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< T \ * 





H I S 


O F T H E 

W A R s of Alexander. 

To which is prefixed 

FREiNSHEKfius's Supplement. 

TranOated by JOHN DIGBT, Efq; 



Ooneded lod Reri&d by the Reveteol 



Printed for A. Millar, oppofite Katharine Strett, 
iathe Strand. MOCCXLVII. 





C H A P. I. 

AS the foldiers thought Philotas duly punifh'd 
while his crime was frefh in their memory, 
fo after the objeft of their hatred was re- 
moved, their mialice turn'd to pity. They 
^re now touch'd with the rank and dignity of the 
y^uth as well as his father's old age and defolation 
^ being deftitute of iffue. He had open'd the king 
a pafTage into Afia, and had fliar'd in all his dangers; 
moreover he always us'd to command one of the 
wings of the aimy in a general engagemer.t. He had 
been Philip's chiefeft favourite, and had fiicwn him- 
felf fo faithful to Alexander, tliat he made ufe of 
no other perfon in the taking off Attalus. Thefe 
thoughts came into the minds of the army, and 
their feditious exprelTions v.cre brought to tlic king, 
who was not in the lead mov"d thereat, as knowing 
very well that the vices of idleneis were cafily cur'd 
. by aftion. He therefore gave ord(n*s for a General 
''*' appearance before his palace. Here Aphanas (no 
. A 2 doubt 


doubt as it had been before concerted) deiir'd that 
Lynceftes Alexander (who flood accused of having 
had a defign to kill the king, a confiderable time be- 
fore Philotas) might be brought to judgment. Two 
perfons had informed againfl him, and it was now the 
third year of his imprifonment on that account. It 
was dfo certain he had confpir'd with Paufanias, a- 
gainft Philip ; but he having being the firft that fa- 
ulted Alexander king, his punilhment had rather been 
. fufpended than he cleared. Befides, the king had had 
fome deference to the interceflion of Antipater, his 
father-in-law. But now the refcntment thad had lain 
dormant, was reviv'd, and the folicitude for the pre- 
fent danger had rencw'd the memory of the paft. 
Alexander was therefore brought forth, and com- 
manded to make his defence, which he had been 
three years preparing ; but being in the utmoft con- 
fufion, he with difhculty pronounced fome part of 
what he had fo long meditated, till at lafl both his 
memory and mind wil'd him. All were of opinion, 
that this diforder proceeded from his guilty confci- 
cnce, and not from any dcfeft of memory ; where- 
upon fome of thofe tliat ftood next him, run him 
through as he was ftill labouring with his forgetful- 
nefs. His body being carry'd off, the king com- 
manded ** Amyntas and Simmias to be likewife 
*• brought forth ; " for Polemon, the youngell of 
the brothers, was fled, upon Philotas's being put to 
the torture. Thefe had been Philotas's moft mtimate 
friends, having by his intereft been advanced to ho- 
nourable employments ; and the king now call'd to 
mind, how zealous Philotas had been in promoting 
them, and therefore did not doubt, ** but they were 
" alfo privy to this laft plot." So that he told the 
aflembly, " that his mother had long fince wam'd 
** him by letters, to have afpecial care of 'cm. But 
•* as he was not in his nature prone to put the worft 

3 *' con- 

B, VII. QyiNTus Curt I us. 5 

** conftrudion upon tlnngs, he L:iJ fufpended liis 
** jealojfy till now, that he was convinced by overt- 
** ads ; upon which he had oiiior'd them to be bound. 
** P'or it was certain they had liad private conferences 
" with Philotai the day before iiis treafon was dil- 
" covcr'd. That hii> brother" s making his efcapi 
** when Philotas was tortur'd, wat. a fufijcicnt detec- 
** tion of the caufe of his flirht. Moreover, they 
•* had lately (contrary to culi)m, under the pietcxc 
** of officioufnefs) removed the reft at a greater dif- 
** tance, and plac'd themfelves nciir liis perlbn, witli: 
" out any probable ground for fuch proceeding : So 
** that being furpriz'd at tliis their behaviour, {ef- 
" pecially out of their time of waiting) and alarm'd 
" at their unufual diligence, he had thought fit to 
•* retire to his guards. To all which may be added, 
'* that when Antiphanes, agent of the horfe, re- 
" quir'd Amyntas (tlie day before Philotas's plot 
*' came to light) to fuppty with fome of his horfirs 
'* (as is ufual) fuch as had loft theirs, he made him 
** this haughty anfwer :" that if he did not defift from 
his demands, he fhoald in a little time know who he 
had to deal with. " Befides the intemperance of 
** their tongues, and the raih undecent expreffions 
** they us'd concerning him, were fo many plain iu- 
" dications of their inveterate malice againft him ; 
" all which charges, if true, they deferve the fame 
** puniihment that Philotas had. If they are not true, 
'* ie required they fhould clear themfelves. 

The king havhig finifti'd his fpeech, Antiphanes 
gave an account of " Amyntas's refufing of the 
•* horfesy and of his haughty menacing anfwer." 
Afier which, Amyntas being allow'd to fpeak for 
himfelf, faid, " if the king l)e not prcjudic'd there- 
" by, I defire, that while I plead, T maybe un- 
*' bound : '* which the king immediately granted " to 
•* them both ;" and Amyntas begging tl^t he might 
A3 " alfo 


alfo be allow'd *' the ufiial marks of his office," the 
king order'd " his pike to be reftor'd him." Then 
having taken the fame in his left-hand, and remov- 
ing to fome diftance from the place where Lyiiceftes's 
body had lain a little before, he fpoke to this efFeft : 
" Be our lot what it will. Sir, we muft now 
'* confefs, that if it be profperous, we ftand indebted 
•' to your bounty for it ; if it be fatal, we (hall im- 
" pute it wholly to fortune. You allow us to make 
" our defence unprejudged j our bodies are at liber- 
" ty, as well as our minds : You have more over 
" reflor'd to us, the tokens we us'd to bear when 
•' we attended you in our refpedlive pofts. We can- 
" not fear our caufe, nor Ihdl we any longer diftruft 
•* fortune. But I beg your leave to anfwer iirft, 
** what you objected laft. We are not. Sir, confci-^ 
'* ous to our felves, of having iaid any thing againft 
*• your majefty. I would fay, that you have long 
** ago overcome all envy and ill-will, if I did not 
" apprehend you would fufpeft I endeavour'd by 
" flattery, to excufe other malicious expreflions. 
" However, if it has happened that we have let flip 
" any unbecoming words, when we have been either 
** faint or fatiguM ; in a march while we were ha- 
** zarding our lives, in a battle or fick in our tents, 
'* and drefling our wounds, I hope we may be al- 
" low'd to have deferv'd by our bravery and |al- 
" lant behaviour, that thefe fayings fliould be im- 
" puted to that particular circumftance of time, ra- 
" ther than any difafFeftion in our minds. In great 
** misfortunes all are guilty. We fometimes lay 
" violent hands upon our own bodies, dio' we can- 
" not be fuppofed to hate them. In thefe difmal 
" conjunctures, the very fight of our own parents is 
*' not only ungrateful, but odious to us. Again, 
•* when we are profperous, and are nobly rewarded 
** for oar fervice; or when wc return laden with 

" fpoils. 

B. Vn. QyiNTUs CuRTius. 7 

" fyplih, who can bear us ? who can in that circiun- 

'* fbnce moderate his joy ? a foldier's anger or 

'* or alacrity y never keeps within due bounds ; the/ 

'* are always exceffive. We are tranii>orted in all 

** our affedions. We blame, praife, pity, or 

" are angry, according as the prcfent objed moves 

'* us. Sometimes we are for going to India and the 

*' ocean ; and fometimes aeain, the thought of our 

** wives, our children, and countiy Alls our mind. 

*' Bat theie reflections^ thefe di&ourfes are all at 
''an end, whenever the trumpet founds to arms : 
" then every one runs to his poll, and whatever 

•* anger was conceived in our tents, is all difcharg'd 

" upon the enemy. Would to God Philotas alfo 
*' had only offended in words. Now I muft come 
" to that for which we are look'd upon as guilty, 

•• viz. Our friendfliip with Philotas ; and I am fo for 

•* from difownii^ it, that I freely confefs, we fought 

** and cultivated it. Can vou wonder. Sir, that we 

** fhould endeavour to innhuate our felves into the 

** favour of the fon of Parmenio, to whom you have 

•* given the next rank to your felf, preferring. him 

'* to all the reft of your friends ? If your majefty 

" will hear the truth, it is your felf. Sir, that have 

** brought us into this Pnemunire 5 for who elfe w as 

*• the caufe that all thofe who endeavoured to pleafe 

** you, courted Philotas's friendlhip ? It was he that 

^* pre^ted us to you, and procured us our prefent 

** interefl; with you. In a word, he was fo much 

** in your favour, that we had both reafon to feck 

*^ htf fiiendfhip, and fear his difpleafure. Have we 

*' not all oblig*d our felves by an. oath taken before 

** you, to efteem the perfons our friends and enemier, 

*• that you declared to be yours in either capacity ? 

** Being bound by this oath, could we in confcience 

** hate him you fliew'd the greateft kindnefs to ? If 

** loving him while we faw you lov'd him were a 
A 4. " crime. 

8 . Quint es Curtiv^. Bi VIL 

•* crime, in reality your majefty has but few fab- 
** jeds that are not guilty, nay, Ixiare be bold to 
** fay, none at all ; for there is no body but would 
** have been glad of Philotas's friendihip, tho' every 
** body could not obtain it. If therefore all that wcie 
** his A-iends are guilty, your majefty muft think them 
*' fo too who would have been his friends ; but what 
** indication is there that we wereconfcious of his trea- 
" fon ? This I fuppofe, that we were privately with him 
*' the day before ; this would undeniably hold good, 
<< and be beyond purgation, if I did that day any 
" thing I had not us'd to do. Now if we did no 
** more that day which is fufpeded, than what we 
*• were us'd to do every day, the very cuftom will 
•' clear us of any guilt. Oh ! but we r«fus'd horfes 
** to Antiphanes ! and this contcft with him happened 
*• but the day before Philotas was difcovered; if 
** that be a fufBcient ground to be fofpeded, that we 
** did not that day deliver 'em, he cannot clear him- 
*• felf neither for having requir'd them. The charge 
'* equally afFedleth the demander and the retainer, 
'^ only with this difference, that the canfe of him that 
** keeps his own, is better than his that demands 
" what belongs to another. Hfow^er, Sir, out of ten 
" horfes whidi I had, Antiphanes had already dif- 
'* tributed eight to fuch as nad loft theirs, fo that I 
*• had but two left for my own ufc, which when he 
" very haughtily and unjuftly would have taken away 
" alfo, I was obliged to refufe them, anlefs I would 
'* ferve on foot iny felf. I canilot deny but I fpoke 
'* to him as became a man of fpiiit to fpeak to a lorry 
** felkyw, who is no otherwife employed in the army, 
** than to di£bibute other people's hoHes to thofe who 
" are to fight. I cannot but think myfelf very un- 
" happy, that at the fame time I excufc my felf to 
** Alexander, I feem alfo to do it to Antiphanes. 
'* Bat here is another thing ; your mother in her let- 

" ters 

B. Vir. QurNTtJS GuRTius. 9 

*< ters cautioned you to have an eye upon us, as being 
" your enemies. I could wifh ihe had been nlore 
** wifely ibixcitous for her Ton's fafety, than to 
" £11 his head with vain and groundlefs fuijai- 
** cions." Why does fhc not at the fame time affign 
** the caufe of her fear? She neither tells her au- 
*' thor, nor alledges any a6l or iaying, by which ihe 
" was mov'd to writ fuch frightful letters. What an 
** unhappv circumftance am I in, to whom perhaps it 
*' is equaUy dangerous to fpeak or to hold my tongue ! 
" bat be it as it will, I had rather my defence fhould 
" difpleafe you, than my caufe. You may, if you 
" pl^e, remember, that when you fent me to Ma- 
" cedonia to raife recruits, you told me there was a 
*' great many young men hia in your mother's houfe 5 
" and you gave me- particular inftrudlions to have no 
** regard for any body befides your felfi but to bring 
" by force thofe that would not ferve voluntarily. I 
'* executed your orders accordingly, and indeed more 
*' punctually than was expedient to my own intereft ; 
'* for 1 brought you from thence Gorgias, Hecateus 
'" and Gorgatas, who are doing you very good fer- 
** vice. Now what can be more unjuft, than for me 
" (who ihould have defervingly fufFerM, if I had not 
" obey'd your commands) to perifh now for having 
*' duly put the iame in execution ? for your mother 
" has no other caufe to perfecute us, than that we 
" preferr'd your good to her favour. I brought you 
" iLx thoufand Macedonian foot, and fix huiwred 
** horfe, a great many of which would not have come, 
" if I had not compell'd them. Now as your mother 
" is incens'd acainit us on this account, it feems rea-i 
" fonable you Ihould reconcile to us her, as you hav< 
" been the caufe of our haviug incurr'dher diTplcafurc, 





WHile Amyntas was thus pleading his caufc, 
they who had been fent in purfuit of Pole- 
xnon, (whom we before mention'd) having overtaken 
him, brought him bound before the affembly. The 
affembly were fo incens'd againft him, that they could 
fcarce be reftrain'd from their ufual cuflom of ftoning 
him to death, without hearing his defence ; when he, 
not at all dejedled told them, ** he did not defire the 
" leaft favour to himfelf, provided his flight were not 
** intrepreted to his brothers prejudice. If I cannot 
** clear my felf, atleafl let my crime be perfonal,. 
*' for their caufe is by fa much the better, tnat I am 
•* fufpefted only for having fled. 

The whole affembly was pleas'd with what he faid, 
and fell a weeping, fo fuddenly were they chang'd ; 
and what before had chiefly provok'd their anger, 
was the only thing that now reconciled them to him. 
He was a yo'Uth in the flower of his age, and had been 
terrify 'd by. the difturbance he oblervM in others, 
when Philotas was tormented, and fo fled along with 
tihejn.5 hut finding himfelf for&ken by his companions, 
Jjp was delij)erating whether he fhould purfue his flight,, 
or return t6 the camp, when they who had been lent 
after hini overtook hmt ;. he now wept bitterly, and 
beat himfelf about the fece, not much concerned on 
His own account, but overwhelm^ with grief at the 
dknger he faw his brothers in. The king himfelf was 
mov'd with his behaviour, as well as the affembly ; 
Mi brother was the only perfon that feem'd impla- 



cable, who looking at him with a furious countenance, 
^id, '* Fool as thou art, thou fhouldft then have wept 
*' when thoa clapp*dft fpurs to thy horfe, thou defert- 
** er of th^ brothers, and companion of deferters ; 
" thoa miferable wretch, whither, and from whence 
'' didft thou fly ? thou art the caufe that I am thought 
** deferving of death, and that I am now forcM to 
** ufe thefe terms of accuiation." To this he reply 'd, 
** that he own'd he was very much to blame, but 
'* more for the trouble he had brought his brothers. 
*^ into, than for any thin^ he had done himfelf.'* At 
thefe words the whole a£fembly could no longer com- 
mand their tears, and acclamations, the ufual tokens 
by which the multitude declares its favour. It feem'd 
to be' but one voice iiTu'd forth by an univerfal con- 
ient, intreating the kin? to {>ardon thefe innocent and 
brave men. The chie/^of his friends alio laid hold of 
this opportunity, and implored his mercy. Then 
Alexander having commanded filence, faid, ^ And 
*' I myfelf difcharge Amyntas and his brothers ; and 
" as for you, young gendemen (addreffing himfelf to- 
** the priibners) I had rather you ihould forget the 
*• favour you now receive from mc, than remember 
** the danger you were in. Be as fincere in your re- 
'^ conciliation to me, as I am in mine to you. If I 
** had not examined into the information, my diifimu- 
** lation might have been diftrufled, and it is better 
** for your felves, that you have prov'd your in- 
" nocency, than to remain fuipedled. Refied tliat 
** no body can be clear'd of any crime till he be 
** try'd : as for you, Amyntas, forgive your brother, 
** and I fhall accept of that as a pledge of your fincere 
" reconciliation to my felf." Then having difmifs'd 
the affembly, he fent for Polydamas, who was a par- 
ticular friend of Parmenio's, and us'd to be next to 
him in time of battle > and notwithllanding he imme- 
A 6 diafcly 


diaCely came, relying en hk innocence, yet being 
cbnunanded to f<;tch his toothers, Who were very 
>Ofuig, and on that account unknown to the king, 
hii a&rance turned into a deep concern, and he be- 
gahi rather to refledl on what could be laid to his 
charge, than how to confute the fame. The guards 
wilo had them in cuftody, new brought them forth, 
a»d the king commanded Polydamas (who was almofl 
dead with rear) to come nearer him, and haring or- 
derM the reft of the company to withdraw, he Q)oke 
to him in thcfe terms : ** We are all equally attack'd by 
** Parmenio's crime, bat efpecially my felf and you, 
** whom he has deceiv'd under the colour of friend- 
** fliip. Now I defign to make ufc of you to punifh 
" his perfidioufnefs, fee what a ccmfidcnce I have in 
" your fidelity. Your brothers fhall remain with me as 
** noftages, till you have acquitted your felf of this 
' * truft ; you iludl go therefore into Media, and car- 
*• ry theie letters, writ with my own hand, to my 
*• govemours there. You muft be fo expeditious as . 
** to prevent even fame. I would have you arrive 
*' diere in the night, and the next day you muft exe- 
'* cute my orders. You fhall alfo carry letters to 
** Parmenio, one from my felf, and anodier as from 
** Philotas, whofe feal I have by me; fo by this 
^ means^ the father feeing a letter from his fon, will 
'* have no manner of apprehenfion at the fight of you. 
Polydamas being thus deliver'd from his fears, pro- 
mis -d more than was rea uirM of him . Alexander hav- 
ing hereupon very much commended him, and made 
him large promifes, Polydamas puU'd oflF the drefs he 
had on, and cloath'd himfelf after the Arabian manner, 
and had two Arabians (whofe wives and children re- 
mained with the king as pledges for their fidelity) ap- 
pointed him for companions in his journey. As they 
rid upon camels they pafs'd through the dry barren 


^h^. m.^^ 




countries commodioafly enough, and came on the 
eleventh day to their journeys end. Here Polydamas 
re-afliun*d the Macedonian habit, and before any bo- 
dy knew of his arrival, he repaired to Cleander^s tent 
(who was the king's praetor in this province) aboat 
the fourth watch ; and having delivered his letters, it 
was agreed between them to meet again as foon as it 
was light at Parmenio's quarters, for he had letters ta 
deliver ftom the king to others alfo. By this time 
Parmenio was acquainted with the arrival of Polyda- 
mas, and being overjoy 'd at the coming of his friend, 
and eager to know what the king was doing (for he 
had received no letters from him of a coniiderable 
time) he ient to inquire after Polydamas. The inns 
in this country have large receiTes backwards, which 
are well planted with trees that render them very 
pleaiant. This kind of groves is what the kings and 
nobility take ereat delight in. Parmenio was walkine 
in the grove m the middle of thofe officers who had 
received orders from the kin^ to kill him. The time 
fix'd upon to execute their defign, was when he 
fhould be jeadiDg the letter Polydamas was to deliver 
to him. Polyd^nas, at a great diilance, no fooner 
perceived by Parmenio's cheerful countenance that he 
faw him, than he ran to embrace him ; and after their 
mutual carefTes, Polydamas delivered him the king's 
letter. While he was opening it, he afkM Poly£i- 
mas, what the king was doing ? who told him, his 
letter would inform him. Parmenio therefore having 
read the letter, faid, *' the king is preparing to march 
" againft the Aracholians :" " He is a prince inde- 
** fadeably laborious and never idle I but I fhould 
" think it were high time for him now to fpare his 
** perfon, having acquired fo much glory." Then 
he took the other letter writ in Philotas's name, and 
feem'd by his countenance to be pleafed with the 



contents of it ; while he was thus employ M, Oleander 
ftabb^d him in the iide, and afterwards fluck him in 
the throat, the reft running him through as he lay 
dead on the ground. The guards, who ftood at the 
entrance into the grove, underftanding he was mur- 
dered, without knowing for what reafon, repaired to 
the camp, and with the furprizing tidings put it all in 
a confufion. Hereupon the foldiers arm'd themfelves,. 
and ran to the wood where their general's body lay, 
and threatn'd *• to break down the walls of the place, 
•' and facriiice all they found in it, to the manes of 
" their commander, if Polydamas and the reft con- 
•* cem'd in his murther, were not immediately deli- 
** ver'd up to them. Cleander therefore order'd the 
** chief officers to be admitted," and read to them 
the king's letters, to the foldiers containing Parme- 
nio's tr^on, and Alexander's requeft to them to vin- 
dicate his caufe. Thus being fatisfy'd that it was 
done by the king's directions, the fedition was quieted, 
tiio' their indignation was not appeas'd. The grealeft 
; of the foldiers being gone, the few that remain 'd 
^'d, " That they might at leaft be allow'd to. 
Siry his corps," which was a long time refus'd, 
Cleander fearing he fhould by that ^lowance incur 
the king's difpleafure. But as they perfifted obftinate- 
ly in their demand, to avcnd the ill confequences that 
might enfue, he caus'd the head to be cut off, and 
allow'd them to bury his body : the head he fent to 
the king. Such was Parmenio's end, a man of an 
eftablifhM reputation both at hdme and in the army, 
he had done feveral great exploits without the king, 
but the king had done nothing of mcnnent without 
him : he had been able to fatisfy the expectation 
of a profperous prince, who required performances an- 
fwerable to his own extraordinary fortune ; he was 
fevcnty years of age when he was kill'd, and would 
often (notwithftanding the burden of his years) do the 


B. Vn. QjlKTUS CtTRTIUS. i^ 

part of a youn? eeneral, and fomedmes that of a pri- 
vate foldier. He was wife in counfel, brave in adi- 
on, belov'd by the chief officers^ but ftill more dear 
to the common foldiers. Whether thefe qualifications 
Infpir'd him with the thoughts of reiening, or on^ 
made him fufpedled, may oe doubted ; becaufe it is 
uncertain whether Philotas^s declaration was true, or 
only forc'd from him by the violence of his tortures, 
iince when the thing was frefh, and fo molt likely 
to be clearMy it remained itill doubtful. Alexander 
thought it advifable to feparate from the reft of the 
army, thofe who had complained of Parmenio*s hard 
fate; he therefore incorporated them into a bodv 
by themfelves, and gave Leonidas (who had himfelf 
formerly been veryintimate with Parmenio) die com- 
mand of them. They happen'd to be the very mea 
the king had a private pique againft on another ac- 
count. For one day refoWiirg to found the minds of 
his foldiers, he gave the whole army to underftand^ 
" That if they haft any letters to fend into Mace- 
** donia to their friends, they might give them to hi& 
** meflenzers, who would oe fure to deliver them 
" faithfuBjr.'' Hereupon every one writ his thoughtij 
frankly : fome were quite weary of the war ; how- 
ever, the major part lik'd it well enough. The let- 
ters being all brought to the king, he thereby tiif- 
cover'd who had writ favourably of him, and who 
had complain 'd of his proceedings ; he therefore now 
order'd mem to encamp feparately, by way of infamy, 
intending to make ufe of their fervice in the war ; and 
yet prevent their infedHng the reft of the army with 
their licentious difcourfe. The king's condud might 
here be call'd in queftion, (iince he thereby exaipe- 
rated die minds of a great many brave young men) 
yet his ofual happinefs tumM this, as well as aU other 
thii^ t6 his adWuitage ; for in the fobfequent wars,, 
a none 


none were readier on all occafions than they, their 
courage, fpurring them on to fignalize themfelves, as 
well to wipe off their difgrace, as becaufe in fo finall 
a number their gallant behaviour could not lie undif- 

C H A P. m. 

THINGS being fettled after this manner, Alex- 
ander appointed a fatrap or governor over the 
Ariani, and then gave notice of his expedition againft 
the Agriafpians, wlio at this tim6 (having chang'd their 
appellation) vfere calPd Eaergetae, for their having 
formerly: reliev'd Cyrus's army, when it was afflifted 
with hunger and cold. The fifth day after he arriv'd 
in this country, he receiv'd intelligence, " That Sa- 
** tibarzanes (who had revolted to £ffas) was marcliM 
" with a body of hoHe, to make another irruption 
" into tlie country of the Ariani." Hereupon he de- 
tach'd againft him fix thoufknd of the Grecian infan- 
try, and fix hundred horfe, under the command of 
Caranus, Erigyius, Artabazus and Andronicus ; and 
remained himfelf ifixty days with the Euereetse, du- 
ring which time he regulated that ftate, and beftow'd 
a great fum of money on them for their eminent fer* 
vice and'fidelity to Cyrus ; after which he conftituted 
Amenides governor over dhem, and then march'd and 
fubdu'd the Arachofians, whofe country extends itfelf 
as far at the Pontic fea. Here he was joined by 
die army Parmenio had commanded, which coniifted^ 
of fix thouiand Macedonians, two hundred of the no- 
bility, and five thoufand Greeks, with two hundred 
horie ; it was, beyond difpute, the main firength of 


B. VII. QuiNTus. CuRTius.* 17 

the king's forces : he appointed Menon governor 
over the Arachoiians in the quality of praetor; then he 
cnter'd into a country hardly known to thofe that bor- 
dered upon it, for the inhabitants admit of no manner 
of commuuication with their neighbours. They are. 
callM Parapaniifadae, and are a very rude unpoliih'd 
people, even to that degree that they may be reckoned 
t)ie moft uncivilized of all the Barbarians ; the rough- 
nefs of the country feems to have contributed to 
that of their minds. They lie very far northward, 
and border upon Badra on the weft, looking towards 
the Indian fea on the fouth. Their cottages are built 
of brick from the bottom to the top, the country'af- 
fbrding no wood, ,not fo much as on the mountains, 
llieir ftrudbure is broad, and by degrees grows nar- 
rower as it rifes, 'till at laft it clofes in the torm of the 
keel of a ihip, there being a hole left in the middle 
to tranfinit the light. If they find any vines or trees 
any where, not deffaroy'd by the ngour of the cli- 
mate, they cover them with earth daring the winter, 
and when the.fnow is quite difTolved they reilore them 
to the air and the fun ; but the fnows are here fo 
deep, and fo coneeal'd with the froft, that no foot- 
fteps or paces of beaii: or bird appear in all the coun- 
try. The light is fo obfcure, that it may be com- 
par'd to the dimnefs of the night, fo that thofe 
dbiogs that are neareft at hand are hardly difcemable. 
In mis wretched country, deftitute of all manner of 
cnltuxe, the army fixflfer'd all kinds of evils, hunger, 
cold, wearinefs and defpair. The exceffive coldneis 
€>f the ibow kill'd a great mainv, it deftroy'd the feet 
of other», but it was generally very pernicious to 
their eyes. If, being tir'd, they laid themfelves 
down upon the frozen fnow, their bodies, for want 
of motion, were fo penetrated by the piercing rigour 
of tiie air, that they could not rife again, till help'd 
up by their companions, who found no better expc-. 


1 8 QyiNTus CuRTius. B. VIL 

dient to unbenumb their ftifF limbs, than that of com- 
pelling them to walk ; by which means the vital heat 
being put into motion, they recovered fome part of 
their former vigour : fuch of them as could get into 
any of the cottages were foon reftor'd, but then the 
darknefs was fo great, that thefe cottages were only 
difcoveraWe by the fmoke. As the inhabitants had 
never feen any ftrangers before in their territories, 
when they perceiv'd the arm'd foldiers they were 
ready to die with fear, and very willingly brought to 
them what their huts afforded, defiring only they 
would fpare their lives. 

The king walk'd on foot round his forces, raifing 
fuch' as were laid down, and fupporting others that 
could not walk ; fometimes in the front, lometimes in 
th© middle, and fometimes in the rear, fparing no 
pains to exprefs his care for his men. At length they 
came to a better country, where he refrelh'd his 
army with plenty of viftuals, and waited till thofe 
that could not keep up with him had rejoin'd him. 

From hence he mov'd towards mount Caucafus, 
which with its long ridge of hills fbetches itfelf thro* 
Alia, having on one nde of it the Cilician fea, and 
on the other the Cafpian fea, the river Araxes, and 
die deferts of Sc3^hia. Mount Taurus, which holds 
tiie fecond rank for bignefs, joins to mount Cauca- 
fus ; it takes its rife from Cappadocia, and running 
acrofs Cilicia joins itfelf to the mountains of Arme- 
nia, ib that all thefe mountains being united form one 
continued ridge, out of which almoS all the rivers of 
Aiia flow, fome emptyinc; themfelves into the Red 
Sea, others difchargmg themfelves into the Cafpian 
iea, while others again fall into the Hyrcanian and 
Pontic fea. The army yafs'd over mount Caucafus 
in feventeen days ; there is a rock in it ten furlongs 
in compafs, and above four in height, to which (as 
antiquity relates] Prometheus was bound. At the 


B. VII. QuiNTus Cu^RTius. 19 

foot of this moantain, Alexander made choice of a 
place to build a city, which he peopled with feven 
thoufand of the olddd Macedonians, and fuch other 
foldiers as were of no farther ufe to him. The in- 
habitants gave it the name of Alexandria. 


BUT Beflus being alarm'd at Alexander's expedi- 
tion ojffer'd a facrifice to the gods of the country 1 
and then, according to the cuflom of thofe people, at 
an entertainment which he gave his friends, he deli- 
berated with them concerning the war. As they were 
well loaded with wine, they extolled their own 
ftrength, and defpis'd the enemy, one while for their 
rafhnefs, and then again for their fmall number: Bef- 
fus particularly was very furious in his expreflions, and 
being elated on the account of the kinedom he had 
lately procur'd bv his trcafon, he told them, " it 
'* was Darius's foUy, that had given the enemies ^rms 
" (b great a reputation, for he mufl needs go and 
** meet them in the ftraits of Cilicia, when at the 
*' &me time by retiring, he might have drawn them 
** inienfibly into places impra^cable even by their 
*^ natural ntuation, calling fo many rivers and mbun- 
** tanis in their way, that they might have been fur- 
•* prized in thofe lonefome retreats, and hinder 'd frx)m 
•* all poffibitity of flying, without having it in their 
*' power to make any refinance. It was his refolu- 
** tion therefore to repair to the Sogdians, and fo 
** leave the river Oxus as a wall between him and the 
** enemy, till he had got together a powerful army 
*^ from the neighbouring nations. The Choraimians, 
5^ the Daha?, the Saca^, and the Indians as well as the 

f* Scythians 


** Scythians thrtt inhabit beyond the river Tanais, 
** would not fail to join him, who are none of them 
** fo low in ftature, but that their fhoulders are upon 
** the level v^ith the Macedonians heads." They 
unanjmoufly (in their drunken humour) agreed, that 
that was the wiieft courfe he could take. Hcrcjpon 
Beifus caus'd the wine to be fill'd about plentifully, 
and routed Alexander horfe and foot at table. There 
happen'd to be at the feaft, amongft the ret?-, a Medi- 
an nam'd Cobares, more renown'd for his profeiKon 
of the magical art, (if it may be calPd an art, and 
not rather an illufion upon fuperllitious tempers- than 
for any great knowledge he had therein ; but other- 
wife he was a moderate good man enough. This 
man (by the way of preface) told Bcffus, " he was 
** feniible it was fafer for a fervant to obey blindly, 
** than to give advice ; fince they who obey are fare 
** of the lame lot with the reft : whereas ihey that 
" venture to periuade or give counfel, run a pi.rtlcu- 
** lar rifk.'* Upon theie words, BeiTus gave him the 
cup he had in liis hand ; which Cobares having re- 
ceived, he exprefs'd himfelf in the following manner : 
" Mankind is in this refpcd very unhappy, that every 
** one is of a clearer fight in other peoples affairs, 
** than in his own. There is a confufion of thought 
** in him that advifes with himfelf; fear, deiire, and 
" an overweening to our own conceptions, are fo 
" many obftacle.: : as for pride, it cannot be thought 
** to fall into your nature. You have found by experi- 
** cnce, however, that every one flatters himfelf fo 
** fer as to tiiink liis own counfel the .:.:!ly falutary or 
** the mofc proper expedient. Now you ought to re- 
** fleit, that you bear a great burden on your head 
** in die Ciown ; you mult carry it with wifdom and 
** moderation, or it will (may the heavens forbid it) 
" crufh you. It i.s conduiSl and prudence that are re- 
" quifite in the prelent jumaurc ; raflmefs and violence 

" are 

B. VII. QyiNTus CuRTius. 21 

" are altogether ufclefs." Then he took notice of a 
proverb among the Badrians: '* That the fearful 
" dog barks lurioufly, tho' he dares not bite ; and 
** the deepeil rivers glide along witli the leaft noife." 
Which fayings I take notice of, to fliew, that even 
among the Barbarians, there were fome Amrks of wif- 
dom worthy obfervation. This awaken'd tlic attention 
of the whole affembly, who were in mighty cxpe^- 
tion of the main drift of his difcourfe. After wliich, 
he fooke his opinion, which would have proved more 
ufeful to Beffus, than it was agreeable, ** You have, 
" fays he, almoll at the gates of your palace, an ex- 
" peditioas indefatigable prince, who will fooner move 
** his whole army, than you remove tliis table. Is 
" this a time to call for troops from the river Tanais, 
** or to think of oppofing rivers to the enemy ? can 
** you imagine, that you can fly where he cannot 
** follow you ? the way is in common to you both, 
** but indeed, is fafcft to the victor. And if you look 
** upon fear to be nimble and fwift, you ought to 
*• coniider, that hope is ftill fwifter. Why do not 
*' you therefore court the favour of the ftrongcr, and 
" lay yourfelf at his mercy ? be the event what it 
*' will, it cannot but be more advantageous to you to 
** furrender your felf, than to remam his enemy. 
** The crown you wear, is not your own, and diere- 
** fore you may the more willingly part with it; bc- 
'* fides, you may then perhaps with reafon think 
** your felf a lawful king, when he has made you 
** iiich, who can either give or take away your king- 
'* dom. You have here a faithful counlel, which to 
** be long m executing, is fo much time loft. The 
•* horfe of ipirit is governed by the very fhadow of the 
•* fwitch, whereas the dull jade is not quickn'd even 
" by the fpur. 

Beffus, who was cholerick in his nature, and at this 
time he^d with wine, could hardly be kept by his 



fiiends from killing him, for he drew his fword in or- 
der to it, and in a rage left the company ; and Co- 
bares, during the tumult, fled to Alexander. BeiTus^s 
army confifted of eight thoufand Badlrians, wh£> (while 
they believ'd the rigor of their climate would caufe 
the Macedonians to march into India) remained faith- 
ful to him; but when they had certain advice of 
Alexander's coming againft them, they all defcrted 
BefTus, every one repairing to his own habitation. As 
for BeiTus, he with a fmall number of fuch as had an 
immediate dependence on him, and therefore adher'd 
firmly to him, pafs'd the river Oxus, burning after- 
wards their boats, that the enemy might not make not 
ufe of them, and then endeavoured to raife a frelh ar- 
my among the Sogdians. 

Alexander, as we {aid before, had pafs'd over 
mount Caucafus; but there was fuch a fcarcity of 
com in his camp, that it was not far from a famine. 
They prefs'd the juice of Sefama, and therewith 
anointed their limbs, as if it had been oil; but this 
juice was fo dear, that each meafure call'd Amphora, 
fold for two hundred and forty Denarii; the fame 
meafure of honey, coft three hundred and ninety ; 
and that of wine, three hundred ; as for wheat, there 
was none at all, or a very fmall quantity. Thefe barba- 
rians ufe fubterranean granaries, which they call Siri, 
and cover them fo artfully^ that none but thofe that 
are privy to them, can find them out. In thefe they 
bad bury'd all their corn, fo that the foldiei^, for 
want thereof, were foi-c'd to live .upon herbs, and 
fuch fifh as the rivers afforded : when this food ^Vd 
them likewife, they were commanded to kill their 
carriage cattle, by which means they made a hard fhift 
to fubfift till they came into the country df the Ba<ari- 
ani. This country has great variety of foils ; fome 
places abound with trees and vines, and afford plenty of 
very good fruits, the foil being fat and well watered. 
That ground that is fit for com they fo.w with wheat, 


B. VII; QciNTUs CuRTius. 2^ 

and the reft ferves as pafturage for their cattle. At the 
fame time a great part of this country is nothing but 
barren fands, whofe exceflive fterility and dryne»» af- 
fords no nouriihment neither for man, nor fruit ; and 
when the winds blow from the Pontic iea, they 
fweep thefe iandy plains into great heaps, which at a 
diftance have the appearance of hills, and thereby 
quite deftroy all the marks of former roads. They 
dierefore that travel this way, are obliged to obierve 
die ilars in the night, like mariners, and by their 
means diredt their couxfe ; and indeed the no6himal 
(hade is rather more luminous than the day-light i §6 
that there is no travelling here in the day-time, thene 
being no track or footftep to follow, and the &U9 
being intercepted by thick mifts. Now if any per-* 
fons are travelling, while the afore^d winds blow, 
they are fure to be overwhelmed with this flying 
iand. On the other fide, where the country arorf 
a better foil, it is crowded with inhabitants, and well 
Aock'd with horfes. Badlra, which is the capital ci- 
ty of this country. Is- iituate under a hill call'd Pa- 
rapamiflus ; the river Ba^Sbrus runs by its walla, and 
gives its name .both to the town and country. 
. While the king lay here encamp'd, he receivM an 
account out of ** Greece, that the Peloponneiians and 
** Lacedemonians had revolted ; '" for they were not 
yet reduc'd, when the mefTeneers firft fet out to ac- 
quaint Alexander with their deredlion. This ill news 
was ^attended by another more immediate danger 
** from the Scythians, who inhabit beyond the river 
** Tanais, and were faid to be coming to aflifib Beflus. 
" He likewife receiv'd at this time, an account of 
'* what had pais^d in the country of the Arians, un- 
** der the condu^ of Caranus and Erigyius." The 
Macedonians and Arians being engas'd, Satibarzanes 
who commanded the latter, feeing me men did not 
fight with that vigour he defir'd they ihould> (both 


24 QyiNTus CuRTius. B. VII. 

armies ieeming to have equal advantage) rid up to 
the firft ifanky and caused a cefladon of arms ; then 
taking off his helmet, " he challeng'd any one of 
** the Macedonians to a fingle combat, axid at the 
** fame time declared he would fight bare-headed.*^ 
Erigyius could not brook the infolence of the Barba- 
iten, and liotwithilanding he was advanced in years, 
yrt he was not inferior to any of the yoimg men in 
point of courage or ftrqngth of body : He therefore 
todc off his helmet, and £ewing his grey hairs, iaid 
** die day is come in which I will either by a viftory, 
^* or an honourable death, demonftrate to the world 
** what friends and foldiers Alexander has/* And 
whhottt any ^fther fpeech, he rid up to the^nemy; 
Oae would have thought both afniies had receiv*d 
c^rs to hold their hands, and foibear fighting ; 
for tjiey imniediately drerw back and gave tbe com- 
batants room, both iides being intent- Apon the.ififue 
€^ this duel, which was not only to decide the matter 
between tlie two generals, but aHb between both 
armies. T&e Bati^oriain caiib his jayeHn firfii, w^ch 
fingyius avoided by a (mall declination of his head, 
and clapping ^rs to his horfe, run his fpear into 
his advemry's throat, io that it^came out behind his 
neck. The Barbarian hereupon fell from his horfe, 
but yet ftruggled, which made £rigyius draw his 
fpear out of his diroat, and run it into his mouth. 
And Satibarzanes^ to rid hknfelf the fooner of his 
pain, clap'd his kand to the ipear^ and furthered his 
^ettiyS fbroke^ 

-•^fhe fiarbariaiiB having loft their general, whom 
they had followed more out of neceflity than good^ 
\Kall, and calling to mind Alexander's favours to 
them, delivered up their arms to Erigyius. The king 
was pleased with this fuccefs, but was a HxAe un- 
eafy at the L.acedemouians defection; however, he 
bore it with great magnanimity, and iaid, *y they did 



** not dare to difcover their intentions, till they ander- 
** flood he was advanced to the rcmoteft part of 
•* India.'* Then decamping, he continu'd his Pur- 
fuit of BefliiSy end was met by Erigyius, who fhewM 
*hjm the fpoils of his enemy, as an ornament of his 
glorious uiftory. * 


ALexander having committed the country of Bac- 
triana to the care of Artabazus, left there his 
baggage, under a fuiHcient euard ; while he with a 
fiymg camp entered into the defarts of the Sogdians, 
marching his army by night. The great want of 
.water here (as we before took notice) inflam'd the 
foldiers drought (by the defpair of getting any) be- 
fore they had any real occanon to drink. For the 
fpace of four hundred furlongs, there is not a drop of 
water to be found ; and the heat of the fun in fuaix 
mer being very vehement, it kindles fuch a fire in 
the fandsy that every thing is burnt up as by a conti- 
nual fire. Beiides, there arifes fuch a mift (occafion'd 
by this exceflive heat of the fand) that the light is 
much obfcur'd thereby, and the plains carry the ap- 
. pearance of a vaft and deep fea. Notwith^nding all 
which, it was tolerable good travelling there in the 
night, by reafon of the dews and the frefhnels of the 
mornings. However, as the heat begins with the 
very light, it (bon parches up all the moifture of the 
air, fo that not only the outward parts, but even the 
ix)wels, are quite bum'd up with it. In'thefe extre- 
mities therefore, their hearts fail'd them f.rft, and 
then their bodies became faint, and they were as un- 
willing to ftand itill^ as to go forward. Some few 
Vot- II. iJ amongft 


amongft tbexn, by the advice of fuch as knew the 
•jcountiy, had provided thcmfelves with water; this 
ferv'd them a little while, but as the heat increased, 
ib did the defire of liquor to quench tjieir thirft. This 
made it a neceility to difbibute among them, what 
wine and oil there was. The pleafu^e they found in 
4rinking, was fo great, that they did not reflect they 
ihould be dry any more, and therefore drank fo large- 
ly, that they wcr^ no longer able to carry their arms, 
jior to march j fo that they feem'd happier that wanted 
water, than they that were fupply'd with wine and 
joil, fince by their immoderate ufe of it, they wc^e 
forc'd to vomit it up again. As the king was tho- 
2X}ughly griev'd at all thefe calamities, his friends came 
;ibout him, and deiir'd him to reflefl, that his great 
foul was the only remedy in the prefcnt misfortune. 
It happened at this jundture of time, that two of 
thofe that were fent before to mark out a camp, came 
and met him, bringing along with them fome bottles 
of water, which they intended for their fens, who 
were in the army, and were ready to peri{h with 
Jthirft. When they faw the kine, one of diem open- 
ing a bottle, pour'd out a cup fill, and prefented it to 
his majefty. He took it from him, aiid afk'd him, 
who they intended the water for ? To which they an- 
iwered, for their fons. Whereupon the king return- 
ing the cup full as it was, faid, '* I cannot £nd in 
^* my heart to drink alone, and this fmall quantity 
^* will not afford every one fome, wherefore carry it 
^* to your fons for whom you firft defigned it." 

At length he came to the river Oxus, about the 
beginning of the night ; but a great part of the army 
not having been able to keep up with him, " he 
" caus'd fires to be made on the tops of hills, that 
*' they that were behind, might thereby know they 
^* were not far from the camp." Then he ordered 
them that were with him, •* to refrelh themfelves 

" with 

B. VII. QuiNTus CuRTius. 27 

^* with vidaals arid drink as fail as they could, and 
** thai take water in ikins and other vcfTels, and 
^ ** cany dwm to their fcUow-foldicrs." They who 
'tdraidc immoderately y immediately dy*d ; and he lof^ 
more men this way, than he had ever loft in any 
battle. As for himfelf, he kept on his annour, and 
-without either eating or drinking, piacM himfclf oa 
the way the army was to come» without any refrefh- 
meat at all* till all thofe that lagg'd behind had pafs'd 
by him; and afterwards he j^s'd all that night 
without fleep, in great anxiety of mind. 

The next day he was not lefs uneafy, becaufc he 
had no boats, znd there was no poflibility of building 
a bridge, there being no timber thereabout. He 
therefore had recourfe to the only expedient ncccflity 
-fo^gc^ed to him ; which was to caufe a great number 
of&ins to be fiU'd with Ih^w, and difhibuted to the 
ibldiers, upon which they laid themfelves, and fo 
pafsM the river : they tiiat got over firft put them- 
£^ves in order of battle, tifi the reft fwam over to 
chem. Thus in fix days he pafs'd his whole army to 
the other fide, and was reff^v'd now to continue his 
purfuit of Beflus, when he received information of 
what had happened among the Sogdians. 

There was one Spitamenes, who was particularly 
in Beffus his favour, and had receivM great honours 
from him. But a perfidious nature is not to be pre- 
vailed upon by merit, or kindnefs ; however, it was 
lefs odious in him, by reafon nothing could be reckoned 
criminal that was done againil Beffus, who had fo 
baiely murder'd his fovereign. Befides, this Spita- 
l menes put a fair glofs upon his treachery, pretending 
he did it to revenge Darius ; whereas in truth, it was 
BefFus's fortune they envy'd, more than they hated 
lu£ crime. 

B 2 When 


When this man underftood that Alexander had 
•pafs'd the river Qxus, he communicated his defign to 
JL)ataphernes and Catenes (in whom Beflus had the 
;the greateft confidence) who very readily enter'd into 
Jiis meafures, and taking with them eight lufty young 
iellows, they refolv'd upon this artifice. Spitamenes 
^oes to Beffus, and privately tells him, " he under- 
*' flood Dataphernes and Catenes had confpir'd to 
^* feize him, and deliver him up alive to Alexander; 
•*' that therefore he had fecur'd them, and put them 
*" in bonds." Hereupon Beffus, thinking himfelf 
very much oblig'd to him, returned him many thanks, 
and being eager to take vengeance of them, ordered 
them to be brought before him.'' They having their 
iands ty 'd by concert were dragged along by their ac- 
jcomplices ; and Beffus no fooner faw them, but look- 
ing at them with a ftern countenance, he rofe up 
with a defign to wreak his revenue upon them with 
liis own h^d. But they laying afide the diiguife, 
furrounded him immediately, and bound him, puHuig 
the diadem from his head, and tearing his garments, 
-which was part of the fpoils he had taken from the 
murder'd king. He then confefe'd, " That the a- 
*' venging gods were at hand;" and added, " that 
" they were not uryufl to Darius, whom they re- 
** veng'd after this manner ; but were over-propitious 
** to Alexander, whofe vidlories were always pro- 
''* moted by his enemies." It is a doubtful tiling, 
•whether the majority of the Badrians would have 
gamely fuffer'd this ufage of him, had not the con- 
dfpirators given out that they did it by Alexander's 
jorders, and fo terrify 'd thoie whofe thoughts were 
wavering. Having therefore fet him on horfeback, 
jthey brought liim away, in order to deliver him up 
to the king, who in the mean time had made a draught 
pi" nine hundred men, wjiofe fervice dcferv'd they 


R VII. QtriNTus CuRTiirs. sf^ 

fliould be diihiifs*d. He therefore gave to every 
troops two talents, and to every foot-foldier three 
thon^nd denarii, and having enjoin'd thcnri ** tv 
** marry and get children," he fent them home. 
At the fame time, he thank'd the red ** for their 
** wiUingneis to ferve him in the remaining part of 
** the war.*' While BefTus was bringing to him, her 
came to a Ikde town, whofe inhabitants were called 
Branchidae. They were by Xcrxes's order (when he 
returned from Greece) tranfpknted from Miletus, 
and zSigtk*d this fettlement in coniideration of their 
haying pillaged the temple of Apollo Didvmxus, in 
his favour. They had not quite foriaken the cufbms 
of their ancient country, but their language was a 
fort of molley, made up of their own and that of the 
country they now inhabited. They exprefs'd a great 
deal of Joy at fiie king^s arrival, and readily fur^ 
lenderM both thcmfelves and their town to him. 
Hereupon Alexander calPd together the Milefians that 
fcrv'd m his army. Now we mull obfervc, that the 
Milefians bore an old grudge to the Branchida:. The 
king therefore referred it to them, whether they 
would confider their extra6bion, or revenge their for- 
mer injury ; and as they vary'd in their opinions, he- 
told them, " he would advife with himfelf what was 
** bcft to be done in the matter." The next day,, 
when the deputies from the Branchidac came to meet 
him, he commanded them to attend him, and being 
come to the town, he enter'd the gates thereof with 
part of his' army, he ordered the |malanx to furround 
the place, and upon the fignal given, " to pillage 
" the receptacle of traitors, and put them all to the 
" fword." Thefe poor wretches being in a defence - 
Ids condition, were every where butchered, and nei* 
ther conformity of language, the humble pofture of" 
fuppliants, nor the moft fervent intreaty, could put a. 
^p to this authorized cruelty. The very found^^ 
B 3 tions 

30 QyiNTus CuRTius. B. VII. 

tions of the walls were dug up, that there might not 
he the leafl footfteps left of the town. Their fury- 
did not flop here, for they not onlv cut down the con- 
fecratcd woods, but alfo grubb'd up the very roots 
thereof, that there might be nothing left but a barren 
wafte folitude. Now had this cruelty been pradlis'd 
' on the firfl tianfgrefibrsj it might have been thought 
a jufl puuifiiment of their crime f but here pofterity 
is pimifh'd for the fins of its forefathers, witliut ever 
having fo much as feen Miletus, far from being able, 
to betray it to Xerxes. 

From hence he advanc'd to the river Tanais ; here 
Befius was brought to him, not only bound, but ftript 
of all his cloaths. Spitamenes led him by a chain thkt - 
went about his neck ; a fight no lefs agreeable to the 
Barbarians, than to the Macedonians. Then Spita- 
menes addrcfling himfelf to Alexander, faid, " I have • 
** revcng'd the caufe of Darius, and you. Sir, both 
" my fovcreigns, and have brought to you the bafe 
** murderer of im king, having taken him after the ■ 
'*. fanne manner as he gave the example. O that 
" Darius could cpetk hie eyes to view Uiis fpe£lacle f 
*' That he could arife from the dead, who deferv'd 
'^ not that puniflunent, but well deferves this comfort f . 
. Alexander having highly conmiended Spitamenes, 
tum'd to Befius, and aflt'd him, " What bcafUy rage 
** liad prompted him, firft to bind, and then to mur- 
" der a prince who had loaded him with fo many £a,t • 
*\ vours ? but, {aid he, the ufurp'd title of king was 
•• the reward of thjr jjarridde." To which Befius, 
not daring to excuie his crime, anfwer'd, " That it 
" was true he had taken upon him the regal dienity, 
^' but it was only that he might thereby be able to 
" preferve it for him, fince if he had not done fo, 
•*^ ibme body elfe would not have failed to feize it." 
But Alexander, without having any regard to this 
fpcech, caird for Oxatl^rcs, Darius's brother, ^who . 
^ -. was 

B. VII. QuiNTUs Curt I us. 31 

was one of kk body guards) and ordered Be/Tus " to 
*' be delhrerM up to him, that being Men*d to a 
*' crofs, having ids ears and nofe cut oW, he mi^ 
" fenre for a mark for the Bavbarians to ihoot at with 
*' their arrows, without filffering the very birds to 
** come at his body.'* Oxathres readily took upon 
him to fee all the reft performed, but as for the keep- 
kig off the birds, none could do that befides Catenes ; 
which he did out of a defire to (hew his unparallerd 
dexterity, for he ihot with fo exa^l an aim, that the 
very birds flying could not efcapc him : and notwith- 
ibuMiing the common praftice of fhooting with bows 
and arrows, renders this art lefs admirable, yet thofe 
that beheld the performance were furpriz'd, and Ca- 
tenes was highly efteeiti'd for it ; afterwards the king 
made prefents to all thofe who had brought Beflhs to 
him, but delayed his execution till they came to the 
fame place where he had kill'd Duriua. 


IN the mean time the Macedonians going out t6 
fbiage, without obferving their ufual cUfcipline^ 
were attacked and worded by the Baibarians, wha 
came upon them from the neighbouring mountain^, 
and took a great many more of them prifoners ihMti 
they kill'd ; fo that driving the captives before them/ 
they retum'd again to the hills. They were about 
twenty dioufand that lurk'd here, and were accuflom'd 
to live by plunder. Their arms were flings and bows^ 
The king therefore came and befieg'd them, and as 
he was fighting amongft the foremoft, was wounded 
with an arrow in the middle of the leg, wjiere the 
B 4 head 

3a QuiNTiJS CuRTius. B. VII. 

head of the arrow ftuck ; hereupon the Macedonians 
were in the greateft afiiidion^ and carry*d him back 
to the camp. The Barbarians were not unfenfible of 
the king's being carry'd-off from the place of adlion, 
for they coul4 cBfcover every thing from the top of 
the hill. They therefore fcnt the next day deputies 
to the king, whom he immediately order'd to be in- 
troiluc'd ; and taking off the handle from his leg, he 
ihew'd it to them, diffembling the danger of his 
wound ; then having commanded them to fit down, 
they told him, " The Macedonians themfelves were 
** not mpre afHiiEled at his being wounded than they 
" were, and that if they knew the author of it, they 
" would prefently deliver him into his hands 5 for it 
** bebng'd only to the facrilegious, to fight with the 
" gods, and therefore they fubmitted to him, ^being 
" overcome by his virtue and bravery." The king 
hereupon having rtceiv'd his captives, took them into 
his protedlion. 

After this he decamp'd, being carry 'd in a military 
HtfFcr^ both horfe and foot ftriving for the honour oi 
being his bearers ; the horfe alledg'd in j unification of 
their pretenfions,. *^ that the king ufually fought 
** amongft them.*- On the other fide, the foot 
thought it their right, " becaufe they were us'd to 
" carry the'r fellow-foldiers when wounded, and 
** therefore look'd upon it as an injuftice done them 
*• to be deprived of their ofSce in the perfon of their 
** king." Wherefore the king taking into confiderar 
^n their mutual ftrifc, and relieving how hard it was 
•to. make a choice in the prefent cafe, fmce they who' 
were rtje-fled would think themfelves injured, com- 
majided them to take liim by turns. 

From hence they came the fourth day to a town call'd 
Maracanda, the walls whereof were threcfcore and ten 
furlongs in compafs, but.the caftle had no walls ; leaving 
ihercfote a.g^rifon-in due tpwj), hp bwnt and pil- 



lag'd the neighbouring villages. Here he receiv'd am- 
ba^adors from the Abian Scythians, who had maintained 
their liberty ever fince the deceafe of Cyrus, but now 
readily otter'd to fubmit to his- commands. It is 
certain they were the jufteft of all the Barbarians, 
never having recourfe to arms but when provok'd ; 
and were befides fo righteous in their moderate and 
fair ufe of their liberty, that the meanefl amon^ them, 
were upon the level with the greatefl. The king ha- 
ving receiv'd them eiacioufly, fent Pcnidas, who was 
of the band of his friends, to thofe Scythians who 
inhabit " Europe, to forbid them to pafs the river 
** Tanais without his leave. He likewife ordered 
'' him,, to make the bed difcovcry he could of the 
" fkuatioa of the country ; and alfo to viilt thofe 
" Scythians that border on the Bofphorus.'' He had- 
made choice of a place to build a city on, " upon the 
" bank of the Tanais, which might ferve as a curb to- 
" thofe nations he had already fuodu'd, as well as to 
" thofe that he determined hereafter to conquer :*' But ^ 
this defign was delayed by the revolt of the Sog- 
dians, which was fpllow'd by that of the Bavarians.. 
They were about feven thouiand horfe, whofe autho- 
rity influenc'd the reft ; Alexander therefore fent for 
Spitamenes and Catenes who had deliver'd BefTus to 
h^, no wife doubting but by their intereft the in- 
furre£lion might be fupprefs'd,, and. the ringleaders fe- 
cur'd. But as they were themfelves the authors of the 
conmxotions they were fent to quiet, they fpread a 
rumour, that tlie king had fent for the Ba6lrian " ca- 
** valry for no other end bat to be cut to pieces, and- 
*' that this was tlieir commifiion, but they were far 
" from being capable of executing fo abominable a' 
" defign againft their own countrymen ; for which 
" they dctefted Alexander's cruelty as much as the/ 
** hated Beffus's parricide." As they were of them^^ 
{dyes inclined to rife> it was no difficult matter by 
B s fuch 

34 QoiNTus CirnTiixs. B. VII. 

fiich infinuadons a$ tfaefe, to make them take to their 
arms. The king being infbnn'd of the defedion of 
thefe traytors, commanded Craterus to beiiege Cyro- 
polis, while he himfelf took another town in the feme 
country by a general aflault ; upon the fignal given 
they killM all that were at man's eftate, the reft were 
a prey to the vigors : The town was dembliih'd for 
aa example to others. 

This did not hinder the Memacenians (who were a 
valiant people) from refolving to faftain a fiege, as 
being not only the moil honourable bat fafeft courfe. 
The king therefore fent before him &ky troopers with 
inftru^ons ** to make the inhabitants fenfible of his 
** great clemency and eoodnefs to thofc that fubmit- 
'^ ted to him ; and at the fame time how inexorable 
" he was to thofe that held out againft him. " To 
v^hkh they inade anfwer, ** That they did not doubt 
•• either of the king*s honour or power : " How- 
ever, they defir'd them " to pitch their tents with- 
••out the walls of the town, " where they enter- 
tained them veiy courteonily ; and at nudnight^ 
when they were in a profoona fleep, being loaded 
with wine, they fet upon them, and cut all diehr 
throats. Alexan<}er was no lefs mov'd at this ufage 
than the baibarity of the a6t defenr'd, and immedi- 
ately march'd and invefted the city, which was too 
jRtongly fortified to be taken at the firft affault: 
fo that he left Meleager and Perdiccas to carry on 
this fiege, and with the reft of the forces he join'd ' 
Craterus, who, as we faid before, was befieging Cy- 

The king had a great defire to fpare this town, in 
favour of Cyrus, its founder, for whofe memory, and 
that of Semiramis, he had a great veneration, on the 
account of their extraordinary virtue, magnanimit}', 
and memorable exploits ; but fbding the befieg'd re- 
mained ofaftinate, it fo incens'd him againft ^em, that-^ 
-* V having 

B. VIL' Qvturvt CvKTixTf: 35 

having taken the town, he abandoned it to the Mace- 
donians to be pilkg'd, who were, not without caufe, 
very fcvere to them. After this he returned to Me- 
ieager and Perdiccas, who were left to carry on the 
iiege of the Memacenians. No town ever defend^ 
kCdf better ; here he bft his braveft men, and waa 
in die greateft danger himfelf, for he received fo fu- 
rious a blow on the neck with a Jdone, that it took 
away his iight> and the prefent ufe of his reafon. The 
armv was in the nreateft conHemation now, as think- 
ing him killed ; but he was invincible to thofe things' 
that terrify others, and therefore without waiting 'lill 
bis woui^ was cur'd, he carry *d on the fiege with 
greater vigour, his anger quickening his natural dif- 
patch and e^medition. Having therefore undermined 
the wall, ancT made thereby a confideraUe breach, he 
carry'd the place by Stona, and caus'd it to be de** 
mdiih'd. This done, he detach'd Menedemus with 
three thou^md foot, and eight hundred horfe to the 
city Maracanda, ftom whexice Spitamenes had driven 
the Macedonian garrifon, fhtittii^ himfelif up therein, 
as in a place of fafety . The inhabitants did not much 
approve of his proceeding, yet they feem*d to con- 
(ent to it, not being able to oppofe him. In the 
mean time Alexander returned to the river Tanais 
where he indos'd with a wall as much ground as his 
camp had taken up, which was thredcore furlongs 
in compafs, and caus'd the town he built therein to be 
alCo cau'd Alexandria. The work was carry 'd on 
with fo much celerity, that in feventeen days both 
the walls and houfes were finifh'd. There was a, 
mighty ftrife among the foldiers, who fhould fooneil 
perform their taik (for the work was divided amongft 
them) fo that the whole being foon perfefted,^ he 
peopled it with the captives, whofe ranfoms he paid 
to their refpedive owners ; and their pofterity (not- 
B 6 withftanding 

withftanding the many ages that arefmce daps'd) arc 
fiiU taken notice of in con&deration of Al^nder's 

C H A P. VII.. 

TH E king of thofe Srythians whofe empfre lies 
beyond the Tanais^ looking on the new-built 
town as a yoke the Macedonians l^d pat about their 
necks,, fent his brother CaHoiis with a great body of 
horfe **• to dcmoliih it, and remove the Macedonian 
** foixes far from the river." The-Tanais divides 
the Badlrians from the European Scythians, and like- 
wife fcrves for the bounds of Afia and Europe ; the 
Scythian nation not being far diftant from Thrace, 
extends itfelf from the ^dk to the northward, and 
are not, as fome have thought, borderers on the 
Jiurmatians, bijt are a part of that people. They 
nlfo inhabit that country that lies beyond the Ifter,. 
and touches upon Eaflriana, which is in the extreme 
of Aiia, northward, where there are vaft forells, 
and unbounded waftes ; but that part of the country 
that lies near the I'anais, and looks towards Badriana,. 
does not. difi:er much in culture from other improved 

Alexander finding himfelf oblig'd to ente^ upon 
ao unforefeen war with thefe people, and obferving 
with what infolence they rid up and down within his 
fight ; altho' he was not yetrrecover'd of his wound, 
and his voice particularly fail'd him by reafon of his 
Sender diet, and the violent pain in his neck, fum- 
mtffk'i his friends to council He wa^ not afraid q£ 


/' / J^ 

B. Vil. Q51KTUS CuRTius. 37 

the enemr, bat aneafy at the unhappy junftore of 
affiun. The BaAnans were in open rebellion, the 
Scythians infulted him, when he was neither able 
to ftand nor ride, and fo could neither give neceflary 
oiderSy nor encourage his men. h\ this double per- 
plexity he could not forbear complaining of the **- gods, 
^ who forc*d him to lie idle, whofe diligence hercto- 
" fore none could efcape ; but now his Otvn foldiers 
*^ had much ado to believe he did not counterfeit being 
*^ ill. This made Alexander, who fmce Darias's o- 
verthrow, had never confulted the foothfayers, re- 
tam again to that fuperfUtion, or rather delufion of 
mankind; he therefore commanded Ariflander, in 
whom he had the greatefl confidence, *' to offer (a- 
** crifice» in order thereby to penetrate into the event 
** . of things." Now it was the cuftom of jthefe footh- 
£iyers to infpedl the intraib of beafb without the king, 
aiui'make a report to him of their obfervations. While 
thefe means were ufing to find out the hidden ifTue of 
affiurs> ** he ordered his friends Hephxflion, Craterus 
«- and Erigyius, with his body guards to draw neap 
<« hiBiy that he might not by fhaining his voice^ 
'^ bres^ the fear of his wound, which was yet but 
** tender." After which, he fpoke to them in the 
following manner. ** The danger I have to encoun- 
••■ tcr with, comes upon me at ajunifture more fa- 
« vourable to my enemy than my (elf ; but neteffity 
** takes place ofreafon, and more efpecially in war, 
^ where it very rarely happens that we can chufe our 
•* own times. The Ba£brians have revolted when we 
•* were juft ready to put our yoke upon them, and 
•* they are trying what courage we have by our war- 
**■ with another nation. It is plain, that if we leave 
**• the Scythians, who arc attacking us, we ^hall ap- 
** pear defpicable to thofe who have rebeird 5 but 
•* if on the contrary we pafs the Tanais, and fhe>ic 
U cHuielvfi^ invincible at toe Scythians cUl, there is 

38; QuiNTus CuRTius. * B. VII. 

** no doubt to be made, bat Europe will alfo lie opea 
'* to our vi^orious arms. He is miftaken who mea- 
** furcs our glory by the fpace that we are to march. 
** We have only one river to pafs to carry our arms 
** into Europe, and what an honour will it be to us 
** at the fame time th^ we are fubduing Afia, to 
** crcft trophies of our conquefts, as it were in a new 
•* world, by 4inidng with one viftory what nature ' 
** feparated at fo great a diftance ? But on the other 
** fiac, if we make the leaft delay, we fliall infallibly 
** have the Scythians on our backs. Are we the only 
*^ men that can pafs rivers ? a great many things, by - 
** the means whereof we have been hitherto fuccefs- ' 
** ful, wOl turn againft us. Fortune will teach the 
** vanquiihM alfo the art of war. We have lately 
** jfhewn the H^ay to pafs rivers upon (kins, which " 
" admit the Scythians to be yet ignorant of, the 
** Badrians will foon teach them the way. Beiides, 
** there is yet but one army of this nation arriv'd, 
«* there are others daily expefted ; fo that by dedin- 
•• ing the war we foment it : and. whereas we can 
** now carry the war where we pleafe, by our neg- 
** left we (hall be forcM to be upon the defenfive. 
** What I fay is felf-evident, but whether the Mace- 
•* donians w^ fuffer me to aft after my own way I 
** cannot tell, becaufe (ince this wound I have not 
** been able to ride on horfeback, or tp go on foot : 
** however, if you are willing to follow me, my 
" friends, I am well. I think myfelf .ftrong enough 
*\ to. bear die fatigue, and if the period of my life' 
** bo at hand, pray in what caufe can I die more glo- 
** rioufly ? 

He utter'd thefe things with fo weak a voice, that 
they who were next to him could hardly hear him, fo 
that they unanimoufly endeavoured to divert him 
from fo raih an enterprize, efj^edally Erigyius, who 
iBmiing he couB not prevaS- npojl hk obftina^ by hi^' 



intereft with him) hid reconrfe to fuperftidoxiy which 
^e Idiijg was venr much addided to, and therefore 
told him, ** That die eods themfelves opposM his 
** defigDy and threatened him with fome extraordina- 
*• ry misfortune if he pafs*d the river." Erigyius, 
as he was entring the king's tent» had met Arifbmder, 
who had informed him, ** That the entrails of the 
** beafts appeared unlucky." Hereupon Alexander* 
filenc'd him, reddening with anger as well as fhame, 
that his faperftitiony which he thought to conceal, 
was thus niade public, and ient for Arifhmder ; who 
being come, he told him (a little tranfported) '* That 
** he fnppos'd he was no longer his king but apri- 
^* vate perfon : did not I command you to offer £i- 
** orifice ? why then did you difclofe to any but my^ 
** felfwhat the fame portended ? Erigyius, by your 
** treachery, has penetrated into my fecrets ; as for 
** him, I am fure he makes his own fear and not 
** you, theinterpreter of the entrails. I peremptorily 
•* charge you to tell me yourfclf, what you leam'd 
^ by your obfervation of the victims, that yon may 
** not have it in your power, to deny what you ihaU * 
<* havefaid." Ariftander at thefe words ibod like 
one aftoniihed, turning pale, and fpeechlefs thro* fear 5 
bnt then again, the Sme fear prompted him to fpeak, ' 
left he ihoukl provoke the king (till more by his long 
filence : he therefore faid, ^* I foretold tlmt your 
** prefent undertaking would be both perilous and 
** ra}lof difficulties, out not unfuccefsful & neither is 
** it any difcovery from my art, but the fincerity of 
*' my dutiful alTeclion for you, that makes me un^y . ' 
** I fee how weak you are, and am fenfible how mnch 
** depends on your perfon alone. In fine, I fear you 
** have not fhrength enough to enable you to go 
** throueh fuch an enterprize." 

The ung bidding him ** not diffruft his happinefs 
*^ (iinoethe^godr intended him ilill a huEgerportionof 

" gloiy) 


*' glory)" difmifs'd him." Afterwards, while the 
king was deliberating with the fame perfons, " how 
" he ihould pafs the river;" Arillander return'd ^nd 
aiTur'd him, ** he had facrific'd again, and had never 
** obferv'd more promiiing omens, they being very 
" different from the firft, in which there was fome 
** ground for folicitude : whereas, now the gods 
" leem'd to be altogether propitious." 

However, the news that was brought Alexander 
foon after feem'd to break the chain of his uninterrupt- 
ed profperity. We took notice before that he had de- 
tachM Menedemus to befiege Spitamenes, the author 
of the Baftrian revolt ; who upon advice of the ene- 
my's approach, to avoid being pent up within the walls 
CI a town, and conceiving withal fome hopes of tre- 
panning him, had plac'd himfelf in ambufcade on the 
way he. knew he was to come. There was a wood 
thro' which Menedemus was to pafs, and by reafon ' 
of its covert, very fit for Spimmenes's purpofe ; here- 
he plac'd the Dahx, whofe horfes carry each two ar- 
med foldiers,. who by turns, as occafion ferves, fud- 
dienly difmount, and put the bell ordered cav^y in- 
connifion, for the men are as fwift as the horfes. 

Spitamenes order'd therefore thefe troops to furround. 
the wood, and upon the fignal given to attack the ene- 
my in front, flank and rear at the fame time.. Meno,- 
demus finding himfelf thus hemm'd in on all fides, anda 
much inferior in number, refolv'd to make the bcfl 
refinance he could,, and fo told his men, *' Th^t the 
" only comfort they could now propofe to themfel^^es,. 
** was to die well reveng'd." He was himfelf mount- 
ed on a Itrong horfe, with w^ch he had often charg- 
ed the^ enemy's ranks, riding full fpeed and broke- 
ij^em with a great daughter ; but being at prefent atr. 
tack'd on all fides, and almofl bloodlels by the many 
wounds he had received,, he defir'd ai:ertain friend -of 
ik, nam'd Hypfidesy^toget ogonhis horfei aodLtry; 

B. VII.. QuiNTus Curt I vs. 4I 

to fave himfelf ; but while this was doing, he ex* 
pired and his body fell to the ground. Hypfides 
might have got off, if he had had a mind, but having 
lofi: his firiend, he fcom^d to live. His only care was 
to fell his life as dear as he could ^ clapping therefore 
fpurs to his horie^ he rode in among the thickefl of the 
enemy, and having made a great daughter, a^ laft 
was lall'd. They that ftill remained perceiving this, 
retired to an eminence hard by, and were at laid re- 
duced by famine. In this a£lion there peri(h*d t^o 
thoufand foot, and three hundred horfe, which I0& 
Alexander wifely concealed by threatening with death 
thofe that retam*d.from the defeat, if they divulg'd it. , 

CHAP. viri. 

BUT as he cotild no longer carry on his diffimula* 
tion, he repaired to his tent, which he had caus'd 
on purpofe to be pitdiM upon the bank of the river;* 
tliere he pa&M the night atone without fleep, cafling 
in his mind what was beft to be done in the prefent 
jandhire, and frequently lifting up the ikins of his tent 
to behold the enemies fires, and be able to guefs at 
their number. As foon as it was day, he put on his 
armour, and ihew'd Jiimfelf to the army now the fijft^ 
time iince he received his kft wound. They had fo 

treat a veneration for their king, that his prefence foon: 
iilipated their fears ; they therefore, with tears of joy- 
in their eyes, faluted him, and now prefs'd him harefc. 
to enter upon the war, which thqy had before refuft'd. 
Upon this, he told them, *^ he would pafs the horfe,. 
<^ and the phalanx in float boats, and the light-arm'd 
^ partjof the drmy on (toiPd ikii^, as he had done 

" here- 


** heretofore.'* There was no occafion for his (kying 
more^ neither could he, by reafon of his infirmity. 

The fokHers unmediately fdH to work with fo much 
che^uinefs, that in three dav9 time they made twelve 
thoufand of thefe boats. lEvery thing w^ now in 
readinefs for their pafTage, when there came twenty 
ambafladors from the Scythians, according to the ca- 
fiom of that nation, riding about the camp, deiiring 
the king might be informed they had a mefTage to - 
him : they being introduced accordingly, and ordered 
by his majefty to fit down, look'd very earnclUy at 
hum : I fuppole for this r^on, that, they make an 
cftimate of the mindvfirom the fize of the body, and ay 
he was but a moderate ftature, they did not think him 
proportionable to his migh^ chgixa^er. > The Scy thic^ 
am are not a dull, heav}^ntoj[^, like ^e reft or-the«* 
Barbarians ; nay, fome of them are (aid to attain ta 
as much knowlaiee as is confident with any nation 
that is confbmtly m arms. It is faid, they addrefs'd 
themfelves to the king in the following terms ; which, 
tho* perhaps different from our manners, who live if 
M politer a|{e, and Jtavcjour parts better improv'd^ yei 
kth as it is, we ihall ^uthfully relate, hoping th»t if 
thcnr fpeech be defpisM, oar integrity wilT not be ioi^ 
peded. The eldeft of them- therefore faid, ^* If the 
*' gods had given you a body fuitable to the infatiable 
" greedinefs of your mind, the world would not be 
** able to contain you ; you would ilretch one arm* 
^ out to the .£utheft extremities of the eaft, and- 
*' the other to the rensoteft bounds of the weft ; and* 
*' not content therewidi, would be for examining; 
•* where the glorious body of the fun hid it felf ; but 
*^ even as you are, your ambition attempts what you 
" are not capable of. You pafs out of Europe inta 
** Afia, and from Afia you return again to Europe j 
** and when ydu have overcome all mankind, rather 
<< than be ffwt^ you'll quarrel withtbe woodsW the 


'' moantams, the riven and wild beafb. Canyon be 
*' ignorant, that large trees are a long time a growing/ 
*' tho* an hour be lufficient to cut them dgwn ? he i^' 
^ a fool that coveteth their fruit, wkhout duly con- 
** fidering their height. Take heed that while you* 
** ftrive to climb up to the top, you do not fsil head- 
" long with thofe branches you have grafpM. A' 
*' lion has fometinie been the prey of the fmaUeft^ 
'* birds ; and iron it felf is confnm*d by raft. In' 
*^ fine, there is nothing fo irm and ftrone, but is in* 
*• danger of peiifhing by what is weaker, what have' 
** you to do with as ? we never fo much as fet foot' 
** in jom countnr. Shall not we who pafs our lives' 
*^ in the woods, oe allowM to be ignorant who yon 
** are, and whence yon come ? know, that as we are' 
*' not greedy of empire, fo neither can we fubmit to 
** be (raves. Now that you may be fenfible what fort' 
** of people the Scythians are, heaven has prefented' 
*^ OS wim a yoke of oxen, a plough, an arrow, and' 
*^ a bowl ; theie thmgs we either communicate with' 
^ our fiiionds, or make ufe of them to defend' 
^ oorfelver againft oar enemies : we impart to' 
*' our friends the com which is produced by the* 
** labour of the oxen, and with them alio we ia-' 
•* crifice to the gods out of the bowl : our arrows* 
^ krve us againftour enemies at a dilbmce, and we' 
** ufe our fpears m a clofer engagement. Bv thefe* 
*' means we overcame the king of Syria, ana fince,' 
** the kings of Perii^a, and of me Modes, and openM' 
** our felves a way even into Egypt. And whereas' 
" you are pleasM to givb out, that you come to puitiih 
" thieves and robbers ; it is plain you have play M the ' 
** part of a robber in all the nations you have yet in- 
•* vaded. You feiz'd Lydia, made your felf mafter' 
** of Syria, and are in prefent pofTeffion alfo of Per-' 
'* fia ; tbe Ba6lrians are in your power, and you have' 
** penetiitiad.]ittD India I andirf^all ihU, yon can-' 


44 , QyiNTus CuRTiu*, B. VIL 

** not be fatisfy'd, unlefs you extend your ravenous 
" hands to our harmlefs flocks. What occafion 
** have you for riches, iince they only ferve to en- 
•* creafe your appetite ? You are the firft who by fa- 
" tiety fharpen your hunger, as if all your acquifiti- 
** ons only ferv'd to nud^e you thirft after what you 
** have not. Don't you leflcft how long the BaAri- 
'*• ans have employ'd you I and that while they kept 
** you in play, the Sk)gdian» rebell'd : fo that your 
'* very vidories* feem to afford you frelh matter of 
" war. Now 'stt^ Acting that you are greater and 
** fbongcr than an^'i" yet you ought to coniider, that 
** no body can endure long a foreign government. 
** Do but pafe the Tanais, and you may indeed learn 
** the extent of our country, but can never hope ta 
** to overtake the Scythians ; our poverty will ftill be 
" too nimble for your anny, that is laden with the 
** fpoils of fo many nations. Again^ when you think 
** us the fartheft from you, you fhall find us within 
« your camp. We are equally fwift either to fly or 
*f purfue. I am informed, that our defarts and wades 
*f are become proverbs of fcom among the Greeks* 
** But for our parts, we make choice of wilds,, and 
** thofe places that are void of human culture, rather 
** than of cities and fruitful foils. Hold therefore 
** your fortune as dofe as you can, for fhe is flippery, 
*^ and will not be held againfl her will. Wholefome 
** advife is better difcover'd by the confequences, than 
** the prefent. Put a curb therefore to your profpe- 
** rity, and you'll govern it the better. We have a 
** faying amongft: us, that fortune is without feet, and 
" has only hands and wings, and that when ihe 
** reaches out her hands, fhe will not fuffer her wings 
** to be touch 'd. To be fhort, if you are a god, you 
'f ought to be beneficent to mortals, and not deprive 
'^ them of what they have ; and if you are a man, 
<^ always remomber your felf to be what you are. It it 

. " foUy 

B. VIL QciNTus CuRTius. 45 

** folly to be mindful of thofe thines which make you 
** forget your felf. You may m^e good ufe of the 
^ friendfhip of thofe you do not exaiperate by war : 
^ for the fvmeft union is amoagii: equals i and thofe 
** feem to be equals, who have not yet try'd their 
*^ flrength. Do not imagine thofe you conquer can 
** be your friends ; there's no friendfhip between ihd 
** fovereign and the flave, for even in time of peace, 
*' the rights of war do flill obtain. The Scythians in 
*' their alliances^ do not make ufe of oaths to rati^ 
** the fame, i>ut their intregrity anfwers all the ends 
** of oaths. It is a precaution of ue Greeks indeed 
** to feal treaties, and invoke ti*^ ^ods ; but as for 
** ourfelves we pUce our religion in feithfully obferv- 
** ing:Our:proi|iifes. They who have no reverence for 
** meuy.will jiotfcruple to deceive the gods them- 
** felves* Befides, you have no occafion for friends, 
** of whofe benevolence you doubt. Now in us you 
*' will have incorruptible guardians both of Afia and 
^ Europe : there is only the Tanab between us and 
** Ba£bia» ^nd beyond the Tanais,<we extend our 
*^ felye% as far as Thrace, and Thrace is faid to border 
*/ upon ' Macedonia. Thus you &e we are your 
** neighbours in both your empires. Confider there- 
** fore, whether you ^ ill have us for your friends, or 
^* your enemies." 

C H A P. IX. 

TH E Barbarian having ^nifh'd his fpeech, the 
king made him this anfwer : ** that he would 
*' depend upon his own fortune, and the counfel 
** of his friends : on his fortune, becaufe he had con- 
^ fidenCe in it^ and he wovdd confalt the opinion of 
^ his friends, that he might imdertake notlung rafh- 

46 QsriMTUS Cu&Tius, B. VIL 

** ly, and with too great a confidence of fuccefs.** 
After whkfa, he difinifs'd the ambaiTadors, and im- 
bark'd hi^ army on the boats he had preparM for diat 
purpofe. In the fore-part of the boats, he plac'd 
thote who had baddc^, commanding them '* to 
'' kneel down that they mig^t be k& exposed to die 
V enemy^s arrows/' Next to theie were me direAors 
of the machines, havii^ on each fide of them^ as weQ 
as before, fokliers compleady arm'd. The reft ftand* 
ing bdbind die engines, form*d a toMoiie with their 
bncklen, and fo proteded the rowers, who had aUb 
armoor on. The fame di^iition was obferv'd in 
thofe boats that truifported the horfe, of whom the 
mj^or part hdd their horfes by the rems of their 
bridles, and fo drew them along fwimming at the 
ilem ; as for them that were carry*d orer on flcins 
ftuf'd with ftraw, they were fhelter*d by the float 

The king, with fuch as he had chofen to aocompa^ 
ny him, put df firft^ and diredled his couife to the 
other fide of the river, where the Scythians had drawn 
up fiime horfe along the bai>k to oppofe his lanchng : 
but befides the appearance of an army on the ihore, 
the Macedonians met with another danger in dieir 
pafTage, for they that fteer'd the boats were not able 
to maintain their courfe cro(s the river, by realbn of 
the rapidity of its current ; and the ibldiers tottering 
up smddown, and being apprehenfivoof fceiiu;caft orer 
board, difturb'd the waterman in their bumiefi. In 
this condidon it was impoifible for them to deliver 
their darts with any force, heing more folidlous bow to 
ibmd fecurely, than to attack the enemy. It is true, 
their engines did them great fervice, ieldom Ruling to 
do execudon, the enemy ftandine thick upon the 
ihore, and raihly ejmofii^ themfehres. The barba- 
rians alfo on their ude poured in clouds of arrows 
amongft the boats, fo that there was Inrdly a buck- 
I ler 

R VII, (^jNTus Cv&Ti us. 47 

ler thtt hid not fevend heads (ticking in it. At 
length the bouts be^ to gain the land, and thofe 
that were arm'd with ihields^ rifing all at one 
notion, caft tbdr darts with a more certain idm, as 
having greater liberty and fnier footing. Thus the 
Scythian horfe being ternfy^d and forc'd to give back, 
.the Macedonians cncouragii^ each other, leaped out 
of their boats, and with great alacrity and fury bore 
down upon the enemy alr«uly in confufion. By this 
time Alexander's horfe had formed themfelves into 
trooDs, and broke in alfo upon the Barbarians dHbr-> 
{der*a ranks. While thefe thing* were doing, the reft 
.of the Maoedoman army, being corer'd by thofe dnt 
.were enga2*d, had time to prepare lilcewife for batde. 
The kii^ Sip^y'd the weakneis of his body with die 
vigor of his nund ; and although his voice was not yet 
£troag enoueh to make his encouragement heard, (his 
:WOuik1 notbemg quite heaPd) yet the whole army 
could fee how gulandy he fought. This made them 
idi difcfaaigq the general's part, and animate each other 
.With fo g^ an eflfed, that they fell furioufly on the 
enemy, regpudlefs of their own iafety. Whereupon 
<he Scythians, no longer able to foftain the arms, 
fiionts, and coontenance of the Macedonian army, 
ck^'d fpurs to their horfes and made the beft of their 
wmy. The king (notwithlhmdins his infirm body could 
not yet endure any great fatigue) purfu'd the enemy for 
the ijaoe of fburfcore fuHongs ; then finding himfelf 
fiunt, he ordered his men to continue their purfuit as long 
«s they had day-light ; after which he repaired to his 
camp, expecting the return of his troops. 

They had ah^adypafs'd the bounds of Bacchus, in 
commemoration of whom there were a great many flones 
4er€€t€d at a dilfamce from each other, and fevml tall 
trees, whofe bodies were cover'd over with ivy. But 
the Macedonians rage carry*d them ftiU fiuther, fo diat 
they did not return to the camp till midnight. They 



fcill'd a great many, took feveral prifoners, and 
brought away eighteen hundred horfes. In this acti- 
on the Macedonians loft fixty troopers, and almoft one 
hundred foot, and had one thouiand wounded. TUs 
feafonable viAory fettied.themind^ of the Afiatics (who 
were at this time wavering) for they look'd upon the 
Scythians to be invincible, and finding them defeated 
too, they concluded ** no nation was able to with- 
** ftand the Macedonian power*" 

The SacsB hereupon fentambafladors to Alexander, 
■to aiTure him, ^' that their nation fubmitted to him.^ 
They were niov'4 to this, not only by the king's 
iravery., but «lfo by his clejncfticy towards the Scy- 
thians, to whom he fent back all their prif(»ers with- 
out ranfom, that that fierce nation might be feniible 
he did not fight vfith them out of hatred or anger, 
but for reputation and glory. Having therefore re- 
ceived theSacan's ambaiTadors gracioufly, he gave 
them £x]pinus for a companion l^me i who being in 
the flower of his youth, was v&ry much in Alexander's 
ikYom ; but altho' he was as handfome in perfon as He- 
phacftion, yet he was far from having his agreeable wit. 

Then the king leaving the major part of the army 
wider the command of Craterus, with orders to fol- 
low him at eafy marches, went himfelf with the reft 
to 'Maracanda^ • Spitamenes being inform'd of his 
approach, had left that city and was fled to Badlra. 
Alexander therefore having traveled a great deal of 
ground in four da}'s, came at laft to the place where 
Menedemus had loft the two thoufand foot, and three 
hundred horfe, whofe bones he orderM to be bury'd 
with the ufual rites of their country. Here Craterus, 
who had been commanded to follow, join'd the king. 
That therefere he might chaftife at once all thofe who 
had revolted from him, he jdivided his army into fe- 
veral bodies, and order'd them to bum the country, 
mid kill all that were able to bear arms. 




THE Sogdian tocmtiy is for the snoft part * 
defiut ; the wiMs and wafles takipg up aknoft 
«ight hundred drlongs in breadth. It is of a vail ex- 
tent in lengthy and is watered by a river called by the 
inhabitants Polytimetus, which rans with a rapid 
ftream. This river is confin'd within a narrow chan* 
jiely and is at laft received into a fubterranean cavity* 
The noife it nudces, as it palTes under ground, is a 
fofficient indication of its hidden courfe ; yet the ter- 
fitonr under which this confiderable river runs, fhewi 
nd iign of it from the leaft evaporation of water^ 
duro* any part of its paiTage. 

Amonj^ the capdve Scgdians, there were thirty of 
fbae: chienft nobuity of the country, who were re- 
markable for^ their prodigious fh-ength of body. 
Thefe being brought before the king, and under- 
ftanding by the interpreter, that his majefly had 
ordered them to be executed, they began to fing and 
dance, and by other wanton motions of their bodv 
endeavoured to exprefs the chearfalne(s of their mino. 
Alexander being amazed at their unufaal alacrity on 
fadi an occafion, commanded them to be brought 
■back, and aik'd them *^ the caufe of their exce^ve 
** joy, when they beheld death before their eyes." 
To which they anfwerM ; '* that if any other than 
^ himfdf had fentenced diem to die, they fhould 
** have been concem'd ; but fince they were to be 
** rcftor'd to their anceftors by fo great a king who 
** had conqucr'd all the world, they look'd upon 
^ their death to be ib honourable, as even to deferve 

£0 Quint US Curtius. B, VI3L 

^ the envy cf all hnve meh, which 'made them t> 
'*' traniported when they underftood his p'cifure.'* 
The kmg then alkcd them, ** if they voild be 
^* his friends hereafter, if he fhould give theln their' ] 
^ '.lives? They reply'd, that they had nev6r been 
** his enemies, bat had only defended themfelves 
*** when they were attacked in a hoftile manner by 
^* him. And that if any body would make trial of 
^* thenv by ^ood offices, inftead of iiguries, they 
* would willingly contend in the gcnei»us ftrife, 
^ and ufe their utmoft endeavours not to be over- 
^ come.** He afking them afterwards, " What 
•** pledge thej would give him for their fidelity ?" 
They anfwered, " Their lives, which they received 
"** through his bounty, and which they would at all 
-** times be ready to reftore to him, whenever he rc- 
** quir'dthem." Nor were they worfe than their, 
words. For thofe of them, who were fent hpmc^ 
tept thdr country -people in due fubjeftion to AJejc- 
.ander ; and four of them being receiv'd into his body: 
guards, were inferior to none of the Macedonians in 
their fincere ,afFe6lion to the king. Alexander having^ 
Jeft Peucolaus among the Sogdians with a garrifon 0% 
three thoufand men, he march 'd to £a£tra, front 
•whence he commanded Beflfus " to be condudled to 
•*• Ecbatana, there tp fuffer death for 'murdering 
•* Darius/' 

About the fame time Ptolemy and Menidas brought 
him three thoufand foot, and one thopfand horfe, to 
fervc in the war as mercenaries. Alexander likewife 
came to him with the fame number .of foot, and five 
hundred horfe, out qf Lycia. The like number had 
followed Afclepiadorus from Syria. Antipater had 
Alfo fent eight thoufand Greeks, amongft whom were 
;five hundred horfe. 

Being therefore reinforc'd by thefe recruits, he 
proceeded to compofe the diflurbances in the revolted 



provinces ; and having put to death the promoter^ 
lie came the fourth day to the river Oxus. This 
river, by reafon of the mud it carries along with its 
ifaream, is always muddy and unwholefome to drinks 
The foldiers therefore fell to finking of wells, and 
hotwithftanding they had dug a great way into the 
ground, could find no water. At iaft there was a 
Ipring found in the king's tent, which becaufe it was 
difcover'd but late, they imagined it fprung up on the 
fudden, and the king himfelf was not againfl its being 
thought -a prefent from heaven. 

Having afterwards pafs''d the rivers Ochus and 
Oxus, he came to a town call'd Marginia, near to 
M^hich he made choice of places to build fix cities in. 
Two of them were to be towards the fouth, and four 
towards the eafl. They were to Hand at a moderate 
flifbnce from each other, that neither might have fair 
to feek for fuccour upon occafion. They were all 
hmit upon pretty high eminences, and intended as 
Co many curbs to the conquer'd nations : but having 
now forgot their origin, they are fubjed to thofi 
whom they formerly commanded. 

C H A P. XI. 

A L'L troubles were now quieted; there was only 
XX, one rock, which Arimazes a Sogdian had pol- 
fefs'd himfelf of, with thirty thouiand men all arm'd^ 
having provided it with all manner of neceffaries for 
fo great a multitude for two years. The rock Is 
thirty furlongs in height, and one hundred and fifty 
in circumference, being on all fides fleep and craggy, 
and is acceflible only by a very narrow path. In the 
jDidivay to ^ top, it has a cave whofe entrance is 


.ttnit and dark, but by degrees grows wider ; and far- 
thit on, has large recefles. This cave was full of 
rprings, whofe waters bdns united as they run down 
«ic rock, form a river. The king having confidered 
the difficulty of the enterprize, had refolv'd to leave 
it ; but afterwards was feized with a violent defire to 
jget the .better even of nature. However, before he 
undertook the fiege thereof, he fent Cophas, Arta- ' 
i)SLz\xs*s ion, to endeavour to perfuade the Barbarians 
^ te furrcnder the rock." But Arimazes confiding 
in the fbrength of the place, gave very haughty an- 
tftvers, «nd at laft aik'd, " Whether Alexander could 
fiy V Which being related to the king, fo inflam'd 
his anger, that having callM a council, he communis 
cated to it, ^' how infolent the Barbarians were to 
*' them, becaufe they had no wings. Yet he did not 
^* doubt (he faid) but by the aext night, to convince 
^' them, that the Macedonians could upon occafion 
■*' fly," And therefore ordered them " to bring him 
*** three hundred of the nhnbkft and moft adive 
^ young men they each had in their refpedUve troops^ 
•** and fuch as had been accuHom'd at home to drive 
^ fheep amongft the rocks, and almoft impaflablc 
■/ waysinthe^nountains.'* Accordingly they brought 
liim fuch as excelPd the reft both in agility and light - 
nefs of body, as well as in boldnefs and courage. 
Whom the king beholding, faid, " It is with you, 
** generous youths, who. are of my own age, that I 
'* have taken towns which were before thought im- 
^* pregnable, and pafs'd over the tops of thofe hills 
^* which are continually cover'd with fnow ; with 
^* yQ\jL I enter'd the ftraits of Cilicia, and endured 
•** without wearinefs the violent colds of India. I 
** have given you proof of myfelf, and have had it 
^* of you. Tne rock you fee has but one way to it^ 
-** which is guarded by the Barbarians, the reft of it 
f^ is negleded by them. They keep no watch but 


•* towards our camp. If you fcek diligently, yoj» 
'* will not fail of finding fome way or other that will 
** bring you to the top. There is nothing f« inac- 
•* ceflible by nature, but your bravery will^ make 
** fome fhift or other to get to it. It is by under- 
•* ta:king what others defpirM of, that we liave Afia 
^ in our power j work therefore your way up to the 
•* top of the hill» and when^ you liave made your- 
•* felves maftersiof it,, hang out white flags for a fig- 
' •* nal to me ; and I fhall then take care to advanca 
•* towards the enemy, and by a powerful diverfioiv 
•• hinder their falling upon you : The firfl that gets^ 
•* up fhall have ten talents for his reward, the next 
'* fhall have one lefs, and fo downward in the fame 
•* proportion for ten. I am very certain, that it is. 
•* not fo much my liberality, as the fatisfadUon tc^ 
•* pleafe me, that you will look at in this bold at-r 
•' tempt." They heard the king's fpeech with f6 
much alacrity, thkt one would have thought they had. 
already gain'd the top of the mountain ; and, oeing. 
difmi^'C they provided themfelvcs widi wedges to> 
fix in the clefts of the rock, and alfo with ftron? 
sopes. The king rid round the rock with diem, ani 
©ider'd diem to fet about their work at the fecond. 
watch, beginning where the x'ock was mbft pradtica* 
Ue, and wifh'd tibe gods to favour their undertakituQ^ ^ 
They having fumifh*d themfdves with provifions for 
two days, and arm'd only with their fwords ancL 
fipears, fet forwards without any great difiicul^r at 
feft ; but when they came to the fbep part, fomr 
laid hold of the broken crags to lift themfelves up y 
odiers made ufe of rojpes with fliding knots, having 
iixM their wedges in the clefts to fhin their footii^^ 
Thus diey fpent the whole day in fear and labour., 
and having^ turmounted great difficulties, they found 
ftill greater to overcome, and the rock feem'd to 
now in^heteht. It was a difmal fpeSad^ to behold. 
Ci thofr 

54 QyjNTus CuRTius. B. VIL 

thofc whofc footing fail'd them, tumbling headlong 
down the precipice, and by their example (hewing 
others what they were to expeft. Notwithftanding 
all thefe difficuhies, they made a fhift to get up to the 
top, being all very much fatigu'd with the continual 
labour ; lome were hurt and maim*d in their limbs> 
and were with the reft furpriz'd with the nicht and 
deep. However, difperfmg themfelves up and down> 
they laid tlieir wearied bodies upon the rough craggy 
ftones, altogether unmindful of the prefent dange];^ 
and flept till it was light. At laft they awak'd out of 
their profound deep, and looking curiouily about to 
difcovtT where fo great a number of people could 
hide themfelvtf, they perceivM fbrne fiuoke beneath 
them, wliich diicover'd their lurking-place. They 
therefore, according to their orders,, erefted the fignal 
agreed upon, and found that of their whole Aunbey 
there were mining thirty-t>vo. The kiiig being no 
lefs defirous to make himfelf mafter of the place, thai^ 
follicitous for thofe he had exposed to manifeft dan- 
ger, flood all day gazing at the top of the hill, and 
did not depart to take any refrefhment, till the 
darknefs of the night: hindered all profpecl of diQ 
eyes. The next day early in the morning he ftrit per-r 
ceiv'd the white flags, which were the fignal that his 
men had gain'd the top. However, he was uncer- 
tain whether his eyes did not deceive him, by reafon 
of the inconftancy of the light, whicli fometimes ap- 
pe se6, and fometimes was hid in a cloud ; but the 
Clearer light put it beyond all doubt. He therefore 
caird for Cophas (whom he had (ent before to the 
Barbarians) and difpatch^d him to them ag^, to try 
*' to bring them to a fafer refolution ;" and if he 
found they perfifted in their obftinacy (relyii^ pa 
jd>e ftreneth of the place) he commanded him, ** toi 
^ fhew them his foldiers who had taken pofTeflion of 
** thiB top of the^ mountain," Cophas being admit'.. 


B/Vn. QyiNTUS Curt I us. 5^ 

ted, did ail he could to perfuade Anniazes to fur- 
refider the rock, affuring him, " he would very 
""mudi ingratiatehimfelf withthelcing," if he did 
not (by the fiege of a fingle rock) flop him in the 
career of his nobler defigns. The Baibarian was 
now more infqlent than before, '* and commanded 
*^ Cophas to be gone." Then Coplias taking Ari- 

Sazes by the hand, defir'd him to go out of the cave 
Ith^ hiins which having obtaih'd, he (hew'd him thoft 
who were in ipofleffioii of the top of the rock ; and 
by way oC ridicule *old him, '^ That Alexander's 
** foldiers had wings." At the fame time tlie trum- 
rTets were founding in the Macedonian camp, and the 
foldiers iill'd the air with their Ihouts and joyful ac- 
clamations. This (a? it often appe^s in war, where 
trivial accidents have many times great influence) 
Blade the^Barbarians refolve to furrender i for, being 
ieiz'd with fear, they could not make an eilimate of 
the fmall number of thofe who were behind them. 
They therefore called back Cophas in all hafte, and 
ient along with him thirty of the-moft coniiderable 
amongft them, to deliver up the rock if they might 
retire with their lives ; but the king was fo incen&'d 
at Anmazes his haughty anfwers, that notwithHand- 
mg he "vtry much dreaded left the Barbarians, difco- 
vering the fmaU number of thofe above, fhould call 
them headlong down the precipice, and fo fruilrate 
liis attempts i yet coi^ding at the fame time in his for* 
tone, he deny'd tKem any manner of conditions. Here- 
upon Arimazes (being more afraid than hurt) defcend- 
cd into the camp with his relations, and the chiefell meiv 
of the nation;, all whom Alexander caused '' to be 
whipped firfty and then crucify 'd at ** the foot of the 
** rock." The reft of the multitude were given to the 
inhabitants of the new towns, as alfo what money was 
found amon^ them ; and Artabazus was appointed 
£QveniQr of uie rock^ and the adjacent country round it. 



C H A P. L 

ALexarnfer having made himfelf mafto^ oT 
the rock with greater fame than real glcny, 
obfervhig his enemies were difpersM herp; 
and th^e^ dinded his army into three bO' 
dies ; Hepkaddioa had the command of the one^ 
Cccnus of die other, and he himfetf led the thiid. 
HovJevtr, his enemies were not all of the fame mind-^ 
for fome were fubda'd by force of arms^ dioaghthe 
grt^tcr number Aibmitted without rifauine an en- 
pagKEcnt : To thefe he therefore " aifb^uted dm 
** towns and lands of thofe who perfifted obflinaftely 
*• in their rebellion ;'* but the baniih'd Ba^riana^ 
with eight hundred Maffagetan horfe, plundered the 
ireighbouring villages, and Attinus (who was govcr* 
nor of that province) marcKM out with thiee hundred 
horfe, to fupprefs thefe diforders, not dreaming ia 
tiie leaft of the mifchief that was prepared for him i 
i:>r the enemy bad phcM a body of foldiers in the 
woods that are c(mti|uous. to. die plains, leaving fome 
few only to drive bmre thejn Socks of fiieep, that 

B. VIIJL C^iNTM CuRTius.' 57 

die deiire of the booty might entice him into the 
ambufcade they had laid for nim ; accordingly Atti-^ 
nas no fooner difcovered the fame^ but he made aH. 
the hafte he could to fecure his prey^ without obferv- 
ing the leafl order ; fb that he was no fooner pafs^d 
thro' the wood, than they who lay in ambuicade fell 
upon him at unawares, and kill'd. him and all his 
men. This difafter quickly came to Craterus's ears^. 
who immediately repair'd thither with all his horfe,. 
but the Maflagetae were already fled; however, he 
flew a thoufand of the Dahae,^by whofe defeat the. 
rebellion was qudl'd throu^out all the country. 

Alexander likewife having again fubdu'd the Sog» 
diaos, retum'd to Maracanda. Here Berdes (whom 
he had fent to the Scythians who inhabit the country 
near the Bofphorus) came to him with* the ambafla- 
dors of that nation. Phrataphemes alfo (who had the 
government of the Choralmians, who bonier'd on 
me Maflagetae and the Dahae) fet meflengers to ac- 
quaint him, he fubmitted himfelf to his royal will; 
nd pleafure. The Scythians defir'd, " That he;. 
** would marry the daughter of their king, bnflf he 
** did not approve of the alliance, at leaft that he 
** would permit the Macedonian nobility to inter- 
•* marry with the moft confiderable perfons of their 
♦*• nation ; they affurM him alfo, that theu* king 
*• would come in perfon and pay him a vifit." 

Alexander receiv'd both thefe embaffies very gra- 
cioaily, and remained encamp'd in the fame place, 
till he was join'd by Hephxllion and Artabazus, after. 
which he marcH'd into the country calPd Bazaria. 

The chicfeft marks of the barbarous opulcncy of 
this nation confift in having large herds of wild 
bcafts, fhut up in great forefts and woods, well fup- 

§Hed with pcrennid fpring§, which render them very 
clightfiil. Thefe forefts are inclos'd with walls, and 
have, towers alfo for the reception of the hunter? 5 
C 5 amoi g 

g$ QyiNTUs CuRTitJS, B, VIIL 

among the reft of thefe unmur'd:. woods^ there was. 
one which had not been hlinted in for the fpace of 
four ages, which Alexander enter'd with his whole 
s^my, giving orders '^ to hunt and defboy all the 
** game they could." Among the reft there was a 
lion of an unufual iize» which made towards the 
king ; and Lyiimachus (who reigned afterwards) 
being next to Alexander, and obferving the dangei: 
he was in,, began to put himfelf into a pofture to re* 
c^ve the beaft with his hunting (pear j but Alexan- 
der refused his ailiilance, and commanded him to be. 
gone, adding, '^ That he was as able to kill a lion 
" fmgle as Lyfimachus." We muft here take notice,. 
that Lyfimachus had formerly (as he was hunting in 
Syria) kill'd a very large lion fingle, but endangered 
his life in the action, it having torn his left fhoulder 
tp the bone : This made the King upbraid him as he 
did, and at the fame time behave himfelf with more, 
bravery than he had fpoke ;. for he not only receiv'd. 
the bead with an undaunted courage, but alfo kiU'd 
it with one ftroke. I am apt to bdieve " the fabu- 
" lous account of Lyfimadius being expos'd to a. 
" lion by Alexander's command,," had its rife from- 
this accident which we have mentioned. 

However,, notwithftanding the king fucceeded fo* 
well in this bold attempt, yet the Macedonians, ac-^ 
cording to the cuflom of their country, made an or- 
dinance, " That for the future the king fhould not, 
** hunt any more on foot,, nor without being attended 
'* by the chiefeft of his nobilify and friends." Alex-^ 
andcr having kilPd four thoufand wild beafts in this 
wood, fi^afted his whole arany there ; after which he 
i:etum'd to Maracanda, where, upon Artabazus his 
«;?cCufmg himfelf on thg account of his old age, he 
beftow'd his govtrnment on Clitus. This was he 
who at the river Granicus, when Alexander was 
%hting bare-headed,, covered him wil& his buckler, 


B. VIII. QuiNfrs CuRTius; 59 

and cat off Rhoface&'s hand,, as he was ceady to diA 
charge a great blow on the king^s head. He had 
ferv'd a long time under Philip» suid was remarkable 
for a great many noble exploits during the war. His 
filler Hellanice had nurs*d Alexander, and was no 
lefs belov'd by him on that fcore than his own mo* 
ther ; this made him commit to. his care and truK^ 
the braveii and m(^ warlike province of^his empire* 
He therefore (Nrder'd him '^ to. be ready to £et out 
*' the day fallowing to take upon him his new com-* 
*' miflion,*' and invited him to aifiil at the folemn 
fisaft he gave his friends that night. During the en- 
tertainment the king being heated with wine, and an. 
immoderate extoUer of his own performances, begaa 
to enlarge upon the great things he had done, to- 
fiich a degree as to be troubleibme to the ears even of 
them who were feniible of the truth of what he faid. 
The eldeft amongft them neverthelefs heard him with. 
an attentive filence, till " he began to difparage 
** Philip's atchievements, and boafl that the cele- 
•* brated vidory near Chseronea^, was owing to him- 
**^ felf ; and that he was depriv'd of the glory of it 
** tliro' his father's malice and envy, whom (in the 
^ {edition that arofe between the Macedonians and 
" the mercenary Greeks, when he counterfeited be- 
** ing dead of the wound he received therein) he 
" protefted with his buckler, killing with his ov^n 
** hand thofe who were rufhing in upon him : yet 
*' his father was never willing to acknowledge this 
** piece of fervice, as being loth to confefs he ow'd 
*^ his life to his fon.. That therefore after. his expe-. 
** dition againll the Illyrians, he writ to his father 
" that, the enemy was vanquifh'd without Philip's 
** affiftance. Thofe, he laid, deferv'd commendation 
" who did not ftop at the borders of Samothracia,. 
" when Afia ought to be burnt and laid wafte, but 
" who by their great aftions furpafs'd all belief 

C6 Thefc 


Thefe and the like fayings were grateful enough to 
the young men, hut the feniors ^ not at all like 
tfcein^^ efpecially on Philip's account, under whom 
they had fervM a longer time ^an under him, Here- 
upon Clitus,. who was not very fober bimfelf,^uming;^ 
to thofe who fate b^ow him, recited fome verjcs out 
•f Euripides, yet after fuch a manmer that the found 
was rather heard than the words diftinguiih'd by the 
king. They were to this effeft, ** that it was an ill 
" cuftom amon|; the Greeks to infcribe only die 
** names of then* kings on the trophies ; by which. 
^ means they sun away with the glory that was ac- 
** quir'd by other people's blood." The king there- 
fere fufpedUng what he faid had fomething malicious 
in it, afk'd tbife who were next him, what Clitus 
had faid ? but as they remained iilent, Clitus began toi 
fpeak in a louder tone ** of Philip's adions, andcon^ 
•* ceming the wars in Greece, preferring them to what 
** was now done." This caus'd a dilute between 
the young men and the veterans,, yet the king feem'd 
patiently to hear Clitus's allegations (whereby he en- 
deavoured to lefien his rraife) tho' at the fame time 
he was inwardly inrag'a ; notwithftanding which he 
appear'd inclm'd to bridle his paffion, if Clitus would 
have let drop his indifcreet difcourfe j but finding he 
' flill ran on, after the fame manner, it exafperated him 
very much . Clitus at lafl proceeded to that degree of 
infolence as to dare to defend Parmenio, and preferr'd. 
Philip's victory over the. Athenians, to the deftrudUoi 
of Thebes, and feem'd to be now prompted by a. 
fpiteful difpofition of mind to contention, as well as. 
by the wine : fo that he did not fcruj>le to fay, '* If 
** it be requifite to die for you, Clitus is ever the 
" firft ; but thofe ihall reap the greateft rewards o£, 
** your viflories, who after the mofl: fhameful manner 
** infult your father's memory. You have beftow'd 
^ on me die country of Sogdiana^ which has fo oi&eab 
1. .•*'re^ 

B. Vin. QuiNTus CuRTius. 61 

* rebelled, and is ftOl not only unfubdu'd, but im- 
^ poflibleto be brought under fubjeftion.;^ that is ta 
** lay, I am fent amongft wild beafts» headftrong and 
** ralh by nature. However, I Ihall wave what rc- 
** lates to myfelf, and take notice of your contemp^ 
*' for Philip's fokikrs, while you forget, that if it 
** had not been for old Atharias here prefent (who 
** rallied the young men, and brought them back t(K 
*• the fight they had declined) we might have been 
** ftill before HaficamaiTus. How then can you be 
** (aid to have conquered AfiaL with thefe young men ^ 
** As for mv part, I believe what your uncle laid in 
^ Italy to be true,, that he had met with men, and 
**■ you with women." Of all the rafh and mdifcreet 
ihmgs utter'd by Clitus, nothing more provok'd the 
king than the honourable mention he made of Par- 
menio ; yet for all that he fupprefs'd his rcfcntraent^ 
and was contented " to bid him be gone from the 
** feaft,'* without adding any thing more than that 
* if he had contimi*d to talk on, he fuppos'd he 
•• would have upbraided him with the having fav'd 
** bis life, a think that he often bragg'd of with toa 
** much vanity." Bat as Clitus made no hafte tO' 
•bey the kine's orders, they who were next to-v 
him laid hoW of him, and endeavOur'd to carry 
him off, blaming him, and at the fame time remind- 
ing him of his duty.' When Clitus found they 
were taking him away by force, anger mingling it- 
felf with his excefs of wine, he cry'd out, " That 
^ it was his breaft that had defended the king's 
** back, but the time of fo fignal a fervice being 
** elapsM, the memory of it was become odious.'* 
He aJfo reproach'd him with the death of Attalus, 
and at laft ridiculing the oracle of Jupiter, whom* 
Alexander claim'd as his father, he faid " he told* 
** him greater truths than his father J' By this time 
|ptt.king*8 angejc ym fa jncreas'd^ that had he been 

♦* perfefiljf 

62 QuiNTirs CuRTitJS, B. VIIT. 

perfcdUy fober he could hardly have govern'd it ; no* 
wonder then that his fenfes being overcome with ilrong' 
wine, he leap'd on the fudden from the table, to the* 
great amazement of his friends, who thereupon did not 
take time to fet down their cups, but caft them 
away, expedling what would be the iflue of fo fu-' 
xdous a tranfport : and Alexander fnatching away the' 
(pear of one of the guards, was for killing Olitus' 
(wha flill continu'd talking with the fame intempe- 
rance of tongue as before) had he not been held by 
Ptolemy and Perdiccas, and as he peiiilled taftrugglc 
with them, Lyfmiachus and Leonatus took the launcr 
from him This made Alexander implore the afliilancc* 
of his foldiers, and cry out, " That he was feiz'd 
" (as Darius had been) by his moil intimate friends," 
and conunanded "the fignal to be given with the 
** trumpet for them to repair to his palace with their 
" arms."' At thefe words Ptolemy and Perdiccas* 
cafl themfelves at his feet, and begg'd " he would' 
** moderate his precipitate anger, and give himfelf 
*' time to refleft," fince he mi^ht the next day exe-' 
cute with a greater reeaid to jiiflioe, what the na- 
ture of the thing would require; but his anger had 
fhut his ears to all counfel, fo that in his rage he run 
to the porch of the palace,, and taking appear froxsk 
the. centinel that was there upon duty, he placM him-^ 
felf in the entry through which thofe who had.fupp'd 
with him were obliged to pafs. Now all the reft 
Being gone, Clitus came laft of all without any light, 
and the king afk'd, who he was ? but after fuch » 
manner as fufficiently declared, the cruelty of his in-^ 
tention^. Clitus, who was no longer mindful of his 
awn paCion, but only of the king's, made anfwer,. 
** That k was CHtus^'and that he was retiring from 
** the banquet r" as he fpoke thefe wocds Alexander 
run him through,, and all befinear'd with hid blood 
faid to him, " Now get thee gooc to Philip, Par- 
5 wnk>and Attalus.". CHAP. 


^ '♦ <l > *4'4^^l *^ l ^^^4^^^4^^^^^4^i 4^* l^^t^4^4^^4^^i^4' ^^^ ^' 


THE mind of man is in this but indiiKerently 
provided for by nature, that he for the moH 
part does not fo much as relied on the confequences 
of things till they are tranfadled. Thus the king, 
when his anger was abated, and the heat of his wine 
was over, too late perceived the enormity of his. 
crime. Then he faw he had kill'd a man who indeed, 
had taken too great a liberty with his tongue, but at 
the fame tijoae was very deferving on the account of 
his bravery,, and wha if he was not aiham*d to own 
the truth, had iay'd his life ;. he now refledied how 
unworthily he Iiad fully'd the fplendor of the royal, 
dignity, by difcharging in perfon the odious office of 
an executioner, and that he had by an abominable 
murther cruelly punifh'd the liberty of a few licen-* 
tious words, which might reaTonably have been im^ 
puted to, the wine. He with horror beheld the entry. 
of his palace flaia'd with the blood of a perfon, wha 
but a little before had been thought worthy to fup 
with him. The guards in the fright they were in 
ftood like men llupify'd at a diflance,. & that his fo- 
litude afforded hiin a greater freedom to« repent of 
what he had done. He therefore drew the fpear out 
of the dead body that lay extended on the fioor^ 
and \voukl have plung'd it into his own,, had 
not the guards flpwa in to his afliflance, and 
wrcfted it out p£ his hands„ and carry'd him. 
iDto his tent i here, h^ flung himfelE on the ground,, 
and Sird the plafe with lamentations and cries. 
Then finding he could do nothing elfe, he tocft 
his f^e wit}\ his aailSj^ and intreated the ilanders- 
i. hi. 


by, " not to let him furvive fo (hamcful an a£lion.'* 
After this manner he fpent the whole night, and as he 
M^ exa^EiSning hknfdi, *^ Wb^her Ya^hsA donejxfty^ 
" thing to deferve the deity's anger to that degree as 
" to be abandoned to- the conuniffion of fo foul a.- 
*^ crime ?" He recolleded, ** That the anniverfary 
** Ikcrifice tp Bacchus had not been performed at the 
" time appointed for that purpofe:" He therefore 
concluded, " That the murder he had committed in 
** his wine and good cheer, was a manifeft difcdvery 
" of the anger of that |od." But what moft griev'd 
him was to ice all his friends ftand like men ftupify'd^ 
and that none of them would for the future dare to 
converfe with him ; fo that he muft be forced to live 
like the wild beafts, which are fometimes a terror to 
others, and fometimes afraid themfelves. 

As foon as it was day he order'd the corps, alt 
bloody as it was, to be brought into his tent, and 
when it was plac'd before him, he with tears in his 
eyes faid, " Is this the grateful return I make my^ 
" nurfe, whofe two fons loft their lives for my 
** glory at Miletus ? this brother was the only com- 
•* fort to the bereaved mother, and I have barbht 
"^ roufly murther'd him at my own table : what will 
** this unfortunate woman do ? of all that belonged 
** to her, I am the only left, whom alone Ihe for 
* the future will never be able to fee without horror. 
" How wretched is my fate, that I muft thus (hew 
** myfelf the butcher of thofe who have preferv'd 
** my life ! how can I think of returning to my own^ 
•* country, where I fliall not be able to hold out my 
•* right hand to my nurfe, without refrefhing her 
•• memory with the caufe of her calamity ?*' Hi^ 
fiends finding there Wis no end of his tears and 
cpmplaints, orderM the body to be taken away ,• not- 
withftanding which he remained three days fhut up, 
bewaiUng himielf after ihis manner,, till at laft die 



tis of his perfon (perceiving he was determined to 

broke into his chamber sSL together^ and with 
ii ado prevailed with him to eat ; ai^ that the 
l might have the lefs confuiion for what he had 
r, i& Macedonians voted and decreed, ** That 
ditas was joilly killed,*' and were for depriving 

of the luMiour of fepulture, had not the king 
rt^d him to be bary^d. 

[aving therefore fkaid ten dajrs at Maracanda» 
fly ta recover his countenance, he ient He* 
ition with part of the army into die Ba6b-ia^ 
jtry, to lay up proviiions for the winter, and 
3 to Amyntas that province which he had before 
gned for Clitus $ after which ]^ came to Xenipm, 
ch is a country bordering on Scydiia, and is full of 
n» and villages,, the foil thereof being fo fruitful^ 

it not only detains diofe who are bom there, bat 

invites ftrangers to come and fettle ittere. The 
iih*d Ba6bians, ^o had revolted from Alexander, 
e retired hidier, but upon certain advice of the 
fs comings they were expelled by the inhabitantSi^ 
tluit about two thoufand twa hundred of them 
e got together in a body: they were all hoHe^ 

«ccufbmM, even in time of peace» to live by 
ne and theft ; but their fierce natures were by tm; 
', and defpair of beine forgiven, rendered ftill 
« bratilh. They therefore unexpededly attacked 
nmtas, Alexander's praetor, and the vidlory was 
otful for a confidenible time, till at lail having 

feven hundred of their men, (of whkh diree 
dred were taken prifoners by the enemy) diey 

; they were not sdtoeether unreveng'd, ror thqr 
'd fourfcore of the Macedonians, and woundext 
ut three hundred and fifhr. However, tho* this. 
I the fecond time they had rebell'd^ they obtained 
ir pardon. 

• The 

iS6 Quint us CuRTnrs. ff VDDfi. 

The king having taken them into his pix^e^on, 
came with his ^ole army: into a countiy. calPcE 
Naura ^ Syfimithres, who was governor thereof, had 
two foRs by his own mother (tor amongd them it h 
lawful for parents to have carnal knowledge of dieir . 
children) he had with two thoufand of £e mUitia^ 
built a flrong wall at the narrow entrance into the^ 
country, before which/ there run a rapid river ; the 
pack part was fecur'd by a reck throu^ which the 
inhabitants had made ia way by dint of labour. The 
^ntry into this hollow way is lightfomc, but^farther. 
on it is dark, unlefs fome artiiicial light be niiade uie* 
of; this hidden paflage runs quite thro the rock into 
the plains, and is only known to the inhabitants. 

But Alexander (notwithilanding the Barbarians 
guarded the place, which was fo ihx>ng batk by its^ 
natural, iituation and art) with his battering rams,.^ 
quickly beat down thefe manual fortifications, and* 
with fUngs and arrows drove away thofe that defended/' 
them ; then paffing over the ruin'd works, he brought 
his army to the rock» which was fh-engthen'd by a ri- 
ver that run before it, and was form'd by the united 
flreams that fell £rom the top of it into the valley. 1% 
feem'd to be a vaft undertaking to fill up fo deep and 
large an abyfs. However, he ordered trees to be cut 
down, and ^reat heaps of ftones to he brought thither. 
The Barbarians, wlvo were altogether unacquainted 
with fuch fort of works, were fe^z'd with the utmoft 
horror, when they few fc vaft a pile erefted in fo 
little time. Hereupon the king imagining they might 
be brought to a lurrender tlu*o' fear, ieht Oxartes 
(who was of the fame nation,, but ia his intereft) to 
them, to perfuade the governor to deli\(e£- up the 
Yock. In me mean timp,, to augment their terror, he 
ordered the towers to be advanced, and caus'd feve- 
X^Ji eneines to play upon them at that diflance ; 
which had {6 good an effeflj, that the Barbarians not 


B. Vm. QuiNTus CuRTiuff. Sy 

tbinking themfelves fecure anv other way^ betook 
tkemfelves to the top of the rock. Oxartes therefore 
prefs'd Syfimithres (who now began to diflrufl his 
affairs) ** to fling himiiblf on the honour of the Mace- 
" doniansy rather than withHand their power ; ad- 
*' vifing him not to flop the carreer of a viflorious 
** army that was marching into India ; and which, 
•* whoever ihould dare to oppofe> would only bring 
" others calamities on their awn heads/' As for 
Syfimithres, he was n«t againA furrendring ; but hii 
mother (who was aUb his wife) declared (he would 
fuffer death,, rather than fubmit to the power of any 
enemy ; and fa put the Barbarian upon more honour- 
able than fafe meafiires, he bein^ afluim'd that women 
(hould fet a greater value upon liberty than men. He 
therefore diSnifs'd the meffenger of peace, and re- 
&Hv*d to undergo the iiege. But then upon due 
weighing of his own and the enemy's ftrcngth, he ber 
gan to repent again, for having heacken'd to a wo- 
man's counfel, which was rather rafh than fuitable to 
^ prefent jun^hire of affairs. Wherefore he imme- 
diately call'd back Oxartes, and told himy ** he 
^ would lay himfelf at the king's mercy^ and besg'd 
^ of him, not to Sbly any thing of his mother's obftir 
*' nacy, that her pardon might alfo be more eafil/ 
^ obtain'd.*' As foon as he had difpatch'd Oxartet 
with thiis his refolution, he follow'd himfelf, with his 
mother and children, and a great cfowd of his relati- 
ons, without fo much as waiting for any £uther fecu- 
lity from the. king, though Oxartes had alfo promis*d 
liim that. Alexander being infbrm'd of this> fent a 
trooper to order them to go back and e;n)e^ his cam- 
in^ i where he no fooner arriv'd, than he oiFer'd fa* 
crifice to Minerva and Vidlory, and then confirm'd 
Syfimithres in his authority, promifing to enlarge his 
province, if he remain'd fiuMd to aim. He had 



two fons which he deliver^ up to the ki^g, who or^ 
der'd them to follow him in hu wars. 

Alexander leaving here his j^halanx^ advanced witfe 
his cavalry to fabdue the rebels. The way was rougE 
and craggy ; however, tiiey endur'd it pretty wcU at 
firft I but after fome ti^ie, the horfes hoof^ were not 
onljr worn away, but their bodies alfo tir'd j befides 
which, the riders themfelvcs were fa harafs'd with the 
immoderate labour, that a great many were not able 
to keep up with him, fo that the troops began t^ 
grow thin, the extraordinary fatigue overcoming the 
ihame they had to be left behind. Neverthelrts, as 
the king chang'd horfes freaucntly, he condnu'd pur* 
fuing 5ie flying enemy; but the young lioblemeii 
who us'd to accompany him, were all fwc'd to give 
out, except Philip, who was Lyfimadxus's brouer^ 
and was then in the flower of his age, and as it plain- 
ly appear'd, a perfon of a genius capable of the great- 
eft thmgs* This youth (which will hardly be believ'd) 
tho* on foot, kept up with tiie king (who was ott 
horfeback) for the f^ace of five himdred foriongs. 
Lyfimachus offered him his horfe feveral times, nsk 
nothing could prevail with him to leave the king;; 
tiio' at the fame time he was loaded with his breS- 
thxe, and his other arms.. He afterwards behaved 
nimielf glorioufly in a wood where die enemy had 
hid themfelvcs, and protected the king's perfbn, wha. 
was dofeiy eneag'd. But after die Barbarians were 
pot to flidit, mat great foul which had fo hrzvetf 
fnpported^s body <uiring the heat of the engagement 
tt laft flaggM, and a cold fweat iffuing out of all the 
parts of his body, he was forced to plant himfelf 
againft a tree j but that proving too weak a relief^ 
in his prefent drcumftances, the Kine took him ap^ 
and he exjwr'd in his arms. This misfortune was Suc- 
ceeded by another, ^^ch alfo did not a litde afilift Ale- 
xander; for 88 he was rctuming ta his camp, he was 


B. Vin. QuiNTUs CuRTHJi; €gi 

infbnnM of the death of Erigyios, one of the braveft of 
hi9 captains. The kbg ordered both their fimenls to 
be performed witli alTlJie pomp and magnificencr 

CHAP. m. 

TH £ Dahx were the next he intended to march 
againft, for he underftood Spitamenes was a- 
siongft them. Bat fortune, who never tir^d in heaping 
her favours on him, aflifted him here, as (he had done 
on many other oocafions, and iav*d him the trouble 
of dns eanpcditioa. Spitamenes had a wife on whom* 
he doatBc^ and as the fatigues and dangers ihe was' 
expoai'd to in accompanying him where-ever his nus- 
ibrtup es drove him, were become tioubleibme to her, 
Jbe cmployM all her diarms to prevail with him to 
'defift mm flymg any farther ; and as he had already^ 
cxperiencM Alexander's clemency, to try to appeaie 
the angerof an enemy, he could no otherwife hope to 
rekapt. She had three Tons by him, which were pret- 
^ well grown up; theie (he brought to his embraces, 
sad b^g'd he would at leaft take pity of them ; and 
to enforce her prayers, fhe told him, Alexander was 
votfarofF. But he thinking he was betray'd, and not 
advis'd, and that it was the confidence ihe had in her 
hcuatVy which made her not care how (oon fhe came 
in Alexander's power, drew his fword, and would 
have kill'd her, if her brothers had not happily inter- 
posed. However, he commanded her to be gone out 
of his fight, threatmng her with death, if fhe offerM 
to come into his prefence ; and that he might not be 
IcnfiUe of her ablence, he pafs'd the nights with his 
4ie]icubines. Yet as Jiis pd&on for her was great, 



it was the more inflam'd by the diAafle he took to 
their company. He therefore gave himfelf intirely' 
•again to her, conjuring her " never to fpeak to him 
" more ^n that account, but willingly midergo with 
** him whatever fortune did alot them ; iince for his 
** own part, he had rather die than furrender him-> 
** felf." Hereupon fhe excus'd her felf, telling him^ 
** that ftie had advis'd him only to what (he tfaoaght 
*^ was moll for his interef):, and admitting fhe had 
** talk'd like a woman, yet it was with a raithful in- 
" tention j however, for the future fhe would con- 
** iorm to his pleaiiire," 

. Spitamenes won by this counterfeit complaifance, 
gave. a great entertainment on the account -of their re--, 
conciliation, where having loaded himfelf with wine 
and good chear« he was brought half afleep into this 
apartment. As foon as his ^^e perceived he was in 
a found fleep, fhe drew a fword ihe had under her 
garment for that purpofe, cut off Jhis head, and all 
befmear*d with the bloo|^, gave it to a fervant who 
"V^as privy to her crime, and being attended by him, 
came, in this bloody condition to the Macedonian 
camp, where ihe fent word to Alexander, " fhe had 
*^ fomething of importance to conmiunicate to him, 
** and which he muft hear from her own mondu^* 
The king immediately order'd her to be introduced, 
and obferving her to be flain'd with blood, imagined 
fhe came to complain of fome affront ofFerM her ; he> 
therefore afk'd her what fhe had to fay ? Hereupon fhe 
caird ^r the fervant that waited in the entry, who 
having Spitamenes's head under his garment, gave 
the guards a fufpicion, and upon their fearchine him, 
'he puird out the head and fhew'd it. But the Blood- 
lefs palenefs had fo disfigured its features, that it 
was a hard matter to diflinguifh whofe it was. Alex- 
ander being informed it was a man's head that the 
Jiave had brought, went out of his tent, and en- 


. . I ... - 
quirtd -into the matter, which he accordinglv told 
him. The king's mind was now perplexed with 
vajaoty of thoa^ts.; *fbr on the one hand, he 'lDok*d 
upon -It :is a confiderable piece of fervice, that h^ ^as 
kill*d, who was firfl a refugee, and afterwards had 
prov'd a traitor, and had he Bv'd would have retarded 
the execution of his great defigns. ' But then again he 
detefted the barbarous adlion, of her having thus 
creacheiDnfl/ murdier'^ her hu^and, who had de- 
ieiv'd well of her, and by whom fhe had had feveral 
chikhen. At laft the foulnefs of the fa*^ got the bet- 
ter of the fervice it did him, fo that '' he fent her 
5' word to be gone from the camp, leaft the more ho- 
** man minds, and gentler manners of the Greeks 
**' ihould be corrupted by the examole of fo barba- 
** roas JL licenfc." The Dahae unaerftandine Spi- 
tamenes was.ilain, feiz'd Dataphemes (who had bees 
his partner in the revolt) and brought him bound to 
Alexander, and at the fame tkne yielded themfelves 
to him. Being now deliverld from the chief part 
4»f hb prefent cares, he tum'd his mind to the re- 
venging Juch as had by his Praetors been opprefs'd 
and ill'us'd. He therefore conferred the government 
of Hyrcania, the Mardi and Tapurians, to Phrata- 
phemes, with orders to fecure Phradates, whom he 
lucceeded, and fend him to Jiim under a fufHcient 
^aard. Staianor was fubftitoted in the place of Ar- 
%nes, governor of the Drancse. Arfaces was fent 
into Media to fucceed Oxydates ; and Babylon (Ma- 
j^us being dead) was committed to the care of Dedi- 

€H AP: 

^2 a^mnnm Cvktiv^. B. Vltt. 

C HA P, IV. 

T T A V I NG made thefe regnktions, liedravhis 

JlX army out of their winter quarters, wknae thev 

had been suimoft three months, and mait:h*d towaidt 

a countfv call'd Gabaza. The firft diy's march was 

«Uy anu cahn, the next was not ftormy and difinal; 

yet more gloomy than the preceediitg,and did not end 

without fome threatning of a growing evil ; baton 

thMs third, it lightened mm all parts of the^iieavens; 

and not only dazl-ddie eyes of the army,' butalfo 

terrify M thek muid9« The inlander was ahnoft eon«. 

:ttnualj and the Bequentl^itningsfeem'^difrom 

the heavens before uem,. w :diat the army was ftmck 

with fuch a dread, that it nexdier dajr'd to advance not 

ihnd flill. Soon l^ter, there fell fuch a ftorm of i:aiii; 

accpmpany'd with haH, that it feem'd to pa»ake of 

the violence of a torrent. At fzrft they protcded their 

IxKlies, by covering themfelves with their bucklers s 

1»ut after fome time, their hands (which were wet 

with rain, and benumb'd vdth excefliveoold) were no 

longer able to hold them, and they knew not whidh 

-way to dired their courfe, fmce the violence of the 

tempeft feem'd to cncreafe on which fide focver tlwy 

turn'd. Breaking therefore their ranks, they wan- 

^er'd up and down die woods, and many of them, 

rather overcome with fear, Jthan tir*d with the fatigue, 

caft their bodies on the grouud, notwithflanding the 

iatenfenefs of the cold hs3 frozen the new fallen rain. 

Others had plac'd themfelves againft the ftocks of 

trees, which ferv'd them both for Ihelter.and fup- 

})ort. At the fame time, they were not ignoxant 


S. VIII. QuiWTus CuRTius, '75 

-mzhcy onhr chofe a place to die in, fince for want of 
lotum meir vital heat would foifake them. How- 

■vcr, the very thoughts of reft was fo agreeable to 

:helr wearied bodies, that they did not grudge to die 

n an cafy pofture. The ftorm wa« not only furiouj, 

3Ut obftinate in its duration, and the (hade occafion'd 

oy the trees, concurrM with the darknefs from the 

:empeft, to dcjpAvc them of the light, which is a na- 

:urai comfort m afflidtion. The king was the only 

(on coald bear thefe calamities ; he therefore went 

lut, and rallied his fcatter'd foldiers, raiiv>g them 

who were laid down, (hewing them at a^iilance 

lc finoke that came out of the cottages, and en- 

;ouraging them to lay hold of the firft refuge they 

x>uld come at. Nothing contributed more to their 

afety in this cafe, than the ihame they had to forfake 

^ king, who thev faw was indefatigable, and able 

hol(f oat agalnft thofe evils their weaker natures 

link under. At laft neceffity, which in adverfity is 

nore eilicacions than reafon, fupply'd them with a 

'^^extktdy ag^inft tlie cold: and they fell to cutting 

"^^down the wood, then laying it in heaps and piles, 

^^hey fet it on fire. One would have thought the 

^^^psrbole foreft had made but one continued blaze, there 

^>eing hardly room left for the foldiers to ftand be- 

^^ween die ftames. The heat now began to work up- 

^^on their benumb*d limbs, and by degrees, the fpirits 

(whofe operation had been intercepted by the rigour 

x>f the cold) gain'd a freer paflage. Some of mem 

^got into the cottages of the Barbarians, which neceiC- 

Xy had made them fcek out, tho* hid in the utmoft 

-Tpart of the wood j odiers repaired to the camp, which 

^was pitched indeed in a wet ground, but then the 

^orm was over. This plague confum'd about a 

^iouiand foldiers, followers of the camp, and fer« 

'Prints. It is iaid, that fome of them who had p!acM 

^cmfelves againft the trees, after they wcrj fro- 

VOL, II. D ZC:l 

'74 QyiNTus CukTixfS. B.^IIL 

zen to death, looked as if they were alive, and 
talking to one another, preferving ftill the Ikme out* 
ward appearance that death had furpriz'd them in. 

It happened at this time, that a private foldicr of 
the Macedonians,' being hardly able to fnpport him- 
felf and his arms, with xtiuch. ado at laft came.into the 
camp, where being perceiv'd by the king, (who was 
warming hixhfelf by the fire) he inunecSately leap^id 
from his feat, and having help'd the foldier (who was 
almoft frozen, and hardfy compos mentis) to put olF 
his armour, he bid him fit down in his feat. This 
man for a while did not know either where he was, 
or by whom receivM ; at laft his vital heat bemg re- 
ftor'd, he faw the king, and finding himfelf feated in 
the royal chair, he got up in a fright, which Alexan- 
der taking notice of, he afk'd him, " if he was not 
** fenfibk how much happier the Macedonians were 
•* under their king than die Perfians ? fince to thefe 
** it is a capital crime to fit in the king's feat, where- 
" is he had favM his life by it." 

The next day he call'd his friends and chief officen, 
and ordered them to make proclamation throughout 
the army, " that hie would make good whatever lofi!es 
•' had been fuftain'dj" and accordingly he was as 
■ good as his word ; for Syfmiithres having brought to 
Km a great number ef horfes^ and two thoufand 
camels, with fcveral herds of cattle, and flocks of iheep, 
he diflributcd them among the foldiers, by which means 
he at the fame time both fupply'd them with provi- 
fions, and made good their damage. 

The king havmg d^clar'd that " Syfimithres had 
** fhewn hunielf gr^eful for the favours he had bc- 
" ftow'd on him," order'd the foldiers to provide 
themfelves, each with viduals ready drefs'd for &x 
days, and then march'd towards the Sacse. He pillag'd 
and deftroy'd all this country, and made a prefent of 
thirty thoufand fheep to Syfimithres^ out of the booty. 


B, VIIL QuiNTus CuRTxus. '75 

From lience he pafs'd into the province which was 
under the government of a noble (atrap, whofe name 
was Cohortanas» who prefently put himfelf under the 
kmg^s protection ; whereupon Alexander reftor'd his 
government to him, without requiring any more from 
Sun, 'V than two oat of three ions which he had, to 
** ferve him in the war.** The fatrap gave him alfo 
the third, whom the king offered to kave behind, 
and made a fumptuous entertainment for him, with 
all the magnificence the Barbarians are capable of.. 
During the folenmity of the feafl, he ordered thirty 
2U>ble virgins to be brought in, among whom was 
Roxane hts own daughter, who was an exquifite 
beauty, and neatly fet off in apparel, which is a rarity 
amongil thofe people. This lady, notwithftanding 
fliew as in the company of chofen beauties, fo far ex- 
celled them all, as to turn the eyes of all the behold- 
ers On her felf, cfpecially the king's, who in fo great 
an indulgence of fortune (againft which mankind is 
feldom fufficiently guarded) lud not now the fame go- 
Tcmment of his paffions as heretofore. He therefore 
who had look'd upon Darius's wife and daughters^ 
(to whom none could be comparM, except Roxane) 
no other way than with the eyes of a parent, was fo 
tnanfported with love for this young lady (who in 
comparifon to the royal blood, might be efteem'd of 
mean cxtra£tion) that he did not fcruple to fay, " It 
** was neceflary for the firmer eftablifhment of the 
** new kingdom, that the Perfians and Macedonians 
** fhould inter-marry, tiiat being the onlv way ta 
** w^ off the Ihame of the conquer'd, and abate the 
'* pride of the conquerors. He added, that Achilles 
" (from whom he was defcended) had not fcrupled to 
** marry a captive. And that he might not be. thought 
** to do an ill thing, he was refolv'd to marry her 
«• lawfully." Her father ravifh'd with an unexpefted 
joy, heard the king's fpeech witli inexprelEble plea- 
D 2 fur; 

*;6 QuiNTus CuRTius. B. VIIL 

fiire ; and the king in die he^ht of his pafiiony or- 
der'd '' bread to be brought, according to the cufixMn 
** of his country." This was the moft folemn way 
of celebrating marriages among the Macedonians^ who 
4m diis occafion ait the bread afunder with a fword, 
each of the contraded parties eating a piece thereof. 
I fuppofe the founders of this cuftom had in view (in 
the inftitution thereof) to ihew by this fparing and ea- 
£ly procurable food, with how fmall a matter they 
ought to be contented. Thus the ereat king of Aiia 
and Europe, in the feftival fports ofan entertainment, 
snarryM a captive, on whom he was to beget an em- 
peror fbt the victors themfelves. His friends were 
alham'd he fhould after this manner, in his wine and 
good cheer, make choice of a father-in-law, out of 
thofe he had fubdu'd ; but as all liberty of fpeech had 
been taken away ever fmce Clitus's death, they feemed 
by their countenance (theobfequious part of the whole 
body) to approve of the king's condud. 


However, as he rcfolv'd to march into India, 
and from thence to the ocean, that he might 
leave nothing behind him able to interrupt the execu- 
tion of his defigns, he gave orders to his lieutenants 
** to pick out of all the provinces, thirty thoufand 
^' young men, and to fend them to him ready arm'd, 
** to ferve him both as hoftages and foldiers." He 
alfo detached Craterus to purme Hauflanes and Cate- 
nes, who had revolted ; of whom Hauftanes was tak- 
en, and Catencs, was kill'd in battle. Polypercon 
likewife fubdu'd the country calPd Bubacene. Hav- 
thus ftttled his afiairs, he bent his thoughts intirely 
on the ludian war. 



This country was efteemed to be raftly rich, not 
onl^ in gold, but alfo in pearls and precious ftones, 
which were by the inhabitants apply'd rather to 
luxury than magnificence. The foldiers fhields were 
iaid to glitter with gold and ivory : That therefore he 
who exceird all others, might be no where out-done^ 
he i>rderM his foldiers bucklers to be covered with 
plates of filver, and the horfes to have gold bridles, 
and adom*d their breaft-plates fome wlm gold, and 
fome with filver. The king was followed by one 
hundred and twenty thoufand men to this war. Hav- 
ing thus prepar'd every thing, he thought it now a 
proper opportunity to execute what he had a long 
time wickedly entcrtain'd in his mind ; he therefore 
began to confult about the meafures which were dc- 
ceifary " for his ufurping the celeftial honours." He 
was no longer content to be call'd Jupiter's fon, bat 
would likewife be believed to be really fo, as if he 
had the fame power over mens minds, as over their 
tongues. He requir'd therefore, that the Macedo- 
nians fhould proftrate themfelves on the ground, and 
worfhip him, after the manner of tlie Perfians. In 
thefe irregular defires, he did not want the applaufe 
of flatterers, the perpetual banes of kings, who have 
bcca oftener ruin'd by them, than by their profefs'd 
enemies. However, thtr Macedonians were not to 
blame herein. For none of them were for fubverting 
the laws of their country. But it was the Greeks 
haltf who by their corrupt mamiers, difhonourM the 
profeffion they made of the liberal arts. There was 
one Agis of Argos, the worft poet that had been 
fince Choerilus ; and another nam'd Cleo, a Sicilian, 
who was no lefs a flatterer by his own nature, than 
by the common vice of his nation : Thefe with fom^ 
edicrsy who were the dregs and refufe of their re- 
fpedtire towns, had greater interefl with Alexander^ 
mii either his relations or generals. Thefe wretches 
D 3 did 

78 QyiNTus CuRTius. B. VIII. 

did not fcruple to bla2;e up and down, " That Her- 
** cules, Bacchus, with Caftor and Pollux, would all 
** readily give way to this new divinity." The king 
therefore on a feftival day, order'd " an entertain- 
" liient to be prepared with all the pomp and magni*^ 
•* ficence imaginable : '* To which were invited not 
only the chiefefl of his friends, as well Macedonian^ 
as Greeks, bat alfo the moft confiderable among th6 
nobility. After he had fat down with them, and «at 
a while, he withdrew. Then Cleo, as it had bcert 
concerted j made a fpeech in praife and admiration of 
the king's virtues, reciting particularly the great fe- 
vours he had bellowed upon them ; " for all which, 
** he told them, they had but one way to make him 
" a return, which was pubhckly to acknowledge 
** him to be a God, whom they underftood to be 
'* one ; it being the leaft they could do, to repay 
*' fuch mighty Denefits, with fo fmall an expence as 
" that of a little incenfe. The Periians (he faid) 
** did not only aft pioufly, but prudently in worfhip- 
*' ping their kings as gods, fnice the majefty of em- 
" j^ire and fovereignty was its chief proteftion and 
•• Ikfety. Neither Hercules nor Bacchus wer$ 
*V rank'd amongft the godg, till they had overcome 
** the envy of tnck contemporaries. After ages ea£^^ 
" believe whatever the prcfcnt age wsj^;^^^^^ j^f 
•' Miifefthi^rt --y^^^^^^^y ^ ^ matter, he waj 
*• refolv'd for his part to prollrate his body on the 
f* ground, at the king's returning to the feaft. Tha^ 
V the reft ought to follow his example, efpccially thoie 
*' who were wife, it being their duty to lead the way, 
" in the veneration that was due to the king." It 
was eafy to perceive, that this fpeech was chiefly 
direfted to Calliilbenes, whofe gravity and freedom 
of fpeech was odious to the king ; as if h^ was the 
only peribn who hindered the reft of the Macedonians 
ixom paying him that honour. Hereupon CalM* 


BL yilL Quint us CuRxijiys. 79 

henes, on whom the eyes of the aflembly were fixM, 
(filence being made) (aid, " If the king had been 
" prefent at thy difcourfe, none of us^ would have 
** had occafion to anfwcr thee ; for he himfelf would 
** have requir'd thee, not to jrefs him to degenerate 
** into foreign manners, nor fully the fplendor of his 
*^ glorious performances with fo foul an envy, as an 
" adtion or this nature mull neceflhrily raife in the 
** minds of all his friends. But fmce he is abfent, 
•* I'll anfwer thee for him, That no fruit too foon 
** ripe, is of long duration, and that inllead of con- 
" fcrring divine honours on bm, thou robbcft him . 
** of them. For an interval of time is ncccflary to 
** have him believ'd a god, it being from poflerity 
*' that extraordinary men ufually receive this favour. 
" For my part, I wiih the king a late immortality, 
** and that his life may be long, and his majefty 
" eternal. Divinity fometimes follows the dead, but 
** never accompanies the living. Thou juft now 
" broughteft Hercules and Bacchus for inftances of 
" confecrated immortality. Doft thou then think 
** they were made ^od? by the decree of an aflem - 
** bly at an entertamment ? No : Their mortal na- 
•* tare v(as firft removed from the fight, before their 
** fame cany'd them into heaven. Doft thou think, 
*' Cleo, that thou and I can mal^e a god ? The king 
** then is to receive his divine authority from us ! 
. " Now let us try thy power. Let us fee thee make? . 
** a king, if thou canft fo eafily make a god. It isr 
*^ not fo difficult a matter to give an empire, as to 
** beftow heaven. May the propitious Uods hear,* 
" without being provpk'd, thy blafphemous dif. 
" courfe, and fufFer things to be carry 'd on with the 
" feme fuccefs that has hitherto attended us, and 
" grant us to be content with our antient cuftoms. 
" 1 am not afham'd of my country, nor do I now 
" defire to learn from the Perfians, after what man*' 
D 4 " n«r 

8o QuiNTtrs CuRTius. B. VIII. 

" ner I am to reverence the king. For I pronounce 
** them to be conquerors, if we receive from them 
•' laws to prefcribe our way of living." 

Callitlhcnes was Men'd to with great attention, as 
the aflertor of the public liberty. He not only 
j-ain'd the filent approbation of the elders, but alfo 
their open declaration in his favour, as thinking it a 
great grievance to forfake their antient cuftoms, and 
Ih-ike mto foreign manners. 

The king was not ignorant of what pafs'd to and 
fro in the aJfembly, for he ftood all the while behind 
the tapellry, which he had for that purpofe order'd to 
be hung up before the table. He therefore fent to 
Agis and Cleo, " to fuperfede the difcourfe, and be 
*• contented that the Barbarians only, according to 
** their cuitom, fell down before him." And Ster 
fometime, he returned to the aflembly, as if he had 
been about fome matter of moment; and as the Per- 
fians were worfhipping him, Polypercon (who fat 
above the king) advis'd one of them jeftingly, who 
touch'd the very ground with his chin, " to hit it 
" harder againft the ground ;*' by which jeft he pro- 
yok'd Alexander's anger, which he was no longer 
able to fupprefs. He therefore faid to him, ** Thou 
" wilt not then adore me ? Are we fo contemptible 
** to thee alone, as to be thy fport and diverfion ?" 
To which he made anfwer, " That he neither 
" thought the king ought to be jelled with, nor 
•* himfelf contemned." At thefe words, the king 
draggM him from the bed, and flung him on the 
gtoiind ; where, as he lay in a proftrate pofture, he 
Kod to him, ** Doft thou fee thou haft done the fame 
•* thing that thou rediculedft juft now in another ?'* 
And having commanded '* him to be taken into 
" cuftody," he difmifsM the affembly. However, 
after a long puniihrocnt, he pardon'd Polypercon, 




AS for his anger to Califlhenes (whoTe flubbom- 
nefs he had a long time fufpedted) it had taken 
a deeper root, and he quickly had an opportunity to 
gratify it. 

It was (as we above took notice) the cuflom of 
the Macedonian noblemen to deliver tlieir fons to th( 
king, as foon as they had attained to an adult aige, to 
be a^plyM in functions not dilFering much from i'er^ 
vile offices. They watch*d by turns in the night at 
the king's chamber-door ; they introduced the conr 
cubines by another way than where the foldiers kept 
guard, it was their duty likewife to take the horfes 
mm. the grooms of the fhibles, and bring them to 
the kine, whenever he mounted on hoHeback ; they 
attended him alfo a hunting, or in battle, and were 
inftrudled in all the liberal arts and fciences. Their 
chiefefl honour was, that they were allowed to iit at 
table with the king, and that no body had power to 
chaflife them but himfelf. This band was among:ft 
the Macedonians a kind of nurfery, or feminary of 
generals and commanders. From hence pofterity 
received dieir kings, whofe ofFspring were after many 
ages depriv'd of their flates by the Romans. Now 
it happened that Hermolaus, who was a young nor 
bleman of this royal band, kilFd with his dart a wiJ^ 
boar that the king himfelf defign'd to fbike ; for 
which a£lion he commanded him to be whipped. 
Hermolaus being very much griev'd at this affront 
began to make his complaint to Soihatus, who wfs 
of the iame band, and lov'd him dearly : This Sc- 
ftratus feeing how miferably his fidend's. body was 
D 5 torn;^ 

il . QuiNTus CuElTIus.. 6. vim 

torn, and perhaps being already incens'd againft the 
king qn fome oth^ fcore, put thp ypi^th (who was 
fafficiently provok'd by this ufa^) on entering into 
a ftridl confederacy with him to kill the king. Hav- 
ing therefore given and received, to and from each 
other, their mutual fidelity in a matter of fuch im- 
portance, they did not go about the executic^ of it 
with a juvenile rafhnefs, but wifely m^e ufe of pro- 
per perfons to join with them in their criminal under- 
taking, which were Nicoftratus, Antipater, Aicle- 
piadorus and Fhilotas ; thefe brought into the c(Hiipi- 
Tacy Amides, Elaptonius and Epimenes. Notwithr 
flanding thefe preparations, it was no ea(y thing to 
execute their aefign; for it was necefiary that they 
fkoM be upon the guard all at the fame time ; and it 
fo fell out that they mounted fome of them one night 
Mid'fome another : They therefore were two and 
thirty days in changing their turns of duty, and n^akr 
kir^ the other neceffary preparatives j but the nighjt 
was now come that they were all to be upon duty at 
the fame time, and they were not a little jdeasM a( 
tiieir mutual fidelity, of which fo many days elapsed 
was a fufhcient proof. Neither fear nor hope had 
ifiicok the conilancy of any one of them in all that 
tioie^ fo great was their relcntment againft the king, 
or their fidelity to one another. They were all wait- 
ing at the door of the ap^tment in which the king 
was eating, that at his rifmg from table they might 
condudl him into his bed-chamber ; but either hk 
fortune, or the merry difpofition of the company^ 
promoted their drinking largely ; befides, the fporO 
and difverfions ufual on theie occafions fpun out ihp 
time. -The confpirators one while were plea^'d at it> 
thinking *' they ihould attack him in a fhipify'd con- 
^* dition;" on the other hand, they were in paia 
** left the merriment ihould be protra^ed till day- 
f light," becaufe by break of diiy they w^jp^ to be 



relieved by others, and were not to mount again till 
that day feVnight ; and they could not tell how to 
hope, that none of their fidelities fhould be fhaken in 
£b long a time. However, as it began to draw near 
day -light, the company broke up, and the confpira- 
tors rccciv'd the king, overjoy'd they had now an 
opportunity to execute their criminal defign i when a 
woman (who, as it was thought, was diiturb'd in 
mind, and was us^d to be about the palace, bccaufe 
(he pretended. to foretel what was to come) not only 
came and met him, but opposM his coming out, and 
by her countenance and eyes fignifying the emotion 
of her foul, advisM him to go back again, and drink 
on. The king, as it were in jeft, made anfwer, 
** That die goda gave good counfel ;" and calling 
back his friends, continued drinking till two hours 
after day-light. By diis time others of the band had 
facceeded in the confpirators poll, notwithftanding 
whkh they did not go off, tho' they had fulfil'd theif 
duty ; ** {o obftinate is the hope of man when he 
" paffionately defires any thing." When the king 
came out he them in more courteous terms 
than ufud, and bid them ** go and take their refl, 
" fince they had watch'd all the night ;'* and to re- 
compence their extraordinary diligence, he ordered 
them " every one fifty fdlercies," commending 
♦* their zeal, which had prompted them to remain 
" after they were rpliev'd." Having loll their op* 
pertunity, they retir'd all to their own homes. AH 
the reft impatiently expefted the return of their duty ; 
but Epimcnes, whether fuddenly changed by the 
1ung*s obliging behaviour to him and the other con- 
fpirators, or out of opinion that the gods oppos'd their 
wicked intentions, went immedjateiy to his brodier 
Eurylochus, from whom till then he had concealed 
the matter] and m^cal'd to him the whole defigh. 

D4 The 

84 QyiNTus CwRTius. B. VlII. 

. The pnnifhxnent of Philotas was fo freih in all 
their memories, that he prefently feiz*d his brother, 
and brought him to the palace, where having raisM 
the guaids, he told them, ** That what he came 
** al^t related to the king's Mexy.'' The unfea- 
Ibnable time they came at, and their difturb'd coun- 
tenance, together with the deje£ted looks of one of 
them, alarmed Ptokmacus and Leonatus, who com- 
manded the guard at the king's chamber. They 
therefore immediately opcn'd the door, and carrying 
in a light waken 'd the king, who by reafon of hir - 
hard drinking was in. a profound fleep ; but havins 
by little and little recoUe^ed his fpirits, he ask'd 
theov ** What was their bufinefs ?" Then Eurylo- 
chus made aniwer, *' I'hat the gods had not entirely 
" ibrfieJcen their family, fince his brother (who had 
•* dar'd to be concerned in the worfl of crimes) did 
•* BOt only repent thereof, but had pitched upon him 
** to difcover the fame. The mifchief was to have 
** been executed the preceding night, and they were 
** the contrivers of it that the king'leail fufpefted." 
Then Epimeoes hid open the whole matter, as it 
had been contriv'd and projeAed, giving in the 
names of all the confbisators. It ismofl certain Callifl- 
henes was not nam'd amongft them, but he was ob- 
icrv'd " to lend an eafy ear to the young men, 
^ when they talk'd licentioufly, and railM againft 
♦* the king.'* Some did not fcruple to fay, that 
when Hermolaus complain'd to him of his being 
whipp'd by the king's orders, he made this anfwer, 
** That they ought to remember that they were now 
** men ;" but it is fUll doubiful, " Whether he faid 
** this to comfort jbi^ in his affli«btion, or to exafpe- 
•* rate his provok'd mind J' When the king was 
thoroughly .awak'd> and duly confider'd the great* 
liefs of the danger h^ h^d efcap'd^ he inunecOately 


B. Vnr. Quint us Curtius. 85 

orderM Euxyloclius fifty talents, giving him at the 
fame time the forfeited eftate of a certain rich man 
call'd Tyridates, and rcftor'd his brother to him, 
even before he xnade it his requeft. But he ordered 
the reft of the confpirators, and with them Callift- 
henes, to be laid in irons and ftridlly guarded, who 
being brought to the palace, he flept all that day 
and the following night, being heavy with the excefs 
of wine and fitting up. 

The next day he call*d a general council, at which 
afiifted the fathers and neareft relations of thofe whofe 
cauie was in agitation, and who for that reafon were 
not fafe themfdves, it being the pradice of the Ma-^ 
cedonians to puniih with death all thofe who were 
related by blood to traytors. Then the king com- 
manded *' all the priToners to be brought in, except 
Callifthenes, who presently confefs'd the crime they 
had intended, and as every One cry'd out againft 
them, the king aik'd them ** What he had done to 
'* them to provoke them to fo horrible an enter* 
" prifc?" 


WHEN Hermolaus faw all the reftremaihM 
filent like men aftonilh'd, he expreffed him- 
felf in thefe terms i " Since you feem to be ignorant 
** of the matter,. I muft tell yoii, that we confmr'd 
" your death, becaufe you began to treat us not like 
" free-bom men,, but like flaves." At thefe wordi 
his father Sopolis got up, and calling him ** the bafe 
" murtherer of his parent as well as kingj" and 
dapping his hand to his mouth, faid, " He was di- 


^' flrafled with his crime , and the eyils that att^n4ed 
** it, and ought not to be fuiFer'd to fay any more.'* 
But the king rejuimanding his i&ther, bid Hermolaus 
•* fpeak what he had leam'd from his matter Caliift- 
•* henes." ** I fhall then (faid Hermolaus) make 
'* ufe of the fevour you grant me, and tell you what 
** our own fufferings have taught me : How .{mall ia 
•* die number of Macedonians that have efcap'd your 
•* fury ? How few are there left, I fay, befides diofc 
" of the moft ignoble blood ? Attalus, Philotas and 
•* Farmenio, Lynceftes, Alexander, and Clitus, with 
•* reference to the enemies, are ftiJl alive ; they arc 
•* ftill in their pofts, protefting you with their buck- 
" lers, cheerfully receiving wounds to promote your 
** ^ory, and gain you vidlories, and indeed you 
•* have nobly requited them ; for one of them ftain'd 
•' your table with his blood, and you thought it too 
*< great a fevour to punifh the other with a fimple 
** death ; you have put the braveft generals of your 
** army to the rack, that the horrible fight might b^ 
** a grateful fpeftacle to the Perfians they had coij- 
** quer'd. As for Parmenio, you barbaroufly mur- 
" ther'd him, without fuffering him to plead, tho' 
" he had taken off Attalus your enemy. Thus you 
•• by turns make ufe of the hands of the wretdied to 
** fatisfy your cruelty ; and thofe who have been the 
** inflruments of your murtherers, are quickly after 
** iacrificM by others." The whole affembly now 
was in an ifproar, and his father drew his fword to 
kill him, had he not been hindered by the king, who 
bid HermolaMS continue his fp^ech, and deiir'd the 
company " to bear patiently the unhappy wretcl^ 
** who freely aggravated his own crime.'* They be- 
ing with difficulty reftrain'd, Hermolajus faid again f 
** How bountifully you permit children un(kilrd in 
** the art of oratory to plead their caufe I But the 
J? voice of Callifthenee muft be Ihut up in prifon, bc- 

I! caufe 

B. Yllt QuiNTVs CuRTius. 8;r 

^* caofe he alone knows how to fpeak : Why is he 
*' not brought fbrth> iince they who confefs them- 
*' felres guilty are heard ? But the reafon is |>lainy 
•* you arc afiaid to hear the free fpeech of the inno- 
** cent, nay, you cannot fo much as bear his looks, 
^* However, rll do him that juftice, as publickly to 
**. declare he was not any way concerned with us, 
** Tbejr are here prefent who join'd with me in the 
'^ glonous undertaking. There is not any one that 
** chams Calliflhenes with beine privy to the defign ; 
'* yet he has been a long time oeftin'd a iacrifice by 
** our moft gracious and moft patient king.- Thefe arc 
" the noble rewards of the Macedonians, whofe blood 
** yoa make an abufe of, as a thing in itfelf fuper* 
** fluous and fordid. As for your own part, you 
** have thirty thoufand mules laden with captive 
** gold, when at the fame time your foldiers have 
** nothing to carry hoiiie to their families, but their 
** fears and wounds. Yet we made a ihift to beaf 
** all thefe grievances till you delivered us up to th^ 
** Barbarians, and by a new and unheard-of method 
** the conquerors are by you enfhived. You deligh]^ 
** in the drefs as well as difcipline of the Perfiana^ 
** andperfedly hate your own country's manners. 
** It was therefore the king of the Perfians, and not 
** of the Macedonians, we would have kill'd ; and 
** we profecute you as a deferter, by the law of 
** arms. You were for having the Macedonian? 
** adore you as a God : You difown your own hthex 
** Philip, and if there were any of the Gods fuperioj: 
•* to Jupiter, you would even difdain him too. Can 
*' you then wonder, if men who are free-bom canno( 
** brook your exceiBve pride ? What can we hopp 
** from you, fince we mufl either be contented to 
** fufFer death, tho' innocent, or which is worfe than 
** death, live in flavery ? Now if you are capable of 
If amendmex^t, you are very much oblig'd to me, 
^ I " fince 


•* iincc I am the firft that dare tell you what it is that 
*' free-bom fpirits cannot bear. However be Co 
** good at lean as to fpare our parents, and do not 
•* load their old age with torments, who are fuf- 
•* ficiently punilhM in being deprived of the comfort 
•* they had in us ; but as for ourfelves, order us to 
•* be taken to the place of execution, that we may 
•* obtain by our own death what we hop'd for from 
" yours." 

Hermolaus fpoke after this manner, to which the 
long reply'd. 

CHAP. vm. 

" TLT^^ ^^^'^ *^ ^^^c things are which he has 
** X. X receiv'd from his mailer, fufficiently appears 
** by my patience j for notwithftanding he pleaded 
•* guilty to the worft of crimes^ yet I was willing you 
** Siould hear what he faid as well as myfelf. I. was 
" not ignorant that this villain would be tranfported 
•* witK the fame rage which prompted him to kill me, 
** whom he ought ta have reverenced as a parent. 
** It is true I lately order'd him to be corrected for 
** his infolent behaviour when I was a hunting ; but 
** I did no more in that than what was cuftomary, 
** and agreeable to the praclice of the former, kings 
** of Macedon. And indeed it is as ablblutely ne- 
** ceffary, as for pupils to be chaftiz'd by their tutors, 
** and wives by their husbands ; nay, we grant our 
** (laves the privilege of correcting children of that 
** age. This is the cruelty 1 exercised towards bira, 
** and which he would have reveng'd by an impious 
** murder. As for thofe who do not compel me to 

!' aa 

B. Viri. QyiNTUS CURTIUS. 89 

** aft contrary to my own nature, how gentle I am 
** towards them, is well known to you all, and fo 
*^ needlefs to be dwelt upon. I cannot wonder Her- 
** molaus does not approve of the punifhment of par* 
•* ricides, fince he has incurred uife fame j fo that 
" when he praifes Parmenio and Philotas, he defends 
•* his own caufe. You know I pardoned Lynccftes 
•* ^Alexander, who had twice confpir'd againft my 
•* life, tho' he was convifted by two witneffes ; nay^ 
" upon a third convii^ion I delay 'd his punifhment 
•* two years, till you yourfelves requir'd he (hould 
** undergo jufUce. You all remember Attalus had 
" refolv'd upon my death, even before 1 was king, 
" As for Clitus, would to the gods he had not forc'd 
" me to be angry with him ; I bore his virulent ex- 
** preflions to you and myfelf, longer than he would 
" have bore with me, had I faid 3ie fame things to 
** him. The clemency of kings and princes, does 
" not altogether depend on their own difpofition, but 
" in a great meafure on the temper and behaviour of 
** their fubjefts. Government is made gentle to fub- 
** jedb by their obedience ; but when all refpedl is 
'* laid aiide, and high and low are confounded, thea 
** wc are neceflitated to have recourfc to force, to 
•* repel force. But why (hould I wonder he accufes 
*' me of cruelty, who dares reproach me with ava- 
** rice ? I fhall not appeal to your felves on that head, 
" for fear I fliould render my liberality odious to 
** you, by making it a burthen to your modcfty. 
*^ Caft but your eyes on the whole army, and you'll 
" fee that diey who a little while ago had nothing 
♦* but their bare arms, lie now in beds of filver, their 
•* tables are ferv'd in gold plate, they have troops 
" of ilaves in their fervice : In fine, they are fo 
** loaded with booty that they know not what to do 
" Oh! but the Perfians whom we have 
** overcome are in great honoixr with me I It is true, 

« and 

igo QyiNTus CuRf ius» B. VIIL 

** and it is an undeniable argument of my modera- 
•♦ tion, that I do not reign haughtily even over them 
** I have fubdu'd. I did not come into A^a utterly 
^ to exterminate whole nations, nor to make a deiart 
•* of one half of the world ; but to behave myfetf 
** fo towards thofe I ihonld overcome, that they 
** might not be griev'd at my viftories. This gentle 
*♦ ufagc is the cauft they cheerfully ferve in the. war 
** with you, and do not fcruple to fhed their blood 
** to enlarge your empire ; whereas, had they been 
** haughtily dealt with, they would have reoell^d. 
•*■ The pofleilion of what we get by the fword 
•* is not very durable, but the obligation of good 
*' offices is eternal. If we have a mind to keep 
^ Aiia, and not fimply pafs thro' it, our clemency 
•* muft extend to them aifo ; and their fidelity will 
** made our empire everlafting. As for ounelvcs, 
•* we have more than we know what to do with, and 
•* it mufl be an infatiable avaritious temper indeed to 
** continue filling what already runs over. It is faid 
** again, that I introduce the manners of the Barba- 
<* nans among the Macedonians f Why truly, I ob- 
** ferve in many nations thofis cufloms which wq 
** need not be amam'd to imit^ ; nor is it poffibljii 
** to govern well fp large an empire, without com.- 
** municating fome things to them, and learning 
•* others from them. It was ridiculous enough ii) 
<* Hermolaus, that he would have had me difoW|^ 
** Jupiter, who thought fit by his oracle tq own m^ 
** for his fon : Do the anfwers of the gods de^nd o|\ 
** me ? He was pleas'd to offer me the title of fpn i^ 
«' and I thought to receive it would very much con- 
** tribute to the fuccefs of What I had in view. I 
** wifh the Indians alfo could be perfuaded I was a 
•* god ; for war depends much upon fame, and 
'* fometimes a falfe reptort bcliev'd has had the efFeft 
^ of a truth. Do you think it is out of luxury that 

B» VIII. QyiNTus CuiiTius. 9.1 

" I caufe your arms to be adomM with gold and 
** filver ? No, I dcfign'd thereby to convince thofc 
** people amongft whom there is nothing more com- 
** mon than thofe metals, that the Macedonians, who 
** are invincible in all other refpefts, are not to be 
** outvy'd even in that. I fhall by this means firft 
'* conquer the eyes of thefe Barbarians, who fet them 
** only on low and contemptible things ; and make 
** them fenfible, that it is not out of grcedinefs of 
** gold and filver, but out of a thirft Sfter honour, 
** and to fubdue the whole world, that we are come 
'* to them : Of which glory, thou parricide, would'ft 
** fain have robb'd us ; and having depriv'd the Ma- 
** cedonians of their king, have ^livcr'd them up a 
** prey to the conquer'd nations. I am deiir'd by 
** thee to fpare your -parents ; now that -you might' 
** perifh wiui the greater concern (if you ha/e any 
** love for your parents) you ought to oe kept igno- 
" rant of my intentions therein ; but it is a long 
*' time fince I abolifti'd that cullom of putting to 
" death the innocent relations with the guilty ; and I 
** do now proteft, that they fhali all. hold theif re-' 
** fpcdliye itaticns, and be as much in my favour as 
** teiore. The reafon why thou wouldft have had 
** CaUifthenes brought forth (who alone thinkeft 
** thee to be a man of courage, and that too only 
** becaufe thou art a ruffian) is this, that he might. 
" before this affembly have fpoke the fame outrage- 
** ous things thou haft lately leam'd of him, $id 
** now villanoufly utter 'd thyfelf againft me. How- 
^^ ever, had he been a Macedonian by birth, he had 
** am>ear'd here with thee, a worthy mafter of fuch 
** a oifciple ; but as he is an Olynuiian, he has not 
** the fame privilege.*' After this fpecch he dif- 
sniisM the council, and order'd ** thofe who were 
** condenmM, to be delivered mto the hands of their 
*^ owp companions j" who, to flicw their leal for 



the king's fafety, tonnented them cruelly, and then 
killed them. Calliflhenes alfo dy'd upon the rack; 
he was altogether innocent of the conipiracy againft 
the king's peribn, bu^ was not at all of a complai- 
fant humour, nor qualify'd by nature for the flatteries 
of a court. The death of this man procur'd Alexan- 
der more ill will than that of any other, by . reafon 
he was a man of probity and leariiing, and had per- 
fuaded him to live, when (having talPd Clitus) he 
had refolv'd to die. It was the more diflik'd becauie 
he not only put him to death, but tortur'd him, and 
all this without fo much as granting him a hearings 
The king repented (but too late) of this cruelty. 


T^ U T that he might not remain in idlenefs, which 
fJ is apt to give birth to, nod fv>xnciit falfe rumouts^ 
he advanced towards India, getting always more glory 
during the war, than he could maintain after the vic^ 
tory. The whole country of India liej chiefly to- 
wards the eaft, extending itfelf more in length than 
in breadth. To the foathward it is hilly, the reft of 
it is flat and open, and is watered by feveral confide- 
rablc rivers, which have their rife from mount Cau- 
cafus, and pafs plcafantly thro' the plains. The 
Indujs is the coldeft of them all, and its water differs 
in colour but little from that of the fea. The Gan- 
ges is fcmarkable from its iirfl appearance, and runs. 
to the fouthward m a direft channel, waihing the 
tops of feveral mountains, after which the rocks that 
lie in its way turn its courfe to the eailward. It emp- 
ties itfelf into the Red Sea, and by its rapid courfe 


B. VIIL QyiNTus Curtius. 9] 

eats away its banks, and carries along widi it a great 
many trees with part of the ground they grew npon; 
Its current is obltrudled in many places by rocks 
which beat it back, but where it finds a genuer bed, 
it Magnates and forms iflands. The Acciines fwells 
it : the Ganges intercepts this river a little before it 
difcharges inelf into the fea ; at their fird meeting 
they dafh furioufly againft each other, for the Ganges 
-is very rough where it receives it, and the Acefincs 
is too violent to give way to the other^s refifHne 
ilreams. ^ The Dyaidenes ts lefs celebrated, beoiuie 
' it runs along the extremities of India ; however, it is 
remarkable for this, that it not not only affords cro- 
codiles, as the Nilus does, but alfo dolphins and ie- 
veral other anitnals unknown to other nations. The 
Erymanthus has frequent turnings and windings, and 
is by the inhabitants let into feveral cuts for the more 
convenient watering of the country, which makes it 
have but a fmall channel, and even lofe its narne 
where it runs into the fea. This kingdom is water'd 
by feveral odier rivers, which are of lefs note, bc- 
caufe they do not run fo &r into it. 

That part of the country that lies neareft the fea, 
is for the moft part blafled by the north winds ; but 
thefe whids being reftrain'd by the tops of the moun* 
tains, caimot penetrate into the inward parts, for 
which reaibn they are very fruitful ; yet thb country's 
climate is fo different from the refl of the world, that 
when other places are parch'd up with the fcorching 
heat of the fun, India is covered witli {how ; and 
when other regions are frozen, the heat is here admofl 
intolerable,, no body being able to account £oi the 

The Indian fea does not di^r in colour from other 
Teas, yet having receivM its name ^m king £rythras» 
the ignorant have believed its waters were red. The 
land produces a great deal of flax, wherewith the 

94 QuiiiTus CunTitrs. B. VlIL 

major part of the inhabitants doath themfelves. The 
inward bark of the trees receives the charaders of 
letters as well as paper, and the birds may be taught 
to imitate the founds of a human voice. The beafts 
that are bred here* are different from thofe of other 
nations, the Rhinoceros will live here, but not breed. 
The Indian elephants are ibonger than thofe that are 
tam*d in Africa, and they arehurger propordonably to 
their Oxength. Gold is to be found in feveral rivers 
of this country, which glide along with a gentle 
ffa-eam. The lea doth call both pearis and precious 
ftones on the fhore, which is the cnief caufe of their 
wealth, efpecially flnce they have conununicated their 
vices to foreign nations ; for thefe excrements of the 
working Tea, are look'd upon to be worth whatever 
luxury rates them at. There, as well as elfewhere, 
the minds of meti feem to be form'd according to 
the different iituation of the country. They cover 
their bodies with linnen garments down to the feet : 
they bind their feet with (andals, and their heads with 
rolls of linnen. Thofe amongft them who arc di- 
ftinguifti'd from the reft, either by their nobility of 
birth or riches, have precious ftones hanging at their 
ears, and adorn their arms as well as wrifts, with 
bracelets and other ornaments of gold. They comb 
their hair often, but feldom cut it. They ihave the 
reft of their face very iinooth, but the beard on their 
chins remains untouchM. The luxury of their kings 
(which thev call magnificence) goes beyond the ex- 
cefTes of all other nations. When the king is pleas'd 
to appear publickly, there are proper omcers, who 
with ulver cenfers perfume all the way through which 
he is to pafs. He is carry'd in a litter of gold, cu- 
rioufly let off with pearls that hang down all round 
it. The linnen with which he is cloath'd, is finely 
embroidered with gold and purple. His body-guards 
ftUow the litter, (omeof them carrying boughs full 


i; Vllir. QuiNTus CuRTitfs. 95 

of birds, which b}r their agreeable notesy are taught 
to divert them in tiieir more ferious affairs. 

The palace is fupported with gilded pillars, upon 
which vines are curioufl/ ei^;rav*dy whereon the effi- 
|p;ies of diofe birds they moft delight in, are reprefented 
in iilver. The palace is open to all comers, while the 
king is combing himfelf and drefling ; daring which 
time, he gives audience to amba£adors, and admini* 
flers juftice to his people. When his iandals are ta« 
ken off, they anoint his feet with odoriferous unguents. 
His greateft labour is hunting, which is performed in a 
park, where he ihoots the wild beafb, whilft his con- 
cubines are iinging, and offering up their vows for 
him. The arrows are two cubits in length, which 
they let fly with a greater effort than efEeft, by reafon 
they are clc^g'd with an unwieldy weight, which re« 
tards their fwiftnefs, wherein their force chiefly con- 
iiib. In fmall journeys, he rides on horfeback ; but 
in longer progreflTes, he is drawn in a chariot by ele-> 
phants, whofe vaft bodies are covered aU over with 
gold trappings. And that nothing may be wanting 
to their corrupt manners, he is fbUow'd by a long 
train of concubines in golden Jitters : this troop 
marches feparately from the queen's, but it equal to 
it in point of luxury. It is the bufmefs of women to 
prepti^ his, victuals ; . they alio ferve him with wine, 
of which all the Indians drink largely. 

Wh«n the king is overcome with wine and fleep, 
thefc concubines carry him into his chamber, invok- 
ing the gods of the night, in their country hynms. 
Who would imagine, that where vice feems to rei^n 
£o abiblutely, there ihould be any regard had to wif- 
dom ? yet there is a rural and rigki fedt amongft 
theni, which they difHnguifli by die title of wife 
men. Thele men efteem it a glorious thing to pre- 
vent their natural death ; they therefore, when st^t 
befftis to be burthonfome to them, or are otherwife 


p6 QyiNTus CuRTius. B. VIIL 

indifposM in health, order themfelves to be burnt 
alive ; looking upon it as a difgrace to their Inres, 
patiently to expeft the hour of death. For diis 
reafon, no honours are fhewn to the bodies of thofe 
who die of old age ; the fire is defil'd, they think, 
unlefs it receives them breathing. There is another 
fort of wife men amongft them, who live in towns 
after a civil manner, They are (aid to be well fkiU'd 
in the motion of the planets, and to foretel future 
events. They hold, that no body hafbns on his 
own difolution, who has courage enough to wait the 
decrees of nature. They woHhip for Gods, what- 
ever they have a fancy for, but trees efpecisdly ; to 
violate whicK, is a capital crime with them. Their 
months contained but fifteen days, notwithflandins 
which their years are compleat. They compute theu: 
time by the oourfe of the moon, but not as moft 
people do, when that planet fills its orb ; but when 
It begins to hollow itlelf into horns. This is the 
caufe that they who reckon their months after this 
manner, have them much ihorter than other people. 
There are feveral other things related of them, which 
I did not think worth the while to interrupt the order 
of my history with. 

C H A P. X. : 

ALexander being entered into India, the little 
kings of the country went to meet * him, and 
fubmit themfelves to him, telling him, ** he was the 
** third of Jupiter's off-fpring, ^t had reached thieir 
*' country. Bacchus and Hercules they knew by 
" fame only ; but they had the honour to behold 
** him, and be blefe'd with his prefcncc.'* The 

1 king 


king having receiv'd them gracioufly, ordcr'd them 
to accompany him, defigning to make afe of them 8s 
guides in his march. But when he faw that none of 
the reft came, he fent Hephaellion and Perdiccas with 
part of the army before, to fubdue fuch as were un-» 
willing to fubmit to his power, ordering them ** to 
** advance as far as the nver Indus, and there to prc- 
•* pare boats to tranfport his army over the fame." ' * 

Now becaufe there were fever^ rivers to pafs, they 
^ contrived the boats that they might be taken to 
pieces, and carry'd in waggons, and put together a- 
gain when occalion required. Then having com- 
manded Craterus to follow him with the phatox, he 
advanced with the cavalry and light-arm'd forces, and 
after a (mall engagement, drove a body of the ene- 
mies (which came to oppofe him) into the next town. 
By this time Craterus was come up to him. That 
,. therefore he might ftrike a terror amongft thcfe peo- 
ple, who had not yet experienced the Macedonians 
arms, he gave orders to put all to the fword, burn- 
ing die fortifications of the place. But whilft he was 
rimng about the walls, he was wounded with an ar- 
row. ' However, he took the town, and having kiU'd 
all the inhabitants, he did not fo much as fpare the 

Having* conquered this inconiiderable people, he 
came to a city call'd Nyfa, and pitched his camp be- 
fore the walls thereof in a woody ground. Here the 
night-cold was fo fharp, that it very much incom- 
moded the army, but it was eafily remedied by fires* 
For having cut down the wood, they kindled fuch a 
flame, that it reach'd the burying-places of the townf- 
men, which being built with old cedar, quickly took 
fire, which fpreading it felf on all fides, burnt tli^nr 
down to the ground. By this time the barking of the 
dogs from the town, and the 'noife of the army from 
the camp, were reciprocaUy heard, fo that the m^ 

Vol. II. £ habitants 

^S QyiNTus Cuarius. B. VHL 

iuibitants were fenfible the enemy was at hand, aiid ^ 
the Macedonians underflood they were near the town; " 

The king therefore drew out his troop, and as kc ^ 
^repar'd to bcfiege the place, ibme of the townfinea '< 
inade a (aUy, but were all kilPd. After this, fome of 
«he befieged were for furrendering, while others ag^ 
"were for trying a battle. Alexsunder being infbnn'd « 
^ their divifions, was contented ** to blrac np the 
•*' j>iace, without doing them any farther danum.^ 
At laffc being tir'd with the inconveniendcs ot the 
fiege, they yielded themfelves at difcretion. 

They faid Bacchus was the founder of their dhr, 
iwhich afTertion indeed was true. It is feated at ms 
foot of a hill, which by the inhabitants is calPd Me* 
Tos, from whence the Greeks took the liberty to 
feign, that Bacchus had been concealed in Jupiter's 
thigh* Alexander being inibuded in the nature of 
the mountain by the inhabitants, fent proviiions be- 
ibre him, and march'd to the top of it with his whole 
.army. It is full of vines and i\y, and has a great 
number of fprings. There is alfo great variety of 
Avholefome fruits, the eartli nouriihing the accidental 
feeds that grow up and flourifh without cultivation. 
The laurel likewiie grows here, and it is pretty well 
doath'd with wood. I cannot believe it was by any 
•divine inflin^ but rather out of wantonnefs, that the 
foldicrs made themfelves garlands of the ivy and vine- 
leaves, running in that condition up and down the 
woods like fo many Bacchanals. This frolick was 
begun by a few at firft (as it generally happens) but 
at uift fpread it fclf throughout the whole army. The 
mountains and valleys rung with the voices of ib jna* 
ny thoafand men, who in that manner ador'd the tu- 
telar gpd of the grove. Here, as if they had enjoy'd 
a profound peace, they laid tliemfclves down upon 
ithe grafs and heaps of leaves. The king was fo fiu; 
l&om difapproving tliis accidental licence, that on the 


iB^oRVs . 


B. VIII. QuiNTus CuRTius. 99 

contrary, lie orderM them all wherewith to oiake good 
chear, and fufFer'd his army to be thus employed for 
ten days together in the fervice of Bacchus, Who can 
(after this) deny that the greateft glory is oftner the 
favour of fortune, than the eiFeft ot virtue and merit ? 
iince the enemy did not dare to attack them in that 
<lrunken and drowiy condition, being no leis terrify^d 
by the noife and roaring^of thefe mad men, than thc^ 
would have been by their ihouts and huzza's in an en- 
gagement ; it was the fame good fortune that fav'd 
them at their return ^m the ocean, when they had 
abandoned themfelves to drunkennefs and feafti^g« 
From hence he came into a country call'd Dacdala^ 
the people whereof had foriaken their habitations, and 
were fled to the woods and mountains. He therefore 
pafs'd by Acadera, which he alfo found wafle and de- 
iplate by the flight of its inhabitants. This obh'e'd 
him to change the order of the war, and divided 
army to carry on the war in feveral places at the iame 
time ; fo that they were o^'crcome on the fudden, 
before they expedled to fee the enemy. Ptolemy re- 
duced feveral towns, but Alexander took the largcft. 
This being done, he again re-united his difperfed for- 
ces, and having pafs'd the river Choafpes, he left 
Csenus to carry on the fiege of a rich town call'd Be- 
zira by the inhabitants, and march'd himfclf to the 
Mazagse. Allacanus the king thereof was lately dead, 
and his mother Cleophes had the government both of 
the town and country. The town was deftiided by 
thirty thoufand foot, and was not only Itrong by na- 
ture, but alfo by art : for toward the call it was co- 
vered by a rapid river, whoie Iteep banks hindered the 
approach to it. On the well and fouth parts there are 
prodigious high rocks (which nature leems to have 
contriv'd on purpofe) at the bottom whereof are pits 
and gulphs, whidi length of time has funk to a very 
fijeac depths where thefe fail, there is a ditch of wt>n- 
E i dcrfttl 

too QyiNTus CuRTius. B. Vlir. 

derful labour. The wall that encompafles the town, 
is thirty five furlongs in circumference, the lower part 
thereof is built of ftone, and the upper of anbomt ■ 
bricks ; yet the bricks were ftrengthned with flone, 
which they intermix'd, that the loofer fubilance might 
be fecur'd by the harder. And left the whole (hould 
link or fettle, there were ftrong beams of timber laid 
on the top, on which they eredled fcaftblds which 
f«Y*d both to cover the walls, and to make tfaem 

As Alexander was viewing thefc fortifications, uncer- 
tain what to refolve upon (for it was a laborious under- 
taking to fill up thofe pits and hollow caves, without 
which, notwithftanding, it was impolTible to advance 
the engines to the walls) he was wounded in the calf 
of the leg with an arrow from the wall, which being 
pullVi out, he call'd for his horfe, and without bind- 
ing up his wound, purfu'd what he was about. How- 
ever, as his leg hung down, the blood fettling, and 
the wound growing cold, his pain encreas'd vciy 
much, which made him fay, '' that notwithftanding 
^' he was faid to be Jupiter's fon, he was fenfible of 
"** of the infirmities of a fickly body." Yet he did 
not retire to the camp, till he had view'd every thing, 
and given his orders thereupon. The fbldiers there- 
fore, as they were commanded, demolilh'd the out- 
buildings, which afforded a great deal of matter to 
£11 up the cavities with; others caft in great trees 
and vaft heaps of ftone, fo that thro' the indefatigable 
labour of the foldiers, the work was com^eated in 
•nine days, and the towers eredled thereon. The king, 
tho' his wound was not quite cur'd, came to view the 
-works, and having commended the foldiers for their 
diligence, order'd the engines to be advanc'd, from 
whence they difcharg'd a great many darts againft the 
«rrifon. But what moft amaz'd and terrify'd the Bar- 
Sariansy was, to fee the towers move; for behold- 


iDg fach vaft piles to advance, without perceiving by 
what means they mov'd, they coucluded they were 
a&iated by the power of the gods. Belides, they 
could not conceive how fuch heavy darts and fpears 
(which were Ihot at them from the engines) could be 
cail by mortals. 

Delpairing therefore of being able to defend the. 
place, they retir'd into the citadel. From hence (be- 
ing refolvM to furrender themfelves) they fent am- 
bailadors to implore the king's pardon, which being 
granted, the queen came to him, attended by a train 
of noble women, who offer'd him wine in golden 
cups by the way of facriiice; and liaving prefented to 
him her little fon, (he not only obtainM pardon, but 
was alfo reftor'd to the fplendor of her former dignity, 
retaining the title of queen. Some were of opinion, 
" that he granted more to her beauty tharf to pity.'' 
It is certain, that the child fhe had afterwards (who- 
(bever was the father of it) was call'd Alexander. 

C H A P. XI. 

FROM hence he detach'd Polypercon with an ar- 
my to a town call'd Ora, the inhabitants where- 
of making a diforderly fally, were beat by him, and 
drove bacK into their fortifications ; fo that Polypercon 
following them clofe, enter'd the town with them, 
and made himfelf mailer of it. A great many other 
inconiiderable places came into the king's power, be- 
ing forfaken by the inhabitants, who repaired with 
their arms to a rock calPd Aornos. It is faid, that 
Hercules in vain attempted to take this rock, being 
forc'd by an earthquake to leave it. As Alexander 
was at a lofs which way to attack this place, which 
was very fteep and craggy on all fides, an ancient 
£3 man 

I02 QiriNTas Curtius. F. VIIL 

man with his two fons came to him, offering, for a 
reward, to fhew his men a way to the top of it. 
Alexander hereupon promis'd him fourfcore talents^ 
and keeping with him one of the young men as a 
pledge, fent him to execute what he had undertaken. 

Mullinus the king's fecretary, with fbme light- 
arm'd foldi\!rs, was appointed to follow this guide^ 
who dcfign'd, by fetching a compafs, to deceive the 
enemy, and get up to the tv'>p unperceiv'd by them. 
This rock does not by a modei-ate and gentle afcent 
(as a great msmy do) raife it felf to its height, but 
iknds ereft after the manner of a butt, being broad 
beneath, coatrafting it felf as it rifes, till at laft it 
terminates in a point. The ri\'^er 1 ndus runs at the 
bottom of it, having very high and fteep banks ; on 
iliC other fide thereof, there are deep rulphs and crag-- 
gy hollows, that muft of neceflity be fiU'd up hy^ 
whoever would take the place. There was- a wood 
near at hand, which the king commanded to be cut 
down for that purpofe, caiinng the branches to be 
lop'd oiF, that die men might carry the ftockft with 
the more eafe. He flung i& the firft tree himfelf, the 
whole army ihouting at Uie fame time for joy, and 
po body rcfufing now to do what they had fecn the 
king himfelf perform. Thefe cavities were by thb 
mcaiis fiird up in fevcn days time. Then the king 
ofder^d the archers and Agrians t& climb up the xxick. 
He likewife made choice of thirty of the braveft 
young men of his own band, appointing Charus and 
Alexander to be their leaders. The Ia3 of thefe, he 
put in mirtd of his name, which he bore in common 
with himfelf. 

At firft, all oppos'd the king's hazarding his perfon 
i0 fa mauifeft a danger ; but the fignal was no fooner 
given, than this pnncc^ who was of an undaunted 
courage, tum'd to his guards, and bid them follow 
him,, and was the firft to cHmb the rock. After this^ 


B. VIIL QyiNTxrs CuRTius^^ jaj 

none of the Macedonians would ftay behind, but of 
their own motion left their pofts and followed the 
king. A great many of them peri(h'd miferably, 
falling from the rock into the river, which prefently 
fwallow'd them up. It was a melancholy fpeflade 
even to thofe who were out of danger ; but when they 
obfcrv'd by the difafter of others what they had reafon. 
to apprehend might be their own lot, their compaf- 
fion was tuni'd into fear, and they no longer be- 
wailed the dead, but their own hard condition. By 
this time they were advanced fo far, that they could 
not retire with iafety, unlefs they conquered ; and the- 
Barbarians,, on their part, rolled down huge flones 
npon them, who being terrify'd with the danger, ancF 
not able to take firm footing on the ilippery rock,, 
^werc eafily bore down to the precipices. However^ 
Alexander and Charus, whom the king had fent be- 
^re with the thirty chofen young men, had made a 
ihift to gain the top, and was sJready engaged in a 
dofe fight with the enemy ; but by reafon the Bar- 
barians were ftill poiTefs'd of the fummit, they re-- 
ceiv*d a great many more wounds than they gave*. 
Wherefore Alexander remembring both his name and 
^foniife, behav*d himfelf with more bravery than 
caution, but beine attacked on all fides, he was co^ 
^er*d with wounds, tmder wUck at- laft he faak and 
died. Charus feeing him lie on the ^xMiady M fiiw 
fioBily on die enemy, thinking of nttditog- bat ro- 
lienge, ilndbiB*d ieveral widi kis pike, andioBiib- 
Vfth his fwotd, but fighting fingly s^auift fi> tmuiy^ 
he fell dowm dead upon the body of & friend. 

The king, na leis affiited than he ought to be at: 
the lofs of two fuch gallant yocmg men,, and die rek 
of the foldiers^ caus'd the retreat to be founded.. 
What fav'dthem here, was, that they retir'd leifurely, 
■ end -with mtrepidity : moreover, the Barbarians being 
contented to have repuls'd the enemya. did not pur-^ 
E 4 fco 

104 Quint us Curtius. B. VIIl. 

fue them. However, tho' Alexander had refolv'd 
within himfelf to defift from the attempt (fince there 
was not the leafl probability of fuccdfs therein) yet 
he made a fhew, as if he intended to continue the 
fiege. For he poffefs'd himfelf of the avenues, and 
ordered the towers to be advanced, and caus'd frefti 
men to relieve the fatigu'd. The Indians perceiving 
his obf\inacy, gave themfelves up to mirth, out of 
an oftentation, not only of the confidence they had 
in their fafety, but alfo of the victory. But on the 
third night, the noife of the drums ceas'd, and the 
rock was every where illuminated with torches, that 
ihey might make the fafcr retreat in the obfcurity of 
the night, through the precipices of the rock. The 
king having therefore fent Balacer to inform himfelf 
of the matter, he brought an account, that the ene- 
my was fled. Hereupon the king gave the iignal for 
a general fhout, which ftruck fuch a terror into the 
dilorderly fugitives, that' a great many of them think- 
ing the enemy at hand, flung tliemfelves headlong 
dbwn the flippery rock, and perifh'd miferably ; or 
thers of them being maimed in fome or other of tiieir 
limbs, were forfaken by thofe who were imhurt. 
The king having thus rather overcome the place, 
than the enemy, yet he offer'd facrifices to the gods^ 
.as if he had obtained a great vidlory, erecting altars 
xm the rock to Minerva and Viftory. As to the 
guides who were to have conducted the light-ann'd 
foldiers, as we faid before, he faithfully gave them 
,wlMit he had Jpromis'd them, notwithftanding they did 
not perfeftly perform what they had undertook ; after 
which he committed the guard of this rock and the 
country round it to Sifoco&s. 


B. Vm. QuiNTus CuRTius.' 105 


CHAP. xir. 

FROM hence the king continued his march towards ^ 
Ecbolima ; but being informed that fbme defiles 
thro' which he was to pafs, were poflfefs'd by one 
Eiyces, with twenty thoufand men ; he left the heavy 
laden part of his army under the command of Caenus 
to be brought up by eafy marches, and taking with 
him the ilingers and archers, he went before, and hav- 
ing driven the enemies from their poll, he open'd a 
paflage to the reft of his troops that follow'd him. ' 

The Indians, either out of hatred to their captain, 
or to obtain the favour of the conqueror, fet upon 
Eryces in his flight, and having kilPd him, brought 
both his head and arms to Alexander; who, not- 
withftanding he forgave the fadl, yet he did not en- 
courage the example. 

From hence in fixteen encampments he came to the 
river Indus, wliere he found every thing prepared by 
Hephaeftion for paffing the fame, according to his 
orders. Omphis reign'd now in this country; he 
had, during his father's life, advis'd him to furren- 
der himfelf and kingdom to Alexander. His father 
being dead, he fent meflengers to the king to know 
his pleafure, " Whether he ftiould take the regal dig- 
** nity upon him, or in a private capacity wait his 
*' coming ;" nay, liis modeily was fuch, that altho" 
he had Alexander's confent to take the government 
upon him, he would not make ufe of it till his ar- 
nval. He had been very kind to Hephaeftion, and 
had caus'd corn to be diftributed to his troops gratis, 
but he did not vifit him in perfon, being unwilling to 
E 5 furrende ■ 

I08 QyiNTUS CuRTltfS; D. Villi 


^ j ^ H E day following he receiv'd ambaflladors from, 
i Abifares, who, according to their commi(!ion», 
yielded up all that belongM to their mailer, to his 
ipyal will and pleafure ; and after mutual affurance 
given of fidelity and protedUon, he fent them back to. 
their king. Alexander imagining that his reputation 
and fame had by this time ftartled Porus, and fo he • 
might be brought to furrender himfelf as others had 
done, fent Cleochares to him, ** to fummon him ta 
•* pay a tribute, and to meet the king on the fron- 
•' tiers of his dominions." Porus made anfwer,. 
** That he would not fail to do one of Aofe twa 
•* things ; which was to meet him on the borders o£ 
*.' his kingdom, but it fhould be with a. good 
« army." 

Alexander was now pn the point of paiOing the 
{lydafpes, when Barzaentes, the author of the Ara- 
choiiians rebellion, was brought to him bound, and 
$Surty elephants which were taken with him ; thefe 
were a very feafonable fuccour at this time againft the 
Indians, for they put more confidence in th«fe beafts 
^hansin their army. Gamaxus, who was king of a 
fmali portion of India, and had made an ^Uiance 
with Barzaentes, was alfo brought a prifoner to him. 
Having therefore committed the tray tor and the little 
king to a fafe guard, and the elephants to the care of 
Tr^ciles, he came to the river Hydafpes. Porus 
iras encamp'd on the otlier fide thereof to oppofe his 
paflage, having with him fourfcore and five elephants 
pf a prodigious ftrength of body ; behind thefe, he 
liad three hundred chariots, and thirty thoufand foot, 


R.VIff* QjJiNTtTS CuRTirs. W9 

amongft which there were fome of thofe archers which 
we have ah-eady mentioned, whofe ihafts were toa 
heavy to be eafily ftiot ofF. Porus himfelf was car- 
ried upon an elephant of a much larger fize than the. 
refl ; his arms, which were finely adom'd with gold 
and iilver, were a great ornament to his illuilnous 
perfonage,. which was of an unufual bignefs ; his. 
courage was equal to the ilrength of his body, and. 
he was as wife as could be expeaed in a nation fo un- 
civiliz'd. The Macedonians were not only terrify 'd. 
by the dreadful appearance of the enemy, but alio 
by the largenefs of the river they were to pafs,. 
which was four furlongs in breadth, and beine very 
deep was no where fordable, fo that it carried the ap- 
pearance of a fea. Its largenefs did not reftrain its. 
impetuous current,, for it ran with the.fame rapidity it. 
could have done in a narrow channel, and the reper- 
cuflion of the waters fliew'd fufficiently, that there, 
were hidden rocks in it; but the appearance of 
men and horfes that covered the bank was ftill. 
more terrible. There flood thofe huge bulks of 
over*grown bodies, the elephants, whidi being on. 
purpofe provok'd, iill'd the air with a horrible noife. 
Thus the enemy on one fide, . and the river on the 
other, ftruck with an unforefeen terror, the hearts of 
thofe who had reafon to hope well, and had fo often, 
experienced their own bravery. They could not ima- 
gine how their tottering boats cou'd be fteer'd to the 
other fide ; nor how, when they came there, they 
could with fafety be put to ihore. In the middle of the 
river there were feveral iflands, to which the Indians 
and Macedonians fwam, holding their arms over their 
heads ; here they had frequent fhirmifhes, and both, 
kings were pleas'd with thefe fmaU tryals^ thinking 
thereby to make a judgment of the ilTue of the fu-> 
turc general engagement. 


no QyiNTus Curtius. B. VIII. 

Among the Macedonians there were two young, 
noblemen, whofe names were Symmachus and Nica- 
nor, remarkable for their daring courage. The con- 
ftant fuccefs of their party had brought them to an 
utter contempt of all danger. Under the condud of 
thefe two, feveral brifk young fellows (having no 
other arms than their javelins) (warn over to an iuand 
which was poffeffed by a good number of the enemy ;. 
where, without hardly any other weapon than their 
courage, they kill'd a great many of them. TluV 
done, they might have come oiF with glory, if it 
Bad been poflible for a fuccefsful temerity to know 
where to flop ; but while with contempt and pride they 
waited till the enemy was reinforced, they were fuddenlv 
furrounded by fome who had fwam thither unperceivM^, 
and opprefs'd with their darts at a diflance. Thofc 
who eicap'd the enemy were either bore down the 
rapid flream, or fwallow'd by the whirlpools. This 
ikirmifh increas'd Porus's affurance very much,, who 
from the river fide beheld all that pafs'd. 

In the mean time Alexander, who was at a lofs 
what to do, at laft refolv'd upon this ftratagem to 
deceive the enemy. There was in the river one 
ifland larger than the reft, which was very woody, 
and fo very proper to cover his defign. Moreover, 
there was a deep ditch not far from the bank the king 
poffefs'd, which was not only capable of t:oncealing 
foot, but horfe alfo ; that therefore he might draw off 
the eyes of the enemy from watching that convc- 
niency, he detach'd Ptolemy with all his cavalry, 
ordering him to ride up and down at a confiderable 
diftance from the ifland, and now and then by cries 
and ftiouts to alarm the Indians, as if he intended to 
fwim over the river. This was executed by Ptolemy 
for feveral days, by which means he forced Porus to ' 
draw off his army to that place where he feem'd to 
iave adefign^ pa& aver* The iflaad was now out 


VllL QuiNTus CuRTiirs* in 

he enemy's fight, and Alexander ordered his tent 
ye pitch*d over-againfl the Indian's camp, and. 
ufual guards to do duty before it, exponng on 
)ofe to the view of the enemy all the pomp and. 
idor of regal magnificence. He alfo caused At- 
\ (who was about his age,- and not unlike him in. 
ire and perfon, efpedSly at a diftance) to put 
his royal garments, and make a (hew as if the 
; was there witli them, and no wife contriving 
^s the river. 

. violent tempeft retarded at firft the effeft of this- 
rprize, but afterwards promoted it, fortune turn- 
to his advantage whatever feemed to be againft 
. He was now preparing to pafs into the ifland. 
before mentioned (the enemy being wholly intent 
thofe who with Ptolemy were encamp'd lower 
n) when on the fuddcn there fell fuch a ftorm of 
, as was hardly fupportable lo thofe who were 
er cover, fo that the foldiers were forc'd to quk 
r boats, and take refuge again on the land. The 
e of all this hurry was drown'd by that of the 
es againft the banks of the river, fo that the ene- 
was infenfible thereof. After a-while the rain 
'd at once, but then fuch thick clouds fucceededy 
they intercepted the light, and made it almoft. 
oihble for thofe who were talking to one ano- 
to diflineuilh their companions feces. Tliis dark- 
would have terrify 'd any body but Alexander, 
daily being to pafs over an unknown river, when 
' were not certain but the enemy might have pof- 
d themfelves of that part of the bank they were 
'arily making to without the benefit of tlieir eyes, 
* they fought for glory from the extremity of 
r danger. But that obfcurity which daunted others,, 
bought was his opportunity; he therefore gave, 
fignal to embark (enjoining a profound filence) 

1. andr 


and caos'd his own boat to put off the firft. That 
part of the bank where they landed was free fiom. 
mt enemy, Porus being ftill intent upon Ptolemy ; 
and all .the boats, except one which was daih*d a- 
gainft a rock, arrived lafe, fo that he ordered his 
men ** to take to their arms, and form their lanks, . 
*• and march in order of battle." 


ALexander was marching now at the head of his. 
army, divided into two wings, when Porus re- 
ceived advice, . iiat the enemy had pafs'd the river^ 
and 'A pre marching direflly to him ; at firft, thro' the. 
corniiion frailty of the mind of man, he llatter'd him- 
felf with the hopes that it was Abifares his ally, who 
was coming to his afllilance, according to agreement ;. 
but by and by the clearer light made him fenfible it. 
was the enemy, fo that he fent his brother Hages. 
with a hundred chariots, and three thoufand horfe to 
make head rt^,ainft them. Thefe chariots were the 
chiefeH: pari of his firength ; each of them carry'd. 
fix men, viz. two who had bucklers, two archers 
dif'X)b'd on each fide, and the other two were drivers, 
who were not without armb, for in clofe engage- 
ments :hey !aid afide tl^ir reins, and caft darts 
amci'gic the enemy. liov.e'cr, they were of lit- 
tle or lio 'ife .It this time, for the rain (as w 
before cbferv'd) 1 aviiig •. .lien in ercatcr abur 
dance than ufual, hsd ir.adc he g;-^pna flippery ar 
impraillicable to the horfcs, fo that thefe heavy x 


Bi VIII. QuiNTus Curt I us. . 113 

almoft immoveable chariots ftuck faft in the mire and 
hollow places ; whereas Alexander's army being light- 
ly arm'd, and free from all incumbrance, charg'dthe 
enemy briikly. The Scythians and the Dahae gave 
the onfet, then he ordered Perdiccas with his horfe to 
attack the enemies right wing j by this time the en- 
gagement was general, and the charioteers thinking 
Sienifelves the laft refuge of their party, with a loole 
rein drove furioufly in the midfl oft^e thrgng, and 
tonally annoy'd both parties ; for at firft the Macedo- 
nian infantry fuffer'd very much by them, but being 
driven thro' flippery and impracticable places, tlie 
charioteers were flung out or their feats, while the 
affrighted horfes over-turn'd fome of them in the 
(loughs and ditches, and precipitated others into the 
river ; a few of them paffing thro' the enemy, came 
into Porus's camp, who was preparing all things, for 
a vigorous fight. Porus perceiving his chariots thus 
fcatter'd all over the field of battle, diftributed the 
charge of the elephants amongft his friends, and be- 
hind them drew up his foot and archers, who likewife 
had drums to beat, which ferv'd the Indians inftead 
of trumpets. The beafts are not at all mov'd at this. 
noife, their ears having been a long time accuflom'd 
to it. 

The image of Hercules was carry'd at the head of 
flie infantry. This was a great encouragement to 
them, and it was efteem'd a great crime to defert the 
bearers of it, who were by the laws piinifh'd with 
death if they did not bring it fafe out of the. field ;, 
the fear they formerly conceiv'd of him, while their 
enemy, being now tum'd into veneration and religi:* 
ous worfhip. 

The noble prefence of Porus, as well as the fight, 
of thefe monibous animals, put the Macedonians to a 
ftand for a while j for thefe beafts being difpos'd a- 
laong the men at a diftance carry'd the appearance of 

tpwers ; 


towers; and Porus's extraordinary ftaturc was very 
much fet off by the largnefs of the elephant that car- 
ry'd him, which as much exceeded all the reft in 
height, as he himfelf exceeded other men in tallncTs. 
Alexander therefore taking a view of the king's per- 
fon and his armv, faid, " At laft I have met with a 
" danger fuitabfe to the greatnefs of my foul ; I have 
" now not only to do with beafts, but alfo with men 
•* of diftinftion." Then looking at Caenus, he gave 
him the following orders, " When you fee me with 
** Ptolomy, Perdiccas and Hephaeftion, charge the 
" enemies left wing, and fhall obferve us to be in the 
" heat of aftion, do you vigoroufly attack the right 
*** wing ; and for you, Antigenes, Leonnatus and 
" Tauron, do you prefs hard upon the center and 
" front. Our long and ftrong pikes can never be of 
" greater ufe than againft thefe beafts, and their ma- 
** nagers ; beat off the riders, andftab the beafts. They 
** are at beft but a dangerous fuccour, and may as 
" eafily annoy as do fervice : nay, their rage exerts 
** its fuiy chiefly when turn'd upon their own people,. 
** for it is difcipfine teaches them to aft againft me cne- 
" my ; whereas fear drives them againft their friends. 
As foon as he had fpoke thefe words^ he clapped 
fours to his horfe, and, as he had projefted, diforder'rf 
the enemies ranks; then Cscnus attacked the right 
wing with great bravery, and the phalanx at the iamfi 
time broke in upoa the center. 

Porus took care to oppofe the horfe with his ele- 
phants ; however, that flow and unwieldy anima! 
could not equal the horfes fpeed ; bcfides which the 
Barbarians arrows were of no ufe to them, for as they 
were long and very heavy they could not fix dieni 
without Vc^iiig their bows upon the ground; which, 
fiieing dipptry, deceivM their efibrt, fo that while they 
were prepiring to fhoot^ they were, prevented by the. 
enemy* * * • 


B. VlIL QviNTcs GuRTius. 1 15 

Porus's orders were now no longer minded (as it 
generally happens where fear has a greater influence 
than the authority of the captain.) There were at 
this time as many generals as there were fcatter'd 
regiments. Some were for uniting all their troops 
into one body> others were for fighting diftindUy in 
ieparate corps ; fome were for making a fland, others 
were for wheeling about and attacking the enemy in 
the rear. In fine,, there was no general confultation ; 
BOtwithftanding which, Porus, accompany 'd by a few 
(with whom honour prevailed more than fear) rally 'd 
his fcatter'd forces, and advanc'd againfl the enemy, 
placing the elephants in the front of his army. Thefc 
anxmab were very terrible, and their unufual noife 
did not only frighten the horfes (who are naturally 
fearful) bat the men alfo, and diforder'^d the ranks -, 
<b that they who a little before were viftorious, be- 
gan now to confidcr which way they fhould take their 
Might. Hereupon Alexander fent againfl the elephants 
Ae Agran andtheKght arm'd Thracians, who are bet- 
ter at &irmifhing than mamtaming a clofe fight. Thefe 
flien pourM m a great number of darts dxid arrows 
imongft the elephants and their governors, and the 

n' mx perceiving their confufion prefs'd hard upon 
; butfbme of thefe advancing too eagerly againfl 
Aofe beafb, fo provok'd them by die wounds they gave 
fiiem, that they trampled them under their feet, and 
w^e an example to others to attack them with more 
caution ; but the moft difinal thing of all was, when 
thefe animals took up the arm*d foldiers widi their 
fannks, and delivered them up to their govemon upoa 
their backs. 

This made the fight doubtfid, the Macedonians 
Ibmetimes purfuing, and fometimes flying from the 
elephants, which occafion*d the batde to condnue tili- 
the da^ was far fpcnt, till at lafl they chopp'd their 
legs wjth axes prepar'd for that purppfe. They had be- 


ii6 QuiNTirs CuRTivs. B, VIIL 

fides' another kind of weapon, fomewhat crooked, 
and refembling a fey the, with which they cut oflF their 
trunks. Thus the fear not only of death, but of a 
new torment in the fame, made them leave nothing 
unexperienced agEinft them. 

At lafl the elepiiants, enrag'd with their wounds,, 
bore down their own party, and cafling their gover- 
nors on the ground, trampled them to death. By 
this time fear had fo feiz'd them, that inftead of be- 
ing mifchievous they were drove like ftieep out of th& 
field of battle ;. but Porus (notwiihftanding he was for- 
faken by the greatefl part of his j^eople) began to ply 
thofe who furrounded him with darts, with which he , 
was provided, and wounded a great many at a dif- 
tance, being himfelf expos'd like a mark, at which 
every body levelPd. He had already nine wounds 
before and behind, fo that having loft a great quanti- 
ty of blood, the javelins might be faid rather to drop 
from his faint arm, than be deliver'd.. However, 
the elephant that carry 'd him (not being yet hurt) 
jnade great havock amongft the enemy, till the go- 
vernor of it (perceiving the king's limbs to fail him, and 
that dropping his arms he was hardly compos mentis] 
put the beafl: to flight, making the befl of his way, 
Alexander followed him as faft as he could, bjut hts 
horfe being very, much wounded fainted under him^ 
and might be faid rather to fet him down gently, than 
caft him. Being thus obliged to cliangc his horfe^ 
retarded his purfuit. In the mean time he fent " the 
" brother of Taxiles the Indian king to perfuade Po- 
** rus to furrender himfelf, and not hold out to the 
*' lafl extremity ;^' but he, altho' his flrength faiPd 
him, and his blood was exhauiled, yet raifmg himfelf 
up at the known voice, faid, " I am fenfible thoa 
" art the brother of Taxiles, that traitor of his fove- 
" reignty and kingdom." And at the fame dme,. 
call theonly dart he had left with fuch a force at him, 


B. VIII. QyiNTus CuRTius. 117 

that it pierc'd his body thro' to the back. Having 
given this laft inftance of his bravery, he began to fly 
fefler than before ; but by this time, the elephant, 
who had receiv'd a great many wounds, was not able 
to go any farther ; fo that Poras was obfig'd to flop, 
and with feme foot made head againll the purfuing 
enemy. Alexander being come up with him, and 
underftahding his obflinacy, forbid any mercy to be 
fhewn to thofe who made any refiftance. At thefe 
words they ply'd Porus and his men with darts from 
all parts, till at laft not being able to bear up any 
longer, he began to Aide down from his beaft. The 
Indian who guided the elephant, thinking he had a 
mind to alight, caus'd the beaft to kneel down ac- 
cording to cuftom ; which being obferv'd by the reft, 
they a;U did the like, being train'd up to do fo, by 
which means Porus and all his followers became a 
prey to the conquerors. The king thinking Porus 
was dead, order 'd his body to be ftripp'd ; bat as 
they were running to put the fame in execution, and 
take off his armour and garments, the beaft began to 
defend his mafter, and attack the aggrelTors, and tak- 
ing hold of him with his trunk, put him again upon 
his back. Whereupon they prefently cover'd the ele- 
phant with darts, and kilPd it, and put Porus in a 
waggon. But the king perceiving him to lift up his 
eyes, was mov'd with compaffion, and faid to him. 
•* What madnefs pofTefs'd thee to try the fortune of 
" the war with me, of whom thou hadft heard fuch 
** mighty things, efpecially when Taxiles thy neigh- 
** hour might have been a fufficient example of my 
** clemency to thofe that are wife enough to fubmit 
** tome?" To which he made anfwer, " Since thou 
'* afkeft me the queftion, I fhall tell thee with the 
** fame freedom thou granteft me by the queftion. 
'* I thought no body ftrongcr than my fell ; for I 
** knew my own power, and had not yet experienced 
3 " thine. 


**^ thine. The event of the war convinces me, thou 
^' art the greateft prince, and I think it no fioall hap- 
** pinefs to hold the next rank to thee." Being a&*d 
^gain, '^ How he thought the vi£ior ought to ufe 
^* him ? he reply *d, as this day's adtion mall infpire 
"•* thee ; by which thou art fenfible of the frailty of 
*^ mortal Imppinefs.'* This admonition avaO^d him 
more than any intreaty could have done ; for confider- 
i&g the greafnefs of his mind, which was altogether 
fearlefs, and not in the leafl impaired by adverfity, 
he not only took pity of him, but us'd lum honour- 
ably. He ordered the fame care to be taken of his 
wounds, as if he had fought for his fervice, and when 
they were cur'd, he receiv'd him into the number of 
his friends, contrary to every body's expcAation, and 
in a little time gave him a larger kingdom th^ he 
liad before. Indeed, there was nothing more flrong- 
ly riveted into his nature, than a due regard to true 
merit and glory. It \& true, at the iame tim^ he 
conlider'd renown more impartially in an enemy, 
than in his fubjefls ; for he thought that the fame of 
thefe, was a diminution to his own, which he ima- 
gined receiv'd fome additional luftre from the great- 
nefs of thofe he overcame. 

Q^U IN- 


B O O K IX. 

4 ^ » f« ^ f « * | * » | i 4* ' I * » T ' » T * ' T' *!* ' T' ' T* * T' 't * 4 * *! * ^^ ^ * ^ * T * " T* ^ *l '4 ^^ ^ * ' T * ' K' 4 * ^^ 4 ^ 4* 
C H A R L 

ALexaoder rejoicing at fo memorable a vi- 
ftory (by which he conceiv'd he had 
opened himfelf a paffage into the eaft) 
ofFer'd facrifices to the fun ; and that his 
foldiers might undergo with the greater chearfuhiefs 
the fatigues of the remaining wars, he made a fpeech 
to them, wherein he firll highly commended them 
for their paft fervices, and afterwards acquainted 
them, " That the main fbength of the Indians had 
** been overcome in the late fuccefsful aftion. That 
** what remained, would be only -sl noble booty 
" ** for them ; fmce the country they were going to, 
" was particularly celebrated for its prodigious 
** wealth and riches, in refpect to which, the ipoils 
'^ of the Perfians were but mere trifles : That they 
** might now propofe, not only to fill their own 
^* honfes, bat Hkewife all Macedonia and Greece, 
** with pearls and precious ftone?, gold and ivory." 
Hereupon the foldiers, who were no lefs greedy of 
wealth, than ambitious of glory and honour, and 



efpecially becaufe they had never found his promHes 
fad them, readily offer'd him afrefh their fervioe. 
Having therefore difinifs'd the afTembly full of hopes, 
" he order'd fhips to be built, that when theylukl 
" over-run all Aiia, he might be able to vifit die 
" fea which, bounded, .the ..whole . worlds ' .That 
was a great deal of timbef fit for fhipping in the 
neighbouring mountains, which as they were felling 
they found ferpents of an unufual fize ; here wcre"^ 
alfo Rhinoceroces, which is an animal very rare kr* 
other parts. This name was given them by the'' 
Greeks, they being call'd otherwife by the Indians. * 

The king having built two cities upon the banks oPl 
the river he had lately pafs'd, prefented every one ct^ 
his generals with a crown, and a thoufand pieces of ^ 
gold befides. He alfo rewarded the reft in propor-i 
tion to their ranks, or the fervice they had done. 
Abifares, who had before the battle with Porus, fisDt ^ 
ambaffadors to Alexander, now fent others to him { 
affure him, " he was ready to obey his command 
" provided he might not be obliged to furrender I 
** perfon, he being refolv'd not to live without ti 
** regal dignity, nor to reign in captivity." TcrS 
whom Alexander made anfwer, " That if it was tanfli 
*' great a trouble for their mailer to come to himt % 
*' he would go to him." • 

Having thus vanquilh'd Porus, and pafs'd die ft- r| 
vcr, he advanced farther into the country, where Ik | 
found woods of a vaft extent, wherein were trees of "; 
a prodigious height, the greateft part of the liflAi 
equalling in bignefs the flocks of trees ; for bendf/^ j 
down into the earth, they grew up again in the ianift;2 
place, and feem'd rather like a tree growing from its " 
proper loot, than a bough rifmg from another ftem. 
fhe air is temperate, by reafon that the clofenefs of 
tlic boughs mitigate the exceflive heat of the fun, and 
the great number of the fprings affbxxla large quantitj ^ 



of water, which refrelhes the ground. However, 
here were alfo multitudes of ferpents, whofe fcales 
glitter'd like gold, and there is not any poifou more 
virulent than theirs -, for their bite was prefent death, 
till fuch time as the inhabitants communicated to 
them a proper antidote. From hence they pafs'd 
through delarts, to the river Hydraotis,- which has 
a for^t bordering upon it, fet thick with uncommon 
trees, and very much frequented with wild peacocks. 
Decamping from hence, he took a town not far di- 
ftant, by ^ult, and having taken hoflages for their 
fidelity, he enjoin'd them a certain tribute, and ad- 
vanced to another great town, which was a great one 
for that country. This town was not only encom- 
pafs'd with a wall, but alfo fortify'd with a morafs, 
I'he inhabitants of this place came out to fight him, 
making ufe of feveral chariots join'd together ; fomc 
of them were arm'd with darts, others with pikes, 
and fome with axes, and they would nimbly leap 
from one chariot to another, when they had a mind 
to fuccour their friends. At firft, tliis new way of 
fighting foriiewhat flartled the Macedonians, who 
found themfelves wounded at a diflance, \\ ithout the 
power of revenging themfelves upon their enemies. 
But afterwards growing into a contempt of tliis difor- 
derly rout, they furrounded thefe chariots, and (luck 
thofe who fought in them ; and to facilitate tlie >\ ork, 
the king commanded them " to cut the traces that 
" join'd them together, that fo they might attack 
" them lingly." Having in this enj^^agcmtnt loft 
eight thoufand of their men, the reft retired into the 
town. The next day the Macedonians fcal'd thvi 
walls, and took it by afFault ; feme few had fav'd 
themfelves by flight, and being fcnf.blo of ihe de- 
ftruction of the place, they fwann over the mcor, and 
carry 'd a difmal account to the nci^^hL curing cities, 
and put them in the utmoft conitcriiation, telling 
Vol. II. F them. 

72^ QyiNTus CuRTiirs. B. IX*. 

4:hem, " there was an invincible army of gods come 
*** againfl them." Alexander having detach 'd Per- 
-diccas with a body of light-horfe to dcftroy the 
-country, fent Eumencs with another body to reduce 
the obftinate, and march'd himfelf with the reft to a 
*ftfong town, into which the inhabitants of feveral 
•others had taken refuge. The towns-men difjpatch'd 
-deputies to Alexander, to implore his mercy, and yet 
>at the fame time prepared thcmfelves for war : for 
a fedition happening amongft them, they were divided 
in their couniels, fome preferring any condition to a 
furrender, while others thought it was to no purpofe 
<o refirt. But there being w)thing confulted in com- 
mon, they who were for JurrenderingopenM the gates 
and let in the enemy. 

Notwithftanding the king might with juftice have 
-punifh'd thofe who were for encouraging the reft to 
•oppofc him, yet he pardon'd all in general, and hav- 
. ing received hoftages from them, he marched his 
•iirmy to the next city. As thefe hoftages were -led 
*at the head of the army, the inhabitants from die 
ivalls knew them, as being of the fame nation, and 
therefore came to a parley with them, and being in- 
ibrm'd by them of the king's clemency as well as 
power, they were prevailed upon to furrender thcm- 
•i'elves ; and the other towns following their ex^tmple, 
jput themfelves alfo under his prote«5lk)n. , 

From hence he came into the kingdom of Sophites. 
'This nation (for Barbarians) is very wife, and is go- 
verned by good laws and virtuous morals. Here they 
-do not rear and bring up their children according to 
the will of the parents, but by the approbation of 
fuch who are appointed to inipedl and examine tkt 
-frame and make of their bodies. Where they find 
^any notorioufly deformed, or defective in any oT 
-their limbs, they caufe them to be kilPd. In their 
onarria^es, tliey have regaid neither to nobility nor 


B. IX. QoiNTirs CiTRTitm. 123 

^xtrwEdon, but only to the beauty of the body ; be- 
-<:aafe it is chiefly that they value in their children. 
Alexander had brought his army before the capital of 
this nation^ where Sophites was himfelf prefent. The 
gates were (hut, but no bodyappear'd either on the 
walls, or in the towers : This made the Macedonian^ 
fufpedt the inhabitants had either abandoned the place, 
■or clfe kept out of iight on the account of fome ftra- 
tagem. But all on the fudden, the gate was open'd^ 
<and the Indian king (who far exceeded all the reft in 
goodlineffr* of perlon) vnih two fons already well 
grown, came forth to meet Alexander. His garment 
was intermixM with g<old and puiple, and covered his 
legs ; his iandals, which were of eold, were all fee 
with pearls and precious flones, wim which his arms 
were likewife curioufly adom'd. At his ears he liad 
pendants, whofe extraordinary whitenefs and large- 
iiefs made them almoft ineftimable. His fceptrr, 
which was of gold alfo, was neatly fet off with Berj'ls. . 
This he deliver'd to Alexander, wiftiing him all 
health and happinefs, and thereby gave him to under- 
ibfid,' that he laid himfelf, his ciuldren, and nation 
at his mercy. 

This country affords very fine dogs for hunting ; 
they are iatd to'refrain their cry, after they have once 
fecn their game, which is the lion particularly. That 
he might therefore fhew Alexander the ftrength and 
nature of thefe dogs, he caus'd a ver>' large lion to be 
brought forth, and only four of them to be let loofe 
upon it. The dogs prefently faflen'd upon the bcall ; 
4hcn one of thofe whofe proper bufincfs it was, took 
hold of the leg of one of them, and poird it with all 
his fb-ength, but the dog not yielding thereunto, he 
began to cut it off ; notvvithibmding which, the dog 
kept his hold, fo that the keeper cat him ift another 
place, and finding him to adhere ilill tcnacioufly to 
the beall, he by degrees cut him in pieces, the dog 
F 2 keeping 


keeping his teeth ftill fixM in the lion till he dy'd ; fo 
great is the eagernefs nature has implanted in thefe 
creatures for their game, as it is tranfivitted to us 
irom our predeceiTors. I mud confefs, I tranicribe 
more than I believe myfelf ; for I cannot affirm for 
truth, what I doubt of; and at the fame time, L 
cannot omit relating what I have receiv'd. Alexan- 
der therefore leaving Sophites in poiTeflion of his do^ 
minions, advanc'd to the river Hypafis, and ther^ 
joined Hephaeftion who had fubdu'd another country. 
•Phegelas was king of the neighbouring nation, who, 
upon advice of Alexander's approach, order'd his 
iubjedis to mind cultivating their land, and then fet 
out with prefcnts to meet him, refoJv'd to refufe no 
injunctions he fhould lay upon him. 

C H A P. U. 

THE king having ftaid with this prince two days, 
defign'd on the third to pafs the river ; which 
midertaking was difficult, not only by reafon of its great 
breadth, but alfo on the account of the many rocks that" 
lay fcatter'd up and down in it. He therefore en- 
quired of Phegelas, what was proper for him to 
'know ; who gave him to underftand. " That beyond 
•** the river, he had eleven days jo' iney through de- 
•* farts and folitudes, after 'Nvhich te would come to 
** the Ganges, which is the largeft river in all India ; 
•* the furthermoft bank whereof was inhabited by the 
** Gangaridae, and Prafii, whofe king's name was 
*' Aggrammes, who guarded the entrance into his 
" dominions, with tw,enty thoufand horfe, and two 
•* hundred thoufand foot ; befides which, he had two 
V thoufand chjiriots, and (which was ftiU more terri- 

« ble) 

B^IX. QuiNTus Curt I us. 125 

" ble) three thodand clq)hants." The king at firft 
look*d upon thefe reports as fo many incredibilities, 
and therefore aik'd Porus (for he was with him) 
'* Whether this account was true ? " Who told him, 
" That as to the ftrength of the nation, there v,'B3 
•* ngthing romantick in it ; but as for the prefcrft 
*' king, he was fo far from being noble, that he was 
" of very mean extradtion ; his father having been 
" a barber, and had much a-do to fubfift by lus daily 
** labour, till his perfon recommended him to the 
** queen's favour, who procur'd him tlie firft place in 
** the then king's friendftiip. After which, this bar- 
** barous wretch treacheroufly kilPd his fovereign^ 
" and under the pretence of a guardian, feiz'd jiis 
** kingdom ; then taking off the children, begot the 
*' prefent king, who was both defpis'd and hated by 
** his fubjefts, who were more mindful of liis fothcr's 
" meannefs, thanoflps prefent fortune.'* This ccn- 
finnation of Porus, made the king very anxious ; for 
the' he defpis'd the enemy, and the elephants, yet he 
was oneafy on account of the difficult fituation of the 
places he was to pafs thro% and the rapidity of the 
jiyers. It feem'd to him a hard talk, to feek out an 
enemy in the exA-emity of the world, and force tlicm 
oat of tiieir ftrong hokb againft him^ On the other 
£de, his. infatiable thirft after hme, and his unbound- 
ed ambition, fhorten'd the diftance of the rcmoteft 
places, and made him think no difhculty unfurmounta- 
nle. But then.*again, '^ he doubted whether the Ma^ 
** cedonians, who hii already march'd thro' fo many 
*' large coantries, who were grown old in the camp 
" and fervice, would be willmg to follow him over 
** fo many rivers that lay in. fis way, and ftmggle 
** thro' fo many difficulties of refilling nature ? It 
** was Beafonable to think, that they who were al- 
** ready over-loaded with booty, would rather covet 
*• to enjoy what they had acquir'd, than harrafs them- 
F 3 « felvc» 



•• felves any longer to procure more. Moreoirer» 
'• his Ibldicrs difpofition and his, were quite different;. 
** for as he had engrofs'd in his thoughts the empire 
** of the whole world, he was in a manner but be- 
** ginning lii great work ; whereas the foldiers, over- 
" come by thtfr fatigues- ami toils, defir'd nothing 
"■ more than an end cF their dangers, that they might 
** enjoy the laft fruits of their labours." However, 
ambition carry'd it againft reafon. Having therefore 
drawn up his army, he fpoke to them in 3ie follow^ 
ing manner : •* I am not infenfible, foldiers, that 
** the Indians have within thefe few days fpread feve- 
, ** ral rumonrs on purpofe to terrify you ; but you do 
" not need being told, how groundlefs fuch reports 
** arc. I'hus ihe PcHians heretofore endeavoured to 
*' terrify you with the ftraits of Cilicia, and the plains 
" of Mefopotamia, the Tigris, and the Euphrates; 
" and yet we forded the one, and by the means of ~ 
** bridges paft the other. Fame never reprefents mat- 
" ters truly as tJiey are, but on the contnuy, magni^ 
** fies every thing. This is plain from our own re*- 
** putation and glory, which tho' founded on folid 
**^ truths, is yet more obliged to rumour than reality. 
** Who would have thought we could have overcome 
** (as we did lately) thole monilrous elefdiants ^a/t 
^ appeared like fo many ftrong fortifications ? Octhat 
•• we could have pais^d the river Hydafpis ? or 
^ grappl'd wkh a great inany other difficulties, which 
*^' were much more fonmdable to hear of than they 
** were in facl ? Believe me, we had long ago fled from. 
•* Afia, if fables could have frighten*d us. Can you 
*^ imagine there ihould be greater herds of elephants 
** tlian of other cattle > When at the fame time it is 
** known to be a rare animal, hard to be taken, and 
'* harder to be tam'd. It is the fame fpirit of falfhood, 
** that has reprefented your enemies to be Co nume- 
** rous in horfe and focrt:.. As for the river, it is.cer- 
. . "tain 

B; IX. QuiNTlfS^CuRTirS. MJI 

** tain that the broader it is, the gentler mufl be ita 
" ftream ; for it is the being confm'd within nanow 
** banks, and the running in a ilrait channel, thr.t 
" caufes the impetuous current of the water. Befide^ 
•* all men know, that the greateH: danger is at the 
" landing, the enemy being ready on the bank to re* 
" ceive us ; fo tliat the rifque is equal in tliat cafe,- 
** be the river broad or narrow. But admitting tha> 
** all thefe reports were true, is it tlie huge balk o^ 
** thefe animals, or the number of the enemy,- 
" that aifrights you ? As to the elephants, we have 
"^ lately expcricnc'd that they did more damage ta 
** their own party,, than to us, and that with our axesf. 
^ and other weapons, we can difable tlieir vaU bo- 
** dies. What matters it then, whether they are the 
** lame number Porus lately had, or tlirce thouiand ? 
" Since we fee tliat one or two of them Jbeing wound- 
•* ed, the rell immediately fly. Again, it t)cing fo 
** difficult a tafk to govern a few of them, fo man v. 
•* thoufands of tliem together,^ muil needs interfhocki 
*' one another, where there is not room for their un- 
" weildy over-grown bodies either to (land or fly, 
" As for my own part, I have always had fo meaiv 
" an opinion of them, that when I had them, I never 
*' thought them worth making ufe of, being fulW con- 
" vinc^, they were more pernicious to thofe they- 
** were intended to ferve, than to the enemy. But 
" perhaps it is the multitude of horfe and foot that 
*• terrifies you ! as if you had been hitherto us'd to. 
*^ encounter but with fmall numbers, and this was the. 
*• firft time you are to fland the brunt of a diforderly 
** rout ! The river Granicus is a fufficient witnefs o£ 
^* the invincible courage of the Macedonians againfi: 
•* a fupcrior number, as well as Cilicia, which wa& 
** drenched with the blood of the Perfians, and Ar- 
** bela, whofe plains are covered with the bones of 
** the conquered cnomy. It is too late to look at thcL 
F 4. " number 

128 QyiNTtrs Curtius. B. K. 

*' number of your enemies, after yon have laid wafte 
** "all Afia by your vidlories. You ought to have re- 
*• flefted on your finall number, when we jiafs'd the 
** Hellefpont ; for at pxtfcnt the Scythians Follow us, 
•' the Ba^rians aflift us, and the Dahae and Sogdiani 
•* are engaged in our fcrvice. At the fame time, I 
** do not rely on this rabble, it is you, Macedonians, 
*' I'truft to, it is your unparallel'd bravery and cou- 
** rage I confide in, and is an infallible pledge and 
" fecurity for all the great things I have yet to do. 
" While I am at the head of fuch gallant men, I fhall 
•* neither count the number of my own, nor the ene- 
** my 's army: All that I require, is, that you'll fhew 
" me a cheerful countenance, accompany'd with your 
** ufual confidence and alacrity. We are not now in 
** the beginning of our work, but at the clofe of it. 
•' We have ahcady reach'd the ocean, and the bounds 
'* where the fun rifes, and unlefs your own want of 
** fpirit and floth (land in the way, we ihall return 
** home with a compleat conqueft of the whole world. 
•* Do not imitate thofe bad husbandmen, who thro' 
** their lazinefs lofc the fruits of their labour. The 
** reward is much greater than the danger ; the coun- 
'* try you arc going to, abounds in riches, and is at 
** the fame time weakly defended, fo that I may be 
^' faid to lead you not'fo much to glory and honour, 
*' as to a noble booty. It is your due to carry back 
" to your own nation, the wealth that fea difcharges 
'* on its fliore ; it were a Ihame you fhould leave any 
** thing untry'd, or unattempted thro' fear. I there- 
** fore not only beg of you, but conjure you by your 
** own glory, in which you exceed all the reft of man- 
" kind, by the favours I have beftowed upon you, 
** and your own merit towards me, in which noble 
** ftrife we are ftill contending, that you will not de- 
** fert your fofter-fon and fcllow-foldier, not to men- 
** tion your king. What is paft has been done bj 

*' m: 

** my authority, but for this I ihall own myklf in* 
** dcbted to you. At the fame time that I afk this 
** of you, you know that in all the commands I have 
*' laid upon you, I always was the firft to face the 
*« danger, and have often proteded you with my own 
'* buckler. Do not therefore break the palm you 
** have put into my hands, which, if not blafted by 
** envy, will make me equal to Hercules and Bacchus. 
** Grant me this fmgle requeft, and break your obfli- 
** nate filence. What is become of that generous 
** fhout, the ufual token of your alacrity ? Where is 
** that cheerful countenance of my Macedonians ? 
** Methinks I hardly know you, foldiers, neither do 
** you feem to know me ; but I fpeak to deaf ears, 
** and drive in vain to excite and animate the broken 
" courage of thofe whofe minds arc alienated from 
15 me." As notwithftanding all this, they pcriiflcd 
ftill in their dejefted pofture, hanging down their 
heads ; ** Wherein, faid he, have I unwittingly of- 
** fended you, that you do not at leaft voud3afe to 
** look at me ? I fancy my(elf in a wildemefs, no 
** body anfwers me, no body fo much as gives me 
** the fatisfai£lion of a flat denial. Who do I fpeak 
** to ? What is it I requeft ? It is your own glory 
" and greatnefs we alTcrt. Where are now thofe men 
*' who not long ago were contending about the pre- 
** rogative of carrying their wounded king ? 1 am 
*' forfaken, deftitute and delivered up a prey to my 
" enemies. Be it as it will,- I'll perfeverc in the pro- 
** fecution of my defign, tho' I march alone. Expofe 
** me to the difficulties of rivers, the cruelty of e]c- 
" phants, and to thofe nations that ftrike you with Co 
" much horror ; I (hall find thofe that will follow 
" me, tho' you defcrt me. The Scythians and. 
" Baftrians will accompany me, and they who were 
" a while ago our enemies, fliall be now our foldiers. 
** I had rather die than reigi] prccarioufly. Qct yoi 
Jt* 5 ** gone 

13© QyiNTus CuRTius;. B: IX. 

" gone home, go and triumph for having. ahandon'd 
" your king ; for my own part, Tli either get the 
** vidory you defpair of, or.perifh honourably." 


ALL that he could fay> could not- force a fingle 
word from any one of them. They ^xpeded 
that the generals and chief officers fhould reprcfent to^ 
h'un, "That altho' their bodies were cover'd with 
" wounds, and quite? worn out with the continual fa^ 
" tigues of their long fervice, they did not refixfe the 
** duties of the war, but were no longer able to.dif- 
** charge them." However, being itupify*d with 
fear, they kept their eyes ftill fix'd upon the ground. 
After fome time there arofe amongft them a voluntary 
murmur, and their grief by degrees began to fhew it- 
felf more freely, tijl at lail they burft afi out in tears; 
fo that the king himfelf (his angef being now tum'd 
into pity) could no longer forbear weeping. While 
the whole affembly was thus diffolv'd in tears, Caenus 
took courage and approach'd the tribunal, intimating 
he had fomething to fay. When the foldiers faw him 
take off his helmet, (it being the cuftom to do fo, when 
they fpoke to the king) they all begg'd of him, " That 
'^ he would plead the caufe of the army;" he there* 
fore exprefsM himfelf in the following manner : " May 
** the Gods forbid all impious thoughts in us, and 
** fiire they^ do at prefent. Your foldiers have the 
♦* fame inclination towards you w hich they always 
. ** had, and arej ready to go where-ever you command— 
** them, to encounter with any dangers for your fake^p. 

^ and to fpill the laft drpp of their blood to reccm 

^ mend your name to p<^eritv. If therefore you ia— -- 

" 6^ 

B^IX. QuiNTus CuRTius. 131 

*' fift upon it, tho' we are without arms, naked and' 
** bloodlefs, if fuch be your royal will and pleafure, 
** we are not only ready to follow, but alfo to lead 
** the way. But if your majefty will vouchfafe to 
** hear the unfeigned reprefentations of your foldiers, 
** forc'd from them by the laft neceffity ; lend, we 
** befeech you, a favourable ear to thofe who have 
*• always chearfuUy obey'd your commands, and 
** fhar'd your fortune, and do not want will to attend 
** you where-ever you Ihall think fit to go. Confi- 
** der, Sir, that your great performances have not 
** only overconfie your enemies, but likewife ^at 
*' own ibldiers. We have done all that mortals were. 
•* capable of, and by frequent ufe are better acquaint- 
*' ed with the feas and countries, than eyen the inha- 
•* bitants themfelves. We may be faid to ftand no\V 
•* on die atmoft bounds of the world ; but as if this 
" were too little for your great foul, you are pre- 
** paring to march to another, and to feek out new 
*' indies unknown to the Indians themfelves. ' You 
" are for forcing out of their lurking retreats, thofd 
** who have taken fhelter with the ferpents and wild 
" beafls ; in fine, you are fbr carrying your vidorici^ 
" farther dian the fun's piercing eye can fee. It muft 
" be own'd to be a thought worthy your unbounded 
*' mind, but at the fame time it is above ours ; fbf 
" your courage and bravery will ever be incrcafing, 
** whereas our flrength is almoft at an end. Behokl 
** our bloodlefs bodies, cover'd over with wounds, 
" and disfigur'd with fears. Our weapons are blunted, 
** aftd our arms worn out. We are forc'd to weai' 
** the Perfian habit, becaufff we are too remote to have 
" that of our own country brought to us, fo that we 
" are degenerated into a .foreign apparel. Who 
" amongft us has a breaft-plate ? Wiio has a horfe 
left ? Let a fcrutiny be made how many of us hav« 
** been able to be folio w'd by our fcfvants, and what 
* F 6 ** any 



any of as has left of His booty. Having conqaer*d 
- the world, we ^e deftitute of all thrngs. It is not 
** our luxury is the caufe of this, but we have worn 
" out in the war the very inftraments of war. Can 
V you find in your heart to expofe (o gallant an army 
'* naked, and without defence, to the mercile^ fary 
** of wild beafb ? Whofe multitude, tho' it be defign* 
** edly maenihed by the Barbarians, yet it is eafy to 
** gather from the very falfe report itfelf, that the 
*^ number is great. If after all your majefty is hent 
^ on penetrating (till farther into India, that part of 
*' it that lies to the fouthward is not fo vaft; which 
*^ being fubdu*d, you will extend your conquefts t» 
*^ that fea that nature has appointed for the bounds df 
** the world. Why fhould you go the round-about 
** way to that glory which is near at hand ? For here 
" the ocean is to be found : and unleis you take de- 
** light in wandering, we are already arrived where 
** your fortune intended to lead you. I chofe rather 
•* to fay thefe things in your prefence. Sir, than in 
f* your abfence confer about them with my fellow- 
*^ ioldiers; nOt defigning thereby to ingratiate myfelf 
** with the liilening army, bat that you may rather 
** hear their common fentiments frotn my mouth, 
•f than be troubled with their groans and niurmurs.'* 
Caenus having Bnifhed his fpeech, there was heard 
ifrom all parts a clamorous noife mix'd with lamenta^ 
tions, wftich in confus'd founds call'd Alexander- 
King, Fathe*, and Sovereign Lord. Then the other — 
captains, efpecially the mofl antient, who on the ac^ — 
count of their age were mod to be excused, and hadtf 
alfo thereby the greater authority, made the fame re—— 
queft, fo that the king was not able to chaflife theii^ 
obilinacy, or mitigate their anger. Being therefor^^ 
unrefolv'd what courfe to take, he leap'd from th^tf 
tribunal, and ihut himfelf up in his tent, forbiddin^g 
wty to be admittted, except tnofe who were us'd to 1 


B. IX. QuiNTUs CxTRtitrj, 133 

witi him. Thus he facrific'd two days to his paffion, 
and the diicd he appeared publkkly again, and or- 
der'd twelve altars to be ereded of f<juare ftone, to 
remain as a monument of his expedition. He alfo 
caus'd the fortificiations of his c^mp to be extei^ded, 
and beds to be left of a larger iize than the ordinary 
flature of man requirM, dengningto impoie UDOn po- 
fterity by this exceffive outward appearance or things. 
This being done, he march'd back the fame way he 
came, and encamp'd along the river Acefmes. Her« 
Caepus dy'd. The king was alHifled at his death, yet 
could not forbear faymg, " He had made a long 
** ipeech for the few days he had to live, as if he 
** alone had been to return to Macedonia." By this 
time the fleet he had order 'd to be built, lay ready at 
anchor; hither Memnon brought him fix thouland 
Thracian horfe to recruit his armv, beiides feven 
^oufand foot, which Harpalus had fent by him : He 
alfo brought twenty five thoufand arms finely adom'd 
with gold and filver, which Alexander caus'd to be 
diftribtfted amongfl his foidiers, commanding them to 
bum their old ones. Defigning now to make towards 
the ocean with a thoufand Slips, he firfl reconciled 
Porus and Taxiles, the Indian kings {who were about 
renewing their former refentments) and having fettled 
a good underflanding between them by a marriage, 
he left them in their refpeftive dominions. They had 
both been ferviceable to him in the building of his 
fleet. He alfo built two towns, one whereof he caH'il 
Nicasa, and the other BucephaJon, dedicating the lat- 
ter to the memory of his horfe, which was dead. 
Then having given orders for the elephants and bag- 
gage to follow him by land, he faiPd down the river, 
proceeding every day near four hundred furlongs for 
the conveniency of landing his forces in commo- 
dious places, 


IJ4 QjjiN.'Tir^CuR.Tius^-. &IX» 


\ T length he came into the country where the 
Xjl Hydafpes falls into the Aceiines ; from whence 
he fell down the confluence of thefe rivers into the 
territory of the Sobil. Thefe people report, ** That 
** their anceflors belong'd to Hercules's army, but 
" being fick ^vere left here, where their pofterity had 
** remain'd ever fince.?' They cloth'd themfelves 
with the fkins of wild Beaffe, and their weapons were 
clubs ; and notwithftanding the Greeks manners were 
abolifh'd amongft them, yet there was a great many 
traces fHU left, that fufficiently declared from whence 
ibcy defcended. 

Here the king landed with his army, and march'd 
two hundred and fifty furlongs into the country, 
which having pillae*d and laid wafle, he took the ca- 
pital fword in hand.- There were forty thoufand foot 
of another nation drawn up along the river's fide to 
oppofe his landing, ^hich however he efFeftcd, and 
put them to flight, and afterwards befieg'd the town 
to which they had retir'd, and took it by flonn ; all 
that V ere able to bear arms were put to the fword, 
and the reft were fold. After this he lay dowa before 
another, place, where he was gallantly repuls'd hy the 
befieg'd, and loft a great many Macedonians ; bat 
when the inhabitants found that he obftinately conti- 
nued the fiege, defpairing of their fafety, they fct fire 
to the town, and caft their wives, children, and them- 
felves into the flames, whi^h as they ftrove to feed and 
increafe, the enemy endeavoured to extinguifli ; fo 
that here was a new fpecies of contention and ftrifb, 
&r the. inhabitants deftrpy'd the town^ and the ene- 
• mics 

B. IX« Qji'NTus CuaTitTS. 135 

mies defended it, fo great a change does war make 
even in the laws of nature. The caftle had received 
no damage, and the king left a garrifon in it,, after 
which he went round the fame by water, for it was 
encompafs'd by three of the largeft rivers of all India 
(except the Ganges) which feem'd to lend their ib-eams 
£oT its fortification. The Indus wafhes it on the north 
fide, ^d on the. fouth the Acefines mixes itfelf with 
the Hydafpes^ The violent meeting of thefe rivers 
makes their waters as turbulent and rough as thofe of 
the fea ; and as they carry a great deal of mud along 
with them, which by their rapid concourfe is very 
much diilurb'd, they leave but a. narrow channel for 
the boats to.pafs in. Alexander's fleet being therefore 
vehemently ply'd. by the waves both at flem and ok 
the £dcs, the mariners began to furl their fails, and 
endeavour to. eet off*; but they were fo diforder'd by 
fear, that the impetuous fwiftnefs of the rivers was too 
many for them, fo that two of their largefl Ihips were 
loft in their fight : as for the fmall ones, tho' it wae. 
impoilible to govern even them, they were driven up- 
on the fliore, without receiving any damage. 

The fhip the king was in was carry'd by the furious 
farce of the current amongft the ftrongeft whirlpoola^ 
which hurrying the Ihip along with their <:ircular mo- 
tion, made die rudder altogether ufelefs. The king 
had ftnpp'd himfelf,,and was juft ready to leap into the 
river, and his friends were fwimming clofe oy ready 
to receive him ; but it feem'd almoft .doubtful where 
was the greateft danger, . either in fwimming or flaying 
on board. The mariners therefore ply'd their oars 
with all the flrength human force could lend, to break 
the violence of the >vaves, which at lafl yielded to 
their importunate labour, and the fhip was work'd 
out of thefe raging gulfs ; notwithltanding whicjk 
they could not gain the fhore, but were flranded ojpi 
Ae next flats.. Onei would have thought it had hem, 


13* QuiNTtrs CuRTixriS. B* IX. 

a kind of engagement with the river ; Alexander 
tiierefbre having crcAed three altars, according to th^ 
number of the rivers, offered facrifices upon them, 
and then advanc'd thirty furlongs. 

From thence he march'd into the country of the 
Qxydracae and the Malli, who tho' ufually at war 
with one another, yet at diis junfture were untied by 
the common danger. They had got together an ar- 
my of ninety thoufend foot, ten thoufaiwl horfc, ai^ 
nine hundred chariots. The Macedonians, who thought 
they had pafs*d thro* all their dangers, finding a mfli 
war upon their hands with the fierceft people of India, 
being ftruck with an unexpefted terror, oegan a^n 
to mutiny, and rail againft the king, ** dledgmg, 
** that he would lately have compell'd them to pj3s 
** the Ganges, and engage in a war with thofe ftrone 
^* populous nations that Lie beyond the fame ; which 
*^ enterprize tho' at laft he defifted from, yet the war 
** was not at an end, but only chang'd. That they 
** were now expos'd to a favage people, that at the 
** expence of their blood they might open him a way 
•* to the ocean. That they were dragg'd beyond the 
** afpeft of the fun and ftan, and fbrc'd to thofe 
^* places which nature feem'd to have a mind to hide 
•* from mortal eyes. That as he fupply'd them from 
** time to time with new arms, fo they had continu- 
** ally frefh enemies to encowiter ; which admittin^E 
•* that they overcome, what reward had they to expett 
** but thick fogs and darknefs, and an eternal meht 
** that lay hovering on the deep ; a fea replcat with 
** infinite multitudes of hideous monflers, and ftagnat- 
" ing waters, in which dying nature feem'd to fiunt 
*• away ? 

The king (tho' void of fear himfelf) yet was in 
great perplexity on the account of the uneafmefs of 
£i§ army, and therefore having call'd them together, 
ke gave them to •underftand, " That thofe people 

/ " they 

B. IX. QuiNTus GuRTius. 137 

** they fo much dreaded were altogether raw and un- 
** difciplin'dj that having overcome thefe nations, 
*' thejr would meet with no farther, obftacle to ftop 
•* their pafiage to the end of the world, and put a 
** period to their fatigues and labours ; that he had, 
•* in confideration of their fear, defift'd from his de- 
^ iign of paffing the Ganges, and conquering the na- 
*' tions that lie beyond it, and had tum'd his arms 
** another way, where there was equal glory and lefs 
** hazard; tlraJt the ocean was already within their 
** fight, and refrefh'd them with its cool breezes ; he 
** begg'd therefore of them, that they would not en- 
•* vy him the glory he fo much coveted, fince by 
** f^ng the bounds of Hercules and Bacchus they 
*' might at an eafy rate make his fame immortal ; at 
** leaft he deiir'd they would fuffer him to lead them 
•* fafcly back out of India, and not reth-e like fugi- 
** tives." It is the property of all multitudes, and 
cfpecially of the military, to be carry 'd away 'with 
fmall motions, fo that as a little matter raifes a fediti- 
on, it is alfo as eafily appeas'd. There never was a 
more chearful fhout given by the army than at this 
time, dcfiring " him to lead them whcre-cver' he 
" 'pleas'd, wifhing the gods -to blefs his arms, that he 
*** might equal the glory of thofe he rival'd." Alex- 
ander was over-joy 'd at thefe acclamations^ and there- 
fore broke up immediately to advance towards the 
enemy. They were the moft warlike people of all 
the Indians, and were preparing to make a vigorous 
war, haying made choice of a very brave general out 
of the Oxydracan nation. He was alfo an expcrienc'd 
foldier, and had pitch'd his camp at the toot of a 
mountain, cauiing fires to be made to a great diftance, 
that his army might thereby appear more nnmcrous ; 
and would now and then alarm die Macedonians when 
at reft, by the fudden cries and uncouth bowlings of 
Jiis men. ' As fooa as it ww light, the king, fdl of 


138 QuMJTus CuRTiua. B. IX. 

aflurance and hopes, onder'd his foldiers (who had 
now a cheerful countenance) to take their arms, and 
put themfelves in order of battle ; but the Barbarians, 
cither thro' fear, or by reafon of fome divifions 
among themfelves, fled into the mountains, the king 
purfuing them to no purpofe ; however, he took their 

jSlcr this he advanc'd to the city of the Ckcydrar 
cans, where a great number had taken refuge, put- 
ing no lefs conhdence in the ftrength of the place, than 
in their arms. The king was juft going to lie down 
before it, when a foothfayer advis'd him to forbear, 
or at leaft delay the fiege, becaufe he forefaw that his 
life would he in danger. Hereupon the king looking 
upon Demophoon (for that was the foothfayer *s name) 
faid to him, " If while thou art infent upon thy art 
•* of infpe^lion, any body fhould interrupt thee, I do 
** not doubt but thou wouldil think him impertineoi: 
** and troublefome ; which Demophoon agreeing to^ 
** Canft thou then imagine,, reply'd the king, that 
*^ when my thoughts are taken up with matten of the 
^ greateft importance, and not with the intrails of 
** beafls, there can be amr thing more unfeafonaUe 
" than the interruption of a fuperftitious foothfayer ?'* 
This faid, he without any farther delay commanded the 
ladders to be apply 'd to the wall ; and while the xeB:^ 
were hefitating on the account of the danger, he wa^ 
the firfl that fcal'd the wall, whofe coping was vcr^" 
narrow and without battlements, as there is common.j^ 
ly at the top, but was carryM on with -one continu!^3 
bead, which defended its paiTage. Thus the kingS 
might be faid rather to cleave to than fland upon th-^ 
narrow margin thereof, receiving in his buckler tlk-'^ 
darts with which he was on all fides warmly plyM ^^ 
a diftance from the towers, and the foldiers were hic:^ 
der'd from climbing up by tlie douds of arrows th^^ 
were Ihot at them from above, ^owever^^ at te^ 


B. XI. QyiNTus Curt I us. 139 

fhame overcame the greatnefs of the danger, for they 
£aw that by their delay the king would fall into the 
hands of the eiemies ; bat their ovcr-eagernefs prov'd 
a great hindrance to them, for as they all ftrove who 
fhould get up fooneft, they fo loaded the ladders that 
they broke under them, and difappointed the king of 
the only hope he had ; by this means (landing in the 
iight of fo numereue an army, he might be md to be 
as deftitute as if he had been in a defart. 


BY this time his left arm (with which he held his. 
buckler) wastir'd with parrying the ftrokes that 
Krere made at him, and his friends cry'd out to him ta 
leap down to them, who flood ready to receive him i 
but he k^^ietuA. thereof did what furoafiies all belief, 
mjod tetvcB radier to reprefent his raflmefs than to in- 
crtafe Us glory, for with an uoheard-of temerity he 
JjOKp^d into the town amongft all his enemies, tho* at 
the fame time he could hardly propofe to himfelf the 
iads&^on of dying fightii^ ; unce before he could 
^fe ofF the ground, he might be over-power*d and 
taken alive.. However, as his good fortune would 
have it, he fa pois'd his body that it light u^n h& 
feet, which gave him the advantage of en^gug the 
enemy Handing, and providence had put it in his 
fower not to be {urrounded. There was an old 
nee not far from the wall, whofe branches being thick 
€loth*d with leaves, feem'd to extend themfelves on 
wirpofe to protedl the king ; he therefore planted 
Wfelf againft that tree, and with his buckler re« 
fOved thf darts that wece caft at him ; for notwithr* 
" . . ' (landing 

I40 QulN^^^^S CXTRTIUS. R IX- 

fending fo many of "lem attack'd him alone at a 
diftancc, yet none G<tr'd to come to a clofe engage- 
ment with him, and there fell more darts amongft 
the branches than on his buckler. 

In this extremity his mighty feme did him no fmall 
fervice ; then defpair prompted him to exert all his 
bravery that he might die honourably ; but as frefli 

• enemies continually flock'd about him, his buckler 
was already loaded with darts, and the ftones had 
broke his helmet ; at laft, tir'd with the continual la* 
bour, he fell upon his knees. Hereupon they who 
were neareft, fufpedling no danger, ran heedlefly 
upon him, two of whom he prefently kill'd with his 
fword, and laid them dead on the ground before 
him, after which no body had the courage to approach 
him, but they ply'd him afar oiF with their darts and 
arrows. Now as he was expos'd like a mark to all 
their aims, it was a hard talk in that difadvantageoui 
pofture to proteft his body, fo that an Indian let fly 
an arrow two cubits long (for 'the India&s arrows, as 
we faid before, were of this length) which pkrc'd his 
armour a little above his right fide. When he had 
received this wound,- there iffu'd Out of it f6 great a 
quantity of blood, that he let fall his arms like oae 
expiring, not having ftrength enough left to pull out 
the arrow. He therefore who had wounded him be- 

^ ing tranfported with joy, ran in to ftrip his body ; but 
Alexander no fooner felt his hand touch him, than 
(as difdaining to bear this laft indignity) he fummonM 
together his departing fpirits, and plung'd his fword 
into his enemy's naked fide. 

Thus three of the enemies lay dead about th^ 
king, the reft keeping at a diftance like men ftupify'd. 
In the mean time, Alexander (who coveted to yield 
up his laft breath fighting) endeavoured to raifc him- 
felf up with his buckler, - but finding he had not 
ftrength enough left for that purpofe, he took hoU 


B. IX. QyiNTus C^i^Tius. 141 

of foxne of the impending bo(f|^i^, and tryM to get 
up by their afiiilan^e, but not . ji^ving flxength fuffi- 
■cient to fupport his body, he fell down again upon 
his knees, threatning his enemies with his hand, and 
provoking any of them to a dofe $ght. At lafi: 
Peuceftes having beat off the enemy in another pact 
of the town, kept along the wall till he came where 
the king was, who look'd upon him rather as a com- 
fort in his dying hour, than any way able to fave his 
life J however, he rais'd himfeLf with his help, upon 
his buckler; then came Timaeus, and foon after 
Xjeonnatus, and after him Ariibnus. When the In- 
-ilians were informed, that the king^ was within their 
walls, they aban4on'd the other places, and flock'd 
all thither where he was, and prefs'd hard upon thofe 
who defended him. Of thefe, Timaeus (after a gal- 
huit behaviour, having received a great many wounds 
in the fore part of his body) was Tdird : as for Peu- 
ceiles, notwithftanding he was pierc'd through with 
.three darts, yet he continued to defend the king's per- 
(on, unmindful of himfelf; and Leonnatus whiluhe 
repelled the Barbarians, who came upon them in 
great numbers, received a grievous blow on the neck, 
and fell down at the king's feet half dead. By this 
tijjie t'euceiles had lofl fo much blood, that he was 
no. longer able to fupport his buckler: thus all the 
hope was now in Ariilonus, but as he was alfo defpe- 
.rately wounded, what could be expelled from lum 
againft fo great a multitude ? In the mean time, the 
rumour that the king was kill'd, reach'd the Macedo- 
nians. What would have terrify 'd others, only 
icrv'd to excite their courage the more ; for now, 
without having the Icaft regard to the danger, they 
broke, down the wall with their pick-axes, and having 
entered the town, made a mighty flaughter of the 
Jndians, who rather thought of laving themfclves by 
flighty tban of making any great reMance. They 


14^ QtJiNTUs CtTRTiirs. B. IX. 

^^Ar^d neither the aged, the women, nor the children ; 
for they look'd upon whomfoever they met, to be 
the perlon that had wounded their king, till at I2A by 
an univerial (laughter of the enemy, they (atisfy'd 
their anger. Clitarchus and Timaeiiies relate, *' That 
" Ptolemaeus (who was afterwards king) was preient 
** at this aftion :** But he himfelf (who moft certain- 
ly would not deny what would have redounded fo 
much to his glory) has left it in writing, " That he 
" was abfent, being employed inanother expedition." 
So great was the carelefsnefs of thofe that tranfmittied 
to poftefity thofe ancient hiflories, or their credolity, 
which is no lefs a fiiult ! The king being brought into 
his tent, the chirurgeons very dexteroSly cut off dK 
woody part of the javelin that ftuck in his body, 
without llirring the iron head of it ; which upon 
laying his body naked, they found to be bearded, fo 
that there was no other way to take it out (afely, but 
by opening the wound. But here again they were 
afraid of too great a profufion of bl(K)d« for the ja- 
velin was large, and feem'd to penetrate- into die 
noble parts. Critobulus, who of all the chirurgeons 
was tlie moft experienc'd, was neverthelefs dnioroas 
in fo dangerous a cafe, and unwilling to be concerned, 
left his own life ftiould be in danger if the cure did 
not anfwer exjpe6lation. The king perceiving him 
to weep, and aifcovering the anxious folicitude he was 
1)1, by the palenefs of his countenance, alk*d him, 
*' V^ hat he waited for, and why fhe dela^^d freeing 
*' him at leaft from the pain he was in, when it wjIs 
** impoiTible to fave his life ? Doft thou fear being 
" thought guilty, if thou doft not cure an incurable 
" wound V Hereupon Critobulus being freed from { 
" his fear, or elfe diflembling it, begg'd of him, 
" That he wouki fuffer himfelf to be held, till he 
" drew out the iron-head; becaufe the leaft motion 
'* of his body during the operation, would be <^^ 
I ** dasnr 

B. IX. QyiNTus CuRxrus. 143 

** dangerous confequence." But the king told him, 
"** He did. not want to be held, neither nefed he fear 
** his ftirring ;" and accordingly kept his body as he 
was order'd, without the leaft motion. The wound 
therefore beinf laid open, and the head taken out, 
there fucceeded fo vaft an efFufion of blood, that the 
king fainted away, and lay extended like a dead 
man. All means were ufed to ilanch the blood, but 
to no purpofe, fo that the king's friends broke oat 
into lamentations, believing him to be really dead. 
-However, at laft the l>leeding was llopp'd, and b/ 
degrees he came to himfelf, and began to know thofe 
that were about him- All that day, and the night 
following, the army was under arms about his tent j 
they all confefs'd, that their lives depended on his 
iingle breath, neither Could they be prevail'd upon to 
-withdraw, till they were informed he was feUen into 
a fleep ; after which, they returned to their camp 
with more certain hopes of his recovery. 

C li A P. VI. 

TH E king having employ'd feven days in the 
care of his wound, tho' it was not quite heal'd 
up, yet being informed, " That it was generally 
** reported among the Barbarians, that he was dead, 
** he caus'd two (hips to be faften'd together, and 
*• his tent to be pitched in tlie midft thereof, that he 
** might from thence fhew himfelf to all thofe who 
•** believ^l him dead." Thus being expos'd to the 
view of all the inhabitants, he ftiilcd the hopes the 
-enemy had entertained from the^falfe rumour. 

From hence he fail'd down the river, having firft 
^en orders to the .reft of the fleet to follow him at a 
certain dlflance, leH the noife of the oars fhould hin- 

144 QyiMTus CuRTius. B. i. _, 

der him from that reft that was neceflary to his m^?j^ 
hody . On the fourth day after he embark*d, he zm^*d 
in a country abandonM by its inhabitants, but ircrr 
fhiitful in corny and abounding with cattle. Ths 
place feemM proper both to confirm his own healdx# 
and reft his army. Now it was a cuftom among th^ 
Macedonians, for the moft confiderable of the king' ^ 
friends, and thofe who had the guard of his petfon ^ 
td^^d.duty before the royal tent when he was indif^ — 
po»'d, which praftice being at this time obferv'd 
they all entered his apartment together. The kmj_ 
was not a little furprizcd at their general appearance^ 
and began to be in pain left Tome unforefeen accident" 
had happened, and therefore enquired of them, ** Whe — ' 
*' ther diere was any frelh account of the enemie^^f 
** approach?" Then Craterus, on whom they hac^^ 
pitchM to fpeak in the behalf of them all, expre&^c: ^'^ 

himfelf in uie following manner. " Can you im a - ' 

** gine. Sir, we could be fo alarm'd at the approac^^^ 
" of an enemy, tho' they were already within ou^ ^ 
** line, as we are really concerned for your ow^*^^ 
" fafety, efpedally when we fee yourfelf io little r^- — 
•* gard it ? Were all the nations in the world to com- — 
** ipire againft us ; were they to cover the whoE ^^ 
" earth with men and arms, and the feas with SLect^^ 
** we are fatisfy'd we are invincible while you are ^*^ 
" the head of us. But which of all the gods csa^* 
" enfure to us this main fupport and propitious fl:3JC" 
*' of tlie Macedonians, when you fo eagerly expoi<<^ 
*' your precious perfon lo fuch manifeft ounngers, vLtt" 
** mindrul of the great number of citizens who ii*'' 
'* tircly depend upon your fate ? Who aniongft us 
*• .cither denres to furvive you, or can ? We are ad- 
*' vanc'd fo fai* already, under your condu(5l an« 
** commaad, that it is impofilble for any but your* 
•* fclf, to lead us home. Were yoa ftill contending 
** with Darius for the empire of Pcrfxa, no bod/ 

<• cou^ 

R« nC QuiNTus CuRTius. 145 

^ could wonder you exposed yourfelf relblutely on 

** all occafions (tho* at the fame time it would be 

^ againft oar wills) for where there is an equality be« 

** tween the danger and the reward, the fruit there- 

** of is greater upon fuccefs, as is alfo the confola- 

** don upon a mifcarriage. But that a forry town 

** fiiotild be purchased at Co dear a rate as your 

. ** life, no one of your own foldiers can bear the 

. ** thoughts of it ; nay, none of the Baibarians can, 

** that has any knowledge of your greatnefs ? 

** My foul is fbiick with horror, when I refiedl; 

^^ on what we all lately beheld. 1 cannot without 

** trembling, relate how near your invincible perfon 

** was being fbippM by the hands of the vUeft 

*' wretches, if fortune had not been fo favourable to 

^ lu, as by miracle almoft to £ive you. We can be 

^ counted no better than traytors and deferters all of 

*• us, who could not follow you, neither will any of 

^ as refafe to make any fatisfadion for the crime we 

** couM not help being guilty of. If we are not 

** worthy your high efteem, at leaf! do us the favour 

** to (hew your contempt another way. We arc 

•** ready to march wherever you pleaie to command 

^ us. Leave us thofe mean ana inglorious actions, 

** and preferve yourfelf for thofe noble occafions 

** that are worthy your greatnefs. That glory that 

** refults from fordid enemies, foon lofes its luftre, 

** and there cannot be any diing more unworthy 

** yoar illufhrious fclf, than to be prodigal of your 

** bravery, where it cannot appear in its full fpl^n- 

** dor." Ptolemy and the reft fpOke much to the 

^iune purpofe, and all of tliem together intreated 

** him to fet fome bounds, at laft, to that excefs of 

** dory with which he was in a manner loaded : and* 

** tor the future to have a greater regard to his iafctv, 

** on which th4t o£ the public depended.*' The 

king was very well pleafcd with thefe tcftimonies of 

Vol. II. G tivtvt 


their zeal, and h&ving embraced them every^ one 
finely, after a more familiar manner than ufaal, he 
bid them (it down ; and being difpos'd td difcourfe 
with them at large, and without r^ferve, faid, *' My 
** moil faithfi^ and mofl zealous citizens and friends, 
** I return you my hearty thanks, not only that you 
** at tMs time prefer my fafety to your own, but 
*' alfo, that from the beginning of the war you have 
** let flip no opportunity of telnfying your dutiful and 
*' benevolent difpoiition towards me ; fo that I muft 
** confefs, life was never dearer to me than it is at 
*' prefent, and that chiefly, that I may long enjoy 
** you. At the fame time I mufl let you know, that 
** how willing focver you may be to lay down your 
** lives for me (which inclination I have deferv'd, 
** only by that bravery you now blame) your 
•* thoughts and mine are very different For you 
•* covet to rcsap the fruits of my favour a long time, 
** nay, perhapjs for ever : whereas I meafure my{df 
" not by the time I have liv'd, but by the glory I 
** acquire. Had I been contented with my paternal 
** inheritance, I might within the bounds of^ Mace- 
*^ donia have fpun out my life in obfcurity and idle- 
" nefs, to an inglorious old age : though it mufi be 
** own'd too, that even the flothful Snd lazy, arc 
" not mailers of tlieir own defliny ; for while they 
** place their fupreme happinefs in a long life, they 
*' are frequently cut off by fome unexpected death. 
** But as for myfelf, who do not reckon" my years, 
^ but niy viftories, if I rightly compute the gifts 
** of fortune, I h^ve already liv'd a long time. For 
** having begun my empire in Macedonia, I made 
" myfelf mafler of Greece ; I fubdu'd the Thracians 
*' and Illyrians ; I give laws to the Triballi and the 
** Medes ; I am in pofTeflion of Afia, from the Hel- 
'' lefpont to the Red-Sea ; and at prefent, am not 
** far from the end of the world, which as foon as I.. 

'* have 

B. IX. QyiNTus CuRTius. 147 

** have pafs'd, I ddign to open myfelf a new one, 
** and it pofliblc, difcover another nature. I pafs'd 
** from Europe to Afia, in fb fhort a time as that of 
** an hour. Having conquer'd both countries in the . 
** ninth year of my reign, and in the nine and twen- 
** tieth year of my age. Do you think I can make 
•* any flop in my full career after glory, to which 
** alone I have entirely devoted myfeB"? No, believe 
** me, I fhall never be wanting to her on my part, 
** and wherefoever I Ihall fight, Iftiall imagine myfelf 
*' to be on the theatre of the whole worW. TTiofe 
** places that have been hitherto obfcure, fhall be- . 
** come famous thro' my means : I'll open a paffagc 
** to all nations, to thofe countries nature has plac'd 
*' at the remotefl diftance. If while I am employed 
** in the execution of thefe great things, it be my 
** lot to be kiird, what can be more for my reputa- 
*' tion ? I am defcended from fuch a flock, that I 
** ought to covet rather to live much, than long. 
" Let me recommend to your refleflion, that we are 
" come into thofe countries where the very women 
** arc celebrated for their virtue. What cities Semi- 
** ramis has built ! What nations did fhe fubdue ? 
** What mighty works did fhe accoraplifh f We 
** have not yet equalled the glorious performances of 
** a woman, and fhall we jdready be feiz'd with a* 
** iatiety of prgife ? JSTo, no, let the gods but fevour 
** us, and we have much greater things yet to do, 
^* than we have done. But me ready way to conquer 
** all thofe countries we have not yet touch'd, is to 
** efleem nothing little, where diere is a great deal 
** of glory to be got. Do you but defendme from 
" intefline mifchief, and domefUc confpiracies, and 
" I fhall undaunte41y face all. the dangers of the war. 
" Philip was fafer in the field than in the theatre 5 he 
** had often efcap'd the hands of his profcfs'd ene- 
*^ mies, bat could not at lafl fecujre himfelf frcMn the 
G z " treachery 


^* treachery of his fubjedls. And if you examine 
** into the death of other kings, you wil} find more 
*^ kiird by their own people, than by the enemy. 
*' Before I conclude this fpeech, I ihall lay hold of 
** the prefent opportunity to difclofe to you a thing 
" which I for a coniiderable time have had in my 
" thoughts : know then that I fliall look upon it as 
** the greateft reward of all my labours, and chief^ 
** fruit of my viftories, if when my mother 01yi|i- 
*' pias dies, fhe be plac'd among the goddefles. If I 
** am living, I fhall difcl^rge that duty myi<df^ bat 
** if I die before her, remember what I now cpnunit 
** to your care." Having made this fpeech, lie dif- 
mifs'd the company, but remained feveral days in 
this camp. 


WHILE thefe things were doing in India, the 
Greek foldiers (whom the king had' fettled in 
and about Badlra) thro' a iedition that happened among 
them, rebeird, not fo much out of ill-will to Alexander, 
as for fear of punifhment ; for having kiU'd fome of 
their companions, tliey who were the flrongeft had 
recourfe to arms, and having made thejtnfelves.mafters 
of the citadel of Badlra, which was but negligently 
guarded, they drew the Barbarians alfo into their party. 
Athenodorus was their leader, who had alfo affum'd 
the title of king ; not fo much out of an ambition to 
reign, as out of a defire to return into his native coun- 
try with thofc who own'd his authority. But one 
Bicon of the fame nation, envying his power, con- 
fpir'd againft him, and having invited him to an 
entertainment, caus'd him to be kill'd by Boxus a 
Macerian« The day following, Bkon in a general' 


B. IX. Quint us Curt I usw^ 14^ 

^embly, perfuaded the major part of it, that Athe- 
nodorus had entertainM a defign againft his life, which 
obligM him to be beforehand with him. However^ 
others fafpeded his treacherous deiigns, and by de- 
grees this fufpicion fpread it felf among the reft. 
The Greek foldiers therefore take to their arms, in- 
tending to kill Eicon if they had an opportunity : but 
the chief amongft them appeased the anger of the 
multitude. Thus Eicon being contrary to his expec- 
tation freed from the prefent danger, in a little time 
confpir'd againft the authors of his fafety : but the 
treachery taking vent, they feiz'd both him and Eox- 
us. fidxus was put to death inunediately, and Eicon 
was referv*d to die upon the rack. Now it happen'd,. 
that juft as they were going to torment him, the 
Greek foldiers (without tmy known caufe) ran to the5r 
ftrms ISce madmen ; fo that they who had orders to 
torment him, hearing thefudden uproar, defifled from 
tlicir office, imagining they were forbid to execute 
the fame by this tmnultuous outcry. Hereupon he 
ran tiakcd as he was to the Greeks, who beholdh^ 
hiin in this wretched condition, were touch 'd widi 
compHiSon fbr him, and ordered him to be fet at li- 
-fecWy. Having thus twkte Hca^'d dying, he return'd 
vato his native country whiA the iieft of thofe who 
left the colonies allotdd tlienrby the king. This is 
what happen'd aboiit Badra, aad the borders of Scy- 

In the niean time, an hundred ambaffadors cimc to 
the king from the two nations we before mentioned. 
They all rid in chariots, were very tall, and hand- 
ibme perfonages,, clad in linen garments embroider^ 
with gold, and a mixture of purple. They told him, 
** They delivered up to him themfelves, their towrts 
** and territories : that he was the firft they ever in- 
** trufl'd their liberty with, which they had for fo- 
** many ages prefcrv'd inviolatcd. That the gods 
G 3^ ." were:^ 


** were the authors of their fubmifllon, and not fear ; 
" which might appear from hence^ that they took 
*^ his yoke upon them, without making any tryal of 
** their llrength." Hereupon the king having deli- 
berated with his counfel, took them into his protec- 
tion, enjoining the fame tribute they paid to the Ara- 
choiians ; bcfides which^ he commanded them to Tap- 
ply him with two thoufand five hundred horfe, all 
which was pundually performed by the Barbarians. 

After this, he gave orders for a great entertainment, 
to which he invited thefe ambafladors, and the little 
kines. Here were a hundred beds of gold fet at a 
moderate diftance from each other. Thefe beds were 
encompafs^d with rich tapeilries glittering with eold 
and purple : in £ne^ atthis banquet he difpla^M all 
the ancient luxury of tlie Perfians, togpth^ with the 
new inventions of the corrupted Macedonians, inter-' 
mixing the vices of both nations. 

Amongfl the reft that were at this feaft, was Dlox- 
ippus the Athenian, a fahious wreftler, who on the 
accoilnt of his jprodigious fbength, was well Known to 
the king, and mudi in his ^vour. Some envioas 
and malicious jperfons reproached Dioxippus betwixt 
jell and earneft, " That he was a fet, over-grown, 
•' ufelefs monfter ; and that while they were eng^e'd 
"' in battles, he was only employed in anointing his 
** body widi oil, and preparmg (himfelf for a freih 
" meal.'' Horratas a Macedonian was one of them 
that us^d thefe reviling exprefHons to him, and being 
drunk, '* Challenged him if he was a man of courage 
" to fight him with his fword the next day, and that 
*• the king fhould be judge either of his temerity, or 
** Dioxippus's cQwardice." This latter accepted the 
condition, and in a fcornful manner play'd upon the 
other's military fiercenefs. The king finding them 
the next day more eager for the tryal of fkill than the 
day before, fuffer'd uiem to fight, becaufe he could 


JB. IX. Quint us Curtiii%« 151 

not diflwade them from it. On this occado^ there 
was a great concourfe of the foldiers, and among the 
refl the Greeks who were well-wiflicrs to Dioxippus. 
The Macedonian appeared compleatly arm*d, holding 
in his left-hand his brazen buckler and long fpear; 
iukI in his right hand a javelin, with his fword by hi^ 
iide» as if he ^ had been to engage with feveral at the 
^me time. As for Dioxippus, he fhin'd with oil 
with which he was ^lointed, having a garland on his 
head, and a fcarlet cloak wrapt about his left-arm, 
and in his right a (bong knotty club. The different 
appearance rais'd a might)r expectation in the fpe6Va- 
tors, for it feem'd madnei's, and not temerity, for a 
naked man to engage with one compleatly arm'd. 
ITie' Macedonian therefore no wife doubting but he 
could kill him at a didance, call his javelin at him, 
which Dioxippus avoided by a iinall declination of his 
body, and before the other could fhift his long fpear 
into his right hand, leap'd into him, and broke ic 
with his club : the Macodonian having loft both his 
other weapons, began now to draw his fword, but 
Dioxippus clo&ig in with him, ftruck up his heels, 
and pitched his head againil the ground, and having 
taken his fword from him, clapped his foot upon his 
neck, and was juft going to daih his brains out with 
his club, if he had not been hindered by the king. 

The event of this fpedade wa*. neither grateful to 
the Macedonians nor Alexander himfelf ; for he was 
afraid left the fo much boalted bravery of the Mace- 
donians fhould thereby fall into contempt with the 
Barbarians that were prefent. This made him liften 
a little too much to the accufations of the envious* 
A few days after at a featt, they by agreement took 
away a golden cup : the officers pretending to mifs it, 
came to the king and complain'd they had loft what they 
had only hid. There is often-times Icfs affurance in 
the countenanceof the innocent than of the guilty » 
G 4 l)ioxippus 

iSt i^iNTirs CURTIUS. fi.IX. 

DIoxippas was n6t ab!e to bear the caft of tiieir eyes, 
i^ch were diredled at him as a thief; and tfaerefbre 
going away from the entertainment, he writ a letter 
to the king, and then kilPd himfelf. The king was 
qoncern'd at his death, looking upon it to proceed 
from indignation and not femorfe ; efpecially when 
it appeared plain enough that he was hdMy accos^d^ 
by the exceflive joy ofhis enemies. 


CHAP, viir. 

TH £ India 1 ambaHadors being difiniTsMy went 
home, and in a few days returned again with 
prelents for Alexander, which coniifled of tlS^ hun- 
dred horfes, one thoufand and thirty chark>t9, each 
drawn by four horfes, fome linen garments, a thou- 
fand Indian bucklers, and one hunc&ed talents of tin, 
with tame lions and tigers of an extraordinary /ize, as 
alfo the ikins of very large lizards, and tortoife-fhells. 
The king then commanded '* Craterus to march 
** the army at no great diilance from the river on 
" which he was to fail;" after which embarking 
with, thofe who were us'd to accompany him, he 
came down the ibeam into the territory of the Malli : 
from whence he march'd towards the Sabracae, who 
are a powerful nation, not governed by kingly autho* 
rity, bat that of the people. They had got together 
fixty thouiand foot, and fix thoufand horfe, which 
were folio w'd by ^ve hundred cliariots. They had 
made choice of three generals of great experience in 
military matters, but when fuch of them as inhabited 
near the river (the bank whereof was full of vilkges\ 


perceiv'd the whole river coverM with fhips as fair 
they could fee, and beheld the Aiming arms and ar- 
mour of fo many thoufand men; they were amaz'd at 
the novelty of the light, and believ'd that fome armjr 
of the gods was come amongft them, or elfe another 
Bacchus, for that name was famous in thefe parts. 
The foWiers fhouts, and the noife of the oars, toge- 
ther with the cohfus'd voices of the mariners encourag- 
ing one another, fo filPd their fearful ears, that the^ 
all rah to the army, crying out, ** that they were 
•* mad to offer to contend with the gods ; that it was 
" impoflible to number the fhips that carry'd thefe in- 
V vincible pcrfons." By which words they fpread. 
fuch a geheral fear throughout their whole armv, that 
they immediately difpatch'd ambafladors to. Alexan- 
der, to yield up their nation to h!m. 

Hivmg taken them intd his proteftion, he camfe- 
tfie fourth day into another countiy,.the people where- 
of had no more courage than the former ; here he* 
built a city, which he order'd to be call'd Alexandria,, 
and then enter'd into the territory of the Muficani. 

.While he was here he heard the complaints df th^ 
Paropamifadae againft Terioltes, whom ne had made, 
their governour, and finding him convifted of feverali 
irregularities thro' his avarice and pride, he fenten'c*d 
him to fuffer death. At the lame time Oxatres,. who 
was Praetor of the Badbrians, was not only difcharg'd 
of what was alledgM againit him, but had alTo the 
extent of his government enlarg'd. Having fubdu'd , 
the country of the Muficani, he put a garrifon into 
their capital, and from thence advanced againft the 
Praefti, who were alfo a people of India. Oxycanus 
was their king, and had, with a great body of men, 
retir'd into a ftrong city. However, Alexander took. 
it the third day 5ter he lay down before it. The 
towu being taken, Oxycanus fled into the caftle, and: 
fent ambaSadors to tlie king to treat about the terms. 
G. 5 ot- 

>54 QyiNTus CuRTius. B.IX. 

jof his furrcnder ; but before they could reach the 
king, two of the towers were beat down, through the 
lireach of which the Macedonians got into the cafUe, 
which being taken, Oxycanus, with a few more that 
made reflilance, was kill'd. 

Having demolifhM the caiHe, and fold all die cap- 
tives, he mardi'd into the territories of king Sabus, 
.where feveral towns fubmitted to him ; but he took 
the ftrongefl city bv a fubterraneous poiTage which he 
had carryM on within the place. The Barbarians, 
who were unlkillM in military affairs^ were amaz*d to 
fee men rife out of the ground in tbe middle of their 
town, without being able to trace the way they came. 
Clitarchus fays, there were fburfcore thoufimd Indians 
(Iain in this country, and a great number of captives 
fold as (laves. The Muficani in the mean time re- 
belled,, and Pithon was fent to fupprefa them, who 
accordingly did fo, and brought the prince of the na- 
tion (who was alfo the author of the revolt) pri(bner 
to the king,, who order'd him to be crucify'd, and 
then returned to the river where his flieet waited for 
hiihi The f6ui:th day after he came down the river 
to a town which leads into the dominions of king Sar 
bus.. He had lately fubmitted to Alexander, but the 
inhabitants refusM to obey him, and (hut the gates 
againft him ; however, the king de(pi(ing their naaHH 
number, commanded " five hundrea Agrians to ap- 
" proach the waUs of the place, and retiring by little 
** and little to draw the enemy out of the town, who. 
** he concluded would not fail to purfue them if they 
** once were perfuaded that they fled." The Agri- 
"ans, according to the orders they had' received, Imvr 
ing provok'd the enemy, took to their heels, and- 
•were purfu'd fo clofcly by the Ihdians, that thefe^^ 
laft fell into a frelh body where the king was ii ^t-^ 
perfon. Then the fight was renew'd, and out o^B 
tjuee thou and Barbamm hye hundred were kiil'ds=^ 




a thoufand taken prifoners, and the reft ^ot back, 
again to the town ; but the iffoe of this vidlory. 
was not fo favourable as at firft was expefted, for the 
Barbarians had poHbn'd their fwords, fo thatthoie 
who were wounded died fuddenly, the phyiicians not 
bemg able to find out the caufe of fo prefent a death,, 
the flighted wounds bein^ incurable. The Indians 
were in hopes tl>at the king, who was rafh, and re« 
gardlefs of his own fafety, might have been involved 
in that danger, but notwithfbuding he fought amongft. 
the foremoft, yet he efcap'd un wounded'.. 

Ptolemy indeed gave him great uneafinefs on the 
account of a wound he h^cl received in the left 
ftioulder,. which, tho' light in itfelf,. was by reafon of 
the poifon of dangerous confequence. He was related 
to the king, and fome believ'd Philip was his father ;. 
it is certain he was born of one of his miflreifes. He 
was one of the king's body-guards, and a very brave 
foldier ; however, he was ftiU more excellent in the- 
arts of peace, was moderate in his apparel, very libe- 
nd'^^ana eafy ofaccefe;- having nothing of tliat haugh* 
tinefs that feems natural to tnofe who are defcended 
from royal blood : Thefe qualities made it doubtful 
whether he was more lov'd by the king, or thofe of 
his nation. It was on this occafion that the Macedo- 
nians firft exprefs'd their general afFedUon for him, 
which feem'd to prefage the future grandeur to which" 
afterwards he rais'd himfelf ; for they had no lefe care 
of his health than of the king's, who being fetigu'd' 
with the battle, and full of follicitude for Ptolemy,, 
by whom he fate, order'd his bed to be brought 
where he was, into which he was no fooner got, than 
he fell into a profound fleep. As foon as he wak'd,. 
he told thofe who were prefent, " That while he 
•* was at reft, he dream'd a dragon brought an herb 
*^ to him in its mouth, as a proper remedy againft 
•* the poifon i" he defcrib'd the colour of the herb,. 
G 6 and: 

J5^ QuiNTiTS CuTiTiys. B. K* 

and affuT'd them, " he ihoold know it again if any 
** of them (hould chance to find it." As a great 
many were employ 'd to feek it, fome of diem round 
it ; and having brought it to him, he apply'd it 
himfelf to the wound, the pam whereof ceas'd im- 
mediately, and in a Ihort time the wound was per- 
fe&iy heal'd. The Barbarians finding themfelves 
diiappointed of their firft hopes, furrender'd both* 
ibemlelvea and city. From hence Alexander marched 
into the next province call*d Parthalia. Maeris waa 
jking of ity who, having abandon*d die town, was 
fled into the mountains ; Alexander therefore took. 
poiTefllon of the place, and plundered the country^ 
carrying off a great booty of fheep and catde, befides 
a great quantity of com. After this he made choice 
Of^ides who knew the river, and fail'd down it to 
an liland that flood abnoft in the middle of the chan- 


HE R E he was obliged to make a longer Bxy thaxic 
he at firfl proposM, becaufe the guides being 
carelefsly look'd after, were fled ; he therefore fent 
to feek after others, but none being to be fomid, the 
flrong defire he had to fee the ocean, and to reach, 
the utmofl bounds of the world, made him commit 
his own life, and the fafety of fo many gallant men,, 
to an unknown river, without guides. Thus they 
feil'd altogether ignorant of the places they pafs'd by ^ 
how far the fea was dillant from them ; what people 
inhabited the coafb ; the nature of the mouth of the 
river ; or, whether it were proper for their long 
Slips ; for all which they had only their Qwn blind 


B. IX. QpiKTus CirRTitrs. igf 

and uncertain conjefture. The only comfort iir 
this his temerity, was his conftant felicity. Havings 
proceeded after this manner for the fpace of fout 
hundred furlongs, the pilots acquainted him, " TTiat 
" they began to be fenfible of the air of the fea, and 
•* that they did not believe die ocean could be far off.'* 
He was overjoy 'd at this news, and encouraeed the 
mariners " to ply their oars," afTuring; the loldiers,. 
•* They were near attaining what they all had to- 
*^ long wiih'd for, viz. an end to their labours ; that 
** now their glory would be perfedl, nothing being 
'* left to witkftand their braveiy ; that without any 
** farther danger or bloodihed, the whole world. 
*' would be their own ; that their exploits vt^ould. 
** equal the utmoft extent of nature ; and that they 
** would behold in a little time what was only known 
** to the inmiortal gods." However, he fet a fmall. 
detachment afliore, in order* to take fomc of the 
fbaggling natives, hoping to get from them a tho- 
rough information of all Siings. After a long fearch.. 
Aey found Tome who lay lurking in their hut's. Thefe 
bemg a&'d, " How rar the fea was off ? " made 
anfwer, ** That they never had heard of any fuch 
** thing as the fea, but in three days time they would 
•* come to a brackiih water which corrupted the 
** frefh." It was plain, that by this defcription they 
meant the fea, whofe nature they did not underfUnd ;. 
hereupon the mariners with frefh alacrity ply their 
oars, and every day the nearer they grew to their 
hopes, the greater was their vigour. 

On the third day they perceiv'd that the fea began 
to mingle its water with that of the river, and by a 
gentle tide confound their different ilreams'j; here 
they difcover'd another illand, fituate in the very 
middle of the river, to which they could approach 
but (lowly, becaufe the courfe of the ^ tide ran againft 
them : Being landed, they ran about to lay in prori- 
3 - iions^ 


fions, not dreaming of the niisfortune that was ready 
to ^1 upon them. About three of the clock the 
tide, according to its ordinary courfe, began to pour 
in ilrongly, and force back the current of the nver; 
At firfl It feem^d in a manner but to fbruggle with it, 
but running ftiU higher and higher, it drove it back 
with fuch impetuouty, that its retrograde courfe ex- 
ceeded the rapidity of the fwifteft torrents. The ge- 
nerality of them were intirely ignorant of the nature 
of the fea, fo that they look'd upon it to be ominous, 
and a certam indication of the anger of the gods ; but, 
to their greater terror, the fea, hy its repeated work- 
ings fweird fo hieh, as to overflow the neighbour* 
ing plains, which oefore were dry, and as the flux 
increased, the (hips were rais'd higher, till at laft the 
fleet was difpers'd. They who had been fet alhore, 
furprizM at the fuddennel's of the accident, repaired to 
then: fhips with the gr^ateft precipitation ; But in all 
tumultuary afFemblies,* hal!e is of pernicious confer 
quence. Some endeavour'd to get on board, by the 
means of long hoolc'd poles ; others, while they 
place themfelves, interrupt the rowers ; fome again 
try to make the bcft of their way, but not waiting 
the arrival of thofc who were ablblutely neceflary for 
their purpofe, found it a difficult matter to navigate 
thofe heavy and unwieldy fhips ; at the fame time 
other boats were not able to contain the multitude of 
thofe that inconfiderately flock 'd into them i fo that 
the crowd in this eafe, was as detrimental as the want 
of hands in tht other. Some cry'd out to flay, others 
to make oif ; which confufion of orders, not tending 
to the fame purpofe, not only took away the ufe of 
their Gycs,, bat alfo of their ears. The pibts at this 
jurtdure were likewife ufelefs,. their directions not 
being heaid in fo great a tumult,, nor obey'd, by rea- 
fon of the fright. The fhips now begin to fall foul 
upon one another, and the oars are broke :. In fine. 


B^ IX. QyiNTus CuRTivs. 159 

the diforder was fo great, that no body conld have 
imagined it to be the fleet of the fame army, but a 
fca engagement between two fleets that were encr' 
mies. The flems of fome ftiips were forc'd againfl 
the flems of others, and the dainage that was done to 
thofe that were foremoft, was again receiv'd from 
thofe that came after ; at laft from high words they 
came to blows. By this time the inundation had 
fpread itfelf over all the fields in the nei^bourhood 
of the river, the hills only appearing above the wa- 
ter, and carrying the refemblance <? fo many fmall 
iflands, whither feveral betook themfelves by.fwimr 
ming, out of fear abandoning their flijps. 

While the fleet was fcatter'd here and there, fome 
fliips riding in deep water where the valleys funk 
low, others being flxanded on the flioals, according to 
the inequality of the furface of the ground the water 
poflefs'd, they were fuddenly furprizM with another 
terror greater than the firft ; for when the fea began 
to ebb, it carry'd back the waters from whence they 
came, and reftor'd the land they had coverM but a 
little before. The fliips being thus left upon the dry 
land, pitch'd fome upon their flems,. while others fell 
upon their fides. The fields were covered with bag.- 
gage, arms, broken planks and oars. The foldiers 
-were fo terrify M, that they neither dar'd truft themr 
felves bn the land, nor remain on board, expedting 
in a little time greater evils than thofe they had al- 
ready experienc'cL They could hardfy believe what 
they faw and fuffer'd; viz. a fhipwreck upon the 
the land, and the fea in a river. But their trouble 
did not end here, for as they were ignorant that the 
tide would in a little time return, and fet their fliips 
a-float again, they expected nothing but femine and 
the utmoft calamities. Befides, they were feiz'd with. 
lu)rror at the flght of fo many monflrous features the 


fea had left behind it. Tlie nigkt Abw begali to dra^v 
t>n, and the defperate circumihnces fill*d the king 
himfelf with concern ; but no care could get the bet- 
ter of his invincible courage : He remain'd all the 
flight upon the watch, giving his orders, and fent 
fomfe horfemen to the mouth of the river, to bring 
him word when, the tide began to return. In the 
mean time, he caus'd the fhatter'd fhips to be refitted,, 
knd ihofe thai were bverturn'd, to be fet right again; 
ordering his people to be ready againfl the next return^ 
of the tide. This whole night being fpcnt in watch- 
• ihg and encouraging his men, the kbdenien came 
back upon full fpced, and the tide at their heels ; at 
firil it came in gently upon them, till encreafing by 
degree.s it raisM the (hips ; then overflowing all th« 
fiekis as before, it fet the whole fleet in motion. 

Hereupon Uie banks of the river and coafis rung. 
with the fliouts of the fkilors and (bldiers, Who were, 
tranfported with joy at their unexpected I^ety, They 
fto^ with wonder enquir'd of one another, " fit>m. 
** whence this vaft lea could return fo fuddenly?' 
•'Whither it could retire the day before ? What 
** could be the ndture of this element, that was fome- 
** times fo rebellious, and at others fo fubjed to t)ie 
** empije of time ?" The king conjeftured by what 
had happened, that the tide would return after the. 
ihn's rifing ; he tlierefore to prevent it fet out at mid- 
night, and feil'd down the river, attended by a few 
(hips, and having pafa'd thro' the mouth of it, ad- 
vanc'd four hundred furlongs into the fea, obtaining at. 
laft what he had fo long wifh'd for ; then having fa- 
crific'd ta the tutelar gods of the fea, and adjacent 
places, he return'd back to his fleet.. 


B. IX. QriNTirs Curtius. t6i 

♦♦♦▼♦♦♦♦'♦♦♦♦"♦♦'♦"I? i^^^^'^^^^^^^^'W'^'^ 

C H A p. X. 

THE N he fail'd up the river, and came to ah 
anchor the day followitig, not far from a fait 
Jake, the nature whereof being unknown to his men, 
deceiv'd a great many, who rafhly ventured to bathe 
themfelves therein : For their bodies broke out into 
fcabs, which being contagious, communicated the 
diftemper to their companions ; but oil proved a pre- 
fcnt remedy for this evil. He afterwarcis fent Leona- 
tos before to dig wells in the country thro' which hte 
"WRs to pafs with his army (for it was imturally drv 
l»d deftitute of water) ; and he remained with his 
forces where he was, expedling the return of the 
fpring. In the mean time, he built feveral cities, 
vnd. commanded " Nearchus and one Oneiicritus» 
"♦* very fkilful feamen, to fail with the flrongcft ^hips 
** into the ocean, and to advance as far as they could 
" with fafetyj in order to inform themfelves of thte 
•* nature of the fea ; which having done, they might 
^* return to him dther by the fame river, or by the 
♦' Euphmtes." 

Ilie winter being now pretty well over, he bum'd 
thofe ftiJps which were ufelefs to him, and march'd 
his army by land. In nine encampments became 
into -the country of the Arabita, and from thence in 
Bine days more, into that of the Gedroiii. Thefe 
were a free people ; however, having held a council 
-upon the matter, they fubjnitted to mm, and he laid 
no other injundions upon them, but to fupply his army 
with provifioiw, 



From hence in five days he came to a river i 
by the inhabitants Arabas, beyond which thei 
a barren country very destitute of water ; which 
iog march'd through, he arnvM at fhe territor 
tiie Horiftae. Here he gave Hepha^on the gi 
part of the army, and divided the remaining 
which cofiMed of the light-armM troops, bei 
Ptokmy, Leooatus, and himfdf. In this ma 
they ravaged India in three diftind bodies, an< 
r/*d ofF a great booty. Ptolemy wafted the mai 
country ; the king deftroy'd the midland part 
Leonatus the reft. He alfo built a dty here 
peopled it with Axachofians. 

From hence he came to thofe Indians who h 
tLe maritime poits : They are polTeis'd of a lar{ 
cent of coantiv, but it is very barren and deiblai 
that they bold no manner of conunerce with 
nei^iboiirs. Their folitilde adds very much to 
ochcrwiie &vage nature : They never pare their 
nor cat their hair. They adorn their cottage 
the ihells and other refiife <^ the fea. Their c 
are made of die (kins of wild beafis, and diey 
upon fiihes diy'd in the fun, and other monftei 
the fea cafts upon the fhore. 

The Macedonians having confum^d all their ] 
iions, firft endur*d a fcardty, and afterwards extr 
of hunger, fo that they were forced to have m 
to the roots of the palm-tree, which they 
where fought for; it being the only tree the cc 
produces. But this food failine them too, the 
gan to kill their beafls of burmen, not fparing 
their horfes. Thus wanting wherewith to carry 
baggage, they burnt thofe rich fpoils far whicli 
bad marched to the utmoft extremity of the 
The plague fucceeded the &mine, for the new 
of thor unwholfome food, together with the £ 

B. IX. QuiNTUS Curt I us. 163 

of their marches, and their grief and anxiety of mind, 
had caus'd feveral diflempers amongft them ; fo that , 
they couM neither Hop nor go forwards without cer- 
tain mifchief. If they ftop'd any where, they were 
fure to perifh with hunger, and if they advanced they 
fell in with thofe who were grievoofly afHi^led with 
the plague. The fields therefore were coverM over 
with more bodies that were flill languifhing and half 
alive, than that were really dead. They who were 
the lead tainted, were not able to keep up with the 
main army, it march'd with fo much expedition, 
every one imagining that the ^rther he advanced, 
-the better he fecur'd his health. In this wretched 
condition, thofe whofe fbength fail'd them, begg'd 
the afliftance of (bangers as well as that of their 
acquaintance, to help them up. But beiides that 
there were no carri^e-beafts to bring them along, 
die foldiers had enough to do to carry their arms, 
and the frightful appearance of thd impending evil 
was continually before their eyes. This made them 
not fo much as look at thole who call'd to them, 
tlieir pity bemg ftifled bv their fear. On the other 
.£de, they who found themfelves thus forfaken, at- 
tefted the gods, and reprefented dieir communion in 
the fame facred rites, and implor'd the king's help ; 
but finding they apply/d themfelves in vain to deaf 
cars, their defpair turnM into rage, fo that they fell 
to imprecations, wiQiing them the fame end and fuch 
friends and companions in their need. 

The king hereupon was no lefs afham'd than 
griev'd, becaufe he knew himfelf to be the author of 
fo great a calamity ; he therefore fent orders to Phra- 
taj^emes governor of the Parthians, " to fend him 
/* provifions ready drefs'd, upon camels ;" He alfo 
notify'd his diflrefs to the governors of the nei^h» 

« bounng 

i64 Quint us Curtiu^. 

bduring povinces, who were not backward 


By thefe means the army was at leaft fre 

famine, and came at laft upon the frontiers 

Gedroiians, whofe territory was very fruitf 

afforded plenty of all things. Kere he ffcay' 

time to refrcfh his harrafTed troops ; in the inl 

receivM letters from Leonatus, importing, 

" he had fought and overcome eight thoular 

** and five hund?0ti horfe of the Horit^e." < 

likewife fent him advice, " That he had fd 

** put into cuftody Ozines and Zariafpes, tw( 

** men of Perfia, who were contriving a reb 

The king afterwards appointed Siburtius govi 

that province, in the room of Mcmnon, v 

lately dead, and then march'd into CarmanL 

©aftes had the government of this .nation, i 

iufpeded to aim at innovations during the 

abode in India ; but as he came to meet th 

his majefly thought fit to diffemble his refei 

and kept hhn in the fame flation till he coiil 

clearer information of the crimes he was accuj 

The governor of India having fent him by tl 

(according to his orders) a great number of 

and draught cattle out of the refpeftrve countri 

jeft to lus empire, he remounted, and gav 

equipages to thofe who wanted. He alfo : 

their arms to their former fplendor, for the] 

not now far from Perfia, wnich was not on 

profound peace, but vaftly rich. 

As therefore he not only rh^al'd the glory I 
had gam'd by the conqueft of thefe countrii 
alfo hJs fame, he refolvM (his mind being el 
above mortal grandeur) to imitate him in his r 
of triumph, tho' it be uncertain whether it ' 
firil intended by Bacchus as a triumph, or or 


^^«t and ps^fiime of die drunken crew. Hereupon: 
^usM *^ all the flreetsthro' which he wa3 to pafs 
ftc be fbrew'd with flowers and garlands, and large 
^«^efiels and cups. iiU'd with wine tobe placed before 
^]ie doors of the hoqfes."' Then he ordered 
^^aggons to be made of a fufficient largenefs to 
Contain a great many, which were adorn'd like 
^ents, (bme with white coverings, and fome with 
jMccious furniture." 

TThe king's friends and the royal band went firft, 
faring on their heads chaplets made of variety of 
►Avers ; in fome places the flutes and hautboys were 
:3j-d, in others the harmonbus found of the harp 
Lci lute : All the army followed eating and drinking 
ter a diflblute manner, every one letting off his 
aggon according to his ability, their arms (which 
ere extraordinary fine) hanging round about the 
^ine. I'he king, with the companions of his dc- 
^uchery, was carried in a magnificent chariot laden 
i€h gold cups, and other large vefifels of the fame 
<^tal. After this manner did this army of Bacchanals 
'^Jxh for feven days together, a noble as well as 
'Ttsdn prey to thofe they had conquered, if they had 
^ but courage enough to fall upon them in this 
'Unken condition ; nay, it had been an eafy matter 
*r a thoufand men {provided they were but fober) 
' lave made tliemfelves mailers of this riotous army, 
the midfl of its triumph, as it lay plung'd in the 
Wcits and exceffes of a feven days debauch ; but 
'J'lune that fets the price and credit of things, turn'd 
is 'military fcandal into glory. The then prefent 
>^ and pofterity fince have with reafon admir'd, 
How thev could in that drunken condition, with 
iafety pais thro' nations hardly yet fufiiciently fub- 
ciu'd ; out the Barbarians interpreted the rankeil 
temerity imaginable for a well-grounded afl'u- 

" ranee.'' 


*♦ ranee." However, all this pomp and fplcndor-^ 
had the executioner at its heels, for the iatrap Af--*r; 
paftes, of whom we before made mention, was or- -^ 
der'd to be put to death. Thus we fee that luxury ^^ 
no obftade to cruelty, nor cruelty to luxuiy. 



C H A P. L 

ABOUT this time Ckander and Sitalces, 
with Agathon and Heracon (who had kilPd 
Parmenio by the. king's orders) came to 
him, having with them five thoufand foot 
-v.d one thouiand hone ; but they were followed by 
-*^eir accufers out of the refpedlive provinces of which 
"hey had had the prefefture ; and indeed it was im- 
'-"voflible for them to atone for fo many enormous 
'rimes whidi they had committed, tho' they had 
k^een inftruments in an execution altogether grateful 
t« the king 5 for they were not contented to pillage 
^lie publick, but even plundered the temples, and 
left the virgms and chief matrons to bewail the vio- 
lation of their honour. In fine, by then: avarice and 
l-uft, they had rendered the very name of the Mace- 
^nians odious to the Barbarians ; but Oleander's fury 
exceeded all the reft, for he was not contented to de- 

i68 QyiNTus CuRTius. B. X, 

file a noble virginy^ but gave her afterwards to his 
fkVe-for a concubine. 

The major part of Alexander's friends did not fb 
nmch regard the gnevoufhefs of the crimes that were 
now. publickly laid to their charo^^ as the memory of 
Parmenio, who had been kSid by their hands, 
which perhaps might fecretly plead for them in the 
kins*s breaft ; and they were overjoyM. to fee thofe 
mijufters of his angexv experience the dire efFfidb of 
It themfelves ; and " that no power that is injurioufly 
** acquir'd can be of looa duration:" 

The kii^ huTing hmrd titeir acedation, iaid^ 
** That their adverfiries had forgot one thing, and 
** the greateft of all their crimes, which way their 
** defpairing of his fafety ; for they would never have 
*< dj^r'd to be guilty of fuchviUanies, if they had 
** either hop'd or believ'd he fhould have return 'd 
** fafe from India.*' He therefore committed them 
to cuftody, and ordered " fix hundred foldiers who 
** had been the inftruments of their cruelty to be put 
" to death." The fame day alfo the authors of the 
Per£an revolt (whom Craterus had brought along 
with him) were executed. 

Notiong after, Nearchusand Oneiicritus (whom he 
had " fent to make difcoveries on the ocewi)" re- 
turn 'd, and reported to him feveral things they. ha4 " 
found out themfelves, as well as others which they 
had only by hearfay 5 " That the ifland that was in 
*' the mouth of the river abounded with gold, 1[>ut' 
** was deflitute of horfes ; that therefore every horfe 
" tliat the inhabitants of tlie continent dar'd to tranf- 
*' port thither, was fold there for a talent ; that that 
'^ fea was full of whales which followed the courfe 
" of the tide, and in bignefs equalPd the bulk of 
•' large fhips ; that they were frighten'd at the hor- 
" rible noife made on purpofe from Ton board the 
" fleet, notwithflanding which they follow'd the 

" faqie. 

B; X. QuiNTus CuRTius. 169 

** {kme, and caus'd a mighty roaring of the fea, 
** when they plung'd their huge bodies under water, 

. ** reiembling lb many finking veflels.'* 

The reft they received from the relation of the in- 
habitants, and particularly, " That the red fea had 
*' its denomination from king ♦ Erythras, and not 
•* from the colour of its waters, which was the rc- 
** ceiv'd opinion. That not far from the continent 

N * • there was an ifland thick ict with palm trees, and 
** in the midft of the erove there was a pillar eredlcd 
** to the memory of king Frythras, with an infcrip- 
•* tion in the charadters us'd by that people.'* They 
added moreover, " That of all the merchants (hips 
• * which had iail'd thither for the fake of the gold, 
^* not any were ever feen after.'* The king, defi- 
rous to be farther inform'd, fent them out again with ' 
orders " to fteer along the coaft till they came to the 
** Euphrates, and then to fail up that river to Ba- 
** bylon." 

Now he having conceived vafl defigns, had re- 
folv'd after he had conquer'd all the eaftern maritime 
coaft, to pafs out of Syria into Africa, being very 
much incens'd againft the Carthaginians, and from 
thence marching thro' the defarts of Numidia, to di- 
rcft his courfe towards Cadiz ; for it was generally 
reported, that Hercules had there planted his pillars. 
. From hence he propofed to march through Spain, 
which the Greeks call Iberia, from tlie river Iberus ; 
4Uid having pafs'd the Alps to come to the coaft of 

■ Italy, from whence it was "but a Ihort cut to Epirus ; 
*He therefore gave orders to his governors in Mefbpo- 
taxnia " to cut down timber in mount Libanus, aad 
/* convey it to Thapfacus, a town in Syria, where it 

^* was to be employed to build large veiTels, whicli 
" were afterwards to be conducted to Babylon. 

* Erythius in Greek Jignsjia Red. 

Vol.11. H 1* Tha 

170 C^INTUS CuRTiys. B. X. 

** The kings of Cyprus were alfo commanded to 
** fjpply them with copper, hemp and faib." 

While he was doing thefe things he received letters 
from the kings Porus and Taxiles, to acquaint " him 
'^ with the death of Abifares by ficknefs, and that 
•** Philip his lieutenant was dead of his wounds ; as 
" alfo that the perfons concerned in that aftion had 
** been punifhed." Hereupon he fublHtuted Eudoe- 
mon (who was commander of the Thracians) in the ' 
room of Philip, and gave Abifares's kingdom to his 
fon. From thence he came to Perfagadae, which is 
.a city of Perfia, and whofe fatrap's name was Orfmes, 
■who in nobility and riches far exceeded all the Barba- 
rians ; he derived his pedigree from Cyrus, formerly 
king of Perfia ; his predeceiTors had left hhn a great 
deal of wealth, which he had very much encreas'd by . 
the long enjoyment of his authority. This nobleman 
came to meet the king, with all ibrts of prefents, as 
well for himfelf as for his friends ; he had with him 
whole ftuds of horfes ready broke, chariots adom'd 
-with gold and filvcr, rich furniture, jewels, gold plate 
to a great value, purple garments, and four thoufand 
talents of coin'd filver. However, this exccffive li- 
berality prov'd the caufc of his death ; for having 
prefented all the king's friends with gifts far beyond 
their expectation, he took no notice of Bagoas the 
Eunuch, who had endeared Ale^randcr to him by his 
abominable compliance ; and being infbrm'd by fome 
who wiih'd him well, " That he was very much in 
^ Alexander's favour ;" he made anfwer, " That 
** he honoured the king's friends, but not his eunuchs, 
** it not being the cuftcm of the Perfians." The 
eunuch was no fooner acquainted with this anfwer, 
than he employed all the power and intereft he had 
do fhamefully procur'd himfelf, to ruin this innocent 
nobleman. He firft fuborn'd fome mean wretches of the 
feme nation to accufe him of falle crimes, with thefe 


B. X. QuiNTUs CuRTius. 171 

inftru^Uons, not to appear againft him till they hal 
receiv'd his farther orders. In the mean time, 
whenever he was alone with the king, he fill'd his 
credulous ears with odious relations, diflembling the 
caufe of his difpleafure, that the greater credit might 
be given to his accufations. However, the king did 
not immediately fufpcdl Oriines, yet he began to be 
In lefs e^eem with him tlian before. 

The plot was carry'd on fo privately againfl: him, 
that he was wholly ignorant of the latent danger, 
and this importunate favourite was not unmindful of 
his malicious dcfign, even in liis moft familiar con- 
verfatiori with the king ; fo that whenever he had 
enflam'd his unnatural love, he would be fure to 
charge Oriines fometimes with avarice, and fome- 
times with rebellious practices. In fine, every thing 
was ripe for the deftrudlion of the innocent ; and 
deftiny, whofe appointments are irreverfible, was 
now approaching. 

It happened that Alexander caus'd Cyrus's tomb 
to be open'd, in order to pay his afhes the funeral 
rites ; and whereas he believ'd it to be full of gold 
and filver, according to the general opinion of the 
Perfians, there was nothing found in it but a rotten 
buckler, two Scythian bows and a Scimeter. How- 
ever, the king placed a crown of gold upon his cof- 
fin, and covered it witli the cloke he us'd to wear 
himfelf, and fecm'd to wonder, " That fo great 
** a prince, who abounded in riches, was not more 
** fumjptuoufly interred than if he had been a private 
^ perlon." Hereupon Bagoas, who Hood next to 
the king, turning to him faiJ, " What wonder is it 
** to find the royal tombs empty, when the fatrap's 
** houfes are not able to contain the treafures they 
** have taken from thence ? As for my own part, I 
** muft confefs, I never faw this tomb before, but I 
H 2 " remember 


^ remember to have heard Dgrius fay, that there 
** were three thoufand talents bury'd with Cyrus. 
'* From hence proceeds Orfmes's liberality to you, 
^ that what he knew he could not keep with impu- 
** nity might procure him your favour, when he prc- 
" fented you with it." 

Having thus ftirr'd up the king's anger, thofe 
whom Bagoas had intrufted with the fame affair came 
in, fo that he on one iide, and the fuborn'd witneffes 
on the other fo poffefsM the king's ears, that Orlines 
found himfelf in chains before he had the leaft fufpi- 
cion of his being accus'd. This vile eunuch was not 
fatisfied with the death of this innocent prince, but 
had the impudence to ftrikc him as he was going to 
to executed ; whereupqn Orfmes looking at him 
iaid, " I had heard indeed, that formerly women 
** reign'd in Aiia, but it is altogether new, that an 
** eunuch fhould be a king." This was the end of the 
cluefell nobleman of Perfia, who was not only inno- 
cent, but had likewife been profufely hberal to the 
king. At the fame time Phradates was put to death, 
being fufpefted to aim at the regal dignity j it is cer- 
tain he began now to be too fuddcn in his executions, 
and too apt to give credit to falfe informations ; 
from whence it is plain, " That profperity is able to 
** change tlie beft nature, it being a rarity to find 
^* any one fufficiently cautious againfl good fortune." 
Thus he who a little before could not find in his 
heart to condemn Lynceftes Alexander, though ac- 
cused by two witneffes ; and had fuifer'd feveral pri- 
foners of a mean condition to be acquitted, even con- 
trary to his own inclination, only becaufe they 
fcem'd innocent to the reft, and had reftored king- 
doms to his conquer'd enemies, at laft fo degenerated 
from himfelf, as even againft his own fentiment 
to beftow kingdoms on fomc at the pleafure of 


3.x. QiriN'Tus CuRTics. ly^ 

n infamous catamite, and deprive others of their 

Much about the fame time he received letters from 
!)aenus concerning the traufa^'iions in Europe and Alia, 
/hilil he v/as fubduing India, viz. that Zopirio his 
overnor of Thrace, in his expedition ag;;inft the 
JetiE, had been furpriz'd wiih a fuddcn ftorm, and 
erifh'd therein with the wliole army ; and that Sccu- 
les being informed thereof had follicited the Odry fi- 
ns his countrymen to revolt, whereby Thrace was 
Imoft loft, and Greece it felf in danger ; * for Alex - 
nder having punifh'd the infolence of fome of the 
itraps (who d-iring his wars in India, had exercis'd 
11 manner of crimes in their refjpeftive provincei.) had 
bicreby terrify 'd others, who being guilty of the fame 
oul praftices, expelled to be rc^varded after the fame 
lanner, and therefore took refuge with the mercena- 
y troops, defigning to make ufe of their hands in 
beir detence, if they were callM to execution ; others 
;etting together what money they could, fied. TJic 
ing being advis'd hereof^ 4irps^*d letters to all the 
jovemors throughout A&bl, whereby they were com- 
nanded u{K>n fight to disband all the foreign troo^is 
yidiin their re^e^Uve jurifdi^ons. Harpatus iivas 
iffxe of thefe offenders ; Alexander had a great confi- 
lence in him, becaufe he had upon hi^ account f^r- 
oerly been banifhM by Philip, and therefore when 
fy^LKMS dy'd, he conferred upon him the (acraplhip 
f Babylon, and the guard of the treafures. This 
nan having, by the extravagslnce of hb crimes, loSt: 
11 the confidence he had in the kiiMr^s tufoax, took 
ve thoufand talents out of the treaiury, and having, 
ir'd fix thoufand mercenaries, returned into- Europe. 

* Supplement of Freiafliemius* 

H 3 He 


He had for a confiderable time followed the bent of 
his loll and luxury, fo that defpairing of the king*s 
mercy, he began to look aboat for foreign meajis to 
•fecure himfelf againfl his anger ; and as he had all 
along cultivated the friendlliip of the Athenians, whofe 
pO'Axr was no way contenipiib>, and whofe authori- 
ty he knew was very great with the other Greeks, as 
well as their private hatred to the Macedonians ; he 
fiarter'd thofe of his party, that as foon as the Atheni- 
ans Ihould be ir.fcrm'd of his arrival, and behold the 
troops and treafurc lie brought with him, they wouW 
in:nicdiate]y join their arms and counfels to his : for 
i e thought that by the means of wicked inftruments 
\ hofc avarice fet every tiling to fale, he might by 
' refents and bribes compafs his ends with an jgnorant 
and wavering people. 


C HA p. II. 

THEY therefore put to fea with thirty (hips, — 
and came to Suinum, which b a cape in At 

tica, fiom whence they intended to go to tlie havcn^^^ 

of the city. 

The king being informed of thefe things, was equal -*^ ; 
ly incens'd againfl Harpalus and the Athenians^ an^K^ 
immediately order'd a fleet to be got ready, refolviA^g 
;Co rtpcir immediately to Athens ; but while he wa^ - 
liiken np with thefe thoughts he received letters of ad - 
•\'ice, ** That Harpalus had indeed enter'd Athens - 
** -and by large fums gain'd the chief citizens ; not- ^^'' 
** withf.anding which, in an aficmbly of the pcople^^^' 

♦ Curtius. 

B. X, QuiNTus CuRTius. 175 

*' he had been commanded to leave the town, where- 
*' upon he retir'd to the Greek foldicrs, who feiz'd 
** him, and that lie was afterwards treacheroufly killed 
'* by a certain traveller." Being pleasM whith this 
account, he laid afide his thoughts of palfing into Eu- 
rope ; ho^vcver^ " he ordered all the cities of Greece 
" to receive their refpeclive exiles, excepting fuch 
•* who had defiPd their liands widi the blood of their 
** fellow citizens. 

The Greeks not daring to difobey his commands, 

Ialtho' they look'd upon them as a beginning of the 
ubverfion of their laws) not only recall'd tliem, but 
alfo rcllor^d to them all their eiFe^b that were in be- 
ing. The Athenians were the only people who on 
this occafion aflcrted both their own and the publick 
liberty ; for looking upon it as an infupportable 
grievance, (as not being usM to monarchical govern- 
ment, but to their own laws and cufloms of their 
country) they forbid them entring into their territo- 
fies, being refolv*d to fufFer any thing rather than 
grant admittance to thofe former diegs of their. owi\ 
town, and now the refufe of the. places of theiy exile. 
Alexander having dIfchiargM and fent home the 
oldeft of his foldiers, orderM " thirteen thoufand 
•* foot, and two thoufand horfe, to be pick'd oiit to 
•« remain with him in Alia ;" judging that he could 
now ke^p Alia in fubjeftion with aunall army, by 
reafon he had good garrifons in feveral places, belldes 
the new towns he had built and peopled with colonies, 
all which he conceived would be a fufficient bridle up- 
on thofe who might be difpos'd to innovations. But 
before he made choice of thofe he defign'd to keep 
with him, he iffuM out a proclamation, requiring 
•* all the foldicrs to give in an account of what they 
** ow*d,'* for he was fenfible that feveral of them 
were very much iii debt ; and notwithflanding hQ 
H 4. loiew 


knew their luxury had been the caufe of it, yet He 
was refolv'd to free them. 

They thinking it was only an artifice to diftinguiih 
the profufe from the good hiisb^ds, were flow in 
bringing hi tlieir accounts ; whereupon the king, know- 
ing very well tliat it was their modefly, and not their 
coatun^acy, that Wiis the obftacle, order 'd " coun- 
** ting tables to be difpos'd throughout the camp» and 
"ten thoufand talents to be delivered out." Being 
by this convinced he was in carneft, they declared 
the debts, which were fo great, that of fo vaft a fum 
there was bat. one hundred and thirty talents left; 
from whence it is plain, that this viftorious army that 
had conquered fo many rich nations, had brought 
more honour than booty out of Afia. 

However, it was no fooner known that (ame of 
them were to be fent home, and others retained, than 
they prcfently concluded, he intended to £x the feat 
of his empire in Afia. ^ Whereupon they broke out 
in fuch a fury, that laying afide all military difcipline, 
they filled the camp with feditious clamoun^ and ad- 
ArdBing themfelves to the king, after a more infolettC 
manner than ever, they ttnanimoufly reqnirM a ge- 
held 4U!^arge, ihewii^ at the fame time their &- 
f gur*d Ac^ and their fj^ hairs. Neither the offi- 
cers corrcftion, ror their wonted refpeA for their 
liir.g, had at prefcnt an^ influence upon them, but 
with I hen* tumultuous cries and military Hcenfe, they 
interrupted him when lie ofter'd to fpeas to them, de- 
c^iuing publickly, that they would not move a Hep 
fiOm the place where they were, but towards their 
own homes. At laJl, filence being made (more be- 
caufe they thought they had work'd upon the king, 
than that they were in the leaft mov'd themfelves) 
tiiey were delirous to know what he intended to do, 
\viicn he delivered hinifelf in the following terms, 
*■ W hat h the meaning of this fudden tumult ? whence 

" pro- 

B.X. QuiNTus Cenrnrs^; lyj 

** proceeds this infolent and licentious behaviour ? I 
** am afraid to fpeak ; you have bare-facedly infringed 
** my authority, and I am now but a precarious kine, 
•^ to whom you have not left the privilege of fpeak- 
" ing to you, of taking cognizance of your gidevan- 
** ces, or admonifhing you when you are in the 
" wrong ; nay, I mufl not fo much as look at you. 
" And what is wonderful ! now that I have deter- 
" min'd to fend fome of you home, and in a little 
" time to follow my felf with the reft, I perceive 
" thofe who are to go forthwith in the fame uproar, 
" as they who are to ftay till I return in perfon. 
" What can be the meaning of this ? I ihould be 
'* glad to know which of the two are diiTatisfied, they 
'* whom I difmifs, or thofe I retain." One would 
have thought the whole aiTembly had now had but 
Wie voice, they fo unaniraoully reply'd, that their 
complaint was general. '^ It is impofTible for me 
'*.(^^ t^c king) to believe, that this univerial com- 

* plaint fhould proceed from the caufe you pretend, in 
" which the major part of you are cot concerned, fince £ 
'' difmifs more than I (hall retain : the evil muft lie 
** ^eper, that tlius at once alienates you all fjcom 
^* me. For when was it ever known, that a whole 

* army unanimoufly a^eed to abandon their king ? 
^ The very Haves themfelves are never fo generally 

* corrupted, as to run from their mailers all at 

* once : fome of them will ftill be aihamed to 

* fbrfake thofe they fee abandoned by the reft*. 

* But why do I (as if I had forgot the fury that now 

* rages amongil you) drive to adminifter fcmedies to 

* the incurable ? I fee 'tis in vain to lirbour any 

* hopes of you, and I am refolved to afe you not as 

* my foldiers (for you are no loiter fuch) but as the 

* moft ungrateful of all mankind. The abundance 
^ of your fuccefs intoxicates you, and makes you for- 

* get tliat condition of life which my indulgence has 

H 5 ** <ic- 

178 QyiNTus CuRTius. B. X. 

" deliverM you from, and in which you deferve to 
^* have grown gfey ; for I f nd you can govern your 
** felves better in adverfity than in profperity. They 
** who not long fmce were tributaries to the Illyri- 
'* ans and Perfians, are now grown fo haughty as to 
** difdain Afia, and the fpoils of fo many nations ; 
** and they who under Philip were half naked, at 
** prefent think it hard to wear purple garments ; their 
** eyes can't bear the fight of gold and filver, they 
** want their wooden vcifels again, their bucklers of 
*' ozier and their rufly weapons ; for, to fpeak the 
^ *' truth, this is the fine condition I receiv*a you in, 
** befides a debt of five hundred talents, when all the 
** royal furniture did not amount to above threefcore. 
" This was the foundation I had for all my great at- 
** chievements, on which nevcrthelefs, I have (with- 
** out vanity be it fpoken) rais'd an empire of the 
*' greateft part of the world. Is it jolTiblc you fhouJd 
** be grown weary of Afia, where the glory you have ^ ' 
** acquired, renders you almofl equal to the gods? 
•' You arc in mighty hafte to repair to Europe, and 
"•* forfake your king, when at the fame time a great 
** many of you would have wanted neceflaries on the 
** way; had I not difcharg'd your debts, and that too 
*' with the booty of Afia. Are you not afham'd to 
** have prodigally fpent upon your bellies, the fpoils 
" of fo many conquer'd nations, and now return de — 
** ftitute to your wives and children, to whom verji^ 
*• few of you- can fhew any fruits of your viftories __ 
**^ the major part having even pawn'd their arm s j 
** and thereby obflrufted their own hopes. I ihal^C 
*' fuflain a great lofs indeed in fuch foMiers, wh^- 
*• have nothing left out of fuch vail riches, but wha^^ 
*• they employ daily in their excefTes and debauchc^^ 
*• ries. Let the fugitives therefore have a free pafTage-^s 
** be gone from hence with all fpeed, while I an^^r^ 
** the Perfians gyiard your rear. What flay you for— ^ 

B, X. QuiNTus CuRTius, 179 

** I detain none of you ; deliver my eyes from the 
** odious objed of fiich ungrateful citizens. No doubt 
** but your parents and children will be mighty joy- 
** ful to fee you return without your king I they will 
** not fail to come out and meet deferters and traitors ! 
•* depend upon it I'll triumph over your flight, and 
** where-ever I am I'll punilh you fufficiently for the 
•* fame, if it be but in beftowing my favours on thofe 
** with whom you leave me, and preferring them to 
" your felves. You fha 1 foon be fenfible what an ar- 
** my is without a head, and of what moment my 
•* Angle perfon is." Then leaping from the tribuni 
in the utmoft rage, he ran in amongfl the armM fol-J' 
diers, and having taken notice of the mofl mutinous, he 
laid hold of thirteen of them one after another, and 
delivered them into the cuftody of his guards, none of 
them darmg to make the leaft refiftance. 


C H A P. III. 

WH O would imagine, that fo tumultuous an 
aflembly could have been fo foon appeas'df 
but they were ieiz'd with fo great a dread^ that even* 
thofe he was dragging to be made examples of did 
not- dare .to do any more than the reft. Thus this* 
exceffive licenfe ^ and military violence, v/as at once 
fupprefs'd, not one of them daring to make the leaft 
refiftance, but ftandiiig all like men aftcnifhM, and* 
half dead with fear, iLty quietly expeded wha'. the' 
king v/oiild determine coiicc*-nJn^;^ tiicii lives. Whether 
this proceeded from the rcvcicence thofe nations, . who 
are under a monarchJcal government, pay to tlieir 
H 6 kings. 

i8o QirwTvs. CuRTitrs. B, X. 

kings, ^hom they worfhip like gods, or from the 
particular veneration they had for his perfon, or that 
the confidence with which he exerds'd his pow^r, 
ih-uck an awe into them, it is certain, the^ g^ve on 
this occafioQ a fmgular example of their patience ; for 
they were fo far from being exafperated by the pa- 
ni(hment of their companions, who they underftood 
had been executed in the evening, that they omitted 
nothing that fmgle perfons could have done to exprefs 
their obedience, and expiate their crime. The 
next day when they prefented themfelves, and found 
tkcy were prohibited entrance (the Afiatic troops ' 
being only admitted) the whole camp was fiU'd witb 
mournful cries, declaring, " they would live no Ion- 
" gcr, if the king periiited in iiis anger." But he 
being of an obilinate temper, in any thing he had 
refolv'd on, " confined the Macedonians to their. 
** camp," and order'd the foreign foldiers to be drawn 
out, who being met together, he by an interpreter 
Jtpade the following fpeech to them. *^ When L 
•* pafe'doutof Europe into Afia, I fed myfelf with 
** the hopes of adding a great many confiderable na- 
" tions and muhitudes of men to my empire, and 
*' indeed I have not been impos'd apon by fame, in 
** the credit I gave her concerning them, but find 
^* that befides what was commonly reported of them 
** they afford brave men, and of an unalterable af- 
^ fe£tk>n towards their kings. I thought at firfl that 
'* luxury prevailed amongft you, and that by a re« 
•' dundant felicity, you were drown'd in pleafures. 
** Whereas I perceive you have fo much vijjour of mind 
** and ftrength of body, that you are indefatigable 
•* in tlie difcharge of military duties ; and at the (amc 
•* time that you are brave, you do not cultivate for- 
" titude more than loyalty. Tho' this be my firft 
V profeflion to you hereof, yet I have been a great 



«* while convinc'd of it. It is on this account that I 
*^ made choice of you from the reft- of the yguth to 
** ferve me, and incerporaied you vMk my own 
** troops. Your doaths and arms differ in nothing 
*' from theirs, but your dudfuUtefe and fubmifiion to 
" orders, is what you very much exceed them in. 
** Thefe confiderations made me marrythe daughter 
'' of Oxathres the Periian, not difSauning to nave 
** children from a c^tive ; then coveting, a numerous 
** offspring, I took Darius's daughter in marriage, 
*^ and encouraged my beff friends by my example to 
** marry captives, that by the means of that facred 
** bond, I might put an end to all difference between 
*' the vanquiih'd and vidorious. Perfiiade your- 
*f . felves therefore for the future, that you are my na- 
'* tural fttibjeds, and not ffrangers, A£a and Europe 
** being now but one kingdom. I have arm'd you 
** after the manner of the Macedonians, and by that 
** means given age to foreign noveltv. You are 
** both my citizens and ibl£ers. All things have 
** now the fame appearance. It is no longer unbe* 
*^ coining the Perfians to copy the manners of the 
*^ Mace£>nians, nor the Macedonians to imitate thoie 
•* of the Perfians. They who live under the fame 
'* fovereign, ought to have ail the fame laws and 
** privileges.*' Having made this fpeech, * he com- 
mitted the guard of his perfon to the Perfians, put- 
ting all the offices thereunto belonging into their 
hands ; and as they were leading to execution thole 
MjK:edonians who had been the caufe of this fedition^ 
it is faid one of them whofe age and charadler diffin- 
guifh'd him from the refl, fpoke after the following 
manner to the king. 

* S«pplemeat^ 



. ' C;H A P. IV. 

*« TTOW long,' Sir, "vwll you give way to the 
** JLJL traniports of your mind, even to fufFer us to 
*' be executed after this foreign cuftom ? Your own 
** foldiers, your own citizens are dragg'd to execu- 
** tion by their captives, without fo much as a legal 
" hearing; If you really think we deferve death, at 
** leaft do us t"he fevour to change our executioners. 

Moft certainly this was a friendly advice, had he 
been capable of hearing the truth, but his anger was 
tum'd into rage ; fo that perceiving thofc who were 
charg'd with the prifoners, to be dihtory in their of- 
fice, he commanded them to drown them in the river 
bound as they were. Nor did this unufual punifhment 
raife any commotion among the foldiers ; on the con- 
trary, they repaired in companies to the chief officers, 
and the king's favourites, defiring, " That if he 
" knew of any more that were guiltv of the fane 
** crime, he would command them to be alfo put to 
•* death, fmce they freely deliver'd up their bodies to 
" appeafe his wrath." 

* But after they came to underftand that he had 
given their pofts to the Perfians, and that the Barba^ 
rians were form'd into' different regiments, unta 
whom he had given Macedonian denominations, 
while they were ignominioufly rejected, they were 
BO longer able to contain the grief that now 
pierc'd their very hearts 5 they therefore- repaired t^ 

• Supplement. 

B. X. QoiNTus CuRTiirs. 183 

the palace in their fhirts, and laid their arms down 
before the gate, as a token of their repentance, and 
with tears and humble fupplications bege'd to be ad- 
mitted and forgiven, and that he would rather fatis^ 
fy his anger with their executions than difgraces, pro- 
tefting tlmt for dieir parts they were refcrfv'd not to 
depart till they had obtain'd their pardons. Alexan- 
der being informed of this, caus'd the gates to be 
openM, and came out to them, and taking into con- 
fideration all thefe teftimonies of their repentance, 
and beholding their tears and wretched appearance, he 
was fo mov'd thereat, that he could not refrain weep- 
ing with them for fome time. In fine, their modelty 
prevail'd with him to forgive " them, and having 
gently reprimanded them, and by courteous fpeeches 
comforted them aeain, he broke a great many of 
them who were no longer fit for the fervice, and fent 
them home magnificently rewarded. Then he writ 
to Antipater, his lieutenant of Macedonia, to affign 
them the firft places in the theatre at the public fpe6&- 
des, and withal, that they fhould fit there with 
crowns on their heads ; and iikewife ordered, that af- 
ter their deceafe, their children ihould receive their 
pay. He appointed Craterus to lead them home; 
giving him dfo the charge of Macedon, Theflaly, 
and Thrace, in the room of .Antipater, whom he 
commanded to repair to him with the recruits, t« 
ferve in the place of Craterus. 

Alexander had perceiv'd for fome time by his mo* 
ther's letters, and thofe of Antipater, that there wais 
aiot a right underflanding between them. .Olympias 
aiccus'd Antipater of afpiring to the crown : on th« 
other fide Antipater reprefented, that (he did fevera^ 
^ings unbecoming her charafter 5 but finding him- 
■lelf recall'd from his government, he took it fo to 
Jieart* that he refolv'd to poifon the king. 



Alexander having fettled thefe matters^ came to 
Ecbatana in Media, where he made the necefiary 
diipofitions for the affairs of his empire, and repeated 
the put>lick ihews and folemnities. While theie 
thines were doing, Hephasftion, whom the king 
lov'd entirely and like a brother, died of a fever. 
Alexander was fo fen£bly affli£ied hereat, that out of 
indulgence to his grief, he did feveral ttdnes no way 
becoming the regal dignity ; for he caus'd the unhap- 
py phy£cian to be hang'd, as if he had been negu- 
gent in the cure, and with cries and lamentations flung 
himfelf upon the corpfe of his deceased friend, be- 
wailing his lofs night and day, and would hardly fof- 
fer his friends to take him away. There are many 
other reports which I do not credit. However, this 
is certain, that he ordered facri&ces to be offerM to 
him as to a hero, and employed in his funeral and 
tomb twelve thoui^nd talents. 

As he was retoming to Babylon, iisveral Chaldean 
prophets came to meet him, and advb'd him not to 
enter that city, becaufe he fet out thither in an on- 
locky hour, which feem'd to threaten his life. But 
-be flighted their admonitions, and continued his in- 
tended journey ; for he was informed ^t ambafladors 
were come thither from all parts of the world, and 
waited there for his arrival. The terror of his name 
had fpread it felf fb univerfally throughout the 
world, that all the nations feem'd to make their court 
to him, as to him who was ordain'd to be their fbve- 
reign. He therefore haften'd his journey thither,, as 
if he were there to hold a gpneral diet of all the khig- 
doms of the earth. 

Being arrived at Babylon, he receiv'd all the embaf> 
iies very courteouflv, and fent them home. About 
this time one Medius a TheiT^an gave a fplendid 
entertainment, to which the king was invited with his 
friends. Here he had not quite drunk oflf Hercttles'*a 



cup, when he gave a deep eroan as if he had been 
run through the body, and^eing carry'd from the 
feaft half dead, he found himfelf in fuch cruel tor- 
ments, that he afk'd for a fword to put an end to his 
pain. His friends gave out, that too much wine was 
the caufc of his illnefs, but in reality it was a confpira- 
cy, the infamy whereof was fKfl'd by the great power 
of his fuccefTors. For Antipater had deliver'^d a ready 
prepair'd poifon to his ion Caffander, who, with his 
brothers FhOip and JoUas, us'd to ferve the king at 
table ; he at the fame time wam'd him not to 
communicate it to any but the ThefTalian and his 
brothers. PhiBp therefore and ToKas, who were the 
kin^*8 tafters, had put the poifon into cold water, 
which they pour'd upon the wine the king was to 
drink, after they had, according to their o$ce, made 
an cflky thereof. On the fourth day, the foldiers 
(partly becaufe they fufpefted he was dead, and that 
It was keot a fecret from tbem, and partly becaufe 
diey could no longer bear the deprivation of his pre* 
fence) came fbH cf grief to the palace, dcfiring dicy 
might be, admitted to fee the king, which accoxtlingl/ 
was 2f;ant^ thejh. 

C H A p. V. 

S foon as they faw him, they burft into tears, 
^ and one would have thought they no longer be- 
heia their king, but rather aflifted at his funeral; and 
■yet the grief of thofe who flood about his bed at>pear'd 
ilill greater ; which the king perceiving, afk'd them, 
** where they would find (when he was dead) a fove- 
** reign worthy of fuch men ?'* It is a thing that fur- 
-paflles all. belief, that notwithflanding his. weak con- 


dition, he ftiould be able to keep himfelf, as he did, 
in the fame pofture he had admitted the foldiers iii, 
till ajl that army, to the lafl man, had faluted him. 

Having difmifs'd this multitude, he laid down his 
wearied limbs, as if he hadacqiii:tcd himfelf of the laft 
debt of life. Then calling to his friends to draw 
nearer (for his voice began already to fail him) he took 
his ring off his finger, and gave it to Perdiccas, en- 
joining him to convey his body to Hammon ; and as 
they ak*d him, " to whom he bcqueath'd his king- 
" .dom ? heanfwerM, To the moil worthy ; but how- 
" ever, he forefaw what funeral play s.were preparing 
" him on that account. Perdiccas then deiirmg tc^ 
•' know^ when he would have divine honours paicL 
" him ? he reply 'd. When they themfelves were hap- 
" py." Thefe were the king's laft words, a litdc 
after which he expired. 

Hereupon the palace was filPd with cries aod la- 
mentations; and by and by, all was.hufhM again as 
if it had been fome lonefome wsl^c, tiejf griet being 
now turnM into a ferioiis rcfledlion on \^at would 
cnfue. The young noblcihen who iis'd to .guard 
his perfon, were no longer abk to contain -their 
grief, nor keep themfelves within the entrance of the 
palace, but ran about like fo many mad men, filling 
the whole city with fadnefs, and omitting no kind of 
complaint that forrow can fuggeft on fuch an occafion. 
The troops therefore thsit as'd to keep guard without , 
the palace, as well Barbarians asi Macedonians, flock'd 
thither, nor was it poflible in their common affli^on 
to difcem the vanqui{h*d from the viilors. The Pcr- 
fians caird him, " their juft and merciful lord ; and 
** the Macedonians, the beft and bravcft of kings.'* 
They were not contented to utter their mournful cx- 
preffions, but alfo gave way to tranfports of indigna- 
tion, " that fo young a prince, in the very flower o* 
" his age and fortune, fhould through the envy of the 

« gods» 

B. X. QuiNTus Curt I us. 1S7 

•* gods, be fo fuddenly fnatch'd from life and govcm- 
•* ment." They now imagined, they beheld that 
:hcerfid and refolute countenance with which he us'd 
10 lead them to battle, befiege the towns, fcale the 
walls, and reward the brave. Then the Macedoni- 
ans repented " they had ever deny*d him divine ho- 
" nours, and own'd they were both impious and un- 
**- grateful to have denied his ears the fatisfaftion of a 
" title that was fo juftly his due. 

Having employ'd a confiderable time in expreffing 
their veneration, ana bemoaning their Tofs, at laft their 
compaffioh turn'd upon themfelves. They refleded, 
that they came out of Macedonia, and were got be- 
yond the Euphrates, and were left defHtute in the 
midH of their enemies, who defpis'd their new em- 
pire; that the king being dead without children^ 
and without naming a fucceiTor, every one would be 
for drawing to himfelf the public ftrength of the 
kingdom. Then they forefaw in their mmds the ci- 
yjl. wars that did enfue, and " that they fhould be 
** oblig'd to fhed their blood again, not for the con* 
** queS of Alia, but to decide who (hould be king ; 
•* ttiat after having defir'd a difcharge of their lawful 
•* fbvcreign, their old wounds muft bleed afrefhi, 
•* aged and weak as they were, and their lives muft 
** be flung away to eftablifh the power of fome mean 
^ officer." 

While their thoughts were thus employed, n^ht 
Came upon them, and increased their terror. The 
foldiers pafs'd it under their arms, and the Babyloni- 
ans ftood gazing, fome from the walls, and others 
from the tops of their houfes, in order to get a truer 
Information of what was doing. No body dar'd fet 
^p lights, fo that the ufe of the eyes being taken away, 
they liften'd with attention to every noife and voice ; 
snd as they were feiz'd with groundless fears, they 
'vrander'd up and down the narrow flrcets and dark 



lanes, in great anxiety, running one againft the other 
in a continual diftrull of each other. 

The Perfians having, according to their cuftom, cut 
off their hau*, and put 01 mooming cloaths, with 
their wives and children lamented his death, not as 
one who had conquered them, and was not long iince 
their enemy, but as the lawful fovereign of their na- 
tion, with an unfeigned afFedion. Being usM to 
livp under kingly government, they confeS'd they 
had never had a monarch more fit to reign over them 
than he. Nor was their grief confined within the 
walls of the city, bat foon communicated itfclf to 
the neighbouring regions, and fpread the rumour of 
fo great an* evil, over all that large portion of Aiia,. 
that lies on this fide the Euphrates. It quickly alfo 
reached Darius's mother, who prefently rent bcr gar- 
mentSy and put on a mourning dreis» tearing off* her 
hair, and flinging herfelf upon the ground. She had 
by her one of her grand-daughters, who was bewail- 
ing the death of Hephacdion, to whom ihe was nuur-. 
ried, and now in this general calamity renewed her. 
own peculiar srief. But Sifigambis alone felt alt the 
sniafbrtunes of her unhappy »mily. She bemoaned 
her own condition^ and tnat of her grand-daughter^ 
and this new afiiidUon recalled all the paft. One would 
have thought Darius was but juft d^, and that this 
diflrefsM mother was at the (ame time perfoiming the 
funerals of both her fons. She wept as well for the 
living as the dead. ^ For who was there now to 
" take care of her grand-children ? Who would prove 
** another Alexander ? They were at prefent fsJlcn 
" into a frefh captivity, and had anew loft their 
" royal dignity. Upon the death of Darius thev 
•* kid found a protedlor, but Alexander being dead, 
" who would have any regard to them ?" Here it alfo 
came into her mind, ** how her father and fburfcore 
" brothers had been in one day barbaroufly murderM 



" by that cruellcft of kings, Ochus. That of fevcn 
*' children fhe had herfelf had, there was but one 
** living : And tho' Darius flourilh'd for a while, it 
** was only that liis fate might be the more remarka- 
•* bly cruel.'' 

At laft (he funk under the load of fo much grief, 
and covering her head, tum'd her back to her grand- 
children, who fat at her feet, and deprived herfelf at 
once both of food and the light, and expired the fifth 
day after (he had thus refolv'd to die. Her death is 
indubitably a gre;it inflance of Alexander's mdulgence 
to her, and of his clemency and juilice to all the 
captives ; for fhe who could reconcile herfelf to life 
after Darius's death, was afliam'd to out-live Alex- 
ander : And mofl certainly it is plain to all that will 
do the king juilice, that his virtues were owing to his 
nature ; whereas his vices were the efFe^ of tortune, 
or his age. He had an incredible fbength of mind^ 
his patience under ^tigues was almofl excef&ve ; and 
his bravery did not only excell that of other kings, 
bat even that of thofe who have no other virtue. 
His liberality was fuch, that he would often beflow 
more than could with modefly have been requeflcd 
of the gods. His clemency to the vanquifh'd fhews 
jtfelf in the many kingdoms he reftor'd to thofe he 
had conquer'd, or gratuitoufly conferred on others. 
He had fo habitual a contempt of death (which ap- 
pears fo terrible to all the relc of mankind) tliat h^ 
feem'd to bid it defiance every where. Indeed he 
had too great a thirft after glory and praife, but that 
was pardonable in a young prince who had done fuch 
glorious things. He could not give greater demon - 
Srations of lus dutiful affedlion to his parents, than in 
the refolution he had taken to place his mother 
amongft the goddefies, and in the revenge he took 
of Phflip's murtherers. As for his bounty towards 
his friends, it was beyond exprelTion, as well as his 



benevolence to the foldiers. His condu£l was equal 
to the greatnefs of his mind, and his wifdom was far 
above his age. He was moderate in thofe pleafures 
that feem'd incapable of moderation ; in venereal de- 
lights he kept within the bounds of nature, and in- 
dulged no unlawful voluptuoufnefs. Thefe rauft be 
own'd to be mighty gifts ; now the failings which are 
to be attributed to fortune, were, his equalling him- 
felf to the gods, and exafting divine honours, and his 
giving credit to the oracles on thefe occafions^; to 
which we may add his being tranfported beyond 
meafure, againft thofe who refused to adore him $ 
his imitating the manners of the conquered nations, 
which before the viftory he defpis'd. As for his 
pronenefs to anger, and his love of wine, as they 
were enhanced by the heat of youth, fo age would 
have abated them of courfe. However, we muft 
allow, !that if he ow'd a great deal to his virtue, yet 
he was Hill more indebtedto fortune, which he alone 
of all mankind feem'd to have within his power. 
How many times has (he fnatch'd him out of the 
jaws of death ? How many times, when he hasraihly 
expos'd himfelf to manifeft dangers, has fhe fhewn 
her conftant care of him, by bringing him off? And 
to crown his felicity, his life and glory had one and 
the fame period. The deflinies waited for him till 
he had fubdu'd the eaft, and vifited the ocean ; in 
fine, till he had done all that mortality is capable 

To this great king and mighty captain a fucceffor 
was wanting, but the burthen was 100 great for any 
fmglc pcrfon to bear, now he was gone ; . and to 
fpeak the truth, his very name, and the fame of his 
great atchievcments, cilablifhed kings and kingdoms 
almoft throughout the world, and they were look'd 
upon to be very powerful who had but the fmallell 
portion of fo vail a fortune. 


B. X. QyiNTus CuRTius. 191 


BU T let us return to Babylon, from whence we 
made our digreffion ; here the guards ofhis'per- 
ion caird together in the palace the chief oif his 
friends, and the principal officers of the army ; they 
were followed by a great number of foldiers, who 
were defirops to know who was like to fucceed Alex- 
ander. The concourfe of foldiers was fo jgreat, that 
feveral confiderable officers could not get admittance ; 
hereupon a herald made proclamation, that none 
ihodla bjFcr to enter but fuch as fhould be call'd by 
thcir-niames. But no heed was had to the prefent 
precarious power; at firft there was nothing but 
mournful cries, and the lamentations feem'd to be 
rencw'd.i afterwards the expectation of what would 
enfue piif aftop to their {ears, and caus'd a filence. 
Then Fcrdttcas order'd the royal chair to be brought 
forth, and having put therein Alexander's diadem and 
robes with his arms, he cxpos'd them all to the pub- 
lick view i he alfo laid in the faid chair the ring the 
king had given him the day before ; at the fight 
hereof the whole «iflembly burft out again in tears, 
and moumM afrefli. Perdiccas then fpoke to them 
in the following manner : * I here reflore to you the 
** ring which the king was pleas'd to give me, and 
** with which he us'd to fign his orders, and corro- 
*' borate all his adts of power ; and notwithftanding 
*• the gods in their anger could not contrive any 
** misfortune that could tq.*al that we at prefent lie 
" under, yet if we call our eyes on the mighty things 
'* he has performed, we fhall find it rcafonablc to 

" believe. 


*' believe, duit the gods had only lent fo great 
'^ to the neceflity of haman ai&irs, and that 1 
'• dlTchafg'd the noble talk, the^- refum'd h 
** themfehres as their natural off-fpring. Since 
** fore there is nothing left of him now but wha 
** not Ihare in his immortality, let us, as fc 
*' may be, acquit c^^ielves of what we owe 
** illufbious name and body, without forgetti 
" what city, and amongfl whom we are, and i 
" fame time what a king and protedior we a: 
" priv'd of. We muft 2ufo, fellow-foldiers, o 
** about the necefl^y meafures to maintain the 
f ' ries we have gam'd. A head is abfolutely reqi 
** whether you will have one, or many, is at 
** own difpofal ; but this you ought to knoW; 
" an army without a general, is a body witl 
** ibul. Roxane is gone fix months of her time 
" to be wifh'd fhe may bring forth a fon, who 
" the approbation of the gods, may inherit thi 
" pire when he is grown up. In the mean tin 
** is your bufinefs to determine, who you will c 
" the government with till then." Perdiccas h 
made this fpeech, Nearchus reply'd, " That ii 
" no body could deny, but Alexander's bloo< 
*' off-fpring would bell become the regal dig 
** but then to wait for a prince who was no 
** born, and pafs by one tliat was, could neithe 
** the Macedonians temper, nor the prefent exij 
** of affairs : As tlierefore Barfme had a fon b 
*' king, it was his opinion they ought to give 
•' the diadem." No body approved of this fp 
fo that according to their cuftom, they exprefs'd 
difpleafure by the clafliing of their fpears and bucl 
and were pretty near coming to a fedition upon T 
ciius's obflinately maintaining his opinion. Herei 
Ptolemy fpoke to this effect : " J t muff be o 
'* you have pitch' J upon a very noble iffue to < 

J8. X. QuiNTus CuRTivi? 4$5 

*^ mand die Macedonian nation, in the fon eidier of 
** Roxane or Barfine, whom' Europe would hardly 
** think worthy to be nam'd, as partaldng too n^ucli 
^* of thecM)tive. Did we conquer the Perfians only 
** to ferve their off-fpring ? A thing that even Darius 
*• and Xerxes, who were l?yjful kings, had witK 
.<< numberlefs annies and (bo 'g fleets in vam at- 
<> tempted. My opinion is, that Alexander's feat 
*' being plac'd in the palace, they who were ef his 
** council heretofore fhould there meet, whenever 
** the publick affairs require their confultations^ and 
** that the officers of all ranks fhall be obligM t6 
** obey whatever the major psut fhall there agree to.'* 
Some were of PtoJemy^s opinion, but the mod cohii- 
derable fided with Perdiccas. Then Arillonus put 
the affembly in mind, ** That Alexander being aflt'd^ 
": to whom he left his kingdom V* reply'd, *• To 
•* the beft and moft deferving ; and that he feem'd to 
'* have declared whom he thought moil worthy, by 
** giving his ring to Perdiccas ; for he was not the 
** only perfon that was prefent at his death, but hav- 
** ing <ifl his eye round the company, he made 
^* choice of him above all the reft of his friends t6 
** beftow his ring upon. It was therefore his opinion, 
^* that the fovereignty ought conferr'd upon 
•' Perdiccas." No body in the Icaft doubted but 
what he (aid was right, wherefore they (wder'd Per- 
diccas ** to come forth, and take up the king's ring." 
He was at a ftand between defire and bafhfulnefs, ^^ 
believM that the more backward and modefl he fhew'd 
rhlinielf in wl^ he moR toveced, ' the more obftinate 
would they be, in prefling him to accept the fame. 
After fome delay, being uncertain what refolution to 
take, at laft he got up, and retired behind thofc w ho 
{ate next to him ; but Meleager, who was one of tlTe 
captains, taking courage from Perdiccas*s backwardr 
nels iai(C ^* The god*£ forbid that Alexander's for^ 
Vol. n. 1 " tune. 

b$4 QgnrTus Cxmrivi^ A. X. 

['<* tune, and the Sovereignty of fo vaft an cnipire» 
** ihould fiJl upon fuch ihoulden ; at leafl I am fait — ' 
'* diat they who are men will never fofier it. I do 
f* not here (peak only of th<^e who are of nobler ^-' 
'< extia6Uon than he» but in general terms, of all the -=^ 

^' men of coon^e, againft whofe confent it is xvqoi 

** fite nothing fhould be done. Neither does it mat 

** ter much, whether you have the fon of Roxane^s^ 

** (lethimbebornwhenhewill)orPerdicGasfbryoaai^Br 

^ ku^ ; iince the latter, under the pretext o^Ktf' 

«< guardianihip, will not f^ to poflefs himfelf of th^i^ 

*^ mpreme power. This is the reafon that he like s 

** no king out him who is not yet come into th^^^ 

*' world ; and in the great de£re we all exprefi tf^3 

*^ have a king (which at this jim^bue is not only jnlV^ 

*' but even neceilary) he is the only peribn tiiat I0 

^* for waiting the complement of mcmths, nay, he 

«< already prognoflicates 'twill be a fon ; and rather 

*< than hSL, there is no doubt to be made, but le 

** will impofe one upon you. Moft certainly, if 

** Alexander had left us him for our king^ it vmnld 

*' in my opinion be the only thine we flionld be 

" obligM to difobey.him in. Why «m't you lather 

<< hXi a pillaging the treafury ? For there is no dif- ^ 

<' pute but the people is heir to all the kill's riches." 

Having delivered himfelf to this purpofe, he broke 

thro' me armed crowd ; and thofe who eave way to ^^ 

his retreat, foUow'd him to partake of uie afomid -*^ 



RY this tune a great band of foldiers were got ^ ^^ 
about Mdeager, and the whole afiembly feem'd^^^" 
onciin'd to fedition and difcord, when one of the^^*^^ 
*. meaner^ ^^ 

B. X QvFNTus CcitTius# 195 

meaner fort, who was altogether unknown to the 
major part of the Macedonians, deliverM himfelf in 
this manner to them ; ** What occafion is there to 
'' have recourfe to arras, or engage in a civil war, 
^* whexr you have abready the king you ieek ? Arl^ 
^* daeus, the fon of Philip, and brother to Alexander 
** the late king, and who, during his life, was n 
** partner with him in the facred rites and ceremonies, 
•* and is now his only heir, is laid afide. What is his 
** crime ? What has he done that he fhould thus be 
•* deprived of the common law of nations ? If you 
** feek for one like Alexander, it is what you can ne* 
** ver hope to find ; if the next in right, Aridaeus is 
** the only pcrfon." Hereupon the multitude at firft 
grew filent, as if aw'd by authority, and afterwards 
cry'd out with one general voice, " That Aridaus 
** ought to be call'd, and that they deferv'd death, 
** who had held the aflembly without hiin." Then 
Pithon, diflblv'd in tears, reprefented to them, '* That 
•* iiowi- if ever, Alexander was to be pity 'd, for be- 
" ing deprived of the benefit as^vell as prefence of 
^ fuch good citizens and ibldiers, who were fo en- 
** drely wrapt up in the name and memory of their 
** king, that they feem'd to have no other regard. 

It was too plain, that by thefe words he refledied 
on the young prince to whom they defign'd the king- 
dom, but he thereby procured more ill-will to him^ 
(elf, than contempt to Aridaeus; for while they pity'd 
lus misfortune, they grew favourably difpos'd towards 
Jum. They therefore obftinately declare, " That 
'' they will fuffer no other to reien over them, thaa 
** he who was bom to that hope j and inunediately 
order'd Aridaeus " to be fent for. " Hereupon Me- 
leager, who was Perdiccas's mortal enemy, brought 
him forthwith into the palace, where the foldiers fa- 
late him as a king under the name of Philip. 

1 2 Howevern 

t^S Quint us CuRTivk. B. Xl 

However, this was but the voice of the vulgar fort, 
the iK)bles were of another opinion, amongft whom 
Pithon began to execute Percficcas's advice, and ap- 
pointed Perdiccas and Leonatus '* (who were of th^ 
** royal family) to be guardians to the fbn Roxane 
** was to bring fwth j" with this farther propofitioh, 
?* That Craterus and Andpater (hould have the acfani- 
f* Tiiftration of the affau^ of Europe.** Then every 
one took an oath " to be true to Alexander's iflue.'* 
This made Meleager {who was, not without caufe, 
appjehenfive of future punilhmcnt) withdraw with 
his party ; but he foon returned again, and bringing 
Philip along with him, he forcM his way into the 
palace, crying aloud, ** That Aridseus's vigorous 
^* age feem'd to favour the hopes the publick had 
f * conceived, of the new king ; tiiat therefore they 
f * ought to make trial of Philii>*s pofterity, as beb^ 
** the fori and brother of two kings, and frame their 
^ judgment of him upon their own knowledge and 
** -experience." The deepeft fea, or moft tempeftu- 
ous ftrait, does not ftir up more billows than the mul- 
titude has different motions, cfpecially if it ,grows 
"wanton with a liberty they think they are not long to 
enjoy. Some few were for conferring the empire on 
Perdiccas lately chofen, but a great many more were 
for giving it to Philip than he really expefted. They 
COU& neither approve nor -difapprove of any thing 
long ; one while they repented of the meafures 
4hey had taken, and prefentiy after repented that they 
liad repented ; however, at h& their affe^Uons in- 
inclined them to the royal iiTuc. 

Aridseus, dreading the power of the nobility, had 
left the allembly ; upon his departure, the military 
ardour fcem'd rather to be filcnc'd than cool'd ; fo 
'iliat being call'd back again, they drefs'd him in his 
brother's robes, the very fame that lay inthe chair i 
^d Mekager having put on his breaft-plate, and ta^ 


R X. QuiNTus CuRTius; |^ 

ken his arms, foUow'd as if he had the guard of tho 
new king's perfon. The Phalanx dafhing their ipcar^ 
and bucklers, threatened " to fatiate themfelves with 
•* the blood of thole who had afpired to a crown that 
** no way belonged to them ; " and were mightily 
pleas'd " that the power of the empire was to remain 
** in the fame houfe and family ; for as the empLnfe 
** was hereditary, it of right belonged to the royal 
*' line, and they were accuftom'd to pay a veneration; 
" and reipe^l to the very name, which no one could 
•' take, but he who was bom to reign.'' 
' Perdiccas being alarm'd at this proceeding, order'd 
** die room where Alexander*$ body lay to be ftiut 
•* and guarded." He had with him fix hundred men 
of known courage i and Ptolemy had alfo join'd him, 
and the royal band of young noblemen. However^ 
it was no difiicult matter for fo many thoufand metr 
to break in upon them. The king likewife (attended 
by his guards, commanded by Mcleager) forc'd liis 
way in. Hereupon Perdiccas in great anger " call'd 
^ to his afiiftance all thofe who were willing, to pre- 
** ferve Alexander's corps from being infulted." But 
they who had made the irruption caft theii* darts at 
him from afar, and wounded feveral ; at laft the old^ 
eft afnongft them took off their helmets (that they 
might be the more eafily known) and entreated Per- 
diccas's party, " That they would forbear coming 
" to engagement, and fiibmit themfelves to the king^ 
** and the greater number." Perdiccas was the firlt 
that laid down his arms, and the reft foUow'd his 
example. Then Meleager endeavour'd to perfuade 
them, " not to depart from Alexander's corps." But 
they miftrufting fome treachery, got out at another 
part of the palace, and fled towards tlie Euphrates, 
The horfe, which was compos'd of the nobleft youths 
follow 'd Perdiccas and Leonatus^ and were for leav- 
ing the city, and taking to the opeik ii(^d. But as 
X 3 Perdiccas 

15^ QtriKttrs C^rtivs. B. 3f. 

Perdiccas dM not altogether defpair of bringing the 
foot alfo to his party, he ftay'd in die city, left by 
carrying off the horfe he (hould feem to hare feparated 
from the reft of the army. 


IN the mean time Meleager never ceasM pntdng; 
the king in mind, ^ That he ought to confirm 
•* his fovereign authority by the deadi of Pieidfctas j 
** and that if his ambitious fpirit was not preventec^ 
" he would not fail to cauie innovations. That he 
" could not forget what he had deferv'd at the kiag*! 
** hands, and that no man could be faithful to him^ 
" he fear'd." The king rather fuffer*ia thanappiw'd 
of his counfel i however, Meleager took his nkooti 
for a command, and immediately fent melTengen to 
Perdiccas to order him " to come to the king," which 
if he made the leaft difficulty to comply wth, they 
were to kill him. Perdiccas being advis'd of their 
coming, plac'dhimfelf at the entrance c^his houfe, ac- 
company 'd only by fixteen youths of the royal band ; 
and having reprimanded them and reproached them with 
being Meleager's flaves, he Co terrifyM them with his 
refolution and ftem countenance, that they fled in the 
greateft conftemation. Then Perdiccas ordered the 
young gentlemen " to mount their horfes," and thus 
with a few friends repaired to Leonatus, where he 
would be in a better condition to repel any violence 
that might be ofFerM him. The next day the Mace« 
donians took it heinoufly, that Perdiccas fhouM be 
brought in danger of death, and were refohr'd by 
force of arms to punifh Meleager's temerity. But 
he forefeeing the evil, went to the king, and aik'd 



him in their prcfcncc, " Whether he had not or- 
** der'd Perdiccas to betaken into cuftody?'' Whof 
made anfwcr, " Yes, but it. was by Mcleagcr'sad- 
** . vice. Howcrer, there was no occafion for their 
*^ being diftarb'd thereat, iince Perdiccas wa&allv« 
*♦ and unhurt." : m 

: The king havu^:thas difinifsM the airembl7^-:Me-' 
kager (who was frightened at the reparation of the: 
horfe) was now at a lois what counfel to take, {oi he 
ibund himfelf in the danger he had been contriving 
fyr his enemy ; fo that he fpent three days in. confi- 
4eriiig: with himfelf, what courfe take; 
jftU'& while the caort had itr.ufoal a(3pearance ; fof 
t^^ambafTadtirs offbreign nations. took their.audkttce' 
^the kuxg ;. the generalsL of die army iWere there: 

Srefent, and the foldio-akept guard at the entrance.'^ 
!at there appearM an unaccountable fadntefs in aU> 
^eir faces, which was an indication of the utmoft- 
4cdl|Air». and being mutually difkroftful of each other, 
tiif^rldBd not. dare, to acscoft^ ion talki.ta one^anoiher;* 
biit gscvQi-ft fcoi{)ec'ta>iheir priicate thoi^hls,. and byi 
<tompajcing . the neMe kinz \(idL their. Maner,. they- 
^eie the more fenfihleL ol idteir .lois. . ' Tiiey m Tain- 
csqntr'd^ " Where.waa now thatprincfe Whoie autho- 
*^ rity and condud they had & fuccefsfully follow^di" 
They comj^ain'd,. ** That they were left deftitute in 
^ the midA of their enemies, and unconquev'd na- 
^ ifiions^ fwhoi would not £iil to. revenge the wron^^ 
^ ^aad krf&B.they had:fiiAaid'd,'wheii^er an oj^r- 
•f tanity-fliould offer itfelf." ....'., 

Their minds were racked with diefe Tefledions,' 
when news, was brought; " That the canrahiy under' 
•* Perdiccas, having pofie&'d themfelves of the aye-* 
**' nues about Babylon, hinder'dany c<»n from beine^ 
^ brought to the city." From hence a fcarcity firft" 
cnfii'd, and. then a famine; wheveupoiidiey whore-' 
jtuunU ia tic .town, were jafx^«iian> f* That thejr' 
::.; . : : * I 4 " ought 

%oo Qvinrtjs Curti dr. K X. 

** ought either to reconcile themfelves with Perdiccas, 
^* or give him battle." *►. 

In the mean time it happened, that they who liv'd 
in the comttry, being apprehenfive that the villages 
auid villa's woald be plunder'd, fled to the city ; and 
the town's-people wanting provifions, redr'd into the 
ceantnr ; • each party thinking they fhould be iafer 
any where elfe than where they were. The Macedo- 
BianSy fearine fome commotions herefrom^ met toge- 
ther in the p^ace, and there acquainted the king with 
what they thought, advifable to be done in die prefent 
jan<5lure, which was *^ That deputies fhould be fent 
^ to the cavahry, to lequire them to put an end to 
'* the difcordy and lay down thehr arms.** The king 
therefote difpatchM Fafas the Theflaliany Ajnxflasthe 
Megapolitan, and Perilaus to them, who bavin? ac- 
quainted them with the king's orders, received for 
anl'wer, " That the horfe were refblv'd not to lay 
^' down their arms till the: authors of the fedition 
". were deiiver'd into thpr hands." This anfwtn^ 
was no fooner reported, ^lan the foidiers nm to th^ 
arms of their own accord, and the king beingalarm'd' 
at the fudden tumult, came^out of the palace, and 
told them : " There' is no good to be expetcted from' 
•* fedition, for they that lie iUU, will certainly reap 
** the advantage .the contenders fbive for. Befides, 
** you ought to remember, that the matter lies widi 
" your own countrymen^ and that it is haflsning to a 
*^ civil war,, raihly .to.take.firbm them all hopes of 
" reconciliation. Let us .therefore try what effeft' 
*^ another deputatibh .niay.have ; for 'as the king's 
*^ body is not yet buried, i sxh of opinion, they will' 
** all unite to difcharge that lafl: duty to him. As for 
" my owJi part; I had much rather refign the em- 
** pire, than maintam it at fo dear a rate as the effu- 
^ ibon of myxooELtrymens blood... And ifthereisitie 
''^'other izl^axisio o6me to auagieement^ilibeg wL 
.:., : ^ •. !* bcfcech 

B;^X^ QuiNTus CiTRTJUft,' 2a^p 

** befeech you to make choice of one that may be 
" more deferving." Then with tears in his eyes, he 
took the diadem from his head, and holding it out in 
his right hand, oifer'd it "to any that thought he 
•* was more wprthy of it than himlelf." 

This modeft fpeech gave them mighty hopes of his 
ability, which till then had been edips'd by his bro- 
ijier's brighter parts. Thty all therefore prefi'd him.: 
*' to execute what he himfelf thought proper/'' 
Hereupon he difpatch'd the iame perfons again to de- 
fire, " they would receive Meleager amongft them as 
** third general." This was cafity obtained, for Per-» 
diccas was deiirous to remove Meleager from the- 
king, and reafonably judged, that being but one, he 
could not be a match for them two. 

Meleager therefore march'd out with the phalanx^, 
aniPerdiccas went to meet him at the head of the 
horfe. Both bodies (after their mutual falutations) 
unite, as thev thought, to live in a perpetual peace* 
and right unaerflanding with one anotner« 


BUT fate was now bringing^ a civil war upon the: 
Macedonian nation ; lor a crown admits of no 
{ortners, and it was at this time, coveted by many,.. 
Firll then they join'd their forces^together, and after- 
wards again divided them. And as they had loaded.' 
tlie body with more than it could bear, the other* 
members be^ to fail^ and that empire that might 
have maintained itfelf under one fovereign,. falls t^ 
xuin,. while it is fupgortcd by many. It k thereforCj 
Is withr 

#02 QyiNttrS CuRtlTTS. B. Xl 

^th die greateft reafon, that die Roman people ac- 
knowledge they owe their (a&ty to their pnnce^ ^o 
appeared to them like anew fl^, on that very night 
that had like to^ have been their laft. And xnoSt cer- 
tainly it was die rifmg of this new fun, that reftorM 
light to die darkened worlds when havmg loft their 
heady the diTcording members were in we sreateft 
s^eheniions. How many firebrands did he men pot 
out ? How many fwcmls did he then iheadi ? How 
black was the ftorm that cleared up at his fuddeti so^ 
pearance ? The empire may dierefore be ^id not omy 
to recover its ftrength, bat even to fiourifii throogil' 
his means. 

But that I may now return to the feries of my nar« 
ration, whidi the contemplation of the oablk happi« 
nefs made me interrupt : Perdiccas placM all at 
hopes of his own fafeiy in Mdeager*s deadi, aul 
concluded, *' That (as he was a vain man, no way 
*' to be relyM on, and might be capable of caufing 
'' fudden changes, and withal wafr his mortal tn&A^ 
** he ought to prevent him." However, he doath'd 
his defign with a deep difiimulation, that he might 
defbroy him when he leall fufpeCted ft. He dierefore 
fubom'd fome of thofe that were under his own com- 
•• mand, to complain publickly (as from themfelves) 
•* that Meleager was made equsd to Perdiccas." Melea- 
ger being informed hereof, came to Perdiccas in great 
anger, and related to him what he was told; he 
feemed furpriz'd at die novelty of die thit^^ and 
began to wonder at it, and comfisdn, and put on 
an appearance of concern thereat ; at laft they agreed, 
** That the authors of fuch feditious reports fhould be 
^ apprehended." 

Hereupon Meleager thank'd and embraced Pcr- 
cBccas, *^ praifing his fidelity, and his boundful dif- 
(ofitioa tOj»rards him." Then they concerted what 


Rr56 ,<i^iif«iis iCif».Tiif> ?o3 

fgbedfores they ibmild take to pimiih th^ guilQr ; luid 
fbey >g7^^ <^ ^c 9nny fhimld be piucify'd after the 
<:^ftom of theur cojontry ; and the late diviiions were 
^ I^fible pretence for ,that piupofe* The kiogs of 
Ifytxion ufi'd to purify their army after this maaner i 
Ti^y ripp'^ open a Utch,. and took out her bow^ 
9ii4 ^ them at the two extremities of the fiehl the 
anmy wa« to be led utto> and in the immediate fpacs 
9)1 the forces were drawn np^ the horfe on one iide^, 
W the PhiJanx on the other. 

On the day thorefbre this ceremony was to be exe* 
fiiUted, the, king at .Ae head of the horfe and de^ 
piMtnt% |ilaeU himfel£ dire£By oppofitecto. the foot^ 
vi^liok was 9omii»uide^ by' Mekager: . The. cavalry 
M no ;foQnQr.bfgun tormoret thiui theioot wei^ 
(eis^'d with;a:fiiddenf lear onr theiacooant of the lata 
diicm-d,. And beeaa 't6 fufpedt that they were not 
peaceably inclined, fothat diey were inibi^doobt 
whether they ihodd not march back again into |he 
city; for the plain feem*d moft fevourableto the 
horfe. However^. left they fhould without a caufe 
blame the integrity of their fellow-foldiers,. they kept 
their pofl, refolv'd to defend themfelves if they were 
attacked. Both bodies were pretty near one another, 
being divided but by a fmSdi interval, when the king 
at. the head of one of the wings, rid along the line of 
the foot, and by Perdicca&^s advice, demanded the 
" authors of the divifion (whom he ought to have 
•* protected) to be delivered up,, trffuffer condign pu- 
" oifhment;" threatning a^.d^s* fame time, (if they 
refused to comply) to nM npon them with all the 
troops and elephants. The toot were amaz'd at the: 
unforefeen evil, and Meleager himfelf had: no more 
courage or counfel than thereil; but they thought 
it the fafeft way to wait, and fee what the events 
Iivi9ukil^,>athe27 than try fortune. Then Perdiccas 
1 6 f^^^i. 

Seeing the dqe£ted condition th^y were in, drew ooC 
about three hundred of them, who had follow*d 
Meleager when he left the i|Hl aifefiibly that was 
lield after Alexander's dead), imd caft them to the 
eieph^its in the %ht of all tfce army, fo diat diey 
ivere all tramprd to death by thofe atdffiads, without 
Philip's either oppofin^ or authoriiing die fame ; it 
being plain, that he dM not defign^ to own any tldng 
to be aone by his order, but what ihonld be plaufible 
in the event. This was the omen and beginning of 
the civil wars amongft die Macedonians. Meleager 
was too late ien£ble of Perdiccas's fraud, but as ndf 
violence was then ofier'd: to his own peiibn, \ke re-* 
main'd quiet with die Phahuax ; however, at laft de« 
fpairing of his iafety, when^ he iaw his enemies, ist 
order tomin him, make an abufe of that prince's 
name, whom he himfelf had made kin^ he took 
£ui&uary in a temple, where he was flam withoot 
my regard to thb religion of the place. 


XJ QsiJfrvi:.CifM:tift^ to^ 

c H A P. x; 

lErdiccas having led the army back ac^ into the: 
town, held a council of all. the cSkf perfonsyr 
^rethey came to this refoiution,. that the empire 
3ld be divided, but the king fhould hold the fove- 
;n authoritv ; that Ptolemy '* fhoakL be fatn^ o£ 
S^pt^ and o£ all the nations in Africa within the 
ttriioidtioa of the Macedonian power.*' Syria,. 
Ii Phsenicia, was given to Laomedon; Ciliciata 
lotas ; Lycia, with Pamphylia, and the ereater 
ygia, were aflign'd to Antigonus. CaiTanckr was- 
Linto Cana, and Menander into Lydia.. The lef- 
Phrygia that jpins t6 the Hellefponty was allotted 
Leonnatus. Cappadocia and Paphlagonia fell to 
(hare of Eumenes ; he was alio commanded to 
end all that country as far as Trapesus, and to 
ke war with Arbates, who alone refused to fubmit 
he Macedonian yoke. Python had Media, and 
imachus Thracia, with all the Pontic nations that 
der upon the Thracian territories. They who 
imanded in India,, Badtra, and over, the Sc^dians, 
other nations bordering on the ocean or red fea^ 
-e to hold the power of jurifd]£tion, with the £une 
itations they Had formerly held the fame. • It was 
:wife ordained, that Perdiccas fhould remain with 
king, and have the command of thofe troops that 


lbllow*d his majefty. Some have been of oinmoiy 
that the pt>vinces were thus diftributed by Alex- 
aodorV leflraaeBt; but we^ are iatisfyU that that 
was OWT a: vaiA' vepoft^ ROvM^oWHUkuMijj"- lonM au^ 
thors wrote fo. 

Having thus divided the empire^ every one defend- 
ed his own portion, and might have fecurM the foun- 
dations they had laid; if it was poffible to fet bounds 
to immoderate defires. For they who but a little be- 
fore were the king's fervants, now under the pretence 
of diibharging a power intmfted with them, did eacC 
moffefs them&lves of large dominions; all caofe of 
ftr^e being taken away, iince they were idl of thtf 
fame nation, and had their reipe^ve territories mark'd 
out and diftingoiih'd horn the others. But it- was a 
difficult matter for them to be ccmtented with whsft 
opportunity had ofler^d them, for the fijA be^nings 
are defpis'd, when we hope to make greater impiov* 
ments. Every one of them therefore thought it ea« 
fier to enlarge his kingdom, than it was to receive it- 
It was now the feventh day that Alexander's body 
lay in his coffin, without having receiv*d the ftmenu 
rites, all their cares being diverted from that^i<^krmmtyf 
to fetde and form the public flate. It is obicrvabk; 
that there is no country where the heat of t&e fun has 
a greater influence than in Mefopotamia, ibfomuck 
that it kills the greateft part of thofe animalt^ that lie 
exposed in the open field without ihelter, and parches 
tip every thing, as if they had been burnt by a firei 
Moreover, fprings ai^ here v«y areLand by the 
cunning of the inhabitants conceal-d. They prderve 
them for their own ufe, without letting ffaangers laaow 
where they are. Notwithflanding this, when Alex- 
ander's friends were at leifure to take care of the 
dead body,, they found it without tbe leaft wat, or 


^>ot:of corruption : nay, that liveUnefs that acebni'^ 
panics only animate bodies^ had not foHaken his 
^e. Tke* Egyptians therefore and the Chaldeans, 
being order'd to embalm the corps after their mannefr 
were at firft afraid to lay hands upon it,, as though it 
were ftill living ; but afterwards having intreated him, 
that it might be lawful for mortal hands to touch 
tim, they drefs'd his body, and filPdliis golden cof- 
fin with odoriferous materials, putting the token of 
his dignity upon his head. 

It was generally believ'dy that he dy'd of poifon^ 
and that Jollas, Antipater's fon, being one of thofe 
who ferv'd him at table^ had by his father's orders 
given it him. It is certain, that Alexander was often 
heard to fay, /* That Antipater afpir'd to the regal 
" dignity^ and diat he was more powerful than a lieu- 
" tenant ought to be^ and being pufPd up on the ac- 
•* count of the Spartan viftory, ne feem'd to lay a 
•* claim of right to all he had entrufled him with.'* 
It was alfo tlu)ught, ** that Craterus was fent with 
•* the difinifs'd old foldiers to kill him." Now the 
nature of the Macedonian poifon,. is fuch,. that it 
preys upon iron it felf, and can be kept in nothing^ 
but the hoof of a beaft. The fountain from whence 
this poifonous liquor flows, is call'dthe Styx. This 
was brought by Caflfander, ** and deliver'd by hint 
•* to his brother JoHas, who mix'd it with the king's 
•♦ laft draught. 

However tliefe things were reported, they were 
ibon iHfled by the power of thofe that were afpers'd 
thereby. For Antipater invaded not only the king- 
d9mof Macedonia^ but alfo Greece, and his offspring 
itacceeded[ him therein, behaving put to death all who 
were any way (though never fo remotely) related 
lo Alexander. As for the king's body^ it was con- 

, vey'd 


QyiNTVS CaaTiui. , B. X. 

yey^d by Ptolemy (who had Egypt (or his poT' 
tion) firft to Memphis; and 9, few years mcKa 
to Alexandria, where all honour is paid to. his oame. 
and memory. 

T H S 


I N D E X. 

ABDOLONYMUS, agardiner, made king 
of Sydon Vol, i. Pag. 193 

His modefty ' p. 1-94. 

Abian Scythians fubmit to Alexander v. 2. p. 32 
Abiiares an Indian king :: . v. a. p. ic6 

Sends ambafTadors to fabmit himfelf to -Alexander 

-p* 1-20 
His death P* ^7© 

Abiilamenes governor of Cappadocia^ r. i. p. 1-58 
Abydos . v. r. p. 93 

Accident occafions a fharp engagement v. 1 . p. 127 
Account taken of the wi^tk of .all men in Greece 
: , : . . !> V. li p/46 

Accfines river v, :?. p. 92 

Ada reftor'd to luerlkingdom . v. 1. p, 123 

Adraftean. plains v. x. p. 99 

Ad«rice to Alexander at his acceffion to the throne 

V. 1. p. 5;i 

^ Of Parmenio to Alexander v. i. p. 167 

Of Perfians to Darius v. 1 . p. 168 

•: Of Artabazus to Darius v, t.j>. 304 

: J . .. ]?. ■ j// ' iEtxJkns 


^tolians excufe themfelvesto Alcxandtr v. i. p. 78^ 
Ajgathon executed for many crimes v. 2, p. 167 
Ag^amiiie» mightjr Indxeexridng ir, 2. p. rr^ 

Agis, king of the Lacedemonians, marches againft 
Macedon v. i. p* 197 

Defeated and killed by Anti^er p. 32a 

Agis a bad poet v. 2, p. 77 

Agriafpians, or Euergetae ^v. 2. p. 16 

Alexander the great, who writ beft of hoR v. i . ». 6 

His great genius, origin, and education fi 7. 

Preiages of his greatnefs p. g7 


When bom p. 1 1 

Defcription of him p. X2, 13, &feq. 

His inordinate ambitiotf * p. i& 

His morals p. 23 

SAvcS his father p'. 27,^^8 

Routs thj&Atbonians - P> 44 

Quarrels with Attains, and departs in anger firom 
hi^ferfier . . .-.:." ^ . .p. ^7 
Hi9m;agniinimity at hisacceflkuitO'tEe thioiirpir $9 
AfodfigeofMdFGreim - ...-p.-^^b 

Subdues Thrace p. 58 

Aod the Illyrians p/64 

His cderity , p. 6S 

His generofity to llmocTea p- 7ix 7t 

Pafles over into Aiia p. 89 

Routs the Perfians^ the river Granicos p. loi 
Kills Spithridates p. loz 

Temperate in diet • p. rji^. 

Offers Sacrifice in the temple of: ^rafakm .. 

p. %jpri^ 
Admires his owmfelicityE: * ' ' . . p. ^59 
Wafhing in the Cydnus,. taken defperately ill 

p. t6o, *6t 
Hisjrefolution p. 162, i^J 

His recovery -- •i.'-ipii/6^ 

His4n;dety before the battle in Cilicia p. 171 


His fpeech to his army there v. i. p. ly^ 

Routs D^as p. 177 

His compaflion p. 182 

His moderation p. 184 

His letter in anfwer to Darius P- ^ 9 ^ 

tJis generofity ' p. 194 

His art to win his foldiers p. 204 , 

Takes Tyre p. 209 

Declares war againft the Carthaginians p. 210 

His anfwer to Darius's offers p. 212 

Wounded at the iiege of Gaza p. 219. 

His cruelty to the governor of Gaza p. 220 

Goes to the oracle of Jupiter Hammon p. zzz. 

His follies there p. 224, 225 

iPaCes the river Tigris p. »32 

His good fortune ibid. 

Bewails the death of Darius^s queen p. 236 

iiii anfwer to Darius's fecond offers p. 241 

Dubious before the battle of. Arbela p. 246 

His profound fleep p. ilf^ 

His Ipeech before the battle p. 253 

Defeats Darius at Arbela p. zibz 

In great danger after victory p, 266 

His great conduct p. z6y- 

Enters Babylon p. 272- 

His filial relped to Sifygambts p, 279, 282^ 
Penetrates through impradticable mountains into 

Perfia p. 2S9^ 

His compaflion p. 290 
Bums Perfepolis wheni drunk> and repent^ when fober 

» ^ ^ . P- ^7 

Puriucs Danus p. 299 

His wonderful expedition to fur{»ize Beffus p* 3 1 S 

His humanity to Darius^ when dead p. 317 

He falls to voluptuoufnefs p. 324, 341 

»Hi6 generofity to the wife of Hiflafpis, ?• 3<$» f^^ 

•;.,-.. . -Hi,. 

r N D EX 

His concern for his anny^s eagemeis to return hone 

V. 1. p. j27 

Puts on the Perfian habit p. ^i 

Keeps 360 concubines p. 342 

C onlbiracy of Dymnus againft him p. 347 

His ipeech to the army thereupon p. g^^ 
His charge againfl Amyntas and Synunius v. 2. p. 4 

Wounded in the leg ib. p. 31 

His fuperftition p. 37 

His anlwer to the Scythians p. 45 

Defeats them p. 47 

His contrivance to gain a rock p. 52 

Kills a lion p. {8 

His immoderate boaftmg when drank p. (9 

Kills Clitus, provoked by hit infolence p. 62 

Marries Roxane p. 75 

Requires new honoon to be paid him p- 77 

Efcapes a confpiracy p. 83 

Wounded at Mazaga p. 100 

Overcomes Porus p. 1 14 

His generofity towards hirti p. 1 18 
His boundlefs ambition and fpeech to»his army to 

proceed in the conqueft of India p. 126 

Marches back P* ^33 

His remark upon Caenus ibS. 
Sails down the Indian rivers towards the fea 

His extraordinary ralhnefs p. 139 

His wonderful deliverance p. 141 

Near death by his wounds and bleeding p. 14J 
His fpeech to his generals, advifmg not to expolc 
himfelf rafhly P- '4^ 

Goes into the ^dian ocean p. 160 

Returns up the Indian riycra. p. 161 

Ravages India p. 162 

His vaft defi^ns p.. 169 

Ij^ nature deprav'd; ' p. i?^ 



His f|>cech to his mudnoos armjr P* > 7 /f* 

To his Afiatic foldiers v, 2. p. i8o 

Pardons the Macedonians, and fends home th^ 
eldefl rich, and with many honours P- < ^ 3 

Comes to £cbataha' p. 1^4 

His grief for the death of Hephsedion ibid. 

Is poifon'd at Babylon ibid. 

Gives Perdiccas hu ring, his lad words and death 

p. 186 

His chara£ier p. 1 89 

His body uncorrupted feven days after death p. 206 

Carried to Alexandria in Egypt p. 20$ 

Alexandria in Egypt, built by Alexander v. 1. p. 226 

Alexandria, at the foot of mount Caucafus v. 2. p. i^ 

Alexandria on the Tanait v. 2. p. S$ 

Alexandria in India v. 2. p. 1 53 

Alexandropolis, a city in Thrace v. i . p. 26 

Amazons v. 1. p. 340 

Amphoterus fent to Parmenio, to puniih Lynceiles 

V. 1, p. I3« 

Commands Alexander's fleet p. 1 50 

Amyntas, nephew to king Philip afplres to the crown 

V. 1. p. 5^ 

Amyntas, atraytor, ravages Egypt v. 1. p. 195 

Is flain with all his men p« 190 

Amyntas invdghsiigainft Pbilotas v. i . p. 360 

Is accused of the confpiracy with Philotas 

V. 2. p. 4 

His reqreft p. 5 

His freech p- 6 

Is dilcharg'd p, 1 j 

Anaxiihtijs Lampfaccnus, mailer of eloquence to 

AiexaiKlcr v. i. p. 21 

Ancync to ah v. 1 . p. i co 

Androi.iachus, governor of Syria, burnt alive by the 

Samaritans v, i, p, 227 

iAnticlcdin a confpiracy againft Alexander v. 2. p. 82 


r N D E X, 

Andgoaas made goyemor of Lyoia, Pampliilia, and 
the greater Phrygia v. 2. p, 205 

Antipater made governor of Macedon and Greece 

V. I. p. 89 
Raufes forty thoufand men againft the Lacedemo- 
nians p. 519 
. Defeats and kills Agis p. 320 
Call'd by Alexander into Afia» xefolves to po&n 
him V. 2. p. 185 
Makes himfelf king, and defboys die royal fiunOy 

p. 207 
Antipater in a confpiracy againft Alexander vol 2. 

p. 82 
Antiphanes's evidence agsinft Amyntas r. 2. p. 5 
Aomos rock, not taken oy HerciUes, v. 2, p. idx 
Tak^ fay Alexander p. 104 

Apelles only allowed to paint Alexander v. i . p. 13 
Vificedbyhim p. iii 

Apollo's image bound at Tyre ▼. i. p. 206 

Arabia, Alexander there v. i . p. 202 

Arabian attempts to morther Alexander v, t. p. 218 
Arabitx Indians v. 2. p. 161 

Arachofians v. 2. p. 16 

Aradus ifland Vr i . p. 191 

Araxes river v. 1 . p. 285 & 290 

Arbela village, famous for the defeat of Darins 

V. I . p. 230 

Taken full of wealth by Alexander p. 270 

Arcadians fubmit to Alexander v. 1 . p. 78 

Arians fubmit to Alexander v. 2. p. 24 

Aridasus reckoned unfit to be king of Maeedon v. i. 

Saluted king, after the death of Alexander, vol. 2. 

P- »95 
Received as fuch by the army p. 196 

His fpeech to the arm^ p. 200 


1 N E X. 

zes defends a mdc widi thutf thouftnd men 

V. 2. p. 51 
renders it, and is dtucify'd p. 55 

irzanes obliges Alexander to mire v. i . p. 283 
vorfled and kill'd p. 2^9 

ader, the fbothiayer, impofes tm dielmcedb- 
as V. X. p. 100 

inteipretatton of a fwallow^s flattering about 
llexander p. 137, 138 

»re of his fiauds v. 2. p. ao 

bulos, his account of Alexander defenres credit 

V. 1. p, 6 
n, captain of thie Pfieoniaa horfe, his bravery 

V. I. p. 233 
nicus, tyrant of Methymna, taken, v. 1 . p. 2j 5 
nos defends Akxandei;, tho* much wounded him- 
r^ • vi 2. p. t4i 

tpofes Perdiccas ihodd fucceed .^exaxider p. 193 
de, a letter to him from king Phxisp v. i . p. 1 1 
hrufb Alexander p. 16 

s rewards p. 18 

s ingratitude p. 20 

r of Alexander v. i, p* 95 

r of two hundred thoufand ^t, and fifteen thou* 
(and horfe, to be rais'd in Greece v. l . p. 46 
'Alexander, its numbers p. 89 

'Darius ?• *S* 

' Alexander again P* I5S 

: Arbela p. 244 

jazus, his loyalty to Darius, v. i, p. 302 & 304 

ivifes Darius well 

p. 310 

bmits to Alexander 


onour'd by hhn . 


acna furrenders , 

V. i.p. 3+5 

xerxes Ochu5, king of Peffia 



Their preoiutions aoaind 
Defeated ' 

I N D EX. 

Afclepiodoras in a ^otifymcy againfi Alexander 

V. 2. p. Sz 

Afiiinas, a Perfian, difcovcrs a confplracy v. i. p. 136 
Afpaftes, governor of Canunania, put to death r. 2. 

p. t66 
ATpendli fabmit to Alexander v. i . p. 141- 

Revolt^ and fubmit again p. 142 

AiTacanos, king of Mazagae. r. 2. p. 199 

Ail^embl^r of ati Greece, at Corinth v. i. p. 45 

At Thermopylae . p. 56 

Athenians aflift Byzantium againft king Philip v. i. 

him p. 50. 

p. 44 

Spar'dby.kingPhito. ibsl; 

Their brutal provocanons againft Alexander p. 76 

Congratulate him upon his victories p. 228 

Refufe to obey his orders v. 2. p. 175 

Athenodorus calls him&lf king in Bafbia, and ji 

killM V. 2. p. 148 

Attains infolent to Alexander in his cups y. 1. p. 47 

Gains the afFedions of the army p. 52 

Is taken off by Parmenio p. 54 

Attalus reprefents Alexander v. 2. p. in 

Attinas and all his men kill'd by the Mailagctse v. 2. 

' p. 56,57 


Babylon v. i. p. iji 

Darius's army rendezvouzes there p. 229 

Surrendered to Alexander - p. 272 

Alexander's army debauch'd there p. 275 

bacchanals v. 2. p. 98, & 10] 

Bacchus, a wood confecrated to him v. i . p. 59 


I N D E X. 

Imicm'd 10 have reTcng'dthe deftrafiionof Thebea^ 

P* 75 

BnAracity v. 2. p. 23 

fiafbia p. 22 

Bfi&xMs, account of tfaem v. i. p, 216 

,. Revolt ' ^< 2* ?• 35 

Seven hundred of tfaem killed and taken p. 65 

Baidnis river v. 2. p. 23 

Baggage of the Macedonian arm/ burnt v. 1. p. 343 

BagoaSy an eunuch and Sodomite v. i. p. 339 

Contrive to ruin Orfines v. 2. p. 170. 

His villainoofr iaibuatioBS ?• i?^ 

Balm-trees in Judaea v. i . p. 141 

Barbarity of Darius V. i, p. 170. 

fiubarousuiageof fourthoufiuKlGfeeks V. i. p. 290 

Bardylky a couW, king of lUyricum t. i. p. 62 

Barzaentes, the tiaytoTy flies to India v. i. p. 346 

Taken v. 2. p. 108 

Battle of «nount Hasmus» Thradans routed, v. i. 

p. 58 

With the Triballi p. 60 

. With.the Getae ibid.. 

.. Widi.die Illyrians p. 64 . 

: At the river Granicus p. 100 

InCilicia p. 177 

Three in feveral provinCea p. 196 

Of Arbela p. 258 

Widi the Scy thian$ v. 2. p. 46 

WithPorus P* »'3 

Bazaria countiy v. 2 . p. 57 

Belon*8 charge againfk Fbilotat v. i. p. 367 

Belt of Alexander v. i. p. 9$ 

Belus \ V. iv p. 156 

Befius, governor of Ba^brii^ v. i. p. 216 

A confpirator againft Dariuf p. 30! 

Vol. II. S. m$ 

I N D E X. 

His wicked prqjeds p. jc^ 

. Villainous diffimuladon p. 306 

Seizes Darius p. 3»; 

Morthers him and flies p« 314, 3 1 j, 

Aflumes the royal dignity p. 341. 

His haughty difcouHe to his followers v. 2. p. ig 
Is ibrfaken p. 22 

Flies to the SogdiaRs JiAL< 

BetrayM by Spiticmeiitt p. 2^. 

DcliVerM to Alexander P- 3® 

His puniOunent 1^* SO* 31 

Betis, governor of Gaza, i^akes A iiave defence v. i. 

P- *»9 

Cruelly dr^egM to death p. 220 . 

Kblos aty, tal^n by Alexander t. <. p. iqi. 

Bicob kills ^ rebel Athenodoro^^. ^ k twice iaT*d 

y. ^. p. 148/149 

Bithyndi v. i. p. 92 

Bitumen flo^ng frox^i xi fountain v. &. p. 271 

Boafting a great fault in Alexander v. 2. p. 59 

Boats Xo be taken in pieces^ and put together agam 

V- 2. p. 97 
Bpldnefs of Thebans v. 1. p. 69 

Booty taken in Cilicia v. x. p. 180 

Boxus kills Atheuodorus, and is kill *d himfelf v. 2. 

p. 148, 149 
Branchidae cruelly flaughter'd 
Bravery of the Crotoniats rewarded 

Of Alexander's army 
Bridge at Babylon 
Brutal behp^viour of the Athenians 
Bubacene fubduM 

Bucephala town built by Alexander 
Bucephalus, Alexander's hocfe 

Loft and recovered 
Buckler of Alexandp* 
j^ijcklers Cent to AthcQs, as a trophy 


2. p. 29 


I. p. 72 

p. 267 

V. 1 

I. p. 271 


I. p. 76 


2, p. 76 

V. : 

I, p. 133 


I- p. 24 


338> 339 


. I. p. 95 


i^p. 105 


V. : 

r. p. i8+' 


h P- »5 , 


'• P- 37» . 

■ V. 


■p. 91 

V. ■ 

I. p. 150 


,2. p. sg 

.' T, 

, I. p. 92 
2. p. 164 


I. p. 199 

p. 205 


'• P- 334 


2. p. 205 

I N D E X. 

of dead 
itium befieg'd by king Philip 

iccus'd of a confpiracy • ^ 

Jienes, a furly Macedoniftn 

: to death fo^t]roafoll - 


of the Macedonians for their king V: 


aginians promife to faccoor Tyre 

Lor cmbafTy to Tyre 

an fca •• * ' 

ader made governor of Caria 

; of Babylon . . • v. i . p. 274 

\es ihot birds flying, with arrows v. 2 . p. 3 1 

ifus mount ^. i. p. J39 & v. 2. p. 18 

ians fubduM by Alexander v. i. p. 166 

I to receive the overflowing of rivers v. i . p. 273 

ilnus difcovers the confpiracy of Djrmnus to Phi-. 

lotas ■ V. i.^,f.^.W8, iAg 

arges Philotas with concealing it *' p. ^50 

135 town V. i: p.'l47 

mender'd to Alexander - - • P- 148 

ity advances conqueft v. I . p. 79 

leans v. 1. p. 272 

am Alexander not to go to Babylon v. 2. p. 184 

[detnus, the Athenian, flies to the Perfians y. i . 

s aniwer to Danas . • . P* ^52 

iotbfthefun ^» ^* B^ '55 

"Darius . P- Vs^ 

lots of war v. 2. J>« i 1 2 

irchx, colonels of a thbufand men v. 1. o. 277 
K 2 / Chios 

I N P B X. 

Chios IfliAd V. It p. ti; 

Taken b^ the MKedof&um$ p. 214 

Choifbes river v. 1. p. 278, & v. 2. p. 99 

Choraunians fubmit to AljexaiMkr v. 2. p. 57 

Cidaris, Perftan ornament for the head v. i. p. ij6 
Cilicia jravagVi and defcrib'd v. i; p. ij8 

Cinaedopolis, town of fSpdomitei v. i. ]i»i3; 

Cltie^ iwo built by Alexand^i;.^. tb<Q Hydafpes v. 2. 

p. 120 • 
Cbzozneuans /^ v, i^.p. iij 

Cleander ien; to'ra^ recruits v. 1. p. 147 

Kills Parmenio v. 2. p. 13 

Executed for many cripftca p. 167 

CleD» a poet v. 2. p. 77 

Cleopatra, fecond wife to king Philip v. i. p. 46 
Hangs her fdf ... P« 5* 

Cleopatra, Alexander's &&er, manyM to die kwg 0/ 
Epirus v,.i, p. 49 

Cleophes, queen of Mazi^sr ' ^ v. 2. p. 99 

Climax mountain V* !• p. 138 

Clitus faves Alexander v. i p. 102 

Ma<d|e governor v. 2. p. 58 

His in&lenjp^ p. 60 

KiU*d bjr Alexander p. 6s 

Cobares, his fpeech to BeiTus y. 2 p. 20 

Flies to Alexander p. 21 

Coelefyria v^ i.. p. 101 

Coenus inveighs againft Philotas v. i. p* 500 

His ijpeecA to Alexanda lor the army v. 2 p. 130 
His death . ?• ^$% 

Cohortanus, a. governor, father to Roxane v. '2. p. 75 
Colonies of Greeks in Afia v. | . p. 9) 

Cpmpaifioi\ of Macedonians for Panndnio v. 2^. p. 3 
ConcuWbes, 'three hundred and fixty kept 1^ Alex- 
ander V. 1. p, 342 
Condoftof Alex^er v. i« p. 104 


r N D E X. 

Confufion in Alexander's camp, upon a faifii rumor 

V. 1. p, 327 
After the death of Alexander v. 2. p. i^i^^^ leq. 
"Confpiracy of Lynceiles^ againft Alextuider 

V. r. p. 136 

Of Dymiius p. 346^ 

Of Hermolaus, &c. v. 2. p. 82^^ 

Prevented by a mad woman p. 83 

Confpirators againft king Philip punifliM 1r. i . p. 5^4. 

Others executed ▼.2. p. gn 

Coqftemation at Athens v. i. p. 31 

■ .In Darius's army P* ^7^ 

Cophas fent to fummon the Barbarians ( aran inacceiii- 

J iblcrock V. 2. p.52 

Corruption no good way of making fiiends v. i . p. 48 

Cntetus's fpeech agaidft Philotas ¥. 1. p. 352 

T4^es HaufUn«s, and kflb Catenes v. 2. p. 'jS 

. Coinmands the Piialanx p. q-j 

:H» fpeech to Alexander - p; 144 

Sent to govern I^acedbb p. 183 

Xlsies'faid 10 be hc^ in a lake v. i. p. 73 

Cfotoniates lK>noi]r*d lor their htmmj v. i . p. 72 

CxoiMS conduct Alexander to Jupiter Hammon v. i . 

. Crueky of the Macedonians 

Caftom of Periians in marching 
^Cydnus river 

Cyre|iians fubmit to Alexander 

- . P^nder'd 

Cyzicum city 
Defended againfl the Perfians 

K 3 fl^dah: 

Pi ^23 


1. p. 294 


V p. i?5 

f . p. 

159, i6o 


i^ p. 222 


. «. P--33 



. I. p. 83 

p. 84 

I N D E X- 

Dxdalx people . v. s. p. 99 

Dihx notable ibidiers v. 2. p. 40 

One thoufand of them (Iain ' p. 57 

Submit to Alexander p. 71 

Damafcus and Darius's treafure delivered to Parmemo, 

V. 1, p. 187 
Darius king of Perfia 
His orders full of vanity 
His vaft army 
His pride 
. His dreams 
His chariot and apparel 
Advances towards Alexander 
His words in defence of the Greeka 
His defeat in Cilicia 
His precipitate flight • 
His haughty letters to Alexander « 
His letters offering him his daughter' 
Appoints a cendezvoos at JBabylon p. 216^ & 229 
His queen dies . P* 23^ 

Prays for Alexander, hearing of the honourabl e^g 
ufage of his family p. 238^0 

His fpeech after the defeat at Arbela p. 269, 270 J 
At Ecbatana p, ap grrD 

His fpeech to his council thjcre p. 30c- "^ 

His compafConate temper p. 30^ ^ 

Forfakcn by his guards p. 3ij-^i» 

• SeizM by tray tors, and bound P« 31— ' 

Can^M in a £lthy cart ibir-"^' 

Murther'd by Bcflus P« 3 1^ 4 

His lall mefTage to Alexander p. 3 »^ 

■Dafi^Rum fubmits to Alexander v. i. p. ic^S 

Debts of Macedonians paid by Alexander v. 2. p. i^'^ 

i N t) E X. 

D^fiTes forc'd by Alexander v. i . p. 14 j 

Defonn'd children murdier'd by the. Sopbites . v. 2. 

p. 121 
Demetrias denies having confpirM againfl Alexander 

tr.i.p. 3yt 
Democrates, the Athenian, in defpair kills himielf 

V. I. p. 337 
Demoftkenes excites the Athenians ag^nfl Philip v. r. 

p. 31 
His fpcech to the Boeotians P- 37 

tncedes the Athenians 'ag^il Alexander p. 67 
Coiruptcd by the Perfians p. 68 

His artful pcrfuafions p. 7^, 76 

Difcovery of his comiptioil. P- X09 

Dcfarts in Egypt . v. i, p. xzz 

I>efigns of Alexander v. 2. p. 169 

Diana's temple at Sardis made a fan^uary y. 1 . p. 109 
Her temple at Ephefus rebuilt p. 1 1 2 

Dificuh way into Periia v. i. p. 287 

Dnnachx, dragoons v. i .. p. 3 1 3 

Dsodorus Sicuias writ well of Alexander v. i . p. 6 
Diogenes, bis philofophical brutality v. i. p. 57 
PioxippuSy an Athenian wreftler v. 2. p. 150 

Words a Macedonian ibldier p. 151 

Kills himfelf P- 152 

Difciplinc improv'd v. i. p, 2,77 

Pifcord in Macedon, upon the death of king Philip 

V. I. p. 52 

Do|;s in India for hunting 
Doqphin fend of a youth 

V. 2. p. 123 
V. I. pv 118 


Vi I. p. 156' 

Dragoons callM DimachaB 

V. u p. 313 

Drangse nation 

V. 1. p. 346 

Dreams of Alexander 


I. 114, & \%^ 

' Of Darius 
Of Alexander; /hewing an herb 

to cure the woiuMb 

of poifon'd weapons 

V. 2. p." 155 



1 H D E y^. 

Srtmken froHck of Alesoiidcr ▼• i. p. 136. 

Dyardenes river . v. 2* p* 93 

Bying wonk of Darius v. 1. p. 516 

Dymnos-s conTpiracx againfi Aksqpdcr v. i. p» 547 
He is feiz*d^ and kilE himfelf p. 350 


Eagle of ^old (acred ▼. i. p. 156 

Esraiquake at the birth of Alexaader v. i« .p# 1 1 
Ecbatana city v. i. p. 299. & v. a. p^ 184 

Ecbolina ▼- a. p. 10$ 

Eclipfe of the moon frights the Macedomana r. i. 

Egyptians incensM againft the Perfians v. i. p. a2i 

Ekptonius conl^res agaii&ft Alexander r. i. p. 89 

Ekans court Alexandex v. i. p. 7^ 

Elephants v^a. p. 95 

How us*d in battle' jp. li j 

Embafiadors from Peloponnefus compliment Alescaar 

dcr V. I. p. 77»7$ 

Of the Cartha^'ans to Tyre v. i. p. 205 

Of the Scythians tp Alexander^ their fpecch v. 2^ 

p. 4a 
An hundred to Alexander, from Indian nations v. 2. 

P- M9 

Of many nations at Babylon to meet Alexander 

p. 184 

Embaflies from mountain people to fubmit to Alexan* 

dcr V. I. p. 107 

From the Athenians to him P* ^4^ 

Emeriti, foldiers privilegM for long fervice v. i*. 

p. 132 

Empire divided v. 2. p. 204 

Eneti fupposM anceftors of the Venetians v. 1 . p. h^o 

Entertainment made by Alexandeir jftfter his vi^ory 

inCiiicia v. i. p. iSz 


t N: D' E' X; 

Another in India^ ▼. 2. p. 156' 

BphefHS, Alexander there v. i. p. no 

Ephiidles diicoaHcs for attacking the Macedonians! 

V. 1. p. 130 

Saflies and engages them ibid. 

Iskili'd V-^3^ 

Epimenes conTpiret to mnrther Alexander r.2« p, 82 

Difcovers the defign p. 83 

Erigyios kills Sadbarzanea in fingle. combat r. 2. . 

p. 24 

Hisdeath p. 68 

{byces defeated and {dU'd' r;.2. p. toj 

Erymanthna river ▼. 2/ p. 93 

llrvthrae v^; i. p. i^'. 

Ethiopians v. i. p. 223 

Eadxmon, governor of Ijbdia'. v. 2; p. 170: 

Eaergetacy or Agriafpians v. 2. p. 16 

JSumenes made governor of Cappadoeia.- and Paphia* 
gonia V. 2. p. 205: 

Eonachs difmisM by Darius v. i . p. 3 1 1 ' 

Emhrates river v^ i. p. 271 - 

Runs throueh Babylon^ P- 273 

Eurylodms difcovers iht treafon of Henoolaus v. 2. : 

p. 84 
Exiles of Thebes prevail with the people to oppoie' 
Alexander v. 1 . p. 69 ; 

ggydition of Alexander wonderful ^ v. x. p. 313;* 


Fabks to^eonceal the adultery ofgreat wdmen v. i* « 

p. 8, 9 
Of the fun's appearance on mount Ida P* 83 ^ 

Famine in AlexMider*s army v. 2. p. i6<e 

Fear magnifies s^pearances v^i. p. 23; 

Fire perpetual among the PeHians v. i, p. 155;* 

. , K 5 . Flamc^? 

IN D E x; 

Fhme faid ta come out cf the temple of Ceres v; r.. 

p^ II* 
Flattery of an Epheiian to Alexander v. i ; p, i ij 

. Of tile priefts of Jupiter Hammon p, 224, 225 

. Qf Barbarians v. 2. p. 52: 

?ket of Alexander arrives at Tyre v. 1. -p. 204^ 

: >Of a thoir&nd ihips to' carry him to the Indian- 
ocean V. 2. p. 133 

. Diforde^d' by a rapid current P« "35 

Forces with Darius at Eel a ana v. 1. p. 299 

Foreign troops 'ordered to be disbanded v. 2. p. 173 
Foitme, too-many of its favbuns fiifpeded v. i. p. 10 
Fountain runs blood *^ V. i. p. 73 

.K Of Achilles V. I. p. 118 

■ G. 

Gabaza country v. 2. p. 72 

Qanxaxus an Indian king taken v. 2. p. 108 

Gangaridae, Indian nation v. 2. p. 124 

Ganges river , y. 2^. p. 92 

Qardettt at Babylon on archefe v. i . p. 274 

C?za, Alexander there with his army v. 1 . p. 2 r7 
Oedrofians, Indians^ v. 2. p. 161 

Generofity of Platxans honoured v. i. p. 72 

Germans fend ambafladors to Alexander v. i. p. 61 
Getae, people of Scythia v. 1. p. 26 

Glaucias king cf lUyricum v. i. p. 62 

Gordian knot cut b/ Alexander v. 1. p. 149 

Gordium town ibid. 

C^vemor of Damafctts delivers' that place and Dari- 
us'.s treafure to Parmenio y. i. p. 187 

Governors cl.ang'd for ill adminiftration v. 2. pr ^i 
Governors of provinces makes themfdves fovercigns 

V. 2. p. to6 
CranicuB r^er v. 1. p, 99 

Greece fiibda'd by king Phifip ▼. l- p. 44 



GRwks arrive in Danos^s camp v. i. p. r68 

Their advice to him ibid. 

Guard Darius after his defeat in Cilida p. 190 
Plnefent Alexander with a crown of gold' P* 2 1 3 
Four thoufand of them barbaroufly murdered bv 
the Perfians p. 290- 

The fpeech of two of them: p. 29 1 , 29^ 

. Their fidelity to Darius p. 307 

STobmit to ^exander p. 336 

Flatter him v; 2 p. 77 

Commanded by him to receive their exiles, obey 

P- ^7i' 

Guards of Alexander vol. i* p. 270 

Of Danus^ forfakehim p. 310. 

Of Alexander demand to punifh Philotas v. i., 

p. 367 

H. ^ 

Haemus a mountain in Thrace v. i. p. 58 

Hages, brother to king Porus. v. 2. p. utr 

HaHcarnaiTus, aftrongplacc v. 1. p. 122 

Befieg'd by Alexander p. 124. 

Fir'd by the ganifon P- *33 

ttarpalus governor, of Babylon^ flies thence with five, 

thcmSnd talents to Athens v. 2* p.. 173 

Is kill'd , . . , P- '75f 

|Ieat violent in Mefopotamia * * v.' 2*. p; zppk 

Uecatomnusking of Caria .v. 1. p. 123^ 

MecatOmphylos city - ■ Vj. i. p. .327 

e^or, U) Parmcnio, dies v?. I • p. 227* 
Uegelochusy. Alexander'^ geneial on the coait v. i « 

Hegiflratus governor of Miletum v. i ., pu 1 1£^. 

ficUanka, nurfe to Alexander v,:J. p. I2'iv.'b. 

HcUelpont v^ i . p. i 2 

K 6 Hclm^t 

I N D E X. 

Helmet of Alexander ▼. i. p. gf 

Hephaeftion» great favourite to Akztnder v. i. p. 184 

ms the diipoM of the kingdom of Sydon v. .1 . 

p. 193 

Sent to prepaie boats to pafs the Lgdos v. t. p. 97 

Dies, and has a mighty tomb p. i §4 

Heracon executed for crimes ▼. 2. p. 167 

JBEoxalescoidd not take tfie rock Aomosv. i. p. iqi 

Honoured by Indians P* > ) 3 

H^rmolaas puni(h*d for killing a boar v.. 2. p. Bi 

Confpires to kill the kin^ p. 82 

His mfolence when taken p. 8c 

Hermos river y. I. ]^ 108 

Heroffaratus burnt the temple of Diana v. i. p. 112' 
Hidrictts king of Caria ▼. i. p. 123 

Highprieft of the Jews feen by Alexander in a dreim 

V. I. p. 139 

Honoured by him p. 140 

Homer highly efteem*d by Alexander r. i . p. 2a 
l^nours Alexander beflow'd on bis old Ibldiers ▼• z« 

>. iBjr 
Ho^ the bait of conquerors t. t. p. 00 

Horitae Indians t. 2. p. 161^ 

Horfe of the fun v. i. p. 155 

Horfes fent Alexander out oi India t. 2. p» 104^ 
Hoftatf^ taken by Alexander^ under cobiir of dcnn^ 
tibem honour t. i. pu 62 

Humanity of Alexander r. iv p, 280, St 282.. 

Hunting T. 2» p. 5* 

Hydafpes river t. 2. p» loS 

Terrifies the Macedonkns p. 109 

Hydraotes river v. 2. p. 121 

Hypamians betrayM to Alexander v. i. p. 15$- 

Hypads river v. 2. p^ 124 

Byrcania v, 1. p. 332 

IN P.^E X. 

Ida moufitaia v. i. p. tm 

Jews meet Alexander in a fuppliant numner ▼. t » 

p. 14a 

f avourM by him p» 141 

IgaoFBnt ieamen v. 2. p. i j^ 

iSyricum, now Dalmatia and Sckvoma, fubda*d b/ 

Alexsunder v. i. p. 62 

Immortal, nien fo caird m the Perfian army v. i « 

p. IS& 
Inacceffible rock ts^en by a &ratagem v. 2. p. 5^ 
Inceftoous marriages of the country of Naura v. 2. 

liidia defcribM r. 2. p. 77, 9 a 

Ravagi^d by Alexander p. 1 62 

Indian ^igs recfiiftdl'd v. 2. p. 13^ 

£i£ans demroy memielves mther than fubmit v. 2. 

Indus river • - y, 2. p. 92, 105 

Mbkncc of the Macedonians v. 2. p. 1^6 

finrentidns to keep off* fhips at Tyre t. i . p. ^06 

Ifitm, the ufe of it, by whom found v» 1 . p» 85 

lilahds fnbdu'd v. i. p: 214. 

In the river Hydifpes r. 2. p. 109 

Mus taken by Pamemo v. i. p. 167 

Bier, or Danube river v. i. p..6a- 

Hhtnian games t. i. p. 21^ 

Jimter i&mmon, his orade r. i . p. 22 1 

Del%;htlnlly feated in the midft of a de&t p. 223 

How repreiented p. 224. 

K D E Xr 


Krndkvd of traytors puniih'd by the Macedonians 

V. 2. p. 85 

Kings of India, their magnificence ¥..2. p. 9^ 

Some fubmit to Alexander- p. 9^ 

Lacedaemonians incensed agunit Alexander v. i. 

p. 318 
Raife twenty two thouiand men againft him p. 519 
Are routed P- 321 

Number of them kill'd B--3?^ 

Pardon'd bv Alexander , P.- 3.24 

Lake that made fuch as wafli'd in it ibbbyv. 2; p. 161; 

Lamentation of the Macedonians tor Alexander's. 

ficknefs V. i. p. 161 

Of Danus*s wife, mother,. &q. afier his defieat 

Of I>arius*s army for.tKe death ofliis qneen 1)^237 

Of Macedonians and others for the dmh of Akdc- 

andcf V..2. p. 186 

Lamp&cum city preferv'd by the* conning^ o£ Anaxi- 

menes v. i.^p..2jr 

. Langanis king of the Agriani v. i. p. .62 

Laomedon made governor of Syria andPhaenida v. s. 


Lednnatns defends Alexander till he dropslumfeJ 

Appointed one of the guardians to the injrant in 

Roxane's womb v. 2. p. 195 

• Made governor of the lefler Phrygia p. 20? 

Leonidas, governor to Alexander v. i. p. 15 

Commands a feparate camj^ of Malecontents v. 2. 


r 1^ D E" X. 

Letters in a haughty ftyle from Darius to Alexander 

V. I. p. I^I 
Of Alexander to Darius ibud. 

"" Of Darius to Alexander, offering him his daughter 
in marriage p; . zi r 

Of Alexanckr in anfwer to him p. ziz: 

Of Darius to excite the Greelui to murder Alexan- 
der p. 235 
Of Nabarianes the traytor to Alexander p^ 533 
Leucidas tutor to Alexander v. i . p^ 1 2 
Lewdnefs of Babylonian women v. i. p. 27; 
Libanus mount v. i . p. 200 
Libethrus mountain and city where Orpheus was bom 

V. I. p. S9 
Locrians adjudged to be chaftifed' y; i\ p. ^o 

• Overcome by king Philip • . ibid^ 

Lois of Perfians and Macedonians at the river Gra- 
nicus v.. I. p. 103 

Loyalqr of Periians v. i. p. J04 

Luxury of Babylon debauches Alexander's army v. i^ 

P- 275 
Lycaohia inbdu'd y. i. p. 214 

Lyda iiibmits to Alexander V. 1. p. 135 

Lydia, the government of it given to Affander v. 1 . 

p. 109 

Lynceftcs, the only confpirator againft king Philip 

pardoned . y. i. p. 54 

His corifpiracy againft ABexahder detefled p. 1^ 

Isfeiz'd ~ ' p. 138L 

His execution v. 2. p, 4 

Lyfimachus tutor to Alexander * ' " • v. i. p. 12 
Interpofes to fave Alexander from a lion v. 2. p. 5& 
Made governor of 1 hracia p. 20c 

Lyfippus and Polycletus oaly allowed to make medals 
ot Alexander . v 1 . p. 1 3 


IN D e; X, 


Maoedon kings, their origin v.. r. {^^ 7 

Macedonians Tent home to their wiircs v.i. p. m 
Their veneration for dieir kin g^ p.. 16^ 

Unwilling to attack T>'re p. 200 

ObiHnate WffanSt proftratmg themfelires ta Akxan* 
der v^ 2, p. 77 

Their obftinate behavioor p. 13a 

MatinjT for fear in India jp. 136 

Break into the dty of the Qxydracae to relcue or 
revenge their ki^ p. 141 

Frightedat a hi&[h tide p. 1 59- 

Their debts paid by Alexander p. 170 

They mutiny to go hcMne; ibid.. 

Daunted by Alexander P* i79- 

Repent p» iSo 

Their inbmiffion p. 1 82: 

All (alute Alexander dying p.. 1 85- 

Madatesy aloyalPerfian v. r. p. 280 

Madnefs of Alexander's army t. 2.. p» 98,.. 165. 

Magi among the Perfians t. i. p. 15$ 

Magnefians lubmit to Alexander v. i . p.. 1 1 1 

MaBilndland v.. 2. p. 130^152 

Maracanda^ great towa v. 2. p. 32 

Marathon v. 1.. p».i9i 

March of fiyebandred fiirlomg» il i. p» 313 

Marches o( Alexander furpriiuxg v^ i. p.. 68 

Mardians^ their country v^ !• p. 296 

Will not fubmit to Alexaodes P- 337 

Subdu'd P-339 

Mareotis lake v.. i . p. 220 

Marginia city v. 2. p.. 51 

Marthas river v. i . p. 147 

Matrimony contra£led by breaking bread v. 2. p. 76 
Maa&)luS| buiband to Artemifia v. i. p. 123 


I N: D E X. 

-Mazaces> governor of Egypt fubmits tO' Alemidlr 

T. f . p. 211 

-Mazseusy governor of Babi^Ion, recehret Akx^uideiv 

V. f* pi %iz 
Mazags town, defended tgainftAlexaiidtr v. 2. p. 99 
Taken b^g^im p. loi 

Medkine g^ven to Alexander, its e8e£l ▼. i. p. 165 
Medius, a Thefialiany privy to the potibntng ot Alex« 
ander v, 2. p. 184 

Medus river v. i. p. 28^ 

Megabiziy prieib of Diana t. i. p. 112 

Megalopolis faithful to Alexander v. i. p. 321 

McLeans, their ridiculous comptiment €0 Al4eand<»r 

V. 1. p. 78 
Jyieleager fets up Aridacus after the death of Alexander 

¥.^2. p: 195 

His fpeech againft Perdiccas * -p. 193 

Advifes to kill Perdiccas P* ^9^ 

Is kill'd in a temyb p. JSOf 

Memacenians, their cruelty v. 2. p. 34 

Pcftroy'd p. 35 

M^pinis city v. i. p. 271 

JMcnmon, general of the Greeks in Darius's army,^ 

v. I. p. 82 

His advice to the Perfians p. 97 

B4iade governor of the coafts and admiral p. 122 

His honourable bravery p. 12ft 

Jblakes a brave Tally, and is repalsM P* M i 

Is made Generalliflimo of Perfia, takes Chios and 

other places, and dies of the ph^e p. 14^ 

Memphis in Egypt v. i . p. 22 1 ^ 

Menoiemus cut off by the Banians v. 2. p? 40 

lifefopotan^ v. i. p. 151, 2^29 

Richnefs of its foil p. 271 

&f etron.difcovers the confpiraey tS Dymaos, v. .iL 

P- 349 
llljjatking V. I. p. 149 


I N D E X. 

'Miletum - ' V. I. p. ifj 

Taken by Alexander P- '^^ 

Mimas mountain v. i. p. 115 

Mindians fubdu'd by Alexander y. i . p. 166 

-Minerva^stempleatTroy ^ v. i, p. 106 

Mithrenes made eovemor of Armenia v. i. p. 109 

, Mitylene taken 1^ Phamabassus v. i . p. 3^ 

By the Macedonians p. 213^ 

Mole to join Tyre to die continent v. i. p. 201 

Money the finews of war v. i, p. 53 

Given by the Perfians ta corrapt At Greeks r. >. 

p. 109 

•Xlullinus, Alexander's fecretary- v. z, p- rot 

Multitude, their wild notions v. 2. p. i^ 

Murmurs of Macedonians v. r.. p.. 342 

Muficani Indians v. 2. p, 153 

Mutineers executed v. 2. p. 179 

Mutiny in king Philip's army v. i. p. 27 

Mycajfe mount v. 1. p. 119 

Mylias^ part of Phrygia v. i. p. 135 

Myndus city repulfes Alexander v. 1. p. 12; 
My thracenes detefUng the treafon of Bt£us, goes over 

to Alexander v. 1. p. 3^3 


Nabarzancs a conipirator to betray Daritis^ v. i. 302 

His wicked projeds p. 305 

Villainous dilTunuladon P- 333 

After the murder of Darius, flies to Hyrcania p. 3 K 

His letter to Alexander " P- 3^ 

Submits to him, and is pardonM p. 339 

Nafamones .▼-'•?• *^3 

Nations in Darius's army v. i. p. iji 

Nations deiive their original from gods V. i . p* 9 

I N U F X. 

Nataral philofbpJiy^ the ftudy' of it encoarag'd %y 

■ Alexander v. i. p. 17 

fr^sara countnr. / _ ' r. 2. p. 65 

• . Sorrender'd to Alexander p. 67 
Nea^duis fent out to Tea t. 2. p. t6i 

.' Returns and gives his report p. >68 

Sent back i;^ orders to go up the Euphrates 

p. 169 
Propo&s Alexander's fon by Barfine to fucceed him 

* p. 192 
^igea town bailt hy Alexander^ in India v. 2, p. 1 3 3 
^canor, admiral of the Macedonian fleet v. i. 

p. 1x6 
.NicHomachus difcovers the confpiracy of Dymihus 

V. 1, p*. 348 
^icoftratus in a confpiracy againfl Alexander . v. 2. 

p. 82 
NUcf river : ' v. 1. p. 22t 

Ninas . „ V. 1. p. 156 

Noh|es declare for the infant iiv Roxane's womb v. 2. 

Numl^ of the ilain at t^e battle ixy Cilkia: . ' ri i. 

P» 181 
Of Darius's army at Arbela p. 243, 244 

,Of the flain there on both fides p; 267 

Of Alexander's army to invade India v. ir. p. 77 

Nyia city yielded to Alexander . ■' v.2. p^.9^ 

o, : 

Ofaftinacy of the Macedonians ' ▼. 2. p. iy> 

Ochus river v, 2. "p. jt 

Peters of Darius to Alexander v. i. p. 211, 23^ 
Old foJdicrs fent home < v. 2. p. 175 

01ympias> mother to Alexander, fufpeded (^adultery 

V. I. p.. 8 
. Hei ill temper ■ "'P.'4^ 


1 N D E X. 

* Goes away to her brodier in Eptrus p. ^7 

Her implacable deiire of revenge p. 49 

Forces Cleopatra to hang herfeSr, and murders kr 

^ child* p. ji 

01ynthu3 city dcRroy^d ▼. 1. p. 18, 19 

Omen of vidory v. ». p. a6a 

Omphisy an Indian king, fidbmits to Alexander v. z. 

Takes the name of Taxiles, his generofity p. 107 

Ora town taken by Polypercon v. 2. p. lot 

Oracle of Delphos fbretels the deadi of Idng fliil^ a 

an ambiguoas manner v.i. Pi.4g^ 

Concerning the Boeotians p. 74 

Of Apollo Clarius F >^>4 

Of Apollo Didymeas p. I if 

Of Jupiter Hammon y« aa» 

How mov*d to eive anfwers p. xaf 

Orators of Athens demanded by Alexanders, i', p. ^ 

Orchefhis, a town fix miles from Thebes v. 1. p. 6t 

Orders raven by Dadus full of mii^ . t. J* -p.^ 

Order of the Perfians march ▼• '• P« ISJ 

Ofbattle in Dariud's ariny p. 171 

In Alexander's army ibML 

Of Darius at Arbelai p. ^45 

Of Alexander there p. t$ i 

Orontobates rttiesCaria ▼. 1. p. la} 

OrfiBos detefting the tieafoQ o£ BeffuSy gpes over.W 

Alexander v. i. p. 31 j 

Orfines defcended from Cyras,, his generofity ▼. z. 

p. 170 
Put todetth through the viflany of a catKnitep. lyt 
Outrageouihefs of a republican rabble v. i. p. 111 
Oxathres^ brother to Danus v. i. p.jai 

Cleared and preferred v. 2, p. 151 

Oxus river v. 2. p. 26, 51 

Oxycanu^, Indian king v. 2. p.. 155 

Qxjfdatesj, Pedian nobleman v. i.. p. i26 

IN D E. X. 

Oxydmcast Indians. v. a.'jp. 136 

Their city taken p. 141 


FsMsmonntim v. x. p. 114 

Pwce of the kings of India v. 2. p. 94 

iVilosMaeotis y. i. p« 334 

Funplqrlia . v. i» p. 142 

Amodla, Alexander's coDcablne v. i. p. 112. 

P^uinick^^arin^ Alexander's army v. i. p» 245 

Paphhgonu fobdtt'd v. i. p. 214 

FKapamiiadae v. 2. p. 16 

Fftr^MUnifTas hifl v. 2. p. J3 

Pargen&s y. i. p. 138 

IVinneiiio takes off Attalus v. i . p. 54 

^Tak^ Grynium in i^Bolia p. 84 

Wams A^xandcr againft Philip his phyndan 

p. 163 

Jem Alexand^ and take Ifliis p. 160^ 167 

His advice to him p. 167 

Takes Dasiafcus, and Daiiiu's treafofe p. 1 87 

Made governor of Coelefy ria p. 191 

' AMpu Alexander to peace p. 240 

Hii advice before the battle of Arbela p. ^14;^. 

Amuces Alexander out of a profound ileep p. 2^ 

AccQs'd of conipiring againft Alexander p. 3^6 

Compaffion of the Mac^onians for him v. 2. p. 3 

jh pot to death p. 13 

Hischara^er P* 14 

IVrtbalia^ Indian province ▼. 2. p. x$9 . 

I^hicne v. i. p. 326, 33s 

Pafidpis river v. i. p. 280 

Itoon^ Greek commander^ his fidelity to Dariut 

p, 307 

l^nufimias infalted by Attalus v. i. p. 4^ 

Morders king FhUip in revenge ?• P 

I N D iE x; 

Peer to join Tyre to the continent v. i. p.* tti 

Deftroy'd by the Tyrians p. aoj 

Pelagon and his brother Syrphax ftonM to death 

V. I. p. Ill 

Pellene a town in Theflaly v. i . p. 68 

Ptbponneiians made friends to Alexander by moncy^ 

■ . V. 1. p. 67*; 
Pelufium in Egypt r. 1. p. »ii 

IVoplepf Alia fubmit to Alexander v. 2. p. 107 
Perdiccas fent to pronde boats to pais the Indnt 

V. 2. p. 96, 97 

His fpeech to the ofiicers after the death of Alex* 

ander p. 191 

Offin-'d the crown, bafhfully holds back p. 193 

Appointed one of the guardians to the m&nt i& 

• Roxane^s womb * p. 195 

Secures himfelf againft Meleager ; P- 19^ 

Is fqllowU l>y the cavahy, and keeps all pro^- 

iions from Babylon P* '99 

His contrirance to take off Meleager p. 202 

Executes it p. 264 

Appointed to command the army with king Ari- 


Perfagadse, city in Perfia 

Perfepolis, its imiftenfe wealth 

- Plunder*d by the Macedonians 

Burnt in a cLronken Ht 

Pcrfian fleet fbeightned and baffled 

Perfia how bordered with mountains 

Ravag'd by Alexander 
Pcrfiansr corrupt the Greeks 
"Acciis'd of the murtlier of king Philip 
Splendor of their monarchy 
Prepare to oppofe Alexander 
Routed at the river Granicus 
'The order of their march 
boated in Cilicia 
-ry - 

r N D E X. 

ree other engi^ements v. i. p. 196 

> their king's fecrets p. 216 

iful to Darius p. 304-, 

the Ba<^ian traitors p, 312 * 

minted guards to Alexander vv 2. p. k8i 

m for his death p. 1S8 

PS comes firft to fevc Alexander v. 2. p. 141 

by him ibid, 

rus, kingofCaria t. 1. p. i;^ 

i^ the fb-eiigth of the Macedonian army r. i, 

p. 177 
Cae fend Alexander a crown of gold v. i. 

bafus fucceeds Jifonnon in command y^ i. . 

p. 146 
finxtM by Darius p . 154 . 

a^ons at fea p. 19D . 

iver'd to the Macedonians p. 214 ' 

ifland ^, 1. p. 226 

is city V. 1 . p, i 56 

river V. i. p. 339 

as, Indian king, fubmits to Alexander v. 2. 

p. 124 
"king of Maoedon, «iis'd the iionour df that ' 
on V. 1 . p. 7 

)tehenfive of too much good fortune p. 10 
srthrows the Scythians P* 27 

ambition and conquers p. 2S 

)feii general of the Greeks p. 30 

Its and fapres the Athenians p. 44 

ifices'of ks p. 48 

ftatue plac'd among thofe of the gods, and he 
aurther'd p. 5 1 

, phyiician to Alexander v. u p.- 1 2 

dertakes to cure him P* i^3 

; words of aiTurance to him , p. 164 

EBir'd for his cure P* i^^ 


I N D,E X 

Phi% brotba to LyfiiQiK:hui, i^ i^raiiderfid waUser 
a-foot ▼. 2. p. 68 

Dies ibid. 

^hilotas, fon to Parmenio, conceilt the conipiraqr'of 
Dymnus. ^» >• ?• 349 

Charged with the conceahaent^ h». fnvulous ex- 
cotes ^ p. 350 

Seized . p. 354 

Produced to the army p. 359 

Hxsfpeechtotheannx P-36i 

Is radc*d p. 368 

His confeilion P< 3^ ^70 

His anger with his brother Polemon for flying 

V. 2. JH 10 

Phocion, his integrity and innocen^ v. i . p. 1 10 
An hundred talents given him by Alexander ibid. 

Phcenicia v. i. p. 192 

Phradates, made governor of the Taporians v. 1. 

p* ns 

Phrataphemes furrendcrs himfelf to Alexander ▼. w 

Phnrgia V. 1. p. 107, Sc h$i 

Phthia city, birth-place of Achilles v. 1. p. 50 

Pi^ure that coU twenty talents of gold v. i* p. US 
Pilac, defiles v. i. p^ 158 

Pibe Amanicas p. 179 

PilasSufidae p. 289 

Pinariis river v. i. p. 17Q 

Pindar's pofterity fav'd at Thebes v. 1. p. jz 

Pifidia reduced by Alexander v. i. p. 144 

Pitho die Bizantine*s fpeech to the Bo60ti»is v. i. 

p. 31 
Pithon and others appoint Perdiccas and Leannatus 
guardians to the infant in Roxane*s won^ v. z^ • 

p. 19s 

Made governor of Media p. 205 

Plague in Alexander's army v., z. p. 163 


I N I^; E X. 

Plataean&.hQnoar'd for theb generofity v. i . p. yz 

Rays in hokiour of the mufes v. i . p. 88 

Eolibn of Macedonia^ its nature v. 2. p. 207 

FbiibnM fwords of Indians v. 2. p. 155 

F6lemon» brother to Perdiccas, taken v. 2. p. 9 

la difchare'd p. ii 

Policy of A&nander v. x . p. 99 
Poly^tus and Lycippus only allowed to make medals 

orAlexander v. i. p. 13 
Polydamas fent to put Pacmenio to death v. 2. p^ 12 

Executes his commiilion p. 13 

Fblypercon fubdues Bubaoene v. 2. p. yo 

Hfs infolence punilh'd I^. 80 

, 'r^fcesOra p. loi 
TfjolfyAx^iXu^ a Macedonian, finds Darius mortally 

wounded v. i. p. 316 

Polytimetus river v. 2. p%49 

Pontus V. I. p. 122 

Popular ftates ereded by Alexander v. i . 

Porufi, an Indian king v, 2. 

His anfwer to Alexander 

His perfon and equipa^ 

Ingages Alexander 

. Taken 

His magnanimity 

Potidaea city taken by king Philip v. 1 . ^ 

Poverty fharpens induftry, v. i. p. 82 

Of Macedonian kings P* 9 ^ 

Praftius river ,v. 1. p. 96 

Pr«fti Indians fubdu'd v. z. p. 153 
Praxiteles and Phidias famous ftatuaries v. i / p. 25 

Prediftion of the Gordian knot v. i. p. 1^19 

Preparations for war in India v. 2. p. 70 
. Prelages of Alexander's greatnefs v. i. p. ic, 139 
Prefents to Alexander v, 1. p. 278, 279 

Of Indians to him v. 2. p. 152 

Vol. II. L Pnfomrs 

















. p. 10 

IN D E X. 

Prifoners barbaroufly us'd v. i. p. lycr 

Prifoner (hews Alexander a way into Pcrfia v. i . p. 286 
Prodigies as Alexander was iacrificing v. i . p. 59 
Beiore the defbudlion of Thebes p. 73 

Before the Siege of Tyre P- '99 

Propontis v. 1 . p. 92 

Protefilaus's grove, Abulous ftory of it v. i. p. 03 
Provifion made by Alexander for maimed Greeks 

'v. 1. p. 293 
Ptolemy's account of Alexander the Great, to be ere* 
dited V. I. p. 6 

Takes the cafUes of Halicaniaflas p. 1 34 

Takes feveral towns v. 2. p. 99 

AmufesPorus p. no 

His fpeech about the fucceflion after Alexuider's 
death p. 192 

Made governor of Egypt p. 20J 

Purifying of the Macedonian army v. 2. p. 205 

Pyntagoras king of Cyprus commands part ofAIez- 
ander's fleet v. 1. p. 204 

Pyrates punifh'd v. i. p. 215 

Quarrel between Alexander and Attains v. i. p. 47 
QuefUons 'sJk'd by Alexander of Perfians v. i. p. ij 


Rain violent v. 2. p. 1 11 

Rafhnefs of Alexander v. 2. p. 139 

Rebellion of Greek foldiers in Bafbia v. 2. p. 148 

Recruits come to Alexander at Babylon v. i . p. 27c 

In Badria p. 340 

Again v.' 2. p. 50 

In India p. 133 

Repentance of Alexander for having kill'd Clitus 

V. 2. p. 63 


ican follies of Athenians v. i. p.^fS 

us river v. i. p. 332 

eroces in India v. 2. p. 1 20 

18 fubmit to Alexander v. i. p. 213 

ous compliment of Maegareans v. i . p. 78 
people on it reduc'd by fire v. i . p. 345 

its condition at the birth of Alexander v. i. 

p. II 

taken to wife by Alexander v. 2. p. 75 

rs t.i^t pleafe eafily believ'd v. i . p. 66 

g nalced about the tomb of Achilles v. i . p. 94 

s Indians 

Indian king, fubdued 
ibmit to Alexander 
e of boys and girls 
upiter in Macedon 

Ichilles and Priam 
he fun 

;ious foldiers deftroy'd by thunder and light- 

V. I. p. 74 
enfes defeated by Alexander v. i. p. 143 
ans murder Andromachus v. i. p. 141, 227 

V. I. p. 119 
us river v. i. p. 149 

urrender'd to Alexander v. 1. p. 108 

tanes, governor of the Arians, revolts v. 1. 

P- 344 
ne country v. i . p. 276 

r in Alexander's army v. 2. p, 22 

>ftheTyrians v. i. p. 201 

ns, V. I. p. 326. Vide Abian Scythians. 
t Alexander v. 2. p. 36 

L a Tiicir 

V. 2. 

V. 2. 
▼. i 
V. 1 

p. 152 


!. p. 48 

1. p. 63 

p. 83 


p. 200 

V. 2. 

p. 119 

IN D E X. 

Their etnbaffy to him V. 2. p. 42 

Their king offers him his daughter p. 57 

Sea-fight, the Perfians vanquifh\l v. i; p. r^ 

Secrefy of the Perfians v. i. p. 216 

Sclgenfes offer afliftance to Alexander v. 1. p. 143 
Semiramis built Babylon v. i . p. 273 

Separate camp of maleconcents fbrmM by Altxasaer 

. V. 2. p. 15 
Serpents in India v, 2. p, 120, lii 

Sefhis city v. 1 . p. 92 

Ships ofderM to be built by Alexander v. 2. p. 120 
Shouts before battle, us^d by Perfians and Macedo- 
nians V- I. p. 175 
Sicknefs in Alexander's army v. i . p. 271 
Sida, Metropolis of Pamphylia v. i . p. 142 
Sideta fubmitto Alexander v. i. p. 141 
Sigeumport v. i. p. 93 
Simmius accused of the confpiracy wiA Philotas v. 2. 

Siiimethres had children by his own mother v. 2. 

p. 66 

Surrenders his country to Alexander p. 6^ 

Commended and prefented by Alexander p. 74 

Sifmes kiird upon fufpicion v. 1. p. 168 

Six towns built v. 2. p. 51 

Skins ftuiPd with ftraw, to pafs a river v, 2. p. 27 

Sobii Indians v. 2. p. 134 

Sodomites baniih'd by Alexander v. i. p. 135 

Sogdiana v. 2. p. 25. 49 

Bubdu'd p. 57 

Sogdians, their contempt of death, and generofiqr 

V. 2. p. 49 

Soldier fav'd by Alexander v. 2. p. 74 

Soldiers difmifs'd and fent home v. 2. p. 28 

Strive who fhall carry Alexander p. 32 

Soli city taken by Alexander v. i. p. 166 


I N D E X» 

Sons of Macedonian nobility, how the ferv'd tbe kipg 

V. 2. p. 8i 
Soothiayers,' their various interpretation of dr«ims 

V. I. p. 154 
Sophites, Indian King v. 2. p. ^22 

Sbpolis, father to the traitor Hermolaus v. 2. p. ^5 
Softratus confpires to murder Alexander v. 2. p. 82 
Sparta only preferv'd its liberty againft king Phijip 

V. I. p. 29 
Spartans fufpe£led by Alexander v. i. p. 78 

Speech of Pytho, the Byzantine, to the Boeotians 

V. I. p. ,32 

Of the deputies of the allies to them P- 3^ 

Of Demollhenes to them P* 37 

Of king Philip in the afTembly of all Greece p. ^5 

Of Alexander to his council, at his acceffion to the 

throne P- 53 

Of Alexander to the council, advifing hiin' to 

marry p,^5 

Of Memnon to the Perfians , p. 97 

Of die Perfians in anfwer to him p. 98 

: Of Alexander, againft his fleet engaging the Perfian 

p. 120 
Of Ephialtes for attacking the Macedonians p. 130 
Of Cnaridemus to Darius p, ic2, 153 

Of Philip the Phyfician to Alexander, ana his an- 
fwer p. 164 
Of Darius, in defence of die Greeks P • ' ^ 9 
. To them ibid. 
Of Alexander before die batde in Cilidft P- 175 
Of Sifygambis to Alexander P- 185 
Of Alexander to the Tyrian amb^ffadors p. 198 
Of. an ambaflador of Darius to Alexander p. 239 
.Of Parmenio advifmg Alexander to make peace 

p. 240 
Of Alexander in a»fwer to the ambafladors of Da- 
rius p. 241 

L3 or 

» N D E X. 

Of Pannenio in coanc3 before the battle of Aibek 

V. I. p. 247 
Of Alexander in anfwer to it p. 248 

Of Alexander before the battle of Arbela p. 253 
Of Darius after his defeat at Arbela p. 270 

Of mangled Greeks confulting what to dk of 

Alexander p. 291, 292 

Of Darius to his council near Ecbatana p. 300 
Of Nabarzanesy defigning to betray Darius p. 302 
Of Patron the Greek, to Darius p. 307, 308 

Of Darius in anfwer to him p. 308 

Of BefTus the traitor, to Darius p. 309 

Of Darius when dying P* 3^0 

Of Alexander to his generals, upon the army's de- 

iiring to return home p. 327 

Of thole officers, in anfwer p. 328 

Of Alexander to his army, encouraging them to 

pfoceed ibid. 

Ot Craterus againfl Philotas P- 35^ 

Of Alexander to the army on the confpiracy of 

Dymnus P* 355 

Of Philotas to the army in his own defence p. 361 
Of Belon agamft Philotas p. 367 

Of Alexander againft Amyntas and Simmius 

V. 2. p. 4 
Of Alexander difchargmg Amyntas and Polemon 

p. II 
Of Alexander to Polydamas ibid. 

Of Beflus to his followers p. 19 

Of Cobares to Beffus p. 20 

Of Spitamenes, delivering BcfTus to Alexander p. 30 
Of Alexander to Beffus, and his anfwer ibid. 

Of Ale;(ander to his council at the Tanais p. 37 
Of the Scythian ambafladors to Alexander p. 42 
Of Alexander for gaining an inacceffible rock p. 52 
Of Alexander grieving for having kilPd CKtus p. 64 
Of Cleo for honouring of Alexander p. 78 

I N D EX. 

Of Califthenes againft thofe honours v. 2. p. yS, 79 

Of the traitor Hennolaus when taken p. 86 

Of Alexander m anfwer to him P* ^S 

Of Alexander upon ingaging Porus P* i M 

To his army after that vidlory ^ P* > >9 

. To encourage his army to proceed in' the conqueft 

of India p. 126 

Of Csenus, for the army refufing to proceed p. 1 30 

Of the mutinous Macedonians P* 136 

Of Alexander to the mutinous army P* '37 

Of Craterus to Alexander, about his raih expofing 

himfelf p. 144. 

, Of Alexander in anfwer to the affe^onate advice of 

his generals p. 146 

To his mutinous Macedonians P'^77 

To his Afiaticks p. 180 

. Of Alexander dying p. 1 86 

Of Ferdiccas to the officers, after Alexander's death 

p. 191 
. Of Meleager agamft Ferdiccas fucceeding Alexan- 
der, and for plundering the treafure p. 193 
. Of an unknown Macedonian, for Aridaeus to fuc- 
Geed Alexander P* *95 
Of Aridaeus to the army p, 200 
Spitamenes betrays Beffus v. 2. P. 27 
His words to Alexander upon delivering up SefTus 

P- 30 
Invites the BaArians to revolt p. 33 

Cuts off two thoufand two hundred of Alexander's 
^ men • p. 40 

Sports in honour of Efculapius v. i. p. 166 

Stajgira city, deftroy'd by king Philip, reftor'd by 
Ariftotle v. i. p. 19 

Statues ere^led to men flain v. i. p.^io4 

Preferv'd by Alexander , P» 74 

At Thebes fweat P- 73 

Stori^ fcatters Alexander's fleet y. . i p. 205 

; L 4 Storm 

IN D E X. 

^orm and cold dcftroy a thoafand men r. 2 . p. ^ 3 
Stratagem to gain an inacceffible rock v. 2. p. 52 
ItsTuccefs -p. 55 

Another to pafs the river Hydafpcs p. 1*10 

Scrato, kingof Aradud v. i. p. 191 

Strymon river v. i. p.91 

Styx, poifoDOus fountain v. 2. p. 207 

Superflition of Macedonians v. i. p. 100 

Of vulgar people P« 234 

Stt(a city, furrender'd to Alexander v. 1 . p. 278 
Sword of Alexander v. 1 . p. 95 

Sydon city furrender'd to Alexander . . v. i . p. 192 
Sydonians fave fifteen thouiand Tyrians v. 1. p. ^lo 
Sydonian youths refufe that Jcingdom v. i. p. 193 
Symmachus andNicanor, brave youths v. 2. p. 110 
Syracafans make war on the Carthaginians v. i. 

p. 205 
Syrians aftoniih*d to fee the Jews favour^ by Alcxan- 
andcr v.. 1.. _p. 140 

Syfigambis, Darius's mother . ▼. i. -p. 157 

Taken by Alexander p. 181 

Her fpeech to him p. 1^5 - 

Her Staid nefs p. 259 

Left at Sufa p. 279 

Laments the death of Alexander v> 2. p. i^ 
Dies p. r89 

T, ; 

Table of Darius made Alexander*s/ootftool v. l.p. 27? 
Tanais river v. i. p. 327, andv/2. p. 30 

Taos V. T. T* '^4 

Tarfus city v. 1 . p. 160 

Taurus mountain v. 2. p. iS 

Taxiles, or Omphis, an Indian king v.. 2. p. 107 
His brother fent to Porus .by Alexander - -p.- 116 
Telmiffenfes under Alcxandcrtprotedion'v. i i p.r 35 



^dmiflus city Qjpppfes Alexaxsder v. i. p. 143. 

Is raz'd by him p. 144 

TexnpJe of Qiana at Ephefus burnt v. i. p. 10 

Temple eredled to Jupiter at Sardis v. i. p. 108 

Tembjes fpar'd by Alexander v. ,i. p. 74 

Qf Diana at Sardis v. i. p. 109 

At Ephefus p. 112 

C^ Ceres p. iiJ5 

.Of Apollo Didvmeas v. 2. p. 29 

Tcrialtes executed for ill gOTcming the Paropenufad^ 

V. 2. p. 153 
TJxsdp, a famous harlot v. i. p. 297 

Thalf^s, Qgeen of the Amazons, Ti£ts Alexander 

V. I. p. 340 

Defires to lie with him ibid. 

iThesigenes general of the Thebans v. i . p. 43 

Tbebans, fiiends to the Macedonians v. i . p. 30 

Turn on a fudden againil them P- 43 

Sjobdu^d by king Phihp p. 45 

Muf 4pr Alexander'^ officers p. 66 

Excite others to do the lame p. 6y 

ITbebes' taken by Alexander and deftroy'd v. i. p. 73 

Rebuflt p. 74 

IThemifeyta plains v. i. p. 339 

mennodoh river ibid. 

Theflaly fubdu'd by Alexander v. i. p. 55 

Tnicffalmns, brave horfe v. 1. p. 105 

'.Thrace invaded by Alexander v. i. p: 58 

Thracian captain flain by a woman v. i . pn 7 1 

Thracians revolt, and arc fubdu'd by Alexander ; 

v. I. p: z$ 

Throne of Kerfia v. i. p. zy$ 

Tbymodes, commander of the Greeks, under Darius 

v. I. p. '154 

Tide in a river amazes the Macedonians v. 2. p. 158 

Tigris river v. i. p. 230, 231 

.TinuBuskill'd defending Alexander v. 2. p. 141 

L 4 Timoclca, 


Timoclea fpar'd at Thebes for her virtue ▼. i . p. 71 
TimotheuSy a mufician v. i. {». 21 

Tiridates delivers Darius*s treafure to Alexand^ 

V. I. p. 289 
Tomb of Cyrus, nothing found in it . v. 2. p. 171 

Of Hephsftion, coft twelve thoufimd talents v. 2. 

p. 184 
Towns in India taken v. 2. p. 121 

Traytorsy their kindred punifh^d among the h£u»do- 

nians v. 2. p. 8; 

Traytor juftly puniih'd v. i . p. 18^ 

T^lians fiibmit to Alexander v. i. p. in 

Treafure of Darius delivered to Farmemo r. i . p. 1 87 

Found at Sufa P* 278 

At Perfepolis P- 294 

At Perfagadse p. 295 

Trees in India v. 2. p. 120 

Trihalli take a booty from king PMlip v. 1. p. 27 

Defeated by Alexander p. 29 

Tribute in Ada imposM by Alexander, the fame as 

had been paid to Darius v. i. p. 107 

Troglodytes v. i . p. 223 

Troy V. x. p. 94, & 106 

Tyre fends prefents to Alexander v. i . p. 197 

Difficult accefs to it p. 198 

fiefieg'd p. 20O9 & feq. 

Inhabitants fend their wives and children to CarthagfS 

p. 205 

Taken and burnt p. 210 

Account of it ibid. 

Tynans, two thoafand of them crucify *d v. i. p. 21a 
Tyriotesy an eunuch, efcapes to Darius with the news 

ef his queen's death v. i. p. 277 



VgieKSi^ the Macedonienjs for their kmgs v. t • 

^V'eteran foldiers honoi^^ci'ty Alexander, v. 2. p. 183 

yi6to]7<rfMac^dbxuans6ver Bdrtiarians v. i. p. 10 

Over die Thracians p, 58 

Over the Triballi p, 59 

. Over the Getae p. 60 

Over the lUyrians P- 64 

Over the Perfians at the river Granicot p. 102 

Over Periians atHalicamafius p. 166 

Over Darius in CHicia' / P- *77 

. . Three, obtained by AlexaiMlflr'slieittenaiits p. 196 

Atfea ' w.* ,. ^.j^ 

At Arbcla p. 262 

Over the Scythians v. 2. p. 47 

TJxians v. 1. p. 280 


Walls of Babylon v. i. p. 273 

War declared by Akxzrda againU the Carthaginians 
' v. I. p. 210 

Water of the fun v. i, p. 224 

.Water drank immoderately kSls many men v. 2. 

p. 27 
Way made thro' ropks by Alexander v. i. p. 55 
Wealth of Periian monarchs v. i. p. 91 

Wedding of Cleopatra, Alexander's fifter, .and die 
king of Epirus v. 1. p. 49 

Whales feen, fuperftitious conceits about it v. i. 

p. 208 

Wildbeafts, four thouiand of them at once kill'd in a 

wood V. 2. p. 53 

Wife faying of Alexander v. i . p. 1 1 g 

L 6 Wife 

Wife men of India r^ z. p. 9 j 

Woman look'd upon as mad, iares the life of Aloc- 

ander v. 2. p. 82 

WomenatBibylon'lewd ^. 1. p. 275 

.Words of the priefteis^of Apollo arcideatally fpoto)» 

tat»n%omim p|3Kb^ by Ale^^ .y* !• ^•;f|7 

Xanihas river ;jir. 4. p.JJJ 

Xetippa country T.2v:p.6$ 

«cUti, ^fsti^hj'kkasUtr '"•' '•■ ir>i.; 
ZiobcriB river, v. 1 .'..p-.js^ 

^HHH ' WH ^ii^ H ^ MW4HHHUHH 



-»■ 1* ft * 





Copper Plates. 

THE effigies of Alexander is taken from 
Urfinas's coins, and Begerus^s Theiaanis ef 
the Palat. coins. 
The cutt of Phili}> is taken from the lame. 
The heads of Ariilotle and Homer are from Bd- 
lorius's Medals. 

The pieces of money which reprefent the rivers 
Marfyas and Lycos, are after Morellus's fpecimens> 
Tab. II. 

Midas's face is taken from Spon^s mifcellanies, 
p. 130. 

The waggon, and the knot of the yoke or Goidian 
knot, from Trajan's pillar, tab. 41. 

The Theflalian horiemen from Beg^nis^s Thefaums, 
and Goltzius*s Greece, tab. ai. 

Cydnos from Morellus's ipecimen^ tab. 1 1. 



The Tyrian Hercules is copied from Seguin, 
p. 164. 

The Tyrian Apollo'^ tifl^en from Caracalk's coin 
•8 defcrib'd by Vaillant in his fecond tome of colo- 
re fSice of Jupiter ^aon^wai eagni^'d fr^m 
niinas's T]iefaar«%- p. 151. andjlie i^tk table i)f 
Morellas's fpecimen, and from Wheler*s voyages, 
numb. 15. To wUch^u ad4ed^vthe effigies with 
which the moH ji^idous -Voflins bUiged the world in 
his notes upon Pomponius Mela, B. i . c. 8. as the 
moft illuflrioas £. Spfuiheim has repreiented it in his 
fifth diflertation upon^the iife .aid vllu<x>f .coins, 
p. 3^0. in Quarto. 

The countenance of Olympias is fi^om a jewel of 
3riFajan deicrib*d by Ai^gelcuuu^, p. 122. land -Joep. 
lA^guf&^yinvmb. 76. 

The dromedaries from the coins of Caracalla-iand 
Commodtts, ac<;Gffdsng (o Fatinus Th«faur. p. .264, 

The Trophy of Alexander was fuiiuflied by.Golt- 
iWis in the 31ft tab. of Greece. 

The money de(crib'd by Efizs^o, p. 163. :ha&t]K 

We find king Seutheshis image in the choice; coins 
of Seguin, p. 31. 

To all which we have added a plate eT^refling the 

wheels of the armed chariots, as M. Raderus, J. 

, Schcffer, G. Stewechius upon Vegetius, and the moft 

excellent Ja. PerizQuius hav.e feveraliy ■delineated 



Tie Opinions of learned Men ^coueeming; 
ibe Name^ Age^ Condititmy Style and 
Hiftory of Quintus Curtius, 

TH E learned world are pretty much divided in 
their fendments ^aboat this author, and the 
time . in, which he j^uriihed, ; . ibme referring 
him to the age of Auguftus, and others bringing him 
down as low as Theodofius ; nor are there wanting 
thofe who pronounce him a modern fophift under 
that feigned name, a^e^ling to write in the language 
of the Auguftan age. None of the ancient writers, 
when they fpeak of .any pcrfonof the naxoe of. Gur- 
tios, cibfervc that he was an hiftorian, or wrote of 
Alexander the Great, nor is there any notice taken 
of fuch an hidorv extasit in^he e^^lier iqg6s, at Jedft 
ZK>t until the twelfth century. He hUnfdf m<;otions 
&me x)ccurzeBces in the Roman empire in his tim^» 
bat then he has exprefs'd himielf fo obfcurely, that 
ftone interpret him to point out one period and fi^tne 
another, io that nothing can certainly be condwied 
from what he has delivered on this fulled : His 
words in his tenth book, the ninth chapter, p^ tot* 
axe as follow. " It is therefore ynt\i the greafeft 
^* reafon, that the Roman ^fderjacknowledge they 
<' owe their fafety to their prince^ who appeared to 
f ' them like a new ibur, on that very ni^ that had 
*^ like to have been their laft i and moft certainly it 
** <washisrirmg, and not that cf the fun, that ieftor*jd 
f* tight4a.die^daiken*d.wi)rld>.svh^iLJunri^ V>ftits 
. ; "head 

C 6 ] 

** heady the difcordmg members were in AegcMteft 
** apprehenfiensy how many firebrands did he-^ei 
. " pot out ? How many fwords did he then fheath ? 
** How black was the ftonn that cidar'd up at his 
" fudden appearance ? The empire may therefoirbe 
** (aid not only to recover its fbengthi but even to 
** flourifh through his means, ia that no body can' 
** blame me if I wifh that his pofterity may long 
** enjoy the fbvereign power, if not for cypr." 
From whence fevcral bwieve that he intended^ the 
time between the murther of Julius Caefar, and the 
iettlement of Auguftus in die empire, which is de- 
fcrib'd much after the fame manner by Virgil in his 
firft Georgic. 

" He firft the fate of Casiar did foretd, 
** And pity'd Rome, when Rome in Cxfar fell : 
• ** In iron clouds concealed the public li^ht, 
** And impious mortals fear'd eternal mght. 

Dryden Virg. i. 

Which Tibullus alfo relates, 2. 5. 

And both Plutarch and Pliny, who are grave 
writers, inform us, that the year which followed die 
death of Julius was very dark and gloomy, and the 
weather fo unfeafonable that it fill'd every body wfth 
amazement ; fb that upon this fuppofition he feems 
to be the Curuus mention'd by TuUy in the fecond 
cpifUe of his third book, who gives hun the chara^ler 
of a good and learned youth ; and' in a catalogue of 
orators atmex'd to Suetonius's hiflory, he is men- 
tioned immediately after Ceftius Pius, and M. Por- 
tius Latro, the lad of which liv'd in the fordeth 
year of Auguftus, which gives fome countenance to 
this conjecture. But then what he fays in the fourth 
book, chap. 4. p, an. that Tyre by the heljp of a 



loi^ peace OnjoyM a profound eafe under the pro- 
teftion-of the Roman clemency, could not be true of 
the reign of Augufhis, in the begmning of which he 
is thought to Imve written his hiftory, becaufe the 
firft part of Auguftus's time was difturb*d by wars for 
about twenty years together, fo that he muft rather be 
referr'd to fome later period. There are criticks who 
believe the danger and deliverance of the Romans to 
be intended of the ficlaiefs and death of Auguftus, 
and the inauguration of Tiberius, of which both 
Velleius Paterculus and Valerius Maximus fpeak in 
the fame ibain of flattery. There is one Curtius an 
opator, whom Juvenal fpeaks of in his eleventh 
fatyr ; but he was different from our hiftorian, being 
not Curtius Rufus but Curdus Montanus. We meet 
with one of his name in Tacitus his Annals, B. 1 1« 
and in the feventh book of Pliny's epiftles, who 
liv'd in Tiberius and Claudius's time, and became a 
great man, being fuccefTively quaeflor, prsetor, cc^- 
lul, and at lafl proconful of Africa, who mufl have 
been of a prodigious age to be the fame with him 
whom Tully fpeaks of; nor is it credible he fhould 
have been advanc'd or capable of difcharging that 
ofHce at more than an hundred years old. It is re- 
ported that he was the fon of a gladiator, and being 
inade praetor by Tiberius, that prince feem'd to hint 
at the meanneis of his extraction, and to compliment 
his merit at the fame time when he faid he fprung 
from himfelf. And then the paflage of the tcndk 
book which is recited above may be interpreted of 
the time of Caligula's death, and Claudim's afcend- 
ing the throne. There are others who believe thia 
account may much better be accommodated to Vef- 
pafian's age, *whofe virtue and clemency are de- 
fcrvedly celebrated in hiftory, and who eflablifh'd 
peace and tranquility almoft over the whole workl, 


in vihok hmSy diey might hope the &m& would be 
perpetuated. There are fome who place Coxtius in 
Trajan's reign, and others who will not aUow Curtiiis 
to be more antient than Theodd£u% . tho^ they have 
no proof to fupport fuch an aflertion. They who 
cemure him as a mere modem fophift, imitating un- 
der a borrowed name the language and %le of the 
purefl age, chieRy depen4 upon this argument, that 
no writer has upon any occafion took notice cf 
Curtius till after the tenth century of chriflianity ; for 
fhey who affirm that his hifiory was not knonm or 
mentioned till the fifteenth century are grofly mifia- 
fcen ; for Pctrus Blsefcniis ipeaks of his being uied in 
the fchools, and the advantage he himfelf received 
Tr^m reading him, wiiich was about the year iicoj 
and Gaulterus Bella's Alexandreis was composed in 
the twelfth century^ in which Quintus Curtius's 
words are moiUy chofen, and put into verie. The 
very antient manufcripts which are torn and worn out 
in many places fufficiently refute the pretence of his 
being a late writer ; and wbat puts the matter beyond 
^ controverfy is, that there is a manufaipt of 
Curtius in the Colbertine library above cueht hundred 
years old, as Montfaucon obferves; and Wagenfeil 
afferts, that he met with a letter of Lucas Homenius 
to one of the Medici, duke of Tufcany, in which 
be delivered his judgment concerning iome manu- 
£:ripts in his library, that there was a copy of Curtius 
jn one iheet numbred 63, about feven hundred yean 
old. Upon the whole, this author feems moft pro- 
bably to have lived «nd wrote in Veipaiian's time ; 
Jie muft have been later than Anguftus, becaufe he 
follows Diodorus in many pafTages as manifeiUy as 
Livydoes Polybius; and he cannot reafonably be 
thought to have wrote after Trajan^s time, becaufe 
he would then in all probability have givena xoor^ 



exaft defcripdott of the red fia^ to which Trajtn 
extended the Roman cmpx^, and which thm^ 
fore he might have mfi:>rm*d himfelf, and wotdd 
fcarce have omitted fo fair an opportunity of cfci 
lebrating the pmiies of that prince, and the people 
of Rome. 

As to the ftyle of Curtius 'tis very elegant, and 
yet pure, and intelligible. Tho' he is deciy'd by 
ibme fevere cenf6rs9 as too florid for an hiflorian, too 
fond of defcriptions and hyperbole's, andafl%^inga 
rhetorical and declamatoiy manner, radier than a 
grave and phin narration : yet he is highly valuM by 
others of the beft judgment, and ftqtculed to, if 'not 
preferred before, the moft celebrated c^ the Roman 
infbrians. And the orations he draws up, and the 
refledions he makes, are generally recommended as 
inffaru^tive, and ferviceable to the interefb of virtue 
and morali^fr, as well as^thoie of civil policy, and 
common life. His mediod is much approvM, and 
his preferving the thread of his hiftbry entire without 
breaking it, by introducing foreign fubjefts, or en- 
tangling it by long and ufefefs digreflions, but always 
enhvenmg his account by beautiful figures, toA 
making it acceptable and entertaining by the fmoodi- 
ncfs of his expreffions, and engagmg the attention of 
the reader, and moving his po^ns, by a judicious 
reprefentation of the circumftances niat attended 
every aftion or event. So that you feem a fpe&tor 
of whatever he defcribes, and feel a concern for the 
diftrefs which he relates in fo afFe^Hng a manner. 
When he introduces his hero's exciting their fol- 
diers to behave themfelves gallantly, he infpires 
every breaft with courage and refolution. We have 
an eminent inftance of the worth of this author, 
the pleafure that arifes from his hiflory, and the 
2 influence 


inflaence he has over the minds of thofe who exa« 
xnlne his work carefollyy in Alphonfus the fon of 
Ferdinand, who added l^aples to the dominions of 
the kingdom of Arragon : When this prince la* 
bour'd under an indifpofition at Capua, and could 
receive no benefit by the medicines adminifterM by 
his phyficiansy to employ himfelf in his confinement, 
and divert his pain, he chofe that his attendants 
fhould read to him ; and was fo entertained and 
delighted with Panormita's reading of Curtius, that 
after the failure of medicines, he fenfibly found he 
owM his recovery to the compofure of his mind, 
and that agreeable amufement which this author 
afforded him. So that when the phyficians art be- 
came ufelefs, the hiftorian took place ; and ac- 
cordingly this monarch rejedled Uie affiftance of 
Galen and Avicenna, and attributed all the fuccefs to 
Curtius. The veracity of Curtius is impeachM by 
the fame malevolent and Mid criticks who accufe his 
Ayle and manner of writing, as though he were a 
moil fabulous and legendary writer, and frequendy 
related fads with fuch circumflances, as carried 
along with them their own confutation, and were 
mamfefUy inconfiilent, as improper for the place 
and climate where they are faid to have happened. 
But if they would recede a little from that abfolute 
dictatorial power they have aiTum'd, and change 
the propeniity they have to condenm, into a fpirit 
of candor, they would, allow the apology he makes 
for himfelf, that he followed the Greek writers who 
had tranfinitted to his time thefe accounts, and 
that he might do juilice to them, frequently fet 
down what they had deliver'd, though he thought 
the account incredible, which in fome particulars he 
has exprefly declared. But if the reader defires 

a more 


more fall informaddn in thele points, he 0127 
hfah the treatife of the learned Ja. Perizonius 
vmdication . of Curtiasy to which as worthy of 
s peruial we refer him. 





Adefeeoaant | 

Irom Teme- Caranas 
unit, bat at . 

what diflaoce I 

it not certain i ^senus 
he waa the | 

fbonder of the Tyiima^ 
Macedonian i 














the 2d 



UK law VI UK 

Pyrrhus — Andromadie 
the widow of 



Atobn One of the 
ponenQr of 
PiehiSj but it 
does not ap- 

AdsietVS degree. 
Kil^of— Phthia 






— Olympias 

the Great 




the Great 

a poftiiu- 
mous foh, 

of Artaba^* 


killed by 
at 17 years 
of age. 

• CIcophis a 

Sueen of 

who inhe- 
rited his 

Vol. II. 




The Epitome of Alexander's Ufe^.ly Ra- 
phael Voltcran. 

THERE have jbeen an almoft-infiBkc number 
of Greek ^^ters who iiave txmttatud to pof- 
terity an account of the life a^d exploits of Alexander 
the fon of Philip king of Macedon j for inftance, 
Clitarchus, Polycrate^ Oneficritus, Antigenes, Iftrus, 
Ariftobulus, Chares, Hecataeus Eritreus, Philip the 
Chakidian, Duriai the Saniian, Ptolemy, Antidido, 
Philo the Thebant Philip, Hifangelus, Antifthenes, 
Mencchmus the Sicyonian, Nymphis of Heraclea, 
Potamon the Mitylenaean, Sotericus Afites, Arrian, 
Plutarch, and of the Latins Quintus Curtius. I fhall 
fum up what they have delivered in a (hort abflrad. 
Plutarch fays he was bom on the eighth of the ides of 
April, but the latin tranflator of that author makes it 
about the ides of Auguft ; where the miftake lies I am 
not able to determine. The governor^ of his youth 
and exercifes were Leonidas a kinfman of his mother 
Olympias, and Lyfhnachus the HalycamaiTean. Af- 
terwards he had.Ariftotle for his preceptor, who in- 
flrufted him in learning, whom he conftantly afFeded, 
and being wonderfully delighted with the knowledge 
of natural philofophy, he fometimes complained of 
him in his letters to him, for making his books con- 
cerning that fcience publick to the world ; and was 
anfwei 'd, that he had indeed publilhed them, but that 
by realbn of their obfcurity it would be the fame thing 
as if they had never feen the light. At fixteen years 
of age, upon his father's expedition to befieee Byzan- 
tium, he was fent back to govern the kingdom in his 


[15 i 

abfence. After whofe death, being twenty years old, 
he made hb firft expedition againft the Thebans, and 
after the defeat of their army demolifh'd their city, 
and made a peace vith the Athenians, tho* they hcin- 
cufly refentcd the defl:ru£tion of Thebes. When he 
came to the Ifthmus every one went to meet him, ex- 
cept Diogenes the Cynic; Alexander wondering at 
his nlbrolenefs, came to him when he was funning 
himfelf, and a(k*d him if he had occafion for any 
thiiig, and his anfwer was '* Yeis, that you may rc- 
** move out of the way of the fun beams ;" upon 
which Alexander turning- to his followers faid, ** If I 
<« were not Alexander, I could have wifht to have 
*' been Diogenes." Being defiroiis of empire, he 
divided all his paternal ellate amoiiglt his friends, and 
leaving Antipater to commiand at home, he firft pafT- 
ed over the Hellefpont and came to Troy, and taking 
notice of Achilles's tomb, he pronounced him happy, 
in having Homer the herald of his praifes. After- 
wards marchine againft Darius, as far as the river 
Granicus, whicn is one of the entrances into Afia, 
the king's lieutenants oppofmg his pafTage engaged 
with him, and he obtained the viftory, with the ms 
of twent}*^ thoufand of the enemy, and of tliirty four 
only of the Macedonians. Then marching towards 
the fea-coaft, he fubdu'd the countries of Pamphylia, 
Cilicia, and Phaenicia, and afterwards the Paphlago- 
nians and Cappadocians. In palling the Cydnus, 
which is a river prodigioufly cold, he contrafted a 
diftemper, which fufpended a while his profecution 
of the war. But in a little time recovenng by the 
care of his phyfician Philip, he returned to the camp, 
and again gave battle to Darius, who had brought an 
army of ftx hundred thoufand men into the field, 
whom he overcame v/ith the flaughter of eleven thou- 
(and of the enemy, and poflfefs'd himfelf of their 
camp, and purfu*d the king in his flight five ftadia ; 
M 2 and 

C 16} 

and when his wife and daughters, who were taken 
prifonersy were brought to him, he behaved himfeif 
towards them with nio4efty and honour. AfW this, 
bdng charm'd with the pleafant fituation of the place, 
he orderM Alexandria to be built on the fea-ihore iii 
Egypt, and march*d himfeif through a vaft defart to 
the temple of Jupiter Ammon ; being die only prince, 
except Cambyfesy who had arrived there. In his paf-> 
fage many thoufands of his men were buried in the 
fands, which were driven by the force of the fouth 
wind. When he came to the temple, being flatter'd 
by the prieft, he imagined that he was the Ion of Ju- 
piter. At lail he man:h*d againfl Darius who had re- 
cruited his forces a third time, and entirely touted 
him, and put a period to the Perfian empire 1 he 
then conquerM SabylOn, and the whole country 
about it ; and preparing to purfue Darius, he receiv'a 
intelligence that he had been taken by BefTus his &- 
vorite, and was flain by his fervants ; upon which he 
order'd the body to be convey'd in royal robes to his 
mother to be buried, and executed Beflus his murderer. 
Darius at his death petitioned the gods that they 
would crown Alexander with fuccefs, whom tho* an 
enemy he had found more merciful than his own fub- 
jeAs. Thence marching into Parthia, and paffing 
over the river Orexartes (which is the Rha, taken by 
Alexander for another Tanais,) he attacked the Scy- 
thians ; but being afHided with a Diarhsea, he defin- 
ed from the farther profecution of that enterprize. 
Here he met Thaleflxis queen of the Amazons (as 
Juftin aflures us) who came a journey of thirty Bve 
days for that purpofe, and was reported to have gone 
back with child by him. He then proceeded towanis 
India, and exhorted his foldiers not to be difpirited, 
becaufe the fhort fatigue they had to undergo would 
procure the Macedonians the empire of the world and 
cverlafUng honour. King Taxiles firfl came to meet 



him with prefents ; and after croffing the river Hy- 
dafpes he conquer'd another Indian king call'd Porus, 
who oppofed him with an army, and after his defeat 
when he was iii his hands reflor'd him his freedom. 
Porus was four cubits and an hand high. In the hat- 
tie Bucephalus happen'd to be kill'a, in memory of 
whom Alexander caus'd a city to be erefted upon the 
Hydafpes, call'd Bucephalia. In thofe countries he 
is faid to have engaged in converfation with many of 
the Gynmofophifts ; among which one whofe name was 
Calanus followed him, and caufine a pile to be made 
burnt himfelf alive. Alexander after this fitted out a 
fleet under the command of Oneficritus and Nearchus, 
to compafs and difcover the coaft of India on the 
right ; and himfelf returned back through the midland 
countries, and being tormeii&d with a pain in his 
bowels came again to Babylon, and there being feiz'd 
with a fever died without any fymptom of poifon, in 
the thirty third year of his age, and was carried to 
Alexandria by Ptolemy with great folemnity, proper 
for the funeral of fo great a monarch. He was gree- 
dy of wine to fuch a degree that he deftroy'd the 
chief of his friends in his drunken fits. He kilPd 
Clitus, becaufe in table-talk he preferr'd his father 
Philip before him ; and order'd Philotas and Parmenio 
to be put to death upon* fufpidon of treafon ; and 
had Callifthenes the philofopher and near relation of 
Ariftotle, who had been one of his deareft friends, cut 
in pieces in a barbarous manner, through ajcaloufy 
of his being concem'd in Hermolaus's confpiracy, 
and becaufe he refused to adore him. He was in 
other refpedls fo eminent for his chaftity, that except 
his wife and Berfme a widow of Damafcus, and of 
royal parenti^e, he had no communication with 
women ; and he reftain'd ft'om the embraces of Rox- 
ane his wife, the daughter of king Oxyartes, until 
M 3 all 

C-'8 3 

:tll the cuflomary ceremonies of marriage .;were pcr- 
fbrm*d. And Ariftobulus affirms that thfe reports con- 
cerning his drunkennefs were all falfe ; but becaufe 
he us'd to talk pretty much when he fat drinkin|^, he 
fell under that cenfure. He was fb temperate m his 
diet that he us'd to (ay a night^s march was the beft 
fauce for a dinner, and a fhort and (paring din- 
ner gave the bed relifh to a fupper. The great 
things he atchiev^d in fo (mall a compafs of time 
abundantly fhow iiow great his diligence was, and 
that he omitted no opportunity of a£Uon. The 
firil thing he did in the morning was to offer (acrifice : 
if he had any fpare time he beSowM it either in hunt* 
ing, or reading, and that chiefly of Homer, whom 
he us'd to lay under his pillow at night. He fome- 
times refre(h'd himfelf by makii^ entertAunents ; 
thus after the overthrow of Darius all his officers 
brought their miflreffes to a banquet, of which num- 
ber was Thais, b^ birth an Athenian, whom Ptolemy 
was afterwards violently enamoured of: when (he re- 
queued Alexander at (upper that he would bum the 
palace of the Perfian kings, beoaufe they had wafted 
her country with fire, he immediately gave orders 
that it Ihould be done. He was fo averfe to unnatu- 
ral defires, that he provided for the education of 
thirty thoufand young men in military difcipline, and 
feverely reprimanded a certain perfon who promifed 
to procure him a beautiful youth; and usM to (ay 
that venery and fleep were the moft convincing prooo 
of mortality. 


I '»9 3 

The account of the divifion of the empire 
and conquefts of Alexander the great, 
after his deceafe, being very ftiort and 
innpcrfedl in X;^uintus Curtius ; it was 
conceived, that the more full and exaft 
relation orFreinfhemius, collc<5ted from 
the moft approved authors, would be ve- 
ry acceptable to the readers of this tran- 
flation, and it is accordingly inferted in 
this edition. 

ARidaeus, as Curtius informs us, was appointed 
over the whole empire with royal authority, 
or rather, with the bare name of king ; with u horn 
agree Diodoras Siculus, Appian, Dexippus in Photi- 
us, and Eufebius, Arrian in Photius, and the Latin- 
barbarous chronological extra£ls : but the author of 
thefe, reading that he was conilituted ruler of all the 
Macedonian empire, imagined that the Macedonian 
kingdom only, as contained within its ancient boun- 
daries, was affign'd him, but that the whole empire 
was divided into four parts ; which perhaps he had 
from St. Jerom, who fell into the fame miftake upon 
the eight chapter of Daniel, whom according to cuf- 
tom he follows at all adventures. 

Amyntas, fon of Nicolaus, as I conjedture, was 
over the Sogdians. Juilin, 13. 4, 23. according to 
the correftion of that author, proposed under the ac- 
count of Archon, for which reafon Curtius muft inr 
tend him amongft thofe whom he (peaks of who coni;> 
. M 4 mandei 


manded in India, Ba^iana, " and over the Sogdians^ 
^ and other nations bordering oH the ocean or red-fea, 
•• and were to hod the power of jurifdidion with the 
** fame limitations they had formerly held the fame." 
For he was governor of the Sogdians, B. 8. c. 2. p. 
65. and of the Badlrians. Arrian. 4. 3, 14. 
Antigenes was fet over Sufa. (See below in Soflana.) 
Antigonusy fon of Philip, appointed over Pam- 
philia, Lycia and Phrygia. Curt. Diodor. 18. 2. 
Appian, Syriac. Arrian. B. i & 9 in Phot. Who 
alio mentions the Lycaonians, B. 9. where this ihare 
38 confirmM to him. Dexippns allots him Pamphylia 
and CiHcia as ^ as Phrygia ; but the paflage feems 
to have been corrupted, and the fyllable jmu to 
have been heedlefly repeated, and KeuKiTsiiun pat 
for KM hvKicfr, iince *tis certain the fame author in 
Eufebius erprefly afligns Lycia to him, and the leffer 
Phrygia. Cedrenus alfo gives him Cilicia, as far as 
mount Taurus. JufHn in his 13 B. C. 4. ^)eaks pn- 
ly of Phrygia, the Latin-barbarous chronology adds all 
the reft. Antigonus " had the country towards the 
** north and towards Hyrcania beftow'd upon him." 
Afterwards he reign'd over almoft all Afia, as the 
force-cited authors declare, and with them, the ad- 
ditions to Eufebius, in the fucceflion of the kings of 

Antipater was governor over the Macedonians, 
Theffalians and Tnracians, under Alexander, as B. 
10. C. 4. p. 183. and he was alfo made general of 
the army in Europe. Arrian. B. i. in Phot, (in 
Macedonia and Greece Juftin.) Diodorus fays that 
Macedonia with the neighbouring nations were af- 
iign'd to him ; all which amounts to the fame. Dex- 
ippus in Photius, B. 82. reckons up all Macedonia 
and Greece, and the Illyrians and Triballi and Agri- 
ani, and all the other inhabitants of the continent 
(of Europe) over whom he had been conilituted gene- 



ral vwth full and fovereign power by Alexander m hfj 
life-time. The fame author in Eulebius joins his fon 
Caflander with him as his partner in the government. 
Arrian tells us that the regions beyond Thrace, as far 
as the country of the lUynans, Triballi, and Agrians 
extends, and Macedonia it felf, and Epirus as far as 
the Ceraunian mountains, together with all Greece^ 
fell to Craterus and Antipater. The Latin-barbarous 
chronology gives this account; Antipater was ap- 
pointed to rule over Spam, to the river Alyus, and 
the Herculean bounda^. What he means by Snain, 
I cannot comprehend. I am perfwaded he could not 
intend Iberia, tho* I find it fet down in the margin 
by a great editor, who did not fo much value tl^ 
tnfles, as to confider ferioufly of them. Perhaps the 
Greek author faid that ta wvi^ut^ the weilem parts 
of the empire, were affign'd to Antipater, which he 
tranflated Spain, becaufe he found that country was 
fometimes call'd Hefperia. By the river Alyus he 
feems to mean Halys, and by the Herculean bounda- 
ries the pillars of Hercules. The Eufebian tables enu- 
merate the Pontic region among the dominions of 
Antipater, upon what authority I cannot imagine, for 
Cedrenus took it from them ; but Antipater himfelf 
not long after having diftributed the provinces accord- 
ing to his own pleafure, retain'd to himfelf his firfl! 
fovereignty over Europe. Diod. i8. 38. Arrian 1. 9. 

Arcefilaus enjoy'd Mefopotamia, Diodor. Cedre- 
nus. He is call'd Archelaus by Dexippus, erroneouf- 
ly as is fuppos'd : for it is Arcefilaus alfo in Juftin. 
But in Oronus, about the latter end of the 3d book, 
'tis Arcelaus 5 and poffibly it might be Archelaus' 
the fon of Androcles, whom Arrian mentions. 3. 6. 6, 

Archon had Babylonia, according to Diodorus, from 

whom a moft corrupt paiTage in Juftin may be refli- 

fied, where almofl all is confounded and mifplac*d, 

as wc fhall fee prcfently. Here then we ought to 

M 5 read 


ready Archon the Polla^an (for fo Orofius calls jiim} 
obtainM the government over the people of Babylon. 
This was certain in refpedl of the province of Baby- 
lon, that it fell to Arcnon, and not to Peuceftes, to 
whom the ignorant copifb afcrihe the people of Baby- 
lon, leaving out the Per£ans. That he was call'd the 
Pellsean from his cpuntry, is but a conje^re. It was 
commonly wrote Archos the Ptiafgiaii, as tho' the 
name of the ^rfbn were Arcbos, and the Ptl^ 

that 3ie name of his country was added, and that this 
.Archon was a Mace4onJan bom in Pella i which 
opinion is corroborated }iy a re^ark^ble paifage of 
Arrian. 3. lo. Archon fon of Climas^ Deii^onicus {09 
ofAthenaeus, &:c. Thefe were Pella^ans. It cannot 
reafonably be believ'd that the perfpn here iboken of 
was different from our Archon, therefore the whole 
pafTage in JufBn ought to be rei^ored in this manner. 
Amyntas had the Baflriaas affign'd him, Philip the 
Sogdiatis, the Parthians, Phrataphcmes the 
Hyrcanians, Tlepolemus the Armenians, JPeuceiles 
the Periians, Archon the Pellaeah the Babylonians^ 
Arccfilaus Mefopotamia* Thus every one may per- 
cerve it ou^ht alib to be amended in Oro£us. 

One Aridaeus, according to Arrian and Diodorus, 
was confHtuted governour of Phrygia by Antipater,, 
after he liad tranfported the body of Alexander into 
Egypt ; but 'tis plain from many places of I)iodorus 
in his 1 8th book that it was not Aridsus the king, as 
is affirmed in Juftin 1 3. 4. 6. 

Atropates was fet over the greater Media, as Oio- 
fius informs us, by whom he is called Atropatus, but 
by Juftin Acropatos, and by Diodorus erroneoufly A- 
trapes, as Bongarfius obferves. He had been befbie 
nade governor of Media, by Alexander^ (Arrian. 4. 

1^3 1 

f. 1 8".) who made a match between his daughter and 
erdiccas. (Arrian 7. i. 19.) 'Tis a grofs miilake in 
Juftin, and Orolius, to fay that Acropatos was fer 
over the greater Media, the father-in-law of Perdiccai 
over the leffer. Whereas leaving out the lefler it 
would ftand rightly thus, Acropatos, the father-in-law 
of Perdiccas, was fet over the greater Media. 

Caflander fon of Antipater was fent into Caria. 
Curtius, iDiodorus, Juftin. Orofius, Arrian B. i. in 
Phot. For in the oth book and in the extrafl of 
Dexippus he is fality nam'd Aiander, ais Andreas 
Schottus obferves. The Latin-barbarous author feems 
to aim at Caria^s being beftow'd upon CaiTander, tho' 
he exprefles himfelf very inconiiftently and improper- 
ly. Cedrenus gives him Lycia towards the Hdle- 
fpont, or as it ftwuld rather be read Lycia and the 
Hellelpont, as it is in the Eufebian tables. Juftin alio- 
when he mentions him {peaks of his commanding the 
king's life-guards, which poflibly he nwght do after- 
wards, and Juftin might not refer it to its proper time; 
For he was appointed general of the horfe by his fa- 
ther (Arrian. 1. 9.) and upon his death enjoy 'd the 
kingdom of Macedonia : on which account 'tis pro- 
bable that Dexippus in Eufebius fuppofed that he was 
his father*s colleague in that government. Cleomenes 
was added to Ptolemy, to be invefted by hin in the 
government of the province of Egypt, which had been* 
aflign'd to Ptolemy. (Juftin) For the charge of build- 
ing Alexandria had been committed to Cleomenes,. 
not as an architedl, (in which refpeft he is wrongfully 
confounded with Dinocrates) but as a lieutenant, or 
rather, as our author relates, B. 4. 8. 5. as treafurcr 
of the revenues of Africa, and Egypt : and as fome 
things in Juftin may admit of a difpute, Dexippus 
may very properly explain what the other deli vers >fb 
oblcurely. Clemones who was preferr'd to this fa- ^ 
trapy (of Egypt) by king Alexander^ was appointed 
M 6 a$ 


as a vicegerent to Ptolemy. Which Arrian alfo con- 
£rni3. Paufanias reports that he was afterwards put 
to death by Ptolemy for fevouring the intereib of 

Clitus received Lydia fix>m Andpater (Arrian. I. 9. 
Diodor. x8. 39.) who could be no other than that 
haughty fpark in Plutarch in his 2d (nation of the 
fbrtone of Alexander, whom we read of in the 8th 
book of this hiilory ; which alfo Jufiin confirms, 
when he fays the care of the navy was devohr*d upon 
Clitusy for then he |ain*d the naval vidlory of which 
Phitarch and Juftin fpeak. See Diodor. 18.^72. 

Craterus the fon of Alexander, of that part of 
Macedonia calPd Oreftis (Arrian indie. io» 12.) had 
been feiit into Europe by Alexander's order, to be 
governor of the Macedonians, TheiTalians andThra- 
dans, as in B. 10 ; but the king dying in the interim, 
he was conftituted keeper of the roysd treafure, ( Juf- 
tin) and the care of Macedonia and the neighbouring 
realms were recommended to him, together with An- 
tipater, (Arrian) and he was alfo mvefted in the 
office of guardian of the kingls perfon (DexippusJ 
Eumenes Ton of Hieronymus a Cardian (Arrian Ind. 
3. i2.)inL. Ampel. erroneoufly call'd Carduenus, 
had Cappadocia and Paphkgonia, with injundUons that 
he fhould defend that country as -& as Trapezus, 
and (hould make war with Ariarathes, who alone re- 
fused to become fubjeft to the Macedonians,, and re- 
tain'd his royal authority while Alexander was em- 
ploy 'd in dillant expeditions ; (Curtius) for fo it ought 
to be read, by inferting a coigundtion after the verb 
defenderet (which alfo Sigonius reftor'd in Livy from 
the manufcripts ;) the province of the Bruttii was de- 
creed to both,andthat they (hould make war with Han- 
nibal. That it ought to be Ariarathes and not Arba- 
tes, is manifeft from Plutarch in his life of Eumenes, 
c. 5. Arrian, Dexippos, Diodor. 1. 3. andAppian's 


[ *5 I 

Mithridat. The Latin-barbarous author tells us that 
Paphlagonia in Cappadocia had Eumenes the fcribe 
for king. Juftin fays the fame, but the additions to 
Eufebius afcribe to him only Cappadocia, with which 
Cedrenus as ufually concurs; afterwards Perdiccas 
added the Carians, Lycia and Phrygia to his king- 
dom (JuD;in 13. 6. 14.] 

Laomedon the Mitylenaean had Syria with Phenicia 
(Curtius, Diodor. Juilin, Orof. Dexipp. Arrian.} 
from whence he was driven afterwards by Ptolemy. 
Diod. 18. 43. Appian. Mithrid. Although Anti« 
pater feems to have confirm^ his fatrapy to him in 
the other divifion related by Arrian. I. 9. 

Leonnatus the fon of Eunus a Pellaean (Arrian. Ind« 
3. 12.) obtained the leffer Phrygia adjoyning to the 
Hellefpont. (Curtius, Juftm, Diodor. Arrian. Dix- 
ipp ) Probus in Eumenes, Perdiccas fet him over that 
part of Afia which lies between mount Taurus and 
the Hellefpont : the additions to Eufebius, Paufanias's 
Attics. Appian's Syriads. The latin-barbarous writer 
thus, 'Tis faid that Leon reign'd over Pontus, which 
mufl be underflood of the Heuefpont. 

Lyfimachus fon of Agathocles a Pellxan (Arrian. 
indie. 3. 12.) was directed topofleis Thrace and the 
Pontic countries bordering upon Thrace (Curdtts, 
Diodor. Cedrenus) the country which fies to the 
right when one fails over the Euxine fea. Dixippus 
in Eufebius, for in Photius he afiigns him Thrace, 
and Cherfonefus, as Arrian adds^ as far as Salmyde- 
fus a city on the Euxine fea. , 

Meleager the fon of Neoptoleinus (Arrian. 5. 2. 
24.) according to Curtius and Arrian, he was flain 
before the divifion was made» which I am cnclin'd 
to believe : for Perdiccas could not have had fo abfo- 
lute a power had he been alive 5 'tis no wonder there- 
fore that writers difagree about the province that fell 
to his (hare ; when none could be conferred uDon 



ium after his deceafe. Cedrenus with the Euf^iaa 
additions give him Pai^ilagcxua i Dicxtorus, Lydiai 
the Latin-barbarous author Coeld^ria and Phoenicia. 

Menander was fent into Lydia (Curtiusy Jufiin» 
Dexippus, Arrian) or rather was ordered to return to 
that command which Alexander had honoured him 

Nearchus fon of Androtimus a Cretan (Arrian. 
Indie. 3. 12.) enjoy'd Lycia and Pamphilia. (Juftin.) 

Ncoptolemus of the race of the iEacidac. (Arrian. 
II. c. II.) was appointed over Carmania, (Dexippus) 
but I queftion whether it ought not more truly to be 
read Armenia, from Plutarch's life of £umenes, ch. 
7. although 'tis even uncertain what his name was. 
Tleoptolemus, according to the emendation of Juftin^ 
was made ruler of the Armenians, though the manu- 
fcript read alfo Neoptolemus. But in Diodorus and 
Arrian. 1. 9. Tleptolemus is the perfon who was made 
ruler of Uarmania; we ihall Ipeak of the name 

Nicanor is nam'd in Juftin, and yet the manufcripts 
of that author very much perplex the matter, from 
lyhence you may make out any other fooner than 
Nicanor. Nay, diey feem to exprefs the name of one 
Stagnor, to whom he fays the Parthians were com- 
mitted, the 41. B. 5. I . but in the other partition. An- ' 
tipater gave Cappadocia to one Nicanor. (Arrian. 1. 9. 
Diodor. 18. 39. Appjan of the Mithrid. War.) 
There was another Nicanor, viz. Seleucus call'd alfo 
Nicanor, upqn his marching to Babylon and fubduing 
the Barbarians (Cedrenus.) But we have no concern 
with him at prcfent. 

Oropius poiTefs'd part of Sogdiana (Dexippus.) 

Oxyartes, or Oxathres the father-in-law of Alex- 
ander, got Ba6lriana (the Eufebian Addit. Cedrenus) 
the Parapamifadae, fays Diodorus, 19. 14. who alfo 
makes hun the king of the Ba^lrians. The Latin-bar- 



barous writ^ ia^ Qx^dareus was appointed to rc%n 
over Parapamifodu^* So alfo Dexippus, Arnan» and 
Juilin, if you read him thus. Ootyartes had the Ruia* 
pamiiads which boonid mount CaacaTus, which Bon- 
gariius perceived from Diodoros. 

Perdiccas foi> of Crontes a Macedonian of Otfs&k 
(Arrian. indie. 3. 12.) diyidine the emjpire at his will 
(Curt. Arrian^ Appian, }ii$i^ ^lua'dto himfelTthe 
office of atteodine upon the king and commanding 
the forces that fcSlow^d the king, that is, of being 
king himfelf (Curtius) whence he was fuppos'd tot 
have obtain'd the kingdom of Macedon, bv Cedrenus 
and Jornandes in hie Get. c. )0. who alio adds the, 
government of Athens ; and hecaufe of this power 
Arrian and Diodorus make him the king's deputy. 
The Latin-barbarous writer calls him Generali^imo. 
Dexippus in Eufebius places him over the greater 
Phrygia, if that be really an extract from Dexippus^ 
for in Photius he concurs with Arrian. 

Peucedas fon of Alexander a Mizsean. (Arrian a- 
mended indie, x. 11.) who was made chief go vemour 
of Perils by Alexander, (Arrian. 6. 5* i.) continued 
in that province. (Diodor. JulUn amended) the Latin- 
barbarous writer, he (Perdiccas) gave all Perils to 
Percus. Antipater alfo coniirm'd him in this com- 
mand. (Arrian. B. 9.) 

Philip was appointed over Dragsena (Cedrenus) or 
rather Drangiana, as in the Eufebian additions which. 
Cedrenus feems to follow ; 'tis Drangine in Diodorus^ 
tho' Drangaene in Cedrenus. Diodorus gives Baclri- 
ana and Sogdiana to Philip,, whom the Latin-bati)arous 
calls the left, he beftow'a the dominion of Togdiam'a 
(he means Sogdiana) upon Philip the lefs. With 
whom agree both Dexippus and Juilin,. if you read, 
Philip had for his part the Sogdians, Stagnor the Par- 
thians, Phratafernes the Hyrcanians, &c. Which read* 
ing will as. well reconcile tliat audior to himfelf, as 

X other 


other hiftorians ; But if we chafe to join the Faithi- 
ans with Philip, we may refer it to idie fature divifion 
made by Antipater in Arrian. B. 9. 

Philo had the lUyrians. (Juftin, Orofius) Cedrenns, 
and the Eufebian addit. allot him Media. Bat other 
hiftorians will convince as that Plthon ought to have 
been wrote inilead of Philo ; for they don't mention 
any Philo. So that he is fcarce to be connted among 
the captains of Alexander, upon the fingle authority 
of Tufnn» and that liable to me fufpicion of being a 
hife reading. 

Philotas got Phrygia as far as die Hellefpont at firft 
(Diodor. 18. 12.) am afterwards Cilicia. (Curt. Ar- 
nan, Diodor. Dexip. Jaftin, Oros.) The Latin-barba- 
rous fays, he (Perdiccas) decreed to Philo, Cilicia and 
Ifiiuria, and aUdiat thofe traAs contain. This province 
was taken from him not long after, (Juflin. B. 13. 6. 
16.) on account of his fiienddiip for Antigonus, as 
may be confider*d from JDiodorus 1 8. 62 ; but he 
was placed over Qilicia. Philoxenus (Juftm) it was he 
I fuppofe who was made lieutenant of the fea-coaft un- 
der Alexander. (Plutarch, c. 37.) Antipater con- 
firmed him in that province. (Arrian B. 9.) 

Phrataphemes was governor of Hyrcania under 
Darius. (Arrian. 3. 27.) he farrendred him- 
felf to Alexander, as our author relates, B. 6. by 
whom he was reinflated in his command. B. 8.71. 
where inftead of the Mardi and Tapuri, 'tis probable 
we ought to read the Parthians, from the forecited 
paffage of Arrian, and Cedrenus, who fays that Par- 
thiaand Hyrcania fell to him in this diftribudon of the 
povinces ; but 'tis certain, that he was only continued 
in the government he had before, and that no new 
acceffion was made to it. And this both Diodoros 
and the Eufebian additions confirm. Juftin and Dex- 
ippus affign him only Hyrcania, and in the latter he 
is corrapdy nam'd Radaphemes. 


Pithon fon of Agenor, whofe name is often alfo 
wrote with a y ; of whom the^ Latin-barbarous ipeaks 
after this manner, he enjoin 'd that India from Indus 
extending to the river Hydafpes fhould be the do- 
minion Sf Python, which may be interpreted fix)m 
Dexippus. One Pithon (the fon of Agenor, for he 
had before fpokeof the fon of Crateas) roPd over the 
countries bordering upon them (meaning Porus and 
Taxiles) excepting the Parapamiladx. (Juftin, Oro-** 
iius.) Pithon tne fon of Agenor was fent to the colo- 
nies fettled in India ; in which place of Juftin they 
confound hrai with the other Pithon. His portion 
was alfo confirmed by Antipater (Arrian. B. 9!) thofe 
coafts of India which join to the Parapamifadae were 
given to Pithon the fon of Agenor j for they had been 
delivered to him by Alexsmder himfelf (Arrian. 6. 

3- 9-) 

Pithon the fon of Crateas or Cratevas an Alcome* 
naean, (Arrian. Indie. 3. 1 1. who alfo makes him an 
Eordaean. 6. 5. 9. Diodorus, a Parthian, 19. 14. btt 
it ought rather to be wrote a Parthinian, of which na- 
tion Appian makes mention in his Illyric wars, and 
whom Reineccius cites in the kingdom of lUyria) 
was ordered to take Media. (Curtius, Diodor. Dex- 
ippus and Arrian, in both the places juft mentioned.) 
Againft whom, the authority of Cedrenus and the 
Eufebian additions, who aflign him Phrygia.and Ly- 
dia, are of little weight, or that of the Latm-barbaroos 
writer, who feems to allow him Syria as far as Mefo- 

Porus retain*d his kingdom. (Juftia, Orofius by 
implication, and Dexippus exprefly) Arrian eives the 
reafon, B. 9. of the next Satrapies, that which lies 
upon the river Indus and the city of Palala, which is 
the principal of that India, came into the hands of 
king Porus ; but that which lies upon the river Hydaf- 
pes was given to Taxilas who was alfo an Indian, it 


t 3®! 

not being fca£ble to difplace them^becaofe bemg ad- 
▼anc'd to empire: by Akauuider himfdf they bad ac- 

2uir*d a fufficient degree of power to maintain tbem- 
slves in their dignity ; which we may conceiye of 
other rulers of provinces, who were almoft always 
cftablifhed in their firft aaihority. (SeeDiodor. 18.39.) 
Ptolomaeus fon of Lagus an Eordsan, (Arrian. 6. 
5. 9.) commander in chief of the nations of Egypt 
andf thofe of Africa, which had fabmitted to the Ma- 
cedonian yoke. Cedrenus, the Eufebian addidons, 
JulHn, Orofius, Conftantine, ManaileSy Diodoms, 
JDexippus, and Arrian in both places, fay alnic^ the 
fame thing. The Latin-barbarous writer tells us, he 
.^Perdiccasj gave .^gypt and the country that fur- 
rounds it as far as ue upper Lybia, to Philip who 
was call'd Ptolemy ; which he repeats a little after. 
To Ptolemy, who was call'd the fon of Philip, for wc 
have feen that he was reputed to have been begotten 
by that king, B. 9. p. 15c. Antipater confirmed his 
portion alfo ; for if he had intended it, he wouid 
Icarce have been able to wreil: it from one of fudbi vafl 
power. (Diodor. 18. 39. Arrian. B. 9.) 

Scytbeus is publilh'd in the copies of JufUn, but 
the place is corrupted, nor will any one, I believe, 
be able to p-oduce a perfon of that name among the 
officers in Alexander's army. 

Seleucus the fon of Antiochus (Juftin ic. 4. 3.) en- 
joy'd Syria and Babylon. - (Cedrenus, the Eufebian 
additions, Dexippus, Latin-barbarous, Appian.) Bat 
Arrian, and Diodorus 18. 3. 9. inform us, diat it 
was not thus ordered until the fccond diviiion : tho' 
L. Ampelius afcribes it to the firft, and yet in fad 
Archon had acquir'd the Babylonians of Perdiccas, 
as was fhown above, and in this diftribution he was 
made general of the cavalry of tlie allies, which Hae- 
pheflion firfl; enjoy'd and afterwards Perdiccas, and 
which was a pofl of the higheft honour. He is called 


[ 3« 1 

commander of the horfe of the ^ Appian and 
Dlodorus, (fee alfo Dexippus and Arrian on this fiib- 
je6t) and therefore JufUn mterprets his office, the tri- 
Dunefhip of the camp. Afterwards begioniDg fhim 
Babylon he held the kingdom of Perfis, and encreas'd 
his empire prodigioufly (Marcellin. 14. 26,] fo as that 
he reign'd over more nations than any fingle perfon 
after Alexander, (Appian's Syriacs.) 

Sibyriius, call'd by Diodorus 19. 14. Sibyritus, got 
Arachofia and Gedrofia. (Diodor. Dexippus, Juwn) 
the Latin-barbarous writer informs us, that Siberia was 
appointed to rule over Arachu£a and Ccdrufia, and 
Antipater confirmed him in his fovereignty. (Arrian. 
B. 9.) Antigonus gave him the command of the Ar- 
gyrafpidae who betray'd Eumenes. (Plutarch's life of 
Eumenes, c. 34) for Bongarfius upon Juflin in this 
place reminds us, that it ought to be read Sibertius 
mftead of Ibertius. He was before advanc-d to the 

fovernment of thefe countries by Alexander. (Curtius 
L 9. p. 164.) 

Staiander a Cypriot obtained Aria and Drangina 
from Antipater. (Diodor. 19. 14. Arrian.) which he 
pbffefs'd before. 

Scafanor a Solian of the fame country, (Diodorus, 
Dexippus, Juftin.) who afterwards received Baflria 
and Sogdia at the hands of Antipater. (Arrian. Diodo* 
rus.) The Latin-barbarous writer impofes Arabia upon 
us inllead of Aria, who aiTures us be gave all Arabia 
to Stafanor. 

Taxiles retain'd his (bvereignty, as well as Porur. 
Tlcpolemu3 ion of Pytophanes, held Carmania by 
the donation of Alexander. (Arrian. 6. 5, i.) Where- 
fore Cedrenus caufekfly confers Perils upon him, an4 
is to blame in calling him Tripolemus afler the Eufe- 
bian additions. For *tis evident from Diodorus that 
Pcrdiccas affign'dhim Carmania. The Latin-barbarous 
writer alfo mentions Germania, that is C^mania, as 


Tripolemas's portion ; but Denjppas confers it cm 
Neoptolemus ; but *tis apparent mm what has been 
fakl, that the name is minaken. by both of them, as 
mieht be farther proved fiom Anian in Photms B. g. 
and Diodorus 1 8. 39. where we find his title to this 
province aflured by Antipater : and yet he is call'd 
rolemon by the fame Diodorus, 19. 14. after all 'ds 
hard to diftinguifh between Carmania die province of 
Tlepolemus, and Armenia which fell to Neoptolemus, 
the names of the men and places bdng fo liable to be 
confounded by the likenefs of the found. 

Thus you have an account of the chie^ among 
whom the branches of that vaft empire were divided : 
but for a more full information of this moft confider- 
able event, we ihall recite the provinces in the fame 
alphabetical order, and the perfons to whom they 
were deliver'd. Which tho' it be an unpleafant tafk, 
and requires a good deal of labour (for (baitnefs of 
time is generally the ^ complaint of one that has it to * 
lofe) yet for the fake of pofterity, and the advantage 
which may be perceiv'd to refult from it, we have 
freely fubmitted to it. Only it muft be remembred 
that the greateft part of thefe feparate provinces in a 
little time were fwallowed up in a few ^reat kinfi;dom8, 
as that of Macedonia poiTefled by Antipater, Afia by 
Andgonus, Egypt by Ptolemy, Syria by Scleucus, 
Thrace by Lyfimachus, and India bv Sandrocottus, 
who far furpafs'd the reft of their fellow-foldio^ in 
power, and the length of their lives. 

iEgypt therefore, which was entrufted to feveral 
lieutenants by Alexander, (Curdus B. 4. p. 226.) was 
wholly committed to Ptolemj^ after his death, whofe 
defcendants reignM there until the davs pf Augufhis. 

Africa, as far as it had been fubdu^d, was alfo 

given to Ptolemy ; of whofe family Ptolemy fumam*d 

Apion bequeathed the kingdom of Cyrene, which he 

2 poflefs^dy 

[ 33 ] 

poflefsM, by will to the people of Rome. (Juftm. 39, 
5- 2.) 

The Agrians were enjoined to rubmlt to Cratenis 
and Antipater. After the death of Cratenis, they toge- 
ther with the other augmentations of the Macedonian 
kingdom came under ue fole dominion of Antipater. 

Arabia, as far as Alexander's conquefts reach'4 was 
alloted to Ptolemy ; yet, as Appian avers, Seleucua 
poffeis'd the greatdk part of it. 

' Arachofia was long under the jurifdifUon of Sibyr* 
tius ; but afterwards was annexed to Seleucus's terri- 

The region of Arbelitis, according to Diodoros, 
18. 39. and Arrian, was delivered to Amplimacu0» 
butioon after it came under fubje£Uon to Seleucus^ 
together with the adjacent ^vinces. 

Aria was firft given bv rerdiccas to Staianor ; af- 
terwards it was piit uhaer the dominion of Staian- 
der. There was about 'two years interval between 
tfiefe diviiions. 

Armenia, as JufHn deems to relate, fell to Tlepto- 
lemus, or rather to Neoptolemus, as we fhowM un- 
der that article ;- in procefs of time that kingdom alfi> 
fubmitted to Seleucus. (Appian.) 

Alia called the lefs almoft entirely own'd Anti^* 
nus for its lord, of which he was appointed the m- 
^ fpe<5tor and adminiftrator, (Appian) as did alfo Aflyria 
for a while. For which reafon die anonymous au- 
thor in Eufebius believM that it was aifign'd to him 
upon the firft diftribution. 

Archon feems to have held Babylon at firfl, but 
Seleucus pofTefs'd himfelf of it foon after, and glori- 
oufly recovered it after it had been invaded by Anti- 

The further Batoa, as Juftin (ays, kept its fonxler 
governors, which Curtius and Arrian connrm. Among 
whom Oxatfares or Oxyartes the fiither-in-law of Alex- 


tnderxvas natoft ctmfidertbfe, to whoiA fbirie give th« 
title of king of the Badrians. Therefore we muff 
uild^rftand the hither Baftria to be intended, when 
we are told either that Philip^ or Amynta^ or S{aia- 
nor was invefted with the fdverdgnty oTthat country 
by the Macedonians. Seleucus is reported to' have 
afterwards made himfelf miafter of 'the' whble. 

Cappadocia was ^veh td Rumehesy or lat&erltrta- 
larly conferrM upon him^ for it was t&en^ in the ene- 
mies power (Ftobus) namely Ariarathres, who being 
(lain, when Eunlenes alfo was proclaimed ah* enemy 
by the Macedonians, one Nicanor was fet over that 
province, after it* was wrefted from the odier.' In the 
end Seleucus became mafter of It. 

Carilwas ailignM to CalTander, (Dibdorus i8. 3.) 
and foon after to Eumenes (JuKHh 13. 6'. 14.) of 
which* together with his life he was di^riv'd by Ahd- 

Carmania, fifft granted to Tlepolemus, feems fooft 
after to have been added to the dominions of Seleucus. 

Cherfonefus together with Thrace was fubjefl to 
L'yfimachus. (Dcxippus. Amanus.) 

Cilicia a country of very large extent feems to 
have been divided into fevcral parts, of which Anti- 

fonns got that which lies towarci Phrygia, unlefs there 
e a miftake in the writing of Dexippus and others, 
as I before fuggefted ; we may more truly afEm), 
that the whole was firlt beftow'd on Philotas, and foon 
afterwards on Philoxenus, and in the conclufion Seleu- 
cus reduc'd it under his fubjcdion. 

Drangiana according to fome accounts fell to Phi- 
lip ; but more and better writers aifign it to Sta(anor, 
who is caird Statanor by Juftin ; in die other divifion 
it was difpos'd of to Stafimder. 

Epirus with Macedonia belong'd to Antipater. 
Sibyrtius had Gedrofia. 

Greece came to Antipater, and afterwards to Poly- 


perchoft. (Jiftm 13. 6; 9.) but btcaufeit was fiirrar- 
der'd by Antipater to his fbn Caffander; Dexippus in 
Eufebius, and the Latin-barbarous writer were induc'd 
to think it had been originally granted to the iatter. 

Hyrcania remained under Phrataphemesr, ^o be- 
ing either expeilM, or dead, it was annexed to Seleu- 
cus's dominions. The Latin-barbaroTis writer ground- 
lefl^^ afcribes it to-'Atitigonus. 

Thte IlPfrians ftem'in JufHti*to havrbcetf patxindet* 
the authority of one Philo ; but thiwread&gls torrnpt ^ 
'tis undoubted that they, together with" Macedonia, 
continued fubjcft to Antipater. 

India forthe moftpart obey*d Taxilds and Pdm^ 
with the addition of fome othtar countries; which dra* 
not before belong to thbir dominions. 'Tis certain" 
that Pithon the fon* of A^nor fafeld the provinces con* 
tiguous to the Parapamifadse; that is, the cdonies 
planted in India as Juftin' explains it. Alexander's 
own fettlements, as Strabo callsr them, B. 15. and he 
relates that they were afterwards difpos'd of by Scleu^ 
cus to Sandrocottus, who at this time poffefs'd the 
largeft realm of India. (Juftin 15. 4. Appian.) Arrian 
calls him Sandocontus. 5. i. 25. 

Ifauria accofding'to the account of thc-Latki-bar- 
barous writer was decreed to Philotas with Cilicia« 
And the neighbouring fituation of thefe countries 
makes it probable. 

Lycaonia was given to Antigonus. Arrian B. g. 
and the adjoining provmce of Lyfia ; which Cedrcnas, 
and the Eufebian additions, in vain reckon in Caf- 
fander's fliare, and Juftin allots to Nearchus. Pfer- 
diccas being dcfirous to force it from Antigomis,^ 
pafs'd it away to Eumenes, but the former prevailed 
and kept it. 

Lydia is by many given to Menander, by Dioda* 
ru8 to Mcleager, by the Eufebian additions and Ce- 


* [36] 

drenus to Pythoa. It fell into the Iiands of Antigt* 
. nus upon die exoulfion of Clitos, to ^n^m Antipater 
had committed Uie government of it. 

Macedonia was £fpos*d of to Crateras» and Anti« 
pater, under whofe power it continuM after the deadi 
of the former. He tranfmitted it to Caflander, to 
whom for that reafon it was reported to have been 
affign'd, by Dexippus in Eufebius and Appian. Ce- 
drenus who confers it on Perdiccas, and the Latin-bar- 
barous writer who gives it to Andaeus, do not mean 
the land of Macedonia, but the rule of the empire. 

Media was committed to Atropates by the autho- 
rity of Alexander, who afterwards, by reafon of his 
affinity with Perdiccas, became more potent than he 
could have been of himfelf ; therefore although Pi- 
dion was appointed over Media^, yet Atropates fiift 
by the penmflion of the Macedonians, and afterwards 
in fpite of them, retained part of it, which was call*d 
from him Atropatia. (Strabo B. 1 1.) Seleucus after- 
wards pofleis'd the refl, having deiboyed Nicanor, 
Antigonus*s lieutenant, according to Appian. 

Mefopotamia, after Arceiilaus and Amphimachos, 
had Bliter for its governor, by the appointment 
of Antigonus, but m the end it became iubjeA to 
Seleucus. ^ 

Palacftine in the Eufebian additions is Veckon'd as 
part of Antigonus*s ihare. But *tis manifeft from Jofe- 
phus, and others, it obey'd Ptolemy, together with 
the adjacent part of Syria ; yet Antigonus had expell'd 
his earrifons ; (Appian.) and for a long time the do- 
mimon thereof was conteiled between the kings of 
Syria of the race of Seleucus, and the Ptolemys of • 

Pamphylia was affign'd to Antigonus, who main- 
tained it againil: Eumenes. 

Paphlagonia and Cappadocia had the fame maflers. 

^he Parapamifadse were commitu^l to Ojcyartes, 



ft (3m whom they feem to have been taken by Saniirorj 
cottus. ... 

Partlik was put into the hands of PhraJtaphernes,* 
afterwards it was deliver^ to Philip, or according «to 
J iftin to Stagnor. At laft it. fell to Seleucus. 
Patala was beftow'd on Porus. (Arrian. B. 9,)., . 
Perfis as fome pretend was the"portioi\«6f I'npolc-^ 
mas (they feeiri to mean Tlepolemus) bat the mpre 
judicious confer it onPeucelle;. j afterwards it b^c^niiq.' 
fubjedl to Seleucus, wjth all the coahtricsth^t ehcom-, 
pafs it. . ■ 

Phenicia with Syria^ and probably PalaelUne, fell 
to Laomedon^s (hare. (See Syria.) 

Antlgonus enjoy'd the greater Phrygia, and Leon-' 
natus that which lies upon the HellefpoHt^ There are, 
fome that give it to IJythoh, Call^naer,; Perdiccas or 
Philotas, whom I fuppofe miftakeii j Perdiccai after-' 
v^aris added it to Eumeiies's lot, but A'adgonas being 
mora potent ret: i \'d it. After Leonnatus \yas dead, 
Pontus for the moft part undoubtedly appertained to 
Lyfimachus, for whom fome wrhcrs feem to have" 
fallly inferted Antipater, or Leonnatus ; yet Eumene^ 
held fome part of it. The. limits of: each may be 
learnt from Curtius, Dexippiis ^nd Aman. " " 

Sogdiana was firil beftow'd on Philip, or Amynta*,' 
and then on Stafanor. Bat Dexippus invells Oropius*' 
with this commahd, a man unknown to all oihcr 
hiilorians. At laft Seleucus fci//d upon it. 

SifiJina, after Perdiccas's death, was conferr*d on 
Antigenes (the comma«derof the- Argyrafpitise) a*ii 
resvardofhis fervices by Antipater. (Arrian. B. 9.) 
* for whom by an evident miilake 'tis read in Diodorus 
iS. 30. .\ntigonas. A like error to which we have 
corroded in Curtius B. 8. p. 114. DioJorus himfelf 
ipeaki of the fatrapy of Antigciies, i3. 62. V/e may 
gather from Plutarch, that he was a Pellcenxan ;of 
the fortune of Alexaad. 2. i^. 16,) nnlelV pcr'iHp^ 

\'oi. n. N wc 

we ouj^t to read Pellaean. The &me pedm wei t^9 
to be mention'd by that author iri the life of Alex- 
ander, C. 120. 

Syria was decreed to Laomedon, Whom Ptolemy 
dirpofTefs'd, but was himfelf again driven out by 
Anti^onns. At feogth S^leucus made hUmfelf entirely 
mafter of it, to whom therefore Dexippus in Euiebi- 
us, with Oedienus, believed it to have been irnme- 
dkitely dSfposM of. The Latin-barbaroos writer divides 
it between Python and Meleager, but it does not ap- 
pear diat he had any authority for ft. 

The Tapyri, after the lofs of their Satraps, toge- 
ther with the PardihosaBd Hyrcanians, iellto. Sdeu- 
cus. (Appian.) 

Thracia indeed was aHotted to Lyiunachus, who 
alfo poffefs'd himfelf of a peat part of it j yet there 
fiill remain*d fome free nations with their lungs, by 
one of which, calkd Seutha, he was taken pnfoner. 
(Plutarch, Apothegm, c 49.) for he was flain as 
Arrian feems to wnte. So that fince that hiflorian 
himfelf fiequently makes mention of him aft^rwaids, 
it is evident that the word «ynf »S)i muft fignify ^was de- 
f^atedi 2aid not ^iitd., 

^hc Triballi with Macedonia fubmitted to Anti- 




Radcrus'i To^&i ^f the Divifion if Afejc- 
ander'j Empire timongfl his Followers. 

TH E authors who wrote of the tranfaftions after 
Alexander's death were Diodorus in his i &:h 
book, Dexippus, and Arrian in Photiu5, andjuftinia 
fats 1 3 til book ; lafHy, we have the prophecies of Da- 
niel, iMxl foRie palTages in the beginning of tke Mac- 
cabees, l^is divifioti we ftiall fet down in table.% 
daat «vory thing may appear more plainly, whicb 
Andreais Sdhoftus cotn^os^ and publim*d in his tran- 
iUtioft -of Ph^tius, ^ wnick we ^all adjoin (orai 
odien Maitted by ^Sdtottus; and in the firft plac^ 
Adl ]»<opofe^at^Ciirtiu8, next of Dkxiorus Sicn- 
kn^ then tlhde ^ ^exippas^ Arrian, Juilin and 

The afiignment of kingdoms and provinces ac- 
cording to Curtii??. 
The King "J THie Tupream commaiid. 
Ptolemy ^STP^ ^^'^ ^ nationt of Afrfcft 

mat were fubduM 






Lyiunachus | 


Sjjnm with Phasnicia. 



Lysoia f^ith Pamphylia and 

greater Bhrygia. 
Phrygia'the Lcfs bordering on the 

Cappadocia with Paphlagcmia t» 

Thracia and the Pontic kingdoms 

adjoining to it. ^ 

The chief command of the 

Forces which attended upoa 

the king. 
N 2 The 

'Die partition according to Diodorus Siculus, wk« 
irttrciiitcs it in thi« manner : Thie Maccdpnians hav- 
i'tjir choicn Meleagcr their leader, advancM under 
arms a<;ainit ihole that opposed their demands, and 
when the king's guards xrarchin^ cut of Babylon pre- 
par'd tiicnifeives for battle, uiey wh»o were moil 
cliecm'd by them prevailed upon both fides to come 
to an agreement, and immediately they chofe Aridacus 
the Ton of Philip, who had alfo taken the name of 
Pliilip, their king, and appointed Perdiccas, to whom 
r^c kinp had delivered his ring at his death, admini- 
ftrator of the kingdom, ind ^pjoin'd the chief of 
Alexander's friends and coqiQianders to take the 
charge of thp provinces, and to yield an obedience to 
the king, and Perdiccas j who having- obtained the 
fupream power, and calling a council of the principal 
olficers, deiermln'd as follows : 

Ptolemy . .-. 







Aridaeus the Jd^g* 


Paphlkgonia and Cappa- 
docia and the adjacent 
In Afia regions, 

i^committed^ Pamphylia and Lycia, and 
to I Phrygia the Great. 

Phrygia towards Hellef- 
L pout. 

In Euroft 
he com- 
mitted to 


To the other commaiMlers the reft of the the pro^ 

vinces of Aiia. 
To Oxyartes "J Indiaand C Caucafus and the Para- 
Father-in-law f the pro- I pamiiadas. 
to Alexand/er f vinces I 
the Great. [that lay j 

To Sibyrtius I next to I Arachofia and Gedrofia. 
To Stafaoor^Solino* J India. (^ Ariana and Drangianae. 

Philip thePraetor!) j^Baftrianai and Sogdiani. 

Phrataphemes ' Parthia and Hyrcania. 

JPjeuceiies Perfis. 

Tlepolemus Carmania*. 

Atrapas ' Media, 

Archon | Babylonia. 

Arcefilaus I MefopOtamia. 

ScleuGus ^ q, J The royal cavalry whicK 

^ *^ H^pheftion formerly 

and afterwards Per-* 
diccas commanded, 

Taxiles and I I Each then- own king-^ 

Forus I domsreftoredtotheni 

by Alexander and^ 
augmented andleft in 
1 their polTeflion. 
The king kept Pterdiccas with him, and made hipr.' 

captain of his guards and general of the forces whick 

&Uowed hi^l. 

The DiviAon of the Eroviiices of the ^mpire of Alex- • 
ander the Great, madejby Perdiccas m Arrian. 
When in the /irft j^e by agreemient between the 

infantry fod cavalry^ 

Antipater ha:d bs^ £on^atod general q£ the army 

in Europe. ' 

Craterus Proteftor of Arklaeus's kingdom. ^ 
Perdiccas commander in chirf of the forces in the 

room of Hsephdtion. Ptplnny 


Ptolemy the fon of Lagus was appointed governor 
of Fg>'pt and Lybia, aad that part of Arabia that lay 
next Jligv'pt. 

As deputy to Ptolemy. 




Cappadocia, Paphlago- 
nia, and the countries 
on the Euxine Sea to 

Pamphylia, Lycia, and 
the Greater Phrygia. 

The Carians. 

The Lydians. 

Phrygia upon the Helle- 







. Wasdi- 
^refted to < 
j govern 

And thus was Afia parted amongft them. 




In Europe, 

"Thrace,Cherfonefus, and 
all the realms adjoin- 
ing to Thrace as far 
as to ^almydeffus up- 
on the Euxine Sea. 
All the countries be- 
yond Thrace as far as 
the Illyrians, Tribal- 
lians and Agriaiis, and 
Macedonia, and aHb 
the realms from E- 
pirus to the Ceraunian 
mountains, and all 

Was di- 
). reded to<^ 



The other divifion of the provinces by Antipater, 
from the fame Arrian, p. 127 

Ptolemy • "• 



Stafanor the So- 

Oxyartes father of 

I^ithoa Ton of A- 

genor . 
Porua the Indian 

TaxUes the 




iSgypt, Lybia, and the defolate 

region which was beyond them. 


Mefopotamia and Arbele. 


The (atrapy of Sufiaaa, 



Media as far as the Cafpian paflagea. 

The country of the Parthians. 

The province of the Arfii and Draa- 

land Sogdia. 

V 'g»J TheArachofi. 
S\ '^^^ ParapamiiadaB. 

The cotintry bordering upon the 

The kingdoms upon the river Indus, 

and the city Patala* 
The provinces upon the river Hy- 

The Cappadocians. 
The greater Phrygia, the LycaonSaw 

the Pampbyluns and Lycians as 

Phrygia upon the HeUefpont^ 

LThe collection of the tribute of (he 

Autolicus fon of Agathoclcs 
Amyntas ion of Aleiander, 

brother to Peuoeftos 
Ptolemy fon of Ptolemy 
Alexander (bo of Polyfpertbon 

iHad the charge of the 
King's perl^. 



JTfae-cottiiiand of the'horft. 

dTAntipater C '^ J '^^ tommnddf tfie'fKCtf ionotAy 

\ t^ (/ S^^ '^ PerdiQMt> and thftlu^** 

The diviflon of the Macedonian tmpiie made )^ Per- 
diccas^ from Dexippus^ p. .i i6» 












AU i£0rpt and l^ybisi, 
mad 3e countf/ l)e- 
ypnd ^ypt. 

The vicfgerency under 

J Media. 
In Afia I C^ppadDcia^Paphlagonia^ 
^therefell^ and the ri^^ivs to- 
to I waitif the Euxipe Sea, 

as far as Tiapszus. 
ThdPan^hylians and Ci- 
licians; as^&ras'Phry- 

The Carians, 
Tne Lydians. 
Phrygia f pon the *ilefle- 
C fpont. 

^Thraceapd Cherfonefus.. 
All the Macedonians, 

Greekjp, lUyrians, Trjl- 

hldlians, Agrians, and 

The hi^ dfice ^fo- 

YcmoT and guatt&p 

to the Jdng. 
The jpgft gf ^%(gs$tfrrir 

formerly enjoy'd by 



In Eu- 
.rope . 



The other Pi- 

Oxyartes the 
Baftrian, the fa- 
ther^ Roxane 

In India 

"Theji people between 
tne river Indus and 
Hydafpes. / 

The reft of the Indians. 

The neighbouring na- 
tions, except the Pa- 

The people at the foot' 
of the mountaia Cau- 
cafus next the Indi- 

Sibyrtius >therc fBU< rpj^^ Arachofians and 


Philip , r 
Peaceftes ' 

The Aral and Drangi. 

The Sogdians. 
The Peifians. 
Part of the Sogdians. 
The Babylonians. 

The partition of the Macedonian provinces^ 
from JufUn, Book XIII. 

Ptolomy • ■ 

Laomedon the 

Phi lotas and his 


Alcetas brother 
of Perdiccas. 

• Received 

Egypt, and part of A- 
fnca and Arabia. 


Cilicia and the Iliyrians. 

The greater Media. 

Media the Lefs. 


Antigonus the 

brother of 



fieleucusthe fon 
of Antiochus 

CafTander the 
fon of And-' 


Pithon the fon 
of Agenor 














t 4* J 

The people of SuCana. 
The Gitater Phrygk. 

Lycia and Pamphylia. 

(■ Caria 
I Thrace (and the countrios 
^ of the Pontic fea, 
^ Caj^iadDcia and Paphk- 
The chief ^nunand of 

the army. 
The command of the 
king'i guards. 

The kiligdoms between 

the livers Indua and 

The colonies planted lA 

The confines of the 

mouAtoiB Caocafts. 
The Argseans. 
The BaSrians. 
The Sogdians. 
The Parthians. 
The Hyrcanians. 
The Armenians. 
The Perfae. 
The Babylonians. 
j ThePclafg*. 


C 47 ] 

Qrofius in the prc&ce to his biAory of the divKton^ 
fkys that the ^^edonian leaders, aflor the death of 
Alexander, having obtained the feveraj provinces, 
deftroy'd thctmfelves by mutual wars ; which moft tu- 
multuous junfture I confider'd, as tho' I were yiew- 
in? from fome eminence by night a prodigious camp, 
wherein through a great tra^l of land I can difceni 
jiothing but a number! efs oiultitude of allies. For (o 
through the whole Macedonian empire^ that is through 
all Aiw, and many parts of Europe, and moft of Li- 
bya, the dreadful flames of war appeared. Which ' 
when they had principally confumM the places in 
which they raged, difquieted all other countries by 
the terror of report, as with the d^knefs of their 
iinoke : but it would be in vain to pretend to explain 
the wars and ruin of fo many great monarchs and 
kingdoms ; unlefs I firft defcribe the kingdoms, and 
the perfons who reign 'd over them. Alexander there- 
fore for twelve years brought the trembling world inr 
to fubjeflion bv the power of the fword, and his 
princes h#rrafs*a it for fourteen years like ravenous 
whelps, tearing the bulky prey, which had been tak- 
en by a mighty lion, and mangled each other while 
they were provoked to quarrel by covetoufnefs of the 
fpoil. In the firft place then Egypt and part of Afri- 
ca and Arabia was allotted to Ptolemy, Laomedon 
jeceiv'd Syria a province bordering upon this. Phi- 
lotas Cilieia, and Philo the lUyrians. Atropatus was 
fet over the Greater Media, the fatheJ-in-law of Par- . 
diccas over the Lefs. The nation of SujQana was aflign'd* 
to Scynus, the greater Phrygia to Antigonus thfs fon 
of Philip. Nearchus obtained Lycia and Pampbilia* 
CaiTander Caria, and Menander Lydia. Leonnatushad 
the lefTer Phrygia ; Thr^cia and die coafts of the Pon- 
tic Tea were given to Lyfimachus ; Cappadocia with 
Paphlagonia to Eumenes ; the chief command of the 
forces tell to Seleucus, the fon of Antiochus ; Caf- 
fander the fon of Antipater was plac*d over the king's 
3 guards 


guards and houlliold troops. The governors which 
were firft made by Alexander in the further Bafb-ia 
and India, continued in their pofts. Taxiles had the 
Seres, lituatcd between the two rivers Hydafpes and 
IndiLs. Pithon, the fonof Agenor, was fent to tlie 
colonies planted in India. The Parapami bordering 
on tlie mountain Caucafus fell to Oxyartes. The Ara- 
chofii and Gcdrofii were delivered to Sibyrtius. Sta- 
iknor had the Drangx and Arei, Amyntas the Baftri- 
ans. Scythxus got the SogdLins, hficanor the Par- 
thians, Philip the Hyrcanians, Plirataphemes the Ar- 
menians, Tlepolomas the Perfians, Peuceftes the Ba- 
bylonians, ArchonthePclafgi, Arce'aiis Mefopotamia. 
The firfl: chapter of the firft book of tlic Maccabees 
mentions no certain number, the 8ih and oth Verfe, 
" and his forv'ants bare rule every one in liis place, 
" and after his death they all put crowns upon them- 
** fche!^; fo did their fons after tliem many years, 
*' and evils were multiplied in the caith. 

Holy Daniel tivj prophet informs us in his writings 
t!iaL the kiii^Join of che king of the Greeks was divid- 
ed into foLir kingdoms, (c. 8.) and llill more clearly 
i.i t!ic fame eight, vcr. 20, 21, 22. ** Tlie 
** ram which tliou fawcll having twc. horns, are tJic 
*' kings of Media and Pcrfia, and the rough goat is the 
'* king of (I'.ecia, and tlic great horn that is between 
" his eyes is the firfl king ; now diat being broken, 
'* whereas four Rood up for it, foui- kingdoms fhall 
** ftand up oat of ihe nation but not in his power." 

Which j^lace St. Jerom, and from him N. Seravi- 
u?, Come lius de Lapide, and others, expound of the 
four principal kings, and kingdoms, Antigonus of Afui, 
Philip or Aridaius of Macedonia, Seleucus of Syria, 
and Ptolemy of Egypt. But St. Jerom feems to have 
tranfcribcd this from Jofcphus, {!]. 12. c. i.) putting 
Ariilseus for Caflander, who fucccedcd him, and 
cn;ittir.g Lyfmiachus.