CHAS. A. PUBLOW
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THE PUBLOW ACID TEST
Questions and Answers
^ on Buttermaking ^
CHAS. A. PUBLOW, A.B.M.D.C.M.
Assistant Professor of Dairy Industry in
ORANGE JUDD COMPANY
Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Limited
Orange Judd Company
[BKTEBED AT STATIONERS' HALL, LONDON, ENGLAND]
Printed in U. S. A.
This little book is affectionately
dedicated to my father, of whom
it can be said that no man was
more willing to answer the
questions of his students or
more anxious for their success.
In most of our agricultural schools and colleges
many short-course students now make up a large
part of the total registration, and in dairy work it
is doubtful if any other class of students accom-
plishes so much in the same period of tuition.
Perhaps the greatest difficulty or drawback to the
average short-course man is his lack of prelimi-
nary school training. He can do manual work, but
lack of experience in answering questions causes
his failure at examination time. He knows the
work, but cannot express his views in writing.
Then there are those long-experienced, practical
buttermakers who wish to better their positions by
trying civil service examinations. They read all
current literature and know the answers in a cer-
tain way, but cannot express their thoughts as they
It is for this class of men, and out of sympathy
for their needs, that the author has seen fit to com-
pile this little series of question compends.
All modern literature on buttermaking has been
consulted freely, with the hope of making the work
more thorough and with the hope of being of the
greatest service to those of our associates in dairy
CHAS. A. PUBLOW.
Questions and Answers on
What is the average composition of milk?
What constituents of milk are most important in
Why is the milk fat most important?
Because it forms over 80% of the composition of
In what form does fat in milk exist?
Milk fat exists in the form of small globules not
visible to the naked eye and held in suspension in
the milk serum.
What conditions affect the size of fat globules?
1. Breeds of cows.
2. Individuality of cows.
2 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
3. Period of lactation.
4. Part of milk tested.
5. Xight milking and morning milking.
6. Health of cow.
What are properties of milk fat?
Its specific gravity is about .93. Its melting point
is between 90° F. and 99° F. When heated it be-
comes oily and when cooled solidifies, some parts
solidifying sooner than others.
From what is milk fat formed?
Fatty acids and glycerin.
Of what fats is milk fat composed?
Non-volatile Myristin 20.2%
92% I Laurin 7.4%
Volatile ^ Caprion 3-6o%
8% [Caprylin 55%
What is the theory of a film surrounding each fat
Upon this subject there is great difference of
opinion. Dr. Van Slyke of Geneva states that no
such film exists. Dr. Storch says that a film does
exist, that he has isolated and analyzed it and found
it contained 94 per cent w^ater and 6 per cent pro-
ON BUTTERMAKING 3
What is a volatile fat?
One composed of a soluble, easily vaporized, fatty
acid, and glycerin.
What is a non-volatile fat?
One composed of an insoluble fatty acid and
glycerin. It is not easily vaporized.
What is the melting point of the different fats?
Olein 41° F.
Stearin 150° F.
Myristin 129° F.
Palmitin 142° F.
Of what value are the casein and albumin in butter-
Of no particular value, as they are retained in
the skim milk.
Of what value is milk sugar in buttermaking ?
From milk sugar lactic acid is formed by the
action of the bacteria. This knowledge is made
use of in making starters, in ripening cream, in
churning and in securing a desirable flavor and
body in butter.
What is the color of milk due to?
I. To lactochrome.
2. To the milk fats, particularly palmitin.
How does the color of milk affect the natural color-
ing of butter?
During those seasons of the year in which the
cow is fed grass or other succulent foods the color
4 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
of butter is highest. During the winter when dry
feed is fed the milk fat has less color.
What are the effects of pasteurizing milk at i8o°
F. or over?
1. It destroys nearly all bacterial life.
2. It diminishes the viscosity.
3. It drives off gases.
4. It may impart a cooked taste.
5. It precipitates some of the albuminoids and
6. It destroys the properties of milk enzymes.
7. It splits up the fat globules.
8. It caramelizes some of the sugar.
What ferments are common in milk?
1. Organized — bacteria, yeasts.
2. Unorganized — galactase.
What is the difference between an organized and an
An organized ferment is one due to the action of
bacteria and having the power of reproducing itself.
An unorganized ferment or enzyme is formed by
some secreting gland, has limited action and has
not the power of reproducing itself.
What are bacteria?
Bacteria are the lowest forms of microscopical
What bacteria are desirable in buttermaking?
Those forms that produce lactic acid from milk
sugar and give a desirable flavor to butter.
ON BUTTERMAKING 5
What bacteria are undesirable in buttermaking?
I. Those that produce gas and bad flavors in
milk, cream and butter.
2.* Those that cause ropy milk.
3. Those that cause sweet coagulation of milk.
4. Liquifying bacteria.
5. All forms that are not necessary in producing
clean, wholesome butter.
Upon what conditions do bacteria depend for
1. Suitable food.
3. Suitable temperature.
What are the sources of bacteria in milk, cream,
1. From stable air, especially when dust, cob-
webs and manure abound.
2. From unclean hands that milk the cows.
3. From unclean utensils.
4. From contaminated water.
5. From the air of any place whose surround-
ings are unclean.
6. From impure starters.
7. From any unclean thing with which milk,
cream, or butter comes in contact.
8. By keeping these products at too high tem-
What are bacterial spores?
They are the generative cells by which bacteria
divide and reproduce. All forms of bacteria do not
6 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
How can bacteria be killed?
Most bacteria can be killed by heating to a tem-
perature of 212° F. Many forms are killed by lower
temperature, but spores are not destroyed by boil-
How can spores be killed?
By fractional sterilization, i. e., by first heating
to boiling point, 212° F., then cooling to 90° F.,
allowing remaining spores to develop at this latter
temperature into bacteria and heating again to
212° F. to kill these. This procedure may be re-
peated several times.
How can milk or cream be tested on the receiving
1. For acidity by the use of an acidimeter.
2. For odors by sense of smell.
3. For flavors by sense of taste.
4. For insoluble dirt by eyesight and by allow-
ing samples to stand a few minutes in small glass
jars so that the dirt will settle to the bottom.
5. In cold weather flavors and odors can be de-
tected more readily if milk and cream are warmed
up by steam.
6. By the use of fermentation or Wisconsin
7. ^lilk can be tested for adulteration by the
use of a lactometer.
8. Samples can be taken for composite bottles or
for daily testing for fat.
What is the fermentation test?
Commonly called " Wisconsin curd test." Sam-
ON BUTTERMAKING 7
pies of suspected milk from each patron are placed
in small glass jars holding about half a pint. The
milk is heated to 90° F. and retained at this tem-
perature to make conditions favorable for the
growth of any abnormal bacteria or ferments that
may be present. Cheesemakers add a small amount
of rennet to the samples of milk so that a curd is
formed that may be studied for defects: The
samples are examined frequently during the day,
and tested for odors or other defects that may have
What are the uses of the fermentation test?
1. To assist in locating sources of bad flavors
in milk, cream, and butter.
2. To study the nature of the milk furnished by
3. To study the action of suspected starters on
samples of milk.
How should milk and cream be sampled for fat
Samples of milk can be accurately measured by
the use of a 17.6 c. c. pipette. They can also be
weighed, using 18 grams for each test.
All samples of cream should be accurately
weighed on reliable scales, using 4 grams for each
sample. Accurate work cannot be done by using
a pipette for measuring, as cream of different per-
centages of fat varies considerably in volume.
When milk and cream are paid for on the fat
basis, composite samples of each patron's milk or
cream are kept and tested at least twice each
8 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
What is meant by "overrun" in buttermaking?
The overrun is the difference between the amount
of pure milk fat and the amount of butter manu-
factured from that given amount of fat.
How is the percentage overrun determined?
The difference between the amount of fat and
the amount of butter is divided by the amount of
fat and multiplied by lOO.
Example : 700 pounds milk testing 6 per cent=
42 pounds fat. Yield of butter made from 42 pounds
fat, is 50 pounds; difference is 8 pounds (overrun)
.*. percentage overrun is
^2^ X 100=19%.
Upon what does the amount of overrun depend?
1. Thoroughness of skimming.
2. Completeness of churning.
3. General losses in the creamery.
4. Composition of the butter manufactured.
5. Accuracy in sampling the cream for testing.
6. Accuracy in reading the fat in the graduated
What is "churn-yield"?
Churn-yield is the amount of butter in relation to
the amount of fat in the milk. Example:
/Pounds of butter, s^ lOO=chum.yield.
^Pounds of milk / -^
If cream is used instead of milk, the word cream
is used in place of milk in this formula.
What is meant by "cream-raising coefBcient"?
It is the percentage of fat removed from the milk
during the process of separation. Example:
ON BUTTERMAKING 9
Suppose 100 pounds of milk containing 4 per
cent fat is skimmed and it yields 85 pounds skim
milk, testing .2 per cent fat and 15 pounds cream.
Total fat in whole milk^iooX-04=4 pounds.
Total fat in skim milk=85X-002=.i7 pound.
Total fat in cream=4 — .17=3.83 pounds.
3 .83 X 100 . Qg yg
.-. the cream-raising coefficient is 95.75 per cent.
Should a patron who furnishes cream be paid more
per pound of fat than the patron who delivers
Theoretically, he should, because there is no
separator loss to the creamery when cream is fur-
nished. However, it is doubtful if such a plan can
be fairly conducted in many places, because the
quality of the cream or fat determines largely its
market value. Usually butter made by whole milk
creameries is superior to that made in cream-gath-
ering creameries, so, taken all in all, it is doubtful
if any difference should be made in the price of fat.
Why is milk heated or tempered before separating?
1. Because all separators skim closer and do not
clog so easily.
2. Viscosity of milk is decreased.
3. Fluidity of milk is increased.
4. Increases the ease of fat separation.
What is the best temperature for separating milk
by centrifugal force?
About 90° F.
lO QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
What are the advantages of high heating before
1. Undesirable taints are largely eliminated.
2. Bacteria are killed in the skim milk and
3. Less heating and cooling apparatus is neces-
4. Closer skimming.
5. Less labor and smaller cost of heating.
How should milk be heated before separation?
1. By some special heater that heats the milk
indirectly with steam or hot water. This is the
2. By the use of a double-jacketed vat in which
hot water can be used. This is a common method,
but it has two serious objections:
(i) Milk is kept warm too long before sep-
aration, favoring the rapid growth of bacteria.
(2) If for any reason the separator or ma-
chinery should break down, the warm milk will
soon sour, especially during warm .weather.
Why is it not advisable to heat milk by direct
1. Steam from impure water may introduce bad
flavors into the milk.
2. It is too sudden.
3. The butter may have a burnt or oily flavor.
Why is fat separated from milk for churning?
1. To reduce the bulk.
2. To save fat. Fat is more easily removed by
separation than by churning.
3. For commercial purposes.
4 To facilitate cream ripening.
5. To secure sweet skim milk.
What are the different methods of cream separa-
1. Centrifugal <j ^^^^^ separators.
2. Gravity ^deep-setting method.
What are the advantages of centrifugal separation
over gravity separation?
1. More rapid.
2. More thorough.
3. Better cream, that can be of any desired per-
centage of fat.
4. Fresher skim milk.
5. Fermentations can more easily be controlled.
6. Centrifugal force removes insoluble dirt from
7. Less danger of milk and cream absorbmg bad
8. Insures a more even quality of butter.
9. Less labor involved.
What are the advantages of the shallow-pan sys-
What are its disadvantages?
I. Heavy loss of fat. This method saves only
about 80 per cent of the fat.
12 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
2. Requires much space.
3. Requires much labor.
4. Milk may become seriously contaminated by
long exposure in unclean places.
5. Cannot fully control the ripening of milk.
6. The skim milk is not in the best condition for
feeding to calves.
What are the advantages of the deep-setting sys-
1. Furnishes good cream.
2. Easy to operate.
3. Not expensive.
4. Very good system if one has ice or cold water.
What are the disadvantages?
1. Considerable loss of fat. Seldom can more
'than 93 per cent of the fat be secured by this
2. Skim milk is not fresh, although sweet.
What are the disadvantages of the dilution method?
1. Greater bulk.
2. Skim milk less valuable.
3. Danger of undesirable bacteria in impure
4. Cream is not normal in solids-not-fat com-
5. Loss of fat is as great as in deep-setting sys-
What four principles have been used by separator
I. Revolving bucket centrifuge.
ON BUTTERMAKING I3
2. Intermittent hollow bowl.
3. Continuous hollow bowl.
4. Continuous separator, with contrivances
within the bowl.
What is the principal part in separator construc-
A hollow bowl with or without inner devices and
rotating at high speed in a vertical position.
Into what three layers does milk divide in a revolv-
ing separator bowl?
1. Separator slime on the outside.
2. Skim milk next the slime.
3. Cream nearest the center of the bowl. The
richest cream is in the very center of the bowl.
What is the composition of separator slime?
It is made up of casein, insoluble dirt, bacteria,
fat, water, ash, albumin, and foreign bodies.
Fleischmann gives the following:
Caseous matter. 25.9%
Other substances 2.1%
What is the cream screw?
It is the outlet by which the cream leaves the
14 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
How does altering the position of the cream screw
affect the composition of the cream?
Turning it in toward the center of the bowl in-
creases the richness of the cream.
Turning it away from the center causes the cream
to be thinner.
What is the relation between the skim-milk outlet
and the running of the separator?
The nearer the skim-milk outlet can be brought
to the center of the bowl, the easier will the machine
run. Usually the skim-milk outlet is brought in
toward the center of the bowl at one end through
tubes extending from the circumference of the
What conditions affect the amount and richness of
1. Richness of the milk.
2. Speed of the bowl.
3. Rate of inflow of milk.
4. Position of the creant screw and skim-milk
5. Temperature of the milk.
6. Acidity of the milk.
What are the most common ways of regulating the
richness of cream?
1. By cream screw.
2. By skim-milk outlet.
3. By inflow of milk.
What are the causes of cream being too thick?
I. Cream screw too near center of the bowl.
ON BUTTERMAKING IS
2. Cream outlet may be clog-ged.
3. Milk inflow may be insufficient.
4. Speed of machine may be too high.
5. Milk may be very rich.
6. Milk may be too cold.
What are the causes of cream being too thin?
1. Cream screw too far from center of bowl.
2. Skim-milk outlet may be clogged.
3. Milk inflow may be too fast.
4. Speed of machine may be too low.
5. Milk may be very poor in fat.
What is the running speed of the common power
De Laval, 5,600 revolutions per minute.
United States, 8,500-9,000 revolutions per minute.
Simplex, 6,500 revolutions per minute.
Tubular, 14,000-15,000 revolutions per minute.
Sharpies, 14,000-15,000 revolutions per minute.
How is the speed of separators determined?
All modern machines have a speed indicator con-
sisting of a small wheel, which can be pushed
against the wormed part of the separator's revolv-
ing spindle. Most indicators make only one revolu-
tion while the bowl turns 100 times. In testing the
speed it is necessary to have a watch or clock with
second hands so that the number of revolutions of
the small wheel in a given number of seconds can
Example : The speed indicator is pushed against
the revolving spindle for 10 seconds,. During that
time the indicator turns 12 times. Every turn of
1 6 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
the indicator means lOO turns of the separator bowl
and spindle. Therefore, in lo seconds the bowl re-
volves lOO X 12, or 1,200 times. Ten seconds is
one-sixth of a minute. Therefore, in a minute the
bowl revolves 1,200X6 times, 7,200 times.
The speed of all modern separators can be easily-
figured in this way. Each turn of the indicator
De Laval means 100 turns of the bowl.
United States means 100 turns of the bowl.
Simplex means 50 turns of the bowl.
Tubular means 250 turns of the bowl.
Sharpies means 250 turns of the bowl.
Upon what does the centrifugal force of a revolving
separator bowl depend?
1. It varies in direct proportion to the diameter
of the bowl, i. e., the greater the diameter the less
speed is required in order to get a certain force.
2. It varies in quadratic proportion to the speed
of the machine, i. e., if the speed is doubled the
centrifugal force is increased four times.
What are the disadvantages of a large bowl?
1. It more easily gets out of balance.
2. It is harder to keep on bearings.
3. It is heavy and hard to handle.
How should a separator bowl be flushed after
1. With skim milk.
2. With warm water at about the same tem-
perature as the milk.
ON BUTTERMAKING VJ
How thick should farm separated cream be?
The thicker the better. The farmer then has
more skim milk for feeding purposes and has less
cream to handle. Rich cream will take longer in
souring. Cream testing 40 per cent fat makes a
desirable cream for farm-separator and butter work.
What are the advantages of owning a farm sepa-
rator and making butter on the farm, rather
than send the milk to a creamery?
1. The milk can be skimmed as soon as milked,
with small loss of fat, giving perfectly fresh skim
milk for feeding purposes.
2. No expense for delivering milk to the cream-
ery and drawing skim milk home.
3. No danger of transmitting disease from other
herds through skim milk.
4. The cream can be easily controlled and
5. A better quality of butter can be made, all
other things being equal.
6. The farmer Is more independent.
What are the disadvantages of this method?
1. Cost of separator and buttermaking equip-
2. Considerable labor Involved.
3. If the cream Is not churned every day or two
the flavor of the butter suffers.
4. Unless the butter Is well made and a special
trade is established, it will not sell for as much
money as does creamery butter.
l8 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
5. A suitable sanitary place must be provided
for ripening cream and for cooling butter.
6. Scarcity of farm help.
What precautions would you observe in operating
1. Follow the directions of the manufacturer.
2. Keep the machine level and on a solid founda-
3. Keep all parts of the machine absolutely
4. Keep all moving parts well oiled with the
5. Start the machine slowly.
6. Fill the bowl with warm water before start-
7. Keep the speed even and the milk feed supply
8. When through separating flush the bowl with
skim milk and warm water.
9. Allow the revolving bowl to stop slowly.
10. Keep the machine and its parts in good
11. Test the skim milk frequently.
What is pasteurization?
Pasteurization consists in heating milk to at least
140° F. for at least ten minutes, for the purpose of
destroying bacterial life. The heating is followed
by rapid cooling to check spore formation. The
word is derived from Pasteur, a French scientist.
What methods of pasteurization are used?
I. Continuous; that is, heating continuously for
ON BUTTERMAKING I9
2. Intermittent; that is, heating and cooling milk
alternately several times with the idea of allow-
ing spore development between heatings. After the
third heating to a high temperature, practically all
bacteria and spores are destroyed.
What is sterilization?
This term is often wTongly used in place of pas-
teurization. To sterilize milk it must be heated to
Nvery high temperature under pressure. Milk is not
sterile until every bacterium and spore is destroyed.
What are the advantages of pasteurization in butter-
1. Most bacteria can be destroyed in milk and
2. Commercial starters can be prepared and
carried on for indefinite periods.
3. Pasteurization of skim milk prevents trans-
mission of tuberculosis and other such diseases
through its medium.
4. Many volatile and food flavors can be re-
moved from milk and cream.
5. Cream ripening can be more successfully con-
6. A more uniform quality of butter can be
7. Butter has better keeping quality.
8. Enables separators to skim closer.
What are the disadvantages of pasteurization in
I. Cost of machinery, fuel and labor.
20 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
2. Requires ice or cold water for cooling pur-
3. Butter may have an oily texture if high tem-
perature is improperly used.
What are the names of some of the best pasteuriz-
What are the important features in a pasteurizing
Upon what does the efficiency of the machine
1. Kind of material from which the heating sur-
face is manufactured.
2. Degree of adhesiveness of milk or cream on
the heating surface.
3. Thickness of layer of condensed steam on
steam side of heating surface.
4. Difference in temperature on each side of
5. Proper utilization of steam turned into the
ON BUTTERMAKING 21
What is the average cost of pasteurizing in butter-
This varies in many localities and under many-
conditions, but the average cost can be fairly esti-
mated as being about ^4o of ^ cent on every pound
of butter manufactured.
What is meant by cream ripening?
Ripening is a process by which cream is prepared
for churning. It consists in controlling the souring
by controlling temperatures and the growth of bac-
teria both in the cream and in starters used.
Why do we ripen cream?
1. To control the growth of lactic acid bacteria.
2. To produce a desired amount of lactic acid in
3. To lessen the viscosity of cream.
4. To increase the churnability of cream.
5. To prevent losses in churning.
6. To produce flavor and aroma in the butter.
7. To increase the keeping quality of the butter.
What changes take place in cream during the ripen-
1. Great increase in the number of bacteria.
2. Increased amount of lactic acid is formed.
3. Reduction in the amount of milk sugar due to
the formation of acid.
4. Formation of various compounds in small
quantities due chiefly to the action of bacteria and
5. Thickening due to coagulation of casein.
6. The cream surface becomes glossy.
22 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
7. Viscosity is lessened.
8. Cream develops a characteristic aroma and
How is cream ripened?
1. Naturally, i. e., by allowing the cream to
stand at a favorable temperature until sour enough
2. Artificially, i. e., by the use of starters. These
may be buttermilk, sour skim milk or commercial
starters. Usually the cream is first pasteurized.
What are the disadvantages of natural ripening?
1. The growth of undesirable bacteria cannot be
2. Great difficulty in making a uniform quality
3. Takes too much time if low temperature is
4. Quality of cream and butter is usually de-
fective in flavor.
What are the advantages of ripening cream with a
1. The growth of lactic acid bacteria and the
formation of lactic acid can be controlled.
2. The growth of undesirable bacteria can be
almost entirely prevented.
3. Less difficulty in making a uniform quality
4. Flavor of butter can be greatly improved.
5. Butter has better keeping quality.
6. Advantages of pasteurization can be gained.
7. Time is saved.
ON BUTTERMAKING 2^
How is a commercial starter prepared for use?
A small bottle containing a culture of lactic acid
producing bacteria is procured from some^ dairy
bacteriology laboratory, or from some reliable dairy
supply house. Directions are usually sent out with
these, but the following method is the one usually
Place I quart of clean, szveet milk in a sterile glass
jar. Heat the milk gradually in water until a tem-
perature of 200° F. is reached. Hold at this tem-
perature for at least one hour. Then allow the
milk to cool to 90° F., being careful not to place the
glass suddenly in cold water.
As soon as 90° F. is reached the content of the
small bottle is carefully added to the milk and
mixed through it. The mixture is now allowed to
cool gradually to 70° F. and then retained at this
temperature for 24 hours, when it should be sour.
This is called a " mother-starter," or " starter-line,"
and is not to be used in ripening the cream, but in
preparing starter for the following day.
To do this, take 100 pounds of clean, sweet skim
milk in a previously sterilized can and heat to at
least 200° F. for at least one hour. Then cool
rapidly to 70° F. and add the contents of the quart
jar prepared the day previous, mixing it thoroughly
through the milk with a sterilized dipper. Hold at
70° F. for 18 to 24 hours, when it should be sour,
slightly coagulated and clean in flavor. A small
amount of this is saved out to inoculate the starter
for the following day, and the process can be re-
peated and carried on in the same manner from day
C State^olleae questions and answers
What precautions should be observed in preparing
and using a commercial starter?
1. Absolute cleanliness in all things that come
in contact with the milk.
2. Use sanitary utensils.
3. Use correct thermometers.
4. Be exact on temperature.
5. Use the best milk obtainable for making the
6. Add starter to cream as early as possible.
7. Do not use excessive amount of starter.
How much commercial starter should be used in
This will vary according to:
1. Temperature of cream.
2. Richness of cream.
3. Acidity of the starter.
4. Time required for ripening.
5. Purity of cream.
6. Kind of butter desired.
Good results can sometimes be obtained by using
as much as 50 per cent starter, but the usual amount
is from 10 per cent to 20 per cent of the cream to be
ripened. One point that should be remembered is
that the greater the amount of buttermilk, the
greater is the loss of fat in churning.
How much acidity should be developed in a com-
About .7 per cent.
Is a commercial starter a pure culture?
It may be or it may not. Usually it is not.
ON BUTTERMAKING ^S
What are the qualities of an ideal commercial
1. It should have a clean, sour taste and a mild,
2. It should be nicely curdled, but not hard or
3. It should have about .7 per cent acidity.
4. A brownish color indicates thorough pasteur-
5. It should be glossy and have a liver-like con-
What are the common defects in starters?
1. They may contain large numbers of undesir-
2. They may be " gassy."
3. They may have a bitter taste due to over-
development of acid or from being kept at too high
4. They may curdle while heating, due to ab-
normal or over-ripe milk.
5. They may be " slimy " or "ropy," due to im-
6. They may become " wheyed-ofif," caused by
over-development of acid or too high temperature.
What are the, effects of a bad starter upon the qual-
ity of the butter?
1. The flavor of the starter will be imparted to
the butter and buttermilk.
2. Mechanical losses are greater.
3. Keeping quality of the butter is greatly im-
^6 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
What are some of the reliable commercial cultures
on the market?
Hansen's, Little Falls, N. Y.
0. Douglas's, Boston, Mass.
S. C. Keith's, Charleston, Mass.
Ericsson's, St. Paul, Minn.
Parke, Davis & Co/s, Detroit, Mich.
At what temperature should cream be ripened?
Most buttermakers are now agreed that a tem-
perature between 60° F. and 70° F. gives the best
results. The cream should be cooled to churning
temperature a few hours before churning.
Why should cream be stirred during the ripening
1. To insure uniform development of lactic acid.
2. To keep the fat and acid thoroughly mixed.
3. To keep the temperature even.
4. To prevent the cream surface drying.
5. To prevent loss of fat.
6. To prevent white specks of casein in the
What difference should be made in ripening when
cream is churned every other day?
The method most successfully used is as follows:
Begin ripening at once with the first lot of cream
skimmed and let the lactic acid bacteria get a start.
In a few hours cool to at least 50° F. and hold till
the following day, when the freshly skimmed cream
can be thoroughly mixed with it. The cream from
the first day thus acts as a starter for the cream
of the second day. The lactic acid inhibits the
ON BUTTERMAKING 27
growth of undesirable bacteria so that better results
are accomplished. A great mistake is too often
made by holding cream too long. The longer it
is held after being ready for churning, the more
the flavor and quality of the butter suffers.
What conditions determine whether cream of dif-
ferent qualities should be mixed?
1. Quality of the cream.
2. The kind of market for the butter.
3. The amount of poor cream compared with the
quantity of good cream.
4. General creamery conditions, such as facilities
for pasteurizing, making starters, and for cream
How much acid should be developed in cream for
This varies with the amount of fat in the cream
and the kind of butter desired. Usually
20% cream should have about .7%
30% cream should have about .6%
40% cream should have about .5%
50% cream should have about .4%
The richer the cream, the less sugar it contains
for acid formation.
How is the acid in milk, cream, starters, or butter-
By an acidimeter.
Describe an acidimeter and the method of testing.
There are several tests for measuring acid and
sold on the market under different names, such as
28 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Publow's, Mann's, Farrington's, and Marshall's,
but the principle is the same in all of them. An
alkaline solution of known strength and an indicator
called phenol-phthalein are the reagents used. The
purpose of the indicator is to indicate the reaction
of the milk or cream; i. e., it shows whether the
milk or cream is acid, alkaline, or neutral. The in-
dicator has no color efifect in an acid solution, but it
turns an alkaline substance red. When the neutral
point is reached, the faintly pink color is barely
To make the test :
A known quantity of the milk or cream to be
tested is placed in a white cup. To it a few drops
of indicator are added. An alkaline solution of
known strength is then allowed to run in drop by
drop from a graduated burette until the milk or
cream assumes a faintly pink color, which signifies
that all the acid in the milk or cream has been
neutralized by the alkali used. The amount of
alkali used can be read on the burette, and as its
strength is known it is an easy matter to figure the
amount of acid in the milk or cream. One c. c. of
Yio normal alkali neutralizes .009 grams lactic acid.
In the test used at Cornell university the alkali
used is a %o normal solution of caustic soda. This
makes a very convenient strength, because when g
grams of milk or cream are taken, .1 c. c. of it
neutralizes or represents .01 per cent of lactic acid.
Thus, if in testing the cream 4 c. c. of the alkali
was used, the cream contained .40 per cent of acid.
In Farrington's test the alkali is made %o normal
by adding 5 tablets in 97 c. c. water. Then, when
ON BUTTERMAKING 29
17.6 c. c. of cream is taken, i c. c. of the alkali
represents .01 per cent acid.
In Mann's test a %o normal alkali is used and
50 c. c. of cream are tested. The number c. c. of
alkali necessary to neutralize the acid measures in
degrees the amount of acid.
I c. c. of •—• alkali^i degree Mann's test.
To get the per cent acid multiply the number
c. c. alkali used by .009, divide by 50 and multiply
What is the object in churning?
It is the agitation or concussion of the cream to
a degree sufficient to separate the fat-globules from
the milk and cause them to unite into masses of
butter large enough to be easily separated from the
What conditions afifect the churnability of cream?
1. Temperature of the cream.
2. Acidity of the cream.
3. Richness of the cream.
4. Size of the fat-globules.
5. Nature of the agitation.
What is the effect of temperature on the churn-
ability of cream?
1. The higher the temperature, the sooner the
churning process will be completed.
2. High temperature causes the butter to come
in soft lumps instead of in a firm granular form.
3. High temperature causes too much butter-
milk to remain in the butter.
30 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
4. The excessive buttermilk usually causes
5. Too low temperature causes difficult' churning.
6. Low temperature increases the viscosity of
7. Low temperature causes the granules to be-
come so hard that the butter takes up salt slowly,
and the butter is difficult to work.
8. If the granules are too firm and cold, too
much Avater is lost from the butter in working, de-
creasing the overrun.
What conditions influence the hardness of the fat-
globules in churning?
1. The breed of the cow.
2. Individuality of the cow.
3. The food of the cow.
4. Season of the year.
5. Stage of lactation period.
6. Abnormal conditions.
Under normal conditions at v^^hat temperature
should cream be churned?
Between 50° and 60° F. A very popular tem-
perature is 56° F. The churning should be com-
pleted in at least one hour.
What is a combined churn?
One in which cream can be churned and contain-
ing some device for working the butter.
What are the advantages of a combined churn?
I. Butter can be churned, washed, salted, and
worked without being removed from the churn.
ON BUTTERMAKING 3I
2. Saves time and labor.
3. Temperature of butter can be easily con-
4. Flies are kept away from the butter during
What are the names of some of the best combined
churns on the market?
5. Dairy Queen.
How should a new churn be prepared for use?
It should first be washed out with plain, warm
water. Then rinsed with hot salt water. Then
salt water should be left in the churn for at least
24 hours, so that the pores of the wood become
closed and filled with salt. If desirable, the churn
may be steamed on the inside before soaking in salt
water. After this treatment the churn is rinsed
with cold water and is then ready for use.
How should a churn be treated to keep it in a clean,
After use the churn should be rinsed with warm
water, then rinsed again with hot water, and finally
rinsed again in hot water in which some lime has
been dissolved. Sometimes steam and salt solu-
tions are used for the final rinsing, but they are
not so satisfactory as hot lime water. Nothing will
do more to preserve the sweet, fresh condition of
the churn than this simple method.
32 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
How can the growth af mold be prevented in a
churn not in constant use?
Before putting- the churn aside give it a thorough
soaking in a hot solution of bichlorid of mercury,
Strength one in a thousand. This is made by dis-
solving yYi grains of mercuric chlorid in i pint
hot water. The churn should then be kept in a
dry place. Before using the churn again, it should
be thoroughly washed with hot salt water in order
to remove all traces of mercury, which is a poison.
When can the greatest amount of agitation be ob-
tained in a churn?
When it is about one-third full.
What is the effect of revolving a churn too fast?
The agitation is lessened and may even stop.
What is the effect of revolving a churn too slowly?
The cream is not agitated sufficiently, and churn-
ing is greatly delayed.
Why should cream be strained before churning?
1. It separates all lumps.
2. Separates other insoluble bodies that may be
3. Assists in preventing mottled color.
Why is artificial butter color used?
To maintain a uniform color in the butter during
all seasons of the year.
What is used to color butter?
Most color is prepared from the seed fruit of the
ON BUTTERMAKING 33
annatto tree. Carrot juice and the extract from
several plants have been used. Several artificial
colors have been marketed, but the United States
pure food laws prevent their use in butter.
How much coloring is used in buttermaking ?
This depends upon the market requirements,
upon the season of the year, upon the strength of
the color, and upon the natural color and richness
of the milk fat.
The amount varies between none and 2 ounces
for every 100 pounds of milk fat. Most eastern
markets want a pale, straw color, while the south-
ern markets demand a much redder color.
How is color added to butter?
The color is diluted in a small amount of cold
water and added to the cream before churning. If
for any reason it is forgotten at this time, it can be
mixed with the salt and applied, but this is not a
desirable method, as the butter is usually over-
worked in so doing.
What objection is there to mixing sour cream and
sweet cream before churning?
1. The creams do not mix well.
2. The sour cream churns more rapidly than the
3. There is usually heavy loss of fat in the
4. The color may be mottled from casein co-
agulated by acid in the sour cream.
34 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
How would you tell when cream is churned
1. By the size of the butter granules. These
should be about the size of corn kernels.
2. By the appearance of the buttermilk. This
should be bluish in color and clear.
3. By the height at which the butter floats on
the buttermilk. Should be well up.
What is the effect of churning the cream too long?
1. The granules of butter become too large and
retain too much buttermilk, which is difficult to
2. There is danger of incorporating too much
moisture in the butter.
3. If the cream is of poor flavor, the excessive
moisture and buttermilk injures the keeping quality
of the butter.
4. The texture of the butter is injured.
What is the effect of too much buttermilk in butter ?
1. The sugar in the buttermilk sours and in-
jures the flavor.
2. The casein usually causes mottled color.
3. Keeping quality is injured.
4. The texture of the butter is injured.
What is the effect of stopping the churning process
1. The butter granules are too small and many
of them are lost in the buttermilk.
2. There is difficulty in holding moisture in the
butter and it may cause leaking butter.
ON BUTTERMAKING 35
What are the causes of difficult churning?
1. Small fat-globules. Usually found in milk
from stripper cows or cows far advanced in the
2. Cream may become frothy, due to some ab-
normal condition of the milk from a diseased cow,
or from foreign substances of an alkaline nature
added to milk or cream.
3. The milk or cream may be "yeasty."
4. The churn may be too full.
5. Cream may be too thick.
6. Cream may be too thin.
7. Cream may be too cold.
8. Cream may be too sweet.
What are the remedies for difficult churning?
1. See that the cream is not too thick nor too
thin, of proper acidity, and of correct temperature.
2. Do not overfill the churn.
3. If due to the milk from a certain cow or herd,
keep this by itself.
4. Succulent food, such as ensilage, usually
remedies the trouble in milk from errors in dry
5. Ripen the cream to a higher acidity.
6. Use a good commercial starter.
What is the cause of frothy cream?
1. Abnormal condition of cream due to diseased
condition of cows.
2. Certain bacteria and bacterial products.
3. " Yeasts." Quite common in recent years.
4. Alkaline preservatives added to milk or cream.
36 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
5. Cream too sweet.
6. Churn too full.
How would you treat cream that froths in a churn?
1. Correct errors in temperature, acidity, fullness
of churn, etc.
2. For immediate treatment, add some warm
water around the outside of the churn.
3. If a combined churn is used, start the rollers.
4. Some warm water may be added directly to
5. By allowing the churn to stand quiet a while
the froth may settle and churning can then be com-
6. Pasteurize the cream.
7. Use a good commercial starter and ripen the
cream a little more than usual.
8. AVhen the trouble continues after the above
treatments, thorough investigation should be made
into the milk supply and the source of all water
Why is butter washed?
To remove as much of the buttermilk as possible.
When should butter be washed?
Just as soon as all the free buttermilk can be re-
What temperature should the wash water be?
It should be as nearly like that of the cream
when churned as is consistent with other condi-
ON BUTTERMAKING 37
What IS the effect of using too cold water?
1. It chills the butter.
2. It hinders the escape of buttermilk.
3. It may cause a tallowy appearance in the
4. It lessens the moisture content of the butter.
What is the effect of using too warm water?
1. It tends to increase the moisture content of
2. It injures the texture of the butter, causing
it to become greasy and soft.
What is the effect of excessive washing of butter?
1. It removes some of the flavor from butter.
2. If the water is warm it increases the moisture
content of the butter.
3. It injures the texture of the butter.
How should butter be washed?
Water at about the same temperature as the
buttermilk should be put on in sufficient quantity
to remove all the buttermilk. Sometimes one wash-
ing is enough, but usually two or three waters must
be used. When the last water is used it should
run away perfectly clear. If the granules of butter
are very soft, the last water can be colder than
the first, but, in order to retain a high moisture
content in the butter, the water must not be too
Sometimes Ivhen the flavor of butter is not good,
excessive washing is resorted to, but this does not
usually have a very beneficial effect, especially if
the bad flavor is of bacterial origin. Some volatile
38 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
food flavors, however, are materially decreased by
washing in good water.
What conditions affect the moisture content of
1. Richness of the cream.
2. Temperature of the cream and wash water.
3. Size of butter granules.
4. Time allowed butter in buttermilk and wash
5. Amount of working the butter receives.
6. Minor mechanical conditions.
What is the maximum amount of moisture in butter
allowed by the laws of United States?
The moisture content of butter must be under 16
What methods are used for purifying water at
1. Filtration through a sand filter
Pure spring water or good well water does not
What is the effect of the presence of buttermilk in
1. The keeping quality of the butter is injured.
2. The presence of casein usually causes a
3. The texture of the butter is injured, the
milky brine being quite objectionable to many con-
ON BUTTERMAKING 39
What are the reasons for salting butter?
1. To give it flavor.
2. To assist in expelling buttermilk.
3. To increase the keeping quality.
Upon what conditions does the amount of salt used
1. Upon the market requirements.
2. The moisture content of the butter.
3. The strength of the salt.
4. The amount of working the butter receives.
5. Size of the butter granules at time of salting.
6. Upon the flavor of the butter.
What is the composition of pure dairy salt?
Sodium chlorid 99. 18%
Magnesium chlorid. . .05%
Calcium chlorid 19%
Insoluble matter 03%
Moisture 01 %
Upon what does the amount of salt dissolved in
1. Upon the amount of moisture in the butter.
2. Upon the purity of the salt.
How does salt increase the keeping quality of
1. By its antiseptic power.
2. By assisting in the removal of buttermilk.
46 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
What is brine-salting?
The butter is salted by being washed or soaked in
a salted water.
What are the advantages of brine-salting?
1. Overrun can be increased.
2. There is very little danger of mottled color.
3. Butter requires less working.
What are the disadvantages of brine-salting?
1. It is too expensive.
2. Requires considerable water.
3. Increased labor.
4. Difficulty in getting sufficient salt into the
5. May cause excessive amount of moisture in
6. Color may be streaked if insufficient working
What is the effect of salt in buttermaking?
1. Helps to expel buttermilk.
2. Gives flavor to butter.
3. Adds weight to butter.
4. Causes the color of butter to become more
5. It acts as a preservative and increases the
keeping quality of butter.
6. Affects the body and texture of butter.
What is the average salt content of butter?
About 2 per cent.
ON BUTTERMAKING 4f
How much salt can be incorporated in butter?
As much as 7 per cent or 8 per cent, but then
most of it is in an undissolved state. It is difficult
to incorporate more than 3 per cent of dissolved
How is butter tested for its salt content?
1. Weigh into a glass beaker 10 grams of butter.
Add about 20 c. c. water and warm the mixture to
melt the butter. Then transfer the butter and
water to a separatory funnel. Insert the stopper
and shake for a few minutes. Then allow the mix-
ture to stand a few minutes until any remaining
fat has collected on the surface. Then draw the
water into a flask, being sure that no fat passes
through. Again, add hot water to the beaker and
repeat the washing in the funnels several times,
using 15 c. c. water each time.
Determine the sodium chlorid or salt in a meas-
ured part (10 c. c.) of the liquid by titrating with
standard silver nitrate solution, using potassium
chromate as an indicator.
One c. c. -—- silver nitrate solution equals .005837
grams of salt.
To determine the total amount of salt divide the
total number c. c. of water used by 10 and multiply
by .005837. This will give the total number grams
of salt in 10 grams of butter.
Then, knowing the amount present in 10 grams,
it is an easy matter to determine the amount in 100
grams by multiplying by 10. This gives the per-
centage of salt in the butter tested.
2. Gray's salt test. A representative lo-gram
sample of butter is placed in a small glass dish.
42 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
The dish is then half filled with boiling water and
the mixture of fat and water poured into a 500 c. c.
glass flask. The dish is rinsed several times with
boiling water and each time the rinsing is poured
into the flask. The flask is then filled to the 500
c. c. mark with boiling water and thoroughly-
shaken. Then allow the contents of the flask to
cool, and after the fat has collected on top and
solidified, measure with a pipette 50 c. c. of the
clear solution beneath the fat and place it in a clean
glass dish. Fifty c. c. of a potassium chromate in-
dicator is then added and the solution titrated with
a standard silver nitrate solution. The strength of
this silver solution is such that i c. c. of it repre-
sents Yioo of I per cent of salt.
3. The Fitch salt test. A representative 3.5
gram sample of butter is placed in a 300 c. c. glass
flask and 180 c. c. boiling water added. The flask
is then corked and thoroughly shaken, care being
taken to remove the cork often to relieve pressure.
The mixture is then allowed to cool, and after the
fat has collected on top and solidified, 17.6 c. c. of
the clear solution beneath the fat is placed in a
white cup. Then 17.6 c. c. of potassium chromate
indicator is added, and the solution titrated with a
standard silver nitrate solution measured from a
graduated cylinder till the solution becomes a per-
manent reddish color. The number c. c. silver
nitrate used divided by 10 equals per cent salt.
How should salt be added to butter?
As soon as the butter has been properly washed
the salt should be applied by passing it through a
fine-meshed sifter in order to prevent lumps of salt
ON BUTTERMAKING 43
entering the butter. The salt should be given
plenty of time to dissolve before the butter receives
its final working.
What is " gritty " butter? ,
Butter in which part of the salt remains in an
What are the causes of "gritty" butter?
1. Excessive salting.
2. Impure salt.
3. Small water content of butter.
4. Insufficient working.
5 Uneven distribution of salt.
6. Failure to allow butter to stand after salting
before final working.
What is mottled butter?
Butter which is uneven in color, having lighter
and darker spots.
What are the causes of mottled butter?
1. Specks of casein from buttermilk.
2. Improper incorporation of salt.
4. Failure to strain the cream or starter.
5. Poor coloring.
How can mottled butter be prevented?
1. By thoroughly removing the buttermilk by
2. By allowing the salt plenty of time to dis-
solve before completing the butter working.
3. By using pure salt.
44 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
4. By giving the butter sufficient working.
5. Always strain cream and starter.
6. By using reliable coloring.
How can mottles be removed from butter?
Most mottles can be removed by excessive work-
ing of the butter.
Why is butter worked?
1. To assist in distributing salt through the
2. To assist in expelling buttermilk and water.
3. To bring the granules of butter into a more
How much should butter be worked?
This depends on the condition of the butter and
the style of butter worker. Butter should be
worked till the salt is dissolved, till the color is
uniform and the moisture content is satisfactory.
About 12 to 20 revolutions of most combined
churns is sufficient.
What is the average composition of butter?
Curd 1.3 %
Salt and ash 1-97%
When is cheesemaking more profitable than butter-
When butter sells for less than two and one-
third times as much as cheese.
ON BUTTERMAKING 45
What amount of fat should be present in butter?
Not less than 80 per cent.
How should butter be packed for shipment?
This depends on the requirements of the different
markets. Regulation wooden tubs containing 10,
20, 30, or 60 pounds are used most extensively in
the United States. In Canada most of the butter
made for export is packed in square boxes, holding
about 56 pounds. Dairy butter is usually packed
in earthen jars, and nothing gives better satisfaction.
In many creameries the butter is wrapped in
pound prints and packed in boxes for shipment.
Butter in this form usually brings at least one cent
per pound more than tub butter. The prints should
be wrapped in parchment paper, upon which the
name of the creamery is neatly printed.
How are butter tubs prepared for use?
For about 24 hours before the tubs are to be
filled with butter they should be soaked in a warm,
saturated brine. This helps to destroy mold and
closes the pores of the wood. The covers should
be kept on the tubs to prevent warping. Just
before the tubs are to be used they should be rinsed
with warm water, then steamed, and then cooled
with cold water. They are then ready to be lined
with paper, and then filled with butter. The paper
linings and circles should be soaked in a strong
brine for a few hours before used. Many manu-
facturers are now using tubs coated with paraffin.
This almost entirely prevents mold growth, and the
tubs are ready for paper lining as soon as rinsed
in cold water,
4.6 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
How can mold be prevented from growing in
1. By sufficiently soaking the tubs and linings
in a strong salt solution before using.
2. By paraffining the tubs thoroughly on the
3. By soaking the tubs and paper linings in
solutions of formaldehyde.
What wood is the best for butter-tub construc-
For the larger tubs ash is used and for the smaller
How should butter be packed into tubs?
The wooden butter ladles should first be cooled
with cold water to prevent butter sticking to them.
The butter should then be firmly packed in small
amounts at a time and using plenty of muscle in the
work. The circumference should receive more
packing than the center, because when the butter
is turned out of the tub for cutting, it is very
necessary that the surface be free from all me-
chanical holes. Solid packing is of considerable
aid in preventing the entrance of mold. The tubs
should be filled to the top with butter. In filling,
the butter should be heaped up and then leveled
off by drawing a small wire or string across the
surface. The extra butter can then be rolled off
and the surface is left smooth and level.
The paper linings should be so fitted that they
overlap about i inch on the top surface. Then on
top a cotton circle should be placed and over the
circle a small amount of dampened salt is sprinkled.
ON BUTTERMAKING 47
The covers are then applied, the weight of butter
marked on the tub and it is ready for market.
What are the qualities of ideal butter?
It should have a clean, mild, creamy flavor, with
a pronounced, mild, pleasant aroma. It should
have close, solid, waxy body, free from butter-
milk and undissolved salt. The color should be
uniform and natural, and the finish should be neat,
clean, and attractive.
How is butter judged?
A sample is drawn from the package by the use
of a steel butter trier. As soon as drawn it is
passed underneath the nose for the purpose of de-
tecting the aroma. The color is then examined for
defects and incidentally the brine is examined for
The butter is then tasted and at the same time
tested for undissolved salt by dissolving a small
amount of butter between the tongue and roof of
the mouth. The grain and body are also noticed
and finally the finish and style of the package. It
is usually better to criticise the finish first, before
it is disfigured in any way.
What form is used for scoring butter?
4-8 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
What are some of the undesirable flavors commonly
found in butter?
Rancid, unclean, cowy, fishy, weedy and tallowy,
What are the common causes of undesirable flavors
1. Impure milk supply.
2. Cream exposed to bad odors.
3. Cream too old or too ripe before churning.
4. Undesirable bacteria found in all sorts of dirt
and dirty places.
5. Impure water.
6. Foods that impart volatile flavors such as
turnips, leeks, garlic, rape, etc.
7. Too much buttermilk retained in butter.
8. Holding butter at too warm temperature.
A bacterial flavor can usually be told from a food
flavor, in that a food flavor generally passes off by
pasteurizing and by the use of a commercial starter,
while a bacterial flavor usually becomes worse with
V/hat is the difference between creamery, process,
renovated, factory, packing-stock, and grease
Creamery butter is butter made in a creamery from
cream separated at the creamery or gathered from
Process or renovated butter is butter made by
melting butter, clarifying the fat therefrom and re-
churning the same with fresh buttermilk, milk,
cream, skim milk, or other such material.
ON BUTTERMAKING 49
Factory butter is butter that is collected in rolls,
lumps, crocks, and such forms, and reworked by a
dealer or shipper.
Packing-stock butter is butter that is originally
farm-made, reworked without additional moisture
Grease butter is made up of all butter that classes
below third grade on the market. It must be free
What is oleomargarine?
The United States law defines oleomargarine as
any substance containing animal or vegetable fats
or oils, or any such products made in imitation or
semblance of butter, or when so made calculated or
intended to be used or sold as butter.
What are the laws of the United States regarding
The laws on this substance are so changeable
that it is impossible to give any set law for any
state in such a book as this.
Some states prevent the manufacture of oleomar-
garine, others allow it to be manufactured if it is
labeled and sold as oleomargarine, and a tax of so
much per pound is paid, while still others do not
require any tax. Some states, too, have laws pre-
venting the use of coloring in products made in
imitation of butter. In fact, the manufacturers of
these products are so ingenious that they keep law-
makers busy in controlling them. The following
extract from the laws of New York state give c
good idea of the nature of an oleomargarine law—
26-38, page 18;
50 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
No person, by himself, his agents, or his em-
ployees, shall produce or manufacture out of or
from any animal fats or animal or vegetable oils not
produced from unadulterated milk or cream, from
the same, the article known as oleomargarine or
any article or product in imitation or semblance
of natural butter produced from pure unadulterated
milk or cream of the same ; or mix, compound with
or add to milk, cream or butter, any acids or other
deleterious substance or any animal fats or animal
or vegetable oils not produced from milk or cream, so
as to produce any article or substance, or any human
food in imitation or in semblance of natural butter.
Nor sell, keep for sale, or offer for sale any article or
substance or compound made, manufactured or pro-
duced in violation of the provision in this section,
whether such article, substance or compound shall
be made or produced in this state or elsewhere. Any
person manufacturing, selling, offering, or expos-
ing for sale any commodity or substance in imita-
tion or semblance of butter, the product of the
dairy, shall be guilty of a violation of [the agricul-
tural law] this chapter, whether he sells such com-
modity or substance as butter, oleomargarine, or
any other name or designation whatsoever, and ir-
respective of any representations he may make
relative to such commodity or substance. Any
dealer in any article or product, the manufacturing
or sale of which is prohibited by this act, who shall
keep, store or display such article or product with
other merchandise or stock in his place of business,
shall be deemed to have the same in his possession
What is whey butter?
Whey butter is butter made from the fat in cream
separated from whey, which is a by-product in
ON BUTTERMAKING 5 1
cheesemaklng. Its quality depends largely upon
the quality of the milk and whey, and the amount
to be made depends upon the amount of fat lost in
the whey in the process of cheesemaking. The
amount varies between 2 pounds to 5 pounds in
every 1,000 pounds whey.
What are the common sources of loss in butter-
1. Improper care of the milk.
2. Carelessness in sampling milk or cream.
3. Inaccuracy in reading fat in test bottles.
4. Carelessness or inability in running separa-
5. Errors in cream ripening.
6. Spilling milk or cream while handling it.
7. Inaccurate scales.
8. Carelessness or inability in churning.
9. Losses in buttermilk.
10. Moisture content of butter may be too low.
11. Moisture may not be properly incorporated,
allowing great shrinkage in weight.
12. Printing machines may not be accurate, giv-
How is butter tested for its fat content?
I. By the ether method.
Evaporate a known weight, 2 to 3 grams, to dry-
ness in a flat-bottom dish. Then wash the total
contents of the dish upon a weighed filter paper,
using about 50 c. c. of ether or naphtha. Then
wash free from fat the residue on the filter, with
ether or naphtha. The filter is then dried at 100°
C. to constant weight and weighed. The percent-
52 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
age of fat is determined by the difiference between
weight of butter and weight of fat.
2. By Babcock test.
Weigh 4 grams of butter into a cream bottle, add-
ing enough water to make i8 grams in the bottle.
Add 1 8 grams of sulphuric acid, and after thorough
mixing, whirl in the centrifuge for five minutes.
Add hot water at 200° F. to raise the fat into the
graduated part of the neck. Whirl again for two
minutes, then multiply the reading on the bottle
How is the moisture content of butter determined?
1. By chemical analysis.
2. By practical moisture tests.
What are the names of the more commonly used
1. Cornell test.
How should a representative sample of butter be
secured and prepared for making a moisture,
salt, or fat test?
From the mass of butter to be tested take several
samples from various parts. These samples, when
added together, should make about 6 ounces.
These are placed in a wide-mouth sample bottle or
fruit jar and placed in hot water until the butter
melts to the consistency of thin cream. While
melting, the butter should be thoroughly stirred
with a table knife or similar instrument. The bottle
ON BUTTERMAKING 53
should then be well shaken to insure a uniform
mixing of the sample. The bottle is then placed in
cold water to solidify, but while cooling the butter
should be stirred continuously. As soon as the
butter has become fairly solid or plastic, the sample
for testing can be secured. If in melting the butter
becomes oily, great care must be used to reincorpo-
rate the water evenly during the cooling.
Describe and give directions for testing butter with
the Cornell moisture test.
This is a simple, accurate, and durable test re-
cently prepared by Mr. H. E. Ross of the dairy
department of New York state college of agricul-
The test resembles the Irish test, but has several
A lo-gram sample of butter is secured in the
usual way, and is placed in a special cast aluminum
cup. The cup is then held over a flame with special
forceps or placed on any heated surface.
The important features of the test are the use of
the special cup and the use of a thin sheet of as-
bestos between the flame or heated surface and the
cup. The asbestos prevents all sputtering of the
heating butter and eliminates to a great extent
the danger of charring.
The sample is heated till all moisture is driven
ofif. This usually takes about 25 minutes, and is
indicated by the casein losing its snow-white color
and becoming brown. The sample is then cooled
and reweighed with a special scale upon which the
percentage moisture can be read directly and accu-
54 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Describe and give directions for using the Irish
A representative logram sample of butter is ob-
tained and placed in a small metal cup, then held
over an alcohol flame with a pair of special forceps
until all moisture has evaporated from it. While
the butter is heating it foams considerably. As
soon as the foaming has ceased, and before the fat
begins to char, a small mirror is held over the cup
to show if any moisture still remains. \Mien the
sample is thus freed from moisture it is cooled to
room temperature and reweighed upon a special
scale by which the difference between the weights
of the butter before and after heating is indicated
in the form of moisture percentage by the use of
small percentage weights.
Describe and give directions for using Gray's
This test consists of a scale, a glass flask, a gradu-
ated glass tube, a condenser, an amyl reagent, and
an alcohol lamp.
A representative lo-gram sample of butter is
placed in the glass flask. To this 6 c. c. of amyl
reagent is added and the dififerent parts of the test
then connected for use. The butter and amyl mix-
ture is heated over a flame and the moisture is
driven oflf into a graduated tube in the form of
steam, where it condenses upon coming in con-
tact with the condenser, which contains cold water.
The moisture collects in the graduated tube and
can be read in the form of percentage. The heat-
ing is stopped as soon as the mixture in the flask
becomes brown and the crackling noise ceases.
ON BUTTERMAKING 55
This usually requires about six minutes. Should
too much heat be applied at once, the steam may
go up above the 15 per cent mark. This should
be prevented by withdrawing the heat for a short
time. Great care must be exercised in collecting
all the moisture in the graduated part if reliable
readings or results are to be secured.
Describe and give directions for using the Mitchell-
Walker moisture test.
The apparatus in this test consists, of a metal
evaporating cup, condenser, graduated glass re-
ceiver, scale for weighing sample, spirit lamp, amy!
acetate reagent, and a stand to support the appa-
A representative lo-gram sample of butter is
placed in the metal cup. To this is added 10 c. c.
of the amyl acetate reagent. The apparatus is
then connected and the condenser filled with cold
water. The alcohol flame is then applied under the
evaporating cup. In about a minute the water and
reagent will begin to pass over and pass from the
condenser tube into the receiver. After all the
water has been evaporated from the cup, the re-
agent will cease or almost cease dropping for a
moment and then begin again as soon as it has
reached its own boiling point, which is higher than
that of the water. Continue to apply the flame until
practically all the reagent is driven oflf and it ceases
to drop freely from the condenser-tube. By this
means all the water is washed out of the condenser
tube and the major portion of the reagent is recov-
ered. The flame is now extinguished. The mouth
of the receiver is corked, and, taken by the top, is
56 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
shaken a few times to detach any drops of water
that may adhere to the sides.
The percentage moisture can now be read in the
graduated receiver. The water is then withdrawn
from the receiver and then the reagent, which is
collected in a bottle and preserved for use in later
Describe and give directions for using Farrington
In Farrington's test lo grams of a representative
sample of butter is placed in a small dish. Tlie
dish is then placed in a special Farrington oven
heated from 240° F. to 270° F. under steam pres-
sure. Here the butter is left until all moisture has
been evaporated, as indicated by the browning of
the casein. This usually takes about 25 minutes.
After the moisture has been evaporated the dish and
its contents is reweighed and the difference from
the original weight determined. The percentage
moisture can thus be easily determined. Example:
If original weight=io grams, and weight after
evaporation's^ grams, then evaporation of water
If evaporation from 10 grams butter=i3/2 grams,
then evaporation from 100 grams butter would be
ij_x_ioo^ 15 grams.
.-. percentage water in butter=i5 per cent.
Occasionally a balance is used upon which, by
using a reverse beam, the percentage moisture can
be read direct.
What rules govern the sale of butter in New York?
At the first regular meeting of the executive com-
ON BUTTERMAKING 57
mittee in each year the president shall appoint —
with the approval of the executive committee — a
butter committee to consist of seven members of
the exchange, one of whom shall be a member of
the executive committee, to hold office until their
successo?s are duly appointed. It shall be the duty
of the butter committee to formulate such rules
and regulations as may be necessary for the govern-
ment of transactions between members of the ex-
change, and to revise the same as circumstances
may require. Such rules and revisions shall be
subject to the approval of the executive committee.
Under direction of the superintendent of the ex-
change, who shall be instructed by the butter com-
mittee, there shall be a call, at such houf as shall be
prescribed, on each business day of the year, for the
purchase and sale of butter.
All transactions in butter between members of
the exchange shall be governed by the following
1. Butter shall be classified as creamery, process,
factory, packing stock, and grease butter.
2. Creamery. — Butter offered under this class-
ification shall have been made in a creamery from
cream separated at the creamery or gathered from
3. Process. — Butter offered under this class-
ification shall be such as is made by melting butter,
58 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
clarifying- the fat therefrom and rechiirning the
same with fresh milk, cream or skim milk, or other
4. Factory. — Butter offered under this class-
ification shall be such as is collected in rolls, lumps,
or in whole packages and reworked by the dealer
5. Packing Stock. — Butter offered under this
classification shall be original farm-made butter in
rolls, lumps, or otherwise, without additional
moisture or salt.
6. Grease Butter shall comprise all classes of
butter grading below thirds, or of packing stock
grading below No. 3 as hereinafter specified, free
7. Creamery, process and factory shall be graded
as specials, extras, firsts, seconds, and thirds; and
packing stock shall be graded as No. i, No. 2 and
Definition of Grades
8. Grades of butter must conform to the follow-
9. Shall comprise the highest grades of butter
obtainable in the season when offered, under the
various classifications. Ninety per cent shall con-
ON BUTTERMAKING 59
form to the following standard; the balance shall
not grade below Extras.
Flavor. — Must be fine, sweet, clean and fresh, if
of current make, and fine, sweet, and clean, if held.
Body. — Must be firm and uniform.
Color. — A light straw shade, even and uniform.
Salt. — Medium salted.
Package. — Sound, good, uniform, and clean.
10. Shall be a grade just below specials and must
be fine butter for the season when made and offered,
under the various classifications. Ninety per cent
shall conform to the following standard; the bal-
ance shall not grade below Firsts.
Flavor. — Must be sweet, clean, and fresh if of
current make, and sweet and clean if held.
Body. — Must be good and uniform.
Color. — A light straw shade, even and uniform.
Salt. — Medium salted.
Package. — Sound, good, uniform, and clean.
11. Shall be a grade just below Extras and
must be good butter for the season when made and
offered, under the various classifications. Ninety
per cent shall conform to the following standard ;
the balance shall not grade below Seconds.
Flavor. — Must be good, sweet, and fresh, if of
current make, and good and sweet if held.
Body. — Must be firm and fairly uniform.
60 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Color. — Reasonably uniform, neither very high
nor very light.
Salt. — May be reasonably high, light, or medium.
Package. — Sound, good, uniform, and clean.
12. Shall be a grade just below Firsts.
Flavor. — ^lust be reasonably good.
Body. — If creamery, must be solid boring. If
factory or process, must be 90 per cent solid boring.
Color. — Fairly uniform, but may be mottled.
Salt. — May be high, medium, or light.
Package. — Good and uniform.
13. Shall be a grade below Seconds and may
consist of promiscuous lots.
Flavor. — May be off-flavored and strong on tops
Body. — Not required to draw a full trier.
Color. — ]\Iay be irregular or mottled.
Salt. — High, light, or irregular.
Package. — Any kind of package mentioned at
time of sale.
No. I Packing Stock
14. Shall be sweet and sound, packed in large,
new, or good uniform second-hand barrels, having
a wooden head in each end, or in new tubs, either
to be parchment paper lined. Barrels and tubs to
be packed full.
ON BUTTERMAKING 6l
No. 2 Packing Stock
15. Shall be reasonably sweet and sound, and
may be packed in promiscuous or different kinds of
barrels, tubs, or tierces, without being parchment
paper lined, and may be packed in either two-
headed or cloth-covered barrels.
No. 3 Packing Stock
16. Shall be a grade below No. 2, and may be
off-flavored, or strong; may be packed in any kind
or kinds of packages.
17. Charges for inspection of packing stock
shall be the same as the rules call for on other
18. Mold. — There shall be no grade for butter
that shows mold.
19. Known marks shall comprise such butter as
is known to the trade under some particular mark
or designation and must grade as Extras, or better,
if creamery or process, and as Firsts, or better, if
factory in the season when offered, unless otherwise
specified. Known marks to be offered under the
call must previously have been registered in a book
kept by the superintendent for that purpose. If
process, the factory district number and state must
SALES UNDER THE CALL
20. Parties wishing to offer butter not described
62 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
in the foregoing classifications and grades, must
specify its character.
21. All butter offered under the call shall be
fresh made, current receipts, and shall be in regular
6o-pound ash tubs, unless otherwise specified.
22. No offer to buy or sell less than 25 tubs spot,
nor less than 50 tubs for future delivery, nor bids
or offers of a less fraction than ^ cent per pound
shall be entertained.
2^. Bids and offerings of not less than 50 tubs
for future delivery may be made for a period of
30 days. The call for futures shall take place
immediately after the call for spot delivery. On
all sales for future delivery, a compulsory mar-
gin shall be deposited by each' party to the
contract as specified in Rule 2 of the executive
24. The first offer to buy or sell at a price, shall
be accepted before subsequent offers at the same
figure are considered.
25. Offers may be withdrawn at any time before
26. Offers to sell at a lower, or buy at a higher
price shall vacate all previous bids and offerings.
27. A transaction shall vacate all previous bids
28. All differences as to offers, acceptances, with-
drawals, or irregular bids, shall be decided on the
spot by the officer conducting the call, subject to
an appeal to the members present. If an appeal
is made, it shall be put promptly, and a majority of
the members present and voting shall settle the
ON BUTTERMAKING 63
29. The superintendent shall have recorded
daily, in a book kept for the purpose, all sales under
the call, and such other sales on the floor as may be
requested by the parties thereto, and shall furnish
certificates of sales to both seller and buyer.
30. Spot sales shall be for spot cash, and butter
sold for future delivery shall be paid for when de-
livered, unless otherwise agreed.
31. Unless otherwise specified all deliveries shall
be from the store of the seller, or transportation
terminals, providing it be in Manhattan borough
below Canal street; otherwise, the goods must be
placed within said limits.
^2. All disputes must be settled while the goods
are in the seller's possession.
32A. When spot sales are made, butter must be
ready for immediate delivery.
33. All goods tendered, inspector's certificate at-
tached, shall be accompanied by such certificate,
and be accepted by the buyer unconditionally; pro-
vided, all tubs are branded according to Rule 6i.
34. If butter tendered which has not been sold
certificate attached, does not appear to the buyer to
be of the class and grade sold, the seller shall be
notified not later than i p. m. He may then have it
inspected, and if it proves not to fulfill the require-
ments of the sale, he may make a second delivery
not later than 3 p. m.
35. If a second tender is made and appears not
of the class and grade sold, the buyer must estab-
lish the quality by an official inspection for which
he shall make application to the superintendent not
later than 4 p. m. of the day of the sale.
64 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
When an inspection is made, and shows the butter
to be of the class and grade sold, the buyer shall
accept the same, and pay for the inspection.
;^6. In sales for " future delivery " the delivery
requirements as to time, inspection, etc., shall be
the same as on spot sales on the date of delivery,
but the rules governing classification for grades in
force at time of such sales shall govern the quality
of such deliveries.
37. In sales " seller's option " the seller shall
notify the buyer of his intention to make delivery
not later than 9 a. m. on day of delivery. If
" buyer's option," the buyer shall notify the seller
of his intention to call for delivery at least twenty-
four hours before lo A. M. of the day delivery is
38. On sales of creamery of 25 tubs, delivery
may be of not more than two marks ; on 26 to 50
tubs, three marks; on 51 to 100 tubs, marks con-
taining not less than 25 tubs each ; on larger lots
marks containing not less than 50 tubs each.
39. On sales of factory, or process butter, de-
livery must be of one mark, unless otherwise speci-
40. A carload shall consist of 300 tubs of one
mark, unless otherwise specified.
41. In case of failure to deliver a carload, set-
tlement shall be made on the basis of 300 tubs.
42. An application to the superintendent for an
inspection of goods in controversy, if made within
the time allowed for inspection, shall be deemed a
compliance with these rules in this respect.
ON BUTTERMAKING 65
43. When an inspection of butter sold for spot
delivery shows the goods not to be of the class and
grade sold, the seller shall pay a penalty equal to
5 per cent of the amount of the contract, and the
fee for inspection. If the official quotation for the
day exceeds the contract price, the seller shall also
pay to the buyer in the same way the difference be-
tween the contract price and the average official
44. If butter purchased for future delivery be
not delivered as per contract, the buyer shall
promptly notify the superintendent in writing. At
the next regular meeting of the exchange, an an-
nouncement of the same shall be made by the
superintendent, who shall buy in the goods for ac-
count of the seller, provided it can be done under
the call at current rates. If, however, the price
demanded seems to him unreasonable, he shall not
make the purchase, but shall refer the matter to
the butter committee, who shall determine the dif-
ference between the contract price and the actual
market value on the date on which delivery should
have been made, and this amount, together with a
penalty equal to 5 per cent of the amount of the con-
tract, shall be paid by the seller.
45. If butter, sold for future delivery, be not re-
ceived when properly tendered, the seller shall
promptly notify the superintendent in writing. At
the next regular meeting of the exchange, an an-
nouncement of the same shall be made by the
superintendent, who shall sell out the goods, under
the call, for account of the buyer, and if the price
66 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
obtained be less than the contract price, the dif-
ference, together with a penalty equal to 5 per cent
of the amount of the contract, shall be paid by the
46. Penalties and differences shall be paid to the
superintendent of the exchange, and by him paid
to those entitled thereto.
47. Any member holding a contract against an-
other, corresponding in respect to class, grade and
quantity of goods, and date of delivery, with one
held by the other against him, may offset it against
the latter by giving notice to the other party, when
both contracts shall be surrendered to the superin-
tendent of the exchange and canceled.
48. All notices shall be in writing, and shall be
considered as properly served when left at the place
of business of the party for whom they are intended.
CERTIFICATE OF SALE
49. Certificates of sale must be accepted on con-
tracts for future delivery.
50. The party transferring a certificate of sale,
shall immediately notify the original seller of the
transfer, and to whom made. He shall also have
it recorded on the books of the exchange, and shall
thereupon be relieved of all responsibility attaching
to the same.
51. In case the party to a contract for future
delivery, for the fulfillment of which margin has
been deposited with the superintendent, shall die,
make an assignment, be absent from the city, or
otherwise be disabled, or refuse to perform any act
necessary for the proper adjustment or payment of
ON BUTTERMAKING ^"J
such margin, the matter shall be referred to the
finance committee, as provided in section 33, para-
graph 6, of the by-laws.
52. The following shall be the form of contract
for all sales of butter for future delivery.
CONTRACT FOR FUTURE DELIVERY
This is to certify that the following sale and pur-
chase has been made by the respective signers
hereto, under and subject to the rules of the New
York Mercantile Exchange, this
day of , 190....
Original margin deposited with me this day by
each party hereto dollars.
New York, , 190. • • •
68 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Upon the reverse side of each contract shall be
printed the rules governing such transactions. A
proper book shall be kept by the superintendent of
the exchange, entitled *' Butter Contracts," in which
shall be recorded all contracts as per foregoing form,
duplicates of which shall be furnished to both sellers
and purchasers, who shall personally sign the same
at the time of depositing original margins. All con-
tracts shall be signed, and original margins de-
posited not later than 2 o'clock on the day follow-
ing the sale.
53.' When further margins are called for, same
shall be paid to, and receipted for, by indorsement
upon the contract by the superintendent of the ex-
54. All transfers of contracts for future delivery
must be indorsed on the original contract, by the
superintendent of the exchange, who shall promptly
notify the other party in interest of such transfer.
55. The following form of transfer shall be used :
" For value received, the within described con-
tract is assigned and transferred to
who hereby agrees to assume the same, with all the
conditions and obligations thereof.
Dated, New York, , 190. . . .
INSPECTORS AND INSPECTIONS
56. The butter committee shall recommend to
the president, for his appointment, subject to the
approval of the executive committee, such inspect-
ors of butter as may be required.
ON BUTTERMAKING 69
57. Vacancies occurring in the office of inspect-
ors shall be filled in the manner in which the orig-
inal appointment was made.
58. In case of absence, or inability of the in-
spectors, temporary inspectors may be appointed
by the butter committee of the exchange.
59. Inspectors, before entering upon their duties,
shall take and subscribe to the following oath :
I» , do solemnly swear that
I will execute the duties of an " Inspector of But-
ter " for the New York Mercantile Exchange, with
strict impartiality and according to the best of my
ability, that I will, in making my inspections, fol-
low carefully the rules adopted and the instructions
given me by the butter committee. That I will
fearlessly perform my duties, make each inspection
according to the merits of the butter, and render
my certificates accordingly. That I will not allow
a second party to examine and comment while I am
making an inspection.
That I will promptly report in writing to the
butter committee the name of any firm, company
or member that makes any suggestions, or requests
relative to any inspection that I may make, as well
as a full detailed report regarding the occurrence;
further, that I will accept no gratuity of any kind
or nature whatsoever other than the salary paid to
me by the exchange.
Sworn and subscribed before me this,
day of , 190
70 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
60. All applications for inspection must be made
to the superintendent of the exchange between the
hours of 8 A. M. and 5 p. m., who will direct the
same — For Members of the Exchange Only — as
soon as practicable, in the order in which they are
received, excepting that applications for the inspec-
tion of butter which has been sold under the call,
and is in controversy, shall be given precedence
over other applications.
61. Inspectors shall brand on the top and side
each package inspected, and, when requested, also
on the side of each remaining package in the lot,
or lots, covered by the inspection.
62. Inspectors shall, immediately after complet-
ing an inspection, make a certificate of the same in
accordance with the specification for grading, con-
tained in these rules, upon blanks furnished for this
purpose, under the direction of the butter commit-
tee; which shall be countersigned by the superin-
tendent, and promptly delivered to the party order-
ing the inspection.
6^. A certificate of inspection shall be good for
two days from date of same (including Sundays and
holidays), provided the holder of the goods takes
proper care of the same.
64. The inspectors shall have recorded in a book
provided for the purpose, a detailed account of all
inspections made by them, stating date and hour of
inspection, name and address of parties from whom
inspection is made, place where inspection is made,
stencil number or other marks on goods, number
of tubs in lots and number of tubs inspected. If
lots contain more than one shipment, the number
of tubs in each shipment shall be noted.
ON BUTTERMAKING 7I
65. There shall be drawn as samples for inspec-
tion by the inspectors :
5 tubs from lots less than 25 of one mark and
8 tubs from lots of 25 of one mark and invoice ;
15 tubs from lots of 50 of one mark and invoice;
20 tubs from lots of 100 of one mark and invoice;
35 tubs from lots of 200 of one mark and invoice ;
50 tubs from lots of 300 of one mark and invoice ;
60 tubs from lots of 500 of one mark and invoice ;
and a like proportion of lots ranging between these
figures, and of larger lots
66. If butter runs irregular in quality, the in-
spector shall increase his sample to such an extent
as he may deem necessary to secure a fair and just
67. A buyer or seller may have a larger per-
centage than the above inspected, upon making ap-
plication previous to the inspection, and payment
of 10 cents per tub additional fees.
68. All complaints against the butter inspectors
shall be referred to the butter committee.
69. Charges for inspection shall be as follows:
In the borough of Manhattan, below Fourteenth
street and outside of that district, the
charge shall be $1.50.
On lots not exceeding 10 tubs, i invoice.
Over 10 and not over 25 tubs, I invoice.
Over 25 and not over 50 tubs, i invoice.
Over 50 and not over 100 tubs, i invoice.
Over 100 and not over 200 tubs, i invoice.
Over 200 and not over 300 tubs, i invoice.
Over 300 and not over 500 tubs, I invoice. . .
. $ .50
, 1. 00
'J2 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
70. Inspections shall be paid for by the party or-
dering' the same, except where otherwise provided.
71. The butter committee shall recommend to
the president for appointment, subject to the ap-
proval of the executive committee, a butter weigher,
who may appoint assistants as he may require them.
y2. The butter weigher shall receive his instruc-
tions from the butter committee.
y}^. The butter weigher and assistants, before
entering upon their duties shall be sworn to per-
form said duties faithfully, correctly and in con-
formity with the customs of the butter trade, as
defined by the butter committee.
74. The butter weigher shall make certificates
in duplicate of all lots of butter weighed by him,
or his assistants, and promptly deliver to the party
ordering the weighing.
75. Applications for weighing butter shall be
made to the superintendent, or butter weigher.
^6. Charges for weighing shall be as follows:
On lots not over 25 tubs 3 c. per tub
Over 25 and not over 50 tubs 2^c. per tub
Over 50 and not over 100 tubs 2 c. per tub
Testing 7 tubs or less 75 c.
Over 7 tubs 10 c. per tub
yy. All complaints against the butter weigher, or
assistants, shall be made to the butter committee.
y^. All former rules conflicting with the fore-
going are hereby repealed.
Attention is Directed to the Following Executive
Committee Rules, and Section 33, Paragraph
6, of the By-laws.
Rule 2. On all sales, or purchases of any mer-
ON BUTTERMAKING 73
chandise to arrive, or for future delivery, each party
to the contract shall deposit an original margin
with the superintendent of the exchange of lo per
cent on the contract price at the time of purchase,
•or sale, and a further margin from time to time to
the extent of any variation in the market value from
the contract price; said margin to be deposited in
such bank or trust company as may have been
designated by the finance committee of the New
York Mercantile Exchange. When margins are
called before 12 m., they must be deposited before
3 p. M. of the same day. If called after 12 m., they
must be deposited before 12 m. of the following
day; in case of failure to deposit as above, the
buyer or seller shall have the right to cover his
contract at discretion, for account of the party fail-
ing to respond to the call for margin.
Rule 7. All merchandise purchased by sample
shall be considered sold, unless the purchaser notify
the seller within twenty-four hours after receipt of
the same that it is rejected as not being up to
sample. If a settlement cannot be agreed on, the
case shall be referred to the trade committee having
charge of the class of goods in question, who shall
decide the matter, and in the event of a decision
against either buyer or seller, the same penalties
shall accrue as the Rules for sales under the Cal
provide for the kind of goods dealt in. The party,
against whom the decision is given, shall pay to
each committeeman serving $2 for each case.
Section 33, Paragraph 6, of the By-laws
When the parties to a contract, on which margin
has been deposited through the instrumentality of
74 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
the superintendent, as above set forth, cannot agree
as to the distribution and payment of such margin,
or in case one or both of the contracting parties die
or make an assignment, or otherwise become in-
capacitated, or refuse to perform promptly any act
necessary for the adjustment and payment of such
margin, the finance committee is hereby authorized
and directed to ascertain the person or persons to
whom such margin should be paid, and instruct the
superintendent to indorse the deposit certificate for
payment, or exchange it for other checks, to cor-
respond in amount with the committee's decision,
drawn to the order of the person or persons en-
titled thereto, and deliver the same to said person
or persons without unnecessary delay; and in case,
for any cause whatever, the said deposit certificate
is not immediately forthcoming, so that such in-
dorsement and distribution may be made, the
finance committee shall instruct the superintendent
to procure from the said bank or trust company
that issued it, a duplicate thereof, as provided for
in the original, and indorse it as he would have
indorsed the original if it had come into His pos-
What method of sewage disposal is advisable for
This depends on the location of the creamery and
the character of the surrounding soil. One or more
of the following methods can usually be success-
I. Removal by cartage. 2. Direct disposal into
lakes and rivers if laws permit. 3. Cesspools.
4. Septic tanks and filter beds.
ON BUTTERMAKING • 75
Excessive skim milk and such material useful for
feeding purposes should not be wasted in sewage,
but should be carted away and fed to hogs.
When the laws of the state permit the direct
disposal of creamery sewage into lakes and large
rivers, it makes a most satisfactory system. In tlie
case of small rivers and other small bodies of
water, however, most states have laws preventing
their use for such purpose. Then it becomes neces-
sary to use one of the other systems. If the soil
surrounding the creamery is of a sandy nature, it
will have good filtering qualities so that a cess-
pool placed at a safe distance from the well should
answer in most cases.
When the surrounding soil is of clay and with
little elevation, it becomes necessary to construct
a filter bed of sand and stone and to pass the sew-
age first through a septic tank.
Acid tests 27, 28
brands of 48, 49
churning 34, 35
color of 32, 33
composition of 44
flavors in 48
moisture content 38
mottled 43, 44
packing 45, 46
salt content 40, 41
salting 39, 40, 42, 43-
testing 51, 52
washing 36, 37
frothy cream 35, 36
influences 29, 36
methods 26, 34
object of 29
care of 31,32, 34
makes of 31
ripening 21,27, 33
screw 13, 14
separation 9, 17
• overrun 8
Cream raising coefficient. .. .8, 9
globules 1, 2
melting points 3
non- volatile 3
Fermentation test 4
color 3, 4
composition 1, 2
Moisture tests 52, 54
laws 49, SO
methods 18, 19, 20
effects of 40, 41
tests for 41, 42
care of 16, 18
speed of IS
varieties , 10
Separator slime 13
Starters 21, 2S
Water purification 38
Whey butter SO, 51