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Full text of "Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu"

r 

Sri Bh akti-rasamrta-sin dh u 

"The Eternal Ocean of Nectar of Devotion" 
Parti 

-by- 

Srlla Rupa GosvamI 

— Edited by — 
Gaurahari Dasanudas Babaji 

— Published by — 

Esoteric Teaching Seminars, Inc. 

ISBN 978-0-557-25704-1 

http://esotericteaching.org 



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Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 1 



Table of Contents 

Preface: About SiTIa Rupa Gosvarm 3 

Introduction: The importance of Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 9 

Lord SrT Caitanya Mahaprabhu 11 

Pure Devotional Service 13 

Qualities of Pure Devotional Service 17 

The importance of Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 20 

Stages of Devotional Service in Terms of Consciousness 25 

Structure of SrT Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu compared with SrTla 
Prabhupada's Nectar of Devotion 27 

First Wave: General Overview of Bhakti 29 

Second Wave: Sadhana-Bhakti 41 

Third Wave: Bhava-Bhakti 112 

Fourth Wave: Prema-Bhakti 126 

First Wave: Concerning Vibhava 132 

Second Wave: Concerning Anubhava 223 

Third Wave: Concerning Sattvika-bhava 229 

Fourth Wave: Concerning Vyabhicari-bhava 253 

Fifth Wave: Concerning SthayF-bhava 323 



Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 2 



r 

Preface: About Srlla Rupa Gosvaml 

Even though there are so many great acaryas, Srlla Rupa Gosvaml has been 
given honor of being that person who has established the mano-bhistam, the 
innermost heart's desire, of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. When 
Mahaprabhu came to the village of Ramakeli-grama, He met with Srlla Rupa 
Gosvaml and Srlla Sanatana Gosvaml and told them, "You should leave your 
homes and be with Me." 

After a short time they left their homes, and Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu 
came from Vrndavana and met with Srlla Rupa Gosvaml at Prayag, the 
confluence of the rivers Yamuna and Ganga. The Lord told him: 

parapara-sunya gabhlra bhakti-rasa-sindhu 
tomaya cakhaite tara kahi eka 'bindu ' 

"The ocean of the transcendental mellows of devotional service 
is so large that no one can estimate its length and breadth. 
However, just to help you taste it, I am describing one drop." [Sri 
Caitanya-caritamrta, Madhya 19.137] 

Lord Caitanya gave one drop of the ocean of rasa to Srlla Rupa Gosvaml, and 
that one drop was sufficient to inundate millions upon millions of universes. 
Later, He instructed Srlla Sanatana Gosvaml in Varanasi. Therefore, Srlla 
Rupa Gosv ami's and Sanatana Gosvami's understanding of the mellows of 
devotional service, and specifically the mellow of conjugal love, was 
extremely exalted. When Srlla Rupa Gosvaml was in Purl with Lord Sri 
Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the Lord was dancing at the Ratha-yatra festival and 
uttering a verse from a book of mundane poetry called sahitya-darpana: 

yah kaumdra-harah sa eva hi varas ta eva caitra-ksapas 
te conmilita-malatT-surabhayah praudhah kadambanilah 
sa caivasmi tathapi tatra surata-vyapara-lTla-vidhau 
reva-rodhasi vetasi-taru-tale cetah samutkanthate 

"That very personality who stole away my heart during my youth 
is now again my master. These are the same moonlit nights of the 
month of Caitra. The same fragrance of malati flowers is there, 



Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 3 



and the same sweet breezes are blowing from the kadamba 
forest. In our intimate relationship, I am also the same lover, yet 
my mind is not happy here. I am eager to go back to that place on 
the bank of the Reva under the Vetasi tree. That is my desire." 
[Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Madhya 1.58] 

No one could understand why Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was uttering 
this verse and in what mood He was absorbed. There was one young boy 
there, however, named Rupa, who later on became Srila Rupa Gosvami. 
There and then, upon hearing this verse from Mahaprabhu, another verse 
appeared in his own heart, and he wrote down that verse: 

priyah so 'yam krsnah saha-cari kuru-ksetra-militas 
tathaham sd rddhd tad idam ubhayoh sangama-sukham 
tathapy antah-khelan-madhura-murali-pancama-juse 
mano me kalindi-pulina-vipindya sprhayati 

(This is a verse spoken by Soman" Radharani.) "My dear friend, 
now I have met My very old and dear friend Krsna on this field 
of Kuruksetra. I am the same Radharani, and now We are 
meeting together. It is very pleasant, but still I would like to go to 
the bank of the Yamuna beneath the trees of the forest there. I 
wish to hear the vibration of His sweet flute playing the fifth note 
within that forest of Vrndavana." [Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, 
Madhya-lila 1.76] 

In this verse Srila Rupa Gosvami has clarified Lord Sri Caitanya 
Mahaprabhu's inner meaning and thus he revealed to the world the importance 
of parakiya-rasa, the mood of paramour love between Lord Krsna and the 
gopis. Therefore Srila Rupa Gosvami is the very person who established 
within this world the innermost heart's desire of Lord Sri Caitanya 
Mahaprabhu. 

These deliberations and philosophical conclusions are extremely deep, and 
very difficult to understand. It is therefore essential that one come under the 
guidance of a self -realized guru, associate with advanced pure devotees, and 
give one's full time, energy and enthusiastic work in service and in chanting 
the Holy Names of Krsna. One should also make a great effort to understand 



Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 4 



and realize the reason for which Srila Rupa Gosvami appeared in this world, 
and why he wrote so many wonderful transcendental books like SrTBhakti- 
rasdmrta-sindhu, Sri Ujjvala-nTlamani, Sri Vidagdha-madhava and SriLalitd- 
mddhava. 




The sacred Samadhi (tomb) of Srila Rupa Gosvami at Radha-Damodara 
Temple in Vrndavana 

om ajndna-timirdndhasya 
jndndnjana-saldkayd 
caksur unmilitam yena 
tasmai sri-gurave namah 

srT-caitanya-mano- 'bhistam 
sthdpitam yena bhu-tale 
svayam rupah kadd mahyam 
daddti sva-paddntikam 

"I was born in the darkest ignorance, and my spiritual master 
opened my eyes with the torch of knowledge. I offer my 



SrT Bh akti-rasamrta-sin dh u 



Eastern Ocean 



Page 5 



respectful obeisances unto him. When will Srila Rupa Gosvami 
Prabhupada, who has established within this material world the 
mission to fulfill the desire of Lord Caitanya, give me shelter 
under his lotus feet?" [Bhagavad-gita, Introduction] 

We have chanted this prayer many times in our presentations; now by 
studying the ontological position of Srila Rupa Gosvami, we start to really 
comprehend its meaning. Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu appeared in this 
world for two principal reasons: the external, public presentation of the yuga- 
dharma, harinama-sankirtan, and the internal, confidential reason of relishing 
the ecstatic moods of Srimati Radharani. 

anarpita-carim cirdt karunayavatirnah kalau 
samarpayitum unnatojjvala-rasam sva-bhakti-sriyam 
harih purata-sundara-dyuti-kadamba-sandipitah 
sadd hrdaya-kandare sphuratu vah saci-nandanah 

"May the Supreme Lord who is known as the son of Srimati 
Saci-devi be transcendentally situated in the innermost chambers 
of your heart. Resplendent with the radiance of molten gold, He 
has appeared in the Age of Kali by His causeless mercy to 
bestow what no incarnation has ever offered before: the most 
sublime and radiant mellow of devotional service, the mellow of 
conjugal love." [Sri Caitanya-caritdmrta, Adi 1.4] 

rddhd krsna-pranaya-vikrtir hladini saktir asmdd 
ekdtmdndv api bhuvi purd deha-bhedam gatau tau 
caitanyakhyam prakatam adhund tad-dvayam caikyam aptam 
rddhd-bhdva-dyuti-suvalitam naumi krsna-svarupam 

"The loving affairs of Sri Radha and Krsna are transcendental 
manifestations of the Lord's internal pleasure -giving potency. 
Although Radha and Krsna are one in Their identity, They 
separated Themselves eternally. Now these two transcendental 
identities have again united, in the form of Sri Krsna Caitanya. I 
bow down to Him, who has manifested Himself with the 
sentiment and complexion of Srimati Radharani although He is 
Krsna Himself." [Sri Caitanya-caritdmrta, Adi 1.5] 



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sri-radhayah pranaya-mahima kidrso vanayaiva- 
svddyo yenddbhuta-madhurimd kidrso vd madiyah 
saukhyam cdsyd mad-anubhavatah kidrsam veti lobhdt 
tad-bhdvddhyah samajani saci-garbha-sindhau harinduh 

"Desiring to understand the glory of Radharani's love, the 
wonderful qualities in Him that She alone relishes through Her 
love, and the happiness She feels when She realizes the 
sweetness of His love, the Supreme Lord Hari, richly endowed 
with Her emotions, appeared from the womb of Srimati Saci- 
devi, as the moon appeared from the ocean." [Sri Caitanya- 
caritdmrta, Adi 1.6] 

The fact that Srila Rupa Gosvami was able to understand the confidential 
heart's desire of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, and even express it in 
Sanskrit poetry at an early age, indicates that he is an eternal associate of the 
Lord, specifically empowered to reveal this great teaching to the denizens of 
Kali-yuga. Whenever the Lord descends, He brings His eternal associates 
with Him, because factually only they can understand and help Him in His 
pastimes. 

"When we speak of a king it is naturally understood that the king 
is accompanied by his confidential associates, like his secretary, 
private secretary, aide-de-camp, ministers and advisers. So also 
when we see the Lord we see Him with His different energies, 
associates, confidential servitors, etc. So the Supreme Lord, who 
is the leader of all living entities, the Lord of all devotee sects, 
the Lord of all opulences, the Lord of sacrifices and the enjoyer 
of everything in His entire creation, is not only the Supreme 
Person, but also is always surrounded by His immediate 
associates, all engaged in their loving transcendental service to 
Him." [SrTmad-Bhdgavatam 2.9.15, Purport] 

So Srila Rupa Gosvami, as an eternal confidential associate of Lord Sri Krsna 
Caitanya Mahaprabhu, was able to understand His deepest intentions and also 
explain them in logical and highly poetic slokas. This is the transcendental 
significance of Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu; therefore, all sincere devotees in 
the line of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu must study it carefully and 



Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 7 



scrutinizingly to understand His real mission. That is why we are taking up 
this great study, and all of our students should follow along, not missing 
anything, and get the incomparable benefit of transcendental confidential 
loving service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Sri Caitanya 
Mahaprabhu. 



Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 8 



Introduction: The importance of Bhakti-rasamrta- 
sindhu 

tad asma-sdram hrdayam batedam 
yad grhyamdnair hari-ndma-dheyaih 
na vikriyetdtha yadd vikdro 
netrejalam gdtra-ruhesu harsah 

"Certainly that heart is steel-framed which, in spite of one's 
chanting the holy name of the Lord with concentration, does not 
change when ecstasy takes place, tears fill the eyes and the hairs 
stand on end." [Srimad-Bhdgavatam 2.3.24] 

Sometimes devotees question why we have chosen to focus on the study of 
Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu. After all, Srila Prabhupada preached mostly from 
Bhagavad-gitd and Srimad-Bhdgavatam; his classes on Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta- 
sindhu are comparatively rare. The short answer is that without a deep 
understanding of Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu, our knowledge oibhakti is 
insufficient to attain the higher stages of the path chalked out by Lord Sri 
Caitanya Mahaprabhu. 

Sola Prabhupada gave great mercy to the fallen inhabitants of the West, 
bringing them to the authentic Vaisnava path and revealing the confidential 
methods that lead to the highest attainments oibhakti. However, very few of 
his disciples have trod that path to its ultimate conclusion. Many of them have 
become attached to management and politics; too much dollars and not 
enough good sense. Thus many have fallen down, if not into sinful activities 
then into the misconception that Krsna consciousness is just another mundane 
religion. Thus their spiritual lives remain incomplete. 

If, however, Krsna consciousness is understood properly as a transformation 
of consciousness and meaning from the mundane to the transcendental 
ontological platform, then andrthas (polluted desires in the heart), even subtle 
ones like pratisthd (attachment to religious honor and position) are easily 
vanquished and the stage of ecstatic devotional service described in the sloka 
above is easily reached. Srimad-Bhdgavatam is not just a collection of stories; 



Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 9 



it is an ontological literature designed to lift us from the mundane to the 
transcendental platform of consciousness. 

"The human society, at the present moment, is not in the darkness 
of oblivion. It has made rapid progress in the field of material 
comforts of life, education and economic development of the 
entire world. But it suffers a pin-prick somewhere in the social 
body at large and therefore there is large scale quarrel even on 
less important issues. Therefore there is the want of the clue as to 
how they can become one in peace, friendship and prosperity by 
the common cause. Srimad Bhagwatam will fill up this gap by 
ontological aspect of human education. It is therefore a cultural 
presentation for re-spiritualisation of the entire human society." 
[SrTmad-Bhagavatam, original Delhi edition, Preface] 

SrT Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu is the ontological analysis of SrTmad- 
Bhagavatam. Srila Rupa Gosvami shows how all the categories of ecstatic 
spiritual consciousness are described in SrTmad-Bhagavatam, and backs up all 
of his points by extracting authoritative quotations from SrTmad-Bhagavatam 
and other Vedic literatures. His style of presentation, which he himself called 
"quiet conviction" is very powerful, and is also the manner of exposition 
followed in Srila Prabhupada's books and our own writings. 

SrT Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu details all the steps from ordinary material 
consciousness through the highest perfection of prema-bhakti . Therefore 
every devotee who sincerely wants to attain the highest perfectional stage of 
Krsna consciousness must study this great transcendental literature. My 
concern has always been that devotees do not give enough attention to SrT 
Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu. The fact is, it is very difficult to understand SrTmad- 
Bhagavatam properly without it. The fact that so few of my Godbrothers have 
attained the authentic transcendental consciousness is proof of this. 

Hopefully, this detailed program of studying SrT Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu will 
bring some balance to the devotional society. As usual, all the videos from 
this series will be posted on YouTube and anyone will be able to see them. 
But the members of this site will have the additional advantage of being able 
to post questions on this forum. Please take full advantage of this discussion 
group to clarify your understanding of uttama-bhakti, pure devotional service 



Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 10 



as described in Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu. This will certainly provide a 
powerful impetus to make your life and consciousness perfect. 

Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu 

Generally devotees concentrate on Krsna, chant the Holy Name of Krsna, 
think of Krsna and consider Krsna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. 
But many devotees, especially in India, do not realize the importance of Lord 
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. 

Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu reveals Krsna to the aspiring devotee. In fact, 
were it not for Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu we would not even know the 
places of Krsna's earthly pastimes in Vrndavana, because they had become 
covered over by the passage of time (over 4,000 years) since His appearance. 
Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu went to Vrndavana, remembered and 
rediscovered the locations of Krsna's pastimes and instructed His disciples to 
renovate them. Thus today we are able to visit these places and experience the 
transcendental bliss of Vrndavana-dhama. 

More than that, Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu also revealed the inner moods 
of Krsna and His devotees to an unprecedented extent. Normally the 
transcendental pastimes of the Lord and His intimate devotees are very 
confidential. When Krsna was present on this planet, not even the Yadu 
dynasty, Krsna's family members, knew of them in detail. But Lord Sri 
Caitanya Mahaprabhu revealed these pastimes, explaining their deep meaning 
through His disciples like Srila Rupa Gosvami, thus opening these pastimes to 
all sincere devotees. 

sei panca-tattva mili 'prthivi dsiyd 
purva-premabhdnddrera mudrd ughddiyd 
pdrice mili ' lute prema, kare dsvddana 
yatayatapiye, trsna badhe anuksana 

"The characteristics of Krsna are understood to be a storehouse 
of transcendental love. Although that storehouse of love certainly 
came with Krsna when He was present, it was sealed. But when 
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu came with His associates of the Panca- 
tattva, they broke the seal and plundered the storehouse to taste 



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transcendental love of Krsna. The more they tasted it, the more 
their thirst for it grew." [Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi 7.20-21] 

Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead 
Himself: 

yad advaitam brahmopanisadi tad apy asya tanu-bhd 
ya dtmantar-ydmi purusa iti so 'syamsa-vibhavah 
sad-aisvaryaih purno ya iha bhagavan sa svayam ayam 
na caitanyat krsndj jagati para-tattvam param iha 

"What the Upanisads describe as the impersonal Brahman is but 
the effulgence of His body, and the Lord known as the Supersoul 
is but His localized plenary portion. Lord Caitanya is the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna Himself, full with six 
opulences. He is the Absolute Truth, and no other truth is greater 
than or equal to Him." [Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi 1.3] 

Although Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is Krsna Himself, He has appeared 
in the mood of His greatest devotee, Srimati Radharani: 

radha krsna-pranaya-vikrtir hlddini saktir asmad 
ekatmandv api bhuvi purd deha-bhedam gatau tau 
caitanyakhyam prakatam adhuna tad-dvayam caikyam aptam 
radha-bhdva-dyuti-suvalitam naumi krsna-svarupam 

"The loving affairs of Sri Radha and Krsna are transcendental 
manifestations of the Lord's internal pleasure -giving potency. 
Although Radha and Krsna are one in Their identity, They 
separated Themselves eternally. Now these two transcendental 
identities have again united, in the form of Sri Krsna Caitanya. I 
bow down to Him, who has manifested Himself with the 
sentiment and complexion of Srimati Radharani although He is 
Krsna Himself." [Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi 1.5] 

Krsna appears in the form of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu to understand 
Himself from Srimati Radharani's point of view: 



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sri-radhayah pranaya-mahima kidrso vanayaiva- 
svddyo yenddbhuta-madhurimd kidrso vd madiyah 
saukhyam cdsyd mad-anubhavatah kidrsam veti lobhdt 
tad-bhavadhyah samajani saci-garbha-sindhau harinduh 

"Desiring to understand the glory of Radharani's love, the 
wonderful qualities in Him that She alone relishes through Her 
love, and the happiness She feels when She realizes the 
sweetness of His love, the Supreme Lord Hari, richly endowed 
with Her emotions, appeared from the womb of Srimati Saci- 
devi, as the moon appeared from the ocean." [Sri Caitanya- 
caritamrta, Adi 1.6] 

All of these important concepts are explained in detail in the first few chapters 
of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta; I am only giving a summary here. But before 
beginning our detailed study of Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu, we must 
understand the ontological significance of this book. For Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta- 
sindhu is the ocean of immortal nectar itself, issuing from the lotus mouth of 
Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. 
He is giving the esoteric key to unlocking the mysteries of Srimad- 
Bhagavatam and relishing the sweetness of rasa ourselves. 

Therefore it is stated in the sloka quoted above, "... when Sri Caitanya 
Mahaprabhu came with His associates of the Panca-tattva, they broke the seal 
and plundered the storehouse to taste transcendental love of Krsna." If we 
follow the process of pure devotional service (uttama-bhakti) with the 
understanding of rasa-tattva given in Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu, then we 
shall certainly be successful in reaching the highest spiritual perfection. 

Pure Devotional Service 

The most important sloka in Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu, which Srila Prabhupada 
summarized in the Nectar of Devotion, gives the definition of uttama-bhakti: 
pure devotional service, which is the subject of the work. 

anyabhilasita-sunyam 
jnana-karmady-andvrtam 



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anukulyena krsnanu- 
silanam bhaktir uttama 

"When first-class devotional service develops, one must be 
devoid of all material desires, knowledge obtained by monistic 
philosophy, and fruitive action. The devotee must constantly 
serve Krsna favorably, as Krsna desires." [Sri Bhakti-rasamrta- 
sindhu 1.1.11] 

Each word in this definition is significant in describing the characteristic of 
pure devotional service. The characteristics given in this sloka are divided 
into svarupa-laksana, essential or primary characteristics, and tatastha- 
laksana, secondary characteristics. 

Svarilpa-laksan a 

There are three primary characteristics of pure devotional service: 

• Pure devotional service is for Krsna. 

• Pure devotional service is an active engagement. 

• Pure devotional service is executed with positive intent. 

Tatastha-laksana 

There are two secondary characteristics of pure devotional service: 

• Pure devotional service is free from ulterior motive. 

• Pure devotional service is not covered by jnana or yoga. 

Krsna — Pure devotional service is for Krsna 

The most essential of the attributes of pure devotional service is that it is 
performed only for the benefit of Krsna, and no one else. In other words, only 
Krsna and His direct expansions (visnu-tattva) are appropriate objects of our 
devotional service. Other living entities may also be Krsna's expansions, but 
those expansions are indirect. His differentiated parts and parcels (jlva- 
tattvas) and various energies (sakti-tattva) are also servants of Krsna and as 
such, not eligible to receive our devotional service. Pure devotional service 
can be offered only to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, because He is 
constitutionally the beneficiary of all kinds of sacrifices. 



Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 14 



bhoktaram yajna-tapasam 
sarva-loka-mahesvaram 
suhrdam sarva-bhutanam 
jnatva mam santim rcchati 

"The sages, knowing Me as the ultimate purpose of all 
sacrifices and austerities, the Supreme Lord of all planets 
and demigods and the benefactor and well-wisher of all living 
entities, attain peace from the pangs of material miseries." 

[Bhagavad-glta 5.29] 

Anusilanam — Pure devotional service is an active engagement 

AnusTlanam means 'cultivation by following the previous teachers.' There are 
two aspects to this following: pravrtti, or activities favorable to Krsna 
consciousness, and nivrtti, avoidance of activities unfavorable to Krsna 
consciousness. Pure devotional service is possible only by the mercy of Krsna 
and His pure devotees; thus in the sloka under discussion, the prefix anu (by 
following) links silanam (activities) to Krsna. Thus initiation by a bona fide 
spiritual master is an indispensable feature of the spiritual path. 

All the activities in Krsna's service are directly under the control of His 
internal pleasure potency. Therefore the spiritual masters of the lineage 
descending from Krsna are all servants of Srimati Radharani. To reach 
success in attaining pure devotional service, we must connect ourselves with 
Her by accepting initiation into the guru-parampard. In this way all our life 
energy can become spiritualized by connection with the original source. 

Anukulyena — pure devotional service is executed with positive intent 

Sometimes Krsna derives pleasure from fighting with demons, but the 
activities of the demons is not considered devotional service because of their 
inimical intent. Therefore Sri Rupa Gosvami qualifies his definition of pure 
devotional service with anukulyena, positive intent. It indicates that a 
favorable attitude toward Krsna is an essential attribute of pure devotional 
service. 

Whereas the demons' activities sometimes please Krsna, they are not accepted 
as devotional service because of lack of positive intent; yet sometimes Krsna's 
devotees perform activities that apparently displease Him, yet are accepted as 

SrT Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 15 



devotional service because they are performed with love. For example, 
Mother Yasoda sometimes chastises her son, but this is accepted as pure 
devotional service because it is done out of love for Him. 

Anyabhilasita-sunyam — pure devotional service is free from ulterior 
motive 

Anyabhilasita-sunyam means 'devoid of any other desire.' Any desire except 
for the devotional service of the Lord is material desire, even if it is 
apparently spiritual, such as the desire for liberation, because the motive of 
such desire is selfish benefit and not devotional love. Ordinary desires such as 
the instinct for self-preservation, to eat or take reasonable care of the body are 
not out of the range of devotional service, as long as they do not become the 
main motivational focus of our life. The body must be kept fit to engage in 
meaningful service to Krsna. The point here is that the objective even of 
ordinary desires must ultimately be the pleasure of the Lord. 

Jnana-karmady-anavrtam — pure devotional service is not covered by jnana 

or yoga 

It is not that we must completely abstain from all philosophical speculation or 
rational thought, as long as the aim of such reasoning is to confirm the 
conclusions of the sastra and the instructions of the spiritual master and other 
great souls. Philosophical defeat of opposing systems of thought is also 
valuable in preaching, although not necessary for pleasing Krsna Himself. 

Similarly we can engage in ordinary social and religious activities (karma), as 
long as these engagements do not become more prominent than our direct 
engagements in bhakti. One should not be a full-time fruitive worker, 
philosopher or speculator and a part-time devotee, but a devotee who 
occasionally engages in karmic activity to maintain himself and his family 
responsibilities. 

In conclusion, Sri Rupa Gosvami's definition of uttama-bhakti is perfect. 
Each word is so precise and exact that once we understand it, we cannot 
mistake anything else for pure devotional service. His definition is neither 
overly exclusive nor overly inclusive, and it applies perfectly to all stages of 
devotion, from the neophyte stage of practice to the exalted stage oiprema- 
bhakti. The entire content of Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu is based upon this 
scientific definition of pure devotional service. Every bona fide student of the 



SrT Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 16 



Esoteric Teaching must be completely familiar with it and also be able to 
apply it in practice. 

Qualities of Pure Devotional Service 

In Chapter 1 of Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, Sri Rupa Gosvami explains that 
there are three categories of pure devotional service: 

• Sadhana-bhakti: devotional service in practice 

• Bhava-bhakti: devotional service in ecstasy 

• Prema-bhakti: devotional service in pure love of Godhead 

It is also described that pure devotional service displays six transcendental 
qualities: 

Klesaghni: pure devotional service brings immediate relief from all 

kinds of material distress. 

Subhada: pure devotional service is the beginning of all 

auspiciousness. 

Sudurlabhd: pure devotional service is rarely achieved. 

Moksa-laghutakrta: Those in pure devotional service deride even the 

conception of liberation. 

Sdndrdnanda-visesdtmd: pure devotional service automatically puts 

one in transcendental pleasure. 

Sri krsnakarsini: pure devotional service is the only means to attract 

Krsna. 

Each category of devotional service displays two of these transcendental 
qualities. Sadhana-bhakti displays the qualities of klesaghni and subhada. 
Bhava-bhakti displays the same qualities as sadhana-bhakti, plus sudurlabhd 
and moksa-laghutakrta. Prema-bhakti displays all the previous qualities, with 
the addition of sdndrdnanda-visesdtmd and sri krsnakarsini. This explains the 
statement of Srila Prabhupadain Nectar of Devotion, "Generally it is 
understood that in the category of devotional service in practice there are two 
different qualities, devotional service in ecstasy has four qualities, and 
devotional service in pure love of Godhead has six qualities." 

Earlier we introduced the definition of pure devotional service. Bhakti- 
rasamrta-sindhu 1.1.11 defines pure devotion, uttama-bhakti, thus: 



Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 17 



anydbhilasita-sunyam 
jnana-karmady-anavrtam 
anukulyena krsnanu- 
silanam bhaktir uttama 

"One should render transcendental loving service to the Supreme 
Lord Krsna favorably and without desire for material profit or 
gain through fruitive activities or philosophical speculation. That 
is called pure devotional service." 

The Lord fulfills the desires of everyone. Pure devotees are interested in 
achieving the transcendental service of the Lord, which is nondifferent in 
quality from Him. Therefore, the Lord is the only desire of the pure devotees, 
and devotional service is the only perfect spiritual process for achieving His 
favor. Srila Rupa Gosvami says in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 1.1.11 (quoted 
above) that pure devotional service is jnana-karmady-anavrtam: pure 
devotional service is without any tinge of speculative knowledge and fruitive 
activity. Such devotional service is able to award the pure devotee the highest 
result, namely direct association with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 
Lord Krsna. 

According to the Gopala-tdpanT Upanisad, after Brahma's extensive tapasya, 
the Lord showed him one of the many thousands of petals of His lotus feet. It 
says: 

brahmano 'sdv anavaratam me 
dhydtah stutah parardhante 
so 'budhyata gopa-veso me 
purastat avirbabhuva 

"After penetrating meditation for millions of years, Lord Brahma 
could understand the original form of the Lord, Sri Krsna as a 
transcendental cowherd boy, and thus he recorded his experience 
in the famous prayer Brahma-samhita, govindam adi-purusam 
tarn aham bhajami." 

Devotees whose objective is to associate personally with the Lord have no 
desire to accept the activities of karma-kdnda or jhana-kanda, for pure 



SrT Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 18 



devotional service is above both. Anyabhilasita-sunyamjnana-karmady- 
anavrtam [Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 1.1.11]. In pure devotional service there is 
not even a pinch oijnana or karma. The devotees accept only the upasana- 
kanda process of pure devotional service. 

iti bhagavatan dharman 
siksan bhaktyd tad-utthayd 
ndrayana-paro mayam 
ahjas tarati dustaram 

"Thus learning the science of devotional service and practically 
engaging in the devotional service of the Lord, the devotee 
comes to the stage of love of Godhead. And by complete 
devotion to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana, the 
devotee easily crosses over the illusory energy, Maya, which is 
extremely difficult to cross. " [Srlmad-Bhagavatam 11.3.33] 

Simply executing the duties of the regulative principles of the scriptures, all 
the varnas and dsramas of external religious duty, is not as good as offering 
all the results of one's activities to the Lord. When one gives up all fruitive 
activity and fully surrenders to the Lord, he attains sva-dharma-tydga, 
wherein he abandons the social order and takes to the renounced order. That is 
certainly better. However, better than the renounced order is cultivation of 
knowledge mixed with devotional service. Yet all these activities are external 
to the activities of the spiritual world. There is no touch of pure devotional 
service in them. 

Pure devotional service is the highest transcendental platform. It cannot be 
attained by empiric philosophy, nor can perfection be attained simply by good 
association. Devotional service by self-realization is a different subject matter. 
It is untouched by fruitive activity, for one surrenders the results of activities 
to the Lord, abandons prescribed duties and accepts the renounced order of 
life. Such devotional service is situated on a higher platform than that of 
empiric philosophical speculation with a mixture oibhakti. 

Without coming to the stage oiprema-bhakti, pure love of Godhead, the 
whole process is a failure. Therefore the path of devotional service must not 
be reduced to an external religious process based on the rules and regulations 
of the scriptures; although it may begin from regulated vaidhl-bhakti, it must 



SrT Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 19 



help the aspiring devotee advance to rdgdnugd-bhakti, spontaneous loving 
service, and ultimately reach the perfectional stages of bhava and prema. 
Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu gives this progressive path, beginning from the 
regulative principles of scriptural injunction up to the highest platform of pure 
devotional service. Therefore it is unique, even among the Vedic literature, for 
it educates the devotee in the highest and most esoteric science of rdsa-tattva, 
or how to satisfy Lord Sri Krsna. 

The importance of Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 

In Jaiva-Dharma by Srila Bhaktivinod Thakur, Chapter 3 1, it is stated: 

Now I can truly realize the importance of these wonderful words 
composed by Srila Rupa Gosvami in the Southern Division, Fifth 
Wave, Verses 78-79, of the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu: 

sarva thaiva duruho 'yam abhaktair-bhagavad-rasah 
tat pdddmbuja-sarvasvair bhaktair evdnurasyate 
vyatltya bhdvand-vartma yas camatkdra-bhdra-bhuh 
hrdi sattvojjvale badham svadate sa raso matah 

"Those who are convinced that the lotus feet of Sri Krsna are 
the summum bonum of life are the purest of devotees, and they 
alone are capable of relishing bhakti-rasa. Those whose hearts 
are bereft of bhakti and rampant with mundane emotion are 
generally contaminated by impure habits and are fond of logic 
and argumentation. They can never perceive this transcendental 
rasa. The person who has transcended the noumenal plane and 
whose consciousness and heart have been enlightened by the 
brilliance of pure goodness that ushers the dawn of magnificent 
transcendental bhava is alone able to experience rasa." 

True rasa is not available upon the material plane; it is of the spiritual world. 
As the jiva is cit-kana, a spark of spiritual energy, rasa manifests within his 
consciousness. Rasa appears only in deep bhakti-samadhi, devotional 
meditation. Those who have received the grace of Sri Gurudeva and have 
realized the distinction between suddha-sattva, pure goodness, and misra- 
sattva, mixed goodness, are free from all doubts. 



Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 20 



There is a profound difference between the ordinary goodness in the material 
world and the pure goodness of the transcendental plane of consciousness. 
The root of this difference has to do with our intentions. When the root of our 
intention is to benefit ourselves, we are capable of action in the mode of 
goodness, but such action is still contaminated with the conception of 
selfishness. Pure goodness, on the other hand, is bereft of all sense of self- 
benefit, and seeks only to benefit the beloved or object of service, namely Sri 
Krsna Himself. 

We cannot understand this subtle distinction, nor purify ourselves from the 
desire for self-benefit, by any other process than pure bhakti. Karma, jnana 
and yoga are all predicated on the assumption of activity for the purpose of 
benefiting oneself. Only pure bhakti is the platform of actions performed in 
pure loving service without any desire for oneself. One only desires more and 
more service for the beloved, and Sri Krsna reciprocates this service by 
arranging more and more facility for the devotee to engage in His 
transcendental loving service. 

This process of pure devotional service is the subject of Bhakti-rasamrta- 
sindhu. Although it is mentioned in Srlmad-Bhagavatam, it is not explained in 
detail there. But Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu discusses uttma-bhakti, pure 
devotional service, more elaborately than any other Vedic literature. 

Vaidhi-bhakti is devotion inspired by following scriptural rules, whereas 
rdganugd-bhakti is devotion inspired by lobha, or greed. While there is ample 
explanation of vaidhi-bhakti (regulated devotional service) in other works, 
spontaneous devotion (rdganugd-bhakti) and the higher stages of devotional 
service such as bhava-bhakti and prema-bhakti are discussed in detail only in 
Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu. 

To be inspired towards bhakti means to be single-minded in executing all the 
different processes of bhakti. Therefore the two ways to foster bhakti are first 
by strictly following scriptural rules, and second, through developing intense 
greed (lobha) to serve the Lord. Of these two methods, Srila Rupa Goswami 
gives more importance to lobha, as he expresses in his Bhakti-rasamrta- 
sindhu: 

tat tat-bhava-adi-madhurye srute dhir-yad-apeksate 
natra sastram na yuktim-ca tallobhotpatti-laksanam 



Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 21 



"After the devotee has heard the detailed descriptions of the 
sweetness of Lord Krsna's loving spiritual sentiments (bhava- 
madhuryd) with His associates, he is spontaneously drawn 
towards those sentiments of Krsna's beloved associates. Such a 
devotee, desiring to possess those feelings, shakes free the 
shackles of logic and scriptural bindings. Liberating himself from 
these bonds is the devotee's first symptom o£ lobha." 

When a devotee becomes greedy for Krsna while hearing about 
the different ecstatic emotions displayed by aparikara 
(confidante) participating in Krsna's Vraja pastimes, the devotee 
thinks, "Let this spiritual emotion also bloom in my heart." Such 
meditations are never interrupted by a need to seek consent from 
either the scriptures or logic. If by chance a devotee feels any 
uncertainty, then his desire to possess the spiritual emotions of a 
Parikara cannot be called lobha. No one can ever develop lobha 
from following scriptural injunctions, nor can one obtain the 
desired spiritual object if the mind is endlessly analyzing whether 
or not one is eligible. Real lobha appears spontaneously when 
one sees or hears about Krsna. 

Lobha has two divisions according to the two sources from which it may 
develop: the pure devotee's mercy and the Supreme Lord's mercy. The first 
division oilobha, that which is owing to the devotee's mercy, is of two kinds: 
ancient and modern. Ancient lobha appears by the mercy of pure devotees 
steeped in the same sweet, eternal devotional mellows the constant associates 
of Lord Krsna relish. When lobha originates from the grace of pure devotees 
in the present time it is known as contemporary, or modern. When lobha starts 
from the previous birth and begins to bloom in the present life then the 
devotee must take shelter of a guru who is a rdgdnugd pure devotee. The 
second kind of lobha, or modeni-lobha, is developed only after the devotee 
takes shelter of his spiritual master. Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu confirms: 

krsna tat-bhakta karunya-matra lobhaika hetuka 
pusti-mdrga-taya kaiscid iyam raganugocyate 

"Lobha is produced solely by the mercy of Krsna and His pure 



SrT Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 22 



devotees. Devotion initiated by such lobha is defined as 
raganuga-bhakti; sometimes it is termed pusti-mdrga-bhakti. " 

When both kinds of devotees, the one yearning for ancient lobha, the other for 
modern lobha, hear how to acquire the devotional mellows possessed by 
Krsna's eternal associates, or nitya-parikara, they seek guidance from the 
proper scriptures. This is because the authorized method for attaining bhava is 
delineated in scriptural injunctions and purports; no other sources for 
receiving this information are indicated anywhere. 

The following analogy illustrates this point: A person becomes greedy for 
milk and its products, but first he must want to know how to procure milk. He 
then has to seek advice from a trustworthy person conversant with the subject 
who will tell him how to purchase a cow and how to take care of her properly. 
In other words, knowledge on a subject cannot be simply invented — proper 
guidance is necessary. As Lord Brahma explains in the Srlmad-Bhagavatam 
8.6.12: 

yathagnim edhasy amrtam ca gosu 
bhuvy annam ambudyamane ca vrttim 
yogair manusya adhiyanti hi tvam 
gunesu buddhya kavayo vadanti 

"As one can derive fire from wood, milk from the milk-bag of 
the cow, food grains and water from the land, and prosperity in 
one's livelihood from industrial enterprises, so by practice of 
bhakti-yoga, even within this material world, one can achieve 
Your favor or intelligently approach You. Those who are pious 
all affirm this." 

For a rdga-bhakta (the devotee who is following the path of raganuga-bhakti) 
this intense eagerness for hearing and chanting about the all-purifying 
qualities and activities of Krsna begins with the rdga-bhakta 's surrender to the 
lotus feet of his guru, and continues to flourish until he attains his spiritual 
goals. The more a devotee is purified by hearing and chanting, the more 
spiritual realizations he will have; just as medicine applied correctly to 
diseased eyes cures them, so hearing and chanting cures the devotee of 
material ignorance. 



Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 23 



The formula for this concentrated medicine is found in Sri Bhakti-rasamrta- 
sindhu, and nowhere else. It is described very nicely in the five Waves of the 
Southern Ocean as a combination of five bhavas: vibhava, anubhava, 
sattvika-bhava, vyabhicarT-bhava and sthayi-bhava. This transcendental 
prescription coming from the original physician, Lord Sri Caitanya 
Mahaprabhu, is powerful enough to cure all our material diseases and restore 
us to full spiritual health. 



Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 24 



Stages of Devotional Service in Terms of 
Consciousness 

It is interesting to contemplate the correlation between the nine stages of 
progressive devotional service given in SrT Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu and their 
relation to the six stages of evolution of consciousness, so I made a diagram: 



Six Stages of Conscious Evolution 

(from the Brahmananda-vallf of the Taittinya Upani$ad) 

Anandamaya 

(life as pure love of Godhead) 



Vijfianamaya 

(life as self-realization) 

Jnanamaya 

(life as Vedic knowledge) 



Manomaya 

(life as mind) 

Pranamaya 

(life as energy) 

Annamaya 

(life as food) 



Nine Stages of Devotional Service 

(from the "adau sraddha" sioka) 




Prema 

(pure love of Godhead) 

Bhava 

(devotional ecstasy) 

Asakti 

(attachment to Krsna) 

Ruol 

(taste for Krsna) 

Nistha 

(steadiness) 

Anartha-nivrtti 

(removal of offenses) 



Bhajana-kriya 

(regulative devotional service) g 

IE 

Sadhu-sariga Sf 

(association of devotees) ™ 

tj> 

Sraddha | 

(preliminary faith) 



A person identified with the material body, life energy or mind is in material 
consciousness, under the three modes of nature: ignorance, passion or 
goodness respectively. Once one enters the path of devotional service, he is in 
spiritual consciousness and on the transcendental platform. Then he becomes 
authorized (adhikard) to cultivate progressively higher stages of devotional 
service as described in the "adau sraddha" sloka: 

adau sraddha tatah sadhu- 
sahgo 'tha bhajana-kriya 
tato 'nartha-nivrttih sydt 
tato nistha rucis tatah 



SrT Bh akti-rasamrta-sin dh u 



Eastern Ocean 



Page 25 



athasaktis tato bhavas 
tatah premabhyudahcati 
sddhakdndm ayam premnah 
prddurbhdve bhavet kramah 

"In the beginning one must have a preliminary desire for self- 
realization. This will bring one to the stage of trying to associate 
with persons who are spiritually elevated. In the next stage one 
becomes initiated by an elevated spiritual master, and under his 
instruction the neophyte devotee begins the process of devotional 
service. By execution of devotional service under the guidance of 
the spiritual master, one becomes free from all material 
attachment, attains steadiness in self-realization, and acquires a 
taste for hearing about the Absolute Personality of Godhead, Sri 
Krsna. This taste leads one further forward to attachment for 
Krsna consciousness, which is matured in bhdva, or the 
preliminary stage of transcendental love of God. Real love for 
God is called prema, the highest perfectional stage of life." 
[Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu 1.4.15-16] 

We hope you find this edition of Srila Rupa Gosv ami's Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta- 
sindhu useful and enlightening. 



Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 26 



Structure of Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu compared with 
Srlla Prabhupada's Nectar of Devotion 

This table compares the chapter structure of Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu with 
Srlla Prabhupada's summary study, Nectar of Devotion, first published in 
1967. This is to assist devotees who are familiar with Nectar of Devotion to 
find the corresponding sections in Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu. 



Ocean 


Wave 


Title 


Translation 


NOD 
Chap. 


Eastern 
Ocean 




Bhagavad- 
bhakti-bheda 


Varieties of Devotional Service 


Intro- 19 


First 


Sdmdnya-bhakti 


Overview of Devotional 
Service 


Intro- 1 


Second 


Sddhana-bhakti 


Devotional Service in Practice 


2-16 


Thrrd 


Bhdva-bhakti 


Devotional Service in Ecstasy 


17-18 


Fourth 


Prema-bhakti 


Devotional service in Love of 
God 


19 


Southern 
Ocean 




Sdmdnya- 

bhagavad- 

bhakti-rasa 


General Symptoms of 
Transcendental Mellow 


20-34 


First 


Vibhdva 


Ecstatic Excitants 


20-26 


Second 


Annbhdva 


Ecstatic Expressions 


27 


Thrrd 


Sdttvika-bhdva 


Involuntary Ecstatic 
Expressions 


28 


Fourth 


VyabhicdrT- 
bhdva 


Transient Ecstatic Disturbances 


29-31 


Fifth 


SthdyT-bhdva 


Permanent Ecstatic Mood 


32-34 


Western 
Ocean 




Mukhya-bhakti- 
rasa 


Primary Loving Relationships 


35-44 



Sri Bh akti-rasamrta-sin dh u 



Eastern Ocean 



Page 27 



Ocean 


Wave 


Title 


Translation 


NOD 
Chap. 




First 


Santa-rasa 


Neutral Love of God 


35 


Second 


Dasya-rasa 


Affection and Service 


36-40 


Third 


Sakhya-rasa 


Fraternal Devotion 


41-42 


Fourth 


Vatsalya-rasa 


Perenthood 


43 


Fifth 


Madhurya-rasa 


Conjugal Love 


44 


Northern 
Ocean 




Gauna-bhakti- 
rasa 


Indirect Loving Relationships 


45-51 


First 


Hasya-rasa 


Laughing Ecstasy 


45 


Second 


Adbhuta-bhakti- 
rasa 


Astonishment 


46 


Third 


I Ira-bhakti-rasa 


Chivalry 


46 


Fourth 


Karuna-bhakti- 
rasa 


Compassion 


47 


Fifth 


Raudra-bhakti- 
rasa 


Anger 


47 


Sixth 


Bhayanaka- 
bhakti-rasa 


Dread 


48 


Seventh 


I Ibhatsa-bhakti- 
rasa 


Ghastliness 


48 


Eighth 


Maitri-Vaira- 
Sthiti 


Compatible & Incompatible 
Mixing of Mellows 


49-50 


Ninth 


Rasabhasa 


Incomplete Expression of 
Mellows 


51 



Sri Bh akti-rasamrta-sin dh u 



Eastern Ocean 



Page 28 



r 

Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindh u 

Eastern Ocean: 

Defining the Different Types of Bhakti 



Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 29 



First Wave: General Overview of Bhakti 



akhila-rasamrta-murtih prasrmara-ruci-ruddha-taraka-palih \ 
kalita-syama-lalito rddhd-preydn vidhurjayati ||1.1.1|| 

First Translation: 

"Krsna, the destroyer of all sin and the bestower of all bliss, the very form of 
the highest bliss, filled with all rasas, excels all others in glory. He brings 
Taraka and Palika under His control by the diffusion of His beauty; He 
accepts Syamala and Lalita as His equals; and gives pleasure to Radha with 
His excellent qualities." 

Second Translation: 

"The full moon, which destroys suffering and creates happiness by its cooling 
rays, shines everywhere by its excellent qualities and beauty. It is the very 
form of nectar, filled with all tastes. It eclipses the host of stars by its light, 
accepts the playful gestures of the night, and fondly enters the naksatra Sakha 
in the spring season." 

hrdi yasya preranaya pravartito 'ham vardka-rupo 'pi \ 
tasya hareh pada-kamalam vande caitanya-devasya ||1.1.2|| 

"I offer my respects unto the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead, Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Though I am a vile person by 
nature, I have undertaken this work by His inspiration within my heart." 

visrdma-mandiratya tasya sandtana-tanor mad-Tsasya \ 
bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhur bhavatu sadayam pramodaya ||1.1.3|| 

"May this work named 'the ocean of nectar composed of bhakti-rasa ' always 
serve as the recreation hall of my Lord manifested in the form called Sanatana 
(Gosvami) for His pleasure." 

bhakti-rasamrta-sindhau caratah paribhuta-kala-jala-bhiyah \ 



Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 30 



bhakta-makaran asilita-mukti-nadikan namasami ||1.1.4|| 

"I offer my respects to the devotees who are like makaras, kings among 
fishes, frolicking in the sweet ocean of devotional rasa ;who disregard the 
insignificant rivers of liberation, and who are free from fear caused by the net 
of time." 

mimamsaka-badavagneh kathinam api kunthayann asau \ 
sphuratu sanatana suciram tava bhakti-rasamrtambhodhih ||1.1.5|| 

"O Sanatana, may your ocean of bhakti-rasa remain for a long time, 
restricting the harsh arguments of the proponents of karma and jndna, just as 
the ocean restricts the flame of the vadabd fire." 

bhakti-rasasya prastutir akhila-jagah-mahgala-prasahgasya \ 
ajhenapi maydsya kriyate suhrdam pramoddya || 1. 1.6|| 

"Although I am ignorant, I have undertaken this work concerning bhakti-rasa 
related to Krsna, who is auspicious for the whole world, for the joy of my 
friends." 

etasya bhagavad-bhakti-rasamrta-payonidheh \ 

catvarah khalu vaksyante bhagdh purvadayah kramat ||1.1.7|| 

"In this sweet ocean of bhakti-rasa offered to the Lord, four sections will be 
expounded one at a time, starting with the eastern section." 

tatra purve vibhage smin bhakti-bheda-nirupake \ 
anukramena vaktavyam laharlnam catustayam ||1.1.8|| 

"The Eastern Ocean defines the different types oibhakti. This will be 
discussed in four successive waves (chapters)." 

adya samdnya-bhakty-ddhya dvitlya sadhananvita \ 
bhavasrita trtiya ca turya prema-nirupika ||1.1.9|| 



Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu Eastern Ocean Page 31 



"The First Wave of the Eastern Ocean is concerned with bhakti in general. 
The Second Wave describes sddhana-bhakti. The Third Wave describes 
bhdva-bhakti . The Fourth Wave describes prema-bhakti ." 

tatrddau susthu vaisistyam asydh kathayitum sphutam \ 
laksanam kriyate bhakter uttamdydh satdm matam || 1. 1. 10|| 

"In the First Wave, to clearly describe the superiority of bhakti to other 
processes, the unique characteristics of uttama-bhakti , as approved by the 
deary as, will be related." 

anydbhildsitd-sunyam jhdna-karmddy-andvrtam \ 
dnukulyena krsndnusilanam bhaktir uttamd 1 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 1 1 

"The highest bhakti is defined as continuous service or emotions directed 
towards Krsna, His expansion forms or others related to Him, with a pleasing 
attitude towards Krsna. It should be devoid of desires other than the desire to 
please the Lord, and unobstructed by impersonal jhdna, the materialistic 
rituals of karma or other unfavorable acts." 

yathd sri-ndrada-pancardtre — 
sarvopddhi-vinirmuktam tat-paratvena nirmalam \ 
hrsikena hrsikesa-sevanam bhaktir ucyate || 1. 1. 12|| 

Thus, the Ndrada-pahcardtra says: 

"Bhakti is defined as service to the Lord using the senses. It should be done 
with the intention of pleasing the Lord, free from other desires, and 
unobstructed by other processes." 

sri-bhdgavatasya trtiya-skandhe ca (3.29. 12-14) — 
ahaituky avyavahitd yd bhaktih purusottame 
sdlokya-sdrsti-sdmipya-sdrupyaikatvam apy uta \ 
diyamdnam na grhnanti vind mat-sevanam jandh 
sa eva bhakti-yogdkhya dtyantika uddhrtah || 1. 1. 13-15|| 

This is also stated in the Third Canto of SrTmad-Bhdgavatam [3.29. 12-14]: 



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"These are the characteristics of transcendental loving service to Purusottama, 
the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is without other desires, and it is not 
contaminated by karma orjnana. In this type ofbhakti, My devotees do not 
accept salokya, sarsti, sarupya, samipya or oneness with Me — even if I offer 
these liberations — in preference to serving Me. This is called bhakti-yoga, and 
it is declared as the highest object of human pursuit." 

salokyetyadi-padyastha-bhaktotkarsa-nirupanam \ 
bhakter visuddhata-vyaktya laksane paryavasyati 1 1 1 . 1 . 1 6| | 

"The description of the excellence of the devotee in the above verse amounts 
to describing the characteristics ofbhakti by revealing its purity." 

klesa-ghni subhada moksa-laghuta-krt sudurlabha \ 
sandrdnanda-visesatma sri-krmakarsini ca sd \ | 1 . 1 . 1 7| | 

"The unique characteristics oibhakti are: its ability to destroy suffering; its 
bestowal of auspiciousness; its disregard for liberation; its rarity of 
attainment; its manifestation of concentrated bliss; and its ability to attract 
Krsna" 

tatrasyah klesaghnatvam — 

Mesas tu papain tad-bijam avidya ceti te tridha ||1.1.18|| 

"Now we will discuss the first characteristic, its ability to destroy suffering. 
Suffering is threefold: sinful reaction, the seed of sin and ignorance." 

tatra papam — 

aprarabdham bhavet papam prarabdham ceti tad dvidha ||1.1.19|| 

"First we will discuss sinful reactions. There are two types of sinful reactions 
(effects of sinful acts): effects that are experienced in this lifetime 
(prarabdham) and effects that will be experienced in future lives 

(aprarabdham)" 

tatra aprarabdha-haratvam, yatha ekadase (11. 14. 19) — 
yathagnih susamiddharcih karoty edhamsi bhasmasat \ 

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tatha mad-vis ay a-bhaktir uddhavainamsi krtsnasah ||1.1.20|| 

Here is an example of destroying all aprdrabdha reactions from the 1 1th 

Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [11.14.19]: 

"My dear Uddhava, devotional service in relationship with Me is like a 

blazing fire that can burn to ashes all the fuel of sinful activities supplied to 

it." 

prarabdha-haratvam, yatha trtiye (3.33.6) — 

yan-nama-dheya-sravananukirtanad 

yat-prahvanad yat-smaranad api kvacit \ 

svado'pi sadyah savandya kalpate 

kutah punas te bhagavan nu darsanat ||1.1.21|| 

Here is proof of destroying prarabdha reactions from the Third Canto of 
Srimad-Bhagavatam [3.33.6]: 

"To say nothing of the spiritual advancement of persons who see the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead face-to-face, even a person born in a family of dog- 
eaters immediately becomes eligible to perform Vedic sacrifices if he once 
utters the Holy Name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead or chants about 
Him, hears about His pastimes, offers Him obeisances or even remembers 
Him." 

durjatir eva savanayogyatve karanam matam \ 
durjaty-arambhakam papam yat syat prarabdham eva tat ||1.1.22|| 

"It is understood that his low birth as a dog-eater is the cause of his 
disqualification from performing sacrifices. The sinful reaction by which he 
attains such low birth in this life is called prarabdha sin." 

padma-purane ca — 

aprarabdha-phalam papam kutam bijam phalonmukham \ 

kramenaiva praliyeta visnu-bhakti-ratatmanam 1 1 1 . 1 . 23 1 1 

Also in the Padma Purana it is said: 

"For those engaged in bhakti to Visnu, the aprdrabdha, kuta, bija and 

prarabdha-karmas are destroyed step-by-step." 

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bija-haratvam, yatha sasthe (6.2. 17) — 

tais tany aghani puyante tapo-dana-vratadibhih 

nadharmajam tad-hrdayam tad apisahghri-sevaya ||1.1.24|| 

An illumination oibhakti destroying the seed of sin, namely material desires, 

is found in the Sixth Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam [6.2. 17]: 

"Although one may neutralize the reactions of sinful life through austerity, 

charity, vows and other such methods, these pious activities cannot uproot the 

material desires in one's heart. However, if one serves the lotus feet of the 

Personality of Godhead, he is immediately freed from all such 

contaminations." 

avidya-haratvam, yatha caturthe (4.22.39) — 
yat-pada-pahkaja-palasa-vilasa-bhaktya 
karmasayam grathitam udgrathayanti santah \ 
tadvan na rikta-matayo yatayo 'pi ruddha- 
sroto-ganas tarn aranam bhaja vdsudevam ||1.1.25|| 

Next bhakti s ability to destroy avidyd (ignorance) is illustrated [in Srimad- 
Bhdgavatam 4.22.39]: 

"The devotees, who are always engaged in the service of the toes of the lotus 
feet of the Lord, can very easily overcome hard-knotted desires for fruitive 
activities. Because this is very difficult, the nondevotees — the jhdnis and 
yogis — although trying to stop the waves of sense gratification, cannot do so. 
Therefore you are advised to engage in the devotional service of Krsna, the 
son of Vasudeva." 

padme ca — 

krtanuyatra-vidyabhir hari-bhaktir anuttama \ 

avidyam nirdahaty asu dava-jvaleva pannagim ||1.1.26|| 

Padma Purdna says the following: 

"As the forest fire burns up the female snake demon, supreme devotion to the 
Lord quickly burns up avidyd completely by the knowledge (vidya) which 
accompanies it." 



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subhadatvam — 

subhdni prinanam sarva-jagatdm anuraktatd \ 

sadgundh sukham ity-ddlny dkhydtdni manisibhih || 1. 1.27|| 

"Next, the second unique characteristic of uttama-bhakti , namely its bestowal 
of auspiciousness, is discussed. The wise explain that there are four kinds of 
subha (auspiciousness): affection for all living entities, being attractive to all 
living entities, possession of good qualities, and happiness, as well as other 
items." 

tatrajagat-prinanddidvaya-pradatvam, yathd pddme — 

yendrcito haris tena tarpitdni jaganty api \ 

rajyanti jantavas tatra jangamdh sthdvard api ||1.1.28|| 

The first two types of auspiciousness are illustrated in the Padma Purdna: 
"He who worships the Lord is pleasing to all living entities; and all the 
inhabitants of the world, both moving and non-moving, are pleasing to him." 

sad-gunddi-pradatvam, yathd pahcame (5.18.12) — 
yasydsti bhaktir bhagavaty akihcand 
sarvair gunais tatra samdsate surah \ 
hardv abhaktasya kuto mahad-gund 
manorathendsati dhdvato bahih ||1.1.29|| 

That bhakti bestows good qualities and other things is discussed in the Fifth 
Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam [5.18.12]: 

"One who has unflinching devotion for the Personality of Godhead has all the 
good qualities of the demigods. But one who is not a devotee of the Lord has 
only material qualifications, that are of little value. This is because he is 
hovering on the mental plane and is certain to be attracted by the glaring 
material energy." 

sukhapradatvam — 

sukham vaisayikam brdhmam aisvaram ceti tat tridhd ||1.1.30|| 

"Bhakti bestows happiness. There are three types of happiness: from material 
things, from realization of brahman and from the Lord." 

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yatha tantre — 

siddhayah paramascarya bhuktir muktis ca sasvatT \ 

nityam ca paramdnando bhaved govinda-bhaktitah ||1.1.31|| 

Thus it is said in the Tantras: 

"Astounding mystic powers, material enjoyment, eternal happiness in the 
realization of brahman, and eternal bliss from service to the Lord all appear 
from bhakti to Govinda." 

yatha hari-bhakti-sudhodaye ca — 

bhuyo 'pi yace devesa tvayi bhaktir drdhastu me \ 

yd moksanta-caturvarga phalada sukhada lata || 1. 1.32|| 

It also says in the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya: 

"O Lord of the devas! I again pray to You that I may have firm devotion to 
You. That bhakti is a creeper that bestows artha, dharma, kama, moksa and 
also the happiness of realization of the Lord." 

moksa-laghutdkrt — 

manag eva prarudhayam hrdaye bhagavad-ratau \ 

purusarthas tu catvaras trnayante samantatah ||1.1.33|| 

Bhakti causes total disregard for liberation: 

"When even a little attraction for the Lord grows in the heart, the four objects 
of human attainment — artha, dharma, kama and moksa — become like grass, 
shameful to appear before bhakti.'" 

yatha sri-narada-pahcaratre — 
hari-bhakti-maha-devyah sarva mukty-adi-siddhayah \ 
bhuktyas cadbhutas tasyas cetikavad anuvratah ||1.1.34|| 

Thus the Narada-pahcaratra says: 

"All the siddhis headed by liberation and all astonishing material pleasures 

follow after the great goddess called Rari-bhakti like fearful maidservants." 

sudurlabha — 



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sadhanaughair anasangair alabhya sucirad api \ 
harind cdsvadeyeti dvidhd sd sydt sudurlabhd || 1. 1.35 1| 

"Bhakti is rarely attained. Bhakti is difficult to attain in two ways: if 
undertaken in great quantity but without attachment (dsakti), bhakti cannot 
attained even after a long time; and even if practiced with attachment, Krsna 
does not give bhakti to the practitioner immediately." 

tatra ddyd, yathd tdntre — 

jhdnatah sulabhd muktir bhuktir yajhddi-punyatah \ 

seyam sddhana-sdhasrair hari-bhaktih sudurlabhd ||1.1.36|| 

The first type of rarity is illustrated in one of the Tantras: 

"Liberation is easily attained by jhdna and material enjoyment is easily 

attained by punyas such as sacrifice, after attaining dedication to those goals 

by thousands of attempts. But bhdva-bhakti to the Lord cannot be attained if 

one practices thousands of different sddhanas (because dsakti will not 

appear)." 

dvitiyd, yathd pahcama-skandhe (5.6.18) — 
rdjdn patir gurur alam bhavatdm yadundm 
daivam priyah kula-patih kva ca kihkaro vah \ 
astv evam ahga bhajatdm bhagavdn mukundo 
muktim daddti karhicit sma na bhakti-yogam || 1. 1.37|| 

The second type of rarity is described in the Srimad-Bhdgavatam [5.6. 18]: 
"My dear King, the Supreme Person, Mukunda, is actually the maintainer of 
all the members of the Pandava and Yadu dynasties. He is your spiritual 
master, worshipable Deity, friend, and the director of your activities. To say 
nothing of this, He sometimes serves your family as a messenger or servant. 
This means He worked just as ordinary servants do. Those engaged in getting 
the Lord's favor attain liberation from the Lord very easily, but He does not 
very easily give the opportunity to render direct service unto Him." 

sdndrdnanda-visesdtmd — 

brahmdnando bhaved esa cet pardrddha-gunikrtah \ 

naiti bhakti-sukhdmbhodheh paramdnu-tuldm api ||1.1.38|| 

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"Bhakti is composed of a special condensed bliss. The bliss of brahman 
realization accumulated by samadhi lasting half a lifetime of Brahma cannot 
be compared to one drop of the ocean of happiness ofbhakti." 

yathd, hari-bhakti-sudhodaye — 
tvat-saksdt-karandhlada-visuddhdbdhi-sthitasya me \ 
sukhdni gospadayante brahmany apijagad-guro ||1.1.39|| 

Therefore the Hari-bhakti-sudhodayasays: 

"O guru of the universe, on seeing You directly, I am situated in a pure ocean 
of bliss. All the happiness of impersonal brahman is as insignificant as the 
water in the hoofprint of a cow." 

tatha bhdvdrtha-dlpikdydm (10.88. 11) ca — 
tvat-kathdmrta-pathodhau viharanto mahd-mudah \ 
kurvanti krtinah kecit catur-vargam trnopamam ||1.1.40|| 

Also, it is said in the Bhavatha-dlpika [10.88. 1 1]: 

"Some fortunate people play in the sweet ocean of Your topics and enjoy the 
greatest bliss. They consider the happiness from artha, dharma, kama and 
moksa to be as insignificant as grass." 

sri-krsnakarsini — 

krtva harim prema-bhajam priya-varga-samanvitam \ 

bhaktir vasikarotiti sri-krsnakarsini mata 1 1 1 . 1 . 4 1 1 1 

"Bhakti attracts Krsna and His associates. Bhakti is called sri-krsnakarsini 
because it makes the Lord addicted to prema and brings Him under control, 
along with His associates." 

yathaikadase (11.14.20) — 

na sadhyati mam yogo na sahkhyam dharma uddhava \ 

na svadhyayas tapas tyago yathd bhaktir mamorjita || 1. 1.42|| 

Thus Srlmad-Bhagavatam says in the Eleventh Canto [11.14.20]: 



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"My dear Uddhava, the unalloyed devotional service rendered to Me by My 
devotees brings Me under their control. I cannot be thus controlled by those 
engaged in mystic yoga, Sankhya philosophy, pious work, Vedic study, 
austerity or renunciation." 

saptame (7. 10.48) ca naradoktau — 

yuyam nrloke bata bhuri-bhaga 

lokam punana munayo'bhiyanti \ 

yesam grhan dvasatiti saksad 

gudham par am brahma manusya-lirigam ||1.1.43|| 

Similarly Narada says in the Seventh Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [7.10.48]: 
"My dear Maharaja Yudhisthira, all of you [the Pandavas] are extremely 
fortunate, for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, lives in your 
palace just like a human being. Great saintly persons know this very well, and 
therefore they constantly visit this house." 

agrato vaksyamdndyas tridhd bhakter anukramdt \ 

dvisah sadbhih padair etan mahatyam pari kirti tarn ||1.1.44|| 

"The three types of bhakti will be explained later, one after the other. The 
greatness of bhakti is uniquely glorified by the six qualities just mentioned, 
two qualities appearing in each type of bhakti'' 

kim ca — 

svalpapi rucir eva syad bhakti-tattvavabodhika \ 

yuktis tu kevala naiva yad asya apratisthata ||1.1.45|| 

"Furthermore it should be stated that even if one has just a little taste for the 
topic of bhakti, he can understand it. He who tries to understand bhakti by dry 
logic cannot understand it, because logic is insubstantial." 

tatra praclnair apy uktam — 

yatnenapadito py arthah kusalair anumatrbhih \ 

abhiyuktatarair anyair anyathaivopapadyate\\\.\A6\\ 



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"Concerning this topic it is said by the ancient authorities: 'A person more 
skillful at logic can bring about a conclusion different from what was 
carefully proven previously by another skillful logician." 

iti sri sri bhakti-rasamrta-sindhau 
purva-bhage bhakti-samanya lahari prathama 

"Thus ends the First Wave in the Eastern Ocean oiSri Bhakti-rasamrta- 
sindhu, concerning the general overview oibhakti." 



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Second Wave: Sadhana-Bhakti 

sd bhaktih sddhanam bhdvah premd ceti tridhoditd ||1.2. 1|| 

"There are three types oibhakti: sddhana, bhdva and prema" 

tatra sddhana-bhaktih — 

krti-sddhyd bhavet sddhya-bhdvd sd sddhandbhidhd \ 

nitya-siddhasya bhdvasya prdkatyam hrdi sddhyatd ||1.2.2|| 

"Now we will define sddhana-bhakti: Action of the senses that produces the 
state of bhdva is called sddhana-bhakti. The state of bhdva-bhakti that is 
attained {sddhyatd) is an eternal sthdyi-bhdva which is not created, but simply 
manifests within the soul by the spiritual energy of the Lord." 

sd bhaktih saptama-skandhe bhahgyd devarsinoditd ||1.2.3|| 

"Narada speaks of sddhana-bhakti along with items that seem to be bhakti in 
the Seventh Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam" 

yathd saptame [7. 1.3 1] — 

tasmdt kendpy updyena manah krsne nivesayet ||1.2.4|| 

There it is also said: 

"Therefore, somehow one must think of Krsna by any of the favorable 

methods." 

vaidhi rdgdnugd ceti sd dvidhd sddhandbhidhd || 1.2.5|| 

"There are two kinds of sddhana-bhakti: vaidhi and rdgdnuga" 

tatra vaidhi — 

yatra rdgdnavdptatvdt pravrttir upajdyate \ 

sdsanenaiva sdstrasya sd vaidhi bhaktir ucyate \\ 1.2.6|| 



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"Now here is the definition ofvaidhl-bhakti: Where the actions ofbhakti 
arise, not from the attainment oiraga but by the teachings of the scriptures, it 
is called vaidhi-bhakti." 

yatha, dvitiye (2. 1.6) — 

tasmdd bhdrata sarvatmd bhagavdn Tsvaro harih \ 

srotavyah kirtitavyas ca smartavyas cechatdbhayam ||1.2.7|| 

This is illustrated in the Second Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam [2. 1.5]: 
"O descendant of King Bharata, one who desires to be free from all miseries 
must hear about, glorify and also remember the Personality of Godhead, who 
is the Supersoul, the controller and the savior from all miseries." 

pddme ca — 

smartavyah satatam visnur vismartavyo najdtucit \ 

sarve vidhi-nisedhah syur etayor eva kihkarah || 1.2.8|| 

In the Padma Purdnaii is said: 

"One should always remember Visnu and never forget Him. All injunctions 

and prohibitions are based upon these two principles." 

ity asau sydd vidhir nityah sarva-varndsramddisu \ 
nityatve 'py asya nirnitam ekddasy-ddivat-phalam ||1.2.9|| 

"Thus, everyone within and outside the varndsrama system should always 
follow this rule concerning worship of the Lord. Though it is always to be 
followed as a daily duty according to the scriptures, the scriptures also ascribe 
attractive material results from observing it, as in the case of the Ekadasi- 
vrata." 

yatha, ekadase (11.5.2-3) tu vyaktam evoktam — 

mukha bahuru-padebhyah purusasyasramaih saha 

catvaro jajnire varna gunair vipradayah prthak || 1.2. 10|| 

ya esam purusam saksad atma-prabhavam Tsvaram 

na bhajanty avajananti sthanad bhrastah patanty adhah ||1.2.11|| 



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In the Eleventh Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam [11.5.2-3] it is expressed 
clearly that vaidhT-bhakti should be followed by all varnas and asramas: 
"Each of the four social orders, headed by the brahmanas, was born through 
different combinations of the modes of nature, from the face, arms, thighs and 
feet of the Supreme Lord in His universal form. Thus the four spiritual orders 
were also generated. If any of the members of the four varnas and four 
asramas fail to worship or intentionally disrespect the Personality of 
Godhead, who is the source of their own creation, they will fall down from 
their position into a hellish state of life." 

tat phalam ca, tatraiva (11.27.49) — 

evam kriya-yoga-pathaih pumdn vaidika-tantrikaih \ 

arcann ubhyatah siddhim matto vindaty abhipsitam ||1.2. 12|| 

The results of vaidhT-bhakti are stated [in Srimad-BhagavatamW. 27. 49]: 
"By worshiping Me through the various methods prescribed in the Vedas and 
Tantras, one will gain from Me his desired perfection in both this life and the 
next." 

pahcardtre ca — 

surarse vihita sastre harim uddisya yd kriya \ 

saiva bhaktir iti proktd taya bhaktih para bhavet ||1.2.13|| 

The Narada-pahcardtra says: 

"O Devarsi, all activities with the Lord as the object prescribed in the 

scriptures are called vaidhT-bhakti. By this performance ofbhakti, one attains 

prema-bhakti." 

tatra adhikarT — 

yah kenapy atibhagyena jata-sraddho sya sevane \ 

natisakto na vairagya-bhag asyam adhikary asau || 1.2. 14|| 

"The qualified candidate is described as follows: The person who has 
developed faith in serving the Lord by the impressions arising from previous 
association with devotees, who is not too attached to material objects, and 
who is not too detached, is qualified for vaidhT-bhakti." 



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yathaikadase (11.20.28) — 

yadrcchaya mat-kathadau jata-sraddho stu yah pumdn \ 

na nirvinno ndtisakto bhakti-yogo 'sya siddhidah || 1.2. 15|| 

In the Eleventh Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [11.20.8] it is said: 
"If somehow or other by good fortune one develops faith in hearing and 
chanting My glories, such a person, being neither very disgusted with nor 
attached to material life, should achieve perfection through the path of loving 
devotion to Me." 

uttamo madhyamas ca sydt kanisthas ceti sa tridhd || 1.2. 16|| 

"There are three types of persons qualified for vaidhT-sddhana-bhakti: 
uttamddhikari, madhyamadhikari and kanisthadhikari" 

tatra uttamah — 

sastre yuktau ca nipunah sarvathd drdha-niscayah \ 

praudha-sraddho 'dhikari yah sa bhaktav uttamo matah || 1.2. 17|| 

"The uttamddhikari is defined as follows: The person who is skillful in 
scripture and logic, completely firm in his belief, with deep faith, is 
considered qualified as uttama in vaidhi-bhakti ." 

tatra madhyamah — 

yah sastradisv anipunah sraddhdvan sa tu madhyamah ||1.2.18|| 

"The madhyamddhikdri is defined as follows: The person who is not fully 
conversant with the scriptures like the uttamddhikari, but has firm conviction 
in them, is known as madhyamddhikdri" 

tatra kanisthah — 

yo bhavet komala-sraddhah sa kanistho nigadyate || 1.2. 19|| 

"The definition of the kanisthadhikari is as follows: He who has weak faith 
because of even less knowledge of the scriptures than the madhyamddhikdri is 
called the kanistha" 



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tatra gitadisuktanam caturnam adhikarinam \ 
madhye yasmin bhagavatah krpa syat tat-priyasya vd || 1.2.20|| 
sa ksina-tat-tad-bhdvah sydc chuddha-bhakty-adhikdravdn \ 
yathebhah saunakadis ca dhruvah sa ca catuhsanah ||1.2.21|| 

"Among the four types of persons qualified for bhakti mentioned in the 
Bhagavad-gita, when they receive the mercy of the Lord or His devotee and 
eradicate those tendencies, they become qualified for pure bhakti. Examples 
of this are Gajendra, Saunaka and the sages, Dhruva and also the four 
Kumaras." 

bhukti-mukti-sprha yavat pisaci hrdi vartate \ 

tavad bhakti-sukhasyatra katham abhyudayo bhavet ||1.2.22|| 

"How can the happiness of bhakti arise in the heart when the witch of desire 
for enjoyment and liberation remains there?" 

tatrdpi ca visesena gatim anvim anicchatah \ 

bhaktir hrta-manah-prdnan premna tan kurute janan ||1.2.23|| 

"By prema, the bhakti processes such as hearing take possession of the mind 
and senses of persons who do not desire the goal of liberation at all." 

tatha ca, trtiye (3.25.36) — 
fair darsaniydvayavair uddra- 
vilasa-haseksita-vama-suktaih \ 
hrtatmano hrta-pranams ca bhaktir 
anicchato me gatim anvim prayuhkte ||1.2.24|| 

In the Third Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam [3.25.36] it is said: 
"Upon seeing the charming forms of the Lord, smiling and attractive, and 
hearing His very pleasing words, the pure devotee almost loses all other 
consciousness. His senses are freed from all other engagements, and he 
becomes absorbed in devotional service. Thus in spite of his unwillingness, he 
attains liberation without separate endeavor." 

sri krsna-caranambhoja-seva-nirvrta-cetasam \ 

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esarh moksaya bhaktanam na kadacit sprha bhavet || 1.2.25|| 

"Devotees who are absorbed in the bliss of service to the lotus feet of Krsna 
should never desire liberation." 

yathd tatraiva, srimad-uddhavoktau (3.4.15) — 
ko nv isa te pada-saroja-bhajam 
sudurlabho 'rthesu catursv apiha \ 
tathdpi naham pravrnomi bhuman 
bhavat-padambhoja-nisevanotsukah || 1.2.26|| 

Uddhava also states this [in Srimad-Bhdgavatam 3.4.15]: 
"O my Lord, devotees who engage in the transcendental loving service of 
Your lotus feet have no difficulty in achieving anything within the realm of 
the four principles of religiosity, economic development, sense gratification 
and liberation. But, O great one, as far as I am concerned, I have preferred 
only to engage in the loving service of Your lotus feet." 

tatraiva, srikapila-devoktau (3.25.35) — 
naikatmatam me sprhayanti kecin 
mat-pada-sevdbhirata mad-ihah \ 
ye 'nyonyato bhagavatah prasajya 
sabhajayante mama paurusani ||1.2.27|| 

And Kapila states the same [in Srimad-Bhdgavatam 3.25.34]: 
"A pure devotee, who is attached to the activities of devotional service and 
who always engages in the service of My lotus feet, never desires to become 
one with Me. Such a devotee, who is unflinchingly engaged, always glorifies 
My pastimes and activities." 

tatraiva (3.29. 13) — 

salokya-sarsti-samTpya-sarupyaikatvam apy uta \ 
diyamanam na grhnanti vina mat-sevanam janah ||1.2.28|| 

Kapila also says [in Srimad-Bhdgavatam 3.29.13]: 



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"A pure devotee does not accept any kind of liberation — sdlokya, sdrsti, 
sdmlpya, sdrupya or ekatva — even though they are offered by the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead, if they are not accompanied by service." 

caturthe sri-dhruvoktau (4.9. 10) — 

yd nirvrtis tanu-bhrtdm tava pdda-padma- 

dhydndd bhavaj-jana-kathd-sravanena vd sydt \ 

sd brahmani sva-mahimany api ndtha md 

bhutkim tv antakdsi-lulitdt patatdm vimdndt ||1.2.29|| 

In the Fourth Canto of SrTmad-Bhdgavatam [4.9.10], Dhruva says: 
"My Lord, the transcendental bliss derived from meditating upon Your lotus 
feet or hearing about Your glories from pure devotees is so unlimited that it is 
far beyond the stage of brahmdnanda, wherein one thinks himself merged in 
the impersonal Brahman as one with the Supreme. Since brahmdnanda is also 
defeated by the transcendental bliss derived from devotional service, then 
what to speak of the temporary blissfulness of elevating oneself to the 
heavenly planets, which is ended by the separating sword of time? Although 
one may be elevated to the heavenly planets, he falls down in due course of 
time." 

tatraiva srimad-ddirdjoktau (4.20.24) — 
na kdmaye ndtha tad apy aham kvacin 
na yatra yusmac-carandmbujdsavah \ 
mahattamdntar-hrdaydn mukha-cyuto 
vidhatsva karndyutam esa me varah ||1.2.30|| 

Concerning this, Maharaja Prthu also says [in SrTmad-Bhdgavatam 4.20.24]: 
"My dear Lord, I therefore do not wish to have the benediction of merging 
into Your existence, a benediction in which there is no existence of the 
nectarean beverage of Your lotus feet. I want the benediction of at least one 
million ears, for thus I may be able to hear about the glories of Your lotus feet 
from the mouths of Your pure devotees." 

pahcame srT-sukoktau (5. 14.44) — 

yo dustyajdn ksiti-suta-svajandrtha-ddrdn 

prdrthydm sriyam sura-varaih sadaydvalokdm \ 

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naicchan nrpas tad-ucitam mahatam madhudvit- 
sevdnurakta-manasdm abhavo 'pi phalguh 1 1 1 .2. 3 1 1 1 

In the Fifth Canto [of Srimad-Bhagavatam 5.14.44] Sri Suka says, 
"My dear King, the activities of Bharata Maharaja are wonderful. He gave up 
everything difficult for others to give up. He gave up his kingdom, his wife 
and his family. His opulence was so great that even the demigods envied it, 
yet he gave it up. It was quite befitting a great personality like him to be a 
great devotee. He could renounce everything because he was so attracted to 
the beauty, opulence, reputation, knowledge, strength and renunciation of the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna. Krsna is so attractive that one can 
give up all desirable things for His sake. Indeed, even liberation is considered 
insignificant for those whose minds are attracted to the loving service of the 
Lord." 

sasthe sri-vrtroktau (6. 11.25) — 
na naka-prstham na ca paramesthyam 
na sarva-bhaumam na rasddhipatyam \ 
na yoga-siddhir apunar-bhavam vd 
samanjasa tvd virahayya karikse || 1.2.32|| 

In the Sixth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [6.11.25] Vrtra says: 
"O my Lord, source of all opportunities, I do not desire to enjoy in 
Dhruvaloka, the heavenly planets or the planet where Lord Brahma resides, 
nor do I want to be the supreme ruler of all the earthly planets or the lower 
planetary systems. I do not desire to be master of the powers of mystic yoga, 
nor do I want liberation if I have to give up Your lotus feet." 

tatraiva srT-rudroktau (6.17.28) — 
nardyana-pardh sarve na kutascana bibhyati \ 
svargdpavarga-narakesv api tulydrtha-darsinah ||1.2.33|j 

Lord Siva also speaks on this subject in Srimad-Bhagavatam [6. 17.28]: 
"Devotees solely engaged in the devotional service of the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead, Narayana, never fear any condition of life. For them 
the heavenly planets, liberation and the hellish planets are all the same, for 
such devotees are interested only in the service of the Lord." 

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tatraiva indroktau (6. 18.74) — 

aradhanam bhagavata Thamdnd nirasisah \ 

ye tu necchanty api param te svartha-kusalah smrtah ||1.2.34|| 

Concerning this, Indra has also said in SrTmad-Bhagavatam [6.18.74]: 
"Although those who are interested only in worshiping the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead do not desire anything material from the Lord and do 
not even want liberation, Lord Krsna fulfills all their desires." 

saptame prahlddoktau (7.6.25) — 
tuste ca tatra kim alabhyam ananta ddye 
kim fair guna-vyatikarad iha ye sva-siddhah \ 
dharmadayah kim agunena ca kahksitena 
saram jusdm caranayor upagdyatam nah ||1.2.35|| 

Prahlada speaks in the Seventh Canto [of SrTmad-Bhagavatam, 7.6.25]: 
"Nothing is unobtainable for devotees who have satisfied the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead, who is the cause of all causes, the original source of 
everything. The Lord is the reservoir of unlimited spiritual qualities. For 
devotees, therefore, who are transcendental to the modes of material nature, 
what is the use of following the principles of religion, economic development, 
sense gratification and liberation, which are all automatically obtainable under 
the influence of the modes of nature? We devotees always glorify the lotus 
feet of the Lord, and therefore we need not ask for anything in terms of 
dharma, kama, artha and moksa." 

tatraiva sakroktau (7.8.42) — 

pratydnitah parama bhavata trdyata nah sva-bhaga 

daitydkrantam hrdaya-kamalam tad-grham pratyabodhi \ 

kala-grastam kiyad idam aho natha susrusatam te 

muktis tesam na hi bahumata narasimhaparaih kim \\ 1.2.36|| 

Indra also speaks in the Seventh Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam [7.8.42]: 
"O Supreme Lord, You are our deliverer and protector. Our shares of 
sacrifices, which are actually Yours, have been recovered from the demon by 
You. Because the demoniac king Hiranyakasipu was most fearsome, our 

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hearts, which are Your permanent abode, were all overtaken by him. Now, by 
Your presence, the gloom and darkness in our hearts have been dissipated. O 
Lord, for those who always engage in Your service, which is more exalted 
than liberation, all material opulence is insignificant. They do not even care 
for liberation, not to speak of the benefits oikama, artha and dharma" 

astame sri-gajendroktau (8.3.20) — 
ekantino yasya na kahcanartham 
vanchanti ye vai bhagavat-prapannah \ 
aty-adbhutam tac-caritam sumahgalam 
gdyanta ananda-samudra-magnah ||1.2.37|| 

In the Eighth Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam [8.3.20], Gajendra speaks: 
"Unalloyed devotees, who have no desire other than to serve the Lord, 
worship Him in full surrender and always hear and chant about His activities, 
which are most wonderful and auspicious. Thus they always merge in an 
ocean of transcendental bliss." 

navame sri-vaikunthanathoktau (9.4.67) — 

mat-sevaya pratitam te salokyadi-catustayam 

necchanti sevaya purnah kuto'nyat kdla-viplutam ||1.2.38|| 

In the Ninth Canto of SrTmad-Bhdgavatam [9.4.67], the Lord of Vaikuntha 

speaks: 

"My devotees, who are always satisfied to be engaged in My loving service, 

are not interested even in the four principles of liberation [salokya, sarupya, 

samipya and sarsti], although these are automatically achieved by their 

service. What then is to be said of such perishable happiness as elevation to 

the higher planetary systems?" 

sri-dasame nagapatnT-stutau (10.16.37) — 
na naka-prstham na ca sarva-bhaumam 
na paramesthyam na rasadhipatyam \ 
na yoga-siddhir apunar-bhavam va 
vanchanti yat-pada-rajah-prapannah || 1.2.39|| 



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In the Tenth Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam [10.16.37] the wives of Kaliya 

speak: 

"Those who have attained the dust of Your lotus feet never hanker for the 

kingship of heaven, limitless sovereignty, the position of Brahma or rulership 

over the earth. They are not interested even in the perfections of yoga or in 

liberation itself." 

tatraiva srT-veda-stutau (10.87.21) — 
duravagamatma-tattva-nigamdya tavatta-tanos 
carita-mahamrtabdhi-parivarta-parisramanah \ 
na parilasanti kecid apavargam apTsvara te 
carana-saroja-hamsa-kula-sahga-visrsta-grhah || 1.2.40|| 

The personified Vedaspmy as follows [in SrTmad-Bhagavatam 10.87.21]: 
"My Lord, some fortunate souls have gotten relief from the fatigue of material 
life by diving into the vast nectar ocean of Your pastimes, which You enact 
when You manifest Your personal forms to propagate the unfathomable 
science of the self. These rare souls, indifferent even to liberation, renounce 
the happiness of home and family because of their association with devotees 
who are like flocks of swans enjoying at the lotus of Your feet." 

ekadase srT-bhagavad-uktau (11.20.34) — 

na kincit sddhavo dhird bhaktd hy ekantino mama \ 

vahchanty api maya dattam kaivalyam apunar-bhavam ||1.2.41|| 

In the Eleventh Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam [11.20.34] the Lord declares: 
"Because My devotees possess saintly behavior and deep intelligence, they 
completely dedicate themselves to Me and do not desire anything besides Me. 
Indeed, even if I offer them liberation from birth and death, they do not accept 
it." 

tatha (11. 14.14) — 

na paramesthyam na mahendra-dhisnyam 
na sdrvabhaumam na rasadhipatyam \ 
na yoga-siddhir apunar-bhavam vd 
mayy arpitdtmecchati mad vindnyat ||1.2.42|| 



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Also in the Eleventh Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam [11. 14. 14] the Lord says: 
"One who has fixed his consciousness on Me desires neither the position or 
abode of Lord Brahma or Lord Indra, nor an empire on the earth, nor 
sovereignty in the lower planetary systems, nor the eightfold perfection of 
yoga, nor liberation from birth and death. Such a person desires Me alone." 

dvadase sri-rudroktau (12.10.6) — 

naivecchaty asisah kvdpi brahmarsir moksam apy uta \ 

bhaktim par dm bhagavati labdhavan puruse'vyaye ||1.2.43|| 

In the Twelfth Canto [of SrTmad-Bhagavatam, 12.10.6] Lord Siva speaks: 
"Surely this saintly brahmana does not desire any benediction, not even 
liberation itself, for he has attained pure devotional service unto the 
inexhaustible Personality of Godhead." 

padma-purane ca karttika-mahatmye (damodarastake) — 

varam deva moksam na moksdvadhim va 

na canyam vrne 'ham varesad apiha \ 

idam te vapur natha gopala-balam 

sada me manasy avirastam kim anyaih || 1.2.44|| 

kuveratmajau baddha-murtyaiva yadvat 

tvaya mocitau bhakti-baddhau krtau ca \ 

tatha prema-bhaktim svakam me prayaccha 

na mokse graho me sti damodareha || 1.2.45 1| 

In the Padma Purana, Karttika-Mahatmya (Sri Damodarastakam 4 & 7) it is 
said: 

"O Lord, although You are able to give all kinds of benedictions, I do not pray 
to You for the boon of impersonal liberation, nor the highest liberation of 
eternal life in Vaikuntha, nor any other boon [which may be obtained by 
executing the nine processes of bhakti ] . O Lord, I simply wish that this form 
of Yours as Bala Gopala in Vrndavana may ever be manifest in my heart, for 
what is the use to me of any other boon besides this? O Lord Damodara, just 
as the two sons of Kuvera — Manigriva and Nalakuvara — were delivered from 
the curse of Narada and made into great devotees by You in Your form as a 
baby tied with rope to a wooden grinding mortar, in the same way, please give 



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to me Your own prema-bhakti . I only long for this and have no desire for any 
kind of liberation." 

hayasirsiya-srl-narayana-vyuha-stave ca — 

na dharma kdmam artham vd moksam vd varadesvara \ 

prdrthaye tava pdddbje ddsyam evdbhikdmaye ||1.2.46|| 

tatraiva — 

punah punar varan ditsur visnur muktim na ydcitah \ 

bhaktir eva vrta yena prahladam tarn namdmy aham ||1.2.47|| 

In the Narayana-vyuha-stava of the Hayasirsiya-pahcaratra it is stated: 

"O Lord, bestower of benedictions! I do not pray for dharma, artha, kama or 

moksa. I desire only service to Your lotus feet." 

And: "I offer my respects to Prahlada, who asked only for devotion. He did 

not pray to Visnu for liberation even though the Lord wanted to give many 

benedictions." 

yadrcchaya labdham api visnor dasarathes tu yah \ 

naicchan moksam vina ddsyam tasmai hanumate namah ||1.2.48|| 

"I offer my respects to Hanuman, who did not want liberation, which Rama 
could easily give, but instead wanted servitude." 

ataeva prasiddham sri-hanumad-vakyam — 
bhava-bandha-cchide tasyai sprhayami na muktaye \ 
bhavan prabhur aham dasa iti yatra vilupyate || 1.2.49|| 

Hanuman's statement is also famous: 

"I do not desire liberation that cuts the bondage of material life, because in 

that state of liberation, awareness that You are the Master and I am the servant 

disappears." 

sri-narada pahcaratre cajitante-stotre — 
dharmartha-kama-moksesu neccha mama kadacana 
tvat-pada-pankajasyadho jivitam dfyatam mama ||1.2.50|| 
moksa-salokya-sarupyan prdrthaye na dharadhara 

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icchami hi mahabhaga karunyam tava suvrata || 1.2.5 1|| 

In the Jitanta-stotraof the Ndrada Pahcardtrait is said: 
"I do not at all desire dharma, artha, kdma or moksa. Please make my life 
completely dependent upon Your lotus feet. I do not pray for liberation, 
sdlokya or sarupya, O upholder of the earth. Most distinguished Lord, true to 
Your vows, I desire only Your mercy." 

ataeva sri-bhdgavate sasthe (6.14.5) — 
muktdndm api siddhdndm ndrdyana-pardyanah \ 
sudurlabhah prasdntdtmd kotisv api mahd-mune ||1.2.52|| 

In the Sixth Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam [6. 14.5] it is said: 
"O great sage, among many millions who are liberated and perfect in 
knowledge of liberation, one may be a devotee of Lord Narayana, or Krsna. 
Such devotees, who are fully peaceful, are extremely rare." 

prathame ca sri-dharmardja-mdtuh stutau (1.8.20) — 
tathd paramahamsdndm munindm amaldtmandm \ 
bhakti-yoga-vidhdndrtham katham pasyema hi striyah ||1.2.53|| 

In the First Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam [1.8.20], Mother Kunti prays: 
"You Yourself descend to propagate the transcendental science of devotional 
service unto the hearts of the advanced transcendentalists and mental 
speculators, who are purified by being able to discriminate between matter 
and spirit. How, then, can we women know You perfectly?" 

tatraiva sri-sutoktau (1.7.10) — 

dtmdrdmds ca munayo nirgranthd apy urukrame \ 

kurvanty ahaitukim bhaktim ittham-bhuta-guno harih ||1.2.54|| 

Suta also speaks on this subject in Srimad-Bhdgavatam [1.7.10]: 
"All different varieties oidtmdrdmas [those who take pleasure in dtmd, or 
spirit self], especially those established on the path of self-realization, though 
freed from all kinds of material bondage, desire to render unalloyed 
devotional service unto the Personality of Godhead. This means that the Lord 



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possesses transcendental qualities and therefore can attract everyone, 
including liberated souls." 

atra tyajyatayaivokta muktih panca-vidhapi cet \ 
salokyadis tathdpy atra bhaktya nativirudhyate ||1.2.55|| 

"Although the five types of liberation have been described as worthy of 
rejection, salokya, sarsti, samipya and sdrupya are not completely 
contradictory to bhakti." 

sukhaisvaryottara seyam prema-sevottarety api \ 
salokyadir dvidha tatra nadya seva-jusam mata || 1.2.56|| 

"There are two varieties of these four types of liberation: one, predominated 
by the desire for happiness and power; and the other, predominated by the 
desire for prema. The first variety is not accepted by those who are inclined to 
serve the Lord." 

kintu premaika-madhurya-jusa ekantino harau \ 
naivdngikurvate jatu muktim panca-vidham api ||1.2.57|| 

"But the devotees solely attached to the Lord who relish the sweetness of 
prema never accept the five types of liberation at all, evenprema-uttara" 

tatrapy ekantinam srestha govinda-hrta-manasah \ 
yesam srisa-prasado'pi mano hartum na saknuyat ||1.2.58|| 

"Among the devotees who are dedicated solely to serving the Lord in prema, 
the devotees whose hearts have been stolen by Govinda are the best. Even the 
kindness of Narayana or other forms of Krsna cannot steal their hearts." 

siddhdntatas tv abhede'pi srisa-krsna-svarupayoh\ 
rasenotkrsyate krsna-rupam esa rasa-sthitih ||1.2.59|| 

"Though the forms of Visnu and Krsna are nondifferent according to the 
statements of scripture, Krsna's form is shown to be superior because of His 



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rasas, which are endowed with the highest kind oiprema. The very nature of 
His rasas shows Krsna's form to be superior." 

kim ca \ 

sastratah sruyate bhaktau nr-matrasyadhikarita \ 
sarvadhikaritam magha-snanasya bruvata yatah\ 
drstdntita vasisthena hari-bhaktir nrpam prati || 1.2.60|| 

"Furthermore, the following should be understood: The scriptures say that any 
human being is qualified to take a bath during the month of Magha. Vasistha 
has given that example concerning devotion to the Lord while speaking to the 
King." 

yatha padme — 

sarve 'dhikdrino hy atra hari-bhaktau yatha nrpa || 1.2.61|| 

In the Padma Purana it is stated: 

"All are qualified for hari-bhakti, O King." 

kasi-khande ca tatha — 

antyaja api tad-rastre sahkha-cakrahka-dharinah \ 

samprdpya vaisnavim diksam diksita iva sambabhuh ||1.2.62|| 

In the KasT-khanda [of Sri Mahabharata] it is said: 

"In that country the outcastes, receiving Vaisnava initiation, wearing the 

marks of the conch and disc, shine like sacrificial priests." 

api ca — 

ananusthdnato doso bhakty-ahganam prajayate \ 

nakarmanam akaranad esa bhakty-adhikarinam ||1.2.63|| 

nisiddhacarato daivat prayascittam tu nocitam \ 

iti vaisnava-sastranam rahasyam tad-vidam matam ||1.2.64|| 

And it is said: 

"The person qualified for bhakti is at fault if he fails to perform all the 
important ahgas of bhakti. But he is not at fault for failing to perform the 
duties ofvarna and asrama. If he, by chance, happens to perform some sin, 

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there is no atonement prescribed for him. This is the opinion of those who 
know the secret of the Vaisnava scriptures." 

yathaikddase (11.20.26, 11.21.2) — 

sve sve 'dhikdre yd nisthd sd gunah parikirtitah \ 

viparyayas tu dosah sydd ubhayor esa niscayah ||1.2.65|| 

Thus, in the Eleventh Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam [11.20.26, 11.21.2] it is 

said: 

"It is firmly declared that the steady adherence of transcendentalists to their 

respective spiritual positions constitutes real piety and that sin occurs when a 

transcendentalist neglects his prescribed duty. One who adopts this standard 

of piety and sin, sincerely desiring to give up all past association with sense 

gratification, is able to subdue materialistic activities, which are by nature 

impure." 

"Steadiness in one's own position is declared to be actual piety, whereas 

deviation from one's position is considered impiety. In this way the two are 

definitely ascertained." 

prathame (1.5.17) — 

tyaktvd svadharmam carandmbujam harer 

bhajann apakvo 'tha patet tato yadi \ 

yatra kva vdbhadram abhud amusya kirn 

ko vdrtha dpto 'bhajatdm sva-dharmatah || 1.2.66|| 

In the First Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam [1.5.17] it is said: 
"If someone gives up his occupational duties and works in Krsna 
consciousness, and then falls down on account of not completing his work, 
what loss is there on his part? Moreover, what can one gain if he performs his 
occupational duties perfectly but does not worship the Lord?" 

ekddase (11.11.37) — 

djhdyaiva gundn dosdn mayddistdn api svakdn \ 

dharmdn santyajya yah sarvdn mam bhajet sa ca sattamah \\ 1.2.67|| 

In the Eleventh Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam [11.11. 32] it is said: 



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"He perfectly understands that the ordinary religious duties prescribed by Me 
in various Vedic scriptures possess favorable qualities that purify the 
performer, and he knows that neglect of such duties constitutes a discrepancy 
in one's life. Having taken complete shelter at My lotus feet, however, a 
saintly person ultimately renounces such ordinary religious duties and 
worships Me alone. He is thus considered to be the best among all living 
entities." 

tatraiva (11.5.41) — 
devarsi-bhutapta-nrndm pitrnam 
na kihkaro ndyam mi ca rdjan \ 
sarvatmana yah saranam saranyam 
gato mukundam parihrtya kartam ||1.2.68|| 

It is also stated there [Srlmad-Bhagavatam 11.5.41]: 

"O King, one who has given up all material duties and has taken full shelter of 
the lotus feet of Mukunda, who offers shelter to all, is not indebted to the 
demigods, great sages, ordinary living beings, relatives, friends, mankind or 
even one's forefathers who have passed away. Since all such classes of living 
entities are part and parcel of the Supreme Lord, one who has surrendered to 
the Lord's service has no need to serve such persons separately." 

sri-bhagavad-gitdsu (18.66) — 

sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja \ 

aham tvdm sarva-pdpebhyo moksayisyami ma sucah ||1.2.69|| 

Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita [18.66]: 

"Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver 

you from all sinful reaction. Do not fear." 

agastya-samhitdyam — 

yatha vidhi-nisedhau tu muktam naivopasarpatah \ 

tatha na sprsato ramopasakam vidhi-purvakam ||1.2.70|| 

In the Agastya-samhitd it is said: 



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"Just as the rules and prohibitions of the smrti scriptures do not approach a 
liberated person, the rules and prohibitions applicable to vaidika or tdntrika 
worship do not touch the worshiper of Rama." 

ekadase eva (11.5.42) — 
svapada-mulam bhajatah priyasya 
tyaktdny abhdvasya harih paresah \ 
vikarma yac cotpatitam kathancid 
dhunoti sarvam hrdi sannivistah ||1.2.71|| 

And in the Eleventh Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [11.5.42] it is said: 
"One who has thus given up all other engagements and has taken full shelter 
at the lotus feet of Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is very dear to 
the Lord. Indeed, if such a surrendered soul accidentally commits some sinful 
activity, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is seated within everyone's 
heart, immediately takes away the reaction to such sin." 

hari-bhakti-vildse 'sya bhakter ahgani laksasah \ 
kintu tdni prasiddhdni nirdisyante yathdmati ||1.2.72|| 

"Innumerable ahgas of bhakti are explained in the Hari-bhakti-vildsa. Among 
those, the most famous ones to the best of my judgment will be explained 
herein." 

atra anga-laksanam — 

asritdvantaraneka-bhedam kevalam eva vd \ 

ekarh karmdtra vidvadbhir ekam bhakty-angam ucyate || 1.2.73|| 

"The characteristics of an anga of bhakti are as follows: The learned define an 
ahga of bhakti as a complex of devotional actions that have internal divisions, 
or only one action of bhakti that does not have clearly defined internal 
differences." 

atha ahgani — 

guru-padasrayas tasmat krma-diksadi-siksanam \ 
visrambhena guroh seva sadhu-vartmanuvartanam \\ 1.2.74|| 
sad-dharma-prccha bhogadi-tyagah krmasya hetave \ 

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nivaso dvarakadau ca gangader api sannidhau || 1.2.75|| 
vyavaharesu sarvesu ydvad-arthdnuvartitd \ 
hari-vasara-sammano dhatry-asvatthadi-gauravam ||1.2.76|| 

"The list oiangas is as follows: taking shelter of guru; then after initiation, 
acquiring knowledge; service to guru with respect; following the rules and 
regulations of the scriptures as approved by the deary as. Inquiry about the 
real duties of life; renunciation of enjoyment to gain Krsna's mercy; residing 
in Dvaraka or other holy places, or near the Ganga. Accepting only what is 
necessary in relation to the body; observing the Ekadasi-vrata; giving respect 
to the dmalaki, asvattha and other items." 

esam atra dasanganam bhavet prarambha-rupata ||1.2.77|| 

"Preliminary bhakti should consist of these ten items." 

sanga-tyago vidurena bhagavad-vimukhair janaih \ 
sisyady-ananubandhitvam mahdrambhady-anudyamah ||1.2.78|| 
bahu-grantha-kalabhyasa-vyakhya-vada-vivarjanam || 1.2.79|| 
vyavahare py akarpanyam sokady-avasa-vartita || 1.2.80|| 
anya-devan avajna ca bhutanudvega-dayita \ 
seva-namaparadhanam udbhavabhava-karita ||1.2.81|| 
krsna-tad-bhakta-vidvesa-vinindady-asahisnuta \ 
vyatirekatayamisam dasanam syad anusthitih ||1.2.82|| 

"Giving up the association of those opposed to the Lord; not being attached to 
making disciples; not being enthusiastic for huge undertakings; avoiding the 
study of useless books just to make a living or to defeat others in useless 
arguments; not feeling miserable in any material circumstances; not being 
subject to lamentation or other extreme emotions; not showing disrespect to 
the devatas; giving disturbance to other living entities; not committing seva- 
aparadha or nama-aparadha; not tolerating criticism of Krsna and His 
devotees by those who hate them. These ten angas should be observed by 
avoidance." 

asyas tatra pravesdya dvaratve 'py anga-vimsateh \ 
trayam pradhanam evoktam guru-padasrayadikam ||1.2.83|| 

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"These twenty angasserve as the door for entering bhakti. The first three 
angas — taking shelter of the feet of guru, receiving teachings after initiation, 
and serving the guru with respect — are said to be the principal ones." 

dhrtir vaisnava-cihnanam harer namdksarasya ca \ 
nirmalyades ca tasydgre tandavam dandavan-natih ||1.2.84|| 
abhyutthdnam anuvrajyd gatih sthdne parikramah \ 
arcanam paricarya ca gitam sankirtanam japah ||1.2.85|| 
vijnaptih stava-pdthas ca svddo naivedya-pddyayoh \ 
dhupa-mdlyddi-saurabhyam sri-murteh sprstir iksanam ||1.2.86|| 
drdtrikotsavddes ca sravanam tat-krpeksanam \ 
smrtir dhydnam tathd ddsyam sakhyam dtma-nivedanam ||1.2.87|| 
nija-priyopaharanam tad-arthe 'khila-cestitam \ 
sarvatha saranapattis tadiyanam ca sevanam ||1.2.88|| 
tadfyas tulasi-sastra-mathura-vaisnavadayah \ 
yatha-vaibhava-samagri sad-gosthibhir mahotsavah ||1.2.89|| 
urjadaro visesena yatra janma-dinadisu \ 
sraddha visesatah pritih sri-murter anghri-sevane ||1.2.90|| 
srimad-bhagavatarthdnam asvado rasikaih saha \ 
sajatiyasaye snigdhe sadhau sangah svato vare ||1.2.91|| 
nama-sankirtanam sri-mathura-mandale sthitih ||1.2.92|| 

"Other limbs of bhakti include the following: 

• Marking the body with the Vaisnava symbols 

• Marking the body with the syllables of the Lord's Holy Names 

• Wearing the garlands, flowers and sandalwood offered to the Deity 

• Dancing before the Deity 

• Offering respects on the ground (dandabats) 

• Standing up to see the Lord 

• Following behind the Lord's procession 

• Going to the Lord's residence 

• Circumambulating the Lord or His dhama 

• Performing arcana 

• Performing menial service to the Deity 

• Singing for the Deity 

• Singing in a group 

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Performingy'apa 

Offering words or sentiments 

Reciting prayers 

Tasting food offered to the Lord 

Tasting the foot water of the Lord 

Smelling the incense and flowers offered to the Lord 

Touching the Deity 

Seeing the Deity 

Seeing dratimd festivals 

Hearing about the name, form, qualities and pastimes of the Lord 

Accepting the mercy of the Lord 

Remembering the Lord 

Meditating on the Lord 

Acting as the servant of the Lord 

Thinking of the Lord as a friend 

Offering oneself to the Lord 

Offering the best items to the Lord 

Making full efforts for the Lord 

Surrendering to the Lord 

Serving tulasi 

Studying the scriptures 

Living in Mathura 

Serving the devotees 

Holding festivals according to one's means with the devotees 

Observing Kartika-vrata 

Observing Janmastami and other special occasions 

Having faith and great affection for serving the Deity 

Relishing SrTmad-Bhagavatamin association of devotees 

Associating with like-minded, affectionate superior devotees 

Ndma-sankirtana 

Living in the district of Mathura" 

angdndm pancakasydsya purvam vilikhitasya ca \ 
nikhila-sraisthya-bodhdya punar apy atra kirtanam ||1.2.93|| 
iti kdya-hrsikdntah-karandndm upasanah ||1.2.94|| 
catuhsastih prthak sdnghdtika-bheddt kramddindh 1 1 1 . 2. 95 1 1 
athdrsdnumatenaisdm uddharanam iryate ||1.2.96|| 

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"The last five items were mentioned previously; they have been mentioned 
again to show their superiority among all the ahgas oibhakti. Thus 64 
methods of worship involving the body, senses and internal organs [of 
intelligence and consciousness] have been presented sequentially, some being 
separate items and others containing additional items within them. Next, 
examples of each item will be cited according to traditional Vedic authority." 

1 - tatra gurupadasrayo, yathd ekadase(\\.3.2\) — 
tasmdd gurum prapadyeta jijhasuh sreya uttamam \ 

sabde pare ca nisnatam brahmany upasamasrayam ||1.2.97|| 

Taking shelter of the lotus feet of the guru, from Srlmad-Bhagavatam 11.3.21: 
"Therefore any person who seriously desires real happiness must seek a bona 
fide spiritual master and take shelter of him by initiation. The qualification of 
the bona fide guru is that he has realized the conclusions of the scriptures by 
deliberation and is able to convince others of these conclusions. Such great 
personalities, who have taken shelter of the Supreme Godhead, leaving aside 
all material considerations, should be understood to be bona fide spiritual 
masters." 

2 - sri-krsna-diksadi-siksanam, yathd tatraiva{\\ .3 .22) — 
tatra bhagavatan dharman siksed gurv-dtma-daivatah \ 
amayayanuvrttya yais tusyed atmatma-do harih ||1.2.98|| 

Acquiring knowledge after initiation, from Srlmad-Bhagavatam 11.3.22: 
"Accepting the bona fide spiritual master as one's life and soul and 
worshipable deity, the disciple should learn from him the process of pure 
devotional service. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, the soul of all 
souls, is inclined to give Himself to His pure devotees. Therefore, the disciple 
should learn from the spiritual master to serve the Lord without duplicity and 
in such a faithful and favorable way that the Supreme Lord, being satisfied, 
will offer Himself to the faithful disciple." 

3 - visrambhena guroh seva, yathd tatraiva(\\ .17 .27) — 
acaryam mam vijaniyan navamanyeta karhicit \ 

na martya-buddhyasuyeta sarva-deva-mayo guruh ||1.2.99|| 

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Serving the guru with reverence, from Srimad-Bhdgavatam [11. 17.27]: 
"One should know the dcdrya as Myself and never disrespect him in any way. 
One should not envy him, thinking him an ordinary man, for he is the 
representative of all the demigods." 

4 - sddhu-vartmdnuvartanam, yathd skdnde — 

sa mrgyah sreyasdm hetuh panthdh santdpa-varjitah \ 
anvdpta-sramam purve yena santah pratasthire || 1.2. 100|| 

Following the scriptural rules, from the Skanda Purdna: 

"One should follow the scriptural rules which give the highest benefit and are 

devoid of hardship, by which the previous devotees easily progressed." 

brahma-ydmale ca — 

sruti-smrti-purdnddi-pancardtra-vidhim vind \ 
aikdntiki harer bhaktir utpdtdyaiva kalpate 1 1 1 . 2. 1 1 1 1 

Also, evidence from the Brahma-ydmala: 

"Even if a person seems to have attained steadiness in practicing pure bhakti 
to the Lord, that bhakti is a misfortune if it rejects the rules ofsruti, smrti, 
purdna and pahcardtra due to lack of faith in them." 

bhaktir aikdntiki veyam avicdrdt pratiyate \ 

vastutas tu tathd naiva yad asdstriyateksyate ||1.2.102|| 

"This type of bhakti appears to be pure only because of misjudging the facts. 
Actually, it is not aikdntiki (undiverted) bhakti at all, because lack of 
scriptural obedience is seen in it." 

5 - sad-dharma-prcchd, yathd ndradlye — 
acirdd eva sarvdrthah sidhyaty esdm abhipsitah \ 
sad-dharmasydvabodhdya yesdm nirbandhini matih ||1.2.103|| 

Inquiry into bhakti, from NdrdTya Purdna: 

"Those whose minds are attached to understanding bhakti to the Lord quickly 

attain all their desired goals." 

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6 - krsnarthe bhogadi-tyago, yatha padme — 
harim uddisya bhogdni kale tyaktavatas tava \ 
visnu-loka-sthitd sampad-alold sa pratiksate ||1.2.104|| 

Renouncing enjoyment to please Krsna, from Padma Pur ana: 

"When you give up enjoyable objects at the time of enjoying, aiming at the 

pleasure of the Lord, the permanent wealth situated in Visnu-loka awaits 

you." 

7 - dvdrakddi-nivdso, yatha skande — 
samvatsaram vd sanmasan masam masardham eva va \ 
dvaraka-vasinah sarve nara naryas caturbhujah ||1.2.105|| 

Living in Dvarka or other holy places, from the Skanda Purana: 
"Anyone who lives in Dvaraka for one year, six months, one month or even 
half a month, whether man or woman, attains a four-armed form in the 
spiritual sky." 

adi-padena purusottama-vasas ca, yatha brahme — 
aho ksetrasya mahatmyam samantad dasa-yojanam \ 
divistha yatra pasyanti sarvan eva caturbhujan ||1.2.106|| 

The word adi indicates Purl as well, as illustrated in the Brahma Purana: 
"The glory of Purl with its surrounding area of 80 square miles is 
inconceivable. The devatas see everyone residing there as having four arms." 

gahgadi-vaso, yatha prathame (1.19.6) — 

yd vai lasac-chri-tulasT-vimisra- 

krsnahghri-renv-abhyadhikambu-netri\ 

punati sesan ubhayatra lokan 

kas tarn na seveta marisyamanah || 1.2. 107|| 

Living near the Gahga, from the First Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [1. 19.6]: 
"The river Ganges, by which the King sat to fast carries the most auspicious 
water, which is mixed with the dust of the lotus feet of the Lord and tulasi 
leaves. Therefore that water sanctifies the three worlds inside and outside and 



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even sanctifies Lord Siva and other demigods. Consequently everyone who is 
destined to die must take shelter of this river." 

8 - ydvad-arthdnuvartitd, yathd ndradiye — 
ydvatd sydt sva-nirvahah svikurydt tdvad artha-vit \ 
ddhikye nyunatdydm ca cyavate paramdrthatah ||1.2.108|| 

Living with minimal material needs, from the Ndradiya Purdna: 
"The person with wisdom concerning material objects accepts as much as is 
necessary for the maintenance ofbhakti. By accepting more or less than that, 
the person will fail to attain the highest goal." 

9 - hari-vdsara-sammdno, yathd brahma-vaivarte — 
sarva-pdpa-prasamanam punyam dtyantikam tathd \ 
govinda-smdranam nfndm ekadasydm uposanam ||1.2.109|| 

Respecting the day of the Lord, from the Brahmd-vaivarta Purdna: 
"By fasting on Ekadasi, a person destroys all sins, gains abundant pious 
credits and attains remembrance of the Lord." 

10 - dhdtry-asvatthddi-gauravam, yathd skdnde — 
asvattha-tulasi-dhdtri-go-bhumisura-vaisnavdh \ 

pujitah pranatdh dhydtdh ksapayanti nfndm agham\\\.2.\\Q\\ 

Respecting the dmalaki, asvattha and other things, from the Skanda Purdna: 
"Human beings destroy sin by worshiping, respecting and contemplating the 
asvattha tree, tulasi tree, dmalaki tree, the cow, the brdhmana and the 
Vaisnava." 

11 - atha sri-krsna-vimukha-jana-samtydgo, yathd kdtydyana-samhitdydm — 
varam huta-vaha-jvdld-pahjardntar-vyavasthitih \ 

na sauri-cintd-vimukha-jana-samvdsa-vaisasam 1 1 1 . 2. 1 1 1 1 1 

Giving up the association of those opposed to Krsna, from the Kdtydyana- 
samhitd: 



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"It is preferable to remain within a cage of blazing fire than to have the 
misfortune of living in association with persons who are opposed to thinking 
of the Lord." 

visnu-rahasye ca — 

dlihganam varam manye vydla-vydghra-jalaukasdm \ 

na sahgah salya-yuktdndm nana-devaika-sevinam ||1.2.112|| 

Also, from the Visnu-rahasya: 

"I consider it preferable to embrace a snake, tiger or crocodile than to 
associate with those who worship devatds. They are bearers of spears piercing 
me with their deviant desires." 

12-14 - sisydnanubanddhitvddi-trayam, yathd saptame(7. 13.8) — 
na sisydn anubadhnita granthdn naivdbhyased bahun \ 
navydkhydm upayunjita ndrambhdn drabhet kvacit ||1.2.113|| 

Attachment to disciples and the following two items are illustrated in the 
Seventh Canto of SrTmad-Bhdgavatam [7.13.8]: 

"A sannydsi must not present allurements of material benefits to gather many 
disciples, nor should he unnecessarily read books that disrespect the Lord, or 
give discourses as a means of livelihood. He must never engage in big 
projects that distract him from his spiritual goals." 

15 - vydvahdre py akdrpanyam, yathd pddme — 
alabdhe vd vinaste vd bhaksydcchddana-sddhane \ 
aviklava-matir bhutvd harim eva dhiyd smaret || 1.2. 1 14|| 

Not feeling miserable and not performing degrading acts in distressing 
circumstances, illustrated in the Padma Purdna: 

"Being undisturbed when one does not obtain food or clothing or when these 
things are lost, one should remember the Lord with one's intelligence." 

16 - sokddy-avasa-vartitd, yathd tatraiva — 
sokdmarsddibhir bhdvair dkrdntam yasya mdnasam \ 

katham tatra mukundasya sphurti-sambhdvand bhavet ||1.2.115|| 



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Not being controlled by lamentation or other emotions, also illustrated in the 
Padma Purana: 

"How is it possible for Mukunda to appear in the mind of a person whose 
mind is afflicted with lamentation, anger or other emotions?" 

17- anya-devanajha, yathd tatraiva — 

harir eva sadaradhyah sarva-devesvaresvarah \ 

itare brahma-rudradya navajheyah kaddcana ||1.2.116|| 

Not disrespecting the devatds, illustrated in the Padma Purana: 

"One should always worship Hari, the Lord of the masters of all the devatds. 

On the other hand, one should not disrespect Brahma, Siva and other 

[devatds]" 

18- bhutanudvega-dayita, yathd mahabharate — 
piteva putram karuno nodvejayati yo janam \ 
visuddhasya hrsikesas turnam tasya prasidati ||1.2.117|| 

Not inflicting pain on other living entities, from the Mahabharata: 

"That pure person who does not inflict pain on others, being merciful like a 

father to his son, quickly pleases the master of the senses." 

19 - seva-namaparadhanam varjanam, yathd varahe — 
mamarcanaparadha ye kirtyante vasudhe maya \ 
vaisnavena sada te tu varjamyah prayatnatah ||1.2.118|| 

Avoiding seva- and nama-aparadhas , illustrated in the Varaha Purana: 
"The devotees should avoid the offenses in Deity worship I described, O 
Earth planet, at all times and with great care." 

padme ca — 

sarvaparadha-krd apt mucyate hari-samsrayah \ 

harer apy aparadhan yah kuryad dvipadapamsulah 1 1 1 .2. 1 1 9| | 

namasrayah kadacit syat taraty eva sa namatah \ 

namno hi sarva-suhrdo hy aparadhat pataty adhah || 1.2. 120|| 

This is also described in the Padma Purana: 



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"A person who commits all offenses is freed from all those offenses by taking 
complete shelter of Hari. But a two-legged animal who commits offenses 
against Hari is freed from those offenses by taking shelter of Hari's Holy 
Name. However, although the Holy Name is the friend of all, by committing 
an offense against the Holy Name a person falls to the lower regions." 

20- tan-nindddy asahisnutd, yathd srT-dasame(\0.74A0) — 
ninddm bhagavatah srnvams tat-parasya janasya va \ 
tato ndpaiti yah so 'pi ydty adhah sukrtdc cyutah || 1.2. 121|| 

Not tolerating criticism of the Lord or His devotee, shown in the Tenth Canto 
of SrTmad-Bhdgavatam [10.74.40]: 

"Anyone who fails to immediately leave the place where he hears criticism of 
the Supreme Lord or His faithful devotee will certainly fall down, bereft of 
his pious credit." 

2 1 - atha vaisnava-cihna-dhrtih, yathd padme — 
ye kantha-lagna-tulasi-nalindksd-mdld 

ye bdhu-mula-paricihnita-sahkha-cakrdh \ 

ye va laldta-phalake lasad-urdhva-pundrds 

te vaisnava bhuvanam dsu pavitrayanti ||1.2.122|| 

Wearing the marks of a Vaisnava, shown in the Padma Purdna: 
"Those Vaisnavas who have tulasi beads, lotus-seed beads mdjapa beads 
around their necks, who have their shoulders marked with the signs of conch 
and cakra, and who have tilaka on their foreheads quickly purify the earth. " 

22 - namaksara-dhrtih, yathd skdnde — 
hari-ndmdksara-yutam bhdle gopT-mrdahkitam \ 
tulasi-mdlikoraskam sprseyur na yamodbhatdh ||1.2.123|| 

Wearing the syllables of the Holy Name, from the Skanda Purdna: 
"The servants of Yama will not touch those who have the names of Hari on 
their bodies, who have gopi-candan tilaka on their foreheads and who have 
tulasi beads on their chests." 

padme ca — 

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krsna-namaksarair gatram ahkayec candanadina \ 

sa loka-pdvano bhutvd tasya lokam avdpnuydt || 1.2. 124|| 

It is also said in the Padma Purdna: 

"He who has the syllables of Krsna's name marked on his body with candana, 

after purifying this world, attains the planet of the Lord." 

23 - nirmdlya-dhrtih, yathd ekddase (11.6.46) — 
tvayopayukta-srag-gandha-vdso 'lahkdra-carcitdh \ 
ucchista-bhojino ddsds tava mdydm jayemahi ||1.2.125|| 

Wearing the garlands used by the Lord, shown in the Eleventh Canto of 
Srimad-Bhdgavatam [11.6.46]: 

"Simply by decorating ourselves with the garlands, fragrant oils, clothes and 
ornaments that You have already enjoyed, and by eating the remnants of Your 
meals, we, Your servants, will indeed conquer Your illusory energy." 

skdnde ca — 

krsnottirnam tu nirmdlyam yasydhgam sprsate mune \ 

sarva-rogais tathd pdpair mukto bhavati ndrada ||1.2.126|| 

Also in the Skanda Purdna: 

"O sage Narada, whoever touches the garlands offered to Krsna with his body 

becomes freed from all diseases and all sins." 

24 - agre tdndavam, yathd dvdrakd-mdhdtmye — 
yo nrtyati prahrstdtmd bhdvair bahusu bhaktitah \ 
sa nirdahati pdpdni manvantara-satesv api ||1.2.127|| 

Dancing before the Deity is shown in the Dvdrakd-mahdtmya: 

"He who joyfully dances with many emotions before the Lord burns up sins 

which have been produced during many hundreds of manvantaras ." 

tathd sri-ndradoktau ca — 

nrtyatdm sn-pater agre tdlikd-vddanair bhrsam \ 

uddiyante sarlra-sthdh sarve pdtaka-paksinah ||1.2.128|| 



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It is also said by Narada: 

"All the birds of sin situated in the body fly away for those who dance before 

the Lord with vigorous clapping of hands." 

25 - dandavan-natih, yathd ndradlye — 
eko 'pi krsndya krtah prandmo 
dasdsvamedhdvabhrthair na tulyah \ 
dasdsvamedhi punar etijanma 
krma-prandml na punar-bhavdya || 1.2. 129|| 

Offering obeisances, from the Ndradiya Purdna: 

"The purificatory rites performed during ten horse sacrifices cannot equal 
even one prandma offered to Krsna. A person who performs ten horse 
sacrifices takes birth again; but the person offering prandmas to Krsna does 
not take birth again." 

26 - abhyutthdnam, yathd brahmdnde — 

ydn drudham purah preksya samdydntam jandrdanam \ 
abhyutthdnam narah kurvan pdtayet sarva-kilbisam ||1.2. 130|| 

Rising when the Deity approaches, from the Brahmdnda Purdna: 

"The person who stands up when seeing the Lord approaching on a palanquin 

will have all sins destroyed. " 

27 - anuvrajyd, yathd bhavisyottare — 

rathena saha gacchanti pdrsvatah prsthato 'gratah \ 
visnunaiva samdh sarve bhavanti svapadddayah || 1.2. 131 || 

Following after the Lord's procession, from the Bhavisyottara Purdna: 
"All the outcastes who go along with the [Lord's] chariot — beside, behind or 
in front of it — become similar to Visnu." 

28 - sthdne gatih — 

sthdnam tirtham grham cdsya tatra tirthe gatir yathd || 1.2. 132 || 

Going to the places of the Lord: 

Sthdnam means tirtha or temple. First going to the tirtha is illustrated. 

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purdndntare — 

samsdra-maru-kdntdra-nistdra-karana-ksamau \ 

sldghyau tav eva caranau yau hares tirtha-gdminau || 1.2. 133 || 

In another Purana it is stated: 

"The two feet that go to the tirtha of the Lord are praiseworthy, since they 

enable one to cross over the dangerous desert ofsamsdra" 

alaye ca, yatha hari-bhakti-sudhodaye — 

pravisann dlayam visnor darsandrtham subhaktimdn \ 

na bhuyah pravisen mdtuh kuksi-kdrdgrham sudhih ||1.2.134 || 

Going to the temple is illustrated in the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya: 

"The intelligent person who enters the temple of Visnu to see the Lord in a 

mood of devotion does not again enter the prison of a mother's womb." 

29 - parikramo, yathd tatraiva — 

visnum pradaksini-kurvan yas tatrdvartate punah \ 
tad evdvartanam tasya punarndvartate bhave ||1.2.135|| 

Circumambulation, from the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya: 

"If a person circumambulates [the Deity of] Visnu and returns to the same 

spot, that returning guarantees that he does not return to another birth." 

skdnde ca caturmdsya-mdhdtmye — 

catur-vdram bhramlbhis tujagat sarvam cardcaram \ 

krdntam bhavati viprdgrya tat-tirtha-gamanddikam \\1.2.136\ 

In the Skanda Purana, Caturmdsya-mdhdtmya it is said: 
"O best of the brdhmanas, those who circumambulate the Lord four times 
surpass the world of moving and non-moving creatures. This surpasses going 
to tirthas" 

30 - atha arcanam — 

suddhi-nydsddi-purvdhga-karma-nirvdha-purvakam \ 
arcanam tupacdrdndm sydn mantrenopapddanam ||1.2.137|| 

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"Deity worship: arcana means offering items with mantras after introductory 
activities such as bhuta-suddhi and nyasa" 

tad, yatha dasame (10.81.19) — 

svargapavargayoh pumsdm rasdyam bhuvi sampadam\ 

sarvasam apt siddhlnam mulam tac-caranarcanam ||1.2. 138|| 

This is illustrated in the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [10.81.19]: 
"Devotional service to His lotus feet is the root cause of all the perfections a 
person can find in heaven, in liberation, in the subterranean regions and on 
earth." 

visnurahasye ca — 

sri-visnor arcanam ye tu prakurvanti nara bhuvi \ 

te yanti sasvatam visnor anandam paramam padam || 1.2. 139 || 

Also in the Visnu-rahasya it is said: 

"Those men who perform arcana of Visnu on this earth go to the eternal, 

supreme abode of Visnu, which is full of bliss." 

3 1 - paricarya — 

paricarya tu sevopakaranadi-pariskriya \ 

tatha prakirnaka-cchatra-vaditradyair upasana ||1.2.140|| 

"Service to the Deity: paricarya consists of decorating the Lord with different 
items and worshiping the Lord with camara, umbrella, music and other 
items." 

yatha naradiye — 

muhurtam va muhurtardham yas tisthed dhari-mandire \ 

sa yati paramam sthanam kim u susrusane ratah ||1. 2.141 || 

It is said in the Naradiya Purana: 

"If one remains in the temple of the Lord for one muhurta, or even half a 
muhurta, he goes to the supreme abode. What then to speak of the person 
engaged in the paricarya of the Lord?" 

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yatha caturthe (4.21.31) — 
yat-pada-sevabhirucis tapasvindm 
asesa-janmopacitam malam dhiyah \ 
sadyah ksinoty anvaham edhatl sati 
yatha paddhgustha-vinihsrtd sarit || 1.2. 142 || 

It is stated in the Fourth Canto of SrTmad-Bhdgavatam [4.21.31]: 
"By the inclination to serve the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead, suffering humanity can immediately cleanse the dirt which has 
accumulated in their minds during innumerable births. Like the Ganges water, 
which emanates from the toes of the lotus feet of the Lord, such a process 
immediately cleanses the mind, and thus spiritual or Krsna consciousness 
gradually increases." 

angdni vividhdny eva syuh pujd-paricaryayoh \ 

na tdni likhitany atra grantha-bdhulya-bhititah || 1.2. 143 || 

"There are various ahgas of Deity worship and paricdrya. These have not 
been described here for fear of making the book too long." 

32 - atha gitam, yatha laihge — 

brdhmano vdsudevdkhyam gdyamdno 'nisam param \ 
hareh sdlokyam dpnoti rudra-gdnddhikam bhavet || 1.2. 144 || 

Next singing, illustrated in the Lihga Purdna: 

"Even the brdhmana who sings continuously in front of Vasudeva attains the 

planet of Visnu. This singing is greater than Siva himself singing." 

33 - atha sahklrtanam — 

ndma-lTld-gunadindm uccair-bhdsd tu kirtanam ||1.2.145|| 

"Next chanting: kirtan is defined as the loud chanting of the Holy Names, 
pastimes and qualities of the Lord." 

tatra ndma-kirtanam, yatha visnu-dharme — 
krsneti mahgalam ndma yasya vdci pravartate \ 

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bhasmibhavanti rajendra maha-pataka-kotayah ||1.2. 146|| 

Chanting of the Holy Name of the Lord is illustrated in the Visnu-dharma: 
"O King, he who chants the auspicious Holy Name of Krsna turns to ashes ten 
million of the worst sins." 

lila-kirtanam, yathd saptame (7.9. 18) — 
so 'ham priyasya suhrdah paradevatdyd 
lila-kathas tava nrsimha virinca-gitah \ 
anjas titarmy anugrnan guna-vipramukto 
durgdni te pada-yugdlaya-hamsa-sangah ||1.2.147|| 

Lila-kTrtan is illustrated in the Seventh Canto of SrTmad-Bhdgavatam 
[7.9.18]: 

"O my Lord Nrsirhhadeva, by engaging in Your transcendental loving service 
in the association of devotees who are liberated souls [hamsas], I shall 
become completely uncontaminated by the association of the three modes of 
material nature and be able to chant the glories of Your Lordship, who are so 
dear to me. I shall chant Your glories, following exactly in the footsteps of 
Lord Brahma and his disciplic succession. In this way I shall undoubtedly be 
able to cross the ocean of nescience." 

guna-kirtanam, yathd prathame (1.5.22) — 
idam hi pumsas tapasah srutasya 
va svistasya suktasya ca buddhi-dattayoh \ 
avicyuto 'rthah kavibhir nirupito yad 
uttamahsloka-gunanuvarnanam || 1.2. 148|| 

Guna-kirtan is illustrated in the First Canto of SrTmad-Bhdgavatam [1.5.22]: 
"Learned circles have positively concluded that the infallible purpose of the 
advancement of knowledge, namely austerities, study of the Vedas, sacrifice, 
chanting of hymns and charity, culminates in the transcendental descriptions 
of the Lord, who is defined in choice poetry." 

34 - athajapah — 

mantrasya sulaghuccaro japa ity abhidhiyate\\ 1.2. 149 || 



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"Next, y'apa is defined: jopo is defined as very soft chanting of a mantra.'" 

yatha padme — 

krsnaya nama ity esa mantrah sarvdrtha-sddhakah \ 

bhaktdndm japatdm bhupa svarga-moksa-phala-pradah ||1.2. 150|| 

Padma Purdna illustrates this: 

"Chanting very softly the mantra 'krsnaya namah 'produced all benefits. 
King, svarga and liberation are bestowed upon devotees who perform japa of 
this mantra." 

35 - atha vijhaptih, yatha skdnde — 

harim uddisya yat kihcit krtam vijhdpanam gird \ 

moksa-dvdrdrgaldn moksas tenaiva vihitas tava || 1.2. 151 || 

Entreaty is illustrated in the Skanda Purdna: 

"By making entreaties to the Lord with words, the bolt on the door of 

liberation is released." 

samprdrthandtmikd dainya-bodhikd lalasdmayi \ 

ity ddir vividhd dhiraih krsne vijnaptir Tritd || 1.2. 152 || 

"The wise have explained that there are varieties of entreaty to Krsna, such as 
prayers, admission of incompetence and expressions of longing." 

tatra samprdrthandtmikd, yatha padme — 
yuvatindm yatha yuni yundm ca yuvatau yatha \ 
mano'bhiramate tadvan mano 'bhiramatdm tvayi || 1.2. 153 || 

Prayer is illustrated in the Padma Purdna: 

"Just as the minds of young women are attracted to a young man, and the 
minds of young men are attracted to young women, may my mind be attracted 
to You!" 

dainya-bodhikd, yatha tatraiva — 

mat-tulyo ndsti pdpdtmd ndparddhi ca kascana \ 

parihdre 'pi lajjd me kim bruve purusottama || 1.2. 154 || 

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Admission of worthlessness is shown in the Padma Purana: 
"O Supreme Lord! There is no one as sinful as me, no one who has committed 
as many offenses. What can I say? I am very ashamed to ask You to remove 
these sins." 

lalasamayi, yathd sri-ndrada-pahcardtre — 
kadd gambhirayd vdcd sriyd yuktojagat-pate \ 
cdmara-vyagra-hastam mam evam kurv iti vaksyasi || 1.2. 155|| 

Longing is illustrated in the Ndrada-pahcardtra: 

"O Master of the Universe, when will You, accompanied by Laksmi, say with 

a deep voice to me, eager to serve you with cdmara, 'Please come here." 

yathd vd — 

kaddham yamund-tire ndmdni tava kirtayan \ 

udbdspah pundarlkdksa racayisydmi tdndavam ||1.2.156|| 

Another example is presented: 

"O lotus-eyed Lord, when will I dance on the bank of the Yamuna with tears 

in my eyes while singing Your Holy Names?" 

36 - atha stava-pdthah — 

proktd mamsibhir gitd-stava-rdjddayah stavdh ||1.2. 157|| 

"Reciting compositions of praise: the wise consider that the Bhagavad-gitd 
and the stava-rdja contained in the Gautamaniya-tantra are examples of 

stavas" 

yathd skdnde — 

sri-krsna-stava-ratnaughair yesdm jihvd tv alahkrtd \ 

namasyd muni-siddhdndm vandamyd divaukasdm ||1.2. 158|| 

The Skanda Purana says: 

"The perfected sages and devatds respect those whose tongues are 

ornamented with an abundance of jewel-like verses in praise of Krsna." 



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narasimhe ca — 

stotraih stavas ca devagre yah stauti madhusudanam \ 

sarva-pdpa-vinirmukto visnu-lokam avdpnuydt || 1.2. 159 || 

In the Narasimha Purdna it is said: 

"He who praises Madhusudana with stotras and stavas in front of His Deity is 

freed from all sins and attains the planet of Visnu." 

37 - atha naivedyasvado, yatha padme — 

naivedyam annam tulasi-vimisram visesatah pada-jalena siktam \ 

yo 'snati nityam purato murareh prapnoti yajhayuta-koti-punyam 1 1 1 .2. 1 60| | 

Tasting the food remnants of the Deity, from Padma Purdna: 
"He who always eats outside the inner sanctum, the remnants of of the Lord's 
food sprinkled with water from the Lord's feet and mixed with tulasi, 
achieves the result of one hundred billion sacrifices." 

38 - atha padyasvado, yatha tatraiva — 

na danam na havir yesam svadhyayo na surarcanam \ 
te'pi padodakam pitva prayanti paramam gatim || 1.2. 161 || 

Tasting the foot water of the Lord, from Padma Purdna: 

"Those who drink the foot water of the Lord achieve the supreme goal, even if 

they have not performed charity, sacrifices, Vedic study or Deity worship." 

39 - atha dhupa-saurabhyam, yatha hari-bhakti-sudhodaye — 
aghranam yad dharer datta-dhupocchistasya sarvatah \ 
tad-bhava-vyala-dastanam nasyam karma vis apaham || 1.2. 162 || 

Smelling incense offered to the Lord, from Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya: 
"The action of the nose — smelling the incense offered to the Lord — fully 
destroys the poison of karma inflicted on those bitten by the snake of material 
existence." 

atha malya-saurabhyam, yatha tantre — 
praviste nasika-randhre harer nirmalya-saurabhe \ 
sadyo vilayam ayati papa-pahjara-bandhanam || 1.2. 163 || 

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Smelling the garlands offered to the Lord, from a tantra: 

"When the fragrance of the garlands of the Lord enters the nostrils, 

immediately the bondage created by piles of sins is destroyed." 

agastya-samhitayam ca — 

aghranam gandha-puspader arcitasya tapodhana \ 

visuddhih sydd anantasya ghranasyehabhidhiyate || 1.2. 164 || 

From Agastya-samhita: 

"It is said that the nose smelling flowers and gandha offered to the infinite 

Lord is the cause of complete purification in this world." 

40 - atha srT-murteh sparsanam, yathd visnu-dharmottare — 
sprstva visnor adhisthanam pavitrah sraddhayanvitah \ 
pdpa-bandhair vinirmuktah sarvdn kdmdn avdpnuydt || 1.2. 165|| 

Touching the Deity, from Visnu-dharmottara: 

"The pure, faithful person who touches the Deity of Visnu becomes freed 

from the bondage of sin and attains all desires." 

4 1 - atha srT-murter darsanam, yathd varahe — 
vrndavane tu govindam ye pasyanti vasundhare \ 

na te yama-puram yanti yanti punya-krtam gatim || 1.2. 166|| 

Seeing the Deity, from Varaha Purana: 

"O Earth! Those who see Govinda in Vrndavana do not go to the city of 

Yama, but achieve pure bhakti, the goal of all punya" 

42 - aratrika-darsanam, yathd skande — 
kotayo brahma-hatyanam agamyagama-kotayah \ 

dahaty aloka-matrena visnoh saratrikam mukham || 1.2. 167|| 

Seeing the aratrika of the Lord, from Skanda Purana: 

"The face of Visnu lit by the aratrika lamp burns up ten million sins of killing 
brahmanas and ten million sins committed in the past and to be committed in 
the future." 



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utsava-darsanam, yatha bhavisyottare — 
ratha-stham ye niriksante kautikenapi kesavam \ 
devatanam ganah sarve bhavanti svapacadayah ||1.2. 168|| 

Seeing the festivals of the Lord, from Bhavisyottara: 

"The dog-eaters and other low persons who joyfully see Kesava on His 

chariot all become associates of the Lord." 

adi-sabdena puja-darsanam, yathdgneye — 

pujitam pujyamanam vd yah pasyed bhaktito harim 1 1 1 .2. 1 69| | 

The word adi in verse 87 refers to seeing the worship, as illustrated in Agni 

Purdna: 

"He who sees the Lord with devotion, faith and joy, after He is worshiped or 

while He is being worshiped, attains eternal service to the Lord." 

43 - atha sravanam sravanam 
ndma-carita-gunddindm srutir bhavet || 1.2. 170|| 

"Next, hearing: Hearing means listening to the Holy Name, pastimes and 
qualities of the Lord." 

tatra ndma-sravanam, yatha garude — 

samsara-sarpa-dasta- 

nasta-cestaika-bhesajam \ 

krsneti vaisnavam mantram 

srutva mukto bhaven narah || 1.2. 171 || 

Hearing the Holy Name of the Lord, from Garuda Purdna: 

"Hearing the Vaianava mantra 'Krsna', which is the only effective medicine 

to counteract the bite of the snake oisamsara, a man becomes liberated." 

caritra-sravanam, yatha caturthe (4.29.41) — 
tasmin mahan-mukharita madhubhic-caritra- 
piyusa-sesa-saritah paritah sravanti \ 
ta ye pibanty avitrso nrpa gadha-karnais 

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tan na sprsanty asana-trd-bhaya-soka-mohah || 1.2. 172 || 

Hearing the pastimes, from the Fourth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam 

[4.29.40]: 

"In that assembly, excellent streams of nectar of the pastimes of the Lord, 

emanating from the mouths of the saintly devotees, flow everywhere. Those 

who drink that nectar with eager ears, with constant thirst, O King, will forget 

the necessities of life like hunger and thirst, and become immune to all kinds 

of fear, lamentation and illusion." 

guna-sravanam, yathd dvadase (12.3.15) — 
yas tuttamahsloka-gundnuvadah 
sangiyate 'bhiksnam amangala-ghnah \ 
tarn eva nityam srnuyad abhiksnam 
krsne'maldm bhaktim abhipsamanah || 1.2. 173 || 

Hearing the qualities of the Lord, from the Twelfth Canto oiSrimad- 
Bhdgavatam [12.3.15]: 

"The person who desires pure devotional service to Lord Krsna should hear 
the narrations of Lord Uttamahsloka's glorious qualities, the constant chanting 
of which destroys everything inauspicious. The devotee should engage in such 
listening in regular daily assemblies and should also continue his hearing 
throughout the day." 

atha tat-krpeksanam, yathd dasame (10.14.8) — 
tat te 'nukampam su-samiksamano 
bhunjdna evatma-krtam vipakam \ 
hrd-vag-vapurbhir vidadhan namas te 
jivetayo mukti-pade sa ddya-bhak ||1.2. 174 || 

Expecting the Lord's mercy, from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam 

[10.14.8]: 

"My dear Lord, one who earnestly waits for You to bestow Your causeless 

mercy upon him, all the while patiently suffering the reactions of his past 

misdeeds and offering You respectful obeisances with his heart, words and 

body, is surely eligible for liberation, for it has become his rightful claim." 



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atha smrtih — 

yatha katham cin-manasa sambandhah smrtir ucyate || 1.2.1 75 1| 

"Remembrance: Connecting the mind to the Lord somehow or other is called 
remembrance." 

yatha visnu-purdne (5. 17. 17) — 

smrte sakala-kalyana-bhajanam yatrajdyate \ 

purusam tarn ajam nityam vrajdmi saranam harim ||1.2.176|| 

This is illustrated in the Visnu Purdna [5. 17. 17]: 

"I surrender to the unborn, eternal person Hari, by remembrance of Whom 

one takes possession of all auspiciousness." 

yatha capddme — 

praydne cdpraydne ca yan-ndma smaratdm nrndm \ 

sadyo nasyati pdpaugho namas tasmai cid-dtmane ||1.2.177|| 

Remembrance is also illustrated in the Padma Purdna: 
"I offer my respects to the omniscient Lord. Remembrance of His Holy 
Name, while living or dying, immediately destroys heaps of sins committed 
by men." 

atha dhydnam — 

dhydnam rupa-guna-krldd-sevddeh susthu cintanam ||1.2.178|| 

"Meditation: Meditation means to contemplate with absorption upon the 
Lord's form, qualities, pastimes and service." 

tatra rupa-dhydnam, yatha ndrasimhe — 
bhagavac-carana-dvandva-dhydnam nirdvandvam iritam \ 
pdpino'pi prasarigena vihitam suhitam param || 1.2. 179 || 

Meditation on the form, from the Ndrasimha Purdna: 
"Meditation on the two feet of the Lord is considered the means of attaining 
freedom from the dualities of this world. Even a sinner who meditates 
casually obtains the highest benefit." 

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guna-dhyanam, yathd visnudharme — 

ye kurvanti sadd bhaktyd gunanusmaranam hareh \ 

praksina-kalusaughas te pravisanti hareh padam ||1.2.180|| 

Meditation on the qualities of the Lord, from Visnu-dharma: 

"Those who constantly meditate on the qualities of the Lord with devotion, 

having destroyed all contamination, enter the abode of the Lord." 

krlda-dhyanam, yathd padme — 
sarva-madhurya-sarani sarvadbhutamayani ca \ 
dhyayan hares caritrani lalitani vimucyate ||1. 2.181 || 

Meditating on the pastimes of the Lord, from the Padma Purana: 

"He who meditates on the most sweet, most astonishing, most charming 

pastimes of the Lord obtains liberation." 

seva-dhyanam, yathd puranantare — 

manasenopacarena paricarya harim sadd \ 

pare vah-manasa 'gamyam tarn saksat pratipedire || 1.2. 182 || 

Meditation on one's service, from another Purana: 

"Constantly serving the Lord with items produced in the mind, some devotees 
have directly attained the Lord, who is not approachable for others by words 
or mind." 

atha dasyam — 

dasyam karmarpanam tasya kaihkaryam apt sarvatha || 1.2. 183 || 

"Acting as a servant: dasyam is defined as offering the result of prescribed 
duties and acting as a menial servant of the Lord." 

tatra adyam yathd skande — 

tasmin samarpitam karma svabhdvikam apisvare \ 

bhaved bhagavato dharmas tat-karma kimutarpitam || 1.2. 184 || 

The first type, offering prescribed duties, is described in the Skanda Purana: 
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"Prescribed duties according to one's nature (yarndsrama-dharma), offered to 
the Lord become bhdgavata-dharma. What to speak then of actions oibhakti 
offered to the Lord alone?" 

karma svdbhdvikam bhadram japa-dhydndrcanddi ca \ 
itidam dvividham krsne vaisnavair dasyam arpitam ||1.2. 185|| 

"There are two categories of this varndsrama-ddsyam offered to the Lord by 
the Vaisnavas: Offering the auspicious among the prescribed actions 
according to one's nature, and offering only actions such as japa, meditation 
and Deity worship." 

mrdu-sraddhasya kathitd svalpd karmddhikdritd \ 
tad-arpitam harau dasyam iti kaiscid udiryate ||1.2.186|| 

"Some persons say that this offering of duties by a person with weak faith in 
bhakti and a slight qualification for prescribed duties is called dasyam.'" 

dvitiyam, yatha ndradfye — 

ihd yasya harer ddsye karmana manasa gird \ 

nikhilasv apy avasthasu jivan-muktah sa ucyate \\ 1.2. 187|| 

The second type of dasyam is illustrated in the Naridiya Purana: 

"He who has the desire to serve the Lord in this world with actions, mind and 

words is called a liberatedylva in all circumstances." 

atha sakhyam — 

visvaso mitra-vrttis ca sakhyam dvividham Tritam ||1.2.188|| 

"Friendship: There are two types of sakhyam: trust and being friendly." 

tatra adyam, yatha mahabharate — 

pratijha tava govinda na me bhaktah pranasyati \ 

iti samsmrtya samsmrtya pranan samdharayamy aham || 1.2. 189 || 

The first type, trust, is described in Mahabharata: 



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"O Govinda, remembering again and again Your promise that Your devotee 
will never perish, I maintain my life." 

tatha ekddase (11.2.53) ca — 

tri-bhuvana-vibhava-hetave py akuntha- 

smrtir ajitdtma-surddibhir vimrgyat \ 

na calati bhagavat-paddravinddl 

lava-nimisdrdham api yah sa vaisnavdgryah ||1.2. 190|| 

Trust in the Lord is also illustrated in the Eleventh Canto of SrTmad- 
Bhdgavatam [11.2.53]: 

"The lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are sought even by the 
greatest of demigods, such as Brahma and Siva, who have all accepted the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead as their life and soul. A pure devotee of the 
Lord can never forget those lotus feet in any circumstance. He will not give 
up his shelter at the lotus feet of the Lord for a single moment — indeed, not 
for half a moment — even in exchange for the benediction of ruling and 
enjoying the opulence of the entire universe. Such a devotee of the Lord is to 
be considered the best of the Vaisnavas." 

sraddhd-mdtrasya tad-bhaktdv adhikdritva-hetutd \ 
ahgatvam asya visvdsa-visesasya tu kesave || 1.2. 191 || 

"The cause of the qualification for bhakti is sraddhd alone. The particular 
element visvdsa to Kesava may be considered an ahga of that." 

dvitiyam, yathd agastya-samhitdydm — 
paricaryd parah kecit 
prdsddesu ca serate \ 
manusyam iva tarn drastum 
vyavahartum ca bandhuvat || 1.2. 192 || 

The second type of friendship is illustrated in the Agastya-samhitd: 

"A person who is dedicated to serving the Lord, and out of friendship sees and 

treats Him as a human, lies down in the Lord's temple." 

rdgdnugdngatasya sydd vidhi-mdrgdnapeksatvdt \ 

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marga-dvayena caitena sadhhya sakhya-ratir mata || 1.2. 193|| 

"The last example should be classed as rdgdnuga-sddhana, because of 
disregard for vaidhi-sddhana. However, attraction for feelings of friendship is 
cultivated in both rdgdnuga-sddhana and vaidhi-sadhana" 

atha dtma-nivedanam, yathd ekddase (11.29.34) — 
martyo yadd tyakta-samasta-karmd 
niveditdtmd vicikirsito me \ 
taddmrtatvam pratipadyamdno 
maydtma-bhuydyd ca kalpate vai || 1.2. 194 || 

Offering the self, as illustrated in the Eleventh Canto of SrTmad-Bhdgavatam 

[11.29.34]: 

"A person who gives up all fruitive activities and offers himself entirely unto 

Me, eagerly desiring to render service unto Me, achieves liberation from birth 

and death and is promoted to the status of sharing My own opulences." 

artho dvidhdtma-sabdasya panditair upapdyate \ 
dehy-ahantdspadam kaiscid dehah kaiscin mamatva-bhdk || 1.2. 195|| 

"The learned say that dtmd has two meanings: some say that dtmd refers to 
the soul having the identity of T, while others say that dtmd refers to the 
body, since it belongs to the soul." 

tatra dehi, yathd ydmundcdrya-stotre (49) — 

vapurddisu yo 'pi ko'pi vd 

gunato sdni yathd tathd-vidhah \ 

tad ayam tava pdda-padmayor 

aham adyaiva mayd samarpitah ||1.2. 196|| 

Offering the soul is considered in a stotra of Yamunacarya: 
"Whoever I may be, either a soul inhabiting the body and other material 
elements, or a deva or a human body made oigunas, today I offer that T to 
Your lotus feet." 

deho, yathd bhakti-viveke — 

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cintam kuryan na raksayai vikritasya yatha pasoh \ 
tathdrpayan harau deham viramed asya raksandt || 1.2. 197|| 

Offering the body as dtmd is illustrated in Bhakti-viveka: 

"Just as one does not worry about an animal that has been sold, one should 

offer this body to the Lord and be disinterested in its maintenance." 

duskaratvena virale dve sakhydtma-nivedane \ 

kesdmcid eva dhirdndm labhate sddhandrhatdm ||1.2.198|| 

"Friendship and offering the self and body are rare because of the difficulty of 
execution during the process of sddhana. However some wise men have 
considered that these two qualify as part of sddhana" 

atha nija-priyopaharanam, yatha ekddase (11.11.41) — 

yad yad istatamam lokeyac cati-priyam dtmanah \ 

tat tan nivedayen mahyam tad dnantydya kalpate || 1.2. 199 || 

Offering articles dear to oneself, illustrated in the Eleventh Canto ofSrimad- 
Bhdgavatam [11.11.41]: 

"Whatever is most desired by one within this material world, and whatever is 
most dear to oneself — one should offer that very thing to Me. Such an 
offering qualifies one for eternal life." 

atha tad-arthe 'khila-cestitam, yatha pahcardtre — 
laukikT vaidikT vdpi yd kriyd kriyate mune \ 
hari-sevdnukulaiva sd kdryd bhaktim icchatd ||1.2.200|| 

Making full efforts for the Lord, illustrated in the Pahcardtra: 
"O sage! Among all the Vedic and routine actions that are performed, the 
person desiring bhakti should perform those which are favorable for service to 
the Lord." 

atha sarandpattih, yatha hari-bhakti-vildse (11.677) — 
tavdsmlti vadan vdcd tathaiva manasd vidan \ 
tat-sthdnam dsritas tanvd modate sarandgatah || 1.2.201 || 



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Accepting the Lord's protection is illustrated in the Hari-bhakti-vilasa 

[11.677]: 

"He who, while saying 'I am Yours', accepts the protection of the Lord, feels 

bliss." 

sri-narasimhe ca — 

tvarii prapanno 'smi saranam deva-deva janardana \ 

iti yah saranam prdptas tarn klesad uddharamy aham || 1.2.202 || 

Also it is stated in the Narasimha Purdna: 

"I deliver from suffering that person who takes shelter of Me, saying 'Lord of 

lords, exciter of all beings, I have taken You as my protector." 

53 - atha tadiyanam sevanam \ tulasyah, yatha skande — 

yd drsta nikhilagha-sahga-samani sprsta vapuh-pdvani 

roganam abhivandita nirasani siktantaka-trasini \ 

pratyasatti-vidhayini bhagavatah krsnasya samropita 

nyasta tac-carane vimukti-phalada tasyai tulasyai namah || 1.2.203 || 

Service of things related to the Lord and service to tulasi, from Skanda 

Purdna: 

"Seeing tulasi destroys all sins. Touching her purifies the body. Bowing to her 

destroys all sufferings. Sprinkling her with water delivers one from death. 

Planting her bestows attachment of the mind to Krsna. Offering her to Krsna's 

lotus feet bestows special liberation in the form oiprema. I offer my respects 

to tulasi." 

tatha ca tatraiva — 

drsta sprsta tatha dhyata kirtita namita stuta \ 
ropita sevita nityam pujita tulasi subha || 1.2.204 || 
navadha tulasim devim ye bhajanti dine dine \ 
yuga-koti-sahasrani te vasanti harer grhe ||1.2.205|| 

Also from Skanda Purdna: 

"Those who worship auspicious tulasi daily by nine processes — seeing, 
touching, meditating, glorifying, offering obeisances, praising, planting, 
serving and worshiping — live in the Lord's house for ten billion yugas" 

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54 - atha sastrasya, sastram atra samakhyatam yad bhakti-pratipadakam | 
7.2206H 

"Service to the scriptures: Scripture here refers to those scriptures that present 
bhakti" 

yathd skdnde — 

vaisnavani tu sastram ye srnvanti pathanti ca \ 

dhanyds te mdnavd loke tesam krsnah prasidati ||1.2.207|| 

vaisnavani tu sastram ye 'rcayanti grhe narah \ 

sarva-papa-vinirmukta bhavanti sura-vanditah ||1.2.208|| 

tisthate vaisnavani sastram likhitam yasya mandire \ 

tatra nardyano devah svayam vasati narada || 1.2.209 || 

From the Skanda Purana: 

"O Narada, fortunate are the people in this world who hear and read the 
Vaisnava scriptures. Krsna is pleased with them. Those who worship the 
Vaisnava scriptures in their homes become free from all sins and are praised 
by the devatas. The Supreme Lord Narayana Himself lives in the house where 
the Vaisnava scriptures have appeared in writing." 

tatha sri-bhagavate dvadase (12.13.15) ca — 
sarva-vedanta-saram hi srT-bhagavatam isyate \ 
tad-rasamrta-trptasya nanyatra syad ratih kvacit || 1.2.210|| 

This is also illustrated in the Twefth Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam [12. 13. 15]: 
"SrTmad-Bhagavatam is declared to be the essence of all Vedanta philosophy. 
One who has felt satisfaction from its nectarean mellow will never be 
attracted to any other literature." 

55 - atha mathurayah, yathd adi-varahe — 
mathuram ca parityajya yo 'nyatra kurute ratim \ 

mudho bhramati samsare mohita mama mayaya ||1.2.211 || 

Serving Mathura and other holy places, illustrated in the Varaha Purana: 



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"The fool who gives up Mathura and develops attraction for some other place 
wanders in the material world birth after birth, bewildered by My Maya." 

brahmande ca — 

trailokya-varti-tirthanam sevandd durlabhd hi yd \ 

parananda-mayi siddhir mathura-sparsa-matratah || 1.2.212 || 

This is also illustrated in the Brahmanda Purdna: 

"The bliss at the stage oiprema, which is rarely obtained even by serving all 

the holy places in the three worlds, is available just by touching Mathura." 

sruta smrta kirtita ca vanchita preksita gatd \ 

sprsta srita sevitd ca mathurabhistada nrnam \ 

iti khyatam puranesu na vistara-bhiyocyate || 1.2.213 || 

"Hearing about, remembering, glorifying, desiring, seeing, visiting, touching, 
taking shelter and serving Mathura fulfills all the desires of human beings. 
This has been described in all the Puranas. I have not elaborated this here for 
fear of increasing the volume of this book." 

56 - atha vaisnavanam sevanam, yatha padme(6. 253. 176) — 
aradhananam sarvesam visnor aradhanam param \ 
tasmat parataram devi tadfyanam samarcanam || 1.2.214 || 

Service to Vaisnavas, from Padma Purdna: 

"Of all types of worship, worship of Visnu is supreme. O Devi, worship of 

His devotees, however, is even superior to that." 

trtlye (3.7.19) ca— 

yat-sevaya bhagavatah kuta-sthasya madhu-dvisah \ 

rati-raso bhavet tivrah padayor vyasanardanah || 1.2.2 15|| 

In the Third Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam [3.7. 19], it is said: 
"By serving the feet of the spiritual master, one is enabled to develop 
transcendental ecstasy in the service of the Personality of Godhead, who is the 
unchangeable enemy of the Madhu demon and whose service vanquishes 
one's material distresses." 



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skande ca — 

sarikha-cakrarikita-tanuh sirasa manjarT-dharah \ 

gopi-candana-liptahgo drstas cet tad-agham kutah ||1.2.216|| 

Also, the Skanda Purdna says: 

"Where is sin for the person who has seen a Vaisnava whose body is marked 
with conch and disc, who has tulasi manjaris on his head and whose limbs are 
smeared with gopT-candana? " 

prathame (1.19.33) ca — 

yesam samsmaranat pumsam sadyah suddhyanti vai grhah \ 

kim punar darsana-sparsa-pada-saucasanadibhih ||1.2.217|| 

The First Canto of SrTmad-Bhdgavatam [1.19.33] says: 
"Simply by our remembering you, our houses become instantly sanctified. 
And what to speak of seeing you, touching you, washing your holy feet and 
offering you a seat in our home?" 

ddi-purdne — 

ye me bhakta-jandh pdrtha na me bhaktds ca tejanah \ 

mad-bhaktanam caye bhaktds te me bhaktatama matah || 1.2.2 18|| 

Adi-purana says: 

"Those who claim to be My devotees are not My devotees; Those who are the 

devotees of My devotees, I consider them to be the best of My devotees." 

yavanti bhagavad-bhakter ahgani kathitaniha \ 

prayas tavanti tad-bhakta-bhakter api budha viduh || 1.2.219 || 

"All the ahgas of bhakti in relation to the Lord are also ahgas of bhakti in 
relation to the devotees of the Lord. This is the conclusion of the wise." 

57 - atha yatha-vaibhava-mahotsavo, yatha padme — 
yah karoti mahlpala harer gehe mahotsavam \ 
tasyapi bhavati nityam hari-loke mahotsava ||1.2.220|| 



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Observing festivals according to one's wealth, illustrated from the Padma 

Purana: 

"O King, he who performs a festival for the temple of the Lord experiences 

for eternity a festival in the planet of the Lord." 

58 - atha urjddaro, yathd pddme — 

yathd ddmodaro bhakta-vatsalo viditojanaih \ 

tasydyam tddrso mdsah svalpam apy uru-kdrakah || 1.2.221 || 

Observing Urja-vrata, from the Padma Purana: 
"Just as men know that Damodara is affectionate to His devotee, the 
Damodara month is also affectionate to the devotee. Even a little service 
performed during that month yields great results." 

tatrdpi mathurayam viseso, yathd tatraiva — 
bhuktim muktim harir dadydd arcito 'nyatra sevindm \ 
bhaktim tu na daddty evayato vasyakari hareh || 1.2.222 || 
sd tv anjasd harer bhaktir labhyate kdrttike naraih \ 
mathurayam sakrd api sri-ddmodara-sevandt || 1.2.223 || 

Respecting the Damodara-vrata in Mathura is glorified in the Padma Purana: 
"The Lord, being worshiped elsewhere, awards material enjoyment and 
liberation to those worshipers. He does not give bhakti, because bhakti 
controls the Lord. However, men can achieve bhakti very easily by serving 
Damodara during Kartika month in Mathura just once." 

59 — atha sri-janma-dina-ydtrd, yathd bhavisyottare — 
yasmin dine prasuteyam devakl tvdrh jandrdana \ 
tad-dinam bruhi vaikuntha kurmas te tatra cotsavam \ 

tena samyak-prapanndndm prasddam kuru kesavah \\ 1.2.224 || 

Observing the appearance day of the Lord, from Bhavisyottara Purana: 
"O Janardana, tell us the day that Devakl gave birth to You. O Vaikuntha, we 
will perform a festival on that day. O Kesava, may You be pleased with that 
festival performed by those who are completely surrendered to You." 

60 — atha sri-murter-anghri-sevane pritih, yathd ddi-purdne — 

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mama nama-sadagrahi mama seva-priyah sada \ 

bhaktis tasmai praddtavyd na tu muktih kaddcana || 1.2.225|| 

Attachment to serving the lotus feet of the Deity, from Adi Purana: 

"I give bhakti, and never liberation, to the person who is always engaged in 

chanting My Holy Name and serving Me as the goal in his life." 

61 — atha sri-bhagavatarthasvado, yatha prathame(\. 1.3) — 
nigama-kalpa-taror-galitam phalam 

suka-mukhad amrta-drava-samyutam \ 

pibata bhagavatam rasam alayam 

muhur aho rasika bhuvi bhavukah ||1.2.226|| 

Relishing Srimad-Bhagavatam, from the First Canto [1.1.3]: 
"O expert and thoughtful men, relish Srimad-Bhagavatam, the mature fruit of 
the desire tree of Vedic literatures. It emanated from the lips of Sri Sukadeva 
Gosvami. Therefore this fruit has become even more tasteful, although its 
nectarean juice was already relishable for all, including liberated souls." 

tatha dvitiye (2. 1.9) ca — 

parinisthito 'pi nairgunye uttamahsloka-lilaya \ 

grhita-ceta rajarse akhyanam yad adhitavan || 1.2.227|| 

Similarly, it is said in the Second Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [2. 1.9]: 
"O saintly King, I was certainly situated perfectly in transcendence, yet I was 
still attracted by the delineation of the pastimes of the Lord, who is described 
by enlightened verses." 

62 - atha sa-jatiyasaya-snigdha-sri-bhagavad-bhakta-sahgo, 
yatha prathame (1.18.13) — 

tulayama lavenapi na svargam napunar-bhavam \ 
bhagavat-sahgi-sahgasya martyanam kimutasisah ||1.2.228|| 

Association with like-minded, affectionate devotees, from the First Canto of 
Srimad-Bhagavatam [1.18.13]: 

"The value of a moment's association with the devotee of the Lord cannot 
even be compared to the attainment of heavenly planets or liberation from 

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matter, and what to speak of worldly benedictions in the form of material 
prosperity, which are for those who are meant for death." 

hari-bhakti-sudhodaye ca — 
yasya yat-sangatih pumso 
manivat sydt sa tad-gunah \ 
sva-kularddhyai tato dhimdn 
sva-yuthyan eva samsrayet || 1.2.229 || 

It is also said in the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya: 

"A man will attain the qualities of the person with whom he associates, just as 
a crystal takes up the color of the object next to it. Therefore, the wise man 
will take shelter of those who have qualities similar to his own for the 
prosperity of his family." 

63 — atha sri-nama samkirtanam, yathd dvitiye(2. 1.11) — 
etan nirvidyamdndndm icchatdm akuto-bhayam \ 
yoginam nrpa nirnitam harer namanukirtanam ||1.2.230|| 

Chanting the Holy Name of the Lord, from SrTmad-Bhdgavatam [2.1.11]: 
"O King, constant chanting of the Holy Name of the Lord after the ways of 
the great authorities is the doubtless and fearless way of success for all, 
including those who are free from all material desires, those who are desirous 
of all material enjoyment, and also those who are self-satisfied by dint of 
transcendental knowledge." 

ddi-purdne ca — 

gitvd ca mama namdni vicaren mama sannidhau \ 

iti bravimi te satyam krito 'ham tasya carjuna || 1.2.231 || 

Krsna says in the Adi Purdna: 

"By singing My Holy Names, a person will attain a position close to Me. I 

make this promise. That person, O Arjuna, purchases Me." 

padme ca — 

yena janma-sahasrani vasudevo nisevitah \ 

tan-mukhe hari-ndmani sada tisthanti bharata 111.2.232 II 



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In the Padma Purana, it is said: 

"The Holy Names of the Lord remain continuously in the mouth of that 

person who serves Vasudeva for a thousand births." 

yatas tatraiva ca — 

ndma cintamanih krsnas caitanya-rasa-vigrahah \ 

purnah suddho nitya-mukto 'bhinnatvdn ndma-ndminoh || 1.2.233 || 

It is also said in the Padma Purana: 

"The Holy Name of the Lord fulfills all desires like cintamani. It is the very 
form of Krsna. It is full of consciousness and rasa. It is complete, pure and 
eternally liberated. This is because of the non-difference of the Holy Name 
and Krsna." 

yatha tatraiva — 

atah sri-krsna-namadi na bhaved grahyam indriyaih \ 

sevonmukhe hijihvadau svayam eva sphuraty adah || 1.2.234 || 

Also from the Padma Purana: 

"Krsna and His Holy Names cannot be grasped by the material senses, but 
when a person develops the tendency to accept the Lord's Holy Name and 
transcendental form, Krsna then spontaneously appears on the tongue and in 
the other senses." 

64 - atha sri-mathura-mandale sthitih, yatha padme — 

anyesu punya-tirthesu muktir eva mahd-phalam \ 

muktaih prarthya harer bhaktir mathurdyam tu labhyate \\ 1.2.235|| 

tri-vargadd kaminam yd mumuksunam ca moksada \ 

bhakticchor bhaktida kas tarn mathuram nasrayed budhah ||1.2.236|| 

aho madhu-purT dhanya vaikunthac ca gariyasT \ 

dinam ekam nivasena harau bhaktih prajayate ||1.2.237|| 

Residing in Mathura, illustrated in the Padma Purana: 
"Liberation is the greatest result that can obtained at other holy places, but 
devotion to the Lord, which is desired by the liberated souls, can be attained 
at Mathura. Mathura bestows dharma, artha and kama to those who have 

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material desires. It awards liberation to those desiring liberation. It awards 
bhaktito those desiring bhakti. What intelligent person will not take shelter of 
Mathura? Oh, Mathura is most auspicious, and greater than Vaikuntha! By 
staying only one day in Mathura, bhakti to the Lord appears." 

duruhadbhuta-virye 'smin sraddha dure 'stu pancake \ 

yatra svalpo 'pi sambandhah sad-dhiyam bhdva-janmane\\\.2.23%\\ 

"The last five items have inconceivable and astonishing power. What to speak 
of having faith in these items, if there is a just a little relationship with these 
items, persons who are devoid of offenses can attain the level ofbhdva" 

tatra srT-murtih yathd — 

smeram bhahgi-traya-paricitam saci-vistirna-drstim 

vamsT-nyastddhara-kisalaydm ujjvalam candrakena \ 

govindakhyam hari-tanum itah kesi-tirthopakanthe 

ma preksisthas tavayadi sakhe bandhu-sange'sti rahgah || 1.2.239 || 

The power of serving the Deity: 

"O my friend, if you desire to enjoy with your friends and relatives, then do 
not look upon the form of the Lord called Govinda, wandering near Kesi- 
tirtha on the bank of the Yamuna river, with a slight smile on His lips, posed 
in His threefold-bending posture, eyes glancing everywhere in a crooked 
fashion, flute placed on His red lower lip like a tender bud, and shining 
gloriously with a peacock feather." 

srl-bhagavatam yathd — 

sahke nitdh sapadi dasama-skandha-padydvalinam 

varnah karnadhvani pathi katamanupurvyad bhavadbhih \ 

hamho dimbhah parama-subhadan hanta dharmartha-kaman 

yad garhantah sukhamayam ami moksam apy aksipanti ||1.2.240|| 

The power of hearing SrTmad-Bhagavatam: 

"O idiots, how unfortunate you are! I think that you must have been hearing, 
one by one, the syllables of the verses of the Tenth Canto of SrTmad- 
Bhagavatam, because your ears are now denouncing the most auspicious 



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goals of dharma, artha, kama, and even decrying the fourth goal of moksa, 
which is most blissful." 

krsna-bhakto yathd — 

drg-ambhobhir dhautah pulaka-patali mandita-tanuh 
skhalann antah-phullo dadhad atiprthum vepathum api \ 
drsoh kaksam ydvan mama sa purusah ko py upayayau 
najdne kim tavan matir iha grhe nabhiramate || 1.2.241 || 

The power of association with the devotee of Krsna: 

"Ever since I saw a certain person whose body was washed with his own 

tears, whose hairs were standing on end, and who stumbled around with a 

joyous heart, while quivering to the extreme, my mind has for some reason 

become so attached to the form of Krsna that I have no attachment to my 

family." 

ndma yathd — 

yadavadhi mama sita vainikendnugita 

sruti-patham agha-satror namd-gdthd prayata \ 

anavakalita-purvam hanta kam apy avasthdm 

tadavadhi dadhad-antar-mdnasam samyativa || 1.2.242 || 

The power of chanting the Holy Name of the Lord: 

"Ever since I heard Narada singing the Holy Names of Krsna, which pacify 
the ears, my heart has become completely blissful, fixed in an unprecedented 
state ofprema" 

sri mathurd-mandalam yathd — 
tata-bhuvi krta-kdntih sydmald yds tatinyah 
sphutita-nava-kadambalambi-kujad-dvirepha \ 
niravadhi-madhurimna manditeyam katham me 
manasi kam api bhavam kanana-sris tanoti || 1.2.243 || 

The power of residing in the district of Mathura: 

"The splendor of Mathura's forest, made beautiful by being situated on the 

bank of the Yamuna, where buzzing bees take shelter of newly blossoming 



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kadamba trees, ornamented with unlimited sweetness, produces and 
extraordinary state oibhdva in my mind." 

alaukika-padarthanam acintya saktir idrsi \ 

bhavam tad-visayam cdpiyd sahaiva prakasayet || 1.2.244 || 

"The inconceivable power of these five extraordinary angas is that they will 
manifest the state oibhdva and its object, Krsna, at the same time." 

kesamcit kvacid ahganam yat ksudram sruyate phalam \ 
bahir-mukha-pravrttyaitat kintu mukhyam phalam ratih ||1.2.245|| 

"In some of the verses quoted from the scriptures, material results are 
attributed to the ahgas for attracting persons possessing material 
consciousness. However, the main result of these ahgas is rati (bhava)" 

sammatam bhakti-vijhanam bhakty-ahgatvam nakarmanam ||1.2.246|| 

"The consensus of those knowledgeable in bhakti is that karma (varnasrama 
duties) is not an ahga of bhakti." 

yatha caikadase (11.20.9) — 

tavat karmani kurvita na nirvidyeta yavata \ 

mat-katha-sravanadau va sraddha ydvan najayate ||1.2.247|| 

In the Eleventh Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [11.20.9] it is explained: 
"As long as one is not satiated by fruitive activity and has not awakened his 
taste for devotional service by hearing and chanting about Visnu, one has to 
act according to the regulative principles of the Vedic injunctions." 

jhana-vairagyayor bhakti-pravesayopayogita \ 

isat prathamam eveti nahgatvam ucitam tayoh ||1.2.248|| 

"Jnana and vairagya are suitable for entering bhakti, being somewhat useful 
in the beginning of bhakti, but they are not considered ahgas of bhakti" 

yad ubhe citta-kathinya-hetu prayah satam mate \ 

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sukumara-svabhaveyam bhaktis tad-dhetur irita || 1.2.249 || 

"Because jndna and vairdgya generally make the heart harsh, the authoritative 
devotees have concluded that bhaktialone, whose nature is very tender, is the 
cause of entering into bhakti." 

yathd tatraivci (1 1.20.3 1) — 

tasmdn mad-bhakti-yuktcisyci yogino vai mad-dtmanah \ 

najhdnam na ca vairdgyam prdyah sreyo bhavediha ||1.2.250|| 

In the SrTmad-Bhdgavatam [11.20.31], it is also said: 

"Therefore, for a devotee engaged in My loving service, with mind fixed on 
Me, the cultivation of knowledge and renunciation is generally not the means 
of achieving the highest perfection within this world." 

kintu jhdna-virakty-ddi-sddhyam bhaktyaiva sidhyati || 1.2.251 || 

"However, the goals of jndna, vairdgya and other processes are indeed 
achieved by bhaktialone" 

yathd tatraiva (11.20.32-33) — 

yat karmabhir yat tapasd jhdna-vairdgya tas ca yat \ 

yogena ddna dharmena sreyobhir itarair api || 1.2.252 || 

sarvam mad-bhakti-yogena mad-bhakto labhate 'njasd \ 

svargdpavargam mad-dhdma kathahcid yadi vdhchati || 1.2.253 || 

Thus, it is said in the SrTmad-Bhdgavatam [11.20.32-33]: 
"Everything that can be achieved by fruitive activities, penance, knowledge, 
detachment, mystic yoga, charity, religious duties and all other means of 
perfecting life is easily achieved by My devotee through loving service unto 
Me. If somehow or other My devotee desires promotion to heaven, liberation, 
or residence in My abode, he easily achieves such benedictions." 

rucim udvahatas tatra janasya bhajane hareh \ 
visayesu garistho 'pi rdgah prdyo viliyate ||1.2.254 || 



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"If a person has a taste for worshiping the Lord, even if he has strong material 
attachments, those attractions will for the most part be destroyed during 
sadhana without resorting to vairdgya" 

andsaktasya visaydn yathdrham upayunjatah \ 

nirbandhah krsna-sambandhe yuktam vairdgyam ucyate ||1.2.255|| 

"The vairdgya of that person who employs objects suitable for devotional 
development, while remaining detached from them, is said to be suitable for 
bhakti. The objects should be persistently related to Krsna." 

prdpahcikatayd buddhyd hari-sambandhi-vastunah \ 
mumuksubhih paritydgo vairdgyam phalgu kathyate ||1.2.256|| 

"Rejection of things related to the Lord by persons desiring liberation, who 
think that these things are simply material objects, is called useless vairdgya.'" 

proktena laksanenaiva bhaktir adhikrtasya ca \ 
ahgatve suniraste 'pi nityddy-akhila-karmandm ||1.2.257|| 
jndnasyddhydtmikasydpi vairagyasya ca phalgunah \ 
spastatdrtham punar api tad eve dam nirdkrtam ||1.2.258|| 

"The daily and periodic duties oivarndsrama and the impersonal aspect of 
jndnaQhe obstructive portions of karma and jhdna) have already been rejected 
as ahgas of bhakti by using the stated definition of uttama-bhakti obtained 
through the bhakti scriptures. However, to make the point clear, the false type 
of vairdgya (the obstructive portion) has again been rejected as an ahga of 
bhakti." 

dhana-sisyddibhir dvdrair yd bhaktir upapddyate \ 
viduratvdd uttamatd-hdnyd tasyds ca ndhgatd || 1.2.259 || 

"Bhakti that is accomplished by dependence on wealth, followers or other 
objects cannot be considered as an ahga of uttama-bhakti because it destroys 
the pure nature of uttama-bhakti . It is situated far away from uttama-bhakti." 

visesanatvam evaisdm samsrayanty adhikdrindm \ 

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vivekadiny ato 'misam apt nahgatvam ucyate ||1.2.260|| 

"Discrimination and other material qualities cannot be considered as ahgasof 
uttama-bhakti, since they spontaneously take shelter of the excellent condition 
of persons practicing uttama-bhakti." 

krsnonmukham svayam yanti yamah saucadayas tathd \ 

ity esam ca nayuktd sydd bhakty-ahgdntara-patitd || 1.2.261 || 

"Basic rules of conduct, rules of cleanliness, and other desirable qualities and 
actions appear automatically in those who are extremely dedicated to Krsna. 
Thus, they also are not included as ahgas ofbhakti." 

yatha skdnde — 

ete na hy adbhuta vyadha tavdhimsadayo gunah \ 

hari-bhaktau pravrtta ye na te syuh para-tapinah || 1.2.262 || 

Thus in the Skanda Purdna it is said: 

"O hunter! These qualities such as nonviolence are not astonishing, because 

the persons who engage in devotion to the Lord will never cause affliction to 

others." 

tatraiva — 

antah-suddhir bahih-suddhis tapah-santy-adayas tathd \ 

ami gunah prapadyante hari-sevabhikaminam ||1.2.263 || 

Also in the Skanda Purdna it is said: 

"Internal and external purity, austerity (sense control), peacefulness and other 

desirable qualities take shelter of persons who desire to serve the Lord." 

sa bhaktir eka-mukhydngasritanaikdhgi katha va \ 
svavasananusarena nisthatah siddhi-krd bhavet || 1.2.264 || 

"Bhakti, taking shelter of one principal ahga or many ahgas according to 
one's desire, and practiced with steadiness, brings about the desired result 
(bhava and prema)" 



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tatra ekdhgd, yatha granthdntare — 
sri visnoh sravane pariksid abhavad vaiydsakih kirtane 
prahlddah smarane tad-ahghri-bhajane laksmih prthuh pujane \ 
akruras tv abhivandane kapi-patir ddsye 'tha sakhye 'rjunah 
sarvasvdtma-nivedane balir abhut krsndptir esdmpard ||1.2.265|| 

Examples of practicing one anga are illustrated in another work [PadyavalT, 
53]: 

"Panksit is an example of hearing about the Lord and Sukadeva is an example 
of chanting about the glories of the Lord. Prahlada is an example of 
remembering the Lord and Laksmi is an example of serving the lotus feet of 
the Lord. Prthu is an example of performing Deity worship of the Lord. 
Akrura is an example of attaining perfection by offering prayers to the Lord. 
Hanuman is an example of service with an attitude of a servant of the Lord. 
Arjuna is an example of friendship with the Lord. Bali is an example of 
offering oneself to the Lord. They achieved Krsna by following principally 
one anga" 

anekanga, yatha navame (9.4.18-20) — 
sa vai manah krsna-paddravindayor 
vacdmsi vaikuntha-gundnuvarnane \ 
karau harer mandira-marjanadisu 
srutim cakdrdcyuta-sat-kathodaye ||1.2.266|| 
mukunda-lingdlaya-darsane drsau 
tad-bhrtya-gdtra-sparse 'nga-sangamam \ 
ghrdnam ca tat-pdda-saroja-saurabhe 
srimat-tulasyd rasandm tad-arpite ||1.2.267|| 
pddau hareh ksetra-paddnusarpane 
siro hrsikesa-paddbhivandane \ 
kdmam ca ddsye na tu kdma-kdmyayd 
yathottamahsloka-jandsraya ratih ||1.2.268|| 

An example of following many ahgas equally is found in the Ninth Canto of 
Srimad-Bhdgavatam [9.4.18-20]: 

"Maharaja Ambansa always engaged his mind in meditating upon the lotus 
feet of Krsna, his words in describing the glories of the Lord, his hands in 
cleansing the Lord's temple, and his ears in hearing the words spoken by 

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Krsna or about Krsna. He engaged his eyes in seeing the Deity of Krsna, 
Krsna's temples and Krsna's places like Mathura and Vrndavana, he engaged 
his sense of touch in touching the bodies of the Lord's devotees, he engaged 
his sense of smell in smelling the fragrance of tulasi offered to the Lord, and 
he engaged his tongue in tasting the Lord's prasdda. He engaged his legs in 
walking to the holy places and temples of the Lord, his head in bowing down 
before the Lord, and all his desires in serving the Lord, twenty-four hours a 
day. Indeed, Maharaja Ambansa never desired anything for his own sense 
gratification. He engaged all his senses in devotional service, in various 
engagements related to the Lord. This is the way to increase attachment for 
the Lord and be completely free from all material desires." 

sdstroktayd prabalayd tat-tan-maryddaydnvitd 

vaidhi bhaktir iyam kaiscan maryddd-mdrga ucyate || 1.2.269 || 

"Some people call vaidhi-bhakti the path of rules {maryddd-mdrga) since it is 
bound by strong limitation of the rules mentioned in the scriptures." 

atha rdgdnugd — virdjantim abhivyaktdm vraja-vdsijanddisu \ 
rdgdtmikdm anusrtd yd sd rdgdnugocyate ||1.2.270|| 

"Rdgdnuga-bhakti is defined as that bhakti which follows after the 
spontaneous rdgdtmika-bhakti found distinctively in the inhabitants of Vraja." 

rdgdnugd-vivekdrtham ddau rdgdtmikocyate || 1.2.271 || 

"To define rdgdnuga-bhakti, first we must discuss rdgdtmika-bhakti" 

iste svdrasikl rdgah paramdvistatd bhavet \ 

tan-maylyd bhaved bhaktih sdtra rdgdtmikoditd || 1.2.272 || 

"Rdga is defined as spontaneous, deep thirst for the object of love. Bhakti that 
is impelled exclusively by such a thirst is called rdgdtmika-bhakti" 

sd kdmarupd sambandha-rupd ceti bhaved dvidhd || 1.2.273 || 



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"There are two types of ragatmika-bhakti: impelled by conjugal feelings 
(kama-rupa) and impelled by other relationships (sambandha-rupa)" 

tathd hi saptame (7. 1.29-30) — 

kdmdd dvesad bhaydt snehddyathd bhaktyesvare manah \ 

avesya tad agham hitvd bahavas tad-gatim gatah || 1.2.274 || 

These two types of rdgdtmika-bhakti are illustrated in the Seventh Canto of 
Srimad-Bhagavatam [7.1.31]: 

"My dear King Yudhisthira, the gopis by their lusty desires, Karhsa by his 
fear, Sisupala and other kings by envy, the Vrsnis of Vraja by their familial 
relationship with Krsna, you Pandavas by your great affection for Krsna, and 
we, the general devotees, by our devotional service in vaidhi-bhakti, have 
obtained the mercy of Krsna." 

gopyah kdmdd bhaydt kamso dvesac caidyadayo nrpah \ 

sambandhad vrsnayah snehadyuyam bhaktya vayam vibho ||1.2.275|| 

anukulya-viparyasad bhiti-dvesau parahatau \ 

snehasya sakhya-vacitvadvaidha-bhakty-anuvartita ||1.2.276|| 

kim va premabhidhayitvan nopayogo 'tra sadhane \ 

bhaktya vayam iti vyaktam vaidhT bhaktir udlrita ||1.2.277|| 

"Because fear and hatred are not favorable, they are rejected as modes of 
bhakti. Affection (sneha) of the Pandavas, if it means friendliness (sakhya), 
belongs to vaidhi-bhakti (because sakhya is predominated by veneration). If 
sneha means prema or a stage oiprema, it still could not be admitted here, as 
the topic is sadhana-bhakti. In the phrase bhaktya vayam — "and we, the sages 
attained befitting goals by bhakti " — bhakti refers to vaidhi-bhakti" 

yad-arinam priyanam ca prapyam ekam ivoditam \ 

tad brahma-krsnayor aikyat kiranarkopama-jusoh || 1.2.278|| 

"When it is said that the enemies and dear friends of the Lord attained the 
same end, it means only in the sense that brahman and the personal form of 
the Lord are one entity, as the rays of the sun and the sun are one." 

brahmany eva layam yanti prayena ripavo hareh \ 

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kecit prapyapi sarupyabhasam majjanti tat-sukhe || 1.2.279 || 

"The enemies of the Lord generally merge into the impersonal brahman. 
Some of them, even though they attain semblance of a form similar to the 
Lord's {sarupyabhasam), remain absorbed in the happiness of brahman." 

tatha ca brahmanda purane — 

siddha-lokas tu tamasah pare yatra vasanti hi \ 

siddha brahma-sukhe magna daityas ca harina hatdh ||1.2.280|| 

Moreover, it says in the Brahmanda Purdna: 

"Siddha-loka (the spiritual world) is beyond prakrti. There, demons killed by 

the Lord and some sages dwell, merged in the happiness of brahman." 

raga-bandhena kenapi tarn bhajanto vrajanty ami \ 
ahghri-padma-sudhah prema-rupas tasya priya janah || 1.2.281 || 

"Those persons most devoted to the Lord, who are the very form ofprema 
and worship Him with intense, spontaneous absorption, attain the nectar of 
His lotus feet." 

tatha hi srl-dasame (10.87.23) — 

nibhrta-marun-mano 'ksa-drdha-yoga-yujo hrdi yan 

munaya upasate tad-arayo 'pi yayuh smaranat \ 

striya uragendra-bhoga-bhuja-danda-visakta-dhiyo 

vayam api te samah sama-drso 'hghri-saroja-sudhah || 1.2.282 || 

Thus, it says in the Tenth Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam[\0.&7 .23]: 
"Simply by constantly thinking of Him, the enemies of the Lord attained the 
same Supreme Truth whom sages fixed in yoga worship by controlling their 
breath, mind and senses. Similarly, we srutis, who generally see You as all- 
pervading, will achieve the same nectar from Your lotus feet that Your 
consorts are able to relish because of their loving attraction to Your mighty, 
serpentine arms, for You look upon us and Your consorts in the same way." 

tatra kamarupa — 

sa kamarupa sambhoga-trsnam yd nayati svatam \ 

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yad asyam krsna-saukhyartham eva kevalam udyamah || 1.2.283 || 

Here is the definition of kamarupa-ragatmika-bhakti: 
"That type of bhakti with full absorption in the Beloved which produces an 
intrinsic thirst for a conjugal relationship with the Lord is called kamarupa- 
bhakti. It is called bhakti because in that condition there is only eagerness for 
giving pleasure to Krsna." 

iyam tu vraja-devisu suprasiddhd virdjate \ 

asam prema-viseso 'yam praptah kam api madhurim \ 

tat-tat-krida-nidanatvat kama ity ucyate budhaih || 1.2.284 || 

"This very famous kamariipa-bhakti appears with brilliance in the women of 
Vraja. They have a particular type oiprema that has a special sweetness. It is 
called kama by the wise because it is the cause of various amorous actions." 

tatha ca tantre — 

premaiva gopa-ramanam kama ity agamat pratham ||1.2.285|| 

Thus, in a Tantra it is said: 

"The kama-rupa-bhakti of the gopis has become famous simply as prema" 

ity uddhavadayo py etam vanchati bhagavat-priyah \\ 1.2.286|| 

"And because it is a form of exalted prema, persons very dear to the Lord 
such as Uddhava desire that aspect of it." 

kama-praya ratih kintu kubjayam eva sammata || 1.2.287|| 

"But the wise agree that the attraction to Krsna seen in Kubja is essentially 
due to kama only." 

tatra sambandha-rupa — 

sambandha-rupa govinde pitrtvady-abhimanita \ 
atropalaksanataya vrsninam vallava matah \ 
yadaisya-jnana-sunyatvad esarii rage pradhanata ||1.2.288|| 



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"Next sambandha-rupa-ragatmika-bhakti will be discussed: sambandha- 
rupa-ragatmika-bhakti is that bhakti inspired by direct absorption arising 
from identifying oneself as the parent, friend or servant of Govinda. This 
refers to the bhakti of the cowherd people, indicated by the term sambandha- 
vrsnayah in verse 275, as an example oisambandha. This is because these 
other relationships in Vraja also have a predominance of intense affection 
(rdga) caused by a lack of awareness of Krsna as the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead." 



KC 



kama-sambandha-rupe te prema-matra-svarupake t 
nitya-siddhasrayataya ndtra samyag vicdrite || 1.2.289 || 

"Since kama-rupa-bhakti and sambandha-rupa-bhakti which are caused by 
prema alone, take shelter of the nitya-siddhas , they have not been discussed 
thoroughly in this section." 

rdgdtmikdyd dvaividhydd dvidhd rdgdnugd ca sd \ 
kdmdnugd ca sambandhdnugd ceti nigadyate ||1.2.290|| 

"From these two types of rdgdtmika-bhakti (siddha-bhakti), two types of 
raganuga-sadhana-bhakti ', called kdmdnuga-bhakti and sambandhdnuga- 
bhakti, are derived." 

tatra adhikari — 

ragatmikaika-nistha ye vraja-vasi-janadayah \ 

tesam bhdvdptaye lubdho bhaved atrddhikdravdn || 1.2.291 || 

"The qualification for rdgdnuga-bhakti is as follows: That person who is 
greedy for attaining a bhdva similar to that of the inhabitants of Vraja — who 
are fixed solely in rdgdtmika-bhakti — is qualified for rdgdnuga-bhakti. 

tat-tad-bhavadi-madhurye srute dhir yad apeksate \ 

ndtra sastram nayuktim ca tal-lobhotpatti-laksanam || 1.2.292 || 

"The appearance of that greed is indicated when the intelligence does not 
depend on rules of scripture and logic, after realizing to some degree the 



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sweetness of the love of the Vraja-vasis through the process of hearing from 
the scriptures." 

vaidha-bhakty-adhikarl tu bhdvdvirbhavandvadhi \ 
atra sastram tathd tarkam anukulam apeksate || 1.2.293 || 

"Those qualified for vaidhi-bhakti are dependent on the rules of scripture and 
favorable use of logic until the appearance of bhdva-bhakti ." 

krsnam smaranjanam cdsya prestham nija-samihitam \ 
tat-tat-kathd-ratas cdsau kurydd vasam vraje sadd || 1.2.294 || 

"Remembering the Vrndavana form of Krsna and His dear associates who 
have inclinations for service similar to one's own, absorbing oneself in 
hearing topics related to them, one should always live in Vraja." 

sevd sadhaka-rupena siddha-rupena cdtra hi \ 
tad-bhdva-lipsund kdryd vraja-lokanusaratah ||1.2.295|| 

"Following after the inhabitants of Vraja, one should perform service in one's 
physical body and in one's siddha body, with a desire for a particular bhava" 

sravanotkirtanadini vaidha-bhakty-uditdni tu \ 

ydny ahgdni ca tdny atra vijneydni mamsibhih ||1.2.296|| 

"The discriminating practitioners should accept the ahgas that were 
mentioned in vaidhi-bhakti, such as hearing and chanting, as ahgas of 

ragdnuga-bhakti ." 

tatra kamdnuga — 

kamanuga bhavet trsna kdma-rupdnugdmini || 1.2.297|| 

sambhogeccha-mayitat-tad-bhavecchatmeti sa dvidha ||1.2.298|| 

"The elements of kamanuga will be described: That raganuga-sadhana- 
bhakti which is filled with longing and follows after the kama-rupa- 
ragatmika-bhakti of the siddha-bhaktas is called kamanuga-bhakti. There are 
two types: sambhogeccha-mayi and tad-tad-bhavecchatma." 

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keli-tatparyavaty eva sambhogeccha-mayi bhavet \ 
tad-bhdvecchatmika tdsdm bhdva-mddhurya-kdmitd || 1.2.299 || 

"Sambhogeccha-mayT-bhakti is characterized by enjoying conjugally with 
Krsna. Tad-bhdvecchdtmd-bhakti is characterized by desiring the sweet mood 
of love of the kama-rupa-siddha devotees." 

sri-murter madhurim preksya tat-tal-lildm nisamya va \ 
tad-bhdvakanksino ye syus tesu sadhanatanayoh \ 
purane sruyate pddme pumsam api bhaved iyam ||1.2.300|| 

"Those who develop longing for the bhdva of the gopis after seeing the 
sweetness in the Deity of Krsna and the gopis, or after hearing about His 
pastimes with the gopis, are qualified for sddhana in either of these types of 
kdmdnuga-bhakti . In the Padma Purana, it is said that even men can attain 
this type oibhakti." 

yathd — 

purd maharsayah sarve dandakaranya-vasinah \ 

drstva rdmam harim tatra bhoktum aicchan suvigraham || 1.2.301 || 

te sarve stritvam dpanndh samudbhutds ca gokule \ 

harim samprapya kamena tato mukta bhavarnavat || 1.2.302 || 

Examples of males becoming gopis are as follows: 

"Previously, all the sages living in the Dandakaranya Forest, who after seeing 
Lord Rama desired enjoyment with His form, attained forms of women and 
appeared in Gokula. Attaining the Lord by that kama, they became liberated 
from the ocean of the material world." 

riramsam susthu kurvan yo vidhi-margena sevate \ 
kevalenaiva sa tada mahisitvam iyat pure || 1.2.303 || 

"A person who serves on the path oivaidhi-bhakti with a desire for a conjugal 
relationship with the Lord and a high position, but without desire for the 
gopis 'type of love, after some time becomes a queen in Dvaraka. " 



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tatha ca mahd-kaurme — 

agni-putrd mahatmanas tapasa stritvam dpire \ 

bhartdram cajagad-yonim vdsudevam ajam vibhum || 1.2.304 || 

Thus, it says in the Mahd-kurma Purana: 

"The saintly sons of Agni attained the bodies of women by the path oivaidhl- 
bhakti, and attained as their husband the unborn, powerful Vasudeva, the 
source of the universe." 

atha sambandhdnugd — 

sd sambandhdnugd bhaktih procyate sadbhir dtmani \ 

yd pitrtvddi-sambandha-manandropandtmikd || 1.2.305|| 

"Sambandhdnugd-bhakti is defined as follows: The devotees define 
sambandhdnugd-bhakti as bhakti in which there is constant contemplation of 
oneself as a parent, friend or servant of Krsna, and identification with that 
role." 

lubdhair vdtsalya-sakhyddau bhaktih kdrydtra sddhakaih \ 
vrajendra-subalddindm bhdva-cestita-mudrayd ||1.2.306|| 

"Practicing devotees greedy for paternal, friendly or servant relationships 
perform this bhakti with indications of the behavior and mood of Nanda 
(parent), Subala (friend) or others (servants)." 

tatha hi sruyate sdstre kascit kurupuri-sthitah \ 
nanda-sunor adhisthdnam tatra putratayd bhajan \ 
ndradasyopadesena siddho 'bhud vrddha-vardhakih ||1.2.307|| 

"It is said in the scriptures that some old carpenter living in Hastinapura, on 
the instructions of Narada worshiped a Deity form of Krsna as his son, and 
attained the perfection of having Krsna as his son." 

ataeva ndrdyana-vyuha-stave — 

pati-putra-suhrd-bhrdtr-pitrvan maitravad dharim \ 

ye dhydyanti sadodyuktds tebhyo piha namo namah ||1.2.308|| 



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It is said in the Narayana-vyuha-stava: 

"I pay my respects repeatedly to those who constantly and eagerly meditate 

upon the Lord as their husband, son, well-wisher, brother, father or friend." 

krsna-tad-bhakta-karunya-matra-labhaika-hetuka \ 
pusti-margataya kaiscid iyam rdgdnugocyate || 1.2.309 || 

"The mercy of Krsna and His devotees is the only cause of attaining 
rdgdnuga-bhakti . Some call this type of devotion pusti-marga." 

iti sri-sri-bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhau 
purva-vibhdge sddhana-bhakti-lahari-dvitiyd \\ 

"Thus ends the Second Wave in the Eastern Ocean of Sri Bhakti-Rasdmrta- 
sindhu, concerning sddhana-bhakti. " 



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Third Wave: Bhava-Bhakti 

atha bhavah — 

suddha-sattva-visesatma prema-suryamsu-samya-bhak \ 

rucibhis citta-masrnya-krd asau bhdva ucyate ||1.3.1|| 

"Bhava-bhakti is that part oibhakti whose essence is samvit- and hladini- 
sakti, that is one ray of the sun oiprema soon to rise in the heart, and that 
softens the heart with desires to meet, serve and exchange love with the 
Lord." 

tathd hi tantre — 

premnas tu prathamdvasthd bhdva ity abhidhiyate \ 

sattvikah svalpa-matrah syur atrasru-pulakadayah ||1.3.2|| 

In a Tantra it is said: 

"The preliminary stage ofpremais called bhdva. There are a few sattvika- 

bhavas such as tears in the eyes and hairs standing on end." 

sa yatha padma-purane — 

dhyayam dhyayam bhagavatah padambuja-yugam tada \ 

Tsad-vikriyamanatma sardra-drstir abhud asau || 1.3.3|| 

An example of sattvika-bhdvas appearing at this stage, from Padma Pur ana: 
"Continually meditating on the lotus feet of the Lord, Ambansa developed 
slight transformations of heart and tears in his eyes." 

avirbhuya mano-vrttau vrajanti tat-svarupatam \ 
svayam-prakasa-rupapi bhasamana prakasyavat ||1.3.4|| 
vastutah svayam asvada-svarupaiva ratis tv asau \ 
krsnadi-karmakasvada-hetutvam pratipadyate 1 1 1 . 3 . 5 1 1 

"Appearing in the mental functions, bhdva becomes the mental state itself. 
Though bhdva is self-revealing, it appears to become manifest by the mind. 



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Though in its essential nature it is taste itself, it also acts as a cause of tasting 
the pastimes of Krsna, His associates, His form and His qualities." 

sadhanabhinivesena krsna-tad-bhaktayos tathd \ 
prasadenatidhanyanam bhdvo dvedhdbhijdyate \ 
ddyas tu prdyikas tatra dvitiyo viralodayah ||1.3.6|| 

"Bhava appears in very fortunate persons in two ways: by absorption in 
sddhana, or by the mercy of Krsna or His devotee. Its appearance by sddhana 
is normal; its appearance by mercy is rare." 

tatra sadhanabhinivesa-jah vaidhi-raganuga-marga-bhedenaparikirtitah 
dvividhah khalu bhdvo'tra sadhanabhinivesajah ||1.3.7|| 
sadhanabhinivesas tu tatra nispadayan rucim 
hardv asaktim utpadya ratim samjanayaty asau ||1.3.8|| 

"First bhava arising from sddhana will be discussed. Bhava arising from 
sddhana is of two types: arising from vaidhi-sadhana and arising from 
raganuga-sadhana. Steady absorption in sddhana (nistha) produces taste 
(ruci), then attachment (asakti), and then rati or bhdva for the Lord." 

tatra adyo (1.5.26) — 

tatranvaham krsna-kathah pragayatam 

anugrahenasrnavam manoharah \ 

tah sraddhaya me 'nupadam vismvatah 

priya-sravasy ahga mamabhavad ratih || 1.3.9 || 

Bhava arising from vaidhi-bhakti-sadhana is illustrated in Srimad- 
Bhagavatam [1.5.26]: 

"O Vyasadeva, in that association and by the mercy of those great Vedantists, 
I could hear them describe the activities of Lord Krsna. These became very 
attractive {ruci), my taste for hearing of the Personality of Godhead increased 
at every step. Thus listening attentively (asakti), rati for the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead appeared." 

ratya tu bhava evatra na tu premabhidhlyate \ 

mama bhaktih pravrtteti vaksyate sa yad agratah ||1.3.10|| 

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"The word rati in the SrTmad-Bhagavatam indicates bhava, not prema, 
because two verses later the appearance of prema is indicated with the words, 
'My (prema)-bhakti then appeared.' " 

yatha tatraiva (1.5.28) — 
ittham sarat-prdvrsikdv rtu harer 
vismvato me 'nusavam yaso 'malam \ 
sahkTrtyamdnam munibhir mahatmabhir 
bhaktih pravrttdtma rajas-tamopaha ||1.3.11 || 

It is also said in the First Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam [1.5.28]: 
"Thus during two seasons — the rainy season and autumn — I had the 
opportunity to hear these great-souled sages constantly chant the 
unadulterated glories of Lord Hari. As the flow of my (prema)-bhakti 
appeared, the coverings of the modes of passion and ignorance vanished." 

trtlye ca (3.25.25) — 
satdm prasahgdn mama vTrya-samvido 
bhavanti hrt-karna-rasdyandh kathdh \ 
taj-josandd dsv apavarga-vartmani 
sraddhd ratir bhaktir anukramisyati || 1.3. 12 || 

There is a similar usage of the word bhakti in the Third Canto of SrTmad- 
Bhagavatam [3.25.25]: 

"In the association of pure devotees, discussion of the pastimes and activities 
of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is very pleasing and satisfying to the 
ear and the heart. By cultivating such knowledge one gradually develops faith, 
rati and prema for Krsna." 

purdne natya-sastre ca dvayos tu rati-bhdvayoh \ 
samdndrthataya hy atra dvayam aikyena laksitam || 1.3. 13 || 

"In the Purdnas and Ndtya-sdstra, rati and bhava have the same meaning. 
Thus they will have the same meaning in this work also." 

dvitTyo, yatha pddme — 

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ittham manoratham bala kurvati nrtya utsuka \ 
hari-prityd ca tarn sarvam rdtrim evdtyavdhayat ||1.3.14 || 

Bhdva arising from rdgdnuga-sddhana is described in the Padma Purdna: 
"A young girl, having great joy in her heart and being very enthusiastic to 
dance, danced all night to please the Lord." 

atha sri-krsna-tad-bhakta-prasddajah — 

sddhanena vind yas tu sahasaivdbhijdyate \ 

sa bhdvah krsna-tad-bhakta-prasddaja itiyate ||1.3.15|| 

"Now, bhdva arising from the mercy of Krsna or His devotee is defined: 
Bhdva that appears suddenly without performance of sddhana is known as 
bhdva arising from the mercy of Krsna or His devotee." 

atha srT-krsna-prasddajah — 

prasddd vdcikdloka-ddna-hdrdddayo hareh || 1.3. 16|| 

"Bhdva arising from Krsna's mercy is now considered. This mercy arises 
from the words of the Lord, the presence of the Lord, or just appears in the 
heart." 

tatra vdcika-prasddajah, yathd ndradiye — 
sarva-mangala-murdhanyd purndnanda-mayi sadd \ 
dvijendra tava mayy astu bhaktir avydbhicdrini || 1.3. 17|| 

Verbal mercy is shown in the Ndradiya Purdna: 

"O best of the brdhmanas, may you have undeviating bhakti {bhdva) for Me. 

That bhakti is the crest jewel of all auspiciousness and is full of eternal bliss." 

dloka-ddnajah, yathd skdnde — 
adrsta-purvam dlokya krsnam jdrigala-vdsinah \ 
viklidyad-antardtmano drstim ndkrastum isire ||1.3.18|| 

Giving mercy by showing Himself is illustrated in the Skanda Purdna: 



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"When they saw Krsna, who appeared like nothing they had seen before, the 
hearts of the residents of Jangala melted and they could not take their eyes 
away from His form." 

hdrdah — 

prasdda dntaro yah syat sa hdrda iti kathyate || 1.3. 19 || 

"The definition of hdrda is given: Mercy that arises from within is called 

hdrda" 

yatha suka-samhitdydm — 

mahdbhdgavato jdtah putras te bddardyana \ 

vinopdyair upeydbhud visnu-bhaktir ihoditd ||1.3.20|| 

Thus it is said in the Suka-samhita: 

"O Badarayana, you have given birth to a great devotee as your son. Without 

sddhana, which brings about the goal, visnu-bhakti has appeared within his 

heart." 

atha tad-bhakta-prasddajah, yatha saptame (7.4.36) — 
gunair alam asahkhyeyair mahdtmyam tasya sucyate \ 
vdsudeve bhagavati yasya naisargiki ratih || 1.3.21 || 

Bhdva arising from the devotee's mercy is described in the Seventh Canto of 
Srimad-Bhdgavatam [7.4.36]: 

"Who could list the innumerable transcendental qualities of Prahlada 
Maharaja? He had unflinching faith in Vasudeva, Lord Krsna, and unalloyed 
devotion to Him. His rati to Lord Krsna was naisargiki, through mercy. 
Although his good qualities cannot be enumerated, they prove that he was a 
great soul [mahatma]" 

ndradasya prasddena prahldde sudha-vdsand \ 
nisargah saiva tendtra rati r naisargiki matd || 1.3.22 || 

"Favor or nisarga was granted to Prahlada by Narada and this created 
devotional impressions. Thus his rati is called naisargiki (through mercy)." 



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skande ca — 

aho dhanyo 'si devarse krpaya yasya tat-ksanat \ 

nico 'py utpulako lebhe lubdhako ratim acyute || 1.3.23 || 

Bhdva arising out of a devotee's mercy has also been explained in the Skanda 

Purdna: 

"O Narada, you are noble. By your mercy the hunter, though low in nature, 

immediately developed goosebumps and attained rati for Lord Acyuta." 

bhaktanam bhedatah seyam ratih panca-vidha matd \ 
agre vivicya vaktavyd tena ndtra prapancyate || 1.3.24 || 

"According to the different types of devotees with five different sthayi- 
bhdvas, there are five different types of rati. These will be considered and 
explained later, and thus will not be discussed here." 

ksantir avyartha-kalatvam viraktir mana-sunyata \ 
asa-bandhah samutkantha nama-gane sada rucih ||1.3.25|| 
asaktis tad-gunakhyane pritis tad-vasati-sthale \ 
ity adayo'nubhavah syur jata-bhdvankure jane ||1.3.26|| 

"The anubhdvas or characteristics of a person who has developed the bud of 
bhdva are as follows: tolerance, not wasting time, detachment from 
enjoyment, pridelessness, confidence in the Lord's mercy, longing for the 
Lord, taste for chanting the Lord's Holy Name, attachment to discussing the 
Lord's transcendental qualities, and attachment to living in the abode of the 
Lord." 

tatra ksantih — 

ksobha-hetdv api prapte ksantir aksubhitatmata ||1.3.27|| 

"Tolerance is defined as follows: being undisturbed, even when there is cause 
for disturbance." 

yatha prathame (1.19.15) — 

tarn mopayatam pratiyantu vipra gahga ca devl dhrta-cittam ise \ 

dvijopasrstah kuhakas taksako va dasatv alam gayata visnu-gathah ||1.3.28|| 

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Tolerance of the bhdva-bhakta is illustrated in the First Canto oiSrimad- 
Bhagavatam [1.19.15]: 

"O brahmanas, just accept me as a completely surrendered soul, and let 
mother Ganges, the representative of the Lord, also accept me in that way, for 
I have already taken the lotus feet of the Lord into my heart. Let the snake- 
bird, or whatever magical thing the brahmana created, bite me at once. I only 
desire that you all continue singing the deeds of Lord Visnu." 

atha avyartha-kalatvam, yatha hari-bhakti-sudhodaye — 
vagbhih stuvanto manasd smarantas 
tanvd namanto 'py anisam na trptdh \ 
bhaktdh sravan-netra-jaldh samagram 
dyur harer eva samarpayanti || 1.3.29 || 

Not wasting time is illustrated in Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya: 

"The devotees continually praise the Lord with words, remember Him with 

their minds and offer respects with their bodies. Still they are not satisfied, 

With tears flowing from their eyes, they offer their complete lives to the 

Lord." 

atha viraktih — 

viraktir indriyarthdnam sydd arocakata svayam || 1.3.30|| 

"Detachment is defined as follows: having a natural distaste for the objects of 
the senses." 

yatha pahcame (5.14.43) — 

yo dustyajan dara-sutan suhrd rajyam hrdi-sprsah \ 

jahau yuvaiva malavad uttamahsloka-lalasah 1 1 1 . 3 . 3 1 1 1 

Detachment is illustrated in the Fifth Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam [5.14.43]: 
"While in the prime of life, the great Maharaja Bharata gave up everything 
because he was fond of serving the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 
Uttamasloka. He gave up his beautiful wife, nice children, great friends and 
an enormous empire. Although these things were very difficult to give up, 



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Maharaja Bharata was so exalted that he gave them up just as one gives up 
stool after evacuating. Such was the greatness of His Majesty." 

atha mana-siinyata — 

utkrstatve py amanitvam kathita mana-siinyata || 1.3.32 || 

"Pridelessness is defined as follows: despite having a high position, remaining 
humble." 

yatha padme — 

harau ratim vahann esa narendranam sikha-manih \ 

bhiksam atann ari-pure svapakam api vandate || 1.3.33 || 

Pridelessness is illustrated in Padma Purana: 

"King Bhagiratha, though the crest jewel among kings, went out begging at 
the house of his enemies and offered respects to the dog-eaters, because he 
had rati for the Lord." 

atha asa-bandhah — 

asa-bandho bhagavatah prapti-sambhdvana drdha || 1.3.34 || 

"Confidence is defined as follows: firm assumption that one will attain the 
Lord." 

yatha srimat-prabhupadanam — 

naprema sravanadi-bhaktir api va yogo 'thava vaisnavo 

jhdnam va subha-karma va kiyad aho saj-jatir apy asti va \ 

hindrthadhika-sadhake tvayi tathapy acchedya-muld satT 

he gopi-jana-vallabha vyathayate ha ha mad-dsaiva mam ||1.3.35|| 

An example of confidence is the following statement of Sanatana Gosvami: 
"I do not have prema or the practices of hearing and chanting in bhakti. I have 
no practice of meditation on Visnu in the astdhga-yoga process, nor do I have 
practices oijnana or varnasrama duties. I do not even have the good birth to 
execute these processes properly. But since You are most merciful to the least 
qualified, O dear Lover of the gopis, though I have impure desires, my 
aspiration for You continues to agitate me." 



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atha samutkantha — 

samutkantha nijabhista-labhaya guru-lubdhata ||1.3.36|| 

"Longing is now defined: longing means to have intense greed for attaining 
service to the Lord." 

atha krsna-karnamrte (54) — 

anamram asita-bhruvor upacitam aksina-paksmahkuresv 

alolam anuraginor nayanayor ardram mrdau jalpite \ 

atamrdm adharamrte mada-kalam amldna vamsi-svanesv 

asaste mama locanam vraja-sisor-murtim jagan-mohinim ||1.3.37|| 

An example of longing for the Lord is given in the Krsna-Karnamrta: 
"I long to see that young Krsna who enchants the universe with His curved 
black eyebrows, thick eyelashes, with His attractive, shifty eyes, with His soft 
words that melt the heart, with His sweet red lips, and with the intoxicating 
sound emanating from the clear notes of His flute." 

atha nama-gane sada rucih, yatha — 
rodana-bindu-maranda-syandi-drg-indivaradya govinda \ 
tava madhura-svara-kanthT gdyati namavalim bald ||1.3.38|| 

Taste for chanting the Holy Name of the Lord is illustrated as follows: 

"O Govinda! Today the young girl with the sweet voice, whose lotus eyes are 

streaming with tears of honey, is singing Your names." 

tad-gunakhyane asaktih, yatha krsna-karnamrte (88) — 
madhuryad apt madhuram manmathata tasya kim apt kaisoram \ 
capalyad apt capalam ceto bata harati hanta kim kurmah \\ 1.3.39 || 

Attachment to discussing the Lord's qualities is described in Krsna- 
Karnamrta [88]: 

"That youthful Krsna, with the qualities of Cupid, who is extremely sweet and 
extremely fickle, has stolen my heart. What should I do?" 

tad vasati-sthale pritih, yatha padyavalyam — 

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atrasit kila nanda-sadma sakatasyatrabhavad bhanjanam 
bandha-ccheda-karo 'pi ddmabhir abhud baddho 'tra damodarah \ 
ittham mathura-vrddha-vaktra-vigalat-piyusa-dharam pibann 
anandasru-dharah kadd madhu-purim dhanyas carisyamy aham ||1.3.40|| 

An example of attachment for the abode of the Lord is found in the PadydvalT 

[121]: 

"Nanda's house was here. This is where Krsna broke the cart. Here is where 

Damodara, who cuts material bondage, was tied up by ropes. When will I be 

fortunate enough to wander about in Mathura with tears streaming from my 

eyes, drinking such streams of nectar flowing from the mouth of an elder of 

Mathura?" 

api ca — 

vyaktam masrnitevantar laksyate rati-laksanam \ 

mumuksu-prabhrtinam ced bhaved esa ratir na hi \\ 1.3.41 || 

"However it should be said: if softness of the heart, the symptom of rati, 
becomes clearly visible in persons desiring liberation, or in other unqualified 
persons, then it is not real rati'' 

vimuktdkhi la-tars air yd muktir api vimrgyate \ 
yd krsnenatigopyasu bhajadbhyo 'pi na diyate || 1.3.42 || 
sa bhukti-mukti-kamatvac chuddham bhaktim akurvatam \ 
hrdaye sambhavaty esarh katham bhagavati ratih || 1.3.43 || 

"How can rati appear in persons having desires for enjoyment or liberation? 
Those persons do not perform pure bhakti. Ratiis sought out by those 
liberated from all desires and it is not given by Krsna immediately even to the 
devotees, since it is most secret." 

kintu bala-camatkara-karl tac-cihna-viksaya \ 

abhijnena subodho 'yam raty-abhasah prakirtitah || 1.3.44 || 

pratibimbas tatha cchaya raty-abhaso dvidha matah ||1.3.45|| 

"Though this semblance of rati is very astonishing to the innocent, those in 
knowledge understand what it really is by seeing the characteristics [of the 

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person displaying so-called rati]. This is called ratyabhasa, a semblance of 
rati. This semblance of rati has two types: reflection (pratibimba) and 
splendor (chaya).'" 

tatra pratibimbah — 

asramabhista-nirvahi rati-laksana-laksitah \ 
bhogapavarga-saukhyamsa-vyahjakah pratibimbakah || 1.3.46|| 

"Pratibimba or reflection is described as follows: When there are apparent 
qualities of rati accompanied by desires for enjoyment or liberation, it is 
called pratibimba (reflected) ratyabhasa. This pratibimba ratyabhasa awards 
the goals of enjoyment and liberation to those persons without their having to 
exert effort." 

daivat sad-bhakta-sahgena kirtanddy-anusdrindm \ 
prayah prasanna-manasdm bhoga-moksadi raginam ||1.3.47|| 
kesdmcit hrdi bhdvendoh pratibimba udahcati \ 
tad-bhakta-hrn-nabhah-sthasya tat-samsarga-prabhdvatah || 1.3.48|| 

"The reflection of the moon oibhava appears in the hearts of some persons 
who are attached to enjoyment or liberation, but who become somewhat 
satisfied by following the ahgas of bhakti through occasional association with 
real devotees. That moon of bhava is situated in the sky of the real devotee's 
heart, and it appears as a reflection in the nondevotee for some time by its 
impressions." 

atha chaya — 

ksudra-kautuhala-mayi cahcala duhkha-harini \ 

rates chaya bhavet kimcit tat-sadrsydvalambinT || 1. 3 .49 || 

"Chaya-ratyabhasa is now described: That which has some similarity to real 
rati, which possesses a small amount of interest in the Lord, which is unstable 
and which destroys suffering, is said to be chaya-ratyabhasa" 

hari-priya-kriya-kala-desa-patradi-sahgamat \ 

apy anusahgikad esa kvacid ajhesv apiksyate \\ 1.3.50|| 

kintu bhagyam vina nasau bhava-cchayapy udahcati \ 

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abhyudayatah ksemam tatra syad uttarottaram || 1.3.51 || 

"Chdyd ratydbhdsa appears sometimes even in ignorant people by a 
combination of performing actions dear to the Lord, observing the festivals of 
the Lord, residing in the dhdma of the Lord and associating with the devotees 
of the Lord. Even this chdyd-ratydbhdsa, which eventually bestows 
auspiciousness to these people, appears only with great good fortune." 

hari-priya-janasyaiva prasdda-bhara-ldbhatah \ 
bhdvdbhdso 'pi sahasd bhdvatvam upagacchati || 1.3.52 || 
tasminn evdparddhena bhdvdbhdso 'py anuttamah \ 
kramena ksayam dpnoti kha-sthah purna-sasi yathd || 1.3.53 || 

"By the great mercy of a dear devotee of the Lord, the semblance of bhdva 
suddenly becomes real bhdva. By offending that devotee, even the best 
bhdvdbhdsa gradually wanes, just as the full moon in the sky gradually 
wanes." 

kirn ca — 

bhdvo 'py abhdvam dydti krsna-presthdparddhatah \ 

dbhdsatdm ca sanakair nyuna-jdtiyatdm api || 1.3.54 || 

"Moreover, it should be stated: By an offense against the dearest devotee of 
the Lord, if the offense is grave, even real bhdva will be destroyed. If the 
offense is medium, the bhdva will turn into bhdvdbhdsa. If the offense is 
slight, the bhdva will become an inferior type." 

gddhdsahgdt saddydti mumuksau supratisthite \ 
dbhdsatdm asau kimvd bhajaniyesa-bhdvatdm ||1.3.55|| 

"By intimate association with a person who strongly desires impersonal 
liberation, real bhdva becomes bhdvdbhdsa, or becomes worship of the self as 
the Lord." 

ataeva kvacit tesu navya-bhaktesu drsyate \ 

ksanam isvara-bhdvo 'yam nrtyddau mukti-paksagah ||1.3.56|| 



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"It is seen sometimes that new devotees, absorbed in the goals of different 
types of liberation, identify themselves with the Lord momentarily, during 
dancing or other acts of devotion." 

sddhaneksdm vind yasminn akasmdd bhdva iksyate \ 
vighna-sthagitam atrohyam prdg-bhavfyam susddhanam ||1.3.57|| 

"Bhdva sometimes suddenly appears in a person without knowledge of 
sddhana or mercy, and without scriptural knowledge. It should be inferred 
that in a previous life, some obstacle interrupted that person's skillful 
sddhana, and in this life the obstacle has finally been removed." 

lokottara-camatkdra-kdrakah sarva-saktidah \ 

yah prathfydn bhaved bhdvah sa tu krsna-prasddajah ||1.3.58|| 

"That bhdva which is more amazing than anything in this world, which gives 
all powers and which is very deep, is caused by the mercy of Krsna." 

jane cej jdta-bhdve 'pi vaigunyam iva drsyate \ 

kdryd tathdpi ndsuyd krtdrthah sarvathaiva sah || 1.3.59 || 

"If some apparent fault is seen in a person who has developed real bhdva, one 
should not be hostile toward him, because he has accomplished the goal in all 
respects." 

yathd ndrasimhe — 

bhagavati ca hardv ananya-ceta 

bhrsam alino 'pi virdjate manusyah \ 

na hi sasa-kalusa-cchavih kaddcit 

timira-pardbhavatdm upaiti candrah ||1.3.60|| 

Thus it is said in the Narasimha Purdna: 

"A person who is dedicated completely to the Lord may show, externally, 
serious contamination, but internally he is pure. The full moon, though 
marked by the figure of a rabbit, is never overcome by darkness." 

ratir anisa-nisargosna-prabalatardnanda-pura-rupaiva \ 

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usmanam api vamanti sudhamsu-koter api svadvi || 1.3.61 || 

"Rati is naturally and eternally unstable because of its continuous, ever- 
increasing desires for pleasing the Lord, and it is full of bliss. Manifesting this 
instability in the form of a variety of sancari-bhavas, it is tastier than millions 
of moons." 

iti sri-sri bhakti-rasamrta-sindhau 
purva-vibhdge bhava-bhakti-lahari trtiya \ \ 

"Thus ends the Third Wave in the Eastern Ocean of Sri Bhakti-Rasdmrta- 
sindhu, concerning bhdva-bhakti. " 



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Fourth Wave: Prema-Bhakti 



samyah-masrnita-svanto mamatvatisayahkitah \ 

bhdvah sa eva sdndrdtmd budhaih premd nigadyate 1 1 1 . 4. 1 1 1 

"When bhdva becomes extremely condensed, it is called prema by the 
learned. It softens the heart completely and produces extreme possessiveness 
of the Lord in the devotee." 

yathd pahcardtre — 

ananya-mamatd visnau mamatd prema-sahgatd \ 

bhaktir ity ucyate bhisma-prahlddoddhava-ndradaih ||1.4.2|| 

In the Pahcardtra it is said: 

"Prema is defined by Bhisma, Prahlada, Uddhava and Narada as that bhdva 
which has possessiveness related to Visnu (or any other form of the Lord) and 
to no one else." 

bhaktih premocyate bhisma-mukhyair yatra tu sahgatd \ 
mamatdnya-mamatvena varjitety atrayojand ||1.4.3|| 

"The analysis of the grammar of the previous verse is as follows: Prema is 
called by Bhisma and others where there is possessiveness (mamatd) related 
to (sahgatd) Visnu and where possessiveness of other things (ananya- 
mamatd) is absent." 

bhdvottho 'ti-prasddotthah sri-harer iti sa dvidhd ||1.4.4|| 

"This prema for the Lord has two types: that arising from bhdva and that 
arising from mercy." 

tatra bhdvotthah — 

bhdva evdntar-ahgdnam-ahgdndm-anusevayd \ 

drudhah parama-utkarsam bhdva-uttah parikirtitah 1 1 1 .4. 5 1 1 



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"Prema arising from bhava is explained: That bhava which reaches the 
highest excellence by continual service using all angas is called prema arising 
from bhava." 

tatra vaidha-bhavottho, yathaikadase (11.2.40) 
evam-vratah sva-priya-nama-kirtya 
jatanurdgo druta-citta uccaih \ 
hasaty atho roditi rauti gayaty 
unmddavan nrtyati loka-bahyah ||1.4.6|| 

An example of prema arising from vaidha-bhava is supplied by the Eleventh 
Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [11.2.40]: 

"By chanting the Holy Name of the Supreme Lord, one comes to the stage of 
love of Godhead. Then the devotee is fixed in his vow as an eternal servant of 
the Lord, and he gradually becomes very much attached to a particular name 
and form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As his heart melts with 
ecstatic love, he laughs very loudly or cries or shouts. Sometimes he sings and 
dances like a madman, for he is indifferent to public opinion." 

raganugiya-bhdvottho, yatha padme — 
napatim kamayet kancid brahmacarya-sthitd sadd \ 
tam-eva murtim dhyayanti candrakantir-varanana ||1.4.7|| 
srT-krsna-gatham gdyanti romancodbheda-laksana \ 
asmin-manvantare snigdha sri-krsna-priya-vartaya ||1.4.8|| 

Prema arising from bhava based on ragdnuga-bhakti is described in the 
Padma Purdna: 

"In this manvantara period, the beautiful-faced Candrakanti observed 
continuous celibacy, and continuously meditated only on the form of Krsna, 
thinking, 'One should not desire anyone else as a husband.' She sang songs 
about Him with her hairs standing on end. She developed complete affection 
for Krsna by hearing stories about Krsna." 

atha harer atiprasadotthah — 

harer atiprasado 'yam sahga-danadir atmanah || 1.4.9 || 



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"Prema arising from the great mercy of the Lord is explained: The great 
mercy of the Lord includes such things as the Lord giving His association to 
the devotee." 

yatha ekadase (11.12.7) — 

te nadhita-sruti-gana nopasita-mahattamah \ 

avratatapta-tapasah mat-sangan mam upagatah ||1.4.10|| 

Prema arising from the great mercy of the Lord is explained in the Eleventh 
Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [11.12.7]: 

"The persons I have mentioned did not undergo serious studies of the Vedic 
literature, nor did they worship great saintly persons, nor did they execute 
severe vows or austerities. Simply by association with Me and My devotees, 
they achieved Me." 

mahatmya-jnana-yuktas ca kevalas ceti sa dvidhd ||1.4.11|| 

''Prema arising from the Lord's mercy has two types: that endowed with 
knowledge of the Lord's powers, and that endowed only with knowledge of 
the Lord's sweetness." 

atha ddyo, yatha pahcaratre — 
mahatmya-jnana-yuktas tu sudrdhah sarvato 'dhikah \ 
sneho bhaktir iti proktas taya sarstyadinanyatha || 1.4. 12|| 

Prema arising from the Lord's mercy endowed with knowledge of His powers 
is explained in the Pahcaratra: 

"Affection for the Lord more than anyone else, which is very firm, and 
includes knowledge of the Lord's powers, is called bhakti. By that bhakti, a 
person attains powers in the spiritual world as well as other rewards. There is 
no other way of attaining such things." 

kevalo, yatha tatraiva — 

manogatir avicchinna harau prema-paripluta \ 

abhisandhi-vinirmukta bhaktir-visnu-vasarikarT 111. 4. 13 II 



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Prema arising from the Lord's mercy endowed with sweetness is also 
explained in the Pahcaratra: 

"That bhakti inundated with prema, with continuous spontaneous desires to 
please the Lord free from desires for other results (even the desire to see His 
powers) brings Visnu under control." 

mahima-jhana-yuktah syad vidhi-marganusarinam \ 
raganugasritdnam tu pray as ah kevalo bhavet ||1.4.14|| 

"Those who have practiced vaidhi-bhakti and then get the great mercy of the 
Lord attain prema with knowledge of the Lord's powers. Those who have 
practiced rdgdnuga-bhakti and then get the great mercy of the Lord usually 
attainprema with sweetness." 

adau sraddha tatah sddhu-sango 'tha bhajana-kriya \ 

tato 'nartha-nivrttih sydt tato nistha rucis tatah || 1.4. 15|| 

athdsaktis tato bhdvas tatah premabhyudahcati \ 

sadhakdnam ayam premnah prddurbhdve bhavet kramah ||1.4.16|| 

"In the beginning one must have a preliminary desire for self-realization. This 
will bring one to the stage of trying to associate with persons who are 
spiritually elevated. In the next stage one becomes initiated by an elevated 
spiritual master, and under his instruction the neophyte devotee begins the 
process of devotional service. By execution of devotional service under the 
guidance of the spiritual master, one becomes free from all material 
attachment, attains steadiness in self-realization, and acquires a taste for 
hearing about the Absolute Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna. This taste 
leads one further forward to attachment for Krsna consciousness, which is 
matured in bhdva, or the preliminary stage of transcendental love of God. 
Real love for God is called prema, the highest perfectional stage of life." 

dhanyasydyam navah prema yasyonmilati cetasi \ 
antarvambhir apy asya mudra susthu sudurgama || 1.4. 17|| 

"This ever- fresh prema arises in the heart of a person who is very fortunate. 
That person's behavior is very difficult to comprehend even for those who are 
knowledgeable in scriptures." 

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ataeva sri-narada-pancaratre, yatha — 
bhavonmatto hareh kihcin na veda sukham atmanah \ 
dukham ceti mahesdni paramdnanda dplutah ||1.4.18|| 

Therefore, in the Ndrada-pancardtra it is is said: 

"0 goddess Parvatl, the person who is mad with love of the Lord, being 

absorbed in the highest bliss, does not at all know his own happiness and 

distress." 

premna eva vildsatvdd vairalydt sadhakesv api \ 
atra snehddayo bhedd vivicya na hi samsitah || 1.4. 19|| 

"Sneha and other advanced stages are the manifestations oiprema, but 
because they are rare, even in those who have practiced bhakti, the 
distinctions will not be described here." 

srimat-prabhupaddmbhojaih sarvd bhdgavatdmrte \ 
vyaktikrtdsti gudhdpi bhakti-siddhdnta-mddhuri \\\ A. 20|| 

"My Master Sri Sanatana Gosvami has very clearly described all the 
sweetness of the conclusions of bhakti in his Brhad-bhagavatdmrta, though it 
is very esoteric." 

gopala-rupa-sobham dadhad api raghunatha-bhdva-vistari \ 
tusyatu sanatanatma prathama-vibhage sudhambu-nidheh ||1.4.21|| 

"May the eternal Lord in the beautiful form of a cowherd boy, who distributes 
His mood of love to Rama and other forms, be pleased with this first part of 
Sri Bhakti-Rasamrta-sindhu. " 

Alternate translation: 

"May the person named Sanatana Gosvami, who glorified Gopala Bhatta 
Gosvami and Rupa Gosvami and bestowed Krsna-prema to Raghunatha dasa 
Gosvami, be pleased with this first section of the ocean of nectar!" 



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iti sri-sri-bhakti-rasamrta-sindhau 
purva-vibhdge prema-bhakti-lahari-caturthi 

"Thus ends the Fourth Wave in the Eastern Ocean of Sri Bhakti-Rasdmrta- 
sindhu, concerning prema-bhakti. " 

iti sri-sri-bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhau rasopayogi-sthdyi-bhdvopapddano ndma 
purvavibhdgah samaptau\ 

"Here ends the Eastern Ocean of Sri Bhakti-Rasdmrta-sindhu. " 



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r 

Sri Bh akti-rasamrta-sin dh u 

Southern Ocean: 

Defining the Components of Rasa 

First Wave: Concerning Vibhava 



prabalam ananya-srayina nisevitah sahaja-rupena \ 
agha-damano mathurdydm sadd sandtana-tanur jayati ||2. 1. 1|| 

"May the eternal form of Krsna, killer of Aghasura, served strongly by His 
natural beauty, which is attractive even without ornaments, and which is 
nondifferent from His very self, remain with all attractive features eternally in 
the district of Mathura." 

Alternate translation: 

"May Sanatana Gosvami, who conquers all sins and is served with devotion 
by his younger brother Rupa, who has taken shelter of him alone, remain 
eternally in Mathura district." 

rasdmrtdbdher bhdge 'smin dvitiye daksindbhidhe \ 
sdmdnya-bhagavad-bhakti-rasas tdvad udiryate ||2.1.2|| 

"The second part of the sweet ocean of rasa is called the Southern Ocean. It 
describes the general rasas within devotion to the Lord." 

asyapanca laharyah syur vibhdvdkhydgrimd matd \ 
dvitiyd tv anubhdvdkhyd trtiyd sdttvikdbhidhd \ 
vyabhicdry-abhidhd turyd sthdyi-samjnd ca pancami ||2. 1.3|| 

"There are five Waves or chapters in this Southern Ocean. The first deals with 
vibhava; the second with anubhdva; the third with sdttvika-bhdva; the fourth 
with vyabhicdrT-bhdva, and the fifth with sthdyi-bhdva" 

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athasyah kesava-rater laksitaya nigadyate \ 
sdmagri-pariposena paramd rasa-rupata ||2. 1.4|| 

"The Southern Ocean describes how rati (bhdva) for the Lord (sthayl-bhava), 
which has been described above, takes on the form of the highest rasa 
through nourishment by the ingredients of vibhdva, anubhdva, sdttvika-bhdva 
and vyabhicari-bhava" 

vibhdvair anubhavais ca sattvikair vyabhicdribhih \ 
svddyatvam hrdi bhaktanam dnltd sravanddibhih \ 
esd krsna-ratih sthdyi bhavo bhakti-raso bhavet ||2. 1.5 1| 

"This rati for Krsna, called the sthdyi-bhdva, takes on a pleasurable nature in 
the hearts of the devotees by the vibhdvas, anubhdvas, sdttvika-bhdvas and 
vyabhicdrT-bhdvas , through activities such as hearing, and then becomes 
bhakti-rasa." 

prdktany adhunikT cdsti yasya sad-bhakti-vdsana \ 
esa bhakti-rasdsvddas tasyaiva hrdijdyate ||2. 1.6|| 

"The taste for bhakti-rasa arises in the heart of a person who has had 
experiences of pure bhakti in the previous and present life." 

bhakti-nirdhuta-dosandm prasannojjvala-cetasdm \ 
srT-bhagavata-raktanam rasikdsahga-rahgindm ||2. 1.7|| 
jivanT-bhuta-govinda-pdda-bhakti-sukha-sriydm \ 
premantaranga-bhutdni krtyany evanutisthatdm ||2. 1.8|| 
bhaktanam hrdi rajanti samskdra-yugalojjvald \ 
ratir ananda-rupaiva niyamana tu rasyatam ||2. 1.9|| 
krsnadibhir vibhdvddyair gatair anubhavadhvani \ 
praudhdnanda-camatkdra-kdsthdm dpadyate pardm ||2. 1.10|| 

"Rati, which is the very form oidnanda, appears in the hearts of devotees 
who have been purified of all faults by bhakti, whose hearts have become 
joyful (hlddint), and bright (samvit), who have developed great relish for the 
Srimad-Bhagavatam and for the association of others who have taste for 



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Krsna, whose life and soul become the profound happiness of devotion at the 
feet of Govinda, and who have become absorbed in actions such as kirtana, 
imbued with the Lord's mercy. This rati, strengthened by past- and present- 
life impressions oibhakti, then attains a state of relish by realizing vibhava, 
anubhdva, sattvika-bhava and vyabhicari-bhava in relation to Krsna, and 
finally attains the highest, astonishing peak of profound bliss." 

kintuprema vibhavadyaih svalpair nito py anfyasim \ 
vibhavanady-avastham tu sadya asvadyatam vrajet ||2. 1. 1 1|| 

"However, even attaining a slight taste ioxprema by a slight mixture of 
vibhava and the other ingredients, quickly becomes fully tasteful." 

atra vibhavadi-samanya-laksanam — 

ye krsna-bhakta-murali-nadadya hetavo rateh \ 

kdrya-bhutah smitadyas ca tathastau stabdhatadayah ||2. 1. 12|| 

nirvedadyah sahayas ca tejneya rasa-bhavane \ 

vibhava anubhavas ca sattvika vyabhicarinah ||2. 1. 13|| 

"The general characteristics of the ingredients are as follows: In tasting rasa, 
the causes of rati such as Krsna, His devotee, and the sound of the flute are 
called vibhavas. The effects of rati, such as smiling are called anubhavas and 
the eight symptoms, such as being stunned are called sattvika-bhavas. The 
assistants such as self-criticism are called vyabhicari-bhavas" 

tatra vibhavah — 

tatra jneya vibhavas tu raty-asvadana-hetavah | 

te dvidhalambana eke tathaivoddipanah pare ||2. 1. 14|| 

"In rasa, the vibhavas should be known as the cause of relishing rati. They 
take the form of support (alambana) of two types, and stimuli (uddipana)" 

tad uktam agni-purane — 

vibhavyate hi raty-adir yatra yena vibhdvyate \ 

vibhavo nama sa dvedhalambanoddipanatmakah ||2. 1. 15|| 

This is mentioned in the Agni Purana [Alahkara section, 3.35]: 

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"Vibhdva refers to the two kinds of alambana — the person in relation to 
whom the rati and other elements are experienced (visaya), the person in 
whom the rati and other elements are experienced (asraya) — and to uddipana, 
the stimuli by which rati is experienced." 

tatra dlambanah — 

krsnas ca krsna-bhaktas ca budhair alambana matdh \ 

raty-dder visayatvena tathadharatayapi ca ||2. 1. 16|| 

"Alambanas are described as follows: The wise consider the alambanas to be 
Krsna, as the object of love experienced in rati, and His devotees, as the 
experiencers (subjects) of rati (the five major and seven secondary sathayi- 
bhavas)." 

tatra srT-krsnah — 

nayakdnam siro-ratnam krsnas tu bhagavan svayam \ 
yatra nityataya sarve virajante maha-gunah \ 
so'nyarupa-svarupabhyam asminn alambano matah ||2. 1.17|| 

"Now Krsna as the object of rati is discussed: Krsna, the Supreme Personality 
of Godhead (bhagavan svayam), is the crest jewel of heroes, in whom all 
great qualities shine eternally. He is considered the alambana or support for 
rati (visaya) through His svarupa and through other forms that He may 
assume." 

tatra anya-rupena, yatha — 

hanta me katham udeti sa-vatse, vatsa-pala-patale ratir atra \ 

ity aniscita-matir baladevo, vismaya-stimita-murtir ivasit ||2. 1. 18|| 

The 'other forms' are now explained as follows: 

"How is it that I have developed rati for the calves and cowherd boys similar 

to my rati for Krsna?" In this way Balarama remained struck with wonder and 

indecision. 

atha svarupam — 

avrtam prakatam ceti svarupam kathitam dvidha ||2. 1. 19|| 



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The svarupa as the alambana is now discussed: The svarupa takes two forms: 
covered and manifested." 

tatra avrtam — 

anya-vesadinacchannam svarupam proktam avrtam ||2.1.20|| 

"The covered svarupa is explained as when it is covered or disguised by 
others' clothing." 

tena, yathd — 

mam snehayati kim uccair, mahileyam dvdrakdvarodhe 'tra \ 

dm viditam kutukdrthi, vanita-veso haris carati ||2. 1.21|| 

An example of a disguised svarupa is given: 

"Why does this queen in the inner chambers of Dvaraka attract me so much? 
Ah! I can understand that Krsna has assumed the dress of a queen out of 
curiosity and is wandering about the palace." 

prakata-svarupena, yathd — 

ayam kambu-grlvah kamala-kamamyaksi-patima 

tamala-syamahga-dyutir atitaram chatrita-sirah \ 

dara-sri-vatsahkah sphurad-ari-darady-ahkita-karah 

karoty uccair modam mama madhura-murtir madhuripuh ||2.1.22|| 

An example of the manifested svarupa is given: 

"This sweet form of the enemy of the demon Madhu gives me great bliss. He 
has a neck like a conch shell, beautiful eyes envied by the lotuses, and the 
bodily glow of the dark tamala tree. His head is sheltered by an umbrella, His 
chest is marked with the srivatsa whorl, and His hands are marked with 
cakra, conch and other symbols." 

atha tad-gunah — 

ayam neta suramyahgah sarva-sal-laksananvitah \ 

ruciras tejasa yukto baliyan vayasanvitah ||2.1.23|| 



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"Now the qualities of Krsna will be described. The hero Krsna has beautiful 
limbs, has all auspicious bodily features, is pleasing to behold, possesses 
vitality, is strong and is endowed with ideal age." 

vividhadbhuta-bhasa-vit satya-vdkyah priyam vadah \ 
vavadiikah supdndityo buddhimdn pratibhdnvitah ||2. 1.24|| 

"He knows an astonishing variety of languages, is truthful, speaks in a 
pleasing manner, is eloquent, learned, intelligent and filled with new ideas." 

vidagdhas caturo daksah krtajnah sudrdha-vratah \ 
desa-kala-supdtrajnah sastra-caksuh sucir vasi ||2. 1.25|| 

"He is aesthetic, clever, skillful and grateful. He keeps His vows, is 
knowledgeable in time, place and person, sees through the eyes of scripture, is 
pure and controls His senses." 

sthiro ddntah ksamd-sllo gambhiro dhrtimdn samah \ 
vaddnyo dhdrmikah surah karuno mdnya-mdnakrt ||2. 1.26|| 

"He is persevering, patient, tolerant, inscrutable, steadfast, uniform, generous, 
virtuous, heroic, compassionate, and respectful to persons worthy of respect." 

daksino vinayi hrimdn sarandgata-pdlakah \ 

sukhT bhakta-suhrt prema-vasyah sarva-subhankarah ||2. 1.27|| 

"He is compliant, modest, bashful, the protector of those who take shelter of 
Him, happy, friend of the devotees, controlled by love and the benefactor of 
all." 

pratdpi kirtimdn rakta-lokah sddhu-samdsrayah \ 
ndrT-gana-manohdri sarvdrddhyah samrddhimdn ||2. 1.28|| 

"He is glorious, renowned, the object of attraction for all, the shelter of the 
devotees, attractive to women, worshipable by all and endowed with the 
greatest wealth." 



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variyan isvaras ceti gunas tasyanukirtitah \ 
samudra iva pancasad durvigdhd harer ami ||2. 1.29|| 

"He is the most important and the controller. These fifty qualities of Krsna 
which have been listed are difficult to fathom, like the ocean." 

jivesu ete vasanto 'pi bindu-bindutayd kvacit \ 
paripurnataya bhdnti tatraiva purusottame ||2. 1.30|| 

"These qualities are present even in ihejivas, to a very small degree now and 
then. However, they are present in full in the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead." 

tathd hi pddme pdrvatyai siti-kanthena tad-gunah \ 
kandarpa-koti-lavanya ity adyah pariklrtitah ||2.1.31|| 

"In this way in the Padma Purana, Lord Siva tells Parvati about the qualities 
of Krsna, starting with His beauty, which is greater than ten million Cupids." 

eta eva gunah prayo dharmdya vana-malinah \ 

prthivya prathama-skandhe prathayancakrire sphutam ||2.1.32|| 

"In the First Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [1. 16.26-29], the earth also 
describes the qualities of Krsna clearly and extensively to the deity of 

dharma" 

yatha prathame (1.16.26-29) — 

satyam saucam daya ksdntis tydgah santosa arjavam \ 

samo damas tapah samyam titiksoparatih srutam ||2. 1.33|| 

jndnam viraktir aisvaryam sauryam tejo balam smrtih \ 

svatantryam kausalam kantir dhairyam mardavam eva ca ||2. 1.34|| 

pragalbhyam prasrayah Mam saha ojo balam bhagah \ 

gambhiryam sthairyam astikyam kirtir mano 'nahahkrtih ||2. 1.35|| 

ime canye ca bhagavan nityd yatra mahd-gunah \ 

prarthya mahattvam icchadbhir na viyanti sma karhicit ||2. 1.36|| 



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"In Him reside (1) truthfulness, (2) cleanliness, (3) intolerance of another's 
unhappiness, (4) the power to control anger, (5) self-satisfaction, (6) 
straightforwardness, (7) steadiness of mind, (8) control of the sense organs, 
(9) responsibility, (10) equality, (11) tolerance, (12) equanimity, (13) 
faithfulness, (14) knowledge, (15) absence of sense enjoyment, (16) 
leadership, (17) chivalry, (18) influence, (19) the power to make everything 
possible, (20) the discharge of proper duty, (21) complete independence, (22) 
dexterity, (23) fullness of all beauty, (24) serenity, (25) kindheartedness, (26) 
ingenuity, (27) gentility, (28) magnanimity, (29) determination, (30) 
perfection in all knowledge, (31) proper execution, (32) possession of all 
objects of enjoyment, (33) joyfulness, (34) immovability, (35) fidelity, (36) 
fame, (37) worship, (38) pridelessness, (39) being (as the Personality of 
Godhead), (40) eternity, and many other transcendental qualities which are 
eternally present and never to be separated from Him. " 

atha panca-guna ye syur amsena girisadisu ||2. 1.37|| 

"Now five qualities of Krsna, which will also be present in Siva and others 
when they are the Lord's expansions, will be listed." 

sada svarupa-sampraptah sarva-jno nitya-nutanah \ 
sac-cid-ananda-sandrangah sarva-siddhi-nisevitah ||2.1.38|| 

"He is always situated in His eternal form, He is omniscient, He is forever 
young, He has a body made from condensed eternity, and He possesses all 
siddhis." 

athocyante gunah panca ye laksmisadi-vartinah \ 
avicintya-maha-saktih koti-brahmanda-vigrahah ||2.1.39|| 
avatardvali-byam hatari-gati-dayakah \ 
atmarama-ganakarsity amikrsne kiladbhutah ||2. 1.40|| 

"Now will be listed the amazing qualities present in Krsna and also in 
Narayana and in the purus avatar as: He has inconceivable, great energies; He 
is the form that expands over tens of millions of universes; He is the source of 
the numerous avataras; He rewards even the enemies He kills; and He attracts 
the atmaramas. These qualities become even more astonishing in Krsna." 

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sarvadbhuta-camatkara- lila-kallola-varidhih \ 
atulya-madhura-prema-mandita-priya-mandalah ||2. 1.41|| 
trijagan-manasakarsi-murali-kala-kujitah \ 
asamanordhva-rupa-srT-vismapita-caracarah ||2. 1.42|| 
lila-premna priyadhikyam madhuryam venu-rupayoh \ 
ity asadharanam proktam govindasya catustayam ||2. 1.43|| 

"The four astonishing qualities possessed by Govinda alone are as follows: He 
is a wave-filled ocean of the most astonishing display of pastimes. He is 
surrounded by loving associates decorated with incomparably sweet prema. 
He plays sweet notes on His flute that attract all the minds in the three worlds. 
He astonishes all moving and non-moving living entities with the beauty of 
His form, to which there is no equal or superior. His extraordinary qualities 
are thus His special pastimes, His devotees endowed with abundant prema, 
the sweetness of His flute and the sweetness of His form." 

evam gunas catur-bhedas catuh-sastir udahrtah \ 
sodaharanam etesam laksanam kriyate kramdt ||2.1.44|| 

"The 64 qualities in four divisions will be described with examples." 

tatra (1) suramydngah — 

sldghydnga-sanniveso yah suramydngah sa kathyate ||2. 1.45|| 

(1) suramydngah: beautifully-limbed — 

"A person who is endowed with praiseworthy bodily parts is called 

beautifully-limbed." 

yatha — 

mukham candrakaram karabha-nibham uru-dvayam idam 
bhujau stambharambhau sarasija-varenyam kara-yugam \ 
kavatabham vaksah-sthalam aviralam sroni-phalakam 
pariksamo madhyah sphurati murahantur madhurima ||2. 1.46|| 

"What sweetness the form of Murari reveals! His face is like the moon. His 
thighs are like elephant trunks. His arms are as sturdy as the bases of pillars. 

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His hands are the object of praise for lotuses. His chest is as broad as a door. 
His hips are massive and His waist is thin." 

(2) sarva-sal-laksananvitah — 

tanau gunottham ankottham iti sal-laksanam dvidha ||2. 1.47|| 

(2) sarva-sal-laksananvitah: Krsna's body is endowed with all auspicious 
features — 

"Good indications or auspicious characteristics are of two types: bodily 
features {gunottham) and markings on the hands and feet {ankottham)" 

tatra gunottham — 

gunottham syad gunair yogo raktata-tuhgatadibhih ||2.1.48|| 

"Gunottham refers to qualities such as redness or elevation of a limb." 

yatha — 

ragah saptasu hanta satsv apt sisor ahgesv alam tuhgatd 

visdras trisu kharvata trisu tatha gambhirata ca trisu \ 

dairghyam pahcasu kirn capahcasu sakhe sampreksyate suksmata 

dvatrimsad-vara-laksanah katham asau gopesu sambhavyate ||2. 1.49|| 

"O friend! I see that your child has twenty-three auspicious marks on His 
body. How is it possible that such a child could be born in a cowherd's house? 
Seven places on His body are red; six parts are elevated; three parts are broad; 
three parts are short; three parts are deep; five parts are long; five parts are 
fine." 

ankottham — 

rekhdmayam rathahgadi syad ankottham karadisu ||2. 1.50|| 

"Ankottham refers to lines such as a cakra on the hands or feet." 

yatha — 

karayoh kamalam tatha rathahgam 
sphuta-rekhamayam atmajasya pasya \ 
pada-pallavayos ca vallavendra 

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dhvaja-vajrarikusa-mina-parikajani 1 12. 1 . 5 1 1 1 

"O king of the cowherd men! See on the hands of your child, there are clear 
lines of the lotus and cakra, and on His feet there are marks of a flag, 
thunderbolt, goad, fish and a lotus." 

(3) rucirah — 

saundaryena drg-ananda-kari rucira ucyate ||2.1.52|| 

(3) rucirah means "He gives bliss to the eye by His beauty." 

yathd trtiye (3.2.13) — 
yad dharma-sunor bata rdjasuye 
niriksya drk-svastyayanam tri-lokah \ 
kdrtsnyena cddyeha gatam vidhdtur 
arvdk-srtau kausalam ity amanyata ||2. 1.53|| 

Krsna's beauty is described in the Third Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam 

[3.2.13]: 

"All the demigods from the upper, lower and middle universal planetary 

systems assembled at the altar of the rdjasuya sacrifice performed by 

Maharaja Yudhisthira. After seeing the beautiful bodily features of Lord 

Krsna, they all contemplated that He was the ultimate dexterous creation of 

Brahma, the creator of human beings." 

yathd vd — 

astanam danujabhid-ahga-pahkajanam 
ekasmin katham api yatra ballavinam \ 
lolaksi-bhramara-tatih papata tasman 
notthatum dyuti-madhu-pahkilat ksamasit ||2.1.54|| 

Or another example: 

"If the bee-like eyes of the gopis alight upon one of the eight lotus-like bodily 
parts of Krsna, the enemy of the Danavas, they will not be able to rise from 
the thick honey of His beauty." 



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(4) tejasa yuktah tejo dhama prabhav as cety ucyate dvividham budhaih \\ 

2.1.55|| 

"The wise say there are two meanings of tejas: dhama (effulgence) and 
prabhdva (conquering the enemy)." 

tatra dhama — 

dipti-rasir bhaved dhama ||2. 1.56|| 

"Dhama refers to effulgence." 

yatha — 

ambara-mani-nikurambam vidambayann api marici-kulaih \ 

hari-vaksasi ruci-nivide manirad ayam udur iva sphurati ||2. 1.57|| 

"Though the Kaustubha jewel, the king of jewels, discredits the sun by its 
shining rays, it appears like only a star on the Lord's chest, which shines 
much brighter." 

prabhdvah — 

prabhdvah sarvajit-sthitih ||2.1.58|| 

"Prabhdva refers to His capacity to conquer all others." 

yatha — 

duratas tarn avalokya madhavam 
komaldhgam api rahga-mandale \ 
parvatodbhata-bhujantaro py asau 
kamsa-malla-nivahah sa vivyathe ||2.1.59|| 

"Seeing Madhava with His tender body from a distance, the group of 
wrestlers in the arena though endowed with chests greater than mountains, 
became agitated with fear." 

(5) baliydn — 

pranena mahatdpurno baliydn iti kathyate ||2.1.60|| 



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(5) Bahyan means "filled with great strength." 

yatha — 

pasya vindhya-girito 'pi garistham 
daitya-puhgavam udagram aristam \ 
tula-khandam iva pinditam drat 
pundarika-nayano vinunoda ||2. 1.6 1|| 

"Just see ! Lotus-eyed Krsna has thrown the greatest demon Aristasura, who is 
heavier and higher than the Vindhya mountain range, to a far distance." 

yatha vd — 

vamas tamarasaksasya bhuja-dandah sapatu vah \ 

krida-kandukatam yena nito govardhano girih ||2. 1.62|| 

Another example: 

"May the left hand of lotus-eyed Krsna, which has lifted Govardhana Hill like 

a ball, protect you!" 

(6) vayasdnvitah — 

vayaso vividhatve 'pi sarva-bhakti-rasasrayah \ 
dharmi kisora evatra nitya-nana-vilasavan ||2.1.63|| 

(6) vayasdnvitah: endowed with ideal age — 

"Though Krsna is endowed with all ages which become most excellent, the 
age ofkaisora, ever- fresh, endowed with all pastimes, manifesting all good 
qualities, and the shelter of all rasas, is considered the best." 

yatha — 

tadatvabhivyaktikrta-tarunimarambha-rabhasam 
smita-sri-nirdhuta-sphurad-amala-raka-pati-madam \ 
darodahcat-pahcasuga-nava-kala-meduram idam 
murarer madhuryam manasi madiraksir madayati ||2. 1.64|| 

"Filled with the joy of recently manifested youth, the sweetness of Murari, 
defeating the spotless full moon with the effulgence of His smile, and made 



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soft with a hint of the fresh sports of Cupid, gives great joy to the minds of the 
sweet-eyed gopis" 

(7) vividhddbhuta-bhdsdvit — 
vividhddbhuta-bhdsdvit sa prokto yas tu kovidah \ 
ndnd-desydsu bhdsdsu samskrte prdkrtesu ca ||2. 1.65 1| 

(7) vividhddbhuta-bhdsdvit: astonishing linguist — 

"A person who knows the languages of various countries, Sanskrit, the 
vernacular and the languages of animals is called an astonishing linguist." 

yathd — 

vraja-yuvatisu saurih saurasenim surendre 

pranata-sirasi saurim bhdratim dtanoti \ 

ahaha pasusu kiresv apy apabhramsa-rupdm 

katham ajani vidagdhah sarva-bhdsdvalisu ||2.1.66|| 

"Krsna, saurl, expresses Himself in the vernacular to the young gopis of 
Vraja, in Sanskrit to the respectful Indra, and in the colloquial dialect to the 
animals, to the people of Kasmira and to the parrots. How amazing! How has 
He become expert in all these languages?" 

(8) satya-vdkyah — 

sydn ndnrtam vacoyasya satya-vdkyah sa kathyate ||2.1.67|| 

(8) satya-vdkyah: truthful speaker — 

"A person whose words are never false is called a speaker of the truth." 

yathd — 

prthe tanaya-pahcakam prakatam arpayisydmi te 
ranorvaritam ity abhut tava yathdrtham evoditam \ 
ravir bhavati sitalah kumuda-bandhur apy usnalas 
tathdpi na murdntaka vyabhicarisnur uktis tava ||2. 1.68|| 

"You said, 'O Kunti! I will bring back your five sons to you from the 
battlefield alive and with great honor.' Your statement has come true. O 



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Murari! Even though the sun may become cold and the moon may become 
hot, Your words will never be untrue." 

yatha va — 

gudho 'pi vesena mahl-surasya harir 

yathartham magadhendram uce \ 

samsrstam abhyam saha pandavabhyam 

mam viddhi krsnam bhavatah sapatnam ||2.1.69|| 

"Though disguising Himself as a brdhmana, Krsna told the truth to 
Jarasandha: 'O king of Magadha! Understand that it is I, Krsna, your enemy, 
accompanying the two sons of Pandu.' " 

(9) priyamvadah — 

jane krtaparadhe 'pi santva-vadl priyamvadah ||2. 1.70|| 

(9) priyamvadah: speaking in a pleasing manner — 

"Speaking in a pleasing manner means speaking pleasantly even to those who 
have offended." 

yatha — 

krta-vyalike 'pi na kundalindra 

tvaya vidheyd mayi dosa-drstih \ 

pravdsyamdno 'si surarcitdnam 

param hitdyddya gavdm kulasya ||2.1.71|| 

"O king of the snakes! Though I have afflicted you, do not find fault with Me. 
For the good of the cows, worthy of respect even by the devatas, you should 
live far from here." 

(10) vavadukah — 

sruti-presthoktir akhila-vag-gunanvita-vag api \ 

iti dvidha nigadito vdvaduko manlsibhih ||2.1.72|| 

(10) vavadukah: eloquent — 

"The wise say that there are two types of eloquence: speaking that is pleasing 
to the ear, and speaking with clever meaning." 

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tatra adyo, yatha — 
aslista-komala-paddvali-manjulena 
pratyaksa-raksa-rada-manda-sudhd-rasena \ 
sakhyah samasta-jana-karna-rasdyanena 
ndhdri kasya hrdayam hari-bhasitena ||2.1.73|| 

An example of peaking in a pleasing manner: 

"0 friends! Whose heart will not be stolen by the words of Krsna, sweet with 

clear, soft pronunciation, an elixir of intense nectar in the placement of each 

syllable, a life-giving medicine to the ears of all people by its sweet 

intonation?" 

dvitiyo, yatha — 
prativadi-citta-parivrtti-patur 
jagad-eka-samsaya-vimarda-kari \ 
pramitaksaradya-vividharthamayT 
hari-vdg iyam mama dhinoti dhiyah ||2. 1.74|| 

An example of the skillful meaning of words: 

"The words of Krsna, skillful at changing the hearts of His adversaries, 
superior to all in extinguishing all doubts in the universe, authoritative and 
economical, endowed with many meanings, have today made all my mental 
functions blissful." 

(11) supandityah — 

vidvan nitijha ity esa supandityo dvidha matah \ 

vidvan akhila-vidyd-vin mtijnas tu yathdrha-krt ||2.1.75|| 

(11) supandityah: knowledgeable — 

"Being knowledgeable has two aspects: knowledge of all branches of all 

subjects, and knowledge of proper conduct." 

tatra adyo, yatha — 
yam susthu purvam paricarya gauravat 
pitdmahady-ambudharaih pravartitah \ 
krsnarnavam kasya-guru-ksamabhutas 

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tarn eva vidya-saritah prapedire ||2. 1.76|| 

An example of knowing all branches of knowledge: 

"Previously the clouds, in the form of Brahma and others, by expertly serving 
with reverence the ocean in the form of Krsna, produced rivers of knowledge. 
Now those rivers of knowledge are flowing from the mountain of Sandipani 
back into the ocean of Krsna." 

yathd vd — 

dmndya-prathitdnvayd smrtimati badham sad-arigojjvala 

nyayenanugata purana-suhrda mimamsaya mandita \ 

tvam labdhdvasard cirdd gurukule preksya svasarigarthinam 

vidyd ndma vadhus caturdasa-guna govinda susruyate ||2. 1.77|| 

Another example: 

"O Govinda! The bride of knowledge with fourteen branches whose lineage is 
distributed by the four Vedas, and which includes the smrtis, is made brilliant 
by the six ahgas, is followed by the sad-darsanas, is assisted by the Puranas, 
and decorated with the karma- and jnana-kdndas . This bride of knowledge, 
seeing You eager to gain her association at the house of Your guru, desires to 
serve You, finding this opportunity after a long time." 

dvitiyo, yathd — 

mrtyus taskara-mandale sukrtinam vrnde vasantanilah 
kandarpo ramanisu durgata-kule kalyana-kalpa-drumah \ 
indur bandhu-gane vipaksa-patale kalagni-rudrakrtih sasti 
svasti-dhurandharo madhupurim nitya madhunam patih ||2. 1.78|| 

The second type of learning, knowledge of proper conduct, is illustrated: 
"The Lord of the Madhus, Krsna, is death for the thieves; the spring breeze 
for the pious; Cupid for the young women; a desire tree for the poverty- 
stricken; a cooling moon for His friends; the fire of final destruction in the 
form of Rudra for the enemies. He protects Mathura and Dvaraka by His 
judicious conduct in relation to all people." 

(12) buddhiman — 

medhavT suksmadhis ceti procyate buddhiman dvidha ||2. 1.79|| 

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(12) buddhiman: intelligent — 

"Buddhiman means the capacity to absorb knowledge and possessing fine 
intelligence." 

tatra medhavi, yatha — 

avanti-pura-vasinah sadanam etya sandipaner 

guror jagati darsayan samayam atra vidydrthindm \ 

sakrn nigada-matratah sakalam eva vidyd-kulam 

dadhau hrdaya-mandire kim api citravan madhavah ||2. 1.80|| 

An example of the ability to absorb knowledge: 

"Madhava, going to the house of Sandipani, His guru living in Avantipura, to 
teach the proper method to those who desire knowledge, received all the 
knowledge in the temple of His heart after just one recitation by His guru. 
How astonishing it is!" 

suksma-dhTh, yatha — 

yadubhir ayam avadhyo mleccha-rajas tad 

enam tarala-tamasi tasmin vidravann eva nesye \ 

sukhamaya-nija-nidrd-bhanjana-dhvamsi-drstir 

jhara-muci mucukundah kandare yatra sete ||2.1.81|| 

An example of having fine intelligence: 

"This Kalayavana cannot be killed by the Yadus. By running away from him 
into the dimly lit cave, I will bring him there. In that cave decorated with 
waterfalls, Mucukunda is sleeping. When Mucukunda opens his eyes, being 
rudely awakened from comfortable sleep by Kalayavana, he will destroy this 
enemy with his glance." 

(13) pratibhanvitah — 

sadyo navanavollekhi-jndnam sydt pratibhanvitah ||2.1.82|| 

(13) pratibhanvitah: creative — 

"Pratibhavita means immediate, novel manifestation of ideas." 

yatha padydvalyam (283) — 

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vdsah samprati kesava kva bhavato mugdheksane nanv idam 

vdsam bruhi satha prakdma-subhage tvad-gdtra-samsargatah \ 

ydminydm usitah kva dhurta vitanur musndti kirn ydmini 

saurir gopa-vadhum chalaih parihasann evamvidhaih pdtu vah ||2.1.83|| 

An example from PadydvalT [283]: 

Radha said, "O Krsna, where do You stay (ydsa) now?" 

Krsna said, "O Radha, with bewitching eyes! Can You not see that I am 

wearing My cloth (vasam) 1 } 

Radha said, "How crafty You are! I am talking about Your residence, not Your 

cloth!" 

Krsna said, "O Radha with natural sweet aroma! I am fragrant (vdsa) by 

touching Your limbs. 

Radha said, "O cheater! Where did You stay during the night? {ydminydm 

usitah) 

Krsna said, "How could I be stolen by the night (ydminyd musitah) which 

does not even have a body?" 

In this way may Krsna, who joked with Radha using tricky words, protect 

you! 

(14) vidagdhah — 

kald-vildsa-digdhdtmd vidagdha iti kirtyate ||2.1.84|| 

(14) vidagdhah: aesthetic — 

"One whose mind is absorbed in the 64 arts such as dancing and singing, and 

in various amusements, is called aesthetic." 

yathd — 

gitam gumphati tdndavam ghatayati brute praheli-kramam 
venum vddayate srajam viracayaty dlekhyam abhyasyati \ 
nirmdti svayam indrajdla-patalim dyute jayaty unmaddn 
pasyodddma-kald-vildsa-vasatis citram harih kridati ||2.1.85|| 

"Look! Krsna is composing songs and dancing. He is making riddles, playing 
the flute, stringing garlands and drawing pictures. He is making magical 
objects and winning at dice against persons showing pride. Krsna, the 
residence of pastimes of unlimited arts, is now enjoying His leisure." 

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(15) caturah — caturo yugapad-bhuri-samadhana-krd ucyate ||2. 1.86|| 

(15) caturah: clever — 

"A clever person is one who brings about a solution to many problems 
simultaneously." 

yathd — 

paravati-viracanena gavam kalapam 
gopangana-ganam apanga-tarangitena \ 
mitrani citratara-sahgara-vikramena 
dhinvann arista-bhayadena harir vireje ||2. 1.87|| 

"Krsna gives bliss to all the cows by composing cowherd songs. He pleases 
the gopis by the movement of His brow. He brings joy to His friend by heroic 
action. All of these simultaneously give fear to Aristasura (seeing how 
fearless Krsna remains)." 

(16) daksah — 

duskare ksipra-kari yas tarn daks am paricaksate ||2.1.88|| 

(16) daksah: expert — 

"An expert person does very quickly what is difficult to do." 

yathd sri-dasame (10.59.17) — 
yani yodhaih prayuktdni 
sastrdstrani kurudvaha \ 
haris tany acchinat tiksnaih 
sarair ekaika-sastribhih ||2.1.89|| 

An example from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [10.59.17]: 
"Lord Hari then struck down all the missiles and weapons the enemy soldiers 
threw at Him, O hero of the Kurus, destroying each and every one with three 
sharp arrows." 

yathd va — 

aghahara kuru yugmibhuya nrtyam mayaiva 

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tvam iti nikhila-gopi-prarthana-purti-kamah \ 

atanuta gati-lila-laghavormim tathasau 

dadrsur adhikam etas tarn yathd sva-sva-parsve ||2. 1.90|| 

Another example: 

"O killer of the Agha demon! Please dance only with me!" Desiring to fulfill 
this request by all of the gopls, Krsna quickly produced a multitude ofgopis 
and Himself going to a suitable place and performing the dance — but in such 
a manner that each of the gopls without doubt saw Him at her side alone." 

(17) krtajnah — 

krtajnah sydd abhijno yah krta-sevadi-karmanam ||2.1.91|| 

(17) krtajnah: grateful — 

"A grateful person is one who acknowledges others who have done service." 

yathd mahabharate — 

mam etat pravrddham me hrdayan napasarpati \ 

yad govindeti cukrosa krsna mam dura-vasinam ||2.1.92|| 

An example from Mahabharata [5.58.21]: 

"Draupadi cried out 'O Govinda! ' though I was situated far away. That crying 

out has created an ever-increasing debt that does not leave My heart." 

yathd va — 

anugatim ati-purvam cintayann rksa-mauler 

akuruta bahumanam saurir adaya kanyam \ 

katham apt krtam alpam vismaren naiva sadhuh 

kim uta sa khalu sadhu-sreni-cudagra-ratnam ||2. 1.93|j 

Another example: 

"Though Jambavan had offended Krsna, the Lord, remembering his service in 
the past during the time of Lord Rama, married his daughter and gave him 
great respect. Since the well-bred never forget what little service is rendered 
to them, then what can be said of Krsna, who is the crest jewel among all 
well-behaved persons?" 



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(18) sudrdha-vratah — 

pratijha-niyamau yasya satyau sa sudrdha-vratah ||2.1.94|| 

(18) sudrdha-vratah: fixed in vow — 

"A person who is true to his promises and to his perpetual vows is called fixed 

in vow." 

tatra satya-pratijho, yatha hari-vamse (2.68.38) — 

na deva-gandharva-gana na raksasa 

na casura naiva ca yaksa-pannagah \ 

mama pratijham apahantum udyata 

mune samarthah khalu satyam astu te ||2.1.95|| 

Being true to His promises is illustrated in Hari-vamsa [2.68.38]: 
"O Narada! All of the devas, Gandharvas, Raksasas, asuras, Yaksas and 
Pannagas are trying to make Me break My promise, but they cannot do so. 
May My promise to you be fruitful!" 

yatha vd — 

sa-helam akhandala-pandu-putrau 

vidhaya kamsarir aparijatau \ 

nija-pratijham saphalam dadhanah 

satyam ca krsnam ca sukham akarsit ||2.1.96|| 

Another example: 

"Krsna, the enemy of Kamsa, very easily made Indra bereft of the Parijata tree 
and pleased Satyabhama. He also made Yudhisthira devoid of enemies and 
pleased Draupadi. In this way He fulfilled His promises." 

satya-niyamo, yatha — 

girer uddharanam krsna duskaram karma kurvata \ 

mad-bhaktah syan na duhkhiti sva-vratam vivrtam tvaya ||2.1.97|| 

An example of being true to perpetual vows: 

"O Krsna! You vowed that Your devotee will never suffer. You have 

illustrated that by performing the difficult task of lifting Govardhana Hill." 



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(19) desa-kala-supatrajnah — 

desa-kala-supatrajhas tat-tad-yogya-kriya-krtih ||2. 1.98|| 

(19) desa-kala-supatrajnah: knower of place, time and person — 

"The knower of place, time and person is one who performs actions suitable 
to the time, place and person." 

yatha — 

saraj-jyotsna-tulyah katham api paro nasti samayas 

trilokyam akridah kvacid api na vrndavana-samah \ 

na kapy ambhojaksT vraja-yuvati-kalpeti vimrsan 

mano me sotkantham muhur ajani rasotsava-rase ||2. 1.99|| 

An example: 

"There is no time comparable to the autumn season in the moonlight. There is 
no place of amusement in the three worlds equal to Vrndavana. There are no 
lotus-eyed women like the young women of Vraja. Considering this, My heart 
longs for the taste of the rasa dance." 

(20) sdstra-caksuh — 

sastranusari-karma yah sdstra-caksuh sa kathyate ||2. 1. 100|| 

(20) sdstra-caksuh: sees with the eyes of the scriptures — 

"A person who sees with the eyes of the scriptures is a person who performs 
his actions according to the rules of the scripture." 

yatha — 

abhut kamsa-ripor netram sastram evartha-drstaye \ 

netrambujam tu yuvati- vrndan madaya kevalam ||2. 1. 101|| 

"The eyes of scripture which belong to Krsna, the enemy of Kamsa, exist only 
to see the practical action in a given situation, and His lotus eyes exist only to 
bewilder the young women." 

(21) sucih — 

pavanas ca visuddhes cety ucyate dvividhah sucih \ 
pavanah papa-nasT syad visuddhas tyakta-dusanah 1 12. 1 . 1 02| | 

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(21) sucih: pure — 

"There are two types of purity: pavana and visuddha. Pdvana means he who 
destroys sin, and visuddha means he who is without faults." 

tatra pdvano, yathd pddme — 

tarn nirvyajam bhaja guna-nidhe pavanam pavananam 
sraddha-rajyan-matir atitardm uttamah-sloka-maulim \ 
prodyann antah-karana-kuhare hanta yan-ndma-bhdnor 
dbhdso 'pi ksapayati maha-pataka-dhvanta-rasim ||2. 1. 1 03 1 1 

Purification of sin is illustrated in Padma Purana: 

"With intellect purified by faith and all sincerity, please worship Krsna, an 
ocean of good qualities, whose glory destroys all darkness, who purifies those 
who purify others. When just the semblance of His Holy Name appears in the 
heart, it destroys the greatest accumulation of sins, just as the light prior to the 
rising of the sun destroys all darkness." 

visuddho, yathd — 

kapatam ca hathas ca nacyute 

bata satrdjiti napy adinata \ 

katham adya vrtha syamantaka 

prasabham kaustubha-sakhyam icchasi ||2.1.104|| 

Faultlessness is illustrated as follows: 

"O Syamantaka jewel! There is no deception in Krsna's trying to take you 

from Satrajit, and there is plenty of miserliness in Satrajit to keep you. Then 

why do you desire so forcibly to make a friendship with the Kaustubha jewel 

today?" 

(22) vasT — 

vasi jitendriyah proktah 1 12. 1 . 1 05 1 1 

(22) vast: subjugator — 

"A subjugator is one who controls his senses." 

yathd prathame (1.11.37) — 

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uddama-bhava-pisunamala-valgu-hasa- 
vrldavaloka-nihato madano 'pi ydsdm \ 
sammuhya cdpam ajahdt pramadottamds td 
yasyendriyam vimathitum kuhakair na sekuh ||2. 1. 106|| 

This is illustrated in the First Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [1. 11.37]: 
"The common materialistic conditioned souls speculate that the Lord is one of 
them. Out of their ignorance they think that the Lord is affected by matter, 
although He is unattached." 

(23) sthirah — 

aphalodayakrt sthirah | |2. 1 . 1 07| | 

(23) sthirah: persevering — 

"He who works steadily until achieving his goals is called persevering." 

yatha — 

nirvedam apa na vana-bhramane murdrir 

nacintayad vyasanam rksa-vilapravese \ 

dhrtya hanta manim evapuram prapede 

sydd udyamah krta-dhiyam hi phalodaydntah ||2.1.108|| 

"Krsna did not loathe wandering in the forest looking for the Syamantaka 
jewel, and did not consider fear on entering the cave of Jambavan. Taking the 
jewel, He returned to Dvaraka. Those of steady intelligence persevere in their 
work until attaining the result." 

(24) dantah — sa danto duhsaham api yogyam klesah saheta yah ||2. 1. 109|| 

(24) dantah: patient — 

"A person who endures difficult but necessary suffering is called patient." 

yatha — 

gurum api guru-vasa-klesam avydja-bhaktyd 

harir aja-gana-dantah komaldhgo 'pi ndyam \ 

prakrtir ati-duruhd hanta lokottardnam 

kim api manasi citram cintyamdna tanoti ||2. 1.110|| 

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"Although Krsna's body was very soft, He did not consider in His heart the 
ontolerable difficulties of living at the house of His guru, because of His 
sincere devotion. One becomes amazed upon contemplating the inscrutable 
character of extraordinary people." 

(25) ksamasilah — 

ksamdsilo parddhdndm sahanah parikirtyate 1 12. 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 

(25) ksamasilah: tolerant — 

"A person who endures the offenses of others is called tolerant." 

yathd mdgha-kdvye (16.25) — 

prativdcam adatta kesavah sapamdndya na cedi-bhubhrte \ 

anahuhkurute ghana-dhvanih na hi gomdyu-rutdni kesari ||2. 1. 112|| 

An example from the Sisupdla-vadha, Mdgha-kdvya [16.25]: 
"Though Sisupala criticized Krsna hundreds of times, Krsna did not give any 
response. Though the lion replies to the thunder, it does not pay attention to 
the howl of the jackal." 

yathd vd ydmundcdrya-stotre (60) — 
raghuvara yad abhus tvarh tddrso vdyasasya 
pranata iti daydlur yac ca caidyasya krsna \ 
pratibhavam apardddhur mugdha sdyujyado 'bhur 
vada kim apadam dgatas tasya te sti ksamdydh ||2. 1. 1 13 1| 

Another example from Stitra-ratna of Yamunacarya [60] : 
"O Ramacandra, best of the Raghu dynasty! You were so merciful to the crow 
who pecked Mother Sita's breast, but who then offered obeisances to You. O 
Krsna, so forgetful of others' sins! You gave attractive impersonal liberation 
to Sisupala, who offended You for many lifetimes. Tell me what offense exists 
in him that You would not tolerate?" 

(26) gambhirah — 

durvibodhdsayo yas tu sa gambhirah itiryate ||2. 1. 1 14|| 



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(26) gambhirah: inscrutable — 

"A person whose intentions are difficult to comprehend is called inscrutable." 

yatha — 

vrnddvane vardtih stutibhir nitaram upasyamano 'pi \ 

sakto na harir vidhind rustas tusto 'thavajhatum ||2. 1. 1 15|| 

"When Brahma worshipped Krsna in Vrndavana by offering the best praises, 
Krsna remained silent. Brahma could not understand whether Krsna was 
satisfied or angry with him." 

yatha vd — 

unmado 'pi harir navya-radha-pranaya-sidhuna \ 

abhijhenapi ramena laksito 'yam avikriyah ||2. 1. 116|| 

Another example: 

"Though Krsna was intoxicated with the new liquor of Radha's love while 
lifting Govardhana Hill, even omniscient Balarama could not notice any 
indications of change." 

(27) dhrtiman — 

purna-sprhas ca dhrtiman santas ca ksobha-karane ||2. 1. 117|| 

(27) dhrtiman: steadfast — 

"The person who is fully satisfied in his desires, or who is peaceful when 

there is cause for agitation by controlling his mind, is called steadfast." 

tatra adyo — 

svikurvann api nitaram yasah-priyatvam 

kamsdrir magadha-pater vadha-prasiddham \ 

bhimdya svayam atulam adatta kirtim 

kim lokottara-guna-salinam apeksyam ||2.1.118|| 

The fully satisfied person is illustrated in the following: 

"Though Krsna is fond of fame, He gave that incomparable fame to Bhima in 

the killing of Jarasandha. What remains to be desired by those of superior 

character?" 



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dvitiyo, yatha — 

ninditasya dama-ghosa-sununa sambhramena munibhih stutasya ca \ 

rajasuya-sadasi ksitisvaraih kdpi ndsya vikrtir vitarkitd ||2. 1. 119|| 

An example of being peaceful, in spite of cause for agitation: 
"Despite being rebuked by Sisupala and being praised by the sages in the 
assembly of the rajasuya sacrifice, Krsna showed such steadiness that the 
kings present could not detect any change in Krsna appearance." 

(28) samah — 

raga-dvesa-vimukto yah samah sa kathito budhaih ||2. 1. 120|| 

(28) samah: impartial — 

"The learned say that a person who is free from attraction and disgust is called 

impartial." 

yatha sri-dasame (10.16.33) — 

nydyyo hi dandah krta-kilbise smims 

tavavatdrah khala-nigrahdya \ 

ripoh sutdnam api tulya-drster 

dhatse damam phalam evanusamsan ||2.1.121|| 

An example from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [10. 16.33]: 
"The wives of the Kaliya serpent said: The punishment this offender has been 
subjected to is certainly just. After all, You have incarnated within this world 
to curb down envious and cruel persons. You are so impartial that You look 
equally upon Your enemies and Your own sons, for when You impose a 
punishment on a living being You know it to be for his ultimate benefit." 

yatha va — 

ripur api yadi suddho mandanfyas tavasau 
yaduvara yadi dusto dandaniyah suto 'pi \ 
napunar akhila-bhartuh paksapatojjhitasya 
kvacid api visamam te cestitam jaghatiti ||2. 1.122|| 

Another example: 

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"O best of the Yadus, if Your enemy does something correctly You reward 
him, and if Your son becomes spoiled You punish him. You are the protector 
of all people and without prejudice; thus partiality can never occur in Your 
actions." 

(29) vadanyah — 

dana-viro bhavedyas tu sa vaddnyo nigadyate ||2. 1. 123|| 

(29) vadanyah: generous — 

"The person who is very charitable is called generous." 

yatha — 

sarvarthinam badham abhista-purtya 
vyarthikrtah kamsa-nisudanena \ 
hriyeva cintamani-kamadhenu- 
kalpa-druma dvaravatim bhajanti ||2.1.124|| 

"The wishing jewel, the desire cow and the desire tree, being made useless, by 
Krsna, who fully satisfies all the supplicants' desires, serve Dvaraka in 
shame." 

yatha va — 

yesam sodasa-purita dasa-sati svantah-puranam tatha 

castas lista-satam vibhati paritas tat-sahkhya-patni-yujam \ 

ekaikam prati tesu tarnaka-bhrtam bhusa-jusam anvaham 

grstinam yugapac ca baddham adadadyas tasya va kah samah ||2. 1. 125|| 

Another example: 

"In each of the 16,108 palaces with their queens, every day at one time Krsna 
would give in charity 13,084 ornamented young cows with first-born calves. 
Who can be equal to Him in charily?" 

(30) dharmikah — 

kurvan karayate dharmam yah sa dharmika ucyate ||2. 1. 126|| 

(30) dharmikah: virtuous — 



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"The person who follows the principles oidharma, and engages others in 
doing so also, is called virtuous." 

yatha — 

pddais caturbhir bhavatd vrsasya 
guptasya gopendra tathdbhyavardhi \ 
svairam carann eva yatha trilokyam 
adharma-sparsdni hathdj jaghdsa ||2.1.127|| 

An example: 

"O King of the cowherd men! Under Your protection, the bull oidharma with 
four legs has flourished to such an extent that, going everywhere in the three 
worlds, he has forcefully gobbled up the grass of irreligion." 

yatha vd — 

vitdyamdnair bhavatd makhotkarair 
dkrsyamdnesu patisv andratam \ 
mukunda khinnah sura-subhruvdm ganas 
tavdvatdram navamam namasyati ||2.1.128|| 

Another example: 

"O Mukunda! You have performed so many sacrifices and continually 
attracted all the devatds that the wives of the devatds, feeling suffering in 
separation from their husbands, are praying to Buddha, Your ninth avatdra, to 
stop the sacrifices." 

(31) surah — 

utsdhi yudhi suro stra-prayoge ca vicaksanah ||2. 1. 129|| 

(31) surah: hero — 

"A hero is a person who is energetic in fighting and skillful in the use of 

weapons." 

tatra ddyo, yatha — 
prthu-samara-saro vigdhya kurvan 
dvisad aravinda-vane vihdra-carydm \ 
sphurasi tarala-bdhu-danda-sundas 

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tvam agha-vidarana-ravanendra-hlah ||2. 1.130|| 

An example of enthusiasm in fighting is illustrated first: 
"0 destroyer of Agha! Destroyer of sin! With Your trembling trunk-like arms, 
submerging Yourself in the lake of the expansive battlefield, playing in the 
forest of lotuses composed of Your enemies, You appear to be playing like the 
King of the elephants." 

dvitiyo, yathd — 

ksanad aksauhini-vrnde jarasandhasya darune \ 

drstah ko 'py atra nadasto hareh praharanahibhih 1 12. 1 . 1 3 1 1 1 

An example of being expert in handling weapons: 

"Within a second, one could not see any soldier among the ferocious phalanx 
of Jarasandha's aksauhinis, any person who was not bitten by the snake- 
arrows of the Lord." 

(32) karunah — 

para-duhkhasaho yas tu karunah sa nigadyate ||2. 1. 132|| 

(32) karunah: compassionate — 

"A person who cannot tolerate the suffering of others is called 

compassionate." 

yathd — 

rajham agadha-gatibhir magadhendra-kdrd- 
duhkhandhakara-patalaih svayam andhitanam \ 
aksiniyah sukhamayani ghrni vyatanid vrnde 
tarn adya yadunandana-padma-bandhum ||2.1.133|| 

An example of karuna: 

"I offer my respects to the compassionate son of the Yadus, who like the sun 
made all the kings' eyes blossom with joy. These kings had blinded 
themselves with tears, arising from the impenetrable darkness of suffering 
caused by being imprisoned by Jarasandha." 

yathd va — 

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skhalan-nayana-varibhirviracitabhiseka-sriye 
tvarabhara-tarahgatah kavalitatma-visphurtaye \ 
nisanta-sara-sayina suras arit-sutena smrteh 
sapadya-vasa-vartmano bhagavatah krpayai namah ||2. 1.134|| 

Another example: 

"I offer my respects to the compassion of the Lord, who immediately 
appeared beyond His control because of Bhisma's remembrance of Him on 
the bed of arrows. He rushed toward Bhisma, forgetting His position as the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead, His body bathed in a shower of tears." 

(33) manyamdna-krt — 

guru-brahmana-vrddhadi-pujako manyamdna-krt ||2. 1.135|| 

(33) manyamdna-krt: respectful — 

"A person who worships guru, brahmanas and the elderly is called 
respectful." 

yatha — 

abhivadya guroh paddmbujam 

pitaram purvajam apy athanatah \ 

harir anjalina tathd gird 

yadu-vrddhanana-mat-kramadayam ||2. 1. 136|| 

"Krsna first offered respects to the lotus feet of His guru. Then He offered 
respects to His father and elder brother. Then with folded hands and humble 
words, He offered respects to the elders of the Yadu dynasty in the proper 
order." 

(34) daksinah — 

sausilya-saumya-carito daksinah klrtyate budhaih ||2.1.137|| 

(34) daksinah: compliant — 

"A person who is mild due to his excellent nature is called compliant by the 

intelligent." 

yatha — 

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bhrtyasya pasyati gurun api naparadhan 
sevdm mandg api krtam bahudhabhyupaiti \ 
dviskaroti pisunesv api ndbhyasuydm 
silena nirmala-matih purusottamo 'yam ||2. 1. 138|| 

"The Superme Lord, who is pure-hearted by His very nature, does not see the 
serious offenses of His servant, but He accepts even a little service as a great 
thing. He does not find fault, even in those of low character." 

(35) vinayi — 

auddhatya-parihari yah kathyate vinayity asau ||2. 1. 139|| 

(35) vinayi: modest — 

"The person who is devoid of arrogance is called modest." 

yatha mdgha-kdvye (13.7) — 
avaloka esa nrpateh sudurato 
rabhasad rathad avataritum icchatah \ 
avatirnavan prathamam dtmana harir 
vinayam visesayati sambhramena sah ||2.1.140|| 

An example from the Magha-kavya [13.7]: 

"Seeing that Yudhisthira wanted to alight from his chariot in haste on seeing 
Krsna, Krsna Himself, by getting down from His chariot first out of great 
respect for Yudhisthira, showed more modesty than anyone else." 

(36) hriman — 

jnate 'smara-rahasye 'nyaih kriyamdne stave 'thava \ 
salinatvena sankocam bhajan hriman udiryate ||2.1.141|| 

(36) hriman: bashful — 

"A person is called bashful who is shy when praised by others, or when he 
thinks that others are aware of his secret love affairs, because of modesty or 
his unfathomable nature." 

yatha lalita-madhave (9.40) — 
darodahcad-gopi-stana-parisara-preksana-bhayat 

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karotkampddlsac calati kila govardhana-girau \ 
bhaydrtair drabdha-stutir akhila-gopaih smita-mukham 
puro drstvd rdmam jayati namitdsyo madhuripuh ||2. 1. 142|| 

An example from Lalita-Mddhava [9.40]: 

"All glories to the enemy of Madhu, who made Govardhan Hill shake slightly 
by the weight of glancing upon the expanse of the gopis ' upraised breasts, and 
who hung His head in shame when He saw Balarama smiling before Him, 
while He was being praised by the fearful cowherd men." 

(37) sarandgata-pdlakah — 

pdlayan sarandpanndn sarandgata-pdlakah ||2.1.143|| 

(37) sarandgata-pdlakah: protector of the surrendered — 

"He who protects those who surrender is called protector of the surrendered." 

yathd — 

jvara parihara vitrdsam tvam 
atra samare krtdparddhe 'pi \ 
sadyah prapadyamdne yad 
indavati yddavendro 'yam ||2. 1. 144|| 

An example: 

"O fever (weapon), though you are an offender in this battle, give up your 
fear, because the best of the Yadus, Krsna acts as a moon towards those who 
completely surrender to Him." 

(38) sukhl — 

bhoktd ca duhkha-gandhair apy asprstas ca sukhl bhavet ||2. 1. 145|| 

(38) sukhl: happy — 

"The person who is an enjoyer and is not touched by a trace of sorrow is 
called a happy person." 

tatra ddyo, yathd — 

ratndlahkdra-bhdras tava dhana-damanor djya-vrttydpy alabhyah 

svapne dambholi-pdner apt duradhigamam dvdri tauryatrikam ca \ 

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parsve gauri-garisthah pracura-sasi-kalah kanta-sarvahga-bhajah 
simantinyas ca nityam yaduvara bhuvane has tvad-anyo sti bhogl ||2. 1. 146|| 

The enjoyer is illustrated first: 

"0 best of the Yadus, the quantity of Your jeweled ornaments cannot be 
imagined by Kuvera, the lord of wealth. The singing and dancing taking place 
at Your door cannot be imagined by Indra, even in his dreams. At Your side 
constantly are beautiful women who enjoy Your attractive limbs, who are 
decorated with the tips of Your moon-like fingernails, and who are thus 
superior to the wife of Siva. In this world there is no enjoyer like You." 

dvitiyo, yathd — 

na hanim na mlanim nija-grha-krtya-vyasanitdm 

na ghoram nodghurnam na kila kadanam vetti kim apt \ 

vardngibhih sdngikrta-suhrd-anangdbhir abhito 

harir vrndaranye param anisam uccair viharati ||2.1.147|| 

Being without a trace of sorrow is illustrated next: 

"O wives of the brahmanas! Not even a trace of sorrow can touch Krsna, for 

in Him there is no destruction, no decrease, no suffering in household affairs, 

no cause of fear and no worry. He does not know any of the suffering of this 

world. He is eternally engaged in amusing Himself in Vrndavana with 

beautiful women who are perfect, the best of friends, and hold the highest 

love." 

(39) bhakta-suhrt — 

susevyo ddsa-bandhus ca dvidha bhakta-suhrn matah ||2.1.148|| 

(39) bhakta-suhrt: friend of the devotees — 

"There are two ways in which Krsna is a friend to His devotees: being easily 

served and being a friend of His servant." 

tatra adyo, yathd visnu-dharme — 

tulasi-dala-matrena jalasya culukena ca \ 

vikrinite svam atmanam bhaktebhyo bhakta-vatsalah ||2. 1.149|| 

An example of being easily served, from Visnu Dharma: 

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"If the devotees offer only water and tulasi leaves to the Lord, the Lord, being 
affectionate to the devotees, puts Himself under the control of the devotees." 

dvitiyo, yatha prathame (1.9.37) — 
sva-nigamam apahaya mat-pratijnam 
rtam adhikartum avapluto rathasthah \ 
dhrta-ratha-carano 'bhyayac caladgur 
harir iva hantum ibham gatottariyah ||2. 1. 150|| 

An example of being the friend of His servant, from the First Canto of 
Srimad-Bhdgavatam [1.9.37]: 

"Fulfilling my desire and sacrificing His own promise, He got down from the 
chariot, took up its wheel, and ran towards me hurriedly, just as a lion goes to 
kill an elephant. He even dropped His outer garment on the way." 

(40) prema-vasyah — 

priyatva-matra-vasyo yah prema-vasyo bhaved asau 1 12. 1 . 1 5 1 1 1 

(40) prema-vasyah: controlled by love — 

"He who is controlled only by affection is called controlled by love." 

yatha sri-dasame (10.80.19) — 

sakhyuh priyasya viprarser ahga-sahgati-nirvrtah \ 

prito vyamuhcad adhvindun netrabhyam puskareksanah ||2.1.152|| 

An example from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam [10.80. 19]: 

"The lotus-eyed Supreme Lord felt intense ecstasy upon touching the body of 

His dear friend, the wise brdhmana, and thus He shed tears of love." 

yatha vd tatraiva (10.9. 18) — 

sva-matuh svinna-gatrdya visrasta-kavara-srajah \ 

drstvd parisramam krsnah krpaydsit sva-bandhane ||2.1.153|| 

Another example from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam [10.9. 18]: 
"Because of mother Yasoda's hard labor, her whole body became covered 
with perspiration, and the flowers and comb were falling from her hair. When 



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child Krsna saw His mother thus fatigued, He became merciful to her and 
agreed to be bound." 

(41) sarva-subhankarah — 

sarvesam hita-karl yah sa syat sarva-subhankarah ||2. 1. 154|| 

(41) sarva-subhankarah: benefactor of all — 

"He who works for the benefit of everyone is called benefactor of all." 

yatha — 

krtah krtartha munayo vinodaih 

khala-ksayenakhila-dharmikas ca \ 

vapur-vimardena khalds ca yuddhe 

na kasya pathyam harind vyadhdyi ||2. 1. 155|| 

""He gave benefit to the sages by the display of His qualities manifested in 
Dvaraka. He gave benefit to the followers of dharma by destroying the 
wicked. He gave success to the rascals by killing them in battle. To whom did 
Krsna not give benefit?" 

(42) pratapi — 

pratapi paurusodbhuta-satru-tapi prasiddhi-bhak ||2.1.156|| 

(42) pratapi: glorious — 

"He who is famous for inflicting pain on the enemy with astonishing valor is 

called glorious (an effulgent person)." 

yatha — 

bhavatah pratdpa-tapane 
bhuvanam krsna pratapayati \ 
ghorasura-ghukanam saranam 
abhut kandara-timiram ||2. 1. 157|| 

"When You illuminate the world with Your brilliance which is like the sun, 
the darkness of the mountain caves becomes the shelter for the terrible 
demons, who are just like owls." 



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(43) kirtiman — 

sadgunyair nirmalaih khyatah kirtiman iti kirtyate ||2. 1. 158|| 

(43) kirtiman: renowned — 

"A person who is famous for spotless good qualities is called renowned." 

yathd — 

tvad-yasah-kumuda-bandhu-kaumudi 
subhra-bhdvam abhito nayanty api \ 
nandanandana katham nu nirmame 
krsna-bhava-kalilam jagat-trayam ||2. 1. 159|| 

"O son of Nanda! Since the light of the moon of Your good qualities has 
already turned everything radiant (white), how can it make the world thick 
with Krsna-prema? (krsna also means darkness)" 

yathd vd lalita-madhave (5.18) — 
bhita rudram tyajati girija syamam apreksya kantham 
subhram drstva ksipati vasanam vismito nila-vasah \ 
ksiram matva srapayati yami-niram abhirikotka 
gite damodara-yasasi te vinaya naradena ||2.1.160|| 

Another example from Lalita-madhava: 

"O Damodara Krsna! When Narada, playing his vina, began to sing Your 
glories, Parvati, not seeing the blue color on Siva's throat, left his abode; 
Balarama seeing His blue cloth turn white, gave it up in astonishment; and the 
excited cowherd women, seeing the blue water of the Yamuna turn white and 
thinking of it as milk, began to churn it." 

(44) rakta-lokah — 

patram lokanuraganam rakta-lokam vidur budhdh ||2.1.161|| 

(44) rakta-lokah: attractive to all people — 

"The intelligent say that the person who is the object of attraction for all 

people is called attractive to people." 

yathd prathame (1.11.9) — 

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yarhy ambujaksapasasara bho bhavan 
kurun madhun vdtha suhrd-didrksaya \ 
tatrabda-koti-pratimah ksano bhaved 
ravim vinaksnor iva nas tavdcyuta ||2. 1. 162|| 

An example from the First Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [1.11.9]: 
"O lotus-eyed Lord, whenever You go away to Mathura, Vrndavana or 
Hastinapura to meet Your friends and relatives, every moment of Your 
absence seems like a million years. O infallible one, at that time our eyes 
become useless, as if bereft of sun." 

yathd vd — 

asis-tathya jaya jaya jayety dvirdste muninam 

deva-sreni-stuti-kala-kalo medurah pradurasti \ 

harsad ghosah sphurati parito ndgarindm gariydn 

ke vd ranga-sthala-bhuvi harau bhejire ndnurdgam ||2. 1. 163|| 

Another example: 

"When Krsna entered the arena of Karhsa the sages uttered blessings of 
'Victory! Victory! Victory! ' The devatds uttered sweet songs of praise. Out of 
joy, the women shouted loudly all around. Who did not develop attraction to 
Krsna at the sports arena?" 

(45) sddhu-samdsrayah — 

sad-eka-paksapdti yah sa sydt sddhu-samdsrayah ||2. 1. 164|| 

(45) sddhu-samdsrayah: protects the devotees — 

"He who has exclusive inclination towards the devotees is called the protector 

of the devotees." 

yathd — 

purusottama ced avatarisyad 

bhuvane smin na bhavan bhuvah sivaya \ 

vikatasura-mandalan najane 

sujananam bata ka dasabhavisyat ||2. 1. 165|| 



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"O Supreme Person! If You did not appear on this earth to bestow 
auspiciousness, I do not know what condition would befall the devotees from 
persecution by all the fierce demons." 

(46) ndrl-gana-mano-hdri — 

ndrT-gana-mano-hdri sundari-vrnda-mohanah ||2. 1. 166|| 

(46) ndrT-gana-mano-hdri: attractive to women — 

"The person who enchants a group of women by his very nature is called an 
attractor of women." 

yathd sri-dasame (10.90.26) — 

sruta-mdtro 'pi yah strindm prasahydkarsate manah \ 

urugdyorugito vd pasyantindm ca kimpunah ||2. 1.167|| 

An example from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam [10.90.26]: 
"The Lord, being glorified in countless ways, forcibly attracts the minds of 
women who simply hear about Him. What to speak, then, if those women see 
Him directly?" 

yathd vd — 

tvam cumbako 'si mddhava loha-mayT nunam ahgand-jdtih \ 

dhdvati tatas tato 'sau yato yatah kridayd bhramasi ||2. 1. 168|| 

Another example: 

"O Madhava! You are a magnet and certain women are like iron. Wherever 

You wander in play, they run after You." 

(47) sarvdrddhyah — 

sarvesdm agra-pujyo yah sa sarvdrddhya ucyate ||2. 1. 169|| 

(47) sarvdrddhyah: all-worshipable — 

"He who should be worshiped before all others is called all-worshipable." 

yathd prathame (1.9.41) — 

muni-gana-nrpa-varya-sahkule 'ntah- sadasi yudhisthira-rdjasuya esdm \ 

arhanam upapeda iksanfyo mama drsi-gocara esa dvir dtmd ||2. 1. 170|| 

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An example from the First Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [1.9.41]: 
"At the Rajasuya-yajna [sacrifice] performed by Maharaja Yudhisthira, there 
was the greatest assembly of all the elite men of the world, the royal and 
learned orders, and in that great assembly Lord Sri Krsna was worshiped by 
one and all as the most exalted Personality of Godhead. This happened during 
my presence, and I remembered the incident in order to keep my mind upon 
the Lord." 

(48) samrddhiman — 

mahd-sampatti-yukto yo bhaved esa samrddhiman ||2. 1. 171|| 

(48) samrddhiman: prosperous — 

"He who possesses great treasure is called prosperous." 

yatha — 

sat-pahcasad-yadu-kula-bhuvam kotayas tvdm bhajante 
varsanty astau kim api nidhayas cdrtha-jdtam tavami \ 
suddhdntas ca sphurati navabhir laksitah saudha-laksmair 
laksmim pasyan mura-damana te natra citrdyate kah ||2.1.172|| 

"O subduer of Mura! 560,000,000 Yadus are serving You. Your eight 
treasures are raining all wealth. 900,000 pure palaces are shining in glory. 
Who would not be astonished at seeing Your wealth?" 

yatha vd krsna-karnamrte — 
cintamanis carana-bhusanam ahgananam 
srhgara-puspa-taravas taravah suranam \ 
vrndavane vraja-dhanam nanu kama-dhenu- 
vrndani ceti sukha-sindhur aho vibhutih ||2. 1. 173|| 

Another example from Krsna-karnamrta: 

"The anklets on the damsels of Vraja-bhumi are made of cintamani stone. The 
trees are wish-fulfilling trees, and they produce flowers with which the gopis 
decorate themselves. There are also wish-fulfilling cows [kama dhenus], 
which deliver unlimited quantities of milk. These cows constitute the wealth 
of Vrndavana. Thus Vrndavana's opulence is blissfully exhibited." 

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(49) variyan — 

sarvesam ati-mukhyo yah sa variyan itiryate ||2. 1. 174|| 

(49) variyan: the best — 

"He who is the chief of all people is called the best." 

yatha — 

brahmann atra puru-dvisa saha purah pithe nisida ksanam 
tusnim tistha surendra catubhir alam varisa duribhava \ 
ete dvari muhuh katham sura-ganah kurvanti kolahalam 
hanta dvaravati-pater avasaro nadyapi nispadyate ||2. 1. 175|| 

"Brahma and others came to see Krsna and arrived at the gate of Dvaraka. 
The doorkeeper said: 'O Brahma! Just sit for a moment with Siva on this seat. 
It is not necessary to make hymns of praise. Just remain silent. O Varuna! Go 
away. Why are the devatas making such a clamor at the gate. It is not time for 
the Lord of Dvaraka to come.' " 

(50) Tsvarah — 

dvidhesvarah svatantras ca durlanghyajnas ca kirtyate ||2. 1.176|| 

(50) Tsvarah: controller — 

"It is said that there are two types of controllers: he who is independent and he 

whose orders cannot be neglected." 

tatra svatantro, yatha — 

krsnah prasadam akarod aparadhyate 'pi 

padahkam eva kila kaliya-pannagaya \ 

na brahmane drsam api stuvate py apurvam 

sthane svatantra-carito nigamair nuto 'yam ||2. 1. 177|| 

An example of he who is independent: 

"Though Kaliya offended the Lord, Krsna gave him mercy by placing His 
foot mark on his head. Though Brahma praised the Lord, Krsna did not even 
glance at him. Such unprecedented behavior is suitable to the Lord because 
the Vedas praise Him as being independent." 

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durlahghydjho, yatha trtiye (3.2.21) — 

balim haradbhis cira-loka-palaih kirita-koty-edita-pada-pithah \ 

tat tasya kaihkaryam alam bhrtan no vigldpayaty anga yad ugrasenam \\ 

2.1.178H 

An example of he whose order cannot be ignored, from the Third Canto of 
Srimad-Bhdgavatam [3.2.21]: 

"Lord Sri Krsna is the Lord of all kinds of threes and is independently 
supreme by achievement of all kinds of fortune. He is worshiped by the 
eternal maintainers of the creation, who offer Him the paraphernalia of 
worship by touching their millions of helmets to His feet." 

yatha vd — 

navye brahmanda-vrnde srjati vidhiganah srstaye yah krtajho 
rudraughah kala-jirne ksayam avatanute yah ksayayanusistah \ 
raksam visnu-svarupa vidadhati tarune raksino ye tvad-amsah 
kamsare santi sarve disi disi bhavatah sasane 'jandanathah ||2. 1. 179|| 

Another example: 

"O enemy of Kamsa! All the Brahmas, accepting Your order to create, create 
all the new universes. All the Sivas destroy all the old universes on Your order 
to destroy. All Your expansions in the form of Visnus, protectors of the 
universe, carry out Your order to protect the newly created universes. All the 
masters of the universes in all directions are awaiting Your order." 

(51) atha sada-svarupa-sampraptah — 
sada-svarupa-samprapto mdya-karya-vasikrtah ||2. 1.180|| 

(51) atha sada-svarupa-sampraptah: eternal form — 

"He who is not controlled by Maya or its affects is said to have an eternal 

form." 

yatha prathame (1.11.38) — 

etadisanam isasya prakrti-sthopi tad-gunaih \ 

nayujyate s adatma-s thai r yatha buddhis tad-asraya ||2. 1.181|| 



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An example from the First Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [1. 11.38]: 
"This is the divinity of the Personality of Godhead: He is not affected by the 
qualities of material nature, even though He is in contact with them. Similarly, 
the devotees who have taken shelter of the Lord do not become influenced by 
the material qualities." 

(52) sarvajnah — 

para-citta-sthitam desa-kalady-antaritam tathd \ 

yojdndti samastarthah sa sarvajho nigadyate ||2. 1. 182|| 

(52) sarvajnah: omniscient — 

"He who is the embodiment of all things and knows the situation within all 
hearts through all time and space is called omniscient." 

yatha prathame (1.15.11) — 

yo nojugopa vana etya duranta-krcchrad 

durvasaso 'ri-racitad ayutdgra-bhug yah \ 

sakanna-sistam upayujya yatas tri-lokim 

trptam amamsta salile vinimagna-sahghah ||2. 1. 183|| 

An example from the First Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [1.15.11]: 
"During our exile, Durvasa Muni, who eats with his ten thousand disciples, 
intrigued with our enemies to put us in dangerous trouble. At that time He 
[Lord Krsna], simply by accepting the remnants of food, saved us. By His 
accepting food thus, the assembly of munis, while bathing in the river, felt 
sumptuously fed. And all the three worlds were also satisfied." 

(53) nitya-nutanah — 
saddnubhuyamdno 'pi karoty ananubhutavat \ 

vismayam madhuribhir yah saprokto nitya-nutanah ||2. 1.184|| 

(53) nitya-nutanah: ever-fresh — 

"He who astonishes by appearing unrelished, though he has already been 

relished with His sweet qualities, is called ever-fresh." 

yatha prathame (1.11.34) — 
yadyapy asau parsva-gato raho-gatas 

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tathdpi tasydhghri-yugam navam navam \ 

pade pade kd virameta tat-paddc 

caldpi yac chrlr najahdti karhicit ||2. 1. 185|| 

An example from the First Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam [1. 11.33]: 
"Although Lord Sri Krsna was constantly by their sides, as well as exclusively 
alone, His feet appeared to them to be newer and newer. The goddess of 
fortune, although by nature always restless and moving, could not quit the 
Lord's feet. So what woman can be detached from those feet, having once 
taken shelter of them?" 

yathd vd lalita-mddhave (1.52) — 
kulavara-tanu-dharma-grdva-vrnddni bhindan 
sumukhi nisita-dirghdpdhga-tahka-cchatdbhih \ 
yugapad ayam apurvah kah puro visva-karmd 
marakata-mani-laksair gostha-kaksdm cinoti ||2.1.186|| 

Another example from Lalita-mddhava: 

"O beautiful-faced friend! Who is this excellent craftsman Visvakarma 
standing in front of us, breaking the stones of self-control in all the young 
women with the tips of the long, sharp, chisel-like corners of His eyes and 
simultaneously constructing a cowpen using millions of sapphires?" 

(54) sac-cid-dnanda-sdndrdngah — 
sac-cid-dnanda-sdndrdhgas ciddnanda-ghandkrtih ||2. 1.187|| 

(54) sac-cid-dnanda-sdndrdngah: has a body made from condensed eternity 

"He who has a form thoroughly composed of knowledge and bliss, with no 
contamination of other elements, is called sac-cid-dnanda-sdndrdngah. " 

yathd — 

klese kramdt pahca-vidhe ksayam gate 
yad-brahma-saukhyam svayam asphurat param \ 
tad vyarthayan kah purato nardkrtih 
sydmo'yam dmoda-bharah prakdsate ||2. 1.188|| 



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"Who is that person standing before us, revealing a human form black in 
color, full of bliss, who covers even the happiness of brahman which appears 
spontaneously after the five types of suffering have been destroyed?" 

yatha va brahma-samhitayam adi-purusa-rahasye (5.51) — 
yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti- 
kotisv asesa-vasudhadi vibhuti-bhinnam \ 
tad brahma niskalam anantam asesa-bhutam 
govindam adi-purusam tarn aham bhajami ||2. 1.189|| 

Another example from Brahma-samhita [5.40]: 

"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, whose effulgence is the source of the 
nondifferentiated Brahman mentioned in the Upanisads, being differentiated 
from the infinity of glories of the mundane universe appears as the indivisible, 
infinite, limitless, truth." 

atah sri-vaisnavaih sarva-sruti-smrti-nidarsanaih 

tad brahma srT-bhagavato vibhutir iti kirtyate ||2. 1. 190|| 

"Thus the Sri Vaisnavas who have taken into account all the statements of 
sruti and smrti, say that this brahman is the vibhuti of Bhagavan." 

tathd hi ydmundcdrya-stotre (14) — 

yad-anddntara-gocaram ca yad dasottarany dvarandni ydni ca \ 
gunah pradhdnam purusah param padam pardtparam brahma ca te 
vibhutayah 1 12. 1 . 1 9 1 1 1 

Thus it is stated in the Yamundcarya-stotra [14]: 

"O Bhagavan! The universe, and within the universe all the elements starting 

with earth, with coverings each ten times thicker than the previous one, the 

three gunas, the totality of jivas, prakrtl, Vaikuntha and brahman are all Your 

vibhutis" 

(55) sarva-siddhi-nisevitah — 

sva-vasakhila-siddhih syat sarva-siddhi-nisevitah ||2. 1. 192|| 

(55) sarva-siddhi-nisevitah: served by all siddhis — 

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"He who controls all mystic powers is called served by all siddhis. " 

yathd — 

dasabhih siddha-sakhibhir vrta maha-siddhayah kramdd astau \ 

animadayo labhante navasaram dvdri krsnasya ||2.1.193|| 

"The eight great siddhis, served by the ten companion siddhis, do not even 
have the opportunity to enter the door of Krsna's palace." 

(56) atha avicintya-mahd-saktih — 
divya-sargadi-kartrtvam brahma-rudrddi-mohanam \ 
bhakta-prarabdha-vidhvamsa ity ddy acintya-saktita ||2. 1. 194|| 

(56) atha avicintya-mahd-saktih: possessor of inconceivable power — 
"He who has an extraordinary role in creating and destroying the universes, 
who can bewilder Brahma and Siva and who has the power to destroy the 
prarabdha-karmas of the devotee, is called the possessor of great, 
inconceivable powers." 

tatra dviya-sargadi-kartrtvam, yathd — 

asic chayadvitiyah prathamam atha vibhur vatsa-dimbhadi-dehan 

amsenamsena cakre tad anu bahu-catur-bahutam tesu tene \ 

vrttas tattvadi-vitair atha kam alabhavaih stuyamano 'khilatma 

tavad brahmanda-sevyah sphutam ajani tato yah prapadye tarn Tsam \\ 

2.1.195H 

An example of His extraordinary role in creating and destroying the 

universes: 

"I surrender to that Lord, the soul of all, who first was alone, then produced 

forms of the calves and boys by a part of a part of Himself, then spread 

Himself in those forms as four-handed forms of Visnu, and then was 

surrounded by Brahmas and others along with the elements, and was praised 

and served by all the jivas in the universe. " 

brahma-rudrddi-mohanam, yathd — 
mohitah sisu-krtau pitamaho 
hanta sambhur api jrmbhito rane \ 

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yena kamsa-ripunadya tat-purah 

ke mahendra vibudhd bhavad-vidhdh ||2. 1. 196|| 

An example of His extraordinary ability to bewilder Brahma, Siva and others 
is illustrated as follows: 

"Brahma was bewildered by Krsna, the enemy of Karhsa when he stole the 
boys and calves. In battle with Krsna, Siva was put to sleep. Indra, 
compared with Krsna, who are you devatds now?" 

bhakta-prdrabdha-vidhvamso, yathd sri-dasame (10.45.45) — 
guru-putram ihdnitam nij a-kar ma-nib andhanam \ 
dnayasva mahdrdja mac -chds ana-pur askrtah ||2. 1.197|| 

An example of destroying the prdrabdha-karmas of the devotee is discussed 
in the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam [10.45.45]: 
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: "Suffering the bondage of his past 
activity, My spiritual master's son was brought here to you. O great King, 
obey My command and bring this boy to Me without delay. He has been 
purified by My edict." 

ddi-sabdena durghata-ghatandpi — 
api jani-parihinah sunur dbhira-bhartur 
vibhur api bhuja-yugmotsanga-parydpta-murtih \ 
prakatita-bahu-rupo py eka-rupah prabhur me 
dhiyam ayam avicintydnanta-saktir dhinoti ||2. 1.198|| 

The word adi in the definition (verse 194) also refers to accomplishing what is 
most difficult or impossible (durghata-ghatana): 

"My master Krsna, full of infinite inconceivable powers, who though without 
birth, became the son of Nanda, the leader of the cowherds; who though all- 
pervading, manifested His form in the arms and lap of Yasoda; and who 
though manifesting many forms, is only one form, delights my heart." 

(57) koti-brahmdnda-vigrahah: having a form often million universes — 

aganya-jagad-andddhyah koti-brahmdnda-vigrahah \ 
iti srT-vigrahasydsya vibhutvam anukirtitam ||2.1.199|| 



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"He whose form contains unlimited universes is called 'having a form often 
million universes'. In this way the greatness of His form is glorified." 

yatha tatraiva (10. 14. 11) — 

kvaham tamo-mahad-aham-kha-caragni-var-bhu- 

samvestitanda-ghata-sapta-vitasti-kdyah \ 

kvedrg-vidhaviganitanda-paranu-carya- 

vdtddhva-roma-vivarasya ca te mahitvam ||2.1.200|| 

An example from Srimad-Bhagavatam [10.14.11]: 

"What am I, a small creature measuring seven spans of my own hand? I am 
enclosed in a potlike universe composed of material nature, the total material 
energy, false ego, ether, air, water and earth. And what is Your glory? 
Unlimited universes pass through the pores of Your body just as particles of 
dust pass through the openings of a screened window." 

yatha vd — 

tattvair brahmandam adhyam surakula-bhuvanais cahkitam yojandnam 

pancasat-koty-akharva-ksiti-khacitam idamyac ca patala-purnam \ 

tadrg-brahmanda-laksayuta-paricaya-bhag eka-kaksam vidhatra 

drstam yasydtra vrndavanam api bhavatah kah stutau tasya saktah ||2. 1.201|| 

Another example: 

"How is it possible to glorify You, who Brahma saw in Vrndavana? In one 

corner of that Vrndavana are situated are situated a million universes, each 

made of an earth measuring 500,000,000 yojanas in diameter, each filled with 

lower hellish planets and the upper heavenly planets and all the material 

elements." 

(58) avatardvali-bijam — 

avatardvali-bijam avatari nigadyate ||2.1.202|| 

(58) avatardvali-bijam: the seed of all avatar as — 

"He who is the source of all the avataras is called the seed of all avataras." 

yatha sri-gita-govinde (1.16) — 

vedan uddharate jaganti vahate bhugolam udbibhrate 

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daityam ddrayate balim chalayate ksatra-ksayam kurvate \ 

paulastyam jay ate halam kalayate karunyam dtanvate 

mlecchdn murcchayate dasakrti-krte krsnaya tubhyam namah ||2. 1.203 1| 

An example from the Gita-govinda: 

"I offer my respects to Krsna, who takes ten forms: who rescues the Vedas as 

Matsya, who supports the worlds as Kurma, lifts the earth from the lower 

regions as Varaha, pierces Hiranyakasipu as Nrsirhha, tricks Bali as Vamana. 

destroys the warriors as Parasurama, conquers Ravana as Rama, pulls His 

plough as Balarama, distributes mercy as Buddha, and kills the rascals as 

Kalki." 

(59) hatdri-gati-ddyakah — 

mukti-data hatarinam hatdri-gati-ddyakah ||2.1.204|| 

(59) hatdri-gati-ddyakah: giver of liberation to those He kills — 

"He who gives liberation to those He kills is called giver of the goal to those 

He kills." 

yatha — 

parabhavam phenila-vaktratam ca 

bandham ca bhitim ca mrtim ca krtva \ 

pavarga-datapi sikhanda-maule 

tvam satravanam apavargado'si ||2.1.205|| 

"O topmost jewel! Though You give the pavargas of defeat (pa), foaming 
mouth (pha), bondage (ba), fear (bha) and death (ma) to Your enemies, You 
give them the opposite, apavarga or liberation as well." 

yatha va — 

citram murare sura-vairi-paksas 

tvaya samantad anubaddha-yuddhah \ 

amitra-vrndany avibhidya bhedam 

mitrasya kurvann amrtam prayati ||2. 1.206|| 

Another example: 



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"O Murari! It is truly astonishing that the demons who wage war with You 
will all their energy, not being destroyed, are transformed by You into friends 
and attain liberation." 

(60) atmarama-ganakarsi — 

dtmdrdma-gandkarsity etad vyaktdrtham eva hi ||2.1.207|| 

(60) atmarama-ganakarsi: He who attracts the dtmdrdmas — 
"He who attracts the dtmdrdmas is self-explanatory." 

yathd — 

purna-paramahamsam mam mddhava lild-mahausadhir ghrdtd \ 

krtvd bata sdrahgam vyadhita katham sdrase trsitam ||2. 1.208|| 

"O Madhava! Though I am a pure paramahamsa without desires, by smelling 
the fragrance of the great herbs of Your pastimes, I have been transformed 
into a devotee and am thirsty for the rasa ofbhakti." 

athdsddharana-guna-catuske — 

(61) lild-mddhuryam — 
yathd brhad-vdmane — 

santi yadyapi me prdjyd Mas tds td manohardh \ 

na hi jane smrte rase mano me kidrsam bhavet ||2.1.209|| 

"Now the four extraordinary qualities of Krsna are illustrated: 
the sweetness of Krsna's pastimes, from Brhad-vdmana Purdna: 
"Though all of My pastimes are very attractive and profound, when I 
remember My rasa-Ma, I cannot explain what happens to My mind." 

yathd vd — 

parisphuratu sundaram caritram atra laksmT-pates 
tathd bhuvana-nandinas tad-avatdra-vrndasya ca \ 
harer api camatkrti-prakara-vardhanah kintu me 
bibharti hrdi vismayam kam api rdsa-lild-rasah ||2. 1.210|| 

Another example: 



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"Let the exquisite pastimes of Narayana and the avataras who cause bliss to 
the world appear in this universe! But the taste of the rasa-lila which causes 
astonishment even in Hari is filling my heart with incredible astonishment." 

(62) premna priyadhikyam, yatha sri-dasame (10.31.15) — 
atati yad bhavdn ahni kananam trutir yugdyate tvdm apasyatam \ 
kutila-kuntalam sri-mukham ca tejada udlksitam paksma-krt drsam ||2.1.211|| 

(62) premna priyadhikyam: Krsna is surrounded by devotees with intense 
prema. An example from the Tenth Canto of Srlmad-Bhagavatam [10.31.15]: 
"When You go off to the forest during the day, a tiny fraction of a second 
becomes like a millennium for us because we cannot see You. And even when 
we can eagerly look upon Your beautiful face, so lovely with its adornment of 
curly locks, our pleasure is hindered by our eyelids, which were fashioned by 
the foolish creator." 

yatha vd — 

brahma-ratri-tatir apy agha-satro 

sa ksanardhavad agat tava sahge \ 

ha ksanardham api vallavikanam 

brahma-ratri-tativad virahe 'bhut ||2. 1.212|| 

Another example: 

"Killer of Agha! In Your association, the night of Brahma has passed like half 
a moment for the cowherd women. Now, in separation from You, half a 
moment has become as long as Brahma's night for them." 

(63) venu-madhuryam, yatha tatraiva (10.33.15) — 
savanasas tad-upadharya suresah 
sakra-sarva-paramesthi-purogah \ 

kavaya anata-kandhara-cittah 

kasmalam yayur aniscita-tattvah ||2. 1.213|| 

(63) venu-madhuryam: the sweetness of Krsna's flute. An example from the 
Srlmad-Bhagavatam [10.35.14-15]: 

"O pious mother Yasoda, your son, who is expert in all the arts of herding 
cows, has invented many new styles of flute-playing. When He takes His flute 

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to His bimba-red lips and sends forth the tones of the harmonic scale in 
variegated melodies, Brahma, Siva, Indra and other chief demigods become 
confused upon hearing the sound. Although they are the most learned 
authorities, they cannot ascertain the essence of that music, and thus they bow 
down their heads and hearts." 

yatha va vidagdha-madhave (1.26) — 

rundhann ambu-bhrtas camatkrti-param kurvan muhus tumburum 

dhydndd antarayan sanandana-mukhdn vismerayan vedhasam \ 

autsukydvalibhir balim catulayan bhogindram aghurnayan 

bhindann anda-kataha-bhittim abhito babhrdma vamsi-dhvanih ||2.1.214|| 

Another example, from Vidagdha-mddhava: 

"The sound of Krsna's flute wandered everywhere, piercing though the shell 
of the universe. It stopped the clouds, amazed the Gandharva Tumburu, broke 
the meditation of the yogis headed by Sananda, astonished Brahma, made Bali 
unsteady with longing, and made Ananta dizzy." 

(64) rupa-mddhuryam, yatha trtlye (3.2. 12) — 
yan martya-lilaupayikam sva-yoga- 
maya-balam darsayata grhitam \ 
vismapanam svasya ca saubhagarddheh 
param padam bhusana-bhusanangam ||2.1.215|| 

(64) rupa-mddhuryam: the sweetness of His form. An example from the Third 
Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [3.2.12]: 

"The Lord appeared in the mortal world by His internal potency, yoga-maya. 
He came in His eternal form, which is just suitable for His pastimes. This 
form is wonderful for even for the Lord Himself in His form as the Lord of 
Vaikuntha, because He is the highest perfection of beauty, enhancing the 
beauty of all ornaments." 

sri-dasame ca (10.29.40) — 
ka stry ahga te kala-padayata-murcchitena 
sammohita 'ryapadavim na calet trilokyam \ 
trailokya-saubhagam idam ca niriksya rupam 

' go-dvija-druma-mrgan pulakany abibhrat ||2.1.216|| 



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Another example, from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [10.29.40]: 
"Dear Krsna, what woman in all the three worlds wouldn't deviate from 
religious behavior when bewildered by the sweet, drawn-out melody of Your 
flute? Your beauty makes all three worlds auspicious. Indeed, even the cows, 
birds, trees and deer manifest the ecstatic symptom of bodily hair standing on 
end when they see Your beautiful form." 

yatha va, lalita-madhave (8.34) — 
aparikalita-purvah has camatkara-kari 
sphurati mama gariydn esa madhurya-purah \ 
ayam aham api hanta preksya yam lubdha-cetah 
sarabhasam upabhoktum kdmaye radhikeva ||2.1.217|| 

Another example, from Lalita-madhava: 

"What is this great abundance of unprecedented astonishing sweetness that 
has appeared? Gazing upon it, I become greedy to possess it. I desire to enjoy 
it with zeal like Radha." 

samasta-vividhascarya-kalydna-guna-vdridheh \ 
gundnam iha krsnasya dih-matram upadarsitam ||2.1.218|| 

"Only a small portion of the qualities of Krsna, who is an ocean of the 
multitude of astonishing auspicious qualities, has been shown here." 

yatha ca sri-dasame (10. 14.7) — 
gunatmanas te 'pi gunan vimatum 
hitdvatirnasya ka isire 'sya \ 
kalena yair va vimitah sukalpair 
bhu-pamsavah khe mihika dyubhasah ||2.1.219|| 

An example from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [10. 14.7]: 
"In time, learned philosophers or scientists might be able to count all the 
atoms of the earth, the particles of snow, or perhaps even the shining 
molecules radiating from the sun, the stars and other luminaries. But among 
these learned men, who could possibly count the unlimited transcendental 



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qualities possessed by You, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who have 
descended onto the surface of the earth for the benefit of all living entities?" 

nitya-guno vanamalT, yad api sikhdmanir asesa-netrnam \ 
bhaktapeksikam asya, trividhatvam likhyate tad api ||2. 1.220|| 

"Even though Krsna is the topmost jewel among unlimited heroes endowed 
with eternal qualities, He is described as having three forms, that manifest 
according to the type of devotion of the worshiper." 

harih purnatamah purnatarah puma iti tridha \ 
srestha-madhyddibhih sabdair natye yah paripathyate 1 12. 1 .22 1 1 1 

"The Lord takes three forms described as most perfect, more perfect and 
perfect. These are described in ndtya-sdstra as best, medium and inferior." 

prakasitdkhila-gunah smrtah purnatamo budhaih \ 
asarva-vyanjakah purnatarah purno Ipa-darsakah ||2. 1.222|| 

"When Krsna manifests all qualities, He is described by the intelligent as most 
perfect. Manifesting the qualities incompletely, He is called more perfect and 
manifesting even less qualities, He is call perfect." 

krsnasya purnatamatd vyaktabhud gokuldntare \ 
purnata purnataratd dvdrakd-mathurddisu ||2.1.223|| 

"Krsna appears as most perfect in Gokula. In Mathura, Dvaraka and other 
places, He appears as more perfect and perfect." 

sa punas caturvidhah sydd dhiroddttas ca dhira-lalitas ca \ 
dhlra-prasdnta-ndmd tathaiva dhlroddhatah kathitah ||2.1.224|| 

"Krsna is also classed into four types: dhlroddtta, dhira-lalita, 
dhlra-prasdnta and dhlroddhata" 

bahuvidha-guna-kriydnam aspada-bhutasya padmandbhasya \ 
tat-tal-lTld-bhedad virudhyate na hi catur-vidhdh ||2. 1.225|| 

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"Classifying Krsna into four different types is not a contradiction, because of 
the respective differences in the pastimes of the Lord, who is the abode of 
many different types of qualities and activities." 

tatra dhirodattah — 

gambhiro vinayi ksanta karunah sudrdha-vratah \ 

akatthano gudha-garvo dhirodattah su-sattva-bhrt ||2. 1.226|| 

Regarding dhirodatta: elevated — 

"The person who is inscrutable, modest, tolerant, merciful, determined in 

vows, who obscures others' pride, is not boastful and is strong, is called 

dhiroddtta" 

yatha — 

viram-manya-mada-prahari-hasitam dhaureyam artoddhrtau 

nirvyudha-vratam unnata-ksiti-dharoddharena dhirakrtim \ 

mayy uccaih krta-kilbise 'pi madhuram stutya muhur yantritam 

preksya tvdrii mama durvitarkya-hrdayam dhir gis ca na spandate ||2. 1.227|| 

An example: 

"Your smile steals the pride of those who think they are brave. You are eager 
to deliver those in a suffering condition. You are true to Your promises. You 
are firm in holding up the high mountain. You have treated me kindly 
although I have committed offense. You are brought under control by verses 
of praise. Seeing You with such an inscrutable heart, my words and 
intelligence have become inactive." 

gambhiratvddi-sdmdnya-gund yad iha kirtitah 

tad etesu tad-ddhikya-pratipadana-hetave ||2.1.228|| 

"All of the qualities in the list of special qualities of Krsna should be 
understood to manifest more prominently in these four types than other 
qualities, though the other qualities are also present." 

idarh hi dhirodattatvam purvaih proktam raghudvahe 
tat-tad-bhaktanus arena tatha krsne vilokyate ||2. 1.229|| 

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"The previous authorities have described dhirodatta qualities in Ramacandra. 
These same qualities are also seen in Krsna according to the type of love of 
His devotees." 

dhira-lalitah — 

vidagdho nava-tarunyah parihasa-visaradah \ 

niscinto dhira-lalitah sydt prayah preyasT-vasah ||2. 1.230|| 

dhira-lalita: playful — 

"He is called dhira-lalita who is clever, endowed with fresh youth (end of 
kaisora period), skillful at joking and free of worries. He is controlled by His 
dear devotees." 

yathd — 

vdcd sucita-sarvari-rati-kala-pragalbhyaya radhikam 
vrida-kuhcita-locanam viracayann agre sakhinam asau \ 
tad-vakso-ruha-citra-keli-makari-panditya-param gatah 
kaisoram saphalT-karoti kalayan kunje vihdram harih ||2. 1.231 1| 

"Krsna made Radha lower Her eyes in shame by boldly describing Their 
pastimes of the previous night in front of Her friends. Taking that opportunity, 
He displayed His skill by expertly drawing frolicking makaris on Her breasts. 
In this way Krsna sported in the groves and fulfilled His youthful years." 

govinde prakatam dhira-lalitatvam pradarsyate \ 
uddharanti ndtya-jndh prdyo 'tra makara-dhvajam ||2. 1.232|| 

"The qualities of the dhira-lalita are clearly revealed in Krsna. But the 
dramatic scholars give the example of Cupid." 

dhira-santah — 

sama-prakrtikah klesa-sahanas ca vivecakah \ 

vinayadi-gunopeto dhira-santa udlryate ||2.1.233|| 

dhira-santa: gentle — 



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"The learned say that he who is peaceful, tolerates suffering, uses 
discrimination and possesses qualities like modesty is called dhlra-santa" 

yatha — 

vinaya-madhura-murtir manthara-snigdha-tdro 
vacana-patima-bharigi-sucitasesa-nitih \ 
abhidadhad iha dharmam dharma-putropakanthe 
dvija-patir iva saksat preksyate kamsa-vairi ||2. 1.234|| 

"Speaking about dharma before Yudhisthira, Krsna appears like the best of 
brdhmanas, pleasant with modesty. His eyes are moving steadily and are 
filled with love. He shows unlimited good qualities through His skillful 
speech." 

yudhisthiradiko dhirair dhlra-santah praklrtitah ||2.1.235|| 

"The learned glorify Yudhisthira and others as being dhira-santa" 

dhlroddhatah — 

mdtsaryavdn ahahkari mdydvi rosanas calah \ 

vikatthanas ca vidvadbhir dhiroddhata uddhrtah ||2.1.236|| 

"The wise call dhiroddhata (haughty) the person who shows envy, pride, 
anger, fickleness and boastful nature." 

yatha — 

ah papin yavanendra dardura punar vyaghutya sadyas tvaya 

vasah kutracid andha-kupa-kuhara-krode 'dya nirmiyatam \ 

helottdnita-drsti-matra-bhasita-brahmandandah puro 

jagarmi tvad-upagrahaya bhujagah krsno 'tra krsnabhidhah ||2. 1.237|| 

"O sinner! King of the Yavanas! O frog! Today, being foiled, make your 
residence in the corner of a dark hole. The black snake called Krsna is waiting 
there alert to catch you. Just by glancing casually upwards, I have turned the 
vessel of the universe to ashes." 

dhiroddhatas tu vidvadbhir bhimasenadir ucyate ||2. 1.238|| 

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"The learned call persons like Bhima dhiroddhata" 

matsaryadyah pratiyante dosatvena yad apy ami \ 
lila-visesa-salitvan nirdose 'tre gunah smrtdh ||2. 1.239|| 

"Although qualities like envy mentioned in verse 236 appear to be faults, they 
should be regarded as good qualities in Krsna, because they are befitting 
certain pastimes." 

yathd vd — 

ambho-bhara-bhara-pranamra-jalada-bhrantim vitanvann asau 

ghoradambara-dambarah suvikutam utksipya hastdrgaldm \ 

durvarah para-varanah svayam aham labdho smi krsnah puro 

re sridama-kurahgasahgara-bhuvo bhangam tvam angikuru ||2. 1.240|| 

Another example: 

"Making the low-hanging, water-filled clouds disperse, swinging a frightful 
trunk, with terrifying trumpeting sounds, I the monstrous, irrepressible 
elephant called Krsna, destroyer of opponents, have arrived! Flee from the 
battlefield, O deer called Sridama!" 

mitho virodhino py atra kecin nigaditd gunah \ 

harau nirankusaisvaryat ko 'pi na syad asambhavah ||2. 1.241 1| 

"Some of the qualities listed above are contradictory. Though contrary, their 
existence in Krsna is not impossible, because of His unrestricted powers." 

tatha ca kaurme — 

asthulas canus caiva sthulo 'nus caiva sarvatah \ 

avarnah sarvatah proktah syamo raktanta-locanah \ 

aisvarya-yogad bhagavan viruddhartho 'bhidhiyate ||2. 1.242|| 

This is illustrated in a statement from Kurma Purana: 
"The Lord is not gross, nor is He subtle; He is both gross and subtle. He is 
without color, but is blackish with tinges of red in the corners of His eyes. By 
His power He possesses contradictory qualities." 

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tathapi dosah parame naivaharyah kathancana \ 

gund viruddhd apy ete samdhdrydh samantatah ||2. 1.243|| 

"One should never find any fault in the Lord. Though the qualities are 
contradictory, He can resolve them all completely." 

mahdvdrdhe ca — 

sarve nityah sdsvatds ca dehds tasya pardtmanah \ 

hdnopdddna-rahitd naiva prakrtijdh kvacit ||2.1.244|| 

paramdnanda-sandohd jndna-mdtrds ca sarvatah \ 

sarve sarva-gunaih purndh sarva-dosa-vivarjitdh ||2. 1.245|| 

This is confirmed in the Mahd-Vardha Pur ana: 
"All of the bodies of the Lord are eternal, and appear repeatedly in the 
material world. They are devoid of increase and decrease. They are never 
born of matter. All His bodies have the very nature of the highest bliss, are 
pure knowledge, are full of good qualities, and are devoid of all faults." 

vaisnava-tantre 'pi — 

astddasa-mahd-dosai rahitd bhagavat-tanuh \ 

sarvaisvaryamayi satya-vijndndnanda-rupinT 1 12. 1 .246| | 

It is also confirmed in the Vaisnava-tantra: 

"The form of the Lord is without the eighteen great faults, is endowed with all 

powers and is the very essence of existence, knowledge and bliss." 

astddasa-mahd-dosdh, yathd visnu-ydmale — 
mohas tandrd bhramo ruksa-rasatd kdma ulbanah \ 
lolatd mada-mdtsarye himsd kheda-parisramau ||2. 1.247|| 
asatyam krodha dkdnksd dsankd visva-vibhramah \ 
visamatvam pardpeksd dosd astddasoditdh ||2.1.248|| 

The eighteen great faults are mentioned in the Visnu-ydmala: 
"Bewilderment, sleep, error, material attachment without prema, material lust 
which brings suffering, fickleness, intoxication, envy, violence, exhaustion, 



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toil, lying, anger, hankering, worry, absorption in worldly affairs, prejudice 
and dependence on others." 

Wham sarvavatarebhyas tato py atravatarinah \ 
vrajendra-nandane susthu mddhurya-bhara iritah ||2.1.249|| 

"Thus it has been explained that the amount of sweetness in Krsna exceeds 
that of all the avataras and the source oi avataras, Maha-visnu." 

tathd ca brahma-samhitayam adi-purusa-rahasye (5.59) — 

yasyaika-nisvasita-kalam athdvalambya 

jivanti loma-bilaja jagad-anda-nathah \ 

visnur mahdn sa iha yasya kala-viseso 

govindam adi-purusam tarn aham bhajdmi ||2. 1.250|| 

This is explained in Brahma-samhita [5.59]: 

"Brahma and other lords of the mundane worlds, appearing from the pores of 
hair of Maha-Visnu, remain alive as long as the duration of one exhalation of 
the latter [Maha-Visnu]. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda of whose 
subjective personality Maha-Visnu is the portion of a portion." 

athdstdv anukirtyante sad-gunatvena visrutah \ 
mangalalankriya-rupah sattva-bhedas tu paurusdh ||2.1.251|| 
sobhd vildso mddhuryam mdngalyam sthairya-tejasi \ 
lalitauddryam ity ete sattva-bhedas tu paurusdh \ \2.1.252\ 

"Excellent qualities of the heart, the embodiments of auspiciousness, are 
glorified as eight: glory, playfulness, sweetness, steadiness, strength, beauty 
and generosity." 

tatra sobhd — 

nice dayddhike spardha sauryotsahau ca daksata \ 

satyam ca vyaktim ayati yatra sobheti tarn viduh ||2. 1.253|| 

"Among the ornaments of auspiciousness, where there is mercy to 
subordinates, emulation of superiors, courage, enthusiasm, expertise and 
truthfulness, it is known as glory [sobha]" 

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yatha — 

svarga-dhvamsam vidhitsur vraja-bhuvi kadanam susthu viksyativrstya 

mean dlocya pascan namuci-ripu-mukhanudha-karunya-vicih \ 

apreksya svena tulyam kam api nija-rusam atra paryapti-patram 

bandhun dnandayisyann udaharatu harih satya-sandho mahddrim ||2. 1.254|| 

An example: 

"Seeing the pain caused by Indra's rain in Vraja, Krsna desired to destroy 
svarga; but then, considering Indra and the devatds to be inferior, a wave of 
compassion arose within Him. Seeing no one equal to Himself as a suitable 
object of anger, He who is firm in truth then lifted Govardhana, with the 
desire of giving bliss to His friends." 

vildsah — 

vrsabhasyeva gambhira gatir dhiram ca viksanam \ 

sa-smitam ca vaco yatra sa vilasa itiryate ||2. 1.255|| 

"Where there is a heavy gait, steady gaze like that of a bull and laughing 
words, it is called playfulness [vilasa]." 

yatha — 

malla-srenyam avinayavatim mantharam nyasya drstim 
vyddhunvano dvipa iva bhuvam vikramadamb arena \ 
vag-drambhe smita-parimalaih ksalayan mahca-kaksam 
tuhge rahga-sthala-parisare sdrasaksah sasdra ||2. 1.256|| 

An example: 

"Lotus-eyed Krsna, while gazing steadily and boldly at the wrestlers, shaking 

the earth like an elephant, proud with victory, His words touched with the 

fragrance of humor, entered the raised arena while sprinkling water on the 

stage." 

madhuryam — 

tan madhuryam bhaved yatra cestddeh sprhanfyata ||2.1.257|| 



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"When there is an expression of desire through actions it is called sweetness 
[mddhuryam]" 

yathd — 

vardm adhyaslnas tata-bhuvam avastambha-rucibhih 
kadambaih pralambam pravalita-vilambam viracayan \ 
prapanndydm agre mihira-duhitus tirtha-padavim 
kurahgl-netrayam madhu-ripur apahgam vikirati ||2. 1.258|| 

"While Krsna was sitting on the bank of the Yamuna, tarrying there on the 
pretext of making a long garland of golden kadamba flowers, Radha arrived at 
a ghat on the river. He threw a glance from the corner of His eye at the doe- 
eyed Radha." 

mdngalyam — 

mdngalyam jagatam eva visvasaspadata matd ||2. 1.259|| 

"Being the object of faith for the entire world is called having auspiciousness 

[mdngalyam]" 

yathd — 

anyayyam na harav iti vyapagata-dvarargala danava 

raksi krsna iti pramattam abhitah kridasu raktah surah \ 

saksivetti sa bhaktim ity avanata-vratas ca cintojjhitah 

ke visvambhara na tvad-ahghri-yugale visrambhitam bhejire ||2. 1.260|| 

An example: 

"Because there is no sense of injustice in the Lord, even the demons leave 

their doors open. Because they have faith that Krsna is their protector, the 

devatas indulge in play without worry. Understanding that He is the witness 

and thus knows their bhakti, those offering obeisances (devotees) have given 

up anxiety. O supporter of the universe ! Who does not have faith in Your lotus 

feet?" 

sthairyam — 

vyavasayad acalanam sthairyam vighnakulad api 1 12. 1 .26 1 1 1 



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"To remain fixed in one's duties even though they are filled with obstacles is 
called steadiness [sthairyam]" 

yatha — 

pratikule 'pi sa-sule, sive sivdyam niramsukayam ca \ 

vyalunad eva mukundo vindhydvali-nandanasya bhujdn ||2. 1.262|| 

"Even though His act was obstructed by Siva with his trident and Bana's 
mother who had appeared without clothing, Mukunda cut off Banasura's 
arms." 

tejah — 

sarva-cittavagahitvam tejah sadbhir udiryate ||2. 1.263|| 

"The wise say that the ability to enter into the hearts of all others is called 
influence [tejas]." 

yatha sri-dasame (10.43.17) — 

malldnam asanir nfnam naravarah strlnam smaro murtiman 
gopdnam svajano satam ksitirbhujam sasta sva-pitroh sisuh \ 
mrtyur bhoja-pater virad avidusam tattvam param yoginam 
vrsninam paradevateti vidito rahgah gatah sagrajah ||2.1.264|| 

An example from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [10.43. 17]: 
"The various groups of people in the arena regarded Krsna in different ways 
when He entered it with His elder brother. The wrestlers saw Krsna as a 
lightning bolt, the men of Mathura as the best of males, the women as Cupid 
in person, the cowherd men as their relative, the impious rulers as a chastiser, 
His parents as their child, the King of the Bhojas as death, the unintelligent as 
the Supreme Lord's universal form, the yogis as the Absolute Truth and the 
Vrsnis as their supreme worshipable Deity." 

yadvd — 

tejo budhair avajhader asahisnutvam ucyate ||2. 1.265|| 

"Another definition of tejas is intolerance of offense (since another meaning 
of tejas is impatience and fierce opposition)." 

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yatha — 

akruste prakatam didandayisuna candena ranga-sthale 

nande cdnakadundubhau capuratah kamsena visva-druha \ 

drstim tatra surari-mrtyu-kulata-samparka-dutim ksipan 

mancasyopari sancukurdisur asau pasyacyutah prdncati ||2. 1.266|| 

An example: 

"When the hater of the whole universe, angry Karhsa, loudly beckons to 
Nanda and Vasudeva with the desire to give them punishment, Krsna throws a 
glance like a messenger sent to the unchaste woman called death for the 
demons, and ascends the arena with a desire to play." 

lalitam — 

srrigara-pracura cestayatra tarn lalitam viduh ||2.1.267|| 

"Where there are activities of explicit conjugal nature it is known as lalita, 
voluptuousness." 

yatha — 

vidhatte radhdyah kuca-mukulayoh keli-makarim 

karena vyagratma sarabhasam asavyena rasikah \ 

ariste satopam katu ruvati savyena vihasann 

udancad-romancam racayati ca krsnah parikaram ||2.1.268|| 

An example: 

"The King of Rasa, Krsna is joyfully drawing makaris on the bud-like breasts 
of Radha with His right hand using a steady mind. When Aristasura roars 
harshly with pride, Krsna, laughing at him while goosebumps rise on His 
flesh, ties His belt with His left hand." 

audaryam — 

atmady-arpana-karitvam audaryam iti kirtyate ||2. 1.269|| 

"Generosity is glorified as the willingness to offer to another person even 
one's soul." 



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yathd — 

vaddnyah ko bhaved atra vaddnyah purusottamdt \ 

akihcandya yendtmd nirgundydpi diyate ||2. 1.270|| 

"Is there anyone more magnanimous than the Supreme Lord, who offers even 
His soul to the destitute and nondescript? 

sdmdnyd ndyaka-gundh sthiratddyd yad apy ami \ 
tathdpi purvatah kincid visesdt punar iritdh ||2.1.271|| 

"Although these eight qualities were previously discussed, because they are 
somewhat remarkable, they have again been described in a separate category." 

athdsya sahdydh — 

asya gargddayo dharme yuyudhdnddayo yudhi \ 

uddhavddyds tathd mantre sahdydh parikirtitdh ||2.1.272|| 

"Krsna's assistants: For matters oidharma, the sages such as Garga; for war, 
persons such as Satyaki; and for advice, persons such as Uddhava are 
glorified as assistants to the Lord in revealing these qualities." 

atha krsna-bhaktdh — 

tad-bhdva-bhdvita-svdntdh krsna-bhaktd itiritdh ||2. 1.273 1| 

"The devotees of Krsna: Those whose hearts are full of attraction to Krsna are 
called the devotees of Krsna." 

yo satya-vdkya ity ddyd hrlmdn ity antimd gundh \ 
proktdh krsne 'sya bhaktesu te vijheyd manisibhih ||2. 1.274|j 

"The learned understand that all the qualities of Krsna, from truthfulness 
[2. 1.24] to bashfulness [2. 1.27] are also present in Krsna's devotees." 

te sddhakds ca siddhds ca dvi-vidhdh parikirtitdh ||2. 1.275|| 

"The devotees are said to be of two types: practitioners (sddhakas) and 
perfected (siddhas)" 

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tatra sadhakah — 

utpanna-ratayah samyah nairvighnyam anupagatah \ 

krsna-saksat-krtau yogyah sadhakah parikirtitah ||2. 1.276|| 

"Practitioners (sddhakas) are those who have developed rati for Krsna but 
have not completely extinguished the anarthas, and who are qualified to see 
Krsna directly." 

yathaikadase (11.2.46) — 

Tsvare tad-adhinesu balisesu dvisatsu ca \ 

prema-maitrT-krpopeksa yah karoti sa madhyamah ||2.1.277|| 

An example from the Eleventh Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam [11.2.46]: 
"An intermediate or second-class devotee, called madhyama-adhikari, offers 
his love to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is a sincere friend to all the 
devotees of the Lord, shows mercy to ignorant people who are innocent and 
disregards those who are envious of the Supreme Personality of Godhead." 

yatha vd — 

siktapy asru-jalotkarena bhagavad-varta-nadi-janmana 

tisthaty eva bhavagni-hetir iti te dhimann alam cintaya \ 

hrd-vyomany amrta-sprha-hara-krpa-vrsteh sphutam laksate 

nedistah prthu-roma-tdndava-bhardt krsnambudhasyodgamah ||2. 1.278|| 

Another example: 

"Do not worry that after you have been drenched in tears arising from the 
river of the pastimes of the Lord, you will remain in the flame of suffering in 
the material world. When all the hairs on your limbs dance, then you will see 
very near, rising in the sky of your heart, the cloud of Krsna's form, full of the 
shower of mercy that destroys the desire for liberation." 

bilvamahgala-tulya ye sddhakas te prakirtitah ||2.1.279|| 

"Those who are similar to Bilvamahgala are known as sadhus" 

atha siddhah — 

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avijhatakhila-klesah sada krsnasrita-kriyah \ 

siddhah syuh santata-prema-saukhyasvada-parayanah ||2.1.280|| 

"Those who experience no suffering at all, who perform all actions while 
taking shelter of Krsna, and who always taste the happiness of continuous 
prema are known as the perfected devotees [siddhas]" 

samprdpta-siddhayah siddhd nitya-siddhas ca te tridhd ||2. 1.281|| 

"There are two types of perfected devotees: those who have attained 
perfection (sddhana-siddha) and those who are eternally perfect (nitya- 
siddha)" 

tatra samprdpta-siddhayah — 

sadhanaih krpaya casya dvidha samprdpta-siddhayah ||2.1.282|| 

"Those who have attained perfection are of two types: those who have 
attained perfection by performance of sadhana and those who have attained 
perfection by mercy." 

tatra sadhana-siddhah, yatha trtfye (3.15.25) — 
yac ca vrajanty animisam rsabhanuvrttya 
dure yama hy upari nah sprhaniya-silah \ 
bhartur mithah su-yasasah kathananuraga- 
vaiklavya-baspa-kalaya pulaki-krtahgah ||2. 1.283|| 

An example of a sddhana-siddha, from the Third Canto oiSrimad- 
Bhagavatam [3.15.25]: 

"Persons whose bodily features change in ecstasy and who breathe heavily 
and perspire due to hearing the glories of the Lord are promoted to the 
kingdom of God, even though they do not care for meditation and other 
austerities. The kingdom of God is above the material universes, and it is 
desired by Brahma and other demigods." 

yatha va — 

ye bhakti-prabhavisnuta-kavalita-klesormayah kurvate 

drk-pate 'pi ghrnam krta-pranatisu prayena moksadisu \ 

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tan prema-prasarotsava-stavakita-svantan pramodasrubhir 
nirdhautasya-tatan muhuh pulakino dhanydn namaskurmahe ||2. 1.284|| 

Another example: 

"I offer respects to the great devotees who have destroyed all suffering by the 
power ofbhakti, who hate to glance upon the four objects [dharma, artha, 
kdma and moksa] although they offer respects to the devotees, whose hearts 
are full of the bliss of strong prema, whose faces are washed with tears of 
bliss and whose limbs are covered with goosebumps." 

markandeyadayah proktah sadhanaih prapta-siddhayah ||2.1.285|| 

"It is said that Markandeya and other sages attained perfection by sadhana" 

atha krpa-siddhah, yathd sri-dasame (10.23.43-44) — 

nasam dvijati-samskaro na nivdso gurdv api \ 

na tapo ndtma-mimdmsd na saucam na kriyah subhah ||2. 1.286|| 

athapi hy uttamahsloke krsne yogesvaresvare \ 

bhaktir drdha na casmakam samskaradimatam api ||2.1.287|| 

An example of attaining perfection by mercy, from the Tenth Canto of 
Srimad-Bhagavatam [10.23.43-44]: 

"These women have never undergone the purificatory rites of the twice-born 
classes, nor have they lived as brahmacaris in the dsrama of a spiritual 
master, nor have they executed austerities, speculated on the nature of the self, 
followed the formalities of cleanliness or engaged in pious rituals. 
Nevertheless, they have firm devotion for Lord Krsna, whose glories are 
chanted by the exalted hymns of the Vedas and who is the supreme master of 
all masters of mystic power. We, on the other hand, have no such devotion for 
the Lord, although we have executed all these processes." 

yathd va — 

na kacid abhavad guror bhajana-yantrane 'bhijnata 

na sadhana-vidhau ca te srama-lavasya gandho py abhut \ 

gato 'si caritarthatam paramahamsa-mrgya-sriya 

mukunda-pada-padmayoh pranaya-sidhuno dharaya ||2.1.288|| 



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Another example: 

"You are not known to have suffered pains in the service of the guru, and you 

have trace of exerting even a drop of labor in following the rules of sadhana. 

But you have succeeded in attaining the river of nectar oiprema coming from 

the two lotus feet of Mukunda, which are the wealth sought by the 

paramahamsas" 

krpa-siddhayajha-patnT-vairocani-sukadayah ||2. 1.289|| 

"Those who have attained perfection by mercy are Sukadeva, the wives of the 
brahmanas and Bali, the son of Virocana." 

atha nitya-siddhah — 

atma-koti-gunam krsne premanam paramam gatdh \ 

nityananda-gunah sarve nitya-siddhd mukundavat ||2.1.290|| 

"Those whose very body and qualities are bliss like Mukunda's, and who 
possess the highest prema for Krsna, which is ten million times greater than 
the attachment for the self are called eternally perfect {nitya-siddhd)." 

yathd pddme sri-bhagavat-satyabhama-devi-samvade — 
atha brahmadi-devanam tatha prarthanaya bhuvah \ 
agato 'ham ganah sarve jatas te 'pi maya saha ||2. 1.291|| 
ete hi yadavah sarve mad-gana eva bhamini \ 
sarvada mat-priya devi mat-tulya-guna-salinah ||2.1.292|| 

An example from the discussion between Satyabhama and the Lord, from the 
Padma Purana: 

"O beautiful Satyabhama! I have come because of the prayers of Brahma and 
the devatas, and My associates all have taken birth with Me. The Yadavas that 
you see are all My associates and are full of all qualities like Mine. They 
always hold Me alone as dear." 

tatha ca sri-dasame (10.14.32) — 

aho bhagyam aho bhagyam nanda-gopa-vrajaukasam \ 

yan-mitram paramanandam purnam brahma sanatanam ||2.1.293|| 



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Another example from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [10. 14.32]: 
"How greatly fortunate are Nanda Maharaja, the cowherd men and all the 
other inhabitants of Vrajabhumi! There is no limit to their good fortune, 
because the Absolute Truth, the source of transcendental bliss, the eternal 
Supreme Brahman, has become their friend." 

tatraiva (10.26. 13) — 

dustyajas cdnurdgo 'smin sarvesam no vrajaukasdm \ 

nanda te tanaye smasu tasydpy autpattikah katham ||2. 1.294|| 

Also from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [10.26.13]: 
"Dear Nanda, how is it that we and all the other residents of Vraja cannot give 
up our constant affection for your son? And how is it that He is so 
spontaneously attracted to us?" 

sanatanam mitram iti tasydpy autpattikah katham \ 

sneho smasv iti caitesam nitya-presthatvam agatam ||2. 1.295|| 

"One can understand that the inhabitants of Vraja are eternal associates of the 
Lord by the worlds 'eternal friend' in verse 293 and 'how is it that He is so 
spontaneously attracted to us?' in verse 294." 

ity atah kathita nitya-priya yadava-vallavah \ 
esarh laukikavac-cesta lilct mura-ripor iva ||2. 1.296|| 

"Thus for this reason, the Yadavas known as the cowherd people are said to 
be eternal associates of the Lord. As with the Lord's actions, their actions also 
appear worldly, although everything about them is purely spiritual." 

tatha hi padmottara-khande — 

yatha saumitri-bharatau yatha sahkarsanadayah \ 

tatha tenaiva jayante nija-lokad yadrcchaya ||2.1.297|| 

punas tenaiva gacchanti tat-padam sasvatam param \ 

na karma-bandhanam janma vaisnavanam ca vidyate ||2.1.298|| 

Also, from the Uttara-khanda of the Padma Purana: 



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"Just as Laksmana, Bharata and Sankarsana take birth with the Lord, the 
Yadava cowherd people, descending from their spiritual planet by the Lord's 
will, take birth with the appearance of Lord Krsna, and then return to His 
eternal dhama along with Him. The birth of these devotees is not caused by 
bondage to karma." 

ye proktah panca-pancasat kramdt kamsaripor gunah \ 
te cdnye cdpi siddhesu siddhidatvddayo matah ||2.1.299|| 

"The first fifty-five of the qualities denoting Krsna, as well as qualities such 
as the ability to give yoga siddhis, are also present in the perfected devotees." 

bhaktds tu kirtitah santas tatha ddsa-sutddayah \ 

sakhdyo guru-vargas ca preyasyas ceti pancadha ||2. 1.300|| 

"There are five types of devotees of Krsna: those in sdnta-rasa, the servants 
and sons, the friends, the elders and the lovers." 

atha uddlpanah — 

uddipands tu te proktd bhdvam uddipayanti ye \ 

te tu srl-krsna-candrasya gunds cestah prasadhanam ||2. 1.301 1| 

smitanga-saurabhe vamsa-srnga-nupura-kambavah \ 

paddnka-ksetra-tulasi-bhakta-tad-vasarddayah ||2. 1.302|| 

"Things that nourish the bhava of the practitioner are called uddipanas or 
stimuli. These are things such as Krsna's qualities, pastimes, decorations, His 
smile, the fragrance of His body, His flute, horn anklets, conch, footprints, His 
dhama, tulasi, devotees and festival days such as Janmastami and Ekadasi." 

tatra gunah — 

gunds tu trividhah proktah kdya-vdh-mdnasasrayah ||2. 1.303|| 

"Qualities are of three types: bodily, mental and verbal." 

tatra kdyikdh — 

vayah-saundarya-rupani kdyikdmrdutddayah ||2.1.304|| 



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"Bodily qualities are age, beauty, His forms and things like softness of body." 

gunah svarupam evasya kayikadya yadapy ami \ 
bhedam svlkrtya varnyante tathdpy uddipand iti ||2. 1.305|| 

"Though these bodily qualities are included in Krsna's svarupa, accepting 
them as separate from the svarupa, they are called uddipanas" 

atas tasya svarupasya sydd alambanataiva hi \ 
uddipanatvam eva sydd bhusanades tu kevalam ||2.1.306|| 

"The form of Krsna is the alambana. His ornaments, age and other items act 
as uddipana" 

esam alambanatvam ca tathoddipanatapi ca ||2. 1.307|| 

"His qualities, however act as both alambana and uddipana." 

tatra vayah — 

vayah kaumara-pauganda-kaisoram iti tat tridha ||2. 1.308|| 

"Krsna has three ages: childhood (kumara), boyhood (pauganda) and youth 
(kisora)." 

kaumaram pancamabdantam paugandam dasamavadhi \ 
a-sodasac ca kaisoram yauvanam syat tatah param ||2. 1.309|| 

"Childhood ends with the fifth year; boyhood ends with the tenth year; youth 
ends with the sixteenth year. After that is manhood (yauvana)" 

aucityat tatra kaumaram vaktavyam vatsale rase \ 
paugandam preyasi tat-tat-kheladi-yogatah ||2. 1.310|| 
sraisthyam ujjvala evasya kaisorasya tathdpy adah \ 
prayah sarva-rasaucityad atrodahriyate kramat 1 12. 1 . 3 1 1 1 1 

"Considering the suitability for pastimes, the childhood age is most fit for 
vatsala or parental rasa, and boyhood is most fit for sakhya-rasa. You is most 

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excellent for madhura-rasa. The majority of examples given in this section 
are from youth (kaisora), since it is suitable for all rasas." 

adyam madhyam tatha sesam kaisoram trividham bhavet ||2. 1.3 12|| 

"Youth (kaisora) has three divisions: beginning, middle and end." 

tatra adyam — 

varnasyojjvalatd kapi netrdnte caruna-cchavih \ 

romavali-prakatata kaisore prathame sati ||2.1.313|| 

"At the beginning of the kaisora age, Krsna's complexion becomes 
indescribably effulgent, the edges of His eyes become reddish and fine hairs 
appear on His body." 

tatha — 

harati sitima ko py ahgdnam mahendra-mani-sriyam 

pravisati drsor ante kantir manag iva lohini \ 

sakhi tanu-ruham rajih suksma dardsya virohate 

sphurati susama navyedanim tanau vana-malinah ||2. 1.3 14|| 

An example: 

"O my friend! Now the body of Krsna has taken on a fresh beauty. All His 

limbs steal the splendor of the dark blue sapphire. A reddish hue has entered 

the corners of His eyes, and a few very fine hairs have sprung up on His 

body." 

vaijayanti-sikhandddi-nata-pravara-vesata \ 
vamsi-madhurima vastra-sobha catra paricchadah ||2. 1.315|| 

"His typical accoutrement during this period is the Vaijayanti garland, 
peacock feather, the costume of a dancer, the sweetness of His flute playing, 
and the luster of His dress." 

yatha sri-dasame (10.21.5) — 

barhapidam nata-vara-vapuh karnayoh karnikdram 

bibhrad-vasah kanaka-kapisam vaijayantim ca malam \ 

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randhran venor adhara-sudhaya purayan gopa-vrndair 
vrnddranyam sva-pada-ramanam prdvisad gita-kirtih ||2.1.316|| 

An example from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam [10.21.5]: 
"Wearing a peacock-feather ornament upon His head, blue karnikdra flowers 
on His ears, a yellow garment as brilliant as gold, and the Vaijayanti garland, 
Lord Krsna exhibited His transcendental form as the greatest of dancers as He 
entered the forest of Vrndavana, beautifying it with the marks of His 
footprints. He filled the holes of His flute with the nectar of His lips, and the 
cowherd boys sang His glories." 

kharatdtra nakhdgrdndm dhanur dndolitd bhruvoh \ 
raddndm ranjanam rdga-curnair ity ddi cestitam ||2. 1.3 17|| 

"At the beginning of youth, the activities consist of sharpening His nails, 
quivering of His bow-like eyebrows, and staining the teeth with dyes." 

yathd — 

navam dhanur ivdtanor natad-agha-dvisor bhru-yugam 

sardlir iva sdnitd nakhara-rdjir agre khard \ 

virdjati saririni rucira-danta-lekhdrund 

na kd sakhi samiksandd yuvatir asya vitrasyati ||2. 1.3 18|| 

An example: 

"The two eyebrows of the enemy of Agha are dancing like new bows of 
Cupid. The tips of His rows of fingernails are so sharp that they shine like a 
line of arrows. The glistening rows of His attractive teeth embody the redness 
of dawn. What young woman would not be afraid of seeing Him?" 

tan-mohanatd, yathd — 

kartum mugdhdh svayam acatund na ksamante 'bhiyogam 
na vydddtum kvacid apijane vaktram apy utsahante \ 
drstvd tds te nava-madhurima-smeratdm mddhavdrtdh 
sva-prdnebhyas trayam udasrjann adya toydhjalindm ||2. 1.319|| 

The attractiveness of the first part of youth: 



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"O Madhava! Gazing upon the new sweetness of Your smile, the bewildered, 
immobilized gopls are not able to reveal spontaneously the sentiments in their 
minds. And they are not able to confide in any person. What more can be 
said? They are so pained that today they have offered three handfuls of water 
to their life airs." 

atha madhyamam — 

uru-dvayasya bahvos ca kdpi srir urasas tathd \ 

murter madhurimadyam ca kaisore sati madhyame ||2.1.320|| 

"During the middle of His kaisora period, Krsna displays indescribable 
beauty in His two thighs, His two arms and His chest, and sweetness in His 
whole form." 

yathd — 

sprhayati kari-sunda-dandanayoru-yugmam 
garuda-mani-kavati-sakhyam icchaty uras ca \ 
bhuja-yugam api dhitsaty argaldvarga-nindam 
abhinava-tarunimnah prakrame kesavasya ||2.1.321|| 

An example: 

"In the course of Krsna's fresh youth, His thighs desired to punish the trunks 
of elephants, His chest desired to make friends with door panels made of 
sapphire, and His arms scolded door bolts." 

mukham smita-vilasadhyam vibhramottarale drsau \ 
tri-jagan-mohanam gitam ity adir iha madhuri ||2. 1.322|| 

"The sweetness of His middle youth consists of His face brilliant with soft 
smile, His eyes restless with flirtation, and His singing which enchants the 
three words." 

yathd — 

anahga-naya-caturi-paricayottarahge drsau 

mukhambujam udancita-smita-vilasa-ramyadharam \ 

acancala-kuldngana-vrata-vidambi-sangitakam 

hares tarunimahkure sphurati madhuri kapy abhut ||2. 1.323|| 

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An example: 

"What sweetness became visible at the sprouting of Hari's youth! His two 
restless eyes made friendship with the crafty conduct of Cupid. His lotus face 
became most radiant with attractive lips embellished with smiles. His singing 
made even the chaste women break their marriage vows." 

vaidagdhi-sara-vistarah kunja-keli-mahotsavah \ 
drambho rasa-lilader iha cestadi-sausthavam ||2.1.324|| 

"The excellence of His behavior during the middle of His youth consists of a 
profuse concentration of charming but cunning actions, a great festival of 
pastimes in the groves and the beginning of the rasa dance." 

yatha — 

vyaktalakta-padaih kvacit pariluthat-pihchdvatamsaih kvacit 

talpair vicyuta-kahcibhih kvacid asau vyakirna-kuhjotkara \ 

prodyan-mandala-bandha-tandava-ghatalaksmollasat-saikata 

govindasya vilasa-vrndam adhikam vrndatavi samsati ||2.1.325|| 

An example: 

"In some places, by His clearly visible lac-stained footprints, in other places 
by the peacock feathers plundered from His headdress, in other places by beds 
strewn with discarded belts, by a multitude of disheveled groves and sand 
glowing with the evident marks of dancing in a circle — Vrndavan announces 
the manifold pastimes of Govinda." 

tan-mohanata, yatha — 

viduran maragnim hrdaya-ravi-kdnte prakatayann 

udasyan dharmendum vidadhad abhito raga-patalam \ 

katham ha nas tranam sakhi mukulayan bodha-kumudam 

tarasvi krsnababhre madhurima-bhardrko'bhyudayate ||2.1.326|| 

The attractiveness of the middle period of Krsna's youth: 
"O friend! Has an energetic sun full of sweetness arisen in the black sky 
called Krsna? From a distance He has ignited the fire of passion in the 
suryakdnta jewel of my heart and produced a mass of red clouds in every 

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direction. He had made the moon of dharma set, and transformed the 
blooming night lotus of discrimination into a mere bud. How can we be 
delivered from this condition?" 

atha sesam — 

purvato py adhikotkarsam badham angdni bibhrati \ 

tri-vali-vyaktir ity ddyam kaisore carame sati ||2. 1.327|| 

"When the final period of youth (kaisora) begins, all His limbs become more 
alluring than previously, with three lines clearly visible on His navel, etc." 

yathd — 

marakata-girer ganda-grdva-prabhd-hara-vaksasam 

sata-makha-mani-stambhdrambha-pramdthi-bhuja-dvayam \ 

tanu-taranijd-vici-cchdyd-vidambi-bali-trayam 

madana-kadalT-sddhisthorum smardmy asurdntakam ||2.1.328|| 

An example: 

"I am remembering the killer of demons, Krsna, whose chest steals the 
radiance of a boulder from the sapphire mountain, whose two arms agitate the 
pride of sapphire pillars, whose three folds of skin on His abdomen shame the 
beauty of the Yamuna's delicate waves, and whose excellent thighs surpass 
the trunks of banana trees." 

tan-mddhuryam, yathd — 

dasdrdha-sara-mddhuri-damana-daksaydnga-sriyd 
vidhunita-vadhu-dhrtim varakald-vildsdspadam \ 
drg-ancala-camatkrti-ksapita-khanjarita-dyutim 
sphurat-tarunimodgamam taruni pasya pitdmbaram ||2. 1.329|| 

The sweetness of the last period of youth: 

"O young lady! Behold that person wearing yellow cloth, who is radiating the 
beauty of fresh youth. With His bodily beauty, capable of defeating the five 
arrows of Cupid, He makes the women lose all composure. He is the 
playground of the sixty-four arts, and the astonishing beauty of the tips of His 
eyes crushes the splendor of the wagtail." 



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idam eva hareh prdjnair nava-yauvanam ucyate ||2.1.330|| 

"This last part of youth is called new youth (nava-yauvana) by the wise." 

atra gokula-devinam bhava-sarvasva-salita \ 
abhuta-purva-kandarpa-tantra-lilotsavadayah 1 12. 1 . 33 1 1 1 

"The end of youth is characterized by the manifestation of bliss from the most 
amazing pastimes of conjugal love never before enacted, in which the girls of 
Vraja are filled with the sum total of love." 

yathd — 

kantabhih kalahdyate kvacid ayarh kandarpa-lekhdn kvacit 

kirair arpayati kvacid vitanute kridabhisarodyamam \ 

sakhyd bhedayati kvacit smara-kala-sddgunyavdn Thate 

sandhim kvdpy anusasti kunja-nrpatih srngara-rdjyottamam ||2.1.332|| 

An example: 

"The king of the groves, equipped with the six elements necessary for the arts 
of Cupid, rules the excellent kingdom of romantic love. In one place He picks 
a quarrel with His beloved women. In another place He dispatches love letters 
along with parrots. In another place He becomes eager to meet for pastimes. 
In another place, He resolves differences using a go-between, and in another 
place, He unites with a gopT" 

tan-mohanata, yathd — 

karnakarni sakhi-janena vijane dutl-stuti-prakriya 

patyur vancana-caturi gunanika kunda-prayan nisi \ 

vadhiryam guru-vaci venu-virutdv utkarnateti vratan 

kaisorena tavadya krsna guruna gauri-ganah pathyate ||2. 1 . 333 1 1 

An example of attractiveness of the late kaisora period: 
"O Krsna, today Your age of youth, in the role of a guru, is teaching the 
golden gopis the art of whispering in each others' ears, the method for making 
verses of praise for messengers when alone, cleverness in cheating husbands, 
praactice in sneaking to the forest at night, deafness to the words of the elders, 
and rapt hearing of the flute sound." 

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netuh svarupam evoktam kaisoram iha yadyapi \ 
nanakrti-prakatanat tathapy uddipanam matam ||2. 1.334|| 

"Even though the age of youth is said to be the svarupa of the protagonist 
(dlambana), it is also considered to be the stimulus (uddipana) because of 
appearing as one among many forms of age." 

bdlye 'pi nava-tarunya-prdkatyam kvacit 

tan ndtirasa-vdhitvdn na rasajnair udahrtam ||2. 1.335|| 

"Sometimes it is heard that new youthfulness appears in Krsna even as a small 
child, but since that does not nourish rasa, it is not mentioned by those 
knowledgeable in rasa." 

atha saundaryam — 

bhavet saundaryam ahganam sanniveso yathocitam ||2. 1.336|| 

"Arrangement of the limbs in the most suitable manner is called beauty." 

yatha — 

mukham te dirghaksam marakata-tati-pivaram uro 

bhuja-dvandvam stambha-dyuti-suvalitam parsva-yugalam \ 

pariksino madhyah prathima-lahari-hari jaghanam 

na kasyah kamsare harati hrdayam pankaja-drsah ||2. 1.337|| 

"O Krsna! Your face with long eyes, Your broad chest like an emerald 
riverbank, Your two arms like pillars, Your graceful sides, narrow waist, and 
hips attractive with ever-increasing waves of sweetness — which hearts of the 
lotus-eyed gopis will not be stolen by these features?" 

atha rupam — 

vibhusanam vibhusyam syadyena tad rupam ucyate ||2. 1.33 8|| 

"Excellent form is said to be that by which ornaments become worthy of 
being ornaments." 



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yatha — 

krsnasya mandana-tatir mani-kundaladya 

nitahga-sahgatim alahkrtaye varangi \ 

sakta babhuva na mandg api tad-vidhdne 

sdpratyuta svayam analpam alahkrtasit ||2. 1.339|| 

"O beautiful woman! The jeweled earrings and other ornaments contacting 
His body cannot at all function as ornaments to enhance His beauty. Rather, 
those ornaments become decorated by His body, and thus have increased their 
beauty." 

atha mrdutd — 

mrdutd komalasydpi samsparsasahatocyate ||2.1.340|| 

"Tenderness means being so soft that even touching what is soft becomes 
intolerable." 

yatha — 

ahaha navdmbuda-kdnter amusya sukumarata kumarasya \ 

api nava-pallava-sangad ahgany aparajya siryanti ||2. 1.341|| 

"Ah! So tender is the body of this young boy with the complexion of a new 
cloud that by touching new shoots, His limbs become bruised and torn." 

ye nayaka-prakarane vacika manasas tatha \ 

gunah proktanta evatrajneya uddipana budhah ||2. 1.342|| 

"The intelligent understand that all verbal and mental qualities that have been 
mentioned already in this section describing the protagonist are the 

uddipanas" 

cesta — 

cesta rasadi-lilah syus tatha dusta-vadhadayah ||2.1.343|| 

"The rasa-lila, killing of the demons and other pastimes are called activities 
[cesta]" 



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tatra raso, yatha — 

nrtyad-gopa-nitambini-krta-parirambhasya rambhadibhir 
girvanibhir anahga-rahga-vivasam sandrsyamana-sriyah \ 
krlda-tandava-panditasya paritah sri-pundarikaksa te 
rdsdrambha-rasdrthino madhurimd cetamsi nah karsati ||2.1.344|| 

"O lotus-eyed Lord! You, an expert dancer, longing for the pleasure of the 
rdsa-lild to begin, were embraced on all sides by the gracefully -hipped, 
dancing gopis. Rambha and other heavenly damsels, smitten by Cupid's play, 
beheld Your beauty at that time. The sweetness exhibited at that time is 
dragging away our hearts." 

dusta-vadho, yatha lalita-madhave (9.50) — 

sambhur vrsam nayati mandara-kandardntar 

mlanah salilam api yatra siro dhundne \ 

ah kautukam kalaya keli-lavad aristam 

tarn dusta-purigavam asau harir unmamatha ||2. 1.345|| 

Killing demons, from Lalita-madhava: 

"When Aristasura shakes his head in jest, Siva pales and departs for a cave in 
the Mandara Mountain with his bull. Ah! See the fun! Krsna so casually killed 
that wicked bull demon." 

atha prasadhanam — 

kathitam vasanakalpa-mandanadyam prasadhanam ||2. 1.346|| 

"Vestment refers to clothing, ornaments, decorations and other similar 
things." 

tatra vasanam — 

navarka-rasmi-kasmira-haritaladi-sannibham \ 

yugam catuskam bhuyistham vasanam tri-vidham hareh ||2.1.347|| 

"The Lord has three types of clothing: two-piece outfit, four-piece dress, and 
multi-piece dress in orange, red, yellow and other colors." 

tatra yugam — 

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paridhanam sa-samvyanam yuga-rupam udiritam ||2. 1.348|| 

"Two-piece dress refers to a lower cloth wrapped around the waist and an 
upper shawl." 

yathd stavavalyam mukundastake (3) — 
kanaka-nivaha-sobhdnandi pitam nitambe 
tad-upari navaraktam vastram ittham dadhdnah \ 
priyam iva kila varnam raga-yuktam priyayah 
pranayatu mama netrabhista-purtim mukundah ||2.1.349|| 

An example from the Mukunddstaka of StavavalT: 

"May Mukunda, wearing on His hips a yellow dhoti that derides the glory of a 
pile of gold, with reddish upper cloth, tinged with the passion for His beloved, 
satisfy the desire of my eyes." 

catuskam — 

catuskam kancukosnisa-tunda-bandhantariyakam ||2. 1.350|| 

"The four-piece outfit refers to shirt, turban, sash and lower garment." 

yathd — 

smerasyah parihita-patalambara-sris 
channahgah purata-rucoru-kancakena \ 
usnisam dadhad arunam dhatim ca citram 
kamsarir vahati mahotsave mudam nah ||2.1.351|| 

"The enemy of Kamsa, smiling in great joy, and wearing a pink dhoti, orange 
turban, an excellent vest of shining gold and multi-color sash, creates joy in 
us." 

bhuyistham — 

khanditakhanditam bhuri nata-vesa-kriyocitam \ 

aneka-varnam vasanam bhuyistham kathitam budhaih ||2.1.352|| 

"The wise say that the multi-piece outfit consists of many pieces of cloth, cut 
and uncut, of many colors, suitable for performing artists." 

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yatha — 

akhandita-vikhanditaih sita-pisahga-nilarunaih 

pataih krta-yathocita-prakata-sannivesojjvalah \ 

ayam karabha-rat-prabhah pracura-rahga-srhgaritah 

karoti karabhoru me ghana-rucir mudam madhavah ||2. 1.353 1| 

"O slender thighed-woman! Madhava, the color of the rain cloud, effulgent 
like a young elephant king, bedecked for a multitude of pastimes, effulgent 
with a stylish creation of cut and uncut cloth in white, gold, blue and red 
colors, is giving me bliss." 

atha dkalpah — 

kesa-bandhanam dlepo mala-citra-visesakah \ 

tambula-keli-padmadir dkalpah parikirtitah ||2.1.354|| 

"Hair styles, applied cosmetics, garlands, body tilaka, tilaka on the forehead, 
betel-nut preparations and imitation lotuses are called accessories." 

syaj jutah kavari cuda venica kaca-bandhanam \ 
pandurah karburah pita ity alepas tridha matah ||2.1.355|| 

"Tying the hair consists of tying the hair at the back of the neck, binding 
flowers in the hair, binding the hair in a topknot and braiding the hair. The 
cosmetics are white, multicolor and yellow." 

mala tridha vaijayanti ratna-mald vana-srajah \ 

asyd vaikaksakdpida-prdlambadya bhidd matah ||2. 1.356|| 

"There are three types of garland: vaijayanti, jewel garland and forest garland. 
They may also extend over the serve as a chaplet around the topknot, or hang 
down from the neck." 

makari-patra-bhahgadhyam citram pita-sitarunam \ 

tatha visesako 'pi syad anyad uhyam svayam budhaih ||2. 1.357|| 



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"The body tilaka (citram) is yellow, white and reddish, filled with pictures of 
makaris. The forehead tilaka (visesakha) is also yellow, white or red. 
Intelligent persons also modify these into other colors spontaneously." 

yatha — 

tambula-sphurad-ananendur amalam dhammillam ullasayan 
bhakti-ccheda-lasat-sughrsta-ghusmalepa-sriya pesalah \ 
tuhgorah-sthala-pihgala-srag alika-bhrajisnu-patrahgulih 
syamahga-dyutir adya me sakhi drsor dugdhe mudam madhavah ||2. 1.358|| 

"O friend! The moon of His face shines with betel nut and a faultless 
hairstyle. A yellow garland rests on His raised chest. He wears radiant tilaka 
on His forehead, and His body becomes charming with the wealth of designs 
made of finely ground saffron ointment. Today the dark-bodied, attractive 
Madhava gives bliss to my eyes." 

atha mandanam — 

kiritam kundale haras catuski valayormayah \ 

keyura-nupuradyam ca ratna-mandanam ucyate ||2. 1.359|| 

"The jeweled ornaments (mandanam) include crowns, earrings, broaches, 
bracelets, rings, armbands and anklets." 

yatha — 

kahci citra mukutam atulam kundale hari-hire 

haras taro valayam amalam candrd-cdrus catuski \ 

ramya cormir madhurima-pure nupure cety agharer 

ahgair evabharana-patali bhusita dogdhi bhusam ||2.1.360|| 

"A colorful belt, an incomparable diadem, earrings of alluring diamonds, a 
pearl necklace, spotless bracelets, pearl-studded broach, delightful rings, and 
anklets filled with sweetness — these profuse ornaments attain the status of 
ornaments because they are decorated by the beauty of the limbs of Krsna." 

kusumadi-krtam cedam vanya-mandanam iritam \ 
dhatu-klptam tilakam patra-bhahga-latadikam ||2.1.361|| 



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"When these decorations are made of flowers they are called sylvan 
ornaments. The drawings using curved lines painted on the forehead and body 
are made of minerals." 

atha smitam, yatha krsna-karnamrte (99) — 
akhanda-nirvana-rasa-pravahair 
vikhanditasesa-rasantarani \ 
ayantritodvanta-sudharnavani 
jayanti sitdni tava smitdni ||2. 1.362|| 

An example of the smile, from Krsna-karnamrta: 
"O Krsna! Your gentle smiles which remove all pain by producing an 
unbroken stream of rasa of the highest bliss are disgracing all other rasas and 
emitting an unrestricted ocean of nectar." 

atha ahga-saurabham, yatha — 
parimala-sarid esa yad vahantT samantat 
pulakayati vapur nah kapy apurva muninam \ 
madhu-ripur upardge tad-vinodaya manye 
kuru-bhuvam anavadyamoda-sindhur vivesa ||2. 1.363|| 

An example of the fragrance of His limbs: 

"Since the unprecedented river of fragrance flowing everywhere is causing 
the hairs of us self-satisfied sages to stand on end, I think the enemy of 
Madhu, a faultless ocean of fragrance, has come to Kuruksetra to enjoy 
Himself on the occasion of the eclipse." 

atha varhsah — 

dhyanam balat paramahamsa-kulasya bhindan 
nindan sudha-madhurimanam adhlra-dharma \ 
kandarpa-sasana-dhuram muhur esa samsan 
vamsi-dhvanir jayati kamsa-nisudanasya ||2. 1.364|| 

His flute: 

"The fickle sound of Krsna's flute reveals its excellence by breaking the 
meditation of the exalted sages, criticizing the sweetness of nectar, and 
insistently preaching respect for the edicts of Cupid." 

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esa tridha bhaved venu-muralT-vamsikety api ||2. 1.365|| 

"There are three types of flutes: venu, muralT and vamsika." 

tatra venuh — 

pdrikdkhyo bhaved venur dvadasahguler dairghya-bhdk ||2. 1.366|| 

"The flute that is twelve fingers long named Pavika is called venu.'" 

muralT — 

hasta-dvayam itdydmd mukha-randhra-samanvitd \ 

catuh-svara-cchidra-yukta muralT caru-nadina ||2.1.367|| 

"The sweet-sounding muralT is two hands long (24 fingers or 18 inches) with 
a hole at the end and four holes for producing sounds." 

vamsT — 

ardhahgulantaronmanam taradi-vivarastakam \ 

tatah sardhahgulad yatra mukha-randhram tathdhgulam ||2.1.368|| 

siro veddhgulam puccham try-ahgulam sd tu vamsika \ 

nava-randhra smrta sapta-dasangula-mita budhaih ||2.1.369|| 

"The vamsika is seventeen fingers long (12.75 inches) with nine holes. Eight 
holes for playing notes are half a finger in diameter and spaced half a finger 
apart. A hole for blowing is placed 1-1/2 fingers from the eighth hole and is 
one finger in diameter. There are four fingers space remaining at the head of 
the flute and three fingers space remaining at the end of the flute." 

dasangulantara syac cet sd tara-mukha-randhrayoh \ 
mahanandeti vyakhyata tatha sammohiniti ca ||2. 1.370|| 
bhavet suryantara sd cet tata akarsinT mata \ 
anandinT tada vamsT bhaved indrantara yadi 1 12. 1 .37 1 1| 

"When the space between the mouth hole and the first hole for notes is ten 
fingers, the vamsT is called mahananda (great delight) and sammohini (the 
bewitcher). If the space is twelve fingers, the vamsi is called akarsinT (the 

Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu Southern Ocean Page 219 



attractor). If the space is fourteen fingers, the vamsi is called anandim (bliss- 
giver)." 

gopanam vallabha seyam vamsuliti ca visruta \ 
kraman manimayT haimi vainaviti tridha ca sd ||2. 1.372|| 

"The anandim is a favorite with the cowherd people and is also called 
vamsulT. The vamsis are respectively made of jewels, gold or bamboo." 

atha srngam — 

srngam tu gavalam hema-nibaddhagrima-pascimam \ 

ratna-jala-sphuran-madhyam mandra-ghosabhidham smrtam ||2.1.373|| 

The horn: 

"A wild buffalo horn with gold covering at both ends and jewel inlay in the 

middle is called Mandraghosa (rumbling thunder)." 

yatha — 

tardvalT venu-bhujangamena 

tardvalild-garalena dasta \ 

visanika-nada-payo nipiya 

visani kamam dvi-guni-cakdra ||2.1.374|| 

"Bitten by the flute, like a scorpion with natural poisonous venom in the form 
of its shrill sound, the gopi Taravali, leader of a group, drank some milk in the 
form of the sound of a small buffalo horn to counteract the poison. But rather 
than mitigate the burning poison of the flute's sound, it increased the pain 
twofold." 

atha nupuram, yatha — 

agha-mardanasya sakhi nupura-dhvanim 

nisamayya sambhrta-gabhira-sambhrama \ 

aham iksanottaralitdpi nabhavam 

bahir adya hanta guravah purah sthitah ||2. 1.375|| 

An example of His anklets: 



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"Having heard the sound of Krsna's ankle bells, I have become extremely 
impatient to see Him, and am possessed with intense zeal. But I cannot leave 
this place because my elders are present before me." 

atha kambuh — 

kambus tu daksindvartah pancajanyatayocyate ||2.1.376|| 

The conch: 

"The conch with its spiral turning to the right is called Pancajanya." 

yathd — 

amara-ripu-vadhuti-bhruna-hatya-vilasi 
tridiva-pura-purandhrT-vrnda-nandikaro 'yam \ 
bhramati bhuvana-madhye mddhavadhmdta-dhdmnah 
krta-pulaka-kadambah kambu-rajasya nadah ||2. 1.377|| 

"The sound of the king of conches, Pancajanya, blown by Krsna, wanders 
throughout the world, causing abortions in the wives of the demons, 
announcing auspiciousness to the inhabitants of Svarga, and making the hair 
stand on end." 

atha padahkah, yathd sn-dasame (10.38.26) — 

tad-darsanahlada-vivrddha-sambhramah 

premnordhva-romasru-kalakuleksanah \ 

rathad avaskandya sa tesv acestata 

prabhor amuny arighri-rajamsy aho iti ||2. 1.378|| 

An example of His footprints, from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam 

[10.38.26]: 

"Increasingly agitated by ecstasy at seeing the Lord's footprints, his bodily 

hairs standing on end because of his pure love, and his eyes filled with tears, 

Akrura jumped down from his chariot and began rolling about among those 

footprints, exclaiming, 'Ah, this is the dust from my master's feet! ' ' 

yathd vd — 

kalayata harir adhvana sakhayah 

sphutam amuna yamuna-tatim ayasit \ 

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harati pada-tatir yad-aksini me 
dhvaja-kulisakusa-pahkajahkiteyam ||2. 1.379|| 

Another example: 

"0 friends! Understand that Krsna has gone to the bank of the Yamuna by this 
path for certain, because the markings of the flag, thunderbolt, goad and lotus 
are attracting my eyes." 

atha ksetram, yathd — 
hari-keli-bhuvam vilokanam 
bata dure 'stu sudurlabha-sriyam \ 
mathurety api karna-paddhatim 
pravisan ndma mano dhinoti nah ||2. 1.380|| 

An example of His place: 

"What to speak of seeing all the places of rare glory there the Lord performed 

pastimes, even hearing the name of Mathura steals away my mind." 

atha tulasi, yathd bilvamahgale — 
ayi pahkaja-netra-mauli-male 
tulasi-mahjari kihcid arthayami \ 
avabodhaya partha-sdrathes tvam 
caranabja-saranabhilasinam mam ||2. 1.381 1| 

An example of tulasi, from Krsna-karnamrta: 

"O tulasi bud from lotus-eyed Krsna's chaplet! I make one prayer to you. 

Inform the chariot driver of Arjuna that I desire shelter at His lotus feet." 

atha bhakto, yathd caturthe (4. 12.21) — 
vijnaya tav uttama-gaya-kihkarav 
abhyutthitah sadhvasa-vismrta-kramah \ 
nanama namani grnan madhu-dvisah 
parsat-pradhanav iti samhatahjalih ||2. 1.382|| 

An example of the devotee as uddipana, from the Fourth Canto oiSrimad- 
Bhagavatam [4.12.21]: 



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"Dhruva Maharaja, seeing that these uncommon personalities were direct 
servants of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, immediately stood up. But, 
being puzzled, in hastiness he forgot how to receive them in the proper way. 
Therefore he simply offered obeisances with folded hands and chanted and 
glorified the holy names of the Lord." 

yatha va — 

subala bhuja-bhujahgam nyasya tuhge tavdmse 
smita-vilasad-apangah prangane bhrajamanah \ 
nayana-yugam asincad yah sudha-vicibhir nah 
kathaya sa dayitas te kvdyam dste vayasyah ||2. 1.383|j 

Another example: 

"O Subala! Please tell us where your dear friend Krsna is. While throwing 
sideward glances endowed with a gentle smile and placing His arm on your 
raised shoulder while standing in the yard, He would inundate our eyes with 
waves of nectar." 

atha tad-vdsaro, yatha — 

adbhuta bahavah santu bhagavat-parva-vasarah \ 

amodayati mam dhanya krsna-bhddrapaddstaml ||2. 1.384|| 

An example of the days commemorating the Lord: 

"Here there are many festival days commemorating the Lord. However, the 
auspicious eighth tithi of the waning moon in the month of Bhadra 
(Janmastami) gives me great joy." 

iti sri-sri-bhakti-rasamrta-sindhau daksina-vibhage 
bhakti-rasa-sdmdnya-nirupane vibhava-lahari prathama \ 

"Thus ends the First Wave of the Southern Ocean of Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta- 
sindhu, concerning vibhdva." 



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Second Wave: Concerning Anubhdva 

anubhavas tu citta-stha-bhdvanam avabodhakdh \ 

te bahir vikriya prdyah proktd udbhdsvardkhyayd ||2.2. 1|| 

"Anubhdva refers to those things that express the bhdva within the heart. They 
are predominantly external transformations, thus they are called udbhdsvara 
(shining on the body)." 

nrtyam viluthitam gitam krosanam tanu-motanam \ 
huhkaro jrmbhanam svasa-bhuma lokdnapeksita \ 
lald-sravo 'ttahasas ca ghurnd-hikkadayo 'pi ca ||2.2.2|| 

"The external transformations known as anubhavas are actions, such as 
dancing, rolling on the ground, singing, shouting, stretching the body, 
bellowing, yawning, breathing heavily, disregarding others, drooling, 
laughing loudly, whirling around and hiccups." 

te sitdh ksepanas ceti yatharthakhya dvidhoditah \ 

sitah syur gita-jrmbhadya nrtyadyah ksepanabhidhah ||2.2.3|| 

Anubhavas are of two types with the suitable names of sita (meaning cool, 
with a lack of bodily movement) and ksepana (meaning throwing about, 
involving distinct bodily movements). Sita includes singing, yawning, 
breathing heavily, disregarding others, drooling and smiling. Ksepana 
includes dancing, rolling on the ground, shouting, stretching the body, 
bellowing, laughing loudly, whirling around and hiccups. 

tatra nrtyam, yatha — 
muralT-khuralT-sudha-kiram 
hari-vaktrendum aveksya kampitah \ 
ganane saganesa-dindima- 
dhvanibhis tandavam dsrito harah ||2.2.4|| 

Dancing: 



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"Seeing the moonlike face of Hari, radiating sweetness as He practiced His 
flute playing, Lord Siva began to tremble and then began to dance in the sky 
along with Ganesa to the rhythm of his drum." 

viluthitam, yatha trtiye (3. 1.32) 
kaccid budhah svasty-anamiva dste 
svaphalka-putro bhagavat-prapannah \ 
yah krsna-padankita-marga-pamsusv 
acestata prema-vibhinna-dhairyah 1 12.2. 5 1 1 

Falling on the ground, from the Third Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam [3.1.32]: 
"Please tell me whether Akrura, the son of Svaphalka, is doing well. He is a 
faultless soul surrendered unto the Personality of Godhead. He once lost his 
mental equilibrium due to his ecstasy of transcendental love and fell down on 
the dust of a road which was marked with the footprints of Lord Krsna." 

yatha vd — 

navdnurdgena tavdvasdrigi vana-srag-dmodam avdpya mattd \ 

vrajdhgane sd kathine luthanti gdtram sugdtrT vranaydncakdra ||2.2.6|| 

Another example: 

"O Krsna! Because of Her new attraction for You, Radha is not in control of 
Her limbs. On smelling the fragrance of Your forest garland, becoming 
intoxicated, she has fallen on the hard ground of Vraja and injured Her 
beautiful body." 

gitam, yatha — 

rdga-dambara-karambita-cetdh kurvati tava navam guna-gdnam \ 

gokulendra kurute jalatdm sd rddhikddya-drsaddm suhrddm ca ||2.2.7|| 

Singing: 

"Moon of Gokula! Today Radha whose mind is possessed by the beauty of the 
Sri Raga (or the zeal of love), is singing a new song about You. Her friends 
have become like stones, and the stones have melted." 

krosanam, yatha — 



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hari-kirtana-jata-vikriyah sa vicukrosa tathadya naradah \ 
acirdn nara-simha-sahkayd danujdyena dhrtd vililyire ||2.2.8|| 

Shouting: 

"Because of transformations brought about by chanting the Holy Name of 
Hari, Narada began shouting in such a manner that the demons immediately 
hid themselves, trembling in fear that Narasirhha had made His appearance." 

yathd vd — 

urarikrta-kdkur dkuld karariva vraja-rdja-nanda \ 

murali-tarali-krtdntard muhur dkrosad ihddya sundarT ||2.2.9|| 

Another example: 

"O son of Vraja's king! Today in Vrndavana the beautiful Radha, Her heart 
melted by the sound of Your flute, was constantly shouting in agitation like a 
female osprey with a changed voice." 

tanu-mocanam, yathd — 

krsna-ndmani mudopavinite 

prinite manasi vainiko munih \ 

udbhatam kim api motayan 

vapus trotayaty akhila-yajna-sutrakam ||2.2. 10|| 

Stretching the body: 

"Narada, blissfully singing the Holy Names of Hari on his vind with a happy 
mind, stretched his body in an astonishing way and completely broke his 
sacred thread." 

huhkdro, yathd — 

vainava-dhvanibhirudbhramad-dhiyah 
sahkarasya divi hurikrti-svanah \ 
dhvamsayann api muhuh sa ddnavam 
sddhu-vrndam akarot sadd navam ||2.2.11|| 

Bellowing: 



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"Hearing the sound of the vina, Siva, his mind excited, bellowed in such a 
way that it destroyed the demons and gave the highest bliss to the devotees at 
every moment." 

jrmbhanam, yatha — 
vistrta-kumuda-vane 'sminn 
udayati piirne kaldnidhau puratah \ 
tava padmini mukha-padmam 
bhajate jrmbham aho citram ||2.2. 12|| 

Yawning: 

"O lotus! How astonishing that in the grove of blossoming water lilies, you 

have blossomed at the rising of the moon on the eastern horizon." 

svasa-bhuma, yatha — 
upasthite citra-patambudagame 
vivrddha-trsna lalitdkhya-cataki \ 
nihsvdsa-jhanjha-marutdpavdhitam 
krsndmbudakdram aveksya cuksubhe ||2.2. 13|| 

Heavy breathing: 

"When the monsoon arrived with colorful clothing, the Cataki bird named 
Lalita became increasingly thirsty. Seeing the form of that black cloud named 
Krsna driven away by the strong breathing of the monsoon wind mixed with 
rain, she became disturbed." 

lokanapeksitd, yatha sri-dasame (10.23.40) — 
aho pasyata narinam apt krsne jagad-gurau \ 
duranta-bhavam yo 'vidhyan mrtyupdsdn grhdbhidhdn ||2.2.14|| 

Disregard for others, from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam 

[10.23.40]: 

"Just see the unlimited love these women have developed for Lord Krsna, the 

spiritual master of the entire universe ! This love has broken for them the very 

bonds of death — their attachment to family life." 

yatha vd padydvalyam (73) — 

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parivadatu jano yathd tathd vd 

nanu mukharo na vayam vicdraydmah \ 

hari-rasa-madird maddtimattd 

bhuvi viluthdma natdma nirvisdma ||2.2. 15|| 

Another example, from Padydvali [73]: 

"Let the bigmouths gossip! We will not consider it at all! By tasting the sweet 
liquor of Hari, we we have become joyful and intoxicated. Let us fall on the 
ground, dance and enjoy." 

Idld-sravo, yathd — 

sarike prema-bhujahgena dastah kastam gato munih \ 

niscalasya yad etasya laid sravati vaktratah ||2.2. 16|| 

Drooling: 

"I think that Narada, bitten by the scorpion of prema, is suffering in pain, 

because he has fallen motionless, and saliva is dripping from his mouth." 

attahdsah — 

hdsdd bhinno'ttahdso'yam citta-viksepa-sambhavah ||2.2. 17|| 

Laughing loudly: 

"Laughing that arises from a disturbance of the heart is called laughing loudly 

[attahdsa]. This is different from a normal laugh," 

yathd — 

sarike ciram kesava-kirikarasya 

cetas tate bhakti-latd praphulld \ 

yenddhi-tunda-sthalam attahdsa- 

prasuna-punjds catulam skhalanti ||2.2. 18|| 

An example: 

"I think that the creeper of devotion in the heart of the servant of Krsna has 
been blossoming for a long time, because a multitude of flowers in the form 
of his loud laughing is shaking his trembling lips." 

ghurnd, yathd — 

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dhruvam agharipur adadhati vdtydm 
nanu murali tvayi phutkrti-cchalena \ 
kim ayam itarathd dhvanir vighurnanam 
sakhi tava ghurnayati vrajdmbujdksih ||2.2. 19|| 

Whirling around: 

"O my friend, dear flute! Krsna, on the pretext of blowing you, is certainly 
producing a gale. Otherwise, how does your sound alone cause the beautiful 
women of Vraja to whirl around?" 

hikkd, yatha — 

naputri racayausadham visrja romam atyuddhatam 

mudhd priya-sakhim prati tvam asivam kim dsankase \ 

hari-pranaya-vikriydkulatayd bruvana muhur 

vardksi harir ity asau vitanute 'dya hikkd-bharam ||2.2.20|| 

Hiccups: 

"O daughter! Are you worrying uselessly that something has happened to 
your dear friend Radha? Do not apply any medicine! Give up your this loud 
weeping! O beautiful-eyed girl! Today Radha, afflicted by the transformations 
brought on by love for Krsna, is afflicted with hiccups while chanting His 
Holy Name incessantly." 

vapur utphullatdraktodgamddydh syuh pare 'pi ye \ 
ativa-viralatvdt te naivdtra parikirtitdh ||2.2.21|| 

"Other symptoms such as extreme goosebumps and sweating blood are not 
described here because they are very rare." 

iti sri-sri-bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhau daksina-vibhdge 
bhakti-rasa-sdmdnya-nirupane 'nubhdva-lahari dvitiyd \ 

"Thus ends the Second Wave of the Southern Ocean of Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta- 
sindhu, concerning anubhdva." 



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Third Wave: Concerning Sattvika-bhava 

krsna-sambandhibhih saksat kihcid vd vyavadhanatah \ 
bhavais cittam ihakrantam sattvam ity ucyate budhaih ||2.3.1|| 

"On the topic of rasa, when the heart becomes overwhelmed by rati or bhdva 
in relation to Krsna, either directly or indirectly, the learned call this sattva" 

sattvdd asmdt samutpannd ye ye bhdvds te tu sattvikah \ 
snigdhd digdhds tathd ruksa ity ami trividhd matdh ||2.3.2|| 

"The transformations that arise solely from this sattva are called sattvika- 
bhdvas. There are three types of sdttvika-bhdvas : snigdha (affectionate, 
arising from genuine rati), digdha (tainted, arising from other emotions) and 
ruksa (contaminated, arising in a person without rati).'" 

tatra snigdhah — 

snigdhas tu sattvika mukhya gaunas ceti dvidha matdh ||2.3.3|| 

Snigdha-sattvika-bhdva: 

Snigdha-sattvika-bhdva has two divisions: principal and secondary. 

tatra mukhyah — 

akraman mukhyaya ratya mukhyah syuh sattvika ami \ 

vijheyah krsna-sambandhah saksad evatra suribhih ||2.3.4|| 

Principal snigdha-sattvika-bhdva: 

"The principal sdttvika-bhdvas arise from a principal rati. The wise call this 

relationship with Krsna direct." 

yatha — 

kundair mukundaya muda srjanti 
srajam varam kunda-vidambi-danti \ 
babhiiva gandharva-rasena venor 
gandharvika spandana-sunya-gatri ||2.3.5|| 



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An example of principal snigdha-sattvika-bhava: 

"Radha, whose teeth were whiter than the kunda flower, while making an 
excellent garland of kunda flowers for Mukunda, heard the sweet song of the 
flute. She became stunned." 

mukhyah stambho 'yam ittham tejheyah svedddayo 'pi ca ||2.3.6|| 

In this example, being stunned is the principal snigdha-sattvika-bhava, 
because it arises from a principal rati, madhura-rati. The appearance of other 
sattvika-bhavas should be understood similarly. 

atha gaundh — 

ratyakramanatah prokta gaunas te gauna-bhutaya \ 

atra krsnasya sambandhah syat kihcid vyavadhanatah ||2.3.7|| 

Secondary snigdha-sattvika-bhava: 

"Sattvika-bhavas that arise from a secondary rati are called secondary 

snigdha-sattvika-bhavas. The relationship with Krsna is somewhat indirect. 

yatha — 

sva-vilocana-catakambude 

puri nite purusottame pura \ 

atitamra-mukhl sagadgadam 

nrpam akrosati gokulesvarT \ 

imau gaunau vaivarnya-svara-bhedau ||2.3.8|| 

An example of secondary snigdha-sattvika-bhava: 

"When Krsna the raincloud for the cataka bird of her eyes, was brought to 

Mathura, Yasoda, turning red- faced in anger, began to scold Nanda Maharaja 

in a choked voice." 

In this example, the change of color and choked voice of Yasoda have been 

caused by the secondary rati of anger (krodha-rati). 

atha digdhah — 

rati-dvaya-vinabhutair bhavair manasa akramat \ 

jane jata-ratau digdhas te ced raty-anugaminah ||2.3.9|| 

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Digdha-sattvika-bhava: 

"When the heart of a person who possesses genuine rati is overcome by an 
emotion other then the primary or secondary rati, and if this emotion appears 
along with a genuine rati, this is called digdha-sattvika-bhava" 

yatha — 

putanam iha nisamya nisayam 
sa nisanta-luthad-udbhata-gatrim \ 
kampitahga-latika vraja-rajhi 
putram akula-matir vicinoti ||2.3. 10|| 

An example: 

"One time Yasoda, while dreaming at night, saw the huge body of Putana 
rolling on the ground in her house. Her body began shaking. Then in great 
agitation, she began to search for Krsna." 

kampo raty-anugamitvad asau digdha itiryate ||2.3.11|| 

"Since the shaking of her body accompanies the actual rati for Krsna, it is 
called digdha." 

ruksah — 

madhurascarya-tad-vartotpannair mud-vismayadibhih \ 

jata bhaktopame ruksa rati-sunye jane kvacit ||2.3.12|| 

Ruksa-sattvika-bhdva: 

"Sometimes there are apparent sattvika-bhdvas similar to those of persons 
possessing rati, appearing in persons without real rati, through astonishment 
or bliss caused by hearing about the sweet and astonishing Lord. This is called 
ruksa-sattvika-bhdva. " 

yatha — 

bhogaika-sadhana-jusa rati-gandha-sunyam 

svam cestaya hrdayam atra vivrnvato 'pi \ 

ullasinah sapadi madhava-keli-gitais 

tasyahgam utpulakitam madhurais tadasit ||2.3.13|| 

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An example: 

"A person who is revealed to be devoid of rati by absorbing himself in the 
pursuit of material enjoyment may develop hairs standing on end after being 
excited by songs concerning the pastimes of Madhava." 

ruksa esa romancah — 

rukso 'yam rati-sunyatvad romancam kathito budhaih \ 

mumuksu-prabhrtau purvam yo ratdbhydsa iritah ||2.3.14|| 

"The standing of hairs on end that arises without real rati being present in the 
person is an example of ruksa-sattvika-bhava. Raty-abhasa which appears in 
persons desiring liberation, as described previously (1.3.44) gives rise to 
ruksa-sattvika-bhava" 

cittam sattvibhavat prane nyasyaty dtmdnam udbhatam \ 
pranas tu vikriyam gacchan deham viksobhayaty alam \ 
tadd stambhadayo bhdvd bhakta-dehe bhavanty ami ||2.3. 15|| 

"When the heart becomes overwhelmed with bhdva related to Krsna, it offers 
itself to the prdna with force. Theprdna undergoes change, and disturbs the 
body. Then the sattvika-bhavas such as paralysis become visible in the 
devotee's body." 

te stambha-sveda-romdncdh svara-bhedo 'tha vepathuh \ 
vaivarnyam asru pralaya ity astau sattvikah smrtah ||2.3. 16|| 

"The eight sattvika-bhavas are paralysis, perspiration, haris standing on end, 
choking of the voice, trembling, changing color, tears and fainting." 

catvari ksmadi-bhutani pranojatv avalambate \ 

kaddcit sva-pradhdnah san dehe carati sarvatah ||2.3.17|| 

"The prdna takes shelter of the four elements earth, water, fire and ether, and 
sometimes takes shelter of itself. The prdna then moves through out the 
body." 



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stambham bhumi-sthitah pranas tanoty asru-jalasrayah \ 
tejasthah sveda-vaivarnye pralayam viyad-asrayah ||2.3.18|| 

"When the prana takes shelter of earth, paralysis arises. When the prana takes 
shelter of water, tears arise. When the prana takes shelter of the fire element, 
perspiration and change of color arise. When the prana takes shelter of the 
ether element, fainting arises." 

svastha eva kramdn manda-madhya-tivratva-bheda-bhak \ 
romanca-kampa-vaivarnyany atra trini tanoty asau ||2.3. 19|| 

"When the prana takes shelter of itself to a small degree, the hairs stand on 
end. When the prana takes shelter of itself to a moderate degree, the body 
shakes. When the prana takes shelter of itself to the extreme, the voice chokes 
up." 

bahir antas ca viksobha-vidhdyitvdd atah sphutam \ 
proktdnubhavatdmisdm bhdvatd ca manisibhih ||2.3.20|| 

"Because of this, the sdttvika-bhdvas produce extreme disturbance both 
internally and externally. The wise call the disturbance to the body the 
anubhdva aspect of the sdttvika-bhdva, and the disturbance to the heart the 
vyabhicari aspect of the sattvika-bhava. " 

tatra stambhah — 

stambho harsa-bhayascarya-visdddmarsa-sambhavah \ 

tatra vdg-ddi-rdhityam naiscalyam sunyatddayah ||2.3.21|| 

"Paralysis arises from joy, fear, astonishment, disappointment and 
indignation. There is immobility of the active and knowledge-acquiring 
senses." 

tatra harsad, yatha trtiye (3.2. 14) 
yasyanuraga-pluta-hasa-rasa- 
lildvaloka-pratilabdha-mdnah \ 
vraja-striyo drgbhir anupravrtta- 
dhiyo 'vatasthuh kila krtya-sesah ||2.3.22|| 

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Paralysis arising from joy, from the Third Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam 

[3.2.14]: 

"The damsels of Vraja, after pastimes of laughter, humor and exchanges of 

glances, were anguished when Krsna left them. They used to follow Him with 

their eyes, and thus they sat down with stunned intelligence and could not 

finish their household duties." 

bhaydd, yathd — 

giri-sannibha-malla-cakra-ruddham 
puratah prdna-pardrdhatah pardrdhyam \ 
tanayam jananT samlksya susyan 
nayand hanta babhuva niscaldhgi ||2.3.23|| 

From fear: 

"When Devaki saw her son Krsna, dearer than billions of lives, being attacked 

by wrestlers, her eyes became dry and she became paralyzed." 

dscarydd, yathd sri-dasame (10.13.56) 
tato 'tikutukodvrtya- stimitaikddasendriyah \ 
tad-dhdmndbhud ajas tusnim pur-devy-antiva putrikd ||2.3.24|| 

From astonishment, from the Tento Canto of SrTmad-Bhdgavatam [10.13.56]: 
"Then, by the power of the effulgence of those visnu-murtis, Lord Brahma, 
his eleven senses jolted by astonishment and stunned by transcendental bliss, 
became silent, just like a child's clay doll in the presence of the village Deity." 

yathd vd — 

sisoh sydmasya pasyanti sailam abhramliham kare \ 

tatra citrdrpitevdsid gosthi gostha-nivdsindm ||2.3.25|| 

Another example of stambha arising from astonishment: 
"Seeing that Govardhana Mountain, touching the sky, was held up by the 
hand of a small child, the inhabitants of Vraja became immoble like figures in 
a painting." 

visdddd, yathd — 

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baka-sodara-danavodare puratah preksya visantam acyutam \ 
divisan-nikaro visanna-dhTh prakatam citrapatdyate divi ||2.3.26|| 

From sorrow: 

"Seeing before them that Krsna was entering the stomach of Aghasura, who 
was the brother of Bakasura, the devatds in the sky, overcome with sorrow, 
because still like painted pictures." 

amarsad, yathd — 

kartum icchati mura-dvise purah 

patri-moksam akrpe krpi-sute \ 

satvaro 'pi ripu-niskraye rusa 

niskriyah ksanam abhut kapi-dhvajah ||2.3.27|| 

From indignation: 

"When merciless Asvatthama became eager to shoot arrows at Krsna, Arjuna, 
though hasty to respond to his enemy, became motionless for some time on 
account of his anger." 

atha svedah — 

svedo harsa-bhaya-krodhddi-jah kleda-karas tanoh ||2.3.28|| 

"Perspiration: Perspiration arises from joy, fear and anger. It makes the body 
damp." 

tatra harsdd, yathd — 
kim atra surydtapam dksipanti 
mugdhdksi cdturyam urikarosi \ 
jndtam purah preksya saroruhaksam 
svinnasi bhinna kusumdyudhena ||2.3.29|| 

From joy: 

"O Radha with joyful eyes! Why are You deriding the heat of the sun and 
emanating such an amiable nature? I understand that You have been pierced 
by the arrows of love, for You are perspiring on seeing the lotus-eyed Krsna 
in front of You." 



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bhaydd, yathd — 

kutukdd abhimanyu-vesinam 

harim dkrusya gird pragalbhayd \ 

viditdkrtir dkulah ksandd 

ajani svinna-tanuh sa raktakah ||2.3.30|| 

From fear: 

"Krsna one time put on the dress of Abhimanyu for fun. His servant Raktaka, 
thinking Him to be Abhimanyu, called out to Him using impudent words. 
After understanding that He was actually Krsna, he became very frightened 
and for some time became covered with perspiration." 

krodhdd, yathd — 

yajnasya bhahgdd ativrsti-kdrinam 

samlksya sakram saruso garutmatah \ 

ghanoparistdd apt tisthatas tadd 

nipetur ahgdd ghana-mra-bindavah ||2.3.31|| 

From anger: 

"Seeing Indra showering down excessive rain because his sacrifice had been 
stopped, Garuda, situated on a could at a distance, became filled with anger. 
Profuse drops of perspiration fell from his limbs." 

atha romdncah — 

romdnco 'yam kildscarya-harsotsdha-bhayddijah \ 

romndm abhyudgamas tatra gdtra-samsparsanddayah ||2.3.32|| 

"Standing of hairs on end takes place from astonishment, joy, enthusiasm and 
fear. In this state, all the hairs of the body stand on end, sending a thrill 
throughout the body." 

tatra dscarydd, yathd — 
dimbhasya jrmbhdm bhajatas trilokim 
vilokya vailaksyavati mukhdntah \ 
babhuva gosthendra-kutumbiniyam 
tanu-ruhaih kudmalitdhga-yastih ||2.3.33|| 



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From astonishment: 

"Yasoda became astonished from seeing the heavenly, middle and lower 
planetary systems within Krsna's mouth when He was beginning to crawl 
about. The creeper of her body began to blossom with hairs standing on end." 

harsad, yathd sri-dasame (10.30. 10) — 
kim te krtam ksiti tapo bata kesavdrighri- 
sparsotsavotpulakitdriga-ruhair vibhdsi \ 
apy anghri-sambhava urukrama-vikramdd vd 
dho vardha-vapusah parirambhanena ||2.3.34|| 

From joy, from the Tenth Canto of SrTmad-Bhdgavatam [10.30.10]: 
"O mother earth, what austerity did you perform to attain the touch of Lord 
Kesava's lotus feet, which has brought you such great joy that your bodily 
hairs are standing on end? You appear very beautiful in this condition. Was it 
during the Lord's current appearance that you acquired this ecstatic symptom, 
or was it perhaps much earlier, when He stepped upon you in His form of the 
dwarf Vamanadeva, or even earlier, when He embraced you in His form of 
the boar Varahadeva?" 

utsdhdd, yathd — 

srrigam kelir andrambhe ranayaty agha-mardane \ 

sriddmno yoddhu-kdmasya reme romdncitam vapuh ||2.3.35|| 

From eagerness: 

"When Krsna sounded His horn during a mock battle, Sridama became eager 

to fight and his bodily hairs stood on end." 

bhaydd, yathd — 
visva-rupa-dharam adbhutdkrtim 
preksya tatra purusottamam purah \ 
arjunah sapadi susyad-dnanah 
sisriye vikata-kantakdm tanum ||2.3.36|| 

From fear: 



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"When Arjuna saw before him the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord 
Krsna as the astonishing Universal Form, his face dried up and the hairs of his 
body suddenly stood on end." 

atha svara-bhedah — 

visada-vismayamarsa-harsa-bhity-adi-sambhavam \ 
vaisvaryam svara-bhedah syad esa gadgadikadikrt ||2.3.37|| 

Choking of the voice: 

"Distortion of the voice is called svara-bheda. It arises from sorrow, 

astonishment, anger, joy and fear. It causes convulsions in speaking." 

tatra visadad, yatha — 
vraja-rdjhi rathat puro harim 
svayam ity ardha-visirna-jalpaya \ 
hriyam enadrsa gurdv api 
slathayantya kila rodita sakhl ||2.3.38|| 

From lamentation: 

"' 'O Queen of Vraja, Yasoda! Please personally take Krsna from the chariot in 
front of you (embarking for Mathura).' Doe-eyed Radha has made Her friends 
weep by giving up bashfulness in front of elders and uttering half these words 
in a choked voice." 

vismaydd, yatha sri-dasame (10. 13.64) — 
sanair athotthdya vimrjya locane 
mukundam udviksya vinamra-kandharah \ 
krtdhjalih prasrayavan samdhitah 
sa-vepathur gadgadayailatelaya ||2.3.39|| 

From astonishment, from the Tenth Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam [10.13.64]: 
"Then, rising very gradually and wiping his two eyes, Lord Brahma looked up 
at Mukunda. Lord Brahma, his head bent low, his mind concentrated and his 
body trembling, very humbly began, with faltering words, to offer praises to 
Lord Krsna." 

amarsad, yatha tatraiva (10.29.30) — 

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prestham priyetaram iva pratibhasamanam 
krsnam tad-artha-vinivartita-sarva-kamdh \ 
netre vimrjya ruditopahate sma kincit 
samrambha-gadgada-giro 'bruvatanuraktah ||2.3.40|| 

From anger, also from the Tenth Canto of Srlmad-Bhagavatam [10.29.30]: 
"Although Krsna was their beloved, and although they had abandoned all 
other objects of desire for His sake, He had been speaking to them 
unfavorably. Nonetheless, they remained unflinching in their attachment to 
Him. Stopping their crying, they wiped their eyes and began to speak, their 
voices stammering with agitation." 

harsad, yathd tatraiva (10.39.56-57) 
hrsyat-tanuruho bhava-pariklinnatma-locanah \\ 
gird gadgadayastausit sattvam dlambya satvatah \ 
pranamya murdhnavahitah krtahjali-putah sanaih ||2.3.41|| 

From joy, also from the Tenth Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam [10.39.56-57]: 
"As the great devotee Akrura beheld all this, he became extremely pleased 
and felt enthused with transcendental devotion. His intense ecstasy caused His 
bodily hairs to stand on end and tears to flow from his eyes, drenching his 
entire body. Somehow managing to steady himself, Akrura bowed his head to 
the ground. Then he joined his palms in supplication and, in a voice choked 
with emotion, very slowly and attentively began to pray." 

bhlter, yathd — 

tvayy arpitam vitara venum iti pramadi 
srutva mad-iritam udirna-vivarna-bhavah \ 
turnam babhuva guru-gadgada-ruddha-kanthah 
patri mukunda tad anena sa harito 'sti ||2.3.42|| 

From fear: 

"I said to Your servant Patri, 'Give me that flute kept with you.' Hearing my 
words, the careless Patri changed color and his voice choked up, O Mukunda! 
Because of his inattention, Your flute has been lost." 

atha vepathuh — vitrasamarsa-harsadyair vepathur gatra-laulya-krt ||2.3.43|| 
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"Trembling: Quivering of the limbs (gatra-laulya-krt) due to extreme fear, 
anger or joy is called vepathu or trembling." 

tatra vitrasena, yatha — 
sahkha-cudam adhirudha-vikramam 
preksya vistrta-bhujam jighrksaya \ 
ha vrajendra-tanayeti-vadini 
kampa-sampadam adhatta rddhikd ||2.3.44|| 

From fear: 

"When Sankhacuda, with increasing display of his prowess, reached out his 
hand to grab Radha, She cried out, 'O son of the King of Vraja! ' Her whole 
body began to shake out of fear." 

amarsena, yatha — 

krsnadhiksepa-jatena vyakulo nakulambujah \ 

cakampe drag amarsena bhu-kampe giriradiva ||2.3.45|| 

From anger: 

"Becoming unsteady with anger on hearing Sisupala criticize Krsna, 

Sahadeva began to shake like a great mountain during an earthquake." 

harsena, yatha — 

vihasasi katham hatdse pasya bhayenddya kampamdndsmi \ 

cahcalam upasidantam nivaraya vraja-pates tanayam ||2.3.46|| 

From joy: 

"O foolish friend! Why are you smiling? See — I am now trembling with fear. 

Keep away the fickle son of Nanda who is approaching." 

atha vaivarnyam — 

visada-rosa-bhity-ader vaivarnyam varna-vikriya \ 

bhava-jhair atra malinya-karsyadyah parikirtitah ||2.3.47|| 

Changing of color: 



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"Change of a person's complexion (varnya-vikriya) due to grief, anger or fear 
is called vaivarnya or change of color." 

tatra visadad, yathd — 

svetikrtakhila-janam virahena tavddhund \ 

gokulam krsna devarseh svetadvipa-bhramam dadhe ||2.3.48|| 

From grief: 

"O Krsna! In separation from You, all the inhabitants of Vraja have now 

turned white, such that Narada has mistaken Gokula for Svetadvipa." 

rosad, yatha — 

kamsa-sakram abhiyuhjatah puro viksya kamsa-sahajanudayudhan \ 

sri-balasya sakhi tasya rusyatah prodyad-indu-nibham ananam babhau \\ 

2.3.49|| 

From anger: 

"O friend! Just see how the face of angry Balarama is glowing red like the 
newly risen moon on seeing in front of Him the assistant of Karhsa with 
weapons in hand, ready to fight with Krsna." 

bhiter, yatha — 

raksite vraja-kule bakdrind parvatam vara-mudasya Maya \ 

kalima bala-ripor mukhe bhavann ucivan manasi bhitim utthitam ||2.3.50|| 

From fear: 

"When the inhabitants of Vraja were protected by Krsna, the enemy of Baka, 
as He lifted the huge mountain casually, the face of Indra turned black. This 
indicated the fear in his mind." 

visade svetima prokta dhausaryam kalima kvacit \ 
rose tu raktima bhltyam kalima kvapi suklima ||2.3.51|| 

"It is said that the change of color from grief is white, and sometimes gray or 
black. Change of color from anger is red. From fear, the color change is black, 
and sometimes white." 



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raktima laksyate vyakto harsodreke 'pi kutracit \ 
atrdsdrvatrikatvena naivdsyoddhrtih krta ||2.3.52|| 

"When it arises from joy the color change is sometimes red, but since this is 
not universal, examples of turning red from joy are not given." 

atha asm — 

harsa-rosa-visddddyair asm netre jalodgamah \ 
harsaje 'sruni sitatvam ausnyam rosddi-sambhave \ 
sarvatra nayana-ksobha-rdga-sammdrjanddayah ||2.3.53|| 

Tears: 

"Where water flows from the eyes (Jalodgamah) out of joy, anger or grief it is 
called tears (asm). Tears generated out of joy are cool, and tears generated out 
of anger are hot. In all cases, there is unsteady movement of the eyes, redness 
of the eyes and rubbing the eyes." 

atra harsena, yathd — 

govinda-preksandksepi-bdspa-purdbhivarsinam \ 
uccair anindad dnandam aravinda-vilocand ||2.3.54|| 

From joy: 

"The Lotus-eyed Rukmini derided bliss because the flow of tears arising from 

the bliss blocked her vision of Govinda." 

rosena, yathd hari-vamse (2.66.24) — 

tasydh susrdva netrdbhydm vdri pranaya-kopajam \ 

kusesaya-paldsdbhydm avasydya-jalam yathd ||2.3.55|| 

From anger, from the Hari-vamsa [2.66.24]: 

"From the lotus-petal eyes of Satyabhama fell tears like drops of dew, 

generated by angry affection." 

yathd vd — 

bhimasya cedisa-vadham vidhitso reje 'sru-visrdvi rusoparaktam \ 

udyan-mukham vdri-kandvakirnam sdndhya-tvisd grastam ivendu-bimbam \\ 

2.3.56|| 



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Another example: 

"When Bhima desired to kill Sisupala, his face turned red and became 
covered with tears of anger. It appeared like the rising full moon covered with 
drops of water and tinged with red in the sunset." 

visadena, yathd sri-dasame (10.60.23) — 

padd sujdtena nakhdruna-sriyd 

bhuvam likhanty asrubhir anjandsitaih \ 

dsincati kunkuma-rusitau stanau 

tasthdv adho-mukhy atiduhkha-ruddha-vdk ||2.3.57|| 

From disappointment, from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam 

[10.60.23]: 

"With her tender foot, effulgent with the reddish glow of her nails, she 

scratched the ground, and tears darkened by her eye makeup sprinkled her 

kuhkuma-reddcned breasts. There she stood, face downward, her voice 

choked up by extreme sorrow." 

atha pralayah — 

pralayah sukha-duhkhdbhydm cestd-jndna-nirdkrtih \ 

atrdnubhdvdh kathitd mahT-nipatanddayah ||2.3.58|| 

Pralaya (fainting): 

"Pralaya or fainting refers to the absence of action of the body and absence of 
mental functions that distinguish self and objects. This arises either from 
happiness or distress. It is characterized by falling on the ground, etc." 

tatra sukhena, yathd — 

milantam harim dlokya latd-punjdd atarkitam \ 

jnapti-sunya-mand reje niscaldngT vrajdngand ||2.3.59|| 

From happiness: 

"When Krsna suddenly appeared out of the tangle of creepers, the gopis, 
seeing that they were again united with Him, became motionless and devoid 
of external consciousness." 



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duhkhena, yathd sri-dasame (10.39. 15) — 
anyds ca tad-anudhydna-nivrttdsesa-vrttayah \ 
ndbhyajdnan imam lokam dtma-lokam gatd iva ||2.3.60|| 

From distress, from the Tenth Canto of Srlmad-Bhdgavatam [10.39.15]: 
"Other gopis entirely stopped their sensory activities and became fixed in 
meditation on Krsna. They lost all awareness of the external world, just like 
those who attain the platform of self-realization." 

sarve hi sattva-mulatvdd bhdvd yadyapi sdttvikdh \ 
tathdpy amisdm sattvaika-mulatvdt sdttvika-prathd ||2.3.61|| 

"All the anubhdvas could be called sdttvika, because their root is a 
transformation of the mind arising from rati. However since the eight states 
just mentioned, beginning with stambha, arise solely from transformations 
arising from rati, they are called sdttvika-bhdvas" 

sattvasya tdratamydt prdna-tanu-ksobha-tdratamyam sydt \ 
tata eva tdratamyam sarvesdm sdttvikdndm sydt ||2.3.62|| 

"Because of the variations in sattva (disturbance of the mind due to rati), 
there is variation in the disturbance of the life airs and body. In other words, 
there are various degrees of all the sdttvika-bhdvas. " 

dhumdyitds tejvalitd diptd uddipta-samjnitdh \ 

vrddhim yathottaram ydntah sdttvikdh syus catur-vidhdh ||2.3.63|| 

"The sdttvika-bhdvas are of four types when they attain increasing degrees of 
intensity: dhumdita (smoky), jvalita (luminous), dipta (brilliant) and uddlpta 
(very brilliant)." 

sd bhuri-kdla-vydpitvam bahv-ahga-vydpitd 'pi ca \ 
svarupena tathotkarsa iti vrddhis tridhd bhavet ||2.3.64|| 

"The increase is of three types: duration of the symptoms, pervasion of the 
symptoms in different parts of the body, and exhibition of the essential nature 
of the sdttvika-bhdva" 



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tatra netrambu-vaisvarya-varjanam eva yujyate \ 
bahv-ahga-vyapitamisam tayoh kapi visistata ||2.3.65|| 

"Except for tears and choking of the voice, the other sattvika-bhdvas can 
spread through many parts of the body. Tears and choking of the voice have 
some special features." 

tatrasrunam drg-aucchunya-karitvam avadatata \ 

tathd tarativaicitri-vailaksanya-vidhayita \ 

vaisvarnyasya tu bhinnatve kaunthya-vyakulatadayah ||2.3.66|| 

"The special features of tears are swelling of the eyes and whiteness of the 
eyes. The pupils of the eyes become extremely colorful. The special features 
of choking of the voice are breaking of the voice, weakness of the voice and 
fluctuation of tone." 

bhinnatvam sthana-vibhramsah kaunthyam sydt sanna-kanthata \ 
vydkulatvam tu nanocca-nica-gupta-viluptata ||2.3.67|| 

"Breaking of the voice means failure of the vocal chords to pronounce 
properly. Weakness means the inability to make any sound. Fluctuation means 
high, low, indistinct and inaudible tones." 

prdyo dhumdyitd eva ruksas tisthanti sdttvikdh \ 

snigdhds tu prdyasah sarve caturdhaiva bhavanty amr||2.3.68|| 

"All the sattvika-bhdvas in the ruksa state (in persons without real rati) 
remain generally at the dhumdyita level. The sattvika-bhdvas in the snigdha 
state appear in all four levels: dhumaita (smoky), jvalita (luminous), dipta 
(brilliant) and uddlpta (very brilliant)." 

mahotsavadi-vrttesu sad-gosthT-tandavadisu \ 
jvalanty ullasinah kvapi te ruksa apt kasyacit ||2.3.69|| 



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"Sometimes, however, the ruksa-sattvika-bhava of a person who is 
enthusiastic to dance or perform other devotional acts among the devotees on 
the occasion of festivals reaches the jvalita stage." 

sarvananda-camatkara-hetur bhdvo varo ratih \ 

ete hi tad-vindbhdvdn na camatkaritasrayah ||2.3.70|| 

"Rati is the cause of all kinds of bliss. Therefore rati is called the most 
excellent bhdva. Being devoid of this rati, ruksa or other types of bhdva can 
never be the shelter of bliss." 

tatra dhumayitah — 

advitiya ami bhdva athava sa-dvitlyakah \ 

isad-vyakta apahnotum sakya dhumayita matah ||2.3.71|| 

Smoky sattvika-bhava: 

"Any sdttvika-bhdva that appears alone or with others, which manifests 
slightly and can be hidden by the individual, is called dhumayita-sattvika- 
bhava. " 

yatha — 

akarnayann aghaharam agha-vairi-kirtim 
paksmagra-misra-viralasrur abhut purodhah \ 
yasta darocchvasita-loma-kapolam isat- 
prasvinna-nasikam uvaha mukharavindam ||2.3.72|| 

An example: 

"When the performer of sacrifice heard the glories of Krsna killing Aghasura, 

the tips of his eyes filled with a few tears, hairs stood up on his cheeks and a 

few drops of perspiration appeared on his nose. In this way his lotus face 

shone." 

athajvalitah — 

te dvau trayo va yugapad yantah suprakatam dasam \ 

sakyah krcchrena nihnotum jvalita iti kirtitah ||2.3.73|| 

Luminous sattvika-bhava: 



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"When two or three of the sattvika-bhavas appear very clearly and can be 
concealed only with difficulty, they are called jvalita-sattvika-bhavas." 

yatha — 

na gunjam adatum prabhavati karah kampa-taralo 
drsau sasre pihcham na paricinutam satvara-krti \ 
ksamav uru stabdhau padam api na gantum tava sakhe 
vandd vamsi-dhvane parisaram avdpte sravanayoh ||2.3.74|| 

"One sakhi said to Krsna, 'When the sound of Your flute comes from the 
forest and arrives at my ears, my hands begin to shake and I cannot pick the 
gunja berries quickly. My eyes become filled with tears, and I cannot 
immediately recognize the peacock feather. My two thighs become paralyzed 
and I cannot easily walk one step. ' " 

yatha vd — 

niruddham baspambhah katham api maya gadgada-giro 
hriya sadyo gudhah sakhi vighatito vepathur api \ 
giri-dronyam venau dhvanati nipunair ihgita-maye 
tathapy uhdhcakre mama manasi ragah parijanaih ||2.3.75|| 

Another example: 

"O friend! When the sound of the flute indicating the presence of Krsna 
manifests in the ravine, I stop the flow of tears, I hide my choked voice and 
conceal the trembling of my body. However, skillful persons have guessed 
that I have attraction to Krsna in my heart." 

atha diptah — 

praudham tri-caturd vyaktim pahca vd yugapad-gatah \ 

samvaritum asakyas te dipta dhirair udahrtah ||2.3.76|| 

Brilliant sattvika-bhdva: 

"When three, four or five sattvika-bhavas appear strongly and cannot be 

concealed, they are called dlpta-sattvika-bhdvas." 

yatha — 



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na saktim upavinane ciram adhatta kampdkulo 
na gadgada-niruddha-vdk prabhur abhud upaslokane \ 
ksamo 'jani na viksane vigalad-asru-purah puro 
madhu-dvisi parisphuraty avasam-murtir asm munih ||2.3.77|| 

An example: 

"When Narada saw Krsna appear before him, he lost control of his body. Due 
to trembling of his body, for a long time he was unable to play his vina, and 
due to choked voice, he was unable to recite verses of praise. Because his 
eyes were filled with tears, he could not see Krsna." 

yatha vd — 

kim unmilaty asre kusumaja-rajo gahjasi mudha 

sa-romahce kampe himam anilam akrosasi kutah \ 

kim uru-stambhe vd vana-viharanam dveksi sakhi te 

nirabadha radhe vadati madanadhim svara-bhida ||2.3.78|| 

Another example: 

"0 Radha my friend! Because tears have come to Your eyes, why are You 
unnecessarily scolding the flower pollen? Because Your hairs are standing on 
end and Your body is quivering, why are You uselessly scolding the cool 
wind? Because Your limbs have become paralyzed, why are You uselessly 
showing anger about walking in the forest? Your choked voice which You 
cannot hide, reveals the pain of love." 

atha uddiptah — 

ekada vyaktim apannah panca-sah sarva eva vd \ 

arudha paramotkarsam uddipta iti kirtitdh ||2.3.79|| 

Very brilliant sattvika-bhava: 

"When five, six or all of the sattvika-bhavas manifest at the same time, in 

their most extreme form, it is called uddipta-sattvika-bhava" 

yatha — 

adya svidyati vepate pulakibhir nispandatam ahgakair 

dhatte kakubhir akulam vilapati mlayaty analposmabhih \ 



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stimyaty ambubhir ambaka-stavakitaih pitambaroddamaram 
sadyas tad-virahena muhyati muhur gosthadhivasi janah ||2.3.80|| 

"O Krsna, wearing yellow cloth! Today the inhabitants of Gokula are covered 
in perspiration out of separation from You. Their limbs are paralyzed and their 
bodily hairs are standing on end. In distress they converse in choked voices. 
They have become faded in complexion due to the extreme heat of separation, 
and they have become wet with the profuse flow of tears. They are now 
repeatedly fainting out of separation." 

uddiptd eva suddipta mahd-bhdve bhavanty ami \ 
sarva evaparam kotim sdttvikd yatra bibhrati ||2.3.81|| 

"When all the uddipta-sattvika-bhavas appear in mahd-bhdva they are called 
suddipta-sattvika-bhavas . All the sdttvika-bhdvas attain their highest state in 
mahd-bhdva" 

kim ca — 

athatra sattvikabhasa vilikhyante catur-vidhah ||2.3.82|| 
raty-abhasa-bhavas te tu sattvabhasa-bhavas tathd \ 
nihsattvas capratipas ca yatha-purvam amivarah ||2.3.83|| 

"However, four types of sattvika-bhdvabhasas should be described. They are 
called ratyabhasa-bhava (generated from ratyabhasa), sattvabhasa-bhdva 
(generated from sattvabhasa), nihsattva (false sattva) and pratipa (enmity). 
They are listed in order from superior to inferior." 

tatra adyah — 

mumuksu-pramukhesv adya raty-abhasat puroditat ||2.3.84|| 

"Ratyabhasa-bhava-sattvikabhasa, symptoms appearing to be sdttvika- 
bhdvas, generated from ratyabhasa described previously, arises in people 
desiring liberation." 

yatha — 

varanasi-nivasT kascid ayam vyaharan hares caritam \ 

yati-gosthyam utpulakah sihcati ganda-dvayim asraih ||2.3.85|| 

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An example: 

"When a person living in Varanasi glorified the qualities of Hari repeatedly in 

the assembly of sannyasis, his hairs stood on end and tears moistened his 

cheeks." 

atha sattvdbhdsa-bhavdh — 

mud-vismaydder dbhdsah prodyan jdtyd slathe hrdi \ 

sattvdbhasa iti proktah sattvdbhdsa-bhavds tatah ||2.3.86|| 

"When a shadow (dbhdsa) of joy, astonishment or other emotion appears in 
the heart of a person who is soft (sentimental) by nature, the heart is said to 
have developed a state of sattvdbhasa. From this state of sattvdbhasa arise 
symptoms similar to sdttvika-bhdvas, called sattvdbhdsa-bhdva. " 

yathd — 

jaran-mimdmsakasydpi srnvatah krsna-vibhramam \ 

hrstdyamdna-manaso babhuvotpulakam vapuh ||2.3.87|| 

An example: 

"When an aged person expert in the study of the Mimamsa scriptures heard 

the pastimes of Krsna, he became joyful in heart and his hairs stood on end." 

yathd vd — 

mukunda-caritdmrta-prasara-varsinas te mayd 

katham kathana-cdturi-madhurimd gurur varnyatdm \ 

muhurtam atad-arthino 'pi visayino 'pi yasydnandn 

nisamya vijayam prabhor dadhati bdspa-dhdrdm ami ||2.3.88|| 

Another example: 

"How can I describe the sweetness of your skillful words pouring a stream of 
nectar with descriptions of the pastimes of Mukunda? When the materialists 
who do not even desire to hear about Him hear the pastimes of Mukunda from 
your mouth, their eyes quickly become filled with tears." 

atha nihsattvdh — 



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nisarga-picchila-svante tad-abhyasa-pare 'pi ca \ 
sattvdbhdsam vindpi syuh kvdpy asru-pulakddayah ||2.3.89|| 

"When a person has a hard heart and practices exhibiting the sdttvika-bhdvas 
without even a touch of emotion, the appearance of tears or other symptoms is 
called nihsattva." 

yathd — 

nisamayato hari-caritam na hi sukha-duhkhddayo 'sya hrdi bhdvdh \ 

anabhinivesdj jdtd katham asravad asram asrdntam ||2.3.90|| 

"When a person, though hearing the pastimes of the Lord, does not feel either 
happiness nor distress because of hardness of the heart, how can tears 
constantly flow from his eyes? It must be from practice alone." 

prakrtyd sithilam yesdm manah picchilam eva vd \ 
tesv eva sdttvikdbhdsah prdyah samsadi jdyate ||2.3.91|| 

"Those whose minds are either soft or hard generally show sdttvikdbhdsa only 
in festive gatherings of chanting the Holy Names if the Lord." 

atha pratipdh — 

hitdd anyasya krmasya pratipdh krud-bhayddibhih ||2.3.92|| 

"Sdttvikdbhdsa within the enemies of Krsna, generally from anger or fear is 
called pratipa-sdttvikdbhdsa. " 

tatra krudhd, yathd hari-vamse (2.30.63) — 
tasya prasphuritausthasya raktddhara-tatasya ca \ 
vaktram kamsasya rosena rakta-surydyate tadd ||2.3.93|| 

From anger, from Hari-varhsa: 

"With red lower lip and trembling upper lip, Karhsa's face appeared like the 

sun, red with anger." 

bhayena, yathd — 



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mlanananah krsnam aveksya range 
sisveda mallas tv adhi-bhdla-sukti \ 
mukti-sriydm susthu puro milantydm 
atyddardt pddyam ivdjahdra ||2.3.94|| 

From fear: 

"Seeing Krsna in the arena, the wrestler's face turned pale, and drops of 
perspiration appeared on his forehead. His forehead seemed like a conchshell 
offering arghya with great reverence to the goddess of liberation, who had just 
arrived in front of him." 

yathd vd — 

pravdcyamdne puratah purdne nisamya kamsasya bhaydtirekam \ 

pariplavdntahkaranah samantdt parimldna-mukhas taddsit ||2.3.95|| 

Another example of fear: 

"Hearing of Kamsa's extreme fear during a recital of the Purdnas, one person 

(identifying with Kamsa's fear) began to tremble within and his face 

darkened." 

nasty arthah sdttvikdbhdsa-kathane ko 'pi yadyapi \ 
sdttvikdndm vivekdya dik tathdpi pradarsitd ||2.3.96|| 

"Though there is no necessity of describing sdttvikdbhdsa, a sketch has been 
given to familiarize the readers with all aspects of sdttvika-bhdvas ." 

iti sri-sri-bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhau daksina-vibhdge 
bhakti-rasa-sdmdnya-nirupane sdttvika-lahari trtiyd \ 

"Thus ends the Third Wave in the Southern Ocean of Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta- 
sindhu, concerning sdttvika-bhdva" 



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Fourth Wave: Concerning Vydbhicdri-bhdva 

athocyante trayas-trimsad-bhava ye vyabhicarinah \ 
visesenabhimukhyena caranti sthayinam prati ||2.4. 1|| 

"Hereafter the 33 vyabhicarT-bhavas will be described. They are called 
vyabhicarT-bhavas because the move {caranti) against the sthayT-bhava, while 
assisting it in a distinctive way (visesena abhimukhyena)" 

vag-ahga-sattva-sucya jneyas te vyabhicarinah \ 
sahcdrayanti bhdvasya gatim sancarino 'pi ||2.4.2|| 

"The vyabhicari-bhavas reveal themselves by words, by eyebrows and other 
bodily parts, and by external actions (anubhdvas) that arise from 
overwhelming emotions (sattva). Since they set in motion (sahcdrayanti) the 
course of the sthayi-bhava, they are called sahcdrl-bhavas" 

unmajjanti nimajjanti sthdyiny amrta-vdridhau \ 

urmivad vardhayanty enamyanti tad-rupatam ca te ||2.4.3|| 

"All the vyabhicarT-bhavas, rising and falling like waves in the sweet ocean of 
the sthayi-bhava, increase the sthayi-bhava and then merge into it." 

nirvedo 'tha visado dainyam glani-sramau ca mada-garvau \ 

sahka-trdsdvega unmadapasmrti tatha vyadhih ||2.4.4|| 

moho mrtir alasyam jadyam vridavahittha ca \ 

smrtir atha vitarka-cinta-mati-dhrtayo harsa utsukatvam ca ||2.4.5|| 

augryam arsasuyas capalyam caiva nidra ca \ 

suptir bodha itime bhdva vyabhicarinah samakhyatah ||2.4.6|| 

"The vyabhicari-bhavas are as follows: 

1 . self-disgust (nirveda) 

2. remorse (visada) 

3. thinking oneself unqualified (dainyam or dinata) 

4. debility (glani or mlani) 



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5. fatigue (srama) 

6. rapture (mada) 

7. pride (garva) 

8. apprehension (sanka) 

9. sudden fear (trdsa) 

10. confusion of the mind (dvega) 

1 1 . insanity (unmada) 

12. epilepsy (apasmrti) 

13. sickness (vyddhi) 

14. loss of internal awareness (moha) 

15. death- like symptoms (mrti) 

16. sloth (dlasyam) 

17. indecision (jddyam) 

18. shame (yrlda) 

19. concealment (avahitthd) 

20. remembrance (smrti) 

21. conjecture (vitarka) 

22. pondering (cintd) 

23. finding meaning through scriptural reference (mati) 

24. steadiness (dhrti) 

25. joy (harsa) 

26. impatience (autsukhyam) 

27. ferocity (augrya) 

28. indignation (amarsa) 

29. fault-finding (aswya) 

30. insolence (cdpalya) 

3 1 . sleep (nidrd) 

32. dreaming (supti) 

33. enlightenment (bodha)" 

tatra (1) nirvedah — 

mahdrti-viprayogersyd-sad-vivekadi-kalpitam \ 
svdvamdnanam evdtra nirveda iti kathyate \ 
atra cintasru-vaivarnya-dainya-nihsvasitadayah ||2.4.7|| 

"Self-disgust arising from great sorrow, separation, hatred or worrying about 
doing what should not be done, or not doing what should be done, is called 

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nirveda. In this state worry, tears, change of color, feeling of lack of 
qualification (dainyam) and sighing occur." 

tatra mahdrtyd, yathd — 

hanta deha-hatakaih kim amibhih 

pdlitair viphala-punya-phalair nah \ 

ehi kdliya-hrade visa-vahnau 

svarii kutumbini hathdj juhavdma ||2.4.8|| 

From great sorrow: 

"O Yasoda! What is to be gained from continuing to maintain this sinful, 
unfortunate body? Come! We will immediately offer our bodies in the lake of 
Kaliya filled with the fire of poison." 

viprayogena, yathd — 

asahgamdn mddhava-mddhurindm 

apuspite nirasatdm pray ate \ 

vrnddvane siryati ha kuto 'sau 

prdnity apunyah subalo dvirephah ||2.4.9|| 

From separation: 

"Without the presence of the sweetness of Madhava, Vrndavan became 
withered, without charm and devoid of flowers. How does this unfortunate, 
strong bee continue to live?" 

yathd vd, ddna-keli-kaumudydm (20) 
bhavatu mddhava-jalpam asrnvatoh 
sravanayor alam asravanir mama \ 
tarn avilokayator avilocanih 
sakhi vilocanayos ca kildnayoh ||2.4. 10|| 

From Ddna-keli-kaumudi [20] : 

"O friend! Without hearing the words of Madhava, my ears may as well 
become deaf. Without seeing the form of Madhava, my eyes may as well 
become blind." 

irsyayd, yathd hari-vamse (2.67. 11) satyddevT-vdkyam — 

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stotavya yadi tavat sa naradena tavagratah \ 

durbhago 'yamjanas tatra kim artham anusabditah ||2.4. 11|| 

From anger, in the words of Satyabhama, from Hari-vamsa [2.67. 11]: 

"O Krsna! If Narada is praising Rukminl in front of You, he is calling upon 

her a misfortune similar to mine. " 

sad-vivekena, yathd sri-dasame (10.51.47) — 
mamaisa kdlo 'jita nisphalo gato 
rdjya-sriyonnaddha-madasya bhupateh \ 
martydtma-buddheh suta-ddra-kosa-bhusv 
dsajjamdnasya duranta-cintayd ||2.4.12|| 

Through discrimination, from the Tenth Canto of SrTmad-Bhdgavatam 

[10.51.47]: 

"I have wasted all this time, O unconquerable one, becoming more and more 

intoxicated by my domain and opulence as an earthly king. Misidentifying the 

mortal body as the self, becoming attached to children, wives, treasury and 

land, I suffered endless anxiety." 

amangalam api procya nirvedam prathamam munih \ 
mene 'mum sthdyinam sdnta itijalpanti kecana ||2.4.13|| 

"Though it is inauspicious, Bharata Muni has mentioned nirveda as the first 
vyabhicdri-bhdva, since it is the sthdyi-bhdva for sdnta-rasa. This is the 
opinion of some persons." 

atha (2) visddah — 

istdnavdpti-prdrabdha-kdrydsiddhi-vipattitah \ 
aparddhddito 'pi sydd anutdpo visannatd ||2.4. 14|| 
atropdya-sahdydnusandhis cintd ca rodanam \ 
vildpa-svdsa-vaivarnya-mukha-sosddayo 'pi ca ||2.4. 15|| 

Remorse: 

"Remorse or despair arising from failure to attain one's desired object, from 
failure to accomplish a task, from occurrence of a disaster, or from 
committing an offense is called visdda. In this state, there is worry, search for 

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a means of accomplishing, search for assistance, weeping, moaning, heavy 
breathing, change of color and drying of the mouth." 

tatra istanavaptito, yatha — 

jaram yata murtir mama vivasatam vag api gata 

mano-vrttis ceyam smrti-vidhurata-paddhatim agdt \ 

agha-dhvamsin dure vasatu bhavad-alokana-sasT 

maya hanta prapto na bhajana-rucer apy avasarah ||2.4. 16|| 

From not attaining one's desired object: 

"O Krsna, killer of the Agha demon! My body is afflicted with age, my words 
are uncontrolled and my mind is without power of memory. What to speak of 
attaining the moon of bliss on seeing You, I have not even attained the 
opportunity of desiring to worship You!" 

prarabdha-karyasiddheh, yatha — 
svapne mayddya kusumani kilahrtani 
yatnena fair viracita vana-malika ca \ 
yavan mukunda-hrdi hanta nidhiyate sd 
ha tavad eva tarasa virarama nidra ||2.4. 17|| 

From failure to accomplish an action: 

"Today in a dream I was picking flowers and very carefully made a garland 
from them. But just when I thought of offering it to the heart of Mukunda, my 
sleep broke." 

vipattiteh, yatha — 
katham anayi pure mayaka sutah 
katham asau na nigrhya grhe dhrtah \ 
amum aho bata danti-vidhuntudo 
vidhuritam vidhum atra vidhitsati ||2.4.18|| 

Remorse arising from impending disaster: 

"I am so unfortunate! Why did I take my son to Mathura? Why did I not 
forcibly keep Him in my house? In Mathura the elephant desires to afflict my 
son just as Rahu desires to afflict the moon." 



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aparddhdt, yathd sri-dasame (10. 14.9) — 

pasyesa me 'ndryam ananta ddye 

pardtmani tvayy api mdyi-mdyini \ 

mdydm vitatyeksitum dtma-vaibhavam 

hy aham kiydn aiccham ivdrcir agnau ||2.4.19|| 

Remorse arising from committing an offense, from the Tenth Canto of 
Srimad-Bhdgavatam [10.14.9]: 

"My Lord, just see my uncivilized impudence! To test Your power I tried to 
extend my illusory potency to cover You, the unlimited and primeval 
Supersoul, who bewilder even the masters of illusion. What am I compared to 
You? I am just like a small spark in the presence of a great fire." 

yathd vd — 

syamantakam aham hrtvd gato ghordsyam antakam \ 

karavai taranim kdrii vd ksipto vaitaraniyam anu ||2.4.20|| 

Another example of remorse arising from committing an offense: 
"Having stolen the Syamantaka jewel, I have fallen into the mouth of terrible 
hell. Having fallen into the Vaitarani River, what boat should I use to cross 
over it?" 

atha (3) dainyam — 

duhkha-trdsdparddhddyair anaurjityam tu dinatd \ 

cdtu-krn-mdndya-mdlinya-cintdhga-jadimddi-krt 1 12.4.2 1 1 1 

"Thinking oneself a low creature because of sorrow, fear or offense is called 
dainyam or dinatd. In this state there are words of flattery, feebleness of the 
heart, impurity of the heart, thinking various thoughts and immobility of the 
limbs." 

tatra duhkhena, yathd sri-dasame (10.51.57) — 
ciram iha vrjindrtas tapyamdno 'nutdpair 
avitrsa-sada-mitro labdha-sdntih kathahcit \ 
saranada samupetas tvat-paddbjam pardtmann 
abhayam rtam asokam pdhi mdpannam isa ||2.4.22|| 



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Humility arising from sorrow, from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam 
[10.51.57]: 

"For so long I have been pained by troubles in this world and have been 
burning with lamentation. My six enemies are never satiated, and I can find 
no peace. Therefore, O giver of shelter, O Supreme Soul, please protect me. O 
Lord, in the midst of danger I have by good fortune approached Your lotus 
feet, which are the Absolute Truth and thus make one fearless and free of 
sorrow." 

trasena, yatha prathame (1.8.10) — 

abhidravati mam Tsa saras taptdyaso vibho \ 

kamam dahatu mam natha ma me garbho nipatyatam ||2.4.23|| 

Lowness arising from fear, from the First Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam 

[1.8.10]: 

"O my Lord, You are all-powerful. A fiery iron arrow is coming towards me 

fast. My Lord, let it burn me personally, if You so desire, but please do not let 

it burn and abort my embryo. Please do me this favor, my Lord." 

aparddhena, yatha sri-dasame (10. 14. 10) — 

atah ksamasvacyuta me rajo-bhuvo 

hy ajanatas tvat-prthagisa-mdninah \ 

ajdvalepdndhatamo 'ndhacaksusa 

eso 'nukampyo mayi nathavan iti ||2.4.24|| 

Lowness arising from committing an offense, from the Tenth Canto of 
Srimad-Bhagavatam [10.14.10]: 

"Therefore, O infallible Lord, kindly excuse my offenses. I have taken birth in 
the mode of passion and am therefore simply foolish, presuming myself a 
controller independent of Your Lordship. My eyes are blinded by the darkness 
of ignorance, which causes me to think of myself as the unborn creator of the 
universe. But please consider that I am Your servant and therefore worthy of 
Your compassion." 

adya-sabdena lajjaydpi, yatha tatraiva (10.22. 14) — 

ma 'nayam bhoh krthas tvdm tu nanda-gopa-sutam priyam \ 

janimo 'hga vraja-slaghyam dehi vasamsi vepitah ||2.4.25|| 

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The word adya in duhkha-trdsdparddhddyair [verse 21] indicates that 
dainyam also arises from shame. This is illustrated in the Tenth Canto of 
Srimad-Bhdgavatam [10.22.14]: 

"Dear Krsna, don't be unfair! We know that You are the respectable son of 
Nanda and that You are honored by everyone in Vraja. You are also very dear 
to us. Please give us back our clothes. We are shivering in the cold water." 

atha (4) mldnih — 

ojah somdtmakam dehe bala-pusti-krd asya tu \ 

ksaydccham ddhi-raty-ddyair gldnir nisprdnatd matd \ 

kampdnga-jddya-vaivarnya-kdrsya-drg-bhramanddi-krt ||2.4.26|| 

"Ojas, whose ruling deity is the moon, produces strength and nourishment in 
the body. When it decreases by physical exertion, mental anxiety or the sexual 
act, the weakened state is called gldni or mldni. In the state oi gldni or 
languishing there is trembling, indecision, change of color, becoming thin and 
throwing glances here and there." 

tatra sramena, yathd — 

dghurnan-mani-valayojjvala-prakosthd 

gosthdntar-madhuripu-kirti-nartitausthi\ 

loldksi dadhi-kalasam vilodayanti 

krsndya klama-bhara-nihsprhd babhuva ||2.4.27|| 

Gldni arising from physical exertion: 

"Once Radha was churning yogurt for Krsna. At that time the jewel-studded 
bracelet on Her hand began to shake. Her lips began to sing the glories of 
Krsna living in Vraja. Her eyes began to move about in fear of Her elders. 
Churning the yogurt in this way, She became extremely tired, and could not 
move Her limbs." 

yathd vd — 

gumphitum nirupamdm vana-srajam 

cdru puspa-patalam vicinvati \ 

durgame klama-bhardtidurbald 

kdnane ksanam abhun mrgeksand ||2.4.28|| 

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Another example: 

"To string an incomparable garland for Krsna, doe-eyed Radha went into an 
inaccessible forest. While picking the beautiful flowers, for a few moments 
She became very weak due to exhaustion." 

adhina, yathd — 

sd rasavaty atikarena vihina ksina-jivana-taroccala-hamsd \ 

mddhavddya virahena tavdmbd susyati sma sarasi sucineva ||2.4.29|| 

Fatigue due to mental anxiety: 

"Because of the summer's heat, the lake dries up and becomes devoid of 
lotuses and water birds. O Madhava! In a similar way, Your mother Yasoda, 
devoid of happiness, has become weakened in separation. Her soul has 
departed and her body is withering away." 

ratyd, yathd rasa-sudhdkare (2.13) — 
ati-prayatnena ratdnta-tdntd 
krsnena talpdvaropitd sd \ 
dlambya tasyaiva karam karena 
jyotsnd-krtdnandam alindam dpa ||2.4.30|| 

Fatigue arising from amorous activities, from Rasa-sadhdkara: 
"At the conclusion of amorous activities, Krsna raised Radha very carefully 
from the bed. Radha then held His hand and came to the veranda of the house, 
shining in the moonlight." 

atha (5) sramah — 

adhva-nrtya-ratddy-utthah khedah srama itiryate \ 

nidrd-sveddnga-sammarda-jrmbhdsvdsddi-bhdg asau ||2.4.31|| 

"Fatigue arising from losing the way, dancing or amorous activities is called 
srama. In this state, sleep, perspiration, rubbing the body, yawning and heavy 
breathing appear." 

atha adhvano, yathd — 



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krtagasam putram anuvrajanti vrajajirantar vraja-raja-rajni \ 
pariskhalat-kuntala-bandhaneyam babhuva gharmambu-karambitahgT \\ 

2.4.32|| 

Fatigue from losing the way: 

"When Krsna offended His mother and fled away, she pursued her son in 

Vraja. Her hair became unbound and she began to perspire." 

nrtyadeh, yathd — 
vistiryottaralita-haram ahga-haram 
sangitonmukha-mukharair vrtah suhrdbhih \ 
asvidyad viracita-nanda-sunur va 
kurvanas tata-bhuvi tdndavdni ramah ||2.4.33|| 

From dancing: 

"At a festival performed for Krsna, Baladeva, surrounded by His singing 
friends on the bank of the Yamuna, began to dance, moving His body about 
while His pearl necklace shook. His body became covered in perspiration." 

ratdd, yathd sri-dasame (10.33.20) — 

tdsdm ativihdrena srantanam vadandni sah \ 

prdmrjat karunah premnd santamendhga pdnind ||2.4.34|| 

From amorous actions, from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam 

[10.33.20]: 

"Seeing that the gopis were fatigued from conjugal enjoyment, my dear King, 

merciful Krsna lovingly wiped their faces with His comforting hand." 

atha (6) madah — 

viveka-hara ulldso madah sa dvi-vidho matah \ 
madhu-pdna-bhavo 'nahga-vikriya-bhara-jo 'pi ca \ 
gaty-ariga-vanT-skhalana-drg-ghurna-raktimadi-krt 1 12. 4. 3 5 1 1 

"Rapture that destroys all sense of discriminating power is called mada. There 
are two types: arising from intoxication and arising from extreme 
transformations due to love. In this state there is stumbling while walking, 



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uncoordinated movement of the limbs, and uncoordinated speaking. The eyes 
roll, and the face becomes red." 

tatra madhu-pana-bhavo, yathd lalita-madhave (5.41) — 
bile kva nu vililyire nrpa-pipilikah piditah 
pinasmi jagad-andakam nanu harih krudham dhdsyati \ 
saci-grha-kurahga re hasasi kim tvam ity unnadann 
udeti mada-dambara-skhalita-cudam agre hall ||2.4.36|| 

Rapture from intoxication, from Lalita-mddhava [5.41]: 

"Baladeva arrived with disheveled hair, fully intoxicated with liquor. He 

began to shout, 'The ant- like kings, being defeated, are hiding in some hole. I 

will smash the whole universe. O Indra, plaything of Saci! Why are you 

laughing?" 

yathd vapracam — 

bha-bha-bhramati medinl la-la-landate candramah 
kr-krsna vavada drutam ha-ha-has anti kim vrsnayah \ 
sisldhu mu-mu-muhca me pa-pa-pa-pdna-patre sthitah 
mada-skhalitam alapan hala-dharah sriyah vah kriyat ||2.4.37|| 

Another example of intoxication, from a traditional work: 
' 'O Krsna! Tell me immediately! Is the earth swerving? Is the moon 
wobbling? O Yadus, why are you laughing? Give Me some wine in a glass!' 
Balarama stuttered, speaking in this way while sitting in His house. May that 
Balarama give you blessings!" 

uttamas tu madac chete madhyo hasati payati \ 
kanisthah krosati svairam purusam vakti roditi ||2.4.38|| 

"When a person becomes intoxicated with liquor, the superior person falls 
asleep. The second-class person laughs and sings. The third-class person 
shouts, uses rough words and weeps." 

mado 'pi tri-vidhah proktas tarunadi-prabhedatah \ 
atra natyupayogitvad vistarya na hi varnitah ||2.4.39|| 



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"There are three types of intoxication according to the stage of intoxication. 
However these will not be discussed in this work as they are not very useful to 
the topic." 

anahga-vikriya-bharajo, yatha — 
vrajapati-sutam agre viksya bhugmbhavad-bhrur 
bhramati hasati rodity dsyam antardadhdti \ 
pralapati muhur alim vandate pasya vrnde 
nava-madana-maddndhd hanta gandharvikeyam ||2.4.40|| 

Rapture arising from love: 

"O Vrnda! See this astonishing thing! Radha, in the rapture of new love, 
gazing at Krsna in front of Her, sometimes frowns, sometimes wanders about, 
sometimes laughs, sometimes weeps, sometimes covers Her face, sometimes 
prattles and sometimes repeatedly offers respects to Her friends." 

atha (7) garvah — 

saubhagya-rupa-tarunya-guna-sarvottamasrayaih \ 
ista-labhadina canya-helanam garva iryate ||2.4.41|| 

"Treating others with contempt due to one's own good fortune, due to 
youthful beauty, due to one's good qualities, due to taking shelter of the Lord 
or sue to attaining one's object of love, is called garva or haughtiness." 

atra solluntha-vacanam iTlanuttara-dayita \ 

svahgeksa nihnuvo 'nyasya vacandsravanddayah ||2.4.42|| 

"In this state there are joking words, not giving answers by one's own choice, 
showing off one's body, concealing one's intentions and not hearing others' 
words." 

tatra saubhagyena, yatha sri-krsna-karnamrte (3.93) — 
hastam utksipya yato 'si balat krsna kim adbhutam \ 
hrdayad yadi niryasi paurusam ganayami te ||2.4.43|| 

Haughtiness from good fortune, from Krsna-karnamrta: 



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"O Krsna! Is it really astonishing if You can give up holding My hand? I will 
consider You a real man if You take take Yourself from My heart." 

rupa-tdrunyena, yatha — 
yasyah svabhava-madhuram parisevya murtim 
dhanya babhuva nitardm api yavana-srih \ 
seyam tvayi vraja-vadhu-sata-bhukta-mukte 
drk-patam dcaratu krsna katham sakhlme ||2.4.44|| 

Haughtiness arising from beauty: 

"Endowed with the beauty of youth, my friend Radha is fortunate, having 
taken shelter of the form of natural sweetness. How can She glance at You, 
who have enjoyed hundreds of women of Vraja and then abandoned them?" 

gunena, yatha — 

gumphantu gopah kusumaih sugandhibhir damani kamam dhrta- 

ramaniyakaih \ 

nidhdsyate kintu sa-trsnam agratah krsno madiyam hrdi vismitah srajam \\ 

2.4.45|| 

Haughtiness arising from good qualities: 

"The cowherd boys can make unlimited garlands of the most beautiful 
fragrant flowers. But Krsna will eagerly hold My garland over His heart, 
showing great astonishment at the skill in its making." 

sarvottamdsrayena, yatha sri-dasame (10.2.33) — 
tathd na te madhava tavakah kvacid 
bhrasyanti mdrgat tvayi baddha-sauhrddh \ 
tvaydbhigupta vicaranti nirbhaya 
vindyakanikapa-murdhasu prabho \ |2.4.46| | 

From taking shelter of the Lord, from the Tenth Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam 

[10.2.33]: 

"O Madhava, Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord of the goddess of 

fortune, if devotees completely in love with You sometimes fall from the path 

of devotion, they do not fall like nondevotees, for You still protect them. Thus 



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they fearlessly traverse the heads of their opponents and continue to progress 
in devotional service." 

ista-ldbhena, yatha — 

vrndavanendra bhavatah paramam prasddam 
dsddya nandita-matir muhur uddhato smi \ 
asamsate muni-manoratha-vrtti-mrgyam 
vaikuntha-natha-karunam api nddya cetah ||2.4.47|| 

Haughtiness from attaining one's desired object: 

"O moon of Vrndavan! Receiving Your excellent mercy, in great bliss, I have 
become proud. Today my heart does not even desire the mercy of the Lord of 
Vaikuntha which is sought by the sages." 

atha (8) sankd — 

sviya-cauryaparadhadeh para-kraurydditas tathd \ 
svanistotpreksanam yat tu sd sahkety abhidhiyate 
atrasya-sosa-vaivarnya-dik-preksa-linatadayah 1 1 2 . 4. 4 8 1 1 

"Apprehension due to committing theft, offense or others' cruelty is called 
sankd. In this state there is drying of the mouth, change of complexion, 
glancing in all directions and hiding oneself." 

tatra caurydd, yatha — 
sa-tarnakam dimbha-kadambakam haran 
sad-ambham ambhoruha-sambhavas tada \ 
tirobhavisyan haritas caleksanair 
astabhir astau haritah samiksate ||2.4.49|| 

Apprehension from theft: 

"After stealing the calves and cowherd boys out of pride, Brahma desiring to 
disappear from Krsna's presence, out of great apprehension glanced with his 
eight eyes in the eight directions." 

yatha va — 

syamantakam hanta vamantam artham 

nihnutya dure yad aharh prayatah \ 

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avadyam adyapi tad eva karma 
sarmani citte mama nirbhinatti ||2.4.50|| 

Another example: 

"Akrura thought, 'I have hidden the Syamantaka jewel which gives wealth, 
and fled away. In anxiety because of this despicable act, until today, happiness 
has disappeared from my heart. ' " 

aparadhad, yatha — 

tad-avadhi malino 'si nanda-gosthe 

yad-avadhi vrstim acikarah sacisa \ 

srnu hitam abhitah prapadya krsnam 

sriyam avisankam alankuru tvam aindrim ||2.4.51|| 

Apprehension from offense: 

"O Indra! As long as you pour rain upon Nanda's fields, you will be 
despondent. Listen as I tell you something for your benefit: You will enjoy 
full powers as Indra without apprehension in your heart by surrendering 
completely to Krsna's lotus feet." 

para-krauryena, yatha padydvalyam (331) — 
prathayati na tatha mamdrtim uccaih 
sahacari vallava-candra-viprayogah \ 
katubhir asura-mandalaih parite 
danujapater nagare yathasya vasah ||2.4.52|| 

Apprehension on seeing others' cruelty, from Padydvali [331]: 
"O friend! Thinking of Krsna living in Mathura surrounded by the ferocious 
demons of Karhsa, I am deeply afflicted. In the same way I feel affliction in 
separation from Krsna." 

sanka tu pravara-strinam bhirutvad bhaya-krd bhavet ||2.4.53|| 

"This apprehension (sarika) becomes fear (bhaya) in the best of women, 
because they have a timid nature." 

atha (9) trasah — 

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trasah ksobho hrdi tadid-ghora-sattvogra-nisvanaih \ 
parsvasthalamba-romanca-kampa-stambha-bhramadi-krt | |2.4. 54| | 

"The disturbance arising in the heart from lightning, fearful creatures or a 
loud sound is called trdsa (terror). In this state a person grasps nearby objects 
for support, his hairs stand on end, he quivers, becomes paralyzed and 
wanders about." 

tatra taditd, yathd — 

badham nividaya sadyas taditd taditeksanah \ 

raksa krsneti cukrosa ko 'pi gopi-stanandhayah ||2.4.55|| 

Terror from lightning: 

"When the eyes of the cowherd boys became pained by the flashing of 

lightning, they began to shout, 'O Krsna, please protect us! " 

ghora-sattvena, yathd — 
aduram asedusi vallavahgana 
svam puhgavikrtya surari-purigave \ 
krsna-bhramenasu tarahgad-ahgika 
tamalam alihgya babhuva niscala ||2.4.56|| 

Terror from ferocious beasts: 

"When Vrsasura approached, taking the form of a bull, some of the gopis 
began to tremble. Suddenly embracing a tamala tree, mistaking it for Krsna, 
they could not move." 

ugra-nisvanena, yathd — 

akarnya karna-padavT-vipadam yasoda 

visphurjitam disi disi prakatam vrkanam \ 

yaman nikama-catura caturah sva-putram 

sa netra-catvara-caram dram acacara ||2.4.57|| 

Terror arising from frightening sounds: 

"When the very wise Yasoda heard the terrifying howling of wolves echoing 
in all directions, which gave pain to the ears, she kept Krsna continually 
within her vision for some days." 

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gatrotkampi manah-kampah sahasa trasa ucyate \ 
purvdpara-vicdrottham bhayam trdsdt prthag bhavet ||2.4.58|| 

"Disturbance of the heart that suddenly produces shaking of the limbs is 
called trasa. This is different from fear. Fear arises after deliberating on 
previous and subsequent events." 

atha (10) dvegah — 

cittasya sambhramo yah syad dvego 'yam sa castadha \ 

priyapriyanala-marud-varsotpata-gajaritah ||2.4.59|| 

"Confusion of the mind is called dvega. It is of eight types, arising from dear 
things, detested objects, fire, wind, rain, calamity, elephants or enemies." 

priyotthe pulakah sdntvam cdpalydbhyudgamddayah \ 
apriyotthe tu bhu-pdta-vikrosa-bhramanddayah ||2.4.60|| 

"In dvega arising from dear objects, standing of the hair on end, words of 
affection, fickleness and rising to one's feet appear. In dvega arising from 
detested objects, falling on the ground, shouting and wandering about appear." 

vyatyasta-gati-kampdksi-milandsrddayo 'gnije \ 
vdtaje 'jdvrti-ksipra-gati-drn-mdrjanddayah 1 1 2. 4. 6 1 1 1 

"In dvega arising from fire, the actions are retreating, shaking of the body, 
closing the eyes and tears. In dvega from wind, the actions are covering the 
body, walking swiftly and rubbing the eyes." 

vrstijo dhdvana-cchatra-gdtra-sankocanddi-krt \ 

autpdte mukha-vaivarnya-vismayo'kanthitddayah ||2.4.62|| 

"In dvega arising from rain, the actions are running, holding an umbrella and 
crouching down. In dvega arising from calamity, the actions are discoloration 
of the face, astonishment and strong shaking of the body." 



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gaje palayanotkampa-trasa-prstheksanadayah \ 
arijo varma-sastrddi-grahdpasaranddikrt ||2.4.63|| 

"In dvega from elephants, the actions are fleeing, strong shaking, trdsa and 
looking behind. In dvega arising from enemies, the actions are taking up 
armor and weapons, abandoning one's house and going elsewhere." 

atra priya-darsanajo, yathd — 

preksya vrnddvandt putram dydntam prasnuta-stanT \ 

sahkuld pulakair dsid dkuld gokulesvari ||2.4.64|| 

Avega arising from seeing the object of one's affection: 
"When Yasoda the queen of Gokula saw Krsna returning from the forest of 
Vrndavan, her hair stood on end. She became perplexed and milk began to 
flow from her breasts." 

priya-sravanajo, yathd sn-dasame (10.23.18) — 
srutvdcyutam updydtam nityam tad-darsanotsukdh \ 
tat-kathdksipta-manaso babhuvur jdta-sambhramdh ||2.4.65|| 

Avega arising from hearing about one's object of affection, from the Tenth 
Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam [10.23.18]: 

"The wives of the brdhmanas were always eager to see Krsna, for their minds 
had been enchanted by descriptions of Him. Thus as soon as they heard that 
He had come, they became very excited." 

apriya-darsanajo, yathd — 

kim idam kim idam kim etad uccair 

iti ghora-dhvani-ghurnitd lapanti \ 

nisi vaksati viksya putandyds 

tanayam bhrdmyati sambhramdd yasoda ||2.4.66|| 

From seeing something detestable: 

"Hearing a terrifying sound and seeing Krsna on the chest of Putana during a 
dream, Yasoda wailed in a loud voice, 'What is this? What is this?' She began 
wandering about in confusion." 



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apriya-sravanajo, yatha — 

nis amy a putram kratatos tatante 

mahijayor madhyagam urdhva-netra \ 

abhira-rajhT hrdi sambhramena 

biddhd vidheyam na vidancakara ||2.4.67|| 

Hearing something detestable: 

"Hearing the Krsna was situated between two Arjuna trees on the bank of the 
Yamuna, Yasoda with eyes turned upwards, became struck with confusion and 
could not decide what to do." 

agnijo, yatha — 

dhir vyagrdjani nah samasta-suhrdam tarn prana-raksa-manim 

gavya gauravatah samlksya nivide tisthantam antar-vane \ 

vahnih pasya sikhanda-sekhara kharam muncann akhanda-dhvanim 

dirghabhih sura-dirghikambu-laharim arcibhir acamati ||2.4.68|| 

Avega arising from fire: 

"O Krsna with peacock feather! See the fire making a constantly ferocious 
sound. It is touching the Mandakini River of Svarga with its long flames, as if 
sipping its waters. You are the jewel that protects the life of Your friends. 
Seeing You standing in the midst of the deep forest to protect the cows, our 
hearts have become bewildered." 

vatajo, yatha — 

pamsu-prarabdha-ketau brhad-atavi-kutonmathi-sautirya-punje 

bhandiroddanda-sakha-bhuja-tatisu gate tandavacarya-caryam \ 

vata-vrate karisari-kasatara-sikhare sarkare jhatkarisnau 

ksaunyam apreksya putram vrajapati-grhini pasya sambambhramiti ||2.4.69|| 

Avega arising from wind: 

"When Trnavarta, making a terrifying sound, endowed with great strength to 
uproot large forest trees, spreading clouds of dust, carrying cow dung, dust, 
grass and stones, began to sway the branches of the Bhandira tree, Yasoda, the 
wife of Nanda, not seeing her son Krsna on the ground, was overcome with 
great confusion." 



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varsajo, yatha sri-dasame (10.25. 11) — 

atyasarativatena pasavo jata-vepanah \ 

gopa gopyas ca sitarta govindam saranam yayuh ||2.4.70|| 

Avega arising from rain, from the Tenth Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam 

[10.25.11]: 

"The cows and other animals, shivering from the excessive rain and wind, and 

the cowherd men and ladies, pained by the cold, all approached Lord Govinda 

for shelter." 

yatha vd — 

samam uru-karakabhir danti-sunda-sapindah 

pratidisam iha gosthe vrsti-dharah patanti \ 

ajanisata yuvdno py dkulds tvam tu balah 

sphutam asi tad-agdran ma sma bhur niryiyasuh ||2.4.71|| 

Another example: 

"Showers of rain and hail are falling profusely like juice from the foreheads of 
elephants. The young men have become confused. You are just a boy; 
therefore do not try to go out of the house." 

utpatajo, yatha — 

ksitir ativipula talaty akasmad 

upari ghuranti ca hanta ghoram ulkah \ 

mama sisur ahi-dusitarka-putri- 

tatam atatity adhuna kim atra kuryam ||2.4.72|| 

Avega resulting from calamity: 

"Becoming perplexed, Yasoda said, 'The broad earth is suddenly shaking. 
Meteors are making a terrifying sound in the sky. My young boy has just now 
gone to the shore of the Yamuna contaminated with poison. What should I 
do?' " 

gajo, yatha — 

apasarapasara tvaraya gurur 
mudira-sundara he puratah karl \ 



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mradima-viksanatas tava nas calarh 
hrdayam dvijate pura-yositdm ||2.4.73|| 

Avega arising from elephants: 

"O Syamasundara! Flee quickly! Flee quickly! There is a terrifying elephant 
in front of You. Because of Your sweet glances, the hearts of us fickle 
Mathura women have become completely disturbed." 

gajena dusta-sattvo 'nyah pasv-ddir upalaksyate ||2.4.74|| 

"By mentioning elephants, other wicked animals such as horses should be 
understood as well." 

yathd vd — 

canddmsos turagdn satdgra-natanair dhatya vidrdvayan 

drag andhahkaranah surendra-sudrsdm gosthoddhutaih pdmsubhih \ 

pratydsidatu mat-purah sura-ripur garvdndham arvdkrtir 

dragisthe muhur atrajdgrati bhuje vyagrdsi mdtah katham ||2.4.75|| 

Another example: 

"O mother! The horse demon Kesi blinds the heavenly damsels of Indra by 
raising the dust in the stables with his hooves. By shaking his mane he whips 
the horses pulling the chariot of the sun and makes them flee away. But let 
that demon horse come towards Me! My long arm is ready for him! Why are 
you so disturbed?" 

arijo, yathd lalita-mddhave (2.29) — 

sthulas tdla-bhujdn natir giritatT-vaksdh kva yaksddhamah 

kvdyam bdla-tamdla-kandala-mrduh kandarpa-kdntah sisuh \ 

nasty anyah saha-kdritd-patur iha prdni na jdnimahe 

ha gosthesvari kidrg adya tapasdm pdkas tavonmilati ||2.4.76|| 

Disturbance arising from enemies, from Lalita-mddhava: 
"Here is the lowest demon Sahkhacuda, sturdy in body, with arms as long as 
tdla trees and chest as broad as a mountain plateau. What a match for the 
beautiful child resembling Cupid, soft as the bud of a new tamdla tree! Is 



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there no skillful person here to help us? O queen of Vraja, I cannot understand 
where all the results of your austerities have gone today." 

yathd va tatraiva (5.30) — 

saptih sapti ratha iha rathah kunjaro me 

tunas tuno dhanur uta dhanur bhoh krpanT krpdni \ 

kd bhih kd bhir ayam ayam aham hd tvaradhvam tvaradhvam 

rdjhah putri bata hrta-hrtd kdmind vallavena ||2.4.77|| 

Another example, also from Lalita-mddhava: 

"When Krsna stole Rukmini at the svayamvara, the kings spoke to their 
servants, 'My horse, chariot, elephants, bow quiver and sword are here. What 
fear do I have? You should be quick! The lusty cowherd has stolen the 
daughter of a king! ' " 

dvegdbhdsa evdyam pardsrayatdpi cet \ 
ndyakotkarsa-bodhdya tathdpy atra nidarsitah ||2.4.78|| 

"Though the above example is only an dbhdsa of dvega, being the sentiment 
of dvega in nondevotees taking Krsna as the enemy, it is given as an example 
because it reveals the superior nature of Krsna." 

atha (11) unmddah — 

unmddo hrd-bhramah praudhdnanddpad-virahddijah ||2.4.79|| 
atrdtta-hdso natanam sangitam vyartha-cestitam \ 
praldpa-dhdvana-krosa-viparita-kriyddayah ||2.4.80|| 

"Confused understanding caused by extreme bliss, calamity or separation is 
called unmdda (insanity). In this state the actions are loud laughing, dancing, 
singing, useless actions, prattling, running, shouting and performing activities 
opposite to what are usually performed." 

tatra praudhdnanddd, yathd karndmrte (2.25) — 
rddhd pundtu jagad acyuta-datta-cittd 
manthdnakam vidadhati dadhi-rikta-pdtre \ 
yasydh stana-stavaka-cancala-locandlir 
devo 'pi ruddha-hrdayo dhavalam dudoha ||2.4.81|| 

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Insanity arising from intense bliss, from Krsna-karnamrta: 
"May Radha who, having surrendered Her heart to Krsna, churned an empty 
yogurt pot, purify the world. And may Krsna, whose eyes like bees hovered 
upon Radha's breasts which were like clusters of flowers, and who with mind 
absorbed in Radha, began milking a bull, purify the world." 

apado, yathd — 

pasiin api krtdnjalir namati mdntrikd ity alam 

tarun api cikitsaka iti visausadham prcchati \ 

hradam bhujaga-bhairavam hari hari praviste harau 

vrajendra-grhini muhur bhrama-mayim avastham gatd ||2.4.82|| 

Insanity arising from calamity: 

"What a calamity! When Krsna entered the lake of Kaliya, Yasoda became 
insane, and thinking the animals were knowers of mantras, folded her hands 
and began offering them respects. Thinking the trees were doctors, she asked 
them for medicine to counteract the poison." 

virahad, yathd sri-dasame (10.30.4) — 
gayantya uccair amum eva samhata 
vicikyur unmattakavad vanad vanam \ 
papracchur akasavad antaram bahir 
bhutesu santam purusam vanaspatin ||2.4.83|| 

Insanity arising from separation, from the Tenth Canto oiSrimad- 
Bhagavatam [10.30.4]: 

"Singing loudly of Krsna, they searched for Him throughout the Vrndavana 
forest like a band of madwomen. They even asked the trees about Him, who 
as the Supersoul is present inside and outside of all created things, just like 
the sky." 

unmadah prthag utko 'yam vyadhisv antarbhavann api \ 
yat tatra vipralambhadau vaicitrim kurute param ||2.4.84|| 



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"Insanity could be included within sickness (vyadhisu, meaning 'among 
different types of sicknesses'). However it is described separately because in 
states such as separation, it induces a unique variety of actions." 

adhirudhe mahd-bhdve mohanatvam updgate \ 
avasthdntaram dpto'sau divyonmdda itiryate ||2.4.85|| 

"When a person attains the stage of bewilderment in the adhirudha stage of 
mahd-bhdva, unmdda takes on another form called divyonmdda" 

atha (12) apasmarah — 

duhkhottha-dhatu-vaisamyady-udbhutas citta-viplavah \ 
apasmdro 'tra patanam dhdvandsphotana-bhramdh \ 
kampah phena-srutir bahu-ksepana-vikrosanadayah ||2.4.86|| 

"A condition of almost total lack of consciousness arising from disturbance of 
the dhdtus due to grief is called apasmdra (epilepsy). In that state there is 
falling to the ground, running about, pain in the limbs, confusion, shaking of 
the body, foaming at the mouth, flailing the arms and shouting." 

yathd — 

phendyate pratipadam ksipate bhujormim 

aghurnate luthati kujati liyate ca \ 

ambd tavddya virahe ciram amburaja- 

beleva vrsni-tilaka vraja-raja-rajnT ||2.4.87|| 

An example: 

"O best of the Yadus! Now our mother Yasoda, because of pain sue to 
separation from You for a long time, is foaming at the mouth like the shore of 
the ocean. Her arms are moving about like waves in the ocean. She sometimes 
whirls about, sometimes rolls on the ground, makes sounds and sometimes 
remains motionless." 

yathd va — 

srutva hanta hatam tvaya yadu-kulottamsatra kamsasuram 

daityas tasya suhrttamah parinatim ghoram gatah kam api \ 



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lala-phena-kadamba-cumbita-mukha-prantas tarahgad-bhujo 
ghurnann arnava-simni mandalataya bhrdmyan na visramyati ||2.4.88|| 

Another example: 

"Crown jewel of the Yadus! Hearing that You killed Karhsa, Kamsa's close 
friends underwent unspeakable, terrible transformations. They wander on the 
beach whirling about like wheels and cannot stop. Foam flows from their 
mouths in great quantities and their arms flail about." 

unmadavad iha vyadhi-viseso py esa varnitah \ 
param bhaydnakdbhdse yat karoti camatkrtim ||2.4.89|| 

"This sickness called apasmdra has been described separately from sickness, 
as in the case oiunmdda, since it produces an extremely astonishing state 
with a hint oibhaydnaka-rasa (fear)." 

atha (13) vyadhih — 

dosodreka-viyogadyair vyddhayo yejvarddayah \ 

iha tat-prabhavo bhdvo vyddhir ity abhidhiyate \ 

atra stambhah slathdhgatva-svdsottdpa-klamddayah ||2.4.90|| 

"Sickness such as fever generated from extreme sorrow at hearing of 
contempt for Krsna by the demons, or from separation or other events is 
called vyddhi or disease; but in this book vyddhi refers to symptoms caused by 
an emotional state rather than from disturbance of the dhdtus arising from that 
separation. In this state, paralysis, slackness of the limbs, heavy breathing, 
anxiety and fatigue occur." 

yathd — 

tava cira-virahena prdpya piddm iddnim 

dadhad-uru-jadimdni dhmdpitdny ahgakdni \ 

svasita-pavana-dhdtT-ghattita-ghrdna-vdtam 

luthati dharani-prsthe gostha-vdti-kutumbam ||2.4.91|| 

"O Krsna! Separated from You for a long time, Your associates in Vraja are 
afflicted. Their bodies are burning and remain motionless. Their nostrils 
quiver because of heavy breathing, and they roll on the ground." 

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atha (14) mohah — 

moho hrn-mudhata harsad vislesad bhayatas tathd \ 
visadades ca tatra syad dehasya patanam bhuvi \ 
siinyendriyatvam bhramanam tathd niscestata-mayah ||2.4.92|| 

"A complete lack of awareness (internal inaction) arising from joy, separation, 
fear or lamentation is called moha. In this state there is falling on the ground, 
absence of sense perceptions, wandering about and inactivity." 

tatra harsad, yatha sri-dasame (10. 12.44) — 
ittham smaprstah sa tu badarayanis 
tat-smaritananta-hrtakhilendriyah \ 
krcchrat punar labdha-bahir-drsih sanaih 
pratyaha tarn bhagavatottamottamam ||2.4.93|| 

Moha arising from joy, from the Tenth Canto of Srlmad-Bhagavatam 
[10.12.44]: 

"O Saunaka, greatest of saints and devotees, when Maharaja Panksit inquired 
from Sukadeva Gosvami in this way, Sukadeva Gosvami, immediately 
remembering subject matters about Krsna within the core of his heart, 
externally lost contact with the actions of his senses. Thereafter, with great 
difficulty, he revived his external sensory perception and began to speak to 
Maharaja Panksit about krsna-katha" 

yatha va — 

nirucchvasita-ritayo vighatitaksipa-ksma-kriya 

niriha-nikhilendriyah pratinivrtta-cid-vrttayah \ 

aveksya kuru-mandale rahasi pundarikeksanam 

vrajambuja-drso'bhajan kanaka-salabhanji-sriyam ||2.4.94|| 

Another example of moha arising from joy: 

"Seeing Krsna alone in Kuruksetra, the women of Vraja stopped breathing, 
stopped blinking their eyes, stopped all actions and became devoid of 
consciousness. They remained standing there like golden statues." 

vislesad, yatha hamsadute (4) — 

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kaddcit kheddgnim vighatayitum antar-gatam asau 

sahdlibhir lebhe taralita-mand ydmuna-tatim \ 

cirdd asyds cittam paricita-kutira-kalandd 

avasthd tastdra sphutam atha susupteh priya-sakhi ||2.4.95|| 

Moha arising from separation, from Hamsaduta: 

"Once Radha, to assuage the fire of separation in Her heart, went to the bank 
of the Yamuna with Her friends, but seeing the there the familiar bower of 
creepers, Her heart became covered with a blank state of mind — which was 
Her dear friend, like deep sleep." 

bhaydd, yathd — 

mukundam dviskrta-visva-rupam 

nirupayan vdnara-varya-ketuh \ 

kardravinddt puratah skhalantam 

na gdndivam khandita-dhir viveda ||2.4.96|| 

Moha arising from fear: 

"When Krsna showed His universal form, Arjuna, who had the insignia of 
Hanuman on his flag, dropped his Gandiva bow. However, being in a state of 
moha, he was not aware of this." 

visdddd, yathd sri-dasame (10. 11.49) — 

krsnam mahd-baka-grastam drstvd rdmddayo 'rbhakdh \ 

babhuvur indriydniva vind prdnam vicetasah ||2.4.97|| 

Moha arising from despair, from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam 

[10.11.49]: 

"When Balarama and the other boys saw that Krsna had been devoured by the 

gigantic duck, they became almost unconscious, like senses without life." 

asydnyatrdtma-paryante sydt sarvatraiva mudhatd \ 
krsna-sphurti-visesas tu na kaddpy atra liyate ||2.4.98|| 

"When the devotees develop moha, they lose awareness of objects including 
their own bodies, but awareness of Krsna never disappears." 



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atha (15) mrtih — 

visada-vyadhi-santrasa-samprahara-klamadibhih \ 
prana-tyago mrtis tasydm avyaktaksara-bhasanam \ 
vivarna-gatrata-svasa-mandya-hikkadayah kriydh ||2.4.99|| 

"Giving up life because of grief, sickness, fear, beating or exhaustion is called 
mrti (death). In this state, unclear speaking, change of bodily color, feeble 
breathing and hiccups occur." 

yathd — 

anullasa-svasd muhur asaralottanita-drso 

vivrnvantah kdye kim api nava-vaivarnyam abhitah \ 

harer namavyaktikrtam alaghu-hikkd-lahanbhih 

prajalpantah pranan jahati mathurdydm sukrtinah ||2.4.100|| 

"The pious persons of Mathura, with weak breathing, eyes glancing sideways 
and upwards, taking on a unique complexion in their bodies and hiccuping 
loudly, gave up their lives while uttering Krsna's name unclearly." 

yathd vd — 

viramad-alaghu-kanthodghosa-ghutkdra-cakrd 

ksana-vighatita-tdmyad-drsti-khadyota-diptih \ 

hari-mihira-nipita-prdna-gddhdndhakdrd 

ksayam agamad akasmdt putand kdla-rdtrih ||2.4. 101|| 

Another example: 

"The sun in the form of Krsna drank up the deep darkness of life of the 
midnight in the form of Putana. Her eyes lit up for a moment beyond her 
control and then died out, like the glowing of fireflies in the night. That 
midnight suddenly disappeared with the loud hooting of owns in the form of 
her death groans." 

prdyo 'tra marandt purvd citta-vrttir mrtir matd \ 

mrtir atrdnubhdvah sydd iti kenacid ucyate \ 

kintu ndyaka-viry drtham satrau maranam ucyate ||2.4. 102|| 



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"The state of consciousness just before death is generally called mrti. 
However, some say that mrti should be considered only an external similarity 
to death (anubhdva). It has been described in the enemies of Krsna (although 
in that case it is not the vydbhicdrl-bhdva called mrti) just to show His 
power." 

atha (16) dlasyam — 

sdmarthyasydpi sad-bhdve kriydnunmukhatd hi yd \ 

trpti-sramddi-sambhutd tad-dlasyam udiryate ||2.4. 1 03 1 1 

"Lack of enthusiasm to perform activities because of satiation or fatigue, even 
though one has the ability to do them, is called alasya" 

atrdhga-bhajo jrmbhd ca kriyd dveso 'ksi-mardanam \ 
sayydsanaika-priyatd tandrd-nidrddayo 'pi ca ||2.4.104|| 

"In this state, stretching the limbs, yawning, disgust with work, rubbing the 
eyes, lying down, fondness for sitting down, exhaustion and sleep occur." 

tatra trpter, yathd — 

viprdndm nas tathd trptir dsid govardhanotsave \ 

ndsirvdde 'pi gopendra yathd sydt prabhavisnutd ||2.4.105|| 

Alasya arising from satiation: 

"O king of the cowherds! At the festival of Govardhana we have become so 

satisfied that we cannot even give blessings." 

sramdd, yathd — 
susthu nihsaha-tanuh subalo 'bhut 
pritaye mama vidhdya niyuddham \ 
motayantam abhito nijam ahgam 
ndhavdya sahasdhvayatdm amum ||2.4.106|| 

Alasya arising from fatigue: 

"After arm-wrestling with Me to please Me, he cannot do any activity now 

and is stretching his limbs. You should not call him to fight immediately." 



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atha (17) jadyam — 

jadyam apratipattih sydd istanistha-srutiksanaih \ 
virahadyais ca tan-mohdt purvdvasthaparapi ca \ 
atrdnimisata tusnim-bhdva-vismaranadayah ||2.4. 107|| 

"Absence of the ability to decide anything, which arises from hearing or 
seeing desirable or undesirable things or from separation, is called jadyam. 
This occurs previous to or following moha (inoperative mind). In this state 
blinking of the eyes, silence and forgetfulness occur." 

tatra ista-srutya, yatha srT-dasame (10.21. 13) — 
gavas ca krsnamukha-nirgata-venu-gita- 
piyusam uttabhita-karna-putaih pibantyah \ 
savah snuta-stana-payah-kavalah sma tasthur 
govindam atmani drsasru-kulah sprsantyah ||2.4. 108|| 

Jadyam from hearing what is desirable, from the Tenth Canto oiSrimad- 

Bhagavatam [10.21.13]: 

"Using their upraised ears as vessels, the cows are drinking the nectar of the 

flute-song flowing out of Krsna's mouth. The calves, their mouths full of milk 

from their mothers' moist nipples, stand still as they take Govinda within 

themselves through their tear-filled eyes and embrace Him within their 

hearts." 

anista-srutya, yatha — 
akalayya parivartita-gotram 
kesavasya giram arpita-salyam \ 
biddha-dhir adhika-nirnimisaksi- 
laksana ksanam avartata tusnim ||2.4.109|| 

Jadyam from hearing what is undesirable: 

"Hearing Kesava call out someone else's name, the heart of Laksmana, one of 
the leaders of the gopis, was pained. Her eyes stopped blinking and she did 
not utter a word." 

isteksanena, yatha sri-dasame (10.71.40) — 



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govindam grham aniya deva-devesam adrtah \ 

pujayam navidat krtyam pramadopahato nrpah ||2.4.110|| 

Jddyam from seeing the object of desire, from the Tenth Canto oiSrimad- 
Bhdgavatam [10.71.39]: 

"King Yudhisthira respectfully brought Lord Govinda, the Supreme God of 
gods, to his personal quarters. The King was so overcome with joy that he 
could not remember all the rituals of worship." 

anisteksanena, yathd tatraiva (10.39.36) — 
ydvad alaksyate ketur ydvad renu rathasya ca \ 
anuprasthdpitdtmdno lekhydnivopalaksitdh ||2.4. 111|| 

Jddyam from seeing the undesirable, from the Tenth Canto oiSrimad- 
Bhdgavatam [10.39.36]: 

"Sending their minds after Krsna, the gopis stood as motionless as figures in a 
painting. They remained there as long as the flag atop the chariot was visible, 
and even until they could no longer see the dust raised by the chariot wheels." 

virahena, yathd — 

mukunda virahena te vidhuritah sakhayas cirad 
alahkrtibhir ujjhita bhuvi nivisya tatra sthitah \ 
skhalan-malina-vasasah savala-ruksa-gatra-sriyah 
sphuranti khala-devala-dvija-grhe surarca iva ||2.4.112|| 

Jddyam from separation: 

"Your friends, pained by long separation from You, remain on this earth like 
the Deities of neglectful brahmanas which are without ornaments, wearing 
soiled cloth which is falling off, with limbs dirty and thin." 

atha (18) vrida — 

navina-sarigamakaryas tavavajhadina krta \ 

adhrstata bhaved vrida tatra maunam vicintanam \ 

avagunthana-bhu-lekhau tathadhomukhatadayah ||2.4. 113|| 

"The state of bashfulness, the opposite of audacity, arising from just meeting 
one's lover, from performing forbidden actions, from praise or neglect is 

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called vrida (shyness). In this state there is silence, anxiety, covering the head, 
writing on the ground and hanging the head." 

tatra navina-sarigamena, yatha padyavalyam (198) — 
govinde svayam akaroh saroja-netre 
premdndhd vara-vapur arpanam sakhi \ 
karpanyam na kuru dardvaloka-ddne 
vikrite karini kim arikuse vivadah ||2.4.114|| 

Vrida from meeting the Lord for the first time, from Pady avail: 
"O lotus-eyed friend! Blinded with love, you have offered your beautiful body 
to Govinda. O friend! Do not be miserly by showing yourself to Him only a 
little. The purchased elephant does not quarrel with the goad." 

akaryena, yatha — 

tvam avdg iha ma sirah krtha 

vadanam ca trapaya saci-pate \ 

naya kalpa-tarum na cec chacim 

katham agre mukham iksayisyasi ||2.4. 115|| 

Shame arising from forbidden activities: 

"O Indra! You should not hang down your head in shame and remain silent. 

Take the parijdta tree and go. Otherwise how can you show your face to your 

wife?" 

stavena, yatha — 

bhuri-sadgunya-bharena stuyamdnasya saurind \ 

uddhavasya vyarocista namrT-bhutam tadd sirah ||2.4. 116|| 

Shame from being praised: 

"When Krsna praised Uddhava, listing all his good qualities, Uddhava 

lowered his head and took on a unique attractiveness." 

avajhaya, yatha hari-vamse (2.67. 19) satyadevi-vakyam — 

vasanta-kusumais citram sada raivatakam girim \ 

priya bhutva priya bhuta katham draksyami tarn punah 1 12.4. 1 1 7| | 



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Shame arising from neglect, from Hari-vamsa, in a statement by Satya: 
"Raivataka Mountain is always glorious with spring flowers. How can I look 
upon that mountain when I have lost the affection of Krsna, though once I was 
most dear to Him?" 

atha (19) avahittha — 

avahitthakara-guptir bhaved bhdvena kenacit ||2.4. 1 18|| 

"The external action of wanting to hide one's external symptoms because of 
thinking oneself low is called avahittha" 

atrahgadeh parabhyuha-sthanasya pariguhanam \ 
anyatreksa vrtha-cesta vag-bhahgity-ddayah kriyah ||2.4. 119|| 

"In this state, hiding one's limbs so others will think one is something else, 
glancing elsewhere, useless actions and clever use of words occur." 

tatha coktam — 

anubhdva-pidhdndrtho'vahittham bhava ucyate ||2.4. 120|| 

"The ancient authorities say that the bhava which conceals one's anubhavas 
(external symptoms) is called avahitthd-vyabhicdri-bhava" 

tatra jaihmyena, yatha sn-dasame (10.32. 15) — 
sabhajayitvd tarn anahga-dlpanam 
sahasa-lileksana-vibhrama-bhruva \ 
samsparsanenarika-krtarighri-hastayoh 
samstutya isatkupita babhasire ||2.4. 121|| 

An example of avahittha from deceit, SrTmad-Bhagavatam [10.32.16]: 
"Sri Krsna had awakened romantic desires within the gopis, and they honored 
Him by glancing at Him with playful smiles, gesturing amorously with their 
eyebrows, and massaging His hands and feet as they held them in their laps. 
Even while worshiping Him, however, they felt somewhat angry, and thus 
they addressed Him as follows." 

daksinyena, yatha — 

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sdtrdjitT-sadana-simani pdrijdte 
nite pranita-mahasd madhusudanena \ 
drdghiya-simani vidarbha-bhuvas tadersydm 
sausilyatah kila na ko 'pi viddmbabhuva ||2.4. 122|| 

An example of avahitthd from mild nature: 

"When Madhusudana brought the parijdta tree to the house of Satyabhama, 
though Rukmini was filled with anger, no one could detect that deception 
because of her mildness." 

hriyd, yathd prathame (1.11.33) — 
tarn dtmajair drstibhir antardtmand 
duranta-bhdvdh parirebhire patim \ 
niruddham apy dsravad ambu netrayor 
vilajjatindm bhrgu-varya vaiklavdt ||2.4.123|| 

Concealment out of bashfulness, from the First Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam 

[1.11.32]: 

"The insuperable ecstasy was so strong that the queens, who were shy, first 

embraced the Lord in the innermost recesses of their hearts. Then they 

embraced Him visually, and then they sent their sons to embrace Him [which 

is equal to personal embracing]. But, O chief amongst the Bhrgus, though 

they tried to restrain their feelings, they inadvertently shed tears." 

jaihmya-hribhydm, yathd — 

kd vrsasyati tarn gostha-bhujangam kula-pdlikd \ 

duti yatra smrte murtir bhityd romdncitd mama ||2.4. 124|| 

Concealment from deceit and bashfulness: 

"O messenger! Will a respectable woman desire such a snake among 
cowherds? Remembering Him, the hairs of my body are standing on end out 
of fear." 

saujanyena, yathd — 

gudhd gdbhirya-sampadbhir mano-gahvara-garbhagd \ 

praudhdpy asyd ratih krsne durvitarkd parair abhut ||2.4. 125|| 



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Concealment by good qualities: 

"Though Radha's attachment to Krsna increased to the extreme, by the wealth 

of Her self-control, she concealed it so that no one could doubt Her." 

gauravena, yatha — 

govinde subala-mukhaih samam suhrdbhih 
smerasyaih sphutam iha narma nirmimane \ 
anamrikrta-vadanah pramoda-mugdho 
yatnena smitam atha samvavara patri ||2.4. 126|| 

Concealment out of respect: 

"When Krsna began to joke among His laughing cowherd friends, His servant 
Patri became jubilant. Out of respect, he hung his head and with great 
difficulty covered his laughing." 

hetuh kascid bhavet kascid gopyah kascana gopanah \ 
iti bhdva-trayasydtra viniyogah samlksyate ||2.4. 127|| 
hetutvam gopanatvam ca gopyatvam cdtra sambhavet \ 
prdyena sarva-bhdvdndm ekaso 'nekaso 'pi ca ||2.4. 128|| 

"Three bhdvas will be seen operating in this situation: one as a cause, one that 
is concealed and one bhdva that conceals another. Individually or as a group, 
the bhdvas may act as a cause, being concealed or concealing." 

atha (20) smrtih — 

yd syat purvanubhutartha-pratitih sadrseksaya \ 

drdhyabhyasadina vapi sa smrtih parikirtita \ 

bhaved atra sirah-kampo bhru-viksepadayo 'pi ca ||2.4.129|| 

"Scrutiny of previous experience, that arises from strict practice or from 
seeing similar objects, is called smrti (remembrance). In this state, shaking the 
head and moving the brows occur." 

tatra sadrseksana, yatha — 

vilokya syamam ambhodam ambhoruha-vilocana \ 

smaram smaram mukunda tvam smaram vikramam anvabhut ||2.4. 130|| 



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Smrti arising from seeing a similar object: 

"0 Mukunda! When lotus-eyed Radha saw a dark cloud, She remembered 

You and experienced the force of love." 

drdhdbhydsena, yathd — 

pranidhdna-vidhim iddnim akurvato 'pi pramddato hrdi me \ 

hari-pada-pahkaja-yugalam kvacit kaddcit parisphurati ||2.4. 13 1|| 

Smrti arising from determined practice: 

"Spontaneously, without concentrating, the lotus feet of the Lord now appear 

in my heart at any time or place." 

atha (21) vitarkah — 

vimarsdt samsayddes ca vitarkas tuha ucyate \ 

esa bhru-ksepana-siro 'hguli-sancdlanddi-krt ||2.4. 132|| 

"Arriving at a conclusion based on error, doubt or inference is called vitarka 
(conjecture). In this state, moving the brows, and moving the head and fingers 
occur." 

tatra vimarsdd, yathd vidagdha-mddhave (2.27) — 

najdnise murdhnas cyutam api sikhandam yad akhilam 

na kanthe yan mdlyam kalayasi purastdt krtam api \ 

tad unnitam vrndavana-kuhara-lila-kalabha he 

sphutam radha-netra-bhramara-vara viryonnatir iyam ||2.4.133|| 

Vitarka arising from inference, from Vidagdha-madhava: 

"O elephant who sports in the houses of Vrndavan! The peacock feather has 

fallen from Your head to the ground, but You are unaware of that. There is a 

prepared garland lying in front of You, but You do not put it on. From that I 

can infer that the power of the bees, in the form of Radha's eyes, has agitated 

You." 

samsayat, yathd — 

asau kim tdpihcho na hi tad-amala-srir iha gatih 

payodah kim vdmam na yad iha nirahgo himakarah \ 



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jagan-moharambhoddhura-madhura-varhsi-dhvanirito 
dhruvam murdhany adrer vidhumukhi mukundo viharati ||2.4.134|| 

Vitarka arising from doubt: 

"Is that a tamdla tree? It cannot be, for why would it be endowed with such 
pure, clear movements? Is it a cloud? No, it cannot be, for a spotless moon is 
residing there. O moon-faced one! It seems that Mukunda, who can enchant 
the universe with the sound of His flute, is certainly wandering on top of 
Govardhana Hill." 

vinirnaydnta evayarh tarka ity ucire pare ||2.4.135|| 

"Some say that tarka means to draw conclusions about objects cabale of being 
judged." 

atha (22) cinta — 

dhydnam cinta bhaved istanapty-anistapti-nirmitam \ 
svasadhomukha-bhulekha-vaivarnyan nidrata iha \ 
vildpottdpa-krsatd-baspa-dainyddayopi ca ||2.4.136|| 

"Pondering, arising from not attaining a desired object or from attaining an 
undesirable object, is called cinta. In this state, there is heavy breathing, 
hanging of the head, writing on the ground, change of color, sleeplessness, 
prattle and fever." 

tatra istdndptyd, yatha sn-dasame (10.29.29) — 

krtvd mukhany avasucah svasanena susyad 

bimbadharani caranena likhantyah \ 

asrer upattamasibhih kucakunkumani 

tasthur mrjantya uruduhkha-bharah sma tusnim ||2.4.137|| 

Pondering from not attaining the desired object of love, from the Tenth Canto 
of Srlmad-Bhagavatam [10.29.29]: 

"Their heads hanging down and their heavy, sorrowful breathing drying up 
their reddened lips, the gopis scratched the ground with their toes. Tears 
flowed from their eyes, carrying their kajjala and washing away the vermilion 



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smeared on their breasts. Thus they stood, silently bearing the burden of their 
unhappiness." 

yatha va — 

aratibhir atikramya ksama pradosam adosadhih 

katham api cirad adhyasina praghanam aghdntaka \ 

vidhurita-mukhT ghurnaty antah prasus tava cintayd 

kim ahaha grham kridd-lubdha tvayddya visasmare ||2.4.138|| 

Another example: 

"O killer of Agha! Your affectionate mother, depressed and thin from thinking 
of You, remained sitting on the veranda for a long time, and having waited 
until evening, she now wanders within the house. How astonishing it is! 
Though You experienced such fun there, You have completely forgotten about 
Your house." 

anistdptyd, yathd — 

grhini gahanayantascintayonnidra-netra 
glapaya na mukha-padmam tapta-baspa-plavena \ 
nrpa-puram anuvindan gdndineyena sardham 
tava sutam aham eva drak paravartayami ||2.4.139|| 

Cinta arising from attaining something undesirable: 
"Do not remain sleepless, absorbed in intense deliberation, with hot tears 
withering your lotus face. I will go to Mathura with Akrura and bring back 
your son very soon." 

atha (23) matih — 

sastradinam vicarottham artha-nirdharanam matih ||2.4. 140|| 

"Ascertaining a meaning after consulting scripture is called mati" 

atra kartavya-karanam samsaya-bhramayos chida \ 
upadesas ca sisyanam uhapohadayo 'pi ca ||2.4. 141|| 



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"In this state performing necessary actions after cutting doubts and illusions, 
giving instructions to students and defeating others' arguments and opposite 
conclusions occur." 

yathd pddme vaisdkha-mdhdtmye — 

vydmohdya cardcarasya jagatas te te purdndgamds 

tarn tarn eva hi devatdm paramikdm jalpantu kalpdvadhi \ 

siddhdnte punar eka eva bhagavdn visnuh samastdgama- 

vydpdresu vivecana-vyatikaram nitesu nisciyate ||2.4. 142|| 

From the Padma Purdna, Vaisdkhd-mahdtmya: 

"Let the Purdnas and other scriptures glorify the greatness of their devatds 
here and there for a kalpa to produce illusion in the people of this world. But 
after taking into account all varieties of interpretation, their conclusion is that 
Visnu alone is the Supreme Personality of Godhead." 

yathd vd sri-dasame (10.60.39) — 

tvam nyasta-dandamunibhir gaditdnubhdva 

dtmdtmadas cajagatdm iti me vrto 'si \ 

hitvd bhavad-bhruva udirita-kdla-vega- 

dhvastdsiso 'bja-bhavandkapatin kuto 'nye ||2.4.143|| 

From the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam [10.60.39]: 
"Knowing that great sages who have renounced the sannydsT's danda 
proclaim Your glories, that You are the Supreme Soul of all the worlds, and 
that You are so gracious that You give away even Your own self, I chose You 
as my husband, rejecting Lord Brahma, Lord Siva and the rulers of heaven, 
whose aspirations are all frustrated by the force of time, which is born from 
Your eyebrows. What interest, then, could I have in any other suitors?" 

atha (24) dhrtih — 

dhrtih sydt purnatd jndna-duhkhdbhdvottamdptibhih \ 

aprdptdtita-nastdrthdn abhisamsocanddi-krt ||2.4.144|| 

"The steadiness of heart arising from attaining realization of the Lord, from 
absence of suffering in attaining realization of the Lord, and from realizing 



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prema with the Lord is called dhrti. In this state there is no lamentation for 
things not attained or for things that have disappeared." 

tatra jhdnena, yatha vairdgya-satake (55) bhartrharih — 
asnlmahi vayam bhiksam asavaso vasimahi \ 
sayimahi mahl-prsthe kurvimahi kim Tsvaraih ||2.4. 145|| 

Dhrti from attaining realization of the Lord, from Bhartrhari's Vairdgya- 

sataka: 

"When I attain knowledge of the Lord, I will eat only begged food and live 

without clothing. I will sleep on the ground. What is the necessity of serving 

the king or other authorities?" 

duhkhabhavena, yatha — 

gostham ramd-keli-grham cakasti 

gavas ca dhdvanti parah-pardrdhah \ 

putras tatha dlvyati divya-karma 

trptir mamabhud grhamedhi-saukhye ||2.4. 146|| 

Dhrti from lack of suffering: 

"Our cowsheds have become the playground of Laksmi and more than 
100,000 billion cows are running around. A divine child is playing in the 
house. I am fully satisfied with the happiness of family life." 

uttamdptyd, yatha — 

harilild-sudhd-sindhos tatam apy adhitisthatah \ 

mano mama caturvargam trndydpi na manyate ||2.4.147|| 

Dhrti from attaining prema: 

"I am situated on the bank of the ocean of nectar consisting of the Lord's 
pastimes. Thus my mind is not aware oiartha, dharma, kama and moksa, 
which are now worthless like grass." 

atha (25) harsah — 

abhisteksana-labhadi-jata cetah-prasannatd \ 
harsah sydd iha romdhcah svedo 'sru mukha-phullata \ 
dvegonmdda-jadatas tatha mohadayo 'pi ca ||2.4. 148|| 

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"Happiness of the heart arising from seeing or attaining one's desired object is 
called harsa. In this state standing of the hair on end, perspiration, tears, 
glowing face, confusion (dvega), insanity (unmada), indecision (jadatd) and 
fainting (moha) occur." 

tatra abhisteksanena, yathd sri-visnu-purdne [ViP 5. 17.25] — 
tau drstvd vikasad-vaktra-sarojah sa mahamatih \ 
pulakahcita-sarvahgas tadakruro'bhavan mune ||2.4.149|| 

Joy on seeing one's desired object, from Visnu Pur ana: 

"O sage! When Akrura saw Krsna and Balarama, his lotus face blossomed 

with joy and all his hairs stood on end." 

abhista-ldbhena, yathd sri-das ante (10.33.12) — 
tatraikdmsagatam bdhum krsnasyotpalasaurabham \ 
candandliptam aghraya hrstaroma cucumba ha ||2.4. 150|| 

Joy from attaining one's desired object, from the Tenth Canto oiSrimad- 
Bhagavatam [10.33.11]: 

"Upon the shoulder of one gopi Krsna placed His arm, whose natural blue- 
lotus fragrance was mixed with that of the sandalwood pulp anointing it. As 
the gopi relished that fragrance, her bodily hair stood on end in jubilation, and 
she kissed His arm." 

atha (26) autsukyam — 

kalaksamatvam autsukyam isteksapti-sprhadibhih \ 

mukha-sosa-tvara-cinta-nihsvasa-sthiratadikrt ||2.4. 15 1|| 

"Inability to tolerate the passing of time, arising from desire to see or attain a 
desired object is called autsukhyam (impatience). In this state there is drying 
of the mouth, haste, pondering and prominence of breathing." 

tatra isteksa-sprhaya, yathd sri-dasame (10.71.34) — 
prdptam nisamya nara-locana-pdna-pdtram 
autsukya-vislathita-kesa-dukula-baddhdh \ 
sadyo visrjya grha-karma patlms ca talpe 

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drastum yayur yuvatayah sma narendra-marge ||2.4. 152|| 

Impatience arising from a desire to see one's cherished object, from the Tenth 
Canto of Srimad-Bhdgavatam [10.71.33]: 

"When the young women of the city heard that Lord Krsna, the reservoir of 
pleasure for human eyes, had arrived, they hurriedly went onto the royal road 
to see Him. They abandoned their household duties and even left their 
husbands in bed, and in their eagerness the knots of their hair and garments 
came loose." 

yathd vd, stavdvalydm srT-rddhikdstake (14.7) — 
prakatita-nija-vdsam snigdha-venu-pranddair 
druta-gati harim drat prdpya kunje smitdksT \ 
sravana-kuhara-kandum tanvati namra-vaktrd 
snapayati nija-ddsye rddhikd mam kadd nu ||2.4. 153|| 

Another example, from Stavavali, Sri-Radhikastaka: 
"When Krsna revealed His whereabouts in the grove by the sound of His 
flute, Radha coming quickly to the grove with a smiling face, remained 
waiting with head hung down, eager to hear Krsna's words. When will that 
Radha engage me in Her service?" 

istdpti-sprhayd, yathd — 
narma-karmathatayd sakhi-gane 
drdghayaty aghahardgratah kathdm \ 
gucchaka-grahana-kaitavdd asau 
gahvaram druta-pada-kramam yayau ||2.4.154|| 

Impatience arising from desire to attain one's object: 
"When the gopis tried to prolong the conversation with Krsna by expert 
joking, and thus delay Him, Radha came to the grove quickly, on the pretext 
of accepting a bunch of flowers." 

atha (27) augryam — 

aparddha-durukty-ddi- jdtam candatvam ugratd \ 

vadha-bandha-sirah-kampa-bhartsanottddanddi-krt ||2.4. 155|| 



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"Ferocity arising from offenses and harsh words is called augrya. In that state 
killing, binding, shaking the head, shouting loudly and beating occur." 

tatra aparadhad, yathd — 
sphurati mayi bhujahgi-garbha-visramsi-kirtau 
viracayati mad-Tse kilbisam kdliyo 'pi \ 
huta-bhuji bata kuryam jathare vausad enam 
sapadi danuja-hantuh kintu rosad bibhemi ||2.4. 156|| 

Augrya arising from offense to Krsna: 

"Garuda said: 'By my power the snakes have abortions. But Kaliya is 
offending my Master in my presence. I want to offer him to the fire in my 
stomach, but I am afraid of Krsna's anger. ' " 

duruktito, yathd sahadevoktih — 
prabhavati vibudhdnam agrimasyagra-pujam 
na hi danuja-ripor yah prauhdha-kirter visodhum \ 
katutara-yama-dandoddanda-rocir mayasau 
sirasi prthuni tasya nyasyate savya-padah ||2.4. 157|| 

Augrya arising from harsh words against Krsna, in a statement by Sahadeva: 
"I will place my left foot with more force than Yama's punishment on the 
head of that person who cannot tolerate the first worship of Krsna — who is 
full of all glories and worshiped by all devatds." 

yathd va baladevoktih — 

ratah kila nrpasane ksitipa-laksa-bhuktojjhite 

khalah kuru-kuladhamah prabhum ajanda-kotisv ami \ 

haha bata vidambana siva sivadya nah srnvatam 

hathad iha kataksayanty akhila-vandyam apy acyutam ||2.4. 158|| 

Baladeva speaks: 

"O Lord! These evil men, lowest members of the Kuru dynasty, having 
attained and given up the qualities of kings, are attached to sitting on the 
king's throne. How painful it is to have to hear them today in the assembly 
boldly insulting Acyuta, worthy of praise by the whole universe." 



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atha (28) amarsah — 

adhiksepdpamdnddeh sydd amarso 'sahisnutd ||2.4. 159|| 
tatra svedah sirahkampo vivarnatvam vicintanam \ 
updydnvesandkrosa-vaimukhyottddanddayah ||2.4. 160|| 

"Intolerance arising from contempt, insult or other causes is called amarsa 
(indignation). In this state perspiration, shaking the head, change of color, 
pondering, looking for methods, shouting, turning away and beating occur." 

tatra adhiksepdd, yathd vidagdha-mddhave (2.53) — 

nirdhautdndm akhila-dharanT-mddhurind 

kalydni me nivasati vadhuh pasya pdrsve navodhd \ 

antargosthe catula natayann atra netra-tribhdgam 

nihsankas tvam bhramasi bhavitd ndkulatvam kuto me ||2.4. 161 1| 

Indignation arising from contempt, from Vidagdha-mddhava: 

"Jatila said to Krsna: 'See! My son's new, auspicious bride, endowed with all 

the sweetness of the earth, is sitting by my side. O unsteady boy! You cannot 

disturb me, though You wander fearlessly through Vraja moving Your 

eyebrows!" 

apamdndd, yathd padmoktih — 
kadamba-vana-taskara drutam apehi kim cdtubhir 
jane bhavati mad-vidhe paribhavo hi ndtah parah \ 
tvayd vraja-mrgi-drsdm sadasi hanta candrdvalT 
vardpi yad ayogyayd sphutam adusi tdrdkhyayd ||2.4.162|| 

Indignation arising from disrespect, in the words of Padma: 
"O thief in the kadamba forest! Come here quickly and do not use clever 
words! There is no greater disrespect for a person like me than to directly 
spoil excellent Candravali in the assembly ofgopis by uttering the unsuitable 
name of Radha." 

ddi-sabddd vahcandd apt, yathd sri-dasame (10.3 1. 16) — 
pati-sutdnvaya-bhdrtr-bdndhavdn 
ativilahghya te 'nty acyutdgatdh \ 
gati-vidas tavodgita-mohitdh 

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kitava yositah has tyajen nisi ||2.4.163|| 

Indignation arising from being cheated, indicated by the word adi, from 
Srimad-Bhagavatam [10.31.17]: 

"Dear Acyuta, You know very well why we have come here. Who but a 
cheater like You would abandon young women who come to see Him in the 
midle of the night, enchanted with the loud song of His flute? Just to see You, 
we have completely rejected our husbands, children, ancestors, brothers and 
other relatives." 

atha (29) asuya — 

dvesah parodaye suyanya-saubhagya-gunadibhih 

tatrersyanadaraksepa dosaropo gunesv api \ 

apavrttis tiro-viksa bhruvor bhahguratadayah ||2.4. 164|| 

"Hatred arising from others' increase of good fortune or qualities is called 
asuya (envy or fault-finding). In this state, malice, disrespect, insult, fault- 
finding, speaking ill of others, casting evil glances and miving the eyebrows 
occur." 

tatra anya-saubhagyena, yatha padyavalyam (302) — 

ma garvam udvaha kapola-tale cakasti 

krsna-svahasta-likhita nava-mahjariti \ 

anyapi kim na sakhi bhajanam Tdrsinam 

vairina ced bhavati vepathur antarayah ||2.4. 165|| 

Envy arising from others' increase of good fortune, from PadyavalT [302]: 
"Do not be proud, now that you attain the glory of a new manjarT marked with 
the hand of Krsna on your forehead. Can no one else be the recipient of that 
mark? Others would also have this good fortune if our enemy's hand did not 
shake." 

yatha va sri-dasame (10.30.30) — 

tasya amuni nah ksobham kurvanty uccaih padani yat \ 

yaikapahrtya gopinam raho bhuhkte 'cyutadharam ||2.4. 166|| 

From the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [10.30.30]: 

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"These footprints of that special gopi greatly disturb us. Of all the gopis, She 
alone was taken away to a secluded place, where She is enjoying the lips of 
Krsna." 

gunena, yatha — 

svayam pardjayam prdptdn krsna-paksdn vijitya nah \ 

balistha bala-paksas ced durbalah ke tatah ksitau ||2.4. 167|| 

Envy arising from increase of good qualities: 

"Balarama's team thinks itself strong and able to defeat our team with Krsna 

on our side, but is there anyone weaker than Balarama's team in this world?" 

atha (30) cdpalyam — 

raga-dvesadibhis citta-ldghavam cdpalam bhavet \ 

tatrdvicdra-pdrusya-svacchanddcaranddayah ||2.4. 168|| 

"Cdpalam (insolence) means inconsiderateness of the heart arising from 
attraction or repulsion. In this state, lack of judgment, rough words and 
careless actions occur." 

tatra rdgena, yatha sri-dasame (10.52.41) — 
svo bhdvini tvam ajitodvahane vidarbhdn 
guptah sametya prtand-patibhih paritah \ 
nirmathya caidya-magadhesa-balam prasahya 
mam rdksasena vidhinodvaha virya-sulkdm ||2.4. 169|| 

Cdpalya arising from attachment: 

"O unconquerable one, tomorrow when my marriage ceremony is about to 
begin, You should arrive unseen in Vidarbha and surround Yourself with the 
leaders of Your army. Then crush the forces of Caidya and Magadhendra and 
marry me in the Raksasa style, winning me with Your valor." 

dvesena, yatha — 

vamsT-purena kdlindydh sindhum vindatu vdhitd \ 

guror api puro nivim yd bhramsayati subhruvdm ||2.4. 170|| 

Cdpalyam arising from hatred: 

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"May the flute, which loosens the cords tying the clothing of the beautiful 
women, enter the ocean on the waves of the Yamuna!" 

atha (31) nidra — 

cintalasya-nisarga-klamadibhis citta-milanam nidra \ 

tatrahga-bhahga-jrmbha-jadya-svasaksi-mTlanani syuh ||2.4. 171|| 

"Suspension of external awareness arising from pondering, lack of energy, 
natural tendency and fatigue is called nidra or sleep. In this state, rubbing the 
limbs, yawning, inaction, heavy breathing and closing the eyes occur." 

tatra cintayd, yatha — 

lohitdyati martande venu-dhvanim asrnvati \ 

cintayakranta-hrdaya nidadrau nanda-gehini ||2.4. 172|| 

Nidra arising from worry: 

"When the sun turned read at sunset and she did not hear the sound of the 
flute, Yasoda entered a state of nidra, being afflicted by excessive pondering 
of the situation." 

alasyena, yatha — 

damodarasya bandhana-karmabhir atinihsahahga-latikeyam \ 

dara-vighurnitottamahga krtdhga-bhahgd vrajesvari sphurati ||2.4.173|| 

Nidra arising from lack of energy: 

When Yasoda tied up Krsna, she was unable to move her body. She became 

dizzy. Rubbing her limbs, she entered a state of nidra. 

nisargena, yatha — 

aghahara tava virya-prositasesa-cintah 
parihrta-grha-vastu-dvara-bandhdnubaddhah \ 
nija-nijam iha ratrau prahganam sobhayantah 
sukham avicalad-ahgah serate pasya gopah ||2.4. 174|| 

Nidra arising from natural urge: 



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"O killer of Agha! Look! Having extinguished all fears by thinking of Your 
exploits, the cowherd men have given up locking their doors and sleep at 
night in the yards of their houses without moving their limbs." 

klamena, yathd — 

sankrdnta-dhdtu-citrd suratdnte sd nitdnta-tdntd 'dya \ 

vaksasi niksiptdngi harer visdkhd yayau nidrdm ||2.4.175|| 

Nidrd arising from fatigue: 

"Visakha, tinged with the colors of Krsna's cosmetics, tired after enjoyment, 

is sleeping on Krsna's chest." 

yuktdsya sphurti-mdtrena nirvisesena kenacit \ 
hrn-milandt puro 'vasthd nidrd bhaktesu kathyate ||2.4. 176|| 

"The state just prior to extinguishing of consciousness, in which there is 
appearance of Krsna without particular pastimes, is called nidrd for the 
devotees." 

atha (32) suptih — 

suptir nidrd-vibhdvd sydn ndndrthdnubhavdtmikd \ 

indriyoparati-svdsa-netra-sammilanddi-krt ||2.4. 177|| 

"Sleep in which there are various thoughts and experience of objects is called 
supti or dreaming. In this state there is absence of the functions of the external 
senses, heavy breathing and closing the eyes." 

yathd — 

kdmam tdmarasdksa keli-vitatih prdduskrtd saisavi 

darpah sarpa-pates tad asya tarasd nirdhuyatdm uddhurah \ 

ity utsvapna-gird cirdd yadu-sabhdm vismdpayan smerayan 

nihsvdsena darottarangad-udaram nidrdm gato IdngalT ||2.4. 178|| 

An example: 

"Baladeva astonished the assembly of the Yadus and made them laugh when 
He went to sleep. While breathing heavily and heaving His belly, He 
exclaimed in a dream state, 'O lotus-eyed Krsna! You have magnificently 

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manifested Your wealth of childhood pastimes by powerfully crushing the 
intolerable pride of Kaliya, the king of snakes.'" 

atha (33) bodhah — 

avidyd-moha-nidrdder dhvamsodbodhah prabuddhata ||2.4. 179|| 

"Enlightenment of appearance of knowledge caused by destruction of 
ignorance, moha and sleep is called bodha." 

tatra avidya-dhvamsatah — 

avidya-dhvamsato bodho vidyodaya-purahsarah \ 

asesa-klesa-visranti-svarupavagamadi-krt ||2.4. 180|| 

Bodha arising from destruction of ignorance: 

"Enlightenment occurs after the appearance of knowledge, which occurs after 
the removal of ignorance. This enlightenment consists of realizing one's 
identity with brahman, which destroys unlimited suffering." 

yatha — 

vindan vidya-dipikam sva-svarupam 
buddhva sadyah satya-vijnana-rupam \ 
nispratyuhas tat param brahma murtam 
sandrdnandakaram anvesayami ||2.4.181|| 

Another example: 

"Realizing my svarupa of eternity and knowledge after attaining the lamp of 
knowledge, without obstacle, I will now search for the Supreme Brahman 
personified, composed of concentrated bliss." 

moha-dhvamsatah — 

bodho moha-ksayac chabda-gandha-sparsa-rasair hareh \ 

drg-unmilana-romahca-dharotthanadi-krd bhavet ||2.4. 182|| 

Bodha arising from the destruction oimoha: 

"When moha is destroyed by the sound, fragrance, touch and taste of the 
Lord, there is bodha. In this state the eyes are open, hairs stand on end, and 
there is rising from the ground." 

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tatra sabdena, yatha — 
prathama-darsana-rudha-sukhavalT- 
kavalitendriya-vrttir abhud iyam \ 
agha-bhidah kila ndmny udite srutau 
lalitayodamimilad ihdksinT ||2.4. 183|| 

Bodha from the destruction of moha, arising from the sound of the Lord: 
"All of Radha's senses stopped functioning (moha) due to the bliss generated 
from first seeing Krsna. Then when Lalita uttered the Holy Names of Krsna in 
Her ear, she opened Her eyes." 

gandhena, yatha — 

aciram agha-harena tydgatah srasta-gatrl 
vana-bhuvi savaldrigi sdnta-nihsvdsa-vrttih \ 
prasarati vana-mdld saurabhe pasya rddhd 
pulakita-tanur esd pdmsu-punjdd udasthdt ||2.4. 184|| 

Arising from smell: 

"Once when Krsna disappeared from the presence of Radha, She lost control 

of Her limbs, lost Her color and lost Her breath. She fell on the forest earth. 

When the fragrance of Krsna's forest garland spread in all directions, Radha's 

hairs stood on end by smelling the fragrance, and look — She rose from the 

ground." 

sparsena, yatha — 

asau pdni-sparso madhura-masrnah kasya vijayi 

visiryantydh saura-pulina-vanam alokya mama yah \ 

durantam uddhuya prasabham abhito vaisasa-mayim 

drutam murccham antah sakhi sukha-mayim pallavayati ||2.4.185|| 

Breaking moha by touch: 

"O friend! Whose touch is this, that is soft, blissful and all-conquering? 
Seeing the bank of the Yamuna I had fainted. The touch of that hand 
completely removed My fainting condition, which gave Me so much 
suffering, by force, producing in Me a fainting condition of happiness." 



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rasena, yatha — 

antarhite tvayi baldnuja rasa-kelau 

srastdhga-yastir ajanista sakhi visamjnd \ 

tdmbula-carvitam avdpya tavambujdksi 

nyastam maya mukha-pute pulakojjvaldsit ||2.4. 186|| 

Destruction oimoha caused by taste: 

"Younger brother of Balarama! When You disappeared during the rasa dance, 
my friend Radha lost control of Her body and became unconscious. But when 
lotus-eyed Radha tasted Your chewed tambula that I placed in Her mouth, Her 
hairs stood on end." 

nidrddhvamsatah — 

bodho nidraksayat svapna-nidra-purti-svanddibhih \ 

tatraksi-mardanam sayya-mokso 'hga-valanddayah ||2.4.187|| 

Bodha arising from breaking sleep: 

"There is bodha when sleep is broken by a dream, by sufficient rest and by 

noise. In this state rubbing the eyes, rising from bed and rubbing the limbs 

occurs." 

tatra svapnena, yatha — 

iyam te hasa-srir viramatu vimuhcahcalam idam 

na ydvad-vrddhdyai sphutam abhidadhe tvac-catulatdm \ 

iti svapne jalpanty aciram avabuddha gurum asau 

puro drstva gauri namita-mukha-bimba muhur abhut ||2.4. 188|| 

Bodha arising from breaking sleep through a dream: 

' 'O Krsna! Do not laugh. Stop pulling the edge of My cloth, otherwise I will 
tell Jatila about Your fickle behavior.' Saying this, in a dream, Radha suddenly 
awoke. Seeing her elders in front of Her, She became very bashful and hung 
Her head." 

nidra-purtya, yatha — 

duti cagat tad-dgar am jaj agar a ca radhika \ 

turnam punyavatinam hi tanoti phalam udyamah ||2.4.189|| 



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Bodha arising from breaking sleep sue to sufficient rest: 

"Just when the messenger arrived at Her house, Radha woke up. It is seen that 

the attempts of those with sufficient pious credits quickly bear fruit." 

svanena, yathd — 

durdd vidrdvayan nidrd-mardlir gopa-subhruvdm \ 

sdrahga-rahgadam reje venu-vdrida-garjitam ||2.4. 190|| 

By sound: 

"Just as the rumbling of the clouds that gives joy to the peacocks causes the 

swans to fly away, so the sound of the flute broke the sleep of the gopis" 

iti bhdvds trayas-trimsat kathitd vyabhicdrinah \ 
srestha-madhya-kanisthesu varnaniyd yathocitam ||2.4.191|| 

"Thus the thirty-three vydbhicadri-bhdvas have been described. They should 
be described as superior, moderate and inferior according to their condition." 

mdtsaryodvega-dambhersyd viveko nirnayas tathd \ 
klaibyam ksamd ca kutukam utkanthd vinayo 'pi ca ||2.4. 192|| 
samsayo dhdrstyam ity ddyd bhdvd ye syuh pare 'pi ca \ 
uktesv antarbhavantiti na prthaktvena darsitdh ||2.4. 193|| 

"All other conditions such as envy, agitation, deceit, spite, discrimination, 
coming to conclusion, impotence, toleration, curiosity, longing, modesty, 
doubt and audacity can be included in the thirty-three vydbhicadri-bhdvas, 
and thus have not been described separately." 

tathd hi — 

asuydydm tu mdtsaryam trdse py udvega eva tu \ 

dambhas tathdvahitthdydm irsydmarse matdv ubhau \ 

viveko nirnayas cemau dainye klaibyam ksamd dhrtau \\2.4.194\\ 

autsukye kutukotkanthe lajjdydm vinayas tathd \ 

samsayo 'ntarbhavet tarke tathd dhdrstyam ca cdpale ||2.4. 195|| 

"Thus 

• Mdtsarya (envy) is included in asuyd-bhdva. 

• Udvega (agitation) is included in trdsa-bhdva. 

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Dambha (deceit) is included in avahittha-bhava. 

Irsya (spite) is included in amarsa-bhdva. 

Viveka (discrimination) and nirnaya (concluding) are included in 

mati-bhdva. 

Klaibhyam (impotence) is included in dainyam-bhava. 

Ksama (tolerance) is included in dhrti-bhava. 

Kutuka (curiosity) and utkantha (longing) are included in autsukya- 

bhdva. 

Vinaya (modesty) is included in lajja-bhava. 

Samsaya (doubt) is included in vitarka-bhdva. 

Dharstya (audacity) is included in capala-bhava" 

esam sahcari-bhdvanam madhye kascana kasyacit \ 
vibhavas canubhdvas ca bhaved eva parasparam ||2.4.196|| 

"Among the vydbhicdrT-bhdvas, some act as cause {vibhdva) and some as 
effect (anubhava)" 

nirvede tu yathersydya bhaved atra vibhdvatd \ 
asuydydm punas tasyd vyaktam uktanubhavata ||2.4. 197|| 

"Thus Irsya (malice) is the cause oinirveda (self-disgust) and the effect of 
asuya (envy). This has already been stated." 

autsukyam prati cintdyah kathitatranubhavata \ 

nidram prati vibhdvatvam evarh jneyah pare py ami ||2.4. 198|| 

"Cinta (pondering) is the effect oiautsukya (impatience) and the cause of 
nidra (sleep). In this way one should understand how the vyabhicari-bhavas 
act mutually as anubhava (actions as effect) and vibhdva (actions as cause)." 

esam ca sattvikanam ca tatha nana-kriya-tateh \ 
karya-karana-bhavas tu jneyah prayena lokatah ||2.4. 199|| 

"The causes and effects of vyabhicari-bhavas, sattvika-bhdvas and various 
other actions should be understood to be similar to situations in the material 
world." 



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nindayas tu vibhavatvam vaivarnyamarsayor matam \ 
asuyayam punas tasyah kathitaivdnubhdvatd ||2.4.200|| 

"Criticism or other actions are considered to be the cause of change of color 
(a sattvika-bhava) and amarsa (indignation, a vyabhicarT-bhava) and the 
effect of asuya (envy, a vyabhicarT-bhava)." 

prahdrasya vibhavatvam sammoha-pralayau prati \ 

augryam pratyanubhavatvam evam jneyah pare 'pi ca ||2.4.201|| 

"Beating is the cause of moha (fainting, a vyabhicarT-bhava) and pralaya (a 
sdttvika-bhdva). It is also the effect oiaugrya (ferocity, a vyabhicarT-bhava). 
Other states should be understood similarly." 

trasa-nidra-sramalasya-mada-bhid-bodha-varjinam \ 
sahcarinam ihakvdpi bhaved raty-anubhavata ||2.4.202|| 

"The vyabhicarT-bhavas oitrdsa (terror), nidrd (sleep), srama (disturbance), 
alasya (lack of enthusiasm) and mdda (madness) arise from intoxication, and 
bodha arises somewhat as as the effect of rati." 

sdksdd-rater na sambandhah sadbhis trdsddibhih saha \ 
sydt parasparayd kintu lildnugunatdkrte ||2.4.203|| 

"Rati has no direct relationship with the six vydbhicdri-bhdvas just 
mentioned. Rati has a relationship with them only because they support rati 
for encouraging pastimes." 

vitarka-mati-nirveda-dhrtinam smrti-harsayoh \ 
bodha-bhid-dainya-suptinam kvacid rati-vibhavata ||2.4.204|| 

"Similarly, vitarka (conjecture), mati (scriptural conclusion), nirveda (self- 
disgust), dhrti (steadiness of heart), smrti (remembrance), harsa (joy) and the 
type of bodha arising from destruction of ignorance become somewhat the 
causes of raft'. " 



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paratantrah svatantras cety uktah sahcarino dvidha ||2.4.205|| 

"The vyabhicari-bhavas may be either dependent upon or independent [of the 
primary and secondary ratis]" 

tatra paratantrah — 

varavarataya proktah paratantra apt dvidhd ||2.4.206|| 

"The dependent vyabhicari-bhavas are either superior or inferior." 

Ultra varah — 

saksad vyavahitas ceti varo py esa dvidhoditah ||2.4.207|| 

"The superior dependent vyabhicari-bhavas are either direct or indirect." 

tatra sdksdt — 

mukhyam eva ratim pusnan saksad ity abhidhiyate ||2.4.208|| 

"A superior vydbhicdrT-bhdva that nourishes a primary rati is called a direct 
superior dependent vydbhicdrT-bhdva" 

yatha — 

tanuruhali ca tanus ca nrtyam 

tanoti me nama nisamya yasya \ 

apasyato mathura-mandalam tad- 

vyarthena kim hanta drsor dvayena ||2.4.209|| 

An example: 

"What is the use of eyes that do not see Mathura, hearing whose name my 

hairs stand on end?" 

atha vyavahitah — 

pusndti yo ratim gaunim sa vyavahito matah ||2.4.210|| 

"A superior, dependent vydbhicdri-bhdva that nourishes a secondary rati is 
called an indirect (vyavahita) superior dependent vydbhicdrT-bhdva" 



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yatha — 

dhig astu me bhuja-dvandvam bhimasya parighopamam \ 

madhavaksepinam dustam yat pinasti na cedipam ||2.4.211|| 

"I am Bhima. How unfortunate are my two arms, strong as iron beams, if they 
cannot crush the evil Sisupala, the enemy of Krsna!" 

nirvedah krodha-vasyatvdd ayarh vyavahito rateh ||2.4.212|| 

"In the above verse, nirveda (self-deprecation) is under the control of the 
secondary rati of anger. Thus it is called indirect (vyavahito).'" 

atha avarah — 

rasa-dvayasydpy ahgatvam agacchann avaro matah ||2.4.213|| 

"When the vydbhicdri-bhdva is not a component of either a primary or 
secondary rasa (does not nourish the rasa) it is called an inferior dependent 

vyabhicdri-bhdva. " 

yatha — 

lelihyamdnam vadanair jvaladbhir 

jaganti damstrdsphutad-uttamdhgaih \ 

aveksya krsnam dhrta-visvarupam 

na svam visusyan smarati smajisnuh ||2.4.214|| 

"When Arjuna saw that the universal form of Krsna was crushing the heads of 
the living entities in the universe with the teeth in His shining mouths, his 
mouth became dry and he forgot himself." 

ghora-kriyddy-anubhdvad acchadya sahajam ratim \ 
durvardvirabhud bhitir moho 'yam bhi-vasas tatah ||2.4.215|| 

"Uncontrollable fear appeared when Arjuna experienced the frightful actions 
of the universal form of the Lord. This covers the normal rati of Arjuna 
(friendship). The vydbhicdrl-bhdva oimoha is under the control of fear, 
which is not a secondary rati [because fear is incompatible with friendship]." 



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atha svatantrah — 

sadaiva paratantrye 'pi kvacid esdrh svatantratd \ 

bhupdla-sevakasyeva pravrttasya kara-grahe ||2.4.216|| 

Svatantra (independent) vyabhicari-bhavas: 

"Though all the vyabhicari-bhavas are dependent to some degree [upon the 
rati of the devotee], they manifest some independence. Though the employees 
of a king are dependent on the king, at the time of collecting the king's taxes 
or during marriages, they show independence from the king." 

bhdvajhai rati-sunyas ca raty-anusparsanas tathd \ 
rati-gandhis ca te tredhd svatantrah parikirtitdh ||2.4.217|| 

"Those knowledgeable of rati divide the independent vyabhicari-bhavas into 
three types: devoid of genuine rati, influenced by genuine rati and having a 
trace of rati." 

tatra rati-sunyah — 

janesu rati-sunyesu rati-sunyo bhaved asau ||2.4.218|| 

Devoid of genuine rati: 

"When vyabhicari-bhavas are displayed in a person devoid of genuine rati, 
but not inimical to Krsna, it is called rati-sunya-svatantra-vydbhicdri-bhdva 
[independent vydbhicdri-bhdva without rati]" 

yatha sri-dasame (10.23.40) — 

dhigjanma nas trivrd-vidyam dhig vratam dhig bahujhatam \ 
dhikkulam dhik kriyd-diksdm vimukha ye tv adhoksaje ||2.4.219|| 
atra svatantro nirvedah \ 

Independent self-depreciation, from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam 

[10.23.40]: 

"To hell with our threefold birth, our vow of celibacy and our extensive 

learning! To hell with our aristocratic background and our expertise in the 

rituals of sacrifice! These are all condemned because we were inimical to the 

transcendental Personality of Godhead." 



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tatra raty-anusparsanah — 

yah svato rati-gandhena vihino 'pi prasahgatah \ 

pascdd ratim sprsed esa raty-anusparsano matah ||2.4.220|| 

Influenced by genuine rati: 

"When a vydbhicdrT-bhdva appears spontaneously but devoid of even rati- 
gandha [the third type of independent vydbhicari-bhdva, having genuine rati 
as the indirect cause], but is related to genuine rati because the experiencer 
has genuine permanent rati, it is called raty-anusparsana-svatantra- 
vydbhicdri-bhdva [independent vydbhicari-bhdva influenced by rati]" 

yatha — 

garisthdrista-tahkdrair vidhurd vadhirdyitd \ 

ha krsna pdhi pdhiti cukrosdbhira-bdlikd ||2.4.221|| 

atra trdsah \ 

Terror: 

"Hearing the roaring of the terrifying bull demon, the cowherd boys became 
fearful and almost deaf because of the loud sound. They began to shout 
'Krsna! Please help us! ' " 

atha rati-gandhih — 

yah svdtantrye 'pi tad-gandham rati-gandhir vyanakti sah ||2.4.222|| 

"When a vydbhicdrT-bhdva shows a touch of rati even though it remains 
independent, it is called rati-gandhi-svatantra-vydbhicdri-bhdva [independent 
vydbhicari-bhdva with a touch of raft']." 

yatha — 

pitdmsukam paricinomi dhrtam tvaydhge 
sahgopandya na hi naptri vidhehi yatnam \ 
ity dryayd nigaditd namitottamdhgd 
rddhdvagunthita-mukhT tarasd taddsit ||2.4.223|| 
atra lajjd \ 

Bashfulness: 



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"' 'O my daughter! I know why you are wearing that yellow cloth on your 
body. Do not try to hide [your attraction to Krsna] from me.' When Mukhara 
told this to Radha, She quickly hung Her head and covered Her face with the 
edge of Her cloth to hide Her shame." 

abhasah punar etesam asthane vrttito bhavet \ 

pratikulyam anaucityam asthanatvam dvidhoditam ||2.4.224|| 

"When these vyabhicari-bhavas manifest inappropriately in unqualified 
persons, they are actually semblances oibhdva or vyabhicari-bhavabhasa. 
There are two types of inappropriateness: appearing in persons hostile to 
Krsna and being improperly credited." 

tatra pratikulyam — 

vipakse vrttir etesam pratikulyam itiryate ||2.4.225|| 

Unfavorable vyabhicari-bhavabhasa: 

"When the bhavas are present in those hostile to Krsna they are called 

prdtikulya [unfavorable]." 

yathd — 

gopo py asiksita-rano 'pi tarn asva-daityam 
hanti me hanta mama jivita-nirvisesam \ 
krida-vinirjita-suradhipater alam me 
durjivitena hata-kamsa-narddhipasya ||2.4.226|| 
atra nirvedasydbhdsah \ 

An example of unfavorable manifestation of self-deprecation: 
"When the untrained cowherd boy killed the horse demon who was my very 
life and soul, what is the need for me, the unfortunate king Karhsa, who 
defeated Indra as play, to maintain my life?" 

yathd vd — 

dundabho jalacarah sa kaliyo 
gostha-bhiibhrd api lostra-sodarah \ 
tatra karma kim ivadbhutam jane 
yena murkha jagadisateryate ||2.4.227|| 

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atrasuyayah \ 

Another example of unfavorable manifestation ofbhdva, concerning envy: 
"O foolish Akrura! This Kaliya is only a harmless water snake. Govardhana 
Mountain is only a lump of earth. You are attributing the title of Controller of 
the Universe to a person who has just controlled a harmless snake and lifted a 
pile of earth!" 

atha anaucityam — 

asatyatvam ayogyatvam anaucityam dvidhd bhavet \ 

apranini bhaved ddyah tiryag-ddisu cdntimam ||2.4.228|| 

"There are two types of inappropriateness: nonexistent [asatya] and 
unqualified [ayogya]. Nonexistent means attributing vydbhicdri-bhdvas to 
inanimate objects [which cannot have emotions]. Unqualified means 
attributing vydbhicdri-bhdvas to animals [who are unqualified for higher 
emotions]." 

tatra apranini, yathd — 
chdyd na yasya sakrd apy upasevitdbhut 
krsnena hanta mama tasya dhig astujanma \ 
ma tvam kadamba vidhuro bhava kdliydhim 
mrdnan karisyati haris caritdrthatdm te ||2.4.229|| 
atra nirvedasya \ 

Self-depreciation in trees: 

"My life is useless because Krsna has not enjoyed the shade of my branches 
even once." "O kadamba tree, do not lament! You will attain success in life 
when Krsna jumps from your branches to punish Kaliya!" 

tirasci, yathd — 

adhirohatu kah paksl kaksdm aparo mamddya medhyasya \ 
hitvdpi tdrksya-paksam bhajate paksam harir yasya ||2.4.230|| 
atra garvasya \ 

Pride in animals: 



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A peacock speaks: "I am very pure. What bird is there to compare with me? 
Giving up Garuda, the Lord enjoys my feather on His head." 

vahamanesv api sada jnana-vijnana-madhurim \ 
kadambadisu samdnya-drsty-abhasatvam ucyate ||2.4.231|| 

"Consciousness, discrimination and the experience of sweetness described in 
the kadamba tree and other objects should be understood to be only a 
semblance to those items because they have only consciousness without 
discriminating powers." 

bhdvanam kvacid utpatti-sandhi-sdvalya-santayah \ 
dasds catasra etdsdm utpattis tv iha sambhavah ||2.4.232|| 

"Sometimes four stages are seen in the manifestation ofvyabhicarl-bhdvas: 
appearance, conjunction, conflict and disappearance. Appearance (utpatti) 
means the initial manifestation of the vyabhicarl-bhava" 

yathd — 

mandate kim api canda-maricer 
lohitdyati nisamya yasodd \ 
vainavim dhvani-dhuram avidure 
prasrava-stimita-kanculikasit ||2.4.233|| 
atra harsotpattih \ 

Appearance of harsa: 

"When the sun turned red, and Yasoda heard the sound of the flute close by, 

her bodice became damp with the flow of milk from her breasts." 

yathd va — 

tvayi rahasi milantyam sambhrama-nyasa-bhugnapy 

usasi sakhi tavali mekhala pasya bhati \ 

iti vivrta-rahasye kuncita-bhrur 

drsam anrju kiranti radhika vah punatu ||2.4.234|| 

atrasuyotpattih \ 

Appearance of asuya: 

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"O Visakha! When you came to the bower in the morning, your friend Radha 
appeared splendid, even though Her belt was crooked from Her haste in tying 
in around Her waist. When Krsna revealed that confidential matter, Radha 
sent a crooked glance at Him with a frown on Her brow. May that Radha 
purify you!" 

atha sandhih — 

sarupayor bhinnayor va sandhih sydd bhdvayor murtih ||2.4.235|| 

"When two versions of the same bhdva or two different bhdvas mix it is 
called bhdvas andhi" 

tatra sarupayoh sandhih — 

sandhih sarupayos tatra bhinna-hetutthayor matah ||2.4.236|| 

"When the same vyabhicari-bhava arises from two different causes and joins, 
it is called bhava-sandhi. " 

yatha — 

raksasim nisi nisdmya nisdnte 

gokulesa-grhini patitahgim \ 

tat-kucopari sutam ca hasantam 

hanta niscala-tanuh ksanam asit ||2.4.237|| 

atranistesta-samviksakrtayorjadyayor yutih \ 

Jadya caused by favorable and unfavorable circumstances: 
' 'In the evening, the dead demoness lay on the earth and you son was sitting 
on her breast laughing.' When Yasoda heard this, she remained motionless for 
some time." 

atha bhinnayoh — 

bhinnayor hetunaikena bhinnenapy upajatayoh ||2.4.238|| 

"When two differing vyabhicarl-bhdvas arising from the same or differing 
causes join together it is called bhinna-bhava-sandhi" 

atha eka-hetu-jayoh, yatha — 

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durvaracapalo 'yam dhdvann antar bahis ca gosthasya \ 
sisur akutascid bhitir dhinoti hrdayam dunoti ca me ||2.4.239|| 
tatra harsa-sahkayoh \ 

Two differing bhdvas arising from one source: 

"This child is very fickle. He constantly runs inside and outside in Gokula. 

His fearlessness causes me both joy (harsa) and apprehension (sarikha)" 

tatra bhinna-hetujayoh, yatha — 

vilasantam aveksya devakl 

sutam utphulla-vilocanam purah \ 

prabalam apt malla-mandalim 

himam usnam cajalam drsor dadhe ||2.4.240|| 

atra harsa-visddayoh sandhih \ 

Two bhdvas, harsa and visada from differing sources, join together: 
"Seeing her son with joyful eyes in front of her, and seeing the strong 
wrestlers as well, Devakl began to shed both cool and hot tears." 

ekena jdyamdndnam anekena ca hetund \ 

bahunam apt bhavanam sandhih sphutam aveksyate ||2.4.241|| 

"It is also seen that many bhdvas can join together, arising from one cause or 
many causes." 

tatra eka-hetujanam, yatha — 

niruddha kalindi-tata-bhuvi mukundena balina 

hathad antah-smeram taralatara-tarojjvala-kalam \ 

abhivyaktavajham aruna-kutilapahga-susamam 

drsam nyasyanty asminjayati vrsabhanoh kula-manih ||2.4.242|| 

atra harsautsukya-garvamarsasuyanam sandhih \ 

Here is a combination of harsa (joy), autsukya (impatience), garva (pride), 
amarsa (indignation) and asuya (displeasure) arising from one cause: 
"Radha, being stopped forcibly by Krsna in the forest on the bank of the 
Yamuna, internally smiled at Him. She gracefull glanced at Him with red eyes 



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and furrowed brows. Her eyes lit up with flickering puils, but She showed 
contempt for Him. May Radha remain glorious!" 

aneka-hetujanam, yatha — 

parihita-hari-hara viksya radha savitrim 

nikata-bhuvi tathdgre tarka-bhdk smera-padmdm \ 

harim api dara-dure svaminam tatra casin 

mahasi vinata-vakra-prasphura-mldna-vaktra ||2.4.243|| 

atra lajjamarsa-harsa-visadanam sandhih \ 

Many bhavas arising from many causes. In this example there is lajjd 
(shame), amarsa (envy), harsa (joy) and visada (despair): 
"On the occasion of a festival Radha, wearing a necklace given by Krsna, saw 
nearby Her mother and in front of her, smiling Padma. At a distance, She saw 
Krsna and Her husband, Abhimanyu. She hung Her head in shame on seeing 
Her mother, threw crooked glances at Padma in hatred. Her face blossomed 
with joy on seeing Krsna and withered on seeing Her husband." 

atha sdvalyam — 

savalatvam tu bhavandm sammardah sydt parasparam ||2.4.244|| 

"When many bhavas conflict with one another, the state is called sabalya" 

yatha — 

saktah kirn nama kartum sa sisur ahaha me mitra-paksanadhaksid 

dtistheyam tarn eva drutam atha saranam kuryur etan na virah \ 

dm divyd malla-gosthi viharati sa karenoddadhdrddri-varyam 

kuryam adyaiva gatva vraja-bhuvi kadanam ha tatah kampate dhih ||2.4.245|| 

atra garva-visada-dainya-mati-smrti-sahkamarsa-trasanam sdvalyam \ 

In this example there is a combination ofgarva (pride), visada (despair), 
dainyam (feeling feeble), mati (consideration), smrti (remembrance), sahka 
(apprehension), amarsa (indignation) and trasa (terror): 
"What can that child do? Yet He has killed all of my friends! Should I then 
surrender to Him? A warrior can never do that. I am preparing huge wrestlers 
to fight Him; but He has lifted Govardhana with His hand. I should go today 
to Vraja and attack Him, but my heart is shaking because of Him." 

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yatha va — 

dhig dirghe nayane mamdstu mathurd yabhyam na sd preksyate 
vidyeyam mama kihkari-krta-nrpa kdlas tu sarvahkarah \ 
laksmi-keli-grham grham mama hahd nityam tanuh ksiyate 
sadmany eva harim bhajeya hrdayam vrndatavi karsati ||2.4.246|| 
atra nirveda-garva-sahka-dhrti-visada-maty-autsukyanam sdvalyam \ 

Here is a combination oinirveda (self-contempt), garva (pride), sanka 
(apprehension), dhrti (steadiness), visada (despair), mati (contemplation) and 
autsukhya (impatience): 

"My long eyes are unfortunate since they do not see Mathura. My learning 
has made kings into servants. Time devours everything, but my house is the 
playground of Laksmi. Yet how unfortunate I am! My body grows thinner day 
by day. Therefore I should sit in my house and worship the Lord, but my heart 
is attracted to Vrndavan." 

atha santih — 

atyarudhasya bhdvasya vilayah santir ucyate ||2.4.247|| 

"When a bhava that has become prominent disappears, it is called bhava- 
santi" 

yatha — 

vidhurita-vadana viduna-bhasas 

tarn aghaharam gahane gavesayantah \ 

mrdu-kala-muralim nisamya saile 

vraja-sisavah pulakojjvala babhuvuh ||2.4.248|| 

atra visada-santih \ 

This is an example of bhdva-santi of visada (despair): 
"When the children of Vraja could not see Krsna, their faces withered and 
became pale. They began searching for Krsna in the forest. At that time, 
hearing the soft sound of His flute on a mountaintop, they became filled with 
joy, with hairs standing on end." 



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sabdartha-rasa-vaicitri vaci kacana nasti me \ 
yathd-kathahcid evoktam bhdvoddharanam param ||2.4.249|| 

"Though my words do not have variety in meaning or flavor, examples of 
vydbhicdri-bhdvas have been presented to indicate their essential nature as far 
as possible." 

trayastrimsad ime 'stau ca vaksyante sthdyinas ca ye \ 
mukhya-bhdvdbhidhds tv eka-catvdrimsad ami smrtdh ||2.4.250|| 

"The forty-one chief bhdvas or emotions are these thirty -three vydbhicdri- 
bhdvas, the seven secondary sthdyi-bhdvas and the single mukhya-sthdyi- 
bhdva of the devotee." 

sarirendriya-vargasya vikdrandm vidhdyakdh \ 
bhdvdvirbhdva-janitds citta-vrttaya iritdh ||2.4.251|| 

"The transformations of mind created by the appearance of these forty-one 
bhdvas are said to create transformations in the body and all of the senses." 

kvacit svdbhdviko bhdvah kascid dgantukah kvacit 

yas tu svdbhdviko bhdvah sa vydpydntar-bahih-sthitah ||2.4.252|| 

mahjisthddye yathd dravye rdgas tan-maya Tksyate 

atra sydn ndma-mdtrena vibhdvasya vibhdvatd ||2.4.253|| 

"One bhdva is natural to the person, and other bhdvas are incidental. The 
natural bhdva spreads internally and externally, just as red color is completely 
identical to natural red substances. Thus, the natural bhdva becomes very 
apparent just by a slight contact with the cause, Krsna." 

etena sahajenaiva bhdvendnugatd ratih \ 

eka-rupdpi yd bhakter vividhd pratibhdty asau ||2.4.254|| 

"Rati (attraction or love) appears by this natural bhdva. Though rati is one in 
speaking about it generally, it appears in various forms when wishing to 
describe its various qualities." 



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agantukas tuyo bhavah patadau raktimeva sah \ 

tais fair vibhdvair evdyam dhlyate dipyate 'pi ca ||2.4.255|| 

"Just as white cloth appears red when red dye is applied to it, the incidental 
bhdvas become situated in the devotees by various causes and then become 
visible." 

vibhdvanddi-vaisistydd bhaktdndm bhedatas tathd \ 
prdyena sarva-bhdvdndm vaisistyam upajdyate ||2.4.256|| 

"Because of the variety of causes and other elements and the differences in 
the devotees, there is great diversity in every one of the bhdvas'' 

vividhdndm tu bhaktdndm vaisistydd vividham manah \ 
mano'nusdrdd bhdvdndm tdratamyam kilodaye ||2.4.257|| 

"There is a variety of mentalities of various types of devotees (devotees in 
sdnta-rasa, ddsya-rasa, etc.). According to the variety of mentalities, there 
are also various gradations of the appearance of the bhdvas because of various 
natures such as garistha (heavy-hearted)." 

citte garisthe gambhire mahisthe karkasddike \ 
samyag-unmilitds cdmlna laksyante sphutamjanaih ||2.4.258|| 

"Even if these bhdvas were to appear strongly in hearts that are garistha 
(heavy), gambhira (deep), mahistha (expansive) or karkasa (hard) by nature, 
ordinary people could not perceive the bhdvas clearly because there would be 
no external transformations of the body or senses." 

citte laghisthe cottdne ksodisthe komalddike \ 
mandg-unmilitds cdmi laksyante bahir ulbandh ||2.4.259|| 

"When these same bhdvas arise even slightly in hearts that are lagistha (light), 
uttdna (superficial), ksodistha (small) and komala (soft), they can be 
recognized externally because of extreme transformations of the body and 
senses." 



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garistham svarna-pindabham laghistham tula-pindavat \ 
citta-yugme 'tra vijhayd bhdvasya pavanopamd ||2.4.260|| 

"The heavy heart is like a pile of gold. The light heart is like a pile of cotton 
wool. The bhdvas act like wind in relation to these two types of hearts." 

gambhiram sindhuvac cittam uttdnam palvalddivat \ 
citta-dvaye 'tra bhdvasya mahddri-sikharopamd ||2.4.261|| 

"The deep heart is like an ocean, and the shallow heart is like a pond. The 
bhdvas are like pinnacles or high mountains for these two types of hearts." 

pattandbham mahistham sydt ksodistham tu kutiravat \ 
citta-yugme 'tra bhdvasya dipenebhena vopamd ||2.4.262|| 

"The expansive heart is like a city and the small heart is like a hut. Bhdva is 
like a lamp or an elephant for these two types of hearts." 

karkasam trividham proktam vajram svarnam tathdjatu \ 
citta-traye 'tra bhdvasya jheyd vaisvdnaropamd ||2.4.263|| 

"There are three degrees of hardness: like a thunderbolt, gold and lac. Bhdva 
is like a fire in relation to these three types of hardness of heart." 

atyanta-kathinam vajram akutascana mdrdavam \ 
Tdrsam tdpasddindm cittam tdvad aveksyate ||2.4.264|| 

"The thunderbolt is extremely hard and never becomes soft. This hardness is 
seen in the hearts of those who perform severe austerities." 

svarnam dravati bhdvdgnes tdpendtigariyasd \ 
jatu dravatvam dydti tdpa-lesena sarvatah ||2.4.265|| 

"Gold becomes liquid from intense heating. By very strong heat of bhdva, this 
heart becomes soft. Lac becomes soft with very little heat. With a very little 
bhdva, this heart becomes soft." 



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komalam ca tridhaivoktam madanam navamtakam \ 
amrtam ceti bhdvo 'traprdyah surydtapdyate ||2.4.266|| 

"Softness is of three degrees: like beeswax, butter and nectar. In relation to 
these, bhdva is like the heat of the sun." 

droved atrddya-yugalam dtapena yathdyatham \ 
dravibhutam svabhdvena sarvadaivdmrtam bhavet \ 
govinda-prestha-varydndm cittam sydd amrtam kila ||2.4.267|| 

"Beeswax and butter become liqui from different degrees of the sun's heat. 
Nectar is naturally liquid. The hearts of the dearest devotees of Govinda are 
naturally soft like nectar." 

krma-bhakti-visesasya garisthatvddibhir gunaih \ 
samavetam saddmlbhir dvitrair api mano bhavet ||2.4.268|| 

"The mind of a particular devotee may be constantly influenced by a mixture 
of two or three of the above conditions such as garistha" 

kintu susthu mahisthatvam bhdvo bddham updgatah \ 
sarva-prakdram evedam cittam viksobhayaty alam ||2.4.269|| 

"But when the principal sthdyi-bhdva becomes very prominent, all types of 
hearts become completely disturbed by the vyabhicdri-bhdvas ." 

yathd ddna-keli-kaumudydm (4) — 
gabhiro py asrdntam duradhigama-pdro 'pi nitardm 
ahdrydm marydddm dadhad api harer dspadam api \ 
satdm stomah premany udayati samagre sthagayitum 
vikdram na sphdram jala-nidhir ivendau prabhavati ||2.4.270|| 

"The devotee is like the ocean. As Visnu resides in the milk ocean, so the 
Lord resides in the heart of the devotee. As the ocean is deep or 
unfathomable, so the heart of the devotee is inscrutable, not revealing its 
qualities. As the ocean is unwearied, so the devotee is continuous in his 
service. As the ocean is difficult to cross, but has a permanent shore, so the 

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devotee's qualities are difficult to enumerate, but he appears to limit those 
qualities. But when the devotee develops full prema he cannot prevent the 
transformations arising from that prema, just as the ocean cannot prevent the 
rising of the tide when the moon rises from the ocean." 

iti sri-sri-bhakti-rasamrta-sindhau daksina-vibhage 
bhakti-rasa-samanya-nirupane vyabhicari-laharT caturthi \\ 

"Thus ends the Fourth Wave of the Southern Ocean of Sri Bhakti-rasamrta- 
sindhu, concerning vyabhicdri-bhdvas" 



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Fifth Wave: Concerning Sthayi-bhava 

aviruddhdn viruddhdms ca bhdvdn yo vasatdm nayan \ 
su-rdjeva virdjeta sa sthdyT bhdva ucyate ||2.5. 1|| 

"That bhdva which, controlling other favorable bhdvas such as hdsya, and 
contradictory bhdvas such as krodha, presides in the manner of an efficient 
ruler, is called the sthayi-bhava" 

sthdyi bhdvo 'tra saproktah sri-krsna-visayd ratih \ 
mukhyd gaum ca sa dvedhd rasa-jhaih parikirtitd ||2.5.2|| 

"In this context, the rati directed towards Krsna is called the sthayi-bhava. 
Those knowledgeable of rasa say that there are two types of sthdyi-bhdva: 
mukhya (primary) and gauna (secondary)." 

tatra mukhyd — 

suddha-sattva-visesdtmd ratir mukhyeti kirtitd \ 

mukhydpi dvi-vidhd svdrthd pardrthd ceti kirtyate ||2.5.3|| 

Mukhya-rati (primary rati): 

"A rati that is suddha-sattva-visesdtmd (composed of the hlddini and samvit 
saktis) is called a primary rati. Though this is the primary rati, it takes two 
forms: svdrtha and pardrtha" 

tatra svdrthd — 

aviruddhaih sphutam bhdvaih pusndty dtmdnam eva yd \ 

viruddhair duhkha-gldnih sa svdrthd kathitd ratih ||2.5.4|| 

"That primary rati that clearly nourishes itself with non-contradictory bhdvas 
and becomes intolerably depressed with sorrow by contradictory bhdvas is 
called the svdrtha-rati (nourishing itself)." 

atha pardrthd — 



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aviruddham viruddham ca sahkucanti svayam ratih \ 
yd bhdvam anugrhndti sd pardrthd nigadyate ||2.5.5|| 

"The same primary rati that restricting itself, accepts both non-contradictory 
and contradictory bhdvas (which then become prominent) is called pardrtha 
(nourishing the other bhdvas)." 

suddhd pritis tathd sakhyam vdtsalyam priyatety asau \ 
svapardrthyaiva sd mukhyd punah pahca-vidhd bhavet ||2.5.6|| 

"A primary rati in these two forms has five varieties: suddha, priti (or ddsya), 
sakhya, vdtsalya andpriyatd (or madhurya)" 

vaisistyam pdtra-vaisistydd ratir esopagacchati \ 
yathdrkah pratibimbdtmd sphatikddisu vastusu ||2.5.7|| 

"The rati takes on a specific type (one of the five) according to the individual 
nature of the devotee. Just as the sun takes on various forms when reflected 
through crystals and other items, the rati takes on various forms when 
manifesting in different individuals." 

tatra suddhd — 

sdmdnydsau tathd svacchd sdntis cety ddimd tridhd \ 

esdhga-kampatd-netrdmilanonmTlanddi-krt 1 12. 5 . 8| | 

Suddha-rati: 

"The first rati called suddha-rati has three types: sdmdnya, svaccha and 

santa. It produces quivering of the body and closing and opening of the eyes." 

tatra sdmdnya — 

kahcid visesam aprdptd sddhdrana-janasya yd \ 

bdlikadais ca krsne sydt sdmdnya sd ratir matd ||2.5.9|| 

Sdmdnya-suddha-rati: 

The rati manifested in ordinary people and children for Krsna is called 
sdmdnya-rati or ordinary rati. It does not have the distinguishing qualities of 
even svaccha-rati or sdnta-rati. 



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yatha — 

asmin mathura-vithyam udayati madhure virocane puratah \ 

kathasva sakhe mradimanam manasa-madanam kim eti mama ||2.5.10|| 

An example: 

"O friend! Please tell me why my mind, like beeswax, has become very soft. 
Is it because the sweet sun, Krsna, has risen on the street of Mathura before 
me? I can see no other cause of this happening." 

yatha vd — 

tri-varsa balika seyam varsfyasi samlksyatam \ 

yd purah krsnam alokya huhkurvaty abhidhavati ||2.5.11|| 

Another example: 

"O old woman! See that child, just three years old, who on seeing Krsna in 

front of her, is running after Him and calling out." 

atha svaccha — 

tat-tat-sadhanato nana-vidha-bhakti-prasahgatah \ 

sadhakanam tu vaividhyam yantT svaccha ratir mata ||2.5. 12|| 

Svaccha-suddha-rati: 

"When rati manifests many varieties because the practitioner associates with 
various types of devotees and performs various practices, it is called svaccha- 
rati (transparent)." 

yada yadrsi bhakte syad asaktis tadrsam tada \ 

rupam sphatikavad dhatte svacchasau tena kirtitd ||2.5. 13|| 

"When a devotee's rati, like clear crystal, becomes similar in form to that of a 
devotee to whom he is attached, it is called svaccha-rati ." 

yatha — 

kvacit prabhur iti stuvan kvacana mitram ity uddhasan 

kvacit tanaya ity avan kvacana kanta ity ullasan \ 



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kvacin manasi bhavayan parama esa atmety asav 
abhud vividha-sevayd vividha-vrttir dryo dvijah ||2.5. 14|| 

An example: 

"One brdhmana fixed on following the injunctions of scripture sometimes 
praised the Lord as Master, sometimes joked with Him as a friend, sometimes 
protected Him as a son, sometimes craved for Him as a lover, and sometimes 
meditated in his heart on Him as Paramatma. In this way, by various modes of 
service, he was endowed with various inclinations of mind." 

andcdnta-dhiydm tat-tad-bhdva-nisthd sukhdrnave \ 
drydndm atisuddhdndm prdyah svacchd ratir bhavet ||2.5.15|| 

"Those very pure pious persons whose hearts are fickle because of lack of a 
particular taste for the ocean of happiness of the higher rasas and who thus 
must conduct themselves according to the rules of the scriptures generally 
develop svaccha-rati." 

atha sdntih — 

mdnase nirvikalpatvam sama ity abhidhiyate ||2.5.16|| 

Sdnti-suddha-rati: 

"Non-differentiation of the knower and the object within the mind is called 

sama" 

tatha coktam — 

vihdya visayonmukhyam nijdnanda-sthitir yatah \ 

dtmanah kathyate so 'tra svabhdvah sama ity asau ||2.5. 17|| 

It is said by the ancients: 

"That nature by which a person is situated in the bliss of his own dtmd after 

giving up the pursuit of material things is called sama" 

prdyah sama-pradhdndndm mamatd-gandha-varjitd \ 
paramdtmatayd krsnejdtd sdnta-ratir matd ||2.5. 18|| 



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"That rati arising in persons with a predominance of sama {atma-jnana), 
which is devoid of even a trace of possessiveness for the Lord, but which 
produces attraction for the Lord in the form of Paramatma is called santa- 
rati" 

yatha — 

devarsi-vinaya pite hari-lila-mahotsave \ 

sanakasya tanau kampo brahmanubhavino 'py abhut ||2.5.19|| 

An example: 

"When Narada sang about the pastimes of the Lord on his vina, Sanaka's 

body began to tremble, even though he was a brahma-jndnl" 

yatha va — 

hari-vallabha-sevaya samantad 
apara-varganubhavam kilavadhirya \ 
ghana-sundaram atmano 'py abhistam 
paramam brahma didrksate mano me ||2.5.20|| 

Another example: 

"Because of serving the devotees, I have given up the happiness of liberation 
as insignificant and surpassing the impersonal brahman, I desire to see the 
dark-hued Lord, the highest form of brahman." 

agrato vaksyamdnais tu svddaih prity-ddi-samsrayaih \ 
rater asyd asamparkdd iyam suddheti bhanyate ||2.5.21|| 

"That rati which is not mixed with the tastes found in the other types of rati 
starting withpriti-rati, which will be explained later, is called suddha-rati ." 

atha bheda-trayl hrdya rateh prity-ddir iryate \ 
gddhdnukulatotpanna mamatvena saddsrita ||2.5.22|| 

"The three types of rati — priti, sakhya and vatsalya — are pleasing to the 
heart. They arise from deep friendliness to the Lord and are always endowed 
with possessiveness toward the Lord." 



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krsna-bhaktesv anugrahya-sakhi-pujyesv anukramat \ 
tri-vidhesu trayipritih sakhyam vatsalatety asau ||2.5.23|| 

"When rati (with deep friendship and possessiveness) is found in three types 
of devotees — recipients of mercy, friends and elders — it becomes priti-rati, 
sakhya-rati and vatsalya-rati, respectively." 

atra netrddi-phullatva-jrmbhanodghurnanddayah \ 
kevald sankuld ceti dvi-vidheyam rati-trayi ||2.5.24|| 

"In these three types of rati there is opening of the eyes, stretching the limbs 
and unsteadiness. These three types have two varieties: kevala and sankula" 

tatra kevala — 

raty-antarasya gandhena varjitd kevala bhavet \ 

vrajdnuge rasalddau sriddmddau vayasyake \ 

gurau ca vrajandthddau kramenaiva sphuraty asau ||2.5.25|| 

Kevala-rati: 

"When rati has no trace of other kinds of rati it is called kevala- (pure) rati. 
In Vraja, it is found in Krsna's servants such as Rasala, in friends such as 
Sridama and elders such as Nanada." 

tatra sankuld — 

esarh dvayos traydnam va sannipatas tu sankuld \ 
udbhavddau ca bhimddau mathurddau kramena sd \ 
yasyddhikyam bhaved yatra sa tena vyapadisyate ||2.5.26|| 

Sankula-rati : 

"When two or three of the three types of rati are found together in a person, it 
is called sankula-rati (mixed rati). It is found in Uddhava, Bhima and 
Mukhara. A person is identified by the rati which is most prominent." 

athapritih — 

svasmdd bhavanti ye nyunds te 'nugrdhyd harer matdh \ 

drddhyatvdtmikd tesdm ratih pritir itiritd ||2.5.27|| 



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Priti-rati: 

"When persons identify themselves as inferior to the Lord they are called the 
recipients of mercy (anugrdhyd). Their rati, in which Krsna is perceived as 
worth of worship, is called priti-rati. " 

tatrdsakti-krd anyatra priti-samharini hy asau ||2.5.28|| 

"This priti-rati produces attachment for the object of worship, and destroys 
affection for other objects." 

yatha mukunda-malayam (8) — 

divi vd bhuvi va mamdstu vdso 

narake va narkdntaka prakdmam \ 

avadhirita-sdraddravindau 

caranau te marane 'pi cintaydmi ||2.5.29|| 

An example from the Mukunda-mdla [8] : 

"0 destroyer of the demon Naraka! Wherever I live according to Your desire 

— in heaven, on earth or in hell — I will remember Your two feet, whose 

beauty defeats the lotuses blooming in the autumn season, even at the time of 

death." 

atha sakhyam — 

ye syus tulyd mukundasya te sakhdyah satdm matdh \ 
sdmydd visrambha-rupaisdm ratih sakhyam ihocyate \ 
parihdsa-prahdsddi-kdrinTyam ayantrand ||2.5.30|| 

Sakhya-rati: 

"Those who identify themselves as equal to Mukunda are called sakhas or 

friends. Their rati, with familiarity arising from a sense of equality, is called 

sakhya-rati. In this rati there is loud laughing, joking and no sense of 

reserve." 

yatha — 

mam puspitdranya-didrksaydgatam 

nimesa-vislesa-vidirna-mdnasdh I 



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te samsprsantah pulakancita-sriyo 
durad ahampurvikayadya remire ||2.5.31|| 

An example: 

"Today, when I went to see the flowering forests of Vrndavan, My friends 
were suffering by even a moment's separation from Me. From far off, they 
said, 'I will be touched by Him first! I will be touched by Him first! ' With 
hairs standing on end, they played in this way." 

yathd vd — 

sridama-dor-vilasitena krto 'si kamam 
ddmodara tvam iha darpa-dhurd daridrah \ 
sadyas tvayd tad api kathanam eva krtva 
devyai hriye trayam adayi jvalanjalinam ||2.5.32|| 

Another example: 

"Sridama said, 'Your pride has become impoverished enough in being 
defeated by the strength of my earms. Having boasted, say goodbye to the 
queen called shame [and defeat me].'" 

atha vdtsalyam — 

guravo ye harer asya te pujya iti visrutah \ 

anugraha-mayT tesam ratir vdtsalyam ucyate \ 

idam lalana-bhavyasis cibuka-sparsanadi-krt ||2.5.33|| 

Vatsala-rati: 

"Those persons whose rati identifies them as superiors to the Lord are known 
as pujya, worthy of respect or elders. Their rati, which gives mercy to Krsna, 
is called vatsalya or vatsala. In this rati, there is protecting Krsna, blessing 
Him, kissing Him and touching Him." 

yathd — 

agrasi yan-nirabhisandhi-virodha-bhajah 
kamsasya kihkara-ganair girito py udagraih \ 
gas tatra raksitum asau gahane mrdur me 
balah prayaty aviratam bata kim karomi ||2.5.34|| 



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An example: 

"The forest is filled with inimical Karhsa's servants, who are more solid than 
mountains. My tender boy goes constantly to that dense forest. Oh! What 
should I do?" 

yatha va — 

sutam ahgulibhih snuta-stanT 
cibukagre dadhati dayardra-dhih \ 
samaldlayad alayat purah 
sthiti-bhajam vraja-rdja-gehinT ||2.5.35|| 

Another example: 

"Yasoda, whose heart was soft with affection and whose breasts flowed with 

milk, caressed her son Krsna while holding His chin in her fingers." 

mitho harer mrgaksyas ca sambhogasyadi-karanam \ 

madhurdpara-parydydpriyatdkhyoditd ratih \ 

asyam kataksa-bhru-ksepa-priya-vani-smitadayah ||2.5.36|| 

Priyatd-rati: 

"That rati found in the doe-eyed women and which is the root cause of eight 
types of enjoyment between the women and Krsna is called priyatd-rati. It is 
also called madhurya-rati . In this rati, there are sidelong glances, moving the 
eyebrows, affectionate words and slight smiles, etc." 

yatha govinda-vilase — 

dram utkunthita-manaso radha-mura-vairinoh ko 'pi \ 

nibhrta-niriksana-janma pratyasa-pallavo jayati ||2.5.37|| 

From the Govinda-vilasa: 

"For a long time, Radha and Krsna have been longing to see each other. All 

glories to the new sprout of hope of being able to see each other alone!" 

yathottaram asau svada-visesollasamayy api \ 
ratir vasanaya svadvT bhasate kapi kasyacit ||2.5.38|| 



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"These five types of rati (from suddha to priyata-rati) become progressively 
more blissful by increasing tastes. The particular taste arises in a devotee 
according to his previous experiences." 

atha gaum — 

vibhavotkarsajo bhava-viseso yo 'nugrhyate \ 

sankucantya svayam ratyd sa gaum rati r ucyate ||2.5.39|| 

Gauna-rati (secondary rati): 

"When a different emotional state arising from the excellence of the 
alambana (vibhdva) manifests while the primary rati subdues itself, it is 
called secondary rati." 

hdso vismaya utsahah sokah krodho bhayam tatha \ 
jugupsa cety asau bhava-visesah saptadhoditah ||2.5.40|| 

"The seven specific emotions are hdsa (humor), vismaya (astonishment), 
utsdha (fortitude), soka (lamentation), krodha (anger), bhaya (fear)and 
jugupsa (disgust or hatred)" 

api krsna-vibhdvatvam adya-satkasya sambhavet \ 

sydd dehddi-vibhdvatvam saptamyds tu rater vasat ||2.5.41|| 

"Since they are under the control of the primary ratis, Krsna acts as the cause 
for the first six of these ratis, but Krsna cannot be the cause of the seventh 
secondary rati, jugupsa or disgust. The cause of disgust is the material body 
or other objects." 

hasaddv atra bhinne 'pi suddha-sattva-visesatah \ 
pardrthdya rater yogad rati-sabdah prayujyate ||2.5.42|| 

"Though these seven bhavas are different from the primary svartha-ratis 
composed of suddha-sattva-visesa (mukhya-svartha-ratis), when these seven 
emotions are conjoined with a primary rati which takes a secondary role as 
parartha, the word rati is used to describe the condition of these seven." 



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hasottara ratir ya syat sa hasa-ratir ucyate \ 

evam vismaya-raty-adya vijheya ratayas ca sat ||2.5.43|| 

"When hasa predominates over a mukhya-rati (which becomes pardrtha), it is 
called hdsa-rati. The other six secondary ratis should be similarly 
understood." 

kahcit kalam kvacid bhakte hasadyah sthdyitdm ami \ 
ratya caru-krta yanti tal-lilady-anusaratah ||2.5.44|| 

"When hasa and other emotions take on beautiful forms by the influence of a 
primary rati in a particular devotee in a specific pastime and remain for some 
time, they can be considered sthayi-bhavas. " 

tasmad aniyatadharah sapta samayika ime \ 
sahaja apt liyante balisthena tiraskrtah ||2.5.45|| 

"Therefore, these seven emotional states manifest for a short time in a person, 
and are not fixed in any particular person. Even though these seven emotions 
manifest spontaneously, they disappear by being converted by contrary 
bhavas arising from the primary rati" 

kapy avyabhicaranti sa svadhdran sva-svarupatah \ 

ratir atyantika-sthdyi bhdvo bhakta-jane 'khile \ 

syur etasyd vind-bhavad bhavah sarve nirarthakah ||2.5.46|| 

"When the primary rati in its essential form does not leave the devotee, it is 
considered to be the continuous or atyantika-sthayT-bhava. This is present in 
all types of devotees. Without the continuous sthayi-bhava, all the other 
bhavas such hasa are dysfunctional." 

vipaksadisu yanto 'pi krodhadyah sthdyitdm sada \ 
labhante rati-sunyatvan na bhakti-rasa-yogyatam ||2.5.47|| 

"Though the secondary bhavas become sthayi-bhavas in the enemies of 
Krsna, they are not suitable for bhakti-rasa since they are without a primary 
rati (positive attraction for Krsna)." 

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aviruddhair api sprsta bhavaih sahcarino 'khilah \ 
nirvedddyd vilTyante ndrhanti sthdyitdm tatah ||2.5.48|| 

"Because all the thirty -three vyabhicarT-bhavas starting with nirveda, though 
not connected with hostile emotions, disappear on their own after some time 
in the devotees, they are not classed as sthdyT-bhdvas ." 

ity ato mati-garvadi-bhavanam ghatate na hi \ 

sthdyitd kaiscid istapi pramanam tatra tad-vidah ||2.5.49|| 

"Though some persons would like to consider mati, garva and other 
vyabhicarT-bhavas to be sthdyT-bhdvas , they are not classed as such. Bharata 
Muni and others are the authority for this statement." 

sapta hdsddayas tv ete tais fair nitdh supustatdm \ 
bhaktesu sthdyitdm ydnto rucir ebhyo vitanvate ||2.5.50|| 

"The seven secondary emotions, being nourished greatly by vibhdvas, 
anubhdvas, sdttvika-bhdvas and vyabhicdri-bhdvas, take up the status of 
sthdyT-bhdvas in the devotees and produce a taste in the devotees." 

tatha coktam — 

astanam eva bhavanam samskaradhayita mata \ 

tat-tiraskrta-samskarah pare na sthayitocitah ||2.5.51|| 

Therefore it is said: 

"In a devotee, one of the five sthdyT-bhdvas and the seven secondary bhavas, 
together making eight bhavas, produce lasting impressions (even though they 
may externally disappear for some time). Since the impressions of the 
vyabhicarT-bhavas disappear after they are covered by these eight, the 
vyabhicarT-bhavas are not considered to be sthdyT-bhdvas" 

tatra hasa-ratih — 

ceto-vikaso hasah syad vag-vesehadi-vaikrtat \ 

sa drg-vikasana-saustha-kapola-spandanadikrt ||2.5.52|| 



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Hasa-rati: 

"When there is cheerfulness in the heart from irregularity of speech, dress or 
actions, it is called hdsa. In this state, the symtoms are fully opening the eyes 
and quivering of the nose, lips and cheeks." 

krsna-sambandhi-cestotthah svayam sankucad-atmana \ 
pratyanugrhyamano 'yam hdso hdsa-ratir bhavet ||2.5.53|| 

"When hdsa arises from actions related to Krsna and the primary rasa 
assumes a subdued role, hdsa becomes hasa-rati." 

yatha — 

maya drg api narpita sumukhi dadhni tubhyam sape 
sakhitava nirargald tad api me mukham jighrati \ 
prasadhi tad imam mudha cchalita-sadhum ity acyute 
vadaty ajani dutika hasita-rodhane na ksama ||2.5.54|| 

An example: 

' 'O beautiful woman! I swear to you that I have not even looked at the 
yogurt. But your bold friend is sniffing My mouth in vain. Give instructions to 
your friend so that she does not accuse innocent persons like Me.' When the 
gopi servant heard these words, she could not resist her laughter." 

atha vismaya-ratih — 

lokottarartha-viksader vismayas citta-vistrtih \ 
atra syur netra-vistdra-sadhukti-pulakadayah \ 
purvokta-ritya nispannah sa vismaya-ratir bhavet ||2.5.55|| 

Vismaya-rati: 

"On seeing something unusual the mind may inquire, 'What can this be?' This 
disposition is called vismaya or wonder. In this state the symptoms are 
widening of the eyes, uttering words like 'very good very good,' and standing 
of the hairs on end. The relation of vismaya to vismaya-rati is the same as 
hdsa to hasa-rati" 

yatha — 



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gavarh gopalanam apt sisu-ganah pita-vasano 
lasac-chrivatsahkah prthu-bhuja-catuskair dhrta-rucih \ 
krta-stotrarambhah sa vidhibhir ajandalibhir alam 
para-brahmolldsdn vahati kim idam hanta kim idam ||2.5.56|| 

An example: 

"When Brahma saw all the calves and cowherd boys manifest as forms of the 
Supreme Brahman — as Narayana forms wearing yellow garments and marked 
with srivatsa, who were being praised by all the inhabitants of the universes 
including many Brahmas — he became astonished and uttered 'What is this? 
What is this?'" 

atha utsaha-ratih — 

stheyasi sadhubhih slaghya-phale yuddhadi-karmani \ 

satvard mdnasdsaktir utsdha iti kirtyate ||2.5.57|| 

Utsdha-rati: 

"Firm and immediate attachment of the mind to activities such as battle, 
charity, compassion and dharma, whose results are praised by saintly people, 
is called utsdha" 

kdldnaveksanam tatra dhairya-tydgodyamddayah \ 
siddhah purvokta-vidhind sa utsdha ratir bhavet ||2.5.58|| 

"Yuddhadi means fighting, charity, compassion and righteous acts. Instead of 
yuddhadi, svabhlsta (cherished) is sometimes used." 

yatha — 

kalindi-tata-bhuvi patra-srhga-vamsi 
nikvanair iha mukhari-krtambarayam \ 
visphurjann agha-damanena yoddhu-kamah 
sridama parikaram udbhatam babandha ||2.5.59|| 

An example: 

"When the air resounded with the sound of the flute, horn and patra (blades of 
grass) on the bank of the Yamuna, Sridama, desiring to fight with 
Krsna,began roaring and bound up his waist tightly." 

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atha soka-ratih — 

sokas tv ista-viyogadyais citta-klesa-bhavah smrtah \ 
vilapa-pata-nihsvasa-mukha-sosa-bhramadi-krt \ 
purvokta-vidhinaivdyam siddhah soka-ratir bhavet ||2.5.60|| 

Soka-rati: 

"Intense pain in the heart arising from a separation from a dear one with 
thoughts that the beloved has perished is called soka or lamentation. In this 
state there is wailing, falling on the ground, heavy breathing, drying of the 
mouth and confusion." 

yathd sri-dasame (10.7.25) — 
ruditam anu nisamya tatra gopyo 
bhrsam anutapta-dhiyo ' sru-purna-mukhyah \ 
rurudur anupalabhya nanda-sunum 
pavana uparata-pamsu-varsa-vege ||2.5.61|| 

An example from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam [10.7.25]: 
"When the force of the dust storm and the winds subsided, Yasoda's friends, 
the other gopis, approached mother Yasoda, hearing her pitiful crying. Not 
seeing Krsna present, they too felt very much aggrieved and joined mother 
Yasoda in crying, their eyes full of tears." 

yathd vd — 

avalokya phanmdra-yantritam 

tanayam prdna-sahasra-vallabham \ 

hrdayam na vidiryati dvidhd 

dhig imam martya-tanoh kathoratam ||2.5.62|| 

Another example: 

"My heart did not shatter on seeing Krsna, dearer than a thousand lives, bound 

up by Kaliya. How hard my heart is!" 

atha krodha-ratih — 

pratikulyddibhis citta-jvalanam krodha Tryate \ 

parusya-bhru-kuti-netra-lauhityadi-vikara-krt 1 12. 5. 63 1 1 

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Krodha-rati: 

"Flaming up of the heart from encountering opposition is called krodha or 

anger. In this state rough behavior, frowning and reddening of the eyes 

manifest." 

evarh purvoktavat-siddham viduh krodha-ratim budhah \ 
dvidhdsau krsna-tad-vairi-bhdvatvena kirtita ||2.5.64|| 

"Krodha-rati arises from krodha in the same way as hdsa-rati arises from 
hdsa. It has two types: where the stimulus for krodha is Krsna and where the 
stimulus is the enemy of Krsna." 

atha krsna-vibhdvah, yatha — 

kantha-simani harer dyuti-bhajam rddhikd-mani-saram paricitya \ 

tarn cirenajatild vikata-bhru- bhahga-bhimatara-drstir dadarsa ||2.5.65|| 

Anger stimulated by Krsna: 

"When Jatila recognized Radha's shining pearl necklace around the throat of 

Krsna, she frowned ferociously and glanced at Krsna in a terrifying manner." 

tad-vairi-vibhdvdh, yatha — 

atha kamsa-sahodarogra-ddve 

harim abhyudyati tivra-heti-bhdji \ 

rabhasad alikdmbare pralamba- 

dvisato 'bhud bhru-kuti-payoda-rekha ||2.5.66|| 

Anger stimulated by an enemy: 

"When the blazing forest fire, who was actually the brother of Karhsa, 
surrounded Krsna, a frown of anger appeared on the forehead of Balarama 
like a cloud bank in the sky." 

atha bhaya-ratih — 

bhayam cittdticdhcalyam mantu-ghoreksanddibhih \ 

atma-gopana-hrcchosa-vidrava-bhramanddikrt 1 12.5 . 67| | 

Bhaya-rati: 

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"When the heart manifests extreme unsteadiness after committing an offense 
or seeing fearful creatures, it is called bhaya or fear. In this state, the attempt 
to hide oneself, drying up of the heart, feeling and confusion manifest." 

nispannam purvavad idam budhd bhaya-ratim viduh \ 
esapi krodha-rativad dvi-vidhd kathitd budhaih ||2.5.68|| 

"The wise say that bhaya is related to bhaya-rati just as hasa is related to 
hdsa-rati. As with krodha, bhaya-rati has two types: bhaya whose cause is 
Krsna and bhaya whose cause is the enemy of Krsna." 

tatra krsna-vibhavah — 

yacitah patimabhih syamantakam 

saurina sadasi gandini-sutah \ 

vastra-gudha-manir esa mudha-dhis 

tatra susyad-adharah klamam yayau ||2.5.69|| 

Krsna as the cause of fear: 

"When Krsna asked Akrura for the Syamantaka jewel in the assembly in a 
friendly way, Akrura, who was hiding the jewel in his clothing, could not 
answer. He became fearful of Krsna, understanding that Krsna knew he was 
hiding the jewel. His mouth dried up and he became sad." 

dusta-vibhdva-jah, yathd — 
bhairavam bruvati hanta hanta gokula- 
dvari varida-nibhe vrsasure \ 
putra-gupti-dhrta-yatna-vaibhava 
kampra-murtir abhavad vrajesvari ||2.5.70|| 

The enemy of Krsna as the cause of fear: 

"When Vrsasura, like a storm cloud, roared in a frightening manner at the 

entrance of Gokula, Yasoda, thinking of the protection of her son, began to 

tremble." 

atha jugupsd-ratih — 



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jugupsa sydd ahrdydnubhavdc citta-nimilanam \ 
tatra nisthivanam vaktra-kunanam kutsanddayah \ 
rater anugrahdj jdtd sd jugupsd-ratir matd ||2.5.71|| 

Jugupsd-rati: 

"Restriction of the heart arising from experiencing disgusting things is called 
jugupsa or disgust. In this state spitting, curling of the lips and uttering 
contemptuous words manifest. When jugupsa appears because of rati, it is 
called jugupsd-rati. " 

yathd — 

yadavadhi mama cetah krsna-pdddravinde 

nava-nava-rasa-dhdmany udyatam rantum dsit \ 

tadavadhi bata ndri-sangame smaryamdne 

bhavati mukha-vikdrah susthu-nisthivanam ca ||2.5.72|| 

An example: 

"Since my heart has become eager to play at the lotus feet of Krsna who is the 
abode of ever- fresh rasa, when I think of association with women, my mouth 
curls up in distaste and I spit." 

ratitvdt prathamaikaiva sapta hdsddayas tathd \ 

ity astau sthdyino ydvad rasdvasthdm na samsritdh ||2.5.73|| 

"As long as one among the five primary ratis along with the seven secondary 
ratis does not attain the state of rasa in an individual, the eight are called 

sthdyi-bhdvas '." 

cet svatantrds trayas -trims ad bhaveyur vyabhicdrinah \ 
ihdstau sdttvikds caite bhdvdkhyds tan asankhyakdh ||2.5.74|| 

"If they remain independent, then the thirty-three vyabhicdri-bhdvas, the eight 
ratis mentioned above and the eight sdttvika-bhdvas are called forty-nine 
bhdvas or emotional states." 

krsndnvaydd gundtita-praudhdnanda-mayd api \ 

bhdnty ami trigunotpanna-sukha-duhkha-mayd iva ||2.5.75|| 

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tatra sphuranti hri-bodhotsdhddydh sdttvikd iva \ 
tathd rdjasavad-garva-harsa-supti-hasddayah \ 
visdda-dTnatd-moha-sokddyds tdmasd iva ||2.5.76|| 

"These forty-nine states of mind are completely transcendental to the gunas of 
matter, and are filled with spiritual bliss, being linked to the appearance of 
Krsna. However, it may appear as if some of these states such as garva 
(pride), harsa (jubilation), supti (sleep) and hdsya (joking) arise from the 
mode of passion, and others such as visdda (despair), dinatd (lowliness), 
moha (bewilderment) and soka (lamentation) arise from the mode of 
ignorance." 

prdyah sukha-maydh sita usna duhkha-mayd iha \ 
citreyam paramdnanda-sdndrdpy usna ratir mata ||2.5.77|| 

"Among the bhdvas, it would seem that those such as harsa are filled with 
happiness and others such as visdda are filled with sorrow. But the astonishing 
fact is that rati filled with sorrow is considered to be the highest, most intense 
bliss." 

sitair bhdvair balisthais tu pustd sitdyate hy asau \ 
usnais tu ratir atyusna tapayantiva bhasate ||2.5.78|| 

"The rati predominated by sorrow (such as the soka-rati), when nourished by 
strong joyful vyabhicdri-bhdvas, becomes joyful. The sorrowful rati, when 
nourished by sorrowful bhdvas such as visdda, becomes more sorrowful and 
appears to give suffering." 

ratir dvidhdpi krsnddyaih srutair avagataih smrtaih \ 

fair vibhdvdditdm yadbhis tad-bhaktesu raso bhavet ||2.5.79|| 

"The primary and secondary ratis produce vibhdvas, anubhdvas, sdttvika- 
bhdvas and vyabhicdri-bhdvas through hearing about, experiencing or 
remembering Krsna. All these combine to become rasa in devotees." 

yathd dadhy-ddikam dravyam sarkard-maricddibhih \ 
samyojana-visesena rasdldkhyo raso bhavet ||2.5.80|| 

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"As yogurt becomes rasala by mixing with other ingredients of sugar and 
pepper, the two types of rati become rasa by combination with the elements 

of vibhava, anubhava, sattvika-bhava wAvyabhicari-bhava.^ 

tad atra sarvatha saksat krsnady-anubhavadbhutah \ 
praudhananda-camatkaro bhaktaih ko 'py anurasyate || 2.5.8 1|| 

"Thus through that rasa, the devotees directly experience an astonishing, deep 
bliss arising from realization of Krsna and other related things." 

sa raty-adi-vibhavadyair eklbhava-mayo 'pi san \ 
jnapta-tat-tad-visesas ca tat-tad-udbhedato bhavet ||2.5.82|| 

"Though the ratis and elements starting with vibhava become one entity in the 
state of rasa, there is still awareness of their difference because of their 
original separate identities." 

yatha coktam — 

pratiyamdnah prathamam vibhavadyas tu bhagasah \ 
gacchanto rasa-rupatvam milita yanty akhandatam ||2.5.83|| 
yatha marica-khandader eklbhave prapanake \ 
udbhasah kasyacit kvapi vibhavades tatha rase ||2.5.84|| 

It has been said: 

"First the ingredients have distinct forms but when they mix and attain the 
form of rasa, they assume oneness. However, when pepper and sugar are 
mixed together in a drink one can still recognize pepper and sugar. Similarly, 
in rasa though vibhava and the other element become one entity in rasa, they 
can still be recognized in subtle form." 

rate karana-bhuta ye krsna-krsna-priyadayah \ 
stambhadyah kara-bhutas ca nirvedadyah sahayakah ||2.5.85|| 

"Krsna and His devotees act as the causes of rati (sthayi-bhava). Spontaneous 
actions such as paralysis and actions involving intellect are the effects of rati. 
Self-deprecation and other minor emotions are the accompanying factors." 

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hitva karana-karyadi-sabda-vacyatvam atra te \ 
rasodbodhe vibhavadi-vyapadesatvam apnuyuh ||2.5.86|| 

"When these mix together and transform into rasa they give up the names of 
cause and effect, and assume the names of vibhdva, anubhava, sdttvika-bhdva 
and vyabhicari-bhava" 

rates tu tat-tad-asvada-visesayatiyogyatam \ 
vibhavayanti kurvantlty ukta dhlrair vibhavakah ||2.5.87|| 

"The conditions that cause rati (relationship of love) to become very suitable 
for relishing particular tastes are called vibhdva (stimuli) by the wise." 

tarn canubhavayanty antas tadvanty asvada-nirbharam \ 
ity ukta anubhavas te kataksadyah sa-sattvikah ||2.5.88|| 

"Elements such as glancing, accompanied by the sattvika-bhavas, which 
produce fullness of the rati produced by the vibhdva — in other words, which 
spread within the mind an additional relish — are called anubhavas" 

sahcarayanti vaicitrim nayante tarn tatha-vidham \ 
ye nirvedadayo bhavas te tu sahcarino matah ||2.5.89|| 

"Mental conditions such as nirveda (self-deprecation) that produce further 
variety in the rati induced by the vibhavas and made more enjoyable by the 
anubhavas, are called sahcari-bhdvas or vyabhicari-bhavas ." 

etesam tu tatha-bhave bhagavat-kavya-natyayoh \ 

sevam ahuh param hetum kecit tat-paksa-raginah ||2.5.90|| 

"Those attracted to poetics say that hearing skillful poetry related to the Lord 
and seeing literary dramas related to the Lord are the main cause of realizing 
the nature of all these elements in the devotee and the Lord." 

kintu tatra sudustarka-madhuryadbhuta-sampadah \ 

rater asy ah prabhavo 'yam bhavet karanam uttamam ||2.5.91|| 

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"However, the ultimate cause of understanding these elements is the influence 
of rati directed toward the Lord, which is inconceivable, sweet and most 
astonishing." 

maha-sakti-vilasatma bhdvo 'cintya-svarupa-bhak \ 
raty-akhya ity ayarh yukto na hi tarkena badhitum \ 
bhdratddy-uktir esa hi prdktanair apy uddhrtd ||2.5.92|| 

"The ancient authorities have given the following statement from 
Mahdbhdrata as an example to show that rati, which is the manifestation of 
hladini-sakti, which is beyond the conceivable — deriding even liberation and 
giving joy to the Lord Himself — should not be defiled by material logic." 

yathoktam udyama-parvani — 

acintyah khalu ye bhdvd na tarns tarkena yojayet \ 

prakrtibhyah param yac ca tad acintyasya laksanam ||2.5.93|| 

Thus the Mahdbhdrata, Udyama-parva says: 

"One should not analyze the inconceivable bhavas by material logic. Those 

bhavas that are beyond the material realm are said to be inconceivable." 

vibhdvatadin aniya krsnadin mahjula ratih \ 

etair eva tathabhutaih svam samvardhayati sphutam ||2.5.94|| 

"Attractive rati, making Krsna and other things into vibhava and the other 
elements [of rasa], clearly increases itself by these elements." 

yatha svair eva salilaih paripurya balahakan \ 
ratnalayo bhavaty ebhir vrstais fair eva varidhih ||2.5.95|| 

"It is similar to the ocean which, nourishing the clouds by its water, nourishes 
itself by the rain coming from those clouds." 

nave raty-ahkure jate hari-bhaktasya kasyacit \ 
vibhavatvadi-hetutvam kihcit tat kavya-natyayoh ||2.5.96|| 



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"When the enjoyer of poetic works newly develops a sprout of raft', those 
poetic works become somewhat of a cause for realizing vibhava and other 
elements [of rasa]" 

harer Tsac-chruti-vidhau rasasvadah satam bhavet \ 
rater eva prabhavo 'yam hetus tesam tathakrtau ||2.5.97|| 

"The devotees develop a taste for rasa simply by a little hearing about the 
Lord. In these acts of hearing, the strength of rati causes realization of 
vibhava and the other elements [of rasa]" 

madhuryady-asrayatvena krsnadims tanute ratih \ 
tathanubhuyamanas te vistirnam kurvate ratim ||2.5.98|| 

"Rati reveals Krsna and things related to Him as the shelter of qualities (such 
as sweetness), and Krsna, after being experienced in that way, increases the 

rati.'" 

atas tasya vibhavadi-catuskasya rater api \ 

atra sahayikam vyaktam mitho'jasram aveksyate ||2.5.99|| 

"Because rati and the other elements mutually reveal each other, it is always 
seen that the sthayi-bhava {rati), vibhavas, anubhavas, sattvika-bhdvas and 
vyabhicari-bhavas clearly assist each other." 

kintv etasyah prabhavo 'pi vairupye sati kuhcati \ 
vairupyas tu vibhavader anaucityam udiryate ||2.5. 100|| 

"If there is any deformity in the vibhava or other elements, the power of rati 
is curtailed. Deformity means that there are unsuitable elements in the 
vibhava or other elements." 

alaukikya prakrtyeyam suduruha rasa-sthitih \ 

yatra sadharanataya bhdvah sadhu sphuranty ami ||2.5. 101|| 

"Since the activities of rasa are by nature non-material, they are difficult to 
understand. The various ratis and other elements create a complete identity 

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between the emotions of the contemporary devotee with [those of] previous 
devotees depicted in scripture." 

esarh sva-para-sambandha-niyamanirnayo hi yah \ 
sadharanyam tad evoktam bhdvdnam purva-suribhih ||2.5.102|| 

"The ancient sages have described the unrestricted identity of the bhdvas 
between the present and the past devotees." 

tad uktam sri-bharatena — 

saktir asti vibhdvddeh kdpi sadharanT-krtau \ 

pramata tad-abhedena svamyaya pratipadyate ||2.5.103|| 

Bharata Muni has said: 

"In the matter of identification, there is an indescribable power in vibhdva and 
the other elements, by which the audience becomes nondifferent from the 
characters depicted on the stage." 

duhkhadayah sphurantyo pijatu bhantah svfyataya hrdi \ 
praudhdnanda-camatkara-carvanam eva tanvate ||2.5.104|| 

"Though previous devotees' sufferings appear in the heart of the present 
devotee as his own suffering, those sufferings also produce an astonishing 
taste of intense bliss." 

pardsrayatayapy etejatu bhantah sukhadayah \ 
hrdaye paramananda-sandoham upacinvate ||2.5.105|| 

"That is because when the devotee perceives the happiness of others, it gives 
rise to incomparable bliss within his heart." 

sad-bhavas ced vibhdvddeh kincin-matrasya jdyate \ 
sadyas catustayaksepat purnataivopapadyate ||2.5.106|| 

"If just a little of vibhdva and the other elements related to the associates of 
the Lord appear in the devotee, immediately he achieves completeness from 



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the appearance of the vibhavas, anubhavas, sattvika-bhavas and vyabhicari- 
bhavas" 

kirn ca — 

ratih sthitanukaryesu laukikatvadi-hetubhih \ 

rasah syan neti natya-jha yad ahur yuktam eva tat ||2.5.107|| 

"However, it is correct when the literary experts say that rati depicted in 
characters through literary works will not in itself produce rasa, since 
mundane aspects are involved." 

alaukiki tv iyam krsna-ratih sarvadbhutadbhuta \ 

yoge rasa-visesatvarh gacchanty eva hari-priye ||2.5. 108|| 

"Rati for Krsna is most uncommon, more blissful than the most blissful rati 
for the avatdras, and attains the highest rasa in combination with His 
devotee." 

viyoge tv adbhutdnanda-vivartatvam dadhaty api \ 
tanoty esa pragadhdrti-bhardbhasatvam urjita ||2.5.109|| 

"This rati develops its full form of rasa in separation in astonishing bliss, and 
since it does not give up this form at all, any suffering is an appearance only." 

tatrdpi vallavadhisa-nandandlamband ratih \ 
sandrdnanda-camatkara-paramdvadhir isyate ||2.5. 110|| 

"That rati which has the son of Nanda as the object reaches the height of most 
intense bliss." 

yat-sukhaugha-lavagastyah pibaty eva sva-tejasa \ 
remasa-madhuri-saksatkaranandabdhim apy alam ||2.5.111|| 

"One drop of this happiness of Vraja Krsna, by its power, drinks up the ocean 
of happiness embedded in the husband of Rukmini, just as Agastya Muni 
drank the ocean to assist the devatas" 



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kim ca — 

paramananda-tadatmyad ratydder asya vastutah \ 

rasasya sva-prakasatvam akhandatvam ca sidhyati ||2.5. 112|| 

"Because rati and the other elements are nondifferent from the hladini-sakti, 
rasa is also self-revealing and consists only of rasa." 

purvam uktad dvidha bhdedan mukhya-gaunataya rateh \ 
bhaved bhakti-raso py esa mukhya-gaunataya dvidha ||2.5. 1 13|| 

"It has been stated previously that rati has two types: primary and secondary. 
Therefore, rasa also has primary and secondary types." 

pahcadhapi rater aikydn mukhyas tv eka ihoditah \ 
saptadhatra tatha gauna iti bhakti-raso 'stadha ||2.5. 114|| 

"Though there are five types of primary rati, only one is considered [in rasa] 
since only one is manifested as most prominent in a particular devotee. The 
one primary rati combines with the seven secondary ratis to form eight ratis, 
which produce the eight rasas (for one person)." 

tatra mukhyah — 

mukhyas tu pahcadha santah pritah preyams ca vatsalah \ 

madhuras cety ami jheyd yathd-purvam anuttamah ||2.5.115|| 

Mukhya-rasa (primary rasa): 

"The primary bhakti-rasas are five: santa, priti, preyo, vatsala and madhurya. 

The order of excellence is from first to last." 

atha gaunah — 

hasyo 'dbhutas tatha virah karuno raudra ity api \ 

bhaydnakah sa bibhatsa iti gaunas ca saptadha ||2.5. 116|| 

Gauna-rasa (secondary rasa): 

"There are seven secondary rasas: hasya (humor), adbhuta (astonishment), 
vira (enthuiasm), karuna (lamentation), raudra (anger), bhanayaka (fear) and 
bibhatsa (disgust)." 

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evam bhakti-raso bhedad dvayor dvadasadhocyate \ 
vastutas tu puranadau pahcadhaiva vilokyate ||2.5.117|| 

"Thus there are a total of twelve primary and secondary rasas, but only five 
are mentioned in the Pur anas" 

svetas citro 'runah sonah syamah pandura-pihgalau \ 

gauro dhumras tatha raktah kalo nitah kramad ami ||2.5. 118|| 

The twelve rasas have twelve colors as follows: white (santa), multicolored 
(priti), saffron (preydn or sakhya), crimson (vatsala), indigo (madhura), light 
yellow (hasya), yellow-green (adbhuta), gold (vira), purple (karuna), red 
(raudra), black (bhaydnaka) and blue (blbhatsa). 

kapilo madhavopendrau nrsimho nanda-nandanah \ 
balah kurmas tatha kalkl raghavo bhargavah kirih \ 
mina ity esu kathitah kramad dvadasa devatah ||2.5. 1 19|| 

"There are twelve Deities assigned to the twelve rasas as follows: Kapila 
{santa), Madhava (priti), Upendra (preydn or sakhya), Nrsirhha (vatsala), 
Krsna (madhura), Balarama (hasya), Kurma (adbhuta), Kalkl (vira), Rama 
(karuna), Prasurama (raudra), Varaha (bhaydnaka) and Mina (blbhatsa)" 

purter vikara-vistara-viksepa-ksobhas tatha \ 
sarva-bhakti-rasasvadah pahcadha parikirtitah ||2.5. 120|| 

"There are five tastes in the bhakti-rasas: purti, vikasa, vistara, viksepa and 
ksobha" 

purtih sante vikasas tu pritadisv api pahcasu \ 
vire 'dbhute ca vistaro viksepah karunograyoh \ 
bhayanake 'tha bibhatse ksobho dhirair udahrtah ||2.5. 121|| 

"The learned say that purti (satisfaction) is manifested in santa-rasa, vikasa 
(brightness) is manifested in all the rasas from priti to hasya, vistara 
(expansion) is manifested in vira-rasa and adbhuta-rasa, viksepa (distraction) 



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is manifest in karuna-rasa and raudra-rasa, and ksobha (disturbance) is 
manifest in bhaydnaka-rasa and blbhatsa-rasa." 

akhanda-sukha-rupatve 'py esam asti kvacit kvacit \ 
rasesu gahanasvada-visesah ko 'py anuttamah ||2.5. 122|| 

"Though all the bhakti-rasas are the embodiment of pure happiness, among 
the rasas there is sometimes a special deep incomparable taste." 

pratiyamana apy ajnair gramyaih sapadi duhkhavat \ 
karunadya rasah prajnaih praudhananda-maya matah ||2.5.123|| 

"Though the completely ignorant people and those with mistaken knowledge 
immediately think that rasas such as karuna are full of grief, those persons 
with knowledge of rasa say that these rasas are full of profound bliss." 

alaukika-vibhavatvam nitebhyo rati-lilaya \ 

sad-uktya ca sukham tebhyah syat suvyaktam iti sthitih ||2.5. 124|| 

"It is well-established by the knowers of rasa that, by the speeches of the 
devotees and by the nature of rati itself, karuna, bhayanaka and bibhatsa will 
produce happiness, since those rasas have the nature of manifesting vibhava 
(Krsna) and other elements that produce extraordinary, astonishing bliss." 

tatha ca natyadau — 

karunadav api rasejayate yatparam sukham \ 

sucetasam anubhavah pramanam tatra kevalam ||2.5.125|| 

This is confirmed in the statement of the Natya-sastra: 

"The absolute proof that karuna and the other 'negative' rasas produce 

happiness is the experience of the soft-hearted devotees." 

sarvatra karunakhyasya rasasyaivopapadanat \ 

bhaved ramayanadinam anyatha duhkha-hetuta ||2.5.126|| 



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"If karuna-rasa did not give rise to happiness, then Ramayana would be a 
cause of grief for the bhdvaka-bhaktas , since that and other works reveal 
karuna-rasa throughout." 

tathdtve rdma-pdddbja-prema-kallola-vdridhih \ 

prityd rdmdyanam nityam hanumdn srnuydt katham ||2.5.127|| 

"If Ramayana were a cause of grief, why should Hanuman, who is an ocean 
filled with the waves of Rama's lotus feet, continually hear Ramayana with 
pleasure?" 

api ca — 

sahcdri sydt samdno vd krsna-ratydh suhrd-ratih \ 

adhikd pusyamdnd ced bhdvolldsd ratih ||2.5. 128|| 

Addenda: 

"If the rati of the associates of Radha directed to Radha is equal to or less 

than their rati directed toward Krsna, the rati directed toward Radha is called 

sancdri-rati, nourishing the rati towards Krsna. If the rati of the associates of 

Radha directed to Radha is greater than their rati directed toward Krsna, and 

constantly increasing, though it is still a sancdri-rati, it is called bhdvolldsa- 

rati" 

phalgu-vairdgya-nirdagdhdh suska-jndnds ca haitukdh \ 
mimdmsakd visesena bhaktydsvdda-bahirmukhdh ||2.5.129|| 

"Those whose bhakti has been completely burned up by false renunciation, 
those who are dried-up^a^Is', those who are absorbed in logic and 
disputation, and particularly those who are mlmdmsakas, are excluded from 
tasting bhakti" 

ity esa bhakti-rasikas caurdd iva mahd-nidhih \ 
jaran-mimdmsakdd raksyah krsna-bhakti-rasah sadd ||2.5.130|| 

"Just as one carefully protects a great treasure from thieves, the devotees 
protect bhakti-rasa from the withered mlmdmsakas, since they are totally 
unqualified for relishing bhakti." 

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sarvathaiva duruho 'yam abhaktair bhagavad-rasah \ 
tat-padambuja-sarvasvair bhaktair evdnurasyate ||2.5. 13 1|| 

"Rasa directed toward the Lord is very difficult to understand for those with 
no devotion. Those who have dedicated themselves to the lotus feet of 
Bhagavan can taste bhakti-rasa" 

vyatltya bhdvand-vartma yas camatkara-kara-bhuh \ 
hrdi sattvojjvale bddham svadate sa raso matah ||2.5. 132|| 

"That which becomes even more intensely relished in the heart made bright 
with hlddinT and samvit saktis (attainment of bhdva), after surpassing the 
stage of distinguishing the constituent bhdvas, and which becomes more 
astonishing in bliss than bhdvas, is rasa." 

bhavanayah pade yas tu budhendnanya-buddhind \ 

bhavyate gadha-samskarais citte bhavah sa kathyate ||2.5.133|| 

"That which the wise person who has dedicated his intelligence only to the 
Lord experiences in his heart, which realizes vibhava and the other elements 
as separate entities, through deep impressions of previous bhakti, is called 
bhdva" 

gopala-rupa-sobham dadhad api raghunatha-bhava-vistari \ 
tusyatu sanatanatma daiksina-vibhage sudhambunidheh ||2.5.134|| 

"May the eternal person who manifested the beautiful form of a cowherd boy 
and distributed His bhdvas to the form of Rama as well, be pleased with the 
Southern Ocean of the ocean of nectar." 

iti sri-sri-bhakti-rasamrta-sindhau daksina-vibhage 
bhakti-rasa-samanya-nirupane sthayi-bhava-lahari pahcamT \ 

"Thus ends the Fifth Wave of the Southern Ocean of Sri Bhakti-rasamrta- 
sindhu, concerning sthayi-bhava" 



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iti sri-sri-bhakti-rasamrta-sindhau samanya-bhagavad-bhakti-rasa-nirupako 
ndma daksina-vibhagah samdptah \\ 

"Here ends the Southern Ocean of Sri Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu. " 



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