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Full text of "Questions and answers on buttermaking"

QUESTIONSand ANSWERS 

ON 

BUTTERMAKING 



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THE PUBLOW ACID TEST 



Questions and Answers 
^ on Buttermaking ^ 



By 
CHAS. A. PUBLOW, A.B.M.D.C.M. 

Assistant Professor of Dairy Industry in 
Cornell University 




ILLUSTRATED 



NEW YORK 

ORANGE JUDD COMPANY 

LONDON 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Limited 



Copyright, 1909 

Orange Judd Company 

New York 



[BKTEBED AT STATIONERS' HALL, LONDON, ENGLAND] 



Printed in U. S. A. 



This little book is affectionately 
dedicated to my father, of whom 
it can be said that no man was 
more willing to answer the 
questions of his students or 
more anxious for their success. 



S0504 



fMo 



PREFACE 

In most of our agricultural schools and colleges 
many short-course students now make up a large 
part of the total registration, and in dairy work it 
is doubtful if any other class of students accom- 
plishes so much in the same period of tuition. 
Perhaps the greatest difficulty or drawback to the 
average short-course man is his lack of prelimi- 
nary school training. He can do manual work, but 
lack of experience in answering questions causes 
his failure at examination time. He knows the 
work, but cannot express his views in writing. 

Then there are those long-experienced, practical 
buttermakers who wish to better their positions by 
trying civil service examinations. They read all 
current literature and know the answers in a cer- 
tain way, but cannot express their thoughts as they 
should. 

It is for this class of men, and out of sympathy 
for their needs, that the author has seen fit to com- 
pile this little series of question compends. 

All modern literature on buttermaking has been 
consulted freely, with the hope of making the work 
more thorough and with the hope of being of the 
greatest service to those of our associates in dairy 
work. 

CHAS. A. PUBLOW. 

August, 1909. 



ait Colfe 



Questions and Answers on 
Buttermaking 



What is the average composition of milk? 

Water 87.0% 

Fat 4.0% 

Sugar 5.0% 

Casein 2.6% 

Albumin 7% 

Ash 7% 

What constituents of milk are most important in 
buttermaking ? 

Milk fat. 

Water. 

Sugar. 

Why is the milk fat most important? 

Because it forms over 80% of the composition of 
butter. 

In what form does fat in milk exist? 

Milk fat exists in the form of small globules not 
visible to the naked eye and held in suspension in 
the milk serum. 

What conditions affect the size of fat globules? 

1. Breeds of cows. 

2. Individuality of cows. 



2 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

3. Period of lactation. 

4. Part of milk tested. 

5. Xight milking and morning milking. 

6. Health of cow. 

What are properties of milk fat? 

Its specific gravity is about .93. Its melting point 
is between 90° F. and 99° F. When heated it be- 
comes oily and when cooled solidifies, some parts 
solidifying sooner than others. 

From what is milk fat formed? 
Fatty acids and glycerin. 

Of what fats is milk fat composed? 

'Olein 35-0% 

Palmitin 25.7% 

Non-volatile Myristin 20.2% 

92% I Laurin 7.4% 

Caprin i-9% 

Stearin 1.8% 

^Butyrin 3-85% 

Volatile ^ Caprion 3-6o% 

8% [Caprylin 55% 

What is the theory of a film surrounding each fat 
globule? 

Upon this subject there is great difference of 
opinion. Dr. Van Slyke of Geneva states that no 
such film exists. Dr. Storch says that a film does 
exist, that he has isolated and analyzed it and found 
it contained 94 per cent w^ater and 6 per cent pro- 
teid. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 3 

What is a volatile fat? 

One composed of a soluble, easily vaporized, fatty 
acid, and glycerin. 

What is a non-volatile fat? 

One composed of an insoluble fatty acid and 
glycerin. It is not easily vaporized. 

What is the melting point of the different fats? 

Olein 41° F. 

Stearin 150° F. 

Myristin 129° F. 

Palmitin 142° F. 

Of what value are the casein and albumin in butter- 
making? 
Of no particular value, as they are retained in 
the skim milk. 

Of what value is milk sugar in buttermaking ? 

From milk sugar lactic acid is formed by the 
action of the bacteria. This knowledge is made 
use of in making starters, in ripening cream, in 
churning and in securing a desirable flavor and 
body in butter. 

What is the color of milk due to? 
I. To lactochrome. 
2. To the milk fats, particularly palmitin. 

How does the color of milk affect the natural color- 
ing of butter? 

During those seasons of the year in which the 
cow is fed grass or other succulent foods the color 



4 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

of butter is highest. During the winter when dry 
feed is fed the milk fat has less color. 

What are the effects of pasteurizing milk at i8o° 
F. or over? 

1. It destroys nearly all bacterial life. 

2. It diminishes the viscosity. 

3. It drives off gases. 

4. It may impart a cooked taste. 

5. It precipitates some of the albuminoids and 
ash constituents. 

6. It destroys the properties of milk enzymes. 

7. It splits up the fat globules. 

8. It caramelizes some of the sugar. 

What ferments are common in milk? 

1. Organized — bacteria, yeasts. 

2. Unorganized — galactase. 

What is the difference between an organized and an 
unorganized ferment? 

An organized ferment is one due to the action of 
bacteria and having the power of reproducing itself. 

An unorganized ferment or enzyme is formed by 
some secreting gland, has limited action and has 
not the power of reproducing itself. 

What are bacteria? 

Bacteria are the lowest forms of microscopical 
plants. 

What bacteria are desirable in buttermaking? 

Those forms that produce lactic acid from milk 
sugar and give a desirable flavor to butter. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 5 

What bacteria are undesirable in buttermaking? 

I. Those that produce gas and bad flavors in 
milk, cream and butter. 
2.* Those that cause ropy milk. 

3. Those that cause sweet coagulation of milk. 

4. Liquifying bacteria. 

5. All forms that are not necessary in producing 
clean, wholesome butter. 

Upon what conditions do bacteria depend for 
growth ? 

1. Suitable food. 

2. Moisture. 

3. Suitable temperature. 

What are the sources of bacteria in milk, cream, 
and butter? 

1. From stable air, especially when dust, cob- 
webs and manure abound. 

2. From unclean hands that milk the cows. 

3. From unclean utensils. 

4. From contaminated water. 

5. From the air of any place whose surround- 
ings are unclean. 

6. From impure starters. 

7. From any unclean thing with which milk, 
cream, or butter comes in contact. 

8. By keeping these products at too high tem- 

What are bacterial spores? 

They are the generative cells by which bacteria 
divide and reproduce. All forms of bacteria do not 
form spores. 



6 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

How can bacteria be killed? 

Most bacteria can be killed by heating to a tem- 
perature of 212° F. Many forms are killed by lower 
temperature, but spores are not destroyed by boil- 
ing. 

How can spores be killed? 

By fractional sterilization, i. e., by first heating 
to boiling point, 212° F., then cooling to 90° F., 
allowing remaining spores to develop at this latter 
temperature into bacteria and heating again to 
212° F. to kill these. This procedure may be re- 
peated several times. 

How can milk or cream be tested on the receiving 
platform? 

1. For acidity by the use of an acidimeter. 

2. For odors by sense of smell. 

3. For flavors by sense of taste. 

4. For insoluble dirt by eyesight and by allow- 
ing samples to stand a few minutes in small glass 
jars so that the dirt will settle to the bottom. 

5. In cold weather flavors and odors can be de- 
tected more readily if milk and cream are warmed 
up by steam. 

6. By the use of fermentation or Wisconsin 
curd test. 

7. ^lilk can be tested for adulteration by the 
use of a lactometer. 

8. Samples can be taken for composite bottles or 
for daily testing for fat. 

What is the fermentation test? 

Commonly called " Wisconsin curd test." Sam- 



ON BUTTERMAKING 7 

pies of suspected milk from each patron are placed 
in small glass jars holding about half a pint. The 
milk is heated to 90° F. and retained at this tem- 
perature to make conditions favorable for the 
growth of any abnormal bacteria or ferments that 
may be present. Cheesemakers add a small amount 
of rennet to the samples of milk so that a curd is 
formed that may be studied for defects: The 
samples are examined frequently during the day, 
and tested for odors or other defects that may have 
developed. 

What are the uses of the fermentation test? 

1. To assist in locating sources of bad flavors 
in milk, cream, and butter. 

2. To study the nature of the milk furnished by 
each patron. 

3. To study the action of suspected starters on 
samples of milk. 

How should milk and cream be sampled for fat 
testing ? 

Samples of milk can be accurately measured by 
the use of a 17.6 c. c. pipette. They can also be 
weighed, using 18 grams for each test. 

All samples of cream should be accurately 
weighed on reliable scales, using 4 grams for each 
sample. Accurate work cannot be done by using 
a pipette for measuring, as cream of different per- 
centages of fat varies considerably in volume. 

When milk and cream are paid for on the fat 
basis, composite samples of each patron's milk or 
cream are kept and tested at least twice each 
month 



8 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

What is meant by "overrun" in buttermaking? 

The overrun is the difference between the amount 
of pure milk fat and the amount of butter manu- 
factured from that given amount of fat. 

How is the percentage overrun determined? 

The difference between the amount of fat and 
the amount of butter is divided by the amount of 
fat and multiplied by lOO. 

Example : 700 pounds milk testing 6 per cent= 
42 pounds fat. Yield of butter made from 42 pounds 
fat, is 50 pounds; difference is 8 pounds (overrun) 
.*. percentage overrun is 

^2^ X 100=19%. 

Upon what does the amount of overrun depend? 

1. Thoroughness of skimming. 

2. Completeness of churning. 

3. General losses in the creamery. 

4. Composition of the butter manufactured. 

5. Accuracy in sampling the cream for testing. 

6. Accuracy in reading the fat in the graduated 
test bottles. 

What is "churn-yield"? 

Churn-yield is the amount of butter in relation to 
the amount of fat in the milk. Example: 
/Pounds of butter, s^ lOO=chum.yield. 

^Pounds of milk / -^ 

If cream is used instead of milk, the word cream 
is used in place of milk in this formula. 

What is meant by "cream-raising coefBcient"? 

It is the percentage of fat removed from the milk 
during the process of separation. Example: 



ON BUTTERMAKING 9 

Suppose 100 pounds of milk containing 4 per 
cent fat is skimmed and it yields 85 pounds skim 
milk, testing .2 per cent fat and 15 pounds cream. 

Total fat in whole milk^iooX-04=4 pounds. 

Total fat in skim milk=85X-002=.i7 pound. 

Total fat in cream=4 — .17=3.83 pounds. 

3 .83 X 100 . Qg yg 

.-. the cream-raising coefficient is 95.75 per cent. 

Should a patron who furnishes cream be paid more 
per pound of fat than the patron who delivers 
whole milk? 
Theoretically, he should, because there is no 
separator loss to the creamery when cream is fur- 
nished. However, it is doubtful if such a plan can 
be fairly conducted in many places, because the 
quality of the cream or fat determines largely its 
market value. Usually butter made by whole milk 
creameries is superior to that made in cream-gath- 
ering creameries, so, taken all in all, it is doubtful 
if any difference should be made in the price of fat. 

Why is milk heated or tempered before separating? 

1. Because all separators skim closer and do not 
clog so easily. 

2. Viscosity of milk is decreased. 

3. Fluidity of milk is increased. 

4. Increases the ease of fat separation. 

What is the best temperature for separating milk 
by centrifugal force? 

About 90° F. 



lO QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

What are the advantages of high heating before 
separation? 

1. Undesirable taints are largely eliminated. 

2. Bacteria are killed in the skim milk and 
cream. 

3. Less heating and cooling apparatus is neces- 
sary. 

4. Closer skimming. 

5. Less labor and smaller cost of heating. 

How should milk be heated before separation? 

1. By some special heater that heats the milk 
indirectly with steam or hot water. This is the 
best method. 

2. By the use of a double-jacketed vat in which 
hot water can be used. This is a common method, 
but it has two serious objections: 

(i) Milk is kept warm too long before sep- 
aration, favoring the rapid growth of bacteria. 

(2) If for any reason the separator or ma- 
chinery should break down, the warm milk will 
soon sour, especially during warm .weather. 

Why is it not advisable to heat milk by direct 
steam? 

1. Steam from impure water may introduce bad 
flavors into the milk. 

2. It is too sudden. 

3. The butter may have a burnt or oily flavor. 

Why is fat separated from milk for churning? 

1. To reduce the bulk. 

2. To save fat. Fat is more easily removed by 
separation than by churning. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 



II 



3. For commercial purposes. 
4 To facilitate cream ripening. 
5. To secure sweet skim milk. 
What are the different methods of cream separa- 
tion? 

rhand separators. 

1. Centrifugal <j ^^^^^ separators. 

fshallow-pan method. 

2. Gravity ^deep-setting method. 

Lwater-dilution method. 

What are the advantages of centrifugal separation 
over gravity separation? 

1. More rapid. 

2. More thorough. 

3. Better cream, that can be of any desired per- 
centage of fat. 

4. Fresher skim milk. 

5. Fermentations can more easily be controlled. 

6. Centrifugal force removes insoluble dirt from 

milk. 

7. Less danger of milk and cream absorbmg bad 

odors. 

8. Insures a more even quality of butter. 

9. Less labor involved. 

What are the advantages of the shallow-pan sys- 
tem? 

1. Cheapness. 

2. Simplicity. 

What are its disadvantages? 

I. Heavy loss of fat. This method saves only 
about 80 per cent of the fat. 



12 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

2. Requires much space. 

3. Requires much labor. 

4. Milk may become seriously contaminated by 
long exposure in unclean places. 

5. Cannot fully control the ripening of milk. 

6. The skim milk is not in the best condition for 
feeding to calves. 

What are the advantages of the deep-setting sys- 
tem? 

1. Furnishes good cream. 

2. Easy to operate. 

3. Not expensive. 

4. Very good system if one has ice or cold water. 

What are the disadvantages? 

1. Considerable loss of fat. Seldom can more 
'than 93 per cent of the fat be secured by this 

method. 

2. Skim milk is not fresh, although sweet. 

What are the disadvantages of the dilution method? 

1. Greater bulk. 

2. Skim milk less valuable. 

3. Danger of undesirable bacteria in impure 
water. 

4. Cream is not normal in solids-not-fat com- 
position. 

5. Loss of fat is as great as in deep-setting sys- 
tem. 

What four principles have been used by separator 
manufacturers? 
I. Revolving bucket centrifuge. 



ON BUTTERMAKING I3 

2. Intermittent hollow bowl. 

3. Continuous hollow bowl. 

4. Continuous separator, with contrivances 
within the bowl. 

What is the principal part in separator construc- 
tion? 

A hollow bowl with or without inner devices and 
rotating at high speed in a vertical position. 

Into what three layers does milk divide in a revolv- 
ing separator bowl? 

1. Separator slime on the outside. 

2. Skim milk next the slime. 

3. Cream nearest the center of the bowl. The 
richest cream is in the very center of the bowl. 

What is the composition of separator slime? 

It is made up of casein, insoluble dirt, bacteria, 
fat, water, ash, albumin, and foreign bodies. 
Fleischmann gives the following: 

Water 67.3% 

Fat 1.1% 

Caseous matter. 25.9% 

Other substances 2.1% 

Ash 3.6% 

100.0% 

What is the cream screw? 

It is the outlet by which the cream leaves the 
separator bowl. 



14 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

How does altering the position of the cream screw 
affect the composition of the cream? 

Turning it in toward the center of the bowl in- 
creases the richness of the cream. 

Turning it away from the center causes the cream 
to be thinner. 

What is the relation between the skim-milk outlet 
and the running of the separator? 

The nearer the skim-milk outlet can be brought 
to the center of the bowl, the easier will the machine 
run. Usually the skim-milk outlet is brought in 
toward the center of the bowl at one end through 
tubes extending from the circumference of the 
bowl. 

What conditions affect the amount and richness of 
cream obtained? 

1. Richness of the milk. 

2. Speed of the bowl. 

3. Rate of inflow of milk. 

4. Position of the creant screw and skim-milk 
outlet. 

5. Temperature of the milk. 

6. Acidity of the milk. 

What are the most common ways of regulating the 
richness of cream? 

1. By cream screw. 

2. By skim-milk outlet. 

3. By inflow of milk. 

What are the causes of cream being too thick? 
I. Cream screw too near center of the bowl. 



ON BUTTERMAKING IS 

2. Cream outlet may be clog-ged. 

3. Milk inflow may be insufficient. 

4. Speed of machine may be too high. 

5. Milk may be very rich. 

6. Milk may be too cold. 

What are the causes of cream being too thin? 

1. Cream screw too far from center of bowl. 

2. Skim-milk outlet may be clogged. 

3. Milk inflow may be too fast. 

4. Speed of machine may be too low. 

5. Milk may be very poor in fat. 

What is the running speed of the common power 
separators ? 
De Laval, 5,600 revolutions per minute. 
United States, 8,500-9,000 revolutions per minute. 
Simplex, 6,500 revolutions per minute. 
Tubular, 14,000-15,000 revolutions per minute. 
Sharpies, 14,000-15,000 revolutions per minute. 

How is the speed of separators determined? 

All modern machines have a speed indicator con- 
sisting of a small wheel, which can be pushed 
against the wormed part of the separator's revolv- 
ing spindle. Most indicators make only one revolu- 
tion while the bowl turns 100 times. In testing the 
speed it is necessary to have a watch or clock with 
second hands so that the number of revolutions of 
the small wheel in a given number of seconds can 
be determined. 

Example : The speed indicator is pushed against 
the revolving spindle for 10 seconds,. During that 
time the indicator turns 12 times. Every turn of 



1 6 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the indicator means lOO turns of the separator bowl 
and spindle. Therefore, in lo seconds the bowl re- 
volves lOO X 12, or 1,200 times. Ten seconds is 
one-sixth of a minute. Therefore, in a minute the 
bowl revolves 1,200X6 times, 7,200 times. 

The speed of all modern separators can be easily- 
figured in this way. Each turn of the indicator 
on the 

De Laval means 100 turns of the bowl. 

United States means 100 turns of the bowl. 

Simplex means 50 turns of the bowl. 

Tubular means 250 turns of the bowl. 

Sharpies means 250 turns of the bowl. 

Upon what does the centrifugal force of a revolving 
separator bowl depend? 

1. It varies in direct proportion to the diameter 
of the bowl, i. e., the greater the diameter the less 
speed is required in order to get a certain force. 

2. It varies in quadratic proportion to the speed 
of the machine, i. e., if the speed is doubled the 
centrifugal force is increased four times. 

What are the disadvantages of a large bowl? 

1. It more easily gets out of balance. 

2. It is harder to keep on bearings. 

3. It is heavy and hard to handle. 

How should a separator bowl be flushed after 
running? 

1. With skim milk. 

2. With warm water at about the same tem- 
perature as the milk. 



ON BUTTERMAKING VJ 

How thick should farm separated cream be? 

The thicker the better. The farmer then has 
more skim milk for feeding purposes and has less 
cream to handle. Rich cream will take longer in 
souring. Cream testing 40 per cent fat makes a 
desirable cream for farm-separator and butter work. 

What are the advantages of owning a farm sepa- 
rator and making butter on the farm, rather 
than send the milk to a creamery? 

1. The milk can be skimmed as soon as milked, 
with small loss of fat, giving perfectly fresh skim 
milk for feeding purposes. 

2. No expense for delivering milk to the cream- 
ery and drawing skim milk home. 

3. No danger of transmitting disease from other 
herds through skim milk. 

4. The cream can be easily controlled and 
ripened. 

5. A better quality of butter can be made, all 
other things being equal. 

6. The farmer Is more independent. 

What are the disadvantages of this method? 

1. Cost of separator and buttermaking equip- 
ment. 

2. Considerable labor Involved. 

3. If the cream Is not churned every day or two 
the flavor of the butter suffers. 

4. Unless the butter Is well made and a special 
trade is established, it will not sell for as much 
money as does creamery butter. 



l8 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

5. A suitable sanitary place must be provided 
for ripening cream and for cooling butter. 

6. Scarcity of farm help. 

What precautions would you observe in operating 
a separator? 

1. Follow the directions of the manufacturer. 

2. Keep the machine level and on a solid founda- 
tion. 

3. Keep all parts of the machine absolutely 
clean. 

4. Keep all moving parts well oiled with the 
recommended oil. 

5. Start the machine slowly. 

6. Fill the bowl with warm water before start- 
ing. 

7. Keep the speed even and the milk feed supply 
steady. 

8. When through separating flush the bowl with 
skim milk and warm water. 

9. Allow the revolving bowl to stop slowly. 

10. Keep the machine and its parts in good 
repair. 

11. Test the skim milk frequently. 

What is pasteurization? 

Pasteurization consists in heating milk to at least 
140° F. for at least ten minutes, for the purpose of 
destroying bacterial life. The heating is followed 
by rapid cooling to check spore formation. The 
word is derived from Pasteur, a French scientist. 

What methods of pasteurization are used? 

I. Continuous; that is, heating continuously for 
considerable time. 



ON BUTTERMAKING I9 

2. Intermittent; that is, heating and cooling milk 
alternately several times with the idea of allow- 
ing spore development between heatings. After the 
third heating to a high temperature, practically all 
bacteria and spores are destroyed. 

What is sterilization? 

This term is often wTongly used in place of pas- 
teurization. To sterilize milk it must be heated to 
Nvery high temperature under pressure. Milk is not 
sterile until every bacterium and spore is destroyed. 

What are the advantages of pasteurization in butter- 
making? 

1. Most bacteria can be destroyed in milk and 
cream. 

2. Commercial starters can be prepared and 
carried on for indefinite periods. 

3. Pasteurization of skim milk prevents trans- 
mission of tuberculosis and other such diseases 
through its medium. 

4. Many volatile and food flavors can be re- 
moved from milk and cream. 

5. Cream ripening can be more successfully con- 
trolled. 

6. A more uniform quality of butter can be 
made. 

7. Butter has better keeping quality. 

8. Enables separators to skim closer. 

What are the disadvantages of pasteurization in 
buttermaking? 
I. Cost of machinery, fuel and labor. 



20 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

2. Requires ice or cold water for cooling pur- 
poses. 

3. Butter may have an oily texture if high tem- 
perature is improperly used. 

What are the names of some of the best pasteuriz- 
ing machines? 

1. Simplex. 

2. Jensen. 

3. Miller. 

4. Reid. 

5. Farrington. 

What are the important features in a pasteurizing 
machine? 

1. Durability. 

2. Capacity. 

3. Cost. 

4. Efficiency. 

Upon what does the efficiency of the machine 
depend? 

1. Kind of material from which the heating sur- 
face is manufactured. 

2. Degree of adhesiveness of milk or cream on 
the heating surface. 

3. Thickness of layer of condensed steam on 
steam side of heating surface. 

4. Difference in temperature on each side of 
heating surface. 

5. Proper utilization of steam turned into the 
pasteurizer. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 21 

What is the average cost of pasteurizing in butter- 
making? 
This varies in many localities and under many- 
conditions, but the average cost can be fairly esti- 
mated as being about ^4o of ^ cent on every pound 
of butter manufactured. 

What is meant by cream ripening? 

Ripening is a process by which cream is prepared 
for churning. It consists in controlling the souring 
by controlling temperatures and the growth of bac- 
teria both in the cream and in starters used. 

Why do we ripen cream? 

1. To control the growth of lactic acid bacteria. 

2. To produce a desired amount of lactic acid in 
the cream. 

3. To lessen the viscosity of cream. 

4. To increase the churnability of cream. 

5. To prevent losses in churning. 

6. To produce flavor and aroma in the butter. 

7. To increase the keeping quality of the butter. 

What changes take place in cream during the ripen- 
ing process? 

1. Great increase in the number of bacteria. 

2. Increased amount of lactic acid is formed. 

3. Reduction in the amount of milk sugar due to 
the formation of acid. 

4. Formation of various compounds in small 
quantities due chiefly to the action of bacteria and 
bacterial products. 

5. Thickening due to coagulation of casein. 

6. The cream surface becomes glossy. 



22 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

7. Viscosity is lessened. 

8. Cream develops a characteristic aroma and 
taste. 

How is cream ripened? 

1. Naturally, i. e., by allowing the cream to 
stand at a favorable temperature until sour enough 
for churning. 

2. Artificially, i. e., by the use of starters. These 
may be buttermilk, sour skim milk or commercial 
starters. Usually the cream is first pasteurized. 

What are the disadvantages of natural ripening? 

1. The growth of undesirable bacteria cannot be 
controlled. 

2. Great difficulty in making a uniform quality 
of butter. 

3. Takes too much time if low temperature is 
used. 

4. Quality of cream and butter is usually de- 
fective in flavor. 

What are the advantages of ripening cream with a 
commercial starter? 

1. The growth of lactic acid bacteria and the 
formation of lactic acid can be controlled. 

2. The growth of undesirable bacteria can be 
almost entirely prevented. 

3. Less difficulty in making a uniform quality 
of butter. 

4. Flavor of butter can be greatly improved. 

5. Butter has better keeping quality. 

6. Advantages of pasteurization can be gained. 

7. Time is saved. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 2^ 

How is a commercial starter prepared for use? 

A small bottle containing a culture of lactic acid 
producing bacteria is procured from some^ dairy 
bacteriology laboratory, or from some reliable dairy 
supply house. Directions are usually sent out with 
these, but the following method is the one usually 
followed : 

Place I quart of clean, szveet milk in a sterile glass 
jar. Heat the milk gradually in water until a tem- 
perature of 200° F. is reached. Hold at this tem- 
perature for at least one hour. Then allow the 
milk to cool to 90° F., being careful not to place the 
glass suddenly in cold water. 

As soon as 90° F. is reached the content of the 
small bottle is carefully added to the milk and 
mixed through it. The mixture is now allowed to 
cool gradually to 70° F. and then retained at this 
temperature for 24 hours, when it should be sour. 
This is called a " mother-starter," or " starter-line," 
and is not to be used in ripening the cream, but in 
preparing starter for the following day. 

To do this, take 100 pounds of clean, sweet skim 
milk in a previously sterilized can and heat to at 
least 200° F. for at least one hour. Then cool 
rapidly to 70° F. and add the contents of the quart 
jar prepared the day previous, mixing it thoroughly 
through the milk with a sterilized dipper. Hold at 
70° F. for 18 to 24 hours, when it should be sour, 
slightly coagulated and clean in flavor. A small 
amount of this is saved out to inoculate the starter 
for the following day, and the process can be re- 
peated and carried on in the same manner from day 
to day. 



9KSJr UBRARY 

C State^olleae questions and answers 



What precautions should be observed in preparing 
and using a commercial starter? 

1. Absolute cleanliness in all things that come 
in contact with the milk. 

2. Use sanitary utensils. 

3. Use correct thermometers. 

4. Be exact on temperature. 

5. Use the best milk obtainable for making the 
starters. 

6. Add starter to cream as early as possible. 

7. Do not use excessive amount of starter. 

How much commercial starter should be used in 
cream ripening? 
This will vary according to: 

1. Temperature of cream. 

2. Richness of cream. 

3. Acidity of the starter. 

4. Time required for ripening. 

5. Purity of cream. 

6. Kind of butter desired. 

Good results can sometimes be obtained by using 
as much as 50 per cent starter, but the usual amount 
is from 10 per cent to 20 per cent of the cream to be 
ripened. One point that should be remembered is 
that the greater the amount of buttermilk, the 
greater is the loss of fat in churning. 

How much acidity should be developed in a com- 
mercial starter? 
About .7 per cent. 

Is a commercial starter a pure culture? 

It may be or it may not. Usually it is not. 



ON BUTTERMAKING ^S 

What are the qualities of an ideal commercial 
starter? 

1. It should have a clean, sour taste and a mild, 
characteristic aroma. 

2. It should be nicely curdled, but not hard or 

lumpy. 

3. It should have about .7 per cent acidity. 

4. A brownish color indicates thorough pasteur- 
ization. 

5. It should be glossy and have a liver-like con- 
sistency. 

What are the common defects in starters? 

1. They may contain large numbers of undesir- 
able bacteria. 

2. They may be " gassy." 

3. They may have a bitter taste due to over- 
development of acid or from being kept at too high 
temperature. 

4. They may curdle while heating, due to ab- 
normal or over-ripe milk. 

5. They may be " slimy " or "ropy," due to im- 
perfect pasteurization. 

6. They may become " wheyed-ofif," caused by 
over-development of acid or too high temperature. 

What are the, effects of a bad starter upon the qual- 
ity of the butter? 

1. The flavor of the starter will be imparted to 
the butter and buttermilk. 

2. Mechanical losses are greater. 

3. Keeping quality of the butter is greatly im- 
paired. 



^6 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

What are some of the reliable commercial cultures 
on the market? 

Hansen's, Little Falls, N. Y. 

0. Douglas's, Boston, Mass. 

S. C. Keith's, Charleston, Mass. 

Ericsson's, St. Paul, Minn. 

Parke, Davis & Co/s, Detroit, Mich. 

At what temperature should cream be ripened? 

Most buttermakers are now agreed that a tem- 
perature between 60° F. and 70° F. gives the best 
results. The cream should be cooled to churning 
temperature a few hours before churning. 

Why should cream be stirred during the ripening 
process? 

1. To insure uniform development of lactic acid. 

2. To keep the fat and acid thoroughly mixed. 

3. To keep the temperature even. 

4. To prevent the cream surface drying. 

5. To prevent loss of fat. 

6. To prevent white specks of casein in the 
butter. 

What difference should be made in ripening when 
cream is churned every other day? 

The method most successfully used is as follows: 
Begin ripening at once with the first lot of cream 
skimmed and let the lactic acid bacteria get a start. 
In a few hours cool to at least 50° F. and hold till 
the following day, when the freshly skimmed cream 
can be thoroughly mixed with it. The cream from 
the first day thus acts as a starter for the cream 
of the second day. The lactic acid inhibits the 



ON BUTTERMAKING 27 

growth of undesirable bacteria so that better results 
are accomplished. A great mistake is too often 
made by holding cream too long. The longer it 
is held after being ready for churning, the more 
the flavor and quality of the butter suffers. 

What conditions determine whether cream of dif- 
ferent qualities should be mixed? 

1. Quality of the cream. 

2. The kind of market for the butter. 

3. The amount of poor cream compared with the 
quantity of good cream. 

4. General creamery conditions, such as facilities 
for pasteurizing, making starters, and for cream 
ripening. 

How much acid should be developed in cream for 
churning ? 

This varies with the amount of fat in the cream 
and the kind of butter desired. Usually 
20% cream should have about .7% 
30% cream should have about .6% 
40% cream should have about .5% 
50% cream should have about .4% 
The richer the cream, the less sugar it contains 
for acid formation. 

How is the acid in milk, cream, starters, or butter- 
milk measured? 
By an acidimeter. 

Describe an acidimeter and the method of testing. 

There are several tests for measuring acid and 
sold on the market under different names, such as 



28 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Publow's, Mann's, Farrington's, and Marshall's, 
but the principle is the same in all of them. An 
alkaline solution of known strength and an indicator 
called phenol-phthalein are the reagents used. The 
purpose of the indicator is to indicate the reaction 
of the milk or cream; i. e., it shows whether the 
milk or cream is acid, alkaline, or neutral. The in- 
dicator has no color efifect in an acid solution, but it 
turns an alkaline substance red. When the neutral 
point is reached, the faintly pink color is barely 
distinguishable. 

To make the test : 

A known quantity of the milk or cream to be 
tested is placed in a white cup. To it a few drops 
of indicator are added. An alkaline solution of 
known strength is then allowed to run in drop by 
drop from a graduated burette until the milk or 
cream assumes a faintly pink color, which signifies 
that all the acid in the milk or cream has been 
neutralized by the alkali used. The amount of 
alkali used can be read on the burette, and as its 
strength is known it is an easy matter to figure the 
amount of acid in the milk or cream. One c. c. of 
Yio normal alkali neutralizes .009 grams lactic acid. 

In the test used at Cornell university the alkali 
used is a %o normal solution of caustic soda. This 
makes a very convenient strength, because when g 
grams of milk or cream are taken, .1 c. c. of it 
neutralizes or represents .01 per cent of lactic acid. 
Thus, if in testing the cream 4 c. c. of the alkali 
was used, the cream contained .40 per cent of acid. 

In Farrington's test the alkali is made %o normal 
by adding 5 tablets in 97 c. c. water. Then, when 



ON BUTTERMAKING 29 

17.6 c. c. of cream is taken, i c. c. of the alkali 
represents .01 per cent acid. 

In Mann's test a %o normal alkali is used and 
50 c. c. of cream are tested. The number c. c. of 
alkali necessary to neutralize the acid measures in 
degrees the amount of acid. 

I c. c. of •—• alkali^i degree Mann's test. 

To get the per cent acid multiply the number 
c. c. alkali used by .009, divide by 50 and multiply 
by 100. 

What is the object in churning? 

It is the agitation or concussion of the cream to 
a degree sufficient to separate the fat-globules from 
the milk and cause them to unite into masses of 
butter large enough to be easily separated from the 
buttermilk. 

What conditions afifect the churnability of cream? 

1. Temperature of the cream. 

2. Acidity of the cream. 

3. Richness of the cream. 

4. Size of the fat-globules. 

5. Nature of the agitation. 

What is the effect of temperature on the churn- 
ability of cream? 

1. The higher the temperature, the sooner the 
churning process will be completed. 

2. High temperature causes the butter to come 
in soft lumps instead of in a firm granular form. 

3. High temperature causes too much butter- 
milk to remain in the butter. 



30 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

4. The excessive buttermilk usually causes 
mottles. 

5. Too low temperature causes difficult' churning. 

6. Low temperature increases the viscosity of 
cream. 

7. Low temperature causes the granules to be- 
come so hard that the butter takes up salt slowly, 
and the butter is difficult to work. 

8. If the granules are too firm and cold, too 
much Avater is lost from the butter in working, de- 
creasing the overrun. 

What conditions influence the hardness of the fat- 
globules in churning? 

1. The breed of the cow. 

2. Individuality of the cow. 

3. The food of the cow. 

4. Season of the year. 

5. Stage of lactation period. 

6. Abnormal conditions. 

Under normal conditions at v^^hat temperature 
should cream be churned? 
Between 50° and 60° F. A very popular tem- 
perature is 56° F. The churning should be com- 
pleted in at least one hour. 

What is a combined churn? 

One in which cream can be churned and contain- 
ing some device for working the butter. 

What are the advantages of a combined churn? 

I. Butter can be churned, washed, salted, and 
worked without being removed from the churn. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 3I 

2. Saves time and labor. 

3. Temperature of butter can be easily con- 
trolled. 

4. Flies are kept away from the butter during 
working. 

What are the names of some of the best combined 
churns on the market? 

1. Victor. 

2. Wizard. 

3. Simplex. 

4. Disbrow. 

5. Dairy Queen. 

6. Squeezer. 

How should a new churn be prepared for use? 

It should first be washed out with plain, warm 
water. Then rinsed with hot salt water. Then 
salt water should be left in the churn for at least 
24 hours, so that the pores of the wood become 
closed and filled with salt. If desirable, the churn 
may be steamed on the inside before soaking in salt 
water. After this treatment the churn is rinsed 
with cold water and is then ready for use. 

How should a churn be treated to keep it in a clean, 
sweet condition? 

After use the churn should be rinsed with warm 
water, then rinsed again with hot water, and finally 
rinsed again in hot water in which some lime has 
been dissolved. Sometimes steam and salt solu- 
tions are used for the final rinsing, but they are 
not so satisfactory as hot lime water. Nothing will 
do more to preserve the sweet, fresh condition of 
the churn than this simple method. 



32 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

How can the growth af mold be prevented in a 
churn not in constant use? 

Before putting- the churn aside give it a thorough 
soaking in a hot solution of bichlorid of mercury, 
Strength one in a thousand. This is made by dis- 
solving yYi grains of mercuric chlorid in i pint 
hot water. The churn should then be kept in a 
dry place. Before using the churn again, it should 
be thoroughly washed with hot salt water in order 
to remove all traces of mercury, which is a poison. 

When can the greatest amount of agitation be ob- 
tained in a churn? 

When it is about one-third full. 

What is the effect of revolving a churn too fast? 
The agitation is lessened and may even stop. 

What is the effect of revolving a churn too slowly? 

The cream is not agitated sufficiently, and churn- 
ing is greatly delayed. 

Why should cream be strained before churning? 

1. It separates all lumps. 

2. Separates other insoluble bodies that may be 
present. 

3. Assists in preventing mottled color. 

Why is artificial butter color used? 

To maintain a uniform color in the butter during 
all seasons of the year. 

What is used to color butter? 

Most color is prepared from the seed fruit of the 



ON BUTTERMAKING 33 

annatto tree. Carrot juice and the extract from 
several plants have been used. Several artificial 
colors have been marketed, but the United States 
pure food laws prevent their use in butter. 

How much coloring is used in buttermaking ? 

This depends upon the market requirements, 
upon the season of the year, upon the strength of 
the color, and upon the natural color and richness 
of the milk fat. 

The amount varies between none and 2 ounces 
for every 100 pounds of milk fat. Most eastern 
markets want a pale, straw color, while the south- 
ern markets demand a much redder color. 

How is color added to butter? 

The color is diluted in a small amount of cold 
water and added to the cream before churning. If 
for any reason it is forgotten at this time, it can be 
mixed with the salt and applied, but this is not a 
desirable method, as the butter is usually over- 
worked in so doing. 

What objection is there to mixing sour cream and 
sweet cream before churning? 

1. The creams do not mix well. 

2. The sour cream churns more rapidly than the 
sweet. 

3. There is usually heavy loss of fat in the 
buttermilk. 

4. The color may be mottled from casein co- 
agulated by acid in the sour cream. 



34 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

How would you tell when cream is churned 
enough? 

1. By the size of the butter granules. These 
should be about the size of corn kernels. 

2. By the appearance of the buttermilk. This 
should be bluish in color and clear. 

3. By the height at which the butter floats on 
the buttermilk. Should be well up. 

What is the effect of churning the cream too long? 

1. The granules of butter become too large and 
retain too much buttermilk, which is difficult to 
remove. 

2. There is danger of incorporating too much 
moisture in the butter. 

3. If the cream is of poor flavor, the excessive 
moisture and buttermilk injures the keeping quality 
of the butter. 

4. The texture of the butter is injured. 

What is the effect of too much buttermilk in butter ? 

1. The sugar in the buttermilk sours and in- 
jures the flavor. 

2. The casein usually causes mottled color. 

3. Keeping quality is injured. 

4. The texture of the butter is injured. 

What is the effect of stopping the churning process 
too soon? 

1. The butter granules are too small and many 
of them are lost in the buttermilk. 

2. There is difficulty in holding moisture in the 
butter and it may cause leaking butter. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 35 

What are the causes of difficult churning? 

1. Small fat-globules. Usually found in milk 
from stripper cows or cows far advanced in the 
lactation period. 

2. Cream may become frothy, due to some ab- 
normal condition of the milk from a diseased cow, 
or from foreign substances of an alkaline nature 
added to milk or cream. 

3. The milk or cream may be "yeasty." 

4. The churn may be too full. 

5. Cream may be too thick. 

6. Cream may be too thin. 

7. Cream may be too cold. 

8. Cream may be too sweet. 

What are the remedies for difficult churning? 

1. See that the cream is not too thick nor too 
thin, of proper acidity, and of correct temperature. 

2. Do not overfill the churn. 

3. If due to the milk from a certain cow or herd, 
keep this by itself. 

4. Succulent food, such as ensilage, usually 
remedies the trouble in milk from errors in dry 
feeding. 

5. Ripen the cream to a higher acidity. 

6. Use a good commercial starter. 

What is the cause of frothy cream? 

1. Abnormal condition of cream due to diseased 
condition of cows. 

2. Certain bacteria and bacterial products. 

3. " Yeasts." Quite common in recent years. 

4. Alkaline preservatives added to milk or cream. 



36 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

5. Cream too sweet. 

6. Churn too full. 

How would you treat cream that froths in a churn? 

1. Correct errors in temperature, acidity, fullness 
of churn, etc. 

2. For immediate treatment, add some warm 
water around the outside of the churn. 

3. If a combined churn is used, start the rollers. 

4. Some warm water may be added directly to 
the cream. 

5. By allowing the churn to stand quiet a while 
the froth may settle and churning can then be com- 
pleted. 

6. Pasteurize the cream. 

7. Use a good commercial starter and ripen the 
cream a little more than usual. 

8. AVhen the trouble continues after the above 
treatments, thorough investigation should be made 
into the milk supply and the source of all water 
supply. 

Why is butter washed? 

To remove as much of the buttermilk as possible. 

When should butter be washed? 

Just as soon as all the free buttermilk can be re- 
moved. 

What temperature should the wash water be? 

It should be as nearly like that of the cream 
when churned as is consistent with other condi- 
tions. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 37 

What IS the effect of using too cold water? 

1. It chills the butter. 

2. It hinders the escape of buttermilk. 

3. It may cause a tallowy appearance in the 
butter. 

4. It lessens the moisture content of the butter. 

What is the effect of using too warm water? 

1. It tends to increase the moisture content of 
butter. 

2. It injures the texture of the butter, causing 
it to become greasy and soft. 

What is the effect of excessive washing of butter? 

1. It removes some of the flavor from butter. 

2. If the water is warm it increases the moisture 
content of the butter. 

3. It injures the texture of the butter. 

How should butter be washed? 

Water at about the same temperature as the 
buttermilk should be put on in sufficient quantity 
to remove all the buttermilk. Sometimes one wash- 
ing is enough, but usually two or three waters must 
be used. When the last water is used it should 
run away perfectly clear. If the granules of butter 
are very soft, the last water can be colder than 
the first, but, in order to retain a high moisture 
content in the butter, the water must not be too 
cold. 

Sometimes Ivhen the flavor of butter is not good, 
excessive washing is resorted to, but this does not 
usually have a very beneficial effect, especially if 
the bad flavor is of bacterial origin. Some volatile 



38 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

food flavors, however, are materially decreased by 
washing in good water. 

What conditions affect the moisture content of 
butter? 

1. Richness of the cream. 

2. Temperature of the cream and wash water. 

3. Size of butter granules. 

4. Time allowed butter in buttermilk and wash 
water. 

5. Amount of working the butter receives. 

6. Minor mechanical conditions. 

What is the maximum amount of moisture in butter 
allowed by the laws of United States? 
The moisture content of butter must be under 16 
per cent. 

What methods are used for purifying water at 
creameries? 

1. Filtration through a sand filter 

2. Pasteurization. 

Pure spring water or good well water does not 
need purifying. 

What is the effect of the presence of buttermilk in 
butter? 

1. The keeping quality of the butter is injured. 

2. The presence of casein usually causes a 
mottled color. 

3. The texture of the butter is injured, the 
milky brine being quite objectionable to many con- 
sumers. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 39 

What are the reasons for salting butter? 

1. To give it flavor. 

2. To assist in expelling buttermilk. 

3. To increase the keeping quality. 

Upon what conditions does the amount of salt used 
depend? 

1. Upon the market requirements. 

2. The moisture content of the butter. 

3. The strength of the salt. 

4. The amount of working the butter receives. 

5. Size of the butter granules at time of salting. 

6. Upon the flavor of the butter. 

What is the composition of pure dairy salt? 

Sodium chlorid 99. 18% 

Magnesium chlorid. . .05% 

Gypsum 54% 

Calcium chlorid 19% 

Insoluble matter 03% 

Moisture 01 % 

100.00% 

Upon what does the amount of salt dissolved in 
butter depend? 

1. Upon the amount of moisture in the butter. 

2. Upon the purity of the salt. 

How does salt increase the keeping quality of 
butter? 

1. By its antiseptic power. 

2. By assisting in the removal of buttermilk. 



46 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

What is brine-salting? 

The butter is salted by being washed or soaked in 
a salted water. 

What are the advantages of brine-salting? 

1. Overrun can be increased. 

2. There is very little danger of mottled color. 

3. Butter requires less working. 

What are the disadvantages of brine-salting? 

1. It is too expensive. 

2. Requires considerable water. 

3. Increased labor. 

4. Difficulty in getting sufficient salt into the 
butter. 

5. May cause excessive amount of moisture in 
butter. 

6. Color may be streaked if insufficient working 
is given. 

What is the effect of salt in buttermaking? 

1. Helps to expel buttermilk. 

2. Gives flavor to butter. 

3. Adds weight to butter. 

4. Causes the color of butter to become more 
pronounced. 

5. It acts as a preservative and increases the 
keeping quality of butter. 

6. Affects the body and texture of butter. 

What is the average salt content of butter? 
About 2 per cent. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 4f 

How much salt can be incorporated in butter? 

As much as 7 per cent or 8 per cent, but then 
most of it is in an undissolved state. It is difficult 
to incorporate more than 3 per cent of dissolved 
salt. 

How is butter tested for its salt content? 

1. Weigh into a glass beaker 10 grams of butter. 
Add about 20 c. c. water and warm the mixture to 
melt the butter. Then transfer the butter and 
water to a separatory funnel. Insert the stopper 
and shake for a few minutes. Then allow the mix- 
ture to stand a few minutes until any remaining 
fat has collected on the surface. Then draw the 
water into a flask, being sure that no fat passes 
through. Again, add hot water to the beaker and 
repeat the washing in the funnels several times, 
using 15 c. c. water each time. 

Determine the sodium chlorid or salt in a meas- 
ured part (10 c. c.) of the liquid by titrating with 
standard silver nitrate solution, using potassium 
chromate as an indicator. 

One c. c. -—- silver nitrate solution equals .005837 
grams of salt. 

To determine the total amount of salt divide the 
total number c. c. of water used by 10 and multiply 
by .005837. This will give the total number grams 
of salt in 10 grams of butter. 

Then, knowing the amount present in 10 grams, 
it is an easy matter to determine the amount in 100 
grams by multiplying by 10. This gives the per- 
centage of salt in the butter tested. 

2. Gray's salt test. A representative lo-gram 
sample of butter is placed in a small glass dish. 



42 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

The dish is then half filled with boiling water and 
the mixture of fat and water poured into a 500 c. c. 
glass flask. The dish is rinsed several times with 
boiling water and each time the rinsing is poured 
into the flask. The flask is then filled to the 500 
c. c. mark with boiling water and thoroughly- 
shaken. Then allow the contents of the flask to 
cool, and after the fat has collected on top and 
solidified, measure with a pipette 50 c. c. of the 
clear solution beneath the fat and place it in a clean 
glass dish. Fifty c. c. of a potassium chromate in- 
dicator is then added and the solution titrated with 
a standard silver nitrate solution. The strength of 
this silver solution is such that i c. c. of it repre- 
sents Yioo of I per cent of salt. 

3. The Fitch salt test. A representative 3.5 
gram sample of butter is placed in a 300 c. c. glass 
flask and 180 c. c. boiling water added. The flask 
is then corked and thoroughly shaken, care being 
taken to remove the cork often to relieve pressure. 
The mixture is then allowed to cool, and after the 
fat has collected on top and solidified, 17.6 c. c. of 
the clear solution beneath the fat is placed in a 
white cup. Then 17.6 c. c. of potassium chromate 
indicator is added, and the solution titrated with a 
standard silver nitrate solution measured from a 
graduated cylinder till the solution becomes a per- 
manent reddish color. The number c. c. silver 
nitrate used divided by 10 equals per cent salt. 

How should salt be added to butter? 

As soon as the butter has been properly washed 
the salt should be applied by passing it through a 
fine-meshed sifter in order to prevent lumps of salt 



ON BUTTERMAKING 43 

entering the butter. The salt should be given 
plenty of time to dissolve before the butter receives 
its final working. 

What is " gritty " butter? , 

Butter in which part of the salt remains in an 
undissolved state. 

What are the causes of "gritty" butter? 

1. Excessive salting. 

2. Impure salt. 

3. Small water content of butter. 

4. Insufficient working. 

5 Uneven distribution of salt. 
6. Failure to allow butter to stand after salting 
before final working. 

What is mottled butter? 

Butter which is uneven in color, having lighter 
and darker spots. 

What are the causes of mottled butter? 

1. Specks of casein from buttermilk. 

2. Improper incorporation of salt. 

3. Yeasts. 

4. Failure to strain the cream or starter. 

5. Poor coloring. 

How can mottled butter be prevented? 

1. By thoroughly removing the buttermilk by 

washing. 

2. By allowing the salt plenty of time to dis- 
solve before completing the butter working. 

3. By using pure salt. 



44 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

4. By giving the butter sufficient working. 

5. Always strain cream and starter. 

6. By using reliable coloring. 

How can mottles be removed from butter? 

Most mottles can be removed by excessive work- 
ing of the butter. 

Why is butter worked? 

1. To assist in distributing salt through the 
butter. 

2. To assist in expelling buttermilk and water. 

3. To bring the granules of butter into a more 
compact form. 

How much should butter be worked? 

This depends on the condition of the butter and 
the style of butter worker. Butter should be 
worked till the salt is dissolved, till the color is 
uniform and the moisture content is satisfactory. 
About 12 to 20 revolutions of most combined 
churns is sufficient. 

What is the average composition of butter? 

Fat 84.00% 

Water 12.73% 

Curd 1.3 % 

Salt and ash 1-97% 



100.00% 



When is cheesemaking more profitable than butter- 
making? 
When butter sells for less than two and one- 
third times as much as cheese. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 45 

What amount of fat should be present in butter? 

Not less than 80 per cent. 

How should butter be packed for shipment? 

This depends on the requirements of the different 
markets. Regulation wooden tubs containing 10, 
20, 30, or 60 pounds are used most extensively in 
the United States. In Canada most of the butter 
made for export is packed in square boxes, holding 
about 56 pounds. Dairy butter is usually packed 
in earthen jars, and nothing gives better satisfaction. 

In many creameries the butter is wrapped in 
pound prints and packed in boxes for shipment. 
Butter in this form usually brings at least one cent 
per pound more than tub butter. The prints should 
be wrapped in parchment paper, upon which the 
name of the creamery is neatly printed. 

How are butter tubs prepared for use? 

For about 24 hours before the tubs are to be 
filled with butter they should be soaked in a warm, 
saturated brine. This helps to destroy mold and 
closes the pores of the wood. The covers should 
be kept on the tubs to prevent warping. Just 
before the tubs are to be used they should be rinsed 
with warm water, then steamed, and then cooled 
with cold water. They are then ready to be lined 
with paper, and then filled with butter. The paper 
linings and circles should be soaked in a strong 
brine for a few hours before used. Many manu- 
facturers are now using tubs coated with paraffin. 
This almost entirely prevents mold growth, and the 
tubs are ready for paper lining as soon as rinsed 
in cold water, 



4.6 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

How can mold be prevented from growing in 
butter? 

1. By sufficiently soaking the tubs and linings 
in a strong salt solution before using. 

2. By paraffining the tubs thoroughly on the 
inside. 

3. By soaking the tubs and paper linings in 
solutions of formaldehyde. 

What wood is the best for butter-tub construc- 
tion? 

For the larger tubs ash is used and for the smaller 
ones, spruce. 

How should butter be packed into tubs? 

The wooden butter ladles should first be cooled 
with cold water to prevent butter sticking to them. 
The butter should then be firmly packed in small 
amounts at a time and using plenty of muscle in the 
work. The circumference should receive more 
packing than the center, because when the butter 
is turned out of the tub for cutting, it is very 
necessary that the surface be free from all me- 
chanical holes. Solid packing is of considerable 
aid in preventing the entrance of mold. The tubs 
should be filled to the top with butter. In filling, 
the butter should be heaped up and then leveled 
off by drawing a small wire or string across the 
surface. The extra butter can then be rolled off 
and the surface is left smooth and level. 

The paper linings should be so fitted that they 
overlap about i inch on the top surface. Then on 
top a cotton circle should be placed and over the 
circle a small amount of dampened salt is sprinkled. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 47 

The covers are then applied, the weight of butter 
marked on the tub and it is ready for market. 

What are the qualities of ideal butter? 

It should have a clean, mild, creamy flavor, with 
a pronounced, mild, pleasant aroma. It should 
have close, solid, waxy body, free from butter- 
milk and undissolved salt. The color should be 
uniform and natural, and the finish should be neat, 
clean, and attractive. 

How is butter judged? 

A sample is drawn from the package by the use 
of a steel butter trier. As soon as drawn it is 
passed underneath the nose for the purpose of de- 
tecting the aroma. The color is then examined for 
defects and incidentally the brine is examined for 
free buttermilk. 

The butter is then tasted and at the same time 
tested for undissolved salt by dissolving a small 
amount of butter between the tongue and roof of 
the mouth. The grain and body are also noticed 
and finally the finish and style of the package. It 
is usually better to criticise the finish first, before 
it is disfigured in any way. 

What form is used for scoring butter? 

Flavor 45 

Body 25 

Color 15 

Salt 10 

Style 5 



100 



4-8 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

What are some of the undesirable flavors commonly 
found in butter? 

Rancid, unclean, cowy, fishy, weedy and tallowy, 
etc. 

What are the common causes of undesirable flavors 
in butter? 

1. Impure milk supply. 

2. Cream exposed to bad odors. 

3. Cream too old or too ripe before churning. 

4. Undesirable bacteria found in all sorts of dirt 
and dirty places. 

5. Impure water. 

6. Foods that impart volatile flavors such as 
turnips, leeks, garlic, rape, etc. 

7. Too much buttermilk retained in butter. 

8. Holding butter at too warm temperature. 

A bacterial flavor can usually be told from a food 
flavor, in that a food flavor generally passes off by 
pasteurizing and by the use of a commercial starter, 
while a bacterial flavor usually becomes worse with 
age. 

V/hat is the difference between creamery, process, 
renovated, factory, packing-stock, and grease 
butter? 

Creamery butter is butter made in a creamery from 
cream separated at the creamery or gathered from 
farmers. 

Process or renovated butter is butter made by 
melting butter, clarifying the fat therefrom and re- 
churning the same with fresh buttermilk, milk, 
cream, skim milk, or other such material. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 49 

Factory butter is butter that is collected in rolls, 
lumps, crocks, and such forms, and reworked by a 
dealer or shipper. 

Packing-stock butter is butter that is originally 
farm-made, reworked without additional moisture 
or salt. 

Grease butter is made up of all butter that classes 
below third grade on the market. It must be free 
from adulteration. 

What is oleomargarine? 

The United States law defines oleomargarine as 
any substance containing animal or vegetable fats 
or oils, or any such products made in imitation or 
semblance of butter, or when so made calculated or 
intended to be used or sold as butter. 

What are the laws of the United States regarding 
oleomargarine ? 

The laws on this substance are so changeable 
that it is impossible to give any set law for any 
state in such a book as this. 

Some states prevent the manufacture of oleomar- 
garine, others allow it to be manufactured if it is 
labeled and sold as oleomargarine, and a tax of so 
much per pound is paid, while still others do not 
require any tax. Some states, too, have laws pre- 
venting the use of coloring in products made in 
imitation of butter. In fact, the manufacturers of 
these products are so ingenious that they keep law- 
makers busy in controlling them. The following 
extract from the laws of New York state give c 
good idea of the nature of an oleomargarine law— 
26-38, page 18; 



50 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

No person, by himself, his agents, or his em- 
ployees, shall produce or manufacture out of or 
from any animal fats or animal or vegetable oils not 
produced from unadulterated milk or cream, from 
the same, the article known as oleomargarine or 
any article or product in imitation or semblance 
of natural butter produced from pure unadulterated 
milk or cream of the same ; or mix, compound with 
or add to milk, cream or butter, any acids or other 
deleterious substance or any animal fats or animal 
or vegetable oils not produced from milk or cream, so 
as to produce any article or substance, or any human 
food in imitation or in semblance of natural butter. 
Nor sell, keep for sale, or offer for sale any article or 
substance or compound made, manufactured or pro- 
duced in violation of the provision in this section, 
whether such article, substance or compound shall 
be made or produced in this state or elsewhere. Any 
person manufacturing, selling, offering, or expos- 
ing for sale any commodity or substance in imita- 
tion or semblance of butter, the product of the 
dairy, shall be guilty of a violation of [the agricul- 
tural law] this chapter, whether he sells such com- 
modity or substance as butter, oleomargarine, or 
any other name or designation whatsoever, and ir- 
respective of any representations he may make 
relative to such commodity or substance. Any 
dealer in any article or product, the manufacturing 
or sale of which is prohibited by this act, who shall 
keep, store or display such article or product with 
other merchandise or stock in his place of business, 
shall be deemed to have the same in his possession 
for sale. 

What is whey butter? 

Whey butter is butter made from the fat in cream 
separated from whey, which is a by-product in 



ON BUTTERMAKING 5 1 

cheesemaklng. Its quality depends largely upon 
the quality of the milk and whey, and the amount 
to be made depends upon the amount of fat lost in 
the whey in the process of cheesemaking. The 
amount varies between 2 pounds to 5 pounds in 
every 1,000 pounds whey. 

What are the common sources of loss in butter- 
making ? 

1. Improper care of the milk. 

2. Carelessness in sampling milk or cream. 

3. Inaccuracy in reading fat in test bottles. 

4. Carelessness or inability in running separa- 
tors. 

5. Errors in cream ripening. 

6. Spilling milk or cream while handling it. 

7. Inaccurate scales. 

8. Carelessness or inability in churning. 

9. Losses in buttermilk. 

10. Moisture content of butter may be too low. 

11. Moisture may not be properly incorporated, 
allowing great shrinkage in weight. 

12. Printing machines may not be accurate, giv- 
ing overweight. 

How is butter tested for its fat content? 

I. By the ether method. 

Evaporate a known weight, 2 to 3 grams, to dry- 
ness in a flat-bottom dish. Then wash the total 
contents of the dish upon a weighed filter paper, 
using about 50 c. c. of ether or naphtha. Then 
wash free from fat the residue on the filter, with 
ether or naphtha. The filter is then dried at 100° 
C. to constant weight and weighed. The percent- 



52 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

age of fat is determined by the difiference between 
weight of butter and weight of fat. 

2. By Babcock test. 

Weigh 4 grams of butter into a cream bottle, add- 
ing enough water to make i8 grams in the bottle. 
Add 1 8 grams of sulphuric acid, and after thorough 
mixing, whirl in the centrifuge for five minutes. 
Add hot water at 200° F. to raise the fat into the 
graduated part of the neck. Whirl again for two 
minutes, then multiply the reading on the bottle 
by 4-5- 

How is the moisture content of butter determined? 

1. By chemical analysis. 

2. By practical moisture tests. 

What are the names of the more commonly used 
moisture tests? 

1. Cornell test. 

2. Mitchell-Walker. 

3. Irish. 

4. Gray's. 

5. Farrington. 

How should a representative sample of butter be 

secured and prepared for making a moisture, 

salt, or fat test? 

From the mass of butter to be tested take several 

samples from various parts. These samples, when 

added together, should make about 6 ounces. 

These are placed in a wide-mouth sample bottle or 

fruit jar and placed in hot water until the butter 

melts to the consistency of thin cream. While 

melting, the butter should be thoroughly stirred 

with a table knife or similar instrument. The bottle 



ON BUTTERMAKING 53 

should then be well shaken to insure a uniform 
mixing of the sample. The bottle is then placed in 
cold water to solidify, but while cooling the butter 
should be stirred continuously. As soon as the 
butter has become fairly solid or plastic, the sample 
for testing can be secured. If in melting the butter 
becomes oily, great care must be used to reincorpo- 
rate the water evenly during the cooling. 

Describe and give directions for testing butter with 
the Cornell moisture test. 

This is a simple, accurate, and durable test re- 
cently prepared by Mr. H. E. Ross of the dairy 
department of New York state college of agricul- 
ture. 

The test resembles the Irish test, but has several 
important improvements. 

A lo-gram sample of butter is secured in the 
usual way, and is placed in a special cast aluminum 
cup. The cup is then held over a flame with special 
forceps or placed on any heated surface. 

The important features of the test are the use of 
the special cup and the use of a thin sheet of as- 
bestos between the flame or heated surface and the 
cup. The asbestos prevents all sputtering of the 
heating butter and eliminates to a great extent 
the danger of charring. 

The sample is heated till all moisture is driven 
ofif. This usually takes about 25 minutes, and is 
indicated by the casein losing its snow-white color 
and becoming brown. The sample is then cooled 
and reweighed with a special scale upon which the 
percentage moisture can be read directly and accu- 
rately. 



54 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Describe and give directions for using the Irish 
moisture test. 
A representative logram sample of butter is ob- 
tained and placed in a small metal cup, then held 
over an alcohol flame with a pair of special forceps 
until all moisture has evaporated from it. While 
the butter is heating it foams considerably. As 
soon as the foaming has ceased, and before the fat 
begins to char, a small mirror is held over the cup 
to show if any moisture still remains. \Mien the 
sample is thus freed from moisture it is cooled to 
room temperature and reweighed upon a special 
scale by which the difference between the weights 
of the butter before and after heating is indicated 
in the form of moisture percentage by the use of 
small percentage weights. 

Describe and give directions for using Gray's 
moisture test. 

This test consists of a scale, a glass flask, a gradu- 
ated glass tube, a condenser, an amyl reagent, and 
an alcohol lamp. 

A representative lo-gram sample of butter is 
placed in the glass flask. To this 6 c. c. of amyl 
reagent is added and the dififerent parts of the test 
then connected for use. The butter and amyl mix- 
ture is heated over a flame and the moisture is 
driven oflf into a graduated tube in the form of 
steam, where it condenses upon coming in con- 
tact with the condenser, which contains cold water. 
The moisture collects in the graduated tube and 
can be read in the form of percentage. The heat- 
ing is stopped as soon as the mixture in the flask 
becomes brown and the crackling noise ceases. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 55 

This usually requires about six minutes. Should 
too much heat be applied at once, the steam may 
go up above the 15 per cent mark. This should 
be prevented by withdrawing the heat for a short 
time. Great care must be exercised in collecting 
all the moisture in the graduated part if reliable 
readings or results are to be secured. 

Describe and give directions for using the Mitchell- 
Walker moisture test. 

The apparatus in this test consists, of a metal 
evaporating cup, condenser, graduated glass re- 
ceiver, scale for weighing sample, spirit lamp, amy! 
acetate reagent, and a stand to support the appa- 
ratus. 

A representative lo-gram sample of butter is 
placed in the metal cup. To this is added 10 c. c. 
of the amyl acetate reagent. The apparatus is 
then connected and the condenser filled with cold 
water. The alcohol flame is then applied under the 
evaporating cup. In about a minute the water and 
reagent will begin to pass over and pass from the 
condenser tube into the receiver. After all the 
water has been evaporated from the cup, the re- 
agent will cease or almost cease dropping for a 
moment and then begin again as soon as it has 
reached its own boiling point, which is higher than 
that of the water. Continue to apply the flame until 
practically all the reagent is driven oflf and it ceases 
to drop freely from the condenser-tube. By this 
means all the water is washed out of the condenser 
tube and the major portion of the reagent is recov- 
ered. The flame is now extinguished. The mouth 
of the receiver is corked, and, taken by the top, is 



56 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

shaken a few times to detach any drops of water 
that may adhere to the sides. 

The percentage moisture can now be read in the 
graduated receiver. The water is then withdrawn 
from the receiver and then the reagent, which is 
collected in a bottle and preserved for use in later 
tests. 

Describe and give directions for using Farrington 
moisture test. 

In Farrington's test lo grams of a representative 
sample of butter is placed in a small dish. Tlie 
dish is then placed in a special Farrington oven 
heated from 240° F. to 270° F. under steam pres- 
sure. Here the butter is left until all moisture has 
been evaporated, as indicated by the browning of 
the casein. This usually takes about 25 minutes. 
After the moisture has been evaporated the dish and 
its contents is reweighed and the difference from 
the original weight determined. The percentage 
moisture can thus be easily determined. Example: 

If original weight=io grams, and weight after 
evaporation's^ grams, then evaporation of water 
must:=i^ grams. 

If evaporation from 10 grams butter=i3/2 grams, 
then evaporation from 100 grams butter would be 
ij_x_ioo^ 15 grams. 

.-. percentage water in butter=i5 per cent. 

Occasionally a balance is used upon which, by 
using a reverse beam, the percentage moisture can 
be read direct. 

What rules govern the sale of butter in New York? 

At the first regular meeting of the executive com- 



ON BUTTERMAKING 57 

mittee in each year the president shall appoint — 
with the approval of the executive committee — a 
butter committee to consist of seven members of 
the exchange, one of whom shall be a member of 
the executive committee, to hold office until their 
successo?s are duly appointed. It shall be the duty 
of the butter committee to formulate such rules 
and regulations as may be necessary for the govern- 
ment of transactions between members of the ex- 
change, and to revise the same as circumstances 
may require. Such rules and revisions shall be 
subject to the approval of the executive committee. 

Under direction of the superintendent of the ex- 
change, who shall be instructed by the butter com- 
mittee, there shall be a call, at such houf as shall be 
prescribed, on each business day of the year, for the 
purchase and sale of butter. 

All transactions in butter between members of 
the exchange shall be governed by the following 
rules: 

CLASSIFICATIONS 

1. Butter shall be classified as creamery, process, 
factory, packing stock, and grease butter. 

Definitions 

2. Creamery. — Butter offered under this class- 
ification shall have been made in a creamery from 
cream separated at the creamery or gathered from 
farmers. 

3. Process. — Butter offered under this class- 
ification shall be such as is made by melting butter, 



58 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

clarifying- the fat therefrom and rechiirning the 
same with fresh milk, cream or skim milk, or other 
similar process. 

4. Factory. — Butter offered under this class- 
ification shall be such as is collected in rolls, lumps, 
or in whole packages and reworked by the dealer 
or shipper. 

5. Packing Stock. — Butter offered under this 
classification shall be original farm-made butter in 
rolls, lumps, or otherwise, without additional 
moisture or salt. 

6. Grease Butter shall comprise all classes of 
butter grading below thirds, or of packing stock 
grading below No. 3 as hereinafter specified, free 
from adulteration. 

GRADES 

7. Creamery, process and factory shall be graded 
as specials, extras, firsts, seconds, and thirds; and 
packing stock shall be graded as No. i, No. 2 and 
No. 3. 

Definition of Grades 

8. Grades of butter must conform to the follow- 
ing requirements: 

Specials 

9. Shall comprise the highest grades of butter 
obtainable in the season when offered, under the 
various classifications. Ninety per cent shall con- 



ON BUTTERMAKING 59 

form to the following standard; the balance shall 
not grade below Extras. 

Flavor. — Must be fine, sweet, clean and fresh, if 
of current make, and fine, sweet, and clean, if held. 

Body. — Must be firm and uniform. 

Color. — A light straw shade, even and uniform. 

Salt. — Medium salted. 

Package. — Sound, good, uniform, and clean. 

Extras 

10. Shall be a grade just below specials and must 
be fine butter for the season when made and offered, 
under the various classifications. Ninety per cent 
shall conform to the following standard; the bal- 
ance shall not grade below Firsts. 

Flavor. — Must be sweet, clean, and fresh if of 
current make, and sweet and clean if held. 
Body. — Must be good and uniform. 
Color. — A light straw shade, even and uniform. 
Salt. — Medium salted. 
Package. — Sound, good, uniform, and clean. 

Firsts 

11. Shall be a grade just below Extras and 
must be good butter for the season when made and 
offered, under the various classifications. Ninety 
per cent shall conform to the following standard ; 
the balance shall not grade below Seconds. 

Flavor. — Must be good, sweet, and fresh, if of 
current make, and good and sweet if held. 
Body. — Must be firm and fairly uniform. 



60 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Color. — Reasonably uniform, neither very high 
nor very light. 

Salt. — May be reasonably high, light, or medium. 
Package. — Sound, good, uniform, and clean. 

Seconds 

12. Shall be a grade just below Firsts. 
Flavor. — ^lust be reasonably good. 

Body. — If creamery, must be solid boring. If 
factory or process, must be 90 per cent solid boring. 
Color. — Fairly uniform, but may be mottled. 
Salt. — May be high, medium, or light. 
Package. — Good and uniform. 

Thirds 

13. Shall be a grade below Seconds and may 
consist of promiscuous lots. 

Flavor. — May be off-flavored and strong on tops 
and sides. 

Body. — Not required to draw a full trier. 

Color. — ]\Iay be irregular or mottled. 

Salt. — High, light, or irregular. 

Package. — Any kind of package mentioned at 
time of sale. 

No. I Packing Stock 

14. Shall be sweet and sound, packed in large, 
new, or good uniform second-hand barrels, having 
a wooden head in each end, or in new tubs, either 
to be parchment paper lined. Barrels and tubs to 
be packed full. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 6l 

No. 2 Packing Stock 

15. Shall be reasonably sweet and sound, and 
may be packed in promiscuous or different kinds of 
barrels, tubs, or tierces, without being parchment 
paper lined, and may be packed in either two- 
headed or cloth-covered barrels. 

No. 3 Packing Stock 

16. Shall be a grade below No. 2, and may be 
off-flavored, or strong; may be packed in any kind 
or kinds of packages. 

17. Charges for inspection of packing stock 
shall be the same as the rules call for on other 
grades. 

18. Mold. — There shall be no grade for butter 
that shows mold. 

KNOWN MARKS 

19. Known marks shall comprise such butter as 
is known to the trade under some particular mark 
or designation and must grade as Extras, or better, 
if creamery or process, and as Firsts, or better, if 
factory in the season when offered, unless otherwise 
specified. Known marks to be offered under the 
call must previously have been registered in a book 
kept by the superintendent for that purpose. If 
process, the factory district number and state must 
be registered. 

SALES UNDER THE CALL 

20. Parties wishing to offer butter not described 



62 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

in the foregoing classifications and grades, must 
specify its character. 

21. All butter offered under the call shall be 
fresh made, current receipts, and shall be in regular 
6o-pound ash tubs, unless otherwise specified. 

22. No offer to buy or sell less than 25 tubs spot, 
nor less than 50 tubs for future delivery, nor bids 
or offers of a less fraction than ^ cent per pound 
shall be entertained. 

2^. Bids and offerings of not less than 50 tubs 
for future delivery may be made for a period of 
30 days. The call for futures shall take place 
immediately after the call for spot delivery. On 
all sales for future delivery, a compulsory mar- 
gin shall be deposited by each' party to the 
contract as specified in Rule 2 of the executive 
committee. 

24. The first offer to buy or sell at a price, shall 
be accepted before subsequent offers at the same 
figure are considered. 

25. Offers may be withdrawn at any time before 
acceptance. 

26. Offers to sell at a lower, or buy at a higher 
price shall vacate all previous bids and offerings. 

27. A transaction shall vacate all previous bids 
and offerings. 

28. All differences as to offers, acceptances, with- 
drawals, or irregular bids, shall be decided on the 
spot by the officer conducting the call, subject to 
an appeal to the members present. If an appeal 
is made, it shall be put promptly, and a majority of 
the members present and voting shall settle the 
difference finally. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 63 

29. The superintendent shall have recorded 
daily, in a book kept for the purpose, all sales under 
the call, and such other sales on the floor as may be 
requested by the parties thereto, and shall furnish 
certificates of sales to both seller and buyer. 

30. Spot sales shall be for spot cash, and butter 
sold for future delivery shall be paid for when de- 
livered, unless otherwise agreed. 

31. Unless otherwise specified all deliveries shall 
be from the store of the seller, or transportation 
terminals, providing it be in Manhattan borough 
below Canal street; otherwise, the goods must be 
placed within said limits. 

^2. All disputes must be settled while the goods 
are in the seller's possession. 

32A. When spot sales are made, butter must be 
ready for immediate delivery. 

33. All goods tendered, inspector's certificate at- 
tached, shall be accompanied by such certificate, 
and be accepted by the buyer unconditionally; pro- 
vided, all tubs are branded according to Rule 6i. 

34. If butter tendered which has not been sold 
certificate attached, does not appear to the buyer to 
be of the class and grade sold, the seller shall be 
notified not later than i p. m. He may then have it 
inspected, and if it proves not to fulfill the require- 
ments of the sale, he may make a second delivery 
not later than 3 p. m. 

35. If a second tender is made and appears not 
of the class and grade sold, the buyer must estab- 
lish the quality by an official inspection for which 
he shall make application to the superintendent not 
later than 4 p. m. of the day of the sale. 



64 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

When an inspection is made, and shows the butter 
to be of the class and grade sold, the buyer shall 
accept the same, and pay for the inspection. 

;^6. In sales for " future delivery " the delivery 
requirements as to time, inspection, etc., shall be 
the same as on spot sales on the date of delivery, 
but the rules governing classification for grades in 
force at time of such sales shall govern the quality 
of such deliveries. 

37. In sales " seller's option " the seller shall 
notify the buyer of his intention to make delivery 
not later than 9 a. m. on day of delivery. If 
" buyer's option," the buyer shall notify the seller 
of his intention to call for delivery at least twenty- 
four hours before lo A. M. of the day delivery is 
demanded. 

38. On sales of creamery of 25 tubs, delivery 
may be of not more than two marks ; on 26 to 50 
tubs, three marks; on 51 to 100 tubs, marks con- 
taining not less than 25 tubs each ; on larger lots 
marks containing not less than 50 tubs each. 

39. On sales of factory, or process butter, de- 
livery must be of one mark, unless otherwise speci- 
fied. 

40. A carload shall consist of 300 tubs of one 
mark, unless otherwise specified. 

41. In case of failure to deliver a carload, set- 
tlement shall be made on the basis of 300 tubs. 

42. An application to the superintendent for an 
inspection of goods in controversy, if made within 
the time allowed for inspection, shall be deemed a 
compliance with these rules in this respect. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 65 

PENALTIES 

43. When an inspection of butter sold for spot 
delivery shows the goods not to be of the class and 
grade sold, the seller shall pay a penalty equal to 
5 per cent of the amount of the contract, and the 
fee for inspection. If the official quotation for the 
day exceeds the contract price, the seller shall also 
pay to the buyer in the same way the difference be- 
tween the contract price and the average official 
quotation. 

44. If butter purchased for future delivery be 
not delivered as per contract, the buyer shall 
promptly notify the superintendent in writing. At 
the next regular meeting of the exchange, an an- 
nouncement of the same shall be made by the 
superintendent, who shall buy in the goods for ac- 
count of the seller, provided it can be done under 
the call at current rates. If, however, the price 
demanded seems to him unreasonable, he shall not 
make the purchase, but shall refer the matter to 
the butter committee, who shall determine the dif- 
ference between the contract price and the actual 
market value on the date on which delivery should 
have been made, and this amount, together with a 
penalty equal to 5 per cent of the amount of the con- 
tract, shall be paid by the seller. 

45. If butter, sold for future delivery, be not re- 
ceived when properly tendered, the seller shall 
promptly notify the superintendent in writing. At 
the next regular meeting of the exchange, an an- 
nouncement of the same shall be made by the 
superintendent, who shall sell out the goods, under 
the call, for account of the buyer, and if the price 



66 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

obtained be less than the contract price, the dif- 
ference, together with a penalty equal to 5 per cent 
of the amount of the contract, shall be paid by the 
buyer. 

46. Penalties and differences shall be paid to the 
superintendent of the exchange, and by him paid 
to those entitled thereto. 

47. Any member holding a contract against an- 
other, corresponding in respect to class, grade and 
quantity of goods, and date of delivery, with one 
held by the other against him, may offset it against 
the latter by giving notice to the other party, when 
both contracts shall be surrendered to the superin- 
tendent of the exchange and canceled. 

48. All notices shall be in writing, and shall be 
considered as properly served when left at the place 
of business of the party for whom they are intended. 

CERTIFICATE OF SALE 

49. Certificates of sale must be accepted on con- 
tracts for future delivery. 

50. The party transferring a certificate of sale, 
shall immediately notify the original seller of the 
transfer, and to whom made. He shall also have 
it recorded on the books of the exchange, and shall 
thereupon be relieved of all responsibility attaching 
to the same. 

51. In case the party to a contract for future 
delivery, for the fulfillment of which margin has 
been deposited with the superintendent, shall die, 
make an assignment, be absent from the city, or 
otherwise be disabled, or refuse to perform any act 
necessary for the proper adjustment or payment of 



ON BUTTERMAKING ^"J 

such margin, the matter shall be referred to the 
finance committee, as provided in section 33, para- 
graph 6, of the by-laws. 

CONTRACTS 

52. The following shall be the form of contract 
for all sales of butter for future delivery. 

CONTRACT FOR FUTURE DELIVERY 

No 

This is to certify that the following sale and pur- 
chase has been made by the respective signers 
hereto, under and subject to the rules of the New 
York Mercantile Exchange, this 

day of , 190.... 

Seller • 

Address 

Purchaser 

Address 

Quantity 

Grade 

Class 

Price 

Delivery 

Seller. 

Purchaser. 

Original margin deposited with me this day by 
each party hereto dollars. 

Superintendent. 

New York, , 190. • • • 



68 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Upon the reverse side of each contract shall be 
printed the rules governing such transactions. A 
proper book shall be kept by the superintendent of 
the exchange, entitled *' Butter Contracts," in which 
shall be recorded all contracts as per foregoing form, 
duplicates of which shall be furnished to both sellers 
and purchasers, who shall personally sign the same 
at the time of depositing original margins. All con- 
tracts shall be signed, and original margins de- 
posited not later than 2 o'clock on the day follow- 
ing the sale. 

53.' When further margins are called for, same 
shall be paid to, and receipted for, by indorsement 
upon the contract by the superintendent of the ex- 
change. 

54. All transfers of contracts for future delivery 
must be indorsed on the original contract, by the 
superintendent of the exchange, who shall promptly 
notify the other party in interest of such transfer. 

55. The following form of transfer shall be used : 
" For value received, the within described con- 
tract is assigned and transferred to 

who hereby agrees to assume the same, with all the 
conditions and obligations thereof. 

Dated, New York, , 190. . . . 

^ Seller. 

Buyer." 

INSPECTORS AND INSPECTIONS 

56. The butter committee shall recommend to 
the president, for his appointment, subject to the 
approval of the executive committee, such inspect- 
ors of butter as may be required. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 69 

57. Vacancies occurring in the office of inspect- 
ors shall be filled in the manner in which the orig- 
inal appointment was made. 

58. In case of absence, or inability of the in- 
spectors, temporary inspectors may be appointed 
by the butter committee of the exchange. 

59. Inspectors, before entering upon their duties, 
shall take and subscribe to the following oath : 

I» , do solemnly swear that 

I will execute the duties of an " Inspector of But- 
ter " for the New York Mercantile Exchange, with 
strict impartiality and according to the best of my 
ability, that I will, in making my inspections, fol- 
low carefully the rules adopted and the instructions 
given me by the butter committee. That I will 
fearlessly perform my duties, make each inspection 
according to the merits of the butter, and render 
my certificates accordingly. That I will not allow 
a second party to examine and comment while I am 
making an inspection. 

That I will promptly report in writing to the 
butter committee the name of any firm, company 
or member that makes any suggestions, or requests 
relative to any inspection that I may make, as well 
as a full detailed report regarding the occurrence; 
further, that I will accept no gratuity of any kind 
or nature whatsoever other than the salary paid to 
me by the exchange. 



Sworn and subscribed before me this, 
day of , 190 



Notary Public. 



70 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

60. All applications for inspection must be made 
to the superintendent of the exchange between the 
hours of 8 A. M. and 5 p. m., who will direct the 
same — For Members of the Exchange Only — as 
soon as practicable, in the order in which they are 
received, excepting that applications for the inspec- 
tion of butter which has been sold under the call, 
and is in controversy, shall be given precedence 
over other applications. 

61. Inspectors shall brand on the top and side 
each package inspected, and, when requested, also 
on the side of each remaining package in the lot, 
or lots, covered by the inspection. 

62. Inspectors shall, immediately after complet- 
ing an inspection, make a certificate of the same in 
accordance with the specification for grading, con- 
tained in these rules, upon blanks furnished for this 
purpose, under the direction of the butter commit- 
tee; which shall be countersigned by the superin- 
tendent, and promptly delivered to the party order- 
ing the inspection. 

6^. A certificate of inspection shall be good for 
two days from date of same (including Sundays and 
holidays), provided the holder of the goods takes 
proper care of the same. 

64. The inspectors shall have recorded in a book 
provided for the purpose, a detailed account of all 
inspections made by them, stating date and hour of 
inspection, name and address of parties from whom 
inspection is made, place where inspection is made, 
stencil number or other marks on goods, number 
of tubs in lots and number of tubs inspected. If 
lots contain more than one shipment, the number 
of tubs in each shipment shall be noted. 



ON BUTTERMAKING 7I 

65. There shall be drawn as samples for inspec- 
tion by the inspectors : 

5 tubs from lots less than 25 of one mark and 
invoice ; 

8 tubs from lots of 25 of one mark and invoice ; 
15 tubs from lots of 50 of one mark and invoice; 
20 tubs from lots of 100 of one mark and invoice; 
35 tubs from lots of 200 of one mark and invoice ; 
50 tubs from lots of 300 of one mark and invoice ; 
60 tubs from lots of 500 of one mark and invoice ; 
and a like proportion of lots ranging between these 
figures, and of larger lots 

66. If butter runs irregular in quality, the in- 
spector shall increase his sample to such an extent 
as he may deem necessary to secure a fair and just 
inspection. 

67. A buyer or seller may have a larger per- 
centage than the above inspected, upon making ap- 
plication previous to the inspection, and payment 
of 10 cents per tub additional fees. 

68. All complaints against the butter inspectors 
shall be referred to the butter committee. 

69. Charges for inspection shall be as follows: 
In the borough of Manhattan, below Fourteenth 
street and outside of that district, the 
charge shall be $1.50. 

On lots not exceeding 10 tubs, i invoice. 
Over 10 and not over 25 tubs, I invoice. 
Over 25 and not over 50 tubs, i invoice. 
Over 50 and not over 100 tubs, i invoice. 
Over 100 and not over 200 tubs, i invoice. 
Over 200 and not over 300 tubs, i invoice. 
Over 300 and not over 500 tubs, I invoice. . . 



mmimum 




. $ .50 




. 75 




, 1. 00 




1.50 




1-75 




2.00 




2.50 



'J2 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

70. Inspections shall be paid for by the party or- 
dering' the same, except where otherwise provided. 

71. The butter committee shall recommend to 
the president for appointment, subject to the ap- 
proval of the executive committee, a butter weigher, 
who may appoint assistants as he may require them. 

y2. The butter weigher shall receive his instruc- 
tions from the butter committee. 

y}^. The butter weigher and assistants, before 
entering upon their duties shall be sworn to per- 
form said duties faithfully, correctly and in con- 
formity with the customs of the butter trade, as 
defined by the butter committee. 

74. The butter weigher shall make certificates 
in duplicate of all lots of butter weighed by him, 
or his assistants, and promptly deliver to the party 
ordering the weighing. 

75. Applications for weighing butter shall be 
made to the superintendent, or butter weigher. 

^6. Charges for weighing shall be as follows: 

On lots not over 25 tubs 3 c. per tub 

Over 25 and not over 50 tubs 2^c. per tub 

Over 50 and not over 100 tubs 2 c. per tub 

Testing 7 tubs or less 75 c. 

Over 7 tubs 10 c. per tub 

yy. All complaints against the butter weigher, or 
assistants, shall be made to the butter committee. 

y^. All former rules conflicting with the fore- 
going are hereby repealed. 

Attention is Directed to the Following Executive 
Committee Rules, and Section 33, Paragraph 
6, of the By-laws. 
Rule 2. On all sales, or purchases of any mer- 



ON BUTTERMAKING 73 

chandise to arrive, or for future delivery, each party 
to the contract shall deposit an original margin 
with the superintendent of the exchange of lo per 
cent on the contract price at the time of purchase, 
•or sale, and a further margin from time to time to 
the extent of any variation in the market value from 
the contract price; said margin to be deposited in 
such bank or trust company as may have been 
designated by the finance committee of the New 
York Mercantile Exchange. When margins are 
called before 12 m., they must be deposited before 
3 p. M. of the same day. If called after 12 m., they 
must be deposited before 12 m. of the following 
day; in case of failure to deposit as above, the 
buyer or seller shall have the right to cover his 
contract at discretion, for account of the party fail- 
ing to respond to the call for margin. 

Rule 7. All merchandise purchased by sample 
shall be considered sold, unless the purchaser notify 
the seller within twenty-four hours after receipt of 
the same that it is rejected as not being up to 
sample. If a settlement cannot be agreed on, the 
case shall be referred to the trade committee having 
charge of the class of goods in question, who shall 
decide the matter, and in the event of a decision 
against either buyer or seller, the same penalties 
shall accrue as the Rules for sales under the Cal 
provide for the kind of goods dealt in. The party, 
against whom the decision is given, shall pay to 
each committeeman serving $2 for each case. 



Section 33, Paragraph 6, of the By-laws 
When the parties to a contract, on which margin 
has been deposited through the instrumentality of 



74 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the superintendent, as above set forth, cannot agree 
as to the distribution and payment of such margin, 
or in case one or both of the contracting parties die 
or make an assignment, or otherwise become in- 
capacitated, or refuse to perform promptly any act 
necessary for the adjustment and payment of such 
margin, the finance committee is hereby authorized 
and directed to ascertain the person or persons to 
whom such margin should be paid, and instruct the 
superintendent to indorse the deposit certificate for 
payment, or exchange it for other checks, to cor- 
respond in amount with the committee's decision, 
drawn to the order of the person or persons en- 
titled thereto, and deliver the same to said person 
or persons without unnecessary delay; and in case, 
for any cause whatever, the said deposit certificate 
is not immediately forthcoming, so that such in- 
dorsement and distribution may be made, the 
finance committee shall instruct the superintendent 
to procure from the said bank or trust company 
that issued it, a duplicate thereof, as provided for 
in the original, and indorse it as he would have 
indorsed the original if it had come into His pos- 
session. 

What method of sewage disposal is advisable for 
creameries? 

This depends on the location of the creamery and 
the character of the surrounding soil. One or more 
of the following methods can usually be success- 
fully installed: 

I. Removal by cartage. 2. Direct disposal into 
lakes and rivers if laws permit. 3. Cesspools. 
4. Septic tanks and filter beds. 



ON BUTTERMAKING • 75 

Excessive skim milk and such material useful for 
feeding purposes should not be wasted in sewage, 
but should be carted away and fed to hogs. 

When the laws of the state permit the direct 
disposal of creamery sewage into lakes and large 
rivers, it makes a most satisfactory system. In tlie 
case of small rivers and other small bodies of 
water, however, most states have laws preventing 
their use for such purpose. Then it becomes neces- 
sary to use one of the other systems. If the soil 
surrounding the creamery is of a sandy nature, it 
will have good filtering qualities so that a cess- 
pool placed at a safe distance from the well should 
answer in most cases. 

When the surrounding soil is of clay and with 
little elevation, it becomes necessary to construct 
a filter bed of sand and stone and to pass the sew- 
age first through a septic tank. 



% 



^ 



'^ 



INDEX 



Page 

Acid tests 27, 28 

Bacteria 45 

Butter 

brands of 48, 49 

churning 34, 35 

color of 32, 33 

composition of 44 

flavors in 48 

gritty 43 

judging 47 

moisture content 38 

mottled 43, 44 

packing 45, 46 

rules 57 

salt content 40, 41 

salting 39, 40, 42, 43- 

scoring 47 

testing 51, 52 

washing 36, 37 

working 44 

Buttermilk 38 

Churning 

frothy cream 35, 36 

influences 29, 36 

methods 26, 34 

object of 29 

temperature 30 

Chums 

care of 31,32, 34 

makes of 31 

Chum-yield 8 

Cream 

ripening 21,27, 33 

sampling 7 

screw 13, 14 

separation 9, 17 

Creamery 

losses 51 

• overrun 8 

Cream raising coefficient. .. .8, 9 



Pa«e 

Fat 

composition 2 

globules 1, 2 

melting points 3 

non- volatile 3 

volatile 3 

Fermentation test 4 

Ferments 4 

Milk 

color 3, 4 

composition 1, 2 

ferments 4 

heating 10 

sampling 7 

sugar 3 

tests 6 

Moisture tests 52, 54 

Oleomargarine 

composition 49 

laws 49, SO 

Overrun 8 

Pasteurization 

advantages 19 

disadvantages 19 

effects 4 

methods 18, 19, 20 

Salt 

composition 39 

effects of 40, 41 

tests for 41, 42 

Separators 

care of 16, 18 

speed of IS 

varieties , 10 

Separator slime 13 

Spores 5 

Starters 21, 2S 

Sterilization 19 

Water purification 38 

Whey butter SO, 51