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^ ' 












846 A 848 BROADWAY. 


ilt, ^ X.. \(\\. 

Hannri CtHag» Libmy 
N«rtMt Coltaetien, 

Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1864, 


Jb tt» Cleik*& tMSflc^of fhe SistHet Court of the XTnil^ BtatMftr Ore Sonftieto 

District of Kew-York. 


It is an undoubted, though unaccountable, fiict, that 
Quintus Curtius' Hifitory of the Exploits of Alexander 
the Great is a work almost unheard of in the Academies 
and Colleges of the United States, while in England, 
and more especially on the Continent, it holds a high 
place in the estimation of classical instructors. The 
interesting character of its subject, the elegance of its 
style, and the pureness of its moral sentiments, ought 
surely to place it on. an elevation as high, if not higher, 
than the Commentaries of CsBsar, or the Histories of 
Sallust. In conjunction with Arrian, who wrote in 
Greek, Curtius is the main source whence are derived 
all those interesting anecdotes of the great Macedonian 
conqueror, which exdted our imagination — ^perhaps 
stimulated our ambition — in the days of youtL His 
youthful courage in taming Bucephalus — his ready 
boldness in severing the Gbrdian knot with his good 
sword — ^his fortitude in draining to the dregs the cup 
received from the hands of a physician, against whose 
treachery he had been wamed-«— his acts of romantic 


daiing — ^his magnammity to his captives — ^his self-denial 
in scenes of temptation, — all these, together with his 
oft-qnoted sayings, render this History one of the most 
entertaining as well as instmctive of the Classics. 

As to the style of Curtius, nothing can be more 
pleasing. Heinsius, indeed, with somewhat of a disre- 
gard of gender, speaks of him as " Venus HistoricorumJ* 
Bartholomew Morula applies to his narratives the phrase 
^' degawtieaime ooTiscriptas" and Decembrius calls him 
a writer ^^ mirce duicedinis" Of the absorbing interest 
of his narrative, and the attractive character of hid 
style, the following anecdote is preserved : Alphonso 
YII., King of Spain, being afflicted with serious illness, 
and having tried in vain the numerous prescriptions of 
his physicians, attempted to solace his hours of pain 
by perusing Curtius' History of Alexander ; and such, 
it is related, was the happy effect of his new remedy, 
that he was soon restored to health. When convales- 
cent, he was heard to exclaim, ^^ ValearU Avtcennay 
SijppocrateSy medud oosteri ; vivai GwrtiuSj ^o^pitaJtor 
mens ! " 

As to the era when Curtius flourished, learned men 
are completely at £Efcult ; and, accordingly, vary greatly 
in their coi^ectures on the sulgect. Some make him 
contemporaneous with Cicero,-— others bring him down 
to the time of Theodosius the Great, while between 
these extremes we find the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, 
Claudius, Vespasian, Tregan, and Constantine, each 


having its advocates as the time when he flourished. 
It is hardly neoessary to add that his personal history is 
involved in similar obscurity. 

But a worse calamity than mere ignorance of the 
time of our author's birth, and of the particulars of his 
life, meets the reader on the very threshold. Time, 
ever edax rerumy has devoured the whole of the first 
two books, and made sad inroads into one or two of the 
others. These defects have, in a measure, been sup- 
plied by learned men, particularly by John Freinsheim, 
whose excellent supplements have called forth the re- 
mark of a distinguished biographical writer, that " he 
has been so successful that we almost cease to lament 
the loss of the original'' As the supplements of Frein-* 
sheim are very long, the Editor has, in most instances, 
inserted those of Chris. Cellarius, which, though brief, 
will supply to the curious student a sufficient outline 
of the early years of Alexander, and also fill up the 
lacunce that occur in the course of the narrative. 

One word as to the text of the present edition. 
It has been printed fix)m an Editio Lugdunensia of 
1810, with such emendations as a collation of other 
editions, and the suggestions and conjectures of critics 
seemed to raider advisable. In one or two instances 
only has the Editor ventured to introduce a reading of 
his own, and these are mentioned and defended in the 


In conclusion, the Editor would remark that he puts 


forth this editi(Hi of Qitintus Curtius with all confidence, 
that, if a writer so interesting in his subject, and so 
captivating in his style, shall once gain a foothold in 
our American course of classical study, his own merits 
will suffice to retain him there. 

P0UOBKSKF8IB, Atiff%t$t, 1851i 








Introdactlon. Pedigree of Alexander. The portents at bis btrtb. His education 
HlB early militaxy training. PhUip's oyerthrow of Grecian liberty. OoldneBa between 
Alexander and bla fkther. Pbllip*8 preparations for inyadlng Penria. His Mnanrinatton. 
Tba yengeaaoe taken by Olymplas and Alexander. Alexander made Oenenliarimo by 
tlio Greeks. BiBings of the barbarians snppressed. Sevolt ot tbe Oreeks crushed. 
The Athenians again on good terms with Alexander. 

[iLLOBinc, qui Alezandri res gestas seripe^, fide digniaBumu Ptole- 

TDBeus Lagi yidetar, quod ipse rebus interfuerat, neo ulla, si seeus sorip- 

sisset, Buspioio lueri apparebat: proximus Aristobulus, quos Umgo inter- 

vallo IHodoms Siculus, non minus gravis auetor, seeutus est Alexander 

Philippo, Amynt» filio, et Olympiade Epirensi natns, utroque parente 

nobiliasimus fuit Pater enim ad Hereulem, mater ad Aobillem, genus 

referebat Sio olarus aliis Alexander, stbi obseuros yidebatnr, nisi, 

abdicate mortati patre, ab Joye genitns erederetur. Addita insolenti» 

fabnla, draconem in cubili matris visum, quern Jupiter indueiit Phil- 

ippus per quietem vidit obsignatam Olympiadis alvum annulo, cijus 

aculptnra leonem prnferret, quod rates Aristander de loBtu generoso ot 

leonind magnitndine animi interpretatns est Quft,noete autem natus 

Alexander est, eidem templum Ephesiaa Dianas oelebenimum deflagravit : 

qnod xnajoris ruin» pnesagium habuerunt, qui ex fortun» oasu de futuris 

jtidical>ant, ortam alieubi fiioem esse» quft Asia regnum eonflagraturum 













846 ds 848 BROADWAY. 



/Ic. -( X, \(\\. 

Htawi Ctn«8» LilMMy 
Ncrton Collaeti«n, 

Entered aooordlng to Act of Gongrees in the jear 1864^ 


in the Cleik*>i OflSfiQ of fhe Btofriet Court of the Unitpd 8t»taiibr tbe Boatewn 

District of New-Tork. 


oonsidere. Offiter^ quai^bi intra mnros flnit, nomen saum 
retinet. At ci\in extra nmmmenta se eyolvit, majore vi ao 
mole agentem nndas, L/ycwm appellant. Alexander quidem 
urbein destitatam a Buis intrat : arcem verd in quam oonfoge» 
rant, oppngnare adortus, 'caduceatorem pmemiBit, qui dennn- 
ciaret, *ni dederent, ipsos nltima esse passoros. Hli oadu* 
ceatorem in torrim, et situ et opere multillin editam, perduo- 
tum, quanta esset altitude, intneri jubent, ao nunciare Alexandro, 
'^ non e&dem ipsom et incolas sestimatione munimenta metiri : 
se scire inexpngnabiles esse : *ad nltimum pro fide xnoritnros." 
C»ten\m, ut circumsideri arcem, et omnia sibi in dies arotiora 
yideront esse ; sexaginta dierum 'inducias pacti, ut^ nisi intra 
eos auxilium Darius ipsis misisset, dederent urbem; postquam 
nihil inde praosidii mittebatur, ad praestitutam diem permis^re 
se regi. 

2. "^ Superveniunt inde legati Atheniensium, petentes, ut 

capti apud Granicum anmem redderentor sibi. Ille, '' Non bos 

mod6, Bed etiam cseteros Qrseoos restitui suis, jussorum," re- 

spondit, *' finite Persico bello." Caeteriim Dario imminens, 

quern nondnm Euphratem superdsse cognoyerat, undique om- 

nes copias contrahit, totis yiribus tanti belli disorimen aditurus. 

Pbrjgia erat, per quam dncebatur cxercitus, plnribus yiois 

quam urbibus frequens. Tunc babebat quondam nobilem 

Midae regiam ; GU)rdium nomen est urbi, quam Sangarins amnis 

prssterfluit, ^ pari interyallo Pontico et Cilicio mari distantem. 

Inter kseo maria, angustissimum Asise spatium esse eomperi- 

mus; *utroque in arctas fauqes oompellente terranu Qo» 

quia oontinenti adhaeret, sed magn& ex parte cingitur fluctibus, 

Bpeciem insulas praebet; ac, nisi tenue discrimen objiceret, 

maria, quao nunc diyidit, *® committeret. Alexander, urbe in 

suam ditionem redacts, Joyis templum intrat; yebiculum quo 

GU)rdium, Midae patrem, yectum esse eonstabat, adspexit, cultu 

-haud sand a yilioribus yulgatisque usu abhorrens. " Notabile 

erat jugom adstrictum compluribus nodis in semetipsos impli- 

catis et celantibus nexus. Incolis delude affirmantibus, " edi- 

tain esse oraculo sortem, Asiae potituram^ qui inexplicabile 


daring — his magnanimity to his captives — ^his self-denial 
in scenes of temptation, — all these, together with his 
oft-qnoted sayings, render this History one of the most 
entertaining as well as instractive of the Glassies. 

As to the style of Curtius, nothing can be more 
pleasing. Heinsius, indeed, with somewhat of a disre- 
gard of gender, speaks of him as '^ Venvs Historicorum" 
Bartholomew Morula applies to his narratives the phrase 
" ekganiiesime conscriptaa/' and Decembiios calls him 
a writer ^'mircd dulcedinis." Of the absorbing interest 
of his narrative, and the attractive character of hiii 
style, the following anecdote is preserved : Alphonso 
YII., King of Spain, being afflicted with serious illness, 
and having tried in vain the numerous prescriptions of 
his physicians, attempted to solace his hours of pain 
by perusing Curtius' History of Alexander ; and such, 
it is related, was the happy effect of his new remedy, 
that he was soon restored to health. When convales- 
cent, he was heard to exclaim, " Vaieant Avicennoy 
Hijppocrates, medid ocBteri; vivat Cwrtius^ aospitaior 
meu8 ! " 

As to the era when Curtius flourished, learned men 
are completely at £Bbult ; and, accordingly, vary greatly 
in their conjectures on the subject. Some make him 
oontemporaneous with Cicero, — others bring him down 
to the time of Theodosius the Great, while between 
these extremes we find the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, 
Claudius, Vespasian, Trajan, and Constantino, each 


having its advocates as the time when he flouTiahed. 
It is hardly neoesaary to add that his personal history is 
involved in similar obscurity. 

But a wdi6e calamity than mere ignoiaaoe of the 
time of our author's birth, and of the particulars of his 
life, meets the reader on the very threshold. Time, 
ever edax reruniy has devoured the whole of the first 
two books, and made sad inroads into one or two of the 
others. These defects have, in a measure, been sup- 
plied by learned men, particularly by John Freinsheim, 
whose excellent supplements have called forth the re- 
mark of a distinguished biographical writer, that ''he 
has been so successful that we almost cease to lament 
the loss of the original" As the supplements of Frein- 
sheim are very long, the Editor has, in most instances, 
inserted those of Chris. Oellarius, which, though brief, 
will supply to the curious student a sufficient outline 
of the early years of Alexander, and also fill up the 
lacunoe that occur in the course of the narrative. 

One word as to the text of the present edition. 
It has been printed from an Editio Lugdunensia of 
1810, with such emendations as a collation of other 
editions, and the suggestions and coi^jectures of critics 
seemed to render advisable. In one or two instances 
only has the Editor ventured to introduce a reading of 
his own, and these are mentioned and defended in the 


In conclusion, the Editor would remark that he puts 


Bant: ''adnutmn monentis intenti, seqni signa, ordines ser- 
yare didicSre. Quod imperatur, omnes exaadiant : " obsistere, 
oircomire, discorrere in cornu, mutare pugnam, non duces ma- 
gis quain milites *^ eallcnt Et ne auri argentiqae studio te- 
neri putes, '* adhuc ilia disciplina paupertate magistri stetit, 
fatigatis humus cubile est: cibus ''quern occupant, satiat. 
" Tempora somni arctiora quim noctis sunt. Jam ^* Thessali 
equites et Aoarnanes, JStolique, invicta bello manus, '* fundji, 
credo, et *' hastis igne duratis, repellentur 1 pari robore opus 
est. In iU4 terr4, quse hos genuit, auxilia quasrenda sunt. 
Argentum *'' istudatqueaurumad conducendum militem mitte." 
Erat Dario mite ac tractabile ingenium, nisi etiam suam na- 
turam plerumque fortuna corrumperet. Itaque veritatis im* 
patienSj hospitem ac supplicem, tunc cdm maxime utilia sua* 
dentem, abstrahi jussit ad capitale supplicium. Ille, ne turn 
quidem libertatis oblitus : " Habeo," inquLt, ^^ paratum mortui 
mesB ultorem; '"expetet poenas mei consilii spreti is ipse, con- 
tra quem tibi suasL Tu quidem licenti^ regni tarn subit6 
mutatus, documentum eris posteris, homines, cum se permis^re 
fortunae, etiam naturam dediscere." Hsec vociferantem, qui- 
bus erat imperatum, jugulant. Sera deinde poenitentia subiit 
Begem : ac vera dixisse qonfessus, eum sepeliri jussit. 

III. 6. Thymodes erat ^Mentoris filius, impiger juyenis, 
cui praeceptum est a Bege ; ut omnes ' peregrinos milites, in 
quels plurimi\m habebat spei, a Pharnabazo aociperet, operU 
eorum usurus in bello. Ipsi Pharnabazo tradidit imperium, 
quod an tea Memnoni dederat. Anxium de instaotibus curis, 
agitabant etiam per somnum 'species imminentium rerum: 
sive illas aegritudo, sive diyinatio animi praesagientis ' accersit. 
Castra Alexandri magno ignis fulgore collucere ei visa sunt, 
et paul6 post * Alexander adduci ad ipsum in eo vestis habitu, 
* quo ipse fuisset : equo deinde per Babylonem vectus, subit6 
cum ipso equo oculis esse subductus. Ad haeo vates varid 
interpretatione * curam distrinxerant : alii ^^ IsDtum id Begi 
somnium esse," dicebant, " qu6d castra hostium arsissent, 
qu6d Alexandrum deposits regi^ Teste, in Persico et vulgari 


habitu perdnotam esse vidisset." Qaidam contra angnrabaa- 
tur : ' '^ quippe illustria Maoedonum oastra visa, folgorem 
Alexandro portendere, quern regnum Asias occupaturom esse, 
baud ambigere, qnoniam in eodem babitu Darius fuisset, ettm 
appellatus est Bex. Vetera quoque omina, 'ut fit, sollicitudo 
reyooayerat ; ^' Darium enim in principio imperii vaginam aci- 
Dacis Persicam jussisse mutari in earn formam, qu4 OtrwA 
uterentur; protinusque Cbaldssos interpretatos, imperium 
Persarum ad eos transitumm, quorum arma esset imitatns." 
Caet^n^m ipse et ' yatum response, quod edebatur in yulgns, 
et specie, quad per somnium oblata erat, admodum l»tus, oas- 
tra ad Euphratem moyeri jubet. 

7. Patrio more Persarum traditum est, orto sole, demum 
procedere. - ^^ Die jam illustri 6ignum e tabemaculo Regis 
buecin^ dabatur ; super tabernaculum, unde ab omnibus con- 
spici posset, " imago Solis cry sialic inclusa fulgebat. Ordo 
autem agminis erat talis : Ignis, quern ipsi sacrum et ssternum 
yocabant, argenteis altaribus prseferebatur. ^' Magi proximi 
patrium carmen canebant. Magos trecenti et sexaginta quin- 
que juyenes sequebantur, puniceis amiculis yelati, " diebus to- 
tius anni pares numero ; quippe Persis quoque in totidem dies 
descriptus est annus. Currum deinde Joyi sacratum albentes 
yebebant equi; hos eximiao magnitudinis equus, quern Solis 
appellabant, sequebatur. Aureae yirg» et albas yestes, ^^re» 
gentes equos adornabant. Hand procul erant yehicula decern, 
multo auro argentoque caelata. Sequebatur haec equitatus 
duodecim gentium, yariis armis et moribus. Proximi ibant, 
quos PerssD ^* immortales yocant, ad decern millia; cultup 
opulentiss barbaras non alios magis honestabat. Illi aureos 
torques, illi yestem auro distinctam babebant, *' manicatasque 
tunicas, gemmis etiam adomatas. Exiguo interyallo, quos 
cognates Regis appellant, decern et quinque millia hominum. 
Haec yer6 turba muliebriter propemodum culta, luxu magis, 
quam decoris armis conspicua eratr " Dorypkori yocabantur 
proximum his agmen, soliti yestem excipere ^egalem. Hi 
currum Regis anteibant, quo ipse eminens yohebatur. Utrum« 


que ourr(lB latas deorum simulaora ex anro argentoque ezpres- 
sa decorabant : distinguebant internitentes gemmaB jugum^ ex 
quo eminebant duo aurea " simidacra cubitalia ; quorum alte- 
mm Nini, alterum Beli gerebat effigiem. Inter ha&o auream 
aquilam, ^' pinnas extendenti similem, sacraverant. 

8. Gultus Begis inter omnia luxuri4 notabatur. '* Pur- 
purese tunicad medium albo intextum erat. Pallam auro dis- 
tinotam aurei accipitres, velut rostris inter se corruerent, 
adornabant : et zon& aure^ muliebriter cinctus acinacem sus- 
penderat, cui '*ex gemm4 erat vagina. *' Cydarim Persaa 
regium capitis vooabant insigne : hoc caerulea fascia albo dis- 
tincta circumibat. Currum decem millia hastatorum seque- 
bantur ; bastas argento exomatas, spicula auro prsefixa gesta- 
bant, Dextrd Isevaque Begem ducenti ferme nobilissimi pro- 
pinquorum comitabantur. Horum agmen claudebatur triginta 
millibus peditum, quos equi Begis quadringenti sequebantur. 
Intervallo deinde, unius stadii, matrem Darii Sjsigambim 
currus yehebat, et in alio erat conjux. ' Turba foeminarum 
Beginas comitantium equis vectabatur. Quindecim inde, quas 
^^armamaxas appellant, sequebantur. In his erant liberi 
Begis, et qui educabant eos, spadonumque grex, baud sane 
illis gentibus vilis. Tum regiao pellices trecentas sexaginta 
yehebantur, et ipsso regali cultu, omatuque : post quas pecu- 
niam Begis, sexcenti muli, et trecenti cameli yebebant ; prse- 
sidio sagittariorum prosequente. Propinquorum amicorum. 
que conjuges huic agmini proximad, ^^ lixarumque et calonum 
greges vehebantur. Ultimi erant cum suis quisque ducibus, 
qui cogerent agmen, leyiter armati. Gontr^ si quis aciem 
Macedonum intn«retur, dispar acies orat equis virisque non 
auro, non disoolofi veste, sed ferro atque sere fulgentibus. 
Agmen et stare paratum, et sequi^ '^nec tnrbd, neo sarcinis 
praegraye, intentum ad duois non signum modo, sed etiam nu- 
tum. Et castris locus, et exercitui commeatus suppetebant. 
Ergo Alexandre in acie miles non defuit. Darius autem tan- 
taa multitudinis Bex, loci, in quo pugnayit, angustiis, redactus 
est ad paucitat^im, quam in hoste contempserat. 


lY. 9. Interea Alexander, Abistamene Oappadooise pno- 

posito, Ciliciam petens oum omnibus copiis, in regionem, qoao 

^Castra Cyri appellatnr, penrenerat. ' Stativa illio habuerat 

Cyrus, ci\in adversiis Croesum in Ljdiam ezeroitam duoeret. 

Aberat ea regio qninquaginta stadia ab aditn, quo Oiliciam 

intramus : Pyias incolse dicunt arctissimas fauces, Spunimenta 

quae manu ponimus, naturali situ imitante. Igitur Arsanes, 

qui Ciliciae praeerat, reputans quid initio belli Memnon suasis- 

set, * quondam salubre consilium 8er6 exsequi statuit: igne 

ferroque Oiliciam vastat, ut bosti solitudinem faoiat : quicquid 

usui esse potest, corrumpit: sterile ao nudum solum, quod 

tueri nequibat, relicturus. Sed longd utilius * fnit angustias 

aditOs, qui Ciliciam aperit, yalido occupare prassidio, jugum- 

que, opportune itineri imminens, obtinere ; unde inultus sub* 

euntem hostem aut probibere, aut opprimere potuisset. Tunc 

paucis, qui callibus praesiderent, reliotis, retrd ipse concessit; 

populator terraD, quam a populationibus yindicare debuerat. 

Ergo, qui relicti erant, jiroditos se rati, ne conspectum quidem 

hostis sustinere voluerunt ci\m vel pauciores locum * obtinere 

potuissent. Namque ^ perpetuo jugo mentis asperi ac praerupti 

- Cilicia includitur, ' quod cAm a mari surgat, velut sinu quodam 

flexuque curvatum, rursus altero comu in diversum littus ex- 

currit. Per hoe dorsum, qui maximd introrsum mari cedit, 

asperi tres aditus, et perangusti sunt, quorum uno Cilicia in- 

tranda est. ' Campestris eadem, qud vergit ad mare, planitiem 

ejus crebris distinguentibus rivis. 

10. Pjramus et Cydnus, inclyti amnes fluunt. Cydnus 
'^ non spatio aquarum, sed liquor e memorabilis ; quippe, leni 
tractu a fontibus labens, puro solo excipitur ; nee torrente» 
incurrunt, " qui placid^ manantis alveum turbent. Itaque in 
corruptus, idemque frigidissimus ; quippe, ^'multd. riparum' 
amoenitate inumbratus, ^' ubique fontibus suis similis in mare 
evadit. Multa in ek regione monumenta Tulgata carminibus, 
vetustas exederat. Monstrabantur urbium sedes Lymessi et 
Thebes ; Typhonis quoque specus, et Corycium nemus, ubi 
crocum gignitur, caeteraque in quibus nihil praeter famam du- 


raverat. Alexander fauces jugi, quse ^* PyltB appellantur, in 
travit. Contemplatns locorum situm, ^* non ali4s magis dici- 
tur admiratus esse felicitatem suam : obrui potuisse vel saxis 
confitebatur, si faissent qui in subeuntes propellerent. Iter 
viz ** quatemos capiebat armatos. Dorsum montis imminebat 
vi», non angustse modd, sed plerumque prasruptaB, crebris ober- 
rantibus rivis, qui ex radicibus montium manant. Thracas 
tamen leviter armatos prsecedere jusserat, scrutarique calles, 
ne occultus hostis in subeuntes erumperet. Sagittariorum 
quoque manus occupaverat jugum : intentos arcus' habebant, 
" moniti, non iter ipsos inire, sed praelium. Hoc modo " ag- 
men pervenit ad urbem Tarson, "cui turn maxime Persse 
subjiciebant ignem, ne opulentum oppidum hostis invaderet. 
At ille, Parmenione ad inhibendum incendium cum expedita 
manu prsemisso, postquam barbaros adventu suorum fugatos 
esse cognoverat, urbem a se conservatam intrat. 

Y. 11. ^Mediam Cydnus amnis, de quo paul6 ante dictum 
est, interfiuit ; et tunc aestas erat, cujus calor non aliam magis 
qudm Giliciad oram yapore solis accendit; et diei fervidis- 
simum tempus coeperat. Pulvere ac sudore simul perfusum 
Begem invitavit liquor fiuminis, ut calidum adhuc corpus 
ablueret. Itaque yeste deposita, in conspectu agminis (de- 
corum quoque futurum ratus, si ostendisset suis, lev! ac 
parabili ^ cultu corporis se esse contentum) descendit in flumen, 
vixque ' ingressi subito horrore artus rigere coeperunt : pallor 
deinde sufiusus est, et totum propemodum corpus yitalis calor 
reliquit. Expiranti similem, ministri manu excipiunt, neo 
satis compotem mentis in tabemaculum deferunt Ingens 
sollicitudo, et pend jam luctus in castris erat. Flentes que- 
rebantur, ^ '^ in tanto impetu cursuque rerum, omnis astatis ac 
memoriaB clarissimum Kegem non in acie saltem, non ab hoste 
dejectum, sed abluentem aqu& corpus, ereptum esse, et ex- 
tinctum : instare Darium, 'yictorem antequam yidisset hostem. 
Sibi easdem terras, quas yictores peragr&ssent, repetendas : 
omnia aut ipsos, aut bostes populates : per yastas solitudines, 
etiamsi nemo insequi yelit, euntes, fame atqne inopi^ debellari 


posse. Queiii signnm datunim fagientilms? qnem ausnram 
Alexandro succedere ? * Jam ut ad Hellespontam fugd pene- 
trarent, dassem qua transeant, qaem prsBparatunim ? " Bursus 
in ipsum Begem misericorditl yersd, ^'illimi florem juventflB, 
illam yim animi, ^eumdem Begem et commilitonem divelli a se 
et abripi," immemores sui querebantur. 

12. Inter htec liberii\s meare spiritns coeperat ; alleyabat 

Bez oculos, et paulatim redeante animo, circnmstantes amicos 

agnoverat : laxataqne vis morbi ob hoc solmn videbatur, quia 

magnitudinem mail sentiebat. "Animum autem sBgritudo 

corporis urgebat : quippe Darium quinto die ' in Giliciam fore 

nunciabatur. '^ Y inctum ergo se tradi, et tantam Tictoriam eripi 

sibi e manibuSy obseurdque et ignobili morte in tabemaculo 

extingui se," querebatur. Admissisque amicis pariter et medi* 

cis: ^^ In quo me," inquit, *^^^ articulo remm mearum fortuna 

deprehenderit, cemitis. Strepitum hostilium armorum ezaadire 

mihi videor : et qui ultro intuli bellum, jam provocor. Darius 

ergo, cum " tam superbas litteras soriberet, '^ fortunam meam 

in consilio habuit; sed nequidquam, si mihi ^'arbitrio meo 

curari licet. Lenta remedia et segnes medicos non expectant 

tempera mea. Yel mori strenud, quam tarde convalescere, mihi 

melii^s est. Proinde, si quid opis, si quid artis in medicis 

est, sciant, '*me non tam mortis, qudm belli remedinm quae- 

rere."^ Ingentem omnibus incnsserat curam tam prseceps teme- 

ritas ejus. Ergo pro se quisque precari coepere, "ne fes- 

tinatione periculum augeret, sed ^* esset in potestate meden- 

tiom. Inexperta remedia baud injuria ipsif^ esse suspecta, 

ciHm ad pemiciem ejus etiam a latere ipsius pecunid solli- 

citaret hostis:" 'M^^PP^ Darius mille talenta interfectori 

.^exandri daturum se pronunciari jusserat), '^ itaque ne ausu 

rum quidem quemquam " arbitrabantur ^' experiri remedium, 

quod propter novitatem posset esse suspectum." 

YL 13, Erat iuter nobiles medicos e Macedonia Begem 
secutus Philippus, natione Acaman, fidus admodum Begi; 
^ puero comes, et cusrtos salutis datus, non ut Begem modo^ 
sed etiam ut alumn|mi eximid cbaritate diligebat. Is non 


prsdceps se, sed * strenaum remedium afferre, tantamque vim 
morbi potione medicate leyaturum esse promisit. Null! pro- 
missum ejus placebat, praster ipsom 'cujus periculo poUice- 
batur. Omnia quippe facili\is, qiiam moram, perpeti poterat. 
Arma et acies in ocolis erant ; et victoriam in eo positam esse 
arbitrabatur, si tanti\m ante signa stare potuisset : idipsum, 
qu6d post diem tertium medicamentnm sumptnms esset (ita 
enim medicus prsedixerat)' 8egr6 ferens. Inter hs&o a Parme- 
nione fidissimo * pi^rpuratorum litteras accipit, quibus ei 
denunciabat, ne salutem suam Philippe committeret, mille 
talentis a Dario, et spe nnptiaram sororis ejus esse corruptum. 
Ingentem animo sollicitudinem litteras incusserant, et quic- 
quid ' in utramque partem aut metus, aut spes '* subjecerat, 
secretd aestimatione pensabat. "Bibere perseverem? ut, si 
venenum datum fuerit, ^ne immerit6 quidem, quicquid acci- 
dent, evenisse videatur? Damnem medici fidem? in taber- 
naculo ergo me opprimi patiar ? At satius est alieno me mori 
soelere, quam metu nostro." Diu animo in diversa versato, 
nulli quid scripttmi esset, enunciat ; epistolamque sigillo annuli 
sui impresso, pulyino, cui incubabat, subjecit. 

14. Inter has cogitationes biduo lidSHmpto, illuxit a medico 
destinatus dies. Et ille cum poculo, in quo medicamentnm 
diluerat, intravit. Quo viso Alexander, levato etsq^ore in 
cubitum, epistolam a Parmenione missam sinistrd ^ manu 
tenens, accipit poculum, et " haurit interritus : tum epistolam 
Philippum legere jubet, nee a vultu legentis movit oculos, 
ratus aliquas ^ conscientiaenota^in ipso ore posse deprehendere. 
nie epistola perlectel, plus indignationis, qudm pavoris osten- 
dit: projectisque "amiculo et litteris ante leotum: "Rex,*- 
iliquit, " " semper quidem spiritus mens ex te pependit, sed nun« 
vere ab isto sacro et yenerabili ore trahitur. Crimen " parri 
cidii, quod mihi objectum est, tua salus diluet. Servatus a 
me vitam mihi dederis. Oro, quaesoque, omisso metu, patere 
medicamentnm concipi venis. Laxa paulisper animum, quern 
sollicitudine intempestivd amici sane fideles, sed molest» seduli 
turbant." Non securum modo hasc vox, sed etiam lastum Be- 


gem, ao plenum bonso spd fecit Itaque, " " Si Bii,'* inquit, 
*' Philippe, tibi permisissent, quo mazime modo animtim yelles 
ezperiri menm, alio profecto voluisses; sed oertiorem qa&m 
expertos es, ne opt&sses quidem. Hie epistol^ accepts, 
tamen quod dilueras bibi ; et nimo crede, me non min^B pro 
tua fide, qudm pro me^ salute esse sollioitum.^' Hsec elocutus, 
dexteram Philippo offert. 

15. Cseteriim tauta yis medicaminis fuit, ut.qu» secuta * 
sunt, criminationem Pannenionis adjuyerint. Interclusua 
spiritus arete meabat, nee Pbilippus quidquam inexpertum 
omisit. lUe fomenta ^corpori adiulsit, ille torpeutem nuno 
cibi, nunc ^* vini odore ezcitavit. Atque, ut primVlm mentis 
compotem esse sensit, modd matris, sororumque, mod6 tantaa 
yictori» appropinquantis admonere non destitit. Ut yero 
medicamentum se difiudit in yenas, et sensim toto corpore 
salubritas percipi potuit, prim6 animus yigorem suum, deinde 
corpus quoque expectatione maturivis recuperayit : quippe post 
tertium diem, qudm in hoc statu fuerat, in conspectum mili- 
tum yenit. Nee ayidii\8 ipsum Begem, qu^ Philippum 
intuebatur exerdtus : pro se quisque dexteram ejus amplexi, 
grates habebant, yelut prsBsenti Deo. Namque baud facile dictu 
est, prseter ingenitam illi genti erga Beges sues yenerationem, 
quantum hujus utique Begis yel admirationi dediti fuerint, 
yel charitate flagrayerint. Jam primum nihil, sine diyini 
ope, aggrediVidebatur^ " Nam cihn esset prsestb ubique for- 
tuna, temeritas in gloriam cesse^at : ** setas qdoque yix tantis 
matura rebus, sed abund^ sufficiens, omnia etiam ejus opera 
bonestabat: et qu» leyiora haberi solent, plerumque in re 
militari gratiora yulgo sunt ; exercitatio corporis inter ipsps, 
cultus habitusque paululi\m a priyato abhorrens, militaris 
vigor; quels ille vel ingenii dotibus, vel animi artibus, ut 
pariter earns ac venerandus esset, effecerat. 

YH. 16. At Darius nuncio de adverse yaletudine ejus 
accept^ celeritate, quantam capere tarn grave agmen poterat, 
ad Suphratem oontendit: 'junctoque eo pontibus, quinque 
tamen diebus trajecit exercitum, Ciliciam occnpare festinans. 


Jamqne Alexander viribns corporis receptis, ad urbem Solos 
peryenerat: cujus potitus, ducentis talentis nomine ^mulctm 
exactis, arci prsesidium militum imposait. " Yota deinde pro 
salute suscepta per ludum atque otium reddens, ostendit 
quanta fiducid barbaros sperneret : quippe ^sculapio et Mi- 
nervae Indos celebravit. Spectanti ^nnncius laetns affertur 
ex Halicamasso, ^^ Persas acie a suis esse superatos, Myn* 
dios quoque et Caunios, et pleraque tractils ejus, suas fac- 
ta ditionis." Igitur edito spectaculo ludicro, castrisqne 
motis, et Pjramo amne ponte juncto, ad urbem Mallon per- 
venit : inde ^ alteris castris ad oppidum Gastabalum. Ibi 
Paxmenio Kegi occurrit, quern praemiserat ad explorandum 
iter saltits, per quern ad urbem, Isson nomine, penetrandum 
erat. Atque ille angustiis ejus occnpatis, et prsesidio modico 
relicto, Isson quoque desertam a barbaris ceperat. Inde pro- 
gressus, ' deturbatis, qui interiora montium obsidebant, prsesi- 
diis cuncta firmayit : occupatoque itinere, sicut paul6 antd dic- 
tum est, ^ idem et auctor et nuncius yenit. 

17. Isson inde Rex eopias admoyit: ubi consilio babito 

utri^lmne ultrd progrediendum foret, an ibi opperiendi essent 

milites noyi, quos ex Macedonia adyentare constabat; Par- 

menio non alium locum praslio aptiorem esse censebat. 

Quippe illic utriusque Begis eopias numero futuras pares, ci^m 

angustisB multitudinem non caperent : planitiem ipsis campos- 

que esse yitandos, ubi circumiri, ubi ancipiti acie opprimi pos* 

sent : timere, ne non yirtute hostium, sed lassitudine su^ yin- 

cerentur : ^ Persas recentes subinde successuros, si laxii^s stare 

potuissent. Facile ratio tarn salubris consilii accepta est. 

Itaque inter angustias saltiis opperiri statuit. Erat in exer- 

^ citu Re^s •Sisines Perses, quondam a Prsetore jSlgypti missus 

ad Pbilippum ; donisque et omni honore cultus, " exilium 

patria sede mutayerat : secutus deinde in Asiam Alexandrum, 

inter fideles socios babebatur. Huic epistolam Cretensis miles 

obsignatam annulo, cujus signum baud sand notum erftt, tra- 

didit. Nabarzanes Praetor Darii miserat earn, bortabaturquc 

Sisincm, ut dignum aliquid nobilitate ac moribus suis ederet • 

" magno id ei apud Regem bonori fore. "Has litteras Sisines, 


ntpote iimoxiiis, ad Alezandrain saspe deferre tenta^t: eed 
cum tot cans apparataqae belli Begem yideret urgeri, aptins 
deinde tempus ezspectaoBy sospicionem initi soelesti consilii 
prsBboit. Namqne epistola, priusqiiam ei redderetnr, in maniui 
Alexandri perrenerat, leciamque earn ignoti anirali sigillo im- 
presso, Sisini dari jusserat, ad asstimaodam fidem barbari. 
Qui) quia per complnres dies non adierat Regem, scelesto 
consilio eam vigns est suppressisse ; et in agmine a Gretensibos, 
baud dabi6 jnssu Regis, oocisns est. 

YIII. 18. Jam Graeci milites, qnos Tbymodes a Pharna- 
bazo acceperat, praecipua spes, et propemodam unica, ad Da- 
rinm pervenerant. Hi magnopere soadebant, ut retro abiret, 
' spatiososqne MesopotamisB campos repeteret. Si id consilium 
damnaret, at ille divideret saltem eopias innumerabiles, neu 
snb nnum fortunae ictum totas vires regni cadere pateretnr. 
Miniis hoc consilium Regi, quam purpuratis ejus displicebat : 
' <' Ancipitem fidem, et mercede venalem proditionem imminere, 
et dividi non ob aliud eopias velle, qu^m ut ipsi in diversa 
digressi, si quid commissum esset traderent Alexandre. Nihil 
tutius fore, quam circumdatos eos exercitu toto obrui telis, do- 
cumentum non inultas perfidiaB futures. 'V At Darius, ut erat 
sanctus et mitis, '^ se ver6 tantum facinus" negat '^ esse facturum, 
ut suam secutos fidem, sues milites, jubeat trucidari. ' Quam 
deinde ampliiis nationum extei^arum salutem suam credituram 
sibi, si tot militum sanguine imbuisset manus ? * Neminem 
stolidum consilium capite lucre debere. Defuturos eos, qui 
suaderent, si suasisse periculum essct. Denique ipsos quotidie 
ad se vocari in consilium, variasque sententias dicere, * neo 
tamen melioris fidei haberi, qui prudentii\s suaserint. Itaque 
Graecis nunciari jubet, ^ ipsum quidem benevolentias illorum' 
gratias agere ; caeteri!lm, si retro ire pergat baud dubid regnum 
hostibus traditurum. * Vsmk bella stare ; et eum qui recedat, 
fugere credi. Trahendi ver6 belli vix ullam esse rationem. 
Tantaa enim multitudini, utique cum jam hyems instaret, in 
regione vastib, et inyicem a suis atque hoste vexatd,, non sufiiec- 
tura alimenta. Ne dividi quidem eopias posse, servato more 



majomm, qai uniYersas vires semper discrhnini bellomm ob- 
tulerant. x Et hercale terribilem antea Begem ct ^ absentia su^ 
ad vanam fidaciam elatum, postqnam adventare se senfierit, 
catitom pro temerario factum, delituisse inter angustias saltus, 
ritu ignobilium ferarum, quse strepitu prsetereuntium andito, 
sjlvarum latebris se occuluerunt. Jam etiam yaletudinis si- 
mulatione frustrari saos milites, sed non amplitls ipsum esse 
passurum detrectare certamen. In illo specu, in quern pavidi 
recessissent, oppressurum esse cunctantes.^' Hseo magnificen- 
tius jactata, qu^m yeriills. 

19. Caeterilm pecunia omni, rebusque pretiosissimis, Da- 
mascum Sjrise cum modico praesidio militum missis, reliquas 
copias in Ciliciam duxit, insequentibus more patrio agmen 
conjuge et matre. Yirgines quoque cum parvo filio ,«omita- 
bantur patrem. ' Fortd eddem nocte et' Alexander ad fauces, 
quibus Syria aditur, et Darius ad eum locum, quern Amanicas 
Pylas vocant, pervenit. Nee dubitav^re PerssB, quin Isso 
relict^, quam ceperant, Macedones fugerent. Nam etiam sau- 
cii quidam et invalidi, qui agmen non poterant persequi, ex- 
cepti erant. t Quos omnes, instinctu purpuratorum, barbar^ 
feritate ssevientium, praecisis adustisque manibus circumduci, 
ut copias suas noscerent ; satisque omnibus spectatis, nunciare 
quse vidissent, Begi suo jussit. Metis ergo castris, super at 
Pinarum amnem, in tergis, ut credebat, fiigientium hsesurus. 
At illi, quorum amputaverat manus, ad castra Macedonum 
penetrant, Darium, quim maximo cursn posset, sequi nun- 
ciantes. Yix fides babebatur. Itaque speculatores in mari- 
timas regiones praemissos explorare jubet, ipse adesset, an 
praefectorum aliquis speoiem praabuisset uniyersi yenientis ex- 
ercittls. Sed ci!lm speculatores * reyerterentur, procul ingens 
multitude conspecta est. Ignes deinde totis campis collucere 
coeperunt, omniaque yelut continent! incendio ardere yisa, ci\m 
'° incondita multitude maxime propter jumenta laxii!is tende- 
ret. Itaque eo ipso loco metari sues castra jusserat, laBtus, 
"quod omni expetiyerat yoto, in iUis potissimiim angustiis 
decemendum esse. . 


20. Gtttertm, ut solet fieri, otlm nltimi diaeriminifl temput 
adyentat, in soUicitudinem versa fiducia est. lUam ipsam 
fortuDam, qu& aspirante res tam prosperd gesserat, verebatur, 
" nee iDJuri&, ex his quaa tribuisset sibi, qnim mutabilis essei, 
reputabat : unam superesse noctem, qu» tanti diseriminis mo- 
raretur eventum. Bursus ooeurrebat, majora periculis pne- 
mia: et sicut dubium esset an vinoeret, ita illud utiqne certom 
esse, honeste et cum inagn& laude moritnmin. Itaque, '* cor- 
pora milites curare jussit, ac deinde terti^ vigili& instmotos et 
armatos esse. Ipse in jngum edit! montis ascendit, mnltisqtie 
collucentibtts facibns patrio more sacrificinm Diis prassidibus 
loci fecit. Jamqne tertinm, sicut prasceptum erat, '^ signum 
tubd miles aoceperat, itineri simul paratus et prselio : strenue- 
que jttssi prooedere, oriente luce pervenerunt ad angustias, 
quas occupare decreverant. Darium triginta inde stadia 
abesse, prsemissi indicabant. Tunc oonsistere '* agmen jubet, 
armisque ipse sumptis aoiem ordinabat. 

21. Pario adventum bostium pavidi agrestes nunciaverunt, 
vix credent! occurrere etiam, quos, ut fagientes, sequebatur. 
Ergo non mediocris omnium animos formido incesserat : quippe 
itineri quam prsBlio aptiores erant, '^raptimque arma capiebant 
Sed ipsa festinatio discurrentium, suosque ad arma vocantium, 
majorem metum incussit. Alii in jugum montis evaserant, ut 
bostium agmen inde prospicerent : equos plerique frasnabant: 
discors exercitus, nee ad Vunum intentus imperium, vario 
tumultu cunota turbaverat. Darius initio, montis jugum cum 
parte copiarum occupare statuit, et a fronte, et a tergo curcum- 
iturus hostem: ^'a marl quoque, quo dexterum ejus comu 
tegebatur, alios objecturus, ut undique urgeret. Praeter base, 
viginti millia praemissa cum sagittariorum manu, Pinarum 
amnem, qui duo agmina interfluebat, transire, et objicere sese 
Macedonum copiis jusserat Si id praestare non possent, re- 
trocedere in montes, et occulta circumire ultimos bostium. 
GaBteriim " destinata salubriter, omni ratione potentior fortuna 
discussit : quippe alii prae metu imperium exequi non aude- 


bant, alii frustra exBequebantur : quia ubi partes labant, summa 

IX. 22. Acies autem hoc modo ^ stetit. Nabarzanes equi- 
tatu dextnim oornu tuebatur, additis funditorum sagittario- 
rumque viginti fermd millibus. In eodem Thymodes erat, 
Orsecis peditibus mercede oonductis triginta millibus prabposi- 
tus. Hoc erat baud dubium robur ezercitus, par Macedonise 
phalangi acies. In Isevo comu Aristomedes Thessalus viginti 
millia Barbarorum peditum habebat. In " subsidiis pugna- 
cissimas locayerat gentes. Ipsum Hegem in eodem comu di- 
micaturum, tria millia delectorum equitum * assueta corporis 
oustodisB, et pedestris acies, quadraginta * millia, sequebantur. 
Hjrcani deinde Medique equites : his proximi cseterarum gen- 
tium equites dexterS. lasvdque dispositL Hoc agmcn, sicut 
dictum est, ins true turn, sex millia jaculatorum funditorumque 
antecedebant. ^ Quidquid in illis angustiis adiri poterat, im- 
pleverant copise, ' cornuaque hinc a jugo, illinc a mari stabant. 
Uxorem matremque Regis, et alium foeminarum gregem, in 
medium agmen acceperant. 

23. Alexander phalangem, qu4 nihil apud Macedonas vali- 
dius erat, in fronte constituit. Dextrum cornu Nicanor Par* 
menionis filius tuebatur : huic proximi stabant Coenos, et Per- 
diccas, et Meleager, et Ptolemasus, et Amyntas, sui quisque 
agminis duces. In Isevo, quod ad mare pertinebat, Craterus 
et Parmenio erant, sed Craterus Parmenioni parere jussus. 
Equites ab utroque cornu locati, dextrum Macedones, Thessa- 
lis adjunctis, laevum Peloponnenses tuebantur. Ante banc 
aciem posuerat funditorum manum sagittariis admixtis ; Thra- 
ces quoque et Cretenses ante agmen ibant, et ipsi leviter ar- 
mati. At iis, qui praemissi a Dario jugum mentis ^ insederant, 
■ Agrianos opposuit, ex GraeciA nuper advectos. Parmenioni 
autem prseceperat, ut, quanti\m posset, agmen ad mare exten- 
deret, qud longii\s abesset montibus, quos occupaverant Bar- 
bari. At illi, neque obstare venientibus, nee circumire praa- 
tergressos ausi, funditorum maximd aspectu territi profuge- 
rant: 'eaque res Alexandre tutum agminis latus, quod ne 

LIBE& III. OAF. X. 23 

superne ineesserettir, timuerat, prsBstitit. Triginta et duo 
armatorum or dines ibant; neque euim lAh^s extendi aciem 
patiebantur angnstise. Paulatim deinde se laxare sinus mon- 
tium, et majos spatium aperire coBperant; ita at non pedes 
solum plnribns ordinibus incedere, sed etiam a lateribus cir- 
cumfundi posset equitatns. 

X. 24. Jam in oonspectu, sed extra teli jaotam ntraqne 
acies erat, ci^m priores Persse inconditum et tmeem sustnl^re 
^clamorem. Redditur et a Macedonibus major, 'exeroitils 
impar numero, sed.jugis monthun, vastiaque saltibua leper- 
cnssns ; * qoippe semper oircumjecta nemora petrseque, quan- 
tamcumqne accep^re vocem, multiplioato sono referunt Al- 
exander ante prima signa ibat, identidem manu * suos inhibens, 
ne snspensi, acriiis ob nimiam festinationem concitato spiritn, 
oapesserent praslinm. Oi!lmqa& agminiobequitaret, yarid ora- 
tione, nt cajusque animis aptum erat, milites alloqaebatur. 
Macedones tot bellomm in Europ& victores, ad subigendam 
Asiam atque ultima Orientis, * non ipsius magis, quam suo 
ductu profecti, inveteratae virtutis admonebantur. Illos terra- 
rum ' orbis liberatores, * emensosque olim Herculis et Liberi 
patris terminos, non Persis mod6, sed etiam omnibus gentibus 
imposituros jugum. " Maeedonum Bactra et Indos fore : mi- 
nima esse quad nunc intuerentur, sed omnia Victoria parari. 
Non praeruptis petris Illjriorum, et Thracise saxis sterilem 
laborem fore, spolia totius Orientis offerri. Yix gladio futu- 
rum opus ; totam aciem suo payore fluctuantem, * umbonibus 
posse propelli. Victor ad hsec Atheniensium Philippus pater 
inyocabatur, domitseque nuper Boeotise, et urbis in ek nobl- 
lissimse, ad solum dirutad, species reprsBsentabatur animis : jam 
Granicum amnem, jam tot urbes aut expugnatas, aut in fidem 
acceptas, omniaque qua9 post tergum erant, strata, et pedibus 
ipsorum subjecta, memorabat. Ci\m adierat Graecos, admone- 
bat, " ab iis gentibus illata Graeciao bella, Darii prii\s, deinde 
Xerxis insolenti4, aquam ipsam terramque populantium, ut 
Beque fontium haustum, nee solitos cibos relinquerent. Dein 
Deilm templa roinis et ignibns esse deleta, urbes eorum ex- 


pngnfttas, fodera hnmani divinique juris violata'' referebat. 
lUyrios vero et Thracaa, rapto yiyere assuetos, aciem hostimo, 
auro purpuraque fdgentem intaeri jubebat, ''prsedam, non 
arma gestontem. Irent, et imbellibus fo&minifl aunim " yiri 
eriperentw Aspera montimn saonua jaga, nadosqae coiles et 
perpetuo rigentes gelu, ditibns Persarom cam{»8 agrisque 
" mutarent. 

XI. 25. Jam * ad teli jactam pervenerant, ctbn Persamm. 
equites ferociter in laeyam comn bostium inyecti sunt. ' Qtdppe 
Darius equestri prselio decemere optabat, phalangem Macedo- 
nia exercitos robur esse conjectans. Jamque etiam dextmm 
Alexandri cornu circnmibatur : quod ubi Macedo conspexit, 
' duabus alis equitum ad jugum montis jussis subsistere, caete- 
ros in medium belli discrimen sirenud transfert. Subductis 
deinde ex acie Tbessalis equitibus. Praefeotum eorum * oc- 
culta circumire tergnm suorum jubet, Parmenionique c^njungi, 
et quod is imper^sset, impigre exequi. Jamque ipsi in me- 
dium Persarum undique circumfusi egregie se tuebantur : sed 
eonserti, et quasi cohserentes, tela vibrare non poterant. * Si- 
mul erant emissa, ' in eosdem concurrentia implicabantur, le- 
yique et vano ictu pauca in bostem, plura in humum innoxia 
cadebant. Ergo comini\s pugnam coacti conserere, gladios 
impigre stringunt. Tum Yer6 multdm sanguinis fusum est : 
duaB quippe acies ita cohaerebant, ut armis arma pulsarent, 
^ mucrones in ora dirigerent : non timido^ non ignayo cessare 
tum licuit : " collate pede, quasi singuli inter se dimicarent, in 
eodem yestigio stabant, donee yincendo locum sibi facerent. 
Tum demum ergo promoyebant gradum, eiim bostem prostra- 
yerant. At illos noyus excipiebat adyersarius fatigatos : nee 
yulnerati, ut alids solent, acie poterant excedere, otm bostis 
instaret a fronte, a tergo sui urgerent 

26. Alexander, non ducis magis quam militis munera 
exsequebatur; 'opimum decus caeso Bege expetens. Quippe 
Darius curru sublimis eminebat, et suis ad se tuendum, et bos- 
tibus ad incessendum, ingens " incitamentum. JSrgo firater 
ejus Ozathres, ci\m Alexandrum instare ei eemeret, equites, 



quiboB prseerat, ante ipsmn cnrram Begii olijeoit, annia et 

robore corporis mnlttlm saper cssteroB eminens, animo yerd et 

pietate " in pancisdmis ; illo utiqae pnslio (dams, alios impro* 

vide instanies prostrant, alios in fioigam ayertii. At Maoedones, 

qui circa Kegem erant, muta^ adbortatione firmati, onm ipso 

in eqaitma agmen imunpimt. Turn yer6 similis min» strages 

erat Circa cnrram Darii jaoebant nobilissimi dnoes, ante 

oculos Begis egregi& morte defionoti, omnes in ora proni, 

8icat dimicantes proonbuerant, "adyerso oorpore yolneribns 

acceptifl. Inter hos Atizyes, et Rheomiihres, et Sabaoes Pr»> 

tor jSigypti, magnonun exercitnnm prasfecti, noscitabantor : 

circa eos cnmnlata erat peditom eqnitomqne obsonrior torba. 

Macedonum qnoqnej non qnidem mttlti, sed promptissinii ta* 

men, caesi sunt. Inter qnos Alexandri deztrom femnr leriter 

mucrone " perstrictum est. 

27. Jaxnqne, qni Darimn yehebant eqni eonfossi hastis, 

et dolore efferati, jagmn quatere, et Begem cnrra ezentere 

coeperant : ctan. ille, veritns ne yivns yeniret in bostinm potes- 

tatem, desilit, et in eqnom, qni ^* ad hoc ipsnm seqnebatnr, im- 

ponitnr: insignibns qnoque Imperii, ne fdgam proderent, 

indecore abjecti& Turn vero cseteri dissipantor metn ; et qni 

cniqne patebat ad fbgam yia, emmpnnt, arma jaeientes, qoss 

paaI6 antd ad ti^lam corpomm snmpseiant: "ade6 payor 

etiam anxilia formidat. Instabat fngientibns eqnes a Par- 

menione missns, et forte in id comn omnes faga abstnlerat. 

At in dextro, Pers» Tkessalos eqnites yehementer nrgebant. 

Jamqne ana ala ipso impetn procolcata erat, ^' ciim Thessali 

dilapsiy strenud circamactis eqnis, mrsns in prseliam redennt, 

sparsosqne et inoompositos yictori» fidodil Barbaros ingenti 

caede prostemont. - Eqoi pariter eqnitesqne Persarom, " serie 

laminamm grayes, "agmen, qnod oeloitate maxime oonstat, 

segrd moliebantar : qoippe in dreomagendis eqnis snis Thes- 

sali mnltos occnpayerant. Hao tamprosperii pngnd nnnciatd, 

Alexander non ante ansos perseqni barbaros, ntrimqne jam 

idctor instare fagientibns co^it. Hand ampMs Begem qnim 

nille eqnites seqnebantnr, oi^ ingens mnltitndo hostinm ca- 



deret Sed qois ant in riotorii ant in fngli copias nnmeratf 
Agebantnr ergo a tain panels peoonun modo ; et idem metns 
qni cogebat fugere, fngientee morabatnr. 

28. At Gxseoi^qni in Darii partibns steterant Amyntli duoe, 
(praetor hie Alezandri fnit, nnno transfiiga) abrnpti a eaateris, 
"hand sane fngientibns similes eraserant. Barbari longd 
diyersam fbgam intendemnt : alii^qni reotnm iter in Persidem 
dncebat t qnidam circnitn mpes, saltnsqne montinm ooonltos 
petiv^re, panoi oastra DariL Sed jam ilia qnoqne victor 
intraverat, omni qnidem opnlentil^ ditia. Ingens anri argen- 
tiqne pondns, non belli, sed Inznrise apparatnm diripnerant 
milites. Giimqne pins raperent, passim strata erant itinera 
Tilioribns sarcinis, qnas in oomparatione meliomm ayaritia 
eontempserat. . Jamqne ad fcDminas perventnm erat, qnibns, 
qn6 cariora omamenta sunt, yiolentiiis detrahebantnr ; ne 
oorporibns qnidem vis, ao libido pareebal Omnia planctn 
tnmnltnqne, pront cniqne fortnna erat, repleverant : "^neo nlla 
faoiesmali deerat; oiUm per omnes ordines astatesqne yiotoris 
crndelitas ao lioentia yagaretnr. ^'Tnno yer6 impotentis 
fortniuB species eonspici potnit, oi!bn ii, qni torn Dario taber- 
nacnlnm ezomayerant, omni Inxn et opulentii^ instmotom^ 
eadem ilia Alexandro, qnasi yeteri domino, reservabant. Nam- 
qne id solnm intaotnm omiserant milites ; ita tradito more, nt 
yictorem yicti Begis tabemaculo ezciperent. 

29. Sed onminm ocnlos animosqne in semet conyerterant, 
oaptiya mater conjnzqne Darii Ilia, non majestate soliim, sed 
etiam aetate yenerabilis ; lueo, ^* formaa pnlchritndine, ne ill& 
qnidem sorte oormptiL Acoeperat in sinnm filinm, nondnm 
sextnm «taiis annnm egressnnif in spem tantsB fortnnae, qnan» 
tam panld antd pater ejns amiserat, genitnnu At in gremio 
anils ayi» jacebant adnltaa yirgines dn», non sno tantiim, 
sed illius etiam mcDrore confectas. Ingens circa earn nobilinm 
foominamm tnrba oonstiterat, '* lac^ratis crinibns, abscissdqne 
yeste, pristini decons immemores, Beginas, dominasqne, 
'^yeris quondam, tnnc alienis nomioibns inyocantes. Illao 
snao calamittttis oblitaB, ntro comn Darins stetisset, qnap for* 


tuna diBcrinunis fhisset, lequirebant. N^^faant se oaptas, 
si viyeret Rex. Sed illum^ eqnos Bobinde mutantem, longids 
' fuga abstulerat. In acie autem ^^cseaa sont Peraaram peditnm 
centom millia: decern verb millia interfecta eqnitom. At a 
parte Alexandri quatuor et quingenti saucii fame, trigmta 
omnino et duo ex peditibus desiderati simt, equitum oentnin 
quinqnaginta interfeetL Tantulo impendio ingmw vietoria 

XII. 30. Bex, qui din Barium peraeqnesido fatigatus erat, 
postquam et nox appetebat, et eum consequendi ' Bpea noii 
erat, in castra panlo ant^ a suis oapta perrenit. Inritari de- 
lude amicofi, quibns maxime aflsueverat^ jnssit : qtiippe sninina 
dontaxat cutis in fbmore perstricta, non prohibebat interesse 
conyivio. Turn repente e proximo Mbemaculo lugubris 
clamor, barbaro ululatu, planetuqne permixtua, epulantea 
conterruit. Cobors quoque, quae excubabat ad tabemaculum 
regis, verita ne majoris motus principium esset, armare 86 
coeperat. Causa pavoris subiti fait, qudd mater uxorque 
iDarii, cum captivis nobilibus, Begem, qitem interfectom esse 
credebant, ingenti gemitu ejulatuque deflebant. Unus namque 
e captis spadonibus, qui fort^ ante ipsamm tabemaculum 
steterat, amiculum, (quod Parius, sicut pauld ante dictum est, 
ne ' cultu proderetur, abjecerat,) in manibos ejus qui repertum 
ferebat, agnovit: ratusque interfecto detractum esse, falsum 
niinciimi mortis ejus attulerat Hoc mulierum errore com* 
pertOy Alexander fg^tunae Parii, et pietati earum illacrym&sse 
fertur. Ac prim6 Mitbrenem, qui Sardes prodiderat, perituiu 
JPersicse linguae, ire ad eonsolandas eas jusaerat. Yeritiis 
delude, ne proditor captiyarum iram doloremque grayaret, 
Xiconatum ex purpuratis suis misit, jussum indicare, falsd 
lamentari ead yiyum. Ille com paucis * armigeris in tabemsp 
cixliim, in quo captivad erant, perrenit, missumque a Bege se, 
nimciari jubet. At ii, qui in vestibulo ^ant, ut armatos 
conspex^re, rati * actum esse de dominis, in tabemaculum cur- 
rixnt, Yociferantes, adesse supreiuam boram, missosque qid 
occiderent captas. ^Itaque, ut quae neo prohibere possenti 


neo admittere aaderent,iiallorespoii8odato,tacit8e opperiebantar 
victoris arbitrium. Leonatus, expectato diu qui se intromit- 
teret, postquam nemo prodire audebat, relictis in vestibulo 
satellitibas, intrat in tabernaculum. Ea ipsa res turbaverat 
foeminas qa6d 'irrupisse, non admissuSi videbatur. Itaqne 
mater et conjux ^ proyolntse ad pedes orare coeperunt, ut, prills 
qudm interficerentur, Darii corpus ipsis patrio more sepelire 
permitteret : fonctas supremo in Begem officio se impigre 
moritturas. ^Leonatus, et vivere Barium, et ipsas non in* 
columes mod6, sed etiam apparatu pristinaa fortune Beglnas 
fore. Tum d^num mater Darii alleyari se passa est. 

31. Alexander postero die, cilm curam sepeliendis militi- 
bus impenderet, quorum corpora invenerat, Persarum quoque 
nobilissimis eundem honorem haberi jubet, matrique Darii 
permittit, quos yellet, patrio more sepeliret. Ilia paucos arctd 
propinquitate conjunctos pro habitu prassentis fortunse humari 
jussit, apparatum funerum, quo Persse suprema officia celebra- 
rent, invidiosum fore existimans, ciim victores baud pretiose 
cremarentur. Jamque ' justis defunotorum corporibus solutis, 
praemittit ad captiyas, qui nunciareut ipsum yenire, inhibit^- 
que comitantium turbd., ^** tabernaculum cum Hephaastione in- 
trat. Is longS omnium amicorum oarissimus erat Begi : cum 
ipso pariter educatus, secretorum omnium " arbiter ; libertatis 
quoque in admonendo eo " non alius jus habebat ; quod tamen 
ita usurpabat, ^* ut magis a Bege permissum, qudm yindicatum 
ab eo yideretur ; et sicut aBtate par erat Begi, ita '* corporis 
babitu prasstabat. Ergo Beginae ilium Begem esse rataa, " suo 
more yeneratae sunt. Inde ex spadonibus captiyis, quis Alex- 
ander esset, " monstrantibus, Sisjgambis adyoluta est pedibus 
ejus, ignorationem nunquam antea yisi Begis excusans. Quam 
manu alleyans Bex : *' Non err&sti," inquit, " mater ; " nam 
et hie Alexander est." 

32. " Equidem, si bac continent!^ animi ad ultimum yitsB 
perseyerare potuisset, feliciorem fuisse crederem, qudm yisua 
est esse, ci\m Liberi patris imitaretur triumphum, ab Helles- 
ponto usque ad Oceanum omnes gentes yiotorid emensus : sio 


vicisset profectd superbiam atque iram, mala inyicta, sic absti- 
nuisset inter epulas caedibns amicomm; egregiosque bello 
viros, et tot gentium secum domitores, " indicts causd yeritiM 
asset occidere. Sed nondum fortuna se animo ejns '* super* 
fuderat. Itaque orientem eam, moderate et prudenter tulit : 
" ad ultimum magnitudinem ejus non cepit. Tum quidem ita 
se gessit, ut omnes ante emu Beges, et continentia et olementi& 
yinceret. Yirgines enim regias excellentis form», tarn sanctd 
habuit, quam si eodem, quo ipse, parente genitsd forent. Con- 
jagem ejusdem, quam nulla sstatis suse pulcbritudine corporis 
yicit, " adeo ipse non yiolayit, ut summam adbibuerit curam, 
^'ne quis captiyo corpori illuderet. Omnem cultum reddi 
foeminis jussit, nee quidquam ex pristinse fortunse magnificentiil 
captiyis, prseter fiduciam, defuit. Itaque Sisjgambis : *' Bex," 
inquit, " mereris, ut ea precemur tibi, quae Dario nostro quon- 
dam precatse sumus : et, ut yideo, dignus es, qui tantum Begem 
non felicitate solium, sed etiam ** sequitate super ay^r is. Tu 
quidem matrem me et Beginam yocas, sed ego me tuam famu- 
1am esse confiteor. ^* Et praeteritad fortunsB fastigium capio, 
et praesentis jugum pati possum. ** Tu^ interest, quanti\m in 
nos licuerit', si id potii!is clementi4 qu^m saeyiti^ yis esse tes- 
tatum." Bex bonum animum babere eas *'jussit: Darii de- 
lude filium coUo suo admoyit. Atque nil ille conspectu tunc 
primiim a se yisi conterritus, ceryicem ejus manibus amplecti- 
tur. Motus ergo Bex constantiS. pueri, '^ Hepbaestionem in- 
tuens : *' Quam yellem," inquit, " Darius aliquid ex bac indole 
bausissetl" Tum tabernaculo egressus, tribus aris in rip4 
Pinari amnis, Joyi atque Herculi, Mineryaeque sacratis, Sj- 
riam petit, Damascum, ubi Begis gaza erat, Tarmenione prae- 

XIII. 33. Atque 'is cilm prascessisse Darii satrapam 
comperisset, yeritus ne paucitas suorum spemeretur, accersere 
majorem manum statuit. Sed forte in exploratores ab eo 
praemissos incidit natione Mardus, qui ad Parmenionem per- 
ductus, litteras ad Alexandrum, a Praefecto Damasci missas, 
tradidit ei ; nee dubitare ' eum, quin omnem regiam supelleo- 


tilem cum pecunid traderet, adjecit. Parmenio, asservari eo 
jttsso, litteras aperit : in quels erat scriptum, ut mature Al- 
exander aliquem ex ducibus suis mitteret cum manu exiga^. 
Itaque re cognitA, Mardum datis 'comitibus ad proditorem 
remittit. lUe, e manibus custodientium lapsus^ Damascum 
ante lucem intrat. Turbaverat ea res Parmenionis animum 
insidias timentis et ignotum iter sine duce non * audebat in- 
gredi. Felicitati tarn en Begis sui confisus, agrestes, ^qni 
duces itineris essent, excipi jussit : quibus celeriter repertis, 
quarto die ad urbem pervenit, jam metuente Prsefecto, ne sibi 
fides habita non esset. Igitur, quasi parum munimentis oppidi 
fidens, ante soils ortum pecuniam regiam, (gazam Persae to- 
cant,) cilm pretloslsslmls rerum efferrl jubet, fugam simulans, 
reverb ut prsedam host! offerret. 

84. Multa millia virorum foemlnarumque excedentem oppi- 
do sequebantur; * omnibus miserabllls turba, preeter eum, 
cujus fidei commlssa fuerat: quippe, qu6 major proditlonis 
merces foret, objicere hostl parabat gratlorem omni pecuni^ 
praedam, noblles "* viros, Prsetorum Darli conjuges liberosque ; 
prseter hos, urblum Graecarum legates, quos Darius yelut in 
aroe tutlsslmS., in proditoris rellquerat manibus. Gangabas 
Persae vocant humerls onera portantes : hi ci^m frigus tolerare 
non possent (qulppe et procella subit6 nlyem effuderat, et hu- 
mus rlgebat gelu) tum ^astrlctas vestes, quas cum pecuni^ 
portabant, auro et purpura insignes, induunt, nuUo prohibere 
auso ; * ciim fortuna Kegls, etlam humilllmls, in ipsum licen- 
tiam faceret. Praebuere ergo Parmenlonl non spernendl agmi- 
nls speclem, qui ^^intentiore cur& sues, quasi ad "justum prae- 
lium, panels adhortatus, equls calcarla subdere jubet, et acra 
impetu in hostem inyehi. At' 1111, qui sub oneribus erant, 
omissls illis per metum, capessunt fugam. Armatl quoque, 
qui eos sequebantur, eodem metu arma jactare, ac nota diyer- 
tlcula petere coeperunt. Praefectus quasi et ipse conterritus, 
^^ simul cuncta payore compleyerat. Jacebant totls campis 
opes reglad ; ilia pecunia stipendio ingenti mllltum prasparata ; 
illo cultus tot nobilium yirorum, tot illustrium foomlnarum; 


aorea yasa; aurei fnsm; tabemacnla regali magnifioenti^ or- 
nata; vehicula qtioqne a snis destitata^ ingentia opnlentia» 
plena: ''faoies etiam prsBdantibns triatis, bI qua res ayaritiam 
moraretar. ^ Quippe tot aimomin iBcredibili et fidem ezoe- 
dente fortuni comnlata, tano alia stiipibuB dilaceratay alia in 
oo&nnin demersa ernebantor: non snfficiebant prsodantiom 
manns pnedad. 

35. Jamqne etiam ad eos, qui primi fugerant, yentnm erai- 
Foeminsd plersaque paryos trahentes liberoa ibant, inter qnaa 
tres fnSre yirgines, Ocbi (qui ante Darinm regnayerat) fili»^ 
olim quidem ex fastigio patemo rerum mutatione detractse, 
sod turn sortem earom cmdelids aggrayante fortune. In eo- 
dem grege uxor quoqae ejusdem Ociii fait, Oxathrisqae (frater 
hie erat Darii) filia, et conjux Artabazi prinoipia pnrpnrato- 
rum : et filius, cui Ilioneo fuit nomen. Phamabasi qnoque, 
cui Bummnm imperiam maritim» orsB Bex dederat, nxor com 
filio excepta est; Mentoris filiss tres, ac nobiliBsimi dncis 
Memnonis eonjox, et filius: ^*yixque nlla domus porporati 
fuit tantae cladis expers. Laeeda&monii quoqne, et Athenien- 
ses, societatis fide yiolatii, Persas Becuti : Ariatogiton, Dro- 
pides, et Iphiorates, inter Atheniensea, genere fam&qne longd 
clarissmi: Lacedaemonii, Pao^ippuB, et OnomaBtorides, cum 
Monimo et Callicratide, ii quoque domi nobilea. Somma 
pecuniae aignatao fuit, talentorum duo millia etsexaginta; 
facti argenti pondus quingenta asquabat. Praeterea triginta 
millia hominum, cum septem miHibus jumentorum, dorse onera 
portantium, capta aunt. OaBtenim Pii tantae fortunae prodito* 
rem celeriter debits poen& peraecut] aunt. Namque unus e 
consciis ejus, ^' credo, Regis yicem etiam in ill& sorte reyeritus, 
interfecti proditoris caput ad Barium tulit, opportunum sola- 
tium prodito : quippe et ultus inimicum erat, et nondnm in 
omnium animis memoriam majestatis suae exoleyisse oemebat. 



82 qVlKTl pUKTII 


1, Alexander^ lliterls a Dario saperbd scrlptis, regid reqrandet Abdalo&Tiiiiim 
Bidoniis Begem pnefidt Axnyntas tranafuga, mlro modo a Fente ipalB oooldttor. 
YarUa yariis lods pnefectcMrum Darii dadea. 

2. Tyrii, Alexandram recipere recuaantea, obsidentnr. 
& Dnblia belli eventlbiiB Tyrl obsidio noblUtatnr. 

4. Tandem Tyrna yl oapta, maxlmftqae bomlnnm etnge ctnrnpta, Inctooeo delbnn»* 
tar inoendio. 

6. Darii iterate de pace ad Alexandram anbmiasior l^atio? qiiA repadiatA, Gned 
AleKaadmm coronA aareA donant : ille antem per prefectoa mnltaa in poteatatem Buam 
ndigit proTinciaa. 

6. Ad bellnm dam ae accingit Darios, Alexander Gazam expngnat : ejaaqne pnefeo- 
tam Betim cradeli affidt anpplido. 

7. Profectio, et varia Alexandri qa«dta ad Joyia Hammonis oracolnm. 

8. In jfigypto Alexandria oondita ; yariaeqae Alexandri belllc» expeditlones. 

9. Darina ad Arbelas perrenit, eoqne invito Alexander Tigrim aaperat 

10. Milite^ ob Lanse defeotom torbatoe, per JSgyptioa yatea oonfinnat Alexander: 
Persaa vaatatorea ooi^idt in fbgam. Darii oxor captiva, moerore oonfecta, aapremnm 
diem dandft, nnde Alexandri lacryma, Darii snapldonea, lactoa, et vota. 

11. Paoem tertld qosedtam Darias non impetrat: im6 ad deditionem, ant adbeOiim, 
ab Alexandre proTOcator. 

12. Ad pnelinm dnm Peraamm ingenaexerdtuaparatar, Maoedonea panioo qaodam 
deftincti terrore, arma alacriter capeasant. 

18. Oonsilia de noctamo prsello Parmenionia et Polysperoontia Alexander damnat: 
eomnoqae refectoa, interrito vnlta aooa ad pngnam acoendit 

14. Alexandri ad Gracorom, Dariique ad PeTsaram ezerdtOB, ante pngnam onr 

Ifi. Omenti ad Arbela prcdli deacrlptia Victor Alexander, Darlom victam per- 

1ft. Parmenio in diacxlmine constitatoa, Alexandram retrahit Tandem integrA 
yiotorlA potiti Macedonea, reliqaoe Persaa, maltis saorom milliboa dealderatls, ftigA aibi 
qiura«re aalatem oogaut 

I. 1. Darius tanti mod6 ezercittis Bex, qui trinmpbantis 
magis, qudm dimicantis more, curm sablimis inierat prselium, 
per loca, qnas propd immensis agminibus compleverat, jam 
inania. et ingenti solitudine yasta, ^ fugiebat. Fauci Eegem 
sequebantur. Nam nee e6dem omnes fugam intenderant, et 
deficientibus equis, cursum ' eorum, quos Rex subinde muta- 
bat, asquare non poterant. Unchas deinde peryenit, ubi exce- 
pdre eum Oraecorum quatuor millia, cum quibus ad Euphratem 

LIBBB. IV. OAF. I. 39 

contendit, id demum credens 'fore ipsiiifl, qaod oeleritate 

praaripere potuisset. At Alexander Fannenionem, * per queiii 

apud Damascom reoepta erat prseda, jussum earn ipsam, et 

captiyoB diligenti asservare oastodid, SjrisB, quaxn Goelen vo- 

cant) prsBfecit. Novum imperiam Syri, nondum belli cladibns 

satis domiti, aspemabantur : sed celeriter subacti, obedienter 

*imperata fecerunt. Aradus quoqne insula deditur Regi. 

Maritimam tamen oram, et pleraque longit^s etiam a marl re* 

eedentia, Rex ejuB insulsd Strato possidebat: quo in fidem 

acoeptO) castra movit ad urbem Maratbon. Ibi ill! littersQ a 

Dario redduntnr: quibns, ut superbe scriptis, vebementer 

offensna est. * Prsecipu^ earn movit, qa6d Darius sibi Regis 

titulum, nee eumdem Alexandri nomini adscripserat. ^ Pos- 

tulabat autem magis, qudm petebat, ut accepts pecunid, * quan- 

tamoumque tota Macedonia caperet, matrem sibi, ao conju- 

gem, liberosqu6 restitueret. De regno, * sequo, si vellet, Marte 

contenderet. Si saniora oonsilia tandem pati potuisset, *" con- 

tentus patrio, cederet alieni imperii finibus ; socius amicusque 

esset : in ea se fidem et dare paratum, et accipere. 

2. Contra Alexander in hunc " maxima modum rescripsit: 

'* Rex Alexander Dario. Ille, cujus nomen sumpsisti, Darius, 

Grsecos, qui oram Hellesponti tenent, coloniasque Orsecorum 

lonias omni clade vastavit : cum magno deinde exercitu mare 

trajecit, illato Macedonian et Graeciae bello. Rursus Xerxes 

gentis ejusdem ad oppugnaudos nos cum immanium barbaro- 

rum copiis venit : qui, navali praelio victus, Mardonium tamen 

reliquit in Graecid, ut absens quoque popularetur urbes, agros 

ureret. " Philippum ver6 parentem meum quis ignorat ab his 

interfectum esse, quos ingentis pecuniaa spe soUicitaverant 

vestri ? Impia enim bella susoipitis, et ci\m babeatis arma, 

'' licitamini hostium capita, sicut tu ** proximd talentis millcj 

tanti exercitiis Rex, percussorem in me emere voluistL Re- 

pello igitur bellum, non infero. Et Diis quoque pro meliore 

stantibus causd, magnam partem Asiaa in ditionem redegi 

meam : te ipsum acie vici : quern etsi nihil a me impetrare 

oportebat, quod petieras, ^* utpote qui ne belli quid em in me 



jtira BeryayeiiB ; tamen si yeneris supplex, et matrem, et ooa 
jugem, et liberos, sine pretio receptiurum te esse promitto. 
Et vincere, et " consulere victis scio. Quod si te nobis com- 
mittere times, dabimus fidem impune venturum. De csetero, 
ctlm mihi scribes, "memento non solum B,egi te, sed etiam 
tuo, scribere." Ad banc perferendam Thersippus missos. 
^' Ipse in Phoenioem deinde descendit, et oppidum Byblon tra- 
ditum recepit. 

3. Inde ad " Sidona ventnm est, urbem vetustate, famdqne 
conditorum inoly tarn. Eegnabat in ea Strato, *^ Darii opibiis 
adjntus; sed quia deditionem magis popolarium, qudtm sod 
sponte, feoerat, regno yisus indignns, Hepbs&stionique permis- 
snm, ut quern ^^ eo fastigio e Sidoniis dignissimum arbitraretur, 
constitueret Regem. Erant Hephaestioni "hospites, clari 
inter suos juvenes, qui fact^ ipsis potestate regnandi, ^ nega- 
verunt quemquam patrio more in id fastigium recipi, nisi regi4 
stirpe ortum. Admiratus Hephasstio magnitudinem animi 
spernentis, quod alii per ignes ferrumque peterent: "Yos 
quidem ^* macti virtute," inquit, " estote, qui primi intellezis- 
tis, quantd majus esset regnum fastidire, qu4m accipere. Gas- 
tenlm date aliquem regiae stirpis, qui meminerit a vobis accep- 
turn habere se regnum." At illis cxim multos ^imminere 
tantas spei cernerent, singulis amicorum Alexandri ob nimiam 
regni cupiditatem adulantes, statuunt ncminem esse ^"potiorem, 
qudm Abdalonjmum quemdam, longd. quidem cognatione stir- 
pi regies annezum, sed ob inopiam suburbanum hortum exignfi 
colentem stipe. Causa ei paupertatis, sicut plerisque, probitas 
erat ; intentusque operi diurno, strepitum armorum, qui totam 
Asiam concusserat, '^ non ezaudiebat. 

4. ^ Subit6 deindd, de quibus antd dictum est, cum regis» 
yestis insignibus hortum intrant, ^ quem forte, steriles herbas 
eligens, Abdalonymus repurgabat. Tunc Bege eo salutato, 
alter ex his : '* '* Habitus," inquit, ** hie yestis quem cernis in 
meis manibus, cum isto squalore permutandus tibi est. Ablue 
corpus, illuyie, terraeque sordibus squalidum. Cape Begifl 
animum, et in earn fortunam, qu& dignus es, istam continen* 

LIBER IV. CAP. i. 35 

tiam profer. Bt o^m in regali solio residebis, yitaa nedsqne 

omnium civitim dominns, ^ cave ne obliyisearis hnjas stattis, 

in quo aceipis regnum ; imd heroald propter qnem." Somnio 

similis res Abdalonymo videbator. Interdiim, satisne sani 

essent, qui tarn protervd sibi illnderent, percontabatnr. Bed 

nt cuDctanti squalor ablutus est, et " injecta Testis purpura 

auroque distincta, et fides a jurantibus facta ; serid jam Bex, 

iisdem comitantibuSy in re^am perrenit. Fama deinde, ut 

solet, strenud tot& urbe disourrit : ^ aliorum studium, aliomm 

indignatio eminebat. Ditissimtis quisque bumilitatem inopi- 

amque ejus apud amicos Alexandri criminabatur. Admitti 

eum Rex protinAs jussit, diiique contemplatns : ** " Corporis," 

inquit, '^ habitus famse generis non repugnat : sed libet scire, 

inopiam qui patientid tuleris." Turn ille : " Utinam," inquit, 

" eodem animo regnum pati possim. H» manus suffecdre de- 

siderio meo: "^ nihil haventi, nihil defuit." "^Magnce indolis 

specimen ex hoc sermone Abdalonymi cepit. Itaque non 

Stratonis mod6 regiam supelleotiiem attribui ei jussit, sed ple- 

raque etiam ex Persici praedS. : regionem quoque urbi apposi- 

tam, ditioni ejus adjecit. 

5. Intere^ Amjntas, quern ad Persas ab Alexandre trans- 
fugisse diximus cum quatuor millibus Gra&corum, ipsum ex 
acie persecutis, fugd Tripolim pervenit. Indd in naves mili- 
tibus impositis, Cyprum transmisit, " et ciim in illo statu rerum 
id quemque, quod occupasset, habiturum arbitraretur, velut 
certo jure possessum, -J^ptum petere decrevit. Utrique regi 
bostis, et semper ex ancipiti mutatione temporum pendens, 
liortatusque milites ad spem tantse rei, dooet, Sabacem Prse- 
torem ^gypti cecidisse in acie ; Persarum prsesidium et sine 
dace esse, et invalidum ; iEgyptios semper Prsetoribus coram 
icfensos, pro sociis ipsos, non pro hostibus, sestimaturos. Om- 
nia experiri necessitas cogebat : quippd ciUm primas spes for 
tuna destituit, futura prassentibus videntur esse potiora. Igi* 
tnr conclamant, " duceret, qud videretur. Atque ille " uten- 
dum animis, d\\m spe calerent, ratus, ad Pelusii ostium pene- 
trat, simulans a Dario se esse prsemissum. Potitus erg6 

36 qu:nti ourtii 

Pelusii, Memphim copias promovit : ad cajus famam Mgjptu, 
vana gens, et noyandis qudm gerendis aptior rebus^ ex suis 
quisque vicis urbibusque ^ [ad hoo ipsum] concurrunt, ad de- 
lenda praosidia Persarum : qui territi, tamen spem retinendi 
JSgyptum non amisemxit. Sed eos Amyntas, praelio supera- 
tos, in urbem compellit, *^ castrisque positis, victores ad popu- 
landos agros, velut in medio positis hostium cunctis^ vagabantur. 
Itaque Mazaces, quanqu^m infelici praelio suornm animos 
territos esse cognoyerat, tamen palantes et *^ yictoriao fidacia 
incautos ostentans, perpulit, ne dubitarent ex urbe erumpere, 
et res amissas recuperare. Id consilinm non ratione pruden- 
tius, qu4m eyentu. felicius fuit. Ad unum omnes cum ipso 
duce occisi sunt. Has poenas Amyntas utrique Eegi dedit, 
nihilomagis ^^ ei ad quem transfugerat fidus, quslm illi, quem 

6. Darii Praetores, qui praelio apud Isson superfuerant, 
cum omni manu, quad fugientes secuta erat, assumpta etiam 
Cappadocum et Paphlagonum juyentute, Lydiam recuperare 
tentabant. Antigonus Praetor Alexandri Lydiae praeerat: 
qui, quanquam plcrosque militum ex praBsidiis ad Begem dimi- 
serat, tamen Barbaris spretis in aciem suos eduxit. Eadem 
illic quoque fortima partium fuit. Tribus praeliis ali^ atque 
tlik regione commissis, PersaB funduntur. Eodem tempore 
classis Macedonum ex Graeci^ accita, Aristomenem, qui ad 
Hellesponti oram recuperandam a Pario erat missus, captis 
ejus aut demersis nayibus, superat. A Milesiis deinde Phar- 
nabazus ** praefectus Persicas classis pecuni^ exacta, et praD- 
sidio in urbem Chium introducto, centum nayibus Andrum, 
et inde Sypbnum petiit : eas quoque insulas praBsidiis occupat, 
pecunid mulctat. Magnitudo belli quod ab opulentissimis 
Europae Asiaeque regibus in spem totius orbis occupandi gere- 
batur, Graeciad quoque . et Cretas arma commoyerat Agia 
Lacedadmoniorum Bex, octo millibus Graecorum, qui ex Gilici^ 
profugi domos repetierant, contractis, bellum Antipatro Mace- 
donian praefecto moliebatur. *^ Cretenses has aut illas partes 
secuti, nunc Spartanorum, nunc Macedonum praDsidiis occupa* 


bantar. Sed leviora inter illos fa^re diMrimina : * mram oer- 

tamen, ex qao cetera pendebant, intaente fortnnd. 

II. 7. Jam tota Syria, jam Phoenice quoque, excepts 
Tyro, Macedontun erat : habebatqne Rex castra in continent!, 
a qno nrbem angastom fretnm dirimit. TyrtiB et olaritate et 
magnitadine ante omnes nrbes Syrise Phoenioesqne memo- 
rabilia, facilii\s societatem Alexandri acceptora videbatar, quim 
imperinm. Coronam igitar attream legati donmn afferebant, 
eommeatnsqne largd et hospitaliter ex oppido advexerant. 
Ille dona, ut ab amicis, accipi jossit, benigneque legates alio* 
cutas, Herculi, qnem prsecipne Tyrii colerent, sacrificare Telle 
se dixit : Maeedonnm Beges credere ab illo Deo ipsos genus 
ducere : se yerd, nt id faceret, etiam oracnio monitom. Le- 
gati respondent, esse templom Hercolis extra urbem, in e& 
sede quam Palaetyron ipsi vocant: Ibi Begem Deo sacram 
ritd factnrnm. Non tennit iram Alexander, cnjns alioqnin 
* potens non erat. * Itaqne, " Vos qnidem," inquit, " fidnci& 
loci, qndd insnlam incolitis, pedestrem himc exercitum sper- 
nitis: sed brevi ostendam, in continent! vps esse. Proindd 
sciatis licet, aut intratnrom me nrbem, ant oppagnatnrum." 
Gum hoc response dimissos monere amici coeperont, ut Begem, 
quern Syria, quem Phoenice recepisset, ipsi qnoqne nrbem 
intrare paterentur. At illi, loco satis fisi, obsidionem ferre de- 

8. Namqne nrbem a continent! qnatnor stadiomm fretnm 
dividit, Africo maxime objectum, crebros ex alto fluctns in 
littus ' Yolventi, nee * occipiendo operi, que Macedones conti- 
nent! insnlam jungere parabant, quidqnam magis, qndm ille 
ventns, obstabat. Qnippe yix leni et tranquillo mari, moles 
agi possnnt: Africns yer6 prima qnsqne congesta, pulsn 
illisa, mari submit: neo nlla tam firma moles est, qudm 
non ^ exedant imdse, et per nexns opemm manantes, et, ubi 
acrior flatus exstitit, summi operis fastigio superfossB. Praeter 
Iianc diffioultatem, hand minor alia erat: muros turresque 
iirbis prsealtum mare ambiebat. * Non tormenta, nisi e navibus 
procul excussa, mitti, non scalaB moenibos aj^licari poterantb 


^Pneoeps in salom munis pedestre interoeperat iter: naves 
nee habebat Rez; et, si admoyisset, "pendentes et instalxileB 
missilibos aroeri poterant. Inter qnao parva dicta res Tyrioram 
fiduciam acoendit. Oartbaginensinm legati ad oelebrandmn 
anniyersarinm sacram more patrio tnnc venerant : qnippe Car- 
thaginem Tyrii condidemnt, 'semper parentnm looo cultL 
Hortari ergd Pceni eoepenmt, ut obsidionem forti animo 
paterentur, brevi Carthagine anxilia ventora: namqne e& 
tempestate, magnd ex parte, Pnniois classibus maria obside- 

9. Igitnr bello decreto, per mnros tnrresqae tormenta dis- 
ponnnt : arma junioribns diridunt, ^° opificesque, qnorum copi& 
nrbs abondabat, in officinas distribnnnt. Omnia belli appara- 
tn strepnnt : ferreas quoque manns " {harpagonas Tocant) 
qoas operibns hostiom injieerent, corvique et alia taendis 
urbibos excogitata, prsBparabantnr. Sed ci!lm fomacibus fer- 
ram', quod excudi oportebat, impositum esset, admotisque foUi- 
bus ignem fiatu ^ accenderent, sanguinis rivi sub ipsis flammis 
extitisse dicuntnr ; . " idque omen in Macedonum metum verte- 
runt Tyrii. *^Apud Macedonas quoque, cdm fortd panem 
quidam militum frangeret, manantis sanguinis guttas notave- 
runt; territoque Rege, Aristander peritissimus vatum, '^si 
extrinseous cruor fluxisset, Macedonibus id triste fiituram," ait : 
'^contrd, cum ab interiore parte manayerit, urbi,quam obsidere 
destiniissent, exitum portendere." Alexander oiim et classem 
procul haberet, et longam obsidionem magno sibi ad cadtera 
impedimento yideret fore, caduceatores, qui ad pacem eos 
compellerent, misit: quos Tyrii "contra jus gentium occisos 
prsecipitayerunt in altum. Atque ille suorum tam indign& 
nece commotus, urbem obsidere statuit Sed antd jacienda 
moles erat, qu» urbem continenti committeret. Ingens erg6 
animos militum desperatio incessit, cernentium profundum 
mare, quod yix diyind ope posset impleri: ^Qam saxa taza 
yasta, quas tam proceras arbores posse reperiri ? '* exhaurien- 
das esse regiones, ut illud spatium aggeraretur: exasstuare 
semper fretum, qa6que arctids yd.utetar iaieit insulam et con- 


tmeatem, hdo aerii!ifl forefe." At iHe haudqiiaqiiMii radis tmo* 
tandi militares animos, speoiem bM Herenlis in sonmo oMm- 
tarn esse pronmioiat deztram porrigentis: illo dace, iUo 
aperieote, in nrbem intrare se Tismn. Inter lueo cadnoeatores 
interfeetos, gentium jura violata referebat : nnam esse nrbem, 
qptm OTirsnm yictork morari ansa esse! ^Dndbns deinde nego* 
timn dator, ut sues quisqne castiget : satisqne omnibns stimn- 
latis, opos orsns est. Magna yis saxomm " ad mannm erat ^ 
Tyro vetere prsebente : materies ex Libano monte ratibns et 
tarribtts faciendis adyehebatnr. 

10. Jamque a fdndo maris in altitndinem modioam opns 

excreverat, nondiim tamen aqn» fastigiom seqnabat : et qad 

longii\s moles agebatur a littore, I160 magis qoicqnid ingere- 

batnr, prsealtum absorbebat mare : Tyrii, parvis navigiis ad- 

motis, per Indibrium exprobrabant, '^illos, armis inolytos, 

dorso, sicut jumenta, onera gestare.'' Interrogabant etiam, 

" num major Neptnno esset Alexander ? '' Haeo ipsa '* inseo- 

tatio alacritatem militam aceendit. Jamque paululiim moles 

aquam eminebat, et simul aggeris latitudo crescebat, nrbique 

admorebatur ; ciim Tyrii. magnitudine molis, cujns inoremen- 

tum eos antea fefellerat, conspectS, leyibus navigiis ''nonddm 

commissum opus circumire coeperunt, missilibus eos quoque, 

qui pro opere stabant, incess^re. Multis ergd impune yulne- 

ratis, ci\m et removere, et appellere scaphas ^ in expedito esset, 

ad curam semetipsos tuendi ab opere converterant. '^ Igitur 

rex munientibus coria velaque jussit obtendi, ut extra teli 

Lctum essent ; duasque turres ex capite molis erexit, e quibus 

n subeuntes soapfaas tela ingeri possent. Contr^, Tyrii navi- 

ria procul a conspectu hostium littori appellunt, expositisque 

nilitibus, eos, qui saxa gestabant, obtruncant. In Libano 

|iioque Arabum agrestes, incompositos Macedonas aggressi, 

riginta fer^ interficiunt, paucioribus captis. 

III. 11. Ea res Alexandrum dividere copias coegit. Et 
le segniter assidere uni urbi videretur, operi Perdiccam Cra 
emmque prasfecit : ipse cum expedite, manu Arabiam petiit. 
n ter haec, Tyrii nayem magnitudine eximia, saxis arendque a 


puppi oneratam, ita at miilti\m prora emineret, bitumiae ae 
SBlpbure illitam remis concitaverunt : et cum magnam yim 
yenti vela quoque conoepiBsent, oeleriter ad molem sucoessit. 
Tunc prord ejus accensd, remiges desiliSre in soaphas, quse ad 
hoc ipsiim prsBparataB sequebantur. Navis autem, igne con- 
cepto, latiiis fandere ineendinm coepit : quod, priusqaam posset 
ocourri, turres, et caatera opera in ^ oapite mplis posita compre- 
hendit At qui desilierant in parva navigia, faces, et quidquid 
alendo igni aptum erat, in eadem opera ingerunt. Jamque 
non mod6 Macedonum turres, sed etiam 'sununa tabolata, 
oonoeperant ignem : ci\m ii, qui in turribus erant, partim 
haurirentnr inoendio ; partim armis omissis in mare semetipsi 
immitterent. At Tyrii, qui 'oapere eos, quam interficere 
malleut, natantium manus stipitibus sazisque laoerabant, donee 
debilitati impun^ nayigiis excipi possent : nee incendio soliim 
opera consumpta, sed fortd eodem die yehem^ntior ventus mo- 
tum ex profundo mare illisit in molem, crebrisque fluctibus 
compages operis yerberatsb se laxav^re, saxaque interfluens 
unda medium opus rupit. Frorutis igitur lapidum cumulia, 
quibuB inj'^ta terra sustinebatur, prseceps in profundum ruit, 
tantsaque molis vix ulla vestigia invenit, ab Arabia rediens, 

12. * Hlo (quod in adversis rebus solet fieri) alius in alium 
, culpam referebat, cilm omnes ^ verii\s de saeviti^ maris queri 
possent. ' Bex novi operis molem orsus, in.adversum ventum, 
non latere, sed rect^ fronte, direxit : ^ ea caetera opera yelut 
sub ipsa latentia tuebatur. Latitudinem quoque aggeri adje- 
cit, ut turres in medio erects^, procul teli jactu abessent. 
Totas autem arbores cum ingentibus ramis in altum jaciebant : 
deindd saxis onerabant. KursiUs cumulo eorum alias arbores 
injiciebant. Turn humus aggerebatur, "superque alid strue 
saxorum arborumque cumulate, velut quodam nexu continens 
opus junxerant. Nee Tjrii, quidquid ad impediendam molem 
exoogitari poterat, segniter exsequebantur. 'Prsecipuum 
auxilium erat, qui procul hostium conspeotu subibant aquam, 
occultoque lapsu ad molem usque penetrabant, falcibus palmi* 

LIBSR IV» CAP. 111. 41 

tes arborain ^ eminentiiim ad se tnhentes : qnn ubi seeato 

enmt, pleraqae seoum in profand^im dabant: turn levatos 

onere stipites truncosqae arbornxn baud segrd moliebantur. 

Deindd totom opus, quod stipitibus fu«rat iunixum, fiinda- 

mento lapso, sequebaiur. " .^Sgro animi Alezandro, et utrfkai 

perseyeraret an abiret, satis incerto, classis Cjpro advenii. 

Eodemque tempore Oleander cum Grseois militibus in Asiam 

nuper advectus. Cenfum et octoginta navium classem in duo 

diyidit comua. L»yuia Pythagoras, Rex Cn.rioruin, «am 

Cratero tuebatur ; Alexandrum in deztro *' quinqueremis re- 

gia Tebebat. Nee Tjrii, quanquam classem babebant, ausi 

navale inire certamen, tres omnino naves ante ipsa mcenia 

opposuerunt) quibus Bex invectus, ipsas demersit. 

13. Poster^ die, classe ad moenia admot&, undiqud tor- 
mentis, et mazime ''arietum pulsu, muros quatit; quos Tyrii 
raptim obstructis saxis refecerunt, ''interiorem quoque murum, 
ut si prior fefellisset, illo se tuerentur, undique orsi. Sed 
undiqud vis mali urgebat : moles intra teli jactum erat : classis 
mcenia ciroumibat : ^* terrestri simul navalique clade obrueban- 
tur. ^'Quippe binas quadriremes Macedones inter se ita 
junxerant, ut prorao cohsererent; puppes intervallo, quantum 
capere poterant, distarent. Hoc puppium intervallum anten- 
nis asseribusque validis deligatis, superque eos pontibus stra- 
tisy qui militem sustinerent, impleverant : sic instructas quad- 
riremes ad urbem agebant : inde missUia in propugnantes in- 
gerebantur tut6, quia "proris miles tegebatur. Media nox 
erat, cam dassem, sicuti dictum est, paratam, ciroumire urbem 
jubet : jamque naves urbi undique ^" admovebuitur, et Tjrii 
desperatione torpebant, ciUm subit6 spiss» nubes intenddre se 
cobIo, et quidquid lucis " intemitebat, effusi caligine, extinc- 
tiun est. Tum inborrescens mare paulatim levari, deindd 
acriori vento concitatum fluctus ciere, et inter se navigia col- 
lidere. Jamque scindi coeperant vincula, quibus connexse 
qixadriremes erant, mere ^ tabulata, et cum ingenti fragore in 
profondum secum milites trabere. Neque enim conserta navi- 
ulla ope in *^ turbido regi poterant. Miles ministeria nau- 


tamm, remez militis offioia torbabat, et, quod in hnjasmodi 
casn accidit, periti ignaris parebant; qnippe gubematores, 
ali^s imperarc soliti, tmn meta mortis jnssa ezsequebantor. 
Tandem remis pertinacii!is everberatam mare, yeluti eripienti- 
btis navigia ""olassicb ""cessit, appnlsaque suit littori, "^laoe- 
rata pleraqne. 

14. lisdem forte diebus Oarthaginiensiam legati triginta 
Buperyenmnt, majus obsessis solatium qu^ anzilimn : qnippe 
domestioo bello Pcenos '^impediri, nee do imperio, sed pro 
salnte dimicare nunciabant. " Syracusani tmn Africam nre- 
bant; et baud procul Carthaginis mnrb locayerant castra. 
Non tamen defeo^re animis Tyrii, quanqnam ab ingenti spe 
destitnti erant, sed conjuges liberosque devehendos Carthagi- 
nem tradidemnt, ^ fortiilks qnidqnid aooideret latnri, si carissi- 
mam sui partem extra commimis pericnli sortem haboissent 
Oilmqae unus e ciyibns concione indio&sset, oblatam esse per 
somnum sLbi speciem ApoUinis, quern '*ezimi& religione cole- 
rent, urbem deserentis ; molemque a Macedonibus jactam in 
salo, in sjlyestrem saltum esse mutatam: quanquam auctor 
* leyis erat, tamen ad deteriora credenda proni metn, ** aure& 
oaten& deyinz^re simulacrum, arseque Herculis, oujus niuaini 
urbem dicayerant, inseruftre yinoulum, quasi illo Deo Apolli- 
nem '^ retenturo. Syraousis id simulacrum deyexerant Poeni, 
et in "'majore locayerant patri&, multisque aliis spoliis urbium 
a semet captarum, non Carthaginem magis, qu^ Tyrum oma- 

15. ** Sacrum quoque, (quod quidem Diis minimd oordi 
esse crediderim) multis saBCulis intermissum, repetendi auoto- 
res quidam erant, ut ingenuuB puer Satumo immolaretur. 
Quod sacrilegium yeriils qu&m sacrum, Oarthaginenses, a con- 
ditoribus traditum, usque ad ezcidium urbis su» fecisse di- 
cuntur : ac nisi ^ Seniores obstitissent, quorum consilio cuncta 
agebantur, bumanitatem dira superstitio yicisset. Gseterum 
efficacior omni arte inmiinens necessitas, non usitata modd 
prsDsidia, sed qasedam etiam noya ''admoyit. Namqne ad 
implicanda nayigia quae muros subibant, yalidis asseriboa 


"corros et'ferreas manos iIHgaYerant, ut, ctan. tonnento asse* 
res promoTissent, 8iibit6 laxatia funibus, injicerent. Unoi 
quoqne et £ftlces ex iisdem asseribus dependentes, aat propug- 
natores, aat ipsa navigia lacerabant. Olypeos Terd Sdneos 
multo igne torrebant, quos, repletos fervidi aren& cosnoqae de- 
cocto, e muris subit6 deyolvebant ; neo nlla pes^ magis time- 
bator. Quippd nbi loricam " corptusqtie fervens arena pene- 
traverat, nee nll& yi ezcati poterat, et qnidqnid attigerat, 
perurebat ; jacientesque arma, laceratis omnibus queis protegi 
poterant, yalneribus inulti patebant. Corvi yero, et ferreo 
manus tormentis emissae, plerosqne rapiebant. 

lY. 16. ^ Hie Bex fktigatus fftataerat, 'solute obsidione, 

^gyptnm petere : qoippe oiim Asiam ingenti yelooitate per* 

currisset, circa mnros nnins nrbis haorebat, tot maximamm 

rerom opportnnitate dimissd. Gseter^m tam disoedere ' irri- 

timi) quim morari pndebat ; famam qaoqne, qn4 plnra qaim 

armis eyerterat, ratna leyiorem fore, si Tyrom, quasi testem 

se posse yinci, reliqoisset. Igitnr ne quid inexpertnm <Hnit* 

teret, plures nayes admoyeri jubet, deleetosque militum im- 

poni. Et forte ^bellna innsitat» magnitadinis saper ipsos 

flactns dorso eminens, ad molem, qnam Macedones jeoerant, 

ingens corpus af^licmt; diyerberatisque fluctibos alleyana 

semet, utrinqud ooxuspecta est. Deindd a capite molis, mrs^ 

alto se immersit : ac mod6 super undas eminens magn^ soi 

parte, modd superfosis fluctibus condita, baud procul muni- 

mentis urbis * emersit. Utrisque laetos fait belluaa aspectus. 

Macedones iter jaciendo operi monstr^sse earn augarabantur ; 

T jrii, Neptunum oooupaU maris yindicem abripuisse belluam, 

ac molem breyi profeeto ruitoram: lastique omine eo, ad 

epulas 'dilapsi, oneray^re se yino: quo grayes, orto sole 

aayigia oonscendunt, redtmita coaronis floribusque: aded yio- 

torise non omen modo, sed etiam gratulationem prseoeperantw 

17. Forte Bex clasaem in diyersam partem agi jusserat, 
triginta minoribus nayigiis relietis in littore ; e quibus Tyrii 
liiobus captis, csetera ingenti terroerant metu ; donee, suorom 
slamore audito, Alexander class^n littori, e quo fienutiui 


aociderat, admoyit. ^ Prima e Maoedonmn nayibus, qphh 
queremis velocitate inter cseteras emineiiB, oocarrit : quam ut 
conspez^re Tyrii, duse * e diyerso in latera ejus invect» sunt, 
in qnanun alteram qninqneremis eadem ooncitata, et ipsa ros- 
tro icta est, et illam invicem tennit. Jamque ea, qiue non 
oohaerebat, libero impeta eyecta, in aliad qninqueremis latns 
inyehebatar, ci\m opportnnitate mira triremis e classe Alex- 
andri, in earn ipsam, quae qoinqoeremi imminebat/ tanta yi 
impnlsa est, nt Tyrins gnbemator in mare * execateretnr e 
pappL Plnres deinde Macedonnm nayes snperyeninnt, et 
Rex qnoqne aderat; ctim Tyrii "inhibentes remos, segre 
*^ eyellere nayem quad haerebat, portomqne omnia simol nayigia 
repetont. Gonfestim Rex insecatos portnm qnidem intrare 
non potnit, cdm proool e mnris missilibos '* sabmoyeretur : 
nayes autem omnes ferd ant mersit, ant cepit. 

18. Bidno deinde ad qnietem dato militibns, jnssisqne 
et classem et machinas pariter admoyere, nt nndiqne territis 
instaret, ipse in altissimam torrim ascendit ; " ingenti animo, 
pericnlo majore : quippe ^ regio insigni, et armis fdlgentibns 
conspicnns, nnns praecipne tells petebatnr, et digna prorsus 
spectacnlo edidit : mnltos e mnris propngnantes hast& trans- 
fixit, qnosdam etiam comintls gladio clypeoqne impnlsos prae- 
cipitayit : qnippd tnrriS| ex qn& dimicabat, mnris hostinm pro- 
pemodnm cohserebat. Jamqne, ^'crebris arietibns saxorom 
compage laxatd, mnnimenta defeoerant, et classis intrayerat 
portnm, et qnidam Macedonnm in tnrres hostinm desertas 
eyaserant : cikm Tyru, tot simnl malls yicti, alii snpplices in 
templa oonfnginnt, alii foribns aedinm obseratis, '* occupant 
libemm mortis arbitrinm; nonnnlli mnnt in bostem, baud 
innlte tamen peritnrL Magna pars snmma tectomm obtine- 
bat, saxa, et qnidqnid manibns fors dederat, ingerentes 
sabenntibas. Alexander, exceptis qui in templa confogerant, 
omnes interfici| ignemqne tectis injici jnbet His per prascones 
pronnnciatis, " nemo tamen armatns opem a Biis petere snsti- 
nnit. Pueri yirginesque templa compleyerant : yiri in yesti- 
bnlo soannn qnisqoe sedimn stabant, parata '' sadyientibos 


turba. Hultis tamen salnti fn^re Sidonii, qui ''intra Mace- 

donum praesidia erant. Hi urbem quidem inter vietores 

intrayerant; sed cognationis cum Tyriis memores, (qnippe 

ntramque urbem Agenorem condidisse credebant) mnltoB 

Tjriomm etiam protegentes ad sua perdnz^re navigia, qniboB 

occnltati, Sidona devecti snnt. Quindecim millia hoc frurto 

sabducta saBviti» sunt. Qnantnmque sangoinis fusmn sit, vel 

ex hoc aBstimari potest, qii6d intra munimenta nrbis, sex millia 

armatorum trncidata sunt. Triste deindd spectaculnm vietori- 

bos ira prasbuit B>egis« Duo millia, *^in quibus occidendi 

defecerat rabies, crucibus affixi, per ^^ ingens littoris spatium 

pependerunt. Carthaginensium legatis pepercit, additd de- 

nunciatione belli, quod praesentium rerorn necessitas mora- 


19. Tjrus septimo mense, qudm oppugnari ooepta erat, 

capta est : urbs et yetustate originis, et crebri fortunas varie- 

tate ad memoriam posteritatis iusignis. Condita ab Agenore, 

diii mare, non vicinum modd, sed quodcumque classes ejus 

adierunt, " ditionis suao fecit ; et cd fiimae libet credere, base 

gens litteras prima aut docuit, aut didicit. Ooloniae certd ejus 

pend orbe toto diffusas sunt ; Carthago in Africd, in Boootii 

Thebae, Gades ad Oceanum. Oredo " libero commeantes mari, 

saepiusque adeundo caoteris incognitas terras, elegisse sedes 

juventuti, qud tunc abundabant: sou quia crebris motibus 

terras (nam hoc quoque traditur) cultores ejus fatigati, nova 

et externa domicilia armis sibimet quaerere cogebantur. Mul- 

tis ergo casibus defuncta et post excidium renata, nunc tamen 

longa pace cuncta refovente, subtutel& BomanaBmansuetudinis 


T. 20. lisdem fermd diebus Darii littersD allatao sunt, 
* tajidem ut Eegi scriptae. Petebat, *< uti filiam suam * (Sta- 
tjTSQ erat nomen) nuptiis Alexander dbi adjungeret. Dotem 
fore omnem regionem inter Hellespontum et Haljn amnem 
sitam. ' Inde Orientem spectantibus terris contentum se fore. 
Si forte dubitaret, quod o£ferretur, aocipere, ^nunquim did 
eodem vestigio stare fortunam, semperque homineSi quantam- 


ciunqne felidtstem habeaat, invidiam tamea seatite majoFem» 

Yereri, ne se avium modo, quas naturalis levitas ageret ad 
sidera, inani ac puerili mentis a£feotu eff^rret. Nihil diffi- 
cilius esse, quam in il\k setate tantam capere fortunam. 
* Multas se adhuc reliquias habere, nee semper * in angustiis 
posse deprehendi. Transenndum esse Alexandre Euphratem, 
Tigrimque, et Arazen, et Hjdaspen, magna munimenta regni 
sui. Yeniendnm in campos, ubi paucitate snorom erubescen- 
dam sit. Mediam, Hjrcaniam, Bactra, et Indos, Oceani 
accolas, quandd aditornm, ne Sogdianos et Arachosios, nomi* 
nem, caeterasqne gentes, ad Caucasum et Tanalm pertinentes ? 
Senescendum fore tantam terrarum vel sine praolio obeunti. 
^ Se ver6 ad ipsum vocare desineret : namque illius ezitio se 
esse venturum." Alexander, his, qui litteras attnlerant, re- 
e^ondit : '^ Darium " sibi aliena promittere ; quod totum amiserit, 
velle partiri. Doti sibi dari Ljdiam, loniam, ^olidem, Hel- 
lesponti oram, ^ victorisB sua» praemia : leges '" autem a victori- 
bus dici; accipi a victis. In utro statu ambo essent, si 
solus ignoraret, quamprimilm Marte decemeret : se quoque, 
oilm transisset mare, non Ciliciam aut Ljdiam, (quippd tanti 
belli exiguam banc esse mercedem) sed Persepolim, caput 
regni ejus, Bactra deind^, Ecbatana, ultimique Orientis oram 
" imperio suo destin&sse. Qudcumque ille fiigere potuisset, 
ipsum sequi posse. Desineret terrere fluminibus, quern 
sciret maria transisse." Beges quidem invioem hsoo scrip- 

21. Sed Ehodii urbem suam portusque dedebant Alexan- 
dro. Ille Ciliciam Socrati tradiderat ; Philotd regioni circa 
Tjrum jusso praasidere : Sjriam, quae Coele appellatur, An- 
dromache Parmenio tradiderat, bello, quod supererat, interfu- 
turus. Bex, Hephaestione Phoenices oram olasse prsBtervehi 
jusso, ad urbem Gazam cum omnibus copiis venit. lisdem 
fere diebus ^^ solemne erat ludicrum Isthmiorum, quod oon- 
ventu totius Gra^iae celebratur. In eo concilio, ut sunt Gne- 
eorum ^* temporaria ingenia, decernuat, ut duodecim legaren- 
tur ad Begem, qui ob res pro salute dfadoiad ac libertate gestas, 

LIBEJt IV. OAF. V. 47 

coronam avream donom Tictoriad feneitt ^^ lidem panU antd 

incertse famse oaptaverant auram, ut quocuinqne pendentes 
animos tulisset fortuna, Bequerentur. "Cseterikm non ipse 
mod6 Bex obibat urbes, imperii jugum adhuo recasantes : sed 
Praetores quoque ipsius, egregii duces, pleraqoe invaserant. 
Calas Paphlagoniam, Antigonus Lycaomam, Balacnu, Idarne 
Praetore Darii superato, Miletum cepit : Amphoteros et Hege- 
lochus, centunx sexagiata nayium olasse, ixwolas inter Achaiam 
atque Asiam in ditionem Alezandri redegenmt ; Tenedo qao> 
que recept^, Chion, incolis nltr6 Yoeantibus, Btatuerant ocon- 
pare. Sed Pbamabazus Darii Pr»tor, ^* eomprebensis qui 
res ad Macedonas trabebant, rursiis Apollonidi et Athenagora 
suarom partium yiris, nrbem cum medico praesidie militum 
tradit. Praefeoti Alexandri in obsidione urbis perseyerabant, 
" non tarn suis yiribus, qu4m ipsorum, qui obsidebantur, vo- 
luntate, Neo fefellit opinio. Namque inter ApoUonidem et 
duces militum orta seditio, irrumpendi in urbem ocoasionem 
dedit. Ciimque port^ effractd cobors Macedonum intr&sset, 
oppidani, olim consilio proditionis agitato, aggregant se Am- 
photero et Hegelocbo ; Persarumque prassidio caBso, " Pbama- 
bazus cum Apollonide et Athenagor4 yincti traduntur: zii 
triremes cum suo milite ac remige, prseter eas tringinta inanes 
et piratici lembi, Grseoorumque tria miUia a Persis mereede 
conducta. His '' in supplementum copiarom suarum distriba- 
tis, piratisque supplicio affectis^ captiyos remigesadjeo^reoLism 

22. Forte Aristonious Metbjmnseortim Tyrannus, cum 
piraticis nayibus, ignarus omnium quad ad Chium acta erant, 
priin4 yigili4 ad portiis olaustra successit : interrogatusque a 
:;ustodibus, ^'quis esset; Aristonicum ad Pharnabassum yenire/' 
refi^oudit. lUi " Pbamabasum quidem jam quiescere, et non 
posse turn adiri, o$eterikm patere socio atque bospiti portum, 
5t postero die "** Pbamabazi copiam fore " affirmant. Neo du- 
^itayit Aristonicus primus intrare. Secuti sunt duoem piratici 
embi ; ac dum applicant nayigia crepidini portus, objicitur a 
ri^ilibus olaustrum, et qui proximi exoubabant, ab iisdem exr 


citantur: nulloque ex his aoso rcpugnare, omnibus catenae 
injectas sunt: Amphotero deindd, Hegelochoque traduntur. 
Hinc Macedones transiere Mitylenem, quam Chares Athenien- 
sis Duper occupatam duorum millium Persarum praesidio tene- 
bat: Bed ciim obsidionem tolerare non posset, urbe tradilA, 
pactus, ut incolumi abire liceret, Imbniiu petit ; deditis Mace- 
dones pepercerunt. 

YI. 23. Darius, desperate pace, quam per litteras iega- 
tosque impetrari posse orediderat, ad reparandas vires, bel- 
lumque impigre renovandum intendit animum. Duces ergo 
copiarum Babyloniam convenire, Bessum quoque Bactrianorum 
praetorem, quAm maximo posset exercitu coacto, descendere 
ad se jubet. Sunt autem Bactriani inter illas gentes promp- 
tissimi, horridis ingeniis, multiUmque a Persarum luxu abhor- 
rentibus : siti haud procul Scytharum boUicosissiml. gente, et 
rapto yivere assueti, semper in armis erant. Sed Bessus, sus- 
pecta perfidid, haud sand aequo animo in secundo se continens 
gradu, Begem terrebat. Nam ci\m regnum affectaret, prodi- 
tio, qud sold id assequi poterat, timebatur. ' CaetenUm Alex- 
ander, quam regionem Darius petiisset^ omni curd yestigans, 
tamen explorare non poterat, more quodam Persarum, arcana 
Begum mir^ celantium fide. Non metus, non spes elicit yo- 
cem, qu^ prodantur occulta : yetus diseiplina Begum silentium 
yitas periculo sanxerat. Lingua grayius castigatur, qudm 
ullum probrum ; ' nee magnam rem sustineri posse credunt ab 
eo, cui tacere grave sit ; quod homini fiacillimum voluerit esse 
natura. ' Ob banc causam Alexander omnium, quae apud 
hostem gererentur, ignarus, urbem Gazam obsidebat. Prseerat 
ei Betis eximias in Begem suum fidei, modicoque praesidio 
muros * ingentis operis tuebatur. 

24. Alexander, aestimato locorum situ, agi ^ cuniculos jus- 
sit, facili ac levi humo aceeptante oconltum opus : quippe mul- 
tam arenam vicinum mare evomit, nee saxa cotesque, quae 
interpellent "specus, obstabant. Igitur ab ed parte, quam 
oppidani, conspicere non possent, opus orsus, ^ut a sensu ejus 
ayerteret turres muris admoveri jubei. Sed eadem humus 

LIBS& IV. OAP. VI. 49 

admovendiB inntHis ttirribus, * desidente sabnlo, agQitntem ro- 

tarum morabatur, et tabalata tarrinm perfringebat : moltique 

yulnerabantnr impun^, ' otlm idem recipiendis/qui admovendis 

turribus, labor eos fatigaret. Ergd reoeptui signo dato, pos- 

tero die mnros "^coroD^ circomdari jussit. Ortoque sole, 

priasqualm admoveret exercitum, "opem Dei\m ezposcens, 

sacrum patrio more faciebat. Fort^ pradterrolans oorvus, 

^'glebam, quam UBguibus ferebat, Bubit6 amisit: quae cikm 

Eegis capiti incidisset, resolnta defluxit. Ipsa autem avis in 

proxim& tarre consedit. lUita erat turris bitumine ao sal- 

phure, in qud alis baerentibus frustrsl se allevare " conatus, a 

circumstantibtts capitnr. Digna res visa, de qu& vates oonsu- 

leret, tit erat non intact» a snperstitione mentis. Ergd Aris- 

tander, eni maxima fides habebatnr, '' nrbis quidem exoidiam 

augurio illo portendi; eseteri!Lm periculum esse,ne Bex vulnos 

acciperet : " itaqne monait ^' nequid eo die inciperet." lUe, 

g[uanqtiam unam urbem sibi, quomini^s securus ^gyptnm 

intraret, obstare aegrd ferebat, tamen paruit yati, signumque 

-eceptui dedit. 

25. Hinc animns crevit obsessis, egressique portd, reoe- 
[entibus inferunt signa: cunctationem hostiam fore suam 
ccasionem rati. Sed acritts qnam constantii!is prseliom inie- 
ant. ^* Quipp^ ut Macedonum signa circumagi vidSre, repentd 
[stunt gradum. Jamque ad Kegem prseliantiom clamor per- 
enerat, otlm dennnciati periculi band sand memor, loricam 
Linen, qnam rar6 induebat, amicis oranibibus snmpsit, et "ad 
rim a signa pervenit. Quo conspecto, Arabs qnidam, Darii 
iles, ^'majus fortune bu& facinus ausus, clypeo gladium te- 
>ns, quasi trassfaga genibus Begis advolvitor. Ille assur- 
iTG supplicem, recipique inter snos jussit. At gladio barba- 
:s strenud in dextram translato, cervicem appetit Begis; 
qjxi, exigui corporis decHnatione evitato ictu, in vanum 
i.n.'ani barbari lapsam ampntat gladio, detiunciato in ilium 
3XO perioulo (ut arbitrabatur ipse) defunctus. Sed, ut opinor, 
^vltabile est fatum : quippd dtm inter primores promptids 
nleat, sagittd iotus ast, quam per loricam adactam, " stanten) 

50 i^uiNTi ouaTii 

ia hum«re, medious ejus Philippus etellii Plurimtifl deindd 
sanguis manare ooepit ; omnibus territis, quia nunquam tarn 
altd penetr&sae telum loric& obstante, cognoverant. Ipse, ne 
oris quidem colore mutato, supprimi sanguinem, et Tulnus 
obligari jussit. Did ante ipsa signa, yel dis^mulato, vel victo 
dolore '"perstiterat, c&m suppressns pauld ant^ sanguis xnedi- 
camento, quo retentus erat, manare latiiis coepit ; et vnlnus, 
quod reoens adhuo dolorem non moverat, frigente sanguine 
intumuit '® Linqui deind^ animo, et '* submitti genu coepit ; 
quern proximi ezceptnm in castra receperunt. Et Betis, in- 
terfeotum ratus, urbem ovans yictori& repetit 

26. At Alexander, n(md^m perourato vulnere, aggerem, 
quo moenium altitudinem sequaret, ezstruxit, et pluribus cuni- 
oulis muros subrui jussit. Oppidani ad pristinum &stigium 
msdnium, novum extruzdre munimentum ; sed ne id quidem 
turres aggeri impositas sequare poterat. Itaque i&teriora 
quoque urbis infesta telis erant. Ultima pestis urbis fuit cu- 
nioulo subrutus murus, per cujus ruinas hostis intravit. Du- 
cebat ipse Bex *' antesignanos, et ddm incautitUi subit, saxo 
crus ejus affligitur. Innixus tamen telo, **nondtLm prioris 
Yulneris obduct& oioatrice, inter primores dimieat : irk quoque 
accensus, qu6d duo in obsidione urbis ejus acceperat yulnera. 
Betim, egregi& editd pugni, multisque vulneribus confeetum^ 
deseruerant sui : neo tamen segniiis praelium oapessebat, lu- 
briois armis suo pariter atque hostium sanguine: sed ciUm 
undique [*^unus omnium telis peteretur, ad postremum ex- 
haustis yiribus yivus in potestatem hostium venit : quo ad Re- 
gem] adducto, insolenti gaudio ** juvenis elatus, '* alias virtutiB, 
etiam in hoste mirator : '' Non, ut yoluisti,'' inquit, " morieris, 
Beti : sed quidquid tormentorum in captiyum inyeniri potest, 
passurum esse te cogita." lUe, non interrito modd, sed con- 
tumaci quoque yultu intuens Begem, nullam ad minas ejus 
reddidit- yocem. Turn Alexander : " Yidetisne obstinatum ad 
taoendum?" inquit; "numgenu posuit? num supplioem yo- 
cem xnisit ? Yincam tamen silentium ; et si nihil aHud, oerte 
gemitu interpellabo." Iram deinddyertit in rabiem; "jam 

LIB£a IV. OAF. VII. 51 

torn pere^noa riins nov& subetmte fortaali. Per telos enm 

spirantiB lora trajecta sunt, Feligatumque ad oumim tnxte 

circa urbem equi ; gloriaiite Bege Aohillem, a quo gieoMM ipie 

dedttceret, imitatum se esse poBud in hostem capiend&. Gecif 

d^re Fersaram Arabomque eiroaz miUia; neo MaoedoDibiu 

incruenta yictoria fuit. Obsidio carte Don tarn okBritate nrUi 

nobilitata est, quam geminato pwieolo Begia, qui .^Bgyptnm 

adire festinans, Am jntam onm decern triremibaa in Maeedo- 

niam "ad inqnisitionem novorom militam misit Namqne 

prseliis etiam seenndis '" atterebantur copi»; devtctaramqiie 

gentium militi, ^ minor qpAm domeatico fides habebatnr. 

YIL 27. JBgyptii ' olim Persarum opibua infensi, qnippe 

avard et siq)arbe imperitatum sibi esse eredeba&t) ad spein 

ad^ent^ ejus erexerant animos, utpote qui Amyntam quoque 

trangfogm, et ' cum preoario imperio reiikntein kati leoep» 

sent. Igitur ingens multitudo Pdusium, qu& intraturus Bex 

videbatur, oonvenerat. Atqne ille septimo die, postquam a 

' GsLzk copiaa moverat, in r^onem JBgypti, quam nunc 

* caUra Alessandri vooant, pervenit. Deiudd pedestribua 

copiis Peludum petere jussis, ipse cum expedite delectorum 

manu, Nile amne vectus ^t Neo sustinudre adventum ejus 

Persas, defeotione quoque perterriti. Jamque baud proou) 

Mempbi erat ; in cujus prsesidio Mazaees Prsotor Darii relic- 

tus, ^[ostio amnis superato], octingenta talenta Alexandre, 

Dinnemque regiam supelleotilem tradidit. A Mempbi, eodea 

lumine vectus, * ad interioraiBgypti penetrat; o^Mnpositisque 

-ebuSy ita ut nibil ex patrio .^igyptiorum more mutaret, adire 

Fovis Hammonis oraculum statuit 

28. Iter, expeditis quoque et pauoiayix tolerabile, in 
rrediendum erat : terr4 coeloque aquarum penuria est : sterilei 
^rense jacent; quas ubi vapor solis accendit, fervido solo 
.xurente vestigia, intolerabilis sestus existit: luotandumque 
st non tantiUm cum ardore et siccitate regionis, sed etiam cum 
snaciasimo sabulo, ^ quod prsealtum et vestigio oedens segrd 
iioliantur pedes. Hasc udSgyptii vero majora jactabant 
!ed ingens eupido animum stimulabat adeundi Jovemi 


qnem geaens soi anotorem, * hand eontentas mortal! fiistigio, 
aut credebat esse, ant oredi yolebat. Erg6 cum lis, qaos 
Sucere Becum statuerat, aecondo anme descendit ad Mareotim 
paludem. £6 legati Oyrenenaiam dona attnlore ; pacem, et 
ut adiret uibes snas, petentes. Ille, dama acceptis, amiciti^- 
qne conjunct^, destinata ezseqni peiglt. Ao primo qnidem et 
aeqnenti die, tolerabilis labor visns, nondi^ tarn yastis nndis- 
qne solitudinibus aditis, * jam tamen sterili et emoriente terr^. 
8ed nt apern^e se campi alto obrnti sabnlo, ^^ hand secus 
quiLm profnndnm seqnor ingressi terram oonlis reqnirebant. 
Nnlla arbor, nttllnm onlti soli occnrrebat yestiginm. Aqua 
etiam defeoerat, quam "utribns eameli deyexerant, et in 
arido solo ac feryido sabnlo nnlla eri^ Ad haoc sol omnia 
incenderat, sioeaque et adusta erant ora, cikm rep^atd, eiye 
illud deornm mnnns, sWe casus fuit, obductaa C€&lo nnbes 
oondid^re solem; ingens SBStu fatigatis, eiaamsi aqua defi- 
oeret, auzilium. Enimyero nt largnm qnoqne imbrem excus- 
gerunt procellae, pro se qnisqne ezcipmre enm, qnidam, ^* oh 
sitim impotentes sni, ore qnoqne hianti captare coepemnt. 
Qnatridnnm per yaatas solitndines absnmptnm est. 

29. Jamqne hand procnl oracnli sede aberant, ciim oom- 
plures coryi agmini occnrmnt, modico yolatn prima signa 
anteoedentes : et modd hnmi reiddebant, eilm lentids agmen 
iocederet, mod6 se pennis leyabant, ^' anteoedentinm iterqne 
monatrantinm ritn. Tandem ad sedem conseoratam Deo yen* 
turn est. Incredibile diotn, inter yaatas solitndines sita, nn- 
diqne ambientibns ramis, ^* yix in den^am nmbram cadente 
sole, contecta est : mnltique fontes, dnlcibns aqnis passim 
manantibus, alunt sjlyas. ^* Gceli quoqne mira ten^eries, 
yemo tempori maxima simUis, omnes anni partes pari sain- 
britate peronrrit. ^"Accolffi sedis sunt ab Oriente prozimi 
^thiopum: in Meridiem yersds Arabes speetant, Trqgiody- 
tis cognomen est. Quorum regie usque ad mbmm mare 
ezcunit. At qud yergit ad Occidentem, alii iEthiopes colunt, 
quos ScenUas yocant : a Septentrione Nasamones sunt ; 
gens Syrtioa, '^ nayiffiomm spoliis qusestnosa. Quippe obsi* 


dent littora, ''et sesta destitote nav^ notis aibi vadi» 

tTiguiii8^HaBfeffiJ?^«™®'^> (HaaamoBios voeant,) diapenaa 

muro circiimdatunL^'-rTtiiiirwSttiJI^ ajce habent, trij^oi 

regiam claasit : in proxun^ oonjuges eontm, earn liD ctiH'^y gi 

licibns, haMtant. Hio qnoque Dei ** oracalom est Ultima 

mmumenta^ satellitom armigeronunqne sedes eranl Est 

etiam ^liud Hammonia sennia ; in medio habet fontem : aquam 

solis vocant. Snb Incis ortnm t^ida manat : medio die, ciim 

yehementissimoB est calor, frigida eadem flnit : *^ incdHnato in 

vesperam, ealescit: medi4 nocte, fervida exaestoat; quoqne 

propiil» noz vergit ad Incem, mnltdm ex noctnmo caloie de- 

orescit, " doneo sab ipsnm diei ortnm assaeto tepore langoei^ 

cat. Id, quod pro Deo colitor, noa eamdem effigiem babet, 

qnam valgd diia artifices aooommodavenml "Umbilieo 

maxime similis est babitus, smaragdo etgemmis eoagmentatos. 

Hunc, Gi!lm responsnm petitnr, navigio anrato gestant saoer* 

dotes : mnltis argenteis pateris ab ntroqne navigii latere pen* 

dentibos. Sequontur matron», virginesqxie, patrio more 

'* iBConditom quoddam carmen oanentes : quo {nropitiari Jovem 

credunt, nt oertnm edat oracoium. 

30. At turn qoidem Begem, propiiis adenntem, maximoa 
aata e sacerdotibns fiUnm appellat, boo ncnnen illi parentem 
Jovem reddere affirmans. Ille verd et aecipere se, ait, et 
ignoscere, bnmansd scnrtis oblitns. Consoloit deinde, an totina 
>rbis imperinm fiatis sibi destinaret pater. Yates, aeqne in 
idulationem compositos, terrarom omnium rectorem fore oaten- 
Lit. Post bsec ^ institit qnasrere, an omnes ^ pareulia sui in* 
erf ectores, poenas dedissent. Saoerdos, parentem ejus '^ negat 
lUius seel^e posse violari : Pbilij^i aatem omnes interfectores 
uisse soppUcia; adjocit, invictmn fore, donee exeederet ad 
>eos. Saerificio deindd facto, dona et sacerdotibns et Deo 
ata sunt : permissmnque amicis, ut ipsi qnoqne consulerent 
ovem. Nibil amplitls qnaosiYerunt, qnam *' an anctor asset 
Lbi divinis honoribas colendi snnm Begem. Hoc qnoqne 
cceptnm fore Jovi yatea respondit. ~ Yere et salubriter nsti* 


maati Mem oracali, vana profect6 respom» videri potuiflacnt: 
sed fortuna, quoB uni sibi crcd«e ooegit, magD|^^^^- 
avidos gloriflB ma^fl, " qu^m cag^sglrf^tam jussit : rerumque 
se non sohlsLafiBfj^^m augere vnlt, tali appellatione oorrnm- 
pit. "'Et Maoedones, assaeti quidem regio imperio, sed in 
majore libertatis nmbr^ qndm caetene gentes^ immortalitatem 
affeotantem, oontumacitls qahm aitt ipsis expediebat ant Regi, 
adversati sunt. Sed bsec buo qttsdque tempori reserventor. 
Nuno c8Btera ezseqtd pergam. 

YIII. 31. Alexander ab HammoDe rediens, ut ad Mareo- 
tim palndem baud pTocnl insula Pharo sitam yenit, contem- 
platos loci natoram, primnm in tpssi insula statnerat urbem 
noTam condere. Ind^, nt apparoit ' magnsB sedis insolam 
hand capacem, elegit nrbi locum ubi nunc est Alexandria, ap- 
pellationem trab^B ex nomine auctorlB : complexnB quidqnid loci 
est inter palndem et mare, 'octoginta stadiortim mnris ambitom 
destinat; et qni sedificand» nrbi praeessmit relictiB, M^m- 
pbim petit. Cnpido, band injnsta quidem, caeteriim *intem- 
pestiya inoesserat, non interiora modd ^gypti, sed etiam 
^ iBtbiopiam inyisere. Memnonis Titbonique celebrata regia 
cognoscendse yetuErtatis ayidum trabebat pene extra terminos 
Solis. Sed ^imminens belhim, cujus mult6 major snpererat 
moles, otiosse peregrinationi tempora exemerat. Itaque 
^gypto prsefecit ^sobylum Rhodium, et Peucestem Maee- 
donem, quatuor millibus militum in prsesidium regionis ejus 
datis : 'claustra Nili flumints Polemonem tueri jubet; triginta 
ad hoc triremes datie. AMcdd deindd, quse ^gypto juneta 
est, praepositus AppoUonius; yeotigalibus ejusdem Afric» 
^gyptique, Gleomenes. Ex jEmitimiB urbibus commigrare 
Alexandriam jussis, ^ noyam urbem magn& multitudine imple- 
yit. Fama est^ ciim Bex ufbis futursB muros polentd, ut Ma- 
cedonum mos est, destindsset, ayium greges adyoldsse, et po- 
lentd esse pastas. Ctlmque id omen pro tristi a plerisque esset 
aeceptum, respondisse yates, magnam illam urbem adyenarum 


fireqaentiam 'oultniam, multiflqae eam terns alimenta pr»bi- 

32. Begem, odm seono^ aame deflveret, aaaeqni onpiaBfl 

Hector, Pannenioois fiiius, eziiiiio letatia iore, 'in pmieii 

Alexandro canus, parvam naviginm oonsoexi^t; ploribna qxkkm 

capere poaeet impoaitis. Itaque xoena nam omnas deatitoit. 

" Hector ditL flunini obhiotatos, oiim madena veatia, et aatoioti 

erepidiB pedes natare prdbiberooit, in ripam tamen semtaiuaua 

eyasit; etntprimam fatigains spiritttm lajanrit, qnem matnaat 

periottbun intenderant, nullo adjutnnte (<|aipp^ in diTeraom 

eyaserant alii) exanimatna eat Bex ^' amiaai ejus dedderio ye* 

bementer afflictas eat, repertnmqne ocnrpoa magnifioo ** extolit ta^ 

nere. Onerayit bone dolorem nonoioa mortia Andromadbi, 

qnem prssfecerat Sjrna» : yiynm Samaritse oreraayarant Ad 

enjos interitnin yindicandnm, quanta maxim& eeleritate potnit^ 

cantmidit: adyenientiqne annt traditi taoti aoeleria anetorea. 

Andromaoho deindd Memnona anbatitnit; affeetis sapplimo, 

qui prsetorem interemerant. Tyrannoa (inter eoa, Metbym- 

naeornm Aristonienm) et Cbryaobram) papnlaribna ania tradi« 

dity qnoB illi ["innnraeraa] ob injorias tortoa neeay«tuil 

Atbeniensiiun deindd, Bbodiommque, et Obiomm legates 

audit. Atheni^ses yietoriam ^* gratnlabantnr, et, nt oi^yl 

Grsecomm aois restitnerentur, orabant. Bbodii et Obii de 

praesidio querebantnr. Omnes aaqna deaiderare yiai, impetra- 

verunt. Mitylenadia qnoqne, ob egregiam in pifcrtea auaa fidem, 

et peconiam quam in bellnm impenderant, obaidea reddidit, et 

magnam r^ionem finibna eormn adjeeit. Oyprionun qnoqne 

regibua, qni et a Dario defee^ant ad ipsnm, et oppngnanti 

T jrum miserant ekasem, pro merito bonos babitns eat. Am- 

photerna deind^ olaaaia praefeotna ad liberandam Oretam mi8< 

sua, (namque et Peraarum et Spartanomm armia ^*pleraqne 

ejus insul» obsidebantur,) " ante omnia mare a piratieia olaaai* 

bus vindicare jusans : qnippe " obnoxinm prsadombna erat, in 

beilum utroque Bege conyerso. Hia eompoaitis, Herooli Ty- 

rio ex auro orateram, onm triginta pateris, dioayit: imminena 

g[ixe Dario, iter ad Enpbratem pronnneiari joaait 


IX. 33. At Darius e^m ab ^gypto diveriisse in Afineam 
boBtem comperisBety dubitaverat, utmmne oirca Mesopotamiam 
^ aubnsterelby an iateriora regni sui peteret ; ' baud dubi^ po- 
tenlior aactor prasseas f aturus ultimis gentibas impigr^ belkim 
eapessendi, quas segrd per PrsdfeQtos buob moliebatar« * Sed, 
Qt id(»eiB aaotoribas fajnavulgayit, Alexandrnm com omnibos 
copiis, quamcumque ipse adiiaset regionem) petitnmm, * baud 
ignaruB, quam oum strenno res esset, omnia longinqnaram 
gentium auxilia Babylonem contrabi jussit. Baetriani, Scy- 
thasque, et Indi oonyenerant. Jam et cseteranim gentium 
oopia» * partibuB simul affueru&i. Ca&teriim etm dimidio fermd 
migor esset ezercitus, qu4m in Oilioiil fnerat, multis anna 
deerant ; quee sunmid. our4 comparabantur. Equitibus equis- 
que tegumenta erant ex ferreis laminis, Berie inter Be oonnezis. 
' Queis ante^ prster jacula nibil dederat, scuta gladiique adji- 
<^ebantur : equorumque ' domandi greges p^ditibus distributi 
aunt : ut major pristino esset equitatus; ing^asque, ut credide- 
rat, terror hostium, duoentse falcat» ' quadrigse, ' unioum ilia- 
rum gentium auxilium, seoutsB sunt. Ex summo temone bas- 
tgd praefix» ferro eminebant. Utrimque a jugo temos direxe- 
rant gladios ; et inter radios rotarum plura spicula eminebant 
in adversum. Alise deinde faloes '^ summis rotarum orbibus 
baerebant, et " alias in terram demissad, quidquid obvium con- 
citatis equis fuisset, amputaturad. 

34. Hoc ml^do instructo exercitu, ao perarmato, Babjlone 
eopias movit. A parte dextrd erat Tigris " nobilis fluvius : 
laeyam tegebat Euphrates : agmen Mesopotamias campos im- 
pleyerat. Tigri deindd superato, c^m audisset baud procnl 
abesse bostem» Satoopatem equitum praefeotum cum miUe 
delectis praemisit, Mazaoo PraDtori sex millia data, quibus bos- 
tern trabffltu amnis areeret. ^ Eidem mandatum, ut regionem, 
quam Alexander esset aditurus, popularetur, atque ureret: 
quippe credebat, inopi& debellari posse nihil babentem, nisi 
quod rapiendo oooupdsset. Ipsi autem commeatus, alii terr4, 
alii Tigri amne subvebebantur. Jam pervenerat Arbela vi- 
eum, " nobilem buH clade faoturus. Hio commeatuum saroi* 


raffiUiKpe majore parte dq)08it&, Lyean aauMm ponte jmudi, 
et per dies qumqae, ** nevt ant^ EhtpbiateiD, trajeeit exeroi* 
turn. Inddoologiiita ferd stadia progressas, ad alteram amneBi 
(Beumelo nomen est,) oastra posuit. ^ Opportusa explkaadia 
eopiis regie erat, eqnitabiHs et yasta planities : ne stirpes qm- 
dem et brevia yirgi]lta operiimt solum, Uberqve pTOiq>eet«B 
octtlonoB, etiam ad ea qiue preenl reoess^re, permiititiff. 
Itaqne, '^si qpJi campi eminebant, jassit flsqaari totuaqoe 
faatigiiim extendi. 

86. "«Alexandre, qui numenim eoiaanim ejus, qiiamliim 
procul cenjec1»ri peterant, sdstimabant, yix feeenmt fidem, toi 
miUibas esesis majores eopias esse reparatas. Cseteriim, omiiis 
perioali, et maxim^ mvltitodinis eontemptor, ''imdeoiaus cas- 
tris peryenit ad Enphratem : quo pontibns jmeto, eqmtSB 
primes ire, phalangem seqni jtibet ; Maz»o, *" qui ad inhibeii- 
dmn transitum ejus emn «ex millibns eqnitom oe ca nerat, non 
anso " periealtim sni faeere. Paaeis deinde, son ad quietem, 
sed ad repar&ndos asimoe, diebos datis militi, strennd hostem 
inseqni oc&pit, metnens ne interiora regoi sui peteiet, sequeii- 
dnsque esset per loca omni solitodane atqiie inopi^ yasta. 
Igitnr quarto die ^ prfldter Arbela penetrat ad Tigrim. Tota 
regio Tolixh amnem reeenti fomabat ineendio ; qnippd Manens, 
qiueenmqae adierat, band seeds qaim bostis nrebal Ae prim6 
caligine, qnam ftimiis efinderat, obscnrante Inoem, insidianim 
metu sabstitlt. Demdd nt speenlatores prsemissi tota omnia 
nnnciayenint, paueos equitam ad tentandum yadmn flominis 
praemisit: cojos altitodo primd smnma eqnenim pectora, 
mox ut in medinm alyemm yestam est, oeryiees qnoqiie 
seqoabai : nee sui^ '* alius ad Oxientis pbgam tam yiolentas 
invehitiur; multonim toirentiimi non aquas solilm, sed etiam 
saxa secum trabens. Itaqne a eeleritate, qii4 defloit, 2*igri 
nomen est inditiun, quia Persies ]mga& Tigrian sagittam ap- 

37. ^* Igitnr pedes, yelut diyisas in eevnnay ^mroumdato 
equitaia, leyatis saper capita amus, band aegre ad ipsom 
alyeum penetrat. Primus inter pedites Eex egressns in ripau, 


^admn miUtiliiw mana, qnaadd yox ezaadki mm potomt, 
oateadit : sed gradom firmare vix potaaat, o^ ** mod^ saza 
labrioa vestiigimiL faUerent^ modo raiadic» nadft subdncesetu 
Prasoipaus erat labor eorum, qui humeris oxiera poriabant; 
qnippd cilm semetipsos regere non poaeeiit, in rapidos gnrgites 
ineommodo oiiere aufereba&tur. Et dibn saa qnuique spoMa 
oonsoqni ^*Btiidet, major inter ipsos, qoim oom amne orta 
liu)tatio est ; onmulique sareinamm passim floitantes plerosqne 
perculerant. Bex ^^monere, ut satis Jhaberent «ma retinere; 
oietera se redditoriun. Sed neqae consiliimiy n^ne imperium 
aoeipi poterat. Obstrepebat hino metos; prueter Imnc, ^ib- 
yioem nutantium mntims clumNr. Tandmo, qa^ leniore tracilii 
amnis aperit vadum, emers6re : nee qnidquam pxseter paneas 
sarcinas desideratom est. 

38. Deleri potnit ezeroitus, si qois ausos esset v}noer& 
Sed perpetua fortima Begin avertit inde hostean. Sio Gram- 
cum, tot millibns equitum peditmoqiie in nlteriore stanttbna 
rip&, "saperayit; sio aogiuMas m Oilioisd caUibns, tantam 
mnltitndinem hostinm. *^ Aadaei» quoqne , qnd. maxime vigoit, 
ratio minni potest: quia nunquim. in discrimen yenit, an 
temere fecisset. Maaaeus, qni si transeBntiboa fluioen super- 
veBosset, hand dubie of^ressums fuit ineompofiitos, in ripel 
demiim, et jam perarmatos adeqnitare co&pit. MiUe admoddm 
eqnites praomiseraty qnonim paueitate Alexander explonita, 
deindd contempt&^ praefeetum Paoonum equitum Aristona laxa^ 
tis babenis inyehi jttssit. Insignis ep die pngna equitum, et 
praaoipud Aristonis, foit Praefeotnm equitet^ P^saram 
Satrapatem, directs in gatture hast^^, tranaixit; fugientemque 
per medios bostea oonaeoatna, ex eqno praseipitayit, et oblno- 
tanti caput gladio dempsit : '^ quod relatum mag&& eum laude 
ante Begia pedes poauit. 

X. 89. Biduo ibi Bex statiya haboit. In proximum de* 
indd iter pronunciari jussit. Sed prim& ferd yigili^, Luna 
^ defioiena prim^im nitorem edderia sui ' oondi^ : deindd san- 
guinis colore Bufiuao, lumen omne foedayit : * aolUeitiaqne sub 
ipaum tanti diacriminis oaaum ingena religio, et ex e& fonnido 

LIBER ,IV. CAP. X. 09 

qosBdam inoosM est Biifl iimtis in vkoiuui ienM trabi m 
qnenbastar. Jam nee flm^na peeee adnri, nee eidera ptieli- 
num pneetare Iblgorem. YastaB terras, deserta omnia ooenr- 
rere: ^in naiiui homlnis jaotationem tot millinm aangnmem 
impendi: fiutrtidio esse patriam, abdieari Pldlippnm patrem, 
oCbbammoB oogitattonibos petL Jam prope seditionem res 
arat, cdm ad omm» interritas, dnees, prineipesqne militom, 
frequentes adesse piasterio ; jSlgyptiosqne Tfttes qnos ooeli ae 
sideram perittssimos esse oredebat,* quid sentirent, expro- 
mere jnbet. At ilM, qui satis scirent, * temporom orbes im- 
plore destinatas Tiees, Lnnamqne defieere, oi!^m ant terram 
snbiret, a;at Sole praneretnr, rationem qnidem ipsis perceptam 
non *edoeent valgus; eeeberiim affirmant, Solem GrsBeonun, 
Lnnam esse Persamm ; qnoties ilia defieiat, roinam stragem- 
qne iUis gentibos ported! Yeteraqne ezempla pereensent 
Persidis Begmn, qnos adyersis Dus pngnisse Lun» osten- 
disset defeetio. Nulla res dSieaidf^s mnltitadinem re^t, 
qudm snp^rstitio: alioqni 'impotens, sseiva, mntabilis, nbi 
van4 religione oapta est, mdii^s vatibns, qu&m dneibns sols 
paret. Igitnr edita in volgas JEgyptiomm responsa nirsite ad 
Bpem et fidnnam erex^re torpentes. 

40. Bex impetn animomm ntendmn ratos, seconds vigilid 

oastra movit * Dextod Tigrim habebat, a h&yk montes, qnos 

Crordaos vocant. Hoe ingresso iter, specolatores, qui prsB- 

missi want, sub hieis ortom, Darinm adventare ntmciavenmt. 

Instracto igitnr miHte, et oompodto agmine anteoedebat. Sed 

Persamm exploratores erant mille ferme, qui speeiem magni 

agminis feeerant; qnippd nbi eiqpiorari rertL non possunt, 

falsa per metnm angentnr. His eegnitis, Bex enm pancis 

suoram asseoatus agmen refiigientiiim ad snos, afios eeeidit, 

alios oepit; eqaitesqne prssmisit specnlatom, nmnl nt ignem, 

quo Barbari crema^rant tioos, extingnerent ; qnipp^ fngientes 

raptim teotis ao^visqne fnunoiti injeeerant flammas, qu» 

Biim in snmmo bsasissent, ad inferiora nondi!lm penetrarerant. 

Eljctineto igitnr igne, phirimnm fifnmenti repertnm est; eopift 

ilianun qaoqne remm abnndare oopemnt. Ea res ipsa militi 


»d pers^uendnm hoAlem animmn inoendit; qnifp^ nxenie ei 
popoliuite 60 terrami festiDaiidum erat, ne incendio Ganota 
prs&riperet In rationom ergo neoessitas versa: qmppe 
MasaraBy qui antea ' per otium yiooa ino^derat, jam fugere 
oontentttS, pleraque inviolata hosti reliquii. Alexander kaud 
loDgii\a centum quadragiata stadiis Darium abeaae oompereiai. 
Itaque ad satietatem quoque copi& eommeataum iBStractus, 
quatriduo in eodem looo substitit. 

41. Interoeptsd deinde Darii litterad sunt, quibus Grseci 
milites soUicitabaatur, ut Eegem interficerenty aut prodereat: 
dubitayitque an eas pro ooncione reeitaret, satia eonfiaus Gr»- 
corum quoque erga se beneyolentiad ac fidei. Sad PanBenio 
deterrult, non esse talibus promiasis imbu^ndas aures militnm 
a&rmans ; ^^ patere yel unius insidiis Hegem : nihil nefaa esse 
ayaritise. Secutus consUii auotorem, castra movit. Iter 
facienti, spado unus ex: captiyiS) qui Darii uxorem eondia- 
bantur, deficere eam nunciat, et yix spiritum duoere* Itaneris 
continui labore animique a^itadine fatigata, inter socrOs et 
yirginum filiarum manus ^^eollapsa erat^ d^nde et extincta. 
^^ Id ipsum nuncians, alius supervenit. £t Bex, baud seeito, 
quim si parentis mors nunciata esset, crebros edidit gemitos; 
lacrjmisque obortis, quales Darius profddisset, in tabema- 
culum, in quo mater erat Darii, defuncto assidens eorpori, 
yenit. Hie yerd renoyatus est moeror, ut prostratam bumi 
yidit: recenti male priorum quoque admonita receperat in 
gremium adultas yirgines, magna quidem mutui doloris solatia, 
sed quibus ipsa deberet esse solatio. In eonspeotu erat nepos 
paryulus, ob id ipsum miserabilis, " quod nondillm s^tiebat 
calamitatem, maxima ex parte ad ipsum redundantem. Cre- 
deres Alexandrum inter saas necessitudines fiere, et solatia non 
adhibere, sed quierere. Cibo eerte abstinuit, omnemque 
bonorem funeri, patrio Persarum more, seryayit : ^* dignus her- 
cule, qui nunc quoque tant» mansuetudinis et continentisB 
ferat fruotum. S^nel omnind eam ''^yiderat^ quo die oapta 
ist, nee ut ipsam, sed ut Darii matrem yideret : eximiamque 


ptdcliiitiidin«m fonn» ejus, non liMdinifl balmeFftt inoitanieii» 
turn, sed glori». 

42. E spadonibuB, qmi oirea Keginam erant, Tyriotes inter 

trepidationem lagentium elapsas, per earn portam, qua», quia 

ab hoste aversa erat, leritls costodiebatur, ad Darii eastra 

pervenit : ezeeptasque a yigilibtis, in tabemaonlnm Regis per* 

duoitnr gemens et yeeie laoerat&. Qnem ut conspezit Darioa, 

moltiplioi doloris exapectaiione commotiu, et, quid potissimi&m 

timeret, ino^tne : " Ynltns tans," inqnit, '^ ^'neacio qnod in* 

gens malum prsofert : sed " care miseri bominis auribus paroas ; 

didici enim esse infeliz ; et saepd ealamitatis solatium est ndsse 

Bortem suam. Num, quod mazimd suspioor, et loqui timeo, 

''ludibria meomm nunciatums es mihi, et (ut credo) ipsis 

quoqne (»nni graviora supplioio ? " Ad fasBC Tyriotes : **• Istud 

quidem prooul abest," inquit. ^ " Quantuseumque enim Be> 

ginis bonor ab iis, qui parent, baberi potest, tuis a viotore 

serratus est : sed uxor tua pauld antd excessit e viti." Turn 

Ter6 non gemitus modd, sed etiam ejulatus totis castris exau- 

diebantur. Neo dubitayit Darius, quin interfeota esset, quia 

nequisset oontumeliam patt : exclamatque amens dolore : ^Quod 

ego tantum nefas oommisi, Alexander ? Quern tuorum pro- 

pinqnorum necavi, **ut banc Tieem snTiti» me» redchui? 

Odisti me, non quidem prorooatus. Sed finge jnstnm intulisse 

:e bellum: cdm foominis ergd agere debueras?" Tyriotes 

iffirmare per Decs f^trios, nihil in earn gravius esse consul- 

um. Ingemuisse etiam Alexandrum morti, et non paroii\8 

levisse, qu^m ipse laorymaret. Ob base ipsa, amantis animus 

a sollicitudinem suspicionemque reyolutus est : " desiderium 

aptivse profbctd a consuetudine stupri ortum esse oonjectans. 

lubmotis igitur arbitris, uno duntaxat Tyriote retento, jam 

on flens, sed suspirans : ^ Yidesne," inquit, <^ Tyriote, locum 

lendacio non esse ? Tormenta jam bio erunt : sed ne expec- 

],v€nris *" per Decs, si quid tui tibi Regis reyerentise est ; num, 

aod et scire expeto, et quserere pudet, ausus est et Dominus 

b juyenis?" lUe "qussstioni corpus offerre, Decs testes in- 

^care, ^* castd sanctdque babitam esse Reginam. Tandem, ut 


fides facta est, ¥era esse qiue affirmttret spado, eapite 
did flevit : manantibusque adhuc lacrymis, veste ab ore rejee- 
tfi, ad ooBlam manas tendens : *' Dii patrii," inqnit, *' primdm 
mihi stabilite regnum : deinde, **si de me jam traasaotnm est, 
preoor, ne qnis potids Asi» Bex sit, quim iste tarn jartas 
hostis, tarn misericors viet<Nr." 

XI. 43* Itaqae qnanquam, pace fnistr^ bis petitd, omnia 
in bellum consilia oonyertwat ; viotus tamen continraii^ hosiis, ' 
ad novas pacis conditiones ferendas, decern legates oognatoram 
principes, misit : qoos Alexander oonsilio advooato introdnoi 
jossit E qnibns maximus nata: "Darium," inquit, "ut 
paoem a te jam hoc terti6 peteret, nnila vis snbegit ; sed jiisd' 
tia et continentia tua ^ expressit Matrem, conjagem, liberos- 
que ejus, nisi qu6d sine illo sunt, oaptos esse non sensit. Pu* 
dioiti» earum, qusa supersnnt, curam, baud secus qu4m parens, 
agens, Reginas appellas, speciem priatin» fortunse retinere 
pateris. Yultum tuum video, qualis Darii fait, cdm dimitte- 
remur ab eo ; et ille tamen uxorem, tu boston luges. Jam in 
acie stares, nisi cura te sepultor» ejus moraretur. Eoquid 
mirum est, si tarn ab amioo animo paoem petit ? Quid opus 
est armis, inter quos odia sublata sunt? Antea imperio tno 
finem destinabat Halyn amnem, qui Lydiam terminat Nunc, 
quidquid inter Hellespontum et Euphratem est, in dotem 
filisB offert, quam tibi tradit Ochum filium, quem babes, 
pacis et fidei obsidem retine. Matrem et duas virgines filias 
redde; 'pro tribus oorporibus 'triginta millia talentdm aori, 
precatur, accipias. Nisi moderationem animi tni * notam ba- 
berem, non dieerem hoc esse tempus, quo pacem non dare 
sohim, sed etiam oceupare deberes. Bespice, quantum post 
te reliqueris, intuere quantum petas. Periculosum est * prse- 
grave imperium; 'difficile est continere, quod capere non 
possis. Yidesne ut navigia, qum modum excednnt, r^ ne* 
queant ? ^ Nescio an Darius ide6 tam multa amiserit, quia 
Dimia» opes magnsD jactur» locum &ciunt Facilius est qua»- 
dam vinoere, quikn tueri : quam, hercul^, expeditiiis manua 
nostr» rapiunt, quim contin^t ! Ipsa mors uxoris Darii te 

LIBE& IT. CAP. XI. 68 

ftdmoneie potost, "iniiiiui jam miaemordi» tarn Imroy q«4a 

44. Alezander, legatis ezoedere tabenuMnlo jqabis, quid 
)laQeret, ad consiUam refert. Di^ n«ao, quid eentiret, «nras 
;st dicerO) incert& Regis Toluntate. Tandem Pannenio: 
'Antd saaflisaeiii)" ait, '^ut eaptiyos apod Dasiaaeiim redi* 
aentibns redderes : ingentoii peeoniam potniase redi^ ex lis, 
ui mnlti vineti Tirorom fortinm oomqmrent manus. £t nuno 
lagnoperd oeDsereniy at nnam anum, et doas puellas, itineram 
^minumqae impedimenta, triginta mflHboB tale&ttlm auri 
srmutes. Opirnnm regnnm oooapari posse eonditione, non 
3II0 : nee qnemqaam alinm inter latrnm et Eupliratem posse- 
sse terras, ingenti spatio iatervaHoqize disoretas. Maoedoniam 
loqne respiceres potiAs, qoAm Baotra et Indos iatnereris." 
igrata ora<»o Begi fait Itaqoe at fibem dioendi feoit, ^' £t 
0,'' inqait, ^' peouniam qaim gloriam mallem, si Pannenio 
sem. * Nnno Alexander de paapertate ^** seooros som, et 
) non mercatorem memini esse, sed Begem. Nihil qoidem 
beo venale : sed fortanam meam atiqad non Tendo. Capti- 
3 si plaeet reddi, honestii'is dono dabimos, qa&m pretio 

45. Introdaetis deind^ legatis, ad irano modom respcmdit; 
^unciate Dario, me, qo» feeadm cl^nent» et liberaliter, 
i amioitis^ ejos tribaisse, sed natorse meao. Bellom com 
tivis et foeminis gerere non sdeo ; armatoa lut oportet, qaem 
rim. Qa6d si saltan paeem b(msl fide peteret, deliberai;em 
sitan aa darem. " Yertlm enim ver6, cum ^' modd-militea 
>s litteria ad proditionem, modd amioos ad pemioiem meam 
iinid Bollioltet, ad intemeoionem mihi perseqoendas est, non 
ustus hoatia, aed at peroaaacur yeoefioiis. Oonditkmea yerd 
Ls, quas adfertia, si aooepero^ vietorem earn faoiont, Qum 
>st Euphiatem aant, ^* liberaliter denat. " Ubi igitor me 
mim ? nempd okra Eaphraton som. Sammam erg6 dotb, 
m promittit, tenniimm caatra mea tnmaeunt. Hino me de- 
ite, ut sciam Teetrom eaae qao ceditia. £&dem liberalitate 

mild filiam aoam, ^'nernpe qoam aoio alicai aerrorom 


mioriim naptaffam. " Moltiki T6ir6 mHii piMtat, si me M«»bo 
genemm pnepomt t lie, nunciate Regi vestro, et quas amisitj 
et qiuo adhuo habet, pnamia eiise belli ; '' boo regente utriusque 
tenninos regni, id quemque babiturum, quod proximse lacis 
assignatara fortona est." Legati res^ndent: onm bellum 
in aaimo sit, faoere enm ^*' simpliciter qudd f^pacis non 
frustraretor : ^mos petere, qpkax . primillm dimittantur ad Be- 
gem : eum qnoque beUum parare debere. Dimissi nunciant, 
adesse certamen. 

XIL 46. nie quidem confestim Masasum coni tribm 
millibas equitom, ad itinera, qme bostis petituxus erat,. ooca- 
panda, pisamisit. Alezandei, oorpori nzoris ejus justis peiso- 
latis, omniqae ^ gFavi<»re oonutatu intra eadem manimenta com 
modieo prsesidio relicto, ad bostem oontendit. In duo cornua 
diyiserat peditem, utrimque latera eqoite ciroumdato : impedi- 
menta seqaebantur aginen. PrsDmissum deinde ' concitis 
equis Menidam jnbet explorare, ubi Darios esset. At ille, 
et^m Mazaons baud procul oonsedisaet, non ansus ultrd pro- 
oedere, nibil aliud qu4m fremitnm b<»ninum, binnitumqne 
equoram ezaudlsse nnnciak Mazsras qnoqne, oonc^ectis pro- 
cul exploratoribus, in castra se reoipit, adventds bostinm nonr 
oius. Igitnr Darius, qui in patentibns campis decemere opta- 
bat, armari militem jubet, aciemque disponit. In ladvo oorna 
Bactriani ibant equites, ^mille admodi!lm; PabsD totidem; 
et Arachosii, Sosianiqae qnatuor milMa ezplebant» Hos 
centom faloati ourrus seqaebantur. Proximus qnadrigis 
erat Bessos cum oeto millibus equitum, item Baotriani& 
Massageteo duobns millibas ^agm^i ejus olaudebant: ^pe- 
dites bis plurium gentium non immiztos, aed su» quis- 
que nationis junxerat -oopias. Persas deindd cum Kardis, 
Sogdianisque, Ariobarsanes et Otobates duoebani. lUi parti- 
bus oopiarum ; summ» Orainesprsderat^asepiemPersis oriun- 
dus, ad Oyram quoqae nobilisHmom regem origin^n soi 
veferens. Hos ali» gentes, ne sociis qnidem satis not», 
«eqnebantur. Post quas quinquaginta qnadrigas Phradatee 
magno Gaspianorum agmine airteeeddNit. Iiidi| ofBteriqoe 


*£abri mmB aeeola», ^nomiiia yeri^ qB«a avadUa, pcwt 
carruB erant. daudebatnr hoo agmea aliis faloatis eombtui 
qainquaginta: queis ^ peregrinuin militon adjonzerat. Huno 
Armenii qoos Minores yocanl, Ann^os Babylomi, utroaqiid 
Belit», et qui monteg CoBsaBomm incdebaat, sequebantiir. 
Post ho» ibant Gortose, gentes quidem finboio», Medos qaoD- 
dam seeati, sed jam d^e&^^s, et patrii moris iffuoL Ap* 
plicoerat his Phrygas, et Cataonas. Parthienorom deind^ 
gens, incolentLum terras, qnas nimo Paxtfai SeyUu^ profeeti 
^nent, claadebant agmen. fiaeo emistri eomu aeies fait. 

47. Bextrum tenebat natio majoris Armeniie, Cadnsiiqite, 
Jappadoces, et Syri et MedL His quoqne falcati onxnis ensai 
[oinquaginta. jSiimma tolaufl exeicitds: eqtdtes zly. millia: 
'edestris aeies dueenta ndllia ezpleyerat. Hoc mode iastraoti, 
ecem stadia prooednn^ jossiqiie subsistere, ' armati hostem 
spectab&nt. Alexandii exerdtmn ** payor, oujns eansa non 
iberat, inyaedt : qnippd lympbati tr^idare coepemnt, onmiiim 
3ctora oecolto metu percarreiite. Go&li fiolgor tempore aasiiyo 
rde&ti similils intermtens, ignis prseboit speciem; "iiammas- 
16 ex Barii castris splmidere, yekit iUati temere praBsidiis, 
edebant. Quod si percalsis Maaaeas, qui praeaidebat itineri, 
peryenisset, ingests clades accipi potuit. Nunc, dam ille 
gnis in eo^ qaem oocapay^at, tomolo sedet, eontentos non 
^essi ; Alexander, cognite payore exercittis, signom at c<m- 
terent dari, ante ipsos aima deponere ac kyare corpora 
bet ; admonens, nollam snbiti caosam esse timoris, bostem 
>cul stare. ^* Tandem compotes soi pariter arma et animos 
:eperey neo qaidqoam ^'ex praesentibos tatios yisam est, 
km eodlem loco castra monire. 

48. Postero die Masseas, qai com delectis eqnitom in 
to colle, ex quo Maeed<mam prospidebantar castra, ccmse- 
at, siTe metu, siye qaia ^* speealari modo jassos erat, ad 
rium rediitb Maced(mes earn ipsam oollem, qaem de* 
tieraty occapayeront ; nam et tatior planitie erat, et indd 
3S liostium, qoae in campo ^* explicabator, conspici poterat. 
L ^* oaligo, qoam ciioi homidi e&derant numtes, imiyersaiii 


qnidemTeifflciemiioEabBialit: ettterdm agmiinmi 
atque ordinem, proliilrait perspioL Miillitado inimdaTerat 
campos; fremitosqiie tot miUimn, etiam procol staathim 
aares impleyerat. j^nctoari animo Bex, et mod6 Buum, 
modd ParmenioniB oonsiliiiiii " serd iBStii&atioiie perpemdere : 
qnippe eb yentnm erat, und^ recipi ezeroitus, nisi yictcKr, sine 
dade, BOB posset. Itaqne diflEDmidato pavore, mercenarium 
eqtiitem ex Pseomd prsecedere jobet. Ipse phalangem, edcat 
ante^ dictam est, in dmo conraa eztenderat. XJtnmiqite comn 
equites tegebant. Jamque nitidior Inx, discnssi caligine, 
aciem hostimn ostenderat: et Macedones, mre alacritate, 
''siye tsodio exspeetationis, ingentem pugnantiiiBOL more edi- 
d6re elamorem. Bedditos et a Persis, nemora Yailesque cir- 
cnmjeotas terribili sono impleverat. Nee jam oontiiieri Mace- 
dones poterant, qtdn ^* corsu qnoqne ad hostem contendereDt 
Melius adhi^e ratns Alexander in eodem tomnlo castra mu- 
nire, ** vallton jaci jussit : strenneqne opere peifecto, in taber- 
nacnlmn, ex quo tota acies hostinm conspiciebator, seeesait. 

XIII. 49. ^ Turn Ter6 nniyersa fatori disoriminis iaeies in 
ooulis erat. Armis insignibus eqni virique splendebant ; et 
omnia intentiore card prseparari apud hostem, soUicitndo Prae- 
tonim agmina sua interequitantinm ostendebat ; ac * pleraqne 
inania, sicnt fremitus hominom, eqnoram hinnitas, armorum 
intemitentiom fdlgor, sollicitam exspectatione mentem tnrba- 
verant. * Igitar, sire dnbins animi, nne ut snos experiretur, 
consilium adhibet, quid optimum faotu esset, exquirens. Par- 
menio, peritissimus inter duces artium belli, * furto, non prsdio 
opus esse censebat: *intempest& nocte posse opprimi hostes: 
discordes moribus, linguis, ad hsBC et somno et improviso peri- 
culo territos, quandd in noctum& trepidalione ooiituros ? At 
interdiiY primiim terribiles oeoursuras faoies Seytharum, Bao- 
trianorumque. Hirta illis ora, et intonsas comas esse. Pr»- 
tere^ eximiam vastorum magnitudinem corporum: yanis et 
inanibus militem magis, qulim jnstis fonnidinis causis moveri : 
deindd, tantam multitudinem circumfundi pauoioribus posse : 
non in CiHcisB angostiis, et inviis oallibus, sed in apertd et 

HBi^- --rta>. XIII. Vr 

-pfiAitie dfmiosndmn fore. Omiies f&mA Pftrmeniooi 

assentiebaiit : Polyspercon, haud dubi^in eo oonsffio positam 

victoriam arbitrabatur. Quem intaens Bex, ('namqiie Par- 

menionem nnper acriils quim yellet increpitnin, rursi^s oasti- 

gare non sastinebat,) ' " Latnmcalonim," inqaii, '* et fdmm 

iflta solertia est quam prsecipitis mihi ; quippd iilortim Totnm 

nniettm est, faliere. Me» Yetd glori» semper aut abs^itiam 

Darii, ant angostias locoram, atit "liirtam Boetis obstare non 

patiar: palim luce aggredi certam eat. Male me fortim» 

poeniteat, qu^m yictoriss ptideat. Ad hseo illnd quoqae aooe- 

dit : yigilias i^ere Barbaros, et ia armia stare, ut ne deoipi 

quidem possint, oompertum habeo. Itaqae ad prsaliam vofl 

parate.'^ Sic indtatos ad corpora coraada dimisit. 

50. Barius illud, quod Parmenio snaserat, hestem &otanim 
esse GOBJectans, firssnatos equos stare, magnamqae exeroittlB 
partem in armis esse, ac yigiHas intentiore cur& seryari jnsse- 
rat. Ergd ignibus tota ejus castra falgebant. Ipse com dn» 
cibus propinqaisqne agmina in armis stantiom cironmibat; 
° Solaoa Mithren, sacrmnque et setemum invocans ignmn, ut 
illis dignam vetere gloria, majommque monumentis fortitudi« 
nem inspirarent. Et profeot6 "*si qua divinsB opis auguna 
humand mente condpi possent, "Deos stare seeum. Illos 
nuper Maoedonum animis subitam inoussisse formidinem : 
''adhuc Ijmpfaatos ferri agique, arma jacientes: ezpetere 
Prassides Persarum imperii Deos debitas a yecordibus po&nas. 
Nee ^*ipaum ducem saniorem esse: quippd, ritu ferarum, 
praedam modd, quam ezpeteret, intuentem, in pernioiem, qusa 
inte prasdam posita esset, incurrere. SimiHs apud Macedones 
[uoque sollicitudo erat ; nootemque, velut in eam certamine 
$dicto, metu egenmt. Alexander non ali^s magis territns, ad 
'Ota et preces Aristandrum yocari jubei lUe in candidA 
este, verbenas manu praoferens, capite velato, ^prssibat preces 
legi, Jovem, Minervam Yictoriamque propitianti. Tuao 
uidem sacrificio ritd perpetrate, reliquum noctis acquieturus 
1 tabernaculum rediit. Sed nee somnum capere, nee quietem 
ati poterat. Mod6 e jugo mentis aoiem in dextrum Persancm 

i8 quintT 

oornu "demitiiere ^'agitabat, modd recti fronte cononrrere 
kosti: int^tbn hsBsitare ^^an potitis in Isevtxm detorqueret 
agmen. Tandem grayatnm animi anxietate corpus **altior 
Munnos oppressit. 

51. Jamque lace ortd, duces ad accipienda imperia con- 
▼enerant, insolito circa prsetorium silentio attoniti. Quippe 
aliis accersere ipsos, et interdtlm morantes castigare assueve- 
rat. Tunc ne ultimo quidem rerum discrimine excitatum esse 
mirabantur, et non somno quiescere, sed pavore marcere crede- 
bant. Non tamen quisquam e custodibus corporis intrare ta- 
bemaculum audebat, et jam tempus instabat ; nee miles injussu 
ducisy aut arma c£^ere poterat, aut in ordines ire. Divl Par- 
menio cunctatus, cibum ut caperent, ^' ipse pronunciat. Jam- 
que exire necesse erat : tunc demiim intrat tabernaculum, sse- 
piiisque nomine compellatum, cum voce non posset, tactu ex- 
dtavit. *^ Multa lux/' inquit, '^ est. Instructam aciem hostis 
admovit: tuns miles adhncinermis exspectat imperium. Ubi 
est vigor ille animi tui ? nempe excitare vigiles soles. '^ Ad 
hsec Alexander : ^^ Credisne me prii!ls somnum capere potuisse, 
quim exonerarem animum solUoitudine, quad quietem moraba- 
tur ? '' signumque pugnsd tubi dari jussit. Et ciim in eadem 
admiratione Parmenio perseveraret : " Minime," inqnit, " mi- 
rum est. Ego enim, ci!lm Darius terras ureret, vices excinde- 
ret, alimenta corrumperet, ^ potens mei non eram. Nunc verd 
quid metuam, ctlm acie decernere paret? Herculd votum 
meum implevit ; sed hujus quoque consilii ratio posted redde- 
tur. Yos ite ad copias, quibus quisque prseest : ego jam ade- 
ro, et quid fieri velim, exponam." ^^ Ear6 admodi\m, admonitu 
magis amicorum qudm metu disoriminis quod adeundum erat, 
uti 'solebat munimento corporis : tum quoque sumpto^ pro- 
cessit ad milites. Haud alias tam alacrem viderant Begem ; 
et vultu ejus interrito, certam spem victorise augnrabantur. 
Atque ille proruto vallo exire copias jubet, aciemque disponit. 

52. In dextro comu locati sunt equites, quos Agema ap- 
pellant. Praserat his Glitus, cui jonxit Philotad turmas, 
oaeterosque Prssfectos equitnjn lateri ejus appHcuit. Ultima 


Meleagri ala atabat, qnain phalaax Boquebaior: poet pha* 

langem Argyraspides erant; his Nicanor Parmeiiioiiis iliitf 

praeerat: in subsidiis cum mana 8ii& Ocbdos. Poateum Orea- 

t&Sj Lyncestesque. Post illo» Polyspeioon, d\ix peregrim 

militis. Hujus agminis *^ Amyntas prinoeps erat: Phitippna 

Balacri "regebat eos, "in Bcxttetatem naper aaoitaa. Haso 

deztri comu fiacies emt In Isbto Crateni» PeloponnenaiQBi 

equites habebat, AcbsBorumqoe, et Loorenainm et Male6n, tor* 

mis sibi adjunctis ; bos Tbeasali equites dandebant, Philippo 

duce. Peditum acies eqnitatu tegebator: frona lam coma 

haec erat. Sed ne circumiri posset a mnltitudine, ^ nltimum 

agmen yalid& mana einxerat Cornua quoque subsidiis firmar 

yit : non reet4 fionte, sed a latere poeatis, ut, si hostis cir> 

cttmyenire aciem tentdsset, parata pngnse forent. H!c Agriani 

eranty qnibus Attains praoerat, adjnnctis sagittariis Gretensi- 

bns. ^ Ultimos ordines avertit a fronte, nt totam aciem orbe 

muniret. lUyrii bio erant, adjuneto milite meroede conducto. 

Tbracas quoque simul objeoerat leviter armatos: ''adeoque 

aciem versatilem posuit, ut qui ultimi stabant, ne circumiren- 

tur, verti tamen et in frontem circumagi possent. Itaque 

Qon prima, qudm latera; non latera munitiora ftt§re, qudm 


53. His itd ordinatis praocipit,, ut si fftlcatos cnrrus cum 
remitu Barbari emitterent, ipsi, lazatis ordinibus impetum 
^ecurentium silentio exciperent: baud dubius, sine noxft 
ranscursuros, "si nemo so opponeret. Sin autem sine fre- 
aitu immisissent, eos ipsi clamore terrerent, pavidosque equos 
elis utrimque suffoderent. Qui oomibus prseerant, extendere 
a jussi, ita ut neo circumyenirentur, si arotius starcnt, ^ neo 
3,men mediam aciem exinanirent. Impedimenta cum cap- 
LviSy inter quos mater Hberique Darii custodiebantur, baud 
rocul ab acie in edito colle constituit ; modico prsesidio re- 
cto, liseyum comu, sicut alids, Parmenioni tuendum datum : 
)se in dextro stabat. Nondtim ad teli jactum peryeno-ant, 
\ni Sion quidam transfuga, quanto maximo cursu poterat, ad 
.egeni peryenit, nuneians '^m^prices ferreos in terram de- 


fodkse Pariam) qok hofttem eqaites emissnnxm ease oredetMit : 
notatumqae certo sigao locum, ut fraus a soiB evitari posset 
Asseryari transfogi jusso, duces couyocat, expositoque quod 
Bunciatum erat, monet, ut regionem monstratam. declinent, 
equitemque periculum edoceaat. Gseterum hortantem exer- 
eitus exaudire non peter at, usum aurium iutercipieute firemita 
duorum agminum : sed in conspectu oixoiium duces et proxi- 
mum quemque interequitans alloquebatur. 

XIY. 54. ^' Emeusis tot terras in spem viotoriad de qui 
dimioandum foret, hoc unum superesse discrimen; Granicum 
bio amnem, Ciliciaaque montes, et Syriam, ^gyptumque 
^ prseeuntibus raptas, iagentia spei gloriaeque incitamc^ta " re- 
ferebat. '^ Beprebensos ex fugi Persas pugnaturos, quia fugere 
Don possent : tertium diem jam metu exsangues, armis suis 
oneratos, in eodem vestigio baerere: nullum desperationis 
illorum majus ^indicium esse, quam quM urbes, quod agros 
sues, urerent^ 'quidquid non corrupissent, bostium esse con- 
fessL Nomina modd yaoa gentium ignotarum ne extimesce- 
rent: neque enim ad belli discrimen pertinere, qui ab his 
Scytbse, quiye Cadusii appellentur : ob id ipsum, quod ignoti 
essent, ignobiles esse; nimqudm ignorari yir^ fortes: at 
imbelles, ex latebris suis erutos, nibil prseter nomina afferre. 
Macedones yirtute asseoutos, ne quis toto orbe locus esset, 
qui tales yiros ignoraret. Intuerentur Barbarornm incon- 
ditum agmen: alium nibil praster jaculum habere, alium 
fundi saxa librare ; paucis arma justa esse. Itaque illino 
plures * stare, hinc plures dimicaturos : nee postulare se, ut 
fortiter capesserent praelium, ni ipse casteris fortitudinis fuisset 
exemplum : se ante prima signa dimicaturum : spondere 
pro se, quot cicatrices, totidem corporis decora : scire ipsos, 
unum pene se praedas communis exsortem: in illis colendis 
ornandisque "usurpare yictorias praemia. Haec se fortibus 
yiris dicere. • Si qui dissimiles eorum essent, ilia fuisse 
dicturum; perv^iisse eo, und^ fugere non possent: tot ter- 
rarum spatia emensis, tot amnibus, montibusque post tergum 


objeetiSy iter m patriam et poiatea mfom earn fiioffidiuiL". Sio 
duces, fiio prozimi militum instineti sunt. 

55. DariuB in'l^TO ooma erat, magno Buorum agmiue, 
deleotis eqaitom peditmnqiie atipatus: contempaeratque paa« 
citatOD hoalaa; ^Tanam aciem ease extenais oomibua ratua. 
Cseteriim, aiout oarm eminebat, deztr^ laBY&que ad oircum- 
stantium agmina oculoa mamuque circumferens : " '* Ter« 
ramm," inqnit^ <' qiiaa * Oceamia hiao aUuit, illino daudit 
HeUeapantua, paul6 a&te domini, jam non de glorii, aed de 
aalttte, et quod aaluti prseponitia, de libertate pugnaBdum eat. 
Hio diea impenum, quo nullum ampli^ vidit setaa, aut conr 
Btituet, aut finiet. Apud Gramcum minimd virium parte 
(mm hoste eeriarimus. In Gilksi^ victoa Syria poterat ex- 
3ipere. Magna miuiimenta r^gai Ti^^ atque Eupbratea erant. 
Ventum est ed, undd pulds ne fug» quidem locua eat, omnia 
iam diutino bello exbausta post tergun sunt. Non inoolas 
luos urbea, non eultores habent terras G<mjuges quoque et 
iberi sequuntur lume aeiem : parata hostibua praeda, niai pro 
arisaimiB pignoribua oorpora opponimua. "Quod mearum 
uit partium, exercitum, quem pend immenaa planitiea viz 
aperet, oomparavi Equoa, anna <MBtribui,' commeatua, ne 
i,nta3 muHitudini deessent, proyidi : loeum, in quo ades ex- 
licari posset, elegL Castera in veatr^ potestate sunt : audete 
lodd vincere: "famamqne, infirmiaaimum adveraua fortes 
[ros telum, oonteimiite. Temeritas est, quam adbuo pro 
Lrtute timuistis: quad ubi primum impetum effudit, velut 
(isedam animalia, " emisao aculeo, torpet. Hi verd oampi de- 
rehenddre paucitatem, quam Cilicias montea absconderant. 
idetis ordines raroa, cornna ext^ta, mediam aoiem vanam et 
diaustam. Nam ultimi, ques locarit adreraoa, terga jam 
raebent : obteri mehereuid equorum ungulia poaaunt, etiamai 
1 praeter fakatos cmrms emisero : et bello yicerimua, ai vin- 
cQus praolio: nam ne illis quidem ad fugam locus est. 
Sino Euphrates, illinc Tigris prohibet inclusos: et quae 
ixeA. pro illis «rant, in co&trariom oonversa sunt. Nostrum 
Dbile et «q)editiHn agm^n-est; iUud praedd grave. ZmpU- 


oatos erg6 spoliis noslriB truoidabinms : eademqae res et 
causa victoria erit, et fructus. Qu6d si quern e yobis nomen 
gentis movet, cogitet Macedonum iUic arma esse, ncm corpora. 
Multum enim sanguinis invicem hausimus, et semper gravior 
in paucitate jactura est. Nam Alexander quantuscamque 
ignavis et timidis videri potest, unum '* animal est, et si quid 
mihi creditis, temerarium et' yecors, adhuc nostro pavore, 
qudm sui virtute, felicius. Nihil autem potest esse diu- 
tumum, ^^ Gtti non subest ratio. Lic6t felioitas aspirare yidea- 
tur, "tamen ad ultimum temeritati non suffioit. Prseterea 
breves et mutabiles vices rerum sunt, et fortuna nunquam 
" simpliciter indulged Forsitan it4 Dii fata oidinavenmt, ut 
Persarum imperium quod secundo cursu per ccxzx. annos ad 
summum fastigium evexerant, magno motu conouterent magis, 
qudm affligerent, admonerentque nos fragilitatis human», 
oujns nimia in prosperis rebus oblivio est ^^Mod6 Graecia 
ultr6 bellum inferebamus: nunc in sedibus nostris propul- 
samus illatum. Jactamur invicem varietate fortunad. Yide» 
licet imperium quod mutu6 affectamus, una gens non capita 
Casterum, etiamsi spes non subesset, necessitas tamen stimu- 
lare deberet. Ad extrema pervaitum est. Matrem meam, 
duas filias, Ochum in spem hujus imperii genitum, illam 
sobolem regiae stirpis, illos principes, duces vestros Begum 
instar, vinctos habet: "nisi quod in vobis est, ipse ego majore 
parte mei captivus sum. Eripite ^ viscera mea ex vinculis, 
restituite mihi pignora, pro quibus ipse mori non recuse, pap 
rentem, liberos, nam oonjugem in illo carcere amisi. Credite 
nunc omnes hos tendere ad vos manus, implorare patrios 
Decs ; opem vestram, mis^ioordiam, fidem esqposcere, ut ser» 
vitute, ut compedibus, ut '^ precauo victu ipsos liberetis. An 
creditis aequo animo iis servire, quorum Beges esse fastidiunt ? 
Video admoveri hostium aoiem: sed qu6 propids discrimen 
accede, hoc minds his, quad dixi, possum esse contentos. '^ Per, 
ego vos, Peos patrios, a^temumque ignem, qui praef ertur altari- 
bus f ulgoremque solis intra fines regni mei orientis, per aDtemam 
memoriam Ojri, qui ademptum Media Lydisque imperium 


primus k Per«idem iniolit, Tindieate ab ultimo dedeoore 
nomen geatemque Persarom. Ite alaores ei spe pkni, ut 
qaam gloriam aooepistis a majoribua Testris, poBteris relin* 
quatis. In dextris veBtris jam libertatem, opem, spem fdturi 
temporiB geritis. Efiugit mortem, quisqais contempserit : 
timidissimum quemque ooBseqaitnr. Ipse non patrio more 
soliim, sed etiam ut conspioi posaim, onrru vehor. Neo re> 
3U80 quomifiikB imitemini me, sive fortitudinis ezemplom, sive 
gnavias faeroJ' 

XY. 56. Interim Alexander, ut et demonstratum a trans- 
uga insidiaram locum oireumiret, et Dario, qui lasvum eomu 
uebatar ocourreret, ^ agmen obliquum inoedere jubet. Darins 
uoque e6dem 'suum obvertit, Besso admonito, ut Massa- 
etas equites in laevum Alexandri eomu a latere invehi jube- 
3t. Ipse ante se falcatos ourrus habebat, quos signo dato 
aiversos in bostem effudit. Buebant laxatis babenis aurigso, 
id plures, nondum satis proviso impetu, obtererent Alios 
gd hast» multiim ultra temonem eminentes, alios ab utroque 
tere demiss» faloes laoeravSre. Nee sensim Maoedones 
debant, sed effusd turbaverant fug& ordines. Mazasus quo- 
e peroulsis metnm incussit, mille equitibus ad diripienda 
stis impedimenta ciroumvehi jussis : ratns captives quoque, 
L simul asservabantur, ruptures vincula, ctm sues appro- 
iquantea vidissent. 'Non fefellerat Parmenionem, qui in 
/o coma erat. Proper^ igitur Poljdamanta mittit ad Be- 
a, qui et perieulum ostenderet, et quid fieri juberet^ 
tsuleret. lUe, audito Polydamante: *'Abi, nuncia," in- 
ty '' Parmenioni, si acie vicerimus, non nostra soldm nos 
ai.peraturos, sed omnia, quad bostium sunt occupaturos. 
roinde non est quod quidquam virium subducat ex acie, 
, ut me et Pbilippo patre dignum est, contempto sarcina- 
L damno, fortiter dimicet." Interim Barbari impedimenta 
>averaBt, csBsisque plerisque eustodum, captivi, vinoulis 
jis, quidquid obyium erat, quo armari possent, rapiunt : et 
regati suorum equitibus, M^edonas anoipiti ciroumventos 
> inradunt; *la»tiqi)e cirea Sisjgambim, vicisse Darium, 


ingenti ceede prostrates hostes, ad nltimnm etiam impedimen* 
tis ezutos esse nunciant : qaipp^ eamdem fortunam nbiqad 
esse credebant, et victores Persas ad prsBdam discnrrisse. 
Sisygambis, hortantibus captivis ut animom a moerore alle> 
varet, in eodem, quo antea fuit, perseveravit. Non vox nil» 
excidit ei ; non oris color vnltusve mntatus eat : sedit 
immobilis : (credo, ' pra^oce gandio varita fortunam irri- 
tare,) ade6 nt, quid mallet, intuentibus earn, fuerit incertom. 

57. Inter hseo Menidas prsefectus equitum Alexandri, 
cum paucis turmis opem impedimentis laturus advenerat; 
^incertum, suone consilio, an Begis imperio: sed non. bub- 
tinuit Cadusiorum, Sojtharumque impetum : quippd vix ten- 
tato certamine, effugit ad Begem, amissorum impedimentorom 
testis magis, quim vindez. Jam consilium Alezandri yice- 
rat 'dolor, et ne cura recuperandi sua militem a praslio 
ayerteret, non immeritd yerebatur. Itaque Aretem, ducem 
hastatorum, (^Sarissophoros yocabant,) adyersus Scythas 
mittit. Inter hseo currus, '' qui circa prima signa turbaverant 
aciem, in phalangem inyecti erant. Macedones, ^^ confirmatis 
animis, in medium agmen accipiunt. Yallo similis acies erat ; 
junzerant hastas, et ab utroque latere temerd ^ incurrentixui 
ilia suffodiebant : circumire deinde currus, et ^ propugnatores 
prsBcipitare coBperunt. Ingens ruina equorum auriganunque 
aciem compleyerat. Hi territos regere non poterant: equi 
crebriL jactatione ceryicum, non jugum modd exousserant, 
sed etiam currus eyerterant : yulnerati interfeotos trabebant : 
nee consistere territi, nee progredi debiles poterant. " PaQo» 
tamen eyasdre quadrigae in ultimam aciem, lis, quibus in- 
ciderunt, miserabili morte consumptis ; quipp^ amputata yiro- 
rum membra bumi jacebant. ^* Et quia calidis adbuc volneri- 
btts aberat dolor, trunci quoque, et debiles, arma tamen non 
omittebant : doneo multo sanguine efiuso ezanimati prooum* 

58. Interim Aretes, Scytharum, qui impedimenta diripie- 
bant, duce occiso, grayius territis instabat. Superyen^re de- 
ind^ missi a Dario Baotriani, pugnaaque yert^re fortunam^ 


Malti 6rg6 Macedonnm primo impeta '* obtriti sunt : plnres 
ad Alezandram refugerant Turn Pers» clamore sablato, 
qnalem victores solent edere, ferociter in hostem quasi nbiqti^ 
profligatnm, incurrunt. Alexander territos castigare, adhor- 
tari; praelinm, quod jam elanguerat, solus accendere; oon- 
firmatisque tandem animis ire in hostem jubet. "Barior 
acies erat in Isevo cornu Persarum : namque indd Baotriani 
decesserant ad opprimenda impedimenta. Itaque Alexand^ 
lazatos ordines invadit, et mult& csede hostium invehitur. At 
qui in dextro cornu erant Persee, spe posse eum includi, agmen 
sttum a tergo ^ dimicantis opponunt. '* Ingensque pericnlum 
In medio hserens adiisset, ni equite? Agriani, calcaribus stibdi« 
}is, cironmfusos Begi Barbaros adorti essent, ""aversosque 
^endo in se obverti coegissent. Turbata erat utraque 
cies. Alexander et a fronte et a tergo hostem habebat 
Qui averse ei instabant, ab Agrianis militibus premebantur. 
^actriani, impedimentis hostium direptis, reversi, ordines snos 
icuperare non poterant. Plura simul abrupta a cadteris 
^mina ubicumqu^ alium alii fors miscuerat, dimicabant. Duo 
eges, junctis propd agminibus, praelium accendebant. Plures 
ersse eadebant. Par fermd utrimque num^rus vulnera- 
.tur. Curru Darius, Alexander equo vehebatur. Utrumque 
lecti tuebantur, sui immemores : quippe amisso Bege neo 
lebant salvi esse, nee poterant. Ante oculos sui quisque 
;gis mortem occumbere ducebant egregium. " Maximum 
nen perioulum adibant, quos maxime tuebantur: quippe 
i quisque csesi Begis expetebat deous. 
59. Osetenam, sive ^ ludibrium oculornm, sive vera species 
t, qui circa Alexandrum erant, vidisse se crediderunt pau- 
jm super caput Begis placidd volantem aquilam ; non 
itu armorum, non gemitu morientium territam; diuque 
ia equum Alexandri, pendenti magis, quam volanti similis, 
aruit. Certe Yates Aristander alb& veste indutus, et 
tra prseferens lauream, militibus in pugnam intentis, aycm 
tstravit, baud dubium viotorise auspicium. Ingens ergd 
tritas ao fiducia pfiul6 ante territoa aooeadit ad pugnam ; 


ntique postqaam anriga Datii, qui aBte ipmun sedens eqnoc 
regebat, ha8t& tranafizus est. Neo aut Persse, ant Macedones 
dubitav^re, quin ipse Bex esset oocisus. Lugubri ergb 
ululatUy et incondito clamore, gemitaque, totam ferd aoiem ad- 
hue ssquo Marte pagnantiom, turbav^re eognatt Darii et 
armigeri: "^Isevoque cornm in ftigam efiiiso, destituerant 
ourrum, quern a deztr4 parte stipati in medium agmen rece- 
perunt, Dicitur, acinace strioto, Darius dubit&sse, an fug» 
dedecus honest^ morte vitaret. '*8ed eminens curru, non- 
diim omnem suorum aciem praelio ezcedentem destitaere 
erubesoebat. Di\m inter spem et desperationem hseaitat^ 
sensim Pers» eedebant, et laxaverant ordines. Alexander, 
mutato equo, (quippe plures fatigaverat,) resistentiura adversa 
ora fodiebat, fugientium terga. Jamque non pugna, sed 
osedes erat, oi\m Darius quoque currum suum in fugam yertii 
^* Hserebat in tergis fugientium victor, sed prospectum oculo- 
rum nubes pulyeris, qu» ad coelum ferebatur, abstulerat 
Erg6 baud seci\s qudm in tenebris errabant, ad sonitum 
notad Yocis, ut signum, '^subind^ ooeuntes. Exaudiebator 
tant^ strepitus habenarum, quibus equi eurrum yebentos 
identidem yerberabantur. Haeo sola fugientis yestigia ex- 
cepta sunt. 

XVI. 60. At in laeyo Macedonum comu, quod Parmenio, 
(sicut antd dictum est) tuebatur, ^ longd ali& fortune utrius- 
que partis res gerebatur. Mazseus cum omni suorum equitatu 
yebementer inyectus, urgebat Macedonum alas. 'Jamque 
abundans multitudine aciem circumyehi cceperat, ciim Par- 
menio equites nunciare jubet Alexandre, in quo disorimine 
ipsi essent ; nisi maturd subyeniretur, non posse sisti fugam. 
Jam multum yiso prsDceperat Bex, imminens fugientium ter- 
gis, ciUm a Parmenione tristis nuncius yenit 'Befranare 
equos jussit, qui yebebantur, agmenque oonstitit : * frendente 
Alexandre, eripi sibi victoriam e manibus, et Darium felicids 
fugere, quim sequi se. Interim ad MazsBum superati Begis 
fama peryenerat Itaque quanquam yalidior erat, fortune 
(i^n^en partium territus, perculsis languidids instabat Par- 


menio ignorabat quidem oausun Bok sponte pugn» remiss» : 
sed occasione yincendi strenae est usus. Thessalos equites 
ad se Tocari jubet : ^' Ecqaidy" inquit, '' videtis istos, qui fero- 
citer modd instabant, pedem referre subito payore perter- 
ritos ? Nimirum * nobis quoque Regis nostri fortuna yinoii. 
' Omnia Persaram c»de strata sunt : quid oessatis ? an ne 
fugientibus qnidem pares estis ? " Vera dicere yidebator) et 
spes languentes quoque erexerat : subditis calcaribns proru£re 
in hostem : et illi jam non sensim, sed citato gradu ^ recede- 
bant : nee quidquam fug», nisi qudd terga nondi\m yerterant, 
ieerat. Parmenio tamen ignarus, qu»nam in deztro cornu 
ibrtona Begis esset, repressit suos. Mazseus, dato pugn» 
spatio, non recto itinere, sed majore, et ob id tutiore circuitU| 
['igrim superat, et Babylonem cum reliquiis deyicti exeroitits 

61. Darius, paucis fdg» comitibus ad Ljcum amnem con- 
snderat : quo trajecto, dubitayit an solyeret pontem : quippd 
ostem jam affore nunciabatur. Sed tot millia suorum, que 
ondum ad amnem peryenerant, ponte reciso, pradam hostis 
>re yidebat Abeuntem, ciim intactum sineret pontem, 
ixisse constat, * malle se insequentibus iter dare, quim auferre 
gientibus. Ipse '* ingens spatium fogd emensus, medid ferd 
>cte Arbela peryenit. Quia tot ludibria fortunsd, ducum 
minumque csodem multiplicem, deyictorum fiigam, clades 
inc singulorum, nunc uniyersorum, aut animo assequi queat, 
t oratione complecti? Propemodi^m 8»culi res in unum 
am diem fortuna cumulayit. Alii qua breyissimum patebat 
r, alii diyersos saltua, et ignotos sequentibus calles pete- 
Dt. Eques pedesque confusi sine duce, armatis inermes, 
egris debiles implicabantur. Beinde, misericordi& in 
torn, versi, qui sequi non poterant, inter mutuos gemitus 
jerebanttur. Sitis prsBcipue fatigatos et saucios perurebat, 
isiraque omnibus riyis prostrayerant corpora, prseterfluen- 
1 aqoam. hianti ore captantes. Quam cilm ayidd turbidam 
isissent, ^^ tendebantur eztempld prsecordia premente limo : 
olutisque et torpentibus membris, c^m superyenisset hos- 

78 QVIHTI crRTix 

tis, noyis vnlneribns ezcitabantnr. Quidam, oceiipatia proxi- 
mis riyis, diverterant longiiis, ut, qnidq^d oocnlti humoris 
Qsqndm manaret, ezciperent. Neo ulla aded avia et sicca 
lacuna erat, quse yestigantitun sitim faileret. E proximis 
yero itineri yicis, senum ululatos foBminarumque exaudieban- 
tur, barbaro ritu Darium adbuc Begem clamantiiuiL 

62. Alexander, "ut suprd dictum est, inhibito suomm 
cursu, ad Lycnm amnem peryenerat: ubi ingens mnltitado 
fugientium onerayerat pontem, et pleriqae, ci\m hostis iirgeiet 
in flumen se prsdcipitayerant, grayesqne armis, et praelio ac 
fugS* defatigati, gnrgitibus banriebantar. Jamque non pons 
modd fugientes, sed ne amnis quidem capiebat, agmina sua 
improyide subind^ cmnulantes: quippd nbi intrayit animos 
payor, id solum metuunt, quod primum formidare ccepenmt. 
Alexander, (instantibus suis, impune abeuntem hostem sequi 
" permitteret ;) ^' hebetia tela esse, et manus fatigatas, tan- 
toque cursu corpora exhausta, et prseceps in noctem diei tern- 
pus," ^^causatus est. EeyerS. de IsByo comu, ^*quod adhuo 
in acie stare credebat, soUicitus, reyerti ad ferendam opem 
Buis ^" statuit. Jamque signa conyerterat, cum equites a Par- 
menione missi, illius quoque partis yictoriam nunciant. Sed 
nullum eo die majus periculum " adiit, qu^ dum copiaa re* 
ducit in castra. Fauci eum et incompositi sequebantur oyan- 
tes yictorid. Quippe omnes bostes, aut in fiigam efiusos, aut 
in acie cecidisse credebant. Cilm repente ex adyerso appamit 
agmen equitum, qui primo inhibuere cursum; delude Mace- 
donum paucitate conspectS., turmas in obyios concitayerunt 
Ante signa Bex ibat, *" dissimulato magis periculo, quim 
spreto. Neo defuit ei perpetua in ^* dubiis rebus felicitas. 
Namque praefectum equitatCis ayidum certaminis, et ob id 
ipsum incautiils in se ruentem, bastil transfixit. Quo ex 
equa lapso, proximum, ac deindd plures, eodon tdo confodit 
InyasSre turbatos amici quoque, nee Persse inulti cadebimt* 
quippd non ^ uniyersao acies, qu4m bse ^^ tumultuarise manus 
yehementii!is ini^re certamen. Tandem Barbari, ciim obseurl 
luce fuga tntior yideretur esse, qudm pugna, diyersis agminibua 

1LZBB& V. CAP. I. 79 

stbi^reL Bex eztraordinario perionlo deftmotoB, ineokoiiMi mios 
redoxit ad castra. 

63. Ceoid^re Persanmi) quorum nimiemm Tiotores fiaire 
}otuenmt, millia xl. Maoedonmn mmta qnam ccc desiderati 
iunt. Cseteriim banc yictoriam Rex majore ex parte yirtati, 
[Tiim fortonsB suse debuit; "animo, non (ut antea) loco 
dcit. Nam et aciem peritiBsime instmxit, et promptissimd 
pse pugnayit, et **magno consilio jactoram saroinamm impe- 
imentoromqae oontempait, cxinx in ip8& acie smmnum rd 
ideret esse discrimen : dubioque adbuc pagn» erentu, pro 
Lctore 86 gessit. Perculsos deinde bostes fudit: fogienteSy 
quod in illo ardore animi yix credi potest, pmdentiiks qndm 
ridlus persecutus est Nam si parte exercitiis adbuc in 
;ie stante, instare cedentibos perseyerdsset, aut Bok cnlp& 
ctus esset, aut aliend yirtute vicisset. ^ Jam ai mnltitadi- 
m equitom oocorrentinm extimoisset, yiotori aut foed^ 
giendum, aut miserabiliter oadendum fnit. **Ne duoea 
idem copiarum su& laude fraudandi sunt. Quippe Tubiera 
Lae quisque exoepit, indicia virtutis sunt. HepbsBStionia 
achium ba8t& ictum est. Perdiccas ao Coenus, et ]f enidas, 
^ittis propd ocoisi Et, si yere sestimare MaoedonaSi " qui 
ic erant, yolumus, fatebimur, et Be^m talibua ministris, et 
)S tanto Bege fuisse dignissimoa 

^ • » 



I>ario Medl» fines ingreeso, ArbeliB pofcitor Alexander, «t Baliyloiiei cn^os sttm» 
itado, et eorrapti morea deeeribimtar. 

MUitiboB pnemia proponit, nt ito otimn ezcnteret Btulanam urbem, ao Begam 
se thesanroe redpit, et Sisygamblm solatnr. 

XTadomm regione sapenU, Hadatem pwefeetom, ao deditoa et captlyos tam 
ate, turn immnnltate donat: Pereldeinqiie Intrare cogitanfl, ab Arlobarzane retro- 
e c<^itxir. 


4 Oapttro qaoHam. Iter panels eognitnm apeiiento, Fenanim ezerdtnm fpeo Axi» 
baxxane oodso delet Alexander. 

6. Ad PezsepoUm praperans captlTomm GraBeomm qnatnor mtllia liberst 

S. OpnlenfciasimA Persepoli direptft, interiorem Peraidia r^onem petit, ac Mardormi 
domat genteuL 

7. Alexander in oonyivlo a Thalde alilsqne castrensibna soorUs impnlaost Peraanux 
TCglam iaoendlt: deindd perseqnl Darinm atatoit 

8. Darii anoe ad pngnam hortantis oratlo. 

9. Yariffi magnatnm sententi», ao tnmnltns, 6b Nabarzanla, qui cnm Besso prodi 
ttonls Bodetatem inlerat, oonriliom. 

10. Besai et Nabarzania de Bario prodendo ant oocidendo neflaria deliberatio: qoam 
miria artibns occaltant 

11. InMdioe proditormn Barii aperinntnr, qni Grooomm prsee^u tatomque reepnit 
«oxtlinm, paratns perire, ai salvam esse nollent sni militea. 

12. Beasus Darinm fictiB yerbis et lacrjmla delnsnm oomprebendit, ameiaqne Tine- 
tnm compedibns, in sordido yehlcnio dednd cnrat 

18. Alexander, andlto Darli pexicnlo, ad Persamm exerdtnm oontendfL BeasoB 
antem cnm parricldis aliis arma vnltninqne metnens yictorls, Darinm mnltis confoGsnm 
Tnlnerlbns relinquit, ftigaqno sibi oensnlere conatnr. 

I. 1. QvM interim ' duotu imperioque Alezandri, yel in 
Graocid., yel in Illyriis, ac Thracia gesta sunt, si quaoque * snis 
temporibus reddere yoluero, interrumpendaa sunt res Aaiadj 
' qnas.utiqne ad fugam mortemque Darii nniyersas in oonspecta 
dari ; et sicut inter se cohserent tempore, ita opere ipso con* 
jungi, hand paal6 aptius yideri potest. Igitnr, quas praelio 
apnd Arbela conjmicta sunt, ordiar dicere. Darius medii 
fer^ nocte Arbela peryenerat, eddemqne magnsa partis ami- 
corum ejus ac militum fugam fortona compulerat. Qtiibus 
conyocatis, ezponit, baud dubitare se, quin Alexander celeber- 
rimas urbes, agrosque omni copid rerum abundantes, petiturus 
esset: praedam opimam paratamque ipsum et milites ejus 
spectare. Id suis rebus tali in statu * saluti fore : quippe se 
deserta cum expedite manu petiturum. Ultima regni adhuc 
intacta esse : inde bello yires baud aBgre reparaturum. ' Occu- 
paret sand gazam ayidissima gens, et ex longd fame satiaret 
se auro, mox futura praedas sibi. Didicisse usu, pretiosam 
snpellectilem, peUicesque et spadonum agmina, nihil aliud 
fuisse, qudm onera et impedimenta. Eadem trahentem Alex* 
andrum, ' quibus antei yicisset, inferiorem fore. Plena omni- 
bus desperation is yidebatur oratio, quippe Babylonem urbem 
opulentissimam dedi cernentibus : jam Susa, jam caetera oma* 

LIBB& V. CAP. I. 81 

monta regni, oaiuam belli, Tiotorem oeaoftAaanxm, At ilk 
docere pergit, non ' speciosa dicta, sed uea neoeanria in rebus 
adversis Beqaenda esse. Ferro geri bella, non atuo; viris, non 
urbiam teotis : " omnia sequi armatos. Sio majores snos ]>er« 
culsos in principio rerum, celeriter pristinam repardsse for* 
tonam. Igitur sire confirmatis eorum animis, sive imperinm 
nagis, qakm consilimn sequentibns, Medise fines ingressos est 
2. Pauld post Alexandre Arbela tradnntnr, re^ sapelleo- 
ill, ditique gaz& repleta. Quatnor millia talentilni fiiAre: 
>rsetere4 pretiosse Testes, totius (at saprd dictam est) ezerdtus 
pibns in illam sedem congestis. Ingraentibas deinde morbis, 
aos odor cadaveram totis jacentiam campis yalgayerat, 
iatarii\s castra movit. *£antibas a parte l»v& Arabia, 
iorum fertilitate nobilis regio, ^ campestre iter, est Inter 
igrin et Eaphratem " jacentia tarn aberi, et pingoi solo sant, 
b a pasta repelli pecora dicantur, ne satietas perimat Caosa 
rtilitatis est homor, qai ex atroqae amne manat ; toto ferd 
lo propter yenas aqaanun resadante. Ipsi amnes ex 
rmeniae montibus proflaont, ao ^^magno deind^ aqaarum 
vortio iter, qaod coBperont, perpommt. Dao millia et qoin- 
iiita stadia emensi sant, ^^ qoi amplissimam interrallom circa 
rmenise montes notaveront. lidem cibn ^^Medi» et Oor- 
inoram terras secare cceperant, paolatim in '* arctios coeant, 
^^ quo longiOs manant, hoc angustias inter se spatinm teme 
inquant. Yicini maximd sant in campis, qaos incolsD 
?sopotaniiam appellant : mediam namqae ab atroqae latere 
icladunt. " lidem per Babjlonioram fines in rabram Mare 
>mmpunt. Alexander qaortis castris ad Mennin arbem 
>venit. Gayerna ibi est : ex qa^ fons ingentem yim bitami- 

efPundit ; ade6, at satis constet, Babylonios maros '* ingen- 
operis, hajas fontis bitamine interlitos faisse. 

3. Caaterum Babylonem procedenti Alexandre Maza&os, 

ex acie in arbem earn confagerat, cam adaltis liberis 

»plex occarrit, arbem, seqae dedens. Gratas adyentoB ejas 

> Kegi : qnippe magni operis fatara erat obsidio tam 

nitse urbis. Ad bpc yir illastris, et ** mana promptas, famit- 


que etiam proximo pnelio celobris, et caBteros ad deditiOBem 
sui incitaturos exemplo yidebator. Igitnr hunc quidem 
benignd com liberis excepit. Cseteriim quadrato agmine, 
quod ipse ducebat, yelut in aciem irent, ingredi sacs jubet. 
Magna pars Babylonioram constiterat in muris, avida oognos- 
oendi novam Kegem. Plures obviam egressi sunt. Inter 
quos BagophaneSy arcis et regise pecunise custos, ne studio a 
Mazseo vinceretur, totum iter floribus coronisque constraverat; 
argenteis altaribus utroque latere dispositis, quae non ihure 
mod6, sed omnibus odoribus cumulaverat. Eum dona seque- 
bantur, greges pecorum, equorumque : leones quoque et par- 
dales caveis prseferebantur. ^^ Magi deind^, suo more patrium 
oarmen canentes. Post bos Chaldaei Babjloniorumque non 
vates modd sed etiam artifices, cum fidibus sui generis ibant : 
laudes hi Begum canere soliti ; Cbaldaei siderum motus, et 
statas temporum vices ostendere. Equites deindd Babylonii, 
suo atque equorum cultu, ^^ad luxuriam magis, quam ad 
magnificentiam exacto, ultimi ibant. Bex armatis stipatus, 
oppidanorum turbam post ultimos pedites ire jussit. Ipse 
^^ cum curru urbem, ao deinde regiam intravit Postero die 
supellectilem Darii, et omnem pecuniam recognovit. 

4. CoeterT!lm, ^' ipsius urbis pulchritude ac vetustas, non 
Begis mod6, sed etiam omnium oculos in semet baud immerit6 
convertit. Semiramis eam condiderat, vol (ut plerique ere- 
did^re) Belus, cujus regia ostenditur. Murus instructus 
** laterculo coctili, bitumine interlitus, spatium xxx et duorum 
pedum latitudinem amplectitur : quadrigse inter se occurrentes 
sine periculo '^ commeare dicuntur. Altitude muri ^" centum 
cubitorum eminet spatio. Turres denis pedibus, quam moras, 
altiores sunt. Totius operis ambitus '^ gcclxv stadia com- 
plectitur. ^Singulorum stadiorum structuram singulis die- 
bus perfectam esse, memorise proditum est. ^difioia non 
sunt admota muris, sed ferd spatium unius ^ jugeris absunt. 
Ac ne totam quidem urbem tectis occupayerunt. Per xc 
stadia habitatur : nee omnia ^ continua sunt ; credo, quia 
tutius yisum est pluribus locis spargi. Csetera serunt. 

I^IBBR V. CAF. 1. 88 

oolnntqtie: ut si externa yis ingniat, obsesais alimenta ex 
ipsius urbis solo sabministrentur. Euphrates interfluit, mag* 
Daeque molls '^ orepidinibus ooeroetur. Sed ** omnium opo* 
rum magnitadinem circomyeniimt eayenm ingentes, "in 
altitudinem press» ad aocipiendum impetnm fluminis : quod 
ubi appoBitce erepidinis fastigium ezcessit, nrbis tecta oorri- 
peret, nisi essent specns lacnsque, qui exoipereat* Oootili 
iatercalo stracti sunt. Totum opus bitumine astringitur. 
Pons lapkLeus, flumini impositus, ** jungit urbem. Hie qnoqne 
nter mirabilia Orientis opera numeratus est: quippd £a- 
)hrates altum limum vehit, *'quo penitus ad fundamenta 
jacienda egesto, viz suffulciendo operi firmum reperiunt 
clam. Arense autem subind^ cumulatae, et sazis, quibus 
ons sustinetur) annexse, morantur amnem: qui retentus 
8rii\s, qu4m si libero cursu mearet, illiditur. Arcem quoque 
mbitu yiginti stadia complexam habet: triginta pedes in 
Tram turrium fundamenta demissa sunt. Ad octoginta 
immum munimenti fastigium perrenit. 

5. Super areeii^) vulgatum Gr«ecorum ** £Eibulis miraculum, 
msiles horti sunt, summam murorum altitudinem soquantes, 
ultarumque arborum umbrd et proceritate amosni. Saxo 
pilae, qusa totum onus sustinent, instmctaa sunt. Super 
[as lapide quadrato solum stratum est, patiens teme, quam 
;am injioiunt, et humoris, quo rigant terras, adedque validas 
>ores sustinent moles, ut stipites earum octo cubitorum 
itium crassitudine sequent, in quinquaginta pedum altitu- 
lem emineant, et frugifersd seque sint, ao si terri su4 ale* 
itar. Et, ciim vetustas non opera soliim manu facta, sed 
im ipsam naturam paulatim cxedendo perimat : hado moles, 
e tot arborum radicibus premitur, tantique nemoris pon- 
e onerata est, inyiolata durat : quippd yiginti lati pafietes 
tinent, undecim pedum interyallo distantes, ut procul 
^ntibua sylysB montibus suis imminere yideantur. ^ Sjriae 
rem Babylone regnantem hoc opus esse molitum, memoriao 
iitTim est, ** amore conjugis yictum, quas, desiderio nemo- 
I Bjlyarupique in campestribus locis, yirum compulit 


HAtnno gettiom amoBiutate hujiu operk imitaiL Diatitbi in 
kftc urbe qnkm usquam constitit Bex, neo ullns locus dis- 
oiplinsB militari magis nooait. Nihil urbis ejus corruptius 
moribas, nibil ad irritandas illiciendasque immodioas yolup- 
tates iiutractia&k Conviyales ludi tot& Perside Kegibos 
purpuratisque cordi sunt Babjlonii maximd in yinum, et 
quad ebrietatem sequuntur, *'* effosi sunt *^ Pfi&minaruni con* 
yivia ineuntium in prinoipio modestus est habituSi dein summa 
qnoeque amicnla ezuunt, pauUtimque pudorem profanant ; ad 
nltimom ^(honos aoribos habitus sit) ima oorporum vela- 
menta projiciunt : neo meretrioum boo dedeous est sed matro- 
narum virginumque apud quas comitas habetur vulgati cor- 
poris yilitas. 

6. Inter base flagitia ezeroitus ille domitor Asiaa per 
xxxiY dies saginatus, ad ea quas sequebantor discrimina, 
baud dubid debilior futurus ** fuit, si hostem habuisset. Gae- 
terum, qu6 minus damnum sentirot, identidem ** incremento 
novabatur. Namque ^Amjntas Andromenis ab Antipatro 
Macedonum peditum sex millia adduxit: quingentos praa- 
tere4 ejusdem generis equites. Oum his dg Thracas, adjunc- 
tis peditibus suas gentis tribus millibus et quingentis. £z 
Poloponneso meroenarius miles ad quatuor millia advenerat) 
cum cccLXXx equitibus. Idem Amyntas adduxerat quinqua- 
ginta principum Macedonias liberos adultos ad custodiam cor- 
poris. Quipp^ inter epulas hi sunt Begis ministri. lidem- 
que equos ineunti praelium admoyent, yenantemque comitan- 
tur, et ** yigiliarum yices ante cubiculi fores seryant : magno- 
rumque Praafectorum et Ducum haec ^Mncrementa sunt, et 
rudimenta. Igitur, Rex aroi Babylonife Agathone prassidere 
jusso, cum septingentis Macedonum, trecentisque mercede 
conductis, Praotores, qui regioni Babylonian, et <Ayitati prases- 
sent, Menetem et ApoUodorum reliquit. His duo millia pe- 
ditum cum mille talentis data. Utrique prasceptum, ut ii. 
supplementum milites legerent. Mazasum transfugam Satra- 
pid Babyloniae donat. Bagophanem, qui aroem tradiderat, se 
sequi jussit. Armenia Mithreni Sardium proditori data est 

I^IBlBK V. CAP. II. 85 

Ex peouni4 delude Babyloni» tradit& Maoedennm eqtiiMlms 
sexceni denarii tributi : peregrinus eqiies qtungenos aooepit : 
^^duoenofi pedes, trimn stipenditun mensiam. 

II. 7. His it^ compositis, in regionem, qiue Satrapene 
Tocatur, pervenit. Fertilis terra, copia renun, et oinni com« 
meata abundans. Itaqne ^ diutius ibi substitit ; ao, ne desides 
otio demitterent animos, judices dedit, prsemiaque proposuii 
de rirtnte militari certantibns. Novem, qui fortissimi judicati 
essent, singuHs miHtum millibus prsefuturi erant, {Chiliar^ 
chas Yoeabant,) tunc primiim in hnnc nnmenun copiis distri* 
butis. 'Namqae anted qningenari» cohortes fnerant, neo 
fortitndinis praemia cesserant. Ingens militom tnrba convene* 
rat, egregio interfatura certamini, testis ' eadem cujosque fiuv 
torum, et * de jndicibos latora sententiam : quippd rerdne an 
*aIso honos caique haberetur, ignorari non poterat. Primoi 
)mmu]n virtutis causd donatus est Atharrias senior, qui omis- 
;um apud Halicamassum a junioribus prselium, unus maxim^ 
.ccenderat ; proximus ei Antigenes visus est ; tertium locum 
i^hilotas Angeus obtinuit ; quartus Amyntse datus est ; posfc 
OS Antigonus, et ab eo Lyncestes Amjntas fuit ; septimum 
7cam Tbeodotus ;****; ultimum obtinuit Hellanieus. In 
isciplind quoque militaris rei pleraque a majoribus tradita 
immk utilitate mutavit. Nam ci^m antd equites in suam quis- 
le gentem describerentur, seorsiim a caeteris ; exempto na- 
onurn discrimine, Prsefectis, non utiqu^ suarum gentium, 
d, delectis attribuit. TubS, c^lm castra movere yellet, sig- 
fiu dabat; cnjus sonus plerumque, tumultaantium fremita 
oriente, baud satis exaudiebatur. Ergd perticam, quas un- 
ique oonspici posset, supra prsetorium statuit; ex qud 
rnmu eminebat pariter omnibus conspicuum. Observabatur 
lis noctu, fumus interdii^. 

8. Jamque Susa ' ei adituro, Abulites regionis ejus Pne- 
!tas,'siye Darii jussu, ut Alexandrum prseda retineret, sire 
t sponte, filium obviam misit, traditurom se urbem promit- 
ls. Senigne juvenem exeepit Bex, et eo duce ad Ohoaspen 
nem perrenit, delieatam (ut fama est) vehentem aquam. 


H!o Abnlites oum donis T«galis opnlenti» oconirit. Droma- 
des cameli inter dona erant, velocitatis ezimiae: daodeciic 
Elephant! a Dario ex Indid acciti; non jam terror (ut spera- 
verant) Macedonnm, sed auxiliom ; opes vieti ad yictorem 
traosferente fortune. Ut vero urbem intrayit, incredibilem 
ex tliesaaris sommam peonnise egessit, quinquaginta millia 
talentilm argenti, ^non signati forma, sed rudi pondere. 
Molti Beges tantas opes longS> 8Btate cumulayerant liberis, 
posterisqne, ut arbitrabantur ; quas una hora in extern! Regis 
manus intulit. Gonsedit deind^ in regia selld, multd exoel- 
siore, qudm pro habitu corporis. Itaque ci\m pedes imum 
gradum non contingerent, unus ex Eegis pueris mensam sub- 
didit pedibus ; et ci\m spadonem, qui Darii fuerat, ingemis- 
centem conspexisset Bex, causam moestitiae requisivit. Hie 
indicat, Darium yesc! in ed solitum : seque sacram ejus men- 
gam ad ludibrium recidentem sine lacrymis conspicere non 
posse. Subiit ergo Begem verecundia yioland! hospitalea 
Peos. Jamque subdue! jubebat, ci\m Philotas: ^^Minime 
yer6 hsee feceris, Bex, sed omen quoque aecipe : mensam, ex 
qua libayit hostis epulas, tuis pedibus esse subjectam." 

9, Bex, Persidis fines aditurus, Susa urbem Arcbebo, 
et prsesidimn trium millium tradidit. Xenophilo arcis oura 
mandata est ; Macedonum setate grayibus prsesidere arcis 
custodise jussis. Thesaurorum Callicrat! tutela permissa. 
Satrapia regionis Susiance restituta AbulitL Matrem quoque 
Darii et liberos in esldem urbe deponit. Ac fortd Macedo- 
nicas yestes, multamque purpuram dono ex Macedonia sibi 
missam, cum his, quad cam confecerant, trad! Sicygamb! jussit, 
(omni namque honore eam, et filii quoque pietate proseque- 
batur,) admonerique, ut si cord! quoque Testis esset, con- 
ficere eam neptes suas assuefaceret, Monoque doceret dare. 
Ad banc yocem laorymse obortae prodiddre animum aspeman- 
tis id munus : quippd non aliud magis in contumeliaan Per- 
sarum foeminas accipiunt, qudm admoyere Ian» manus. Nun- 
ciant, qui dona tulerant, tristem esse Sisygambim ; dignaque 
res excusatione et solatio yisa. Ipse erg6 peryenit ad eam, 

L IB S& V. CAP. Ill, 87 

3t, ^^ Mater," kxpiit, <^ lumo yestem, quk indntas sum, mxto* 
iim non solum donum, sed etiam opus yides. Nostri deoep^re 
ne mores. ' Cave, obseero, ^^ in contumeliam aodpias ignor»» 
ionem meam. Quae tui moris esse oognoyi, ut spero, abnnde 
ervata sunt. Soio "apnd vos filiom in conspectu matriB 
efas esse considere, nisi ci\nL ilia peimisit : qnotiescomqne 
d te yeni, donee, nt considerem, annneres, restitL Procnm- 
ens yenerari me saepd yoloisti ; inhibuL Dulcissim» matri 
'Ijmpiadi nomen debitom, tibi reddo." 

III. 10. Mitigate ^ejns animo, KeK qnartis castris per- 
init ad Tigrim fluyium. Pasitigrim incol» yocant Oritur 

montibus Uxiormn, et per l stadia sjlyestiibns ripis prss- 
ps inter saxa devolyitor. Aocipinnt deindd enm campi, 
OS clementiore alveo preeterit, jam 'nayium patiens, dc 
idia sont mollioris soli, per quod leni traotu aqnarom Per- 
mari se insinnat. Alexander, amne superato, cum iz 
Uibus peditum, et Agrianis sagittariisque et Grsecorom 
rcenariis militibus, in additis millibus Thracum, in re- 
>nem Uxiorum peryenit. Finitima Susis est, et in primam 
rsidem exourrit : arctum inter se et Susianos aditum relin- 
ms. Madates erat hujus regionis Praafectus, baud sane 
mporum bomo. Quippe ultima pro fide experiri decreverat. 
'. periti locorum Alexandrum docent, occultum iter esse per 
es, et aversum ab urbe : si paucos misisset leyiter armatos, 
3r eapita bostium eyasuros. Ci\m consilium placuisset, 
m itinerom fuerunt duces : mille et quingenti mercede con- 
\,ij et Agriani ferd mille Tauroni Prsefecto dati, ac post 
{ occasum iter ingredi jussL Ipse tertid yigili^ castris 
IS, circa lucis ortum superayerat angustias: ceesdque 
^ria cratibus et pluteis fiaciendis, ut qui turres admo- 
Qt, * extra teli ictum essent, urbem obsidere coepit. Pra^ 
a erant omnia, saxis et cotibus impedita. Multis ergo 
eribas depulsi, ut quibus non cum boste soh\m, sed etiam 

loco dimicandum esset, subibant tamen; quia Eex inter 
OS constiterat, interrogans, "tot urbium yictores an 
3scerent haerere in obsidione castelli exigui et ignobilis 


flimnl ? " Jam inter iueo eminds petebatur ; earn, testttudinc 
objects, milites, qui, ut inde discederet, perpellere nequiTe 
rant, tuebantur. 

1 1. Tandem Tauron super arcem urbis se cum suo agmine 
ostendit : ad cujus conspectum, et animi hostium labare, et 
Macedones acrids prselium inire coeperunt. * Anceps oppida- 
nos malum urgebat, neo sisti vis hostium poterat. Faucis ad 
moriendum, pluribus ad fugam animus fuit. Magna pars in 
arcem concessit. IndS triginta oratoribus missis ad deprecan- 
dum, triste responsum a Eege redditur, non esse yenias locum. 
Itaque suppliciorum metu perculsi, ad Sisygambim Darii 
matrem, occulto itinere, ignotoque hostibus, mittunt, qui 
peterent, ut ipsa Begem mitigaret, baud ignari parentis earn 
loco diligi, colique. Et Madates sororis ejus filiam secum 
matrimonio junzerat, Darium propinqu^ cognatione contin- 
gens. Did Sisygambis supplicum precibus repugnavit; 
* abnuens deprecationem pro illis convenire fortunas, in qui 
esset : adjecitque, metuere sese ne yictoris indulgentiam 
fatigaret, ssepivlsque cogitare, captivam esse se, quam reginam 
fuisse. Ad ultimum yicta, litteris Alexandrum iti depre- 
cata est, ut ipsam excusaret quod deprecaretur : petere se 
ut illis quoque, ^ si min\\s, sibi ignosceret : pro necessario ac 
propinquo suo, jam non hoste, sed supplice tantum yitam 
precarL Moderationem clementiamque Kegis, 'quad tunc 
fuit, yel una hsec res possit ostendere: non Madati mod6 
ignoyit, sed omnes et deditos et captiyos libertate atque im- 
munitate donayit, urbem reliquit intactam : agros sine tribute 
colore permisit. ' A yiotore Dario plura mater non impetrds- 
set. Uxiorum deinde gentem subactam, Susianorum Satra- 
piaa '° contribuit : diyisisque cum Parmenione copiis, ilium 
campestri itinere procedere jubet : ipse cum expedito agmine 
jugum montium cepit, quorum perpetuum dorsum in Per si- 
dem exeurrit. 

12. Omni bao regione yastatd, tertio die Persidem, 
quinto angustias, quas illi Susidas Pylas yocant, intra! 
Ariobarzanes has cum yiginti quinquo m illi bus peditum oocu- 

LIBBB, V. CAP. lY. 89 

payerat rapes, abfloissas et undiqu^ prsBrnptas, in qnanim 
^acuminibus extra teli j actum J3arbari stabant, " de indus- 
>ni quieti, et paventibus similes, doneo iq arctissimas fauoes 
)enetraret agmen. Quod ubi contemptu sai pergere yident, 
um yard ingentis magnitudinis saxa per " montium prona 
eyolyunt, quad incussa ssepiils subjacentibas petris majore 
i incedebant : nee singulos modo, *' sed agmina proterebant. 
undis quoque excussi lapides, et sagittao nndique ingereban- 
ir. Nee id miserrimum fortibns yiris erat, sed qn6d 
ulti quidem, ferarum ritu, velnt in fovei deprehcnsi, csede- 
ntur. Ivk igitur in rabiem yersli, eminentia saxa oomplexi, 

ad hostem peryenirent, alius alium leyantes conabantur 
cendere : ^* ea ipsa multorum simul manibus correpta et 
lyulsa, in eos, qui commayerant, recidebant ^' Neo stare 
id, neo niti, ne testudine quidem protegi poterant, cilm 
itse molis onera propellerent Barbari. Begem non dolor 
d6, sed etiam pudor temerd in illas angustias conjeoti 
ircittis angebat Inyictus ante earn diem fuerat, nihil 
strsL ausus : impune Ciliciae fauces intrayerat ; ^' marl quo- 
> noyum iter in Pampbyliam aperuerat. Tunc "hsesitabat 
rebensa felicitas ,* neo aliud remedium erat, qudm reyerti 
la yenerat. Itaqua signo receptui dato, densatis ordini- 
, scutisque super capita consertis, retrd eyadere Bex aogus- 
jnbet : triginta fu^re stadia, quas remensi sunt. 
lY. 13. Turn castris undique aperto loco positis, non 
mltare mod6 quid agendum esset, sed yates quoque ad- 
re eoDpit a superstitione animi. ^ Sed quid tunc praedi- 

Aristander, cui tum plurimum credebatur ex yatibus, 
rat ? Itaque damnatis intempestiyis sacrificiis, peritos 
*um conyocari jubet. Per Mediam iter ostendebant 
n apertumque : sed Bex deserere milites insepultos eru- 
)bat, it^ tradito more, ut yix ullum militisa tam solemne 

luuniis, quam humandi sues. Captiyos erg6, quos nuper 
)erat, vocari jubet : inter quos erat quidamvGrsec» Fer- 
ae linguae peritus, qui frustr^ eum in Persidem . mon* 
dorso ezercitum ducere a&mat : sylyestres esse caUes, 


Tix siDgalis penrios, omnia ooniegi frondibns, ' implexosque 
arborum ramos Bylvas oommittere. Namque Persia ab altero 
latere perpetuis montium jugis clauditor, * quod in longitudi- 
nem mdc stadia, in latitudinem clxx procarrit. Hoc dor^ 
sum a Caucaso monte ad * rubrum Mare pertinet : * quaque 
defioit mons, aliud munimentum, fretum objectum est Plan!* 
ties deinde sub radicibus montium spatiosa 'procumbit 
fertilis terra, multisque yicis atque urbibus frequens. Araxes 
amnis per bos campos multorum aquas torrontium eyolvit in 
Medum. Medus ad mare, meridiem versiis, ^ minor amnifi 
eo quern accepit, evebitur; gignendseque berbas non alios 
est aptior, quidquid alluit, floribus vestiens. Platani quo- 
que et populi oontegunt ripas, " ita ut procul visentibos con- 
tinuata yideantur montibns nemora riparum. Quippe obum- 
bratus amnis, presso in solum dilabitur alyeo : imminentque 
coUes, ipsi quoque frondibus laeti, radices eorum humore 
subeunte. Eegio 'non alia tot4 Asi& salubrior babetur: 
temperat ocelum bine perpetuum jugum oj)acum et umbrosum, 
quod aBstus leyat ; illinc mare adjunotum, quod modico tepore 
terras foyet. 

14. His oaptiyus ezpositis interrogatus a Rege, auditone 
an ooulis comperta baberet, quad dicerot : pastorem se fiiisse, 
et onmes eos calles percurrisse respondit ; bis eaptum, semel 
a Persis in Lycid, iterum ab ipso. Subit animum memoria 
Begis oraculo editaa sortis. Quippe consulenti responsum 
erat, duoem in Persidem ferentis yisa Ljcium ciyem fore. 
'"Igitur promissis, quanta et praesehs necessitas exigebat, 
et ipsius fortuna oapiebat, oneratum, armari jubet Mace- 
donum more : et, quod bend yerteret, monstrare iter; quamyis 
arduom et praaceps, eyasurum se esse cum pauois : nisi forte 
crederet, qu6 ipse peooris causS isset, Alexandrum pro gloria 
et perpetu& laude ire non posse. Etiam atque etiam docere 
captiyus, qu^m difficile iter esset, mazimd armatis. Tum 
Rex: '^Praedem me," inquit, ^'accipe, neminem eorum qui 
sequuntur, recusaturum ire qu^ duces." " Cratero igitur, ad 
oustodiam castrorum relicto, cum peditibus queis assueyerat, 


et iis copiis, qaas Meleager ducebat, et sagittarus eqiiitibiui 
mille, piwcipit, at oastrorom specie manlBnte, plnres de in- 
dustri4 ignes fieri imperaret, qud magis Barbari eredereiit| 
ipsum Begem in castris esse. Caeterilm, si forte Ariobarsa&ea 
cognovisset, per callitiin infraetas '*eum intrare, et ad ooea- 
pandom iter sutim, partem eopiamm tentdsset opponere ; Gra- 
terus, in emn ^* illato terrore, retineret ad propins pericnlum 
;onTerstun agmen. Sin autem ipse hostem fefellisset, et sal- 
um oocapdsset, etan. trepidantium Barbaromm tmnoltom 
xandisset ^* persequentinm Begem, id ipsnm iter, quo pxidi^ 
>ulsi faerant, ne dnbitaiet ingredi : qtdppe Tacanm fore, hosti* 
'US in semet ayersis. 

Id. Ipse terii^ vigili^, silenti agmine, ao ne tab& quidem 
ato signo, pergit ad d^nonstratnm iter callinm. Tridni ali* 
tenta portare miiitem jnsserat leviter armatom. Sed praster 
ivias rnpeS, ao pra&rupta saxa, yestiginm snbinde falleatia, 
X cnmulata yento ingredientes fatigabat. Qnippe yelat in 
yeas delati banriebantnr, et ctm a commilitonibns leyaren- 
ir, trahebant magis adjuyantes, qnam seqnebantnr. Noz 
loque, et ignota regio, ac dnz, (incertum an satis fidos,) 
altiplicabant ^^metum, si costodes fefellisset, qnasi feras 
stias ipsos posse deprebendi. Ex nnios captiyi yel fide 
I anim^, pend^e et Begis salntem et suam. . Tandem 
i6re in jngom. A deztr4 iter ad ipsom Ariobarzanem erat. 
e Pbilotam et Ooenon cam Amynt^ et Polysperoonte, expe- 
am babentes manom, reliqoit, monitos, '< at quia ^' eqaes 
liti erat ndztos, et qua pingaissimom esset solam, et pa* 
1 fertile, sensim proeederent." Daces erant itineris de 
itivis dati. Ipse com umigeris, et alS, qaam Agema ap- 
lant, ardad semit^, sed longixls a stationibas bostiom re- 
fcd, miilt^ cam yezatione proeessit. Medios erat dies, et 
gatis necessaria quies. Qnippe tantamdem itineris euper- 
b, qnantom emensi erant, sed min^s prsedpitis atque ardaL 
][ue refectis dbo somnoqae miiitibos, "seeandd yigilid 
;it, et c»tera quidem baud segre prseteriit Gseteribn, 
se j-ogom montiom paulatim ad planioi» demittit, ^"in- 


gens Torago, eonoorsa cavata torrentinxn, iter mperat. Ad 
lueo arborom rami aHiiB alio implieati et oohaerentes, nt 
perpetuam objeoerant sepem. Desperatio igitixr ingens, aded 
«t vix laorymiB abstinerent, inoesserat, Prsdoipud obscuritas 
tarrori erat. Nam etiam, si (pad aidera *' internitebaaiy 
eontinenti fronde tect» arbores conspiowe prohibebant. Ne 
anrimn qnidem ttsos sapererat; sylvas qnatiente yento, qui 
eoncatientibiia ramis majorem quam pro flatu sonum edebat. 

16. Tandem expectata lux omnia, quad terribiliora nox 
fecerat, minnit. Oircnmiri breyi apatio poterat eluvies, et 
aibi quisqne dux itineris coeperat fierL ^^ Evadunt ergd in 
editom verticem, ex quo bostium statione conspeetsl, streane 
aimati a tergo se ostendimt nibil tale metnentibiis, quorum 
panci, qui congredi ausi erant, oeesi sunt. Itaqae bine morien- 
timn gemitos, bino ad aaos recurrentiom miserabilis facies, 
integros quoqne, antequam discrimen experirentnr, in fugam 
avertit. Frendtu deindd in oastra, qneis Gratema prseerat, 
illato, ad occupandas angostias, in quibns pridie luBsitdrat, 
miles educitnr. Simul et Pbilotas cum Poljaperconte, 
Amynt^ue et Cobuo, diyersom iter ingredi jussus alium ter- 
rorem intnlit Barbaris. Erg6 undiqud Macedonum armis 
fulgentibus, ancipiti malo oppressi, memorabile tamen prso- 
lium edunt Ut opinor, ignayiam quoque neoesaitafl acuit ; et 
saspe desperatio spei causa est. Nudi complectebantur arma- 
tos, et ingenti corporum mole secnm ad terram detrabentes, 
ipsorum telis plerosque fodiebant Ariobaraanes tamen xl 
fermd equitibus et qninque nullibus peditum stipatus, per 
mediam aciem Maoedonum oum mnlto suorom atque bostium 
sanguine erupit; Persepolim urbem caput regionis ocoupare 
festinans. Sed a custodibus urbis exclususi conseontia 
strenne bostibus, emu omniboa fug» oomitibus renoyato prae- 
lio oeoidit. Gratems quoque raptim agmine aoto superyenit. 

Y. 17. Rex eodem in loco, quo bostium cc^ias fuderat, 
oastra communiyit. Quanquam enim undique fugati bostes 
yictoriam conoess^ant, tamen praealtee pneoipitesque ^ foss», 
pluribuB lods objeotao, abruperant itw, seasimque et oaate pro- 

LIBSJt V. 9AT. V. M 

gredienchem ent; jam son hoeliiiia, sed looomm fruide siuk 
peotli. Proeedenti ei liUeis» ladduntor a Tyridate costoda 
regi» pecomie; 'indicantes eos, qui in urba essent, aadito 
ejus ad?eniiiy diripere velle thesauroB; properaret oooopaia 
dimiflsos: *ezpediliiin iter eaee, qaanqoam Arazea amais 
interflnat NuUam yirtsftem Begis iatius magbi quim oela* 
ritatem laudaTerim: relictis enim pedeetribua copiia, tottl 
nocte oam eqnitiboB itineris tanto spatio fatigatia, ad Ay^-^yAm 
pnm& luce perremt. Yioi erant in propinquo : qaibua direp- 
tis ao diratis, pontem ex materia eoram subditia aazia atrennji 
indnzil Jamqne hand proeul urbe erant, otuaa, miaerabila 
igmeiiy ^ inter paaoa Ibrtniuo exempla memorandum, Begi 
>cciirrit. GaptiTi erant Grteci ad quatuor millia fere, qoof 
?er8SB Tario aiq^ciorum mode a£fecerant Alios pedibuSi 
nosdam manibus auribuaque amputatis, inuatiaque barbara» 
am litterarum noiis, in longum sui ludibriom reaervairerant ; 
b c^m 80 quoque alien» ditionis eaae oemerent, volentea 
3gi ooourrere non prdnbuerant. Inusitaia aimukera, am 
omines yidebantur, nee quidquam in i&lia preeter Yoeem pote» 
it agnoBcL Plnres igitur laerymas commoydre, qoAm pro* 
iderant ipsi : quippe in tam multipliei yaridque fortani au^ 
ilorum, ^intuentibuB 'eHmiles quidem, sod tamen diq)ares 
enas, quia maxime miaerabilia esset^ liquere non poterat» 
t yerd Joyem iUi tandem Gneciie ultorem aperuiaae oeoloa 
nolamay^re, ^ omnes pari auppli^ affeoti ,8ibi yidebantur. 
Bx, abaterais, qoaa profdderat laorymia, bonum habere anip 
im jubet; yianroa urbes anas, conjugeBque: et caatra inda 
o ab orbe stadia communit. 

18. Graeci exeeaaerant yallo, deliberaturi, quid potiflsimiim 
Rege pet^rent. GiUuque aliis aedea in Asid rogare, aliia 
rerti demos plaeeret; Suihjmon Cjnuans iH locutus ad 
i fertur : * '' Nos qui modo ad opem petendam ex tenebria 
sarcere prooedere erubuimus, ut nuno eat, supplicia nostra 
onun nos pudeat magis, an poeniteat, incertnm eat) osten- 
e Graseiad yelut l»tum spectaeolum cui»mns. At ii optimd 
jeriaa fenint, qui abscondunt: nee ulla eat tam 'familiaria 


infelimbafi patria, qn^m solitado, et gtatCiB pri(»ifl oblivio. 
Nam qui multum in suormn misericordi& ponunt, igiunrant 
"qnim oeleriter lacrymaB inarescant Nemo fideliter diHgit. 
qnem fastidit : nam et oalamitas quernla est, et saperba felid' 
teg. lik snam qoisque fortunam in consilinm habet, o^m de 
alienlk deliberat: et "nisi muta6 essemos miaeri, olim alios 
alii potcdssemos esse fastidio. Quid ndrum est fortunatos 
semper parem quaBrere? Obseoro vos, olim vit^ defuncti 
quaeramus locum, in quo hsBO semesa membra obruamus, 
nbi horribiles cicatrices celet exilium. " Grati prors^s con- 
jugibus, quas juvenes duximus, revertemur 1 Liberi in fiore 
et setatis et rerum, ut patres, agnoscent ergastoli "detrimenta? 
£t ^* quota pars nostri tot obire terras potest ? procul EnropiL 
in ultima Orientis relegati, senes, debiles, majore membrorom 
parte mulctati, tolerabimus scilicet quad armatos et victores 
fatigaverunt ? Conjuges deinde, quas captis sors et necessitas 
imicum solatium appliouit, parvosque Hberos trahimus nobis- 
eum, an relinquimus ? Cum his venientes nemo agnosceie 
volet Kelinquemus erg6 extempld prsesentia pignora, oi\m in- 
certum sit an visuri simus ea qu» petimus ? Inter hos laten- 
dum est, qui nos miseros n6sse cseperunt." 

19. Hseo Euthymon. Contri Thesetetus Atheniensis onms 
est dicere : " Neminem " pium babitu corporis sues sestuna- 
turum ; utique ssevitid bostis, non naturd calamitosos. Dignum 
esse omni male, qui erubesoeret fortuita: tristem enim de 
mortalitate ferre sententiam, et desperare miserioordiam, quia 
ipse alteri denegaturus sit. Peos (quod ipsi nunquam ausi 
optare forent) offerre patriam, conjuges, liberos, et quioquid 
homines vel " yit& aestimant, yel morte redimunt. " Quin illi 
ex hoc carcere erumperent: alium domi esse o»li haustum, 
alium lucis aspeotum. Mores, sacra, linguss conmierGium 
etiam a Barbaris ezpeti, qu» ^ ingenita ipsi omissuri sint sua 
sponte : non ob aliud tam calamitosi, qu^ qudd illis carere 
coacti essent. Se certd rediturum ad penates et in patriam, 
tantoque benefieio Regis usurum. Si quos contubemii, libero- 
rumque, quos servitus co^gisset agnosoere, amor detineret| 

LIBBlt V. OAF. VI. 9§ 

reliaqnerent, qnibus nil patri^ oarius est." Fauci httjos 
«nti» fn^re. Gsdteros ^ cosmietndo, natnrd potentior, vioit 
^oDsensenmt petendiun esse a Bege, ut aliqnam ipsis afttri* 
meret sedem. Centum ad hoc lecti sunt \ qnos Alexander 
atus, quod ipse praaetare eogitabat, petitoros : " Jomentay" 
aqait, '^assignari, qn» yos yeherent, et singulis yestriim 
lille denariiim dari jussL Oibn redieritis in OrsBciam, 
prsestabo, ne quis statum suum, '^ si hsdc calamitas absit, 
3stro oredat esse meliorem." Illi, obortis lacrymis, terram 
ituebantur, neo aut erigere yukus, aut loqui audebant. 
andem Kege tristiti» oausam exigente, Euthymon similia 
i, qusd in consilio dizerat, respondit. Atque ille, non for- 
nse soliim ecwum, sed etiam " pcenitentise misertuSi tema 
illia denaridm singulis dari jussit. Den» yestes adject» 
nt, et annenta cum pecoribus ao fmmento data, ut coli 
rique attributus iis ager posset. 

YI. 20. Postero die conyocatos duces copiarum dooet, 
11am infestiorem urbem Ghrsecis esse, quam regiam yeterum 
Tsidis Begum. Hino ilia immensa agmina ^ infusa : bino 
;rium priiis, deinde Xerzem, Europ» impium intulisse 
lum. Excidio ilUus parentandum esse migoribus. Jam- 
3 Sarbari, deserto oppido, qua quemque metus agebat, 
fugerant; e^m Bex phalangem nil cunctatus inducit 
Itas urbes refertas opulenti& r^id partim expugn4rat, 
tim in fidem acceperat. Sed urbis hujus diyiti» * yioftre 
sterita. In banc totius Persidis opes congesserant Bar- 
i : aurum, argentumque cumulatum erat : yestis ingens 
ins : sopellexy non ad usum mod6, sed ad ostentationem 
da comparata. Itaque inter ipsos yictores ferro dimica^ 
IT. Pro boste erat qui pretiosiorem 'occupayerat prse- 
I. « ^ £t cVim omnia quie redpiebant, oapere non possent^ 
L res non occupabantur, . sed sBstimabantur. Lacerabant 
as vestes, ad se quisque partem trabentes : dolabris pre- 
» artis yasa caedebant : nihil neque intaotum erat, neo in- 
nnx ferebatur. Abrupta simulacrorum membra, ut quis- 

ayellerat, trahebat: neque ayaritia soliim, sed etiam 


oradelitas in oapti urbe grassata est Amro, argentoqne 
onusti, yilia captiyorum corpora traoidabant, 'passimqae 
obvii cflBdebantnr, quos antei pretiam eoi nuBeralnles feeerat 
Molti ergd hostium mairas volantarii morte occapayerant, pre- 
tioBi88iiD& yestium indutiy e murifi semetlpsos cum conjugibns 
ao liberis in prsDceps jaotantes. Quidam ignes^ ' quod paal6 
post faoturos hostis yidebator, subjeoeraut sddibus, at earn snis 
yiyi cremarentur. Tandem ^ suis Bez corporibus, et cnlta 
foBminarum abstinere jussit. Ingens pecnnia» captiy» modnB 
traditor» propd nt fidem exoedat. Gs&teri\m ant de aliis quo* 
que dnbitayimns, ant oredemns in hnjns nrbis gazd faisse *c 
et XX millia talentdm: ad qu» yebenda (namqae ad nsus 
belli seenm pbrtare deoreyerat) jumenta et oamelos a Sofiu 
et Babylone oontrahi jussit. Acoessdre ad banc peooni» 
summam captis Persagadis sex millia talentiim. Gyms Per* 
sagadum urbem condiderat, quam Alexandro Prflsfectas ejus 
Gt>bares tradidit 

21. Eex arcem Persepolis, tribus millibus Maoedonum 
prsBsidio relictfs, Nioarthiden tueri jubet Tjridati quoque, 
qui gazam tradiderat, seryatus est honos, quern apud Darium 
habuerat; magnaque exeroittis parte, et impedimentis ibi 
relictis, Parmenionem Graterumque prsefeeit. Ipse cum mille 
equitibus, peditumque expedite mann, interiorem Permdis 
regionem, sub ipsum ' Yergiliarum sidus petiit: mnltisque 
imbribus et prope intolerabili tempestate yexatus, procedere 
tamen, qn6 intenderat, perseyerayit. Yentum erat ad iter 
perpetuis obsitum niyibus, ^ quas frigoris yis gelu adatrinze- 
rat. Locorum squalor et solitudines " inyi» fatigatom mill* 
tern terrebant, humanarum rerum terminos se yidere creden- 
tern. Omnia yasta, atque sine nllo humani culti\s yeatigio, 
attoniti intuebantur: et "antequam lux quoqne et cc&lum 
ipsos defioerent, reyertl jubebant. Bex oastigare territos 
^ supersedit : ossterdm ipse equo desiliit, pedesque per niyem 
et ooncretam glaciem ingredi ceepxt. Embnerunt non aequi, 
primiim amici, deindd oopiarum duces, ad ultimum milites. 
Primusqoe Bex dolabr& glaoiem perfringens, iter sibi feoii 

LIBER ▼. CAP. VII. 97 

emplam Regis osBteri imitati siint. Tandesn propemod^m 
ias sjlyas emensi, humani ealtds rara yestigia, et passim 
antes peeoram greges reper^re : et incoIsB, qm Bparsis 
uriis habiiabant, ci\in se callibns inyiis septos esse credi- 
(60 1, nt coDspezSre hostimn agmen, ^interfectis qui fd- 
ites comitari non poterant, devios monies, et obsitos 
ibus petiyerunt. Indd per colloquia captiyoram panlatim 
}ate mitigate, tradiddre se Regi. Neo in deditos graviils 
iultam. Yastatis deinde agris Persidis, yioisqne eom* 
ibas redaetis in potestatem, yentam est in Mardorum 
;em bellicosissimam, et multdm a cseteris Persis cnlta 
> abhorreotem. Specus in montibns fodiant, in quos se- 
ac coDJuges, et liberos oondont. Pecomm ant ferarom 
3 yescnntar. '* Ne foeminis qnidem pro natnro habita 
iora ingenia sunt. Comae prominent hirtse, yestis super 
a est. Fundi yinciunt firontem: hoc et omamentum 
is, et telum est. Sed banc quoque gentem idem fortunsB 
tus domuit. Itaque trigesimo die, postquam a Perse- 
profectus erat, e6dem rediit. Dona deindd amicis cseter- 

pro cujusque merito dedii Propemodillm omnia, quae in 
be ceperat, distributa. 

II. 22. Caetertim ingentia animi bona, illam indolem, 
mnes Beges antecessit, illam in subeundis periculis con- 
am, in rebus 'moliendis efficiendisque yelocitatem, in> 
»s fidem, in captiyos clementiam, in yoluptatibus per- 

quoque et usitatis temperantiam, baud tolerabili yini 
tate foedayit. ' Hoste et aemulo regni reparante turn 
aaximS bellum; nuper subactis, quos yicerat, noyum- 
iperium aspemantibus ; ' de die inibat conyiyia, quibus 
e intererant, non quidem quas yiolari nefas easet : quippe 
es, licentius quim decobat cum armato yiyere assuetsD. 

una * Thais, et ipsa temulenta, mazimam apud omnes 
3 initurum gratiam af&rmat, si regiam Persarum jus- 
Incendi : ezspectare hoc eos, quorum urbes Barbari 
at. Sbrio scorto de tanta re ferenti sententiam, 
' alter, et ipsi mere onerati assentiuntur. Bex quoque 


foit * avidior, qiikm patientior : ^ " Qnin igitar nlciscimur 
Orseoiam, et urbi faces subdimus?" Omnea incaluer^nt 
mero. Itaque Burgunt temulenti ad incendendam urbem, cnl 
armati pepercerant. Primus Bex ignem regi» injecit. Tom 
oonvivse et ministri, pellicesqne. MultA oedio «edificata 
erat regia, qu» eeleriter igne concepto laid fiidit inceodium. 
Qnod ubi exercitus, qui baud procnl ab urbe ' tendebat, cod- 
spezit, fortuitum ratus, ad opem ferendam ooncurrit. Sed nt 
ad vestibulum regi» ventum est, vident Begem ipsum adhae 
aggerentem faces. Omiss^ igitur, quam portayerant, aqu^ 
aridam materiam in incendium jaoere coepemnt. 

23. Hunc ezitum habuit regia totius Orientis, unde tot 
gentes ante^ jura petebant : patria tot Begum, unious quondam 
GraBcise terror, molita mille navium classem, et ezercitus, qui- 
bus Europa inundata est ; ' contabulato mari molibus, perfi»- 
sisque montibus, in quorum specua fretum immissum est. Ao 
ne tarn losg4 quidem setate, quao excidium ejus seouta est, re* 
Burrexit. Alias urbes habu^re Maoedonum Beges, quas nunc 
babent Parthi : " bujus vestigium non inveniretur, nisi Araxes 
amnis ostenderet. Haud procul moenibus fluxerat : inde ur- 
bem fuisse xx stadiis distantem credunt magis, qudm sciunt 
accolse. Pudebat Macedones tam praaclaram urbem a comes- 
sabundo Bege deletam esse. " Itaque res in serium versa est, 
et imperaverunt sibi, ut crederent illo potissimtbn modo fuisse 
delendam. Ipsum, ut primOon grayatam ebrietate mentem 
quies reddidit, pcBuituisse constat, et dixisse, " majores pcenas 
Persas Graecis daturos fuisse, si ipsum in solio, regidque Xerxis 
conspicere coacti essent. Postero die, Lycio, itineris quo Per- 
sidem intrayerat duci, trigenta talenta dono dedit Hinc in 
regionem Mediae transiit, ubi supplementum noyorum militum 
e Cilicid ocourrit. Peditum erant quinque millia, equites 
mille : utrisque Plato Atbeniensis praeerat. His copiis auctus, 
Darium persequi statuit. 

YIII. 24. ^ Ille jam Ecbatana peryenerat, caput Medisoi 
Urbem banc nunc tenent Parthi : eaque a&stiya regibus sedes 
est. Adire deindd Bactra decreyerat : sed yeritus ne ' celeri- 

/ LIBEfi. y. GAP. VIII. 90 

te Alexandri oecnparetur, consiliuiKi iterque matavit Aberat 
) eo Alexander stadia ud, sed jam nullum intervallom adver- 
s yelocitatem ejus satis longum yidebatur. Itaqae prsDlio 
igifl qu4m fugae se prasparabat. Triginta millia peditom 
[uebantur : in quibus Graecorum erant quatoor millia, fido 
^a Eegem ad ultimum inyicta. Funditormn quoque et sagii- 
iorum manus quatuor millia expleyerat. 'Praster hos tria 
lia et trecenti equites erant, maxima Bactriaoorum. His 
isus praserat, Bactrianae regionis Pradfeetua. Cum boo ag« 
te Darius paulum decUnayit yi^ militari, jussis praecedere 
s impedimentorum custodibus. Consilio deindd adyocato| 
'. me cam. ignayis,'' inquit, '^ et pluris ' qualemoumque yitam 
te honestd a&stimantibus, fortuna junzisset, tacerem potids, 
am frustra yerba consumerem. Sed majore qudrn yellem 
imento, et yirtutem yestram et fidem ezpertus, magis etiara 
liti debeo, ut dignus talibua amicis sim, qu&m dubitare an 
ri similes adbuc sitis. Ex tot millibus, qua» sub imperio 
int meo, bis me yictum, bis fugientem persecuti estis. 
s yestra, et constantia, ut Begem me esse" credam, faoit. 
litores et tranfugad in urbibus meis regnant, non hercnld 
tanto bonore digni babeantur, sed ut praemiis eorum yestri 
;itentur animi. Meam tamen fcnrtunam quim yictoria ma- 
s sequi : dignissimi quibus, si ego non possim, Dii pro me 
un referant : et meberculd referent. Nulla erit tarn surda 
ritas, nulla tam ingrata fama, quae non in coelum yos debi- 
.udibus ferat. Itaque, etiamsi consilium fogae, a qua 
im abborret animus, agit^ssem, yestr& tamen yirtute fre* 
byiaia issem hosti. Quousque enim in regno exulabo, et 
les imperii mei fugiam externum et adyenam Begem, cum 
^ experto belli fortunam, aut reparare quae amisi, aut bo« 
morte defungi ? nisi forte satins est exspectare yictoris 
ium, et Maza&i, et Mitbrenis exemplo preoarium acciperc 
m. nationis imius , " ut jam malit ille glorias suae, qudm, 
(sequi. Nee Dii siyerint, ut ' boc decus mei capitis aut 
e mihi quisquam, aut condonare ^ possit. Nee boo im« 
a vivus amittam, idemque erit regni mei qui et spiritus 


finifl. 8i bio ' animus, si bac lex, nnlli non parta libertu 
est: nemo e Tobis fastidium Macedonum, nemo YrHtm 
snperbnm ferre oogetor. Sua caique dextra ant ulUonem tot 
malorom pariet, aut finem« Equidem qaim versatilis fortQiu 
sit, docomentum ipse sum. ^ Nee immerit6 mitiores vices 
ejus ezspecto. Sed si justa ao pia bella Bii ayersantor, forti- 
bus tamen yiris licebit bonestd mori« Per ego vos decora mi- 
jorum, qui totius Orientis regna oum memorabili biude tenue- 
runt ; per illos viros, quibus stipendium Macedonia qnondani 
tulit; per tot nayium classes, in Graeciam missas ; per tottio- 
pssa Eegum, oro et obtestor, ut nobilitate yestra gentis^ufi 
dignos spiritus capiatis, ut eddem constantill animorum, q^ 
prsdterita toleristis, experiamini quidquid deind^ sors tulent 
Me certe in perpetuum, aut yictoria egregia nobilitabit, ^ 

IX. 25. Haeo dicente Dario, prsesentis periculi species on^ 
nium simul oorda animosque borrore perstrinxerat : neo t» 
consilium suppetebat, aut yox ; cibu Artabazus yetustissmiii 
amioorum, quem bospitem fuisse Pbilippi ^ ssdpd diximnSy " ^^ 
yero," inquit, " pretiosisaimam yestem induti, armisque (p^^^ 
maximo cultu possumus adomati. Begem in aciem seqoemor. 
E^ quidem mente, yictoriam ut speremus, mortem non recast 
mus." Assensu excep^re caeteri banc yocem. Sed * ^^^' 
zanes, qui in eodem consilio erat, cum Besso inauditi a&^ 
facinoris societate initd. Begem suum per milites, quibus 9mw 
praeerant, comprebendere et yincire decreyerant ; ' ei i^^^' 
ut si Alexander ipsos insecutus foret, tradito Bege yiyo ii^^ 
gratiam yictoris, * magni profeot6 cepisse Darium sestimft^^^^ 
Sin autem eum effagere potuissent, interfecto Dario, rego^ 
sibi oocuparent, bellumque renoyarent. Hoc parricidino^ ^^ 
did yolut^bssent, Nabarzanes * aditum nefari» spei praepftf^ 
'< Scio me," inquit, " sententiam esse dicturum prim^ ^P^^^ 
baudquaquam auribus tuis gratam : sed medid quoque g^' 
y lores morbos asperis remediis curant : et gubemator, ubi ^ 
fragium timet, jaotur^, quidquid seryari potest, redimit* iff 
tamen, non ut damnum quidem facias, suadeo ; sed at ^i ^ 

LIBE& V. CAF. IX. 101 

^um tnmn, salnbri ratione conservea Diis ayersia bellam 
mus, et pertinaz fortima Persas urgere non desinit Novis 
biis et ominibtus opus est. ' Auspicium et imperium alii trade 
erim, qui tarn diu Bex appeUetnr, doneo Asi& decedat ho9- 
Victor ^ deindd regniim tibi reddat : hoc autem breyi 
urum ratio promittit Bactra intacta sunt : Indi et Sao» 
ua potestate ; tot populi, tot exercitus, tot equitum peditum- 

millia ad renoyandum bellum vires paratas habent, ut ma- 
belli 'moles supersit, quim exhausta sit Quid raimus 
uanun ritn in pemiciem non necessariam ? Fortium 
rum est magis mortem contemnere, qoim odisse Titam« 
»e tasdio laboris * ad yilitatem sui compelluntur ignayi : at 
18 niiiil inexpertum omittit. Itaque ultimom omnium mora 

ad qnam non pigrd ire satis est. Proinde si Bactra, quod 
simum receptaculum est, petimus, Praefectum reig^onis ejus 
am, Begem ^ temporis gratid statuamus. Compositis re- 
'' justo B.egi tibi ^ fiduciarium restituet imperium." 
6. Hand mirum est, Darium non temper&sse animo» 
aDquam tam impise voci quantum nefas subesset latebat. 
le, ^* ^^ Pessiii;ium," inquit, " maneipium, reperisti opta- 
tibi tempus, quo parricidium aperires I " striotoque acinace 
'ecturus eum yidebatur, "ni properd Bessus Bactria- 
, tristium specie, csetertim, si perseyeraret, yincturi, 
Qstetissent. Nabarzanes interim elapsus, mox et Bessus 
3atus, copias quibus praeerant a caetero exercitu seoedere 
t, secretum inituri consilium. Artabazus oonyenientem 
Dti fortuned sententiam orsus, mitigare Darium, '*tem- 
. identidem admonens coepit : '' Ferret aequo animo 
mcunque, suorum tamen, yel stultitiam yel errorem. 
e Alezandrum "gray em, etiam» omnes praestd essent: 
iturum, si persecuti fugam ipsius alienentur ? " ^^JS&gre 

Artabazo, et quanquam moyere castra statuerat, tur* 

taxnen omnium animis, eodem in loco substitit. Sed 

;us moestiti^L simul et desperatione, tabernaculo se in- 

ISrgd in oastris, quae nullius regebantur imperio, 

aimorum motus erant: nee in commune, ut antea, con- 


Bulebatur. Dux Graecomm militum "Patron arma capere 
suos jubet, paratosque esse ad exsequendum imperium. 
PerssB secesserant. Bessus cum Bactrianls erat, tentabatque 
Persas abducere ; Bactra, et intactad regionis opuleDtiam, 
simulqiie, quae manentibus instarent, pericnla ostentans. Per- 
sanim omnium eadem fere fuit vox, nefas esse deseri Kegem. 
Inter faacc Artabazus omnibus imperatoriis fungebatur offieiis. 
Ille Persarum tabernacula circumire, hortari, monere nunc 
singulos, nunc universes, non ant^ destitit, quam satis con- 
Btaret imperata facturos. Idem aegre a Dario impetravit, '* ut 
oibum caperet, animumque Kegis. 

X. 27. At Bessus et Nabarzanes, olim agitatum scelos 
exsequi statuunt, regni cupiditate accensi. Dario autem in- 
oolumi, tantas opes sperare non poterant. Quipp6 in illis 
gentibus Begum ^ eximia majestas est. Ad nomen qnoque 
Barbari conveniunt, et pristinae veneratio fortunae sequitm 
adversam. Inflabat impios animos regio cui praeerant, armis 
virisque et spatio locorum nulli earum gentium secunda. 
Tertiam partem Asiae tenet Multitudo juniorum exercitus, 
quos amiserat-Darius, aequabat. Itaque non ilium mod6, sed 
etiam Alexandrum spernebant ; inde vires imperii repetituri, 
si ' regiouis potiri contigisset. Dii!l omnibus cogitatis, placuit 
per milites Bactrianos ad omne obsequium destinatos Regem 
comprehendere, mittique nuncium ad Alexandrum, qui indi- 
caret vivum asservari eum ; si, id quod timebant, proditionem 
aspernatus esset, ' occisuri Darium, et Bactra cum suarum 
gentium manu petituri. Casterillm propalim oomprehendi 
Darius non poterat, tot Persarum millibus laturis opem 
Begi. Graecorum quoque fides timebatur. Itaque, quod 
non poterant vi, fraude assequi tentant. Poenitentiam seces- 
sionis simulare decreverant, et excusare apud Begem * con- 
stemationem suam. 

28 Interim qui Persas ^ soUicitarent, mittuntur. Hinc spe, 
hinc metu militares animos versant : " ruinas rerum illos sub- 
dere capita ; in perniciem trahi : cilm Bactra pateant, excep- 
lura eos bonis et opulentid, quam animis conoipere non poa* 


nt." HsBO agitantibns Artabazos sapervenit, Are TiepB 
issn, sire suk sponte, affirmans mitigatum esse Darium, et 
imdem illis amicitiae gradum patere apud Eegem. Illi lacry- 
antes, nunc porgare se, nunc Artabaztun orare, nt cansam 
•sornm tneretur, precesque perferret. Sic peractd nocte, sub 
CIS ortn, Nabarzanes cum Bactrianis nulitibas in vestibnlo 
rastorii aderat, " titulum solemnis officii occnlto sceleri pras- 
:ens. Darius, signo ad enndimi date, cnmun pristine more 
Qscendit, Nabarzanes caeteriqne parricidse, procnmbentes 
mi, queiA pauld post in yincnlis babitnri erant, * snstinn^re 
aerari] lacrjmas etiam, poenitentiae indices, prof nderunt: ade5 
manis ingeniis parata simnlatio est. ' Preces deindd, sup* 
citer admotse, Barium, naturd simplicem et mitem, non cre> 
:e modo quse affirmabant, sed etiam flere coegerunt. Ac ne 
a quidem cogitati sceleris pcenituit, ci\m intuerentur, qua- 
1 et Kegem et virum fallerent. Ille quidem * securus peri- 
i quod instabat, Alexandri manus, quas solas timebat, 
igere properabat. 

XI. 29. Patron autem Grsecorum dux praecepit suis, at 
la quae in sarcinis antesl ferebantur induerent, ad omne im- 
ium suum parati, et intenti. Ipse currum Regis sequebatuTi 
casioni imminens alloquendi eum; quippe Bessi facinus 
^senserat. Sed Bessus id ipsum metuens, custos yerii\B 
m comes, a curru non recedebat. Bill ergd Patron cuncta* 

ac ^ssepiils sermone revocato, inter fidem timoremque 
itans. Begem intuebatur. Qui ut tandem adyertit oculoSi 
»acem spadonem inter proximos currum sequentem percmic- 
jubet, num quid ipsi velit dicere? Patron se verd, sed 
Dtis arbitris, loqui yelle cum eo respondit. Jussusque pro- 

accedere, sine interprete (nam baud rudis Graecse linguae 
Lus erat), " Rex," inquit, " ex quinquaginta millibus GraB- 
ra supersumus pauci, omnes fortunas tuas comites : et in 
tuo statu iidem, qui florente te fnimus, quascumque sedes 
3ris, pro patrial et domesticis rebus petituri. Secundas 
xsaeque res tuaa copulayere nos tecum. Per banc fidem 
;tain oro et obtestor, in uostris castris tibi tabemaculum 


statue ; noe eorporis tui oustodes esse patiuis. Omirimiu 
Gradoiam : nulla Bactra sont nobia Spes omnis in te, ntindm 
et in cseteris esaet ! Flora dici non attinet. Oasfcodiam cor- 
poris tui extemus et alienigena non deposcerem, si crederem 
alium posse 'pnestar^." ^ 

30. Bessos quanquam erat Grseci sermonis ignaruB, tamen 
stimulante conscientid, indicium profect6 Patrcmem detulisse 
credebat : et, * interpretis Grseci relato sermone, exempta dubi- 
tatio est. Darius autem, quantiim ex Tultu conspici poterat, 
baud san^ territus, percunctari Patrona causam consilii, quod 
afferret, coepit. Ille non ultrd differendum ratus, " Bessus," 
inquit, ^* et Nabarzanes insidiantur tibi ; * in ultimo discrimine 
66 fortunse et vitae. Hie dies aut parricidis, aut tibi futnrus 
ultimus." Et Patron quidem egregiam conseryati Regis glo- 
nam ' tulerat. ^ Eludant licet quibus fortd temerd humana 
negotia volvi agique persuasum est : " equidem setemd consti- 
iutione crediderim nexuque causarum latentinm, et multd antd 
destinatarum, suum quemque ordinem immutabili lege percur- 
rere. Darius certe respondit ; '^ Quanquam sibi Grseeorom 
militum fides nota sit, nunqu^ tamen a popularibus suis 
reoessurum. Difficilius sibi esse damnare, quam decipi ; quid- 
quid sors tulisset, inter sues peipeti malle qusLm transfi^am 
fieri: sero se perire, si salvum esse sni milites nollent." Pa- 
tron desperate, salute Eegis, ad eos, quibus praeerat, rediit \ 
omnia * pro fide experiri paratus. 

XII. 31. At Bessus occidendi protini^ Eegis ^impetum 
conceperat. Sed veritus, ne gratiam Alexandri, ni vivum eum 
tradidisset, inire non posset, dilate in proximam noctem sceleris 
consilio, agere gratias incipit, quod ' perfidi hominis insidias, 
jam Alexandri opes speotantis, prudenter cauteque vitasset : 
donum eum bosti laturum fuisse Eegis caput; nee mirari, 
bominem meroede oonductmn omnia babere yenalia ; sine pig- 
nore, ' siae lare, terrarum orbis exsulem, * ancipit^ bostem, 
* ad nutum licentium circumferrL Purganti deind^ se Deosque 
patrios testes fidei suae invocanti, Darius vultu assentiebatur, 
baud dubius quin vera deferrentur a Graecis : sed " e6 rerom 


Tentmn erat, nt tam penenlosmn enet non credere saie, qudm 
decipi. Triginta millia erant, qnomin inclinata in scelus leyi- 
tas timebatnr. Quatuor millia Patron habebat; qoiboB si 
"^ eredidisaet salutem Bnain, damnatd popularium fide, parricidio 
" excnsatioiiein videbat offerrL Itaqne prseoptabat immeritd, 
qa&m jure yiolari. Besso tamen insidiarum oonsilinm pnr- 
ganti, respondit, '< Alezandri sibi non minds justitiam, qndm 
virtntem esse per^ectam. Falli eos qui proditionis ab eo 
prsemiom ezspectent. V iolatas fidei neminem ' acriorem fore 
Tindicem nltoremqiie." Jamque nox appetebat, ciim PersaD, 
mor^ solito armis positis, ad necessaria ex proximo yico feren* 
da disonrrunt At Bactriani (at imperatom erat a Besso) 
'"armati stabant. 

32. Inter hsec Darius Artabazum acciri jabet ; expositis- 
que quad Patron detulerat, " baud dubitare," " Artaba'zus, 
" quin transeundum esset in castra Grsecorum,"[respondit,] 
'^Persasquoque perioulo vulgato secuturos." " Destinatus 
sorti BU», et jam nullius salubris consilii patiens, unicam in 
illd fortune opem, Artabazom, ultimum ilium visurus, umplec* 
titur ; ^' profusisque mutuis lacrjmis, inbaorentem sibi avelli 
jubet : capite deinde velato no inter gemitus digredientem 
yelut a rogo intueretur, in humum pronum corpus abjecitw 
Turn yer6 custodi» ejus assueti, quos Begis salutem **Tel 
periculo yitse tueri oportebat, dilapsi sunt, armatis quos jam 
adyentare credebant baud rati se futures pares. Ingens erg6 
in tabernaculo solitude erat, paucis spadonibus, (quia qud 
discederent non habebant) circumstantibus Begem. At ille, 
remotis arbitris, diii aliud atqne aliud consilium animo yolu- 
tabat. Jamque solitudinem, quim paul6 antd^pro solatio 
petiyerat, perosus, Bubacem yocari jubet; quem intuens, 
^^ Ite," inquit, '^ consulite yobis ; ad ultimum Begi yestro (ut 
deoebat) fide exhibits. Ego hie legem fati mei expecto. 
Forsitan mireris, qu6d yitam non finiam: alieno scelere 
quam meo mori male.'' Post banc yocem, spado gemitu non 
mod6 tabemaculum, sed etiam castra compleyit. Irrup^re 


deindd alii, laoeratisqae Testibus, lagabri et barbaro ulnlatn 
Begem deplorare coeperunt. 

33. Pers», ad illos clamore perlato, attoniti metu, nee arma 
oapere, ne in Baotrianos inciderent, nee qniescere audebant, 
ne '' impie deserere Begem viderentar. Yarius ac dissonus 
clamor sine diice, ac sine imperio, totis castris referebatnr. 
Besso et Nabarzani nunoiaverant sui, Begem a semetipso in- 
teremptnm esse. Planctus eos deceperat. Itaqne oitatis 
eqnis adyolant, sequentibus quos ad ministerium sceleris de- 
legerant : et ciUm tabemaculum intrdssent, '*qnia Kegem 
yiyere spadones indioabant, comprehendi, vincirique jussemnt. 
Bex curru pauld ante yectus, et Deorum " a snis honoribns 
cultuB, ^" nuUd externd, ope admotd, captiyus senroram saorom, 
in sordidum yehiculnm pellibns undiqud contectnm imponitur. 
Pecunia Begis et supellez, quasi jure belli, diripitur : onusti- 
que prsedd. per scelus ultimum partd, fugam intendunt. Arta- 
bazus cum lis, qui imperio pare^ant, Grsecisque militibus, 
Parthienem petebat; omnia tutiora parricidarum contuita 
ratus. Pers» promissis Bessi onerati, maxima quia nemo 
alius erat quern sequerentur, coDJunx^re se Bactrianis ; agmen 
eorum tertio assecuti die. Ne tamen honos Begi non habe- 
retur, aureis compedibus Darium yinciunt, noya ludibria sub- 
inde excogitante fortune. Et ne fortd cultu regio posset 
agnosci, sordidis pellibus yehiculum intexerant. Ignoti jumenta 
agebant, ne percunctantibus in agmine monstrari posset. Cus- 
todes procul se(](Viebantur. 

XIII. 34. Alexaoder, ' audito Darium moyisse ab Ecba- 
tanis, omisso itinere quod patebat in Mediam, fagientem inse- 
qui pergit strenu^. Tabas oppidmn est in Paraetacene ultimo : 
qu6 ubi peryenit, ibi traQsfugse nunciant, praacipitem fug& Bao- 
tra petere Barium. Certiora deindd cognosoit ex Bagysthane 
Babylonio ; " non equidem yinctum Begem, sed in periculo 
esse aut mortis, aut yinculorum." Bex, ducibus conyocatis, 
"Maximum," inquit, "opus, sed labor breyissimus superest. 
Darius baud procul, destitutus a suis, aut yinctus, aut oppres- 
BUS, est. In illo corpore posita est yictoria nostra, et tanta res 

LIBER ▼. CAP. XIII. 107 

celeritatiB est prsBiniiuD." Onmes pariter oonekmant, para* 
toB ipsos seqni: nee labori, nee pericolo parceret. Igitnr 
raptim agmen, earstis magis quam itineris mode, ducit ; ne 
noctoma quidem qoiete diurnom laborem relaxante. Itaque 
quingenta stadia proeessit, perventamque erat in vicmn) in quo 
Darimn Bessus eomprehenderat. Ibi Melon Darii interpres 
excipitur: corpore aeger, non potuerat agmen sequi: et de- 
prehensus celeritate Regis, transfugam se esse simnlabat. 
' Ex hoc acta cognoscit : sed fatigatis necessaria qnies erat. 
Itaque delectis equitum sex millibus trecentos, quos Dimachcu 
appellabant, adjungit. 'Dorso hi graviora arma portabant: 
caeteri^m equis vehebantnr ; ci\m res locusque posoeret, pedes- 
tris aeies erat. Hsec agentem Alexandrum adeunt Orsillos et 
Mjthracenes, qui Bessi parricidium exosi transfugerant : nun- 
oiabantque, stadia quingenta abesse Persas : ipsos breyius iter 
monstraturos. Gratus Kegi adventus transfugarum fuit. 
Itaque prima vesperS., ducibus iisdem, cum expedite equitum 
manu monstratam viam ingreditur, phalange quanti\m festinare 
posset sequi juss&. Ipse quadrato agmine incedens, ita cursum 
regebat, * ut primi conjungi ultimis possent. 

35. Trecenta stadia processerant, ci\m ocourrit Broeubelus 
Mazsei filius, Sjri» quondam Prsetor. Is quoque transfuga 
nunciabat, " Bessum hand amplii\s qudm ducenta stadia abesse : 
exerdtum, utpote qui nihil prsecaveret, incompositum inordi* 
natumque procedere : Hyrcaniam yideri petituros ; si festinaret 
sequi, palantibus superventurum : Barium adhuc viyere." 
^ Strenuo alioqui cupiditatem consequendi transfuga injecerat. 
Itaque calcaribus subditis, effuso cursu eunt. Jamque fremitus 
hostium iter ingredientium exaudiebatur : sed prospectum ad- 
emerat pulyeris nubes. Paulisper ergo inhibuit cursum, donee 
consideret pulyis. Jamque conspecti a Barbaris erant, et 
' abeuntium agmen conspexerant, nequaquam futuri pares, si 
Besso tant^m animi fuisset ad prselium, quanti\m ad parrici- 
dium fuerat. Namque et Barbari numero prsestabant, et 
robore. Ad hoc refecti cum fatigatis certamen inituri erant. 
Sed nomen Alexandri et foma, maximum in bello utique 


momentum, paTidoa in fugam ayertit. Beasus verd ei oseten 
faoinoris ejus partioipes, vehiculum Darii asseouti, ooeperunt 
hortari eum, ^^ consoenderet equum, et se hosti fag& eriperef 
Ille Deos ultorea adesse testatur, et Alexandri ^ fidem im 
plorans, negat se parricidas velle oomitari. Tom yero ira 
q[aoque accensi, tela injiciant in Kegem, multisqne confossom 
Tulneribus relinquunt. Jumenta quoqae, ne longii!ls prose- 
qui possenty conYulnerant ; duobus servis, qui Begem comita- 
bantur occisis. 

36. Hoc edito facinore, ut vestigia fug» spargerent, 
Nabarzanes Hjreaniam, Bessus Bactra, paucis equitum comi- 
tautibus, petebant. Barbari duoibus destituti, qu4 quemque 
aut spes ducebat, aut payor, dissipabantur. Quingenti tan- 
tiim equites congregayerant se, incerti adhuc, resistere melius 
esset, an fugere. Alexander, hostium trepidatione comperti, 
Nicanorem cum equitum parte ad inhibendam fugam pras- 
mittit. Ipse cum cssteris sequitur : tria ferme miilia resis- 
tentium occisa sunt : reliquum agmen more peoudum intactum 
agebatur, jubente Bege, ut caadibus abstineretur. Nemo 
captiyorum erat, qui monstrare Darii yehiculum posset: 
singuli, ut quaeque prehenderant, scrutabantur : nee tamen 
ullum yestigium fugae Begis exstabat. Festinantem Alexan- 
drum yix tria miilia equitum persecuta sunt. At in cos 
qui lentiiis sequebantur incidebant uniyersa fugientium agmi- 
na. Yix credibile dictu, plures captiyi, qu&m qui caperent 
erant : ' ade6 omnem sensum territis fortuna penitiis ezcos- 
serat, ut nee hostium paucitatem, nee multitudinem suam 
satis cemerent. Interim jumenta quas Barium Vehebant, 
nullo regente, decesserant militari yi&, et errore delata per 
quatuor stadia, in quddam yalle oonstiterant, sBstu simulque 
yulneribus fatigata. Hand procul erat fons, ad quem xnon- 
stratum a peritis Poljstratus Macedo siti maoeratus aooessit. 
Ac dam galed haustam aquam sorbet, tela jumentorum defi- 
oientium corporibus infixa conspexit. Mir^tusque oonfossa 

potiilis, quam abacta esse, ' semiviyi 

[homiiUB corpus, ciaxi propiCM 
accessisset, in sordido vehiculo pellibus contecto situm reperit: atque 

LIBBR VI. CAP* I. 109 

Dtfiom, mnMas qui^em Tulneribus oonlMBtiini, adhno tsmen spimitenit 
esse cognoyit. Qui applicito capUyo, ci!Un ciyem ex yoee oognoyisset, 
id saltern prsesentis fortanie solatium se habere dixit, qudd apud iniel- 
lecturum locuturus esset, nee incassum postremas yoces enussurns; 
nsecque Alexandre perferri jubet Se nullis in eum meritonun officii», 
maximoram antem illi debitorem mori. Agere tamen ei maximaH gra- 
tias pro beneficiis in matrem, conjngem, liberosque saos impensis : iis 
enim yitam, et pristini statils reyerentiam, dignitatemqne concessam : 
fiibi autem a oognatia atque amieis, quibus et regna et yitam dederit, 
ilia omnia erepta esse. Precari se, ut illi yictori terramm omnium 
imperium contingat. Ultionem sceleris erga se perpetrati, non wAtan. 
Slid, sed exempli omniumqne Regum cansd, non negligere, illi cCun deco- 
rum, tnm utile fdtnrum. Jamque deficiens aqnam poposcit; qnam 
allatam poetqnam bibit, Polystrato, qui ^am tnlerat, "Quisqnis es 
mortalium," inqnit, "hoc mihi extremmn nniyersie calamitatis genus 
accidit, iit pro tanto in me beneficio dignas tibi grates referre nequeam. 
At referet Alexander : Alexandre yer6 Dii pro ejus summd in meos hu- 
manitate ac clementiiL Cui hoc fidei regisB unicum dextrsB pignus pro 
me dabis." Hiec dicentem, accepts Polystrati manu, yita destitoit 
Quibus Alexandre nunciatis, ad corpus demortui peryeniens, tam indig- 
nam iUo fastigio mortem lacrymis prosecutus est Dempt&que sibi 
cblamyde, corpus illius contexit ; atque regio omatum cultu, ad matrem 
Sisygambim, patrio regioque more sepeliendum, atque regiis majonim 
suonim tumulis inferendum, misit] 




1. Pnelii inter LacodsBmonioB atque Maoedones descrlptio, et pox ab Alexandro yfo- 
tore Oneda, qui eo absente defecerant, concessa. 

2. Alexander bello iavlctos, otfo et delicUa fraogitor; ande ramor In oastiis, qui tor- 
pentem exdtat 

8. Hortatoiia Alezandri ad milites oratio, nt beUom in Aala inehoatam, persequantor 
Qt absolvant 

< Zioberis miri flaminla deeeilptia Alexander Nabaiaani per litteras salatem 
qnsrenti veniam pollicetnr. Deindd mail Gaaplo et HjrcanicB prozimna, qnoadam 
Parii pnefectos redpit in gratiam. 

6. Artabaza, BommA eum aalml beneyolentiA ezoepto^ Oneefit qni Dviom a^fur»- 


nmt, pwelt Alexuider, ct Mardomai gente d«b«ll«tl, Anuaonlei» ci\$iisd«m B«glme 
peUHoni Mtisfadt 

6. Mftoedones Alexandri offendnntnr moribns, qui nt seditlonem averteret» ad bel- 
lamBesso inferendnm mentem coDvertit Quod et stratageinate incboat: ac Satibai^ 
zanem, qa6d defeclsset, prlmam persequitur: Barbaros a montibiia fortiter dispellit: 
Artacacnam expngnat 

7. Conjaratioiiem in Aleacandrnm Dynmns Nioomacbo, hie per OabaliBnin ftBtrem 
Alezandro detegit Hino mors Dymni qoi ipse sibi xnanns tnfert 

8. Amicoram regiorom conailio Pbllotas Parmenionis filias, conjurationis anctor et 
particeps credltas, capltur, ac velato capita In regiam abdncitur. 

9. De coi\]nratlone, adversua Philotam expostnlatoria Alexandri ad militeB ontio^ 
sanxn qoibus Pbllotas addactuB defenslonem parat 

10. Apologetiea Pbilotae oratio, qnA oonjoratlonis accosatlonem proUxd refellit 

11. Conclo a qaodam Belone accensa in Pbilotam sargit Is pauld post, at ee cm- 
clatibus liberaret, ficts conJurRtionis circamstantias aperit cumqae aliis qui aoea- 
santar a Nicomacho, saxis obrultur 

I. 1. [ALEXANDRoin AsiagravibusbellisoccupatOjplerique Gwecomm 
ocoasionem circumspiciebant, qu& in libertatem Re assererent : earn qnein- 
yenifise credebant in ThracisB tumultu, queiii Memnon, prsefecins mili- 
tum, concitaverat. Duces ceteris Lacedeemoxiii erant, qui, tola Graecia 
tempoiibus serviente, soli Macedonum dominatioDi restiterant. A Per^ 
sis pecunia sperabatur ad ampliorem belli usunu Cika ergo Antipater, 
quicquid militum habebat, in Thraciam dnxisset, motum nuper exortmn 
oppressurus, Peloponnesii, exceptis paucis, bello Macedonas inva- 
dunt, Agidi, Lacedsemoniormn regi, siunmam imperii deferentes^ Quo 
andito, Antipater, utoumque potuit, res in Thraci4 componensy ad- 
versus Grsecos proficiscitnr, qui nescioquA pugn^ confisi, Megalopolim 
obsidione cinxerant, et jam in eo erat, ut caperent oppidum, cum Anti- 
pater ex Macedonia supervenit Utrimque acriter pugnatur, et quan- 
quam locus Macedonas, qui numero prsevalebant, non capiebat, irruunt 
tamen, urgent, cedere cogunt Quod ubi Agis conspexit, ut inclinatam 
Buorum aciem firmaret, illico cum regid coborte, qu» ex lectissimis 
constabat, se in medium] 

' pugnae disorimen ' immisit : obtnmoa- 
tisque qui promptii\s resistebant, magnam partem hostium 
propulit. Coeperant fugere victores, et, donee avidii\s sequen- 
tes in planum deduz6re, multi cadebant. Sed ut prim^ 
locus in quo stare possent fuit, asquis yiribus dimicatum est. 
Inter omnes tamen Lacedaemonios Hex eminebat, non armo- 
rum modo et corporis specie, sed etiam magnitudine animi, 
quo uno vinci non potuit. Undiqud, nunc cominiis, nunc 
emini\s petebatur, diuque arma cireumferens, alia tela olypeo 


excipiebat, ' corpore alia vitabat, donee bastd femora perfossa^ 
plurimo sanguine effaso, destitu^re pngnantem. Ergo cljpeo 
suo exceptum armigeri raptim in eastra referebant, jactationem 
vnlnermn baud facild tolerantem. 

2. Non tamen omis^re Laceda&monii pufinsam ; et ut pri- 
mAm sibi, qn^m hosti 'aequiorem locum c^repotuerant, 
densatis ordinibus efPusi, fluentem in se aciem excepSre. 
' Non aliud discrimen vehementius fuisse memorise proditum . 
est. Duarum nobilissimarum bello gentium exercitus pari 
marte pugnabant. LacedsBmonii yetera, Macedones pras- 
sentia decora intnebantur. Illi pro libertate, hi pro domina< 
tione pugnabant : Lacedsemoniis dux, Macedonibus locus 
deerat. Diei quoque unius tam multiplex casus, modo spem, 
mod6 metum utriusque partis augebat: velut de industria 
inter fortissimos viros certamen sequante fortund. Cseterum, 
angustiae loci, in quo 'haeserat pugna, non patiebantur totis 
congredi viribus. Spectabant erg6 plures, quam inierant 
praelium : et qui extra teli jactum erant, clamore invicem 
suos accendebant. Tandem Laconum acies languescere, 
Lubrica arma sudore vix sustinens ; pedem deindd referre 
coepit ac, urgente hoste, apertd fugere. Insequebatur dissipa- 
tes victor, et emensus cursu omne spatium, quod acies Laco- 
num obtinuerat, ipsum Agim persequebatur. Ille, ut fugam 
Buorum, et proximos hostium conspexit, deponi se jussit : 
expertusque membra, an impetum animi sequi possent, post- 
quam deficere sensit, ^ poplitibus semet excepit : galeaque 
strenue sumpta, clypeo protegens corpus, hastam dextrd 
vibrabat, " ultr6 vocans hostem si quis jacenti spolia demere 
auderet. Neo quisquam fuit, qui sustineret comini\s con- 
gredi. Procul missilibus appetebatur, ea ipsa in hostem re- 
torquens, donee lancea nudo pectori infixa est : qud ex vulnere 
evuls^, inclinatum ac deficiens caput cljpeo paulisper 'ex- 
cepit. Deindd, linquente spiritu, pariter ac sanguine, mori- 
bundus in arma procubuit. 

3. Cecid3re Lacedaemoniorum quinque millia et ccc : ex 
Macedonibus hand amplii\s mille. Caeteri^m vix quisquam 


nisi sauoins reyertit m oastra. Hsoc victoria non Spartan 
mod6 sociosquo ejus, sed etiam omnes qui fortunazn belli 
spectaverant, fregit. Nee fallebat Antipatrum, " dissentiie 
ab animis gratulantium yultus : sed bellum finire cupienti, 
opus erat decipi ; et quanquam fortuna rerum placebat, inyi- 
diam tamen, quia majores res erant, quam qoas Prssfecti 
modus caperet, metuebat; quippe Alexander hostes yinci 
yoluerat, Antipatrum yicisse " ne tacitus quidem indignaba* 
tur; sua9 demptum glorise existimans, quicquid cessisset 
aliense. Itaque Antipater qui probd nosset spiritus ejus, 
non est ausus ipse *' agere arbitria yictoriae : sed conciliiun 
Graecorum, quid fieri placeret, consuluit. A quo Ijacedse- 
monii, nihil aliud, qudm ut oratores ad Begem mittere licerei, 
Tegeataa, yeniam defectionis, * praster auctores, impetraye- 
runt. Megalopolitanis, quorum urbs erat obsessa a defec- 
tionis sociis, Achaei et Elei centum yiginti talenta dare jussi 
sunt. Hie fuit exitus belli, quod repente ortum, prii^ tamen 
finitum est, quam Darium Alexander apud Arbela superaret. 
II. 4. Sed ut primum instantibus curis laxatus est ani- 
. mus, militarium rerum quam quietis otiique patientior, ex* 
cepere eum yoluptates : et quem anna Persariun non frege- 
rant, yitia yicerunt. Intempestiya conyiyia, et perpotandi 
peryigilandique ^ insana dulcedo, ludique et greges pellicum, 
^ omnia in externum lapsa morem: quem aemulatus quasi 
potiorem suo, itdl popularium animos oculosque pariter offen- 
dit, ut a plerisque amicorum pro hoste haberetur. Tenaces 
quippe disciplinas suaa, solitosque parco ac parabili victu ad 
implenda naturae desideria ' defungi, in peregrina et devicta- 
rum gentium mala impulerat. Hinc saspiilis comparatae in 
caput ejus insidiao, secessio militum, et ^ liberior inter mutuaa 
querelas dolor : ipsius deinde nunc ira, nunc suspiciones, quas 
excitabat inconsultus payor, caeteraque his similia, quae deinde 
dicentur. Igitur ciim intempestiyis conyiyiis dies pariter noc- 
tesque consumeret, satietatem epularum ludis interpellabat, 
non contentus artificum quos e Gradci^ excitayerat turbi. 
Quippe captivas jubebantur suo ritu canere inconditam et ab- 

LIBB& VI. CAP. II. 118 

horrens * peregrinia auribus carmen. Inter quas nnam Bex 
ipse conspexit moestiorem qu^m csBteras, et produoentibus earn 
yerecmide relnctantem. Ezcellens erat forma, et formam 
pndor hanestabat. Bejectis in terram ocolis, et quantiim lice- 
bat, ore yelato, snspicionem prsebuit Begi nobiliorem esse, 
quam ut inter convivales lados deberet ostendi. Erg6 inter* 
rogata qusenam esset, " neptem se Ochi, qui nnper regnetsset 
in Persis, filio ejus genitam esse,'' respondit ; " uzorem Hys- 
taspis fuisse.'' Propinquus hie Parii fuerat ; magni et ipse 
exereitus Prsetor. Adhnc in animo Begis tenues reliquiao 
pristini moris bserebant. Itaque fortonam regid stirpe genitad« 
et tam celebre nomen reveritas, non dimitti modo captivam 
sed etiam restitui ei snas opes jussit ; yirum quoque requiri, 
ut reperto conjugem redderet Postero autem die praecepit 
Hephaestioni at omnes captives in regiam jaberet adduci ; ubi, 
singulorum nobilitate spectat^, * secrevit a vulgo, quorum emi- 
nebat genus. Mille hi fuerunt, inter quos repertus est Oza- 
thres Darii frater, non illius fortund, quam indole animi sui 
clarior. XXVI millia talentum proximo praedd redaota 
erant : e queis xif millia in congiarium militum absumpta 
sunt. Par huic pecuniae summa custodum fraude substracta 
est. Oxydates erat nobilis Perses, qui, a Pario capitali sup- 
plicio destinatus, cohibebatur in yinoulis. Huic liberato 
Satrapiam Mediae attribuit; fratremque Darii recepit in 
eohortem amicorum; omni vetustae claritatis honore servato. 

5. Hinc in Parthienem perventum est, tunc ignobilem 
gentem, nunc caput omnium, qui ' post Eupbratem et Tigrim 
amnes siti, rubro mari terminantiur. Scytbaa regionem cam- 
pestrem ac fertilem occupayerunt, 'grayes adhuc accolae. 
Sedes babent et in Europd, et in Asi4. Qui super Bos- 
phorum colunt, adscribuntur Asiae. At qui in Europi sunt, 
a laeyo Thraciae latere ad Borysthenem, atque inde ad Tanai'm 
alium amnem, ^rectd plag^ attinent. Tanats Europam et 
Asiam medius interfluit: nee dubitatur quin Scytbas qui 
Partbos condidere, non a Bospboro, sed ex regione EuropsQ 
penetrayerint. Urbs erat ek tempestate clara Hecatompylos^ 


oondita a Oraecis. Ibi statiya Bex habuit, oommeatibtu 
nndiqnd adyectis. Itaqne Tumor, otiosi militis vitium, sine 
auotore percrebait, Begem contentum rebus quas gessisaet, 
in Macedoniam protiniks redire statuisse. Disourmnt Ijm- 
pfaatis similes in tabemacnla, et itineri sarcinas aptant : sig- 
num datum crederes, ut yasa colligerent. Toils castristQmnl' 
tus, hinc contubernales sues requirentium, hinc onerantium 
plaustra, perfertur ad Begem. Fec^rant fidem rumori temei« 
yulgato Grseci milites, redire jussi domes ; quorum equitibns 
singulis denariorum sena millia done dederat. Ipsis qaoque 
finem militi» adesse credebant. Haud seeds quim par erst 
territus Alexander, qui Indos atque • ultima Orientis peragere 
statuisset, Prssfectos copiarum in PrsDtorium contrahit, obo^ 
tisque lacrymis, ex medio glorias spatio reyocari se, Ticti 
magis qu&m yietoris fortunam in patriam relaturum, conques- 
tus est : nee sibi ignayiam militum obstare sed Deorum in^' 
diam, qui fortissimis yiris subitum patriae desiderium admovis- 
sent, paul6 post in eamdem eum majore' laude ^uniqiie re- 
dituris. Tum yer6 pro se quisque operam suam " offerre, 
diffieillima quaeque posoere, polliceri militum quoque obse- 
quium, si animos eorum leni et aptSr oratione permulcere 
" yoluisset. Nunqudm infractos et abjectos recessisse, (p^ 
ties ipsius alaoritatem et tanti animi spiritus " haurire foW- 
sent. Ita se facturum esse respondit ; illi mod6 vulgi aures 
praepararent sibi. Satisque omnibus, quae " in rem yidebantm 
esse, compositis, yocari ad concionem exeroitum jussit, ap'^^ 
quem talem orationem habuit. 

III. 6. " Magnitudinem rerum quas gessimus, mili*^» 
intuentibus yobis, minime mirum est, et desiderium quie*^ 
et satietatem gloriae oecurrere. Ut omittam lUyrios, TriD*^' 
los, Bceotiam, Thraciam, Spartam, Aohaeos, Peloponnesuin> 
quorum alia * ductu meo, alia imperio auspioioque perdoin^' 
ecce orsi bellum ad HeUespontum, lonas, -^olidem, serviwo 
Barbarias impotentis exemimus. Cariam, Ljdiam, CapP^' 
dociam, Phrygiam, Paphlagoniam, Pamphyliam, Pisidas, ^^^' 
oiam, Syriam, Pkoenioen, Armeniam, Persidem, Medos, ^^ 


thienen habemus in potestate. Flares Proyincias complex^ 
Bum, quam alii urbes oeperunt; ei nesoio an enomeranti mihi 
* qusedam ipsarum renun mnltitudo subduzerit. liaque, ai 
crederem satis certain esse possessionem terrarum, quaa tantd 
yelocitate domuimns, ego yerd, milites, ad penates meos, ad 
parentem, sororesqne, et casteros ciyes, yel retinentibus yobis 
erumperem, 'ut ibi potissinrdm part^ yobiscum lande et 
gloria fruerer, nbi nos uberrima yictoriao prsemia expeotant, 
liberorum, conjngum, parentumqne lietitia, pax, qoies, renun 
per yirtutem partamm secura possessio. 

** Sed in noyo, et (si yermn fateri yolnmus) precario im- 
perio, * adhttc jugum ejus rigid^ ceryice snbenntibus Barbarism 
tempore, milites, opus est, dum mitioribus ingeniis imboan- 
tur, efferatos mollior consuetudo permulceat. Eruges quoque 
maturitatem statuto tempore exspectant. Ade6 etiam ilia 
sensi^s omnis expertia, tamen sua lege mitescunt. Quid? 
creditis lot gentes alterius imperio ac nomine assuetas, non 
sacris, non moribus, non commercio linguse nobisoum cofaso* 
rentes, eodem prs&lio domitas esse quo yictsB sunt ? Yestris 
armis continentur, non suis moribus; et qui praesentes me- 
tuunt, in absentia bostes erunt. Cum feris bestiis res est, 
qnas captas et inclusas, quia ipsarum natura non * potest, 
longior dies mitigat. Et adbuo sic ago, tanqudm omnia sub- 
acta sint armis, qusD fuerunt in ditione Darii. Hyrcaniam 
Nabarzanes occupayit. Bactra non soMm possidet parrieida 
Bessus, sed etiam * minatur. Sogdiani, Dab», Massagetse, 
SacdB, Indi^ ^ sui juris sunt. Omnes hi, ' simul terga nostra 
yiderint, sequentur. lUi enim ejusdem nationis sunt, nos 
alieDigenas et extemi. Suis autem quique parent placidiiis, 
etiam cikm is praeest qui magis timeri potest. Proinde aut 
qu3d cepimus omittenda sunt, aut quaa non hat>emus occupanda. 
Sicut in corporibus asgris, milites, nihil quod nociturum • est 
medici relinquunt : sic nos, quidquid obstat imperio, reoidamus. 
Parya sa^pe scintilla contempta magnum excitayit incendium. 
Nil tut6 in hoste despicitur : quem spreveris, yalentiorem 
negligently facies. Ne Darius quidem hasreditarium Persa» 


mm aeoepit imperimn : sed in sedem Oyri beneficio Bago» 
oastrati hominis admissns: *ne yob magno labore criedatis 
Beasum vacaum regnum ooeupatnram. 

" Nos verd pecoaTimus, milites, ai Darium ob hoc vicinias, 
ut servo ejus trader^nus imperitiin, qui ^** ultimum ausos 
scelus, Regem snum, etiam " eztemsB opis egentem, eerie cui 
BOB victores pepercissemus, quasi captiTum in Tinculis habuit; 
ad ultimnm, oie a nobis conservari posset^ ocoidit Hunc vos 
regnare patiemini? quern equidem cruci affizum videre fes- 
tino, omnibus Begibus gentibusque fidei, quam violavit, meri- 
tas pconas solventem. At hercule, si moz eumdem Grsecorum 
urbes, aut Hellespontum yaatare nunciatum erit vobis, quo 
dolore affieiemini, Bessum prs&mia vestras occup&sse yietoriae ? 
Tuno ad repetendas res festinabitis : tunc arm» capietis. 
Quanta autem praestaret territum adhuc et yix mentis suae 
oompotem, opprimere? Quatridui nobis iter superest, qui 
tot proculcayimus nives, tot amnes superavimus, tot montium 
juga transcurrimus. Non mare illud^quod exaestuans iter 
fluctibus occupat, euntes nos moratur: non Ciliciae fauces, 
et angustiaB includunt. Plana omnia et prona sunt In ipso 
limine viotoriae stamus. Fauci nobis fugitiyi, et domini 
sui interfeotores supersunt. ^^ Egregium meherculd opus, et 
inter prima glorias yestras numerandum, posteritati famaeque 
tradetis ; Darii quoque hostis, finite post mortem ejus odio, 
parricidas esse yos ultos ; neminem impinm effugisse manus 
yestras. Hoc perpetrate, quant6 creditis Persas obsequentiorcs 
fore, ciim intellexerint, yos pia bella suscipere, et Bessi sceleri, 
\ non nomini sue irasci." 

lY. 7. Summd militum alacritate, jubentium qu6cumque 
yellet duceret, oratio ezcepta est. Nee Bex moratus impe- 
tum ; tertioque per Parthienen die ad fines Hyrcaniad pene- 
ttsit ; Cratero relicto cum iis oopiis, quibus praoerat, et e& 
manu, quam Amjntas ducebat, additis sexoentis equitibus, 
et totidem sagittariis, ut ab incursione Barbarorum Par- 
thienen tueretur. Erigyium impedimenta, medico prassidio 
dat0| campestri itinere ducere jubet. Ipse cum phalange et 


eqnitata cl stadia emensiis, castra m valle, qoft Hjrcantam 
^ adeunt, communit. Nemus prsealtis densisqne arboribns 
nmbrosum est, pingae vallis solnm rigantilras aqnis, qnm 
ex petris eminentibus manaat. Ez ipsis radicibns montram 
Zioberis amnis efiunditur, qui tria ferd stadia in longitadi- 
nem 'uniyersus fluit: deinde sazo, quod alveohun inters 
pellat, repercossus, duo itinera *Yelat dispensatis aqnia 
aperit. * Inde torrens, et saxorum per qoss incurrit aspeii» 
tate yiolentior, terram prsoceps subit. Per ooc stadia eosk' 
dittts labitur, rursnsque velnt ex alto fonte conceptus editor 
et novum alveum intendit, priore sui parte spatiosior. Quippe 
in latitndinem xm stadiomm diffunditor; rursusqne angu»- 
tioribus coercitns ripis iter cogit : tandem in alteram amnem 
cadit, (Rhidago nomen est.) Incoke affirmabant, qiuecom- 
que demissa essent in cayemam, quse propior est fonti, rnrsus, 
nbi alind os amnis aperit, existere. Itaqtze Alexander dnos 
^ tauros, qnd subeunt aqnsd terram, praecipitari jnbet : * quorum 
corpora, ubi ruTS\\s erumpit, cxpulsa vid^re, qui missi erant, 
ut exciperent. 

8. Quartum jam diem eodem loco quietem militi dederat^ 
ci!lm litteras Nabarzanis, qui Parium cum Besso interoeperat, 
accipit, quarum sententia baBO erat : '< Se Pario non fuisse in- 
imioum, imo etiam quas credidisset utilia esse, suasisse: et 
quia fidele consilium Begi dedisset, prope oocisum ab eo. 
^ Agitdsse Barium, custodiam corporis sui contra jus fasque 
peregrine militi tradere, damnatd. popularium fide, quam per 
ducentos et triginta annos inyiolatam Begibus suis praastitis- 
sent Se in prascipiti et lubrico stantem, consilium a praosenti 
necessitate repetisse. Darium quoque, cilm ocotdisset Bagoam, 
hao excusatione satisfecisse popularibus, qu6d insidiant^n sibi 
interemisset. Nihil esse miseris mortalibus iq»irita caiiu& 
Amore ejus " a,d ultima esse propulcram : sed ea magis- ease 
secutum, quad ooegisset necessitas, qoAm qu» opt&sset In 
communi calamitate suam quemque habere fortunam. Si ve- 
nire se juberet, sine metu esse ventumm. Non timere ne fidem 
datam tantus Bex yiolaret. Deos a Deo falli non solera. Ga»» 


teri!im, si, cni fidem daret, Tid^retor indignus, mnlta ezilla 
patere fugienti ; patriam esse ubicumque vir fortis sedem ele- 
gerit." Neo dubitavit Alexander fidem, quo Persas modo acci- 
piebant, dare, inyiolatum, si yenisset, fore. Qaadrato tamen 
agmine et composite ibat : speculatores ' subinde prsemittens, 
qui explorarent looa. Levis armatora ducebat agmen : pha- 
lanx earn sequebatur: post pedites erant impedimenta. Et 
gens bellicosa, et naturS. situs difficilis aditu, curam Begis in- 
tenderat. Namque perpetua yallis jacet, usque ad mare Cas- 
pium patens. ^** Duo terras ejus, yeluti brachia, excurrunt : 
"media flexu modioo sinum faciunt, lunse maxime similem, 
cum eminent cornua, nondum totum orb^n sidere implente. 
Oercetse, Mosyni et Cbalybes, a laey^ sunt ; ab altera parte 
Leucosyri, et Amazonum campi : " et illos, qud yergit ad 
Septentrionem, bos ad occasum conversa, pro^ctat. 

9. Mare Caspium, duloius cseteris, ingentis magnitudinis 
serpentes alit, et pisces longd diversi ab aliis coloris. Quidam 
Caspium^ quidam Hyrcanum appellant. Alii sunt, qui Maeo- 
tim Faludem in id cadere putent, et argumentum afferunt, 
aquam quod duloior sit, qusun caetera maria, infuso paludis 
humore mitescere. A Septentrione ingens in littus mare in- 
cumbit, longeque agit fluctus, ^'et magna parte esaastuans 
stagnat. Idem, alio cobU statu, recipit se in fretum, eodem- 
que impetu, quo effusum est, relabens, terram naturaa suae 
reddit; et quidam credidere non Caspium mare esse, sed 
ex Indi^ in Hjrcaniam cadere; ^^cujus fastigimu (ut 
suprd dictum est) perpetud yalle submittitur. Hinc Hex 

yiginti stadia processit, semit^ propemodum inyii, cui sjlya 
imminebat, torrentesque et eluyies iter morabantur; nullo 
tamen hoste obyio, penetrayit, tandemque ad ulteriora peryen- 
ium est. Praeter alios commeatus, quorum tum copia regio 
abundabat, pomorum quoque ingens modus nascitur, et uberri- 
mum gignendis uyis solum est Erequens arbor faciem quer- 
ciLs habet, cujus folia mnlto melle tinguntur : sed nisi solis 
ortum inookd '' occupayerint, yei modioo tepore succus extin- 
goitur. Triginta bine stadia processerat, cVim Phrataphernes 

LIBEE VI. CAP. V. 119 

ei occurrit, seque, et eos qui post Darii mortem profdf erant, 
dedens ; quibus benign^ exceptis, ad oppidum Arvas pervenit. 
Hie ei Craterus et Erigjius occurrunt; Prsefectnm Tapj- 
rorum gentis Phradatem adduxerant. Hio quoqae in fidem 
receptus, mnltis exemplo fuit experiendi clemeatiam Begis. 
Satrapem deindd Hyroanise dedit Menapim. Exnl hie, regnante 
Ocho, ad Philippum pervenerat. Tapjrorum quoqae gentem 
Phradati reddidit. 

y. 10. Jamque Rex ultima Hyrcamaa intraverat, ci\m 
Artabazns, (quern Dario fidelissimum fiiisse supri diximus,) 
cum propinquis Darii, ac suis liberis, modic^que Graecorum 
militum manu, occurrit. Dextram yenienti obtulit Rex: 
quippe et hospes Philippi fuerat, ci\m, Ocho regnante, exula- 
ret ; ^ et bospitii pignora in Regem suum ad ultimum fides 
conservata yincebat. Comiter igitur exceptus, '^ Tu qui- 
dem," inquit, " Rex, perpetud felicitate floreas. Ego caeteris 
laetus, boo uno torqueor, qu6d prsBcipiti senectute diu frui 
ink bonitate non possim." Nonagesimum et quintum annum 
agebat. Novem juvenes, omnes e&dem matre geniti, patrem 
comitabantur. Hos Artabazus dextrse Regis admoyit, pre- 
catus ut tamdiu yiyerent doneo utiles Alexandre essent. Rex 
pedibus iter plemmque faciebat. Tunc admoyeri sibi et 
Artabazo equos jussit, ne, ipso ingrediente pedibus, senex 
equo yebi erubesceret. Deind^, ut castra sunt posita, Oraecos 
quos Artabazus adduxerat, conyocari jubet. At illi, nisi 
Lacedaemoniis quoque et Sinopensibus fides daretur, respon- 
dent, se quid agendum ipsis foret deliberaturos. Legati 
erant LacedaBmoniorum missi ad Darium, quo yicto, appli- 
cuerant se Grsecis mercede apud Persas militantibus. Rex, 
omissis sponsionum fideique pignoribus, yenire eos jussit, 
fortunam, quam ipse dadisset, habituros. Diu cunctantes, 
plerisque oonsilia yariantibus, tandem yenturos se poUicen- 
tur. At Democrates Atheniensis, qui maxim^ Macedonum 
opibus semper obstiterat, yeni& desperate, gladio se trans- 
figit. Ossteri, sicut constituerant, ditioni Alexandri seipsos 
permittunt : mille et b milites erant. Praeter hos, legati ad 


Darium missi xc. *In snpplementam distributns miles; 
cseteri remissi domum, prseter Lacedsemonios, quos tradi is 
custodiam jussit. 

11. Mardorum erat gens confinis Hyroanise, ctxltu vit» 
aspera, et latrociniis assueta. Hsec sola nee legatos miserat, 
neo yidebatur imperata factura. Itaqne Rex indignatus, si 
ana gens posset efficere ne inviotus esset, impedimentis cam 
prsesidio relictis, invict^ manu comitante prooedit. Nocta 
iter fecerat, et primd luce hostis in conspectu erat : tumultns 
magis quam proelium fuit. Deturbati ex collibns qnos occu 
paverant, Barbari profugiunt ; proximique vici ab incolis de- 
serti capiuntur. Interiora regionis ejus hand sane adire sine 
magn& vcxatione exercitits poterant. Juga montium pneaits 
sylvae rupesque invise sepiunt : ea quae plana sunt, novo rnuw- 
menti genere impedierant Barbari. Arbores dens» sunt ex 
industrid consitse, quarum teneros *adhuc ramos manu flectnBti 
quos intortos rursi\s inserunt terrae. Inde velut ex alii i^^ 
betiores virent trunci. Hos, * qua natura fert, adolescere bod 
sinunt ; quippe alium alii quasi nexu conserunt ; ' qui ^^| 
multd fronde vestiti sunt, operiunt terram. Itaque occulti 
nexus ramorum, velut laquei, perpetud sepe iter claudnnt 
Una ratio erat, caedendo aperire saltum : sed hoc quoque 
magni operis. Crebri namque nodi duraverant stipites, et m 
se implicati arborum rami, suspensis circulis similes lento li- 
mine frustrabantur ictus. Incol» autem ritu ferarum xirgol^ 
subire soliti, turn quoque intraverant saltum, occultisque teW 
hostem lacessebant. 

12. lUe venantium modo, latibula scrutatus, plerosqti^ 
confodit : ad ultimum circumire saltum milites jubet, nt Bi 
qui pateret, irrumperent. Sed ignotis locis plerique obcrr** 
bant. Except! sunt quidam, inter quos equus Regis, (Buc^"^ 
alum vocabant) quern Alexander non eodem, quo c^teraB 
peeudes, animo asstimabat. * Namque ille neo in dorse isBi- 
dere suo patiebatur alium : et Begem, oi!lm vellet ascendere, 
sponte SU& genua submittens, excipiebat, credebatnrque sen- 
tire quern veheret Majore ergd quim deoebat ir& simul &0 

LIBSK VI. CAP. v. 121 

dolore stimulatus, eqiram yestigari jubet, et p^ interpretem 
pronuTiciari, ni reddidissent, neminem esse yictaram. Hdc 
denunciatione territi, cum oaeteris donis eqaum adducunt. Sed 
ne sio quidem mitigatns, esBdi sylvas jabet, aggestitque homo e 
montibus, planitiem ramis impeditam exaggerari. Jam aliqnan- 
tuli\m altitudinis opus creverat, cikm Barbari, "* desperato re- 
gionem quam oooupayerant posse retineri, gentem suam dedi- 
dere. Eex, obsidibus acoeptis, Phradati tradere eos jussit. 
Inde quinto die in stativa revertitur.^ Artabazum deinde, 
geminate honore, quern Darius habuerat ei, remittit domum. 
Jam ad urbem Hyrcanise, in qud regia Darii fuit, yentum erat. 
Ibi Nabarzanes accepts fide occurrit, dona ingentia ferens. 
Inter quad Bagoas erat specie singulari spado, atque in ipsa, 
flore pueritisB : cni et Darius fuerat assuetus, et mox Alexander 
assueyit ; ejusque maxime precibus motus, Nabarsani ignoyit. 

13. Erat, ut supra dietum est, Hjrcaniae finitima gens 
Amazonum, circa Thermodoonta amnem, Tbemiscyr» inoolen- 
tium eampos. Beginam habebant Tbalestrim, omnibus inter 
Caucasum montem et Phasim amnem imperitantem. Hadc cu- 
pidine yisendi Begis accensa, finibus regni sui excessit : et ciim 
baud procul abesset, praemisit iadicantes yenisse Beginam, 
adeuiidi ejus cognoscendique ayidam. Protinils faotd po<«state 
yeniendi, ca&teris jussis subsistere, ccc foBminarum comitata 
processit Atque ut primilUn Bex in conspectu fiiit, equo ipsa 
desiliit, duas lanceas dextr^ prsdferens. Yestis non toto Ama- 
zonum oorpori obducitur : nam Iseya pars ^ ad pectus est nuda, 
ca&tera inde yelantur ; neo tamen sinus yestis, quem nodo col- 
ligunt, infra genua descendit. Altera papilla intacta seryatur, 
qua muliebris sexus liberos alant : aduritur dextra, ut arena 
faciUus intendant, et tela yibrent. Interrito yultu Begem 
Thalestria intuebatur: 'habitum ejus baudquaquam rerum 
famae parem oculis perlustrans. Quippe omnibus barbaris in 
eorporom majestate yeneratio est ; magnorumque operum non 
alios capaoes putant, qudm quos eximi& specie donare natura 
dignata est. Gasteribn interrogata, num aliquid petere yellet ; 
baud diAitayit fateri, ad communicandos cum Bege liberos se Ve- 


niflse ; digmuDa ex qu& ipse regni genenuret haaredes. Foemi- 
nini ^" sexus se " retenturam, marem reddituram patri. Alex- 
ander, an cum ipsa militare vellet, interrogat ; et ilia, cansata 
sine costode regnmn reliquisse, petere perseverabat ne se '^ ir- 
ritam spei pateretur abire. Acrior ad Venerem foeminas cnpido, 
qudm BegiA, ut paucos dies subsisteret, perpnlit. XTTT diei 
in obsequium desiderii ejus absompti sunt. Turn ilia r^gnum 
suum, Bex Parthieneniy petiverunt. 

YL 14. Hie yer6 paUm ' cupiditates suas solvit : conti 
nentiamque et moderationemi 'in altissini4 qu^ue fortnna 
eminentia bona, in superbiam ac lasciviam yertit. Patrios 
mores disciplinamque Maoedonum Begom salubriter tempera- 
tarn, et ' civilem habitum, yelut leviora magnitudine sod da- 
oens, PersiosB regise par Beorum potentisB fastigiom somiilaba- 
tur. Jacere bumi yenerabundos ipsum pati CQ&pit, paulatunque 
* seryiUbus ministeriis tot yietores gentium imbuere, et captiyifl 
pares facere expetebat. Itaque purpureum diadema distinotnm 
albo, quale Darius habuerat, capiti circumdedit, yestemqae Per- 
sicam sumpsit : ne omen quidem yerituSi quod a yietoris insig- 
nibus in deyicti transiret babitum. Et ille se quidem Persarum 
spolia gestare dicebat, sed cum illis quoque mores induerat : 
superbiamque habitus animi insolentia sequebatur. Litteras 
quoque, quas in Europam mitteret, yeteris annuli gemm& obsig* 
nabat : iis, quas in Asiam scriberet, Darii annulus imprimeba- 
tur^ ^ at appareret, unum animnm duorum n<m capere fortunam. 
Amicos yer6 et equites, unaque his principes militmn, aerper- 
nantes quidem sed recusare non ausos, Persicis omayerat yes- 

15. Hsec luxu et peregrinis infecta moribua, ye teres Phi- 
lippi milites, rudis natio ad yoluptates, paldm ayersabantur : 
totisque castris unus omnium sensus ac sermo erat, " plus amis- 
sum yictori^, qudm bello quaesitum esse. " Turn maxima yinci 
ipsos, dedique alienis moribus et externis : ^ tant» moraa pre- 
tium, domes quasi in captiyo habitu reyersuros : pudere jam 
sui : Begem, Victis quam yictoribus similiorem, ex Macedonian 
imperatore Darii Satrapem factum." lUe non ignarus et prin- 


oipes amicamniy el ezereitnm graviter offendi, gratiam liberali- 

tate donisque r€parare tentabat. Sed, opinor, liberis pretium 
servitutis ingratum est. Igitur, ne in seditionem res vertere» 
tur, otium mterpellandum erat bello, cujus materia opportune 
alebatur, Namque Bessos, Teste regi& sompta, Artaxerxem 
appellari se jusserat, Scythasque et ca&teros Tanais acoolas con* 
trahebat. Haec Satibarzanes nunciabat; quem receptmn in 
fidem, regioni quam antea obtinuerat prsefedt. Et eCan grave 
spoliis apparatuque laxnxias agmen vix moveretur, soas primi\m, 
deindd totius exercitus saroinas, exceptis admodum neoeseariis, 
conferri jussit in medium. Planities spatiosa erat, in quam 
vebicula onusta perduxerant Exspeotantibus cunctis quid 
deinde esset imperaturus, jumenta jussit abduci, suisque pri* 
mi^ sarciuis face subdit4, csdi&raa incendi prseeepit. Elagra- 
bant, exurentibus dominis, ^ quse ut intaota ex urbibuB hostium 
raperent, aaspe flammas restrinxerant ; nullo * sanguinis pre- 
tium audente deflere, oiim regias opes idem ignis exureret» 
Brevis deinde oratio mitigavit dolorem ; ^'^ babilesque militisa, 
et ad omnia parati laBtabantur sarcinarum potii\s, quam disci- 
plinsB fecisse jacturam. 

16. "Igitur Bactrianam regionem petebant. Sed Nica- 
nor Parmenionis filius, subitd morte correptus, magno deside- 
rio sui a£fecerat cunctos. Bex ante omnes mo&stus, cupiebat 
quidem " subsistere, funeri a£futurus ,* sed penuria commea- 
tuum festinare cogebat. Itaque Philotas cum duobus milli- 
bus et DC relictus, ut justa fratri persolveret : ipse contendit 
ad Bessum. Iter fiacienti litterse ei afTenmtur a finitimis 
Satraparum, e quibus cognoscit, Bessum quidem hostili aninio 
occurrere cum exeroitu: caeteriim Satibarzanem, quem Sa- 
trapi» Ariorum ipse prsBfeeisset, defeoisse ab eo. Itaque 
quanquam Besso imminebat, tamen ad Satibarzanem oppri- 
mendum ^* praoverti optimum ratus, levem armaturam et 
equestres copias educit : totdque nocte strenud facto itinere, 
improvisus bosti supervenit. Cujus cognito adventu, Sati- 
barzanes cum duobus millibus equitum (neo enim plures 
fiubitd contrahi poterant) Bactra perfugit: cadtori proiumoa 


monteci ooeopavemnt. PrsBrapta rnpes erat, qn^ spectat 
Oocidentem. Eadem, qui vergit ad Orientem, leniore sub- 
missa fastigio, multis arboribns obsita, pcrennem habet fon- 
tern, ex quo largse aqu» manant. Oircuitus ejus triglnta 
et duo stadia comprehendit. In vertice herbidus campus: 
in hoc niultitudinem imbellem considere jubent. Ipsi, qui 
rupes desierat, arborum trunoos et saza obmoliuntur. XIII 
millia armata erant. 

17. In quorum obsidione Gratero relicto, ipse Satibarsa* 
nem sequi festinat. Et quia ** longius eum abesse cogno- 
yerat, ad ezpugnandos eos qui edita montium occupaTerant, 
redit. ** Ao primd repurgari jubet, quicquid ingredi possent : 
deindd, ut occurrebant invi» cotes, prseruptseque rapes; 
irritus labor videbatur, obstante natur^. lUe, ut erat ^* ani* 
mi semper obluctantis difficultatibus, ci!lm et progredi ardnum, 
et reverti periculosum esset, versabat se ad omnes x;ogita- 
tiones, aliud atque aliud (ita ut fieri solet, ubi prima qtueque 
damuamus) subjioiente animo : hassitanti, quod ratio non 
potuit, fortuna consilium subministravit. Yehemens Fayo- 
nius erat, et multam materiam ceciderat miles, aditum per 
saxa molitus. Hsec yapore torrida iqaruerat. Erg6 aggerari 
alias arbores jubet, et " igni dare alimenta : celeriterque 
stipitibus cumulatis, fastigium mentis sequatum est. Tunc 
undiqud ignis injectus cuncta comprehendit : flammam in ora 
hostium yentus ferebat : fumus ingens yelut quidam nube 
absconderat coelum. Sonabant inoendio sylyse, atque ea quo- 
que, qu89 non incenderat miles, concepto igne proxima quao- 
qne adurebant. Barbari suppliciorum ^' ultimum, " si qua 
intermoreretur ignis, effugere tentabant : sed qui flamma de- 
derat locum, hostis obstabat. Yarii igitur olade oonsumpti 
sunt. Alii in medios ignes, alii in petras prs&cipitay^re se : 
quidam manibus hostium se obtulerunt: pauoi, seminstulati 
yendre in potestatem. 

18. Hino ad Craterum, qui Artaoacna obsidebat, rediity 
lUe, omnibus prsaparatis, Regis exspectabat adyentum, ** cap- 
tee urbis titulo (siout par erat) cedens. Igitur Alexander 


torres admoveri jubet : ipsoque aspectu territi Barbari, • 
muris '^ supinas mantis tendentes orare coepenint, iram in 
Satibarzanem defectionis auctorem reservaret; supplicibus 
semet dedentibus parceret. Eex, datd veni&, non obsidio- 
nem modd solvit, sed omnia sua incolis reddidit. Ab h&o 
urbe digresso, supplementum novorum militnm occurrit. 
Zoilus quingentos milites ex Graeci^ adduxerat : tria millia 
ex lUyrico Antipater miserat. Thessali eqnites centum et 
triginta cum Philippe erant. Ex Lydisl duo millia et sex- 
centi, peregrinus miles, advenerant: trecenti equites gentis 
ejusdem sequebantiBr. Hdc manu adjects Drangas pervenit. 
Bellicosa natio est. Satrapes erat Barzaentes, " sceleris in 
Begem suum particeps Besso. Is suppliciorum, quad mem- 
erat, metu, profugit in Indiam. 

YII. 19. Jam nonum diem stativa erant,. ci\m extern^ vi 
non tutus modd Bex, sed invictus, intestine facinore peteba* 
tur. Dymnus modicse apud Begem ^ auctoritatis et gratiae, 
exoleti, cui Nicomacho erat nomen, amore flagrabat, obsequio 
uni sibi dediti corporis vinctus. Is, quod ex vultu quoque 
perspici poterat, similis attonito remotis arbitris cum juvene 
secessit in templum ; arcana se et silenda afferre prsefatus : 
suspensumque exspectatione, per mutuam caritatem et pignora 
utriusque animi rogat, ut affirmet jurejurando, quad commisis- 
set, silentio esse tecturum. Et ' ille ratus nihil, ' quod etiam 
cum perjttrio detegendum foret, indicaturum, per praBsentes 
Deos jurat. Tum Dymnus aperit, in tertium diem insidias 
Begi comparatas, seque ejus consilii fortibus viris et illnstribiis 
esse ^participem. Quibus juvenis auditis se ver6 Mem in 
parricidio dedisse ^ constanter abnuit, nee ulld religione, nt 
scelus tegat, posse constringi. Dymnus et amore et metu 
amens, dextram exoleti complexus et lacrymans, orare, " pri- 
mum ut particeps consilii operisque fieret : si id sustinere non 
posset, attamen ne proderet se, cujus erga ipsum benevolenti» 
prseter alia hoc quoque haberet fortissimum pignus, qu6d caput 
suum permisisset fidei adhuc inexpertse.^' Ad ultimum aver* 
sari scelus perseverantem metu mortis terret ; '" ab illo capite 


Gonjiuratos pulclierrimnm facinns inchoatoros.'' ^ Alids deinde 
effoaminatam et muliebriter timidmn, alias proditorem. amatoiis 
appellans, nunc ingentia promittens, interdumqne regnum 
* qnoqae, ' versabat animum '** tanto facinore procnl abhorren- 
tern : strictum deinde gladium mod6 illius, mod6 suo admovens 
jugolo, sapplex idem et infestus " expressit, nt tandem non 
8oli\ni silentimn, sed etiam operam poUiceretnr ; namqiie 
abnnde constantis animi, et dignus qui pudicus esseti nihil ex 
pristind yoltintate mntaverat : sed se captum Dynmi amore, 
simulabat nihil recusare. Sciscitari deinde pergit, '^ ciun qni- 
bus tantae rei societatem inisset. Plnriin\\ni referre, quales 
yiri tarn memorabili open admotori manus essent." Xlle et 
amore et scelere male sanus, simnl gratias agit, simul gratola- 
tur, quod " fortissimus juvenum non dubitasset se adjtmgere 
Bemetrio corporis custodi, Peucolao, Nicanori. Adjicit his 
Apboebetum, Loceum, Dioxenum, Archepolim et Amjntam. 

20. Ab hoc sermone dimissus Nicomachus, ad &atrem 
(Gebalino erat nomen) qusB aooeperat, defert. " Placet ipsum 
subsistere in tabemaculo, ne si regiam intrdsset, non assuetos 
adire Begem, conjurati proditos se esse resciscerent. Ipse 
Oebalinus ante yestibulum regias (neque enim propius aditus ei 
patebat) consistit, opperiens aliquem ex primd cohorte ^* ami- 
oorom, quo introduceretur ad Begem. Fortd cseteris dimissis, 
mms Philotas Parmenionis filius, " inoertum quam ob causam, 
Bubstiterat in regid. Huic Oebalinus, ore confuso magnao per- 
turbationis notas prae se ferens, aperit quae ex fratre compe- 
rerat, et sine cunctatione nunciari Begi jubet. Philotas, lau- 
dato eo, protinds intrat ad Alexandrum ; multoque invicem de 
aliis rebus consumpto sermone, nihil eorum quae ex Cebalino 
eognoverat, nunciat. Sub yesperam eum prodeuntem in yesti- 
bulo regiad excipit juyenis, ^^ an mandatum exsecutus ^* foret," 
requirens. Ille, ^' non yac^sse sermoni suo Begem," causatos, 
discessit. Postero die Oebalinus yenienti in regiam prsesto 
est : intrantemque admonet pridie communicata» cum ipso rel 
Ille curaB sibi esse respondet : ac ne turn quidem Begi, qpm 
ttodieraty aperit Coeperat Oebalino esse suspectus. Itaque 


non tdtri interpellandum ratus, nobili juveni (Metron erat ei 
nomen) supra armamentarium posito, quod scelus pararetur, 
indicat. lUe, Cebalino in armamentario abscondito, protiniiB 
Begi corpus forte curanti, quid ei index detulisset, ostendit. 

21. "ReXy ad comprehendendum Djmnum missis satelli- 
tibus, armamentarium intrat. Ibi Cebalinus gaudio elatus, 
" Habeo te," inquit, " incolumem ex impiorum manibus erep- 
tum.'' Percunctatus deinde Alexander quae noscenda erant, 
ordine cuncta cognoscit. Bursiisque institit quserere, quotus 
dies esset, ex quo Nicomachus ad eum detulisset indicium. 
Atque illo fatente jam tertium esse, existimans baud incor- 
rupt^ fide tanto post deferre quae audierat, vinciri eum 
jussit. lUe clamitare coepit, '^eodem temporis memento 
quo audisset, ad Philotam decurrisse : ab eo perounctaretur.'* 
Bex item quaerens, '* an Pbilotam adisset, " an institisset ei, 
ut perveniret ad se ; '' perseverante eo affirmare qu» dixerat, 
manus ad coelum tendens, manantibus lacrjmis, banc sibi a 
carissimo quondam amicorum relatam gratiam querebatur. 
Inter base Djmnus, baud ignarus', quam ob causam accer- 
seretur a Bege, gladio quo fortd erat oinctus, graviter se 
Yulnerat: occursuque satellitum inbibitus, perfertur in re- 
giam. Quem intuens Bex : ** Quod," inquit, " in te, Djrmne, 
tantuin cogitavi nefas, ut tibi Macedonum regno dignior Pbi- 
lotas me quoque ipso videretur ? " Ilium jam defecerat vox. 
Itaque edito gemitu, vultuque a conspectu Begis averso, 
subindd coUapsus extinguitur. 

22. Bex, Pbilota. venire in regiam jusso, " Cebalinus," 
inquit, '^ultimum supplicium meritus, si in caput meum 
praeparatas insidias biduo texisset, bujus criminis reum Phi- 
lotam substituit, ad quem protiniUs indicium detulisse se 
affirmat. '* Quo propiore gradu amicitiaa me contingis, boo 
majus est dissimulationis tuao facinus : et ego Cebalino magis 
qu4m Pbilotaa id convenire fateor. Faventem babes judi- 
cem, si quod admitti non oportuit, saltern negari potest.** 
Ad haec Pbilotas, baud sand trepidus, si animus vultu aesti- 
maretur, '' Cebalinum qui<!bm scorti sermonem ad se de- 


tuliMe, Bed ijMHun tarn levi auotori nihil credidisse " respoo- 
dit : '' yeritum ne jurgiom inter amatorem et exoletom, non 
sine risu aliorum, detulisset. Ci^m Bymnus interemerit 
seipsom, qualiaoomque erant, non fuisse reticenda : " com- 
plezusque Begem, orare ooepit, " at praeteritam yitam potids 
qnam culpam, silentii tamen, non facti ullius, intueretor." 
Hand facile dizerim, credideritne ei E.ex, an adtiiis iram 
snppresserit. Deztram reconciliatse gratise pignus obtulit; 
et contemptam magis qu^m celatum indicium esse, viden 
sibi dixit. 

VIII. 23. Adyocato tamen concilio amicorum, cui turn 
Philotas adhibitus non est, Nicomachum introduci jubet. Is 
eadem quad detulerat ad Begem, ordine exposuit. ^Srst 
Craterus Regi earns in paucis, et ed Philotse, ob «mulatio- 
nem dignitatis, adversus. Neqne ignorabat, ssepe Alexasof^ 
anribns nimi^ jactatione yirtutis atque operse grayem foisse, 
et ob ea non quidem sceleris sed ' contamacise tamen Bnspee- 
tum. Non aliam premendi inimioi occasionem aptiorem 
futuram ratns, " odio suo pietatis prseferens speciem : " 1^^' 
nam," inquit, " in principio * qnoque hujus rei nobiscum deli* 
ber&sses : suasissemus, si Philotad yelles ignoscere, patereris 
potids ignorare eum, quantum deberet tibi, quam nsque a<i 
mortis metum adductnm, cogeres potius de perioulo suo, q^^^ 
de tno cogitare beneficio. Ille enim semper insidiari tibi ^ 
terit : tu non semper FhilotSB poteris ignoscere. * Neo est» 
qu6d existimes, eum qui tantum facinus ausus est, yenii posse 
mutari. Scit eos, qui ^ misericordiam consumpserunt, ampu^^^ 
Bperare non posse. At ego, etiam si ipse, yel poenitenti^, ^^^ 
beneficio tuo yictus, quiescere yolet, patrem ejus Parmenionenv 
tonti dueem exercitds, et ^ inveteratii, apud milites tuos aucto- 
ritate, liaud multi\m infra magnitudinis tuaa fastigium positiii^^ 
scio non asquo animo salutem filii sid debiturum tibi. Qw^^ 
beneficia odimus. Meruisse mortem confiteri ^ pudet. Sup^^ 
est, ut malit yideri injuriam accepisse, qudm yitam. Froin^^^ 
scito, tibi cum illis de salute esse pugnandum. Satis hostiui^ 
Buperest, ad quos persequendos ituri sumus. Latus a domes' 


tiois hosiibiui munL Hos si sobmoros, nihil mefciio ab ez* 


24. Hase Oratems. Neo cseteri dabitabant, ^' quin conju- 
ratdonis indicium ' suppreflsoros non fuisset, nisi anctor ant 
particeps. ^*^ Quern enim pium, et bon» mentis, non amioum 
modd; sed ex ultimo plebe, anditis quas ad enm delata enmt, 
non protintks ad Begem fuisse cnrsaram ? " Ne Cebalini 
quidem ezemplo, qui ex fratre comperta ipsi nunciasset^ Par» 
menionis filium, Praefectam equitatils, omnium arcanorum B^^ 
arbitrum ; simul&sse etiam non vacdsse eennoni suo Begem, ne 
index alium intemuncium qusBreret. Nioomaohnm religione 
quoque Deum adstrictum, " conscientiam suam exonerare pro- 
perdase : Pbilotam^ consumpto per ludom jocumque pene toto 
die, gravatum esse pauca verba, ad caput Begis pertinentia, 
tarn longo et forsitan superyacuo inserere sermoni " At enim 
non credidisse talia deferentibus pueris I our igitur ** extrax- 
isset biduum, tanquam indicio haberet fidem ? Dimittendum 
fuisse Cebalinum, si delationem ejus damnabat In suo 
quemque periculo magnum animum habere : cikm de salute 
Bcgis timeretur, credulos esse debere ; vana quoque deferentes 
admittere." Omnes igitur quaostionem de eo, ut participes 
sceleris indicare cogeretur, babendam esse decemunt. Bex 
admonitos, ut consilium silentio premerent, dimittit Pro- 
nunciari deinde iter in posterum diem jubet, ne qua novi initi 
consilii daretur nota. Invitatus est etiam Philotas ad ulti- 
mas ipsi epulas : et rex non ccDuare modd, sed etiam familia- 
riter colloqui cum eo quem damnaverat, sustinuit. SecundS 
delude yigilid, luminibus extinotis, cum paucis in regiam 
coeunt HephsBstion, et Graterus, et Coenus, et Erigyius. Hi 
ex ^' amicis. Ex armigeris autem, Perdiccas, et Leonatus. 
Per bos imperatum, ut qui Prastorium excubabant, armati 

25. Jam ad omnes aditus dispositi milites; equites quo- 
que itinera obsidere jussi, ne quis ad Parmenionem qui turn 
Mediae, magnisque copiis praoerat, occultus evaderet. Attaraa 
autem cum trecentis armatis intraverat regiam. Huio decern 



Bfttellites tndantur, quomm singolofl deni annigeri Beqn«> 
bantar. li ad alios conjurafcos oomprehendendos distribati 
sunt. Attaras cam trecentis ad Philotam missus, clansain 
adiium domiis moliebatar, quinquaginia jayeniun promptissi- 
mis stipatus. Nam «eteros cingere nndiqnd domum jassent» 
Qe oooulto aditu Philotas posset elabi. Ilium, sive secnritate 
animi, sive fiEitigatione resolutum, somntis oppress^rat : qnem 
Attaras torpentem ^' adhuo oocupat. Tandem ei, sopore du- 
ousso, oum iojicerentar eaten», *' Yicit," inquit, <^ bonitatem 
tnam, Bex, inimieomm meomm aeerbitas." Neo plan 
loeutum, oapite yelato, in regiam adducunt. Postero die Bex 
edizit, omnes armati coirent. Sex millia ferd militum veae- 
rant: praoterei turba lixamm ealonnmque impleTerant re- 
giam. Philotam armigeri agmine sao tegebaat, ne ante oon- 
spici posset a vulgo qti^m Bex allocatns milites esset^ " De 
capitalibus rebus vetusto Maoedonum modo inquirebat exer- 
oitus. In pace ^* erat yulgi. Nihil potestas Begum Talebst, 
nisi prills valuisset **auctoritas. Igitur primiim Dymni 
cadaver infertur, plerisque quidpar£bsset, quove casu extinctus 
esset, ignaris. 

IX. 26. Bex deindd in concionem procedit, vulta prae- 
ferens dolorem animi. Amicorum quoque moestitia exspecti- 
tionem baud parvam rei fecerat. Dili Bex, demisso in terram 
vultu, attonito stupentique ^milis stetit. Tandem recepto 
animo, '^ Pend/' inquit, '' milites, paucorum hominum scelere 
vobis ereptus sum. Detim ^providentid et misericordi& vivo: 
conspeetusque vester * venerabilis cogit, ut vehementius par- 
rioidis irascar, quoniam supremus, im6 unus vitse mesa irac- 
tus est, tot fortissimis viris et de me optimd mentis refene 
adhuc gratiam posse." Intermpit orationem militum gemi- 
tus, obortsBque sunt omnibus laorymse. Tum Bex : '' Quant6," 
inquit, '^ majorem in animis vestris motum excitabo, etm tanti 
sceleris auetores ostendero, quorum mentionem adhuo re- 
formido, et tanquim salvi esse possint, nominibus abstineo 1 
sed vincenda est memoria pristinse oaritatis, et conjoratio 
impiorum civium detegenda. Quomodd ^ autem tantam nefes 


Bileam? PiMBtenio, *ill& eelaie, tot meis, tot parentis mei 
mentis doTinetas, omnium nobis amiconim Tetustissimns, 
dneem se tanto sceleri praebnit. Minister ejus Philotas, 
Peucolanm, et Demetrinm et bono Dymnnm, cnjns oorpns 
aspieitis, ceeterosqne ejusdem amentiao, in caput meum subor- 
navif Fremitus undiqnd indignantinm * querentiumque 
tots coneione obstrepebat, qualis solet esse multitudinis, et 
maxime militaris, ubi aut studio agitur, aut iri. Nicoma- 
chus deinde, et Metron et Cebalinus producti, quse quisque 
detulerat exponunt : nuUius eorum indicio Philotas particeps 
sceleris destinabatur. Itaque indignatione pressi, toz indi- 
cum silentio excepta est. Turn Bex : ^' QualiS)" inquit, 
^' ergd animi vobis yidetur, qui hujus rei delatum indicium 
ad ipsum suppressit ? Quod non fuisse yanum, Dymni exitos 
declarat. Incertam rem deferens tormenta non timuit Ceba* 
linus : Metron ne momentum quidem temporis distulit 'exone- 
rare se, ut e6 ubi lavabar irrumperet. Philotas solus nihil 
timuit, nihil oredidit O magni animi virum 1 ' Iste, si 
Begis periculo commoveretur, vultum non mutaret I indicem 
tant89 rei sollicitus non audiret! Subest nimiri\m silentio 
facinus ; et ayida spes regni prcecipitem animum ad ultimum 
ne^Eis impulit. Pater Mediae preeest. Ipse, apud multos 
copiarum duces meis prsepotens viribus, migora, * quim capit 
sperat. ' Orbitas quoque mea, qu6d sine liberis sum, spemi- 
tur. Sed errat Philotas. In vobis liberos, parentes, consan* 
guineos habeo ; vobis salvis, orbus esse non possum." 

27. Epistolam deindd Parmenionis inieroeptam, quam 
ad filios Nicanorem et Philotam scripserat, recitat, baud 
sand indicium gravioris consiUi prssferentem. Namque sum- 
ma ejus hsdc erat : '* PrimiUm vestri curam agite, deindd 
veatrorum : sic enim, quae destinavimus, ^ciemus."- Ad- 
jecitque Bex, sic esse scriptam, ut, sive ad filios pervenisset, 
a consciis posset intelligi, sive intercepta esset, falleret ignar 
ros. "At enim Dymnus, cAm casteros participes sceleris 
indicaret, Philotam non nominavit. Hoc quidem illius non 
innooentiad sed potentiae indicium est, qu6d sic ab iis timetur, 



•tiam » qvibus prodi potest, ut ehm de se fiiteaatar, illam 
tamen oeleoi. 0»teriiiii Philotam ipaios indieat vita. Hie 
Amjnt»! q«i mihi cooflobrmiu fuit, et in MaGedoxii& capiti 
meo impiaa comparavit insidias, sociaiii se et oonseimii ad- 
jmudt. Hie Attalo, quo grayiorem inimicum non habui, 
sororem saam in matrimonium dedit. Hio, cum scripaisBem 
ei, pro jure tarn familiaris os^ atque amicitise, quaiis sora 
edita esset, Joyis Hammonis oraculo, sastinuit scribere 
mihi, se qnidem gratnlari, qu6d in numerom Deornm fecep- 
tns essem, e»ten!lm misereri eonun qaibnsviyendum esset 
sub eo, qui modnm hominis ezeederet Haoc sunt etiam 
animi, pridem alienati a me, et invidentis glori» meae, in- 
dicia : qu» eqnidem, milites, quim diii liouit, in anixno meo 
prcssL Yidebar enim mihi par4;em "viscerum meorom 
abnunpere, si, in quos tarn magna contuleram, " yiliores mihi 
£ftoerem. Sed jam non yerba punienda sunt ; lingoao teme- 
ritas peryenit ad gladios. Hos (si mihi creditis) Philotas 
in me aeuit. Id si ipse admisit, qud me oonferiun, milites ? 
cni caput mieum credam ? Equitatui, optima^ exeroitds parti, 
principibus nobilissimae juyentutis unum prsefeci : salutem, 
q»em, victoriam meam, fidei ejus tutekeque commisi : patrem 
in idem fostigium, in quo me ipsi posuistis, admoyi. Me- 
diam, qui» nulla opulentior regie est, et tot^iyium sooiorum- 
que millia, imperio ejus ditionique subjeci. Und^ presi- 
dium petieram, perioulum ezstitit. Quim feliciter in acie 
OGcidissem ; potiiis hostis praeda, qu4m oiyis yictima ! Nunc 
seryatus ez perieulis, quss sola timui, in hseo incidi, qusB 
timere non debuL Soletis identidem a me, milites, petere, 
ut saluti mese parcam. Ipsi mihi prssstare potestis, quod 
suadetis ut faciam. Ad vestras manus, ad yestra arma con- 
fugio : inyitis yobis salyus esse nolo : yolentibus, " non possum, 
nisi yindieor." 

28. Tum Philotam, religatis post tergum manibus, obsolete 
amiculo yelatum, jussit inducL Facile apparebat motos esse 
tam miserabili habitu, non sine inyidid paulo ante *' oonspeotL 
Dncem equitatus pridie yiderant, sciebant Regis interfuisse 


)nTiTio : rep«ntd lum ream mod6, Bed etiam danmatuBiy imd 
iDctiun mtnebft&tur. Sulnbat animoe Panneiuonis quoque, 
nti dttciSj tsm dari mis, fortuna, qui, modd duobus filiis, 
ectore el Nicanore, orbatufi, ^* cum eo, quern reliquum calam« 
IS feceratj absens diceret causam. Itaque Amyntas Begia 
'xtOTj mclioantem ad misericordiam concionem rursus aeperil 
Piulotam (Mratione commSfil : *^ Proditos eos esse Barbaris : 
Qinem ad oonjogem suam, neminem in patriam et ad parentea 
!S6 reditnrmn : yelnt truncum corpus, dempto oapite, sine 
itn, sine nomine, in aliens terr4 ludibrinm hostis futnros." 
audqaaqnam pro spe ipsius, Amynt» oratio grata Begi 
, qndd coDJngum, qndd patriae admonitos, pigriores ad oed- 
nrania exseqnenda fecisset Tunc Goenus, quanquam Phi- 
sororem matrimonio secum oonjunzerat; tamen acriiliB 
a qnisquam in Philoiam inyectus est, '^ ^' parricidam esse 
s, patrie, exeroitils," clamitans: saxumque, quod fort^ 
pedes jaoebat, arripuit, emissurus in eum ; ut plerique 
dSre, tormentis subtrabere cnpiens : sed Bex manum ejus 
nit, ^^ dicendse prii!l8 cans» debere fieri potestatem reo» neo 
jadicari passurum se," affinnans. Turn dicere rursds per* 
s Philotas, sive conscientid sceleris, sive periculi magni- 
) amens et attonitns, non attollere ooulos, non hiscere 
it. Laorjmis deindd manantibus, linquente animo, in 
|uo tenebatur, incubuit : abstersisque amiculo ejus ooulis, 
m recipiens spiritum ac vocem, dictums' yidebatur. 
e Bex intuens emn, '^ Macedones," inquit| '^ de te judi- 
mnt : quaere, an patrio sermone sis apud eos usums ? " 
^hilotas : " Prsster Macedonas,'' inquit, " plerique ad- 
los &ciliiy, quad dicam, percepturos arbitror, si eddem 
'uero usus, qud tu egisti : non ob aliud, credo, qtiam ut 
la intelligi posset a pluribus." Turn Bex : '' " Eoquid 
'^ odio etiam sermonis patrii Philotam teneri ? Solus 
istidit emn dicere. Sed dicat sane, utcumque cordi est| 
nineritis, £eque ilium a nostro more atque sermone ab<* 
^ Atque ^* ita condone excessit. 
9. Turn Philotas : " Verba," inquit, '^ innooenti re- 


perire faeile est, modum verbomm misero ten^e diffioae^ 
Itaqne inter optimam ciMiscientiam et iniqnissimam fortunam 
' destitntus, ignoro quomodd et a&imo meo et tempoii paream. 
Abest quidem optimns caussB meaa judex : qui cur me ipse au- 
dire noluerit, non mehercule ezoogito, cum iUi utique, oognita 
Gau8&, tarn damnare me liceat, qudm absolyere. Non oognita' 
lerd liberari ab absente non possum, qui a prassente damnatus 
sum. Sed quanquam vincti hominis non supervacua solum sed 
etiam invisa defensio est, quae judicem non docere yidetnT, Bed 
arguere ; tamen, utcumque licet me dioere, memet ipse non 
deseram : nee committam ut damnatus etiam mesl sententia 

*' Equidem cujus criminis reus sim non video. Inter conr 
juratos nemo me nominat. De me Nicomachus nihil dixit 
Gebalinus plus quam audierat scire non potuit. Atqui oonju- 
rationis caput me fuisse credit Rex. Potuit erg6 Dyninii3 eum 
praeterire, quem sequebatur ? ^ praesertim cum quaerenti socios 
vel fals6 fuerim nomiuandus, qu6 faciliils qui tentabatur, posset 
impelli. * Non enim deteeto facinore nomen meum prseteriit, 
ut posset videri socio pepercisse ; sed Nioomaeho, quem tad- 
turum arcana de semetipso credebat, confessus, aliis nomznatis, 
me unum subtrahebat. Quseso, commilitones, si Gd)alinu6 me 
non adisset, nihil me de conjuratis scire voluisset ; num hodid 
dicerem causam nullo me nominante? ^Dymnus sane et 
yiyat adhuc, et yelit mihi parcere : quid cssteri ? qui de se 
confitebuntur me videlicet subtrahent ? Maligna est calaoi- 
itas ; et fere noxius, ci!Lm sue supplicio cruciatur, acquieseit 
alieno. Tot conscii, ne in equuleum quidem impositi, venua 
fatebuntur ? Atqui nemo parcit morituro, nee cuiquam mori- 
turns, ut opinor." 

'^ Ad verum crimen, et * ad unum revertendum mihi est 
Cur rem delatam ad te taouisti? eur tam securus audlsti? 
Hoc qualecumque est, oonfesso mihi, ubicumque es, Alexander, 
remisisti : dextram tuam amplexus, reconciliati pignus animi, 
convivio quoque interfui. Si oredidisti mihi, absolutus sum: 
si pepercisti, * dimissus. ^ Yel judicium tuum serva. Quid 

LIBER VI. CAP. X. 135 

prozkn^ nocte, qu& digressas Bum a mesisk tu& feci ? quod 
QOYum facinns delattun ad te mutayit ftnimnTn tuum ? Gravi 
lopore aoqniescebam, ctlBi me ** mails Indormientem meis, 
oimici Tinciendo excltaront. Undd et parrlcid» et proditori 
am alti qoies somnl ? * sceleratl consdentl^ obstrepente oihu 
ormire non posslnt, agltant eos furise, noB consummato modd, 
id et cogitato parricidlo. At mihl securltatem primiim iimo- 
ntia mea, deindd dext^ra tua obtolerant. Non tlmul ne plna 
lenae cradelitatl apud te liceret, qudm dementiae tnse." 

" Sed ne te miM eredidisse poeniteat; res ad me defereba* 
r a puero, qui non testem, non pignns indicil exhibere pote- 
], ^** impletnras omnes metu, si coepisset andiri. Amatoris et 
rii jurgio mterponi aures meas credidl infelix; et fidem 
8 suspeotam habui, qn6d non ipse deferret, sed fratrem po- 
3 sabornaret. Timui ne negaret mand^se se Gebalino, et 
yiderer mnltis amicorum Regis fuisse pericnli causa. Sic 
qvLBy ciki Iseserim neminem, ^^inyeni, qui mallent perlre 
quam incolomem esse. Quid inlmlcltlamm creditis excep- 
im fuisse, " si insontes lacessissem ? " At enim Dymnus 
ccidit. Num igitur facturum eum divlnare potui ? Mini- 

It^ quod solum mdicio fidem fecit, id me, cilm a Gebalino 
pellatus sum, movere non poterat. At hercul^ si ^* con- 

Djmno tanti sceleris fulssem, biduo illo proditos esse nos 
[uulare non debui. Gebalinus ipse " tolH de medio nullo- 
legotlo potuit. Denique, post delatum indicium quo peri- 

eram, cnbiculum Begis solus intravi, ferro quldem cinc- 

Cur distuli facinus ? An sine Djmno non sum ausns ? 
ritor princeps conjurationis fuit : sub iUius umbrd Philo- 
tebam, qui regnum Macedonum affccto. Eoquis e yobis 
)tus est donis ? quern Ducem, quem Praefectum impensii\s 

Vf ihi quidem objicitur, qu6d soeietatem patrii sermonis 
er ; quod Macedonum mores fastidlam. ^' 8ic erg6 im- 
quod dedignor, Immineo ? Jam pridem natiyus ille ser- 
amercio aliarum gentium exoleyit : tarn yietoribus, qudm 
peregrina lingua discenda est. Non mehercule ista me 


magis Isedimt, " qnkm qu5d Amjntas Ferdicc» filius insidiains 
est Eegi : cam quo qu6d amicitia fuerit mihi, non recuso defen- 
dere, si " fratrem Regis non oportuit diligi a nobis. Sin autem 
in illo fortnnas gradu positum " etiam venerari necesse erat, 
ntriim, quaeso, qa6d non divinavi, reus sum ? An impiorum 
amicis insontibus quoque moriendum est ? ^ Quod si saquum 
est, cur tam diil vivo ? si injustum, cur nunc demum occidor ? " 

^^ '^ At enim scripsi, misereri me eorum, quibus vivendum 
esset sub eo, qui se Jovis filium crederet. ^ Fides aznicitiae, 
veri consilii periculosa libertas, vos me deoepistis 1 vos, quas 
sentiebam, ne reticerem, unpulistis 1 Scripsisse me hsec fateor 
'' Begi, non de Kege scripsisse. ^* Non enim faciebam invi- 
diam, sed pro eo timebam. Dignior mihi Alexander vide- 
batur qui Jovis stirpem tacitus agnosceret, qudm qui praedi- 
catione jactaret. Sed quoniam oraculi fides certa est, sit 
Deus causaa meas testis. Betincte me in vinculis, di\m con- 
sulitur Hammon ^* in arcanum et occultum scelus. Interim 
qui Begem nostrum dignatus est filium, neminem eorum qui 
stirpi suae insidiati sunt, latere patietur. Si certiora oraculis 
creditis esse tormenta, ne ^' banc quidem exbibendas veritatis 
fidem deprecor." 

" Solent rei capitis adhibere vobis ^ parentes. Duos 
fratres ego nuper amisi : patrem nee ostendere possum, nee 
invocare audeo, ci\m et ipse tanti criminis reus sit. ^' Par um 
est enim tot mod6 liberorum parentem, in unico filio acquies- 
centem, eo quoque orbari, ni ipse in rogum meum imponi- 
tur. Ergd, carissime pater, et propter me morieris, et 
mecum. Ego tibi vitam adimo, ego senectutem tuam extin- 
guo. '"Quid enim me procreabas infelicem adversantibus 
Diis 7 an ut hos ex me fructus perciperes, qui te manent ? 
Nescio an adolescentia mea miserior sit, an senectus tua. 
Ego in ipso robore aetatis eripior : tibi carnifex spiritum adi- 
met, quem si for tuna ^ expectare voluisset, natura reposcebaf 

" " Admonuit me patris me mentio, quam timide et 
cunctanter, quae Cebalinus detulerat ad me, indicare debue- 
rim. Parmenio enim cilm audisset yenenum a Philippo 


ledico Begi parari, deterrere earn yoluit epistoU scripts, quo- 
liniis medicamentum biberet, quod medicus dare constituerat. 
[urn creditum est patri meo ? Num ullam auctoritatem ejus 
tterse habaerunt ? Ego ipse, quoties quae audieram detuli, 
tm ludibrio oredulitatis repulsus sum. Si et CT!lm indicamus, 
Wsi; et ci\m tacemus, suspecii sumus, quid facere nos 
ortet?" Ciimque unus e circumstantium turbd excla- 
bsset, " " Bend meritis non insidiari : " Philotas, " Becte," 
uit, " quisquis es, dicis. Itaque si insidiatus sum, pcenam 
1 depreoor : et finem facio dicendi, quoniam ultima verba 
via sunt visa auribus vestris." Abducitur deind^ ab iis, 

custodiebant eum. 

XL 30. Erat inter duces manu strenuus Belon quidam, 
a artium et ' civilis habittis rudis, vetus miles, ab humili 
oe ad eum gradum, in quo tunc erat, promo tus; qui 
itibus eaeteris, stolidd audaci& ferox, admonere eos ccepit, 
>ties suis quisque ' diversoriis, quae occup&ssent, deturba- 
sset, ut ' purgamenta servorum Philotas reciperentur e6, 
commilitones expulisset: auro argentoque vehicula 
onusta totis vicis stetisse: ac ne in viciniam quidem 
jorii quemquam commilitonum receptum esse : sed, per 
dispositos supra somnum habebat, omnes prooul rele- 

ne * foemina ilia murmurantium inter se silentio veriiis 
sono, excitare4^lr. Ludibrio ei fuisse * rusticos bomines, 
isque et Paphlagonas appeUatos ; * qui non erubesceret, 
natus, ^ homines linguae suae per interpretem audire. 
immoneiDL consul! vellet eumdem, oujus arguisset menda- 
Llexandrum filium agnoscentis ? ^ scilicet veritus, ne in- 
n eaaet, quod Dii offerrent. Oum insidiaretur capiti 
t amici, non consuluisse eum Jovem ; nunc ad oraculum 

di^m pater ejus sollicitaretur qui praesit in Medi^, et 

quad ejus custodiae commissa sit, perditos bomines ad 
in sceleris impellat. Ipsos missuros ad oraculum, non 
3in interrogent, quod ex Rege cognoverint; sed qui 
gant, qui vota pro inoolumitate Begis optimi persol- 
ruzn verd universa concio accensa est, et a corporis 


cnstodibus initium factum, olamantibns, disoerpoidiim esse 
parricidam manibus eomm. Id qmdem Philotas, qui graviora 
snpplicia metueret, hand sane iniqao animo audiebat. Hex in 
coDcionem reverstus, sive at in onstodid quoque torqaeret, sire 
ut diligentii\s cuncta cognosceret, concilitun in postenun diem 
distulit; et qnanquam in yesperam inolinabat dies, tamen amicos 
conrocari jubet : et caBteris qoidem placebat, Macedonum more 
obnd saxis. Hephsestion antem et GraternB, et CoeniiSy tor- 
mentis yeritatem exprimendam esse dizerunt : et iUi qnoqae, 
qtii aliud snaserant, in horom sententiam " transennt. 

31. Concilio erg6 dimisso, Hephaestion cum Cratero et 
Coeno ad quaestionem de Philotd habendam consnrgunt. Bex, 
Oratero accersito, et sennone babito, cujos somma non editi 
est, in intimam diyersorii partem secessit, et remotis arbitris, 
in multam noctem quaestionis exspectayit eyentum. Tortoies 
in conspectum Philotad omnia cmdelitatis instmmenta propo- 
nunt. £t ille ultro : '^ Quid cessatis," inqnit, << Begis inimi- 
cum interfectorem, confitentem occidere ? quid qoaBStione opus 
est ? Oogitayi, yolui." Cratems exigere, nt quae confiteretor, 
in tormentis quoque diceret Di\m corripitor, dum obligantor 
oculi, di\m yestis exuitur, gentium jura, Deos patrios, nequid- 
quam apud surdas aures inyocabat. Per ultimos deindd cmcia- 
tus, utpote et damnatus, et inimids in gratiam Begis torquen- 
tibus, laceratur. Ac prim6 quanquam hinc ignis, illino yerbera, 
jam '^ non ad quasstionem, sed ad poenam " ingerebantur, non 
yocem mod6, sed etiam gemitus " habebat in potestate. Sed 
postqudm intumescens corpus tdceribus fiageUorum ictus nudis 
ossibus incussos ferre non poterat, si tormentis adhibituri mo- 
dum essent, dicturum se, quae scire expeterent, pollicetur. Sed 
finem qua&stioni fore, jurare eos per Alexandri salutem, yolebat, 
remoyerique tortores. Et utroque impetrato, Oratero inquit : 
^ Die quid me yelis dicere." Illo indignante ludificari earn, 
rursi\sque reyocante tortores, tempus petere ooepit, dto reci* 
peret spiritum, cuncta quas sciret, indicaturus. 

32. Interim equites, nobilissimus quisque, et ii mazimd, qui 
Parmenionem propinqu^ cognatione contingebant, postqaam 


PMlotam torqueri fama ynlgayerat, legem Maoedontim yeriti, 
^'qu^ eautom erat, ut propinqui eonun, qui Eegi insidiati 
erant, oi!lm ipsis necarentur ; alii se interficiant, alii in devios 
montes yastasque solitudinea faginnt, iogenti per tota castra 
terrore diffaso : donee Bex, tnmnlta oognito, legem se supplioii 
conjunctis 8ontinm remittere edixit. Philotas yerone an men- 
dacio lifoerare se a cmciatn yoluerit, anceps conjectura est : 
quoniam et yera confessis, et falsa dicentibns, idem doloris 
finis ostenditur. " Caetertlm, " Pater," inqoit, " mens Hege- 
locho qullm familiariter nsus sit, non ignoratis. Ilium dico 
Hegelochum, qui in acie oecidit. lUe omnium malorum nobis 
causa fuit. Nam cCim primilm Joyis filium se salutari jussit 
Bex, id indigne ferens ille, ' Hunc igitur Begem agnoscimus/ 
inquit, * qui Philippum dedignatur patrem ? " Actum est do 
nobis, si ista perpeti possumus. Non homines soliim, sed etiam 
Deos despicit, qui postulat Deus credi. Amisimus Alexan- 
drum, amisimus Begem : incidimus in superbiam, nee Diis qui- 
bus se exeequat, nee hominibus quibus se eximit tolerabilem. 
Nostrone sanguine Deum fecimus, qui nos fastidiat ? qui gra* 
yetur mortalium adire concilium ? Gredite mibi, et nos, si 
yiri sumus, a Diis adoptabimur. Quis proayum hujus Alexan* 
drum, quis deindd Arcbelaum, qtiis Perdiccam occisos ultus 
est ? Hie quidem interfectoribus patris ignoyit.' Hsec Hege- 
locbus dixit super coenam ; et postero die prim^ luce a patre 
accersor. Tristis erat, et me moestum yidebat : audieramus 
enim quae soUicitudinem " incuterent. Itaque ut experiremur, 
utrumne yino grayatus efiudisset iUa, an altiore concepta 
consilio, accersi eum placuit. Yenit : eodemque sermone ultr6 
repetito, adjecit, se, siye auderemus duces esse, proximas a 
nobis partes " yindicaturum : siye deesset animus, consilium 
silentio esse tecturum. Parmenioni, yiyo adhnc Dario, intem- 
pestiya res yidebatur ; " non enim sibi, sed bosti esse ocoisu- 
ros Alexandrum : Dario yero sublato, praemium Begis occisi 
Asiam, et totum Orientem interfectoribus esse cessurum. Ap- 
probatoque consilio, in haec fides data est et accepta. Quod 


ad Dymnnm pertmet, nihil scio; ct haac confessus, intel- 
ligo non prodesse mihi quod proximi sceleris expers sum." 

33. Illi, mrsi^ tormentis admotis, ci!lm ipsis quoqne hastis 
08 oculosque ejus ** eyerberarent, express^re, ut hoc quoqne 
crimen confiteretur. Exigentibus deind6, ut ordinem cogitati 
Boeleris exponeret, '' ciim diu Bactra retentura Regem vide- 
rentur, timuisse," respondit, " ne pater septuaginta natus annos, 
tanti exercit&B dux, tantae pecnniad custos, interim extingaere- 
tur, ipsique spoliato tantis yiribuB, occidendi Regis ^ causa non 
esset. Festin^Bse ergo se, diim prdemium iiaberet in manibos, 
repraesentare consilium, cujus patrem expertem fuisse nisi ere- 
derent, tormenta, quanquam tolerare non posset, tamen non 
recusare." Hli collocuti, satis qusesitum videri, ad Begem re- 
vertuntur. Qui, postero die, et quse confessus erat Philotas, 
recitari ; et ipsum, quia '* ingredi non poterat, jussit afierrL 
Omnia agnoscente eo, Demetrius, qui proximi sceleris partioeps 
esse arguebatur, producitur : mult^ affirmatione, animique pari- 
ter constantly, et vultils abnuens, quidquam sibi in Begem 
cogitatum esse, tormenta etiam deposcebatin semetipsunu Turn 
Philotas, circumlatis oculis, " incidens in Calim quemdam hand 
procul stantem, propiiis eum jussit accedere. Ulo perturbato, 
et recusante transire ad eum, '' Patieris," inquit, <' Demetrium 
mentiri, rursusque me excruciari?" Oalin vox sanguisque 
defecerant, et Macedones Pbilotam inquinare innoiuos veUe 
suspicabantur ; quia nee a Kicomacho, nee ab ipso Philota, 
c^m torqueretur, nominatus esset adolescens : qui ut Praefeo- 
tos Begis circumstantes se yidit, Demetrium et semetipsum id 
facinus cogitdsse confessus est. Omnes erg6 a Nicomacho 
nominatos, more patrio, dato signo, saxis obruerunt. Magno 
non mod6 salutis, sed etiam inyidiad periculo liberatus erat 
Alexander. Quipp^ Parmenio et Philotas, principes '' amico- 
rum, nisi palim sontes, sine indignatione totius exercitiis non 
potuissent damnari. '^Itaque anceps quaBstio fuit. Dum 
inficiatus est facinus, crudeliter torqueri yidebatur : post con- 
fessionem, Philotas ne amicorum quidem misericordiam meruitb 

LIBEK Til. CAP. I. 141 



1. Alexander Lyneestem m^estaUs reum interfiel ctorst Delndd in Amjmtam 
et Simmiam Fhilot» amioos inqulrit, qui saam iiiBooentlam gniTl aratione tnentor. 

2. AmjniA et fyatribua in gratlam recepUs, Polydamas a Bege JuBsna» in Mediam 
eeleriter profectas, Pannenionem intetfld curat. XJndd indignatto et seditio, qusB tan- 
dem eztlngaitnr. 

8. Yarios popnloa sab jogom xnittit Alexander, ao septemdeeim dlebns com exex^ 
cita Caneasnm snperat 

4. Beesos de bello adversns Alexandnmi, inter epnlas, consnltati sapientiqae Cobarli 
eoDdlio minimd aoquiesciL Interim Bex Baetra perrenit, nbi de GrsBcornm 6ef6<^ 
tione et Satibarzane singnlari oertamine occiso advenit nnncioa, 

6. Exerdtos Alexandri dti Uberatna Oxnm anmem indiutrid trrjidt Beana 
dolo eaptna ad Alexandrom addacitnr, a quo Darii frutri Oxatri cradflgendua tm- 

0. Barbaromm et Maoedonnm beneyoIenti& rarias expngnat nrbea Bed et Alexmi- 
driam ad Tanaim oondit amnem, brevisBlmoqae temporis absolvit spatia, 

7. De Bello Scythis inferendo Alexander nger ex ynlnere com bqIs init consilinm. 
Aristander vatea Begis Tolnntati extorom aooommodat dgnificata. Menedemna a Spi- 
tamene per inddiaa cnm daobns peditnm milUbna et treceati» eqnlttboa a Dahia intc^ 
ficitor : qnod callldd admodiim disaimalat Alexander. 

8. Diim exercitns ad bellum aodngltor, Scytbamm legaU adveniant, ao de paoe 
prorada egregiam ad Alexandrom oratiomem habant. 

9. Alexander legatis dimissis Tanaim tn^Jidt, bellom Scytbis infert; com YiotiB 
benlgod agit 

10. Sogdianomm noblUom inyictna animm. Beosi sappUdom : noyo millt» aaetn 
Alexandri exerdtos. 

11. Petram orbem ampliaaimam, sita natorftque lod feirh inexpognabilem, ad dodl- 
tionem cogit Alexander. 

I. 1. Philotah, sicut recentibus sceleris ejus vestigiiB^ 
jure affectum supplicio censucrant milites ; ita, postquam de* 
sierat esse, quern odissent, invidia in misericordiam yertiti 
Moverat et claritas juvenis, et patris ejus senectus atque 
orbitas. Primus Asiam aperuerat Begi, omnium periculo- 
rum ejus particeps : semper ^ alterum in acie comu defende- 
rat : PMlippo quoque ante omnes amieus, et ipsi Alexandre 
tarn fidus, ut ocoidendi Attalum non alio ministro uti mallet. 
Horum cogitatio subibat exercitum, seditiosasque yoces re- 
ferebantur ad Begem : queis ille baud sand motuS| ' satisque 
prudens' otii yitia negotie discuti^ edicit ut omnes in yesti* 

142 qVlHTl 0I7&TII 

bulo regi» prsBstd sint. Qaos ubi frequentes adesse oognoyit, 
in concionem processit. ' Haad dubie ex composito Apharias 
postulare coepit, ut Lyncestes Alexander, qui, multd ante 
qnam Philotas, Begem voluisset occidere, exhiberetnr. A 
duobus indioibus (sioat eupri diximas) delatns, tertium jam 
annum custodiebatur in vinculis. Eumdem in Philippi quo- 
que esodem conjur^sse cum Pausanid, pro comperto fuit: 
sed quia primus Alexandrum Begem salutaverat; supplicio 
magis qu4m crimini fuerat exemptus. Tum quoque Anti- 
patri soceri ejus preces justam Begis iram morabantur. Cad- 
teriim recruduit soporatus dolor : quippe veteris periculi me- 
moriam prsesentis cura renovabat. Igitur Alexander e cus- 
todi& eduoitur, jussusque dicere, quamquam toto triennio 
meditatus erat defensionem, tamen haesitans et trepidns, 
pauoa ex iis quad composuerat, protulit : ad ultimum non me- 
moria soliim, sed etiam mens eum destituit. Nulli erat 
dubium quin trepidatio * conscientiaa indicium esset, non memo- 
riae vitium. Itaque ^ex iis qui proximd astiterant, ^obluc- 
tantem adhuo oblivioni, lanceis confoderunt. 

2. Cujus corpore sublato, Bex introdaci jussit Amyntam 
et Simmiam. Nam Polemon minimus ex fratribus, ciUm Phi- 
lotam torqueri oomperisset, profugerat. Omnium Philotas 
amicorum hi carissimi fuerant, ad magna et honorata minis- 
teria illius maximd sufTragatione producti : memineratque Bex 
summo studio ab eo oonciliatos sibi. Nee dubitabat, hujus 
quoque ultimi eonsilii fuisse partioipes. ^ Olim esse sihi 
aospectos matris suae litteris, quibus esset admonitus, ut 
ab his salutem suam tueretur: 'caster^m se invitum dete- 
riora credentem, nunc manifestis indiciis yiotum, jussisse 
yinciri Nam pridid quam detegeretur Philotad scelus, quin 
in secreto cum ipso fnissent, non posse dubit^ri. Fratrem 
ver6 qui profugerit, oAm de Philot^ quaereretur, aperuisse 
fogaa causanL Nuper praster consuetudinem, officii specie, 
amotis longius casteris, admoyisse semetipsos lateri suo, nulU 
probabili caus^: sequo mirantem qudd ^non yice su^ tali 
fiomgerentur officio, et ipsd trepidatione eorum perterritum, 

LIBJ6R VII. CAP. I. 14$ 

strenne ad armigeros, qui proxime sequebaatHr, reoeasisse 
" Ad hadc aecedere, qii6d ciim Antiphanes, " scriba equitum 
Amjntss denunciisset, pridie qa«Lin Philotse scelus deprehen 
sum esset, ut ex suis equis, more solito, daret iis qui amisis 
sent suos ; superb^ respondissey nisi incepto desisteret, breri 
sciturum quis ipse esset. Jam linguao violentiam, temerita* 
temque verborum, quae in semetipsum jaculareutur, nihil 
aliud esse, qud.m scelesti animi indioem ac testem : quae si 
vera essent, idem meruisse eos quod Philoiam : si falsa, 
exigere ipsum ut refellant. Froductus deinde Antiphanes, 
de equis non traditis, et adjectis etiam superbe minis indicat. 

3. Tum Amyntas, fact£l dicendi potesiate : ^^ '^ Si nihil," 
inquit, ^' interest Begis, peto, ut dum dico, vinculis liberer." 
Rex solri utrumque jubet : desiderantique Amyntse ut ^* habi- 
tus quoque redderetur, armigeri lanceam dari jussit : quam at 
laBYd comprehendit, evitato eo loco, in quo ^* Alexandri corpus 
paulo antd jacuerat, " Qualiscumque," inquit, ^' exitus nos 
manet, Eex, confitemur, prosperum eventum tibi debitnros; 
tristiorem, fortunae imputaturos. Sine praejudicio dicimus cau* 
sam, liberis corporibus animisque : habitum etiam, in quo to 
comitari solemus, reddidisti. Causam non possumus, forta* 
nam timere desinemus." 

*' Te quaeso, permittas mihi id primiim defendere, quod a te 
ultimum objectum est. Nos, Bex, sermonis adversus majesta» 
tem toam habiti nullius conscii sumus nobis. Dicerem,jam 
pridem yicisse te invidiam, nisi perieulum esset, ne alia maH^ 
nius dicta crederes bland^ oratione purgarL Oaeterihn, etiamsi, 
militis tui vel in agmme deficientis et fatigati, vol in aoie peri- 
clitantisi vel in tabemaculo aegri et vulnera curantis, aliqua 
vox asperior esset accepta, merueramus fortibus factis, ut maUes 
ea " tempori nostro imputare, quim animo. ^' Cilm quid acoir 
dit tristiuSi omnes rex sunt: corporibus nostris, qusa utiqne 
non odimus, infestas admovemus manus. Parentes liberis, si 
occurrant, et ingrati et invisi sunt. Contr^, ctm donis bono» 
ramur, cum pra&miis onusti revertimur, quis " ferre nos potest ? 
quis illam animorum alacritatem continere ? Militantium neo 


** iodignatio, neo tetitia moderata est. Ad omnes affectns im- 
petu rapimur; yituperamns, landamna, miseremur, irascimnr, 
atomnque praesens moyit affectio: modd Indiam adire, et 
Ooeannm libet, inod6 conjngam et liberorom patriaeqae memo- 
ria occurrit. Sed has cogitationes, has inter se colloqnentiinn 
voces, signnm tubS^ datum finit. In snos quisque ordines cur- 
rimus ; " et quidquid iramm in tabemaonlo conoepttun est, is 
hostium effunditur capita. ^Utinam Philotas qnoque intra 
verba peccdsset I " 

" Proindd ad id praBvertar, propter quod rei smnus. Ami- 
citiam, qu» nobis cum Philotd. fuit, *' aded non eo infitias, ni 
ezpetisse quoque nos, magnosque ex ed fmctus percepisse con- 
fitear. An verb Parmenionis, quern tibi proximum esse voln* 
isti, filium, omnes pene amicos tuos dignatione yincentem, cal- 
tum a nobis esse miraris ? Tu hercnle (si yernm andire yis) 
Bex, hujns nobis periculi causa es. Quis enim alius effedt, 
ut ad Philotam " decurrerent, qui placere yellent tibi ? ** Ab 
illo traditi, ad hunc gradum amicitias tud9 ascendimus. Is apnd 
te fuit, cujus gratiam expetere, et iram timere possemns. An 
non propemodi\m ixx ^ tua verba tui omnes, ** te pneennte, jun- 
vimus, eosdem nos inimicos amicosque habituros esse, qnos ta 
haberes ? ** hoc sacramento pietatis obstricti aversaremur sdli- 
oet, quern tu omnibus prasferebas ? Igitur si hoc crimen est^ 
tu paucos innocentes habes, imo herculd neminem. Omnes 
enim Philotas amici esse voluerunt: sed totidem, quot vole- 
bant, esse non poterant. Itd^si a ccmsciis amicos non dividis, 
nee ab amicis quidon separabis illos, qui iidem esse voluenmi" 

" Quod igitur conscientiaB affertur indidum ? ut <^inor, 
quia pridid familiariter, et sine arbitris, locutus est nobiscum. 
At ego purgare non possem, si pridid quicqu^ ex vetere viti 
ao more mut&ssem. Nunc verd, si, ut omnibus diebus, illo quo- 
que, qui sivspectus est, fecimus, consuetude diluet crimen." 

<' Sed equos Antiphani non dedimus ; et pridid qu&m Phi- 
Idas detectus est, ^ haeo mihi cum Antiphane res erat ! Qui 
si nos suspectos facere vult, qu6d illo die equos non dederimus, 
femetipsum, qu6d eos desideravit, purgare non poterit ** An- 

LIBB& VII. OAF. II. 145 

ceps enim cruaen est inter retinentem et ezigentem, nisi qndd 
melior est caosa sanin non tradentiS| qndm posoentis alienmn. 
Cseteriim, Bex, equos decern habni, 6 quels Antiphanes octo 
jam distriboerat lis, qui amiserant snos. Omniii6 duos ipse 
habebam : quos cum vellet abduoere homo superbissimus, certd 
iniqnissimus, nisi pedes militare vellem, retinere cogeban 
^ Nee infitias eo, liberi hominis animo locntom esse me cum 
ignavissuno, et ** hoc unum militisd so» usurpante, ut alienos 
equos pugnaturis distribuat. Hue enim malorum ventom est| 
ut verba mea eodem tempore et Alexandro exousem, et Anti- 

" At, hereuld, mater de nobis inimicis tuis scripsit. Uti- 
nam prudentids esset soUieita pro filio, et non '* inanes quoque 
species anxio animo figuraret. Quare enim non adscribit 
metits sui causam? Denique non osteadit auotorem. Quo 
facto diotove nostro mota tam trepidas tibi litteras soripsit ? 
miseram conditionem meam, oui Ibrsitan non*periculoffilu8 
est taoere, quim dieere i Bed utcumque oessura res est, 
malo tibi defensionem meam displicere, qu^m causam. Agnos* 
ces autem quse dictums sum. Quippe meministi, c^m me ad 
perducendos ex Macedonid milites mitteres, dixisse te, multos 
" integros juvenes in domo tuse matris abscond!. Prascepisti 
igitur mihi, " ne quern praeter te intuerer, sed detrectantes 
militiam perdueerem ad te. Quod equidem feci, et Hberiiis 
quam expediebat mihi, executus sum imperium tuum. Qor* 
giam, HecatsBum, et Gorgatam, quorum bon& oper& uteris, 
inde perduxi. Quid igitur iniquius est, qu^m me, qui, si 
tibi non paruissem, jure daturas fui pcenas, nunc perire, quia 
parui? Neque enim ulla alia matri tuce persequendi nos 
causa est, quim qu6d utilitatem tuam muliebri prseposuimus 
gratisd. Sex millia Macedonum peditnm, et sexcentos equites 
adduxi : quorum pars secntura me non erat, si militiam de- 
trectantibus indulgere voluissem. Sequitur ergd, ut, quia ilia 
propter banc causam irascitur nobis, tu mitres matrem, qui 
ir» ejus nos obtulisti." 

XL 4. Dum bfioc Amyntas agit, fortd supervenerunt, qui 

146 l^niHTI CURTII 

fratrem ejus Pokmonem, de quo «nt^ dietam est, Ihgienten 
oonseouti, Tinotnin redncebant. Infesta conoio viz inhlboi 
potiiit, qnin protinds sno more saza in earn jaoeret Atqoe 
ille sand inierritas, ''Nihil/' inquit, ''pro me depiecor, 
^ mod6 ne fratmm imiocentii» tagtk impatetor mea. Hsee s 
defendi non potest, meum orimen sit. Horam ob id ipson 
melior est eansa, qaod ego, qui profngi, Buspectns sm 
H»o elocnto nniversa oonoio assensa est. ' Laerym» ddnde 
omnibns manare ooeperant, aded in oontrarinm repente nioUr 
tifl, ut solum pro eo esset quod maxime lasserat. JQTeso 
erat prime astatis flore pubescens, quern inter equites tomen' 
in Philotfld conturbatos * alienus terror abstolerat PesertoB 
eum a eomitibus, et hsesiiantem inter revertendi fogiendiqw 
oonsilium, qui seeuti eraot, oooupaverunt. Is turn flere cobj 
et OS suum eouTerberare, ' moostns non suam Tioem, Bed 
ter ipsum perielitantium firatrum. Moreratque jam BegeOi 
non eoneionem mod6 : sed unus erat implacabilis fmieri ffl 
terribQi vultu intuens eum, " Turn," ait, " demons ]Msrpax^ 
debueras, bdm equo caloaria subderes, ftatrum deseiior, 
et desertonim oomee. Miser, qu6, et «nde fogiebas? i^ 
oisti ut reus eapitis aeousatorits uterw verbis." IO0 P^ 
oftsse se, sed graviUs in fratres, qu4m in semetipsiun, ^ 

5. Turn Yerd, neque laerymis, neque aeelamatioiiil^ 
quibus studia sua multitude profitetur, temperayenmi ^^ 
vox erat pari emissa eonsensu, ut insontibus et fortibns vtftf 
pareeret Amiei quoque, datik misericordiie oooasioB^;^ 
surgunt, flentesque £^«m depreeantur. Ille, siientio bf^ 
" Et ipse," inquit, '' Amyntam meH sententi^ fratresqae ^ 
absolve. Yes autem, juvenes, male beneficii mei obU^ 
qu&DQL periculi vestri memi&isse. E^em fide redite in gts^ 
mecum, qu& ipse vobisonm reverter. Nisi qu» delata eet^^ 
'exousfiissem, valde dissimulatio mea 8uq>eeta esse potatf^ 
Sed sa<ius est purgatos esse, quiim «uspeetos. Cogit*^ ^ 
minem absolvi posse, nisi qui dixerit causam. Tu, Atoj^^ 
ignosoc fratri tuo r erit hoc ' simplidter etiam mi)^ '^^ 

I.IBS& VII. CAP. II. 147 

dliati animi tai pigBO^" Ooneione deind^ dimisaA, Poljda* 
manta vooari jubet. Longd aeceptissimus Parmenioiii erat, 
proximus lateri in acie stare solitus. Et quaDquam oonsoien- 
ti& fretus iu regiam venerat; tamen ut jnssos est fratrea 
BUGS ezhibere admodilim jaTenes, et Regi ignotos ob SBtatem, 
fidaei& in sollioitudinem V6r8&, tr^idare ofl&pit ; ssepi^s qiue 
nocere possent, qaim quibus eluderet, reputans. Jam armi* 
geri quibus imperatum erat, prodaxenuit eos, ci\m exsan- 
gaem metu PolTdamanta propiils aocedere jnbet : snbmotia- 
que omnibus, ^' Scelere," inquit, " Parmenionis omnes pariter 
«ppetiti sumus: maxime ego ac tu, quos amiciti» specie 
fefellit: ad quern persequendum puniendnmque (vide quan- 
tum fidei tua3 oredam) te ministro uti statui. Obsides, dum 
boo peragis, erunt fratres tuL Profieiscere in Mediam, et 
ad Praefee.t6s meos litt^ras soriptas mann me4 perfer. Yelo- 
citate opus est, qui celeritatem famaa antecedas. Nootu per- 
venire te illuc volo ; postero die quso soripta erunt exequi. 
Ad Pannenioiiem quoque epistolas feres : unam a me, idte- 
ram Philot» nomine scriptam. Signum annuli ejus in meA 
potestate est. Sic pater, oredens a filio impressum, cdm te 
viderit, nibil metuet." 

6. Polydamas tanto liberatus metu, impensids etiam qu&m 
exigebatur, promittit operam. Collaudatusque et promissis 
oueratus, deposits veste quam habebat, Arabic^ induitur. 
Duo Arabes, quorum interim oonjuges ac liberi, vinculum 
fidei, obeides apud Begem erant, dati comites. Per deserta 
etiam ob siccitatem loca, camelis undeeimil die, qu6 destina* 
verat, perveniunt. Et priiis quim ipsius nunoiaretur ad* 
ventus, rursiis Polydamas vestem Macedonicam sumit, et in 
tabemaculum Cleandri (Prastor hie regius erat) quarts vigilifit 
pervenil Bedditis deindd littwis, constituerunt prim& luce 
ad Parmenionem coire Namque cieteri quoque, quibus 
litteras Kegis attulerat, ad eum venturi erant. Jam Par- 
menioni Poljdamanta venisse nunciaverunt : qui dum Isetatur 
adventu amici, simulque noscendi, qu» Bex ageret, avidus 
(quippe longo intervallo nuUam ab eo epistolam aoceperat) 


Poljdamanta reqiun jabet. Diyersoria regkmis ilMns mag 
DOS recessus habent, amcsnosque nemoribns numa coDslti& 
£a pr»cipue Eegnm Satn^parumqae voluptas erat. Spatis- 
batur in nemore Parraenio, medins inter duces, qmbus erat 
imperatum litteris Begifi, at ooeiderent. Agendse autem ro 
oonatituenuit tempns, ciim Pannenio a Polydamsnte littew 
traditas legere coepisset. 

7. Polydamas procul yeniens, ut a Panuenione coo^ecta» 
est, vnltu hdiitm speciem praeferente, ad oomplectendmn eon 
cucnrrit : mutn^ne gratulatione functis, Polydamas epistoluB 
a Bege scriptam ei tradidit. Parmenio yinculttin epiBiohsBS»- 
yens, qoidnam Eex ageret, reqoirebat. Ille ex ipsis litter» 
oogniturum esse respondit. Qoibus Pannenio leotis, '^ Bez> 
inquit, << expeditionem parat in Arachosio& Strennom bona- 
nem et nunquam cessanteml Sed tempns saluti saae, ^^ 
jam part^ gloria, parcere." Alteram deind^ epistolam Fhilote 
nomine scriptam Isetus, quod ex yultu notari poterat, l^ebst 
Tum ejus ktus gladio baurit Oleander, deinde jngolom f<sni' 
oeeteri exanimem qnoque confodinnt. Et armigeii, qni ad »^ 
tum nemoris astiterant, cognitd caede, cajus causa ignorabator, 
in castra peryeniunt, et ^ tumultuoso nuncio milites coooitsot 
lUi armati ad nemus, in quo perpetrata casdes erat, ooeunt; ^ 
ni Polydamas, caeterique ejusdem noxas partieipes deds&^/ 
murum cireumdatum nemori eyersuros denunoiant, omniiuD^^^ 
sanguine duci parentaturos. Oleander prknores eorom io^ 
mitti jubet, litterasque Regis soriptas ad milites reeitat, qui*^ 
insidiaa Parmenionis in Begem, preoesque ut ipsom yindica^^ 
continebantur. Igitur cognit& Begis yoluntate, non quidem 
indignatio, sed tamen seditio compressa est. Dilapsis plori^ 
pauci remanserunt, qui, saltern ut corpus ipsius sepeUre pennitt^ 
rent, precabantur. Dili id negatum est, Oleandri w^^f ^ 
offenderet Begem. Pertinaciiis deinde preoaatibos, ma^^^ 

" constemationis subtrahendam ratus, capite deciso, truB^^ 
bumare permisit. Ad Begem caput mi^ii™ est. 

8. Hie exitus Parmenionis fuit, militiaa demique clari viH* 
fiiulta sine Bege prospere, Bex sine illo nibil ma^aaareig^^ 


it. Felicissimo Regi, et omnia ad fortuta» bosq ezigenti mo- 
im, satisfeeit ' Septuagmia natos annos, jnyenis duels, et 
3pe etiam gregarii militis mnnia explevit ; acer consilio, monii 
rennn^, cams principibns, vulgo militum acceptior. '* Hsec im- 
Jerint emn ad regni cupiditatem, an tanttun suspectum fece- 
[t, ambigi potest ; '* quia Philotas, ultimis craciatibtis victns, 
*aiie dixerit, quae facta probari non poterant, an falsis tor- 
Qtomm petierit finem, re quoqae recenti, ci\m ma^s posset 
lere, dubitatom est. Alexander, qnos libere mortem Par- 
lionis conquestos esse compererat, separandos a csetero ezer- 
I ratns, in unam oobortem secrevit, dueemque his Leonidam 
it^ et ipsum Parmenioni quondam intimd familiaritate con- 
ctmn. Fere iidem erant, quos ^ alioqui Rex habuerat in- 
s. Nam ci\m experiri vellet militum animos, '* admonuit ; 
[uis litteras in Macedoniam ad suos scripsisset, iis, quos 
mittebat, perlaturis cum fide, traderet." " Simpliciter ad 
usarios suos quisque scripserat, quas sentiebat. Aliis gravis 
plerisque non ingrata militia. ltd, et agentium gratias et 
mtium litter» except» sunt. " Et qui fortd twdium labo- 
ur litteras erant questi, banc seorsum cohortem a cseteris 
re ignominiaa caus^ jubet; fortitudine usums in bello, 
atem lingose ab auribus credulis remotnrus. Et consilium, 
arimn forsitan (quippe fortissimi juyenes contumeliis 
ii erant), sicut omnia alia felicitas Regis '^excepit. 

illis ad bella promptius fuit Incitabat virtutem et 
iniao demendsa oupido, et quia fortiora facta in paucis 
non poterant. 

L 9. His iti compositis, Alexander, Ariorum Satrape 
uto, iter pronunciari jubet in Ariaspas ; quos jam tunc 

nomine JEvergetas appellabant, ^ ex quo frigore yictiis- 
nuri& Ojri exercitnm affectum tectis et commeatibus 
at. Qaintos dies erat, ut in earn regionem pervenerat; 
it Satibarzanem, qui ad Bessum defecerat, cum equitum 
-rupisse rursi\s In Alios. Itaque prsamittit Caranum et 
m cum Artabazo et Andronico, et sex millibus GrsecO' 
ditttm : sexoenti equites sequebantur. Ipse sexagints 


diebns geniem Evergetamm ordinayit, magnd pecanili ob 
egregiam in Cyrnm fidem donate. Relicto deind^, qui lis 
prseesset, Armenide, (scriba is Darii faerat) Arachosios, quo- 
rum regio ad Ponticum mare pertinet, subegit. Thi exem- 
tus, qui sub Parmenione fuerat, occurrit. Sex millia Mace- 
donum erant, et ducenti nobiles, et quinque millia Graeco- 
rum, cum equitibus ducentis, baud dubid robur omniinn 
Tirium Regis. Arachosiis datus Memnon Prsetor, quataor 
millibus peditum, et sezcentis equitibus in prsesidium relictis. 

10. Ipse Rex nationem ne finitimis quidem satis notam, 
quippe nuUo commercio colentem mutuos usus, cuxn exercito 
intravit. Parapamisadse appellantnr ; agreste hominum genus, 
et inter barbaros maximd inconditum: locorum asperitas 
hominimi quoque ingenia durayerat. Gelidissimam Septen- 
trionis axem ex magn& parte spectant. Bactrianis ad Ocd- 
dentem conjuncti sunt. Meridiana Regio ad mare Indicam 
yergit. Tuguria latere 'primd struunt. Et quia sterilis 
est terra material, in nudo etiam montis dorso, usque ad 
summum ssdificiorum fastigium 'eodem laterculo utuntoi. 
Caeteriim structura latior ab imo, paulatlm incremento opeiis 
in Arctius cogitur; ad ultimum in oartn» maxima modnm 
coi't. Ibi foramine relicto, supemd lumen accipiunt. Yites 
et arbores, si quse in tanto terrse rigore durare potuenmt, . 
obruunt; penitus bjeme defoss» latent: cilm, niye dis- 
cuss^, aperiri humus coepit, coelo solique redduntur. Gio- 
teriim aded altsB niyes premunt terram, gelu et perpetuo pene 
rigore constrictse, ut ne ayium quidem feraeye uUius vesti- 
gium ezstet. Obscuta ooeli yerifls umbra, quam lux, nocti 
similis premit terram, yix ut quse prope sunt, conspici possint 

1 1 . In h&c tamen omnis kiimani cultils solitudine destitn- 
tus ezercitus, quidquid malorum tolerari potest, pertolit: 
inopiam, frigus, lassitudinem, desperationem. Multos exani- 
may it rigor insolitus niyis : muUorum / adusait pedes: plm*]- 
morum oculis praeoipud perniciabilis fnit. Fatigati quoqae 
in ipso gelu deficientia corpora stemebant : quae ciki moveri 
desissent, yis frigoris iti astringebat, ut rursds ad surgendom 

LIB^Sa VU. OAF. IV. 151 

iooniii non poflaeni /A oommilitoiubas torpenleB exmtaban* 
or : Deque aliud remedium erat, qn^m at ingredi cogerentnr. 
?um demom yitali ealore moto, membria aliqms redibat 
Igor. Si qui tngaria Barbarorom adire potnenrnt, celeriter 
efeoti sunt : Bed tanta oaligo erat, at sddificia nulla aUa res 
adm fomns ofitenderet. Illi uonqaam antd in terris saaB 
ireni yiso, cikm armatos repentd conspicerent, exanimati 
eta, qiddqaid in tagoriis erat,. afferebant; at oorporiboa 
sorum paroeretor, orantes. Bex agmen ciromnibat pedes, 
icentes quosdam erigens, et alio6| ciki »gre seqaerenturi 
idminiculo corporis sai excipiens. Nunc ad prima signa, 
inc in medio, nunc in ultimo agmine itineris multiplicafai 
bore aderat. Tandem ad cuHiora perventum est looai 
mmeatuque largo recreatus exeroitus ; simul et qui conseqni 
D potuerant, in ilia castra veneront^ 

12. Ind6 agmen processit ad Caucasum montem, cujus 
rsum Asiam perpetuo jugo dividit : bine simul mare, quod 
[iciam subit; illinc Caspium fretum, et amnem Araxem, 
aque regionis Scythise deserta ' spectat. Taurus ^ seoundsi 
gnitudinis mons committitur Caucaso; a Oappadoci^ se 
Dllens Ciliciam pradterit, Armenissque montibus jungitnr. 

inter se juga velut serie oohserentia perpetuum habent 
sum, ex quo Asiao omnia ferd fiumina, alia in Rubrum, 

in Caspium mare, alia in Hyrcanum et Pontioum deoi* 
t. Septemdecim dierum spatio Cauoasum superavit exer- 
s. Rapes in eo decem in circuita stadia oompleotitor, 
tuor in altitudinem excedit, in qa4 yinctum ' Promethea 
36 antiquitas tradit. Condend» in radicibus mentis urbi 
s electa est; septem millibus servoiram Macedonum, et 
barest militibus, quorum oper4 uti desisset, permissum in 
im urbem eonsidere. Hano quoque Alexandriam ineobe 

;Y. 13. At Bessus Alexandri celeritate perterritus, diis 
is sacrificio rite facto, sicut illis gentibus mos est, cum 
is ^ucibusque copiarom inter epulas de bello consulta- 

Grayes mero suas vires extollere ; bostium nuno teme- 


rxtatem, niiao pancitatem spemere inoipitmt. Prsecipn^ 
Bessns feroz verbis, et parto per soelus regno saperbas, ac 
fix potens mentis, dicere orditur : '* Socordi& Darii creyisse 
hostium &mam. Oecurrisse enim in Cilicise angnstissimis 
&QcibuB, cikm retrocedendo posset perdncere incautos in Iocs 
Bataree sita invia, tot flnminibus objectis, tot montiam late* 
bris, inter qnas deprebensus hostis, ne fagse quideniy nednm 
resistendi, occasionem fuerit babitums. Sibi placere is 
Sogdtanos recedere, Ozum amnem velut murum objectarum 
hosti, dmn ex finitimis gentibus yalida anxilia concnrrereni 
Yentoros autem Cborasmios, et Dahas, Sacasqne, et Judos, et 
ultra Tanaim amnem eolentes Scythas ; qnorom neminem aded 
hnmilem esse, nt humeri ejus non possent Macedonia militis 
verticem aequare." Conclamant temulenti, unam banc senten- 
tiam salubrem esse: et Bessus circumferri merum largins 
jnbet, debellatums super mensam Alexandram. 

14. Erat in eo convivio Cobares, natione Medus, sed ma- 
giese ariis (si modd est ars, non vanissimi cujusqae ludibrinm), 
magis professione qu^m soientid celeber, alioquin moderatns et 
probus. Is, ci\m prsefatus esset, scire, servo esse utilius parere 
dicto, qa&m afferre consilium, ^ ciim illos qui pareant, idem 
quod cseteros, maneat ; qui ver6 suadeant, proprium sibi peri- 
ofolum, • * • • * poculum ei, quod babebat in imanu, tradidii 
Quo aooepto, Oobares, " Natura," inquit, " mortalium ' hoc 
quoque nomine prava et sinistra dici potest, qu6d in suo quis- 
que negotio hebetior est, qudm in alieno. Turbida sunt coo- 
ailia eorum, qui sibi suadent ; obstat aliis metus, aliis cnpidi- 
tas, nonnunquam naturalis eorum, quae cogitaveris, amor. 
Nam in te superbia non cadit. Expertus es unumquemque, 
quod ipse repererit, aut solum, aut optimum duccre. MagDuni 
onus sustines capite, regium insigne. Hoc aut moderate per 
ferendum est, aut (quod ^ abominor) in te met. Consilio, non 
impetu opus est." Adjicit deinde, quod apud Bactrianos 
vulg5 usurpabant; Ganem timiduh vehementius latrare, 


Quae inserui, ut, qualiscumque inter Barbaros potuit esse pru- 


entia, traderetar. TJt audientes snspenderat exspeotatione 
li, turn consilium aperit, utilins Besso qnim gratius. ^' In 
;stibulo," inqoit, " regise in» * yelocissinms eoDstitit Kez. 
Die 'ille agmen, qnam tn mensam istam movebis. Nunc ab 
anal' ezercitum accerses, et armis flumina oppones : scilicet, 
id tu fagiturus es, hostis sequi non potest? iter utriquo 
mmnne est ; victori tutins. Licet strenuum metam pntes 
)e ; yelocior tamen spes est. ^ Quin validioris occupas gra- 
in, dedisque te ; ntcumqne cesserit, meliorem fbrtunam, 
iitus, qudm hostis, habitarus? Alienum babes regnnm, 
10 facilii\s eo careas. Incipies forsitan Justus esse rex, 
n ipse ' fecerit, qui tibi et dare potest regnum, et eripere. 
isilium iiabes fidele, " quod diutii\s exsequi supervacaneum 
Nobilis equus umbr^ quoque virgse regitur ; igcavus ne 
iari quidem concitari potest" Bessus, et ingenio et multo 

feroz, ade6 exarsit, ut vix ab amicis, quominus occideret 

1 (nam strinxerat quoque acinacem), contineretur. Certe 
.rivio prosiluit, baudquaquam potens mentis. Gobares 
r tumultum elapsus, ad Alexandmm transfugit. 

15. Octo millia Bactrianorum habebat armata Bessus, 
, quamdiu propter coeli intemperiem Indiam potifls Mace- 
s petituros crediderant, obedienter imperata fecerunt. 
quam adventare Alexandrum compertum est, in suos 
[ue vieos dilapsi, Bessum reliquerunt. lUe cum clientium 
I, qui non mutaverant fidem, Oxo amne superato, exustis- 
aavigiis, quibus transierat, ne iisdem bostis uteretur, 
} copias in Sogdianis contrahebat. Alexander Oaucasum 
!m (ut supra dictum est) transierat : sed iuopid frumenti 
! ad famem yentum erat. Succo ex sesam^ expresso, 
seci\s qudm oleo, artus perungebant. Sed bujus succi 
lis quadragenis denariis amphorse siugulae ; mollis dena- 
recenis nouagenis, trecenis yini aestimabantur ; tritioi 
aut admodum exiguum reperiebatur. Siros yocabant 
Lri, quos ita solerter abscondunt, ut nisi qui defoderunt, 
re non possint. In iis condit» fruges erant. In qua- 
)enuria milites fluyiatili pisce et berbis sustinebantur. 


Janiqae hno ipsa alimesta defeoerant^, cum jmaenta, quib' 
onera portabant, csedere jussi sunt : horam carne, diun in 
Baotrianoe perTentum, " traz^re viiam. 

16, Baotrian» tema multiplex et varia natora est. ^ Ali- 
bi multa arbor, et vitis largos mitesque fructos alit. Solum 
pingae crebri fontes rigant. Quaa mitiora sunt, fhunento 
coDserantur. Cadtera armentorum pabulo cedant. Magnam 
" deindd partem ejasdem terrse steriles arenas tenent^ Squi- 
lida siocitate regio non hominem, non frugem alit. C\\in vero 
Tenti a Fontico mari spirant, quioquid sabuli in. campis jacet, 
converrunt. Quod ubi cumulatam est, ms^gnorum colliam 
procul species est ; omniaque pristini itineris vesUgia inte- 
reunt. Itaque qui transeunt campos, nayigantiuin modo 
nocta sidera observant, ad quorum cursum iter dirigunt : et 
propemodum clarior est noctis umbra, quam lux. JBrgd in- 
terdiu inyia est regio: quia nee vestigium, quod sequantur, 
invemunt, et nitor ^^siderum caligine absconditur. Caete- 
ri\m si quos ille ventus, qui a mari exoritur, deprehendit, 
arend obruit. Se;d qui mitior terra est, ingens hominum 
equorumque multitudo gignitur. Ipsa Bactra, regionis ejus 
caput| sita sunt fiub monte Parapamiso. Bactrus amnis pra&- 
terit mcenia. Is urbi et regioni dedit nomen. Hie Begi 
stativa habenti nunciatur ex GraBci^ Peloponnensium Laco- 
numque defectio. • I^ondum enim vioti erant, cum proficis- 
cerentur tumultus ejus principxa nunciaturL Et alius prsesens 
terror affertur, Scjthas, qui ultra Tanaim amnem colunt, ad- 
ventare, Besso ferentes opem. 

17. Eodem tempore, quas in gente Ariorum Caranns et 
Erigyius gesserant, perferuntur. Oommissum erat praelium 
inter Macedones Ariosque. Transfuga Satibarzanes Barbaris 
praeerat: qui c^ pugnam segnem utrinque aequis viribus 
stare vidisset, in primes ordines adequitavit; dempt^que 
gale4, inhibitis qui tela jaciebant, si quis viritim dimicare 
vellet, provocavit ad pugnam, nudum se caput in certamine 
habiturum. Non tulit ferociam Barbari dux illius exercitus 
Erigyius, gravis quidem aetate, sed et animi et corporis robora 

LIBS& VII..OAP«. V. 165 

nnlli jayennm postferendus. Is gaki dempt& canitiem ostan- 
tans, "Yenit," inqiiit, *'dies, quo, aut viotorili, aut morte 
honestksimi, quales amioos et milites Alexander habeat, 
osteDdam." Neo plara elocuias, equam in hostem . egit. 
Crederes imperatum, ut aoies utneque tela oohiberent. Pro- 
tinils oerte rccesserunt, dato libero spaUo, " iatenii in even- 
turn^ Don dttorom modd, sed etiam «a» Bortis ; quippe alie- 
sum discrimen secuturi. Prior Barbarus emiflit hastam; 
|aam Erigyius .modio& capitis declinatione vitavit. At ipse 
nfestam sarissanii equo calcaribus oonoito, in medio Barbari 
' guttore it4 fixit, ut per cervicem emineret. PrsMupitatns 
)x eqno Barbanus adhuc tamen repugnabat Sed ille extrae- 
am ex ynlnere hastam rursus in ob dii;igit. Satibarsanes 
astam mana oomplexus, qu6 maturiils interjret, iotam hostis 
djuTit : et Barbari, duce amisso, quern magis necessitate, 
nam sponte secuti erant, tunc baud immemores meritorun» 
iexandri, arma Erigyio tradunt. Bex bis quidem Isetus, 
3 Spartanis baudquaquam securus, magno tamen animo. do 
ction^m eorum tnlit, dioens, '^Non ante ausos consilia 
idare^ qxism ipsum ad fines Indiso pervenisse cognovissent." 
»se Besi^am persequens, copias movit : cui Erigyius spoUa 
irbari, ceu " opimum belli deous prseferens, ooourrit. 

Y. 18. Igitur Bactrianorum regione Artabaio tradit&i 
rcinas et: impedimenta ibi cum prsssidio reliquit. Ipse cum 
pedito agmine loca deserta Sogdianorum.intrat, nootumo 
lere ezeroitum duoens. Aquarum (ut antd dictum est) pe- 
ria, ^ prius desperatione, qu4ni desiderio bibendi, sitim 
iendlt. . Per quadring^ta stadia ne modieus quidem bumos 
sCit. Arenas vapor sestiyi, soils aeo^adit, quso ubi flagrare 
perant, band secils qu4m continenti inoendio cuncta torren« 
' Oidigo deindd, immodico terras fervore exoitata, lucem 
it : camporumqud non alia quim.yasti et profundi saquoris 
sies est. Nootumum iter tolerabile videbatur, quia rore 
aatatino frigore corpora lerabaatur. Gaeteri\Ba eum ipsi 
i aestns oritur, omnemque naturalem absorbet humorem 
itas : ora yisceraque penitus uruntur. Itaque primum, ani- 


mi, deindd corpora defioere coDperant. Pigebat et consistere, 
et progredi. Pauei a peritis regionis admoniti, prsepararant 
aqnam. Hsbo pafilisper repressit sitim. > Deinde crescente 
»sta, mrsum desideritun humoris accecsum est. £rg6 qnid- 
quid yini oleique erat, oribus ingerebator. Tantaque dolcedo 
bibendi fuit, ut in posterum sitis Don timeretur. Graves deinde 
ayide hausto humore, non sustinere arma, non ingredi pote- 
rant : et feliciores videbantur quos aqua defecerat ; c^m ipsi 
Bine modo infusam vomita cogerentur egerere. 

19. Anxium Regem tantis malis, circumfasi amioi, nt 
meminisset sui, ' orabant ; animi Bui magnitudinem tmicmn 
remedium deficientis ezercittis esse : cdm ex iis, qui prseces- 
Berant ad oapiendum locum castris, duo occarrunt, ntribns 
aquam gestantes, ut filiis suis, quos in eodem agmine esse, et 
sBgrd pati sitim non ignorabant, * suocurrerent. Qui ci\m in 
regem incidissent, alter ex iis, ^ utre reaoluto, vas quod fiimnl 
ferebat, implet, porrigens Eegi : ille percunctatus, quibus aquam 
portarent, filiis ferre cognoseit. Tunc pooolo pleno, sicnt obla- 
tum est, reddito, " * Nee solus," inquit, " bibere sustineo, nee 
tarn exiguum dividere omnibus possum. Vos currite, et liberis 
vestris, quod propter illos attulistis, date." Tandem ad flumem 
Oxum ipse pervenit primS, ferd yesperd. Sed exereitus magna 
pars non potuerat consequi. In edito monte ignes jubet fieri, 
ut ii, qui sdgre sequebantur, baud procul castris se abesse cog- 
noscerent. Eos autem qui primi agminis erant, maturd dbo 
ae potione firmatos, implere alios utres, alios rasa, quibusonm 
aqua posset portari, jussit, ac suis opem ferre* Sed qui intem- 
peranti^s hauserant, ^ intercluso spirita eztincti sunt. Multo- 
que major horum numerus fuit, qu^m ullo amiserat prsdio. 
At ille thoracem adbuo indutus, nee aut cibo refeetus autpotn, 
qud. yeniebat exereitus, constitit. Neo ante ad curandum cor- 
pus reeessit, qudm prseterierant, ^qui agmen sequebantur: 
totamque earn noetem ciun magtio animi motu perpetuis vigiliis 
egit. Nee postero die Isetior erat : quia neo nayigia habebat, 
nee pons erigi poterat, circmm anmem nudo solo, et materid 
maxime sterilL Consili«m igitur, qitod vcmm necessitas sab* 


ecerat, init litres qtuunplurimos stramentis refertos ' dm- 
it. His incubantes transnay^re amnem : qaique primi trans- 
rant, in statione erant, dnm trajkerent cssterL Hog modo 
)xU> demnm die in ulteriore rip& totum exercittun exposoit. 

20. Jamque ad perseqnendum Bessom statuerat progredi, 
im ea, qm in Sogdianis erant, cognoseit. Spitamenes erat 
tier omnes amicos prsecipuo honore cultus a Besso. Sed nul- 
meritis perfidia mitigari potest : quse tamen jam inini\s in 
inyisa esse poterat, ^* quia nihil ulli nefastum in Bessunii 
erfectorem Begis sui, videbatur. ^^ Titulus faoinori specio- 
} prseferebatar, vindicta DariL Sed fortunam, non scelns, 
3rat Bessl Nam ut Alexandram flumen Oxiim snper&sse 
^oyit, Dataphernem et Oatenem, quibas a Besso maxima 
!S habebatnr, in societatem cogitatsB rei adscisoit Ilii 
mptiils adeont, quim rogabantor ; assumptisque octo fortis* 
is jayenibus, " talem ddum intendunt. Spitamenes pergit 
Bessum, et, remotis arbitris, comperisse, ait, se, insidiari ei 
aphemem et Catenem, ut yiynm Alexandro traderent: 
;itantes a semet occupatos esse, et yinctos tenerL Bessus 
;o merito (nt credebat) obligatus, ^^partim gratias agit, 
im aridas explendi supplicii addoci eos jubet. Uli, maniboB 
sponte religatis, a participibns consilii trahebantor, quoci 
lus truci yultu intuens consurgit, manibos non temperata- 

At illiy simulatione omiss^, circamsistunt enm, et fms» 
repugnantem yinciunt, direpto ex capite regni insigni: 
atdque Teste, qaam e spoliis occisi Regis induerat. Ule 

sui Bceleris ultores adesse confessus, adjeoit, non Dario 
luoa faisse, quem sic uLeiscerentnr ; sed Alexandro propi- 
cujas victoriam semper etiam bostis adjnyisset. Multi- 
an yindicatnra Bessom faerit, incertmn est, nisi illi qui 
rant, jnssu Alexandri fecisse ipsos ementiti, ^* dubios ad- 
nimi terraissent. In eqaom impositnm, Alexandre tradi* 
ucnnt. Inter base Bex, '^quOms matura erat missio, 
} nongentis fere, eqoiti bina ^" talenta dedit, pediti terna 
ium millia; monitosqne at liberos generarent, remisit 


domtim. Ofldteris gratk» actSB^ qu6d ad reliqaa belli navataros 
operam pollioebantur. 

21. Feryentom erat in paryulum oppidnm ; Brandud» 
ejus inool» erant, Mileto quondam jnssn Xerxis, cum e 
6T8eci& rediret, tranfiierant, et in e& sede oonstiterant : qnia 
templnm, qudd Didymeon appellatur, in gratiam Xerxis yiola- 
yerant. Mores patrii nondum exoleyerant; sed jam bilingoes 
erant, ^ paolatim a domestioo eztemo sermoxie d^;eiiere8. 
Magno igitur gaudio Begem exeipiunt, urbem seque dedente& 
lUe Milesioa, qui apud ipisum militarent, conyocari jubei 
Vetus odium Milesii Branchidarnm gentexn. '* Pro- 
ditia erg6, siye injurise, aiye " originis memini^se mallent) 
libemm de Branchidispermittit arbitriom. Yariantibua deind^ 
sententiis, seipsum consideratorum, quid optimjom factu asset, 
ostendit. '^ Postero die Qoourrentibufi Branchidia secom pro- 
cedere jubet. Oi\mque ad urbem yentum esse^, ipse cum ex- 
pedite manu portam intrat. Phalanx mosnia oppidi circomire 
jussa, et dato signo diripere urbem, proditorum reeeptaeuluin, 
ipsosque ad unum caedere. Illi inermes passim trucidaxitar ; 
nee aut oommerdo lingusB, ant suppiicium yelamentis precibos- 
que inhiberi crudelitas potest: tandem, ut.dejioerent, fdnda- 
menta murorum ab imo moliuntur, ne quod urbis yestigium 
exstaret Nemora luoosque sacros non osodunt modd, sed etiam 
extirpant, ut yasta solitudo et sterilis bumus^ excussis etiam 
radicibus, linqueretur : quao si in ipsos proditionis auctores ex* 
oogitata essent, justa ultio esse, non erudditas yideretnr. 
Nunc oulpam majorum posteri lutee, qui ne yiderant quidem 
Miletum ; ^ ade6 Xerxi non potuerant prodere. 

22. Inde prooessit ad Tanaim amnem. Qni6 perduetus est 
Bessus, non yinetus modo, sed etiam ^* omni yelamento corpo* 
ris spoliatus. Spitamenes eum tenebat, indertiL ooUo catena, 
tam Barbaris quam Macedonibns gratum speotaculum. Tom 
Spitamenes, ^' Et te," inquit, '^ et Darinmy Beges .meos ultos, 
interfectorem domini sui addnxi, eo modo captnm, cujus ipse 
feoit exemplum. ^ Aperiat ad hoc speetaculum oculbs Darius. 
Existat ab inferls, qui illo supplioio indignus fuit, et hoc solatio 

LIB£E Til. CAP. VI. 159 

digmu efli'' AIexai»ler, moltilim oollaadato Spitamene, oodp 
versus ad Bessum, <' Cujus/' inqait, " fend rabies oceupaTit 
animuin tsam, ciim. Begem de te optime meritum, pri^s Tin- 
oire, deiadd oooidere s^stin1li8ti ? ^ Sed hnjus parrioidii mer- 
cedem falso Begis nomine persolvisti tibL" lUe " facinns pur* 
^enonaosiui, Begi&titalnm se nsurp^UnBe dixit; ut gentem 
mam tradere ipsi posset ; " qui si cessdsset, aliom foisse reg> 
imn occupatnram. At Alexander Oxatrem firatrem Darii, 
luem inter corporis custodes habebat, propitis jnssit acoedere, 
radiqne Bessom ei, nt onici affixnm, mntilatis anribos naribusque, 
igittiaeonfigetent Baibari, asservarentqne corpus, ut ne ayes 
uidem oontingereat. Oxatres csetera sibi curse fore poUice- 
ir : ares non* ab alio qudm a Catene posse probiberi adjicit ; 
[imiam ejus artem cupiens ostendere : namque aded certo 
ta desiinata feriebat, ut ayes quoqne ~ exciperetb Nunc si 
rsitan "" sagittandi tam celebri usu minilis admirabflis yideri 
3c ars possit, tamen ingens yisentibus miraoulum, magnoque 
nori Cateni fuit. Dona deindd omnibus, qui Bessum ad- 
xerant, data sunt. . Oseterum supplicium ejus distulit, ut eo 
o, in quo Barium ipse occiderat, necaretur. 

yj. 23. Interea Macedones ad petendum pabulum in» 
aposito agmine egressi, a Barbaris, qui de proximis monti- 

decurrerunt,- opprimuntur ; pluresque capti sunt, quam 
Lsi. Barbari autem, captiyos prao se agentes, rursi\s 
montem reoesserunt. Yiginti millia Matronum erant; 
lis sagittisque ' pugnam inyadunt : quos dum obsidet Bex, 
r promptissimos dimicans, sagitt& ictus est, qum in medio 
e fixA reliquerat spieulum. Ulum quidem moBsti et atto- 

Macedones in -castra referebant. Sed nee Barbaros 
lit Bubduictas ex acie Bex : quippe ex edito monte cuncta 
pexera&t.' .Itaque. postero die mis^re legatos ad Begem, 

ille protiniis. jussit admitti ; solutisque ^euaciis magni- 

tem . vulneris dissimulans, eras Barbaris ostendit. Illi, 

considere, affirmant, non Macedonas qu^m ipsos fuisse 

3res, cognito yulnere ipsius : cujus si auotorem repe- 

it, dedituros fuisse. Gum diis enim pugnare sacrilegos 


tanti^m. Cjeterfiin se gentem in fidem dedere, superatos 
virtute iilios. Rex, fide daU, et captivis receptis, gentem io 
deditionem accepit. Oastris inde motis, lecticSt militari fe- 
rebator, qu&m pro se quisqae eqaes pedesque subire certa- 
bant Equites, cum quibas Hex prselia inire solitns ent, 
sni mnneris id esse censebant Pedites contrd, cdm saucios 
commilitones ipsi geatare assaeyissent, eripi sibi propriom 
oficium, ' tarn potissimdm, ci\m Eex gestandus esset, qneis- 
bantur. Bex in tanto ntriusqne partis oertamine, et sibi diffi- 
cilem, et * praeteritis gravem electionem futaram ratos, m 
vicem subire eos jussit. Hinc quarto die ad urbem Man- 
canda perventum est Septuaginta stadia murus urbis am- 
plectitur; arx illius cingitur muro. Prsesidio urbi relicto, 
proximos vicos depopulatur, atque urit Legati deM 
Abiorum Scytharuxn superveniunt, •liberi ex quo decesscrat 
Cyrus, turn imperata facturi. * Justissimos Barbarorum 
constabat : armis abstinebant nisi lacessitL Libertatis mo* 
dico et sequali usu, principibus humiliores pares feceraot- 
Hos benign^ allocutus, ad eos Scjthas, qui ' Buropam inco^ 
lunt, Berden quemdam misit ex amieis, qui denunciaret eis, 
ne Tanaim amnem regionis injussu Kegis transirent £idei& 
mandatum, ut contemplaretur locorum situm, et illos quoqa^ 
Scythas, qui super Bosphoro incolunt, viseret 

25. Condendad urbis sedem super ripam Tanai's elegew*> 
claustrum et jam perdomitorum, et * quos deind^ adire de- 
creverat. Sed consilium distulit Sogdianorum nunciata de- 
fectio, quae Bactrianos quoque traxit Septem miliia equito® 
erant, quorum auctoritatem caeteri sequebantur. Alexander 
Spitamenem et Catenem, a quibus ei traditus erat BessttSf 
baud dubins^ quin eorum operd redigi possent in potestateiB) 
qui novaverant res, jussit acoersi. At illi, defectionis» ^ 
quam coercendam eTocabantur, auctores, rulgaverant famaiDi 
Bactrianos equites a Bege omnes, ut occiderentnr, accersi- 
•idque imperatum ipsis; non sustinuisse tamen exeqni, ^^ 
inexpiabile in populares facinus admitterent: non ^^ 
Alezandri saeyitiam, quim Bessi parricidium ferre poWiss^- 


taque sni sponte jam motos, metn poen» hand difficnltcr 
ODcitaverant ad arma. Alexander, transfagarum defectione 
)mpert&, Craterum obsidere Cyropolim jubet. Ipse aliam 
rbem regionis ejusdem coron& capit: signoque ut puberes 
terficereDtur, dato, reliqni in prsedam ceRsere victoris. Urbfl 
ruta est, ut caeteri cladis ejus exemplo continerentur. Me- 
iceni, valida gens, obsidionem, non ut honestiorem mod5, 
i etiam ut tutiorem ferre decreverant. Ad quorum per- 
aciam mitigandam Rex quinquaginta equites prsemisit, 
[ clementiam ipsius in deditos, simulque inexorabilem 
mum in devictos ostenderent. lUi nee de fide, nee de 
entid Regis ipsos dubitare respondent, equitesque tendere 
ra munimenta urbis jubent. Hospitaliter deinde exceptos, 
Fesque epulis et somno, intempest^ nocte adorti inter- 

26. Alexander baud secfls quim par erat motus, nrbem 
>nd circumdedit, munitiorem qudm ut primo impetu capi 
et. Itaque Meleagrum et Perdiccam in obsidione [ejus 
iquit ; ipse cum reliquis profectus, Crateri quoque copias 
I jungit, Gjropolim, (ut antd dictum est) obsidentes. 
lerat autem parcere urbi conditse a Cjro : quippe non 
1 gentium illarum magis admiratus est, qu^m huno 
^m et Semiramim, quos et magnitudine animi, et clari- 
rerum longd emicuisse credebat. Caeternm pertinacia 
[anorum ejus iram accendit. Itaque captam urbem 
'. jussit et deleri. Turn, Memacenis baud injuria infestus, 
[eleagrum et Perdiccam redit. Sed non alia urbs for- 
bsidionem tulit; quippe et "militum promptissimi ceci- 

et ipse Rex ad ultimum periculum venit. Namque 
: ejus saxo ita icta est, ut oculis caligine ofius^ coUa- 
ir, ^' ne mentis quidem compos. Exercitus certd velut 
eo ingemuit. Sed invictus adversus ea quso caeteros 
ty nondum ^' percurato vulnere, acriiis obsidioni institit ; 
lem " celeritatem ird concitante. Cuniculo erg6 ^* suf- 

moenia ingens nudav^re spatium, per quod irrupit, 
[ue urbem dirui jussit. 


27. Hino Heiiedemiim com tribus millibns pediinm, 
et octingentis equitibus ad nrbem Maracanda mislt. Spita- 
menes transfuga, prsesidio Macedonum inde dejecto, muns 
nrbis ejus inoluserat se, baud oppidanis consiliaxii defec- 
tionia approbantibns. Sequi tamen yidebantor, qpiA pro- 
bibere non poterant. Interim Alexander ad Tanaim amnem 
redity et quantum soli occupayerant castris, muro circumde- 
dit. Sezaginta stadiorum urbis murus fait; bano quoque 
urbem Alexandriam appellari jussit. Opus tantd celeritate 
perfectum est, ut decimo septimo die, qudm munimenta ezci- 
tata erant, tecta quoque urbis " absolverentur. Ingens mill- 
turn oertamen inter ipsos fuerat, ut suum quisque muniis 
^* (nam divisum erat) primus ostenderet. Incokd novse urbi 
" dati captivi, quos, reddito pretio dominis, liberavit : qaorum 
posteri nunc quoque non apud eos tarn long^ estate, propter 
memoriam Alezandrii ezoleverunt. 

YIL 28. At Bex Scytbarum, cujus turn ultra Tanaim 
imperium erat, ratus earn urbem, quam in rip& amnis Mace- 
dones condiderant, suis impositam esse cervicibus, firatrem, 
Oartasim nomine, cum magn& equitum manu misit ad diruen- 
dam earn, proculque amne submovendas Macedonum copiaa. 
Bactrianos * Tanais ab Scjtbis, quos Europs&os vocant, divi- 
dit. Idem Asiam et Europam finis . interfluit. Gaeterum 
Scytbarum gens baud procul Thraci^ sita, ab Oriente ad 
Septentrionem se vertit, Sarmatarumque, ut quidam crediddre, 
non finitima, sed pars est Bectdl deindd regionem Alaunum 
ultra Istrum jacentem coit, et ultima AsisB, qua Bactra sunt, 
stringit. Habitantur quae Septentrioni propiora sunt : pro- 
ftindsB inde sylvae, vastaoque solitudines excipiunt Rursi^s, 
quae et Tanaim et Bactra spectant, ' bumano oultu baud dis- 
paria sunt. Primus cum h^ gente non proyisum bellum 
Alexander gesturus, cdm in oonspectu ejus obequitaret bos- 
tis, adbuo aeger ex yulnere, praeoipud yooe defipiens, quam et 
'modicus cibus, et ceryicis extenuabat dolor, amioos in 
oonsilium adyocari jubet* Terrebat eum non bostis, sed 
iniquitas temporis. * Bactriani defecerant Scythad etiam 

'liber Vlt. CAP. Til. 168 

lacessebant. Ipse non insistere in terr^, non eqno vehi, xum 
docere, non hortari bugs poterat. Ancipiti perioulo impU* 
cituS} Deos quoque inousaiis, qnerebatur se jacere segnem, 
cujus yelocitatem nemo antei yaluisset effngere. * Yix suos 
3redere non siidulari yaletudinem. Itaque qui post Dmrinm 
rictum ariolos et vates oonsnlere desierat, mrstls ad snpersti- 
ionem humanamm mentinm *ladibria reyolntns, Aristan* 
jTim, cai credulitatem snam addixerat, explorare ev^ntum 
3rum sacrificiis jnbet. 

29. Mos erat sirndpicibus exta ^sine Bege ^[>ectare, et 
iiae portenderentnr, referre. Inter hsso Bex, dum fibris pe* 
idum explorantor eventus latentiom renun, propii^s ipsnm 
nsidere amioos jubet, ^necontentione Toois cicatrioem in<- 
mam adhuc romperet Hephsestion, Cbatenus, et Erigjrins 
int cum custodibus in tabernacuimn admissi. '^^Diflori- 
;n/' inquit, ^ me ocenpavit, meliore hostinm qiuon meo tern- 
re. Sed necessitas ante rationem est ; maxime in beUo, 
J rar6 permittitnr tempera eligere. Defee^e Baetriani, 
porum cervieibns stamns, et qoantnm in nobis animi fidt| 
[ieno Marte expdrionttir. Hand dnbie, si omisenmns 
thas nltrd arma inferentes, contempti ad illos^ qui defeee- 
t, reyertemtir. - Si verd Tanaun transierimuB, et ubiqud 
ctos esse nos Scytbamm pemicie ac sanguine ostenderi* 
; quis dnbttabit patere etiam Eoropam yiotoiribns ? Falli- 
qui terminos gloriaa nostras metitnr spatio, quod transitmd 
us. Unns anmis interfluit, quern si trajioimas, in Euro- 

arma. proferimus. Et qnanti sestimandnm est, dmn 
m subigimus, in alio quodanunodo orbe tropsea stataere, 
lias tarn longo intervallo natura videtur diremisse, uii4 
ri^ sabito -^^ committere ? At bercnle si paululum eessa- 
lus, ill tergis nostris Scythse hserebunt» An soli Bumns^ 
lumina tiransnare possumus ? Mnlta in nosmetipsoB 
dent, ^ quibns adhuc vicimua Fortuna belli artem yictos 
e docet. Utribns amnem trajiciendi exemplum fecimas 
Hoc =^^ut Scythas imitari nescianty Bactriani dooe« 

Prseterea '^unus gentis hujus adhno exeieitiiB yenit. 


OKteri ezspeetantor. Ita bellnm yitando alemns, ^*et qnod 
inferre posBumos, accipere cogemur. Manifesta est consilii 
mei ratio. Sed an pennissori sint xnilii Macedones animo 
uti meo, dubito; quia ex quo hoo volims accepi, non equo 
yectos sum, non pedibns isgressos. Sed si me sequi Tultis, 
Valeo, amid. Satis viriam est ad tolerauda ista. Ant si 
jam adest yitsd me» finis, in quo tandem opere melii\s ex- 

30. Haac qnassd adHac voce " subdeficiens, viz proximis 
exaudientibus, dixerat : ci!lm omnes a tarn prsecipiti. consilio 
Begem deterrere coeperunt. Erigyius maxime, qui hand 
sane aactoritate profieiens apud obstinatum animnm, '"sn- 
perstitionem, cujus potest non erat Bex, incutere tentayit, 
dicendo, deos quoqae obstare consilio, magnumqne periculum, 
aiflomen transisset ostendi. Intranti Erigyio tabemaculmii 
Begis, Aristander occorrerat, tristia exta fuisse significans. 
Hieo ex yate comperta Erigyius nunciabat. Quo inhibito, 
Alexander non ir& solum, sed etiam pudore oonfusus, quod 
superstitio, quam celayerat, detegebatur, Aristandrum yocari 
jubet. Qui ut yenit, intuens eum, ^'Non Bex," inquit, 
•< sed priyatus sum ? Sacrifieium ut &ceres, mandayi. Quid 
eo portfflideretur, cur apud alium qudm apud me professus 
es? Erigyius areana mea et secreta, te prodente, cognoyit 
" quem certum mehercule habeo extorum interprete uti metu 
suo* ^ Tibi autem, quam potest, denuncio, ipse mihi indices 
quid ex extis cognoyeris, ne possis infitiari dixisse, quad dixe- 
ris»" lUe exsanguis attonitoque similis stabat, per meiom 
etiam yoce suppress^. Tandemque eodem metu stimulante, 
ne Begis exspectationem moraretur, '^ " Magni," inquit, 
<< laboris, non irriti, discrimen instare prasdixi. Nee me mea 
ars, "quim beneyol^tia, perturbat. Infirmitatem yaletudinia 
tu88 yideo; et quantdm in uno te sit, scio. Yereor ne non 
prsesenti fortunsB tuse sufficere possis." Bex jussum oonfidere 
feUoitati suas remisit : Sibi enim alia ad gloriam concedere 
Beos. Consultanti deind^ cum iisdem, quonam modo flumea 
uaasirent, superyemit Aristander, non ali&s k^tiora exta yi- 


diflse 06 affimifiiui, utiqu^ priorifovs long^ diversa: "turn solli- 
Bitudinifl causas apparuisse, nunc prorsas ^regie litatum esse. 
31. Offiteriim qu» Bubinde nonciata suDt Begi, oontinuas 
'elicitati rerun ejus imposaerant labem. Menedemmn, ut 
upr^l dieium est, miserat ad obsidendum Spitamenem Bae- 
rian» defeotionis auotorem. ^ Qui, oomperto hostis adyentn' 
e maris urbis induderetur, ^ skmil fretos exeipi posse, qii& 
snturom sciebat, consedit occoltos. Sjlvestre iter aptum 
sidiis tegendis erat Ibi Dahas condidit. Equi binos 
'matos Tebant, quorum invieem singuli repents desilinnt, at 
uestris pogiUB ordinem tnrbant. Equorum veloeitati par 
t bominum pemidtas. Hos Spitamenes saltum circuinire 
ssos, parifer et a lateribus, et a fironte, et a tergo hosfci 
endit. Menedemus undique inclusus, ne numero qnidem 
; did tamen restitit, clamitans, '^ Nibil aliud superesse 
>rum fraude deceptis, qo^ honestsQ mortis solatium ex 
tium caede." Ipsum pradvalens equus vehebat, quo ssspiilia 
tuneos Barbarorum efiusis babenis ^* eveetus, magn& strage 
faderat. Sed oi!lm unum omnes peterent, multis vulneri- 
exsanguisy Hipsidem quondam ex amiois, bortatus est, ut 
|[uum suum ascenderet, et se fugi eriperet. fiaac ag^item 
la defeeit, eorpusque ex equo deftnxit in terram. Hip- 
I poterat quidem ^[ugere, sed, amisso amico, mori statnit. 
erat cura, ne inultns oocid^et. Itaque, subditia calcari- 
equo, in medios bostes se immisit, et, memorabiU editft 
a, obrutus telis est. Quod ubi viddre qui caedi supere- 
tamulam paul6 qudm csetera editiorem capiunt: quos 
menes, fame in deditionem subacturus, obsedit. Ged- 
eo pra&lio peditum duo miUia, treeenti equites. Quam 
n Alexander solerti oonsilio texit, morte denunciat& iis, 
: prselio advenerant, si acta vulgdssent. 
EII. 32. Gaateri^ oikm ^ animo disparem Tultum diutiiis 
non posset, in taberaaculum, supra ripam flnminis de 
ri& locatiun, seoessit. * Ibi sine arbitris singula animi 
ba pensando, uoctem vigiliis extraxit, saspe pellibus 
aculi allevatis» at eonf^iottret boattum ig^ies, e qnibOB 


oonjeotare poterat, qiumta homlimm mtdtittfdo eeset. Jamqm 
lux apparebat, eikm thoraoem indatoB, prooedit ad stifitdB) torn 
primtlm post volaus proximo aoeeptam. ' Tanta erat apnd 
60S yeneratio Begis, ut facild periouli, quod honrebaiit) oogitar 
tionem pnesentia ejus ezouteret. Laeti ergd, et manaatibtu 
prsa gaudio lacrjmis, oonsalntant eum ; et quod antd recnsa* 
yerant bellum, ferooes deposcunt. lUe se ratibus eqaitea 
phalangemque transportaturum esse pronunoiat : super utres 
jubet nare leyiiis armatos. Plura nee dioi ^ res desideraTit, 
neo Bex dicere per yaletadinem potait. CaeteriLBi tanta 
alacritate militam rates junot» sunt, ut in tridtium ad dao- 
deoim miUia- efieotae sint. Jamque ad transeoadiuiL omoi 
aptaverant : cdm legati So jthanim viginti, more genl^ p^ 
oastra equis yeoti, nimeiari jubent Begi, yelle eon 
mandata perferre. Admissi in tabernaoolum, jvBBkpeco^ 
sidere, in yultu Begis defixerant oonlos, credo quia naff^ 
tndine corporis animnm sratimantibos, modicus ^halntas, 
handqnaquam fam» par, yidebator. " Soythis antem Ji^ 
nt caeteris Barbaris, radis et inconditus sensus est ^O^' 
dam eorom sapientiam oapere dicuntur, quantamcamqii^ 
gens oapit semper annata. Sicque locates esse apnd B^p^ 
memorisd proditum est. ® Abhorrent forsitan moribus oos- 
tris et tempora et ingenia cultiora ' sortitis ; aed ^ vipoasi^ 
oratio eorom spend, tamen fides nostra non debet: 9^ 
ntoumque tradifca sunt, incorrupta perferemus. Igitnr vnWB 
ex his maximum natu ita locutum accepimus. 

33. '' Si Dii habitum corporis tui ayiditati animi P»^ 
esse yoluissent, orbis te non caperet Altera manu Oti^ 
tem, alter& Occidentem contingeres. £t hoc assecutttfly seir^ 
yelles "ubi tanti numinis fulgor conderetnr. Sic q^^* 
concupisois, qua© non capis. Ab Europ& petis Asiai» : ^ 
Asii transis in Europam. Deindd, si humanum genus oid^ 
superayeris, cum sjlyis et niyibus, et fluminibns, iexiaq^ 
bestiis gesturus es bellum. Quid ? tu ignoras, arbores P^ 
nas diu crescere, un& hor& extirpari? Stultus est, 9^ 
frootus earum spectat, altitudinem non metitur. Vi4^ ^ 


urn ad oamuDen peirenire oo&tendis, cum ipsis raanis, qtuw 
}inpreheQderis, deoidas. ^* Leo qaoque aliqoando mini- 
larum aviam pabulum fait, et ferrom rubigo consamit 
ibil tames irmom est, oui pericalum non sit etiam ab in* 

^'Quid nobis teoam est? noliqiiam terram tuam attigi* 
la. Qui BIB) onde yenias, " lioetne ignorare in vastis sjlvis 
reniibus ? nee seryire ulli possamus ; nee imperare deside- 
QOB. Dona nolHS ^* data sunt, ne Seytbarum gentem 
lOres ; jugam boum, aratmm, basta, sagitta, et patera. His 
mur cum amicis, et adversus inimicos. Fruges amiois 
nus, boom labore qusesitas : paterd cum iisdem vinum 
s libamus: inimicos sagittii emimis, bast& cominiks peti- 
). Sic Sjriie Begem, et postea Persarum, Medorumque 
sraTimuB, patuitqne nobis iter usque in JSgjjfbm. At 
}ui te gloriaris ad latrones persequendos yenire, omnium 
;ium, quas adisti, ktro es. Lydiam cepisti, Syriam ocou- 
i, Persidem tenes, Bactrianos babes in potestate, Indos 
3ti ; jam etiam ad pecora nostra ayaras et insatiabiles 
lis porrigis." 

Quid tibi diyitiis opus est qu» te esurire cogunt ? Pri« 
omnium sati^tate parli.sti famem, ut qud plura baberes, 
3, quad noB babes, cuperes. ^* Non succurrit tibi, qudm 
;irciim Baetra bsereas ? Dum illos subigis, Sogdiani 
'e coeperunK Bdlum tibi ez yictorilt nascitur. Nam 
najor fortiorque sis.qu^quisqusUn; tamen alienigenam 
lum pati naxko yult. Transi mod6 Tanaim; soies quam 
pateaoty mmqui^m tamen eonsequeiis Si^tbas. Pauper- 
>stra yelocior eiit, quam exereitus tuus, qui pnedam tot 
am yehit. Buzsus ciVm procul abesse nos oredes, yidebis 

castris ; eddeni enim yelo<»tate et sequimur, et fogimua 
inun solitodines Graecis etiam proyerbiis audio ^^ eludi 

deserta et bomano eultu yacua, magis qudm uibes et 
bos agros ^' sequimur." 

'roinde fortimam tuam pressis manibus tene: lubrioa 
c inviba teneri potest :"" Salubre consilium sequens, 


qnim pranBens tempofl, ostendet meUi\s; impose fdykdUnti to» 

fraBDOs; faciliuB illam reges. Nostri sme pedibiu diount es» 
fortmuun, qme manus et pinnaa tantum habet CiSiiii manus 
porrigit, pinnaa quoque '* comprehendere non ainit. Peniqiie, 
si Deu8 es, tribuere mortalibus bencfioia debes, non sua eripere 
Sin autem homo es, id quod es, semper esse te oogita. ." Stol- 
turn est eornm meminisse propter quad tai oblivisoeria." 

" Quibus bellum non intnleris, bonis amicis poteris nil 
Nam et firmissima est inter pares amicitia : et vid^itur pares, 
qui non fecerunt inter se periculum virium. Qnos viceriBy ami* 
cos tibi esse cave credas. Inter dominum et semim nulla 
amicitia est : etiam in pace, belli tamen jura serrantar. Jih 
rando gratiam Scythas sancire ne credideris: colendo fidem, 
jurant. Grsecorum ista '^ cautio est, quia pacta conaigiiant, et 
Deos inyocant : ^ nos religionem in ips4 fide noTimua. Qui 
non reyerentur homines, Mlunt Deos. Neo tibi amioo opofl 
est, de oujus beneyolentid dubites. Gseteribn nos et Asi» et 
Europ» costodes habebis. '^ Bactra, nisi dividat Tanais, con» 
tingimus. Ultra Tanaim, usque ad Thraciam, colimus. Thra> 
ciae Macedoniam conjunctam esse fama est. Utrique imperio 
tuo finitimoS]^ hostes an amioos velis esse, considera." Haw 

IX. 34. Contra Bex fortune su& et oonsiliis eckram se 
usnrum esse respondet, dimisisque legatis, in prseparatas rates 
exercitum imposuit In proris clypeatos loeayerat, juaaoe in 
genua subsidere, qu6 tutiores essent adyersus ictus sagittarom. 
Post hos, qui tormenta intenderent, stabant, et ab utroqve 
latere, et a fronte circumdati armatis. Beliqvi, qui post tor- 
menta oonstiterant, remigem lorioam indutnm soutomm testita* 
dine armati protegebant. Idem ordo in illis quoque latibus 
qu» equitem yehebant, seryatus est : major pars ^ a puppe nai^ 
tes equos loris trahebat. At illos, quos utres stramento rqdeti 
vehebant, 'object» rates tuebantor. Ipse Bex com ddbotis 
primus ratem solvit, et in ripam dixigi jussit Gui Soytl» 
admotos ordines equitum in primo rip» margine oppommt, at 
oe applicari quidem terras rates possent. Gasteri^ prsafter 


nc speciem lipifl pnestdeiitia ezerattls, ingens naviganteB ter- 
r invaserat. Namque ourflum gabernatores, efkm obliquo 
mine impellerentar, regere non poterant: raoUkntesqae 
lites, et ne ezGutereatar sollioiti, nautamm ministeria tor- 
vensit Ne tela qaidem, "oonati nisii, vibrare poterant, 
tn prior standi sine perionlo, qukm hostem ineessendi, cnra 
et Tormenta saluti fiiernnt, qnibos in confertos ac temere 
offerentes baud frostra excnssa stmt tela. Barbari qnoque 
entem yim sagittarum infiid^e ratibns. Yixque nllum 
', scutum, quod non pluribus simul spiculis perforaretur. 
35. Jamque terras rates applicabantnr, o^m acies olypeata 
sui^t, et hastas eerto ictu, ^utpotd libero nisu, mittit e rati- 

Et ut ^territos recipientesque eqnos vid^re, alacres mu- 
adhertatione in terram desili^re. ' Turbatis acriter pedem 
rre ooeperont. Equitum deindd tarmsB, qu89 frsenatos ba- 
sint equoB, perfreg^re barbaromm aciem. Interim cseteri 
ine dimicantium teeti aptay^re se pugnao. Ipse Bex, quod 
tris SBgro adbuc oorpori deerat, anuni firmitate supplebat. 
: adbortantis non poterat audiri, nondom bene obductA 
irice cervicifi : sed dimicantem concti yidebani Itaque 
quidem duoum fungebantur c^io : aliusque alium adhor- 
in bostem, salutis immemores, mere coBperuntb Turn yer6 
ora, non arma, non elamorem hostium Barbari tolerare 
»rant, omnesqoe ^ effusis babenis (namque equestris acies 
capessttnt fugam: quos Bex, 'quanquam yexationem in- 
i corporis pati non poterat, per octoginta tamen stadia 
ai perseyerayit Jamque, linquente animo, snis prascepit, 
onee laois aliquid superesset, fdgientium tergis inbaere- 

Ipse, exhaustis etiam animi yiribus, in castra serecepit, 
i substitit. Transierant jam Liberi patris terminos, quo- 
nonumenta lapides erant orebris interyallis dispositi ; ar- 
[ue pvooerao, quamm stipites bedera contexerat Sed 
lones ira longius proyexit : quippe medi& ferd nocte in 

rediemnt, multis interfeetis, pluribus captis, equosque 

abegdre. Geeidenint autem Maoedonum equites sex- 
, peditefi oentum ftrd ! miUe saucii fuemnt 


36. Hseo expeditio defiei^ntem magnS ex parte Asiam 
fiuoft, tain opportonsd viotorisd domuit. LmctoB. Seytfaas esse 
«redideraat : quibus firaotiB nuUaan gentem Maoedomun anais 
parem fore oonfitebaator. Itaque Sao» mia^re legaios, qui 
pollioere&tur gentem mandata factoram. Moverat eos B^gia 
non virtus magiB, quim dementia in devietos Sojthas : qnippe 
oaptivos omnes aine pretio remiserat, 'ut fidem &ceret, sibi 
onm ferooisaimis gentium de fortitudine, non de iri, faisae 
oertamen. Benignd igitur exceptis Sacarum le^ti^, eomitein 
Excipinum dedit, adhuo admodum juvenem, astatia flore oonci 
liatum sibi : qui cum specie corporis saquaret HephsastioBem, 
lepore baud sand illi par erat. Ipse, Gratero cum majore parte 
exercitils modicis itineribus sequi jusso, ad Maracaoda urbem 
tendit: ex qud. S|Atamenes, cognito ejus adventu, Bactra per- 
fugerat. Itaque quatriduo Bex longum itineris spatium emen- 
sus, peryenerat in eum locum, in quo, Menedemo duoe, duo 
millia peditum, et trecentos equites amiserat. fionun oaaa 
tumulo contegi jusaLt, et inferias more patrio -dedit. Jam Gra- 
terus cum phalange subsequi jussus, ad Begem peryenerat 
Itaque ut omnes, qui defecerant, pariter belli dade premereih 
tur, copias diyidit, urique agios, et interfici puberes jusaiti. 

X. 37. Sogdiana regie majore ex parte deserta eat : ootin- 
g^ta ferd stadia in ktitudinem vast» sctUtudineB tenent In- 
gens spatium rect» regionis est, per quam amnis (Folytiin^oBi 
vocant' incolas) fertur. Torrentem eum ripse in tenuem alyeum 
cogunt : deinde eayema aocipit, et sub terram ra|dt. Gani!^! 
absconditi indicium est aquas meantis sonus, c^ ipsum solum, 
sub quo tantus ajmda fluit, ne modico quidem resudet bomore. 
Ex captiyis Sogdianornm, ad Begem triginta nobilissimiy oor- 
porum robore exindo^ perducti erant Qui ut per interpretom 
cognoyerunt jussu Be^s ipsos ad suppUeium trahi ; cannon 
laetantium mode canere, tripudiisque, et lasciyiore eoorporiB 
motu, gaudium quoddam animi ostentare cooperunt. Admira- 
tus Bex, tant^ magnitudine animi oppetere mortem, revocari 
eos jussit, causam tam efiussB Isotitiffi, cum si^pliciom ante 
ocoloB habefent, requirens. Illi, si ab alio oeoiderenfeur, tristaa 

LIBE& VII* OAF. X. 171 

fflorituros ftiisse respondent: nunc a tanto Bege yictore 

emnium gentiom majoribus snis redditos, konestam mortem, 

qnam fortes viri voto quoqne ezpeterent, ^carminibtts sul 

moris IsBtiti&que celebrare. Turn Bex admiratus magnita- 

dinem animi, *' Quaero itaqne," inquit, '' an vivere yelitis non 

inimioi ndbi, ccgus benefieio vioturi estis ? " Illi nunqn^m se 

'inimieoB ei, sed bello laoessitos, liostes faisse respondent. 

Si quis ipsos benefioio, qakm injuria experiri maluisset, cer- 

taturos fnisae ne vincerentnr officio. Interrogantiqne, quo 

pignore fidem obligatori essent ; vitam, quam aeciperent, pig- 

nori futaram esse dixemnt ; redditaros, qnandocomque repe- 

tlsset Nee promissum fefellerunt. Nam qui remissi domos 

ierant, in fide continuere populares. Quatuor inter custodes 

corporis retenti noUi Maeedonum in Begem cbaritate oes- 


38. In Sogdionis Peucolao cum tribus millibus peditum 
(neque enim majore prsesidio indigebat) relicto, Bactra per- 
renit. Inde Bessum Ecbatana duci jussit, interfecto Dario 
pcenas eapite persolutnrum. lisdem ferd diebus Ptolemseus 
it Menidas peditum tria millia, et equites mille adduxerunt 
nercede militaturos : Alexander quoquo ex Ljcid cum pari 
lumero peditum, et quingentis equitibus yenit. Totidem 
\ 8yri& Asclepiodorum sequebantur. Antipater Graecorum 
etc mUlia, in queis quingenti equites erant, miserat. Itaque 
xercitu auoto, ad ea, quao defectione turbata erant, com- 
onenda processit : interfectisque ' constemationis auotoribus, 
aarto die ad flumen Oxum perventum est : hie, quia limuiii 
ehitj tarbidus semper et insalubris est potu. Itaque pute(ts 
Liles CG^erat fodere. Nee tamen humo bM egestd existebat 
anior,.edm in ipso tabemaculo Begis conspectus est fons : 
[lem, quia tarde notayerant, 8ubit6 extitisse finxerunt. Bex- 
le ipse oredi yoluit, donum Dei id fuisse. Superatis deind^ 
xmibus Oeho et Oxo, ad fffbem Marginiam peryenit. Circa 
kin sex oppidis condendis electa sedes est Duo ad meri- 
em versa, quatoor spectantia Orientem, modiois inter se 
^atiis distabant^ ne proeul repetendum esset motuum 


auzilinm. Haeo omnia sita sont in editis coUibas, ^iam 
yelut f raeni domitarum gentium ; nunc originis sufio oblita ser- 
viunt quibus imperaverunt. 

XI. 39. £t castera quidem pacaverat Bex. Una «at 
Petra, quam Arimazes Sogdianus cum triginta millibos arma- 
torum obtinebat, alimentis ante congestis, qu» tantsB mulii^ 
tudini vel per biennium suppeterent. Petra ^ in altitadinem 
triginta eminet stadia, oircuitu centum et quinquaginta com* 
plectitur. Undique abscissa et abrupta Semite perangusti 
aditur. In medio altitudinis spatio habet specum, eajos 'os 
arctum et obsourum est ; pauUtim deindd ulteriora pandun* 
tor. Ultima etiam altos recessus habent : fontes per totom 
fere specum manant; e quibus coUat» aquas per prom 
montis flumen emittunt. Bex, loci difficultate spectat^, sta- 
tuerat inde abire : cupido deinde incessit animo, natnram 
quoque fatigandi. Pritls tamen quim fortunam obaidioma 
ezperiretur, Gophan (Artabazi hie filius erat) misit ad Bar- 
baros, qui suaderet ut dederent rupem. Arimazes, loco 
fretus, superb^ multa respondit. Ad ultimum, an Alezttider 
volare possit, interrogat. Quae, nunciata Begi, sic aecend^re 
animum, ut adhibitis cum quibus oonsultare erat solitus, ia- 
dicaret insolentiam Barbari illudentis ipsos, quia pinnas non 
haberent Se autem proximo nocte e£Fecturum, ut crederet, 
Macedonas etiam volare. "Trecentos," inquit, * ** perlkicis- 
simos juvenes ex suis quisque eopiis perducite ad me, qui 
per calles, et pene invias rupes, domi pecora agere oon- 

40. Illi praestantes et levitate corporum et ardore am- 
morum, strenud adducunt ; quos intuens Bex, ^* Yobisoam/' 
inquit, '^ juvenes, et mei asquales, urbium inviotarum uM 
munimenta superavi: montium juga perenni nive obruta 
emensus sum : angustias Oiliciad intravi : India» sine laasi* 
tudine vim frigoris sum perpessus. Et *mel doeumenta 
vobis dedi, et vestri habeo. Petra, quam videtis, unum 
aditum habet, quem Barbari obstdent, caotera negligunt 
NuUaB vigilisB sunt, nisi quao castra nostra spectani. Inve- 


metis Tiam, ei solerter rimati fderitifl aditas ferentes ad oaou» 

men. ' Nihil tam alte natura constituit, qa6 virtas non possit 

eniti. fizperiendo quad oseteri desperaverunt, Asiam babe* 

mas in potesfcate. Evadite in cacomen, quod cilm oeperitis, 

candidis yelis signum mibi dabitis : ego, copiis admotis, boa» 

tern in BOS a vobis couyertam. Fraemium erit ei qui primus 

occupayerit yerticem, talenta decern. Uno minus aocipiet, 

qui proximus ei yenerit : eademque ad decern homines seryar 

bitor ' portio. Certum autem habeo^ yos non tam liberalitatem 

intueri meam, qu&m yoluntatem." ^ His animis Begem audio- 

runty ut jam oepisso yerticem yiderentur : dimissique ferreos 

cuneos, quos inter saxa defigerent, yalidosque funes parabant 

Rex ciroumyectus Petram, qui. minime asper ac prseruptus 

iditus yidebatur, seoundd yigili^ "(quod bend yerteret) in- 

rredi jubet. 

41. Illi, alimentis in biduum sumptis, gladiis modd atque 
lastis anuati subire cceperunt. Ac primd pedibus ingressi 
unt : deindd) ut in praerupta peryentum est, alii manibus 
oiinentia saxa complexi leyaydre semet, alii adjectis funium 
iqueis eyasdre ; c^m cuneos inter saxa defigerent queis gra- 
ns fiubinde insisterent : diem inter metum laboremque con- 
impserunt. Per aspera enixis duriora restabant, et crescere 
titudo Petras yidebatur. Ilia yerd miserabilis erat ' facies, 
im ii, quos inatabilis gradus fefellerat, ex praecipiti deyol- 
rentur : mox eadem in se patienda alieni casus ostendebat 
lemplum. Per has tamen difficultates enituntur in yerticem 
:>iitis^ omnes fatigatione continuati laboris affecti, quidam 
xlctati parte membrorum ; pariterque eos et nox, et somnus 
pressit. Stratis passim corporibus in inyiis et in asperis 
H:oramy periculi instantis obliti in lucem quieyerunt : tan- 
mque velut ex alto sopore excitati, occultas subjectasque 
ia Talles ^" rimantes, ignari in qud parte Petrao tanta yis 
itima condita esset, fumum specus infra seipsos eyolutum 
vaTemnt. Ex quo intelleotum est, illam hostium latebram 
e. Itaque hastis imposu^re quod conyenerat signum, toto- 
i e numero duos et tringinta in ascensu interiisse cognoa* 


cant Bex non oupidine magis potinndi loci, quam *^ rieem 
eomm, quos ad tarn manifeBtum pmealuM miserat, soUieitiis, 
toto die cacumina montis intuens restitit. Noctu demnm 
odm obsooritas conspeetum oculoram ademisset, ad cnrandnm 
corpus recessit 

42. Postero die Bondum satis clar& luce, primus vela, 
signum capti yerticis, conspexit. Sed ne falleretor " acies, 
dubitare cogebat yarietas cobU, nunc internitente lueis ful- 
gore, nunc condito. Yeri!im ut liquidior lux appamit coelo, 
dubitatio exempta est. Yocatumque Cophan, per quern 
Barbarorum animos tentayerat, mittit ad eos, qui moneret, 
nunc saltern salubrius consilium inirent. Sin autem fidueia 
loci perseyerarent, ostendi a tergo jussit, qui ceperant yer- 
ticem. Cephas admissus suadere coepit- Arimazi, Petram 
tradere, gratiam Begis inituro, si tantas res molientem in 
unius rupis obsidione hserere non cocgisset. Ille, ferocius 
superbiiisque quam antea locutus, ^* abire Oophan jubet At 
is prehensum manu Barbarum rogat, ut secum extra specum 
prodeat : quo impetrato, juyenes in cacumine ostendit, ejusque 
superbise baud inuneritd illudens, pinnas ait habere milites 
Alexandri. Jamque e Macedonum castris signorum concen- 
tus, et totius exercitiis clamor audiebatur. £a res, '^sicat 
pleraque belli yana et inania, Barbaros ad deditionem traxii 
Quippe occupati metu, paucitatem eorum, qui a tergo erant, 
sestimare non poterant. Itaque Gophan (nam trepidantes re- 
liquerat) strenue reyocant, et cum eo triginta principea mit- 
tunt, qui Petram tradant, et ut ineolumibus abire liceat, pa<»s- 
cantor. *'Ille, quanquam yerebatur, ne conspeet& juyenum 
paucitate deturbarent eos Barbari, tamen et fortunse bus 
confisus, et Arimazi superbisd infensus, nuUam se conditionem 
deditionis accipere respondit. Arimazes, desperatis magis 
quam perditis rebus, cum propinquis nobilissimisque sa» 
gentis desoendit in castra, quos omnes yerberibus afiectos, 
sub ipsis radicibus PetraB '* crucibus jussit affigi. Multitndo 
deditiorum incolis noyarum urbium cum pecuni& capti done 

LIBBR TII2. OA.P« I. 176 

iata est Ariabosofl in P^r» re^onisqiie, qn» opposite 
esaei ei, '^ tuteU reliotns est. 

4 •» 



1 . Masaagetia, Dahls, ot Sogdianis sabactiB, Scyth» sol B^ls flUam Alezandro eoi^ii- 
gem oOiBmiit, qui leone InteribcCo et qvataor mUUbna fcranim to TMHrttow iii^wtOt, 
GUtnm solemBi oonTlyio adhibitam, et Ub«riilB loqaentem interfidt 

2. Sera Alezandrl pcenitentia, qaam aeqanntor belUc» expedltlonM adversiis Bae- 
trianos transTngas et SyBimithien : PhiUppl Item stewmtaSiiii JaTenia, et Stigyil dMb- 
•tml dneta, obltoa. 

8. Spitamenis nxorem, Interfecti morlti capat afferentem, Alexander castriB ezoedera 
Jnbet: proyincias qnaBdam a Fmreetamm saomm iqjiirils Tindloat. 

4 Fiigorla idmiA yi pend oppiimitor ezereitos Oabaam adltoros. Alnandxi con* 
staatift et erga gregariam militem hamanltaa, cjnademqiie com Bozane nuttrimoiiiam. 

6. Cogitationibua in Bellnm Indicnm yeiris, adnlatorum frande, nimii aaperbli 
clAtoA Alexander, JoyJa fllina ynlt aalntari : quod GattBtteneB grayl onittooe iaapnibtL 

6k £x IgnominiA Hermolao nobili paero iHaiA nasdtar in ciq>nt Alexandri ocn^nratlo^ 
quA detectA, inter anctoros sceleris innocens Galisthenes conjidtor. 

7. HermoUd, Oaliathenem Jnstom eese aaeyenntlfl, adyeniu enidel«ni Alezanftt 
Bnperblam inyeetiy». 

8. Alexandri ad Hermolal inyectiyam responsio: ooi^nratormn item, atque inno- 
centls OaliSthenia SQppUdun. 

9. Indi, Gaogis, Dyardenia, Indln^ «jjOB tooolarom, lnxa difflnentiam Begun, mo 
sapientum, Incoknta descriptio. 

10. Yarioa Indin popnlos mlrft feUcitate, non tamea sine aangotoe, Alezand«r 

IL Aomofi petra et arc inacceasa ab Alexandro oppngnator, et ab obeessis reliot» 

18. Qmpbis Bex pot mttw h n ii» ae legDwnqne nam Alezandio pennittit, « qno to 
integromrestitaitar: onde mutoa dona regie. 

18. Porom Begem, Omphls Boasu, Alexander andpttl qnldem et sab init!» pericnlo- 
dwilmo aggreditor bello. 

14 Indormn et Maoedonom Inwignis et omeata pngna; Fori oaptiyl miignantmUa^ 
et Alexandri regia dementia. 

L 1. Albxahdbb ' majore fiunil quim glori& in ditionem 
redacts Petrd, oiim propter Tagum hoBtem Bpargend» maniui 
esBent, in tres partes diviait exeroitam : HepliSBstionein nni, 
C<Bnon alteri duces dederat : ipse caeteris pisoerat. Sed non 


•adem mens Qmnibns BaibariB fait Armis quidam sobaed; 
plures ante oertamen ^ imperata fecemiit : qoibuA eoram, qui in 
defectione perseyeraveraiit, nrbes agrosque jussit aUriboL At 
exoles Bactriani com octingentis equitibuB Massagetarum. prox- 
imos yicoB yastaverunt. Ad quos coeroendos Attinas regionis 
ejus Prsefectus trecentos equites, insidiamm quae parabantur 
ignaros, eduzit. Namque bostis in sjlvis, qu» erant forte 
oampo junctad, armatnm militem condidit, paucis propeUentibns 
pecora, ut improyidnm ad insidias praeda perdneeret Itaqne 
'incomposito agmine, solutisque ordinibus, Attinas ^prasda- 
bundns sequebatur : quern praetergressum sjlyam, qui in ei 
Gonsederant, ex improyiso adorti, cum omnibus interememni 
Geleriter ad Cratemm bujus cladis £ama perlata est, qui com 
omni equitatu superyenit. Et Massagetas quidem jam refuge- 
rant. Dahaa mille oppressi sunt : quorum clade, totius r^^io- 
nis finita defectio. Alexander quoque, Sogdianis rursillB subao- 
tis, Maraoanda repetit. 

2. Ibi Berdes, quern ad Sc^rthas super Bospborum colentes 
miserat, cum legatis gentis occurrit Pbratapbemes quoque, 
qui Cborasmiis praserat, Massagetis et Dabis regionum eonfi- 
ido adjunctus, miserat, qui facturum imperata pollicerentor. 
Scytbad petebant, ut Begis sui filiam matrimonio sibi jungeret: 
si dedignaretur affinitatem, principes Macedonum cum primo- 
ribus suao gentis connubio coire pateretur. Ipsum quoque 
Begem yenturum ad eum poUicebantur. Utrdque legatione 
benign^ auditd, Hepbasstionem et Artabazum opperiensy. star 
tiya babuit: 'quibus adjunctis, in regionem quao appellator 
Bazariay peryenit. Barbar» opulentiaa in illis locis baud 
ulla sunt majora indicia, qusi.m magnis nemoribus saltibusque 
nobilium ferarum greges clausi. Spatiosas ad boc eligunt sjl- 
yas, crebris perennium aquarum fontibus amoenas. Muris ne- 
mora cinguntnr, turresque babent yenantium receptacula. Qua- 
tuor continuis astatibus intactum saltum fuisse constabat; 
quem Alexander cum toto exercitu ingressuS| agitari undique 
feraa jussit. Inter quas ciim leo magnitudinis raraB ipsum 
Begem inyasurus incurreret, fortd Ljjsimacbus, £qui postea 


li * regnaTitJ prozimiis Alezandro, TeDabalmn objicere ferse coepe- 
I rat Qao Bex repulso, et abire jusso, adjecit, tarn a semet 
i uno, qadixL a Lysimacho, leonem interfici posse. Lysimachos 
; enim ^ qnondam, ctaoa. yenaretur in Sjri^, occiderat quidem ex* 
imia» magnitudinis feram solns, sed Isevo humero usque ad osaa 
laceratns ad nltimum periculi perveDerat. ^ Idipsum ezpro- 
brans ei Bex, fortii\s qnam locatus est, fecit. Nam feram non 
excepit modd, sed etiam xmo vulnere occidit. Fabulam, qu» 
objeotnm leoni a Bege Lysimachum *temer6 ynlgayit, ab eo 
casa (quern suprli diximus) ortam esse erediderim. Caeten^m 
Macedones, quanquam prospero eyentu defunctus erat Alexan- 
der, tamen " sciy^re gentis suse more, ne " pedes yenaretur, 
a«tt sine deleetis principum, amicorumque. Hie quatuor milli- 
bas ferarum dejectis, in eodem saltu cum toto exercitu epula- 
tuB est. 

3. Ind^ Maracanda reditnm est : acceptlque setatis excusa- 
tione ab Artabazo, proyinciam ejus destinat Glito. Hie erat, 
qai apud Granicnm amnem nudo capite Begem dimicantem 
clypeo suo texit, et Bhosacis mantim capiti Begis imminentem 
gladio amputayit; yetus Pbilippi miles, multisque bellicis 
operibus clarus. Hellanioe, quse Alexandrum educayerat, soror 
ejns, baud secus quam mater a Bege diiigebatur. Ob has 
cansas yalidissimam imperii partem fidei ejus tutelseque com- 
misit. Jamque iter parare "in posterum jussus, solemni et 
tempestiyo adhibetur conyiyio. In quo Bex cum "multo in- 
calttisset mero, immodicus aestimator sui, celebrare quas gesse- 
rat, ccepit; ^^grayis etiam eorum auribus, qui sentiebant yera 
meznorari Silentium tamen habu6re seniores, donee Pbilippi 
res orrsus "obterere, nobilem apud Obaoroneam yictoriam **sui 
operis fuisse jaetayit, ademptamque sibi malignitate et inyidia 
patris tantas rei gloriam. Ilium quidem seditione inter Mace- 
dones milites et GraBcos mercenaries orta, debilitatum yul- 
nere, quod in ed constematione aoceperat, '^jacuisse, ^'non 
aHAa quim simulatione mortis tutiorem : se corpus ejus pro- 
teziflse clypeo suo, ruentesque in ilium suS. manu oocisos. Quae 
paitrem nunquam " aequo animo esse ccmfessum, ^ inyitum filio 



debentem salutem siiam. '^ Itaqne post expeditionem, qwn 
" sine 60 fecisset ipse in lUyrios/yictorem Bcripsisse se patri, 
fusos fugatosqne hostes, nee affaisse nsquam Pliilippum. 
Lande dignos esse, non " qui Samothracum initia viBerent, 
oiim Asiam nri vastarique oportet ; sed eos, qui magnitadine 
rerum fidem antecessissent. 

4. Haeo et his similia Iseti andiSre juvenes : ingrata 
senioribus erant, maxime propter Philippum, sub quo din- 
tii\s yizerant. Turn Clitus, ne ipse quidem satis sobrias, ad 
eos, qui infra ipsum "* cubabant, conversus, '^ Euriptdis retulit 
carmen, ^ ita ut Bonus magis quslm sermo exaudiri posset 
a Kegc. Quo significabatur, " ^^ male instituisse G-rsecos 
qu6d tropadis Kegum duntaxat nomina inscriberentur. "^ Alieno 
enim sanguine partam gloriam intercipi.^' Itaque Rex cum 
suspicaretur ^* maligniiis habitum esse sermonem, percontari 
proximos coepit, quid ex Clito audlssent. Et iilis ad silen- 
tium obstinatis, Clitus paulatim majore voce Philippi acta 
bellaque in Grseci^ gesta commemorat, omnia praasentibos 
praeferens. Hino inter juniores senesque orta contentio est 
'® Et Eex, yelut patienter audiret, queis Clitus obterebat 
laudes ejus, ingentem iram conceperat. C8Bten\m eiUm 
"* animo videretur imperaturus, si finem procaoiter orto ser* 
moni Clitus imponeret ; nihil eo remittente, magis exaspera- 
batur. Jamque Clitus etiam Parmenionem defendere aade- 
bat : et Philippi de Atheniensibus victoriam Thebarum 
praeferebat excidio ; non vino mod6, sed etiam animi pravi 
contentione provectus. 

5. Ad ultimum, " Si moriendum,'' inquit, " est pro te, 
Clitus est primus. At ci\m yictoriaa arbitrium agis, pr»- 
cipuum ferunt praemium, qui procacissimd patris tui memori» 
illudunt. Sogdianam regionem mihi attribuis, toties rebellem, 
et non mod6 indomitam, sed quae ne subigi quidem possit 
Mittor ad feras bestias, praBcipitia ingenia sortitas. Sed quae 
ad me pertinent, transeo. Philippi milites spemis, obiitos, 
nisi hie Atharias senex juniores pugnam detrectantes revo- 
odsset, adhuG nos circa Halicamassum haesuros fiiisse. Quo 


medd ergo Asiam etiam -onm istis janioribns snbjeeisti? 
Yemm est (ut opinor) qnod ayunculum tuum in Italic 
dizisse constat: ipsum in yiros incidisse, te in foeminas." 
Nihil ex omnibas inconsulte ao temerd actis Begem magis 
moverat, qn^m Parmenionis cum honore mentio illata; dolo*' 
rem tamen Bex pressit, contentns jussisse ut convivio exoe- ' 
deret: nee quidquam aliud adjecit, qu^m, forsitan eum (si 
diutii\8 locutus foret) '* exprobraturum sibi fiiisse vitam a 
semetipso datam : hoc enim superbe saape jaetasse. " Atque 
ilium cunctantem adhuo surgere, qui proximi ei cubuerant, in- 
jectis manibus, jurgantes monentesque conabantur abducere. 
Clitos ciim abstraheretur, ad pristinam ** yiolentiam ird quo* 
que adjects, '^ " 8uo pectore tergum illius esse defensum ; nuno 
postqultm tanti meriti praBteriit tempus, etiam memoriam in- 
visam esse," proclamat. Attali quoque csedem "^ objiciebat : ei 
ad ultimum Jovis, quem patrem sibi Alexander assereret, 
oraculum eludens, yeriora se Begi, quam patrem ejus, respon- 
disse dicebat. 

6. " Jam tantum iras conceperat Bex, quantum yix sobriuB 
ferre potuisset. Enimverb mere olim sensibus yictis, ex lecto 
repente prosiluit. Attoniti amici, ne positis quidem, sed ab- 
jectis poculis, consurgunt ; in eventum rei, quam tanto impetu 
aetnrus esset, intentL Alexander, raptd lancet ex manibus 
armigeri, Clitum adhuc eS,dem linguae intemperanti^ fnrentem 
percutere conatus, a Ptolemaeo et Perdicca inhibetur. ^ Me^ 
dium complexi, et obluctari perseverantem, morabantur : Lysi* 
machus et Leonatus etiam lanceam abstulerant Ille militum 
fidem implorans, comprehendi se a proximis amicorum, "^ quod 
Dario nuper accidisset, exclamat : signumque tubd dari, ut ad 
re^am armati coirent, jubet. Tum verd Ptolemaeus et Per- 
^ccas genibus advoluti orant, ne in tam praecipiti ir& perseve- 
ret, spatiumque potiils animo det : omnia postero die justi^ 
executurum. Sed clausal erant aures, obstrepente iri. Ita- 
que ^ impotens animi, perourrit in regiad yestibulum, et, yigili 
exoubanti hastd ablate, constitit in *^ aditu, quo necesse erai 
lis, qui simul coBuayerant, egredi. Abierant casteri : Clitos 

180 QUIMTI cn&Tii 

idtinnui sine Ivoune exibat Qaem Kex, quisiiaiii esBet, inter 
iog»t ^ Eminebat etiam in vooe sceleris, quod parabat, atro- 
cita& £t ille jam non suce, sed Begis ire memor^ Glitum 
eBBe, et de conviyio ezire respondit Haeo dioratk latns hasfc^ 
tranafizit, morientisqae sanguine aspersus, '* I nnno,'* inqnit, 
^< ad Fhilippum, et Fanaenionem, et Attalom." 

II. 7. ^Mald humanis ingeniis natura consnluit, qudd 
pleromque non fatora, sed transacta perpendimns. Qidppe 
Bex postquim ira mente decesserat, etiam ebrietate diacnfls^, 
magnitudinem fiioinoris ' sera sestimatione perspezit. ' Yide* 
bat, tano immodica libertate abusmn, sed alioqui egr^hun 
bello, yirom, et, nisi erubesoeret fateri, servatorem soi, ood- 
som. Detestabile carnificis ministerium oocnpaverat Rex, 
Terbormn licentiam, quae vino poterat impatari, nefanda casde 
idtua. Manabat toto vestibule cruor ^paul6 ante conviTse: 
T%iles attoniti et stnpentibus similes procul stabant, ^liberio- 
remque pcenitentiam solitude excipiebat. Eigb hastam ex 
oorpore jacentis eyulsam retorsit in semet : jamque admoverat 
peotori, ciim adyolant vigiles, et repugnanti e manibus extor- 
quent, allevatumque in tabemaculum deferunt. Ille hnmi 
postraverat corpus ; gemitu ejulatuque miserabili iotk perso- 
nante regii. Laniare deinde os unguibus, et circumstantes 
rogare ne se tanto dedecori superstitem esse paterentur» In- 
ter has preces tota nox * extracta est : scrutantemque, num ir& 
Deoram ad tantum nefas actus esset, ^ subit anniyersarium sa- 
crificium Libero patri non esse redditum state tempore. Ita- 
que inter yinum et epnlas csede commissit, iram Dei fuisse ma- 

8. ^ Cseterum magis e6 movebatur, qu6d omnium amicorum 
afiimos videbat attonitos: neminem cum ipso sociare sermonem 
posted ausurum. * Viyendum esse in solitodine, yelut fene 
bcBtisd ^" terrenti alias, alias timentL Prim^ deinde luce taber- 
naoulo corpus, sicut adhuo cruentum erat, jussit infern. Quo 
posito ante ipsum, "lacrjmis obortis, ^Hanc," inquit, ^'nu- 
trici mese gratiam retuli, cnjus duo filii apud Miletum pro 
me& glorLSr occubu&re mortem ; hie frater, unicum orbitatis sola 


timi) a me inler epiaB ocebafl est Qa6 mmo ae oontoet 
misera ? " Omnibiis ejus amis sapersom, quern solom aoqnis 
oonlis videre iKm poterit. Et ego, serYatonim meorom latro, 
revertar in patriam, ut ne deztram quidem nutrioi, " «ne me- 
morial calamitatis ejod, offerre possim ! " Et ci\m fims laery* 
mis querelisque non fieret, jossu amioorom corpus ablatom est. 
Eez triduum jaooit inolusus. Quern ut armigeri oorporisque 
custodes ad moriendum obstinatum esse oognoyenmt, uniTersi 
m tabemaculum irrumpunt, diuque precibus ipsorum relucta- 
tum 9dgic6 vicenmt ut cibum oaperet. Quoque minus csodia 
puderet, jure interfeotum Clitum Maoedones deoemunt, sepul- 
tur& quoque prohibituri, ni Rex humari jussisset. Igitur de» 
oem diebus, ^* mazim^ ad confirmandum pudorem, apud Ma« 
raeanda ' consumptis, cum parte ezeroitus Hepbaesiionem 
in regionem Bactrianam misit, commeatus in hjemem para* 
turum. Quam Clito autem destinaverat provinciam, Amyntaa 

9. Ipse Xenippa penrenit. Sojibiie confinis est regie, 
habitaturque pluribus ao frequentibus yiois; quia ubertaa 
terrsd non indigenas mod6 detinet, sed etiam advenas invitat 
Bactrianorum ezulum, qui ab Alexandre defeoerant, recep- 
taoulum fuerat. Sed postqudm Begem adrentare oomper* 
tum est, pulsi ab incolis duo millia ferd et ducenti ^^oongre- 
gantur. Omnes equites erant, etiam in pace latrociniis 
assuetL Tum ferocia ingenia non bellum modo, sed etiam 
Teni» desperatio efferayerat. Itaque ex improviso adorti 
Amyntam Prsetorem Alexandri, diu anceps prselium feeerant. 
-Ad ultimum septingentis suorum amissis, quorum ceo hostis 
cepit, ded^re terga victoribus .-baud sand inulti : quippe lxxx 
Macedonum interfecerunt, prasterque eos treoenti et quinqua- 
ginta saucii facti sunt: veniam tam«Q etiam post ** alteram 
defectionem impetrayerunt. His in fidem aceeptis, in regi<mem| 
quam NatUaca appellant, Bex enm toto exereitu yenit 8a- 
trapes erat Sjsimithres, duobus ex su& matre filiis gonitis: 
quippe apud eos parentibus stupro coire cum liberie fas est. 
' Isy aimatis popularibus, fauces regionis, qu4 in arctissimum 


oog^ar, valido mmdmento sepserat. '' Pneterfluebat ixxneiui' 
amnis, qui terga Petr» claudebat: lianc manu perviam in» 
oolaD fecerant. Sed aditus specCts acoipit luoem : interiora, 
nisi illato ImniBey obscura sunt. " Perpetuus cubIcuIus iter 
pra&bet in campos ignotum, nisi indigenis. At Alexander, 
|uanquam angustias naturali situ munitas valido manu Bar* 
bari tuebantur, tamen arietibus admotis, ^munimenta, quae 
manu adjuncta erant, concussit, fundisque et sagittis propng* 
nantium plerosque dejecit : quos ubi disperses fugavit, ruinas 
munimentorum supergressus, ad Petram admoyit exercitnm. 

10. Cssterilm interveniebat fluyius coeuntibus aquis ex. 
Buperiore fastigio in vallem, magnique operis videbatxir tarn 
yastam voraginem ezplere. Oaedi tamen arbores, et saxa 
ocmgeri jussit. Ingensque Barbaros payor rudes ad talia oper» 
eonousserat, excitatam molem subito cernentes. Itaque Bex 
ad deditionem metu posse compelli ratus, Oxarten misit 
nationis ejusdem, sed ditionis suda, qui suaderet duoi ut 
traderet Petram. Interim ad augendam fbrmidinem, et turres 
admoyebantur, et excussa tormentis tela '^ emicabant. Itaque 
yerticem Petrss, ^ omni alio prsesidio damnato, petiyerunt. At 
Oxartes trepidum diffidentemque rebus suis Sjsindthrem 
ocBpit hortari, ^ ut fidem, quam yim Maeedonum, mallet ex* 
periri; neu moraretur festinationem yictoris exercitus in 
Indiam tendentis: ^^cui quisquis semet offerret, in suum 
oaput alienam eladem esse yersurum. Et ipse quidem 8jm.* 
mithres ^^dedilionem annuebat: cseteriim mater eademque 
eonjux morituram se antd denunoians quim in ullius yeniret 
potestatem, Barbari animum ad honestiora qu^m tutiora con-' 
yerterat: pudebatque libertatis majus esse apud fbeminas, 
qu^m apud yiros, '' pretium. Itaque dimisso intemuneio pads, 
obsidionem ferre decreyerat. Sed cum hostis yires suasque 
pensaret, rurstls muliebris consilii, quod " prasceps ma^s qu&m 
neoessarium esse credebat, poenitere eum coepit. Beyooato- 
que strenue Oxarte, futurum se in Begis potestate respondit : 
unum precattis, ne yoluntatem et consilium matris suas pro- 
deret, qa6 facilii\s y^a illi quoque impetraretor. Prssmi»- 

LIBBK Vltl. CAP. III. 168 

ana i^tvr Oxartem cum matM liberisqae, et totitus cogna- 
iionis grege seqnebatnri ne ezspectato quidem ** fidei pignore, 
quod Ozartes promiserat. 

II. Bexy equite prsemisso, qui reverti eos juberet, oppe- 

ririque prsesentiam ipsins, *' supenrenit, et victimis Minenras 

ao Yictorise cassis, imperinm Bysimithri restitnit, ** spe ma< 

joris etiam proyinciae faot4, si cum fide amicitiam ipsins 

eoluisset. Duos illi juvenes patre tradente, secum milita- 

toros sequi jussit. B.elict& deinde phalange, ad subigendos 

qui defecerant, cum equite processit. Arduum et impeditum 

saxis iter primd ^^ utcumque tolerabant. Moz equorum nou 

ungulis modd attritis, sed corporibus etiam fatigatis, sequi 

j^erique non poterant, et rarius subinde agmen fiebat, pudo- 

Tern ''(ut fere fit) immodico labore vincente. Bex tameu 

subinde equos mutans, sine intermissione fngientes inseque- 

batur. Nobiles juTcnes comitari eum soliti '^ defecerant, 

praster Philippum; Lysimachi erat frater, tiim primdm 

adultus, et quod faoild appareret, indolis raraa. Is pedos 

(inoredibile dictu) per ducenta stadia ** vectum Begem comi- 

tatus est, sa&pe equum suum offerente Lysimaoho : neo tamen 

ut digrederetur a Bege effici potuit, '^o^m lorie^ indutus 

arma gestaret. Idem, ciim peryentum esset in saltum, in quo 

se Barbari abdiderant, nobilem edidit pugnam, Begemquo 

eominils cum hoste dimicantem protexit. Scd postqu^m 

Barbari in fugam effusi deseruere sylvas, animus, qui in 

ardore pugnae corpus sustentayerat, liquit : subitoque ex onmi- 

bus membris profuse sudore, arboris proximae stipiti ''se 

applicuit. Deinde, ne illo quidem adminiculo sustinente 

manibus Begis exceptus est; inter quas collapsus estingui 

iur. Moestum Begem alius baud leyis dolor excepit. Eriv 

gyius inter claros duces fuerat, quem extinctum esse, panld 

antd qud.m reyerteretur in castra, cognoyit. Utriusque fiinus 

omni apparatu atque honore celebratum est. 

III. 12. Dabas deinde statuerat petere: ibi namque 
Spitamenem esse cognoyerat. *Sed banc quoque expeditio- 
nem, ut pleraqoe alia, fortuna, indulgendo ei nunquam fatigata, 


pro absente transegit. Spitainezies nzoris immodiob amore 
flagrabat ; quam aegr^ fugam et Bova subinde exilia toleran* 
tern in omDO discrimen comitem trahebat. Ilia, mails fati** 
gata, identidem mnliebres adhibere blanditias, ut tandem 
fugam sisteret, victorisque Alezandri clementiam expertuBi 
placaret quern effugere non posset. Tres adulti erant liberi 
ez eo geniti : quos ciim pectori patris admovisset, ut saltern 
eorum misereri yellet, orabat. ' Et qu6 e£oaciores essent 
preces, baud prooul erat Alexander. ' lUe se prodi, noo 
moneri ratus, et form» profecto fiducid oupere earn quam- 
primilm dedi Alezandro, acinacem^strinxit, peroussurus uxo- 
rem, nisi prohibitus esset fratrum ejus ocoursu. Caeterikm 
abire conspectu jubet, addito metu mortis, si se oculis ejus 
obtulisset ; et ad desiderium levandum noctes inter pellioes 
agere coepit. Sed peniti\s hserens amor * fastidio pr»sentium 
aecensus est. Itaque rursus uni ei deditus, orare non destitit^ 
ut tali consilio abstineret, patereturque sortem, quamcumque 
eis fortuna feoisset: sibi mortem deditione esse leviorem* 
At ilia purgare se, ' quod quae utilia esse censebat, muliebri* 
«er forsitan, sed fiddl tamen mente suasisset : * de caetero futu* 
ram in viri potestate. 

13. Spitamenes simulato captus obsequio^de die oonvi- 
vium apparari jubet : vinoque et epulis gravis, semisomous ia 
eubieulum fertur. Quem ut "alto et gravi somno sopitum 
esse sensit uxor, gladium, quem yeste occultaverat, stringit; 
oaputque ejus abscissum cruore respersa servo suo consciiO 
facinoris tradit. Eodem comitante (sicut erat cruenti veste) 
in Maoedonum castra pervenit, nunciarique Alexandro jubet, 
esse, qu88 ex ips& deberet agnoscere. Ille protinus Barbaram 
jussit admitti. Quam ut aspersam cruore conspexit, ratus 
ad deplorandam contumeliam venisse, dicere qua» vellet, jubet 
At ilia, servum quem stare in vestibule jusserat, introduoi 
desideravit. Qui, quia caput Spitamenis veste tectum babe* 
bat, suspectus, scrutantibus quid occuleret, ostendit. Con 
fuderat oris exsanguie notas pallor, nee quis esset nosci satis 
poterat. Erg6 Eex certior faetus humanum caput afiEerre 


eiini, tabernaeulo ezcessit, percontatosqne quid rei sit, *ilIo 
profiiente oognosoit. Yari» hinc oogitationes inyioem ani- 
mmn diversa agitantem commoyerant. " Meritum ingens 
in semet esse credebat, quod transfdga, et proditor, tantis 
rebus (si vizisset) injeoturus moram, interfectus esset. Oontr^ 
facinns ingens aversabatur, cdm optima meritum de ipsl 
communium parentem liberorum, per insidias interemissei. 
" Yioit tamen gratiam meriti sceleris atrocitas, denunciarique 
jussit ut excederet castris, neu licentise Barbarse exemplar in 
Grsecorum mores et mitia ingenia transferret. Dahse, Spita- 
menis csede compert&, Drifeaphemem defectionis ejus parti- 
c^em vinctum Alexandro, seque dedunt. Ille maxim& prsd- 
sentium curarum parte liberatus, convertit animum ad vin- 
dicandas injurias eorum, quibus a PrsBtoribus suis avard ac 
superb^ imperabatur. Ergd' Phrataphemi Hjreaniam, et 
Mardos cum Tapyris tradidit, mandavitque ut Phradatem, 
cui suocedebat, ad se in custodiam mitteret. Arsani Dran- 
carum Prsefeoto substitntus est Stasanor. Arsaces in Mediam 
missus, ut Oxydates inde discederet. Babylonia, mortuo 
MazsBO, Stameni subjecta est. 

lY. 14. His compositis, tertio mense ex hybemis movii 
exercitum, regionein, qu» Gabaza appellatur, aditurus. Pri- 
mu8 dies quietnm iter prssbuit : proximus ei, nondum quidem 
prooellosus et tristis, obscurior tamen prislino, non sine 
minis crescentis mali prssteriit. Tertio ab omni parte codli 
emicare fulgura, et nunc intemitente luoe, nunc condit&, non 
oculos modb meantis exercittls, sed etiam animos ^terrere 
coeperunt. Erat prope continuus coeli fragor, et passim ca- 
dentium fulminum species yisebatur: attonitisque auribus 
stupens a^en, neo progredi, nee considere audebat. Tum 
repentd imber, grandinem incutiens, torrentis modo effundi- 
tur. Ac prim6 quidem armis suis tecti 'exceperant. Sed 
jam nee retinere arma lubricse et rigentes manus poterant, 
'nee ipsi destinare in quam regionem obverterent corpora, 
ei^m undique tempestatis yiolentia major, qu^m yitabatur, 
OGcurreret Ergd ordinibus solutis, per totum saltum erra- 


bnodum agmen ferebatar, mtiltiqiie {>rii!l8 metn quAm labore 
defatigati, prostrayerant humi ooqpora, ^quanqaam imbrem 
▼is ftigoris concreto gelu astrinzerat. Alii se stipitibus arb<^ 
ram admoveraDt: id plorimis adminicolam et snffugnim 
erat. 'Neo fallebat ipsos morti looam eligere, c^m im* 
mobiles yitalis oalor linqueret. Sed grata erat pigritia cor- 
porum fiatigatis, nee recusabant eztingai quiescendo. Qaippe 
non vehemens modd, sed etiam ' pertinax vis mali insistebat, 
^ luoemque, natnrale solatiamy praster tempestatem baud dis- 
parem nocti, sylvarum quoqne umbra suppresserat. 

15. Rex unu3 tanti mali patii&s, circumire milites, con- 
trabere disperses, allevare prostrates, ostendere procnl evola- 
tam ez taguriis fumum, bortariqae, ut prozima qus&que suf- 
fogia ooouparent. ' Nee nlla res magis salati fuit, qu4m qudd 
multiplicato labore snffioientem mails, qnibus ipu cesserant, 
Begem deserere erubescebant CaeterilLm effieaoior in adversis 
neeessitas, qnslm ratio, frigoris remedium inyenit Dolabris 
enim sylvas stemere aggressi, passim aceryos struesqne aoeen* 
derant. Continenti incendio ardere crederes saltnm, et yiz 
inter fiammas agminibus relictnm loeum. Hie ealor stnpentia 
membra ' eommoyit, panlatimque spiritns, qaem eontinnerat 
^^ rigor, meare libere coepit. Ezcep^re alios tecta Barbaro* 
mm, qusQ in ultimo saltu abdita neeessitas inyestigayerat ; 
alios castra, quse in bumido quidem, sed jam cobH miteseenie 
sseyitid, looayerunt. Mille militum atque lizarum oalonnm- 
que " pestis ilia eonsumpsit. Memorise proditum est quosdam 
applicatos arborum truncis, et non solium yiyentibus, sed et 
inter se ooUoquentibus similes esse conspectos ; durante ad- 
hue ^' babitu, in quo mors quemque deprehenderat Fort^ 
Maoedo gregarius miles, seque et arma ^' sustentans, tandem 
in eastra peryenerat. Quo yiso, Bez, quanquam ipse tunc 
mazim^ admoto igne refoyebat artus, ez 8ell& su& ezsiluit, 
torpentemque militem, et yiz compotem mentis, demptii 
armis, in su& sede jussit eonsidere. lUe diu, nee ubi requies- 
ceret, nee a quo esset ezoeptus, agnoyit. Tandem recepto 
oalore yitali, ut regiam sedem Begemque yidit, territos surgit. 


Qnem intaeiis Alexander, <^ Bcqtiid intdli^, miles," inquty 
^ quanto meliore sorte, qpkm PerssB, sub R^ vivatis ? illia 
«nim in selli Begia consedisae eapital foret, tibi aaluti foiK" 
Poatero die convocatia amioia ocq^iammque dudiboa, proBim- 
dari jnaait, ipsDin omnia qn» amiaaa eeaent redditarum ; '* ei 
promifiso fidea eztitit. Nam Syaimithres mnlta jumenta ei 
eameiomm duo milHa addnzit, peooraqne et anttenta, qim 
distributa, pariter militem et damno et lame 13>6rayenuit. 
" Rex gratiam aibi relatam a Systmitihre pnB&tos, aex dierom 
oocta cibaria ferre milites jusait, Sacaa petens : totam banc t^ 
gion^n depopnlatos, tri^ta millia pecorum ex pned^ Syai- 
mitbri dono dat 

16. Inde pervenit in re^onem, cni Oxysxtes Satiapea 
nobilia prs^erat, qui se Regis potestati fideiqne penniait. lUe 
imperio ei reddito, baud ampli^s, qpAm ut duo ex triboa 
filiis seemn miHtarent, ezegit. Satrapes etiam eum, qni penes 
ipsum relinqnebatar, tradit Barbarli opiil0nti& eonvivinmy 
quo R^em aocipiebat, instroxerat. Id cdm mnlt& comitate 
celebraret, introduci triginta nobilea virgines jussit. Inter 
qoas erat filia ipsins, Roxane nomine, eximi& corporis speeie 
et " decore babittis in Barbaris rara Quse, qnanqoim inter 
eleotas prooesserat, omnium tamen oculos oonyertit in se, 
maximd Regis, "miniis jam cnpiditatibus sois imperantia 
inter obseqnia fortonae, contra quam non satis cauta mor* 
talitas est. Itaqne iUe, qui uxorem Darii, qui duas filias vir* 
gines, quibus form4 prsoter Roxanem comparari nuUa poterat, 
baud alio animoquAm parentia aspexerat; ^'tuno in amorem 
virguncukB, si r^ies stirpi compararetur, ignobilis, iti effitaua 
est, ut diceret, ad stabiUendum regnum pertinere, Persaa et 
Maoedonas eonnubio jungi : boc uno mode et pudorem viotis, 
et snperbiam yictoribns detrabi posse: Adiillem quoque, a 
quo genua ipse deduceret, cum captiT4 coisse. Ne inferri ne&a 
arbitrarentur, ''it^ matrimonii jure Telle jungL Insperato 
gandio laetus pater, sermonem ejus excepit: et Rex medio 
enpiditatis ardore jussit afferri patrio more panem, (boo «rat 
apud Maoedonaa sanotisaimum coeuntium pignus) quem diTi* 


sum gladio uterque libabat. Oredo, eo8 qoi gentis mores con- 
diderant, paroo et parabili victa OBtendere Tolnkee ^° jungenti» 
bus tq>e8, qnantnlo conteati esse deberent. Hoo mode Be^ 
AsiaB et Borop», introdmetam inter conyiyales ludos matri- 
Bionio sibi adjmiziiy e captive genitoniB, qui yietoribiis iaor 
peraret. Pndebat amieos, super yiniua et epnlas socenun as 
deiitis esse eleotam. Bed post Gliti osedem libertate sublat&i 
voltu, '^qui mazimd servit, assentiebantur. 

y. 17. Oseter^m Indiam, et inde Oceanum petitoms, ne 
qidd a tergo, quod ^ destinata impedire posset, moTeretnri es 
ommbos provinoiis trigmta millia jnmonua legi jussit, ei 
ad se armata perduci, obsides simul habitiurus et militcs, 
Oratemm autem ad perseqaeBdos Haustaaem et OatenejH) qui 
ab ipso defeoeraat misit; qnonun Haustanes captus est, Oate- 
nes in pr»lio occisos. Polyspercon quoque regionem, qua» 
Babacene appellator, in ditionem redegit Itaque omnibus 
eompositis, oogitationes in bellum Indieom yertit. Diyes 
regie habebatur, non auro modd, sed gemmis quoque inai^ 
garitisque, ad 'luxum magis, qu^m ad magnifioentiam, es* 
oalta. * y iri equique militares auro et eb<nre f ulgere dieeban* 
tnr. Itaque, necubi yineeretur, ciim caeteris prsestaret, scutis 
argenteas laminas, equis frsenos aureos addidit; loricas quoque 
alias auro, alias argento ad<»iiayit. Centum yiginti miUia 
armatorum erant, quse Begem ad id bellum sequebantur, 
Jamque omnibus preeparatis, ^quod olim pray& mente con- 
ceperat, tune esse matumm ratus, quonam mode eodlestes 
hcmores usnrparet, ccepit agitare. Joyis filium non did tan- 
turn se, sed etiam credi yolebat, tanquam ^ perinde animis im« 
perare posset, ao liuguis. Itaque more Fersarum Macedomis 
*yenerabondos ipsum salutare, prostementes bum! corpora^ 
jussit. Non deerat talia oonoupisoenti perniciosa adulatii^ 
perpetuum malum B^gum, quorum opes snepicis assentatio 
qvtkm hostis eyertit. Nee Macedonum bseo erat culpa ^ (nemo 
enim illorum quidquam ex patrio more labare sustinuit), sed 
*Qr8Boorum, qui professionem * honestarum artiom mails oor- 
mperant moribus. 

LIBfi& Till. OAF* V. 19$ 

18. Agifl, qnidflem AfgmiB, (peaBtmosiim oanimBii '* poal 
Chceiilom oonditor,) et ex Sioilid Oleo, (Mo qnidem, noa inr 
geidi Bolilm, sed etiam naiioiiis Tstio, adolaAor,) et ontoim 
orbiiiBL Buaniiiai pufgamenta, qu» propinquis etiftm, maxisai»* 
ramqiie ezercituuin daoibas, a Bege pneferebaatnr; " hi tun 
ed&l»m Oli aperiebaat, Hercnlemqae et patrem Libenun, et 
emu Polluce Castorem novo numim " eessnroB ease jactabaati 
Igitar festo die omni opulentia conviTium ezonuuri jubet, ooi 
noa MacedoneB modd, et Oradoi prineipes amioomm, sed etiam 
Barbari nobiles adbiberentnr. Gmn quibus c^m disculwisr 
set Bex, paniic^r epulatus, conwio egreditor. Gleo, aioKt 
prseparavefat, senuonem com admiratione laudum ejus institiiiti 
Merita deinde porc^isait; quibus uao modo rd^erri gratift 
posset, si, quern intdUigerent Deum esse, eonfiterentur, exigui 
tiburis impens& tanta benefioia pensatori Persas quidam 
non pi6 solum, sed etiam prudenter, Beges suos inter Deoi 
oolere : '^ majestatem enim imperii, salutis esse totelam. Ne 
Hercolem qoidem et patrem Liberum {uius dicatos Deosi 
qodm yieissent ^^secum yiyentium invidiam. TantiSbaddeaa 
quoque posteros oredere, quanttm prsssens astas ^*8pq>oiidi»> 
set. Qu6d si csBteri dubitent, semetipmim, cum Bex inissat 
coBvivium, prostraturam humi corpus ; debere idem fiioere e»* 
teres, et in primis sapientii prseditos. Ab iUis enim cu]ti1« is 
Begem esse prodendum ex^nplom. 

19. Hand perplexd in Calistlienem dbrigebatur on^eu 
Gkavitas viri et ^'prompta libertas invisa erat Begi, quasi 
solus Macedonas paratos ad tale obsequium moraretor. Is 
turn, silentio facto, xmum ilium intoentibus cseteris, '^ Si Bex," 
inquit, <' sennoni tuo affiiisset, nullius pro£aot6 vox responanri 
tibi desideraretur. Ipse enim peteret, ne in peregrines extern 
nosque ritns degenerare se cogeres, neu rebus felieissimd geatis 
"invidiam tali aduiatione oontraheres. Sed quoniam abesl^ 
ego tibi pro illo respondeo. ^** Nullum esse eumdem et diutur* 
num, et prBeooeem fruetum : ccelestesque honores n(Hi dare te 
Begi, sed «oferre. intervallo ennn opus est, ut credatur 
Deus, semperque bane gratiam magnis viris posten xeddont. 


Bgo autem seram immortalitateiKL precor Begi, ui et vita diu- 
tarna sit, et aetema majestas. Hominem conseqnitur ali- 
qvando, nunquam comitatur divmitas. Heroulem " modo, et 
patrem Lib^om, consecratae immortalitatis ezempla, refere- 
bas. Gredisne illos unius conviyii deoreto Deos faetos? 
PriiiB ab oculis mortalhun amolita natnra est, quim in onltuit 
fiuna peryeheret. ^Scilicet ego et tu, Oleo, Deos faoimusl 
A nobis diyinitatis siise aactoritatem acoepturas est Eex! 
'^Potentiam toam experiri Ubet. Fao aliquem Begem, si 
Denm potes £ELCere. ^ Faciliiis est imperiam dare, qnim ood- 
Imii. ''Dii propitii sine inyidi^, qoas Oleo dixit, audierint^ 
eodemqne corsu, quo fluxdre adhuo res, ire patiantur : nostris 
moribos velint nos esse contentos. Non pudet patriae; neo 
desidero, ad quern modiun Bex mihi eolendus sit, a victis dis- 
eere. Qaos equidem victores esse eonfiteor, si ab ilHs leges, 
qseis yivamns, accipimTis." 

20. jSSquis auribus Calisthenes, veluti vindex publicsB 
libertatis, audiebatur. ^* Expresserat non assensionem modd, 
sed etiam vocem, senionim prsaeipnd, quibus gravis ^at inve- 
terati moris externa mutatio. Neo qnidquam '^eomrn, quss 
mTicem jaetata erant, Bex ignorabat, c^^ post aolasam, qu» 
leetos obdoxerat, staret. Igitur ad Agim et Gleonem misit, 
«t sermone finito, Barbaros tantilm, cilm intr&sset, prootunbere 
soo more paterentur. Et pauld post, ^' quasi potiora qiiaedam 
egisset, conTivium repetit. Quern venerantibus Persis, Polj- 
spercon, qui eubabat " super Begem, unum ex bis mento con- 
iiagentem iiumum per ludibrium ccepit hortari, ut y^e» 
moatiilLs id qoateret ad terram: eliouitque iram Alexandri, 
qiunn ^olim animo capere non poterat Itaque Bex, <'Tu 
autem," inquit, " non veneraberis me ? An tibi uni digni vide- 
nmr esse ludibrio ? " lUe " neo Begem ludibrio, nee se con- 
temptu dignum esse respondit. Tum detractum eum leotc 
Bex prsacipitat in terram. Etc^lm is pronus corruisset, 
'' Videsne," inquit, << idem te fecisse, quod in alio pauld antd 
ridebaa ? " Et tradi eo in custodiam jusso, oonviyium solyitp 
PeljapereonU quidem posted, oastigato diu, ignoyit 


VL 21. *In CaJiatheaem olim ooatvinaoli flu a pe o tiim, 

pervicacioris irsd fuit, cujus ezplendaB matara obyeait oooaaio. 
Mos erat (at supr^ dictum est) prineipibus Mao^onmoi 
adttltos liberos Regibos tradere, 'ad munia baud multi^ 
Bervilibos ministeriis abborrentia* Exoubabant, 'senratis 
noetiam vioibus, prozimi foribos ejus sedis, in qua Bex ao- 
quiescebat. lidem acceptos ab agasonibus eqaoS| cibn Bex 
aseensnrus esset, * admoyebant, comitabanturque et venantem, 
et in praeliis ; omnibus artibus studiorum liberalium excoliL 
Prsaeipuus honor babebatur, quod licebat sedentibus vesci oum 
Bege. Castigandi verberibus eos nullius potestas pr»tw 
ipsum erat. Hasc cobors velut seminarium ducum prsofeoto- 
rumque apud Macedonas fuit. Hinc hidmSre posteri B^ges, 
quorum ^ stirpibus post multas setates Bomani opes ademenmt. 
* Igitur HermolaQs, puer nobilis ex regid cohorte, ' dim aprum 
telo oocupasset, quem Bex ferire destinaverat, jussa ejus vmr* 
beribuB affeotus est. Quam ignominiam segre ferens, deflere 
apud Sostratum coepit. Ex eddem coborte erat Sostratos, 
amore ejus ardens : qui cihn laceratum * corpus, in quo de- 
peribat, intueretur, forsitan olim ob aliam quoque causam 
Begi infestus, juvenem sud sponte jam motom, datsl fide, ao* 
cept^ue perpulit, ut occidendi Begem consilium secum inireL 
Nee * puerili impetu rem exsecuti sunt : quippe solerter lege* 
runt, quos in societatem sceleris asciscerent: Nicostratom, 
Antipatrum, Asdepiodurumque, et Pbilotam placuit assuni. 
Per bos. adjecti sunt Antides, Elaptonius et Epimenes. 

22. CaBterum agendsd rei baud sane faeilis patebat via» 
Opus erat eadem omnes conjuratos noote excubare, ne ab ex- 
pertibus consilu impedirentur. Fort^ autem alius aliii noote 
excubabat. Itaque in permutandis stationum vicibus, osstero- 
que apparatu exsequendae rei, triginta et duo cUes absumpti 
sunt. Aderat nox, quS, conjurati excubare debebant, mattt& 
fide laeti, cujus documentum tot dies fuerant. Neminem 
metus spesve mutaverat; tanta omnibus vel in Begem iray 
yel fides inter ipsos fuit. Stabant igitur ad fores aedis ejus, in 
qusl Bex vescebatur, ut oonviyio egressum in cabioulum da* 


dnoerent. Sed fortnna ipsioB, simnlque epulantinm "oomiUis 
proyexit ournes ad largius Tinmn. Lndi etiam conviyales 
eztraz6re iempna : nuno Isotis conjaratis, quod sopitum aggres* 
snri essent : nuno sollioitis ne in luoem conyivioni extraliere- 
tar. Quippe alios in stationem oportebat primd luoe suoce- 
dere, ipsomm poet septem dies rediturd yiee. Neo sperare 
poterant, in illud tempns omnibus duraturam fidem. GaBteri\m, 
etim jam lux appeteret, et conyiyium solyitur, et oonjnrati 
ezceperont Regem Iseti occasionem exequendi sceleris ad- 
motam ; cdm mnlier " attonitse, ut creditnm est, mentis, " con* 
yersari in regid solita, quia ^ instinctu yidebatur fdtura prse- 
dicere, non occurrit mod6 abeunti, sed etiam semet objecit, 
yultnque et ooulis motum prseferens animi, ut rediret in con- 
yiyimn monuit ; et ille per ludum, bene Deos suadere, respon- 
dit : reyocatisque amicis, in horam diei fermd secundam oonyiyii 
tempus extrabit. 

23. Jam alii ex coborte in stationem successerant, ante 
oubiculi fores excubaturi. Adbuo tamen conjurati stabant, 
yioe officii sui explet^ : ade6 pertinax est spes, quam bu- 
muMd mentes foyerunt. Rex benigniiis qudm alids alio- 
eatus, discedere eos ad curanda corpora, quoniam tot& 
noote perstitissent, jubet : data sunt singulis quinquaginta 
sestertia: coUaudatis quoque quod etiam aliis traditd yice, 
tamen excubare perseyer^ssent. Illi tantS. spe destituti domes 
abennt : et cseteri quidem exspectabant stationis suse noctem ; 
Epimenes, siye comitate Regis, qu& ^* ipsum inter conjuratos 
exoeperat, repente mutatus; siye quia coeptis Deos obstare 
credebat, fratri suo Eurylocbo, quern antea expertem esse con- 
ailii yoluerat, quid pararetur, aperit. Omnibus Fbilotse sup* 
plieimn in oculis erat. Itaque protinQs injioit fratri manum, 
et in re^am peryenit: excitatisque custodibus corporis, ad 
salutem Regis pertinere, qu» afferret, affirmat Et tempus 
quo yenerant, et yultus baud sand securi animi index, et 
moestitia e duobus alterius, Ptolemaeum ao Leonatum, excu- 
bantes ad cubiculi limen, excitayerunt. Itaque apertis foribus 
et lamina illato, sopitum mero ac sonmo excitant Re^m. 


Ille, paulatim mente collects, quid afferrent, interrogai, Neo 
cimctatus Eurylochus, non ex toto domum suam ayersari 
Deos, dixit: quia frater ipsius, quanquam impium faoinus 
ausus foret, tamen et " pcenitentiam ejus ageret, et per ae 
potisfiimi!bu profiteretur indicium : in earn ipsam noctem, quai 
decederet, insidias comparatas fuisse. Auctores scelesti con- 
stlii esse, quos minimi crederet Bex. Turn Epimenes oonoti^ 
<mline, consciorumque nomina exponit. 

24. Calisthenem non ut participem facinoris nominatum 
esse constabat, sed ^' solitum puerorum sermonibus, vituper- 
antium criminantiumque Regem, faciles aures prasbere. Qui- 
dam adjiciunt, ci\ni HermolaCks apud eum quoque verberatttm 
86 a Bege quereretur, dixisse Calisthenem, meminisse debere 
eos jam viros esse. Idque an ^^ad consolandam patientiam 
verberum, an ad incitandum juvenum ^' dolorem dictum esset^ 
in ambiguo fuisse. Bex animi corporisque sopore disoussOy 
o^ra tanti periculi quod evaserat imago oculis oberraret, Eurj- 
locbum quinquaginta talentis, et cujusdam Tjridatis.opalenti 
bonis donat protiniis : fratremque, antequam pro salute ejua 
precaretur, restituit. Sceleris autem auctores, interque eos 
Calisthenem, yinctos asseryari jubet. Quibus in Begiam ad* 
ductis, toto die et nocte proximd mero ac yigiliis gravis ao- 
quievit. Postero autem die, frequens concilium adhibuit, coi 
patres propinquique eorum, " de quibus agebatur, intereraot^ 
ne de su^ quidem salute securi: quippe Macedonum moi^e 
perire debebant, omnium devotis capitibus, qui sanguine oon- 
tigissent eos. Bex introduci conjuratos, praster Calisthaodmy 
jussit : atque quas agitaverapt sine cunctatione confessi sunt. 
Increpantibus deinde universis eos, ipse Bex, ^^ quo suo merito 
tantum in semet cogitdssent facinus ? " interrogat, 

YII. 25. Stupentibus casteris, . Hermolaas, ^'No^ verd," 
inquit, " quoniam, quasi nescias, quaeris, occidendi te con^iliuia 
inivimus, quia non ut ^ ingenuis imperare ccepiati, sed quasi in 
Buuncipia dominaris." Primus ex omnibus pater ipsiuSi So- 
polis, parricidam etiam parentis sui olamitans esse, QonsQigi^ 
et ad 06 manu objeot&, acelere et malis insanientem iiltr4 


n^at audiendum. Bex, inhibito patre, dioere HermoIaQm 
jabet,qua9 ezmagistro didioisset Calisiihene. Et Hermolails, 
'^Utor," inqoit, "beneficio tuo, et dico quso nostris malis 
didicL 'Quota pars Macedonum ssBvitiad tase superest ? Quo- 
tus quidem non e vilissimo «anguine ? Attalus, et Philotas, 
et Parmenio, et Ljnoestes Alexander, et Clitus, 'quantum ad 
hostes pertinet, vivunt ; stant in acie, te clypeis suis prote- 
gunty et pro glorid tu^, pro victoria vulnera acoipiunt : quibuB 
tu egregiam gratiam retulisti. Alius mensam tuam sanguine 
8uo aspersit. Alius ne * simplici quidem morte defunctus est. 
Duces exercituum tuorum in equuleum impositi, Persis, quos 
yioerant, fuSre spectaculo. Parmenio, indicts caus^, truoi- 
datus est, per quern Attalum occideras. Invicem enim mise- 
rorum uteris manibus *ad expetenda supplicia. Et quos 
paul6 antd ministros caedis habuisti, subit6 ab aliis jubes tru- 
oidari." Obstrepunt deindd cUncti Hermolao. Pater supre- 
jsctasi strinxerat ferrum, percussurus baud dubi^, ni inhibitus 
esset a Bege : quippe Hermolatlm dicere jussit; petiitque, ui 
eausas supplicii augent^n patienter audirent. 

26. Mgr6 ergd co^roiUs, rurstls Hermolatts, " Qu4m 
liberaliter," inquit, ^' pueris rudibus ad dicendum agere per- 
mittis ! At Calisthenis vox caroere inclusa est, quia solus 
potest dicere. Cur enim non producitur, cum etiam confessi 
audiuntur? Nempd quia liberam vooem innocentis audire 
metuis, ac ne vultum quidem pateris. Atqui nihil earn feoisse 
contendo. Sunt hie qui mecum rem pulcberrimam oogitay- 
erant. Nemo est, qui consoium fuisse nobis Galisthenem 
dicat, c^m morti olim destinatus sit a ' justissimo et patien* 
tissisM Bege. ^ Hsdc ergo sunt Macedonum pra&mia, quorum 
ut supervacuo et sordido abuteris sanguine ! At tibi triginta 
millia mulorum captivum aurum vehunt, ciim milites nihil 
domum prseter ' gratuitas cicatrices relaturi sint Qu» tamea 
dmnia tol^rare potnimus, antequam nos Barbaris dederes, et 
' no¥0 more victores sub jugum mitteres. Persarum te vestia 
et disoiplina deleotat, patrios mores exosus es. Persarusi 
erg6, non Maoedonam Begem ocoidere yoluimus : et te trana» 


liigam, bolli jure, perseqaimnr. Tu Macedonas volnisti 
genua tifoi ponere, venerarique te ut Denm. Tu Phiiippum 
patrem "aversaris, et si quis Deorum ante Jovem haberetor, 
fastidires etiam Jovem. Miraris si liberi homines snperbiam 
tuani ferre non possumus ? Quid speramua ex te, quibas aut 
insontibus moriendum est, aut, quod tristius morte est, in 
senritute vivendum ? Tu quidem^ si emendari potes, multum 
mihi debes. Ex me enim scire coepisti quod ingenui homines 
ferre non possunt. De ea&tero parco his, quorum, orbam 
seneetutem suppliciis ne oneraveris. Nos jube "duci, ut 
qtiod ex tud morte petieramus, oonsequamur ex nostra." 
Hasc Hermolafis. 

VIII. 27. At Rex, " Quim falsa sint," inqnit, « quae 
iste tradita a magistro suo dixit, patientia mea ostendit. 
' Confessum enim ultimum fadnus, tamen ut vos quoque, noB 
solum ipse, audiretis, expressi; 'non imprudens, e^m per* 
misissem huic latroni dioere, usurum eum rabie, qu& com* 
pulsus est, ut me, quern parentis loco colore deberet, vellei 

'^Nuper cdm procacii)s se in venatione gessisset, more 
patrio, et ab antiquissimis Maoedonisd Begibns usurpato, casti* 
gari eum jussi. Hoc et oportet ferri, et ferunt a tutoribos 
pupilli, a maritis uxores : servis quoque pueros hujus «talis 
verberare concedimus. Haso est ssBvitia in ipsum mea, quam 
impi& csdde voluit ulcisci Nam in esotefros, qui mihi permii- 
tunt uti ingenio meo, qu^m mitis sim, non ignoratis, et com- 
memorare supervacuum est.'^ 

'' Hermolaoparricidarum supplicia non probari| ci&m eaden: 
ipse memerit, minime heroule «dmiror. Nam cdm Pannenio- 
nem et Philotam laudat, susb servit causflB. Lyneestem verd 
Alexandrum bis insidiatum capiti meo a dnobos indieiis libe- 
ravi. Bursi!U( convictnm, per bienninm tamen distnU^ donee 
vos postularetis ut tandem debito supplieio sedns lueret 
Attalum, antequ&m Bex esseni) hostem meo capiti fuisse me- 
ninistis. Clitus utinam non ooegissetme tihi kaaei: cujos 
temerariam linguam probra dicentis mihi et vobb, diuti^ tuli, 


qaiun ille eadem xne dicentem tolisset. Begam ducomqne 
clementia non in ipsomm modd, sed eiiam in illomniy qui 
parent) ingeniis sita est. Obseqoio mitigantur imperia : ubi 
▼ord reverentia ezcessit animis, et summa imis oonfnndimuSi 
vi opus esty ut vim repellamns." 

'^ Sed quid ego mirer, ' istum crudeHtatem mihi objecisse, 
qui ayaritiam ezprobrare ausus sit? Nolo singulos vestriim 
excitare, ne invisam liberalitatem meam faciam, si pudori 
vestro gravem fecero. Totum exercitum aspioite. Qui pauld 
antd nihil prsoter anna babebant, nunc argenteis cubant lectis, 
mensas auro onerant, greges servorum ducunt, spolia de bos* 
tibus sustinere non possunt." 

''At enim Pers», quos yioimus, in magno honore sunt 
apud me 1 Equidem moderationis me» certissimum indicium 
est, qu6d ne yictis quidem superbe impero. Yeni enim in 
Asiain, non ut funditills everterem gentes, nee ut dimidiam 
partem terrarum solitudinem facerem : sed ut illos, quos bello 
subegissem, victori» mead non posniteret. Itaque militant 
vobiscum, pro imperio vestro sanguinem fundunt, qui ^ superb^ 
habiti rebelUssent. Non est diuturna possessio, in quam 
gladio inducimur; beneficiorum gratia sempitema est. Si 
habere Asiam, ' non traneire volumus, cum his communicanda 
est nostra dementia. Homm fides stabile et sstemum faoiet 
imperium : et sane plus habemus, quim eapimus. Insatiabilis 
autem avaritia est, adhuc implore velle, quod jam oiroum- 

" ' Yerumtamen eorum mores in Macedoaas transfundo. 
In multis ^enim gentibus esse video qu» non erubescamus 
imitarL Nee alitor tantum imperium aptd regi potest, quloa 
ut quiedam et tradamos illis, et ab iisdem discamus." 

" Illttd pend dignum risu fuit, quod Hermolaua postulabat 
a me, ut aversarer Jovem, oujus oraoulo agnoscor. An etiam 
quid Dii veqiondeant, in me& potestate est ? ObtuUt nomen 
lilii mihi : * reoipere ipsis rebus, quaa agimus, baud alienum 
fait. Utinam Indi quoque Deum esse me oredaiit. Fami 


dilim bella oonstaBt, ^ et ssspe etiam quod falsd oreditimi esti 
yeri vicem obtinuit." 

' << " An me luzarisD indulgentem putatis anna vestra auro 
argentoque adornlusse ? Assaetis nihil vilins h&o videre ma- 
teria Yolui osiendere, Macedonas, inviotos oseterifl» ne auro 
quidem yinci. Ocnlos ergd primtlm eomm sordida omnia et 
Bumilia spectantium capiam, et docebo nos non aoii ant ar<* 
genii cupidos, sed orbem terramm sabactoroa yenisse. Quam 
gloriam tu, parricida, intercipere yoluisti, et Maoedonas, Bege 
adempto, devictis gentibus dedere." 

'^ At nnno mones me, ut yestris parentibus parcam. Noa 
oportebat qnidem yos scire, quid de his statmssem, qud tris- 
tiores periretis, si qna yobis parentam memoria et cora est. 
Sed olim istum morem occidendi cum soelestis insontes pro* 
pinquos par^ntesque ^^solyi: et profiteer in eodem honore 
futures omnes eos, in quo fuerunt." 

" Nam tuum Calisthenem, cui uni yir yideris, quia latro 
es, scio cur produci yelis ; ut coram his probra, quse modd in 
me jecisti, modd audisti, illius quoque ore referantur. Quem, 
si Macedo esset, tecum introduxissem, dignissimum te dis* 
cipulo magistrum. Nunc Olynthio non idem juris est." 

Post hseo concilium dimisit, tradique damnatos hominibus, 
qui ex eildem cohorte erant, jussit. Illi, ut fidem suam ssd* 
yitid. Regi approbarent, excruciates necayerunt. Calisthenes 
quoque tortus interiit, ^initi consilii in caput Kegis innoxius: 
sed haudquaquam aulao et '* assentantium accommodatus in* 
genio. Itaque nullius caedes majorem apud Grsecos Alex- 
andre excitayit inyidiam, quod prseditum optimis moribus 
artibusque, a quo reyocatus ad yitam erat, c^m interfecto 
Clito mori perseyeraret, non tantiim oociderit, sed etiam 
torserit, indicts quidem causd. Quam crudelitatem sera 
pcenitentia consecuta est. 

IX. 28. Sed ne otium ferendis rumoribus natum aleret, 
in Indiam moyit, semper belie qakm post yiotoriam clarior. 
* India tota ferme spectat Orientem, miniis in latitudinem 
qu^m rectd regione spatiosa. ^ Quad Austrum aocipiunt, in 


altius terrse fastiginm ' ezoeduBt. Plana stmt <!8etera, mnlMs* 
que indytis amnibus * Caucaso monte ortis, placidom per 
oampoB iter prs&bent. Indas gelidior est, qa^m cssteri. 
Aquas vebit a colore maris baud maltmn abhorrentes. 
Ganges amnis ab ortu eximius, ad meridianam regionem de- 
oonit, et magnomm montium juga recto alveo 'stringit. 
Inde enm objeotsB rapes inclinant ad Orientem. Utqtie rabro 
mari accipitur, ' findens ripas, mnltas arbores cum magn^ soli 
parte exsorbet. Saxis quoque impeditus crebr6 reverberatur. 
Ubi moUius solum reperit, stagnat, insulasque molitur. 
Acesines Indum auget : decursurum in mare intercipit : mag- 
noque motu amnis uterque coUiditur. Quippe aspernm os 
influcnti objicit; nee reperoussas aquas cedunt. Dyardenea 
mini\s celeber auditu est, quia per ultima Indian currit. 
CaBten\m non crocodiles mod6, uti Nilus, sed etiam delphines, 
ignotasque aliis gentibus belluas alit. Erimanthus crebjid 
flexibus subinde curvatus ab accolis rigantibus carpitur. Ea 
eausa est, cur tenues reliquias jam sine nomine in mare emit- 
tat. Multis praeter hos amnibus tota regie dividitur, sed ig- 
nobilibus, ^ quia non ade6 interfluunt. 

29. Caeteriim quae propiora sunt mari, Aquilones max- 
ime deurunt. li, cobibiti jugis montium, ad interiora non 
penetrant, ita alendis frugibus mitia. Sed ade6 in ilU plag& 
mundus statas temporum vices mutat, ut cdm alia fervore 
solis exasstuant, Indiam nives obruant : rursdsque ubi cao- 
tera rigent, illic intolerandus aestus existat : neo aperuit 
se naturae causa. Mare certd, quo alluitur, ne colore 
quidem abhorret a caeteris. Ab ErythrS. Bege inditum est 
nomen, propter quod ignari rubere aquas credunt. Terra 
lini ferax : indd plerisque sunt vestes. ^ Libri arbornm teneri, 
baud seciis qu^m chartae, litterarum notas capiunt. Aves ad 
imitandum bumanae yocis sonum deciles sunt : animalia inusi- 
tata caeteris gentibus, nisi invecta. Eadem terra rhinocerotas 
alit, ' non generat. Elepbantorum major est vis, quam quos 
in Afriod domitant ; et viribus magnitude respondet. Aurum 
flnmina vehont, quae leni modicoque lapsu segnes aquas da-. 


mM. QeaoDM maigMitasqiie xnare littpriboB infuadit» 

Neqne alia illis major opalentiaa " causa est, " utique post- 
qaam vitioniiii commercittm Tulgay^re in ezteras gentes: 
quippe SQStimantnr purgamenta aostuantis freti pretio quod 
"libido constittiit. Iiigenia hominum, sicutubiqae, apud illos 
locomm qnoqne situs format. Corpora usque pedes carbaso 
yelant. Soleis pedes, capita liuteis viuciunt. Lapilli ex 
auribus pendent : brachia quoque, et laoertos auro " colunt| 
qnibus inter populares aut nobilitaa aut opes eminent. ^* Ca* 
pillum peotunt saepii&s quam tondent : mentum semper inton< 
sum est. Beliquam oris cutem ad speciem IcYitatis ex»- 

30. Regum tamen '4uxuria, quam ipsi magnifioentiaoi 
appellant, supra omnium gentium yitia. Cika Bex se in pub^ 
lico conspid patitur, thuribula argentea ministri ferunt, totnm* 
que iter, per quod ferri destinavit, odoribus complent. Aure& 
lectica margaritis ciroumpendentibus recubat. *'Distincta 
sunt auro et purpura carbasa, quae indutus est : lecticam se- 
quuntur armati corporisque custodes. Inter quos ramis ayes 
pendent, quas cantu seriis rebus obstrepere docuerunt. Begia 
^'auratas columnas habet; totas eas yitis '^auro caelata pep- 
enrrit, ayiumque, quarum yisu maxime gaudent, argente» 
effigies opera distingunt. Begia adeuntibus patet. Cdm 
capiUum pectit atque omat, tunc responsa legationibus, tanq 
jura popularibus reddit. Demptis soleis, odoribus illinuntur 
pedes. " Yenattis maximus labor est, inclusa yiyario ani- 
malia inter yota cantusque pellicum figere. Bintim cubitorum 
sagittsB sunt, quas emittunt majore nixu quslm e£fectu : quippe 
telum, cujus in leyitate yis omnis est, ^ inbabili pondere one- 
ratur. Breyiora itinera equo conficit. Longior ubi expeditio 
est, elephanti yehunt currum, et tantarum belluarum corpora 
tota contegunt auro. Ac ne quid perditis moribus desit, leo- 
ticis aureis pellicum longus ordo sequitur. Separatum a 
Beginad ordine agmen est, sequatque luxurid. Fceminaa epulas 
parant. Ab iisdem yinum ministratur, cujus omnibus Indis 
largus est usus. Begem nuvo somnoque sopitum, in cubi« 


ealTua pellioefi refenmt, patrio carmine nootium i&yooaiiteB 

31. Qtds credat inter Iubc ritia ouram esse sapientiaB? 
Unmn agreste et horridnm genus est, quos Sapientes vocanl 
Apud hos '^ occnpare fati diem, ptdchrom ; et yivos se cre- 
mari jabent, quibns ant " segnis setas, ant incommoda vale* 
tudo est: ^'expectatam mortem pro dedecore yitse habent. 
Neo nllns corporibns, qnsd senectns solvit, honos redditor. 
Inqninari putant ignem, nisi qni spirantes recipit. ^ Illi qui 
in nrbibus pnblicis moribns degnnt, siderom motns scite 
spectare dicnntur, et fntura prsedicere. ^ Nee quemquam ad- 
movere lethi diem credunt, cui exspectare interrito liceat. 
Deos pntant, qnidqnid colere ooeperunt : arbores mazime, qnas 
yiolare capital est. Menses in qninos denos descripserunt 
dies. ^ Anni plena spatia servant Lmi» onrsa notant tem- 
pera, non nt pleriqne, ctlm orbem sidus implevit, sed dim 
se cnrvare coepit in comua; et idcirco breviores habent menses, 
qni spatinm eornm ad bnnc Lunse modum dirignnt. Mnlta et 
alia tradnntnr, quibusmorari ordinem remm hand sane "operas 
pretinm videbatnr. 

X. 32. 'Igitur Alexandre fines Indise ingresso gaitinm 
suamm Eeguli occurreront, imperata factnri: ilium tertium 
Jove genitum ad ipsos peryenisse memorantes : Patrem Libe- 
rum, atque Herculem fam& cognitos esse : ipsum coram adesse 
cemique. Rex benigne exceptos sequi jussit, ' iisdem itine- 
rum dncibus usurus. Casteri^ ciim amplii\s nemo occurreret| 
Hephasstionem et Perdiocam cum copiarum parte prsemisity 
ad subigendos, qui ayersarentur imperium : jussitque ad flumen 
Indum procedere, et nayigia facere, quels in ulteriora tran- 
sportari posset exercitus. Illi, quia plura flumina superanda 
erant, sic junx^re naves, ut solutas plaustris vehi possent, 
rursusque conjungL Post se Cratero cum phalange jusso 
sequi, equitatum ac levem armaturam eduxit, eosque qui 
occurrerant, levi prselio in urbem proximam compulit. ' Jam 
supervenerat Craterus. Itaque ut principio terrorem incuteret, 
genti, nondum arma Macedonum expertse, praecipit ne cui 


paroeretnr ; munimentiB urbis, quam obsidebat, inoeosis. Cso- 
tetitia dam obeqnitabat mcBmbus, 6agitt& iotas est. Gepit 
tamen oppidun, et omnibos incolis ejus tmcidatis, etiam in 
tecta sseTitom est. Ind^ domita ignobili gente, ad Nysam 
nrbem perveoit Forte oastris ante moDnia ipsa in sjlvestri 
loco positis, noctnmnm frigas yehementins qnam ali^s horrore 
corpora affecit, ^ opportnnumque remedium ignis oblatum 
est. GsBsis qnippe sylvis flanunam exoitaverunt : qu» lig&is 
alita oppidanormn sepolchra comprehendit. Yetustd cedro 
facta eraat, conceptumqne ignem late fud^re, donee omnia 
solo SBqnata sunt. Et ez nrbe primum cannm latratos, 
d^dd etiam hominnm fremitus auditas est. Tom et op- 
pidani bostem, et Macedonas ipsos ad nrbem vemsse oqg- 

33. Jamque Rex ednzerat copias, et moenia obsidebat, 
*cfbn hostinm, qui disorimen tentaverant, obroti telis sunt. 
AHis ergo deditionem, aliis pugmun experiri plaoebat : quo- 
nun dubitatione compertd, circumsideri tanti\m eos, et absti- 
neri csBdibus jussit. Tandemque obsidionis malis fatigati 
dedid^re se. A Libero patre conditos se esse dicebant ; et 
vera base origo erat Sita est sub radicibus montis, quern 
Meron incolas appellant. Inde Grseci mentiendi trax^re lioen 
tiam, Jovis femine Liberum patrem esse celatnnu Bex, situ 
montis cognito ez incolis, cum toto exercitu, pnemissis com* 
meatibus, verticem ejus asoendit. Multa bedera yitisque toto 
gignitur monte. Multas perennes aquce manant. * Pomorum 
quoque yarii salubresque succi sunt, susl sponte ^ fortuitorum 
aeminum fruges humo nutriente. Lauri, baccarisque multa 
in iilis rupibus agrestis est sylya. Credo equidem non diyino 
instinctu, sed lasciyilL esse proyectos, ut passim hederse ac 
yitium folia deeerperent, redimitique fronde toto nemore 
similes bacchantibus yagarentur. Yocibus erg6 tot millium, 
praosidem nemoris ejus Deum adorantium, juga montis colles- 
que resonabant, ci\m orta licentia a paucis (ut fere fit) in 
omnes se repents yulgdsset. Quippe, yelut in medi^ pace, 
per herbas congestamque frondem, prostrayerant corpora. Et 


Bex " fortnitam lastitiam non aversakis, large ad epiilas omni- 
bus praebitis, per deoem dies ' Libero patri operaium habuib 
exercitnm. Quis neget eximiam quoque gloriam '^sadplus 
fortunse quim virtutis esse b^ieficiom ? quippe ne epulaoteB 
qnidem et sopitos mero aggredi aosns est hostis ; baud seotts 
bacohantinm ultdantiumque fremitu perterritus, quibu si pr»- 
liantium clamor esset anditus. Eadem felicitas ab Ooeaao 
reyertentes temulentos commessantesque ^^ inter ora bostiom 

34. Hinc ad regionem, quas Dsedala rocatur, perventcmi 
est. Deseruerani incolse sedes, et in avios sylvestresqae montes 
confugcrant. Erg6 Acadera transit, seque nsta et destituta 
incolentiom fag^. Itaque rationem belli neoessitas mutaTit. 
Divisis enim copiis, pluribus simul locis arma ostendit: op- 
pressique, ubi non exspectaverant bostem, onrni clade perdo- 
miti sunt. Ptolemssus plurimas nrbes, Aleiumder maximas 
cepit: rarsi\sqae qnas diistribnerat copias junxit. Siq>erato 
deindd Ghoaspe amne, Go&non in obsidione urbis opulent» 
(Beziram incolae yocant) reliquit. Ipse ad Mazagas venity 
nuper Assaeano (cujus regnum fiierat) demortuo. Begioni 
quoque urbique praserat mater ejus Oleopbes. Triginta millia 
peditum tuebantur urbem, non situ solium, sed etiam opere 
munitam. Nam qud spectat Orientem, dngitur amne t(n> 
renti, qui prseruptis utrinque rupibus aditum ad urbem inip&- 
dit. Ab Ocoidente et a Meridie, velut de industri^ rapes 
pra9altas admolita natura est, infra quas cavemse et yoragtnes 
longS. yetustate in altum oayatsd jaoent : qu^ue desinunt, fossa 
ingentis operis objecta est. Trigmta quinque stadiCim munu 
urbem complectitur, cujus inferiora saxo, superiora crndo latere 
sunt structa. " Lateri yinculum lapides sunt, quos inters 
posuSre, ut duriori materisB fragilis inoumberet: simulque terr& 
humore dilutd, ne tandem "uniyersa consideret, interposifcn 
erant trabes yalidse, quibus injecta tabulata nuiros et tegebant, 
et peryios feeerant. 

* 35. Hsec munimenta contemplantem Alexandrom, ooi^ 
siliique inc^ertum (quia nee oayemas, nisi aggere poterat h 

LIBS& Till. CAP. ZI. 203 

plere, img tormenia alitw mnris admovere) nmdam e mmo 
Bagitt& p^rcDSsit. ^^ Turn forte in sturam inoidit telum, cajw 
spicnlo evHlso admoyeri eqauin jiiBsit : quo yeotus, ne oUigato 
qmdem vnlnere, haud segniiks destinata exsequebator. Ca»- 
tenbn cum cms sanoimn penderet, et craore siocato firigesceng 
▼olnos aggrayaret dol<Mreiii, dixisse fertor: Be quidem Joyis 
filinm diei, sed oorporis segri yitilt sentire. Non tamen ante 
se recepit in castra, qn^ ooncta prospezit, et qn» fieri 
yellet, edudt. Ergd, sicut imperatmn erat, alii extia nrbem 
teeta demoliebentnr, ingentemqae yim materi» faciendo aggeri 
detrakebani; alii magnanim arborum stipitea cum ramia 
ac moles aaxoram in cayenias dejioiebant. Jamqoe agger 
aeqaayerat gnnnna» faatigium terrae. Itaqne tnrres erigeban- 
tnr: qiue opera ingenti militum ardore intra nonnm diem 
absolnta sont. Ad ea yisenda Bex, nondnm obduetd yuhieri 
cicatrice, procel»it : landatisqne militibna, admoyeri machinaa 
josait, e qmbns ingens yis telorom in propognatores efiiiaa 
est. Prsecipud rudes talimn openim terrebant. mobiles turres : 
tantasqne moles, nnll& ope, qmas oemeretor, addactas, Deorom 
nnmine agi credebant. Pila quoque mnralia, et excussas tor^ 
mentis prasgrayes hastas, ^^negabant conyenire mortalibus. 
Itaqne desperate, nrbis tutel^ concessSre in areem. Inde, quia 
nibil obsessis praeter deditionem placebat, kgati ad Begem 
dese^iderunt, yeniam petitnri. Qua impetratd, Begina cum 
magno nobilium foeminarum grege, aureis pateris yina libash 
tium, prooesnt. Ipsa genibus Begis paryo filio admoto, noa 
yeniam mod5, sed etiam pristinsd fortun» impetrayit decus: 
quippe appellata est Begina; et credid^re quidam, plus form» 
qu&m miserationi datum. Puero quoque certe, postea ex ek 
utcumque gi^dto, Alexandre fuit nomen. 

XI. 36. Hinc Polysperoon ad urbem Noram cum exercitu 
missus, inconditos oppidanos prs^o yicit: intra munimenta 
compulses secutus, urbem in ditionem redegit. Multa ignobilia 
oppida deserta a suis yendre in Begis potestatem. Quorum 
incoks armati, petram Aornin nomine occupayerunt. Hano 
ab Her<mle frustri obsessam esse, terneque motu coactum 


absistere, fiima vuIgaTerat. Inopmii oodmIu Alexaadnun, 
quia undiqae prsBceps et abmpta rapes erat, ' senior qnicUaa 
perituB locoram oum duobos iiiiis adiit, 'si preiiam operi 
esset, aditam se monstratnnim esse promittens. Ociogiiita 
talenta constitmt daturam Alexander, et altero ez jnyenibus 
obside retento, ipsnm ad exseqnenda, quaa obtulerat, dimisik 
Leyiter annatis dux datus est Mollinus scriba Begis. Hos 
enim eironitn, quo fallerent hostem, in summum jngam place- 
Vat eradere. Petra non ut plerseque modiois ac mollibus 
elivis in snblime fastiginm crescit, sed in 'meiM» maximd 
modnm erecta est: enjus ima spatiosiora sunt, aUiora in 
arctios ooeant, snmma in aoutum oacomen exsurgnnt. Ba- 
dices ejns Indus amnis snbit, prsealtus utrinque asperis ripis. 
Ab altera parte, * Yoragines eiuviesque prsernpt» sunt ; neo 
alia expugnandi patebat via, quim ut replerentur. Ad ma- 
num sjlxa erat, quam Bex ita oasdi jussit, ut nudi stipites 
jaoerentur : quippe rami fronde vestiti impedissent ferentes. 
Ipse primus *trnnoam arborem jeoit, clamorque ezeroitus 
index alacritatis seoutus est, " nuilo detreotante munus, quod 
Bex occupdsset. 

37. Intra septimum diem cavemas ezplererant, c^m Bex 
Sagittarios et Agrianos jubet per ardua nitL Juyenesque 
fortissimos ex su& cohorte tringinta delegit. Duces his dati 
sunt Obarus, et Alexander, quem Bex nominis, quod sibi cum 
eo commune esset, admonuit. Ac primd, quia tam manifes- 
tum periculum er at, ipsum Begem discrimen subire non ^ pla- 
cuit. Sed ut signum tubd datum est, yir audaci» promptad, 
oonyersus ad eorporis custodes, sequi se jubet, primusque in- 
yadit in rupem. Neo deindd quisquam Macedonum substitit^ 
relictisque stationibus su& sponte Begem sequebantur. Mai- 
torum miserabilis fait casus ; quos ex pr(erupt& rnpe lapses 
amnis praeterfluens hausit "Triste speetaculum etiam non 
periclitantibus. G^Lm yero alieno exitio, quid ipsis timendum 
foret, admonerentur, in metum misericordi^ yers&, non ex- 
tinctos, sed semetipsos deflebant. Et jam e6 peryentum erat, 
trade sine pernioie, nisi yictores, redirc non possent ; ingentia 

I.IBBK Till. CAP. XI. 205 

Bttza in sabeuntes provolyentibos Bftrbaris; qneis perenlri, 
instabili et Inbrieo gradu piascipites recidebant. * ETaseraiii 
tamen Alexander et Obarns, quoB enm triginia delectis prso- 
miserat Rex, et jam pngnase oomintis cceperant. Sed eiim 
snpem^ tela Barbari in^^ererent, ssepids " ipsi feriebantur qndoi 
vlerabaat. £rg6 Se^mde; «t no JL sui, et proL»i 
memor, di^m aoriiis qakm oantiiis dimicat, oonfossos nndiqud 
obruitur. Quern at Gharas jaoentem oonspexit, raere in bofl- 
tei^, omnium prsster nltionem immemor, coepit; multoaqoA 
bast&, qnosdam gladio interemit. Sed oum tot nnnm inoea- 
sereut manns, super amici corpus procubuit exanimis. Hand 
seci\s qufUn par erat promptissimoram juvenum oadterorom- 
|ue militnin interitu eommotus Bex, signum reoeptui dedii 
Saluti fdit, quod sensim et intrepidi se receperunt. Et Bar- 
bari hostem depulisse oontenti non institere cedentibus. 

38. Gssteri^m Alexander, oiim statuisset desistere incepto, 
(quippe nulla spes potiundas petrsa offerebatur), tamen speciem 
ostendit in obsidione perseyeranlis. Nam et itinera obsideri 
jussit, et turres admoveri, et fatigatis alios suocedere. Oujus 
pertinaci^ oogniti,, Indi per biduum quidem, ac duas noctes, 
earn ost^itadone non fiducue mod5, sed etiam yictorisD^ 
epulati sunt, tympana suo more pulsantea Terti4 verd noete 
tjmpanomm quidem strepitus desierat audiri: cseterihn ex 
totd petrik faces refnlgebant, quas accenderant Barbari, ut 
tutior esset ipsis fc^a, obscurd^ nocte per inyia saxa cur- 
Buris. Rex, Balacro qui specnlaretor prsemisso, cognosoit 
petram fugi indorum esse desertam. Turn dato signo ut uni- 
yersi conclamarent, inoomposite fugientibus metum inoussit^ 
multiqne (tanquim adesset hostis) per lubrica saxa, perque 
inyias cotes prsecipitati oociderunt. Plures aiiqud membrorum 
parte mulctati ab integris deserti sunt. Rex, locorum magis 
qndm bostium yictor, ^^ tamen magnaa yictorisB sacrificiis et 
oultu Dei\m satisfecit. Arse in petr4 locatse sunt Mineryae 
yietorinque. IhidbuB itiaeris, qud subire jusserat leyiter 
annates, etsi promissis minora prsestiterant, pretium cum 


fide redditum est Petr», regiooiflque ei adjnnetas, Siaocoeto 
tutela permissa. 

XII. 39. Inde prooessit Embolima, et oxim aagostias 
iiineris obsideri yiginti millibus armatorum ab Eryce quodam 
oomperkset, ^ gravius agmen exeroitus Ooeno ducendum ' mo- 
diois itineribus tradidit. Ipse prasgressns cum fimditore ao 
sagittario, deturbatis qui obsederant saltum, sequentibus ae 
copiis Tiam fecit. Indi sive odio ducis, sire gratsam victoria 
Regis iuituri) Erycem fugientem adorti iuteremerunt, caput- 
que ejus atque arma ad Alexaudrum detulerunt Ille facto 
impunitatem dedit, honorem denegayit ezemplo. Hinc ad 
fiumen Indum sextis decimis castris p^venit, onmiaque (ut 
preeceperat) ad trajiciendum prseparata ab HephsBStione re- 
perit. ' Begnabat in e& regione Ompbis, qui * patri quoque 
fuerat auotor dedendi reguum Alexandre. Et post mortem 
parentis legates miserat, qui consulerent eum, regnare se in- 
terim vellet, an privatum opperiri ejus adventum ; ^ permis- 
soque ut regnaret, non tamen jus datum usurpare sustinuit. 
Is benigne quidem exceperat Hepbaestionemy gratuitum fm- 
mentum copiis ejus admensus : " non tamen ei oocurrerat, ne 
fidem ulliiis, nisi Regis, experiretur. Itaque venienti obvi^m 
cum armato exercitu egressus est. Elephanti quoque, per 
modica intervalla militum agmini immixti, procul eastellorum 
£scerant speciem. 

40. Ac prim6 Alexander, non socium, sed hostem adven- 
tare credebat. Jamque et ipse arma milite» oapere, ct 
equites discedere in comu jusserat, paratos ad pugnam. At 
Indus, cognito Macedonum errore, jussis subsistere oseterisi 
ipse concitat equum, quo yebebatur. Idem Alexandw quoque 
fecit ; sive hostis, sive amicus ocourreret, ^ vel su^ virtute, vel 
illius fide tutus. Coi'vere, quod ex utriusque vultu poaset 
intelligi, amicis animis : csdterdm sine interprete non poterat 
oonseri sermo. Itaque adhibito eo, Barbaras ooeurrisee se 
dixit cum exercitu, totas imperii vires protinils traditurum ; 
nee expect&sse dum per nuncios daretur fides. Corpus suum 
et regnnm permittere illi, quem sciret * glorise nulitantem : 


nihil magis qa^m fimiam timere peifidisd. LsBtus * simplioi* 
tale Barbari Bex et dextram fidei 8089 pignus dedit, et reg- 
num restituit. Qainquaginta sex elephant! erant, qnos tra- 
didit Alexandro, multaqvie pecora eximise magnitudinis. 
^^ Taaros ad tria millia, pretiosum e^ regioue, acceptumque 
animis regnantimn arm^tam. Quserenti Alexandro, plores 
agricultores haberet, an milites ? '' com duobns Begibus bel* 
lanti sibi, majore militum quam ^^estiom manu opus esse," 
respondit. Abisares et Poms erant, scd in Poro eminebat 
auctoritas. Uterqne ultra Hydaspen amnem regnabat; et 
belli fortanam, quisquis arma inferret, experiri deoreverat. 

41. Omphis, permittente Alexandro, et regium insigne 
snmpsit, et more gentis suae, nom^i quod patris fuerat. Tax- 
ilem appellay^re popalares, "^ seqnente nomine imperium, in 
qaemcamque transiret. Erg6 cum per tridmun hospitaliter 
Alexandram accepisset, quarto die, et quantum frumenti 
oopiis, quas Hephaestion duxerat, prsobitum a se esset, ostea- 
dit : et aureas coronas ipsi, amicisque omnibus, prseter hseo 
signati argenti octoginta talenta dono dedit. Qu& benignitate 
ejus Alexander mird lastus, et quse is dederat remisit, et mille 
talenta ex praodd, quam vehebat, adjecit : multaque convi- 
TaHa ex auro et argento Tasa, plurimum Persic» Testis, tri- 
ginta equos ex suis, cum iisdem "insignibus queis assueve- 
raut, ciim ipsum veherent. Qu» liberaUtas, sicut Barbarum 
adstrinxerat, ita amicos ipsius vehementer offendit E quibus 
Meleager super coenam largiore vino usus, gratulari se Alex- 
andro dixit, quod saltem in Indid reperisset dignum talentis 
mille. Bex baud obUtus quam »grd tulisset, qu6d Olitum 
ob lingusB temeritatem occidisset, iram quidem tenuit, sed 
dixit, '^ Inyidos homines nihil aliud quam ipsorum esse tor- 

XIII. 42. Postero die, legati Abisarsa adidre Begem: 
omnia ditioni ejus, ita ut mandatum erat, permittebant ; fir* 
mat&que invicem fide remittuntur ad Begem. Porum quoque 
nominis sni fama ratus ad deditionem posse compelli, misit ad 
9nm Cleocharem, qui denunciaret ei, ut stipendinm penderet. 


et in primo finhim saomm aditu occurreret Begi. Poms 
altemm ex his facturam sese respondit, ' ut intranti regnuis 
suuin pr8Bst6 esset, sed armatus. Jam Hydaspem Alexander 
superare decreverat, cum ' Barzaentes defectionis Araohosiis 
auctor, yinctus, trigintaque elephanti simul capti perducnntur ; 
opportunum adversils Indos auxilium, quippe plus in belluis 
qudm in exercitu spei ao virium illis erat. Gamaxusque Bex 
exigusd partis Indorum, qui Barzaenti se conjunxerat, yinctus 
adductus est. Igitur transfugSi et regulo in custodiam, ele- 
phantis autem Taxili traditis, ad amnem Hydaspem peryenit : 
in oujus ulteriore ripd Porus consederat, transitu probibi- 
turns hostem. Octoginta quinque elephantos objecerat ex- 
imio corporum robore ; ultraque eos, currus trecentos et pedi- 
tum triginta fer^ millia : in queis erant sagittarii (sicut ante 
dictum est) 'grayioribus telis, qudm ut apte excuti possent. 
Ipsum yehebat elepbantus super caeteras belluas eminens : 
armaque auro et argento distincta corpus raras magnitudinis 
bonestabant. Par animus robori corporis, et, quanta inter 
rudes poterat esse> sapientia. 

43. Macedonas non conspectus bostium soliim, sed etiam 
fluminis, quod transeundum erat, magnitude terrebat. Qua- 
tuor in latitudinem stadia diffusum profundo alyeo et nus- 
quam yada aperiente, speciem yasti maris fecerat. * Neo pro ^ 
spatio aquarum latd stagnantium impetum coercebat; sed 
quasi in arctum coeuntibus ripis, torrens, et elisus ferebatur : 
occultaque saxa inesse ostendebant pluribus locis undsB re- 
percussas. Terribilior erat facies ripae, quam equi yirique 
compleyerant. Stabant ingentes yastorum corporum moles^ 
et de industrili. irritataa, horrendo stridore aures fatigabant. 
Hinc hostis, bine amnis ^ capacia quidem bonas spei pectora, 
ct saspe se experta, improyiso tamen payore percusserant : 
quippe instabiles rates, nee dirigi ad ripam, nee tutd applicari 
nosse credebant. Erant in medio -amne insulaa crebrad, in 
quas Indi et Macedones nantes, leyatis super capita armis, 
transibant. Ibi 'leyia praelia conferebant, et uterque Bex 
^ parvao rei disorimine summas experiebatur eyentum. Gaete- 


rtaa in Macedonam ezeroitu temeritate atqne andacii insignes 

fn^re Simmachns et Nicanor, nobiles juyenes, et perpetoli 
'partinm felicitate ad spernendam omne pericnlum aocensi. 
Queis ducibus promptissimi juvenum lanceis mod6 armati 
transnay^re in insulam, quam frequens bostis tonebat ; mnl- 
tosque Indornm, null& re magis qudm andaci^ armati, inter- 
emenint. Abire oum glorid poterant, * si unquam temeritas 
feliz inveniret modum. Sed dam snpervenientes contemptim 
et snperbe qnoque exspectant, circnmyenti ab bia qui occulti 
enatayerant, eminils obrati telis sunt. Qui effugerant bostem, 
aut impetu amnis ablati sunt, aut yorticibus impliciti. 
Eaque pngna multQm fiduciam Fori erexit, cuncta cementis e 

44. Alexander inops consilii, tandem ad fallendum bos*, 
tem ^^ talem dolum intcndit. Erat insula in flumine amplior 
eseteris, sylyestris eadem, et tegendis insidiis apta. Fossa 
quoque praealta baud procul a ripd, quam tenebat ipse, non 
pedites mod6, sed etiam cum equis yiros poterat abscondere. 
XJt igitur " a custodid bujus opportunitatis oculos bostium 
ayerteret, Ptolenueum cum omnibus turmis obequitare jussit 
procul ab insult, et subindd Indos clamore terrere, quasi 
flumen transnaturus foret. Per complures dies Ptolemasus id 
fecit, eoque consilio Porum quoque agmen suum ei parti, 
quam se petere simulabat, coegit adyertere. Jam extra con- 
spectum bostis insula erat. Alexander in diyers& parte rip» 
statui suum tabemaculum jussit, assuetamque comitari ipsum 
cobortem ante id tabernaculum stare, et omnem apparatum 
regias magnificentise bostium oculis de industrili ostendi. 
Attalum, et " sequalem sibi, et baud disparem babitu oris et 
corporis ^* (utique cdm procul yiseretur) yeste regid exomat, 
prsebiturum speciem ipsum Kegem illi ripae prsssidere, nee 
agitare de transitu. Hujus consilii effectum prim6 morata 
tempestas est, mox adjuyit: incommoda quoque ad bonos 
eyentus yertente fortund. Trajioere amnem cum casteris 
oopiis ^* in regionem insulae (de qua antd dictum est) parabat ; 
^* ayerso boste in eos, qui cum Ptolems&o ^* inferiorem obsedo- 


rani ripam : odm proeella imbrem yiz wah taetis tolerabStom 
efiiidit, obrutique milites nimbo in terrain refhgemnt, nayi- 
giis ratibusque desertis. S^d tomnltaantiam fremitus^ obstre- 
pentibus ripis, ab hoste non poterat andiri. Deindd momenio 
teroporis repressns est imber. Gasterdm aded spissee inten- 
d£re se nubes, ut conderent Inoem, yixque colloqnentitun 
inter ipsos faoies noscitarentur. " Terruisset aUnm obdncta 
nox ccbIo, G^m ignoto amne navigandnm esset, forsitan hoste 
earn ipsam ripam, quam coeci atque improvidi, et ex perionlo 
gloriam ^^ aocersentes petebant, occupante : obsonritatem, qn» 
cseteros terrebat, suam occasionem ratns, dato signo ut 
omnes silentio ascenderent in rates, earn, qnk ipse yehebatnT, 
primam jussit '" expelli. Vacua erat ab hostibtis ripa, qusa 
petebatur : quippe adhuc Porus PtolemaBum tantiim intue- 
batur. Una ergd navi, quam petrae fluctus illiserat, hserente, 
eseter» eyadunt : armaque capere milites, et ire in ordinem 

XIY. 45. Jamque agmen in comua diyisum ipse duce- 
bat, Glim Poro nuneiatur, armis yirisque ripam obtineri, et 
^ rerum adesse discrimen. Ao primd, bumani ingenii yitio, 
apei suse indulgens, Abisarem belli socinm, (et ita Gonyene- 
rat,) adyentare credebat. Mox liquidiore luee aperiente hos- 
tem, quadrigas, et quatuor millia equitum yenienti agmini 
Porus objepit. Dux erat copiarum, quas prsemisit, Hages 
frater ipsius. Summa yirium in curribus. Senos yiros 
ainguli yehebant, duos cljpeatos, duos sagittarios ab utroque 
latere dispositos; cseteri anrigse erant baud sand inermes: 
quippe jacula oomplura, ubi cominiis proeliandum erat, * omis- 
sis habenis, in hostem ingerebant. Caeteriim yix ullos usqb 
hujus auxilii eo die fdit. Namque (ut supri dictum est) 
imber yiolentius qudm alids fusus, campos labricos et inequi- 
tabiles feoerat : grayesque et propemodum immobiles currua 
illuyie et yoraginibns hserebant. Gontrk Alexander expedito 
ac leyi agmine strenud inyectus est Scythaa et Dabaa primi 
omnium inyas6re Indos : Perdiccam deindd ciun equitibos in 
dfixtrom comu bostium emisit. 


46. Jam ^uniiqiid pugna ae morenit, eihn ii, qui onmoi 
agobant, illud ultimum auxilium suormn rati, efiusis habenis 
in medium diaorimen raere ooeperont. Anoeps id malmn 
utrisque erai Nam et Macedommi pedites piimo impetu 
obterebantur, et per lobrica atqae invia immissi cnrrus exca* 
tiebant eos, a qmbns regebantur. Aliorom turbati eqni non 
in Yoragines mod6 lacnnasqne, sed etiam in amnem prsBci- 
pilavdre cnrricula. Fauci tamen hostinm telis ezaoti pene* 
trav^re ad Forum, acerrimd pugnam cientem. Is, ut disBipa- 
tos totd acie enrrus yagari sine rectoribus vidit, proximis 
amicorum distribuit elephantos. Fost eos posuerat pedites 
ac saglttarios tympana pulsare solitos. Id pro cantu tuba- 
rum India *erat. Neo strepitu eorum ' movebantur, olim ad 
notum sonum auribus mitigatis. HerouHs simulacrum agmini 
peditnm praeferebatur ; id maximum erat bellantibus incita- 
mentum : et deseruisse gestantes militare flagitium ^ habeba- 
tur. Capitid etiam sanxerant poenam iis, qui ex acie non 
retulissent ; metu, quern * ex illo hoste quondam conoeperant| 
etiam in rdiigionem venerationemque eonverso. Macedonas 
non belluarum mod6, sed etiam ipsius Regis aspeotus parum- 
per inhibuit. Belluas, dispositse inter armatos, speoiem tur- 
rium procul fecerant Ipse Forus human» magnitudinis pro- 
pemodum excesserat formam. Magnitudini adjicere yide- 
batur bellua, qud vehebatur, tantum inter caoteras eminens, 
quantum aliis ipse prsestabat. 

47. Itaque Alexander contemplatus et Begem, et agmen 
Xndorum, '' Tandem," inquit, '^ par animo meo periculum 
Tideo. Oum bestiis simul et cum egregiis yiris res est." In- 
tuensque Coenum) " O^m ego," inquit, " Ftolemaeo, Perdicc^- 
que, et HepbfiSstione comitatns, in laayum hostium comu 
impetum fboero, yiderisque me in medio ardore certaminis, 
ipse " dextrum moye, et turbatis signa infer. Tu, Antigenes, 
et tu Leonate, et Tauron, inyehemini in mediam aciem, et 
urgebitis frontem. Hastas nostrae praDlongae et yalidss ^ non 
ali4s magis qu^m adyersus belluas, reotoresque eorum usui 
esse poterunt. Peturbate eos, qui yebnutur, et " ipsas con* 



Ibdite. * Anoeps genus auzilii est, et in snoB wsnhB ftirit. In 
hostem enim imperio, in suos pavore agitnr." Hsbc elocntna, 
ooncitat eqanm primus. Jamque (ut destinatum erat) in- 
Yaserat ordines hostinm, odm GoDnns ingenti yi in laavam 
oomu invehitnr. Phalanx qnoque mediam Indorum aciem 
nno impetn perrnpit. At Porns qnd equitem invehi senserat, 
belluas agi jussit. Sed tardum, et pend immobile animal, 
equonun velocitatem sequare non poterat. Ne sagittarom 
quidem alius erat Barbaris usus. Quippo longas et prao- 
graves, nisi prii!ls in terrdi statuerunt arcum, hand satis aptd 
et oommode imponunt : turn humo lubricd et ob id impediente 
conatnm, '^molientes ictus celeritate hostium occupabantur. 
Ergd spreto Regis imperio (quod ferd fit, ubi turbatis acriiks 
metus qu^ dux imperare coepit) totidem erant imperatores 
quot agmina errabant. Alius jungere aciem, alius dividere; 
«tare quidam, et nonnuUi ciroumyehi terga hostium jubebant. 
" Nihil in medium consulebatur. Porus tamen cum paucis, 
quibus metu potior fuerat pudor, coUigere disperses, obvius 
hosti ire pergit, elephantosque ante agmen suorum agi jubet. 
Magnum belluas injecSre terrorem, insolitusque stridor non 
equos mod6, tarn pavidum ad omnia animal, sed viros quoque, 
ordinesque turbaverat. 

48. Jam fugas circumspiciebant locum pauld antd yictores, 
cikm Alexander Agrianos et Thracas leviter annates, ** me- 
liorem concursatione, qudm cominils militem, emisit in bel- 
luas. Ingentem ii vim telorum injecdre et elephantis et 
regentibus eos. Phalanx quoque instare constanter territis 
coepit. Sed quidam avidius persecuti belluas, in semet irri- 
tav^re vulneribus. Obtriti erg6 pedibus earum caeteris, ut 
parci^s instarent, fu^re documentum. Prascipud " terribilifl 
ilia facies erat, ci!lm '^manu arma yirosque corriperent, et 
super se regentibus traderent. Anoeps ergd pugna, nunc 
sequentium nunc fagientium elephantos, in multum diei ya- 
rium certamen extraxit, donee securibus (id namque genus 
auxilii pra&paratum erat) pedes amputare coeperunt. '* Gopi- 
das yooant gladios leviter eurvatos, falcibus similes, queis ap- 


petebant bellnanun maniis. Nee quidquam inezpertam, non 
''mortis modd, sed etiam in ips^ morte, novi supplicii timor 
omittebat. Ergd elephanti vuhieribus tandem fatigati suos 
impetu sternunt, et qui rexerant eos, prseoipitati in teixam ab 
ipsis obt^ebantur. Itaque pecoram modo, magis pavidi 
quam infesti, ultra aciem exigebantur, etlm Porus, destitutuB 
a pluribus, tela mult6 ante prasparata, in circumfusos, ex ele- 
pfaanto suo coepit ingerere, multisque emin^s yulueratis, expo- 
situs ipse ad ictus undique petebatur. Novem jam vulnera 
bine tergo, illinc pectore exceperat : multoque sanguine pro- 
fuso, languidis manibus "magis elapsa, quam excussa tela 
mittebat. Neo segnii^s bellua instincta rabie, nondum saucia, 
invebebatur ordinibus, doneo rector belluas Kegem con- 
spexit " fluentibus membris, omissisque armiu yix compotem 
mentis. Tum belluam in fogam concitat, sequente Alexandro. 
Sed equus ejus multis vulneribus oonfossus deficiensque pro- 
eubuit, ^* posito magis Bege, qu£lm effuso. Itaque dum equum 
mutat, tardiiis insecutus est. 

49. Interim frater Taxilis Eegis Indorum, prsemissus ab 
Alexandro, monere coepit Porum, ne ultima experiri perse- 
Teraret, dederetque se victori. At ille, quanqudm exhaustae 
erant vires deficiebatque sanguis, tamen ad notam vocem 
excitatus, ^^ Agnosco," inquit, *' Taxilis fratrem, imperii regni- 
que sui proditoris ; " et telum, quod unum forte non effluxe- 
rat, contorsit in eum ; quod per medium pectus penetravit 
ad tergum.. Hoc ultimo virtutis opere edito, fagere aoriiiB 
coBpit. Sed elepbantus quoque, qui multa exceperat tela, de- 
ficiebat Itaque sistit fogam, peditemque sequenti bosti ob- 
jecit. Jam Alexander consecutus erat, et pertinacid Pori 
cognit4, vetabat resistentibus parci. Erg6 undique et in 
pedites et in ipsum Porum tela congesta sunt, quels tandem 
gravatus, labi ex bellud coepit. Indus, qui elepbantum rege- 
bat, descendere eum ratus, more solito elepbantum procumbere 
jussit in genua : qui ut se submisit, cseteri quoque (ita enim 
instituti erant) demis^re corpora in terram. Ea res et Porum 
et cseteros victoribus tradidit. 


50. Bex spoliari corpus Fori, interemptnm esse ereden», 
jussit : et qui detraherent loricam vestemque, ooncurrere ; 
ctlm bellua dominum tneri, et spoliantes coepit appetere, leva- 
turnqne corpus ejus rursus dorso suo imponere. Erg6 telis 
undiquc obruitur, confossoque eo, in yehiculum Porus impo- 
nitur. Quern Rex ut vidit allevantem oculos, non odio, sed 
miseratione commotus, " Quas, '" malum 1 " inquit, ^^ amentia 
te eoegit, rerum meamm oognit^ famd, belli fortunam expe* 
riri, cdm Taxiles esset in deditos clementiae mese tam propin> 
quum tibi exemplum ? " At ille, '^ Quoniam," inquit, '^ per- 
eontaris, respondebo ek *^ libertate, quam interrogando feoistL 
Neminem me ^^fortiorem esse censebam. Meas enim no- 
veram vires, nondum expertus tuas : fortiorem esse te belli 
docuit evcntus. ^ Sed ne sic quidem parum felix sum, se- 
cundus tibi." Bursus interrogatus, quid ipse victorem sta- 
tuere debere censeret : " Quod bic," inquit, " dies tibi suadet, 
quo expertus es, quam caduoa felicitas esset." Plus monendo 
profecit, qu^m si precatus esset. ^^Quippe magnitudinem 
animi ejus interritam ae ne fortune quidem infractam, non 
miserioordid. modo, sed etiam bonore excipere dignatus est. 
.^grum ouravit baud seciis quAm si pro ipso pugn&sset. 
* Confirmatum, contra spam omnium, in amicorum numenim 
recepii Mox donavit ampliore regno, qudi.m tenuit. Nee 
8an6 quidquam ingenium ejus solidius aut constantius babuit, 
qu&m admirationem Terie laudis et glorias. ^Simplicids 
tamen famam sestimabat in boste, qu^m in cive : quippe a 
suis credebat magnitudinem suam destrui posse: eamdem 
dariorem fore, qu6 majores fuissent, quos ipse yioisset 


LIBBE IX. CAP. 1. 216 


1. DeTioto Poro, In Indiam penetrat Alexander, Tariaaqne gentes et urbea, qaamn 
mores describnntnr, sibl snbjlclt 

2. Oaagaddaa et Fbairasloa aggrefisnnu, militea IhtigafcOB et beSvin detreetantes 
proIixA oratione ad perseyerantiam bortator. 

8. CcBnus, militum nomine, Alexandre respondet, et panld pdet morbo extlngnitar. 

4. 8i(A>Ub, et aHlB ezpagBBtiB, regfonem Ozydracamm et MaHorain isgreditar. Ora- 
tione ad militea babita, Barbaros ftigat, eommqiie oppidmn, oontempto Demoidioonte 
yate, obsidet 

& PrflBcipftl aalta in Oxydracarom oppidnm te immittena, gravlter vitlneratar, et 
Ibrtisaimis qnibaadam daeibus deatderatia, cppidoqae post aUqnot dies ezpngmitov flibi 
snisqtie restitnitnr. 

iL Ab amiols rogatas, nt saint! m» pnbllcssqne parceret, generosd respDndit; In In- 
Btitato SDo de dmoando Orbe persevenmsi 

7. GrsBoorom qnoromdam in Bactris defectio repressa. Dnm Indonxm legates con- 
yivio exclpit Alexander, inter Horratam et Dioxippam, qni tandem imparibns armla 
dvAllo eertaut, tixa «vitiir. Panl6 post Dioadppns InSmloonun ealnmnlte altra modam 
IrritatoSk seipsnm interemlt, 

8. Donis a legatis Indoram aooeptia, Sabracas, Hnsicanos, Prsestos, aliosqae popnlos 
debeUat, Ptolenueo TenenatA plagft aooeptA enratc^ ope eqj^isdam berb», cn}iis species in 
■omnis Alexandro est oblata» 

9. Cnpidine visendi Oceani correptns, non sine pericnlls propter nantarom imperi 
tiam, tandem votl sat compos redditnr. 

10. Ab Oceaoo in Arabitarom, Gedrostarom, et Indonun reglones revertitiir: nbl 
cum &me et pe8tilenti& luctator exercitus, deindd liberatar, planeqne restitnitor. 
Undd Beeatds est probrosos baocbantinm loans, snppliclo Aspastis Satrapis cmentatoa. 

I. 1. AiiEXAKDBR tsm memorabili yictorid Isetns, qn& 
sibi Orientis fines apertos esse censebat, Soli yiotimis cassis 
milites qiioque, qud prompiacnribas animis reliqna belli munia 
obirent, pro concione laudatos, doouit qnicqaid Indis Tiriimi 
fuisset, illd dimioatione prostratam : castera opimam prsedam 
fore, celebratasque opes in eS regione eminere, qnam peterent. 
Proinde jam vitia et obsoleia esse spolia de Persis : gemmis, 
margaritisque, et aitro atqne ebore Maoedoniam Grasciamque, 
non suae tantdm domes repletnros. Avidi milites pecnniad et 
gloria», simnl quia nanqiis^m ^affirmatio ejus fefellerat eos, 
poIHeentur operam : dimissisque eom bon& spe, navigia aedifi- 
«iri jabet, nt oflm totam Asiam percnrrisset, finem terrarnm 


mare inyiseret. Multa materift naralis in prozimis montibna 
erat, quam ciedere aggressi, magnitudiniB inusitat» reperere 
eerpentes. Rhinooerotes quoque^ rarum alibi animal, in iis- 
dem montibus erant. Casteriim hoc nomen bellnis eis inditom 
a GrsBcis ; sermonis ejus ignari alind lingui su& usurpant. 
Eex duabus urbibus conditis in utraque fluminis, quod super- 
averat, ripd, copiarum duces coronis et mille aureis singulos 
donat. Cseteris quoqne pro portione ant gradus, quern in 
militill obtinebant, aut 'navatae opersd, honos habitus est. 
Abisares, qui prii\s qudm cum Poro dimicaretur, legates ad 
Alexandrum miserat, rursus alios misit, pollicentes omnia 
facturum qasd imperdsset, mod6 ne cogeretar corpus sumn 
dedere. Neque enim aut sine regie imperio victurum, aut 
regnaturum esse captivum. Cui Alexander nunoiari jussit, 
si gravaretur ad se venire, ipsum ad eum esse venturnm. 

2. Hinc porr6 Acesine superato, ad interiora Indias pro- 
cessit. SjlvaB erant prop^ in immensum spatium di£fus89, 
procerisque et in eximiam altitudinem editis arboribus am- 
brosae. ^Plerique rami instar ingentium stipitum flexi in 
humum, rursus, qud se curyaverant, erigebantur, adeb at 
species esset non rami resurgentis, sed arboris ex sua radioe 
generatae. Cieli temperies salubris : quippe et vim solis 
umbras levant, et aquae largaa manant e fontibus. Gaateriim 
hie quoque serpentium magna vis erat, squamis fulgorem auri 
reddentibus. Virus baud ullum magis noxium est : quippe 
morsum prsdsens mors sequebatur, donee ab ineolis remedium 
oblatum est Hinc per deserta ventum est ad fiumen Hya^ 
rotim. Junctum erat flumini nemus, opaoum arboribus alibi 
inusitatis,' agrestiumque pavojaom multitadine frequena. 
Gastris inde metis, oppidmn hand procul positum coroB& 
capit, obsidibusque acceptis, stipendium imponit. Ad mag- 
nam deindd (ut in e& regione) urbem pervenit ; non muro 
solum, sed etiam palude monitam. Gseteriim Barbari vehi- 
culis inter se junctis dimioaturi ooonrreront. Tela aliis 
hast», aliis secures erant : transiliebantque in veliiciila 
strenuo saltUi eiim gaoearrere laborantibna auis vellent. Ao 


piimd insolitum genus pngn» Maoedonas temiit, otlm emintts 
yulnenurentur. Deindd spreto tarn ineondito anxilio, ab 
utroque latere veliiciilis cireamfiui, repugnanies fodere ooepe-* 
runt. Et vincula quels conserta erant, jussit inoidi, qu5 
faoiliiis singula droumvenireutor. Itaque octo millibut 
su€>ram amissis, in oppidum refngemnt. Postero die scalis ^ 
undique admatis, mnri oecupantur. Faucis pernicitas saluti 
fnit; qui cognito urbis ezcidio, paludem transnavdre, et in 
Tieiua oppida ingentem intul^re terrorem : iuTictum ezercitum, 
et Deorum profectd, adyenisse memorantes. 

3. Alexander, ad Tastandam earn regionem Perdicci cum 
expedite manu misso, partem oopiamm Eumeni tradit, ut is 
quoque Barbaros ad deditionem eompelleret. Ipse osBt^os 
ad urbem yalidam, in quam aiiarum quoque eonfugerant in- 
eolse, indttxit. Oppidani, missis qui Begem deprecarentur, 
nihiiominiis bellum parabant : quippe orta seditio in diyersa 
eonsilia diduxerat vulgum. Alii omnia deditione potiora, 
quidam nuUam opem in ipsis esse, ducebant. Sed dum nihil 
in commune oonsulitur, qui deditioni imminebant, apertia 
pertis hostem recipiunt. Alexander, quanquAm belli auctori« 
bus jure poterat irasei, tamen omnibus veni& dat^, et obsidi* 
bas aoceptis, ad proximam deinde urbem castra movit. 
Obsides ducebantur ante agmen : quos o\!lm e muris agnoyis- 
sent, utpotd gentis ejusdem, in colloquium conyocayerunt. 
lUi clementiam Regis simulque yim commemorando, ad dedi- 
tionem eos eompuUre : ossterasque urbes simili mode deditas 
in fidem aecepit Hinc in regnum So^ithis peryentum est. 
Gens, ^ut Barbari, sapientii exoeliit, bonisque moribus regi« 
tur. Genitos liberos non parentum arbitrio tollunt aluntque, 
^ sed eorum, quibus speotandi in£uitium babitum cura man- 
data est. Si quos 'insignes aut aliqu4 membrorum parte 
inutiles notayerunt, neoari jubent. Nuptiis coeunt, non 
genere ao nobilitate oonjunctis, sed eleetii corporum specie : 
quia eadem asstimatur in liberia 

4. Hujus gentis oppidum, eni Alexander admoyerat copias, 
ab ipso Sopithe 'obtiiiebfltmr. Olausso erant portae, sod nuUi 



in muris tonibiisqiie ae annati oeteiidebaiit : dabitabaatqBe 

Maoedones, desenuasent urb^n incolao, an fraude se oocule- 
rent: ctm Bubitd pate&ct& port&, Bex Indus cnm duobns 
adnltis filiis oocnrrit, mnltum inter osines Barbaros eminens 
QorpoTiB specie. Testis erat aaro pnrpur^lle distincta, qn» 
etiam crura velabat. Anreis soleis insemerat gemmaa. La- 
oerti qnoqne et braohia maxgaritiB omata erant. Fendebant 
ez amibus insignes candore et magnitudinelapilli " Baculnm 
anretan berylli distinguebant. Quo tradito, precatus ut sospes 
aodperet, ae, liberosque, et gentem suam dedidit Nobiles 
ad yenandum oanes in ek regione sunt. Latratu abstinere 
dicuntur, ciim yid^re feram ; leonibus mazime infesti. fiorum 
Tim ut ostenderet Alexandre, in consepto leonem ezimias 
magnitudinis jussit emitti, et quatuor ' omnino admoyeri 
canes; qui oeleriter occupayenmt feram: '^tum ex iis, qui 
assueyerant talibus ministeriis, unus, canis leoni cum aliis 
inkserentis crus ayellere, et quia non sequebatur, ferro ampu- 
tare ccepit : ne sio quidem pertinaoid yictd, rursus aliam par- 
tem secare institit: et inde non segniiis inhaerentem ferro 
subindd cs&debat. Ille in yulnere feras dentes moribundua 
quoque infixerat: tantam in iUis animalibus ad yenandum 
cupiditatem ingener&ase naturam memorias proditum esL 
Squidem plura tranaoribo, quim credo. Nam neo affinnare 
Bustineo, de quibus dubito ; nee subducere quad accepL Be- 
Hcto '^ igitur Sopithe in auo regno, ad fiuyium Hypasin pro^ 
cessit; Hephaostione, qui diyersam regionem subegerat, con- 
juncto. Phegelaa erat gentis proximsd Bex; qui popularibua 
sttis colere agros (ut aaseyerant) jusais, Alexandre cum doniB 
ooourrit, nihil quod imperaret detreetans. 

n. 5. Biduum apud eum substitit Bex : tertio die amnem 
superare decreyerat, transitu difficilem, non spatio solihn. 
aquarum, sed etiam saxis impeditum. Fercontatua igitur 
Fbegelam, quao noscenda erant, undecim dierum ultrd flumen 
per yastas solitudines iter esse oognosoit : excipere deinde Gaa* 
gem, maximum totius Indias fluminum. lHteriorem ripam 
Qolere gentes Qangaridas et Fbarraaios, eonupqii^ Begem 


estse Aggrammem, Tigiati millibas eqaitnm, ducentisqne pedi- 
tarn obsidentem vias. Ad haec quadngarum duo miiiia tra- 
iiere, et praeoipuum terrorem elephantos, quos triunt mOliimi 
ntanemm ^:plere dicebat. Ineredibilia regi omnia yidebao- 
tar. Igitnr Pomin (nam com eo erat) percontaior, an vera 
essent, qosB dicerentor. Ilie vires qnidem gentis et i«gni 
hand falso jaetari affinnat ; caeterum qui regnaret non mod6 
ignobilem esse, sed etiam nltim» sortis : qnippe patrem ejns 
toDSorem vix diumo qnsestn propulsantem famem, propter 
babitnm band indecorum ^cordi fuisse Beginad. ^Ab e& in 
propiorem ejus, qui turn regndsset, amicitias locum admotum, 
interfecto eo per insidias, sub specie tuteke liber^m, ejus 
fnyasisse regnum, necatisque pueris, bunc qui nunc regnat 
gener&sse, inyisom vilemque popularibus, magis patenue for« 
tunso quAm suae memorem. Affirmatio Fori multiplicem ani- 
mo Begis injecerat curam: hostem belluaaque spemebat, 
situm locorum et vim fluminum extimescebat. *Ilelegatos 
in uhimum pen6 rerum bumanarum terminum persequi, ef 
eruere, arduum videbatur. Bursus avaritia glorias, et insatia» 
biiis cupido famao, nibil invium, nibil remotum videri sinebat. 
Et interdum dubitabat, an Macedones tot emensi spatia terra- 
rum, in acie, et in castris senes facti, per objecta flumina, per 
tot naturae obstantes difficultates secuturi essent. ^Abundan- 
tes onustosque praedi, magis part^ frui velle, qudm aoquirendd 
fatigari. Non ^idem sibi, et militibus animi esse. Se 
totiuB orbis imperium mente oomplexum, adbuo in operum 
suorum primordio stare. Militem labore defatigatum, proxi- 
mum quemque fructum, finito tandem periculo, expetere. 

6. Yicit ergd cupido rationem, et ad concionem vocatis 
militibus, ad bunc maximd modum disseruit. '^ Non ignore, 
milites, multa, quas terrere vos possent, ab incolis IndiaB per 
hos dies * de industrid esse jactata. Sed non est improvisa 
vobis mentientium vanitas. Sic Ciliciaa fauces, sic Mesopo- 
tamiae oampos, Tigrim et Eupbratem, quorum alteram vado 
transivimus, alteram ponte, ^terribilem fecerant Persae. "Nun- 
<pi4m ad liquidum fama perduoitur. Omnia, illd tradente 


majora mmt Tero. ' NoBtra quoqae gloria, cdm Bit ex soKdot^ 
plas tamen habet nominis qnam opens. Mod6 quia belloas 
ofEerentes mcBniom speeiem, quiB Hydaspen amnem, quia c»- 
tera anditu majora quim vero, sustinere posse oredebat? 
Olim herculd fugissemus ex Asid, si nos fabuke debellare 
potnisaent. Oreditisne elephantorum greges majores esse 
quim nsquam armentonun sunt? ci^in et ramm sit animal, 
nee fificile capiatur, mnltoque difficiliils mitigetor. Atqni 
" eadem Tanitas copias peditom equitomqae nmneravit. " Nam 
flumen quo latins fusom est, hoc plaoidius stagnat; qoippe 
angostis ripis " coeroita, et in angostiorem alyeum elisa, tor* 
rentes aquas invehunt: oontriL "spatio alvei segnior cursus 
est Praetere^ in rip& omne pericnlum est, ubi applicanter 
nayigia hostis exspectat. ^^Ita quantumcnmqae flumen xa- 
tervenit, idem futurum discrimen est evadentium in teiram." 

'^ Bed omnia ista vera esse fingamus. Utmmne yob mag* 
nitudo belluarum, an multitudo hostium terret? Quod per- 
tinet ad elephantos, prsesens babemus exemplum: in suoB 
vehementii\s, quim in nos incurrerunt. Tarn vasta corpora 
securibus falcibusque mutilata sunt. Quid autem interest, 
totidem sint, quot Porus habuit, an tria millia, cihn, uno sot 
altero "vulneratis, casteros in fiigam declinare yideamus? 
Deindd paucos quoqud incommode regunt: congregata verd 
tot miUia ipsa se elidunt, ubi neo stare, nee fugere potue- 
rint inhabiles vastorum corporum moles. Equidem sic ani- 
malia ista contempsi, ut cum baberem, ipse non- oppoBuerim, 
satis gnarus plus suis qu4m hostibus periouli inferre." 

^* '^ At enim equitum peditumque multitudo yos commo- 
yet I " Gum pauois enim pugnare soliti estis, et nunc primibu 
inoonditam sustinebitis turbam. Testis adyersus multitudi- 
nem inyicti Macedonum roboris Granicus lunnis; et OiUcia 
inundata cruore Persarum; et Arbela, cujus campi deyio- 
torum a nobis ossibus strati sunt Ser6 hostium legionea 
numerare coepistis, postquim '* solitudinem in Asi^ yinoendo ' 
fecistis. Olim per Hellespontum nayigaremus, de pauoitate 
nostra cogitandum fiiit. Nunc nos Scythae sequuntur, Bao- 

LIBB& IX. OAF. II. 821 

iriana anzilia pviestd Bimt, Dahse, Sogdisiuqae inter hob mili* 
taut. Nee tamen illi tnrbas confide. Yestras manus intueori 
Testram virtutem, rernm, qnas gestums sum, vadem prasdem* 
qne habeo. Quamdiu vobiscum in acie stabo, nee mei nee 
hostimn exercitns nnmeravera Yes mod6 animos mihi plenos 
alacritatis ae fiduciaa adhibete." 

^ Non in limine operom laboramque nostrorum, sed in 
ezitn stamns. " Pervenimus ad solis ortum et oceanom, nisi 
obstat ignavia : inde yictores, perdomito fine terramm, reyer- 
temnr in patriam. Nolite (quod pigri agricolas faciunt) m^ 
tores fructus per inertiam amittere e manibus. Majora sunt 
perieulis praomia. Dives eadem et imbellis est regio. Itaqae 
non tarn ad gloriam vos duco, qudm ad praedam. Digni 
estis, qui opes, quas illud mare littoribus invehit, referatis in 
patriam ; digni qui nihil inexpertum, ^Dibil metu omissum re> 

^ '^ Per, ego tos, gloriam vestram, qusl humanum fasti* 
gium exceditis, perque et mea in vos, et in me vestra merita, 
quibus invicti eontendimus, oro, quaesoque, ne humanarum 
rerum terminos adenntem, alumnum commilitonemque vestrum, 
ne dicam Begem, deseratis. Cetera vobis imperavi, hoe 
xinum debiturus sum. ^^ Et is vos rogo, qui nihil unquam vo- 
bis praeoepi, quin primus me perieulis obtulerim, qui saspe 
aeiem clypeo meo texi, ne infregeritis in manibus meis pal- 
mam, qu& Hercnlem, Liberumque Patrem, si invidia abfue- 
rit^ asquabo. Date hoc preoibus meis, et tandem obstinatum 
silentium rumpite. Ubi est ille clamor, alacritatis vestrao 
index ? ubi ille meorum Macedonum vultus ? Non agnosco 
vos, milites, nee agnosei videor a vobis. Surdas jamdudum 
anres pulso. Aversos animos et iofiractos excitare conor." 

7. Gumque illi in terram demissis capitibus tacere per- 
severarent, " " Nescio quid," inquit, " imprudens in vos deli- 
qui) qu6d me ne intueri quidem vultis. In solitudine mihi 
videor esse. Nemo respondet, nemo saltem negat. Quos 
alloquor ? Quid autem postulo ? Yestram gloriam, et mag* 
nitudinem vindicamus. Ubi sunt illi, quorum certamen pauld 


onto Tidi oontendentiiuii, qui potissimikm vnlnerati Reg^ 
corpus ezciperent? Desertns, destitutos sum, hostibus de* 
ditas. Sed solus quoque ire perseverabo. Objioite me flumi- 
nibus et belluis, et illis gentibus, quarum uomina horretis. 
Inyeniam qui desertnm a vobis sequantur. Seyth» Bac- 
trianique erunt mecum, hostes paul5 ante, nuno milites nos- 
tii. Mori prsBStat, " qu^m precari6 Imperatorem esse. 
lie reduces domos, ite deserto Rege ovantes. Ego hio a vobis 
desperatse victoriao, aut honesiae morti locum inyemam«" 

IIL 8. Ne sic quidem ulli militum toz ezprimi potuii^. 
Ezspectabant ut duces principesque ad Begem perferreat, toI- 
neribus et continue labore militia fatigatos ^n<m detrectare 
munia, sed sustinere non posse. Csdteriim ill! metu attoniii 
in terram ora defizerant. Igitnr primb ^ fremitus sua spcmte, 
deind^ gemitus quoque oritur, panlatimque liberies dolor 
' erigi cospit, manantibus lacrymis, adeo ut Bex, ira in miseii- 
oordiam vers^, ne ipse quidem, quanquim cuperet, * temperare 
oculis potuerit. Tandem universe concione effusiiUs flente, 
Coenus ausus est, cunctantibus cseteris, propius tribunal acce- 
dere, significans se loqui velle. Quem ut yidere milites de- 
foahentem galeam capiti, (ita enim Begem alloqui mos est) 
faortari coeperunt, ut causam ezercitlls ageret. 

Turn Coenus, *^ Dii prohibeant," inquit, << a nobis ^ impias 
mentes, et profect6 probibent. 'Idem animus est tuis qui 
fiiit semper, ire qu6 jusseris, pugnare, periclitari, sanguine 
nostro commendare posteritati tuum nomen. ^Proindd si 
perseveras, inermes quoque, et nudi, et ezsangues, utcumque 
tibi cordi est, sequimur, yel antecedimus. Sed si audire vis 
non fictas tuorum militum voces, verdm necessitate ultim4 
ezpressas, -pradhe, quaaso, propitias aures imperium atque 
auspicium tuum constantissune seoutis, et qudoumque pergis, 

*< Yicisti, Bex, magnitudine rerum non hostes mod6, 'sed 
etiam milites. Quidquid mortalitas ' capere poterat, implevi* 
mus. Emensis maria terrasque, melids nobis, qu^ iucolia 
omnia nota sunt. Pend in ultimo mundi fine conaistimus : in 


alniBi orbem psns ire, et Indiam qiwrfa IncBs ^piocpie igiio» 
tam. Inter fens serpenteaqne degentes eznere ex latebiis 
et enbilibns suis ezpetis, ut plora quim sol yidet, yictorid 
lustres. Digna proxsilUi eogitatio aoimo tuo, sed altior nostro. 
Yirtus eziim tua semper in ineremento erit, nostra yis in fine 
jam est" 

^'IntBere corpora exangnia, tot perfossa vnlneribos, tot 
oioatricibas putria. Jam tela bebetia smit, jam arm* defi- 
dant. Yestem Persicam indoimus, quia domestica snbyehi 
non potest. In externum degeneravimns cnltom. ^* Quote 
OQiqne lorica est ? qnis eqaom babet ? jube qnsori quim mnl- 
tos servi ipsonun persecati sint, quid coiqnd snpersitex pnedJL 
Onminm yietores, omnium inopes sumns. Neo "Ii2xan4 
laboramns, sed bello instrunenta belli consnmpsimns. Hnne 
tu pulcberrimnm exercitum nudnm objicies bellnis ? Qoarum 
" nt mnltitndinem angeant de industrid Barbaii^ magnum ta- 
mooL esse nnmermn ^' etiam ex mendacio intelligo. 

" Qudd si adbnc penetrare in Indiam certom est^ regie a 
meridie miniis yasta est. QuS sobaotd, licebit deeorrere in 
illud mare, qnod rebus bumanis terminum yoluit esse natura. 
Cur circnitu petis gloriam, quae ad manum positajest? Hie 
quoque occurrit Oceanus. Nisi mayis errare, ^^peryenimus 
qa6 tua fortuna ducit. Haoo tecum, quam sine te cum bis 
loqui malui, "ncmut inirem ciroumstantis exercitils gratiam, 
Bed utyocem loquentium potiiis, qudm gemitum murmuranf 
tiium audires." 

9. Ut finem orationi Coenus imposuit, clamor undiqud cum 
ploratu oritur, Kegem, patrem, dominum confusis appellan- 
tiumyocibus. Jamque et aUi duces prsecipueque seniores, 
queis ob aetatem et excusatio bonestior erat et auctoritas 
major, eadem precabantur. Ille neo castigare ob^tinatos, neo 
mitigare poterat iratos. Itaque iuops consilii desiluit e tri* 
bunali, claudique regiam jussit, omnibus, prater assuetos, 
adiro probibitis. Biduum irsB datum est, tertio die processit^ 
erigique duodecim aras ex quadrate saxo, mcmumentum expe- 
dxtionis su», munimenta quoque castrorum jussit extendi, 


•afailuique ampIioriB famsB, ^qnAm pro coiporaiii haUtii re 
linqui, ut ipeoiem omniiim angeret, posteritati fallax xniiaGOr 
lorn praapanuQB. Hino repetemi qu» emensus erat, ad flnmen 
Aoesinem locat caatra. Ibi forte Ccenns morbo eztinctas est. 
Cajii8 morte higemuit Bex qoidem; adjecit tamen, ^^ propter 
paucos dies longam orationem earn exorsum, tanquim solos 
Macedoniam Tisams esset. Jam in aqu& classis, qnain sedifi- 
oari jnsserat, stabal Inter haBC Memnon ex Thraddr in sup- 
plementnm eqnitnm sex millia, prsster eos ab Harpalo pedi* 
torn septem millia addnxerat ; armaque viginti quinqne miUia 
aoro et argento ca&lata pertolerat: qneis distributis, yetera 
cremari jussit. ^ Mille nayigiis aditnras Oceaniim, discordes 
et yetera odia retractantes Poram et Taxilem, Indi» Beges, 
firmatll per affinitatem gratid, reliquit in suis regnis, sommo 
in 8Bdificand& classe ambomm studio osos. Oppida qnoqae 
duo oondidit, qnomm alteram Niceam appellayit, alteram 
Btic^halan, eqai, quern amiserat, memorise ac nomini dedi- 
eans nrbem. Elephantis deinde et impedimentis terri sequi 
jussis, secnndo amne defluxit, quadraginta ferm^ stadia sin^ 
gnlis diebtts procedens, ut opportunis loois exponi subindd 
oopisB possent. 

lY. 10. Peryentum erat in regionem, in qu& Hydaspes 
amnis Acesini committitur. Hinc decurrit in fine Sobiorom. 
Hi de exercitu Herculis majores sues commemorant s^ros 
relictos cepisse sedem, ^quam ipsi obtinebant Pelles feranim 
pro yeste, clay» tela erant. Multaque, etiam ctlm G-rsDei 
mores exoleyissent, 'stirpis ostendebant yestigia. Hino 
* exscensione factd., ducenta et quinquaginta stadia processit ; 
depopulatusque regionem, oppidum caput ejus coroni cepit 
Quadraginta peditum millia gens in ripd fluminum opposuerat, 
qu8&, amne snperato, in fugam compulit, inolusosque moenibus 
expugnat Puberes interfecti sunt, caBteri * yenierunt Al- 
teram deind^ urbem expugnare adortus, magnique yi defen- 
dentium pulsus, multos Macedonum amisit : sed ciim in obsi- 
dione perseyer&sset, oppidani, desperate salute, ignem sub* 
jeo^re tectis* se quoque ao liberos oonjugesque incendie 


fvemsnt ; quod c^m ipsi angerent, Iiostes eztrngaerent, nova 
ft)Tma pugnse erat. * Delebant incolse TDirbem^.liostes defende- 
bant: aded etiam naturas jura bellum in contrariam mutat. 
Arx erat oppidi intacta, in qnd prassidinm dereliqnit. Ipse 
navigio circnmrectus est arcem : ' qnippe tria flomina, tot4 
Indi& prsDter Gangem maxima, mnnimento arcis applicant 
undas. A Septentrione Indus alluit, a Meridie Acesines 
Hydaspi confunditur. 

11. Cseteriim amnium coitus maritimis similes fluotua 
movet, multoque ac turbido lime, quod aquarum concursu 
subinde turbatur, ' iter, qu^ meant nayigia, in tenuem alveum 
cogitur. Itaque ci^m crebri fluctus se inyehereni, et nayium 
hino proras, hinc latera pulsarent, ' subducere naut» coepe- 
runt. Sed "ministeria eorum, hinc metu, hinc prserapidlk ce* 
leritate fluminum occupantur. In oculis duo majora omnium 
navigia submersa sunt : leyiora ciim et ipsa nequirent r^i, in 
ripam tamen "innozia expulsa sunt. Ipse Bex in rapidis- 
simos yortices incidit ; quibus intorta nayis, obliqua et " gu- 
bemaculi impatiens, agebatur. Jam yestem detraxerat cor- 
pori, projecturus semet in flumen, amicique ut exciperent eum, 
baud procul nabant : " apparebatque anceps periculum, tam 
nataturi, qudm nayigare perseyerantis. Erg6 ingenti cer- 
tamine concitant remos, quantaque yis faumana esse poterat 
admota est, ut fluctus, qui se inyehebant, eyerberarentur. 
Findi crederes undas, et retto gurgites cedere. Quibus tan- 
dem nay is erepta, non tamen ripsd applicatur, sed in proximum 
vadum illiditur. Cum amne bellum fuisse crederes. £rg6 
aris pro numero fluminum positis, sacrificioque facto, triginta 
stadia processit. 

« 12. Inde yentum est in regionem Oxjdracarum Mallo- 
rumque ; quos alids bellare inter se solitos, tunc ^' periculi 
societas junxerat. Nonaginta millia juniorum peditum in 
armis erant. Praeter bos equitum decem millia nongentaeque 
quadrigao. At Macedones, qui "omni disorimine jam de- 
funotos se esse crediderant, postquam integrum bellum cum 
ferocissimis Indiae gentibus superesse cognoverunt, improyiso 



meta territi rarsus seditiosis rocibas Begem inerepare oospe^ 
rant : *^ Gkngem amnem, et quad ultra essent, non eoactos 
transmittere ; non tamen finisse, Bed mnt&sse bellnm : indom- 
itis gentibns se objectos, nt sanguine suo aperirent ei Ooea- 
nam. Trahi extra sidera et Solem, cogique adire, qnss mor- 
taliam ocnlis natara snbduxerit. "Novis identidem armis 
novos hostes ezistere. Quos ut omnes fandant fngentqne, 
quod prseminm ipsos manere ? caliginem ac tenebras, et per* 
petnam noctem profando incubantem; repletam immaniam 
bellaaram gregibns fretum ; immobiles nndas^ in quibns emo* 
riens nattxra deficerit." Bex non su4, sed militom soUioitadine 
anxius, concione advocate docet, ^* imbelles esse, quos metoant 
Nihil deindd prseter has gentes obstare, quominus terrarom 
spatia emensi, ad finem simul mundi laboramque perveniant: 
cessisse illis metuentibus Gangem, et maltitadinem nationum, 
qnsB ultra amnem essent ; declin&sse iter e6, ubi par gloria, 
minus periculom esset. ^' Jam prospicere se Ooeanum : jam 
perflare ad ipsos auram maris: ne inviderent sibi laudem 
quam peteret : Herculis et Liberi patris terminos transiturofl 
illos : Begi suo parvo impendio immortalitatem famse datnros ; 
paterentur se ex Indi& redire, non fagere." 

13. Omnis multitudo, et maxime militaris, mobili impetn 
fertur. Ita seditionis non remedia, qa&m prinoipia, majors 
sunt. Non aliis tarn alaoer clamor ab exercitu est redditns, 
jubentinm duoeret Diis secundis, et sequaret gloria quos 
semularetur. Lsetus his acclamationibus ad hostes protinus 
castra movit. Yalidissimsd Indorum gentes erant, et bellnm 
impigrd parabant, ducemque ex natione Oxydraoarom "speo- 
tatae virtutis clegerant, qui sub radieibus mentis castra posnit, 
lateque ignes, ut speciem multitudinis augeret, osten4i^i 
clamore quoque ac sui moris ululatu identidem aoquiescentes 
Macedones frustri terrere oonatus. Jam lux appetebat, 
ci!lm Bex fiducias ac spei plenus, alacres milites arma capere, 
et exire in aciem jubet. Sed metune an seditione obort^ 
inter ipsos, subit6 profagerunt Barbari. Gerte avios montes 

LIB&& IX. CAP. V. ^7 

et impediioA oeenpayenint. Qaorum agmen Bex fn»trii per 
seoutusy impedimenta eepiL 

14. Perventiun deinde est ad oppidum Ozjdraoarum, in 
quod plerique oonfogeraQt, ^"haud majore fiducid mceniiuii 
quam armonim. ^* Jam admovebat Bex, ohm vates monere 
earn ccepit^ ne committeret, aut certe differret obsidionem ; 
vitas ejus periooltun ostendi. Bex Demophoonta (is namquo 
vates erat) intuens, " Si qms," inqnit, ^' te, arti tose intentam, 
et exta spectantem, sic interpellet, non dubitem qoin inoom- 
modus ao molestus videri tibi possit." Et ciim ille ita pror- 
BOS futurom respondisset, '^ Gensesne," isquit, '^'^tantas res, 
non pecudum fibras, ante oculos habenti, ullum esse majus 
impedimentum, quim vatem saperstitione captnm?" Neo 
diutids qadm respondit moratus, admoveri jubet scalas, 
'* cunctantibusque ceteris, evadit in murum. Angusta marl 
corona erat. " Non pinnse, sicnt alibi, fastigiom ejus dis- 
tinxerant, sed perpetua lorica obducta transitum sepserat. 
Itaque Kex hserebat magis quim stabat in *' margine, clypeo 
undique incidentia tela propulsans. Nam undiqae eminus ex 
tnrribus petebator. Nee sabire milites poterant, quia supernd 
vi telorum obruebantur. Tandem magnitudinem pericoU 
pndor vicit : qnippe cemebant conotatione sud dedi hostibus 
Begem. Sed festinando morabantnr aoxilia. Nam dam pro 
se qaisqne certat evadere, oneravere scalas : ^* queis non snf- 
fioientibus, devolnti, nnicam spem Begis fefellerunt. Stabat 
«nim in conspectu tanti exereitus, velut in solitudine desti- 

y. 15. Jamqne laavam, qa& cljpemn ad ictus ciremnfere* 
bat, lassaverat, clamantibus amicis, ut ad ipsos desiliret, sta- 
bantque excepturi : cum ille rem ausus est incredibilem atque 
inauditam, ^multdque magis ad famam temeritatis qjikm 
gloriao insignem. Namque in urbem hostium plenam pra> 
cipiti salta semet ipse immisit, cdm vix cfperare posset, dimi< 
cantem cert^ et non inultum esse moriturum. Quippe ante* 
quim assurgeret, opprimi poterat, et capi vivus : sed fortd 
ita libraverat corpus, ' ut se pedibus exciperet. Itaque stans 

init pBgBam; ei,.iie cdicanuri poBset, finrtoim ptoTiiflMt Td» 
tnflta arbor hand procol maro ramoe mnk^ fironde yestitos, 
Telat de indostria Began protegeDteB, olijeoerat. fiajnfl 
qpatioBO stipiti ooipua i^pliooit, dypeo telaj qu» ex adverao 
ingerebaatoTy ezcapieiia Nam etm anam proenl tot mamis 
peterent, nemo tamen aadebat propius acoedereL Mlsail» 
lamia plnra quam dypeo incidebant. Pngnabat pro Bege 
primum celebrati nominis fama, deinde * deaperatio, magniun 
ad boneate moriendnm incitamimtnm : sed * eilm Bubinde faoa- 
tis afflneret^ jam ingentem Tim telomm exceperat dypeo, jam 
galeam saza perfiregerant^ * jam continno labore gravis genua 
snceideranl Itaqae oontemptim, et incante, qui prezinB 
ateteranty incurrenmt: e qmbus duoagladio ita excei»t^ nt 
ante ipsnm exanimes procomberent. Nee eniqnam ddndd pro- 
pi ua inoessendi earn animns fait. Procnl jaenla sagittasqne 

16. Die ad omnes ietna expositns, Bdgt6 "jam exeeptODOi 
poplitibnfl corpus tuebatur, donee Indus duorun cobitCMrnm 
sagittam (namque Indis, ut ante diximus, hnjaa magnitudiiaa 
sagittao erant) ita ezcussit, ut per tboracem paultlm super 
latus dextrum infigeret. Quo vulnere afflietusy magni yi san- 
guinis emicante, ^remisit arma moribundo omilis: adedque 
'^resolutus, 'ut ne ad vellendum quidem telum suffioeret 
dextra. Itaque ad exspoliandum corpus qui vuhiaraTerat 
alacer gaudio aocurrit. Quern ut injicere eoipori suo manns 
sensit, credo, ultimi dedecoiis indignitate conunotus, linqueo* 
tem reyocavit animum, et nudum- hostis latus ^" subjecto mu* 
crone hausit. Jaoebant circa Begem tria corpora, procul 
stupentibus cseteris. Ille, ut antequslm ultimus apiiitus de&- 
ceret, dimicans jam extingueretur, cljpeo se alleyare oanatDS 
est: '^et postquim ad connitendum nibil supererat Tirium, 
dexterd impendentes romos complexus, tentabat assur^ase^ 
Sed ne sic quidem potoDS corporis, rursus in genua prooumbit| 
manu proyocans hostes, si quis congredi auderet^ 

17. Tandem Peucestes per aliam oppidi partem, detur- 
batis propugnatoribtts, ^^ muri yestigia persequens, Begi super* 


reali. Quo con ^ ecto, Alezaa^br jsm boh vitaa so», sod mor- 
ib soladiim snpervenisse ratns, clypeo fatigatum corpus ezce- 
pii» Subit inde TunsBus, et pauld post Leonatos, huio 
Aristomis saperrenit. Indi qudque odm intra mcenia Regem 
esse comperissent, omissis aeteris iliac concurremnt, urge* 
banlque protegente& Ex quibus TimiBus multis adyerso oor* 
poire Tulneribos aooeptis, egregiique edit& pugn& oeciditL 
Peucestes quoque tribus jaoulis oonfossns, non se tamen scuto, 
sed Begem tuebatur. Leonatos dum avidd raentes Barbaroe 
solMnoTet, oervice graviter ict&, semianimis prooubuit ante 
Begia pedes. Jam et Peucestes vulneribus &tigatus ^sub- 
miserat clypeunu In Aristono spes ultima hflorebat. Hie 
quoque graviter saueius tantam vim hostium ultrsl sustinere 
non poterat. ^* Inter bade ad Maoedonas, Begem cecidissCt 
fiuna perlata est. ^'Terruisset alios, quod illos incitarit. 
Namque periculi omnis immemores, dolabris perfregdre mur> 
mm, et^ qui moliti erant aditum, irrupdre in urbem, Indosque 
phues fugientes, qu&m congredi ausos, ceciderunt. Non 
sMiibas, non foeminis, non infebntibus parcitur. Quisquis occur- 
rent, ab illo vnlneratum Begem esse credebant. '* Tandem- 
qa» int^neoione hostium just» ira» parentatum est. Ptole- 
maeum, qui poetea regnayit, huie pngnse afiuisse auctor est 
Olitarehus, et Timagenes. Sed ipse "scilicet gloriao so» 
non refragatus, aUuisse se, missum in expeditionem, me- 
iBoriae tradidit: tanta componentium vetusta rerum monih 
mefita vel ^" securitas, vel, ^* par huio vitium, credulitas fuit I 

18. Bege in tabernaculo relate, medici lignum hasted cor> 
pari infixum, ** ita ne spioolum moveretur, abscindunt. C(»^ 
pore deinnudato, animadvertunt hamos inesse telo, nee alitor id 
sine pemicie corporis extrahi posse, qu4m ut secando yulnus 
augerent " Casterdm, ne secantes profluvinm sanguinis oeeu- 
paret, verebantur : quippe itigens telum adaotum erat, et pene- 
ti4sse in viscera videbatur. Gritobulus inter medicos artis 
eximiao, sed in tanto periculo territus, manus admoveremetuebat, 
"ne in ipshis caput parum prosper» ourationis recideret eventu& 


Laoiymautem enm, ao metaentem, et sollidtadine propemodum 
exsangaem Rex oonspezerat " *' Quid," inqoit, '^quodve tem' 
pus ezBpectas, et non quamprimiUm hoc dolore me saltern morl- 
tanim liberas ? An times ne reus sis, ciim insanabile vulnnfl 
aooeperim ? " At Gritobulus, tandem yel finito, vel dissimu* 
lato metu, hortari eum ooepit, ^* ut se continendum prasberet^ 
dum spiculum evelleret. '^Etiam levem corporis motom 
Dozium fore. Eex, c\\m affirm&sset nihil opus esse iis, qui 
semet continerent, siout pracceptum erat, sine motu prsebait 
corpus. Igitur patefacto latiils yulnere, et spiculo eyulso, 
ingens vis sanguinis manare coepit, linquique animo Bex, et 
caligine oculis offnsd, veluti moribundus extendL Giimqiie 
profluvium medicamentis frustrd inhiberent, clamor simiil 
atque ploratus amicorum oritur, Begem expirdsse credentium. 
Tandem constitit sanguis, paulatimque animum recepit, et 
ciroumstantes cospit agnosoere. Toto eo die, ao nocte, quas 
seouta est, armatus exercitus regiam obsedit, oonfessus omnes 
unius spiritu vivere. Nee prii!ls reoesserunt, qudm compertum 
est, somno paulisper acquiescere. Hino oertiorem spem sa- 
iutis ejus in castra retulerunt. 

YI. 19. Rex, ^ septem diebus onrato vulnere, necdunoi 
obduot& cicatrice, ctim audisset convaluisse apud Barbaros 
fiimam mortis suse, duobus navigiis junctis, statu! in medium 
undiqud conspicuum tabemaculum jussit, ex quo se osten- 
deret ^ periisse credentibus : conspectusque ab incolis, ' spem 
hostium falso nuncio conceptam inhibuit. ^Secundo deindd 
amne defluxit, aliquantum intervalli a caster^ classo prseci- 
piens, ne quies corpori invalido adhuc necessaria pulsu remo- 
rum impediretur. Quarto postquim navigare cooperat die, 
perrenit in regionem, desertam quidem ab incolis, sed fru- 
mento et pecoribus abundantem. Placnit is locus, et ad 
suam, et ad militum requiem. Mos erat prinoipibus amioo* 
rum, et custodibus corporis, excubare ante praatorium, quoties 
Begi adyersa yaletudo incidisset. Hoc turn more quoque 
servato, uniyersi cubiculum ejus intrant. lUe sdilicitus, ne 


quid nori aferrent, quia simnl yeiieraiit, perconiattir ntim 
hostinm recens nunciaretnr adyentus. 

20. At Grateras, cni maDdatum erat, nt amioomm preeea 
perferret ad eum, " * Credisne," inquH. " adventu magis ho8- 
tium, at jam in vallo consisterent, qudm car& salutis tnse, nt 
nnno est tibi vilis, nos esse soUicitos ? Quantalibet tis om- 
nitim genthim conspiret in nos, impleat armis virisqne totnm 
orbem, dassibns maria consternat, inusitatas belluas indnoat, 
tn nos pTsestabis inyiotos. 8ed qnis Deorum boe Maoedoni» 
colnmen ac sidns diatnmnm fore polliceri potest, ciim tarn 
ayide manifestis periculis ofiferas corpus, * oblitus tot ciyium 
animas trabere te in oasum ? Quis enim tibi superstes aut 
optat esse, aut potest? E5 pervenimns, auspicium atqne 
imperium secuti tuum, undo nisi te reduce, nulli ad penates 
Buos iter est." 

'* ^ Quod si adhuc de Persidis regno cum Dario dimioares, 
etsi nemo vellet, tamen ne admirari quidem posset, tarn 
prompt» esse te ad omne discrimen audacise. Nam ubi 
paria sunt periculum ac praemium, et ' secundis rebus amplior 
fructus est, et adversis solatium majus. * Tuo yerd capite 
ignobilem yicum emi quis ferat, non tuorum modd militum, 
sed nllius etiam gentis barbar» '^oiyis, qui tuam magnitu- 
dinem noyit? Horret animus cogitatione rei, quam paul6 
antd yidimus. " Eloqui timeo, inyioti corporis spoUis iner- 
tissimos manus fuisse injecturos, nisi te ^' interceptum miseri- 
cors in nos fortuna serydsset." 

^' Totidem proditores, totidem desertores sumns, quot te 
non potuimus persequi. "Uniyersos licet ignominiU notes, 
nemo recusabit lucre id, quod, ne admitteret, prsestare non 
potuit. Patere nos, quasso, alio modo esse yiles tibi. Qud- 
cumque jusseris, ibimus : obscura pericula, et ignobiles pug- 
nas nobis deposcimus ; temetipsum ad ea serya, qusd magni- 
tudinem tuam '^ capiunt. Oitd gloria obsolescit in sordidis 
bbstibuB. Nee qtiidquam indignius est, qu&m consumi earn, 
ubi non possit ostendi." Eadem ferd Ptolemastls, et similia 
iis caeteri. Jamque confusis yocibus flentes eum orabant, 


**ut tandem ezsaitiat» laudi modtun fkceret, ao «alirti suse, li 
est publicdd, parceret. 

21. Grata erat Begi^'pietas amioorum. Itaque sioiriilos 
^unilkriiis amplezos, eonsidere jubet, "alti^ue Bermone 
repetito, "Yobis quidem," inquit, ^'0 fidissimi piissimiqtt» 
ciyiiun atque amicoram, grates ago, babeoque, nan solium «o 
nomine, qudd bodi^ salutem meam vestraB prsoponitis, aed 
qn6d a primordiis belli, nollnm erga me beneyokntis&^pigniis 
atque indicinm omisistb : adeb at confitendnm sit, nunqokm 
mihi vitam meam fuisse taoL oaram, quim esse coopit, ut 
Tobis din frni possun. ^^C»teriltm non eadem est eogitotio 
eoram, qui pro me mori'Optant, et mea; qui qtiidem baaic 
benevolentiam yestram virtute meruisse me judico. Yos enim 
diutumum fractum ez me, forsitan etiam perpetaum, perci- 
pere eupitis. Ego me metier non setatis spaiio, sed glorisa^ 
Licnit patemis opibus ^'centento intra Maeedom» terminos 
per otium corporis exspeetare obscoram et ignobilem s^ieeto- 
tem. *^ Quanquam ne pigri qoidem sibi fata disponunt ; Bed 
imicum bonum diutumam vitam asstimautes 8»pe acerba 
mors oocnpat. Yen\m ego, qui non annos meos, sed vio- 
torias nnmero, si munera fortunse bend oomputo, din vizL" 

^^ Orsus a Macedonia imperiom GrseciaB teneo ; Tbraoiam 
et Illjrios subegi; Tribailis, Medisque impero; Asiam, qui 
HeUesponto, qui rubro mari allultur, possideo. Jamqoe 
baud procul absum a fine mondi Quem egressus, aliam nata- 
ram, alium orbem aperire mfihi statui. '* Ez Asia in Su* 
ropss terminos memento unius horsd transivi, Yiotw utriiu^ 
que re^onis post nonum regni mei, post yigesimum atque 
octayum setatis annum, ^ yideorne yobis in excolendi. glorii^ 
cui me uni deyoyi, posse cessare ? Ego yer6 noa deero, et 
ubicumqud pugnabo, in theatro terrarum orbis esse me ore- 
dam. Dabo nobilitatem i^obilibus loeis. Aperaam eunetis 
gentibtts terras^ quae natura lon^ sul»noyerat. In his operi* 
bus eztingtti mihi (si sors ita feret) polchrom est Ed stirpe 
sum genitus, ut ^ multam priiis quam longam yitam debeam 

LIBX& IX. CAP. VXI. 289 

^ Obieero tob, oogitete nos peireniBBe in tenrM, *^ qmbi» 
loemiii» ob yirtatem oeleberrimam nom^ eat. Qnas urbes 
Semiramia oondidit? quae gentes redegit in potestatemf 
qiaata opera molita est ? Nondmn foBminam SBquavimna glo- 
ria, et jam nos laadis satietas cepit f '* DU fayeant, majora 
adliiic reBtant. Sed ita nostra emnty qn» nondnm attigiitnis, 
m. nihil parvmn dnxerimns, in quo magnso glori» looos est 
Yos modo me ab intestinS. firande, et domestieornm insidiia 
piaBState seonrom ; belli Martisqne diserimen impavidns sab- 
ibo. Philippns in ade tatior qn4m in theatre fait. Hostinm 
nmiros eae^^ yitavit, snorom efii^ere non yaloit. Alionim 
quoqae Begum ezitos si repntayeritis, plures a sois qu^m ab 
liOBte interemptos numerabitia" 

^^'G»teri\m, qaoniam olim rei agitated in animo meo, 
nnaG promendas ooeasio oblata est; mihi mazimos labomm 
atque operom meonmi erit fractos, si Olympias mater immor- 
talitati eonseoretur, qoandocumque ezcesserit yitL ""Si 
licaerit, ipse preestabo hoc. Si me ^" prssoeperit fatam, ^ yos 
mandSfise mementote." At turn qnidem amioos dimisit. Cao- 
terum per oomplores dies ibi statiya habuit. 

YIL 22. H»o dum in Indid gemntur, Grsdci milites, 
unper in oolonias a Rege dedacti circa Bactra, ort4 inter ipsos 
sediticme, defecerant, * non tam Alexandre infensi, qn&m metii 
BUf^lieii: qtuppe occisis qnibnsdam popnlariom, 'qui yali- 
4iores erant, arma spectare cospenmt. £t Bactxian& arce, 
quae quasi negligentiiis asseryata erat, occapatd, Barbaros qno- 
qae in societatem defectionis impnlerant. Athenodoros erat 
prinoeps eomm, qui Begis qn6que nomen assnmpserat, non 
tam imperii oapidine, qoim in patriam reyertendi com iis, qui 
anotoritatem ipsius sequebantur. Huic Bicon qoidam nationis 
ejusdem, sed ob SMnulationem infestus, comparayit insidias, 
inyitatumqne ad epulas per Boxmn quemdam Macarianum in 
conyiyio occidit. Postero die concione adyocati Bicon ultrd 
insidiatom sibi Athenodomm plerisqae persnaserat. Sed 
aliis sospecta fraus erat Biconis, et paulatim in plures coepit 
manare suspicio. Itaque GrsBci milites arma eapiunt, ooeisori 


Biaonem, si cburetiir ocoaab. Gsstenbn prinoipes eofimi man 
iiialtitudiniB mitigaveraxit. Prater spem saam. Bioon prse- 
senti periculo ereptus, paul6 post insidiatus auotoribus saliiiifl 
soad est^ cujuB dolo cogoito, et ipsum comprehenderunt, et 
Bozum. Caeterum Boxum protinus plaeuit interfioi, Bico- 
B/em etiam per cruciatum necarL Jamque corpori tonn^ita 
admovebaxitiir, ciim Grseci milites, (iuoertuiu ob quam causam), 
Ijmpluitia similes ad arma discorrunt. Quorum fremitu exau- 
dito, qui torquere Bicouem jussi erant, omis^re, yeriti ne id 
facere tumultuantium vociferatione prohibereutur. l\le, sicut 
nudatus erat, pervenit ad Grsecos, et ' miserabilis facies sup- 
plicio destinati in diversum animos repents mutayit, dimitti- 
que eum jusserunt Hoc modo poeud bis liberatus, cum 
cseteris, qui colouias a Eege attributas reliqueruut, reyertit 
iu patriam. Haec circa Bactra. et Scjtharum termmos gesta. 

23. Interim Begem duarum gentium ^(de quibus antd 
dictum est) centum legati adeunt. Omnes curru yehebantur^ 
ezimid magnitudine corporum, decoro habitu: lineae yestes 
^intexta» auro, purpuraque distincts^ Ei se dedere ipscNa;, 
urbes, agrosque referebant, per tot astates inyiolatam liberta- 
tem iUius primilm fidei ditionique permissuros. Deos sibi 
deditionis auctores, non metum : quippe " intactis yiribus ju- 
gum excipere. Bex, consilio habito, deditos in fidem accepit, 
stipendio, quod Arachosiis utraque natio pensitabat, imposito. 
Praetere^ duo millia et quingentos ^ equites imperat : et omnia 
obedienter a Barbaris facta. Inyitatis deindd ad epulas 1^^ 
tis gentium, regulisque, exornari conyiyium jussit. Centum 
aurei lecti jnodicis interyallis positi erant Lectos circom* 
dederat aulasa, purpura auroque fulgentia; "quidquid aut 
apud Persas yetere luxu, aut apud Macedonas noya immuta- 
tione oorruptum erat, confusis utriusque gentis yitiis, in illo 
oonyiyio ostendens. Intererat epulis Dioxippus AtheniensiSy 
pugil nobilis, et ob eximiam yirtutem yirium, jam Begi per- 
notus et gratus. Inyidi malignique increpabant " per seria et 
ludum, saginati corporis sequi iuutilem belluamj ciUm ipeal 
praolium inirent, oleo madentem praeparare yentrem epulis. 

LiBBA IX* Ch,:- VII. 288 

Iladem igitar in oonvmo Horratas Mftoedo jam temtilentaii 
ezprobrare ei ooepit, et postulare, ut n vir esset, postero dk 
Beonm feno deoemeret: Begem tandem vel de sad temeri- 
tate, vdi de illius igiuvid jadicatanaiL Et a Diozippo, eon- 
iemptim militarem eludedte ferociam, aoc^>ta conditio est. 

24; Ao postero die Bex, cum etiam aeries certamen ez* 
poscerent qnia deterrere non poterat, destinata ezseqni passus 
est. Ingens hie milittim, inter qnos erant Grseei, qui Dioxippd 
studebant, conyeneratmuLtitndo. Macedo ^* justa anna sump^ 
serat : aereum clypenm, ^^ hastam, qnam sarissam yocant, 
he^k tenens, deztr& lanceam: gladioque oinotas, yelut cmn 
plnribus simid dimicatorus. Dioxippus oleo nitens, et oor<v 
natnSy Isev^ ^^pmiioeum amiculum, dextrd yalidum nodosum- 
que stipitem prseferebat. Ea ipsa res omnium animos exspeo- 
tatione suspenderat : quippe armato congredi nudum, dem^i* 
tia, non temeritas yidebatur. Igitur Maoedo, baud duMus 
emimis interfici ^' posse, lanceam emisit: quam Dioxippus 
ci\m exiguSi corporis declinatione yit^sset, antequam ille bas- 
tam transferret in dextram, assiluit et stipite mediam earn 
fregit. Amisso utroque telo, Macedo gladium coaperat strin- 
gere : ^* quern occupatum eomplexu, pedibus repents subductis, 
IHoxippus arietayit in terram : ereptoque gladio, pedem super 
eeryicem jaoentis imposuit, stipitem intentans, "eHsurusque 
eo yictom, ni probibitus esset^ a Bege. Tristis spectaculi 
veyentus non Macedonibus modd, sed etiam Alexandre fuit, 
maxime quia Barbari affuerant: quippe celebratam Macedo- 
Bum fortitudinem ad ludibrium recidisse yerebatur. Hinc ad 
criminationem inyidorum adapertse sunt aures Begis. Et 
post paucos dies inter epulas aureum poculum '* ex composite 
subdueitur : ministrique quasi amisissent, quod amoyerant, Be- 
gem adeunt. 8ssp^ minus est constantisd in " rubore, quam 
in culpd. Oonjectum oeulorum, quibus ut fur destinabatur, 
Dioxippus ferre non potuit. Et cdm exoessisset conyiyio, 
litteris conscriptis, quae Begi redderentur, ferro se interemit. 
Ghrayiter mortem ejus tulit Bex, existimans indignationis essey 

Mm paNiitontiie tettem ; **utii|iie poBtqnAxii &bd iiwimwlftfam 
tun, nimiuin invidionun gaadium ostendit. 

YIIL 25. Indorum legati dimis&i domos, paaois post 
diebuB omm donis revertimtur. Trecenti erant equites, milie 
trigipta ciutuB) qaoa quadrijngi eqni daoebant ; line» Yestis 
aliquantum, mille scuta Indica, et ' ferri caadidi talenta oen- 
tam; leoneaque rarsB magnitodiniSy et tigres, atromque am* 
malad mansuetadineni domitum; laoertamm qnoque ingen* 
iiom pellea, et dorsa testudinum. Orat^o deinde imperat 
KeZ| ' hand {htocuI amne, per quern erat ipse nayigaturus, 
oopias duceret. Eos autem, qui comitari eum solebant, im* 
ponit in naves, et in &ies Mallorum secundo amne devehitur. 
Inde Sabraoas adiit, yalidam Indise gentem, qu£e * populi, non 
Begum imperio regebatur. Sezaginta miliia peditum habe- 
bant, equitum octo miUia : has copias currus quiogenti seque* 
bantur. Tres duces spectatos virtute bellied elegerant. At 
qui in agris erant prozimi flumini, (firequentes autem yioos 
mazimd in rip& habebant), ut yiddre totum anmem, ^qu4 
prospioi poterat, navigiis eonstratum, et tot militum arma 
fulgentia, territi novd facie, Deorum ezercitum, et alium 
Xiiberum Patrem, celebre in illis gentibus nomen, adventare 
oredebant ^Hino militum clamor, hinc remorum pulsus, 
yaria^ue nautarum yoces hortantium, payidas aures impleye* 
rant £rg6 uniyersi ad eos, qui in armis erant, currant^ 
*furere clamitantes, cum Diis prselium initurbs. Nayigia non* 
posse numerari, qu» inyictos yeherent. Tantumque in ezer- 
eitum suorum intul^re terroris, ut legatos mitterent gentem 

26. His in fidem acceptis, ad alias deinde gentes quarto 
die peryenit ^Nihil6 plus animi his fuit, quim casteris 
fuerat. Itaque oppido ibi condito, quod Alezandriam appel- 
lari jusserat, fines eorum, qui Musicani appellantur, intrayit. 
'Hie de Teriolte Satrape, quern Paropamisadis prsDfecerat, 
iisdem arguentibus, cognoyit : multaque ayard ac superbd 
feoisse oonyictum, interfici jussit. Ozartes Prater Baotria* 
norum non absolutus modd, sed etiam jure amoris amplioris im- 


'ii donatas esfefiiiilmfl. MusiesiiiB demde in ditioDem redMv 
, urbi eoram prsasidimn impoamt. Inde Prasstos, et ipsatt 
iisQ gentem penrentam est. Oxycamis Bex erat, qui se 
mit» «rbi earn magnsb maau popnkriiini inclnserat. Haae 
exander tertio die qnam ooeperat obeidere^ expngnayii 

Oxjcantis cdm in arcem confdgisset, legaioB de oonditione 
iitionis misit ad Regem. Sed antequam adirent enm« dn» 
res enm ingenti fragore prooiderant, per quamm niinaa 
Lcedones eyasdre in aroem : qn& capt&, Ozyoanns onm 
icis repngnans oooidiiiir. ]>init& igitnr aroe, et omnibw 
Dtivis venondatiSy Sabi regis fines ingressns est, multia- 
e oppidis in fidem aoeeptis, yalidissimam gentis nrbem 
Dicttlo cepit Barbaris ' simile monstri visum est, rudibas 
litarium opemm ; quippe in medi4 fermd urbe armati terrft 
istebant, '^nuilo suffossi speeds antd yestigio faoto. Oeto- 
ita millia Indorum in e& regione csesa Olitarchus est auctor, 
tltosque eaptiyos " sub coron& " yenisse. 

27. Burstls Musicani defeoerant, ad quos opprimendos 
ssus est Pithoni qui oaptum principem gentis, eumdemque 
feetionis auetorem, adduxit ad Regem. Quo Alexander in 
loem sublato, mrsus amnem, in quo elassem exspectare ae 
sserat, repetit. Quarto deinde die, seoundo amne peryenit 

oppidum qu4 iter in regnum erat Sabi. Nuper se Hie 
diderat, sed oppidani detreetabant imperium, et elauserant 
rtas. Quorum paucitate contempts, Rex quingentos Agti- 
OS moBuia subire jusserat, et sensim reoedentes elieere extra 
iros hostem, secuturum profeetd, si fugere eos erederet. 
rriani (sicut imperatum erat) laeessito hoste, subit6 terga 
rtunt, quos BarbaH effuse sequentes, in alios, inter quos 
^e Rex erat, incidunt. Renoyato ergd prselio, ex tribos 
llibus Barbarorum sexcenti esesi sunt, mille capti, oseteri 
Buibus urbis inelasi. " Sed non ut primd specie Ueta yio- 
ria, itA eyentus quoque fuit : quippe Barbari yeneno tinx« 
ant gladios. Itaque saueii subinde exspirabant. Neo 
usa tarn ^^strenu» mortis exeogitari poterat a medicis, ci\m 
lam leyes plagie insanabiles essent '* Barbari autem spe* 


nyerant, inoantom et temerarivm Begem '* ezoipi posse. " Bl 
fortd inter promptissimos dimicans, mtaotus eyaserai. 

28. Prseoipae Ptolemseas, l»yo hnmero leviter quidem 
saueins, sed " majore pericak) qnim vulnere affeetns, B^ds 
sollioitadmem in se oonverterat. Sanguine oonjnnotiis erat, 
et qoidam Philippe genitam esse eredebaat; certd pellioe 
ejus ortam constabat. Idem corporis castos, promptissimns- 
que bellator, et paois artibtis, qndm militisa major et clarior, 
** modico civilique onltn, liberalis imprimis aditnque £fteilts, 
nihil ex ^tu regio assnmpserat. Ob hsso Kegi an popnlari* 
bus carior esset dnbitari poterat : tnm cert^ prim^m expertns 
snonim animos, ade5 ut fortunam, in qnam postea ascendit, 
in illo perioulo Macedones ominati esse rideantur. Quippe 
non leyior illis Ptolemssi fait cura, qnam Begi ; qui et praslio 
et sollicitudine fatigatus onm Ptolemseo assideret, leetam, in 
quo ipse acqaiesceret, jussit inferrL In qnem ut se reoepit, 
protiniis **altior insecutus est somnns. Ex quo excitatos^ 
per qnietem yidisse se exponit speciem draoonis '^oblatam 
herbam ferentis ore, qnam yeneni remedium esse monstr^sset 
Golorem qu6que herbsd referebat, " agniturum, si qnis repe- 
risset, affirmans ; inyentamqne deinde, qnippe a mnltis simnl 
erat reqnisita, ynlneri imposuit: protim^sqne dolore finite, 
intra breye spatium cicatrix qndqne obducta est Barbaros 
nt prima spes fefellerat, seipsos nrbemqne dediderant Hinc 
in proximam gentem Fataliam peryentum est Bex erat 
Moeris, qui urbe deserts in montes profugerat. Itaqne 
Alexander oppido potitor, agrosque popnlatnr. Magn» inde 
prffidce aotfid sunt peoorum armentommque, magna yis reperta 
framenti. Dnoibns deinde samptis amnis peritis, defloxit ad* 
insnlam medio fermd alyeo ** enatam. 

IX. 29. Ibi diuticks sabsistere coactns, ^ quia duces sooor- 
di^s asseryati profagerant, misit qui conquirerent alios: 
*neo repertis, peryicax cnpido incessit yisendi Oceanam, 
adeundique terminos mundi ; ut sine regionis peritis, flomini 
ignoto caput suum, totque fortissimorum yirorum salutem, 
permitteret. Nayigabant erg6, omnium, per qua» ferebantor 

LIBBB tX. OAP. XX. tt9 

[iiari: quantdm ind^ abesset mare, qn» gentes ooleren^ 
lam placidum amnis os, ' qu&m patiens longarom naTiom 
!set, anceps et caeoa sestimatio angorabatur. Uaum erat 
^meriiatis solatmni) perpetaa felicitas. Jam * qoadringenta 
adia prooesserant, oiim gubernatores agnoscere ipaos ^ aaram 
aris, et baud proenl yideri aibi Oceanum abesae, indioaai 
egi. Lflstas ille bortari nautioos coepit, incumberent remisi 
[esse finem laboris omnibus votis expetitum. Jam nibil 
oriaB deesse, nihil obstare yirtuti. Sine ullo Martis dia- 
imine, sine sanguiae orbem terras ab iUis capL No naturam 
lidem longi^s posse prooedere ; brevi inoognita, nisi immor* 
libus, esse visuros. Pauoos tamen nayi^o emisit in ripamy 
i agrestes yagos exoiperent, e qnibos certiora nosci posse 
erabat Illi sorntiUi omnia tuguria, tandem latentes repe- 
re. Qui interrogati qustm prooul abessent mari, respondor 
at nullum ipsos mare ne fam& quidem acoepisse. Cseterilm 
*tio die peryeniri posse ad aquam amaram, qu» oorrumperet 
Icem. Intelleetum est mare destinari ab ignaris natur» 
IS. Itaque ingenti alacritate nautiei remigant, et proxime 
oque die, ' quo propiiis spes admoyebatur, erescebat ardor 
imorum. Tertio jam die mixtum flumini 'subibat mar^ 
i adhue msta confiindente dispares undas. Tom aUam 
isulam medio amni sitam eyeoti pauld lentiiks, quia oursua 
tu reyerberabatur, appUeant olassem, et ad oommeatua 
;endo8 discurrunt, 'secnri casiks ejus qui superyenit ig- 

30. Tertia fermd bora erat, oiim ^*stat& yice Ooeanua 
estuans inyehi eoepit, et retrd flumen urgere. "Quod 
md coercitum, deindd yehementiils pukmm, majore impetu 
rersum agebatur, qudm torrentia prssoipiti alyeo inourrunt. 
iota yulgo freti natura erat, monstraque, et irae Detlm in^ 
ia cemere yidebantur. Identidem intumeseere mare, et in 
ipos pauld ant^ siooos desoendere superfusum. Jamque 
tyatis nayigiis, et toti elasse dispersit, qui expositi erant, 
lique ad nayes trepidi et improyiso malo attoniti reourruut 
I in tumnltn festinatio qndque tarda est. Hi oontia nayi- 

gift appliflabftnt ; hi, dum eonaiderent, remos aptari proliibe- 
iHUftt. Quidam enavigare properantes, sed non ^* ezspeotatis 
qui simul esse debebant, ^clauda et inhabUia navigia languid^ 
moliebaatiir. Alise naviam inconsalte ruentes omnes reoepe- 
vant ; pariterqae et multitude et paucitas festinantes mora- 
batur. Glamor hino exspectare, hiac ire jubentium, disao- 
meque voces nusquam idem ac unum teodentium, non ecu- 
loram mod6 usum, sed etiam aurium abstolerant* Ne in 
gnbematoribtts quidem quidquam opis erat, quorum nee ez- 
aadiri tox a tumultuantibus poterat, neo imperium a territis 
iaeompoBitisque servari Erg6 oollidi inter se naves " abater' 
gerique invioem remi, et alii aliorum navigia *urgere coepe* 
rant. Crederes non unins exercitils classem vehi, sed duomm 
Bavale inisse oertamen. Inoutiebantur puppibus pror», pre- 
mebantur a sequentibus, qui antecedentes turbaverant. Jur* 
gantinm ira ^' perveniebat etiam ad manus. 

31. Jamque aostus totoe oirea flumen campos inundaverat, 
tomulis duntaxat eminentibus, veluti insnlis parvis, in quos 
plerique trepidi omissis navigiis enare ooepemnt. Disp^sa 
elassis parttm in praealt^ aqua stabat, qu^ subsederant valles ; 
partim in vado bsBrebat, utcumque inasquale terras fastigiom 
oooupaverant undfie, ciYm subitd novuB et pristine major terror 
iBCutitur. Beciprocare coepit mare, magno traetu aquis in 
fluum fretum reeurrentibus, reddebatque terras pauld usM 
profundo salo mersa& Igitor destituta navigia, alia pcaecipi- 
tantur in proras, alia in latera procumbunt. Strati erant 
campi sardnis, armis, avulsanun tabnlarum remorumque frag- 
raentis. Miles neo egredi in terram, nee in naves subaistere 
audebat, identidem prsBsentibus graviora qo» sequerentur 
exapectans. Yix quas perpetiebantur, videre ipsos credebant ; 
in siceo naufragia, in amni mare : neo finis malmrum; ^^quippe 
ffistum panld pdst mare relatormn, quo navigia aUevarentur, 
ignari, famem et ultima sibimet ommabantcor. Belluie quoquo 
fluetibus destitutae, terribiles vagabantur. Jamque nox appe- 
t^lMtt, et Begem qud<]pe desperatio saluUa a^itodine affeee- 
rat. NoQ tamen. iaviotum animum ouraa obmmt, qmn tot& 

LIBBA IX. OAF. X. 241 

noote pnesuleEet in speanltfi eqnitaqae pxaanutieret ad ot 
amnifl, ut ciim mare nurs^ exnainare senabseni) pr«oedevent. 
Nayigia qu6qae lacerata refici, et everaa fluctibiia erigi jnfeety 
paratosque esse et intentoB eihu rorsuB uiare terras ina^ 

32. Toti ei noote inter vigiliaa adhortatioaeaqne eon* 
sumptd, celeriter eqnites ingenti oarm vefog^ze, et aeentos eat 
sestua» Qui primd, aquis leni tractn subeontibiiB, oooj^t lerraM 
oavigia : niox totis campis innndaoa, etiam impolit dasaem : 
plausosque militum nauUcoroiaqiie, insperatam Balnteni !»• 
modieo celebrantium gaudio, littoribns ripisque resonabat. 
Unde tantom redlaset aubitd laare ? qu6 |«idiie refogisaeil 
quadnam easet ejnsdem elementi natora, modd diaoors, inedd 
imperio temporom obnoxia? mirabnndi leqnirebaat Bex 
ciim ex eO| quod aociderat, oonjeetaret, poet aolia ortam "ata* 
tun tempuB esse, medil^ noote, ut «Qetmn ooooparet, onm 
paucia navigiia seoundo amne deiuxit: eTeotosqoe oa ejus 
quadringenta stadia joooessit in mare. Tandem Toti sui eom* 
pos, prsBsidibus et maris et looorum Diis saorifioio faoto, ad 
olassem rediit. 

X. 33. Hinc adyersum flumen subiit dasaia; et altOM 
die appulsa est baud procul laou aalso, oajoa ijgnota nakura 
plerosque deoepity temere ingresses aqnam; qoippe ^aoabiea 
corpora inyasit: et contagium morbi etiam in alioa vnlgatiim 
est. Oleum remedio fuit. Leonato ddndd pnemissOi xi% 
pntaos £oderet, ' qua t^restri itinere dnoturos exeroitam yi» 
debatur (quippe siooa «rat r^gio) ipaa eum oopiia anbattlity 
yernom tempus exspeetaus. Interim et urbes portosque eon- 
didit» Nearcbo atque Onesicrito, nantiose rei peritis, impera- 
yit, at yalidiBsimas nayimn deducerent in Ooeanom, progres- 
sique quoad tut6 possent, naturam maiia noaoerent: yel 
eodem amne, yel Supbrate subiie eos pease, etbn reyerti ad 
ae yellent. Jamqne mitigate byeme et nayibus, qnao inntiiea 
yidebantur, crematis, teird dooebat exeroitonk Nonia oaa- 
tria in i^i^onem Arabitamm, inde totidem diebua in Oedro* 
aionun xegionem peryentom eat Liber bio popnlus, oonoilio 

342 42UINTI OVRTil 

kabiio, dadidit se, neo qnidqnam deditis prseter oommeatiis 
imperatiim est. Qointo hinc die venit ad fiumen; AraJbon 
inool» appellant. Regie deserta et aqnarom inops excipit, 
qvam emensuB in Oritas transit. Ibi majorem ezercitAa 
partem Hephiestioni tradidit: levem armatoram cum Ptole- 
Bieo Leonatoque partitus est Tria Bimnl a^mina populaban- 
iur IndoB, magnaoqae prssdae aotao sunt. Maritimos Ptole- 
msoB, cseteros ipse Bex et ab ali& parte Leonatns orebant» 
In h&o qnoqiie regione nrbem oondidit, ' dednctiqne sunt in 
earn ArachosiL Hinc pervenit ad maritimos Indos. Deser* 
tam yastamqne regionem late tenent, ae ne oom finitimis qui- 
dem ullo conimercii jure miBoentnr. Ipsa solitodo nat«ir4 
qnoqne immitia e&rayit ingenia. Prcmiinent nngaes nim- 
qnam reoisL Oomaef hirsutas, et intons» sunt. Tugoria oon« 
ehis et csBteria pnrgamentas maris instmnnt. Feramm pelli* 
bus teotiy piscibns sole dnratis, et maj(tfiim qnoque belloanxmi 
qnas flactus ejioit, came yescmitar. Oonsnmptis igitor ali- 
modtis, Maoedones prim6 inopiam, deindd ad ultimiim famem 
sentire ooaperunt, radioes pafanaram (namqae sola ea arbor 
gignitnr) ubiqne ^ rimantes. Sed cillm hsBO quoque alimenta 
defecerant, jnmenta osedere a^ressi, ne eqois qtudem abstine- 
bant : et aiki deessent qnie sarcinas veherent, spolia de hoa* 
tibos propter qn«9 nltima Orientis peragraTecaat, Gremabaat 

34. Famem deinde pestilentia secnta est; qnippe insaln^ 
biiiun ciborom novi suooi, ad boo itineris labor, et eogritado 
animi, vulgaverant morbos; et, neo manere sine olade, neo 
j^ogredi poterant Manentes flEimes, progresses acrior pes* 
tilentia nrgebat. Srg6 strati erant eampi pen^ pluribns 
saniriTis, qo^ oadaveribaB. Ao ne levids quidem aegri seqni 
poterant: qnippe agmen raptim agebatur, *tantam singulis 
ad spem salntis ipsos profioere oredentibas, qnaatom itineris 
fastinando prsBriperent. Igitor qui defeoerant, notes ignotos* 
qae nt allevarentor, orabant. Sed neo jnmenta erant, qnibos 
ezoipi possent, et miles vix arma portabat, 'imminentisqne 
etiam Ipsia fiunes nudi ante oonles erat Brg6 S8^i\s reyo- 

LIBER IX. CAP. X. 243 

eati ne respicere qoidem snos sastinebant, misericordid in 
formidinem versel. Illi relicti ' Deos testes, sacra eommimia, 
Begisque implorabant opem. Oiimque frustra surdas aures 
iatigarent, in rabiem desperatione verei, parem suo exitnm, 
Bimilesqne ipsis amicos et contubernales precabantur. Bex 
dolore simul et pudore anxius, quia causa tantae pladis ipse 
esset, ad Phrataphemem Parthormn Satrapem misit, qni 
jnberet camelia cocta oibaria afferre. Alios qnoqne finitima- 
nim regionum prasfeotos, certiores 'necessitatis easd fecit: 
' neo cessatum est ab his. Itaqne fame dnntaxat vindicatos 
exerdtus, tand^n in Gkdrosias fines perducitnr. Omnium 
rerum sola fertilis rqgio est, in qud stativa babuit, ut vexatos 
milites quiete firmaret. H!c Leonati litteras accipit, oon- 
flixisse ipsum cum octo millibus peditum, et quingentis equiti- 
bus Oritarum, prospero eventu. A Cratero quoque nuncius 
venit, Orzinem et Zariaspem nobUes Persas defeetionem 
molientes pppressos a se, in yinculis esse. 

35. Praapoaito igitur regioni Siburtio (namque Memnon 
Prsefectus ejus nuper interierat morbo) in Carmaniam ipse 
prooessit. Aspastes erat Satrapes gentis, suspectus res novare 
Yoluigse dum in IndiS Bex esset. Quern occurrentem, dissi- 
mulate ird, oomiter allocutus, dum exploraret quad delata 
CTant, in eodem bonore babuit. Ci!lm Indias Prasfecti (sicut 
imperatum erat) equorum, jumentorumque jugalium vim ia- 
gentem, ex omni, quae sub imperio erat, regione misissent, 
quibns deerant impedimenta, restituit. Arma quoque ad pris- 
tinmn ref&ota sunt oultum: quippe baud procul a Persidu 
aberant, non paeat& modd sed etiam opulentd. Igitur (ut 
supra dictum est) semulatus Patris Liberi non gloriam solium, 
quam ex illis gentibus deport9,yerat, sed etiam insaniam. 
(sire illud triumpbus fuit ab eo primum institutus, siye bao> 
chantium lusus), animo super bumanum £astigium elato vicos, 
per quos iter erat, floribus coronisque stemi jubet. Limini- 
bas asdium crateras vino repletas, et alia eximias magnitudinis 
vaaa disponi. Yebicula deinde ^ constrata, ut plures capere 
loilites possent, in tabemaculorum modum omari, aJia candi- 

244 QViNTi eu&Tii 

dis Telis, alia veste pretios^ Primi ibant amid, et eohon 
regia, variis redimita floribas ooronisque. Alibi tibioinum 
cantus, alibi lyrae sonus audiebatar : item in yehicolis pro 
oopi& cujuaque adornatis, oommessabandus ezercitos, armis, 
quse mazime decora erant, circnmpendentibaB : ipsnm convi- 
vasque corros yehebat, crateris aureis ejasdemqae materise 
ingentibus pooulis ^^ prsdgravis. Hoc modo per dies septem 
bacchabnndum agmen incessit, ^ parata praoda, si quid yictis 
saltern adyersns comessantes animi foisset: mille meheroule 
yiri, mod6 et sobrii, septem dierum erapulS. graves in suo 
triompho oapere potnerunt. Sed fortona, " qu» rebus funam 
pretiumque constituit, hie qudque miiitiad probrom vertit in 
gloriam. Et ^^prassens sdtas, et posteritas deindd mirata est, 
per gentes nondum satis domitas inoessisse temulentos, Bar- 
baris, quod temeritas erat, fiduciam esse oredentibus. Hime 
apparatum eamifez sequebatur. Quippe Satrapes Aspaates 
(de quo ante dictum est) interfioi jussus est : aded neo luznriao 
quidquam cmdelitas, neo crudditati luzuria obstat. 

^ »» 



1. Oleander et alii daces delictoram veniam impetrant, dtim nofnunlH minds fad» 
noTOfii pnniontar. AleaEaadii oonsttlam d« Ocddentali Enrop» piito periwtnodl: 
liberalitas erga Abiaaris fllium ; et in Qreinem, nobiUssimom Satrapam, oradeUtas. 

2. Dnm tnrbatom OneciaB statnm pacare, et ex mllitlbas (ssre alleno llberatfs) 
alios xemlttere domiun, alios retlnere cogltat, In eastris oittnr aeditto: qvam gnnri 
oratione et regis aootiMritate compesciL 

8. Seditlosis snppHcio affectis, totios ezercitfls dlsslpat consllia, et Persia credit ooi^ 
ports sni onstodiam. 

4 Mom Hepbnstionis. Alexander Ingreditnr Babylonem. Cku^ntatio in Alezan- 
druin, qui veneno extingnitor. 

0. Dicta et gesta c|)DSdem ante obttom. Qnantom a sals Aierit desidoratiis; pns- 
eipad Ter6 » BaiUmalre; qua dolod woownbomy panlft ptet extlnetaest Alexaadil 

0. De SDoeessore Alexandri inter mi^ates eonsnttatio, et rtoAm sententUBL 

JU1BX& X. OAF, z. 245 

T. Ailtoiis PMUpiM gpnttai^ Halaigro promomit^ a «loiliiaidni Bck aifaitetar. 

TJndd clvilis belli eemina. 

8. Primarii daces Meleftgri arUbuB oecumiiit ArldKos ratem, ^aOB BtndioBiu^ 
tnoanltam wmpofotue medU qoAdam rattone oonatur. 

9. Perdiocas Mcleagrom et trecentos ferd alioB, qui emn aecati ftieraiit, dolo op- 

10. Aleiandil imperlom In partes dlvJsaiii, cv^w sinninj^ AxUmo trtbntsi FroTinda 
antem magnatibaa. DefUncU corpos ab amieb ooratoin, et tandem Alexandrlam 
JEgypU translatom est 

1. 1. IiSDEU ferd diebns Cleander et Sitalces, et cum 
Agathone Heraoon superveniiint, qui Parmenionem jussu 
J&egiB oceideraot; ^qoinque miUia peditam cam equitibos 
mille. Sed et aocnsatores eos * e provincid, cui prnfuerant^ 
sequebantur : neo tot facinora, qaot admiserant, compensare 
potarant caddis perquam gratse Begi ministerio. Quippe cdm 
omnia profana i^oli^ssent, ne sacris quidem abstiDuerant; 
yirginesque et principes foozninarum, stupra perpess», corpo- 
ram ladibria defiebant. Invisum Macedonum nomeu avaritia 
eorum ac libido Barbaris fecerat. Inter omnes tamen emine- 
bat Cleandri furor, qui nobilem virginem constupratam, servo 
SQO pellicem dederat. Plerique amicorum Alexandri, non 
tarn criminum quad paldm objiciebantur, atrocitatem, qudm 
memoriam occisi per eos Parmenionis, 'quod taciturn prodesse 
reis apud Begem poterat, intuebantur ; ladti reoidisse iram in 
irsB ministros, nee ullam potentiam scelere qiuesitam cuiquam 
esse diuturnam. Bex, cognitd oaus&, pronunciavit, ab aocu- 
satoribus unum et id maximum crimen esse prseteritum, * des- 
perationem salutis suae ; nunquam enim talia ausuros, qui 
ipsum ex Indid sospitem aut optdssent reverti, aut credidis- 
sent reyersarum. Igitur hos quidem yinxit : dc autem mili- 
tum, qui sasyitiaa eorum ministri fuerant, interfioi jussit. 
Eodem die sumptum est supplicium de iis quoque * quos auo- 
tores defectionis Persarum Craterus adduxerat. 

2. Hand mult6 pdst Nearchus et Onesicritns, quos longiiia 
in Oceanum procedere jusserat, snperyeniunt. Nunoiabant 
autem quaedam audita, alia com{>erta. Insulam ostio amnis 
subjeotam auro abundare, inopem equorum esse: singulos 
equos ab iis, qui ex continenti trajicere auderent, singulis 


ialentis emi. Plenum esse bellnamm mare; 'aastu seemido 
eas ferriy magnarum navium corpora ssquantes : ^ truci cantu 
deterritas sequi classem, cnm magno aaquoris strepitu, vdut 
demersa navigia, subisse aquas. " Osetera incolis crediderant: 
inter quae rubrum mare, non a colore undarum, ut plerique 
orederent, sed ab Erythr^ Eege appellari. Esse baud prooul 
a continenti insulam palmis frequentibus consitam, et in 
medio ferd nemore columnam eminere, Erytbras Begis monu- 
mentum, litteris gentis ejus scriptam. Adjiciebanfc, nayigia 
quae lixas mercatoresque vexissent, famam auri secutis guber* 
natoribus, in insulam esse transmissa, neo deinde "ab his 
ppstea visa. Bex cognoscendi plura cupidine accensus, rurstUi 
eoB ^" terram legere jubet, donee ad Euphraten^ appellerent 
classem; inde adverse amne Babylonem subituros. Ipse 
animo infinita complexus statuerat, omni ad Orientem mari- 
time regione perdomitd., ex Syri^ petere Africam, Cartbagini 
infensus : ind6 Numidise solitudinibus peragratis, cursom 
&ade8 dirigere. Ibi namque columnas Herculis esse, fauia 
vulgaverat. Hispanias deind^, quam Iberiam Grseoi a flu- 
mine Ibero vocabant, " adire, et prsBtervebi AlpeS| ItaliseqiM 
cram, unde in Epirum brevis cursus est. Igitur Mesopo* 
tamias Prsetoribus imperayit, materia in Libano monte csos&j 
deTectdk[ue ad urbem Syriae Tbapsacum, o,ctingentarnm cari- 
nas navium ponere ; septiremes omnes esse, deduoique Babj- 
lonem : Cypriorum Begibus imperatum, ut ses, stnpamque et 
Tela prasberent Haec agenti, Fori et Taxilis Begum litterso 
traduntur, Abisarem morbo, Pbilippum Praefectum ipsius 
ex Yulnere interiisse, oppressosque qui vulnerdssent enm. 
Igitur Pbilippo substituit Eudasmonem : Dux erat Tbracum^ 
Abisaris rcgnum filio ejus attribuit. 

3. Yentum est deinde Persagadas: Persioa est gens, 
eujus Satrapes Orsines erat, nobilitate ac divitiis inter omnea 
Barbaros eminens. Genus duoebat a Gyro, qn<mdam Bege 
Persarum. Opes et a majoribus traditas babebat, et ipse 
long& imperii possessione oumulaverat. Is Begi cum omnia 
generis donis, non ipsi mod6 ea, sed etiam amicis ejus di^- 

'XiIBSE X. OAP. I. 347 

ma, ooenrrit Eqnonmi domiti greges seqttebantar, eam»- 

qne argento et auro adornati. Pretioaa eapellezi nobiles 

genmue, anrea magni ponderis mueia, yestesque pnrpnreeB, et 

signati argenti talentilm quatnor millia. Cadterdm tanta b6- 

nignitas Barbaro oanaa mortis ftdt. Nam ebm amioos omneB 

Kegis donis super ipsomm vota ooloisset, Bagoas spadoni, 

qui Alexandre obseqiuo corporis devinx^at sibi, nullum bono- 

rem habuit: admonitusque a quibusdam, qu^m Alexandre 

cordi esset, respondit, amieos Regis, non soorta se colore, hee 

moris esse Persis, mares dueere, qui stupro effceminarentuiL 

His auditis, spado potentiam, flagitid et dedeoore qusBsitam, 

in caput nobilissimi et insontis ^'exercuit. Namque gentis 

ejusdem levissimos falsis criminibus adstruxit, monitos tum 

demum ea deferre, oiim ipse jussissei Interim, quoties une 

arbitris erat, credulas Begis aures implebat, '* dissimulai» 

causam irse, qu6 gravior oriminantis auctoritas esset Nov- 

dum suspectus erat Orsines; '^jam tamen vilior. Beus 

enim in secretb agebatur, latentis periculi ignams : et im- 

portunissimum scortum, no in stupro quidem et dedeoorit 

patienti^ frandis oblitum, quoties amorem regis in se aooen* 

derat, Orsinem modd ayaritiie, interdum etiam defeetionis 


4. Jam matura erant in pemioiem innoeentis mendacia ; 

et &tam, cnjus inevitabilis sors est, appetebat. Fortd enim 

seputohrum Cyri Alexander jussit aperiri, in quo erat eon* 

ditum ejus corpus, cui dare volebat inferias. Auro argento» 

que repletum esse crediderat : quippe iti fam& Perssd Tulga- 

yerant Sed prddter olypeum ejus putrem, arcns duos Scythi* 

cos, et acinacem, nihil reperit Cseter^m coron& aure& im« 

posits, amiculo, cui assueyerat ipse, ^^ solium, in quo corpus 

jaoebat, yelayit; miratus, tanti nominis Begem, tantis prso- 

ditam opibus, baud pretiositis sepultum esse, qu&m si fuisset 

e plebe. Proximus erat lateri spado, qui Begem intuens, 

" Quid mirum," inquit, " est, inania sepulchra esse Begum, 

cum Satraparum domus aurum indd egestum capere non pos- 

Bint ? ^* Quod ad me attinet, ipse boc bustom antea non yide* 


248 QVtNTi ovftTir' 

xsm, sed ez Dario it^ aeoepi, tria millia talenttim oondita esse 
oiun Gyro. Hine ilia benignitas in te, ut, quod impand 
habere non poterat Orsines, donando etiam gratiam iniret." 
Oonoitayerat jam animnm in iram, c5m hi, quibns negotinm 
idem dederat, «aperveniunt. Hino Bagoas, hino ab eo embor- 
nati, falsis criminibns occnpant anres. Anteqnam accnsari 
ee suspioaretur Orsines, in yinoula traditus est. Non conten- 
tos supplicio insontis spado ipse moritnro mannm injecit. 
Quem Orsines intnens, '* Andieram," inqnit, *^ in Asisl olitn 
legnAsse foeminas : hoe Ter6 novam est, regnare castratnm.'^ 
Hie fait exitas nobilissimi Persarum. nee insontis mod6, sed 
eximi» qndque benignitatis in Begem. 

5. Eodem tempore Phradates regnnm affect&sse snspec- 
toB ooeiditnr. " Coeperat esse praeceps '^ad repraesentanda 
■applicia, item ad deteriora eredenda. Seilicet res secnnddo 
Talent eommutare natnram ; et rar6 qnisquam ** erga bona 
ana satis caatus est. Idem enim patil6 antd Lyncestem 
Alezandmm, delatom a duobas indieibns, damnare non sns- 
timierat; hnmiliores qu6qne reos, contra snam yolontatem, 
qnia easteris yidebantor insontes, paBsns absolyi: hostibos 
yiotis regna rediderat. Ad nltimnm a semetipso degenera- 
yit usque aded, ut, ^ adyersus libidinem animi, arbitrio scorti 
aliis regna daret, aliis adimeret yitam. lisdem ferd diebus 
Mtteras a Coeno accepit de rebus in Europd et Aeik gestis, 
dum ipse Indiam subigit. Zopyrio Thracia^ praepositus, dum 
ezpeditionem in Getas faoeret, tempestatibus procellisque 
Bubitd coortis, eum toto exercitu oppressus erat. QuH 
eognit& elade, Seuthes Odrysas populares sues ad defectio- 
nem compulerat» Amiss^ propemodum Thraoi&, ne Graecia 

"* quidem 

[inooneiiflsa tnmulta fait Ci!U& enim Alexmder, ex Indift 
wveKoa, pnefeotoBy qui, desperato «jus redita, saperbe imperftnin^ 
Beyerius punisset, cffiieri quoque, provineiaUnm metucoites acoiiaatioiiei% 
ope mercenariorma mititum, quibus prseerant» et fug& sibi aalutein qa»- 
rebant. Harpalns, Babylonia post Mazsi mortem prsefectus, ciim luxu- 
liose yixlsset, venid desperat&i t millibns talentdm correptis, cmn yi 
millibus m«rceiiarfonmi in Grseciam profbgit, qinbua persoaBerat, b« 

LIBB& X. OAF. II. 249 

p«eiiiii4 «ffeetorom, nt AtHwrifflinwim emta» ttArum» r^gom anna eapial^ 
et coxomimeni canfiBin taeatnr.] 

II. 6. Igitnr triginta navibus Sunium ^ transmittuot, (pro« 
montoriuDi est AtUcse ten»), node ' portum urbis petere de* 
Greveraiit. His eognitis, Rex Harpalo Atheniensibusque 
juzti infestus, classem parari jubet, Athenas protmos peti- 
turus. Quod- consilium dam agitat, clam litter» ei reddun- 
tor, Harpalmn intr^sse quidem Athenas, peounii conciliasse 
sibi principum animos : moz, consilio plebis habito, jossum 
vrbe excedere ad Graeoos milites pervenisse a quibus in> 
teroeptum et a Thimbrone quodam interemptum per insidias. 
His l»tas, in Europam trajiciendi consilium omisit. Sed 
exules,'praeter eos qui civili sanguine aspersi erant, recipi ab 
omnibus Graecorum civitatibuSy queis pulsi erant, jussit. Et 
Grasci baud ausi imperium aspernari, quanquam solvendarum 
legum id principium esse censebant, bona qu6que, quse ex- 
Btarent, restitu&re damnatis. ^Soli Athenienses, non sua» 
mod6, sed etiam publicse vindices libertatis, coUuvionem omni- 
um ordinum quia «egre ferebant, (non regie imperio, sed legi- 
ons moribuaque patriis regi assueti), prohibuere finibus ; omnia 
potius toleraturi, quam purgamenta quondam urbis suse, tunc 
etiam exilii, admitterent. Alexander senioribus militum in 
patriam remissis, tredecim millia peditum, et duo millia equi- 
tum, qu8Q in Asi£t retineret, eligi jussit ; existimans, medico 
exercitu continere posse Asiam, quia pluribus locis j^sesidia 
disposuisset ; nuperque conditas urbes, quae colonis repUssety 
res renovare cupientibus obstare credebat. 

7. Cadterillm, priusquam secerneret quos erat retenturus, 
edixit, ut omnes milites * ass alienum profiterentur. Grave 
plerisque esse compererat ; et quanquam ipsorum luxu contrac- 
turn erat, dissolvere tamen ipse decreverat Illi tentari ipsos 
rati, qud faciliills " ab integris sumptuosos discemeret, prola- 
tando aliquantom extraxerant temporis. Et Bex satis gnarus, 
' professioni ssris pudorem, non contumaciam, obstare, mensaa 
totis castris poni jussit, et ^ decem millia talentorum proferri. 
lam demum ^ fide facta profess! sunt ; nee «mpliils ex tant^ 



peouniA qn&m centmn et triginta talent» sapeifa^re : aded ilia 
exeroitas, tot ditissimarum gentium victor, plus tamen victo- 
riaa qudm prsod» deportayit ex Asi&. Oasteriim, ut cognitum 
est alios remitti domnm, alios retineri, perpetuam eum regni 
sedem in Asid habiturum rati, yecordes et disoiplin» militaria 
immemores, seditiosis vooibus castra complent, Kegemque fe- 
rocii\8 qudm aliks adorti, omnes simul missionem postulare 
coeperunt, deformia ora cioatricibus, canitiemque capitum osten- 
tantes. Nee aut Prsefectorum castigatione, aut ' verecundi4 
Begis deterriti, tumultuoso clamore et militari yiolentii yolen- 
tern loqui inhibebant ; paldm profesm, nusquam inde, nisi in 
patriam, yestigium esse moturos. Tandem silentio facto, ma- 
gis quia ^® motum esse credebant, qu4m quia ipsi moyeri pote- 
rant, quidnam acturus esset, exspectabant. Ille, ^^ Quid base," 
inqiiit, "repens " consternatio, et tam prooax atque effusa 
Ucentia denunoiat ? Eloqui timeo : palslm oertd rupistis im- 
perium, et precari6 Bex sum, oui non alloquendi, non '' nos* 
oendi monendique, aut intuendi yos jus reliquistis. Equidem 
oikm alios dimittere in patriam, alios mecum paul6 post depor- 
tare statuerim, tam illos acclamantes yideo qui abitnri sunt, 
qudm bos cum quibus prsemissos subsequi statui. Quid boo ^ 
est rei ? Dispari in oaus& idem est omnium clamor. ^' Per* 
yelim scire, utrum qui discedunt, an qui retinentur, de me 

8. Grederes uno ore omnes sustulisse clamorem. Ita 
pariter ex totd concione responsum est, '^ Omnes queri.'' Turn 
ille, '^ Non bercul^," inquit, " potest fieri, ut ^* adducar, que- 
rendi simul omnibus banc causam esse quam ostenditis, '* in 
qui major pars exercitds non est ; utpote ciim plures dimise- 
rim, quam retenturus sum. Subest nimirum altius malum, 
quod omnes ayertit a me. Quando enim Begem uniyersua 
exercitus deseruit ? Ne servi quidem uno grege profugiunt 
dominos : sed est quidam in iUis pudor a cseteris destitutos 

" YerDm ego tam furios» constemationis oblitus, remedia 
insanabilibus conor adbibere. Omnem berculd spem quam ex 

LIBES. X. CAP. II. 251 

▼obia oonoeperam, damao: nee nt cum miliiibus meis (jam 
enim esse destitistis) sed, at cum ingratissimis operia, agere 
decreyi. SeGundis rebns, quso oircumflaunt vos, inBaaire ooDpis- 
tis, obliti statt\s ejus quern beneficio ezuistis meo : Digni her* 
cul^ qui in eodem consenescatis ; quoniam facilius est vobU 
adrersam qudm secundam regere fortunam." 

" En tandem ! lUyriornm patdd ant^ et Persaram tributa^ 
riis, Asia et tot gentium spolia fastidio sunt. Mod6 sub Phi- 
lippe seminudis, amicula ez purpart ^" sordent. Aurum et 
argentum oeuli ferre non possunt. Lignea enim vasa deside- 
rant, et ex cratibus scuta, rubiginemque gladiorum. " Hoo 
cultu nitentes yos accepi, et quingenta talenta SBris alieni, ciim 
omnis regia supellex baud amplius qudm sexaginta talentorum 
esset, meorum operum fundamenta ; quibus tamen ('" absit in- 
vidia) imperium maximas terrarum partis imposuL" 

" Asiasne pertassum est, quse tos gloria rerum gestarum 
Diis pares fecit ? In Europam ire properatis, Bege deserto, 
odm pluribus vestrtim defuturum viaticum fuerit, nl aes alienum 
luissem, " nemp^ ex Asiatic^ praed^. Nee pudet ** profundo 
ventre devictarum gentium spolia circumferentes, reverti veUe 
ad liberos conjugesque, quibus pauci prasmia viotoriaD potestis 
ostendere. Nam caeterorum, dum etiam spei vestras obvidm 
itis, arma qu6que pignori sunt. " Bonis ver6 militibus cari- 
turns sum, pellicum suarum concubinis \ quibus hoe solum ex 
tantis opibus super est, in quod impenditur." 

^^ Proindd fugientibus me pateant limites. Facessite hino 
ociiHs. Ego cum Persis abeuntium terga tutabor. Neminem 
teneo : liberate oculos meos, ingratissimi oives. Lasti vos 
excipient parentes liberique, sine vestro Bege redeuntes! 
obvi&m ibunt desertoribus transfugisque 1 Triumphabo me- 
hercule de fugd vestrd : et ubicumque ero, ^^ expetam paenas, 
hos, cum quibus me relinquitis, colendo, praeferendoque vobis. 
Jam autem soietis, et quantum sine Bege valeat exercitus, et 
quid opis in me uno sit." Desiluit deindd frendens de tribu- 
nali, et in medium armatorum agmen se immisitj notatos- 
que, qui ferocissime oblocuti erant, singulos manu corripuit : 


Beo ausos repugnare, tredeoim «ueryaiidos oustodibuB corpocia 

III. 9. Quia crederet aaBTam paul6 antd concionem obtor- 
puisse Bubito metu ? et, ^ ci\m ad suppliciom videret traluy 

nihil ausos graviora qudm caeteros ; 

[' tarn effusam antea licentiaiOy 
atque seditiosam militum yiolentiam. ita compressam, ut non modo 
nollus ex omnibus irruenti Regl restiterit ; yerum etiam cnncti payore 
ezanimati attonitis similes, quid de ipsis qu6que Rex statuendum cen- 
Beret, saspensft mente expectarentf ^ Itaqne], 

sive nominis, quod 
gentes quas sab Regibus sunt inter Deos oolunt, sire propria 
ipsius veneratio, sive fidncia tant4 vi exeroentis imperium, 
contermit eos, singnlare certd ediderunt patientisB exemplmn ; 
adebque non sant accensi snpplicio oommilitonnm, c^m sob 
noctem interfectos esse n6ssent, ut nihil omiserint, quod sin- 
guli magis obedienter ac pie facerent. Nam c\\m postero die 
prohibiti aditn yenissent, Asiaticis modo militibus admissis, 
Ingubrem totis castris edid§re clamorem, denunciantes se pro- 
tini\s esse morituros, si Bex perseveraret irasci. At ille 
* pervicacis ad omnia, qusd agitSsset, animi, peregrinorum mili- 
tum concionem adyocari jubet, Macedonibus intra castra oohi- 
bitis ; et ci\m frequentes cofssent, adhibito interprete, talem 
orationem habuit : 

10. " Ctlm ex Europe trajicerem in Asiam, maltas nobilea 
gentes, magnam yim hominum imperio meo me additurmn esse 
sperabam. Nee deceptus sum^ "quod de his credidi famse. 
Sed ad ilia hoc qu6que accessit, qu6d yideo fortes yiros erga 
Beges suos pietatis inyictse. Luxu * omnia fluere credideram, 
et nimid felicitate mergi in yoluptates. At herculd munia 
militisB hoc animorum corporumque robore unpigrd toleratis ; 
et ciUm fortes yiri sitis, non fortitudinem magis qnslm fidem 
colitis. ^Hoc ego nunc primiim profiteor, sed olim scio. 
Itaque et delectum e yobis juniorum habui, et yos meonun 
militum corpori immiscui. Idem habitus, eadem arma sunt 
yobis. Obsequium yer6 et patientia imperii longd praestan- 
tior est quam caeteris. Ergo ipse Oxatris Persao filiam 

LIBER X. CAP. IV. 2&6 

mecam in mairimonio janzi, non dedignatns ex oaptiyi liberos 
toUere. 'Mox deind^ ci\m stirpem generis mei latius pro* 
pagare caperem, uxorem Darii filiam duxi ; proximisqne ami- 
oorum auctor foi, ex captivis generandi liberos, ut hoc sacro 
foedere onme discrimen yicti et yictoris excluderem. Pro» 
indd genitos esse tos milii, non ascitos milites, credite. Asm 
et Europse nnurn atque idem regnum est ; Macedonnm vobis 
arma do. Inveteravi peregrinain noritatem: et elves mei 
estis et milites. Omnia eumdem ducunt colorem. Neo Per- 
sis Macedonum mores adumbrare, neo Macedonibus Persanun 
imitari indecomm est. Ejasdem juris esse debent, qui sub 
eodem Rege • victuri sunt." 

[Hac oratione habitd, Persis corporis sni 
onBtodiom credidit Penas satellites, Persas apparitores fecit. Per 
qnoe cdua Macedones, qui huic seditiooi occasionem dedissentk yinctl ad 
.BuppUcia traherentur, unum ex lis auctoritate et state gravem, ad Re- 
gem, ita locutum ferunt.] 

IV. 11. " Quousque," inquit, " animo tuo, etiam per sup- 
plicia, * et quidem extern! moris, obsequeris ? Milites tui, 
elves tui, incognita caus^, captivis suls ducentibus, trahun- 
tur ad poenam. Si mortem meruisse judicas, saltem minlstros 
supplicli mata." 'Amlco animo, si veri patiens fuisset, ad- 
monebatur. Sed in rablem Ira pervenerat. Itaque rursus 
(nam parumper, quibus imperatum erat, dnbitaverant) mergl in 
amnem, sicut vlnctl erant, jusslt. Ne hoc quidem suppliclum 
seditionem militom movlt. Namque coplarum duces atque 
amlcos ejus manipuli adeunt ; petentes, ut si quos adhuc prls« 
tina noxd judicaret esse contactos, juberet interfici. Offerre 
se corpora irae, ' trucidaret. 

[Tandem constantid end vicerunt re- 
gem, ut ad se prodiret» et reconciliati animi certa signa oetenderetb 
Decern circiter millia veteranornm, quibus Craterus pnefecit» etipendiis 
donisque auotoa in pa^am dimisit ; Uteris ad Antipatnun datis, quibuf 
hoDorem emeritis habere praecepit, ut in primis ordinibus et eoronati 
ludos spectarent, et liberi demortuorum in stipendia paterna succederent. 
lisdem literia Antipatrum cum tironibus ad se yocavit; Cratero in locum 
ejus suffecto. Yerebatur enim, ne discordia prsfecti et Olympiadis 
A'«ipublic8e damnum inferret ; quippe mntud ad regem criminati ftterani. 


HB qubqne in aapptoiiMBtam leetis, quorum Wginti miUia PeucestM 
addoxerat^ Susis rex Ecbatana profectufi, Hepheestionem prinoipem ami- 
eomm amittit» cujus casom iminoderat^ ferens, Bumtuosissimas fieri 
exeqaias jussit» neo non, ut T>eo, sacrificari. Hinc per Cossaeorum gen- 
^em, liberam antea, et Persarum imperium aspemantein, Babjlona pro 
ficiBcitur, nbi mnltamm gentinm legati ipsum expectabant. dun oco 
ab orbe stadiis abeaset, monaerunt yates, ne intraret, quia periculiim 
porteuderetur ; sed^ ab Anaxarcho persuasus» contemsit praesagia ut 
Yana et inceiia. Auditis ergo legatis, et peractis qusB ad Hephaestionis 
funuB, per Pallacopam foseam ad Arabam confinia nayigavit^ irridens 
ChaldseoB, qui pericuhim in urbe praedixerant, quam non mode feliciter 
ingressus esset, sed ealyus etiam excessisset. Reyersus Babylonem, ludis 
eonyiyiisque interfait» et cdm ad Medium comeBsatum isset, in morbiim 
inddit, qui intra paucos dies ita inyaluit» ut apes salutia nulla aut exigua 
Buperesset Milites solicitudine anxii retineri non potuerunt» qoin 
ultimd yisuri regein in aulam irrumpereat.] 

y. 12. Intuentibus laciymse obortao praBba^re speciem. jam 
non Begem, sed fanus ejus, visentis exercitils. Mosror tamen 
circomstantium lectum ' eminebat. Quos at Bex aspexit, 
'^ Inyenietis,'' inquit, ^^ cvim excessero, dignum talibos viris 
Begem ? '' Incredible dictu, audituque, ' in eodem habitu cor- 
poris, in quern se composuerat cum admissurus milites esset, 
durasse, donee a toto exercitu illud nltimillm persalutatns 
est : dimissoque vulgo, yelut omni yitaa debi^o liberatus, fati- 
gata ^ membra rejecit, propii\sqne adire jussis amicis (nam et 
yox deficere jam cceperat), detractum annulum digito Perdicc» 
tradidit, adjectis mandatis, at corpas saam ad Hammonem 
ferri jaberet. QaaBrentibnsqae, cai relinqaeret regnam, re- 
spondit, ei qui esset optiinus ; cseterum * proyidere jam se, ob 
id certamen magnos fanebres lados parari sibL Bursas, Per- 
dicc^ interrogantCi qoando coelestes bonores baberi sibi 
vellet? dixit, tom yelle, cum ipsi felices essent. Saprema 
hsec vox fait Begis, et paalo post extingaitar. Ac primd 
plorata, kmentisque, et pbinctibus tota regia personabat 
Mox, velnt in yasta solitadine, omnia tristi silentio mnta tor 
pebant^ ad cogitationes, quid deinde fatorum esset, dolore oon- 
yerso. Nobiles paeri, castodiae corporis ejus assaeti, nee do- 
loris magnitadinem capere, nee seipsos intra yestibulum regin 


Here potnenint; vagique et furendlms similes, totam nrbem 
u ac moerore compleyemnt ; ntdlis questHras omissis, qiios 
iali casu dolor suggerit. 

13. Erg6 qui extra regiam astiterant, Macedones pariter 
rbarique concnmmt, neo poterant vioti a yiotoribas in conih 
li dolore disoemi. Persad jnstissimnm ao mitissinniia do» 
Lum, Macedones optimtun ao fortissimum Regem inyocan* 

'^certamen quoddam moeroris edebant. Nee mcestonun 
im, sed etiam indignantinm voces exandiebantur, tarn yiri- 
1, et in flore setatis fortanaeqne, invidid Dedm ereptom 
3 rebus hnmanis. Vigor ejus et yultus educentis in prsB* 
n milites, obsidentis urbes, '^eyadentis in muros, fortes yiros 
• concione donantis, occurrebant oculis. Turn Macedones 
inos honores negdsse ei poenitebat ; impiosque et ingratos 
3se se confitebantur, qu6d aures ejus debitd appellatione 
adslssent. Et cvlm diu nunc in veneratione, nunc in de- 
erio Begis bsesissent, in ipsos versa miseratio est. Mace- 
lia profecti xdtrS, Euphratem mediis bostibus novum im- 
'ium aspemantibus, destitutes se esse cernebant : sine certo 
gis hserede, publicas vires ad se quemque tracturunu Bella 
nde civilia, quse secuta sunt, mentibus augurabantur. 
;ram ^non de regno Asise, sed de Rege, ipsis sanguinem 
le fundendum. Novis vulneribus veteres rumpendas cica- 
ces. Senes debiles, mod6 petitd missione a justo Rege, 
Qc morituros ^ pro potentid forsitan satellitis alionjus igno- 

14. Has cogitationes volventibus, nox supervenit, tenorem- 
e auxit. Milites in armis vigilabant, Babylonii, alius e 
iris, alius culmine sui quisque tecti, prospectabant, quasi 
rtiora visuri. Nee quisquam lumina audebat accendere. 
) quia oculorum cessabat usus, ' fremitus vocesque auribus 
ptabant. Ao plerumque vano metu territi, per obscuras 
nitas alius alii oocursantes, invicem suspecti et soUiciti fere- 
ntur. Persae, comis suo more detonsis, in lugubri veste 
m conjugibus ac liberis, non ut victorem, et mod6 bostem, 
i ut gentis suae justissimum Regem, vero desiderio luge- 


baat. Assaeti sob B^ viyere^ non alium, qui imperaret 
ifm, digniorem faisse confitebantur. Neo maris urbis InctiiB 
oontinebator, sed proximam regionem ab ekj deindd magnam 
partem Asm cis Euphratem tanti mali fama pervaserat. Ad 
Daiii qubque matrem eeleriter perlata est. Abscissa ergo 
Teste, qa& induta erat, lagabrem smnpsit : laoeratisque crioi* 
bos, hmni corpus abjecit. Assidebat ei ^^ altera ex neptibus, 
miper amissum Hej^isestionem, cui nupserat, lugens ; propria»- 
que causas doloris in communi moestitiS, *^ retractabat. Sed 
omnium suorum mala Sjsigambis una capiebat. Ilia suam, 
tUa neptium Tieem flebat. Becens dolor etiam prseterita revo- 
caTeral Crederes modo amissum Darium, " et pariter mis^ne 
duorum fiZiorum exequias esse duoendas. Flebat mortuos 
simul Tivosque. Quern enim puellarum acturum esse curam ? 
Quern alium futurum Alexandrum ? Iterum esse se capias ; 
iterum exoidisse regno. Qui mortuo Dario ipsas tueretur, 
reperisse : qui post Alexandrum respioeret) utique non xor 
perturas. Subibat inter haec animum, octoginta fratres suos 
eodem die ab Ocho ssevissimo Begum trucidatos, adjectumque 
stragi tot filiorum patrem. E septem liberis, quos genuisast 
ipsa, ^'unurn superesse: ipsum Darium floruisse pauUsper, 
ut crudelii\s posset extingui Ad ultimum dolori suocubuit, 
obvolutoque capite assidentes genibus suis neptem nepotemqud 
ayersata, cibo pariter abstinuit et luce. Quinto, postquam 
mori statuerat, die extincta est. ^^ Magnum profectd Alex- 
andri indulgentisB in earn, justitiasque in omnes captivos doco- 
mentum est mors hujus : quae ctim sustinuisset post Darium 
vivere, Alexandre esse superstes erubuit. 

15. Et beroule ''^justd sestimantibus Begem liquet, bopa 
naturss ejus fuisse ; vitia yel fortunse, yel aet^tis. Vis inore- 
dibilis animi ; laboris patientia propemodum nimia ; fortitude 
non inter Beges modo excellens, sed inter illos qudque, quo- 
Tum base sola yirtus fuit ; liberalitas sa^e majora tribuentisi 
qu4m a Diis petuntur ; dementia in deyiotos ; tot regna aut 
reddita, quibus ea dempserat bello, aut done data; mortis, 
cujus metus caeteros exanimat, perpetua contemptio; ^'glorisc 

LIBS& X. CAV. TI. 2S7 

Usque ui justo major cnpMo, iia at juveBi et ia* 
benda rebus; jam pietas erga parentes, qnonmi Olympiada 
lortalitati conseorare deereverat, Philippum ultus erat ; jam 
imnes ferd amieos benignitas, erga milites beneyolentia ; 
msilium par magnitadiBi animi ; et quantum vix poterat 
s ej«is oapere, solertia ; modas immodicarum oapiditatam ; 
eneris intra naturale desiderinm ttsns, nee nlla, nisi ex per- 
so voluptas; ^'ingentes profect6 dotes erant. ^'lUafimr- 
86 : Diis seqnare se, et coelestes honores accersere, et talis 
ientibus oracolis credere ; et dedignantibns yenerari ipsnm 
ementi^s, qu&m par esset, irasci : in exteninm habitum 
bare corporis cultam : imitari denctaram gentinm mores, 
»s ante vietoriam spreverat. Nam iracondiam et cupidinem 
[, sicnti jnyenta irritaverat, it^ senectas mitigare potuisset 
^endum est tamen, ci!im '^ plnrimnm yirtati debnerit, plus 
uisse fortanse, quam solus omnium mortalium in potestate 
luit. Qaoties ilium a morte reyocayit ? quoties temerd in 
icula yectom perpetnd felicitate protexit? Yitsd qtioqtie 
;m eumdem ilH, quern glorisa, statuit. ^ £xp^otay6re eum 
I, dum Oriente perdomito, aditoque Oceano, quidquid mor- 
tas capiebat, impleret. Huic Regi Ducique successor qusDre- 
ur. Sed major ^ moles erat, qudmut unus subire eam pos* 
Itaque nomen qudque ejus, et £ftma rerum, in totum pro- 
aodum orbem Beges ac regna diffudit : clarissimique sunt 
)iti, '^qui etiam minimse parti tantss fortune adhseserunt. 
YI. 16. Gsetertlm Babylone (indd enim diyertit oratio) 
poris ejus custodes, in regiam principes amicorum, ducesque 
)iarum adyocaySre : secuta est militum turba, oupientium 
re, in quem Alexandri fortuna esset transitura. Multi 
ses, frequentill militum exclusi, regiam intrare non poterant ; 
01 praeco, ' exceptis qui nominatim citarentur, adire prohib- 
it. Sed 'precarium spemebatur imperium. Ac primi\m 
ilatus ingens ploratusque renoyatus est. Deindd futuri ex- 
statio inbibitis lacrymis silentium fecit. Tunc Perdiccas, 
rik sell& in conspeetum yulgi dat&, in qua diadema yestisque 
.exandri cum armis erant, annulum, sibi pridid traditum a 


Bege, in e&dem sede pesuil : qvorom aspecia rnrsos t^borte 
omnibus laerymee integrav^e lactam. St Perdioeas, ^^ Ego 
quidem," inqnit, " annalum, quo iile regni atqufi imperii ' vires 
obsignare erat solitus, traditum ab ipso miki, reddo vobis. 
Caaterilm quanquam nulla clades huic, quk affeoti somas, par 
ab iratis Dlis ezcogitari potest ; tamen magnitudinem reram, 
quas egit, intuentibus credere licet, ^ tantum yirum Deos ae- 
commod&sse rebus humanis, quarum sorte complete, cito repe- 
terent eum su» stirpL Proiade quoniam nihil aliud ez eo 
superest, qudm quod semper ab immortalitate subduoitur, oor- 
pori nominique quamprim^m justa solvamus, haud obliti in. 
qud urbe, inter quos simus, quali Bege ac Prasside spoliatL 
Tractandum est, commilitones, cogitandumque, * ut viatoriam 
partam inter hos, de quibus parta est, obtinere possimus. Ca- 
pite opus est. Hocine uno, an pluribus, in yestr& potestate 
est. " Illud scire debetis, militarem sine duee turbam eorpoB 
esse sine spiritu. Sextus mensis est, ez quo Eozane prasg- 
nans est. Optamus, ut marem enitatur: ejus regnum Diis 
approbantibus futurum, quando adoleverit. Interim a quiboB 
regi velitis, destinate." Haao Perdiccas. 

17. Turn Nearchus, Alexandri mod6 sanguinem ao stirpiem 
regise majestati convenire, neminem ait posse mirari : ^ csete- 
ri\m expeotari nondum ortum Regem, et qui jam sit, prseteriri, 
nee animis Macedonum conyenire, nec tempori rerum : esse e 
Barsine filium Begis, huic diadema dandum. Nulli placebat 
oratio. Itaque suo more hastis scuta quatientes, obstrepeie 
perseverabant. Jamque prope ad seditionem pervenerast, 
Nearcho pervicaciiis tuente sententiam. Turn Ptolemasus, 
<< * Digna prorsi\s est soboles,'' inquit, " quae Macedonum im* 
peret genti, Eoxanes vel Barsines fiUus 1 cujus nomen qu6que 
Europam dicere pigebit, majore ex parte ' captiyi. Cur Per- 
sas yicerimus, ut stirpi eorum seryiamus? quod justi ilU 
Beges Parius et Xerxes tot millium agminibus tabtisqae 
classibus nequioquam petiyerunt. Mea sententia hsDO est, 
at sede Alexandri in regid positd, qui consiliis ejus adbibe- 
bantur, co^ant, quoties in commune consulto opus faeritr 


36qae, quod major pars eonim deorererit) atetur: duces, 
aefectique oopianim his pareant." PtolemsBO quidam, po* 
)res Perdice» assentiebantur. Turn Aristonns ortns est 
cere, Alezandrum consaltmn, cui relinqueret regnum, yolu* 
)e optimum deligi : judicatom autem ab ipso optimum, Per* 
ocam, cui annulum tradidisset. Neque enim unum earn 
sedisse morienti, sed cireumfereutem oculos, ex turbli ami- 
rum delegisse cui traderet. Placere i^tur, simmiam im- 
rii ad Perdiecam deferrL Nee dubitay^re, qoin vera eeuX' 
ret. Itaque uniyersi procedere in medium Perdicoam, et 
egis annulum tollere jubebant. Hserebat inter oupiditatem 
idoremque, et qu6 modestiiis quod expectabat, appeteret, 
iryioacii^s oblatnros esse credebat. Itaque ounotatas, diu- 
le quid ageret incertus, ad ultimum tamen reoessit, et 
)st eos, qui sederant proximi, oonstitit. At Meleager unus 
ducibus, oonfirmato animo, quem Pwdioo» cunetatio erex- 
at, ^^ Neo Pii siyerint,'' inquit, " ut Alexandri fortona, 
.ntique regni fastigium in istos humeros mat. Homines 
irto non ferent. " Nihil dico de nobilioribus qudm hie est, 
id de yiris tantiim, quibus inyitis nihil perpeti necesse est. 
ec yer6 interest, Boxanes filium, qiutndoeumque genitus erit, 
1 Perdiecam Begem habeatis, otan. iste sub tutelse specie 
ignum occupaturus sit. Itaque nemo ei Bex placet, nisi 
iii nondum natus est. Et in tantii omnium festinatione, non 
iistd mod6 sed etiam neeessarid, "exactos menses solus ex- 
ectat, et jam diyinat marem esse conceptum ; *' quem yos 
ubitatis paratum esse yel subdere ? Si meditls fidids Alex* 
Qder banc nobis Begem pro se reHquisset, id solam ex his 
usd imperdsset, non faciendum esse censerem. Quin igitur 
d diri|Hendos thesauros disourritis? haram enim opum 
egiarum utique ^^populus est hseres." Hsec elooutus, per 
ledioB armatos empit. Et qui abeonti yiam dederant, ipsum 
d pronunciatam prsedam sequebantur. 

VII. 18. Jamque armatomm circa Meleagnun frequena 
;loba8 erat, in seditionem ao discordiam vers^ condone : Qfxm 
[uidam plerisque Macedonum igaotos ex infim& plebe, " Quid 

200 QVIUTI OU&721 

opna est,'' inqut, " anais eiviliqpie bello, ludbentiims Begem 
fnemqaaeritis? AridaBOfl Fhilippo genitos, Alexandri paiild 
antd Begi» frater, Bacrormn oaQr^noniarozuque consors modd, 
nwoiQ solus hseres, prasteritor a vobis. Quo merito sue? 
quidve feoity cor etiam gentium comiauni jure fraudetur ? Si 
Alexandro suuilem quffiritis, nuBquam reperietis: si prozi- 
mum, hie solus est." His audltis, coneio primd silentium 
yelut jussa habuit. Oouclamant deind^ pariter, Arida&nm 
TOGandum esse^ mortemque meritos qui conciouem sine eo 
liabuiseent. Turn Fithon, plenus laorymarum, orditur dioere : 
nuQO vel ^maxime miserabilem esse Alexandrum, qui tam 
bonorum civium militumque fructu et praesentiil fraudatns 
esset : nomen enim memoriamque Kegis sui tantDm intuentes, 

* ad csstera caligare eos. Hand ambigue in juvenem, cui reg: 
nam destinabatur, impeosa probra magis ipsi odium, qu2i.m 
Aridseo contemptum attulerunt Quippd dum miserentnr, 
etiam favere coeperunt. Igitur non alium se, qudm eum, qui 
ad banc spem genitus esset, regnare passuros, pertinaci aocla- 
matione declarant, yocarique AriddBum jubent. Quern Melea- 
ger infestus, invisusque Perdiccae, strenue perducit ia Begiam, 

* et n3alites Fbilippum consalutatum Begem appellant. 

19. Oasteriim base vulgi eratvox; principum alia senten* 
tia. 'E quibus Fithon consilium Ferdiccae ezsequi coepit, tuto* 
resque^destinat filio ex Boxane future, Ferdiccam et Leonatum 
stirpe regia genitos. Adjecit, ut in Europe Craterus et 
Antipater res administrarent. Tum jusjurandum a singulis 
exactum, futuros in potestate Begis geniti Alexandre. Melea- 
ger, baud injuria metu supplicii territus, cum suis secesserat 
Bursus Fbilippum trabens secum, irrupit in regiam, damitans, 
su&agari spei publicaa, de novo Bege paulo ante conceptae, 
robur aotatis: experirentur mod6 stirpem Fbilippi, et filium 
ac fratroa Begum duorum : sibimetipsis potissimum crederent. 
Nullum profundiim mare, nullum vastum fretum et prooello- 
■um tantos ciet fluctus, quantos multitude motus babet, * uti« 
que si nov& et breyi duratur^ iibertate luxuriat. Fauci Ferw 
dieoas modo electo, plures Fbilippo qudm sperayerat, impeiiuia 

LIBBft X. CAP. VXII. 861 

,bant. Neo y^e, neo nolle qtiidqttam dm potaraat; pcenlto» 
ktque modd eoBsilii, mod6 poenitentisd ipsius: ad ultinnun 
men in stifpem regiam * nudinaTdre studiicL Geaserat ok 
ineione Aridaeus principum anetoritate contemtus : et ab»> 
lie illo, oontioaerat magis qu&m langaerat militariB £»vor. 
aque revoeatns, vestem fratris, earn ipB«i&, qu» in «elUi 
>sita fneraty indnitor. Et Meleager, thoraoe gomptOi oi^ 
-ma, novi Begis satelles. Sequitur phalanx hastis clypee0 
latiens, .expletnram se Bangnine illornm, 'qui affectavwant 
ibil ad ipsos pertinens regntun : in e&dem dome famiUAque 
Qperii vires remansuras esse gaudebant : luereditariiun impe- 
Liim stirpem regiam vindicatnranL : assnetos se nomoa ipsum 
3lere venerarique ; neo qnemqnam id capere, ^nisi genituia nt 

20. Igitur P^diceas territus eonclaye, in quo Alezandri 
orpos jacebat, obserari jubet. Sexoenti cum ipso erant cqpeo- 
EitsB yirtutis. Ptolemseus quoque se adjunxerat ei, pueronuo- 
Tie regia cohors. Ca^terfim baud difiEioulter a tot milUbos 
rmatormn claustra perfracta sunt. Et Bex qu5que irmpeisty 
tipatus satellitum turb^, quorum prineeps erat Meleager. 
ratusque Perdiccas bos, qui Alezandri corpus tueri relkaty 
evocat : sed qui irruperant, emun^s tela in ipsum jaciebant : 
Qultisque vubieraiis, tandem seniles, demptis galeis qiii6 
'aciliiHB nosci possent, precari, qui cum Perdiccsl erant, ccepdrOi 
it abstinerent belle, Begique ' et pluribus cederent. Prumui 
Perdiccas arma deposuit, caeterique idem feedre. Meleagro 
ieinde suadente ne a corpore Alexandri * discederent, insidiis 
locum quseri rati, divers^ regisd parte ad Eupbratem fiigam 
intendnnt. Bquitatus, qui ex nobilkshnis juvenum oonatabat, 
Perdiccam et Leonatum frequens sequebatur, plaoebatqae 
excedere urbe et "^ tendere in campis. Sed Perdiccas ne pedi- 
tes quidem secuturos ipsum desperabat. Itaque, ne abdu* 
cendo equiies abrupisse a caetero exercitu yideretuTi in mbe 

VIII. 21. At Meleager Begem monere non destitit, jus 
imperii Perdiccse morte sanciendum esse ; ni ocoupetur impo- 


tens aDimns, res noTatnram : memiiusse ^ enm, quid de Bege 

meruisset : ' neminem aatem ei satis fidom esse, quem metuat. 
Bex patiebatur magis, qaam assentiebatnr. Itaque Meleag^ 
rilentinm pro imperio habnit; misitqne- Regis nomine qui 
Perdiooam aooerserent. lisdem mandatum ut oeeiderent, si 
Tenire dnbitaret. Perdiccas, nonciato satellitom adyenta 
sexdeeim ' omnind pneris regise oohortis comitatos in limine 
domiis suse consiitit, * castigatosque, et Meleagri mancipia 
identidem appeUans, sio animi Yoltusque con8tanti& termit, 
nt yix mentis compotes fugerent. Perdiocas pueros jnssit 
eqnos oonscendere; et cum pauois amieorum ad Leonatnm 
pervenit, jam firmiore prsBsidio vim propnlsatoms, si qnis ix^ 
ferret. Postero die indigna res Macedonibns videbator, Per- 
diccam ad mortis periculum adductum ; et Meleagri temerita- 
tem armis ultum ire decreyerant. Atqne illi oilm Begem 
adissent, interrogare-eum ccep&re, an Perdiooam compreheodi 
ipse jnssisset. Hie, Meleagri instinctu se jossisse, respondit 
GasteriUm non debere tumnltaari eos : Perdiooam enim yiyere. 
Igitnr Goncione dimissd, Meleager eqmtom maximd defeetione 
perterritus, inopsqne concilii (qnippe in ipsnm perioolum red* 
derat, quod inimico panld antd intenderat), tridanm fere oon- 
snmpsit, inoerta consilia yolyendo. Et pristina qiiidem regi» 
species manebat. Nam et legati gentium Begem adibant, et 
copiamm daces aderant, et yestibnlom satellites armatiqne 
compleyerant. Sed * ingens su& sponte moestitia nltimse des- 
perationis index erat; suspectique inyicem, non adire pro* 
piiUs, noil colloqui audebant: secretas cogitationes intra se 
qnisque yolyentes ; et ex comparatione Begis noyi desideriom 
excitabatur amissi Ubi ille esset, cnjus imperium, eajns an»- 
piciom secuti erant, requirebant Destitutos se inter infestas 
indomitasqne gentes, ' expetituras tot cladium soarom poenas, 
qnandocomqne oblata esset occasio. His eogitationibus ani- 
mos exedebant, cum annnnoiatur, equites qui sub PerdiooH 
essent, occupatis circa Babylonem campis, fmmentum, quod 
in urbem inyehebator, retinuisse. Itaque inopia primi\my 
deindd £imes esse cospit. Et qui in nrbe erant, aut recon- 

LIBSB. Z. CAP. IX. 868 

iandam gratiajn omn Petdioei, aui axmis certandum esse 

22. Forte ita aociderat^ ut qui in agris erant, populationem 
larum yioonimque yeriti, conf^igerent in urbem ; oppidanii 
m ipsos alimenta deficerent, urbe excederent; et utriqiie 
aeri tutior aliena sedes, quim sua, yideretur. Quorum con- 
irnationeni Macedones yeriti, in regiam coeunt, quaeque ipso» 
m senientia esset, exponunt. Placebat autem legatos ad 
uites mittiy de fihienda discordia, armisque ponendis. Igitur 
Rege legatur Pasas Thessalus, et Amissas Megalopolitanus^ 
Perilads. Qui ci!im mandata Regis edidissent; non aliter 
isituros anna equites, qudm si Bex diseordisd auctores dedis- 
t, tuldre responsum. His renunciatis, sud sponte milites 
ma oapiunt. Quorum tumultu e regid Philippus exeitus. 
Nihil," inquit, '^ seditione est opus : nam inter so certantium 
admia, qui quieyerint, occupabunt. Simul mementote tern 
se cum ciyibus, ^ quibus spem gratiss cit6 abrumpere, ad bel- 
m ciyiLe properantium est. Alter^ legatione, an mitigari 
)ssint, experiamur : et credo, nondum Begis corpore sepulto, 
L prsestanda ei justa omnes esse coituros. Quod ad me 
tinet, reddere hoc imperium malo, qudm exercere ciyium san- 
line. Et si nulla alia concord!» spes est, oro qusesoque, 
igite potiorem." Obortis deindd lacrymis, diadema detrahit 
tpiti, dextram, qud id tenebat, protendens, ut, si quis se 
Lgnior^ profiteretur, acciperet. Ingentem spem indoHs, 
ite eum diem fratris claritate suppressam, ea moderata ex- 
tayit oratio. Itaque cuncti instare coeperunt, ut quad agitlis- 
it, exsequi yellet. Eosdem rursus legat, petituros, ut Melea- 
nim tertium ducem acciperent. Haud aogre id impetratum 
3t. N^m et abducere Meleagrum Perdiceas a Bege cupiebat, 
t) unum duobus " imparem futurum esse censebat. Igitur Me- 
iagro cum phalange obyiam egresso, Perdiceas equitum tur- 
las antecedens o'ccurrit. Utrumque agmen mutua salutatione 
Lcta coit, in perpetuum (ut arbitrabantur) concordii et pace 
IX. 23. Sed jam fatis admoyebantur Macedonum genti 


bdla oiyilla. * Nam et iosoeiabUe est T^pjam^ «t a plnribiui 

ezpetebatur. PrimOim ergo colkg^e vires/ delude disper- 
Beront ; et, cum pluribos corpus, quAm capiebat, imer&asent, 
castera membra deficere oo&penmt : qnodque imperiiun sub 
uno stare potnisset, dtim a pluribus svstinetar, ruH. * Pro- 
indd jure meritoque populns Romanns salutem se 'principi 
fluo debere profitetor ; cm noctis, quarn pene supremam haba- 
imus, novum sidus illuxit. * Hujus bercule, uon solis, ortns, 
lucem caligauti reddidit muudo, cum sine suo capite dm- 
eordia membra trepidarent. Quot iUe tum exttnxit faces I 
quot oondiditgladios 1 quantam tempestatem subitS. serenitato 
disoussit ! Non ergd revirescit soMm, sed etiam floret Im- 
perium. * Absit mod6 invidia, excipiet hujus sseeuli tempota, 
ejusdem domus, utinam perpetua, certd dintuma postentaa. 
Gseteriim, ut ad ordinem, a quo me contemplaiio public» 
^liciiatis averterat, redeam ; Perdiccas unicam spem salutis 
SUSB in Meleagri morte deponebat : vanum eumdem et infidnm, 
celeriterque res novaturum, et sibi maxime infestum, oceii- 
pandum esse. Sed alt& dissimulatione consilium premebat^ 
ut opprimeret incautum. Ergd clam quosdam ex oopiis, 
quibus praderat, subomavit, ut quasi ignoraret ipse, oonque- 
rerentur paliim, Meleagrum 'sequatum esse Perdiccas. Quo- 
rum sermone Meleager ad se relate, furens ir^, Perdicoee, 
quse comperisset, exponit. Ille, velut novfi re exterritus, ad- 
mirari, queri, dolentisque speciem ostent»re ei coeptt. Ad 
ultimum convenit, ut comprehenderentur tam seditiossd vooia 
auctores. Agit Meleager gratias, amplexusque Perdiccam, 
fidem ejus ipse ac benevolentiam collaudat. Tum oommuni 
oonsilio rationem opprimendi noxios inemit. Placet exerei- 
tum patrio more lustrari : et ^ probabilis causa videbatnr 
prSBterita discordia. 

24. Maeedonum Beges ita lustrare soliti erant milites, xxt 
discissss oanis viscera ultimo in campo, in quern deduc^retur 
exercitus, ab utI^ue abjicerentur parte : intra id spatium 
armati omnes starent ; hinc equites, ilUnc phalanx. Itaque 
eo die, quern huio saoro destinaverant, Bex cum equitibus 


phantifqBe ooDitiitorat * oostra pedites, qiids HelMgtfr pis»» 
t. Jam equestre agmea moTebatar, et pedites sulntd fM> 
line ob reGeBtem disoordiam, 'band sandpaead qnidquam 
}ectante8, pammper addubiiaT^re, an in nrbem sabdncepeni 
uas : fmppe '^pso eqnitibns planities «rat. GsBtertlm 
iti, ne temere oommilitonam fidem damBarmi, snbstit^re, 
Bparatis ad diimoandnm animis, si qnisTim inferr^t. Jam 
oina ooibant, parnimqne iBteryalliun erat, quod aoietn 
amqne dirideret. Itaqne Bex cam im& dik obeqidtare 
iitdbns eoepit, disoordi» auotores, qnos taeri ipse debebaty 
tinctn Perdico» ad supplieia deposeens : minabatnrqnd 
ines tormas oom elepbantis indactonxm se in re<ni8aiite& 
upebant improyiso malo pedites : nee plus in ipso Meleagro 
kt ant consilii aut animL " Tutissimum ex pnosenlibtti 
lebatur, expeetare poii^s qn^m moyere fortnnam. Turn 
irdiccas, nt torpentes et " obnoxios vidit, trecentos fbre, qui 
sleagmm emmpentem ex conoione, quad prima babita est post 
)rtem Alexandri, secnti erant, a osdteris disoretos, elepbant^f 

conspectn totins exercitils objioit; omnesqne bellnarum 
dibos obtoiti sunt, neo prohibente Philippe, nee aoetore {' 
ipparebatqne, id modd pro sue vindicatnrom, quod appro- 
sset eventus. Hoc bellorum ciyilium Macedombus et 
len, et principium fuit. Meleager, serd intelleet^ fraude 
3rdiocad, tum quidem quia ipsius corpori yis non afferebatur, 

agmine quietus stetit : at mox, damnati spe salutis, ^^cdm 
as nomine quem ipse feeerat Begem, in pemioiem suakn 
mtentes^yideret inimioos, confugit in templum. Ac, ne looi 
ddem religione defensus, occiditur. 

X. 25. Perdioeas, perdueto in nrbem exeroitu, consilium 
incipum yiromm habuit, in quo imperium ita diyidi pla- 
lit, ut Bex quidem summam ejus obtineret^ Satrapes Ptole^ 
sens .Sigypti et Africao ^gentium, qu» in ditione erant. 
laomedonti Syria cum Phoenice data est; Philotn Gilieia 
estinata: Ljciam cum Pamphylidl et majore Pbrygi^ *ob* 
nere jassas Antigonus; In Oariam Cassander, Menander Sn 
jydiam loisi». Phrygiam minorem, Hellesponto adjunotam, 

960 . QuinTi .au&Tiz 

Leonati provinoiam esse jussenmt. Oi^mdooift Bnineni eam 
Paphlagoiu4 cessii. Praaoeptnm est, ut regionem earn usque 
ad Trapezanta defenderet, bellom com Ariarathe gereret. 
Solos hie detrectabat imperinm. Pithion Mediam, Lysima- 
chos Thraciam appositasque Thraciad Ponticas gentes obiinere 
JQSsi. ' Qui India», qnique Baoiris et Sogdianis, osBterisque, 
ant Oceani, aut rubri maris accolis prsBerant, qxdbus quisque 
finibos habnisset, imperii etiam jos obtineret. Decretnm 
est, ut Perdiocas cum Bege esset, copiisque prssesset, qua» 
Begem sequebantur. Credid^re quidam testamento Alez- 
vidri distributas esse provincias, sed £unam ejus rei (qaaa- 
qnam ab auctoribos tradita est) * vanam foisse oomperimns. 
Et quidem suas quisque opes, diyisis imperii partibos, tue- 
bantur, quas ipsi fundayerant, si unquam adversus immodioas 
eapiditates terminus staret. Quippe paulo ante Begis min- 
ietri, 'specie imperii alieni procurandi, singnli ingentia inyas- 
enant regna, sublatis certaminum oausis, ctim et omnes ejus- 
dem gentis essent, et a caateris, sui quisque imperii regione, 
discreti. Sed difficile erat eo contentos esse, quod obtulerat 
oocasio : quippe sordent prima quasque, ciim majora sperantur. 
Itaque omnibus 'ezpeditius videbatur augere regna, qu&m 
fttisset aooipere. 

26. Septimus dies erat, ez quo corpus Begis jaoebat in 
solio ; euris omnium ad fiMrmandnm publicum statum a tarn 
solemni munere aversis. Et non aliis qu4m Mesopotamias 
regione feryidior aestus ezistit: ade6 ut pleraque animalia, 
quao in ^ nudo solo deprehendit, eztinguat ; tantus est yapor 
solis et coali, quo cunota yelut igne . torrentur. Pontes aqua- 
rum et rari sunt et inoolentium fraude celantur. Ipsis usus 
patet, ignotus est adyenis. ^Ut tandem curare corpus ezani- 
mum amicis yacayit, null4 tabe, ne minimo quidem liyore 
corruptum yid§re qui intrayerant * Vigor quoque, qui con- 
stat ez spirltu, non destituerat yultum. Itaque JBgyptU 
Cbalda&ique jossi corpus suo more curare, primd non sunt 
aiLu admoyere, yelut spiranti, manus : deind^ precati ut jus 
fasque esset mortalibus attrectare eum, purgay^re corpus» 

LIBB& X. CAP. X. 267 

repletmnqne est odaribas atuream solium, et capiti adjeota 
fortunse ejus insignia. Yeneno neoatum esse credidftre pie- 
rique ; filium Antipatri inter ministros, lollam nomine, patris 
jnssn dedisse. Saepd certe audita erat vox Alezandri, Anti- 
patnim regium affectare fastigium, '^majoremque esse prs^ 
feoti opibus ; ac titulo Spartanaa viotorise inflatum, omnia a se 
data asserentem sibi-. Oredebant etiam, Craterum cum vete- 
mm militum manu ad interficiendum eum missum. Yim 
autem yeneni, quod in Macedonia gignitur, talem esse constat, 
^^ut ferrum qudque exurat. XJngulam jumenti duntaxat pa- 
tientem esse succi. Stygem appellant fontem, ex quo pestif- 
erum virus emanat. Hoc per Cassandrum allatum traditum* 
que fratri loUae, et ab eo supremaa Begis potioni inditum. 
" Usee, utoumque sunt tradita, eorum, quos rumor asperserat, 
mox potentia extinxit. Eegnum enim Macedonias Antipater, 
et Grseciam quoque invasit. Soboles deinde excepit, inter- 
fectis omnibus, quicumque Alexandrum^etiam longinqud cog- 
natione contigerant. Cseterilm corpus ejus Ptolemseo, cui 
^gyptus cesserat, Memphim, et indd paucis p6st annis Alex- 
andriam translatum est, omnisque memoriae ao nomini honos 





1. jEt fiM^ ^.— That is: Uhponnted by the mixture of «ny otlMr 

2. NymphM, — Certain inferior deities of the female sex, "who pre* 
aided oyer groyea, fountaina» riyers, moontainsy Ac, imder yarions 
names as, Dryade», 2faiade$, Oreades, Ao. To them thna Ckywper 
beaatafully alludes (Task, yi): 

** Him bHnd antiquity pfrofaned, not flenred, 
"WfXh Belf-taaght rifcea and nndar yartoiu namea, 
Female and male, Pomona, Fales^ Pan, 
And Flora, and Yertnmnna ; peopling ^arth 
With tntelaiy goddeflses and gods 
That were not; and commending; m they vonid, 
To eaoh some province, garden, field, or grove.*' 

8. Oaduceatorem, so called from the Caduceut or symbol of peaee, 
which he bore when offering terms of peace to an enemy. The 
herald, who declared war, was called by the Romans, FedalU, 

4u Jfi dedereni, Ac — How much in the spirit of the highwayman's 
threat, " Your purse or your life." While pondering oyer the career 
of such men as Alexander, Caesar and Napoleon, we are (^ten re- 
minded of the sentiment of the poet 

** One mnrder makea a yiUain, milltoiia a hara** 

C AdvUtimwoit dse. — " That if matters came to extremities they," Ac. 

0» Indueiaa paeti, dse, — ^Understand profitentes, or some similar word, 
after pacti, unless indeed pacti itself has a reciprocal meaning, re- 
ferring both to the thing obtained and to the consideration giyeo 

270 VOTX8. 


7. Superveniuni inde legati. — ^According to Arrian, these ambassadon 
met the king at Gordiuin. 

8. Pari intervaUo, — Our «author's geographical statementa are not 
always to be depended on. His ideas with respect to the position 
of the Sangarius^ and the width of Asia Minor, as expressed in this 
and the following sentence^ are yery erroneous, a<i may be seen by 
consulting a good map. 

9. Uiroque, sc. tnari. 

IOl CammUteret. — ^We give the reading h^re as we find it ; yet cannot 
avoid thinking that the word should be committdrentur. The con- 
struction; according to the receired text, sounds harsh ; for qwB, 
referring to terramt is then the subject of eommiiUrei^ and the 
literal meaning of the passage would imply, that a piece of land 
can unite two seas. By making maria the subject of commiitereniur 
the difficulty is avoided. 

11. IfoiaiiU.'-^'We understand here neffoHum, and translate: "The 
remarkable thing about it (the chariot) was the yoke, which was 
fastened," <fec. 

12. Quippe, (kc — The readings here yary yeiy much; but the one in 
the tezty when read in the following order, seems to giye the sense 
of the author : Quippe [rex] aggresaus where leriem vineuiorum ita 
adstrietam, ut poMetperdpi nee raiiane nee tnm unde nexua ineiperet, 
qudve eonderet se, injeeerat euram {Macedonibml, ne irrUum incceptwn 
verteretur in omen. 

If. Nequaqiuan. — ^We agree with Freinsheim in preferring this word 
to nequiequam, as more characteristic of Alexander, who was not 
the one to tarry loi^ at untying a knot^ while his good sword waa 
at his side. 

14 - TSdOf sc. UcfL ^ 

15. lAheraiuroej agreeing with Amphoterum and Hegdoekumt and 
governing Leehum^ Ac, with prceeidiis, as a verb of " depriving,** ac- 
cording to the grammars, though, in reality, prcmdiii is governed 
by a preposition. 

16. Talenia. — ^The talent of silver was about $1,056 of our money; 
the talent of gold, about $10,655. Our author, when using the 
word without qualification, is supposed to refer to the talent of 
silver. See Tables at the end of Anthon's Classical Dictionary. 

17. Promderent. — " Might act as a prcetidium or defence." 

18. In esspedito. — ^An idiomatic phrase, referring originally to the 
'* disentanglement of the feet ** ; hence " freedom from obstadea»" 
** readiness." 

N0TB8. 271 

LIB. m. GAP. IL 


1. SiaiuU ipse decernere, — "Resolyed to decide the contest in per- 

2. dreumdaio, «^'c^-What a gloomy pictnre of the hutehery of war 
does this passage present, where men are represented as penned yp, 
as sheep for the slaughter. 

5. Qudmpro nwnero, — "Than in proportion to their actnal number.** 
4. Equet, — A use of the singular for the plural, common in describing 

different kinds of troops. We find, in like manner, miles used to 
denote the whole body of the soldiery. 

6. CetroL — ^A small leathern bucMer, used by some tribes in Spain, 
and supposed by the best authors to be of a rhomboidal shape. 

6. JEffreffii, ut inter iUas gentes, — *' Distingnished warriors when mear 
Bured by the standard of the nations around them." 

7. MfUia OroBcorumf dbe,^-The Greeks, like the Swiss of modem 
days, too often disgraced themselves by their mercenary dispoeitiony 
which frequently led many of them to enlist in ranks opposed to 
their own countrymen. Williams (life of Alexander, page 78, Har- 
pei^s edition) well remarks: " It is difficult to sympathize with men, 
who for daily pay could be thus brought to array themselves against 
their fellow-countrymen, and to fight the battles of the barbariana 
against the ci^tain-general of Greece.** 

8. Bubri maris. — Hie name, Mare RvUmim or Erythreeum, properly 
belongs to the inland sheet of water now known as the "Red Sea ** 
or '' Arabian Gull*' The ancients, however, applied the term to the 
whole extent of oeean washing the southern coasts of Asia. Aa to 
the origin of the appellation, learned men are now agreed that it 
was derived from a certain king Erythras or Erythrus (see lib. 
viiL cap. ix. § 29), whom they suppose to have been no other than 
Esau the son of Isaac From his selling his birthri^t for a meas ai. 
red pottage, he received the name of JEdomf ** Bed "; and aa hia de- 
scendants were called Edomites, and settled on the borders of this 
sea, it was naturally called the Sea of Ed<»n'or tibe " Red Sea,** — the 
Greeks translating Edom by " ErythnBum,** the Latins by ''Bu- 
brum." The opinion was foimerly held by many ancient and modern 
writers that it derived its name from the colour of its waters, tiiougb 
they differed widely as to the cause of the ** redness^" The waab. of 
the adjacent soil,— othe reflection of the sun's rays from the neighbour- 
ing mountains,— >the colour of the sand and plants at the bottom of 
this shallow sea,— have each been advocated as the source of the 

273 ntTEs. 


''redneBfl." Time, howeyer, i^aa eacploded all these theories and 
establiahed the one first mentioiied. 

9. Ipii, BO. DaruK 

10. FttrpuraiU — " CourtierB,'' t. e, Thoae clothed in garments of Ihat 
hue which for ages has been appropriated to sovereigns and their 

11. BatisM ei, dtc-^" Whether he seemed well enough provided to 
annihilate the enemy?" Obierendum is a very strong word. It 
signifies, " to grind to pieces,'' " to crush," ** to waste away by cod^ 
tinual rubbing." 

12. Verym,inquU,dc Verum: <' The truth." The aversion of tyranta 
to listen to the truth is well satirized in the following lines of Juve- 
nal, referring to Domitian: 

— — <M<^ ^MantSua aure tifranni^ 
Vere ioouiuri/iUumpendsbat amid t 

Sat. Iy. 80. 

18. Quanhmit ike — ^"To such a degree, that those, who have not 
been eye-witnesses of it, can form no idea of it in their minds." 

14. S\m<t~Hncidta.—** Terrible " in their aspect,— *< uncouth " in their 

15. Cfuneat. — Tie wedge>IJke form of drawing up soldiers for an attack 
has often been successfully onployed, both in aoioient and modern 

10. Conterta ro6ora.— This eipression savours more of Gurtius, the 
rhetorician, than of Gharidemus, the rough warrior. And here it is 
well to put the student in mind that the speeches, so often occur- 
ring in this work, are wholly imaginative on the part of the author, 
or at most, have but a slight foundation in fact. Oiiier historians» 
both ancient and modern, have put speeches into the mouths of 
those introduced by them to the scene of action. Baderus justly 
says, " that in the doquent character of his speeches, no one is equal 
to Gurtius, certainly no one is superior." 

1*7. FJudangem. — This mode of arranging in&ntiy in close files, 
marcihing in lock tUp^ and uniting theb shields together, so as to 
ojq^ose an almost impenetrable mass to the onset of the enemy, was 
peculiar to the Maoedonians. Hie phalanT generally bore the brunt 
of the action* 

18. Ad niOum monentu,'^T^ indicates a very high state of militaiy 
discipHne, equalled only by the manoduvres of modem soldiers, con- 
ducted by the tap of the drum. 

NOTS8. 27S 


19. Obiitiere, <ke, — CMties differ vid«ly as to the meaning of the mili- 
tary phrases here used, as -weU as to the tnie ptmetoation of the 
passage. ObHstere, aceordmgto Radems, signifies " to press upon the 
enemy in one imited masB,** while Fremsheim considers it equivalent 
to eoMutere '* to halt" Oireianire literally, " To go aronnd," that 
is, " To ont-fiank ** the enemy. JHacwrrere in eamv : " To strengthen 
thewings by reinforcements from the centre." MtOare puffnam : "to 
change the gronnd," that is: "to move in a body to a place more 
fiitonrable for fighting." 

20. . CflZfofrf.— This word literally signifies " to grow hard," or " cal- 
lous ;** hence "to produce hardness" by continual use, like that of 
the pakns of the hands; and, finally, *' to acquire skill " by use and 
practice, " to know thoroughly." 

21. AdhMc iUa, ike — ^"Hitherto that higb state of discipline has de- 
pended upon the acho<ding of poverty." 

22. Quan occupant — ^" Which they find at hand;" more litM«Ily, 
"which they first lay hold o£" 

23. Hhnpora, <kc — ** The duration of deep is more eontracted than 
that of night" That is : They are very early riaers. 

24. Thegsali equites. — ^Thessaly was cdebrated during many ages, for 
the excellence of its cavalry. 

25. .Fkmdis.-^The sling appears to have been a weapon of offence from 
the earliest ages. 

26. SasHs igne duratis, — A weapon resorted to by savage and bar- 
barous nations, where the working of metals is unknown or but little 
att^ided ta 

27. l9ftHl^---ChaiidenmB must be supposed to point with seom to the 
gold so foolishly lavished on the aims and accoutrements of the Fer- 
sian soldiers. 

28. JShspetet, Ac — " The very individual, against whom I have given 
you adviee will inflict upon you the penalty incurred by despising 
my couinseL" Expetere pcsncu " to demand " or " require," — hence, 
'* to inflict punishment" 

29. IdeerUidregni tarn mbUd trvutotua, — Gharidemus here refers to that 
change of disposition so apt to be produced by the attainment of 
absolnte power. Two striking instances will occur to the thought- 
ful student, the one from sacred, the other from profime history. 
Hazael and Nero became monsters ot cruelty when advanced to 
an absolute throne. Compare Suetonius, (JSfero), and O. T. (IL Kings, 
Tiii. 12, Ac.) 


an NOTS6. 



1. PtrpgrinM mtlil0i.«— Chififly the Oreok metteatsmt, 

%. BpetieB wuninmHum rerum.-^'* Yisioiifl of impendiBg eTetrta" 

& Aeegnii,'^*' GaUed th«m up." 

6. Quo ip$e fidtiet — That k: That Alexander appeared in the same 
drees whioh Darins wore, before he -was made king, and 'whicli is 
called below wdgtaris, titiat is: the common dress ci tlie Persians. 

A. Cfmwn distrkmrmit — ^LitaraUy, ''Had drawn his anxiety into 
different direetions;" that is: ** Had distracted his mind witih con- 
flicting cares." 

7. Qu^spe ilhuiria, ^— -The order is: Quippe etaira Maeedowmi 
visa iUuiiria pariendere fiUfftfrmn Alexamdro, guem, \9e, i e. vaUm\ 
hand amhiffere, oeetqxaurvm ene regrmm, dc 

8. 272^— "AsisnsnaL" 

9. Vatmn r^spoiM».— Of course this refers to those who intezpreted 
the dream as '* hetum f^** 

10. JHe Jam t^tMlri.— " VHien the day began to dawn." 

11. Imoffo 9olU. — The Persians worshipped t^e snn as the sovroe and 
emblem of fire. Tlie worship of the heayenly bodies, as it is the 
most ancient, so it is the most plausible of all kinds of idolatry. Its 
antiqnity is attested by the fact that it is the only false worship 
menti<med in th^ book ol Job (xxxi 26, &c.), and its plausibility is 
evident when we consider that it was natural for uneducated and 
barbarous tribes to view the sources of light and heat (appearing 
too, as they do, with the most attractive splendour) as beneficent 

12. Moffi, — They were the chief priests of the nation, and the prin- 
cipal depositaries of learning. A dd^^tion firom their body (three 
in number, according to tradition) visited the infant Saviour. 

18. IHebus totiu8 annipare» numero. — ^The accuracy with which they 
ass^ed the proper number to the days of the year was to be ex« 
pected from those who were probably the first to cultivate the science 
of astronomy. 

14. BegemUB equ&B >* reeiores equorum, 

16. Immcfiaiet,--^ called, according to most authors, because, if one 
fell in batlle, his place was inmiediately supplied, so that there 
were never more nor less than ten thousand. They were composed 
of the bravest and most noble of the Persians. 

NOTB8« Sre 


10. Manieaku Hmkoi.r-^tnsdeB "with l<mg deeres, -n^eh, by the 
ancient Romans, were conndeted yery effeminate. 33iose who 
came into the preeenee of the Peman monarch, were required to 
coyer their h«nda with long aleeyeai aa a.preoantion against aasaa- 

17. Doryphari. — ^An appellation deriyed from the long spear borne 
by thooi;-— >from their sometime^ haying a golden apple placed on 
the point of th^ ^pear, they were ako called Mdopk(ni. 

18. Smulaora eubitaUtw-^M these images were at least ei^teen indL» 
high, it has been supposed that they were hollow and of a £^t 
constraction, to ayoid oyerbnrdening the neeks of the hones* 

19. jPtiftAoa— 'Whence pinions, the wing feathers, as distingoished 
ftom, pmnoi, the feath^s of the body. The distinetion, boweyer, 
does not always bold good. 

30* FwrpureoB, <l«v— ^That is: the general coloor of the gaxment waa 
purple, but the middle was relieyed by a stripe of wHtCb^ 

%l» JSx yomiul.—- That is : **qS. seyeral gems.'' In like manner we s^ 
*' of pearl," meaning " of seyeral pearls." 

22. C|fc2anm.-^This head-dress was not peculiar to the king, except 
in the form of the apex, which, in bis, rose to a conical point; in 
that of others, inclined towards the front. 

23. Armanaxa», — ** litters,** or " coyered chariots" 

24k jAxamm^ H eaionvm.'^** Sutlers and baggage alayes." 
25 Hec ^ur^d.*— The best interpreters apply this to the soldiers alone, 
and not to the camp followers: and this yiew of it seems to be jua- 
tified by what is said bebw* ^ffo AUxamdto, dbc^^-Onr author is 
eyidenHy contrasting the compact^ well-armed, well-disciplined, 
though small body of the Macedonians, with the glittering, but 
confused and ill-disciplined multitude that followed the standard of 

UB. m. CAP. IV. 

1. Gastra CyrL — See Ifote 4, lib. iy. Cap. yii 

2. Staiiva, sc Castro. In the same way Etbema, jEstiva, Ac, are 
used absolutely. 

8. Mummenta, goyemed by imUanU, May not Curdus faaye written 
imikmies, referring to faueesf and then naHaraU sittt would be the 
ablatiye of manner. 

4b Q^ondam ia to be referred to sahbre; serd, to staHAL 

5. FuU in the sense cifmsseL 

6. ObUnere patuissent—" Migbt haye retained poBsesnon." 



1, Perpetuo Jy^o mentis «uperi ae preentptL'-^*' By an nabrolcai ridga 
of rou^ and craggy moimtai]i&'' 

8. Quod citm, 4te^ — ^ Which, taking it» rise np<m the sea coast and 
foxming, as it were, a aendcirenlar hollow by a gradnal curve, 
again, at its other extremity, runs out npon a different part of the 

•. OampettrU, iIwl— «The same (i e. Oilieia) is level where it in- 
clines towards the sea, nnmerons streams marking its snr&^" 

10. N<m 9pdHo, Se, — *' Not by the yolnme of its watws bnt by their 

11. Qui— ter^mt— '< To disturb " or rather " to render turlad." 

12. • MuUd rtjMntim, dtc — " Overshadowed by the abundance of lieh 
foliage on its banks ; " literally, ** by the great pleasantness of its 

18. Ubique foniihtis, <£&*— That is: Without changiDg its character 

during its course. 
14. JPyUs. — Gates, A common appellation among the Greeks for nai^ 

row passes. 
16. 2f<m a/tda— "On no other occasion." See ITote 1, lab. iii 

16. QHotemos, — ^The distributive numeral, here signifying^, "four 

lY. MoniH, <£w.*»That is: They were warned to be as cautious with 

regard to their movements in passing this defile, as if they were 

actually to engage in battle. 

18. Agmen.-^^A colunm of troops on a march,— ^Mie», the same body 
in battle array. A striking instance of the difference between 
these words may be seen in Cffisai^s Oom. de BeU. OalL (lib. viL 
c vL iniL) 

19. Cfui itan mcucimi, ike,-^" Just at the very time the Persians were 
setting fire to it" 

LIB. m. CAP. V. 

1. Mediam, sc. urbem, 

2. Levi et parahUi etdtu corporis, — ^Raderus, followed by Zumpt, re- 
fers these words to ihe dress of the king, but we can by no means 
agree with them, and prefer to conrider the clause as alluding to the 
cheap and ready haih to which the king resorted in common with the 
meanest soldier. Perhaps Curtius wrote vUi, instead of levi ; though 
the latter word approaches near enough in sense to the other to 
make the supposition unnecessary. ^ 

NOTB8. 2T7 


5. IngreBii. — In the genitiTe. 

4» In tanto, Ac — ** In the midst of snoh a rapid conne of good for- 

6. Vietorem, — ^In apposition "with Ikarium. 

6. Jam fit, Ac — ^*' Grant nowthat,** «be " Suppose that already," 
Ac For this pecnliar meaning ci ut, see Lererett's Lexicon. 

7. Eundem regem, dbc — " At once their king and fellowHMddief ." 

8. Anhntan autem, dtc — ** Moreover the diseased state, of his body 
pressed npon his mind, ior,** <bc. 

9. In CUieiam fore, — A use of the aeensatiye not without precedent 
in the comic poets, and even in CSicero. Motion is tmdoubtedly im- 

10. Articuh. — ** Juncture." 

1 1. Tom tuperbas, (i&^->— Rderring to the letter of Darius to his satraps, 
in which he ordered th^n to bring the mad son of PlaHp to him alire 
and in chains. 

12. Foriunam meam, <te. — " Held consultation Tfith my evil fortune." 

13. Arbiirio meo. — "At my own discretion." '^ 

14. Me non torn, Ac, — ** That I seek a remedy, not so much to rescue 
me from death as to preserve me to finish this war." 

16. J^Met mpotestaie, <jbc. — "That he would submit to the control of 

his physicians." 
16. Quippe, Ac — ^These and similar statements are to be received 

with many grains of allowance, as we have no other authority for 

them than the Greek writers, whose truthfulness and impartiality 

are not always to be confided in. 

UB. m. CAP. VL 

1. Puero eomes, o^c— The order is : Dofus [AUxandro] puero eomet 
et cusiot aaluti» dUigebat [eum] eximid eharUaie, nan modd tit regem^ 
9ed etiam vt altannum, 

2. Strenuum. — " Speedily efficacious." 

8. Ouju» periculOf 0&& — "At whose risk the pledge was given." 
4. Purpuratorum, — See Note 10, Chap. ii. 

6. In utramque partem. — "In either direction," i e., to drink or not 
to drink. 

6. Stdjeeerat — "Had suggested." 

7. Ne immeritd. — " Not undeservedly " for despising the warnings 
of his friends. 

8. Haurit interritue: turn, <fc<j. — ^Plutarch and Arrian relate that the 
letter was first handed to Philip, and that the king took the draughty 

278 HO TBS. 


while the fcrmer was reading. Yalerine Manmiie imooi^ with tlie 
■tatement here giyeiL Oar author (Lib» YI., eap. X) makes Fhir 
lotas refer to this same incident. 

9. OtnucienUoB, — ** Of a conscifmsness of innoeenee or guilt** The 

king thought himself able to judge, by the expression of his coun» 
tenanee, whether he was innocent or guilty. 

10. Amieui^k — ''A light oloak,** perhaps of a kind peculiar to phy> 

11. Bemper quidem, dse. — ^Lit., *'My breath has always indeed been 
dependent on thee, but now truly it is drawn from that sacred and 
honoured mouth of thine." That is : My own life has been always 
connected with the safety of thine, owing to the responsible station 
I hold as thy physician, but now truly does the continuance of it 
depend upon what thou hast just drunk, for, if fatal to thee, it will 
prove equally fSatal to me. 

12. Parricidii, — ^This word, in its primary sense, denoted " the murder 
of a fiither,** but it came afterwards to signify the killing, by an 
inferior, of a superior, whom he was under peculiar obligations to 
love and obey. Hence^ also, it is applied figuratively to injury 
done to one's country. Here it may be rendered " regicide." 

18. 8% JHi, dfc — The order is : Si Dii permUUtetU tibi, FhUippCt ta^ 
periri meum animum modo, quo maxime velles, profectd voluissea [ex- 
periri «inn] alio [modo'], 9ed ne optAaaeB qtudem certiorem [modumj 
qudm expertu» €9. 

14. Vitd odcTA— See O. T. (Job adv., 9.) 

15. yam dim, dbc — "For since fortune every where attended him, 
his very rashness turned to glory.** 

16. JEtoi quoque, dx, — That is : Even his extreme youth, whieh 
seemed hardly capable of such great undertakings — but proved 
abundantly adequate, — added lustre to all his achievejnents. 


1. Junctogue eo. — ^That is : The opposite sides of it 

2. MtdckB. — ^In modern phrase, "a contribution.** 

8. Vota. — "Vows,** probably made by both the king and the army. 
4. JfufUiua, — This word signifies " a messenger,** or "the news," of 

which he is the bewer. In this instance, as in the first line of this 

chapter, it has the latter meaning. 
6. Alteria casfyris, — "After the second day's march.'* As the Bomans 

encamped regularly every night when upon a march, it was natural 

NOTES. 279 


for their wrfters to express time in xmlitary ezpediMons by tho 
niimber of encampments. 

6. Deturhatif, sc. iis, 

7. Idem el aueior, <te, — " At once the performer and informer of these 

8. JPersoi reeenteSf <tc, — "That fresh reinforcements wonld be con- 
stantly coming np to aid the Persiansi if they were able [i &, "per- 
mitted"] to take their stand in too spadons a place.** 

9. Sieines, dbc — ^This, we believe, is the first instanee of hasty and 
nndue severity on the part of Alexander ; followed, however, by 
too many others. 

10. JBaniitan pairiA, «J^c-^According to onr own idiom we shoold say, 
"He exchanged the home of his fathers for a life of exile." The 
Latins, however, nsnally pat the thing given np in the ablative, 
nnless the preposition eum be nsed, as mittare veiUm eum vino, 
** to exchange garments for wine." 

Cur vaUe permutem SaMnd 
JHvttias op&roHoTM, 

(Hor. Oarm. in. 1, 47.) 8«e Dr. Anflum^s note. 

11. Magno id ei, dc, — ^For the construction of ei and honori Biter fare, 

see Anthon's Zmnpt^s Gram. (§ 422), and Adam's Lat. Gram. (Rnle 
J. \ 


12. JBae literas,-^" This letter." 

18. Zectamqw, die — " And when he had read it he impressed upon it 
the seal," <bc 

MR HL GAP. vm. 

1. I^MOioaotque, <ftf.-^Expexienee, that excellent instmctor, seems to 
have fonnd bnt indifferent pupils in the Persians : for whatever they 
had learned under her instmctions at Thennopyhe and flalamis, 
of the necessity of " ample room and verge enough " for the evolu- 
tions of mighty hosts, was wholly lost before they engaged in the 
narrow defiles of Issus. 

2. Aneipitem, 4ke» — ^This passage may be rendered more intelligible 
to the student by supplying some words and giving the following 
order: [Qui dMaiU, L a, the courtiers] aneipiiem fiism et prodi- 
Ucmem venalem mercede immmere [Penis] et [Chraeoel veUe ccpiae 
dividi non oh aliud qudm tU ipH {Greed), digreesi in diverea, iraderent 
Alexandra eiquid (— ■ quicquid) cammiesum eaaet [tpM*]. 

8. Qiuam deinde, dbc — ^We prefer quam to qtum, the conunon reading, 


280 NOTES. 


b«eai]ae ire think that if otir auHior had used the latter word, he 
would have written exnationUnu exteria, and not the genitiye plnra] 
as we find in the text 
4 Nemnem itolidum, dx. — " That no one ehonld expiate his unwise 
counsel by the loss of his head.** What a pity that Darius had not 
entertained such sentiments before he put Charidemus to death. 
Loooenius quotes here the following appropriate advice from M»- 
cenas to Augustus. " You will clieerfuUy allow all to give their ad- 
vice free from responsibility for the results. For, on the one hand, 
if the counsel of any one shall meet your approval, much advantage 
will thence accrue to you, while on the other hand, if it shall not 
please you, no harm will result fr^m it Should you r^ect the 
counsels of any, by no means disgrace or even find fault with them, 
but rather look to the good-will displayed by them in giving the ad- 
vice, and not to the character of its results." 

5. Nee tamen, tjkc, — "And yet those who gave the more prudent 
counsel, were not considered as possessing more fidelity ** than the 

6. Fama heUa stare, — " That wars depend upon rumour.*' That is : 
That wars are often affected in their results by rumours. See also 
lib. ix. Cap. v. § 16. {Pugnahatpro Rege, dtc) 

*!. Absentid tud, — " While he (Darius) was at a distance." 

8. Fortk eddem, <te, — ^The two armies, by going through different 
passes, accidentally avoided each other, until, learning their mutual 
position, they wheeled about and faced each other in the battle, each 
with its front towards its own country. . 

9. JHeverteretUur. — " Were returning." 

10. Ineondita, — " Undisciplined." 

11. Quod. — The matter referred to by this relative follows in the next 

12. yee injurid, dbc. — ^**Kor did he without reason." 

18. Corpora, d:c. — " To attend to their physical wants»" 

14 Sigmtm tvbd, — The signal by which the different watches of the 

night were made known to the soldiers. 
16. Agmen — aciem, — See Note 18, Lib. iii Cap. iv. 
16. Baptimque, Ac. — Caesar (Com. de BelL Gall ii. 19, «fcc.) gives a 

very vivid description of his being rather unexpectedly called into 

action with the Kervii, but with results widely diffeiing from those 

that befell Darius. 
IT. Unum, — Uhiuai 
18. A mar* quoque, ijbc. — "Ready to bring up other troops against 

NOTES. 281 


the enemy from the direetion of the sea, which proteeted hk light 

1 9. JDeaHnaUL — ^The olject of dueuuU, Cicero in a letter to his friend 
Lentnlus (ad Fam. i 8, LamK ed. 1584), expresses in striking lan- 
guage the tendency of mankind to praise or blame according to 
cTcnts. " Bed hcee tentetUia et Hit et- nobis probabatur ; u^ «xeoewlu 
homines de tuo consiUo exMmaturoi videreimu ; ri ceeidinet, ut vohanui 
€t cptamus, omnes te, et sapienter, et fcrtUerj-^sin aliqtUd euet offenr 
sum, eosdem iUos, et cupide et temerer-ficisse ^duros, « • * * /ikK- 
Htrni non tarn ex eonsUio tuo jtcdm ex eveniu homines esse faeturos," 

LIB. m GAP. IX. 

L SteHt'-'** Was formed." 

2. Subsidiis, — ** As reserresi" 

8. ulMiieto.-^This participle, like the yerb from which it is derived, 
is sometimes followed by the datiye and sometimes by the ablatiye. 

4k MUlia, may be in the nominatiTe in apposition with, aeies accord- 
ing to our own punctuation, or in the accusatiYe, and g^Tcmed by ad 

6. Quidquid, sc loei. 

d. Oomuague, dbc — *' While the wings rested, the one (the left) on 
the high ground ; the other (the right^ on the sea." 

7. Insederant. — ''Had posted themselyes." 

8. Agrianos cpposuiL — ^Probably because they were from a moun- 
tainous region, and would be most likely to drive an enemy from 
an eleval^d position. 

9. JSaqueres, <te, — The order is: JEdque res presstUU lotus agminis 
tutum Alexandra, quod, timuerat, ne ineesseretur supemk The 
student will probably have observed that the distinction between 
aeies and agmen, mentioned in a former note, is not always kept up 
in this description of the battle. In this very sentence agminis 
evidently jncans the extended line of battle, usually expressed by 
odes. As to tkMtsrat ne, see Anthon's Zumpt's Oram. § 633. 

LIB. m. CAP. X 

1. Clamorem, — The custom of shouting upon engaging in battle is 
as natural as it is usual ; and, while it tends to terrify the enemy, 
its reaction upon those shouting is favourable in raising the animal 
spirits, and thus exciting to more physical activity. 

282 NOTES. 

% Mxereii^ in^»arnumero, — f^Not corresponding -with the nmnber 
of the army " ; that is : The shout was louder than would have 
been expected from a body of men comparatiTcly so small* F<nr 
this shont^s being nu^ than that of the Persians we may infer a 
reason from our author's applying the word ineondUumt "irregular," 
(that is: "not all at once,") to the shout of the Persians. The 
latter part of the sentence assigns the reason for impar manero e»- 

5. Quippe temper, <te, — ^Any reference to echo will scarcely fail to 
recall to the mind of the classical student the epithel> both concise 
and beautiful, which Horace (Garm. L 12), bestows upon it 

4. Buoe inhiben», 4te, — ^To prevent their exhausting themse^Tes be- 
fore the battle actually commenced, " lest»" as our author expresses 
it| *" they should engage in the battle out of Inreath by a too quiek- 
ened respiration, caused by overhaste.** 

ft. Non ipeiiu, dx, — ^That is : It was not so much the authority of 
Alexander, as their own desire of fame and their wish to be avenged 
upon the Persians for the wrongs and indignities they had inflicted 
upon Greece, that induced the Macedonians to set out on the pre- 
sent war of conquest 

6. Orbi» liberatores. — ^Why not orhem liberaturoei 

1, MnetuoBque, dx,—^ And having hereafter attained the limits^"*^ 

8. Maeedonum. — ^The genitive of possession, in connexion with the 
verb /ore, 

9. Umbanibtu, — ^The umbo was a metallic point, (by some stated to 
be eight inches long), projecting from the centre of the shield, and 
was used in close combats to repel attacks. It is often translated 
by the English word "boss." See O. T. (Job xv. 26.) 

10. FrcBdam, non arma. — ^That is : Gilded arms, which would soon 
become their prey. 

11. Fin. — "As men," in contrast with ** imbeUUme fuminU, For a 
strikinginstance of the distinction between vtr and homo the student 
is referred to Cic. Tusc QuoBst (II. 22). 

12. MutarenL — ^Here this verb governs the accusative of the thing 
given and the ablative of the thing received. See Note 10, lib. iii 
Cap. 1. 

LIB. m. CAP. XL 

1. Ad id* Jactum, — ^According to Yegetius the distance that • 
weapon, thrown by a machine, would reach, was about &I6 feet 

2. Quippe, dx.'^Tke Persian monarchs placed great reliance on their 




8. Dudbia alU squUimk'^" Tiro squadrons of dmhry." The tenn 
aim is derived from their position on the sides or flanks of an armj, 
fike the wings of a bird*< According to Badems the ala contained 
180 horsa Of course this number must haye yaried with different 
nations and in different ages. 

4. OceuUh circumire, dse. — That is: To pass secretly around the rear 
of the Macedonian army and form a Junction with Pannema 

5. Bimvl — ^For Bmud ac — " As soon as." 

d. In eoadeni ctmcwrrefdia,'-^" On their way to the same objeota" 
literally, " Running together to the same." 

7. Muer&nea. — Muero means the point of any thing, — hoe of a 
sword. . The combat was so dose that they could use thdr swords 
in no other manner than by thrusting the point into the laces of 
their adTorsarietf, — a mode of proceeding urged upon his soldiers .by 
Julius OsBsar at the battle of Pharsalia, in the weU-knowu phrase, 
J^m faeiem, miUg, 

8. CoUato pede, iwL--Supply pedL ''Foot l^ught against foot* 
That is : They fought man to man as in single cmnbaL 

9. Opimvm, — This word has reference to the apolia apma, " which 
the commander-in-chief of a Roman army stripped in a field of battle 
from the leader of the foe.'' See Anthon's Smith's Antiq. 

10. IneUameniium. — ^In apposition with Da/riu»» 

11. In pauciitmia, — This phrase and the similar one " in paud» " are 
of frequent occurrence with our author. They cannot be literally 
translated, but their meaning may be expressed by the word 
«especially." We may here paraphrase the clause thus, ''He had 
yery few equak in courage, and in affection for the king.'' 

12. Adver8o earpore, (be, — " Haying receiyed their wounds in front; " 
— which was considered honourable. 

18. Ferttrictum esL^" Was dighUy wounded." " Was grazed." 

14. Ad hoc — " For the purposeu" .Mian (East, Anim. yL 48) says 
that a mare was employed on this occasion, and that her speed waa 
accelerated by the remembrance of the foal she had left at home. 
Indeed, he goes so &r as to say, that it was a usual custom with 
DariuB, to haye a number of mares ready for his sudden flights, 
their speed being hastened in a way similar to the one mentioned 

15. Aded paver, dsc — ^literally, "So much does terror dread eyen its 
own protectors." That is : Those blinded by fear are apt to oyer- 
look that which would be of seryioe to them. 

18. Ciim Theuali dilapH,-^" When the Thessalians, who had yielded 

M4 ifOTBa. 


gimmd." We hKwe T«nfc»ed to alter tiie positaoii of the word 
dUoftif as moie aooordant to the aenee. The eommon reading places 
It after •qm», whioh voold haye beea well enough, had the wojtd 

17. Beris kmUnarum gravet, — ^*' lE^cnmbered with plate armour* It 
was no nneonmum thing in aneient» as well as more modwn tiiaeB» 
for horses and riders to be clad in conq^lete axmonr. See Anthon'a 
Smith's Antiquitieb 

18. Agmeti quid ederiiate, dbfe*-'' With difficulty formed into column, 
a movement which depends upon celerity for its Talne." We would 
make qvod refer to the whole statement and not to the single word 
agmen. Hiis whole passage has been much veaed by .critics, and 
^ter all their labours it is by no means free from diffieultiee. 

19. Mmid mini, Ac — That is: Hiey were not rooted but made an 
orderly retreat 

Sa Nee tdla faeiee, dte, — " "Sot was any form el miiery waating.** 
The picture here displayed has been too feithMly copied l>y nations 
calling themselTCs Christians, as Drogheda, Badigoa^ Saragossa, ^e., 
sadly testify. 

21. Twne verd, dx. — '* Then truly might be seen an instance of in- 
tolerable misfortune." For the suocessiYe shades of meaning iu the 
word impoteni, see Leyeretl/s Lexicon. 

22. J^bnius pulehriiudine. — *' By the beauty of her person.'' 

28. ZaeeraH», dx,^^** With Hieir hair dishevelled and their gannents 
rent:"-— the well-lmown marks of profound grief among Oriental 

24. VerU quondam, dx, — ** Titles that once were applicable but now 
no longer belonged to them." 

26. Oaaa nmt, dte, — ^The numbers here mentioned as slain are laige, 
but seem small in comparison with the numbers that fell in the 
battle, between Abijah, King <^ Judahand Jeroboam, King GflsraflL 
See O. T. (II. Ohron. ziil 1^.) 

UR m. csAP. xn. 

1. 8pei non erat, — ybn may, in many cases, be adjeotively trans- 
lated by the word '* no," as in the present instancei ''There was no 

2. (MhL — " Dress." The order is, Namque unus e eaptis tpadtmibus, 
quifcrte Heterat ante ipsarvm Memactdum, agnoeit amiculum, {quod 
Daritts, neut dictum est pcndo ante, abjecerat, neproderetur cuUu,) in 
manUwa efu» qtUferebat [id] repertum. 



8. AffMfferiM, — ^Badenw, after ramoldng, iha^ tmniger^ whieh origi* 
nally denoted "one that bore the weapons* of hir master {Anglic^ 
«SBqidre''), eame afterwaids to signify any heaTy-armed soldier, 
says that the word in this place may admit of either sense. 

4k Aehan eMd-*-Aa idiomatio phrase, eqmTalent to the English one, 
^ It was all oyer with them." It ecenrs fireqaently in the condo 
poets. It is here explained by the exdamation of the att^dants, 
" adesBe tupreniam horam." 

6, Itaque ut gum, dtc — This wbole seene is beautifiilly described and 
yet with ^great sunplicity. We can ahnost see the trembling forms 
of the pale, yet beantifcd, ladies of the harem, as they look npon each 
other in^despair, ezpeeting each moment to be their last 

8. IrrupUtef dfrc — ^13iey were not aware of the order he had giyen to 
the attendant to annonnce his condng. 

I, Prm^u^— This word is ezpressiYe <rf the extreme hmnifity of 
position assomed by Orientals on occasions like the present liter* 
ally, <' Rolled down before." Something more is implied than mere 
fiilHng on the knees, whicb would probably be the last resort of 
those firom western nations. We refer to the generally prevailing 
custom. There were donbtless many exceptions on both sides. 
Cicero applies to himself the words tfyraium and abfedum, when 
speaking of his application to several individnals to prevent his ban- 

a Xeofia^ifft-»Snpply respondU, 

9. Jiisfis.— -Ibis word is nsed absolutely, to express ''due ceremo- 
nies, whether military or funereal." Here it is tised in the latter 
senses Sometimes /^fM^rta is expressed with it 

10. Tabemaeulum cum, Se, — Few of Alexander's actions have gained 
him more applause than this visit to his captive queens, and his 
noble bearing while with them. Such manly and virtuous conduct 
only renders his subsequent cruelties and immoralities the more 
inexcusable as proceediog from one "who knew the rights and yet 
tlie wrong pursued." 

II. ArhiUr, in its original sense, means "one who goes to view any- 
tiiing" that he may Ibrm an impartial judgment of its character. 
Hence, to be "a witness o(" ''a participator in"; in this last sense 
it is used here. 

12. Non aliw. — " No other." See Note 1 of this chapter. 

IS. Ui magi», d^.— "That it seemed rather to be accorded to th 

king than claimed by him." 
14. OorporU hdbiiu, — ** Personal appearance," referring principally to 

his height, which was greater than that of Alexander. 


1& iShfoiii0r«L*-Tlitttu: by ptostratum. See Note 7 of lias cfaapter. 

1ft. MonitnmiUmi.'^npply ^uUmadam, 

17. i^om 0t kie, dsc-^Thht is : " He is my other eel^**— implying the 
intimw^ that subsisted betwe^i them. Alexander used to say of 
him, that he loyed JJexatider, but that Craterus loved the kihg. 

18b JSguidem, », ite. — ^Erery reader will ocHieur in the sentiment here 
expressed, and will feel the force of our author^s renuurks the fur- 
ther he proceeds in this interesting biography. 

19. J&Mfictd coMsd.— " Without a hearing.** 

20« Bypafudtrat, d:c — "Had notoyerflowed his mind'*; "Had not 
drowned" his better feelings. 

21. Ad fdHmutn, d:e, — "At last he was incapable of enduring its 
greatnesa** That is : He could not withstand the temptations 
thrown in his way by constant success. 

22.. AdBo ipse — uL — "He not only did not himself-^but". 

28. NequMi ^c — " That no one should trifle with the persons ai any 
of his captives." Zumpt has the following singular note, which is 
oertainly abhorrent to the context: "8hovld insuH; namely, by 
propoeals to them to become traitors to Darius.** 

24. jEqyitate, — ^Raderus succinctly contrasts the conduct of Alexander 
with that of Darius, in the following note. "Dariu» Maeedomu 
crudditer vd mactatnt, vd ftvuHlawit, et hoe ante prcdium Alexandef 
totum ipdue gynoeceum saeroeaneium servaviL Darivs percueeorem 
miUe talentie in Alexandrum immiUere conabatur, dim aeger Tani 
deeumierat; hoe nvnquam feeU Alexander, qui apertd semper vMuie 
et Marte graeeabaiur ad gloriam. JPresterea, tU ex epUtolA Alexandri 
ad J)ariuni infrd dUeee, parens Alexandri, J^ersarttm impidsu, at ipsi 
^oriabantur, interfectus est,'* dtc Sisygambis had certainly good 
reason to draw a comparison between Alexander and her own son 
in favour of the former. 

26. JEt prateriteB, <ke, — "I am not carried away by the elevation of 
my former state, and am able to bear the yoke of present adversity.** 
Capio is used in the same sense as eapit above; see 2fote 21. JPaH 
jugum, "to bear the yoke,'* is a figure of speech obviously taken 
from the patient endurance of the ox while under the yoke, and is 
frequently employed in Scripture. The most apposite instance 
occurs in Lamentations iiL 27. "It is good for a man to bear the 
yoke in his youth.** 

26. l\td interest, — ^Zumpt considers tud in the ablative ; his transla- 
tor, Schmitz, however, considers it an accusative for tuam. See 
Anthim's Zumpt's Gram. § 449, and note. The passage may be ren- 


dered thna : "It ia of great importenee to you, with i^eg«rd to th« 
d^ree of. power jovl may be permitted to exeroise oyer u^ if yoa 
are willing [that yoa should be willing] that it should be testified 
rather by clemeney than severity." 

27. JtutU, — "Requested." This word is frequently used without 
~ any idea of positive command, as in the colloquial phrase» "Jubeo 
. U valere," and in instances like the present 

2& Mq^hastionem tn^KdyM.—*' Addressing Hephestion." Literally, 
"Looking attentively at^*' but it may be frequently rendered as 


1. A — ^Namely, Farmenio. 

2. Man, sc Mardum, Curtios here, as in many instances^ uses eum 
for ML 

8. ComUiints, — ^These were nomiaally "attendants,** but^ as appears 

by what follows, were intended to keep him in custody. 
4k AuMat — AudeniU would seem more natural, as ccmnected with 

& Qui duces, dbe. — ** To act as guides," Ae, See Anthon's Zmnpt's 
Gram. § 567. 

6. Omnibus, die, — ^" A crowd calcidated to excite the compassion of 
all except him,** Ac 

7. Ftro»— eon/u^y /tfteroSi-— These accusatives are in apposition with 

8. Absirktas vestes, — ** Garments which they had tied up in 

9. CHati firtumt, d!c — " Since the misfortunes of the king permitted 
even the lowest to indulge in liberties derogatory to him.** 

10. ItUenHore ewrd. — "With great eamestne8&** The comparative 
may be used here to indicate, that he was more anxious than the 
result proved to be necessary. 

1 1. Juttum pr<dwmL-^*\ A regular battle.** 

12. BknuL — ^The common reading is wmHanSy the force of which is 
already implied in quasi et, die, Bimulato and amuians have been 
substituted for it Freinsheim and Schmieder strike it out alt<^ 
gether. We merely remove the last three letters. 

1& Fades, — " A spectacle.** 

14. Quippe, dsc — ** For things, that had accumulated during so many 
years of a prosperity, remarkable even beyond beli^, were at that 



time dragged forth, some hftTlBg been torn bj the bmbee» otiierB 

buried in the mad.** 

16. Vixquef «itc:— " And there wtm aoareely any eonxtiei'a home tiiat 
was exempt from so great a calamity." 

l(k Pecunim ngnaUB. — ^^ Coined money." Probably geiden Daricfli 
These coins are supposed to have originated with Darius HystaspiB, 
who, according to Herodotus, reformed the Fenian cuneney. Hesy- 
chius says they bore the image of Darius ;-~but consult Anthon'a 
Smith's Antiq. See also lib. iii* Cap. L Kote 16. 

17. Faeti argeniL — ** Silver plate." 

18. Credo, Regis, dx. — " Having, I believe, a reverence for tiie king's 
majesty, even in that time of calamity." 


1. Fugiebat,—-" Was fleemg." 

2. ^Earum, sc equortmu 

8. Fore ipwa», — " Would become his own." 

4L Per guenL — " Through whose inatrumentality." 

6. Imperatafeeerunt, — See Note 2, lib. viil Cap. L 

6b Prcscipue eum, dte, — A similar instance of offence taken at tiie in- 
scription of a letter occurs in the life of Washington. See Spaik's 
life of Washington, (page 1*71, Best. 1889.) 

T. PoshUabiU—petebat. Peto, PoeHdo and Po9eo have been thus 
distingiiished. P€io, *' I ask as a favour." Pottuh, '' I demand as a 
right, and rightfdlly." Poeco, "1 require whether rightftdly or 
wrongfully." These distinotioBs, however, do not always hold 

8. QuaiUaniieumqe, <jEr«.-~-Digby translates thus, "As much money as 
all Macedonia «mm vforthJ* A sense which caperet will hardly bear. 
We would prefer '' As mu<di as all Macedonia wa9 eapakU iA famish- 
ing." That is: Darius was willing to pay an amount equal to the 
yearly revenue of the whole of Macedonia. 

9* JEqwh^Marte, — " In a &ir fight," that is: Where he would have 
a fair field for the mancauvres of aU his foiees, and not be cramped 
in narrow passes as at Issus. 

10. CawtefUue patrio, Jbe,-^" That he should be contented with the ' 
dominion inherited from his father, and relinquish territories beloog^ 
ing to the empire of another." 

11. Jr<min<^.--<' Substantially." 

12. PhUippum, dte. — The opinion generally prevalent among those 

NOTES. 289 


▼ened in history is, tibiat private revenge was the sole canse ol 
Philip's death. Doubtless it was matter of rejoicing to the Persian^ 
who were wdtt aware of his designs upon their country. Alexander, 
howevw, is not the only eonqneror, that has made use of unfounded 
assertions to jvnAafy his rapacity. 

18. JUeiimmm.'-'" Yon put np at anction." ** Yon expose to sale." 
** Yon set a priee nprnL* That is : " Yon offer the highest rewards 
for the heads of yonr enemies." A dastardly course, and yet often 
thought justifiable in the case of rebels. Thus a price was set on 
the head of Wadiington, and, recently, on that of Kossuth, the Hun- 
gariim patriot. 

14. JProximS.-^** Very lately.* 

15. Wtpaie pit, dsct — ** Inasmueh as thou art one who hast not," Ac. 

16. OcnmiUre vieHs.^^** To take measures for the benefit of the Van- 

1^. . Memento, Ac — lliis answer truly savours of the moral sublime^ 
especially when it is considered that Alexander was in the midst of 
the enemy's country with a comparatively smaU army. 

19. Ip9e, se. Alexander, 

19. Bidana. — ^A Greek ace. sing. 

20k IhHi opibus adjtttus, Sx, — Freinsheim suggests adMctu», et qtda, 
and the suggestion is favoured by many subsequent editors, ft 
certainly gives a better sense than the reading in the text Perhaps 
some words may have fallen out, and the whole passage may have 
omveyed tills meaning ; " Stirato was reig^ng in that city, support 
ed by the resourees of Darius. He nevertheHen betrayed hi» trutt and 
9tirre ndc red the city ; but because," d^c. The words dedUionemfeeerai 
certainly imply a previous mention of the fiict. 

21. JSo faUigio,—** That elevation." 

22. Ho9pite$, — Hoepee may denote " the entertainer" or " the one en- 
tertained ;"--''' the host" or "the guest" Here it signifies those 
with wh<»n HephsBstion " took up his quarters." 

23. NegemerunL — ^It is often well, in translating, to transfer the nega- 
tive, contained in this word, to the following verb, as in tius in- 
stanoe, " Who declared that no one," <fec Again, NeganjU ee ven- 
iunun eise, ** He declared that he would not come." 

24^ MaetL — Some derive this word from moffis aucH, others from an 
obsolete verb moffo, whence also moffwus, moffia, Ae, MacU virtute 
seems, in every instance, to be the expression of a wish on the part 
el the speaker, for a virtuous and honourable prosperity in behalf of 
tliose addressed. 

290 MOTBS. 


%S, J^nminere. — ^" Intent iipoB." 

26w PaUorem mml — ** Had etrongw eUinu." 

%1, ^<m «RNiiMat—" Did not lUten toi" <' IHd not hew ao «b to 

pay any attention to." This passage has rather a rhetorieal cast 
28. Subitd deinde, dte. — ** Unexpeetedly, th^i, do those of vhoia men- 

tion has already been made enter," «fco. 
2fii Qntmn, dc — ** Which Abdalonymna chaneed to be weeding and 

putting in order." 
ga J9«6ihM— Aic «etluL— "This style of dress." I3iat is: "Theae 

royal garments." Our author makes use of the same eiq^FMsion. 

lib. iiL Cap. iii § 6. 

81. Com ne, Ae, — See Anthon's Zumpffs Gram* g 584. If eme be fol- 
lowed by n$j we translate : '* Be carefol not to "—if by ut expressed 
or implied» '* Be earefiil how you," or " Be on your guard against" 

82. Injeeia.'^" Thrown upon " his shoulders. 

88b Miofvm ttutUum, die — " The ceal of some, the Texatixm of othen^ 
was openly manifested." 

84. Ccrpon^^habUu9, Bee lib. iii cap. ami Kote 14. 

85. JViAt/ hanoenH, — ^We belieye this is the true reading instead of 
habewtif and had so noted it upon the margin, before we met with it 
in the varum» teadiang» of Valpy's Delphin ed. Though Freisaheim 
retains hahmtif yet hia whole comment upon the passage is based 
upon the sense that hanfenH would giye to it 

8ft. Ma^m indolU 9peeianefL'^" The proof of a great nund." 

87. M eHm, isc — The order is: M ei^fli arhHroinbitir, gmtmim^ miBo 
ttaJbu rerum, habiturum id guod oecupdaet, vehU pouumm certo jure, 
deereoU, dse. JUo tttOu refers to the oonfiiaion prodneed tiiroQghoat 
the Persian dominiona by the sueoessee of Alexander. 

88. Dtteeret — Supply vi. 

89« Uiendum. — " That he ougjbdi to take adyaotage ol" 

40. Ad hoe ipaum, — ^We have placed these words in braokets as use- 
less, and having, according to Bothe, very mueh the appearance of a 
gloss. Some read ad ipnun, i, c,to Amyntas. 

41. CasiHa^fue poaiHt, dt«:— The Delphin editor justly remarks on 
this passage, " V*x vUu$ ioto Cfurtio detperoHor loot», et qui CfnH- 
eorum ingenia inagi$ exercuerit,^ We are far from assuming to de- 
cide the question, but give such a reading as appears to make good 
sense, though it may not be the language of Curtins. 

4SL VietaricB fidudd, <Ev. — " Bendered incautious by the confidence 
inspired by their late Yiotory." A very common eause of disaster to 
armies. To this Claudian (iv. Cons. Honoiii, 884) refo» 



Gatidia : disparsi pareunia somnova sokeU, 
Soepiua incatttcB nocuU Victoria turbcB,*^ 

4& J¥, EMS. AUxandro-^H, sc J)arP9>, 

44. Pne^ftuL— *<AdmiraL'' 

45. O^v^mM», Aa«, (ke, — ** The Cretans, aooording as they sided with 
one party or the other, were garrisoned, at one time by the Spa^* 
tans, at another by the Macedonians.** 

40. Uhum eeriamen.^— "The one great contest;* namely, between 
Alexander and Darius. 

LIB. IV. CAP. n. 

1, Fotens mm erat — " Had no oontroL" 

8. Itagtie, — " Aecordingly." 

8» VdventL^—We give this reading in preference to the common one^, 
evolvena; or ev<dvit, the one approved by Schmieder, as more con- 
sonant with the passage in Virgil (.^neid. L 86), which onr author 
is supposed to have had in his eye. 

** Und Zur usque IJotuaqtte nmnt creberque proeeilis 
ADricixs, et vcutos volvant ad littoraJlvctuaJ' 

4» 2fee oeeipiendo, (ke, — The order is, Nee quidguam chttahai ocei- 
piendo operi, quo Maeedonee parabani jungere inmdam eoniinenii, 
mag%» qudm iUe veniui. TMs clause justifies the use of the word 
fiohenii above, as referring to Afrieo. 

& Moedant. — This verb literally signifies '*to eat out," and is here 
yery expresaiye of the manner in which the waves, by working 
their way between the interstices of the mole, finally " ate out " 
and destroyed its stability. Virgil applies the participle of the 
same verb to a mountain, 

** Est specus inffens 

SboeH latere in moKtis.^—QTOtja. lY. 419. 

6» JV<m.--See lib. iii. Cap. ziL ^ote 1. 

1. JPrcecepe in ealvm^ dse, — ^That is : " The wall, by rising perpen- 
dicularly from the sea, prevented any footpath around if 

& Fendentei et irutabile», i».— "From their flowing and unstable 
character, they could," dsc. 

0. Semper, ir<;.— That is: l^re was always honoured as the nwther 

892 NOTES. 


10. 0p^fice9, — '^jre was celebrated for her artificers from the earliest 
period of her history. The estimation in which they were held 
among the Jews is shown by the part assigned to them in boilding 
Solomon's temple 1000 b. a, or 700 years before Alexander^» time. 
For a graphic, and, at the same time» reliable acconat of the arti- 
fieers and arts» merohaats and merchandise of Tyre, see O. TL, 
(Ezekiel, chapp. zzyiL and xzyiil) 

11. Horpagimai, from 'Apira(», "to seize," were "iron hoohs** fixed 
at the end of long poles. The corvi seem to have been ** grappling 
irons*' attached to ropes and thrown into vessels, and, being drawn 
back, they thns depriyed them of their spars and rising. 

12. Aeeenderent, — Supply fj^ or opifieea as the subject of this yerbi 
18. Idque omen, Jte. — "And the Tyrians interpreted that omen as a 

dreadful thing tor the Macedonians." Metvm is here put for the 
cause of fear. 

14. Apud Maeedona» quoque, Sc—One omen related by Plntardi 
deserves mention on account of the ingenuity displayed in its inter- 
pretation. " In a dream Alexander thought he saw a satyr playing 
before him at some distance, and when he advanced to take him, 
the savage eluded his grasp. However, at last, after much coaxing 
and taking many circuits around him, he prevailed with him to 
surrender himself The interpreters, plausibly enough, divided 
the Greek term for satyr into two^ 2a T^ot, which signifies 2Jfr9i 
is ihine." See Plut Lives^ (Harp, ed., p. 474) 

10. Contra ju8 gentivm. — ^In all ages, and among all people, the per- 
sons of ambassadors, heralds, eaiA flag-hearers have been held saered, 
and any violence offered to them has been supposed to call down 
the special vengeance of the Deity. But, alas for man's reverence 
of the Deity, history furnishes many instances like the {««sen^ 
where they have been put to death by a people too confident of 

16. JExhauriendas ease, d:c — That is : That whole territories would be 
exhausted to furnish materials to construct a mole to fill up the 
interval between the island and the main land. 

17. Ad manwnu — "At hand." Agreeing exactly witii the Englkh 

1 8. InseetaHo,--" RaiUery." 

19. Hhndum eammUeum, — ** Not yet united in all its parts." 

20. In expedite eeeeL — "It were an easy matter." 

21. Igitur rex fMmevMm», dse, — ^Blaneard, in a note to his edition of 
Arrian (p. 182, Amst 1668^ incidentally remarks on this passage^ 

NOTES. 893 


as follows: "8ic UgenAun e netHgiU ifotuttm keUonU vidU amicu» 
no$ter Granovitu, nam quidam expresHy ex jumdntis. » « » 
Idem ver^ in Ottrtio legit, ut extra teli iotum essent VtUgaU in^ 
probe, jactam." 

LIB. IV. CAP. m 

1. Capite moli», both here and a few lines above, denotes "the head 
or extremity of the mole" as far as it was advanced towards the 
eity. It is probal>le» therefore, that the towers were of a constrae- 
tion similar to those commonly used in the si^e of cities^ and ae* 
cordingly, were furnished with wheels, or rollers, that they might 
be moved forward as the work advaneed. 

2. Bumma tabviata, — Badems is disposed to consider the roof or 
covering of the whole work to be here intended, and not merely 
** the upper stories " of the towers. 

8. Capere eoe, quam, dtc — In order to extort inforaoation from them, 
or, possibly, to reserve them for crucifixion. Some have thought 
that their lives were spared that they might act as ambassadors to 
Alexander, the Tyrians fearing to send any of their own country- 
men, lest he might retaliate upon them the slaughter of his heraldai 

4. jHtc — " In this instance." 

5. Veritu, — " "With more reason.** 

6. jRex novi, dtc — " The king, upon undertaking a mole of a new 
formation, carried it out> not with the side, but with the direct 
front against the wind.** 

*l. Ma cetera, dsc-r-ThaX is : The front of the mole formed a protec- 
tion for the rest of the works^ which lay, as we should say, wnder 

8. Super is here used adverbially. > 

9. PrcBcipitan auxilhan, dkc — ^Their principal dependence was upon 
those who, «fee 

10. JSminentiunu — " That projected out from the mass.** 
11 .j^^gro animo Alexander, dte. — '* When Alexander was quite dis- 
heartened, (more literally, ** sick at hearty'*) and doubtful enough, 
&C.** Sallust and other writers of the Augustan age furnish exam- 
ples of seger followed by a genitive. 
12. QuinqueremU. — ^A very good solution of the vexaia questio as to 
the true meaning of the terms triremis, quinqueremia, ttc, (whether 
they denote "three,.** "five,** Ac ranks of rowers, seated above 
each other, or so many tens of rowers^ e. g., triremU, " a thirty- oared 
vessel,** ) which we lately met with, is, that it refers to the number 

894 NOTES. 


of men to each oar; eonseqnently, quinqueremU would be a yesMl 

80 large,, and having such length of oars» as to require fire men to 
manage eaoh. This explanation is, howeyer, not free from diffieTzl- 
ties. See Anthon's Smith's Antiquities. 
»8. Atietunk — ^The origin of this powerful instrument is lost in ^e 
obscurity of antiquity. The inyention of batteringnsannon soon 
alter that of gunpowder quickly superseded its use, though it is 
said still to be found among some of the barbarous nations of tiie 
interior of Africa, where gunpowder has not been introduced. 
14k InUrioran quoque, ike* — "Having also begun [the constraetion 

of] an inner wall, in order that," Ac 
16. TmreaH refers to the attack upon the walls from the end of the 

mole : fiavoH to that from the ships. 
1^ Quippe binas, tkc^-Our author, having mentioned above that 
there was not room enough at the foot of the walls even for a foot- 
path, and having just stated that battering>rams were made use of, 
here proceeds to show in what manner they were brought near 
enough to the walls to be of service before the mole was finished. 
These Jhatinff batteriei certainly indicated great skill in military 
Vl, Frori». — "The prows,*' or, in modem parlance, "the bows" of 
andent vessels were generally very elevated, and usually curved 
inward at the top, so as to form a partial covering to those on 

18. Admwebamtur, — " Were advancing against." The imperfects in 
this sentence denote the action of the verb as still going on when 
another action takes place. 

19. ItUemii^at. — ^" Shone forth between times," "every now and 

Sa TabiiUda, — ^''The staging" or "flooring," which sustained the 

21. Turbido, se. mart, 

22. ClMneU—*' The sailors." Ihb word, so familiar in its English 
form as referring to distinguished writers of ancient and modem 
times, originally refers to Ihe six diUiee into whidii the people of 
Rome were divided according to their wealth and standing (See 
Adams^ Rom. Antiq.), and as the first dasait embraced all the wealth 
and dignity of the state, " those of that class were called elasHei, aU 
the rest were said to be infra dattem," Hence it came to be applied 
to authors of eminence. Here it is merely the adjective from doBtU 
in its signification ci **a fleet" 



28. Ce9tit — ^"'ndded." Hie sea is here, by a fine personifieatioii, 
represented ae a conquered enemy, yielding to its perseYering con- 

24 Laceraia pleraque. — " Most of them in a shattefed condition.'' 
26^ ImpediH, — " Were embarrassed." 

26. Byraemani tunc, dtc — Commentators are generally of opinion that 
onr author is here guilty of an anaohronism, as the earliest authen- 
tic account of the Syracusans being in AMca is under the reign of 
their king Agathocles, nearly thirty years subsequent to Uie siege 
of Tyre by Alexander. Still tiiey may have made predatory incuiv 
sions into the territories of the Carthaginiansi accounts of which, 
though extant in Uie time of Cnrtius, may have since been lost. . 

27. Fortiu» quidqtdd, ike, — ^Every husband and father will reqfKxnd to 
the force and truth of this remark. 

2& JSximid reUgioM, — ** Extraordinary religious rites " called forth by 
their pressing necessities. 

29. ZevU eroL — " Had no weight of character." 

80. Aured catend devinxSre, Sc — Freipsheim, in his comment on this 
passage, exclaims, "Insane and self-destructiTe superstition I For 
if they attributed to their gods as much power as it is right and 
proper to assign to Deity, then why engage in the unequal contest 
with them ? But if, on the other hand, they supposed they could 
be brought down to their own level, why consider them worthy of 
divine honours? " The learned commentator goes on to state that 
many of the Fathers used this argument, with great success, against 
the idolaters of their day. 

81. Betmtwro. — ^The usual reading is retmtwru But see Anthonys 
Zumpt's Gram. § 648, where this passsge is considered. 

82. Mc^epatrid, — ^** The mother country." 

88. Sacrum quoque, Ac — ^The order is : Quidam quoque ermU amiiort% 
r^petendi iaerum (a sacrifice) {quod quidem crediderim mUUme ene 
cordi JHU) intermiinm muUU tcBcuiU, ui, (namely, that), dhe, 

84 Beniore* seems here to be a tenn of office equivalent to '* Hie 
Elders," " The Senate." 

86. AdmamL — Scheffer's reasoningsatisfies us that this readii^ is better 
ihaji odnMnuU, 

80. Corvo«.^-The feathered tribe furnishes several words to denota 
things possessing very few ornithological characteristics. Besides 
ermo$, cranes, eaglec, dtc, in our own language, we have carvi and 
rottrum in our author, aquUcs in Tamtus, and the following amusing 
instance in Plautus (Gapt v. 4.) 


^tfl tffialat, a«l eotunUae» datOuTt qulcum huUent; 

17. Cb r j wi ig i f^— Acidaliqg acutely suggegts, eofjnM «ajiM. 


1. JBic — " At this Juiictare.'' 

S. SdiOd ofmdumef dte. — ** To ndse the siege and direet his mardi la 

S. /rritum. — ** Foiled of his pttrpoee." 

4i Bdlva. — ^An American will hardly read this description with- 
out calling to mind the sea serpent so iiunons in the neighboniliood 
of Boston. 

fib Smernt — If the remark of the Delphln editor on the word oftryHi- 
fft0, a little below, be we& founded, namdy, Neptummi He moUm t» 
fTCBcept daiurtim, quomodo cehim repente mer»i$$et, then we think the 
reading here should be demertU, "be plunged into the deep,** sig^nify- 
ing to the IV^ans, that thus would the mole, appearing to tbem 
like some huge animal, sink into the waters. 

0. JDUapn. — Tbis word, literally signifying <* gliding in different 
directions," admirably represents the well satisfied manner in which 
a number of persons, who haye been orerwhelmed in doubts and 
fears, mutually separate when relieYcd from those doubts and feaisL 

f. Prima e Maeedonunif Se. — " Hie first of the Macedonian Tessels 
that came up was a qulnquereme, distinguished above the rest for 
its speed." 

8. Sdweno, — ^*'From opposite diredaons." Tbe idea conyeyed by 
the whole context is this: When the quiaquereme found herself 
attacked on both sides, she turned suddenly around upon one of her 
adyersaries, but, before she could getlsr enough around to bring her 
own beak to bear upon the side of her antagonist, and while in the 
act of turning, she exposed her side to the beak of her opponent, 
which was forced in so far as to unite the two yessels together. 

y. £!xcuterehir e puppL — ^Any one who has seen the representations 
of ancient yessels can easily understand, how much the pilots were 
exposed to accidents, like the one here mentioned. Hie unhappy 
fiite of Palinurus (iBneid y. 857) must occur to the reader, 

Fto pritnos inopina quUs lama/oerai ctrtM ; 
Bt 9iuper in<mmb€n9, cum puppia parts rwuUA 

NOTES. 297 


10. /fiAtienlM remU^^ThU phnwe «zpreases what is oiill«d in nauti- 
cal langOAge "backing water." liyy (xxvi. 39) has J^eque retro 
fuuem inkiberent, omitting remU. The following also occnn in 
Lnoan's Fharsalia (iiL 669): 

Potiduam ifMhmU remit pvppea, ao roetra reeedunt 

11. Bvdlire, — ^This yerb is in the third plur. perf. ind. act, not the 
preSb in£ act We have the authority of Cicero for the nse of evtUi 
instead of evttUL 

12. Suhmoveretur, — ** Was kept at a distance.** 

15. IngenU animOt periatlo majore, — '* With great courage, with still 
greater risk." Acidalins thinks that Alexander himself wonld hare 
preferred, that the adjectives shonld have exchanged places. 

14. Jiegio iruignu — " The royal diadem.** 

16. CrehrU arietibit*, — ''By frequent strokes of the battering ram." 
wArrian, who describes this whole scene more in detail, states that 
Alexander gave orders that the ships of the fleet, fitted out with 
moveable bridges, shonld attack the whole circuit of the walls, 
** that the Tyrians pressed on all sides might be thrown into con- 
fusion. This was done, and the ship that bore the king having 
reached a part of the wall, breached by the battering ram, the bridge 
was thrown across the space between the ship and the walL Ad- 
metus, a distinguished warrior, was the first to mount the breach, 
but was slain by a lance. Alexander himself, with a few attendants, 
immediately succeeded, and was the first to take possession of any 
part of the wall.** (lib. ii nth, Jin, p. 146, Blancard's ed. 1668.) 
For an interesting account of " moveable bridges *' for ships of war» 
see Arnold's History of Borne. (Vol. XL p. 156. Kew York, 1846 
D. Appleton & Co.) 

16. OecuparUf d:c — ^That is : They anticipate death, while it was in 
their power to choose the mode. 

17. yemo Utmen armaiue, tkc, — "No one, however, with arms in his 
hands^ could bear to seek aid from the Gods**; that is, by taking 
refuge in their temples. 

18. SeeeiewUbuB,^** The infuriated soldiers.** 

1 9. IfUra Maeedonum prceeidia, — Intra premdia seems here equivalent 
to Cicero's in pramdUa; that is, "with the army,** "belonging to 
the camp.** See Orat. pro Lig. v. 69, and Epist ad Fam. 13, 19. 
Bcheffer however remarks, Suepieor locum non eeee eatis integrum, 

20. In quibue oeddendi, die.-— "In whose case,** or "With regard to 
whom the rage of killing had ceased,** through exhaustion on the 


298 N0TS8. 


part of the MaoedmiiftiiB. Some read oeekhndi»; but why diould 

those who had been elain be afterwards cmcified? 

21. Inffm9—§paHunL — ^Abont 8} milee^ if we suppose them plaeed 
but 10 feet apart 

22. DUionU tua fedL — "Subjected to its power." 
28. lAbero-'-maru — ^That is : Free from rivals. 

UB. IV. CAP. V. 

1. Tandem refers to what is narrated above. See lib. iv. Cap. 1, 

2. BtatytiB erat nomm. — Supply ei, and see Anthonys Zumpt's Gram., 
§ 421, and Adam's Gram., Bule xxii, obs. 3. 

8. Inde Orientem, d:e. — " That he (Darius) would be satisfied with 
the countries extending thence eastward"; literally, "looking 

4. I^ungitam diu, 4:e, — ^Before this clause we may understand mem- 

nerit " Let him remember that»" &c 
6. Multat ae adhue, dsc — " That he had many resources left" 

6. In angutUu. — Our author seems to make Darius use this phrase 
both literally and figuratively ; referring to his present unfortunate 
circumstances as well as to the narrow passes at Issus, to which he 
attributed his late defeat 

7. Se. — ^Darius. JDenneret, sc. Alexander, 

& Bibi, the student will observe, depends on aiiena, not on pro- 

9. Victoria wapnemia, — ^Alexander sneers at the mock liberality 
of Darius in offering to him for a dowry those countries which he 
was already possessed of as *' the fruits of his victories." 

10. AtUem. — ** Moreover." 

11. Imperio 9W> destindue. — " Had marked out for his empire." 

12. Solemne, tte. — ** The regular " or " stated celebration of the Isth- 
mian games." Sdemnis, in its original signification, as compounded 
of the old word Sollua ("^Tottts) and Annus, denoted that which 
took place ** annually " ; but it soon lost that restricted meaning, 
and was applied to any thing occurring *' at stated times," as in the 
present case, — the Isthmian games taking place every three years. 

18. TenyMraria, — " Time serving." 

14. Udean pauld amUt dsc — ^That is : These same Greeks, now so ready 
to flatter Alexander, upon his conquest of Tyre, had, a little while 
before, eagerly caught at the slightest reports of a doubtful charao-* 

NOTES. 5299 


ter, in order ihat they might follow the fortunes of the saooeBsfol 

15. CaUorvm, — ^Thia word has usually an elliptical signification, and 
implies some degree of antagonism to what precedesw In the pre- 
sent instance, the ellipsis may be thus supplied : *' But, whaUver 
were the sentiments and designs of the Greek» — whatever their mo" 
tivee in tending the erovm to Alexander^ he not only!* de. It often, 
however, denotes a mere change of topic 

16. Comprehensis qui, dte. — ** Having seized those who were &vouring 
the Macedonian interests.*' 

17. Non tarn «7«m, <ke. — ^That is : They did not depend so much upon 
the strength of their own army as upon the good will of the be- 
sieged, who, they knew, were only restrained from surrendering 
by the authority of their officers. 

18. Phamabazu» cum Apollonide — traduntur. — ^The grammatical ao- 
curacy of this construction, though approved by some modem 
grammarians with reference to our language, may well be ques- 
tioned. It is justified on the ground that eum has the force of a 

19. In iupplementum. — '* To recruit," or " reinforce." 

20. I^hamabazi copiam. — "An opportunity of seeing Phamabazus." 


1. Caiterum. — See note 15 of preceding chapter. 

2. Jfee magnam rem^ dsc, — '*Nor do they believe that any great en- 
terprise can be suatained by one who finds it difficult to maintain 
secrecy, which nature has willed to be a very easy thing for man." 

8. Oh hane eaueam refers to the secrecy maintained by the Persians. 

4. Ingentie cperie. — '* Of great extent" So also below. Lib. v. Cap. 1, 
§2» fli«5/fi. 

5. CmUeulot. — ^This word, according to Littleton, ia a diminutive 
from euneus, ** a wedge " ; quia eunei inetarfindU tenram» 

6. Speeus. — ^This word here signifies "the hollow passage formed 
by mining." Yitruvius uses the word to denote what miners tech- 
nically call " a pit." 

7. Uia senauejus, <ke, — Literally, "That he might turn them away 
from the perception of it" 

& Demdente.—*' Settling." " Giving way " under the weight of the 

9. CfjiUm idem, <kc — Literally, "While the same toil harassed them 
in carrying back the towers which had done so in moving them 

900 1V0TX8. 


la Oomnd.—" With a cordon of troops." 

11. Opem Detkn exposeen$. — Alexander's dependence on the Gods for 
aid, and his strict attention to religions observances, may well pat 
to shame many who profess to believe in the true God. 

12. CMam, — " A clod of earth." AiTian (Lib. ii) says it was a stone, 
which, if the raven was flying at any considerable distance above 
the king, would probably have destroyed him. 

18. Conaiui, — ^This word, of course, refers to the specific term eorvus, 

and not to the generic term avi$ in the preceding sentence. 
14 Quippe vty <]&&— "For when they saw,'* ^c 
16. Ad prima iigna, — " To the front rank." 

16. Majui fortund md faeinua autus. — "Attempting a deed too great 
for his fortune " ; that is, as some explain it : Too great for one in 
his humble condition to expect to be successfuL Or, as others 
render it: Too great in comparison with any of his former achieve- 

17. Qui exiffud, dse. — The order is : Qut, ictu evUato exigud dedina- 
tione corporis, gladio ampviai manum barhari laptam in vanum, [ita] 
defunctttt {ut ipte arbitrabatur) periculo denunciato in ilium diem. 
The verb hibory whence lapsam comes» is used to denote "any 
gradual " or " unobserved " motion. 

18. 5ten<«fi.— "Lodged." 

19. PertUterat. — " Had maintained his position." 

20. Zdnqui — animo, — "To faint* or "swoon." 

21. Bubmitti genu. — ^Thus Lucretius (L 93). 

Muta met^tUrram^ ffenibuew^miiMifpetebak 

22. Ante9ignano8. — ^These appear to have been a body of troops^ 
" selected for the defence of the standard (dignum), before which 
they were stationed." See Anthon's Smith's Diet 

25. Nbndum — obduetd cteatriee. — ^This refers to the new skin formed 
on a wound after healing. 

24. Unus, — Hie words enclosed in brackets have been supplied to 
fill up a gap in the manuscripts. 

26. JuvenU, — ^Alexander was about 24 years of age at this time. 

26. AlidB, — " On other occasions." 

27. Jam turn peregrinoi, d:c — "His recent success already sustaining 
the introduction of foreign customs." 

28. Ad inquisitionemy Ac — " To enlist foreign recruits." 

29. Atterebantur. — " Were wasted away" as if by continued friction. 
80. Minor— fides, — " Less confidence." 

K0TB8. 301 


1. O/tfTi.— '* Long since. *> 

2. Cfttm precario tuipma— That is : With an authority which he held 
only by Bnfferanee of those whom he goyemed. 

8» Gaed, — According to Josephus, Alexander made an excnrsion to 
Jerusalem previous to setting out for Egypt This expedition is 
graphically described by the Jewish historian, and the reason of its 
«mnssion by Cnrtiiis and other profane writers is well discussed by 
WiUiams. (Life of Alexander, p. 127, Harpers' ed.) 

4. Oatira AlexandrL — We have already met with Oattra Ch^, and 
the recurrence here of a similar phrase, denoting a town or settle- 
ment on the site of an ancient camp, leads us to remark that the 
student will find numerous instances of this nature in England. The 
ancient camps, particularly those of the Romans, were laid out and 
fortified with such care and strength, that, even when their military 
occupants had deserted them, the very remains presented con- 
yeniences and adyantages so superior to those possessed by the rude 

. and barbarous pe<^le among whom they were pitched, that they 
were resorted to by numbers as their best and most secure place of 
abode. In some eases, as in those which haye occasioned this note, 
the term " oamp,*' with the name of the hero who pitched it, would 
adhere to the place. In other cases it would receive an entirely 
new name from its new occupants. In England a middle course 
seems generally to have been followed, as there we find the word 
Catira cormpted into CatUr, CetUr, CheHer, de., and united with 
the names of those who first took advantage of the departure of thdr 
Roman conquerors, as, Lancatter, Oirencetter, Colchester, <kc 

i. lOttio amnis euperaio.] — ^We have enclosed these words in brack- 
ets from a conviction that the text is altogether corrupt, and that 
no em<^dation, hitherto suggested, Is wholly free from insuperable 
objections. The reading in the text, though the best we have met 
with, is hardly sanctioned by the context, which represents Mazaeer 
'as making the surrender in the ndghbourhood of Memphis, which 
was far removed from any nunUh of the l^ile. We may, it is true» 
overcome this objection by su{^[>osing the whole Pelnsiac branch 
(extending from fifteen miles below Memphis to the sea), as intended 
by oeHa. In this case Mazaces might very well pass down the left 
bank oi the river and cross the Pelusiae branch at the place where 
Alexander then was. In this way it agrees with the statement of 
Arrian (lib. iii. inii,), — ^that Masaces "reeeived Alexander into hia 

302 HO TBS. 


oities and prorince in a ficiendly manner," wluie tlie latter ivas stSl 
on the Felueiac branch. Znmpt, following the snggestion of Sehmie- 
der, readB Hereon amne tuperato, and refti» to the «ajial " from the 
Pelittian branch of the Ifile, past the city of Heroes, to the Red 
Sea." Bnt the words eodem Jlumine, in the next eoDitenoe, in onr 
view, overthrow this ooijectore, for how eonld Alexander pa« '* from 
Memphis into the interior of Egypt," north or sontii, by ilie rirer 
of Heroes. OrteUns suggests ocyua anms and hocce amne, but neither 
appears satisfiictory. The common reading Onia or Orio is palpably 
cormpt. To the nmltitade of coijectures, we wonld add ctBoomni 
mtperato, ** suppressing (oyercoming) eveiy feeling of hostility," not 
as the undoubted reading, but as, p^haps, suggestive of it to scsne 
future annotator. Ocfio, in the sense of " hostility," is found at the 
close of the 3d chap, of the 6th Book. 

9. Ad inUriora EgypH. — ^Zumpt very decidedly applies these words 
to the ** western parts of Lower £gypi" We think the word pene" 
trot will hardly justify such a version. The brevity of Curtius in 
this place is the only argument against the more natural interpreta- 
tion, viz. : The regions of southern or Upper Egypt Tbe course of 
Alexander, as appears to us from a comparison of tibe narrativea 
ai Gurtius and Anian, was tiiis : HaVii^ reached the Pelusiac mouth 
of the Xfile in seven days after leaving Gaza, he marehed Ihenee on 
the right bank of the Pelusiac branch to Heliopolis, situate a little 
above the apex of the Belta. On this march he received the sub- 
mission of Mazacea Still keepii^ on the ri^t bank till he arrived 
opposite to Memphis (which is on the left, fifteen miles above the 
apex), he there crossed and spent some days in that city, where 
he saorifieed to Apis and other deities, and instituted games. Thence 
he made an excursion up the river ad interiora EgypH, of whidi 
the particulars are not g^ven, and then, returning to Memphis» 
arranged his affairs preparatory to setting out for the oraele of 
Hammon. When all was ready, he moved down tibe river and 
tiirough the Oanopio branch tUl he reached the sea, where he found- 
ed Alexandria. Thence, marching along the coast, he arrived at 
Pemtonium, from which place he plunged, by a direct southern 
course, into the deserts that surrounded the temple of Hammon. 

^. Quod prcBoUum, o^.— '* Through which, as it was very deep and 
yielding to the footsteps, the feet with difficulty made their way." 

8. Siaud contentM, d^-— " Not satisfied with the summit of human 

9. Jamtamen, — ^*' Already, however." 

NOTE8. S09 


10. Mcmd meu$ ptAm, db.-— " They looked in yain for the land [turn- 
ing] tiieir eyea in every direction, like those who have entered 
upon the boundless deep." By terram is meant something of a 
firmer character than the loose and moving sand through which 
they were passing. 

11. Viribua eameli. — Skins filled with water are still carried on tfao 
backs of camels aeross that desert^ as they were 2,000 years ago. 

12. Ob wtim impcierUes sui. — ''Having no control over themselves 
on account of their thirst.'* 

18. Anteceientium, Sc-^** After the manner of those who go before 

and point out the way." 
14. Vix, the student will observe, refers to eadente, not to eonUeta eH, 
1& OMi--** Of climate." 

16. Accda iedU, ^ — The geography of Gurtius, ub has been demon- 
strated by many critiea^ is very much at fault in this description of 
the boundaries of the settlement around the temple of Hammon. 

17. NMffiorum tpolUt, dte, — '* Who enrich themselves on the spoils 
ci [shipwrecked] vessels." 

18. M attu, ise.-^'* And seize in shallows well known to themselveB 
vessels that have been left by the tide." 

19. 2|^ramiortim.-— This word is here used in its earliest sense of an 
absolute monarch, without reference to the manner in which he 
exercised his authority. 

80. OfWHliiifi.— This woid, like ^e English '* oracle," has a twofold 
signification, vijs., the place where a response is given, and ike re- 
eponee itatUt 

21. Inelinat<s bc. die, 

22. J)onec tub ipeum, dse, — "Until about daylight it moderates to its 
usual lukewarm temperature." 

28. UmhUieo maxime, dte, — ^This passage has given rise to much dia- 
cussion among commentators» and various readings have been sug- 
gested. We have retained that which appears to be least open to 
objection. Babitus here means "the outward form '* or "appear- 
ance,"-wi sense in which the word is used several times by our 
autitor. (See Note 1, lib. vi Cap. xi) As to the visible represen- 
tation of the deities of the ancients, by "smooth stones»" or by a 
union of gems in t^e form here indicated, we would refer the in- 
quiring student not only to Freinaheim's note on Uiis pa8sag^ but 
also to Eitto's Ihdfy Bibie MuttraHan» (Isaiah and the Prophets, 
1 9th week, Wednesday), and to a learned disquisition on tho sub- 
ject in Godfrey Higgins's Ceiiic Drmde, (London, 1829, p. 209.) 

804 NOTB8. 


Dr. Adam Clarke has some obseryataoDa on the auljeot^ in his com* 
mento on Gen. zxyiu. 16, 19. For the origin of the worship of 
Japiter Hammon, see Prideaux's Connexitm (YoL L p^ 874^ Har» 
pers* edition). 

24. IneomUium quoddam carmen, — " A kind of rude strain." 

Sfi. InaHiU gtutrere» — '* He proceeded to inquire." 

2ft. JPatrentis 9m inUffeetore*. — ^He here refers to the instigates and 
abettors of Paosanias. 

27. Ifegat — See lib. iv. Cap. L Note 28. 

28. An auctoT e$9eL — '* Whether he would authorixe them." 

29. Veri et 9aliibriter, dse, — "To one who, in a truthful and healthy 
state of mind, estimated the credit due to the oraole, the responses 
would have seemed indeed unworthy of confidence." Another 
reading makes this remark apply particularly to Alexander, but 
the succeeding clause justifies the present reading and its general 
application. ^ 

80. Qit^an eapaces, — " Than capable of bearing it with moderation." 

81. Famain — corrumpit — The Delphin editor (Tellier) justly re- 
marks " that if Alexander could not succeed in persuading people 
that he was really the son of Jove, he would be branded with in- 
sane ambition ; if, on the contrary, he did succeed, his exploiti^ 
which were wonderful as accomplished by a man, would excite 
no astonishment as performed by a son of Jupiter." 

S2. M Maeedonea, dfce.— The order is: M Macedanei, osttie^ qtddem 
regio imperio *ed in nuffore umbrd (semblance) libertaHi ^tubM ettUrm 
ffentei, advertati auni \eunC\ iiffeetantetn trnmortalitaiem amtummehU 
qudm egytediebat ovi ipaU atU regi, 

isB. TV. CAP. vm 

1. Magna aedu.-^** Of a huge settlement" 

2. Odoginia s<a<lK»nim.*^That is : Two miles and a half on eaeh side, 
supposing the city to be square. 

8. /fUsmpeflitva.— "Unseasonable," beoavse he had not yet oom- 
pletely subdued Darius, who was all this while strengtheauig his 

4. JEUiMpiam,^-^l!L has been well remarked, that» as the ancient 
geographers, wheneyer they were at a loss to designate the nationa 
inhabiting the unknown regions of the North, applied to them the 
general term "Scythians," so, with like oomprehensiTeness, they 
employed the term " j£thi<^ians " to embrace all those tribes in the 

N O T B s • 305 


Torrid Zone» eonoenusg wliom they enierUined erode imd impeif eefc 

& Imminent beUtan. — ** An impending war." 
ft. dauttra imi.^'' The defences at the months of the Nile," 
*l, Juaris. — Supply eivibu» or kiominibut. 
& Cn/ftiram.— ** Wonld conrt" « Wonld invite." 
9L ^ paucU Aiexandro cartu, — "EspeeiaUy dear to Alexander." The 

phrase in pauei* seems rather a favoarite one with this anthor, and 

in this place appears to convey the idea that» among thefewtoho were 

dear to Alexander, Meetorwas one. 

10. Hector, dhi, Ac, — ** Hector having stmggled long with the enrrent, 
while his drenched garments and sandals bound to his feet-prevent- 
ed his swimming, at length reached the shore half dead ; and, being 
worn out with hU exertions, as soon as he b^;an to draw his breath 
(literally, ** as soon as he loosened his breath"), which fear and ex- 
posure had suppressed (more literally, *'had overstrained"), he per- 
ished through want of assistance, for the rest had escaped in a dif- 
ferent direction." 

11. uimMN ^ (iMfem.— *' At his loss." literally, << By the want of 
him lost" 

12. jfi^«<t(/f&—- This word is peculiarly applied to the burial of llie 
dead. See instances in Terence (Andr. i 1, 90), and Ck>r. Nepoe. (x 
10, xviiu 4, XXV. 18.) 

18. [Innumfira»,'] — ^The common reading here is e mnnrie, which the 
I>elphin editor has properly enclosed in brackets '^as redundant" 
Many editors consider them as an interpdation, and, accordingly, 
leave them out Blancard in a note on page 158 of his edition of 
Arrian (AmsteL 1668) proposes " by transposing the words and by a 
slight change " to read the passage thus: Quoe OU ob injuna» tortoe 
inmwrie neeaverunt; adding this renuurk: *'quft ratione tyrannos 
palam et in conspeetu civium occisos yiduerit Gurtius; id quod non 
incredibile est" We have suppUed a word from conjecture, whieh, 
owing to the contracted form of words in manuscripts, might easily 
have been mistaken by a careless transoriber for e murie. It gives 
also a force to t^jurioB which it seemed to need to justify the use of 
the word tortoe, 

1^ Graiulabantur. — This verb is fallowed by the dative, when ap- 
plied to the person congratulated; — by the accusative when the 
subject of congratulation is intended. Indeed in all eases both 
are implied; for we infer from the ngnification of the word that 


3t6 NOTES. 


theM mint be a perwm to be oongratalated and a rabject of congrar 
tolation. In this instance ei or Alexandra must be supplied. 

10. Plereupte, so. loea. 

10. Ante omnia, dse,'^** Above all things to clear the sea from," Jto. 

17. ObiMxwm.—'** Exposed to." 

LIB. IV. CAP. rx. 

f 1. iSicftiMtot^.-*^" Should make a stand." 
2. Hisud ditbik, ike, — ^"As one who wonld doubtless exert a very 
powerfal influence in person in exciting to an active part in the 
war those distant tribes, which he with difficulty roused to action by 
means of his satraps.** 

5. Bedut, de. — ^"But as the report was circulated on good autho- 

4. Sdud ignartu, (ke. — " Well knowing with what an active adver- 
sary he had to deal** Supply iiH after esset. 

6. Partibu8 nmul affuerunt. — ** Were present together to take sides" 
with Darius. 

6. Queii. — The old form for ^ibua. Supply iU before it 

*!, JDomandL^-" That wer^ to be broken in." 

& Quadriffo.'^Uhe student will bear in mind that the ancients Har- 
nessed their horses abreast of each other, irrespective of ^the num- 
bec See Anthon's Smith's Diet Biffte, Gurna, 

9. VnicuBV'^ttxilium,'-^** A favourite resource." 
IOl SvmmU rotarum crHbus. — " On the circumference of the wheels," 
teohnieally termed '* The felloes." 

11. Alia in terram dentines. — Scheffer {Jh Be Vehieuiari) represents 
these as attached to the under part of the a^detree. 

1% JMilu.-^"* WeSi known." 

18. mdem mandatmn, ite. — ^Every reader must be struck with the 
similarity between this injunction and that of the Russian comman- 
der-in-ehief in Napoleon's ruinous campaign to Moscow. CsBSar 
frequently adopted the same course against his enemies, and com- 
pares its effect to that of dieting in the cure of disease. 

14. IfobUemr-faeturus. — " Soon to render it famous." Some have sup- 
pesed» that Ourtius, from his use of the term ifietan *' a viUage," 
when all other writers represent Arbela as a distinguished city (see 
particularly Strabo, lib. xvi), wrote Guagamela, and that Arbela 
has been foisted into the text by some transcriber, who had only 
heard of the action as having taken place near that city. 

NOTES. 307 


15. JSieut aniS JShqikraieHL^^-^FtdB refen to the former passage of 

DaiiuB across the Euphrates abont two years before, when, as in 

this case, he coiusomed five days in erosaing. See lib. iii Cap. tH 

M. Opporhtna exiplieandU, Se, — "Suitable for the erolxitions of his 


17. Bi quA, <kc — " K the plains any where presented an eteTatfon." 

18. Alexandre, <i^.— The order is: {lUt], qui cBttitnabant numenan efus 
{Darit} copiartmi, quantum poterani ecnjeetari proculf vix feeerttnt 
fidem Alexandra, majorea eepiae ene reparatas, M miUilntg earia. 

19. Uhdecmia eaa<m.-*8ee IT^ote 5, lib. iu. Gapw yii 

20i Qui ad inhibendum, (he, — " Who had come np with six thousand 
horse to dispute the passage." In Arrian we find but 8000. 

21. Periculum mi faeere, — *' To test his own strength." 

22. Frmter ArMa, de, — That is; He reaches the Tigris at a point 
higher up than, or ** beyond" Arbela. 

28. Alius, sc. fltmuB, 

24. Igitur pedes, <lre.— Diodorus represents the troops as uniting their 
hands together for mutual support in order to withstand the force 
of the current, lliat mode could hardly agree with the levoHa mper 
capita armis of our author. GeBsar (De BeUL Civ. i 64) furnishes an 
instance yery similar to this, where in ^sros^g the Ebro he made 
use of his earaliy, and also the beasts of burden to protect the in- 

26. Jfo(i^— fno{2i$.— -" At one moment-Hit another.'' 
2$. 8tudet.-—f' Is amdouB.** 

27. Jlf<mere.-^Historical infinitiye, dependent upon ccepU or some 
similar word understood. 

2a Inoicem mttanHunL-^theae words refer to &e inyoluntory nodding 
of their heads while endeayonring to maintain their balance in the 

29 Buperaunt — This word applies, in the first member of the sen- 
tence, to the passage of a riyer— in the seoond, to the conquest of an 

80. Audaeim quogue^ Ae» — That is : llie charge of rashness, laid to 
his account as the quality by which he chiefly prospered, may be 
somewhat palliated by the fiiot that it was neyer brought to tiie test 
whether he had acted raslily or not 

81. Quod rehaum—poamt,---** Which he brought back and laid." 


im IV. GAP. z. 

1. J)efieUnM.'^** Bang eeUpted." 

S. CtmdidiL'^*' Withdrew." 

8. SoUieUisgw.'^** And great awe and great fear, as a ooiifleqiieniM 

of it, were infosed into the soldiers, already anxious as to the resnlts 

of saeh a mighty contest as was at hand." 
4i In tmiu9, Ac — " To promote the vain glory of one man." 
& Ttmpofum or6e«.-— " The planets that maiked the seasons." 
6b iSicNwnt— " Do not give precise information." 
V. Impoieni,''^** Having no control oyer themselTes." {MuUUitad»») 

8. Jhxtrd Jlfffifn, c^c— Another proof that Alexander crossed the 
Tigris aboye Arbela. 

9. JPer otitmL-r^" At his leisure." 

l(k JPatere vd, Se, — ** That the king lay exposed to the treachery of 

any one person." 
11. OoUapta, dx, — " Had swooned and shortly after died." 
IS. Id iptmL-^** This latter fsct" refening to exHncta. 

13. Quod nondumf ike — "Because he was not yet sensible of a 
calamity chiefly oyerwhelming his own proqiects." K calamiUu 
be derived from ealamtu " a reed," as many etymologist» maintain, 
and indicate Hxe prostration of reeds along diore by the sadden 
rising of the winds and waves, the use of the term redundaniem is 
peonliarly appropriate. 

14. Digniu — quir^feraL — ^Much more elegant than dignu» ferendo, 
although, in translating, we may say, ** Worthy of reaping the frnits 
of his clemency." 

15. VideraL — ^Did not Curtius write viserat, " He had gone to see " f 

16. Ne9cio guod-^Anj case of quU thus connected with neseio may 
be reserved into the correi^nding ease of aliqttU. 

17. Oave—pareaa, — See Anthonys Zumpt's Gram. § 624. 

18. Lttdibria meorum. — "The shameful trifling with the honour of 
those dear to me." Did not Curtius write tnearumf 

19. Quanttiteumqve, dfc—The order is: JWtm guaniuicumque honor 
poteat haberi reffUUs ab iU, qtri parent, {tanttu honor} iervahu ett tuU 
IfcEminU} a victore. 

Sa Ui hone meem.--" That you thus retaliate." 

21. Demderitun captivcB, — ^Darius supposes that Alexander felt the loss 

of Statyra merely*as of one who had contributed to the gratification 

of his lust 
82. JPer Deo» — ** For Ood's sake." 

NOTES 809 


QiMMfMfii— ««To torture." 
24. OatU Mnetkque, — This clause depends upon TiiUi, whieh is hero 

eqmYtiieut to ad tuHJSeandum. Babiim^ '* Treated." 
95. Bide me, Sc — "If already my fate is determined." 

UK jy. CAP. XI 

1. ExpreMrit — "Haye constrained." The angular Terb understood 
with the first noun, and expressed with the other. This is often 
the ease, where the nouns have a cognate signification. 

2. Pro tribuB eorporibus, — " For their three persons." 

8. THginta mUiia taleniiim avH, — ^This amount of gold is beyond all 
belief; and, as Diodorus states the sum at 8,000 talents^ triffmta 
appears to us to be a corrupt reading. Zumpt adheres to the 
numbers here given, bat supposes they refer to talents of silver 
paid in gold coin. As to value of talent, see Note 16, Lib. iii. Cap. i 
The amount in our currency of 30,000 talents of gcdd would be 

4. Notam haberem, — ^Equivalent to novertm. "We find also hahea 
ecmpertum, and some other instances where the use of habto is 
similar to that of our auxiliary verb "to have." 

5. PtagroM imperhan. — " An overgrown empire." 

6. Difficile est caniinere, dtc, — "It is difficult to retain what you ean- 
not grasp." 

*I. Neeeio, an Darius, dte, — " I do not know but that Darius,*' Ac. 

8. Mtnus jam, <te, — " That you have now less room for the display 
of your compassion than you had." 

9. ITitne, Alexander. — "Now, as Alexander." 

10. Becurus denotes, not safety itself but only the feeling of security. 

11. Verian enim verd. — "But now truly." 

12. Modo — modd. — "At one time — at another." 

13. Post EuphraUm. — That is : To the west of the Euphrates. 

14. Idberaiiier. — ^Used ironically. 

16. UH igitur, die, — "Where, I pray you, are you addressing me "I 
IgOvT seems here to bear a sense similar to that of tandem in asking 
questions of thb nature. 

16. Nempe quam, Sc. — " One, forsooth, who would otherwise many,** 

17. Mtdiumver6, — "Truly he does me much honour in preferring^" 
- Ac 

ftlO N-OTB8. 


18. Hoe reffenU, ^-^*^ The war deoiding upon the boondaxies (fizing 
the Unuts) of either kingdooo, each one shall,'' dee. 

19. Bw^ieUer.--'* Candidly." 

MB. rv. CAP. xn. 

1. Oraviore c&mUatu refers to the prisoners, the sick and wounded, 
and, perhaps, to some of the heomier boffgage, though that is doubtful, 
aa the word impedimetUa jost below would include it. 

2. OoneiiU equU — ^Zumpt reads cum cUis e^iiibtt». There are other 
variou€ readingt. We suggest cum ceriU e^itibu9, 

8. MUle admodum, — " A thousand in all" 

4L A^fmen^u9daudebanL — "Formed (lit "closed") the rear of his 

0. JPediiei hi» plitrium, dc — " To these each [commander] had an- 
nexed the infantry of several nations, not mingled indiscriminately, 
but each the forces of his own nation.** We are not entirely satis- 
fied with the reading of the text, and yet, perhaps, it is the best 
that has been suggested. Freinsheim proposes to consider pediUs 
in the nominatiYe, and gives this reading and order. " JPecUtes 
plurium gentium hit (prsedictis) junxerant copias, nan mixtas, tea 
quiegue tuce natumis, scilicet^ copias." 

6. JRubri Marie, — See Note 8, Lib. iii. Cap. iL 

7. JVbfntna wri^e qudm auxilia.-^** Auxiliaries in name rather than 
in reality." 

8. JPeregrinwn mUitem, — ^viz. The Greek mercenaries. 

9. Armatu — "Under arms." 

10. Pernor. — " A panic." The curious student who wishes to know 
the origin of the word " panic " will find it in PolysBnus, or, if more 
convenient, in the extracts from that author in Grseca Majora, 
(VoL L, p. 829.) 

11. Plammasgue, dse* — ^The order is: Velvtque xttaH (sc MacedKmei^ 
temer^ (unwittingly) prceeidiie credebant fiawma» epUndere ex eoMtrie 

12. Tcmdem compote» em, <£c.— -"At length, having come to their 
senses^ they resumed their arms, and, at the same time, recovered 
their spirits (courage)." 

18. -Eb prcBSentibu», — " Under present circumstances.*' 

14. Bpecvlari. — "To reconnoitre.'* 

16. JSxplicabatur, — " Was drawn up in battle array.** 

16. CW^o.— "The miat.*' 

NOTES. 311 

1*^. Serd €8iHmatiime, ^ — "With too tardy a conaideratiion, he 
weighed," Ac 

18. 8ive UbcUo expeetatwnu, — *' Or from yery weariaese of waiting*** 

19. CW«u.— Lit "On a run." 

20. Vtdlvm. — "IntrenishmeiitB to be thrown np." 


1. Tvm verd, <&€, — " Then in truth was a full view of the coming 
contest before his eyes.*' 

2. PUrtique inania, — " Many things trifling in themselves." 

8. Igitur, nve, dsc. — " Therefore whether at a loss himself or for the 

purpose of testing the views of his generals." 
4. J^'Mf^o.— "Stratagem." 
^ Iniempestd node, — "Late at night" For the divisions of the 

night among the Romans, see Adam's Roman Antiquities, 
fi. Namque Parmenionem, <fcc — " For, as he had lately chided Par- 

menio with more severity than he had intended, he could not bear 

to find fault with him the second time." 

7. ZcUrunetilorum, — "Petty robbers," A diminutive from Taivx}, 
and used here to express contempt 

8. Mirtum nocHs, — "A nocturnal stratagem." Alexander, in this 
speech, implies that the glory of his victories at the Granicus and 
at Issas had been lessened, — ^in the former case, by the absence of 
Darius; in the latter, by the circumstances of the place, which, 
while favourable to himself were adverse to the enemy. Kow, 
however, he was determined to contend, in all respects, on equal 
terms^ except in regard to numbers, wherein Darius would have 
the advantage. 

9. Solem MUhren, — "Mithra or Mitrc^ a deity of Persia, generally 
supposed to have been the sun." The word is evidently the same 
as MitrOi one of the names of the sun in Sanscrit See Anthon's 
Classical Diet ad verb, 

10. Siqua divinoB opU auffuria,—" If any tokens of divine aid." 

11. JOeos 9tare secum, — "That the gods favoured his cause." liter- 
ally, " stood with him." We may understand afftrman», or a word 
of similar import, with this and the succeeding clause. 

12. Adhue lymphatos, d:e, — "That they were still carried and driven 
about like madmen." 

IS. IjMum ducem, so. Alexandrum, 


S12 NOTB8. 

14 JPrmhat preeea tegL — TbiBi is : Redted a foma of pfrayer, whicli 

iht king repeated after him. 
15. JkmUUrt-^aciem,'^** To charge down." 
lA. Agiiabat, — " He was resolving." 
17. AnfcHAa, Jke. — "Whether he should not ratiier hnH down his 

oolnmn upon the left wing of the enemy.* Supply eom» after 

18. Aliicr. — "More profound" than it would have been, had it not 
been preceded by agitation of mind. 

19. Ip9e pronuneiaL — ^That is: Takes upon himself to annoonce to 
the soldiers. 

SQL JPoUni mei turn eram, — " I was not mysel£" I had no control 
oyer my feelings. 

21. Eard admodum, dte, — ** Very rarely, and then rather at the en- 
treaty of his friends than from fear of any danger that was to be 
encountered, was he accustomed to make use of defensive armour; 
at that time, indeed, he put it on and went forth to the soldiers." 
QttOjtM seems to be used here, as is frequently the case in this 
author, for guidem ; or it may^ indicate that now " also " he wss 
acting on the advice of friends. Underatand eo with nempto, 

22. Amyntaa princeps erat — ^Amyntas was now absent in Macedonia» 
«a we find from lib. iv. § 2d, ad fin. : consequently mention is here 
made of him simply as the commander of this division, not as lead- 
ing it into battle. See the next two noteSi 

28. J^gebat eas. — " Was commanding them," in the absence of 

24. In tocietatem nuper adseUus, — ** Lately called to this connexion " 
with the army. We have given this whole passage according to 
the emendation of Tellier, and as adopted by Zumpt» but are &r 
from being satisfied with it. Freinshelm proposes Phrygoi Balaenu 
rtg^at, in soc nup adseiiot; though he at the same time observes: 
"Omnia h»o sunt obscurissima." Perhaps the true reading is: 
FUius JBalaeruB regehat eo$, in «oe. nup adseitui; for we find from 
Arrian, ^b. iii. p. 165, Blanc, ed. 1668) that Amyntas had a son 
Balaerua^ and who more likely than he, if in other respects quali- 
fied, to command his father's division during his temporary ab- 

25. Uiiknmn agmen, dse, — "He had protected his rear by a strong 
body of troops." 

Sft. Ultimo» ardinei overHt, Ac — "He caused the rear ranks to &ee 
outward " ; that is^ in a direction opposite to that of the frx>nt rank^ 
"that he might protect his army from every quarter." 

NO TBS.. 318 


27. Adedqii$ aoMHi} ^— '* And he disposed bis troops wiUi sadi » 
reference to their change of fronts that those who i^ere posted in 
the rear could not be surrounded, while yet they eould be &ced 
abottt^ and wheeled to the front" Frontinus, «s quoted by Frein- 
sheim, remarks : " Alexander ad Arbela — aciem in omnem partem 
spectantem ordinayit^ ut circumyenti undique pognare possenf 
Zumpt reads veraabUem ; but we prefer venaHlem, as it is the epi- 
thet applied to the flaming sword of the angel stationed to guard 
the entrance into Paradise. See Yet. Teat. Yulg. (Gen. iii 24.) 

28. Bi ntmo, dse, — "If no one threw himself in the way." 

29. Nee iamen, dte, — "And. yet so as not to weaken the main body.*' 
SO. Murices. — ** Caltrops." Murex is the name of a shell-fish aimed 

with many sharp points, and is here used to denote an iron instru- 
ment with sharp points to injure the feet of men and horsesL Cal" 
trop originally signifies the " Star thistle," but is used to denote 
the same instrument intended by m-urex, 


1. PrceeuntUnu, sc JHseriminibus, 

2. Indicium. — " Indication." " Evidence." 

8. QmdqtUd non, dsc — " Thus acknowledging that whatever they 
had not destroyed belonged to the enemy." 

4. Btare — dimicaturot, — ^Let the student observe the force of these 
two verbs as applied ; the former, to the soldiers of Darius, — ^th« 
latter to those of Alexander. 

5. Uturpare* — " Made use oV* 

G» Siqui diaaknilei, (te, — " If there were any <^ a different character^ 
he would make but this remark to them," dtc 

7. Vanam aciem, dsc — "Thinking their line had been weakened hj 
extending the wings." 

8. Terrarum, <ke. — " You who a little while ago were masters of 
the countries which, <be., have now to fight^ Ae." According to the 
reading in the text domini is in the voc. plur., and voUb must be 
understood with puffnandunu Freiusheim reads domiim, in the dat; 

9. Oceantu, — ^Namely: the Indian Ocean. * 

10. Quod meofvm, d:c — ** As to what has been my share of duty." 

11. Mimam. — ^By this word Darius probably means the exaggerated 
reports of the valour of the Macedonians, which valour, in the next 
sentence, he denominates iemeritas. 


314 aoTBS. 

la. JSmiam «rtili», ^— Tbis refevB to vluit » iteted by BfttondutB^ 
tliat the bee^ after bsving darted Irath ber Btmg^ periahea^ or as 
■ome My, beeoraea torpid. livy (xxiiL 42) repreaenta the ambas- 
■adora of the Hirpioi and flamnitea as vabigthe same metaj^r 
when addreeaiag Hannibal. 

15. jBIntf BMpkr<iU9t Sc — Tbia la one out of many of our anthor^s 
geographical ineonaiatenciea. He forgete that Arbela waa east vard 
of the llgria as weQ aa the Enphratea. 

14. AtiimaL — "A Hying ereatnre^" "a mortal being.** Hie term is 
peenliar and striking» and cannot foil to caU to mind the epithets 
given in Seriptore to this aame conqueror. See Daniel (yiL 6 and 
▼111. &) 

16. (hd non wubett ratio. — " Which is not founded on reason." 

Id. Tamm ad vUkman, <^— " Still, in the l<mg ran, itfiuls to snatain 

17. Bimplieiter. — ^That is: Without some sinister design. Horace 
(Carm. i 84) thus alludes to the fickle character of Fortune: 

ffinc apicem rcqpam 

Forfuna oum tMdore acuta 
"^ SwMAi^ A40 powiste gcmdeL 

18. Jfodld.-— ''Lately.** He refers to the invasionaof Greece by Da- 
rius Hystaspis and Xerxes. 

19. 2Sfiai quod, dse.-^" With the exception of what I possess in yon, 
I myself as regards the greater part of me^ am a captiva** 

20. Viscera mea, — ^''My bowels.** The ancients supposed this part 
of the body to be the seat of the tender emotions, and hence by a 
figoratiye use of the term it was made to denote the objects of those 

21. Preeario vidu, — ** A life dependent on the &Your of another.** 

2SL Per, ego vos, Deos, Ac — Some read here Preear vo9 per DeoB, 
but this is more elegant Oro, however, must be understood to 
govem w>$. We find similar phraseology in Lib. ▼. § 24, «i6 fik, 
and lib. ix. § 6, <u6 fin, 


1. As^mm chUgtmn, «fee.—- That is, according to modem military 
phrase : " He orders the attacking column to move en SeheUan" to 
the right» for the purposes mentioned. 

m- Suttnif so. offtnen. 

NOTES. 315 

8. IfonftfdUraty <£».—" He bad Hot escaped the obseryation of Pais 

4. Proinde non eat, djc,-^" There is, therefore, no reason for vith- 
drawing any force from the line." 

5. LceUque circa i9M^am6im.---^iippIy Uli before dreoj as the sub- 
ject of nxmHanL ISie phraBC seems to be something of a Gracism, like 

0. PrcKoce gatuUo, dtc, — ** Fearfol of proyoldng fortune by premature 


Y. Jncerhim, — Snpply est, 

8. Dohr,-^" Yezaticm.'' After nta nnderstand w^^edmenia, 
9 3ari9taphoro9.—&o called from the spear (24 feet long) which they 
bore. See Potter's AnHq. i^ Greece, 

10. Qui cirea, <!;«;— "Which had thrown the front ranks into oon- 

11. 0(mfimuai9 anknis,^-^' With their conrage established.* 

12. IneurrcfUium, sc equorum, — Hia,-^'* Flanks." 

18. Propugnat&rea pradpitare, — **To throw their defenders head- 

14. Pauea t4tinMn; itc — "A few, however, of tiie foni^h<»Be chariots 
made their way through to the rear ranks." 

15. ^ quia ealidis, dte, — ''And because no pain attended their 
wounds while yet warm, though mutilated even and weak, they did 
not lay aside their arms until they fell prostrate through loss of 
blood." Tlie armed chariots would, of course, be likely to deprive 
them of their lower limbs. 

16. ObtriU tunt, — ^The use of this verb seems to indicate that the 
Macedonians were overwhelmed by the numbers, and not by the 
superior bravery of their adversaries. 

1*7. RarioT. — " Less dense." 

18. Dtmtean^, sc AUxaandH, 

19. Ingeneque pericuitmif dtc, — "And being caught in the midst he 
would have incurred," <kc 

20. Avenosque aedendo, die — " And by charging upon (lit ** slaying ") 
them in the rear, compelled them to wheel about and iace thea^ 
selves (i. «., the Agrians)." 

21. Q^i anerao, dse»-^" Those who pressed upon his rear." 

22. Maximwn tamen, dsc — ^That is: After all, the kings themselves 
were most exposed to danger, for every one sought the honour 
of having killed a king. Supjdy mUiU§ as the salject of tutbaniur^ 

28. Ludibrium ociUorum, — « An optical illoiioii." 

816 NOTB8. 


%L Zmvogue, dse, — ^ And, upon tike rout <tf the left vnag, luid deserted 

the chariot, which the crowded ranks on the right immediately re- 

eeiyed into their division." 
26. £M emntetu, Se, — ^Bie ordw is: Bed mninen» cwrru trubeicAai 

duUhiere aeiem tuorum nondum omnent exoedentem pralia, 
fiL Bmrebat in tergU, dbe, — ** Hnng npon the rear of &e fngitiTes.'' 
SY. Subinde eoemUet. — ** Once in a while miiting their foreea.*' 


1. Limge olid, <£&—'* With &r different results on both sides." 

a. JamquB abundanSf dse»-^" And now with overwhelniing nnmhers 
he had begun to snrronnd that division." 

8. Eefrcmare eguo$ jttuU, <frc.-^"He ordered those who were 
mounted (lit " were carried ") to draw bridle upon their horses (i e,, 
"to cheek the pursuit"), and halted the column of infantry." 
Zumpf B rendering of this passage (in which he reads jusH) is» " The 
horsemen were ordered to take off the bits, that they might give the 
horses a breath, and then ride off briskly in an opposite directioxL" 
He certainly seoou to have mistaken the sense of r^oBnare, We 
give eonstUit a transitiTe force which we find it having in a similar 
passage in Sallust (Jugur. 49). Besides as 9isto is frequ^itly used in 
a tninsitive sense, it is probable that its compound consiBto was used 
in the same way. 

4b Ihrendente, Ac — ** Gnashing his teeth with vexation that victoiy 
should be snatched," «fee. 

fi. Nobu qftoque."^** In our behalf toa" This is called by some gram- 
marians the dative of reference. 

8. Omnia JPersanan. — ^Every thing — horses, chariots, standards, as 
well as men. 

Y. RecedehaL — ** Gave way," with their faces towards the enemy. 

8. Bpatiik'^*' A respite." 

9. Malle te, d:e, — This is one among many instanoes of the magnani- 
mous dispoeition of *' Darius great and good." 

la ^en9 «po^wm.— This shows that the battle was fought at a 
great distance fr<»n Arbela. Some suppose it to have been sixty 
miles, and the &ct that Darius did not arrive there in his has^ 
flight till midnight justifies the supposition. 

11. 2hndebaniur exUmplOy ibe. — " Their bowels were at once distended 

hy the pressure of the clay." 
2. Ut supra dictum,-^^&ee above. Note 8 

NOTfiS. 317 


18. JPefmUteret — Ult is elegantly omitted before this Terh. 

14. GtmsatuB est. — ^'Gave as a reason" for not oontinmag Hie pur- 

15. Quod <Mue in aeie, die* — ** Whioh, he trusted, still maintained its 
ground," *' still stood in battle array." 

16. BtahuL — The statement eontained in this sentence, in Znmp^ 
opinion ** stands-in some measure in oontradietion to what was said 
above ; namely, that Alexander's return was called forth only by 
Parmenio's message. Here he forms the resolution spontaneousty." 
Now we perceiye no such contradiction, nor, we think, will a correct 
imderatanding of the context justify such a concluden. Our author 
states that the king proceeded a considerable distance {tmdium vim) 
in the pursuit, when messengers from Parmenio arriyed infonning 
him, that that general was hard pressed on the left wing. Alexan- 
der, though sorely vexed {pendente) at being compelled to relin- 
quish the pursuit, neyeriheless did so, and, as we suppose, just be- 
yond the Lycus and in fall view of the fugitives. After mentioning 
this halt, our author goes back to the events meanwhile (itUerim) 
transpiring on the left wing, relates the effect of Darius' flight on 
Mazieus, the defeat of the latter by means of the Thessalian cavalry, 
and his final retreat to Babylon. He Ihen states that Darius had 
hastened (eontenderat) over the Lycus and reached Arbda by mid- 
night. The mention of Darius having carried him a little forward 
in the order of time, he returns again to take notice of the sad con- 
dition of the fagitives, and refers to what had been already men- 
tioned {tU supra dictum est), namely, that Alexander, upon hearing 
of Parmenio's difficulties, had checked the pursuit {inhibUo cured) ; 
with the additional circumstance that he had arrived (pervenerat) at 
the Lycus on his way back to assist Parmenio. As soon as the 
soldiers perceived his intention to give up the pursuit, they urged 
upon him not to let the fugitives escape with impunity. To this he 
gives the reply, hehetia tela, dbc, ; true as for as it went, but not the 
whole truth, for the evil tidings from Pannenio he could not, as a 
wise general communicate to them. Our author then goes on to 
state, in the passage before us, that the real reason of his resolution 
to return was his anxiety about the left wing, and tiiis anxiety he 
might well fed after the message sent him by Parmenio, although at 
the same time he was trustful (credehat) that it yet maintained its 
ground. We see nothing in the text that necessarily implies that h« 
returned *' spontaneously." The want of method in Cortius has been 

318 VOTBS. 


Am raljeol of TCBtflik by maay oomumteton, «nd to tiiatomiBe may 
be MBgned many of his, «pp«r«iitly, eontradietory statanenta. 
17. ^«fftl^^Enoonntered" 

1%, JHammulaio moffu, de, — " Batiier feigoiiig ignoianee of tbo dan- 
ger than despkiiig it" 
19. Dubiis rehu. — '* Dtfigeroiia eiroamstanoea" 
2a Univena odea, — '' Whole bodies of regolar troopa" 
2L Skmmiiarim mmiM$,-^" Bands hastily collected together." 
22. Ammo ncn, dc-^** He oyereame by sheer braTery, not (as before) 

by the strength of his position.'' 
28. Moffno conmUo,'^** With great pmdencek* 
24b Quod in itta, Se, — " Whieh is scarcely credil^e in the case <^one 
possessed of so mach impetaosity of temper." 

26. Jmn iL—" Moreorer i£" 

2d. Ne duce8, o&e.— "Nor are the sabordinate generals to be robbed 
of their share of glory." 

27. QtU tune eratU,-^By this clause the author probably hints at 
the degeneracy of the Macedonians, who in later times had snc- 
cnmbed to the Roman power. 


i Duetu imperioque Alexandri'^The nsnal signification of dueiu re- 
quires the presence of the person to whom it is appUed, and as Alex- 
ander conld not hare been present daring the transaction of the 
things here referred to, many critics think that Cortiiis wrote Anti" 
pairi, whom Alexander left as viceroy of Macedonia. See Note 1, 
lib. yi Cap. iii 

t. BuU temporibui, — " In chronological order." 

8. QtKM ttHque, dkc — The order is : " Uhiversas guas, rOique adjvffam 
mortemque J)arii, dari in eonepecttt, et Ha eonjungi ipso opere, 9ieut 
cohcerent inter Me tempore, potest tfideri hand patUd aptitu," "That 
the whole of these, at least to, <bc., should be presented in one view, 
and be so connected, dEo., may seem, in no small degree^ the more 
proper course." The infinitiye clauses form the subject of poteaL 

4b 8aluH fore, — " Would prove advantageous." 

0. Oecuparet sane, dse, — "Grant that that most covetous nati(»i 
should seize upon," «be. 

6. (}ttt6tt& — ^Zumpt, following some MSS. and editioni^ reads f«6ii« 
after guUnu. The most obvious sense of the passage would suggest^ 
however/ that Curtius may possibly use qu^iui (according to a 

MOTES* 8t9 


Greek idiom celled (OtnuHmi) for tie qwi$, Ut being governed by 
•n^niorm. Inttaneee ol thie aatnre are certainly not altogether 
wanting in Latin anthers. 

7. /SJpesioia dM^—-" Striking in tiieir annonneement '' ; «•« neest- 
saria, <* practically neefoL'' 

8. OrniUa tequi armatoi, — "That all things follow in the train «f 
those well armed." 

9. JBuntUfu a parte knfd, dte^—^Tbh is loeue iMflMrfiMiiiMM^ and oritice 
have ezhansted all their aoomea npon it to no pnrpose. It still 
remains as unsatisfactory and inexplicable as ever. We have given 
the readily and punctuation adopted by Ziunpt^ and we subjoin 
his note on the passage. ** Arabia is here that part of the country 
between the Euphrates and Tigris, which was occupied by the 
Arabians. If this district was on the left of the MaeedoniaM» 
Alexander nuiet have recrossed the Tigris near Arbela» and marched 
through the middle of Mesopotamia." It is hardly probable that 
Alexander, in marohing from Arbela to Babylon, though he should 
cross the Tigris, would go so far westward as to leave that part of 
Hesopotamia, inhabited by the Arabians, on his left hand, when 
his nearest way would be almost due south, inclining very little to 
the west. (See Butler's Ancient Atlas.) The &ct ia^ probably, 
that Curtius, as in other instances, is a UtUe out in his geography, 
on which subject he does not appear ** to know his right hand from 
his left." 

la Cfan^teitre i^.-— " A level route." 

11. JaeetUia, sc loea, 

12. Magna deinde, die. — **> And then after a wide separation of their 

13. <^ amplieaimwn, itc — "Those who have noted the greatest in- 
terval [between them] have made the distance," Ao. 

14. Mediok — ^Another instance of our author's inaccuracy. Media 
was far to the east of both rivers. Oordianorum.-^Thk word ap- 
pears in a great variety of forms in different editions, but the tnw 
reading, even if ascertainable, would be of small consequence. 

15. Aretuu, sc epoHw/L 

16. Qud — hde. — ^Both these words may be translated by the articla 
" the." •« The farther they flow," Ac 

17. JideoL — ^Freinsheim conjectures tandem, which would be more 
natural and forcible than the present reading. 

18. IngefUU operie, — See Note 4^ Lib. iv. Cap. vi 

19. Ifanu prempiua, — "Bold — ^vigorous in action.*^ 



to. JAyi.«-Se6 Note 12^ lib. iiL C^p. iii 

SL Ad hmuriam, de, — ^"More fitted for Inxurioi» indnlgeiiie than 
mere display.* 

tt. 0mm eMnm— In this expression Cnrtins midoabtedly has refer- 
enee to the triumphal entry into Rome of a vlotorions generaL 

St. Jpnm» urbi9 puiehritudo, i«,— The yastoess» beattty, and antiquity 
of Babylon have long been the theme of admiration; historianB 
and other irriters hare Tied with each other in expatiating on its 
wonders. For interesting partiealars with regard to this famone 
eity, called in Scripture (Isaiah xiiL 19) *' The gUiry of HnffdomM," 
** The beauty of the OhMeeif exedUthey" we refer the stndent to 
Calmet's DiOUmmry, (Gharlestown, 1817, Y. 226.) and Prideanx's 
Ckmmeaaan (EUtrper^s ed. L 119.) 

%L Zatemdo eoeiUi.—" With small bricks bwmt or baked in the fire." 
The Vulgate (Gen. xi. 8.X where the first step toward the founding 
of Babylon is described, has J^hetomvi latere» et coquamus eo» iffnL 

as. Commeare. — " To pass each other.*' Con here gires a reciprocal 
force to the simple yerb. 

2A. Oenlmn cuidtorum. — Some editions read L., but as Herodotus 
goes as high as two hundred, we think the present reading most 
likely to be the true one. 

27. COOLXV sfodia.— Equiyalent to about 42 of our milea See 
table of weights and measures at the end of Anthon's Glaa Diet 

28. Sinfftdorum ^adiorum, Se. — ^This statement will appear almost 
incredible when we consider, that^ if the walls were only one hun- 
dred cubits high (Herodotus makes them two hundred royal cubits^ 
which he says are three digits longer than the common ones)^ there 
would haye been at least 8056288 yards of solid masonry constructed 

• each day. Biodorus (Lib. ii.) states what is more probable, that 
Semiramis assigned each stadium to a particular indiyidua], fumidi- 
ing him at the same time with the means» and requiring the whole 
work to be done within a year. 

29. Jugeris, — ^This is usually a superficial measure^ but here it an- 
swers to the Greek word vXcCpov, and indicates mere length. As 
such it is reckoned at 104 feet 

80. Cbn^tniMB.-—*' Contiguous." 

81. Or^pidimbu», — " By sides of heayy masonry ** 

82b Omnium opertsm magnUudinem, — ^Equiyalent to Omnia magna 

88. In altitudinem preeecB, — '* Sunk to a great depth." 
34. Jirngit urbeni-^" Connects the two parts of the city." 

NOTES. 321 


86. Quo penUu8, Se, — '^'Wlildi being entirely thrown (mt for the 
purpose of laying the foundationiL'' 

88. FabuHa,-^** Tales " or « Stories." 

87. PUiB» — These columns were to sustain walls (parietee, mentioned 
below), and aeross the top of the walls immense flag stones {lapide 
quadrato) were laid, on whicJi the soil was placed. 

88k Byriau — Here used for AnyritB, 

89. Atnore eonjugU victnm, — ^It is said that Nebuchadnezzar bnilt the 
hanging gardens to gratify the taste of his wife, who, being tbe 
daughter of Astyages, king of Media, was accustomed to forests 
and mountains» and consequently pined for similar scenery when 
removed to the plains of Babylon. See Prideaux (L 126.) 

40. Efffiti sunt— ** Are giyen to." 

41. Fcsmmarum convivia, dsc — ^This statement may account in some 
measure for the conduct of Yasbti, who, being a modest woman, 
did not wish to take part in a feast probably of this description. 
See O. T. Esther (L 12.) 

42. Hono9 auribu» habihu tU, — *' Without offence be it said." Digby's 
translation (Lend. 1*747.) 

43. Fuii. — ^In the sense of /uiMet.- 

44. JneremerUa, — "By reinforcements." 
46. Amyntas Andromenu, — Supply ^ttMs. 

46. Viffiliarum tfieea, dtc» — "Serve their turn as guards." 

47. Inorementa — rudimenia, — " The seeds and first beginnings." 

48. JDueenos pedes» — ** The infantry two hundred apiece, equal to three 
months' pay." Zumpt reads this much disputed passage thus: 
Ducenoe pedes, eeUri stipendiuin duum mensum. Waiving other ob- 
jections, whom, we would ask, after mentioning the cavalry and 

« infftntry, does he intend by the word eeteri f We have given what 
seems to us a plain and natural text^ and deduced without violence 
from some of the various readings 

LIB. V. C4P. IL 

1. JHuHus, — "Longer " than he otherwise would have done. 

2. Namque antea, die. — " For foimerly the regiments had consisted 
of five hundred men, and bad not yielded rewards of valour." 
That is: The command of a regiment had not been bestowed as a 
reward. CbAofies is the subject of eesserant, and is used in this latter 
clause, as the word " regiment " with us, to signify " the conmiand 
of a regiment" In England it is a common form of expression to say 



'^Sneli a oimIim poMhaMd « roguMftV* ^^^ ^ ft ookntky or oonk 

mand of a regimeat 
8. Adem.— *'Atoiiee.* 
4 D« juiitikmt, db&— *' Soa^ to Tote upon tlie deckaoDS of the 

judges themsetreft.* ISiat is: Be«dh|r to see Uiat tke judges decided 

l^ m • • • The name of Hie eif^th Caifliarch has been lost 

Some editOTs read od» instead of novon in the pieeeding soitence, 

hut eontrary to all the mannseriptSb 
€b Ei miUum depend on cMam ntmL 

7. Nim 9iffnaU, de, — ^* l^ot coined, but in bullion." 

8. DoMO^Mtf doeent dare, — ^" And teach them to make presents " of 
their own handiwoik Zmnpt reads m before dootret^ and taranslates 
** She shonld say to them that he (the king) made them a pcesent of 
it" We mneh prefer the former rendering. 

9. Omie may hera be rendered " Do not" 
' 10. In eontumdiam. — " As an insult" 

1 1. Aptid vat, — " In yonr coontiy." 

LIB. V. CAP. m. 

1. JB§tu, so. BUygamhU, 

2. Navium, patieru. — " Navigable." 

8. Temporum homo, — ** A time server." Many copies read temportim 
multorum. The latter word, however, has been rgected by Modins, 
Gronovins, <fec. Anthon's edition of Riddle and Arnold's English^ 
Latin Dictionary, tmder the word ** time-server," gives homo tnulto- 
rum iemportem. 

i. Extra teli ietum, — See Lib. iv. Cap. ii Note 21. 

5. Anceps, — " Twofold." Tliat is : From opposite quartern 

6. Abnuens. — ^Ihe remark in Note 28, Lib. iv. Cap. L will apply to 
this word. 

7. Siminits. — ^" If not them." That is: If he conld not pardon them, 
at least to pardon her for asking. 

8. Qua tunc fuit, — ModerctUonem and elemenUam, being nonns of 
kindred meaning, will allow a relative and verb after them in the 

9. A victore Dario. — ^That is: Had he been viotorions instead of 

10. Contribuit^" He attached." 

11. De indtutrid. — ^** Purposely." An idiomatie phrase. 

12. Ifontiwn prona. — '' The declivities of the monntunsu" 



18. AgmhuL*^** Wlide eompaia^B." 

14. JSb ijMa, 8C. 90X0, 

15. J^ec a^artf ergd nee nUi. — That is: They could not stand where 
they were, nor were they able to clioab higher. 

16. jSfart.*-That is: By the sesrshore. This march was probably re- 
lated in the second book. 

Vl, MmsUaiaty Sc — ** His good fortune, taken by surprise, seemed to 

be at a stand." 
1$. QtkS.— Supply eadem vid before this word. 

MB. V. CAP. IV. 

1. Bed quid time, dx, — ^''But what adviee could Aristander Uien 
giref " JPradicere does not here conyey any idea of foreteUin^, 
but simply of eaying something appoeUe to the occasion. Leyerett 
furnishes instances from Cicero and Kepos of a similar use of the 

8. JbnpUxoeqve arborwn, &c — " And that the interwoyen branches 
of the ixeeA formed one continued foresf lit. " United the woods." 

8. Quod in hngOudinem, die, — ^What is the antecedent to the rela- 
tiye quodf Xatere is the only word in the sentence of Hie same 
gender and number, but that cannot be referred to, for though we 
ean yery well understand the length of a side, yet surely the word 
UUitttdinem would not apply to it. We conclude therefore that the 
figures apply to tiie range of mountains and that fuod refers to the 
sense, though not to the grammatical construction, of perpetuie 
jugi$f which form a dareum, the wi»d used in the n^ct sentence. 

4. Evbrum Jfar«.— See Note 8, lib. iiL Cap. ii 

5. Qudque deJhU, «I».— "And where the mountain fails, another 
barrier, the sea, is thrown in the way." 

0. FroeumbU, — ** lies spread out" 

*l. Minor omnis eo guem occept/L-— This remark will apply to the 
Mississippi, which is smaller than tlie Missouri, that flows into it. 

8. Ita fit proeuL, Ac* — ^The order Ui Jta vi nemora riporum ffidean- 
tfUT vieeniUnte proeul [e$ee] oondnuata monttfms» 

9. N<m alia, — See Note 1, lib. iii Cap. zii 

10. IgituT premiisis, die, — ^The order is: Igitur jvbet [euni] oneratum 
promiseie quanta etprceeens neeeeritas exigehat et ipsius foriuna eapie» 
bai, armari more Maeedonum ei (quod bene verteret) monstrare iter; 
[affirmana] ee {Alexandrum) evamrum ease cum paucity quamvis [iUr 
eeeetJl ardwtm et prieeepi, die. Ipeiue fortuna eapiebaty that is: Suit- 

324 NOTES. 

able to bis eiroQinsUiieeBb Quod bene verier&i. Hieiisiuillbimol 
wiabiiig sneeeBB to an nndertakiDg. It may sometameB bo rendered, 
•«In the Dame of God." 
11. OraUroi. — Hie student ynH observe tliat this word is not in the 
ftUatiTe ebadnto with rdido, but in the datire and goremed by 

1!L JBmn, BC AUxandnmL — Curtiiis frequeotly uses this pronoun 
where «0 would seem more proper. S<xne copies omit «Mm. 

ISb lUato terrore, — "By arousing his fears" from that quarter. More 
literally, " By striking terror into him." 

14. Penequentium £egenL — These words are rejected by many, and 
yet we cannot pereeiTe how the sense would be dear without them, 
jklezander justly supposed that the barbarians, as soon as they dia* 
eoTered that he had eluded their Tigilanoe, and by means of the 
Lyeian guide had made his way throng the deffles, woidd puisne 
him with haste and tumult^ and, accordingly, he ordered Craterus, as 
soon as he heard them purwing ike kinff, to enter the narrow pass 
in which he had been foiled the preceding day, as the ardour ci 
the barbarians in pursuing the king would lead them to neglect it 

1ft. Jfflfvm.— We have placed a coomia after this word, considering 
that the infinitire pos9e is to be referred to it " Increased the ap- 
prehension that, i^ Ac they might be," dec 

15. JEquM. — Our author must surely haye exaggerated the difficulties 
of the road in the previous description, when here we find that 
horses had passed oyer it, thoi^h tenned invitan eyen for foot pas- 

17. Secundd vigilUk — The ancients divided the time from simset to 
sunrise into four watches of three hours each, the length of the 
hours, of course, varying according to the season of the year. The 
time here mentioned would be about nine o'clock in the evening, 
BO that Ihe troops had eight or nine hours for rest uid refredmient 

IS. IngeuM vorago, — ** A great chasm." 

19. IfUemitebanL — ^Observe the force of inter. 

20i EvadmU ergo, — ^It is steted by some writers that JUezander 
erected an arch on this spot, with an inscription pointing out the' 
true path through the defiles. 

LIB. V. CAP. V. 

1. ^osscB. — ^It does not appear clearly whether these ditches were 
natural or artificial The etymology of the word and the term 
oyedce, applied to it, would indicate the latter character. 

NOTES. 3S6- 

2. IndtearUes, — ** Intimatbig.'^ 

8. Expeditum. — "Free from obstacles." Freiiislieim oonaiders this 
inconsistent with what our author mentions in the next sentence, 
namely, that the Araxes{a broad stream, and which conld only be 
crossed by boats or bridges) was to be passed, and aeeordmgly pro- 
poses to read ^fudm qud instead of qttamqtiam. We think the change 
unnecessary, the latter word being here employed, as it <^n is, 
to modify tiie foregoing statemient It may be rendered, " Ihough, 
to be sure." 

4k Inter pauea. — ^Equivalent to in pauds, elsewhere used, ^e Not» 

11, lib. ill Gap. zi 
6. Iwtueniihus. — ^Dative after liqtiere, and itself governing pantu, 

6. BimUea — diapares,-^** AJSkA in severity— -different in eiioimL- 

7. Omnes, sc. eircumstantn,'^" All the by-standers.'* 

& No9. — ^We retain this pronoun as used emphatically. Some cities 
read JER, others E, 

9. FamUiarU—** Friendly." 

10. Qudm. eeUriteTf dse, — This is (to use the words of Theaetetus a 
little below) triMii de mortalitate aententiaf " A sad reflection upon 

11. Jftsi, dtc. — ^We strongly suspect that Gurdus wrote nos before 
nigL The emphatic application of what Enthymon had said above 
{Nemo fidditer, dte.) to their own sad case seems to require its 

12. GraU prorms, <te, — Said ironically. 
18. Detrimenta. — " Scrapings." 

14w Quota par» noOri. — ** How small a part of us." 

15. Pium. — This word and its derivatives are probably applied by 
Latin writers more frequently to the sentiments entertained towards 
men than to those towards the gods. They are used to designate the 
affection existing between relatives and friends when carried to a 
self-denying extent. Hmee JSneas seems to have acquired the 
epithet oipius, in Virgil, for saving the life of his aged father at the 
risk of his own. 

16. Vitd — morte, — Ablatives of price. 

17. Quin appears to be here used ellipticaBy. The ellipsis may be 
thus supplied. Quid obstai quin, dx, 

1 8. IngenUa,—f' Their birthright" 

19. JHelinquerent. — ** They certainly might leave [this place, their 
Persian attachments] to whom nothing," «fee Digby gives a dif- 

8d6 VOTKB* 


fomit tnm to the paasage, a&d ve do not know but that Uie «aiginal 
will allow it " They ought to be no hindranee to those to ^hxan," 
Aol He makes the sabject of rdinquerent to be the seme as those 
intonded by m quo», and nndentands «m before quL JRelinquere is 
eometiines need in the sense '* to let alone,*' and that is probably the 
■esse Digby attached to it here. 
20l Oimtuetuda, — ** Long usage.'' 

21. Fr<Bttab<K"^" I will warrant "— •" will pledge myseU:'' 

22. Si hae, d:e. — " Apart from these sad mutilations.'' See Note 13, 
libu It. Cap. z. 

28. FumitenHoB. — " Change of mind." The king was nnder the im- 
preMion that they were» at the beginning, anxious to return to 


1. Infitaa, so. In GrcBciam. 

2. Vieere proeterita. — ^*' Surpassed all that preceded." 

8. Oecupaverant. — ^This verb almost in every instance indicates " a 
taking possession in advance of the efforts of another. 

4w M dim, (ke, — ^The sense of the passage is this: Wh^i they were 
tmable to keep all they got on account of the great quantity of 
plunder, things were no longer seized at once, but the comparative 
value of every thing was critically estimated, so that they might 
burden themselves with only the most valuable articles. 

fi. FoMmque obvii, dsc — " And every where as they were met with 
they were put to death, whom, before [the discovery of such immense 
treasures] th(iir own value (as slaves) had rendered objects of [ap- 
parent] compassion." 

6. QiMd, — ^This relative refers to igne^ tut^jecerant tedUm» and is 
governed \>y factwrus, 

\. 8uis, sc militibua, 

8. Oei XX miUia talentiUm — iex miUia iaientLLm. — The sum total will 
be 11,880,011,180, or 188,004,840 according to the talent by which 
we estimate. See Note 16, Lib. iii. Cap. L 

9. VergUiarum. — ^These are generally called the Pleiades. Critica 
are not agreed among themselves whether the rising or setting of 
these stars is meant Probably our author had no special reference 
to either of these phenomena, but simply to that season of the year 
when they are visible in the early evening, and that would, of course, 
be winter. 

NOTS8. M7 


la QuMfrigarU, ise, — ** WUeh the «xtremity of «old had «otrnstdd 
•with ice," 

11. Iiwia, — ^This word do«B not BtrioUy fiigoify "impMsable'' in 
ihia and eimilar passages, but only implies the greatest degree of 
difficulty in transit It is used with an obTions qnalification like a 
kindred word in the famous line of the English poet> 

Of mountains inaecessiblet by shepherds trod. 

12. AfUequam lux quoqtte, dtc — ^A striking instance of the ignorance 
of the times. 

18. 5Mpw««fifc— "Forbore." 

14. InterfeetiSf sc. its. 

15. 29e foaninia quidem, dtc — ** Not even do the women, considering 
their natural characteristics, possess more delicate qualities.' 


LIB. V. CAP. vn. 

1. McHiendU efflciendU que, — " Undertaking and completing." 

2. Ho9te et mavlo, — *^ While his enemy and rival for the kingdom 
[of Persia] was renewing the war with the greatest efforts." 

8. De die, — ^That is : Before the day dosed. Mark the " customary 

action" denoted by the imperfect vmhaL 
4. Pellieea, — Supply erant after this word. 
6. Thais, — ^Dryden has immortalized this courtesan in the following 

lines. (Alexander's FeaH): 

** The loTely Thais by his side, 
Sate, like a blooming Eastern bride 
In flower of yoath and beauty's pride." 

** And the king seized a flambeau with zeal to destroy, 
Thais led the way 
To li^t him to his prey 
And like another Helen fired another Troy." 

6. Avidior qudmpatientiar. — ^That is : The king not only endured the 
disgracefol proposal, but went further than that, — ^he was even 
anxious to engage in carrying it out 

T. Quin, — Why not But see Note 11, Cap. y. of this book. 

8. Tendebat, sc. Tentoria, — " Were encamped." 

9. Contahdato,—" Floored over." This passage obviously refers to 
the gigantic undertakings of Xerxes in the invasion of Greece. 

886 NOTES* 

10. AyiM «eifi^Mm «on. — ** IS^ a T«itig« 

IL htiqmB re9 in tenmn, Se, — ** Accordingly Uie matter took a flcrioOB 

turn, and tlicy forced thcmselyes into the betief that»" d^e. 
1^ Mi^oire» ptena», de. — That ia: The PenianB -would faaye suffered 

a tcTerer infliction, if, instead of the burning of their chief city, they 

had beheld Aleiander penaanently seated in tihe palace and on the 

throne of Xerzea 

LiR V. CAP. vm. 

L Itte,M,J>wrku. 

a. OeUriM0p and jost belov, vdocUatem. The freqa^it application 
of ench tenns as these to the career of Alexander cannot fail to re- 
mind the reader of what was predicted of him, in this respect» by 
Daniel (Crh^ viii 6, 0.) 

8. Quaiemcmnqu8 vUam. — ** Any kind of life." 

^ Qudm fruBtrd, dte. — " Than uraste words upon yon." 

6. JSxperto, sc. nuhL 

6i. Ut jam maliL — " Provided he would now prefer." 

7. Sbe decuBf viz. — The Gydaris or Tiara. 

8. FosHt — " May have it in hia power." 

9. -4nt«Mi«.— "The spirit" or "disposition." Zex.--**The rule of 

10. I/ee immeritd, — " And not without good reason." 


1. Saipe cEbtmtM. — ^Probably in the two books that are lost 

2. NabarzaneSf though in the sing. num. yet being connected h} 
intervening clauses with Bessus, is followed by the j^ural verb 

8. JBd mente, — ** With the intention." 

4. Moffni, — The genitive of value. jEttimaturi is to be referred to 

5. Adiium nefariag, tte, — ** Preparing the way for the fulfilment of 
his nefarious expectations." 

6. Atapicinm. — " The chief command." Imperium, — ^"He imperial 

7. DwTkfo.— "Thereupon." 

8. MdUa. — ^" Resources " — such as a man of materials affords. 

9. Ad vilitatem std. — Literally, " To a cheapening of Hiemsdves.** 
Tliat is: To put a low estimate on their lives. 



IOl JhnporiB gratUL'^*^ To meet the present ezigeney.^ s 

11. ^hato re^ri.— ^"The rightfal soyereigxi.'' 

12. Ftdudariuai, — ** Which he had held in trust" 

18. Q^anq^uan tarn, Ac — " Although the foil extent of crime conceal- 
ed under such an impious speech iras unknown to him." The 
student will note the force of mtb in 9ube$8^ 

14. Pessimum — maneipium. — '* Thou vilest of slaves." 

15. Ni proper^ JBesnu, <ke, — " Unless with all speed Bessus and the 
Bactrians, undelt pretence of being indignant [at the conduct of 
Nabarzanes], but [in reality] intending if he (Darius) pereevered in 
his purpose, to bind him, had interposed." lit " Had stood roimd." 
3VUtU is used in the sense of ** angry " by Virgil (./Eneid. x 612) and 
Propertius (i. 6, 10.) 

16. Temporum, Se. — " OccasionaJlly reminding him of etsisting circum- 

17. Gravem etiam n, dte. — ^"A formidable enemy even if all his 
(Darius') friends should be at hand to hdp him." 

18. .i^rrfe--" Reluctantly." 

19 Pistron. — ^Arrian calls him Paron, He seems to have been a man 
of fine character. 

20. Ut eibum, <te. — " That he would partake of food, and assume the 
spirit expected of a king.*' We prefer the reading given in the text 
as consonant with a similar use of the word eapio (Lib. iv. Cap. i. 
§4) Cape regis aninvum. See also Note 12, Lib. iv. Cap. xii. The 
other readings are : ArUmuimque regis adverteret and averteret, Ani- 
mumque euris regni adverteret Animumqw rehus odoertereL This 
last is adc^ted by Zumpt 


1. JEximia. — " Highly esteemed." 

2. ^^fionis, — ^Zumpt reads regis here; but as the arguments for the 
present reading are very strong we have concluded to retain it 

8. Oeeisuri—peHiuri. — We should certainly expect to find these 
words in the dative after placmL As they stand we may supply 
essent with them. 

4. <7on«<ermrfton«n.—^" Their mutinous conduct" The word is used 
in this sense by Tacitus and Livy, as well as repeatedly by our 
author. See Lib. vii. Cap. ii. § 7, Lib. viii Cap. i. § 8. (where it is 
used synonymously with se^^tio), and Lib. x. Cap. ii §7. 

5. SeHcttarent.---** To temper with." 

8M MOTS8. 


«. JUuhm B di mn U , 4«^— "MaaBettiiig m diow of f<»iiHd duty to 
coyer ap a base crime.'' 

7. SuiUnSr^.^*' Had the effrontery." 
& Pr0Ma— Petitions. 

9. Secytmt penadi, de, — "Undistarbed by any fear of the danger 
that was at hand." 


1« (keatumi «miniiiaM, dbe, — " On the lookout for an opportunity of 
addressing him." 

% BapiiM iermone rewetUOk — " Very often checking his ntterance^ 
while hesitating between what his fidelity to the king om the one 
hand, and his fear of giying offence (either to the king or to Bessoa) 
on the other, snggested, he kept his eyes fixed on him." Of the 
other reading, sermmu rwoeaiia, Freinsheim says: "Neseio quid 
sibi yelint alii ; at rwoeato mrtn^ne est, ciim, sepe dictnms^ toties 
se repreuiuet, yocernqne, jam prodire volentem qnasi reprehen- 

8. Fr<Bitare, — "Perform the duty better." 

4. ImUrfTttU OrcBci, dse, — ^This relates to the conversation that took 
place between Patron and the eunuch in relation to the admission 
of the former to an interview with the king. 

0. In vUimo diacrmine, <te. — " Tou are in a very critical situation, 
both as to fortune and life." Fortttna here means his condition in 
life as a prince. 

6. Thderat — ^We have here an instance of the use of the indicative 
for the subjunctive. Numerous examples are to be found in the 
classics. It is common in our own language ; a striking instance 
occurring in our version of the Psalms (cxxiv. 8, 4, 5.) 

*!. JElvdant licet, dte» — "Let those indulge in ridicule, who are per- 
suaded that human affiiin are set in motion and urged forward by 
blind chance." Idvy (vi. 41) represents Appius as employing the 
phrase cludant licet, and as Onrtius is known to have imitated Livy, 
and, moreover, in this very passage makes use of forte temeri, a 
favourite expression of his, we prefer it to ehdani videlicet, the 
reading adopted by Zumpt 

9. Sguidem aiemd, dse,-^" For my part» I would rather believe that 
according to an eternal constitution of things, and by a chain of 
hidden causes long before appointed, each individuai, by an imnm- 
table law, fills up his allotted station." Note the force of tiie sub- 

N0TB8. 831 


JQOotiye in eretStkrink jSHemd seems here to be used in its most 
ezteofiiye signification. 


1. Impetwn, — " Hastj resolution." See Leverett*s Lexicon. 

2. Perfidi hominU, sc. PaJtronis, VUdsset, so. J)ariua, Man, so. 
Patronem, JSoHi, sc. Alexandro, 

8. Bine tare, — " Without fanulj ties," 

4. Ancipiiem hostem, — ^That is : One who would fight on either 
side, according to his interests. 

5. Ad nuhem licerUium. — "At the nod of the bidders.** The lan- 
guage is figurative, and refers to the practice of auctioneers, who 
turn from one bidder to another, accordbg as each rises higher in 
his offer. 

6. JEd rerum ventum eroL — *' Matters had oome to such a pass.** 
v. CredidiMet, sc. Daritu. 

8. MxcusationenL — ** Palliation.** 

9. Acrwrenty dsc — " A more energetic protector and avenger,** 

10. AmuUi stabant. — "Stood to their arms.** 

11. Artabcuats, — ^This word may be the subject of the historical infin- 
itive dubitare, or of respondU, supplied in brackets between Orcsca- 
rum and Peraaa. We much prefer the latter constmction, as that 
frequently used by Curtius. See Lib. iv. § 22 ; vL § 4 ; viii. § 42. 

12. DestifuUua sorti auoe, — Curtius here employs language in confor- 
mity with what he had said above. See Note 8 of preceding 

18. ' Profnmque. — ^We adopt this reading &om Butgers^ instead of the 
common perfusuique, 

14. Vel periculo vitce. — " Even at the risk of life.** 

15. Impii, — See Note 15, Cap. v. of this book. 

16. ©M»a.— "Inasmuch.** 

17. A ntis, sc autjectis, 

18. NvUd extemd, <ite, — "No foreign power being employed** against 
him, or, in this transaction. 

LIB. V. CAP. xm. 

1. AvdUo forms the ablative absolute with the remainder of the 
clause. See a similar instance in Caesar (De Bell. Gall. vii. 52.) 

2. JSx hoe acta cognoacU, — "From him he learns what had taken 


8* Dcrm.-'JDommn if not often appHdd to tlie human back. 'Dkore 

are, howeyer, instances in Horace and Pliny. 
4. Uiprimiy^ — **That tiie van might keep closely united with 

tiie rear.** 

0. Biremio idUqui, ^— The order is : J^angfitffa inJecenU [Alej- 
andro] aUoqui ttrewuo cupidUcttem comequendL 

6. AheunHtan, — " Fugitivea" 

7. .Wkfcwfc— "The protection." 

8. Aded nmnenit &e. — ** Terrified as they were, fortane had deprived 
them (lit "shaken them ont" ) of their sdnses to such a degree that 
they,** Ac. 

^, SemimoL — The remainder of this book, as written by Cnrtins, 
has been lost. The supplement» furnished by Freinsheim, we have 
annexed in small type» in order to preserve the thread of the story. 


1. Pugna. — ^The former part of this chapter, as it came from the 
hand of Curtius, having been lost, we have prefixed the supple- 
ment of Cellarius as more brief than that of Freinsheim. 

2. Immimi* — Supply AgU and te from the preceding supplement as 
the subfeet and oi^ect of this verb. 

8. Oorpore. — " By a sudden motion of his body." 

4. uSquiorent, — "More favourable." 

5. Jfon^ aUnd — See Note 1, Lib. iii Cap. xii. 

6. Sauerai. — "Had been confined." lit "had stuck." 

7. PoplUiha, — ^Tbis word indicates the back part of the knees, as 
genua does the front The distinction is clearly seen in the follow- 
ing passage from Pliny (Nat Hist xxviii 17,) Mem poplitee aUemU 

. genibus imponi. 

8. UUrd, — "Spontaneously." 

9. Excepit, — " He supported." We may suppose his shield to have 
been placed upright on its circumference, and thus, for a "while, 
being on bis knees, he leaned his head upon it^ when, at lefigth, his 
strength failing him, through loss of blood, he fell forward with and 
upon his shield, and upon any other part of his armour that was in 

10. JHaeenHre ab animis. — " Did not agree with their real feelings." 
The sense of this passage (which some have thought incomplete) 
appears to be this : Antipater, though a conqueror, was yet fearful 
that his victory would cost him too much if it procured for him the 



jealotiay of hia coUeagueB ia eommand and the enyy of Alexander; 
but as he was desirous of bringing the war to a close (which he 
oould not do if he fell out with his generals]^ it was necessary for 
him to receive the outward congratulations of his officers as though 
they were sincere, and thus i^pear to be deceiYcd. The literal 
rendering of the words is as foUows: " Nor did it escape the obs«^ 
yation of Antipater, that the countenances of those who congratu- 
lated him did not agree with their real feelings» but to him desirovs 
of finishing the war, there was a necessity that he should [appear 
to] be deceived ; and although the result of the action (for this 
meaning of renan see Leverett) was pleasing to him, still he was 
fearful of the envy [of Alexander] because his exploits were greater 
than what the measure of a viceroy would admit of " ; that t>, he 
had performed greater deeds than usually fell to the lot of an in- 
ferior officer. 

11. J^e taciHu quidem, dfc. — " He openly expressed his vexation." 

12. Agere arbitria, — " To determine upon the results.** 

13. A quo Xacedamoniortan, dbe. — ^This passage has proved a perfect 
crux critieorum. We give the reading adopted by Zumpt^ with 
slight changes. 


1. Inaana duleedo. — ^''The senseless enjoyment. 

2. Omnia in 9e. — ** Every thing had glided into [an aping of ] foreign 
[Persian] manners, and, choosing these for a pattern as more excel* 
lent than those of his own people^ he," Ac 

8. JDefungi, — **To partake of" The word implies that they con- 
sidered eating a duty to be performed for the sustenance of life^ 
and not to be engaged in for the mere gratification of the palate^ 

4. Xt6mor— diolor. — " A more free expression of the pain they felt* 

6. PeregrinM here refers to the Macedoniana 

6. Seerevii, se. eos. 

?• Oraves adhue aecoicB,^^" Formidable neighbours hitherta" 

8. Heetd ploffd, — " A straight tract of country." 

9. Uhimaf se. loco. 

10. Q^tsrrtf—posMtv—^/tcm.— Historical infinitives» to be translaM 
as imp. iud. act 

11. Vi^uiMBei, sa Alexander, 

12. JSTownr».--" To imbibe." 

IS. In rem» — *' Buitable to his purpose." 


IIB. VI CAP. ni 


1. Dudu iNM. — Theee words refer to -what was done where Alex- 


ander commanded in person, — imperio aiupidoque, to what was 
done hj his authority. See Kote 1, Lib. y. Cap. L 

2. Qumiam. — "Some things." The ace. with the dat nUhi after the 
▼erb iubduxerit 

8. Ui ibi poHtHmitm,'^*' That there of all places." 

4. Adkue Jugum, Ae, — ^The order is: BarbarU adkue subeunHbv» 
jugum eju9 [tmperii] rigidd cerviee, opus tat tempore^ mUites, dmn, Se, 

5. Potett, so. mUigiire, 

6. Minaiur, sc nos. 

7. Stti jwris, se. "Their own masters." 

8. SimuL — ^Eqniyalent to tvmxd ad. 

9. Ne V09, dte. — There is an ellipsis between this and the preceding 
daose, which may be thns supplied, — "toAioA / mmUont that you 
may not think," &cl 

10. VUimum, — This -^ord signifies "the furthest removed" from 
good or bad, acootding to the connection in which it stands. 

11. ExUmm opis egentem. — "Depriyed of foreign aid," namely, that 
of Flitron and the Greeks. It has occurred to us that possibly 
Curtius^ by these words, intended to convey the idea expressed, 
lib. Y. Cap. ziL § 88, (mdid externa ope admotdf) and accordingly 
to mean " that Bessus held in captivity and finally put to death his 
own king, who, in this way, did not need foreigners to accomplish 
his ruin " ; that is, " was put to death by treacherous subjects." 
Such a construction seems harsh at first view, and yet it is in some 
degree justified by the following clause, eerte cui nos, dte. Some 
refer extemm cpU to "the aid" he needed, and obtained from Poly- 
stratus, as mentioned in the supplement to the fifth book. 

18. Sgregivm meherade, dfte.— The order is : Mshercule iradeHs potteri^ 
taH fammjue opus egregium et numerandum inter prima veetra glories ; 
we vUoe eeee parrioidas Darii quogtte hoeHs, odioJinUo post efue mor- 
tem, [et] neminem impittm effugieae veetra» mantts, 


1. Adeuwt, sc homines. 

2. i7mwr««.— "Entire." "Undivided." 

8. Veha ditpensatis, die. — "As if by an equal distribution of its 



4. Inde torrenB, dke* — ^Tfae author here ctoserihes the oonrse of one 
branch, bearing the original name^ Zioberis, which, he says, further 
<m. unites with the other called Bhidaga, The course of the latteri 
preyious to the junction, he does not describe. 
6. Tauroi.'T^^t, in conformity with some copies» leaves this 
word out» and supposes that Alexander made use of criminals for 
his experiment^ — a course as unnecessary as crueL 

6. Qtutrum corpora^ the, — ^The order is: Quorum corpora [tt], qtd 
fnim erant ut exeiperent [«a], mdh'e expuUa, ubi {amnU} rtarnta 
erwnptt, * 

7. Agitdsse Darivm, dse* — " That Darius had had it in contemplation 
to," Ac. 

8. Ad vUima, dsc — " That he had been urged forward to extre- 
mities, and that he pursued rather those measures which necessity 
denumded, than what he himself would haye preferred." 

9. JSubinde. — " Every nonf and then." 

10. Dtto terrcB. — ** Two points of land." 

11. Media, sc loea, — *' The intermediate space by a gentle surve forms 
a bay." 

12. M iHoa, Ac» — ^The order is : Et [pari vallia], quA vergit ad Sep' 
tentrionem, prospectat iUo», [parii\ cofwersa ad Occamtm [pTo^peetat'\ 

18. M magnd parte, dsc — " And ebbing out again in a great measure 

it leaves stagnant pools." 
14. Cujua fastigvum, dsc — " Whose elevated ridges, as we have already 

said, gradually fall into a continuous valley." 
16. OecupaverinL — " Shall have anticipated." 


1. M hospitii, dte, — The order is : M fide^ in regem, eomervata ad 
tUHmum, vincebat pignora hoapitiu 

2. In ntpplementum. — '' To fill up the ranlG&" 
8. Adhvo refers to ienero», not UifledunL 

4. Q^d natura fert, — " According to their natural tendency." 

5. Qui'-^Alium alii together form the antecedent to this relative. 

6. Namque UU, so. eqwu. 

7. Duperaio. — ^This participle with tilie rest of the clause forms «a 
ablative absolute^ See Kote 1, Lib. v. Capu Jtm. 

8. Ad pectus.-^" To the chest." 

9. Eabitum ejus, <kc — " Closely surveying his personal appearanet 

886 NOTES. 


trliieh by no meani oomeponded with his ex{Mt&" See Kete 14» 

lib. iii Cap. zii and Note 1, lib. yi. Cap. zL 
lOi &ex(U» — The genitiye of the qualifying nonn« See Anthon'a 

Znmpt'fl Oram. § § 426, 427, and Adams* Lat Gram. Rule vii 
11. i2d<0nhiram.-HSiipply proUm as the olgeot of the participle. 
18. Jrritam »peL — " Disappointed in her ezpectataona" 


1. Cfupiditatea tuat tolvit — " He gave loose to his passions." 

Si In alHuknd qudque foriund, — " In eyery condition of life, eren 

the most exalted." 
8. OiniUm habUum here seems to mean " the mode of life adopted 

by his conntrymen." 
^ ServilibuB nUnitterii*, dx, — ** To initiate the conquerors of so many 

nations into serrile ministrations, and to place them on a par with 

& Ut appareret, itc — ** Whence it would appear that the mind of 
one monarch is not capacious enough for the fortune of twa" 
6. TWrn.— "At such a time.** That Ib: Upon the occasion da a 

Y. TatU€B mora preUum. — " As a remuneration for their long ab* 

sence." More literally, " for their long delay in returning." 

8. Qua td intaeta. — ^Why not» gui (sa domim), ut ifUaetat (se 

9. Sanguinis pretium. — ^Referring to the wounds receiyed in battle. 

10. Salnlesque miliiiis. — Namely, by the remoyal of uselees incum- 

11. j^ftfttr.— "Accordingly." 

12. 8ubHaere,—f' To halt" 

18. ProMTii, — ^*' To turn out of his course first" 

14. 2;ofi^it«.— " Too far." 

16. Ae primd, dsc — ^That is: He required eyery possible mode of 

access to be thoroughly cleared out Me in composition not unfre- 

quently denotes " thoroughness." 

16. ^nmi.— The genitiye of qualification. See Note 10 of preceding 

17. 4^t dari «Himenicu — " Material to be supplied for the fire * that 
was about to be kindled That it was not yet kindled is eyideoit 
from the clause Time undi^, dtc. 

1& Vmmvm.S^ Note 10, lib. yl Gap. iii. 

NOTE». 337 


19. 8i ptd int e r m orere t mr iffnu,r^Jif any where Hie ^ixe ve&t out Iit> 
erally, ** Died out at intervale* of space. 

20. Captm urhU tiitUo, Se, — ^" Tielding as was proper to hie daim ai 
haying takoi the city." See a similar instance of royal and military 
etiquette in O. T. (II. Sam. zii. 2t.) 

21. 8upina9 manus. — lliat is: With their hands thrown np with 
the palms open towards the enemy, showing them to be unarmed. 

22. BcelerU-~paiiieep9 Bewo, — ParUeepg, like eonteiitt, is construed 
with a genitiye and dative. See Antfaon's Zumptfs Gram. § 487, 
Note 2, and Bullion's Lat Gram. Bule xvi Obs. 5. 


1. Aitetoriiatis et graiice, — See Vote 11, Cap. ▼. of this book 

2. JUe, sc IReomaehiis, — IndiecUurum, sc Dymnvm. 

Z, Quod eHam, (tc — " Which he would be required to disclose even 

at the cost of perjury." 
4 JParUcipem. — See last note of preceding chapter. 

5. C<mgtanter, — " With fimmess.** 

6. Ab illo eapite, — ^He must be supposed here to point to the head of 

7. Alid» — alids. — ** At one time — at another." 

8. Quoque is often used by our author in the sense of eiiam, 

9. Ver9abat. — " Tried every means to move." See Leverett 

10. Tanto faeifwre. — Singular fastidiousness on the part of one who 
had spent his life in the commission of the most detestable crimes! 
But sueh were the perverted ideas of right and wrong among heathen 

11. JExprestit ut tandem, Ac — ^"He extorted from him at length a 
promise not only of silence but even of cooperation." ^sspressiL — 
literally, "He squeezed out" 

12. FoTlisHmuB junewum. — Said by way of flattery. 
18. Plaeei, sc. uhigue, — Ipmm, sc. Nicomiaeh'^im, 

14. ^mtcorufTi.— This word is merely the translation of the Greek 
word h-tupwv, the name of a chosen body of cavalry in the Macedo- 
nian army, the first cohort of which was charged with the care of 
the king's person. Williams in his life of Alexander always terms 
them The Companion Caoalry, 

15. Ineertym, sc eif. 

10. Foret foT/uissei. — See instances in Ovid (Epist, vi. 144 ; Amor. ji. 
12, VJ ; Metam. xu. 8.) 

tM «OTS8. 


n. Jn inMitmi, ^fc-^'* WkMihw h» Imd w^ged fciai (Hjilotas) tc 

eome to him (AlezAnder)" to diTiilge the eonsfiiney. 
18. Cwo ^ fx y r i or» *ag «mfttt— *' The mofe intinMt»-4h« greater.* 

UR VI. GAP. vm. 

L if» |Mtia«. — See Note 9» lib. ir. Gepi. viii 

a. CenlumaacB. — ** Arrogance." Fram con and tumeo, " to afwell up.** 

8. Odio 9UO, dte, — " Concealing hia hatred (of Philotas) under a pie- 
tezt of reverential affection for the king." The literal meaning 
of FraferenM is ** Carrying in front or before," hence " Carrying 
one thing in front of another bo as to conceal it" As to pietoHM, aee 
Note 10, lib. Y. Gap. t. 

^ Quoque.-'-Qee Note 8 of preceding chapter. 

6» yee mt qudd exittimes, — ** l^or haye you reason to suppose." 

8. MUerieordiam, dte, — " Have exhausted the streams of mxsmj^ 

*!, Itweteratd. — " Strengthened by timcu" 

8. Fudett so. quemlibeL 

8. 8*^ppre$9unt9, sc Fhiiotaa. 

10. Quem enim, dsc — This infinitive clause depends on ateftoitf, or a 
word of similar import, understood. 

11. Ne OebiUini quidem, dx. — ^We prefer giving this passage an affiimap 
tive character and not an interrogative one as in most editions. We 
snpply egiste and give the following order: Mlium Farmeniom$, 
jl^rafectum eg%iitatCL», arbitrum omnivm arecuMrum regU, tu [jBgiste] 
ptidem exemplo CebalitU, qm nuneiduet tps» [regi ea] co^nfMrte ex 
firaire ; tmndcMe etiam Begem, dte, 

12. CoMcierUiam Muam exonerare,'^" To tmburden his conscience." 
Ihe word exanerare is nsnally applied to the ufdading of ships and 
to the emptying of rivers into the ocean. 

18. At enim, dte. — ^These words always imply an ellipais, which in 
this case may be thus supplied : ** But PhUatoB 9ajf thai he otigki to 
be excueed tat he did not give credit, dec. 

14 JEbrfraxMtet— " We may supply eot (sc puero») as the olject of 
this verb and translate; «Why then should he have put tkem 
off for two days!" Or we may consider biduum the direct olject 
and give this rendering : " Why then should he have frittered away 
hoo daye f " See Leverett for this latter meaning of JSgtroha, 

Iff. AmieU — See Kote 14 of preceding chapter, 

18. Adkue is to be applied to tarpentem, 

iroTXs. 388 


17. Ih eapiuMm, dfe<>-3li]s applies to a time ol wwt as tike M«rt 

clause shows. 

18. Srat mUgi, — Supply in^irere de eapUaUbuM rebuB, 

19. Auetoritas, sc. populi, — The meaning is: The royal prerogatiye 
is powerless unless backed by the expreated will of the pcitple, 


1. ProvidenHd et nUsericordid, — ** By the mereifdl providence.* 

2. Venerabilis is here used in an actire sense : '* Yonr reverential 
aspect" See a similar instance Yal. Max. (II. iv. 4^) 

S. Autem may here be rendered by " I ask," " Tell me* or some 
similar phrase. 

4. Hid ceiate. — At that age yon know him to have attained ; that is: 
''At his advanced age." The same phrase Is employed (lib. iv. 
Cap. V. inU.) to denote youth. 

5. Querentium, — ^"Complaining." Curtius may have wiitten jtM»- 
rerUium, " Making inquiries ; " for we find above that a great part 
of the assembly were ignorant of what had been done, and it was 
natural for them when the king paused to put questions to each other 
with regard to the details of the conspiracy, the mere outlines of 
which he had disclosed. 

6. Exonerare, — See Note 12 of preceding chapter. 

7. late, «t JteffiSf Ae, — ^This is a passage abounding in variou» read' 
inge. We have given the common one, merely substituting marks 
of exclamation instead of those of interrogation. We suppose this 
to be the sense, first premising, that the king must be considered ac 
pointing to I^iilotas. "That that individual, if he were so dis- 
turbed at the danger of the king, should not change countenance ! 
That, anxious about so important a matter, he should yet be unwill- 
ing to listen to the informer! [I can't believe it, No,} the fact U 
(nimirum) under all this studied indiffeience {tUeniio) is conceal- 
ed," dko, 

8. Qudm eapU. — ** Hian he is capable o£" 

9. Orbitas here signifies " that want of support" which is afibrded 
to a parent «nd especially to a monarch by the possession of 

10. VUeerum meortan, — See Note 20, lib. iv. Cap. xiv. 

11. MikL — ** In my own estimation." 

12. I^on poentoi, sc ealvue esse. 

IS. CoiMpeet», sc ^ue, L e. PhUotee, which is governed by hdbUu, 

840 HOTBS. 

l^ Omn «01 — Hiait is: Paniittiio ▼«• impleaded with his snrTiying 

eon in the same chargeu 
16. HoMd qfwbfuttm pro, dfce. — '* In no way was the speech of Amyntas 

as pleasing to the king, as he expected." 

16. Pameufam.— See Note 12, lih. iii Cap. zii 

17. Mequid videtis. — ^'^DoyoniiolperoeiTef " .fib^<f usually requiree 
a negatiye fonn of interrogation in "B^g^^V^ 

18. Odio-'-UnerL — Hie reading adopted here by Zmnpt as well se 
by many before him, is aded — taxkre. We prefer the one given in 
the text, beeauae it is a form of expression similar to that nsed by 
onr author (lib. iii Cap. ii. § 5, eir. med,) — ^becanBe it is perfectly 
oorreot in itself, — because Uedere is too closely allied in signification 
to /oMtidit in the next clause,— and because adeo seems hardly re- 
quired to give force to the sentence. 

19. .&L— " With this remark." 


1. Deaiiutua. — ^Perhaps Curtius wrote ditiractua, 

2. Frasaertim ci^m guoerentL — ^Philotas here refers to what is men- 
tioned, lib. TL Cap. Til § 19, sub, Jin. (Scuitari deinde, dhe.) The 
literal rendering of the passage is this: "Especially since to him 
(Nicomachus), malring inquiries as to who were accomplices, I must 
have been named, though falsely, in order that he who was tamper- 
ed with (" was fearful " if we read verebaiur) might be more readily 
urged forward." 

8 Nbn «ntm, d^ — " For he did not omit my name after the crime 
was discovered that he might seem to spare a friend, but in making 
known the matter to Nicomachus, who, he beUeved, would ba 
silent as to secrets that concerned himiself, he mentioned others 
and kept back my name alone." The text here, as well as through- 
out this section, is yeiy much disputed. 

4. D^nua aani, dsc — ^" Grant that Bymnus were both alive yet 
and willing to spare me ; what will the rest [of the conspirators 
do] ? Will they, forsooth, who confess their own guilt keep back 
my name ? " The argument of Philotas is this : Even if Dynmus 
were alive and willing to spare me, the other conspirators, if I were 
guilty, would not; but as they do not inform against me, it is a fair 
proof of my innocence. 

5. Uwum, — "The only one.** 

6. DmUam,-—" Discharged." 

VOTES. 341 

1. r<?/:--** At least" 

8. MalU indormientem, dke. — " Sleeping Becnre in the midst of im^ 
3>ending evils.** 

9. SederaH, Ac — ^The order is : CUm teeleraii non posHni doffiUre, 
wnsdenHd ohstrepenUy furice*agitanty (be 

10. Impleturus,^" Though about to fill.** 

11. Invent, sc. eoi. 

12. Si inBontett d:e. — ^''If I had harassed the innocent" by guying 
credit to and reporting to the king unfounded charges of con- 

13. At ^ffi.— Supply the ellipsis, implied by these words, thus: 
" But ycu (night to have given credit to the charge for Dymnus,** dee. 

14. OouMus Dymno, dte, — See Note 22, Lib. tI. Cap. yL 

Ifi. iPoUi de medio, d:e, — " Might have been made way with, and that 
without difficulty.** 

16. Bic ergd,^" So' then.** 

17. Qudm qtidd Amyntae. — " Than the fact that Amyntas.** 

18. J^atrem regis. — ^He was in reality the cousin of Alexander; but 
collateral relatives were frequently called brothers among the an- 
cients. See lib. vi Cap. ix. § 27, prop, init 

19. JEtiam venerari. — ^By the use of these terms our author makes Phi- 
lotas covertly inveigh against Alezandei's recent requirements with 
regard to Persian obeisance. 

20. Quod ti, (be.--** If it is just.** 

21. At enim. — The student will remember that these words imply an 
ellipsis and endeavour to supply it 

22. JP^s amieitio!, (be. — ^An eloquent passage. 

23. Jtegi — " For the benefit of the king.** Dativue commodL 

24. Non enim, d:e. — Hiat is: I was not exciting odium against the 
king, bnt was only fearful that the course he was pursuing in claim- 
ing divine honours for himself, would bring it upon him. 

25. In arcanum, dsc. — In here means ** with regard to ; ** in which 
sense it is used by Cicero and other standard writers. Zumpt leaves 
it out, and says eedvs is used for de ecelere. 

26. ffane—Jidem.—" This reliable method.** 

27. Parenies is used here in the general sense of " relations,** as the 
French use lee parens. 

28. Parum est — ** It is not enough.** 

29. Quid. — Supply ^prop<«r before it 

80. JBxpeetarevoluisseL — ^" Had been willing to wait for awhile." Quern 
is the object of es^teetare and refers to tpiritum. 

842 HOTBS. 


81. AdKMnuU, — ** Has reminded oml* 

%% Bene merUU, Se.-^** Not to plot against tJioee wlio liave desfflrred 

well of yon." Hiis is the answer to the qnestion of Fhilotas» Qma 

faeefrt, Jtc» 


1. C^oi/M Ao^tftM.—" The habits of ciyilized life.' TlieDdphin editor 
in a note at this plaee gives seyen different significations in which 
h4Mu$ is nsed by onr anthor. 1. ** aothing" (iii 3.); 2. ««Bodily 
form and stature" (iii 12, yi 6, yii 8); 8. "Posture of tiie body* 
(yiil 4); 4. ««Pecnliar badge" (vii 1); 5. "Condition*' (iii 12); 
6. " Quality or character " (v. 1); 1. « Mode of life " (vi 6, 11.) 

8. JHvertoriU. — '* Soldiers' quarters " or " Mess-rooms." 

9. J^ufffomenia tervorum, — ** The meanest of his sUTes.'* lit "Hie 
offscourings of," <kc. 

^ Foemina iUa. — Namely, Philotas, whom he represents as yeiy 

6. XtuHeo9 homine$, — By these he means his uneducated leHow- 


0. Qui refers to ei, i e. JPkUata, 

1. JBcminei lingiu» mm. — See Note 11, lib. yi Cap. y. 

& SeUicei veriium, <ke. — " Fearful, forsooth, lest what the gods bestow- 
ed (upon the king) might prove the source of iU-wilL" 

9. Tranteunt, — ^This is a term derived from the mode of delivering 
opinions in the Boman Senate, where " a decree of the senate was 
made by a separation of the senators to different parts of the honse. 
He who presided said, Qui hoe eensetis, iUue tkaiwts. Qui aUa, dteJ* 
See Adams' Bom. Antiquities. 

10. y<m ad quatHanem. — " Not to elicit the truth." 

11. Infferebaniur,-^*' Were brought to bear upon hinL" lit " Werr 
heaped upon him." 

12. JSabebat in potettate, — ** He controlled." 

18» Qud amtum erat.^-" By which it was provided." 

14. Cceierum. — ** Be that as it may," See Note 16, lib. iv. Cap. v. 

15. Actum est de'nolns, — " We are undone." 

16. Inouiereni» — " Might well excite." 

lY. Vindieaiurum. — ** Would claim for himsell" 

18. I^on enim sihi ted hosti, — "Not for their own, but the enemy's 
benefit" DtUivi commodi, 

19. i2^^d«nirm<.--This word is used in a similar coiaieetio& by Qidii- 
tiUan (Inst XL 4. 1.) 

NOTB8» 34S 


M. CbiusffOfi.— «''Norefluonlbr.'' Tbotk: <' No advwiittge in." 

21. Ingredi nan poteroL-^" Was unable to walk." 

is. Ineiden», — " Lighting upon." 

28. Amicorum. — See Note 14, Gapi til of tbis book 

24. lUtque aneeps qwatHo fiiU. — ^''And thus the torture was nneer- 
tain in its results" GiTilised nations hare generaUy been led to 
see the nseleameas of tortore as a means of elieiting tniUi, and 
have, accordingly, abolished it 

UB. Vn. CAP. L ^ 

1. AUerum in ade, ^-— '' Had been the main support of one wing 

of the army*' by commanding it " in battle." 
& SatUgue prudent, <te, — ^^'And sufficiently aware that the evils 

aii^g from inaotivity are dissipated by constant employment^" Ac 

Armies have not been the only sufferers from ipHtu inertim duleeda, 

as Tacitus (Agiic. 8) finely expresses it 

9. Smid duM, de. — " Donbtlefls by arrangement 
4. OoMdenUoL — " Oonscionsness of gnilt" 

6. Ex its, — Supply quidcan as the subject of eonfodervnt 

0. Obhiekmiem, dc — ^**¥rhile yet struggling with his want of 

7. Olim eue sibi, <ke, — " That long since they had been made oljeeta 
of suspicion to him by a letter from his mother in which," Ac 

8. Cmterwn 9e invitttniy <fre.— " But that he, unwilUng to belieTe the 
worst, was now convinced, Ac, and had ordered," Ac 

9. Ifon mee tud. — " Out of their turn." 

10. Ad hoe aeeedere,'-^" Moreover." 

11. Scriba equihun, — ^Periiaps answering to the ** muster master" of a 
modem aimy. 

12. Si nihil interest regis, — ^"If it make no difference to the king." 
18. HabUus, — ^In military phrase "accoutrements." Here, however, 

we may infer from what foUows, it has reference only to the lance, 
which formed the ** peculiar badge " of the corps to which Amyntas 
belonged. See Note 1 of preceding chapter. 

14 ^2«axifu&i-— Namely, Lyncestes Alexander. 

15. Tempofi nostra, — ** To our peculiar ciroumstaaeec" 

10. CHim qmdf ^ — Amyntas here enlarges upon the idea conveyad 
by the words tempori nostra in the previous sentence 

Vl. Ferre nos, — ** Endure our arrogance" 

18. /fi<i^^iia<i0i--" Vexation," as contrasted with MMc 

S44 vovBs. 

191 A fw U qmd, ^— A noble aeatinMnt and one worihy ol more eac- 
tended applicatioiL 

Ml UUmmm JPkiloia*, db.— Tliat is: Would that Fhilotas had tnma- 
gtcaoed only by a few hasty ezpreesiona 

SI. AMntm «o tft^fljaa— "I am so &r from denyuig." JSo infiHas 
m an idkinatie phiase» whieh, literally rendered, would be, " I go a 
deniaL'' In oar own Umgoage the vnlgar phrases, "I eannot go 
that»" «rU go a treaty" dee., resemble it. Some eopies have U^Hor 

tL Jk eu rrere nt — ^** Should resort to." 

tt. AbUh tradUL-^** Commended by him." 

%L Jm «Ma mrbtL — ** Aeoording to the form prescribed by yon." 

S6. Jlr prmeunte. — See Note 14, lib. iv. Cap. xiii The phrase might 
possibly allnde to the king's ^MUsin^ alonff the ranks, as the soldieiB 
aererally took the oath ; we think, however, the sense referred to is 
the true one. 

Sft. Moe taeramenta, dc — ** Bound as we were by this oath of attach- 
ment, shonld we, forsooth, torn onr baeks upon one whom yon," 
Aq. t Others, indnding Znmpt, read this clanse afllrmativdly, bat 
of eonrse iroaieally. 

Sf7« Mm mihi cum, <tc. — " I had this affair with Antij^anes." 

28. Aneep9 etL — " Has an equal bearing upon," «fee 

M. If€c w/Uiat M.— See aboye, Note 21. 

tOi Sbe wmm, dsc — ** Ibis single dnty of his military eaUing." 

8L /ikWM» — 9peeie8, — " Mere phantoms." 

82. Iniegro9, — ^From in, " not»" and tanffo, " I toneh." Here it means 
« ontonched by the hardships of military life." The word is also 
applied to " fresh troops " bronght forward on the field of battle. 

88. Jfe jiMRi, dse. — " That I should pay no regard to any one but you." 

LIB. Vn. CAP. n. 

,1- Modd ne, dc — " Only let not my flight be reckoned as adyerse to 

2. ZaefymtB deinde, dxk — ^Ihe sudden change in the feelings oi the 

soldiers, after the noUe speech of Polemon, is graphicaUy described ; 

indeed the whole scene is fine; 
8w Alienut terror.— That is: A panic inspired by the example of 

4. Maulus non, <te. — ^That is: MfBtUu non [o6] mom vteem td 

[pb vieem] fiotrum perielUanHwn propter ipmofL For the eonstmo- 

MDTES. 345 


tioB of mcem viti&omt a pr^KMotioii, see Antiion's SEamptfs Gram. 

§§ 468, 469. 
6. JExettstistem, — ^Cartiua» in the U8e of this word, probably refelv 

to the Boman method of searching the person by shaking cut the 

toffa, in order that any thing concealed might fall out 
6. BimpUcker. — " Sincerely," to be referred to reeoncUiatL 
1. Jkantdhiow, — ^ITsed actively. " Galenlated to excite a tumult." 

8. Oonstemiitumis. — See Kote 4, lib. y. Cap. ix. 

9. BeptuctgiiUa natus, <kc — " Thongh seventy years of age, he dis- 
charged," (fee. 

10. ffcee imptderint, (tc — Understand an before this clause. 

11. Qida FhUdtM, (be, — Quia duUtaium est, PhihUune, vitiu$ ultknU 
entciaiibu8f dixerii vera, qua mm poUrant probari [e9ae] facta, an 
peHerU finem tormenhrum fahU re quogue, dsc, 

12. Alioqtd. — "For other reasons." 

13. AdmonuU. — '*He gave notice." 

14. Bimplieiter,^" Frankly." 

16. M qui forte, (kc, hone seorimm, die, — The grammatical connection 
between these two clauses is very awkward; hence Acidalins, 
Schmieder, and others, have thonght the former clause an interpo- 
lation. Some editions reject it altogether. 

16. Excepit — " Sustained." •'■ Did not give way under." 

UR Vn. CAP. IV. 

1. dim. iUos, dtc, — ^The order is : 0dm idem [perieukim], quod manet 
eaterot, maneat tUo» qui pareant; verd periculum proprium eUn 
\maneat eoaJi qui tuadeant, 

2. • « » » ♦ , — ^Ihere are evidently some words wanting here, 
for Beeeue is necessarily the subject of tradidit, according to the re- 
quirements of the sense, while, according to the grammatical con- 
struction, le, i e. Cobaree would be the subject Zumpt proposes 
to insert the words a Beseo dicere, qua in animo haheret, juseue eet, 
— ^making Is the subject of jueeus eetf and Beseue (understood) the 
subject of tradidit 

3. JBoe quaque nomine, — *' For this reason, among others." 

4. AhominoT. — This expression answers to the Greek 'V^ yivMro,^ 
and to the English <*God forbid." 

6. Velocimmue, — See Note 2, Lib. v. Cap. viii 

6. lUe, sc movebU, 

7. Cm»».-- "Why not" 


8i6 ' 1IOTS8. 

& Q^puOkitMtSt* — ^** Omrbieh ftooonnt you maj tbe move DMidily 

bear the Iom of it** 
9. .FSmrtf, so. U ftgem, 

IOl QiMd «fiutttU, d^ — '* Which h it uuioeeaMHry to mention any 
farther in detail." 

11. TinuBh€.'^'* They prolonged." 

12. AUkL-^'' In yarioiu pUces." 
18. ZMsuk— "Then again." 

14. Bidmtm may here be rendered '*The HeaTens"; "The firma- 
ment" We find the word used in a like sense by Juyenal (zi. 63, 
xiiL 47.) 

1& IfiUnH tn, Ac — *' Intently fixed upon the result^ not only as it 
ooneemed the two combatants^ but themselyes^ since they would 
share in the fate of another." That is : would haye their lot de- 
cided by the success or defeat of their champion. 

16. 6MtirdL— " The front " ; Oervuse^ " the back " of the neck. 

17. OpwMnn heUi decus, — Our author here re&rs to the well-known 
Boman custom, which permitted the commanding general of an 
anny, if he had slain with lua own hands the commander of the 
enemy, to bear before him the spoils he had taken from the dead 
body, and which were called opima ^polto. See Anthon's Smith's 
Diet, p. 907. 

UB. Vn. CAP. V. 

X. Friilta duperaUone, Ac — ** Sooner by the despair of obtaining 

any than by the actual want of it" 
2. Caligc--'* A dark mist" 
8. OrtUMtU, db., ciim ex u<, Ac — "They were entreating, ^c, when 

two of those, Ac" 
4» BueeurrerenL — ^We haye no doubt that this is the true reading, 

instead of oecurrereni, as our author would not unnecessarily make 

use of the same yerb twice in the same sentence. Besides, nuscur- 

rerent is much better suited to the sense. 
6. Utre reBolttto, — ^This refers to the mode of opening the skins, ylx., 

by loatening the string around the neck. 

6. 2fee 8olu9, Ac — " I cannot endure to drink alone." 

7. Interdttto ^ritu. — ^That is : By suffocation. 

8. Qui offtnen, Ac — " Who brought up the rear." 

9. Dividit — " He distributes." See a similar meaning of this yerb 
in Horace (Carm. I. 15. 15, and I. 86. 6.) 

NOTS8. 347 


10. Quia n^H «US, <jt&— This sentiment is founded on that gfneral 
principle laid down by Ovid (Art Am* L 666); 

iiuatn neott arti/lcM arte perire aud^ 

11. lUulMt,-—*' The pretext" 

12. Talem i— Seqaentem. 

18. Agitanie9, lite.— "That in the act of plotting thej had been^" te 

14. ParHm—parUm. — '* On the one hand— on the other." 
16. Iniqw^—firopUiot, se. J!>eo9, 

16. Jhtbios adkue animi, — " As yet hesitating in their purpose." 

17. Quibus matura, <bc> — "Whose discharge was at hand." Tliat is: 
Whose term of service was jnst expiring. 

15. TalenUL-^S^ Note 16, Lib. iiL Cap i. 

19. Paulaiim a domeaUco, dsc — " Having gradnally degenerated from 
the purity of their own (domettieo) tongue by the introdueti<m of a 
foreign one {extemoy* 

ao. ProditU, sc MUetiU. Dative after permUHL 

21. OrigmiM, — That is : Their common origin as Milesiana^ for Bvan- 
ehuB, from whom the £Eimily of the Branohidas descended, presided 
over the temple of Apollo near Miletus. 

22. Po9iero die, dse, — "The next day as the Bianchido» came [out of 
the city] to meet him, he orders them to proceed with hinL" That 
is: to reSnter the city with him, that no one might escape the 
slaughter. This passage has pnxzled critics mudi, most of them 
applyizig oefwrmn^t^tft to Alexander's ICileaian soldiers ; bnt^ as it 
is mentioned above that the Branchid» received Alexander gladly 
and gave themselves up to him, we can readily imagrine that great 
numbers would leave the city to meei the advancing army. We 
have accordingly adopted a reading suggested by Modius. Oeeut^ 
rentibus BranehidU may be the dative governed by jubet (whieh 
would be an unusual construction) or the ablative absolute^— eos to 
be supplied before |>ro0ac29r& 

23. Adeo* — " Consequently." 

24. Omni wiamentQ, Ac — This, to an Eastern nobleman, would, in 
itself be a very severe punishment 

26. Aperiat — txittoL — ^Understand UHnam before these verbs. 

26. Bed AiffM, dx, — "But you repaid yourself (considered yourself 
repaid) for this murder by the empty title of king." ^ 

27. Facinu» purpare. — " To justify his cri'me." 

28. Qui has «0 for its antecedent. 


a& Aw^MMl—'* Would take off." Hie Utenl teiisbtkm of this 
word oorreopondt very well with the English idiom ia the aame 
oonnection. Understand volanteM with av0«. 

tOi StigiiUmdi, ^— " When the praetice of arehery has become ao 
frequent»** Ac. 


1. Xa fr o m a w . — *' Predatory barbarians.** 

a. JPi^MOM tiMMidiMit^** They engage in battle." 

9. TWii jN)fiMimam.— " Just at that time of all others.*' 

4. iV««m«a^**OTer]ooked." ** Passed by.** That is: Kot per- 

milted to carry him. 
fib Libtri €x ^luo, dte, — "Independent since the death of GymB^" 

whc^ according to some, perished among the Scythians. 

t. J^MtyMHN. — Our author here labours under tiie error (donbtleeB 
deriTed from his Greek authorities)^ of supposing that Alexander 
was now on the confines of Europe^ and that the Jazartee» now 
before him, was the Tanais or Don. This error pervades this pari 
of his narratiTe» and, of course» renders it impossible to reconcile 
many of his geographical statements with the truth. 
8. Quea^^upply sem i before quo9, 
9i liqm imjurafarMw, ^ — "And [though] that duty had been en 

joined upon them, yet they could not bear to perform it.** 
1(K MUUum, sc. Maetdotmm, 
11. iiT* mnUU, dba^That is : He was rendel^sd insensible, or, perhaps^ 

It. PntW9i^.'^** Thoroughly healed.** 

18. WtriMMi.— >** AcUvity.** 
14. Smjfpim.^'' Undermined.** 

10. Aht^wwrntwr,-^'* Were completed.** 

1«. JVom tHmnm» ^«-"For each had his allotted task.** A similar 

instance of the division of labour, in building the walls of a city, 

is mentioned in O. T. (Nehcm. Chap, iii) 

19. J)aN.^" Were assigned.** 

LIB. vn. CAP. vn. 

1. Tbnois. — ^Williams, in his life of Alexander (p. 191, Hai-p. ed.), 
makes the following remark with regard to this frequent erroreous 
mention of the Tsnais. ** The Macedonians, either from ignorance 

NOTES. 349 


or flattery, called tho Jaxaytes, the TaBau, and boasted that their 

victorious king had passed into Europe through the northwestern 

boundaries of Asia." 
8L Sunumo cuUu^ cfre. — That is : They bear the marks of eiTilication. 

ChtUu ioT eidhiL 
8 Modieu9 eUm».—'* Spare diet" 

4. BmctrianL — ^Namely, that branch known as the 8ogdiam, 

5. Vix 9uo8f Ac — "That his soldiers would scarcely belicTe thai his 
sickness was not feigned.** 

6. XtMfi6na.— '* The delusion." 

7. Bine .Se^UL— " When the king was not present" 

& life eonientUme voeU, — " Lest by raising his Toice." 
0. JHterimetL — '* A great erisis." 

10. Alieno Marte, — ^That is : By exciting another nation (the Scy- 
thians) against us. 

11. Cbmm«tt«m— "To unite." 
la. JUddent'^*' Will reeoa" 

18. Quilme.^" By the aid of which." 

14. Ut aeythm.--'' Grant that the Scythians." 

15. Uniu — adkue exercitus, — "But one army as yet." 

16. M guod inferre, <ke, — ^That is : Instead of acting on the offensiTe, 
we shall be compelled to act on the defensiye. 

17. /Sktbde/Seiene, — " Half fainting." Bub always diminishes the foiioe 
of the word to which it is prefixed ; per, on the other hand, in- 
creases it 

18. BuperstUumem — ineutere. — "To inspire superstitious fear." A 
little below, mpertHHo may be rendered "superstitious feeliogs." 

19. Queni eertuai, <kc — ^The order is : — Quem, mehereule, kmbeo eerfion» 
til» 9UO meiu, uUerpreie extarum, Qaem is the subject of vH, Cer* 
Itfffi, ace neut, qualifying the statement contained in the text of 
the clause. 

20. TIM auUm^ dfe. — This is a much contested passage. The follow* 
ing are some of the various readings : JVn aapiue hand guimpoietL 
Tibi auCem aapiue qudm poUeL TiH autem qui etqnue qudim poUal 
demmiiat ipeL Zumpt reads : TiH mUem qmetiue qudm potett de- 
nunHOf and thus translates: "with more quietness than is pos- 
sible " ; that is, '* than yon might expect from me." The reading 
in the text is from Modins, who calls it eiegana, to which Raderus 
assents. We confess that we are not satisfied with any, and there- 
fore suggest the following : TiH antem, eHm pateti, denuntuK The 
king had just asked in anger the question, "Am I a king or a mere 

350 NOTSB. 


priYsto indlTidnalt " aad» alter dudiiig Aristaader for reTealing 
Ijhe secrets of bis art to Erigyios instead of to himsftlf, he sajs ^that 
the latter had made " his fear the interpreter of the entrails^" and 
eTolainm **3tA now, wkUe itisin myponoer, I lay my orders upon 
you to make known to me," «kc. Oiem being written in the form 
fuian^ might readily have been superseded by fvdm, 

21. MofftU, ^— "I ha;ve foretold that a eriMs, inYolving great bnt 
not useless toil, is at hand." 

22. Qudm, for magia qttiML 

28. Turn BoUieUudinUf <te, — " That at that time causes of anxiety had 
been apparent ; that now the sacrifice was altogether propitious.** 
The ready compliance of Aristander with Alexander's wishes^ 1^ 
fordnff the sacrifices to have propitions results, makes one think 
of the remark of Cicero in the person of Cotta (De Natar& Deor. 
L 26, tnit), MtrabUs tfidetur, quod non rideat arutpex, edm amupieem 
ffidmt Cicero, in another place, (De Diyin. IL 24. inU.}, speaks of 
it as a remark of Cato. Vetu$ autem Ulud CaUmis admodum 9eUtm% 
€91, qvi ndrairi Be €Mat, qudd non riderei amupeXf ^tnt^ieem eOm 

24. Qmi, sc S^ntamen». 

25. BmxdJrttuB, <ifca— *' And, at the same time, tmstiag that he (the 
enemy) might be intercepted, Ac, lay in ambnsh." 

2ft. ie^MfiML — " Borne oat of " his own ranks. 

LiR vn. CAP. vm. 

1. Animo cJMporem.— ** At Tariance with his feelings." 

% Ibi mm mrbUfUf <lfc&-^<' There in solitude (Ut «without wit- 
nesses"), we^ifiing every purpose of his mind, he passed the night 
in watchings." 

8. Tania erai, de, — This whole scene again reminds us of aioular 
cum in the campaigns of the f^rench emperor. 

4. iisa— " The nature of the case." 

& iraMifa-*«ee Note 1, lib. tL Cap^ zL 

«. Scjf^it auiem, «hx — *' The Scythians do not, Uke other barbarianB» 
poeseaa a genius rude and imcultivated." 

7. Quidam wrwm, Ae.^ ^ Some ni them are said to aoqmre a degree 
of knowledge as great as a nation, always in arms, is eajmble oC" 

8. ^Merrvnf.— >The subject of this verb is ea qua loeiOi sunt (under- 

9. ScrtUU^" Which have fallen upon." 


NOTES. 35 


la ITiL— For «ML Perbftps OnrtiTiB wrote the latter. 

11. UH tantiy <jfc&-— That is: You would endeavoor to find out wh# 
becomes of the sun during the night. 

12. Leo quoqtte, dh:— •" There are occasions also when eren tiie Hon," 

13. lieeine, sc. nobis. 

14. . J)<Ua 9unt, so. a 'Diis. 

15. . y<m weeurrit tibij dbc — " Does it not occur to yoa how knig ytm 
are at a stand in the neighbourhood of Baetraf " That is: How 
long it is taking you to subdue Bactra. 

16. Ut — See above, S'ote 10. 

IT. PaJteant, sc Scythce. 

18. MudL—** Are held up to scorn." 

19. /SSpgwtwur.—** We court" 

20. Salubre eonMlium, ite* — ^The foture will place the salutary charae* 
ter of our advice in a clearer view than the present 

21. Oomprehendere,--** To lay hold o£** 

22. SiuUmn ett, dtc — " It is sheer folly to be mindfiil of those things 
which lead you to forget yoursell" 

28. CatUio. — "A precaution." 

24 Ifo8 rdigumem, dte. — ** We recognixe the claims of religion by ma 

good fiEuth." 
26. Bactra nUi^ 4se* — ^That is : We are separated fr<mi Baetra only by 

the Tanais. 


1. A p^ippe, — ^It is difficult to determine whether these words refer 
to the persons seated on the stem, and holding their honea^ or to 
the horses themselves swimming at the 9tem. 

% O^eete;— >That is : Interposed between them and the enemy. 

8. Conati nUu, — ^Lit ** Endeavouring with exertion.'' That is* 
Striving with all their mi^t 

4. Utpote libero niw, — "Since their exertions wwe no longer 
restrained,'' 9e, by the motion of the raft. 

6. TerrUot teeipimtesque, sc Bej^tha». — Some, however, have con- 
sidered eguoB as put lor equiUs. In that case, <e must be understood 
with redpUfUes. 

6. TwrbaiU, dtci — " They began to charge bol<Uy upon them (tiie 
Scythians) thrown into confusion." 

7. £^usi9 habenis,—" At fall speedc" Lit " with loosened reins." 



8. Qntrnqumt, ^— *'AUJioiigh unable to endore [without injury j 
the shaking of hia -weak frame." 

9. Utjidan, Se, — ^The order is: Ut faaerei fidem eeriamen fuine M6t 
cum /e roei a i imi i genHum de fortUudinCt non de ir&, 



1. CarmmUnu, Sc — "With songs peculiar to themselves.'^ 

2. Jmmteon — ''Personal enemies." Hotter, — ** Public enemies." 
8. CbiM<enMi<foi»M.--See Kote 4 Lib. y. Cap. x. 

4. Twn veUd, dke, — " At that time, aa it were, biidles upon the sur- 
rounding nations." We find the term bridle applied to the city of 
Gath as far back as the time of David, who is represented as taking 
Mbtusg-Ahmah, the bridle of Ammah. Compare XL Sam. viiL 1- 
with I. Chron. xviii 1. 


1. In aUiiudinem. — ^The perpendicular height is not intended, but 
the distance from the foot to the top of the rock. 

2. Ot archim^ ^^c-— 'There is a sort of climax, in this description, 
from the *' narrow opening " to the " lofty chambers in the interior." 

8. JPemieiiiimos, — ^This word here means " Most active in every re- 
spect," — ^in climbing and leaping, as well as running. 

4. Mei doeumenia, — " Evidences of my character." 

0. IfihU taaUj dbc — " Nature has placed nothing so high that true 
valour cannot reach." "^ 

«. Poftio— "Proportion." 

7. MU'^alibtu, 

8. Quod bene, dbc — See Note 9, Lib. v. Cap. iv. 

9. Fades.—*' Sight "— " ^ectacle." 

10. BunanUe,—" Searching "— " Prying into." 

11. Vieem, — See Note 4, Lib. vii. Cap. ii 

12. Adee,-^" His eyesight." 

13. udWrn— " To be oft" 

14. ^cia pUraqu^ <fcc.— "Like many of the vain and trivial occur- 
rences in war." 

15. nie, so. Alexander, 

16. CfHcibue Jusmt, <kc. — ^What innate cruelty there must be in the 
human heart when orders like this can be cooUy given. 

17. JWdW.^" In charge." 

NOTES. 353- 

LIB. rm. CAP. I 

1. Majcre famA, dtc — " With more of present notoriety than lasting 

2. ImpertAa feeeruht — Imperata or vMnndalta facere, phrases of fre- 
quent oconrrence in onr anthor, as well as in GsBsar, Kepos, and 
others» are generally equivalent to w dedere or dediHofMm facere, 

8. Incomponio agmine, tkc — '* With a disordered column and broken 

4. jPrcedabundu». — AdjectiTes with this tenninatton denote ** a prone- 
ness to," " a tendency towards," and, as in the ease before ns, '* an 
immediate purpose to." 

6, Quihu9 atfjunetit, — " On their forming a junction with him." 

9. SegnaviL^^" Was king," se. of Thrace. 

7. Quondam is here equiyalent to our phrase " Once upon a time.* 

8. Id iptum, <ke, — " Upbraiding him with that Tery thing." 

9, Temere viUgavU. — " Reported without any grounda" 
la i8c»t>^r«.— "Decreed." 

11. P«fe«.— " On foot" 

12. In potterunif sc. diem, 

18. MtUto incaluistet, dse. — ** Had become heated with excess of wine^" 

14). Oraviiti etiamy d:c. — " Making himself offensiye eyen," dec. 

16. Obterere, — ** To disparage." 

16. Bui operis, dte. — " Had been the result of his efforts." 

Vl. Jaeuiue. — " Lay prostrate." 

18. Non alids. — " In no other way." 

19. JEquo ammo. — ** From a sense of justice." 

20. Inoihan fXixk — ^*^ Unwillin^y indebted to his son for ssfety. " 

21. Hague, — " And so too." 

22. Bine a>.— " Without his &ther." 

28. Qui Bamothraeum, d^c— " Who went to see the myBteries of the 
Samothracians." Viso usually indudes the combined meanings of 
JSo and Video, We find numerous instances of it in the dramatie 
poets. Digby " in his transhition of Gurtius" sadly mistakes the woid 
initia, which he renders " borders." 

24 OubabanL — "Were reclining at table," — according to the pre- 
vailing customs of most nations at that time, and for many centuries 
thereafter. See Anthon's Smith's Diet (Triclinium.) 

25. Euripidii rehdU carman. — ** Bepeated some verses of Euripides." 
(Androm. 693.) 

26. Ita tU, die — " In such a way that the sound could be heavd, miher 

3M lfOTB8. 

thaa any aitieiikte remnk be uadentood" jBgawMo ogolfieB ** to 

hear so m to nndentand." 
99. MaU JmtUfmite, <£&— •«Tluit Hitm a findty inslitatloii (eofitom) 

of the Greeks." 
2& Aiim0 emm, ^— "For (in this iray) Hie g^ory aoqiiired by tiie 

Uood of others was eanied off by Ihem." 
29. MaUgmi^ kMhmi, ite, — ** That an ffl-natared remark had been 

80. St Hex vehtl, Se, — ^"And Ihe king, vhile apparently liBtaiing 
with patienoe to the remaiks by whieh CSitos was disparaging his 
£une, was in reality very inneh enraged.** lit ''Had conedred 
great wrath." 

81. Auimo imperatwnu. — ** About to restrain his temper." 

82. Sxprobraiurum tUn, de. — ^"Wonld npbraid him wilh (he &et 
that his life was a gift from liim(GIitii8.y Thatis: Ihat Ciitns had 
sared his life at the battie of Granieos. 

88. Atque iUvm, dta— The ord«r is: Atque [tUi], qui cfAuer€mi 
praximi H, jurganUM moneniegque, conabanHir, injeetia manJihuSy abd»- 
cere ilium, adhue eunetantem eurffere, 

84. VioletUiam, — Some copies read VindeniianL 

80. Buo peetere, dse,-^" That his (Alexandei^s) back had been pro- 
tected by his (GUtas') breast; that now after the occasion of snch a 
meritorions deed had passed away, even the remembrance of it had 
become odious." The contrast implied in the words terffum and peo- 
iore wonld ci conrse be very offensiye to Alexander. 

8«. ObjUiebat—" He tannted him with." 

87. Jam,—" By this time." 

88. Medium eemplexi, die. — ^ Seudng him by the waist— they held him 

89. Quod^-nuper, d:e, — Referring to the seicnre of Darius by Beasiis 
and his accomplices. 

40. /iTipofeiu oftmt.--*" Haying no longer any control oyer his wrath." 

41. ulcfihi.— «Passage-way." 

4SL Mninebat, dx. — ^''The dreadfal charaoter of the crime he was 
meditating disclosed itself eyen in the tones of his yoice." 

LIB. Vm. CAP. U 

1. Jfo^ kumani», dse, — That is: It is an nnforttmate provision of 
nature with regard to the hmnan mind that vsnally we do not pon' 
der well upon the results of our actions, while those results are in 
the future, but only when they are past recalL 


8. VitMat tune, dte. — The order is: Videbai «frum, tuno iibutum 
immodiea liberieae, ted alioqui effregium beUo, et, ntn enAeteetet faien, 
teroatorem tui, oeeiaum [fuiue a m ip9o\, 

4 Ptado anth eonwone, — " Of one who had just been hk gneat" 

5. Ltbenoremque poenUenHam, — "Freer seope for penitential feel- 

6. Extraeta ett — ^Lit " Was dragged out" The w(»d impHeB that 
he passed a long and wetay night 

1. 8vint—** It oeonTs to." 

& OcBterum magU, cj^e.^-" Again he was distorbed the more b^ 
cause," ^e. 

9. Vtvendum esse, sc. sibu 

10. TerrenH oHae, <(m;.— This is very forcibly expressed whether we 
consider aiias as an adjectiTe agreeing -with ferae understood, or as 
an adverb, and translate, " at one time^-«t another." 

11. Zaeryime dbertie, Ac — ^"With gashing tears, he exdaims: Thete 
are the thanks that Ihaaoe returned^ dse, 

12. Omnifms ejus, &e, — " Of all her friends I am the only one that 
smrives and, at the same time, the only one that she," dcc^ 

18. Sine memotid, die, — ** Without putting her in mind of her mis- 

14. MaxkiU ad eonfirmandum pud/B/renu'^*^ Chiefly f<Hr the purpose of 
regaining his complexion " (for, as Rvhor is sometimes put for Pudor, 
so we find Pudor for Rubor) — or, ** Chiefly for the purpose of giving 
strength to the shame (and penitence)" he felt for his murderous 
deed— or, lastly, " Chiefly for the purpose of (regaining and) strength* 
ening the reverence " of the soldiers for him. 

16. CongregarUur. — " They unite together." 

16. Alteram drfectumenu — ** Their second revolt" 

17. /«, armatis, dse, — " He, having armed his countrymen, had hedged 
in, by a str<»ig fortification, the entrance into the country, where it 
was compressed into a narrow space." 

18. PrcsterfiuehoL'-'** la front flowed a rapid stream." 

19. Perpetmis cunieulus.-^** A continuous undetground passage^" 

20. MunimerU(i-'-manu adjuneta. — That is: The artificial defences. 
Manu is opposed to naturaii siiu, 

21. MnieabanL — *' Became conspicuous " — ** Attracted attention." 

22. Omni aHo, Se, — ^ Rejecting every other method of defence." 

28. Utfidem, <£rc;~"That he had better make trial of the good 

866 NOTES* 


S4 €fm qui9quU, Se, — ** Hiat whoBoever threw bimadf in its way 

(«pposed it) would bring upon his own head the calamitieB destined 

for othen.* 

25. Deiiitiofiem anmuhat — ** Assented to a surrender* 

26. Pr«ltiwi.— "Tlie value." 

27. PruK^pa— " Rash." 

28. F^dei, sc BegU 

211. Bypenenit — ** Game npi" 

80. Bpe-^fadA, — ^" The hope being held out to him." 

81. Xltcmnqwi. — ^" As well as they could." 

82. Ui fer€ fiL-^^ As is generally the case." 

83. Defeeeranty <kc — " Had given out, with the exception of Philip." 

84. VeeHtm, — ** Who was on horseback." 

86. O^m lofica, 4tc — ** Although, clad in mail, he was carrying his 

86. Be applieitit — ** He leaned against" 


1. 8ed hone quogue, dse, — " But the objects of this expedition as in 
meet other instances, fortune, never weary of bestowing favours 
upon him, accomplished in his behalf during his absence." 

2. JSBt quo ^ieaeiores, Ac — ** And to render entreataes more forcible, 
Alexander was not," Ac 

8. JUe, 96 prwU, ite, — ^The order is: Ille, raiu9 m prodi, non numeri, 
et earn, profeOd (doubtless) ,;8cfeictrf forma, eupere decU qudm primkm 
Alexandro, drinaUf Ac 

4. FatHdio praaenHum, — " By the disgust he &lt for those around 
him," sc pdlicum, 

6, Qudd, — " Inasmuch." 

6. J>e eoBtero, — ** For the future" 

V. JDe die canmiman, — See Note 8, lib. v. Cap. vii 

8. Alto et ffravi tnmwk — Alto refers to the soundness of the sleep, 
from which it would be difficult to awaken him; — ^axi to the 
hard breathing and uneasiness produced by excess in eating and 

9. Hlo proJUenie. — " Upon his making a statement of fiicts. *' 

10. Msriium inffefu in gemet — " Of great service to himselC" 

11. Vieii tamen, &c — ** The atrocity of the crime, however, overcame 
gratitude for the service rendered." 

N0TS8. 897 

UR Vm. CAP. IV. 


1. Terrere. — This word must be dlfferootly rendered, aocordisg as it 
is applied to oetdo» or animos. With the former it means ** to dazzle ** 
— ^with the latter, " to terrify.** 

2. JExceperant,—** They had borne up against it** lit. ** They had 
received it** 

8. Nee ipd, so. poieranL 

4L. Quan^ftuxm imbrem, <(ro.— That is: The ground was one sheet of 

ice from the rain freezing on it as it felL 
& 2^ee /oIMkU, Ac — " Nor did it fail to occur to them that they were 

ehoofling a place to die, as soon as,'* d^c. 

6. Pertinax, — " Long continued.** 

7. Lueemque, ote.^— The order is: ProBterque iempestatem haud di»- 
parent nocH, umbra gvoque eylvarum ntppretaerat lucem naiurale mjlo' 

8. Nee uUa res, &e, — " Nor did any thing tend more to their safety, 
than their being ashamed to desert their king, who with manifold 
toil, was able to bear up against the evils to which they succumb- 
ed.** MulHjdieato refers to Alezander*s cares and duties as eomman- 
der-in-chief, as well as his personal ezertionsL 

9. Commovit-^" Aroused.** 

10. Biffor. — ^*< Extreme cold.** 

11. JPestU, — This word is applied to any dire calamity, such as, war, 
pestilence, or faminei Qerc it refers to a severe storm accompanied 
with extremity of cold. 

12. BMhu — ** Outward appearance.** See Kote 1, lib. vi. Oap. xL 

13. Suiientaiu. — ^This participle seems to require asgre, vix, or some 
word of like import to qualify it. 

14. JSif promisio, dse, — ^*' And a faithful performance followed liie pro- 

16. Mex ffratiam, dse, — " The king, after saying that Sysimithres had 
made a return for his kindness,,*^ <&o. Habere groHamf or Oratia» 
agere, " To fed thankful for,** or " To return thsjiks in words.** Re- 
ferre gratiam, " To show gratitude by deeds.** 

16. Decore habits, — ^Many commentators have referred these words 
to Boxane's " conmianding form,** and have ];>araphrased it by ttaiurm 
eUganUd, Others, with more reason, apply it to the " gracefulness 
of her attire.** 

17. l£%nu% jam, dse, — "Who already, amid the favours of fortune 

t58 NOTSS. 

(agaisit whom nuuildiid are not snffleientiy on Cheir guard), flocnted 
too little eontrol oyer his desirea.* 

18. Ikme in amorem, dte, — " Was at that time bo given up to the lore 
o( a ally girl (who» la eompariaon with the royal iiimily, was of low 
birth), as to deelaie," dee. 

19. ito.— That is: As AehiUes was morrMi to Briaas^ 
Ml JumgeiUikM opet.-- ^ Unitiiig their interests." 

%L Qui fNOMnatf, «fce.—*' Which most readily obeys the behests of 

UBw Vm. CAP. V. 

1. DMetiurfaL— "Designs." 

2. Xuawm magi», Se, — ^Hiat is : More for the purpose of eztrayagant 
prafosenesB than of a reasonable display of wealth. The meaning of 
the author is not very obyiou& See § 80 of this book, ad tsilt 

8. Viri equiqtie, — ^We adopt here the eonjeetore of Snakenburg 
founded on our anthor^s use of this phrase (lib. ir. Cap. ziiL % 1 and 
lib. viiL Cap. ziii § 48.) It is strengthened by what follows, 
where Alexander is represented as adorning both mm and Dorset 
with gold and silrer, confessecUy in imitation of the Indiana The 
more common readings are PerUi and CfkfpeL The former is ad<q>ted 
by Znmpt 

4 QwodL^-Supply id. TktA is: Bis purpose of claiming divine 

0. JPerinde ii to be united with ae in translating. 

6. Venerabundus, — See Note 4, lib. viii Cap. i 

7. JVeifto enim, Ac — ** For no one of them could endure tibat there 
should be any falling away from," k^ 

8. Chweorunif sc. Cfulpa, 

9. Miimesiaruin artium. — ^By these he means paintix^, soulptnre, dc, 
in which the Oredcs exceed. 

la Pan OAisn/ttm.— " With the exception of Chssrilus,"— 4Mfe, as 
Digby translates, " since Chisriltts," for he was at this time aeoom- 
panying Alexander, though probably he did not unite with the 
others in their abject servility. He is mentioned by Horace (Epis^ 
n. i 282) in no very complimentary terms. 

Cfratua AUaandro regi Magnoy^it iUa 
CharUua^ incuUia qui versibue «t male natU 
JRsMU aeseptoa, regaU numiwna^ JPhiUppoi. 

XI. JER is in apposition with Agi», OUo and pttrffmnmkL, 

NOTES. 359 


12. Oetmroa efv.— " Woiild yield preeedeace." 

18. Mc^estiUem enim, dbe* — That is: The exalted ehanieter of the 

throne was its safeguard. 
14 8ecwn viventium, — ^** Their ooatemporarteai*' 
Ifi. SpopondiueL-^** Had guaranteed " or " pledged itself for." 
16. Prcmpta liberUu, — " His ready freedom of Bpeech." 
1*7. Invidiam — contrahere$,-^** Bring odium upOD." 

18. Nidhmi eue, 4kc — " That no fruit ia at the same tune lasdng." 

19. Modd.-^" Just now." 

20. SciliceL—" Forsooth." 

21. JPoieniiam titam, dsc — ** Tou may test your power if you please." 

22. Faeiliut est, d:e, — ** It is easier to bestow an earthly empire upon 
one than heaven." That is : Than to make him a god — therefore I 
call upon you to peHbim the easier task before you attempt the more 
difficult one. 

28. Dii propiiii-^audieTint^-paUantiiit^^ subjunctiyeB 

are to be translated as if preceded by Utinanu 

24. Expresserat, dke, — " He had elicited not only the silent assent» but 
the ez|a«SBed approbation of," «fee. 

25. JSorum qua, Ac — " Of the remarks which had been thrown out 
on either side." 

26. QtMwi poiiora, dfc — ** Although he had been engaged in some more 
important business." 

2*7. Super reffem» — As in a room with three couches at the table tiie 
middle one was tiie most honourable, so on a couch containing three 
persons the middle position was the most honourable, while the next 
in honour was held by him who reclined in front, or on the bosom, 
of the other, as was the case with St John (John ziii. 23.) See 
Anthon's Smith's Diet {T^ndiniimi,) 

28. Outfit. — ** Long since." 

29. Ifee regem, dfce.—- ''That the king was not a worthy subject of 
derision, nor himsdf <tf degradation." 


1. In Calisthenem, dte, — "Against Calisthenes, who had been for 
some time suspected of arrogant stubbornness, his wrath was of a 
more determined character." 

2. Ad munia, — ^* For the dischai^e of duties." 

8. ServaUSf dsc, — ** Observing their nightly turns." 
4. AdmovehonL — ** Brought them up" to the place where the king 


860 NOTES 


6. Stirpibui, — Bj these are meant the kings of Egypt, Syria, Mac»* 
^nia, Ae., afterwards (but not tnany age$ afterward») conquered by 
the Romans. 

A. Jl^ilnr.— '* Well then." That is: After this preliminary statement^ 
I will proeeed with the incident I was about to relate. Igitur is 
often used to introduce the main topic after a slight digression or 
preliminary statement. 

*l, OUf» apnn», dbc;— That is: Had anticipated others, and particu- 
larly the king, in striking a wild boar with his jaTelin. 

8. Oorpui in quo, dbe. — " That form on which he doted." 

9. Puerili impeiu,'-** With boyish impetuosity." 
la OMmtaa— "The agreeable character." 

11. AttonH^-'^meniU, — ** With a mind dirinely inspired." 

12. Cfonivenmn in regia, — " To have the freedom of the palace." 
18. JntHnetu, — " By a divine impulse." 

14w Inter eanfurato», — " As well as the other conspirators." 

16. FcenUenHam efm, sc faein4>rU'-'** Was sorry for it" " Bepented 
of it" 

lA. Bed •olitum—faeile» amm prabert.--^'Bxit as one accustomed to 
lend a ready ear." 

17. Ad coniulandam, <^— "To soothe the sufferings inflicted by th« 

18. iWofWi,— "Anger." 

19. J>e qmbuM ag^tatwr. — ^" Whose cause was to be tried." 

UR vuL csAP. vn. 

1. Jn^emiia— " Of noble birth." 

2. Quota pars,^" How few." 

8. Quanhm ad, dtc — ^As far as regards the enemy. 
4. Bimplieimarte.'—ThAtiB: Without torture. 
ft. Ad expetenda,—*' To inflict" 

6. Jtutisrimo et paHenHuima — Spoken ironically. 

7. Hme «r^a,— " These then." 

8. Graiuitas, — " Unrecompensed." 

9. Novo more does not refer to any new method of passing under 
the yoke, but signifies that it was a new thing altogether for con- 
querors to be subjected to that or any other punishment 

10. Aversaria,—" Turn your back." 

11. Duct, sc ad euppiidMrn, 

NOTB8. 361 

UB. vm CAP. vm. 


1. Confesmm enim, Jsc — This is, as Freinsheim remarikB, maU cffto- 
tu9 locu9. The readings yary greatly, though the sense is obriously 
this : That Hermolaus had confessed the 'W'orst of erimea^ and yet 
the king had compelled him to utter what he had to say» net only 
that he himself, but that the soldiers also might hear. Zorapt^s read- 
ing, Tamtn non soltan a/udim 9ed ut ijm audireUs, leaves the pavage 
still maU affectimL 

2. JVb» imjpmden».'^" Not imaware." 

8. Jstum, — ** That that fellow " probably pointing to him. 

4^ Hxciiare, — " To call up to testify,** in which sense this word is 
used by Cicero (Pro. Bab. Postomo, 12.) 

5. Superb^ habitL — " If treated with arrogance." 

8. N<m trannre. — " Not merely to overrun it." 

t. Veritm tamen, dsc. — "But stiU" (there is another chaige), "I in- 
fuse,*' <fec. 

8. ^tm.— <13iis charge is trivial) " for,** <bc 

9. Recipere, so. id nomen, 

la M scepe etiam, dee, — " And often that, which has been believed 
without good grounds, has served the purpose of truth." 

11. An me luxuries, &e. — ** Do you suppose that it was for the pufpose 
of indulging in luxury that I," <fec 

12. 5Wot.— " I abrogated." 

IS. Iniii canHlii, d:c. — " GuiltlesB of having joined the conspiraey 

against the king's life." 
i4L AssentarUium, — ** Courtiers." 

LIB. vm CAP. IX. 

1. IfuUa tota ferme, dse. — Curtius, in this passage, states that tfa« 
greater part of India lies toward the east, that is, as he explains it, 
its breadth from north to south is less than its length from west to 
east The ancients supposed the habitable earth (including land 
and water) to extend to an indefinite distance, east and west; but 
that it was circumscribed by very narrow limits on the north and 
south. The former they imagined to be the regions of perpetual 
frost and snow ; the latter to be consumed by eternal fire. Hence 
the terms, reetd plaga, rectd regione, when employed by them with 
reference to the points of tiiie compass, usually, if not always» 


862 «OTX0. 


dttDiotod the direetion east and wesi Hie Mbeaieikt ci Oartias, we 
may obeeire, is erroneous, as it is mnoh farther firom the Himalaya 
moimtaixis to the sbuthem promontory of Ceylon, than &om*tiie 
Indus to the Brahmaputra. 

8. Qu€8 Aurirvm accipiunt, — ** The regions which receive the south 
wind." That is : Ihe sonthem parts. Some read ospuiunL 

& MeedimL^*' Extend." 

4b Oauea$o,^^'bi reality the ParapamUuSt ^^lich our author seems to 
eonsider a contintiation of the Caucasian range. 

6. Btringit!^-** Passes along." 

0. FindeM ripas, — ** "Wearing away its banis." lit " Cutting." 

7. Quia non aded, dte. — " Because they do not flow so far." '* Are 
not as large rirers" as those above mentioned. 

8. Ztbri, — Idber denotes "the inner,"-^ortttB, " the outer bark" of 
a tree. 

9. yon ffenerat — Ab this statement is so contrary to the fact, perhaps 
Curtius ifTOte neenon, 

la Cawa.-^" Source." 

11. Utique pottqurniL—** At all events since." 

12. Libido, — " A passion for extravagance." 
la CWwfie.— *« They adorn." 

14 CapUlum peetunf, <tc — ^''They comb their hair frequently, they 
seldom cut it" The literal translation, we think, would hardly pre- 
sent the author's meaning. 

15. JJuxuria — maffniJieenti€a7L — See I^ote 2, Cap. v. of this book. 

16. IHsHneia aunt^^* Are embitoidered." 

1*7. Attraku columruu. — ^Probably covered with plates of gold 

18. Auto eadata, — '^ Carved in gold." 

19. VenattU, — This word has given trouble to critics, some consider- 
ing it the nominative ; others, the genitive case. Sehefifer views it 
as a gloss and r^ects it We retain it a genitive. 

%(h InhaJbUL — " Unmanageabla" 

2L Oecupare fati diem, — "To anticipate the day of fate." That is: 
To put an end to one's self before the day appointed by fate. 

22. Seffnia cetas, — " A dull, inactive Hfe." 

23. Expectatam mortem, — " A death that is waited for." 

24. lUi gui tn, &c, — ^" Those (wise men) who live in cities according to 
the customs of those around them," <fcc. 

25. Nee guemquam, Jse. — " That no one anticipates death (by suicide) 
who can await its aj>proach without terror." 

20. Anni plena apatia servant, — Some editors read ^ervani^f^ Ao 

Note tWtfizI Anni may be the sol^et of servant op the geni- 
t^YO limiting ^QMi^ta, and then gervant will hove th« same sabj«et as 
diMcripsentnL If we read servaniur, then ipatia is the sobjeot elf the 
verb and anni the genitlye. 

27. OperoB pretivm. — " Worth while." 

LIB. Vra. CAP. X 

1. Iffitur, — See Note 6, lib. viii Cap. vi. 

2. lisdemy dsc. — " Intending to make nse of these same persons as 

8. Jam, — " By this time." 

4. Opportunum remedium, — " The seasonable relief** 
6. CCtm, hastium, dse, — ** When those of the enemy who had yentured 
an engagement** 

6. Pomorumj ike. — Equivalent to, Poma qitoqtie sunt variorum salu- 
briumqite succorwn. ** There are fruits of diversified and healthful 

7. F<yrtuitorum, — " Accidentally deposited.'* 

8. Fortuiiam lostitiam. — " The boisterous mirth that had sprung up 
by chance.** Zcetitia expresses a more extravagant joy than ffou- 
dium, or rather, gaudmm h the inward feeling— Zeeti^ia the outward 
expression of it 

9. JJibero patri, dto. — " He kept his army engaged in the performance 
of sacred rites to Father Bacchus.** Operari is a term peculiar te 
religious rites. The cptis €peratum holds a prominent place in modem 
religious discussions. 

10. 8cepiilL8 fortunae, d:c — "Is oftener the result of good fortune 
(« good luck,** if the reader prefer it) than of personal virtue. 

11. Inter ora kottium, — " In the face of the enemy.** He is antici- 
pating here what he relates more fully in lib. iz. Cap. x. 

12. Zateri vincidum.—'" The stones, which they have interposed serve 
as binders to the brick work.** 

13. Uhivers€U — Supply rruUeria. This passage has given rise to much 
discussion among critics, and we are very far from pretending tantas 
camponere Hies, We give the reading which appears to us to have 
the best claims to correctness and simplicity. The following para- 
phrase expresses our view of the sense of the place. " And, at the 
same time, lest, as the soil was saturated with moisture, the whole 
mass might setUe, strong beams were interposed perpendictUarly 
along the wall, at proper distances, their ends projecting a little 

864 HOTES. 

■iHHre the top bo m to reoeiye tbe roofii^, ^i^eh Bonrei both tc 
proieet the waU and to «flbrd a passage aXosg the top of it" 
Znmpt reads impodtm, but fails to tell us how beams, laid ahmg the 
top of a wall, would prerent it from settHng. 

14 Ihmk — ^*'At this time." He had been woimded on two other 
oeeasions, — in the shoulder (lib. ir. § 25)— in the neek (lib. yii 

15. Neffobant, — See Note 28, lib. iy. Cap. L 

MB. Vm. CAP. XL 

1. SefUo r ^ S efux, 

2. 8i pretium operi esseL — ** If well paid for his tronble." 
8. MetdB — Ihese were of a conical or pyramidal form. 

4. Varaginet elvmetgue. — ** Ravines and gtdlies." 
6. Jhtneam. — " Stripped of its branches." 

6. Kullo detreetanUf dbc — " No one hesitating to dischaige a duty In 
which the king was the first to engage." 

7. Plaeuit, sc. «vm mUittbus, 

8. IVitte tpedaeulum, — ^We had a similar passage in the last book, 
§41. - 

9. MMUirani, — ^"Had gained the smnmit" That is: The compara- 
tively level suifiioe near the top of the rock, bnt, as the next sentenoe 
shows, there were higher prominences above them. 

10. Ipsi, sc. Charua et Alexander, 

11. Tamen magnce, de. — ^That is : He offered the same sacrifices as he 
would have done for a great victory. 

12. Quo, BO. iHnere. 


1 Qravitta agmen, dtc— '* The more heavy armed troops." 
2. ModicU itineribus, — " By easy marches." 
8. HegnaboL--" Was king ot" 

4. J^dtfi—JueroJt amctor, — " Had counselled his fiather." 

5. PermUio, — The participle in the ablative joined witii the phrase 
ut regnaret, and thus forming an ablative absolute. We have 
several instances of the kind in our author. See lib. v. Cap. ziii § 
1, and note. 

6. Non tamen, dbc — " He had had, however, no personal interoouise 
wilh him." 

NaTES. 3i& 


*I. Ftf/, — wl.— ** Ia the one case, — ^xn Uie oflier.* 

8. ffforMB.—" For glory." DatiTe of refer^ice. 

9. Simplieitttte. — " Frankness.* 

10. Tauroa, — ^We may supply traduUt eHam before this word. ■ 

11. SequerUe nomine imperium. — " The name aecompanying the royal 

12. /n«$rm(iML— «Trappings." 

LIB. vm CAP. xm 

1. Ui iniranti, Ac — " Namely, to be ready for him," &e. 

2. JSarzaentef, — See Lib. tl § 18, ad Jin, 

8. Oravioribui, the, — " With arrows too heavy to be properly dis- 

4b I^ee pro 9patio, dte, — " "Not, as wonld be supposed from the extent 
of its waters which resembled a wide lake, was its impetuosity re- 

5. Oapada bonce, <kc. — " Hearts capable of high hopes, and which 
had often been tried." 

6. Zevia prcdicu — ** light skirmishes." 

1, ParvcB rei, &c — " By the issue of a trifling engagement was ez« 
perimenting on the results of a pitched battle." 

8. Partium refers to the Macedonians, and may be familiarly ren- 
dered " Of their side." 

9. 8i unquam, <kc. — " If ever successful rashness would set bounds to 

10. Talem^aequentem, 

11. A cuatodid, dx. — " From watching a spot so suitable to his pur 

12. ^gwdem nbi, sc. cetate, 
18. UHque.—" At all events." 

14. In regionem intuke, — " Towards the island." 

15. Averao, bc ab Alexandro. 

18. Inferwrem — ripam, — "The bank lower down." 

17. TerrviMet alnim, dte, — "The darkness that oyerspread the sky 
would have alarmed any other general." 

18. Acceraentea, — "Summoning." A fine expression — as though glory 
were at their beck and only awaited the tummona to attend them. 

19. ExpeUu — " To be pushed off" from the shore. 

366 NOTES 

UB. Vm. CAP. XIV. 


1. jRerwn adesae, dtc. — " That a decisive action was at hand.'' 

2. OmuitM habenis. — " Letting fall the* reins." EffnsU Ttdbenis, — 
" With loosened reins, ** that is : At full speed. 

8. Movebantur, sc. JElephanti, 

4. HahehcEbiT. — ^The subject of this yerb is deaeruiste gestantes, 

6. Ex illo hoste. — " From him. when an enemy." 

6. JDextrtan move. — ** Throw the right wing of the enemy into con- 
fusion." Critics agree that there is an error here, but how to solve 
it^ they are not agreed. It would be more natural to apply moffe 
■ to the right wing of the Macedonians, but the king commanded 
that Again, it is difficult to apply it to the right wing of the 
enemy, for Curtius subsequently states, that Coenus charged the 
left. We leave it to others to remove the difficully. 

*l, Non alids. — " In no other way." 

8. Ip8a8, sc bellua», 

9. Aneeps. — " Hazardous." 

10. Molientes ictus. — ** While preparing to discharge their arrows." 

11. Nihil in, (ke. — " "So regard was paid to the common good in th^ 

la. Meliaremj itc.^—** A kind of soldiery better adapted to a sudden 
onset than to a steady hand-to-hand fight" 

18. TerrihUii ilia faciea, — See Note 9, lib. viL Cap. zi 

14. Manu.—" The trunk " or " proboscis." 

16. CopMfaA— literally, " Cutters." 

10. Mortis — suppliciu-^riticB are at variance with regard to the 
construction of these genitives ; — some making them to refer to quid- 
quam, and, among these Zumpt, who thtis translates: ''The fear 
(which they had of the elephants) left no means untried not only to 
kill them, but even to inflict in death some additional pain." Tlie 
learned commentator then na^velg subjoins the following observa- 
tion : " That the soldiers had any intention to inflict vnneeessary pain 
upon the animals we cannot for a moment believe ; the etatement t« a 
mere rhetorical exaggeration^* Others, however (and with them we 
coincide in opinion), prefer connecting the genitives with Hmor^ and 
give this sense to the passage : " The fear, not only of death, but of 
new tortures in death, left nothing untried," by whieh &e attacks 
of the elephants might be repelled. The idea thus suggested follows 
very naturally after the mention of eopidas in the preceding sen- 

NOTES. 867 


tencd. iVov» n^itpUcii refers to what he luid stated abore in tlie 

daase, Preeeipue terrUfiUa, dtc, 
]^. Moffis dapsa, Ss, — '* Which fell rather than were hoxied^" / 

18. FlventibM memMs,-^" His Hmbe relaxed." 

19. jPosUo moffis, <bc. — " Depositing the king gently <m. the groond 
rather than throwing him down with yiolence." 

20. Malum I — ^An exclamation frequent in Latin anthors, and equlTa- 
lent to " The mischief I " of our yemacnlar. 

21. lAbertate,—" Frankness "—" Freedom." 

22. ^orHorem both here and just belOw refers, not to the personal 
strength or bravery of the kings, but to their TesoTpxses, «nd cp»- 
sequently may be rendered " more powerftil." 

23. 8ed w »ic qwdan, — " But not even under these drcumataiices." 
24 Qmppe magnittidinem, d;e. — lit " For he (Alexander) deemedit a 

worthy thing to receive (to meet), not only with pity but also widi 

honour, his greatness of mind, which showed no fear and which 

was unbroken indeed by adverse fortune. 
SU>. Conjirmatum, eatUra, dc — " When contrary to the expectation of 

all he recovered his strength," ^a, ^ 

26. SmpliciiU. — " With more impartiality," 

. UB. IX. GAP. L 

1. Affirmatio ejus, — " His assurances." 

2. Navatce operas — " Of service performed." 

8. Plerique rami.— The description here given seems to denote the 
celebrated Banyan tree under the shade of whose branches a 
whole regiment can find shdter. Milton (Par. Lost, ix. 1100) thus 
alludes to it: 

M There soon they chose, 

The fig-tree ; not that kind for fhilt renowned, 
Bnt such as at tiiis day, to Indians known. 
In Ifalabar or Deocan spreads her arms 
Branching so broad and long, that in the gronnd 
The bended twigs take root, and danghten grow 
About the mother tree, a pillar'd shade 
High over-arched, and echoing walks between." 

4v Ut barbaru — "For barbarians." That is: Oonsideraig they were 

6. .Eorum, sc arbitrio. 
6. InHffnes, — ** Bemarkable for bleimsheSb" 
t. OMnebaiwr,-''* Was held." 

t|8 iroTBS. 

«» Jg«rfiwi.->" HI» ■e^ptre." 
«. CXmitiia— « In aU," i & " only." 

la SfWm «0 u$, ^— Tlie ord«r is: 2Wm unm «b ft«, 71» oMtMo^raiii 
Ulibm wumUtmiit tapU mdUn cruM catiu inhttreniU cum ciiiM leoni, 

Ih fyUmr. — ** To return from our digression." See Note 6, lib. Tiii 

LEBw IX. GAP. n. 

1. Obnfi >Wtt&— '* Was beloyed." 

ti ^6 «4 til, dbft— -llie order is: [J^mi] admotum abed in propiorem 
heum amieUim efu9, qm itam regndsui, eo inierfedoper inndia», inr 

& jgrf^ygfoi, dfc«: — ^*' Banidied ahnoet to the utmost bounds of hnman 

4. Ahwndamiee amuto9qttg, <£&•— This clause cannot Tery wdl de- 
pend upon dttbUabat ; and, therefore, it is better to nnderstand arb^ 
Iro&ohir enim, or some phrase of like import 

6, Hem, — ^Used snbstantirely and goyeming antmt in the genttire. 
«. Jk indtutrid,-^'' Purposely." 

7« 2%m6t/em.— This adjective, though in the singular to agree 
with the last noun, must in sense be connected with aU. 

5. Numqwan ad, Ac — ** Never is common rumour guided to that 
which is certain." Why not perdueitf 

9. Ifostro quoque, dte, — ** Our own glory, though founded on some- 
Hiing substantial, owes more to rumour tiian to what we have 
actually perfoimed." See Note 6, lib. iii Cap. viii^; also, lib. viii. 
Capw yilL Famd enim heUa eoMtant, dsc, 
la JBadem vanUaa. — " The same disregard for truth." 

11. Ifam Jhmen, <£r&-— " For as to the river, the more widely," Ac. 

12. OoCreita, sc. Jlumiruu 

18. Bpatio alveL — " In a widely extended channel" 

14 iRo» guaniumeumque, dse, — "Accordingly, whatever may be the 

sise of the river, the risk in making a landing will be the same." 
16^ Ftt/fMro^— According to the strict rule of grammar this should 

be fndmeraiOk Perhaps Curtins wrote uno et aUero, 

16. At enim, — These words imply an ellipsis which the student will 

17. Oum paueU, Ae, — Spoken ironically. 

18f BoUiudinm^-^feeieHs, — These words naturally call to mind the 



piihj romaric of the barbarian chief, (Tacitos, Affrie, 80) : Din wlu 

tudtnem faeiurU, paean appellant. 
19. PervetUmus, — '* We are coming to." 
ia Per, ego vos, gUmam, <jt«.^-See Note 22, lib. ir. Gap. xiv. 

21. Bt %9 wa, <tc — " And I, that now ask yon, am he that never," Ac 

22. Neeeto quid, <kc. — ^^'I haye unwittingly done you some wrong 
whieh makes you unwilling eyen to look upon me." For neeeio quid 
see Note 16, Lib. iy. Cap. x 

28. Quitm preearid, d^, — " Than to be a general, dependent upon the 
caprice of others." 


1. Nan detreetwe, die, — "Did not shrink from a discharge of their 
duties, but had not the ability to perform them." 

2. JPremiUMi — *< Murmuring." Qemihu, — "Groans." Dohr, — 

8. Erigi. — " To become more prominent^" aa that whieh is elemted 

aboye other thing&" 
4. Tanperare oetdia, — "Restrain his eyes"; {.a, "Kefrain from 

6. Jbnpioi. — ^That is: Towards Alexander. See Note 16, Lib. y. 

Cap. y. 

6. Idem animus, dx. — " Your soldiers have the same disposition they 
haye always had, to go," Ao. 

7. Proinde ei, dte. — " Accordingly, if you adhere to your purpose." 

8. Bed etiam, (ke, — "But eyen your own soldiers." That is: You 
haye worn out your soldiers in your numerous campaigns. Hein- 
sius conjectures iuo» before mUiUi; the sense seems to require it. 

9. Capere poterat, — " Was capable of." 

10. Quotoetdque, db. — " How few possess a coat of maiL" 

11. Nee luxurid, dse. — " Nor is luxury the cause of our distress." 

12. Ut--" Grant that." For de induOrid, see Note 6 of preceding 

18. Btiam ex mendaeio, — "Eyen from their exaggerated accounts." 

14. Pervenimua, — " We haye already arriyed." 

15. Nan ut inirem, ^-^** Not to curry fayour with," Ae, 

16b Qudmpra eorparum haibitii^^-**Than. in proportion to the sijse oi 
their bodies." A fooiiah artifice, and one obyiously detracting from 
the glory of his conquests. 

17. Propter paueoe, dte, — " That for the sake of a few days, [as it 
turned out], he had made a long speech, as though he were the 



only oM «botti to reviait MacedoBiSi" whereat he was the fiiat tc 
IS. MUle, Sc — ^The order is : AdUuru» Occaman nUUe naviffUs rdit^ 
fuU t» «MM regm» J^wrum ti Taxiimn, Reget India, dueordes [olimj 
H arfara odiie ntroetatUei, [none} graUd Jiirmatd per nffinitaUui, vma 


1. <{iMM ifti oMne&oiit-**' Which they themselvea were now in 

poeaeaaion o£" 
S. SHirpiMt dfee:—-" Exhibited trace» of their origin." 

8. EsDeenmame fretd. — "Landing with his troopa" literally, '^A 
debaitetioD having been made." 

4. VemtrufU, the student will obserre, is from veneo, 
C JhUbatU—'d^tndAamt — Imperfects» in the sense here intended» 
are expressed, in familiar English, by the word "kept" "The in* 
habttanta kept destroying;" Ac 
0. Qidpp9 tfia^ <(e. — " For three rivers, the laigest in all India» 
with the exception of the Ganges^ dash their waves against the 
fortifications of the citadeL" The Delphin editor justly exclaims^ 
with regaid to this and the succeeding passage, " hnmot SercuLe^ 
CurHui ipte Qeographim ae MutoruB ratUme* confwndiL** 

9. I^f ^nd» 4£&-»That is: The channel. 

8. Bubtbteere, sc. naves. — "To ran the vessels ashore." Zampt reada 
9eia wiUrnauim; translating, "To take in saiL" 

9. Minieteria, dbe, — " The discharge of their duties is prevented, on 
the one hand by," Ac 

10. JbnMioi— " Uninjured." Used passively. 

11. Qvberiutenli impaHena, — " Not minding the helm." 

12. Appart^atqve, ike, — " And it appeared equally as hazardous for 
him to attempt to swim as to continue on shipboard." 

15. JPerieuli aocMtoa^-" A community of danger." 

14. Omni ditcrimine, &e, — "That they had already arrived at the 
end of all dangec" 

Ifi. NoeU idenJtidem^ dx. — "That as often as they were supplied with 
new arms; so often there arose new enemies." See above § 9. 
{isruuique viffinti, dfc) Zumpt supposes novie armie to refer to 
*'new ezpeditionfl; new countries into which they carried their 
arms." The sense above given seems the more naturaL 

16. Jmn pro^pieere^ <&€. — That they already beheld the ocean in the 



17. SpeeUOce vvirMtU^** Of triod T&Umr." 

18. Ilaiud magU, Ae, — "Witb no greater confidence in tlieir iraUs 
than in their own bravery.'* Lit, "their arms." 

19. Jam admov^Hii, — **'Wm idready advancing against it" 

20. Tanta» res, nan, die, — *'To one having Ids eyes fixed on siush 
great objects^ not the mere entraik^^ &G, 

2L Ctmctantibfts ecBteris* — " While the rest were hesitating." 

22. Ifen pinnce, dsc — ''No battlements» as elsewhere^ marked its 

summit» b«it a contintiens parapet earned along tiie top proyeBted 

a passage over it.** 
2S. Marffine here means the narrow coping of the waSX. 
24. Qaeia non, itc — ** Which not sustaining them, they fell down," 


1. Mtdtdque, <kc. — " Much more likely to give him a reputation for 
rttshnees than to add to his glory." 

2. Ut 8e, Ac. — ^"So as to light on his feet" 

Si Desperatio. — " Hopelessness of assistance.*' 

4. Oitm aubinde, dsc, — " While the enemy were from time to time 
surging in upon him." The figure is taken from the ebb and flow 
of the waves on the seashore, or rather against an opposing rock. 

5. Jam continud, dte, — "Already had his knees» wearied with con* 
tinual toil, failed to support him." 

6. Jam exeepfum, dbc. — ^Here again the distinction above noted 
(Note 7, Lib. vi. Cap. i.), between genua and poptUes, holds good; 
for the thigh (and with it the whole body), in the position in which 
Alexander is represented to have been, falls towards ^e inner, not 
the outer, part of the knee. 

7. Memisit,—" Let fiall." '* Relaxed his hold npon." 

8. i8c«o/wftw.— "Weakened." 

9. Ui ne ad, <tc — "That there was not strength enough Icifb in his 
right hand to draw out the arrow " with which he had been 
pierced. Znrapt, strangely enough, translates ihtw: **IR9 right 
hand had not power even to bend the bow slightly, &r less to draw U to 
its full extent (evellere)." 

10. Buhjeeto mucrone, — "By an nnderthrust of his dagger"— «his ad- 
versary being in the act of stooping over him. 

11. Et postquam, <be. — ** And when there was not sufficient strength 
left for him to make that exertion, he attempted," Ac 

12. Muri vestigia, dte. — ^This is a doubtful passage and has given rise 


lo Tuifnis eoiy«etiml readio^B ^— 4]uit of the teit is the oonuncm oda 
and 10 thus ezplai&ed by Znmpt : ** FoUowing the /oat of the w«M ; 
that is: going ok^lhahtMom of iC Ofthis reading, Schmieder says» 
QmocK XolJfnM» «000 dnbUo : yestigia txtomt, muro prater fundamenta 
deUio, Heinaitia proposee fatHgia iiutead of fieetigia, which eep- 
taialy ooimeot0 better with deturbaUa propugntUorvbue^ as their 
■tation would be along the top of the wall. Perhaps the following 
may be the true reading, det, pro. muri, vettigia pereeguene Jiegi», 
Mmperwemit. That is: Though Peucestes mounted the wall at a di^ 
Ivent part of the city, yet he traced thecouree the king had taken and 
tame «^ to his assbtancew At all events the objecdon to this read- 
ing (namely, that pereeguene vettigia neoeflsarily denotes an actual 
ftiUowing in the footsteps of another) is no more insuperable than 
titat against the reading in the text 

It. Submieerat elgpetm.—" Had let faU his shield." 

14. Inter hae.^" Meanwhile.'' 

Ifi. Terruieaet, <be. — " That which excited their conrage would have 
terrified other soldiers." 

18. Tandemgw, <l;e.— "And at length by the indiscriminate mas- 
sacre," Ac. 

if. BeUieet giariOf de. — " Certamly not likely to stand in the way 

of," 4bo. 
18» Beewritae» — ** Gareleasnees." 

19. JPar huie vitivm, — *' Which is just as bad." 

S(K Jta, ne epieulum, Se, — " In sudi a way that the iron point should 

not be disturbed," and thus irritate the wound. 
ai. Cateriiimt d^e, — " But they were afraid that a flow of blood would 

interfere with the performance of the operation." 
22. i^Te tn ipeiui, due, — "Lest the ccMosequenoes of an unsuecessfol 

remedy nnght recoil upon his own head. 
2d. Qmd'-qitadne tempue, dsc — "What do you wait fori Or why 

delay so long, and not free me as soon as possible from this paint 

since, at all events, I shall soon die." 
M. Ut ee pomtinendmn^ dse, — " That he would permit himself to be 

2fi. Stiam Severn, d^e, — ** That even a slight motion," Ac 

NOTB8. 37S 



1. Septem dMma, Ac — ^" After the wound had been hesling for 
Be^en days, tsuA befeM-it was yet completely cicatrized.'' 

2. Pemue €redenHbua,^^^To those who belieTed that he had per» 

8. 8pem — inMbuit^-^** Put an end to their hopes." 
4* Seewido amne. — ** Down the riyer," or, " With the current" 
6. Orediwi&^'-athentu, dfe. — ^The order is: CretUtiu nof eut magU 
aollieito9 ttdoeniu kotUum, ut (though) jam eomigtereni in valh, ^tfdm 
ettrd turn sakdis ut vUU (however valueless) ««no ett tiJbL 
8. OhUiuti tot, <ifr&— " Forgetting that yon expose to danger the fives 

of BO many of your countrymen." 
*l, Qudd rif dtc — ** But if you were stiU contending, &e,, although no 
one would wish [to see such hazardous displays of valour] yet no 
one could wonder that you manifested such ready boldness " Ae, 

8. Secundis rebus, Ac — " There are richer fruits (higher joys) attend- 
ing success, and greater consolation in the want of it" 

9. 7Sm verd, Ac. — " But that a miserable village should be aequired 
at the risk of your life," he, Craterus calls the town where Alex- 
ander was wounded, iffnohilem vieum to disparage its value, com- 
pared with the king^s Ufe. As we have seen, it was a well fortified 

10. 0m8.-~0iman would seem the proper word here as governed by 
quU and connected by 9ed to nnUUum, CfwU is omitted altogether in 
some editions. 

11. JEhqm timeo, Ac — "I shudder at mentioning that the most 
cowardly were on the point of laying their hands upon the spoils of 
your invincible person." 

12. Intere^9tum — wndtteL — *^ Had rescued and pres^ved you." 

13. Univertoi licet, <lte. — ^''Tou may brand the whole body of sol- 
diers with disgrace, yet no one will refose to opiate that fault, the 
commission of which it was not in his power to prevent" 

14. Capiani, — *' Are adapted ta" More literally, '* Have a capacity 

16. Ut tandem, ci&t^ — ^"That at length he would set bounds to that 
thirst for fame, of which he had had his full share." 

le. Pieta», and a litUe below, Piimmi, See Note 15, lib. v. Cap. v. 
As to jnisflmt Cicero has the following remark (Phitipp. xiii. 19): 
Tu porro ne pios guidein sed piissimos queeri»; et quod verbum 

874 NOTB8. 


oatDino milliim in Ungnft Latiiift est, id, f/rcfpUft Amm» cCMtiMm fi»- 
iatem, nomm indueii. 

17. AlHutque, dx, — ** And eommencing his remarks in a higher tone 
of Toie^." Or, it may mean, " Oommeneiag a set speeefa/' for we 
find Cicero using the phrase alta petUo temwaa with that significa* 
Hon. As the Idng was stiil suffering fr(»n the effects of his wound. 
peihaps, after all, the tme meaning is, " Commencing his remarlBB in 
a somewhat low tone.** 

18. Oaiktym num^ Ac-^** Bnt those who ezpreaa a wiUingness to die 
for me (and I think I merit in some degree their good will by mj 
hntTCiy) do not entertain the same sentiments witk mysell" 

19. CkmUnto, se. ndhiL 

^ Qwmqitam ne, dte;— >" Although indeed l&e sloljifBl hare not the 

disposal of their own fote.** 
SI. JB» Atid, {te. — This remark is founded on the error (already 

noted) of mistaking the Jazartes for the Tanais. 
aa. Videome vo6m.— "Do you think that" lit <'Do I seem to 


25. MuUam — vt^om.— -Hiat is: A life with much in it A life foil of 
stirring incident The DdLphin editor has doubts as to the correct- 
ness of this Latinity, and suq>eets that somd word liker/amatf» has 
foUffii out after nadUim, 

Si. QuiJbu»t M^ i<** 

26. JHi faveant — ** By the favour of the gods.'' 

S6. CcBlermn quoniam, die — ^*' And now since an occasion is afforded 
me of bringing forward a subject, long f^tated in my mind," dto. 

27. Si lieuerit — " If I shall be permitted " by the continuance of 

S8. JPrcBc^perit — " Shall have taken me away before" the dealh of 

my mother. 
29. Vo9 mandds», dc, i e. Vos tnemenioie Ime] manddtM [hoc wbU,'] 

UB. IX. CAP. vn. 

1. J^on tarn, dte, — " Not so much ftiom hostility to Alexander." 

2. Qui — ^The antecedent to this relative is not popfdarium as the 
student might infer from ita proximity, but is fotmd kk t^e subject 
of coeperunt, 

8. MUer^MUs fetdet, Ac — >*^The wretched appearance of one ap^ 
pointed to tortuT<8 suddenly turned their feelings into a different 

NOTS8. 876 


4» De quibuB mUe, <fe&— ^^ lib. ise. €ap. It. %12,ad inU, 
5. Intextat, die. — "Interwoyen with gold and embroiderdd witi^ 

ft. IfUaeHs vIrifttM;— With their pover not iiiatenally diminfaihed»— 

literally, '*antonohed; ** but as we find from Arrion that they had 

met with some reyerses, intaetis must be reeeived with some qnali- 


7. Mquitea imperat, m. ii». — ^That is : He requires of them so many 
horsemen. The phrase is ellij^cal and aiut pre^eretU or some 
similar words may be supplied. 

8. Quidgmd ai«^, <^0..*— ^< Making a display ci whatever was oorriqpt 
among the Persians from luxury of long continnanee» or among the 
Maoedoniaas by their reeent adoption of new onatoms.** 

9. Per seria et ludum, — '* Half in jest, half in earnest,** or it may 
possibly mean ^* during hours of business and of leisure.** That is : 
" On all occasions.** . 

10. Justa armcL — "The arms which he usually bore.** We are 
reminded by this description of QoUath's equipment to meet Bavi^ 

11. H<utam. — " A spear,** to be retained in the hand ;— ZafioMnn,— 
" A javelin," to be huiled. 

1^ Pvniceiim anUctdvm. — ^There is some doubt as to what this ami' 
culuni was. Some suppose it to have been a light purple doak 
worn on the left shoulder for ornament; — others, with more reason, 
that it was a purple scarf carried in the left hand, to be used in 
some way as a defence against the weapons of his adversary. 

18. Posae, sc. XHoxippnm, 

14. Quern oecupcBtum, <!(«.— "Whom, seized in his grasp before [he 
could draw his sword], Dioxippus, by suddenly tripping up his feet^ 
dashed to the groimd.** 

16. Mimrusque, d:c. — ^literally, ** About to dash the life out of him.** 

16. Ex compoeito. — " By an arrangement among themselves.** 

17. Mubore, — ^''Innocence;*' The effeot for the causa That rubor 
should imply " innoeenee ** is contrary to the diotom of Shakespeare 
who says (Love*s Lab. Lost, i 2): 

" For hlmhing cheeks by fauUa are bred. 
And fears by pale white shown." 

18. UHque postquam, — " At all events [such was his opinion] after 
the immoderate joy of his enemies showed that he had been falsely 

376 IfOTBB. 

LIB. IX. CAP. vm. 


1. F\snri eofulMfi.—- Commentaton differ aa to the meaning <^ thest 
wordB/— «ome Biippoeing " tin," others ** sted," to be intended. The 
latter opinion ie best supported. 

2. Memd procuL'Sap^ly td. 

8. JP4>pmli — imperio. — ^An early instance of a democratio govern- 
meat» and where we should least expect to find it 

4. Qud pro^n^ poterat, — "As £ftr as coald be seen." 

5. Bine, — " Hence." " On this sapposition.'* 

6* jPWrvrf damUanies, <jb.— " Crying out that they were mad to 
wage war with the gods." 

7. JiVnUoplut ofitmi.-- Compare this with O. T. (Joshua, y. 1.) 

8. £te de IhrioUe, dte,-^" "Sere he instituted an inquiry into the 
ease of TerioHes, whom he had made prefect of the Paropamisadae, 
and upon their accusation." 

9. BimiUe momtrL — '* Like a miracle." 

10. NtiUo tuffod, Ac — '*Not the slightest indication of an under- 
ground passage having been previously exhibited." 

11. 8ub eorand, — ^"At auction." Some explain the phrase by sup- 
posing it to have been the custom to place a wreath of some com- 
mon material around the heads of captives exposed for sale, while 
others refer it to the circle of soldiers stationed to prevent the ea> 
01^ of the captives. 

12. Venisie, — ^From veneo, 

18. 8ed non ut, dtc — " But the victory was not as jojrful in its result» 
as in its first appearance " ; t. e., '<as it promised to be." 

14w StrenuBB, — "Speedy." The word is employed by Columella in 
reference to toxicum, " poison," to express its speedy operation. 

15. Barbairi oMtem. — " Now the barbarians." 

16. Exdpi poue.^''}&i^t be taken ofL" 

Vl, M forte, die, — "And it was by a mere chance that he," d^e. 

18. Mtfjfore perteuh, Sc — ^That is: Exposed to more danger from the 
poison than from the wound by itself considered. 

19. Medico, dtc-rlhat is: His mode of life was temperate, and like 
that of a conmion citizen. 

20. ^fttor. — " More profound " than usual with him. 

21. Obiatam is to be referred to epeeiemt not to heriam» 

82. Agniturum dgvU, die, — "Declaring that he would recognize it^ if 

any one should find it" 
28. JSiuitam probably refers to the formation of the island from the 

K0TS8. 377 


«MuA of tlie liyer, as id often the ease in Itie Miaeiasippi and odier 
large streaouL 


1. Quia duces, dte, — ''Because the guides, too carelessly watched, 
had run off." 

2. I7ee repertis. — "Although more were found.** 

8. Q^^Lm paUenSy Jbe. — " How commodious for large vessels." 
A, Quadringenta stcfdicu — About forty-six miles. 

5. Auram maris. — "The sea breeze." 

6. Qud propitu, d:c. — " The nearer their hopes were to being re- 

7. Bufnhat mare, — ^The flowing in of the tide is here referred to, as 
also in the succeeding passage quia curstts, (ke. 

8. InavJUan, — e^oedi, — Our author has repeated instances of the omis- 
sion of the preposition after this participle. 

9. Seeuri easiSts, dsc, — " Regardless of the evil that. comes upon the 

10. Statd vice, <jte^ — " According to its regular course, the sea at full 
flood began to rash in and force back the current of the river.** 

11. Quod — eoereitum, <kc — ^Those who have observed the force of the 
tides at New York, along the wharves on the East River, can form 
some idea of the justness of this description. 

12. LevaHs rutvigiis, — ^That is : " Raised up ** from the shore on which 
they had been beached, according to the custom of the ancients. 

13. Expectatis, sc iis. 

14. Clauda et inhaiilia, — " Shattered and unmanageable.*' 
16. Abstergeru — " To be swept away.** 

16. Perveniehat, Ac — " Came even to blows.** 

17. Quippe, (kc — ^The order is : Quippe, ignari oishan paiuio post 
rdcOurum mare, quo navigia allevarerUur, ominabantur sibimetfamem 
et ultimtu 

18. Statum tempus. — "The fixed** or "regular time** for the return 
of the tide. 


1. Boobies. — This is the general term for eutaneoua affections» anch 
as « the itch,*' " the leprosy,** Ac. 

2. QuA terrestri, dto, — ** Along the route by which, by a land march, 
he thought he should conduct his army.** Vtdeor mtAi is often 

878 NOTSs. 


ptofMily NadoNd «I «luiik"; eo bwe miAatmr [nln], *'H« 

8. i>ediMft «vnl — ^Iliis is the word usually employed by livy and 

other Boman writers to denote the Ranting of a colony. 
4^ JSimantet agrees with Jfaeedona, and governs radieea. 

6. Tantum, dx. — ^The order is: SingtdU crederUibui ipsos projleere 
UaUum ad »pem MohOU qwaUym UirurU preeripererUfettinando. 

0. Jmminentiique, dbe, — "And, moreover, the appearance of evil 
impending over themselves was ever before their eyes." 

7. Dam teitea — ^Witnesses of their sad state, and the cruel desertion. 
of their fellow-soldiers. 

8. NeeetriUstU 9wb. — " Of his destitute condition." 

9. Nte eenahmif dse. — "Kor did they delay to comply with his 

10. (7<m«lra<a.— "Floored over." 

11. JPritfframs. — " Loaded down." 

12b Parata prteda, <tc — "A ready prize — an easy prey, if the con- 
quered had possessed any spirit, at least against a troop of revel- 

IS. QucB rebutf 4S:e, — ** Which establishes the character and value of 

14. JPrcBtens cbUo, — " The age then present" 


1. Quinqtte millia, dsc. — Zumpt places these words in apposition 
with Cleander, die. Others supply cum his erant In one manu- 
script addueentes is found after miller and that may have been the 
true reading. 

2. JS provincid, — ^Namely, from Media, as we learn from Lib. viL 
Cap. ii. § 6. 

8. Quod tacihan, the — *' Which thing, though not openly mentioned» 
might be of service to the accused in the view of the king." 

4. Desperationem, — ^In apposition with crimen,, 

5. Quo8 aueiores, d:c.-^Qee Lib. ix. Cap. x. § 84^ ad fin, 

6. uSttu secundo, <kc — '"That they are carried along with the tide." 
7-» Tntci cantUy dtc, — "That^ when by horrible shouts, they were 

deterred from following the ships, they plunged into the waters lika 
»nking ships with a great roaring of the sea." JDHerriUu a se- 
quendd cUlsw or deterritas qud minus sequercTUur dassem would have 
been the more usual forms. Digby gives a different sense to the 

NOTBS. 370 


passage; **l!ha,t^ they were frighte&^Q at the ]iorrH>le noise made 
on purpose from on board the fleets notwithstanding whiek they 
followed the same," Ao. 

8. dgtem, die, — *' As to other things they had reHed," ^o. 

9. Ab hU, Bc ineolis. 

10. Terrain legere, — " To coast along shore. *' 

11. Adire—prcetervehu — ^These infinitives are to be referred to «toiw- 
erett in the preceding sentence. 

12. ^xercuiL-^" Wielded" 

18. JDissimtUana causam, dtc — "Not mentioning the reason of his 
enmity, in order that the authority of the aectner might have 
more weight." 

14. Jam tamen, Ac — *' Though already held in less esteem." - 

15. Solium here signifies a sarcophagus or stone coffin. Suetonius 
(Nero 50) employs it in this sense in the following passage : In eo 
monwnento solium JPorphyretici marmorU tupersiante JAmenai ard, 
drcumt^ffium eat l<q>ide Thaaio, 

16. Quod ad me, <ke, — "As far as regards mysell" 

17. CoRperaty sc Alexander. 

18. Ad reprceaentanda, <kc — ** To carry pumshmeni into immediate 
execution." Ad deteriora credenda. — "To give credit to evil re- 

19. JSrga bona, <S:e. — " Sufficiently on his guard against prosperity." 

20. Adveraua, djc-^" Contrary to the natural bent of his disposition." 

21. Quidem. — ^Wbat follows» to the end of the chapter, we have sup 
plied from Cellarius. 


1. TranamUtunt — ^The subject of this verb is Harpalus and his fol- 
lowers, as mentioned in the supplement. 

2. Portum urbia, — ^That is: The Pirssus, seven mUes from the city, 
and connected with it by two long walls. 

8. jSoli Athenienaea, dc. — "This whole passage," as the Belphin 
editor remarks, "has been subjected to the tinkering of critics, 
without being bettered by it." The true reading cannot be ascer- 
tained with any degree of certainty. "We give that which seems to 
us to afford the most suitable meaning : Athenienaea aoli, vindicea non 
modd aucB, aed etiam publicce libertatia, quia eagre ferebant colluvionem 
omnium ordinum {aaaueti regi non regio imperio aed patriia legibua 
moribuaque) prohibuere [eoa, i. e., Marpalum, &c,'\ Jinibua, toleraturi 
ovnnia, ike 

880 voTas. 


4. M^ ^immi, db. — ^^Bhoold imike knows their indettedneflB.* 

& Ab itUeffrU-^litt "From the sonnd.'* Those whose propertj 

was whole or nntonehed, that is: "from the frugaL* 

C ^rofesrionL — Corresponding with proJUerentur above. 

T. J>eG8m millia taleniorum. — See Note 16, lib. iiL Gap. i. 

8. F^ fwAA, — "Their confidenoe haying been gained.** 

9. Vnreeundid r^Mi— " Reyerenoe for the king." 
IOl Matum eue, sc. regem, 

11. CtmttemaiUK — See Note 4, lib. y. Cap^ iy. 

12. J^oterndL-^ " Of discriminating.** 

18» . JPervdim 9cire, — ** I am yery anxious to know.** 

14. Adduear, — Ut eredam may supply the ellipets after this word. 

15. In gud, dkc-^" In which the greater part of the army has no in- 
terest since,*' «fee. 

16. Sordent—*' Are despised.'* 

1*1, ffoe eultu monies, — This is said ironically. 

18. Abiit invidi€L — '* Without boasting.** liyy has abnt terho invidia 
in the same sense. Taken literally, it is merely deprecatory of the 
enyy that naturally arises on account of self-praise. 

19. Nempe ex, dte, — " And that too out of the spoils of that yery 
Asia *' which you despise. 

20. JProfundo venire, &c. — He here chides them for haying wasted in 
sensuid pleasures all the spoils they had acquired in war. 

21. Bonis, Ac — Spoken in irony. "Fine soldiers, truly." 

22. Expetam, dsc. — ** I will seek reyenge by courting,** «be 

UB. X. CAP. m. 

1. OUan ad mpplieium, dsc — " When they (the assembly) saw that 
those who had attempted no graver offences than the rest were 
dragged off to punishment^** <&c 

2. Toon effvMxm — iiaqybc — Supplied by some other hand. 

8. ItMpie, &c — ^The order is: Itagtte nve veneraHo nominU, fw>d 
genteM, qwB sunt wb regibue, coluni inter deo9, Hve IvenertxHo] propria 
ijmus l^Alexandri'] sive Jiducia exereeniis imperwm tantd vi, conter' 
rmt 008, certe ediderunJt, dsc 

4. Pervicacis, dsc — " Being of a determined purpose with regard to 
every thing that he had well considered.** Animi is the genitive 
of qualification. 

5. iiuod, dc — " In so liEir as I trusted,** Ac 

NOTES, 381 


6. OmnMafiuere, — *'That all things irere relaxed; were in a state 
of languor and inactiyity." 

7. Hoe ego nunc, ike, — ** I now, for the first time, make this open 

8. Mox deinde. — "Soon afterwards." 

9. Vieturi «unt, — ^For the remaining words of this chapter we are 
indebted to an unknown hand. 


1. M quidem, &c, — "And those too of a foreign character." The 
words mergi in amnem, a little below, explain his meaning. MorUp 
the genitive of qualification. 

2. Amieo animo, Ac. — " The advice was given to him with kind 
intentione^ if he had only been willing to bear with the truth." 

8. TruddareL — ^Hence, to the end of the chapter, follows the sup- 
plement of Cellarias. 


1. Mminebai, — ""Was conspicuous." 
^2. In eodem, die, — *^ In the same posture." 
8. Membra rejeeit, dse. — " He threw back on hb couch, at full length, 

his weary limbs." 
4. Providere Jean, dse, — " He already foresaw that with reference to 

that contest (viz., qui eiaet cptimus) great funeral games^" «fee. 
& Oertamen, dse. — ** Engaged, as it were, in a contest of griet" 

6. J^vadentia, die, — " Scaling the waUs." 

7. Non de regno, dte, — That is: Not to obtain 'for themselves and 
their beloved monarch the empire of Asia, but to decide wbo should 
be king. 

8. Pro potenUd.-^^To maintain the authority." 

9. PremiHis, (lt«.— -"They were catehing at the murmurs and ezda^ 

10. AUera ex nepttMie.— According to Arrian (Blanc ed. 1668, p. 447) 
this was Drypetis. 

11. JUiraetabai,^** Felt again." 

12. Stpariter, Ac, — "And that the funeral rites of two sons were to 
be performed at the same time by the wretched woman." 

18. XTwmn, — ^From Lib. vii Cap. v. we learn that his name was Oza« 
thres, and that he was one of the king's body-guard. 

888 Novss. 


14k M ^u m AUaumdHf 4 o e% m Mn iwn,-^**Btoeong evidenea in Alex* 

ander'B behalt" 
llw «ItMte tfrtimcwrfifttn^ dse, — "To iboM who estiiaate rightly, it is 

dear,** Ac 
16. GloricB, ite, — "A fondness for glory and praise, wMch, while it 

exoeeded the bonnds of propriety, mttgt be pardoned in a yonng man 

engaged in such mighty nndertakings." We find Planttis (Trin. 1, 

2, 44),u8ing admittere in the sense here given. 
VI. CofMium, — " His sagacity." 

18. VenerU intra, d:c. — It is hacd to reconcile this statement with 
what has been related in the first chapter of this book with regard 
to Bagoas. Ueus is the noun. 

19. Jngentee, dsc — " Were in truth great endowments." 

20l JUa fortuMB. — "The following may be attributed to his pros- 
perity." Understand erant after fortuna. 

ai. P/wriffiwOT.— "Very much." jP/ma—" More." 

22. MxpectavSre, d:c, — "Destiny waited for him, until, having con- 
quered the East and advanced to the ocean, he had accomplished 
whatever humanity was capable o£" 

28. Melee, sc imperii, — "The weight of government was too great 
for one man to imdertake." 

24. Qut — adhoBeentnt — "Who were connected with"; that is: ob- 
tained the smallest share of his immense empire. 

MB. X. CAP. Yl 

1. Sx6^Hm q%d, <£^eL— "Prohibited access, except for those who were 
cited by name." 

% Preearivm, — "Held by sufferance." 

8. Imperii vires obeignare» — We agree with the suggestion of the 
Delphin editor, that Gurtius wrote some other word instead of 
fiiree, unless indeed we suppose the sense to be this: "With which 
h» gave the stamp of authority to every exertion of the power 
of," &c 

4. Thniwn virum, dErc— " That the gods had loaned so great a man for 
the benefit of human affairs, in order that when they were duly 
arranged, they nught speedily reclaim him for their own race." 
The language is figurative and refers to the loaning of money aa 
is evident from the terms aecommoddeee, " To lend," eorte, " capital," 
and repeterent, " to seek the return of that which was Imt" 

5. Ut obtinere, <fee.— " How we may obtain.*' 



6. lUud.^" One thing." 

*J, Coeterum, dtc — ^The order is: Cceierwn regem nonekmi ortum e» 

pectari, et \eum\^ qui jam 9U, prteteriri, comenire nee animU Ifaee^ 

danum nee tempori rerum, 

8. JHgna, <^c.— Ironioally spoken. 

9. Co^vk^-Oenitiye in apposition with «u/im. 

10. JEdqne — Oetur, — " Let that plan be adhered to." Literally, " Let 
it be stood to that." 

11. NViU dico, due. — " I do not refer to those who are of more noble 
birth than Perdiecas." 

12. . Exacto9 menUe, — ^Thatis: Till her full tune is oome. 

13. Quern vos, dtc, — " Do you doubt his readiness even to substitute 
one (a male child)" in case Roxane brings forth a female! 

14 Popidtu here means '* the common soldiers." 


1. Maxime mtserabUem, — " Chiefly to be pitied." 

2. Ad cceteraf d:e, — " They were blind to other things." 

8. JEt milites, dec — " And the soldiers, saluting him by the name of 
Philip, proclaim him king." 

4. UHque — luxuriaL — '' Especially if it is rioting," Ac 

5. InclinavSre atudiis. — " They inclined in their affectionfi" 

6. Qui affeetaverant, die. — " Who had aimed at a kingdom that did 
not belong to them" — " to which they had no claim." 

1. JVt« gentium vi regnareL — " Unless bom to command." 

8. Et pluribue, — " And to the majority." 

9. IHseederent — rati — intendunt, sc. Perdiceas, and his party. 


1. JSum, sc PerdAccam, 

2. Neminem, dse. — " And, besides, that no one is very fidthfol to one 
whom he dreads." 

8. Ommno.—" In alL" 

4. CaetigatoSf sc. eeUellitet, — " As being under the lash." 

5. Jngena, d:e, — " A wide-spread and involuntary gloom." 

6. Ssspetituras, dtc. — "yfho should seek revenge for so many do* 
feats." . 



7. Qmim$ ipem, Sc^—** In a nuih and haaty manner to deprire them 
(IhB aitisens) of the hope of being again receiyed into favour, is the 
pert of thoee irho are hurrying on to ciyil waEL** 

8. Aiparem, — " Not a match." 


1. Nam et, dfc«.— *' For royal power admits no partner, and in tius 

ease it was songht for by many." 
S. Proinde, — " It is on this account that" 
8. JPrineipL — ^According to the varying opinions of critioB this has 

been supposed to allude to Augustus, Tiberius, Claudius, Vespasian, 

Titus, Trajan, Constantme and Justinian. 
4. BujuB, BC HderiM. 
& AUU modOi dse, — ^''Provided envy throw no obstades in tilie 

way, the posterity of this same house shall certainly for a long 

time (would that it were for ever) prolong the circumstances of this 

8. .^!quatumf d:c, — " Had been placed on an equality with Perdioeaa. 
n, JProbainlU"" Plausible." 

8. OofUra, — ** Opposite." 

9. Baud sane, Ac, — "Expecting nothing at all of a peaceful charae- 
ter," that is: from the eqttites. 

IOl Pro eguiiibui, — ** Favourable to the cavalry." 

11. Jkaisaifnum ex, Jtc, — "The safest course under present circunif* 

12. 06fMKetot.— " Abject "— " Not disposed to resist** 

18. Apparti>atquef &e. — The order is: Apparebatqtte IPkUippum} 
vituUeaturwn id modd pro mo, quod eventus approbdueL 

14. Cikn ejti9, d:e, — The order is: Cikn viderei inimUoi abuUniei 
nomine efu$, guem fsMrai regem, in mam pemieiem, dse. 


1. GenHum, governed by imperivm. 

2. OUinere. — " To retain." 

8. Quir-'-prmerani, — ** Hiose who had been prefects over," Ac. 

4 Vanam. — "kJnfounded." 

0. ififpecttf imperii, dx, — ** Under pretence of taking ehaige of the 

empire of another," viz. : of Philip Aridnus. 
8. IbepedOiue, — ^*' An easier matter." 

NOTES. 385 



7. Nudotoh. — That is: XJnproteoted by trees. 

8. Ut tandem, &c — ** When at length his friends had leisure.* 

9. Ft^.— " The life-like eolonr.** 

10. Mo^orem. — "Greater" than was justified by the resources of a 

11. Ui firrum, dse, — ** As to consume eren iron." 

12. Hm ^tUMmqWi die. — ** Whaterer may have been the character of 
these traditiens, the power of those, whom rumour had aepersed* soon 
stifled them." 

tBM mx 


_'-_2_ ^*^i