore, pas.'ted from one 
jMilace to the other in their state barges. 
The nobility were beginning to occupy, 
with their mansions and gardens, the 
space between the Strand and the river ; 
and it bad become a prerailing fashion 
among them, to yie with each other in 
the splendour of their barges and the 
richness of the liveries of the rowers, 
who were all distinguished by the crests 
or badges of their noble owners. The 
corporation and trading companies of 
the City of London possessed, as at pre- 
■ent, their state barges, enriched with 
carved and gilded figures, and decked 
and trimmed with targets and banners. 
These were all drawn out in grand ar- 
ray ; and to enliven the pomp, " the 
bachelors' barge of the Lord Mayor's 
company, viz. the Mercers', was attended 
by a foMt with artillery aboard, shoot- 
ing off lustily as they went, with great 
and pleasant melody of instruments, 
which played in a most sweet and hea- 
Tenly manner." In this state they 
rowed up to Westminster, and attended 
her Majesty with the royal barges back 
to the Tower. 

The passage through the city took 
place two days afterwards. Her Ma. 
jesty issued forth, drawn in a superb 
chariot, preceded by trumpeters and he- 
ralds in their coat-armour ; and '* most 
honourably accompanied by gentlemen. 
Barons, and the higher nobility of the 
realm ; as also by a notable train of 
ladies. The ladies were on horseback, 
and both thej and their lords were ha- 
bited in crimson velvet, with which 
their horses were also caparisoned. 
This retinue of fair equestrians, con- 
stantly attendant on the person of the 
maiden queen in all her public appear- 
ances, produced a striking effect. As 
they approached, the air was rent by the 
acclamations of the citizens, who had 
erected across the principal streets a se- 
ries of solemn pageants, in the manner 
of triumphant arches. On these were 
inscribed illustrative sentences in En- 
gUah andXatin: a child was stationed 

in each, who explained to the Qneen, it 
English verse, the meaning of the whole. 
The first consisted of three stories, rs- 
presented by living fifores : Henry the 
Seventh ana his royal spouse, Elizabeth 
of York, from whom her Majesty derived 
her name — Henry the Eighth and Anse 
Boleyn, and lastly, her Majesty in per* 
son, all attired m royal robes. The 
verses described the felicity of that union 
of the houses to which she owed her ex- 
istence. The second pageant was stvkd 
" the seat of worthy governance ; oi 
its summit sat another representative of 
the Queen ; nndemeath were the cardi- 
nal Tirtues, trampling under their feet 
the opposite vices. The third exhibited 
the ei^ht Beatitndes, all ascribed, with 
much ingenuity of application, to Her 
Majesty. The fourth represented, in 
lively contrast, the images of a decayed 
and flourishing commonwealth ; and 
from a cave below, issued Time, leading 
forth his daughter Truth, who held in 
her hand an English Bible, which she 
offered for the Queen's acceptance. Eli- 
zabeth received the volume, and reve- 
rently pressing it with both hands to 
her heart and her lips, declared alood, 
amidst the tears and grateful benedic- 
tions of her people, that she thanked Um 
city more for that gift than for all the 
costly magnificence they had bestowed 
upon her; and that she would often 
read over that blessed book. The last 
pageant exhibited '* a seemly and mete 
personage, richly apparellea in ptrlis* 
mcntary robes, witn a sceptre m her 
hand, over whose head was written :— 
^ Deborah, the judge and restorer of the 
house of Israel !' The Bcoorder of 
London then approached her Muesty*! 
chariot, near the further end of Cheap- 
side — where ended the long array of 
the city companies, which haa linea the 
streets all the way from Fenchnrch 
Street — and presented her with a splen- 
did purse, containing one thousand 
marks in gold. To crown the whole, 
those two celebrated personages, Gog and 
Map>g, deserted on this memorable day 
their accustomed stations in the GrtMr 
hall, and reared up their stately dimen- 
sions on each side of Temple Bar ; with 
joined bands they supported above tiba 



Site a copey of Lttiii Tenes, in which 
cj obligingly expounded to her Ma- 
jesty the sense of aU the pageants which 
had been presented to her riew; con- 
clading with compliments and felicita- 
tions suitable to the happy occasion. 
The Queen, in a few coraial words, 
thanked the citizens for all their cost 
and pains, assured them that she would 
** stand their good queen ;" and passed 
tbegate amidst thunders of applause. 

Tlie following traits of Elizaoeth's be- 
haviour on this auspicious day, are re- 
corded, with affectionate delight, by 
Holinshed, our early English chronicler : 
— '* ' Yonder is an ancient citizen,' said 
one of the knights attending on her per- 
son, * who weepeth, and tumcth his face 
backward : How may it be interpreted ? 
That he doth so for sorrow or for glad- 
ness ?' With a just and pleasing confi- 
dence, the Queen replied, *I warrant 
you it is for gladness.' How many nose- 
gays." proc^ds the same chronicler, 
** aid her Grace receive at poor women's 
hands on that joyM day ? How many 
times staid she her chariot when she 
saw any simple body offer to speak to 
her Grace ? A brancn of rosemary given 
her Grace with a supplication by a poor 
woman about Fleet Bridge, was seen in 
her chariot till her Gracb came to West- 

*' Her Majesty was twenty-five years 
of aee at this auspicious period. She was 
a lady of passing beauty, of majestic de- 
portment, and so rarely qualified by ad- 
versity, and BO well accomplished by 
experience (which are most effectual 
tutors), that she had purchased pru- 
dence and judgment nur above the 
capacity of her age. She was pos- 
sessed of pregnant wit and wisaom, 
and virtues which gained for her the 
name and fame of a gradous and popu- 
lar princess." 

The ceremonies of the coronation took 
place on the following day ; regulated in 
everything by ancient custom, they 
aff'orded little scope for that display of 
popular sentiments, which had given so 
intense an interest to the procession of 
the previous day. Great perplexity was 
occasioned by the refusal or the whole 
bench of bishops to perform the corona- 

tion service; but at lengtli, Ogelthoni, 
Bishop of Carlisle, was gaineaover by 
the court, and the rite was duly cela- 
brated. This refusal of the bishops was 
wisely overlooked by the government ; 
but it no doubt proceeded partly fVom 
a conviction that the marriage of Henty 
the Eighth with Catherine of ArraroB 
having been dechured lawfU and valid, 
Elizabetii, as the child of Anne Boleyn, 
must be regarded as illegitimate, and in- 
capable of succeeding to the throne ; 
and partly throu^ a suspicions fear of 
the Soman zelinon, conceived because 
her Majesty had been brought up from 
the cradle in the Protestafit faith. It 
appears also, that Elizabeth had a little 
before forbidden a bishop, at divine ser- 
vice, from lifting up and aoorin^ the 
host; she likewise permitted the litany, 
epistles, and the gospels to be trans- 
lated into English, which the^ held aa 
execrable. ** Yet Queen Elizabeth," 
says an early and accurate historian, 
** was truly godly, pious, and zealously 
devoted ; for her Majesty was no sooner 
out of her bed, than she fell upon her 
knees in her private closet, and prayed 
to God devoutly. Certain hours were 
by her Majesty reserved, and devoted to 
the Lord. Moreover, her Majesty never 
failed every Lord's day and holy day to 
frequent the chapel ; neither was any 
prince ever more conversant in divine 
serrice, or conducted himself with more 
devotion than her Majesty. She zea- 
lously heard all the sermons in Lent, 
being attired in black, and very dili- 
gently gave attention thereto, accordinff 
to the ancient use and custom ; although 
she said, and ofl-timea repeated, that 
which she had read of Henrv the Third, 
her predecessor, that her Majesty had 
rather in her prayers speak to God de- 
voutly, than hear others speak of Him 
eloquently. And concerning the cross, 
our Blessed Lad;^ and the saints, she 
never conceived irreverently of them, 
neither spake herself, nor suffered any 
others to speak of them, without a cer- 
tain kind of reverence." 

In all probability, had she found her- 
self free to follow entirely the dictatea 
of her own inclinations, Elizabeth would 
have established in the c|iurch a kind of 



medimn. like thit deriacd by her father, 
for whoee authoritT she had the highest 
generation. To tbe end of her reign 
the never conld be reconciled to married 
bishopA ; and with respect to the clergy 

Enerall?, she preferred the single man 
fore &e married one. Lord Bacon 
feUtes the following anecdote : — 
* Uneen Elizabeth, on the morrow of her 
coronation (it being the custom to re- 
Icise prisoners at the inauguration of a 
prince), went to the cbapcl ; and in the 
great chamber, one of her courtiers, who 
was well known to her, either out of his 
own motion, or by the insti^tion of a 
wiscT man, presented her with a peti- 
tion ; and before a great number of cour- 
tiers, besought her with a loud Toice, that 
now tliis gw>d time there might be four 
or fiye more principal prisoners released ; 
these were tne four evangelists, and the 
apostle SL Paul, who had long been 
shut, in an unknown tongue, as it were, 
in prison, so as they could not converse 
with the common people. The Queen 
answered very gravelT. that it was best 
first to inquire of themselves whether 
they would be released or not." 

Immediatelv on her accc-ssion, Eliza- 
beth resolved to abolish the Catholic 
religion as speedily as prudence would 
permit. According to btowe, the mo- 
ment she had culled together her first 
privy council, she began to put into prac- 
tice that oath of supremacy which her 
fiither, Henry the Eighth, first ordained. 
Amongst the many who refused that 
oath, was the Lord Chancellor, Dr. 
Heath. Tet the Queen, having a good 
respect for him, would not deprive him 
of his title, but committed the custody 
of the great seal to Sir NichoLis Hacon, 
who from that time was called Lord 
Keeper, and bv tbe authority of parlia- 
ment exercised the power and preroga- 
tive of the Lord Chancellor, Dr. Ileath 
only retaining the empty title. ^*At 
this same time," proceeds the faithful 
chronicler, *' the English nation was 
wonderfully divided in opinion, as well 
in matters of eceU-siasticai government, 
as in divers points of religion, by reason 
of three important theological changes 
within the brief ucriod of twelve years. 
King licnry the Eighth retained tne ec- 

clesiastical Mipreiiiae][« with the int 
fruits and tentnt; ■unntained Ktcm m> 
craments, with obits and mats for thi 
quick and the dead. Xiiw Edward 
abolished the mass, anthorised one book 
of common prayer in English, with hal- 
lowing the dead, and wine, i^, and e»> 
tablished only two sacraments. Qaeoi 
Mary restored all things according to 
the Church of Rome, re-establishca the 
papal supremacy, and, in hct, permitted 
nothing within her dominion thatwai 
was repugnant to the Roman Catholie 
Church ; but the death of Mary wm the 
ruin of all Abbots, Prion and PrionssHi 
Monks and Nuns. Eliiabeth, on her 
accession, commanded that no one sboaU 
preach without a special Ueenae, that 
such rites and ceremonies should be osed 
in all churches as had been need in her 
Uiehness's chapel, and that the epistle 
ana gospel shotdd be read in the En- 
glish tongue; and in her first parlia- 
ment, held at Westminster, in January, 
ld59, she expelled the papal supremacy, 
resumed the first fruits and tenths, re- 
pressed the mass, r»-introduced the l^ook 
of Common Prayer and the Sacrameats 
in the English tongue, and finally and 
firmly re-established the Prutestaat 
Church of EngUnd.** Whilst these 
matten were pending, Elizabeth, to 
prevent the Londonen from hcarii^ 
political sermons, locked up the pulpU 
of St Paul's Cross, and henelf; ss 
an act of expediency, attended mass ia 
her own chapel, and outwardly con- 
formed to the ceremonies of the Catholic 

In the same parliament that had re- 
established the l^otestant Church of 
England, two questions were agitated, 
personally interesting to the Queen, her 
title to the crown, and her marriage. 
Hy the counsels of the keeper of UM 
seals. Sir Nicholas liacon, she refirained 
from requiring of parliamnent the repeal 
of those acts of her father^s reign which 
had declared his marriage with Anne 
Uoieyn, her mother, null and void, and 
herself illegitimate. Reposing in the 
well-known maxim of law, that tbe 
crown once worn takes away all defects 
in blood, she contented herself with an 
act declaratory in general terma of her 



right of ffoeoenon to the throne, and 
thos she tacitlj admitted Anne Boleyn's 

In reply to the addren of the Parlia- 
ment, requesting her to enter the mar- 
ried state, she said : — ^' In athin«; which 
is not Tery pleasing to me, the infallible 
testimony of your good wUl, and all the 
rest of my people, is most acceptable. 
As concerning your eager persuasion of 
me to marriage, I must tcU you, I have 
been ever persuaded, that I was ordained 
by God to consider, and, aboye all, to do 
those things which appertain to his glory. 
And therefore it is, that I hare made 
choice of this kind of life, which is 
most free, and agreeable for such hu- 
man aifairs as maj tend to his serrice 
alone; from whicn, if either the mar- 
riages which have been offered to me by 
divers powerful princes, or the danger of 
attempts made against my life, could no 
wise aivert me, U u long tinee I had any 
jojf in the honour of a husband; and this 
is what I thought, when I was a private 
person ; but when the public charge of 
f^veming the kingdom came upon me, 
it seemed to me an inconsiderate folly, 
to draw upon myself the cares of mar- 
riage. To conclude, I am already bound 
unto a husband, which is the kingdom 
of £ngland, and let that suffice you:" 
then, stretching out her hand, and shew- 
ing the ring with which she was given in 
marriage^ and inaugurated to her king- 
doMy she said, ^^Reproaeh me no more 
that I have no children ; for every one 
of yon, and as many as are English, are 
my children and kinsfolks, of whom, so 
long as I am not deprived (and God will 
preserve me), you cannot charge me, 
without offence, to be destitute. But in 
this I must commend you, that you have 
not appointed me a husband : for that 
were unworthy the majesty of an absolute 
princess, and the discretion of you who 
are bom my subjects. Nevertheless, if 
God hath ordained me to another course 
of life, I promise to do nothing to the 
prejudice of the commonwealth ; but, as 
far as possible, to marry a husband as 
shall be careful for the common good. 
And if I persist in remaining single, I 
feci assured that God will so direct my 
counsels and yonis, that you shall have 

no cause to doubt of a raccMBcr, who 
may be more profitable for the common- 
wealth than ne who may proceed from 
me, since the posterity of good princes 
doth oft-times degenerate. Lastly, this 
may be sufficient, both for my memory, 
ana for the honour of my name, that when 
I have expired my lust breath, these lines 
may be inscribed on my tomb : — 


When Elizabeth conveyed to Philip of 
Spain the formal announcement of the 
death of his late wife. Queen Mary, she 
added her own anxiety to preserve his 
friendship. To this letter Philip, who 
had long felt an attachment to Eliza- 
beth, and wished, by a union with Eng- 
land, to counterbalance the united powers 
of France and Scotland, replied by an 
offer of his hand ! He undertook to prou 
cure from the Pope the necessary dispen- 
sation for the marriage, which he seemed 
confident would be granted with ala- 
crity ; and ere Elizabeth's answer could 
reach him, he dispatched envoys to Rome 
for this purpose. A princess of a cha- 
racter less firm and sagacious than the 
Queen, mi^ht have found in the splen- 
dour of Philip's rank and power tempta- 
tions not to be resisted. But Elizaoeth 
well knew how odious Philip's marriage 
with her sister had been to the nation. 
She believed, if she gave him her hand, 
the legality of the marriage would be 
questioned. She sympathized in the 
reli|pous sentiments of her Protestant 
subjects ; she felt, too, all the pride of 
being independent, and looking round 
with cheerful confidence on a people who 
almost adored her, she formed the pa- 
triotic resolution to wear her English 
diadem by the suffrage of the English 
nation alone, exempt from the participa- 
tion of one who ranked among the first 
monarchs of Europe. The Spanish 
ambassador represented to the Queen, 
that a negative could not be g^vcn to 
the offer of Philip, without deeply 
wounding his pride and his feelings. 
However, the King of Spain soon con- 
soled himself for this disappointmrnt, 
by marrying the daughter of the King 
of France. 

Proposals for the hand of EUzabt^tb 


BOW poured in from almost cyotj coart 
in Karopo. The Arc)nlukc Charles, uon 
of the tmporor Ferdinand of Austria, 
was the next suitor; but liis overtures 
were also declined without hesitation, 
ftlthougfh afterwards) renewed witli some 
pra«pcct of suecess. Eric, who had now 
BKCOdod the throne of Sweden, sent over 
his brother, the Duke of Finhind, to 

Elcad once more witli Elizabeth for the 
onour of her hand ; and the Kinj^ of 
Denmark, Ih ing: detcrminiHl that his 
nei^lilHjiir sh(»uld not bear off so glori- 
ous a prize without a contest, lost no 
time in dispatehini^ his nephew, the 
Duke of IIukt«'in, on the same distin- 
guished errand. The Duke of Finland 
was n-ceivi-d with hiijh honours. Lonl 
Bob<;rt Dmllev and ihr Earl of Oxford 
Bct out for Colelu'ster to nurt him, and 
conduet him to London. He was re- 
ceived at the corner of Oracechureh 
Street by Lord Ambrose Dudley and the 
Afarquis of Xortliampton, att<>nded by 
many ffi-ntlenu?n iind lailits ; thence, fol- 
lowed by a ^'at troop of yf*omen of the 
guard and ^-ntlemen, wearinu: gold 
chains, lie pn.>cee(led to the palace of 
thr of AVinchtstrr, in South- 
wark, which wa.s hunif with rich cloth 
of arra.s, wroui,'lit with jiold and silver, 
ond 6ilk. The Duke of Holstein on his 
orrival was bnlp'd at Somerset Place, 
the use of which the (hieen had granted 
to I^)rd ITun.Mlon. This Duke had san- 
guine expectations of success in his suit; 
but the royal and fickle fair one deemed 
it enough to acknowUnlge his pains, by 
granting him an honourable reception, 
the order of the Garter, and a yearly 
pension ! 

F^lizabeth now frequently appeared in 
public, and neglected no opp)rt unity of 
increasing her popularity with the na- 
tion. On one oc(r*«ion she visitetl the 
royal mint, to inr^cOt a new coinage 
about to be issue<l, which she had the 
merit of restoring to its proper standard. 
She also went over the I'riory of St. 
Mary Spittle, in liishopsgjitc Street, 
not<'Il for itsS famous pulpit cross; where, 
on particular dn^-s, the Lord Mnyor and 
Aldermen attended t4> hear fv.>rmons. She 
was attendL-d, as Stowe informs us. ^' by 
a thouiand men in hamtM, with shirts 

of mail, conelets, and morim mkm\ be* 
sides ten great pii>ct'S carried throogfe 
the city unto the court, with dmnis and 
trump«>ts sounding, and two norin 
dancmgs; and in the cart two white 

Again, having honoured the Earl of 
Pembroke with her company to a splen- 
did supper at Raynnrd's ( 'astlo, in Thames 
Stre4 1, she afterwards took hoat and wai 
rowed up and down the river; hun- 
dreds of barp^ rowing alongside of 
her, and thousands of people thmn^- 
ing at the watiT-side to gaze upon her 
Mnjesty, rejoicing to sec h<»r, and to 
partikc of the music and sights npoa 
the river. 

The peer thus honoured was the Hro- 
tuer-in-Iaw of Catherine Parr; Eliza* 
beth entertained great respect for hif 
experience and capacity, admitted him 
to her privy council, and named him, 
with the Marquis of Nortliampton, the 
Earl of Bedford, and I/>rd John Grey- 
all leading men of the I*rotcBtant party 
— to a.«s!st at the meeting of dirinc* 
and men of learning, by whom the reli- 
gions establishment of the country wai 

The arrival of ambassadors of hijrh 
rank from the King of Franw, on the 
occasion of a peace recently concluded 
with that country, afforded' the Queen 
another opportunity of displaying all 
the magnmcence of her court. The 
Duke dc Montmorenci, the chief of the 
embassy, was lodged at the Itishon of 
Jx>udon's Palace ; and the houses of the 
dean and canons of St. Paul were filled 
with his numerous retinue. The gorge- 
ousness of the ambassadors* dress was the 
theme of admiration. The day after 
their arrival thev were conducted in state 
to the court, wliiere ther snpped with 
the Queen, and afterward partook of a 
goodly banquet, with all manner of en- 
tertainment, until the hour of midnight. 
The next day her Majesty gave them a 
sumptuous dinner, followed by a baiting 
of bulls and bears ! " The Queen her- 
self stood with them in a gallerr, enj«»y- 
ing the pastime, till six o'clock; >»hcn 
thev retunied bv water, to sup with the 
liibhop of J^uidon. On the following 
day, they visited the Paris Garden, then 



A IbToarito plaee of amniement, on the 
Surrey side of the Thames, and were 
there entertained with another exhibi- 
tion of bull and bear baiting." They 
dopart<xl in two days luterwards, 
** biking their barge toward:! GraTcs- 
end," highly delighted with their hos- 
pitable reception, and canying with 
tliem a number of mastiffs, given them 
to hunt the woWcs in the forests of 

The Queen, at this period, took up 
her residence in her farourito summer 
palace at Greenwich, and the London 
companies were ordered to muster their 
men-a^arms in the adjoining park. Of 
the fourteen hundred men assembled on 
this orcasion, eight hundred were armed 
in fine corselets, biearing the long Moorish 
pike; two hundred were halberdiers, 
wearing another species of armour, called 
Almain or German rivets ; and the gun- 
ners or musketeers were equipped in 
coats of mail, with morions or steel caps. 
Ilcr MajestTt surrounded by a splenaid 
court, beheld their evolutions from a 
gallery over the pnrk-eatc. A few days 
afterwards, the Queen s pensioners were 
appointed to " run with the soear" — a 
chivalrous exhibition, which delighted 
the warlike imagination of Elizabeth. 
In the park of Greenwich, a banquet- 
ing-house was erected for her Majesty, 
** made with fir poles, decked with 
branches of birch, and all manner of 
field and garden flowers." Tents were 
also erected for her household, and a 
place prepared for the tiltcrs. After the 
exercises were over, the Queen gave a 
supper in the banqueting-house, which 
was succeeded by a masque, and a splen- 
did banquet " And then followed great 
casting of fire-works and shooting of 
guns till midnight." The band of gentle- 
men pensioners, the boast and orna- 
ment of Elizabeth's court, was the most 
solendid establishment of the kind in 
l^urope. It was composed of the flower 
of the English nobility ; and to be ad- 
mitted to serve in its ranks, was regarded 
as a distinction worthy the ambition of 
young men of the highest families. It 
was a saying of the Earl of Clare, tliat 
while he was a pensioner of Queen Eli- 
labeth, he did not know a \ow$ «mn 

fone of less wealth and distin^pishod 
birth] in the whole band than himself; 
yet he was then inheriting an estate of 
four thousand a rear. ** It was the con- 
stant cuxtom of the Queen," says ( ollins, 
** to call out of all counties in the king- 
dom, the gentlemen of the ffreutest hopei 
and of the best fortunes and families, and 
with them to fill the more honourable 
places of the household servants; by 
which she honoured them, obliged their 
kindred and alliance, and fortified her- 

On the seventeenth of July, 1659, Eliza- 
beth set out on the first of those royal 
progrcJMet^ which form so striking a fea- 
ture in her domestic history. *Mn these 
journeys," says Rohun, ** she was most 
easv to be approached ; private persons 
ana magistrates, men and women, coun- 
trypeople and children, came joyfully 
and without fear to wait upon her. Her 
ears were then open to the complaints 
of the afllictcd, and of those that had 
been in any way injured. 8he would 
not suffer the meanest of her people to 
be shut out from the plaee where she re- 
sided ; but the greatest, as well as the 
least, were then in a manner levelled. 
She took with her own hand, and read 
with the greatest kindness, the petitions 
of the poorest niHtics. And she would 
frequently assure them, that she would 
take particular care of their affairs ; and 
she would ever be as good as her word. 
She was never seen angry with the most 
unseasonable of uncourtly approach; she 
was never offended with the most impu- 
dent or importunate petitioner. Nor 
was there any thing in the whole 
course of her reign that more won 
the hearts of the people, than this her 
wonderful facility and condescension, 
and the sweetness and pleasantness 
viith which she entertained all who 
came to her." 

The first stage of the Queen's pro- 
gress was to Dartford, in Kent, whence 
she proceeded to Cobham Hall, where 
she was sumptuouslv entertained by 
Lord Cobham, a nooleman who en- 
joved a large share of her royal favour. 
Eltham was her next stage'; and she 
next visited the Earl of Arundel, at 
the magnificent palace of Ncmsa^ 



The Earl received her with the utmoit 
magiiiflci'iice. On Sunday night, a 
banquet, a mask, and a concert were the 
entertuinmentfl. The next day she wit- 
nessed a hunt, from a standing^ erected 
for her in the park, and the children of 
St Paul's performed a pUij ; after which, 
a Gostlj hanquet was senred up in g^t 
dishes. On hi-r departure, she was pre- 
sented with a cupboard of plate bj the 
noble host, who, on this occasion, looked 
to a high and splendid recompense — not 
less than the fair hand of the illastrious 
Queen herself; but, like othtT and more 
illustrious suitors, he was doomed to 
Luring the summer of this year, a 

gompous funeral ceremony took place in 
t. Paul's Cathedral, in memory of Henry 
the Second, of France. A hearse, mag- 
nificently adorned with the banners and 
escutcheons of the deceased, was placed 
in the church; a numerous train of 
lord« and gentlemen attended as mourn- 
ers; and all the ceremonies of a real 
funeral were duly performed. This was 
a customary tribute, at that period, 
among the Princes of Europe to the 
memory of each other. In tne month 
of December following, the Duchess 
Dowager of Suffolk was interred, with 
much pomp, in Westminster Abbey. 
She was the grand-daughter of Henry 
the SoTenth. After the tragical end of 
her mispfuided husband, and of Lady 
Jane Grey, her eldest daughter, the 
Duchess was permitted to remain in un- 
molested privac'T ; and she had subse- 
quently rendered lierself utterl)' insigni- 
ncant,' by an obscure mamagc with 
one Stoke, a young man who was her 
master of the' horse. When the news 
of this connection reached the ears of 
Elizabeth, she exclaime<I, with surprise 
and indignation — *'What! has the 
Duchess married her horse-keeper?" 
To which Cecil replied, with unpardon- 
able freedom, ** \ es. Madam, and she 
tays your Majesty would like to do so 
toof' We need hardly remark, that 
her favourite, I»rd llobert Dudh-r, at 
that time Allfd the office of Master of 
the llorsc to the t^ueen. His long inti- 
macy with the Quren was apparent to 
nil observfrs, and occasioned fears and 

jealooaiet to her bert fricndi wad 

A royal proclamation was this jm 
issued, to check the prerailinE laxmrii 
dress, which at that period was inTeigW 
a^inst by Uishop Pilkingion, whb, ii 
his sermons, cautions the peo^ H^'^ 
wearing **fine-fingercd mfflera, vUk 
sables about their necks, corked ^ppoi^ 
trimmed buskins, and warm nuttcBL 
These tender Pamela," says the bondj 
bishop, ** must have one gown forthedir, 
another for the night ; one long, another 
short, one for winter, another for son- 
mer. One furred throufb, another hot 
faced; one for the won-daT, another 
for the holy-day. One of tliis eoloar, 
another of that One of doth, another 
of silk or damask. Change of appaiti; 
one afore dinner, another after ; one of 
Spanish fashion, another of Tukry. 
And, to be brief, nerer eontent with 
enough, but always dcrising new aid 
strange fiishions. Yea, n roffian viH 
hare more in his mff and his hoae, tiisa 
he should spend in a year: be wks 
ought to go in a msseC coat, apeadi m 
much on apparel for himself nd Ui 
wife, as his father would have kept a 
good house with." The aifectelioB of 
wearing by turns the costame of ^ i^ 
tions of Europe, with which the Qmoi 
herself was not a little accustomed, aay 
be partly traced to the habit of import- 
ing articles of dress from abroad, aai 
paiiXy to the taste for trarellinr, whiek, 
since the reyiral of leaminr, nad ben 
laudably prevalent among ue nobility 
and gentry. ^ 

An act of Parliament was also pasNd 
in this year, whieh is illustrative of tbt 
fanaticism of the early Protestant A- 
vines. The Catholics were accused of 
employing enchantment and wildicraft 
in their religious services, and it wh 
feared ** by many good and sober mn" 
that these dealers in the Uack art migfct 
even bewitch the Queen herself. It wm 
thought necessary, therefore, by the 
enlii/htened Parliament of Elizabeth, te 
forbid, under the penalty of death, the 
use of these mysterious practices. The 
learned Bishop' Jewc4 led the way in in* 
spiring thi>se siipr-rstitious terrm. In 
a discourse deliycred before the Qneen 



Mrf ««dbi( BK^ mJtiifal awnb t^ bUir 
KiribdWu. Your HiJBMf*) ■nbjroCa 
■ise awmy cren nnlo dadh ; tlicit' colour 
Math ; tboi fleah rolkth ; their ipeech 
« beanmbed; their ■cnwt ve 1>ereft. 
Vheicfim ^ar poor lubjeda laatt 
konU* pcUtioa to jooi Hijeitj, that 

of tfaem u gt«at, tbtdr dosgi borrible, 

their malice intolerable, the eximnic* 
mott mucrsblc. And I praf God Uiej 
mar nercr practiie fortbcr than upon 
jonr MajatT"* ■ubjectt." — Verily, we 
arc much inifebted to the Puliunent of 
Queen Eliiabelh, for so eSectiullT pnt- 
Cine dawn the odiooi pncticea ot theao 
dealen in the bhuk uti 


Sir noMM Ckakntr — MfiUriimi JtmtA af Lady DmHty—Oirima ptrtieulan 
rt^ttUmf Smdief mud Ba^M—Jfary, Qkkh tf ScoU—TA* (^utn mad tht 
Dttn af CiritduireA—OiKT^iim of m. PauT, in IA4 Iim4 ef £iiiaitlk— 
Spbndid prttnl fioM Srie, Sing of Stcuhn, aHd frtpm-atinu far kit tiiil — 
*"' itM'i tnti trtatmtnt rf lit Ikri tad OmHtiu if Bmftrd—TaUe lila- 
■ mftht QmitH Sogal titit ia CamMds*. 

T (h« cloae of the 
y««r IW9, Sir Tho- 
MM Chdoner,— the 

bjr Eiiubcth, 

> of hit offlcial 

Cecil, Am ttatM hii opiaion on * point 
if Rcat delSocT ' •■-----■ 

, where I ipoke of 
v» nncn in faTiKir, u thej nteeni, I 
Ihiolc je garm whom thej niined ; if je 
4i> not, I will in mj next letter* write 
fbithcr. To Idl jot whU I tonean— 
■ jtmag Hincew turaot bo too wary 
wlwt eonntenanw or familiir demon- 
(tntion ihe nuketh to one more thin 
■notber. Thii delay of ripe time for 
marriage^ minietreth nuttt^r to lewd 
tonifoei to dncant ,npon, and breedclh 
roDtcapt. I wonid I had but one hour's 

talk wtth yon. If I lnut«d not your 
good BAtnrp, I would not write thus 
mneh; wbicb, nrreithrlcn, I hnmbly 
pray yon to reeriTS u writlan to your- 


•A with thoN of 

tbe Qaeen's extraordinary bi 
Dadlrj, exactly eoincided wi 
bis fncnd I'haloner; and fenn for the 
rcpntalion of Klizabfth gtiTe additional 
urgeniy. at this period, to thine plrad- 
ines in fa*DUr of matrimonv, wbicii her 
il felt eompellcd to prcn npon her 

f the maiden 

Alai! for the he 
Qncen — her consti 
fuaals of all matHmonial offeii are eaiiljr 
accounted for— ihe lotcd, and wia be- 
lored in return, b;^ a manalrmdj yoked 
to a hplpmato— a pampered minion I — 
and a circumatanec soon after occurred, 
which rendered bn- anticipated choice 
of a husband an obj«t no lunger of hope 
and joy, but one of gi^ncral dtiialiafae- 
tion and alarm. 

At the moment when the whiiprrcd 
Kandal of tbe court bad apprised Lord 
Dudley how obTions to all obserreia 
tbe partialitr of his SoTprcign had be- 
come;— at Ilic moment when her rcjro- 
ticin of tbe propoaols of so many foreign 
Princrs liad conflrmed tlie guspicinn, 

placed on one uf brr own subjecta : — it 
such a moinrnl. whon, in short, erarj' 
of Cecil, mpcctiEig 1 tiling eonipircd to snnetion hoptc in tM 



breast of Dudley, which, under anj 
other circumstances^ would hare ap- 
peared yisionnrj and presumptuous; — 
at the Ycrv juncture most favourable to 
his ambition, but most perilous to his 
reputation, Lord Robert Dudley lost his 
wife — by a sudden and mysterious fute. 
This unfortunate ludy ha<r been sent by 
her husband, under the protection of 
Sir Richard Vemey, one of his retainers, 
to Cumnor Tlouse, in Berkshire; a soli- 
tary mansion, inhabit(>d by Anthony 
Foster, also a dependant of Dudley, and 
bound to him by partieiUar obligations. 
Here she soon after met with an un- 
timt'ly death ; and Vemey and Foster, 
who appear to have been ahne in the 
house with her, gave out that it hap- 
pened by an accidental full down stairs. 
But this story gained so little credit in 
the neighbourhood, that reports of the 
most dreadful import were quickly pro- 
pagjited. These rumours soon reached 
the ears of the conscientious Thomas 
licwer. Prebendary of Coventry, who 
immediately addressed to the Secretaries 
of State an earnest remonstrance, still 
extant, beseeching them to cause strict 
inquiry to be made into the affair ; as it 
waif the universal Miff that the lady had 
hetn murdered. Xo steps were taken in 
consequence of this application ; it was 
of too dreadful a nature, and involved 
consequences which might well make 
sycophants shudder. It is, however, a 
fact, that not only the popular voice, 
which was ever hostile to Dudley, con- 
tinued to accuse him as the perpetrator 
or contriver of her fate, but Cecil him- 
self, in a memorandum drawn up some 
years after, of "reasons against t)ie 
Qu(K*n's making Dudley her husband ;" 
mentions, among other objections, ** that 
he was rendered infamous by the death 
of his wife." It is also certain that the 
Queen took no cognizance of this affair, 
beyond declaring " that Dudley was then 
in the court, and none of his at the at- 
tempt at his wife's house, and that it 
fell out as should neither touch his 
honesty nor honour." In the opinion 
of tlie whole country, however, this 
miserable favoiurite evi-r after passed for 
a dark and dangerous intriguer, capable 
of pcrpetrutiug any rilUmy, and skilful 

enough to conceal bis atrocity mdcr a 
cloak of artifice and bypocrisT, impeir 
treble to the too partiiA eyes of the cn- 
dulous Elizabeth, though obrioos to dl 
the world beside. TThis idea of his cha- 
racter caused him altcrwaidt to it 
accused of attempting the lives of sercnl 
other persons, wno opportunely periskel 
to facilitate his guilty purpoaes. 

The statements in the Burleigh Pkpni, 
that Klizabeth, upon returning one auk 
night from an evening entcrtainmeit st 
I^rd Dudley's, fell into convenatioa 
with his torch-bearers, and told than 
that she would make Dudley the best 
man that ever bare his name — mcaniif, 
that she would marry him — ^is too absori 
to be accredited. When Eliz^Nth 
travelled on these occasions, riie «■ 
always attended by courtiers, and sn^ 
rounded by her guards : besides, she was 
not the l^ncess to make confidants of 
such mean-bom persons as torch-beamn 

In 1560, Francis tbo Second died, 
when his beautiful widow, the unforta- 
nate Mar}', Queen of Scots, at the csrn- 
est entreaty of her Scottish subjecti» 
resolved to return to the kingdom of her 
ancestors ; and, with this view, she ifBt 
to request a safe conduct from thebaadi 
of Elizabetli, who replied, that Msry 
had only to ratify the treaty of Edio- 
burgh (by one article of which Msry 
was never to resume the arms of Eag^ 
land), and instructed Tbrogmorton, the 
English ambassador at Uie court of 
France, strongly to urge her immediate 
compliance witn this demand. The 
Queen of Scots, however, as the ncamt 
heir to the English crown, pcrststod ia 
her resolution to maintain her Uwfil 
rights, and assured Throgmorton, that 
she was vexed at having exposed her- 
self needlessly to such a rciosal ; and 
that doubtless she would be cnaUfd to 
return to her own country without the 
permission of Elizabetn : she tbeo 
abruptly put an end to the intcrviev, 
and reactied Scotland in safety. Tho 
enmity between these illuatrions kins- 
women henceforth became irrepondik. 
A personal conference between the two 
Queens was proposed to be bdd at 
York, but Elizabeth ultimately dcdiacd 
the interview, being unwiiUng to ' ' 



ber beratiftd and captiTsdng rival an 
opportanity of winning upon the affoc- 
ti'jns of the English people. 

The seal against popery now shewed 
itself by many acts of the Queen and 
her goTemment. AU the altars in 
WestminstiT Abbey were ordered to be 
pulled down, and, about the same time, 
a remarkable scene occurred between 
Klixabcth and the dean of Christchurch, 
Dr. Sampson. On new yearns day, 1661, 
her Majesty went in state to St. Paurs, 
when a sermon was preached by the 
dean. Thinking to gratify her, on that 
day, with an elegant ana appropriate 
present, the worthy doctor baa procured 
some illuminated prints, illustratiyc of 
the acts of the saints and martyrs, which 
he caused to be inserted in a richlr- 
bound prayer-book, and laid on the 
Queen's cushion for her use. Iler Ma- 
jesty opened the volume, but on behold- 
ing the prints she changed colour, 
frowned, and called to the verger to 
bring her the book she was accustomed 
to have. The service ended, she went 
into the vestry, and inquired of the 
dean who had Drought that book ? and 
when he explained that he had intended 
it as a present for her Majesty, she 
lectured uim severely ; inquired if he 
was ignorant of her proclamation against 
images, pictures, and Romish rchques 
in the churches, and of her aversion to 
all idolatry; and strictly ordered that 
no similar mistake should occur in fu- 
ture. It is singular, that, at this very 
time, Elizabeth kept a crucifix in her 
own private chapel, and that the dean 
of Christchurch was so far from being 
popishly inclined, that he had, onl^ the 
year before, refused the bishopric of 
rforwich on account of the habits and 
ceremonies attending the office. But 
Elizabeth was fond of showing her zeal 
on all public occasions against the Pa- 
pists, on whose downfall her existence 
as a Queen depended. 

This year the steeple of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, the loftiest in the kingdom, 
was struck by lightning, and utterly de- 
Btrovcd, together with the bells and the 
roof. The papists represented the ac- 
cident as a judgment of heaven for the 
discontinuance of the matins and other 

services which were wont to be pcfw 
formed in the church, whilst the Pro- 
testants regarded it as a judgment for 
the abuses by which the church had 
formerly been polluted, under the sway 
of the papists. In a pamphlet pub- 
lished at tne time, the Lishop of Dur- 
ham says: — '^Noplace had been mora 
abused than St Paul's— it was no won- 
der, therefore, that God had overthrown 
it now. From the top of the spire, at 
coronations or other solemn tnumpha, 
some for vain glory had used to throw 
themselves down by a rope, and so killed 
themselves, vainly to please other men's 
eves. At the battlements of the steeple, 
their popish anthems were sometimes 
used to call upon their gods, with torch 
and taper in the evenings. In the top 
of one of the pinnacles was Lollard s 
tower, where many an innocent soul hid 
been by them cruelly tormented and 
murdered. In the middlemost alley 
was their long censer, reaching from the 
roof to the ground ; as though the Holy 
Ghost came down in their censing, in 
the likeness of a dove. In the arches, 
men commonly complained of wrong 
and delayed judgments in ecclesiasticu 
causes: and divers persons had been 
condemned there, by Annas and Caia^ 
phas, for Christ's cause. Their images 
nung on every wall, pillar, and door, 
with their pilgrimages and worshipping ; 
passing over their nmssinj^ and many 
altars, and the rest of their popish ser« 
vice. The south alley was for usury 
and popery ; the north for simony ; and 
the horse-fair in the midst for all kind 
of bargains, meetings, brawlines, mur- 
ders, conspiracies, llie font ror ordi- 
nary payments of money, was as well 
known to all men as the beggar knows 
bis dish. So that without and within, * 
above the ground and under, over the 
roof and beneath, from the top of the 
steeple and spire down to the low floor, 
not one spot was free from wickedness." 
Eric, now King of Sweden, whose 
hopes of ultimate success in his matri- 
monial addresses to Elizabeth were (xm- 
Unued, in spite of the repeated deniala 
of the Queen, had sent to her Majesty 
a royal present, and declared his inten- 
tion of following in person. The pre- 

o o 



sent, which consisted of eighteen lam 
piebald horses, and two ihip foads of the 
most precious articles, the produce of 
his country, was well received ; but as 
Elizabeth was determined not to relent 
in fuYour of her royal lover, she wrote 
to him, expressing her anxious hope 
that he would spare himself the fatigue 
of a fruitless voyage. Fearing, how- 
ever, that he might be already on his 
journey, she made preparations for re- 
ceiving him with hospitality and splen- 
dour. Amongst the state papers of the 
time, we find a letter from the Lords of 
the Council to the Lord Mayor, setting 
forth : ** That whereas certain book- 
binders and stationers did utter certain 
papers, wherein were printed the face 
of her Majesty and the King of Sweden; 
although her Majesty was not displeased 
that either her own face, or that of this 
King, should be pourtrayed, yet to be 
Joined in the same paper with him, or 
any other Prince who was known to 
have proposed marriage to her, was 
what she could not allow. Accordingly, 
it was her pleasure, that the Lord Mayor 
should seize all such papers, and pack 
them up, so that none of them should 
get abruad, otherwise she might seem 
to authorize this joining of herself in 
marriage to him, which might affect her 
honour." Next we have a letter to the 
Duke of Norfulk, directing the manner 
in which he should meet the King, if 
he landed in Norfolk or Suffolk, which 
thus concludes : — *' Because the Queen's 
Majesty is a maid, in this case would 
many things be omitted in honour and 
courtesy, which otherwise were meet to 
be showed to him, as in like cases hath 
been of Kings of this land to others ; 
and therefore it shall be necessar}*, that 
the gravest of her council do, nis of 
their own judgment, excuse the lack 
thereof to the King ; and yet, on their 
own parts, offer the Kin^ all the sup- 
plemental honours in their power, with 
all due reverence." 

Notwithstanding these preparations, 
the King of Swec^n never made his ap- 
pearance, ho having received the answer 
of Elizabeth at the moment of embark- 
ing for Kngland. Elizabeth ought cer- 
tainly not to have accepted the magnifi- 

cent present of the diMppotntad Erie; 
but wc suppose that would have htm 
contranr to the royal etiqaettc, er, al 
least, that the maiden Queen whose ae- 
qubitiveness waa remarkable, ao npe- 
sented it. 

Whilst the Queen was at Iptwidi, ia 
the autumn of 1561, the ooort wai 
startled by the discovcij that the Lady 
Catherine Grey — the heireasof the hoBK 
of Suffolk, who was formerly vnitcd to 
Lord Herbert, son of the Eaii of Pea- 
broke, fon the same dav that her eidsik 
sistor, the unfortunate Lady Jaae Gttjt 

married Guildford DudleyJ, bat 
union with that nobleman had been dii* 
solved, at the instance of the Eail «f 
Pembroke — had stolen a match with thi 
Earl of Hertford, son of the Protodor 
Somerset, and was on the point of be- 
coming a mother. On being qncationedL 
the lady admitted the fact, eonJcmed 
her pregnancy, and declared herKlf to 
be the lawful wife of the EarL Her 
degree of relationship to the Queen wai 
not so near as to render her mairiagt 
without the royal consent illegal ; yet, 
by an arbitrary and cruel stretch of la- 
thority. Lady Catherine was immediatdf 
sent prisoner to the Tower. The £n 
of Hertford, her husband, was also eoB- 
mittod to the same place, on the charp 
of having seduced a royal moidtB.— 
The unfortunate lady, and those wW 
had been in her confidence, were treated 
with harshness and indignity. Froa 
the Queen's warrant to Mr. Waiasi 
Lieutenant of the Tower, we lean tlM 
cruel advantage taken of her aitnatiDa: 
— " Our pleasure is, that ye shall, hf 
our command, examine th0 Lady Oh 
therine very strictly; how many hatk 
been privy to the love between her aid 
the Earl of Hertford from the bef;ia- 
ning, and let her certainly nndciaUad, 
that she shall have no manner of fiivoor, 
except she will show the truth, not only 
what ladies or ecntlewomm of tha 
court were privy thereto, but also whit 
lords and gentlemen. We earnestly 
require you to use your diligence in thM 
matti^rr. Ye shall also send to Aldcnaaa 
Lodge, secretly, for St. Low, and shall 
put her in awe of divers matten, as if 
confessed by the Lady GathcriaB^Mii 



m alio deal with her, that she may con- 
Rbm to jou all her luiowledge touching 
thia afiair. It is certain that there hath 
been great practices and purposes ; and 
nnce the death of Lad? Jane Grey she 
bath heen most priTj thereto. And as 
re shall see occasion, so je may keep 
St. Low two or three nights, more or 
Ins, and let her he retumt^ to Lodge's, 
or kept still with you, as ye shall think 

The Countess of Hertford f^ie hirth 
to a male child soon after her imprison- 
ment, which was regarded as illegiti- 
mate, and the unfortunate parent was 
doomed to a further imprisonment, at 
tiie arhttruT pleasure of the maiden 
Queen ! The hirth of a second male 
child,* the fruit of stolen meetings be- 
tween the captive pair, aggraratod, in 
the jealous eyes of the match-marring 
aotereign, their common guilt ! It was a 
glorious opportunity for Elizabeth to 
Tonit forth her spleen, on account of 
her own intrigues, when Princess, with 
the late Lord Admiral Seymour having 
been detected and exposed. Warner, 
the Lieutenant of the Tower, was dis- 
■isMid, for permitting or conniving at 
what the Queen was pleased to term 
** their illicit intercourse ;" and the 
Earl of Hertford was sentenced, in the 
inqmtoiis Star Chamber, to a fine of 
fifteen Uiouaand pounds ^an immense 
snni in those days), for the double offence 
of eomipting a female of the royal 
blood, and of breaking his prison to 
repeat the offence ! 

it was some consolation to this per- 
secuted pair, to learn, that, under all 
their accumulated sufferings, the public 
troice was unanimous in their mvour. 
No one for a moment doubted but that 
Ikcy were lawfully married; — a hci 
afterwards folly established, and it was 
naturally asked '* by what right, or on 
what principle, her Majesty presumed 
to keep asunder those whom God had 
|oined together in wedlock ?*' But this 

* Sir Eirartim BrrdjBM, in CoIUns't Peerage, 
■STB thAt kIm had tbrae children; Edward, 
who died younfc ; Edward, Lord Beauchamp, 
sad Tbooiaa, who married laabella, daughter 
•r Edvaid Onlej, of Cateaby, in Morth- 

symnathy of the people only stimulated 
the Monarch to greater cruelty. It was 
necessary to intimidate the people by 
strong measures! To the eternal dis- 
grace of Elisabeth's character and go- 
vernment, she barbarously and illeg^ly 
detained her ill-fated kinswoman, first 
in the Tower, and afterwards in private 
custody, till the day of her death in 
January, 1567 ; * and her husband 
having already added to the original of- 
fence of marrying a princess, the further 
crime of begetting [estimate children, 
was sentenoM, in addition to his heavy 
fine, to a long imprisonment of nine 
years ! So much for the jealous spleen 
of the maiden Queen ! It is, however, 
some satisfaction to find, that by a pro- 
cess in the ecclesiastiosl court, with 
which the Queen could not interfere, 
the Earl of Hertford finally succeeded 
in establishing the legitimacy of his 

The royal virgin being now in hci 
THiBTiBTH TEAR, was EC anuoyed on 
account of certain ill-favoured likenesses 
of her gracious countenance, which had 
obtained general circulation, that her 
minister Cecil drew up and published a 
proclamation, stating that none of her 
portraits hitherto published came up to 
the original -, that she had resolved, by 
the advice of her council, to procure an 
exact likeness from the pencil of some 
"cunning painter," ana therefore she 
strictl;^ forbade any one to publish new 
portraits of her ''person or visage" 
without license, or to sell or exhibit the 
old ones until they had been remodelled 
according to the correct likeness to be 
forthwith published by authority. 

This was a strange topic for th^ deli- 
beration of the wise Elizabeth and her 
enlightened ministers ! But it appears, 
the perpetual subject of marriage was 
again agitated by her Parliament and by 
foreign Princes. According to Strype, 
** The Duke of Wirtcmburg, a German 
Protestant Prince, had hitely, in the 

* Perhaps Katharine Grey's real crime in 
the eyes of Elizabeth was her being tho 
sister of LAdy Jane Grey, and the heir of 
the house of Suffolk, upon which it was ge- 
nerally considered that the right to tho ciovn 
had devolved. 



BMMt friendly manner, offered bii ser- 
Tiees to the Qoeen, in caao she were 
minded to many. To which the gave him 
Ihis conrteous and Princely answer : — 


*' LondoD. Janoarj 27th, 1663. 

That althoag:h I never yet was 
weary of single and maiden life, yet in- 
deed I was &e last issue of my father 
left, and the only one of his house ; the 
care of my kingdom and the love of pos- 
terity did counsel me to alter this coarse 
of life. But, in consideration of the 
leave that my subjects have gf^en me, 
in ampler manner to make my choice 
than they ever did to any Rrince before, 
I am even in courtesy bound to make 
that choice which should be for the best 
for my subjects and the state. And for 
that you have therein offered your as- 
sistance, I do hereby eruciously acknow- 
ledge the some, promising to deserve it 

It doe9 not appear that the Duke ten- 
dered his own hand to Elizabeth for her 
acceptance after this gracious message ! 

In the summer of ld6-l, her Majesty's 
intention of honouring the University 
of Cambridge with her royal presence 
was announced to the Secretary of State, 
who was Chancellor of the roval founda- 
tion. The heads of the XFniversity, 
therefore, sent a respectful letter to 
Dudley, who was the high steward, en- 
treating him to commend to her Ma- 
jesty their royal services. Cecil arrived 
at Cambridge the day before the Queen, 
to get all in readiness for her reception. 
He received the customary offering of 
two pair of gloves, two sugar-loaves, 
and a march-pane. Lord Dudley and 
the f^uke of Norfolk were complimented 
in a similar manner; and gloves of a 
finer fabric, and confectionary of a more 
tomptuous description were presented to 
Elizabeth in person. On her reaching 
the door of Kmg^s College Chapel, the 
chancellor knelt down and welcomed 
her; and the orator, kneeling on the 
church steps, harangued her for nearly 
half an hour. ** I'irst, he praised and 
commended many and singular virtues 
]»Unted and set in her Majesty ; which, 
Bot approving of, she shook ner head, 
Ut Ker lips and fingers, and anon broke 

forth into passion in these words:— 
^ It is not true — it is not true/ On his 
prai»iug bcr virginity, however, she paid 
to the orator ; ' God's blessing on thy 
heart ! there continue.' Aftc^'r that, he 
described the joy of the university at 
her presence. 

*' When he had finished, the Que» 
commended him, saving she would 
answer him again in lAtin, but for fear 
she should speak false Latin ; and then 
they would only laugh at her!" She 
then went in state to the chapel, when 
Te Deum was sung, and the evening ser- 
vice performed with all imaginable 
pomp. The next morning, being Sunday, 
she went thither again to hear a Latin 
sermon, and in the evening the body of 
this solemn edifice was converted into a 
temporary theatrey where she was grati- 
fi«Kl with the representation of a tragedy 
of Plautus. The performance of plays 
on Sundays was not at this period for- 
bidden ; but certainly the converting of 
a sacred edifice, in a royal university, 
into a theatre, was a breach of decorum 
in the enlightened age of Elizabeth. 
The third day of the royal visit was oc- 
cupied by a public disputation in the 
morning, and a Latin play on the story 
of Dido, in the evening. ' On the fonrtn 
day, an English play, entitled Ezekias, 
was performed before her Majesty and 
suite. The next morning she visited 
the different c<*lleges ; at each of which 
a Latin oration was delivered before 
her, and she was presenttKi with a part- 
ing present of gloves and confection- 
ary, together with a volume, richly 
bound, containing the verses in English, 
Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Chaldee, 
composed by the members of each col- 
lege in honour of the occasion. 

She afterwards repaired to the church 
of St. Mary, where a long and learned 
disputation, by doctors in divinity, was 
prepared for her edification. Wnen it 
was ended, **the lords, and especially 
the Duke of Norfolk and Lord Robeii 
Dudley, kneeling down, humbly desinMl 
her Majesty to speak something to the 
university in Latin. The Queen at first 
refused, saying, ' If I might speak my 
mind in English, I would not etiek at 
the matter.' Bat onderstanding, 1^ Mr. 


Beew U ry Cn^. tint nothiB^ m^t tie 
■id opeslj to thenni'renitf in £iirl»h, 
(be TMjnind bin the rather to ipeik for 
her ; manac he wu Chancellor, and the 
rbanrpltoris the Qneea'a month. Where. 
Mio he aniwercd, that he waa ChancHlor 
orihc rniTersitT. and not her Majpatv'B 
Chancellor. Tfcen the Bishop of lij, 
kareling, nid that three vordi from bcc 
rural monlh wonld auffiee. By entmtiea 
10 anrmt, the Qnmi (ulTered henelf (o bo 
jnTTtiled npon to dcIiTer a rojral ipeecb, 
Kbich bad no donbt been prepared for 
the oetaaion, and in vfaicb aha wt forth 
her attachment to learaiDS. promiied to 
caDfeT aome rabctantUl Wefll on the 
UninniH, and, in eonclarion, nid, 
' abooM I be overtakes \>j death, before 

I have been able to perfbrm thia nj 

promiie, I will not fail to lemve aome 
fcroat work to be eieeated ailer mj 
deceiue, bj which mj memory may be 
rendered famous, otbcra eiciled by my 
iple, and nil of yon animated to 

von ai 

great*r ardour in vonr clasncal stndiea.'" 
AIdb ! for rorai promisei ! the pledge, 

" Qoeen Elizabeth's scfaoUl," 

stowed on a youth, of the name of Prea- 

ton, whoae masculine beauty and giaceful 


Btmuri tluictrtd am Jh^bf—Bu inUrriatm mtk tk$ Qum—Ou* mittita ai^ 
m matlrr—Spirilai amiimcl of Saatdk—^HHUy iiliaa Simel bikI ItUattr— 
MTTif tfLmiy Mary Grty—AiUcgnipA LeIUr d/ Elmb€tX ok tie StaU of 
Jnlami Birik >/ Jam- tin BoM—ElambtOCi sfaltd joy m tin eetatioH— 
Ditttrd httKum tiu Qmm aai ktr J'trtitmrnt—Soyai vial la Oi/ard—Tlu 
mmiir tf Ihnky ltd libavtioH of tht Cmmitu Ait meUUr. 

y LfZABETH, after 

h brid^, resi^Ted to 

) mtl^ her feelings, 

u by eonferring on 

f her bdoTcd Uadlcy 

^ of her royU esteem, 
Sbe, aeeordinrly, crated him Baron 
Denbigh and Earl of Leiceater, accom- 
fantedby the mnniflcent gift irf Kenil- 
worth Castle, park, and manor. Sii 
/amea Helnlle, the envoy of Mary, 
QnaeB of Seota, in hia intertaining He- 
noji^ ^JTM tM fbllowin; interesting 
dfs eiipliw a of the ceremonial of (bis 
oration : — " It was perfonned at West- 
minatv.-with grat sulemnitjr, the Queen 
henelf Mpin|; to pat on his mantle, be 
^'^ng apott hla kneei before her, with 
— '^ But sbe coold not ~" 

fieat mTtt; 

Inin Rom pntting her hand in hia neck, 
T— ■'i-Hy ticUinf him ; the French am- 
liima^- nnd I atandiiw by. Then she 
iMwd ivmd, ndMU » bow I liked , 

nearest Prince of the blood, bore the 
sword of honour that day before her. 
She took me to her hed-ebanber, and 
opened a little cabinet, wherein were 
diTeii little pictures, wrapped in paper, 
wi.K .i.=ir names written on Ihnn in 
hand. On the Bnt that she 
took up wai written, ' my lord's picture.' 
I held the candle ; and when at length aha 
permitted me to see it. I found il to be 
'' EurlorLeieester'spictnre! I desired 
; I might haie it to carry home to 
my Queen (Mary, of Scollsnd), which 
she refused, alleging that she had but 
thst one uiclure of his. 1 said, 'Your 
Majesty bsth here the original,' for */ 
ptrenMd Aim at tit fwrthttt piiri o/Ult 



•■ a tennis-ball ; I desired that she 
would send either it or my Lord of I>ei- 
cestcr's picture, as a token to my Queen. 
She said, that if the Queen would follow 
her counseU she would, in process of 
time, j^t all that she had ; that, in the 
meantime, she was resolved to send with 
me, as a token, a fair diamond. I was 
conveyed by Leicester in his barge from 
Hampton Court to London, liy the 
way, he inouired of me, what the Queen 
of Scots tnought of him, and of the 
marriage proposed by Bandolph, on the 
part of Elizabeth ? Whereupon I an> 
swered very coldly, as I had been com- 
manded by my mistress. Then he began 
to purge himself of so proud a pretence 
as to marry so great a Qucon, declaring 
that he did not etteem hitnaelf tcorthy to 
wipe her »}ioee ; and that the proposition 
of the marriage proceeded from Cecil, 
bis secret enemy : * For if,* added he, * I 
should have appeared desirous of that 
marriage, I should have offended both 
the Queens, and thus lost their favour.' " 

There can be no doubt that Elizabeth 
devised this matrimonial project of 
uniting Leicester with the bi'autiful 
Mary, Queen of Scots, purely as a ro- 
mantic trial of his attachment to her- 
self, and pleased her fancy with the idea 
of his rejecting for her own swett self, 
a younger and a fairer queen ! thinking 
it would give him consequence, in the 
event of making him her own husband. 
Certain it is, that when the Queen of 
Scots appeand to incline to a speedy 
conclusion of the busines.-^ and prayed 
Elizabeth to know on what conditions 
she would give her approbation to the 
union, the earnestness in the cause, 
which she had hitherto displayed, im- 
mediately ceased ! 

The Memoirs of Sir James Melville 
describe some highly entertaining scenes, 
of which he was an eye-witness, in the 
court of Elizabeth. 

The son of the Elector Palatine, Duke 
Casimir, having made an offer of his 
band to Queen Elizabeth, requested 
Melville, in passing through England, 
on his way to his own country, to con- 
Tey bis picture to her Majesty. The 
cnvoT was also furnished with portraits 
of toe other branchei of the electoral 

Aimily. On his arritil in Loadaa, h 
1564, he immediately repttired to Hai^ 
ton Court, and, delivering bis cvedeo* 
tiuls. was forthwith admitted into the 
presence of her Mueatj. After toai 
discourse with the Queen, on moR » 
nor subjects. Sir James took the oppsr* 
tunity of breaking forth into canal 
commendation of the elector, **whoN 
service, nothing,*' said he, ** bat aiy 
duty to my own sovereign could have 
induced me to quit." Adding— ** For 
the remembranoe of so good a master, I 
desired to canj home with me the poi^ 
traits of himself, his sons and daaghtas.** 
** So soon as she heard me mention the 
pictures," continues Sir James, **sIn 
inquired if I had the picture of Diki 
Casimir, desiring to see it. And when 
I alleged that I had left them in Los- 
don, uid that I was ready to go Horwnd 
on my journey, she said I ahould boI 
depart till she had seen the picturcai 
So the next day I delivered them all ts 
her Majesty, and she desired to keep 
them all night ; she then csdkd en mj 
Lord Dudley to be jud^ of Duke Csa- 
mir's picture, and appointed me to meet 
her the next morning in ha ganki, 
where she caused them all to be ddi- 
vcred to me, giving me thanlu lor the 
sight of them. I then offered to her 
Majesty all the pictures, so she would 
permit me to retain the Electee's and 
his lady's, but she would hare noue sf 
them. I had also sure infonnation, 
that first and last she heartilj di iipiewt 
the said Duke Casimir." 

Elizabeth now told Sir Jamea, theA 
she intended soon to propose, ss it 
matches for his Queen, two noblemei, 
one or other of whom she hoped to ses 
her accept for a husband. These two 
were Dudley, and Lord Damler, ddert 
son of the Earl of licnnox, b j tM Lady 
Margaret Douglas. 

A few weeu after Melville had re- 
turned to Scotland, Mary thought good 
to despatch him again to London, **ts 
deal with the Queen of V.nglan^ wiA 
the Spanish Ambassador, witn my Lady 
Margaret Douglas, and with snndiy 
friends she had in England." 

** Having arrived m London," asi|S 
Sir Jamea, ** I lodged near the eoorti il 



WeftininBt<T. My host immediately 
gave nutico of mv coming ; and that 
■umc night, her Saniesty »cnt Mr. Ilat- 
ton to welcome, and to inform me, that 
the next morning she would give me 
audience in her gurdcn at eiglit o'clock. 
Accordingly, Mr. IIatt(»n,and Mr. Ran- 
dolph, latu agent for the Qucc^n of Eng- 
land in Scotland, came to my lodging, 
to convey me to her Majesty, who was, 
as thcv said, already in the garden. 
Witli them came a servant of my Lord 
R4»bc>rt's, with a horse and foot mantle 
of velvet, laced with gold, for me to 
ride upon, which servant, with the said 
horse, waited upon me all the time that 
1 remained there. 

'* At anotlier interview, Elizahcth in- 
quired if the Queen had sent any answer 
to the proposition of marriage made to 
her throiigli Mr. Aandolph. I answered, 
as [ had been instructed, that my mis- 
tress thought little or nothing thereof. 
Adding, that the Queen, my mistress, 
is minded to send on her part, my Lord 
Murray, and the Secretary, Lidingtoun, 
and expects your Majesty will send my 
Lord of Bedford, and my J^ord Robert 
Dudley. She answered, — That it ap- 
peared I made but small account of my 
Lord Hobcrt, seeing that I named the 
Earl of Bedford before him ; but that 
ere long she would make him a far 
greater earl, and that I should see it 
done before my return home, for she es- 
teemed him as her brother and best 
friend, whom she would have herself 
married, had she ever minded to have 
taken a husband. But being deter- 
mined to live single, she wished the Queen, 
her sister, might marry him, as meetest 
of all others with whom she could find 
in bor heart to propose. For, being 
matched with him, it woidd remove out 
of her mind all fears and suspicions, of 
being offended by any usurpation before 
her death. Being assurca that he was 
so loving and trusty, that he would never 
suffer any such tlung to be attempted 
during her time ; and that the Queen, 
my mutress, might have the higher es- 
teem of him, I had been rcquirra to stay 
till I sliould see him made Earl of Lei- 
cester and Baron of Denbigh. She ap- 
peared to besoaffectioiiate to the QiiecBy 

her good sister, that she cxpresMd % 
great desire to see her. Then she tocds 
out of a little cabinet the Queen's pio- 
ture, and kissed it, and I venturca to 
kiss her band, for the great love evi- 
denced therein to my mistress. She in- 
ouircd of mo many things nlating to 
tne kingdom of ScotLind, and other 
countries wherein I had travelled. Sbo 
caused me to dine with her dame of ho- 
nour, my Lady Strafford, (an bonour- 
abl(> and goodly lady, who had been ba- 
nished to Geneva during the reien of 
her predecessor), that I might be always 
near her, so that she might confer with 

** At divers meetings wc had conver- 
sations on different subjects. The Queen, 
my mistress, had instructed me to leave 
matters of gravity sometimes, and cast 
in merry purposes, lest otherwise she 
should be wearied ; she being well in- 
formed of her natural temper. There- 
fore, in declaring mv observations of the 
customs of HolUmd, I'oland, and Italy, the 
buskins of the women were not forget ; 
and what country weed I thought ocst 
becoming gentlewomen. The Queen 
said she nad clothes of every sort, which 
every day thereafter, so long as I was 
there, she changed. One cbiy she had 
the English weed, another day the 
French, another the Italian, and so on. 
She asked me which of them became her 
best ? I answered, in my judgment the 
Italian dress; which answer I found 
pleased her well, for she delighted to 
show her golden-coloured hair, wearing 
a caul ana bonnet, as they do in Italr. 
Ilcr hair was rather reddish than yel- 
low, curled in appearance naturally. 
She desired to know what colour of 
hair was reputed best ; and whether my 
Queen's hair or her^s was best ; and 
which of them was fiiirest ? I answered, 
the fairest of them both was not their 
worst faults, liut she was earnest with 
mo to declare which of them I judged 
fairest. I said she was the fairest queen 
in England, and mine in Scotland ; yet 
still she appeared earnest. I then told 
her, they were both the fairest ladies iu 
their respective countries ; that her Ma- 
jesty was whiter, but my Queen WM 
very loTely. She inqoired, which of 



them was highest in stature ? I said, 
my Queen. Then, said she, she is too 
highf for I myself am neither too high 
nof too low. Then she asked, what ex- 
ercises she used ? I replied, that when 
I received my despatch, the Queen was 
lately come from the Highland hunting. 
That when her more serious affairs per- 
mitted, she was tuk(rn up with reading 
of histories ; that SDmetimes slic recrc- 
atcfl herself in playing u])on the lute 
and virginals. She inquired if she 

if I could speA Italian, which aheifili 
reasonahly wcU. I told her Hajcrty I 
had no time to learn that language, aol 
having hccn ahovc two montlu in Italy. 
Then she spoke to me in Dutch, whin 
was not good ; and would know what 
kind of hooks I most delighted in, whe- 
ther theology, history, or lore maiUrt! 
I said I liked well of aU the sorts. 

** 1 now took occasion to pea ear- 
nestly my dcsnatch : she md I wai 
soimcr weary or her company than ths 

played well } I said, reasonably for a was of mine. I told her Majeity, that 


" That same day, after dinner, my Lord 
of Hunsdon drew me up to a quiet ^- 
lery, that I might hear some music — 
hut he said ho durst not avow it — where 
I might hear the Queen play upon the 
virginals. After I had hearkened a 
while, I stood by the tapestry that hung 
before the door of the chamber, and 
seeing her back was towards the door, I 
ventured within the chamber, and stood 
at a pretty space, hearing her play ex- 
cellently welt ; but she E^ft off imme- 
diately, as soon as she turned about and 
saw me. She appeared surprised, and 
came forward, seeming to strike me 
with her hand ; alleging that she used 
not to play before men, but when she 
was suntury, to shun melancholy. She 
asked how 1 came there } I answered, 
as I was walking with my Lord of 
Uunsdon, we passed by the chamber 
door — I heard such mclodv as ravished 
me, whereby I was drawn m ere 1 knew 
how ; excusing my fault of homeliness, 
as being brought up in the court of 
France, where such freedom was allowed; 
declaring myself willing to endure what- 
ever punishment her Majesty should be 
pleasL'd to inflict upon me, for so great 
an offence. Then she sat down low 
upon a cushion, and I upon my knees 
by her, but with her own tiand she gave 
me a cushion to phicc under my knee ; 
which at first I refused, but she com- 
pi'llcd me to take it. She then called 
for my Lady Strafford out of the next 
cliambi r, for the Queen was alone. She 
inquired whether my Queen or she 
played best.' In that I found myself 
obUecd to give her the praise. She'said 
ny French was very good; and asked 

though i had no reason to be weary, I 
knew my mistress's affairs called m 
home. Vet I was detained two ^Mn 
longer, that I might see her danea, it I 
was afterwards iuormed. Whidi being 
over, she inquired of me whether she «r 
my Queen danced bcst.^ I answered 
the Queen danced not so kigk, norio 
disposedly as she did. Then again ihe 
wished that she mieht seo the Qaeea at 
some convenient place of meeting. I 
offered to convey ner secretly to Scot- 
land, by post horses, clothed like a page ; 
that under this disguise she might see 
the Queen ; as James the Fifth had 

5 one in disguise with his own ambasn- 
or, to see the Duke of Vendome's ns 
ter, who should have been hii wife. 
Telling her that her chamber night be 
kept in her absence as though she were 
siclc, that none need bo privy therelO) 
except Lady Strafford, and one of the 
grooms of her chamber. She appeared 
to like that kind of language, bat oaly 
answered it with a sigh, saying, ^Alsi! 
if I might do it thus !' 1 then with- 

" About this period," Mtyi Kanntaa, 
in his Fragmenta RrgtUa^ ** Bowver, a 
gentleman of the black nd, oeiRg 
charged by the Queen's exprtai eeea- 
mand to look precisely into aU tAuir 
sions into the pri\7 chamber, one day 
stopptHl a very gay captain, a follower « 
lA'ieester's, from entrance, for that he 
was neither well known, nor a s«an 
servant to the Queen : at which KMbSi 
the gentleman, bearing hi^ on my lofd*i 
favour, told him, he might peichaaei 
procure him his discharge. LeictiW 
coming in at this moment, nid miKidy 
(which was none of hia imb^i thil 



Bowjer wti a kn«Tc, ind should not 
contume lon^ in his office ; and so tam- 
ing about to go into the Queen's cham- 
ber; but Howycr, boldly stepping before 
him, and foiling at the Uuei-ii's feet, re- 
lated the story, and humbly uskiil 
whether I.(-ic«-sterwas King, or'hcr Ma- 
jesty Queen r Whereunto she said, witli 
her wunted oath, * God's death ! my 
lord, I have wished you well, but ray 
CsTour is not so locked up for you, that 
others shall not partake thereof; for I 
hare many serrants, to whom I shall, ut 
mT pleasure, bestow my favour, and like- 
wise resume the same : amd if you think 
to mk Anv, I will take a course to see 
joa forthcoming; / v^iii hare here but 
cme mistrtJta mnd mo matter I and look 
that no ill happen to him, lest it be re- 
quired at your hands V which words so 
ouelled my Lord of Leicester, that his 
h^gned humility was long after ono of 
his best Tirtoes !" 

That sincere, npright, courageous 
nobleman, the Earl of Sussex, and Lord 
Chamberlain, was endowed with suffi- 
cient penetration to detect, beneath the 
Teil or artifice and hrpocrisy nnder which 
they were concealed, the monstrous 
fiewi of the Queen's fiiTourite, Leicester ; 
and he could not, without disgust and 
indignation, behold a Princess, whose 
blood he shared, and in whose sonricc 
he had entered with defotion, the dupe 
(rf so despicable and pernicious a syeo- 
phanL That influence which he saw 
Leicester abuse, to the dishonour of the 
Queen and the detriment of the coun- 
try, he undertook to oTerthrow, by fair 
and public means; and without motives 
of personal interest or ambition. There 
mingled also in the breast of the high- 
born Snswx, a thorough disdain of the 
origin of Dudley, with a just abhorrence 
of his character and conduct He was 
wont to saT of him, that two ancestors 
were all that he could remember — his 
fatlier and grandfather — both traitors to 
their country. Ilis sarcasms rous«.*d in 
Leicester the most deadly animosity. 
With the exception of Cecil and his 
friends, who remained neuter, the whole 
0oart dirided into factions upon the 
^oaml of these two powerful peers: 

* to Nib cxtiiBiitj wen matten car- 

ried, that for some time neither of them 
would stir abroad without a numerous 
armed train. The Queen herstlf had 
much difficulty in restraining these no- 
blemen from breaking out into actual 
vioUncc: at length, however, she sum- 
moned them both into her presence, and 
forced them to a temporary reconcilia- 

The storm, under which the farourito 
had yielded for a time, quickly passed 
over, and he once more resumed his 
haughty demeanour. To revenge him- 
self on Sussex was, however, beyond his 
power. The well-groun<led confidence 
of Elizabeth in his abilities and his at- 
tachment to her person, he found to bo 
immoveable ; but be so fur succeeded as to 
induce Elizabeth to send his adversary 
to an honourable exile, in the shape of on 
embassy to the Imperial court When 
Sussex returned from this mission, the 
Queen named him I/ord President of tho 
North — an office which etjuallv removed 
him from court intrieuc. )Cot long 
after, the hand of death terminated his 
honourable career and the implacable 
enmity of Leicester. As he lav on his 
death4)ed, Sussex thus addresseu his sur- 
rounding friends : — '* I am now passing 
into another world, and must leave you 
to your fortune.^, and to tho Queen's 
grace and goodness : but beware of the 
(f'P^V Leicester, for he will be too hard 
for you all ; vou know not the beatt so 
well as I do f" 

About this period [1566] the beauti- 
ful Ladv Mary (Jrey, sister to the cele- 
brated Lady Jane and Lady Catherine 
Orey, of royal lineage, married Martin 
Kavs, of Kent, esquire, a judge at court. 
** ilonr Grey," says Fuller, *' frightetl 
with tne infelicity of her two eldest sis- 
ters, Jane and Catherine, forgot her ho- 
nour to remember her safetv ; and mar- 
ried one whom she could love and none 
need fear, Martin Kavs, of Kent, who 
was a judge at rourt — (but only of doubt- 
ful costs at dice, being sergeant p<»rter) 
— and died witiiout issue." Klizab* th, 
according to her usual practic<.^ in simi- 
lar cases, when the blood royal was de- 
filed, sent both husband and wife to pri- 
son. The unfortunate bdy did not, it 
would appear, sufficiently "remember 



Ker safety" in forming this connection, 
obscure and humble as it was ; for all 
matrimony had now become oifcnsive to 
the matrh-marring Queen. After the 
death of her husband. Lady Mary Grey 
was consi^ed to the care of Sir "fhomas 
Gresham, the eminent merchant, where 
the remained fur three years, and was 
then liberated, through the kind inter- 
cession of Sir Thomas, who wrote to 
Lord liurleigh on her behalf. 

Elizabeth was remarkably fond of 
proycrbs and quaint aphorisms; and 
although througnout her epistolary cor- 
respondence this marked trait in her 
character is eyident, it is nowhere so 
fully displayed as in the subjoined pe- 
dantic letter, in which she prescribes to 
Sir Henry Sidney, the Governor of Ire- 
land, the part he'is to take on the occa- 
sion of the fierce feud between the Irish 
Earls of Desmond and Ormond : — 

•* IlABnT, 

'* If our partial slender ma- 
naging of the contentious nuarrel be- 
tween the two Irish Earls did not make 
the way to cause these lines to pass my 
hand, this gibberish should hardly have 
cumbered your eyes ; but warned by 
mj former fault, and dreading worser 
hap to come, I rede you take good heed 
that the good subjects lost state be so 
rcyenged, that I hear not the rest be 
won to a right byeway to breed more 
traitor's stocks, and so the goal is gone. 
Make some dififi'rcncc between tried, 
just, and false friends. liCt the good 
service of well-di'servers be never re- 
warded with loss. lA't their thanks be 
such as may encourage more strivers 
for the like. Suffer not that Desmond's 
denying deeds for wide from promised 
works, make you trust to other pledge 
than either himself or John for g^e : 
he hath so well performed his English 
yows, that I warn you to trust him no 
longer that you see one of them. Pro- 
metheus let mc bo; Epiinetheiu hath 
been mine too long. I pray God your 
old strange sheep, late (as you say) re- 
turned into the fold, wore not her woolly 
ffarment upon her wolvy back. Tou 
know a kingdom knowi no kindred ; •• 

I to harm is perilous in the hand of n 
ambitious head. Where might ii mixed 

' with wit, there is too good an accord ii 

j a government. Fssays be oft dangerous; 

, especially when the cup-bearer hatb re- 
ceived such a preservative aa, what 
mightsoever betide the drinkcr't draught, 
the carrier takes no bane thereby. 

** Believe not, though they swear, that 
they can be full sound whose parents 
sought the rule that they full fain wonld 
have. I warrant you the j will never be 

' accused of bastardy ; you were to hlane 
to lay it to their cnaige ; tbej wiUtnee 
the steps that others nave passed before. 
If I had not espied, though Terj 1^ 
legerdemain usea in these cases, I had 
never played my part. No, if I did not 
see the balances held awry, I bad never 
myself come into the wcigh-honse. I 
hope I shall have so good a customer ia 
you, that all other officers shall do their 
^utj among you. If aught have been 
amiss at home, I will patch, though I 
cannot whole it. Let us not, nor no 
more do you, consult so long as tiU ad- 
vice come too late to the givers ; where 
then shall we wish the deeds while all 
was spent in words? A fool too bts 
bewares when all the peril is passed. If 
we still advise, we shiul never do ; thai 
arc we still knitting a knot never tied; 
yea. and if our loom be framed irith rot- 
ten hurdles, when our web is well nigh 
done, our work is to begin anew. God 
send the weaver true 'prentices again, 
and let them be denizens, I pray you, if 
they be not citizens ; and such, too, ii 
your ancientest aldermen, that now dwcD 
in your official place, have had best < 
to commend their good behaviour. 
"Let this memorial be <nily 
mitted to Vulcan's base keeping, with, 
out any longer abode than tne mdiig 
thereof; yea, and with no mention made 
thereof to any other wight I ^aifs 
you as I may command yon. Seen not 
to have had but the secretaxy'a letter 
from me. 

*^ Your loving Mistrcw. 

" EmsBTrg, B,* 

In June, 1566, Mary, Qneoa of Seolib 
was safely delivered of a MB. SirJi ~ 



with tKe newi to ElUabeth; ind, in 
bis " Memoirs," we hare the following 
graphic sketch of his mission : — " fiy 
twfiTe of the clock I took horse, and 
was that night at Berwick. The 
fourth day after, I was at London, and 
did first meet with my brother Robert 
(then ambassador to En^land^, wbo that 
same night sent and inrormea Secretary 
Cecil of my arriTal, and of the birth of 
the Prince, desiring him to keep it quiet 
till mT coming to court to announce it 
myself unto her Majesty, who was resid- 
ing for the time at Greenwich, where 
she was in great mirth, dancing after 
supper. But so soon as the Seo^tary 
Cecil whinered in her ear the news of 
the Princes Inrth, all her mirth was laid 
aside for that night ; all present mar- 
relliag whence proceeded such a change, 
fur the Queen aid sit down, putting her 
hand under her chedL, and bursting out 
to some of her ladies, that the Queen of 
Scots was mother of a fair son, whif$ tMe 
inu hmi m barren Mtoek ! 

'* The next morning was appointed for 
me to get audience ; at which time my 
brother and I went by water to Green- 
wich, and were met by some friends, 
who told us how sorrowful her Maiesty 
was at my news ; bnt that she had been 
sdriaed to show a glad and cheerful 
eounteaance : which she did in her best 
apparel, saying that the joyful news of 
t£e Queen, her sister's deurery of a fair 
son, which I had sent her by Secretary 
Cecil, had recovered her out of a heary 
sickneas, which ihe had lain under for 
fifteen days. Therefore, she welcomed 
me with a merry fiioe, and thanked me 
for hastening to give her that welcome 
intelligenoe. The next day, she sent 
me her letter, with the present of a rich 

Elixabeth accepted, with a good grace, 
the ofllce of ^onsor to the young Prince 
of Scotland; sending thither, as her 

frozies, tha Earl of Bedford, a son of 
iord Hnnadon, and seTcral knights and 
gentlemen. These met with a cordial 
reception from Hair, who was now at 
open Tariance with ner husband. The 
preae&t sent by Elizabeth, as the royal 
godBolber, eonaisted of a rich font of 
pmgtoldy of tiMfilM of Qpwaidt al ona 

thousand pounds ; in return for which, 
rines, rich chains of diamond and pearl, 
andother preciou8JewelB,were bountifully 
bestowed on the proxies of Elizabeth. 

The delicate subject of a successor to 
the throne was again revifed in the 
House of Commons, in defiance of the 
opposition of the court party, who rei- 
terated ** that the Queen was moved to 
marriage, and inclined to prosecute the 
same." A motion was carried, and a 
committee appointed to confer with the 
lords on the subject. The Queen then 
required a deputation from both houses 
to wait upon her, which baring been 
agreed to, the lord keeper explained 
their sentiments, in a long speech, to 
which her Majesty was pleased, in her 
usual indirect way, to reply: "As to 
my marriage, a silent thought might 
senre. I thought it had been so desired 
that no other tree's blossom should have 
been minded, or ever any hope of fruit 
had been denied them. But if anj 
doubted that I am by word or determi- 
nation never bent to tread in that kind 
of life, I desire them to put aside that 
sort of heresy ; for their belief is indeed 
mistaken. And although I might 
think it best for a private woman, yet I 
strive with myself to think it not meet 
for a Princess. As to the succession, I 
desire them not to think that they had 
needed this desire, if I had seen a' time 
so fit, and it was so ripe as to be de- 
clared. That for their comfort, I bad 
good record in that place that other 
means than they mentiouMi had been 
thought of for their good, as much as for 
my own surety; which, if they could 
have been conveniently executed,' it had 
not been now deferred or ovei^slipped. 
That I hope to die in quiet, with JSune 
LimittUy which could not be without I 
see some glimpse of their following 
surety after my graved bones." 

These vague and unmeaning sentcnoes 
tended little to the satisfaction of the 
House of Commons ; and a motion was 
made and carried, to persevere in the 
remonstrance against the Queen's de- 
layins^ her marriage any longer. At 
tlus bold step her Majesty was so en- 
raged, Uiat she communicated, through 
Sir Francif KdoUm, her pontLTt QQm!» 



Bland to the house, to proceed no further . 
in this business, satisfying themselves ' 
with the promise of marriage which she 
bad made on the solemn word of a queen. 
But Paul Wentworth, a sturdy, inde- 
pendent member of the Common*, would 
not tamely submit to this pruhibition ; 
and he ajrain movi'd the house on the j 
question, whtther the late command of 
her Majtsty was not a breach of its 
pririli ?»« r The Queen hereupon issued 
an injunction, that there should be no 
debates on this point ; but the tone of 
resistance was so loud in the Commons 
against this her arbitrary interference, 
that she found it exnedient, a few days 
after, to rescind botn orders, insisting, 
howerer, on the condition, that the deli- 
cate subject should not at this time be 
furthrr dfbated. 

On proroguing Parliament, Elizabeth 
acquaint -d both housi-s with her extreme 
diiipUsuure at tht'ir interference regjird- 
ing a successor; a subjt'ct which she 
always chose to regard as belonging ex- 
clusively to her prerogative, and that 
though they might, perhaps, have after 
her one more learned or wiser, yet, she 
assured them, none could be more care- 
ful over them. And, therefore, she 
hade them henceforth bewsur how they 
proved the patience of their l*rince, as 
they had now done that of their Queen. 
Notwithstanding, she did not mean to 
make a Lent atChrisitmas, the most part 
of them, therefure, might assure them- 
sc>lvt>8, that they depurted high in her 
grace and fav(»ur. The Commons had 
offeriMl her an extraordinary subsidy, on 
condition of her naming lier successor, 
which she refused. Even of the ordinary 
supplies she remitted one fourth, smil- 
ingrfy remarking, ** It is as well for me 
to nave money in the coffers of my sub- 
jects, as in my own T* It was in this 
way she trifled' with the feelings of the 
nation ! 

In the Autumn of 1566, the Queen 
eonsented to honour with her presence 
the Universitv of Oxford, of which her 
favourite, Dudley, now Earl of Leicester, 
was elected chancellor. She was receired 
with the same cercmoniei as at Cam- 
Wd^ Learned addreaaet and ezhibi- 
tioBf Mwmttd her, and the harangniid 

the heads of the Unirerritj, not il 
Latin, but in Greek ! In Warton's H» 
tor)' of Kuf^lish Poetry, we find the M* 
lowing particuUrs of this cclcbraud visiL 

"In the magniftc«'nt hall of ChriiU 
church, the Queen was entertained wHk 
a Latin comedy, entitlc^l Marcus Geni* 
nus, the Latin tragedy of Progne, and 
an English comedy on the story of 
Palamon and Arcite ; all acted by ite- 
denU of the University. When the hrt 
pby was over, the Uoecn tninmoMd 
into her presence the poet (Richard 
Edwards), whom she loaded with thaaki 
and compliments ; and at the MSe tiai 
turning to her lords, she remariEcd, thM 
Palamon was so justly drawn as a low, 
that the author must have been in hwe 
himself; that Arcite was a right martial 
knight, baring a swart and maalj 
countenance, yet with the aspect of a 
Venus cbd in' armour ; that the lovWv 
Emilia was a rirgin of nncomipt«i 
purity and unblemiued simplicitT ; and 
that though she sung so sweetly, sad 
gathered flowers alone in the garden, 
her deportment was chaste and maidraly. 
The part of Emilia^ the only iemtltyati 
in the pUy, was acted by a boy of Idv- 
teen, whose performance so captivated 
her Majesty, toatshe made him a present 
of a purse of gold. During the pei fo ca- 
ance, a cry of hounds^ belonging to 
Theseus, was counterfeited withoot. ia 
the great square of the college. The 
young students not in the aecret, tbom^t 
it a rnil chase, and were seixed with a 
sudden transport to join thehnnten; at 
which the Queen cried out from her box, 
*0h, excellent! these boys, in very 
troth, are ready to leap oot of tha win- 
dows to follow the hounds T" 

The Yice-ChanceUor wai*Dr. Lmr- 
rence Humphreys. He had laldy beea 
distinguished for hia stienucw 
tion to the Queen's injnnctiona, 
ing the habits and eeremoniea 
University. When he eame fbcth ia 
procession to meet her Majeaty, on thii 
auspicious visit, the Qneen oonld nsC 
refrain sayinjg, with a gractona aaila, is 
she exteuiled to him her hand to kifl^ 
*' That loose gown, doctor, beeo— yet 
mijj^ty well ; I wondo' yoor MliiH ef 
thing! ihoiild be ao Buvow r* 

• oftbt 


Tbe hoabandortlicimfoTtQDsteMu;, 
tnccn of Scots, neriihed by ■ riolent 
mtb, on tfas ninth of Febnurv, 1667. 
Enbeth diipluyed on thii trsgical oc- 
nioa the ntmoM rooderatiog and kind- 
ML She umoDnEed t-i the Conntcst of 
CBnoi, the mother of Damler, wbom 
» famd utntrwil]' imprtKiiied ia the 
over, the frightful csuatroplie vhicb 
■d eloMd the butorj of her ill-fated 
m. The liberMion of the Counlcu 
iwfrtiiti Ij folloired; and the Eul, 
w haifaaDd, aoon after grMihtd ElUa- 
rtk in her deaire of interfenng with her 
Kin and aaaiatanee, by praciiriiig her 
d to obtain an eztenaion of the time 
lowed km to bring forward hii proob 
part Bothwall, wbom he had pitblid; 
•Mad of tb ■aiaawnation of bar Km. 
I lb« Bmteigh Papera there ia a CDrioiu 
lt« tnm Secretary Ceeil to Sir llentr 
_i.^ .».k._j.» m France, in which 


' the foUowing aUiuioc a made to thia 

" I bare itayed your ■on from 
going hence now iheu two dayi. upon 
tba Queen's coianiand, for uat sh« 
would hnve bim lo know aa moch of tha 
[mtb of the circunutoocea of the murder 
of the King of Scots as might be ; and 
hitherto the HUne is haul to come by, 
atheniae than gemn^ rumoun. The 
Qoccii'b Majcslyscnt yeaterday my lady 
lioward and my wife to the Lady Len- 
nox, in the Tower, to open thia matter 
unto her ; she cokUd not, by any meana, 
be kept from anch passions of mind ita 
the horribleneia of the fact did inqiiie. 
And this last night were with the aaid 
Udy, the Dean of Westminster and Dr. 
" ■ ' and I hope her Hajeatv will 
' "■" " aaid lady, 

a for the as 


tUmtiKf Uttn fnm t\t Earl of S>u»a la Elaatflh—Xiay, Qucm ef StoU, 
mfff /ram LedUntn Cailk mla Etiflaiid—ElieaietA dtfamt her im u^lmtf, 
tmifniUrtf her pnpotti marriage tcilh ycr/elk— Papal Boll againil £lua- 
l&Uh—TIU C^ttn'i vui't lo tin Sayai Exekat^t—Ikath of nrogmorUH— Trial 
tat tneuluH a/ Xar/olk—Soniul by EtiuActk — Leifeiltri eonnection wilh Ladjf 
Si^tM—AjialAer tagml fanmriU—Lord Burleish—Elivbeih and Lady SArrof 
h uy DhM 0/ tka Mankat of IrtUmd—Semarkabtt Utter of ElitabttK reaptet- 
im§ LtiettUr — Tit Ditkt of Anjatit prepotal of atarritg* — Ltitaitr't marritfa 
— Xaft of Sii'iaiitJi— Quarrel ictieetn lAtcattr and tA* Iraak JSimy—A aket 
Jktdata* G 

" nia Bigbnesa is in person tulter 
sorely a good deal (ban my lord mar> 
quit; his hair and beard of a light 
auburn ; his face wtU proportioned, 
amiable, and of a good eompleiioa ; 
without show of redncsB or oTcr-pale- 
ncss ; his countenance and speech cheer- 
ful, Tery courteous, and not without 
some state; his body well ihapcdiWithout 
dcfaTmity of htemish', bis h 

was necessary to 
ika aome active steps to redeem her 
roBuae reapectinir her marTisge. Ac- 
>Tdiiigly, the Earl of Sussex was 
E^atchtd to VicnuH, to congratulate 
M EmperDr Muiimitian on bis coro- 
ttiou, and at tha acme time to treat 
ith hia brother, the Archduke Charles, 
■yeetnv ^ knig-agilotad tuniage 

propoitioned, a; 



tor bis fUtore; bis feet as good as 

^ So, as upon mj datr to your 5f a. 
jesty, I find not one deforraitr, mis- 
sbape, nor any tbini^ to be noted worthy 
disliking in bis wbole pemon ; but coii- 
trariirisc, I find bis wbole shape to be 
^ood, worthy commendation and liking 
in all respects, and such as is rarely to be 
found in such a Prince. His Highness, 
besides his natural lansroagc of Dutch, 
speakcth Tery well SpuiL'ih and Italian, 
and, as I bear, Latin. His dealings 
with me are very wise ; bis conversations 
fuch as much contenteth me ; and none 
retumetb discontented from bis com- 
pany. He is greatly beloved here of all 
men ; the cbiefest gallants of these parts 
are bis men, and follow his court ; the 
most of them have travelled other conn- 
tries, speak many languages, and behave 
thcroscjves properly ; and truly we can- 
not be so glad to have him come to us, 
as they will be sad to have him go from 
them. He is reported to be wise, liberal, 
valiant, and of great courage ; which, in 
the l&st wars, be well shewed in defend- 
ing bis country from the Turks with his 
own force alone, and giving them divers 
overthrows when they attempted any 
thing against bis rules; and be is uni- 
Tersally (which I most weigh) noted to 
be of such virtue as be was never spotted 
or touched with any noteable vice or 
crime, which is much in a Prince of bis 
years, endowed with such qualities. He 
delighteth much in bunting, riding, 
hawking, exercise of feats of arms, and 
bearing of music, whereof he hath good 
practice. He hath some understanding 
m astronomy and cosmography, ana 
taketb pleasure in clocks that set forth 
the course of the planets. 

" He bath for his portion the countries 
of Styria, Carinthia, Friola, Trieste, 
and I stria : and bath the government of 
what is left in Crotia ; wherein he may 
ride without entering into any other 
man*8 territories, near three hundred 

On the twenty-sixth of October, be 
again writes to her Majesty : — i 

** Since the despatch of mv other | 
letters, upon the resolution of the Km- 
pmeadthe As^dnke, I took occasion I 

to go to the latter; neouBg Id 
him to the bottom in all caMti, aad m 
find whether soeh matter as he bad ut- 
tered to me before, proceeded from luau 
bond Jklc, or were mit words of ktWL 

**Uis Highness answered: — *Coal, 
I have beard by the Enperar of At 
order of yonr dealing with him, tad I 
have bad dealings with yon mvadf; 
wherewith he and I rest very well cob* 
tented : but tmly, I never rested moit 
contented of any 'tbin^ tbaa I do of tkii 
dealing, wfaerem, besides yoor ditrti 
her tluit bath trusted yon, job Am 
what yon are yourself, for the which I 
honour yon as you are worthy/ — Ptodoa 
me, I beseech yonr Maieatr, in wiiti^^ 
the words be spake of himadC far they 
serve to indicate bis natural diipMitim 
and inclination : — * And ahboogh I hm 
always bad a good h<^ of the Qaeofs 
honourable dealing in this manner, yd 
I have heard so much of her nc»t moa- 
ing to marry, as might give me caaK to 
suspect the worst; bnt nndeistandiBg 
by the Emperor yoor manner d dealing 
with him — perceiving as I do in es eall r 
bv vonr words, I tiiink mvielf howai 
(n herewith be doffed his cap) to honov, 
love, and serve her Majcrrty while I 
live; and will firmly crrait what ysa 
on her Majestv*B behalf hare said ; nd, 
therefore, so t might hope her Msgcrty 
would bear with me for my eonacienee.* 
I know not that thing in the worid that 
I would refuse to do at her oommani. 
.\nd surely I have from the beginning 
of thb matter settled my heart anon 
her, and never thon^t of any ocW 
wife, if she woold think me worthr to 
be her husband ; and therefore he ftsli 
to inform her Majesty truly bcretn, lor 
I will not fail in my part of anything> 
as I trust sufficient appeareth to yon ky 
what I have heretofore said.' 

<' In such like talk, to thia cfect," 
proceeds Sussex, **bis Highness ncBt 
almost two hours with me, which I have 
thought my duty to acquaint yoor Ma- 
jesty ; and herenpon I gather, that re- 
putation mletb him much for the pR> 
sent in this case of religion ; and thst 
if God couple yon together in likinr, 
you shall have of him a true huban^ 
* The Anhdaka Charias 



a loiwing comiMmion, a wiie oomisellor, 
and a mithfal iciTaiit; and we shall 
have at Tiiiuoiu a prinee as erer ruled : 
God grant (thougn joa are worthy a 

rit deal better than he, if he were to 
found) that our wickedness be not 
such as we should be unworthy of him, 
or of such as he is."* 

Erery reader must regret, who peruses 
these interesting letters, that the ncgo- 
tiation should, like all others that had 
preceded it, have failed of the desired 
success. Beligion, it would appear, 
furnished the omy objection which could 
be ursed against the marriage ; and the 
Archduke merely stipulated for the per- 
tonnanoe of Catholic worship in a pri- 
Tate room of the palace, at which none 
but himself and ms attendants should 
be present. He consented to accom- 
paBT the Qneen regularly to the services 
of tne Church of England ; and for a 
time to suspend the exercise of his own 
religion, should any disputes arise. In 
short, he asked no greater indul^nce 
on Uiis point, than what was enjoyed 
bj all the ambassadors of Catholic 
prinoei. But even this, it was affirmed, 
was more than the Queen could grant 
with safety. The majority of the people, 
howerer, beliered tnat Leicester, the 
Queen's fiiTourite, was at the bottom of 
aU— that he it was who thwarted the 
negotiations, by means of one of his 
own creatures, for whom h$ had pro- 
emtd the tetond rank in Ihe embassy of 
the Earl of Susmx, He also laboured 
night and day in prejudicing the mind 
of Elixabeth against the proposed union, 
which would hsTe put a finishing stroke 
to his fiiTOuritism. 

On the second of May, 1568, Mary, 
Qneen of Scots, who had for some time 
been confined a prisoner in Lochlcven 
castle, by her rebellious subjects, escaped 
from thence by means of a youth named 
Gcorsv Douglas, to whose brother she 
had been committed in charge, and re* 
paired to Hamilton castle, where, with 
the unanimous consent of all the nobles, 
who flocked thither in great nuipbcrs, a 
definite decree was issued, declaring that 
the act of resignation, extorted by fear 
frma the prisoner Queen, was null and 
• Lodgt's lUostnUioas. 

▼old ; and the Queen herself, being pre. 
sent, took a solemn oath that it was ex- 
torted and forced from her. In two days 
such multitudes repaired to her from all 
parts, that she raised an army of six 
thousand men, and forthwith attacked 
the rebel army, headed by the Regent 
Murray. The result of the battle was 
disastrous to Mary, who betook herself 
to flight, and rode the some day a dis- 
tance of sixty miles ; when cominr by 
night to Maxwcltown, the seat of Lord 
Herries, she preferred exposing herself 
to the mercy of the sea, and relying 
upon Elizabeth's protection, than upon 
the fidelity of her faithless subjects. But 
before embarking, she sent to her a spe- 
cial messenger, with a valuable diamond 
that Elizabeth had formerly given her 
for a pledge of their mutual love and 
friendship, to acouaint her that she meant 
to come to England, and demand suc- 
cour from her, if her own subjects any 
longer pursued her by civil war. Eliza- 
beth promised her all the kindness and 
love of a royal sister ; Mary, however, 
did not wait the return of the messenger, 
but committed herself to the master of a 
small vessel, against the advice and 
counsel of her friends, and on the seven- 
teenth of May, with Lords Herries and 
Fleming, and some few others, arrived 
at Warrington, in Cumberland. The 
same day, she wrote to Elizabeth a let- 
ter in French, detailing the wrongs she 
had suffered, her present misfortunes, 
and imploring to be admitted to a per- 
sonal conference with her. 

Elizabeth pretended to be moved by 
this affecting epistle, and in letters, an^ 
by the mouth of Sir F'rancis Knowles 
and others, she promised her assistance, 
according to the equity of her cause ; 
but, nevertheless, she refused her access 
to her person, and commanded that she 
should be conveyed to Carlisle, where 
she might remain in security ; and if her 
adversaries attempted any thing against 
her, the governor of the place and the 

fentlemen of the county would protect 
er. Having received this answer and 
refusal, Mary again wrote to Klizabcth, 
by the hands oi Lord Herries, beseech- 
ing more earnestly than heretofore to bo 
permitted to enter Elisabeth's presence, 



or else to bo allowed to depart to 

These letters, and the communications 
of Lord llcrrius, scvnud to move Eliza- 
beth to coni{)a<»5ion f<.>r a Princess, her 
near kinswoman, and one who, in deep 
distress, had thrown herself upon the 
protc-ction of the Kn^lish Queen, with 
the sure hope of findini^ aid and succour ; 
but this compassion, if sincere, speeilily 
gave w:iy to Am liners of reveni^. and a 
crui.l,s(:liish policy, which led Elizabeth to 
Tiolatc uU principles of ri^ht or justice, by 
detaining the roval fugitive, whom, in 
the end, she basuly brought to the scaf- 

No greater proof can be given of the 
innoecnct; of the unfortunate Mary, 
Queen of Scots, than the offer of mar- 
riage made her hv the Duke of Norfolk, 
the highest iiohlrman at the court of 
Elizukth ; and nothing can more fully 
prove the scent rancour, malignity, and 
jealousy of Elizabeth, than her .suueess- 
ful rndeavours to rirt-vint the mateli tak- 
ing place. Tlie hrst rumours of this 
inteuded marriage reached the ears of 
£lizab«;th by some of those crafty and 
curious courtezans, who are always ready 
to pry into and find out the st-crets of 
lovers. On learning how matters stood, 
the Duke of Norfolk laboured with his 
utmost power to make a proposition for 
this marriage with Mary to the Queen j 
of Engliud. For this end he consulted 
the liirU of I^icester and Pembroke, i 
and Sir Nicholas Tlirogmorton, but j 
finally kept putting it off, and deferrintr j 
it i'rum Uay to day, txpeetirig a litter . 
time and opjwrtunity. (.Veil, seeing the 
I>uke perpk'Xed in his miud, and know- 
ing also the caase, advised him to de- 
clare the matter at once to the Queen, 
in order that all obstacles to the matrh 
miirlit the s<»on>:r be taken awav. ]{ut 
the Earl of Lcici*stcr was averse to that 
pri>ceL-ding, and promised to propounil 
the same to her Maj<^ty, when she 
Bh<iuld walk abroad in the fii-lds. Itut 
whilst h«', by great ciurtcsv, tlius de- ■ 
f«rrtd the niattir, Elizal« ill, bi-ing it 
Faniham, caust-d the Duku of Norfolk | 
to appni.'ieh near unto her table, and ., 
with a most grave and serious smile, ' 
warned him, ** Tkmi he urko repated, and \ 

retted himteff on m fuekiom, ekemU Iklp 
heed^ and look to hiwutlf" At the WM 
time, the Queen took the Doke andt 
into a gnllcry, where she rehnked hia 
sharplv for having sought the Qoeeii of 
Scots in marriage without her leareaad 
permission, commanding him at his peril 
to prosecute the matter. The Doke 
promised to comply, but discerning thjt 
her Majesty was irritated against bin, 
and perceiving, also, that many noble- 
men withdrew themselTes br degrMS 
from his familiarity, departedT forLoa- 
don, without leave, and, upon the wajr* 
took up his abode at the mansion of t&c 
Earl of Pembroke — a nobleman who so. 
laceil and consoled him in his afflirtioB. 
That very day, Elizabeth, moved with 
anger, refused to set at liberty the prisuner 
Queen ; and to the Scottish ambassador, 
who implored it of her Majetty, she cnni- 
manded that she should behave hem-lf 
peaceably, or ehe the ehotUd ete short/jf. 
th'jue upon frhoin nhe movt rriied. nU ef 
attd beheaded ! The J}mhe of yorfitii mit 
a/fenrarde wnt to the Toicer. 

"Finally," says the early historiii 
from whom we extract theseintertsiiag 
particulars, " the Earl of Leicester, bein^ 
atTichtieldi, and dreading the aneer of £lk 
zabeth, from the part wliich he Lad acted 
in this affair, feigned himself suddenly ill, 
and being immcdiateW visited and ^ra- 
ciouniy comforted by the Queen, he wai 
seized with such fear, that her Majesty 
could easily discern it, beholding his hi*ed 
and vital tenee* to shrink in himseff, that 
ho dechired unto her all the busincM 
from the beginning, imploring her par. 
don with such sighs and tears, that the 
Queen could not refrain from embraciDg 
her favourite." 

On the fifth of March, 1569, Pope 
IMus the V\(\h fulmiiiat«.>d n panal bull 
ag:un8t Elizabeth, pronouncing her. the 
pretended Queen of^ Enghind, an nsnrper 
of the sovereignty of the Church ia 
England, a heretic, and a farourvr of 
hrn-ties, and excommunicatintr her. and 
absolving her subjects from their oaibi 
of duty, fidelity, and obedience to h*T. 

This sentence greatly diseompoeed 
Elizabeth, who was not prc*^«rrd for 
such a mark of the Pope's displeasore: 
As a proof of the annojniioe it canMd 



her eouit, one Felton, wlio hid fixed the 
boll u|ion the gate of the Hishop of Lon- 
kma r&Iace, vna iininediat<iy taken, 
liied, found fTuilty, and hanged, cloee by 
ihe palace where' he had stuck up the 
sbouxious instrument He died, g^ory- . 
!ng in that he had suffered aa a martyr to , 
he Church of Rome. For the n>8t, the ' 
trail fell harmless on the head of Eliza- 
Deth. The principles of the Reforma- 
:ion had aln-ady made too much pro- 
rrais to he affected br the Pope*s angry 
effiRts, and the Catholic powers took no 
sotice of the circumstance, but renewed 
iheir intercourse with the court of Eli- 

In Januarr, 1571, the Queen, at- 
tended by a splendid train, entered the 
nty of London, and, after dining with 
Sir Thomas Gresham, the founder of the 
BoTal Exchange, repaired to the Bourse, 
vai minutely visited every part of iL 
The merchants of London had hitherto 
been unprovided with any building in 
the nature of a Bourse or Exchange, 
iQch as were established in the ^'at 
sommercial cities of Flanders. This de- 
lideratom Sir Thomas munificently of- 
Tervd to supply, if the City would' give 
bim a piece of ground for the purpose, 
ind to build them one at his own ex- 
pense. Accordingly, the edifice was be- 
pm in 1567, and nnished within three 
ri-ars. It was a quadrangle of brick, 
rith walks on the ground floor for the 
nerchants (who now ceased transacting 
;heir bwiness in the middle aisle of St. 
Paul's Cathedral), with vaults for warc- 
louscs beneath, and a ranj^ of shops 
ibove, from the rent of which the pro- 
nietor sought some remuneration for 
lis heavy outlay. The shops, however, 
et but slowlv, and it was partly with 
:he view of bringing them into vogue, 
:faat the Queen promised her countc- 
lanre to the undertaking. 

The spacious mansion of Sir Thomas 
[}rcsham, which Queen Elizabeth ho- 
loiircd with her presence, is situatt>d in 
bishopsgatc Street, and is still extant. 
Dn the oorasion of this memorable visit, 
the Queen cau-sed pru<'Ianmtion to bu 
Boadf; by sound of trumpet, that hence- 
forward Sir Thomas Gresham' h Bourse 
iSumld be called ** tho Buyal Exchange.** 

Gresham, ns an enconragement to the 
citizenS: offered to let the shops rent-free 
for one year, to all such as would fur^ 
nish them with wares, and wax-lights in 
honour of the Qut^en's visit; accord- 
ingly, a most gorgeous display was made, 
to captivate her Majesty, of the richest 
commodities and the must exquisite ma- 
nufactures, from all quarters of the 
globe. The result satisfied the san- 
guine expectations of Sir Thomas, 
and ever afterwards the shops of tho 
Royal Exchange became the favourite 
resort of the fashionable and mercantile 
world. Tho building was destroyed by 
the great fire of London. It was speedily 
rebuilt on a much more maguifieent 
scale, adorned in the centre of the square, 
in niches in the walls, with stone statues 
of all the Kings and Queens of tlngland. 
This last becune a prey to destruction 
on the tenth of January, 1838. The 
new Royal Exchange, commenced in 
1810, under the direction of the skilful 
architect, Mr. Tite, was opened by tho 
Queen in state, accompanied by her mi- 
nisters and a grand civic pniccssion, on 
the twcntv-eighth of Octoiter, 1844. 

About the year 1571, dit^ Sir Nicholas 
Throgmorton, tlie esteemed am)>assador 
of Elizabeth — a man of experience, judg- 
ment, and energy. Being at supper at 
the houMi of tho Earl of Leicester, while 
in the act of eating a salad, ho was sud- 
denly taken ill, and soon after expired. 
There were not wanting those who as- 
serted that he had been poisoned by L«*i- 
cester, whom he had deeply offended br 
quitting his party, to reconcile himseff 
with Cecil, who had recently been in- 
vested with tho dignity of Baron of 
Burli'igh, in reward for his long and 
faithful services. Tho hostility of I/ci- 
cester extended to other branches of tho 
family of Throgmorton. On some slight 
pretext, he procured from his royal mis- 
tress tlie dismissal of Sir John Throg. 
morton, the brother of Sir Nicholas, 
from his office of Chief Justice of Ches- 
ter — an unmerited disjpiico, which Sir 
John did not long survive. The proud 
nnd haughty Elizuoeth, and her favourite, 
Leici^stiT, never forgot tho manly b<rar- 
ing of Sir Nicholas, when he boldly 
gave the lie, by tho production of fait 

"8 "8 



own diplomatic instructions, to the crafty 
declarations of his own Queen, when he 
found that she was bent on the ruin of 
the innocent Mary of Scotland. 

After suffering a long imprisonment, 
tho unfortunate Duke of Norfolk, the 
last of the Howanls, was brought to 
trial, for the alleged offence of sending 
proposals of marriage to the unfortunate 
Queen Mary, while she was in the hands 
of her bitter enemy, Queen Elizabeth. 
That the Queen of England had the 
smallest right to interdict this marriage, 
is denied by the highest legal authori- 
ties. It was an act of cruel perfidy, and 
adds another deed to the catalogue of 
her numerous crimes. Norfolk had, in 
his first alarm at having been questioned 
on the subject by Elizabeth, in an un- 
guarded moment, been induced to pro- 
mise his Soverci<rn to abstain from pro- 
secuting his suit with the Scottish 
Queen ; but on recovering from his sur- 
prise, and recollecting the previous in- 
terchange between himself and Mary of 
the most solemn promises of marriage. 
he felt he was under obligations of foo 
Bocred a nature to be dirisoived by any 
▼erbal promise subse(iuentlv made to 
Elizabeth, As a chivalrous knight and 
a gentleman, the Duke was bound in 
honour, not only to endeavour to pro- 
cure the release of the captive Princess, 
by every lawful means in his power, but 
also to eltim, at all hazards, the fair 
hand whieh had been pliirhted to him, 
in full reliance upon his honour and 
fidelity. Impresst-d with these senti- 
mentsi the Duke, in return to a letter of 
eloquent remonstrance from Marv, which 
she found means to convey to him, sent 
her an answer, replete with the most so- 
lemn assurances of his inviolabtb con- 
stancy. This letter was intercepted by 
the emissaries of Elizabeth, and the 
Duke was forthwith put on his trial, on 
the ridiculous pretence of an attempt to 
dethrone Elizabeth, by uniting with 
Marv for that ostensible purpose. The 
Parliament, which was again assemblcKl 
after an interval of five years, passed 
some new laws for the protection of the 
Queen's person from the imminent pe- 
rils bv which they saw her environed. 
The iilustrioui Diulo was now brought 

before the tribnnal of the Howe of 
Lords, and having confcflied hia yMift,of 
intending to marry the Scottish Qneea, 
he being a subject of the Queen of Eng- 
land, he was found gnilty, and the Eari 
of Shrewsbunr, as Lord Iligh Steward, 
with tears in his cjea^ronounced sea- 
tcnce against him. llie Qaeen hesi- 
tated for some time in signing his death, 
warrant, but at length the fatal order 
was issued, and this high-minded noble- 
man was beheaded on Tower Hill, amid 
the lamentations of the multitude. Hii 
last words were, ** I die innocent, hut 
God will not let my death be nnre- 
vengedr* Then he wMspered some- 
thing to the Dean of St. l^uTs, who. 
turning to the people, said : ** The Duke 
entreateth you all to pray with him, that 
God would be merciful to him ; and tkdt 
you would be sikntj that hit spirit h not 
disturbed /*' He forgave his executioner, 
and refused to put the handkerchief orcr 
his face, which he offered him, sarins, 
"7/rtir not death T Then, kneeling 
down, his heart lifted np to God on high, 
he prostrated himself on the scaffold, the 
Dean pra)'ing intently with him ; then 
laying his neck over' the block, at one 
stroke his head was cnt off, which the 
executioner held up ! — a lamentable sigbt 
to the people, who sobbed aloud. — " It 
is almost incredible/* says an early his- 
torian, who was present at the spectacle, 
"'' how dt^rly the people loved him, and 
how, by his natural benignity and cour- 
teous actions, he had gained' the hearti 
of the multitude. He was so noUf 
bom, so gentle by nature, ao comely ii 
person, of so manly an aspect, so perfect 
m every respect ! He waa, in a word, 
the greatest honour and ornament of hii 
countrv !" 

In Puttenham's <'Arte of English 
Poesie,'* we find the following sonnet 
written by the Queen, soon after the 
execution of Norfolk. Its anthenticitY 
is unquestioned, and its principal merit 
consists in its being a royal effusion! 
and, so far, it is a curioeity worthy oar 
transcribing : — 

" The dnabt of future (bes exiles my 


And wit me wemi to chna aaeb 
thrsaten mine uwoj % 



For ftlMhood now doth flov, and nil^eeti' 

faith doth ebb, 
Which would not be If Reason ruled, or 

Wisdom veaTed the web. 
Bnt clondii of toys untried do cloak aspir- 
ing niindn, 
Which turn to rain of late repent by cause 

of chanfired winds. 
The top of hope supposed the root of truth 

will be! 
And fruitleM all their grafted guiles, as 

shortly ye shall see. 
Those daazliHl eyes with pride, with great 

ambition blinds, 
Shall be nnveiled by worthy wights, whose 

foreiight faliteliood finds. 
The daughter of Debate, that eke discord 

doth sow. 
Shall rpap no gain where former rule hath 

Uught still peace to grow. 
No foreign banish'd wight nhall anchor in 

this port, 
Onr realm it brooks no strangers' force, let 

them elsewhere resort. 
Our ruNty sword with rest ihall first his 

To pull their toJM that seek such change, 
and gape for Joy." 

In Lodjrc*8 Illustrations arc giycn se- 
Tcral letters from Lord Talbot to his 
fitthiT, the Karl of Shrewsbury, which 
diMlrise some curious details of the 
Queen's faTouritc, Leicester, and serve 
t*} more fully depict the recklessness of 
his character. In May, 1573, Lord 
Tulbot thus writes :— '* The Earl of Lei- 
cester is muck with her Majesty ; he is 
more than ever solicitous to please her, 
and is as hi^li in her favour as at any 
perioil uf his intercourse with the Queen ; 
but there art* two sisters. Lady Sheffield 
and Lady Frances Howard, who are 
oUo deeply in love with him, and conse- 
quently at variance with each other. 
On this account the Queen is very angry 
witli them, and, of course, not well pleased 
with Leicester; and has set spies to 
watch his motions. To such open de- 
monstrations of feminine jealousy does 
this great Queen condescend to have re- 
course I It appears, that a criminal in- 
timacy was known to subsist between 
I> icei'ter and I^idy Sheffield, even be- 
fore the death of Iter husband -, in con- 
st quoncc of which, this event was gc- 
n^ rally attributifl to the Italian art* of 
I>:ii'' ster. Lord Sheffield's death being 
sudden, and preceded by violent synip- 
fmis. In the commencement of tiiis 
year. Lady Sheffield bore him a son, 
WboM birth was carefully concealed, 

from fear of giving offence to the Queen, 
though many asserted that a private 
marriage had taken place. Aderwards, 
Leicester forsook the mother of his child 
to mam' the Countess of Essex, and the 
deserte({ lady became the wife of ano- 
ther.*' Many yean after the death of 
Leicester, this son, who was styled Sir 
Robert Dudley, and to whom his father 
had left a great part of his fortune, laid 
claim to tiic family honours ; bringing 
several witnesses to prove his mother's 
marriage, and, amon^ others, the lady 
hersc-lf. The luttt-T declared, on oath, 
that Leicester, in order to compel her 
to form that subsequent marriage in his 
life-time, which had deprived her of 
the power of reclaiming him as her 
husband, had employed the most violent 
menaces ; and had even attem|)ted her 
life by a poisonous potion, which had 
thrown her into a fit of alarming illness, 
and caused the hair of her head and her 
nails to drop off I After this extraor- 
dinary evidence, the heirs of Leicester 
endeavouHMl to stiv proceedings ; but 
Sir Bobcrt Dudl<7 ilicd bi-fore the mat- 
ter was adjusted. In tlic following 
reign the evidence was again renewal, 
and the title of Du<?he8s of Dudley was 
conferred on the widow of Sir liobert ; 
the patent setting forth, that the mar- 
riage of the >Iarl of Leicester with Lady 
Sheffield had been satisfactorily proved'! 
— Such were the villunies of tins cele- 
brated favourite, and wliat must be the 
character of the maiden Queen in the eyes 
of p<»sterity, when facts like these are 
proved ! 

Christopher Ilatton was a new com- 
petitor for the smiles of royalty; and 
Oright was the dawn of fortune and fa- 
vour which at this period awaited him. 
He was of a decayed family of Nor- 
thamptonshire, and had recently com- 
menced the f!tudy of the law at one of 
the inns of court, when hope or curi- 
osity prompted him to gain admittance 
at some court ft-stiviil, where he liad an 
opportunity of dancing iH-fore Klizalu ih 
in a mask. His personal tii;ure and 
gnueful uttitudi R so captivatid the fancy 
of the amorous Queen, that she immedi- 
at«ly bestowed upon him such flattering 
marks of attention as could not be mi*- 



nndcntood, whicb at once drcidcd the 
happy Bturlent to quit the dry profeftsion 
of the law, for the more consr^niul pur- 
Buitn of court fuTouritism. The hnnd- 
fomc appoarnnco and g:iv acconiplinh* 
mcnts of C'hristophor llattoii wire 
Qnexpictcdlv found to \w comhincd with 
an amiahio fioart and a solid understand- 
ing. He pr)5iSi'ssc<l a prudent, cautious 
ti'nipframcfit, witli the most cnliprhtt-ned 
Ticws of human nature ; and, after ma 
turi- delilK'Hition, Elizaheth, with that 
penetmtinir jud&rmcnt of men and mea- 
sures wliieh always distinpruished her 
condurt, and in di-Hanee of ridicule, and 
the opinions of the court, pradujdly pro 
in<»teu her new favourite, till at lensflh 
she ehvati'd him to tiie dimity of Lord 
Chanctllor. IIedi>char|j»'«l the arduous 
duties of his hi;ih office with prudence 
and ability, and >]n-edily liecam*- a ptne- 
ral favourite. He was the only one of 
Elizabeth's ministers who lived and 
died a bachelor; consequently he was 
exempt from all tliose. jeiilnusies and 
vexations which awaited those of the 
royal favourites who dared to ent«'r the 
married ptat<r. Lord Talbot mentions, 
that at tliis pcricnl Hattt»n was ill and 
Ci'jnfined to his hi d, and that the Quei-u 
went dtiily to visit him ; but that a party 
with whom Lei<'cster was loa;ru( d, were 
doini? all in their power to hrinp: fur- 
ward anrither royal favourite to supplant 
him. This jrentkman's name was Ed- 
ward Dyer : he had been for two years 
in disgrrace ; and as he was during all 
that time sufferinf^ under a bad state of 
health. Klizabeth was made to bilieve, 
that the continuance of her displeasure 
was the sole cause of his malady, and 
that his recover}- was considered hope- 
less, unless he received her royal par- 
don. The Queen immcdiatelr, on liear- 
ing this, despatched to the sick favour- 
ite a comfortfible UfeMsa^f, on receipt of 
which, the ixjor, sillv, weak genthnnn 
was restnrea to h«allhl Lord Talbot 
adds, *' to the honour of Lord liurliijrh, 
he concerned himself, as usual, only 
in slate atfaii's. and sutfered all tlhse love 
niatti rs and in-ttv court iiitri{|:uts to 
paK<( over without notice. 

Mary, Queen of Seotrs >" *^'<* y^**' 
1674, obtaiuc-d, not without difficulty on 

the part of Klizabctb, permiMon to r« 
pair to the baths of Buckstonc (Bnxtos 
NVells) for the rrcotery of her health; 
and a similar motive k-d thither the 
I^rd Treasurer llurleigh. Elizabeth 
remarked the coincidence, and when, t 
yt ar afterwards, it a^in occanvd, her 
(lisphasure broke^orth into sudden vio- 
lince. She openly accused her roinirtiT 
of enterin^r into inU:llifr«.'nce with Msry, 
bv means of the Earl of Shrewsbury and 
his lady, under whose charge she re* 
mained at Ituxton. It was with much 
difficulty that he succeeded in tppett»in^ 
the Queen. Tlie following extract from 
a letter, written by Burleigh himself to 
the ilarl of Shn^wsbury, will illnstrate 
this striking fact : — 

** My lord, it is over true, and over 
much against reason, that upon my be- 
in;; at Buckstone hist year, advantaee 
was s^»ught by some that loved me nut, 
to confirm in her Majcstv a formal con- 
creit which some had hiV»urcd to put 
into her head ; that I of bte time 
become friendly to the Quri-n of Scots, 
and that I had no disposition to thwart 
her practices ; and now, at my being at 
l:uck>time, her Majesty did directly con- 
ceive that niv hiding there was, by means 
of your lordship and my lady, to enter 
into intelligence with the Qnecn of 
Scots ; and hereof at my retnm to her 
Majesty's presence, I had very sharp rr 
])roofs for my going to Buckstone, with 
plain charging of me for favouring the 
Queen of ^)eut8 ; and that in so earnest 
a sort as I never hvoked for, knoning 
my integrity to her Majesty ; but, cspe- 
cii'illy, knowing how contrariously the 
( juet'n of Scots conceived of me for many 
things past. And yet, true it is, I never 
indeed gave just cause, by any private 
affection of my oikh. or for myself, to 
offend the Queen of Scots, but whatever 
I did was for the service of mine own 
lady and queen, which, if it were yet 
ag:iin to be done, I would do. And 
tliough I know mvself subject to con- 
trary workings of displeasure, yet I will 
not, for remedy of any of them, decline 
from the duty I owe to God and my 
sovereign queen. For I know and do 
understand, that I am in thia ooBtnry 



ftRt mtluioady npened, tad jet in w- 
cret Mrt; on tbe one put| and that of 
long time, tkmt I am tile wtMi tUmgerwu 
memy mnd eni wiikr to the Qtuen of 
Stett ; on the other fide, that I am also 
a Meret well-wilier to her and her title ; 
Mid that I have mad^ mj party good 
witii her. Now, mr lord, no man can 
nuke both theie tiiie together, but it 
nflleeth for inch aa like not me in do- 
ing mydnty, to deprive me; and yet 
■neb lort is done in darkness as I can- 
not set opportonitT to convince them in 
tho liffht In all these crossings, my 
good wrd, I appoi to God, who anow- 
eth, yea, I thank Him infinitely who 
dinrtcth, mj thonghts, to intendf prin- 
cipally the senriee and honour of God : 
Mid jointly with that, the surety and 
greatneai of my soTpreign lady, the 
Qncen'a Majesty : and for an? otHcr re* 
ipect bat wnat may tend to t&cse two, I 
^qieal to God to pnnish me, if I have 
any. Aa for the Queen of Scots, truly 
I nare no spot of evil meaning to her ; 
■8ith«r do Imeon to deal with any titles 
to the crown. If she shall intend any 
arilto the Queen's Majesty, m^ soto- 
icigB, for her nke I must and will im- 
pCMk ; and therein I may be unfriendly 
to lux or worse. . . . 

** My lord, I pray yon bear my scrib- 
bGnjr, whieb I think your lordship will 
banUy be aUu to read ; and yet I would 
not we any man's hand in such a matter 

^Tour lordsbip'i most assuri'd at 

"W. BuBT.Fion. 
"FWM Hampton Court, SSth Dec«mbcr, 

TheComten of Shrewsbury, a wo- 
■an rennrkable for a Tiolcnt,' restless, 
ttdintrigmnr spirit, concluded, in 1574, 
a mairbgo between Elixabcth CaTen- 
didi, her daughter by a former husband, 
and Charles Stuart, brother of I^rd 
Dunley, and next to the King of Scots 
in the order of succession to the crowns, 
both of England and Scotland. The 
noted enmity between Mary, Queen of 
Ssota, and tbe house of Lennox wait well 
kaownt notwithstanding which, YAiza- 
balh at oBoe raipectcd, that this union 

was the rrsnlt of some prirate intrigue 
between Lady Shnrwsbury and the rap- 
tire Queen. ' In i-onaequcDce, FJizabcth, 
with hcT usual cruelty in all caM^s of 
this deKription. committed ti primn, 
not only tiio mother of tbe briile, but 
also the unfortunnte Counti-ss of Len- 
nox, who wan destined to undergo nuch 
an act- umulation of sufferings for having 
been the innocent cause of indiieing her 
wn Darnlev to marry the Queen of 
Scots, thereny giving an heir to the Bri- 
tish throne ! it was by such cruet acts 
of oppression and illegal riolcnce that 
the fume of Elizabeth was tarniKhe<l, 
and her name handed down with infamy 
to pi)sterity. 

In the autumn of lo76, the death of 
Walter Derereux, Varl of Rsmi>x :ind 
Marshal of IreLtnd, took plac* in hub- 
lin. No domestic event had for a hmg 
time occasi'mtfl so Etnmg a HrnKatii»n 
at the court of Klixubetii. His un- 
timely end was dee]ily deplnre<). lie 
was Iciimiil. tik'ntetl, and nf illustnoiis 
descent, deriving part of his lien-ditary 
honours fp)m the nohh^ family of iJo^r- 
chicr, through a daughter of Thomas of 
Woodstock, voungest son of Fid ward the 
Third. In "his nineteenth year he suc- 
ceeded his grandfather, as Viscount 
Ilen.'ford, and, coming to court, attracted 
the merited commendations of £lizaheth, 
and tlic jealousy of LeiccRter. During 
a 8hort period, he was joined in cum- 
mission with tlie Karls of Huntingdon 
and Shrewsbury, for the safe kctpiiig of 
Alanr, tlic Scottish Queen. In the 
troubles of Scotland, he joined tlic 
royal army with all the forces he could 
muster, and in reward for his scrviciii, 
I'^izabeth conferrc-d on bim the order of 
the garter, and suhsequfntly inv<>flted 
him with the dignity of Karl of Eiwex. 
My these marks of royal favour, the jea- 
lousy of Ijcicester was strongly excited. 
In lo7t5, he was, through the agency of 
Leicester, for his (»wn vile purpobvs, sent 
to Ireland, with the title of Marshal of 
that country. His efforts to retitore or- 
der in tliat distracted portion of tlie 
4lueeu*8 dominions, were unsuccessful. 
His court enemies, among whom X/ci- 
cester was conspicuous, contrived to di- 
vert most of the sucgouib designed him 



by him by his soTeroifrn ; and the bodily 
fiitigUG endured in his arduous duties, 
joined to the anguish of a wounded spi- 
rit, impaired his constitution, and, afier 
repeated attacks, he at last fell a victim 
to dysentery. The sYmptoros of his 
disease were also ascnbed to poison ; 
and one of his attendants, who had a 
knowledge of medicine, seeing him in 
great agony, suddenly cxclaimMi : — ** By 
heaTens, my lord, you are poisoned !'* 
The report spread like wild-fire, and 
Leicester, known to be his bitterest enemy, 
was immediately pointed at as the con- 
triver of his death. Leicester, who was 
nniversally believed to be capable of any 
enormity, had long carried on an intrigue 
with the Countess of Essex, and his 
subsequent marriage with that lady 
served as a strong corroboration of the 
charge. Tliis union, however, was not 
publicly declared till two years after- 
wards, although a criminal connection 
between the parties was stated to have 
existed during the life-time of the Earl, 
and a private marriage was huddled up 
with indecent precipitation on his de- 

Notwithstanding the dark suspicion 
to which the deatli of Essex had given 
birth, nothing could injure LeicesttT in 
the favonr of his royal mistress. He, above 
all others, was emphatically the man 
according to her own heart. This is 
strikingly exemplified in the following 
authentic epistle addressed by £lizal>cth, 
with unblushing effrontery, to the Earl 
and Countess of Shrewsbury, in the 
month of June, 1577 : 

" Our xtjlt good Coc^ixs : — 
'^ lieing given to understand, 
from our cousin of Lc-icestcr, how ho- 
nourably he was not only lately received 
by you' our cousin, the Countess, at 
(hatsworth ; and his diet by you both 
discharged at Jfuxtone ; but also pre- 
sented with a vt-ry rare pn.-sent; we 
should do him great wrong {holtHughim 
irt that place of favour ire do) in case we 
shonhl not let you understand, in liow 
thankful a sort we accept the same ai 
both your hands, not as done unto hitHy 
but to our ou:u tef/^ reputing him as 
mno l k e r silf ^ and, ' therefore, ye may 

atsnre Tonnclves, that we taking ay 
on ns tnc debt, no/ m Am, hU our Mm, 
will take accordingly, to diacharge the 
same in such honourable sort, as lo 
well deserving creditors, that ye shall 
never have cause to think yc have met 
with ungrateful dubton, &c., &c. 

« Eluabeth." 

In Angnst, lo78, the Earl of So«ex 
wrote an eloquent letter to the Queen, 
urging her marriage with the Duke of 
Anjou. But, what was of more avail 
the French Prince sent over to Englaad, 
to plead his cause, an agvnt named 
Simier, a person of sparkling wit, bril- 
liant conversational powers, and who 
was an adc-pt at the art of ingratiating 
himself with royalty, by a thonsand 
amusing and pleasing attentions; and 
by that inordinate flattery — the charac- 
teristic feature of his nation — ^which is 
rarely thrown away, even upon the 
gravest of mankind. A suit thus lo 
agreeably urged, Elizabeth had not for^ 
titude to dismiss abruptly : ** Her Ma- 
jesty," says Lord Talbot, '*continncth 
her ver}' good usage of Monsieur Simier, 
and all his suite ; and he hath confer- 
ence «ith her three or four timtss 
wec-k; and the Queen is always best 
disposed and pleasantest when sfie talk, 
eth with him, (as by her gesture appesr- 
eth) that is possible. The opinion of 
the Duke's coming over still holdetb." 
The influence of Simier over the Quevn 
became at length so powerful, that Lei- 
cester, and his infamous adhcTents. re- 
ported that he had employed philtres, 
and other unlawful means, to inspire the 
Queen with love for his master! Oa 
his part, Simier amply retaliati^d these 
hostilities, by carrying to her Majesty 
the first tidings of the secret marria^' Jf 
her favourite witii the Countess of Ks- 
sex ; a fact which Leicester had studi- 
ously concealed from his royal mistress, 
and which none of her courtiers, who 
were aware of the circumstance, had tlie 
courage to cx>mmunicate. It bf 
this time, however, widely known, astbs 
Countess's father, Sir Francis Enolks, 
had insisted, for the sake of his daoirh- 
ter's reputation, which had been sullifd 
by a previous illicit connection «ilk 


Lekolcr, Aal the celebnt3<« of t!}« to t>!^ faTAunie. rivinr vfi^h; to bis 

Bintialf flioiild beaspablie as|m§NM«. nTnvnfrr'>Bc. «h*n adTrciiis* i vr\\d 

The ngc Texatkni, axid <iiaqif«^o:r.t- tr- ain-.- r.t, K'..7A''-:h rr''.'i'r.:'.T r-rS-d 

sent of the Qaeen, on hf^c? i\\t :<r itr.^^r-^nly a::crw»ru« t^^:-. rt^ 

Frmchmiii'i diarlonire of ibe marriu'- '.> r- V-jtI. r. •: to f^rour. Vi:, w" ..: «a* 

of her &voiirite, LeicnteT. eioe«ded all t::fD con: pr.xt>ii br \.\m. !i> ^Slrt7 

bouidt of dfeeBTT ud dNonzn. Tl:aT .\^:r i ticif. h« v.;« m:n AOxn:::t>: t.^ 

Lnentcr, the dearest of her faToiiriu«. \xt pnpho-.-v. bat h<- ctTtr ar^trvmis 

•hoold fwv noh a conncetion. rnih an nxaiotd htr Afft>c;: .-^n; : and hi* unfonn. 

induMlDhle tie, and that ton wiih her n.ito Tocntt-sf iviciiced fter a:'^(-r :be 

own near relation, without c-T^n consult- ohiix't of fatr ut:ir avini^'n. aci:p:*:hT. 

iiur her, UDplorinc her sanction, or rap- and hatri-d. 

plicatiair her forjn^raf^ — and tbai, Ti\e qTiirrfl Hivcvn Ijrio<H;«r ar.«1 

after hsTiBV fonned it. he fhould hare Simifr. in r<-'r.«^iqQ< nc«^ of th^* i-nnch 

eoaeealed ^ horrid &rt from her, vhcn envoy disci. 4ir.|r the ir.arriarp of IaI- 

knowBtohervholeconrt: — appearrt!. to w'sUt t.-« th^ U^ pnxvril.'ti to «>.h 

her janadieed eres. the Terr acme of in- an ixtnmiiT, that Simitr b»:i«-Tid hit 

fratitiide. pfrfi^r, hasonmC and infult! life to bo in ininimnt dan?tr fn^m tbe 

Like a veak. disappointed, and jcaloiu att«mpt» of hi» adTrrMry. i»no of the 

voman, she felt tne ininir inflicted on Quctn' s ?u:inl. it i» uid. a< 

her happiness, and like an arbitrary, b^cn bin-d bv Ijtin^ttr to aj^assinat'e 

trranaical Queen, she n-tent^'d the in- the envoy, ani) liie pl.m v:i!i only fni*- 

£giiitT offered to her penon! tratid by aivi<U-nt. Her M.ii>-»:y tven 

She instantly orderi'd Leicester to be fnund it n«'rr'5Mry. by a n-iyalpHvLiTna- 

iiaprisoned in a small fort, then stand- tion. to take Siniiir iindor hir <p.oia! 

iBfrin Grecnvich park ; and she threw prottx*tion. It v.-i« dv.r.n:: t>io tnmtoil 

oat the Bwnaoe, and actually entertained occasioned by th(«e dijicnc* ful pi«vi t^l- 

the design, of sending him to the Tower, in^s. that, as the K\\\*sn wa« t.Ain:; her 

But the honourable and lofty mind of stci'u^^tomid nvri-.ition on iho Thjni>s. 

the Fail of Suiaex, her royal kin>nian. attended by this Frinchmnn. nnd m v< ml 

rerolted against proceedings so TioK-ni, of her courtiers, a shot wis firtd into 

ao lawlesB, and so nttcrlrais^rraceful in the royal \k\ts*\ which narn^wly esciped 

CTCfT point of Tiew. fie jdainly, but takinsr effect on the pt-^r«im of hir Ma- 
fiimly, represented to her the dangt r of . j« sty. but scrtrilv « oundetl one of the 

the comie she was about to pursue — ' royiil Itoatnien. Tlie shot w:l<. doubt Iom, 

that it was contrary to all nght and aimed at Siniier. and when one of the 

jnstiee, that any man, no matter hissta- lonls e^pn-ssiti an opini«m that it was 

tion, or imderwhatercr circumstances he pfiintcil nt her Majesty, the Qui^n 
might he placed by any previous con- ' promptlv silnietd him. docLtrinj; ** that 
ncction, should be punished for Aiit/m/j she wiMild iK-lieve nothing of hiTsubjtx'ts 

mttrimomy; a state which was held' in | that parents would not believe of their 
1^ all; and his known hostility ; children.*' 



Arriral of tht Ditt of JyoH—Tit QHcn at Itnftk a , 

book BfaiH'l tkf iiialch—Ilii fmel ptmitlimeHt^Dtalk ef Baton— Arhttt *f 
J)niit^Tit Qarrui marringe rerirtd— Spltfliil rttrplknt ef tAt i'nwA Em- 
tanif—Tit Dutt ofAifjov't wn«d riiit (o liUiaMi—FtrKmal mvdMto tfOu 

FTER thii ntlcmplcd i On (he whole, ihosG who pnnui w twj h 
auiiui nation, Lti- fuTour of tbe muTriagt, did u ilnDit 
enter fDUiul himulf I arowciUy in eoiaplijuice with the wiibn 
y an rolillv trcBtf^ by | of t!ie Clucrn, whow inclinilimi to tbi 
* KlizBbvt'h, that, in ; alliance had become Ten irdeDt. Ktu 
a It-tti.'r to Lord , the risit of ber j'OQthrul luitor; vbilM 
I!lilleigh, he threat- : <ucli ■> oppoicd ic were moTed l^itrca| 
cQi'd tu boDish faim- and eoraeit connctloui of thr gnat 
mlt; wt'li knowinir. pcrhap*, that, forj impmpriitf and thorough muuiublrDna 
fear of the canH-qiu'iieo of iDch a ' of the match with rea{>rct to Eliubitk 
atop to the fame uf his roj-il iniitri|M, hcrwlf, and of the erili which, on k- 
the threat would not lie tolerated : vliilit i count of the difierence of rvligion, it ■■ 
the t'imch liinrc oilriiiily ■riii'd the '. likclj to entail on the uation. 
muiDftit of the liiri'ii dijij-nicc. tu try tlio j " Initcad of immediatiiy obrpog bei 
eBi^E of prnnnal wilicitutinni on the i llajctty's eommand, that they ■bonU 
bcett nt hIiuilK'lh. lie arrived, unci- come to a fonnal deriiion on ibe qoo- 
pecti-dly. and alnimt witliont attendant*, tion, Ibev hc<itati-d, tempotiicd, fl- 
at the fale of her pakee at Greenwieb, I preoed their n-adinesa to be rnlinlf 
vol gniiriouily reiHlvi'd by her MajfstT, j piided, in a malter lo prrtooal ti> Im- 
tnd. after acri-rui lung confercncea in i tclf, by bet feeling* and wiahc* ; all 
priTOte, tunk hi* leave and Ttturni'd ' inquired whether, under all the circoa- 
bome. leaTin;; bi> cauM to the sliilful ; ataaen. ifacwoa detiroua oF their comiag 
manafcmenl of hi* own op'nt, and the | to a full dclenni nation, Thia nuain 
ambnuadura of bia brolhrr. Ibe King ofi waa reported to her Majeal* Is IM 
Frame. Althisperind, the priiy-eoun- 1 forenoon (October leTenth, 1579), and 
eil, by eomnmnd of her KlujotV, held' ahe allowed hemlf to be well pk'OHd 
Ions and frrqucDt mL-etingi, for Ihe di*- . with the dutiful offer of their oervicn. 
ciiasion of her propoatd mnmairc wlib ' NeTerlbcU-«. abeuttcred m 

l' iWdii 

. . _ _ m the llurleiL'b . and regretted, not without' i^eddiag 

Papera. where the diicoKiioni arc fiven . lean, that ihc iboold find in ber cooo- 
in detail, we eitiaet the aubjuined , eiUun, by their long diapntation*. ny 
iatereatinf; particular*. | disposition to make it doubtAil, wbetha 

*'The KarlofSutsezwa* rtilt >(ron)f1y lbcr«eould be any more aunty for bcT 
in favour of the match. I.ord ilunadun and hrr realm, tluin to have aet many 
followed on the same aide, aa did also 
the Karl of Lincoln, the Lord .admiral. 
llurleigh laboured to auppurt tfao mea- 
aun', butevidenllvagaiuat Ilia judgment, 
anil in order to please tlje Uueea. Lei- 
cester openly prufctMd lo have cbansrd 

•fur her 


le roUowt'd.' Sir W'alUi Mild- 
mar, Sir Kalph Sadler, and Sir Henry 
Sidney, atrongly oppoacd the mcaaure 

realm, tbuin u 

and have a child of b„ _. _ 

inherit, and so eontinae the line tl 
Ilenrr the Eighth ; and she condcnatd 
hcrscfr for simplicity, in committiaf 
Ibis matter to be artrued by them ; for 
that *hc thought to have rather had u 
uniiemal request made to her to pttned 
in thii marriage, than to bnTr madl 
doubt of it ; and beini miicb trenblsd 
bcrawitb, abe reqnaalcJ tiM Wawti ■( 


Higeto forbear her till the after- 

their rvtum, she repeated her 
ire ; then endcaronrco, at some 
M> refute the objections brought 
the match; and finally, her 
uliking uf all opposition, and 
scat desire for the marriage, 
sported to her faithful council, 
ccd, after long consultations, to 
ir lenrices in furtherance of the 
s, should such really be her 


n were in thia state, when the 
late Stubbs, a gentleman of Lin- 
in, wrote and published a book, 
, •*The DiscoTery of a gaping 
herein England is like to be 
ed by another French marriage, 
ord 'forbid not the bans, by let- 
r see the sin and punishment 
' The author was Known as a 
paritan, and had given his sister 
lage to the celebrated Edmund 
^t, the leader of the sect. A 

nlamation was issued against 
ly order of Elizabeth; all 
ea were ordered to be seized and 

and the author and publisher 
roceedcd against, in virtue of a 
tatute of Philip and Mary, they 
and gniltT, and condemned to 
aroQs punishment of ampntation 
i^ht band, 
ein^ brought to the scaffold to 

thu sentence, Stubbs addressed 
titnde to the following effect : — 
n eome hither to receive my pu- 
it, according to the law. I am 
r the Ion of my hand, and more 
loae it by judgment; but most 
rith her Majesty's indication 

opinion. For my hand. I es- 

not so much ; for I think I 
STe saTed it, and might do yet ; 
U not hare a guilty h^art and an 
a hand. I prav you all to pray 
^, that Cod wifl strcnirthen me 
re and abide the pain that I am 
', and grant mc this grace, that 
I of my hand do not withflraw 
; of my duty and affection toward 
jesty. ' When the hand was 
A the block to be struck off, he 
leatedly to the people; "Pray 

for me, now mj calamity is near at 
hand." And with these words it waa 
smitten off, whereof he faint^ away ! 

Stubbs was further punished, by an 
imprisonment of several months in the 
Tower ; but under all these infliction*, 
his courago and cheerfulness were sup- 
ported by a firm persuasitm of the eood- 
ness of the cause fur which he suffered. 
While in prison, he wrote many li tters 
to his friends with his left band, sign- 
ing them Secrerola; a name which he 
adopted in memory of his punishment. 
Such was the hi^h opinion entertained 
by Burleigh of his theological learning, 
and the soundness of his principles, that 
he afterwards engaged him to answer a 
violent work of Cardinal Allen, entitled, 
* The Enelish Justice,' a task which he 
performea with distinguished ability. 

The learned Sir Nicholas lUuwn, who, 
under the title of Lord Keeper, had ex- 
ercised, from the beginning of Eliza- 
beth's rcig^, the office of Lord Iligh 
Chancellur, died in 1579, generally re- 
gretted. He filled this important' post 
with superior assiduity, uprightness, and 
ability; and several pleasing traits are 
reluteid of his polite and amiable dis- 
position. On the occasion of a visit 
from Klizabcth, she graciously remarked, 
that his house was too little for him ; 
** No, madam," replied the Chancellor, 
'* but you have made me too little for 
my house !" liy his second wife, one of 
the learned daughters of Sir Anthony 
Cook, a woman of a keen and pene- 
trating intellect, he became the father 
of two sons, Antony and the rcnowni'd 
Francis Bacon, the splendid dawn of 
whose unrivalled genius his father was 
fortunate to behold. 

Elizabeth frequently visited Sir Ni- 
cholas Bacon, conversed with him fami- 
liarly; took pleasure in the flashes of 
wit, whieli often relieved the seriousnesi 
of his wisdom ; and flattered with kind 
condescension his parental feeling, by 
the cxtraonlinary notice which she be- 
stowed on his son Francis, whose bright- 
ness and solidity of parts early mani- 
festtni thcins Ives to her discerning eye ; 
and canned her to predict, that her 
'* little liOrd Keeper would one day prove 
an eminent man. ' 



In NoTember, 1680, Admiral Drake, 
after bcin^ absent about three years, 
daring which time he sailed round the 
world, reached Plvmouth harbour in 
aafetv. He mos the first Englishman 
by whom tliis great and notel enterprise, 
or sailin? round the globe, had been 
successfully achieved ; and both himself 
and his ship became the objects of public 
curiosity and wonder. His courage, 
skill, and perseverance were extolled in 
the hi$;hest degree ; the wealth which 
he had brought home from the plunder 
of the Spanish settlements aroused the 
daring spirit of adventure peculiar to 
Englishmen, and half the youth of the 
country were eager to embark on voyages 
of discovery. Elizabeth was lost in ad- 
miration at the conduct of the valiant 
Drake, and during the spring of 1581, 
she accepted the honour of a banquet, 
on board the Admiral's ship, off- Dept- 
ford: and conferred on him the order 
of knighthood, with many substantial 
marks of royal favour. 

Amongst the numerous verses affixed 
to the ship on this occasion, were the 
following, written by a Winchester 
scholar : — 

* Drake, on the Hercnlean eolamns these 

words write : 
Thoa further went'st than any mortal 

wiRht : 
Though HerciiIeH for trav«l did excel, 
From him and others thou didst bear the 


The French envoy, Siroier, who still 
remained in London, continued to keep 
alive the tender impressions excited in 
the heart of Elizabeth, by the personal 
attentions of the Duke of Anjou ; and 
the King of France, now finding more 
leisure to attend to the subject of his 
brother' s marriage with the Queen of 
England, sent over, in 1581, a splendid 
embassy, headed by a IVinco of the 
blood, to arrange the terms of this 
august alliance. A magnificent reception 
was prepared by Klizal)eth for these 
distinguished visitors. "She caused/' 
says ilolinshed, **to be erected on the 
ioiith side of her palace of Whitehall, 
a vast banquetting lionse, built with 
timber, and covered with painted can- 
Taa, and decorated inside in the most 

eztnvagant ityle. Bnachei of Initi 
of various kinoi were hong tnm fe^ 
toons of ivy, bay, rosemary, and differ* 
ent flowers; the whole profiuely^niakkd 
with gold spangles: the ccibng was 
painted of a sky colour, with stan, nn- 
Deams, and clouds, intermixed with 
scutcheons of the royal arms ; and a 
profusion of glass lostzes illnmiiAtcd 
the place. In this gorgeooa palace the 
French ambassadors wereentcftained by 
Elizabeth, at several splendid btaqaets, 
while her ministers were engaged, at 
her command, in drawing up the nar- 
riagc articles ! I n the meanwhile, sevnal 
of her youthful courtiera prepared for 
the occasion, what they tenned a tri- 
umph. The young Earl of Aiudd, 
Lord Windsor, Sir Philip Svdney, and 
Faulke Greville, the foor challengm, 
styled themselves the foeter-childrea of 
I>esire ; and to that end of the tilt*yaid 
where her Majesty vraa seated* tbry 
gave the name of the Castle of Perfect 
Beauty. This castle the Qoeen wai 
summoned to surrender, in a very 
courtly message, delivered by a b(nr 
dressetl in red and white, the ooloors i 
Desire. On her refusal, a mount, placed 
on wheels, was rolled into the tilt-yard; 
and the four cavaliers rode in, sapnhir 
armed and accoutred, each at the hcai 
of a splendid troop ; and when they had 
passed in military order before the Qocei, 
the boy who had delivered the former 
message, again addressed her in the fol- 
lowing terms : — 

" ' If the message lately delivered unto 
you had been believed and followed, 
Queen! in whom the whole stoiy ti 
virtue is written, with the langnste of 
beauty; nothing should this Tio!nee 
have needed in your inviolate preseoee. 
Your eyes, which till now have beea 
wont to discern only the bowed knees of 
kneeling hearts, aud inwardly tuned, 
found always the heavenly peace of s 
sweet mind, should not now nave their 
fair beams reflected with the shining of 
armour, should not now he driven toiee 
the fury of di<sirc, nor the fiery force of 
furv ! But since so it is (alas ! that it ii 
so !), tlmt in the defence of obsdnate 
refusal there never groweth victory hot 
by compulsion, they are eone:— whit 



■Md I WKf won } Ton ne them, rcadr 
ia heart, h you know, and able witfi 
haadi,ai ther how*, not only to amuil, 
hnt to prcTaJL Ferchance you df'spis** 
the smallnen of nurabtrr. I say unto 
TOO, the force of desirp gocth not by 
folneas of comfuuiv. Nay, rather Ticw 
with whatirmistiSlc dcti'rmination thi-y 
approach; and how, not only tlu- 
Iwavena tend their intisiblc instrument* 
to aid than [music is heani within the 
monnt]. but also the Tory earth, the 
dnllcat of all the elementfs'whiirh, witli 
Batmal heavingt, still striTcs to the 
■Icepy centre ; yet, for adrancin; this 
enterpriK, ii content actiTcly (as yon 
■hall aee) to more itself upon' itself,' to 
riie np ia height, that it may the better 
command the high -minded fortressi^ 
rhcre the monnt rote up in height]. 
Jlany worda. when deeus arc in the 
fidd, are tedious both nnto speaker and 
hearer. Ton see their forces, but know 
not their foitanea ; if yon be rcsolred, it 
boota not; and threats dread not. I 
have diseharged my duty ; wbich was, 
even when all things were rcadr for the 
■■■iilf, thnato offer parley ; a thing not 
in nveh need aa gracious in besi(*grrs. 
Ton shall now he summoned to yieM ; 
which if it he reicctt'd, then look for 
the affectionate alarm to be followed 
with desirons assault. The time ap- 
nroacheth, hnt no time shall stay me 
nom wiahing, that however this suJcce«l, 
tlM world may lonff enjoy its chiefcst 
ornament, which decks it with henelf — 
with the lore of goodness ! ' 

^Tbe rolling mount was now morcd 
done to her Majesty, the music besran 
to play, and one of'tbc boys, accomiiu- 
Bied with comets, sung a fnih suru- 
mona to the ibrtrcss to surrender. Ano- 
ther hoy then, turning to the chal- 
icngcra and their retinue, sounded an 
alann, the two cannons were fln-d. the 
one with iwcet powder, and the other 
with iweet water, Tery odoriferous and 
pleasant ; and the noise of the shooting 
was esccUent melody within the mount. 
Alter that, there were a great store of 
pietty sealing ladders, and the footmen 
threw flowers and such fancies ag:iin)>t 
the walla, with all such derices us might 
fit ahot for Desire, all which conti- 

nued till the defenders came in. These 
kni«;hts were ahonr twenty in nunibr.r, 
roi'li 3ei'omp:inii.-<l hy his M-rvanti*, paired, 
and tnimpctera. f«iK*'-(hiS »tn.- then 
di-livi-red to the UuK-n : n-u.r.d of the 
knii^lits apfK-arin'j in M»nie a.<« cha- 
ract« r. Sir Thunias iN-rrutt and Au- 
thonv Cook p<-n><»n:ileil Adam and Kve ; 
the latter ha\in:; h.iir hunsr all down 
bi« holnii-t. Tiie ni< *.«! ii:;rr si lit on the 
part of Thom&i liiiteliir, d<ncrikil his 
master as a furlorn kniir'iit, wh«*«i: de- 
spsiir of arhieriiig the luviur of h'm 
nw-erlr-H and sunlike nii>tn'Hs. liaii driven 
aim out of the haiintu <*( m* n in(<i a 
cave of the deM-rt, whire nur^n wus his 
couch, and moM ^ll»i^ll■nl■«i with te^n 
his only f<Hid. Kti n liere, howeri r. tiie 
reiH)rt of this aAsault uihiu thi- (.'uAth- of 
Perfect Itcauty had rearhed hi» eam, aud 
roused him from hi<i ^lumUr of d« xprnd* 
ency ; and. in token **t' hi» devntc-d I'ly- 
ttlty and inviolable HdL-litT to his diiino 
mistn-ss, be si nt his hiiu Id, which he 
entreat<-d her to aei-i pt, an the enii?n 
of her fame, and the in>triiment of his 
glory : pnwtrating him»« If ut her ftct, 
as one ready to undt rtake any adven- 
tures in hii|>u of her (rraci<ius favour. 

" Mercury hjipi-areil on the ]iart of 
the fiiur s«>Hs of Sir Kr:in(-i^ Knnlli s. and 
di-scriU'd them ju* Kiritimiite sons of De- 
i^p'iir, breihnn to lianl Mi»)jn|>; suikled 
with sighK and swathr*<l up in sorrow; 
weane<i in wim- ami dry-Tiurt>*>l by hv 
sire: long time fofitind i^ith favourable 
countenanee, and wcii «iih t»wet't fan- 
eie«, but now, ulas ! of late. M'hollv ^iven 
over to pri'f, and di'»;rraeed by JiAilain. 
The speeches being rndid, the tilling 
eommemril, and huitMl till nipht. It 
was n-sumed the next day with fresh 
masnitici-nc.-, and a few m'on: sjK-eehf-a. 
At length the eh alien trers prcni nted to 
the i^nec-n an olive b«iugh, in token of 
their humbb >ubmiMion. and Inith par- 
til's were di^'mi&sxl with thanks and 

The articl<H of the marriage treat v 
were at b n;;th completed between Kli 
zabeth and the I'uki- of Anjon ; and it 
was stipulated, that the nuptials hhould 
take place bix weeks after the ratifiea- 
tion: but >lliza}>eth. who»e vagaries 
I wcxc not yet at an end, had insisted on 


a separato aitiele, purporting that the 
■boil 1(1 nut 1»c obligfd to complete the 
■mrriagc until furtlier matterSf not spc- 
cifiecL should hare been settled between 
herself ancT the Duke of Anjou. She 
■ent Walsingliara to open new ne^tia. 
tions at Pnris ; but no sooner were these 
•atisfactorily terminated, than fresh dif- 
ficulties were started. Walsin^hamf 
puzzled and perpli xed by such capricious 
conduct, remained uncertain how to act ; 
and at length, all the politicians, £n- 

Slish as well as French, were equally 
isconcerted, and came to the unanimous 
opinion, that this stninge fickleness 
eould only be put an end to by Elizabeth 
herself. Nothing, therefore, remained 
for them, but to await, in anxious si- 
lence, her Majesty's pleasure. Not so, 
however, the royal lover, who conjec- 
turing that a ietka-tete with the object 
of his ambition would be more effectual 
than a thousand negotiators, brought to 
a speedy conclusion his campaign in the 
Netherlands, which a liberal supply of 
money from Elizabeth had rendered 
uniformly successful ; and putting his 
army into wint4T quarters, hastened 
to throw himself at the feet of his 
rojal mistress. He was welcomed 
with all the demonstrations of satisfac- 
tion which could revive the hopes of a 
suitor : every mark of honour, every 
pltMlgc of affection, were publicly be- 
stowed upon the Duke ; and Klizabeth, 
at the conclusion of a splendid festival 
on tlio anniversar}' of her coronation, 
even went so far as to take a ring from 
her own fair hand and place it on the 
finger of her intended husband. This 
passed in sight of the whole court, who 
naturally regarded the action as a com- 
plete bctrothment; and the long sus- 
pensc being apparently now satisfactorily 
terminated, the feelings of each party 
broke forth in a variety of ways. Some 
rejoiced ; others grieved and wondered ; 
Leicester, Hatton, and Walsiiigham 
loudly exclaimed that ruin impended 
over the church, the country, and the 
Queen. The ladies of the court alarmed 
and agitated their mistress by tears and 
lamentations. Iler Majesty passed a 
■leepless night amid her disconsolate 
fcandmaids, The next moraiug she vent 

for Anjou, and held with him a vor 
long private conrenation; after wkien 
he returned to hit chamber, and hastily 
throwing from him the ring which the 
had given him, ottered many rquroachtt 
against the levity and ficUoMm o^ £■• 
glish women. 

The French Prince waa aoon aflcr 
called away to the Netherlands; md 
Elizabeth, with erident rehieCanee to 
part from him, went with him at fiv « 
Canterbury. She then diamiaMd bin 
with a largte supply of mooer, and a 
splendid retinue of Engliah lordi lad 
^ntlemen. The parting waa moonlil 
in the extreme : Viizawth loth to let 
him go, and the IVinoe aa loth to de> 
part Neyerthelefls, this faToorite son 
of Catherine de Medici was a mflkinit 
adept in the diKimolation of eoniti to 
assume with ease all thooe maiks of 
complacency that the caae Rquircd. 
Nor was Elizabeth leas accortomed to 
the arts of feigning ; she was caielal,hy 
every manifestation of friendship aad 
esteem, to smooth oTor the affinont whitk 
she had put upon the brother of tht 
rcigrning monarch of France. The Dvki 
of Anjou soon afterwards lost his Ufc ia 
the Netherlands, and thus finally tcnai- 
nated all hopes of the raairiage of Eli- 

The pernicious effects of the flattny 
daily and hourly administered to Qia- 
beth, was, about this time, remarked by 
one of her domestic chaphiins, who, ia a 
sermon preached before the Qoeca, ia 
her chapel royal, had the boldness to 
tell her, that ^ she who bad been oaca 
meek as a lamb, was now becomean on- 
tamable heifer V* for whieh reproof he^ 
on descending from the polpit, was 
sharply reprimanded by hcrlfajcsty, 
as ^' an over-confident and jnvsonptaoai 
parson, who insolted and diahoBoared 
nis sovereign." 

The decay of her heantr waa also sa 
unwelcome truth, which aU tiie aitificei 
of adulation and flattery wrere nnable to 
conceal from her inward conrictioa. 
During the latter years of her life, ihs 
could nerer behold her fiuse in a miiror, 
without rage and disappointment. Tha 
circumstance in no small derree oontri- 
l bated to sour her tonper, waaU^ tX thi 


time, it rendered the jomig, the 
lirrly, and the lorely of her court, the 
ohjects of her hatred and malignity. Sir 
John Harrineton relates a striking anec- 
dote of Elixabeth on this point : — '* The 
Qaeen would often ask the ladies around 
her chamber, if they loved to think of 
marriage ? And the wise ones did con- 
eeal well their liking thereto, as know- 
ing the Queen's ju^^ent in this mat- 
ter. The (air cousin of Sir Matthew 
Amndel, not knowing so dc^W as her 
companions the sentiments of ner Ma- 
jesty, was one day asked the sameques- 
tioa, when she said, with great simpli- 
city, she had thought much about mar- 
riage, if her fiUher would but consent to 
the man she loTed ! * You seem honest, 
rfiiith r said the Queen ; * I will sue for 
you to Tour father V The damsel was 
■ot displeased at this, and when Sir Ro- 
bert, ner father, came to court, the 
Qneen asked him respectine his daugh- 
ter's sweetheart, and pressed his consent- 
ing to the marriage, if the match was a 
diwreet one. Sir Robert, much asto- 
nished at this news, said he never heard 
that his dau^ter had a liking for any 
man ; and wished to know who was the 
olgect of her affection — adding, he would 
^Te free consent to what was mostplea- 
sinr to her Majesty's will and advice. 
*TbeB I will do the rest,' saith the 
Queen. The younr lady was called in ; 
and the Queen told her that her father 
had given his free eonsent. ' Then,' re- 
plied the young lady, delighted, * I shall 
De most happy, and please your Majesty.' 
< So thou shaft,' retorted lOisabeth, with 
a malignant sneer, ' but not to be a fool 
and marry ; — I have your fitther's con- 
sent given to me, and I vow thou shalt 
never get it into thy possession. So go 
to thy iHuiness ; I see thou art a bdd 
one, to own thy foolish propensities so 

The dangers which lurroundcd the 
Queen, since her cruel and unauthorized 
detcatian of the unfortunate BCary of 

Scotland, ag^vated the harshness of 
her natural disposition. Plans of insui^ 
rectiun were frequently agitated bv con- 
spirators, but as often baffled b^ the ex- 
traordinary vifi^lance and sagacitj of her 
ministers, while the courage displayed 
by Elizabeth herself on these occasions 
was truly admirable. It is related by 
Lord Chancellor l^acon, that the council 
once represented to her the danger in 
which she stood bv the continusl con- 
spiracies against ner life ; and ac- 
quainted her that a man was lately 
taken into custodv, who stood ready, in 
a very determinea and suspicious man. 
ner, to do the deed : and they shewed 
her the weapon by which he intended to 
destroy her. They, ^erefore, advised 
her Majesty, that she should go less 
abroad to take the air, thinly attended, 
as was her wont on private occasions. 
But Uie Queen answers firmly — '' I had 
rather be dead than placed in costodv T' 
Sir Walter Ralei^ was deservedly a 
great &vouiite with Elizabeth; his 
comelj person, fine address, and great 
experience in the arts of a courtier, raised 
him to such a height of royal admira- 
tion, as to excite the jealousy even of 
him who had long occupied the first 
place in the affections of her Maiesty. 
During the early days of Raleigh s at- 
tendance, when a few handsome suits of 
clothes formed almost the whole of his 
worldly wealth, he was on one occasion 
accompanying the Queen in one of her 
daily walks, which she was fond of tak- 
ing, in the hope of improving her com- 
plexion, when, on reaching a miry spot 
which she could not conveniently pass 
over, he, with an adroitness characteris- 
tic of the finished courtier, pulled off 
his rich plush cloak and threw it on tho 
mud, to serve her for a foot-cloth. ^ The 
Queen graciously accepted his obli^ng 
assistance, and it was afterwards quaintly 
remarked, **the spoiling of Raleigh's 
cloak hath gained nim many handsome 


nitlh-i ItlL 

aueeiatti — In/amoia anduet of Waltinfliam tc ntmp Uu OmC" 'f SaU—D^ 
/tat ef till rompiralori — Tkrir trial and txtmlion—Maiy rtmortd la IMk- 
injag Cattli — Bit mUrtit lo tk* CaotmiaioHert— Hir thai a ' 
Con/tniied *y tht FartiamtHt—Biaitlk't omicer to 
dying regutMl ta Saabttk—Hir trtalment afMary. 


,OWARD Ihecloeeof 
the fear 1S86, the 
Earl of Ijeicealcr wu 
sent to tlio Nflhcr- 
Unds, inioted by 
£l[iiibcth with the 
title of "General of 
her MajestT'i Auii- 
lle had 

_. , _ . Lcountrr. 1I> 

■1*0 the commBDi] of the royuJ aavj. 
WW aceompsnitd by the young hjirl o( 
EbmI, Lords Audley nnd ^orth, Sir 
William Russell, and many other kaigbtt, 
uid attended by n chosen company of 
Bre hundred gvutlcmcn. The Queen, 
on hia departure, forbade him to enter- 
tain s tbought of anything which would 
be unworthi cither of her or of the of- 
flce which he held. Having landed at 
FlushinjT, he wsi fint met by hia ne- 
phew. Sir Pliilip Sidney. gOTemor of 
that city, and afletvunia by all the 
lowni ofllolland and Zealand, with all 
aorta of hanonrt, acclnmationB, triumpha. 
deToled panCjgriTics, banqueting*, and 
the tike. AniT'in the mouth of July 
following ho proceeded to the Hague, 
where the conrt of Holland, by mcani 
of the State* General, by letlen patent, 
fare bt him the aeiereign command and 
abaolute anthorily orer the United Pro- 
Tincei, under the title of "Goremoruld 
Captain General of Zealand, and the 
United and Confederate FroTincci ;" 
which to excited hia pride and lanity, 
that he aatitmed the atate and dignity of 
majesty iUelf. and thereby so highly of- 
fended the Quoen, that she addresavd to 
him the following acvere reprimand : — 
"Yoa ihaU undentand by this mei- 

hna b«lukT«d joonalf i( 

■ore. We had not tfaanglit, tbat JM, 
a man we bare raiaed &om the doit, nd 
faToured sboTC all othera, would han 
riolatcd. in lo great a matter, oar oob> 
mand with so great contempt, erea a ■ 
m&tter which to much and nearly ooB- ' 
cemctfa tu and ow haaooT. Bnt uoi^ 
agaioit jronr duty, 700 hare mad* m 
little respect of our honour, jet tUik 
not that we are ao fradonaly Befligtat 
in the repairing thereof, that we cas piM 
OTcr ao great an injury with ailcnM ud 
oblivion. Therefore, we command jo^ 
that you, setting apu^ all exeniea, in- 
continently, according to the &iUi ai 
duty wherein yoa are boand lo na, nc 
form all whatsoever Heneage, dot oiidB- 
chambcrlain, ehall in our narae decUn 
unto you, except yon will draw upon 
your head a greata danger." 

This letter effectually put • atop t* 
Leicester's ambitiooi proopecta in tks 
Nclherlanda. With feigned mnona, 
which he ao well knew how to unBCi 
he supplicated the forpTenea of Elin- 
beth, and the affair wai aoos aftar tai- 
caMy adjusted. 

In Jul/ 168e, aoon aftei the raa- 
clusion at the treaty of frioidahip be- 
tween Elizabeth and Jamea th« ^Ih at 
Scotland, the celebrated BBbington ai 

of Iba 
unfortunate Mary, Queen of Soot>-> 
fatal drama, which has maried t» lh« 
character of Eliubeth a deep apot ef 
infamy, and which we detail from th* 
moat authentic aouroce. Three indiii- 
duala — Gifford, doctor in (trinity. 03- 

bert Giffard, hia brother, and Hw^iOB, 

"ngliah aaminaiT at 

iJing that the Ihmow bdl 

)riests of the Kngli 

of Piua the Fifth, n) 



beth, was dictated to bim br the Holj 
Ghost, to far persuaded one Jonn Sarage, 
that it waa meritorious to murder such 
•s were excommunicated — that it was 
BurtTrdom to die in such a cause — 
that he, after awhile, freely and Tolunta- 
rily atowed bis determination to ac- 
complish the deed. During the Kaster 
holydajs of that year, John Ballard, 
priest of the same seminary, after risitin^ 
■lany Papists in England and Scotlono, 
and sounding their minds, returned to 
France, aeeompanied by Maude, a sdy of 
Walsiiu^iam — a most crafty dissembler, 
who had seduced his easy nature, and 
treated with Bernardino Mendoza, then 
in the serriee of the King of Spain in 
France, and Charies Paget, who was 
wholly deroted to the Queen of Scots, 
respecting the means of inrading £ne- 
Isnd. But Paget clearly demonstrated, 
that it would be in Tain to invade 
Fngiand so long as the Queen was 
liring. Ballard, noTertheless, was sent 
back, and at Whitsuntide arriTed in 
London, attiied in silks, under the dis- 
guise of a soldier, and calling himself 
Captain Foscue. He consiuted with 
Anthony Babington of Dethick, in Der- 
bydiire, a youn^ man of good Bunil^r, of 
a' haughty spirit, surpassing learning, 
and zmJous in the cause of his religion ; 
he had before been in France, where he 
became £uniliar with Thomas Morgan, 
a eerrant of the Queen of Scots, and the 
Btthop of Glasgow, her ambassador, 
who continually sounded in the ears of 
this ambitious youth, the heroic rirtues 
of the mat Queen of Scots, in whose 
aenrioe nc might obtain the means to rise 
to great honours. Whereupon the young 
man conceiTed a certain hope, and 
Morran« wit^t hit knowledge, com- 
mended him in letters to the Queen. On 
consulting with Babington, Ballard gate 
him to nndentand that the Queen of 
England had not long to liTe,'as Savagt, 
who had Towed her death, was then in 
London. Babington was of a different 
opinion, and thought it not fit that 
affairs of such magnitude should be 
eommitted to him alone, lest he should 
fail in the attempt, bnt to six taliant 
■en, of whom he would haTe Sarag^ to 
ba €M^ to tke cad that ha might not in- 

fringe his TOW. Babington, tlierefore, 
contnTed a new plan for the inrasion of 
England by the foreign powers at enmity 
with the Queen — at what port they 
should land — what assistance should be 
given them; how the Queen of Scots 
should be set at liberty ; and, lastly, for 
committing the tragical murder, as he 
called it, of the Queen of Kngland. 

Whilst Babington was intent on these 
matters, he received letters, by a boy 
unknown, from the Queen of Scots (stated 
by Mary on her trial to be foigerirs), 
written in a familiar character betwixt 
them : wherein she gentlv bhuned him 
for his long sUence, ana commanded 
him with all speed to send the packet of 
letters sent from Morgan, and delivered 
to him by the secreti^ of the French 
ambossador, which he did, and by the 
same messenger sent her a letter, b^ 
which "He excused himself for his si- 
lence, because he was destitute of oppor- 
tunity to send to her, since she had been 
given into the custody of Sir Amias 
oulet, that puritan, wholly devoted to 
Leicester, ana a cruel and bitter enemy 
to the Catholic fiEuth. He mentioned 
the conference he had with Ballard. He 
informed her, that six ^;entlemen were 
chosen to commit a trac^ical murder, and 
that he, with a hundred others, was 
ready to deliver her. And he desired 
her to propound rewards to the heroic 
actor of this tragedy, or to their posterity, 
if they died in the attempt" On the 
twenty-seventh, Mary was alleged to 
have replied to these letters, in the fol- 
lowing manner : — ** She praised his sin- 
gular affection to the Catholic religion, 
and to herself; but she admonished him 
to be considerate in this enterprise, and 
that he should form an association 
amongst the authors and actors in the 
same, for fear of the Puritans ; not to 
attempt any thing before he was sure of 
the foreign succours, to stir up some 
commotions in Ireland, whilst the blow 
was to be given here ; to secure the Earl 
of Arundel and his brothers in the en- 
terprise, with the Earl of Northumber- 
land, and secretly to recal into the 
kingdom the Earl of Westmoreland, 
Paget, and others." As to the means 
for her deliTeranoe, she pxeecribeth m 



followi: — "Either by OTertaming a 
cart in the gate-way, or setting fire to 
the stables, or by intercepting her when ■ 
the should be riding to take the air, or 
recreate herself between Chartley and 
BtajQbrd. Finally, she requested Babing- 
ton to promise rewards to the six gen- 
tlemen, and to all the rest ! " 

Habington now associated with him 
■ereral persons of rank and fortune, who 
were anlious to reestablish the Catholic 
religion, amongst whom were Edward 
Windsor, brother of Lord Windsor; 
Thomas Salisbury, of Denbighshire ; 
Tilney, of a noble family : with one 
of the gentlemen pensioners of the 
Queen, whom Ballara had reconciled to 
the Catholic faith ; Chidiock Tichboume, 
of Hampshire, and Edward Abingdon, 
whose father was under-treasorer to the 
Queen's household — two brare youths; 
Robert Gedge of Surrey ; John TraTers ; 
John Chamock of Lancashire; J. Jones, 
whose father was keeper of the wardrobe 
to Queen Mary ; Savage, of whom we 
hare spoken; Barnwell, of a noble 
house m Ireland ; and Henry Dnnn, 
clerk of the office of first fruits|and tithes. 
Into this company one PoUey insinuated 
himself, a man well instructed in the af- 
hin of the Queen of Scots, expert in dis- 
sembling, and who from day to day laid 
open all their counsels to Walsingham, 
and by the mischievous advice which he 
suggested to these conspirators, bi'ing of 
themselves inclined to evil, he precipitated 
them into far worse matters, notwithstand- 
ing Xaw, the Queen of Scota* secretary, 
had warned them airainst trusting him. 

To these Babington communicated 
his plans, but not to every one wholly. 
He showed to Ballard, Ticnboume, and 
Dunn, his own letters, and letters of the 
Queen of Scots. He then solicited 
Tiiney and Tichboume to do the deed. 
At first they refused to stain their hands 
in their Princess's blood. But Ballard 
and Babington laboured hard to convince 
them how just and lawful it was to kill 
Kings or Princes who had been excom- 
municated, and that if right were to be 
Tiolated, it must needs be for the Catho- 
lic religion ; yet, notwithstanding, they 
were with great difficulty nersu^ed to 
€ oi i a it» A DJngdoii BamwMl, Chamock| 

and Sayage, yielded their reftdy oonsent, 
swearing to perpetrate the rasrdcr. 
SaUsbury they could not posaibly indwr 
to be a regicide, nor Uaten to any thiag 
more than to use hia beat eadeayoan 
for the deliverance of the Queen id 
Scotland. Babington chose Tichnorto 
be the odd man, over and above the 
number of those who were to do the 
deed, of whose secrecy, tmat, and rBB»- 
lution he had no doubt ; but he was then 
abroad. Babington ordered, thatbeibn 
taking the oath, they should not ivpt 
the aSfdr to any hyinip hang, Thef 
afterwards met in St. GiW fUkk, to 
confer further ; also at St FnTsi «iiin 
taverns, where they often f cited, pafsi 
up frith yain hopes of jKtki mmi to 
great honours and dignitieB, wWrbm 
they would often commend the BoUt 
courage of those valiant Scots, who had 
lately seized on the King^a royal peisos 
at Stirling ; and Girard, the BoingQuaa, 
who slew the Prince of Orange at Ddft. 
Indeed, they arrived at such a height of 
vanity, that they most needs hays the 
pictures of the conspirators dmwm en a 
table, and Babington in the midst, with 
this inscription : — ** Sneh be say coto- 
panions, who dare to encounter daBgen." 
This table was once privatdy shown to 
Elizabeth, who could not diseerm or r^ 
collect any other man by his poftniti 
with the exception of fiamwol, who 
had at various times reeeiTed aeeoa to 
her Majesty through the Earl of KiUvOi 
in whose senrice he was; bat, hdsf 

Cressed on the matter, she reeoUectol 
im to be the same man that had oms 
before attempted her Ufe. One diy, 
while walking abroad, ahe Mieavsd 
Barnwell, whom she regudsd with a 
fixed and undaunted eosmteoanes ; thei^ 
turning suddenly to wards Kr Chriotojphw 
Hatton, captain of her guard, mad othoii 
she exclaimed, " Am not I (aiily gmdsd 
now, baring not one man of sill mj M- 
lowers who is prorided inth a swotdr 
This Barnwell reported to tiie nit of 
his companions, toUing them bow eady 
it might then have oe&k done, had w 
had his confederates with hni; ni 
Savage said the same thing. 

After this, Babingto&'a aols em'M 
how he might hdBf IB Ob huif^mL 

* V 

i • 


» • « 


To make rorc, he r»!-'iTH :«•. r.i«.5 !♦•!• «i-.-' f "^ •- •:.*- * :_• ' . *■. 

France, and t<» .*tr»ii H.i.u:'; •-: r* :..-.•. •-•:.:....• •- . • > 

on til*; sjin*- ♦-rrund. f'C »*•.::. :•>..:*♦.•.•• i .* * .- . - . .• 

prrt^'urcd :t lu» nr- t ■ t-..-.v:. A: ! •• •!..'•.• . . ... 

U'tii r to avuM '.:i<j''. •:..;. :-..,.••. . . . :. • .. - . .• : * 

bmiK-lf with Sir l-rt:.. « \N ...-. .•..-.•••.• > •. . . 

by mvun'r of P.-U'V ri.:..::\ «: ^ •. : • * > <:• .--. • . : . ■. 

whom hi> lamt'jr'iv .lt. .:• • 


him a pa^«}l<>^t tr mi ::.• i^ . 

into Franif. i»r>'n.:-.:.j ":..::» :. v. 

u*v hU zi-aiMUS • ift-rt- !•• w>. .-v. r ... ; 

huidi-n i>l*>t5 the tiiirlirii i;^.!.**- . 

in hand relative t.- xh- ^l\ *.\i ••? > f 

WaUini>:ham CMmm- i:Uvd Li 

pn.»nii«msr him unt orI\ ni.o :■.««'[ 

pr»*aU:r matters. Ntv. ri.'i 

off from time to tim« Ktii th- ••:.• .^:. ; !•. ; .::• ? .!.••• :.".- : 'A".,;. 

the oth«T, harin?. in the iif. i:.-:.::. . *.' .• . 

•erred hi* turn by bis mwu aj* u:*, w:... ..: : .• 

hull acquainted liim l-.l-.r -'.a!.*! •.■.:••. : i.. 

all the dc&i£rn« and d^'ii:j'> ■•! tu* '• :,- • : A:! 

Fjiirati'krs, who thunirht th•.I::^«.I^•^ ^* -•.::. 

irtruri* as th?; sun. Thf; p* r*.-!: m :.•• ''.>- :,.: 

coTered most of th€-#«- muit».r> :•• W.,;. :■. -, •. . «.. • ..-. .% r .r : . ii. 

finirham. was one (iiUKTi iiirf-r.i. «i. - t i* w *% •.••. : . ': :-: : ... .•.!:. ;:.- 

srended from the noblt- f.iTniIy i-r ::;• t-r. •:* !, \m.: .. • <^u i. : ^ •• -.15 

Chillin^on^ in iStitf.iril-hiro, n* ^r a....".: .. •■..>:•:.• . .:..■: :...;:.,i 

Chartlt-r, where lh«- Qut«.n of Sc •:> i-aU !.!- .:.-•*■ r- : :. :. w ... : .:. ••. .. ... ; ^ 

nrsided.' He was «.nt by the t'«r>:j:. ji •:- :.:.: .:. : ■ -.::. • : •:-. ;c 

con»pirators into EnirLind. unu^r i'..»- \\ ..... -v- :• ••,. :. .! . -• : -iv :. ■ .-;:. ::. ..i 

name of Lus^m, to remind Savij.. t.f li.e ..:- • <••:. r i- ••• r- . .1 '.*:!•.•• :. .:. «■:.• iiiV 

TOW he had made to act as th'ir fiL''!i!. '• *•.• **:i:.:-:. A:.. •.•:".•: r. :•• l.i'd 

and to kt-tp himwif d-'w:-, and ti.'l- It- 1^ l'..j-\* 1...1!- i' -•.: : •. Ar !.• .-:..;• *•{ 

of the Queen of Scots iafe, until iL-y '-ia-j-w, ;:..• >> I : .:.(.- l:.j.. :.•!:. «li 

ctiuld he s^'nt over. ' hi... r. ■.\ r- i.r-* ::.;:.• r.:- •:, rii.-i t':..a 

The fortieners, in order to try wh<t*i».r r^-iil .1 .1.: •• :.: ■.:! :•• iL-..r rt'pAi.u* 

they misfht safely rroive brt-rs ifin .Its!.!. ;!i i.-. 

England, s^^-nt 8«.-Teral blaiik sli-t.!* ••! .\.> - •..:. .-• l.'.:;/- rh :::.!•>: -l. 'y 

pap^T folded uji in pack't"* iik« l-ittr^ ?•..<• l-.tvr*. w.. /. a ?:• :ti. w.j- .:*..i.: '.0 

wbcn.jpereeivingbythf answ«r> r..tiiri.L«l. ;.:r«t <ivi r i.« r i.t i i. „« w. 1. :;■. :i. a'-r '.J 

that they had w*en deliv».-rvi], th«:y wnf. a* a*. '•.• rs..-. *•.. :::;•:;. u...t- i\ j.n- ••r'.i- r< 

in earnei^t, but in charartvrs. <»iil..ui. j'T tl.c ;.j>|;!'l,' n^.'ii •i' lail.:-;, \\..'s 

beingr either troubled in nv.--, r-r tr^ he iMiii.j il. •!.:: ♦. r Fr. i. . . v...* ui:- 

• I 

« &. 

'■I>M> '!• 

corruptod with mon*'y, w» nl 51 rn ily i«» » \:-. . t- .Ily !;.k- :j ui 1': 
Walsmgrham, to whom be disr<iviri«l Ti.i.s ."t- p auirni'd lUi'i.'iij;- n, aii'i i.o 
himself, statctl for what purp««>e ht \*a- iiiini* «ii..tily w«.iit to *.<..i!-i.l: I ;«.*,. '•■•un-c, 
employed in Knirland, utftnd him l.i> \v}i...«- ii.:5ii*«l u.i<. i...r «.viry ni..n lo 
servif«J« for the /i/ir be bofv hi« Prinre*s s.iv. b;in^«lt }«y iliuiit. Dut l'aMii::t-tn 
and country, and promised to niakv him had n i:i« :.i n.iij»i to>tiui i'mim .S.i\;iu'e 
acquainted' with ^batver letters «a:^t ais'l <"r..iiL«Mk :• .:.-.«.i*>iii ;;• t':;c- ii.nii 
into hi? hands from the fop. iirn aireiits »»r , nitlu-wt •:. i.iv. .u.; i.:>i, :I.«- IkIi-.f to 
the Queen of Scots. Walsimrliam, vni- j « nsun- hi- ae«.«.-s i.i the fiiit. to have 
bradnz his olfer, entertaiuc*! him kindly, I him th«tiie.l : t«M H". ,.\ \\,:». W held 
andseiithini into Staffordshire, to visit I a conleri. me with ihe2i.>t "l' the con- 
Sir A""'^ Poulct, the keeper of Mary | spirators that d^y in St. rani';;. But 

a Q 



ehanging hii mind, and being greatly 
perplexM how to act, he at length im- 
portuned Walnngham by letters and per- 
gonal entreatict, being then at court, 
forthwith to let him hare his passport for 
France, and as he had especial use for 
Ballard's serriccs, he prayed that he 
might be set at liberty. Walsingham 
put him off with fair promises, and en- 
trusted the capture of Ballard to Young, 
the cunning entrapper of the Papists, 
and his assistants , adrisln^ him, as it 
were in kindness, to keep hmi out of the 
daws of such men ; this he easily per- 
•uaded him to (being a younf nmn), and 
to take lodgings in London for a while, 
till the Queen nad signed his passport, 
and till he returned to London himself, 
that they might confer the more pri- 
Tatcly together on such gprcat matters : 
otherwise, by his going so often up and 
down, whicn he must needs do if he 
lodged anywhere else, the foreign agents 
could not fail to grow suspicious of him 
on his going to France. 

In the meanwhile Scndamore, a ser- 
Tant of Sir Francis Walsingham, was 
directed to haye an eye upon him, to 
accompany him eyeirwhcrc, giying him 
to unaerstand that this was done to saye 
him from the officers of justice. This 
web Walsingham had closely woycn 
without the knowledge of the Queen's 
council, and thought to lengthen it a 
little more. But Elizabeth was impa- 
tient, and could not listen to any further 
delay, lest in not seeking to save herself 
when she might, she would seem 
rather to be tempting God than trust- 
ing in him. Accordingly, a letter was 
sent from Wakingham at court to his 
agent in London, to look a little more 
narrowly to Babington than he had 
hitherto done. This letter was deliyered 
to him unsealed, while sitting at table 
next to Babington, who haying read it 
with him, suspected that all was disco- 
Tered, and speedily absconded, under the 
coyer of night, with Gage, Chamock, 
Hamwcll, and Dunn, to a place of con- 
cealment in SL John's Wood. Imme- 
diately it became known that they had 
fled, they were proclaimed traiton. 
Hangar roroed them to retire to tha 
<tf tlM £tlliiB}% iMv Hininf-OB- 

the-Hill, a fkmily leakrailT aftctad to 
the Roman religton, who hid that ii 
bams, clothed them in rustic apptrd, 
and relieyed them with mcttt. Baft 
being discoyered ten days aflar, tbsf 
were conyeyed priaonera to London, aaa 
the citizens, to express their joy on the 
occasion, set the bcUs ringinr, nadi 
bonfires, and sung psalms : aU which 
the Queen greatly commended, and ex- 

Jressed her Uianks to the City aathoritieii 
n a short time, Abington, SalidNny, 
and the rest of the oon^intnai wen 
taken; and, when examined, by thrir 
own confessions profed their giouty da» 

Meanwhile, the Qneea of Sooto md 
her seryants were kept in dooe CDstody, 
that she might not hear of that eoB» 
racy which waa known throoighoat Sm 
land. But as soon aa the conspiratoD 
were taken. Sir Thomas Gorge was mt 
to inform her briefly thereof. He (bani 
that the unhappy Unoen, not dremnng 
of any such matter, had obtained psr^ 
mission for a day's hunting, and was naw 
mounted on horseback ; out, on lean- 
ing the tidings, she expressed a wish to 
dismount and return to her chaBubsL 
This, howeyer, was not permitted, and, 
under yarious pretexts, she was eoft* 
ducted up and aown the oonntry, fnm 
one nobleman's house to another, nd 
not suffered to rctnm home. Im the 
meantime. Sir John HauMn aid 
three others, in compliance with a 
commission firom EUxabeth, prooecdsd 
to the apartments of Qneen Mary, sepa- 
rately confined Naw and Curll — ^kept ths 
rest of the seryanta firom oomnuni- 
cating with their royal mistrcaa, or she 
with them ; — and, nreakin^ open ths 
doors of her cabinet, thej aeiaecl all hsr 
wridng^esks and boxea, yrfaerciB wot 
any letters under her oim hand aod 
seu. Then Sir Amias Ponlet, oshewas 
commanded, seized npon all her mowT, 
that she might haye no meana of Isih- 
ing any one, promising to reators it 
to her afoin. The desks being opoed 
before Queen Elizabeth, diyers lettsn 
were found written to her by atnngeni 
copies of such aa she had written to iw^ 
riona individnals^ note% 
•eent dianwten^ viCh atfonL 

kluabeth, second queen eeonant. 


kttm, end letten of condolence on her 
inCmooi cmpdritj from tome great men 
of England. Elizabeth, notwitbstand- 
iajr, piaswd them all OTcr in silence, 
Qniig her old derice, VkUo Taeeoq.f^ 
- 1 H>c, and KIT nothinr.*' 

Tho infamuixfl Giffard, who had played 
10 concpicuons a part in this tragi^lj, 
was sent to France, as if he had been 
banished; bnt, before leaving, he left 
vith the Ambassador of France an in- 
dented paper, requesting him not to de- 
lirer the (jneen of Scots her letters, nor 
thnse of the forei^ agents, to any but 
bim who should produce a paper corre- 
iponding with thiat which he had se- 
cretly left with Walsingham. A few 
months afterwards, bo was committed to 
prison for some gross misconduct, and 
ended his days miserably, confessing that 
the most of what be said was true, as 
w» apnarent by that which was found 
in hii Qfsk. 

On the thirteenth of September, seven 
of the conspirators were arraigned, and 
condemned as traitors, and, two days 
sfterwmrda, the other seven were called 
to the bar, found guilty, and condemned ; 
one only. Policy, though he was equally 
fniilty with all, saying that he had some- 
thing to speak to 'Sir Francis Walsing- 
han, which was not brought forth. On 
the twentieth of the same month, the 
first seven were hanged on a gibbet — a 
scaffold having been erected for that 
pnrpoae in St Giles' Fields, where they 
were wont to meet They were no 
sooner banged, than, whilst yet alive 
and conaeious, they were cut down, and, 
with barbarous cruelty, embowelled and 
quartered. The first who was thus hor^ 
ribly batrbered was Ballard, the arch 
traitor, after he had asked forgiveness of 
(iod and the Queen, if ever he had of- 
fended her. Then Babington, who re- 
mained undismayed Twhilst the others, 
turning aaide, nrayed on their knees), 
confeued his faults inrenuously; and, 
beini^ mt down from 9ie gallows, and 
lavini; upon the block to be quartered, 
cTit d loud, in I^tin, I^nrt miAi, DomtMe 
Je*u. Savage, the rope having given 
way. fell from the gibbet; buC being 
ly snatched up by the sentlcmcn, 
h'ia nemben Ml ciL aaS wia em- 

bowelled alive. Barnwell excused his 
crime out of a pretext of conscience and 
religion. Tichboume most penitentlv 
confessed his offence, and was mucn 
pitifd by the beholders : so also was 
Tilney. Abingdon, being of a furious 
and turbulent spirit, threatened that in 
a short time there would be no little 
bloodshed in England. The next day, 
the other seven being drawn to the same 
place, suffered the same punishment but 
with less severity, by order of the Queen, 
who was alarmed by the first day's 
cruelty after she heard of it : for they 
hung till they were dead, and then were 
cut down, embowelled, and quartered. 

After this execution, Naw, a French- 
man, and Curll, both secretaries to the 
Queen of Scots, being questioned as to 
the letters, notes, ana coaracters found 
in the Queen*s closet, confessed and at- 
tested that they were their own hand- 
writing, dictated by her to them in 
French, taken by Naw, and translated 
by Curll into English, and written out 
in secret characters. Neither denied 
they that they had received letters from 
Babington, and that thev, at her bidding, 
had written back to kirn agam. It, 
however, appears, almost beyond a 
doubt, espt'cuilly as Walsingham re- 
proved Curll, as unmindful of the gra- 
cious fieivours he had received, for saying 
that he had confessed nothing but what 
his companion Naw urged him to do, 
and which he could not deny, that this 
confession was fidsc; and extorted by 

Presently after, Sir Fxlward Wotton 
was sent into France, to inform the King 
of this conspiracy, and to show the 
copies of those letters of the Queen of 
Sc^ts, and of others of the nobility of 
EngUnd, to testify the truth of the 
charges, that the King might perceive 
in wnat peril the Queen was bv the pro- 
ceedings of Moi^an, Charles Paget and 
others then resident in France. The 
council could not for some time dctcr- 
minu what was best to be done regard- 
ing the Queen of Scots. Some advised 
that she should be closely imprisoned for 
life; others were of opinion that she 
should be put to death, in due coutn of 
Uw, ler fear of endangtrin^ rdii^Ml 



But the Earl of Leicester thought it 
better to despatch her with poison ! and 
•ent a ditine (!) to Sir Fnuicis Wal- 
nnghum, to tell him that he thoaght it 
might lawfully be done ! Walsingham, 
however, was so far from consenting to 
have any Tiolence offered to her, that he 
bad prevented Morton's purpose, which 
was to have had her sent to Scotland, 
and assassinated on the borders ! It was 
ultimately determined to issue out a 
commission to forty noblemen and privy 
councillors, empowering them ** to tiy 
and pass sentence upon Mary, daughter 
•nd heir to James the Fifth, late King 
of Scotland and Dovrager of France, 
pretending a title to the English crown," 
for having participated in the late 
wicked conspiracy. 

The maiority of these commissioners 
met on tne eleventh of October, at 
Fotheringham, in the county of North- 
ampton, whither the Queen of Scots 
had been removed. The following day, 
they sent to her Hildmay, Sir Amias 
Poolet, and Barker, notary public, who 
delivered to her the Queen's letters pa- 
tent, authorizing the commission; which, 
when she had perused, with a bold spirit 
and majestic countenance, she answered, 
** I am sorry to be charged, b^ my sis- 
ter the Queen, with that of which I am 
innocent; but let it be remembered 
that I am also a Queen, and not amen- 
able to any foreign jurisdiction." 

The next morning. Sir Amios Poulet 
and Parker, two of the commissioners, 
repaired to her, and shewed her her an- 
swer in writing, demanding whether 
■he would persist therein ; when, after 
having it read distinctly , she said she 
would persist, with this addition, '' that 
the Queen wrote to me that I was sub- 
ject to the laws of England, and to be 
)iid^ by them, because I lived under 
their protection. To which I answer, 
' That 1 came into England for aid ; but 
having ever since been detained a pri- 
soner, I could never enjoy the benefit of 
the laws, nor had I till this moment any 
one to instruct me therein.'" After- 
wards, she was several times waited upon 
by the commiisionert, with their coun- 
cu, but to their entrettj she replied that 

•nd as such, she would rather yaVkf 
than answer ai a lubjeci or a male- 

At last, however. Sir Christopher 
Hatton, vice-chamberiain, thus addrased 
her :— *' You are accused of a eonspiiaey 
against our sovereign lady the QiMeii, 
but not condemned. You say yon are a 
Queen ; admitted : yet are tou not ex- 
empt from answering in such a case. If 
you are innocent, you dishonour year 
reputation by refusing to oome to jad^ 
ment. You protest yourself to he aa, 
but the Queen thinks otherwise; aad 
hath appointed persons hononraUe,wiM, 
and upright, to examine jrour iaooceBcy : 
they must hear you with equitjy aad 
favour, and will be very jv^ffak if Toa 
can clear yourself of theae Crimea. Be- 
lieve me, the Queen herself will greatly 
rejoice: for she assured me at my d^ 
parture, that no greater grief had ever 
Dcfallcn her, than this of your aeeasa- 
tion ; wherefore, setting aside this vam 
conceit of sovereignty, whidi at this 
time standeth you in no stead, sbev 
yourself blamdess ; attract no more sas- 
picion to yourself by fubterfuge, bet 
rather wipe away the spot which «te 
will stick perpetually to your repata^ 

These remarks of HattoB*i caoeed 
Mary to waver, and a harsh note, re- 
ceived the following morning from Bim- 
bcth, — who, after the charge of l^oCtiBf 
against her life, says, *' I order, ehaige^ 
and comnmnd you to answer to the ae- 
bles and peers of my kingdom, as yea 
would to myself, if I were neseat;" 
and procee<u : ** I have heara of year 
arrogance ; but act eandidlyy and yea 
may meet with more fitvour,"— taraedtte 
balance ; and, on the subacquat mova* 
ing, the fourteenth of October, ihe Qmea 
of Scots sent for the oommisnoaflEB, sad 
declared to them that, being ptiaa a dfd 
hj Hatton's reasons, after maturely eea- 
sidering them, she desired to puige ha^ 
self of the imputed crime ; and, aeeonl- 
ingly, on the same morning, her trial 
commenced. The upper half of the gnat 
hall of Fotheringay Castle waa raileaol^ 
and at the high^ end waa plaeedaeUr 

of stat^rader a enwvf^fDr Oa (|Nmb 

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tnthentidtj of bmut of the Pi^en ad- 
dnced tfiftiost her, they wonla noiproTe 
her gailt J of any crime ; for the wh 
•orely doinjg^ no wrong if, after a cala- 
mitoos captiTity of nineteen years, in 
which she nad lost for erer her youth, 
her health, and her happinesn, she made 
one last effort to regain the libortr of 
which she had heen bo nnfah-ly robbed ; 
bat that, as to icheming against the life 
of the Qaeen, her sister, it was an in- 
famy she abhorred : " 1 would disdain," 
she said, " to porchase all that is most 
Talnable on earth by the assassination of 
the meanest of the human race ; and, 
worn oat as I now am with cares and 
■nfferin^, the prospec t of a crown is not 
•0 iuTiting that I shonldruin my sool in 
order to obtain it. Neither am I a 
stranger to the feelings of humanitr, nor 
unacquainted with the duties of religion, 
and it is my nature to be more in<£ned 
to the derotion of Esther than to the 
sword of Judith. If erer I hare giren 
eonsent by my words, or even by mr 
thoughts, to any attempt against the li/e 
of the Queen of England, £ur from de- 
dining the judgment of men, I shall 
not eren pray for the mercy of God." 

Elizabeth's adrocates were not a little 
Borprised at the eloquent and able man- 
ner in which Mary conducted her de- 
fence. They had expected to hareerery 
thing their own way, and to gain an 
easy rictory orer one unacquainted with 
the forms of legal procedure, and unable 
to cope with their own professional ta- 
lents. But they were disappointed and 
hai&ed ; and, in order to maintain their 
ground eren plaosibly, they were obliged 
to protract the proceedings for two 
whoie days. Nor, after ul, did the 
commissioners Tentnre to pronounce 
judgment, bat adjoomed the court to 
the StarChamber at Westminster, where 
they knew that Mary would not be pie- 
sent, and where, consequently, they 
would hare no opposition to fear. On 
the twenty fifth of October, they assem- 
bled there, and baring again examined 
the secretaries Nawe and Curll, and who 
confirmed their former declarations, a 
nnanimous judgment was delirered, that 
** Mary, commonlycallcd Queen of Scots, 
ndDowagv of rraaoi^ 

to BabingtoD'a conspinej, and had 
passed and imagined diren 
within the Tsalm of Kagland, taadinglo 
the hurt, death, and deslraelMMi of tha 
royal person of Elinbeth, in ofiposiliaa 
to the statute framed forherprotmca." 

The same dsT, the lords comausBMoci^ 
and judges of the realm, dedaied :— 
**That this sentence did derootc no- 
thing from the right or honour of Jamei^ 
King of Scotland ; bat that he rcnaiaed, 
and was in the same rank, estate, aal 
right as if it had nener jMen." A km 
days afterwards, the 
proTcd and confirmed the 
nounced against the Qaeen of Seodnd: 
all with one accord (by the Lotd Cha- 
cellor) presented a petition to UMQatea, 
wherein they desired, that, for the pro- 
serratioa of the tme religion of Ckrii^ 
the tranquillity of the laM, the aeenri^ 
of her person, the good of tliem aQ aai 
their posterity, the sentence agtiHt 
Mary, Queen of Scots, might bepwdidy 
pronounced, according to the tenor m 
the law; alle^^ing reasons dnwn froai 
the dangers stirrra and practiaed agaiMt 
religion, her own person, and thaiasim, 
by her who was a mother-none of tha 
Roman religion, and had awem an la- 
TioUble accord to extirpate the rdigioa 
now established, and had long since laid 
claim to the crown. Queen vn— i»«*fc 
yet living; esteeming that (seeing she 
was excommunicatecQ it waa lawral ts 
conspire against her, and meritoiioas ts 
take away her life. She had rvned 
some noble houses of the land, and had 
kindled the fire of rebelUon in En^snl 
That to pardon her were to destroy the 
people, who much repined ai her impa* 
nity ; and that she coold not he freed 
from the oath of coanimcj, othsrwiM 
than by punishment And, lastly, they 
recited ue example of the awral na- 
geance of God against King SaaL fiv 
not patting Agag and Benadaj te 

In replT to this address, Tliiahrtfc 
said — ** l^ow my life hath been at- 
tempted to be taken away, it grietcth 
me most, that it was by soeh a penoa 
as was of mine own se^ estate, and 
rank ; to whom I was ao ftr firaai 
iag iUrwiUy tba^ an tha 



id plotted diTtti matten ■gainst 
wrote to her in priTite, that if in 
riting McretlT she would admow- 
them, I woiud bnnr them all in 
m. Neither would I haye done 
> entrap her ; for 1 knew alreadj 
I eoula eonfesB : and, although the 

* wan at that pass, yet if she had 
lewed herself truly penitent, none 
haTe taken her cause affainst me 
id. Nerertbeless, if omy it had 
ned mine own life, and not the 
laid of my people (without osten- 
be it spoken), I would wiUinelj 
pardoned her. If £ng]and dj 
idk might flourish the more, or 
i better prinee, I could be well 
t to lay down my life ; for I de- 
lire solely for your good and that 
people. As touching these late 
IS, r will not so mucn prejudice 
Bpelf, or the ancient laws of my 
f, in such fashion, as not to think 
eh treason to be subject thereto, 
Ifh this new law had neyer been 

the which (although some fa- 
I of her haye suspected so) was 
ide aninst her, but was so fiair 
Btan^in|p her, that it was rather 
idmonition to her not to come 

the danger of it; ncycrtheless, 
re, by this new law, broi^ht me 
idi a narrow strait, that l am to 
ine upon the punishment of a 
■, my next kinswoman; whose 
ea have afflicted me with so great 

that, not to augment my sor- 
B hearing it spoken of, I did 
ly absent myseli from this Par- 
;, and not (as some think) for fear 
eliery. Notwithstanding, I will 
re (although I use few words of 
at this secret out of my heart, 
[ haye aeen with mine eyes, and 
I oath, by which some haye bound 
[yes to oispotch me within one 
From hence I foresee your 

in my person, and certainly I 
i careful and diligent to repel it. 
rasmuch os the mutter now in 
I an example as important as rare, 
1 you expect not that 1 should 
anything for the present: for my 

* is, eyen in things of less conse- 
, to be long in ddibcrating about 

that I must once reaolye upon. I wiD 
pray to God Almighty, that ne will illu- 
minate my heart, to foresee what is 
commodious for the church, the common- 
wealth, and your safeties. Notwith* 
standing, lest delay should bring danger, 
you shall (as the opportunity of time 
will scnrc) understand my puipose. In 
the meantime, I would you should ex- 
pect all the goodness from me, which 
good subjects may look for from a good 

Twelve days afterwards, she sent the 
Lord Chancellor to the House of Lords, 
and Pickering to the Commons, entreat- 
ing them to more seriously consider the 
matter, and to devise some more whole- 
some remedy, that the Queen of Scot- 
land's life might be preserved and 
secured. After thej had deliberated a 
long time, and considered that the good 
or ul of Princes concemeth their sub- 
jects, they, with one according voice, all 
adopted the same resolution which they 
had done before, grounded upon these 
reasons : — ** That so long as toe Queen 
of Scotland lived. Queen Elizabeth 
could not be secure, unless she would 
become penitent, and acknowledge her 
crimes; and that she should be kept 
more straitly, and bound by oath and 
writing ; or that she should deliver hos- 
tages; or that she should depart the 
kinedonL Of her repentance they had 
no nope, for she had oeen ungrateful to 
Queen Elizabeth, who had saved her 
life, and would not so much as acknow • 
lodge her faults ; as for a straitcr guard, 
her hand- writing, oath, or hostages, they 
would be all as nothing ; for that when 
Queen Elizabeth died, all these would 
vanish away instantly. As for departing 
the land (if she were out of it), they 
fisared she would raise arms against it.*' 

The Lord Chancellor and Uie Speaker 
of the Commons declared this resolution 
of the parliament to Elizabeth ; impor. 
tuning her earnestly, that the sentence 
should be put into execution : shewing 
her, **That if it were injuisticc to deny 
the execution of the law to the meane^ 
subject, much greater would it be to re- 
fuse to grant it to the whole body of the 
people, who with one voice and will 
demanded it " To which she renlied :— 



^ how iretrisome is that way where 
we find nothing but irksomeness whilst 
we are goine in it ; and when 'tia past, 
inquietudes r I am troubled this day 
Qt ever the like) whether to speak or to 
Add my tongue : if I should speak, and 
not complain, I dissemble; if I hold 
my tongue, the pains you hare taken 
are in rain ; if I complain, it will seem 
itrange; notwithstanding, I confess 
that my first request was both for your 
security, and mine own. Some other 
means should hare been found out than 
what you now propound ; insomuch, 
that I cannot but complain to you, 
*though not of yon ; for that I learn by 
year demands, that my safety dependeth 
vpon another^B ruin. If any think that 
I naTe purposely prolonged the time, to 
purchase a counterfeit pnusc of cle- 
mency, undoubtedly they wrong me 
unworthily ; and mater wrong they do 
me if they think Uiat the commissioners 
durst pronounce no other sentence for 
fear of displeasing me, or seeming to 
n^lect my safety. Ilowerer, because it 
now clearly appeareth, that I cannot be 
■afe unless she die, I am touched with a 
deep dolour. As concerning your de- 
mand, I entreat and charge you, to be 
content with this my answer. I com- 
mend your judgment, and apprehend 
the reasons thereof. But excuse me, I 

Say, for that doubtful perplexity of 
ought, which troubleth me. If I say 
I will not comply with your demand, by 
my faith ! I snail say unto you more, 
perhaps, than I mean. If I should say 
uat I mean to grant it, I should tefi 
you more than is fit for you to know ; 
thus I must deliyer to you an answer, 
answerlcss." After this, the parliament 
was prorogued. 

On the twenty-second of Noyember 
Lord Buckhnrst and Beale were des- 
patched to announce to Manr, that jud{^- 
ment was giyen against ner; that it 
was confirmed by authority of parlia- 
ment, and its execution demanded for 
the sake of justice, security, and neces- 
sity. They, therefore, exhorted her, 
that after she had acknowledged her 
offences to God and Queen Elizabeth, 
to satisfy herself by repentance before 
she died ; for, if she liyod, the reformed 

religion in England eoold noi etaad. 
She replied, that «<the jndgmcnt wh 
unjust r reliiMd the PnitettanI biahoo 
and the dean whom th^ ncammtmiA 
to her, and dedred a Catholifi priest 
to direct her oonscieace, and to ad- 
minister the sacramenta ; she abo 
greatly blamed the English natiott, saj* 
ing often : — ** The Eimiah have maay 
times murdered their ainga ; and it is 
no strange thing if they do the like to 
me, who am deriyed of their royal 
blood.'* The sentence was proclaimed 
in the month of December, with the 
sound of a trumpet, through the City of 
London, in presence of the Lofd M ayar, 
the Sheriffs, and the Aldermen. Eha- 
beth protested that she had been diawa 
into It by necessity, and the eamast 
request of parliament On the awftl 
tidmgs reaching the ears of Mary, she, 
by permission of her keeper. Sir Amias 
Pouli't, wrote the following •^Bwtiag 
epistle to Elizabeth : — 

**.I put off all malice of heart towaidi 
you ; giying thanks to God for this coa- 
demnation, seeing it was his good plea- 
sure to terminate the irka<Hne pilgrim- 
age which I haye had in this lue ; aad 
I desire, for I can expect no good fima 
hot-headed innoyators, who hold the 
chiefest rank in England, that I may be 
beholden to yon alone, and no other, fcr 
the benefits following : — First, that 
when my adyersariea are glutted with 
my innocent blood, my Mdy may be 
carried from thence, by my own aeryaat^ 
to some sacred and haUowed gronnd, 
there to be buried ; and aboye lul, into 
France, where my mother lyeth in rest; 
seeing that, in Scotland, Uiej had offered 
yiolence to the dead bodies ol my aaeei> 
tors, profaned or de^ioiled the chnrdies; 
and in England, I can hope for nobariil, 
according to the Catholic eolennities, 
amongst the ancient kings mr aaceatoa ; 
and so my bod]r, that neyer bad rest so 
long as it was joined to my soul. Bay 
have some at last, after it has puled 
from it. 

** Secondly, fearing the doae tyranny 
of some, I desire that I may not suffer 
my punishment unknown to the Queen 
of England, in some aecret place, bat in 
the si^t of my seryaatB, and otiMv pea* 



pie, thftt ther may truly betr witness of 
my faith in Vhrist, of my obedience to 
the church, and of the end of my life. 

Sain«t the false tiftimnny which my 
Tcrsarics may di'clare ' ahncid. — 
Thirdlv, I desire that ray A-rranU may 
be Butfered peaceably to di-part whither 
they will, and to enj<iy the li-;?:icicd I 
haTc bequeathed thfm by my will. 1 
beseech you, in the name of Jesus 
(.'hritfty to grant me these thin^ by 
rirttt'.* of our alliance in blood, by the 
■acred memory of Henry the Si-veuth, 
our common progenitor, and by the 
princely honour which sometimes you 
display. I hare great cause of com- 
plaint, that all my princly robes were 
taken away, by command of the coun- 
cillors. I Year their malice will cxtvnd 
to worse things. If they had but shewn 
me, without fraud or falsehood, tho pa- 
pen which they took from mc, it would 
clearly hare appcari'd by them, that 
nuthin? would have causea my untimely 
death, but the doubtful care which sonut 
had of your Majesty's safety. Fiuully, I 
entreat yon to return mc an answer under 
your own hand, touching these thinsrs." 

But, alas ! no answer was returned by 
her unfeeling kinswoman. 

In calmly weighine the conduct of 
Elizabeth and her ParUament, tho intel- 
ligent part of the community considered 
tmit the unfortunate Mary was being 
cruelly dealt with. They reasonr-d that 
she was an absolute and free Princess, 
OTer whom God alone had the command ; 
that she was rery nearly allied to Queen 
Elizabeth ; and that, being driven out of 
Scotland by her rebellious subjects, she 
had no sooner arrived in England, than 
Queen Elizabeth promised hor, upon her 
princely word, by Henry Mildmore, to 
now her all courtesy, and to welcome 
her with all hospitality. ^ Yet, contrary 
to this promise, she imprisoned her, and 
Tiolatea those lacrcd nghts. That she 

could only be considered as a prisoner of 
war : amf to such it was lawful tn pruc* 
tine any nu un-i to effect hrr lihirty uiid 
t'roedum. That she e«Mdd imt ('•uiiniit 
tri-.'ison, b<-4rauM' she was no huhjirt ; und 
I that none hath power c»Vi r .in itpial. 
That thi.4 rinuiuiitanct' huil i auMi-d lu he 
diKunnulh d the h nti nee of the Kmjuror 
of Austria a'r<iin.>»t Itobert, Kin>^ uf Si- 
cily, beeauKi.' he wua not suhji-ct to his 
empire. That if amba»«iuiors, who are 
but the servants of prinees, shall oun> 
spin* against thoi>e to whom tlu-y arc 
cmploycil in embassy, they are not'eul|i- 
abb: of tn.'as<m, much liss the princes 
thrmsilves ; and that the will ou^'htnot 
to )m> punish(>d, unless it bike etfeet. 
That it was u thin;; unheard of, for a 
queen to puss under th<' hands of a e<im- 
mou executioner. That »\iv was ron- 
demncd eimtrary to the law of (tud. the 
Roman eivil law, and the F>m:li^<h ; yi a, 
even against the hUitutc of the thirtn-uth 
of Klizabeth, whereby it was ordained, 
" That no person sliould lie eidh-d into 
judgment lor having attrmptid th<- ruin 
of the prince, but upon tlie t<-«timony 
and oath of two lawful witm st'S. who 
should be brought faec to faee before 
the aceu'sed;*' wliilst no witn^^.N waspro- 
duc«:d against her on h<T trial, but chi; 
was condemned fn>ra the li-stiniony of 
two absent wcretaries. Others loudly 
complained, that s]iii's had bem suhorneif, 
who, by f(»rgery, false letters, and de- 
ceitful pnicticcs. had deluded the Prin- 
cess, and exposed \ur to maeliinations, 
f»f which hhe would not even have 
dreamt, liad she bt:en Mt to that quiet 
and repose which was requisite in hir 
situation. That, in short, a cruel, base, 
and unmanly advantage was taken of an 
unfortunate captive Princess, uttirly 
powerless, and unable to conteml agains'i 
tho malignity of a jealous (^ueen, and 
an enslaved, fawning, and persecuting 


; K the metslung, 
^, Jtmc* the Sixth, tbe 
■ Toathfnl King of 
I Bvotloiid, who boie 
! kii nafortuiuta mo- 
' tlier bot little tffee- 
, wu pteraijed 
upoQ to «nle to Eli- 
»brth:~"'niat it t— aatt unjoit, 
thet Itaenoblci, ihsrooncillara, *ad inb- 
jccls of EngLuid shonld rire Kntence 
■niost « QnecD of Scotland, bom of lh« 
&gliiji Mood ) and ai nnjoat alio, that 
the Pailiamoit ahoiild exclude the tme 
bain from the ri^bt of (acceanon, and 
their lawM inhentance." He alio aent 
Falrick Gist and Robert Heliin to de- 
date to Elizabeth—" TUt the grMt 
proiimitir betwiit them mmld not let 
bim beliere that she would violato that 
imowiud repatation which iho frolB 
all parti had purchased by her Tirtnea ; 
■niT eipeciallT by her meidfol poUcr, 
BnataiDcd hitboto br any spot of ctnel- 
ty ;" and to entreat her to niare the life 
oC hit unfortunate mother, ilaij. £ut 
■a they Ihemivlna lecrotly deured the 
death of the Queen of Scota, theii eC- 
Ibrti were ineffectuaL 

In NoTember, in citnwrdinary ambai- 
Mdw uriiedlhin Fiance, to intereede for 
llMcandennedPriaeeaa. Accompanied hy 

__ . .Mwith 

■nd itrennouily urged her not to carry 
the lentence aninat Hai^ into eiecn- 
tion. mUiabetb replied, in a tone of 
aaperily : " That the Qnepn of England 
hoped, that the moat Chiiitian King' of 
France made no Ita reckoaing of her 
than of the Qaeen of Scotland, who had 
practiaed her dcatruction; that whibt 
Mary lireth, there will alwayi be new 
plolB of miachief breeding ; nfm iallj. 

]i ..,.._. . 

u alao pnfllable. That poJuahmeBt d 
death, jnatly TnflirtoJ, caaaot be a*- 
countea bloody, no mine than a wbob- 
Mnne mcdidne can be dccned bnrtdd. 
Howaoerer the Gniaei^ the Ques rf 

labeth hath more Bcanr cauae to rwd 

heiaelf, her own Mtety, her nobllily, 

and the good of her people, on «h<a 

' — ahe wholly dependeth, than the die- 

cnt of any otW whataoerci; aid 

the matter waa now at tbnt pain^ 

that the old pnmrb of the two PitDM^ 

CMuadine, King of Sidly, and Cbaric^ 

Dnkeof Aiyo!^ MigAtba«Kd,eadtnh 

'of theaa twoQBMni:— 'Tha deaU 

laij— ihalifaofEliMbelh; aadiha 

life of Mary— the dtath et Klinbelh." 

D'Anbnua, the amhaiMdor fa 

Fiance in I^lud, who waa of tb* fa- 

tion of the GniMe, *ki*Vi¥i£ that, if hi 

could not by aigomeBt or iiaeima i^ 

i: — .1. n ^ Scotland, he mi^ 

lu uj aome miachicToni am, 
rirately, Ont with one WilliaM 
a jouUi, wheae mother wat oaa 
of the tadica of honour, abont the kill- 
ing of Queen Eliiabcth. At firrt, ha 
dult with him in an underhand way, 
re piainly, bj hie a^ 

the Qi 


cntirji TVupSi vlio pramiMd hin, if he 
performed t&e deed, uat he ehould hare 
therebj, not onlrgrest glory and alari^ 
mm o'f moner/lmt alM exceeding fa- 
Yonr from hu holineai the Tupe of 
Rome, the Goucs, and all true Catholics. 
Stafford, loathing roch a monitroui mis- 
ehief, declined the proposal : bnt, not 
vithstanding, mentioned to him one 
Modey, as a ^t fellow to be employed in 
such an atrodtT, and ono who would 
use dispatch, tliongh the murder were 
efer » oloody, for monej. This Modej 
waa a prisoner in London, and to whom 
Staffora made it known, that the French 
ambassador dadred to speak with him. 
He answered, that he desired the same, 
if he were ont of prison; cntreatinc 
him, in the meantime, to speak with 
Coidalion, the ambassador's undcrsecre* 
tarjr, who was his familiar friend. The 
■orrow after, Trappe and Stafford were 
sent to him; when Trsppe (Stafford 
stepping aparO entered into conrerMi- 
tion with Moaer — how, and bv what 
means, the^ mignt kill Queen Elizabeth. 
Xoder adrised to hsTe it done by poison, 
or by oringing privately into the' Queen's 
Camber a barrel of gnnpowder, to be 
Mcretly aet on fiie. But Trappe did not 
like either of those modes, he oeing dc- 
nona of finding a rosolnte fellow who 
Seared nothing— such a one as Boar- 
^abpLaHj who slew the Prince of Orange. 
Stafford qnickly reTealed this matter 
to the eoimcil, and Trappe, now prepar- 
ing to aet out for France, was appre- 
leadfld, and, being examined, confi^sed 
Iha whole affair. Hereupon, on the 
wdfkh of January, 1587, the amboua- 
lor was sent for to Lord Burleigh's, 
vliither he came in the evening, and 
band assembled, by command of the 
)oeen, the Lord High Treasurer, the 
Boil of Ijeicester, Sir Christopher Hat- 
Mi (Viofl^hamberlain), and Mr. Secrc- 
arr llaTison^ who declared, that they 
laa inrited him thither to acquaint liini 
irith the cause why they had arrested 
111 iscretaryy Trappy, being on his way 
» Franco ; and tnen informed him of 
Jie whole matter, as Stafford, Modoy, 
md Trappe had confessed ; and they had 
snacd tnom to bo brought in, to testify 
he same before his face. The ambassa- 

dor, with great impatience, and bending 
hii brows, stood up and declared, that 
he, being the King ■ anibawador, would 
not abuse his master, the Xing of France, 
nor prejudice other amhasKiiTun in Fuch 
a way as to be a hearer uf oi'cutatioDs, 
be they what they may. But (.'t-cil 
harioi; answered him, that those thiuHS 
were not produced as areiifuitiona against 
him, but tu li't him percfiw thuf they 
were neither false nor feigned, and to 
the end that he nii;;ht tuk6 riccasiun to 
convict Stafford the more easily of ca- 
lumny, he became more quiet. But as 
soon as Stafford canio in, and had begun 
to speak, he interrupted him in a con- 
temptuous manner, and swore that this 
fellow, Stafford, liud first mentioned the 
matter to him, and that he had threat- 
ened to send him, bound hand and foot, 
to the Que< n of Knglund, if he dared to 
mention that affair again : and that, at 
the time, he fonr-ivc him, for the love 
and affection he liad to his mother, his 
brother and natter. Staffonl, fulling on 
his kufes, proti-sted many timoo, as he 
hoped to )h' wivi-d, that the anibaasadur 
had first broki-n the motterto him. Tho 
amboiisuilor was thi^n more angry than 
before ; Stafford was orden-d out of the 
room, and M<Nley was not even permit- 
ted to come in ! ili-rcupon Lurtl Bur- 
Irigh, out of his own words, and from 
tho confession of TRippc, reproved him, 
but sf)mewhat gently, tor this intendi-d 
mischief. The amhui»sador answen-d — 
** If he had been guilty, or acquainted 
with the matter, yc^ as Ixin^ an ambas- 
sador, he was not bound to reveal it to 
any but to his own King." 

Burleigh answering, said: — "Admit 
it bo not the part of on ambamador 
(which yet is a questionable matter) to 
discover such affairs only to their own 
King, still, wlien the life of a Prince is 
at stake, it is the part of a Christian to 
prevent such enorniitics ; not only when 
the life of a Princess is concorni'd, but 
even tliat of anv private Chrii«tiun." 
This he stoutly cienied, and roeited tho 
example of n Trench ambnssudor not 
long ago in 8p:iin, who, knowim^ of a 
treacherous design against tho Iiing of 
Spain, although it affected his life, yet 
ho discovered it not to him, but to nit 



•WB Kinr ; for wMeb he reoeired great 
•oinineiKUtion, both of hii King and 
eooBcU." NeTertheless, Lord Burleigh 
ferygrarely admonished him, hereafter 
to hare a care how he offended her 
Majesty, and not to forget his dnty, and 
the merciful disposition of her Majesty, 
who was bth to offend the good amhas- 
ladors, hy puiusliing the bad. 

From this attempt, the sworn enemies 
of the Queen of Scotland sought to do 
her hurt, and took advantage thereby 
to hasten her death ; knowing that, in 
cases of extreme danger, fear leaveth no 
place for mercy, they added to the terrors 
of Elizabeth ; spread alarming nunours, 
to the effect that : — 

The Spanish fleet was already landed 
at Milford-Havcn. 

The Scots had arrived upon the bor- 
ders of England. 

The Duke de Guise was in Essex 
with a mighty army. 

The Queen of Scots had broken 
prison, raised a great troop of soldiers, 
and began a rebellion in the North. 

There were new plots in hand for 
murdering the Queen, and to bum the 
City of London ; and, finally, that the 
Queen of England was dead ! 

By these and other alarming reports, 
by her own malice and fears, and by the 
importunities of her flattering advisers ; 
Elizabeth was brought into such trouble 
and perplexity of mmd, that she forth- 
with signed Mary's death warrant; 
being most of all urged to it by Patrick 
Gray, an infamous Scotchman, whom 
the King of Scotland had expressly sent 
to dissuade the Queen of England from 
putting his royal parent to death ; but 
who grossly betrayed his sacred mis- 
•ion, continually and insidnously pouring 
these venomous words into the ears of 
Elizabeth — we blush for human nature 
M we record them — Mortua non m&r- 
dti: *' Being dead, she will bite no 
more ! " 

The courtiers were not alone in their 
thirst for the blood of the unfortunate 
Mary ; but divers fiery-tongued preach- 
ers, also, forgetful of the precepts of 
their Divine Master, took occasion to 
•zerciae. with all fiend-like asperity, the 
kMtclthflirdenre, ia urging the Qneeii 

to haste the death of the captiipo nd 
now condemned Prinoen. 

Wavering and nndeeided, EUzabetli 
now passed several days in gloomy soli* 
tude, frequently signing deeply, and 
muttering, Aut petre mUj^eremU; ** Pre- 
vent the stroke by striking." Amidrt 
these sensations, she at length signed 
the fatal warrant under the great smI of 
England, for the execution of her kins- 
woman, and delivered it to her accrB-> 
tary, Darison, to keep it private, m she 
alleged afterwards, not acqiiaintiiir any 
therewith, lest haply, in toia tarSidnt 
time of fear, some siidden TiolcBt daagcr 
might happen ; or, in other wordi^ 
that some means might be ianaA to i^ 
sassinate the Queen of Scots in prisoa. 
But the morrow after, aome snddei 
affright mixing itself with her peosive 
thoughts and meditations, she ehaaged 
her former purpoee, and ccMnmanded 
Davison to dispatch the warrant foith* 
with. The sccretanr told her it was 
ready, and sealed. Then she grew veiT 
angry, saying, "He waa too hasty !^ 
Hut for sll this, he went directly and 
laid the warrant before the council ; who 
willingly beliering what they to ears- 
estly desired, that the Qoeen h^ 
given her commands for the exeention ; 
and, unknown to her, aent Beale^ 
who, from a fervour of zeal which ht 
bore to religion ( !), was more eaaily beat 
against the Queen of Scotland than any 
other, with two executioners, and leCteit 
patent, granting authority to the Essli 
of Shrewsbury, Kent, Derby, Cumber- 
land, and others, to proceed in this ea^ 
cution. And the Queen had told 
Davison that she had a purpoae of desi* 
ing otherwise with the Queen of Scot- 
land ; yet, for all that, he did not stay or 
detain Bc^le. 

On reaching Fotheringham Caitk^ 
the Earls found the unhanpy Qneen of 
Scotland with Sir Amies Poulet said Sir 
Drue Drury, to whose custody she bad 
been committed ; and then rnding the 
fatal mandate, they admoniahed her ti 
prepare herself to oie the next morning. 
Mary, with heroic courage, answered; — 
" I never thought that my lister, the 
Queen of England, would hayeconaented 
to my death, seeiBg I oa Mi wAj^U 


jBV bwi; bat, risee Imt plMnira ii 
neh, detth to me shall be meet wd- 
cmm! And eiiiely that aool were not 
vorthy the eternal joja of HeaTen, 
wboie body eannot endnre one itroke of 
• headsman!" 

She desired them to send to her her 
•laMoer, her confessor, and Mclvin, 
her steward. Ther refined to send her 
her eonfeasor, suoa appointed for her 
coinfoiten the Bishop and Dean of Pe- 
terborough, whose serriees she declined. 
Thereupon the £srl of Kent, a zealous 
p nrfe ss o r of religion, remarked : — ''Tour 
life will be the death, and your death 
the life of oar religion." Then, hannr 
ilfaidsd to Babington, she solemnly afl 
firmed she nerer knew of his practices. 
She left the due rerenge of all to God ; 
and, immiring what hsd become of Naw 
sad Cnnl, she asked, '* If erer it was 
heard ol, in former times, that the ser- 
Tsnls shoold be suborned to betraT their 
lady miatreas to death, and also be ad- 
mitted as evidences against her ?" 

When the Earls were departed, she 
rapped, aa her manner erer was, 
▼ery tempeiatdy, and seeing her ser- 
Tuta, both men and women, weeping 
and monming, she comforted them, 
and bade them wipe their eyes, and 
rather rqoioe with her, for that she 
was now about to depart from this 
golf of miseriea. Supper being nearly 
over, she diank the health of all her 
scrranta; who, in oider, one by one, 
upon their ^ knees took her pledge, 
mining their tears with the wine, and 
eranng pardon of her for whatcTer they 
had bwn negligent of in their duties ; 
so did she likewise of them. After sup- 
per she pcmaed her will, looked oyer the 
mventoTf of her wardrobe and jewels, 
and inserted the names of those to whom 
•he had bequeathed any thing. To 
some of them she distributed money with 
her own hands. She wrote also to her 
confessor, desiring him to pray for her ; 
aud to the King of France and the 
Duke of Gnise she recommended her 
scrrants. This duty over, she retired 
to rest, slept a few houra, and, awaking, 
passed the rest of the night in prayer. 

At the dawn of that fatal day, the 
seventh of Vehnury, she attired herself 

in snch ^rments aa she nsnaUy wore 
upon festival days; and calling her ser- 
vants around her, she caused her will to 
be read, desirioj^ them to take in good 
part the legacies she had given them, 
seeing it was not in her power to make 
them better. Then, wholly fixing her 
mind upon God, she betook herself to 
her oratory, where, with sighs and fer- 
vent prayers, she called upon God ; till 
such time as the sheriff of the county 
signified to her, that she must come 
forth ! Then forth she came, in carriage 
and demeanour princely and majestic; 
cheerful in countenance, and in attiro 
modest and matron-like; she wore a 
linen veil over her head and before her 
face, which was uncovered ; at her girdle 
hung her rosary, or row of beads, and 
in her hand she held a crucifix of ivory. 

In the porch, or passage of her apart- 
ments, met her the Earl of Kent, and 
the other noblemen, where Melvin, one 
of her servants, falling on his knees, and 
pouring forth tears, bewailed his unlucky 
fate, that he was doomed to carry into 
Scotland the sad tidings of the tragical 
death of his beloved mistress. **0h! 
weep not ! " said the afflicted Queen, 
** for you shall shortly see Mary Stuart 
at the end of all her sorrows. You will 
report, that I die true and constant in 
my relinon, and firm in my love to 
Scotland and to France. G(k1 forgive 
them who have thirsted after my blood, 
as the hart doth for the water-brook." 

Tears flowed in torrents from her 
eyes; she repeated again and again, 
'* Adieu — Adieu ! Melvm ! " he weeping 
all the while no less lamentably than 
his royal mistress. Then, turning her- 
self towards the Earls, she entreated 
them, that her servants might be gently 
treated, that they might enjoy the 
things she had given them by her will, 
that they might be permitted to be 
with her at her death, and, lastly, that 
they might be safely sent home to their 
respective countries. Her first two re- 
quests were granted, but the Earl of 
Kent scrupled to comply with the lost ; 
when 1^0 said: — "Fear you not, Sir; 
the poor creatures desire nothing but to 
take Uieir last leave of me ; and I know 
I my sister, the Quesn of Enghmd, would 


Bot that yon ihoiild deny me so ■m«ll 
m request" The Earl then aooeded to 
her wishes, and she^ named MelTin, 
Bourffoine (her physician), her apothe- 
cary, ner snrgeon, two of ner maios, and 
some others; Melvin carrying np her 

Then the noUemen, the two earls, 
and the sheriff of the coanty, g^inff be- 
fore, she came to the scaffold, which was 
erected at the upper end of the hall, 
upon which was a chair, a cushion, and 
a block, dl corered with black. As 
soon as she was seated, and silence com- 
manded, Bcale read the warrant of ex- 
ecntion, and Dr. Fletcher, Dean of Pe- 
terborough, made a long discourse on 
the conution of her life, past and pre- 
sent, and of the life to come. Twice she 
interrupted him, entreating him not to 
importune her; protesting that she was 
settled and resoWed in the ancient Ro- 
man Catholic religion, and ready eren 
now to shed her blood for the same. He 
Tehemently exhorted her to be repent- 
ant, and with an undoubted faitn to 
put her whole trust and confidence in 
Christ : but she answered him : That 
lAie had been bom and brought up in 
this religion, and was ready to die in 
the same. Then the Earls offered to 
pray for her, but she replied, she would 
thank them if they would prajr together 
with her, but to communicate in prayer 
with those of a different religion, were 
scandal and sin. Then they desired the 
Dean to pray, with whom, whilst the 
assembly about him joined in prayer, 
she, fidlmg upon her knees, and holding 
the crucifix betwixt her hands, prayed 
an Latin with her own people, out of 
«Xhe OOoe of our Blessed Lady." 

After the Dean had ended bk pnjtn, 
she prayed in Eagliah for the chnr^ 
for her son, and for Elisabeth, Qneea of 
£im:land. She forgaTO all ha fwmmt^ 
and kissing the cmeifiz, aaid, **Ai 
thy arms, Lord Jesoa Christ! wen 
spread forth upon the eroas, so nmat 
me into the sameanns of thy metej,aBd 
pardon me my twyssea." 

Then the exeentioiier asked and r^ 
ceived her forgiToness, and her serfaati 
took off her upper garments, crying and 
lamenting aloud ; yet she icMaiMd in 
cheerful oounteimaee, and hadt iktm 
forbear their womanish ireepiag^ mjm 
ing, ** Weep not, for I am at Aa mi. ef 
all my calamities.'* Likewiat^ ^■■■■f 
towards her other ierfaati^ wIm wve 
most piteonsly weepias^ aha twthii 
them with the sign of the cnaa, and 
smilingly bade them all an eternal a£en 1 
Then, hafing a linen cloth befbia her 
fiM^ she laid her head npaa the hled^ 
reciting the psalm, *' la thee, l4Md, 
have I put my trust, let me not be eo«» 
founded for ever." Thea^ wtnt/Ma^ 
forth her body, and many tuaea npea^ 
ing with ardour and darotka them 
words, '^Lord, into thy kaada I eoak 
mend my spirit ;" her head, at the thiid 
blow, was cut off; the Dean crying 
aloud, *'So perish all the fiOTBira si 
Queen Elizabeth.^' to which the Ead 
of Kent responded, '< So pcaish all the 
enemies of tne gospel ! " and the people 
being all abaorbea in •'^-'f'^fiffa aad 
pity, not a Toice was heard to ciy 

Thus died the bcantiliily the pioai^ 
the ill-fated Mary, Queea oi Soota, ia 
the forty-sixth year of her age^ and ths 
eighteenth of her imprisoamaak 

waaMaaerBf anoim quben bbomamt. 



4itr U jMmm the Sisih^Orief of Jame9— Indignation ofihe Seats en 
A# dmUh of Mary — Trial and condemnation of Secretary Haviton ftr 
bry to he beheaded without the knowledge of £Uzaheth--Opinion9 of the 
iaviton'e extraordinarg private apology^Barbaroue erueltiet perpetrated 
iXe aamction — Threatened invasion t^ Spain — Preparatume against the 
Umada^£litadeth's visU to the camp at TUhmy-^JSer sp^ to the 

news of the death of 
Marr was brouffht 
to Elisabeth, who, 
it ifl alleged by all 
her def^en, was 
all thia time uncon- 
adoua of what had 
16 took it moat impatiently 
r apeech and ooantenanoe at 
ar ; through the extremity of 
diaeontent, ahe became quite 
nd diaooniolate ; and, attired 
wwds, she bitt^y lamented 
rt ahe had acted, and abed 
M of tears. She aent for 
md sharplr rebuked them 
eipitaney, chased them out 
tad commanded them to be 
m the anbiect As for her 
neretary, Davison, who hod 
was acting the part of a 
hithfol scmmt, she ordered 
ly to be brought into the 
r, to be dealt with according 
id aa aoon as her affected 
1 sorrow suffered her to 
dreaaed the following letter 
e Sixth in her own hand- 
dispatched it by the hands 
t Carey: — 

I yon knew (though not 
eme dolour that orerwhclms 
nr that miserable accident 
tntrary to my meaning) hath 
haTO now sent this kmsman 
mk ere now it hath you to 
natruct you truly of that 
irksome for my pen to tell 
)ech you, that as God and 
EBOW how innocent I am in 

this case, so yon will beliere me, that if 
I had directed ought, I would abide by 
it I am not so base-minded that fear 
of any living^ creature or prince should 
make me afraid to do that were just, or 
deign to deny the same. I am not of so 
base a lineage nor carry so vile a mind, 
but as not to disguise fits not a king, 
so will I never dissemble my actiona, 
but cause them shewn even as I meant 
them, thus ; assuring yourself of me that 
as I know this was descrred, yet if I had 
meant it I would lay it on others' 
shoulders ; no more will I not damnific 
myself that thought it not; the circum- 
stance it may please you to have of this 
bearer, and for your nart, think ^on 
have not in the world a more loving 
kinswoman nor a more dear friend than 
myself, nor any that will watch more 
carefuUy to preserve yon and your es- 
tate, and who shall otherwise persuade 
you, judge them more partial to others 
than YOU, and thus in naste I leave to 
trouble you, beseeching God to send you 
a lon^ reign. 

" liour most assured loving sister and 
cousin, ** Elizabeth R. 

•' The 14th of Febnutry, 1606." 

The sorrow, whether real or affected, 
which Elizabeth felt for the death of 
the Queen of Scotland, was not to be 
compared with that experienced by the 
Kin^ of Scotland. His aneuish and ir- 
ritation was so ffreat, that he refused to 
receive in Scotland Sir Bobert Carey, 
the son of Lord Hunsdon, who was sent 
with letters from Elizabeth to excuse 
her Majesty, and to cost the fault upon 
Davison and her council. Uo heard 
him but partly, and that from the mouth 
of another, and hardly received the Wi- 


ten he brought He revoked the aa- 
thoritr of his ambanador in Eoffland, 
and thought only of revenge lor bo 
gre«t and grieyous an iniory offered to 
majesty and to the roju name. The 
Estates of Scotland, which were then as- 
sembled, protested to his Majesty, that 
they were ready and willing to revenge 
liary's death, which they pronounced 
to be an injury and insult to the whole 
nation of Scotmnd. However, Elizabeth 
appeased the vengeance of James with 
a present of four tnousand pounds, and 
her emissaries induced him to consider 
the death of his mother as a personal 
benefit to himself, as it had relieved him 
firom the fears of a rival for his throne. 

Whilst Sir llobert Carey was on his 
way to ScotUnd, to appease the wrath 
of King James, Kliz&beth, alarmed '^t 
the consequences likely to ensue from 
the violent death of Mary, vented her 
rago upon her unhappy secretary, Da- 
rijon, and immediately ordded him to 
be brought into the Star Chamber, before 
eertain commissioners, viz. — Sir Chris- 
topher Wray, Lord Chief Justice of the 
Queen's Bench, who, for that time, was 
likewise made Lord Keeper of the Privy 
Seal; the Archbishops of Canterbury 
and York ; the Earls or Worcester, Cum- 
berland, and Lincoln ; the Lords Grey 
and Lnmley ; Sir James Crofts, Comp- 
troller of the Queen's Ilouse ; Sir Wal- 
ter Mildmay. Chancellor of the Exche- 
quer ; Sir Gilbert Gerard, Master of the 
Bolls; Chief Justice Anderson, of the 
Common Pleas ; and Sir Roger Man- 
wood, Chief Baron of the Exchequer. 
In the presence of these. Sir Francis 
Popham, Attorney-General, accused Wil- 
liam Davison of contempt against her 
Majesty, of the breach of his allegiance, 
the neglect and omission of his duty, in 
causing Mary to be put to death, with- 
out the consent or knowledge of Eliza- 
beth. Davison answered, *' That he 
was sorry that he should be thus called 
before commissioners, touching the Queen 
of Scotland, and the judgment given 
against her, to the impeachment of his 
eredit, if not to the nnal loss thereof. 
It grieved him to be accused of con- 
tempt against her Majesty, to whom, for 
iMr priiMely fiivonn, he was so indebted, 

that his offence most thereby be the 
more intolerable. He con fess ed hinsdf 
ffuilty of the crimes alleged against bin. 
If in making his apology he Mould em- 
test with the Qnem, he should do th* 
which was most uibesoeming tlM ehe- 
dience of a sabieet, the ntfeet of a ht* 
vant, and the fidelity md repotatien ef 
a secretary. He protested tnat he had 
done nothmg therein wittingly and will- 
ingly, but what he was persnaded wss 
the Queen's will and pleasore. The 
Queen blamed him for havii^beaionr- 
hasty in settinr the mat Mai to fSkn 
mandate; he dedarea, That tkiB had 
darkly signified, hot not cx p i ess ly eo«* 
manned, that he should keep it Vf him. 
Neither, as he thought, had 1m tns- 
passed in a matter of seeraey, Ibr he hai 
not imparted it to any bat the oooMiL 
As to not revoking the warrant, afWr 
the Queen had given him to nndastand 
that she had altered her mind, he al> 
firmed that it was agreed npoa hf ths 
general consent of the ooomril, that 
forthwith the warrant should be pit in 
force, and the Queen of ScoCland eie- 
cuted, for fear the Queen or state might 
be endangered." After this eomSemum, 
Sir Thomas Efferton, the Queen's 8efi- 
citor-Genend, baring read some part d 
it, began to question him. Itat he de- 
sired him to read it all through, andnot 
select particular passages, thoe^ hs 
would rather it were not read at all, be- 
cause in it were contained some secRli 
not fit to be revealed. 

Sir Thomas Gandv and SirlHIfism 
Pickering, the Queen s Seijeaata-«t-lBV, 
declared that he had deceived iha eoia- 
cil by a fiilse aasurance that the Qaea 
had granted that thej should nroeeed 
to the execution of the Qoeen ot Seet- 
land. Here Davison, shedding tean, 
desired the lawyers not to nm him aay 
further, but to remember, that he wai 
not there to contest against the Qaeen; 
wherefore he wholly snboiitted himsdf 
to her Majesty's consdenoe, and to thi 
censure of the commissioiiers. 

The sentiments of theeommiasioiienoB 
the subject are so singular, that we esa- 
not refrain from giving them at length, 
with Davison's extraotdinary peiviili 
apology, wludi will throw gnat b^«i 


Ui TCHiariuiUc qjiwstioii, m to the goilt 
w innoccBoe of Uizabeth, in the mwlcr 
if one of the most anfoitanate womon 
if her timet. Sir Ro^ Manwood, 
wginna^g, mode an historical n-Uition of 
die acU of the Qnecn of Scotland ; hov. 
fkom her tender age, the had niiurpcd 
the arms of England; [thia was the 
neret of all Eliiaoeth i animosity] and. 
Dontianin^ his disoonne to Babin^rton's 
BOBspirBcr, he commended the Kntencc 
Bmoanoed against her, by Tirtuo of the 
Uw, made known the clemency of the 
Qneen, tad gara judgment, that Dari- 
■OHy for hie inconsicterate anticipation, 
riiiNild bo fined tm thousand pounds, 
and inmriaoned during the Queen's plea- 
wm. Sir Walter Uildraay, after de- 
daring with what mature deliberation 
and aettlcd grarity they had proceeded 
in judgment against the Queen of Scots, 
BCMOMd agaiAst DaTiBon this pajwigc 
pom BcriDture, " The heart of the King 
it ia the nands of the Lord ;" and there- 
fon none, much leas a scrrant, ou^ht 
fnadulentlj or oorcrtly to antici|)ate 
the determinate purpoae of princes, with- 
ont whose adrice nothing ought to be 
done, especially in matters of so great 
■OBient as the death of a prince. But 
he cleared Davison of malice; ^et re- 
proved him, as baring been inconndemtc 
m princefT afiain, and too forward in 
prerenting the Queen's determination. 
And for a eaveat hereafter, to men of 
hie rank and station, not to commit the 
tike error, accorded with Sir Ito^r 
If anwnod concerning his fine and im- 

Sir Jacob Croft checked and chid him 
for having nnwiscly uttered the thinp:8 
which he ought to have concealed, fi^r 
that princes impart that to some uf their 
council, which they conceal from tlic 
nsL Baron Lnmley was of opinion, 
with the judges, that the sentence ai^inst 
the Qneen of Scots was justly given ; 
yet seriously averred, that m the memory 
of precedent times, it was never heard 
cr read of, so high a contempt to have 
been committed against a prince, as that 
the hnds of the council, in the Queen's 
honse, at the council table, where her 
Ifajerty was, as it were. President of 
the Council, ahonld have decreed such a 

matter ; and that without her pririty, 
they, and Davison too, having free ac- 
cess^ unto her when th^y pU-asod ; pro- 
testing, that if he had but one onlv vm 
who was faulty in sueh a fact, he i^finuld 
deem him dcscrviu? of a vt-ry sevi-ro 
punishment. liut (»cing pontuodi-d uf 
the honest dispriNition of the man, he 
would condemn him to no furtlirr punish- 
ment than the other jud^i'KpropoM'd. 

liOrd Grey, inflamed with rvliipous 
zeal, in a set sjMH'ch, yet somewhat ex- 
asp«*rute, proceudi.-d to say : — ** Davison is 
accus(.-d with having livhavcd himself 
oontemptuouifly against the Queen ; and 
this contempt 'is ur^ to the full ; fur 
that he employed his diligence in dis- 
patching the Queen of Scots; tliat he 
betrayed secrets, and coneeali-d from the 
Queen the sending away of the warrant. 
Hut who was this Queen he was so busy 
in making away with ? Was it not she, 
I pray you, by whose life our religion, 
the Qucicn, the kingdom, and every one 
of us wero in continual dani^er ? Yet 
it is for her being so cut otf, that we 
have this day's bus^iness in hand ! Xow 
my opinion is, that he who hath dcli- 
verecl our country from such great evils 
dcsr-rvos to be royally rrcompcused. I 
do not think he has revealed any s< crets, 
for he imp:irted the matter only to the 
council, and the mngi&tratcs appointed 
for state affairs, whom chi«fly it con- 
cerned to understand that and such like, 
and which tlie Queen herself before liad 
uttere<l to several prsons. If Davis4»n 
have offended in any thing, it is ehii-fly 
in this, that tlie Queen meaning to take 
another course, he toKl hi r not that tlio 
warrant was already s«nt away, llut 
unquestionably he wa.i driven into a 
double doubt ; wliether to lose the 
Qm^en's favour in 8(>nding away the 
warrant without her knowlwlj^r, or by 
recalling it, to brin«; new plots and periu 
to the Queen. Who remenibereth not 
liow turbulent the time was } What 
fitirful rumours were everywhere dis- 
persed ? If any wmng or violence had 
then happened to the Queen or our ro- 
ligion, whilst the mandate was in his 
hands, had not the fault truly beec in 
iiim ? Should not we, our wives, and 
children, have fallen furiously upon him ? 



Shonld we not hvn imbraed oar faandi 
in hii blood — have cuned his impni- 
dence, and hare erected to bis eternal 
Ignominy a trophy of indiscretion, en- 
graven in letters of blood ? What 
mulct or penalty soerer you impose upon 
him shall not displease me ; out sorely 
I will always hold him for an honest 
num." ** This orator-like speech/' says 
our historian, ** which we beard Lord 
Gray make, was deliyered with a good 
grace, and manly countenance." 

The three Earls agreed in opinion 
with the rest, concermng the proposed 
penalty to be inflicted upon Davison, 
and with Lord Gray touchinj^ his repu- 
tation. The Archbishop of York dis- 
aoursed on matters of religion, and shewed 
that blindness of heart, and natural cor- 
ruption, were the fountains from whence 
evil flowcth ! The Archbishop of Can- 
terbury approved the act, and commended 
the author of it, but disapproved withal 
the manner of proceeding adopted by 
Davison. Lastly, the Lord Keeper of 
the Privy Seal, having briefly recapitu- 
lated all the opinions of the commission- 
en, confirmea the penalty imposed by 
them, and declared, ** That although the 
Queen, being justly moved to displea- 
sure, bad submitted her councillors to 
examination, yet, notwithstanding, she 
did then paroon them; acknowledging 
that what they had done was from a 
desire and design tending to the defence 
of religion and the state, and the repel- 
ling of imminent dangers." 

Davison then humbly petitioned the 
eommissioners, that they would entreat 
for him — not to be restored to the hon- 
ourable place of secretary, nor to have 
his liberty granted him— nor his flue or 
punishment mitigrated, but that he 
might yet be a partaker of her Majesty's 
gracious favour! The which, for all 
this, he never regained; nevertheless, 
the Queen sometimes supplied and re- 
lieved his wants ! 

Thus the secretary of Queen Eliza- 
botb, a man of honest disposition and 
much esteem, not cunning, nor ac 
quainted with the tricks of court, was 
purposely brought upon the stage to be 
an actor in this tragedy ; and being put 
••I of his part» m Uing at a Hooplas ia 

the last act, wm for a kng tima ate 
shut up in prison, to the grait grief ol 
many. Hitherto we have related i^ 
was publicly done against hioL Kow 
observe how he excuMi himsdf is the 
'^Apoloffv'' which ha made to Sir 
Francis Walsingham: — '^The Qaeen," 
said he, ** titer the ambtasMlon of 
France and Scotland were departed, 
wished me to shew her the wnrmt lor 
the execution of thesentenee pionommd 
against the Queen of Scotlana. Having 
shewn it, she wiUinriT set her haM 
thereto, and bade me likewiae attix the 

great seal of Kngiand, and jestiBcb 
said, * Ton will shew this now to Yni- 
singbam, who is sick alfcodTv Int wil 
die when he sees it' She added bj aid 
by, * that she had put it off ao loog, be- 
cause she would not seem to be cvried 
away by violence ; yet, knowing well the 
necessi^ thereof.' Tlien Maming Sir 
Amias Foulet and Sir Drew Dnnry, hi 
not having eased her of that eaie sad 
trouble, she commanded Walsingham ts 
know the cause of their oessatioa sad 
delay. The day after I had aeaied tbt 
warrant, she forbade me to do it; Am 
on my telling her, that it was done al» 
ready, she checked me for my djligeaci^ 
saying ; *■ that by some wise mca s sd- 
vice, siother conne might have been 
taken.' I answered, that just eoami 
are always good and sure. Bat ftariag 
she would ^st some blame upon me, m 
she had formerly done upon liord Bor- 
leigh, about the Duke of Norfolk's 
death, I disclosed the whole nutter to 
Sir Christopher Hatton; p firt wIisR 
that I would never, hereafter, be so ftt^ 
ward in so weighty a matter. Hattsa 
presently disoovered it to Borieiigh, and 
he to toe rest of the eooacil, who a& 
concluded upon the dispatA of the 
execution, and vowed to share the 
blame ; and to effect it, fhey seat Bcals 
iostanUy away with the warraal ail 
letters. The third day after, pensiviiv 
the Queen to be troubled ia miad at 
having the preceding night, as hex* Ma* 
jesty said, dreamed of the Qaeea sf 
Scotland's death, I asked her, if ike had 
changed her purpose. She 
me, * That some other meaiM i 
baeaiaad,*' nd Um, imfMag^ 



whether I had received any answer from 
8ir Amiafl Poolet? I shewed her his 
letter^ wherein he refused to under- 
take the execution, as unjust; to which, 
io great cholcr, she replied : — * He, and 
hu confederates, are all faithless and 
{XTJart-d, in promising great matters and 
Dnt performing them ; but she should 
find some that for lier sake would do it/ 
Xk for mrsclf, I told her how i^omi- 
nious it was, and into what penis she 
would brinff Poulet and Drury. If she 
approved the deed being done, her re- 
nown would be MasttKi with injustice 
and disgrace, besides other dan^ra ; and 
in disallowing it, she would rum men of 
worthy merit, and their posterity for 
ercr would be undune. To conclude, the 
Terr day that the Quvon of Scotland 
suffered, her Majesty checked me jest- 
iaglr. for that it was not yet dispatchud f 
Although Klixabeth had sent her 
great riru, Mary, Queen of Scots to the 
grave, she was still harassed by conti- 
nual rumours of plots against nor life. 
Her cruel penc-cution of the Catholics 
wa» tho immediate cause of these con- 
spiracies. As an instance of the barba- 
nty practised by hf>r sanction, we men- 
tion the case of Margaret Middlcton, 
who, for harbouring a Catholic priest, 
and refusing to either deny or admit the 
charire,was, with studied cruelty, crushed 
to death. " The place of execution,'* says 
an eye-witness, ** was the Tolboth, six or 
BCTen yards from the prison. After she 
had pnyed, Fawcet (one of the shcrilTs) 
commanded them to put off her appun;l ; 
when she requestea him, with the 
four women, on their knees, *that for the 
honour of womanhood, this might be 
dixp^nued with;' but they would not 
grant it. Then she told them that * the 
women might un{4>parcl her, and that 
thcT would turn their faces from her 
dnnng that time.* The women took 
off her elothea, and put upon her the 
lung linen habit ; then very quietly she 
laid her down upon tho ground, her covered with a handken'hicf, and 
morit part of her body with the habit ; 
the dure was laiMi upon her ; hf r hands 
she joined towards her face. Then the 
sheriff said * Ye must have your hands 
bouud.' Then two tergeants parted her 

hands, and bound them to two poatf 
[in the print her feet arc bonnd to two 
other]. After this, they laid weight 
upon ner, which, when she first felt, sho 
said, *Jc8u! Josu! Jcsu! have mercy 
upon mcT which were the hut words 
she was heard to speak. She wiis dving 
about one quarter of an hour. A sfiarp 
stone, as much as a man's -fist, had been 
put under her back ; upon her was laid 
to the quantitie of seven or eight hun- 
dred weight, which, breaking her ribbs, 
caused them to burst forth of the 
Bkinne."~March 26, 1586. 

In the mean time, while Queen Eliza- 
beth, by these means, was endeavouring 
gently to calm the resentment of Scot- 
land, sho was furiously threatened by 
the Kine of Spain, who, though he as yet 
purposely avoided a declaration of war, 
was intently occupied upon the means 
of taking signal vengeance on the En- 
glish, who had molested the SjMiniards 
with continual piracies; surpnzed and 
pillaged divers towns, both in Spain and 
America ; and lati'ly, violating the ma- 
jesty of all princes, had caused the 
Queen of Scots to be beheaded. It was 
represented to Philip, that the English 
navy was, neithiT in number, greutnuss, 
nor strength, comparable to the com- 
bined flf'et of Spain and PortugaL That 
England was neither fortified nor fur- 
nished with commanders, soldiers, horses, 
or provisions f<ir war, but destitute 
alike of friends and money. These re- 
presentations were soon proved to have 
oeen wholly unwarranted. Elizabeth, 
with the view of protracting the desi^ 
of Spain, sent Sir Francis Drake with 
four sail of the line, well aiipointed, to 
the Spanish coast, and elsewhere, with 
orders to take, burn, and pillago all 
such ships as he could find, as well in 
tho harbours and ports, as on the oc^'an ! 
Drake, arriving in the straits of Gibral- 
tar, entered the Haven, where, alter 
having caused six largo ships t^ flv 
under tho forU for protectinn, he took 
and burnt about one hundred others ; 
one of tho vessels taken, being tho va- 
luable galleon of the Marquis of Santa- 
Ouz, called tho Rarnsa, richly laden 
with merchandise. Thence, retuminir 
to Capo St. Vincent, ho there burnt aU 




•neb ships md flshinr-boats as laj at 
anchor in the roads, lie then went to 
the Cascalet HaTen, situated at the 
Bouth of the Tagus, where he endea* 
Toured to prevail on the Maraois of 
8anta-Cruz to fight; but the Marquis 
not -daring to stir, allowed Drake to sail 
along the coast, and take their shipe, 
without molestation. Then sailing 
towards the Azore Islands, Drake met 
and captured a large Spanish sliip, riclily 
ladeu, oillod the San PbiUp, retumiDg 
from the East Indies. 

By this short expedition of the raliant 
Drake, England was much enriched, and 
the Spaniards sustained so great a loss 
in munition and warlike preparations, 
tiiat they were constrained to abandon 
their design of invading England for 
that year. From this time the English 
began with avidity courageously to as- 
sault those immense ships, resembling 
eastlcs, which they had hitherto so much 
dreaded ; but which, they now plainly 
discovered, conveyed the rich treasures of 
the Indies, and were not so impregnable 
as had been supposed. 

In 1558, all Europe rang with the 
mighty preparations of King Philip, for 
the conquest of England. Queen Eliza- 
beth, with singular diligence, had, dur- 
ing the past year, laboured hard, to pre- 
pare as many ships and warlike stores as 
possible. She selected Lord Howard of 
£ffiD|^ham for the oflSce of Lord Hi^h 
Admiral, a nobleman well skilled m 
navigation, prudent, valiant, industrious, 
and of great authority amongst seamen. 
The valiant Drake was appointed Vice- 
Admiral, and every effort was made to 

B've the Spaniards a warm reception, 
enry Seymour, the second son of the 
Duke of Somerset, was ordered to lie in 
wait upon the Belgie shores, with forty 
ships, English and Dutch, to prevent 
the Duke of Parma's approach. For 
the land senrice, twenty thousand sol- 
diers were dispersed alone the southern 
eoast, and two armies ofchoiee troops 
were levied and enrolled. An army of 
reserve, consisting of about thirty-six 
thousand men, was drawn together for 
the defenoe of the Queen's person, and 
appointed to march towards any quarter 
m which tJMi moat prnaring danger thould 

manifest itself. A smaller force of tweft^« 
three thousand was stationed at a caam 
near Tilborr, to protect the capity, 
against which it was eipected that the 
most formidable efforts of the enemy, en 
making good his landing, would be in* 
mediately directed. But it was on the 
spontaneous efforts of individitals that 
the safety of the country chieflv depend- 
ed, and the first appeal made br the 
goremment to the patriotism of the 
people was answered with promptitude 
and spirit. A message was sent 1^ the 
privy council to the oorporatioo of Loa- 
doB, to inquire what the C^ty conldraise 
for the public aerviee } 'The City ai- 
thorities requested to be informed what 
the council might think rsauinte in such 
an emergency r Fifteen ships and five 
thousand men was the answer. In two 
days afterwards, the corporation ** hvm- 
bly entreated the council, in Mgn of 
their perfect love and loyalty ta Prince 
and country, to accept of thirtr ships, 
amply furnished, and ten thousand 
men. And even as London gave pre- 
cedent, the whole kingdom kept tree 
rank and equipa^. Lwd Grey, distin- 
guished by nis ngour in supprcasing the 
last Irish rebellion, was appointed presi- 
dent of the council of war. Lord 
Hunsdon, a brave soldier, distinguished 
in several regular campaigns in Scot- 
land, was made general of the army of 
reserve ; and the young Etai of Enex, 
a gallant nobleman, was selected to fill 
the post of general of cavabr in tbs 
main army. All these appointments 
gave general satisfaction; but the people 
were somewhat staggered by the nomi- 
nation of Leicester, — thehated,diwra((d, 
and incapablecourt favourite— totbehiffh 
station of commander-in-chief of ue 
army at Tilbury. Ha^ilj the navsl 
service did its duty, without requiring 
the aid of such an imbecile ; bol wa »- 
pointment of such a man mnat tfcr be 
regarded as one of the wedud nets into 
which Elisabeth was ever bc Unjad, l^a 
blind and pemicioua partiality. 

All the preparations for defeaat being 
finally arranged, Elisabeth raanhcd to 
visit in person the camp at TObvy, 
for the encouragement of her troofs; 
Montad m a aoUo thofai^ wUk% 



{■wnTi tnmclieoii in bcr luuid, k coi^ 
■drt oF polubed «t«d laecd uner her 
niniSmit ippuel; and a pigc in at- 
IcDddDce, bcannp her whiu plamed 
Mmct-, (he rode ttaTO-hctded from nmli 
to Tank. Kith ■ conngeoiu deportment 
and imilinr «>aiit«iiaiic« ; and, amtdit 
the loyal i^udit) and >hauta of military 
ardoHT, wbich bunt (rata the inimatrd 
and (ilmtriBic lnwpa, aha baran^ed 
than in the following ipiiilad n)eecli :^ 
*■ Ut loTing people : «s ba>e Seen per- 
nadid bj aoms that *n careful el ooi 
aafetT, to take heed haw we commit 
onndTta to inaed mnltitadea, for (ear of 
r; ; hut I aamrs jni, I do not 
le In lire to diatmrt ny tiutfafnl and 
loTinf aabjecti. Let trnnta fear; I 
ban alwoTi ao behared myadf that, 
udei G<m1, I bare placed my chiefeit 
•treafth and ■afe-Bfnard in the loyal 
biiart* aad gooi willof my people. And, 

thii tioie ; »at aa (or loy lecreatioa or 
qMrt ; bat beinc reai^Ted, in tho midat 
vtd bwt of t&e battle, to liT« or die 
aoongri TOD all ; to lay down fbr my 
God, my klngdotn, and my people, my 
hoaoar and my bloDd, eren in the dnit. 
1 Imaw I kn*a bat the body of a weak 

id feeble w 

bnt I bare the heart 
of ■ King ; and of a King of England 
too! and think it fool icon that the 
King of Spain, the Duke of Parma, or 
any frince of tinrope, shoiild dare in- 
Tude the borden of my realm j to 
wbicb, ratherthan any diihanourihould 

riw by me, I myaelf will take np amn ; 
myneirwill be yooi general, jndge, 
and rewardcr of ciery one of your Tir- 
toes in the field. J know already, by 
yoor farwordntaa, that yon hare deaerrea 
reward* and crowna ; and we do BHare 
you. on the word of a Prinee. io they 
■hall be duly paid yon. In the mean- 
time, my lientenant-general ahall be in 
my Mead, than whom never Piiaee com- 
manded a more noble and worthy tnb- 
ject! not donbting, by your obcdicace 
to my general, by yoor concord in the 
camp and yonr lalour in tbe field, we 
■ball aboitly hare a funona rictory orer 
thoae enemiea of my God, of my king- 
dom, and of my peopte." 

Eliaabetb waa delighted on this, aa on 
all other occsaiona, to exalt the chaiM- 
ter of her Jarourito Leiceiter. Fortu- 
nately, hia Talonr waa not needed in 
oonleat with tb« 

;be approaching 


Ikfytl •/ tA« ^OHui Armada— Diiailt o/ Ikt tariout aettaiu—Jeg af Stitaittk an 
tki taat im Drnth ef IJu Earl of Leittttr—ElaaitlV* nea fmetirit*, th» Earl 
^ Etta— J*f rnwJ/aniHnfu— 2W/ Silicmi Eutx and Blomt—Diatk of Wal- 
tintli^m — Emia iiittruia KitA ElujMA fifr Davixm — Fritali ntarritf ofBtHX, 
mut rrngt of ElitaitlX—Sifid Arn'mMy tf tht Qtum^Sir Okriokphtr Satlmt— 
Ti* Oh tad tin £Uliep of Ely— Sir JbIm IlrroL 

HE celebrated Span- • thouaand two hnndred and ninety aol- 
iah Armada, arro- diora, eight thoound three hnndrM and 

fifty manner, twt 

■* ilaraMAail 

idrcd and lb irtypiecta of great ord- 
nance. The general wai AlpbooaoGni- 
man, Duke of Medina Sidooia, and under 
him wa> JohnHarIiaaaBicaldnB,smeat 
■kilful narigalor. On the lweiit^«ightli 
of May, they MiladftomliMTagnii and 



Vndiiig their coane towirds Gallicia, 
fber were dispersed bja strong tefinpest: 
■o oistressed and weatberbcaten was the 
fleet, that Elizabeth was led not to ex- 
pect it that jear : and Secretary Walsing*- 
nam wrote to the Lord High Admiral to 
■end bock four of the larmt ships. Bnt 
the Admiral entreated ^ alsingham not 
to believe the report, and expressed an 
earnest desire to retain the whole fleet, 
eren at his own private expense — a pro- 
per rebuke of the parsimonj of that 
period. Harinr a prosperons wind, the 
£nfflish Adminu sailed towards Spain, 
with the hope of surprising the weather 
beaten shipa in the harbwir : when he 
wis almost on the coast of Spain, the 
wind Teered south; and he, who was 
commanded to defend the English shores, 
fearing that the same wind might waft 
the enemy's fleet towards England, 
quickly returned to Plymouth. 

On the twelfth of JuIt, the wind con- 
tinuing faTourable, the buke of Medina, 
with his whole fleet, weighed anchor. 
He dispatched a resscl to announce to 
the Duke of Parma the approach of the 
Armada, and to inform him of other 
needful matters; for he had orders to 
join the forces and fleet of the Pnnce of 
rarma, and to waft them over to Eng- 
land, under the protection of his Ar- 
mada, and to set on shore his land 
forces at the mouth of the Thames. On 
the sixteenth day, there was a great 
calm, and a thiclL fog covered the sea 
till noon, and then a strong north-wind 
blew, then a south-wind till midnight, 
and then an easterly ; so that the Ar- 
mada, being much scattered, could 
hardly be coUected together, till it came 
within sight of England, which was on 
the nineteenth of the month : on which 
day the Admiral of England, being 
previously apprized by Captain Flem- 
ing that the Spanish fleet had arrived in 
the Channel, and was descried not far 
from the Lizard, the wind then keeping 
tlie English navy in port, he, with 
great difficulty, and no less industry and 
alacrity on the part of the sailors, him- 
self not disdaining to pull at the hawser 
amongst the private seamen, at length 
bron^t his shipa into the open sea. 
Th0 aat daj, w Engliali flatt eamo 

within sight of the Spnrisb 
which, in the form of a creaeent, whost 
boms were at least aone miles dBstaat, 
was slow^ approaching vnder finll sail 
The English piirposel]|r anff eie d them to 
pass by, that they might paisiie thai 
with a favouraUe gale of wind. 

On the twenty-flrst of July, the Lord 
High Admiral sent before him a pinnace, 
ca&d the Defiance, and, bj dts^arginc 
a piece of ordnance out of ner, prevekei 
the Spaniards to the fl^t: and prs^ 
sently out of his own ahip^ The Boyd 
Ark, the Admiral thmi&ml vpom a 
huge ressel, which be took to be that of 
the Spanish Admiral, bat which prared 
to be the ship of Aiphoaao Leva. At 
the same instant, Drake, Hawldn% nd 
Fnrbisher, pealed terribly on the rear, 
commanded by Bicaldna, who p eifoim e d 
all the duties of a valiant and diaenet 
commander, in endeavonrinr to stay the 
ships under his command nom flyii^ 
until his own ship, extremely battered 
with shot, became so munanageabk^ 
that vrith much difficulty he kept his 
station. The Duke of Medina now re- 
formed his dispersed ships, and with fUl 
sail held on his oonrse. Nor eonU he 
do otherwise, as the wind waa favo«r- 
able for the English, and their sk^ 
attacked, retired, and re-attacked then 
upon cvenr quarter, with incredible ce- 
lerity. When they had oontinned tiie 
fight sharply for the snaee of two boon, 
the English Admiral tnought it pradeat 
to retire, as he hourly expected a rein> 
forcemont of forty saiL 

The night following, a Spanish ihip^ 
the St. Katherine, being much shattered 
in the conflict, was received into the 
midst of the fleet to be repaired : and a 
lor^ Catalonian ship, the Oqoenda, in 
which was the treasurer of tiie fleet, wm 
partly blown up with gunpowder, by the 
derice of a Flemish gnnner. Bvt the 
fire was seasonably qnenched hr ihipi 
sent in for the purpose ; one of tneae, a 
goUcon of Peter Valdea, had tiie nnbfor^ 
tune to fall foul of another ahip, uid 
the wind being stormy and the night 
dark, she was abandoned, and bccaaM a 
prey to Sir Francis Drake, who seat 
Valdea to Dartmonth, tad gwre hie lUf 
to be pliDidBfed hj tlw 



SMBitHi vera hoUj pamwd ^the 
Adminl, with the shtpt Mair and Rose. 
The Duke of Medina was busied in put- 
ting his fleet in arniT of battle. !!<■ 
then tent Ensign Glic&c to the Duke of 
Puma, to inform him of the Ptatf of 
the fli-et, and committed tbt- ship Oquen- 
da, having first removed into othiT tcs- 
ida her traasnre and the marines, to the 
mercy of the acas. The same day, this 
spleBdid galleon, with fifty seamen, mi- 
leiablj maimed and half-bnmU fell into 
the ba»b of the English, and was sent 
into Weymonth. 

On the twentj-third, at break of day, 
the Spuiarda, having a prosperous 
north wind, turned sail towards the 
EngliBh, who, in order to get adTontifrc 
of the wind, turned towanls the west, 
and both fleets, after contending for the 
&Toiir of the wind, prepared for artinn, 
■nd fought confusedly and with various 
neccos; while, in one place, the £n- 
irUah Taliandj brought out the ships 
dsngcioaBly hemmed m bv the Spaniards ; 
in another, Bicaldus, then in danger. 
vrith BO lesa resolution disengaged his | 
vemeli. Hie lightning and thunder of 
the aitille^ was great on both sides, 
of which, notwithstanding, came 

in rain from the Spanish shins— the 
diot flying dear over the English. Onlv 
one, tiock, an Englishman, in a small 
\mxk of his own, died gloriously in the 
■idst of hia enemies. The Englinh 
ihipa being infinitely smaller than the 
Spanish, tat liritish sailon dciteruuslv 
evaded the enemy, dischamd thtir »hot 
with a ann and successfuf aim agtiinst 
the great sluggish sliips of the foe, and 
then retired into the open sea. The Lonl 
Admiral, howerer, was in no hastv to 
gmpple and fight hand-to-hand, for the 
enmy had a strong and well-appointed 
army on board; their ships were far 
■on Bomerona, of greater burden, 
sti oager, and higher in oulk : and they, 
fighting from abore, threatened certain 
dcstmction to those that fought n^^inst 
tbemvpon the lower ships : he alsft fore- 
saw that the loss of bis men would be 
much more prejudicial to him than the 
netory coula be profitable. For, to be 
vaBoushed, vraa to bring the Queen into 
btviubto danger; and to be victor, 

was only to win a hlaie of glory, at the 
great sacrific*^ of human life. 

On the twenty-fiiurth, there was a mu- 
tual ri'swation of hiHtilitieii. The I.iird 
Admiral dispatrluHl »*-Ti.ralftmalMMn)ut« 
to tbt! adjuininp purtA nf Kn?l:ind iWr 
ammunition, and diviiiiHl his vholt* flif-t 
into four sfiuaiinms ; (he first he himn* If 
comm.inJed, the »eriind Drake, tht- third 
Hawkins, and the fi)urth KurbiAhL-r; and 
he appointed certain pinnaci-s. out of 
each Mjuodron, to make impr<^ons on 
the enemy in sitirU quarters at the 
dead of night; but a ralm fuUowing, 
that plan was aliand«mt-d. The twenty- 
fifth, which was St. James' day. a TdV- 
tupueae piUeon, the i»t. .\nne, whieh 
could nut keep comitnny with the rest of 
the floi-t. was attoi-aed by ^everil ftmall 
Knglish barques. 1.4'Ta and Uiego Kn- 
riquez, with three ga]lias«es, now made 
their appearance, but the Lord Admiral, 
and Lord Howard in the UolJen Lion 
(who, on account of the great ralm, were 
fain to be towed by fishin)(-bi>atji), so 
battered them with canmm, that not 
without great Jilficultyf and ^'at luw of 
men, they Khei-red otT, and atli-rwiiriU 
the crallJasM:-* nt-ver utft-red to fii;)it. 
The Spanianls n.-i>«»rt that, <in th:it d.-iy, 
the Kn^lis)), at a nearer distance than 
ever, with their great ordnanct-, extremely 
distresM.-d the 8pani>h admiral, ^Iew 
many of his men. and Hhot down his 
mainmast; but that .Moxia and Uiraldus 
came opp<rirtune]y, and n^iR'Hed the En- 
glish. That then the SiKini&h Amiaihi, 
aecompaiiietl by Kiealdus and olhem, 
attacki-d the Kngli:)h admind, wlm 
eseaned by the sudden changiii;; of the 
winu; that thereui>oit the Spaniards h>ll 
the pursuit, and holding on their course, 
sent a second messeiigiT to the Duke of 
Parma, direeting him, with all speed, to 
join his fleet with the King's Armada, 
and to si>nd a supply of bulU ts. Of this 
the English were ignorant, who writi' 
that they sliot oflTthe lantliorn from one 
of the SSpanish Bhi|M, the b<?ak-head from 
another, and terribly raked a third ; 
that the Nonsuch, Mary, and the Rose, 
baring had only a short conflict with 
the Spaniards, left them, and, with other 
ships, went U> the rescue of the Triumph, 
then in danger. 



On the following daj, the Lord Ad- 
Biiral, for their ralour and fortitode, 
knighted Thomas Howard, the Lord 
Sheffield, Ro^:er Townaend, John Haw- 
kins, and Martin Furhisher. And it 
was determined thenceforth not to at- 
tack the enemy till they came to the 
■traits of Calais, where llenry Se3rmour 
and William Winter awaiteo their ar- 
rival. So the Spanish fleet made sail, 
with a full south-west wind, the English 
fleet following them. But so far was 
the title of '* invincible," or the once 
terrible aspect of the Spanish Armada, 
able to frighten our wooden walls, that 
the yonth of England, learing their 
nurents, wires, children, kindred, and 
friends, out of their dearer love of their 
country, with ships hired at their own 
expense, joined the fleet in great num- 
bers, with that noble ardour, generous 
alacrity, and courage which distinguish 
EnglLBomen. Amongst others who thus 
Tendered their able assistance, were the 
Earls of Oxford, Northumberland, and 
Cumberland ; Sir Thomas and Sir Ro- 
bert Cecil, Sir Henry Brooke, Sir 
Charles Blunt, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir 
William Hatton, Sir Robert Carey, Sir 
Ambrose Willoughby, Sir Thomas Ge- 
rard, Sir Arthur Gorge, and other wor- 
thy knights of gr^ credit and re- 

On the twenty-serenth, towards cTen- 
ing, the Armada cast anchor near Calais, 
and within cannon^hot of them lay the 
Admiral and the English fleet at anchor, 
whom Seymour and Winter soon joined. 
The number of the English ships 
amounted br this time to one hundred 
and forty, all able and ready for action, 
and yet there were not abore fifteen of 
Uiem which bore the weight and burden 
of the war, and repelled it The Spa- 
niards, by frequent messcnrcrs, urged 
the Duke of Parma to sena forty fly- 
boats, without which they could not fitly 
fight with the English, on account of 
the magnitude and sluggishness of their 
dbips, and the great dexterity and agi- 
lity of the EngUsh ; and they earnestly 
begfi^ him to put instantly to sea with 
kis fleet, whom the Armada would nro- 
teei at it were with winca, till tneir 
mifil ia Eagbnd ; baft tSe Duke wm 


ted, by innimMNmtable obrtichii 
acceding to their wisbea.. 

By the command of Elixabelb, aflv 
the Spaniards bad cast ancbor, in tkt 
dead of night, the Admiral aenl eight of 
his worst ships, daubed on tbo o«lsides 
with Greek pitch and roaia, and filled 
full of sulphur, and other watfrisk 
quickly combustible, under the eoadoct 
of Youn^ and Prouae, baring a fiifl 
gale of wind, directly upon the Spaaiik 
Armada; which, aa the Spaaiarai aw 
approach nearer and nearer to tbca, 
(the flames shining and illaniMUiag the 
ocean), thinking theae teirifle boniag 
ships were filled witb aooe deadly Ca- 
nnes of deatructien, set ap wmk a ao«l> 
mg and fearful outcry aa nat te air, 
immediately weighed aadior, cat thdr 
cables, raiaed thrir saila, cned oat Is 
their rowers, and, struck witb a borritk 
and panic fear, witb ia^ietaoaa barts 
betook themseWcs to a diaastroes flight 
In the confusion the Snoaiab Adainrs 
galliasse had ber mdder brokca, na 
upon the sanda on the foDowiag dij, 
and, after a doubtful iif bt witb Aaiai 
Preston, Thomas Gcraro, aad Hsorvey, 
was taken; Hugh Moneada, tbe captaiB, 
being slain, and the soldieri aadauriatt 
either drowned or killed. la tbe wmar 
time, a portion of the Spaaidi fleet ro- 
lled before Gravelin, and were flcneiy 
attacked by Drake and Fcaaer, yAo 
shortly afterwards were joined by Fca- 
ton, Southwell, Beatsoa, Croai, Bay- 
mond, the Lord Admiral Kim—If^ How- 
ard, and Sheffield. Tbe Dake, Lets, 
Oquenda, Ricauld, and other Spaniaidi 
brayely sustained tbe diaige ; wkiek 
was such that most of tbeir ali^ wcit 
disabled, and the galleoa, St. Mat- 
thew, commanded by I>iego Pyauntri, 
and ap|KHnted to a»ist Toloda ia tbe 
San Philip, waa broken by tbe coatiBBsl 
batteries of Seymour and Wiafecr; and 
being driven towards Oatead, was takea 
by the Zealandera, off FlosluBg. Ano- 
ther galleon waa sunk, and oercnl na 
aground on the sand-banka near the 
mouth of the Scheldt 

llie last day of tbia BMBtb, at day- 
break, the wind yeered to tbe aottl- 
west ; and the Spaaiaida, atrivia^ It 
getiato tbe atnili i^gUBi ^ ~ 



tBwvdf gealand. The Kngliah, as the 
SptnUrdi belieTe, eeaied their firing, 
DereeiTin^ MMne of their ships in ^-at 
UBger, and ready to run on the sands 
tad thoals on the coast of Zealand. The 
lext morning, however, with the aid of 
s fsTonrable breeze, the Spaniards ex- 
tricated thcmseWes from danger, and the 
same evening, by common consent, they 
iMolTed to return to Spain by the North- 
ern Ocean, as they wanted bullets and 
other necessaries ; their ships were dis- 
nantkd, and they had little hope of the 
Doke of Paima patting to sea. 

In &ct, the prowess and cool darine 
of the English had completely frustratca 
their desi|iis, and filled them with ter- 
ror : seeking only their own safety, they 
liiriy fled Iwfore their daring punuers ; 
bat the "Rwgli^h^ at the moment when 
they might nave annihilated their inva- 
deft, were forced by the want of ammu- 
■ition to return to port The fngitires 
pornied their way unmolested by man, 
Mt they met with a more terrible enemy 
fai the violent wind and waves of the 
Korthem Sol The shores of Scotland 
and Ireland were strewn with their 
wrecks, and when they terminated their 
nnfortimate voyage, they had lost thirty 
of their lareest ships, and upwards of 
ten tbonsand men. 

In commemoration of this signal de- 
fSeat, the Queen caused public prayers 
and thanksgiving to be made in all the 
churches of England, and wont herself 
in triumph amongst the companies and 
eorpoimtioiis of London, who marched 
on each side of her Majesty, with their 
banners, and rode through the streets, 
which were richly hung with blue hang- 
ingt. Thus attended, and in a chariot 
drawn by two horses, Elizabeth pro- 
eecded to St Paul's, where ahe gave 
humble thanks to Ood, heard the scr- 
moB, which ascribed all the glory to 
Ood alone, and caused the ensigns taken 
to be there set up and shewn to the peo- 
ple. Then she assigned some revenues 
to the Admiral for the service he had 
performed with such happy sucoen ; 
praised highly her naval captains, as 
men bom for the preservation of their 
ooontry ; and, as often as she saw any 
•f thoM who had djstmgnkhad them- 

selves in this memorable conflict, she 
would call them fiuniUarly by their 
names, to acknowledge their services ; 
she also rewarded the wounded and 
poorer sort with honourable pensions. 

This public rejoicing was increased 
by the arrivnl of Sir Koocrt Sidney from 
Scotland, with letters for her Majesty, 
which assured her, that the King of 
Scots embraced most affectionately the 
Queen's friend«hip, made sincere profes- 
sion of true religion, and would defend 
the same with iQl his might. Sir fio- 
bcrt had been sent to James the Sixth, 
when Great Britain was ftr^t threatened 
with the Spanish fleet, to acknowledge 
by his rejoicings and thanksgivings the 
good will whicn he before bore to the 
Queen, to praise his forwardness, to de- 
fend the common cause, to promise him 
reciprocal succour, if the Spaniards at- 
tempted any invasion in Scotland ; and, 
to g^ye him to understand with what 
ambition the Spaniards gaped after the 
whole monarchy of Great Britain, soli- 
citing the Pope to excommunicate his 
royal person, and to exclude him out of 
the succession of the kingdom of Eng- 
land, to all which the King answered 
gaily and merrily : — 

** I expect no other courtesy of the 
Spaniard, than such as Poliphemus 
promised to Ulysses; to wit, that ho 
would devour him— the last of all his 

In August, 1588, Leicester, whilst 
proceeding from Tilbury to his own 
castle of Kenilworth, was arrested in 
his progress by a severe illneaa, and 
after lingering for a few days^ expired 
at Combury Park, in Oxforashire ; the 
cause of his death was a mystery, and 
such was the superstition of the age of 
Elizabeth, that it was judged necessary 
to take an examination before the privy 
council respcrting certain magical prac- 
tices, said to have been employed against 
his Ufe. The son of Sir James Croft, 
Comptroller of the Household, made no 
scruple to confess, that he had consulted 
a magician, of the name of Smith, to 
Icam who were his father's enemies in 
the council. The magician immediately 
mentioned the Earl of Leicester; and 
then, a little while after, he began 



nig with hit thiimbt, exclaiming, in •!- 
Ininon to the derioe of tbU noblenuui :— > 
** The bear is bound to the itake !" and 
acain^ "nothing can now sare the Earl 
of Leicester !" x^otwithstanding the ac- 
tual fulfilment of this denunciation, the 
■laffician was allowed to go unpunished ! 
Although Elizabeth was much grieTcd 
at the loss of her faTourite, her joj, at 
the glorious news of the defeat or the 
Spanish Armada, greatlr lessened the 
effect it would otherwise naTe produced. 
Leicester was the fifth son of John, Duke 
of Northumberiand. Under King Ed- 
wvrdf he was first gentleman of the 
King's Chamber; under Queen Marj, 
Master of the Artillerj; and under Qneen 
Elizabeth, (whose love for him was attri- 
buted, by the superstition of the times, 
to a kindred sympath j of spirits between 
tiiem, occasione<( by some secret con- 
stellation, which the Greek astrologers 
ealled Smasiria, he baring been M>m 
on the same daj that Elizabeth was), 
he was Master of the Horse, Knight of 
the Garter, Priry Councillor, Steward of 
the Queen's House, Chancellor of the 
UniTersitT of Oxford, Chief Justice in 
Eyre of aU the forests beyond the Trent, 
the Queen's Lieutenant and Captain 
of the English forces against Spain, and 
GoTemor and Captain General of the 
united prorinces of the Netherlands. 
Latteriy he had indulged the rain hope 
of a now title of honour and authority, 
with soTercizn power annexed thereto 
— • a generu lieutenancy under the 
Queen, throughout all England and Ire- 
land, of which Elizabeth had granted 
him letters patent, for she could refuse 
Bothine to her fiiTourite loTer ; but 
Lord Burleigh and Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton boldly opposed such an act of folly, 
and succeeded in conrincing Elizabeth 
of the extreme danger of girine too 
much power to one man alone, lie was 
reputed a complete courtier ; mafnifi* 
eent, liberal, a protector and benenctor 
of soldiers aad scholars ; yery of&dous, 
•nanii^^, and rcTcngeful towards his 
enemies ; skilful in temporizing, and an 
ftdept at serring his own turn by eraft 
and duplicity. The Queen, who was 
hardly eyer seen to renut anything due 
to Imt tnamji afiar hia dea th oaaaed 

his goods to be aold, to pay that 
he owed to her bounty ! 

The death of Leicester, who had far 
thirty years been to Elizidwth an ol^set 
of the most deyoted tenderness, aad 
upon whom she had larished every ho> 
nour, consistent with her own safety and 
independence, left a yoid in her exists 
enoe, which she filled up by bestowing 
her tender regards on her enmiag 
youthful kinsman, the Earl of Essex. 
The great dispariqr of years theaaidsa 
Qneen was fifty-fix, aad Esses hat 
twenty-one years of affe—gaye to iMi 
new passion of Elizabeu an a p pe ara aea 
of dotage, whieh afflicted all iHw ai> 
mired her aeneral ffood aenae aad H^ 
nity of conanct Nor did aha Umf «• 
joy that felicity in the society of hff 
new fiiTourite, which she foMly iai^ 
gined would last for erer. Esses saoa 
Began to look with a kind of l««At«y 
upon the partiality of his royal mistrem. 
His careless indifferenoesoon admonished 
her, that her affection was not j e dpw K 
cated, and that Essex had beea rtntlH 
solely by interested motiyes, iVir the ea- 
eouragement he had ^yen to her ai> 
yanoes. As this mortifying eonyietisa 
came home to her boaom, ^^fc«*^ 
grew restless, irritable, and eapridooils 
excess. She watched all his aMtioas 
with a self-tormenting jealoasy, sad 
^▼e a ready ear to the most malidoai 
insinuations of his enemies ; aad Imt 
heart at length becoming calloas by re- 
peated insults, she b^gan to yisit his ds« 
linquencies with the moat aareleBttBa 
severity. On discoyering that ha hsSi 
absented himself ftom court, aad tnm 
the duties of his office aa Msafeer of ^ 
Horse, to embark in the uiiftiifaaiil 
expedition to Porto^ whieh was la* 
dertaken in the sprug of 1M9, wilk 
the design of placing Don Aatoaio eft 
the throne of thatkiBgdoBi, dmiastaBtly 
dispatched a peremptory oider fcr hii 
retom, enforced by men aeea of her at* 
most indignatiaii m case of disobafi- 
ence; but he had already put to sea. 
During the fiye months of hia ahseae% 
the court was in commotioiiy fraai tke 
eccentricities of Elizabeth, nrnaainandkr 
hisabaence. But the laareia wi& irtidh 
ha had aaaMad hk hmr 



B. She had liiteiiod with a 
iifretioii to the tniti of Taloor 
fositj wbieh he displared, and 
ere communicated to her from 
ehanneli. Her tenderness re- 

the recital of the perils and 
to which he was daily exposing 
and her joj at his safe return, 
f and too natural for oonccal- 
frifed her wholly of the power 
; and hia pardon was granted 
m ho could utter a word of ex- 
I. £Mex had too much pene- 
mat to be deeply touched bj 
tioaata hehaTiour of Elixabeth; 
ped hia eibrts to please, and 
■gaal a sooeeai, that he was 
ftnMBd in the royid la¥our, and 
faMBt was rewarded bjsome 
■I grants from the rercnnes of 

eail J days of his fiirour, Essex, 

I of his power oTer his rojal 

aasnmed the right of treating 

lopers such as adyanccd too 

B the good graces of his So- 

Naunton, in nis " Fragmenta 
* fdates the following incident, 
f oc cm red at this period : *' M j 
uado J being but newly come to 
id then but Sir Charles Blount, 

good fortune one day to run 
1 a-tflt; and the Queen there- 
80 wdl pleased,that she sent him 
if her fiiTour — a Queen at chess, 

richly enamelled; which his 
had the next daT £utened on his 
h a erimaon ribbon ; which my 
Emex, as he passed through the 
unbar, espying, with his cloak 
er hia arm, the better to com- 
to the view ; inquired what it 
1 ftv what canse it was there 

Sir Fulk Greiille told him 
ras the Queen's ikTour, which 
belore, and after the tilting, she 
him ; whereat my Lord 3[ £a- 
a kind of emulation, and as 
ha would bare limited her &• 
lid :^* Now I peredTe every 
thave a faTonrl' This bitter 
lie affront came to the ears of 
flea Blount, who sent him a 
ft, which was aooepted by my 
id fliey want near lUryleognna 

park, where my Lord waa hurt in the 
thigh, and disarmed. The Queen miss- 
ing the men, was very curious to learn 
the truth ; and when at last it was whis- 
pered out, she swore by God's death, it 
was fit that some one or other should 
hare taken him down, and teach him 
better manners, otherwise there would 
be no rule with him." Essex could not 
better have paid his court to Elizabeth, 
than by fighting a duel for her sake; 
for she had too weakness to imagine, 
that her personal charms were the sole 
cause. She compelled, however, Uie 
rivals to be reconciled, under the threat 
of her severest displeasure; and from 
that day all the outward marks of friend- 
ship were preserved between them. But 
Elizabeth was not the only cause of 
this duel. It appears that Sir Charles 
Blount had conceived an ardent passion 
for a sLster of the Earl of Essex ; the same 
lady who was at one time intended to 
be the bride of Sir Philip Sidney. She 
returned his attachment ; out her friends, 
thinking the match inferior to her pre- 
tensions, broke off the affair, and com- 
Elled her to give her hand to Lord 
ich, a man of a disagreeable character, 
and the object of her strongest aversion. 
So, after her marriace, the unhappy 
lady found it impossible to forget the 
lover who had been torn from her by 
parental authority, and she suffered her- 
self to be seduced by him into a criminal 
connection, which was not detected until 
it had subsisted for several years. A 
divorce followed ; and her lover regard- 
ing himself as bound in love and honour 
to make her his wife, thev were married 
during the life-time of her husband; hence 
the iu blood engendered in the breast 
of Essex. 

In April, 1690, died Sir Francis Wal 
singham, principal Secretary of State, 
whose name is recorded as being inti- 
mately connected with the domcstio 
policy of EUzabeth, during many of 
the most eventful years of her reign. 

Essex was anxious to appoint, as hia 
successor to the office of Secri'tary of 
State, the discarded Davison, who be- 
came a sacrifice, to atone, in some me^ 
sure, for the cmal murder of the m- 
fortunate Maxj, Qneen of 8eo4a II 


W0iild appear tliat be had priimtely, with 
tiie knowledge of Elisabeth, been for 
iome time penonning the offioe of Secre- 
tary of State, during the illness of Wal- 
■ngham. No one was more susceptible 
than Essex of generous emotions, and 
the extraordinarj zeal which he dis- 
played, during three years, in the cause 
of this unfortunate and ill-used man, 
can only be ascribed to motives of pure 
and disinterested firiendship. He knew 
him to be a victim to the artful policy of 
his royal mistress; and he tried every 
effort in his power to restore him to his 
fiunily and to society. Several letters 
have been printed from Essex to Da- 
Tison, which reflect great light on the 
behaviour and sentiments of Elizabeth 
In this extraordinary mattor, from which 
we select Uie following. 

** I had some conversation with 
her Majesty yester-nigbt, after my 
departure from you; and I did find 
^at the success of my endeavours 
to serve you much outrun my ex- 
pectation. I made her Majesty see 
what you had suffered in your health, 
in your fortune, in your reputation in 
the world, since the time that it was 
her pleasure to commit you. I told her 
how many friends and well-wishers the 
world did afford yon, and how, throueh- 
mit the realm, her best subjects wisEed 
ibe would do herself the honour to repair 
and restore to you that state which she 
had overthrown ; your humble sufferings 
of these harms, and reverend reeud to 
her Majesty, must needs move a Princess 
■o noble and so Inst ; and more I had 
laid, if my gift of speech had been any 
way eomparable to my love. Her Ma- 
jesty, seeing her judgment opened by the 
story of her own actions, shewed a very 
feeling oompassioB towards you; she 

Sive yon many praises; and amongst 
e rerty what sne seemed to please hei^ 
ielf in wvs, that you were a man of her 
own choice. In truth she was so well 
pleased with those things that she spake 
and heard of you, that I dare (if of 
tilings future tnere be any assurance) 
promise to myself that your peace will 
oa made to your eontent and the desire 
of TOUT friends ; I mean in her favour 
•aa jovrowBliQcUuio; toabettarjitata 

thnif or at least the same, yoQ had; 
which, with all mypower, I wul employ 
myself to effect" Tnese sanguine hopesy 
however, were soon checked. 

In a subsequent letter he says .- — " I 
have taken my opportunity, since I saw 
you, to perform as much as I promised ; 
and although I have been able to effect 
nothing, yet even now I have had better 
leisure to solicit the Queen than in this 
stormy time I did hope for. My begin- 
ning was, that I was entreated amongst 
others, to move her in your behalf; my 
course was to lay open your saffcriags 
and your patience; in them yon hadldt 
poverty, restraint, and disgrace; and yet 
you showed nothing but fiuth and hn- 
mility — faith, as being never wearied 
nor discouraged to do her serrioe ; hum- 
bleness, as being content to forget aQ the 
burdens that had been laid d^od yoo, 
and to serve her Majesty with as frank 
and willing a heart as they that have 
received the greatest grace from her. To 
all this I received no answer, b«t in 
general terms; — that her hoBonr wm 
much touched; that your presumption 
had been intolerable, and that she eoold 
not let it slip out of her mind. When I 
urged your access, she denied it ; but in 
such a manner that I had no canse to 
be afraid to speak again on the sub- 
ject When 1 offered to rei^, she 
fell into other discourse ; ana so we 

On the death of Walmngham, he 
writes : — " Upon this unhappy event, I 
tried to the bottom what the Queen will 
do for you. I ureed, not the eompazisoa 
between you and any other, but in my 
duty to her and zeal for her senioe I 
did assure her, that she had not any 
other in England who woidd, for tiicse 
three or four years, know how to simport 
so great a bonlen. She gave ne leerf 
to speak ; heard me with paticnoe ; con- 
fessed with me that none was ao saiB- 
dent; and would .not deny hoi that 
which she lays to your charge was done 
without hope, fear, malice, envy, or any 
rmrds of your own, but meit^ for ha 
safety, bou of state and penoa. In 
the end, she absolutely denied to let yea 
have thatplaoe, and willed me to nst 
ntktUdi mr ahe ma naolrid. 



mehl write to let Toa know, I am more 
koncat to mr frienoi than happr in their 
camea." ^uex now hazaroea the itep 
of writing himaelf to Jamca the Sixth, 
requesting, as a personal faTonr, the for- 
giTcneaa and good offices of this amiable 
monarch, in behalf of the man who bore 
the Uame of his mother's death ; but all 
his efforts were unarailing; the more 
£liaaheth reflected on this matter, the 
leas she felt herself able to forgive the 
rash presumption of the man who had 
antiapated ner final resolution on the 
&te of Mary. No doubt the fear of 
giring offence to the King of Scots, was 
the caoae of all this hazah treatment of 
the Queen towards her unfortunate se- 
cretary. Ho did not long surriTe her 

In the eonrse of this jear, 1590, the 
Earl of Essex was priTatelr married to 
Lady Sidney, the widow or Sir Philip 
Sidney, and the daughter of Walsingham. 
When her Majesty heard of this mar- 
riage, she did not scruple to shew her- 
self highly offended. The circumstance 
(^ the union haring taken place without 
the prcrious eonsent of the Queen, was 
the ostensible cause of her dispk-asure. 
But thai ungenerous feeling, which ren- 
dered her the uniTersal foe of matrimony, 
heightened on this oecasion by a secret 
jealousy, too humiliating to m owned, 
and too powerful to be represseil, formed 
the more genuine causes of her deep 
fexatioB and disappointment. The secret 
of her heart was soon diseoTered by the 
court ; for what rice can long lurk un- 
suspected in a royal bosom ? One of her 
attendaiits. Stanhope, thus addresses 
Lord Talbot on this delicate subject : — 
'* This night, God willing, she will go 
to Baebmond ; and on Saturday night to 
Somerset House ; and if she could orer- 
come her passion against my Lord of 
i^aex for nia marriage, no doubt she 
would be much quieter; yet doth she 
use it more temperately than was thought 
for, and, God be thanked, she does not 
strike all whom she threato ! The Earl 
doth display good temfwr on the occasion, 
eoBoeuling bis marriage as much as 
so open a matter may bie ; not that he 
drnies it to any ; but for her Majesty's 
better aatiifactioD, he is pleased that my 

lady shall lire rery retired in the house 
of her brother." 

Klisabeth, having coolly reflected on 
the folly and disgrace of openly main- 
teining an incflectual resentment, soon 
after re-admitted the Karl, apparrntly 
to the same stetion of favour as before ; 
but she never entirely dismissed her 
feelings of mortification, or again reposed 
in Eswx the same unbounded confidence 
with which she had once honoured him. 
In the autumn of the next year, she still 
retained such displeasure against Sir 
Robert Sidney, then resident abroad on 
forcini sendee, for baring been present 
at a banquet given by Essex on the occa- 
sion of his marriage, that she could not 
be induced to grant him leave of ab- 
sence for a visit to England. 

Elizabeth was pairimonious to a fault. 
On one occasion she accepted, irith 
thanks, an offer, privately communieated 
to her by some person, holding an infe- 
rior station in the customs, of a full 
disclosure of the impositions practised 
upon her in that department She ad- 
mitted this informer several times to an 
audience, imposed silence, in the tone of 
a mistress, on the remonstrances of her 
ministers, who indignantly urged that 
the employ^ was not of a rank to be thus 
countenanced in accusation of his supe- 
riors, and reaped the reward of this 
judicious conduct by finding herself en- 
titled to demand from her farmer of 
the customs a revenue of forty-two thou- 
sand pounds, instead of twelve thousand, 
which he had formerly been in the habit 
of paving ! She afterwards exacted 
from nim a further advance of right 
thousand pounds per annum ; and she 
sdmulatea her Chancellor of the Exche- 
quer to such a rigid superintendence of 
all the details of the public expenditure, 
as produced the most important results. 
In the ensuing Parliament, a conference 
was held between the two Houses, re- 
specting a bill for making the patrimo- 
nial estates of accountants liable for thrir 
arrears to the Queen ; and the Commons 
desiring that it might not have a retro- 
spective effect, the Lord Treasurer pithily 
remarked : " My Lords, if any of you 
had lost your purse bv the way, would 
you look back or forwards to find 


Uf Tkb Queen, then, hatb loet ber 

Thie rind penimoiij was at oooe the 
firtoe and the foible of EHaabeth. It 
Mideared her to the people, whom it 
protected from the impoaition of new 
and oppreariTe taxes ; out, being joined 
to an extraordinaiT taste for magmfio 
oenoe in all that related to her penonal 
appearance, it betraired her into a thou- 
■and meanncfliee, which, in spite of aQ 
the fascinating arts in which sne was an 
adept, sorred to alienate the affections of 
her court. Her nobles found themselves 
heavily burdened bj the Ions and fre- 
auent visits which she naia them at 
tneir country seats, attended uniformly 
with an enormous retinue; as well as 
by the contributions to her jewelry and 
wardrobe, which custom required of 
them, under the name of New Tear's 
Gifts ; and on all occasions when they 
had favours, or even justice, to ask. 
If any of her courtiers regretted the day 
when first her hollow smues and flatter- 
ing speeches seduced them to years of 
iruome, servile, and £swning servility. 
Bacon, in his ** Apothegms," relates, on 
this subject the following aneodote : — 
** Queen Elisabeth, seeing Sir Edward 

• • • • • in iier garden, looked out at 
her window, and asked him, in Italian, 

* What does a man think of, who thinks 
of nothing ?' Sir Edward, who had not 
received some of the Queen's grants so 
soon as he had hoped and de8i^^d, paused 
a little, and then made answer *. ' Ma- 
dam, he thinks of a woman's promise.' 
The Queen shrunk in her head, but was 
heard to say, 'Well, Sir Edward, I must 
Bot confute you : anger makes dull men 
witW, but it keeps them poor f " 

She was dilatory enou^ in suits of 
her own nature; and the Lord Trea- 
sorer Buiieigh, beinr a wise man, and 
willing therein to feed her humour, 
would say to her: ** Madam, you do 
well to let suitors stay ; for I shall tell 
you, if yon grant them speedily, they 
will come again the sooner." ** Ma- 
dam," said a popular poet, whose bounty 
had been intercepted by this mini- 


1 have had nor 

Spenser, the author of the ^'Niy 
Queen," had similar ingiirlea to endan^ 
as is evident f^m thooe en e ii a ti e lines^ 
in which the |x>et, from the btttencsi ef 
his soul, describes the ndaeries <tf a pro- 
fitless court attendance : — 

" Full UtUa kaowett thou, that ImmI not trM, 
What hen It U In ndiiff kmg to Uda: 
To loM good daja, that might be betlw 

To waste hma nlj^ts la 
To speed to imj, to be pat 
Te feed on hope, to ptae with 

Te have thj Prlnee's gfaos^ jei 


To hare thy ssklnft yet wait 
To fret thyeool wttheroasaeai 
To eat thy heart throoi^ 


To Cftirn. to ermich, to wait, to rtd% to ra^ 
To epend, to give, to want, to be 

; on a time, 

About the latter end of 1691, died Sir 
Christopher Hatton, Lord Chancellor. 
His death was attributed to the grief 
which he felt in consequence of her 
Majesty's having demanded of him, 
with a rigour which he had not antici- 
pated, the pa^inent of certain monies 
received by him for tenths and firrt 
fruits. The Queen, it is said, on lean- 
ing to what eztremit^r her sererity had 
reduced him, paid him several visiti. 
and endeavoured, by her gracious aad 
soothing speeches, to revive his droop- 
ing spirits; but her repentance came 
too late. It is, indeed, certain that the 
Queen manifested great interest in the 
fate of her chancellor; ahe paid htm, 
during his illness, extraordinary persoasl 
attentions; and, on his death, she n- 
mitted to his nephew and heir, who wa 
married to a granddaogfaterof Pnil si gh , 
all her claims on the propertr which hs 
left behind. During hm lilfe. Hatton 
tasted larvely of the aolid firmta of the 
favour of nis royal mistresa. She per- 
sisted in the practice, oriffinatittg in ^ 
reigns of her father and brother, of en- 
dowing her courtiers out of Uie ^oils of 
the church. Sometimes, to tiie great 
scandal of the public, die would keep a 
bishopric many years vaeant, lor the 
sake of i|»propriating its whole iwaaasi 
to ifwilar puptmm, lai to hm 

imMntntioa lo ■ ■ 
mt enw coaditiiM Hut anUim ma- 
Mn uaald b« datiahad, or bencflcuJ 
kHW of baft ud toncuMili mnted ti 
fiiliiilii ftnaxm. Tkoi, IM Biihop 
ft Bj ««■ nonired to Mb ■ canon 
to ffir ChiirtMfair Hmtfam, of the gv- 
4m_ aad «n£atd of EIt Hooh, ncti: 
n ; bit «B tkc drdded nfunl ol 
> numdrr prmit/ which 
Umnlf bauDd in hoDonr 
uumit DDim^ircd 
Hattmi iiutitakd 

ft« B h fc w to nm 
!• wgM m J Urns 
MJ roidmw to 

to hk I 

■tiltol Uto • duDMn nit ; nil, hi 
te tf iMctt w«ee«Jw ia irmtinit fr< 
kiM lb* Bad, bt Ibcn bnUt a iplniilid 
MHrioB, Mrnaadad br gudnu, which 
bn« bto* HBGMdcd br I itra«t still 
liiwliii Va Minf " Tlittrn Oarden." 
H* had nw NfltM^ InUnrt with her 
e bn to addiMi 

Hkbaekwaid in Mmpljiiu with jour 
■fncmenti bat I wcniM hats jod to 
uov, tbat I, wfao made foa wlut joa 
Ml, on iln nnuke jon ; uid if fan 
A> aot fMtbwHb hill je«Tmng«m«it 
bj God I «in inatdUtclf anmwk yon 

•An ha bad attaiaed tho dicnitj of 
Latd riiinnfllftr. be nKd to laj aiiJe 
Ifa nbto to iliini. on occaMon* of ftt- 

^__u and Hiilou thin 

^matanA tfes ponr of &L17 haBdv, 

~ - allaHiilr ' ' 

«A wlaian that autad* tki llrtt, 
Airi faHaaaa tbat toal ti BMbhu. 
na arfirl^ Ika fpaelm nita, 

WkM ka hM Bftr wtBtan ^VK 
Ifr nan Lori Kanar M Ih* bravli 
t£ iHl aad Bwa 4aDM4 toftn hha t 
'ka^r bwi< ud ■ksHtrina tnm, 
■ mA MwaH hat, ud utf^l^bM, 
Id tCakai baail ef Eocludi <taMB, 

bg^k n*a 


baan or Eaclvd'i <taMB, 
ud Sraidaid aHld boi 

Towaidi Sir Jobs Fnrot, Halloa 
acted tbs part of an inlri^in|r raenj, 
beiiiK proTokad by the taunU which Sir 
John w« continnill* throwing out 
wainat him, a> one who had " entrnd 
Iba court at a pUlianl." Sir Joha 
Perrot danTnlhimumeand Urgecitalct 
tmm a wealthy family of that name, 
Hated It llaroldatune, in INwInvk^ 
ahJTC. IJut hii fisluna, hit Gsara, bi* 
•ir, and eommun fane, fave bim fur bit 
father no leai a pcnonan Iban UeBlT 
the Kigbth ; nor wai bii naemblaMe 
mcrelrciterul: liig tcinprrwaahaacbty 
■nd Tiolint. hii dimeonoui hluiterin^, 
hii laii^a|[e coanc nnd ibiuiTe to ei- 

mcHt nor tilenL A* Lord Utputy of 
' IrElud. from IBta to I5SS, hs had 
made the moit praiiewoTthy effuita to- 
ward* the pBciCeatiun of that unhappy 
and ill-gnicnitd connlry. Hia policy 
waa liberal and beneruJeBti bat bi* 
ittcmpti at Ttlbrmiitiaa aimed agaimt 
him a h«( of fiH-o, anionic wliom wa* 
the Archliiflhop of DnUin, wboin hv had 
euupcratcd hr pmpoainK to apply tbo 
reTcnuet of (it. I'mrirk'i Calhtiltal to 
the fuundaliun of un UiiiipnilT in tba 
capital of Inliind. He wai uftrn iia- 
piurdcd cnou|^ to ^to Tcut, in gum 
inTccliTC, Dgainat the pcraon of her 
.Majnty, to thu prrot Texatiun which 
he, in common wilfa all ^Tcinon of 
Ireland undtY Kliiabcth, waa iluomiil to 
endure, fmm the uantincH of her >up- 
plica and iIil- ma^ilude of her rit{ni»- 
tioni. llii wurdi were ill caiiicd to 
the Quern, taingini with *nch artfal 
inainutioni aa tended to giro lo the 
m«re nnmcaning ebullilionj of a haity 
tnuper an air of delibcrato contempt 
towarda hii iomei|^. Jurt before tho 
•ailing of the Sponiib Armada, I'errot 
w*i recalled, partly at bi> own requnt. 
A rigid iiuiniry wai then iaatituted into 
ill hia actiona, wordi, and brbaiiour in 
Ireland, and he «ai eommiltsd to tha 
Iriendly coatody of burleigh. Aflalk 
irardj, Lordi lltmidon and itnckbuttt 
with three other conndllora, were ordered 
to ■eaichand leiu hi* papen. in the bouae 
of tbc Lord Trcaiurer, without IbaiaiMh 
tion of Ihia sreat miniiler, who waa 
offended and aUrtiiod at the flap. iVrrat 

mm Mot to tiM Tower, i^ in April, 
IMS, pnt on kii trial for high treuoa ! 
no pnadpil chargM ^limt him wen 
— hii Eoatonplaoas woTOi of UwOneea, 
kii Mcret enconngement to nbellion 
■ad tlM Snnuh intwrion, tnd hij hir- 
boarinsortititon. OfallthcMctuvse*, 
witb t1i« ciceptioD of the fint, he pTored 
liii entire inaocence ; and on that of 
oonlempt, he eicUKd hinuelf by the 
bmt of hii temper, and the absence of 
■It eril intentiaa. He wu. BeTCrthe- 
leaa, foand ^illy; and, on IciTiar the 
bar, he exclaimed, "God'i death f will 
Ihe Queen miBer her brother to be offered 
«p u a ucrifico to the enrj of mj frisk- 

^The Qaeen felt the force of tbii appeal 
to the ties of blood. It waa long beibre 
die eonld be indneml to confirm the aen- 
tence; and ahe would nenr aign the 
warrant for id eieention. Hsppr had 

to tha onfbitDBata Xarf. Bariagk iM 
teaia on bsariiw the TvnliBt, e^iag, 
with ■ agll, that baind waa alw^ Iha 

qiuiBtlj heud to repeat the woidaef the 

Emperor TbeodoMIH : — " BhoBld an 
one bave apoken evil of tne, if throngh 
leritj, it sbanid be deapiacd; ifthtoogh 
inunitj, pitied ; if throiwh malice, tat- 

S'len." Sbe alio aid, in uBgoagemon 
miliar to hHT, and awore a gi«at oath, 
that they who accnaed Peirat were all 
knsTea, and hi an honeat and (aitbfnt 
man. It WM, aeeoidin^y, thongfatthat 
■ha entertained the design of paidaning 
him, bat her intentiona wen nenr tar- 
ried into effect ; and, i " ' ' 

thia Tietim of inreterate n 

in the Tower, of diaeaae bnncht on by 

confinement, but more likely ot • hrofaa 


SuaMl and Sir WiOttr Saleigh—Str Soitrl Cartf—SAahpmr* StfuUliiu if 
Biuhttk retpeeting tlu Drama— Tarltlw, Hu jttUr—MmUiif «/ Parlimmimt— 
Haufhiy Imgaagt ofUu QuetH—Oimmitlal of WMiafrik and alktr Mtmttn k 
tkt Uut—AIUmpI la ptam titt QHttn—EzptJMoH to Cada—EUMoiHii ttrt ^ 
Xua—HU gallant amdtiei—BaUf- 0/ Lonl Hwudm and tS* Bvltap of landm 
—TJu Quemand Emx—rielent Qiarrtl iflutm tktm—BimlA of SmMfhSir 
Sogtr Mtm — Spatter. 

g N 1M2, Sir Walter 
, Baleigh, aniiouii, by 

£it, to reTiTB the 
linins faronr of 
Eliiabeth, projected 
J a formidable attack 
on Ihe Spaniih aet- 
flementi in America, and engaged a 
large number of roltinleen "~ ''" — '" 


roidable ( 

by wbich the fieel wai detained till 

Cper aeaaon for ita aailing waa p 
eigh woi recalled to court, 
command of the expedition waa t 
to Furbiiber. The onlr forlunflle reault 
•( the enterpriie wia, the captDre of one 
vaahby oatn^ and tfa* iJ M U i utiuM of 

a Mcond. In the meantime, BaleM 
waaamunng binuelfbyan intrigue wilh 
one of her Hajeaty*! nuidi of hononr— 
a danghter of the celebnlcd 9ir KiclKdit 
Throgmoilon. The Queen, in the hot 
of her indignation attheaeaiadalbiDaght 
Dpon ber coiut by the eonaeqiMBOCa of 
tliia amour, moited, aa naoal, to a 
rif^oar beyond the lawa; and, tbmi 
Sir Walter offered immediately to oaie 
the lady the beat reparation in hit 
power, by marrying ber, which he aft«r- 
warda did, Eliaabeth nnfeelinriy pnb- 
lUhed her ahame, by aending houi parttea 
to Ibe Tower ! Sir Walter tcmauMd a 
priaoner daring icTeral montha. Moni- 
whila, faia ahipa retarned from Oeir 
cmiae; ami the prodti bos Ommlttt 

mLouaasBf uoom omuN bbqiiaiit. 

iSm w yti a d cnmk wen to be divided 
uatmg the Qaeeiif the admiral, the 
aailova, and all who eontribated to the 
ootflt. Dimntea aroae: her Majettr 
«aa dlaaatiiflpd with the ahare allotted 
to her; ud, taking adTantage of the 
aitnatioB into which her own deapotie 
fiolcBct had thrown Baleigh, she com- 
pelled him to boy hia libortr, and the 
vadiatmrbed enjoyment of all he held 
udo' her, by the aacrifice of no leas 
than ei|^ty thonaand ponnda, due to 
him aa admiral! Socn was the dis- 
mtoeated moral pmity of the yixg:in 

Sir Robert Carey, the third son of 
Lofd Honadon, waa, at thia period, a 
youff Bsaa, and an asaidaoaa attendant 
on toe eonrt of Elixabeth. Being a 
yoengcr eon, he had no patrimony ; he 
reedted firom the exchequer only one 
hoadred ponnda per annum daring plea- 
saie ; and by the style of life whicn he 
waa obliged to adopt, he had incurred a 
debt of a thousana pounds. In this si- 
tuation he married a widow of fire hun- 
dred pounds per annum, and some ready 
Bwney. Hia lather erinced no displea- 
sure on the occasion ; but his other 
firienda, eq>ecia]ly the Queen, were so 
much offended at the match, that he 
took hk wife to Carlisle, and remained 
there, without going near the court, till 
the following year. Being then obliged 
to Tisit Lonoon on business, his fiitner 
•oggcated the expediency of his paying 
the Qneen the compliment of appeiuing 
en her birth day. Aooordinriy, he se- 
cretly ptepared capariaona, and a present 
for luBr lljjesty, at the cost of upwards 
of fbvr hundred pounds ; and presented 
hiBHelf in the tilt-]rard, in the character 
of ^ a forsaken knight, who had Towed 
aolitariaeaa." The festiTal orer, he 
mads himaelf known to his firiends in 
eoart ; bat the Queen, though she had 
raeeiTed lua rift, would not notice him. 
Soon after, the King of Soota sent to 
Carey's elder brother, then Marshal of 
Berwiek, to beg that he would wait u|M>n 
him, to receire a aecret messaffe, which 
be wbhed to be transmitted tothe Queen. 
The Marshal wroto to hia fother, to in- 

Sire her Majesty's pleasure in the mat- 
; She aaawered, ** that aha did not 

choose that he should atir out of Ber- 
wick ;*' but knowing, though she 
would not know it, that Sir Bobert 
Carey was in court, she at length said to 
Lord Hunsdon, ** I hear your fine son, 
who has married lately so worthily, is 
hereabouts. Send him, if you wisii to 
know the King^s pleasure." His lord- 
ship answered, *' tnat he knew he would 
be nappy to obey her commands." ** No," 
said she, ** do you bid him go, for I hare 
nothing to do with him." Sir Bobert 
Carey thought it hard, to be aent off 
without first seeing the Queen : " Sir," 
said he to his fatli^, who urged his ^ 
ing, <* if she be on such hard terms with 
me, I had need be wary what I do. If 
I go to the King without her license, it 
were in her power to hang me on my 
return ; and that, for anything I see, it 
were ill trusting her." Lord Hunsdon 
** merrily" told the Queen what he said. 
" If the gentleman be so distrustful," 
she said, ** let the Secretary make out a 
safe conduct to go and come, and I will 
sign it." 

On his return, with letters from James 
the Sixth, Sir Robert hastened to court, 
and entered the presence chamber, 
splashed and dir^ as he was ; but, not 
finding the Queen there^ Lord Ilunsdon 
went to announce his son's arriraL She 
desired him to reoeire the letter or mes- 
sage, and bring it to her. But young 
Carey knew the court and the Queen too 
well, to consent to giro up his dispatehes, 
cTen to his father ; he insisted on deli- 
vering them himself; and, at length, 
with much difficulty, gained an audioice 
of the Queen. The first encounter was 
*' stormy and terrible," which he passed 
over in silence; but, when the Queen 
had ** said her pleasure" of himself and 
his wife, he made her a courtly excuse ; 
with which she was so well appeased, 
that she at length assured him^ all was 
forgiven and forgotten, and received him 
into her wonted favour. 

After this happy conclusion of an ad- 
venture so perilous to a courtier of £U* 
aabeth, Carev returned to Carlisle, and 
his father's oeath soon occurring, ho had 
orders to take upon himself the govern- 
ment of Berwick till further notice, la 
this aituation he remained a year with- 

M Ut e, mkL made to procarefromooiirt, 
iithflr an allowance, or leaTe of abeenoe, 
to enaUe him to aolicit one in penon. 
At lenfftli, emboldened by neoenitj, be 
leiolTea to bazard the itcp of going up 
to eonrt withovt pennimon. On bia 
airiTal, howerer, neither Secretary Cecil 
■or bis own brother would Tentore to 
introduce bim to the presence of the 
Qneen, bat adriaed him to hasten back 
before hit absence ahoiild be known, for 
ftar of her anger. At last, as he stood 
iorrow fu lly pondering on his case, a gen- 
Heman of the chamber, touched with 
mty, undertook to mention bis arriTal, 
m a way which should not displease the 
Queen: and he opened the matter by 
telling her, that she was more beholden 
to the lore and serrice of one man than 
of man J whom she &TOured more. This 
excited her curiosity ; and, on her ask- 
ing who this person might be, he an- 
swered that it was Sir Robert Carey, 
who, unable longer to bear his absence 
from ber sight, had posted up to town 
to kiss her hand, ana instantly return. 
Elizabeth, much pleased, sent for him 
directly, receired him with greater fit- 
TOUT than erer, allowed bim, after the 
interriew, to lead ber out by the hand ; 
which seemed to his brother and the 
Secretary nothing less than a miracle ; 
and what was more, granted him Ato 
hundred pounds immediately, a patent 
of Warden of the East Marshes, and a 
renewal of bis grant of Norbam Castle. 

The immortu bard of Atou flourished 
in the reign of Elisabeth. As a dra- 
matic author, the neTer>failing attrac- 
tion of his pieces brought orcr-flow- 
ing audiences to the Globe Theatre, 
in Southwark, of which he became a 
joint proprietor. Lord Southampton 
oestowed on him a munificent donation 
of a thousand nounds, to enable him to 
complete a purcoase, and introduced him 
to the notice of his belored friend, the 
Eari of Essex. This led to the imme- 
diate patrona^ of Elizabeth, who was 
not slow in discoTering his transcendent 

Enius. She caused many of his plays to 
represented before ber, and the Meny 
WtP€$ of WimdttoT owed its origin to the 
■ desire to tea the ebaineter of 

Faktdr «xhibitod ^ tlw 1$^ «C » 

During tlie anl j pnt of ker ni& 
Sunday being still l ega idad principd^ 

in the light of a bolioav, lb* 

lected that daT espeeialqr te tlie nm> 
sentation of nkya at oont; aad bgr Mr 
licence, Barbage anthoriaail ^t**t 
performance at the iniblie tkentn, m 
th mda^ omfy^ out of the boon «f prnw. 
Fire Tears alter, GoaMo, in his SAnI 
•f AhuMy oomplaina, that the players 
^becanse they are allowed to play ei«y 
Sunday, make four or fire Smoni si 
least erery week.*' To limit this ansi^ 
an order was issiied by the PriiT Gan- 
dl, in 1591, prdhibitiiig playa nMib^ 
ing publiclT acted on Thnndaya ; bceaaas 
on that Oiy bear baiting aad aiailar 
pastimes had usually beea pnetiasd; 
and, in an injuncticm to tha LonHfayai^ 
four days after, the ^ ^ ' ''■■TMTirt ef 
plays on Sundays was ntterir eoA> 
demned ; and it was further eoBi|iiaiMd, 
that on '* all other days of the week, in 
diTers 'places, the pUyeia do am to re- 
cite their plays, to the great hart and 
destruction of the game of bear baitings 
and like pastimes, which are *p»*«Tt***i^ 
for her Majesty's pleamre." The Qaesa 
also thought proper to appooH eoai- 
missioners, to in^ectall pernrmaaoesof 
writers for the stage — a dianatic en- 
sorship— with full powers to r^ect sad 
obliterato whaterer they might 
unmannerly, licentiouay or irrev 
an excellent regulation, whidi has 
tinned down to the present day. Ne- 
rertheless, no one enjoyed more &Bi 
Elizabeth, the most lioentioos jests and 
merry conceits of the age. ** At an 
says Bohun, ''the Queen woi^ 
herself with her friends and 
and if they made her no 
put them upon nurth and 
course, with mat ctrilitj.' Ska woali 
then admit Tariaton, a fimooi eosaa- 
dian and pleasant jester, aad other sa^ 
men, to oiTert her with storiea of the 
town, and the common jeata aad iaei- 
dents of the day. Tarletoa, who wm 
then the best comedian in "Knyiai^ii^ had 
composed a feasant play, aM when it 
was acting bcSbre the Qncea, ba ponisi 
at Baleii^ and said, «8«i (ba ' 



the Qoeen!' for wliieh 
nbeth correeted him bj a frown ; jet be 
hid Um temeritj to tdd, that he pos- 
K«ed too maeh and too intoleiable a 
power: and, gotnr on with the same 
nhoty, he reflected on the too great in- 
inenee of another rojal faTourite, which 
wai 10 nnifcmllj applauded hj all pre- 
•ent, that Eliiabeth thought it pniaent 
to hear these reflections with seeming 
meoncern. Bnt yet she was so offended, 
that sba forbad Tarieton, and all other 
jesten, from eoming near her taUe in 

The state of her finances compelled 
^'f^rHh to sommon a parliament in 
the spring of 1593, after a long respite 
of har yean. She assumed a more 
hsqghtj and menacing style than she 
had prerionslj used, in answer to the 
three customary requests made by the 
Speiker, for the liberty of speech, free- 
dom fiiom arrests, and access to her per- 
son; she replied: that such liberty of 
ipeeeh as the Commons were justly en- 
titled to — ^liberty, namely, of aye and no, 
tbe was willing to grant, but by no 
BKans a fiberty for erery one to speak 
what he listed ! And if any idle heads 
■bould be found careless enough of their 
own safety to attempt innoTations in 
the state, or reforms in the church, she 
laid her injunctions on the Speaker, to 
refuse all bills offered for such purposes, 
tfll thcT should hare been examined by 
those wno were better qualified to iudse 
of these matters. She promised she 
would not impeach the liberty of their 
persons, pronded they did not permit 
themselTes to imagine that any neglect 
of duty would be allowed to pass unpu- 
nished, onder shelter of this priyiloge ; 
and she engaged not to deny them ac- 
cess to her person on weignty affairs, 
and in exercising their known rights, 
and folfiHing their duty to their country. 
Prter Wentworth^ ^ whose coun^eous 
and independent spirit had already orawn 
upon him repeated manifestations of 
royal displeasure, presented a petition to 
the Lord Keeper, prating the upper 
house to join with tne lower, in a sup- 
plication to the Queen, to fix the succes- 
sion to the crown. This subject was 
gall and wormwood to the Qneen ; her 

rage at the bare mentioa of a natter so 
offensive to her, was excited to such a 
pitch, that she instantly ordeoed Went- 
worth to be committed to the Fleet pri- 
son, together with Sir llioinas Bromley, 
who had seconded him, and two other 
members, to whom he had imparted the 
business ; and, when the house was pre- 
paring a petition for their release, some 
privy councillors dissuaded the members 
against such a step, ss one that could 
only give additional offence to her Ma- 

Soon afterwards, James Morrioe, an 
eminent lawyer. Attorney of the Court 
of Wards, and Chancellor of the Duchy, 
made a motion for redress of the abuses 
in the Bishopi^ courts ; and espedaUy of 
the monstrous ones committed under'the 
high commission. Several members sup- 
ported the motion; but the Queen, m 
great wrath, sent for the Speaker, re- 
quired him to deliver up to her the bill, 
reminded him of her strict injunctions 
at the opening of the session, and testi- 
fied her extreme indignation and sur- 
prise at the boldness of the Commons, 
m intermeddling with subjects which 
she had expressly forbidden them to 
discuss. She informed him, that it lay 
in her power to summon parliament and 
to dismiss them at her pleasure ; and to 
sanction or reject any determination of 
theirs: that she had at present called 
them toother for the twofold purpose 
of enacting further laws for the main- 
tenance of religion, and of providing 
for the national defence against Spain ; 
and that these ou^ht to be the suojects 
of their deliberations ! As for Morrice, 
he was seized by a seijeant-at-arms in 
the house itself, * stripped of his oflBces, 
rendered incapable of practising as a 
lawyer, and committed to prison, whence 
he soon after addressea to Burleiffh 
a spirited remonstrance, in which he 
says: — 

** Bills of assize of bread, shipping of 
fish, pleadings, and such like, may be 
offered and received into the house, and 
no offence to her Majesty's rojal com- 
mand ; but the great causes or the law 
and public justice, may not be touched 
without offence. Well, my good lord, 
be it so, yet I hope her Majesty and yon 

■ s2 

€f ber iMmoanlilft prhry oonnflO, will at 
length thonmghly consider these thinp^s, 
kst, ts heretofore we pwed, *• From 
tte tjrannj of the Bishop of Borne, good 
Lord delirer us T we be compelled to mj, 
' From the granny of the clera^ of £ng> 
knd, good Lord deliTer ns !' '*^ 

In October following, the Earl of 
Bssex Tentnred to mention to her Ma- 
jesty this perseented patriot, as oaalified 
for the office of Attomey-GenerRi ; when 
^ her Majesty acknowledged his talents, 
bnt said, bis speakinr against her, in 
■nch a manner as he nad done, should 
be a hn itfainst any preferment at her 
hand." He was kept for many years a 
prisoner in Tilbnry Castle, and died in 
1596. The House of Commons submit- 
ted, withont farther question, to the 
will of an imperious Queen, and passed, 
with little oppoeition, ** An act to retain 
ber Majesty s subjects in their due 
obedience," which is strongly illustratiTe 
of the tyrannical acts of the reformed 
church of the age of Elizabeth. By this 
eruel law, all persons abore the age of 
sixteen, who should refuse during a 
month to attend the established form of 
worship, were to be imprisoned ; when, 
should they further persist in their re- 
fhsal during three months longer, they 
must abjure the realm ; but, in case of 
their rejecting this altematiye, on re- 
turning from banishment, their offences 
were declared folony, without benefit of 
dergy! The business of supplies was 
next taken into consideration, and the 
Commons yoted several subsidies ; but 
this not appearing to the ministry suffi- 
eient for the exigencies of the state, the 
peers were induced to request a confer- 
ence with the House of Commons for an 
augmentation of the grant The Com- 
mons at first rejectea this interference 
with their acknowledged priyilege of 
originating all money bills ; but fear of 
the well-Imown consequences of offend- 
ing their superiors, preyailed oyer their 
indignation ; and both the conference 
and the additional supplies were acceded 
to. Some debate, however, arose on the 
time to be idlowed for the payment of so 
heayy an imposition ; and the illus- 
trious Bacon, then member for Middle- 
fltty Mlaigvd TOftp tha diitiwi of tha 

peopla, aad the daager leal tiba Haaw 
should, by this gnnC ba establiditag a 
preeedent against themaelTes and tMir 
posteritj, in a speech, to which Sir 
Robert Cecil replied, widi moch warmtL 
Her Majesty showed a rc santlnl laaisa 
branoe A this qpeeeh of Baeon, on hit 
appearing soon after as a candidate kg 
toe oflloe of Attomey-OeneraL Hii 
cousin, also, Sir Edwmid Hobby, took 
such an actiye part in some of the qoes- 
tions now at issne between the C^vi 
and the Commona, as procured him sa 
imprisonment till the end of the sesno^ 
when he was liberated, ** but not witk- 
ont a notable poblie diigraoe, laid npoa 
him by her Majesty's royal censors, ds- 
lirerea amongst other things, by heisel( 
after my Lord Keeper's speech. 

The Qneen, in her speech to parlia- 
ment, on proroguing the House on thii 
occasion, animadyeried in serere tenm 
on the opposition displayed by many of 
the members ; reiteratea the lofty daims 
with which she had opened the session; 
and pronounced an eiuogium on the jus- 
tice and moderation of her goyernmeat! 
She also entered into the jnonnds of hor 
quarrel with the King of Spain ; showed 
herself undismayed by the appreheasioDS 
of any thing which his once dreaded 
power could attempt against her; sad 
added, in ber characteristic style, ad- 
verting to the defeat of the great aiw 
mada, this energetic warning : — ** I am 
informed, that when he [Philip of 
Spain] attempted this last inyasioa, 
some upon the sea-coast forsook their 
towns, fled up higher into tiie country, 
and left all naked and exposed to hii 
entrance. But I swear unto you, l^ 
God, if I knew those persons, 1 woald 
teach them what it ii to be fes^fol in so 
urgent a canse!" 

In 1694, Phflip the Second looght a 
base reyenm upon Elisabeth, w the 
snccessiye aefeats he had expenenoed in 
his attempts to inyada lgiigl*«Mi. He 
proposed, through secret acents, yast 
rewards to any one who would attempt 
her destmcti(m. It was no easy tatf 
to discover persons sufficiently rash to 
undertake, nom mere mercenary mo- 
tives, a villanj so atrocJoaa. 6ut at 
kogth Fnantaa aad AnBiW joiift goiw- 


^ tt0 VettMriaad^ giieeeedad ia 
Dr. Lopei, dcMBcttic phyadan to 
KB, to wax poitoiiiii bcr medi- 
Eif¥, wImmo watchfulncM oyer 
of hH lOTereigii was nnoeaimg, 
I fint to rive notiee of this atro- 
M. At his instanee, Lopei was 
imM, examined before Essex, 
— iti, the Lord Admiral, and 
Cecil, and eommitted to custody 
if s house. But nothin(|[ deciiiTe 
■g on his first examination, Cecil 
ifted the charge as gromidless, 

• Qaeen, sendmg in anger for 
called him ** a rash and daring 

* and reproached him for bring- 
i slight grounds, so heinous a 

npon an innocent man. The 
Bdignant at finding his diligent 
\ thus repaid, through the success- 
lee of his enemy Cecil, quitted 
il presence in great rage; and, 
his practice on like occasions, 
omelr up in his chamber ; wlilch 
led to quit, till the Queen herself 
I Lord Admiral a few days alter- 
OBsediate a reconciliation. Lopez 
tin subjected to fresh interroga- 
rhen, being threatened with the 
, he was induced to confess that 
reeeiTed a bribe from the King 
in ; but he pernsted in denjring 
in» erer his intention to perpe- 
he odious crime. This subter- 
iwerer, did not mwe him from 
flsinious death, which he suffered, 
ro oihen, whom the ffOTemors of 
iMflands had hired ror a similar 
Jdng. The Spanish Court dis- 
to return any satisfoctory answer 
DBBI^aints of Elizabeth, respecting 
tioeioQS designs against her life ; 
ler sihame, or the fear of repri- 
terred it firom any repetition of 
Ageroos experiments against the 
Jm Queen of £ngland. 
It two years afterwards, howerer, 
lish Jesuit, named Walpole, who 
tiled in Spain, and intimately 
«d with the noted Father Parsons, 
md an attemi>t, worthy of notice, 
m singular circumstances attend- 
In the last Toyage of Drake to 
•t Indiea, a smul ressel of Wal- 
fM oapCmd, and eanied into a 

port of Sptia, on bond of whieh 
one Squire, fbrmerlT a pnrreyor for the 
Queen's stables. This prisoner Walpolo 
converted to Popery, and by insidious 
arguments, persuaded him to make an 
attempt against the life of Elisabeth; an 
enterprise, he assured him, which would 
be attended with little penonal danger, 
and, in case of the worst, be rewarded 
by an immediate admission to the joys 
or hearen. lie then presented to S<^uirt 
a packet of poison, which he enjoined 
him to spread on the pommel of the 
Queen's saddle. The Queen, in mount- 
ing, would transfer the ointment to her 
himd ; with that she was likely to touch 
her mouth or nostrils ; and such wss the 
Tirulence of the poison, that certain 
death would ineyitably ensue. Souire 
returned to EngUuid, and enlistea for 
the Cadiz expe£tion ; and, on the ere 
of its sailing, took the preparation and 
disposed of it as directed. Desirous of 
admag to his merits, he, during the 
Toyage, anointed, in like manner, the 
arms of the Earl of Essex's chair. The 
failure of the application in both in- 
stances greatly surprised him. To Wal- 
pole it appeared so unaccountable, that he 
was persuaded Squire had deceived him ; 
and, actuated at once by the desire of 
punishing his defection, and the fear of 
his betraying such secrets of the party as 
had been confided to him, he oonsump 
mated hisvillany, by artfully conveying 
to the English government an intimation 
of the plot Squire was apprehended, 
and at first denied all ; ** but, by ^^ood 
counsel, and the truth working within 
him," he was brought to confess what 
could not otherwise have been proved 
a^;ainsthim; and suffered penitently for 
his offence. 

In June, 1696, a formidable arma- 
ment was fitted out for Cadiz. The 
Lord High Admiral, Lord Howard of 
Effingham, commanded the fieet. The 
Earl of Essex wss appointed general of 
all the land-forces, and spared neither 
trouble nor expense in hispreparatioiis 
for the enterprise. Lord Thomas How- 
ard, Sir Walter Baleigh, Sir Francis 
Yere, Sir George Carew, and some 
others, held subordinate commands, aad 
formed together a council of war. Bi. 

Mbeth heneif eooqKMed (A tluf oeoaiktt 
a ptmyer for the om of Uie fleet; and 
riM sent to her Lord High Adniralt and 
Id the Earl of EMex, <* jointly, a letter 
nf licence to depart ; beeidee comfortable 
flncoangemeiit. Bat oar oommaiider," 
adde a fHend of Enex, ^ had a letter 
fraught with all kind of promises and 
kmng offers, as the like, since he was a 
fitTonrite, he nerer had." On the arri- 
val of the expedition off Cadis, Essex 
OToposed that an attack should he made 
Dj the fleet on the ships in the harbour, 
hot the Lord Admiral remonstrated 
against the rashness of snch an attempt, 
and prerailed on sereral members of tne 
eonncil of war to concur with him. At 
length the argnments of the more dar- 
ing partj prerailed, and Essex, with 
that generous and noble ardour which 
distingoishcd him, threw his hat into 
the sea, in a wild transport of joj, on 
hearing that the Lord Aomiral consented 
to make the attack. He was now made 
acquainted with a secret order of the 
Qncen, dictated bj her tender care for 
the safety of her young faTourite— that 
he should by no means bo permitted to 
lead the assault; — and he reluctantly 
nromised an exact obcdieace to the mor- 
tifying commands of the Queen. But, 
no sooner was he in presence of the 
enemy, than his natural impetuosity 
wonla brook no control. He foi^t his 
promise, and rushed into the neat of 
the action. The Spanish fleet was 
speedily driren up the harbonr, where 
toe Spanish admiral's ship, and another 
first-rate Tessel, were set on fire by 
their own crews, and the rest run 
aground. Of these, two fine ships fell 
into the hands of the English ; and the 
Lord Admiral, baring rerased to accept 
any ransom for the remainder, they were 
alL to the number of fifty, burned by 
order of the Spanish admiral. 

In the meanwhile, Essex landed his 
men, and marched to the assault of 
Cadix. The town was well fortified; 
and the Enelish were on the point of 
being repuued from the gate, which 
thc^ had attacked, when Essex, at the 
critical moment, rushed forward, seized 
his own colonrs, and threw them orer 
tba wall; ^^gfring a nioet hot asnaH 

mto Am gate, wk&n, to ««• tt^l 

of their itaiiaanl, hnpy waa he 

ecNild first torn down vom tiia waB, aiiii 
with shot ana sword sake vaj thiwtth 
the thickest jpre« of tiia mmmy," taa 
town heiag thoatakea byatona, w aagi i i 
nptoplaaaer; but Fasei, whoae kaaiiiail j 
eqnalled his courage, p«k aa hoMdiale 
stop to the caraage, caused Iha wsata, 
children, andtherdigioosoideiailoifliii 
to a plac»of safety, ordcfed the pileaaiis 
to be treated with tiie ntaaoat lHdty,8iii 
permitted all the dtixeM to w itfc i fa w , 
on payment of a ranaom, befoie ths 
place, with its fbrtiflcatioBa, wia eoi^ 
mitted to the fiaaaea. Ob bii retam U 
England, from aa expeditioii ao gleriss 
to himself; Essex was wdooaiiid hy ths 
Queen and hy the people witik every 
demonstration of joy and alfoetioa. B«t 
his adTcrsaries, to lessen die glorrof hii 
exploits, ascribed to the naTal eoa- 
manders a principal share in the saecai 
at Cadix, which he aoconated all hii 
own. It was suj^gested to the Qaeoi 
that she might reimbnrse herself for ths 
expenses she had incorred, oat of ths 
ricn spoils taken at Cadiz ; aad ae 
sooner nad this project rained possessioa 
of her mind, than she began to qoaml 
with Essex, for his laTish distrihotioasf 
prize-money. She insisted that ths 
commanders should resign to her a 
larpo share of their gains; and evM 
had the meanness to caoae tho pritals 
soldiers and sailors to be seaiehed, he- 
fore they Quitted their ships, that ths 
ralne of tne money, or other booty, 
which they had taken possessioa el^ 
mirht be (ledueted fttym utmr poyl 

Lord Hunsdoo, the neareet 
of the Queen, died in 1596. On 
ing of his illness, Eliz^ieth rseolred at 
length to confer upon him the title of 
Eari of Wiltshire, to whieik hehadioM 
claim, as nephew and helr-aiale to Sir 
Thomas Boieyn, her MijeBty's grand- 
father, who had borne thatdi^ty. She, 
accordingly, honoured her kinaian with 
a yisit, and cansed the patent aad the 
robes of an earl to be bnmght aad laid 
upon his bed; bat the yenerable old 
man, preserying to the last the bloat 
honesty of his charaeter, deelored, thai 
if herMigcotyhad 


isrtliy of thathoBOV wbibt lifhig; 1m 
Moated kimnU waworthjr of it now 
hu 1m wm dying; ud, wuh this xo- 
bnl, 1m expired. 

Fletcher, Hiahop of Loodon, ** k 
JMMly and MUtJj prakte," alw died 
km MM« year. Hm takati and depori- 
aMt pleaaed the Qneen; and it ia 
MntioBed by Harrington^ aa an indica- 
M of her apedal iaronr, that she onoe 
IMiialhil with the Bishop for wearing 
M short a beard. He afterwards gafe 
Mr MOffo aesiotti displeasore, by marry- 
ag a gay and frir coort ladT, of ^ood 
|HUtv; and ho had searoeW pacified 
b« lujesty, by the offer ot a grand 
■tartaiaaent at his boose ia Chelsea, 
shea he was carried off by a sadden 
ksth» throngh an immoderate use of 
the new laziiry of smoking tobacco. He 
ffM the lather of Fletcher, the neat 
faaamtie poet, and was socoeedea by 
SUmd Vawahan, who, on one occasion, 
■eadbed before the Qoeen, on the Tanity 
if decking the body too finely, which so 
Amdedher MiMsty, that she told her 
aiKea, if the Bishop held more dis- 
oane on such matters, she would fit 
lia for heaTen; but he should walk 
hither withovt a staff, and leare his 
Bsntle behind him. Perchance, the 
Bishop had noTer sought her Highness's 
lardrabe. or be would haTC chosen' 
laothcr text 

Eliaabetb's captious faTOur towards 
Essex, and the arts used by him to gain 
us points on all occasions, are strikingly 
Ilaatrated in the letters of Rowland 
iHiite, in the Sidney Papers. '«0n 
Pebtnarr twenty second, 1697, my Lord 
if Essex Kept his bed the most part of yes* 
»day ; yet did one of his serrants tell 
ae, he could not pitr him ; for be knew 
lis lord waa not sieL There is not a 
lay passes that the Qneen sends not 
iften to sea bia ; and himself every day 
{oeth privately to her. My Lord of 
Bssex oooMO out of his chamber in his 
and nightcap.** Again, ** Full 
days his Lordship kept in doors ; 
Mr Majesty resolved to break him of his 
silL and to pull down his great heart ; 
«t she found it a thing impossible, and 
1^ he holds it from the mothet^s side ; 
nK all ia wall again, and m> doubt ho 


win grow a mighty aum in oar stale. 
The Queen had (J late used the fair Mrs. 
Bridges, one of her maids of hoiM>ur, 
harshly, with words and blows. It is 
spied out by envy, that the Eari of Es- 
sex is again follen in love with her. It 
cannot mil to come to the Queen's ears; 
and then is he undone, and all that do* 
pend on his fovour. I acquainted you 
with the care had to bring, my Lsdy of 
Leicester to the Qneen's presence. It 
was often |;ranted, and she was brought 
to the pnvate galleries, but the Queen 
as often found excuse not to come. Upon 
Shrove Monday, the Qoeen was per- 
suaded to go to Mr. Comptroller's at the 
tilt end; and there was mv Ladv of 
Leicester, with a fair jewel of three 
hundred pounds value* A great dinner 
was prepared bv my Lady Chandos; 
the Queen's ooacn got ready, and all the 
world expecting her Majesty's coming, 
when, upon a sudden, she resolved not 
to go ; and so sent word. Mv Lord of 
EsKX, who had kept his chamber all the 
day before in his night gown, went an 
to the Queen the private way ; but aU 
would not prevail ; and as yet my Lady 
Leicceti^ hath not seen the Queen. It 
bad been better not moved, for my Lord 
of Esaex, by importuning the Qneen in 
these unpleasing matters, loses the op- 
portunity he might take to do good unto 
his ancient friends." Again, he writes : 
— ** My Lady Leicester was st court; 
kissed the Queen's hand and her breast, 
and did embrace her; and the Queen 
kissed her. My Lord of Essex is in ex- 
ceeding favour here. Lady Leicester 
departed from court exceedingly con- 
tented; but, being desirous again to 
come to kiss the Queen's hand, it was 
denied ; and, as I heard, some unkind 
words were given out sgainst her." 

Essex's decline in the favour of his 
royal mistress was now rapidhr approach- 
ing. Confident in her affections, he 
suffered himself to forget that she was 
still his Queen. He often neglected 
those little attentions which would have 
gratified her: on any occasional cause 
of ill-humour, he would drop slighting 
expressions respecting her sffe and per- 
son, which, if thej reached her car, 
could never be forgiven. On oia ma- 

matMd uMtaaee, he tretted lier opealj, 
tmd in ber presenee, with the gieetcit 
fadigiiitj. A dispute bad ariaen oetween 
them in presence of the Lord Admiral, 
the Secretary, and the Clerk of the 
Sij^et, respecting the choice of a Com- 
mander for IreUud, the Queen resolTing 
to send Sir William KnoUes, the unde 
of Essex, while he Tehemently supported 
Sir George Carew, because the latter 
had giren him some offence, and be 
wanted to get rid of him. Unable, 
either by argument or persuasion, to 

Eeyail orer the resolute will of ber 
ajestTf the farourite at last so far 
forgot himself as to turn his back upon 
his royal mistress, with a laugh of con- 
tempt !— an outrage which she revenged 
after her own manner, by soundly box- 
ing bis ears, and bidding him ** Go, and 
be banged r* This unexpected attack 
so inflamed the blood of Essex, that, 
forgetting it proceeded from an enraged 
woman and a Queen, be clapped his 
hand on bis sword, and while the Lord 
Admiral hastened to throw himself be- 
tween them, he swore that not from 
Henry the Eighth himself, would he 
hare endured such an indispiity ; and, 
foaming with rage, he rushed out of the 
palace. His sincere friend, the Lord 
Keeper, immediately addressed to him 
an admonitory letter, urginz him to lose 
no time in seeking, with humble sub- 
mission, the forgiveness of bis offended 
mistress. Essex replied in the following 
eloquent and manly manner : — 

** But, say you, I must yield and sub- 
mit. I can neither yield myself to be 
guilty, nor allow this imputation laid 
npon me to be just. I owe so much to 
the Author of all truth, that I can never 
Yield falsehood to be truth, nor truth to 
be falsehood. Have I riven cause, ask 
Tou, and take scandal when I have 
done ? No ; I gave no cause to take 
•0 much as Fimbria's complaint against 
me. I patiently bear all, and sensibly 
foel all that I then received, when this 
scandal was given me. Na^r, more, 
when the vilest of all indignities are 
done unto me, doth religion enforce me 
to sue } or doth God require it ? Is it 

Sety not to do it ? What ! cannot 
Ml arr? onuot atthjeets raoMTe 

wnmjgf li an Mrthljr pwer or 
rity infinite? Fudom bm, p«ids« ■% 
ny good lord, I cm sever sahacriba to 
these prindplea! Lei Solonoa'a kd 
laugh whan he is atrieken; let 
that meen to mi^ tiMirproAt of ] 

show ther have no aeose of i 

injuries; let them admowle^Ke an in^ 
nite absoluteneas on earth, who da Mi 
believe in an ahadhite jiiiniimsss ia 
heaven. As for me, I have raeeived 
wrong, and feel it. Mj eanoe is good; 
I know it; and wbataoever c o me, afl 
the powers on earth can never ^w 
more streiwth and constancy in o p pii 
ing, than I can abow in aoflerinff i^aU 
soever can or shall bo iwp oood wfm 

Several other frienda of Fawi hb 
mother, bia sister, and the £ari of Nsr> 
thumbearland, her husband — u^ed hia, 
in like manner, to return to his atteni 
ance at court, and aeek her Migesty's 
forgiveness; while the Qneen, on Mr 
part, secretly uneasy at hia abaeiMO, per^ 
mitted certain persona to go to hiin, si 
from themselves, and aoggeat tenni of 
accommodation. Sir Geom Carew wm 
made Lord President of Mnnater, sid 
Sir William Knollea assured his nephcv 
of his earnest wish to servo him. At 
length, this extraordinary qnaml wm 
made up, and Essex again appeared si 
court as powerful as ever: but, frooi 
this time, the sentiments of the Qoeea 
for her once-cherished favonriio pntook 
more of the nature of fear than of lovsi 
and confidence was never afterwards io> 
established between the portiea. 

The death of Lord Buiieish, the 
jpeat miniBter of Elisabeth, toM phas 
m 1698. He was in the aeventT-ei^hth 
year of his age, and had been identiftfd 
with her government dnring the loag 
period of forty yean. Hk nniivo qjuiek- 
ness of apDrainension waa supported by 
an astonisning force and steadiness of 
application, and by an exemplary spirit 
of order. His morals were oonrect; his 
sense of religion uniform, prolbnnd, and 
practical. In his declining years, ha- 
rassed by disease and care, imd saddenadl 
by the loss of an affectionate wife, ha 
became peevish and iraaoihlo : bnt hia 
good; ianlliiM 


UioMlMWMftndsiidiiidiilffnit; Ikiih- 
M tad tender in bit friendihipt ; nor 
amid he be aecnied of pride, treacbny, 
or TindictiTeneat. Kuin^bTtbeitrength 
of bis own merits, unaided by birth or 
eemectioni, be formed tbe resolution of 
•ttnehing hinuclf to no party. Towards 
tte Qoeen, bis demeanour was in the 
bigbest denee obsr<|uious, and on no 
eecMKHi did be hesitate in thociccn- 
turn of maj of ber commands. That he 
•eoepted bribes for church preferment, 
theie u abimdant evidence; but his 
rayil mistress both expected and desired 
that oiioluBKnt abould be dcrircd by 
him, md those under bim, from such a 
■ovee. Thus, we find it recorded in 
*< BinrVs Memoirs," that Bishop Flet- 
cher had *' bestowed in allowances and 
mtifieations to divers attendants about 
her Majestr, sines bis pfefermcnt to the 
■ee of Lonoon, tbe sum of three thou- 
ssad one hundred pounds; which money 
was jnTcn br him, for the most part, by 
her fiajestrs direction and speciui ap- 
poiatment.'' Indeed, the cormptton of 
the court of Eliabetb was so gross, that 
ao pubtie ebaracter disdained the influ- 
eaee of gifts and bribes; and we find 
Lord Burleigh inserting tbe following 
moral and prudential ruks for tbe guid- 
aaee of his son Bobert : — '* Be sure to 
beep some great man thy friend; but 
tnmUe bim not for trifles. Compliment 
him oftn ; present him with many, yet 
small gflts, and of little charge. And 
if thon bast cause to bestow any great 
giataity, let it be some such tnin^ as 
amy be daily in bis sight Otherwise, 
IB this ambitions age, tbou shalt remain 
as a hop without a pole, live in obscu- 
ritj, and be made a football for ercry 
laraltiBg eompanion." 

EiinSeth felt sererely tbe loss of ber 
finrovitc aorant, eounsellor, and friend. 
Contrary to her custom on such occasions, 
she wept much, retired for a time from 
all sode^; and, to the end of her life, 
she eow nerer bear to pronounce his 
name without tears. Her uniform be- 
banour towards bim erinced her deep 
sense of bis fidelity and merits as a mi- 
aister, and her ancction for him as a 
In bis latter years, she constantly 
bim sit in ber presence, on account 

of bis being troubled with the gout, and 
would pleasantly tell him, *'My lord, 
we make much of you, not on account of 
Tour bad legs, but your good head." 
I In his occasional fits of roeianchdlr and 
, retirement, she would woo him back to 
' ber presence by kind and playful h'tt«-rs ; 
and she positively refused to accept of 
his resignation, when his bodily innrmi- 
tics increased upon him. She conM antly 
visited him when confined by sickness ; 
and on one of thL-se occasions, being 
humbly requested bv his attendant to 
sto<»p as she enterea at the door of his 
chamber, the Queen replied, with much 
feeling and dignity : ** For your mas- 
ter's sake, I will, though not for the 
King of Spain !" 

Elizabctn regularly maintained a cor- 
respondence with her kinsman and heir, 
James the Sixth of Scotland. Sir Bo- 
ger Aston was frequently tbe bearer of 
these friendly epistles. ** He was an Kn* 
glishman bom, ' says Welden, ** but was 
brought up wholly in Scotland, and had 
servra the King many yi ars as his bar- 
ber ; he was honest, free-hearted, and 
of an ancient family in Cheshire, but of 
no breeding answerable to his birth. 
Yet was ho the only man ever employed 
as a letter-carrier l>etween the King and 
the Que«-n Klizabeth. Ue was in ^ood 
esteem with her Majesty ; and received 
many royul gifts, wliich enriched him, 
and gave him a better revenue than most 
gentlemen in Scotland. For the Que<:n 
found him as faithful to her, as to his 
master. In this, his employment, I 
must not pass over one pretty passage I 
have heard him himself niate. That 
whenever he came to deliver letters from 
his master, James the Sixtli, to Dliza- 
beth, he was placed in the lobby, where 
ho might see the Queen dancmg to a 
little fiddle ; which was to no otlicr end 
than that, on his return, he should pro- 
nounce it to be next to impossible for 
James to succct^d to the throne of tho 
gay, vigorous Elizab'.'th. who, to all ap- 
pearanees, would outlive the Scottish 

Althouffh in her letters to James the 

Sixth, Klizabeth did not hesitato treaU 

ing him as the undisputed heir to the 

I throne, she still pertinaciously refused 

to pnUidj ded«re lier fiiooMMir. Sir 
JToui HarringUm relates the fidlowing 
HtcIj anecdote on this rabjeel :— ** I no 
•ooner remember this fiimons and worthy 
prelate (Hatton, Arohlnshop of York), 
bnt methinks I see him in tne ehiqpel at 
Whitehall, Qneen Elizabeth at the win- 
dow in the cloe^t ; all the lords of the 
parliament, spiritual and temporal, about 
them ; and then, after his three obei- 
sances, that I hear him out of the polpit 
thundering this text: 'The kingdoms 
of the earth are mine, and I do gire 
them to whom I will; I have gircn 
them to Nebnchadneszar and his son, 
and his son's son:' which text being 
prodaced, taking the sense rather than 
the words of the prophet. He showed 
how oft onr nation had been a prey to 
foreigners; and finally, conquered and 
reduced to subjection by the Normans, 
whose posterity continuea in great pros- 
perity to the aays of her Majesty, who 
for peace, for plenty, for riory, for con- 
tinuance, had exceeded them all; who 
had lired to change all her councillors 
but one ; all officers twice or thrice ; 
some bishops four times : only the un- 
eertointy oi succession gave hopes to 
foreigners to attempt fresh iuTssions, 
and breed fears of a new conquest. The 
only policy left to quail those hopes, to 
assuage those fears, was to establish the 
succession : and at last, insinuating, as 
fiir as he durst, the nearness of blood of 
our present sorereign, he said plainly, 
that the expectations and presages of all 

be found a learned one.' 

<*A11 who knew Elizabeth's disposition, 
imagined that such a discourse was as 
welcome as salt to the eyes ; or, to use 
her own words, * to pin up her winding 
sheet before her face, so to point out her 
tBooesMT, and urge her to dedare him ;* 

whnefore, w« all eipeeted that she 
would haTe been higU|T offeadad : hm 
when the senMm was nnishad, and she 
opened the window, we foand oussItss 
deodred; for Tery IdndlT and csimly. 
without shew of offemae (as if aha haa 
but walked out of bobm alMp)yaha gave 
him thanks for hit very tsaned (b§- 
course. Yet, when she blad bettier con- 
sidered the matter, ia priTala, aha seat 
councillors to him wita a ahaip mes- 
sage, to which he was glad to gtia a 
patient answer." 

The death of her Maimftfit peal- 
laureate, the immortal P 
cireumstanoea of seTera 
excited the commiaeratMA 
all the friends and patrosM af 
genius. After witneasiag tlia ~ 
of his whole property by the ~ 
the unfortunate poet had fled to Ei^faad 
for shelter ; — the annuity of fifty ptaidi 
a year, which he enjoyed by Tiitaa tf 
his office, was mppueailj hia only r^ 
source; and, haTing taken up hia ma- 
lancholy abode in an ohacure lodgiag ii 
London, he pined away under the pns- 
sure of penury and gnet Speaaer wh 
interred with g^reat solemni^ in Wes^ 
minster Abbey, by the aide of ChoMr; 
the generous Essex defraying the eest 
of the funeral, and walking himadf ai a 
mourner. Alas ! would to God that ths 
patrons of genius would only take ths 
trouble to inquire into the dreamataaees 
of such men whilst they are yet fivii^ 
their munificence would be moie appa- 
eiated by posterity, than by payiw 
f^meral honours, or raiaiag aea^taiaa 
monuments to the nsemo s y of dspaited 
worth ! That oetentatiiNia, hat anail- 
eent woman, Anne, Covateai of Oonet, 
erected a handsome aonaaent to ha 
memory ; and his brother peats who 
attended his Ibneral, thiaw a^pai aad 
aonnets into hia giaTa. 



BiKa ^ i nM LTdLmammittfJr^mmd—HitlMtttaElivittk—Hvi^nim* 
fir Jnlmm l VattjmUi TwtiirwSir Join £«rrwtoii— £r Awibw i/ SliMtHA 
—Dufnt* ^ E-ai—Bamitlk imim him m lntfiimir~Sit melt— Trial and 
umM im Ori^MdiKmut/ tht Quit*~^ery tftit riiif—Dtatk o/MutHi 
—Hartm r i tt - n mt—I^ikrlu—Cluraelm'—lMnlMiiry riymiM—Siiuip Saift 

N lS98,aM It 

n, under ff- 
ud tb« rttt 

: deplorabb 
I — thawkolepTOtinoa 

9 ofUMa — ' 

, - ,1 nMUoB, 

v^ """; " 

^ — • of the eonntry lo- 
^ IT by innitiDeraUe of^iro- 
md br Ihe rnrnonr of fdrthtr w- 
*nitic* Meditated bj tbi Qaeca of 
Eaglud. In tbit (tU* of tbingt, tU- 
ntcth. notwhbitaiidi^ the nnvilliii^ 
MM ifae tdl at putiiig with ber brour- 
it< Emtx, R«dT«d to appoint him to the 
Iwb oflkt «r Lord Depnty of Inlaod. 
Tm IHesdi of tbs Eari eagnij fnwatd- 
<d Mi appointment, bj enk^nnt of 
bin nloar and teoini, and iioprudeat 
utiripUiaBi of ba eeitun taA eomplstc 
tneetm. Bnt Enei himielf be^ to 
look npon tbs ippaintRieBt aa a kiad of 
baaidineaL Stcretaiy Cecil, in a letter 
dated D««aiber the foartb, 1<98, atatc*, 
tbat ** the apinios of tbo Eul't gaiu to 
Iidimd had Bone atop ; bj raaion of bii 
iotiUfF* iodi^oaitiM to it, txoept with 
MMM Nch eoDdltfana ai wen diMLgrecaUe 
to Wr Hqotj'B Mind ; ■Ithoi^,'' be 
added, *'lbe enp will Wdty ran turn 
bin In regard of hi> worth ud fortona; 
bat if ftdo-nyLoidHontiojianaMed." 
In die wdW of the diScnltiea tbu 
thrown in the waj, 'Bmts eadearmired 
to wurfc apon the fetUngi of EliMbeth, 
bT Ihe following lomewbat roman^ 

'■To ran Qnsx. 

from apirila w 

hfMt torn in piceoa w 

travel— froM a tnaa tl 

and ill tbingi elu that keep Mm ilir^ 
what aenioe can joor Uajeatj expect; 
Noee any aernce put deserrea no more 
than baniahment and pioKription totbe 
cniaedeat of all iduidi? It ij jonr 
rebel's pride and aneceBioti mnat giit 
me leaTS to ranaom myaelf ont of tbit 
lialefuljiriion,ont of my kutbed body; 
which, if it happenetb ao, yonr HaJMy 
ihaUhiTa no caua to di^e tbe faihicw 
of mr death, ainee the coune of my lifil 
oonid nerer pleue you. 

"Hippy could bg tintih IMhhfl&ta 

Id HHDfl nnliKiinlad d««rt non tAuean, 
From iLI Ktittj, tna \ew* and halt 

Then wm\B Bcmlq and yield 04d VTflT 

CoaUnt tIUi Upa iMd lu«^ lad bniB- 

IB untfluipUUoD paaalu oqt hta dajL 
''3d chkjige oiBfAj UHH^hta ta nuke 

bin in 

. ■lUi V 

** Yonr If^eaty'i exiled nrnuit, 

ample power* than bad 

. .. _-an oonRsred on ■ lord 

ixpnlj. All bii re^miitioni of men end 
fnpplies were complied with, and an anny 
of twenty thoaaand foot and two thouHUid 
hone — a larger army than had ever 
been acnt to Ireland— wia placed at hii 
diipoaal. At partins, the tcndemca* of 
the Qocen nrircd m fuU foiu ; and 
■he ditmiaacd him with expressioni of 
regret and affection, which, aa he afler- 
waida profdaed to bw, had "pienad 

Ids Toy foiiL" The people followed him 
with acclamatioiii ; ana the flower of 
the noMlitj, as in the Cadiz ezpeditioii, 
attended him as Tolunteers. He em- 
harked about the end of March, 1699 ; 
tnd, landings at Dublin, after a dangerous 
pasnge, hb firet act was, in direct oppo- 
iition to the Queen's orders, to appoint 
his friend, the Earl of Southampton, to 
the oiBce of f|;ener8l of the horse. He 
abandoned his orifrinal intention, of 
marching immediately against Tyrone, 
and deroted his early efforts to the sop- 
vression of a minor rcTolt in Munster ; 
out in this he encountered a resistance so 
formidable, and found himself so ill sup- 
ported by his troops, whom the nature 
of the sendee speeddy disheartened, that 
after about four months, wasted in petty 
encounters, the army returned, siclc, 
wearied, and greatly reduced in numbo-. 
Essex, on learning that the Queen was 
much displeased at this expedition into 
Munster, and the appointment ho had 
conferred on Southampton, addressed an 
eloquent letter to the Privy Council, in 
which, after declaring that he had done 
his duty to the best of his abilities and 
judgment, he says, ** touching the dis- 
placing of the Earl of Soumampton; 
jour lordships say, that her Majesty 
thinketh it strange, and taketh it offen- 
aively, that I should appoint him general 
of the horse ; seeing not only her Ma- 
jesty denied it when I moTcd it, but 
gSTc an express prohibition to any such 
choice. I remember that her Majesty, 
in her privy-chamber at Richmond, I 
only being with her, showed a dislike of 
his having any oflSce ; but my answer 
was, that if her Majesty would revoke 
my commission, I would cast both it and 
myself at her Majesty's feet ; but if it 
pleased her Majesty that I should exe- 
eute it, I must work with my own in- 
•troments. 01 miserable employment, 
and more miserable destiny of mine, 
thst makes it impossible for me to please 
and serve her Majesty at once ! Was it 
treason in my Lord of Southampton to 
marry my poor kinswoman, that neitho* 
long imprisonment, nor any punishment 
besides that hath been usual in like 
eases, can satisfy and appease? Or, 
mOk BO kind of poaiahaeiit be At for 

him but that which puisheth, Boihii^ 
hut me, thb army, ami this poor eountiy 
of Irelimd? Shall I keep the country 
when the army breaks ? Or, shall the 
army stand when all the Tobtnteen leave 
it? Or, will any Tohintarieostiy, whet 
those that have will and eauae to foUow 
are thus handled i No, my krda, they 
already ask pas^orts, and that didly." 

Notwithstanding this eloquent eppeal, 
the Queen still persisted m reouiiiag 
Essex to displace nis friend ; ana even 
ehid him severely for delay, after once 
learning her displeasure <m AaapoiaL 
Success in the main objed of hie etse- 
dition mi^t still, however, Iiave enuied 
him to tnumph over hia oovt •^fi if, 
and effect « reconciliation vitli his of- 
fended mistress; hut fortmm had mom 
turned its hack upon him. Theaecemity 
of quelling some rebels in Leinstwr 
again prevented his mardi to Ulrtcr. 
But by this time the season had so for 
advanced, and the army bad become so 
sickly, that both the Earl umI hia eonadl 
were of opinion, that nothis^ effeetosi 
could be done ; and, at the first notios 
of his intended march, great part of Ui 
forces deserted. He, neverthdeos, pio- 
ceeded, and, in a few dava, came in sigkt 
of the main army of the rebds, mach 
more numerous turn his own. Tyrons, 
however, would not venture to give him 
battle, but demanded a pariey. This 
was granted, a conference was held, tad 
a truce concluded, to be raiewed every 
six weeks, till terms of peace should be 
finally a|p'eed upon. During the wbols 
of this time, sharp letters were pMHOf 
between Elixabeto, her privy coondlC 
and the EarL 

The Queen remonstrated with Emex 
against his contemptuous diaobedienoe of 
her orden, and his wasting, in frivolois 
enteiprizes, vast snpplieB of men and 
money which she had entmrted to hia 
for a great and speeifie purpose. Ap- 
prehensive, lest by bis remaining lomper 
in Ireland, be should be irrecovenUy 
lost in the affections of her Muerty, he 
resolved to risk another act of diaohe* 
dienee — Uiat of leaving for a while his 
important charge, and hastening to 
throw himself at the feet of an tsmgrn^ 
ated, bat| heflatteiedhiwMlL.aoiAai* 

njiABcni, ncDiio qubem bsoiiavt. 


InoHi mttfcM. AcoordiBgij im 8b* 
bated mitb bis hooRbold, and a nvm- 
ber of hif fiiTonrite oflleen, and irriTed 
It Uie court, wbicb was tben beld at 
NonsQcb, on tbe morning* before Mi- 
cbaelmarday. On alirhtinr at tbe 
nte, eorered witb mnd and dirt, he 
Hastened np stain ; passed throngb tbe 
presenee and priTj cnambers, ana nerer 
titopped till he reacbed tbe Qneen's bed- 
chamber, where be found her Majestj 
newly riaen, witb her hair all banpfinG" 
about her &ce. He kneeled and kisted 
her bands; and sbe, in the agreeable 
•orpriae of beboldinr at ber foet one 
whom die still loved, reoeiTed him so 
Idndlj, and listened witb such fiiTonr to 
hit ezenaea, that on leaTing her, after a 
priTala eonforence of aome duration, he 
sppeiBred in hish spirits, and thanked 
dod, that tiioncn he had suffered many 
itorma ahrond, ne found a sweet calm at 
home. He waited on ber again, as 
soon aa he had changed bis draas, and 
after a aeeond lon^ and gracious confer- 
ence, waa freely Tisited by all tbe lords, 
ladiea, and gentlemen at court, ezceptine 
the Seeretary and bia J^J, who umeared 
somewhat ahy of bim. But all these 
foir a^earanees quickly Tanisbed. On 
again yisiting tbe Queen in the ereninr, 
he foond her much changed towards 
him ; she began to call him to account 
for his nnmnthorizod return, and tbe 
hazard to which be had exposed Ireland. 
Pour priTy councillors were appointed 
by her to examine him that night, and 
hear bia answers ; but nothing was con- 
cluded, tbe matter being referred to a 
full eouncil, summoned for the following 
day, Essex, in the mean time, being 
eommanded to keep bis chamber. The 
eouncil hsTing met, the Earl answered 
with peat graTity and discretion tbe 
feUowmg ehiD-ges brought a^nst him: 
** His contemptuous disobedience of her 
Majesty's orders and will in returning ; 
his presumptuous letters written from 
time to time ; bis proceedings in IreUmd 
contrary to his instructions; his rash 
nmnner cf ooming vnj from Ireland ; 
his orer-holdness in g<Hng the day be- 
fore to her Majesty's presenee to her 
bed-chamber; imd bis making of so 
idW knighta.*' Aftar the oomoU 

had beard his defence, they remained 
awhile in consultation, and tben made 
their report to the Queen, who said, 
**8he would take time to consider his 
answers." In the meanwhile, the pro- 
ceedings were kept very priyate, ana the 
Earl continued a prisoner in his own 

•An open dirision now took place be- 
tween the two gr^t factions wnich had 
long secretly diyided the court TIm 
Eons of Shrewsbury and Nottingham, 
Lords Thomas Howard, Oobham, and 
Grey, Sir Walter Baleigh, and Sir 
Oeorge Carew, espoused the cause of the 
Secretary ; while Essex was followed by 
the Earls of Worcester and Rutlana, 
Lords Montioy,Rich, Lumley, and Henry 
Howard, the last of whom was al- 
ready su^ected of treachery towards 
his friend and jmtron. Sir William 
KnoUee also jomed tbe party of bis 
nephew, with many other knighta and 
gentlemen. Lord Effingham, though 
son of the Earl of Nottingham, wno 
espoused tbe opposite party, was often 
with Essex, ana protested aU serrice to 
him. '* It is a world to be here I *' con- 
tinues Whyte, in the " Sidney Papers," 
from which these interesting particulars 
are gleaned ; ** and see the humours of 
the place." On the second of October, 
Essex was commanded to retire from 
court, and committed to the custody of 
the Lord Keeper, with whom he re. 
mained at Tork-House. 

Harrington, the wit and poet, bad the 
misfortune to be one of tbe three-score 
"idle knights" dubbed by the Lord 
Deputjr, during his short and inglorious 
career in Ireland ; and also one of the 
officers selected to accompany him in bis 
return ; and we learn fh>m bis own let- 
ters in what manner his royal godmother 
welcomed him on his arriral : — 

"Mt worthy Lonn, 

" I hare lired to see that d re- 
bel Tyrone brought to England, courte- 
ously honoured, faroured, and well4iked. 
Oh ! my lord, what is there wbicb doth 
not proTc the inconstancy of worldly 
matters I How did I labour after that 
knaro's destruction I I was called from 
my home by her Mijea^a ^>**^¥^H, 

•dmrtaTcd perili by m and land, ea- 
darad loil, wu ncn itarriDg, ate ham- 
flab at Munster. and sll to qadl that 
Ban, who nov smilelh in peace at those 
who did liaiard their lirea to deatroj 
him. I obeyed in going with Eiaei to 
Ireland, and obeyed in coming with bim 
to England. Bnl what did I guin ? wbj, 
trnly, a knighthood, which had been 
hatter beitOwed by her that wnt me, and 
hatter ipared by him that gave it. 1 
•hall nerer put out of my memory her 
Majeaty'a displeunre : I entered her 
duunber, bnt she frawned. and mid, 
•What ! did Ibe Tool bringyon too? Qo 
hack to yonr btuiseaa F " 

In a letter to Mr. Bobnt Ha^ham, 


" Mr ooon Cousin, 

" Herewith yon will hare my jour- 
nal, with onr history during oar march 
againil the Iiiab rebeli. I did not in- 
told any eyes ihanld hareaeen this mat- 
ter, bnt my own childnn'i ; yet, alas I it 
happened otherwise ; for the Queen did 
n ask, and I may lay, demand my ac- 
enoDt, that I could not withhold show- 
ing it ; and I, even now, almost tremble 
U rehsane her Mijesty's diipleasure 
hareat She awurc, by God's son, we 
ware all idle knaTet, and the Lord De- 
puty worse, for waiting our time and 
tier commuids, in lachwiae as my jour- 
nal doth write of. She chafed much, 
walked fiutly to and fro, looked with 
discomposure in her visage; and, 1 re- 
member, she raught my rirdle when 1 
knslt to her, and swore, > By God'i son. 
I am no Queen : that man (meaning 
Essex) is above me ! Who gave him 
command to come hers so soon ? I did 
•end him on other hosiness '.' It was 
long before more grackans discoorae fell 
to my hearing; but 1 was then put out 
of my trouble, and bid go home. I did 
not stay tu be bidden twice ; if all the 
Irish rebels hail been at my heels, 1 
should not have mads better speed, for I 
BOW fled from one whom I both loved 
-and fMisd too." 

Hr lab* Haniagtm, the ntharof thcM 

amuinK kttan. HavMAagodaatf 
Eliaabeth, heiny tha AM at Ear Utb' 
fol serTHrta, JanN* Uamagtiw ai^ b» 
heUa Markhan. H« wm ban ia IMt. 
and, aRo' the oaaaleaane of aAaaloal 
college edueatioai, yoiiBf Haniiglas 
pnsented hinisdf at souit, wWn }m 
wit and teaning soon pnw iB iad Ua a 
rather dangerous distinction. A saliii- 

nl iiiirni mi tis I tiihiin si ilssalkiii, 

eonlaining certaiii aflniiima to fiiiaf 
charactara, wUeh gan so uaeh eCiMi 
at conrt, that bawasthreatMsdwiA tht 
tender merma of tha star^baaher; bri 
the saerat hmn of Biiabath lawaA a 
ndsoD whom she lorad, aad t ~ 
ner, asm] him tnm this v 
kiad of (1 

1 nuB this van aansM 
tioa. Boo* albrwai^ 
taUoatof AiiaalOpWkM 

prored hicUy entertaiwag to tha ea«t 
ladiea, and so plsased tha 1>i[inn, 1^ 
in affected displeaanie at MCtaia ana- 
free paasage^ which she aecMty gbasd 
over, she ordered him to appsaraanMa 
at conrt—tiU he bad tianalatad tha vbala 
poem ! The royal c<Mnmand was sbaysj 
with slacrity ; and he qieadily eommit- 
ted his Orlando to tha jiiias, with a dr- 
dication to her Majesty! Balbre Ois 
time, onr ^rightly poet had Um^ 
means to disnpalc * oonaidcaaUa paitsf 
the large estate to which he was k^i 
and being inclined to toUow the fntaiHf 
coanseli of Essex, who hada him "Im 
good hold on her Majesty's baaaty, aai 
ask freely," he deitemnaly opeaed Ui 
case, by the following lines, alippad ba- 
hind her cushion : — 

own nota-book, kept hj IiImiU "T 



cwuiUfy isr Imt Higlmuir eBlertnaaMnit. 
Her IJjgliwflikivvth merry talct." «*Th« 
Qnecn itood up tnd bade me reach forth 
mr right hmnd to r«et her thereon. ! 
uml ewei^i burden to mj next long. 
I^tnrcb ehill eke ont ffood mattor for 
thk bonncm." *' The Queen loreth to 
m me in my new fnze jerkin ; andmith 
'til vcU cut I will hare another made 
like to it I do remember the ipat on 
Sir Matthew"! fringed eloth, and laid 
the fooTa wit waa gone to rata. Heaven 
■pare ma from aoch a jibing?' "Imuit 
tm my poor wita lowarda my rait for 
the landa in Iha north — I mntt go in an 
cari^ boor, before her Higfanem hath 
ipeaal matlen bronffht vp to oonnael 
on. I mnat go before tae brcakfoat 
eofcra nra placed, and atand nneoTered 
« her hSghnem eometh forth from her 
ehuiber; then kneel, and nj, 'God 
mve TOUT Majerty I I craye your ear at 
what' boor may rait for yoor tcrrant to 
■Ket TOW blened eonntcnance.' Thna 
win I gttB her foTOor to follow ma to 

•Tiwst Bot a Mend to do or My. 
la that jonnetf can suo or pmj.* " 

The taadi alluded to, formed a large 
ealnto in the north of England, which 
in aneeator had forfeited by hia ad- 
herowe to the Hooae of York, during 
the ciril ware, and which Harrington 
WM now endeaTOttring to recoTer. **x et 
will I Tcntore," writea he to a friend, 
^to give her Majeity five hundred 
pounda in money, and tome pretty jewel 
N" garment, aa you ahall adriie; onlj 
praring her Majesty to further my suit 
rita tome of her learned counael, which 
[ pray yoa to find tome pn^per time to 
more in. Thii lome hold as a dangcr- 
me adventure, but five-and-twenty ma^ 
lots do w«dl justify my trying it*' . 

This riogular paragraph provea, tode- 
Dovstration, the avarice and corruption 
>f the age of Elixabcth. When sove- 
■eigns lead the way to snob venality, 
here ia no knowing where it mav end. 

The fate of £mox remained long in 
while several little eirettm- 

the strength of the 

^aaea'a leaentment aninst him. To 
htptnoBal ra^Mi or I^y WaUng^ 

ham, she peremptorily denied the ISarl 
permission, even to write to his Countess, 
her daughter, who was in childbed, and 
exceedingly troubled at neither seeing 
nor hearing from her husband. She 
also refused to allow his family physician 
access to him, though he was now so iU 
as to be attended l^ several other phy- 
sicians; with whom, however, Dr. 
Brown was permitted to consult; at the 
same time it was given out, that if he 
would beg his libertv for the purpose of 
going back to Ireland, it would be 
granted him. But he was reaoluta never 
to return thither, and professed a deter- 
mination of leading henceforth a retired 
life in the country, free from all partici- 
pation in public affairs. His sisters. 
Lady Rich and Lady Southampton, 
quitted Essex House and went into the 
country, because the resort of company 
to them had given great offence. He 
himself neither saw, nor desired to see, 
any one. His vcrv servanta were afraid 
to meet in any place to make merry, 
lest it might be taken ill.# 

<* At the court," says Whyte, •< Lady 
Scrope is only noted to stand firm to 
him ; for she endures much at her Ma- 
iestv's hands, because she daily does all 
kina of offices of love to the Qneen in 
his behalf She wears all black; she 
mourns and is pensive, and joys in no- 
thing but in beiuff solitary and alone. 
And 'tis thought she says much that lew 
would venture to say but herself." This 
noble and generous woman was daughter 
of the first Lord Hunsdon, and nearly 
related both to Essex and the Queen. 

Towards the middle of October, strong 
hopes were entertained of the Earl's en- 
largement ^ The Seoretary expressed to 
him the satisfoction he felt in seeing her 
Majesty ao well appeased by his de- 
meanour, and his own wish to promote 
her good. The reasons which he had 
assigned for his conduct in Ireland ap- 
peal to have satisfied the privv council 
and mollified the Queen. Hut uer Ma^ 
jesty characteristicadlv dedared, that she 
would not besr the blaroe of his impri- 
sonment ; and before she and her eoun- 
cil could settle among them on whom it 
should be made to rest, a new cansa of 
exa^enition arose. Tyronei in a letter 


to Eaez, wliieh wm intereepted, de- 
darad that lie found it impoanble to 
nrerail on bU eonfediMates to obscnre 
ttie eonditions of trnee agreed npon be- 
tween them ; and the Qocen, relapring 
into anger, triumphantlT asked if there 
did not now appear goold cause for the 
£arl*i committal ? She immediatelr 
made known to Lord Montjoy her wish 
that he should undertake tlie gOTem- 
ment of Ireland ; but the fnen<uhip of 
this nobleman to Essex induced Mont- 
joy to excuse himself. The council 
nnanimouslr recommended to her Ma- 
jesty the enlargement of Emcx, but she 
angrilT replied, that such contempts as 
he nad been guilty of ought to be openly 
punished, and caused heads of accusa- 
tion to be drawn up against hiuL AH 
this time Essex continued ill, and his 
once high spirit now condescended to 
tuch supplications as the following : — 

**To THB QuEE!r. 

" When the creature cntereth into 
account with the Creator, it can nerer 
number in how many things it needs 
mercy, nor in how many it receives it 
But he that is best stored must still say, 
da nobis hodie ; and he that hath show«i 
most thankfulness, must ask again, ^id 
retrihuamtut And I can no sooner 
finish this my first audit, most dear and 
most admired Sovereign, but 1 come to 
consider how large a measure of this 
rrace, and how great a resemblance of 
his power, God hath given you upon 
earth ; and how many ways he givcth 
occasion to you to exercise the divine 
offices upon us, that are your vassalB. 
This confession best fitteth me, of all 
men, and it is now most joyfullv and 
most humbly made by me. I acanow- 
led^e, upon the knees of my heart, your 
Majesty^ infinite goodness in granting 
my humble petition. God, whoseeth all, 
is witness how fiithfully I do vow to 
dedicate the rest of my life next after 
my highest duty, in obedience, faith, 
and zeal to your Majesty, without ad- 
mitting any other worldly care; and 
whatsoever your Majesty resolveth to do 
with me, I shall live and die, 
^ Your MiyestVa hnmUest Tisnl, 


Two nooths aflcrwaidsi percriviif ■• 
immediate pro a pect of hia reatontm te 
liberty, he ajpin add wased her Mijeslj 

in the following style : — 

«* liefore all letters written with this 
hand be banished, or he who acvds this 
enjoin himself eternal silence, be pif sfd. 
I humbly beseech your Majcstr, to read 
over these few lines. At snnJrj times, 
and by several mesBen|pers, I reedved 
these words aa your Maieaty^a own— tbt 
you meant to correct, Intt not to rvn. 
since which time, I do not only UA the 
intolerable weight ofvonr Ma}<aty's ia- 
dignation, but, as if I were tfeirown iito 
a comer like a dead eareaae, I am 
gnawed on, and torn by th« vileit and 
basest creatures. The tavotn-hntar 
speaks of me as he liata ; already they 
print me, and make me ipnat to ths 
world ; and ihortly they will play wm 
upon the stage. The leaat of tlina is a 
thousand times worse than death. Bat 
this is not the worst of my deatmy; lor 
your Majesty, who hath meity Mr all 
the world but me — ^who hath pre ta cted 
from scorn and infiuny all to wnoni pa 
once vowed fivour, but FsacT — and never 
repeated you of any gradons assiirsari 
you had given, till now^yonr Mijertr, 
I say, hath now, in thia ei^tk aonik 
of my close imprisonment — aa if 
thought my infinnitiea, beggary, 
fiuny too little punishment lor B- 
jected my letter*, refoaed to hear of i- . 
which to traitors you never did. Whst, 
therefore, rcmaineth for ma? Only 
this, to beseech your Majeatr, on the 
knees of my heart, to condnda my pa- 
nishment, my miseiy, and my fin to- 
gether, that I may so to my Savionr, 
who hath paid himseu a ranaomfbr me; 
and to whom, methinka, I still hearcaU- 
ing me out of this nnkind wofld, ia 
which I have lived too long, and once 
thought myself too hamiy ! 

'' J'^m your Majesty's hnmbkit 



^ At length the Qnaen commanded 
eighteen commissionsfiB be aalr-'-^ 
or the Privy Council, to daseon 
duct, hear nia •*'*«HntiiTB and 
andfinal^ *' 



it wm not to be called m 
they should deem meet. 
TIm pathetic eloquence of the noble 
priioner moTed nuny of the council to 
touv; and eren hU enemies were af- 
fected. Finally, it was the unanimous 
sentiment of the council, that the Earl 
^ooM abstain from excrcisine the func- 
tioiis of Privy Councillor, Ean Marshal, 
or Master of the Ordnance; that he 
sbonld return to his own house, and there 
remain a prisoner as before, till it should 
please her Majesty to remit the sentence. 

This ecnsore tranquillized, but did not 
destroy the Queen's wrath against £s- 
tOL A few days afterwards, her Majesty 
repaired to Lady BusseFs house, in 
Blaekfiriaia, to ^raoe the nuptials of her 
daBt-hter, a maid of honour, with Lord 
Hemrt, son of the Earl of Leicester ; 
OB whidi occasion she was conveyed from 
the water side in a half-litter, lM>me by 
u kaighta. After dining with the 
wedding company, she paseed to the 
■e^booring noiMe of Lord Cobham to 
■ip. Here she was entertained with a 
matk by ei|^t ladies, who, after per- 
foming their appointed parts, chose out 
dght ladies more to dance the measure ; 
when Mrs. Fitton, the principal masker, 
eaoM*, and " wooed" the Queen also to 
danea. Her Majesty inquired who she 
was ? "Aifection,** she rc-plied. " Affec- 
tion ! '* ezdaimed the Queen, ** is felse." 
Yet she rose and danced ! 

In ABg[ast, 1600, the Earl was ac- 
onainted m due form, by the PriTv 
Conaeil, that his libertr was restorca, 
bat that he was still pronibited from b^- 
yemtjg at court. He answered, that it 
was hia design to lead a retired life at 
his ude^s, in Oxfordshire ; yet he begged 
their interoession, that he might be ad- 
mitted to kiss the Queen's hand before 
his departure. But this was too great a 
fiiToor to be granted ; and he was in- 
formed, that though free from restraint, 
he was still to consider himself as in 
disgrace ; a circumstance which deterred 
all but his nearest relations from resort- 
incto him. 

The following interesting letter from 
Sir Bobcrt Sidney to Sir John ilarring- 
tiML affords an insight into the character 
tsaoondiict of EUsuieth atthis period : — 

" "WoBTHT KinouT ; 
** Tour present to the Queen was well 
accepted of; she did much commend 
your verse, nor did she less praise your 
prose. The Queen has tasted your 
dainties, and saith you have marvellous 
skill in cooking of good fruits. If I mm 
serve you in your northern suit, you 
may command me. Visit jour friends 
often, and please the Queen by all you 
can ; for all the great lawyers do much 
fear her displeasure. 1 do sec the 
Queen often ; she doth wax weak since 
the late troubles, and Burleigh's death 
doth often draw tears from her ffoodly 
cheeks ; she walketh out but little ; 
meditates much alone; and sometimes 
writes in private to her best friends. 
Her Highness hath done honour to my 
poor house by visiting me ; and seemed 
much pleased at our efforts to amuse 
her. My son made her a fair speech, 
to which she made a gracious reply. The 
women danced before her, wnilst the 
comets saluted from the gallery; and 
she vouchsafed to eat two morsels of rich 
comfit cake, and drank a small cordial 
out of a golden cup. She had a mar- 
vellous suit of velvet, borne by four of 
her first female attendants, in rich ap- 
parel ; two ushers went before ; and at 
going up stairs she called for a staff; 
and was much wearied in walking about 
the house, and said she wished to come 
another day. Six drums and six trum- 
pets remained in the court, and were 
sounded at her approach and departure. 
M^ wife bore herself in wondrous ^ood 
liking, and was attired in a purple kirtle 
fringed with gold ; and myself m a rich 
band and collar of neeolcwork; and 
wore a goodly stuff of the bravest cut 
and fashion, with an under body of sil- 
ver and loops. The Queen commended 
much our appearance, and smiled at the 
ladies, who, in their dances, often came 
up to the step on which the scat was 
fixed, to make their obeisance, and so 
fell bock into their order ogain. The 

J'ounger Morkham did several gallant 
eats on a horse before the gate, leaping 
down and kissing his sword, then 
mounting swiftly on the saddle, and 
passing a lance with muc)i skill. When 
the day was well nigh spent, the Queen 

T T 


ELBABrra, naooMD qukbn saoiuirr. 

went and tasted a small bererage, that 
was set oat in diTers rooms where she 
might pass ; and then, in much order, 
was attendeid to her palace, the comets 
and trumpets sounoing through the 

The fate of the rojal faTOurite, Essex, 
was now approaching a crisis. The 
perseverance of the Queen in refusing to 
le-admit him to her presence, caused 
bim the most tormenting anxiety ; and 
he at length resolved to bring her dis- 
position towards him finally to the test 
The period for which he held the lucra- 
tiTe farm of sweet wines would expire at 
Michaelmas; he was soliciting its re- 
newal ; and on the doubtful boUnce of 
success or failure his future conduct 
would hinge. On this occasion he spared 
no expressions of humility and contri- 
tion which might soften the obdurate 
heart of his royal mistress. lie pro- 
fessed to kiss the hand and the rod 
with wliich he had been corrected — to 
look forward to the time when he could 
a^in behold those blessed eyes, so long 
bis cynosure, as the only real happiness 
which he could ever enjoy ; and he 
declared his intention, like Nebuchad- 
nezzar, to make his habitation with 
the beasts of the field — to eat hay like 
an ox, and to be wet with the dews of 
heaven, until it should please the Queen 
to restore him. To Lora Henry Howard, 
who was the bearer of these humiliating 
expressions, the Queen declared her un- 
feigned satisfaction to. find him in so 
proper a frame of mind ; she only wished, 
she said, ** that his future actions might 
harmonize with his words; and, as he 
had long tried her patience, it was pro- 
per that she should make some experi- 
ment of his sincerity. Her father 
never would have endured such perverse 
conduct; but she would not now look 
back ; * all that glittered was not gold ;' 
bntif suchresultscame forth from her fur- 
nace, she should ever after think the better 
of her crucible." But havin? soon after 
detected the secret motive for all these 
moring expressions of penitence and de- 
Totion, her disgust agamst Essex was re- 
vived ; and she not only finally rejected 
his suit, for the renewed contract of 

wines, but added tfaflM 
suiting woids; that **aB nngotwHlib 
beast must be stinted of his proveadnv 
in order to bring him anaer prapcf 
management !" 

The spirit of Essex oonld endue m 
more ; rare took posacasion of bis sod ! 
and, equiuly desperate in fortune and im 
mind, he was read]r to engage in any 
enterprise which his bitterest enemies 
could desire. In return for the vulgarity 
of the Queen, he used the eqpallycoens 
expression, which was eeceny and m- 
liciouslj reported to her dj certain Uu 
dies of the court, ''that thnxwh old 
age, the mind of the Queen had biccoi 
as crooked as her carcase :" words akiM 
sufficient to cool the ardoor of the meit 
indulgent mistress. 

In his extremity, Easex applied It 
the Kin^ of Scotland, urging him t» 
lose no time in claiming, br hu amfass> 
sadors, a solemn acknowledgment of his 
title to succeed to the throne of Engisad. 
In the mean time he formed a counefl of 
five of his most devoted friends: — the 
Earl of Southampton, Sir Charles Dai- 
vers. Sir Ferdinand Gorges, Sir Jobi 
Davis, Surveyor of the Ordnance, and 
John Littleton, Esq., of FranUey. By 
this junto, which met privately at Dnuy 
House, a plot aeainst the crown wss 
matured. The Earl delivered in a list 
of a hundred and twenty noblea, knightly 
and gentlemen, on whose attachment be 
thought ho could rely; it was them 
agreed that an attempt should be made 
to seize the palace, and to eompd the 
Queen to remove firom her councils the 
enemies of the Earl, and to annunon a 
new Parliament; and their remtdf 
parts were allotted to the destined aetata 
in the scene of rebellion. In the UMaa 
while, the extraordinary bnatle at Eisei 
House could not escape the yigflanee of 
eovemment ; and measures were imme- 
diately taken for obtaining intelligcnea 
of all that passed within its walls. Xord 
Henrjr Howard was the first to betzay 
his friend; and a domestic of Essaz, 
who had been brought up with himfrooi 
infancy, and who was in his entire eon* 
fidence, had also the baaenesa to tend 
his counsels. On the seventh of Fth- 
ruary, IGOl, the Privy Coaadl, heiif 



Mlj iiiftiniied of his vroceedings, dis- 
Batelied Seeretair Heroeit to Bammoii 
£«ex to sppear before them. Bat, ap- 
prefaMifliTe that he was betrayed, aud 
conscious that the steps he had taken 
vfrc not to be justified, the Earl excoscd 
himself from attending the council ; and, 
nmmoning around him the most confi- 
dential of his friends, he represented 
to them that the^ were on the eve of 
beinf^ sent to prison; and bade them 
deci£s whether they would quietly sub- 
mit to tiieir enemies, or attempt thus 
to carry their plans into effect In the 
coarse of Uie discussion which followed, 
a person entered, who pretended to be 
deputed br the City of London to as- 
sure tiie Elarl of their cordial co-opera- 
tioa m his cause. This dcddea the 
matter; Essex, with a more cheerful 
eoontenaiiee, be^an to expatiate on the 
affection borne him bj the City, and his 
expectation of being joined oy Sheriff 
Smith with a thousand of the trained 
bands which he commanded. The next 
morning was fixed upon for the insur- 
rection ; and, in the mean time, emissa- 
ries were dispatched about town in all 
directions, to spread among the friends 
of the £ari the akrm of a design upon 
his life, by the acenti of Lord Cobham 
and Sir Walter Baleigh. 

Early in the morning, the Lord 
Keeper, the Lord Chief Justice, and Sir 
William Knowles, Comptroller of the 
HoQseholdy arrived at Essex House, and 
demanded entrance in the name of the 
Qoeen. They, themseWes, were with 
difBculty admitted through the wicket 
of the gate, which was now kept shut and 
guarded; and all their serrants were 
excluded except the purse-bearer. They 
bdield the court-jard filled with a con- 
fused multitude, in the midst of which 
stood Essex, accompanied br the Earls 
of Southampton ana Rutlano, and many 
others. The Lord Keeper demandea, 
in the name of her Majesty, the cause of 
this unusual concourse; adding an as- 
surance, that if any one had injured his 
Lordship he shoula find redress. Essex, 
in a Tenement manner, complained of 
letters counterfeited in his name; of 
designs against his life; of perfidious 
dealings towards him ; but the conference 

was interrupted by the eUmours of the 
multitude, some of whom threatened 
violence to the emissaries of the court. 
Without farther parley Essex conducted 
them into the house, where he ordered 
them to be safely kept, ns hostages, till 
his return from the City, whither ho 
was hastening to take measures with 
the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs to accom- 
plish his purpose. Ho then entered the 
City, attended by the Earls of South- 
ampton and Rutland, Lords Sandys and 
Monteagle, Sir Charles Danvers, Sir 
Christopher Blount, and many others. 
On passing through Fleet Street, they 
cried out, "For the Queen! for the 
Queen!" Tliey also gave out that 
Cobham and Baleigh intended to have 
murdered Essex in his bed. 

The people, being partial to Essex, 
eagerly behcved that he and the Queen 
were reconciled, and that she had ap- 
pointed him to ride in that triumphant 
manner through the City to his house in 
Seething Lane. However, the Lord 
Mayor received timely information from 
the privy council of the real state of 
affairs, and, by eleven, the gates were 
closed .and strongly guarded. Though 
greatly disconcerted at seeing no pre- 
parations for joining him, Essex repaired 
to the house of Sheriff Smith, but this 
officer slipped out at the back door, and 
hastened to the Lord Mayor for instruc- 
tions. The Earl next proceeded to an 
armourer's, and demanded ammunition, 
which was refused ; and while hasten- 
ing to and fro, without aim or object, 
Jjord Burleigh boldly entered the City, 
with a garter king-ai-arms, and half a 
score horsemen, and proclaimed the Earl 
and his adherents to be traitors to their 
country. One of the attendants of Essex 
discharged a pistol-shot at Burleigh, 
without effect ; out the multitude showed 
no dispositon to molest him, and he 
hastened back to assure the Queen that 
there was no danger of a commotion in 
the City. The palace was now fortified 
and strongly guarded, the streets blocked 
up with carts and coaches ; and the Earl, 
after wandering about the City till two 
o'clock, and finding that none of the 
citizens would join him, and that many 
of his original followers had desertea 



him, determined to make bis way back 
to Essex House. At Lndgate, ne was 
opposed bj a body of troops, posted 
tncre by order of the Bishop oi London ; 
when, drawing his sword, be directed 
Sir Christopher Mount to attack them ; 
** which," says Kirch, ** he did with jnreat 
braycry. and killed Waite, a stout officer, 
who hod been formerly hired by the Earl 
of Jjcicester to assassinate Sir Christo- 
pher, and was now abandoned bv his 
company." But Essex was speedily re- 
pulsed with the loss of one young gentle- 
man killed, and Sir Christopher Blount 
wounded and taken prisoner. Then re- 
treating with his diminished band to the 
riTer-side, the Earl returned by water 
to his own house. Here be was much 
disappointed to find that bis three pri- 
■oners had been liberated in his absence 
\^ Sir Ferdinand Gorges; but still 
clin^ng to his hopes of an insurrection 
in his ra?our, he proceeded to fortify his 
bouse. It was soon, however, invested 
by a considerable force, under the or- 
ders of the Lord Admiral, the Earls 
of Cumberland and Lincoln. Sir Robert 
Sidney summoned the little garrison to 
surrender, when the Earl of Southamp- 
ton demanded terms and hostages, but 
being answered that none would be 
granted to rebels, except that the ladies 
and their female domestics would, if 
the^ desired, be permitted to depart, the 
besieged declared their resolution to 
hold out, and the assault commenced. 
Lord Sandys advised Essex to cut his 
way through the assailants, it bt>ing more 
honourable for men of quality to die 
tword in hand than by the axe of the 
executioner ; but the Earl, who had re- 
signed all hopes of life, was easily moved 
by the tears and entreaties of the sur- 
rounding females, to adopt less coura- 
eeous counsels. Captain Owen Salis- 
bury, a brave veteran, seeing that all 
was lost, planted himself at a window, 
bare-headed, and received a bullet on the 
tide of his head from one of the assail- 
ants. *' Oh .**' cried he, '' that thou hadst 
been so much my friend to have shot but 
a little lower f He died, notwithstand- 
ing, the following day. About six in 
the morning, Uie Earl announced bis 
willingiien to inrrender, on leceiying 

assurance, for hiraidf md friends, ef 
civil treatment and a legal trial; and 
permission for a der|prm*&« named 
Aston, to attend bim in prison: the 
Lord Admiral replied, that of the first 
two articles there conld be no doobc, 
and he would intercede for the last The 
house then capitulated, with all its in- 
mates. During the nirbt, the principal 
offtfndcrs were sent to Lambeth Palace, 
and the following day they were con- 
veyed to the Tower, while those of an 
inferior rank were committed to gad. 

On the ninth of Februnrf, Easex and 
Southampton were brought to trial be- 
fore the House of Peezs'— Lord Bnck* 
burst sitting as Lord High Stewvd. 
Essex pleadM not guilty, p iofeaa e d hii 
loyalty to his Queen and oonntiy, and 
assigned, as his motiye for the late at- 
tempt, that it was an net of aelfdefenee 
Xnst the nuichinationa of hla enemica» 
plotted his life. Whatever con- 
struction lawyers might put upon it, tha 
necessity of self-defence against Cobhaa, 
Haleigh, and Cecil, had impelled him to 
raise the City, and he was consoled by 
the testimony of an approving oonacieaee. 
Lord Cobham here rose and protested 
that he bad never acted with mliea 
against the Earl, althongh he had disqh 
proved of his ambition. ** On mj fiuth," 
replied Essex, ** I would have given this 
right hand to have removed from the 
Queen such an informer and odnmni- 
ator !" The Earl of Southampton also 
pleaded not guilty, and professed his in- 
violate fidelity towards her Majesty, and 
conducted himself with an ingeBnooa 
modesty of behaviour whieh won all 
hearts. After a trial, which lasted eleven 
hours, a verdict of guilty was unani- 
mously pronounced on both eaila. In 
an affecting manner, Southampton im- 
plored all present to intercede for him 
with her Majesty ; and Eases, with creat 
earnestness, joined in this prayer o? his 
unfortunate friend: as to himself, he 
said, he was not anxious for life ; wish- 
ing for nothing more than to lay it down 
with entire fidelity towards Gfoa and his 
Queen. Yet he would have no one in- 
sinuate to the Queen that he de^piaad 
her mercy, though he ahonU not too 
•abmiaaivelj impbve it ; tad he 



■11 Ben wfynld in their consciences acquit 
bim, thongli the law had pronounced 
him gnilty. Such was the lofty tone 
aaomfd br Essex. 

Klizabeth bchayed on the occasion of 
this insurrection with her wonted forti- 
tude. Etvu when Essex was actually in 
the City, and a fiedse report was brought 
to her' of its rcTolt, **She was never 
more amated," says Cecil, "than she 
would hare been to' have heard of a fniy 
in 1-leH Street" But when, in the 
further pcogrca s of this affair, she beheld 
her ottoe loved Essex brought to the bar 
for hi|^ treason, and condemned by the 
vnanimoos verdict of his peers — when it 
rested aolelj with herself to take the 
forfeit of his life, or interfere by an act 
of qiecial grace for his preservation — 
her grief, agitation, and perplexity be- 
came extreme. She still lovea him, and 
remembered with fondness the affectionate 
Mnii with which he had served her ; bnt 
whilst her heart was pleading for his 
forgiveneas, one of his followers was 
seized in an attempt to enter the palace 
for the purpose of compelling her to sign 
a warrant for the release of the two 
Earls. This alarmed the fears of Eliza. 
beth. Irresolute for several days, she 
at one time ordered, then countermanded, 
the order for his execution; then, re- 
penting her weakness, she signed a se- 
cond warrant, in obedience to which he 
WIS finally brought to the scaffold, on 
the twenty-«ixth of February, 1601. He 
had requested of Che Queen that he might 
he put to death in as private a manner 
as pomUe, within the walls of the 
Tower. Uis wish was willingly com- 
plied with ; but about a hundr^ nobles, 
nirhta, and gentlemen witnessed the 
awral aeene, from seats placed near the 
scaffold. Sir Walter Kaleigh stotioned 
btms^ at the window of an armoury, 
whcnee he could see all that passetl, 
without being perceived by the Earl : 
the sorrowful spectacle melted even him 
to tears. 

The life of Southampton was spared, 
at She interceasion of Cecil; but he 
was confined in the Tower until the 
de«th of the Queen. Four only of the 
principal conspirators suffered capitallj 
I were Sir Christopher Blount, Sir 

Charles Danvers, Sir Gilly Melrick, and 
Ilcnry Cuff. 

The peace of mind of Elizabeth re- 
ceived an incurable wound by the loss 
of her unhappy favourite. In the fo*- 
lowing letter from Sir John Harring- 
ton to Sir Hugh Portman, dated Octo- 
ber 9tb, 1601, nearly eight mouths after 
the fatal event, we have a vivid descrip- 
tion of her feelings : — 

" For six weeks I left my oxen and 
sheep, and ventured to court. Much was 
my comfort in being well received, not- 
withstanding it is an ill hour for seeing 
the Queen. The mad-caps are all in 
riot, and much evil threatened. In good 
sooth, I feared her Majt^ty more than 
the rebel Tyrone, and wished I had 
never received my Lord of Essex's ho- 
nour of knightnood. She is quite 
changed in countenance, and unattired ; 
and tnese troubles waste her much. She 
disregardeth every costly cover that 
Cometh to the table, andf taketh little 
bat manchet and succory pottage. Every 
new message from the City doth disturb 
her, and she frowns on all the ladies. I 
had a sharp message from her, brought 
by my Ix)ni Buckhurst, namely this : — 
* Go tell that witty fullow, my godson, 
to get home ; it is no season now to fool 
it here!' I liked this as littlo as sho 
doth my knighthood ; so took to my 
boots, and returned in bad weather to 
the plough. I must not say much, even 
by this trusty and sure messenger; but 
the many evil plots and designs hath 
overcome all her Highness* sweet temper. 
She walks much in her privy^^hamoer, 
and stamps with her feet at ill news, and 
thrusts her rusty sword at times into the 
arras in great rage. My Ix)rd Buck- 
hurst is much with her, and few else, 
since the City business ; but the dangers 
are over, and yet she always keeps a 
sword by her table. I obtained a short 
audience at my first coming to court, 
when her Ilighness told me, if ill-counsel 
had brought me so far from home, she 
wished heaven might mar that fortune 
which she had mended. I made my 
peace in this point, and will not leave 
my poor castle of Kelsten, for fear of 
finding a worse elsewhere, aa others 
have aone. I could not move in any 



■nit to seire Toar neighbour B., such was 
the face of tuings ; and so disordered is 
•11 order, that her Highness has worn 
bat one change of raimeot for many 
days; and swears much at those that 
eausc her griefs in such wise, to tho no 
•nuJl discomfiture of all about her, more 
especially our sweet Lady Arundel." 

In the month of October, the Queen 
•ummoncd her last Parliament ! Her 
procession to the House had something 
gloomy and ominous; the people still 
resenting the death of their farourite, 
Essex, whom they never could be taught 
to regard as a traitor to his Sovereign, 
refused to gratify her ears, as thej mid 
been wont to do, with those affectionate 
exclamations, on which Elizabeth had 
ever set so high a value. — The following 
year was barren of domestic incident 
The Queen continued to pursue, from 
habit, amusements for which she had 
lost all relish. She went a-Maying to 
Mr. Buckley's, at Lewisham, and paid 
■everal other visits in the course or the 
year ; but all her efforts to chase away 
melancholy were unavailing — the image 
of Essex still haunted her ima^nation. 
About the beginning of June, during a 
conversation with M. de Beaumont, the 
French Ambassador, she owned herself 
weary of life; then, sighing heavily, 
whilst her eyes filled with tears, she 
again adverted to the death of Essex, 
and mentioned, that being apprehensive, 
from his ambition and tne impetuosity 
of his temper, of his throwing himself 
into some rash design which would prove 
his ruin, she had repeatedly counselled 
him, during tho last two years, to con- 
tent himself with pleasing her, and to 
forbear treating her with the insolent 
contempt which he had htely assumed ; 
above all, Aot to touch her sceptre, lest 
■he should be compelled to punish him 
by the laws of England, and not accord- 
ing to her own laws, which he had found 
too mild and favourable to give him any 
cause of fear; but that her advice, 
however salutary and affectionate, had 
proved ineffectual to prevent his ruin. 

On the twentv-seventh of December, 
1602, Sir John liarrington, in a letter 
to his wife, gives the following melan- 
choly picture of the state of the Queen : — 

^ Sweet MAXXy 

" I herewith send thee, what I 
would to God none did know, aoaie ill^ 
bodings of the realm and its wdftu^ 
Our dear Queen, my royal godmother, 
and this state's natural mother, doth now 
bear some show of human infirmity ; too 
fast, for that evil which we shall get by 
her death, and too alow for that good 
which she shall get by her release Ircoi 
pains and misery. It was not many 
days since I was bidden into her pre- 
sence ; I blessed the happy moment, tai 
found her in a most pitiable state. She 
bade the ArchbiBhop ask me if I had 
seen Tyrone ? I replied, with reverence ^ 
that I had seen him with the Lord De- 
puty. She looked up with much cholcr 
and grief in her countenance, and said: 
' Oh ! now it mindeth me that yon weie 
one who saw this man elsewhere ;' alliid- 
ing to a conference held with Essex; 
and hereat she dropped a tear, and smote 
her bosom. She held in her hand a 
golden cup, which she often pnt to her 
lips ; but, in truth, her heart seemeth 
too full to need more filling. This sight 
moved me to think of wmit passed in 
Ireland ; and, I trust, she did not less 
think on some who were busier tliere 
than myself. She gave me a message 
to the Lord Deputy, and bade me come 
to the chamber at seven o'clock. Hereat 
some who were about her did marvel, as 
I do not hold so high place as those she 
did not choose to do her commands. 
Her Majesty inquired of some matters I 
had written ; and as she was pleased to 
note my fanciful brain, I was not nn- 
heedful to feed her, and read some verses, 
whereat she smiled once, and was pleased 
to say : * \V*lien thou dost feel creeping 
time at thy gate, these fooleries wiu 
please thee less; I am past relish for 
such matters ; thou seest mv bodily meat 
doth not suit me well ; i -have eaten 
but one ill-tasted cake since Tester- 
night* " 

Notwithstanding the state of bodOy 
and mental indisposition in which Har- 
rington thus graphically described the 
Queen, she continued to take her aocnr 
tomcd exercises of riding and hunting, 
regardless of the inclemendetof them* 



•oa. One day, in JaniiOT,1603,sbe tinted 
the Lord Admiral at Chelsea, and, about 
tbe nme time, remored to her palace at 
Bkhmond, for the benefit of her declin- 
to^ health. In the be^nning of March, 
her illnc58 snddenlj increased; and at 
this period her kinsman, Sir Robert 
Cazey, arrived firom Berwick to visit 
her. In his Memoirs, we have the fol. 
lowing relation of his lost interview with 
Elinbeth : — *' When I came to court, I 
fonnd the Queen ill disposed, and she 
kept her inner lodging ; yet she, hear- 
ing of my arrival, sent for me. I found 
her in one of her withdrawin^hambers, 
Btting low upon her cushions. She 
called me to her; I kissed her hand, 
and told her it was my chiefest happi- 
ness to see her in safety and in health, 
which I wished might long continue. 
She took me by the hand, and wrung it 
hard, and said, * No, Robin, I am not 
wril ;' and then discoursed with me of 
her indisposition; and that her heart 
had been sad and heavy for ten or 
twelve days : and in her discourse, she 
fetched not fewer than fortv or fifty great 
sighs. I was rrieved at the first to see 
her in this pU^t, for in all my lifetime 
I never knew her fetch a sigh, but when 
the Queen of Scots was beheaded. Then, 
Hftm my knowledge, she shed many 
tears and sighs, manifesting her inno- 
eenee that she never gave consent to the 
death of that Queen. I used the best 
words I could to persuade her from this 
melancholy humour, but I found it was 
too deep rooted in her heart, and hardly 
to be removed. This was upon a Sa- 
turday night, and she gave command 
that tae great closet should bo prepared 
for her to go to chapel the next morn- 
ing. The next day, all things bein^ in 
readiness, we long expected her coming. 
After eleven o'clock, one of the grooms 
came out, and bade us make ready for 
the private closet — she would not go to 
the great. There we stayed long for 
her coming, but at last she had cushions 
bid fur her in her privy chamber, hard by 
the closet door, and there she heard service. 
** From that day forward she grew 
worse and worse. She remiuned upon 
her cushions four days and nights at 
least AU about her could not penuade 

her either to take any watenance or go 
to bed. The Queen grew worse and 
worse, because she would be so ; none 
about her being able to go to bed. My 
Lord Admiral was sent for (who by rea- 
son of my sister's death, who was his 
wife, baa absented himself some fort> 
night from court) ; — ^what by fair means, 
what by force, he got her to bed. There 
was no hope of her recovery, because she 
refused all remedies. On Wednesday, 
the twenty-third of March, she ^rev 
speechless. That afternoon, by signs, 
sne called for her council ; and, by put- 
ting her hand to her head when the 
King of Scots was named to succeed her, 
they all knew he was the man she desired 
should reign after her. About six at 
night, she made signs for the Archbishop 
and her chaplains to come to her; at 
which time I went in with them, and 
sat upon my knees, full of tears, to see 
that heavy si^lit. Her Majesty lay upon 
her back, with one hand in the bed and 
the other without. The Archbishop 
kneeled down by her, and examined her 
first of her faith ; and she so punctuatty 
answered all his several questions, by 
lifting up her eyes and holding up her 
hand, that it was a comfort to all be- 
holders. After he had continued long 
in prayer, till the old man*s knees were 
weary, he blessed her, and meant to rise 
and leave her. The Queen made a sign 
with her hand. My sister Scropo know- 
ing her meaning, told the Archbishop 
that the Queen desired he woidd stiU 
pray. He did so for a long half hour 
after, and then thought to leave her. 
The second time she made sign to have 
him continue in prayer. He did so for 
half an hour more, with earnest erics to 
God for her soul's health, which he 
uttered with that fervency of spirit as 
the Queen, to all our sigiit, much re- 
joiced thereat; and gave testimony to 
us all of her Christian and comfortable 
end. By this time it grew late, and 
every one departed, all but her women 
that attended her. Between one and 
two o'clock of the Thursday morning, 
he whom I left in the cofferers chamber, 
brought me word that the Queen wia 
Grief for the untimely death of the 



Enl of Easex, with which iho had lonff 
Bttintaincd a secret stru^le, bunt forth 
at the Ukst with a yiolenee she could not 
control, and rapidly completed the decay 
of her constitution, already undermined 
by the cares and anxieties incident to her 
exalted station. 

In ** Osborne's Memoirs of Queen 
Elizabeth/' is related a remarkable anec- 
dote, on the authority of Sir Dudley 
Carleton, the Kn^^lish Ambassador in 
Holland, with which we shidl conclude 
the eventful life of one of tbe most ex- 
traordinary women in ancient or mo- 
dem times : — " The Countess of Not- 
tingham, who was a relation, but no 
friend, of the Earl of Essex, being on 
her death -bed, entreated to see the 
Queen, declaring that she had something 
on her mind of which she was anxious 
to disburthen herself before she could 
leave this world. On this bein;? com- 
municated to the Queen, she immediately 
resolved to comply with the wish of the 
dying Countess. On her Majesty's ar- 
nvat,and being conducted into her apart- 
ment, the Countess produced a rin?, 
which she said * the Earl of Essex had 
•ent to her after his condemnation, with 
an earnest request that she would deliver 
it to the Queen in person, as the token 
by which he implored her mercy ; but 
which, in obedience to her husband, to 
whom she had communicated the cir- 
cumstance, slie had hitherto withheld ; 
for which cruel act of treacherj* she now 
humbly entreated the forpriveness of her 
Majesty/ On sight of the precious 
ring, Elizabeth instantly recognized it 
as one which she had herself presented 
to her unhappy favourite, on his depar- 
ture for Cadiz,' with the tender promise, 
that of whatsoever crimes his enemies 
might have accused him, or whatsoever 
offences he mieht actually have com- 
mitted against her, on his returning to 
her that pledge of her affections, she 
would either pardon him, or, at least, 
admit him to justify himself in her pre- 
sence I Transi>orte<l with grief and rage, 
on learning the bsirbarous infidelity of 
which her beloved Essex had been the 
▼ictim, and herself the dupe, the Queen 
■hook in her bed the dying Countess, and 
ci«laimed with vehemence, that 'God 

might foigive her, hat the Mtv 

" Retaming to her palaise in a stale of 
mind terrible to behold, Elixabeth nr- 
rendercd herself, without a ray of com- 
fort, to the despair which leiicd her 
heart on this fatal disclonire. Hcaet 
the intensity of her mental sufferings^ 
her obstinate silence, intermpted only 
by sighs, groans, and broken indieatioas 
of a deep-felt sorrow which she eoold 
not reveal ; hence the days and nigfati 
passed by her on the floor^ reclining oa 
cushions, afraid to go to bed, from ta 
inward consciousness that if she did so 
she would never rise again— aleepless— 
her eyes fixed, and her flneer pcfsscd 
upon ner mouth ; hence all thote heart- 
rending s^ptoms of incnrable and mor* 
tal anguish, which gradoallj led, ia 
the space of twenty days, to the la- 
mentaole termination of a long life 
of power, prosperity, and national 
glory. She expired on the twenty- 
fourth of March, 1603, in the terenticth 
year of her age, and the forty-fifth of 
uer reign." 

]ty order of Cecil, and con 
Elizabeth's express commands, her 
was embalmed. It was then convi ^ 
hj water to Whitehall, where it w 
nightly watched by six ladiea, till the 
preparations were completed for the fa- 
ncral, which was solemnized with royal 
splendour on Thursday, the twenty- 
eighth of April. *♦ The' royal corpse'," 
says Stowe, ** embalmed, 'lappea in 
lead, and covered with purple velvet, 
was laid on a chariot, drawn by fbnr 
great horses, trapped in black velvet; 
on the bodj was placed a wax effigy of 
Elizabeth in her parliament robes, with 
a crown on her head, and a sceptre in 
her hand. The monmeis, in bUck, 
were about one thousand, and consisting 
of the nobility, the honoorable of estate, 
the officers and servants of the royal 
household, the gentlemen of the Royal 
Chapel, the choir of the college, and 
many others, conveyed the body, in ■»- 

* LingMTd rpJMtM Mm utnj of the rlni; 
because It has not beea mentioned bj sav m 
those who have nsUted the occuitmiom <k tbt 
Queen's malady ; and. Indeed, aa it riati 
only on historical tradltiol^ its snthsntiiliy 
must be deemed doabtfuL 



IflBB BtaU, from Wbitehmll to Westmin- | 
Iter Abbf T, where, after Anthony Wood, 
Bi<hop of Chicheflter, bod preached a 
learned funeral sermon, it was interred 
triih the usual ceremonies in the vault 
of her gnmdfiither, Henrj the Seven th, 
in his most heautiful chapel ; and in the 
same grave with her sister, Mary, Queen 
of England. ** As the funeral procession 
passed through Westminster," proceeds 
the quaint chronicler, '*the City was 
Btirchargod with multitudes of au sorts 
of peopw in the streets, houses, windows, 
leads, and gutters, that came to sro the 
ohst-^uie. And when they beheld her 
statue, or picture, lying upon the cof- 
fin, set forth in royal robes, having a 
crown upon the head thereof, and a ball 
and sceptre in either hand; there was 
such a general sighing, groaning and 
weeping, as the like hath not been seen 
or known in the memory of man ; neither 
doth any historian mention any people, 
time, or state, to make like lamentation, 
fur the death of their sovereign." Her 
successor, James the First, erected a 
noble monument to her memory, in 
Wt^tmiubtcr Abbcv. Amongst the com- 
plimcntary epitapns hung up in her 
uonour, in numerous churches, through- 
out the realm, occur the following : — 

' If rojmlTlrtoes ever adorned our croini: 
If ever mlldiheu shlned in nuOM'T ' 
ir ever hnnoar, lionoared tnie renoim : 
If cTer eoamge dwelt in clemency : 
If ever Princess put all Princes down : 
For temperance, prowess, pnidenoe, equttf t 
This, this WAri Biie, that In displte of death, 
Ures sUll admiind, adored Elisabeth." 

'* In Bohon's Character of Queen Eliza- 
beth," wo have the following description 
of her habits of lifb, amusements, and 
magnificence : — *' First, in the morning, 
she spent some time at her devotions ; 
then die betook herself to the dispatch 
of her civil affairs ; reading letters ; dic- 
tating answers ; considering what should 
be brought before the council, and con- 
sulting with her ministers. When she 
had been thus occupied, she would walk 
in a shady garden, or pleasant gallery, 
without any other attendance than tliat 
of a few learned men. Then she took 
her coach, and passed, in the sight of 
her p<*o|dc, to the neighbouring groves 
■nd fieldS| and sometimes would hunt or 

hawk. There was scarce a day but sho 
employed some part of it in ri-ading and 
study; sometimes before sho entered 
upon her stite affairs, sometimes after 
them. She slept little, seldom drank 
wine, was sparing in her diet, and a re- 
ligious observer of the fasts and festiTak 
of the Church. She sometimes dined 
alone, but generally had some of her 
friends with her. At supper she would 
divert herself with her attendants and 
friends ; and if they made her no an- 
swer, would put them upon mirth and 
pleasant discourse with ^at civility. 
She would then also admit Tarleton, a 
&moiis comedian and pleasant talker, 
and other such men, to divert her with 
stories of the town, and the common 

1'csls and accidents. She would recreate 
lerself with a game of chess, dancing or 
sinking. Sho would often play at cards, 
ana if at any time she happened to win, 
she would be sure to demand the money. 
She was waited on in her bed-chamber 
by married ladies of the nobility ; the 
Marchioness of Winchester, Lady War- 
wick, and Lady Scrope ; and here she 
wouhl seldom suffer any to visit her but 
Leicester, llatton, Essex, Nottingham, 
and Kuleiffh. Some lady always slept in 
her chamber; and besides her guards, 
there was always a gentleman of good 
quality, and some others, up in the next 
cliamSer to wake her if anything extra- 
ordinary happened. She loved a prudent 
and moderate habit in her private ap:irt- 
ment, and conversation with her own 
servants; but when she appeared in 
public, she was ever richly aclomed with 
the most valuable clothes ; set off again 
with much gold, and jewels of inesti- 
mable value ; and on such occasions sho 
ever wore high shoes, that she miL^ht 
seem taller than indeed slie was. 1 he 
first day of the Parliament, she would 
appear in a robe embroidered with 
pearls; the royal crown on her head, 
the golden ball in her left hand, and the 
sceptre in her right ; and, as she never 
failed then of the loud acclamations of 
her people, so she was ever pleased 
with them, and wont along in a kind of 
triumph, with all the ensigns of majesty. 
Tho royal name was ever venerable to 
the English people; but tliis Queen's 



name waa more sacnd than any of her 
ancestors. In the furniture of her pahu^es 
the ever affected magnificence and an 
extraordinary splendour. She adorned 
the galleries with pictures hj the best 
artists ; the walls she corered with rich 
tapestries. She was a true lover of 
jewels, pearls, all sorts of precious stones, 
gold and silrcr plate, rich beds, fine 
couches and chariots, Persian and Indian 
carpets, stjitucs, meduh, &Cm which she 
would purchase at great prices. * Ilamp- 
too Court was the most richly furnished of 
all her palaces ; and here she had caused 
her naval victories against the Spaniards 
to be worked in fine tapestries, and laid 
up among the richest pieces of her 
wardrobe. AVhen she made any public 
feasts, her tables were magnificently 
served, and many side-tables adorned 
with rich plate. At these times, many 
of the nobility waited on her at table. 
She made the greatest displays of her 

* No Sorerefgn wu more fond of display 
than Elisabeth. We are aii6ured, that at her 
death, three thousand complete habits were 
fcnnd ID her wardrobe, with a numerous col- 
lection of Jewellery, for the most part pre- 
sents, which she received from petitioners, 
from her eourtiersj and from those whom she 
bad honoured by visits at their mansions. The 
following extracts from a MS. in the British 
MuMum, entitled ** A Book of Queen Eliza- 
beth's Jewels." Uken in July, 1567, may, 
perhaps, amuse the reader. 

** Ittm^ One little (lower of gold, with a finog 
thereon, and therein, Monsuier, kiafhimamy*, 
and a little pearl pendanL This was probably 
A brooch. 

" hem, A little bottle of ambor, with a font 
of gold ; and, on the top thereof, a bear with 
ft ragged staff ; the bear and staff was I^ices- 
ter's device. 

**IUwt, A tooth-pick of gold, like a bittern's 
claw, garnished with four diamonds, four ru- 
bies, and four emeralds ; being all but sparks. 

**Itemt A nutcracker of gold, garnished with 
Sparks of diamonds." 

When llentzner saw Elisabeth, in her 
■Ixty-seventh year, she wore false hair, and 
that red. In the Jewel books here men- 
tioned, we have a hmg list of her Majesty's 
wigs, or rather head-dresses ; they are called 
ftt the head of the page " €Uti^ra" 

" Item, One canl of hair, sot with pearls, in 
number forty-three. 

" Item, One caul of hair, set with pearls of 
sundry nort and bigness, with seed fwarl be- 
tween them, cheveron-wise, one hundred and 

** Item, One caul, with nine true-loves of 
pearl, seven buttons of i;old ; In each builon 
ft rnby." 

regal magnifieence when foreigii mbImi- 
sadors were present. At these times she 
would also have vocal and inatmniental 
music during dinner ; and after dinaa, 

Kapin lays, she ia accnaed of notbeiw 
so chaste as sho affected to appear; and 
that some assert that there are now in 
England the descendanta of a danghter 
she had by Leicester. Lingaid gives 
credit to a report that she had a son by 
Leicester, who, under the name of Ar- 
thur Dudley, lived for some time at Ma- 
drid, and was honoured by the King of 
Spain with the distinctions due to royalty. 
Dr. Walker says, it is amazing that 
Hume should record of Queen Kluabeth 
such consummate vice and abondonmeBt 
as he does, and yet struggle to ally lU 
her actions with moral or political vir- 
tue. He tells us, she waa so passionats 
and vulvar sm to beat her maids of ho- 
nour. Her avarice, in some measore, 
he allows, induced her to take one hun- 
dred thousand pounds from the bootv of 
Raleigh, and to countenance Drake's 
pillaging the Spaniards, even daring 
peace ; and the same passion prevented 
her love for Leicester going further than 
the grave — for she oracreclhis goods to 
be disposed of at a public sale, to nim- 
burse herself of some money which be 
owed her. But violent as tnis passion 
was, it was still weaker, as Uume ob- 
serves, than her lustful apatite ; for it 
is computed by Lord Burleigh, that, not 
to mention Leicester, Hatton, Mountjoy, 
and other paramours, the value of her 
gifte to Fssex alone amounUd to three 
hundred thousand pounds. Hume also 
informs us, that her politics were usually 
full of duplicity and artifice, and that 
they never triumphed so much in any 
contrivances as in those which were con- 
joined with coquetry. He further shows 
us that she had an utter disregard for 
truth, by stating that, after promising 
to support the Scottish malcontents, she 
secretly seduced the leaders of them to 
declare before the ambassadors of France 
and Spain that she had not incited tbim, 
and the instant she had extorted tJjii 
confession, she chased them from hrr 
presence, called them unworthy troiDT*, 
and so forth. Hume also tells us that 

in ingredient Ji 


chanctcT. HcT coodact lo Ubiv, Queen 
of Scotc, proTea her CHpable of Ihe bawit 
treacherr, uid cf dulitNTaCe murder. 
Xqw, vi'th inch an UTOiFed iccuniaU- 
tion of Tice. vith Tulnhtj, BTurice. luat, 
dnptteitr, Ijing, malignity, treacherj, 
■ad mnrdcT, no ciccUcace ii compntiblc. 
Ur. Hume and otben mar, if tbej 
please, applaud in her that forM ofchti- 
lacter wbich i», indeed, naxatarj lo rir- 
lue aa well u to Tice, but which, in her, ai 
it Ud ootr to the perpetration orerimn, 
if infinitelT more deurriiig of blame 
than of apiuauae. 

Perbapi the death of no tOTcrcign oc- 
eaiioDed the production of auch il mnu 
flf dofrtrel rhytoe ai that of Elizabeth. 
The fdlloirini;. on the rpmoTil of her 
bndj from Richmond to Whitehall, waa 
p'^tir admired : — 
-Tit QiMtBvulirDughtbrnlarta Vrhlto- 

ll-irr duDg kboDt the b»rffB: fl«li uuJcr 
WFpi out thtlr eyei of pearl, nnd tvun 
I Ibink tba busiman mlEh^ with eular 

Tho folloiiinir line* occur in ono of 
tbe Cottonian MSS., in the hand-writ- 
ing of Camden, the hittoriim. 
- Whom princn irrT*. ud milmi ober. 
Tbr. fnalEit of llrilon kinn bcvai : 
(thF nnw »hmul t'tnjnt 


And femly fixed, vlth 4IL nud JE^ICfl, 
To ■iiFiiT'i lad in ±aau./aa.' 

Wo conclude Ihe mcmoin of one of 
the moat revered of England'! aoTereigni, 
with tho euliigium pronounced to ner 
memory by the eloquent Kiibop Uall. 
in hii Bcrmon at Faut'a Crow, on Ilie 
DBniTi!nary of iho accciaian of King 

" O blessed QuccD ! the motherof thia 
nntion, tho nuns of tliia chuich 1 the 
gloiT of womanhood, the enrj and ei- 
ample of foreign nationi ; the wonder of 
time — how sweet and lacrod shall thy 
memory be to nil poateritvl How ex- 
cellent were her maBCuliite gmecs, of 
learning, valour, and wiidom, by which 
she might jueiIt challenge to be tiM 
— en cif men ! So learned waa ahe, that 
could give present answer to umhas- 
aodora in their own longuea ; ao valiant, 
that, like Ziseu's drum, she made the 
proudest Romanist lo miolce ; so wiac, 
that whalaoever full out happil]' against 
immon odvcmitry in Franee,Ncther- 
liind. Ireland, il wua bj Ihenuelvea as- 
cribed to her policy. |Why ahould I 
apeuk of her long nnd Buccessful govirn- 
ment, of her niiTaeuloui preaerTBliou, 
of her famous rictoriei ; wherein the w«- 
I. wind, Sre, and euth fouiht tot 
as irthevhad been in pay under her; 
bcr excellent law* and c«rcful pxcen- 
I ? Many dnught<rs hove done wor- 
ly, but thuu cicillest llicm all. Such 
! Ihe iwctlnesn of her government, 
and such the fear of niiaery in her losa, 
that manywortliyChi'i^'Iians desired that 
their ryes mif;ht be el< aed before hm. 
£vciy one pointed to licr white hoin, 
and said, with tli\t pcaeeablc Lconlira, 
' when this snow meWth, there will be 

ttrnn nf Sontis tjit /irst 


Awtiifartnfagi—Birtk—Ediiailhn—OrhityimdSArtlinidlUm JmrnmHrEiHi 
ifSnflaiid nahnlt mnrg a JVihww 0/ Baimtrt—Oirtitlm Bt t bn^tk 
^xa en Aani — Tht Ulnthmttil — Atint mbarii for 8eellmid-~U trim h 
tlormi to Ifermg — Jamil paa in ptnon le filch far Anw — Marriu htr tl 
Vptia — Tattt far to Caprtihagcn, icHcrt Ihtg pan tin Kmttr icUM Act nbili"' 
— Uinndtittther le Stutland — ller eervnelien — Sotl»nttandtltt%tilrltf — Frifi 
Jlmrg bom, ami tomiffHid, amrdiiif ta emlom, le til iitpinf tf Strl Mart— 
An«i dciini le briKj him up hrM/f—Tlu King eliftele—Cbmigal ttrift—KfiT^ 
ttlh bern—Tki GoKni pht—Aiim-i iati impieiein^ the Imf—SuiM f/ lit 
JtalhreHi—lyiHee Charfa borH—Aait^i kiHdmn l# Siatrif Xmtkrni. 

^ KXE of DinnuitV, a 

l> Prinocs of iiifGrior 

3 inl('U«t,>niItliufint 

f QoMn (.'oniort of 

L (truat KrituiD, vns 

I til? srcond-bom child 

9 of FrcJcrirk the 8«- , 

s cnnd. King of Den- ' 
■srk. and hia wife, Saptiu, daughter of 
tbeDukcofMceklcnliutR. Bhe first law 

, in Dec. 


I$7'i. She rFCL'ircd butiLiupcr^cial cdu- ; 
ntiiiL ond luch icns the etiquette of the 
Danish Court, or the neglFCt ol her nunea, j 
thatihecouldnot walk till after ihe had' 
fBtcrcd her tenth year. Ai Itcnmark' 
had, in the preccdinK centurr. pairDnl the 
■OTereignlT of thi' (>rkm7 ancl Slietlnnd 
iA<x lu Sci'itland. it mis rivnIvKl. about 
the Ti-ar 13K4, tu cnitnly relinquish t)ic 
■ovr'nijiiity to the Scuttiiih cn>irn. on 
condition that th>> youni; Minuirch, 
Ivm-* the Sixth of Si-xtlund. him who 
on Ih« il.':ilh of llu<en KliziiWth as-' 
etmM the thn-no <■! Kiiclanrl. und af-| 
lerKDnls ai'umcd (he title of Jaui'S the. 
Fint, Kin(;of Great Iltilain and Iri'hnil. 1 
diould mirrj on* of tho Daniih Eing'i 

amloendon to King Jama, is . . 
Lind, with an offer of the choice ia 
roarriags ofhii two dang-htcra, klitahttli 
or Anne, both of whom had been nlu- 
cated ai itunnch Latherana, and «ilb 

' initnietioni, that in caie Jamea fell nt 
inclination to act^t the offer, [0 i'-. 
Diaad the immediate rvalitntion of lh< 
Orkney* and the Shetland! ; wliiih, 
althaug;h but imnll barren ialiinda, uc 
of great Talna to tha Britiih crown, ai 

J needful linlu of the iniriar •orerti^iT 
of the ocean. At thia period Jaiuc>'i 

' marria^ wai a aabject of eonleati-in 
between hii captive mother, Jlarr, Qut-n 
of Si'OtJi, and hii match-marring enl- 
mothtr, Elinbeth, Queen of £nf1iUi<L 
Mary bring L^atliulic, and. moreottr, 
anxious tu alrennhen the powtr lA 
Scotland against Kusland, wishnl liim 
to wed one of the datigihtcn of Kia^ 
Philip tlie SvrnnJ of Spiiin; wliil^t 
Elizabeth deebrcd ihe would puv the 
whule eipciue of the ncdding. 'if he 
would takv to wife Guslarua V:i&i't 
giaod-dauj^ttf, the PraleaUnt PrinctM 






of Sweden. The gpTernment of Scot* 
liind, however, beinff anxious to retain 
poitfouion of the Orkners, and desirous 
to .iToid a naral war with their powerful 
n?ij|:hbonr, Frederick the Second, gave 
the L>amsh ambassadors a cordial recep- 
tion, and dispatched James's old scho<M-> 
mssttrr, Peter Youne, to the court of 
Ik-nmark, to forward the arran^ments 
for the match. Meanwhile, Elizabeth, 
who, br bribvrjr and other means, had 
st^uri-<{ the majority in the Scottish Go- 
Tt-rnment, bronght Mary, Queen of Scots, 
to the block, and succeeded in delaying 
the Danish match for about three years. 
At the cFosc of 1587f tho exaspe- 
nti-d King of Denmark threatened 
^otLind with war, if the Orkneys 
wrre not promptly restored. King 
Jani*^ took the hint, and a^n dis- 
patrhcd Peter Young, and with him, 
Crowncl Stuart, to tho Danish Court. 
In the summer of 1588, these commis- 
Monors returned, **weU rcwardit and 
wt-ll contentit,'* and reported so favour- 
ably of tiie Princesses; pronouncing 
thtm to be '*braw lassies," with a 
**routhie tocher" [^plentiful marriage 
portion], that James instnntly dispatched 
Crownol Stuart and the Itishup of St. An- 
drew's, ti) conclude the matim with the 
Dani*>h King^s eldest daughter. Just 
as this emlxissy had embarked, and 
thruugh the intrigues of Queen Eli- 
zabeth, who took infinite pleasure in 
tnrersing the matrimonial desires of all 
within her reach, commissioners from 
the King of Nararre landed in ScoU 
Lmd. and offered to J'amcs the hand of 
Katherine of Navarre, a Princess old 
enough to be his mother. With the ob- 
ject of this commission, Elizabeth, with 
all speed, acquainted the Danish sove- 
reign ; who, on discovering that the in- 
fi>nnation was correct, fiuw in a rage, 
told the Scotch ambassadors to their 
facr-ii, tfiey were a set of cheats; be- 
trothed his eldest daughter to tlie Duke 
of Itrunswick, and vowed to regain the 
Bovmiirnty of his islands, cost him what 
it migiit. The Scotch ambassadors en- 
deavdured to soothe him, and after much 
bickering, it was arranged that James 
should wed his younger daughter, Anne, 
if the esponnla took place before the 

first of May, 1689 ; but, if not, the en- 
gagement should then I'e null and void, 
ana the islands should be restored. 
When the Scotch commissioners re- 
turned, thej brought to James an ex- 
quisite miniature of the beautiful Anne 
of Denmark, which so excited his love, 
that shortly afterwards he told his 
council, that ** having praved andavised 
with God aboon twa weeks, he had re- 
sol vit to wed bonnie Anne of Denmark." 
The majority of the council being the 
paid creatures of Queen Elizabeth, 
strongly opposed the match ; but James, 
impressed with a belief that, to secure 
the royal lassie, ** she must be wooed 
and married, and a* " before the first of 
Mav, 1589, effectually terminated their 
artnil procrastination, by paying the 
artisans of Edinburgh, to rise in insur- 
rection in favour of the Danish match ; 
an uprising, which so alarmed tho 
council, that they instantly dispatched 
the Earl Marshal of Scotland, the (*on- 
stable of Dundee, and the Lord Andrew 
Keith, to Denmark, to espouse the 
Princess Anne, in tho King's name. 
Meanwhile, the death of the Danish 
^lonarch, which took place at the close 
of 1588, deprived Anne of tho rank of a 
reigning King's daughter, and, indeed, 
so altenni the position of affairs, that, 
although James s proxies did not reach 
Denmark before the middle of June, 
more than six weeks after the extreme 
timo specified for tho betrothment, by 
tho late Frederick the Second, they 
met with a cordial reception, and on 
the twentieth of August, 1589, Anne 
was married by proxy to the King of 
Scots, at the strongly fortified castle of 
Cronenbuig, in the island of Zealand. 

In September, the Scotch proxies and 
the royal bride embarked with their rc- 
ttnuo for Scotland, with a fleet of eleven 
ships, under the command of Peter 
Munch, the Danish Admiral. But they 
had scarcely put to sea, when a violent 
tempest arose, and althouf^h by strenuous 
exertions they twice obtained a glimpse 
of the Scottish coast, they were, at List, 
driven by the adverse winds to take 
refuge in a sound in Norway. Here 
the young Queen landed, and at the in- 
hospitabio village of Upslo, sought riiel- 



ter firom the aerere frost wliich then 
■et in, and bound the country around in 
letters of ice. Meanwhile a yonn; 
Dane, named Stephen Beal, hraTed the 
winds and the waTes, and succeeded 
in carnring the news of her disasters 
to her spouse, who, reaolring, like 
a true loTer, to go in person and 
fetch her home, sail«l for Norway, with 
a small squadron of fire little Tcssels, on 
the twenty-sc-cond of October. After 
encountering a violent gale, which well 
nigh wrecked the tiny squadron, the 
adventurous James landed at Slaikray, 
in Norway, on the twenty-eighth ; and 
travelling' from thence through a bar- 
ren country, where only ice and snow 
predominated ; at last, after a diligent 
search, reached the wretched village of 
Upslo, on the nineteenth of November; 
and immediately at his coming, and 
without previous notice of his arrival, 
** passed in quitlv," says the chronicler, 
'* with bruites [bootaj and all, to her 
highness, Anne, and siduted htT with a 
kiss; quhilk she refusit, as not being 
the form of her country, liut after a 
few words privately spolcen between his 
Majesty and her, 'familiarite ensued." 
On the following Sunday, James married 
Anne, with all the pomp and ceremony 
the time and place permitted ; and the 
next morning, in compliance with an 
old Scottish custom, he made her a grant 
of the valuable lordship of Dunferm- 
line, in ** morrowing gift." At this 
period the winter storms raged with 
such fury at Upslo, that James relin- 
quished the idea of returning to Scot- 
land till the ensuing spring. And whilst 
the royal pair were passing their honey- 
moon,'witn all the joy the fierce freezing 
season and rugged country would per- 
mit, ambassadors from Anne*s motner, 
Sophia, arrived, with an inritation for 
them, if possible, to cross the mountains 
and pass the winter with her at Copen- 
hagen. The inritation was accepted; 
and James and his, after encoun- 
tering appnlling dargers, succeeded in 
crossing the icy snovr-fehrijuded Nor- 
wegian Alps, and on the twenty -first of 
January, voyaged over the stormy Sound 
from Sweden to Zealand, and were wel- 
comed to Cruoenbni^ Castle by Anne'a | 

mother, the Queen Rejgeat, Sophia; her 
brother, the young Kxnjr« Christian the 
Fourth ; the Duke of Srimswick, who 
was about to wed her sirter Eliiabeth, 
and the leading nobiee aad ladiee of the 
Danish Court. Here the royal pair 
were again married aoeording to the 
rites of the Lutheran Chwch ; and u 
Anne's dower, the Danish goTeranent 
iurrendered to Jamee the-lonr disputed 
sovereignty of the Orkney nod Shetland 
isles, and also agreed to pay him by in* 
stalments the sum of forty thoosami 
crowns. The royal wedding was eele- 
brated bj wild uproarious carouaei and 
disgraceful drinking bouttf, wkieh ooly 
more firmly rooted in James that de- 
basing vice of inebriation, in which, 
from bis earliest youth, he was woat to 
indul^. In one of hie letten to his 
council, he says, " We are at Crones- 
burg, drinking and driving in the aald 
style." After waiting to witness the 
marriage of the Duke of Bmnawick and 
Elizabeth of Denmark, James and his 
bride, at the earnest entreaty of the 
Scottish council, sailed from' Cmnen- 
burg on the twenty-second of April, 
ld90 ; and after a plrasant voyage, land- 
ed at Leith, on the first of the sne- 
ceeding month. Here they tarried till 
the sixth, when they proceeded to Edin- 
burgh, where both Anne and the King 
were welcomed by the nobles and the 
populace with a fnnzy of delight. 

James's first care, on reaching Edin- 
burgh, was to provide for his Queen a 
splendid coronation ; and as he was not 
worth a pound of ** ready siller,** he 
beg?ed loans and benevolences firom his 
lairds, telling them, in his own quaint 
manner, ** Te would na that your King 
suld seem an unco scrub at aic a time? 
And from those he could not borrow he 
begged, sayin?, "Ye will rather hurt 
yoursel vera far, than gloam out the 
poverty of your Prince.* On Sundky, 
the seventeenth cf May, the coronation 
was solemuiaed fccording lo the ancient 
ritual, and with all attainable pomp and 
magTiificence, by Mr. Robert Bruce, a 
minister, assisted by the Dukcof Lenoi, 
the Lord Hamilton, and Mr. Darid 
Lindsay. The coronation festiritiei 
lasted till the middle of Jnne^ whco tin 




_ mnd Queen paid a short Tisit to 
the rojral palace of Falkland, whither 
the Queen remoTed to her dower palace 
of Dunfermliiie, where she had scarcely 
irriTed, when her dower and revenue 
were finally amiDged, and her household 

At this period, Francis Stuart, that 
nephew of the late turbulent Hepburn, 
£»l of BothwelU to whom King James 
had granted the title of Both well, and 
who for some time had cherished hopes 
of succeeding to the crown of Scotland, 
was accused of having induced certain 
witchct to raise the tempests that had 
well nigh shipwrecked the Queen on 
htr late Toyage. Bothwell boldly de- 
clared the charge groundless, but as 
everybody, from the King down to the 
meanest peasant, believed in wizards, 
witches, and witchcraft, his reason- 
able defence was not listened to ; and to 
make the matter worse, several craay 
old women sought their own destruc- 
tion, by voluntarily giving themselves 
up as w'itches, and confessing that the^ 
had leagued with the sisters of their 
diabolical craft, in Scotland ond Nor- 
way, against the Queen; and that by 
baptizing a cat, and then tying four 
jnints of a dead man to poor pusn/s 
feet, and flinging her into the sea; 
at the same time loudly crying out, 
** Behold there is no deceit amongst us," 
they had raised the storm which drove 
her'Majfsty to Norway for refuge, with 
the intention of drowning her. Annis 
Simpson, one of these mono-maniocs, of 
her own free will confessed that she had 
thus written to Marian Lenchopi a 
witch at I^^ith. 

** Marion Lenchop, ye sal warn the 
rest of the sisters to raise the wind this 
day, at eleven hours, to stop the Queen's 
coming to Scotland." 

The neit day, she declared before the 
council, that, m compliance with this 
warning, the whole sisterhood of Scotch 
sorceressea, to the number of two hun- 
dred, met together at the midnight hour, 
St Mjme ruins in the neigh bouilio«)d of 
Ixilh, and after performing u lot of ub- 
anni mummeries, which \7ant of space 
prevents us fmm more thun mentioning, 
they, with bare arms and dishevelled 

hair, all put to sea : each one carried a 
flagon of^ wine, and embarked, not in a 
boat, but in a separate sieve, and ther 
all floated merrily on, chatting and quail- 
ing their nine, till they reached North 
B<-rwick church, where they landed, and 
forming a circle, danced round and 
round, singing in chorus — 

"Cummer, go ye before, 
Cummer, fpo ye ; 
Gif ye will not go before, 
Cummer, let me." 

Every one believed this absurd fiction 
but James ; and Annis, to convince him 
that she was a real witch, and had deal- 
ings with the evil one, called him aside 
and dispelled his .doubts, by whispering 
in his astonished car an exact deuil of 
all that had passed between him and the 
Queen when they first met in Norway.* 
Accordingly, Annis Simpson, after a 
lengthy tnal, which ser^-ed but to in- 
crease the absurd belief in witchcraft 
and necromancy, was sentenced to be 
" icerriit^ and afterwards brunt.*' 

Bothwell, on finding himself impli- 
cated in the confessions of Annis Simp- 
son, escaped from ])rison ; and from that 
day till the winter of 1593, continued to 
alarm the Queen and her attendants, by 
making desultory attacks on whatever 
palace tier Majesty happ<>ned to sojobrn 
in. Uis ohjei't, he gave out, was not to 
do personal injury to any one, but to 
obtain an auduncc with the King, to 
apologize to him, and to endeavour to 
convince him that he had had no deal- 
ings with the witches, and that the 
charge was vamped up against him by 
the cunning and malice of Chancellor 
Muitlund. Tlie aim, however, of Black 
Hothwell, as ho was called after his 
escape from prison, was higher than 
this ; for when, at the close of 1593, he, 
with a chosen band of rebels, found an 
entrance into Ilolvrood, where the King 
and Queen were then abiding, although 
he aficctcd great humility, ho virtuaUy 

* Jamea was a nincero believer In demoB- 
olf»f;y. From an i>1abi'rat«'ly-p(!nneil worlt ou 
wiu-hcraft, piiblihlicil flnit In Scotland, and 
aft**rwarU9 in Knglaud, be di;monHtrat«*d the 
«xiiiti>nc« uf witchra, and, as wan believed, 
aatijtfartorily RolTcd the intrresting questifin, 
*• Why the devil did work mors with ancient 
women thou otham f* 


made James and Anne hii priaonexv, and 
BO detained them till the srcat enemy of 
his faction, Chancc-llor Maitland, was 
displaced and banished from coort. 

In February, 1594, Anne's first-born — 
a son— entered the world, at Stirling 
Castle — an event which destroyed the 
hopes of Bothwell, dcprircd him of his 
Dartizans, and forced him to seek refuge 
m France, where he died, a few years 
afterwards. The rojal babe was chris- 
tened Henry Fredcnck, with the baptis- 
mal ritc-s of the Kpiscopal Church of 
Scotland; and Queen Elizabeth, who took 
upon herself the office of godmother, 
acnt by her proxy, as a " god-bairn gift" 
to the infant UenrVf a rich cupboard of 
gold and silrer plate, which being of 
great value, and James being much in 
want of money, ** was soon mcltet and 

The christening, which was solem- 
nizi-d with regal pomp and great re- 
joicing, gave infinite satisfaction to all 
concernt^d ; but immediately afterwards 
commenced a time of domestic trouble 
for the royal pair. The Queen, who, 
with all her faults and weaknesses, was a 
truly fond mother, on learning that, in 
compliance with the laws of Scotland, 
her infant was to be taken from her, 
and brought up in Stirling Castle, under 
the immtluiatc guardianship of the Earl 
and Countess oi Marr, was overwhelmed 
with maternal anguish, and, at the mo- 
ment of separation, she fell to the 
ground in a swoon. Month after month 
she be^od of the King to let her have 
the bniiging up of her own child. It 
availed nut that James assured her that 
the insane act would doubtless be death 
to himself, as some faction, to obtain the 
ascendancv, would depose, perhaps mur- 
der, the King, tear the child from his 
mother, and exercise uncontruUed regal 
power during his minority. To this 
and other reasonable arjruments, Anne 
onlv replied by tears, fooluih entreaties, 
and still more fiK>li8h threats; and at 
length her perversity so increased, that, 
to obtain possession of her darling one, 
she intrigued with the council, obtained 
a majority of them in her favour, and, to 
procure funds for a rebellious journey 
which she contemplatad making to Stir- 

ling, wrote to her jeweller the IbDoviig 
terte, pithy epiatle : — 


" I camcitW derire joapraMBtte 
sent me £200, with all espedition, be- 
cause I maun heat me away preteady. 


About this time, the King nve her 
permission to visit her eon at Stirling ; 
but as there was going to be a wedding 
there, she declared she would defer her 
visit, lest Man should conttme hcrpr^ 
sence at such a time into a personal omd- 
pliment. The Kin^, however, Inrted 
her to set forth, which ahe did with a 
most unwiUinff heut, and on reaehiBg 
Linlithffow, she feigned rifkniai, tooE 
to her bed, and dedared heiactf to bt 
too ill to proceed farther. Shortly afta^ 
wards, when the King was absent oa a 
progress, she planned an attempt to m^ 
prize Stirling Castle with an armed foree, 
and tear the infant Prince from the he- 
reditary guardianship of the Earl ef 
Marr. The Kin^ h^rd of her dei^gu, 
hastened home m time to prevent it, 
forced her to accompany him to Stiiiia^ 
pennitted her to sec and careH thcff 
chihl, and, on quitting the caitle, left 
the following written command with 
Marr: — 

*' My Lord Mare, 

** Because my own tnrvty con- 
sistcth in the surety of my son, whom I 
have entrusted to your keeping, on thi 
faith I have in your honesty, this 1 
command yon, out of my own month, 
being in company of those I like, other- 
wise for any charge or necemty which 
can come from me, you shall not, on any 
account, deliver him. And, in case of ay 
death, see that neither y^ fA« Qmttu nor 
the estates, their pleasure, yoa ddiTcr 
him till he be eignteen, and then not 
without he himscu command Ton to do 
so. This from your asenred fnend, 

"Jams, B." 
** StreveUng Castle^ Jans Sith, UM.* 

This injunction the King read abad. 
and delivered to Marr, in the preMoeeif 
the Qoeen, who^ withal, otmtiiQBd li 



Iffment henelf, taincj tbe Ein^, and 
embroil tho conncil, with tbe Tain hope 
of obtaining poMeosion of her younj* Eiin, 
till ber thougbti were, fur a period^ di- 
noted into another chanml, by tbe 
hirth of her iccond child, which t<i«ik 
phee at FalUand, on the fiftirenth of Au- 
gwt, 1696. The PrinccM was rliri?i- 
tcncd Kliaabetb, the city of Edinburjrh 
■food godmother to her, and she liveii ti) 
bo the heroic Protestant Queen uf liohc- 
nia — the anoeotress of our pnscnt So> 
nragiiy tho Lady Victoria, whom God 

On tho twcntj-fonrth of December, 
16DS, Anno brought into the wurld her 
daughter Margaret, at Dalkeith I'aloce ; 
and, at the cluo of the subsequent yi'ar, 
her ioo Bobert, who died in early in- 
hmtjf flnt «w tbe light. In Augiist, 
1600, the mjiterioos Gowric plot oc- 
emied. On the daj when Ju)in Ruth- 
Toa, Earl of Gowne, and bis brother, 
Alexander, hoped to assassinate the King, 
James, who, with the Queen, was ru- 
■ding at Falkland, rose with the sun, 
■ad when Anne asked him why he was 
iitir ao early ? he replied, " I am going 
a hunting, and hope to kill a fine buck 
bdbre noon.** But he had anotlier oh- 
joet in riew, on that crentful dav, bc- 
ndei chasing tbe deer. Alexander Ruth- 
Ten had informed him that a Jesuit, 
with a large pot-full of foreign gold coin, 
had been taken, and was then detained 
at his brother Ciowrie's house at IVrtli ; 
nd as it was desirable that the King 
ahonid examine him in private, Jamei*, 
OB returning from the hunt, could call 
there and do so, whiUt tbe hunting: party 
were taking refreshment. Accordingly, 
Jameo started out in the hope of enjoy- 
ing the chase, and afterwords seizing the 
foreign gold, and detecting a Popish \t\oi 
■gainst the goTcmmcnt. At noon, lie 
and two of his attendants pLlppcd frrjm 
the bunting-party, and went to Gowrie 
House and partook of nfreshments, afler 
which, Alexander Ruthvcn conducted the 
"Gng only, np a staircase, and tlirongb 
■ercnl apartments, the doqr> of which 
be locked behind him, into a small study, 
wliera stood a man clad in armour, with 
upmtd and dagger by bis side. The 
If who expected to have found ono 

disarmed and bouLQ, sthrtnl at the sight, 
and at that moment RuthTi n, snatching 
the diijriTt'r from the ;nrdlc of the man 
in armour, made a murderous awaQit on 
till* Kin>r, < xclaimin;* furiously, *' My 
father (iiiffLTi-d unjii?>tly by >rur com- 
manil; hiii inn<M:fnt bliiod c.ilU fur vcn* 
ffranctv and by tiiis dai'S^rr sliall that 
Vfnj»^:ince Ik; exttMit'-'l .*" James rx- 
postulati-d, f ntreatC'il, Miitt<re<], but to no 
purpose. " You sliall dii*!" shouted 
Uuihvcn, as he a^in sprun*; at th«; dis- 
armed numarrh witli th«.- fury <»f a huntnT 
ti^i^er ; a fivrce struggle ensued, in wliitii 
tlie man in armour took no part. The 
Kinj; d(;f<.nded himwlf bnireiv, and skilfully parrying the welf-aimed 
blows of the dcath-d'iing dairj^r. dri^<red 
Ruthvcn, who held him by the throat, 
to an ojK'n window, out of whiirh hr, us 
he best could, slioutetl, with all hiH might, 
** Treason ! tri-a.«i»n ! I urn miTlhirit ! 
Uelp, blip, Lord .Marr !" 

Ills att^'ndantfl heard and knew hif 
voice, and, louking up to tlie window, 
saw that hist face was re«l, and that a 
hand *'shan)ly gript-t his cheek and 
mouth." Tr«>y sited to his ussist;mcp, 
and the brave Sir John Raniiiay first en- 
tt-rinj^ the apartment, rushed up<m Ruth* 
vc-n, and thrust Lim towards th«! stairs, 
where Sir Thomas Krskine and Sir Hugh 
licrrii'S met and kiUe<l him. Gowrie 
now, with seven of his followers, fully 
armed, flew inU) the room, and loudly 
threatened to slay them all ; but, not- 
withstanding: tlie inequality of uumlHTS, 
the King's attf'udants bravely eneouu* 
tered them, when Ramsay slew (iowrio 
on the spot, and immediately afterwards 
his seven fullowers, all niainitd and 
b]eedin<r, fled for their lives. 

The report that James had lilain John 
and AK-xander Ruthven, but without 
any statement of the otlier partieulars, 
speedily rearhed the ears of the Queen, 
and her maid, I{eatric<.' Ituthven, sister to 
the departed Gowrie and his brother. 
lUatrico very naturally shed abun- 
dance of tears for the loss of her bro- 
thers; the Queen sympathizing with her ; 
and, when tho King returned, instead of 
flying into his arms and joyfully con- 
gratulating him on his fortunate i-scapo 
from tho assassin's dagger, she continued 

u u 


Is weqi, rnniBded him of hit vonli ; npnatd (or the BnthTcni, Tiiitcd bv, 
when be Ird hpr in the mamitip, and camMd her with cdhju^ Ii iiiIi iiiim 
lend him >he hrlieted in her hcatt that'ond nre to her tnidvilr tvnilT-di 
the RuthTrDs h»d not been conipiraton, | pound) thirteen ■hillingi and Ibiir-pnM 

but his Tictimi ; nor cnuM Jumn, at . Scota ; and to Juha Miu ■ ■ ■ ■ 

him the news of bcr conhnemeat, al^ 
I poundi Scut*. 

D 160Z, the peace of the raral |ait 
L iroi again ditturbtil. The Queen, ont 
r of pure, diiintercctcii compaMon, pri- 
ll Tatelj ir'nt fur poor Itealnoe Bolbna, 
I Mcreted her in tbe roTal nlacc at IIdIt- 
Towl the whole of one dar Mid Bight; 
I hod much confeTGDce with her, ptiid 
I and eeofoled her, and tent her awaT 
I loaded with giFU.. The ri^ilant Sit 
- Thomat Knklne delnted thia intcrricv, 
' and bclieTins: it la be the enihi;a tl 
I analher dantreruui plot, initantlf i>- 
■ parted his diwoTCTT to the Kins. Tht 
I iat(llij>encr sPiuMnl the anger wd jea- 
> lousy of Jamr* ; he crnw-qaeationed the 
Qiieen. had tlio domcatiea eiamintd, and 

, the wholo eaie thonniirblT inTHtinud; 

Anne gave hirth. at Dunl' herlbut, at last, came to the conjonoi 
tn^nd ion, whu wus christened Cliailn, ' that the tjuren bad neither done nv 
>nd alVTW.irds ufr.'ndud ibe thr<inc of meant anv harm in the matter, ail 
therefore immediatelT renimcd bii af- 
fivlionate manner lownrdi brr. Itwa 
tbcw ineidints that enabled the tfm 
and amhauailora at (he Seotttsb eamt, 
in IGO'J. to darkly hint that Anne bat 
been deteeinl in farnutiiig ■ eoBjpiney 
a^nsl the King's lUe, 

r afterwards, ci 

anwirdike accusation and auipicii 
and which, bjd Jlcnry the Eighth been 
ber hnslund. would have cust ber her 
bead, but whi h, as it was, -w-it, after o 
while, for^vcn by ber tender, indulgc&l 

The failure of tbe Gowrie plot was 
fcUnwed bv the disi^raee and utter ruin 
of the surviving Rulhvens. The dead 
bodies of John and Alexander were Co 
demned and quartered, and the unfu 
tunate l)eairi(c. although in no w. 
implicated in the conapitaer, was d 
pnvcd of all she pooessi-d, torn from 
the Queen, and driveB from Court '" 
acorn, want, and misery. 

On the ninrte.'Hth of November, 1600, 

£n:1and as Churhs the First. 
Cont'h<-mi-nt was tir,itr.ii:led, the child was 
liclily, and for aev-'ml weeks afterwards 
she was so feeble, that her life was dca- 
puired of. The King. who. u yet. bad 
scarcely foi^ven the niisplacLil sympathy 
•he hai), without caution or restraint. 

Jamn tuntfdi la the FjtflUk thnrnt—Janniri/t la Etglaml—LtUtr la mm* 
Ue«ry—Ji4uilicm IhroH—Saiuut u^rilltH iy Iht Kiitp—A»Hit rrMliaat tint 
la Slirling—J'riHff Brnrg it nilored la 'k€r—Hir Fn^rtmt to EitalmiU— 
Jamn hoUi a ChnpUr of tht Garltr ml Ji'iiidmiT—Conimtiim—Tln Flaam— 
Aminuadori — Raleigk aid Chiham—Conipiralon Irird—Tha Qmmk'i rima 
trrmHS ammtiHeati—ZiaH iail—Jltr pngrtH Dini^k tki City. 

eari'cr of Anae as whole inhuhiluiti of Britain, ai well is 
Qiii^en of Great iiii- himself, hud for some time anliripittd 
tain and Irtbnd. Un | the event jrliiuh was now hailed *i(k 
the day Ihul (Ineen I j<.v both hy the (English and tbe StuO, 
FJizabcth dii'd, the who tealim.-d their satiafactiun at lbs 
twenty-fourth of I union of the British idanda nndsv c«s 
March, 1U3, Janws I Mrerdgnty by thor nnn'i ■ a^ 



bonfires, th« boomine of otyl* 
and the ringing of bella. The 

It Queen Elizabeth breathed her 
ImI, liadj Scrope, who was attending 
her, Kcrctly dropped out of the window 
of the death-chamber a sapphire ring, 
which the King of Scots, who trusted 
lot too impliciuy in the faith of the 
Cecils, bad placed in her hands to senre 
•i a token of the important event. This 
rinff her brother, Sir Robert Carev, who 
had been long waiting beneath the 
window in anxious expectation, no sooner 
cusht up, thaa he hastened to Scotland 
■wift as hcnrse could cany him. lie 
icaebcd Holjrood Palace about two the 
neat morning, boldly knocked up the 
Cng, and, as be anticipated, was the first 
Co cQBTey to him the welcome intelli- 
genee ; and for his teal was created Earl 
ofMoamonth. Shortly afterwards an ex- 
pras from the privy council of England 
raclMd Holyrood, with a formal invit- 
ation for James to come to London, and 
anend the throne of England as James the 
fmi; an invitation he was nothing loth 
to aeeept ; but as England had proved 
fiital to ao many of his predecessors, he 
wisdy resolved to leave the Queen and 
hb children behind him, and in the first 
instance cross the border without his fa- 
luly, and with but a small armed force. 
He commenced his journey on the third 
of April, bade a fond farewell to Anne in 
High Street, Edinburgh, in the presence 
of the populace, who joined their tears 
and lamentatioiis with those of their 
deeply afeeted Qaeen ; and as time did 
not permit him to pay a visit to his heir, 
Prince Henry, whom he left in the 
strongly garrisoned castle of Stirling, 
under the protection of the Earl of 
Marr; he, at his departure, addressed 
to him the following sensible fatherly 
epistle: — 

"Mt Sow, 

**That I see you not before my 
psrtin^, impute it to this great occasion, 
wherein time is so precious ; but that it 
shall, by God's grace, shortly be recom- 
penced oy your comming to me shortly, 
and continual residence with mo ever 
after. Let not these neirs make you 
or iMolait, fiir a Kiag^s son and 

heir you were before, and no more eze 

J re yet; the augmentation that is hereby 
ike to fall unto you is but in cares and 
heavy burthens, be therefore merry but 
not insolent ; keep a greatness, but sine 
faslUf be resolute but not willful; keep 
your kindness, but in honourable son 
choose none to be your play-fellows but 
them that arc wcU bom ; and above all 
thines, give never good countenance to 
any but according as ye shall be iu formed 
that they ore in estimation with me. 
Look upon all Englishmen that shall 
come to visit you as upon your loving 
subject, not with that ceremony as to* 
wards strangers, and yet with such 
heartlyness as at this time they deserve. 
This gentleman whom this bearer ac- 
companys is worthy and of good rank, 
and now my familiar servitor ; use him 
therefore in a more homely loveing sort 
than others. I send you herewith my 
book, lately printed ; studdy and pront 
in it as ye would deserve my blessing ; 
and as there can no thing happen unto 
you whereof ye will not find the generall 
ground, therein if not the very particular 
point touched, so must ye level every 
man's opinion or advices unto you as ye 
find them agree or discord with the rules 
there set down, allowing and following 
their advices that agrees with the same, 
mistrusting and frowning upon them 
that advise yon to the contrary. Be 
diligent and earnest in your studies, that 
at your meeting with me I may praise 
you for your progress in leammg ; be 
obedient to your master for your own 
weal and to procure my thanks, for in 
reverencing him ye obey me and honour 
yoursell. Farewell. 

" Your loving father, 
" James, R." 

The book which the author-King 
sent with this letter, was entitled ** The 
Basilicon Doron ; or, his Majesty's In- 
structions to his dearest son, the Prince." 
Although it inculcated the Divine right 
of Kings with a vehemence scarcely suited 
to the present age, it met vrith the com- 
mendations of Bacon, Locke, Uume, 
and others. 

The following sonnet addressed to 
Prince Henry, which would not dis- 

AHRE or DnnuKK, 

of tb»t time, we el- 
* (peciotcD of King 

ilgbtyKfug divine." 

The gabjaiDed •onnot, alao addmsed 
to PiincG Uenr]', altbongh not appearing 
in the " KaitlicoB Dorun," as printLii, 
iaprefiiod to ttie autograph of llna work, 
ID King Jamra'i own hand, and nhicb 
ii dill eiUDt ia the Bntuh Muaeum— 

iiUs fniDd Iha ti 

■ |rii)d «d.»i« nnl 
wit tei^aithitf, 

When James bade farewell to the 
Queen, who at the time wai acreral 
months advanced in pregnaacj, he made 

1 fur her 

■ foUoo 

D England 
L> crerj readei 
of general history knows, was so much 
Ml, that une of Lho Scotch noblce tntTel- 
Hng in hii train was beard to eicUim: 
" 1 hae Soatheroni wul ipoil a gnde 
Sing." In fact, at thii period, the 
King enjoyed an enviable felicity ; bul 
H eiDemca meet, the folly and penenitj 
ot Anne waa. at the same time, prepar- 

nrand of domertie tnnildea. Tlidr warn. 
Prince Henry, newly excited ber Kareely 
controllable feeliiiga of natefUity 1^ 
an oSectiunate letter, congratnlaliiig bv 
on the acceuion of hii father to the 
Knelish throne, lamenting the abaenee 
of both his parenta; ana eiprewng a 
hope, that as the King win too bi off, 
tbe Uuecn, bis mother, would par him 
a Titit. When Anne received thia letto', 
James had ordered tlie man die baled 
aboTe all othen, the upright Eail of 
Marr, to EnzUnd ; and the siomeiit he 
hod departed sho mnatered a Mnng 
party of the nobles of ba factini, haa- 
lencd to Stirling Castle, and endcaToued 
to intimidate the old Connleaa of Hair 
into the aurrender of the Piinee. Tha 
Connies* admitted tbe Qoeen into tha 
caslle, but coorageoosly refoaed eDtTansa 
to her anned atlendimta; and when 
Anne made preparations to take her son 
away with her, tbe Coonteaa dedaied, 
that she had the King's wnrraDt fw hia 
detention, and that nothing short of an 
equal authority shonLd induce bar to 
Burrendec him. A stormy acene enaoed, 
force was threatened; and in tbe end 
thcQucenwascarriudtabedia bnlerica, 
and B)iortl> aflerwardi gave p 


^Then King Jaaca 
ligenco [of tbia anpUanat 
ijugal tendeme^ be bora 

Uosolving to Tt-More her to health at any 
wcriBce, lie instanlly dispatohed Lom 
Lennoi to meet tbe Eari of Hair, who 
woa on his road to London, and to da- 
liver to him two royal oiden ; one beti^ 
a command for him to haatcn in IM 
company of LeDnoi to Stirling, and ■>- 
deaTOur to appease tbe Qaem ; and the 
other, a letter for Uair to give to tha 
Queen, authorizing her to reeave dMrga 
of Prince lienrj', and couduct him to 
Holyrood. Marr and I^nnor met at 
York, and instantly hurried on to Stil- 
ling. Their arriral threw the Qbms 
into a Iresta paraiysm of rage, and in- 
creased ber illnesa, whilst aocfa waa ha 
malice, or perversity, that the would 
neitber tee the Earl nor accept tbe PriM* 
from Ilia banda. In thia dilrmma tta 
King was again applied In, aail afiN ha 



bb rebellions contort, without beings able 
to induce ber to complj with his wish, 
be directed Marr to consign rrincc 
Henry to I^ennox, who would hand him 
orer to the Queen in due form. This 
urangrment appeased the wrath of the 
narrow-minded, self-willed Anne, who 

Xircd with ber first-born to Uoh-rood, 
re she took immediate mcasofes for 
ber departure for England. 

The King, when at Berwick, on his 
progre« to liondon, bad written to the 
English PriTj Council, as follows : 
** > orasmucb as we do intend to bring 
into this realm, as soon as possibly we 
can, both the Queen, our irjf/ir, and our 
two elder children, which be able to 
abide the traTil, wo must recommend 
to your consideration, the sending hither 
of soeb jewels and other furniture which 
doth aopertain to the bte Queen, as you 
shall tnink to be meet for her [Queen 
Anne's] estate. And also coaches, norscs, 
liuers, and whatsoever else you shall 
think meet*' But the Privy Council 
barinr eome to the conclusion that it 
was iUegal to send the crown jewels out 
of England, refused to comply with this 
reqneat ; and James, in a second letter, 
wntten nine days afterwards, at Tope- 
liff, sayi, *' Toniehing the jewels to be 
sent for our wife, our meaning is, not to 
have any of the principal jewels of state 
aent, bot only such as oy the opinion of 
the ladies attendant about the late Queen, 
our sister, yon shall find to be meet for 
the ordinary apparrelling and ornament 
of ber ; the rest may come after, when 
ibe iludl be nearer hand. But we have 
thought good to put you in mind, that 
it suiil be eonvenient, besides jewels, 
yon send some of the ladies of all de- 
grees, who were about the late Queen, 
as soon as the funeral* be passed, to 
meet ber as far as they can, at her entry 
into the realm, as soon after, for that w'c 
bold needful for ber honour. And that 
they do speedily enter into their journey, 
for that wa would have her here with 
the aooneat; and as for horses, litters, 
eoaehea, and other things of that nature, 
whereof we baTt heretofore written, for 

* The AiMnl of Queen EUaabeth, which 
WM eoUnnnlsad befora either JaaMs or Anne 
artlvedla Loodon. 

her use, wo have thought good to let 
you know, that the proportion men- 
tioned in your particular letter to us, 
ehull suffice, in our opinion, for her. And 
so you may take order for the sending 
of them away with the ladies that arc to 
come as before, as you shall think meet- 
est." With this request the Privy Coun- 
cil willingly complied, and on the second 
of Juno, Anne, neing sufficiently reco- 
vered in body and mind, set forth in her 
progress to London. Prince Uenry and 
the Princess Elizabeth accompanied her, 
but the " babie Prince Charles" being 
young and delicate, was left at Dunferm- 
line under the guardianship of Lord Fife. 
At Berwick, wuere ber household was 
to be settled, that she might enter Eng- 
land with a retinue becoming her dig- 
nity, she found waitin^^^ her arrival, the 
Earls of Sussex and Lincoln, the Lords 
Compton and Xorris, Sir George Carew, 
who James had appointed to be ber 
Chamberlain, the Countesses of Worces- 
ter and Kildare, and the Ladies Anne 
Ilerbert, Scrope, and Richard Wabing- 
ham ; but such was the Queen*s love of 
old faces, or rather perversity, that she 
would not appoint one of these to her 
service ; and Knowing the power she hod 
over the mind of her too fona husband, she 
tormented him by sending applicant after 
applicant to be confirmed in places which 
ho very wisely had reserved for other, 
and, under the circumstances, far more 
suitable persons. Nor was the difilculty 
arrangca till after the Kine had thrown 
himself into a rage, sworn oreadfid oaths 
at some dozen of his disobedient consort's 
candidates, and at last vowed by all that 
was sacred, that he would cut oflf the head 
of the next applicant ; a threat which 
none of the Queen's nominees had the 
courage to brave. 

From Berwick the Queen and her 
children went in procession to York, 
where, on the eleventh of June, the 
Mayor, Aldermen, and citizens conducted 
them into the city with all considerable 
masnificenco, presented them with va- 
luable gifU of money, plate, and jewels, 
and entertained them with regal splen- 
dour till the fifteenth of June. On that 
day they went to Grimstono, where the 
Queen addrcisod the following pkoiing 


little note, letter it can acarcdy be called, 
to the King. 

" My heabt, 

'* I am glad that Haddington hath 
told me of your Majesty's good health, 
which I wish to continue. As for the 
blame you charjyc me with, of lazy writ- 
ing, I think it rather r(«ts on yourself, 
because you be so slow in writing as my- 
self. I can write of no mirth but of 
practising of tilting, of riding, of drum- 
ming, and of music, which is all, where- 
with I am not a little pleased. So wish- 
ing your Majesty perpetual happiness, I 
kiu your Majesty's hand, and rest your 

"Anna, K." 

At Din^ley, near Leicester, the Queen 
parted with her daugliter Elizabeth, 
who was conducted to Tx>rd Harrington's 
seat of Combe Abbey, in the nei^libour- 
hood of Coventry, where she resided for 
seTeral years, and completed her educa- 
tion under the tutorsliip of her goror- 
nesses, the Indies Harrington ana Kil- 
dare. From Dingley, the royal travel- 
lers proceeded to Althorp, near Nor- 
thampton ; where, as they paissed through 
the jHirk on the evening of the twenty. 
fifth of June, they were entertained by 
a masque of fairies, produced by the 
transcendant genius of Ben Jooson, and 
performed in the open air, with the 
woods and verdure of an English park 
for the scenery, and with no other lights 
than the glorious lamps of heaven, which 
on that bright Midsummer night beamed 
down from the dark firmament with sil- 
very softness, and rendered the magical 
scene doubly enchanting. 

The next station of the royal progress 
was East Nestor, the seat of Sir Geoi^ 
Farmer, where they were met by the 
King and his retinue, who, after accom- 
panying them to Grafton, the seat of 
the Earl of Cumberland, and to Solden 
House, tlic mansion of the Fortescues, 
conducted them to Windsor Castle. 
The King and Queen tarried for several 
weeks at Windsor, and held court there 
with great splendour. On the second 
of July, James held a chapter of the gar- 
ter, and created his son Henry, and se- 
Tarai Engiiih and Scotch noUn, knights 

of the order ; to which the Kfaif of Dc^ 
mark and the Dnke of WerteBhoKh 
were at the same time elected. **I^ 
day of the garter fcativaL" aaja tht 
chronicler, *' the great laoiet of Ear- 
land, in honour of the Queen, and ta 
discharge of their duties, came to tho 
court at Windsor, to perfonn their ho- 
mage to her hiffhness. Tber, with 
great reverence, kneeling one oy tmt, 
kissed her Majesty's hand, and it wis 
hard to discern, whether the mildiiesof 
the sovereign, or the hnmility of tkt 
subject was greatest" 

The King had long appointed his 
saint day, the festival of St. James, for 
the performance of his coronation ; aad, 
although the Cobham and Baleigh cos- 
spiracy had just been discovered, and a 
dangerous mortality raged in the dty, 
he would admit of no postponemoit 
This haste was necessary, as an opiaioa 
prevailed, that since parliament had not 
settled the succession, James conld not 
be viewed as the actnal possessor of the 
sovereignty of England till after he had 
been crowned. Aoout the twentieth of 
July the royal pair removed to Hamp- 
ton Court, where the King created seve- 
ral earls and barons. On the twenty- 
second their Majesties proceeded 1^ 
water to St. James's Palace ; and the 
King, to avoid the plague, there aiadt 
Knights of the Bath preparatory to his co. 
ronation, instead of holmng court for that 
purnose, as was customary, at the Tower. 
'* Also," says the chronicler, **byreasoo 
of the dreadful pestilence then ra^inrin 
the City of London, as God*s visitatioa 
for our sins, and the plots which it was 
said were hatching against his Majesty's 
life, the King rode not from the Tower, 
through the city, in royal manner, as 
was customary at coronations, and to 
prevent the spread of the contag;ion — 
eight hundred and fifty-seven persons 
having died that week of the pUffus 
only, in the city and suburbs of London 
—all the citizens, excepting the Lofd 
Mayor and Aldermen, were forbidden 
by proclamation to come to Westmin- 
ster. On the twenty-fifth of Jnly, being 
Monday, and the feast of St. James, the 
King, with his consort, tho noblo tad)* 
Qoeen Anne, were together ciowMl «al 



diop of Canterbury, in the 
the nobility, in their robes 
I ; and the Lord Mayor and 
f London, in gowns of crim- 
irlet ; and twelve wealthy 
9 were permitted to attend 
louffh the angust ceremony 
ilea in haste, and stripped 
ap and circamstances" of a 
, it was stated by royal pro- 
bat the King and the Queen, 
mm, Prince Henry, would 
ens a ceremonious yisit, and 
their hospitality, as soon as 
» bad abated. The Queen, 
ation, offended the religious 
vf her English subjects, by 
idee the sacrament according 
of the church of England ; 
idi doubtless proceeded from 
eonacience, and for which 
ee cannot be blamed, cspe- 
I had already, to please the 
en the church of Luther, in 
lad been educated, for the 
lith of Scotland. 
elf after the coronation, the 
ed to Woodstock, where 
Lnne sojourned till the mid- 
nnber. The pestilence fol- 
track, and cut off several of 
s ; and it raged in the city 
rfbi severity, that the courts 
removed, Bartholomew Fair 
I within fifty miles of the 
rere suspended, and at lust 
d several proclamations for 
BT further increase of build- 
oespite the pestilence, the 
iUiant with foreign ambas- 
ordinary, who had arrived 
*, Spain, and Flanders, to 
the King and Queen on 
OB to the English throne, 
gne for the favour of the 
noe, now that ho was mo- 
1 the British isles. The 
ther, Ulric, Duke of Hol- 
Iso arrived, and charmed by 
Bd beauty of Arabella Stu- 
i st&r of the English court, 
ivoured to win ncr heart, 
rabella was the next heir to 
r JSngland after James and 

his family ; and although the plot for 
which Raleigh, Cobham, and their asso* 
ciates were imprisoned, had, for its ob- 
ject, to *^ kill the King and his cubs," 
and place Arabella on the throne, James 
was so convinced of the entire innocence 
of that lady, that he allowed her to take 
precedence of all other ladies at court, 
next to the Queen, during the period 
that the Princess Royal was receiving her 
education. On the seventeenth of Sep- 
tember the court removed to Winches- 
ter, where it remained whilst Raleigh, 
Cobham, and the other conspirators 
were tried. The trials were long and 
tedious, and although the evidence ad- 
duced was neither clear nor conclusive, 
the conspirators were found guilty, and 
condemned as traitors ; but, wiUi the 
exception of two priests and Georse 
Brook, not executed. They were brought 
to the scaffold one by one, and after 
making their confession and preparing 
themselves for the block, informed that 
the King had commuted their sentence 
to banishment or imprisonment Raleigh, 
whose execution had been fixed for the 
subsequent Monday, was informed that 
it was for the present deferred. He re- 
mained a prisoner in the Tower, where 
he wrote his History of the World. The 
Queen pitied him, believed him inno- 
cent, and obtained for him many indul- 

The Queen and her ladies had a dull 
time of it during this autumn : a dread 
of plots and the plague confined them 
within the walls of Winchester Palace ; 
where, to dispel the gloom of the dreary 
November evenings, they played at 
"Titter my tat," "Merry trotter," 
" Rise, pig, and go," " Run, bull, and fetch 
it," ana other juvenile sports, which they 
had learned in their infancy. To atone 
for the dreary life the Queen and lier 
ladies had led during the autumn, the 
King caused the Christmas festivals to 
be graced by masques, ballets, iind other 
magnificent entertainments, in which 
their Majesties and the leading nobles 
and ladies of the court acted the part of 
gods, goddesses, fays, furies, ond river 
nymphs. The King, to redeem hii pro- 
mise of paying a state visit to the citr 
immediately the pestilence had abatec^ 



bronght tho Queen and Prince Henry in 
priTatc to the Tower, on the thirteenth 
of March, 1604. On their iiay, the royal 
jMurtypaid a private visit to Gre^ham's Mx- 
change ; ana on taking tip their lodgings 
at the Tower, says tho coutinuator of 
Stowe, Tisitcd nil' the officii and store 
houses in that vonerabU- fortress, includ- 
ing the Mint, when; bt»th the King and 
Quei'U coined s-inie money witli their 
own hands. They tlicn went to set- 
the lions, whi-n the King, on being told 
that the English mastitt' di>g was as cou- 
rageous as the lion, requcsti'd I'^ward 
AUen, late servant to the I<ord Admiral, 
but now sworn Prince Henry's man, 
and the master of the bear gardens, to 
fetch secretly three of the savajgest mas- 
tiflfs in tho garden, which being done, 
the King, Queen, and Prince, with 
four or five lords, went to the lions' 
tower, and caused the finest lion to be 

Sut into a separate den with one of the 
ogs. The dog instantly fli-w at the 
head of the lion, but the fierce carnivora 
immLMliately shook him off, seized him 
by the throat, and dashed him about 
the den. The King perceiving that al- 
though the dog was couraguuus, the 
lion, on account of his superior stn^ngth, 
had the best of it, ordered another dog 
to be put in the den. The mastitf in a 
moment sprang at the lion's face, but 
was as speedily shook off again by the 
angry king of the forests ; wlien the last 
and tlie fiercest of the dogs was set on, 
he seized the lion by the lip, and in return 
was !»o pawed and clawed, that at length 
he let go his liold, when the lion, although 
80 exhausted that he could n<»t bite with 
any degree of force, seized him by the 
throat, and dragged him, as he had done 
the former dogs, about the den. Whilst 
this encounter was taking place, the 
other two dogs were fighting together 
in the lower room of the den ; now, 
therefore, to enliven the sport, the lion 
was driven down to them, in the hope 
that he would attack them, but instead 
of doing s<i, he, on coming down, leaped 
over them, and rushed into an inner den, 
where he roared till the earth shook 
again, and out of which he could not be 
made to come. Thun endcil the cruel 
■port, which so excited the attention of 

tho augost beholden, that Prince Ilcnr/ 
charged Edward Allen to keep the onl? 
one of the three dogs who recorervd 
from the wounds received in the terrific 
encounter, and make much of him, nr- 
ing, *' he that hath fought with t&e 
king of beasts ihould never afterwards 
figlit with any inferior creature." 

On the fifteenth of March, the King 
and Queen, with their eon. Prince Uemy, 
pussi-d triumphantly firom the Tovcr 
through the city of London to Wi^t- 
niinstt.-r. The City Companies, mar- 
shalled according to' their degrees, were 
placed in due oraer, the first beginning 
at the upi)cr end of Mark Laae, and the 
last reaching to the conduit in FlM 
Street, their seat4 being double, railed 
upon the up|H.T part, whereon ther 
leaned. Thtir streamers, ensigni, aa^ 
banners, were set up in their retpective 
places ; and diriKrtlv against- them, and 
right through the C^itv to Temple Bar. a 
single mil was erected, at a fair distance 
from the other, to keep back the multi' 
tilde. The King, richly mounted on a 
white jennet, and under a rich canopy, 
sustained bv eight gentlemen of the 
privy chamSer, for the borons of the 
Cinuue Ports, entered his royal citv of 
London, and with the Queen and Pnnee 
Henry, also clad in rich array, passed 
on, with a numerous and eorgeous train, 
towards Westminster, through seven 
triumphal gates. The first gate was 
erected at the east end of Fenchunh 
Street, and on its top was a perfect mo- 
del of Old London, extending the full 
width of the street, and showing the 
whole Tliames front of the City, with all 
its churches and buildings minutely and 
elaborately detailed. 1 he second gate, 
a most sumptuous piece of workmanship, 
was loftily raised in Gracechurch Street, 
by the Italians. The third was raised, 
by the Dutch, upon ComhilL by the 
Kxchange, and represented the screntet-n 
provinces of lloUand. Close to Mildrtil 
church, in the Poultry, a atage was 
t-rected, where, at the cost of tlie City, 
to delight the Queen with the muBC of 
her native land, the Danish March wai 
performed, with great aoeuracr, by a 
band of nine trumpets and a kettte^drom. 
The fourth gate, through which their 


,._ .. .. rthe 

____, a the Sopn- Lane end of Weit 
Clicap. Aditiining the cut roA nf the 
gnal cron in Cheapside wai erected a 
MjiuTF, low ptllery, fuur feet bigh, and 
Kt round with piliiittn. vhero lUrod Clic 
aldrTTneo, the cbamhcrlain, Ibe town- 
clpTk, and the council of the City, nad 
Sir Juhn Hontafrac, the citj nvoidcr, 
who dcliTcrcd the fullowing flattering 
■ddna U the Einr :— 

>' Uifh. impcritd MajesCv, — It ii not 
Jet a jeat in daji unce, irttli the accla- 
mation of the pniptc, (he citiicoe, und 
the nobtci anipiciouilr here, at thia 
crow, «■> proelnimed ^our tme fluccea- 
noa to the cnnm. ir then it vju joj- 
ooa, with hata, hand), and hrarta lifted 
BpwanU to heaTCD, to ccj 'King Junes,' 
what i* it now to we King Jamct! 
Cone, therefore, worthint of Kingi, 
m a cloiiaBa bridei^room through jrour 
nTaT chamber ; but to come nearer — 
aifaf futm fiurimtu. Tirent j and more 
•re tbe iOTcrcigni wo hare aerred itnco 
onr ConqufM : but, eoiKjucror of hearts ! 
it ii jon and jourpoitenlf thatwc hsTC 
Tovc^ to lore, and «iih to aerrf, whilit 
London ii a city. In pledge, thereof. 
»f Lotd Major, aod the aldermen, and 
(he eammoni of thi> cilj, wiihing jou a 
floriona rci^ preient tout greatncu 
with a little cap of gold. 

On the Eoncliuion of thU fidsotno ad. 
dim, the Eetonler, in the name of the 

Lord Major and the whole City, pre- 
Kuted a cup of gold to tho King, another 
to the Queen, and a third to the yonn^ 
Prince Henry. Alter which, their Ma- 
jesties proceeded forward to tbe litlle 
conduit at Paul's Gate, where fas placed 
thcfiAh gale, arbour-tike, and therefore 
called the Arbour of Music. Through 
tliu tiiPT passed lo St. Paul's Ihureh- 
yord, wlieru the ehoriatera of SL Paul's 
chaunted an anthem, as they slowlrpro- 
cccded furWRrdi and, at St. l^ul's 
School, an address in Latin was read to 
them by one of the schoUm. The sixth 
gale WHS a large tiiuinphal anh, eieclcd 
nuar the conduit in Fleet Street, and on 
which a large clobc of the world mored, 
frreatly to the delight of the Queen and 
Prince, who halted outside of the arch 
furseTcral minutes la gtati^ their nua- 
rel-loTing eyes. At Temple Bar, wheio 
the King bade a princely farewell to the 
Lord llayot and the City, the MTenlh 
and lust gate was erected, in imitation 
of the Temple of Janui. In the Strand 
was erected, by the city of U'eatminstrr 
and the duthy uf Lancaster, a splendid 
pageant of a rainbow, with tbe sun, 
moon, and stara adtaneing between two 
prrumids. Thiir Slajestics stnnped 
awhile to gaze ou this crude, childiih 
orrer]', and then proceeded on to St. 
James's, where tbe procession ended, and 
the King, Queen, and I'rince parifit the 


isM tmat/»r Friiut CMarlrt—RBsal miuguei—SiriA o/rrmrtu Unry—Firri mgel 
fnlfttml ttptitm in Englund—OmiKKder pUl— Vittt of Clirittian llu FburIK-— 
^m furthatet Ttnialdi — Utr exiracagaHtt — Lbbi ef em^ tporti — IiiMlaUaliiH 
tftlu Primet of Wala—Ortrhury and Carr—Btath of frinet Hlmy—Aniu 
mmiuhu hu—Marnagt ofhfr daughltr Elizabtth—OommnM ViBim la Ike Kinp 
—Htr kIttniB ViUUri—Viiil ta Ijidlti' Mall—FalU litk—Iultrtata far Sir 
WMtr BmltifS— Gnai tcatu-Taka lo her btd—ProfttMti ktrtelfa I^lnlmt— 
Jmtartuic Kith FHhc* Chcrla—ller Ittafh~rimiral—21iui«gjtacU—ii>ilaph. 
him who rushed to Scotland with the 
first news of Queen Eliiabcth'a death. 
The Prince, when he oniTcd in England, 
was between Ibicc and four years old, 
and in a misiTably crippled stale, but, 
under tbe juilieious management of Ijidy 

the youn^ Pnnce 
Charles, being sickly 
','A and ricketr, was 
'^'l brought to t^ngland. 
PA and.l>y the Uutcn'i 
^ dcaire, placed under 
the care of L«dy 
Otnj, IL« «ib 9tiki HobcTt Carey, 

daily g'iin 

strength ; and, at last, to the infinite jor 

of tus parents, walked, pnttted, ud 


pkycd with otse and sprightUness. On 
Twelfth Day, 1605, ho was formally 
created Duke of York. The royal boy 
and several noblea were, at the same 
time, installed Knighu of the Bath, 
and the Qnecn celebrated the occasion 
hy taking part in lien Jonson's cele- 
brated *' Jlask of mackness/' The fiicile 
poet, in compliance with the Tulgar 
taste of her MajcstT, introduced into this 
entertainment twelve African nymphs, 
daughters of the Niger, who maoe a 
Toyflge to England in search of a wash 
to whiten their complexions. The parts 
of these negresses, who did nothing bnt 
dance, were sustained by the Queen and 
the other ladies, with blackened faces, 
and the first scene displayed them seated 
on an enormous shell of mother-of-pearl. 
In regard to the Queen, who, observes 
Odbom, was gifted with **a skin far 
more fair and amiable than the features 
it covered," the choice of this repubive 
disguise was peculiarly injudicious, and 
cast a grotesque air over the whole per. 
formance, which Sir Dudley Carleton, 
an eye-witness of the scene, thus de- 
■cribes : — 

'* At night, we had the Queen's mask, 
or rather pageant, in the banqueting- 
bouse. There was a great engine at the 
lower end of the room, which had mo- 
tion, and in it were the images of sea- 
horses, and other terrible fishes, which 
were riddon by Moors. The indecorum 
was, that there was all fish and no water ; 
at the further end was a great shell, in 
form of a scallop, wherein were four 
seated ; on the lowest sat the Queen, 
with my l^ady Bedford ; on the rest were 
placed the Ladies Suifolk, Derby, Rich, 
Effingham, Ann Herbert, Susan Iler- 
bcrt, Elizabeth Howard, Walsingham, 
and Devil. Their appearance was rich, 
but too light and courtesan-like for 
f uch great ones. Instead of visors, their 
fact>s and arms, up to the elbows, were 
painted block, which was disguise suf- 
ficient, for they were hard to l^ known ; 
but it became them nothing so well as 
their own red and white ; and you can- 
not ima;^nc a more ugly sight than a 
troop of kan-oheeked Moors. The Spa- 
nish and Venetian ambassadors were 
both presentf and sat bv the King, in 

state, at which Monsieur BeanmoBt 
quarrels so extremely, that he saith the 
whole court is Spanish. But, by his fii- 
▼our, he should fall out with none bnt 
himself, for they were all indiffvrentJj 
invited to come as jprirate men to a pn- 
vate sport, which, no refusing, the Spa- 
nish ambassador willingly accepted ; and 
being there, seeing no cause to the con- 
trary, he put off Don I^is and toofc^ 
upon him El Senor Embaasadonr, whoneii 
he outstripped our little Monsieur. He 
took out the Queen, and foigot not to 
kiss her hand, though there was daiucr 
it would have left a mark on his hps. 
The night's work was conduded with a 
banquet in the great chamber, which 
was so furiously assaulted, that down 
went tables and treesels before one bit 
was touched." 

It was certainly unwise of the Queen 
to blacken her features, and, on that 
night of festivity, display her lean cheeks 
in the unbi'commg disgiuseof anold ne» 
gress, especially as she was by no means 
(leticient in personal beauty. Cardinal 
Bentivo^lio, who was her contemporarji 
says, "• The Queen of England is one of 
the handsomest princesses of her time. 
She speaks the Italian languas^ with 
fiuency, shows a noble spirit, and is sin* 
gularly graceful, courteous, and affsble. 
She delights, beyond measure, in praises 
and admiration of her beauty, in which 
she has the vanity to think that she has 
no ecjual. Hence she makes public ex- 
hibition of herself in a thousand ways, 
and with a thousand different inventions, 
and sometimes to so gr^t an excess, that 
it has been doubted which went furthest 
— the King, in the ostentation of his 
learning, or the Queen, in the displav of 
her beauty. The Queen is mnch attached 
to the free mode of life customary in 
England ; and as she is rery affable, she 
often puts it in practice with the ladies, 
whom she admits to the greatest in- 
timacy, visiting them by turns in their 
own houses, where she diveits henelf 
with private amusements, laying aside 
all the dignity and majesty of a pnneetf." 
Other contemporaries draw a le« &- 
vourable portrait of Anne of Denmark. 
One writer, Molino, itates, that ** ahe ii 
ordinary in oountenanoa and poc^ ad 



iBflnpportably proud and disdainful to 
errry one> but tiiow she likrs.'* 

Jamc-A 18 drwribod in equally yarions 
c^liiun hr dilftTont authoritii-ii. Cardinal 
i'li^nrivocrlio naj^, ** he is rather above the 
middJo size, of a fair and florid com- 
nlr\:<tn, and of lineaments very nobl«? to 
rit'hold. liut, in his carriaj^o and de- 
meanour, he- discovers neither grace nor 
dignity ; and he cats and drinks to ex- 
tr^. and disregards all regimen." Per- 
hu{», however, the most curious picture 
«if Kinr James the First is that by Bal- 
funr. vno says, *' lie was of midtfle sta- 
ture, more corpulent, throghc )iis clothes, 
then in his bodcy, zet fatt enouch ; his 
ciuthcs ever beinf^ made lan^ and easie, 
the douUetts quilted for stelleto proufe, 
his breeches in grate pleits, and fully 
stuffed. lie was naturally of a timorous 
difpositione, which was the greatest rca- 
sone of his quilted doubletts. His eyes 
Urge, ever roulling after any stran^r 
cam in his presence, in so mnch as being 
out of countenance. His beard whs 
wer^y thin, his toun^ too largo for his 
mouthc, and made him drinke werey on- 
comlie. as if eatting his drinke, wich cam 
out into the cnpc on each sydc of his 
mouthe. His skin vas als softc as tafata 
eartnet, wich felt so because he never 
wvht his hands, onlicrubb'd his fingers 
ends slightly viUi the vet end of a nup- 
kin ; his legs wer verey wcakc, having 
had (as was thought) some foulc playc 
in his ynuthe, or rather before ho was 
borne, 'that he was not able to stand at 
seven zoires of ago ; that weaknis made 
him ever leaning on other men's shoul- 
den.*' Wilson, who describes him as 
being ** fond of such representations and 
disguises in their maskaradoes as were 
ridiculously witty and sudden," declares 
that, on one occasion, ** a sucking pig — 
an animal which the King held in the 
utmost abhorrence —was swathed as an 
infant alwut to be christened. The 
CuunteM of Ituvkingbam, disguised as a 
midwife, brought i^ wrapped up in a 
rich mantle ; the Duke attcndtnl as god- 
fathi-r ; l'uq>in, in lawn slcuves, as nii- 
xti»t*T', anuthir brought a silver ewer 
with watLT ; but, just as the service com- 
mvnci-d, the pretended child betrayed 
itself by its cry, and the King turned 

aside, exclaiming, *Away, for shame, 
away ! '" 

On the seventh of April, 1605, Anne 
gave birth to a daugliter at Greenwich. 
As the King resolved to give tho Prin- 
cess the namo of his own unfortunate 
mother, she was christened Mary, with 
the first I'rotestant baptismal rites that 
had ever been administered to a roval 
infant in Encrlund. The christenrng 
was solemnized, with regal pomp, in tlie 
chapel of Greenwich Palace; and the 
sponsors, Lady Arabella Stuart, and 
Duke Ulrick, the Queen's brother, who 
shortly afterwards returned to Denmark, 
presrnltil the babe with valuable gifts. 
On the Whitsunday following, the Qiiem 
was churched ; the ceremony performed, 
being, with a trifling excfution, that 
prescribed in the present Hook of Com- 
mon Praver by the Church of EngLind; 
and at the conclusion, the King came 
forth, saluted her at tho altar, and con- 
ducted her to his presence ehaml)cr. 
Tho Princess Marvwas a delicate infsint; 
she wus never well ; when scarcely thrt^ 
years old, a slow fever, which \)uflled 
the skill of the royal physicians, put a 
periixl to her unhappy existence. 

The Gunpowder Plot, to blow up the 
King, Prince Henry, and tho Purlia- 
m(.>nt, at one fell swoop, on the filth of 
November, 1G05, but which fortunately 
was discovered and prevented before the 
hnrdcne<l Gin' Fawkes, to use his own 
words, when taken and examined, could 
** blow the Scottish beggars back to their 
native mountains," was not directe<l 
again«>t tlie Queen, whose power the 
com>pirators evidently deemeu too wi.«ak 
to be feared; therefore the details of 
this horrible conspiruey, which ari' to be 
met with in the pages of ever}' History 
of England, would be out of place 

Tho Queen brought into the world 
her daughtcT Sophia, at Greenwich, on 
the twenty-second of Juno, 1606. Tho 
infant sur^'ivcd her baptism but a fiw 
day;*, and wiis privately interred in 
Wl'stminstfr AblM-y, and the niotiier 
was dangerously ill tor 84)mc time alter- 

On the sixteenth of July, Annc^i 
brother, Christian tho Fourth, uf l)«a^ 


nark, arriTed in England, on a Tisit to 
the King and Queen. James mot him 
at Gravesend, and conducted him up the 
Thames to Greenwich Palace, where he 
entered the sick Queen's chamber, and 
had a tender interriew with his affec- 
tionate sbter. Shortly afterwards, Cecil 
gave a grand entertainment and masque 
at Theobalds, in honour of the royal 
atranger. Many of the noble perform- 
ers in this masque presented themselves 
before the spectators in a state of dis- 
gustiuj^ intoxication, then the prevalent 
vice of the court, as will be seen by the 
following extract from a letter written 
by one of the guests : ** Those whom I 
never could get to taste good liquor, 
now follow the fashion, and wallow in 
beastly delights. The ladies abandon 
■obricty, and are seen to roU about in 
intoxication. After dinner, the repre- 
sentation of Solomon, his temple, and 
the coming of the Queen of Sheba, was 
made, or {aa I may better say) was 
meant to nave been made. The lady 
who did play the Queen's part, did carry 
most precious gifU to both their majes- 
ties [James and Christian]; but for- 
getting the steppes arising to the ca- 
nopy, overset her casket into his Danish 
Majesty's lap, and fell at his feet, though 
I rather think it was in his face. Much 
was the hurry and confusion, cloths and 
napkins were at hand to moke all clean. 
His Majesty then got up and would 
donee with the Queen of Shebo, but he 
fell down and tumbled himself before 
her, and was carried to an inner cham- 
ber and laid upon a bed of state, which 
was defiled by the presence of the Queen. 
The entertainment and show went for- 
ward, and most of the presenters went 
backward or fell down, wine did so oc- 
cupy their inner chambers. Now did 
appear in rich dress, Faith, Ilope, and 
Cnarity ; Hope did assay to speak, but 
wine did render her endeavours so feeble, 
that she withdrew. Faith was then all 
alone, for I am certain she was not 
joined with good works, and left the 
court in a staggering condition. Charity 
came to the King's feet, and seemed to 
oover the multitude of sins her sisters 
bad committed in some iorte. She 
atadg obtjaaaoe and hronght gifti; the 

then fetorned to Hope md Faith, who 
were both in a dreadful eick eoniditmi 
in the lower halL" Such is a sketch of 
this disgusting scene from the pen of 
the poet Harrington ; a scene we sboold 
have passed over in silence, hot that some 
writers have endeavoured to blacken the 
fame of Anne of Denmark, by stating 
that she sanctioned the drunken reve^ 
and herself played the part of theQaeca 
of Sheba, wnen, in fact, poor Udj, she 
at the time was confined to her lyio|-in 
chamber at Greenwich, by sheer debihty ; 
and even had she have been leoovered, 
her cti(|uette of mourning for the deiUh 
of her infant, would have prednded her 
from attending masques and festtvides. 
She was churched on the third of Ai- 
g[ust, and she took no part in any fes- 
tivity till Sunday, the tenth of AosiMt; 
** when," aays the chronicler, '^ Uie Kiag 
and Queen went from Greenwich by 
water to Chatham, with Prince Henry, 
King Christian, and a numerous retinae, 
where they partook of a sumptuous ban- 
quet on board the Elicabeth Jonas; 
which splendid ship vras wonderonsly 
adorned with cloth of gold. The angast 
visitors dined in the orlop deck, whidi 
was fitted up with a rich cnair of estate 
and other costly furniture. After din- 
ner, the rojal party went from that ship 
to the White Bear, upon a bridre, about 
twelve score yards long, made of fir 
masts, railed on either side, which 
floated upon the water, and was brtMid 
enough for four men, abreast, to walk 
along it. When the Queen, the Kings, 
and the others had landed, and gone 
past the Windmill Hills, the vessels off 
Chatham and the Castle discharged their 
ordnance to the number of about one 
thousand two hundred shots. The Da- 
nish King then left them, and went on 
board his own ship for the night, and 
next day the King, the Queen, Prince 
Henry, and a retinue of nobles, partook 
of a farewell banquet, which ne had 
provided for them, on board the larsest 
of the Danish vessels. This ^unt 
ship, called the Admiral, was of very 
higa and narrow building; the bulk- 
head, the stem, and her three gaUeriss, 
were finely gilded; and the wakt 
and half-dm adoimad viUi ama aai 



Other ridi onuunenti. Here the tugost 
tinton were verr roTtlly feustcd, aod as 
tbpy Mt at banquet' they pledged eaeh 
other to tbcir lusting healtn and conti- 
luing amity ; and cTerj pledgtt drank 
wai Atraifhtway known or sound of 
tern anu trumpet, and the cannons' 
loudcat Toicc, ui-ginning ever in the 
iMnish Admiral, secunded by the £n- 
irlish block houAcs, and followed by the 
Vice-Admiral, s.ud the other six Danish 
ships, ending alwap with the smallest." 
The entertainment was terminated by a 
grand pageant of flre-wurks, contrived 
by bis l^bb Majestj, but which, on 
actonnt of the necessity of taking the 
tides, which senred at four o'clock, 
was shorn of its brilliancy by b<*ing ig- 
nited in a bright sunny August after- 
noon. At a quarter to four the Qur-cn 
and her spouM bade an affectionate adieu 
to their Joring brother, King llhristian, 
who, after a prosperous vtt^agc of eight 
days, reached his own dominions in safety. 
Jmmediattfly after the depjirturc of 
Christiaa the Fourth* of Denmark, the 
King and Queen, both of whom were 
poflsionately fond of the pleasures of the 
chase, went to Windsor, where they daily 
banted with falcons and hounds, till the 
autumn rains set in. In May, 1607, her 
Majesty had the felicity to reccite pos- 
srasion of the seat of Theobalds, at Ches- 
hunt, a magnificent building, which was 
levelled to the dust in 1650, and which 
she obtained from Cecil, Earl of Salis- 
burr, in exchange for her dower palucc 
of A at field. The event wa^ marktrd by 
a royal entertainment given by her Ma- 
jesty at llieobaldB, on the twenty-second 
of Nay, when Anne to«>k part in a 
■asqne produced for the occasion by 
the gifted Ben Jonson, who, to com* 
ptiroeat the Qneen's passion for hunting, 
introdueod into the enchanting scene 
that beati/ul lyrio 

* In Jnlj. 1614. the Danish Monarch fwld 
annthcr visit to EogUnd. lie wm iiot ez- 
pfcliid: trBTvllcd Inengnito, and took the 
Oiurt bj sorprlse. Uut ho stayed only a 
finruilKht, ana during that time the Court 
WM ocmpiNi In nothing but th« ordinary 
nvni of mjraj plea»iirM. We have deemed It 
veil DoC to detail the visit. The qamtn re- 
sslved ber brother with siaterlj aJEectlon, 
yarfei Cram Um ia tmn, and never saw him 

*' Queen and huntress chaste as fair.** 

In September, 1608, tlie Queen and 
Prince llenry stood sponsors to Frede- 
rick Henry llowunl, s(*eond son of the 
Karl of Arundtl ; and, in the winter of 
1609, it was found that the Queen, who 
was never remarkable for economy, was 
so deeply in debt, that the King, to 
satisfy the clamours of her creditors, ond, 
if possible, prevent the recurrence of such 
a calamity, made her a present of twenty 
thousand pounds, and^ added to her 
jointure three thousand pounds per year 
out of the customs. Such was the de- 
light taken by Anno of Denmark and 
her royal spou'se in cruel s]M)rts, that, on 
the twenty-third of June, 1600, they 
proceeded to the Tower with the IVinces 
Jlenry and Charles, and the Princess 
Elizabeth, to witness a combat between 
a Hon, a boar, a horse, and dogs. The 
encount<T was furious, the scene fearful 
and revolting, but the sight of blood and 
the roaring and howling of the sarage 
beasts, as tliey fought for their lives, ex- 
cited in the minds of the royal party 
only pleasurable feelings ; nor is ttiis a 
mutter of surprise, fur, in that age of 
barbarity, bear-baiting, cock-fighting, 
and other similar cruelties, were alike 
patronized by all classes, from the peer 
to the peasant. 

Anne of i Denmark, who we have seen 
was one of t)ic tenderest of mothers, was 
at length afforded a fcmdly anticipated 
pleasure; her eldest son was created 
Prince of Wales, with all conceivable 
pomp and magnificence; and at the 
same time the Prince and twenty-five 
nobh« were installed Knights of the 
liath. '* Wednesday, the thirtieth of 
May, 1610," says a contemporary, ** the 
Prince being accompanied by divers 
young nobles and his own ser%'ants, rode 
about twelve at noon from St. James's 
to Kichmond, where he supped, and re- 
posed fur that night. Thi> next morn- 
ing, the liord Mayor, the Aldermen, and 
ftrt v-four of the companies of l^ndon, in 
their barges, with divers fair banners 
and streamers, proeeedetl along the 
Thames to Chelsea, where they attended 
the coming of the Prince, whose dinner 
was prepared at the court of Whitehall, 
and that of the Lord Major and tha 



■erenl City coroptnieB, at their rcspec- 
iire haUs. But by reason of the low 
aibb, his Hig:hne8s could not proceed for- 
nwd till four in the afternoon. He was 
entertained by the way about Bamelms, 
with a btmquet ; and, comings to Chelsea, 
where the Lord Mayor and his train 
attended, there was a dolphin, upon 
whom sat I^eptune ; and upon a whale 
aat a water goddess, who deliTered a 
complimentary address to the Prince, 
which being done, they proceeded 
toward the court; the inferior compa- 
nies first, and the Lord Mayor's barge 
betwe(>n, the two sea monsters next, be- 
fore the Prince's barge, after which fol- 
lowed his own serTants in scTcral barges, 
and the bar^ of divers noblemen tnat 
attended his Highness on the way. 
When they came to Whitehall, his 
Highness took leave of the Lord Mayor 
and Aldermen, and landi'd at Whitehall 
Bridge. When he landed, a peal of 
chambers, placed directly op|>o8ite the 
court, on the Lambeth side of the river, 
were discharged, and he was received 
with due form by the officers of the 
King's household, and welcomed by the 
Queen, his mother, in the privy cham- 
ber." The ceremony, which it would 
be as tedious a task to narrate as to pur- 
sue, was forthwith performed with all 
possible solemnity. The youthful Henry 
was solemnly invested Prince of Wales, 
on the fourth of June, and the delighted 
Queen celebrated the event by taking 
part in two masques, written for the occa- 
rion by Ben Jonson, and by the re- 
spectable poet, Daniels. ** In honour of 
the Prince's in vesture," proceeds our 
author, ** there met in the tilt-vard, di- 
vers earls, barons, and others, Wing in 
rich and glorious armour; and having 
costly caparisons, wondrous, curiously, 
embroidered with pearls, gold and silver ; 
the like rich habiliments for horses hav- 
ing never been seen before. These no- 
bles presented their several ingenious 
devices and trophies before tlie King, 
Queen, and Prince, and then ran at tilt, 
where there was a world of people to 
behold them. And that night there were 
naval triumphs and pastimes upon the 
Thames, over against the court, with 
ikip§ of w tad galliciy fighting one 

agiinst another, and againii a gratt 
castle bailded upon the water. JJim 
these mock battles, then, for an bou^ 
space, there were many strange and 
variable firo-worka in the eastle, and in 
all the ships and gallies, withont hurt to 
any person, which was ain^larly forto- 
nate, the 'JThamea being, in a manner, 
closely covered with boats and barges 
full of people, whilst the adjacent ahore, 
on both sides, waa snrchareed with peo- 
ple, who were highly delighted with the 
magnificence of too spectacle/' 

Prince Charles, Duke of York, having 
now attained health and strength, m 
was taken from the care of the jodicions 
Lady Carey, and placed under the toition 
and training of tutors and companioDS 
selected by his brother, the Pnnce of 
Wales ; to whom he shortly afterwards 
addressed the subjoined littfe letter, in- 
forming him that nc hunts. 


*' Pleas your H. [Highness] I doe 
keepe your haires in breath, (ana I have 
verv good sport) I doe wish the King 
and you mi^ht sec it. So, longing to 
see you, I kissse your hand, and rest 
** Yours to be commanded, 

" My maydes service to you. 
" To his Uieoesse.'* 

About this time, Sir Thomas Over* 
bury, the assistant of Bobert Carr, the 
royal favourite, whose dntr it was, ss 
confidential secretary, to decipher the 
many letters which, in that intrigving 
era, were addressed both to the King 
and to the Queen in cypher, deeply of. 
fended Queen Anne, bv making pabtie 
the contents of several of her private 
letters, which had passed through hii 
hands. Overbury treated the Quern's 
malice with derisive scorn, and for his 
temerity, suffered i short impriaonment ; 
but Carr, who was created Viscount 
Rochester and Earl of Somerset, and 
on the death of Salisbury, in May. 1612, 
filled the post of Prime Minister and 
Secretary, endeavoured by every means 
in his power to conciliate her ; hot she 
very justly abhorred the selfish rapeeitv 
of his whole clique, and hoaitilj diipiwil 
both him and tneok 



Altbongfa James had been for yean i 
Ml the throne, he had fuled to acquire 
a place in the aifcctions of his BngUsh 
lohjccts. Uis love of pleasure, his 
estiuTagance. his partiality to faTOurites ; 
and aboTe all, his extraordinary notions 
of the Iririne right of Kines, alarmed 
the patriots, and scandalized tnc religious 
portion of the community, and prevented 
nim from obtaining the esteem of the 
peojde generally. But those who wore 
aiseontented with their King, beheld in 
his heir a prince of the most promising 
Tirtnes and abilities. "The following 
rhyme," says Uarrington, ** was common 
in the mouths of the people — 

* Bcary the Eighth pulled down the abbeys 

and eella. 
Bat Hcnrr the Ninth shsU poll down bishops 

awC bells.'" 

A prediction, whichf like many of the 
nltra-democratic absurdities of the pre- 
sent era, howeyer popular, was too absurd 
to be fulfilled. I'nnce llenry, never- 
thflos, was looked upon by the more 
sober-minded as a most fit successor to 
the throne ; the young Prince himself, 
Ciithful to the lessons formerly instilled 
into his mind by his mother, openly 
ridiculed the weakness of his fatlifr, 
and boasted that on his accession his 
conqnennji^ sword should add France to 
the possessions of the crown of flnglaud : 
hopes, which, to the sorrow of the na- 
tion and the deep dejection of his fond 
mother, were anticipated by an untimely 
death. In person he was tall, being 
MOTS than six feet high when he reached 
his serentecnth year ; ne was larg^boned, 
thia skinned, our in complexion, and 
with a Grecian cast of features, lie 
injured his health by long bathing after 
sapper, by taking Tiolent exercise du- 
ring the greatest heats of summer, by 
recUeasly exposing himself to the storms 
and rains of winter, and by indulging 
too freely in the luxuries of the table. 
In the spring of 1612, his health and 
spirits began to decline ; during the 
summer he grew worse ; as September 
drew to a close, he, on returning from 
his sports in the country, become alarm- 
bn^j ill, and on reaching St James's 
was attacked with an intermittent fever 
— « milady for which a q^ecifi« waa then 

unknown; and which, despite the ef- 
forts of the royal physicians, speedily 
assumed the form of a rirulently infec- 
tious, putrid fever. The Queen, hither- 
to, had watched at the bedside of her 
unfortunate son; but immediately the 
malignant symptoms became evident, a 
dreaa of infection forced her to retire to 
her own palace of Somerset- house — 
called, in honour to her, whilst she held 
possession of it, Denmark House — where 
she remained in a miserable state of 
mind, ller whole thoughts were bent 
on the recovery of the dcuth-sick Prince. 
She remembered that Sir Walter Raleigh 
had a quack medicine, which she had 
herself taken with success for an ague. 
For this nostrum she accordingly sent, 
in the hope of restoring her son to 
health. Sir Walter, who deeply la- 
mented the Prince's danger, had full 
faith in the medicine, and with a large 
packet of it which had been carefuUy 
prepared for the purpose by his own 
Lands, sent word, that, ** with the ex- 
ception of poison, it would cure all mortal 
diseases." Tho l*rince swallowed a dose, 
revived for a short while, and then, about 
half-past seven in the evening of the 
sixth of November, 1612, breathed his 

When the mournful tidings were con- 
veyed to the impatient Queen, she fell 
into fearful paroxysms of rage, grief, 
and despair. She remembered the words 
of Sir Walter Kuleigh's message, that 
the nostrum would cure all maladies but 
poison ; and in the delirium of her grief, 
declared that poison, and not fever, had 
deprived her of her beloved son Henry. 
Hir suspicions attributed the murderous 
dcod to bir Thomas Overbury, and a few 
days afterwards common report impli- 
cated the King in the transaction ; a 
shameful lib^l, as James, although a 
weak monarch, was a worthy futlier, and 
with the Queen, equally bewailed the loss 
of their dear son. The body of the 
Prince was opened, and the still existing 
report of the surgeons, who made the 
poat'fHorUm examination, render it eri- 
dent that he died of a malignant fever. 

The Princess Kli2abeth was now, after 
her brother Charles, the next heir to the 
throne. She had had many wooen^ and 



the QieeB bod deepW offended Uierdi- 
giotti prejodioet or toe EDglith Protest- 
ants bjT denring to marrr her to the 
yoaog King of Spain. The King, al- 
though alliu:ed by the splendour m the 
•Uiauue, was after a time conTinced of 
the folly of expecting a royal household 
diTided in religion to prosper ; and the 
nnion was declined. The pretensions of 
the other two suitors — the Prince of 
Piedmont, and Frederick Count Palatine 
of the Rhine — were about equal ; but as 
the latter professed the reformed fuith, 
he obtained the preference; the marriage 
articles were signed, and on the six- 
teenth of Octol^r, 1612, he landed in 
Enghrnd to receite the hand of Anne's 
young and beautiful daughter, Elizabeth. 
Grand preparations were made for the 
occasion, but the unexpected death of 
Prince Henry caused the marriage cere- 
mony to be delayed till the fourteenth 
of i*cbruarv, 1613, when it was 6olcm> 
nixed at Whitehall with extraordinary 
splendour, in the presence of the royal 
fiimily and the leading nobles and their 
ladies, who, although the court were 
still in mourning for Prince Uenrr, Tied 
with each other m magnificence of dress. 
''At the betrothmcnt, the King," says 
the MS. letter of Mr. Lewkner, '*was 
present, brought in a chaire, for he was 
then so gowtie he could not goe, and the 
Queene no way affecting the match, kept 
her chamber/ This was the first royal 
marriage celebrated according to the 
form in the Book of Common IVayer 
of the Church of England. Both their 
Majesties and Prince Charles were pre- 
sent ; James wore a suit of black, and 
Anne was attired in white satin, and 
ooTered with the richest of the crown 
jewels. The dress of the Princess, and 
the extravagant cost of the ceremony 
and rejoicings, are thus detailed by Wil- 
son : — 

" In February, 1613, the Prince-Pa- 
latine, and that lovely Princess, the Lady 
Elizabeth, were married on Bishop 
Valentine's day, with all possible pomp 
and grandeur. Her vestments were 
white, the emblem of innocency ; her 
hair dishevelled, hanging down her back 
at length, an ornament of virnnity ; a 
crown of pure gold upon her head, the 

oognisanee of majeaty, bein^ all ovar 
bttet with precioiiB gems, shining Uka 
a constellation ; her train supported bj 
twelve young ladies in white garmeati, 
so adorned with jewels, that hor passage 
looked like the milky way. Sue wis 
led to church by her brother. Prints 
Charles, and the Earl of Northampton, 
the younff batchelor on her right hand, 
and the old one on her left And while 
the Archbishop of Canterbury was so- 
lemnizing the marriage, some corus- 
cations and lightenings of joy appeared 
in her countenance, that ezpnvsea mors 
than an ordinary smile, being almost 
elated to a laughter. 

** She returned from chapel between 
the Duke of Lennox and the Earl of 
Nottingham, Lord High Admiral, two 
married men. 

**To support the magnifioenoe with 
which this ceremony was attended, the 
King was obliged to demand aids of his 
subjects, a custom usual on these occa- 
sions, and although intermitted for mors 
than a century, he received twenty thou- 
sand five hundred pounds; yet how 
enormous soever the sum may seem, it 
was insufficient to defray the expence, 
which amounted to almost four times 
that sum. 

" The city of London, that with mag- 
nificence had feasted the Prince-Palatine 
and his noble retinue, presented to the 
fair bride a chain of oriental pcarU hy 
the hands of the Lord Mayor and alder- 
men, in their scarlet and gold chain ac- 
coutrement, of such a vune, as was fit 
for them to give and her to receive, as it 
cost no less tnan two thousand pounds.** 

One round of masques, balk, displays 
of fire-works, sham navsl and military 
battles, and other entertainments, con- 
tinued till the twenty-fifth of April, 
when the Princess Eliiabeth and her 
husband bade a final Dounewell to Eng- 
land. Immediately after their departurs 
the Queen's health and spirits g^ave way, 
but she restored her constitution by a 
visit to the springs at Bath. The uth 
she used was ornamented with a cross, 
the crown of England, and the inscrip- 
tion Anna Eegina StMruwi^ and has ever 
since been known as "the Queen's 
Bath." In the disgraoefiil prooeediafs 


of the divorce of the LedT Fraaoei St, George's fent, 1615, the Kinff sent 

Howard from her hosbend, tne Etrl of for Villicrv, knighted him with IVinee 

Eases, which took pitce in April, 1613, Charles's sword, whilst the Queen stood 

the Qneen took no p|ut; neither does it by, and caused him to bo sworn a sen- 

appear that Anne in anj manner in- tlcman of the priTy chamber, wiui a 

fliwnced James when he uhumanl j in- yearly salary of one thousand pounds, 

carccrated Arabella Stnart in the Tower 'The new favourite proved more grateful 

for privately marryinr the Earl of Hert- to Anne than she expected. lie never 

ford, although it woud have redounded gave her cause to quarrel with him, 

to her honour hiul she pleaded for the and as she found she could place 

craelly penecntea Arabella, who, after unlimited confidence in him, she em- 

iaeifcctiial efforts to escape, went mad, ployed him as a monitor to correct the 

and died in a moot deplorable condition King's personal indiscretion and ill- 

on the twcnty-aevenUi of September, behaviour, as will bo seen by the sub- 

1615. joined letter from Queen Anne to Sir 

At this period the young, handsome, George Yillicrs. 

and accomplished G«>rge ViUiers was ,. .. _, 

first introduMd to the notice of the ^^,,"P ^^» . , , ,, , . , 

Einp, who had grown weary of his fa- . " ^ »>»^« '^'l^ y^^ ^«*^' ^^»«^ 

vounte, Somerset Just previously. Sir 1!.,7?i™^°!k!^..^V J?*!'™!!'!! 
Thomas Overbnry, " .««.-«««--«- ~— »^».n» 

the Tower, was 

geanee of Somerset'i. , - .„ .... ., . 

attributed the murder to Somer8ct;and he still, upon condition that you continue 

and his wife were BOW arrested, and with « watchful dog to him, and be always 

their accomplices tried and found guUty of ^^ ^^ '^^' ^o wishing you aU bap- 

tke poiMuittg. Although the King, at his P^®>>* , 

visit to Cambridge in 1615, took especial ^^^ ^' 

notice of Villierp, he refused to accept The Queen, in reply to a letter of Vil- 

ofhisservicea,withontthe Queen would u^rs, informing her that, "in compli- 

first recommend him, to fill the office of am^ with her command, he had pulled 

hu confidential secretary. To Arch- the King's car tiU it hung like a sow's 

bishim Abbot, who undertook to procure \^g •» wrote— 
this formal recommendation from the 

Queen, Anne replied — ** My kind Doo, 

**lly Lord, yon know not what tou ** Your letter hath been acceptable 

desire. I know yoor master better than to me ; I rest already assured or your 

you all. If Vilhen gains the royal fa- carefulness. You may tell jour master 

vour, we shall all be sufferers; I shall no that the King of DenmarK hath sent 

more be spared than others, for the me twelve fair mares, and, as the bringer 

King will teach him to treat as all with of them assures me, all great with foals, 

pride and contempt." which I intend to put into Uyfield Park, 

Abbott, who himself relates the anec- where bein? the other day a hunting, I 

dote, says, '* The King would never ad- could find but very few dfcer, but great 

mit any to nearness alwnt himself, but store of other cattle, as I shall tell vour 

such as the Queen should commend to master myself when I see him. I nope 

him ; that if she should complain ai^r- to meet you all at Woodstock, at the 

wards of tk4 dear oim, he might make time appointed, till when I wish you all 

answer, * It is long of yonrself, for yon happiness and contentment 
commended him unto me.' " " Anna, R. 

However, whatever the Queen's mis- " I thank you for your pains taken 

girings might be, she shortly afterwards, in remembering the King for the paling 

in complijuice with Abbott's repeated of ray park. I will do you any lervioo 

CBtroUies, earnestly besought her spouse I •^an." 
I* nenT« ViUiers as a Isvourite, and on To Sir Geoi|^ Villiers. 



In March, 1617, Jamei let out from 
Theobolds on hit long-delayed progress 
to Sootlund ; the Queen accompanied 
him as far as Ware, and then bade him 
adicQ, and proceeded to Greenwich Pa- 
lace, where she resided during his ab- 
■encc. There was a boarding-school for 
young ladies at Deptford, known as La- 
dies' Hall ; and whilst the King was 
away in Scotland, her Majesty honoured 
the establishment with a visit, and the 
pupils performed a masque for her en- 
tertainment. It bein^ against all pro- 
priety to admit so audaciuus a gou as 
Cupid into a ladies' boarding-school, the 
piece was entitled '* Cupid's Banish- 
ment," and throughout the performance 
the God of Iiove was very properly 
shown neither favour nor mercy. In- 
deed towards the close of the masque he 
was rudely bundled out, and then the 
n}'mphs sang, 

•' lUik, hark, to Plillomel. 
Whofic notos no sonic ran parallel ; 
Maik, mark, her melody. 
Still Mhn (lescantM on cliantity. 
Tlie diapason of hor tone i«— <.-npld'« gone, 
He*« ^n«, hc'H B«ne, he'i quite exiled, 
Venn*" hrat, peeviwh imp, fancy's child. 
Let him K<^, let him gti, with hin quiver 
and his bow." 

All Anne of Denmark's letters are 
without date ; the following seems writ- 
ten wliilst James wns in Scotland. 

Queen Anne to King James. 

" SiK, 

"As nothing is more welcome to 
me than your letUrs (for which I thank 
you), BO can tlicy bring me no better ti- 
dings than of your good health, of me 
much desired ; for 1 cease not to pray 
for the increase and continuance of your 
good« both of mind and body, and thereof 
rest fissured, so kissing your hands, I 
remain she that will ever love you l)est. 

" Anna, R." 

About the period when the King re- 
turnetl from Scotland, the Queen 
was attacked with bodily infirmities, 
*• which," pays (.'hamberia}Tie» in a let- 
ter to Sir Dudley Carlton" dated Octo- 
ber, 1617, **she would fain lay to the 
gout, although her physicians fear un 
ul habit, through her whole constifu- 

tiott." At the commencemciit of 1618| 
symptoma of conftrroed dropsv bccanM 
evident, and her apirita, aa well as her 
bodily health, begun to decline. To 
avoid the riotona revels in which Jaaei 
was wont to indnl^ it Shrovetide, she 
removed to her qrnet chamber in Soiner- 
set House. But she had acareely set- 
tled down, when the King, in the midst 
of his carouses, was attacked with the 
gout, and the Queen, sick as she was, 
visited him at Whitehall, and afterwards 
took him with her to Theobalds, and 
nursed him till he recorercd. Dorine 
the summer and autumn, Anne's health 
eontinned to decline. She removed to 
Oatlands, and thence to Hampton C(*urt, 
where she grew worse, and suffered firoai 
a racking cough, and several times fo- 
mited blood. The King, when not con- 
fined to his chamber by sickness, paid 
her frequent visits, and on Sir Walter 
llalcigh, in an earnest appeal, imploring 
her to 

" Save him who woald have died for her 
Save him vhoas thoagtata no trBaiea 
ever taiotcd ;" — 

fhc made a passionate appeal to hit 
Majesty on belialf of the brilliant hot 
unfortunate Sir Walter ; who, notwith- 
standing, had his head struck off bv the 
executioner on the twenty-ninth o^ Oc- 
tober, 1618. What effect his death pro- 
duced upon Anne, now that her own 
life was drawing to a close, is not known. 
She continuinl to grow worse throughout 
the winter, and to add to the depression 
of her drooping spirits, the King, who had 
hitherto maic a point of travelling three 
times a week from London to Hampton 
Court to see her, was laid up at Roystos 
with an alarming fit of illness. James, 
urged by a suspicion that two of his 
wife's attendants, Danish Anna, and a 
Frenchman named Pierrot, would en- 
deavour by some foul play to possess 
themselves of her valuaole iewels, was 
anxious that the Queen should makvhcr 
will ; but her physicians, Drs. Mayeme, 
Atkins, and Turm-r, objected to hir 
receiving more than a very gi^ntle hint 
upon the subject. With this view, the 
ijTchbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop 
of London waited npon her, on tl» ••- 



cond of February, 1619, and in reply, 
■he aMured the prelates of her sure, ol- 
thou<rb slow, recovery ; adding, " you 

>peak thus dismally, because your visit 
lias f:illcn out on Candlemas, which ye 
know is always a day of doom with the 

English ;" in fact, she did not choose to 
take the hint. 

A few days afterwards, and whilst she 
was making preparations for a visit she 
rainly hoped to receive from the King 
of Denmark, her cough assumed the 
form of a consumptive one. She took 
to her bed, first having the one " she 
loved best set up," and then rapidly 
sni^ into the aims of death. On the 
last day of her existence, the Archbishop 
of Canterbury and the Bishop of London 
again visited her, and earnestly prayed 
with her ; after which, she assua'Q them 
** that she had set her heart on God, that 
she had no faith in saints nor in her own 
merits, and that she only looked to 
Christ, her Saviour, for the redemption 
of her soul." They then ur^jcd her to 
make h( r will ; but us Pierrot and Da- 
nish Anne, to whom she now utterly 
ccufigned herself, feared they should 
have to account for the valuables they 
hud frnij«pid, if she cousrnted, they pre- 
vail*^ on h^r to civc the prelates an 
evasive answer, and urge them to retire. 
Cantt-Tbury went, howwer, promising to 
r* turn in two days, but the Bishop of 
I^ndiin remained at Hampton Court. 
Mfanwhilc, Princo Charles, whom she 
had sent fitr, was conducted to her prc- 
sf-nve, and afU.T an affectionate confer* 
cncc, he. at her earnest request, retired 
tu her e}ianil)er. ludeed, the Qium-u 
Inn^id for thf luxury of privacy, a lux- 
ury whieh, in thi>si.' days, royal iierson- 
a?» s »i^hed for in vain, fhcy were 
Ifirn in public, Uv(.-«1 in public, even to 
dn-ssing, eating, drinkin;|f, and uudres.s- 
iu?; aud nthut must have K'en more 
tniuir, could not even die without bein;^ 
surroundc-d and wutchcil in their lust 
aifonies by a host of attendants, priuees, 
nuhli-!«. prelates, privy councillors, am- 
ba]*sadi.>r:«, and others. 

In tlie evtning the Countesses of 
Aniidil, cif iWt'ord, of Derby, and 
J^idy Carey, l>e^ides sevrral lords and 
others, vidi'ted tho dying Queen, and 

urged her to make her will ; and atter 
6upp<'r, Prince Charles again entered 
his chnml)er, but by her earnest desire 
soon afterwards retired ; when she gave 
a peremptory order for no one but her 
two favourite domestics to enter her pre-, 
sence, and forbad any watch to be held. 
Her physicians yisited her at the mid- 
night hour, and the moment they wero 
gone, she ordered Danish Anne to close 
the door, and lock out all that were out; 
and now she said, ** Lay down by my sido 
and repose, for you want rest. ' ilalf- 
un-hour afterwanis she called for water 
to wash her eyes, but when the candle 
was brought she could not see tlie light — 
death had sealed her vision ; which Da- 
nish Anne no sooner discovered, than 
she unlocked the doors, and cuIUkI in 
the physicians, the bishops, the Prince, 
and all the lords and ladies of the house- 
hold. It was one o'clock : the sinking 
Queen swallowed a cordial administered 
by her physicians, scribbled her signa- 
ture to Iier will, and whilst the Lishop 
fervently prayed by her bed-side, gave 
S4:veral blight m(»ans, and with a smiling 
countenance ceased to bn.atbe, at a f«'W 
minutes past one in the morning of tho 
second of Mareh. ItilO. 

Her loss wns dueply mourned by the 
King, who at the time was eontined to 
his chanilxT by a dangerous illmss, but 
from which ho had thu good fortune to 
recover a few weeks afterwards. Her 
body was conveye<l by water to Somer- 
s(.>t House, and after laying in state there 
till the thirteenth of May. interred with 
royal obsequies in ^Vl■stmin^t^r Abbey, 
Prince CharK>s and ull tlie hading nobi- 
lity utt4.*nded the fun«ral. Tlic Countess 
of Arun<lel was tlie eliicf lady niourmr, 
and the funeral si.-mion was prcaehed by 
thu Arebbisliop ot Canti rbury. {Shortly 
after the fun end, the Kini; examined 
his departed eonsorl'j? eotltis anil cabi- 
nets, and found tliat thiitv-six thous:ind 
pounds' worth of htr jewels, besidrs nnuh 
money wliieh he ))elieved she had b(>;ird- 
eil up, were nii>sinu:-, suspicion I'.-Ii on 
I'iiriot and Danish Anne; they wore 
a^r^^tl-d and <\aniined, but witliout any 
trace Ining obtained of the missing trea- 
sure, which, indeed, it appears never 
was fouud. 

1L ^*l 


in lbs fortf- 

liiUi jaz of her age ; no monument 
«M crMtad to ha nemoij, bat her 
hMiw Mood oret bcr gimxe tUl the Ciiil 
Tan,«lraitwi*di^o]r«<l. HerEon- 
Mrt, JutM Ura Fint, who did Dott^un 
cater the muried (tBle. died on the 
tweBtjr-ecYeoth rf Harth, 1625, ud bcr 
•■If two mrTtriiu' childnn, Chulee. 
emied Prince of Walo, in NoTember, 
Uie, and ■ftenranU Chartet tiie Fint, 
aad Eliubeth, Queen at bohemia, were 
both nngulari]' nafortanate. 

Many epiUpha aad poetical tiibDWe 
mn written to the memorj of the 
fbmdlj-belored Qneol of Jamea the 
KnL Of Iheae, we aeleet &oa Cam- 

^ifpA m<^^A^ ^Jkmm^k 

Much, wtth bu wind*, hctta (track i a 

Ami ail, 
Aad^™p«-« Aprtl »«». U«l «4.r 

Bioea (be must Iw the ftown xT ill Ih 

Ttn. M«ih'. .iDd euw.1 A^riJ 

And rtt tti Hif m<ut Ioh bcr Sowtr 

-isa''""— '-"—"'- 



'^('./.i:cf-fZi -.JUUd. 




AwwMa Xmrim, imgUtr af Bmrf Ol FenriX of Prmet—Birlh—Infmitt— 
IdatalieH— Wtaii tjf lit OHmf a/ Seiuotu—Charttt tkt Finft MJrmtunt m 
lartk tf m irkU — Bit marricf teilA MmrUUa mgvlimted—Thi wurruffttrmtj/ 
— JV'trpfMif K l t mna eJ in Frmntt—BmriMa amliuttd b> Riglatd—Charki muta 
An- at Ihrrr — Cm i u tt t htr ta amltriiwy—XtrTia her thtTt~-Aqmtit prtctt' 
nm Mr 'A« TiUawi. 


BIA, coniort of 

Cbuici lh« Firat, 

■nd partikei of th«t 

WMx, izuinocie mo- 

' BtKb*! cakmitiei, 

I «M the yonsgest 

dngfatar, and tbe 

flftli and lut ddU rf tbe man funed 

■cdicu. She flnt nir the light at (tit 
Lonn*, on 'Can fanrtranth orNoTembcr, 
tfog 1 and, on the fbtatii ol liar, 1610, 
htr father iru itibbed to the oeart b; 
one BaTiillu, who, it ia Bid, ww imti- 
fUtA to the (rime bf the Jtvoits. She 
tonk part at that monarch'a funeral, 
whkh vu Mtleniniied with aad nwiu- 
fimiM, on tha thiiteenlk of th« momt- 
quent jnne ; ud at lh« inaugtmtion of 
htr brother, tha jonng Louii the Tbir- 
(tenth, ahc waa earned in Ibe proerMiaB 
bf the PriDccai of Coiid6. Dnring her 
bfiuicj, >he chieflr resided at the pa- 
lacn of Kloia and fonUinbtewi, Belore 
iba bad aoMfklad bcr third jvar, she 

WH made one of (lie partakn* ia the 
marru^ feativitv of ber liater, Elizabpth, 
with the Eiag ai Spain, whiiji was cele- 
brated, with all cooeeiiable pompiiiid 
rejoicioga, at the palace of the Claee 
Bojalei and, wbeniiiTearsold,Bhewa« 
present at tho aolamn oeliTering of her 
sister, Elizabeth, to the Sin^ of Spain, 
as his aponse, and the receinng of Anne, 
the Infanta of Spain, as the consort of 
Louis the Thirteenth. Sha waa edu- 
cated Dnder the immediate snpEninal of 
her mother, wha.instiUed into her voiinr 
mind exCraragant ideas of the inlallibi- 
lit^ of rojaltr; anil taught her to be- 
liere that " Kings are the Tieibleeodi of 
men, as God ia the iaTisible King of 
men" — a false and dangerous doctnne, 
and a belief in which, doubtless, mate- 
riallf a^rantcd the soirowa of tha 
imfortnnata Queen llcnrielta Maria. 

The piineipal tutor of tbo Prince** 
Henrietta was H. da BreTis — a didb of 
cncigj, wisdom, and erudition j bat tb« 
good that, in all probability, would baTe 
resulted froni his sound teaching^ was 
deatnjed in the ombryo by tha egoti*- 


tioJ weaknen, piids, and Tonity of 
ilaij de Mcdicii, and bj tho bigoted 
nligioiu couokIi of tbo enthoiiaitic 
Hire MBgdclaine — > Binccre but nac- 
row-minded nltra-popuh Carmelite nun, 
who, in tbe doctnnea of reti|;iaii, com- 
{detclv caDtrolled tbs mind of tbe Pnn- 
oew during her cliildhood. After th« 
dvflerTedly-unpopulHr Mary dc Mcdicifl 
was liepriTcd of tbe rcHccy, sud lent 
captive to tbe ciDlle of Blais, IltDrietCa 
■bared ber acclusioa for about three 
yean, vheu her precence traa required 
U the marriage of ber tiatcr, Christine, 
with tbe Duke of Saroy ; and, afti-r tbe 
ceremony, ibe wai not again permitti-d 
to return to ber mother, who, howerer, 
in IB20, effected ■ reconciliation with 
ber ion, Louia tbe Thirteenth, and, 
from that time, obtainrd a civatrr in- 
fluenMJn thc^vemmLnCof 1 ranee than 
•be had erer befure pooeited. 

Henrietta's flnit loxcr was the Count 
of SaiBwni. He Dlaimcd her baud as 
the reward for hie valuable services at 
the iiFge of Rochellc; nor was his suit 
diicouraged, till it was ncit to certain 
that the Princcaa would become the 
bride of Cbarlea. the only BurriTin^ son 
of James the First. Impressed with ■ 
eonTJetian that domestic happiness coald 
not exist where love was wanting, t'harli's 
resolved, in person, to woo aud win his 
dctlined bride. The first object of his 
love was Maria Althea, daughter of 
Philip the Third of Spain, and sister of 
the then reigning monarch, I'bitip the 
Fourth. To woo this Princess, Charles 
and tbe Duke of Buckingham, who ac- 
companied liim, set out in tbe disguise 
of English merchants. -TraTellin^ under 
the ficlitioua names of Tom Smith and 
John Urotvn, thcv, in their route, passed 
through Paris, wlicre, without tlicir dis- 
guise being detected, they obtained a 
Tiew of the ladies of the French eonri, 
and witnessed the rehearsal of a court 
ballet, in which the Qneen of France 
danced with tbe beautifiU Hinrielta. 
who, although scarcely fifteen, and girl. 
ish withal, on being' in formnl of the 
Prince's udvrnlures, eielaimi'd, with a 
tigh, " lie need not liavetruvi-lli-d to far 
aa Mulrid to svoreh fut a briile." 

That Charin did not fall ia lore witli 

Henrietta at tliis his first view of her, 
is evident by the subjoini-d letter, which 
he addressed to hii lather, James thg 

" Since the dosing of onr liil, 
we have been at court again (and that 
we might not bold you in pain, we as- 
sore you that we have not been kaovnj, 
where we saw (be yonng Qneen [of 
France], little Monaienr, and Madame, 
at the practising of a miik that is to be 
presented to the Eing, and in it then 
danced the Queen and Madame [Qen- 
rietta Mariaj, with m inanf as made np 
nineteen fair *i*^ifiag mii^r^ amongst 
which the Qncen is the handsonus^ 
which hath wrought in me a greater da- 
sire to see her sister. Bo, in haste, go- 
ing to bed, wo humbly take our lave, 
and rest your Uajeaty'a most burnUa 
and obedient son and servant, 

" Parts, the Bod of reb.* 

After a scries of adventure*, whicii w* 

have nn space to detail, Charles rachtd 
Madrid in safety, was faonanrablf re- 
ceived there, saw the Princoa, land ber, 
and, in tho ccstaey of pwsion, wrola, or 
rather tranahitcd, from a Spanish lene, 
composed on the wooing — 

* Chsriai Btnart au I, 
Love faldas da mf^r, 

Fov Harts, aj Utx.*^ 

laud; but, before the betnitl 

take place, Charles was suddenly recallid 
to Kngluud ; and as the people of both 

ever, previous to the formal nollificatini 
of the treaty, King Jamea, by the desire 
of Charlea, who, when at Madrid, had 
been requested by Eliiabeth, the yoang 
Queen of Spain, to marry her sister, 
Henrietta- Maria, diapuiclied Henry 
fiicb, Lord Jkcnsinjftun, to Paris, ia Ihs 



nmmer of 1624, to make privnto in- 
quiry of the Qaccn-Mothcr, Mury of 
MtHficis, who at that period completely 
ruled the reins of the state, whether a 
mutch iictwcen Charles and Henrietta 
van feasible, before any public treaty 
was entered npon. The Spanish am- 
baiwulor at Pans jE|[aessed or kerned the 
t-rrand <»f this nobleman, and resolved, 
if pciAsible, to thwart his purpose, llow- 
eT«'r, nfter iMth parties had intri^ed. 
Quarrelled, and manoeuvred, the Uuecn- 
M other lent ear to the suit, and aecepted 
the wooing^ ambassador's explanation of 
the breaking-off of the Spanish engage- 
ment. Kensington was a genuine spe- 
cimen of politeness and discretion ; he 
inflamed the fancy of the IHincc and the 
I*ritteeMs by artfully exaggerating their 
charms and virtues to each other; he 
wore at his bosom an elegant miniature 
of Charles, enclosed in a gold case, 
which, immediately the purport of his 
vifiit conld no longer be kept secret, he 
tiMik ph-unare in displaying to the ladies 
at court, and, on one occasion, lent it 
fitr an hour, that Henrietta might coii- 
ti'iupluto it in private ; whiUt to Prince 
tlu&rles he wrote as follows : — 

''Mat it plkasb youk Hiohne88, 

** I find here so infinite i value of 
your person and virtue, as what instru- 
ment soever (myself the very weakest) 
having some commands, as they ima- 
gine, from you, shall receive excess of 
h«inuun( fn»m them ; thry will not con- 
c* ive me, nor yet scarce receive me, but 
OS a public instrument for the service of 
an alliance that, above all the things in 
thift world, they do so earnestly desire. 
Tlie Queen-Mother hath exnressed. as 
far as she thinks is fit, for tne honour 
of hiT daughter, great favour and ptwU 
will in it. I take the )M>ldness to tell 
her (the which she itntk cxtn;mely well) 
that if such a proposition sh(»uld be 
made, your Highness Cf»uld not believe 
that she had lost her former inclination 
anil desire in it. She said, your trust 
of lier sihould find gn-ut re^tpcct. There 
is un prvjiuRition, I find, towurtls this 
bubineM but hy her ; and all persuasions 
of amity made light^ that liM»k not to- 
wnrds thia eiraBdi'oiid, Sir, if your 

intentions proceed tliis way, as bv many 
reasons of stjitu and wis<lom tliere is 
cause now rather to press it than slacken 
it, you will tind a lady of as much love- 
liness and sweetness to deserve your af- 
fection as any creature under heaven 
can do ; and. Sir, by nil her fashions 
since my being here, and by what, from 
the ladies, I hear, it is most visible to 
me her infinite value and respect unto 
vou. Sir, I say not this to betray your 
U'licf, but from a true observation and 
knowledge of this to bo so. I tell you 
til is, and must somewhat more, in way 
of adfliiration of the person of Madam, 
for the impressions I had of her were 
but ordinary, but the amazement extra- 
ordinary, to find her as, I pmtest to 
God, 1 did, the sweetest creature in 
France. Her growth is very little short 
of her age, and her wisdom infinitely 
beyond it. I heard her discourse witn 
her mother, nnd tlie ladies about lier, 
with extraordinary discretion and quick- 
ness. She dances, of which I am a wit- 
n<?ss of, as wrll um ever 1 saw any crea- 
ture. Tln'v sjiv she sings most sweetly : 
I am sure she hniks so. Sir, you have 
thousands of srrvaut^ here that di-biro 
to be commanded hy you, but most par- 
ticulurly tin; Due de Chevcreau and 
Monsieur le Grand, who NiH:k all oppor- 
tunities to do yuu service, and huth 
creilit nnd power to do so. Sir, if these 
tliat nrc strangers unto you stn^ thus am- 
bitious of your ccminiands, with what 
intinitc passion have I cause to bt^g them, 
that am your vassal, and have no other 
glory than to have you as 

" Your Highness' most humble 
** And obedient cn-ature, 

** Kensinotox.*' 

When Kensington had sufiieiently 
smoothed the way for the marriage, 
James sent, as his coadjutor, the Karluf 
Carlisle, the regular aniltasxador, to 
France. Carlisle was an empty-headed 
fop, and being a meru state piip|K't, the 
tri'atv for the alliance was negociuted by 
Kensington. On obtaining a formal 
audience, the Knglish nml)tiss:idors ^ire- 
si.-ntcd, by the(|uefn-Mother*siKrmission, 
letters, a'nd a iMirtrait of Charles to the 
PrinociiS. Henrietta received them with 


thsnks repeatedly perused the Princess 
UBet-doux with tears of joj, and placed 
it with his portrait in her iMMoni, where 
•he afterwards continued to wear them. 
In return, Charles received a heantifnl 
miniature of the Princess. He gazed 
upon it with raptures; Uenrietta was 
then hut fiflcen, yet in her was Tisible the 
hudding charms of one of the sweetest, 
fairest queens in history. Nothing for 
an instant excited feelings of dissatisfac- 
tion, saving the diminutiTcness of her sta- 
ture ; and the elegant Lord Kensington, 
in a letter to Charles, after alluding to 
the smallness of her person, artfully re- 
marks, that her sister, Christine* now 
grown a tall, portly lady, was equally di- 
minutive at her age. 

Matters were in this state, when Lord 
Kensington requested an interview with 
Henrietta, to convey to her a private 
message from the Pnnce. ** The Queen- 
Mother, after some hesitation^ assented,'* 
writes Kensington ; ** but withal she 
would needs know what I would say unto 
her daughter. 

"*Nuy, then,* smilingly quoth I, 
*your Majesty would impose upon me 
the like law that they in Spain did upon 
his Highness when he courted the In- 

'* * But the case is now different,' said 
she, ' for there the Prince was in person, 
here is but his deputy.' 

** ' But a deputy,* answered I, ' that 
represents his person.' 

** * True,' rejoined the Queen, * and 
yet I desire to know what you would 
say to my daughter.' 

** * Nothing that is not fitting the cars 
of so virtuous a Princess.' 

*• * What is it then ?* 

"*Well, Madam,* ouoth I, * if you 
will needs know, it shall be much to this 
effect : that your Majesty having given 
me the liberty of some freer languag^e 
than heretofore, I obey the Prince his 
commandments in presenting to her, your 
beautiful dauj^hter, his scrrice, not by 
way of compbment any longer, but out 
of passion and affection, which the 
beauty of her pt>rson and the virtues of 
her mind so kindled in him, that he was 
resolved to contribute the utmost he 
cndd Xo the aUiaaee in ^oatioi, mmA 

would deem the w ic c em thenof tiM 
mateit happiness that could bebll him* 
Such, with some little other like mmonm 
language, was to be nnr commimicatiea 
to your fair and royal mmgbter.' 

*'*^{ltt, ^/Zh^ I perceive bo nent 
danger in that,' smilingly anawei ea the 
Qaeen- Mother ; '/r meJU sn ffomt,/t «s 
Jle en voum* 

''Neither did I abuse the tmst," fn-> 
oeeds Lord Kensington, ''for I varied 
not much in delivering my meamge to 
Henrietta, save that I smjrfiBed it a 
little more. She drank it m with joy, 
and with a low curtsey made her ae- 
knowledgments to the Prince, adding, 
that she was sincerely obliged to his 
Highness, and would think herself happv 
in the occasion that should be preacniin, 
by meriting the place she had in his 
good graces. I then," concludes the 
polite Ambassador, " turned my speech 
to the ladies that attended, and told 
them that since the Queen of France 
was pleased to give me this liberty, it 
would be hence&rth well for them to 
act accordingly. I told them that his 
Highness, Charles, had her Grace Ui-a* 
rietta's picture, which bo kept in bis 
cabinet, and on which, since lie coold 
not have the happiness to behold her 
person, he continnally fed his lomnng 
eyes and ardent passion. All which, 
and other such-like speeches, the roval 
maiden standing by, quickly took up, 
without letting any one of them fall to 
the ground," 

Nothing now remained hut to arrange 
the marriage- treaty; a taak which proved 
so tedious and difficult, that C'haries 
more than once despaired of succcia. 
Henrietta was a CathoUc, the Prince a 
Protestant ; the Pone, on this account, 
objected to the match, and deelarcd that 
if it took place, reli^ns discord would 
destroy the domestic happiness of the 
royal couple. However, after much dis^ 
cussion and intrigue, it was arranged 
that the Princess should heve eepante 
religious establishments of her own, 
and she and her servants shonld he per- 
mitted the full exercise of their religion; 
that Henrietta's children shonld remaia 
under her care till they were thiiteai 
yean of age, (a cltiae uguiow U i» 



eoontries, tnd which 
ire Queen of Enj^land 
ID her offipring m the 
Dftt her portion ihould 
I thousand crowns, and 
for hcnelf and for her 
uncc all rif^ht of succes- 
im of France. }\y a 
IS stipulated that James 
ereccute the Catholics, 
the private and peace- 
their worship. Such 
of the marria^-treaty, 
d in Dccem£pr, 1624. 
sctrd to sokmnize tlie 
tely afterwards ; hut, to 
iTezation, after Charles 
le Duke of Chcverensc 
inncio Spada, by order 
refused to dcliTcr the 
9n for the marriage 
I in farour of the Kng- 
TC acknowledged pub- 
\erwards. King James 
ascended the throne of 
der the title of Charles 

the end, to avoid the 
Tiage being solemnized 
lal license, which the 
threatened should be 
Trban's order, dclirered 

and on Sunday, the 
pril, 1626, Charles was 
by prozVt to Ilenrietta- 
)ame cathedral. Scarce- 
nony concluded, when 
kingham, with a large 
ih nobles, unexpectedly 
he myal bride to Kng- 
or, the Queen>mother, 
art of France prepared 

young (^ueen of Vng- 
tigress to the port of 
he rcyal tmTclIen set 
cnt array, but illness 
' of France to remain 
ludden and alarming in- 
iry of Mcdicis detained 
>rtnight at Amiens, and 
gloom over the august 

only diispclled by the 
recovery ; when thev 
"d to I>oulngne, where 
receiving from her nio- 

which many lublime 

trnths were combined with oonnsel that, 
under the circumstances, was highly 
pernicious and dangerous; and after 
taking leave, as she believt d, for ever of 
those relations and friends who pro- 
ceeded no further with her—- embarked 
on the eleventh of June, and, after a 
storm V passage, landed at Dover on Sun- 
day, the twelfth, about eight in the even- 
ing, and " lay there in the castle that 
nir^lit" Tidings of her landing were 
swiftly carried to the King, who waa 
then at Canterbury, impatiently waiting 
her arrival. **l)is Majesty, sayi a 
contemporary, **camc to Dover castle 
at ten the fullowing morning to visit her ; 
and although she was unreuiy and at 
breakfast, and he desired to wait till the 
repast was concluded, she hastened 
down a pair of stairs to meet him, and 
offered to kneel down and kiss his hand ; 
but he wrapt her up in his arms with 
many earnest kisses. After this, as they 
stoo^ conversing together, the King, sur- 
prised at finding her taller than he had 
expected — she reached to,his shoulders^- 
glanced downwards towanis her feet, to 
discover if her height had been increased 
artificially; which she perceiving, and 
guessing his purport, showed him her 
shoes, saying, * Sir, I stand upon mine own 
feet, I have no helps by art ; thus high 
am I, and neither higlier nor lower.' 
Having conversed together for an hour, 
the royal pair went forth into the pre- 
sence, where the nimble, quit t, black-eyed, 
brown-haired, royal brunette recom- 
mended to her captivati'd b|>ou8C all her 
servants of quality by name." At dinner 
the Kinr sat by her side and carved for 
her, and she ate heartily of the venison 
and pheasant which his Grace piled on 
her plate, notwithstanding her confessor 
^who all this while sUiod by her) had 
rorewarned her ; " that it was the eve of 
St. John the liaptist, a fast day, and that 
she should take heed not to set a bud 
example, or cause a scandlc on her 
first arrival.'* The same day the royal 
party proceeded from Doncaster to Can- 
terbury, and in the great hull there, 
( 'buries and Henrietta were that even- 
ing married in pi-rson. A sumptuous 
wedding supper was provided, '* which 
! being ofer,'^ nyi one of the aewi kn^ 

ten, which, in the nlaencc of Tegnlu 
Bempapera, ircre then wiiCIra, far ths 
information and amuaemcnt of the veU- 
th^, by profetied intelli^nceis, "her 
HnjratT retired for the ni^bt, anil aoniG 
■pace Optimo nftt-r, fail MajestT followed 
her 1 md on eatcrinj; hii hed-chunber, 
tbo firat IhinK he did wis to bolt ill the 
doon sroiinci (beinj icTen) with hii 
own hands, letliDg la but two of the 
bed-cliaoiber t« unilren him, which 
b^'ing done, he boUod them out also. 
Tlie next morning he laj' till KTen 
O'clock, ind was pkaaant with tbo lordi 
that he hnd beguiled them, aad hath 
•Tcr since been vcrr jocund." 

Od the fourlei'Dth of June, the roj'sl 
pair proceeded in stale to GruTCfend, 
and Ihcnco bf water to ^liitehall. 
" Yrtterduy," hits a contemporary intel- 
liftenecr, "I kiw their Majviitiri coming 
up from tirav(scnd ; tlie King looked 
oteeedinglymcrrr, Ihe Queen isdiminu- 
tiTe in statiiri:, Lit h(*ad reaching onW 
to bis shouhlcr, but she is Toung cnuiigli 
to grow taller. A hono is entertained 
that kIic will, by Uodsiitessing, embrace 
OXr religion, ft is said that one of the 
fnglisli attendiinls asked her if she 
could endure a lluguenot ; when she 
answered. ' Why not > was not my father 
one ?' As she passed in royal praceesiuu I 

la ThamH, ibs had » nkadid ri 
ir magnificent naTT, which is abi 
I sea, and which aalutrd brr 

with • folley nf fifteen hundred great 
■hot ; and the Tower gari her a dc^en- 
ing peal nf ordnance. Throughout ths 
Toy^, the people cheered her, and she 
mponded, by standiog at hier lar^ 
window, which, altbough it nioed hud, 
wBs wide open, and joyfully warinr her 
hand to ttiem. So 'they aniii.^ at 
Whitehall, where tbey continue till 
Monday, when they ^ to Hamptoa 
Court. On Sunday, June the nineteentb, 
there ia to be agr^t feait at WliilebiU. 
The day they airiTcd in Londos, the 
bells nng oil midnight, and all ths 
streets were full of boafires." Thar 
solemn entiy into the metropolis was 
j piCTcnted by the fearful raraccs of t 
; lilague, which was pronounced, al the 
time, Uie most destructive in the mcnory 
of man. Tbo King, Queen, and Court, 
after a short slay at Whitehall, rrmoitd 
to Hampton Court, and remained prin- 
cijially there and at Winder, till the 
ninter ; whilst the public rejoicings ia 
commemoralion of the acr^dnn and 
marringe of Charles, were deferred tiU 
af^er the summer heats had subsided, 
and the stormiug mortality somewhat 

cnAPiEE n. 

Til Qutm'i Fitufh pricdi and attmdaalt gin offenn It Iht Sing — Tit royl pair 
fnarrfl — Charkt rttnlftt lo and htmt tht Frmtk houteAoU — Titjf iokt Ike eafi 
ef elltgidHtt, and urnt Henrietta to rtftut hting erviaud — Tht King nvmrrf 
v:ill,OHl her—l-ht Queaft Fren(k hotuthM turmd out of WhilrkaU—farrrd It 
drpart tlu roHHtrv — Tht Frtnth Amhauadar rffcctt s rteoueilialioH trtrttn tit 
Aim?, QMtfH and Pnehnghiim—HaiTittUt emuHlIt a forlHiu-IHUr—Birlk and 
rfrvifAo/ lymtt Charlri Ji aet^llaitk 0/ Btukinfham—Birlh of Charkt tht 
Seeo»d, and of tht Fnaeea Miry —Tht Qhkh's Catkotie Chapdt—BirIk of 
Jama, DuUof lork-~rryHntaHd Hi "— 

Queen bod 

largL retinue of fo- 
reign attendanls. 
ly catholic priests, and 
'/J smrsnls these, b<'- 
furc a month had 
elapsed, deeplr of- 
Sing, who, W for bis Rgrae- 

ment not to remoTO tbrm without ths 
consent of the Queen, wonid huTe picked 
them hock to Kranee without Dcmnonr. 
The people, alw, heartily hated then, 
on account of tlieir religion; whilst they, 
it appcon, equally di'teited the King 
and (he people According ti> the mar- 
riage artielct, tho Queen and her •t*~~~' 
•nil WW to be I 



fxeftne of their rcliffioa, tnd her MajestT 
was to have her coapel for tliat pur- 
poae. This wae hut [Mtrtially frraiitiM], 
and at Whitehall tlie maM was srarccly 
tolcrated. AVe fsvre the fmrtlculare in 
the worda of a contempornry intollii;ifon- 
eer. " On Friday Inst the Queen was at 
her first mass in Whitehall, which was 
mumbled over at eleven o'clock, at 
which time she came out of her hed- 
ehamber, in her petticoat, with a Tcil 
vpott her head, supported by the Count 
de Tillien, her I^urd Chambrrlain, and 
Ibllowed hy six women. Whilst they 
wen at mass, the Kin^ gare order that 
BO Engitshman or woman shouhl come 
near the place. These priests have IxK^n 
very importunato to have the chapel 
finished at St. James, hut tliey find the 
Kin^ TCTf slow in doing that. * His an- 
swer/ one told me, was, * that if the 
Qneen's closet, where they now say 
mess, was not lan^e enough, let them 
have it in the great chamber; and if the 
great chamber was not wide enough, 
they might nsc the jprden ; and if the 
garden would not suit their turn, then 
was the park the fittest place.' So, see- 
ing themselves slighted, they grow 
weary of I'lngUind, and wish thenK«.>lTCM 
home again; btifiidoii, with all their 
stratagems, they cannot bring the Kins: 
to be the least in lovo with their fup- 
pmcs. They say there came some En- 
glish papists to the Queen's mass on 
ttanday, whom she rebuked, and caused 
Id be sent out." The same authority 

Kds, '*the friars so frequent the 
's prirate chamber, that the King 
is madi offended, and he so told them ; 
'having,* as he said, * granted thnm 
nom Stan sufficient liberty in public.' 
Ifr. Mordant informs me, that *thc 
Queen, although little of stature, is of a 
pleasing countenance if she be idtascil, 
hoi full of ^irit and vigour, ana Si^-ms 
of m more than ordinary resolution.* 
'With one frown,' saveth lie, * divers of 
IB being at Whitehall to see her (being 
St dinner, and the room somewhat ovr.r- 
heated with the fire and the company)* 
Ae drove us all out of the chamucr* I 
nppQse none but a Queen could have 
OHt sneh a scowL* " 
Uiubin to longer brook the overbear- 

I ing infiucnce of the French household 
over the mind of his funtily-brloved 
consort. (Miarlfri, liurning: witli jfiilousr, 
rc'Sulvcd ti) Ki nd tin* xvholi' n-tinue b:u-k 
ajEfaiu t<i France. To furihir thisobjirct, 
he dispatcht d tli«^ siilijoinrd private com- 
munication t<i tlie Duke of liuckiugham, 
who wait then at Paris, aa ambassador 
extraordinary : 

" Steexie, 

" I writ to you by Ned Clark, th-it 
I thought 1 would have cause enough in 
a short time to put away the MuNHfrg 
[her Maji-sty's French houi»i-hi>ld], either 
on account of their attinipting to stiul 
away my wife, or of tluir making plots 
with my own suhji'cts. For thr firitt, I 
cannot siiy, certainly, whetluT it was in- 
tended, hut 1 am Nurc it was hindered 
for the other, thnuirh I have g<NKl 
grounds to bulieve it. and am still hunt- 
injj^ after it ; yet, souiui^ d:iily the ma- 
liciousness of the Monstr*, \\\ niuking 
and fomenting discontent inentK in my 
wife. I couhl tarrv no loii^T, nftiT ao- 
vortising of you that I mean to Keek fcr 
no otiirr (rrounds to cxshicr my Monvrrs, 
having, fur this purposi*, sent you this 
hitter, that you may, if you think good, 
advertise thf Queen- mother with my in- 
tentions ; for tliis l)eins: an action that 
may have a show of harshness, I thought 
it was fit to take tliis way, that she to 
whom I have had many obiigations may 
not take it unkindly, and likewise 1 
think I have done you no wrong in my 
Utter, though in some place of it I may 
seem to chide you. I pray you send mo 
wonl with what speed you may, whither 
ye like this coursi? or nut ; for, I shall 
put nothing of this in execution irhile 
[until] I hear fnim you ; in the mean- 
time I shall think of convenient means 
to do this business with the host mintl. 
but I am rt^olved it must bo done, and 
tliat shortly. So longing to m.'c thec, 
I rest 

" Your loving, faithful, 

'' Constant frieml, 

** Charles R. 
" Hampton Court, the SOUi of Nov., 1625." 

With this, was sent to Buckingham 
another and a more sensible letter, meant 


to be thown to fhe QoeeB-motbcr, 
Kanr of McdicU. This second letter 
INickiDgham placed in the Qaeen« 
mother's hands, but withal, sacb was 
the force of circonistanoesi that Charles 
Ibond it impossible to cashier the 
Queen's Frencli retinue for upwards of 
ax months afterwards. 

The uncomplyiDg bi^trr and opposi- 
tion of the French train continued. *' The 
Queen's senrants," says a news-letter, 
dated January twelve, 1626, " perceiving 
they would be discarded if they took not 
the ' Oath of Allegiance,' have now, I 
hear, all taken it But they did so with 
^reat unwillingness, and a highly offcn- 
live displaj of importance and contra- 
riety." Much, however, as Charles was 
incensed at this conduct, at the religious 
bigotry, and at the petty interference on 
every occasion, private and public, of his 
bride^s household, he was further aston- 
ished and irritated to find that the Quoen 
refused, and they encouraged her refusal, 
to attend his coronation. The second of 
February was chosen for the solemniza- 
tion of the august ceremony ; and. al- 
though Charl(>8 resorted to entreaties, 
persuasions, and threats, Henrietta 
eould not, or would not, subdue her 
religious scruples. ** I am a Catholic," 
laid she, " ana as the ceremony of crown- 
ing is Protestant, I abhor it, and will 
have nothing to do with it" A foolish 
piece of bigotry, which was never for- 
given by the people, and which, in its 
consequences, proved highly injurious 
both to herself and to her husbaud. 

King Charles was solemnly crowned 
and anointed at Westminster, and ** the 
Queen," says a contemporary, ♦' would 
neither be crowned, nor by any means 
be present in the church to see the so- 
lemnities and ceremonies. Though she 
was offered to have a place made fit for 
her, she wouhl not go, but took a chamber 
at the palace gato, where she and her at- 
tendants might behold the procession 
going and returning. It was one of the 
most punctual coronations since the Con- 
quest ; the King took an oath, as his 
predecessors had taken it, to preserve 
the church the same as it was in the 
dayi of Edward the Confessor: as I 
loud aa entiy into the cAmrch, I will 

aentioBwhallMir. JartM IbadtnhM 
ray seat at the sta][re, oa whieb atoodthe 
royal aeat, hia If ajeety approacbed. He 
pivaented himself baie-iieaded to the 
people (all the doors being then opened 
for their entrance), the Arcbbiabop on 
his right hand, sad the Earl Marshal 
on his left ; when the Bishop in a load 
voice said to this purpose : — * My mas- 
ters and friends, I am nere come to pce- 
scnt unto you your Sovereign, King 
Charles, to whom the crown of his an- 
cestors and predeeessois is now devolved 
by lineal right, and be bimself has 
come hither to be settled on that throne, 
which God and his birth bath appointed 
for him, and, therefore, I denre von, by 
your general acdanrntion, to testify yew 
consent and willingness thereunto.' 
Upon which, finmi some strange and 
unaccountable reason, everj one re- 
mained silent, till my Lord of Amndd 
told them to shont; when, as if ashamed 
of their first oversight, some of them 
cried out, * God save Kin^ Charles V The 
other most remarkable incident at this 
coronation was, that the unction, to pre- 
vent its being seen, was performed be- 
hind a traverse, whenee doubts were 
raised as to the validity of the corona^ 

The refusal of the Queen to be crowned, 
caused the' French ambasndor, the 
Marquis de Blainville, to absent himsdf 
from the coronation, on the plea, that, 
under the circumstances, his presence 
would be riewed as an insnlt to the 
Queen, his master's sister. This irritated 
Charles, and cross words passed between 
him and his perverse sponse on the 

*' There hath been some disagree- 
ment at court between their Maiestiea,'' 
says Mr. Mead, in a letter to Sir Martin 
Stuteville, dated Febmarj the twenty- 
fifth, ** by reason of the French amhassa- 
dor ; but after three dayi^ sullen silence, 
the King again spoke grarioosly to the 
Queen. Nevertheless, he fbrbad the am- 
bassador the court, stopped all outward 
passage at the ports, and sent a messen- 
ger with letters to France." As weeks 
rolled on, the annoyances on both sides 
increased. The Qneen and the Freaoh 


tMtft tbe King and the English eqqallT 
cmsared the Quo^n and the French. At 
length. Chuict resolved no longer to 
bear with the annoyance. "On Mon- 
dar last,'* states a news-letter, dated 
Jniy the fifth, 1626— ** about tliruc in 
the afternoon, the King, pressing into 
the QneeH 8 side \\icr suite ofchunib<itut 
Whitehall], and finding rome French- 
men, her serrants, unreverently dancing 
and eurretting in her presence, took licr 
by the hand, and led her into his apart- 
menta, loeking the door after him, and 
■hutting out all sarc the Queen. Pre- 
■entir, npon this, my Lord Conway calttHl 
the rreneh Bishop and others of that 
dergy into St James's Purk, where he 
told them the King's pleasure wps, 
that all her Majesty's servants of tliat 
nation, men and women, young and old, 
should, without delay, depart the king- 
dom. The Bishop answered, that being 
an ambassador, he could not go unless 
commanded by the King, his master ; 
but he was told, that the King, hi» 
master, had no power in Knglund, and 
timt if he were unwilling to go, he 
would be convoyed hence by force. Lord 
Conway, accompanied with Mr. Trea- 
■orer and Mr. Comptroller, then went to 
the Queen's apartments, and signified to 
all the other of the Queen's French ser- 
Tanta that they must all depart thence to 
Bomcrsct House, and remain there till 
tbej knew further of his Majesty's plea- 
sure. The women howled and lamented 
■a if they had been going to execution, 
but all in rain ; for the yeomen of tlie 
guard, by Lord Conway's orders, thrust 
tbem, and all their country folk, out of 
the Queen's apartments, and locked the 
doors after them." Whilst this stormy 
■eenewas transacting, the Queen, who 
the determined Monarch detained in his 
own withdrawing rooms, flew in a violent 
lage, and vowinr to bid farewell to her 
iU-used househoGi, rushed to the window 
for that purpose. Charles seized both 
her hands, and implored her to quietly 
submit to what she could not prevent ; 
bat, although he exerted all his mascu- 
line atieneth, she succeeded in smashing 
several of the windows with lier fists. 
"Howaoever," continues the news-letter, 
" I BOW bear her rage is appeased, and 

that the King and she went to Xonsucb, 
and liavo been verv jocund together.'* 

A tew tlays afitTwanU, the King, 
leaving hid cim^ort ;it Nonsuch, went to 
Sumentft JIuusc, "and in a set siKM-rh," 
r<'marks Mr. Jolm Pory, iu a letter, d»t«*d 
July, 16-JG, *'t4»ld tlioKreneli Jifiusehold 
that he ht){M'd the goml Kiiiv:. bis 
brother of I' ranee, would nut take umiss 
what he liad tiunc, fur the French, ho 
said (partieular persons he would not 
tax), hud occasioniHl many jurs and din- 
contents betw<K:n the Queen and him- 
self, such, indeed, as longiT were insuf- 
ferable, lie prayed, them, tlierefore, to 
pardon him if hu souglit his own ease 
and safety, by dismissing them to their 
own country ; and said, mure-over, that 
he had given orders to his treasurer to 
reward every one of them for his yearns 
service. So the next morning being 
Tuesday, there was distributed amongst 
them twenty-two thousand six hundred 
and seventy-two pounds in mon<'y and 
jewels. 'Ihc Kin^r's niugnaniniity on 
this occasion, I think, procei-ded frum a 
desire to satisfy the rapacity of the 
Quoi'u's eli.'r;;y, who were the most 
superstitious, turbulent, and jrtiuited 
priests that could Im: fuund in France, 
very fit to make firebninds of S4*dition 
in a foreign state, so that his Majesty, 
whilst he retained them, did but nourish 
so many vipers in his bosom ; nay, their 
insulencc towards the Queen was not to 
be endured. No longer ago than on St* 
James's day lust, they miide her poor 
Majesty to walk on foot, some say bare- 
footed, from her bouse at St. James's to 
the gallows atTybem, thereby to honour 
the saint of the day by visiting that holy 
place, where so manv martyrs, forsooth, 
had shed their blood in defiiice uf the 
Catholic cause. Had thev not also 
made lier to dabble in the dirt on a foul 
moniing, from Somerset House to St. 
James's, her I^uciferian confessor riding 
along by her in his cuuch. Yea, they 
have made her to ^o barefooted to spin, 
to eat her meat out of wooden disnes, 
and to wait at table and serve her own 
servants, with many other ridiculous and 
absurd penances. And if these rognea 
dare thus, insultingly, laud it over tiie 
daughter, sister, and wife of such great 


Cagi, what daTeiy would they not 
auike OS, the people, to undcr^ ? Be- 
tides all thii, these French about her 
HajestT, are said to hare corresponded 
with the Pope, the English papists, and 
the Spaniards, for the re-establishment 
of the Catholic relijnon. It was in- 
tended ther sbould hare immediately 
departed, but thvy arc not gone yet. 
They huve taken 'possession of all the 
Queen's apiwrd, linen, and jewels, 
which they found at Somerset i louse, 
and left her but one gown and two 
smocks to her back; and when intreated 
hr the lords of the council to send her 
MajestT some apparel, tbey forwarded 
her only one satin gown, keeping all the 
residue to themseWes. They brought 
her deeply in debt for purchases which 
they had made solely on their own ac- 
count ; and her Master of the Horse, the 
Count of Seipifrt.'s, laid claim to all the I 
horses and furniture under liis charge, i 
but his rliiimwas refusi-d.*' Theirstrug- ! 
glcs to delay their departure, at length I 
lo exasperated Charles, that he, in a | 
rage, dispatched the subjoined order to > 
the Duke of Buckingham. 


'•I hare rcceired your letter 
hy Dick Graeme. This is my answer ; I 
command you to send all the French 
away to-morrow out of tlie town, if you 
CjDU by fair means, but (stick not long in 
disputing,) otherwise force them awav : 
driving them away like so many wQd 
beast, until you haVe shipped them, and 
lo the devil go with them. Ijat me hear 
no answer, but of the performance of 
my command. So I rest, 
" Your faithful. c<mstant, 

** Loving friend, 

"Oaking, the 7lh of August, ItSM," 

Even this order, written as it was, 
too, entiri'ly in the King's hand, was for 
■evcml clays disregsurded by the detested 
French ndnue. A contemporary, writ- 
insr on the seventeenth of August, says : 
'* Monday last, being the peremptory 
day for the dispatch of the French, tlie 
King's officers then attended them with 
eooAet, autM, and barges, but they con- 

tuniaeio>»ly vefiiaed to go, Mjiaf, * thry 
would wait till they Dad ovden frum 
their King ; ' and above all, tha Bishop 
stood on his punctilios. Thia news beinif 
sent in post to the King on Toeaday 
morning, his Majesty dispatched to Lon- 
don the captain of the guard, attended 
with a competent number of his yeomen, 
together with heralds, mcsscngen, and 
trumpeters. The heralds and tmmpeteii 
proclaimed the King's pleaaore at the 
gate of Somerset Hoqm^ and the yeo- 
men proceeded to pnt in execution their 
order, which was, neither more nor Urn 
than to turn |the French out head and 
shoulders, and shut the gate after them ; 
an extremity which, fortunately for all 
concerned, was not resorted to, as the 
French consented to depart the next 
tide. At that time ny Lord Conway, 
Mr. Treasurer, and Mr. Comptroll^, 
went to see them perform their promiae, 
and brought the Bishop out of the gate 
to the boot of his coach, where, he inak« 
in|^ stand, requested and obtained per- 
mission to stay till the midnight tide, 
that he might depart private and cooL 
So, on Tueuay night, they lay at Gravea- 
end, on Wednesday night at Kochester, 
on I'hursdaT at Canterburr, and on Fri- 
day at Dover ; from whence, God send 
them a fair wind. At their first setting 
out from London, they were Terr sullen 
and dogged, and the jeen and taunts of 
the riotous mob which had collected to 
see them driven forth, exasperated tlien 
almost to madness ; hat their kind en- 
tertainment by the way, quite dispelled 
their angry feelings by the time they ar- 
rived at Dover." The same intelligencer, 
in a letter, dated August the seTentMnth, 
says, " The Queen's household is now 
settled, and consists chiefly of the old 
servants of Queen Anne of Denmark, 
who liad been pensioned off ; Lord Rut- 
land refuses to oe her I^rd Cbamhfrlain, 
but Sir Thomas Goring ia her Vioe- 
Chamberlain, Lord Percy, Master of her 
Ilorsei Lord Holland her steward, Loid 
Carew her receiver. Sir Thomas Savaj>s 
her C'hancellor, and so forth. Of her 
late French retinue, Uic following weit 
permitted to remain in hiTserrice. Her 
nurse, her dresser, the Dnchea of Tia> 
nionilio, thne of tba matl iagABAin if 



he ehtplum, twelre nmsicitiii, a eook, 
. baker, a xmntlcr, aod a tailor." 

This forcible dismissal of the Queen's 
•"reiich household was tukcn as a perso- 
uil insult by her brother^ Louis the 
rhirteenth. lie refused to admit to 
lis presence Secretary Carlton, who had 
leen sent to Paris by Charles, to account 
or hia conduct, and even threatened En^- 
and with war, a calamity which was only 
iTrrted for a while by the discretion and 
rise policy of the Duke de Itassompierre, 
rho was sent to England to ploy the 
nrt of a peace-maker between the Queen 
md her husband. lie found the royal 
jair greatly exasperated a^nst each 
>thcr. Henrietta was but sixteen, and 
inite too young and girlish to compre- 
Mnd the canaes that induced Charles to 
pfevent her from exercising her priTate 
■wnhip ao pnblicly as she acsired. She 
knew that the indulgence had been sti- 
polaled for in the manriai^ contract, and 
bdiering in the infallibility of royalty, 
attributed the deprivation not to toe 
powerful Protestant voice of the people, 
Mt to the conjugal tyranny of her really 
indulgent lord, and to the interested 
■grcstions of Buckingham, with whom 
ihe nad quarrelled violently. To effect 
s lecoBciliation, Baasompicrre held 
Kfcral private and seoarato interviews 
with the King, the Queen, and with 
Ruekingbam. Charles accused the 
Fiesch domestics with discovering all 
tkit passed between himself and his 
eoMort, and plotting to embroil them, 
tad charged toe clergy witli forcing the 
Qaeen to do penanous beneath the dig- 
nity of her Maiesty, and to the injury of 
her h^th and tHe discredit of her re- 
putation in England. The Queen passed 
over in silence all of these charges 
but one. It had been asserted that her 
clergy had compelled her, by way of 
piiiance, to make a pilgrimage to the 
f^allowB at Tyburn, to pray on the spot 
where the gunpowder conspirators had 
bfen executed ; a charge she earnestly 
denied, and which Bassompicrre, when 
pleading her cause before the Privy 
CoandU thus accounted for. "The 
truth is," said he, ** on the evening of 
OM mltrj day, the Queen, with her at- 
fiJMti, had takan the same walk 

through St James's and Hyde Parks, 
which she had frequently taken with 
the King. But that she went in pro- 
cession, approached the gallows nearer 
than ^tty paces, or suid prayers there, is 
what her enemies know to bo base fic- 
tions of their own invention." After 
much exertion, repeated interviews, and 
telling the petulant Queen to her face 
that she behaved most unwife-like, and 
blamed the King unjustly, Bossompierre 
effected something like a reconciliation 
between the royal couple, and expressed 
himself satisfiea. But on his return to 
France he was ungraciously received by 
the Monarch, ana loudly censured by 
the Queen-mother and the courtiers. 
He had acted too honest, too candid a 
part to please them. They insisted that, 
oy not enforcing the full performance of 
the articles of the marria^, he had 
compromised the dignity of his sovereign, 
and a war between England and Franco 

In 1627, Henrietta experienced hopes 
of maternity, and a belief in fortune- 
telling induced her to apply to the 
aristocratic prophetess, Lauy Eleanor, 
the daughter of the Earl of Oastlehavon 
and wife of Sir John Davys, the King^s 
Attorney-General, who, in reply to her 
questions, told her that she would 
sDortly have a son, who would bo born, 
christened, and buried all in one day ; 
that she would be happy for sixteen years, 
and that Buckingham, who had sailed 
to relieve Rochelle, would soon ond 
safely return, but with little honour 
either to himself or to his country. The 
child was bom rather bi'fore his time, in 
May, 1628. It entered the world in a 
languid state, proved a boy, was 
christened with protestant rites, Charles 
James, died on tnc day of its birth, und 
was buried before midnight. Charles 
laid the premature birth, and its conse- 
quences, to the door of I^ady Eh^unor, 
and fortmd the Queen to again consult 
her. But the sybil so pridwl herself on 
the fulfilment of her predic^tetl futo of 
the King's first-bom, that she raised 
quite a commotion by prophesyiuj^ on 
political, thcologic, and other sub|ects, 
which did not concern her. The King, 
annoyed at her impertinooe, lant w. 


Kirk to reanett her husband to commind 
her to bridle her ton^e. Thii Mr. Kirk 

SroTed a faithlces serrant; for, after 
elivcrinff the King's message, he, to 
please Ucnrietta, obtained from the 
Lady Eleanor a prediction that the 
Queen's next bom would be a Prince, 
and a fine health ▼ child; and, after- 
wards, he provokea the King by pub- 
lishing the prophecy, which was gene- 
rally belieYcd, and hailed with rejoicings 
and bonfires. Buckingham, the man to 
whose influence the Uuci-n attributed 
most of the differences between herself 
and her husband, was assassinated on 
the twenty- third of August, 1628 ; and, 
after his murder, the conjugal happiness 
of the royal couple greatly increased. 
As predicted, the Queen's next bom 
proved a fine healthy Prince, but he 
was so ugly, that the Queen was ashamed 
of him. He first saw the li^ht at St. 
James's Palace, on the morning of the 
twenty -ninth of May, 1G30. The same 
morning the King went in state to St. 
Paul's, and returned thanks to God for 
the happy event. At the noon-day hour 
a bngtit star appeared in the heavens, 
and the astonished populace viewed the 
phenomenon as a presage that — 

*' Now, there U bora a valiuit prince in the 
That shall eclipM the kinKdomsof the 

The Prince was baptized Charles, with 
the ceremony prescribed in the Book of 
Common Prayer of the Church of Eng- 
land, on the last Sunday in June, in 
the chapel at St. Jameses, but not the 
Queen's Catholic Chapel ; and he after- 
wards ascended the throne of England, 
by the title of Charles the Second. The 
sponsors were the zealous papists, Louis 
the Thirteenth and Maryot Medicis, and 
the Protestant Palgrave. Neither of them 
professed the tenets of the Church of 
England ; and, whether for this or for 
any other reason, the Duke of Lenox, 
the Marquis of Hamilton, and the 
Duchess of Bichmond stood proxies for 
tlicm. These noble personages were 
attired in white satin, with rich crimson 
trimmings, and their stockings were of 
erimson silk. The profuse Ducheu pre- 
MBt0d to the Frinoe a jewel worth aareii 

fhouaand poudi ; to Mr. Wyndhia, l» 
whose care he was confided, a gold chaiB, 
worth two hundredpoiiiids ; to bis wet 
nurse, a native of Walea, three maisive 
silver dishes, and a bowl and a ewer of 
solid silver ; and to the midwife, the dry 
nurse, the rocker, and othera, Ttrioot 
pieces of plate. 

On the fourth of KoTembcr, 1631, 
Henrietta brought into the world her 
eldest daughter at St. James's palace ; 
the baby was solemnly baptized Mary, 
and committed to the charge of Kather- 
ine, I^ady Stanhope, who throiiffh life 
served her with fidelity, and had great 
influence over her. 

In September, 1632, was commenced 
the buildinj^ of a Boman Cathohe 
Chapel, for her Majesty's nae, at White- 
hall; and the Queen, by laying tbt 
foundation stone with her own hawk^ 
greatly increased her nnpopolarity. 
Shortly afterwards, another Boman Ca- 
tholic (!^hapel, for her use, wascommeneed 
at St. James's ; they were both finished 
in about three years, when the Popish 
serrice was celebrated in them, with a 
splendour and publicity that greatly sa- 
noyed the Protestant public, and seri- 
ously injured the King s credit with hti 
subjects. At Christmas, 1632, the QoMfl 
was confined to her chamber, at White- 
hall, by indisposition ; but about New- 
year's day she recovered, and to dirad 
the gloom occasioned at Court by her 
illness, invited the King, his nobles, and 
their ladies, to a twelfth-nightcntertain- 
ment at &>menet House, where hit 
Majesty's players entertained the uglBt 
company, oy acting Fletcher^s pleanng 
dramatic poem of the " Faithiol Shep- 

When Charles could no longer delay 
his Scottish coronation, he intited this 
Queen to accompany him and aluirs his 
inauguration. She, howerer, dcdiied 
the ceremonv would shock her rdigiow 
feeling ana permitted him to depart te 
the >iorth without her. Bj tkuaor- 
them progress and coronation the Sisr 
added nothing to his jtopolarity, aaa 
the Queen being in a situation which 

Cnised an increase of fiunily, eaastd 
to hurry homewards with mnked 
predpitaaey. Shoitlj after h» veWi 



HtOTMttB praentcd him villi their . 
•Moid xni >t St. Junei'* Pilice, on the 
IhtrtccDth, or, aeeonling to other autbo- 
rilirt, the fouttirenth of Iktohur, 1633.1 
The Phoee vu <;hri>teiii'd Juimi, after | 
hit graDdfuthcr, Jumn the t'int, by the : 
ne* ArchbEtliop, Land, and then, at- ' 
entiling to eu»loni, crralcd Uuko of, 
Ynik. Hfl «ai plocrd under tbo charge , 
nC Lad J Donet, rcccired ■ nnTal educa- j 
ben, bceame une uf Kngiand's iniist re- ! 
Bmraed adminili, and, on Ihu liith of, 
KebruarT. 168S, gucccrded to the throne ; 
bf tbe Htle of Juniv the SLxond. To j 
nnBrmontc the birth of PrinoG Jomn, ' 
lb* RDtleRicii of Lincoln*! Inn and of 
Ibe Temple, entertained the Qaeen at 
their own cent, with a iplendid miuqua 
lad ballet. Tbete mngniSccnt enlcr- 
taiBBKOti luted three dan, cott twentj- 
two thoonnd ponnda, and, allhongh dc. 
moecd bf the Puritana ai woiterul and 

of the hoarded wealth of thno rich ■(>• 
cietic^ to iay nothiiii; of the plcuurs 
afforded br the spectacle. 

I n the first yiriin ol her marriajre, tha 
Queen bad nuide «ueli slow lirogrcn in 
the English tunguc. thul, to render Iha 
tusk at once vmy and Bfreeuhle, Mr. 
Wingaip, Unrrihler of Gray's Inn, who 
^waa up[»inted her tiilurin 163'J, caused 
\ Walti-r tlonta^c's maiquc of tlie 
! " Queen's I'aitunil," to he jH-rformcd by 
, thv (jucen and her loiiie.i nt WhiU'hull. 
It was for the part the Queen eoucted in 
lliis postural, which was a long, benj 
piece, and took uight hours in the per> 
fonnanto, that William IVynne in- 
Teig-hed so bitterly against h'lT in hit 
" IliBtroniaitrii." (.'harles. to be re. 
Tcnged on I'rynne, caux^d him to bo 
sentenced by the Star Chamber, to stand 
in the pillury, nnd lose his eon. This 
barbarous punishment, although th« 
Queen interceded in faTOUr of the Tic- 
lim, was inflicted in nil its rigour. 


TV Qmmii's livrt-b'Tti ftliaiji — iVindcu Si^tith iorn — SimtUdi manqua — 
JViiw* OmtUi anifittii—Uary 0/ Mtdkit eanit la Ki'slaiiJ—EzfCHlha nf 
^rm^rd—FHiKcu HHsMiHh tttnllird fo Ihe Princt of Orangt—Tht Qntcn't 
fitl le fm tmr Iht army dittrUi — itarif o/ Jtnlicii /orerd la Uan England — 
Wliibt ChuHa it in StetUni, tin Farliaminl rndtarmrt to drpriri the Qimn of 
l«r nliMhw— 7«n(mc<Mn oflritk Catholui—Thi King rtlurmfram StoHand— 
Bt Mud Iki Qmtn tnttrtttinti iy Iht London tilhtia — Armt of thefatthia mtm- 
im af tkt CiHiiinont thvntrted tArough tlit Qutm't iadatrttioH — Skt goa airoad 
tt raite armifar tir King — Stturat iri'/A a^l ofmililarD ttortt — Htr CMdiul 
MS tin marik—Mirii lAd Xing at £^ EiU^UtT midrnft at Orford—Adrer- 
tUg—IBiuti— Birth of Prineat Uenriflla Naria— Flight to Franet—Saidtnro 
•< tht Frtiuk teurl—Comtpondam with htr hiaiand^l'llcr defeat of lh« 
- " Is •( SatAy—Tht Sing rtfutei tafonatt Iht Chureh of Eaglani. 

-J r~ , when I benuly she was pnrkssj 'nil conjugal 

'u the nation reposed' strifu between henclF and the King hiid 
■^fv 'n ■ deceptive culm, ' ceased, nnd her childnn were hiallhv, 
.1. _L-_i _i _.._ _!!.__ [liriiing, nnd promising. SlasqiHi, 
ballets, and dramatic poems were wrilti-ii 
"ir her diversi'in nnd her improTcmeut 
1 the Eneliah hinguagc by l(en Jnnsoii, 
and by Seaumuut and Fletcher, and 
llu'ir eSecIs were heightened by scenery, 
deriu-d by the gT<'at anhilrcl, Inigo 
Jones, ller pcnainal graces were pour- 
Irayeil by the motchless penril of Van- 
dyke, uo, if possible, to rcndiT her im- 

evertumed, and i 

' that the 

cliy for awhile 

u the iiini^onl, Ili-n- 
tietta rainly beliercd herself one of the 
Boat bksaed and bsppicat of qneciu. 

and bsppicat of queen 

i nnamy lend her ; i 



■ortal, the poet Waller hymned her 
praiies in iweet and poliihed stanzas ; 
oat, alas for humanity, this state of fe- 
lidty was too exalted to continue ; the 
people, eoadcd bjr an unwise stretch of 
the royal prerogatiYe, and a wild fanatic 
republican impulse, rushed to arms in 
defence of tueir liberty and rights. 
Bloodshed, treachery, anarchy, ensued," 
and a strong fjEurtion obtained the helm 
of government, beheaded the Kinp;, and 
convinced Henrietta that she was indeed 
the partaker of a destiny truly sad and 

On the twentieth of JanuarTf 1635, 
the Queen gave birth to the rrinccss 
Elizabeth at St James's Palace. The 
guccc^ing Shrovetide was kept at the 
court and in London with nmsLings and 
disguises, in which Henrietta took a 
conspicuous part. She was present at 
the masked ball given by Laay Hatton 
at Ely riace, Holbom ; and on Shrove 
Tuesday, she, and three of her ladies, 
visited the Temple masquerade, dis- 
guisiHi as citizens' wives. In Decem- 
ber, 1636, the Princess Anne was bom. 
She was a delicate babe, and only 
lingered till December, 1640, when 
she expired. Her last words were, 
** Ligliten mine eyes, Lord, that 
I sleep not the sleep of death," a 
short prayer that she had been taueht 
to repeat nic^ht and morning. It has 
been asserted, that her Majesty brought 
up her children in the Catholic faith; 
but as t})eir governors and tutors were 
staunch supporters of the Church of 
England, this statement can be at least 
but purtiully true. The first letter ex- 
tant that llenrietta ^Tote to Prince 
Charles, was an exhortation that he 
would take his physic. This motherly 
epistle, of whicn the subjoined is a 
copy, was written, it is supposed, in 
16i38, when the Prince was eight years 

" Charles, 

*' I am sore that I must begin my 
first letter with chiding you, because I 
hear that you will not take phisike. 
I hope it was ouUe for this day, and 
that to-morrow you will do it, for j/ 
you wUl Moi, I moit eooie to yoa and 

make ytm take it, fer U it for fov 
health. I hxtt given oiden to mf 
Lord Neweaatle to Mad mi wwd to- 
night, whether joq wUi or not, them* 
fore I hope yoa will not g^ mi tht 
painei to go, and so I reat, 

** Your affectionate mother, 
" Henroetr Haub, S. 
"To my dear son, the Prince." 

The £ari of Kewcaatle, who, in 1634, 
had been appointed Governor to ^ 
Prince, made remonstraneea in compli* 
ance with the Queen's direction, and 
received in answer the rabjmned tens, 
witty note. The original, whieh sdll 
exists, is entirely in tne Prince's hand, 
in characters alwat the aiae of road 
text, and in lines roled with a pencil 
above and below. 

" Mt Lord, 

" I would not haye yon take toe 
much phisick, for it doth uUwmia mske 
me worse, and I think it will do ths 
like with you. I ride every day, and 
am ready to follow any other directioas 
from you. Make haste to retuxn to hia 
that loves you. 

*' Charlb, P. 
** To my Lord of Newcastle." 

When Hary of Medicts iraa bailed 
from the court of France by the perse- 
cution of Cardinal Bichelieu, Chariei, 
whose subjects were about to hurt out 
into open and overpowering rebdlion, 
had the indiscretion to incor Uiat iron- 
vrilled minister's hate, by wekmaing h« 
to England with all conoeividda pomp 
and magnificence. The King mcih« 
at Harwich, and conducted her with 
royal dignitr to London, whoe^ aft- 
tended by (Auurles and his eonrt, the 
passed through the city on the aiztoentk 
of November, 1639. The meeting of 
Henrietta and her mother on this oeei- 
sion, affected to tears all who were pre- 
sent. When the carriage in wiiek 
Mary of Bledids vras seated arrived st 
St. James's, the Queen, althoogh tha 
near her time, and in utter diaregaid ef 
all etiquette, rushed down itaiiii ha^ 
ried to the cazriagndoor.aid thnf 
her moth« •!%&<, Ml« k 



brfioire her to Tcceire her blewn^, and 
the royal childnn who were Ht St. 
Jampf's at the time followed out after 
their mother, and knelt around her. 
Ilinrirtta totik eflpecial care that her 
nii)tl*(*r wan honoured at court with all 
th>- distinction and homajre due to her 
cTu!^d birth. To eliifht the mother 
was to ofTf-nd the daughter ; and yet, in 
n-tum for this dinnterested and affoc- 
tiouate kindness, Mary of Medicis, and 
her nnmerons train, cmbarraiued the 
King by their extraTa^ncc and rapa- 
city, and then committiil the folly of 
petitioning parliament for increasea al- 
ii iwances. As the troubles of state, 
which we hare no space to detail, 
thickened around Charles, Henrietta 
injured the cause she so earnestly de- 
sired to serre, that of ber husband, by 
secrt-tly intrigiiine with the parliament- 
ary faction. Ni^t after night she met 
the leailers of this party at the foot of 
the back stain at St. James's, and al- 
though she promised them most extra- 
Tagant rewards, she only succeeded in 
winning ovt-r Lord Digby ; in fact, they 
Ti]iit«d her soltW to elicit from her in« 
discreet tonsuc, Intelli^nce ralnablc to 
them, but arcadfully injurious to the 
royalists. When the Parliament was 
ahviut to wreak its yengeancc on her 
fiithful friend, Strafford, she exerted all 
brr energii'S to saye him, but her diplo- 
macy rather injured than bonented 
his cause. He had endeayoured to cniiih 
the librrtiea of the people, and for his 
traeritj he suffered on tho scaffold. 
On the second of May, 1641, junt ten 
days preyioos to the execution of Straf- 
fufd, the Princess Royal, who was ten 
years of age, was betrothed to the Pro- 
t*«tant Pnnce of Orange, a royal youth, 
ia his eleyenth year. Toe day followin||^, 
the plot derised by the Queen to gam 
0Tf:r the army, which was then nlikc at 
ririance with the Crown and with the 
Parliament, having been difiuloM-d by 
the treachery of her Majesty's Chamber- 
lain, Sir Gi.'orge Coring, a mob of about 
in'x thousiind of the citizens broke into 
Wrut minster Abbey, surrounded the , 
Parliament, and whilst doing all the 
miachief usually done by reyolation- 
ary riotcTii eried out for jurtiea upon 

Strafford, and other inccndaries, and to 
be secured fh>m plots against the Par- 
liament, and for the EarPs rescue. These 
riots alarmed the Queen 'mother, Mary 
of Medicis, and not without reason. 
" When she came to England," says 
Whitcl«)eke, " the people were generally 
discontent at her coming, ana at her 
followers, which some observed to bo 
the sword and pestilence, and tliat her 
restless spirit embroiled all wliere she 
came." The fatal influence which the 
Queen began to acquire was generuUy 
known, and had been remarkably evinced 
in the active part she had taken in the 
late plot, liut the Queen-mother was 
again suspected of intrigiiing in affuin 
of state, and encouraging her daughter 
to do the same, and the populace of Eng- 
land began to treat her with the same 
insult which she had experienced else- 
where. The King, therefore, sent a 
complaining message on tho subjt^ct to 
the^ Commons, who, whilst expressing 
their willingness to afford her aU lawful 
protection, advised that she should seek 
safety by leaving the kingdom. She 
accordingly went to IloUuud, where she 
died. About the time of her departure, 
Henrietta was separated from the King, 
who, leaving her in Enj^lund. proceeded 
to Scutlund, on the ninth of August, 
1641, where he made important c<mces- 
sions to the Scottish Covenanters. In 
his abst-nce the Queen was dreadfully 
hanL«i(eil. The first nniioyanco was oc- 
casioni'd by her happening to have all 
her children, except the Prince of Wales, 
to reside with her at Oatlands for a 
short while. The Parliament declared 
that she meant to make Roman Catholics 
of them, and under that pretence, ex- 
amined and imprisoned her confi'ssor, 
Kathcr Philipps. This incident, Sir 
Edward Nicholas, tho Royal See n'tarv, 
impNrteil by letter to the King. aFsuring 
hia Majesty, that if he did nut spHMlily 
dismiss tlie Queen's Cutlii>lic jiriciitii, 
the malignant jeahmuy of the Round- 
head unitors in the House of Ci>nininns 
wouM force him so to do. The King, 
however, rcjectt-d this advice, consulted 
the Queen on the subject, and as her 
GonKiencc or obstinacy was unyielding, 
she retained her prietti and coik&Mna 


tm the mob in the eimdng yetr de- 
■trojed ererj Teetige of tbe Catholic 
chapel at Somexaet Home. That the 
Qoeen tampered with the religion of her 
children is probable ; indc^ Father 
Cyprian, one of her Capneins at So- 
merset House, distinctly states, that 
she secretly gare a crncifix and a rosary 
to her eldest daughter Mary, and taught 
her the use of them — conduct which was 
probably conveyed by the first lady of 
the bcnchamber, ani her false, base 
friend, Jjad? Carlielc, to Lord Kimbol- 
ton, and Mr. Pym, two leaders of the 
Boundheads, with both of whom she 
was on terms of intimacy, and whom 
■he, to the misfortune of the King and 
Queen, betrayed every incident that oc- 
cmrred in the royal household. At this 
juncture, the Parliament sent the Queen 
word, that she must surrender her chil- 
dren, lest she should make Papists of 
them. To obviate this necessity, she 
withdrew to Hampton Court, and con- 
tented herself with vLsiUng her little 
once. But this only incrca^d the bold- 
ness of the patriots ; reports were spread 
that she meant to flee the kingdom, and 
carry her children with her, and the 
Parliament issued orders for the mili- 
tary at Oatlonds to watch and guard the 
royal palace there. Henrietta resolved 
to'battlc bravely in defence of her off- 
spring ; she believed the real purpose of 
her enemies was to abduct tnem from 
her, and to frustrate that purpose, she 
requested Lord Digby to surround with 
her friends all the mansions where she 
and her children were abiding, obtained 
the use of a number of fine horses, from 
one on whose loyalty she could rely, and 
regained the co-operations of Goring, 
ana prevailed upon him to hold himself 
in readiness at Portsmouth, so that if 
hard preyed, she, as a last resource, 
could ao what the patriots declared she 
had long decided upon, embark with her 
offspring for the continent. Her cou- 
rage, energy, and promptitude astonished 
her enemit^, and defeated their projects . 
Now that she was prepared for the at. 
tack, neither she nor her children were 
molested. The Parliament resorted to 
Samions subterfuges for caUing out the 
muUarfot OKUuiai, witlioal roytl aa- 

I thority, and erery sMmbcr of tbt Lover 
Honse took the pnini to repeatedly de» 
clare that he had taken no part in it 

In the antnmn of this ycv the Irish 
Catholics rose in insurrection, and at- 
tempted in one day to masMcre all the 
Protestants in Ireland. A similarity of 
religion induced the Boundheads to ae- 
cuse the Queen of having encouraged the 
massacre ; but the accusation, like Biaaj 
others brought against Henrietta at tha 
troublous period, was without fmrndi- 
tion ; indeed, the uprising was pardT a 
Celtic one, and to break ue fietten taat 
bound Ireland to England, waa the sole 
object of the rebels. 

When the King commenced his h am 
ward journey tnm Scotland, he dia- 
patched to the Queen infomation of bii 
intentions, and her Majesty, throath Sir 
Edmund Nicholas, in tne subjoined epii- 
tle, ordered the Earl of Essex, then 
Lord Chamberlain, and with whoa she 
was not on the beat of terma, to mA» 
the necessary preparationa for the icccp- 
tion of his royal master. 

** M^STBn NxcHOLAa, 

*' I desired yon not to anpdnt ay 
Lord of Essex, of what the King com- 
manded you, touching hia cominr. Now 
von may do it, and tell him taat tiic 
king will be at Theobalds on Wedass- 
day, and shall stop there; and upon 
Thursday he will dine with the Lnd 
Mayor, and be at Whitehall, only ftr 
one night ; and upon Friday, will go to 
Hampton Court, where he means to stay 
this winter. The King commanded ma 
to tell this to my Lord of Eswx, hat yoa 
may do it, for their Lordshipi are toe 
gjeat princes now to receive any dirse- 
tions nrom me. Being all that I have 
to say, I shall rest your assured friend, 
*' HzNnixTTB Makb, B. 
" For Master Nicholaa. 
" November Uth, IML* 

Charles returned on the t we n ty flfth 
of November. On his entry to Landoa, 
he was met by the Lord Mayor, the 
Sheriffs, and other opnlent cilim>» 
The Queen and all her diildreB aeesa- 
panied him; thar dined !■ pM$, ■ 
ywOuUhdl, aid wttqrnMli 


L wore fpneted with the loud 
eoBfrtatidatioiui of the nnmer- 
iton. This bant of extreme 
^ilr gratified their Majesties, 
it Charles to meet his oppo- 
larliament with more firmnea ; 
Iftarred monarch forgot that 
riod the people were as much 

of the dominant faction as he 
HoweTer, as the Commons had 
i the bishops at the close of 
'v and hinted at an impeach- 
h» Qneen, Charles resolred to 
8 of the most factious of its 

This bold, bat nnfortonate 
I imparted to no one but the 
Wlicn he set oat on the mom- 
I latal foorth of Jannary, 1642, 
1 bis consort if an hour elapsed 
«r bearing iU news from him, 
I aee him rrtnm the master of 
iom. She anxioosly waited 
edioas hour had flown, when 
«• anriTed, she believed the 
torioos, and turning to the 
is Ladv Carlisle, exclaimed 
r:— *♦ Thank Go<l, the greatest 
re passed, for I have reason to 
at, oy this time, Pym and his 
tea are arrested, and the King 
isatcr of his kingdom." Lady 
lowerer, thought otherwise, for 
nit she learnt the King^s de- 

the too-confiding Queen, she 
it tbroagh one of oer agents to 
I as she expected, so it hap- 
Before the King rould reach 
By the marked members had 

Mrt^ had rallied, and Charles 
I m silence, and retired amidst 
liCiBct murmurs of *' privilege, 
" When the Queen found 
lief her heedless prattling had 
B bitterly upbraided herself, 
T fault, and throwing herself 
arms of her tender husband, 

his forgivencM. Greatly to 
; of Charles, although the in- 
. had ruined him« he neither 
[ her nor treatrd her with less 
than previously. A few days 
occurrence, thit whole populace 
n rose in insurrection, m de- 

waa said, of the privilege of 
m ct CSoaunona; tad (3ianeB| 

aware of the power, and distrusting the 
object of the patriots, fled, with the 
Queen and their family, to Hampton 
Court, on the evening of the tenyi of 

In this extremity the Queen resolved 
to proceed to Holland, under pretence 
of conducting her dauehter Mazy to her 
husband, the Prince of Orange ; but, in 
reality, to solicit the aid of foreign pow- 
ers, and to raise money on her jewels, 
and purchase arms and ammunition 
for her consort. As the Parliament had 
ordered the nobility to arm and prevent 
the King from ^ing abroad, she, that 
the Commons might not interfere with 
her departure, prevailed upon Charles to 
give the royal assent to the act, ex- 
cluding the bishops from sitting as peers 
in the House of Lords. She was con- 
ducted by the King to Dover, where she 
embarked with her daughter, the Prin- 
cess Mary, on the twenty-third of Feb- 
ruary. The parting was painful ; " Per- 
haps," ejaculated the King, as he pressed 
his consort in his arms, ** we may never 
meet again." ** As the Lord wills it, so 
must it De,** rejoined the weeping Queen. 
" But,'* interrupted the Princess, alarmed 
at the sorrow of her parents, and look- 
ing earnestly in the face of the unfortn- 
natc monarch, **but your Grace will 
come and see me when that naughty, 
naughty, Pym, has gone to prison ; tiiat 
you will, won't you ?" The King took 
her in his arms, blessed her, smothered 
her in kisses, and then she and her mo- 
ther embarked ; whilst Charles, linger- 
ing on the shore, watched the ressel 
that^ bore them away till it was ouite out 
of sight. On returning, ho tool up his 
residence at Theobalds ; but, as the Par- 
liament daily grew strongt>r and bolder, 
and at len^o, to get him in their power, 
inrited him to fix his residence in 
Ix)ndon, he hastened with his sons to 
Newmarket, and thence to York, whern, 
no longer controlled by the two Houses, 
he made preparations to defend his pre- 
rogatives Dv force of arms. The sur- 
rounding inhabitants welcomed him with 
acclamations and loyal addresses, and 
most of the leading nobles and gentry 
volunteered to serve in hia cause. At 
Hall, howerori he net with t iiciiil de- 


fsat; Sir Jobn Hotham, the Governor, 
when informed of hi« approach, ordered 
the drawbridge to be railed, the gates 
dosed, and the walls manned, and on his 
arrival, peremptorily refused him admit- 
tance, either to the town or to the for- 

The Qaeen*s efforts in IloUand were 
crowned with success. She won the 
ffood-wUl of the proverbially uncouth 
ourffoma&ters, and bj loans and what 
■he Dorrowed on her jewels, raised about 
two million pounds sterling. On the 
second of February, 1643, she sailed 
from Schereling, with a fleet of eleven 
Tessels, commanded by Von Tromp, and 
freighted with military stores and am- 
munition ; but she had scarcely put to 
tea, when a violent storm arose, and 
after a fortniglit's tossing and tumbling 
on the troubled deep, tlie whole squad- 
run, saving ten ships, which were lost, 
was driven back to the port from whence 
they sot out. Nothing daunted, Hen- 
rietta, a few days afterwards, again set 
sail ; the vovage was prosperous, and on 
the twentiutii of February, she reached 
in safety liurlington Bay, where she 
landed on the twenty-second, ^atly to 
the rage of Datttn, the Parliamentur)* 
Admiral, who having cruised in the 
neighbourhood and miled to intercept 
her, Tented his spleen, by, on the second 
night, the twenty-fourth of February, 
anchoring in the road, and at five in the 
morning, opening a sharp cannonade 
upon the house in which her Majesty 
afept The danger so terrified the 
Queen, that she quitted her bed, and, 
*• ban'foot and barelegged," sought shel- 
ter in a neighbouring ditch, behind a 
hill, where she remained till the ebbing 
of the tide, when the firing ceased, and 
Batten sheered off. 

Henrietta waited in the neighbour- 
hood of Burlington till her stores and 
cannon were placed in order, and other 
preparations were made for marching. 
During this pc'riod she executed much 
business. Her affability, uprightness, 
and firmly-rooted conviction of success, 
animated all around her, and won over 
the people of Yorkshire to the royal 
cause. She distributed arms amongst 
thoae who TolmUeeKed in her lerfioc; 

and the following dremutance, roen* 
tioncd br Bossuet, greatly increased 
her popularity. Her soldien t«M>k pri- 
soner one of the captains of the I^ur- 
liamentary vessels, tned him, fonnd him 
guilty of directing the cannon which 
bombarded her honse at Buiington, and 
condemned him to be hanged — she went 
and stopped the procession which con- 
ducted him to execution — whether in- 
tentionally or if by aoddmt is not stated 
— and after declamDg that she had for- 
given him, and as he had not killed her, 
he should not be put to death on her 
account ; ordered him to be released on 
the spot, which so affected him, that he 
joined her standard, and prevailed npon 
several of his shipmates to fuUow bis 
example. From Burlington the Queen 
marched across the wolos of Malton to 
York, with two hundred and fifty wa||^ 
gons loaded with stores and ammum- 
tion, escorted by two thousand cavaliexs. 
She wrote to the King from York, oa 
the twentieth of March, 1643, sratiag, 
** Sir Hugh Cholmondely Jtioveraor 
of Scarborough] is come in with a troup 
of horse to kiss my hand, the n-st of bu 
people ho has left at Scarbi trough, with 
a Parliament ship laden with arms. So 
this ship is ours as well as Scarborough.** 
About tois time negotiations were pend- 
ing for a treaty of peace between the 
King and the Parliament. The Quein 
opp(Mcd the treaty; her reason for io 
doing she thus states, — **I hear from 
London that the Parliament wiU have 
no cessation of arms, and that in their 
treaty, they demand the surrender of 
forts, ships, and ammunition, and the 
disbanding of your [the King^s] army. 
Certainly I heartily wisli a peaee, bat 
as a first step to that peace, I would de- 
sire the disbanding of the jperpetoal 
Parliament;* a measure which those 
who are against you, as well as for yoo, , 
earnestly desire, and which you mo^t 
demand at first, or it will not be granted. 
Obtain this, and the rest will easily fi>l. 

* The Long Parliftment. This Parlhineitt 
had, in fact, inreated Itaelf with Munanoaot 
authoritjr ; ainca, on tba tenth of Slaf , 164t 
it paaaed an act which prohibited the dlaM* 
lution, prorocation, or a4K>nniin«nt of thf 
prsamit parilamtat, wUlMiit the nnviMi 
rnasMt si the two fcjMsa. 



r. Bemember Hull tnd all YorkiMre 
Mm, wbich is a great adfantage : and 
myself, if yoa make peace and die- 
nd 'jour armj, before this perpetual 
rltamont is dissoWcd, I shall certainly 
to France, for I ha?e no desire to 
grasped within the power of those 
10 would use mo ill, perhaps cruelly 
" On the third of April she wrote to 
9 King, ** our army marches to-mor- 
r, to put an end to Fair&x*s excel- 
Mj ;*' a measure highly needful, but 
k so easily accomplished as she had 
pposed. The King and Prince Ru- 
rt were braTely battling in the neigh- 
oriiood of Oxford, and m the midland 
uties ; between them and Henrietta, 
irftx and Kasez, at the bead of the 
triot army, had planted themseWes; 
r were they beaten out of the field 
[ after some months had elapsed, and 
> BoyaUsts had obtained seTcral mi- 
r netories. The success of the Roy- 
rti enabled Henrietta to send a plen- 
il eonroy to her husband in May, and 
Ktly afterwards, she and her army 
raaced to Newark, whence, flushed 
:h the late successes, she, on the twen- 
sercnth of June, wrote to the King. 
. shall go hence on Friday ; on Bar 
day I shall sleep at Werton, and 
m thence go to Ashley, where wo 
1 resoWe what way to take .... 
■oon as we have resoWcd I wQl send 
iword .... For the safety of Not- 
gbamshire and Lincolnshire I leave 
9 thousand foot (means to arm five 
■dred more), and twenty companies 
bone under Charles Cavendish . . . 
It enemy haTC left in Nottingham (in 
nison) one thousand. I carry with 
» three thousand foot, thirty compa- 
■ of horse and dragoons, six pieces of 
mon, and two mortars. Harry Jer- 
m eommands the forces which go 
th me, as Colonel of my guard ; Sir 
exander Lesley, the foot under him ; 
r John Gcrani, the horse ; Robin 
gge, the ortillery, and I am Mht'tna' 
tff memernUUtima over all, and cx- 
meiy diligent am I, too, with one hun- 
•d and fifty waggons of baggage to 
rem in casti of Iwttle." But, brave as 
r ^ she-majesty generalliasima" might 
, iha iielt no oispoaitiott to do battle 

with Essex, for in the same epistle she 
says, " Have a care that no troop of Es- 
sex's army incommode us ;" a needlese 
caution, for, at the time, the Kine and 
his loyal Cavaliers, with God save Queen 
Bfary — the name bj which Henrietta 
Maria was then designated in Englnnd 
— for their war-cry, were doing their 
best to keep the Earl in check, and so 
successful were their efforts, that the 
Queen and her army marched the whole 
distance from Yorkshire to Oxford with- 
out opposition. To their infinite Jot, 
Charles and Henrietta met in the vale 
of Keynton, close to Edge HilU on the 
thirteenth of Jidy, and their previous 
career of triumph they and their parti- 
sans erroneously pronounced to be a sure 
omen of a specay victory and peace. Ac- 
cording to Clarendon, the King, at this 
period, could and would have made ho- 
nourable and advantageous terms with 
the patriots, had not Henrietta, flushed 
with her recent successes, prevented bun. 
She declared that the only effectual 
way of terminating the war was by con- 
<^uest ; a mistake, to uso a mild expres- 
sion, for which she ever afterwards 
greatly blamed herself. It, however, 
appears to us, that Charles, in this cose, 
was the most culpable person ; he should 
have calmly weighed the matter, and fol- 
lowed the dictates of his own judgment, 
instead of submitting to the will of his 
too sanguine consort ; and, moreover, he 
must have been blind indeed, not to 
have perceived at a glance, that how anx- 
ious soever he might be to crush the un- 
just power — the unyielding opposition — 
of his bitterest opponents, some of whom, 
it must be admitted, woro eager only in 
the pursuit of eold, place, power ; whilst 
others, actuated by a wild revolutionary 
fanaticism, known at the time as levet 
len, were seeking to ovcrtlirow tha 
King and the church, and establish tho 
absurd sociid doctrine of equality ; that 
to subdue tho discontents of the people 
by force of arms, was but to supersede 
a lesser evil by a greater one, for neither 
the IsBglish nor the Scotch would tamely 
bow to the yoke of an absolute despot^ 

The Queen remained at Oxford whilst 
aieTerereyenecama over the furtuaes 



of the Bojralists. When the powerfol 
paUamentaij forces approached that 
titj in hostile array, Charles escorted 
'*his wife," as he emphatically called 
his hcloved Ucnrictto, to Ahingdon, for 
•afety. They parted in tears on the third 
of April, 164-i, and ncTcr again met on 
earth. The prospect before the Queen 
was gloomy and forbidding; and, to add 
to her bodily sufferings, she was for ad- 
Tanced in pregnancy, and suffering from 
the torments of a rheumatic fever. To 
cure this malady she went to Bath ; but 
in a brief time, circumstances forced her, 
ill as she was, to seek rcfuee at Bedford 
House, in the loyal city of Exeter. Here, 
in poverty, and in daily expectation 
that the city would be besieged, she 
wrote to the King's physician, Dr. May- 
erne, earnestly requesting his professional 
aid ; and about the same time, Charles 
wrote, ** Maveme, For the love of mc, 
go to mv wife." The faithful physician, 
although he deemed her Majesty's reli- 

S'on the chief cause of the troubles in 
Dgland, hastened to her presence ; and 
about a fortnight afterwards she brought 
a healthy daughter into the world, at 
Bedford House, Exeter, on the sixteenth 
of June. This event had taken place 
but a few days, when Essex, at the liead 
of hostile forces, advanced to besiege the 
city ; Uenrietta, in alarm, sent to him 
for a passport to go to Bath or Bristol 
for the rt^overy of her health ; but he 
insultingly answered, he intended him- 
self to conduct her to London, where 
she had been impeached of high treason, 
for levelling war upon England. Deli- 
cate as she yet was from the effects of 
her confinement, she summoned all her 
energy and resolution, and in the dead 
of that same night rose from her sick 
bed, disguised herself, and with her con- 
fessor, and a lady and a gentleman, cs- 
eaped to a hut, three miles out of Exeter, 
where she lay witliout food, under a heap 
of rubbish, ' for two days, whilst the 
revolutionary soldiers vainly searched 
around for her; fifty thousand crowns 
having been offered' by the Parliament 
for her head. This peril passed, she 
and licr three companions in adversity 
traTeUed to a poor cottage, in a wooa, 
hctween Exeter and Plymouth, when 

she met her oth» ittendaata, who had 
efau>ed by stntagem oat of Exeter; the 
whole p«i^ then proceeded to PendeDBii 
castle, and the next day embarked for 
France. Meanwhile, Charles, awaie of 
the daneer of his '^bcloTed wife," cou- 
rageously fought his way to Exeter. He 
entered that city only a few days after 
Henrietta had sailed, took the little 
Princess, which the ill-starred Quetrn 
had, on her flight, left to the care of 
Lady Mortimer, and fondly kissing her, 
blessed her, and had her baptized Hen- 

The Queen encomtered many perils 
before she reached France. A parlia- 
mentary cruiser, commanded by Captaia 
Batte, chased the Teasel ia which she 
embarked, fired at it, and disabled it, 
when Henrietta hastened on dock, took 
the command into her ^own hands, and 
with the false conrage of an heroine of 
ancient Rome, charged the captain not 
to strike, but in the event of it being 
impossible to hold out any longer, to fire 
the powder magazine ana Mow them all 
up in the face of the foe. HoweTer, at 
the moment when all on board, save the 
Queen, gaTC themselves over for lost, 
six vefleeiB hastened to their protection, 
out of the harbour of Dieppe, and forced 
the foe to make a hasty retreaL They 
then made for Dieppe, and were about 
entering the haven, when a storm arose 
and drove them to Chastel, near Brest, 
in Brittany, where having with difiicnltj 
effected a landing, they travased the 
rockv coast on foot, till they diico- 
vcrea a rude village, when tiie fittiraed 
Queen entered a poor fisherman's cuhb, 
and thankfully reposed on a bed of straw. 
The poor Bretons took her and the people 
for pirates, but when she made known 
to them who she really was, Uie neigh- 
bouring gentry thronged to her, offered 
her their hearty congratulations, and, 
what was then infinitely more raioable 
to her, all the assistance in their power, 
and through their kindness she proceeded 
to the spnngs of Bourbon, in search of 
health and repose. The air and waters 
of her native land proved only slightlv 
efiicacious; indeed, severe mental ana 
bodily trials had destroyed the vigour of 
her oonstitation ; she wm wastid to a 



ikdeUm, bcr beaiitj mm for ever ^e, 
fend she bewailed her hnihand's misfor- 
tnnea and the bereaTement of her child- 
ren with inch Mrere and heart-piercing 
lamentations and tears, that a retnm of 
the hnoyanc)r and riffonr of jx>nth was 
ottite impossible. &er siiter-in-law, 
Anne of Austria, liberally supplied her 
with money for her eipenditure; and 
like a tme^ wife, the affectionate Hen- 
rietta ezerdsed a liberal parsimony, and 
sent erery penny she could obtain or 
sare to her distressed husband. Some 
anthoia afllrm that Lord Jermyn, who 
retained his post in the Queen's house- 
hold through all the rercrse of her for- 
tune, maintained her when in exile. 
" This," am Madam de MotteyiUe, <*is 
an error, for she had a large income 
settled imon her by her generous relations, 
whidk ahermlariy receiTcd till Uie civil 
war of the Fronde reduced those rela- 
tives to the same distressed condition 
with hoaelf.'' 

When Henrietta was sufficiently re- 
covered to leave the baths of Bourbon, 
she was formally invited to court, and 
conducted thither in state by the Duke 
of Orleans and Mademoiselle de Mont- 
pensier, in August, 1644. The Queen- 
mother and her son welcomed her to 
the Loorre in person, and appointed St. 
Gcrmains for her country seat To this 
saeient ch&teaa she retired in the au- 
tumn ; uid she was honoured with all 
the respeet and deference due to a Prin- 
cess of France. In gratitude to Heaven 
for her preservation from shipwreck, 
she, in September, presented to the chapel 
of our lady at liesse one thousand nve 
hunted livros, for a low mass to be said 
for her on erciy Saturday in perpetuity. 
She now made it at once her business 
and her pleasure to correspond with the 
Kinf , ana form around her a little court 
of his exiled partiians. Amongst these, 
were the Htenry stars, Denham, Cowley, 
and Waller, llie latter was appointed 
to trandate the letters which toe royal 
pair addressed to each other in cypher ; 
and so numerous and lengthy were these 
affti-tionato epistles, that for years it 
fully occupied his time by dav, and not 
onfrequcntly encroached upon nis nights. 

In the spring of 1C45, Ilenriett^i be- 

came so alarmingly ill, that her life was 
despaired of. Charles therefore ad- 
dressed his letters to her confidential 
secretary, Lord Jermyn, and requesUHi 
him, whilst the Queen remained too un- 
well to read the correspondence herself, 
to impart to her only such portions of 
it as would be likely to cheer, and not 
trouble her: '* Indeed," savs the true 
and tender King, ** act witn such dis- 
cretion in the matter, that her health, 
in the first case, be cared for, and my 
affairs afterwards." During the summer, 
the Queen was restored to convales- 
cence. The subjoined letter shows the 
interest she continued to take in her 
husband's affairs. 

Queen Simrietla to King Charlea. 
'*Dear HBAnT, 

«I understand that the commis- 
sioners are arrived in London. I have 
nothing to say, but that you have a 
care of your honour, and that if you have 
a peace, it may be such as maf hold, 
and if it fell out otherwise, that yon do 
not abandon those who have served you, 
for fear they do forsake you in their 
need ; also, I do not see how you can be 
in safety without a regiment of guards. 
For myself, I think I cannot be, seeing 
the malice which they have against me 
and my religion, of which I no[)e you 
will have a care of both ; but, in my 
opinion, religion should be the last 
thing upon which you should treat for : 
if you ao agree upon strictness against 
the Catholics, it would discourage them 
to save you; and if, afterwaros, there 
should be no peace, von could never ex- 
pect succour, either nrom Ireland or any 
Catholic Prince, for they would believe 
you would abandon them after you had 
served yourself." 

On the seventeenth of January, 1645, 
the anxious Henrietta wrote to her 
struggling husband as follows : — 

'* My diur nsABT, 

" Tom Elliot, two days since, hath 
brought mo much joy ana sorrow ; the 
first to know the good estate in which 
you arc, the other, the fear I have that 
you g(» to I/)ndon. I caniot conceive 


wlMrtd tlM wit mm of tboM who gsre 
jou thif oomud, onlen it be to luSard 

rr penon to nare tbein ; Imt, tbanki 
to God, to-day I receiTi^ one of 
yonn bj the ambaasador of Portugal, 
dated in Jannarj, which comforteth me 
noch to Bee that the treatj shall be at 
tTzbridj^. For the honoor of Qod, 
trust not yourself in the hands of these 
people, and, if you erer go to London 
Wore the Parliament be ended, or 
without a good army, you are lost I 
understand that the proposition for the 
peace must bejpn by the disbanding of 
your army ; if you consent to this, you 
■hall be lost; they baring the whole 
power of the militia, they haTe done, 
and will do, whatsocTer they please. I 
rcceiTed, yesterday, letters from the 
Duke of LorraiUf who sends me word, if 
his senrice be agreeable to you, he will 
bring you ten thousand men. Dr. 
Gaffe, whom I hare sent into Holland, 
shall treat with him on his passage upon 
this bhsincss, and I hope very speedily 
to send good news of tiiis, as, also, of 
the money. Assure yourself I will be 
wanting in nothing you shall desire, and 
that I will hazard my life, that is to die 
of famine, rather than not send it to 
you. Send me word, always, by whom 
▼on receire your letters, for 1 write 
both by the ambassador of Portugal and 
the resident of France. Abore all, hare 
a care not to abandon those who hare 
serred you, as well the bishops as the 
poor Catholics. Adieu." 

The abore letters are ouoted from the 
King's cabinet, captured oy the rebels at 
the battle of Naseoy, a battle which de- 
stroyed Charles's last hopes of preyailing 
orer the parliament by arms, and in 
which he lost more than three thousand 
men, nine thousand stand of arms, his 
park of artillery, the baggage of the 

anny,aiid his prifite eabinet, eontaining 
his late eone^Modeiiee with the Qneea 
■nd the royalists. Oat of these import- 
ant priTate ptpeiB the PSarliameat pub- 
lished a selectum, with remarks, in jns- 
tification of their eondnct; and, aHhemi 
Charies Tciy natmrany denoNaeedthe 
nublicatioB, he acknowledged that, as 
mr as it went, it was gennine. 

Desperate as was the position of 
Charles at this period, his eonfldenee 
did not forsake him. What he could 
not procure by arms, he endeavevred to 
obtain by negotiation; and he might 
hare suceeedeo, had it not been diMo- 
Tered that he was, at the same tim& 
treating with the Independents, and 
with the Presbyterians of^SootlawL la 
May, 1646, being unable to loneer main- 
tain the fidd, he escaped firom Oxford ii 
disguise, and trusting to the words of 
the Scots, threw himMlf ea Iheir gene- 
rosity, and theybasely sold hioi to the 
Parliament The Queen atmaoasly 
urged him to sare himself, l^ abandon- 
ing the Episcopal Church of Ba^laad; 
but he firmly refused, declaring it was 
port of his Inngly duty to foster that 
church of which he was the sworn de- 
fender. It was when the Soots had lost 
all hope of prcTailin^ upon him to es- 
tablish the Presbyterian creed throngfa- 
out the kingdom, that one day, when 
he was at church at Newcasde, the 
minister, after utterinr bold truths, 
ordered the factious psum to be song, 

** Whj do«t thou, tjnrmnt boast thyself; 
Thy wicked deeds to prmiie f* 

When he stood up in his place, forbad it, 
and called for the psalm, commcnGUig,— 

" HaTe mercy. Lord, on me I pnj. 
For flMn would ae deroor.*^ 

And the whole congregatiQii good-na- 
turedly indulged him. 


r it Charitt ta lit Seelt — £ttiijit of tier tUiwl Mn, •/ 
i<r dnvlUtr, EtnrUtU JTar^, «<d of Jama. Duke of Yort— JTar oftlu Fnnit 
—Tit QMm n wbM pMvriy—JVwi ef U> eztnlien of CAarla tki Jinl 
iarri^ htr—Lotitt tU Flmrtttiitli payi lur a viiit of tmdolnict—Utituctfafta 
mirmlnrtt tf Cliaria lit Stamd in Briltin — Croia\rtir i herthiKU ttKurdt krr 
MUrm Sht found* tit CmvatI of Skatlm—EHdcavotin to convtrt htr gomgat 
«n M Of CUAalic Ftitk—Drim him from htr home—Ptath ef CrtmiccU^At- 
m m mn tf dtmrbf Ot Steimd—Hinriitta nrgoluilu lit marriagt ef ktr daughter— 
Ctmn U Agbiid—QlipeKi tA* marriaf of tie Dukt tf Yeri t» Antit Hydt— 
Cfa^Kte Htr dattglUer, Hatriitta, to Frmce, and murriti htr to Iht Bukt if 
Orbmi Stturiu to Xngltml—Siitteiiri tit Eiiglith CalJuUiti—Illnca—Goa la 
tmrth of hiaHk—T^grtat FUgut of Lonion^UrrhtalthttiUdi- 



e ChHli!stotbctrcuh-| 
u Scotendl^ do- 1 
, Bcdths ipinli of: 
J Ibe QnccB, and the! 
I ittt pleMura (he ex- i 
i pounced sftmranU, | 
' WM tbg uriiBl of 
Wr cldart loB, Chwln, Prince of Wiln, 
il SeptFmbfr, 1646 ; the Piince, whan 
hii hther'a fortnnn became dcaperate, 
withdrew Is Bcillj, then to Jcnej, aad 
M last landed in Frtatt, end joined bi> 
Caeonfolate tDothcT. Ahmt the ume 
6mt I^T Horton nieceedad ia euap- 
nf, vith the little PrinccM, Ueniietta 
Haria, from the gnip of the Fulie- 
nnit, and eotidactcd her, in ufetT. to 
the aimi of her fond mother. To effect 
tbi* ncape, Xddj Morton ■""-"■^ the 
dii^iae of a poor French woman, 
GltMl herKlf np a hamp, wilb a bundle 
of dirtf clothing; draned the royal 
babe in taga, taUri hei Pierre, a 
name clonly reeembling the lound ut- 
terrd b; the prattling infant, when the 
codeaTonied to call henelf PrinccM, and 
naming her her little boj, walked with 
her. on her bark, from the nunorj at 
Oatlinda, to UoTcr; tlito croued the 
cbanm-l to Calaii. in the common 
parkiL-t-boat, without exciting luapicion, 
and haatrning to Farii, jireaented the 
Princm ^l the enraptured Qurca, who, 
fiiniilT rolilin^ber little one inhprarmH, 
kiwcd hoi again and again ; called licr, 


' child of benediction," and reiolred 
ng her up a Roman Catholic. 
Ma;, 1648, Henrietta recti ri'd th« 
'~ inlcUigrnce (hat her ion 
, luliu of Yuik, hud eacaped from 
hii eonfincnunt at St. Jumei'i, and 
reached the Downs in larizly. He waa 
about tu procctd tohismollicrin France, 
but, on hearing of the rcrult of tbc fleet 
from the patriot part;, lie cliaDgi-d hi* 
mind, and liiuteniti^ ti> the Hague, i:n- 
couragcd the uilurs, by takiug U]iun 
himiclr the ramniaiiii ; conduct which 
HennEtta highly comnn'mled. 

When the war of tlio t'ronde broke 
out in Parii, at the cnmmcncoment of 
16-18, Henrietta urged her liitcr-in-Uw 
to aicrt the impending itorm, by mak- 
ing reaoonabU conccetiuna to the populai 
party. But (he Queen- Segent not 
being one of thoee who took warning by 
the calamitj of others, the war, which 
lagcd for about eighteen montha, ipce- 
dilr anumed a most ulanning aspi-ct; 
and, era it reached tbc crisis, Ilcnnetta, 
Anne of Austria, and, indeed, all the 
royal family of Fiance then in France, 
wi^re reduced to BUch eilrcmc destitu- 
tion, that tliey had nut wherewith to pro- 
cure a dinner. Tlio Queen strinaouilr 
excrtdlhinclf (oputnpcriodlu the war 
of the Knindv; she cuiiii.>d the eoiiflilenen 
<if tbo houin uf I'onclf, the leaders iif the 
piipular partv; and. ut lost, after lioth par* 
til B liiul hiilfi'riil gri-ully, lier TVIiri'iunta- 
liiHU went tUtened to, and peace Hfinttwli 



To Henrietta, the Christinas of 1648 
t truly doleful one; she hnd vainly 
lurved France, Holland, and Poland to 
aia her hushand ; and now shut up in the 
ipacions LouTre, whilst all around her 
was one wild scene of insurrection and 
horror, and, with thoughts centred on 
the more distant, bnt, to her, more ab- 
iorbinff affairs of her unfortunate consort 
in England, whose letters could not reach 
her, on account of the besieged state of 
Paris ; she and her daughter, 3ie Princess 
Henrietta Maria, were actually famishing 
lor want of bread, clothing, and fuel. 

On the sixtli of January, Cardinal de 
Betz, one of the mostactire of the insnr- 
rectionists, risited her; and, appalled 
by the destitution and misery which she 
endured, without a murmur, hastened to 
the Parliament of Paris, and, on the 
same day, prerailed on tliat assembly to 
rote her Wie rery acceptable sum of 
twenty thousand livres. On this event- 
ful day, when De Retz saved her and 
her daughter from perishing of cold and 
hunger, Henrietta, baring received the 
affecting tidings that the dominant fac- 
tion in England was about to sentence 
her husband to the scaffold, wrote an 
earnest dispatch to the French ambas- 
ndor in England, imploring to be per- 
mitted to come to London, and see the 
unfortunate Charles the First. £n- 
elosed in this dispatch, were letters to 
the Speakers of the Upper and Lower 
Houses of Pariiament, and to Fairfax, 
the general of the armv, beseeching from 
them the same indulgence. She also 
wrote to her husband, deeply sympa- 
thizing with his a£9ictions, ana assuring 
him of her anxiety to help him, and her 
earnest desire, if she could not die for 
him, to die with him. These efforts of 
the sorrowing Henrietta were disre- 
garded by the enemies of her husband, 
and the unfortunate Charles the First 
was tried, executed, and buried, before 
his consort, besieged as she was in Paris, 
received the appalling intelligence. 

The misery and insults endured by 
the faulty, but greatly ill-used Charles 
the First, during his captivity ; his un- 
just, partial, and unconstitutional trial ; 
and nis still more uniust execution, 
have been so fully detailed by modem I 

writers, tliat we pMi them by ; «aipi? 
remarking, that tae murdeied nonarcb 
waa homed to the seaffold by a small 
faction of bold and ambitioiu spirits, 
who had the addrsM to imup the go- 
Temment. end that the gveat ndority of 
the Deople deeply defdored, end woud 
fain have prevented his executioa. As 
a proof of this, we extract the following 
passi^ from the life of Philip Henry, 
an eminent divine, written by his son 
Mathew, the author of the celebiated 
** Commentary on the Bible." 

"At the latter end of 1618, he 
fPhilip Hennr] had leave ^vea him 
[from oollegej to make a vuit to his 
father at Whitehall, with whom he 
stayed for tome time; then he was 
January the thirtyeth, 1640, when the 
King waa beheaded ; and with a very 
sad heart saw that tragical Uow givea. 
Two things he used to speak of, that he 
took notice of himself that day, which I 
know not if any of the historians men- 
tion. One was, that at tiie iastaat 
when the blow was given, there was 
9uch a dismal, wktrtal, groan awtomf 
the thtnmmdi 0/ the people thai trrrv 
tpt'thin eight 0/ it {ae it tctre with eat 
consent) ae he never heard hefere^ aid 
desired that he might never hear the 
like again, nor see such a cause of it 
The other was, that immediately after 
the stroke was struck, there waa, accord- 
ing to order, one troop inarching froa 
Charing-Cross towards King Street, aod 
another from King Street towards Chsr- 
ing-Cross, purposely to disperae and 
scatter the people, and to divert the dis- 
mal thoughts which they could not bat 
be filled with, by driving them to a 
shift, every one for his own aafetv." 

King Charles had been beheaded tea 
days beforo the dreadfid iiewe reached 
the ears of Henrietta; the beaie^ state 
of Paris had stopped the eoaners with 
dispatches to her from England, and she 
learned the sad tale of his trial and his 
death all in one day. Her secretary, Lord 
Jermyn, imparted Uie calamitous tidings 
to her, and it plunged her into grief too 
intense for utterance; for hours she 
neither moved, wept, nor spoke, bat 
stood motionless in a stapor of sorrow, 
from which she waa onlj aiooaed bf the 



B^pathr of the Dveben of Vendome ; 
▼hen, after indalnnj^ in t flood of tean, 
the eicl&imed, **The Ion of my crown 
1 n^t not ; but, oh ! to lose so kind, 
to Tirtuoua, so wise, so indulgent a bus- 
hand is a calamity indeed f She then 
xesoWed to retire to a conTent, and there 
weep ont her sorrow nnseen, and nn- 
known, to all save her own futhfhl at- 
tendanti. A few days afterwards, she 
took np her abode m the conrent of 
CarmeUtet, in Ftiris, wherein she gaYO 
herself up to prayers, and the rig^d forms, 
eeremonies, nsts, and mortifications usu- 
ally indulged in by Roman Catholics 
on such oocasions. But, in a brief time, 
she was forced to return to the Lourrc, 
to adnse and direct the conduct of her 
elder children. Her son, Charles the 
Second, by her desire, paid her a risit 
in the sommer of 1649; and shortly 
afterwards, such were the commotions 
in Paris, pacific and conciliating as was 
her conduct, both to the popular and 
to the court party, that she was forced 
to retire from the LouTre to St Gcr- 
maiRs. Her journey, especially throuj^h 
the streets of Paris', was fraught with 
danger. She was in deep mourning for 
her murdered husband ; and Charles the 
Second, who was also in deep black, 
rode by the side of her coach, to protect 
her fipom the insults of the rabble, who, 
from a Tagne notion of bettering their 
own miserable state, denounced princes, 
and all that was princely. 

When the ci?il war in Paris had 
abated, the widowed Queen returned 
with her son to the Lourre. Here, in 
August, 1649, Anne of Austria, and the 
youthful Louis the Fourteenth, paid her 
a state Tisit of condolence on the death 
of her husband ; and, on this occasion, 
King Charles the Second was, for the 
flrst time, formally acknowledged at the 
court of France, where the charms and 
eoquetrr of Mademoiselle de Montpensior 
detained him for some time. Impelled 
by tiie desire of ascending his father's 
throne, Charles, despite the alarms and 
entreaties of his mother, who believed 
the time not yet rine for striking the 
Uow, renturea into nis lost kingdom, to 
■eek his fortune. Accompani^ by his 
brother, James, Duke of York, ho landi^tl 

at Jersey, in September, 1649, where 
he was acknowledged King of Great 
Britain ; he then proceeded to Scotland, 
and commenced a series of adrentures, 
till his escape after the disastrous defeat 
at Worcester, when, to the joy of Hen- 
rietta, who had gircn him orer for lost, 
he found his way back to her at Paris, 
in October, 1651. '*His daring adrcn- 
tures and hair-breadth escapes," says 
an esteemed historian, "were listened 
to with interest; and his conduct was 
made the theme of general praise. That 
he should be the heir to the British 
crowns, was the mere accident of birth ; 
that he was worthy to wear them, he 
owed to the resources and energies of 
his own mind." In a few months, how- 
crer, t)ie delusion Tanished ; Charles had 
borne the blossoms of promise — they 
were blasted under the withering influ- 
ence of pleasure and dissipation. 

Two of Henrietta's children, the 
young Duke of Gloucester, to whom she 
had given birth in Norember, 1640, 
and his sister, the Princess Elizabeth, 
still remained prisoners in England ; 
the former was too young to feci the 
de^dation of his situation, but the 
Pnncess, conscious of her position, was 
sent from St. James's to Carisbroke Cas- 
tle — the prison from whence her father 
was taken to be tried and executed — 
where she piTe way to such anguish, 
that she fell into a nenrous fever, of 
which she expired on the eighth of Sep- 
tember, 1650. The Queen, on hearing 
of her death, wept bitterly, as also did 
her affectionate brothers and sisters. 
She was interred with but little cere- 
mony at Newport, sixteen days after her 

It was whilst the protracted negotia- 
tions for peace between France and the 
iron-willed Cromwell were pending, 
that Henrietta Maria took occasion to 
demand, by the voice of Cardinal Ma- 
zarin, the payment of her dower as 
Queen-dowager of England. " She has 
no right to this dower," was the Pro- 
toctor 8 stem reply ; ** for the people of 
Kii^land have never recognizi.'d her ns 
(^uven." As previously shewn, she, in 
her girlhood, had refused to share the 
corniiation ccremoni(» with her hnBband ; 


Md it WM vpon thu tnily imwiM nftiMl, 
that her dower wm now denied her ; an 
iMolt eo irritating, that Henrietta ex- 
claimed, **If the £nriish did not con- 
rider me the wife ana ooneort of their 
late aorereign, what then hafe I been? 
anely, they would not qneation the le- 
gality of my marria^ } Uoworer," she 
urooeeded, with dignity, "as King 
liouii the Foorteenth chooees to submit 
to such a false stigma on the royal house 
of France, I must rest contented ; espe- 
cially, as my husband's loyal subjects 
dwsys respected me as their Queen." 
Althou^ Henrietta failed to obtain her 
dower rerenues, she procured the rcleaae 
of her young son, the Duke of Gloucester. 
Cromwell permitted him '* to transport 
himself beyond seas," and he immedi- 
ately flew to the arms of his mother* 
By the treaty of peace, signed in October* 
1 656, it was provided, that Cbarles Stu- 
art ^Charles the Second), his brother, 
the Duke of York, Onnond Hyde, and 
fifteen other adlierents of the exiled 
Prince, should be excluded from the 
kingdom of France. 

As Henrietta admitted Charles's au- 
thority as King over her children, she 
entreated him, when he was about to 
defwrt, to permit her son Henry to re- 
BUiin with her. He at first objected, 
fearing thai the Prince's religious senti- 
ments would be tampered with ; but 
when the Queen, who was already edu- 
cating her last-bom in the Catholic 
ikitb, solemnly promised to do nothing 
of the kind, he consented, and immedr 
ately afterwards wandered out of Franco, 
and settled at Cologne. The Queen- 
regent of France, on account of her dis- 
courtesy in driring Charles out of her 
territory, added two thousand francs per 
month to Henrietta's pension. 

In December, 1652, Henrietta's gen- 
tle, discreet confessor. Father Philips, 
died, and his post was filled by the Abb£ 
Montague, a rcstK-ss, intrieuing Jesuit, 
who speedily destroyed the peace of 
Charles the First's family. He first, 
onder a representation that it was sinful 
to permit the celebration of the Church 
of rlngland service at the Louvre, caused 
Henrietta's establishment there to be 
torokan np, and her residence to ba 

changed to the Falaia Eojal, when tha 
Qneen-mother of Franca raaidnd; a 
measure which greatly diaoooeertcd tha 
Engiirii ezilea— moat of whom proteed 
the Church of Knglaad fiutL Tha 
change also wrenly affected the Qneci; 
aha waa forced to hva in mihUc with tha 
French court, whilst her delMata health 
required retirement ; she therefore foond- 
ed the confcnt of Challot, into which 
she retired, and where she plaoed her 
daughter, Henrietta Maria, to be edo- 
cated. The wily Jesnit next prevailed 
on Queen Henrietta to eoDTert her Pko- 
testant children to the Oatholie Chnreh. 
This task of lore she commenced by 
urging her yonnceet son, Hevy, Buke 
of Glouceater, to abandon the Cnoreh of 
EngUmd. Finding entreatiea, penaa> 
sions, and threata, to be alike vain, die 
resolved to send him to the Jceuits* Col- 
lege ; but he promptly refused to com- 
ply. Stormy altercations ensued, in 
wnich Montague and the young Prince's 
faithful tutor, Mr. Loret, took an active 
part Meanwhile, Prince Henry applied 
to his brother Charles, who, in an affec- 
tionate letter, replied, **I understand 
Mr. Montague ana your mother are ea- 
deavouring to pervert you from your re- 
ligion ; if you hearken to them or aay 
one else in this matter, you must never 
think to see England or me again. Do 
not let them persuade you, either by 
force or fair promisee. 1 hear there is 
a purport to put you into the Jesuit^ 
College, which I command yon, on the 
same grounds, never to consent unto. 
Remember the last words of your desd 
father, which were to be constant to year 
religion ; which, if you do not observe, 
this shall be the last time yon will hesr 
from me." Notwithstanding this loyil 
mandate, Henrietta one day took Prinee 
Henry aside, kisaed and careaicd bin, 
and prevailed on him to once mote listen 
to toe pennasions of Montague. He 
gare the crafty Jesuit audience in his 

Erivate chamber in the Palais Hoval, 
stened to his argnmenta for more toaa 
an hour, and dismissing him, said, ** la- 
form my mother that I Mhere more flnalv 
than ever to the religion (Mf the Charn 
of England." 
•'l^nUia har Mi)i«atj*a 

QVBEV or rH411T.HI THB vifaei. 


that yon ocfer son enter her preienoe," 
replied Hontagoe, as he abmptlj quitted 
the aputineBt. 

This BMHige mote Glo ne ee te r with 
dcspeir ; he instuitlj enployed the in* 
tcrcesii<« of his hrother, the Dnke of 
York, hot to no poipose. ** I will dis- 
ensB the snbiect with neither of you," 
replied the enraged Queen, " but through 
the Bcdinm of my eonfessor. Gloueester 
But eomply, or I renounce him for 

The saheeqnent Sunday morning the 
Jesuit called on the Prince, entreated him 
for hia mother's sake to succumb to her 
wish, and adriaed him to speak with her 
as she went to mass; at that moment 
the QnecB passed to enter her coach, the 
Prince rosiied out, kneeled before her, 
and implored her blessing ; but, to her 
disgrace, she repulsed him with an angry 
mnoe, and passed on. He returned in 
orspair, and when the diplomatic Jesuit, 
who had watched the meeting from the 
window, asked why he was weeping, re- 
torted with diMiain, ** Because, sir, my 
mother, in compliance with your un- 
christian advice, has commanded mc 
BCTer again to enter her presence.*' Ho 
ihnk turned from the hose Jesuit, and 
it being serrioe-time, went with his bro- 
ther, the Duke of York, to Sir Eichard 
Bit»wn*s priTute little chapel, and there 
took part in the holy devotions of the 
Chnreh of EngUnd. The Prince — he 
was bat fourteen — was now forced to en- 
dure a scTere trial; when the dinner 
hoar arrived, he learned with astonish- 
that hia mother refosed his com- 
sostenance; b? her strict injunc- 
tions no dinner haa been provided for 
him, and he was forced to accept the 
hospitality of Lord Hatton, who gene- 
roaslj offered to serve him to the utmost 
of his power; before night his apart- 
ments were dismantled, the sheets stripped 
htm his bed, his servants told to depart, 
and his hones turned adrift out of their 
stables. When he received this very 
unnstanl harshness from his mother, ho 
was penniless ; but Hyde, Orroond, and 
other Church of England Royalists, ge- 
nerously provid(>d for his maintenance. 
The Duke of York, by his constancy to 
Iha Church of England, end the assisU 

ance ho afforded hia younger brother, 
also deeply offended the priest-ridden 
Henrietta; but at the moment when, in 
all probability, he would have been dis- 
missed with liis mothcr^s malediction, 
Charles the Second, at the instigation of 
the Princess of Orange and of the Queen 
of Rohemia— both staunch ProtestantA— 
wrote a formal letter to his mother, de- 
manding the Duke of Gloucester as his 
subject ; a demand which Henrietta was 
forced to comply^ with. The young 
Duke, to hii infinite icy, set out on his 
journey to his brother in December, 
1654, -and before his departure, his re- 
luctant mother summoned him to her 
arms, kissed him, blessed him, and pro- 
mised to cease persecuting him. This 
unwarrantable cruelty to her younmt 
son is the worst, the most reprehensible 
deed committed by Henrietta ; and cer- 
tainly her confessor, by urging her to it 
for her soul's sake, proved himself, al- 
though a priest, a base, heartless wretch. 

Two years aflor these unpleasant oc- 
currences, the Princess of Orange risitod 
Henrietta, and effected a reconciliation 
between her and her sons. The Duke 
of York escorted his sister, the Princess, 
to Paris, and about this time it wss, that 
he fell in luvo with the more fascinating 
than beautiful, Anne Hyde, of whom he 
says, ** she had all the ouidities proper 
to inflame a heart, and she brought my 
passion to such a height, that the win- 
ter before the Kings restoration, I re- 
solved and promised to msrry her.** The 
gossip story mentioned by I*epys and by 
Keresby, that about this time Queen 
Henrietta married Ix>rd Jermyn, and 
shortly afterwards brought him a doueh- 
ter, must be deemed an unfounded 
slander. It has all the appearance of an 
improbability, and after a diligent re- 
search, not a jot of evidence con we fiud 
in support of it. 

The death of Cromwell, on the third 
of September, 1G68, although not fol- 
lowed by the immediate restoration of 
Charles the Second, raised hopes in the 
minds of Henrietta^, that a bnj^hter era 
was at hand for her and her family ; and, 
when intelligence reached her, that on 
the eii^hth of May, 1660, Charles the 
Svcona was proclaimed in London^ iha 



beeamt fhmtie with joy ; ^re a magni- 
fteent ball, to which was invited all the 
French conrtien, and crery English 
gtmtleman in France, be his politics or 
religion what it might; and hastened 
with the rlad tidings to the Nuns at 
ChaiUot, where she took ^P ber abode 
lor a time, and where Charles the 
Second, on his road to Enriand, paid 
her a yisit incognito, to consult her in the 
matter. Although she strained CTeiy 
nerve on his behalf, made alliances in 
his favour, and obtained for him fifty 
thousand crowns from the Duchess of 
Savoy, she was not a witness to the ex- 
uberant joy of the restoration on the 
memorable twenty-ninth of May, 1660 ; 
her absence is thus noted by Cowley. 

** Where's now the royal mother, where f 
To take her mighty «haro 
In thtK inspiring sight ; 
And with the part she takes to add to the 

Ah! why art thon not here? 
Tbon, always hest, and now the happiest 

To see oar Joy, and with new joy be seen.*' 

Ilcr absence was occasioned by the 
arrangements she was making for the 
bctrotomcnt of her daughter Henrietta 
Maria, to her nephew, I'hilippc, Duke 
of Orleans ; and, immediately these ar- 
rangements were settled, as far as they 
could be in France, (the English Parlia- 
ment had to fix the Princess's dower,) 
she resolved to go to England, where 
she hoped to take possession of her long- 
withheld dower ; to prevent the marriage 
of the Duke of York to Anne Hvde, and 
to again behold her son, the t>uke of 
Gloucester: but she only obtained one 
of these objects. Before she .sailed, 
York was married, and the small-pox 
had carried the lamented Gloucester to 
an early grave. She embarked with 
her daughter Henrietta Maria, from 
Calais, on the eighteenth of October, 
1660, on board the English fleet, 
nnder the command of the Duke 
of York, who had just previously 
married the charming Anne Uyde; 
an act for which she severely repri- 
manded him, the moment he entered 
her presence. The voyage was pro- 
tracted, by an unusual calm ; for a wnolo 
day and night the ships lasily rolled 

on the gloasy, rippldcai am ; al liit, fa 
the afternoon of toe leeond day, a geif 
tie breeze qimng up, and walM Cht 
fleet in safety to Dover, whera Chailei 
the Second received hia motber aad his 
sister with royal magDiflcenoe. la th« 
evening he entertained Uiem with a 
sumptuous banquet at Dover Castle, 
where every member of the Stoait family 
assembled to welcome them ; and where 
Prince Rupert and the Princess of 
Orange honoured them with particular 
attention. From Dover, the royal party 

Sroceeded to (jravesend, whence the 
ling conducted his mother to White- 
hall, on the second of Hovenber. 
Pepys thus alludes to her arrival. ** Te 
Whitehall, where I aaw the boats eom- 
in^, very thick, to Lambeth, and all the 
stairs to be full of people. I was toM 
the Queen was coming, so I got a scal- 
ier for sixpence, to cany me to the royal 
barge and back ; but I could not get' to 
see the Queen. ♦ * • I observe, 
this night, very few bonfires in the 
City, not above three in all London, far 
the Queen' s coming ; whereby, I guess 
that her coming do please but vciy 
few." The next day, HcnrietU held s 
grand lev^e at Whitehall ; and " on the 
twenty-second," says Pepys, ** Mr. 
Fox did take my wife and I to the 
Queen's presence chamber, where he got 
my wife placed behind the chair ; sad 
the two Irinccsscs came to dinner. The 
Queen is a very little plain old womaa, 
with nothing m aspect or garb moie 
than an ordinary woman. The IVinccss 
of Orange I have often seen before. 
The Princess Henrietta is very preCtr, 
but much below my expectation ; and 
her dressing of herself, with bar hair 
frized short np to her ears, did maka 
her seem so much the less to me. Bat 
my wife standing near her, with two 
or three black patches* on, and well 
dressedydid seem to me much handsomtr 
than she.*' 

The marriage of Jamea, Duke ef 
York, to Anne Hyde, was a sonroe af 
great trouble to the royal family. Anna 
was of quite inferior riuik to the Duke, 

* Court olaster. It was then fkahloaaM^ 
and deemed omamenUl, ibr laAhm to 
their Hm* with asMll pAldies oT ooart I 



and, on this aoeonnt, Queon Henrietta 
and her daughters despised her. The 
Princess of Orange declared she would 
ncTtT yield procraencc to her ; and, ut 
the same time, Charles Berkley came 
fi.irwiird, swore that Anne had long heen 
hii mistress, and brought us witnesses of 
htr licentious conduct, the Earl of ^Vrran, 
Jcrmyn, Talbot, and Killigrcw. These, 
and other false witnesses, and unfaithful 
councillors — some divines and some 
lawyers — whom the Princess of Orange 
had' suborned, at last, so shook the reso- 
lution of the Duke, that he assured his 
mother and sister he could no longer 
own Anne for his wife. Meanwhile she 
was deliTered of a son ; and whUst in the 
throes of labour, she solemnly rowed, 
in the name of the living God, that the 
Uukc was the father of her son, and tliat 
she had always boen faithful to him. 
For scrcral weeks James "had not visited 
bis wife; his mind was racked with 
doubts, and the birth of the child so in- 
creased his distress, that he was laid on 
a bed of sickness. Uis brother, the 
King, subdued by his pa5sionatc impor- 
tunity, had sanctioned the match, and 
he now generously took the part of 
the distressed Anne. Matters were in 
this state, when the Princess of Orange 
was attacked with the small-pox, of 
which she died, on the twenty-fourth of 
DeccmbiT, 1560. A few hours before 
she expired, she confessed that Anne had 
been fuully slandered, and was innocent 
of the crimes imputed to her. Berkley, 
to save himself, it is supposed, by con- 
fvssing his guilt, hastened on the fol- 
lowing day to the sick Duke, and, on 
lus knees, pronounced all that he bad 
said affainst Anne to bo false ; ** she had 
never oeen his mistress, and, to the best 
of his knowledge and belief, she was one 
of the best, mmt virtuous wives in Chris- 
tendom. Under a belief that the mar- 
riage would prove the ruin of his royal 
hij^hnrss, he had invented and propa- 
gated the calumny, but he now repcnteti 
of the crime, and implored the lluke's 
pardon." James, no less pleased than 
sur])rised by the confession, fnrgiive 
IferkUy; uiid then, hastening to hisi 
wife, l^issed and blessed her and his 
Uttk one, and paUidy reoogniied her 

as his Duchess. The rcconciliatioa 
greatly irritated Queen Henrietta; and 
when the King urged her to forgive 
them, she passionati>ly rcjilied, ** Never; 
and if you attempt to bnn;^ th:it woman 
here, out I go." Her malicious oppo- 
sition, however, was sliort-lived. Deeply 
impressed by the death-bed remorse of 
the Princess of Orange, and urged by 
tlie earnest entreaty oi the French Mi- 
nister, Mazarin, who was anxious ^) con- 
ciliate Anne's father, the Chancellor 
Clarendon, Henrietta— she was about to 
proceed to France — sent for the Duke 
and Duchess of York, and gave them 
her blessing. On the festival of the New 
Year, January the first, 1661, but two 
days after the burial of the Princess of 
Orange, in the Stuart vault, in Westmin- 
ster Abbey, she publicly recognised them 
at Whitehall. Penys says, "To-day, 
January the first, Mr. Moore and I went 
to Mr. Pierce's in our way, seeing the 
Duke of York bring his lady to-day, to 
wait upon the Queen-mother, the first 
time that ever she did since that busi- 
ness; and the Queen-mother is said to 
receive her now with much resnect and 
love." On the same dav, lienrietta 
g:ive audience to Lord Clarendon, the 
lather of tlie Duchess of York, when 
mutual apologies were exchanged, and a 
reconciliation efiectcd betwei^n the long, 
estranged Queen and Chancellor. The 
next day, the Queen, dreading lest her 
best-beloved child, the Princess Henri- 
etta Maria, should fall a prey to the 
small- pox. removed with her to liamptoa 
Court; and so soon as the Parliament 
had settled upon the princess forty thou- 
sand jacobuses,* by way of portion, and 
twenty thousand as a present, proceeded 
with her, under the escort of the King in 
person, to Portsm(»uth, and there em- 
barked with her for France, on hoard 
the London, one of the finest ships in 
the royal navy, on the ninth of January, 
1661. The vcwel saihd with a fair 
wind; but, as usual with the Quc*en 
wht-n at sea, a series of misfortunes 
followed. " This day, January the 
eleventh," says Prpys, *' comes news 

* Gold eoins of the Tftlue of tventj-tire 
shillings each, steriingi strack in tlis reign 
of JssMS the First. 

% 1. 



to tlie Citj, bj letter, from Porti- 
Bonth, Uiat the PrinceM Henrietta 
Maria fell nek of the measles (at fint 
thouffht to be the small-pox) on board 
the London, after she and the Queen 
were under saiL Therefore, the royal 
TOjagcrs returned to Portsmouth har- 
bour. In their way, by neglect of the 
pilot, the Tcssel ran upon the Ilarre 
sand, grounded, and narrowly escaped 
being wrecked. The Queen and the 
Princess continue on board, and her 
Majesty does not intend to sail again 
till her daughter has recorercd.'* A 
fortnight afterwards, the Princess being 
TOonounced sufllciently convalescent, 
Henrietta sailed with her to Havre. The 
Toyagc was short and pleasant, and on 
landing, the- royal mother and daughter 
were escorted by the governor of Nor- 
mandy, at the head of the leading Nor- 
man nobles, to his chateau, in the vi- 
cinity of Ruuen, end there magnificently 
entertained. Afterwards they were con- 
ducted to Pontoisc, where Louis the 
Fourteenth, bis Queen, Maria Theresa, 
and the Duke of Orleans met them, and 
•ccompaniiHl them in slate to Paris. At 
the end of J/ent, a dispensation for the 
marriage of the Pnncess Henrietta 
Maria and the Duke of Orleans was 
obtained; and on the thirty-first of 
March, 1661, the marriage was solem- 
nized in the private chapel, at the Palais 
Boyal, in the presence of the most illus- 
trious personages in France. Immedi- 
ately afterwards, tlie Duke iosittcd on 
withdrawing his bride from her mother 
to his own palace. To Queen Henrietta 
the separation was painful in the ex- 
treme : her beloved daughter was but 
sixteen; she feared the temptations of 
the dissipated court would be too great 
for the young sprightly Princess; and so 
it turned out. The young Duchess 
speedilv iniured her health and her repu- 
tation, Vr being the foremost at all the 
court baUs, miisqucs, and other nocturnal 
and not too reputable entiTtainments. 

When the Queen parted from her 
daughter, she retired to her rural cha- 
teau of Colomlie, situate about five mih^ 
from Paris, near the Seine, where she 
resided in peaceful retirement From 
Colombc^ she addrcned WYeral epistles 

to the DnehoM of Oitena, vfiBS hm^ 
for her sonTs sake, to improre iier co^ 
duet ; but her resideiioe at thisdel^lilftil 
retreat was of no long eontinnanee. She 
last quitted the shorei of En^and, onder 
a promise of retmrmng again after ef* 
fecting her daoghter's marriage, and 
settling in the country whence she ob- 
tained ner dower. To redeem this pro- 
mise, she, after inviting and sumptu- 
ously entertaining the Duke and Ducoesi 
of Orleans, and with scaldinr tears part- 
ing with the Dochesa, aa uie dolefully 
believed for ever, on earth, proceeded to 
Calais, embarked there, bnved a storm 
in crossing the Channel, and reached 
England m safety. On the twenty- 
eighth of July, Charles the Second and 
Katherine of Braganzo. whom he hsd 
lately wedded, welcomed her with royal 
nmgnificence to Greenwich, where she 
then took up her abode; Somentt 
House being at the time under repair. 
Shortly afterwards, she joined in the 
aquatic procession, wlien Queen Kathe- 
rine came in state down the Thames, 
from Hampton Court, to take possession 
of Wliitehall. In the course of the 
summer, Henrietta chanrcd her rvd- 
dence, from the old dilapidated palace st 
Greenwich, to her own palace ot Somer- 
set House, which, by tier desire, had 
been enlarged and beautified. She lired 
on terms of amity with her daughters- 
in-law, Katherine of Braganza, and ths 
Duchess of York. In compensation for 
her dower lands, which had been shared 
by the revolutionists, the Parliament, 
in 1661, granted her thirtv thounad 
pounds per year, and to tnis pension 
Charles added an annuity of another 
thirty thousand pounds, from the Ex- 
chequer. She lived considerably within 
this income, and every quarter distri- 
buted the overplus amongst the deserring 
poor and unfortunate. Somerset House 
was her principal residence, and it vss 
in her Catholic Chapel there, that the 
persecuted Papists of London congre- 
gated. She aevoted great attentioo to 
the care of this little flock, and talked 
of establishing Catholic Chapels in se* 
veral of the leading cities in Fnriiff^ ; 
but this last object which wonla have 
xondend her hi|^j iDpopulari m 



Uiinuted by tbe dccov of her health. In 
1664, the fogs of London greatly affected 
htr chest, and she suffered much from 
general debility. Charli-e the Second 
urged her to seek health at the baths of 
Ikturbon ; and at Unnfth, after, in com- 

Cliunce with her earnest entreaty, he 
ad promised not to close her Catholic 
Chaptl at Somerset Ilouse, nor molest 
her reiigioos establishments there, daring 
her absenoe, she resolved to pay a visit 
to France. When ready to aepart, she 
called her priests and confessors around 
her, bade them an affectionate farewell, 
told them ** she hoped soon to return, and 
charged them, as tney would answer be- 
fore God, to, in the mean time, faithfully 
and diligentlT perform their duty to the 
Engliah as well as the French Catholics." 

She embarked at the close of June, 
1663, In ft vessel commanded by the 
Duke of York, who had iust gained a 
mat naval victory over the Dutch, off 
llarwich ; landed at Calais in safety, pro- 
ceeded direct to Paris, and took up her 
residence at her favourite chateau of 
Colombo. In this peaceful abode we 
will leave her, and glance at that terri- 
ble visitation, the Great Plague of Lon- 
don, which had broken out previous to 
her departure from the Metropolis. 

The pestilence began in Long Acre, * 
at the ctoae of 1664, when two or three 
penoni suddenly dying in one family, 
the timid neighbours took the alarm and 
removed into the City, whither it is 
•uppoaed they carried the infection. 
Here it gathered strength from the 
denseness of the population, and soon its 
ravages became extensive. The lower 
daaiea wera seised with a panic, and en- 
tertaining an absurd, but popular no- 
tion, that the plagne yisited London 
every twenty years, they took no means 
to counteract it. A three months* frost, 
which set in in December, suspended 
the ravages of the pcstik'nco ; but no 
anoni'r hud a thaw succeeded, than it 
burst forth with increased force. As the 
spring passed on, it extended to several 
parinhcs; and, at last, its ravages be- 
came so alarming, that the magistrates 
iasned an order, dated July the first, 
166^, to shut up all the infected hunses, 

* Tkls Meoant U a sllshtly sllavsd axtnet 
fram ftnj'a History oC 

which were marked with a rod cross, one 
foot in length, painted on tho door, with 
the words, " Lord, have merry upon 
us r* placed above it From tmit mo- 
ment tno housrt was c1<nhh1, and guards 
were constantly in attendance to supply 
the sick with ncct'&uirics, and to prevent 
the inmates from quitting tho house, for 
at least a montli. This pnrcaution is 
thought to have done much injury. If 
the destroyer, when onlv stalking forth 
amon^t men free to fly from his ap- 
proach, and to shrink from contact with 
him, committed such havoc, it may be 
imagined how fell his ravages must have 
been amongst persons thus pent up to- 
gether. Even those who retained full 
possession of health, mifht calculate the 
Dours they had still to live ; those who 
to-day turned out the bodies of their 
lifeless companions, might lav their cer- 
tain account with following tiiem on tlic 
morrow ; no hope of escape being left to 
any, all must have prepared to die ; and 
this consolation, at IcoBt, they must have 
had, that neither fear nor npnrehension 
could any longer interfere witD the ten- 
der officia of friendship and affection. 
The surviving son needed not to shrink 
from closing the eyes of his dying parent, 
nor the widowed wife to pillow her head 
on the cold breast of her departed spouse. 
An eye-witness says, ** Many wlio a ere 
lost, might have been alive, iiad not the 
tragical mark upon their door drove 
proper assistance from them.'* Tlie same 
author adds, that '*tho mortality 
amongst the people thus shut up, was 
greatly increased by the wicked prac- 
tices of the nurses. Those wnitcnes,'* 
he remarks, ** out of greediness to plun- 
der tho dead, would strangle their pa- 
tients, and charge it to the distemper in 
their throats, whilstothers would directly 
convey the pestilential taint from sores 
of the infected to those who were well." 
The alarm of the citizens was aggra- 
vated by several publicutions which were 
issued m the early stages of the plague, 
Ix'aring most portentous titles, and all 
foretelling the destructiun of the City. 
One of these pamphlets was entitled 
" Fair Warnings." a second, *' Britain's 
Remembrancer, ' and a third, had for its 
title an epigram, ^ Come out of her, my 
people, leit ye be putaken ^ ^mi 



plagnet.*' Fumttes or munoncrief mn 
through the streets, agitated and agttar 
ting by their orul denimeiatioiis and pre- 
dUetions. One man ran about in a state of 
wild disorder, crying day and night, like 
the man mentioned by Joeephns, whose 
<'Woe to Jcnualemr' proceeded and 
Ibrctold its fall ; he walked qnickly, and 
with sepulchral roice, and countenance 
blaming with horror, continually ejacu- 
lated, "Oh, the great and dreadful 
God r* Another man, pretending a more 
than human authority for preaching to 
the CitT, went about like Jonah in the 
city of JNincTeh, crying out " Yet a few 
days, and London shafi be destroyed." 

In the months of May, June, and 
July, the plague had continued with 
more or less severity ; but in August and 
September it quickened into dreadful 
activity; sweeping away three, four, 
Atc, and sometimes eight thousand per- 
sons in a week. Then it was that the 
whole British nation wept for the mise- 
ries of the Metropolis. In some houses 
carcases lay waiting for burial, and in 
others, persons in their last agonies. In 
one room were heard dying groans, in 
another the ravings of delirium, mingled 
with the wailings of relations and friends, 
and the apprehensive shrieks of chil- 
dren. Infants were smitten with death 
at the moment of their birth. Some of 
the infected ran about staggering like 
drunken men, and fell, and expired in 
the streets ; whilst others lay half dead, 
never to bo waked, but by the last 
trumpet. At length the physician and 
the divine receiv^ the stroke of death, 
in the exercise of their humane and holy 
oflices; business was suspended, the 
bells seemed hoarse with tolling, and 
the sextons were not sufficient to bury 
the dead, with which the church-yar^ 
were so glutted, that they were thrown 
into pits in heaps of thirty or forty to- 
gether, without coffins, moumere, or 
funeral service. When the disease was 
at its height, and more than twelve 
thousand perished in one week ; fires of 
■ea-coal were, by order of the Privy- 
Counci^ kindled in the streets, in the 
proportion of one fire to every twelve 
BooBci, with the fallacious hope of disci- 
gating tba pestilential miamui; bat 
^be&9 thfw dayi had cip'nedi thA 

heaTens to wept lor the fatd —^^■■H 
as to extinguish eren the firea will 
their showera.** A fatal night wai> 
oeeded, in which more tlHui four thon- 
Mnd persona ezjpired« Those moving 
sepulchres, the dead carta, continually 
travezaed tiio atieeta^ whilst the ap- 
palling cry, **Brittg oat your deadT 
thrilled through everr soul not yet d«?ad 
to feeling. At last the dead caru were 
insufficient for the office, and the houstt 
and streets were rendered tenfold mure 
pestilential by their anbnried dead. The 
change that now took place in the feel- 
in)^ of the people, is thus vividly de- 
scribed by Deroe. ** As I have men- 
tioned how the people were broneht inte 
a condition to despair of life, and aban- 
don themselves, so thia Tery thing had 
a strange effect amoo^ oa for three or 
four weeks ; that is, it made men boU 
and venturous ; they were no more shy 
of one another, or restrained withia 
doors, but went any where and every 
where, and began to converse. One 
would say to another, * I do not ask yoa 
how you arc, or say how I am. It u 
certain we shall all go, so 'tis no natter 
who is sick or who b sound ;* so they na 
deliberately into any place or company." 
The dead now were no loDger naoH 
bercd, for the parish clerks and sextons 
perished in the execotioB of their office. 
In the parish of Stepney alone, one 
hundred and sixteen sextons, grave-dig^ 
gers, and carters employed in removing 
the dead bodies, died in one year. Ten 
thousand houses were at one time de- 
serted, and it is aaid that darinrthe 
plague, not fewer than two hnndreduon- 
sand persons quitted the metropolis :— 

" EmptT, the streets, with mieooth veriu* 

Into the worst of deserts soddeB twDsd 
The cheerfnl hanota of maa.** 

In the last week of September the 
plague began to abate, and the bills of 
mortality fell from npwarda of eight 
thousand to little more than six thon- 
sand, weekly. Every succeeding week 
the number of victims diminished, so 
that by the subsequent February, the 
pestilence had wholly ceased. * The 
number that periahed during this pltgMb 
aeoording to the ratsmsi «m axty* 
^ e\^t thouaaid irt hmdradaid liM^i 




bift DeAw nsertfl, "tbat the nmnber 
wa% at least, one bmidrcd thousand." 
The lives of namb<;n 'werc jprescnred by 
means of shipping on the lliames, into 
which the infection did not reach, except 
in very few instances. 

The sarrivoiB of the dreadful calamity 
would hare perished of Aimine, but for 
the bounty of the affluent. The money 
subscribea is said to hare amounted to 
one hundred thousand pounds a week, 
to which Charles the Second humanely 
jpre one thousand pounds weekly. In 
the parish of Crinplegate alone, the dis- 
bursements to the poor amounted to 
screnteen thousand pounds a week. But 
even when the poor had obtained the 
money, they feared to lay it out in pro- 
yisioos, lest they should, by some means, 
catch the infection. If tney bought a 
joint of meat in the market, they would 
not receire it from the hana of the 
butcher, but take it off the hooks thcm- 
aelrca; the butcher, equally cautious, 
would not touch the money, but had it 
dropped into a pot of yinegar, kept for 
the purpose. Workmen were equally 
eantiona with their masters, and even 
memben of the same &mily with each 

To retnm to the subject of this me- 
moir: Henrietta was relieved, but not 
cured, by the waters of Bourbon ; con- 
fumpttofi, and a complication of other 
mabdies, alowly, but nitally undermined 
her constitution. In August, her situ- 
ation became such, that the four leading 
phyneiaaa in France attended her. In 
truth, she was in the last stage of con- 
sumption, and ft too-powerful dose of 
opinm, administered oy order of M. 
D'Aquin, her physician, sent her into a 
sleep from which she never again woke. 
The day before her death, she was more 
cheerfiA than usual ; after partaking of 
supper she swallowed the opium draught, 
went to bed, and fell into a calm sleep. 
At dav-break her attendants approached 
hrr Md-dde, to administer another 
draught ; she made no reply to their 
H'iterated questions ; they touched her, 
and finding that she moved not, became 
alarmed, and sent for priests and physi- 
eiana ; when they arrived, she slightly 
breathed but was quite vBeoneeious, 

The priests prepared the sacrament of 
extreme unction, and soon afterwards 
her gentle respirations ceosed, and her 
soul passed to eternity. She died in her 
sixty-first year, on the. morning of the 
twenty-first of August, 1669, at her fa- 
vourite residence of Colombe. Couriers 
were immediately dispatched, with the 
fatal tidings, to the relations and friends, 
and the subsequent night her heart was 
taken out and presented to her convent 
at ChaiUot; whither her body, after 
being embalmed, was conveyed, previous 
to the funeral. The royal cornse lay in 
state at ChaiUot, till the second of Sep- 
tember. On the evening of that day, 
immediately darkness had set in, it was 
carried in grand funeral procession, by 
torch-light, to the royal tombs, in the 
Abbey of St. Denis, and there interred 
with imposing funeral rites. Twenty- 
eight days afterwards, another magnifi- 
cent senrice was performed to the 
memory of the Queen of Charles the 
First, by the nuns of ChaiUot, at which 
her bereaved daughter, Henrietta Maria, 
Duchess of Orleans, took a conspicuous 
part, and Bossuet deliverei the re- 
nowned funeral oration, which at once 
stamped his reputation as one of the 
greatest orators of his times. The 
courts of Franco and of England went 
into deep mourning for the departed 
Queen. Charles the Second deeply de- 
plored the loss of his mother, and gave 
the sisterhood of ChaiUot two thousand 
jacobuses, to erect a chapel for the re- 
ception of her heart 

Henrietta died intestate, but not in 
debt. According to the then law of 
Franoe, Louis the Fourteenth was heir 
to her effects ; but he waived his claim 
in favour of |Charlc8 the Second, and 
Charles presented all her furniture to 
the nuns of ChaiUot, who, on the tenth 
of every month, said mass for the repose 
of her soul. Henrietta left but three 
surviving children, Charles the Second, 
James, Duke of York, who, on the death 
of his brother, ascended the throne of 
Great Britain, and the beautiful Duchess 
of Orleans. The Duchess survived her 
but a few months. She died, suddenly, 
in June, 1670 ; some say of poison, and 
othen oif ehdenu 


mnttn nf (Tjiatlta tjii ittuuk 


iTaMinWt Jlirlli—I\ire»iiigf—F^fifiilioH~THnimi—Sm1an—lfrti* prapamd if- 
ImrH ktr aad Chiirki llit !<ceoHd- Doirf^r^Charlu agrtf to tMt mmtrk—fiUU 
appotitiaH of Spuin—Charltt croiciied~-3laTTi*f ineig lifHtd—Ofpmiili^n ff 
lAidy OBillciHaint—l'alAtrim hi'/i la Frnghni—It wiarrird f CAar/n, ute it 
dtlighltd icilA htr pena»aad marmnt, titl mniimiiti hi* awKuri icilM Catt/niaifr- 
Emttnrourt la makt CiuUtmaiHt tnt of Ike Qum't Wiri— JTfUniw Ttfvft U 
atcfjit her — Qiun-nb tvilk Arm — CUmMdan trrgre ier la nmp/ji — 7>iHp»nry ii- 
ttuieUiatiait — Thi QmeK-mofhrr appnrte htr nndnrl^IIfr ^nl itglt Ti"t B 
loHdoH — Ladg QuUtiHaiiu fhmtt M^m htr — Thr XInf ami nmrlitTO i'mmhH lir 
—She ate^lt (he ttroitee of Culleawine^Se^ ballSI»U efpMia wtatlin. 

^ BBAGANZA. tlic 
- intmtianed. 
ill-DHi] Qimii of 
. Oinilii ihi- Second, 
f finCMiwtW light >t 
I tlie ili'liKhtrul [laluc 
of Villa Vii;nu, io 
Piirta)n1, m Vat ttrcntv-finh o( Xorcni' 
bpT, 1638, the r?ry ilur uf llic for— an 
miwpicinili iIjT fur Piirlii)r:il -im wliich 
her fiitlicr, Jnlin, Uiiku uF Itn|pinz.i, 
insli^ti.i] lijr the ambilion of Iht nin- 
thi-r. llonn* Imud, the dau|i;lil<T o( Ihc 
Ihikr iif Mrdian SJiliHiia, Bnil<'rtu"k li> 
oniaiiriiKiln hii lilri'ilinif country rnini 
tlir viikr of tTninnic Spain, or die in ilie 


bj uii pitriotiE ipirit MT Ihi a., 
hmtcned to Litbnn, vben he 

title of Jolin thi Fourth. The Soani^ 
niudi wcra iltackad and rooldl, oA 
tho chief partiiuu o' 
put to dnth bj tl 
prineipil towu fo _ . _ 

llie ciipilal, uid ihortly >ftiTwaTii< 
tlic rurrign •dtleinniti. Yxom thui 
ilio tuvntT-finh of XoTcmbrr, 1 
I'ortiiKol Anumc ■■ indt-pmdt^i i 
nif^lj, BfltT hiTiniF bi'ra fur 

lartiiaoi of tba «Ttrani<»t 
li bj tba poBulaM. All lb 
wu foUowid tbe naaipli' >[ 

of Spa 


wu« I'lTccti'd nilli <-aM> anil cik-ritv. 
I'lic pi'ojili' mif diiifrnttcd wilb the n- 

Sxuiiii Bud iinnulitic adminiflnitiun iif 
livuni. I)uke.luhn«a*iidei)C<nH:uit 
of tin ucivnt Kingi of l>ortiignl ; lu. 

hnd itili-alfd 

'It nltn John 
tW RpaiitHh fiRip* it 

thtf r..i.r,i 
ip< in \'-w, 
Tvcojtnin-d him »- ■»• 
ti-reijn) uf rortunl, K aurrii'v r> Tu' J 
to him by the I'opr, ud br all ilv 
Cutliolie coUTti of Europe, exirpuif 
PiaiiM, ud wbi^ e ' '^ . ■ .- 

Europe, txirpiitit 
Mbddmid himh 


li:-. NEW YORK 



propoie, through his Amhassador, the 
DDarriage of his daughter, Eathcrine of 
Braganzn, with the Prince of Wales, 
iftoriranis CharU-s the Second ; a pro- 
poKiI to which the needy Knf^Iish mo- 
narch li-tcDcil with stoical indifftTence. 
Kathrrine was educated in a convent, 
undiT the immediate superintendence of 
ber wi>e, energetic mother, the Queen 
'if Turtu^l ; and in Norcmber, 1654, 
br r father, out of the unbounded affec- 
tion he hore her, gare her, heiidef other 
i<»iirccs of income, the island of Ma- 
lei ru. the citj of Lanega, and the town 
:>f Mour; but with a proTiso, that if 
the married out of the kingdom, she 
iliould exchange them for a suitable 
equivalent from the nation. Shortly 
ittrrwards her father died, and her el- 
dest brother, Don Alphonso, being too 
roun^ to reign, her mother assumed the 
rv?al anthontr, which she exercised fur 
Un years, with such success, that the 
ind'-fM-ndence of Portugal was firmly 
e»taMi«iied, the commerce and trade of 
tlie nation enlargetl, and the social con- 
diiiiin of the people greatly meliorated. 
Many wore the offers made for the 
band uf the Infanta Katherine ; but her 
mother, foreseeing the restoration of 
C'hArlr-s the Second, refused them all, 
irith the secret intention of marrying 
hf-r to that sovereign. Donna LuiKa's 
Srst proposals for this match were made 
til (H.nend Monk, by a clerer Jew, who 
ic tlic time almost ruled her cabinet, 
but Monk felt no desire to wed his so- 
rrrt-ign to a Catholic. Meanwhile, 
T'Larles himself fell in love with Ilen- 
riitta, the youn^ Princess of Orange, 
Bund had the mortification to learn that 
hrr mother, the Princess- dowager of 
Onnge. prremptorily refused his offer for 
hi.T hanii, with the cutting remark, that 
** although the son of a King, he was 
but a pMjr exile, and therefuru she could 
Dot think of throwing her daughter away 
U[»t»u him." ( hurles also made the 
ritfcr 'if his hand to the niece of the Car- 
diuul Ma/arin, hut with no better suc- 
cv*n. lu a few weeks, however, the 
tidf uf popular feeling in Knglund turned 
in favour of royalty, and when a depu- 
tation from the Parliament arrived at 
Breda, prewntad tha royal Stuart with 

fifty thousand pounds, and invited him 
to return and take possession of his 
throne, both the Princesses of Orange 
and Mazarin sought to renew the ne- 
gotiation, but to each of them Charles 
answered, '* I was too poor for the lady 
in my adversity, now she is not exalted 
enough for me." 

Shortly after Charles the Second had 
been restored to the throne, his more 
sober friends, perceiving what scandal 
his immoralities gave nse to, urgently 
entreated him to marry, and at last he 
seriously resolved to choose a consort. 
Whilst pondering on the subject, and 
yet undecided as to which of the mar- 
riageable Princesses of Europe he should 
offer his hand, his mother, at the secret 
instigation of the French court, directed 
his attention to Katherine of liraganaa. 
France, bo it observed, had aidea Por- 
tugal to preserve its independence 
ag;iinst Spain, but, by the recently con- 
cluded tn*aty of the Pyrenees, Louis 
had bound h'imsi'lf to afilord no further 
assistance to the Portuguese patriots ; 
he, however, to prevent that country 
from being again incorporated witn 
Spain, determined to procure the mar- 
riage of the Donna Katherine to Charles 
the Second ; and afterwards, through 
England, to afford that assistance to 
Charles's wife's family, which he other- 
wise could not do without violating the 
treaty. He wrote to the court at Lis- 
bon, proposing the match ; Donna Luiza 
thanked him, and as his advice accorded 
with her own politic views on the sub- 
ject, immediately adopted it The bu- 
siness was opened by Don Francisco 
de Mello, the Portuguese Ambassador in 
England, lie proposed the match to 
the King's Lord Chamberlain, the 1 nrl 
of Manchester, and on the following 
day paid Charles a visit in person, nii<i 
ofierid with the Princess a dower of Hve 
hundred thousand poundsin ready mon«y, 
and to annex Tungiers, on the coiist of 
Africa, and Bombay, in the East Imlii-s, 
to the crown of England for cvrr ; and 
to grant to the English a free trade to 
Portugal and to the Portuguese colo- 
nies. Charles, who greatly needed mo- 
ney, lent a willing cur to the proposal, 
consulted a secret council oooigoaQd of 



Clarendon, Onnond, Southamptonf Man- 
chester, and NichoIaA, and. in compli- 
ance with their advice and his oifv-n in- 
clination, caused De ^[ello to be given 
to understand that the proposal would 
be accepted. To facilitate the negotia- 
tion, lie Mcllo returned to Portu^l, 
with letters from Charles to Kathcnne, 
to her mother, the Quecn-regont. and to 
her brother, the young King, in favour 
of the marriage. The court at Lisbon, 
overjoyed at die prospects of the alliance, 
conferred the title of Count Da Ponte 
upon De Mello. and dispatched him to 
£iigland, with full powers to conclude 
the marriage. At the commencement 
of 1661, he arrived at London, when, to 
his surprise, he was received with great 
coolness at court ; in fact, in his absence, 
YattcTille, the Spanish Ambassador, 
had informed Charles, that Katherine 
was known to be incapable of becoming 
a mother ; she was ugly and defumied, 
and his marriage with her would lead to 
a war with Spain and other .evils ; but 
if he would take one of the Princesses 
of Parma, the King of Smiin would give 
with either of those ladies as large a 
dower as would be given with a daugh- 
ter of Spain. These suggestions, se- 
conded DY the efforts of the Earl of 
Bristol, the enemy of the Portuguese 
match, induced Charles to dispatch that 
nobleman to Parma, to obtain informa- 
tion regarding the two Princesses. lie 
law them on their way to church ; the 
one sight convinced him that the one 
wa.s ttK) ugly, the other too corpulent, 
to be recdmmended to the royal choice. 
Tilt' ill success of Bristol's mission urged 
Vattovillu to make further efforts against 
the PortujTucse match ; he, in the name 
of his royal moister, offered to dower a 
Prinoc-ss of Denmark or of Saxony, or ! 
the Princess Jlenriotta of Orange; or, 
indeed, any huly Charles chose to accept 
as a }»riilc, whothtr Catholic or Protest- 
ant, saving Katherine of Braganza. But 
the English monarch turned a deaf ear 
to his proposals. The amount of the ; 
dower, the urgent entreaties of liouis ' 
the Fourteenth, who, to secure the Por- \ 
tuguese match, offered him a dower of . 
fifty thousand pounds and other vain- ' 
abla lerTicct; and what, pcrhapi| out-1 

weighed all other oonsidentiona, the 
confirmation of De Mello's account of 
the Infanta's personal charmfl and agre^ 
able mnnneni, bv Bcveral trustworthy 
persons who had lately returned fiom 
Portugal, completely turned the balance 
in favour of Katherine. Her portrait 
was shewn to Charles — he proE^unct-d it 
beautiful ; and after a full council of 
eight^and-twcnt^ members "had, witbont 
a dissentient voice, decided in favour of 
the match ; he sent for the Portuguese 
Ambassador, received him with marked 
distinction, and acquainted him with his 
earnest desire to manr the Infanta with- 
out further delay. De Mello received 
the communication with infinite satis- 
faction, and .assured Charlet, that the 
Queen-mother, to show the confidence 
she reposed in his honoor, had resohed 
to send her daughter to him unmarried. 
The motive which really induced the 
politic Donna Luiza to dispense with 
the betrothmcnt of her daughtc-r by 
proxy, was, that the marriage being be* 
tween a Protestant and a Cathohc, t 
dispensation was necessary ; and as the 
see of Rome had never acknowled^d 
the independence of Portugal, the Pope, 
in the dispensation, would mention Ka- 
therine, not as the Infanta of King John 
the Fourth of Portugal, hut simplv u 
the daughter of the lute Duke of bra- 
ganza— a slight which the jealous Queen- 
mother and lier court would on no ac- 
count submit to. 

To prevent the occurrence of unpUa. 
santnesses similar to those which dimmed 
the lustre of his father's coronation, 
Charles resolved to be crowned before 
his marriage with the Catholic Kathe- 
rine was solemnized. His inauguration 
was performed with the usual ceremo- 
nies, pomp, and rejoicing, on thetwentv- 
third of April, 1661. The Parliament 
met on the cifrhth of May ; the Kin^ 
opened the session in per«oii, and in his 
speech to l)oth houses, informed them of 
his intended marriage. Both the Lords 
and the Commons voted him congratu- 
latory addresses, and in June the treatv 
was signeil, and the Karl of Sandwicii 
dispatcned with a fieet to cruise in the 
Mediterranean, and after teaching pi- 
ratical Algien and Timii to pay ou 



to the British fln^, and taking 
lion of TangicrSf to brini^ 
the Portuguese Princess to England. 
Meanwhile Vatteville, the disapiminted 
Spanish amhassador, endoaTuuriJ to ex- 
tite the rabble of I^ndon to rise in riut, 
in (»pposition to the introduction of a 
Popish Qufon into IVutcstant Knglund ; 
but his efforts were vain. All classes, 
disgusted with the King's amours with 
Mrs. Palmer, after waras Lady Castlc> 
naine, thought it better that he should 
bare a Cuthulic Queen, than no Queen 
at all. To Mn. PalmiT, with whom 
the King, although pmfessing himself 
to be a married man, continuetl to live 
on terms of the roost disgraciful fumili- 
•ritr. the approaching marriage wm 
a subject of great aanoyance and anxie^. 
To pacify the temper of this bad, bold 
woman, Cbaries usually dined and sup- 
ped at her house ; created her reluctant 
nosband Karl of Casilemaine, and so- 
lemnly promised to appoint her one of 
the ladles of the beuchamber to his 

Meanwhile, the £arl of Sandwich 
reached Lisbon, and after many cere- 
moniea, and much tedious delay, was 
forced bjr the artful Queen Regent to 
TCOcire oat half of the sum promised 
with Katherine — and that not in money, 
hot in merchandise; and to accept a 
bond from the crown of Portugal for 
the payment of the residue, within a 
year, 'lie sailed from Lisbon, with the 
loyal bride, on the fifteenth of April, 
tG62. The parting of Katherine from 
bi-r mother, is thus recorded by a con- 
temporary poet : — 

'*llcrs tlie two Queens took leave, but in 

■ach sort. 
As with amaieaieiit fl11«d the tliron(re<l Court. 
TbHreanriaga nora thAu mMculine, no tvar 
Vrom elllMr of tbelr MnjeHtieii spiiear. 
Art eonqaersd naturv, state and rraKon stood 
Like two mat eonMils, to revtmin the finnd 
Of |»aMkm end affeetioa, which, nfverthelriiS, 
Appeared In sad, but pnident c«>ini'liiiHHS. 
A ivcDe so eolrran, that the Mtanden* by, 
ftjth |nrd« and ladien, did that want Kiipply. 
la lhl« icrvat coiicoiir»ic, every one appeam 
J*)sjiaf a liibute tu them, m their team.** 

The voyage was tedious and stormy ; 
in the channel it blew such a gale, that 
tht flMt NOght ■h^tor in Mount Bay, 

, till the storm subsided, and a favourable 
breeze sprung up. Otf the Isle ot Wight, 
they met the l.)ukcof York, wlio, at the 
head of Hve frigsitcs, had put to sea. to 
meet his future Mstor-in-iuw. The Duke 
paid a visit to the ruyal bride, on btKird 

[ tile Kovul Charlts, the vessel in which 
she Killed; and although, bein^r the 
King's brother, he miglit hnve saluted 

. her, he, out of a delicate rt*gard to iier 
feelings, and that lie might not be the 
fin«t man to offer that compliment to )iis 
Queen, simply kissed her hand. JIu 
then introduec^l to her several nublemen, 
amongst whom were the Karl of Chester- 
field and the l>uke of Ormond. who 
brought her a letti-r from the King; 
and after thiv had kiss'-d her hand, he 
seated himself by her side, and famili* 
arly conversed with her in Spanish. 
Henceforth, he daily visited the Queen 
to the end of the voyage ; and her Ma- 
jesty, emerging from the almost oriental 
state of seclu:»ion in which she had 
hitherto kept herself, welcomed him 
with winning sweetness. Pepys says, 
that Mr. ( reed, stTrctary to Ix>rd Sand- 
wich, informed him **how recluse the 
Queen hud ever been, and all thevojago 
never came upon the deck, nor put' her 
head out of her cabin, but did love my 
lord's music, and would send for it down 
to the state room, and she set in her 
cabin within hearing of it." Ke also 
states, that the Queen gave no rewards 
to any of the captains or officers, but 
only to my Lord Sandwich, and that 
was a bag of gold, which was no ho- 
nourable present, of about one thousand 
four hundred pounds sterling. The 
Portuguese writers, however, assure us, 
" that she li'ocrally rewarded the com- 
manders and the officers of the ships, 
and gave money to be distributed 
amongst the common sailors.** 

The fleet anchored at Spithead on 
the thirteenth of May; and on the 
same day Katherine lauded, and was 
conducteil to the King's house, at Ports, 
mouth; ** where," hays the iUurlid Sand- 
wich, **8he to')k 'up liir lodging?, 
received my Lady i^utfolk, and the other 
ladies of her Housihold, very kindly, 
and appointed them this morning to 
come and put her in that habit they 




thougfat would be most pleannff to tbe 
Kiuff ; tnd I doubt not, but wben they 
ihalT have done their part, she will ap- 
pear with much more adrantagc, and 
Terj well to the King's contentment. 
8be ia a Princess of extraordinary good- 
ness of disposition, very discreet and 
pious, and there is cTery hope that she 
will make the King and all of us happy/' 
The news of her Majesty's landing was 
swiftl? carried to Charles by her Lord 
Chan)i)erlain ; but the real or pretended 
necessity of bringing the session to a 
dose, detained the King in London for 
flre days afterwards; and during this 
time, he disgraced himself, by daily din- 
ing and supping with the detestable 
Liudy Castlemaine. 

«*0n the twenty- first of May, 
16A2," Pepys remarks, "Lord Saod- 
wiche's housekeeper, Sarah, told me 
how the King dined at my Lady Castlc- 
mainc's, and supped every day and night 
the last week ; and that the'night that 
the bonfires were made for the joy of the 
Queen's arrival, the Kine was there, but 
there was no fire at her door, though at 
all the rest of the doors almost, in the 
street, which was much observed ; and 
that the King and she did send for a 
pair of scales and weighed one another , 
and she, being near gomg to bed, was 
said to be the heaviest." Charles left 
London on the nin<-tcenth of May, and 
reaeluH] Portsmouth on the next day. 
Kutherine was confined to her bed with 
a cold, and slight sore throat ; but he 
hastcneti into her chamber, affectionately 
emhracc-d her, earnestly conversed with 
her in Spanish, and on returning to his 
own apartments, highly commended her 
person and manners. Some writers 
affirm that, on first seeing her, he de- 
clared she was '* as ugly as a bat ;" but 
the subjoined letter, w^ritten by himself to 
Clarendon, on the morning of his mar- 
riage, fully disproves the assertion : — 
'* Her face, my Lord, is not so exact as 
to be called a beauty, though hrr eyes 
are excellent good, and not anything' in 
her face that, in the least degree, can 
Mhoqw one. On the contrary, she has 
as much agreeablcness in her looks, al- 
together, as ever I saw ; and, if I haTe 
jn/ lUDiB plijikigiioiny, whidi I think 

I hmve, she mint be «■ good m 
erer was bom. Her oonTerMtioB, aa 
much as I can perceive, ia tctj gc«d ; 
for she has wit enough, and a mum 
agreeable voioe. Ton woold moeh 
wonder to aee how well we are aequainted 
already. In a word, I think myself 
very happy, for I am confident our two 
humours will agree exceedingly well 

On the twentieth of May, tbe health 
of the Queen havinr greatly improved, 
it WHS resolved that toe nuptials should 
take place the next day. Since her ar- 
rival, Katherine had been earnestly im- 
portuned to waive her claim of hariag 
the marriage celebrated after the Catho- 
lic rites ; but, as she remained inflexi- 
ble, it was performed with all possibls 
Srivacy, on the morning of the twcnty- 
rst of May, in her l^-room, by her 
almoner, tlie Ix>rd Aubigny. Plliillim 
afterwards Cardinal Ilowai^ and fivs 
others, attended as vritnessea, and eveiT 
person present was sworn to profuand 
secrecy. After dinner, the ceremony 
was publiclv solemnized, after the fonn 
eatablished \)y the C hurch of Kn^and, 
in the great hall or presence chamber, 
by the Bishop of London. A rail acrosi 
the hall divided the royal party from 
the concourse of nobles and rentry who 
witnessed the ceremony. When the 
King and Queen had taken their places 
under a rich canopy, the Bishop per- 
formed the nuptial rites prescribed in 
the Book of Common Prayer, and pro- 
nounced them married, ^'in the name 
of the Father, the Son, and the Holy 
Ghost" ** Long may they live ! " re- 
sponded the spectators, with hearty 
snouts; and, in conclusion, the ribbons, 
which the bride wore in profusion, 
were cot from her dress, and distributed 
in small portions, as weddinj? favours, 
amount the assembly. Mi*bilst the 
scramble for these eagerly-sought frag- 
ments was going on, Churles condnctra 
his consort to her aoartments, whert 
the principal ladies and nobles at court 
kissed her hand. The marriage waa 
entered in the parish regiiter of SC 
Thomas k Bccket, Portsmouth, in tiia 
folloiring words: *'Oor moat gnciov 
iovereign lord, Cbarki tim Seogad* ly 



tbe gnee of God, Kiii|^ of Great Britain, 
Ac; and the moat lUustrioiu Donna 
Katherine, Infanta of Portugal, dangh- 
ler of the deceased Don Juan, King of 
Pditugat, and »istcr to the urcscnt l)on 
Alphon«o. King of I'ortugai, was mur- 
hf.ll at Portsmouth, upon Thursdayi the 
twentf-first of May, 1662, bffing the 
fuartecnth Tear of his Majesty's reign ; 
by the Kigdt llcvirend Father in (iod, 
(j'ilbi'rt, iXrd Bishop of Londou, Dean of 
his Majesty's Chapel Koyai; in the 
Dre«eiiG« of sereral of the nobility of his 
MajeMty^s dominions and Portugal." 

After the fatigues of the ceremony, 
the Queen, who was yet weak, from the 
t tft-cts of her late indisposition, retirt'd 
to repose in her charoU-r. The King 
toiik nis supper with lier on her bed ; and 
io little did he know his own heart, that 
fuar days aAcrwards he wrote to Claren- 
don — "I cannot easily tell you how 
happy I think myself; and I must be the 
wunt man living — which I hone I am 
not— if I bo not a good husband." 

Katherine and her royal spouse left 
Portsmouth on the twcnty-sercnth, 
tarried on the night of the twenty- 
eighth, at Windsor ; and on the twenty- 
ninth, the anniTersary of Charles's birth 
and restoration, nuched Uaropton 
Court, where the stat« officers, the no- 
bility, gentry, and ladies o^ tho Court 
were waiting to greet their Queen on 
her arrival. She cheerfully received 
their congratulations, permitted them to 
kiss her hand, and on the Duchi-ss of 
York beinr presented, took her in her 
arms, callid her sister, and affectionately 
saluted her. Tho personal charms of 
Katherine, if not transcendant, were 
evidently above mediocrity. On this 
subject, Pepys remarks — *' The Queen 
wus brought a few days since to Ilamp- 
tiin Court, and all people pronounce her 
to b«r a very fine ana handsome lad^, 
and vtTy discreet ; and that the King is 
pleased enonirh with her, which I fear 
will put Madam Castlemaine's nose out 
of jiiint. The Court is wholly now 
at Jlampton. On tho third of June," 
be proceeds, '* I found tlic CounUw of 
Sandwich come from Court, where the 
Qneen bad naed her very civilly ; and the 
OoaataH tella me the ia a Tery pretty | 

woman. Yesterday, Sur B. Ford told 
me the Aldermen of the City did attend 
her [Majesty] in their habits, and did 
present her with a gold cup, and one 
thousand pounds in gold therein. But 
ho told me tliat they were so poor in 
their chamber, that they were tain to 
cfdl two or three Aldermen to raise fines 
to make up this sum." 

For a few weeks after their marriage, 
the royal pair live<l in perfect harmony. 
Foregoing the strict exercise of her reli- 
grious devotions, Katherine, by tho ad- 
vice of tho Portuguese Ambassador, 
overlooked the dissipation of the gay 
Court, and, to please her witty, licentious 
husband, frequently appeared in public, 
and took part with him in sylvan and 
aquatic sporUt, balls, concerts, and other 
entertainments ; whilst Cliarles, charmed 
with the grace, winning manners, and 
freshn(fis of his bride, made her his first 
and earnest care. The first interruption 
to Kuthcrine's dream of wedded felicity, 
wus occasioned in July, bv tlie King's 
resolution not to estrange himself from 
Lady Castlcm:nne. She had borne him a 
son since the Queen's arrival; he had 
stood go<lfuther to that son ; and her 
husband had withdrawn in disgust to 
Fnmcc, with a view of separating from 
her for ever. Charles, therefore, began 
to consider that she had more than ordi- 
nary claims upon him for protection ; 
ancT, erroneously belienng Katherine to 
be in profound ignorance of his amours 
with her, placed her name at the head of 
the list of ladies whom he recommended 
to the Queeu for appointments in her 
household. Katherine instantly drew 
her pen through the abhorred name. " I 
hear," says Pepys, 'Mhat the Queen 
did prick her out of the list presented 
her by the King, desiring that she might 
have that favour done, or that he would 
send her back again to Portugal ; and 
that the King was angry, and the Queen 
discontented a whole day and night 
upon it; but, at last, the King hath 
promised to have nothing more to do 
with Jiady Castlemaine." A promise he 
directly afterwards violated, by leading 
" tho la«ly," as Castlemaine was usually 
designated, into the Queen's chamber, 
■nd presenting her to bat 1S^«i^^«\b^ 



tlie midst of a brilliant Court. Xath- 
crine gubdued her feelings for the mo- 
mc-nt, received her rival graciously, and 
permitted her to kiss her hand. But the 
effort ni-arly cost her her life ; in a few 
minutes her eyes were suffused with 
tears, tlic blood gushed from her nose, 
■he changed colour, shrieked, and was 
carried to her apartment in a fit. 
Charles pronounced this incident an in- 
sult to himself and to L:tdy Costlemaine ; 
he vowed tliat he would never submit to 
the jealous whims of his wife ; and told 
Katherine, as she had put a public insult 
upon Lady Castlemuine, she must, to 
make her a becoming reparation, receive 
her as a lady of her bed-chamber. This, 
the Queen very properly refused ; when 
Charles resolved, as Iter husband and 
Kins^, to enforce compliance. The pro- 
fligate at Court, applauded his resolu- 
tion ; and on Clarendon and Ormond 
yenturing to remonstrate against it, he 
ffilenced them by addressing the sub- 
joined letter to clarendon : — 

" Hampton Court. 
" I forgot, when you were here last^ 
to desire you to give Hrodcricke counsel 
not to meddle any more with what con- 
cerns my Lady Castlemaine, and to let 
him have a care how he is the author of 
any scandalous reports: for, if I find 
him guilty, 1 will make him repent of 
it to the last moment of his life ; and 
now I am on this matter, I think it ne- 
cessarv to give you a little good counsel 
in it, l^st you may think that hy making 
a further stir in the business, you may 
divert me from my resolution, which all 
the world shall never do ; and I wish I 
may be unhappy in this world, and in 
the world to come, if I fail in the least 
degree of what I have resolved : which 
is of making my Lady Costlemaine of 
my wife's bed-chamber ; and whosoever 
I find may endeavour to hinder this 
resolution of mine (except it be only to 
myself), I will be his enemy to the last 
momc-nt of my life. You know how true 
ft friend I have been to you ; if you will 
oblige mo eternally, make this business 
as easy to me as you can, of what opinion 
■oever you are of, for I am resolTed to 
go ihtiQijii with thii matter, let what 

will come of it ; which, acain, laolemBlf 
swear, before Almigbtr God. Tbci^MC, 
if you desire to have the eouateaaoee of 
my friendship, meddle no more with the 
biisiness, except it be to beat down all 
false and scandalous reports, and to fa- 
cilitate what, I am sure, my honour is 
so much concerned in. And whosoevfr 
I find to be my Lady Castlemaiae's 
enemy in tliis matter, 1 do promise, upua 
my word, to be his enemy as long as I 
live. You may show this letter to my 
Lord Lieutenant fOrmondJ; and, ifyw 
iiave both a mind to oblige me, carry 
yourselves like friends to me in this 
matter. Chahlbb B." 

This letter alarmed Clarendon into 
undertaking an office he detested. He 
endeavourra, by all the art and sophistry 
of which he was master, to prevail on 
the persecuted Queen to succumb to the 
base wishes of her husband ; but she re- 
fused to listen to his advice ; and Charles, 
in revenge, subjected her to painfiBl 
indignities, seldom entered her prcavace, 
sent her country-women back to Porto- 
gal and grossly insulted the Portugurie 
Ambassador. The arrival of the Qneea- 
mother, Henrietta Maria, to congrato- 
late the King and Queen on their msr^ 
riage, led to a temporary reconoliatioa 
between the royal pair. They visited 
Iter at Greenwich, on the twenty-eighth 
of July; she, as loudly as prudence 
permitted, expressed her abhorrence of 
the painful mortifications to which 
Katherine was subjected; and when 
Charles and his consort returned to 
Uampton C^urt, they, to the delight of 
all nght-minded persons, supped to- 
gether in public. On the twenty- third 
of August, the King, Queen, and Court, 

?roceeded down the Thames, from 
lampton Court to London. It was the 
Queen's first public entry into the Metro- 
polis ; and Evelyn, who was a spectator, 
pronounces the spectacle magnificent; 
the decorations of the barges and boats, 
rich and costly ; the music of the bands 
on the water, sweetly enchanttng, and 
the thunder of the ordnance startling 
and awful. Pcpys, who witneaed the 
scene ofif the roof of the banqoeCingwlMMa 
aft Whitehall, iay% •<AUdM^mro«- 



ibled, chiefljr, in the immbor of bonts 
tad bsTg^f ond two imprpanti, one of a 
iiiyr, «nd another of « qui'cn, with her 
naidii of honour Bittin*:^ nt her feet, 
Tery pn>ttilT. Anon came the Kin*; and 
Queen, in » harj^, under a canopy, with 
a thoiiKind biir^i and boats, 1 know, 
ktr ve could nee no water for them, nor 
diieem the Kin; n(»r Queen. And so 
they landed at Whitehall Hrid^rc. and 
the f^mt (runs on the other stilti went 
otf." Ijady i'aotlemiiinc was not per- 
nittfU to take part in this proccMion ; 
but. shortly aftcrwanlrt. the Kinj^ aj^in 
introdaocd her to Court, and she, with 
•humeleaa effrontery, minirUil with the 
mo«t eialted pereona^'s, in the presoncv- 
cliamber of the Queen, and of the Que<>n- 
iii«>ther. ••On the seventh of Sep- 
tffliber," remarks PepTs, ** meeting Mr. 
Pierce, the surgeon, im took mc into 
Somerset House, and there carried mc 
into the Queen-mother's pn'Si'ncc-cham- 
ber, where she was, with our Queen 
fittinf: oil her left hand, whom I never 
did ice before ; and, though she be not 
Terr charminf^, yet s^e hath a eood 
BHMleat and innocent look, whicb is 
pk-aaing. Here, I also saw Madam 
CMtlemaine : and, wliich pleased mc 
moat, Mr. Cnifts, * tlie King s bastard ; 
a iB<Nt pretty spark, of about fifteen 
years oUC who I pereeive do hang much 
upon mT Lady Castlemaine, and is al- 
ways with her ; and I hear that both 
the' Queens are mighty kind to him. 
Ily and by, in comi-s the King, and, 
anon, the ' Duke of York and his 
Dochesa; so that they being well to- 
gi-tlier, was such a sight as I never 
cnuid, almost, have hapiK'ned to see witli 
•o much COM and Insure. They staid 
till It was dark, and then wont awny ; 
the King and his Qm-en, and my I^cly 
Castlemaim;, and young CrofU, in one 
eoarh, and the rest iu other coaohcK. 
Here were great ktorc of great ladies, 
hut very few handttome ones. The 
King and Qut>en w(:re very merry, and 
b« would have made the (^'ueen-mothiT 
bf-lifve th:it the QueiMi would hhortlv 
prc-ient him with an heir, and. indi< J. 
Qi dared that she said so." The u»«er- 

c/t Charles the Seeoml, by Lucy 
Ua voa cnatad Doka of Moanouth. 

tion, it appears, wounded the feelings, 
and shneked the modesty of the young 
Queen, who, knowing but little Knglish, 
and unuwure of tlic strength of the ex- 
pression slie u$e<l, answen>d, * You lie I' 
whicli was the first Knglish word that I 
ever heard her say ; and it made the King 
good sport, for he would have made 
her say in English, * Confess and be 
hanged.' " 

Inc contention between the royal 
pair still continued. I^dy Castlemainc, 
with unparulleleil effrontery, entered the 
Queen's pri>8rnee where and when she 
pli osed ; hIic dailv received the attention 
of the King and ^is courtiers, whilst her 
Maji!stv iMit by olone, silent and nn- 
notiee<i. The (^uct-n was never free 
from her company; she thrust herself 
into the royal coach whenever Katherine 
went out, whether to visit a friend, or to 
a public entertainment ; and, at last, to 
the scandal of all good Pnitcstunts, she 
even attended her to mass, an incident 
thus noted by Pepys, in his Diary : — "On 
the twenty-first of September (I^ord's 
i)av), to the park. The Queen coming 
by in her couch, going ^> her (!hapel, at 
St. James's ; the first time I had been 
ready for her. I crowded aft«*r Jier, and 
I got up to the room where her closet is, 
and there sIimkI, and saw the fine altar 
ornaments, and the friara in their 
habits, and the priests come in with 
their fine crosses and many other fine 
things. ♦ • ♦ The Queen very 
devout. Jiut what pleated me be»tj was 
to *ee mtf dear Lady CaatlemaiMfy u-hn^ 
though a Protestauty did wait upon the 
Queen to ehapel. Not understanding the 
sermon, which was in Portugues<r, I 
went up to the (^lecn's prescnee-cham- 
bcr, where she and the Kin^ were ex- 
pected to dine ; but her Majesty staid 
at St. James's, and the King dined 
alone in his own cliamlier." Mutters 
remained in this state for several weeks 
longer ; when Katht riue, wanting 
n'solution to maintain the uneqtial 
contest, arcepted the vervices of I^ily 
Castleniaine, und even treaud her witn 
ail outward show of kindness, in private, 
•ds well US ill nuhlic. Ky this sudden 
change of conduct towarils her n'Tul, 
Katherine hoped to conciliate tho King 



and her enemies. But in thb she was 
mistaken. Charles prided himself in 
tiie Tictory ho had obtained orer what 
he was pleased to designate her crafty^ 
penrerse temper ; and those who had pre- 
Tiously admired ^ her constancy, her 
greatness of soul in suffering the trials 
of conjugal persecution, rather thim 
countenancing her base riral, prononnced 
her a '* mutable woman, hnra to know, 
and difficult to serve.'* She, howerer, 
was neitlior so malicious nor energetic 
as some l^riiicrwes; otherwise, instead 
of tamely submitting to her husband's 
tyrannic will, she would have placed her- 
self at the head of the disaffected, a for- 
midable and daily increasing party, who 
denounced the sale of Dunkirk to the 
French ; disgnsti'd at the profligacy and 
extrara^nce of the King and the Court, 
svmp:itliiiie<l with thu rirtuous ill-trt^tcd 
(iucon, and loudly complained of the 
influence and indolence of Lady Castle- 
mainc. " Strange," remarks Pep^-s, 
**how the King is bewitched to tLis 
pretty Costlcmaine ; her internt at Court 
IS now greater than the Queen's ; and 
she, with Sir Charles Barkck-y and Sir 
n. Dennett, both of whom she hath 
brought in, hath more influence with the 
King than any one eltic nt Court" 

King Charles and his guy Conrt 
danced out the year 1662 nt a grand 
bull, held at Wliitchall ; which I'ep^-s, 
who was present, thus mentions in his 
amusing Diorj* :— *• >fr. l»ovy and I to 
AVhitehulI, he tukin^ mc thitlier, to 
carry me to the hall given this night by 
the ICing. He brought mo first to the 
Duke's Chamber, where 1 saw the I)uke 
and his Duchess at fippcr; and thence 
into the room where thf hall was to be 
erunimed with fine ladies, the greatest 
of ihe Court. Hy and by comes the 
King and Queen, the Duke and Ducht^s, 
and all the great ones ; and h(Ut seating 
themsi-lves, the King takes out the 
Duchew of York, and the Duke the 
Duchess of Duikingham, the Duke of 
Monmouth my ]«:idy Castlemaine, and 
so utlier lords and other ladies, and they 
danc«Ml the * lirantle.' • After that, the 
King led a lady a single ' Coranto ; *t 
and then the rest of the lords, one after 
* A cheerfkil donee raMnblinip a eotlllioiL 
t A tlov donee. In tlUM-quorter time. 

■nether, otlwr kdiet; Tcry noble it WM, 
and great pleasure to aoe. Tlien Ic 
country dances, the King leading thi 
flrs^ which he called for, which was. 
says he, * CnckoMs, all awav/ the oU 
dance of England. Of the ladies that 
danced, the Duke of Monmouth's mis- 
tress, and my Lady Castlemaine, and s 
daughter of oir Henry de Vic's, were the 
best. The manner was, when the 
King danced, all the ladies in the 
room, and the Qneen henelf stood tip, 
and, indeed, his Majesty donees easily 
and much better than the Duke of Yc«k. 
Thus ends this year," procveils IVim. 
** Public matters stand thus. The Ki'nf 
is bringing, as is said, his family aoa 
navy, and all other his charges, to a less 
expense. In the mean time, himiclf 
following his pleasuns more than with 
good advice he would do, at least, to b« 
seen to all the world to do so. iiiii dal- 
liance with my Lady Castlemaine being 
public ever day, to his great reproach, 
and his favouring of none at court to 
much as those that are the confidanti s( 
his pleasure, as Sir II. liennett and Sir 
Charles Uarkcley, which good God pit 
it into his heart to mend, hefora k 
makes himself too much contemned ky 
his people for it * * * Ue sopi^ 
at least, four times every week with uj 
Lady Castlemaine, and most often stajn 
till the mtirning with her, and eoci 
home through the garden all alone, pri- 
vately, and that so as the verv srntrici 
take notice of it and speak uf it." Thi 
public loudlv condemned these shamcfsl 
doings of the King and his panimo«. 
Hut Charles disregarded the eumiHUt of 
the people, and carried her with him to 
Windsor, where, with his profligalf 
Court, he celebrated the festival of SL 
George with unusual nagniHccnLf, ia 
honour of the Dnko of Monmoalk'i 
marriage with I^ady Anne Scott, hrirM 
of 'liuecleugh. *'I did hear," mn 
Penys, *' that the Qncen is much grinid 
of late at the King's neglecting her, ki 
not having supped with her this qusrts 
of a year. She was at Wind»>r, at lit 
St. George's feast there [.\tiril lit 
twenty-third, 16G3], and the bake sf 
Monmouth, dancing with her, with Ui 
hat in hia haad, the Xin|( cum in mi 
kisaed hinii ud made bun pot on la 



rcfybod^ took notice of; 
outh is in so gremt iplen- 
t, and 80 dandled by the 
ae doubt that if the King 

■honld hate no child bj the Queen. 
which there is yet no appearance oL 
whether he would not bo acknowledgea 
for a lawful son." 


't her urongs with meekntM — The kgaUty of her marriage challenged 
M icithheldfrom her — Her correspondence trilh the Tbpe — Charlee 
'lemaine for France* Stuart — Katherinc eeckt health at Tunhridge 
King* 9 amours with CastUmaine and others^ continue — Her Majesty 
t — Becomes dangerously iU—^Jlicting interview between her and 
e rtcorcrs — The King again neglects her for hie Icmans — CastUmaine 
fie — Kathcrin^s Master of her Horse dismissed against her will — Her 
he visits the fleet at Chatham — Retires from London^ on account of the 
tcarrics — Ooee in nwurning for the death of her Mother — Again 
idge Wells — Charles's amours with Nell Gwgnn and Mrs. Davis eom- 
Fire of London — Fashiotis at Court — Queen's birthday. 

ATHERIXE conti- 
nued to bear her 
wrongs with meek- 
ness ; she abstained 
from all political in- 
trigue, continually 
studied to please 
her husband, and 
duties of her exalted sta- 
nning srace and dignity. 
of Castlemaine, in tlie im- 
ainat Clarendon, ventured 
e legality of her marriage ; 
riewed the act as a perso- 
imself, and silenced them 
1 fiowns. Another annoy- 
vf the patient Queen was, 
portion of her income 
Rom her; a derrivation 
I, till informed tl:at forty 
ds per annum was chargcid 
;, in the expenses of the 
ore Parliament ; ** when," 
I, ** she t(Kik order to let 
at as yet, she had received 
snaiicc of her whole house- 
housand pounds, which is, 
table act of spirit.** The 
I displayed by Katherinc 
on, increased' the Kioj^'s 
IT. She accompanied him 
rini to the City, on the 

twentieth of May, and he rejoiced with 
her at tlie news of the battle of Amexial, 
a battle which, to her joy, completely 
established the independence of Portugalf 
and secured the crown to her family. It 
was her anxiety for the recognition of 
the regal rights of her brother and his 
heirs, that induced her to dispatch Bel- 
lings with letters to the Pope, and to 
several of the Cardinals, urging the Holy 
See to rccoenize the independence of 
Portugal, and expressing an earnest desire 
for the rccstablishment of the papal su- 
premacy in England ; an unlawful and 
unwarrantable proceeding, on which 
Titus Oates ana his confederates pro- 
bably built their pretended diabolical 
plots, and which did not escape the 
notice of her enemies. 

*' On the tenth of July," writes Samuel 
Pep}ii, *'Mr. Pierce, tne surgeon, tella 
me that, for certain, the King is grown 
colder to my Ladv Castlemaine than 
ordiuary, ana that nc believes he begina 
to love the Queen, and make much more 
of her than ho used to do." Two days 
afterwards, the same authority states, 
" On hearing that the Kin^ and Queen 
rode abroad with the ladies of honour 
to the park, and, seeing a great crowd 
of gallants staying here to see them 
return, I alio staid walking up nad dowa. 



Bj and by, came the King and Queen, 
hrr Majesty nt tired in a white hiced 
iraistcoiit and a crimson short pettycoat, 
with h<T huir drossod a la fi^jlipeMcty 
looked mi<;htv pretty; and the King 
rode hnnd in fiand wi'th her. Here was 
■l«o my Ijiidy C'astlt luaine, riding among 
the rest of the ladies, hut the King took, 
methoii^ht, no mitiee of her; and when 
she uli^hted, no one pPKscrd as Flu- 
teemed to ( xpect. and stsiid lur to take 
her down ; so she wa< taken down hy 
her own genth*mcn. She l(K»kcd mighty 
out of humour, inid a yellow ]ilumi 
in her hat, whieh ail took notice of, and 
TCt it is Yery haud:>omu ; but, ver}* me- 
lanchtdy, nolnnly spoke to her, nor did 
she so mneli as huiile or ppiak to any 
body. I followed them up into White- 
hall, and into the (Queen's preRence, 
where all the ladies walkt d, talking, and 
fithlling with their hnt.s and featlurb. 
and ehangini: and trying one anotlicr's, 
by one anothi-r's heads, and laughing. 
ifut it was the finest sight to nie. eon- 
siderinpr their irr«at iK-autys anddns*. 
that ever 1 did »'<> in all my life, l^nt, 
above all, Franees Stuart in this drrss. 
with Imt hat cocked, and a red plum*', 
with her *yns'\ eye, little Komiin nosi-. 
and excellent Mi//<r, is n(>w the grratest 
beauty 1 evtr saw, I think, in my life. 
And if ever woman can, doe*- exceed my 
Lady Ca^tlrmaine at least in this dnss ; 
nor do I wonder if the King eliangt's, 
whieh I verily Ix Heve is tlie reason of 
his eoldn< ss to my I^idy Tastlemaine." 
Charles, however, couM not, or would 
n(»t, imniediatily, cast off his iniperinus 
mistress. On tin- tweiity-seeond of July, 
writes (mr autlior, ** V'aptain 1 ernrs 
tells me til at mv Lady C';istlemainc i.s 
now as ^rre:it ngjiin as ev( r slie was, and 
that her fjoinj' away was onlv a fit of 
her own, upon K«)me slighting words of 
the King; so, that slie calhd for her 
coaeh at a ipinrler of an hour's warnin?. 
and went to Richmond: and the King, 
the next morning, und»T pretence <if 
going a liunting, went to .nee her and 
make friends, and nev<r went a hunting: 
at all. Afti r whieh sh«* eanii- ha<k tt> 
Court, and coniniands the Kin;: ;is mu'h 
as eter. and hath und doth what she 
will. IXo longfT ago than last night. 

there was a private entcrtainneBi 
for the King and Queen, at the Ihilw of 
t.uekingham's, and she was not invited ; 
hut, biing at my Ijidy SutTulk'n, her 
aunt's, she was heard to suv, * Well, much 
!;o«nI may it do them, and for nil that, I 
will be as merry as they ;' and so sin* 
went home, and cuu^i-d a great siip|ier to 
In* pn'pareil. And, after the Kin«: hud 
hiH-n with the Qui en at Wailin^(i*rd 
House, he enme to my I^dy Casili^ 
mainr's. and was there all night, and my 
]x>rd Sandwich with him. 1 imrb ttits 
me, " he iH-li^ves, that as siMin a^ tlie 
King can get a husltand for Fniiiee« 
Stuart, my ] juiy Custleriiuini's nufri' will 
1)0 out of joint, for that Aw corner to h<: 
in great eht4'em, and is more hand^fiut- 
than shi'.* " 

The degradations and nnnoyanc(-s to 
which the Queen was suhjt cti-d hy In r 
sflfisli and inconstant h»rd, imitain-d Iht 
licidth. For recovery, she n-solvt-d. hy 
the advice of her physicians, to visit the 
Wills of Tunhridge. Poverty howi vtr 
prevented herfrcmi no doin^* till the eh^M? 
of July, when the Kinc accompanieti hi r 
tliither; not, it is said, out of conjutril 
aff( etion, hut boeaus(> he was enamound 
of theh<autiful I ranees Stuart, who was 
in attendance on her Majesty v» maid 
of honour. After a montli's sojourn »t 
Tunhridge, their Majesties went on a 
progress to Ihith, Oxfi»n], and other 
placets in the Western and Midland 
e«»nnties, and retunjwl. with the <'oiirt 
to Whitehall, in tlie first w«M'k of Ck- 
tolMT. 'I'he Tunhridge waters and 
(ountry air eff<Ttf'd no improvement on 
th<' health of Katlierine; hi-r malady 
was not iMKlily, hut ment;d. It spmng 
from the conjugal inconstancy of the 
Kin?, who det lareil he coulil not, hut 
who. in truth, wouhi not, remain true to 
his sjMMise. ** .My Jjidy ( nslh-maine. 
I hear," writes IVpyn, *'• is in as great 
favour as ever; the King supped with 
lier the very first nijrhl he came fii«m 
Hath ; when there being a chine of beef 
to ro:^^t, and th<' tide of the Thames 
rising inte their kitch«n,s<i th:it itcituld 
not Iv' roastiil there, andtht cook tilling 
her of it. she answen'd ; " Zoun'is ! she 
must Sit the house on a fire, but it shall 
be roastiil.' So it wm carried to tiM 



of Mn. Sanih't hmlMnd, and there 
mu»d.*' A few dayi ufl&T her rctam to 
Whitehall, Kutherine* s illness assumed 
the form of a diin^iTons tvvcr. Hit 
death was hourly exptftt'd, wliich so af- 
ftctvd (.'harU>8f that, hasti-ning to her 
hniside, he thn>fr himst'If on his knvt'is 
bitterly wept, conft««ed he had wronged 
her, and iniph»rcd her to live for liis 
sake. Kathcrine mingled her tears with 
his. expre8!>cd herself nady and willing 
to die, and Ifavu all the world hut him ; 
and awured him that, from her heart, 
she forgave him. The scene was heai t- 
rtnding. — doli ful cries and himentations 
bur^ft from all present ; and at lust^ when 
tlie King was on the point of fuinting, 
his attendants removed him by force to 
an adjoining chamber. 

The progp-ss of Katherine's illness is 
thus vLronieh'd by Pepys; — ** October 
the sTTenteenth. Some (liscourse of the 
Queen's being Tery sick, if not dead, the 
liuke and Duclicts of York being M'nt 
for betimes, this morning, to come to 
Whitehall to her. — Ninet-cnth. 1 hear 
that the Queen did sleep five hours pretty 
well to nighty and that she waked and 
nrgled her mouth, and to sleep again ; 
out that her pulse beats fast, beating 
twenty to the King's, or my Lady Suf- 
folk's eleTen; but not so strong as it 
was. It seems she was so ill as to bo 
skared, to have pidgeons put to her feet, 
and to haTe the extreme unction given 
her by the priests, who were so long 
about it, that the doctors were angry. 
The King, they all say, is fondly discon- 
Bolate for her, and weeps by h<T, wliieh 
makes her weep, which one this day told 
Be he reckoned a good sign, for that it 
earricf away some rheumo from the 
head. — Twentieth. Mrs. Sarah tells me 
that the Queen's sickness is the spotted 
fierer ; that she is as full of spots as a 
leopard ; and that the King dotn seem to 
take it much to heart, for that ho hath 
wept before her; but, for all that, he 
hath not missed one night since she was 
sk'k, of supping with my Lady Custle- 
naine, whieli i believe is true ; for she 
says that her husband hath dressed the 
sappers every night ; and I confess I saw 
him, myielf, cjming tlirough the street, 
draMing up a great supper to-night, 

which Sarah says is also for the King; 
which is a very btrangi.' thing. — Twenty- 
s<cond. This morning, hearing that 
the Queen gruws worse again, I sent to 
i stfip tlie nniking of my velvet cloak, till 
. I aw whether she lives or dies. — Twenty- 
third. The Qtte< n slept pnlty well hist 

. night, but the fever contmues upon her 
; still. It seems she huth nevir a Portu- 
I guese doctor here. — Twenty-fourth. The 
' Queen is in a good way of recovery, and 
■ Sir i nmcis rrujcan hath got gnrat 
' honour by it, it being ull imputed to his 
cordial, which, in her despair, did give 
her rest, and brought her to some iiojies 
of recovery. — Twenty- sixth. JJr. Pierce 
tells me that the Queen is in a wav to 
be pretty well again, but that her deli- 
rium in her hend continues Ktill, that she 
talks idle, not by fits, but always, which 
in some lusts a week aftt r bo high a 
fev(T, in some more, and in some for 
ever; that this morning she talked 
mightily tiiat she was hrouglit to bed, 
and that she was troubled that her boy 
was but an ugly boy. But tint King 
being by, to please her, suid, * No, it is a 
very pretty boy ; ' * Nay,' said she, * if it 
be like you, it is u fine boy indeed, and I 
would be very well ph'ased with it.' — 
Twenty-seventh. Mr. Coventry, to-day, 
tells me that the Queen had a very good 
night hist night, but yet it U strange that 
she still raves, and talks of little more than 
her children, and fancies that she hath 
three children, and that the girls are 
very like the King. And this morning, 
about five o'clock, the physician feeling 
her pulse, thinking to be better able to 
judge, she being still and asleep, waked 
her, and the first words she said were, 
' How do the childien .>'— Thirty first. 
The Queen continues light-headed, but 
hopes nre entertained of her recovery. — 
Novembi.T four. She is mending apace. 
— Tenth. I hear she is now well again, 
and that she hath bespoken a new gown." 
The Kinj^'s affection for Kutlurrine 
during her illness appears to haveci^ased 
the moment he learn t>d she was out of 
danger; and no sooner had she re« 
covered, than he openly devoted him- 
self to the fair Frances Stuart. ** On 
tlio ninth of November," Pepys ob- 
serresy that *' the King is now become 



MUUBOQfed with Mutren Stimt : b€ ffefs 
into oornen, and will be with ner htlf 
an hour together, kiaring her, to the 
obierfation of all the world ; and she 
BOW staTi bjr herMlf, and expects it as 
mf Lady Castlemaine did nse to do, 
to whom the King is still kind, so as 
to now and then go to her, but with no 
snch fondness as he used to shew." 
Castlemaine, perceiving that the King's 
affection for her was on the decline, 
artfully paved the way for a reconcili- 
ation with her ill-used' husband, by em- 
bracing the Catholic faith. <* I hear 
for certain," says the gossiping Pepys, 
"that mr Lady Castlemaine is turned 
papist, which the Queen for all does not 
much like, thinking that she does it 
not for conscience' sake." She was 
madly jealous of Francis 8tuart, her 
Toung rival in tlte King's affections — a 
bitter sentiment she took every oppor- 
tunity, public as well as private, of dis- 
playing to the full. Yer\' different was 
the conduct of the mee{[, but shame- 
fulW slighted Queen, at this period. 
"Mr. Pierce told me," remarks the pre- 
viously quoted contemporarj*, ** how the 
King still doats upon bis women, even 
beyond all shame; and that the good 
Queen will of herself stop before she 
goes into her dressinjBf-room. till she 
knows whether the King be there, for 
fear he sliould be, as she hath some- 
times surprised him, with Fraaces Stu- 
art ; and that some of the best part of the 
Queen's jointure are contrary to faith, 
and, against tlic opinion of my J/ird 
Treasurer and his council, bestowed or 
rented, I know not bow, to my Lord 
Fitz-IIarding, Frances Stuart, and 
other members of that crew." Another 
indignuit^ put upon Katberine, was 
the dismissiil by the Kine of Mr. Mon- 
tague, the master of her oorsc, in May. 
"His fault, I perceive," remarks our 
quaint author, *' was his pride, and most 
of all, his affecting to be great with 
the Queen ; and it seems, indeed, he 
had more of her caro than anybody 
else, and would bo with her talking 
alone two or tliree hours tipethor. in- 
sonnu-li timt the lords sibimt the King, 
when ho would be jesting with tliem 
about their wives, would tell the King 

that he mnit hare a care of hii wifetoo, 
for she hath now a gallant ; and they my 
the King himself did once aak Montagne 
how his mistren, meaning the Qnee^ 
did. He grew bo proud, and despiiea 
everybody, Dcsidea anfferin^ nobody, ha 
or she^ to get or do anything aboat the 
Queen, — that they all'laboored to do 
him a good torn. They all say that he 
did give some affront to the Duke of 
Monmouth, which the King himself did 
speak to him of. But strange it it, that 
this man should, from the greatest ne«^ 
ligence in the world, come to be the 
miracle of attendance, so as to take all 
offices from everybody, either men or 
women, about the Qneen." Her Ma- 
jesty was so grieved at hia diaeharee, 
that she would admit no one else to uia 
office till after his death, which took 
place in 1665. 

Unlike the pomp-loving King and his 
mistresses, who m splendour rivalled 
the fabled princes of the cast, and de- 
corated tlieir apartments with all tbat 
luxury could devise, or wealth procure, 
Katberine observed a rigid economv, 
and, in private as well as public, avoid- 
ed extravagant mnpnifieence and ostea- 
tatious display. To her simplicity of 
taste in the furniture and fittin^rs of 
her private apartments, Pepys bean evi- 
dence in the following words : — 

*• June twenty-fourth, 1664. To 
Whitehall ; and Mr. Pierce showed me 
the Queen*s bed-chambrr. and her clo- 
set, where she had notliing but some 
Sretty pious pictures and books of 
evotion; and her holy water at the 
head, as she sleeps with a clock by her 
bedside, wherein a lamp bums that tdls 
her the night. Thence be carried me 
to the King's closet, which was deco- 
rated with such a variety of picturca, 
and other things of value ana raiity, 
tbat I was properly confounded, and en- 
joyed no pleasure' in the sight of them, 
which is the onlv time in my life that 
ever I was at a loss for pleasure in the 
greatest plenty of objects to give it me.*' 

On the fourth of July, 1664, the King 
took Katlierine and his motlier. Henri- 
etta Maria, to view the fleet at Chatlinm, 
before it sailed on its voyage o^hustility 
against Holland. The sight so fdeased 



loeen, that in the lubsequeot Oc- 
ihe went to Woolwich to ice a ship 
rh, which if tlius mentioned bj the 
Tant Pi-pvi : ** At Woolwich. There 
> the Ki'ng and Duke [of York]. 
I itaid about with them while 
bip was launched, which was done 
Ttry good success, and the King 
ery much like the ship, saying she 
he best bow that ever he saw. But 
, the sorry talk and discourse amimg 
XTcat courtii-rs round alM>ut him, 
hit any reverence in the world, but 
so much disorder. By and by, the 
a comes, with her maids of honour, 
hereof, Mistress liaynton, and the 
icta of Buckingham, had been very 
coming by water, in the royal 
i, the water being very rough ; but 
silly sport he made with them in 
Kmimuii t4.'rms, mcthought was very 
anil below what people think these 
« say and do." 

e r«joicin«r8 for the victory ob- 
1 over Uie Dutch by the Duke of 
, on the third of June, IGGo — the 
glorious action hitherto fought by 
avy of England — were deeply de- 
ed by the terrible visitation of the 
plague, ' which filled all hearts with 
and which increased so rapidly in 
minute r, tiiat on the twenty-ninth of 
, the King, iiueen,aud court removed 
inipton i'- turt ; but as the plague foU 
1 tnem thither, thev, on the twenty- 
th of J ul v, departed fur 2Suli^bury. 
his oa-asron tiic Queen and her 
I affected a new travelling costume. 
I, who saw tltem set out, remarks : 
vas pretty to see tlie young pretty 
I dnssed like men, in yelvt-t coats, 
with rilib<m.«, and with laced bands, 
like men. Only the Duchess of 
, who has lately grown ton fat to be 
ful, it did not b<conie." As the 
Salisbury diiuigreed with the King, 
IS one of the grooms died there of 
lague, the court removed to Oxfitrd, 
e, on the tenth of October, the King 
id parliament, who voted him a sup- 
f one hundred thousand pounds, itir 
ing on the war agaiuHt the Duteh. 
King ri.-uio\(d toilunipton ('oiirt in 
ary, 1600; the Queen, lieiiig enceinte*, 
8co p. 707. 

remained at Oxford, as it wu fondly 
hoped, till she had presented her hus- 
band with an heir ; out, unfortunately, 
she miscarried, and when she joined 
the King in February, it was only to bo 
frowned upon by him, and to oe de- 
rided by Lady Castlemaine, who had 
just presented him with a fine boy, and 
who maliciously insinuated that Aath- 
erinc was incapable of bringing him an 
heir. In March, the Queen received 
the mournful tidings of the death of her 
beloved mother, Donna Luiza, widow 
of John the Fourth, of Portugal. The 
court went in deep mourning on this 
occasion ; all the ladies were ordered to 
wear black, with their hair plain, and 
without patches on their face ; *• a mode 
of dress,* says a contemporary,*' in which 
J^dy Castlemaine app^irs quite an or- 
dinary woman, and nothing like so pretty 
08 Frances StuarL" "in June," re- 
marks Pepys, *' the Queen, in ordinary 
talk before' the ladies in her drawing- 
room, did say to my I^ady Castlemaine 
thut she feared the King did take cold 
by staying so late abroad at her house. 
She answered biTore them all, that he 
did not 8tJiy so luti* abroad with her, for 
he went bi-limes thence, though he did 
not bt>f<irc one, two, or three in the 
morning, but must stay somewhere el^e. 
The King then coming in, and hearing 
her, did whisper in her ear aside, and 
told her she was a bold, impertinent wo- 
man, and bid her to be gone out of the 
court, and not come again till he sent 
for her : which she did presently, and 
took a lo<lging in Pell Mell, and kept 
there two or three days, and then sent 
to the King to know whether she might 
fetch her things away out of her house. 
The King sent to her she must come 
and view them, and so she came ; and 
the King went to her, and now thev are 
as grt:at friends as ever. I am told she 
did in her anger say she would be even 
with the King, and print his letters to 
h»T, a threat which greatly terrifitrd the 
King." In Jul v. the Queen and her 
train paid another visit to Tunbridge 
SVells. II fr Majesty, to hei^rhten the 
|ileasure of her sojourn al this t'a!>hion- 
able place of rcburt, sent for the pluyen 
— an unwise acty followed by a dia- 



gTRCt'ful intimiieT bctwem Charles and 
the two actrcssps. Mn. Daris and Xi-Il 
Gwynn, anil by the lutter boiii^ appoiiiti-d 
one of tliv Iai1if8 of the chainibi-r to 
Queen Katharine. 

In SepU'mber, 1666, biir»t forth that 
terrible conflagration known in history 
M the Great 1- ire of I^mdun, and to 
which many writrrs bilieve w*- owe thr 
coninlcte extinction of tl)«.' phij^uo. It 
oripnatt><i about two on tiir niornin? of 
Sunday, tlir set'ond vf September, at a 
bakohousn in l*uddinc: I^hip, mar Fi»h 
8trt'i't Hill, a confini-d p:irt of tlie me- 
tropolin, wbicli tben con*'istpd only of 
narrow l:inc!i ami i)a.v>airv.s, and lioiiju'g 
principally of wood or lutli and idaster, 
and tilltil with tar, oil, ropes, ana otlier 
eombustibif* sliip storen. To tin sc> build- 
ings it spn ad with a font- and rapidity 
which doti«-d tlio pow«T of biirkrts. and 
to add to tiii; misfortune, t!u> pip«s fivm 
the New Kivor w* n* found ruipty, itnd 
the cn;rin«' whieli raised watrr from tln» i 
Thamo:^ was reduced to allies. 'I'hr Lord i 
Mayor, who arriviMl at the spot alH)iit an 
hour after the outburst, was advised to I 
intercept the prog'ress of the flames, by . 
pulling down houiv of the houses; but 
he answered . " h<»rd ! what can 1 do ? I i 
am ?p«'nt, pMipb* will not olxjy me. I 
have Ikn n pullinpr down houst-s, but the 
fire orertak«-s 'is taster than we can do 
it." Ily c'i;;ht in the morning it had 
reached I^ndon l!rid*re, **and there di- 
vidiuir, left enoiiprh to bum down all that 
had bci n in-^-tt-iI on it since the hist 
great lire in IC'J.'J. and with the main 
ImmIv pnss4d forward into Tliames 
Stnet," wliieli was eharj^id with com- 
buiitilde mati-rial, that augmente<l it very 
considerably, nipiup the whole day, and 
striking the inliabitants with such terror, 
"that," Kiys I^trd Clarendon, "all men 
stood amazt-d as spectators, only no man 
knew what remedy to apply, nor the 
magistrates what «»rders to give." Eve- 
lyn remarks : " The couflagratiim was so 
univer>al, and the peoplr »>4» astonishi'd, 
that from the b« ginning, I know not by 
what d- «p<md« iiey or fat*, ihev hardly 
stin-id to quem-h it, so that there was 
nothing hirard or seen but crying out 
and lamentation — running about like 
distracted creatmesy witltout at all at- 

. tempting to sare creii their goods— nek 
a strange ciinstrmation tin re was npua 
them.*' 'Hie tonflagrdtion. wbirli at 
first took an e:i»terly dini*tii>n,pnjcit-dcd 
84> rapidly, that to prevent it rt-uchinif 
the 'lower, housi*s wen- piillid 
down. Iiut the ** brij^ht fla m-,'* which 
had niged in that dircctiim all Mun- 
day, in the night toi»k other cvarses. 
The wind clianged, ami blew with to 
great and irresistible violence*, that it 
scatterHl the fire from pursuing the line 
tluit it was in, with all its ft.ri'e, and 
spread it over the city, so that tlh-y who 
went late to l»ed at a great distance 
from any place wliere the tire pre- 
vailed, were awakrned liefore morning 
with their own house being in a 
flame. On Mi>nday,Gr.icechureii .Street, 
and part of Lombard ^tntt, and Fen> 
church Street, were in flames : the tire 
then was buniing in the form of a b^^w— 
•* a dreadful bow," says the lUv. T. 
Vincent, "'sucli as mine eyes never hud 
iM'fore seen." 'i"he niirht of MondaT 
was more dreadful than the preceding 
one. The destroying element, after 
spreading westwani along the bank of 
tiie Thames, as fur as Uue<'iihithe. and 
in a parallel direction to Com hill and 
the Royal Kx<*hauge, and nurthwanl to 
Dowgjite and Wutling Street, diviiied 
itself into four bmncbi^, which united 
in one great flame at the eastern end of 
Cheapside. On Tuv.-sday the whole of 
that street was in flames, and the tire 
was seen heaping from hous^' to hoose 
and strt-et to ^treet. a great distance one 
from the other. The impi'tuous flames 
now reached St. Taul's Cathedral, "Mhe 
st4)nes of which." says Evelvn, "flew 
like granad«>s, melting lead, ronning 
down the street-* in a stream, and the 
very pavements glowing with a fierv red- 
ness so as no horse nor man was aide to 
tread on them, and the demiditiun had 
stopped all the |Nis8ages, so that no help 
could be applied." The neighbtuiring 
streets shared the same fate, and the 
scene was appalling. **A11 the sky,** 
proceeds the author just quoted, ** was 
of a fiery aspect, like the top of a burn- 
ing oven, and the light seen for abi>ut 
fortv miles ronnd for many nighta. 
God grant may eyes may never behold 



the like, now noinf^ aboat trn thousand 
binucs all in one Hame, the nui«e and 
cricking, aud thunder of ihc impetuous 
i-mit-iV, \\\v i>hrifkinff of women and 
diiMren, the hurnr of peopU*, the fall of 
towi r«. hoUAi-n, and chnrehi-s, waft Hk*- 
an liiditiiM stonn ; and the air all ab^Mit 
io hut and intlamed, that at last one 
waj> not able to approach it, s<> tlisit they 
were furcfd to btand still and let tlie 
flames bum on. wliich they did for nfur 
two miles in length and one in bnadth. 
Thi> clouds of anioke wi-re disniul. and 
r»-4f'hi-il upon eomputatiun near eight \ 
mill* in length. Thus 1 li<ft it this 
afti-rnoon. bearing a niirnihlance uf 
SMli»m on the la^t day : Li>udon was, 
but 14 iin more." 

lUit the devouring ehmfnt still con- 
tinued to li.-ap from houiio to house, and 
St ret- 1 to i^tn-et. with luwl<-vs power ; on 
thi* (lav ami night of Tue>day, swetping 
3WUT Ludiratc Hill, tlie Old l*ailey. and 
the Inner 'IVniple ; whi-u tlie t.'oiirt at 
Whit«»hall, in alarm, caused several 
hoii«i4 to he blown up with giin(>owder, 
a plan which savid tiie ]Kihu*e and \V«'!»t- 
minst'.r Abbey, and which, if ailopted 
at the ci»niniencement of the nrntlagra- 
tion, as su<n|r<>st4*d by som<' seamen, mii^ht 
ha7e Adv«'<i' half the City ; hut this, 
**iw>me tenacious and avaricious men, 
aldermen and f>thers, would nut permit, 
hnrniw their houses must have bci-n the 
first." On Wednesday morning, the 
wind which before blew a hurricane, 
was hushed to a dead calm, the tire Wiis 
stayed, and a remnant of Ii(md<»n was 
nv'ed. The first effectual check that the 
fire encountered, was the brick buiUl- 
insrs of the Temple, which were only 
partly consumed ; and although the fire 
broke out again then* on Thurs(hiy 
evening, the Duke of York effectually 
stopDMl it« progreas, by blowing up tli(> 
ni-itrtilmuring hoa^^-s. Acuonlingto the 
(•Ificial g:iz< tte uf tlic fire, it laid waste 
fiiur hundn-d and thirty-sir acres, and 
W.1S finally stopite^l ** at the Temple 
(Muirch. nr:ir llolbom liridgi*, [(iiltj>pur 
Stni't, Smithfii Id], rnppleg.i!e, mar tiie 
luwef end of Coleman Stn'ct, at the end 
«if liMinghall Street, at the upp<r end 
of Biihopsntc Street and Jxudenhall 
Btwwt, St tM Studaid, in Comhili, at 

the Church in P'enchurch Street, near 
(.'loth workers' Hall, in Union Lauc, at 
the middle of Murk I^nc. ami at the 
Tower iJuek." Of the six-and-twenty 
wards, it utterly d(stroy<d fil'tcen, and 
left eigiit utiiers sliattered and half 
j bunit. It consumed four hundred 
striH-ts, thirte«-n tiiousand two hundn-d 
dwiUing- houses, eighty-nine churches, 
numerous cha|H>Is, four of th.^ City gatis, 
tiie greaUT nart of Guild hull, and 
numiTous public buildings, hospitals, 
s«:hools. libraries, and other stately edi- 
fices. It is calculated that the property 
destroyed could nut be less than teii 
niilliiuis sterling. 

Meanwhile, ti agi;ravate the distreis 
of tile ruined c.itixens, tlie nio»t alarm- 
ing reports were spread. ** It was said, 
and believed, that men had been sei.n 
throwing fire-Udls into houses as thej 
p.'Ubk'd through the streets, and that the 
Kri'uch and the Hutch had combined 
with tlic repuldicans and the papists to 
destroy the eity. Thesis absurd stories 
increased the general confusiun and ter- 
ror, and th<.»su who were laudably la- 
bouring to extinguish tliefianns, or hur- 
r}-ing awaiy with their families and giKxla 
t.i places of safety, were obstructed by 
I the Hight of cowards from the imagi- 
nary massacre, and the march of the 
brave, who took up arms to oppose the 
murderers, ami maltn-at ever}* foreigner 
and papist they met with. The mutt 
mischievous of thi-sc rei)ortB was circu- 
Iat4>d on the Wednesaav night ; word 
was ronveycd to the distntscd inha- 
bitants lying in tents in the neigh- 
lM>uring fields, that " the French were 
coming armed against them, to cut 
their throats, ana sfNiil them of what 
tlii'y had save<] out of the fire. ' Despair 
ri>uscd the citizens, and, tired with in- 
dii^natiou, they prepared to defend them- 
sil<-es ; but the comnig morning dispelled 
their fears, and ))rought with it the 
jovoiis prosp<>ct that the fire was 
etfi ctually (pienched, and that no more 
ealumity threatened them. The King 
and the' Ouke of York took an active 
part in arresting the progress of the 
rtamcs. " it is not, indeed, imaginable," 
nays Kfelyn, *'how extraordinary the 
vigilance and activity of the King and 



the Duke wu, eren Ubonring in pencm, 
and beinfi^ present to command order, 
reward, or encourage workmen.'* To 
thit energy, and to a corresponding 
Tigilance on the part of the mi^tracy 
and the train bands, must be attributed 
the circumstance, that so few lives were 
lost, and so few robberies were com- 

The conduct of the Queen on this 
distressing occasion is no whercchroni- 
clod ; but, just after the calamity, it is re- 
corded, she adopted the fashion intro- 
duced by two of her maids of honour, 
which IS thus described by Pcpys :— 
*« Walking in the galleries at Whitehall, 
I find the Udics of honour dressed in their 
riding garbs, with coats and doublets with 
deep skirts, just for all the world like 
mine, and buttoned their doublets up 
the breast, with pcrriwigs and with hats ; 
so that only for the long petticoat dme- 
ging undur their men's coats, nobody 
coiiid take them for women in any point 
whutcTcr. It was an odd sight, aud a 
sight that did not ple^ise mu." In Oc- 
tober, the writer we have just quoted 
■ays, *^ Pierce tells mc that Ludy C'astle- 
mainc is again about to become a mother, 
and that the King still iutri^es with 
Frances Stuart, who, he says, is a most 
good-natured lady. This ilav the King [ 
begins to put on his vest, anJ I did see . 
seVcral persons of tho House of Lords 
and Commons too, great courtiers, who 
arc in it, being a long cassock close to 
the bodv of black cluth, piuked with 
white Mlk under it, and a coat o^er it, 
and the legs ruffled with black riband, 
like a pigeon's leg ; and, upon the whole, 
I wish the King may keep it, for it is a 
very fine and handsome garment." " It, 
however," remarks Evehu, **was too 
go<id to hold ; we could not leave t)ie 
monsieur's vanities long, so (^rain re- 
tamed to the fashions of France." About 

tnmed foot, endeavoiired to introdm 
drcasei with short skirts ; but her cisrt 
to set the fiuhion, like that of the Kiag^i^ 
completoW fiuled. TIm Court baudiM 
being toll and graocful in figvn^ tkqr 
preferred wearing flowing dnftnm, 
and all other Tadiea imilntod tliHr 

This year tho Queen^ft birth-day wm 
celebrated by a grand ball at WfaitdMH ; 
and the court being still in movraing 
for her Majesty's mother, leave was 
given to wear sAver and white lace on 
that day. Pepys, who clambered up to 
a loft, where with much trouble ha 
conld view the imposing spectacle, mvi, 
*' Anon, the house grew full, thecandlca 
were lighted, and the King and Queea 
and all the ladies sat. It was indeed a 
glorious sight tit see Frances Stuart ia 
bhick and wliite huv, und her head and 
shoulders dressed in diamonds and the 
like, many great ladies more, only the 
Queen none ; and the King in his ridi 
vest of rich silk and silver trimming, u 
the Duke of York and all the dunctti 
wore some of cloth of silver, and oihen 
of other sorts, exceeding rich. IVesontlT, 
after the King was come in, he toi»k the 
Queen, and about fourteen more eoupU- 
thcrc were, and began the bramJt*, • 
* * After the Sranaktj then to a 
eorautf and now and tht-n a Frvnch 
dance ; only Mrs. Siuurt duuccd mighty 
finely, and many French dances, «s- 
pcciullv one the King called the 'new 
dance, which was very prttty; but, 
upon the whole, the dancing of itself 
was not extraordinary pleasing, al- 
though the clothes and sight of the 
persons were, indeed, worth my coming, 
being never likely to see more gallanuy 
while I live, if I should come twenty 
times. About twelve at night it brake 


J'tUi of Cltiretidon — KUliitrew reproreM the King — Cntlewtanu eremUd Dmehtm •f 
Ctevelattd — Buckingham offrrn to kidnap the Queen — Jler dirorct yr^ftet t d^'J. 
prreedtnt fhtahlithed — Charles rcfitne^ to diatolrt his marriage — Her tMterrinc tritk 
ihs Ducheat of Orleans— The Duchen of I\frUmouth'— Frolic mi Safim WMen 
^kir-^Tem—^kafteahtr^M fntik efmrU to ditforee Kaikernm—Mrmd ^ Ck 


DitfitM of MnimTm-Stkem, l» mOlifyUu! Q«m,-, 
ImBfd Kfimt tki (jMtta ami olArrt, treatfi a giun 

King prDJntnl 
dirarcd fron iha 

' pnt hith ia the ru- 
mar, tad dtrplr offcndi'd the rnuii- 
mrd •orrrrijrii £t pitT>ilin|t upon Ilie 
>nkc oF KiebRKind (o minj thv Tuir 
idj. The cncmirt of tbe luckl«n 
liaiitrr (mk iilTantage oC the tirrum- 
tun' tn niv B populir ciy Bguinit 
im. Thf'T painted «a ttie fnte ofhu 
■aniii-n a laree gibhot. with the fuUa*- 
ag epifiam beneath it :- — 

ng« of the King, i 
Oir ^arenlini'i mate. 

t of the chiliQcu mar- 

._ tbe fittivt nan ii 
world to prrruim it.' This, he *»y*, it 
nioat true: hut the Kin^, inttcad iiiiin>- 
fitinf; bf it, tavi all hiuinna Hiil<-, and 
attend* to nulhinjt but hia [ilcainrea, 
which ia a lurTowrtil cniBiiliTiitiun." 

^Duthir time Mr. Killigrew paii) hia 
KtiijntvaTiiit in hia pnviito ■purlmi'Dta, 
liubilcd like a piljirim who wua litnt cm 
II lun^r jniirnvy. The Kin^, auqirixid at 
Ihc uJUiij of bis uppeurance, immcdi- 
Bti'ljr oakrd him what wns the meaning 
of i(, and whither bo waa guing. "To 
hull," hlunrlj BBawered the wag, "Prjr- 
thep, iriiat can ^ar errand be to that 

Clace r" dimuided the King. " To lulch 
icic OliTcr Cromwell," njnincd lie, 

t he 

r tuliP 

uf tl 

ulfain oF Iiliittbnit, fur Uis nuii'iiMr lukea 
nunc at all." It wsa uIkiuI Ihii peiicid 
that a ei'urt wit wrote un the eliainbcr 

Who BMdB bit bona of bla boaa." 

Eath'tine, believinirthBt Ibechancel- 
ar aairrred prnerutinD chieflj on bi-r 
ennint, eietted all bn- power in liia 
lefaalf, but without effect, and in the 
nd he wu haniahed tbe countrr. Fur 
.pefiod aflrr the Ml of Clarendan, we 
inr no more ot the Queen'a dirorco. 
rhe King, who condpMi'ndcd to dunce 
rilh her nt a maiknl ball at Whitehall, 
m April, 1667, coRlinutd to knd a 
•ofthlna. proflinti' life. "Mr.Pierec," 
ara Prpra. "did trll meMattrfat truth, 
u'brinft I'lld tn him I17 Mr Abrahiim 
'■ihIty, the pn't who wu bT audhcnn) 
t. t)iat Trim KiUiffri-w ahoutd piiblivlj 
I'D the Kin^', (list liii maUvni were 
'Aning inlua irry ill Btate, but that TSt 
hrr.^ WB> a way to help all. SayBhe;— 
ThciT ia a good, hiuuit, aMi' ninn,tliiit 

(vnild name, that if jnur Muji«tv 
totlil i-mnloT, nnil I'nnimand In Hi' all 
hinn well pxr«nt«l, all thingi wiinhl 
••« be mended ; audtliia ia ok Cbarlea 

Lndf Caaitcmainv'a influvncoatill con- 
tinni-d. At a court maiiqiieTade, abe, 
to outihiuo the Qucm, appeared a 
jvwvla, Tiiluiil at furtj' tbouaand 
pounda. Tbe King, about tbia 
. time, " paid thirtif thouannil pnundi to 
vL'ur hei dt'bta," and, to gratify her 
ilj, created brr Uucheaa of L'lere- 

ilh I 

to Cba 

Ueorge FiUroy, her children b; him. 
At fatr earnint entrcitf, he Ti'Ieuaed 
from the Tower, unil took Bgsin into 
riTOUT the luiprincipli'd lluckingbam, 
who anw alrenuniuW adTia<4l him I0 put 
awuj hia Uufmi. wbone rcpnited niia- 
ramngi'* pmnil that ahc wua inenpablo 
iif hearinghim an lieir. Buikini^biim had 
iiffi'redto Bteal liiT tlajraty uwuy, and 
I'mivry lirr to n diiluut ri'gi'in. wlivro 
the would Ihi will iiiroil, iind ni'TiT 
niiiTO htiird of. Charh'a rejected Ilia 
pnjcct with hurrvr. Iiut Lu liaUnedwitk 



nore tttetition to the nijrjifestion tbit he 
•boalJ take anotlicr wife, lie even 
eonsuIt4-d lawyon and di vines ; and Dr. 
Gilbert Burnet, author of tlie '* History 
of the llcformatton/' and other works, 
in two trratist'i, entitk-d ** Sulution of 
the Two Cases of Conseience, one toucliin^ 
Poly^niy, the other Divorce ;** decided 
that, according to Scripture, Imrrenness 
in the woman fumishi-it. in certain cases, 
a lawful cause for polygamy or divorce. 
The promisini^ RtaU> of t)ie Q;if>en, how- 
cvrr, prevt nt»d furtlier proce* -dinars, till 
the hoiK*s of hiT >:ivin<^ an lit ir to Enj;- 
land iiirain proved dehiAive, when 
Cli:irles senou>ly contciiipl:ite<i Ixin^ 
divorcetl troni her ; ami, »» nu ca>e could 
be found in whieli a divorce hud b<*en 
pionouneid, pendin<^ the livi-s of tlie 
pnrtio, whore such parties had l>ern 
pri'vi«ju^ly h g.illy niarried. Huckinpliam 
undcrriiok to matt' a jirerediut. *' l^dy 
Itos**," sav!* tin- learned Dr. IjiijranI, 
**had lt>ii<r livid in adulti*ry ; she liud 
iM'en Si'panitcil from Inr husband by a 
6ent<ii<:e of ilie etclpsiastical ju»l:;e. und 
ht-r children, by Inr paramour, had l)een 
declared ilh-fritimate by act of parlia 
nient. A nioh> favouralde aiKt could 
hardiv be wiithed fur, und a bill was in- 
tnKliind into the upper house to enable 
Lord Itoss to many again. Its object 
instantly transpired, und the royal 
brothers exerti d all tbeir influence, 
the Kiu!^ to support the Duke of York 
to oppose tiie bill. The latter not only 
obtaiu'xl the votes of his frieniU and dc- 
pendenU; but, ns the que^^tiun involved 
a point of doctrine respecting the indis- 
solubilitv of marriage, he was j<uned by 
all the bishops, with the exeeption of 
those of Durham and Chester, by the 
Catliolic peers, und by siieli i»f the Pro- 
teiitant |)eers as dei^med it proper to fol- 
low, on theological grounds, the opinion 
of the prelates, 'fhe second reading 
was curried by onlv a small majority ; 
before the thirQ readin;;, Charles adopted 
a measure to animate his friends, whieh 
surprised both tlie house and the nation. 
One morning he suddenly entered, took 
his 8c:it on the throne, and desired the 
lords to pn>oieii as if he were not 
present, f<»r he came only to renew a 
eastom which his immediate predccet- 

ion had allowed to fall into desuetude^ 
that of attending their debuin. Jamcii 
who saw the motive of his biXfther, wm 
8tiniulat4-d to more active exertions ;aiid 
whtn, on the twentj-eighlh of Hartb. 
1670, the third reading wm rairied 
against him by n majority of two; 
entered his pnttest on the jnnnials,ii 
whieh he was followed br thirteen ipiri- 
tuul and fifteen temporal peers, iiock- 
inghum triumphed, and yet he gain«d 
nothing by the yictorr. ' ile served a 
liekle and unc^Ttain musU r, whoehanpNi 
his resolution aeeonling to the impuUe 
of the moment. C harles hod entertained 
with pleasure the project of divorce, to 
hm;; as its accomplishment appcan-d 
distiint ; but when tiie efibrt was to be 
made, his sense of justice, perhaps his 
goitd nature, assumed the asi-enduttcy, 
and he n-fused to avail himself of 
the bi'nefit, to the pn-judico of an un- 
proteeteil and unoffentling female. The 
pn>cedent, iiowever, has not hem Io4t to 
l)osterity ; and the perminiion to marry 
again, which was, in this instance, 
granted to I^ird Uoss, forms the autho- 
rity for the similar permission, whith 
has sintKi been regularly iosi-rtcd iu bills 
of divorce." 

Whilst these plots were in agitation, 
Katherine surprise<l the world by an 
imitation of the King and his gay crew, 
plunging into all the mad revels 'of IM 
< ourt, attiiiding theatres and masquir- 
ades. and going about in masks and 
other disguiiies in quest of gar foenvs 
and niirtiifiil adventures. In Miv 
1670, she had the pleasure of makiu^ 
the acquaintance of (. harles's sister, 
Henrietta Maria, Duchess of Orleans; 
the interview took plaoe at Dover, 
whither the Duchess had come to ooo- 
cliide the long-pending secret treatv be- 
tween Louis the Fourteenth and Kin; 
('harles. By one of the articles of this 
degrading tit-aty. CharK'S undertook ta 
publicly profess himself a Catholic lad 
by another, he was rendered a pcusioittr 
of France, lie knew that Louis ksJ 
brilHHi the leading personages of tiie 
English Court, and had handsomeif paid 
the more potent of the republican party 
to incite tneir countrymm to ivbcllion, 
and being extrnvngut and iadokatr kf 

Queesr uf charlka tiik vkoijnd. 


prefene-1 reecirin^ from a fivrpign power i 
■applies which lii« own lubjt.'cU would 
hate gnuigiii^y granted, ur pcrliapa 
boldljr refiisod. A few weelu uttvr her 
iftam to Fraiice. the Dncheti of Orleans 
died, and, in the lubecquvnt Xuvc'nihi.*r. 
Ac King wnt for her fu? ouriti', Mudc- 
■inielie Qaeruuaille ; forced the Queen 
ta accept her an one of her maids of 
honour, and loon after mode li«rr one uf 
hii aiatrcsaet. ** I nw that fumdiu 

bcanty, Mndemoiselle Qiierouaille," n- 
■arka kvelyn, "and, in my opinion, she 
ii of a childish, rimple, and baby face." 
She became one of C'hurlcs's most ni- 
padova, eitraTagant ladies, and after 
Bearing him a son, was created DuchuM 
of Portsmouth. Her splendid ap:irt- 
■enta at Whitehall, were furnished witli 
** ten times the glory and nciin* lu of the 
Qafcn'a, with roassiTe services of plate, 
and whole tables and stands of invredi- 
hla faloe." 

On the thirtr-drat of March, 1671, 
tiM Duchess of York died at St James's, 
hating been the mother of ei^ht chil- 
dren, of whom only two iLiugbten 
TCoehed maturity, Mary and Anne, both 
ollenranU Queens of Ktt<;hind. Tiie 

present at lur death, *' but 
iho did not," as Unmet asserts, '*pre- 
fcnt Blandford, her Protestant confe^Kir, 
flnim administering the sucrament to 
lier;** (or the Dake, who was in an ad- 
|i4Biiw apartment, informed him, that 
** aha had embraced the Catholic faith, 
■nd, on that account, he contente*! him- 
mlf with makii^ her a short L'bri«tian 
eshortation." Sir Walter Scott, in hi» 
■otea to Uryden*s works, n-marks, that 
**Katherines greatest fault was, b'.-r 
belief educated a Catholic ; her ^rt-ateit 
miafortnne, bearing the King no chil- 
dren; her gri'atcst foible, an cic'.-MiT<.' 
lore of dancing ;" anuUier of her weak- 
nrmcn, one may add was a lore of frolic, 
which occasionally led her to forget h^r 
dignity, and get into ratlier awkvurd 
■erapet. When her Maji-sty, with the 
King and the Court, was being ma^^ni- 
icently entertained at Audley Kud^ in 
September, 1671, she and the Uucuess^i 
3f Kichmond and Uuc4iu:;ham wvnt 
diigttiaed aa rustita to Satfron Wulden 
fair, in the neigtibowrhood -, but they so 

ori.Tdid tlieir dis^ises, that the real 
rustics,<; them to Ik: a company 
of strolling players, folio wi-d Iheni in a 
crowd. '1 he Queen went into a 1m Nit h 
to purchas'.- a pair of ViUow stocking 
for her s«i'e<-theart ; one of thecuntomt m 
there n-cognisi-d her, and inimediui<;ly 
the whole fair crowded to gaze on her, 
and forced her and her party to ride 
Iwck in diamav to Audlev l.nd. as fist as 

^ » tf 

till I r lion* H would carry them, with a 
host of rude horai-mf n bi-hiud them, all 
ea^^-r *Uo get as much ^pe us thi-y 
roidd.'* Some writers as»ert that, that 
so!><r licvera^e tea, was first brought to 
Kiiu'l'iud by Kathi-rine of Lra;;aiiza; 
ami, although thid miut be an error, an, 
twenty mouths before her arriial in 
England, iVpy^ enttrred in his I'iarv, *' I 
did send for a cup of tea, a <'hina jritik, 
of which I never had druuk befi»n: ; " ^he 
was ct.-rtainly the ttrst tea-driuking 
Queen of hn$;land. She ctimniend:.d 
Its use, and WalUr, in hiscomplimeutary 
poem on her marriage, says : — 

" The bi'Mt I'f Q!ic«nA, and best of herb% w% 
Trt tliat Utlil nation who tli« wmj did nhov, 
Tm titi; far rvt?!*'"' *t>«n; tliK Htm dMih ri^, 
Wh'jt*; rivb ppjJ(icti<«n» ve v^ juiiiy ^ri*«." 

In 1G71, the Queen accompanit^ htr 
hu!iband to Nnwmarket rates; but 
took no part in i\i*: rude, ri'ipiu^ pro- 
ceedinir«, in which he and hid prodigate 
aMociates, men and women, then in- 
dulged. She, it a;ip< ar«, lia«l hut little 
tast-j for tht; jKilit * arta : paiutin;;, M.ulp- 
ture, and aiciiit(.-etiire, owe U'tlhiti'j^ to 
her Qit>.". Illy [utrona;;e ; ari>l. uhtioij;;h 
•■ntniiiooi by thi.- op«.rutic niunic of Jtiiy, 
ihb found no • h:trrn in the riia?chie'»« 
com pfffi tiling of the traii«:<-nd' nt I'ur- 
c<;il or in th«; ^^ul-BUrrifi:r luusi*: in 

In 1673, tiie nr..r Jy^rd (hanevilor, 
Shaft'.-9bury, widp^ui en n coii^iiltiii:; 
the Kiii^. aiii><fiu*.<.-d a day fi^r it to Lw 
movird ill ttie < 'oiirii<ini». — " that for the 
M.-cunty of the • •>'a!iii<):ii.d p h^ion, tUe 
Parliament r'-'i'i-^t h:^ M.ij^-tly 
Ut div<ir:'v Qu>.-«.ii Ka:;i4.riiie, iind wvd a 
Pri>l<.-!>ta!it loiiv^it/' but, b-. lore the 
day arrived, it wm^ named to Charl'-s, 
and he vt piorn|ftiy and forihly u<.:;a- 
tired it, tual Lia profligate miiiistir* did 



Bot molett the Qneen again for about 
flte yean. In 1675, tue Queen was 
alanned by the arriTalof the celebrated 
Hortensia Mancini, Duchcis of Maza- 
lin. She came to EngUnd in conse- 
quence of the intrignea of the Duchcas 
of Portsmouth's enemies, who hoped 
that the revival of the King's passiou for 
his " old love," might destroy the as- 
ocndancy of the reigning favourite. 
Charles gave her a pension of four 
thousand pounds a year, and a residence 
at Chilseu ; but she neglected her game, 
and by engaging in another amour, de- 
feated the object for which she came to 

Katherine was present at the marriage 
of William, Prince of Orange, to the 
Duke of York's eldest daughti-r, Mary, 
at Wliitohall, on the fourth of Novem- 
ber, lf)77; she danced at the bridal hall, 
and tuok ])art in the g(»rgcous festivity 
tliat marked the occuision, but she did 
so witli a heavy heart. For more than 
five years the King had so completely 
withdrawn himself from her company, 
that he ceased to live with her, ana now 
he rarely, if ever, spoke to her, except 
in public. Altout this time, Shaftesbur}*, 
perceiving tlic paternal fondness of 
Charles for his natural son, the Duke of 
Hon mouth, resolved to, at one stroke, 
act him up as a competitor for the 
crown, in opiiusition to the Duke of 
York, and nullity the Queen's marriage. 
He hinted to his Majestv, that if he 
would acknowlid^ he had privately 
married Lucy AVultcrs, the mother of 
Monmouth, witnesses could be procured 
to confirm it with their testimony. But 
Charles, heavy us his failings were, 
biing too proud and honourable to dis- 
own iiis lawful wife, and unjustly de- 
prive his brother of his right of succes- 
sion, by brib«.Ty and perjury, answi-red 
with indignation: — **Much as I love 
the Duke, I would rather see him hangc>d 
at Tyburn, than own him for my legiti- 
mate son •" and, shortly afterwards, he, j 
to punish Shaftesbury for his duplicity 
ana treachery, caused him to be ejectfii 
from the Privy Council — an act which 
so annoyed the haughty minister, that 
ho joined the opposition; and in the 
hope, it it laidy of bringing the Qncen 

and the Dake of Totk to the block, set 
ailoaty or, what acema mora probable, 
Bupported« and, after a period, nigeJ 
forward, the horrible impoatara kaowa 
as the Popish or Jeanita' plot.* This 
plot, forgod by Titna Oataa, Dr. Tooge, 
and a clicmist named Kirbj, waa opened 
by Kirby accoating the King as be was 
walking in St. James's Park, and, in an 
under tone, begging bis Majesty not to 
separate from Uie company, oecause his 
life was in danger. The alarming intel- 
ligence led to an interview in the even- 
ing, when Tonge attended with a writ- 
ten statement, known in history as 
" The Narrative ;" setting forth tha'tthe 
Jesuits in London had orsanixcd a con- 
spiracy to murder the King, destroy 
London by fire, and subvert by force the 
Protestant religion ; and was referred by 
Charles, who put no faith in his im- 

?robablc talc, to the Lord Treasurer. 
)anbv, at this period, suspected ihut 
the Parliament, which waa about to 
meet, would impeach him of high trea- 
son for his ministerial nusdoiaga. 
Nothing would be more likely to avert 
the blow, than the agitation which, 
with management, might be produced by 
this sham popish plot ; besides, he le- 
crctly hatea the Duke of York. The 
Duke had lately embraced the Catholic 
faith, and the measure would, doubtlcsSi 
add to his unpopularity; these, and 
other considerations, induced the crafty 
minister to countenance the conspirators, 
and magnify their improbable state- 

not even before my brother ; it would 
only create alarm, and may, perhaps, 
put the design of murdering me into 
the head of some individual, who, other- 
wise, would never have entertained such 
a thought." Finding hia pretended 
discovery slighted hj the S5ng, and 
distrusting the intentions of the council, 
Oates, to compel public attention to the 
subject, went before Sir EdmondbnxT 
Godfrey, aud made affidavit to the truth A 

* Want of apace oompels nj iu eoaflns soff 
pretended pi 
of Oatea and bis patnms. and 

deUiU of this 

•teoded plot to the atteaapCi 
patnms. and aeemnplitca is 
crime, to fix the charge of fmaw amim 
oa the Quean aad her i 



7uTatiTc,*' and denounced certain 
I 08 conspirntora. One of the de- 
d was Godfrey's friend, Coleman. 
T, in alamif instfintly wrote, 
g him of his diingcr;'and he, 
t a moment's delav, revealed the 
to the Duke of Vork, who, be- 

the plot to be devised ag^ainst 
t, prerailed on the King to insti- 
itrict inquiry as to the truth or 
od of the informer^s statements, 
vaa now called before the council, 
e ft!«urance with which he deli- 
hia lonir, thrill ins: narrative, im- 
nn many of his iK-arera; hut the 
.nd the' Duke of York were more 
Vi*r convinced of the imposition. 
s desin^l Oath's to descnbe Don 
to whom he pretended he had 
itroduced at Madrid ; and, without 
ion, he replied that, **he was a 
pare, and swarthy man." The 
umed to his brothiT, and smiled, 
h knew, from personal acquaint- 
hat I)on John was low of stature, 
mt, nnd fair of complexion. '* And 
" Mid Charles, " did you sec La 
, the French Kind's confessor, jiav 
the ten thouRand pounds whicii 
iTcjiist stited he snbscribi'd, in 
tinoc of the plot?" *'In the 

of the Jesuits, close to the 
»," boldly answered Gates. *• Man 
' ezciaiiued the King, provoked at 
rantery, *Mhe Jesuits have no 
within a mile of the Louvre." 
had now completely committed 
f; but a lucky incident again 
d him to something like credit. 
in*a papers were seized, and 
it them was found a copy of a 
vhich he had sent to Futlirr Jai 
, proposing that I^uis shouhl 
L him with twenty thouMind 
;. to be employed in England, to 
' ftirthrr the interests of France 
the Catholic Church. This letter, 
bsorvid, was no proof of his con- 
i with tile proclaimed popish plot, 
nply an evidi-nce that he was one 
many merctnary agitators of th:it 
, Neverthi-h-ss. f:dse evidence wjw 
d against him ; he wan trki<l, con- 
and on tho tliini of l)ee(-ni))or, 
1 on tho icaffuld. In October, 

whilst the King and Court were absent 
on pleasure, the public excitement waa 
increased, by a report tliat Gotifrey, be* 
fore whom Oates had mailc his nfflciavit, 
had been murdered by the Jesuits. Ue 
had been missing for nvc days ; his body 
was found in a dry ditch, on Primrose 
Uill, resting on the knees, breast, and 
left side of the face, with a sword, said 
to be his own, thrust right through it, 
in the region of the heart, and with a 
deep pnqile crease round the neck. 
Godfrey's death is to tho pn-sent hour 
involvra in mystery ; he was of a mo- 
lancholic dispiisitiim, and, as his father 
committed suicide, some writers bcliefo 
that he perished by his own hands; 
others OS confidently assert that he was 
the victim of the fumeiturs of tho plot ; 
and the people, at the time, insist4>d 
upon it, that the Jesuits had assassi- 
nated him ; and to strengthen this im- 
pression, his funeral was conducted with 
extraonlinary pomp and magnificence. 
The minds of all classes became so in- 
flamed, that the gent-nd business of life 
was interrupted, horrible, but grossly 
absurd rumours were circulated and 
believed; and when the public frenzy 
had reached its height, all was confusion, 
panic, and clamour. 

When the Parliament met, the houses 
neglected all other business, to listeu to 
the narrativi>sof Gates and Tonge. The 
hirelings of the King of France wert 
stirring up all conceivable emotion ; as, 
also, wiTc the emissaries of the Prince of 
Orange, who, with the cry of "No Po- 
pery !" earnestly endeavoured to procure 
tho exclusion of the Duke of York from 
the succession. Dnnby, to avert his 
impeachment, joineil lustilv in the "Ko 
Popery"' cry. ** lie fancied," says James 
the Second, in his Memoirs, '* that by 
crying out against popery, he should fMMi 
for a pillar uf th(> Church, and wanl the 
blow which he fun saw was falling on 
! his shoulders ; but my J^ird Shaltfs- 
' bnry, who soon found out his drift, said, 
I * I^t the Treasurer cry as loutl as he 
ph'aseH against i)opcry, and think to put 
I himself at the ne:ul of the plot; I will 
j cry a note louder, and soon take his 
1 pliue.' " Shaft4*Hbury kept his word, 
j through his influence a parliamentary 



coromittpc was appointi'd to inrrstigate 
the matU-T to the bottom ; when, the 
populur party being greatly in th<( ma- 
joritv, (hitt« was pFonounei'd tbesnTiour 
of hi's countrv, rewarded fur hia infamy 
with a pension of one thousand two 
bond red pounds per year, and encou- 
rag(-d to denounce all the Catholic peers 
who would be likely to oppose the 
condemnation of the Queen and the 
Duke of York. 

Although, bince the pretended popish 
plot wiis fairouglit bif«>rf the public, seTe- 
ral persons had, on tht; unsupported evi- 
dence of Oati-8, l»een si-nt to prison and 
interrogated, no prosecution was int^ti- 
tuted ; bfcuutie, to establish the guilt of 
the accused, the law required the ct>n- 
current testimony o: two witnessi-s. 'J he 
first week in November, this difficulty 
was overcome ; William BeiUoe, a felon 
wlio hajl just been discharged fn>m New- 
gate, in the hop4> of obtaining the reiivard, 
protection, and free pardon offered by 
n»yal prodimation to the discoverer of 
the ajisassinsof Sir Kdmondburv Godlrev, 
c:inie forward, and declareil upon oath, that 
the assassinatitm had Ixen committed at 
Soinersi*; IIousK', where the Uueen lived, 
by 1x5 Fevrc and WaUh, two Jesuits, 
by Uclasysc, a gentleman, and by a waiter 
in the Queen's chapi'l, wlio stifiini tbi ir 
victim Ih tweci. two pillows ; that the 
bo<ly lay for two days tm the Queen*s 
biicic stairs ; that be had been offered two 
thousand guineas to>t in removing it, 
and tliat at last it was carrieti awav on 
Blondiiy niglit bv thne of ilie Queen's 
piMiple. Five tiays after ward:), be de- 
i>osed, *' that in the beginning of Octo- 
ber, he liad hren offered four tliousand 
pounds to commit a murder ; that God- 
fny was inveigled into tiie court of 
Somerset House ul>out tive o*cKK'k, and 
murdered on tlie spiit ;" but he now re- 
coHectrd that the magistrate was not, as 
be liad previously deposed, stitled be- 
twem pUlows— liiat stor)' was contra- 
dicted by the ap{)earance of the corpse 
— but strangled with a linen cravat. He 
pointed out to the I)uku of M«)nmouth ' 
tho room wlnre he asserts d the body was | 
dcpositeii. and stated tliat he saw stand- 
ing round it the four assassins, and At- 
klo^ dcrk to Mr. l*epys of the Admiralty. 

Rut, unfortunately for the plausibility of 
this tale, he had fixed the time of the 
murder at the very hour when the King 
was on a Tisit to her Majesty at Boner* 
set Home ; an hour when such an atro- 
cious act would have been diarurcrcd oo 
the instant by the guards, the sentinels or 
the numerous court attendants ; and the 
place where he stated the body bad btea 
concealed, was the room appropriatid to 
the use of the Queen's footniin. who were 
there in waiting from morning till ni^rht 
Ikdlutf's incredible deposition was disbe- 
lieved by Charles, whopronounad him a 
l^reat rogue; but the excited public hailed 
It as a confirmation of that of Oates ; and 
at last, such waa the effruntery of this 
new impostor, such the tn>a«*he'ry of tbc 
popular leaders, that although on his firrt 
examination he had sworn that he knew 
nothing whatever of Oates or his trumped- 
up plot, he now found it convenient to 
forret that he had ever so stated, and to 
wake all his depositions harmMiiie with 
his brother informer. The eiritenieat 
still nmtinued, and was fomented by the 
baseness or cndulity of the popular 
leaders; the Parliament deprived the 
Catholic peers of their seats ; it was 
nimound, and generally believed, that 
Go<lfrey was murdered Sy the Quera's 
desire ; and Oates at last resolvid to ac- 
cuse the Queen of a design to poison the 
King. To accomplish this daring pur- 
pose, Mrs. Elliot, tne wife of one of the 
gentlemen of the King's bed-chamber, 
waited on his Majesty, and solicited a 
private audience for Oates, who desired 
to impart some important information, 
tending to criminate the Queen. Charks 
beard her with impatii>n<.*e and incre- 
dulity ; and when sbe hinted at a diyuroe, 
toUl her be would ncTer abandon an in- 
noiTRt woman. A dread of being de- 
nouncid as a Catholic, and perhaps de- 
posed by his exeitid subjects, prevented 
CharK-8 from strenuously opposing ths 
])opular deluiiion. Oates, therefore, ob- 
tained the di'sired audience, and wv 
afU rwurdsexauiiucil by Si-cn-tary Coven- 
try, and by the Privy Council, lie stated, 
that in the precetiing July, he saw a 
letter, in which it wa« affirmed by '^'ak^ 
man, her Majesty's Catholic physician, 
that the Queen bad been prevailed ifM 



e nurder of the King ; and 
«ki afterwards, he went with 
ta to SoTnerset UouBe, and 
in the anti-chamber, wliilst 
ave them audience. TLcy 
gar ; he listened, ond heart! 
2 exclaim, *' I will no lonj^r 
Kli^iities to my bed ! I am 
in m procuring his death, 
»pagation of the Catholic 
CD the Jesuits came out, he 
he room, and saw no one 
roman, whom he took to be 
The King, convinced that 
8 a fisbricution, insisted on 
Iff out the room and anti- 
en he had described. The 
iverscd Somerset House 
d through;*' and at lust, 
to fix upon a place, excused 
e plea Unit ** his memory was 
dfoe, undismayed by this 
M coadjutor in crime, came 
witness to support his testi- 
wore that he had witnessed 
tt Somerset House, between 
d two French clergymen, 
ee of Lord Belasyse, Colc- 
ne Jesuits ; and was alter- 
ed by Coleman, that at the 
. of the Kine's murder, 
nt into tears ; out that the 
the French Jesuits had pre- 
er objections, and that she 
tly signified her consent, 
le question, why he had not 
atartlin^ evidence before ? 
that ** It had escaped his 
id the majority in Parlia- 
i, or affected to bo^iere 

; thickened, the memory of 
Dtinucd to improve. He 
Wakeman had agreed with 
>iirt, for a rewanl of fifteen 
nda, five thousand of which 
ed in advance, to pn^paro a 
1, which the Queen was to 
• the King. And on the 
1 of November, immediately 
bad delivered his de|)0(iition 
of Commons, he advanced 
led his voice, and exclaim- 
I Oatcfy aecuse Kathcrine, 
il^iBdy of high treaion !" 

The members not it the secret wero 
amazed and dumbfounded ; and before 
they could recover from their conster- 
n:ition, the House voted an address to the 
Kine for the removal of the Queen and 
her houscliold from Whitehall, and sent 
a message to the Lords, soliciting their 
concurrence; but theLords, instead of im- 
mediately seconding this hasty vote of 
the Commons, examined Oatcs and Ued- 
loc, and, dissatisfied with their evidence, 
refused to brand their Queen as a trai- 
tn>ss, and appointed a committee to state 
the reasons of their refusal Shaftes- 
bury and two others protested against 
this vote ; but the majority had the pru- 
dence and the decency to acquiesce, and 
instead of proceeding with the charge 
against the Queen, prepared an address 
to the Kin^, for the apprehension of all 
Catholics within the kingdom, and, upon 
the unsupported testimonv of the base 
Oates and Bedloe, impeached five of the 
principal Catholic lords. By this time 
so powerful had become the agitating 
faction, that Charles, resolved as he was 
to shield Katherinc from their merciless 
grasp, found it impossible to extend the 
royal protection to their numerous other 
victims. Thirty thousand Catholics were 
mercilessly driven out of London ; every 
day some innocent but unfortunate crea- 
ture was arrested, and afterwards exe- 
cuted in opposition to uUlaw and justice. 
The Queen fully expected to be brought 
to the block, but the King swore that she 
should not be sacrificed; and, to convince 
her enemies that he was in earnest, sent 
for her to live with him at Whitehall, 
and treated her with the most marked 
attention and respect. **He said to 
me," remarks Burnet, " that consider- 
ing liis fuultiness towards her in other 
things, he tliought it a horrible thing 
to abandon her." 

The venal agitators had driven the 
Duke of York from the board of the 
Privy Council, and although foiled in 
tlieir efforts to impeach the Queen of 
treason, they paved the way for another 
attempt, by inducing Bedloe to denounce 
Miles Prance, silversmith to her Ma- 
jesty, as one of the murderers of Sir 
Edmondbarr Godfrey. France was 
homed to Ncwgitei ud then aoQan^ 



threatened, and at loit, under a promiM 
of pardon, induced to confcts oimself 
ftuilly, and name at hit accomplices, Hill, 
Green, and Herry, three of the Queen's 
inferior domestics at Stmicrsct House, 
who were arrested, tried, and, despite 
their earnest protestations of innocence, 
condemned and executed, in February, 
1C78. Pranoe, ttxing with remorse at 
having accused tlirve innocent men of 
murder, desired to be brought before the 
King and council, and on his knees pro- 
tested that his accusation was false, fur 
bo knew nothing of the murder or the 
murderers. Ue was remanded to New- 
gate, chained to the floor in the con- 
demned cell, and driven almost to mad- 
ness by tlie harshness of his keeper, 
Boycc, who assured iiim tlmt be would 
be handed if his statements did not 
agree with lk>dloe*s e\idi>nce, and at lost 
cajoled him into confessing tbu ^* man- 
ner and circumstances of the murder, 
the pretended conspirncy to assassinate 
the Earl of Shaftesbury, and the vih 
practices of several popish pri(?8ts." Ue 
in the end became one of Gates' suborned 

In 1679, the King, to gratify and ap- 
pease the people and the Parliament, 
ordered the Duke of York to withdraw 
to the continent. The Duke complied ; 
but as Shaftesbury had flattered Mon- 
mouth — tlio King's natural son — with 
the hupe of succeeding to the crown, 
and as tlie story (»f a contract of marriage 
passed between Cliarles and Monmontli's 
mother, had been spread abroad and be- 
lieved by the people generally, the King, 
at the request of the Duke and the 
Queen, issued a proclamation, in which 
he solemnly declared that ** he had never 
been married, nor contracted to any wo- 
man whatsoever, but to his wife. Queen 
Katherine." At this period the Queen 
fhlly expected that her enemies would 
succeed iu their efforts to bring her to 
the block ; but, whilst glorying in their 
success, tliey experienced a severe and 
unexpected reverse'. Sir George Wake- 
man, the Queen 8 physician, and Mar- 
shall, Rumby, and Corker, three Jesuits 
who together were indicted on the cham 
of cosspirinff with the Queen to take 
tt« Kmjg'B ]&, mn toqultted, tndOttot 

and Bcdioe, their •ccuien, rcdneed to 
the necessity of defending thcmsclvM 
from the imitation of peijurr. Oi 
this trial, the judj^, the Lord Chief Jus- 
tice Scrogga, who hod hitherto exa^ 
gerated the plot, and browbeat the pn- 
Boncrs, delivered a favouraUc ehaigc to 
the iury, which so irritated Gates and 
Uedloe, that they accused him to his Cms 
of partiality, declared that they woald 
never more give evidence in any court 
in which ho presided, and exhibited 
articles against him before tlu: eoonciL 
In Aug^t, an alarming fever confined 
the King to his bed ; and the popish plot 
agitators affirmed, and the people be- 
lieved, that he had been poisoned. Im- 
mediately the symptoms of his malady 
became alarming, no sent for the Um 
of York from Brussels. The Dnke lost 
not a moment ; but before he reached 
Windsor, the King was convalescent 
In September, the King, Queen, and the 
whole court, made a progress to New- 
market, and in the subs^uent Augoit, 
Katherine's fidse accuser, Bedloe, wv 
stopped in his iniquitous career bv the 
hand of death. He expired at Brutol; 
and just previously sent for the Chief 
Justice North, and before him andsevenl 
others,declareil that all the cridecee which 
ho had given regarding the popish plot 
was true ; but when Xorth was about to re^ 
tire, he called him aside, and immediatelT 
all ^^^ 1^'^ ^^^ room but his wife and 
North's clerk, swore that the Queen had 
g^vcn money for the propagation of the 
Catholic fuith, but wuis as far as he knew, 
ignorant of any plot against the Kin«^i 
life. Katherine was still persecuted or 
her enemies, but all their efforts failed 
to implicate her in the crimes of muxdcr 
and high treason. When Francisco de 
Feria accused the Portuguese ambussador 
of having offered him a rcwaid to mur- 
der Shaftesbury, Gates, and Bedloe, the 
attempt to make a case a^inst her Ma- 
jesty signally failed ; which so annoyed 
Shaftesbury, that in November, on the 
bill for the exclusion of the Dnke of 
York, being thrown out by the Lwdi^ 
he proposed what he described as ** the 
sole remaining chance fiir the security 
of libertT and reUgion ;" a bHl nf diTOCH^ 
whieh, vf leptnitiiig tiha Kkf fam 



;ht fDablo liim to marry 
pnnceM. and leaTO the 
itimatc issue. The Earls 
Salisbury, and the Lord 
Tick, warmly supported 
lut the King renised to 

innocent consort, as a 
lerous fiiction ; and by 
^ the votes of the peers 
ssure so intimidated its 
t it was abandoned, and 
light forward. 
itDcased, from a private 
inster Hall, the trial of 
The unfortunate lord 
booted at by the rabble, 
■OM injustice and indig- 
irt, accused by Oates and 

one of the popish plot 
id, alUtongh tnc evidence 

was gross and ground- 
Ity, condemned, and on 
th of December, 1680, 
Tower II ill. Karly in 
Uition of Katherine was 

fu\ev accusation of a new 
ic ]Htpish plot scheme. 
msit'Uer of the Duchess 
i, and a tool of the 
tion, came forward, and 

the Duke of York and 
>f high crimes and mis- 
barged the Queen with 
iion the King. Charlies, 
daring of the patrons of 
ed to thwart their pur- 
sammoned Purliument to 
1, on the twenty-first of 
bis consort left Windsor 
th, and were escorted to 
niug by a troop <»f liorse- 
th ull conceivable pomp, 
he journey they were 
yful acrhinintioiis, and on 
lui hell:i ruii^, bontiri-s 
Ht\Ac huilfd them with 
sm, and the Univcrsitv 
ition welcomed them with 
juets, Irnlls, and rejoic- 
ng had cntcn-d Uxturd 

when Shaft^sburv, at the 
)pular party, arnved, in 
>nce, tbemsi'lvL'S, armed 
by a powerful force of 
•ring romid their bats a 

ribbon, with the inscription—*^ No po- 

Ery, no slavery." Charles opened tbe 
irliament in person ; but as the 
Whigs,* the name by which the po- 
pular party was now known, were bt-nt 
upon using Fitzliarris and his false- 
hoods, to keep alive the popular excite- 
ment, and, if possible, to eifect the de- 
struction of the Queen and the Duke of 
York, the King resolved upon the bold 
step of dissolving the Parliament, after 
it bad set but six days. The majority 
in the Commons believing that the ses- 
sions would be long, and victor}' certain, 
resolved, in opposition to the known 
desire of his Majesty, that Fitzliarris, 
instead of being tried for high treason 
in the Court of King's liench, should be 
impeached, that they mieht draw from 
him certain statements which they could 
use a^nst the Queen, the Duke, or 
those immediately connected with them. 
They sent a message, to this effV^ct, to the 
Ix>ras, and were answered, " that their 
Lordships bad resolved that Fitxharris 
should be proceeded with according to 
the course of common law, and not by 
way of impeachment in Parliament. 
The Commons, in retaliation, voted this 
resolution of the Lords *' an obstruction 
to the further discovery of the popish 
plot," and ordered that bills shoulu be 
immediately brought in for the further 
exclusion of papists. This order waa 
vot(Ki on the Saturday ; and on the sub- 
seouent Monday, Charles hastened in a 
sedan chair, followed by a scctrnd chair, 
carrring the royal robes to the House of 
I^rils. He entered, unattended, took 
his seat upon the throne, and having 
caused the Commons to be summoned 
into his presi-nee, told them that ** pro- 
ceedings which had began with violent 
dissensions between the two houses, 
could not end in good ;*' and immedi- 
ately, the Chancellor, by his command, 
declared the Parliament dissolved. As 
tlie King had kept his intentions a pro- 
found secret, they wire struck dumb 
with surprise ; ana before they had tima 
to rally, Charles and Kathenno entered 

* It VM About this period tLst the app«l- 
Utionof Whif? and Tory becain«t permaiMntljr 
•fflxed to th« two great politleal partteL 
which for a century aad a-balf 1m4 divMa4 

ij-ra-.-i :ii ia.n: 

•^ MMIf M k« NMNti K dc- ' (f Iniad. n«at^ mUmJ At lit 
..Jll ■- - J '-^ - " •'■ •« l»iMp.ih 


HE decaj of the po- 
piih plot Mhema en- 
cauragcd the Court 
pirtjr ■- - ■ ■ - 

uied him ofbrn-iai; 
nlonrd ihcm lo (tito fulic tc-iimonv 
Maiiul <h* Qurm, the Iiuke uf Yoili. 
toe Iiord Liptttcnant, and the I^nl 
Cbanrrlliir of Iriliud. lie wta oim- 
■dtlcd, ud, on hit rood to tiie Tnwi'r. 
hooted bj the umc rabble that had 
bdWc uuili-d hia Ticiinu on thiir wav 
to tritl *iid 

fdli. Howcier. the imiDd jurr I'm^rrd 
Ibe bin igiuDsl him : but the puMirali-iH 
of hii fpfn (liorllj altfrirarai, i-xpawd 
hiibaeiDt«ntioDj,'una>li'|iriT<^ him fur 
tlrr of ill iiiflutni'e and papnlaritc 

Is lflS2. the (luccn. «hu«e in'mme 
nm the death of Charlei'i mother. 
Harirtta Maria. amnUDlcd to abrnil 
Utj thouuud pouDdi per ytar. irj^ 
licatlj (traitennl in purw. on Bi<e»ant 
•f her moniii not hating btrs JulTpaiJ 
t» her, H Ibef fcU due. br (he goivta- \ 
■(■t Bbe CDuidcrtd her irL-aaiircT ' 
it fault in the 

lioDgh l<nid>r fimt alund Die martial ran 
'li gnalcr glory to reform [ha «g»." 
UuFortunatctr, cicellent as tui the 
-lample aet hj Kathcrine. it waii <l'>c.>id 
of thr power tu " chaic Tiee awaj" from 
■' " entioni Court, ar to refunn tlie 
-„- - glorj ertonrously attribulcd lo 
it by the hif>h-mind«l poet. CharhiS, 
I it it true, liad paid grvnt attention to 
! Ilia miiport BiniN; the thafli of theTopiah 
, Flat ini|iMlor fauil been leTelU-d apitatt 
jhct; but, alatl for humanilf ! bu itiU 
contitiui d to j^iifv hit partiulitj for hit 
mitlni'i.s. Willi whom lie openlT toji^d 
I and flitlt-d, in public v well aj in pH- 
■ vale. The King't eundnct »ai ijnifated 
' by hit olitequious couctien, and in tlia 
end, (tetpite the wortbv ixamplc- of the 
; dtapintil Q'litu. Tirtue wat opcnlT rc- 

Sniaeliud ut Court ua a thing to be 
with the Mtal-Ttib nldt, the Rje- 
JIouM' plot, auil the varioui othfr c<iu- 
triirifiefc tbam and Tfai, tet nfloit ;it 
lliii tra nf popular eicitmient and de- 
luiipin. we hare nothing to do, not on-: 
■if ibem Iking directed a^nimt, nor in 
anj w iv aiipporlrtl by KatheHne. The 
Bte-IIau«« eooapiraton intended to 
mard-r the Kin^ »ail the Duke of York 
jt thcT rrlurn...! fr..m Si^wmarkt-t ; but 
an accidental Sre at llie King) maniion 
theiis forred the roial brothtra to coma 
to London two tlijt before the ap- 
pniQted time, and tbm they eacaped th« 
tbreairntd danger. It wot fnr ibia eon- 
-pinoy ihat Lord William Smk-U and 
AiL-rnrin Sidney wtre behoded; th« 
.■■I rn-r »B [he l-entj-flnl of Julr, the 
LiiN-r ,.t, [he iceath of I>tceinber,'lES3. 
.tmibU Eruat otcnrted, 
' , ltS3, and on- 
_j. ISSt. with tiieh 

ly. that the foreit trrra, 

in Eniftuid, wi;r» split 
elwHi't w*f- kilfd, 



and fro, of in the streets ; slides, slidine 
with skates, a buIl-Uating, horse and 
€oach races, puppet plays and interludes, 
cooks tipling, and other lewd places, 
that it seems to be a Bacchanalian tri- 
umph or carnival on the water. [This 
carnival, or fair, was visited by the Xing 
and Queen, when a whole bullock wus 
roasted on the ice.] London, by reason 
of the excessive coldness of the air 
hindering the ascent of the smoke, wus 
■o filled with fuliginous steam of the 
sea-coal, that hardly could one sec 
across the streets, and this filling the 
lungs with its gross particles, eicecd- 
ingiy obstructed the breast." 

In the subsequent November, Kathc- 
rine's birth -day was commemorated with 
unusual magnificence, lionfires blazed, 
the bells rung, the tower-guns boomed, 
and brilliant fireworks, and sham ac- 
quatic fights and 8kirmishe«, enlivened 
the bosom and bunks of the 'i'humcs. It 
was a holiday for all liOndon, and the 
rejoicings at Court closed with a grand 
ball at Whitehall. The display of fire- 
works cost one thousand five hundred 
pounds ; they far surpassed any previous 
attempt of the kind. '* The Court," re- 
marks Evelyn, *^ had not been so brave 
and richly apparelled since his Majesty's 
restoration. But the reign and life 
of Charles were now fust ha:>tening to a 
close. With the coming of tlie now 
year, his health visibly declined ; still ho 
could not find resolution to relinquish 
his evil wavs, or his licentious com- 
panions. Tfie evening of February the 
first, the Inst Sahbatli h(! lived to look 
up(m, he spent with his dissolute asso- 
ciates, in a manner most unrighteous 
and unworthy of a Christian King. The 
courtiers were gambling, with a bank of 
two thousand pounds before them. 
Charles wus sitting, at tlie same table, 
in open dalliance with his lemans, the 
Duchesses of Portsmouth, Mazarine, and 
Cleveland; whilst a French youth 
amused them by singing love songs. 
From this scene of profanity and disso- 
luteness, the King proceeded to the 
apartments of the Duchess of Ports- 
mouth, where, being too unwell to par- 
take of a substantial supper, he ate two 
er three spoonfuls of soup. After pass- 

ing a feverish and rettleM night ba 
rose at an early hour. To hit attendiali 
he appeared to be labouring under an 
affection of the brain ; he waa drowsr 
and absent, his gait was unsteady, and 
his si)eech embarrassed. About eight, si 
he walked across his chamber, £e was 
seized with a strong fit of apopk'iy ; 
Lord Aylesbury caught him as he fell, 
and Dr. King, a physician, who hsd 
practised as a surgeon, bein«^ in an ad- 
joining room, hastened to his assistance, 
and instantly opened a vein, llie Uood 
flowed freely, and stimulating remidies 
being applied, the royal patient in aboot 
two hours recovered his faculties. He 
suffered a relapse in the evening, pasKd 
a bad night, but so improved m the 
course of the next day, that hopes wen 
cherished of his recovery. But in twenty- 
four hours the King's strength was ex- 
hausted. Medicine was administi-red 
without effect, and on the fourth evening 
it became evident that his dissolution 
was at hand. With all his faults, 
Charles was deeply beloved by his sub- 
jc-ctd. ** The announcement of his ma- 
lady spread a gloom over the metropolis; 
the report of his convalescence, the next 
day, was received by the citizens with 
expressions of joy, by the ringing of 
bells and numerous bonfires. When, st 
last, the danger became maniflst, 
crowds hastencu to the churches to so- 
licit from heaven the health of their 
sovereign, and we arc told, tliat re- 
peatedly the service was intemipt^-tl by 
the sighs and sobs of the congn-gation. 
In the two royal chapels the minister! 
succeeded each other in rotation, and 
the pravers were continued every two 
hours till his death." 

The Kin^, on recovering his speech, 
after the trst attack, asked tor the 
Queen, and found she was by his hitie. 
Instantly, on hearing of his illness, she 
had rushed to his presence, and the Ihike 
of York had preceded, and the I>uchesi 
of York soon followed her Majtsty. 
Kutherine remained speechless fur some 
time, but, after awhile, she called the 
Duchess of York aside, and said to hc-r :^ 
** Sister, I beseech you to tell the Dokib 
who knows the King's sentiments with 
regard to the Catholic religicm m well u 



I dop to mdmwouT to take adYanUi^ of 
■ooM coodmomenU.*' Shortljrafterwardi, 
the ngbt of her husband*! lafferings 
threw her into fits, and she was carried 
oat of the room. The Dnchess of York 
took the earliest opportunity to import 
the Qaecn*s desires to the Duko, her 
husband, who answered, " I know it, and 
think of nothin}^ else/' Interest as well 
as alfection, caused the Duke to remsin a 
conslant attendant on his death-stricken 
brother. The Archbishop of Canter- 
burj, and the Bishops of London, Dur- 
ham, ¥Ay, Bath and WelU, were also 
present, and in turn watched during 
the nirbt in the King's chamber. On 
Thundajr morning the holy Ki-nn, 
Bishop of Bath and Wells, seised a 
brourable moment to warn the rojal 
Bofferer of his danger, and implore him 
to prepare fur death. Charles received 
the announcement with resignation, and 
the Bishop proceeded to rend the oflScc 
appointed for the sick and dying. On 
eoming to the rubric, respecting confes- 
sion, he paused, and asked his Majesty 
'^ if he repented of his sins ? " The King 
awwcffed in the affirmatire; and the 
pfekto haTing pronounced the absolu- 
tioii, from the serrice for the sick, in- 
qoifed if he might proceed to the admi- 
nistration of the sacrament? Charles 
Hade no reply. Kenn repeated the 
qneatiott in a louder Toicc, and the rc- 
netant Monarch rejoined in a faint 
tone, *' There will be time enough for 
that yet" The elements were, howeyer, 
brongbt and pbced on a table; but 
vhen the question was again put to the 
dying man, he readied : — ** I will think 
of iL" 

Meanwhile, BariUion, the French 
amba s sa do r, at the instance of the 
Dnehcas of Portsmouth, took the Duke 
of York aside, and reminded him of his 
Uiother^s secret perfcrcnce of the Ca- 
tholic worship. The Duke, howeyer, 
seaicely knew how to act. By law, it 
1^ treason to reconcile any one to the 
ehureh of Rome, and he indulged a 
hope, that Charles would free him from 
nqxittsibility, by openly declaring the 
Hate of his mind. But being disap- 
pointed, he in the evening requested the 
ly to witkdnw inai tM * ^ '^ 

and kneeling down, whispered in the 
King's ear, '' Shall I send tor a CathoUe 
priest?" *'For God's sake do!" re- 
pUcd Charles ; '' but," added he, '* will 
it not expose you to danger ?" ** I care 
not for danger," replied the afflicted 
brother, who, after sending in search of 
a priest, turned to the company in the 
sick chamber, and said aloud, *' Tne King 
requires all present to quit the afiart- 
ment, except the Earls of Bath and 
Feycrsham." Shortly afterwards, Father 
Hudleston — him who, in 1651, had saved 
the King by concealing him— disguised 
in the costume of a Church of England 
clergyman, was led in secret through 
the Qui'cn's apartments, and introduced 
through a private dour into his Ma- 
jesty's bed-chamber. The Duke of 
York introduced him to the King with 
these words: **Sir, this worthy man. 
once saved your life; he now conies to 
save your soul." The priest went on 
his knees by the bed-side, and Charles 
having welcomed him, told him that 
** he desired to die in the faith and com- 
munion uf the holy Roman Catholic 
church :" made his confession, and de- 
clared that he was in charity with all 
the world ; that with all his heart ho 
pardoned his enemies, and desired par- 
don of all thoso whom he had in any 
wise offended; and that if it pleased 
God to spare him longer life, he would 
amend it, detesting all sin. "I then," 
sa}'8 HudU-ston, ** desired him to say with 
mc this little act of contrition : — 

** * Oh ! my Lord God, with my whole 
heart and soul I detest all the sins of my 
life past, for the love of Thee, whom 1 love 
above all things ; and I firmly purpose 
by thy Iloly Grace never to offend 'ihee 
more. Amen ! sweet Jesus, amen ! Into 
Thy hands, sweet Jesus, I commend my 
soul. Mercy, sweet Jesus, mercy !' " 

Hudleston then anointed him, admi- 
nistered tho eucharist, and withdrew. 
The excitement caused the King to rally ; 
but, an hour afterwards, he became 
worse, and the physicians declared that 
he could not live another twentv-four 
hours. During the night his sufferings 
were severe, but he bore them with for- 
titude and resignation. *^He often," 
remariBi a eontomporarj, " in eztremit| 



of pain, would waj he snffered, bat he 
thanked God that ne did so, and that he 
■affered patiently. He erery now and 
then wonld aeem to wish for death, 
•nd beg the pardon of the standcrs-by 
md thoae that were employed about 
him, that he gure them so much trouble, 
aayinjT he was wc-arr of tliis world, that 
he had had enough of it, and he was 

S)ing to a bett4T." The sorclv sick 
uc-cn, W'ing strictly forbidden W her 
physicians and her friends, from being 
carried into her husband's chamber till the 
Tiolencc of her grief had subsided, b? a 
messenger excusiKi her absence, and im- 
plored the dying Monarch to pardon her 
oiTences. " Alas ! poor woman," he said, 
with a faint Toice, ** she beg my pardon ! 
— I beg hers, with all my neairt ;— take 
back to her that answer/' ' About two in 
the morning, he cast his eyes upon the 
Duke, who was kneeling by his bedside, 
kissing his hand, and tbanked him for 
having always been the best of brothers 
and friends ; begged his pardon for the 
trouble which he had ^vcn him from 
time to time, and told him now he freely 
left him all, and begged of God to bless 
him with a proBi>erou8 reign. He 
nerer mentioned the name of the Duke 
of Monmouth ; but sending for his other 
ill<'gitimate sons, he recommended them 
to tiic care of James, and drawing each 
to him, one by one, on the bed, gare 
them a father's blessing. The bishops, 
moYcd by this sight, urged him as tnc 
Lord's anointed, and the father of his 
country, to bless all present in the name 
of the whole body of his subjects ; every 
one in the chamber instantlv went down 
on his knees, and Charles, bein^ raised 
up, pronounced a solemn blessmg oTer 
them. lie then entreated the Duke of 
York not to let *'poor Nelly Gwvc 
starve," and for his sake to protei't the 
Duchesses of Portsmouth and Cleveland. 
Afterwards he endeavoured to repose, 
but his next slumber was to be the sleep 
of death. Shortly after six in the morn- 
ing, he com plained of an acute pain in 
the right siue, accompanied with a diffi- 
culty of breatliing; us a remedv, eight 
ounces of blood were taken from his arm ; 
the relief was but temporary : he con- 
tinued to sink, hii speech fiuled atei^ht 

o'clock, hit conaeioiinica at a quarter 
post ten, and he admlT expired about 
noon, on the sixth of February, 1685, in 
the fifty-fourth year of his age On the 
fourteenth of Febmary be was intemd, 
at midnight, in Westminster Abbf-y; 
and as he had embraced the proarrihrd 
Catholic faith, his funeral was performi-d 
with but little pomp or parade.* 

Charles, great as were his failings or 
vices as a sovereign and a roan, was sia- 
cercly bi'loved by his subjecta. Durinjr 
his reign, Chelsea College, the Observa- 
tory at Greenwich, and the Boyal So- 
ciety were founded, trade and commerce 
flourished, the arts improved, and the 
wealth and the comforts of the people 
greatly increased, lie left no i«sne by 
his Queen ; and of his numerous illegiti- 
mate children, he acknowledged Jani«% 
Duke of Monmouth, by Loey Walters ; 
Charlotte, Countess uf Tannouth, by 
I^dy Shannon ; Charles, Duke of South- 
ampton; Henry, Duke of Grafton; 
George, Duke ' of Northumberland ; 
Charlotte, Countess of Litchfield, by the 
Duchess of Cleveland ; Charles, Duke of 
St. Alban's, by Xell Gwyn; Chari«, 
Duke of Richmond, by the Doche« of 
Portsmouth; and Ma'ry, Countess of 
Derwent water, by Mary Davies. 

Katherine of Braganza deeply roounod 
the loss of her beloved husband. For 
several weeks after his death, she con- 
fined herself to a chamber of mourning, 
where the daylight was shut out and 
tapers kept burning, and where the floor, 
the walls, the ceiling, the bed she re- 
clined on, and, in fact, eyery thing the 
eye could rest upon, was black. James 
the Second treated her with kindness, 
and permitted her to remain at White- 
hall till the second week in April, when 
she removed to her own palace, Somer- 
set House, where she resided with the 
splendour and dignity becoming a Queen 
Dowager of England. 

To the equaUy unworthy and unfor- 
tunate Duke of Monmouth, Katherine 
bihayed with a kindness which he little 
deserved, but which did credit to her 

* It msj be obserred. that Bomst's se- 
count of the death of Charles coataias ss 
many mis«UtemenU. that it cannot he vsUsd 
on. In the above narrative, his •mwa sad 
falsehoods aia oanAilly sToMiid 


hcut At the time of the Popish Plot, hall, to rerify bis birth ; when ealled, 
he had united with those who thirsted she said, <*Tau King sent for me to tho 
lor her life ; he had repeatedly cndea- Queen's labour ; I came as soon as I 
Toured to invalidate her marrioffe with could, and never left her till she was de- 
Cbarlea the Second ; yet when lie was livcred of the Prince of Wales.'* Tho 
apprehended for the part he had taken Kine deemed her evidence of great 
in the Rye-IIouse plot, she successfully weight ; and by all reasonable persons, 
solicited his father to forgive him ; in who were not swayed by party consi- 
&et, he never got into trouble but she derations, it was viewed as a refutation 
•tood his friend. Iler lost efforts on his of the widelv-spread calumnies cast on 
behalf were, however, unsuccessful : after the royal infant's birth. 
he WM condemned to death in 1685, he Kathcrine took no part in the excito- 
wrote and implored lier to intercede for ment occasioned by the landing of the 
him with his uncle, James the Second. Prince of Grange ; but when King 
She 'did so with great earnestness, and James, after ]:is nrst flight, returned to 
the King ^nted him an interview, but London, he, before proceeding to White- 
sot a repneve. Subioincd is a copy of hall, called ac Somerset House, had an 
Honmoath'slettertoheron this occasion: interview with her, and learned from 
-Pwm Ringwtwd, the 9th of July, 168S. }»<*^ ^^P« ^^^ fate of her Lord Chamber- 
•* Madasc— Being in this unfortunate ***°' /T^'5'^"l "^^^ had been unjusUy 
condition, and having none left but your ?,"^^^ ^^ ^''^^ ^ Jjj® Tower by the 
Majesty that I think may have wme J,"?"^ t °^ ^"^^^ T*^«^«»?« e^«°i°^ 
rompassion of me, and that for the last ^*'' ^ I?^*.''?u'!^ ^ Rochester, De- 
King's take, makes me take this boldness ^^T ^^'""^i^^b ^^® Prmce of Orange 
to beg of you to intercede for me. I ^*®^ "P*^'^ Kathcnne, and finding her 
would not desi 
if I were not 
heart convinced 

eeived in it, and how angry God Al- a«»'ou« to intercede tor 1-eversham re- 

mighty U with me for it; hut I hope, pl»«l. ** «eca»i8o my Lord Chamberlain, 

M^4, your intercession will give mc ll^i?. *^'?y' ^^P^ '^'1 ^^' " ahmmU" 

life to repent of it. and to slTow the "Then he shall not be absent longer" 

w!__ i.-_*^ — 11 J x__ , T .„ rejoined the Pnncc ; and that tiamc night 

After the 

aw.^1 ft *!. J *u f 1. V ^" number; and William the Third, 

Shortly after the death of her be- when about to procc<-d to Ireland, sent 

loved hiuband, Kathcnne requested of Lord Xottini^ham to inform her, that >is 

her bruther, Don Pedro, permission to intelligence had reached liim of great 

return to Portugal, and end her days meetings against the government being 

Uiere. The request was cheerfully held at her residence of Somerset Housed 

granted, hut she delayed her departure, he wished her to remove to Windsor or 

m the hope of obtaining tlie thirty-six Audley End. This and many other in- 

thouand pounds which sho churned dignities endured by Kathenne at this 

ftjom the crown for arrears of income, period, emanaUHifrom Queen Mary, who 

She w«a present when the Queen of bitterly hated the Queen Dowager, and 

James the Second gave birth to an heir sulyecu-d her to such restraints and es- 

to the throne, stood godmother to the pionagc, that in 1691, she gave formal 

royal babe, and afterwards, by the King's notice to the government of her intcn- 

denre.BtU-nded, with other noble person- tion to quit iSighind for ever. But at 

■gc^tefoio tho PrifjCoiiiieilt at White- that instant not a ship eoold Im c^iaral 



to conTej her oTer KBs : ererrTGnelwas 
lequired to oppose the French fleet, then 
borering ofl^ Tlymouth ; and it was not 
tin the Uiirtieth of March, 1692, that she 
iras enabled to commence her long-de- 
lired journey. Ilaving granted pensions 
to the members of her householo, which 
■he punctually paid to the hour of her 
death, she, with a small retinue of £n- 
giish ladies of rank, crossed the channel, 
traTcUed through France and Spain, 
and on the twentieth of January, 1693, 
entered Lisbon, amidst the acclamations 
of the people and the rejoicings of the 
eourt Don Pedro met her in the street 
of Lumar, erected her affectionately, and 
conducted her to the Quinta dc Alcan- 
tara, a royal suburban mansion assigned 
to her use, where she made the acquaint- 
ance and won t)ic undying friendship 
and affL>ction of his Queen, Donna Maria 
Sophia. After a time, she, to improTC 
her declining health, rcmoYed first to 
the pulitct> of the Conde de Redonda, and 
then to that of the Conde de ATeiras, at 
Belcm. For the same reason she made 
a progress to the place of her birth in 
the spring of 1699; throughout this 
journey the nobles and the people, mind- 
ful that her alliance with Lharles the 
Second had secured to them their inde- 
pendence as a nation, treated her with 
all conceivable respect and honour, and, 
indeed, even the loyal in Kngland still 
rcTered her mtmor}'. In 1700, Pepys, 
writing to his nephew, who was then 
travelling in Portugal, says, ** If this 
reaches you at Lisbon, I give you in 
charge to wait upon my Lady Tuke, one 
of the ladies attending my once royal 
mistress, our Queen Dowagrr ; nor if she 
offer you the honour of kissing the 
Queen's hand, would I have you to omit 
the presenting her Majesty in most hum- 
ble manner with my profoundest duty, as 
becomes a most faithful subject." 

When the unfortunate James the Se- 
cond died, Katherine, as a tribute to his 
nemory, ordered Somerset House, which 
shu still retiiued, to be hung in black, 
and lier servants there to wear mourn- 
ing for a twelvemonth. While on her 
journey to Portugal, the Queen Dowager 
Bad been laid up for some time with the 
mjmpdm, and in the spring of 1704 

she tnffered from am alarming attack of 
the same disease. She, howcTcr, xtco- 
rered ; and, weak and deficient of re^il 
talents as most of her English subjects 
had considered her, the men of her own 
country so highly eateemed her wisdom 
and powers to gorem, that when ill- 
health forced Don Pedro to retire to 
Beira for change of air, he plact-d the 
reins of government in her hands ; and 
such was the success and popularity of 
her rule, that in 1705, when Donl^e- 
dro's illness became alarming, she was 
solemnly constituted Queen Regnaat 
She, however, did not lire long to eajoy 
her successes as a reigning sovereign'. 
A violent and unexpectod attack of cho- 
lic put a period to her existence on the 
thirty-first of December, 1705, and in 
the sixty-eiehth year of her age. The 
King, her brother, on hearing of h«r 
illness, hastened to her presence, and 
summoned a council of state in the pa- 
lace of Bemposta, where she then lay ; 
but before the necessary measures for 
his resumption of the regal prerogatives 
were complcUd, she had breathed her 
last. She was interred in the monastery 
of Helem with the most imposing funeral 
rites : Don Pedro was too unwell to at- 
tend, but the whole of his court and all 
his retinue followed ; for eight days pnb> 
lie business and amusementi were sat> 
pended, and the ministers and their 
families, and the court and their attend- 
ants, wore deep mourning for a year; in 
fact, all Portugal mourned her death ai 
a national calamity. She was pravcd 
for as Queen Dowager in the churchei 
in England in the reigns of James the 
Second, William and Marr, and Anae. 
By her will, dated the /ourteenth of 
FebruaiTf 1699, she appointed her tried 
and faithful old Lord Chamberlain, the 
Earl of Chesterfield, her principd ex- 
ecutor, but ill health caused him to de- 
cline the office ; she instituted Don Pb- 
dro her heir, and as she died extremely 
rich, left bountiful legacies to all her re- 
lations and friends, munificent bequests 
to several Portugucee monaateries and 
convents, founded a Jesuit college for 
the education of missionaries for India, 
and ordered large soma to ba dirtribnicd 
in alma to the poor. 


(&iitrn af Smites i^t &nu^, 


Mtrim Btmtrix — Birllt — Ftavttas^—BiiuatiiM—Dtmandid n Mmriagt ly Jtmtu 
DtJu •/ Ttrk—YitUU aith rtbietana—E^matd by proxy— Tin M^riaft tp- 
ftfd If tht Fmrtiamtut and Ike It<^)lt—Jmrtay to EHsUmd—Stttivti if flu 
Dakt «/ Tfrk mi Bttfr—Marritd to Aim in pertm—Fnacdt U> LmAm—Kindtf 
numd hy Sbt Chmrla ikt Stnnd—Saidma at St. Jamt^i—FkrteniM igtJu 
ftfuUr parig—JiKet t*ktt ker en a progna— WitHtutt Hu math lupt ((f 
MattritlU—Bink, tkruttninf, md dtath of hrrjint ekild—Maiijntd by Lu^aaty 
tk» mfinmer^lHtoiulaiity of ktr biabaad—In/vrti ktr rtpulationand eftndt tka 
<^mm bf rmliKj tin Dutht—a of Maviria ami ef I'ortiiHoalb—Btrth and itatk 
^Im- MUnm jMttOa amd Cierla. 

rf:pf^.^'yfy:,'z HAT 

fartnne and hutow, 
Uuia Beiirii, con- 
•ort of the ill- darred 
■ (be SecoDd, 
I the lut of the Sla- 
I act kin^ wu born 
at Iha docil pilace 
a the d^ of Uodeiu, on tlie firib of 
Octobs. ItiO. Her fuher, Alphonwi 
dTbU, D^« of Klodena. wu > joirtjr 
la Ike pwl, of wLich be died ifter i 
■hart bat ptuniiing rei^ of four vein. 
Oa hw demiie be left la hu duclieu, 
I^Bm MaftuMnii. the rrgencs^ of Mo- 
deaa a>d the gnuiliinihip of iheir off- 
^riom FnDci* the Secoad, hit lue- 
ttatar, aad Uaria Butrii, known 
aho M Uuj Beatrice, the (ubject of 
the pCMDt memoir. The Duchni of 
Modeoa henelf laperiii tended the cda- 
ealioa ol the orphu ton and daughter, 
••d akhougb a food parent, treated 

1 eat ( 

leiti ; one da^ imullr boicd her can, 
becauie in repeating the Benedicite ib* 
hid forgolren one of the venei ; utd 
another lime, when ihe wai fright- 
ened at the iweepi who bad come to 
cleinie the chimnej of her naner;, 

her (bat her fears were groundlei*, 
earned the men of Mot lo draw near 
ind ipcak lo her. which, ai (he itaied 
in afier-life, neirlf leniGcd her inio liti. 
To finiih her education, iht wai tent to 
a eon*ent of Cinnellle nuni ; and the 
life ihe led there, lo imbued her mind 
with ipiritual romance, that the waa 
preparing to take the veil, when, (o her 
diacoinliture, Jamei, Duke of loril, 
afterward* Jama the Second, lued and 
oblainedberreluclintliind in marriage. 
Tbui wrapped in tlienifatidimaoflhc 
tjithfflii* ftitbf and dreaouoa of wxulit 



but teili tnd rotiriet, we letre the &ir 
joung redute, to gltnce at the romantic 
drcumstancet which led to her mar- 
riage. In 1660, James, then Dake of 
York, married Anne Hyde : the match 
brought him little happiness and much 
troable ; it inTolved him in the unpo- 
pularity of her father, the Chancellor 
Clarendon, and entailed upon him the 
hatred and opposition of Buckingham, 
Shaftesbury, and their party, who, to 
prerent the possibility of his avenging 
on them the injuries they had inflicted 
on his father-in-law, were unceasing in 
their efforts to deprive him of his right 
of succession. All his children by Anne 
Hyde died in their youth, saving the 
two daughters, whose unnatural con- 
duct so embittered his declining years ; 
and in 1671 Anne herself breathed her 
last. To fill her place, he set his heart 
upon Susanna Arroine, widow of Sir 
Henry BeUasis. But as this lady was 
a Catholic, and far beneath him in rank, 
and moreover as he himself had just 
previously damaged hiii reputation in 
England by embracing the Catholic 
fiuth, his brother. King Charles the Se- 
cond forbade the match, and induced 
him to solicit the hand of the Arch- 
duchess of Inspruck, a princess who, 
singular to relate, was also a Catholic. 
This suit was accepted, the marriage 
treaty concluded, and in 1673, his warm 
friend, the Earl of Peterborough, set 
out for Vienna to marry the Arch- 
duchess by proxy. Peterborough, how- 
ever, was arrested on his journey by the 
provoking news that the Archduchess 
had changed her mind, and was about 
to become the bride of the Emperor 
Leopold the First. He wrote to James, 
who in reply commissioned him to 
choose a wife fur him elsewhere, and 
directed his especial attention to Maria 
Beatrix, of Modena; Mary Anne of Wir- 
temburg; thcDuchessof Guise, a widow; 
and Mademoiselle de Rais. The two 
latter ladies he saw at Paris, and dis- 
missed at once ; the one being delicate 
in constitution, the other ordinary in 
person and features. He o]>tained the 
light of a portrait of Maria Beatrix, and 
ivif Miraptaredwithit; but, to hii cha- 

grin, leaned that abe was folly beot on 
taking the YeiL Next, by diicctioa of 
James, he hastened to the presenoe of 
Mary Anne of Wiitembiirg; and charmed 
by her beauty, graee, and manaen, re- 
ported iaToiurably of her, and led her 
ffienda to hope that he would shortly 
be commissioned to make a formal de- 
mand of her hand. Matters were in 
this state, when the Dnke of York, in 
compliance with the policy of the King 
and Privy Council, commanded him to 
privately leave Paris, proceed incognito 
to Dnsseldorf, and at the court Uiere 
endeavour to obtain a sight of the 
Princess of Newburgh. He instantly 
complied. After some trouble, and be- 
ing taken for the Duke of York in dis- 
guise, he effected the object of his mis- 
sion, reported onfovourably of the lady, 
and was ordered back to Paris to com- 
plete the arrangements for the mar- 
riage with Mary Anne of Wirtembnrg. 
Without delay he hastened to the con- 
vent at Paris, where the Princess re- 
sided, and assured her that she might 
shortly expect a formal demand for her 
hand from the Duke of York ; he then 
returned to his own home, where, to 
his surprise and annoyance, he fonnd 
dispatches ordering him to break off all 
negotiation for the intended marrisge 
with her, and to leam, with all speed, 
if the daughter of the Due D'Elboeof 
would be a suitable lady for James to 
marry. Mortified as he was, he got a 
sight of Elboeuf 's daughter, found her 
to be a giri of thirteen, very chikiith 
for her years, and one he could not 
think of bringing home as a bride for 
the heir-apparent to the throne of Eng- 
land. No other course was now open 
but to make a formal demand of the 
hand of the Princess of Modena. Peter- 
borough received dispatches for this 
purpose from the King and the Dake 
of York, and at once set out on his mis- 
sion, travelling as before, incognito. 
His secret was known at the court of 
Modena before he arrived there. The 
Duchess of Modena opposed, or rather 
affected to oppose, the match, till the 
King of Fkance interceded in its iavoar, 
when ahe leeeified PHeib e wngh widi 



covrtesy, overeame her daughter's op- 
potitioii to enter the mirried state, and 
dispatched the Ahbe Dangean to Rome 
for a dispensation, which was necessary 
for the marriage, on account of the 
Duke of York not having made a formal 
public confession of his conversion to 
the Roman Catholic Church. The 
Pope, however, declined to immediately 
grant the dispensation ; when, as it was 
important that the ceremony of the 
espousals should be performed before 
the meeting of the British parliament, 
which now drew nigh, and u the Bishop 
of If odena peremptorily refused to of- 
ficiate, Maria was married without a dis- 
peasatioa, and in defiance of the Pope's 
interdict, by a poor priest, an Englishman, 
named White, to the Duke of York, by 
proiy,on the thirtieth of September; and 
what heightens the singuUrity of these 
espousals, the Duke of York was a Catho- 
lic, whilst his proxy, the Earl of Peter- 
borough, was a member of the Protestant 
Church of England. At the period of 
her marriage Maria was scarcely turned 
fifteen ; she was womanly of her age, a 
captivating brunette, but unconscious 
of her charms. Her portion was one 
hundred thousand francs, and Louis the 
Pourteenth, who always considered her 
as hn adopted daughter, paid part of it. 
The marriage was commemorated by 
balls, pageants, feats of arms, banquets, 
and other demonstrations of public re- 
joidngt, which lasted for several days ; 
meaatiroe the fair young bride, al- 
though forced to take part in the fes- 
tivity, was miserable, sullen, and melan- 
choly x she had violently but vainly 
Mmcgled to preserve her maiden inde- 
pendence, the irrevocable vow her re- 
luctant lips had been forced to pro- 
noance ; and when the time for her de- 
parture for England was named, she 
cried bitteriy for two whole days and 
nights, and would not be pacified till 
her mother consented to accompany 
her ; an arrangement opposed to the ex- 
preu orden of the Duke of York, who, 
for obvious reasons, desired that his 
Docheu should come to England with- 
ont foreign attendants, but to which 
MctborMigh was oovpelled to consent. 

Maria left Modena about a fortnight 
after the solemnization of her marriage, 
accompanied by her mother, her bro- 
ther, the young Duke of Modena, her 
uncle, Prince Rinaldo D'Est^, and a 
princely train of nobles. The Earl of 
Peterborough and his suite escorted her 
to Paris ; but on reaching the border of 
France, her brother and most of the 
nobles who had attended her out of re- 
spect to the house of Est6, returned. 
At Paris, Louis the Fourteenth and the 
most exalted and illustrious personages 
in France entertained her with regal mag- 
nificence, and treated her with all con- 
ceivable honour and distinction. These 
princely favours she returned with be- 
coming grace and dignity, and was about 
to set out for England, when a violent 
attack of fever laid her up and forced 
her to keep her bed for a fortnight. Be- 
fore she was convalescent the Parliament 
in England met, and the Commons voted 
an address to the King, praying that he 
would not permit the projected mar- 
riage between James and the Princess 
of Modena to take place. Charies an- 
swered, "Your request has come too 
late, the marriage has already been so- 
lemnised, and the Duchess of York is 
already on her road to England." The 
Commons, nothing daunted, voted a 
second address, beseeching his Majesty 
to stop Maria at Paris, and prevent the 
consummation of the marriage ; and 
being answered that the King could not 
in honour break a contract of marriage 
that had been solemnly executed, they 
became enraged, threatened to stop the 
supplies, voted the standing army a 
grievance, and petitioned the King to 
appoint a day of general fasting, that 
God might avert the dangers with 
which the nation was threatened. The 
next day being the fifth of November, 
the London apprentices burnt Guy 
Fawkes and the Pope, with ceremonies 
and allusions that fully marked their 
abhorrence of the Duke's change of 
creed, and marriage to a Catholic prin- 
cess. ** This opposition of the Commons 
and the people struck the oourtien with 
consternation, and the Eari of Ariing. 
ton implored his Majesty ekihiR V& ^^ict^ 



VHrt the deptrtureof MtrU from Pins 
or to insist tKst James, after his mar- 
riage, should withdraw from public no- 
tioe and lead the life of a country gen- 
tleman. Charles answered, that the 
int wu ineompatible with his honoor, 
and the seoond would be an indignity 
to his brother." 

Meanwhile, the unwilling Duchess left 
Paris, journeyed to CSolais, and there 
embarked with her mother, her uncle, 
and a numerous retinue, partly English, 
but mostly foreign, on tho twenty-first 
of Noyember, 1673. A favourable 
wind wafted the royal party to Dover 
with speed and safety. The Duke of 
York awaited their arriTal on the sands, 
received his young bride in his arms as 
she landed, and although she manifested 
anmistakeahle evidence of aversion to 
him, tenderly saluted her, and cour- 
teously conducted her to her lodgings, 
where he left her for a short while to re- 
pose with her mother. **The same 
evening," remarks Clark, in his Life of 
James the Second, '* the Duke and 
Duchess of York, and the Duchess of 
Modena, with their attendants, the Earl 
of Peterborough being also present, 
being assembled together in the state 
drawing-room. Dr. Crew, Kishop of Ox- 
ford, asked the Duchess of Modena and 
the Earl of Peterborough whether the 
said Earl had married the Duchess of 
York as proxy of the Duke, which they 
both affirming, the bishop then declared 
it was a lawful marriage." But, accord- 
ing to another equally reliable authority, 
Crew, after receiving the affirmation of 
the Earl and the Duchess, married the 
royal pair after the forms of the Church 
of England, and on the same night the 
marriage was lawfully consummated. 
Maria's proxy wedding-ring was set with 
a diamond ; that which her spouse him- 
aelf placed on her finger was ornamented 
with a small ruby ; the former she called 
the diamond of her marriage, the latter 
she prized as her true marriage-ring, 
would on no account remove it from her 
finger, and as her spouse had placed it, 
so vtore it to the day of her death. 

Their highnesses remained at Dover 
bat two daya; during thia time, the 

Eari of Berkshire, prohahly at the re- 
quest of the King, urged the Duke to so- 
licit permission to withdraw from pvblie 
life, and retire with his dncheas to And- 
leyEnd. James answered, ** My interait 
requires that I should be on ike spot lo 
oppose the intrigues of my foes,aBd my 
duty forbids me to desert my brother 
without the royal command." From 
Dover James and Maria, with their suite, 
journeyed overland by short stages to 
Oravesend, where, on the morning of 
the twenty-sixth of November, they em- 
barked for London. Off Greenwich, 
they were met by the King and hb coor* 
tiers, and entering the royal barge, pro- 
ceeded to Whitehall, where Maria and 
her distinguished retinue were cordially 
welcomed by Queen Katherine of Bra- 
ganza and her ladies. As the marriage 
was exceedingly unpopular, the bridal 
progress was neither attended by admi- 
ring crowds, nor enlivened by blazing 
bonfires, and other demonstrations 
national enthusiasm; but withal, the 
purity of morals and manners, the 
youth, innocence, and captivating charms 
of Maria Beatrix, disarmed the malig- 
nity of her assailants, the enemies of the 
court, and won for her the homage of 
the disinterested. The aged Waller 
hymned her praises in soft-flowing nom- 
l>crs ; and Granville, Earl of Lansdown, 
struck by her gentleness and surpassii>g 
loveliness, wrote — 

Our fatare hopes finom this blest anion ilse^ 
Our present J07 and safety from her eyt» ; 
Those charming eyes, that strive to reoondis 
To harmony and peace this stubborn isle. 

The Duke and Duchess of York re- 
moved to St. James's Palace, the Doke's 
usual residence ; and on the sixth of 
December the resident ambassadors and 
envovs from the various courts waited 
on them, and formally congratulated 
them on their marriage, lliey, how- 
ever, were allowed but little peace by 
the popular party, who assumed such a 
powerful and menacing attitude, that 
the King, to stifle their clamours, per* 
mitted the penal laws against Catholics 
to be enforced vrith rigour, forbade by 
an order in council any popish recusaai 
to walk in St. JiUMs's Pvk, or visit St. 



Jamet'i Palace, and refused to Maria 
the ate of the public Catholic chapel at 
St. James's, which had prefiously been 
stipulated in her marriage articles, un- 
der pretence that it was required for the 
use of the Queen-mother, Henrietta, and 
her hoosehold. 

On the thirtieth of December, the 
Ducheu of Modena bade adiea to her 
daughter and to England, and shortly 
afterwards James took his young bride 
OB a progress to see some of the most im- 
portant and interesting places in England. 
On her return, Maria was entertained 
by a brilliant succession of fStes, balls, 
and theatrical performances; and in the 
soromer, when the court wu at Wind- 
sor, she was one of the noble personages 
who witnessed the representation of the 
acgeof Maestricht ; achiralric pageant, 
got op for the amusement of their Ma- 
jesties and the court, and the last of the 
kind performed in iSngland in the pre- 
sence of royalty. A huge model of the 
city and fortifications of Maestricht was 
erected in a field close to Windsor Castle. 
The Duke of York, and his rival, Mon- 
montli, at the head of a little army of 
courtiers, played the part of the be- 
siegers ; the city held out, trenches were 
opnied, mines sprung, batteries erected, 
a fierce cannonade was kept up on both 
sides, prisoners were taken, grenades 
thrown, breaches made ; and at last, after 
the whole business of a siege had been 
displayed with skill and success, the 
city was taken, amidst the huzzas of the 
driigfated spectators. 

On the tenth of January, 1675, exactly 
twenty-five minutes after four in the af- 
temooB, Maria gave birth to her first 
child* a danghter. at St. James's Palace. 
She earnestly wished to bring up the 
babe in her own religion ; but her hus- 
band told her that it would be impos- 
sible, as it bad been moved in Parliament 
by the bishops that their offspring should 
be edocated in the religion of the realm, 
and the King had expressed his pleasure 
that it should be so. She, however, in 
defiance of hus)>and, King, and Parlia- 
ment, sent for her confessor. Father 
Gallia, a few hoars after the birth of the 
iaiaBt^ and prevailed oa him to at once 

privately christen it in her liedroom, with 
the rites of the Roman Catholic church. 
She then told the King what she had 
done, and implored him to prevent the 
reiteration of the baptism ; but he dis- 
regarded her entreaty, and the child was 
christened Katherine Laura, with the 
rites of the Church of England, in the 
chapel-royal. The sponsors were the 
Duke of Mon month and the Princesses 
Mary and Anne, and the previous bap- 
tism was kept a profound secret. She 
was a delicate child, and, to the great 
grief of her parents, died of a convulsion 
fit, in the tenth month of her age, and 
was buried on the fifth of October, 1675, 
in the vault of Mary, Queen of Scots, in 
Westminster Abbev. 


In October, 1675, Maria was annoyed 
and alsrmed by the attempt of the im- 
postor, Lugancy, to cast obliquity on her 
name. This adventurer, a French felon, 
and the prototype of the renowned Titos 
Gates, pretended to be a converted 
Jesuit, and gave information that '* Fa- 
ther St. Germain," who for greater effect 
was described as confessor to the Du- 
chess of York, *' hsd surprised him at his 
lodgings, and holding a poniard to his 
breast, had compelled him, with the 
threat of instant death, to sign a recan- 
tation, and a promise to return to his 
native country." This improliable tale 
was introduced to the notice of the Com- 
mons by Lord Russell. The Parliament, 
the court, the city, the country, instantly 
took the alarm ; the papists were treated 
with additional severity; and Lugancy waa 
examined by the Commons, and deposed, 
** that in a short lime Protestant blood 
would flow through the streets of Lon- 
don ; that the King was at heart a Ca- 
tholic ; and that there was an infinite 
number of priests and Jesuits in London, 
all plotting to murder the Protestants." 
Shortly sfterwards, Du Maresque, an 
upright French clergyman of the Re- 
formed Church, published a history of 
the impostor's adventures in France. 
The work destroyed Lugancy's credit 
with the Parliament ; but such was the 
blindness of sectarian prejudice, that 
Compton, Bishop of London, and the 
great patron of converts from Popecf 



■eat him to Oxford, and ctuaed him to 
be ordained • minister of the Chorch of 
SngUnd, and made vicar of Dover Cout, 

Shortly after the departure of her 
■KHher, Maria became deeply attaciied 
to her husband ; to use the words of a 
eontemporary, ** she loved him too well, 
and to her sorrow discovered that she 
vras not the sole object of his affection. 
He maintained a disgraceful intimacy 
with the titled courteitans at court, and 
even with several of the ladies iu her 
household ; and when the unpleasant 
truth reached her ears, she assailed him 
with tears aud reproaches. But she 
being a girl, and he of niaiure years, he 
disregarded her upbraiding, felt flattered 
by her jealousy, and continued to in- 
dulge his inconstant passion till time 
developed her character, endowed her 
with matronal port and dignity, and 
taught him to esteem and admire her." 

In 1075, James permitted his young, 
inexperienced wife to vi^it her disrepu- 
table relation, the Duchess of Mazarine, 
who had just arrived in England, and 
already played the part of an intriguing 
courtezan at court. That most imperious 
of the King's mistresses, the Duchess of 
Portsmouth, annuyed that the like ho- 
nour had not been paid to her, told 
James that she considered herself en- 
tilled to sj much attention from his con- 
sort as Madam Mazarine: and, whether 
from fear of her malice, or any other 
cause, the Duke of York, a few days 
afterwards, had the folly to introduce 
his Duchess to her. The meeting took 
place at Portsmouth's apartments at 
Whitehall ; the King was present, and 
thanked Maria for consenting to make 
the acquaintance of his most esteemed 
favourite ; but her indiscretion cost her 
the marked displeasure of the Queen, 
who, at a dress ball given by her Ma- 
jesty that very night, turned from her 
with scorn, in the presence of the whole 
court. This emphatic censure from her 
virtuous sister-in-law deeply wounded 
the feelings of the impolitic, but well- 
intentioned Duchess of York ; Mazarine 
ahe viewed as a relation and ifriend, and 
wi her immoral doings she knew but 

little; Portamouth ihe liad visited 
against her will, and by the exprcM 
command of her husband, theref o re, 
however unpardonable her foUy, thai of 
her spouse, the Duke of York, was in- 
finitely more so ; for, by not picvcntiBf 
her visit to Mazarine, he had incurred 
the ill-will both of the Queen and Ports- 
mouth, the latter of whoon was intriguing 
with Shaftesbury and Russell to effect 
his exclusion from the succession, at the 
very time that he forced his wife to make 
her acquaintance. 

On the eighteenth of August, 1676, 
at five minutes past eight in the morn- 
ing, Maria's second child — a daughter- 
entered the worid. The infant was 
christened IsabelU, by Dr. North, Pre- 
bendary of Westminster, and died whoa 
five years old. Maria was present whM 
the Prince of Orange was married to her 
step-daughter, the Princess Mary, on the 
fourth of November, 1677 ; and three 
days afterwards, remarks Dr. Lake, ** the 
Duchess was safely delivered of a prince, 
to the great joy of the whole court, ex- 
cept the Clarendon party. The child is bat 
little, but sprightly, and likely to live." 

The evening after his birth, he was 
christened with great pomp, by Dr. 
Crew, by the name of Charles, after the 
King, who stood godfather, and created 
him Duke of Cambridge. The otber 
godfather was the Prince of Orange. 
His sister, the Princess Isabella, wai 
godmother, and l>eing only fifteen months 
old, her governess, Frances VilUers, 
stood as her proxy. The infant Charki, 
although a healthy bal>e, was short- 
lived ; four days after his birth the small- 
pox broke out at St. James's, he caught 
the infection, his ignorant nurses drove 
the eruption inward, and on the eleventh 
of December he died in a oonvnlaion fit. 
The next day his remains vrere intored 
in the vault of Mary, Queen of Scots, in 
Westminster Abbey. His death over 
whelmed the Duke and Duchess of Yoric 
with grief ; the whole court expressed 
their sorrow by going into moumiag^ 
and the lamented event was announced 
to all the sovereigns of Europe, who in 
return sent lettere of condolence to the 
bereaved Duke and DvchcM. 



JGwH •into ktr d^t-daufUtr, Xtry, mt lit ITw/ut~Jfer imiand ploHed fmmtt 
tjr OtUt mtd kit tMbm—Ht <t rfrtnrH /mm Ut «BBe*ioard— Jfoiia tmiarlU 
itUX kirn far Bellaml~St it/aUth, aimtd of bh inttHt to inn A Enghnd— TTtt. 
^fulanl!/ m EHflmKd iHerMtn—AtUmpl to pan Iht Ezelutiaa Bltl—Tht Putt 
rmi IhttUu jaiHid Jy litir ibiugUtri Aimt and Itebella— V.VtfJ jy Harii't 
mMhtr^Btlmn, •nVA Unr famiif, la Ei^latid—Ltaci the Prinnutt el St 
J^Ht't, md irntl la StolUMd—BiaiTtd thtre wilk luarty con^atulalioHM— 
^tmtU t» AgUnd—Wtiamal ig lit Xin^, and faultd bi, tile cirie authariliet 
tf Zmdam—Tieir wf m again intrigue againtt thrm icilh tuaxtt—Thev ntmn 
* ^"^"^'J^'' PV^riti, there—Their proeptcl, in £«,&»( aloouy and 
firtiMuif—Tit FtO-Barrie Pial^Thtir daughler Iwiella diet, and the iVi'uMu 
jliim Miu Ihtm—Jamet it ehipuTeektd—Tbea again return to England— 
—Birtk and dmIA e/lheir daughter, ClarlolU Maria. 

I ARIA'S (tep-dingh. 

' t«T. M»iy of York, '"'I will, I aoiil.l iiol, be in order by 
' lud been matried to W-morrow." This Uller 
' tlie Prince of Onnge 
bat ■ lew muntlu, 
^ vhen neita wrivcd 
. tbat tbt nt ill in 
bodj, and dejected 
ia »iwL The Duke of York, ■nxioiu 
bt tbe wdbre of hit daughlFr, pre- 
iiilcd on Huia to pa; face a tiiit in 
pittte; and wben the nuiter was 
anupd, be wrote to the Prince of 

that ■' Die 
DadtB at York and the Princes) Anne 
ialcDd coming to the lUgiie, very incog- 
nito, and that tlieji would lake Lord 
(htatj far tlieir pnemor." He alio 
■ddraaMd the une information to Sir 
wiU U dUBeidt to help her Highneu to 
U iHMtaito in thii place. Tbe l>rince 
ibaent, I ipoke of it to Mon- 
Tan Levcn, wlio waa hard to be 
•ded that the honoan due to her 
HighMu bjr tbe Statci upon lueh oe- 
fi i n ni iboald not be performed lo- 
lendr, at lier landing, but hating 
acquainted him with the alnoluleneii of 
TOW Ilighneai't command! * * ■ 1 


othe i 

f till ti 

. boiue to receive her 
Highnen and Ladj Anne, wilh their 
Bttcndaata, tbere ii no choice at all in 
It: and to the Pripc«M Uu«ager'a 

on the fint of October, and about ihe 
■ame day Maria Dealrii and the Prin. 
ceu Anne reached the Hague. They 
prcKTved their inct^ilo, and after a 
itay of eight day*, returned to England 
in lafety. That they had met wilh a 
gRilirying reception, ii eiident by the 
•iilijnined eilract from a letter ad- 
dreaied by James lo Villiam of Orange ; 

Ve came thither on Wedneulay. 
from Newmarket, and Ihe iime night, 
presently after eleieii, the Ducheu, my 
" arrived here, u> tatiafied with her 

cy and you, a* I never uw any- 
body ; and I muit give you a thouund 
thank) from her and from myielf for 
her liind uiage by you." 

On reaehing England, Maria found 
her hu)band vainly )lriving to quell lUe 
atorm which hit eneinie* bad raited 

It him, the Queen, and Ibe Ca- 

1. The infimout Titu* Oatei 
and hi) eonfedenlet, by their gigantic 

li plot )chenie, which we have de. 
tailed in the memoir* of Qoeen Kath- 
of BraEinia, had throvm the 

1 into a ferment. The majority 
of the Commons breathed vengeance 
again)t the Cilholict ; the public mini 
waa kept in ■ ilate of interne lemr 
and excitement by tbe pronulgslion ol 



•bturd, but alarming reportt, of the 
bkMdy designs of the papists ; and at 
length, when the frenzy of the people 
was at its height, the triumphant fac- 
tion forced James to relinquish his seat 
in the conncil, and then demanded that 
he should be excluded from the royal 
presence. The good nature of Charles 
rerolted from proceedings so harsh and 
ungracious, and, to induce his brother 
to defeat the machinations of his foes, 
by retiring to the fold of the Esta- 
blished Church, he commissioned the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and other 
prelates, to wait on him, and endeavour 
to overcome his objections ; but, unlike 
the easy-minded, merry monarch, James 
refused to serve his interest at the »• 
pense of his conscience. Charles then 
urged him to go abroad for a short time. 
James replied, ** I am willing to submit 
to your Majesty's wish, but must re- 
quest from your hand a written order 
to quit the kingdom, that 1 may not 
appear to flee like a coward or a cul- 
prit." Charles immediately gave the 
order, in the form of an affectionate 
letter, of which the subjoined is a 

"I have already given you my re- 
solutions at large, why I should think 
it fit that you should absent yourself 
for some time beyond the seas. As I 
am truly sorry for the occasion, so may 
you be sure I shall never desire it 
longer than it will be absolutely ne- 
cessary for your good and my service. 
In the meantime, I think it proper to 
give it you under my hand, that I ex- 
pect this compliance from you, and 
desire it may be as soon as conveniently 
you can. You may easily believe with 
what trouble I write — there being 
nothing I am more sensible of than the 
constant kindness you have ever had 
for me. I hope you are as just to me, 
to be assured, that no absence, nor 
anything else, can ever change me from 
being truly and kindly yours. C.R. 

M U\ 

Feb. 28th, 1079." 

On the fourth of March, the Duke 
Mad Duchess of York, alter having 

made hasty preparations, embarked for 
Holland. The King accompanied iliem 
to the port of embarcation, and sepa- 
rated from them with tcan. After a 
stormy passage, they landed in safety, 
and the Prince of Orange, with a re- 
tinue of his noUea, received them, and 
conducted them with pomp to the 
Hague. Here they were treated with 
all the honour and respect doe to their 
exalted rank ; but after a short stay, 
they proceeded to Brussels, and took 
up their abode in the bouse where 
Charles the Second had resided wben 
in exile. In England the Duke's nn* 
popularity continued to increase. It 
was stated before the committee of 
secrecy, that he intended to come back 
in June with a powerful body of Fkench 
troops, to massacre the Protestaata. 
Yet at this very time he was strennoosly 
urging those at the head of the nary 
department to more effectoaJIy gnard 
the coast of England against the 
threatened French invasion. He wrote 
to Pepys, the SecreUry to the Admi- 
ralty, on the subject, who, in reply, 
says: — 

*' I acknowledge, with all humility 
and thankfulness, the honour of yov 
Highncss's letter, and do with ctpisl 
shame and grief, observe how muck 
your Highnesses solicitude, even at this 
distance, for the security of this king- 
dom against the power of France, 
does exceed all that we ourselves ex- 
pressed upon that subject, otherwise 
than by a general but inactive rest- 
lessness under our apprehensions of the 
danger, but without any alteration 
made since your Royal Highncss's de- 
parture, in the state of our ahipt or 
coasts, other than what is oonseqnential 
to their having laid so long neglected." 

But, despite James's patriotic inten- 
tions, the House of Commons, on the 
twenty-seventh of April, voted that 
** the Dnke of York's being a papist, 
the hope of his coming to the crown 
had given the greatest countenance and 
encouragement to the conspiracies and 
designs of the papists." The bill of 
exclusion was next read for a second 
time, and the House would have 



tiarlet unexpectedly pro- 
nent. When the Duke 
ml reluctantly gone out 
ley, by the King's desire, 
ighters, Anne tnd Isa- 
that it might not be said 
it to seduce them from 
church ; but they found 
so painful, that early in 
^uke requested, and the 
d» their children to join 
i nineteenth of the same 

and her infant half- 
, commenced their jour- 
T a prosperous voyage, 
els in safety, greatly to 
their fond parents. Just 
ria enjoyed the happiness 
her mother, the Duchess 
im whom she had been 
r since her marrisge. 
le Duke of York bore 

impatience. He feared 
lence his enemies would 
f bis dearest rights; he 
nested to be permitted 
was invariably answered 
irait till the excitement 
>pish Plot imposture had 
ideed," said Charles, in 
era, ** I should be very 
ave a question brought 
s, whether or not you 
e, and you at the same 
fliiidering how easy it is 
oesset,tilI Oatesand Bed. 
ne." This reply almost 
it ; but shortly after its 
red a message, apprising 
ng was seriously ill, and 

instantly hasten to his 
ill possible secrecy ; but 
lat he took the whole 
' his return on himself, 
4> Brussels immediately 
had recovered. James 
loment. Leaving his 
aughters behind, he set 
, on the eighth of Sep- 
only four attendants, 
a feigned name, reached 
;n o'clock on tlie morn- 
Ifth, and was the first 
it arrival to the King. 

Charles, who wu now convalescent, 
was up, and at his toilet. On entering 
his presence, James knelt at his feet, 
and apologized for returning without 
being recalled ; the King bade him rise, 
tenderly embraced him, and assured 
him he was welcome, — the courtiers 
then flocked round him. and, whether 
his enemies or his friends, equally 
offered him their congratulations. 
During this visit, James obtained the 
royal permission to transfer his resi- 
dence from Brussels to Edinburgh. 
He left London on the twenty-fifth of 
September, and rejoined his wife and 
daughters on the first of October. His 
intended change of residence was offi- 
cially announced in the Gazette. 

On the third of October, the Duke 
and Duchess of York, with their two 
daughters, Anne and Isabella, and the 
Duchess of Modena, left Brussels, and, 
after a long and stormy voyage, reached 
the Hague on the sixth, touk up their 
residence at the Old Court Palace, and 
were welcomed and entertained there 
by the Prince and Princess of Orange. 
On the seventh, the Duke of York 
received an express from King Charles, 
commanding him to sail to the Downs, 
and to wait there for further orders. 
He lost no time in complying with this 
mandate. On the ninth, he and his 
consort, with their two daughters, bade 
an affectionate farewell to the Duchess 
of Modena, and, with their suite, 
commenced their voyage. At the 
Maesland Sluys,the Prineeand Princess 
of Orange, who had accompanied them 
thus far, parted from them with all the 
outward show of sincere affection. 
After a stormy passage, from which 
Maria suffered severelv from sea-sick- 
ness, they reached the Downs, where 
orders to immediately proceed to Scot- 
land by sea awaited them. To comply 
would have been to hazard the life of 
the sorely sick Duchess ; Jsmes, there- 
fore, wrote to Charles, and obtained 
from him permission to travel to Edin- 
burgh overland. The royal party 
landed at Deal, and, to the surprise of 
the Court, and annoyance of the po- 
pular faction, reached St. Jamet'a 


Pklaoe OB the night of the twelfth of 
October. The King cordimlly welcomed 
them, and assured the Doke that it 
was out of his power to shield him from 
the malignity oif his foes, if he remained 
in England. A week afterwards, the 
reluctant King was formally compelled 
to request his persecuted hrother to 
hasten his departure to Scotland. It 
was resolved that the Princesses Anne 
and Isabella should remain at St. 
James's Palace ; and Charles earnestly 
pressed Maria, who had vomited blood 
at sea, and was still in a dangerous 
state of health, also to remain at Court, 
as it was arranged that the Duke 
should return about the middle of the 
subsequent January. She, however, 
turned a deaf ear to his entreaties. | 
and ** chose rather even, with the hazard ' 
of her life, to be the constant com- 
panion of the misfortunes and hard- . 
ships of the husband she so sincerely 
beloved." Their Highnesses set out 
for Scotland on the twenty-seventh of 
Octolier. They found the journey slow 
and wearisonje ; rains, fogs, and almost 
impassable road?, rendered the progress 
harassing and comfortless. At Hat- 
field, and at York, they were received 
with marked neglect and ill-will ; but in 
Scotland their reception was enthusias- 
tic ; two thousand of the Scottish gentry 
conducted them in procession from the ; 
border to Lenthington, where they i 
were splendidly entertained till the ! 
fourth of December, when, attended by 
the lA>rds of the council, and the lead- 
ing nobles of Scotland, they entered 
Edinburgh in grand procession, and 
were feasted and entertained with regal 
magnificence at the cost of the loyal 
Corporation. The Duke and his English 
retinue were complimented with the 
freedom of the city ; a special enter- 
tainment was provided for his Duchess 
and her ladies ; and although his right 
was contested, he took his place in the 
privy council, but wisely abstained 
from all connection with either of the 
parties which then divided that king- 
dom. Meantime, the current of po- 
pular opinion in England l)egan to turn 
in his favour ; namerous loyal addresses 

were praMntadto the Kingi all Mo- 
derate men openly denooccd the 
doings of the dominant lactiott, and the 
men of Norfolk even Tcntared to offer 
thanks to hu Mi^ty for the recall of 
the heh-apparent from Flanden. Ea- 
couraged by these and other equally 
evident demonstratiotts o€ the loyalty 
of his subjects, Charles resolved to re- 
deem the promise he had Bade to 
recall the Duke and Ducheaa of York, 
early in the ensuing year. Entering 
the council chamber, on the twenty, 
eighth of January, 1680, he stated to 
his council assembled there, that he 
had derived little benefit from the 
absence of his brother ; that be deemed 
it unjust to take from a Prince, whose 
rights were assailed, the opportunity of 
defending them in his place in Pariia- 
meut, and, therefore, had commanded his 
Highness to quit Edinburgh, and return 
to his former residence at St. James's. 
This unexpected announcement lo 
startled and annoyed the leaders of the 
factious demagogues, that, three dan 
afterw ards, Shaftesbury, Russell, Caves- 
dish, Capel, and Powell, tendered their 
resignation ; and Charles replied, ihst 
'* he accepted it with all his heart." 

James and Maria, on receiving tbe 
welcomed summons to England, warmly 
thanked the Scots for the kindness and 
the honour they had done then, sod 
with all haste put to sea. After a rather 
boisterous voyage, they reached Dept- 
ford on the twenty-fourth of February, 
and immediately proceeded in a barfc 
to Whitehall, where the King received 
them with brotherly affection. The 
next day they took up their abode st 
St. James's, where the Duchess, over- 
come by the strong impulses of ma- 
ternal affection, embraced her ova 
young Isabella with tears of joy, aad 
then warmly saluted her step-daugfater, 
Anne. BV the Court party their return 
was hailed with enthusiasm, aad is 
London the popular current had tuned 
so completely in their favour, that the 
civic powers presented to each of then 
congratulatory addresses ; and the aest 
day the King and the Duke wera fcaittd 
with a sumptuous supper by tho uai 



May^, aad the public joy at their pre- 
lenoe wu testified by the ringing of 
bellt, the blazing of bonfirei, and a 
general and profuse illumination. 

The conduct of their Highnesses at 
this period was wise and conciliatory. 
Maria's purity of life, and her affec- 
tionate conduct as a wife and a step- 
mother, won for her the unsongfat good- 
will of the public. At the close of 
September she visited Cambridge, and 
after giving a grand ball there, proceeded 
to Newmarket, where, with the Dulce 
her husband, and the King and Queen, 
she remained during the races in Octo- 
ber. Since the Duke of Yorlc's return, 
his enemies had closely watched his 
eondnct ; they viewed his increasing po- 
pularity with alarm, and resolv^ to 
igain force him from the land of his 
birth. With this view, Shaftesbury, 
Russell, Huntingdon, and others of their 
party, went to Westminster Hall, and 
offered, before the grand jury there, six 
reasons why they should present him for 
recusancy, and indict the Duchess of 
Portsmouth as a national nuisance. 
The Duchess certainly was a national 
nuisance ; but their purport was not to 
reform the morals of the Court, but to 
terrify her into using her almost absolute 
influence over the King to effect the 
downfall of the Duke ; and it was prin- 
cipally her earnest entreaties which 
prevailed on his Msjesty to notify to his 
brother, on the eighteenth of October, 
that be must return to Scotland. Over- 
eome with despair at these words, the 
unfortunate James requested and ob- 
tained from Charles a promise that he 
would never surrender the rightful 
descent of the cniwn, the regal autho- 
rity over the Parliament, and the com- 
mand of the naval and military forces. 
He also requested a general pardon, as 
a protection again»t the malice of his | 
enemies in his absence. This the King ' 
refused, on the plea that it would be de- | 
rogatory to the honour of both of them. - 
James viewed the refusal as a proof: 
that he was aliandoned by his brother ; 
and, overcome by despair and iiuligna- 
tioa, declared, if his enemies dared to 
peiMcalA him further, he would seek 

the aid of the French King, rather than 
their audacity should pass unavenged. 
Barillon, the French ambassador, caught 
up the angry remark, and by profuse 
offers of money and arms, urged him to 
raise the sword of insurrection. James, 
however, spurned the proposal ; and on 
the twentieth of October, the day before 
the meeting of Parliament, set out with 
a heavy heart, and accompanied by his 
faithful consort, on his voyage to the 
north. After a protracted stormy pas- 
sage, they nearcd the Scotch coast, 
reached Leith in safety, and thence pro- 
ceeded to Holy rood House, where they 
took op their abo<Ie. The Scots, as he- 
fore, greeted them on their arrival with 
every conceivable expression of joy. 
" When they landed," says a contem- 
porary, " the shore was thronged with 
people of all ranks, who, flinging their 
bonnets in the air, so loudly and con- 
tinuously shouted, ' Lord preserve your 
Highness !' ' God save the King !' and 
the like, that they almost drowned the 
booming of the cannons, the ringing of 
the bells, and the noise of the trum{>ets 
and the dnims. All the high and noble 
personages in Scotland met their High- 
nesses in Leith, and conducted them 
with all conceivable pomp and ceremony 
to Holyrood House. The Archbishops 
of St. Andrew's and Glasgow compli- 
mented them in the name of the kirk, 
the governor of Edinburgh Castle de- 
li vere<l to James the keys of the casile ; 
ami the night through, the city was en- 
livened by the ringing of bells and the 
blaze of many and great bonfires, around 
which the joy-intoxicate<l citizens as- 
sembled, and with smiling faces drank 
the health of their Majesties aiid their 

James and Maria succeeded in retain- 
ing their ascendancy over the hearts uf 
the aristocracy and the people of Scot- 
land. They kept a brilliant court at 
Holyrood, to which all persons of rank 
ordistinction resorted. As they professed 
an unpopular crce<l, they performed their 
religious rites with all possible privacy ; 
and they frequently rode out in public, 
and made it a point to maintain an affa- 
ble deportment towards all \ftxwN^ 



The Duke frequently played at the then 
popular game of golf, and increased his 
popularity by choosing citizens and me- 
chanics for his partners on these oc- 
casions; whilst the Ducheu, by her 
gracious deportment, purity of mind, 
and engaging manners, won the hearts 
of the Scotch ladies, whom she fre- 
quently entertained at levees and social 
erening parties. To avoid all appear- 
ance of disgrace, the Duke had entered 
Scotland as the immediate representa- 
tive of his royal brother. He arrived 
in troublous times, but by a judicious 
employment of the influence of his ex- 
alted rank, he put a check to the evils 
which arose from the family feuds 
amongst the nobility ; and by discoun- 
tenancing the horrible execution of the 
Cameronians, religious fanatics who had 
risen in insurrection, denied the autho- 
rity uf the King, and murdered Arch- 
bishop Sharpe, and to whom he oflfered a 
pardon on the easy terms that they would 
cry, " God save the King !" — restored 
the nation to comparative tranquillity. 

Meanwhile, their Highnesses' prosi)ects 
in England were anything but cheering. 
The bill for the exclusion of the Duke 
from the succession, was passed by the 
Commons, and only thrown out of the 
Lords by the opposition of the bishops. 
The project for banishing James, with 
the empty title of King, to the distance 
of five hundred miles from England, and 
investing the regal power in the Prince 
and Princess of Orange, as regents for 
him, was started, and Charles was urged 
to permit Monmouth to be named as his 
successor. As none of these measures 
succeeded, a plot, in which it was pre- 
tended that the Duke and Duchess were 
deeply implicated, was devised. Fitz- 
harris,* an obscure Irishman, came for- 
ward, and deposed that Montecurulli, 
the late agent of the Duchess of Mo- 
dena, had offered him ten thousand 
pounds to murder the King ; that the 
Duke was privy to the plot ; that power- 
ful forces were to come from France and 
Flanders to place him on the throne ; 
and that it was proposed, in the event 

* Bee Memoir of Katherioe of Braguua, 

of succeet, to boil down the bonet cf 
the Protestant leaders, and make 9t 
them a $mnie mt^nnUe for the conraalioB 
of the future Catholic Kings of Eo^bnd. 
The Whig leaders carried this absurd fic- 
tion to Parliament, ** dedared, ob their 
souls, that they believed crery word of 
it, and with great pathoa and doqnenoe 
descanted on the horrible pficUoes of 
the Duke and Duchess of York, and the 
Catholics generally." Charles, however, 
defeated their murderous designs, by 
suddenly dissolving parliament, and 
causing Fitzharris to be proceeded 
against for high treason in the Court of 
King's Bench. The intelligence of 
these doings seriously alarmed Janes 
and Maria ; and, to add to their afflic- 
tions, their daughter Isabella died at 
St. James's Palace, on the fourth of 
March, 1681, in the fifth year of ber 
age. The bereavement threw the 
Duchess into a state of deep despoa- 
dency, which affected her health. James, 
who was also overcome with melancholy, 
wrote to his brother, and requested tbst 
they both might return, if it was only 
to restore themselves to convalescence. 
In reply, Charies, by the advice of Hali- 
fax, assured the Duke that he must not 
expect to again visit England till he had 
conformed to the EsUblished Church. 
James, however, unhesitatingly refused 
to act the hypocrite. In his letter on the 
subject, he says, ** I cannot in conscience 
do what you so press me to ; besides, it 
would be of little use or advantage, for 
the Shafte&burian and republican party 
would say it was only a trick, that I had 
a dispensation, and that I was still a 
Catholic in my heart, and say there wu 
more reason to be affeared of popery 
than ever.'' Although James's request 
was denied, the Princess Anne, by the 
King's permission, sailed to Leith,'and, 
to her infinite delight, joined the com- 
pany of her persecuted father and step- 
mother on the seventeenth of July. 
Twelve days afterwards, the Duke, b 
quality of Royal Commissioner, opened 
the Scottish parliament with a apeech. 
To conciliate the members, he invited 
them all to a aamptuoua bftBqaet ; awl» 
in return, tha city of Bdinbui^ 



ind entertained the Dnke and Duchess, 
the Princess Anne, and the whole Court 
of Scotland. These festivities termi- 
nated, James made a progress to several 
of the leading towns, and throughout the 
journey hia reception was enthusiastic. 
Ahout this time, the Duchess of Ports- 
mouth entreated his M^esty to grant 
her five thousand pounds a year out of 
Jamei't income from the post office. 
Charles promised compliance, and, to re- 
deem his promise, sent for his brother 
to come and arrange the matter with 
him. The Duke was displeased with the 
purpose for which he was recalled, espe- 
cially as he was not permitted to bring 
his Duchess and his daughter with him. 
He, however, embarked with all speed 
at Leith. landed at Yarmouth in March, 
and immediately proceeded to the pre- 
sence of Charles, who received him with 
brotherly affection, granted him permis- 
sion to reside in EngUad,and, after de- 
taining him for alxiut two months, sent 
him iMck to fetch his Duchess and bis 
daughter Anne. At this time Maria was 
enceinte, and a desire that the babe 
should be born in London, was the 
principal, perhaps the only cause of the 
King^s reodling her to Court. 

At nine hi the morning, on the fourth 
of May, the Duke embarked for Edin- 
burgh : the weather was foul, dirty, and 
fogg7 ; the careless pilot took a' dan- 
gerous course ; and on the morning of 
Sunday, the sixth, the vessel was 
wrecked. Sir James Dick, Provost of 
Edinburgh, and one of the passengers, 
in his details of this catastrophe, re- 
marks, *• At eleven o'clock in the morn- 
ing, the man-of-war called ' the Glouces- 
ter/ Sir John Barrie, Captain, wherein 
his Highness was, and a great retinue 
of noMenien and gentlemen, whereof 1 
was one, did strike in pieces, and did 
wholly sink in a bank of sand called the 
I^mon and Ore, about twelve leagues 
from Yarmouth. This was occasioned 
bv tlie wrong calculation and ignorance 
of a pilot, and put us all in such con- 
Iternalion that we knew not what to do, 
the Duke and all that were with him 
'Mag in bed when she first struck. 

broken, the man 

working it vras killed by the force 
thereof at the first stroke. When the 
Duke got his clothes on, and inquired 
how things stood, the vessel had nine 
feet of water in her hold, the sea was 
fast coming in at the gun-ports, and the 
seamen and passengers were not at com- 
mand, as every man was studying his 
own safety. This forced the Duke to 
go out at the large window of the cabin, 
where his little boat was ordered quietly 
to attend him, lest the passengers and 
seamen should throng so in upon him, 
as to overset his boat. This was ac- 
cordingly so conducted that none but the 
Earls of Wilton and Aberdeen, Churchill 
and two of the bed-chamber men, went 
with him. They were forced to draw 
their swords, to hold people off." Sir 
James Dick, with the Earl of Middleton, 
the Laird of Touch, and numerous 
others, then entered the long boat, into 
which so many leaped, that, remarks our 
author, *' Laird Hopton, Mr. Littledel, 
and others, all being at the place when 
I jumped, would not follow, because 
they conaidored it safer to stay in the 
vessel than to expose themselves to our 
hazard. We were so thronged one had 
no room to stand ; and if the rest had 
not thought us all dead men, I am sure 
many more vronld have jumped in upon 
us.'* Both boats safely reached the 
*' Mary yacht," from which a rope was 
cast, so as to bring them to the lee side 
of the vessel, ** when." says Sir James 
Dick, " every man climbed for his life, 
and so did I ; taking hold of a rope, 1 
made shift upon the side till I came 
within men's reach, and was hauled in. 
I then looked back, but rould not see 
one bit of our great ship above water, 
but only almut a Scots ell long of the 
staff upon which the royal standard 
stood; ibr with her striking she ha«l 
come off the sand -hank, which was but 
three fathoms, and her draught was 
eighteen feet. There was eighteen fa- 
thom water on each side when she 
struck, and she sunk in the deepest 
place. Now if she had contmued upoa 
the three fathoms, and broke in pieces 
there, all would have had time to save 
themselves ; but %uch ^Kia XVa tdmSoi- 



timey that the was wholly overwhelmed, 
and all were washed into the sea that 
were upon her decks : there would hare 
heen a relief by boats, if she had stood 
half-an-hour lon^r." Hume, foUowini^ 
the false assertions of Burnet, in his 
mention of this catastrophe, makes the 
following niis-sutement : '' The Duke 
neaped in the barge, and it is pretended 
that whilst many persons of rank and 
quality were drowned, and among the 
rest Hyde, his brother-in-law, he wa» 
very car^fiu to save several of hit dogt 
emd priettt, for these two species of fa- 
Tourites are coupled together by some 
writers. It has likewise been asserted* 
ikat the barge nught sa/elg have held 
more perwnt, and that some who swam 
to it were thrust off, and even their 
hands cut, in order to disengage them." 
Mow, according to Sir James Dick's 
account, the Duke did not go in the 
barge or long-boat at all, but in his own 
Utile boat; and according to other con- 
temporaries, the boat was crowded, and 
withal the Marquis of Montrose, who 
was struggling with the waves, and a 
poor fiddler who clung to the side, were 
taken in, the former by James's own 
hands, and the latter by his expressed 
command. As to priests or dogs, ac- 
cording to the best-authenticated evi- 
dence, not one of either was in the boat. 
James completed his voyage in the 
"Happy Return," landed at Lcith at 
eight in the morning, on the seventh of 
May, and proceeding at once to his 
Duchess, was the first to announce to her 
the peril in which he had been involved. 
His arrival was marked by all conceiv- 
able demonstrations of public joy ; all 
Edinl)urgh was illuminated, congratula- 
tory addresses were presented to him, 
and songs were sung in commemoration 
of the event. Although James had so 
narrowly escaped when the ill-fated 
"Gloucester" went down with nearly two 
hundre<l persons on board, he resolved, 
like a true blue-jacket, to bring his wife 
and daughter to London by sea, and not, 
as many of his Scottish friends advised 
him, overland ; Maria willingly con- 
tented to with him brave the perils of 
the dMpy and a popular ions of the 

time eontaioa the aobjoined pleasing 
ailosion to her departure : 

* The vandering dore that waa 
To find aoDM landing near. 


When EngUnd'a areh^ 

Of jealooay and fear: 

Beturaa vltli oilva bcaaoh af joj> 

To nt the nation titm 

From Whiggiah rage, that voold dsstny 

Great York and Albany." 

After James had formally bade fure- 
well to the Scotch counciU the nobles, 
the anthoritiea of Edinburgh, and others, 
he proceeded with his Duchess and his 
daughter to Leith, and there embarked 
with them in the " Happy Betum." 
This time the voyage was safe and pros- 
perous. They entered the Thames on 
the twenty-fifth of May, were met by 
the King, and received on the royaJ 
barge at Erith ; and amidst the boonuBg 
of guns, and the acclamationa of thoo- 
sands of spectators, proceeded np tlw 
river in grand procession to Whitehall 
The same day, the Lord Mayor and 
aldermen congratulated them on thdr 
return, all the bells in London were set 
ringing, and at night the dty was bril- 
liantly illuminated. Maria, who with 
James, her hiuband, now took up her 
abode at St. James's Palace, requested 
and obtained the royal permission to have 
her mother present at the approaching 
accouchement. The Duchess of Modena 
received the invitation with pleasue, 
and hastened to England without cere- 
mony or delay. Her arrival in London 
was no sooner known, than the ei- 
clusionists, who, although outnumbered 
were not beaten, resolved, shoold 
the infant prove a boy, to circulate a 
report that it was a spurious child, 
brought over by the Ducheu to deprive 
the Protestant heiress of the crown, and 
that the real babe was a dandier. 
They even set rumours afloat in further- 
ance of their Iwae designs. But their 
factious proceedings were cut short by 
Maria giviug birth to a Princess several 
weeks sooner than was expected. The 
infant entered the world on the fifteenth 
of August, 1682, was christened Cher- 
lotte Maria by the Bishop of Londoni 
and eight weeka alterwanb died in ft 
oonTuUon fli. 

QOKRx c» uma tbb ntomro. 


Mwrta Own of ^fa»f— JTwnu (ib i(m(A d/ CUH« U.— ., 

(H Uterr aetanen — Sii nrym htr hvtitr U many ■jwtfut Mit iciU — Jifr rtfaKa — 
ConmaliMi — dtuhitl (a lUt Xmf'i atMrttt, KalAtrint Stdltf—Goa in italt la 
mata—AtUHdt Ua ^>nmf i^ Farliamtnt—Mtmittmth rOtUiaK—Ht implaret ktr 
tMtar etmi tn — /> tstatti—Tki Kin^i dtmintt/ ta Story, and kiitdnttt t9 tltt 
FhikA Fntnlaal rrfufta— Maria' i eiAamtKa t/FaHtrJitit—lloHmi tia 
Ja0lk af ktr muthtr — Fiiita Balk — h tnttinU — Sfrnd^mu rrportt — A^risn i3t* 
Friitnaa af Orang* af ktr tituBtien—Stidilm Ulntit—Strnmn to Wkiuhail— 
Oirtt hrtk la a A-mo — Sztraordaurg amnufantci allauiinf ier toHjItie- 
mtnl—JOmat tflka Hifant—StporU of kit dtath rirailuUd—Fuitie ikankfiving 
tmd njokmf—Maritt nojriud at tke aolxeu of Ike rrinetti of OrBnfe—Tkt 
Avw* M upe- atrranl fml^IFt itnmtt Amgerotulg Si— Mil dcalk again 
r af tru i M mrim tiailt Am — St recotar: 

BOM Ihii period 
ban nothing of 

Griinct to relite of 
oai to the Kceuioi 
of her hoilxuid w 
Jttaa II., on 

', and lo Under-hmted u 
oown dcwir boaght with the 
loH <# me ■ brotber." Immedialely 
ICbvki bad breathed bii lut, Jimn, 
ai ei to iu a «itb grief and fatigue, wtlh- 
drew to bii cloaet to repoae. After the 
lafaa of about an bour, he met the 
MoBdl. and wai immediate); hailed as 
Kuf- He then addreiMd the auemblr. 
told Ibcn bow deeply he deplored the 
loaa of hia beloved hrolher, and pro- 
ceeded, *■ I bare been reported a man 
of nrhilnrj powo*, bnt that is not the 
•■ly MotT which haa been made of 

e Ihii 

It my 

> pre- 

I know the principle* 
of llw Chnidi of England are (or mo- 
■an&r.ud tbe membenof it ha*eihown 
IImiiimI » ■ good and knal luhjecti ; 
■hercfitre [ ifaall alwaji 'take care lo 
iifaad and lapporl it. I know. too. 
that the Itwi of England are lufficient 
to make the King aa great a Tnanareh 
m I cu wWii nd M I abaU aeter 

depart from the jnit ri^ta and pnroga- 
, tiiei of the eroirn, lo I ifaall neier in< 
, fade an; man'* property. I hare oflen 
, heretofore leDlunal my life in defence 
of tlienation, and 1 ihall itill go ai far ai 
any man in pretening it in all in jiut 
right! and libeitiet." Thit declatalion 
was joyfully received, and Jame* w«* 
immediately procUimed at (be gate* of 
Whitehall, at Temple Bar, and at the 
Royal Exchange. The fint few diyi 
of her acceuion h Queen-contort, Maiia 
wai occupied with faer royal hniliand in 
reeeiting eondolencet and compliment* 
fnim the prelate*, lord), ambauadan, 
and other functtonarivi. She wore deep 
mourning for her departed brotber-in- 
iaw ; and, what ig remarkable, her Bnt 
act a* Qnecn wai a tyrannical endeaiour 
lo force her bachelor hrolher, the Duke 
of Modena, lo enter the minied ilate 
with the rich beireii, Mademoiielle d« 
Bouillon, a lady of her own chooting. 
The twenty-third of April—St. George'* 
day — wa* appointed for the roronalion 
of her and her lord. Since Anne fioleyn, 
but one Queen-coniort, Anne of Den- 
mark, had been crowned in England; 

LI for I 

were lO numerou*, that to decide then 
u etpecial court wa> opened at Weat- 
mjniler, on the Ibiitielh of March. A* 
the crown jeweli bad been plundered bjr 
the Boundbeada during the CifU Ww, 



the Queen's crown and other regal or- 
naments were made expressly for her, 
and that at a most extravagant cost; her 
imperial diadem, set with diamonds, ru- 
bies, and other precious stones, was of 
itaelf valued by the goldsmith who made 
it, at JEl 1 1 ,900. However, to retrench 
in other particulars, the King dispensed 
with the procession through the city, 
and other expensive but not really im- 
portant details. King James observed 
the ancient custom of washing the feet 
of poor men, and touching fcir the King's 
evil. On the morning of the coronation, 
the Queen, in her state robes and jewels, 
and with a richly jewelled gold circlet 
on her head, went privately in her chair 
from St. James's Palace to Whitehall, 
and thence to Westminster Hall, where 
she reposed in the court of wards till 
the King had arrived ; when she entered 
the hall in procession, and took her seat 
under a canopy close to that of the King. 
The regalia were th«n delivered wiili 
much ceremony to the nobles appointed 
to carry them, afier which the roval 
pair walked in procession from West- 
minster Hall to the Abhev: the wav was 
strewn with flowers, drums beat, trum- 
pets sounded, and a choir of vocalists 
marched in the procession, singing the 
admired anthem, ** Lord, grant the 
King a long life." They entered the 
Abbov bv the west door, and iinme- 
diately proceeded to their chairs of state. 
The Bishop of Ely preached the sermon, 
the hymn ** Veai Creator" was sung, and 
first the King and then the Queen were 
crowned and anointed. '* The King 
and Queen," says Burnet, *' resolved to 
have all things done in the Protestant 
form, and to assist in all the prayers, 
only they would not receive the sacra- 
ment. In this certainly his Majesty's 
priests dispensed with him, and he had 
such senses given of the oath, that he 
either took it as a sin. with a resolution 
not to keep it, or he had a reserved 
meaning in his own mind." One re- 
markable incident occurred at their coro- 
nation ; the King's crown — it had been 
made for Charles II. — was so large, that 
when placed on his head by Archbishop 
Btmaroti, it tottered, and Mr. Henry 

Sidney, putting forth hia band to mti 
it from falling, remarked, with more ait 
than truth, •* This, your M^eatj, is Mt 
the first time the crown has been sap* 
ported by my family." Trifling as tkii 
incident waa, it waa regarded 1^ Miiia 
Beatrix, and nearly all present, as afaro' 
token of evil. Of the devout behaviour 
of the Queen during the service. Dr. 
Patrick speaks with pleasure : ^ 1 oU 
ser^-ed," he remarks, '* a vast diffcreaee 
between the King's behaviour and liw 
Queens. At the reading of tHe Litsay 
they both came to kneel before the altar, 
and she answered to all the responses, 
but he never moved his lips. She ex- 
pressed great devotion, but he little or 
none, often looking about as uncao- 
cerned. When she was anointed aad 
crowned, I never saw greater devotkia 
in any countenance ; the motion of her 
l>ody and hands was very beconiB^ 
and slie answered *Amen' to every |Nra}er 
with humility, seriousness, and compo- 
sure of spirit." 

The solemnities concluded, their Ma- 
jesties returned in procession to West. 
minster Hall, and reposed in separate 
apartments till the company had takea 
their seats at the seven principal tables 
in thebanqiieting-hall', they then entered, 
wearing their crowns, and bearing ia 
either hands their sceptres and rods, 
and took their seats in the chairs of state 
at the head of the royal tables. The 
ceremonies at the banquet resembled 
those observed at previous coronations, 
the dishes, more than a thousand ia 
number, were various, rich, and rare, 
the wines choice and abundant. Whea 
their M^esties had washed tlieir hands, 
and grace had been said by the dean of 
the Chapel Royal, they sat down to dine. 
After the first course, the royal champion. 
Sir Charles Dymock, rode into the hall 
on a richly trapped steed, and three 
successive times pronounced the accos- 
tomed challenge, and flung down hb 
gauntlet without any objection being 
oflfered. Then Garter, with the other 
kings-at-arms, and the heralds, Cfied 
largess in the usual manner, and pnh- 
claimed the King's style and titki. 
During theiecoBd conncb Uie lf«jf« if 



Oxford, and the Lord Mayor of Londoa, 
with twelve o€ the citizens, as assistants 
in the buttery, presented the King wilh 
wine, and rrceived the bowls and the 
cap as their fees. When the banquet 
was ended, and grace said, their Majes- 
ties washed their hands, proceeded in 
procession to the court of wards, cere- 
moniously delivered their regalia there, 
and at half-past seven in the evening 
retomed as they came to Whitehall. 
The fatigne and the excitement of the 
day so am^ited the Queen, that she was 
HBwell for a week afterwards. 

Although James had sacrificed place 
aad power to the profession of his 
religion, he, in open disregard to its pre- 
cepts, still cohabited with his audacious 
misireas, Katherine Sedley. This in- 
famous woman was stately in person, 
but so far from lieautiful in face, that 
Charles II. used to say that his brother 
had her by way of penance. James, 
who was captivated by her wit and 
brilliant conversation, and believed him- 
leif the lather of her two children, made 
her one of the Queen's maids of honour, 
created her Countess of Dorchester for 
life, settled on her an income of £2000 
a year, and made her a present of a 
splendid mansion in St. James's Square. 
Sedley professed the Church of England 
Csith, and Rochester, in the hope of lieing 
able to govern the King through the 
mistress, urged James, whose blind 
zeal for Romanism he improperly at- 
tributed to the influence of Maria 
Beatrix* to bestow on her that favour 
and confidence which the Duchess of 
Portsmouth had enjoyed in the late 
reign. The Queen, however, was not 
of a temper to submit to these indig- 
nities without a struzgle. Sick with 
mortification, she took to her chamber, 
where, by the advice of Sunderland and 
Fuber Petre, she summoned these two 
intngnert, together with the most dis- 
tinguished Catholic clergy and noblemen 
at court, to her presence, and then sent 
for the King. When James arrived, she, 
with aobs and tears, upbraided him with 
hia infidelit|r» ftnd declared if he did not 
1^ up hit mistreiap she would retire to 
ft coBvenl. The wbola anembly, in- 

cluding Father Petre. the King's priest 
and confessor, united their remonstrances 
with hers ; and James, surprised and 
abashed, promised to separate from 
Sedley for ever, and instantly dispatched 
an order commanding her to withdraw 
from Whitehall, and retire to the conti- 
nent. But Sedley scorned the order, 
declared she was a free-born English- 
woman, and would reside where she 
pleased ; and if the King wished to re- 
move her he must do so by force, and 
then she would apply for a writ of 
habeas corpus, and recover her liberty. 
James overlooked her insolence, and, to 
induce her to withdraw from court, made 
her a present of a valuable estate in 
Ireland, to which she retired. After 
an exile of six months, she returned, 
and the King continued to visit her as 
well as his other mistresses ; but as he 
did so with all possible privacy, the 
Queen had the good sense to generally 
act as if ignorant of his improprieties. 

James, although well-intentioned, 
knew not how to retain the affection of 
his subjects. Almost his first acts as a 
sovereign offended the prejudices of the 
Church of England Protestants. He 
opened his own Catholic chapel at 
Whitehall, and there ostentatiously prac- 
tised the ceremonials of his religion ; and 
with a view to establish liberty of 
conscience and freedom of worship — 
measures far in advance of the age— • 
he charged the judges to discourage 
religious persecutions, and ordered, by 
proclamation, the discharge of all per- 
sons confined for non-conformity ; when, 
to the alarm and annoyance of the 
Established Church, several thousand 
Catholics, and twelve hundred Quakers, 
were released from prison. On the 
twenty-second of May, 1685, the King 
opened the parliament in person ; the 
Queen and Anne of Denmark attended 
in private, and witnessed the ceremony, 
and, remarks Evelyn, ** as her Majesty 
was there when prayers were said, and 
several of the lords took the oath, she 
heard the Pope and the worship of the 
Virgin renounced very decently." The 
Commons, by shouts of " Vive le Roi/" and 
afkerwardi by lettliog tha raTeniM^ in, 



•onpliance with the roral wish, demon- 
•tratied their loyalty ; but the rebellion 
o€ Argyle in Scotland, and of Monmouth 
in England, caused James some anxiety. 
Monmouth landed at Lyme, in Dorset- 
shire, on the eleventh of June, 1685, 
and, in a flaming proclamation, de- 
nounced the King, by his former title of 
Duke of York, as a murderer, a traitor, 
and a tyrant, who had burnt the city 
oi London, supported the Popish Plot, 
caused Godfrey and the Earl of Essex 
to be massacred, and his brother, the late 
King, to be |K>isoned. In a week he 
found himself at the head of ten thou- 
■and men ; and being received with en- 
thusiasm at Taunton, he had the folly 
to take upon himself, by solemn pro- 
clamation, the title of King James the 
Second, and to set a price on the head 
of James, Duke of York. But he reaped 
little benefit from the assumption of 
royalty. Scarcely a nobleman or gen- 
tleman of opulence joined his standard, 
his forces were undisciplined, and the 
news of the defeat and capture of 
Argyle in Scotland, on the seventeenth 
of June, threw him into an agony of 
despair. On July the sixth, not three 
weeks afterwards, his army was routed 
at Sedgmoor, and on the eighth he 
himself was taken concealed in a ditch 
covered with fern. The love of life 
induced him to write to James a sup- 
plicatory letter, imploring mercy, and 
soliciting a personal interview, as he had 
an important secret to reveal, which he 
dared not commit to paper. He also 
wrote to the Queen and the Queen- 
dowager, begging them to intercede in 
his behalf. The interview was granted ; 
he threw himself at the King's feet, and 
earnestly entreated and fondly antici- 
pated the royal clemency; but James 
told him that he had rendered himself 
incapable of pardon, by usurping the 
title of King. He was beheaded on 
Tower Hill, on the fifteenth of July, 
1685. On the scaffold he exhibited 
such symptoms of spiritual blindness, 
that whilst he was preparing for the 
block, the prelates in attendance prayed 
" that God would accept his repentance, 
kk Imperftci repentance, his general 

repentinoe." The beadsnan wai to 
nenroos or unskiUul, that imshle ts 
effectively execute his horrible task H 
the third stroke, he flung down the j 
axe, and swore that his heart iuM 
him, and he would do no more ; hot tht 
sheriffii forced him to proceed, awl at 
the fifth blow the heaid was severed 
from the mangled body. The cmelties 
inflicted on the reliels by the inhnmaa 
Kirk and the drunken Judge Jeflren, 
are attributed by general histonr to the 
orders of James ; but the King, so £v 
from sanctioning such barbarous sever- 
ity, ** conipassioned his eoeroies is 
much," says the Duke of Buckinghan, 
'*as never to forgive Jeffreys in exe- 
cuting such multitudes of them in the 
west , contrary to his express orders.'* The 
King's conduct to the rebel Story, my 
be related as a proof that his Migesty 
was not the revengeful butcher hb 
enemies would have us suppose. Stoiy, 
when taken for assisting Monmoatk, . 
was ordered before the King andths j 
council; the order being unexpected | 
and prompt, his keeper, without giving I 
him time to prepare himself, cantaoned 
him to answer the questions in s plaia, 
correct manner, and immediately brought 
him in a coach. On entering the 
counciLchamber, his haggard and squa- 
lid appearance surprised and frightened 
all present. When the King cast hit 
eyes upon him, he exclaimed, " Is that 
a man, or what is it ?'' " It is Story, 
your majesty," said one of the cooadl. 
*' Oh ! Story," remarked the King, ** I 
remember him. he is a rare fellow, in- 
deed ;" then turning to him, ** Pray, 
Story," said he, ** you were in Mon- 
mouth's army in the west, were you not T' 
*' Yes, an't please your majesty,*' replied 
Story, vrith ready ftankness. *' Too were 
a commissioner there, were you not?'' 
said the King. '* Yes, an't please your 
majesty," again answered Story. **ABd 
you made a speech before crowds cf 
people ?" ** Yes, an't please vonr ma 
jesty." ««Pray," proceeded the King, 
'* if you have not forgotten what yoa 
said, let us have a specimen of yoorrbe> 
toric on that occasion.** ** itold thtm, 
an't please your mijesty, tliat yoa And 



r of Londos.'' "A ttit nigiie. 
ay word r* luil the king ; " ud. 
rfaat cite dill ton Mil them r- 

JIM poboned nai brother. to'C 
TOW mijeitT." " Impudence in 
MKt bdghL," remirkeit Jkmei; 
let HI knoir lomething riirther."' 

told them," aniwered Story, with. 
M|fn>id, " that jou hid deter- 
to make the nition hulh pipiili 
n».* " A mfue wiihi wilneH !" 

wen added. But what would 
-, Story, if, after all thit, I irere 
It you your life?" "Thit I 

pray lor your mijeaty ai long 
iml," rejoiaed Slorv, vilh aiuh- 

bo«. "Wellthrn.-'uidJinin, 
idinion I freely pardon all Ihil 

ud hope that you will not. fur 
D«,r«pre»enl your king a« inei- 
' Thi) ii Dot the only well-au- 
}itA imtance ofJamei'icleniency. 
iDDCd Ferfuun and Hook — the 
had drawn up Maamuuth'g pro- 
BN, tbe latter bad coiupired to 
!■— kod be mitigated the mtc- 

the lentence of teverel olhen 
d peruwally injured him. lie 
thoogh a Catholic, condemned 
MBtion of the Edict of Naotei. 
riatiaoand impolitic; and afforded 
oearagenient to the FrcncU Pro- 
, that at lait, DCarly Bfty Ihou- 

tbcm Kltled in England. But 
ht nation belieied him iniinccre. 
. wu tMktd. could a monarch he 
bit to Proreilantiim, who had, ; 
iIIm of Ibe lawi of tha realm, 

^bM*7 to Rome, and ettab- , 
.MCtM board lo watch otct the ' 
(of the Catholici > Impretteit ' 
Mac aentimeol), the parlianieot I 
M( in Noieniber to itienuouilv 
. hil pmpoiiiioa for a atanding 
to oOccn in which were to l>e | 
id ftom the teit act, that he ind- ' 
mnogunl the bouiei, with a 
rcaolution of acting in future I 

(bcir adtiee. I 

Hajeetin apent the lummer of 
VladMtt ud Um King, in the 1 

preMnce of tho QtHen, urenl Uma 
renewed bii army of 16,000 men, wbo 
were encamped onHonnalaw Heath, and 
pronounced to be Ibe flneit, the beat ap- 

in Kunipe. From Windaor, the roj-al 
pair went on ■ ihort progn-ai, and re- 
luming- lo Whilehill m October, kept 
tbe aniiiTiTtarica of [heir birlh-dnyi— 
they both happened in tliia month — with 
grool iplenduur. Tbe Calholio chapel 
built for Ibeir eiprcaa nic. wai opened 
on ChriiUnai eve, and they kept the 
Chriitmaa futivul with regal pomp and 
liberality. The diigraco of fioi^ieater 
haa by aotne writers been erroneoualy 
Bltributed lo the malice of the Uneen ; 
it was really occaiionrd by the iatrignei 
of Sundcrlitod and Fatbi'r Fetre. nie 
luttiT had been named in the •ub«equent 
■ummer one of the priyy eouncil, an 
appointment irhivh Jaoica knew to be 
impolitic, aod for which be could only ac- 
count by stating. "til at he wu n bewitch- 
td by my Lord Sundtrl and and Father 
Fetre, ai to let biniKlf he prcraited 
upon to do K indiscreet a thing." Tfas 
Queen dialiki.-d Petni ; she called bim a 
wicked man, and tuld the King that bii 
ckTalton Id the council would "gire 

Ereat scandal, not only to Froleatsnta, 
ut also to Cathiiliis, ai coatroir to their 
rules." Thit summer Ihcir Majeilics 
added to their nnpopuknly, by giving 
1 pompons public reception to tbe nun- 
cio D'Adda ; and on account of the death 
DftbeQuecn'smother,theDuchcsaof Mo- 
dcna,nn the nineleenth of July, the court 
vent into deep mourning. Uorin deeply 
deplored the loss of her beloTed mother. 
The alBictioainJurodhcrbeaUh.aiid on 
ihe siileetith or August, ih^ by thead- 
riec of her physicians, set out for Ikth, 
10 Uku a course oF the water* there. 
The King paid her a short riiit in Sep- 
tember; and oa the hot bath and the 
mineral watira i;reatly improTcd her 
health, she, on the sixth of Cktober, re- 
joined hi* Majesty at Windsor, and 
from thence wi'nt with him lo Wliiie- 
b.ill on theeleiiath. where his birth-day 
«aa ktpt with unusual ma;^]6cence. 

Towards the eluee of ^oTcmber, it 
liecame endent that the Qitcca woa prer- 



wiUiitndisgiii8edjoT,annoitnced it by pro- j 
dAmation in the Gazette of December 
t«eiitT-third,andat the Bamo time order- 
ed tio^j of tbanksgivingf to beobeerred, 
and a prayer to be said in all the chnrchet 
for the fruition of bis hope*. He pro- 
mised himself that the child would prore 
a boy; the Catholic party shared his 
exiiltition ; but his marrii-d daughters 
and tlieir consorts regnrdi'd the crown 
as ihcir natural inheritance ; and that 
their claim mi^lit not be supersinled by 
those of an infnnt half-hrothcr, tlicy 
secretly faronred the Kinr'senemic-s, and 
caused' rumours to be industriously cir- 
eulated, " that the Quc<n's pregnancy 
was a mere pn-tenco, the first act of a 
farce, which would rnd in the production 
of a suppositious child, a fa]s<- Prince of 
"Wales, to the cxclu»i«in of the true Pro- 
testant heirs." In ordinary cin-umstincos 
so improbiiblc a talc would ni»t have 
found credit ; but it was oagt rly rccriv- 
vi\ by the prrjudicn of party, an^ to give 
a priater air of prolmbility, the 8t(>r)* of 
Queen Mar}"'s *'mock conception," bj 
Fox, the m'artyroloinst, was reprinted 
and distributed amnn^ the people. 

In December, the t^ieen, in an affec- 
tionate letter, inftirmedher step-daughter, 
the Princes of Orange, of her situation. 
On the twenty-first of February, 1688. 
sheagiiin wrote, stating that she reckont d 
herself gone nl)out twenty weeks, and 
that she was d«ung well. She continued to 
do well till the seventh month, when 
she iMcamo so alarmingly ill that a mis- 
carriaire was anticinatnl, and fur several 
days h* r life Avas ue^paired of. Immedi- 
ately the djngiT waj5 over, James wrote 
as follows to the Prince uf Orange. 

" Whitehall. Msjr 11th. 1GE8. 
*• My going to Chatham on Tuesday 
last, prevtnttd me from writing to von 
by that day's post, to let you know I had 
receivc-<l yours of the eleventh. I found 
my ships and stores in very good condi- 
tion, and chose one of my new third- 
rates to be fitted out to carry the Queen- 
dowager, when she goes to Portu^l. 
I eame back thither yesterdav morning, 
and found that my Queen ha^ not bcf-n 
well, and was in some fean of her com- 
ing bdbnher time ; bat, God be thank- 

ed, the was Jtrj well til day T e st e rdiy, 
and continaes lo now, ao that 1 hope ibe 
will go oat her foil time • • • i 
A47f» M0 MtfTf fa My, hmt ikmi fftm flal 
Jlnd mt «f kimd to yom mt ^om mm ejftd. 
** To m J son, the Prince of Oravgt. 

''jAMn B." 

The concluding paragraph in this let- 
ter is an evidt-nt allusion to the Prmee 
of Orange's project to depriTe James of 
the crown. At the close of the pn>ecdiif 
summer, Louis XI V. had waraeo thcKiir 
of his son-in-law's base intentions, sm 
offered him assistance ; which he thears- 
fused, but which he nftcrwards Milicitcd, 
when it was too late. 

Maria, who continued in a drKcaU 
state of health till after her acrooHw- 
ment, resolved to lie-in at Windwr; 
but as her time drew near, she, to »ilciicc 
the slanders of her enemies, detennincd 
that the event should take place at St 
James's Palace with all poteible public- 
ity. " The Queen and 1 intend to he li 

i James's to-morrow ^SaturdaT] nigbt, 
she intending to lie in there,'' "rnnarki 
the King in a letter addressed to Kii 
daughter Marv, dated June eighth. 1688. 

! Throughout that day (June ninth.) the 
Queen was restless and anxions, and wbc* 
told that the workmen at St. Jame^i 
could not possibly finish in time to put n 
her bed tnat ni^ht, she angrily anbwextd 
— "I mean to lie there to-night, evei 
though it be upon the boards.*" At a btt 
hour at night, the arr.angements having 
b«*en hastily concluded, her Majfsty w» 
carried in a sedan from Whitehall to St 
James's Pulace. About eight the next 
rooming, it being June the tenth. Trin- 
ity Sundiiy, she requested the King to 
summon immediately cvt ry oneheinttnd- 
ed to witness the birth oftheir offspring. 
Margaret Dawson was the first to oh^ 
the summons ; she found the Queen alone, 
depressed in spirits, chilly and trembling; 
by her orders the b(>d was made and 
warmed with a warming-pan foil of hot 
cinders, before the Quten entered h. 
Upon tliis incident, which happened il 
eight in the morning, whilst tne Prim 
was not bom till toi, was founded tht 
shuderoosreportthat nnpuriooi child hd 

I been introdiwed beneath th« bed-dotto^ 



aff-pan. When the Queen 
» bed, she asked the King 
nt for the Queen Dowager. 
ftHrererjbod^," he answered, 
geared, for in an hour, the 
mber wascrowded with sixty- 
is. Amongst those who at- 
tnesscs, were the Qucen-dow- 
NUtess of Sunderland, and 
I of rank, besides eig|i)teen 
the priry council. Burnet 
.1 the Frotestant ladies that 
the court, were all gone to 
re the news was let go abroad ; 
Mis to add, that they were 
by the Queen's desire. At 
the child was bom, and in- 
m to three of the Protestant 
it. By a preconcerted si^, 
I telegraphed to the King 
I boy ; but James, not satis- 
bis secret signal, exclaimed 
Tiat is itr "What your 
nres," answered the nurse, 
' the babe in her arms, car- 
I an adjoining apartment, 
t ahown to all who had wit- 
lirth, and by them pronoun- 
ftne, healthy Prince. James, 
I joy at the event, knighted 
> physician on the instant by 
I ; made rich presents to his 
•d others; caused the g^ns 
■ad the bells to be rung ; 
ly of general thanksgiving 
r, and gave a considerable 
iW to the j>oor. Better would 
I n>r the interests of the mis- 
arch, had he have celebrated 
y a general pardon, and the 
16 bishops who just previous- 
sent to the Tower for refu- 
e his declaration of liberty 
e to be read in their churches, 
was too obstinate to yield, 
. to attempt to pervert the 
istiee ; and the trial and ac- 
e prelates greatly accelerated 
ion of his reeal power, 
nrs after his birtb, the care- 
tve the Prince too strong a 
licino ; it rendered liim froc- 
ie dose was repeated, till at 
me so ill that at three in the 
) wu tlMWght to be dying ; 

the Kine was called out of his bed, and 
the whole palace was thrown into a state 
of consternation. The physicians were 
sent for, and after they haa given him 
more physic and made an issue in his 
little shoulder, he recovered. But the 
King's enemies turned the event to their 
own account, by circulating a report 
that the Prince had died ; and to per- 
sonate him, another and a spurious cnild 
had been substituted. 

Although their Majesties were an- 
noyed at the libels issued apiinst them 
from the Dutch press, and informed of 
the designs of the Prince of Orange, 
they continued their friencUy correspond- 
ence with him and his consort. In a letter, 
dated the twelfth of June, James informed 
him of the birth of the Prince in the 
following words: — **The Queen was, 
God be thanked, safely delivered of ft 
son, on Sunday morning, a little before 
ten. She has been very ill ever since ; 
and the child was somewhat ill this lost 
night, of the wind ; but is now, blessed 
be God, very well again, and like to 
have no return of it, and is a very strong 
boy.*' The public thanksgiving for the 
birth of the Prince of Wales took place on 
the seventeenth of June, and shortly after- 
wards, the Lord Mayor and Aldermen 
of London kissed the t^rince*s hand, and 
presented him with a purse of gold. 
The cities of Edinburgh and York pre- 
sented their Majesties with congratu- 
latory addresses, and the University of 
Oxford and the laureate Dryden comme- 
morated the event in complimentary 
poems ; but to counteract the impressions 
which these roval odes might make on 
the public mind, the Orange faction, in 
sarcastic rhymes, attacked the character 
of the Queen, and insinuated that the 
Prince was a spurious child. At the 
court of France, the news of the Prince's 
birth was received with infinite satisfac- 
tion. All the ladies at St. Cloud drank 
his health, and the Duke of Burgundv 
caused threescore of fusees to bo fired, 
A contemporary remarks, ** The mobile 
at Amsterdam did, at the English con- 
sul's, celebrating the birth of the Prince 
of Wal^ commit such rudeness as re- 
quires severe resentment At the mne 
tune, theyteU nt of the eitnofdluri 



JOT at Rome upon the IVince's birth, 
and tliut it was expected his Holiness 
would suddenly nominate M. Barberino. 
or some other prelate, to carry his Rojal 
Hig^liness the blessed clouts.'** The Joyful 
Queen rapidly recovered ; at the lapse of 
a fortnight she received visiu from ladiea, 
and on the twenty-eighth she gave 
audience to the Dutch ambassador ex- 
traordinary, who conveyed to her the 
deceitful compliments of William and 
Marv of Orange. Eight davs after- 
wards, she addressed to her step-daughter, 
Mary, a letter, commencing — **The 
first time that I have taken pen in hand 
since I was brought to bed is this, to 
write to my dear Lemon** This one 
sentence, unfortunately all that has been 
preserved, of an epistle in which the 
Queen, discarding the stiffness and for- 
malitv of rov:dtv, plavfuUv addresses 
the Princess of Orange by the pet name 
of I^mon, fully indicates the familiarity, 
if not affection, subsisting between t£e 
royal ladies at this period. 

'*• Their Majesties and the Prince," ob- 
serves a news letter, dated the seventh 
of July, 1682, " continue in very good 
health.' The Kin)? hath declared the 
Prince Prince of Wales, though he is 
not yet createtl, and hath orden.'d him 
to be prayed for in all churches under 
that title. ' About fiftc-en davs hence, the 
court will be rcmoring to Windsor, and 
the Prince to Kichmond. About the 
tenth of this month, the Queen's majesty 
intends to come abroad, her month being 
then out ; and to welcome her Majesty, 
there are eight or nine vast engines 
made upon the Thames, of different 
forms and figures, which are to play 
several sorts of fire- works within a few 
nights after. At the lapse of a month, 
Maria lefl her chamber and returned 
from St. James's to Whitehall ; but on 
the following day the Prince became so 
alarmingly ill, that the displav of fire 
woi ks was postponed ; and toe l*rincess 
Anne exaltingly wrote to her sister Mary, 
that, '* to all appearances, he would soon 
become an angel in heaven." The Queen 
deplored his illness; and the sarcasms 
and vulgar low poems with which his 
birth and his state audiences— he had 
* 118. DoBsL YoL Brit. Mua. 41M, P> tSB- 

■ctnony been ptnided thnogii the a«^ 
monies of giving audience to the forefi 
ninisten uid othen — ^had been asailei 
■0 annoyed her, that, leapti^ fraa «m 
extreme to the other, she, nodcr a pre- 
tended dread of his ealchiiir the wm^ 
pox, shut him np, and wooM not pcnik 
any one to vioit him bat the 801001 
However, in a few days his health i»- 
\ proved ; and ** this evening, the sen*. 
teenth of July/' writes the £Uis cont- 
I spondent, **the fire- works apoa tbc 
I Thames will be played in honoor of kii 
j birth. The designs of them are ven 
! ingenious, and too long to be here ii- 
serted. There are several thoosoadi of 
baloons that are to be shot into the sir, 
and then to fall into the river, and re- 
present several figures. There are tvdre 
mortars that arc to cast graaado ibtUf 
into the air, which, when they break, 
will discover odd mixtures and shapis : 
the figure of Bacchua repreaentini 
Plenty, out of whose great tun and bellT 
are to be discharged about eight or nint 
barrels of combustibles. There are ii» 
two large female figures, which represent 
Fecundity and Loyalty ; the emblems of 
the first arc a liare' and a hen lad 
chickens, each of which are in tbur 
proper time to act their part in the bsj^- 
nificent show of this evening. T«« 
days afterwards," our author proceeds. 
*' the Lady Marquis of Powis. guvenuate 
to the Prince, hath tau<rht his rvjil 
highness a way to ask already ; for a 
few days ago, his royal highness mja 
brought to the King with a ptrtition ia 
his hand, desiring that two faundn-i 
hackney coaches may be added to thr 
four hundred now licensed, but that tk 
revenue for the said two hnndred might 
be applied towards the feeding and breed- 
ing (bringing up) of foundlinr childrva. 
The idea of founding a Foundling Hos* 
pital emanated from the Qneen ; and »b« 
hoped, by connecting the name of hir 
infant son with the benevolent purpcst-. 
to obtain for him the good-will of the 
nation. At the same time, the report 
that he had died was so generally be- 
lieved, that she found it necesory to 
send him daily into the park, under pn- 
tence of taking the air, but really tkit 
he might be Mcn by tke delndad pdhfib 



„i cndibly inranned 
,..,--[ and the Pope we» 
pu the Mnce of Onnge to 
■ RUB the throne, itill eanrini 
Ml ■ mrr^oiKlciiM vitb hii ticochiToiu 
•M4n-Li«. On the twentj-tccond oF 
Jalj, he Tijiliiil to Vrilliiin'i uuincerc I 
RmgraluUtinni on llie birth of the 
Prinw o(Wiilc», in the lubjoinKl nUhcr I 
eoU, distnulful Una : — 

" I hup hid TonTi b